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New  York  State  Colleges 


Agriculture  and  Home  Economics 


Cornell  University 

SF  197.Y6Tl889"""'"'''-'''"^ 
'^^iMi'ifi!ii!™i!?.M?f  *'®'  ""aiagement,  and  dis 

3  1924  002  927  105 

The  original  of  tiiis  book  is  in 
tine  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 



AUTHOR  OF    "  THE   HOKSB,"    "  SHUBP,"   ETC. 



SIMPKIN",     MARSHALL,      AND     CO., 


£n  preparing  this  volume  on  "  Cattle,''  the  author  has  often  had  reason  ta 
deplore  the  want  of  materials,  and  which  he  has  been  enabled  to  obtain 
only  by  correspondence  with  competent  individuals,  and  the  personal  in- 
spection of  the  present  state  of  cattle,  in  the  greater  part  of  the  British 
empire.  To  those  noblemen  and  agriculturists  from  whom  he  derived 
information,  the  more  highly  estimated  by  him,  because  most  readily  and 
courteously  granted,  he  begs  to  return  his  warmest  thanks.  His  obliga- 
tion to  Mr.  Berry,  for  the  admirable  history  of  the  Short-Horns,  will  not 
be  soon  forgotten. 

He  has  endeavoured  to  lay  before  the  public  an  accurate  and  faithful 
account  of  the  cattle  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  He  does  not  expect 
to  please  every  one  who  reads  his  work  or  who  has  contributed  towards  it ; 
for  long  experience  has  taught  him  that,  although  there  is  some  excellence 
peculiar  to  each  breed,  there  is  none  exempt  from  defect;  and  the  honest 
statement  of  this  defect  will  not  satisfy  the  partisan  of  any  one  breed,  or 
OF  of  any  variety  of  that  breed.  He  has  passed  lightly  over  the  subject  of 
the  general  management  of  cattle,  in  order  to  avoid  trenching  on  the  work 
on  "  British  Husbandry,"  now  publishing  under  the  superintendence  ol 
the  Society. 

The  diseases  of  cattle  was  a  favourite  topic  with  the  writer,  but  here,  too, 
he  painfully  felt  the  deficiency  of  materials  for  a  treatise  worthy  of  such  a 
subject.  One  branch  of  veterinary  science  has  rapidly  advanced.  The  dis- 
eases of  the  horse  are  better  understood  and  better  treated  ;  but,  owing  to 
the  absence  of  efficient  instruction  concerning  the  diseases  of  cattle  in  the 
principal  veterinary  school,  and  the  incomprehensible  supineness  of  agri- 
cultural societies,  and  agriculturists  generally,  cattle  have  been  too  much 
left  to  the  tender  mercies  of  those  who  are  utterly  ignorant  of  their  struc- 
ture, the  true  nature  of  their  diseases,  the  scientific  treatment  of  them,  and 
even  the  very  first  principles  of  medicine. 

With  the  few  practitioners  scattered  through  the  country,  who  had  praise- 
worthily  devoted  themselves  to  the  study  of  the  maladies  of  cattle,  the 
author  entered  into  correspondence ;  and  he  derived  from  them  a  liberal 
assistance  which  does  honour  to  the  profession  whose  character  they  are 


To  many  of  the  contributors  to  that  valuable  periodical,  "  The  Veterina- 
rian," he  is  under  considerable  obligation,  which  has  been  duly  and 
gratefully  acknowledged.  He  has  likewise  had  recourse  to  various  foreign 
authorities ;  for,  although  far  behind  us  in  the  cultivation  of  the  breed  of 
cattle,  many  continental  writers,  and  continental  agriculturists  generally, 
have  set  us  a  laudable  example  of  attention  to  the  diseases  of  these 

The  author  ventures  to  hope  that  the  information  derived  from  these 
sources,  as  well  as  from  his  own  practice,  may  have  enabled  him  to  lay 
before  his  readers  a  treatise  on  "  Cattle"  not  altogether  unsatisfactory ; 
and  that,  particularly  with  regard  to  the  maladies  of  the  ox,  so  often  grossly 
misunderstood  and  shamefully  treatea  he  may  have  succeeded  in  laying 
down  some  principles  which  will  guiae  ,the  farmer  and  the  practitioner 
through  many  a  case  heretofore  perplexing  and  almost  uniformly  fatal. 
At  all  events,  he  will  have  laid  the  foundation  for  a  better  work,  when  com- 
mon sense,  and  a  regard  to  the  best  interests  of  husbandry,  shall  have 
induced  agriculturists  to  encourage,  or  rather  to  demand  'a  higher  degree 
of  general  education  in  veterinary  practitioners,  and  shall  have  founded 
south  of  the  Tweed,  those  schools  for  professional  instruction  in  every 
branch  of  the  veterinary  art  which  have  been  successfully  established,  and 
are  honourably  considered  on  the  continent. 


Nassau  Street^  Middlesex  Hospital, . 


PlUtFACC  ...  .  .  .  i(< 

Introduction  ....  1 

Chapter  I.— THE  NATURAL  HISTORY  OF  THE  OX.  .        S 

His  Zoological  character — domesticated  before  the  Fload.^fossil  bones. 

Chaptkr  II.— THE  BRITISH  OX.  .  .        < 

Nfl  satisfactory  description  of  cattle  by  early  writers — The  Lancashire  and  the 
Devon  ox— The  ox  of  central  Africa  —the  baclcley  of  Southern  Africa — the  Scotch  bull 
—the  Swiss  cows — Return  *o  our  native  cattle — in  the  feudal  times — occasional  wild 
cattle— those  of  Chillingham  Park — Present  cattle  classed  according  to  the  size  of  their 
horns — the  middle-horns  probably  the  original  breed — they  are  found  where  the 
natives  retreated  from  their  invaders — essentially  the  same  wherever  found. 

Chapter  III.— THE  MIDDLE-HORNS.  .  11 

The  North  Devons — The  proper  form  and  shape  of  cattle — the  Devons  tried  by  this 
test — Lord   Western's  cattle — the  Devonshire  cow — the  working  properties    of   the 
Devon  ox — his  disposition  to  fatten— Experiments — value  of  the  cow  for  the  dairy — 
attempted  crosses^the  Vale  of  Exeter^South  Devon  cattle — clouted  cream — Cornish 
cattle — principally  North  Devons— crosses— Dorsetshire  cattle— mixture  of  Devon  and 
Dorset — Somersetshire  cattle — ^pure  Devous  on  the  borders  of  Devon — gradual  change 
of  character — the  old  Somersets — the  present  cattle — Cheddar  cheese — The  Herefords 
— description  of  them — comparison  between  them  and  the  Devons — fattening  proper- 
ties— experiments — Glouceiterbhire  cattle — the  old  Gloucesters — the  present  breed 
in  the  hilly  district — in  the  vale  of  Berkeley — crosses — Gloucester  cheese — single  and 
double — Sussex  cattle — descriptions-comparison  with  Devons  and  Herefords — Sussex 
cow — crosses — West  Sussex  cattle — Kentish  cattle — Wales — general  character  of  the 
Welsh  cattle — Pembrokes — Glamoroans — former  character  of  them — present  breed — 
late  improvement — Mr.  David's  breed — Monmouthshire  cattle — Carmahthens — Car- 
digans— Cattle  of  Brecknockshire  and  Radnorshire — Cattle  of  North  Wales — 
ANaLBSEY  cattle— "the  passage  of  the  Menai-^rosses — improvements — Welsh   tradi- 
tions— The  Carnarvohs  — ^The  cattle  of  Merioneth,  Montgombhit,  Denbigh,  Flint, 
Scotland— the  West  Highland  cattle— ithe  Hebrides — Description  of  the  true  Kyloe 
— early  anecdotes — Mr.  Moorhouse — Hebridean  management — The  outer  Hebrides — 
the  tacksman — Arkan — the  Duke  of  Hamilton's  improvements — general  management 
— Bute — Argyleshire — the  cattle— rearing— Cantire  —  dairy-management  — Inver- 
ness— the  ferry  of  Kyie-Rhe^— the  shealings— overstocking — the  trysts  —  North 
Highland  cattle — the  Shetlandbrs— description — management — the  Holmes — the 
Orkneys — Caithness — Sir  John  Sinclair's  valuable  improvements — present  character 
of  the  cattle — diseases — strange   superstitions — Suthebland — introduction  of  sheep 
husbandry  —  different  breeds  — management  —  superstitions — Ross  and  Cromarty — 
peculiarity  of  the  cattle— Mr.J\Iackenzie's  valuable  account  of  Ross — Nairn,  Moray, 
Banff — the  Banffshire  breed — Lord  Findlater's  improvements  — Aberdeen — descrip- 
tion of  the  cattle — the  Eintore  ox — the  ppUed  cattle — the  Buchan  cows — Eincab- 
diheshire — the  Meams  ox — the  cottar  of  the  present  and  olden  time — Angus — the 
horned   breed — Fife-— description  of  the  cattle  —  origin  ■ —  the  Durhams  in  Fife— 
Perth — character  of  the  cattle — Stiblino — the   Carses — David   Dun,  the   Scot- 
tish Bakewell — Falkirk  tryst — Kinross,  Clackmannan,  Dumbarton — the  wintering 
grounds — the  Ayrshires  in  Dumbarton — their  produce — Renfrew — ^Ayrshire — State 
of  the  county  fifty  years  ago — present  state — cattle — opinions  of  their  origin — their 
ralue  as  dairy-cows — ^produce-— -profit — 'boyening — Dunlop  cheese — fattening  properties 
of  the  Ayrshires — management— calves — Lanark — the  Strathaven  real — the  Willow 

vi  C0NTENT8. 

bank  dairy — West    Lothian — the  cattle — grazing- — Mid-Lothia'N — the  original  and 
presettt  cattle — the   Caledonian   dairy — East   Lothian — Mr.    Rennie's  cattle — Rox- 

buuGH Bebwick — the  cradle   of  Scottish  agriculture — Mr.  Pringle,  the  first  culti. 

vator  of  turnips  in  drills — the  progress  of  improvement — Selkikk — ciiange  in  its  cha- 

Chapter  IV.— POLLED  CATTLE.  Page  154 

Galloway — Description  of  the  Galloways — Mr.  Mnre's  breed — ^his  Queen  oftheSeots 
— general  excellence  of  the  Gralloways — Dumfiues — the  Galloways  of  a  larger  size 
here — Angus — the  polled  cattle — comparison  between  them  and  the  Galloways — Jlr. 
Watson's  valuable  breed — Norfolk — the  original  breed  horned — source  of  the  present 
areed  —  travels  of  the  Galloway  cattle — ^fairs — the  Earl  of  Albemarle — Mr.  Coke — 
SuFFOtK — description  —  extraordinary  instances  of  produce — Devonshike  nats— . 
ToRKSHiBE  polls. 

Chapter  V;— THE  IRISH.  CATTLE.  I79 

The  aboriginal  breed  middle-horns — the  Kerry  cow — the  prevailing  breed  were  pro- 
bably the  Cravens— Improvement  slower  in  Ireland  than  in  England — Mr.  Waller's 
improvements  in  Meath — Lord  Masserene — Lord  Farnham — the  Earl  of  Rosse — Sir 
H.  V.  Tempest — Mr.  ConoUy — modern  improvers — exportation  of  Irish  cattle — 
cattle  salesmen — Irish  butter. 

Chapter  VI.— THE  LONG-HORNS.  188 

Originally  from  Craven — the  larger  and  smaller  breed — early  improvers — the  black- 
smith of  Linton — Sii:  Thomas  Gresley — Mr.  Webster — Bloxedge — Robert  Bakewell 
— his  principles — his  success — anecdotes — errors  of  his  successors — Tw()])ennv — Mr. 
Fowler — Shakspeare  —  Description  of  D  —  Mr.  Fowler's  sale — Mr.  Priusep  —  Mr. 
Mundy — Description  of  the  improved  Leicestersi — strangely  rapid  deterioiation  and 
disappearance  of  them — Westmoreland — Lancashire — the  native  breed  now  rarely 

seen — crosses — introduction  of  short-horns — Mr.  Kirk's   long-horns — Dekb^shihe 

description  of  cattle — Cheshire  breed  injured  by  the  introduction  of  short-horns 

management  of  the  dairy — Cheshire  cheese — Nottinghamshire — Leicestershire 

Rbti.and — Huntingdon  —  Cambridge  —  Cambridge  butter — Northampton Bed. 

FORD— experiments  at  Woburn— Buckinghamshiue— Berkshire— Himpshire 
—crosses — Isle  of  Wight— Wiltshire— the  long-horns  almost  extinct — crosses  ofall 
kinds  —  cheese  —  Oxfordshire — Warwickshire — Worcestershire Stafford- 
shire— the  old  Staffords— the  Stafifords  of  the  present  day — introduction  of  the  short, 
horns — Shbopshire — the  old  Shropshires — the  present  breed. 

Chapter  VII.— THE  SHORT-HORNS.  226 

Description  of  the  old  breed — Sir  W.  Quentin — Mr.  MiVuank Mr.  C.  Colling 

history  of  his  purchase  of  Hubback— Favourite— the  Durham  ox— cross  with  the  polled 

Galloway — Bolingbroke— Johanna— Lady— prices  fetched  by  Lady's  progeny sale  of 

Mr.  C.  Ceiling's  stock— Mr.  R.  Colling— sale  of  his  stock — Mr.  Change  of  Newton 

Mr.  Mason  of  Chilton — Mr.  G.  Coates's  Short-Horn  Herd-Book ^history  of  remark- 
able short-horns — Lord  Altliorp  a  successful  breeder — the  milking  properties  of  the 
improved  short-horn  undervalued — not  calculated  for  work — Lord  Althorp'a  bull 
Firby— The  improved  Yorkshire  cow— she  unites  the  two  qualitibs — quantities  of 
milk  yielded  by  her— description  of  her — Cumberland— Mr.  Bates  first  crossed  the 

Kyloe  with  the  short-horns — Mr.  Maynard's   experiments  —  Yorkshire North 

-Riding  once  occupied  by  black  cattle  alone — succeeded  by  the  old  Holderness crossed 

with  the  improved  breed — West  Riding — every  variety  of  cross  in  it Mr.  Mitton's 

Badsworth — East  Riding — Lincolnshire — the  unimproved  Lincolns the  Turn- 
ills — the  present  improved  Lincolns — the  Lincolnshire  ox — Essex the  calf-feeding 

the   dairy  — Epping  butter— Epping  sausages— Middlesex— Booth's  establishment 

Et  Brentford— the  number  of  cattle  sold  in  Smithfield— how  supplied cnielties  prac. 

tised  there — the  number  of  cows  kept  in  London — the  milk-business Laycock's  dairr 

— Rhodes's  dairy — Surrt.  ' 


The  Alderney— quantity  and  excellence  of  milk,,  fattens  readily—Najore  cattle 
—buffalo  ai>d  Indian  cattle. 


Ch*ptbr  IX.— the    structure   AND    DISEASES    OF   THE   HEAD   OF 

THE  OX.  ,  .  .        Page  271 

The  skeleton — the  head — shortness  and  breadth  of  forehead  in  the  bull — fine  email 

head  in  the  female< — extent  of  frontal  sinuses — inflammation  of  them — the  horns 

history  of  their  growth — treatmeoit  of  fracture  of  them — age  as  indicated  by  the 
horns — tricks — manufacture  of  beautiful  horns — the  distinguishing  character  of  the 
different  breeds  —  influence  of  sex  —  horned  Galloways — comparison  between  the 
homed  and  hornless  cattle — uses  of  horn — The  brain,  smaller  than  in  the  horse — 
intelligence  of  cattle — peculiar  conformation  of  the  brain  and  spinal  marrow — The 
ear — difference  of  in  different  cattle — diseases  of — ^The  eye — fracture  of  the  orbit 
— wounds  —  tumours — The  eyelids  —  eruption  on  them — enlargement  of  haw — in- 
flammation of  the  eye — cataract — gutta  serena — cancer^— Fracture  of  the  skull — Hyda- 
tids in  the  brain — water  in  the  head  —  apoplexy — inflammation  of  the  brain — locked 
jaw^ — epilepsy — palsy — rheumatism  —  tail-slip-^neurotomy — madness. 

Chapter  X.— THE   ANATOMY,    USES,    AND   DISEASES,    OF   THE  NOS- 
TRILS AND  MOUTH.  .  .  308 

The  nasal  bones — sense  of  smelling  more  acute  than  the  horse — bleeding  from  the 
nose — leeches  in  it — polypus — coryza — glanders — farcy — The  bones  of  the  mouth — the 
lips — the  bars  of  the  mouth — the  pad  teeth  in  the  upper  jaw — the  teeth— the  age  in- 
dicated by  them — the  long  tongue  of  the  ox — the  os  hyoides — gloss-anthrax  or  WaiuT- 
thrush  in  the  mouth — the  glands  and  blood-veosels  of  the  neck — the  parctid  gland- 
barbs  or  paps — the  soft  palate — the  pharynx. 


The  muscles  of  tne  neck  and  chest — the  crest  of  the  bull — form  and  size  of  the  neck 
—  arteries  of  the  neck — bleeding — the  fleam  preferred — ^bleeding  places-^the  milk-vein 
with  reference  to  bleeding—  The  heart — ^inflammation  of  its  bag — the  bone  of  the  hearli 
— the  pulse — the  capillary  vessels — inflammation — Fever — inflammatory  fever — quar- 
ter^vil — black  quarter — typnus  lever — tne  vems — varicose  veins — The  structure  and 
form  of  the  chest — the  brisket — indications  of  its  different  forms — The  ribs — proper 
form  and  direction  of — the  spine — reasons  of  its  difference  from  that  of  the  horse— 
the  larynx — the  round  curled  form  of  the  epiglottis — the  windpipe — tracheotomy — 
the  sweetbread — the  bronchial  tubes — catarrh  or  hoove — epidemic  catarrh — the  maJig- 
nant  epidemic — ^murrain— long  account  of  the  epidemics  of  different  times — sore 
throat — inflammation  of  the  pharynx — puncturing  the  pharynx — bronchitis — multi- 
tude of  worms  often  found  in  the  air-passages — bronchitis  in  Jamaica — inflammation 
of  the  lungs— -acute  pneumonia  —  epidemic  ditto— pleurisy— ^dironic  pleurisy — con- 
nunption — ^importance  of  recognizing  the  peculiar  cough  of  consumption. 

AND  STOMACH.  .  .  414 

The  peculiar  structure  of  the  gullet  of  ruminants — choking — the  cesophagus-probang 
—stricture  of  the  gullet — rupture  of  ditto— the  cesophagean  canal — the  rumen  or  paunch 
— the  reticulum  or  honeycomb — the  manyplus  or  manifolds — the  abomasum  or  fourth 
Stomach — the  oesophagean  canal  continued'>-the  muscular  pillars  of  its  floor — they 
yield  to  a  solid  substance — circumstances  under  which  fluids  pass  over  them  into 
the  third  and  fourth  stomachs,  or  between  them  into  the  rumen — the  food  macerated 
in  the  rumen — ^passes  through  all  the  compartments  of  it — thrown  into  the  reticulum 
— its  honeycomb  structure — the  pellet  formed — forced  into  the  oesophagean  canal— ^ 
reascends  the  gullet — ^remasticated — returned — passes  along  the  canal  into  the  many- 
plus — the  leaves  of  the  nianyplus — the  fibrous  parts  of  the  food — indigestible  substances 
in  the  paunch — concretions  in  ditto — distention  of  the  rumen  from  food— ditto  from 
gas — hoove — the  stomach-pump — the  chloride  of  lime — loss  of  cud— poisons— yew- 
corrosive  sublimate — diseases  of  the  reticulum — diseases  of  the  manyfolds  —  clew- 
bound  —  fardel-bound — malformation  of  manyplus — diseases  of  the  fourth  stomach— 

LIVER,  AND  PANCREAS.  .  .  457 

Anatomy  and  function  of  the  spleen — inflammation  ot  it — enlargement — The  liver 
^■inflammation  of  ii;_^ii«.*«rt™i.-~^   ^z.z.z,^lv^  ^^  ^v^mOws — The  pancreas. 



The  duodenum — jejunum — ileum^zecum — colon — rectum  —  enlargement  of  the 
mesenteric  glands — inflammation  of  the  bowels — wood  evil — moor  ill — diarrhoea— -dy- 
tentery — ^inflammation  of  the  duodenum — colic — stranf^ulation — the  cords  or  gut- tie — 
introsuaception — inversion  of  the  rectum— constipation — calculi — worms — dropsy — 
hernia  or  rupture. 

(Jhapteb  XV.— the  urinary  ORGANS  AND  THEIR  DISEASES.        503 

The  kidneys — red  water — black  water — ^inflammation  of  the  kidneys — the  ureters — 
the  bladder — urinary  calculi — stone  in  the  kidney — ureters — bladder — urethra — rup- 
ture of  the  bladder — inversion  of  ditto. 

Chapter  XVI.- BREEDING— PARTURITION.        .  522 

The  principles  of  breeding — ^like  produces  like— comparative  influence  of  sire  and 
dam — suitableness  to  the  soil  and  climate — utility — good  feeding — ^how  far  in  and  in — 
Abortion  or  slinking — symptoms  of  pregnancy — treatment  before  calving — natural 
labour — the  ergot  of  rye — mechanical  assistance — unnatural  presentation — free-mar 
tins — the  Caesarian  operation — embryotomy — inversion  of  the  womb— rapture  of  ditto 
' — protrusion  of  the  bladder — retention  of  the  fcetus — attention  after  calving — the 
cleansing — flooding— dropping  after  calving — puerperal  or  milk  fever — sore  teats — 


Navel  il. — constipation — diarrhcea — hoove — castration— French  method  of  castration. 


Rheumatism — swellings  of  the  joints — ulcers  about  the  joints — opened  joints— 
rpraius — diseases  of  the  feet — foul  in  the  feet — shoeing. 

Chapter  XIX.— THE  DISEASES  OF  THE  SKIN.  570 

Structure  of  the  skin — sensible  and  insensible  perspiration — ^hide-bound — mange- 
leprosy — lice — warbles — angle-berries — warts. 

Chapter  XX —A    LIST    OF  THE   MEDICINES   USED   IN    THE   TREAT- 

jEthiop's  mineral — aloes — alteratives — alum — ammonia — anodynes — antimonial  pow 
der — bluevitriol — butyrof  antimony-antispasmodics — astringents — blisters — calamine 
— calombo — calomel — camphor — cantharides — carraways — castor  oil — catechu — caustics 
— chalk — chamomile — charges— chloride  of  lime — clysters — cordials — corrosive  subli- 
mate—  croton  —  diaphoretics —  digitalis — diuretics  ^drinks — elder — emetic  tartar- 
Epsom  salts  — fomentations  —  gentian — ginger — Glauber's  salts — Goulard's  extract—, 
hellebore,  black — iodine — ipecacuanha — ^laudanum — linseed — linseed  oil — lunar  caustic 
^mashes — mercurial  ointment  — mint — myrrh — nitre — ^pitch — poultices — ergot  of  rya 
—common  salt — setons — spirit  of  nitrous  ether — spirit,  rectified — sugar  of  lead — sul- 
phur— tar — tonics — turpentine,  common  —  turpentine,  spirit  of — vinegar — white  lead 
— white  vltrioL 

\*  An  error  exists  as  to  the  numbering  of  some  of  the  Chapters  in  the  body  of  the 
wock,  but  the  reference  to  the  pages  in  which  the  respective  subjects  are  contidend 
is  hare  correct. 



Ir  this  volume  o:  '  The  Farmer's  Series'  is  devoted  to  the  history, 
general  management,  and  medical  treatment  of  an  animal  Jess  connected 
with  our  commerce  and  our  pleasure,  and  less  endowed  with  intelligence 
and  courage,  and  many  a  noble  quality,  than  '  the  horse,'  we  shall  yet  find 
in  'cattle,'  a  subject  more  identified  with  our  agricultural  prosperity,  and 
with  the  comforts,  and  the  very  continuance  of  life.  If  an  ox  is  not  indi- 
vidually so  valuable  as  a  horse,  yet,  in  the  aggregate,  cattle  constitute  a 
much  greater  proportion  of  the  wealth  of  the  country ;  for  although  Great 
Britain  contains  a  million  and  a  half  of  horses,  she  has  to  boast  of  more 
tlian  eight  millions  of  cattle,  unrivalled  in  the  world. 

One  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  head  of  cattle  are  annually  sold  in 
Smithfield  alone,  without  including  calves,  or  the  dead-market — the  car- 
casses sent  up  from  various  parts  of  the  country.  If  we  reckon  this  to  be  a 
tenth  part  of  the  cattle  slaughtered  in  the  United  Kingdom,  it  follows  that 
1,600,000  cattle  are  sent  to  the  butcher  every  year  ;  and,  averaging  the  iifci 
of  the  01  or  the  cow  at  five  years,  the  value  of  British  cattle,  estimated  at 
10/.  per  head,  will  be  eighty  millions  sterling.  1.200,000  sheep,  3(i,000 
pigs,  and  18,000  calves,  are  also  sent  to  Smithfield  in  the  course  of  a 
year,  and  if  we  reckon  these  to  be  a  tenth  of  the  whole  number,  and 
allow  only  two  years  as  the  average  duration  of  the  lives  of  sheep 
and  pigs,,  and  value  the  calves  at  21,  10s.  each,  the  pigs  at  21.,  and 
the  sheep  at  1/.  10s.,  we  shall  arrive  at  the  additional  sum  of  nearly 
forty  millions  ;  so  that  we  may  safely  compute  the  actual  value  of  cattle, 
sheep  and  swine,  to  be  nearly  120  millions  sterling. 

Although  much  has  been  done  by  agricultural  societies  to  improve  the 
breed  and  the  general  treatment  of  these  animals,  and  much  valuable  in- 
struction is  to  be  found  scattered  in  many  a  volume,  no  one  has  yet  at- 
tempted to  collect  these  fragments  of  '  useful  knowledge,'  and  to  add  to 
them  his  own  experience  ;  and  in  one  very  important  part  of  our  subject, 
there  has  been  the  most  unaccountable  neglect,  for  there  is  scarcely  in 
the  English  language  a  work  on  the  preservation  of  the  health,  and 
the  prevention  and  cure  of  the  diseases,  of  cattle  and  sheep,  on  which 
any  dependence  can  be  placed."  Although  a  tenth  part  of  the  sheep 
and' lambs  die  annually  of  disease  (more  than  four  millions  perished  by 
the  rot  alone  in  the  winter  of  1829 — 30),  and  at  least  a  fifteenth  part 
of  the  neat  cattle  are  destroyed  by  inflammatory  fever  and  milk-fever, 
red  water,  hoose  and  diarrhiRa  ;  and  the  country  incurs  a  loss  of  nearly 
ten  millions  of  pounds  annually^  'the  agriculturist  knows  not  where  to 
^'1  for  informatipn  on  the  nature  and  th;  cure  of  the  maladies  of  whit 


tney  die  }  and  is  either  driven  to  confide  in  the  boasted  skill  of  the 
ignorant  pretender,  or  makes  up  his  mind  that  it  is  in  vain  to  struggle 
against  the  evils  which  he  cannot  arrest,  and  lets  matters  take  their  course. 

There  are  two  great  sources  of  the  mortality  of  cattle  and  sheep,  and  the 
loss  of  agricultural  property,  and  it  is  difhcult  to  say  which  is  the  worst, 
—the  ignorance  and  obstinacy  of  the  servant  and  the  cowleach,  or  the 
ignorance  and  supineness  of  the  owner. 

Veterinary  schools,  that  owed  their  origin  to  the  ravages  of  epidemics 
among  cattle,  and  that  were  established  for  the  express  purpose  of  teaching 
'  a  more  systematic  knowledge  of  the  management  of  sheep  and  cows,'  have 
shamefully  neglected  their  trust.  The  horse  has  gradually  absorbed  the 
whole  of  their  attention;  he  alone  has  been  heard  of  in  the  lectures  and 
practice  of  these  schools ;  and,  until  within  a  very  few  years,  the  best 
veterinary  practitioner  was  uneducated  and  uninformed  in  matters  re- 
lating to  cattle. 

A  great  deal  has  been  written  in  different  books  respecting  the  pecu- 
liarities of  the  different  breeds,  and  their  adaptation  to  different  purposes, 
and  the  points  which  may  be  said  to  be  characteristic  of  each,  and  on 
which  their  excellence  mainly  depends :  but  the  opinions  of  the  writers  are 
often  too  much  at  variance  with  each  other;  and  the  farmer  too  frequently 
rises  from  the  perusal  of  them  puzzled  rather  than  instructed,  and  even 
led  astray  from  his  interest  instead  of  being  guided  in  its  pursuit. 

The  subject  of  the  present  work  will  be  the  Natural  History,  the  different 
Breeds,  the  Structure,  (more  particularly  with  reference  to  their  beauties 
and  defects,)  the  utility  for  various  purposes,  and  the  Diseases,  and 
General  Management  of  Cattle,  with  their  most  rational  and  successful 
treatment;  and  if  we  may  be  enabled  to  rouse  the  farmer  to  strive,  and 
perhaps  successfully  strive,  to  rescue  a  few  of  his  oxen  from  that  destruction 
of  which  he  has  been  an  almost  passive  spectator ;  and  to  direct  his  at- 
tention,— the  attention  of  the  little  farmer,  and  the  cottager,  as  well  aE> 
the  wealthier  and  more  influential  individual, — to  that  which  should  not 
have  been  so  long  and  so  utterly  neglected,  our  main  and  most  valuable 
purpose  will  be  accomplished. 

Chapter  I. 

The  Ox  belongs  to  the  class  tnatnrnalia,  animals  having  mammse,  or  teats 
(see  '  The  Horse,'  p.  62) ;  the  order  ruminantia,  ruminating,  or  chewing 
their  food  a  second  time ;  the  tribe  bovidee,  the  ox  kind  ;  the  genus  bos, 
the  ox,  the  horns  occupying  the  crest,  projecting  at  first  sideways,  and 
being  porous  or  cellular  within  ;  and  the  sub-genus  boa  taurus,  or  the 
domestic  ox. 

Distinguished  according  to  their  teeth,  they  have  eight  incuors,  or  cuttin" 
teeth,  in  the  lower  jaw,  and  none  in  the  upper.  They  have  no  tusks,  bi!t 
they  iave  six  molars,  or  grinding  teeth,  in  each  jaw,  and  on  each  side. 

"The  whole  would,  therefore,  be  represented  as  follows: — (see  'The 
Horse.'p.  63):— 

The  ox,  incisors  f,  canines  g,  molars  f:|.     Total,  30  teeth. 

The  na'.ive  country  of  the  oji,  reckonmg  from  the  time  of  the  flood,  wui 


the  plains  of  Ararat,  and  he  was  a  domesticated  animal  when  he  iasueil 
From  the  ark.  He  was  found  wherever  the  sons  of  Noah  migrated,  for  he 
was  necessary  to  the  existence  of  man  ;  and  even  to  the  present  day, 
wherever  man  has  trodden,  he  is  found  in  a  domesticated  or  wild  state. 
The  earliest  record  we  have  of  the  ox  is  in  the  sacred  volume.  We  are  told 
that,  even  in  the  antediluvian  age,  and  soon  afler  the  expulsion  from 
Eden,  the  sheep  had  become  the  servant  of  man;  and  the  inference  is  nof 
improbable,  that  the  no  less  useful  ox  was  subjugated  at  the  same  time. 
It  is  recorded,  that  Jubal,  the  son  of  Lamech,  and  who  was  probably 
horn  during  the  life-time  of  Adam,  was  the  father  of  such  as  dwell  in  tents, 
and  of  such  as  have  cattle*. 

Being  domesticated  before  the  flood,  the  ox  would  not  be  neglected  by 
Noah  and  his  sons  afterwards  ;  and  as  the  families  of  men  spread  abroad 
afler  the  confusion  of  tongues,  the  ox  would  be  carried  with  them,  as  con- 
stituting one  of  the  most  valuable  portions  of  their  wealth.  When  Abra- 
ham was  in  Egypt  t,  one  hundred  and  eighty  years  before  there  is  any 
mention  of  the  horse,  Pharoah  presented  him  with  sheep  and  oxen. 

The  records  of  profane  history  confirm  this  account  of  the  early  domes- 
tication and  acknowledged  value  of  this  animal,  for  it  was  worshipped  by 
the  Egyptians,  and  venerated  among  the  Indians.  The  Indian  legends 
say  that  it  was  '  the  first  animal  that  was  created  by  the  three  kinds-  of 
gods,  who  were  directed  by  the  Supreme  Lord  to  furnish  the  earth  with 
animated  beings.'  The  traditions  of  every  Celtic  nation  enrol  the  cow 
among  the  earliest  productions,  and  represent  it  as  a  kind  of  divinity. 

The  parent  race  of  the  ox  is  said  to  have  been  much  larger  than  any  of 
the  present  varieties.  The  Urus,  in  his  wild  state  at  least,  was  an  enor- 
mous and  fierce  animal,  and  ancient  legends  have  thrown  around  him  an  air 
of  mystery.  In  almost  every  part  of  the  Continent,  and  in  every  district 
'of  England,  skulls,  evidently  belonging  to  cattle,  have  been  found,  far 
exceeding  in  bulk  any  now  known.  There  is  a  fine  specimen  in  the 
British  Museum  :  the  peculiarity  of  the  horns  will  be  observed,  resembling 
smaller  ones  dug  up  in  the  mines  of  Cornwall,  preserved  in  some 
degree  in  the  wild  cattle  of  Chillingham  Park,  and  not  quite  lost  in  our 
'native'  breeds  of  Devon  and  East  Sussex,  and  those  of  the  Welsh  moun- 
tains and  the  Highlands.  The  combat  of  Guy,  Earl  of  Warwick,  with  the 
'dun  cow,  the  skull  of  which  is  yet  preserved  in  the  castle  of  Warwick, 
will  suflSciently  prove  the  comparatively  large  size  of  some  of  the  wild  cattle 
of  that  day.  We  have  reason,  however,  to  believe  that  this  referred  more 
to  individual's  than  to  the  character  of  the  breed  generally,  for  there  is 
no  doubt  that,  within  the  last  century,  the  size  of  the  cattle  has  progres- 
sively increased  in  England,  and  kept  pace  with  the  improvement  of 

We  will  not  endeavour  to  follow  the  migrations  of  the  ox  from  Western 
Asia,  nor  the  change  in  size,  and  form,  and  value,  which  it  underwent,  ac- 
cording to  the  difference  of  climate  and  of  pasture,  as  it  journeyed  on 
towards  the  west,  for  there  are  no  records  of  this  on  which  dependence  can 
be  placed  ;  (the  historians  of  early  days  were  poor  naturalists ;)  but  we 
will  proceed  to  the  subject  of  the  present  work,  the  British  Ox. 

*  Oen.  iv.  aO.  f  Gen.  zii.  16. 


Chapter  II. 


In  the  earliest  and  most  authentic  account  that  we  possess  of  the  British 
Isles,  the  Commentaries  of  Cassar,  we  learn  that  the  Britons  possessed  great 
numbers  of  cattle ;  that  they  comparatively  neglected  the  plough,  and  lived 
on  the  flesh  and  the  milk  of  these  animals.  The  fondness  for  this  kind  of 
food,  on  account  of  which  foreigners  sometimes  attempt  to  ridicule  the 
Englishman,  is  inherited  from  ancestors  of  the  remotest  date.  No  satis- 
factory description  of  these  cattle  occurs  in  any  ancient  author ;  but  they 
would  seem,  with  occasional  exceptions,  to  have  possessed  no  great  bulk  or 
beauty.  The  poets  have  celebrated  the  intelligence,  or  fidelity,  or  some 
interesting  quality  of  almost  every  species  of  agricultural  property  but 
the  heavy  and  seemingly  stupid  ox, — not  so  uninteresting,  however, 
as  many  have  imagined  him  to  be,  when  he  is  closely  observed,  and  his 
habitg  and  capabilities  watched. 

Cattle  are  like  most  other  animals,  the  creatures  of  education  and  cir- 
cumstances. We  educate  them  to  give  us  milk,  and  to  acquire  flesh  and  fait. 
There  is  not  much  intelligence  required  for  these  purposes.  It  fares  with 
the  ox,  as  with  all  our  other  domesticated  dependents,  that  when  he  has  lost 
the  wild  freedom  of  the  forest,  and  beconie  the  slave  of  man,  without  ac- 
quiring the  privilege  of  being  his  friend,  or  receiving  instruction  from  him, 
instinct  languishes,  wittiout  being  replaced  by  the  semblance  of  reason. 
But  when  we  press  him  into  our  imniediale  service, — when  he  draws  our 
cart  and  ploughs  our  land, — he  rapidly  improves  upon  us  ;  he  is,  in  fact, 
altogether  a  different  animal:  when  he  receives  a  kind  of  culture  at  our 
hands,  he  seems  to  be  enlightened  with  a  ray  of  human  reason,  and 
warmed  with  a  degree  of  human  a^^ection.  The  Lancashire  and  the 
Devonshire  ox  seem  not  to  belong  to  the  sanie  genus.  The  one  has 
just  wit  enough  to  find  his  way  to  and  from  his  pasture  ;  the  other  rivals 
the  horse  in  activity  and  docility,  and  often  fairly  beats  him  out  of  the  field 
in  stoutness  and  honesty  in  work.  He  is  as  ei^sily  broken  in,  and  he  equals 
him  in  attachment  and  gratitude  to  his  feeder. 

It  is,  however,  in  other  countries  where  the  services  of  the  ox  are  more 
extensive,  and  his  education  more  complete,  that  we  are  to  look  for  that 
development  of  intellect,  which  his  sluggish  nature  would  scarcely  promise 
here.  Burchell,  in  the  1st  voL  of  his  Travels  into  the  Interior  of  Africa, 
p.  128,  says : — 

'  These  oxen  are  generally  broken  in  for  riding,  when  they  are  not  more 
than  a  year  old.  The  first  ceremony,  is  that  of  piercing  their  nose  to  re- 
ceive the  bridle ;  for  which  purpose  they  are  thrown  on  their  back,  and  a 
slit  is  made  through  the  septum,  or  cartilage  between  the  nostrils,  large 
enough  to  admit  a  finger.  In  this  hole  is  thrust  a  strong  stick  stripped  ut 
its  bark,  and  having  at  one  end  a  forked  bunch  to  prevent  it  passing 
through.  To  each  end  of  it  is  fastened  a  thong  of  hide,  of  a  length 
sufficient  to  reach  round  the  neck  and  form  the  reins ;  and  a  sheep  skin, 
with  the  wool  on,  placed  across  the  back,  together  with  another  folded  up, 
and  bound  on  with  a  rein  long  enough  to  pass  several  times  round  the 
body,  constitutes  the  saddle.  To  this  is  sometimes  added  a  pair  of  stirrups, 
consisting  only  of  a  thong  with  a  loop  at  each  end  slung  across  the  sad- 
dle.    Frequently  ,he  loops  are  distended  by  a  piece  of  wood  to  form  au 


easier  rest  for  the  foot.  While  the  BDimal's  nose  is  still  sore,  it  is  mounted, 
and  put  in  training,  and  hd  a  week  or.two  is  generally  rendered  sufficiently 
obedient  to  its  rider.  The  facility  and  adroitness  with  which  the  Hottea' 
tots  manage  the  ox  has  ofien  excited  my  admiration :  it  is  made  to  walk, 
trot,  or  gallop,  at  the  will  of  its  master }  and  being  longer-legged  and 
rather  more  lightly  made  than  the  ox  in  England,  travels  with  greater  eafff 
and  expedition,  walking  three  or  four  miles  in  an  hour,  trotting  five,  ana 
galloping  on  an  emergency  seven  or  eight.' 

Major  Denham,  in  bis  Travels  into  Central  Africa,  gives  the  following 
amnsing  account  of  some  of  these  excursions : — 

'  The  beasts  of  burden  used  by  the  inhabitants,  are  the  bullock  and  the 
ass.  A  very  fine  breed  of  the  latter  are  found  in  the  Mandara  valleys. 
Strangers  and  chiefs  in  the  service  of  the  sheikh  or  sultan  alone  possess 
camels.  The  bullock  is  the  bearer  of  al)  the  grain  and  other  articles  to  and 
from  the  markets.  A  small  saddle  of  plaited  rushes  is  laid  on  him,  when 
sacks  made  of  goat  skins,  and  filled  with  corn,  are  lashed  on  his  broad  and 
able  back.  A  leather  thong  is  passed  through  the  cartilage  of  his  nose, 
and  serves  as  a  bridle,  while  on  the  top  of  the  load  is  mounted  the  owner, 
his  wife,  or  his  slave.  Sometimes  die  daughter  or  the  wife  of  a  rich 
Shouaa  will  be  mounted  on  her  particular  bulloeky  and  precede  the  loaded 
animals,  extravagantly  adorned  with  amber,  silver  rings,  coral,  and  all 
sorts  of  finery  ^  hei'  hair  streaming  with  fat,  a  black  rim  of  kohal,  at  least 
an  inch  wide,  round  each  of  her  eyes,  and  I  may  say  arfayed  for  conquest 
at  the  crowded  market.  Carpet  or  robes  are  then  sipread  on  her  clumsy  pal- 
fry, — she  sits  jambe  de  fa,jamhe  de  2d,-^aad  with  considerable  grace  guides 
her  animal  by  the  nose.  Notwithstanding  the  peaceableness  of  his  nature, 
her  vanity  still  enables  her  to  torture  him  into  something  like  caperings 
and  curvetings.' 

It  is,  however,  in  the  soothem  part  of  Africa  that  the  triumph  of  the  ox 
is  complete.  His  intelligence  seems  to  exceed  anything  that  we  have  seen 
of  the  horse,  and  he  is  but  little  inferior  to  that  most  sagacious  of  all 
quadrupeds,  the  dog.  Among  the  Hottentots,  these  animals  are  their  do- 
mestics, and  the  companions  of  their  pleasures  and  fatigues ;  they  are  both 
the  protectors  and  the  servants  of  the  Cafire,  and  assist  him  in  attending 
his  flocks,  and  guarding  them  against  every  invader.  While  the  sheep  are 
grarang,  the  faithful  backely,  as  this  kind  of  oxen  is  called,  stands  and 
grazes  beside  them.  Still  attentive,  however,  to  the  looks  of  its  master, 
the  hackdy  flies  round  the  field,  obliges  the  herds  of  sheep  that  are 
straying  to  keep  within  proper  limits,  and  shows  no  mercy  to  robbers, 
who  attempt  to  plunder,  nor  even  to  strangers :  but  it  is  not  the  plun- 
derers of  the  flock  alone,  but  even  the  enemies  of  the  nation,  that  these 
baekelies  are  taught  to  combat.  Every  army  of  Hottentots  is  furnished' 
with  a  proper  herd  of  these  creatures,  which  are  let  loose  against  the 
enemy.  Being  thus  sent  forward,  th^  overturn  all  before  them  ;  they 
strike  down  with  their  horns,  and  trample  with  their  feet,  every  one  who 
attempts  to  oppose  them,  and  thus  oflea  procure  their  masters  an  easy 
victory,  before  they  have  began  to  strike  a  blow. 

'  An  animal  so  serviceable  is,  as  may  be  supposedv  not  without  its  re- 
ward. The  backely  Uves  in  the  same  cottage  with  its  master,  and  by  long 
habit  gains  an  affection  for  himi;  for  in  proportion  as  the  man  approaches 
to  the  brute,  so  the  brute  seems  to  attain  even  to  the  same  share  of  human 
sagacity.  The  Hottentot  and  his  backely  thus  mutually  assist  each 
other ;  and  when  the  latter  happens  to  die,  a  new  one  is  chosen  to  succeed 
bim.  by  a  council  of  the  old  men  of  the  village.  The  new  backely  is  then 
'gained  with  one  of  the  veterans  of  his  own  kind,  from  whom  he  learns  his 


art,  becomes  social  and  diligent,  and  is  taken  for  life  into  human  friendship 
and  protection.' — Illustrations  of  Natural  History,  p.  88 

There  is  a  well-authenticated  story  of  a  Scotch  bull,  which  shows  similar, 
but  not  equal  sagacity.  'A  gentleman  in  Scotland,  near  Laggan,  had  a 
bull  which  grazed  with  the  cows  in  the  open  meadows.  As  fences  are 
scarcely  known  in  that  part,  a  boy  was  kept  to  watch,  lest  the  cattle  should 
.trespass  on  the  neighbouring  fields,  and  destroy  the  corn.  The  boy  was 
tat  and  drowsy,  and  was  often  found  asleep ;  he  was,  of  course,  chastised 
whenever  the  cattle  tres^jassed.  Warned  by  this,  he  kept  a  long  switch, 
and  with  it  revenged  himself  with  an  unsparing  hand,  if  they  exceeded 
their  boundary.  The  bull  seemed  to  have  observed  with  concern  this  con- 
sequence of  their  transgress'on,  and  as  he  had  no  horns,  he  used  to  strike 
the  cows  with  his  large  forehead,  and  thus  punish  them  severely,  if  any  of 
them  crossed  the  boundary.  In  the  mean  time  he  set  them  a  good 
example  himself,  never  once  straying  beyond  the  forbidden  bounds,,  and 
placing  himself  before  the  cows  in  a  threatening  attitude  if  they  ap- 
proached them.  At  leng*h  his  honesty  and  vigilance  became  so  obvious, 
that  the  boy  was  employed  in  weeding,  and  other  business,  without  fear 
of  their  misbehaviour  in  nis  absence.' — Instinct  Displayed,  Letter  34. 

Captain  Cochrane,  in  his  Travels  in  Colombia,  vol.  ii.  p.  251,  places 
them  in  another,  and  not  uninteresting  point  of  view:  *  I  was  suddenly 
aroused  by  a  most  te  rific  noise,  a  mixture  of  loud  roarings  and  deep 
moans,  which  had  the  ost  appalling  effect  at  so  late  an  hour.  I  imine- 
diately  went  out,  attended  by  the  Indians,  when  I  found  close  to  the 
rancha,  a  large  herd  of  bullocks  collected  from  the  surrounding  country ; 
they  had  encompassed  the  spot  where  a  bullock  had  been  killed  in  the 
morning,  and  they  appeared  to  be  in  the  greatest  state  of  grief  and  rage 
they  roared,  they  moaned,  they  tore  the  ground  with  their  feet,  and  bel- 
lowed the  most  hideous  chorus  that  can  be  imagined,  and  it  was  with  the 
greatest  difficulty  they  could  be  driven  away  by  men  and  dogs.  Since 
then,  I  have  observed  the  same  scene  by  daylight,  and  seen  large  tears 
rolling  dcwn  their  cheeks.  Is  it  instinct  merely,  or  does  something 
nearer  to  reason  tell  them  by  the  blood,  that  one  of  their  companions 
has  been  butchered  ?  I  certainly  never  again  wish  to  view  so  painful  a 
sight : — they  actually  appeared  to  be  reproaching  us.' 

If  cattle  exhibit  son  e  of  the  good  qualities  of  superior  animals,  or  even 
of  man  himself,  they  likewise  have  some  of  his  failings.  Vanity  forms  as 
distinguishing  an  attribute  of  the  female  of  this  species,  as  of  some  other.s. 
The  account  of  the  Swiss  cows  is  not  a  little  amusing,  although  we  be- 
lieve that  it  is  somewhat  exaggerated : — 

'  In  the  Swiss  Canton  of  Appensell,  pasturage  being  the  chief  employr 
ment  of  the  inhabitants,  the  breeding  of  cattle,  and  the  subsequent  manage- 
ment of  the  dairy,  are  carried  to  the  greatest  perfection.  The  mountaineer 
lives  with  his  cows  in  a  perpetual  exchange  of  reciprocal  acts  of  kindness; 
the  latter  affording  almost  every  requisite  he  needs,  and  in  return  they 
are  provided  for,  and  cherished  by  him,  and  sometimes  more  so  than  his. 
own  children.  They  are  never  ill-treated  nor  beaten,  for  his  voice  is  suffi- 
cient to  guide  and  govern  the  whole  herd,  and  there  reigns  a  perfect  cor- 
diality between  them. 

'  In  the  Alps,  the  fine  cattle  are  the  pride  of  their  keepers,  who  adorn 
the  best  of  them  with  an  harmonious  set  of  bells,  chiming  in  accordance 
with  the  celebrated  ram  des  vaehes.  The  finest  black  cow  is  adorned 
with  the  largest  bell,  and  the  two  next  in  appearance  wear  smaller  ones., 
Early  in  the  spring,  when  they  are  removed  to  the  Alps,or  to  some  change, 
ot   pasture,  he  dresses  himself  in   all  his  fiaery,   and   proceeds  alons 


singling  the  ranz  des  taches,  foHowed  by  three  or  four  fine  goats :  next 
comes  the  finest  cow  adorned  with  the  great  bell,  then  the  other  two  with 
the  smaller  bells,  and  these  are  succeeded  by  the  rest  of  the  cattle  walking 
one  ailer  another,  and  having  in  their  rear,  the  bull  with  a  one-legged 
milking  stool  on  his  horns,  while  the  procession  is  closed  by  a  sledge 
bearing  the  dairy  implements. 

*  It  is  surprising  to  see  the  pride  and  pleasure  with  which  fhe  cows  stalk 
forth,  when  ornamented  with  their  bells.  One  would  hardly  imagine  that 
these  animals  are  sensible  of  their  rank,  and  affected  by  vanity  and  jealousy  ; 
and  yet  if  the  leading  cow  is  deprived  of  her  honours,  she  manifests  her 
disgrace  by  lowing  incessantly,  and  abstaining  from  food,  and  losing  con- 
dition. The  happy  rival  on  whom  this  badge  of  superiority  has  devolved, 
becomes  the  object  of  her  vengence,  and  is  butted,  and  wounded,  and  per- 
secuted by  her  in  the  most  furious  manner,  until  she  regains  her  bell,  or  is 
entirely  removed  from  the  herd.' — lUvstrations  of  Natural  History,  p.  72. 

Having  thus  somewhat  vindicated  the  intellectual  power  and  worth  nf  the 
subject  of  our  work,  we  return  to  the  agricultural  state  of  the  country  when 
the  Romans  invaded  Britain.  Ceesar  tells  us,  thut  the  Britons  neglected 
tillage,  and  lived  on  milk  and  flesh ;  and  other  authors  corroborate  this 
account  of  the  early  inhabitants  of  the  British  Islands.  It  was  that  occu- 
pation and  mode  of  life  which  suited  their  state  of  society.  The  island 
was  divided  into  many  petty  sovereignties  ;  no  fi^^ed  property  was  secui;e ; 
and  that  alone  was  vali^able,  which  might  be  hurried  away  at  the  threatened 
approach  of  an  invader.  Many  centuries  after  this,  when,  although  one 
sovereign  seemed  to  reign  paramount  over  the  whole  of  the  kingdom,  there. 
continued  to  be  endless  contests  among  the  feudal  barons,  and  still  that 
property  alone  was  valuable  which  could  be  secured  within  the  walls  of  the 
castle,  or  driven  beyond  the  invader's  reach,  an  immense  stock  of  pro- 
visions was  always  stored  up  in  the  various  fortresses,  both  for  the  vassals. 
and  the  cattle  ;  or  it  was  contrived  that  the  latter  should  be  driven  to  the 
demesnes  of  some  friendly  baron, .  or  concealed  in  some  inland  recess. 
When  the  winter  had  passed  over  in  the  castle  of  one  of  the  Despencers, 
and  the  usual  stock  of  provisions  was  comparatively  exhausted,  there  yet 
remained  in  salt  in  the  latter  part  of  the  spring,  no  fewer  than  eighty  oxen, 
six  hundred  bacons,  and  six  hundred  sheep. 

When,  however,  the  government  became   more  powerful  and  settled, 
and  property  of  every  kind  was  proportionably  secured,   as  well  as  more 
equally  divided,  the  plough  came  into  use  ;  and  those  agriauljoKal  pro 
ductions  were  oftener  cultivated,  the  reaping  of  which  was  sure  after  the- 
labour  of  sowing  had  been  expended.     Cattle  were  now  comparatively 
neglected,  and  for  some  centuries  injuriously  so.     Their  numbers  dimi- 
nished, and  their  size  appears  to  have  diminished  too;  and  it.  is  only, 
within  the  last  fifly  years  that  any  serious  and  successful  efforts  have  been 
made  materially  to  improve  them. 

In  the  comparative  roving  and  uncertain  life  which  our  escrtier  and  later 
ancestors  led,  their  cattle  would  sometimes  stray  and  be  lost.  The  country 
was  then  overgrown  with  forests,  and  the  beasts  betook  themselves  to  the 
recesses  of  these  woods,. and  became  wild,  and  sometimes  ferocious.  They 
by  degrees  grew  so  numerous,  as  to  be  dangerous  to  the  inhabitants  of 
the  neighbouring  districts.  One  of  the  chronicles  informs  us,  that  many 
of  them  harboured  in  the  forests  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  metropolis 
Strange  stories  are  told  of  some  of  them,  and  doubtless,  when  irritated,. 
they  were  fierce  and  dangerous  enough.  As,  however,  civilization  ad- 
vanced, and  the  forests  became  thinned  and  cotttracted,  these  animals  were 


seldomer  seen,  and  at  length  almost  disappeared.  A  tew  of  them  yet  re- 
main in  Chatelherault  Park,  belonging  to  the  Duke  of  Hamilton,  in  La- 
narkshire ;  and  in  the  park  of  Chillingham  Castle  in  Northumberland,  the 
seat  of  the  Earl  of  Tankerville.  They  are  thus  described  in  the  lattei 
place  by  Mr.  Culley,  in  his  valuable  observations  on  live  stock  :^ 

*  The  wild  breed,  from  being  untameable,  can  only  be  kept  within  walls 
or  good  fences,  consequently  very  few  of  them  are  now  to  be  met  with, 
except  in  the  parks  of  some  gentlemen,  who  keep  them  for  ornament,  and 
as  a  curiosity.  Those  I  have  seen  are  at  Chillingham  Castle,  in 
Northumberland,  a  seat  belonging  to  the  Earl  of  Tankerville.  Their 
colour  is  invariably  of  a  creamy  white,  muzzle  black ;  the  whole  of  the 
inside  of  the  ear,  and  about  one-third  of  the  outside,  from  the  tips  down- 
wards, red ;  horns,  white,  with  black  tips,  very  fine,  and  bent  upwards  , 
some  of  the  bulls  have  a  thin  upright  mane,  about  an  inch  and  a  half  or 
two  inches  long.  The  weight  of  the  oxen  is  from  thiriy-five  to  forty-five 
stone,  and  the  cows  from  twenty-five  to  thirty-five  stone  the  four  quarters 
(fourteen  pound  to  the  stone).  The  beef  is  finely  marbled,  and  of  excellent 
flavour.  From  the  nature  of  their  pasture,  and  the  frequent  agitation 
they  are  put  into  by  the  curiosity  of  strangers,  it  i»  scarcely  to  be  expected 
they  should  be  very  iat ;  yet  the  six  years  old  oxen  are  generally  very 
good  beef;  from  whence  it  may  be  fairly  siq>posed,  that  in  proper  srtuations 
they  would  feed  well. 

'  At  the  first  appearance  of  any  person  they  set  off  in  full  gallop,  and, 
at  the  distance  of  about  two  hundred  yards,  make  a  wheel  round,  and 
come  boldly  up  again,  tossing  their  heads  in  a  menacing  manner ;  on  a 
sudden  they  make  a  full  stop  at  the  distance  of  forty  or  fifty  yards,  looking 
wildly  at  the  object  of  their  surprise ;  but  upon  the  least  motion  being 
made,  they  all  again  turn  round,  and  fly  off  with  equal  speed,  but  not  to 
the  same  distance,  forming  a  shorter  circle,  and  again  returning  with  a 
bolder  and  more  threatening  aspect  than  before ;  they  approadi  much 
nearer,  probably  within  thirty  yards,  when  they  again  make  another 
stand,  and  then  fly  off:  this  they  do  several  times,  shortening  their  di»< 
tance,  and  advancing  nearer  and  nearer,  till  they  come  within  such  a 
short  distance,  that  most  people  think  it  prudent  to  leave  them,  not 
choosing  to  provoke  them  further. 

'  The  mode  of  killing  them  was  perhaps  the  only  remains  of  the  gran- 
deur of  ancient  hunting.  On  notice  being  given  that  a  wild  bull  would 
3e  killed  on  a  certain  day,  the  inhabitants  of  the  neighbourhood  came 
mounted  and  armed  with  guns,  &c.,  sometimes  to  the  amount  of  an 
hundred  horse,  and  four  or  five  hundred  foot,  who  stood  upon  walls,  or 
got  into  trees,  while  the  horsemen  rode  off  the  bull  from  the  rest  of  the 
herd  until  he  stood  at  bay,  when  a  marksmen  dismounted  and  shot.  At 
some  of  these  huntings  twenty  or  thirty  shots  have  been  fired  before  he 
was  subdued.  On  such  occasions  the  bleeding  victim  grew  desperately 
furious,  from  the  smartings  of  his  wounds  and  the  shouts  of  savage  joy 
that  were  echoing  on  every  side.  But,  from  the  number  of  accidents 
that  happened,  this  dangerous  mode  has  not  been  practised  of  late  years  ■ 
the  park-keeper  alone  generally  shooting  them  with  a  rifle  gun  at  one 

*  When  the  cows  calve,  they  bide  their  calves  for  a  week  or  ten  days  in 
some  sequestered  situation,  and  go  and  suckle  tliem  two  or  three  times 
a  day.  If  any  person  come  near  the  calves,  they  clap  their  heads  close 
to  the  ground,  and  lie  like  a  hare  in  form,  to  hide  themselves :  this  is  a 
proof  of  their  native  wildness,  and  is  corroborated  by  the  following  cir- 


eiimstance  that  happened  to  Mr.  Bailey,  of  Cbillingham,  who  found  a 
hidden  calf,  two  days  old,  very  lean,  and  very  weak ;  on  stroking  its  head 
it  got  up,  pawed  two  or  three  times  like  an  old  bull,  bellowed  very  loud, 
stepped  back  a  few  steps,  and  bolted  at  his  legs  with  all  its  force ;  it 
then  began  to  paw  again,  bellowed,  stepped  back,  and  bolted  as  before  ; 
but  knowing  its  intention,  and  stepping  aside,  it  missed  him,  fell,  and 
was  so  very  weak,  that  it  could  not  rise,  though  it  made  several  efforts ; 
but  it  had  done  enough.  The  whole  herd  were  alarmed,  and,  coming  to 
its  rescue,  obliged  him  to  retire ;  for  the  dams  allow  no  person  to  touch 
their  calves  without  attacking  them  with  impetuous  ferocity.  When  any 
one  happens  to  be  wounded,  or  is  grown  weak  and  feeble  through  age 
or  sickness,  the  rest  of  the  herd  set  on  it  and  gore  it  to  death.' 

The  breeds  of  cattle,  as  they  are  now  found  in  Great  Britain,  arc 
almost  as  various  as  the  soil  of  the  different  districts,  or  the  fancies  of  the 
breeders.  They  have,  however,  been  very  conveniently  classed  according 
to  the  comparative  size  of  the  horns  : — the  long  hom.s,  originally,  so  far 
as  our  country  is  concerned,  from  Lancashire,  much  improved  by  Mr. 
Bahewell  of  Leicestershire,  and  established  through  the  greater  part  of 
the  midland  counties  ; — the  short  horns,  originally  from  East  York,  im- 
proved in  Durham,  mostly  cultivated  in  the  northern  counties  and  in  Lin- 
colnshire, and  many  of  them  found  in  every  part  of  the  kingdom  where  the 
former  attends  much  to  his  dairy,  or  a  large  supply  of  milk  is  wanted  ;— 
and  the  middle  hornst  not  derived  from  a  mixture  of  the  two  preceding, 
but  a  distinct  and  valuable  and  beautiful  breed,  inhabiting  principally  the 
north  of  Devon,  the  East  of  Sussex,  Herefordshire,  Gloucestershire ;  and, 
of  diminished  bulk,  and  with  somewhat  different  eharaeter,  the  cattle 
of  the  Scottish  and  the  Welsh  mountains.  The  Alderney,  with  hei 
crumpkd  horn,  is  found  on  the  southern  coast,  and,  in  smaller  numbers, 
in  gentlemen's  parks  and  pleasure-grounds  everywhere ;  while  the  polle'd, 
or  hornless  cattle,  prevail  in  Suffolk  and  Norfolk,  and  in  GaUoway,  whence 
they  were  first  derived. 

These,  however,  have  been  intermingled  in  every  possible  way.  They 
are  found  pure  only  in  their  native  districts,  or  on  the  estates  of  some 
opulent  and  spirited  individuals.  Each  county  has  its  own  mongrel  breed, 
often  difficult  to  be  described,  and  not  always  to  be  traced — neglected 
enough,  yet  suited  to  the  soil  and  to  the  cUmate ;  and,  among  little 
farmers,  maintaining  their  station,  and  advantageously  maintaining  it, 
in  spite  of  attempts  at  supposed  improvements  by  the  intermixture  or 
substitution  of  foreign  varieties. 

The  character  of  each,  so  far  as  it  can  be  described,  and  the  relative 
value  of  each  for  breeding,  grazing,  the  dairy,  or  the  plough,  will,  be  con- 
sidered before  we  inquire  into  the  structure  or  general  and  medical  treat- 
ment of  cattle.  Much  dispute  has  arisen  as  to  the  original  breed  of  British 
cattle.  The  battle  has  been  stoutly  fought  between  the  advocates  of  the 
middle  and  the  long  horns.  The  short  horns  and  the  polls  can  have  no 
claim ;  the  first  is  evidently  of  foreign  extraction,  and  the  latter,  although 
U  has  existed  in  certain  districts  from  time  immemorial,  was  probably  an 
accidental  variety. 

We  are  very  much  disposed  to  adjudge  the  honour  to  the  *  middle 
horns.'  The  long  horns  are  evidently  of  Irish  extraction,  as  in  due  place 
we  shall  endeavour  to  show. 

Britain  has  shared  the  fate  of  other  nat'ons,  and,  oflener  than  them, 
although  defended  by  the  ocean  on  every  side,  she  has  been  overrun 
and  subjugate^  by  ferocioun  invaders     As  the  natives  retreated  before  the 

10  CATTLE. 

foe,  they  carried  with  them  some  portion  of  the  wreck  of  their  property 
We  have  stated  that  their  property,  in  early  times,  consisted  prineipallj 
in  cattle.  They  naturally  drove  along  with  them  as  many  as  they  could 
when  they  retired  to  the  fortresses  of  North  Devon  and  Cornwall,  or  the 
more  mountainous  regions  of  Wales,  or  when  they  took  refuge  even  in  the 
wealds  of  East  Sussex ;  and  there  retaining  all  their  prejudices  and  cus- 
toms and  manners,  they  were  jealous  of  the  strict  preservation  of  thai 
which  principally  reminded  them  of  their  native  country  before  it  had 
yielded  to  a  foreign  yoke. 

In  this  manner  probably  was  preserved  the  ancient  breed  of  British 
cattle.  Difference  of  climate  gradually  wrought  some  change,  and  par- 
ticularly in  their  bulk.  The  rich  pasture  of  Sussex  fattened  the  ox  of  that 
district  into  his  superior  size  and  weight.  The  plentiful  but  not  so  luxu- 
riant herbage  of  the  north  of  Devon  produced  a  somewhat  smaller  and 
more  active  animal,  while  the  occasional  privations  of  Wales  lessened  the 
bulk  and  thickened  the  hide  of  the  Welsh  runt.  As  for  Scotland,  it,  in  a 
mannrr,  set  its  invaders  at  defiance ;  or  its  inhabitants  retreated  for  a 
while,  and  soon  turned  again  on  their  pursuers.  They  were  proud  of  their 
country,  and  proud  of  their  cattle,  their  choicest  possession ;  and  there, 
ton,  the  cattle  were  preserved,  unmixed  and  undegenerated.  . 

Thence  it  resulted,  that  in  Devon,  in  Sussex,  in  Wales,  and  in  Scot- 
land, the  cattle  has  been  the  same  from  time  immemorial ;  while  in  all 
the  Eastern  coast,  and  through  every  district  of  Britain,  the  breed  of  cattle 
degenerated,  or  at  least  lost  its  original  character :  it  consisted  of  a  variety 
of  animals,  brought  from  every  neighbouring  aiid  some  remote  districts, 
mingled  in  every  possible  variety,  yet  generally  conforming  itself  to  the 
soil  and  the  climate. 

The  slightest  observation  will  convince  us  that  the  cattle  in  Devon 
shire,  Sussex,  Wales,  and  Scotland,  are  essentially  the  same.  They  are 
middle-horned;  tolerable,  but  not  extraordinary  milkers,  and  remarkable 
for  the  quality  rather  than  the  quantity  of  their  milk ;  active  at  work ; 
and  with  an  unequalled  aptitude  to  fatten.  They  have  all  the  cha- 
racters of  the  same  breed,  changed  by  soil  and  climate  and  time,  yet 
little  changed  by  the  intermeddling  of  man.  We  may  almost  trace  the 
colour,  namely,  the  red  of  the  Devon,  the  Sussex,  and  the  Hereford ;  and 
even  where  the  black  alone  are  now  found,  the  memory  of  the  red 
prevails;  it  has  a  kind  of  superstitious  reverence  attached  to  it  in  the 
legends  of  the  country ;  and  in  almost  every  part  of  Scotland,  and  in 
some  of  the  mountains  of  Wales,  the  milk  of  the  red  am  is  considered' 
to  be  a  remedy  for  every  disease,  and  a  preservative  from  every  evil 
Every  one  who  has  had  opportunities  of  comparing  the  Devon  cattle 
with  the  wild  breed  of  Chatelherault  Park,  or  Chillingham  Castle  lias 
been  struck  with  the  great  resemblance  in  many  points,  notwith'stand- 
ing  the  difference  of  colour,  while  they  bear  no  likeness  at  all  to  the  cattle 
of  the  neighbouring  country. 

For  these  reasons  we  consider  the  middle  horns  to  be  the  native  breed 
of  Great  Britain,  and  they  shall  first  pass  in  review  before  us. 


Chapter  III, 


'Int.  ftiioaiion  of  Devonshire,  at  nearly  the  western  extremity  of  tht 
kingdom,  nnd  the  undeniable  fact,  that  one  of  the  varieties  of  the  middle 
horns  is  there  found  in  a  state  of  the  ^eatest  purity,  render  it  the  best 
as  well  as  the  most  convenient  point  whence  to  start. 


The  north  of  Devon  has  been  long  celebrated  for  a  breed  of  cattle  beautiful 
in  the  highest  degree,  and  in  activity  at  work  and  aptitude  to  fatten  un> 
rivalled.  The  native  country  of  the  North  Devons,  and  where  they  are 
foiind  in  a  state  of  the  greatest  purity,  extends  from  (he  river  Taw  west- 
ward, skirting  along  the  Bristol  Channel  ;  the  breed  becoming  more 
mixed,  and  at  length  comparatively  lost  before  we  arrive  at  the  Farrett. 
Inland  it  extends  by  Barnstaple,  South  Molton,  and  Chumleigh,  as  fair  aa 
Tiverton,  and  thence  to  Wellington,  where  again  the  breed  becomes  unfre- 
quent,  or  it  is  mixed  before  we  reach  Taunton.  More  eastward  the 
Somersets  and  the  Welsh  mingle  with  it,  or  supersede  it.  To  the  south 
there  prevails  a  larger  variety,  a  cross  probably  of  the  North  Devon  with 
the  Somerset ;  and  on  the  west  the  Cornish  cattle  are  found,  or  conta- 
minate the  breed.  The  true  and  somewhat  prejudiced  Devonshire  man 
confines  them  within  a  narrower  district,  and  will  scarcely  allow  them  to 
be  found  with  any  degree  of  purity  beyond  the  boundaries  of  his  native 
county.  From  Portlock  to  Biddeford,  and  a  little  to  the  north  and  the 
south,  is,  in  his  mind,  the  peculiar  and  only  residence  of  the  North  Devon. 

From  the  earliest  records  the  breed  has  here  remained  the  same  ;  or  if  noi 
quite  as  perfect  as  at  the  present  moment,  yet  altered  in  no  essential  point 
until  within  the  last  thirty  years*.  That  is  not  a  little  surprising  when  it 
is  remembered  that  a  considerable  part  of  this  district  is  not  a  breeding 
country,  and  that  even  a  proportion,  and  that  not  a  small  one,  of  Devon- 
shire cattle,  are  bred  out  of  the  county.  On  the  borders  of  Somerset  and 
Dorset,  and  partly  in  both,  extending  southward  from  Crewkerne,  the 
country  assumes  the  form  of  an  extensive  valley,  and  principally  supplies 
the  Exeter  market  with  calves.  Those  that  are  dropped  in  February  and 
March,  are  kept  until  May,  and  then  sold  to  the  drovers,  who  convey 
them  to  Exeter.  They  are  there  purchased  by  the  Devonshire  farmers, 
who  keep  them  for  two  or  three  years  when  they  are  sold  to  the  Somerset-, 
shire  graziers,  who  fatten  them  for  the  London  market ;  so  that  a  portion 
of  the  North  Devon,  and  of  the  very  finest  of  the  breed,  come  from  Somer- 
set and  Dorset. 

The  truth  of  the  matter  is,  that  the  Devonshire  farmers  were,  until; 
nearly  the  close  of  the  last  century,  not  at  all  conscious  that  they  possessed 
any  thing  superior  to  other  breeds  ;  but,  like  agriculturists  everywhere  else, 
they  bought  and  bred  without  care  or  selection.  It  is  only  within  the  last 
fifty  or  sixty  years  that  any  systematic  efforts  have  been  made  to  im- 
prove the  breeds  of  cattle  in  any  part  of  the  kingdom ;  and  we  must 
acknowledge,  that  the  Devonshire  men,  with  all  their  advantages,  and 
with  such  good  ground  to  work  upon,  were  not  the  first  to  stir,  and, 

*  Lord  Somerville,  a  name  justly  esteemed  among  agriculturists,  and  an  excellent 
ju  Ige  of  cattle,  and  who,  from  his  residence  in  the  county,  may  be  supposed  to  be  well 
aciiuainted  with  the  excellencies  and  defects  of  this  breed,  gives  a  long  and  very  ac- 
curate and  interesting  account  of  them  in  the  Aiinals  of  Agriculture,  to  vlii'h  wa 
vould  refer  the  isader.  ' 

I  a  CATTLE. 

for  some  lime,  were  not  the  most  zealous  when  they  were  loused  to 
exertion.  They  are  indebted  to  the  nature  of  their  soil  and  climate  for 
the  beautiful  specimens  which  they  possess  of  the  native  breed  of  our 
island,  and  they  have  retained  this  breed  almost  in  spite  of  themselves. 

A  spirit  of  emulation  was  at  length  kindled,  and  even  the  North 
Devons  have  been  materially  improved,  and  brought  to  such  a  degree 
of  perfection,  that,  take  them  for  all  in  all,  they  would  suffer  from  inter- 
mixture with  any  olher  breed. 

Before,  however,  we  attempt  to  describe  the  peculiarities  of  this,  or  any 
other  breed,  it  may  be  proper  to  give  a  short  sketch  of  the  proper  form 
and  shape  of  cattle.  Whatever  be  the  breed,  there  are  certain  conforma- 
tions which  are  indispensable  to  the  thriving  and  valuable  ox  or  cow. 
When  we  have  a  clear  idea  of  these,  we  shall  be  able  more  easily  to  form 
an  accurate  judgment  of  the  breeds  of  the  different  counties  as  they  pass 
before  us.  If  there  is  one  part  of  the  frame,  the  form  of  which,  more 
than  of  any  Other,  renders  the  animal  valuable,  it  is  the  chest.  There 
must  be  room  enough  for  the  heart  to  beat,  and  the  lungs  to  play,  or 
sufficient  blood  for  the  purposes  of  nutriment  and  of  strength  will  not  be 
circulated ;  nor  will  it  thoroughly  undergo  that  vital  change,  which  is 
essential  to  the  proper  discharge  of  every  function.  We  look,  therefore, 
first  of  all  to  the  wide  and  deep  girth  about  the  heart  and  lungs.  We 
must  have  both :  the  proportion  in  which  the  one  or  the  other  may  pre- 
ponderate, will  depend  on  the  service  we  require  from  the  animal ;  we 
can  excuse  a  slight  degree  of  flatness  of  the  sides,  for  he  will  hi  lighter  in 
the  forehand,  and  more  active ;  but  the  grazier  must  have  width  as  well 
as  depth.  And  not  only  about  the  heart  and  lungs,  but  over  the  whole 
of  the  ribs,  must  we  have  both  length  and  roundness  ;  the  hooped,  as  well 
as  the  deep  barrel  is  essential ;  there  must  be  room  for  the  capacious 
paunch,  room  for  the  materials  from  which  the  blood  is  to  be  provided. 
The  beast  should  also  be  ribbed  home ;  there  should  be  little  space  be- 
tween the  ribs  and  the  hips.  This  seems  to  be  indispensable  in  the  ox, 
as  it  regards  a  good  healthy  constitution,  and  a  propensity  to  fatten ;  but 
a  largeness  and  drooping  of  the  belly  is  excusable  in  the  cow,  or  rather, 
notwithstanding  it  diminishes  the  beauty  of  the  animal,  it  leaves  room  for 
the  udder  ;  and  if  it  is  also  accompanied  by  swelling  milk  veins,  it  gene- 
rally indicates  her  value  in  the  dairy.' 

This  roundness  and  depth  of  the  barrel,  however,  is  most  advantageous 
in  proportion  as  it  is  found  behind  the  point  of  the  elbow,  more  than  be- 
tween the  shoulders  and  legs  ;  or  low  down  between  the  legs,  rather  than 
upwards  towards  the  withers :  for  it  diminishes  the  heaviness  before,  and 
the  comparative  bulk  of  the  coarser  parts  of  the  animal,  which  is  always 
a  very  great  consideration. 

The  loins  should  be  wide :  of  this  there  can  be  no  doubt,  for  they  are  the 
prime  parts ;  they  should  seem  to  extend  far  along  the  back :  and  although 
the  belly  should  not  hang  down,  the  flanks  should  be  round  and  deep. 
Of  the  hips  it  is  superfluous  to  say  that,  without  being  ragged,  they 
should  be  large;  round  rather  than  wide,  and  presenting,  when" handled 
plenty  of  muscle  and  fat.  The  thighs  should  be  full  and  long,  close  toge- 
ther when  viewed  from  behind,  and  the  farther  down  they  continue  to  be 
so  the  better.  The  legs  short,  varying  like  other  parts  according  to  the 
destination  of  the  animal ;  but  decidedly  short,  for  there  is  an  almost  in- 
separable connexion  between  length  of  leg  and  lightness  of  carcase  and 
shortness  of  leg  and  propensity  to  fatten.  The  bones  of  the  legs',  and 
they  only  being  taken  as  a  sample  of  the  bony  structure  of  the  frame 
generally,  should  be  small,  but  not  too  small — small  enoiigh  for  the  well- 



« nowu  accompaniment  a  propensity  to  fatten— small  enough  to  please 
the  consumer;  but  not  so  small  as  to  indicate  delicacy  of  constitution, 
and  liability  to  disease. 

Last  of  all  the  hide — the  most  important  thing  of  all^thin,  but  not  so 
thin  as  to  indicate  that  the  animal  can  endure  no  hardship ;  moveable, 
mellow,  but  not  too  loose,  and  particularly  well  covered  with  fine  and  soft 
hair.  We  shall  enter  more  fully  and  satisfactorily  into  this  subject  in  the 
proper  place  j  but  this  bird's-eye  view  may  be  useful.  We  return  to  the 
Devonshire  cattle. 

[7%r  Devon  Bull.] 

The  more  perfect  specimens  of  the  North  Devon  breed  are  thus  dis- 
tinguished. The  horn  of  the  hull  ought  to  be  neither  too  low  nor  too  high, 
tapenng  at  the  points,  not  too  thick  at  the  root,  and  of  a  yellow  or  waxy 
colour.    The  eye  should  be  clear,  bright,  and  prominent,  showing  much  of 

[The  U'urkiug  Pevon  Oj:\ 

•»  CATTLE. 

llie  white,  and  itou§:ht  to  have  around  it  a  circle  of  a  variable  colour,  hut 
.usually  a  da rki  orange.  /  The  forehead  should  be  flat,  indented,  and  small' 
for  by  the  smallness  of  the  forehead,  the  purity  of  the  breed  is  very  mucl 
f estimated.  The  cheek  should  be  small,  and  the  muzzle  fine :  the  nose 
.should  be  of  a  clear  yellow.  A  black  muzzle  is  disliked,  and  even  a 
mottled  one  is  objected  to  by  some  who  pretend  to  be  judges  of  the  true 
Devon.  The  nostril  should  be  high  and  open :  the  hair  curJed  about 
the  head,  and  giving,  at  first  appearance,  an  idea  of  coarseness  which  soon 
wears' ofl      The  neck  should  be  thick,  and  that  sometimes  almost  to  a  fault. 

Excepting  in  the  head  and  neck  the  form  of  the  bull  does  not  materially 
differ  from  that  of  the  ox,  but  he  is  considerably  smaller.  There  are  some 
exceptions,  however,  to  this  rule,  and  as  an  illustration  of  this,  we  have 
inserted  (p.  13)  the  portrait  of  a  pure  Devon  bull  (belonging  to  Mr. 
Western),  falher  of  the  ox  and  the  cow  delineated  at  pages  16  and 
17.  We  may  fancy  that  we  trace  in  this  singular  and  noble  animal,  the 
lineaments  of  the  native,  and  scarcely  reclaimed  British  bull. 

The  head  of  the  ox  is  small,  very  singularly  so,  relatively  to  the  bulk  of 
the  animal,  yet  it  has  a  striking  breadth  of  forehead.  It  is  clean  and  free 
from  flesh  about  the  jaws;  The  eye  is  very  prominent,  and  the  animal  has 
a  pleasing  vivacity  of  countenance  plainly  distinguishing  it  from  the 
heavy  aspect  of  many  other  breeds.  Its  heck  is  long  and  thin,  admirably 
adapting  it  for  the  collar,  and  even  for  the  more  common  and  ruder  yoke. 

The  want  of  the  beautifully  arched  form  Of  the  neck,  which  is  seen  in 
the  horse,  has  been  considered  as  a  defect  in  most  breeds  of  cattle. 
It  is  accounted  one  of  the  characters  of  good  cattle,  that  the  line  of  ihe 
neck  from  the  horns  to  the  withers  should  scarcely  deviate  from  that 
of  the  back.  In  the  Devonshire  ox,  however,  there  is  a  peculiar  rising 
of  the  forehand,  reminding  us  not  a  little  of  the  blood-horse,  and  essen- 
tially connected  with  the  free  and  quick  action  by  which  this  breed 
has  ever  been  distinguished.  It  has  little  or  no  dewlap  depending 
from  its  throat.  The  horns  are  longer  than  those  of  the  bull,  .smaller 
and  fine  even  to  the  base,  and  of  a  lighter  colour,  and  sometimes 
tipped  with  yellow.  The  animal  is  light  in  the  withers ;  the  shoulders 
a  little  oblique ;  the  breast  deep,  and  the  bosom  open  and  wide,  par- 
ticularly as  contrasted  with  the  fineness  of  the  withers.  The  fore-leo-s 
are  wide  apart,  looking  like  pillars  that  have  to  support  a  great  vireiglit. 
The  point  of  the  shoulder  is  rarely  or  never  seen.  There  is  no  projection 
of  bone  as  in  the  horse,  but  there  is  a  kind  of  level  line  runnino-  on"  to  the 

These  are  characteristic  and  important:,  points.  Angular  bony  pro- 
jections are  never  found  in  a  beast  that  carries  much  flesh  and  fat.  The 
fineness  of  the  withers,  the  slanting  direction  of  the  shoulder,  and  the 
broad  and  open  breast,  imply  both  strength  and  speed,  and  aptitude  to 
fatten.  A  narrow-chested  animal  can  never  be  useful  either  for  workino- 
or  grazing. 

With  all  the  lightness  of  the  Devonshire  ox,  there  is  a  point  about  him 
disliked  in  the  blood  or  riding-horse,  and  not  always  approved  in  the  horsfl 
')('  light  draught, — the  legs  are  far  under  the  chest,  or  rather  the  breast 
projects  far  and  wide  before  the  legs.  We  see  the  advantage  of  this  in 
the  beast  of  slow  draught,  who  rarely  breaks  into  a  trot,  except  when  he  is 
goaded  on  in  catching  times,  and  the  division  of  whose  foot  secures 
him  from  stumbling.  The  lightness  of  the  other  parts  of  his  form,  how- 
ever, counterbalances  the  appearance  of  heaviness  here. 

The  legs  are  straight,  at  least  in  the  best  breeds.  If  they  are  in-kneed 
or  crooked  In  the  fore-leg-s.  it  argues  a  deficiency  in  blood,  and  comparative 


iiK  a,jacity  for  work  ;  and"  not  only  for  worlv,  but  for  grazing  too,  for  they  wil. 
'be  hollow  behind  the  withers,  a  point  for  which  nothing  can  compensate, 
because  it  takes  away  so  much  from  the  place  where  gobc)  flesh  and  fat 
'should  be  thickly  laid  on,  and  diminishes  the  capacity  of  the  chest  and 
'  the  power  of  creating  arterial  and  nutritious  blood. 

The  fore-arm  is  particularly  large  and  powerful.  It  swells  out  suddenly 
above  the  knee,  but  is  soon  lost  in  the  substance  of  the  shoulder.  Below 
the  knee  the  bone  is  small  to  a  very  extraordinary  degree,  indicating  a 
seeming  of  want  of  strength  ;  but  this  impression  immediately  ceases,  for 
the  smallness  is  only  in  front — it  is  only  in  the  bone  :  the  leg  is  deep,  and 
the  sinews  are  far  removed  from  the  bone.  It  is  the  leg  of  the  blood-horse, 
promising  both  strength  and  speed*.  It  may  perhaps  be  objected  that 
the  leg  is  a  little  too  long.  It  would  be  so  in  an  animal  that  is  destined 
'only  to  graze ;  but  this  is  a  working  animal,  and  some  length  of  leg  is  ne- 
cessary to  get  him  pleasantly  and  actively  over  the  ground, 
'  There  is  a  very  trifling  fall  behind  the  withers,  but  no  hollownesn,  and  the 
line  of  the  back  is  straight  from  them  to  the  setting  on  of  the  tail.  If 
-there  is  any  seeming;  fault  in  the  beast,  it  is  that  the  sides  are  a  little  too 
"flat.  It  will  ajipear;  however,  that  this  does  not  interfere  with  feeding, 
while  a  deep,  although  somewhat  flat  chest  is  best  adapted  for  speed. 

Not  only  i&  the  breast  broad  and  the  chest  deep,  but  the  two  last 
ribs  are  particularly  bold  and  prominent,  leaving  room  for  the  stomachs 
and  other  parts  concerned  in  digestion  ti.  be  fully  developed.  The  hips, 
or  buckles,  are  high,  and  ona  level  with  the  back,  whether  the  beast  is  fat 
or  lean.  The  hind  quarters,  or  the  space  from  the  buckle  to  the  point  >of 
the  rumpi  are  particularly  long,  and  well  filled  up — a  point  likewise  of 
very  considerable  importance  both  for  grazing  and  working.  It  leaves 
room  for  flesh  in  the  most  valuable  part,  and,  like  the  extensive  and 
swelling  quarters  of  the  blood-horse,  indicate  much  power  behind,  equally 
'connected  with  strength  and  speed.  This  is  an  improvement  quite  of 
'  modern  date.  The  fulness  here,  and  the  swelling  out  of  the  thigh  below, 
are  of  much  more  consequence  than  the  prominence  of  fat  which  is  so 
much  admired  on  the  rump  of  many  prize  cattle. 

The  setting  on  of  the  tail  is  high  ;  it  is  on  a  level  with  the  back ;  rarely 
much  elevated,  and  never  depressed.  This  is  another  great  point  in  the 
blood-horse,  as  connected  with  the  perfection  of  the  hind  quarters.  The  tail 
itself  is  long  and  small,  and  taper,  with  a  round  bunch  of  hair  at  the  bottom. 

The  skin  of  the  Devon,  notwithstanding  his  curly  hair,  is  exceedingly 

*  It  is  sometinies  not  a  little  amusing  to  observe  the  seeming  contrariety  of  opinio 
between  excellent  judges  of  cattle,  and  that  on  the  very  essential  points  uf  their  conibrnii 
tion ;  and  yet,  when  the  matter  is  properly  explained, the  slight  shade  of  difference  there  i» 
between  them.  We  have  now  lying  before  us  letters  from  two  very  skilful  Devonshire 
farmers.  They  have  been  so  obliging  as  to  give  us  their  opinion  as  to  the  points  of  the 
Devonshire  ox.  One  insists  upon  that,  on  which  we  confess  we  should  lay  very  great 
stress,  and  without  which  we  should  reckon  any  beast  almost  valueless,  tiamely,  small 
bones  under  the  knee,  and  a  clean  neck  and  throat.  This  gentleman  we  have  the  pleasure 
of  knowing;  he  has  been  improving  the  size  and  weight  of  the  Devonshire  ox,  anxiously 
preserving  these  points :  nay,  we  know  that  he  did  steal  a  cross  from  one  of  the  finest-boneu 
and  lightest  Herefords  he  could  procure.  The  other  has  sound  principles  of  breeding, 
but  he  is  a  man  of  the  old  school :  he  had  been  educated  in  the  belief  that  what  he  calls 
CO..  'r-iR  nevons  are  unrivalled,  and  he  would  deem  it  a  kind  of  sacrilege  to  debase  their 
mood  by  a  cross  with  any  other  breed ;  yet  experience  has  yet  taught  him,  in  spite  of  all 
his  prejudices,  and  although  he  will  not  own  it,  that  the  old  Devons  have  their  faults,  and, 
among  them,  too  much  flatness  of  chest  and  general  lightness ;  he  is,  beside,  a  tillac^e 
fanner.  He  tells  us  that  he  does  not  like  a  fine  neck,  because  it  is  accompanied  by  too 
narrow  and  light  a  breast,  and  that  he  dues  like  large  bones,  because  they  will  carry  more 
meat.  Why,  these  gentlemen  were,  in  a  measure,  both  right,  but  their  obsei-vutiuni 
I  jfurred  to  cattle,  which  although  Dcvohs,  were  essentially  dineient. 



mellow  juid  elastic.  Graziers  know  that  there  is  not  a  more  important 
point  than  this.  When  the  skin  can  be  easily  raised  tiom  the  hips,  it 
shews  that  there  is  room  to  set  on  fat  below. 

The  skinJs  thin  rather  than  thick.  Its  appearance  of  thickness  arises 
from.the  curly  hair  with  which  it  is  ieoy«red,  and  curly  in  proportion  to 
the  condition  and  health  of  the  auimaL  IJood  judges  of  these  cattle 
epeak  of  these  curls  as  running  like  little  ripples  of  wind  on  a  pond  of 
water.  Some  of  these  cattle  iiave  the  hair  smooth,  but  then  it  should 
be  fine  and  glossy.  Those  with  curled  hair  are  somewliat  more  hardy,  and 
fatten  more  kindly.  The  favourite  colour  is  a  blood  red.  This  is  supposed 
to  indicate  purity  of  breed ;  but  there  are  jnany  good  cattle  approaching 
almost  to  a  chestnut  hue,  or  even  a  bay'brown.  If  the  eye  is  clear  and 
good  and  the  skin  mellow,  the  paier  colours  will  bear  hard  work,  and 
fatten,  as  well  as  others ;  but  a  beast  with  a  pale  skin,  and  hard  under  the 
hand,  and  the  eye  dark  and  dead,  will  be  a  sluggish  worker,  and  an  un- 
profitable feeder.  Those,  however,  that  are  of  a  yellow  colour*  are  said 
to  be  subject  to  steal  (diarrhoea). 

Some  breeders  object  to  the  slightest  intermixture  of  white-^npt  even 
a  star  upon  the  forehead  is  allow^ ;  yet  a  few  good  oxen  have  large  dis- 
tant patches  of  white ;  but  if  the  colours  run  into  each  other,  the  beasts 
are  condemned  as  of  a  mongrel  and  valueless  breed. 

These  are  the  principal  points  of  a  good.  Devonshire  ox ;  but  he  used 
to  .be,  perhaps  he  is  yet,  a  little  too  flat-sided,  and  the  rump  narrowed 
too  rapidly  behind  the  hip  bones ;  he  was  not  sufficiently  ribbed  home,  or 
there  was  too  much  space  between  the  hip  bones  and  the  last  rib  ;  and 
altogether  he  was  too  light  for  some  tenacious  and  strong  soils.  The  cut 
of  the  working  ox,  in  page  13,  contains  the  portrait  of  one  formerly 
belonging  to  the  Duke  of  Bedford.  It  embodies  almost  every  good  point 
of  which  we  have  spoken. 

Mr.  Western  has  kindly  enabled  us  here  to  add  another  portrait  from 
his  farm.  It  is  a  son  of  the  bull  given  at  page  13,  and  is  a  faithful  repre- 
sentation of  an  ox  beginning  to  fatten,  but  his  characteristic  points  not 
yet  concealed.  Mr.  Western  has  carefully  preserved  this  breed  unmixed 
for  the  last  thirty  years,  and  all  the  cattle  that  he  fattens  are  Devons ; 
he  larely  uses  them  for  the  plough. 


A  selection  from  the  most  perfect  animals  of  the  true  breed, — the  bona 
Btill  small  and  the  neck  fine,  but  the  brisket  deep  and  wide,  and  down  to 
\he  knees,  and  not  an  atom  of  flatness  all  over  the  side — or  one  cross,  and 
only  one  with  the  Hereford,  and  that  stealthily  made, — these  have  improved 
the  strength  and  bulk  of  the  North  Devon  ox,  without  impairing,  in  the; 
slightest  degree^  his  activity,  his  beauty,  or  his  propensity  to  fatten  * 

There  are  few  things  more  remarkable  about  the  Devonshire  cattle  than 
the  comparative  smallness  of  the  cow.  The  bull  is  a  great  deal  less  than 
the  ox,  and  the  cow  almost  as  much  smaller  than  the  bull.  This,  how- 
ever, is  some  disadvantage,  and  the  breeders  are  aware  of  it ;  for,  although 
it  may  not  be  necessary  to  have  a  large  bull,  and  especially  as  those  ol 
any  extraordinary  size  are  seldom  handsome  in  all  their  points,  but  some- 
where or  other'  present  coarseness  or  deformity,  it  is  almost  impossible  to 
procure  large  and  serviceable  oxen,  except  from  a  somewhat  roomy  cow. 
These  cows,  however,  although  small,  possess  that  roundness  and  projec- 
tion of  the  two  or  three  last  ribs,  which  make  them  actually  more  roomy 
than  a  careless  examination  of  them  would  indicate.  The  cow  is  particu- 
larly distinguished  for  her  full,  round,  clear  eye,  the  gold  coloured  circle 
round.the  eye  tnd  the  same  colour  p'revailing  on  the  inside  skin  of  tha 
ear.  The  countenance  cheerful,  the  muzzle  orange  or  yellow,  but  the 
rest  of  the  face  having  nothing  of  black,  or  even  of  white  about  it.  The 
jaws  free  from  thickness,  and' the  throat  free  from  dewlap.  The  points 
of  the  back  and'  the  hind  quarters  different  from  those  of  other  breeds, 
having  more  of  roundness  and  beauty,  and  being  free  from  most  of  those 
angles  by  which  good  milkers  are  sometimes  distinguished. 

We  are  here  enabled  to  present  our  readers  with  the  portrait  of  a  cow, 

*  In  the  '  Annals  of  Agriculture/  vol.  xxx.,  p.  314,  ve  have  the  opinion,  in  somewhat 
provincial  terms,  of  a  gooi}  west-countiy  glazier,  respecting  the  Wst  form  of  the  Devon 
cattle.  '  He  huys  at  all  times,  from  Christmas  to  May-day,  North  Devons,  that  are  bred 
from  Fortlock  to  Biddeford,  such  as  are  five  or  six  years  old.  He  chooses  such  as  are 
•mall-horned,  and'of  a  yellow-coloured  horn  rather  than  white — small  bones,  as  such 
beasts  thrive,best>j— rib  bones  round,  not  flat — a  thick,  hide  had — a  very  thin  one  objec- 
tipnable — ^blade-  bones,  chuck-^very  thick  and  heavy  in  the  bosom,  as  much' weight  lies 
lKBre-:-the  heaviet  in  the  shoulder  the  better,  but  not  to  elbow  ou^ — ^very  wide  and  square 
from  the  points  down  to  the  thighs — middling  in  the  belly — not  cow-bellied— not  tucked" 
ui>.'    As  a  crazier  he  is  lizht ;  but  this  is  not  the  true  working  Dovoushiie  ox. 


18  CATTLE. 

belonging  to  that  indefatigable  agriculturist,  Mr.  Weston.  She  was  rising 
four  years  old.  With  regard  to  size  she  is  a  favourablfe  specimen  of  the 
Bevon  cow.  It  will  be  seen  at  once  how  much  more  roomy  and  fit  for 
breeding  she  is,  than  even  her  somewhiat  superior  bulk  would  at  first  in- 
dicate. She  is,  perhaps,  in  a  little  better  condition  than  cows  generally 
are,  or  should  be,  in  order  to  yield  their  full  quantity  of  miJk. 

Their  qualities  may  be  referred  to  three  points ;  their  working,  fattening, 
and  milking. 

Where  the  ground  is  not  too  heavy,  the  Devonshire  oxen  are  unrivalled 
at  the  plough.  ,  They  have  a  quickness  of  action  which  no  other  breed 
can  equal,  and  which  very  few  horses  exceed.  They  have  also  a  degree 
of  docility  and  goodness  of  temper,  and  also  stoutness  and  honesty  of 
work,  to  which  many  teams  of  horses  cannot  pretend.  Vancouverj,  in  his 
survey  of  Devonshire,  says,  that  it  is  a  common  day's  work  on  fallow  land 
for  four  steers  to  plough  two  acres  with  a  double-furrow  plough.  Four 
good  Devonshire  steers  will  do  as  much  work  in  the  field,  or  on  the  road, 
as  any  three  horses,  and  in  as  quick,  and  often  quicker,  time,  although 
many  farmers  calculate  two  oxen  to  be  equal  to  one  horse.  The  principal 
objection  to  the  Devonshire  oxen  is,  that  they  have  not  sufficient  strength 
for  tenacious  clayey  soils:  they  will,  however,  exert, their  strength  to  the 
utmost,  and  stand  many  a  dead  pull,  which  few  horses  could  be  induced 
or  forced  to  attempt.  They  are  uniformly  worked  in  yokes,  and  not  in 
collars.  Four  oxen,  or  six  growing  steers,  are  the  usual  team  employed 
in  the  plough. 

There  is  a  peculiarity  in  driving  the  ox  team,  which  is  very-pleasing  to 
the  stranger,  and  the  remembrance  of  which,  connected  with  his  early  days, 
the  native  does  not  soon  lose.  A  man  and  a  boy  attend  each  team;  the 
boy>  chants  that  which  can  scarcely  be  regarded  as  any  distinct  tune,  but 
whiah  is.  a  very  pleasing  succession  of  sounds,  resembling-  the  counter- 
tenor in  the  service  of  the  cathedral.  He  sings  away  with  unwearied  lungs, 
as  he  trudges  aJlong,,  almost  from  morning  to  night,  while  every  now  and 
'  thea  the  ploughman,,  as  he-  directs  the  movement  of  the  team,  puts  in  his 
lower  notes,  biit  in  perfect,  concord.  When  the  traveller  stops  iu  one  of  the 
Devonshire  valleys,  and  hears  this  simple  music  from  the  drivers  of  the 
ploughs  on  the  slope  of  the  hill  on  either  side^  he  experiences  a  pleasure 
which  this  operation  of  husbandry  could  scarcely  be  supposed  to  be  capable 
of  affording.  This  chanting  is  said  to  animate  the  oxen  somewhat  in  the 
same  way  as  the  musical  bells  that  are  so  prevalent  in  the  same  county. 
Certainly  the  oxen  move  along  with  an  agility  that  would  be'  scarcely  ex- 
pected, from  cattle ;  and  the  team  may  be  watched  a  long  while  without  one  word  being  heard,  or  the  goad  or  the  whip  applied.  The  opponents 
of  ox-husbandry  should  -visit  the  valleys  of  north  or  south  Devon,  to  see 
what  this  animal  is  capable  of  performing,  and  how  he  performs,  it., 

The  profit  derived  from  the  use  of  oxen  in  this  district  arises  from'  the 
activity  to  which  they  are  trained,  and  which  is  unknown  in  any  other  part 
of  the  kingdom.  During  harvest  time,  and  in  catching  wfiather,  they  are, 
sometimes  trotted  along  with  the  empty  waggons,  at  the  sate  of  six  miles 
an  hour,  a  degree  of  speed  which  no  other  ox  but  the  Devon  has  been  able 
to  stand. 

It  may  appear  singular  to  the  traveller,  that  in  some  of  the  districts  that 
are  supposed  to  be  the  very  head-quarters  of  the  Devon  cattle,  they  are 
seldom  used  for  the  plough.  The  explanation,  however,  is  plain  enough. 
The  demand  for  them  among  graziers  is  so  great,  that  the  breeders  obtain 
a  remunerating  price  for  them  at  an  earlier  age  than  that  at  which  they  aro 
generally  broken  in  for  the  plough. 


They  are  usually  taken  into  work  at  about.two  years,  or  tvreuty-six  months 
old ;  and  they,  are  worked  until  they  are  four,  or  five,  or  six :  they  are  then 
grazed,  or  kept  on  hay,  and  in  ten  or  twelve  months,  and  without  any  fur- 
ther trouble,  they  are  fit  for  the  market.  If  the  grass  land  is  good,  no 
corn,  or  cake,  or  turnips,  are  required  for  the  first  winter;  but,  of  course, 
fur  a  second  winter  these  must  be  added.  The  grazier  likes  this  breed 
best  at  five  years-old,  and  they  will  usually,  when  taken  from  the  plough, 
fetch  as  much  money  as  at  six.  At  eight,  or  nine  years,  or  older  they  are 
rapidly  declining  in  value. 

Lord  Somervilfe  states,  that  afler  having  been  worked  lightly  on  the 
hills  for  two  years,  they  are  bought  at  four  years  old  by  the  tillage-farmer 
of  the  vales,  and  taken  into  hard  work  from  four  to  six  ;  and,  what  deserves 
consideration,  an  ox  must  be  thus  worked,  in  order  for  him  to  attain  his 
fullest  size.  If  he  is  kept  idle  until  he  is  five  or  six,  he  will  invariably  be 
stinted  in  his  growth.  At  six  he  reaches  his  full  staturp,  unless  he  is  naturally 
disposed  to  be  of  more  than  ordinary  size,  and  then  he  continues  to  grow 
for  another  half-year. 

Their  next  quality  is  their  disposition  to  fatten,  and  very  few  rival 
them  here.  They  do  not,  indeed,  attain  the  great  weight  of  some  breeds  ; 
but,  in  a  given  time,  they  acquire  more  flesh,  and  with  less  consumption  of 
food,  and  their  flesh  is  beautiful  in  its  kind.  It  is  of  that  mottled,  marbled 
character  so  plbasing  to  the  eye,  and  to  the  taste.  Some  very  satis- 
factory experiments  have  been  made  on  this  point. 

Mr.  Carpenter,  a  very  intelligent  farmer,  informs  us,  that  the  Duke  of 
Bedford,  who  has  considerable  property  in  the  county  of  Devon,  had  some 
prime  Hereford  oxen  sent  to  his  Tavistock  estate  in  the  month  of  April, 
and  he  ordered  some  Devons  to  be  bought  in  Crediton  market  at  the 
latter  end  of  the  same  month.  The  Devons  were  not  in  so  good  con- 
dition as  the  Herefords  when  they  were  put  to  grass,  and  cost  about  bl. 
per  head  less  than  the  Herefords ;  but  at  the  latter  end  of  December, 
when  they  were  all  sold  to  the  butcher,  the  Devons  were  superior  in  fat- 
ness and  in  weight. 

A  more  satisfactory  experiment  was  made  by  the  same  nobleman.  Six 
oxen  were  selected  in  Novembeij  16, 1797,  and  fed  until  December  10, 
1798,  and  the  following  was  the  result. 

Pint  weight.  Second  weight.  Gained,  Zocr  oil  c^Iie.    Turnipe.     Ha; 

cwL    an.   ibf.        owt,    qni.    Iba,       eff  t.    qn.  lbs.       or  stone.  lbs.  lbs.  lbs, 

1  Hetefotd  .  .  17  0    1  18  3    0  1  'i  2,7  24.3^  3700  487 

2  Do.       .  .  18  1     0  21  0  25  2  3  25  41.5  423  2712  432 

3  Devon  .  .  14  1     7  17'  2    7  3  1     Q  45.4  438  2668  295 

4  D».        .  .  14  2    4  19  1     0  4  2  14  64,6;  412  2056  442 

5  Sussex  .  16  2    0  19  3    0  3  10  45.4  432  2655  392 

6  Leicester  .  13  2  14  18  2    0  2  3  14  40.2  434  2652  400 

An  experiment  of  the  same  nature  was  made,  in  order  to  compare  the  fat- 
tening properties  of  the  Glamorgan  with  the  Devon.  They  were  fed  from 
January*  6,,  to  December  1,  1S04,  and  the  following  was  the  result. 


wt.   on.   Ibi.  erstoa«i 

4    2    Qi  63 

4    3    2  67 

3    3  18  54.6 

We  are  aware  that  other  experiments  have  been  iUstitutedi  and  with  diffei- 
ent  resuhs.  One  was  made  about  the  same  time  at  Petworth,.by  the-  Earl  of 
Egremont.     Eight  oxen  consisting  of  three  Herefords,  three  of  the  Sussex 

C  2 

F'nt  waight 

cirt.    qn.    lbs. 

cwt.   qrs,   Ibe. 

I  Devon  . 

.13     1-7 

17     3     7 

2  Do. 

.16    0  10 

20    3  14 

3  Glamorgui 

.  13    3    0 

16    0  14 

20  CATTLE. 

breed,  and  three  Devoiis,  were  put  up  to  fat.  They  were  allowed  only  six 
teen  weeks,  they  had  not  the  trial  nearly  of  a  twelvemonth,  as  in  the  Duke 
of  Bedford's  experiment,  and  the  Devons  were  found  to  be  lowest  on  the 
list,  and  that  to  a  very  considerable  extent.  These  Devons,  altlioujrh 
selected  fairly  enough,  were  probably  exceptions  to  their  general  character 
for  rapid  thriving.  We  are,  however,  compelled  to  add,  that  the  Duke 
of  Bedford  has,  to  a  considerable  extent,  changed  his  breed  at  Woburn, 
and  the  Devons  have,  in  a  great  degree,  given  way  to  the  Herefords*. 

The  North  Devon  oxen  are  rarely  shod,  and  very  rarely  lamef. 

For  the  dairy,  the  North  Devons  must  be  acknowledged  to  be  inferior 
to  several  other  breeds.  The  milk  is  good,  and  yields  more  than  an  aver- 
age proportion  of  cream  and  butter ;  but  it  is  deficient  in  quantity.  There 
are  those,  however,  and  no  mean  judges,  who  deny  this,  and  select  the 
North  Devonsj  even  for  the  dairy. 

Mr.  Conyers,  of  Copt  Hall,  near  Kpping,  a  district  almost  exclusively 
devoted  to  the  purposes  of  the  dairy,  preferred  the  North  Devons 
on  account  of  their  large  produce,  whether  in  milk,  butter,  or  by 
suckling.  He  thought  that  they  held  their  milk  longer  than  any  other 
sort  that  he  had  tried  ;  that  they  were  liable  to  fewer  disorders  in  their 
udders ;  and  that  being  of  small  size,  they  did  not  eat  more  than  half 
what  larger  cows  consumed.  He  thus  sums  up  his  account  of  them  : 
*  Upon  an  average,  ten  cows  give  me  five  dozen  pounds  of  butter  per 
week  in  the  summer,  and  two  dozen  in  the  winter.  A  good  North  Devon 
cow  fats  two  calves  a  year.  My  thirty  North  Devon  cows  have  this  year 
(about  1788)  upon  an  average  produced  a  profit  of  131.  Us.  per  cow.' 

Mr.  Rogers,  veterinary  surgeon  at  Exeter,  and  to  whom  we  are  in- 
debted for  some  valuable  hints,  says  that  the  quality  of  the  milk  is  good, 
and  the  quantity  remunerating  to  the  dairyman.  Such  is  not,  however,  the 
common  opinion.  They  are  kept  principally  for  their  other  good  qualities, 
in  order  to  preserve  the  breed  ;  and  because,  as  nurses,  they  are  indeed 
excellent,  and  the  calves  thrive  from  their  small  quantity  of  milk,  more 
rapidly  than  could  possibly  be  expected. 

This  aboriginal  breed  of  British  cattle  is  a  very  valuable  one,  and  seems 
to  have  arrived  at  the  highest  point  of  perfection  of  which  it  is  capable 
It  is  heavier  than  it  was  thirty  years  ago,  yet  fully  as  active.     Its  aptitude 

•  Of  the  extent  to  which  prejudice  will  mislead  the  hest  judges,  we  have  a  remarkable 
instance  in  one  of  the  most  zealous  patrons  of  the  short  boms  in  Worcestershire,  who 
tlius  speaks  of  the  Devonshire  cattle  in  the  Farmer's  Magaiine,  February,  1827.  'Of 
the  late  maturity  of  the  Devons  I  had  an  opportunity  to  form  a  tolerably  correct  opiniuu 
at  Bridgewater  fair,  where  the  best  passible  muster  of  Devonshire  oxen  is  made.  I  saw 
one,  and  only  one  good  ox  among  them.  With  the  exception  of  this  animal,  I  did  not 
see  one  level  carcase,  but  a  want  of  beef  in  the  roasting  parts,  low  and  poor  loins,  coarse 
shoulders,  bad  twist,  and  a  general  want  of  the  iudicatiuns  of  inside  proof.' 

He  saw  one  of  these  oxea  after  it  was  killed,  and  he  says,  '  I  never  beheld  a  worse 
animal  under  similar  circumstances.  The  meat  was  actually  running  about  the  stall, 
being  nothing  more  than  a  mixture  of  flabby  masses,  deficient  of  firmness  of  texture  auu 

+  A  writer  in  the  '  Farmer's  Magazine,'  Mr.  Herbert,  thus  describes  the  Devonshire  ox ; 
'  Nimble  aijd  free,  outwalking  many  horses,  healthy  and-  hardy,  and  fattening  even  in  a 
straw-yard,  good  tempered,  will  stand  many  a  dead  pull,  fat  in  half  the  time  of  a  Sussex, 
earUer  to  the  yoke  than  steers  of  any  other  breed,  lighter  than  the  Sussex ;  but  not  so  well 
horned,  thin  fleshed,  light  along  the  tops  of  his  rihs,  a  sparkling  cutter,  and  lean  well  in- 
termixed with  fat.' 

Of  the  cow,  he  says,  'Red,  starred,  or  white  faced,  better  horned  than  the  ox,  very 
quiet,  the  playmate  of  the  children,  a  sure  breeder,  a  good  milker,  a  quick  fattener,  fail 
grass-fed "beW in  three  months.  The  ox  from  110  to  130  stone,  and  has  beea  fed  ta  170; 
aud  the  cow,  to  70  or  80.' 


1,0  fatten  is  increased,  rather  than  diminished  ;  and  its  property  as  a  milker 
:ouM  not  be  improved,  without  probable  or  certain  detriment  to  its  grazing 

Mr.  Rogers  tells  us,  that  two  breeders  with  whom  he  is  acquainted, 
have  lately  attempted  to  cross  the  North  Devons  with  the  Herefords,  but 
that  the  result  was  not  satisfactory.  We  can  account  for  that.  Those 
points  in  which  the  Devons  were  deficient  thirty  years  ago,  are  now 
fully  supplied,  and  we  cordially  agree  with  him,  that  all  that  is  now  want- 
ing, is  a  judicious  selection  of  the  most  perfect  of  the  present  breed, 
in  order  to  preservsit  in  its  state  of  greatest  purity.  Many  of  the  breeders 
are  as  careless  as  they  ever  were ;  but  the  spirit  of  emulation  is  excited  in 
others.  Mr.  Davy,  of  North  Molton,  lately  sold  a  four-year  old  bull,  for 
which  the  purchaser  had  determined  to  give  one  hundred  guineas  had  it 
been  asked ;  and  Mr.  Henwuod  of  Crediton  has  now  twenty-one  cows, 
which,  within  a  month  from  the  period  of  losing  their  milk,  would  average 
at  least  ten  score  per  quarter.  The  Duke  of  Somerset  is  a  zealous 
patron  and  improver  of  the  breed,  and  has  some  beautiful  cattle ;  and, 
whatever  may  be  the  case  at  Woburn,  the  Duke  of  Bedford  here  gives 
almost  exclusive  preference  to  the  Devons.  When  offering  it  as' his 
opinion,  that  the  Devonshire  cattle  are  more  than  usually  free  from 
disease,  Mr.  Rogers  gives  ^  hint  that  may  be  useful  in  every  district  of  the 
kingdom.  He  attributes,  and  very  truly,  the  greater  part  of  the  maladies  of 
cattle,  and  all  those  of  the  respiratory  system,  to  injudicious  exposure  tt 
cold  and  wet ;  and  he  asks  whether  the  height  and  thickness  of  the  Devon 
shire  fences,  as  affording  a  comfortable  shelter  to  the  cattle,  may  not  have 
much  to  do  with  this  exemption  from  disease? 

Mr.  Roberts,  veterinary  surgeon  at  South  Molton,  informs  us  that 
the  North  Devons  have  been  crossed  with  the  Guernsey  breed,  and  that 
the  consequence  has  been,  that  they  have  been  rendered  more  valuable  for 
the  dairy  ;  but  they  have  been  so  much  injured  for  the  plough,  and  for  the 
grazier,  that  the.  breeders  are  jealous  to  preserve  the  old  stock  in  their 
native  purity.  Mr.  Roberts  speaks  of  a  gentleman  of  South  Molton,  who 
was  very  tenacious  in  preserving  unsullied  a  breed  of  first-rate  North 
Devons,  and  who  refused  fifty  guineas  for  a  cow  in  calf.  He  sold  her, 
afterwards,  for  321,,  when  she  was  thirteen  years  old.  When  this  gentle- 
man sold  off  his  stock,  twelve  cows  fetched  on  an  average  30/.  each. 

Mr.  Carpenter,  to  whom  we  have  already  alluded,  says,  that '  one  cross  of 
the  North  Devon  with  the  Hereford  is  of  advantage,  as  we  have  additional 
size  and  aptitude  to  fatten  without  losing  activity.'  We  apprehend  that  he 
refers  to  the  state  of  these  cattle  some  years  ago,  and  when  they  were 
lighter,  rather  than  to  the  present' improved  breed;  but  he  very  judiciously 
adds,  '  it  must  be  one  cross  alone, — ^you  must  not  exceed  the  first  dash, — or 
you  destroy  the  activity  in  labour,  which  is  the  principal  source  of  profit  to 
a  Devonshire  farmer.'  He  adds,  '  never  introduce  heifers  ;  but  get  a  bull 
of  the  very  best  blood,  and  after  the  first  cross,  return  to  the  best  Devon  bull 
again,  and  continue  until  the  white  face  is  nearly  extinct  before  yon  attempt 
to  cross  a  second  time.  The  Durhams  have  been  tried,  but  they  will  not 
work,  and  are  too  much  loaded  with  coarse  plain  meat  in  the  fore-quarter. 

The  treatment  of  the  calf  is  nearly  the  same  in  every  district  of  North 
Devon.  The  calves  that  are  dropped  at  Michaelmas,  and  some  time  afler 
wards,  are  preferred  to  those  that  come  in  February,  notwithstanding  the 
additional  trouble  and  expense  during  the  winter.  The  calf  is  permitted 
vO  suck  three  times  every  day  for  a  week.  It  is  then  used  to  the  finger, 
and  warm  new  milk  is  given  it  for  three  weeks  longer.    For  two  months 

22  CATTLE. 

afterwards  it  has  plenty  of  warm  scalded  milk,  mixed  with  a  litt.e  finely- 
powdered  liuseed-cake.  Its  mwning  and  evening  meals  are  then  gra- 
dually lessened ;  and,  when  it  is  four  months  old,  it  is  quite  weaned  *. 

Of  the  other  districts  of  Devonshire  little  need  be  said.  Towards  the 
south,  extending  from  Hartland  towards  Tiverton,  the  North  Devons  pre- 
vail, and  in  their  greatest  state  of  purity.  There  are  more  dairies  than  in 
the  north,  and  supplied  principally  by  the  North  Devon  cows,  and  a  few  of 
the  South  Devons.  Such  are  the  differences  of  opinion  even  in  neigh- 
bouring districts,  that  the  later  calves  are  here  uniformly  preferred,  whidh 
are  longer  suckled,  and  afterwards  fed  with  milk  and  linseed-meal. 

Advancing  more  to  the  south,  and  towards  the  borders  of  Cornwall,  a 
different  breed  presents  itself,  heavier  and  coarser.  We  have  arrived  now 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Devonport,  where  larger  cattle  are  required  for 
the  service  of  the  navy  ;  but  we  must  go  a  little  more  to  the  south,  and 
enter  on  the  tract  of  country  which  extends  from  Tavistock  to  Newton 
Abbott  before  we  have  the  South  Devons  in  full  perfection.  They  are 
a  mixture  of  the  North  Devons  with  the  native  breed  of  the  countrj' ;  and  so 
adapted  do  they  seem  to  be  to  the  soil,  that  all  attempts  to  improve  them,  so 
far  as  grazing  and  fattening  go,  Tiave  utterly  failed.  They  are  oi\en  14  cwt. 
to  the  four  quarters  ;  and  steers  of  2J  cwt.  are  got  with  fair  'hay  and  grass 
to  weigh  from  six  to  nine  cwt.  They  bear  considerable  resemblance  to 
the  M'erefords,  and  sometimes  the  colour  and  the  horn  and  the  white 
face  are  so  much  alike  m  both,  that  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  between 
them,  except  that  they  are  usually  smaller  than  the  Herefords. 

There  are  few  parts  of  the  country  in  which  there  is  such  bad  manage- 
ment, and  utter  neglect  of  the  preservation  of  the  breed  as  in  this  and  the 
most  eastern  part  of  Devon.  It  is  not  properly  a  grazing  district  except 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Tavistock ;  but  young  cattle  are  rather  brought 
forward  for  after-grass  or  turnips  elsewhere  than  finished  here  for  the 
market,  and  the  method  in  which  this  is  conducted  is  not  to  be  commended. 
If  a  calf  looks  likely  to  fatten,  it  is  suffered  to  run  with  the  cow  ten  or  twelve 
months,  and  then  slaughtered.  If  others  that  had  not  before  shown  a  dis- 
position to  thrive  now  start,  they  are  forwarded  as  quickly  as  may  be,  and 
disposed  of;  and  therefore  it  is,  that  all  those  that  are  retained,  and  by  which 
the  stock  is  to  be  kept  up,  are  the  very  refuse  of  the  farm.  Yet  the  breed  is 
not  materially  deteriorated.  It  has  found  a  congenial  climate,  and  it  will 
flourish  there  in  spite  of  neglect  and  injury.  The  grand  secret  of  breeding 
is  to  suit  the  breed  to  the  soil  and  climate.  It  is  because  this  has  not  been 
studied,  that  those  breeds  which  have  been  invaluable  in  certain  districts, 
have  proved  altogether  profitless,  and  unworthy  of  culture  in  others.  The 
South  Devons  are  equally  profitable  for  the  grazier,  the  breeder,  and  the 
butcher ;  but  their  flesh  is  not  so  delicate  as  that  of  the  North  Devons. 
They  do  for  the  consumption  of  the  navy  ;  but  they  will  not  suit  the  fasti- 
dious appetites  of  the  inhabitants  of  Bath,  and  the  metropolis. 

•  The  following  account  of  the  principal  cattle  fairs  in  Devonshire,  and  principally  foi 
the  sale  of  the  North  Devon  breed,  is  extracted  from  the  Annals  of  Agriculture : 

'  Those  who  would  seek  this  breed  at  fairs,  will  find  them  first  at  Ashbrittle,  a  bordering 
parish  between  the  two  counties  (Devonshire  and  Somerset),  held  for  oxen  on  the  25th  of 
February ;  but  this  does  not  terminate  as  to  prices.  Bishops  Lydiard,  five  miles  to  the 
west  of  Taunton,  on  the  25th  of  March,  for  oxen  also.  At  this  and  Wellington,  which 
are  greater  fairs  than  Ashbrittle,  prices  of  stock  are  fully  ascertained.  Barnstaple,  the 
Friday  before  the  21stof  April.  The  great  monthly  markets  of  Taunton,  Wiveliscomh 
TivBl^toa,  and  Moulton,  carry  on  the  business  till  the  fairs  of  Crediton,  the  11th  of  May. 
We^t  Bagborough,  the  12th,  and  Wiveliscomb  the  13th.  North  Moulton,  first  Wednes-' 
day  after  the  12th  of  May.  Bampton,  Whit-Tuesday ;  and  South  Moulton  Wednesday 
before  the  22d  of  June."  '  ' 


The  farmers  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Dartmoor  breud  very  few  cattle. 
Their  calves  are  uiually  procured  from  East  Devon,  or  even  from  Somer- 
set or  Dorset,  They  are  reared  at  the  foot  of  the  moors  for  the  use  of  the 
mmers.  All,  however,  are  not  consumed  ;  but  the  steers  are  sold  to  the 
farmers  of  the  South  Hams,  who  work  them  as  long  as  they  are  serviceable ; 
they  are  then  transferred  to  the  graziers  from  Somersetshire,  or  East  Devon, 
or  Dorset,  by  whom  itihey  are  probably  driven  back  to  their  native  country, 
and  prepared  for  the  market  of  Bi'ip'ol  or  London.  A  very  curious  pere- 
grination this,  which  great  numbers  ol'the  west-country  cattle  experience. 

As  we  now  travel  reastward,  we  be^in  to  lose  all  distinctness  of  breed. 
The  vale  of  Exeter  is  a  dairy  district,  and,  as  such,  contains  all  kinds  of 
cattle,  according  to  the  fancy  of  the  farmer.  There  are  a  few  pure  North 
Devons,  more  Sonth  Devons,  and  some  Alderneys;  but  the  majority 
are  mongrels  of  every  description :  many  of  them,  however,  are  excellent 
cuws,  and  such  as  are  found  scattered  over  Cornwall,  West  Devonshire, 
Somerset,  and  part  of  Dorset. 

As  we  advance  along  the  south  and  the  east,  to  TeignmOuth,  Exmouth, 
Sidmouth,  and  over  the  hill  to  the  fruitful  vale  of  Honiton,  we  do  not 
find  oseu  so  much  used  in  husbandry.  The  soil  is  either  a  cold  hard 
clay,  or  its  flints  would  speedily  destroy  the  feet  of  the  oxen.  The  same 
variety  of  pure  North  and  South  Devons,  and  natives  of  that  particular 
district,  -with  intermixtures  of  every  breed  prevail,  but  the  South  Devons 
are  firhicipally  seen.  Some  of  these  cows  seem  to  uuite  the  opposite 
qualities  of  fattening  and  milking.  A  south  Devon  has  been  knowji,  soon 
after  calving,  to  yield  more  than  two  pounds  of  butter  a  day ;  and  many 
of  the  old  southern  native  breed  are  equal  to  any  short  horns  in  the 
qnanitity  of  itheir  milk,  and  far  superior  to  them  in  its  quality. 

I  must  not  quit  this  part  of  the  country  without  describing  the  clouted 
cream,  which  is  peculiar  to  the  west  of  England.  The  milk  is  suffered 
to  stand  in  a  bell-metal  vessel  four  and  twenty  hours';  it  is  then  placed 
over  a  small  wood  fire,  so  that  the  heat  shall  be  very  gradually  com- 
municated to  it.  Afler  it  has  been  over  the  fire  about  an  hour  and  a  half^ 
and  is  approaching  to  the  state  of  simmering,  the  vessel  is  struck  every 
now  and  then  with  the  knuckle,  or  is  very  carefully  watched.  As  soon 
as  it  ceases  to  ring,  or  the  first  bubble  appti&.i'S,  a  slight  agitation  or 
simmering,  previous  to  boiling,  has  commenced;  and  the  secret  of  the 
preparation  is  that  this  simmering  shall  not  proceed  to  boiling.  The  milk 
is  immediately  removed  from  the  fire,  and  set  by  for  twenty-four  hours 
more.  At  the  end  of  this  time  all  the  cream  will  have  arisen,  and  be 
thick  enough  to  cut  with  a  knife.  It  is  then  carefully  skimmed  off.  This 
is  a  great  luxury  with  coffee  or  with  tarts,  and  the  Devonshire  straw- 
berries and  cream  need  no  praise.  \ 

The  dairy  people  in  these  districts  say,  that  it  is  the  most  profitable 
way  of  treating  the  milk ;  that  five  pounds  of  butter  can  be  obtained  from 
a  g^ven  quantity,  where  only  four  would  be  yielded  by  the  ordinary 
method ;  and  that  the  butter  is  more  saleable,  on  account  of  the  pleasant 
ta.ste  it  has  acquired,  and  which  even  its  occasional  slight  smoky  flavour 
.■scarcely  limpairs.  The  milk  is  proportionably  impoverished  ;  but  it  also 
has  gained  a  taste  which  renders  it  more  grateful  to  the  pigs ;  while  it 
never  scours  them,  but  removes  the  diarrhoea  produced  by  other  food. 
The  «kim-milk  cheese  must,  however,  be  abandoned,  or  if  a  little  is 
oiade,  it  is  ^(ceedingly  [loor  and  tasteless. 



For  much  valuable  information  with  repjard  to  the  breed  aiid  management, 
of  the  cattle  of  Cornwall,  we  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Karkeek,  veterinary 
surgeon  at  Truro.  This  gentleman  observes,  that  fish,  tin,  and  cop- 
per have  long  been  considered  the  staple  commodities  of  the  county 
of  Cornwall,  while  agriculture  has  been  viewed  as  a  secondary  object  of 
pursuit.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  pasturing  of  cattle,  and  the  culti- 
vation of  the  soil,  constituted  the  principal  employment  of  the  early  inha- 
bitants ;  but  their  attention  was  not  long  confined  to  the  vegetable  pro- 
ductions of  the  earth  after  they  had  discovered  that  greater  riches  might 
be  torn  from  its  bowels  than  reaped  on  its  surface ;  for  although,  when 
Caesar  invaded  the  island,  the  Damnonians  (the  inhabitants  of  Devon 
and  Cornwall)  possessed  great  numbers  of  cattle,  yet  in  a  few  centuries 
their  pastures  were  neglected,  and  all  their  skill  and  industry  were  exerted 
in  digging  up  '  the  ores  that  speak  the  county's  sterling  praise.' 

Carew,  the  historian  of  Cornwall,  says,  that '  the  people  devoting  them- 
selves entirely  to  tin,  their  neighbours  in  Devonshire  and  Somersetshire 
hired  their  pastures  at  a  rent,  and  stored  them  with  the  cattle  which  they 
brought  from  their  own  homes,  and  made  their  profits  of  the  Cornish  by 
cattle  fed  at  their  own  doors.  The  same  persons  also  supplied  them  at  their 
markets  with  many  hundred  quarters  of  corn  and  horse-loads  of  bread.' 

The  state  of  agriculture  has,  however,  within  the  Kist  century  or  two, 
materially  improved  in  this  extreme  western  portion  of  the  kingdom. 

The  native  breed  of  Cornwall  is  still  to  be  found  on  some  of  the  moors 
of  the  western  parts  of  the  county,  and  in  the  possession  of  many  of  the 
little  farmers.  They  are  small,  black,  with  horns  rather  short,  very  coarsely 
honed,  with  large  ofials,  and  rarely  weighing  more  than  three  or  four 
hundred  weight.  They  bear  an  evident  resemblance  to  the  native  breeds 
of  Wales  and  Scotland.  They  are  very  hardy,  and  calculated  to  endure  the 
changeable  temperature  of  this  peninsular  and  unevenly-surfaced  county. 

Although  uncultivated  and  unimproved,  this  is  far  from  being  a  bad 
breed  of  cattle.-  They  are  fair  milkers;  their  thick  hides  keep  out  the  cold 
and  wet,  and  protect  them  from  many  diseases  ;  they  range  on  the 
moors,  and  coarse  grounds,  and  commons  in  the  summer,  at  little  or 
no  expense,  and  in  the  winter  are  satisfied  with  heath  and  furze,  and  a 
small  quantity  of  straw ;  and  when  put  upon  better  keep,  they  get  fat  with 
a  rapidity  scarcely  credible, 

A  more  prevailing  and  a  better  breed  is  an  evident  cross  between  the 
North  Devon  and  the  indigenous  one  of  the  county.  It  is  somewhat 
larger,  with  well-formed  head,  and  more  upright  horns,  resembling,  in  the 
manner  in  which  they  are  turned,  those  of  the  wild  cattle  of  Chillingham 
Park.  Their  necks,  like  those  of  the  Devons,  are  thin,  rapidly  narrowino- 
from  the  breast  towards  the  head.  Their  chests  are  deep,  but  rathe'r 
narrow,  and  the  legs  a  little  longer  than  in  some  other  favourite  breeds. 
Their  hind  quarters  are  deep  and  full.  They  get  fat  in  their  points,  but 
fall  away  much  in  their  sides,  and  are  thki  in  their  belly-pieces  ;  they 
therefore  weigh  light,  and  their  hides  are  thin  and  unprofitable.  They 
mostly  bear  some  striking  character  of  the  North  Devon,— they  have  the 
same  reddish-brown  coat,  bright  dun  muzzle,  and  ring  about  the  eye. 

In  most  parts  of  Cornwall,  however,  the  extreme  Western  districts 
excepted,  the  true  North  Devons  are  found  equal  to  any  tlieir  native 
country  will  produce.     Many  spirited  farmers  go  to  Barnstaple,  or  South 


Molton,  and  liuy  up.  great  number^  of  olie  and  two-year-old  steers,  and 
Work  them  until  they  are  eight  or  ten  years  old ;  and,  as  often  as  they 
have  opportunity,  they  purchase  elsewhere  the  finest  bulls  and  heifers  that 
t.>an  be  selected,  from  among  the  best  Devonshire  breeders.  Some  had' 
objected  to  the  apparently  delicate  frame  and  constitution  of  the  North 
Devon,  but  he  has  always  been  found  sufficieritly  hardy  to  endure  even 
the  changeable  clime  of  Cornwall,  where  "  the  smiles  of  summer,  and 
the  rage  of  storms,"  often  succeed  each  other  in  a  few  hours.  The  Rev. 
H.  H.  Tremayne,  and  J.  P.  Peter,  Esq.,  were  diligent  breeders  of  the 
North  Devon  cattle  ;  and  this  beautiful  animal  did  not  degenerate  under 
their  management. 

The  cows  are  chiefly  of  the  Cornish  and  North  Devon  breeds  j  but  in 
the  principal  towns,  and  on  the  sea  coast,  a  few  Alderneys  are  kept.  A 
breed  between  the  Cornish  and  .the  Alderney  has  been  attempted,  and 
with  considerable  success,  and  uniting  the  rare  qualities  of  abundance  of 
milk  with  aptitude  to  fatten. 

The  Durham  breed  has  lately  been  introduced  by  Mr.  Peter,  and 
appears,  to  have  succeeded  well  in  a  few  grazing  districts.  A  cross 
between  the  Devon  cow  and  the  Durham  bull  is  an  evident  improve-; 
ment,  for  the  animal  thus  produced  is  profitable  both  for  the  dairy  and 
the  butcher.  It  must,  however,  be  confessed,  that  the  majority  of  the 
Cornish  farmers  are  partial  to  the  North  Devons,  and  they  apr)ear  to  be 
better  adapted  to  the  soil  of  this  county  than  any  other  breed. 

There  is  no  particular  management  of  the  ddiry  cow  in  Cornwall. 
About  November,  the  cows  are  turned  for  the  winter  into  crofts,  or  little 
fields  that  have  been  kept  up  for  them.  In  the  spring  and  summer,  they 
go  into  larger  or  uninclosed  ground.  The  fattening  beasts  are  generally 
fed  on  turnips  in  the  winter ;  and  many  of  them  are  turned  out  from  Fe- 
bruary to  June  for  the  home  consumption  of  Devonport  and  Plymouth 

The  Cornish  land  is  not  usually  very  rich,  but  the  farmer  is  industrious, 
and  manages  well.  In  many  places  the  sod  is  pared  and  burned  forwheat ; 
and  after  wheat  come  turnips,  which  produce  much  winter  food,  and  a 
great  deal  of  dung,  yet  not  in  sufficient  quantity  for  the  stock.  The 
farmers  are  generally  compelled  to  give  their  young  stock,  and  even  their 
older  beasts,  a  great  deal  of  straw.  Sea-sand  and  sea-weed  are  often 
called  into  requisition  for  manure,  and  are  found  to  be  exceedingly  useful. 

Arthur  Young  describes  the  method  of  rearing  their  calves  which  is 
still  pursued  in  a  great  part  of  the  county.  They  are  taken  from  the  cow 
between  the  fourth  and  sixth  day.  Raw  milk  is  then  given  to  them  for  ten 
days  or  a  fortnight,  and  afterwards  scalded  milk  and  gruel,  in  the  quantity 
of  three  or  four  quarts  in  the  morning  and  at  night.  A  mixture  of  gruej 
and  milk  is  found  to  be  better  than  scalded  milk  alone.  Some  give  their 
own  family-broth,  which  is  thought  to  be  as  good  as,  or  better  than,  the 
gruel.  The  calves  are  ^nd  of  it,  and  thrive  upon  it ;  and  the  flavour  of 
the  salted  provisions  increases  the  appetite,  and  promotes  digestion.  One 
quart  of  broth  or  gruel  is  added  to  two  quarts  of  milk.  A  little  fine  hay  is 
now  placed  before  them,  which  they  soon  begin  to  eat.  For  a  little  while 
after  they  are  turned  to  grass,  this  food  is  continued,  according  to  the 
quantity  of  milk  in  hand,  or  the  goodness  and  quality  of  the  pasture. 
When  they  are  ten  or  fourteen  weeks  old,  they  need  no  more  milk,  and, 
a  considerable  time  before  this,  the  quantity  is  reduced  to  less  than  half. 
[n  some  parts,  the  calves  are,  during  the  winter  and  after  the  two  first 
months,  reared  solely  on  hay  and  turnips,  the  turnips  being  sliced  for 
that  purpose.     Many  of  the  best  breeders  place .  two  calves  to  one  cow. 


In  tlie  sttmlner,  many  farmers  feed  the  calves  frotn  the  pail  iwith  scalded 
milk,  for  a  couple  <S  unoritfas,  and  then  torn  them  to  grass. 

Very  little  cheese  is  Mnrie  "in  Cornwall,  and  liiat  little  is  exceedingly  bad. 
The  butter,  howrever,  is  iBHceHent;  and  the  Cornish  housewives  are  as  expert 
in  making  the  delioieustilouted  cream  as  any  of  the  Devonshire  ones. 

The  system  of  letting  cows  ©lA  to  laboiirers  or  poor  peoiplb  is  'not 
VBCoimnon  in  Cornwall.  It  Is  a  great 'accommodation  to  the  >hirer,  and 
affci^rils  a  good  ^rentumerAtion  to  the  owner.  The  price  varies  with  the 
idtuation  amd  keep;  but  it  is  ustraly  ^om  8ix  to  eight  pounds,  the  caU 
being  the  property  fof  the  Owner  iof  tlie  beast. 

A  few  years  ago,  oxen  were  employed  in  husbandry  sas  .frequently  iu 
Cornwall 'as  in  any  part  of  DeVonshii-e.  Not  only  the  North  Devons,  but 
tile  intpflved  Cornish  breed,  were  used  for  the  purpose..  Although  small  and 
ligte,  th*f  were  active,  docile,  and  hardy.  The  Coniish  plough  isialmost  as 
proverbid  as  the  Devon ;;  and  it  was  formerly  worked  by  four  oxen,  with 
a  horse  or  two  before  them.  This  practice  is  now  considerably  on  the 
decline,  for  experience  has  proved,  that  >bolh  oxen  and  horses  are  best 
worked  by  themselves.  Oxen  -are  also  employed  in  bvits  and  wains, 
substitutes  ifor  a  kind  of  Kude  cart  dt  waggon,  and  well  adapted  for  the 
leasts  that  ai^  to  draw  them,  and  the  roads  they  aie  to  travel. 

'Tb«^  are  -brought  to  the  yoke  at  three  years  old,  and  worked  until  they 
are  seven  'Or  eight.  They  are  as  active  as  any  horses ;  and,  like  the 
Devons,  they  'are  stimulated  much  more  b/  the  pleasing  ohaunit  of  'the 
pllrjnighboy  tihan  'by  the  goad.  They  are  shod,  and  tbrakes  are  generally 
ased  for  this  purpose. 

Of  'late  years,  'however,  the  use  of  oxen  rin  husbandry  is'geittjng'out  of 
ptiaotice.  The  ^  propriety  and  economy  of  this  will  be  discussed  in  the 
proper  place  ;  but  oxen  are  not  now  generally  seen  even  in  the  plough, 
a'nd  'On  the  road  they  are  very  rarely  employed. 

Except  for  home  consumption,  few  cattle  are  fattened  in  Cornwall, 
and  the  store  beasts  are  usually  sent  to  Somersetshire,  'Or  other  igrazing 


"The  *  old  Dorset  ox'— but  whether  it  is  the  in(ligcnous  breed  of  the 
county,  is  a  matter  of  doubt,— has  long  .horns.  Some  assert,  and  with  an 
appearance  of  probability,  that  the  true  Dorset  was  a  middle  horn,  some^ 
what  resembling  the  South  Devon,  but  not  so  large,  and  that  the  long 
horn  is  an  importation  from  the  northern  or  midland  -counties,  or  a  mix- 
ture 'of  'the  'Hampshire,  the  Wiltshire,  and  perhaps  the  Oxfordshire. 
Howevigr,  'a  4cHrg-horned  Tweed,  a  rough  sort  of  cattle,  and  far  from 
h&n&otne,  has  been  so  many  years  established  in  vavious  pants  of  the 
county,  that  it  is  regarded  by  some  as  the  original  one.  These  have  been 
trossed  with  the  Devon  bull,  and  evidently  with  advantage :  they  are 
hardy,  good  milkers,  and -fetten  quickly.  They  are  principally  found  in 
the  ■eastiern  and  northern  divisions  of  the  county.  Towards  the  west,  a 
fnilcture  of  the  Devon  and  the  Dorset  prevails,  and  many  farmers  culti- 
vate the  pure  Devons.  The  cUtiiate,  however,  does  not  appear  to  suit 
iihe  true  Devons,  for  they  do  not  bere^jrow  to  any  great  size;  and  some 
have  said  that  ^ey  are  even  worse  milkers  than  in  their  native  district, 
and  subject  to  various  diseases,  and  particularly  to  diarrhoea.  Mr.  Nobbs, 
of  Gatstdfce,  is  deoidedly 'of  <this  opinion. 

The  mixture  of  the  Dev®n  and  the  Dorset  is  an  improvement  on  both. 
Some  -have  Obtained  a  Still  better  kind  O*^  cattle  by  crossing  again  with  the 
Dtfrtiiim  ;  and  others  are,  with  evKry  probability  of  success,  engraftmy 


(lie  Hereford  on  tlie  Dorset  stock.  Three  points  of  'superiority  are  said 
to  be  ^ined  over  the  I)evon  cross  : — larger  size,  more  hardiness,  and  a 
disposition  to  yield  >a  greater  quantity 'of better  tAilk. 

The  use  of  oxen  for  husbandry- work,  had  been  for  many  years  decliningr 
in  this  country,  but  it  has 'of  tate,  and  'to  a  somewhat  extraordinary  de'gree, 
revived  in  some  districts.  Thte  oxen  are  oftener  worlced  in  collars  than 
in  yokes.  The  cattle  used  for  thb  'plough  or  the  team  are  {jrinclpally 
the  pure  North  Devons,  wWch  are  purchased  at  two  years'  old  in 
the  North  Devon  markets,  worked  two  or  three  years,  and  then  fatted,— 
some  for  the  London  but  mostly  for  the  home  markets ;  sometiines,  how- 
ever, a  mixture  of  the  Devon  and  Dorset  is  used  for  draught.  In 
'-he  northern  part  Ot"  the  county  we  find  crosses  of  almost  every  kind, 
rncluding^  not  only  those  from  the  neighbouring  counties  of  Hants  and 
Wilts,  but  from  Oxford,  Gloucester,  Shropshire,  and  Leicestershire. 

In  the  Dorset  dairies,  there  can  scarcely  be  said  to  be  a  decidedly  pre- 
vailing breed.  If  the  heifer  is  likely  to  make  a  good  milker,  that  is  all 
Jiat  is  regarded,  and  little  or  no  attention  is  paid  to  the  shape,  or  colour, 
)r  size.  About  a  fifth  part  of  Dorsetshire  is  occupied  by  the  vale  of 
Blackmoor,  a  very  rich  pastoral  country,  and  well  adapted  for  the  pur- 
poses of  the  dairy.  A  considerable  'quantity  of  butter  and  cheese  is 
made  here.  On  those  farms  where  most  butter  is  made,  the  Double 
Dorset  cheese  is  manufactured  from  the  skimmed  milk  alone,  and  which, 
when  kept  until  it  becomes  "  blue-vinney'd,"  is  very  much  approved ; 
it  is,  however,  more  celebrated  in  than  out  of  the  country.  A  great 
quantity  of  butter,  both  in  its  fresh  and  salted  state,  is  sent  to  Loudon. 

A  great  many  calves  are  sent  from  the  Vale  of  Blackmoor  in  the  spring 
of  the  year  to  Poole,  and  there  shipped  for  Portsmouth ;  and  the  supply 
being  greater  than  the  iemand,  the  butchers  find  it  answer  their  pur 
pose  to  forward  much  of  it  to  the  London  market. 

Much  of  this  concise  account  of  Dorsetshire  we  owe  to  Mr.  W  C. 
Sflooner,  veterinarv  surgeon  at  Blandford. 


The  North  Devon  cattle  prevail  along  that  part  of  the  country  which 
borders  on  Devon  until  we  arrive  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Wincaunton 
and  Ilchester,  where  the  pure  breed  is  almost  lost  sight  of.  In  the  north 
»f  Somerset  few  of  the  Devons  are  to  be  seen ;  but  along  the  coast, 
and  even  extending  as  far  as  Bristol  and  Bath,  the  purest  breed  of 
the  Devons  are  preferred.  They  are  valued  for  their  aptitude  to 
fetten,  then:  quickness  and  honesty  at  work;  and  they  are  said  to  be 
better  milkers  than  in  their  native  country.  They  are  of  a  larger  size,  for 
the  soil  is  better,  and  the  pasturage  more  luxuriant.  It  is  on  this  ac- 
count that  the  oxen  bred  in  some  parts,  and  particularly  in  the  Vale  of 
Taunton,  although  essentially  Devons,  are  preferred  to  those  from 
the  greater  part  of  Devonshire,  and  even  from  the  neighbourhood  of 
Barnstaple  and  South  Molton.  They  are  better  for  the  grazier  and  for 
the  dairy ;  and,  if  they  are  not  quite  so  active  as  their  progenitors,  they 
have  not  lost  their  docility  and  freeness  at  work,  and  they  have  gained 
materially  in  strength.  _ 

Mr.  Carpenter,  to  whom  we  nave  already  referred,  and  vi^h'o  is  now  resident 
in  the  Vale  of  Taunton,  informs  us  that  the  farmers  in  the  south  and 
sojith-west  of  Somerset  are  endeavouring  to  breed  that  sort  of  cattle 
that  will  answer  for  the  pail,  and  the  plough,  and  grazing,— a  very 
difficult  point,  as  he  ackiiowledges,  to  hit ';  for  those  tbat  are  of  the 
highest  proof  (exhibiting  tbbse  points  or  conformations  of  particular  parts 

28  CATTLE. 

which  usually  indicate  a  propensity  to  fatten)  are  generally  the  worst 
milkers,  both  as  to  quantity  and  quality.  This  being,  however,  a  dairy 
county  as  well  as  a  grazing  one,  or  more  so,  the  principal  point  with 
them  is  a  good  shew  for  milk.  They  are,  for  the  most  part,  of  the 
Devon  red,  and,  as  he  thinks,  the  best  suited  for  all  purposes  of  any  in  the 
West  of  England.  All  that  is  necessary  to  keep  them  up  in  size  and 
proof  and  of  a  good  growth,  is  to  change  the  bull  every  two  years.  This 
is  a  very  important,  although  an  overlooked  and  unappreciated  principle  of 
breeding,  even  where  the  stock  is  most  select.  No  bull  should  be  longer 
used  by  the  same  grazier,  or  some  degree  of  deterioration  will  ensue 

It  must,  nevertheless,  be  confessed,  that  in  the  greater  part  of  the  county, 
and  where  the  Devons  are  liked  best  for  husbandry  and  for  grazing,  experi- 
ence has  taught  many  farmers  to  select  another  breed  for  the  dairy.  Some 
prefer  the  pure  short  horns,  others  the  North  Wilts,  and  a  few  a  mixture 
between  the  two.  The  short  horns,  however,  are  very  different  from  those 
that  are  seen  anywhere  else.  They  resemble  neither  the  old  nor  the  im- 
proved Durham  or  East  York,  but  were  originally  made  up  of  a  mixture  of 
the  Devon  with  the  old  Somersetshire  cow. 

The  Somersetshire  cattle  are  thus  described  by  Mr.  Herbert,  as  they 
existed  sixty  or  seventy  years  ago ;  but  we  can  scarcely  believe  the  account 
to  be  faithful.  '  Somersetshire  formerly  had  a  breed  of  cattle  which, 
from  the  crescent-form  of  its  turned-up  horn,  seemed  to  be  between -the 
Sussex  and  the  original  short-horn  (he  must  mean  the  middle  horn, 
for  the  short  horn  is  of  foreign  extraction)  ;  useful  and  heavy ;  high 
on  its  legs,  particularly  behind.  It  vfas  used  for  the  supply  of  the  ship- 
ping, and  sent  to  Salisbury  market,  and  thence  forwarded  to  Portsmoutli. 
The  cows  were  good  milkers,  and  fattened  kindly.' 

If  we  may  judge  of  them  from  what  the  West  Somersets  are  now,  they  were 
a  valuable  breed.  They  betray  their  Devonshire  origin  ;  but  in  the  opinion 
of  the  Somersetshire  farmers,  they  are  far  preferable  to  the  native  breed, 
and  they  have  increased  in  size  without  losing  any  of  their  useful  proper- 
ties. There  are  few  better  judges  than  these  Somersetshire  men  ;  for  being 
the  party  concerned  between  the  breeder  on  the  one  side,  and  the  grazier 
on  the  other,  and  having  opportunity  daily  to  observe  the  failures  or  the 
success  of  each,  they  acquire  a  kind  of  intuitive  knowledge  of  the  points 
of  cattle. 

A  few  of  the  present  West  Somerset  cattle  are  characterised  by  a 
peculiarity  of  colour.  They  are  called  sheeted  oxen.  The  head,  the  neck, 
the  shoulders,  and  the  hind  parts  appear  as  if  they  were  uncovered,  while 
there  is  a  sheet  fairly  and  perfectly  thrown  over  the  barrel.  They  do  not, 
however,  exhibit  the  true  Devon  colour  in  these  uncovered  parts,  for  the 
hair  is  yellow,  instead  of  a  deep  blood  red,  or  almost  brown  colour. 

In  North  Somerset  few  of  the  Devons  are  to  be  seen,  but  they  are  the 
same  party-coloured  kind  of  which  I  have  just  spoken. 

Mr.  Billingsley,  in  his  Survey  of  Somerset,  says,  that  in  this  district, 
extending  from  Bath  and  Frome  on  the  east,  to  Uphill  and  Kingsroad  on 
the  west,  the  cows  are  mostly  short  horns,  with  some  fine  long  horns  from 
North  Wilts.  A  heifer  of  three  yearb.  old  that  discovers  any  disposition  to 
fatten,  is  turned  out  of  the  dairy,  because  experience  has  convinced  the 
owner  that  she  will  seldom  or  never  prove  a  good  milker ;  and  the  breeders 
in  that  part  are  often  obliged  to  have  recourse  to  Welsh  nurses,  because 
there  is  a  deficiency  of  milk  in  the  parent  animal. 

In  the  middle  of  Somersetshire,  from  the  Mendip  hills  on  the  north,  to 
Bridgewater  on  the  West,  and  Chard  on  the  south  (principally  a  grazin" 
country),  he  says  that  the  business  is  divided  into  a  summer  and  winter 


feed.  For  summer  fattening^,  the  Devons  are  principally  bouglit  in 
February,  either  in  the  northern  part  of  Devon,  or  the  lower  part  o? 
Somerset.  They  are  purchased  in  tolerable  condition,  andconsiime,  between 
February  and  their  turning  out,  ten  or  twelve  hundred  weight  of  inferior 
hay,  the  skimming  of  the  summer  leas.  When  at  grass,  they  are  allowed 
from  an  acre  to  an  acre  and  a  half  per  ox,  and  perhaps  one  sheep  to  each 
ox,  and  not  more  than  one  horse  to  twenty  acres.  About  Michaelmas  they 
are  fat,  and  pay  from  three  shillings  and  sixpence  to  four  shillings  per 
week  for  their  keep.  The  farmers  in  that  district  think  that  frequent 
bleedings  in  small  quantities  accelerate  the  process  of  fattening. 

The  home-breds  are  usually  preferred  for  fattening.  The  Rev.  Mr.  King, 
of  Budgworth  Rectory,  informs  us  that  an  ox  is  purchased,  or,  if  bred, 
turned  off  to  graze  in  February.  He  has  one  and  a  half  acre  or  more 
of  the  best  pasture  for  summer  feed  ;  then  comes  the  same  range  of  after- 
math from  the  beginning  of  September  to  the  end  of  November  ;  hay  being 
added  by  degrees,  until  it  is  required  entirely.  These  oxen  are  sold  for 
the  Salisbury  or  London  markets,  either  before  Christmas,  or  from  that 
to  Lady-day.  A  dairy  farmer  seldom  grazes,  except  an  old  cow  for  the 
benefit  of  his  neighbours  ;  and  these  seldom  get  more  than  four  or  six 
months  grazing  after  they  are  dried  up.  Beef  of  this  description  is  as  plen- 
tiful in  the  autumn  as  veal  in  the  sumnaer,  and  about  the  same  price  (1832), 
from  fourpence  to  fivepence  per  pound. 

Some  farmers  graze  heifers  in  preference  to  oxen,  buying  in  March  and 
April,  and  selling  in  October  or  November;  and  which  are  stocked  nl  the 
rate  of  a  heifer  to  each  acre,  with  one  or  two  sheep.  The  sheep  thus 
fatted  are  usually  the  two  year  old  Dorsets  or  Somersets. 

Some  give  their  prime  oxen  a  second  summer  grass  ;  and  the  second 
year  pays  better  than  the  first,  for  an  animal  nearly  fat  will  consume  much 
less  food  than  a  lean  one. 

The  time  of  calving  is  from  the  beginning  of  February  to  Lady-day.  The 
farmers  take  great  care  to  keep  their  cows  in  good  condition  for  three  weeks 
or  a  month  before  they  calve,  thinking  that  the  niilk  will  flow  in  proportion 
to  the  goodness  of  the  keep  at  that  time ;  and  the  consequence  of  this 
is  frequent  attacks  of  puerperal  fever  and  garget.  The  number  of  calves 
reared  in  this  district  is  very  great.  Four  hundred  fat  calves  have  been 
sold  in  Shepton-Mallet  market  in  one  day,  but  now  the  village  butchers 
buy  and  slaughter  them  at  home,  and  take  the  carcasses  to  Bristol  for  the 
Tuesday  and  Saturday  markets. 

Tlie  calves  that  are  reared  are  principally  fed  on  cheese-whey,  and  are 
turned  out  to  grass  in  May  to  shift  for  themselves.  In  the  south-east 
part  of  this  district,  where  the  dairy-lands  are  chiefly  applied  to  the  making 
of  butter  and  skim-milk  cheese,  the  calves  are  taken  -from  their  mothers  at 
about  three  days  old.  Those  that  are  to  be  fatted  are  suckled  by  hand  out  of 
the  pail  as  soon  as  it  is  brought  home  from  the  field  morning  and  evening. 
These  calves  are  technically  said  to  be  on  the,  stage.  It  will  take  the  milk 
of  three  cows  to  fatten  two  calves  up  to  from  thirty-five  to  fifty  pounds  per 
quarter.  The  old  practice  of  giving  the  calves  mead  or  some  other  home- 
made wine  is  now  discontinued.  Soon  after  Lady-day,  when  the  great 
business  of  cheese-making  begins  in  good  earnest,  the  milk  is  wanted  for 
the  cheese-vat  instead  of  the  suckling-pail.  To  fatten  the  calf,  the  farmer's 
wife  then  places  the  whey  over  the  fire  in  a  large  copper,  and  the  warmth 
forces  a  further  portion  of  poorer  curd  (skim  curds,)  and  these,  with  a 
little  milk,  and  with  the  occasional  addition  of  lintseed-meal,  make  a 
good  calf.  The  calves  to  be  reared  are  thought  tu  be  well  off,  if,  like  the 
Digs,  they  get  whey. 

so  CATTLE. 

The  celebrated  Bridg'ewater  cheese  is  made  on  (he  marshes  between  that: 
town  and  Cross.  Huntspill,  South  Breut,  and  East  Brent,  are  the  three 
prime  cheese-parishes.  The  mail-road  from  Bridge  water  to  Cross  passes 
through  each  of  them.  The  land  is  rich  and  cool,  and  the  pasturage  not 
only  oldi  but  principally  consisting  of  blatle  grasses,  with  few  flowers  or 
odoriferous  herbs  to  raise  or  produce  that  essential  oil  which  is  so  detri- 
mental in  the  manufacture  of  cheese.  Mr.  King  further  informs  us,, 
that  the  present  dairy  cow  of  this  district  is  either  entirely  red,  which 
shows  her  Devon  origin,  or  red  with  a  white  face  which  marks  the  Here- 
ford cross,  or  spotted  red  and  white,  and  that  the  latter  are  generally 
preferred  as  the  best  milkers.  They  spring  from  Durham  blood  on  one 
side,  and  the  farmers  of  this  district  are  much  indebted  tu  the  late  Mr. 
Stone,  of  South  Brent,  who,  at  a  considerable  expense,  introduced  several 
Lulls  of  the  Durham  breed. 

The  usual  proportion  in  a  dairy  of  forty  cows  is  about  twenty- 
five  red  ones,  ten  spotted,  and  five  with  a  white  face ;  and  yet,  as  the 
Hereford  bull  has  been  rarely  if  at  all  tried  in  this  district,  the  white 
face  is  not  owned  by  the  farmer  as  of  Herefordshire  origin.  A  Durham 
ox,  of  Mr.  King's  breed  from  Warwickshire,  was  lately  slaughtered  here, 
weighing  21  score  and  13  lbs.  per  quarter.  It  was  fed  by  Mr.  Burman,  of 

Very  little  of  the  prime  Cheddar  cheese  is  made  at  that  village.  It  is 
chiefly  manufactured  in  the  parishes  just  mentioned,  and  in  the  marshes 
round  Glastonbury.  A  somewhat  inferior  Cheddar  is  often  sold  as  double 
Gloucester.  As  in  the  Vale  of  Berkeley,  the  cows  are  pastured  and  milked 
near  to  the  farm-house,  and  the  milk  set  with  the  rennet  as  soon  as  possible, 
and  lefl:  undisturbed  for  two  hours.  The  curd  is  then  broken ;  a  por- 
tion of  the  whey  first  warmed  and  put  to  it,  and  then  the  whole  of  the 
whey  made  scalding  hot,  and  poured  upon  it,  and  left  for  half  an  hour.  The 
curd  is  afterwards  put  into  the  vat,  and  the  other  processes  conducted  much 
in  the  usual  way.  This  scalding  is  supposed  to  favour  an  intimate  union 
of  the  particles  of  the  whey,  and  likewise  to  dispose  the  oleaginous  matter 
to  exude,  and  thus  give  the  cheese  that  soft,  rich,  fatty  appearance  and 
flavour  by  which  it  is  distinguished. 

Mr.  King  recommends  the  addition  of  one  Guernsey  to  every  dozen 
country-cows.  He  thinks  that  this  quantity  of  rich  milk  being  added  might 
make  the  whole  throw  a  greater  weight  of  curd.  It  certainly  is  so  when  - 
butter  is  the  object,  and  that  small  quantity  would  not  injure  the  keeping. 
Guernsey  butter  unmixed  is  too  rich  and  will  not  keep,  and  so  it  might 
be  with  cheese. 

The  Somersetshire  dairymen  usually  keep  their  cows  until  they  are  ten 
or  twelve  years  old,  and  then  turn  them  off  for  failing,  not  in  the  quantity 
but  the  quality  of  the  milk.  At  this  time  they  are  reduced  to  half  the 
value  of  a  long-homed  cow  of  the  same  age  ;.  but  if  it  should  appear,  as 
it  generally  will,  that  the  short-horn  will  make  a  half-hundred  of  cheese 
more  every  season  than  the  long-horned  Wilts,  and  at  the  same  time  cost, 
less  for  the  keep,  the  balance  will  be  found  to  be  in  favour  of  the  short  or 
middle-horned  Somerset.  In  the  upper  part  of  the  country,  and  where 
heifers  are  preferred,  the^aziers  go  into  North  Wilts  and  Hampshire  to 
buy  them.  Some  of  the  best  of  them  are  nearly  equal  to  the  DeTons,,but 
in  general  they  are  not  so  high  in  proof.  Occasionally  they  are  brouglU 
from  Gloucestershire,  and  even  from  Yorkshire,  and  are  nqw  and  then 
sold  in  October  at  thirty-eight  or  forty  score  pounds  each. 

Many  Irish  cattle  are  fattened  in  Somersetshine,  ou  account  of  the  cheap 
■ate  at  which  they  are  purchased  when  lean. 



The  Hereiirdshire  white-faced  breed,  with  the  exception  of  a  rery-few 
AIdeFiii£y>  and  Durham  cows,  hav«  almost  exclusive  possession  of  thi» 
county.  The  Hereford  oxen  are  considerabliy  larger  than  the  North  Devons.. 
They  are  usually  of  a  darker  red ;  some  of  them  are  brown,  and  even 
yellow,  and  a  few  are  brindled ;  but  they  are  princrpally  distinguished  by 
their  white  faces,  throats,  and  bellies.  In  a  few  the  white  extend's  to  the 
shoulders.  The  old  Herefords  were  brown  or  red-brown-,  with  not  a  spot 
of  white  about  them.  It  is  only  within  the  last  fifly  or  si^ty  years  that  it  has 
been  the  fashion  to  breed  for  white  faces.  Whatever  may  be  thought  of  the 
change  of  colour;  the  present  breed  is  certainly  far  superior  to  the  old 
one>.  The  hide  is  considerably  thicker  than  that  of  the  Devon,  and 
•he  beasts  are  more  hardy.  Compared  with  the  Devons,  they  are-  shorter 
in  the  leg,,  and  also  in  the  carcase ;  higher,  and  broadfer,  and  heavier 
m  the  chine ;  rounder  and  wider  across  the  hips,  and  better  covered  with 
fat ;  the.  thigh  fuller  and  more  muscular,  and  the-  shoulders  larger  and 
coarser.  The:  cut  in>  the  following  page,  is  the  portrait  of  an-  ox  belonging 
to  the  Duke  of  fiedfbtid> 

Mc  Marshall  gives  the  following  account  of  them':  tt  is  tolerably,  correct^ 
but  does,  not  suiflficieDbly  distinguish  them  from  their  kindred  breed.  *  The 
countenance  pleasant,  cheerful',  open  ;  the  forehead  broad  ;  eye  full  and 
lively  ;  horns  bright^  taper,  and  spreading  ;  head  small ;  chap  lean ;  neck 
long  and  tapefing  ;  chest  deep  ;  bosom  broad,  and  projecting-  forward  ; 
shoulder-bone  thin,  flat,  no  way  protuberant  in  bone  (?),  but  full  and 
mellow  in  flesh ;  chest  full ;  loin  broad ;  hips  standing  wide,  and  level 
with  the  chine  ;  quarters  long,  and  wide  at  the  neck  ;  rump  even  with  the 
level  of  the  back,  and  not  drooping,  nor  standing  high  and  sharp  above  the 
quarters ;  tail  slender  and  neatly  haired ;  barret  round  and  roomy ;  the 
carcase  throughout  deep  and  well  spread ;  ribs  broad,  standing  flat  and 
close  on  the  outer  surface,  forming  a  smooth,  even  barrel,  the  hindmost 
large  and  full  of  length  ;  round  bone  small,  snug,  and  not  prominent ; 
thigh  clean,  and  regularly  tapering  ;  legs  upright  and  short ;  bone  below 
the  knee  and  hock  small ;  feet  of  middle  size ;  flank  large  ;  flesh  every- 
where mellow,  soft,  and  yielding  pleasantly  to  the  touch,  especially  on  the 
chine,  the  shoulder,  and  the  ribs ;  hide  meilOw,  supple,  of  a  middle  thick- 
ness, and  loose  on  the  neck  and  huckle  ;  coat  neatly  haired,  bright  and 
silky ;  colour,  a  middle  red,  with  a  bald  face  characteristic  of  the  true 
Herefordshire  breed.' 

They  fatten  to  a  much  greater  weight  than  the  Devons,  and  run  from 
fifly  ta  seventy  score.  A  tolerable  cow  will  average  from  thirty-five  to 
fifty  score.  A  cow  belonging  to  the  Duke  of  Bedford  weighed  more  than 
seventy  score ;  and.  an  ox  belonging  to  Mr.  Westcar  exceeded  one  hundred 
and  ten  score.  They  are  not  now  much  used  for  husbandry,  although 
their  form  adapts  them  for  the  heavier  work ;  and  they  have  all  the 
honesty  and  docility  of  the  Devon  ox,  and  greater  strength,  if  not  his  acti- 
vi^.  The  Herefordshire  ox  fattens  speedily  at  a  very  early  age,,  and  it  is 
therefore  more  advantageous  to  the  farmer,  and-  perhaps  to  the  country, 
that  he  should  go  to  market  at  three  years  old,  than  be  kept  longer  to  be 
employed  as  a  beast  of  draught.  We  are  indebted  to  Mr.  A.  Knight,,  ol 
Downton  Castle,  ibr  some  valuable  observations  on  this  and  other  subjects 
connected  with  the  Herefordshhre  cattle,  and  breeding  in  general,  of  which 
we  shall  avail  ourselves  in  the  proper  place. 

They  arc  far  worse  milkers  than  the  Devons.  This  is  so  generally 
Kknowkdged,  that  while  there  are  many  dairies,  of  Devon  cows  in  varaous 



parts  of  the  country,  (none  ot  which,  however,  are  very  profitable  to  their 
owners,)  a  dairy  of  Herefords  is  rarely  to  be  found. 

To  compensate  for  this,  they  are  even  more  kindly  feeders  than  the 
Devons,  and  will  live  and  grow  fat  where  a  Devon  would  scarcely  live. 
Their  beef  may  be  objected  toby  some  as  being  occasionally  a  little  too 
large  in  the  bone,  and  the  fore-quarters  being  coarse  and  heavy  ;  but  the 
meat  of  the  best  pieces  is  often  very  fine-grained  and  beautifully  marbled. 
There.are  few  cattle  more  prized  in  the  market  than  the  genuine  Herefords. 

The  Devons  and  the  Herefords  are  both  excellent  breeds,  and  the  pre- 
judices of  the  Devonshire  and  Herefordshire  farmers  for  their  peculiar 
breed  being  set  aside,  a  cross  of  the  one  will  often  materially  improve  the 
other.  The  Devon  will  acquire  bulk  and  hardihood,  and  the  Hereford  a 
finer  form  and.  activity.  The  Hereford  bull,  and  the  West  Island  or 
Kyloe  cows,  have  been  tried,  but  they  did  not  feed  so  rapidly,  nor  weigh 
so  well  as  the  Hereford,  and  they  had  the  defect  of  being  extremely  pug- 

Mr.  CuUey,  although  an  excellent  judge  of  cattle,  formed  a  very  erro- 
neous opinion  .of  the  Herefords  when  he  pronounced  them  to  be  nothing 
but  a  mixture  of  the  Welsh  with  a  bastard  race  of  long-horns.  They  are 
evidently  an  aboriginal  breed,  and  descended  from  the  same  stock  as  the 
Devons.  If  it  were  not  for  the  white  face,  and  somewhat  larger  head 
and  thicker  neck,  it  would  not  at  all  times  be  easy  to  distinguish  between' 
a  heavy  Devon  and  a  light  Hereford.  Their  white  faces  may  probably  be 
traced  to  a  cross  with  their  not  distant  relations,  the  Montgomeries. 

The  Hereford  cow  is  apparently  a  very  inferior  animal.     Not  only  is  she 
no  milker,  but  even  her  form  has  been  sacrificed  by  the  breeder.     Here-- 
f'ordshire  is  more  a  rearing  than  a  feeding  county,  and  therefore  the  farmer' 
looks  mostly  to  the  shape  and  value  of  his  young  stock ;  and  in  the  choice" 
nf  his  cow,,  he  does  not  value  her  or  select  hei;,  or  breed  from  her  accordino- 
to  her  milking  quaUties,  or  the  price  which  the  grazier  would  give  for  he?^ 
but  in  propbrtion  as  she  possesses  that  general  form  which  experience' 
has  ta;ught  him  will  render  her  likely  to  produce  a  good  ox.     Hence  th©i 
Hereford  cow  is  comparatively  small  and  delicate,  and  some  would  call 
her  ill-made.     She  is  very  light-fleshed  when  in  common  condition    arid. 
beyond  that,  while  she  is  breeding,  she  is  not  suffered  to  proceed  ;  but 



when  she  is  actually  put  up  for  fattening',  she  spreads  out,  and  accumu- 
lates fat  at  a  most  extraordinary  rate.  Our  cut  gives  us  the  portrait  of  a 
beautiful  cow,  once  belonging  to  the  Earl  of  Egremont. 

The  breeder  has  been  taught  by  experience,  that  when  the  cow,  although 
she  should  be  somewhat  roomy,  is  too  large  and  masculine,  the  ox  will  be 
brawny  and  coarse,  and  perhaps  a  little  sluggish  at  work,  and  even  some- 
what unkind  and  slow  in  the  process  of  fattening,  and  these  are  objections 
which,  most  of  all,  he  would  be  unwilling  to  have  justly  made.  The 
Herefordshire  cow  is  therefore  somewhat  undersized;  ant)  it  not  unfre- 
que-itly  happens  that  she  produces  a  bull-calf  that  grows  to  three  times 
her  own  weight. 

[Tht  Uerefardshife  C5»«-.] 

Kindly  as  the  Hereford  ox  fattens,  very  few  are  grazed  in.  their  native 
country :  even  the  beasts  which  the  home  consumption  requires  are  prin- 
cipally heifers  and  old  cows.  The  oxen  are  sold  at  five  and  six  years  old 
in  tolerable  condition,  at  the  Michaelmas  fair  in  Hereford,  to  the  graziers 
of  Buckinghamshire  and  the  neighbouring  counties,  by  whom  they  are 
principally  preferred  for  the  London  market. 

The  fertility  of  the  soil  in  Herefordshire  has  been  very  much  overrated. 
The  traveller,  and  the  superficial  observer,  have  been  misled  by  the 
lusuriant  woods  and  rich  alluvial  soil  upon  the  banks  of  its  rivers.  The 
pasture-grounds  are  generally  poor,  and  the  herbage  is  not.  .nutritious. 
Mid  therefore  the  farmer  naturally  confines  his  chief  attention  to  his  rear- 
ing-stock.  The  Dairy  has  been  comparatively  neglected  ;  for  experience 
has  proved  that  the  breeding  qualities  of  a  cow  are  materially  lessened, 
and  even  her  form  is  deteriorated,  by  her  being  inclined  to  give  a  large 
quantity  of  milk. 

A  very  interesting^trial  was  made  in  the  winter  of  1828-29,  between  the 
Herefords  and  the  improved  short-horned  breeds  of  cattle,  in  the  ordinary 
mode  of  feeding,  without  forcing  by  artificial  food  of  any  description,  and 
the  result  seemed  to  be  much  to  the  advantage  of  the  Herefords,  consi* 
dering  their  original  weight,  and  the  quantity  of  food  consumed.     It  must, 

34  CATTLE. 

however,  be  toiWessed  that  it  is  not  sufficient  to  enabie  us  to  decide  upon 
the  relative  merits  of  the  two  rival  breeds  of  large  cattle,  nor  are  we  yet 
quite  prepared  for  the  inquiry ;  but  we  insert  it  as  an  experiment  that  was 
fairly  conducted,  to  which  the  advocates  of  the  Herefordshire  cattle  often 
refer,  and  which  they  will  naturally  expect  to  be  placed  upon  record. 

Three  Herefords  and  three  short-horns  were  selected :  they  were  put 
together  in  a  straw-yard  on  the  20th  of  December,  1827,  and  were  fed  in 
the  open  yard,  at  the  rate  of  one  bushel  of  turnips  per  beast  i)er  day, 
with  straw  only,  until  May  2nd,  1828,  when  their  weights  were  taken, 
and  they  were  sent  to  grass. 

Cwu.    ttn.    Ibfc  CwU.    qra.    lb.. 

No.   1.  Flereford         8     3     0  No.  1.  Short-horn         9     2     0 

2.  „  7'    3     0  2.  „  8     2     0 

3.  „  7     0     0  3  ..  9     0     0 
On  the  3d  of  November  they  were  taken  from  grass,  and  put  into  the  stall 
when  their  weight  was  as  follows  : — 

Cwt    qn.     lb.  Cvrt.    qr..    lb.. 

No.    1.  Hereford       113     0  No.  1.  Shorl^horn       12     3   14 

2.  „  10     2     0  2.         „  12     2     0 

3.  „  10     3     0  3.         „  12     3     0 

From  that  time  to  the  25th  of  March,  1829,  they  consumed  the  following 
quantities  of  Swedish  turnips  and  hay  : — 

Tnnipa  Ib>,  lb.. 

The  Herefords  46,655 

The  short-horns  59,430 

They  then  weighed — 

No.   1.  Hereford       13     0  14  No.  1.  Short-horn 

2.  „  12     0     0  2. 

3.  „  12     0     0  3. 
being  an  increase  of  weight  in  favour  of  the  Herefords  of 
and  in  favour  of  the  Short-horns 

and  making  a  difference  in  favour  of  the  Short-horns  of 

but  then  the  Short-horns  had  consumed  12,7751bs.  more  of  turnips,  and 
17141bs.  more  of  hay. 

When  they  were  all  sold  together  at  Smithfield  on  the  30th  of  March, 
the  heavier  short-horns  fetched  971.,  and  the  lighter  Herefords  96^.,  being 
an  overplus  of  only  IZ.  to  pay  for  the  enormous  difference  in  the  food  con- 
sumed, and  the  greater  price  given  on  account  of  the  heavier  weight  of  the 
short-horns  at  the  commencement  of  the  experiment*.  Another  Hereford 
and  a  short-horn  were  also  tried  together  at  the  same  time ;  but  they  did 
not  undergo  the  same  process,  nor  was  so  regular  an  account  kept  of  theii 
progress.  The  Hereford  inciieased  in  weight  3  cwt.  3  qrs.,  and  the  short- 
horn 4  cwt.  1  qr. 

*  The  Michaelmas  cattle  fair  at  Hereford  is  uot  exceeded  by  any  show  of  beasts  in 
euod  cunditioa  in  the  kingdom.  They  are  usually  sold  tu  the  graziers  in  the  neighboui- 
tood  of  the  metropolis,  by  whom  theyare  prepared  for  the  Sinithiield  market 

There  is  an  entry  in  an  account  book  kept  by  William  Town,  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Hereford,  in  the  year  1694,  of  the  price  of  £it  oxen  at  that  period. 

"25th  August,  1694, — sold  the  nine  oxen  at  &?/. ;  the  money  to  be  paid  into  the 
Exchequer  within  a  month."     The  price  of  o«en  a,  at  least,  six  times  as  great  now. 




2  0 


1  14 


2  14 


2  14 


2  0 


3  14 



This  county  is  taken  next,  because,  bordering  on  Hereford,  many  of  tlie 
caltle  of  that  county  are  found  here.  Throughout  the  whole  of  Gloucester- 
shire the  Herefordsj  are  preferred  for  working  and  for  fattening.  'J'hey 
are  less  active  than  the  Deyons,  but  far  more  so  than  the  Gloucesters. 
They  consume  less  food  when  at  work,  and  very  far  less  when  fattening; 
but  the  Gloucesters  are  superior  to  the  Herefords  for  the  pail.  Cattle 
of  every  kind,  however,  prevail  in  the  dairy  farms  in  this  county,  as  in 
every  other  district. 

Of  the  old  breed  of  the  Gloucesters  it  is  now  difficult  to  speak,  for  they 
are  nearly  extinct.  They  were  evidently  of  Welsh  origin,  mingled  with 
the  Hcrefqrd,  and  sometimes  with  the  cattle  farther  inland.  They  were  the 
•Glamorgan  chiefly,  but  upon  a  l&rger  scale,  and  of  a  different  colour.  The 
Glamorgans  are  black,  or  inclining  to  brown  ;  the  old  Gloucesters  were 
either  red  or  brown.  The  horns  were  of  a  middle  length,  white,  and 
tipped  with  black;  the  bones  small,  and  the  carcase  light,  scarcely 
averaging  more  than  twelve  score  per  quarter.  The  bag  was  thin  yet 
large,  and  the  milk  abundant  and  long  continued.  The  characteristic 
mark  was  said  to  be  a  streak  of  white  generally  along  the  back,  and  always 
at  the  root  of  the  tail. 

Many  years  ago  the  farmers  began  to  cross  them  with  the  long-horns, 
and  principally  those  from  North  Wilts.  Thence  arose  considerable 
increase  of  size,  with  more  tendency  to  fatten,  and  richer  and  not  much 
less  abundant  milk.  This  breed  is  principally  found  in  the  hilly  dis- 
trict of  Gloucester,  about  the  Cotswolds.  Some  farmers,  indeed,  have 
crossed  so  frequently  with  the  long-horn,  that  little  of  the  old  Gloucester 
remains,  and  not  a  few  use  the  long-horns  alone.  The  prevailing  breed, 
however,  about  the  hills,  and  particularly  among  the  small  farmers,  is  the 
Gloucester  and  the  Wiltshire  combined.  Some  Suffolk  duns  are  scattered 
in  a  few  places  ;  some  pure  Devons,  Durhams,  and  Leicesters  are  found, 
but  chiefly  a  mixture  from  among  them  all,  the  Gloucesters  and  the  North 
Wilts  preponderating,  while  each  farmer  breeds  and  chooses  according  to 
his  pleasure  or  caprice. 

In  the  hilly  part  of  the  county  cattle  are  an  inferior  object  of  considera- 
tion ;  there  is  little  peculiar  in  the  management  of  them ;  and  even  that  little 
iloes  not  deserve  commendation.'  The  principal  purpose  for  which  they  are 
here  kept  is  to  pasture  on  those  spots  which  are  unsound  for  sheep.  A 
great  proportion  of  many  of  the  farms  in  this  poor  district  can  only  be 
made  profitable  by  turning  young  stock  upon  them;  which,  however,  are 
never  thoroughly  fattened  there,  but  the  young  stock,  and  the  cows,  and 
even  the  sheep,  are  sold  to  graziers  from  the  neighbouring  districts,  barely 
in  tolerable  store  condition  The  early-dropped  calves  are  chosen  for  rear- 
ing; the  others  miijht  not  have  sufficient  strength  to  endure  the  winter, 
and  are  speedily  got  rid  of.  ^ 

The  calves  that  are  to  be  reared  continue  two  or  three  days  wijh  the 
mother,  sucking  as  they  like,  and  taking  the  milk  that  is  good  for  nothing 
else.  They  are  then  fed  with  skim-milk^a  little  warmed,  being  first  taught 
with  the  finger;  but  they  soon  drink  eagerly  out  of  the  pail.  Linseed  tea 
is  after  a  little,while  mixed  wfith  "the  milk;  afterwards  the  milk  is  laid  aside, 
and.oat  or  barley  meal  is  stirred  in  .with  the  tea ;  and  so  they  are  gradually 
Drought  to  solid  food,  and  weaned. 

When  the  grass  begins  to  fail  in  Nbvember,  ^hey'.are  fed  in  the  field, 
wiiere  there  is   some  tolerable  shelter  for  them  ;  .'and  the  yearlings  ar( 

D  2 

30  CATTLE. 

also  in  the  field,  and  fed  with  straw  instead  of  hay.  The  pasture  allotted  ti 
them  is  generally  old  and  good,  but  such  as  had  been  previously  eaten 
bare  by  the  cows.  Worse  than  all,  during  the  early  part  of  the  winter  the 
milch  cows  have  nothing  but  straw  allowed  them.  It  is  the  custom  in 
this  part  of  the  country  not  to  take  much  care  of  the  two-year-olds  until 
Christmas  is  past..  The  heifers  usually  calve  in  April  or  May,  and  are 
tftken  into  the  dairy,  and  the  steers  then  go  to  work  after  Christmas,  when 
hay,  but  not  of  the  best  quality,  is  allowed  them. 

This  system  of  starvation,  partly  induced  by  the  nature  of  the  soil, 
(sufficient  fodder  not  being  produced  for  the  proper  nutriment  of  the  stock.) 
and  partly  attributable  to  an  absurd  mode  of  treatment  derived  from  their 
forefathers,  has  a  tendency  to  cripple  the  improvement  of  live  stock. 
The  calves  will  not  attain  their  full  growth,  and  the  cows  will  not  yield 
sufficient  milk  for  suckling  or  for  the  pail  while  this  system  is  pursued. 
There  is  room  for  much  improvement  here,  as  well  as  in  many  other 
districts  of  the  kingdom  in  the  management  of  live  stock. 

In  the  lower  or  vale  part  of  the  county,  where  cattle  are  kept  principally 
for  the  dairy,  and  not  to  feed  on  the  unsound  and  rotting  ground,  a  more 
liberal  and  a  more  profitable  system  of  management  is  adopted. 

In  the  Vale  of  Berkeley,  as  the  long  and  rich  tract  of  land  is  called 
that  reaches  from  the  Cotswolds  to  the  Severn,  the  cows  are,  as  in  the 
hilly  district,  of  various  sorts  and  kinds.  In  all  of  them,  however,  traces 
of  the  old  Gloucester  are  visible,  and  carefully  preserved.  The  cross 
depends  upon  the  fancy  of  the  dairyman.  Some  have  mingled  the  Alder- 
ney  with  the  Gloucester,  and  they  have  both  increased  the  quantity  and 
the  richness  of  the  milk  ;  others  have  mixed  the  Wilts  and  the  Gloucester, 
and  they  have  a  fair  supply  of  excellent  milk ;  while  some  have  introduced 
the  Yorkshire,  whereby  they  have  certainly  added  to  the  quantity,  although 
perhaps  a  little  deteriorated  the  quality  of  the  milk  :  but  the  majority,  and 
still  more  judiciously,  have  mingled  all  these  together,  and  they  have 
materially  improved  both  the  quantity  and  the  quality.  There  are  no 
Herefords  for  the  pail ;  a  few  Devons,  some  SuSblks,  some  North  Wilts, 
and  the  rest  Gloucesters,  with  various  crosses. 

A  cross  between  the  Gloucester  and  the  Hereford  has  been  attempted 
with  considerable  success.  They  yield  from  four  to  six  gallons  of  good  , 
milk  every  day.  It  is  difficult  to  account  for  the  fact  that,  while  in 
grazing  counties  the  large  and  small  farmers  agree  in  selecting  a  certain 
breed,  and  adhere  to  that  selection,  almost  every  dairy  district  is  charac- 
terized by  a  motley  assemblage  of  all  sorts  and  kinds  of  cattle.  We  shall 
oflen  have  occasion  to  allude  to  this. 

This  is  a  celebrated  da.-y  country.  From  the  Vale  of  Berkeley  is  pro.- 
duced  a  great  part  of  the  cheese,  which  is  known  in  every  part  of  the 
kingdom  under  the  names  of  the  single  and  double  Gloucester. 

A  slight  sketch  of  the  peculiar  management  of  this  district  must  now 
be  given  to  render  our  work  perfect ;  but  for  a  more  detailed  account,  the 
reader  is  referred  to  the  Twenty-first  Number  of  the  Farmer's  Series,  in 
which  the  usual  management  both  of  the  Gloucestershire  hill  and  vale 
fkrms  is  fully  described. 

The  calves  remain  with  the  mothers  about  a  week.  They  are  then  fed 
with  skim-milk ;  first,  by  means  of  the  feeder's  fingers  introduced  into 
the  mouth,  and  which  being  supplied  with  milk,  are  sucked  by  the  calves  ; 
out  they  soon  drink  of  themselves.  Linseed  tea  is,  after  a  little  while, 
mixed  with  the  milk  ;  and  soon  after  that  the  milk  is  quite  withdrawn,  and 
oat  or  barley  meal  stirred  with  the  linseed,  until  the  calf  is  able  to  eat  hay 
or  oats.     About  the  middle  of  May  they  are  turned  out  to  good  grass,  and 


W  they  are  kept  until  the  ^rass  is  ready  for  them,  on  the  earliest  bncl  best 
of  which  they  ate  turned.  Fron"  among  the  early  ones,  or  those  diop|)ed 
before  March,  a  selection  is  made  to  keep  up  the  dairy,  and  those  from  the 
best  milkers  are  uniformly  chosen.  The  farmer  is  right  here ;  for  everj 
quality,  both  good  and  bad,  is  more  decidedly  hereditary  than  many 
have  supposed,  or  are  willing  to  allow.  Some  of  the  heifers  that  are 
weaned  before  March  drop  their  calves  when  two  years  and  a  quarter  old, 
and  all  of  them  are  taken  into  the  dairy  at  three  years'  old. 

The  land  here  is  rich  and  productive,  and  fodder  of  every  kind  is 
abundant.  The  cattle  are  much  belter  kept,  than  in  the  hill  country,  and 
they  pay  their  proprietors  well  for  the  additional  trouble  and  expense.  The 
richest  even  of  these  fertile  pastures  are  set  apart  for  the  milch  cows  ;  and  in 
order  that  their  appetite  may  not  pal),  they  are  frequently  moved  from 
pasture  to  pasi  lire.  This  is  a  method  of  rendering  them  productive  of  which 
the  majority  of  farmers  are  not  aware.  At  the  same  time  the  farm  is  as 
much  understocked  as  a  hill-farm  is  too  frequently  overstocked ;  at  least 
there  is  plenty  of  good  keep  for  ever)  cow. 

It  has  been  found  that  land,  which  has  been  lately  and  much  manured, 
is  not  so  good  for  the  cows.  The  milk  may  be  more  abundant,  but  not  so 
rich.  Dr.  Rudge,  in  his  Survey  of  Gloucestershire,  says,  that  there  were 
two  grounds  adjoining  each  other  alternately  used  for  the  pasture  of  cows. 
While  they  were  on  one,  excellent  cheese  was  made  ;  but  when  they  were 
on  the  other,  the  cheese  was  rank,  heaving,  and  hollow,  and  unfit  for  the 
market.  The  latter  had  been  lately  well  dressed  with  manure;  and  the 
(lairywoman  remarked  that,  If  the  farmer  continued  to  enrich  his  land 
with  dung,  she  must  give  up  making 

The  cows  are  early  moved  from  the  pasture-ground  into  the  after-grass. 
Experience  has  taught  the  farmer  that  few  things  are  more  conducive  to 
the  general  health  of  the  animal,  as  well  as  the  abundant  supply  of  milk, 
than  the  first  flush  of  grass  in  the  spring,  or  after  mowing. 

As  the  winter  comes  on,  they  are  moved  into  the  driest  and  best-sheltered 
situations.  It  would  be  advanv^^eous  if  there  was  some  shed  for  them 
to  retreat  to  as  a  protection  from  the  extreme  cold  ;  and  they  should  have 
plenty  of  good  hay  allowed  them  once  or  twice  in  the  day,  before  they 
have  calved,  and  several  times  in  the  day  afterwards.  In  some  cases, 
however,  although  not  by  the  generality  of  farmers,  the  system  of  false 
economy  prevalent  in  the  hilly  district  is  adopted  here,  and  the  cows  in 
calf,  and  the  young  and  store  beasts,  are  half-starved  during  the  winter. 
There  is  no  part  of  dairy  and  cattle  management  which  more  demands 
reformation  than  this. 

The  principal  product  of  the  Vale  of  Berkeley  is  its  cheese.  It  has 
a  peculiar  flavour,  and  is  deservedly  esteemed.,  It  is  not  quite  clear 
to  what  peculiar  circumstance  the  excellence  of  the  Gloucester  cheese 
is  to  be  attributed  ;  for  several  things,  probably,  combine  to  produce 
the  effect. 

The  breed  of  the  cow  has  little  or  nothing  to  do  with  it.  We  have  stated 
that  almost  every  variety  of  breed  is  found  here,  and  the  milk  of  all  is 
mingled  together.  The  cows  are  taken  better  care  of.  The  pasture  is 
good,  and  it  is  old,  and  is  composed  of  the  natural  grasses  of  the  country, 
which  are  grown  here  with  little  admixture  of  foreign  or  artificial  ones. 
The  fields,  another  circumstance  not  sufficiently  appreciated,  are  near  to, 
and  surround  as  much  as  possible  the  farm-houses,  so  that  the  milk  is  but 
little  agitated,  or  the  component  parts  of  it  separated  before  it  is  curdle<l 
bv  the  rennet.  By  this  means,  too,  the  milk  may  be  set,  before  it  is 
Rooled  below  the  proper  temperature. 


Every  dairymaid  knows  well  that  the  milk  should  be  waj-m  when  it  it 
net.  She  has  rarely  any  thermometer  to  guide  her.  She  needs  it  not,  foi 
she  can  tell  with  the  accuracy  of  the  best  thermometer  whether  the  tem- 
perature is  above  or  below  85°.  When  it  is  received  from  the  cow,  and 
before  it  is  cooled  in  the  pail,  it  is  more  than  90°.  It  should  be  set  when 
it  has  cooled  to  85°,  and  that,  if  possible,  without  the  addition  of  any  milk 
artiticially  heated  to  bring  it  to  the  proper  standard.  The  colouring  matter 
and  the  rennet  are  then  added,  and  particular  care  is  taken  that  the  rennet 
is  old,  yet  free  from  unpleasant  smell*.  The  tub  is  now  covered  until  tiie 
curd  is  formed. 

The  process  of  cutting  and  breaking  the  curd  follows  next ;  and  when 
it  is  sufficiently  broken  it  is  put  into  the  vats,  and  pressed  well  down. 
The  vats  are  filled  as  closely  as  possible, — the  cheese-cloth  placed  ovet 
all,  and  a  little  hot  water  is  poured  over  the  cloth,  to  harden  the  outside  o' 
the  cheese ;  the  curd  is  then  turned  out  into  the  cloth,  and  this  being 
carefully  folded  round  it,  the  cheese  is  returned  once  more  into  the  vat. 
All  the  vats  which  are  to  be  filled  are  placed  one  upon  another,  and  all 
subjected  to  the  action  of  the  press.  Here  they  remain  four-and-twenty 
hours  ;  the  vats  of  the  next  meal  being  placed  underneath,  and  those  of  the 
preceding  meal  raised  a  tier,  and  dry  cloths  occasionally  applied. 

In  many  dairies  there  is  a  second  breaking  of  the  curd,  which,  after 
having  been  reduced  as  small  as  possible,  is  scalded  with  a  mixture  of 
water  and  whey.  This  second  and  more  perfect  breaking  down  of  the 
curd  has  been  imagined  to  be  the  grand  cause  of  the  soft  uniform  sub- 
stance of  the  cheese  when  it  is  fully  made.  The  practice,  however,  is 
getting  somewhat  into  disuse ;  for  it  is  very  reasonably  urged  that  this 
scalding  and  washing  must  extract  a  portion  of  the  oleaginous  part  of  the 
cheese ;  therefore  a  great  deal  more  care  is  taken  in  sufficiently  reducing 
it  with  the  knife  rapidly  worked  about  the  tub  before  the  curd  is  put  into 
the  vat.  The  old  farmers,  however,  yet  maintain  that  the  whole  art  ol 
making  Gloucester  cheese  depends  on  this  scalding  process ;  that  the 
fatty  matter  of  the  milk  and  curd  is  thus  disposed  to  develope  itself,  and 
to  be  brought  so  far  out,  as  to  form  afterwards  the  uniform  rich  substance 
for  which  the  Gloucester  cheese  is  celebrated. 

At  the  expiration  of  twenty-four  hours  the  cheeses  are  well  rubbed  with 
salt.  This  is  repeated  daily,  for  three  days,  for  the  single,  and  four  days 
for  the  double  Gloucestert ;  the  cloths  being  now  taken  away,  and  the 
cheeses  regularly  returned  to  the  press  for  four,  or  five,  or  six  days,  ac- 
cording to  the  state  of  the  weather.  They  are  then  put  upon  the  shelf,  or 
"tack,"  and  turned  twice  in  the  day,  for  two  or  three  days;  and  then 
placed    in  the  cheese-room,  where    they  are    turned  once    in  the  day 

*  Dr.  Rudj^e  says,  that  the  rennet  is  sometimes  made  two  months  before  it  is  wanted. 
To  twelve  gallons  of  water  are  usually  added  twelve  pounds  of  common  salt,  and  one  pound 
of  baj'-salt.  This  is  boiled  until  it  will  bear  an  egg.  It  is  strained  when  cool,  and  twenty 
four  Irish  "  veils ''  or  stomachs,  and  twelve  lemons  with  the  rinds  on,  but  incisions  made 
into  them,  and  two  ounces  of  doves  and  cinnamon,  are  then  put  into  the  liquor. 

+  The  "  Single  Gloucester  "  is  the  skim-milk  cheese ;  the  "  Double  Gloucester,"  y 
"  best  making  "  cheese,  is  manufactured  from  the  pure  or  unskimmed  milk  ;  aUhougl 
it  is  not  unusual  in  a  large  dairy  to  set  aside  sufficient  milk  to  afford  cream  and  butter 
enough  for  the  family,  and  afterwards  to  add  it  to  the  next  day's  milking.  These 
are  sometimes  called  •' Coward  ■"  cheeses;  they  are  either  thin,  weighing  about  16  lbs. 
3er  cheese,  or  thick,  averaging  from  30  lbs.  to  40  lbs. 

The  best  "  Single  Gloucester"  is  either  the  "  two-meal  cheese,"  made  of  equal  por- 
tions of  unskimmed  and  skimmed  milk,  or  sometimes  two  portions  of  skimmed  milk,  aud 
one  part  of  pure  or  "  coward  "  milk.  The  inferior  cheese,  acknowledged  to  be  the  skim- 
cheese,  is  what  its  name  imparts  it  to  be ;  aud  the  dairymaid  usually  s^ms  it  oftec  euau^b 
liutore  she  converts  it  into  curd. 


for  a  month  They  are  then  scraped  clean,  and  painted  red  or  brown, 
or  u  mixture  of  both.  After  a  few  days  the  paint  is  rubbed  oH 
from  the  edges,  and  the  cheese  is  continued  to  be  turned  once  or  twice 
every  week. 

In  some  dairies  the  floor  of  the  cheese-room  is  well  rubbed  with  a  variety 
of  herbs,  among  which  are  elder-leaves,  potato-stalks,  mint,  &c.  This  i8 
supposed  to  answer  the  double  purpose  of  giving  the  cheese  a  coat,  and 
also  preventing  the  "  mints "  or  mites  from  getting  into  it.  Others 
not  only  avoid  this  unclean  practice,  but  wash  the  new-made  cheeses  with 
hot  whey  once  a  fortnight.  This  is  said  to  give  a  firmer  coat ;  at  least,  it 
gives  a  cleaner  one. 

There  is  nothing  very  peculiar  in  all  this  process,  except  tlie  more  than 
usually  slight  agitation  of  the  milk  before  it  is  set  with  the  rennet,  and  the 
great  care  with  regard  to  the  degree  of  temperature.  Something,  perhaps, 
may  be  attributed  to  a  less  degree  of  squeezing  with  the  hand  in  bruizing 
the  curd,  when  a  great  deal  of  the  fatty  matter  of  the  cheese  may  be 
pressed  out,  the  knife  being  more  used  than  the  hand  in  dividing  it. 

The  principal  characteristics  of  the  Gloucester  cheese  are  its  richness, 
and  its  smooth  and  oily  texture  instead  of  breaking  when  cut,  and  its 
retaining  fatty  matter  so  perfectly  in  the  operation  of  toasting. 

We  have  already  related  the  manner  in  which  Cheddar  cheese,  is  made  to 
resemble  the  double  Gloucester. 

A  little  before  Michaelmas  the  cheese  is  submitted  to  the  factor,  who 
oflen  adopts  a  very  summary  way  of  examining  it.  He  treads  upon  each 
cheese,  and  those  which  yield  to  the  tread  he  condemns  as  "  heaved  "  or 
"  hoved,"  and  are  kept  for  home,  or,  at  least,  for  country  consumption. 
Many  causes  have  been  assigned  for  this  "  heaving."  Some  attri- 
bute it  to  the  pasture.  It  is  said  to  have  been  too  luxuriant,  or  to  have 
had  too  many  early  plants  in  it.  Thf  dairymaid  always  stoutly  maintains 
this.  Others,  with  more  justice,  say  that  it  is  the  fault  of  the  maker  : — 
the  curd  was  produced  too  quickly,  either  by  making  the  milk  too  hot,  or 
adding  too  much  rennet,  or  by  removing  the  cheese  too  soon  to  a  close 
and  hot  room.  The  cheese-rooms  are  generally  far  toohot,  and  probably 
encourage  tlits  fermentation  in  the  new-made  cheese.  They  should  be  as 
cool  and  airy  as  possible.  Some  farmers  prefer  a  stone  floor  for  it,  and 
with  reason.  The  chief  cause,  however,  is  to  be  sought  for  in  the  first 

As  may  be  supposed,  the  grazing  of  cattle  is  comparatively  neglected 
in  this  dairy  district.  Some  of  the  farmers,  however,  buy  in  small  Welsh 
beasts,  principally  heifers,  "hurries,''  and  turn  them  on  the  rouen  in 
August.  They  remain  there  until  the  following  spring,  being  occasionally 
supplied  with  hay,  as  the  season  may  detnand,  and  are  then  in  good  con- 
dition,  and  yield  a  fait  remunerating  price. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Gloucester,  however,  a  considerable  number 
of  oxen,  principally  of  the  Hereford  breed,  are  fattened.  If  in  poor  con- 
dition they  are  bought  in  the  spring,  and,  afler  running  on  the  summer 
pastures  until  winter,  are  finished  off  in  the  stall.  A  more  unprofitable 
way  is  to  buy  them  in  forward  condition  in  the  autumn,  and  feed  them 
on  hay  with  oil-cakes.  Some  from  the  lower  part  of  the  country  are  sent  to 
Bristol  or  Bath  ;  but  the  greater  part  of  them  are  destined  for  the  Smith- 
field  market. 

40  CAITLE. 

[7%e  Susiex  Ox.] 


Some  of  the  ancient  Britons  sought  refuge  from  the  attacks  of  their  in- 
vaders, amid  the  fastnesses  of  the  Weald  of  East  Sussex.  Thither  they 
drove,  or  there  they  found,  some  of  the  native  cattle  of  the  country  ;  and,, 
as  in  the  north  of  Devon,  and,  as  will  be  presently  seen,  in  the  mountains 
of  Wales,  and  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,  they  anxiously  preserved  them 
free  from  all  admixture,  as  relics  of  happier  times,  and  records  of  what 
Britain  once  possessed. 

The  resemblance  between  the  Sussex  and  the  Devon  oxen  is  very  great. 
They  unquestionably  betray  the  same  origin.  Lord  Sheffield  thought 
that  there  were  two  breeds  of  Sussex  cattle  ;  one  the  larger  and  coarser, 
scarcely  different  from  the  Hereford,  except  that  they  had  no  white  about 
them,  and  which  were  a  mixture  of  the  old  Sussex  with  other  breeds  from 
the  east  and  the  west,  and  which  having  been  fed  on  richer  pasture,  had 
acquired  a  larger  growth :  the  lighter  breed  bore  about  it  unequivocal 
jiarks  of  its  being  of  the  same  common  stock  as  the  Devon. 

One  of  the  best  descriptions  that  we  have  of  the  Sussex  ox  is  given  by 
that  excellent  agriculturist  Mr.  EUman,  of  Glynde,  to  vfhom  the  eastern 
part  of  that  county  is  much  indebted  for  the  preservation  of  its  native 
breed  of  cattle,  and  the  great  improvement  of  the  South-Down  sheep. 
He  speaks  of  the  Sussex  ox  as  having  a  small  and  well-formed  head ;  and 
so  it  has,  compared  with  many  other  breeds,  and  even  with  the  Hereford, 
but  evidently  coarser  than  that  of  the  Devon ;  the  horns  pushing  forwards 
a  little,  and  then  turning  upwards,  thin,  tapering  and  long — not  so  as  to 
confound  this  breed  with  the  long  horns,  and  yet  in  some  cases  a  little 
approaching  to  them.  The  eye  is  full,  large,  and  mild  in  the  ox ;  but 
with  some  degree  of  unquietness  in  the  cow.  The  throat  clean  ;  and  the 
neck,  compared  with  either  the  long  horns  or  the  short  ones,  long  and 
thin,  yet  evidently  coarser  than  that  of  the  Devon. 

At  the  shoulder  is  the  main  point  of  difference,  and  the  principal  defect 
in  the  Sussex  cattle.  There  is  more  wideness  and  roun.lness  on  the 
withers, — it  is  a  straighter  line  from  the  summit  of  the  withers  towards 
the  back, — there  is  no  projecting  point  of  the  shoulder  when  the  animal  is 

niK  SUSSEX  BREED.  41: 

looked  at  from  behind,  but  the  whole  of  the  fore-quarter  is  titickl) 
cov<ered  with  flesh,  giving  too  much  weight  to  the  coarser  and  less  profit" 
ab.e  parts*.  This  is  certainly  a  defect,  but  it  is  counterbalanced  by  many 
admirable  points.  If  tliere  is  more  weight  in  front,  the  fore  legs  are  neces- 
sarily wider  apart,  straighter,  and  more  perpendicular  than  in  the  Devon  ; 
they  are  placed  more  under  the  body  rather  than  seeming  to  be  attached  to 
the  sides.  The  fore-arm  is  large  and  muscular,  but  the  legs,  although 
coarser  than  those  of  the  Devon,  are  small  and  fine  downwards,  and  par- 
ticularly below  the  fetlock.  The  barrel  is  round  and  deep — the  back 
straight— no  rising  spinal  processes  are  to  be  seen,  but  rather  a  central 
depression  ;  and  the  line  of  the  back,  if  broken,  is  only  dune  so  by  a  lump 
of  fat  rising  between  the  hips.  The  belly  and  flank  are  capacious, — there 
is  room  before  for  the  heart  and  lungs  to  prepare  and  circulate  the  blood, 
and  there  is  room  behind,  in  the  capacious  belly,  for  the  full  development 
•if  all  the  organs  of  digestion  ;  yet  the  beast  is  well  ribbed  home,  the  space 
between  the  last  rib  and  the  hip-bone  is  often  very  small,  and  there  is  no 
hanging  heavmess  of  the  belly  or  flank.  The  loins  of  the  Sussex  ox  are 
wide :  the  hip-bone  does  not  rise  high,  nor  is  it  ragged  externally ;  but  it  is 
large  and  spread  out,  and  the  space  between  the  hips  is  well  filled  up. 

The  tail,  which  is  fine  and  thin,  is  set  on  lower  than  in  the  Devon,  yet 
the  rump  is  nearly  as  straight,  for  the  deficiency  is  supplied  by  a  mass  of 
flesh  and  fat  swelling  above.  The  hind  quarters  are  cleanly  made,  and  if 
the  thighs  appear  to  be  straight  without,  there  is  plenty  of  fulness  within. 

The  Sussex  ox  holds  an  interOiediate  place  between  the  Devon  and  the 
Hereford,  with  all  the  activity  of  the  first,  and  the  strength  of  the  second, 
and  the  propensity  to  fatten,  and  the  beautiful,  fine-grained  flesh  of  both. 
Experience  has  shown  that  it  possesses  as  many  of  the  good  qualities  of 
both  as  can  be  combined  in  one  frame.  The  Devons  and  the  Uerefords 
are  said  by  some  to  have  been  improved  by  one  judicious  cross  with  the 
other;  but  a  cross  with  the  Hereford  often  produces,  in  the  Sussex,  a  heavier 
animal,  it  is  true,  yet  not  fattening  so  profitably,  or  working  so  kindly. 
Some  graziers,  however,  have  very  ingeniously  explained  this,  by  the  dif- 
ferent parts  on  which  the  Hereford  and  Sussex  cattle  usually  carry  their 
fat.  The  Hereford  bears  it  upon  the  ribs  and  the  sirloin ;  the  Sussex 
more  on  the  flank  and  the  inside.  There  may  be  some  truth  in  this :  yet 
it  cannot  be  denied  that  the  Herefords  carry  theirs  in  the  best  places  ;  and 
it  is  on  this  account  that  the  prize  is  so  often  adjudged  to  them  at  the 
cattle-shows,  and  particularly  at  Smithfield.  When  the  Sussex  has  been 
crossed  with  the  Devon  a  lighter  breed  has  resulted,  but  not  gaining  in 
activity,  while  it  is  materially  deteriorated  in  its  grazing  properties. 

The  Sussex  ox  is  of  a  deep  chestnut-red — some,  however,  prefer  a 
b!ood-bay :  much  deviation  from  these  colours  generally  indicates  some 
stain  in  the  breed.  The  black,  or  black  and  white,  which  is  sometimes 
met  with,  generally  indicates  a  cross  from  the  Welsh.     The  white  may 

*  Mr.  W.  Pitt,  the  author  of  some  of  the  Agricultural  Surveys,  pronounces  this  breed 
to  be  coraiiaratively  much  inferior  to  a  good  selection  from  the  Lancashire,  Hereford,  or 
Shropshire  breeds ;  and  he  says,  "  I  cannot  help  thinjcingthem,  on  comparison  with  some 
other  breeds,  though  a  weighty,  yet  an  uncouth  and  coarse  animal."  On  this  the  B«T. 
A.  Yomig  very  properly  remarks,  "  There  is  no  knowing  what  is  meant  by  such  expres- 
sions as  that  Sussex  oxen  are  uncouth  and  coarse  animals.  If  it  implies  a  coarse  and 
thick  and  rough  hide,  or  a  hard  and  coarse-grained  flesh,  nothing  was  ever  further  re- 
noved  from  fact  than  such  an  assertion.  Sussex  oxen  are  as  remarkable  for  the  fineness 
«f  their  hides  as  they  are  for  the  closeness  and  delicacy  of  their  flesh.  In  his  own  Staf- 
fordshire long-horns,  there  does  not  exist  any  shadow  of  comparison  for  feeding,  graiio^, 
or  working.  In  quality  of  flesh,  thriving  disposition,  &c.,  both  the  Sussex  and  Devoni  es. 
ceed  you,  and  Hereford  leaves  you  far  behind." — Survey  of  Sussex. 

*2  CATTLE. 

possibly  remind  us  more  of  the  original  wild  breed ;  a  few  of  which,  as  wt 
have  remarlied,  remain  at  Chillingham,  and  which  we  shall  also  trace  in 
other  parts.  It  would  be  satisfactory  if  we  could  discover  the  origin  of 
these  red  breeds,  for  we  suspect  they  were  not  always  so.  Mr.  Davis,  of 
Glynde,  once  liad  a  black  ox,  with  a  white  face,  from  a  red  cow,  by  a  red  bull. 
A  few  approach  to  a  yellow  colour,  but  they  are  weakly  and  apt  to  scour. 

The  hide  of  the  true  Sussex  is  soft  and  mellow  ;  a  coarse,  harsh,  thick 
hide  is  supposed  to  denote  here,  as  in  every  other  district,  an  ill-bred,  or  an 
unthrifty  beast  The  coat  is  short  and  sleek.  There  is  seldom  found  on 
the  Sussex  os  that  profusion  of  soft  and  wavy,  and,  occasionally,  long 
hair,  which,  almough  it  may  have  an  appearance  of  roughness,  is  consistent 
with  a  mellow  and  yielding  hide,  and  one  of  the  truest  indications  of  more 
than  usual  propensity  to  fatten. 

In  order  fairly  to  estimate  the  working  properties  of  the  Sussex  ox,  the 
two  breeds  of  which  Lord  Sheffield  has  spoken  must  not  be  forgotten ; 
and  the  confounding  of  them  has  given  rise  to  much  of  the  confusion  and 
contradiction  which  exist  in  the  accounts  of  several  writers. 

The  proportion  of  the  labour  performed  by  oxen  is  different  in  different 
parts  of  the  county.  About  the  South  Downs,  oxen  are  much  employed, 
but  not,  perhaps,  in  an  equal  degree  to  horses.  In  the  weald  of  Sussex, 
they  have  the  greater  share  of  the  labour;  and  ou  a  farm  of  about  100 
acres,  there  is  usually  a  horse  and  an  ox  team — on  a  larger  farm  there  are 
more  oxen.  Many  farms  of  150  or  200  acres  have  from  ten  to  twelve 
working  oxen.  These  have  grass  and  straw  until  they  begin  to  work, 
and  then  cut  h"dy  is  mixed  Vvitli  their  strtiw. 

The  coarser  -breed  is  always  slow,  and  soon  after  .six  years  old,  it  can 
scarcely  be  worked  at  all  with  advantage.  The  liglitt- r  breed,  the  true 
Sussex  of  many  a  century,  will  step  out  as  light  and  as  fast,  and  will  do 
almost  as  much  work  as  any  horse,  and  stand  as  many  or  more  dead  pulls. 
Some  teams  have  been  known  to  travel  fifteen  miles  a  day,  with  heavy 
loads  for  several  successive  weeks,  and  without  the  slightest  distress. 

Of  the  speed  which  some  of  them  possess  proof  was  given  when  a 
Su-isex  ox  ran  four  rnil'es  against  time  over  the  Lewes  race-course,  and 
accomplished  the  distance  in  sixteen  minutes.  Formerly,  as  many  as  four 
pairs  of  oxen  were  not  unfrequently  seen  attached  to  a  single  plough  or 
waggon,  and  they  certainly  used  to  pull  well  together  ;  but  they  who  un- 
derstand the  power  and  the  honesty  of  these  animals  rarely  attach  more 
than  two  pairs.  Some  of  them  have  been  worked,  and  particularly  by  Lord 
Sheffield,  harnessed  in  every  respect  like  horses,  and  they  answered  as  truly 
and  as  easily  to  the  rein. 

Some  have  used  spayed  heifers  both  for  the  plough  and  for  draught, 
with  manifest  advantage.  Many  farmers  keep  their  oxen  as  long  as  they 
continue  to  do  their  work  well,  and  sometimes  until  they  are  twelve  years 
old,  and  they  maintain  that  the  beasts  will  then  fatten  quite  as  well  as  at 
an  earlier  age.  Lord  Sheffield  fattened  two  of  more  than  twelve  years,  to 
the  great  weight  of  210  stones.  Experience,  however,  does  not  confirm 
this  as  a  general  rule.  An  old  ox  takes  longer  to  fatten  than  a  younger 
one ;  and  after  all  there  is  generally  a  patcliiness  and  unevenness  about  him, 
which  do  not  please  the  eye,  or  answer  in  the  market.  Other  farmers 
work  them  during  a  much  shorter  period ;  and  they  believe  that  if  they  have 
ten  oxen  or  heifers  at  work  on  their  farm,  the  most  profitable  plan  is  to 
sell  off  five  or  six  every  year,  and  break  in  an  equal  number  to  succeed 
them.  The  beasts  will  thus  be  broken  in  at  three  years  old, — worked  until 
five  or  six,  and  then  fattened,  and  if  they  do  not  always  grow  to  so  large 
M  size,  they  improve  more  rapidly  and  pnifitahly. 


AKIiou^h  it  is  yet  an  undecided  point  at  what  a^e  an  ox  that  has  been 
worked  will  fatten  most  speedily  and  Ivindly,  it  cannot  be  denied,  that  he 
never  is  in  so  good  condition  for  work,  and  never  so  healthy,  or  so  little 
troublesome  as  at  six  years'  old.  So  far  as  their  work  is  concerned,  we 
should  prefer  a  nine  or  ten-year-old  ox,  to  any  four  or  five-year-old  one. 
The  youngsters  are  often  a  great  plague  to  their  owners,  not  only  in  the 
breaking  in,  and  especially  if,  as  upon  this  plan,  five  or  six  are  to  ne 
added  to  the  team  every  year  ;  but,  like  the  young  horse,  they  are  too  fre- 
quently ailing — they  are  injured  by  their  work,  or  the  diseases  to  which 
they  would  otherwise  be  subject  are  increased  by  their  work. 

The  general  practice  of  the  county,  undoubtedly,  is  to  turn  the  oxen  off 
at  six,  and  slaughter  them  at  seven  ;  but  we  are  inclined  to  doubt  the  pro- 
piiety  of  it.  The  system  of  recruiting  the  team  so  frecjuently  has  many 
iuconveniencies.  Mr.  Young  tells  us  that  Lord  Egremout  had  a  pair  of 
Sussex  oxen  in  the  eleventh  year  of  their  age,  which  for  seven  years  had 
done  as  much  ploughing  and  carting  as  any  two  horses  inthe  county  ;  and 
then,  with  half  a  summer's  grass  after. having  been  taken  from  the  collar 
and  an  autumn's  rouen,  they  were,  without  other  food,  sent  to  SmithfieltL 
and  sold  for  eighty  guineas. 

The  oxen  are  usually  di'afled  from  the  team  when  the  spring-sowing  is 
over;  they  are  then  turned  into  the  lower  or  marsh  land,  in  the  proportion 
of  one  ox  to  an  acre,  if  the  land  is  tolerably  good,  and  are  there  pre- 
pared for  the  winter  stall-feeding.  Sheep  are  generally  mingled  with  the 
oxen.  In  the  level  of  Pevensey,  where  there  is  plenty  of  water,  and  the 
grass  is  abundant,  there  are  many  cattle,  although  sheep  are  even  there 
increasing ;  but  at  Winchelsea  and  Rye,  there  are  most  sheep,  and  only 
one  bullock  to  every  four  acres,  in  order  to  keep  the  pasture  even.  After 
the  hay  is'  cut  and  carried,  the  pastures  are  usually  occupied  by  cattle 
and  sheep;  but  the  reservation  of  rouen  for  the  pinching  part  of  the 
spring  when  all  artificial  provender  fails,  or  before  the  young  clover  and 
other  grasses  have  begun  to  shoot,  is  comparatively  unknown. 

Stall-feeding  is  very  much  practised  in  Sussex,  and  Lord  Egremont 
used  to  have  his  milch  cows  tied  up  during  the  greater  part  of  the  year. 
He  maintained,  that  one-third  of  the  food  was  saved, — that  the  cows 
were  fed  with  a  fourth  part  of  the  usual  trouble, — that  more  dung  was 
made, — and  that  there  was  no  poaching  the  ground. 

The  oxen  are  gradually  accustomed  to  their  stalls  ;  they  are  at  first 
brought  in  only  at  night;  but,  as  the  winter  approaches, ' they  are  con- 
stantly tied  up.  Comparing  even  the  system  of  yard-feeding  with  the 
fattening  in  stalls,  Mr.  Ellman,  of  Glynde  (a  skilful  as  well  as  zealous  agri 
turist,  and  whose  opinion  is  of  weight  in  cases  like  these),  found  that  nine 
oxen,  fed  loose  in  the  yard,  consumed,  in  destroying  as  well  as  eating,  as 
much  as  twelve  oxen  that  were  tied  up.  Many  graziers,  however,  and 
particularly  in  the  midland  districts,  maintain  that  an  ox  loose  in  the  yard 
will  fatten  quicker  than  one  that  is  tied  up. 

The  average  weight  of  the  Sussex  cattle  when  brought  to  Smitliiield  is 
about  120  stones  ;  but  they  have  been  slaughtered  as  high  as  216  stones. 
One  belonging  to  Mr.  Ellman,  weighing  214  stones,  measured  from  the 
crown  of  the  head  to  the  ruinp,  9  feet  6  inches.  The  girth  before  the 
shoulder  was  9  feet  5  inches ;  behind  the  shonlder,  9  feet ;  round  the 
middle,  10  feet ;  routid  the  flank,  9  feet ;  and  from  the  nostril  to  the  tip 
of  the  tail,  was  a  distance  of  14  feet  8  inches. 

Mr.  Edsaw,  of  Fettleworth,  who  was  pai'tial  to  large  cattle,  has  had 
them  6  feet  high  behind,  and  5)^'  feet  before,  and  10^  feet  girth  over  th« 
neart.    Two  of  them  weighed  216  stones  each. 



The  Sussex  cow,  like  the  Hereford  one,  is  very  inferior  to  the  ox ;  she 
seems  to  be  almost  another  kind  of  animal.  The  breeder  has  endeavoured, 
but  with  comparatively  little  success,  to  give  to  the  heifer  the  same  points 
that  the  ox  possesses. 


-"  £SS.«^Mrv  J^ 

\The  Sussex  CoU'.j 

The  Rev.  A.  Young  thus  describes  what  the  Sussex  cow  ought  to  be, 
and  some  may  be  found  to  resemble  the  portrait : — ''  The  true  cow  has  a 
deep  red  colour,  the  hair  fine,  and  the  skin  mellow,  thin  and  soft ;  a  small 
head  ;  a  fine  horn,  thin,  clean,  and  transparent,  which  should  run  out  hori- 
zontally, and  afterwards  turn  up  at  the  tips  ;  the  neck  very  thin  and  clean 
made ;  a  small  leg ;  a  straight  top  and  bottom,  with  round  and  springing 
ribs ;  thick  chine ;  loin,  hips,  and  rump  wide ;  shoulder  flat — but  the  pro- 
jection of  the  point  of  the  shoulder  is  not  liked,  as  the  cattle  subject  to  this 
defect  are  usually  coarse ;  the  legs  should  be  rather  short ;  carcase  large ; 
the  tail  should  be  lev^l  with  the  rump :  a  ridged  back-bone,  thin  and 
hollow  chines,  are  great'defects  in  this  breed." 

The  Sussex  cow  does  not  answer  for  the  dairy,  Although  her  milk  is 
of  very  good  quality,  it  is  so  inferior  in  quantity  to  that  of  the  Holderness' 
or  the  Suffolk,  that  she  is  little  regarded  for  the  making  of  butter  or 
cheese.  Almost  every  mongrel  breed  finds  its  way  into  the  Dairy  in  pre- 
ference to  her.  A  cross,  however,  has  been  attempted,  and  with  some 
success,  between  the  Sussex  and  the  Suffolk,  retaining  to  a  very  fair  de- 
gree the  fattening  properties  of  the  one,  and  the  disposition  of  the  other 
to  ^ve  a  considerable  quantity  of  good  milk. 

Old  Herbert  says,  that  "while  the  Sussex  oxen  carry  too  much  weight 
on  their  coarser  parts,  the  heifers  and  cows  are  better  made,  and  carry 
much  of  their  weight  on  their  backs  ;"  and  he  affirms  that  "  they  are  sure 
breeders,  good  at  the  pail,  and  handsome."  The  cow  is  lighter  before, 
but  she  is  deficient  in  other  points  ;  and  as  to  her  being  good  at  the  pail, 
the  fact  that  so  few  of  them  are  kept  as  dairy  cow3,  even  in  Sussex,  is  a 
sufficient  proof  that  they  are  not  fco. 

There  are  some  exceptions,  however,  to  this.  Lord  Hampden,  of 
G  ynde,  had  a  cow  which,  in  the  height  of  the  season,  yielded  ten  pounds 
of  butter  and  twelve  pounds  of  cheese  every  week,  and  yet  her  qu«<t**ty  of 


Biilk  rnrely  exceed,e(l  fi.e  ^a.Ioiis  per  day.  The  next  year  the  same  cow 
gave  9J  lbs.  of  butter  per  week  for  several  weeks,  and  then  for  the  rest  of 
the  summer  8  lbs.,  or  8^  lbs.,  per  week ;  and  until  the  hard  frost  set  in,  7  lbs., 
— and  4  lbs.  per  week  during  the  frost.  Yet  as  a  proof  of  the  quality  of  the 
milk,  she  at  no  time  gave  more  than  five  gallons  in  the  day.  Mr.  Young 
■dds  to  this,  that  "  four  or  five  years  before,  the  same  person  had  a  fine 
black  Sussex  cow  from  Lord  Gage,  which  also  gave,  in  the  height  of  the 
■eason,  five  gallons  per  day,  but  no  more  than  51bs.  of  butter  were  ever  made 
from  it."  This  is  accounted  for  in  a  singular  way ;  for  there  is  a  com- 
mon opinion  (a  prejiidice,  we  should  be  disposed  to  call  it)  in  the  east 
of  Sussex,  that  "the  milk  of  a  black  cow  never  gives'  so  much  butter  as 
that  of  a  red  one." 

It  must  be  confessed  that  tliere  is  one  great  fault  about  the  Sussex  cows, 
seemingly  inconsistent  with  their  propensity  to  fatten,  and  which  cannot  be 
remedied.  Their  very  countenance  indicates  an  unquiet  temper  ;  and  (he^ 
are  often  restless  and  dissatisfied,  prowling  thout  the  hedge-rows,  and  en 
deavouring  to  break  pasture,  and  especially  if  they  are  taken  from  the  farm 
on  which  they  were  bred. 

They  are  principally  kept  as  breeders,  all  tlie  use  being  made  of  then 
at  the  same  time  as  dairy  cows  of  which  circumstances  will  admit.  And  it 
cannot  be  denied  that  they  are  generally  in  fair  condition,  even  while  they 
are  milking;  and  that  no  beasts,  except  their  kindred,  the  Devons  and  the 
Herefords,  will  thrive  so  speedily  after  they  are  dried.  The  secretion  of 
milk  being  stopped,  the  Sussex  cow  will  fatten  even  quicker  than  the  ox. 
It,  however,  be  acknowledged  that  the  Sussex  cows  are  not  perfect, 
even  as  breeders;  and  that,  unless  a  great  deal  of  care  is  taken  that  the  cow 
chall  not  be  in  too  good  condition  at  the  time  of  calving,  she  is  subject  to 
puerperal  fever,  or  'dropping;'  whiie  many  a  calf  is  lost  from  the  too 
stimulating  quality  of  her  milk. 

Next  to  the  cross  with  the  Suffolk  for  the  improvement  of  the  milk  is 
that  with  the  Jersey,  or  French  cow  ;  but  there  can  scarcely  be  said  to  be 
a  decided  breed  for  the  dairy  in  any  part  of  Sussex. 

Nearly  all  the  calves  are  reared, — the  males  for  work,  and  the  females  for 
breeding  or  rarly  fattening.  The  following  is  a  fair  specimen  of  the  breed- 
ing and  grazmg  department  of  an  ordinary  East  Sussex  farm.  A  farm  is 
selected,  on  which  eight  cows,  on  the  average,  are  kept ; — then  it  is  sup- 
posed that  there  will  generally  be  six  calves,  six  yearlings,  six  two-y^ar- 
olds,  four  three-year-olds  beginning  to  work,  four  fpur-year-olds,  four  five 
year,  and  four  six-year-olds.  On  some  farms  the  calves  are  calculated  as 
being,  occasional  losses  excepted,  equal  to  the  number  of  cows,  and  the 
females  are  quite  sufficient  to  keep  up  the  stock.  The  calves  are  generally 
cut  at  seven  weeks  old  ;  they  are  permitted  to  suck  for  ten  or  thirteen  weeks, 
and  are  weaned  by  being  shut  up,  and  having  a  little  grass  given  to  them 
until  they  have  forgotten  the  dam,  when  they  are  turned  out.  During 
the  first  winter  they  are  fed  with  the  best  hay,  and  after  that  they  have  grass, 
and  occasionally  some  straw,  until  the  second  Christmas  is  passed,  when  they 
are  broken  in  for  working.  A  good  cow,  after  her  own  calf  has  been  weaned, 
will  suckle  another,  and  sometimes  even  two  others,  for  the  butcher. 

Mr.  Young  gives  the  following,  as  Lord  Egremont's  cattle  system  fd 
work  : — "  The  calves  are  dropped  from  December  to  the  end  of  February. 
They  are  weaned  immediately,  never  letting  them  suck  at  all;  but  the  milk 
is  given  for  three  days  as  it  comes  from  the  cow.  For  weaning  on  skim- 
milk  they  ought  to  fall  about  December,  and  then  they  should  be  kept  warm 
by  housing,  and  thus  they  will  be  equally  forward  withcalves  dropped  late 
in  the  spring  that  run  with  the  cow.     With  the  skim  milk  some  oatmeal  is 

♦*  CATTlK. 

piven,  but  not  till  two  months  olrl,  and  then  only  becai  se  the  nnmber  of 
calves  is  too  g:reat  for  the  quantity  of  milk.  Water  and  oatmeal  are 
afterwards  mixed  with  it.  A  heifer,  however,  with  her  first  calf  is  supposed 
to  suckle  it  the  whole  season,  in  order  to  make  her  a  pood  milker;  but 
with  the  second  calf  she  is  treated  like  the  rest.  In  May  they  are  turned 
to  g-rass.  During  the  first  winter  they  are  fed  upon  rouen.  The  follow- 
ing sinnmer  they  are  at  grass;  the  second  winter  out  at  straw,  of  which 
they  eat  very  little,  as  they  run  out  on  short  rough  grass.  They  hiive 
been  tried  on  hay  alone,  but  straw  and  grass  do  better.  The  follovvJMg 
.summer  they  are  fed  on  grass,  and  are  broken  in  at  Christinas,  being 
three  years  old.  They  are  at  first  lightly  worked  ;  for  the  only  object  is 
tO  break  them  in,  in  order  that  their  regular  work  may  begin  in  the 
spring.  From  that  time  their  winter  food  is  straw,  wiih  tlje  addition  of 
a  ton  and  a  half  of  clover  hay,  given  between  the  finishing  of  straw  :ind 
goinn;  tp  grass,  and  in  order  to  prepare  them  for  the  spring-sowing.  They 
are  worked  about  four  years  and  a  half,  and  then  fattened." 

When  at  straw  in  the  winter  they  work  three  clays  in  the  week,  and 
some  of  them  every  day.  Mr.  Young  adds  a  remark  which  may  deserve 
consideration;  that  when  an  ox  will  not  bear  hard  work  and  hard  food, 
he  should  be  put  to  fatten,  and,  probably,  he  will  thrive  as  well  as  one 
that  would  stand  work  and  hardship  belter,  for  the  qualities  of  fattening 
well,  and  bearing  hard  work,  are  distinct. 

The  bull  is  changed  every  two  years  by  the  best  breeders,  from  the 
supposition  that  the  breeding  in  and  in  will  cause  the  i^tock  to  de- 

The  system  of  working  in  collars  instead  of  yokes  was  once  very  pre- 
valent in  Sussex;  but  experience  has  not  shown  that  it  is  decidedly  supe- 
rior to  the  old  method  of  yoking  them  to  the  ploughs. 

In  some  parts  of  Sussex  there  is  a  breed  of  black  cattle,  said  to  have 
been  introduced  by  Mr.  Marten  of  Tirle.  They  are  probably  a  cross  of  the 
Sussex  cow  with  a  South  Wales  bull,  and  they  retain  a  great  deal  of  the 
shape  and  form  of  the  best  blood  of  Sussex.  They  are  as  heavy,  and  work 
well ;  but  they  are  exceedingly  troublesome  to  break  in. 

Of  the  west  of  Sussex,  little  can  be  said  with  regard  to  any  prevailing 
breed.  Mr.  James  Hack,  who  resides  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Chichester, 
and  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  some  excellent  remarks,  fattens  some 
Devons ;  but  he  prefers  the  Pembrokeshire  black  oxen,  for  they  are 
heavier  in  flesh,  more  hardy,  and  can  better  endure  every  variation  of  tem- 
perature. Mr.  Postlethwaite,  of  the  same  neighbourhood,  describes  the 
dairy  cows  as  consisting  of  a  strange  mixture  of  short-:horns,  Devons,  Sus- 
sex, and  French.  Mr.  Henry  Freeland,  of  Appledram,  near  Chichester, 
prefers  a  cross  of  the  Sussex  with  the  SutTolk  polls  for  the  pail. 

In  the  western  part,  or  the  weald  of  Kent,  the  Sussex  oxeti  are  •»'nch  used 
for  the  plough  and  for  the  road ;  but  there,  as  in  Sussex,  the  dairy  cattle 
are  drawn  from  other  counties.  They  are  principally  Welsh,  or  a  strange 
and  varying  mixture  of  the  Sussex,  the  Staffordshire,  and  the  Wel.sV., 
Even  ip  the  Weald,  the  Sussex  cattle  are,  with  very  few  excep- 
tions, kept  only  for  the  purpose  of  grazing.  Their  young  cattle,  of 
whatever  kind,  are  usually  sent  to  Romney  Marsh  in  the  summer.  The 
farmer  in  the  Weald  would  not  know  what  to  do  with  his  bullocks  at  that 
time  of  the  year,  because  most  of  his  pasture  must  be  reserved  for  hay,  or 
'ood  for  his  dairy.     They  are  sent  aboi'»  the  middle  of  May,  and  return  at 


the  end  of  September,  when  they  are  put  on  the  inferior  grass  lands ;  and 
in  winter  they  are  sent  to  the  straw-yard,  or  served  witll  hay  in  the  field. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  Roniney  Marsh  graziers  send  the  greater  part  of 
ihfir  iambs  to  the  Weald  for  the  winter.  They  go  in  September,  and  are 
brought  back  in  April.  This  interchange  of  stock  is  convenient  and  pro 
fitable  for  both  parties.  The  Weald  farmer  keeps  the  lambs  about  thirty 
weeks,  and  the  Marsh  farmer  grazes  the  cattle  during  twenty  weeks. 

At  three  years  old  the  heifer, -and  the  steer  at  four  years  old,  is  ready 
to  fatten.  Better  food  is  then  allowed  them.  They  are  kept  on  the  best 
grass  and  hay  that  the  farm  can  afford.  The  hay  of  the  old  meadows  is 
generally  reserved  for  the  fattening  of  cattle.  Of  those  that  are  kept  at 
home,  thjB  pastures  are  first  stocked  with  milch  cows,  to  take  off  the  head- 
gra-ss,  and  the  leaner  cattle  and  the  working  oxen  follow  them  ;  and  thus 
several  fields  are  fed  down  in  succession  during  the  summer. 

The  practice  of  fattening  cattle  with  distillers'  wash  commenced  at 
Bromley:  it  was  afterwards  adopted  in  the  distilleries  of  Middlesex,  of 
which  we  shall  give  a  particular  account  in  the  proper  place. 

So  far  as  cattle,  however,  are  concerned,  Kent  can  scarcely  be  said  to 
be  either  a  breeding  or  a  dairy  county.  In  the  east  of  Kent  e.specially, 
few  cattle  are  bred.  The  polled  Scots  are  bought  for  summer-grazing 
or  the  Welsh  are  purchased  at  Canterbury,  or  other  markets.  The  prin- 
cipal dairy  cows  are  selected  from  them  ;  the  rest  are  kept  in  the  farm-yard 
for  the  winter,  and  in  the  spring  are  placed  among  the  sheep,  where  they 
fatten  rapidly,  and  reach  from  twenty  to  twenty-two  scores. 

Some  graziers  buy  Welsh  calves  in  the  autumn,  and  put  them  out  to 
keep  in  the  farm-yards  for  the  winter :  in  the  spring  they  place  them 
among  their  sheep,  where  they  get  fet  in  a  few  months,  and  weiglj  from 
18  to  23  scores. 

In  some  parts  of  Kent  oxen  are  stall-fed  on  oil-cake  and  hay,  for  the 
purpose  of  supplying  manure  for  the  hop-grounds.  This  purpose  may 
probably  be  answered,  in  regard  to  the  manure,  but  the  fattening  of  the 
ox  in  this  way  must  be  far  from  profitable. 

There  are  very  few  dairy-farms  in  any  part  of  Kent ;  sufficient  pasture- 
land,  to  keep  a  few  cows  to  supply  the  family  with  milk  and  butter,  and  per- 
haps a  little  fresh  butter  for  sale,  is  all  that  the  best  upland  farms  will  yield. 

The  native  cattle  of  Kent  dfeserve  more  attention  than  has  been  hitherto 
paid  to  them.  Mr.  Boys  says,  that  "  they  are  of  a  deep-red  colour,  with 
small  bone,  and  a  kindly-soft  skin.  They  have  a  great  breadth  of  Join  and 
length  of  sirloin  and  rump,  and  a  small  head  and  neck  ;  the  horns  short 
and  standing  upwards,  and  they  have  a  ready  disposition  to  fatten." 


To  the  Principality  we  naturally  look  for  some  trace  of  the  native  breed  of 
cattle,  for  the  Welsh  were  never  entirely  subdued  by  any  of  the  early 
invaders.  The  Romans  possessed  merely  a  portion  of  that  country ;  the 
Saxons  scarcely  penetrated  at  all  into  Wales,  or  not  beyond  the  county 
of  Monmouth ;  the  Welsh  long  resisted  the  superior  power  of  the  English 
under  the  Norman  kings  ;  and  it  was  not  until  late  in  the  thirteenth  cen- 
tury that  the  Principality  was  annexed  to  the  crown  of  England.  We 
therefore  expect  to  find  more  decided  specimens  of  the  native  productions 
of  our  island:  nor  are  we  altogether  disappointed.  Howell  Dha,  or 
Howell  the  Good,  describes  some  of  the  Welsh  cattle  in  the  tenth  century 



as  being  "'white  with  red  ears,"  resembling  the  wild  cittle  of  Chilli  ughaiil 
Castle.  An  early  record  speaks  of  a  hundred  white  cows  with  red  eara 
being  demanded  as  a  compensation  for  certain  offences  against  the 
Princes  both  of  North  and  South  Wales.  If  the  cattle  were  of  a  dark  or 
black  colour,  150  were  to  be  presented.  When  the  Cambrian  princes  did 
homage  to  the  King  of  England,  the  same  number  of  cattle,  and  of  the 
same  description,  were  rendered  in  acknowledgment  of  sovereignty. 
Speed  tells  us  that  Maud  de  Breos,  in  order  to  appease  King  John,  whom 
her  husband  had  offended,  sent  to  his  Queen  a  present  from  Brecknock- 
shire of  400  cows  and  a  bull,  all  white  and  with  red  ears.  Whether  this 
was  the  usual  colour  of  the  ancient  breed  of  Welsh  and  British  cattle,  o? 
a  rare  variety,  esteemed  on  account  of  its  beauty,  and  chiefly  preserved  in 
the  parks  of  the  nobles,  we  are  unable  to  determine.  The  latter  is  the 
most  probable  supposition  ;  and  the  same  records  that  describe  the  "  white 
cattle  with  red  ears,"  speak  also  of  the  "  dark  or  black-coloured  breed," 
which  now  exists,  and  which  is  general  throughout  the  principality. 

The  principal  and  the  most  valuable  portion  of  the  cattle  of  Wales  are 
middle  horns.  They  are  indeed  stunted  in  their  growth,  from  the  scanty 
food  which  their  mountains  yield,  but  they  bear  about  them,  in  miniature, 
many  of  the  points  of  the  Devon;  Sussex,  and  Hereford  cattle.  We  will 
first  consider  the  cattle  of  South  Wales. 

[The  Pembroke  Ox.'\ 



Gkkat  Britain  does  not  afford  a  more  useful  animal  than  the  PembroKe 
cow  or  ox.  It  is  black  ;  the  great  majority  of  them  are  entirely  so ;  a  few 
have  white  faces,  or  a  little  white  about  the  tail,  or  the  udders ;  and  the 
horns  are  white.  The  latter  turn  up  in  a  way  characteristic  of  the  breed 
and  indeed  the  general  form  of  the  cattle  undeniably  betrays  their  early 
origin.  They  are  shoiter  legged  than  most  of  the  'Welsh  breeds,  but 
longer  than  the  Montgomeries,  and  have  round  and  deep  carcases.  They 
have  a  peculiarly  lively  look  and  good  eye.  The  hair  is  rough,  but  short- 
aud  the  hide  'i  not  thick.    The  bones,  although  not  so  small  as  in  the 


Improved  long  horn?,  are  far  from  large ;  and  the  Pembrokeshire  cattle 
mingle,  to  a  considerable  degree,  and  as  far  perhaps  as  they  can  be 
combined,  the  two  opposite  qualities,  of  being  very  fair  milkers,  vrith 
a  propensity  to  fatten.  The  meat  is  generally  beautifully  marbled. 
It  is  equal  to  that  of  the  Scotch  cattle,  and  some  epicures  prefer  it.  They 
thrive  in  every  situation.  They  will  live  where  others  starve,  and  they 
will  rapidly  o\itstrip  most  others  when  they  have  plenty  of  good  pasture. 
I'he  Glamorgans  would  jirobably  get  the  start  of  the  Pembrokes  on  good 
pasture  ;  but  on  the  rough  and  barren  tracts,  which  are  to  be  found  in 
both  counties,  the  Pembrokes  would  decidedly  obtain  the  advantage,  and 
are,  therefore,  purchased  by  many  of  the  Glamorganshire  farmers.  The 
Pembroke  cow  has  been  called  the  poor  man's  cow  :  it  is  perhaps  one  of 
the  best  cottager's  cows,  while  it  is  equally  profitable  to  the  larger  farmer. 
We  shall  see,  when  we  come  to  describe  the  Anglesey  breed,  that  the  ori- 
ginal cattle  of  North  and  South  Wales  are  essentially  the  same;  they  are, 
however,  finer  in  the  head,  neck,  and  breast,  than  the  Anglesey  beasts, 
but  not  so  fine  as  the  Glamorganshire  cattle. 

The  Pembrokes  are  found  in  Carmarthenshire,  Cardigan,  and  Brecon, 
and,  indeed,  in  every  bordering  county,  mixed  with  the  different  breeds  of 
each,  and  imparting  to  each  its  very  best  qualities.  They  bear  no  slight 
resemblance  to  the  Kyloes.  ' 

The  Pembroke  ox  is,  like  the  Devon,  a  speedy  and  an  honest  worker, — 
fit  for  the  road  as  well  as  the  plough, — and  when  taken  from  work  fatten- 
ing as  speedily  as  he  does.  He  is  not  quite  so  tractable  as  the  Glamor- 
gan, but  easily  managed  if  no  foolish  violence  is  resorted  to.  Great  num- 
bers of  them  are  brought  to  the  London  market — they  stand  their  journey 
well  and  find  a  ready  sale,  for  they  rarely  disappoint  the  butcher ;  but,  on 
the  contrary,  prove  better  than  appearance  and  touch  indicated.  The 
Pembroke  oxen  get  rid  of  their  steer-like  appearance  sooner  than  most 
other  cattle.  At  three  years  old  they  have  generally  the  true  character 
of  the  ox  about  them  ;  and,  in  their  fourth  year,  they  are  usually  ready 
for  the  market.  The  Pembrokeshire  cow  is  usually  black,  with  occa- 
sionally a  dark  brown,  or,  less  frequently,  a  white  face,  or  a  white  line 
along  the  back.  Mr.  Davies  describes  lier  as  being  "  fine-boned,  with  a 
clean  light  neck  and  head,  small  yellow  horns  inclining  upwards,  good 
chine  and  loin,  round  long  barrel,  thin  thigh  and  short  legs  :  she  is  always 
in  good  condition  if  tolerably  kept,  and  has  a  rich  wave  in  her  hair,  and 
an  oiliness  of  skin,  which  ever  denote  thriftiness.''  This  is  true  with  re- 
gard to  some  of  the  best  cows,  but  there  are  many  exceptions.  With  all 
these  good  points,  proving  her  value  as  a  grazing  animal,  the  Pembroke 
cow  is,  as  we  have  described  her,  a  very  fair  milker,  and  will  yield  51bs. 
Df  butter  per  week  during  the  dairy  season. 


The  Glamorgans  were  once  in  fiign  repute,  and  deservedly  so.  George  III., 
who  was  a  good  judge  of  cattle,  was,  very  partial  to  them,  and  one  of 
his  agents  yearly  visited  Glamorganshire,  to  keep  up  his  Majesty's  stock 
by  a  selection  of  the  best  cattle  that  count)  could  produce ;  and  the  farm 
at  Windsor  is  still  frequently  recruited  from  this  district.  For  the  most 
valuable  portion  of  the  following  account  of  their  early  history  and  present 
state  we  are  chiefly  indebted  to  Mr.  Moggridge,  of  Newport,  and  Mr. 
David,  of  Radyr.  To  the  latter  gentleman,  whose  tact  and  skill  as  a 
breeder  need  no  eulogy  of  ours,  and  whose  side-  oard  is  loaded  with  the 
testimonies  of  the  superiority  of  his  cattle,  we  acknowledge  peculiar  obli- 
fration.     We  have  also  extracted  some  useful  matte,    from  Davis's  excel* 


5"  CATTLE. 

lent  "  Survey  of  South  Wales,''  a  very  rare  book,  and  complete!/  out 
of  print. 

D.  T.,  the  Welsh  topographer,  who  wrote  in  the  Cambrian  language  in 
1720,  speaks  of  the  cows  as  being  large,  some  red,  and  some  pied,  with  a 
sleek  coat  and  a  fine  head.  Although  we  have  traced  the  white  ox  with 
red  ears  to  Glamorgan,  and  the  neighbouring  county,  Brecon,  yet  the  old 
legends  agree  that  the  domesticated  breed  was  of  a  reddish  colour,  and  that 
they  had  some  of  the  Norman  and  Devon  blood  in  them.  This  is  ac- 
counted for  by  some  of  the  chroniclers.  A  great  part  of  Glamorgan 
was,  in  the  twelfth  century,  seized  by  Robert  Fitzhamon  and  other 
Norman  Knights.  Their  connexion  with  their  native  country  did  not  im- 
mediately cease,  ar)d  they  introduced  some  of  the  Norman  cattle  into 
South  Wales.  The  swelling  crest  of  the  Glamorgan  ox  at  once  reminds 
us  of  the  Norman  bull.  Did  they  spread  from  Glamorganshire  to  Angle- 
sey, the  cattle  of  which  island  are  also  recognized  by  the  peculiar  swelling 
of  the  breast,  and  lofly  bearing  of  the  head  ;  or  may  we  consider  this  state- 
liness  of  appearance  as  indicative,  in  both  districts,  of  the  native  breed? 

We  are  also  told  that  Sir  Richard  de  Grenaville,  one  of  the  Knights 
who  divided  among  them  the  Lordship  of  Neath,  also  possessed  the  castle 
of  Bideford,  on  the  northern  coast  of  Devonshire,  and  introduced  many  of 
the  Devon  cattle.  This  we  can  easily  imagine,  for  in  the  old  red-cow, 
which  we  can  recollect  nearly  fifty  years  ago,  an  admixture  of  Devon 
blood  could  not  be  for  a  moment  mistaken,  and  it  is  even  yet  evident  in 
the  horns,  the  lively  countenance,  and  the  deer-like  head  and  neck.  The 
red,  however,  was  then  degenerating  into  brown,  and  the  brown  has  been 
gradually  darkening  from  crosses  with  the  Pembroke  black.  Some  of  the 
original  reds  are  to  be  met  with  occasionally  in  the  hilly  districts,  and 
particularly  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Aberdare  ;  but  the  poverty  of  the  soil 
has  much  reduced  their  size.  Not  a  great  many  years  ago  there  was  in 
the  valleys  of  the  Neath  and  the  Towy,  a  breed  of  cattle  of  a  light  red 
colour,  and  with  white  faces,  which  were  said  to  have  been  the  ancient 
stock  of  the  vale  of  Glamorgan.  Although  not  so  large  as  the  brown 
breed  of  the  vale,  they  were  good  milkers,  and  fattened  kindly.  They 
were  not,  however,  always  bare,  but  occasionally  crossed  with  the  stunted 
blacks  of  the  neighbouring  parts  of  Carmarthenshire. 

The  Glamorganshire  farmers,  of  half  a  century  ago,  took  great  pride  in 
their  eallle,  and  evinced  much  judgment  in  their  breeding  and  .selection. 
There  was  one  principle  from  which  they  never  deviated  ; — tkey  admitted 
no  admixture  of  foreign  blood,  and  they  produced  the  Glamorgan  ox,  so 
much  admired  for  activity  and  strength,  and  aptitude  to  fatten  ;  and  the 
cow,  if  it  did  not  vie  with  the  best  milkers,  yielded  a  good  remunerating 
profit  to  the  dairyman. 

They  were  of  a  dark-hrown  colour  with  white  bellies,  and  a  streak  of 
white  along  the  back  from  the  shoulder  to  the  tail.  They  had  clean 
heads,  taperiiig  from  the  neck  and  shoulders ;  long  white  horns,  turning 
upwards;  and  a  lively  countenance.  Their  dewlaps  were  small,  the  hair 
short,  and  the  coat  silky.  If  there  was  any  fault,  it  was  that  the  rump,  or 
setting  on  -of  the  tail,  was  too  high  above  the  level  of  the  back  to  accord 
with  the  modern  notions  of  symmetry. 

Forty  years  ago  the  breed  was  eagerly  sought  after  by  the  most  skilful 
breeders  in  Leicester,  Northampton,  Warwick,  and  Wilts.  Their  aptitude 
to  fatten  rendered  them  exceedingly  profitable  when  taken  from  the  plough 
at  six  or  seven  years  old,  and  they  were  brought  to  great  perfection  on  the 
rich  English  pastures,^fi:equently  weighing  more  than  twenty  scores  pet 
quarter.    TJx  h^ef  w^s  beautifully  veined  and  marbled,  the  inside  of  the 


(..iimal  was  well  lined  with  tallow,  and  the  Glamorgans  commanded  the 
highest  price  both  in  the  metropolitan  and  provincial  market.  Mr.  Davies, 
who  wrote  in  the  year  1814,  says  that  "  among  the  Glamorgan-vale 
browns  good  cow-beet'  weighs  from  eight  to  ten  score  pounds  per  quarter, 
although  some  weigh  as  much  as  twelve  or  thirteen  scores.  Ox-beef  is 
from  twelve  "to  fourteen  scores  per  quarter;  some,  however,  have  reached 
eighteen,  and  even  twenty  scores. 

The  steers  were  seldom  yoked  until  three  years  old ;  they  were  then 
moderately  worked  for  three  or  four  years  and  well  kept;  and,  after  a  few 
weeks'  rest,  they  were  usually  disposed  of  at  the  large  spring  fairs  in  this 
county,  which  then  displayed  a  collection  of  fine  oxen,  not  often  surpassed 
in  any  of  the  English  districts. 

During  the  French  revolutionary  war  the  excessive  price  of  corn  attracted 
'-he  attention  of  the  Glamorganshire  farmers  to  the  increased  cultivation 
of  it,  and  a  great  proportion  of  the  best  pastures  were  turned  over  by  the 
plough.  Turnip-husbandry  necessarily  followed;  and  then  the  improve- 
ment of  their  sheep-stock  became  an  object  of  importance,  and  the  cattle 
were  almost  entirely  neglected.  A  proper  selection  for  breeding  was  un- 
attended to ;  the  calves  were  generally  weaned  at  two  or  three  weeks  old, 
and  nursed  on  milk  and  water,  hay-tea,  and  boiled  linseed  ;  the  produce 
of  the  cow  being  entirely  reserved  for  the  dairy.  The  steers  were  taken 
to  labour  when  they  were  two  years  old,  and  seldom  exceeded  four  years 
when  they  were  disposed  of;  they  were  depastured  in  summer,  either  on 
land  too  wet  to  carry  sheep,  or  too  bare  for  corn,  and  in  winter  they 
barely  existed  in  the  straw-yard. 

The  natural  consequence  of  inattention  and  starvation  was,  that  the 
breed  greatly  degenerated  in  its  disposition  to  fatten,  and,  certainly,  with 
many  exceptions,  but  yet,  as  their  general  character,  the  Glamorganshire 
cattle  became  and  are  flat-sided,  sharp  in  the  hip-joints  and  shoulders, 
high  in  the  rump,  too  long  in  the  legs,  with  thick  skins,  and  a  delicate 

The  Glamorganshire  farmer  was  startled  at  the  necessary  result  of  this 
alteration  of  system.  His  cattle,  instead  of  being  eagerly  soflght  after,  and 
sold  at  an  extravagant  price,  could  scarcely  be  sold  at  all,  or  only  at  a 
serious  loss.  He  was  unwilling  at  first  to  acknowledge  the  real  cause  of 
this  deterioration  and  diminution  of  value,  and  many  of  the  breeders,  even 
at  the  present  day,  take  little  or  no  pains  to  redeem  their  error. 

A  few  spirited  individuals,  however,  set  the  example  ;  and  others  have 
been  incited  by  their  zeal  and  partial  success  to  assist  in  endeavouring  to 
restore  the  breed  to  its  former  pre-eminence,  or,  at  least,  to  adapt  it  to  the 
coarser  fare  which,  under  the  altered  state  of  husbandry,  must  now  be  to 
a  great  degree  its  lot. 

Among  these,  and  one  of  the  most  skilful  and  successful  of  them,  was 
Mr.  David,  of  Radyr,  whose  sketch  of  the  deterioration  and  regeneration 
ofthe  breed  we  are  giving  our  readers  in  a  somewhat  condensed  form. 
The  result  of  these  attempts  has  been,  that,  in  the  recent  exhibitions  of 
stuck  a  Tredegar,  the  revived  and  pure  Glamorgans  have  often  success- 
fully competed  with  the  short-horns  and  the  Herefords ;  and  Mr.  David 
has  received,  at  Sir  Charles  Morgan's  cattle  shows,  no  less  than  twelve 
silver  cups  for  his  Glamorgans. 

The  work  of  improvement,  however,  as  yet  has  been,  and  could  only 
be,  in  few  hands.  It  is  comparatively  easy  to  keep  up  a  good  breed  ;  but 
to  regenerate  a  bad  one,  or,  at  least,  a  deteriorated  one,  requires  skill, 
capital,  and  perseverance  ;  and  these  called  into  active  requisition  in  the 
fa<?e  of  hard  times,  and  with  little  or  no  prospect  of  obtaining  remuneratmg 

E  2 



prices.  Therefore  iL  must  be  acknowledged  at  present,  and  perhaps  it 
must  long  continue  to  be  the  fact,  that  the  Glamorgans,  generally,  are  far 
from  being  what  they  once  were.  They  continue,  however,  to  maintaiii 
their  character  for  stoutness  and  activity,  and  are  still  profitably  employed 
in  husbandry-work.  Only  a  little  while  ago  four  Glamorgan  oxen  ploughed 
with  ease  half  an  acre  of  clover  hay  in  two  hours  and  three-quarters.  The 
beef  is  still  good,  marbled,  and  good-tasted ;  and  in  proportion  as  the 
value  of  the  ox  to  the  grazier  has  decreased,  the  value  of  the  cow  has  be- 
come enhanced  for  the  dairy.  He  who  is  accustomed  to  cattle  will  under- 
stand the  meaning  of  this;  and  the  kind  of  incompatibility  between  an 
aptitude  to  fatten  in  little  time,  and  on  spare  keep,  and  the  property  of 
yielding  a  more  than  average  quantity  of  milk. 

Even  Mr.  David  acknowledges  that  he  had  not  succeeded  to  his  perfect 
satisfaction  in  reproducing  the  old  breed,  which  combined  so  much  of 
both  these  excellencies  ;  and  therefore  he,  and  the  most  scientific  breeders 
of  the  county,  began  to  be  weary  of  this  strict  adherence  to  the  Glamor- 
ganshire breed,  and  to  consider  whether  it  might  not  be  possible,  by  judi- 
cious crossing  with  the  cattle  of  other  districts,  to  obtain  an  animal  better 
suiied  to  the  present  state  of  the  country. 

\_The  Glamorganshire  Ox.^ 

The  interest  of  the  grazier  were  first  considered,  and  the  comparative 
slowness  in  feeding  in  the  present  Glamorgans  was  attempted  to  be  ob- 
viated by  crossing  with  the  Hereford  bull.  This  to  a  considerable  extent 
succeeded.  An  animal  was  produced  well  adapted  for  the  grazier ;  dis- 
posed to  accumulate  flesh,  and  of  a  hardier  constitution  :  but  the  ox  was  a 
little  injured  for  the  yoke  ;  the  beef,  as  is  the  case  with  every  animal  that 
arrives  at  an  early  maturity,  was  not  so  fine ;  and  the  value  of  the  cow 
was  very  much  diminished  ;  she  was  neither  so  good  a  milker,  nor  nurse. 
Besides  this,  the  fattening  of  an  animal  that  grew  to  so  great  a  bulk  as  the 
mingled  Hereford  and  Glamorgan,  interfered  too  much  with  the  present 
economy  of  Glamorganshire  husbandry ;  and  the  produce  of  this  cross  did 
ot  always  thrive  on  the  scanty  fare  on  which  it  was  compelled  to  subsist. 

That  important  and  not  duly  appreciated  fact,  to  which  we  shall  often 
have  occasion  to  allurle,  was  also  here  very  apparent.    The  ad/antage  of 



mingling  the  Hereford  with  the  Glamorgan  was  evident  enough  in  the 
first  cross,  and  the  farmer  began  to  congratulate  himself  on  the  result ; 
but  after  the  second  and  third  generation,  the  influence  of  the  foreign  blood 
rapidly  disappeared,  and  the  Glamorgan,  with  all  his  characteristic  points 
and  defects,  again  stood  before  us.  The  heavy  Leicester  was  likewise 
tried,  but  the  progeny  became  sluggish  and  unfit  for  labour,  and  slow  in 
feeding  and  coarse  in  beef,  and  unfit  for  stocking  such  a  district.  The 
influence  of  soil  and  climate  on  the  production,  and  the  perpetuation  of 
certain  breeds,  is  a  circumstance  that  does  not  enter  half  so  much  into  the 
consideration  of  the  farmer  as  it  ought  to  do,  and  will  account  for  a  great 
many  of  his  disappointments  and  erroneous  opinions.  We  shall  seriously 
consider  this  subject  when  we  come  to  treat  of  the  principles  of  breeding. 
Breeders  then  began  to  take  another  view  of  the  matter.  They  cohsi- 
dered  their  cattle  as  mere  machines  for  converting  the  raw  produce  of  the 
earth  into  human  food ;  and  they  inquired  whether  their  soil  and  climate, 
and  situation  for  markets,  and  their  mode  of  agriculture,  were  best  adapted 
for  a  machine  to  produce  beef,  or  milk.  The  character  and  habits  and 
employment  of  the  inhabitants  of  Glamorgan  had  essentially  changed. 
Mines  had  been  sunk,  and  manufactures  had  been  established  in  almost 
every  part  of  the  county.  It  was  become  a  very  populous  district,  in 
which  dairy  produce  would  always  command  a  ready  sale.  In  addition  to 
this,  the  good  old  custom  still  prevailed  in  this  county,  of  farm-servants 
being  kept  under  their  employer's  roof;  and  their  diet,  in  order  to  be 
both  wholesome  and  economical,  was  chiefly  derived  from  the  dairy.  As, 
therefore,  the  old  Glamorgan  could  with  so  much  difficulty,  or  scarcely  at 
all,  be  reproduced,  the  attention  of  the  farmer  was  gradually  directed  tc 
the  dairy. 

[The  Glamorgamhre  Cow.'] 

At  first  he  was  unwilling  quite  to  sacrifice  the  old  pride  and  boast  of 
his  native  county ;  and  he  endeavoured  once  more  to  accomplish  both 
objects,  and  he  had  recourse  to  the  shoi-t-horns.  A  very  little  experience, 
however,  convinced  him  that  his  labour  would  here  be  lost.  He  retained 
mdeed  the  milk,  but  he  somewhat  deteriorated  its  quality  ;  and  the  beast 
was  slow  and  sluggish,  and  not  calculated  for  labour,  and  would  not  thrive 

54  CATTLE. 

on  the  pasture  and  on  the  nourishment  which  this  county  usually  afforda 
In  a  happy  hour  he  thought  of  the  Ayrshire  cow ;  and  he  brought  hei 
from  her  native  district.  Some  farmers  used  her  pure ;  others  crossed 
her  with  the  best  Glamorgan  cattle;  and  others  with  still  more  judgment 
procured  the  Ayrshire  bull,  and  bred  with  him  from  the  best  of  their  own 
heifers.  The  result  was,  an  animal  that  yielded  more  milk  than  the  old 
Glamorgan, — that  was  hardier,  and  could  be  kept,  and  especially  in  the 
winter,  at  much  less  expense,  and  that  from  its  smaller  size  was  more  easily 
fattened,  and  better  suited  to  the  coarse  fare  now  generally  afforded  her  by 
the  Glamorganshire  farmer.  This,  then,  is  the  breed  which  is  becoming, 
and  profitably  so,  established  in  the  populous  districts  of  Glamorgan. 
Among  the  improvers  of  the  Glamorgan  cattle  Messrs.  Bradley  of 
Treguff  must  not  be  forgotten.  Their  beasts  bear  a  close  resemblance  to 
the  Herefords  in  fifgure,  although  inferior  to  them  in  size ;  they  feed 
kindly — the  flesh  and  fat  are  laid  equally  over  them — the  beef  is  beautifully 
marbled,  and  they  yield  a  more  than  average  quantity  of  milk.  They  are 
fattened  to  perfection  at  five  years  old,  but  not  often  at  an  earlier  age  ;  and 
will  become  sufficiently  bulky  on  the  good  pastures  of  the  vale  without  any 
artificial  food.  In  the  hilly  districts  many  of  the  old  Glamorgans  remain, 
and  attempts  are  made  to  restore  the  character  of  the  pure  Glamorgan 
cattle  of  fifty  years  ago,  but  without  that  degree  of  success  which  will 
fairly  remunerate  the  farmer. 

The  cut  in  the  preceding  page  is  the  portrait  of  a  valuable  cow,  belong- 
ing to  the  royal  dairy  at  Windsor,  and  gives  a  faithful  representation  of 
the  present  improved  breed  of  Glamorgan  dairy-cattle. 

The  average  quantity  of  milk- given  by  a  Glamorganshire  cow  is  about 
sixteen  quarts  per  day.  The  principal  object  of  the  dairyman  Is  butter, 
of  which  the  average  produce  of  each  cow  is  at  least  1  cwt.  during  the 
season.  The  butter  is  esteemed  ;  and  that  which  is  not  consumed  in  the 
home-manufactories  is  usually  sent  to  the  Bristol  market.  The  Glamorgan 
cheese  is  often  of  an  inferior,  kind.  There  used  to  be,  and  in  some  mea- 
sure there  still  is,  an  unpleasant  dryness  and  brittleness  about  it,  depend' 
ing,  according  to  some  persons,  on  the  clover  in  the  natural  pastures,  buit 
more  attributable  to  some  mismanagement  in  the  manufacture^  or  the 
quantity  of  ewe's  milk  which  was  mingled  with  that  of  the  cow. 

With  the  'establishment  of  a  dairy  breed,  it  has  been  thought  by  some 
thai  a  little  too  much  of  the  old  false  economy  in  the  rearing  of  the  calf 
has  been  re-introduced.  He  is  early  weaned  ;  frequently  in  less  than  a 
week  ;  always  in  little  more  than  a  fortnight,  and  alter  that  he  is  badly 
sheltered  and  worse  fed— skim  milk,  and  not  too  much  of  that,  is  his  only 
provender.  This  is  not  perhaps  to  be  strictly  defended,  for  it  is  practised  on 
an  animal  that  may  be  brought  to  grow  to  a  large  size,  and  whose  constitu- 
tion, although  improved,  is  none  of  the  hardiest :  yet,  on  the  other  hand, 
although  the  calf  of  the  Hereford,  or  even  of  the  short^horn,  is  a  very  supe- 
rior animal  at  a  yeSr  old,  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  he  has  probablv 
consumed  the  whole  year's  prod\ice  of  the  cow,  and  that  at  weaning  time 
he  must  be  supported  by  the  most  nourishing  food  ;  so  that,  when  the 
balance  is  struck,  the  profits  of  the  respective  breeders  may  not  be 
very  different,  especially  if  two  or  three  cwt.  of  cheese  and  butter  are 
added  to  the  value  of  the  Glamorgan  yearling. 

There  is  still  another  serious  defect  in  the  system  of  Glamorganshire 
breeding:  if  the  calf  appears  to  fatten  more  than  usually  kindly,  it  is  forth- 
with sold  to  the  butcher,  and  not  reserved,  as  it  should  be,  for  the  purpose 
of  breeding.  In  selecting  their  cattle,  the  first  and  almost  only  considera- 
tion has  reference  to  their  milking  qualities ;  and  a  full  udder  will  outweigb 
every  objection  which  might  be  made  t»  dieir  flat  sides,  large  offal,  long 


legs,  coarse  shoulders,  and  thin  skin.  In  some  parts  of  (ilamorganshire 
the  pure  Herefords  are  cultivated  in  preference  to  any  mixture  with  the 
native  breed.  Mr.  Bradley,  who  resides  near  Cardiff,  is  partial  to  the 
Herefords,  and  his  stock  does  not  yield  to  many  in  the  neighbourhood,  or 
in  the  county  generally 

Tiie  hilly,  or  rather  the  mountainous  district,  forms  the  g;reater,althoiin'ti 
not  the  most  populous^  part  of  this  county.  Mr.  Jenkins,  of  St.  y  Nill, 
informs  us  that,  from  the  retired  and  attentive  habits  of  the  farmers,  and 
especially  from  the  comparatively  small  part  of  the  county  that  could  be 
submitted  to  the  plough,  the  cattle  of  the  hills  have,  in  a  great  measure, 
escaped  the  deterioration  of  thdse  in  the  vale.  They  are  browner  than 
those  in  the  vale,  well  bodied,  ai(d  with  short  legs.  Few  crosses  have 
been  attempted  among  them.  They  are  hardier  than  those  in  the  vale, 
and  advantage  is  often  taken  of  this  to  expose  them  to  too  much  privation. 
While  the  »a/e-cattle  are  wintered,  and  often  badly  enough  in  the  straw- 
yard,  the  hill-caXiie  have  nothing  but  hay  from  poor  peaty  .  meadows, 
whose  produce  is  not  more  than  seven  or  eight  cwt.  to  the  acre,  and  which 
are  rarely  or  never  manured.  Notwithstanding  this  they  thrive ;  their 
meat  is  of  a  superior  quality,  aiid  they  are  much  sought  after  in  the  London 

The  Glamorganshire  cattle  continue  to  prevail  in  Monmouthshire, 
of  which,  although  not  strictly  a  Welsh  county,  and  far  more  a  mining 
than  a  breeding  district,  it  will  be  convenient  next  to  speak. 


Here  likewise  Mr.  Moggridge  is  our  chief  authority. 

Monmouthshire  may  be  divided  into  the  hill  and  vale  districts.  The 
cattle  of  the  hili,  country  were  probably  derived  from  crosses  of  the 
Brecon  blacks  with  the  Glamorgans.  The  latter  predominated,  and  con- 
tinued so  to  do,  to  the  visible  improvement  of  the  breed. 

Within  the  last  few  years,  however,  a  great  number  of  Irish  cattle  have 
.found  their  way  to  every  part  of  the  Bristol  channel  by  means  of 
steam-boats,  and  they  were  offered  at  prices  so  inferior  to  that  of  the 
natives  that  they  were  greedily  purchased.  Not  only,  therefore,  was  all 
improvement  in  the  Monmouthshire  cattle  arrested,  but  the  hill-farmers 
were  threatened  with  ruin,  for  they  could  sca;rcely  sell  their  beasts  at  any 
price.  If  this  system  is  longer  pursued,  the  breeding  of  the  native  cattle 
will  be  in  a  manner  abandoned. 

Some  Durhams  have  been  lately  introduced  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Pontypool,  but  with  doubtful  success.  The  Ayrshire  cow  has  found  her 
way  into  some  of  the  hill-dairies,  and  is  much  valued  ;  while  great  num- 
bers of  Scotch  cattle  are  brought  into  the  districts  immediately  connected 
with  the  iron  works,  and  even  bred  there.  They  live  well  on  the  mountain 
pasture,  and  are  soon  fattened  at  the  end  of  the  season^ 

Many  of  the  native  cattle,  however,  continue  to  be  fattened  in  the  hill- 
district,  and  are  thence  driven  into  the  richer  pasture  of  the  central  coun- 
ties to  be  finished.  They  are  good  milkers,  although  not  equal  to  the 
Glamorgans,  of  whose  blood  they  inherit  a  considerable  portion.  Their 
appearance  is  very  much  against  them,  and  they  will  not  thrive  rapidly 
even  on  good  land. 

The  use  of  cattle  for  husbandry  has  been  declining  for  many  years^ 
owing  to  the  canals  and  railways  which  intersect  the  county,  and  the  conse- 
quent increased  demand  for  horses  :  but  should  the  introduction  of  locomo- 
tive engines  hereafter  banish  the  horse  from  the  mining  districts,  the  use 
of  cattle  in  rural  affairs  may  probably  be  resumed,  to  the  future  advantage 

50  CAITLK. 

of  the  .an  Uord  and  the   tenant,  although  the  present  change  is  operating 
unfavourably  on  both. 

In  the  VALE  DISTRICT  of  Monmouthshire  the  farmers  were  formerly 
content  with  the  Glamorgans,  and  the  better  Idnd  of  hill-cattle  ;  and  these, 
after  being  kept  for  some  time,  increased  in  size  and  in  value.  Of  late 
years,  however,  the  Hereford  have  in  a  manner  superseded  both  of  these 
breeds,  and  many  fine  beasts  of  that  stock  are  to  be  found  in  the  vale  of 
Usk  generally,  and  particularly  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Abergavenny. 
Some  intelligent  farmers  from  Herefordshire  have  settled  in  this  district. 
They  naturally  brought  with  them  their  native  cattle ;  and  the  Herefbrds,  or 
crosses  from  them,  may  now  be  considered  as  some  of  the  established  breeds 
through  the  whole  of  the  vale.  Sir  Charles  Morgan  has  introduced  the  Dur- 
hams  into  the  lower  part  of  the  county,  and  with  a  prospect  of  considerable 
success.  Some  of  his  short-horns,  and  particularly  those  exhibited  at  his 
cattle-show  in  1830,  were,  as  the  intelligent  judge  of  the  cattle  appropri- 
ately called  them,  tremendously  fat  At  what  expense  they  were  made  so 
is  not,  perhaps,  considered  so  seriously  as  it  ought  to  be.  For  the  dairy 
especially,  it  is  probable  that  some  valuable  breeds  may  arise  from  crosses 
between  the  Durham  bull  and  the  best  of  the  vale  cows.  The  Herefords 
will  never  find  their  way  into  the  dairy  :  they  belong  to  the  grazier  and 
the  butcher*. 

The  prevailing  cow  is  the  Glamorgan,  with  some  of  the  middle-sized 
Gloucester-vale  breed. 

A  great  proportion  of  the  labour  of  the  vale  husbandry  is  performed  by 
oxen,  but  the  bye-roads  of  Monmouthshire,  even  more  neglected  and  worse 
than  bye-roads  generally  are,  compel  the  farmer  to  keep  more  horses  than 
he  otherwise  would. 

There  is  a  large  tract  of  land  comprising  many  thousand  acres,  that 
can  neither  be  called  hill  nor  vale,  and  is  locally  known  by  the  name  of 
Ihe  levels,  comprising  all  the  flat  land  bordering  on  the  Bristol  channel. 
Nearly  the  whole  of  this  is  meadow-laud,  and  naturally  of  very  superior 
quality.  The  prevailing  stock  used  to  be  Glamorgans,  and  they  were 
■selected  with  care  and  managed  with  judgment ;  but  during  the  last  few 
years  the  pressure  of  the  times  has  paralysed  all  enterprise,  and  the  stock 
of  this  district  is  evidently  deteriorated.  The  Irish  cattle  crossed  this 
tract  in  the  way  to  the  interior,  and  too  many  "of  them  loitered  here  and 
are  becoming  in  a  manner  naturalized 


Tills  county  may  also  be  divided  into  the   hill  and   vale  districts,  and  the 
breed  of  cattle  in  the  two  is  very  dissimilar      The  hill-breed  betrays  much 

*  Mr.  Walker,  of  'Binton,  tells  us  that  this  is  too  strongly  expressed.  It  is  his  opinion 
that  "  they  want  nothing  but  management  to  bring  them  into  the  dairy.  Being  so  ad- 
mirably adapted  for  the  grazier,  their  milk  is  quite  neglected.  The  Herefordshire  farmers 
want  early  calves,  and  their  cows  and  heifers  calve  between  the  middle  of  December  and 
February,  after  living  entirely  on  dry  meat,  and,  therefore,  by  the  time  the  grass  comes, 
they  are  nearly  or  quite  dry ;  but  if  the  Hereford  heifer  calved  for  the  first  time  at  grass, 
md  about  the  middle  of  May,  she  might  become  a  good  milker.  Some  of  the  cows  will 
under  the  present  management,  yield  from  ten  to  twelve  quarts  of  milk  at  one  time,  and 
their  milk  is  superior  to  that  of  any  other  cow  except  the  Alderney.  The  quantity  of  milk 
given  by  a  cow  will  greatly  depend  on  her  treatment  when  with  her  first  calf.  If  she  has  not 
proper  food  to  swell  the  milk  veins  at  first  starting,  she  will  never  afterwards  make  a  good 
milker.  The  Hereford  cow  has  seldom  a  fair  chance  here.  '  I  speak  from  experienca ' 
he  says,  '  for  I  have  had  much  to  do  with  the  Herefords  for  several  years,  and  have  always 
had  many  good  milking  cows  of  that  breed.'  "  These  are  very  important  observations ; 
and  although  we  are  not  sufficiently  convinced  to  alter  what  we  have  written,  and  what 
almost  universal  experience  and  belief  confirln,  the  remarks  of  Mr.  Walker  deserve  serioiu 


Irish  admbture.  The  cattle  are  small,  but  coarse;  generally  black;  and 
with  a  length  as  well  as  thickness  of  horn  that  would  better  entitle  them 
to  a  place  in  our  next  division,  than  among  the  aboriginal  middle-horns. 
They  are  a  hardy  race,  but  never  carry  much  flesh,  and  are  iedifferent 
milkers.  They  have  been  much  improved  by  the  introduction  of  bulls  and 
heifers  from  Pembrokeshire. 

The  vale-breed  is  larger.  The  Glamorgan  has  found  his  way  here, 
and  the  native  cattle  have  been  considerably  improved.  The  Shropshire 
has  also  been  introduced  with  advantage.  The  dairies  have  benefited  by 
this  admixture,  and  a  cross  with  the  Hereford  has  been  attempted  with 
advantage  by  the  grazier.  They  are  now  much  less  used  than  formerly 
in  husbandry  work  or  on  the  road,  but  they  were  very  serviceable.  Mr 
Davies  says  that  Mr.  Gwynne,  of  Glan  Br9,n  Park,  bought  five  three- 
year-old  bullocks  in  the  winter  of  1810,  and  began  to  work  with  them  im- 
mediately, and  continued  ploughing  with  them  until  the  barley  seed-time 
was  over.  They  were  fed  on  straw,  with  some  turnips,  and  when  they 
were  worked  unusually  hard  a  little  hay  was  allowed.  In  the  summer 
they  went  daily  eighteen  miles  for  lime.  They  had  then  a  little  respite, 
but  they  were  worked  again  at  wheat-sowing,  and  sold  in  the  following 
January  for  51.  each  more  than  their  prime  cost. 

The  average  produce  of  the  Carmarthenshire  cow  is  about  1  cwt.  of 
butter  during  the  dairy  season,  with  nearly  double  the  quantity  of  cheese. 
In  the  vale  of  the  Towy  a  greater  quantity  is  yielded,  when  the  river  over- 
flows its  banks  in  the  winter,  or  early  in  the  spring,  for  the  pastures  are 
then  richly  manured  for  the  following  season.  A  summer  flood,  however, 
materially  injures  the  feeding-grounds,  and  lessens  the  produce  of  the  farm 


The  Cardiganshire  cattle  belong  to  the  Pembroke  or  Carmarthen  breeds, 
or  are  a  mixture  of  the  two.  Mr.  Walker  says,  that  the  Carmarthen  and 
Cardigan  cattle  are  so  much  alike  that  he  scarcely  knows  how  to  divide 
them.  They  are  not  quick  feeders,  nor  do  they  ever  carry  much  fat ;  but 
the  little  flesh  that  they  have  upon  them  is  very  good.  They  pay  more  by 
running  upon  tolerable  land  among  the  sheep,  than  they  would,  do  by  any 
mode  of  stall-feeding.  Mr.  Lloyd,  in  Davies'  Survey,  more  truly  sayS, 
that  they  are  hardy,  work  and  travel  well,  and  take  on  fat  kindly ;  but  that 
the  best  improvement  that  could  be  made  in  the  management  of  them 
would  be  to  give  them  better  food  in  winter. 

In  speaking  of  Kent  as  a  grazing  county,  we  have  mentioned  that  a 
great  many  Welsh  are  fattened  there.  A  considerable  portion  of  them 
are  from  Cardiganshire  ;  and,  for  small  beef,  they  find  a  ready  sale  in  the 
London  market. 

The  Cardiganshire  cows  are  not  to  be  despised  for  the  dairy.  Mr.  Lloyd 
averages  the  produce  of  an  ordinary  cow  at  80  lbs.  of  butter  and  160  lbs. 
of  cheese  in  the  season.  Other  farmers  average  it  at  from  six  to  seven 
score  lbs.  of  butter,  with  a  corresponding  quantity  of  cheese.  This  com- 
pulation seems  to  be  the  nearest  to  the  truth.  The  btUter  is  sent  to  Bris- 
(ol,  or  to  the  iron-works  of  Glamorgan  and  Monmouth :  the  cheese  is  kept 
for  home  consumption. 


The  usual  breed  of  this  county  is  truer  than  many  of  its  neighbours  to  ita 
native  origin.  The  middle-horn  may  be  clearly  traced  with  many  of  the 
excellencies  of  that  division  of  cattle.     Much  cannot  be  said  of  the  Breck* 

*•  CATTLE. 

nock  breed  as  milkers ;  but  they  are  useful  and  active  at  the  ploug'h,  and 
deservedly  valued  by  the  grazier.  Recourse  has  of  late  years  been  had  to 
two  of  the  varieties  of  the  middle-hom,  the  Devon  and  the  Hereford,  and 
with  evident  advantage  both  for  work  and  grazing.  The  cattle  on  the 
side  of  Brecon  that  is  nearest  to  Herefordshire  are,  in  a  particular  manner, 
becoming  very  strongly  mixed  with  the  Hereforda. 


More  cattle  are  probably  bred  in  this  county  than  in  any  other  district  in 
Wales  of  equal  extent,  and  large  droves  are  sent  from  the  cattle  fairs  to 
Oxford,  Northampton,  Leicester,  and  even  to  Romney  Marsh.  The 
native  breed  is  the  Pembroke,  or  one  that  very  much  resembles  it ;  but, 
with  commendable  spirit  and  industry,  the  Radnorshire  farmers  have 
endeavoured,  and  successfully,  materially  to  improve  it.  They  have  prin- 
cipally had  recourse  to  the  Hfirefords  as  a  cross  with  their  own  catlle, 
and,  although  they  have  thils  produced  a  beast,  too  fairge,  and  too  capable 
of  yielding  beef  to  be  perfected  On  their  poor  land,  they  have  obtained  one 
that  will  thrive  and  pay  everywhere  else,  and  that  will  consequently  find  a 
ready  market.  The  general  colour  is  red,  or  brindled,  and  the  true 
white  face  of  the  Hereford  marks  the  Source  whence  the  improvement  in 
the  stock  was  derived  ;  the  red  heifer,  however,  with  a  dark  and  smoky 
face,  is  most  in  request  for  the  dairy.  The  dairy-women  began  to  com- 
plain that  "  too  much  soap  had  come  into  the  country," — -that  the  red  had 
been  washed  off  from  the  faces  of  too  many  of  their  cattle  ;  for  it  cannot  be 
denied  that,  although  the  Hereford  cross  increases  the  size,  and  does  not 
diminish  the  tendency  to  fatten,  it  very  materially  lessens  the  quantity  of 
milk.  With  Shropshire  on  the  north,  and  Herefordshire  on  the  east,  they 
had  good  materials  at  command,  and  they  have  wisely  and  diligently  used 
them.  It  may  be  truly  said  that  they  have  got  the  start  of  most  of  their 
neighbours  in  the  breeding  of  good  cattle.  The  Radnorshire  farmer 
rarely  overstocks  his  ground,  but  the  cattle  have  plenty  of  fond  both  in 
winter  and  summer,  and  on  which  they  rapidly  thrive,  however  coarse  it 
may  be.  The  calves  in  this  county  are  usually  taken  from  the  cow  at  the 
expiration  of  a  week  or  nine  days,  especially  if  the  farmer  wishes  the  dam 
to  breed  again.  The  young  animal  is  then  suckled  by  the  hand  with  new- 
milk  for  four  or  five  weeks,  when  gruel  or  linseed-tea  is  gradually  substi- 
tuted, and  dry-kneaded  pellets  of  barley,  or  pease  or  bean-meal,  or  vetches, 
are  added.  Closes  of  suitable  size  are  appropriated  to  the  calves — the  sflii 
being  good,  and  the  herbage  sweet,  and  the  stubbles  being  always  pre- 
ferred to  the  rouen  after  harvest. 


.\lthough  we  have  pkced  the  cattle  of  North  Wales  in  the  same  chapter 
as  '  the  middle-horns,'  we  confess  that  we  are  a  little  approaching'  to  the 
next  division,  '  the  long-horns.'  There  is  however  a  great  deal  of  the  cha- 
racter of '  the  middle  horns'  about  them,  and  marking  their  common  origin, 
with  the  exception  perhaps  of  some  of  the  Anglesey  oxen  ;  but  their  pecu- 
liar bull-like  appearance  is  to  be  traced  to  a  practice  which  we  shall  pre- 
sently have  to  describe.  North  Wales,  considered  as  a  cattle  country, 
may  be  divided  into  two  districts.  In  the  first  the  rearing  of  catlle  is  almost 
exclusively  attended  to  ;  in  the  second,  the  dairy  is  a  matter  of  consider- 
able if  not  primary  regard.  The  first  will  include  Anglesey,  Carnarvon, 
and  Merioneth ;  and  ;o  the  second  belong  the  counties  of  Denbigh,  Flint, 
and  Montgomery. 



Thb  island  of  Anglesey,  the  Mona  of  ancient  times,  the  peculiar  seat  ot 
Druidical  superstition,  and  lon£^  theraUyiD<T  point  of  British  independence, 
is  distinguished  from  the  other  divisions  of  !North  Wales  by  the  absence  o( 
an  irregular  and  mountainous  surface.  It  is  diversified  only  by  numerous 
undulations,  (they  scarcely  deserve  the  name  of  hills,)  covered  vtith  grass 
although  not  of  a  luxuriant  nature,  and  on  which  a  considerable  uum>bei 
of  cattle  are  reared.  Roberts,  who  published  his  Map  of  Commerce  nearly 
two  hundred  years  ago,  says  that  three  thousand  head  of  cattle  were 
annually  swum  across  the  straits  of  Menai.  We  shall  not  exaggerate 
when  we  say  that  ten  thousand  are  yearly  exported  from  this  island,  the 
aogregate  value  of  which  will  be,  at  least,  50,000Z.  The  iron  bridge  of 
Menai  now  affords  an  easier  and  securer  passage ;  yet  the  losses,  wfien 
the  cattle  were  compelled  to  swim  across  the  strait,  were  surprisingly  few, 
although  the  current  was  rapid  and  the  water  was  deep,  and  the  yearlings, 
were  sometimes  swept  down  the  stream  even  so  far  as  three  or  four  miles. 

The  Anglesey  cattle  are  small  and  black,  with  moderate  bone,  deep  chest, 
rather  too  heavy  shoulders,  enormous  dewlap,  round  barrel,  high  and 
spreading  haunches, , the  face  flat,  the  horns  long,  and,  characteristic  of  the 
breed  with  which  we  will  still  venture  to  class  them,  almost  invariably 
turning  upward.  The  hair  is  apparently  coarse,  but  the  hide  is  mellow  ; 
they  are  hardy,  easy  to  rear,  and  well-disposed  to  fatten  when  transplanted 
to  better  pasture  than  their  native  isle  affords. 

The  Anglesey  calves  are  not  weaned  by  some  of  the  smaller  farmers 
unifl  a  late  age.  This  would  be  advantageous  to  the  future  growth  of 
the  beast,  were  it  not  more  than  counterbalanced  by  the  false  economy 
which  is  practised  by  the  Anglesey  housewives  during  the  period  of 
suckling.  The  young  black  cattle  of  this  island  have  little  more  than 
hay-tea,  and  gruel,  and  the  common  broth  of  the  house.;  and  when  they 
are  weaned,  they  are,  in  a  manner,  totally  abandoned.  The  best  treat- 
ment they  experience  is  to  be  folded  in  an  unsheltered  yard,  with  scarcely 
enough  oat  and  barley  straw  to  keep  them  from  starving ;  for,  from  the 
face  of  the  country  and  the  nature  of  the  soil,  there  can  be  but  little 
provision  for  winter-feeding.  This  would  deteriorate  any  breed  less 
hardy  than  that  of  the  Isle  of  Mona. 

Mr.  Boggle,  of  Beaumaris,  assures  us,  that  the  better  kind  of  farmers 
give  their  calves  three  months'  milk,  either  by  allowing  the  calf  to  suck, 
or  to  have  milk  from  the  pail.  After  being  weaned  they  are  turned  to 
good  pasture  for  the  summer,  and  are  well  housed  at  night,  and  have  bay 
morning  and  evening  during  the  first  winter.  On  the  following  year  they 
fare  the  hardest  of  any  part  of  the  cattle-stock,  being  turned  on  the  pooresv 
pasture  in  the  summer,  and  foddered  on  barley  and  oat  straw,  and  gene- 
rally in  very  bleak  exposed  situations  in  the  winter,  for  there  are  few  farm- 
yards in  the  island.  If  they  are  kept  another  year  they  are  better  pastured 
in  the  summer,  being  turned  into  the  nejA  best  grass  to  the  cows;  and, 
if  kept  over  the  winter,  are  generally  outlayers,  and  have  hay  or  straw 
night  and  morning.  Those  that  get  hay  are  sold  in  good  condition  in  the 
spring,  and  taken  to  England ;  those  that  get  straw  only  are  kept  until 
the  autumn,  when,  having  had  good  pasture,  they  also  are  got  into  good 
store  condition,  and  are  purchased  for  the  English  market. 

It  is  the  common  opinion,  and  we  fear  a  true  one,  that  the  breed  of 
Anglesey  cattle,  like  that  ot  Glamorgan,  is  somewhat  deteriorated.  The 
Ktate  ot  the  case  is,  that  the  attention  of  the  Anglesey  farmer  was  once 
strongly  direaed  to  the  breeding  of  eattle ;  copper  and  cattle  were  the 



staple  commodities  in  this  island ;  but  when  the  war  that  commenced  witii 
the  French  revolution  so  suddenly  and  extravagantly  raised  the  price  of 
corn,  much  of  the  old  pasture-land  of  Anglesey,  like  that  of  Glamorgan, 
was  submitted  to  the  plough.  Cattle  were  then  comparatively  neglected  ; 
the  farms  were  overstocked,  in  order  to  furnish  the  usual  number  of  beasts  ; 
the  calf- was  half  starved;  the  yearling  was  stinted;  and  the- Anglesey 
runt  sunk  in  estimation  and  value.  The  practice  of  the  middling  and 
small  farmers,  and,  indeed  of  many  of  the  largest,  of  selling  off  their  best 
yearling  heifers,  and  keeping  the  poorest  only  for  the  dairy  and  breeding, 
and  the  culpable  and  general  neglect  of  selecting  good  bull-calves,  and 
also  the  want  of  proper  inclosures  by  which  the  steers  could  be  kept  from 
the  rest  of  the  stock,  contributed  to  increase  the  deterioration. 

Some  judicious,  and  many  ill-judged,  experiments  were  tried,  in  order 
to  restore  the  pristine  excellence  of  the  breed.  Bulls  from  other  districts 
were  introduced;  but  with  little  good  effect.  There  were  two  impedi- 
ments in  the  way.  It  was  difficult  to  find  another  breed  sufficiently  hardy 
to  withstand  the  climate  and  the  privations  of  Mona ;  and  even  if  such 
had  been  found,  there  seemed  to  have  been  such  an  identity  between  the 
cattle  and  the  climate,  that  little  permanent  alteration  could  be  accom- 
plished. The  first  cross  effected  an  evident  change,  but  the  Anglesey 
blood,  like  that  of  the  Glamorgans,  predominated, — the  produce  bred  back, 
and,  after  a  few  generations,  we  had  the  Anglesey  breed  again,  scarcely 
altered,  or,  if  so,  for  the  worse,  by  being  deprived  of  a  portion  of  its 

[  TAe  Ang/esey  Oj-.] 

The  Anglesey  heifer  has  been  crossed  with  the  Lancashire  bull,  with 
an  evident  increase  of  size,  amounting  to  at  least  two  scores  per  quarter 
when  three  years  old,  and  even  an  incieased  propensity  to  fatten,  and  that 
on  scanty  food;  but,  generally  speakjiig,  the  Angleseys  have  not  improved 
by  crossing,  and  least  of  all  from  the  Irish  cattle,  which  have  been  bought 
ill  great  numbers  by  the  farmers,  on  account  of  their  being  cheaper  than 
•Jieir  own  country  beasts. 

The  breed  is  again  improving;  the  best  sDc.cimens  ha\e  been  carefnllv 


selected ;  and  dearly-bought  experience  has  forced  upon  the  farmer  this 
truth,  that  it  is  false  economy  to  starve  the  growing  beast. 

The  Anglesey  cattle  are  principally  destined  for  grazing.  Great  num- 
bers of  them  are  purchased  in  the  midland  counties,  and  prepared  for 
metropolitan  consumption;  and  not  a  few  find  their  way  directly  to  the 
vicinity  of  London,  in  order  to  be  finished  for  the  market.  In  point  ol 
size,  they  hold  an  intermediate  rank  between  the  English  breeds  of  all  kinds, 
and  the  Smaller  varieties  of  Scotch  cattle ;  and  so  they  do  in  the  facility 
with  which  they  are  brought  into  condition.  If  they  are  longer  in  pre- 
paring for  the  market,  they  pay  more  at  last ;  and,  like  the  Scots,  they  thrive 
where  an  English  beast  would  starve.  Both  the  Scotch  and  the  Welsh 
breed  have  their  advocates,  and  perhaps,  upon  the  whole,  the  palm  in  point 
of  profit  must  be  yielded  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  northern  kingdom. 

In  consequence  of  the  overstocking  of  their  laud,  and  the  dearth  ol 
winter  provender,  the  Anglesey  breeders  are  anxious  to  get  rid  of  their  cattle 
as  soon  as  they  can.  Many  yearlings  cross  the  bridge  of  Menai ;  and  very 
few  beasts  are  retained  in  the  island  after  they  are  three  years  old.  The 
three-years-old  are  the  most  profitable  to  the  English  grazier.  They  are 
eventually  brought  to  the  market  from  sixty  to  eighty,  and  sometimes  even 
a  hundred  -stones,  and  their  meat  will  always  bear  a  superior  price  to 
that  of  the  larger  cattle. 

In  Anglesey,  a"nd  in  the  greater  part  of  North  Wales,  the  black  cattle 
were  formerly  used  extensively  for  the  plough,  and  even  on  the  road  ;  they 
were  docile  and  hardy  ;  but  their  use  for  draught  has  now  nearly  ceased. 
They  are  strong,  active,  and  willing  ;  but  it  might  be  no  disadvantage  if  they 
were  longer  in  the  leg  and  less  deep  in  the  chest.  The  Anglesey  oxen  have 
a  peculiarly  noble  appearance.  They  were  not  cut  until  they  were  a  year 
old  ;  this  gave  them  a  tierce  and  bull-like  form  about  the  head  and  dewlap  ; 
a  projection  of  the  breast,  and  lofty  bearing  of  the  head.  There  is  still  a 
.stateliness  in  the  gait  of  an  Anglesey  ox,  and  a  haughtiness  of  countenance, 
which  we  have  not  recognized  in  any  other  breed.  It  presents  a,  striking 
contrast  with  the  mild  intelligence  of  the  Devon,  and  the  quiet  submission 
of  the  Hereford.  Early  castration,  however,  is  now  commonly  practised, 
and  the  oxen  are  getting  lighter  about  the  head  and  dewlap. 

Many  of  the  Welsh  traditions  confirm  the  early,  and  indeed  the  exclusive 
use  of  oxen  for  the  plough  ;  and  Howell  the  Good  condescended  to  legis- 
late with  regard  to  these  useful  animals.  The  account  which  he  gives  of 
the  customary  length  of  the  yoke  would  show,  however,  that  the  oxen, 
in  those  times,  were  a  great  deal  smaller  than  we  now  find  them.  What- 
ever number  were  attached  to  the  plough,  (and  great  strength  was  required, 
from  their  perpendicular  manner  of  forming  the  ridge,  even  on  the  steepest 
ground,)  they  were  all  yoked  abreast.  The  short  yoke  for  two  oxen  was 
four  Welsh  feet,  of  nine  inches  each,  (three  English  feet)  in  length  ;  that 
for  four  oxen  was  eight  feet  (six  English  feet)  long ;  and  that  for  eight 
oxen  was  sixteen  (twelve  English)  feet  long*.  An  ordinary  ox  of  the 
present  day  Mrould  require  a  somewhat  larger  space  than  eighteen  inches, 
in  order  to  work,  or  even  to  stand. 

The  oxen  were  not  only  smaller,  but  far  less  numerous  than  at  present, 
or  the  land  was  divided  into  much  smaller  portions.  Each  circumstanue, 
probably,  was  influential  in  the  formation  of  the  fVeUh  Ploughing  Societies  ; 
with  regard  to  which,  also,  the  benevolent  Howell  legislated.  A  great 
many  little  farmers  clubbed  together,  according  to  their  means,  in  order  to 

*  Wottop  s  Leg.  Wal.,  p.  284.  The  old  Welsh  acre  consisted  of  4320  square  yards,  being 
^20  less  than  the  present  statute  one.  .  The  North  Wales  acre,  as  now  calculated,  cunsista 
of  32-10  square  yards,  being  not  quite  three-quarters  of  the  statute  acre. 

62  CATTLB. 

make  up  a  team,  vthich  was  to  plough  an  acre  of  .and  per  day.  The  beat 
sere  was  given  to  the  maker  and  conductor  of  the  plough,  who  was  always 
the  same  person ;  the  second  acre  was  allotted  to  the  owner  of  the  plough- 
irons  ;  the  third  to  the  owner  of  the  right-hand  ox ;  the  fourth  to  that  ot 
his  yoke-mate;  the  fifth  to  the  driver;  then  an  acre  to  the  owner  of  each 
of  the  other  oxen ;  and  the  last  acre  of  all  to  the  furnisher  of  the  plough 

No  more  cows  are  kept  for  the  dairy,  in  Anglesey,  than  are  sufficient  for 
the  home  consumption.  Of  cheese,  little  is  made,  and  what  is  made  is 
often  ill-tasted,  and  of  a  spongy  appearance.  The  fault  of  this,  how- 
ever, lies  more  with  the  farmer's  wife,  or  the  dairy-maid,  than  with  the 
cattle  or  the  soil. 

Having  given  so  full  a  description  of  the  Anglesey  cattle,  our  notices  of 
the  other  districts  of  North  Wales  will  be  comparatively  short. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  straits  of  Menai  we  find 


This  county,  with  the  exception  of  the  promontory  of  Lleyn  at  the  south- 
west extremity  of  it,  consists  of  little  more  than  a  succession  of  abrupt 
rocks,  some  of  them  swelling  into  enormous  mountains.  It  may  therefore 
be  supposed  that  the  cattle  are  small.  They  may  be  considered  as  a 
variety  of  the  Angleseys,  but  inferior  to  them  in  size  and  shape.  Few 
attempts  to  improve  them  have  been  made,  and  those  attended  by  no 
great  success.  Both  the  farmers  and  the  drovers  obstinately  adhere  to 
the  native  breed ;  and  certainly  with  this  apology,  that  no  others  can  vie 
with  them  in  hardiness,  or  be  so  cheaply  reared. 

In  the  promontory  of  Lleyn  the  surface  is  more  level,  and  the  breed 
resembles  that  of  Anglesey,  but  is,  perhaps,  a  little  inferior,  for  the  soil  is 
not  so  rich,  nor  the  pastures  so  luxuriant.  Great  numbers  of  cattle  are 
driven  from  this  district  into  other. parts  of  Wales,  and  also  into  the  mid- 
land counties  of  England. 

A  very  few  oxen  are  here  worked,  but  none  in  the  other  parts  of  the 
county ;  the  extreme  irregularity  of  the  surface  and  the  prejudices  of  the 
farmers  forbidding  it.  Some  good  cheese  is  also  made  in  this  part  of 
Carnarvon  ;  but,  otherwise,  the  business  of  the  dairy  is  completely  neg- 


This  county,  chiefly  devoted  to  breeding,  is  situated  south-east  of  Car- 
narvon, skirting  St.  George's  Channel  from  Carnarvon  to  Cardigan- 
shire; and  is  almost  as  mountainous  as  Carnarvon.  Here  likewise,  on 
the  hilly  ground,  the  cattle  are  only  a  smaller  variety  of  the  Angleseys, 
and  very  inferior  to  them.  They  are  ill-shaped  as  well  as  small,  and,  in 
the  opinion  of  Mr.  Sharp,  of  Rhagatt  near  Corwen,  they  are  some  of  the 
worst  in  Wales.  It  is  the  pure  Welsh  breed,  and  to  which  the  Merioneth 
farmers  have  hitherto  pertinaciously  adhered,  but  it  stands  at  the  very 
bottom  of  the  list,  for  it  has  been  most  disgracefully  neglected.  The 
Merioneth  cattle,  however,  are  capable  of  material  improvement,  if  atten- 
tion were  paid  to  the  selection  of  the  best  of  the  native  breed.  It  is,  after 
all,  the  breed  best  adapted  to  the  situation  and  climate,  and  every  attempt 
to  render  it  more  valuable  by  foreign  admixture  has  uniformly  failed. 

A  better  breed  is  found  in  the  vale  district,  principally  devoted  to  the 
dairy;  and  a  considerable  quantity  of  good  butter  is  made  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Bala,  and  along  the  whole  course  of  the  Dovey.  The  valley 
of  Dovey  affords  the  richest  pasture  in  the  county. 


Thi>  improved  cattle  have  chiefly  been  obtained  from  Shtopshire  or 
Staffordsbire,.and  have  sometimes  been  crossed  with  the  Galloway.  East- 
wara  .of  Merionethshire,  and  bordering  on  Cardigan,  Radnor,  and  Shrop- 
shire, is 


Here,  in  the  hill  country,  the  cattle  are  diminutive,  but  no  longer  closely 
resembling  the  Anglesey.  They  are  of  a  blood-red,  with  a  dark  .sitioky 
face,  ill-made,  although  short-legged;  very  hardy,  good  milkers,  and  with 
a  tolerable  disposition  to  fatten :  but  in  the  vales  of  the  Severn  and  the 
Vyrnwy,  the  pasturage  is  excellent,  and  the  breed  of  cattle  much  supe.ior. 
They  are  here  of  a  light  brown  colour,  with  no  white  except  a  narrow 
band,  from  the  udder  to  the  navel.  The  horns  do  not  stand  wide,  or  turn 
upwards,  but  are  finely  made,  and  of  a  true  yellow  colour.  They  bear 
considerable  resemblance  to  the  Devons  ;  but  in  the  grazing  districts  they 
are  chiefly  abandoned  for  the  Herefbrds,  which  are  found  to  be  suitable 
to  the  soil  aud  climate,  and  much  better  feeders.  Considerable  attention 
is  here  paid  to  the  dairy,  and  particularly  to  the  production  of  cheese, 
which  is  little  inferior  to  the  Cheshire. 

The  cows,  in  this  division  of  the  county,  are  not  only  fair  milkers  but 
the  cattle  generally  show  great  aptitude  to  fatten.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Davies,  in 
his  Survey  of  North  Wales,  quotes  the  opinion  of 'a  grazier  of  good  iudg- 
ment  and  great  experience,'  who  prefers  the  breed  of  this  district,  because 
'  they  collect  bulk  on  the  most  valuable  parts,  and  have  less  offal  than 
those  of  Shropshire.'  About  nine  months'  feeding  with  grass,  hay  and 
turnips,  will  add  about  threescore  pounds'  weight  to  each  of  their 

The  greater  part  of  this  county,  and  particularly  the  hills  of  Kerry  and 
Hopetown  are  little  more  than  waste  land,  and  employed  in  the  breeding 
and  pasturing  of  sheep ;  on  this  account  cattle  are  comparatively  neg- 
lected ;  but  a  great  many  Radnorshire  calving  heifers  used  to  be  bought 
at  the  fairs  on  the  borders  and  kept  on  straw  and  turnips  until  the  spring, 
when  the  Cheshire  drovers  bought  them  for  the  dairies  of  the  cheese- 
making  districts. 

L/ying  north  of  Merioneth  and  Montgomeryshire,  is 


This  is  a  gfeat  breeding  county  ;  but  the  cattle  are  generally,  and  in  the 
hilly  district  partfcularly,  of  an  inferior  kind,  although  resembling  the 
Angleseys.  The  system  of  oversto(;kiiig  used  to  be  carried  to  a  ruin  us 
extent  here.  In  the  vales,  however,  we  ,begin  to  recognize  a  larger  and 
more  valuable  breed,-^a  cross  between  the  Welsh  and  the  long-horn, — 
and  prevailing  more  as  we  approiich  the  borders  of  Flintshire.  The  dairy 
is  considerably  attended  to  in  the  lowlands,  and  some  excellent  cheese  is 
produced  there 


This  county  is  placed  at  the  northern  extremity  of  WaleS  ;  and  is  bounded 
on  the  north  by  the  Irish  Channel,  and  on  the  north-east  by  the  estuary  of 
the  river  Dee.  The  cattle  here  may  almost  be  said  to  have  tost  their 
Y/elsh  character.  They  most  resemble  their  neighbours  in  Cheshire  aud 
in  Shropshire,  but  with  many  variations.  There  cannot  be  said  to 
be  an-   distinct  breed ;    for,   from    their  near  connexion   with   Englandj 

M  CAT1-;.E. 

fresh  supplies  are  continually  brouaht  in  of  almost  eveiy  kinrl.  A  great 
many  calves  are  also  sent  here,  from  Shropshire,  to  be  suckled  and 
grazed,  and  more  particularly  from  Cheshire,  according  to  the  fancy  of 
the  breeders. 

The  Flintshire  cattle  appear  to  mingle  the  rare  qualities  of  being  excelleni 
milkers  and  quick  feeders.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Davies  gives  some  illustrations 
of  this.  He  says  that 'a  Flintshire  cow,  at  Mertyn,  of  the  true  lean  milking 
breed,  gave,  from  May  1st  to  October  30th,  4026  quarts  of  milk,  which 
produced  358  pounds  avoirdupois  of  butter,  being  nearly  equal  to  two 
pounds  of  butter  and  22  quarts  of  milk  per  day,  for  193  days  successively.' 
On  the  other  hand,  he  says,  that  a  gentleman  of  Flintshire,  after  '  having 
worked  his  oxen  until  he  had  finished  turnip-sowing  in  June,  sold  a  pair 
of  them  to  a  neighbouring  grazier  for  2bl.,  being  about  the  market-price. 
These,  without  the  aid  of  any  other  luxury  than  rest  from  labour  and 
plenty  of  grass,  were  so  increased  in  bulk,  by  the  December  following, 
that  they  sold  for  more  than  double  their  prime  cost.' 

A  considerable  quantity  of  good  butter  is  made  in  this  district,  but  the 
attention  of  the  dairyman  is  more  devoted  to  the  manufacture  of  cheese, 
which  is  little,  if  at  all,  inferior  to  the  genuine  Cheshire.  iSacn  cow  is 
supposed  to  produce  nearly  thiee  hundred-weight  of  cheese  every  year. 


Scotland  contains  several  distinct  and  valuable  breeds  of  cattle  evidently 
belonging  to  our  present  division,  'The  Middle  Horns.'  The  West  High- 
landers, whether  we  regard  those  that  are  found  in  the  Hebrides, 
or  the  county  of  Argyle,  seem  to  retain  most  of  the  aboriginal  character. 
They  have  remained  unchanged,  or  improved  only  by  selection,  for  many 
generations,  or  indeed  from  the  earliest  accounts  that  we  possess  of  Scot- 
tish cattle. 

The  North  Highlanders  are  a  smaller,  coarser,  and  in  every  way 
inferior  race,  and  owe  the  greater  part  of  what  is  valuable  about  them  to 
crosses  from  the  Western  breed. 

The  North-Eastern  Cattle  were  derived  from,  and  bear  a  strong 
resemblance  to  the  West  Highlander,  but  are  of  considerably  larger  size. 

The  Fife  Breed  are  almost  as  valuable  for  the  dairy,  as  for  the 
grazier,  and  yield  to  few  in  activity  and  docility. 

The  Ayrshire  Breed  are  second  to  none  as  milkers.  Many  of  the 
varied  mingling  breeds  of  the  Lowlands  are  valuable. 

The  Galloways,  which  scarcely  a  century  ago  were  middle-horned, 
and  with  difficulty  distinguished  from  the  West  Highlanders,  are  now  a 
polled  breed, — increased  in  size,  with  more  striking  resemblance  to  their 
kindred  the  Devons — with  all  their  aptitude  to  fatten,  and  with  a  hardi- 
ness of  constitution  which  the  Devons  never  possessed.  All  these  shall 
pass  rapidly  in  review  before  us. 


We  will  first  describe  the  cattle  of  the  islands  on  the  Western  coast,  to 
which  the  honour  of  being,  or,  at  least  of  retaining  the  character  of  the 
primitive  breed  is  now  generally  yielded,  and  whence  aie  procured  the 
purest  and  the  best  specimens  selected  to  preserve  or  to  improve  the 
Highland  cattle  in  other  districts. 

(     65     ) 


\rii»  fTetl  Highland  Bull.^ 
Skirting  the  coast,  from  the  i)roinontory  of  Cantire  to  the  northern  ex- 
tremity of  Scotland,  is  a  range  of  islands  appearing  liiie  so  many  frag- 
ments torn  off  from  the  main  land :  these  are  the  Hebrides,  or  Hebudas ; 
nearly  two  hundred  in  number,  and  about  half  of  them  inhabited  by  man. 
They  may  be  conveniently  divided  into  two  groups,  the  inner  and  the 
outer;  the  inner  consisting  of  the  larger  islands,  and  some  of  them  sepa- 
rated from  the  main  land  by  narrow  channels  only  ;  the  outer  Hebrides 
being  thirty  or  forty  miles  farther  from  shore. 

Little  is  known  of  the  history  of  the  Hebudans,  except  that  they 
descended  from  the  same  stock  with  the  Irish  and  ^he  Highlanders, 
but  were  oftener  exposed  to  the  incursions  of  roving  tribes  from  every 
quarter,  and  who  successively  mingled  with,  and  were  lost  among,  hut 
never  superseded  the  original  inhabitants.  If  we  are  to  credit  the  con- 
current testimony  of  many  old  legends,  and  confirmed  by  the  re- 
mains of  ancient  pillars,  and  castles,  and  fortifications,  which  some  ot 
the  islands  yet  present,  the  Hebudans  of  early  times  were  powerful  and 
civilized.  'The  kingdom  of  the  Innsegallians  was  the  pride  of  its  allies 
and  the  terror  of  its  foes  .'* 

Sir  Walter  Scott  says,  that  'in  Malcolm's  reign  (Malcolm  IV.,  1153,> 
the  Lords  of  the  Hebridean  islands,  scarcely  acknowledgin:;  even  a  nominal 
allegiance  either  to  the  crown  of  Scotland  or  that  of  Norway,  though 
daimed  by  both  countries,  began  to  give  much  annoyance  to  the  western 
coasts  of  Scotland,  to  which  their  light-armed  gallevs  or  hirlins,  and  their 
habits  of  piracy,  gave  great  facilities  .'t  '  Alexander  II.  died  in  the  remote 
island  of  Kerrera  in  the  Hebrides,  while  engaged  in  an  expedition  to 
compel  the  island  chiefs  to  transfer  to  the  Scottish  king  a  homage 
irhich.  some  of  them  had  paid  to  Norway.'^  In  1 263  all  the  Western 
Islands  were  annexed  to  the  Scottish  crown  under  Alexander  III.  § 

The  occupation  and  character  of  the  Hebudans  does  not  appear  to  Iwve 

^  Macdonald's  Scandena. 
t  History  ofScotlaiid,,(Ij!iidner's  Cabinet  Cyclopedia,)  vol.  i.  p.  34 
I  Ibid.,  p.  43.  §  Ibid.,  p..47./-      ■ 

16  c.-vrrLK. 

been  ameliorated  .by  this  change  ;  but  the  chiefs  of  the  -  different  islands, 
too  far  from  the  seat  of  government  to  be  under  mnch  control,  were  con 
tinually  at  war  with  each  other;  and  the  arts  of  agriculture  being 
neglected,  they  were  compelled  to  resort  to  a  predatory  way  of  life  in 
order  to  obtain  the  means  of  subsistence :  and  thus,  for  more  than  three 
centuries,  the  Hebrides  were  the  resort  of  refugees,  smugglers,  and 
freebooters  ;  and,  at  no  very  remote  period,  the  inhabitants  were  singularly 
uncultivated,  ignorant,  idle,  and  miserable. 

After,  however,  the  union  between  the  English  and  Scottish  kingdoms, 
and  when  civilization  had  commenced  on  the  mainland,  the  Hebrideans 
began  to  be  reclaimed,  and  that  was  chiefly  manifested  in,  and  promoted 
by,  a  change  of  occupation.  Although  they  did  not  abandon  their  sea- 
taring  life,  they  became  honest,  and  were  industrious  fishermen,  and  they 
began  to  learn  to  be  agriculturists.  Their  cattle,  which  had  been  totally 
neglected,  and  their  value  altogether  unknown,  retained  their  primitive 
character*;  tiie  Uebiidans  for  the  first  time  became  aware  of  this,  and 
they  bred  them  in  greater  numbers,  and  a  few  of  the  most  intelligen* 
farmers  endeavoured  to  improve  them  by  selections  from  the  best  speci- 
mens of  their  native  stock:  the  result  has  been,  that  the  breeds  of  ."some 
of  these  islands  now  bear  the  highest  price  among  the  Highland  cattle. 

It  may  be  supposed  that  in  a  group  of  islands  extending  nearly  two 
handred  miles  from  north  to  south,  there  will  be  considerable  difference 
in  the  character  and  value  of  the  breed;  but  through  the  whole  of  them 
the  striking  peculiarities  of  the  Highland  cattle  are  suflSciently  evident, 
except  where  they  have  been  debased  by  the  admixture  of  Irish  blood. 
The  principal  difference  is  in  the  size,  and  there  the  cattle  of  the  southern- 
most island,  Islay,  claim  the  superiority.  This  island  is  sheltered  by  its 
situation  from  the  storms  to  which  most  of  the  others  are  exposed,  and 
the  pasturage  is  better  ;  the  cattle  are  therefore  earlier  ready  for  the 
market,  and  attain  a  greater  weight.  It  is  not,  however,  certain  that  this 
increase  of  size  would  be  of  advantage  on  the  northern  islands,  or 
even  on  the  mainland; — the  cattle,  deprived  of  a  portion  of  their 
hardihood,  would  not  be  proof  against  the  inclemency  of  the  weather, 
and  would  starve  on  such  scanty  forage  as  the  Highlands  in  general 
can  supply.  Breeders  are  so  much  aware  of  this,  that  they  endeavour  to 
preserve  the  purity  and  value  of  their  stock,  by  selecting,  not  from  the 
districts  wjiere  the  size  has  increased,  but,  by  almost  general  consent,  from 
the  Isle  of  Skye,  where  the  cattle  are  small,  but  are  suited  to  the  soil  and 
to  the  climate;  and  can  be  most  easily  dnd  securely  raised  at  the  least 
expense;  and  when  removed  to  better  provender,  will  thrive  with  a  rapidity 
almost  incredible. 

The  origin  of  the  term  Kyloe  is  obscure.  Some  writers,  and  among 
whom  is  Sir  John  Sinclair,  have  curiously  traced  it  to  their  crossing  the 
many  Kylogs,  or  ferries  which  abound  in  the  West  of  Scotland ;  others, 
and  with  more  propriety,  and  one  of  whom  is  Mr.  Macdonald,  the  author 
of  the  Agriculture  of  the  Highlands,  tells  us,  that  it  is  a  corruption  of  the 

*  That  excellent  agriculturist,  Adam  Ferguson,  Esq.,  of  Woodhill,  expresses  a  similar 
opinion  in  his  ingenious  Essay  on  Crossing,  contained  in  the  First  Number  of  the  Quar- 
terly Journal  of  Agriculture.  '  I  cannot  but  regard  the  West  Highlanders,  or,  rather, 
Islanders,  as  more  genuine  than  anjr  other  breed  we  possess  in  Scotland,  excepting,  it 
may  be,  the  small  remnant  of  aborigines  in  the  park  of  his  Grace  the  Duke  of  Hamilton. 
The  moist  climate,  mild  winter,  and,  consequently,  grassy  tendency  of  our  Western 
Islands,  point  them  out  as  having  been,  in  all  likelihood,  early  storked  with  the  Boves 
Tauri,  of  fine  form  and  healthy  constitution ;  and  the  little  intercourse  for  commercial 
purposes  with  the  mainland  during  many  ages,  gave  a  permanence  to  their  individuality 
not  BO  easily  secured  elsewhere. 


Gaelic  word  which  signifies  Highlani,  and  is  cummonly  pronounced  ai 
■f  spelled  Kael. 

We  have  been  favoured  with  the  following  excellent  description  of  the 
true  Kyloe,  or  West  Highland  bull,  by  Malcolm  M'Neill,  Esq.,  of  the  Isle  of 
Islay,  the  southernmost  of  the  inner  range  of  the  Hebrides: — '  The  High- 
land bull  should  be  black,  the  head  not  laitge,  the  ears  thin,  the  muzzle 
'ioe,  and  rather  turned  up.  He  should  be  broad  in  the  face,  the  eyes 
prominent,  and  the  countenance  calm  and  placid.  The  horns  should 
taper  finely  to  a  point;  and,  neither  droopin<;  too  much,  nor  rising  too  high, 
should  be  of  a  waxy  colour,  and  widely  set  on  at  the  root.  The  neck 
should  be  fine,  particularly  where  it  joins  tlie  head,  and  rising  with  a 
gentle  curve  from  the  shoulder.  The  breast  wide,  and  projecting  well 
before  the  legs.  The  shoulders  broad  at  the  top,  and  the  chine  so  full  as 
to  leave  but  little  hollow  behind  them.  The  girth  behind  the  shoulder 
deep  ;  the  back  straight,  wide,  and  flat ;  the  ribs  broad ;  the  space 
between  them  and  the  hips  small ;  the  belly  not  sinking  low  in  the  middle; 
yet,  in  the  whole,  not  forming  the  round  and  barrel-like  carcase  which 
some  have  described.  The  thigh  tapering  tu  the  hock-joint;  the  bones 
larger  in  proportion  to  the  size  than  in  the  breeds  of  the  southern  districts. 
The  tail  set  on  a  level  with  the  back.  The  lega  short  and  straight.  The 
whole  carcase  covered  with  a  thick  long  coat  of  hair,  and  plenty  of  hair 
also  about  the  face  and  horns,  and  that  hair  not  curly. 

The  value  of  the  West  Highland  cattle  consists  in  their  being  hardy, 
and  easily  fed  ;  in  that  they  will  live,  and  sometimes  thrive,  on  the  coarsest 
pastures  ;  that  they  will  frequently  gain  from  a  fourth  to  a  third  of  their 
original  weight  in  six  months'  good  feeding ;  that  the  proportion  of  of&l  is 
not  greater  than  in  the  most  improved  larger  breeds  ;  that  they  will  lay 
their  flesh  and  fat  equably  on  the  best  parts ;  and  that,  when  fat,  the  beef 
is  closed  fine  in  the  grain,  highly  flavoured,  and  so  well  mixed  or  marbled, 
.liat  it  commands  a  superior  price  in  every  macket. 

The  different  islands  of  the  Hebrides  contain  about  one  hundred  and 
Sfty  thousand  of  these  cattle,  of  which  it  is  calculated  that  one- fifth 
are  sent  annually  to  the  main  land,  principally  through  Jura,  or  across 
firom  the  ferry  of  the  Isle  of  Skye.  If  these  average  about  5Z.  per  head,  the 
amount  will  be  1 50,000/.,  or  more  than  the  rental  of  the  whole  of  the 
islands,  which  Mr.  Macdonald  calculated  at  106,720Z ,  but  which  now 
produces  a  'greater  sum.  Cattle,  therefore,  constitute  th.e  staple  commodity 
of  the  Hebrides.  Three  thousand  five  hundred  are  annually  exported 
from  the  island  of  Islay  alone. 

Mr.  Moorhouse,  from  Craven,  in  Yorkshire,  in  1763,  was  the  first  Eng- 
lishman who  came  into  the  Hebrides  to  buy  cattle.  In  the  absence  of  her 
husband,  Mr.  M'Donald,  of  Kingsburgh,  he  was  kindly  entertained  by 
■Flora  M'Donald,  who  made  up  for  him  the  same  bed  that,  seventeen  years 
before,  had  received  ths  unfortunate  Prince  Charles. 

From  Skye  Mr.  Moorhouse  went  to  Raasay,  whither,  in  three  days, 
Kingsburgh  followed  him ;  and,  during  a  walk  in  the  garden,  on  a  fine 
harvest  evening,  they  bargained  for  one  thousand  cattle,  at  two  guineas  a 
head,  to  be  delivered  free  of  expense  at  Falkirk.  Two  days  before  he  had 
bought  six  hundred  from  Mr.  M'Leod,  of  Waterside,  at  21.  5s.  6d. 

Forty  years  ago  the  treatment  of  cattle  was,  with  very  few  exceptions, 
absurd  and  ruinous,  to  a  strange  degree,  through  the  whole  of  the  Hebrides. 
Withihe  exception  tff  the  milch  cows,  but  not  even  of  the  calves,  they  weie 
all  wintered  in  the  field :  if  they  were  scantily  fed  with  hay,  it  was  coarse. 
and  withered,  and  half-rotten ;  or  if  they  got  a  little  straw,  they  were 
(.hmio-ht  to  be  well  taken  care  of.     Tbe  majority  got  little  more  than  g««- 



weed,  heather,  and  rushes.  One-fifth  of  the  cattle,  on  an  average,  used  to 
perish  every  winter  from  starvation.  When  the  cold  had  been  unusually 
Revere,  and  the  snow  had  lain  long  on  the  ground,  one -half  of  the  stock 
has  been  lost,  and  the  remainder  have  afterwards  been  thinned  by  the 
diseases  which  poverty  had  engendered. 

It  proved  the  excellency  of  the  breed,  that  in  the  course  of  two  or  three 
months  so  many  of  them  got  again  into  good  store-condit'ion,  and  might 
almost  be  said  to  be  half-fat,  and  could  scarcely  be  restrained  by  any  fence  : 
in  fact,  there  are  numerous  instances  of  these  cattle,  which  had  been 
reduced  to  the  most  dreadful  state  of  impoverishment,  becoming  fattened 
for  the  butcher  in  a  few  months,  after  being  placed  on  some  of  the  rich 
summer  pastures  of  Islay,  Lewis,  or  Skye. 

The  cows  were  housed  during  the  winter;  but  among  the  small  farmers 
t>.is  was  conducted  in  a  singular  way — for  one  rude  dwelling  contained 
and  sheltered  both  the  family  and  the  cattle.  The  family  had  their  beds  of, 
straw  or  heath  in  the  niches  of  the  walls,  while  the  litter  was  never  removed 
from  the  cattle,  but  fresh  layers  of  straw  were  occasionally  laid  down,  and 
so  the  floor  rose  with  the  accumulation  of  dung  and  litter,  until  the 
season  of  spreading  it  upon  the  land,  when  it  was  at  length  taken  away*. 

The  peculiarity  of  the  climate  and  the  want  of  inclosed  lands,  and  the 
want,  too,  of  forethought  in  the  farmer,  were  the  chief  causes  of  this 
wretched  system  of  winter  starvation.  The  rapidity  of  vegetation  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  spring  is  astonishing  in  these  islands.  A  good  pasture 
can  scarcely  be  left  a  fortnight  without  growing  high  and  rank ;  and  even 
the  unenclosed  and  marshy  and  heathy  grounds  are  comparatively  luxu- 
riant. In  consequence  of  this  the  farmer  fully  stocked,  or  overstocked, 
even  this  pasture.  He  crowded  his  fields  at  the  rate  of  six  or  eight 
beasts  or  more  to  an  acre.  Fium  their  natural  a^jtitude  to  fatten  they, 
got  into  tolerable  con<lition,  but  not  such  as  they  might  have  attained,, 
whether  destined  for  the  salesman  or  the  butcher.  Winter,  however,  suc- 
ceeded to  summer:  no  provision  had  been  made  for  it,  except  for  the 
cows;  and  the  beasts  that  were  not  properly  fed  even  in  the  summer, 
languished  and  starved  in  the  winter  t. 

The  Hebrides,  however,  have  partaken  of  that  ►mprovement  in  agricul- 
tiue  of  which  we  shall  have  frequently  to  speak  when  describing  the  dif- 
ferent districts  of  Scotland.  In  the  island  of  Islay,  the  greater  part  of 
which  is  the  property  of  Walter  F.  Campbell,  Esq.,  and  to  whoni  we  are 
indebted  for  much  valuable  information,  the  following  is  the  general  system 
of  management  among  the  better  kind  of  farmers,  and  the  account  will 
apply  to  the  Hebrides  generally,  and  to  Argyleshire. 

*  Mr.  Garnet  in  his  '  Tour  tliroujjh  the  Hijjhlands,'  gives  a  sadder  account  of  the 
freiiueiit  joint  occvipaney  of  the  same  hut,  by  the  jieasant  and  his  cattle,  in  the  Island  of 
Mull.  He  had  Ijeen  speaking  of  the  privations  of  the  peasant,  hv  adds — '  Nor  are  his 
I'attle  in  a  better  situation  :  in  summer  they  pick  up  a  scanty  support  among  the- morasses 
and  heathy  mountains,  but  in  winter,  when  the  jjround  is  covered  with  snow,  and  when 
the  naked  wilds  aflbrd  them  neither  shelter  nor  subsistence,  the  few  cows,  small,- lean 
and  ready  to  drop  for  want  of  pasture,  are  brought  into  the  hut  where  the  family  resides, 
ind  frequently  share  with  them  their  little  stock  of  meal  which  had  been  purchased  oi 
raised  for  the  family  only ;  while  the  cattle  thus  sustained,  are  bled  occasionally  to  affiird 
nourishment  foi  the  children  after  the  mingled  oatmeal  and  blood  has  been  boiled  ut 
made  into  cakes.' 

f  Dr  Walker,  in  his  Account  of  the  Hebrides,  gives  a  very  curious  statement  of  the 
disproportion  between  the  stock  and  the  rent  of  a  farm  ;  a  dis{)roportion  which  must  be 
exceedingly  jjreat,  however  low  the  rental  may  be.  '  A  farm  in  was  found  to  have 
on  it  40  milch  cows,  which  with  their  youug  stock,  from  a  calf  to  a  four-year  old,  made 
about  120  head  of  cattle;  besides  80  ewes  and  40  goats,  which,  with  their  young,  were 
about  250;  and  lU  horses.  Yet  this  farm,  with  arable  laud  sufficient  to  supply  all  the 
family,  was  rented  only  at  Iwenly  puunda  a  year.' 


It  is  contrived,  as.  much  as  passible,  that  the  calves  stiall  be  aropped: 
from  the  1st  of  February  to  the  middle  of  April.  All  the  calves  are 
reared ;  and  for  the  first  three  or  four  mouths  they  are  allowed  to  suck 
three  times  in  the  day,  but  they  are  not  permitted  to  draw  any.  great 
quantity  at  a  time.  In  summer  all  the  cattle  are  pastured  ;  the  calves  are 
sent  to  their  dams  twice  in  the  day,  and  the  strippings,  or  last  part  of  the 
mdk,  is  taken  away  by  the  dairy-maid,  for  it  is  commonly  supposed,  that 
if  the  calf  is  allowed  to  draw  all  the  milk  he  can,  it  will  keep  the  dam  in 
low  condition,  and  prevent  her  being  in  calf  in  proper  time.  The  calves 
are  separated  from  their  dams  two  or  three  weeks  before  the  cast-cows  are- 
sent  to  the  cattle-tryst  at  the  end  of  October,  for  it  is  believed  that  if  the 
cows  had  milk  in  their  udders  they  might  be  injured  in  the  long  journeys 
they  are  then  to  take;  the  greater  part  of  them  being  diiven  as  far  as  the 
Lowland  districts,  whence  they  gradually  find  their  way  to  the  central  and 
southern  counties  of  England. 

The  calves  are  housed  in  the  beginning  of  November,  and  are  highly 
fed  on  hay'and  roots  (for  the  raismg  of  which  the  soil  and  climate  are 
admirably  adapted)  until  the  month  of  May.  When  there  is  plenty  of 
keep,  the  breeding  cows  are  housed  in  November,  but  in  general  they  are 
kept  out  until  three  or  four  weeks  before  calving.  In  May  the  whole 
cattle  are  turned  out  to  pasture,  and,  if  it  is  practicable,  those  of  different 
ages  are  kept  separate ;  while,  by  shifting  the  cattle,  the  pasture  is  kept  as 
much  as  possible  in  eatable  condition,  that  is,  neither  eaten  too  bare,  nor 
allowed  to  get  too  rank,  or  to  run  into  seed. 

In  the  winter  and  the  spring  all  the  cattle  except  the  breeding  cows  are 
fed  in  the  fields,  the  grass  of  which  is  preserved  from  the  r2th  of  Augus 
to  the  end  of  October.  When  these  inclosures  become  bare,  about  the  end 
of  December,  a  little  hay  is  taken  into  the  field  witli  turnips  or  potatoes, 
once  or  twice  in  the  day,  according  to  circumstances,  until  the  middle  or 
end  of  April.  Few  only  of  the  farmers  have  these  roots  to  give  them,  and 
the  feeding  of  the  out^lying  cattle  with  straw  is  quite  abolished.  If  any 
of  them>,  however,  are  very  materially  out  of  condition,  they  are  fed  with 
oats  in  the  sheaf.  At  two,  or  three,  or  four  years  old,  all,  except  the  heifers 
that  are  retained  for  breeding,  are  sent  to  market. 

There  is  little  or  no  variety  of,  breeds  of  cattle  in  the  Hebrides.  They 
are  pure  West  Highlanders.  Indeed,  it  is  the  belief  of  the  Hebridean 
farmer,  that  nO'  other  breed  of  cattle  will  thrive  on  these  islands,  and  that 
the  Kyloes  could  not  possibly  be  improved  by  being  crossed  with  any 
others.  He  appeals  to  his  uniform  experience,  and  most  correctly  so  in 
the  Hebrides,  that  attempts  at  crossing  have  only  destroyed  the  symmetry 
of  the  Kyloes,  and  rendered  them  more  delicate,  and  less  suitable  to  the 
climate  and  the  pasture. 

By  selection  from  the  choicest  of  the  stock,  however,  the  West  High- 
lander has  been  materially  improved  The  Islay,  the  Isle  of  Skye,  and 
the  Argyleshire  beast,  readily  obtains  a  considerably  higher  price  than  any 
other  cattle  reared  in  the  Highlands  of  Scotland.  Mr.  M'Neil  has  been 
eminently  successful  in  his  attempts  to  improve  the  native  breed. .  He  has 
often  obtained  lOOi.  for  three  and  four-year-old  bulls  out  of  his  stock;  an<? 
for  one  bull  he  received  200^.  He  never  breeds  from  bulls  less  than  three 
years,  or  more  than  ten  years  old ;  and  he  disapproves,  and  rightly  in  such 
a  climate,  of  the  system  of  breeding  in  and  in.  He  also  adheres  to  that 
golden  rule  of  breeding,  the  careful  selection  of  the  female;  and,  indeed, 
it  is  not  a  small  sum  that  would  induce  the  Hebridean  farmer  to  part  with 
any  of  his  pjcksd  cows. 

It  is  true  that  grazing  has  never  been  the  principal  object  of  the  Hebri- 

orthy  of  his  attention;  thej'e 


are  very  few  cattle  fattened  upon  any  cf  the  islands,  or  in  the  north  or 
centre  of  Scotland ;  but  cast-cows  from  some  of  the  best  stocks,  when 
grass-fed  in  the  Lowlands  of  Scotland,  weigh  more  ,than  forty  Imperial 
stones.  It  may,  however,  be  worth  inquiry,  whether  the  farmer  has  not 
forgotten  his  own  interest  in  this  exclusive  pursuit  of  breeding.  Mr. 
Macdonald,  in  his  '  Survey  of  the  Hebrides,'  has  placed  this  in  an  inte- 
resting point  of  view.  He  selects  the  islands  of  North  Uist  and  Tiree 
for  the  purpose  of  illustration,  because  the  improved  system  of  husbandry 
is  little  adopted  there,  although  the  herbage  is  good.  We  will  condense 
and  a  little  alter  his  calculation,  agreeably  to  the  different  prices  and 
management  of  the  present  time  :- 

We  will  suppose  that  in  October  or  November  900  head 
of  neat  cattle,  well  salted,  and  weighing  33  stones. 
Imperial,   are  sold   at   Greenock  or  Liverpool  at 
4s.  6d.  per  stone  *.     This  would  amount  to         .      ^£6687     0    0 
We  will  alsi)  suppose  that  the  same  cattle, 
sold  iu  April  or  May  to  the  drovers, 
would  have  fetched  Al.  15s.  per  head ; 
but  as,  in  the  course  of  six  months,  at 
least  one  in  ten  would  have  been  lost 
by  disease  or  accident,  we  will  say  that 
the   farmer   had    then    1000    cattle    at 
41.  15s.  amounting  to         .  .         ^4,750     0     0 

The  best  grass  is  let  at  12s.  per  head  for 

these  six  months,  making         .  .  600     0     0 

The  exjjense  of  looking  after,  at  2s.  per 

head  ..... 

Salt  and  casks,  at  8s.  each 
Sending  td  market,  5s.  each 
Interest  of  4,750Z.  for  six  months 

Total  expenses 

Balance  in  favour  of  fattening     ,     ^503  14     0 

Or  more  than  10  per  cent ;  and  this  average  is  taken  very  low,  for  the 
cattle  will  usually  weigh  more  than  20  stones  per  head. 

It  is  fair,  however,  to  suppose  that  the  Hebridean  farmer  best  knows  his 
own  interest, — yet  this  may  deserve  consideration. 

It  will  be  concluded  from  what  we  have  said  of  the  milking  properties 
of  the  Kyloe,  that  the  dairy  is  considered  as  a  matter  of  little  consequence 
in  the  Hebrides ;  and  the  farmer  rarely  keeps  more  milch  cowsi  than  will 
furnish  his  family  with  milk  and  butter  and  cheese.  The  Highland  cow 
will  not  yield  more  than  a  third  part  of  the  milk  that  is  obtained  from  the 
Ayrshire  one  at  no  great  distance  on  the  main  land ;  but  that  milk  is  ex 
Geedingly  rich,  and  the  batter  procured  from  it  is  excellent.  In  Arran  and 
Bute,  in  the  Firth  of  Clyde,  the  Ayrshire  cow  was  partially  introduced 
from  the  neighbouring  coast,  but  in  the  other  islands  of  the  Hebrides,  the 
Highland  cow  is  obstinately  retained.  In  North  Uist  and  Tiree  the 
dairy  is  more  successfully  followed  than  in  the  other  islands,  partly  on 

*  In  lome  of  the  southern  islands,  and  paiticulacly  in  CoUonsay  and  Islay,  the  pure 
native  breed  are  frequently  fattened  to  from  34  to  42  stones  Imperial.  Mr.  Campbell, 
of  Shawfield,  had  a  heifer  which,  when  slaughtered,  weighed  63  stones ;  but  among  the 
lower  class  of  farmers  a,  bullock  of  fair  size  will  weigh  about  33  stones,  and  a  heifer 
25  stones.  They  are  larger  in  the  southern  islands  than  they  are  in  Skye,  for  the  pasturr 
is  better,  and  they  might  be  raised  to  a  still  greater  size,  were  it  not  for  the  shamefiil 
lyitem  of  overstocking,  to  which  weiils;"  1,-,; ;  ,->  .:'t^;  S^  -.\\-^~, 

100     0 


360     0 


225     0 


148     6 



6     0 


account  of  the  goodness  of  the  herbage,  but  principally  because  the  cows 
yield  milk  for  a  long^er  time  after  calving  than  in  the  neighbouring  isles. 

The  management  of  the  dairy  is  exceedingly  simple,  and,  from  the 
very  simplicity  of  it,  other  districts  may  learn  a  useful  lesson.  The  cows 
are  driven  as  .slowly  and  quietly  as  possible  to  the  fold  ;  the  wild  -character 
of  the  animals,  as  well  as  a  regard  to  the  quality  of  the  milk,  show  the 
propriety  of  this.  They  are  carefully  drained  to  the  last  drop,  not  only  on 
account  of  the  superior  richness  of  the  latter  portion  of  the  milk,  but 
because  the  retention  of  any  part  is  apt  to  hasten,  if  it  does  not  produce, 
that  which  is  one  of  the  principal  objections  to  the  Highland  cows  as 
milkers,  the  speedy  drying  up  of  their  milk.  The  milk  is  carried  to  the 
house  with  as  little  disturbance  as  practicable,  and  put  into  vessels  'of  not 
more  than  two  or  three  inches  in  depth.  The  cream  is  supposed  to  rise 
more  rapidly  in  these  shallow  vessels;  and  it  is  removed  in  the  course  of 
eighteen  hours.  A  cow  will  not,  on  the  average,  yield  more  than  22  lbs. 
of  butter  (of  24  oz.  each)  in  the  summer  season :  she  will  yield  about 
90  lbs.  of  cheese,  which  is  much  liked  by  some  on  account  of  the  aromatic 
Huviiur  which  is  given  to  it  by  the  mixture  of  rose-leaves,  cinnamon,  mace, 
cloves,  and  lemon  with  the  rennet  *. 

Oxen  are  never  used  for  ihe  plough  or  on  the  road  on  any  of  the 

We  have  stated  that  more  than  20,000  of  the  Hebridean  cattle  are  con- 
veyed to  the  mainland,  some  of  whom  find  their  way  even  to  the  southern- 
most counties  of  England  ;  but  like  the  other  Highland  cattle  their  journey 
is  usually  slow  and  interrupted.  Their  first  resting-place  is  not  a'  great 
way  from  the  coast,  for  they  are  frequently  wintered  on  the  coarse  pas- 
tures of  Dumbartonshire ;  and  in  the  next  summer,  after  grazing  awhile 
on  the  lower  grounds,  they  are  driven  farther  south,  where  they  are  fed 
during  the  second  winter  on  turnips  and  hay.  In  April  they  are  in  good 
condition,  and  prepared  for  the  early  grass,  on  which  they  are  finished. 

Many  of  these  small  cattle  are  permanently  arrested  in  their  journey, 
and  kept  on  low  farms  to  consume  the  coarse  grass,  which  other  breeds 
refuse  to  eat;  these  are  finished  off  on  turnips,  which  are  given  them  in 
the  field  about  the  end  of  Autumn,  and  they  are  sold  about  Christinas. 

In  the  Outer  Hebrides,  principally  separated  from  the  inner  range  by 
the  channel  called  the  Minsh,  and,  from  the  apparent  continuity  in  the 
range  of  the  islands,  and  the  hills  all  running  in  the  same  direction,  called 
the  Long  Island,  there  is  but  little  improvement  in  agriculture,  although 
tile  pasturage  is  quite  equal  to  the  generality  of  that  in  the  inner  range,  and 
the  cattle  are  of  somewhat  more  diminutive  size.  Mr.  Macgillivray,  in  his 
'  Prize  Essay  on  the  present  State  of  the  Outer  Hebrides,'  says,  '  The 
black  cattle  are  small,  but  well  proportioned ;  and  on  the  tacksmen's  farms 
^a  tacksman  is  one  who  has  a  large  tract  of  land,  which  he  holds  by  they  are  generally  of  good  breed,  and,  although  not  heavy,  very 

*  Martin,  in  his  account  of  the  Western  Isles  of  Scotland,  sixty  years  ago,  describes  a 
superstition  which  then  prevailed:  '  It  is  a  received  opinion  in  these  islands,  that  women, 
by  a  charm,  or  some  other  secret  way,  are  able  to  convey  the  increiise  of  their  neighbours' 
cuws'  milk  to  their  own  use :  anil  that  th»  milk  so  charmed  dues  not  produce  the^  ordinary 
liiiantity  of  butter,  and  the  curds  made  of  thai  milk  are  so  tough  that  it  cannot  be  made  so 
hrm  as  other  cheese,  and  is  also  much  lighter  in  weight.  The  butter  so  taken  away  and 
joined  to  the  charmer's  butter,  is  evidently  discernible  by  a  mark  of  separation,  viz.  the 
diversity  of  colours;  that  which  is  charmed  being  still  paler  than  th^tpart  of  th»  butter 
which  hatji  nut  been  charmed ;  and  if  butter  haiving  these  marks  be  foimd  with  a  suspected 
woman,  she  is  directly  said  to  be  guilty.  Their  usual  way  of  recovering  their  loss,  is  to 
take  a  little  of  the  rennet  from  all  the  suspected  persons,  and  put  it  in  an  egg-shell  full  oi 
milk,  and  when  that  from  the  chamber  is  mingled  with  it,  it  curdles,  and  not  before.' 




[  ra«  H'esl  High/ami  Cow. ) 

haiidsuiiie.  They  are  covered  with  a  thick  and  long  pile  during  winter 
and  spring  ;  and  a  good  pile  is  considered  one  of  the  essential  qualifica 
♦.ions  of  a  cow.  The  most  common  colours  are  black,  red,  brown,  or 
hrandered  (that  is,  a  mixture  of  red  and  brown  with  stripes — brindkd') , 
A  whitish  dun  colour  is  also  pretty  frequently  seen,  not  unlike  that  of  the 
original  wild  cattle  of  Scotland,  both  the  horned  breed  at  Chillingham, 
and  the  polled  one  at  Hamilton  ;  and  it  is  remarked,  that  in  all  their  tra- 
ditions or  fables  of  what  are  called  fairy-cattle,  this  is  the  colour  ascribed 
to  these  animals.  The  breed  of  black  cattle  has  been  greatly  iinpruved  ot 
late  years,  by  the  importation  of  bulls  and  cows  from  various  parts  of  the 

On  the  tacksmen's  farms  the  cattle  are  not  housed  in  v.'inter,  excepting 
the  calves  ;  those  belonging  to  the  cottars  generally  are.  In  summer  the 
cows  and  the  milch-sheep  are  sent  to  the  inland  glens  and  moors,  which 
are  covered  with  hard  grasses  and  rushes,  because  the  portion  that  yields 
soft  grass  is  not  sufficient  for  their  consumption  during  the  whole  year. 
They  are  attended  by  a  woman  from  each  family,  who  has  a  small  hut  or 
shealing  for  her  habitation,  and  who  makes  the  little  butter  and  cheese 
which  their  scanty  milk  affords.  The  cows  are  thus  kept  in  good  pasture 
during  the  greater  part  of  the  summer, and  autumn,  when  the  young  beasts 
are  sent  to  the  moors.  Towards  the  winter  all  the  cattle  are  brought  to  the 
lower  grounds,  and_  the  stirks  are  separated  and  housed  ai  night.  The 
latter  are  fed  excliisively  on  hay  and  straw,  portions  of  which  are  dis 
tiibuted  to  the  other  cattle  during  snow. 

The  cattle  of  the  small  tenants  are  all  housed  at  uight  during  the 
winter,  and  fed  upon  straw,  hay,  and  the  refuse  of  the  family  meal^. 
The  habitations  of  these  people  are  usually  divided  into  three  apartments. 
The  first,  which  occupies  half  of  the  hut,  is  the  general  entrance,  and 
contains  the  agricultural  implements,  poultry,  and  cattle.  The  second, 
comprising  a  fourth  of  the  hut,  is  that  in  which  the  family  reside ;  and  the 
inner  one,  of  the  same  size,  is  the  sleeping  room  and  granary.  There  are 
DO  chimneys  ;  the  smoke  fills  the  whole  hut,  and  escapes  partly  by  a  hole 


in  tlie  roof,  partly  by  the  door,  and  partly  by  orifices  formed  between  the 
wall  and  the  roof  as  .substitutes  for  windows,  and  which,  in  stormy 
weatiier,  ^re  closed  by.  a  bundle  of  straw.  The  fire  is  placed  in  th* 
middle  of  the  floor.  The  sopt  accumulates  on  the  roof,  andj  in  rainy 
weather,  is  continually  dropping,  and  for  the  purpose  of  obtainmg  it  for 
manure,  the  hut  is  unroofed  in  the  beginning  of  May.  The  dung  of  the 
cattle  which  had  been  accumulating,  during  the  winter  and  spring,  and 
had  been  mixed  with  straw,  ashes,  and  other  matter,  is  at  the  same  time 
removed  from  the  outer  apartment. 

In  the  spring  all  the  cattle  are  in  poor  condition,  and  those  of  the  small 
tenants  are  in  most  wretched  plight:  sea- weed  (chiefly  Fucus  canaliculatus), 
boiled  with  husks  of  grain  and  a  little  meal  or  other  substances,  are  then 
employed  to  support  them ;  and  in  many  places  the  cattle  during  the 
winter  and  spring  regularly  betake  themselves  to  the  sea-shore  at  ebb- 
tide to  feed  upon  the  fuci. 

The  milk  of  the  cows  is  said  to  be  excellent,  but  on  account  of  the  filthy 
habits  of  too  many  of  the  cotters,  the  butter  and  cheese  are  eaten  by  few 
beside  the  natives. 

Having  described  so  much  at  length  the  cattle  of  the  inner  and  outer 
Hebrides,  we  shall  be  able  to  pass  with  considerable  rapidity  over  the 
other  districts  of  the  Highlands. 


These  islands  are  separated  from  the  other  Hebrides  by  the  promontory 
of  Cautyre,  and  are  situated  in  the  Firth  of  Clyde,  between  Argyleshire 
and  Ayrshire,  and  form  a  county  under  the  name  of  Bute. 

Almost  the  whole  of  Arran  is  the  property  of  the  Duke  of  Hamilton 
and  Brandon,  who  kindly  granted  us  every  facility  for  becoming  acquainted 
with  the  cattle  of  (he  island,  and  to  whose  very  intelligent  factor,  Mr. 
Paterson,  we  are  indebted  for  much  valuable  information. 

Seventeen  years  ago  Arran  was  overrun  by  cattle  of  almost  every  ex- 
traction and  character.  The  West  Highland  was  probably  the  native  breed  ; 
but  i[nany  had  been  imported  from  Ireland,  as  the  situation  of  Arran  would 
lead  us  to  suspect;  and  more  had  been  introduced  from  Galloway.  The 
Earls  of  Carrick  were  formerly  the  proprietors  of  this  district ;  and,  at.  an 
early  period,  and,  even  before  the  time  of  Robert  I.,  they  had  probably 
introduced  many  cattle  from  their  mainland  estates  into  Arran,  which  was 
then  little  better  than  a  mere  hunting-ground.  These  breeds  were  inter 
mingled  in  every  possible  way,  but  all  of  them  were  small,  narrow  across 
the  loins,  long  legged,  and  thin  in  the  hams ;  their  form  was  scraggy  and 
angular,  and  the  skin  coarse,  yet  with  little  hair ;  they  were  black  or 
brown,  but  generally  with  white  intermingled,  frequently  with  white  faces, 
and  almost  invariably  with  white  about  the  belly. 

They  yielded  very  little  milk,  although  that  which  they  did  give  was 
good  ;  and,  in  the  property  of  fattening,  they  were  far  inferior  to  those  of 
the  other  islands  which  we  have  just  described.  In  fact,  the  whole  system 
of  husbandry  was  wretched.  Eaclj)  farm  was  strangely  let  to  various  tenants, 
who  occupied  in  common  or  in  runridge,  i.  e.,  one  of  the  tenants  sowed 
one  ridge,  and  a  copartner  the  next,  and  so  on ;  and  the  arable  part  of 
the  farm  was  divided  into  numerous  small  lots,  which  were  yearly  appor- 
tioned, and  almost  yearly  changed  *.     No  improvement  could  be  effectf  d 

*  Oue  of  the  oUlest  arrangements  of  the  great  proprietors  of  land  was  to  collect  their 
whole  tenantry  or  vassalage  as  nearly  as  possible  around  their  own  mansion  or  castle 
The  neighbouring   grounds  were  (hen  divided  into  fields  of  various  «\tent  according  to 

'*  CATTLB. 

ander  such  a  S)'stetn.  The  ridgea  were  cr<^ped  with  oats  as  long  as  it 
was  supposed  they  would  produce  a  little  more  than  what  was  thrown 
upon  them,  and  they  were  then  abandoned  until  the  weeds  ^^no  grass  seeds 
were  sown)  covered  them  for  some  years,  and  they  were  thought  to  be 
able  to  bear  two  or  three  white  crops  again. 

The  croft  or  infidd  land,  that  which  was  near  the  homesteads,  although 
a  little  better  treated,  suffered  too.  It  is  true  that  it  had  all  the  manure 
of  the  farm,  but  it  was  cropped  every  year,  and  oats,  and  bear  or  bigg, 
and  beans  or  potatoes  (this  last  invaluable  vegetable  was  just  beginning  to 
be  known),  succeeded  each  other  without  pause ;  and  the  weeds  were 
covered  for  a  little  while  by  the  crop  during  summer,  but  never  extirpated. 
Little  fodder  could  be  raised  for  cattle;  and  as  there  were  no  grass - 
seeds  sown,  there  was  no  hay;  and  there  was  nothing  to  maintain  the 
live-stock  during  winter  but  oat-straw. 

Above  what  were  called  iYiehead-dylces,  i.  e.,rude  banks  to  separate  the 
arable  from  the  hill  or  pasture  land,  the  cattle  and  sheep  and  horses  ranged 
in  common  over  the  whole  island  ;  and  the  farmer,  who,  tor  generation  after 
generation,  had  been  taught  to  believe  that  his  riches  consisted  in  the 
uumber  of  his  cattle,  instead  of  their  individual  worth,  not  only  sent  more 
cattle  to  the  hills  in  summer  than  they  could  well  maintain,  but  reserved  far 
more  than  could  possibly  be  kept  in  the  winter.  The  number  of  cattle  far 
exceeded  that  of  the  inhabitants:  a  great  many  of  them  were  carried  off  by 
starvation  and  disease ;  and  the  remainder  were  found  in  the  spring  in  a 
state  of  emaciation,  provincially  termed  '  lifling;'  they  were  declining  in 
size,  and  their  good  points  were  fast  leaving  them. 

The  Duke  of  Hamilton  beheld  this  with  much  regret,  and,  with  a  zeal 
for  the  improvement  of  the  agriculture  of  the  island,  which  reflects  on 
him  the  highest  credit,  and  which  is  the  best  direction  that  true  patriotism 
can  take,  he  set  himself  heartily  to  work,  not  only  to  ameliorate  the  breed 
of  cattle,  but  to  reform  and  change  the  general  system  of  husbandry. 

The  leases  of  nearly  the  whole  of  the  island  terminated  in  1814.  The 
Duke  directed  that  his  fine  property  in  Arran  should  be  surveyed.  He 
divided  it  into  distinct  and  separate  farms  of  different  dimensions,  from 
ten  acres,  to  suit  the  former  tenants  in  common,  to  more  than  three  or 
four  hundred  acres.  He  brought  much  of  the  waste  land  into  cultivation 
by  the  spade;  he  excavated  drains  to  the  extent  of  120  miles  in  length  ; 

the  supposed  nature  of  the  soil ;  aad  again  subdivided  into  parcels  or  ridges  of  equal  size, 
conesponding  with  the  number  of  the  retainers :  and  one  of  the  rigs  or  ridges  was  let  ur 
appropriated  to  each.  It  was  thought  that  all  would  thus  have  an  equal  share  of  the  good 
and  the  bad  land,  without  partiality  or  preference,  although  each  one's  possession  (the 
term  still  used)  would  probably  he  dispersed  over  a  dozen  places.  This  system  of  occu- 
pation was  denominated  runrig,  or  runridge.  Besides  this  general  practice  of  having 
the  land  in  runri^,  it  was  customary  in  some  places 'fur  the  tenantry  to  exchange  their 
respective  ridges  every  year;  so  that,  in  a  given  course  of  years,  each  tenant  would  have 
rented  and  tilled  the  whole  of  the  ridges.  This  was  called  ooup-rig,  or  change-rig.  A 
system  more  absurd  or  inconsistent  with  good  cultivation  can  scarcely  be  imagined. 

The  division  of  the  arable  lauds  into  infield^ai  outfield,  was  universal  in  Scotland,  and 
is  not  yet  obsolete.  The  infield,  as  stated  in  the  text,  got  all  the  dung  produced  on  the 
farm,  and  was  kept  under  a  constant*  rotation  of  crops.  Lime  and  fallow  and  artificial 
grasses  were  unknown.  The  outfield  bore  three  crops  of  oats,  and,  if  it  was  more  than 
usually  good  land,  four  crops,  and  then  lay  idle  for  five  or  six  years.  The  consequence 
was,  that,  not  more  than  forty  years  ago,  the  produce  of  every  land  was  little  in  quantity 
and  poor  in  quality :  the  horses  were  fed  in  summer  almost  entirely  on  thistles,  which 
covered  the  outfield,  and  grew  too  plentifully  in  the  infield  ;  and  the  owner  of  a  little  field 
which,  under  improved  cmtivation,  now  produces  ninety  bushels  of  oats  yearly,  told  the 
author,  that  although  he  sometimes  had  1200  sheaves  upon  it,  he  would  have  given  the 
whole  of  the  grainfor  a  single  bushel  of  meal.  He  had  straw  for  the  winter  feed  of  his 
cattle,  but  his  family  might  starve. — See  Robertson's  Rural  Re:olleclions,  p.  263. 


be  erected  aFi  iiecessary  fences,  and  he  built  comfortable  bouses  of  Tarioiis 
sizes.  He  then  offered  the  farms  at  a  moderate  rent,  but  with  these 
restrictions,  that  the  land  should  be  managed  in  a  different  and  better 
manner,  and  that  the  number  of  cattle  which  were  kept  should  not  exceed 
a  certain  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  farm. 

The  old  tenants  were  at  first  strangely  averse  to  this  new,  and,  as  they 
thought,  absurd  and  tyrannical  system.  Some  of  them  quitted  the  island 
The  Duke  then  let  some  of  his  farms  to  enterprising  tenants  from  better- 
cultivated  districts ;  foir  he  rightly  judged  tliat  persons  who  had  never 
seen  land  well  managed,  would  much  more  readily  adopt  changes  in  the 
mode  of  husbandry  if  successfully  made  under  their  own  observation,  than 
if  they  were  merely  described  to  them,  and  in  a  manner  forced  upon 
them.  The  consequence  has  been,  that  the  property  of  his  Grace  has 
more  than  doubled  in  value,  and  his  tenantry  are  more  prosperous  and 

The  Duke  of  Hamilton  immediately  introduced  some  choice  and  ex- 
pensive bulls  from  the  stock  of  the  Duke  of  Argyle,  in  order  to  improve 
the  wretched  breed  of  cattle ;  but  they  were  found  at  first  to  be  too  large 
fur  crossing  the  small  cattle  of  Arran  with  perfect  effect.  Some  bulls  and 
queys  of  the  dairy  breed  were  brought  from  Ayrshire,  but  they  did  not  well 
combine  with  the  old  stock  of  the  island ;  their  skins  and  hair  were  too 
thin  for  the  bleak  hills  of  Arran  ;  and  this  cross  was  soon  abandoned  as 
a  breeding  stock.  Some  farmers,  however,  again  had  recourse  to  the 
Argyle  bulls,  for  the  breed  had  evidently  improved,  at  least  on  some 
farms,  and  a  spirit  of  emulation  was  beginning  to  be  excited. 

In  consequence  of  this,  several  bulls  of  the  Argyleshire  sort  were  pur- 
chased by  the  duke  in  the  summer  of  1823,  and  placed  in  various  parts  of 
the  country  for  the  use  of  the  tenants.  The  effect  was  now  immediate, 
and  palpable ;  and  every  year,  and  at  very  considerable  expense,  twenty  or 
thirty  fresh  bulls  were  imported,  and  scattered  in  the  most  convenient 
places  throughout  the  island;  and,  as  far  as  influence  and.  persuasion 
could  go,  the  old  breed  was  systematically  discouraged. 

The  improvement  was  rapid  and  progressive.  The  Arran  cattle  are  now 
black  or  brown,  and  horned,  and  in  most  parts  of  the  island  still  retaining 
somewhat  of  the  form  of  the  original  stock.  This  is  most  evident  in  the 
smallness  of  -the  limbs,  the  thinness  of  the  neck,  and  the  shortness  of 
the  hair.  On  the  farms,  however,  of  more  careful  breeders,  the  differ- 
ence between  the  Arran  and  Argyleshire  beasts  can  scarcely  be  observed, 
and  that  difference  is  yearly  decreasing.  The  Arran  improved  black  cattle 
are  genUe-tempered,  and  kindly  feeders ;  but  better  adapted  for  grazing 
than  the  dairy. 

The  Arran  beasts  used  to  be  scarcely  saleable  ;  the  southern  drovers 
-would  not  have  them  at  any  price :  but  in  1832  the  stots  of  three  years-of} 
were  sold  in  great  numbers  at  ten  pounds  each  afler  having  been  fed  on 
grass  alone,  and  queys  at  more  than  nine  pounds.  Cattle-husbandry  has  of 
late  improved  through  the  whole  of  Scotland ;  and  in  many  of  the  districts 
the  character  of  the  breed  is  essentially  changed,  but  no  where  has  so  much 
b"en  done  in  a  few  years  to  ameliorate  the  stock,  and  better  the  condition 
of  the  tenantry.  Twelve  or  fourteen  years  ag«>,  the  average  weight  of  an 
aged  Arran  cow,  when  fed  on  grass,  did  not  exceed  eighteen  or  twenty 
stones :  she  would  now  be  at  least  three  or  four  stones  heavier,  and  some 
of  the  oxen  have  reached  fcirty-five  or  fifty  stones. 

The  ealve»,  which  are  generally  drdpi>ed  in  sprinij-,  are  not  suffered  lo 
suck  the  dam,  but  are  fed  cm  milk  for  about  six  weeks.      Two  int;als  niiiy 

'6  CATTLE. 

are  allowed  them  in  tlie  day,  and  two  or  three  quarts  of  genuine  milk  are 
given  at  each  meal.  Some  imagiue  that  this  quantity  is  not  sufGcient; 
and  it  is  perhaps  a  general  fault  in  the  Isle  of  Arran  that  the  calves  get  too 
little  milk  when  they  are  young.  A  small  portion  of  oatmeal  is  occasionally 
mixed  with  the  milk,  and  particularly  when  the  time  for  turning  out 
approaches:  some  of  the  farmers,  however,  object  to  this,  as  frequently 
disordering  the  bowels,  and  producing  griping,  inflammation,  and  death. 

The  calves,  when  weaned,  are  turned  on  a  reserved  pasture  on  the  low 
land.  They  are  generally  tethered  until  the  crop  is  off  the  ground,  and 
they  go  in  and  out  with  the  cattle;  but  they  are  always  housed  at  night, 
and  none  of  them  are  sent  to  the  hills  during  the  first  season.  In  winter 
a  little  boiled  food  is  given  to  them,  consisting  of  potatoes  or  greens,  with 
chaff  or  straw,  and  chaff-fodder  like  the  old  cattle. 

In  summer  the  yearlings  are  sent  to  the  hills,  generally  at  no  great 
distance  from  the  dwelling  ;  and,  for  the  most  part,  they  remain  out  until 
the  winter;  then  all  the  cuttle,  young  and  old,  are  housed  during  tlie 
night.  While  in  the  house  they  get  straw-fodder,  with  sometimes  a  little 
hay;  the  older  cattle  are  occasionally  indulged  with  potatoes  or  a  few 
turnips,  and  to  this  is  added  coarse,  strong-growing,  green  kale,  which  is 
cultivated  in  every  small  farmer's  garden  for  this  purpose.  This  practice, 
if  not  peculiar  to  Arran,  is  practised  there  to  a  greater  extent  than  in 
most  other  districts.  The  cattle  calving  in  the  winter,  or  early  in  the 
spring,  are  fed  with  kale,  potatoes,  and  straw.  Both  the  kale  and 
potatoes  are  usually  .boiled,  and  sometimes  the  chaS ;  and  the  milch-cows 
almost  always  before  calving,  and  sometimes  for  a  little  while  afterwards,, 
get  some  oafs  or  meal  boiled  with  their  other  provender.  Notwithstand- 
ing the  addition  of  the  kale,  the  Arran  cattle  are  not  too  well  fed  in  the  . 
winter,  and  the  growth  of  the  young  beasts  is  often  materially  stinted  by 
a  false  economy.  When  the  weather  is  not  stormy,  the  cattle  are  driven 
out  to  pasture  during  the  day — the  young  ones  to  the  hills,  and  the  older  > 
ones  to  the  arable  pastures  and  stubbles. 

This  system  of  housing  at  night  is,  in  some  instances,  necessary  on 
account  of  the  exposed  and  shelterless  situation  of  the  farms  ;  but,  in  other 
cases,  it  might,  with  advantage,  be  dispensed  with,  especially  with  regard' 
to  the  young  cattle ;  for  it  makes  them  tender,  it  prevents  the  growth  of 
that  covering  of  thick  soft  hair  which  nature  provides  as  a  protection 
against  the  searching  blast,  and  it  renders  the  beasts  more  liable  to  hoose : 
and  inflammation,  when  they  must  afterwards  be  exposed  to  no  little  coldi 
while  feeding  on  grass. 

The  majority  of  the  cattle  of  Arran  are  sold  in  the  autumn,  from  two, 
to  three  years  old.  They  are  transported  to  the  mainland,  and  after- 
wards south,  by  the  way  of  Dumfries,  where  they  are  fed  on  grass  for 
another  year,  and  thus  generally  vrell  prepared  for  the  butcher :  a  few 
stirks  or  yearlings  are  annually  sold  at  the  same  time  from  farms  on 
which  too  many  have  been  reared.  The  greater  part  of  Arran  is  a 
breeding  and  rearing  district ;  but  on  a  few  farms  the  cattle  are  fattened 
on  grass,  and  so  successfully  as  to  render  it  probable  that  the  practice 
might  be  more  generally  pursued  with  considerable  advantage.  Some  of 
the  old  cattle,  when  beginning  to  fail  in  milk,  are  fed  off  in  the  winter  on 
turnips  or  potatoes,  either  for  home  consumption  or  to  be  sold  to  the 
drovers  in  the  spring.  About  SOO  head  of  cattle  are  yearly  sent  to  the 
mainland  from  Arran. 

The  milch  cows  are  housed  at  night,  even  in  the  summer:  they  are 
brought  home  in  the  evening  for  milking,  after  which  they  get  cut  grass 


t  clover  during  the  nig-ht,  and,  having  been  milked  again  in  il.e  nioriiing-, 
are  turned  out  for  the  day.  The  produce  of  milk  has  much  increasi:>l 
with  the  improvement  in  general  husbandry,  and  the  consequ;nt  better 
keeping  of  the  cows.  Some  of  the  black  cattle  will  give  from  three  to 
three  and  a  half  gallons  of  milk  daily  for  four  or  five  monihs  after  calving; 
.he  average  quantity,  however,  will  not  much  exceed  two  gallons ;  but  the 
milk  is  excellent.  There  are  some  farms  in  which  the  Ayrshire  eows  are 
established,  and  these  cattle  give  in  Arrsm  as  iinich  milk  as  in  their  iiati>e 
country.  The  small  farmers  cousume  the  milk  and  butter  and  clieeae 
which  their  cows  produce ;  others  sell  a  little  butter  ;  and  the  hirger 
farmers  manufacture  a  considerable  quantity  of  cheese,  which  can  scarcely 
be  distinguished  from  the  Ayrshire,  and  which  is  sent  to  the  towns  on  the 
banks  of  the  Clyde. 

We  have  dwelt  the  longer  on  the  cattle  husbandry  of  this  little  isiand 
because  it  is  a  splendid  example  of  what  may  be  effected,  in  a  very  few 
years,  by  the  exertions  of  one  patriotic  individual. 

The  circumstances  which,  until  the  last  eighty  years,  caused  the  Scottish 
agriculturists  to  be  so  far  behind  their  brethren  in  Ennland,  were  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  feudal  system,  and  consequent  vassalage  in  the  northern 
kingdom.  Short  leases  alone  were  granted,  frequently  of  not  more  than  a 
twelvemonth;  a  great  partof  the  rent  was  demanded  in  kind,  and  the  tenant 
was  harassed  by  the  exaction  of  continual  services  in  every  oppressive  form. 
But  when  services  were  abolished,  and  a  fixed  rent  in  money  was  esta- 
blished, and,  by  the  length  of  the  lease,  security  was  given  to  the  occupant 
that  he  should  reap  the  fruits  of  his  improvement,  he  began  to  set  liimself 
thoroiighly  to  work.  The  rapidity  of  his  improvement  may  be  accounted 
for  by  circumstances  which  fall  not  to  the  lot  of  the  southern  agriculturists 
— tithes  had  been  annihilated  in  Scotland,  at  least  so  far  as  the  tenant 
was  concerned,  and  the  burden  of  supporting  the  poor  was  scarcely  felt. 

The  Isle  of  Bute,  in  Gaelic,  signifying  '  a  bold  furious  head,'  and  so 
called  from  the  rugged  rocks  on  the  southern  extremity,  while  the  island 
itself  is  comparatively  fiat,  is  higher  up  the  Firth.  It  is  about  fifteen 
miles  in  length,  and  three  in  breadth,  and  contains  34,0U0  Scotch  acies 
of  ground.  Rothsay  gives  the  title  of  Dnke  to  the  heir-apparent  of  the  Bri- 
tish Crown  ;  and  was  formerly  the  residence  of  some  of  the  Scottish  kings. 
The  castle,  a  noble  ruin,  is  still  to  be  seen.  Agriculture  was  even  at  a 
lower  ebb  in  this  island  than  in  Arran,  but  it  somewhat  earlier  began  to 
emerge  from  its  degraded  state.  The  Marquis  of  Bute  was  induced,  by 
the  illness  of  his  lady,  to  reside  two  years  on  the  island.  lie  had  ocular 
demonstration  of  the  lamentable  condition  of  his  estates,  and  of  the  county 
generally,  and  interest  and  patriotism  induced  him  to  endeavour  to  effect 
their  improvement.  He  enclosed  many  of  the  farms.  This  was  the  first 
step,  and  without  which  everything  else  would  have  been  of  no  avail.  He 
introduced  the  system  of  draining,  fallowing,  liming,  &c.,  and  much  good 
was  effected ;.  but  the  attention  of  the  Marquis  being  completely  occupied  at 
'  court,  all  was  not  accomplished  that  he  wished  ;  and  the  island,  although 
improved,  continues  to  rank  low  in  the  scale  of  agricultural  merit.  Th« 
cattle  were  small.  The  farms  were  overstocked  with  them.  There  was 
little  sown  grass,  and  no  green  food  for  winter;  and  until  the  pastures 
were  better  covered  than  formerly,  all  attempts  matej'ially  to  increase  the 
value  of  the  breed  would  necessarily  fail.  With  the  advancement  of  agri7 
culture  generally  the  cattle  have  increased  in  value,  although  they  are  still 
of  a  motley  character;  and  they  are  beginning  to  have  considerably  more 
if  the  Avrshire  breed  in  them  than  is  to  be  found  in  Arran. 



The  county  of  Argyle  stretches  along  the  western  coast  ot  Scotland  for 
115  miles,  but  its  average  breadth  is  little  more  than  30  miles.  The 
southern  part  is  low,  and  comparatively  level,  and  the  temperature  is 
mild.  The  northern  part  is  rugged  and  mountainous,  and  the  climate 
cold  and  ungenial.  In  the  northern  part  there  is  much  barren  land,  and 
little  good  pasture;  but  in  Cantire,  at  the  south,  there  is  plenty  ol 
excellent  feed  for  cattle;  therefore  the  cattle  differ  materially  in  the 
northern  and  southern  parts  of  the  country.  Among  the  monntains,  the 
Highland  breed  is  found  almost  unmixed ;  in  the  level  country,  there  is 
the  same  variety  and  mixture  of  breed  which  is  observed  in  other  dairy 

Although  the  system  of  sheep-husbandry  has  been  introduced  into 
Argyle,  and  is  increasing  there,  yet,  including  every  kind,  there  are  sup- 
posed to  be  nearly  65,000  black  cattle  in  the  county.  John  Campbell, 
from  Logwine,  in  Ayrshire,  was  the  first  who  stocked  a  farm  with  sheep 
in  Argyleshire,  in  the  year  1760,  in  the  united  parishes  of  Lochgoil  Head 
and  Kilmorick.  The  country-people  regarded  him  at  first  with  an  evil 
eye,  but  the  superiority  of  sheep-husbandry  is  now  acknowledged  in  all 
the  mountainous  districts  of  Scotland. 

The  North  Argyle  cattle  are  larger  than  the  Hebrideans,  and  are 
now  bred  to  the  full  size  which  the  soil,  or  the  best  qualities  of  the 
animal  will  bear.  That  fundamental  principle  of  breeding  is  generally 
adopted  here,  that  the  size  must  be  determined  by  the  soil  and  the  food; 
and  that  it  is  far  more  profitable  to  the  farmer  to  have  the  size  of  his 
breed  under,  rather  than  over,  the  produce  of  his  land.  Both  will  gra- 
dually adapt  themselves  to  the  soil ;  but  the  small  beast  will  become 
more  bulky,  and  improve  in  all  his  points — the  large  one  will  degenerate 
in  form  and  in  every  good  quality.  Therefore,  the  soil  and  management 
of  Argyle  being,  generally  speaking,  better  than  that  of  the  Hebrides,  it 
was  found  that  a  somewhat  larger  animal  might  be  admitted  ;  he  was, 
however,  procured,  not  by  crossing  with  a  breed  of  superior  size,  but  by 
careful  selection  from  the  best  of  the  pure  breed.  Experience  and  judg- 
ment soon  discovered  when  the  proper  point — the  profitable  weight — was 
gained ;  and  then  the  farmer  went  back  to  the  equally  jiure,  but  smaller 
breed  of  Skye,  lest  the  form  should  be  deteriorated,  and  the  fattening 
should  not  be  so  equable  and  true,  and  the  meat  should  lose  some  of  its 
beautiful  character  and  flavour. 

There  is  no  part  of  the  Highlands  where  the  soil  and  the  climate  are 
better  adapted  to  the  perfection  of  the  breed  than  in  Argyle,  or  where  we 
oftener  see  the  true  characteristics  of  the  best  Highland  cattle — short,  and 
somewhat  strong  in  the  shank,  round  in  the  body,  straight  in  the  back, 
well-haired,  long  in  the  muzzle,  and  with  a  well-turned  and  rather  small 
horn.  There  is  no  district  in  which  the  farmer  so  superstitiously,  and  yet 
we  will  say  properly,  refrains  from  foreign  admixture.  Could  the  two 
great  errors  of  the  Highland  farmer  be  remedied,  but  which  are  found 
even  here — namely,  overstocking  in  the  summer  and  starving  in  the 
winter — there  would  be  nothing  more  to  desire,  so  far  as  the  grazier  is 
concerned,  except,  perhaps,  docility  of  temper ;  and  that  will  be  gradually 
acquired  when  further  improvements  in  agriculture  have  rendered  it  unne- 
cessary for  the  beast  to  wander  so  far,  and  over  so  wild  a  country,  in 
search  of  food^  and  when  he  will  be  earlier  and  more  perfectly  domesti- 


cated.  The  Highlander,  however,  must  be  reared  for  the  grazier  alune. 
Every  attention  lo  increase  his  weight,  in  order  to  make  him  capable 
of  agricultural  labour — every  effort  to  qualify  him  for  the  dairy,  will  hot 
only  lessen  his  hardiness  of  constitution  and  propensity  to  fatten,  but  will 
fail  in  rendering  him  valuable  for  the  purpose  at  which  the  farmer  foolishly 
aims.  The  character  of  the  Highlander  must  still  be,  that  he  will  pay 
better  for  his  quantity  of  food  than  any  other  breed,  and  will  fatten  where 
any  other  breed  would  scarcely  live.  This  is  the  grand  secret  of  profitably 
breeding  or  grazing  the  Highland  cattle. 

The  management  both  of  the  cow  and  her  calf  depend  much  on  the 
object  which  the  breeder  principally  pursues.  If  he  studies  the  character 
!)f  his  stock,  he  makes  little  butter  and  cheese,  and  generally  rears  a  calf 
for  every  cow,  giving  it  the  greater  part  of  her  milk.  A  likely  bull-calf 
is  sometimes  allowed  the  milk  of  two  cows  for  a  considerable  time,  and 
often  for  six  months.  When  the  calves  are  weaned,  they  are  fed  on  the 
hills  during  the  summer,  and  brought  on  the  lower  grounds  in  winter; 
and  if  the  pasture  is  not  good,  they  are  occasionally  fed  with  straw  and 
hay.  It  is  after  the  first  winter  that  the  absurd  and  cruel  system  of  over- 
stocking and  starving  commences.  From  the  superiority  of  the  soil, 
however,  this  is  not  carried  to  the  ruinous  extent  that  it  is  in  the 
Hebrides.  In  favourable  situations,  some  farmers  winter  their  calves  in 
open  sheds,  where  they  are  fed  with  hay  in  the  racks.  This  makes  them 
hardier,  and  does  not  cripple  their  growth. 

The  following  has  been  given  as  the  expense  of  rearing  a  Highland 
slot  '.n  Argyleshire : — 

To  milk  to  the  calf  while  su'^.king,  1}  Scotch  pints  per 

day,  at  2d.  per  pint  .  .  .^256 

To  expense  of  keeping  the  calf  housed  aiid  fed  on 
straw  and  hay  during  the  first  winter,  12«. — but 
deducting  3s.  for  manure,  there  remains     .  .090 

To  pasture  next  summer  on  hill  grass  •  .076 

To  keeping  next  winter  on  low  grounds,  and  feeding 

in  the  fields  with  hay  when  necessary         .  .       0  10     0 

To  pasture  on  hilly  ground  next  summer,  being  then 
2^  years  old       .  • 

Deduct  for  risk  of  death» 

Interest  of  money 

Supposing  that  they  then  sell  ioi-  live  guineas  at  first  hand — and  the 
average  price  will  not  much  exceed  this — the  profit  will  be  but  5s.  6d. 
This  and  the  increased  price  of  corn  will  sufficiently  account  for  the 
gradual  substitution  of  sheep  for  cattle  on  the  greater  part  of  the  breeding 
country  of  Scotland. 

The  Argyleshire  farmer  is  sometimes  wrong  in  breeding  from  a  favourite 
cow  too  long.  Although  the  Highlanders  fatten  rapidly  for  a  certain 
time,  and  begin  early  to  fatten  where  the  pasturage  will  give  them  oppor- 
tunity to  show  it,  they  do  not  thrive  so  well  when  old.  A  cow  ultimately 
destined  for  the  drover  should  not  be  permitted  to  breed  after  six  years- 
old.  She  may  make  fair  meat  for  home  consumption,  but  she  will  not 
fatten  so  quickly,  or  so  truly,  and  on  all  her  points ;  and,  in  fact,  the 
drover  will  seldom  purchase  her  except  at  a  very  inferior  price. 

It  is  now  also  established  as  a  principle  among  them,  that  the  siinie 

0     7 
0  15 
0     5 


£A  19 




bull  should  not  be  used  too  long.  The  hardiness  of  some  of  the  catt1« 
has  been  thought  to  be  materially  affected  by  it.  The  bulls  are  generallx 
disposed  of  at^six  years-old,  when  they  are  in  full  vigour,  and  valuable  foi 
some  distant  herd. 

[The  Argyle  Ox.] 

The  native  cattle  in  Cantire,  or  the  south  of  Argyle,  are  of  a  thinner, 
lighter  make,  and  not  well  haired  :  they  are  evidently  of  Highland 
extraction,  but  they  show  much  crossing  with  Irish  blood.  They  are 
better  adapted  for  the  pasturage  which  they  find,  and  are  fai^-  mili<eis ; 
therefore  the  dairy  was  always  mure  attended  to  than  raaring  in  the  district 
of  Cantire.  The  Ayrshire  cow  has,  however,  nearly  superseded  the 
native  breed,  not  only  in  Cantire,  but  through  the  whole  of  Argyleshire, 
for  the  purposes  of  the  dairy.  She  is  promising  to  spread  as  rapidly  and 
as  widely' through  the  middle  and  northern  parts  of  Scotland  as  the  short- 
horn has  done  along  the  whole  of  the  eastern  part  of  England.  A  few 
Holderness  cows  were  tried,  but  with  doubtful  success.  The  West  High- 
lind  cattle  are  universally  adopted  for  grazing  farms,  and  the  Ayrstiire 
nearly  as  generally  for  the  dairy.  The  butter  is  good,  except  that  it  is 
often  too  salt ;  little,  however,  can  be  said  in  favour  "of  the  cheesei  The 
manufacturer  of  the  cheese  is  often  more  in  fault  than  the  milk  or  the 
pasture ;  for  in  Cantire  he  usually  keeps  his  milk  forty-eight  hours,  in 
order  to  separate  all  the  cream,  and  before  the  expiration  of  that  time  it  is 
qu  te  impoverished  and  becoming  sour ;  curds  of  different  ages  are  alsc 
mixed  together,  and  which  will  not  amalgamate  and  form  one  uniform 

Some  Galloways  are  found  in  Argyle,  arid  particularly  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  county  ;  but  they  are  not  equal,  to  the  native  Highlanders 
The  latter  have  sometimes  been  crossed  with  the  Galloways,  to   gn. 
in  rease  of  weight ;  but  the  experiment  has  net  >acceeded :  theyhav^ 
neither  fattened  so  quickly,  nor  so  equably. 



This  county  will  complete  the  Western  HiglilaiiHs,  j.  rnperly  so  ciiiled. 
Inverness  stretches  across  the  mainland  from  the  little  ciiauuel  that 
divides  it  from  Skye  to  the  Murray  Firth.  The  ferry  of  Kyle  Rhea,  on  the 
north-western  point  of  it,  connects  together  the  different  districts  inhabited 
by  the  Highland  cattle ;  for  all  the  cattle  from  Skye  and  the  outei 
Hebrides  cross  that  ferry,  not  only  in  their  way  to  Inverness  and  Arg^yle, 
but  to  all  the  southern  markets.  Six  or  seven  thousand  annually  pass  this 
little  strait.  They  are  not  ferried  in  boats,  as  from  the  Long  Island  to 
Skye,  but  by  means  of  ropes,  about  a  yard  in  length,  with  a  noose  at  each 
end,  one  of  which  is  tied  to  the  tail  of  the  cow  that  is  to  swim  before,  and 
the  other  round  the  jaw  and  under  the  tongue  of  the  next ;  and  the  beasts 
are  thus  connected  together  until  there  is  a  string  of  six  or  eight.  The 
time  of  high  water  is  chosen,  when,  although  the  passage  is  wider,  there 
is  less  current.  The  beasts  are  led  into  the  water  as  quietly  as  possible 
until  they  are  afloat,  when  they  immediately  cease  to  resist,  then  the  man 
at  the  stern  of  the  ferry-boat  taking  hold  of  the  rope  that  holds  the  fore- 
most beasts,  the  vessel  is  rowed  steadily  across,  and  the  cattle  follow  with- 
out a  struggle.     It  is  very  rarely  that  one  of  them  is  lost. 

The  cattle,  at  least  in  Lochaber,  and  alor:g  the  western  coast  of  Inver- 
ness, and  on  the  borders  of  Ross,  are  essentially  the  same  as  those  in  the 
north  of  Argyle,  and  their  treatment,  with  all  its  faults,  the  same.  In  the 
central  parts  of  the  county,  however,  the  breed  is  mixed,  and  principally 
with  the  Galloway,  or  Fife,  or  Irish.  On  the  borders  of  Murray  there  is 
still  a  different  breed,  the  origin  of  which  it  is  difficult  to  trace ;  heavier  than 
the  Highlanders ;  better  milkers  ;  but  not  so  profitable  for  the  grazier.  It 
Is  said  that  they  were  first  bred  of  this  superior  size  to  make  them  heavy 
enough  for  the  yoke,  but  at  present  the  ox  is  never  used  either  for  the 
plough  or  on  the  road.  So  late,  however,  as  the  year  1791,  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Smith,  in  his  statistical  account  of  the  parish  of  Petty  on  the  Moray  Firth, 
says,  that  '  1400  oxen  were  employed  in  that  neighbourhood  on  husbandry 
work.'  He  adds,  that  'they  were  of  the  light  nimble  Highland  breed  ; 
and,  when  unfit  for  work,  disposed  of  to  the  dealers  in  cattle  for  the 
English  markets,'  Few  of  them,  however,  were  reared  in  Inverness,  but 
were  broiiiiht  from  the  Highlands  when  young. 

Tlie  sy.-'tem  of  summer  feeding,   or  Agoing  to  shealings,'   which  we 
have  described  as  occasionally  followed  in  the  Hebrides,  used  to  prevail 
In  Inverness  ;   but,  as  agriculture  has  improved,   and  sheep-feeding  was 
introduced,  these  rights  of  pasturing  on  the  distant  wastes  were  let  to , 
ihepherds,  who  live  on  them  all  the  year.* 

Or.  Robertson,  in  his  '  Survey  of  Inverness,'  gives  the  following  descrip- 
ti(m  of  '  the  sliealiugs  :' — '  After  the  crops  had  been  sown,  and  the  peats 
cut,  the  inhabitants  removed  annually,  in  the  month  of  June,  to  their 
distant  pastures,  with  all  their  cattle  and  families  ;  and  there,  in  some 
snug  spot,  the  best  sheltered  in  all  the  range  allotted  to  'he  cattle,  they 

*  It  is  mentioned  in  Sir  John  Sinclair's  '  Statistical  Account  of  Scotland,'  where  the 
parish  of  Laagan,  in  the  mountainous  country  to  the  south-west  of  Inverness,  is  described, 
that  the  number  of  cattle  had  considerably  decreased  in  that  district ;  '  people  deeming  it 
more  profitable  to  rtduce  their  stock  of  black  cattle,  and  increase  their  stock  of  sheep. 
But  tlie  cattle  that  remain  are  very  much  improved.  Twenty  years  aj^o  (1770)  a  High- 
land Stot  was  not  worth  more  than  '201.  Scots,  iwhereas  it  will  now  sell  for  3^.  or  4..  ster- 
ling; and  milch  cows  have  risen  in  value  from  31.  \\)s.  to  51.  or  61.'  Black  cattle,  hoW' 
crer,  may  still  be  consid' red  as  the  staple  richd  of  Inverness,  aqd  un  which  principally' 

52  CATTLK. 

resided  for  a  certain  number  ot  weeks,  unti.  the  pasture  became  scarce 
A.  trusty  person  was  sent  before  them  to  drive  away  any  wandering  cattle 
that  might  have  trespassed  withm  the  bounds  that  were  to  be  preserved. 
The  men  returned  occasionally  to  the  farm  or  homestead,  to  collect  the 
fuel,  or  hoe  the  potatoes,  or  weed  the  crop  ;  and,  when  the  season  for 
weeding  the  flax  arrived,  the  women  went  home  for  that  purpose.  When 
the  bounds  are  extensive  thej  have  frequently  more  than  one  of  these 
stations,  which  are  called  ree  or  aree*,  in  tiie  language  of  the  country,  and 
shealings  in  English.  In  such  cases  the  guardian  of  the  grass  was  'sent 
forward  to  another  shealing  whenever  the  family  arrived  at  that  destined 
for  their  temporary  residence.  He  was  called  the  poindler,  probably 
because  he  had  public  authority  to  poind  (whence,  pound),  and  confine  the 
stray  cattle,  and  to  demand  the  fine  established  by  law  f()r  the  trespass. 
When  these  pastures  were  unusually  rich,  as  at  the  head  of  a  lake  or  by 
the  sides  of  brooks  in  the  valleys,  the  inhabitants  of  two  or  more  farms 
associated  together,  and  ate  the  grass  of  their  shealings  in  common.  This 
was  the  season  of  contentment  and  often  of  festivity.  The  women  em- 
ployed themselves  in  spinning  wool  to  clothe  their  families,  and  in  making 
butter  and  cheese  for  part  of  their  winter  provisions  t  ;  and  the  youths 
occupied  themselves  in  fishing  or  athletic  exercises ;  and  at  evening  the 
primitive  custom  of  dancing  on  the  green  and  singing  Gaelic  songs  was 
not  forgotten.  The  shealings  lasted  from  one  to  two  months  or  more, 
and  when  the  pasjture  was  all  consumed  they  returned  to  their  home- 
stead s.t  ' 

The  Rev.  Mr.  M'Lean,  in  an  Appendix  to  this  Survey,  has  some 
remarks  on  these  shealings,  the  importance  of  which  has  been  acknow- 
ledged by  the  Inverness  farmers,  and  the  most  valuable  part  of  what  he 
recommended  has  been  adopted.  He  is  speaking  of  the  system  of  over- 
stocking generally,  and  even  on  these  shealings.  He  says  that,  '  on  every 
farm,  an  overstock  is  kept.  If  the  cattle  are  brought  through  the  winter, 
that  is  considered  sufficient ;  and  after  a  severe  winter  they  appear  in  a 
most  miserable  plight,  and  those  of  them  intended  for  sale  are  seldom  fit 
for  the  market  before  the  end  of  the  summer  ;'  and,  he  asks,  'is  there  not 
an  evident  loss  here  ? — is  there  not  more  profit  from  one  beast  well,  than 
from  two  poorly  or  inditferently  kept?'  He,  therefore,  submitted  to  the 
Society  of  Agriculture  'to  give  premiums  to  those  who  shall  have  their 
whole  stock  of  black  cattle  in  the  best  order  in  the  month  of  May,  or  who, 
in  that  month,  shall  have  the  beasts  intended  for  sale  in  the  best  market- 
able condiiion.  An  emulation  of  this  kind  would  prove  an  incitement  to 
the  cultivation  of  turnips  and  sown  grass,  as,  without  these,  it  is  not  easy 

*  Ree  is  a  Gaelic  word,  which  signifies  a  deer-fufest ;  these  shealings,  therefore,  were 
the  first  encroachments  made  by  the  inhabitants  and  theii  cattle  on  the  territories  of  the 
deer,  after  ihey  had  got  full  possession  of  the  siralhs,  or  lower  vallies. 

f  Mr.  Stewart,  in  his  '  Highland  Superstitions,'  tells  us  that  great  virtue  was  once  sup- 
posed to  belong  to  some  of  this  cheese,  but  the  difficulty  which  attended  the  manufacture 
of  it  corresponded  with  its  value.  He  says,  '  you  mast  go  to  the  summit  of  some  steep 
clifiF  or  mountain,  where  the  feet  of  qimdrupeds  never  trod,  and  gather  that  herb  in  the . 
Gaelic  language  called  "  mohan,"  which  can  be  pointed  out  by  any  "  wise  person."  This 
herb  you  must  give  to  the  cow;  and  of  the  milk  of  the  cow  you  are  to  make  a  cheese,  and 
whoever  eats  of  that  cheese  is  for  ever  after  perfectly  secure  fi:om  every  species  of  fairy 

J  The  Rev.  Mr.  Bremmer,  in  his  Statistical  Account  of  Walls  in  the  Orkneys,  says  of 
these  shealings, — '  Their  household  furniture  must  be  described  negatively.  No  bed, 
no  table,  no  chair.  These  the  Highlander  does  not  reckon  among  the  necessaries  of  life, 
as  he  can  make  the  earth  serve  him  for  all  the  three.  In  his  shealing,  composed  of  earth 
■ad  a  few  sticks,  you  find  no  other  furniture  than  a  few  dishes  fur  his  milk,  and  a  bowl 
for  his  meal :  so  true  in  fact,  ao  well  as  in  philosophy,  is  the  maxim,  "  nature  ii  content 
with  a  Uttle." ' 


•0  keep  cattle  in  good  order  through  the  winter.'  He  also  asks  •  whether 
it  would  not  be  for  the  interest  of  the  tenants  not  to  keep  a  larger  stock  of 
black  cattle  than  they  could  maintain  witiiout  sending  any  part  of  it  to 
the  hill  at  any  season  of  the  year,  and  that  the  hill-grass  should  be  applied 
exclusively  to  the  maintenance  of  sheep  ? '  Mr.  M'Lean  little  thought 
how  soon  the  sheep  would  be  thus  introduced,  and  how  many  'flocks' 
would  be  fed  •  on  the  Grampian  hills,'  to  the  improvement,  and  not  the 
diminution  and  deterioration  of  the  breed  of  cattle. 

If  Inverness  were  no  otherwise  interesting  to  the  agriculturist,  it  would 
have  some  importance  in  his  estimation  as  the  grand  mart  of  the  West 
Highland  cattle.  Not  only  all  those  from  Skye  and  the  outer  Hebrides  are 
sent  there  for  sale,  and  many  come  from  Argyle  to  the  trysts  of  Inverness, 
whence  they  travel  south  again,  but  it  contains  within  itself  more  than 
42,000  head  of  cattle.  These  trysts  are  not  fairs  or  markets  appointed 
by  public  authority,  but  by  concert  among  the  dealers.  The  manner  of 
conducting  them  is  very  curious.  When  the  drovers  from  the  south,  or 
from  the  interior  of  Scotland,  make  their  appearance  in  the  Highlands, 
about  the  latter  end  of  April  or  the  beginning  of  May,  they  give  notice  at 
the  churches  that,  on  a  particular  day,  and  at  some  central  place  in  the 
district,  they  will  be  ready  to  purchase. 

The  price  is,  like  that  of  everything  else,  regulated  by  the  demand,  and 
of  this  the  farmers  can  only  judge  by  the  number  of  the  drovers  or  the 
intelligence  which  they  have  received  from  their  correspondents  in  the 
south.  Much  address  is  used  on  both  sides  to  feel  the  pulse  of  the  market 
at  these  meetings,  and  perhaps  many  trysts  are  held  before  the  price  is 
finally  determined.  Some  appear  to  be  resolved  to  guard  themselves  from 
imposition,  for  they  sell  their  cattle  conditionally,  bargaining  that  if  the 
prices  rtse  within  a  limited  time  they  shall  receive  so  much  more,  and  that 
if  they  fall  the  drover  shall  obtain  a  deduction. 

This  traffic  is  carried  on,  with  little  intermission,  from  May  to  October ; 
for  from  the  system  of  winter  starvation,  too  much  pursued,  comparatively 
few  may  be  able  to  travel  at  first,  or  for  a  considerable  time  afterwards  ; 
although  the  cattle  that  ^re  ready  fetch  the  best  price,  because  they  can 
be  immediately  put  on  the  southern  pastures. 

The  practice  of  letting  cattle  for  hire  is  not  unfreqnent  in  Inverness. 
The  hirer  is  usually  bound  to  furnish  the  owner  with  one  calf,  one  stone 
(of  twenty-two  pounds)  of  butter,  and  two  stones  of  cheese  annually,  or 
one  calf  and  a  variable  sum  of  money  according  to  the  quality  uf  the 
cattle,  all  expenses  of  keep  being  defrayed  by  the  owner.  This  is  a  very 
unsatisfactory  mode  of  conducting  a  farm  ;  and  when  the  interests  of  the 
two  parties  are  continually  clashing,  as  they  must  with  such  an  arrange-, 
ment,  there  can  be  little  cordiality  on  either  side,  and  there  will  often  be 
great  injustice  on  both. 


These  occupy  the  whole  of  Scotland  north  of  Inverness, '  including  the 
counties  of  Hoss,  Sutherland  and  Caithness,  and  the  Orkney  and  Shetland 
islands.  The  cattle  were  exceedingly  different  from  those  which  we  have 
described,  more  diminutive  in  size,  and  fifty  years  ago  were  deficient  in 
many  valuable  points.  The  heads  of  the  native  breed  were  large  and 
coarse,  the  backs  high  and  narrow,  the  ribs  flat,  the  chest  small,  the  bones 
large,  the  legs  long  ;  and,  as  a  necessary  consequence  of  all  this,  there 
was  great  difficulty  in  getting  them  fat  at  all,  and  they  never  fattened 
v:  I.:::;:;-  ::;z  -^  •  :.  ;  :  ;3sideration  that  the  climatfl 

G  2 



it  cold,  tlie  country  ja  an  arable  one,  the  distance  from  the  market  ik 
great,  and,  therefore,  tlie  breeding  of  cattle  had  not  always  been  a  con- 
sideration of  much  importance  to  the*  farmer.  This  defect  and  disgrace 
of  the  northern  district  was  at  length  forced  on  tiie  attention  of  the 
agriculturist,  and,  by  crosses  from  various  breeds,  he  has  endeavoured 
to  improve  his  stock  both  for  the  dairy,  the  grazier,  and  the  plough :  with 
what  success  he  has  laboured,  a  rapid  survey  of  the  northern  counties  vriV. 


[Tik  Sttthnd  BtdlJ] 

We  commence  with  the  northernmost  group  of  islands,  situated  nearly 
half-way  between  the  coasts  of  Scotland  and  Norway.  They  consist  oi 
one  chief  island,  nearly  sixty  miles  in  length,  and  ten  or  twelve  in  breadth, 
und  a  numerous  group  of  diminutive  ones  scattered  aroimd,  and  particu- 
larly on  the  north.  Jamieson,  in  his  '  Mineralogy,'  page  2,  says  that,  '  on 
viewing  these  islands,  a  wonderful  scene  of  rugged,  black,  and  barren 
rocks  presents  itself  to  our  view.  No  tree  or  shrub  appears  to  relieve  the 
eye  in  wandering  over  these  dreary  scenes,  and  only  gray  rocks  appear 
rising  from  tlie  midst  of  marshes,  and  pools,  and  shores,  bounded  by  the 
wildest  precipices.'  There  are,  in  fact,  few  or  no  artificial  jrrasses  or  green 
crops,  or  enclosures  capable  of  protecting  these  crops,  and  grasses  could 
not  be  brought  to  perfection  in  the  open  fields  of  these  islands :  there  is 
nothing  but  moss,  and  heath,  and  sea-weed,  yet  there  is  a  breed  of  horses, 
diminutive,  indeed,  -but  beautiful,  and  hardy,  and  strong ;  and  the  cattle 
exhibit  evident  traces  of  the  same  origin  with  the  West  Highlanders, 
They  have  been  diminirfied  in  size  by  the  coldness  of  the  climate  and  the 
scarcity  of  food ;  but  they  have  not  been  so  seriously  injured  by  the  folly 
of  men — they  have  not  been  domesticated  to  be  starved  outright.  They 
are  small,  gaunt,  ill-shaped,  eo  far,  indeed,  as  their  shape  can  be  ascer- 
tained through  the  long  thidc  hair  with  whick  they  are  covered,  and  which 
forms  an  impenetrable  defence  against  the  snow  and  the  sleet.  They  an 
rarely  more  than  four  feet  hi^-  -  1.,  't"-—  — ••  «"»"■»»•*■■  scarcely  vaun 
than  thirty-five  or  forty  pound 


The  Shetland  cattle  contrive  to  live  on  their  native  moors  and  wnateo, 
and  some  of  them  fatten  there  ;  for  a  considerable  and  increasin!>-  quan- 
tity of  beef  is  salted  in  Shetland  and  sent  to  the  mainland,  the  quality  uf 
which  is  exceedingly  g'ood.  When,  however,  the  Shetlanders  are  trans 
ported  to  the  comparatively  richer  pastures  of  the  north  of  Scotland,  tliey 
thrive  with  almost  incredible  rapidity,  and  their  flesh  and  fat,  being  so  newlv 
and  quickly  laid  on,  is  said  to  be  peculiarly  delicious  and  tender.  They 
run  to  fifteen  or  sixteen,  or  even  twenty  stones  in  weight.  If  Ihey  are 
carried  still  farther  south  they  rarely  thrive  ;  they  become  sickly,  and  even 
poor,  in  the  midst  of  abundance  :  the  change  is  too  great,  and  the  consti- 
tution cannot  become  habituated  to  it.  The  Duke  of  Bedford  and  Mr. 
Wilmot  Horton  have  given  a  fair  trial  to  these  Lilliputian  cattle,  and  the 
result  has  not  been  satisfactory. 

The  .Shetland  cows  are  housed  every  night,  whether  in  winter  or 
summer;  and  not  having  straw  for  litter,  the  defect  is  supplied  by  heith 
and  peat-dust.  The  dung  used  to  be  sntfered  to  accumulate  in  a  strange 
manner.  Instead  of  being  daily  carried  out,  it  was  spread  over  the  byre, 
until  the  cattle  could  no  lonaer  find  entrance  between  the  floor  and  the 
roof  Then  only  it  was  of  necesliity  removed.  They  yield  a  very  small 
portion  of  milk,  whether  in  their  native  zountry  or  elsewhere,  but  that 
which  they  do  give  is  exceedingly  rich. 

The  Shetlanders  have  a  curious  way  of  extracting  the  butter  from  it. 
The  milk  is  put  into  the  churn  as  soon  as  procured,  and  in  small  farms 
two  or  three  days  elapse  before  the  vessel  is  full.  The  process  of  churn- 
ing then  commences ;  and  when  the  butter  is  about  to  separate  from  the 
whey  some  red-hot  stones  are  thrown  in,  and  the  churning  continued 
until  the  separation  is  coniplete,  and  the  butter  floats  on  the  top.  This  is 
sometimes  very  carefully  washed  for  home-consumption  or  for  the  market; 
but  when  it  is  destined  to  constitute  part  of  the  rent  (for  a  portion  of 
that  was,  not  many  years  ago,  demanded  in  kind)  it  was  sadly  dirty  and 
badly  tasted.  The  butter-milk  is  then  boiled,  and  another  portion  of  butter 
is  separated,  which  is  not  .so  rich :  this  is  chiefly  reserved  for  home  use. 
The  remaining  fluid,  called  bland,  used  to  be,  but  is  not  so  much  now, 
the  ordinary  drink  of  the  poorer  Shetlanders.  It  is  sometimes  preserved 
until  the  winter,  and  is  supposed  to  be  very  wholesome. 

A  country  so  barren  may  be  easily  overstocked,  and  it  is  so  to  a  certain 
degree,  particularly  since  the  introduction  of  sheep  husbandry.  A  great 
many  of  the  calves  are  therefore  killed  very  early,  and  some  even  on  the 
day  that  they  are  dropped.  The  calves  that  are  reared  are  never  allowed 
to  suck  their  mothers,  but  are  fed,  at  first,  with  milk,  and  afterwards  with 
bland.  This  is  poor  food,  but  they  are  by  this  means  early  prepared  for 
the  privations  to  which  they  are  afterwards  exposed. 

The  little  Shetland  oxen  are  still  occasionally  worked  in  thr  plough. 
Horses  and  oxen  were  formerly  yoked  abreast  to  the  same  plojgh;  but  the 
oxen  are  gradually  getting  into  disuse  :  indeed  a  great  part  of  the  island 
is  too  rocky  for  the  plough,  and  is  d\ig  with  the  spade ;  and,  sometimes, 
even  at  the  present  day,  the  spade  husbandry  is  used  where  the  plough 
might  be  profitably  introrlnced. 

Some  of  the  smaller  islands  called  '  The  Holmes,'  and  which  are  nearly 
or  quite  uninhabited,  yield  more  succulent  pasture ;  and  the  cattle  are 
occasionally  sent  there  to  prepare  them  for  their  migration  to  the  south. 
They  thrive  rapidly  on  these  little  solitudes.  When  a  statistical  account  of 
these  islands  was  taken  forty  years  ago,  they  contained  3000  cows,  1000 
oxen,  and  10,000  young  cattle.  They  have,  however,  rapidly  increased, 
for  more  thar  44,000  now  inhabit  the  Shetland  and  Orkney  Islands.     It 


i«  much  to  be  regretted  that  so  numerous  and  valuable  a  breed  should  b« 
so  much  neglected  :  but  the  fact  is,  that  the  Shetland  isles  are  principally 
a  fishing  station.  Their  very  appearance  caused  them  to  be  selected  for 
this  purpose,  and  the  profits  occasionally  resulting-  from  the  fisheries — to 
the  heritors  or  proprietors,  at  least— have  made  tliem,  and  the  inhabitants 
of  the  Orkneys,  comparatively  careless  as  to  the  productions  of  the  coil. 


•fHE  Orkney  Islands,  or  ancient  Orcades,  lie  much  nearer  the  mainland, 
and  are  not  so  considerable  as  the  Shetland  Islands.  The  number  of 
inhabited  islands  is  twenty-nine,  and  there  are  thirty-nine  smaller  ones, 
called  holmes,  covered  with  constant  herbage,  and  on  which  cattle  and 
sheep  are  sometimes  grazed.  The  climate  is  moist  and  variable,  the  sum- 
mers short,  and  rarely  hot,  the  winters  long,  but  not  cold,  the  spring  late, 
and  the  ungenial  weather  often  continuing  until  June., 

The  cattle,  which  were  formerly  even  smaller  and  more  ill-shaped  than 
the  Shetlanders,  have  been  considerably  improved,  for  there  is  much  good 
pasture  in  the  Orkneys  ;  but  there  is  necessity  for  greater  improvement  in 
the  management  of  them  ere  they  can  become  a  very  profitable  stock.  So 
late  as  1795  '  all  the  cattle,  except  the  mrlch-cows,  were  turned  out  to  the 
liills  and  moors,  where  they  made  a  shift  to  preserve  life,  but  were  stinted 
in  their  growth,  and  the  queys  were  often  five  and  six  years  old  before  they 
had  a  calf.  When  the  cattle  are  thus  turned  out  to  their  liberty,'  the 
reporter  savs,  '  he  whose  corn  is  unripe  must  cut  it  down,  or  expect  to 
have  it  destroyed ;  and  when  hunger  and  cold  force  home  the  half-starved 
cattle  from  the  hill,  the  hill  dykes  are  too  weak  to  keep  them  out ;  it  is 
impossible  either  to  poind  these  animals,  or  to  prevent  their  incursions ; 
and  they  must  be  hunted  with  dogs  to  the  mountains,  perhaps  after  dozens 
of  them  have  run  through  fields  of  standing  corn.' — Rev.  J.  Malcolm's 
Statistical  Account  of  Stemiess. 

The  cattle  are  better  milkers  than  the  Shetlanders,  and  quite  as  good 
feeders.  More  oxen  are  used  for  agricultural  labour,  and  they  are  de- 
cidedly better  for  this  purpose  than  the  Shetlanders ;  yet,  compared  with 
the  Western  Highlanders,  they  are  an  inferior  race.  Their  heads  are  low, 
their  backs  high,  their  buttocks  thin,  their  bones  prominent,  their  horns 
she  rt,  and  bending  towards  the  forehead*. 

*  Mr.  Morison,  in  his '  Statistical  Account  of  the  Parish  of  Dalting,'  after  saying  that  a 
small  part  of  it  only  is  under  cultivation,  gives  a  very  ^curious  account  of  the  manner  of 
ploughing.  He  says,  that '  there  are  not  more  than  six  ploughs  in  the  parish.  The 
plough  is  made  of  a  small  crooked  piece  of  wood,  at  the  end  of  which  is  fixed  a  slender 
pliable  piece  of  oak,  that  is  fastened  to  the  yoke  laid  across  the  necks  of  the  oxen.  The 
man  who  holds  the  plough  walks  by  its  side,  and  directs  it  with  a  stilt  or  handle  fixed 
to  the  top  of  it.  The  driver,  if  so  he  can  be  called,  goes. before  the  oxen,  and  pulls  them 
on  by  a  rope  tied  round  their  horns,  and  some  people  with  spades  follow  the  plough,  to 
level  the  furrow  and  break  the  clods. 

,  '  A  considerable  number  of  cattle  and  sheep  are  sold  to  the  Lerwick  merchants,  who 
kill  them,  and  send  them  packed  to  Leith  market :  700  milch  cows  are  kept  it  the  parish, 
beside  oxen  and  young  cattle.  A  great  part  of  the  land  is  let  on  ,hutter-rent.  Good  1 2d. 
Land  will  let  at  sixteen  merks  of  butter  (about  20  lbs.),  and  24s.  Scots  (2s.  English)  per 
merk,  equivalent  to  about  three-fourths  of  an  acre.  The  butter  is  generally  compounded  for 
at  the  average  price.  Beside  this,  40rf.  is  required  from  each  family  for  services,  (assisting 
in  the  reaping,  hay-makingi  and  various  agricultural  labours,)  if  they  are  not  paiil  iu 
kind ;  and  also  a  cock  and  a  hen  is  demanded  for  every  two  merks  of  laud.'  These 
relics,  however;  of  feudal  tenure  are  now  growing  into  disuse.  At  that  time  a  good  ox  wa« 
worth  36/.  (3/.  sterling)  Scots;  and  a  fat  cow  sold  for  24/.  (2/.  sterling).  The  ox  would 
weigh  from  300  to  400  cwt.,  and  the  cow  from  170  to  250  lbs. 

Mr.  Morison  say>,  that '  the  situation  of  that  parish,  and  of  the  Highland*  generally 



This  is  the  northernmost  county  of  Scotland,  and  the  climate  is  cold  and 
ungenial ;  there  is  no  high  land  on  the  north  coast  to  break  the  force  of 
the  wind,  which  sets  in  during  the  greater  part  of  the  year  from  the  north 
west  or  the  west.  In  that  season  of  the  year  when  vegetation  is  most 
rapid  in  other  countries,  namely,  from  the  beginning  of  May  to  the  middle 
of  June,  the  north-west  wind  blows  incessantly,  and  the  growth  of  every- 
thing is  completely  checked.  Three-fourths  of  the  whole  surface  of  tlie 
county  is  either  a  deep  peat-moss,  or  lofty  barren  mountain  covered  only 
with  peat-earth  and  heather.  It  will  not  then  be  wondered  at  tliat,  not  fifty 
years  ago,  the  Caithness  breed  of  rattle,  although  hardy,  was  the  worst  iu 
all  Scotland,  The  distance  of  this  county  from  all  the  markets  for  cattle, 
discouraged  any  attempt  at  improving  the  breed,  and  the  same  improvi- 
dent system  of  overstocking  which  we  have  reprobated  in  tlie  Highlands 
completed  the  evil*.  Captain  Hend<?rson,  the  scientific  as  well  as  instruc- 
tive author  of  the  'Agricultural  Survey  of  Caithness,'  very  expressively 
says  that  '  these  animals  were  not  fed,  but  merely  kept  alive  by  a  little 
straw  given  them  twice  a  day  from  the  end  of  December  until  the  hill- 
pasture  would  recover  them  in  May  and  June  ;  and  that  being  thus 
starved  one-half  of  the  year,  they  assumed  a  thin,  lank  shape  t.' 

was  most  deplorable  in  the  winter  of  1784.  The  crop  of  oats  failed  in  1782.  It  was 
worse  in  1783 ;  and  the  winter  of  1784  was  a  long  and  severe  one.  Many  cattle  died 
of  absolute  starvation.  A  mortality  broke  out,  and  destroyed  many  more  ;  4'27  were  lost 
in  that  parish.  Oats  rose  to  ibs.  ver  boll.  The  most  substantial  farmers  fared  badlv  ; 
the  poorer  ones  lived  on  welks,  and  limpets,  and  such  other  iish  as  the  sea-shore  atiurded.' 
— Sir  John  Sinclair's  Statistical  Account  of  Scotland. 

*  The  Rev.  Mr.  Cameron,  in  his  Statistical  Account  of  Halkirk,  in  this  county,  has 
some  appropriate  remarks  on  this  point : — '  I  am  persuaded  that  the  number  (of  black 
cattle)  reared  is  near  one-third  more  than  it  ought  tu  liavc  beeu,  ur  the  parish  can  well 
maintain.  This  is  the  cause  why  our  cows  do  not  usually  yield  so  much  milk  as  might 
be  expected — why  the  cattle  are  in  general  poorer,  and  ul'  less  size  than  they  might  have 
been,  and  consequently  fetch  such  low  prices  in  the  market.  What  is  their  motive  for 
this  unfrugal  and  mistaken  plan  P  Because  the  commerce  in  thai  cattle  is  their  principal 
dependence ;  and  they  calculate  their  stock  according  to  their  number,  and  not  according 
to  their  quality.  Besides,  having  no  other  way  to  answer  Martinmas  demands,  they 
pinch  their  families  in  the  necessary  food  arising  from  these  anin^als,  from  an  overweaning 
expectation,  and  the  mistaken  idea,  that  if  they  have  plenty  of  calves  they  will  be  able 
to  answerthese  demands,  which  hang  a  mighty  terror  over  their  heads  every  year.  Thus 
it  happens  that  they  themselves  and  their  cattle  are  half-starved,  and  their  ill-founded 
expectations  often  frustrated.  Whereas,  had  they  adopted  auother  plan,  aud  kept  an 
adequate  number  of  cattle  only,  their  famiUes  would  be  better  supported,  their  cattle  better 
in  quality  and  value,  and  the  demands  of  the  landlord  more  readily  answered.' 

t  The  Rev.  Mr.  Taylor,  in  his  Statistical  Account  of  Watlin,  in  this  county,  in  1794, 
very  strongly  and  properly  repnibaies  the  system  of  cattle-management  in  Caithness. 
He  says, — '  From  our  remote  situation  and  little  intercourse  with  other  countries,  we  have 
hitherto  been  neglected,  if  not  despised.  Of  late,  strangers  have  begun  to  creep  in  among 
ds,  but  there  are  local  practices  and  local  prejudices  among  us  which  require  to  be  laid 
aside  before  great  improvement  can  take  place,  or  strangers  reside  with  real  comfort  to 
themselves.  From  time  immemorial  it  had  6een  the  practice  here,  for  cattle  of  all  kinds 
to  travel  and  feed  promiscuously,  without  distinction  of  property,  from  the  day  the  lust 
sheaf  was  put  into  the  farm-yard  till  the  conclusion  of  the  bean  seed,  in  the  end  of  May 
or  the  beginning  of  June.  The  ]irejudice  of  this  practice  to  laud  in  general,  and  to  arable 
land  in  particular,  is  sufficiently  evident.  The  active,  enterprising  farmer  can  never  avail 
himself  of  all  the  advantages  to  be  derived  from  his  possession,  unless  he  is  at  liberty  to 
use  and  lay  it  out  as  he  pleases.  He  can  never  benefit  himself  either  by  fallow  or  green 
crops,  so  long  as  cattle  of  every  kind — his  neighbours,  as  well  as  his  own— are  at  freedom, 
fui  eight  months  nearly  out  of  the  twelve,  to  traverse  his  fields,  day  and  night,  wet  and 
dry.  Such  a  custom  may,  and  no  doubt  does  profit  the  sluggard.  His  cattle  are  half  main- 
tained at  the  expense  of  bin  neighbours  ;  but  men  of  this  description  ought  not  to  be 
supported  at  the  expense  of  the  willing,  industrious  farmers.     His  spiiited  endeivoun  ta 

88  CATTLE. 

Caithness  afforns  a  sf..endid  example  of  what  one  scientific  and  zealoiM 
man  is  capable  of  effecting.  Sir  John  Sinclair  had  large  property  in 
Caithness :  he  observed  and  lamented,  and  materially  suffered  by  this 
wretched  state  of  the  cattle,  and  thought  of  many  plans  for  their  improve- 
ment. He  first  tried  what  he  could  do  by  crossing  the  native  breed.  The 
chest  was  small,  and  the  ribs  flat,  and  the  back  thin  ;  there  was  not  room 
for  the  heart  to  beat,  nor  the  lungs  to  play.  He  first  thought  of  the  deep 
chest,  and  broad  loins,  and  barrelled  carcase  of  the  Galloway.  Here 
seemed  to  be  the  very  points  in  which  the  Caithness  breed  was  most  defi- 
cient, and  in  which  it  was  of  most  importance  to  improve  them  ;  and  there- 
fore he  crossed  the  Caithness  cow  vvith  the  Galloway  bull.  But  he  had 
not  sufficiently  thought  that  although  he  might  bring  the  rounded  form, 
and  larger  size  of  the  Galloway  bull,  he  could  not  bring  the  mild  climate 
and  the  fine  herbage  of  Galloway ;  and  experience  taught  him  the  truth  of 
the  axiom,  that  the  breed  must  be  suited  to  the  climate,  or  it  will  not 
thrive.  He  improved  the  size  of  the  Caithness  cattle  :  they  were  better 
for  the  ypke,  'but  they  did  not  fatten  so  kindly,  and  their  milking  proper- 
ties were  even  deteriorated. 

He  then  bethought  him  of  the  West  Highlanders,  a  kindred  race,  even 
though  his  own  were  so  degenerated  ;  the  inhabitants  likewise  of  a  cold 
and  variable  climate ;  thriving  there,  and  possessing  also  those  admirable 
points  in  which  the  Caithness  were  so  deficient.  The  experiment  suc- 
ceeded. On  a  lowland  farm,  the  Skye  cattle  grew  to  a  size  with  which 
none  of  the  Caithness  breed  could  compare,  and  they  lost  not  one  point 
of  excellence.  On  a  highland  farm  they  were  somewhat  inferior  in  size  ; 
but  they  throve  even  more  rapidly  than  the  others ;  they  made  beef  of  the 
most  excellent  quality,  and  they  well  paid  the  farmer  for  their  keep. 

Then  the  Caithness  cattle  were  crossed  by  the  West  Highlanders  ;  and 
at  every  cross  they  were  improved;  and  when  they  had  become  almost 
entirely  Skye  or  Argyle  blood,  they  were  best  of  all.  The  Argyle  cattle 
were  preferred  for  the  lowlands, — the  Skye  for  the  higher  and  rougher 
sountry ;  and  very  considerable  improvement  was  effected  with  regard 
both  to  the  breeding  and  the  grazing  of  cattle.  The  only  cause  of  regret 
was  the  distance  of  the  markets,  yet  the  growing  excellence  of  the  cattle 
paid  for  the  length  of  the  journey. 

After  this.  Sir  John  Sinclair  gradually  discarded  the  Galloway  even 
from  the  plough ;  and  from  the  Skye,  and  more  particularly  from  the 
Argyle  breed,  he  got  as  quick,  and  honest,  and  hardy  workers,  and  pro- 
fitable fattehers,  as  he  could  reasonably  desire  ;  and  Caithness  will  not 
now  yield  to  the  neighbouring  counties  of  Sutherland  or  Ross  in  the 
form  or  value  of  her  cattle. 

The  peculiarity  of  the  climate  of  Caithness,  and  the  want  of  food  even 
to  the  middle  of  June,  were  great  obstacles  to  improvement;  to  which 
may  be  added  the  same  miscalculating  avarice  which  induced  the  breeders 
here,  as  in  other  counties,  to  overstock  their  farms.  The  want  of  spring  food, 
however,  was,  in  some  measure,  supplied  by  the  introduction  of  the  rye- 
grass, which  will  start  early,  and  in  the  coldest  weather,  and  afford  a  bite 
at  least,  if  not  be  ready  to  cut,  when  nothing  else  is  to  be  had :  and  when 
turnip-feeding  was  added  to  this,  the  improvement  of  the  cattle,  and  the 
profit  of  the  farmer  became  greater  ;  for  the  beast  which  had  been  turnip- 
fe»l  m  the  winter,  and  got  rye-grass  in  the,  spring,  was  ready  for  the 

ptoride  or  himself,  and  serve  the  public,  ought  not  to  be  rendered  abortive  merely  to 
i;ratify  the  indolence  of  the  sloven,  who,  rather  than  exert  himself  in  constant  acts  o( 
industry,  is  content  to  live  iu  a  hovel,  to  be  clothed  in  rags,  and  to  feed  upon  bread  and 


market  a  full  year  before  he  otherwise  would  have  been.  Tliis  improTeij 
mode  of  feeding  was,  however,  in  the  hands  of  few,  and  the  majority  of 
the  cattle  were  straw-fed  in  the  « inter,  and  had  mere  common  paslnra{>,e 
in  the  summer ;  yet  even  they  did  well  when  not  overstocked,  and  jieided  a 
reasonable  remuneration  to  the  farmer. 

A  few  beasts  are  fed  for  home  consumption  ;  but  they  are  generally  old 
cows  and  oxen  which  the  drovers  refuse  to  purchase  :  yet  at  nine,  ten,  and 
eleven  years  old,  they  will  fatten  speedily  enough,  and  make  good  beef. 
Some  are  grass-fed  in  the  spring  and  summer ;  and  the  early  rye-grass  is 
particularly  valuable  here.  Others  are  stall-fed,  and  at  the  close  of  the 
autumn,  this  is  accomplished  quickly  and  without  difficulty.  Turnips  with 
oat-straw  are  given  at  first,  and  the  beasts  are  finished  ofif  with  bruised 
oats  and  beans,  which  are  said  to  give  firmness  to  the  flesh.  The  common 
cattle  do  not  now  fare  so  badly  in  Caithness  as  in  some  other  counties. 
There  is  more  arable  ground  here  than  is  found  farther  south ;  and 
although  the  beasts  often  wander  over  the  commons  during  the  day,  they 
get  straw,  and,  sometimes,  turnips  in  the  morning  and  evening. 

In  the  highland  past  of  the  county  the  attention  of  the  farmer,  so  far  as 
cattle  are  concerned,  is  principally  devoted  to  the  rearing  of  them.  That, 
in  fact,  is  the  primitive,  although  not  always  the  most  profitable,  business 
of  the  Hiffhlander;  but  in  the  lower  part  of  the  country  the  care  of  the 
dairy  is  added,  or  tiie  land  is  principally  cultivated  for  the  dairy.  Here 
a  different  breed  of  cows  is  necessary.  It  is  needless  to  repeat  that  the 
Highland  cattle,  excellent  as  they  are  for  grazing,  will  yield  no  remu- 
nerating profit  as  milkers.  Sir  John  Sinclair  first  endeavoured  to  cross 
the  native  cattle  with  the  Buchan  breed.  These  were  the  nearest,  and 
they  were  excellent  dairy  cows  in  their  own  peculiar  district.  To  a  certain 
extent  they  answered,  but  the  quantity  was  not  increased  so  much  as  had 
been  expec  ted,  and  the  grazing  qualities  were  a  little  impaired. 

He  next  tried  the  Dunlop  or  Ayrshire  bull.  The  Caithness  became  a 
better  milker ;  but  there  was  something  in  the  character  of  the  Highland 
beast  that  would  not  amalgamate  with  the  lowland  dairy  blood,  for  even 
when  on  its  native  ground,  it  lost  much  of  its  propensity  to  speedy  fatten- 
ing. Many  of  the  pure  Ayrshire  cows  were  therefore  used  in  the  dairies 
of  Caithness,  and  they  still  maintain  their  ground,  either  pure,  or  gradu- 
ally working  upon  the  milking  unthriftiness  of  the  Highlander. 

The  dairy  is  often  managed  here  in  the  same  unsatisfactory  manner  as 
in  other  places  more  to  the  south.  The  farmer  provides  cattle  and  pasturage, 
but  he  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  manufacture  of  the  produce  ;  he  bar- 
gains with  some  dairy-woman  to  deliver  to  him  annually  a  calf  for  every 
two  cows,  and  forty  or  fifty  pounds  of  butter,  and  the  same  quantity  of 
cheese  for  each  cow,  the  value  of  which  may  be  nearly  bl. ;  but  others, 
and  more  satisfactorily,  and  profitably  too,  take  upon  themselves  the  whole 
management  of  their  property.  The  dairy  has  much  improved  in  Caith- 
ness ;  but,  on  account  of  its  situation  and  soil,  it  must  alWays  be  very 
.nferior  to  that  in  the  southernmost  coimties  of  Scotland.  Many  of  the 
Orkney  cows  are  used  by  the  small  farmers,  and  for  a  cottager's  cow 
'here  are  few  better. 

Including  the  cattle  both  for  the  dairy  and  grazing,  Caithness  contains 
about  15,000.  Three  thousand  of  these  are  annually  sold  to  the 
drovers,  who  make  their  appearance  in  this  county,  and  begin  to  hold  their 
trysts,  about  the  latter  end  of  April.  The  first  regular  market  for  the  sale 
of  the  north-country  cattle  is  at  Amulrie  on  the  first  Wednesday  in  May  • 
to  this  suiEceeds  Cockhill  on  the  16th,  and  then  Falkirk,  Broughill,  and 
Newcastle.     The  stots  are  usually  three  years  and  a  half  when  first  offered 


for  sale,  and  then  weigh  about  twenty  stones  :  when  fattened,  they  wU' 
double  that  weight  if  of  the  improved  breed  ;  but  the  old  Caithness  cattle 
will  seldom  weigh  more  than  twenty-five  stones,  when  in  the  best  condi- 
tion. The  pnice  of  these  slots  varies  with  the  demand,  and  the  season,  and 
the  breed.  The  old  Caithness  will  frequently  not  sell  for  more  than  31.  ; 
the  best  Highlanders  have  brought  81.  or  91.  per  head.  The  journey  from 
Caithness  to  Carlisle  occupies  from  twenty-eight  to  thirty-two  days  ;  they 
•re  usually  takvu  in  droves  of  about  250,  and  tb"  expense  is  nearly  7».  6(L 
per  head. 

Oxen  are  yet  used  in  Caithness  for  husbandry  work.  The  native 
breed  has  neither  sufficient  substance  nor  spirit ;  the  Galloways  are 
heavier  but  slow,  and  do  not  thrive  well  in  Caithness,  and,  on  the  whole, 
the  Highlanders  are  the  best  working  oxen.  A  pair  of  oxen  are  generally 
used  in  the  cart.  Four  were  often  driven  abreast  in  the  plough,  the  driver 
curiously  walking  backward  between  the  central  oxen*.  A  small  farmer, 
now  and  then,  harnesses  two  ponies  with  a  pair  of  oxen.  The  heavier 
southern  cattle  have  had  a  fair  trial,  and  are  nearly  abandoned  ;  and  hus- 
bandry work,  even  with  the  West  Highland  oxen,  is  not  performed  so  much 
as  it  used  to  be.  The  oxen  are  broken-in  at  three  years'  old  ;  at  five  they 
•re  in  their  prime,  and  they  are  worked  until  eight  or  ten  years  ;  when  they 
are  sometimes  sold  to  the  drovers  in  travelling  condition,  but  oftener  fat 
tened  at  home.  Their  food  in  winter  is  straw,  or  chaff,  and  occasionally  a 
few  turnips ;  in  summer  they  have  hay,  but  no  corn,  except  the  larger 
oxen  ;  and  wlien  they  are  not  at  work,  they  pasture  with  the  milch  cows. 

It  may  be  supposed  that  in  so  ungenial  a  climate  as  that  of  Caithness 
the  cattle  are  subject  to  many  distempers.  The  sudden  variation  of  tem- 
perature and  of  food,  and  the  change  from  starvation  to  comparative 
plenty  when  vegetation  does  at  length,  and  with  strange  rapidity,  proceed 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  spring,  are  the  causes  of  some  of  the  most  fre- 
quent and  fatal  diseases.  Among  the  rest  is  inflammatory  fever,  known 
in  its  various  stages  by  the  names  of  black  quarter  and  hasty.  Supersti- 
tion is  still  prevalent  enough  in  all  parts  of  the  Highlands,  but  nowhere 
more  so  than  in  Caithness.  Captain  Henderson  gives  some  strange  ac- 
counts of  the  treatment  of  these  diseases  in  a  country  where  the  riaine  of 
a  veterinary  surgeon  is  almost  unknown.  He  says  that  '  in  former  times,, 
when  a  beast  was  seized  with  the  black  quarter  it  was  taken  to  a  house 
where  no  cattle  were  ever  after  to  enter,  and  there  the  heart  was  torn  out 
while  the  animal  was  alive,  and  hung  up  in  the  house  or  byre  where  the 
farmer  kept  his  cattle,  and  while  it  was  there,  none  of  his  cattle  would 
again  be  seized  with  that  distemper.' 

When  the  murrain  appeared  the  farmer  would  send  for  a  charm-doctor 
to  superintend  the  raising  oi  a.  need-fire.  A  circular  booth  was  erected 
upon  some  small  island  in  the  nearest  river,  or  hum;  and  in  tlie  cenireot 
it  a  straight  pole  was  fixed,  extending  from  the  roof  to  the  ground. 
Another  pole  was  set  across  horizontally,  with  four  short  arms  or  levers  in 

*  The  Rev.  Mr.  Jolly,  in  his  Statistical  Account  of  Dunnot  (17U4),  explains  this: 

'  The  tenant's  ploughs  are  generally  drawn  by  fnur  oxen  or  horses  yoked  abreast.  That 
practice  appears  ridiculous  to  strangers,  but  a  better  acquaintance  with  the  people's  cir- 
itumstanees  would  lead  to  a  more  favourable  oirinion.  The  cattle  are  very  small  and  ilUfed, 
and  hence  their  strength  is  not  sufficieiiit  for  drawing  a  ploupth,  if  they  were  yoked  in  any 
manner  where  part  might  have  an  opportunity  of  throwing  the  whole  burden  occasionally 
on  the  rest.  This  practice,  however,  is  attended  with  the  inconvenience,  that  one  of  the 
cattle  must  walk  on  the  ploughed  groiuid  ;  of  this  some  are  beginning  to  be  sensible,  and 
are  substituting  threa  cattle  abreast,  endeavouring  to  get  those  of  a  better  quality.'  Th» 
ploughman  used  to  walk  backward,  or  with  his  face  to  the  plough,  because  he  could  ihu* 
better  observe  whether  the  stren|{th  of  the  team  was  fiiirly  and  equally  exerted. 


Its  centre  to  work  it  rapidly  round,  and  the  ends  were'  tapered.  One  end 
was  exactly  fitted  into  a  hole  in  the  perpendicular  timber,  and  the  other 
into  some  side  support.  All  the  neisrhbours  were  then  collected ;  they 
carefully  divested  themselves  of  all  metal — not  even  a  button  was  lefl  on 
any  part  of  their  clothes— and  they  set  heartily  to  work,  two  by  two,  turn- 
ing the  end  of  the  horizontal  timber  in  the  hole  of  the  central  and  upright 
one,  and  rapidly  relieving  each  other  as  they  became  tired,  until  by  the 
violence  of  the  friction,  and  assisted  now  and  then  by  a  little  gunpowder 
and  tinder,  the  wood  began  to  blaze.  This  was  the  need-fire.  Every  fire 
in  the  farmer's  house  was  immediately  quenched,  and  others  kindled  from 
this  need-fire:  all  the  cattle  were  then  driven  in,  and  made  to  pass  through 
the  smoke  of  this  new  and  sacred  conflagration,  and  the  plague  was  at 
once  stayed.  Old  traditions  say  that  the  Druids  vised  to  superintend  the 
kindling  of  a  similar  fire  on  the  1st  of  May.  That  day  is  still  called  in 
the  Gaelic  la-Beal-tin,  i.  e.  the  day  of  Baal's  fire. 

A  remnant  of  this  superstition  still  exists  among  those  who  lag  a  little-. 
behind  in  the  march  of  improvement,  and  they  are  not  a  few.  When  a  beast 
is  seized  with  the  murrain  a  few  pieces  of  sooty  divots  (turf)  are  taken  from 
a  thatched  roof  (we  have  said  that  in  some  of  the  poor  cottages  there  is  no 
chimney)  and  put  into  a  metal  pot  with  a  coal  of  fire,  so  that  a  strong 
sooty  smoke  ascends.  The  patient  is  then  brought,  and  its  nostrils  are 
forcjbly  held  in  the  smoke  for  a  quarter  of  an  hour.  Then  some  ale  with, 
plaintain  root  is  given,  and  the  beast  is  cured.  Some  interesting  resem- 
blances to  old  customs  in  other  parts  of  the  world,  and  far  earlier  times, 
are  evident.  , 


Sutherland  and  Caithness  form  the  northern  extremity  of  Scotland,  the 
western  coast  of  which  is  occupied  by  Sutherland.  The  western  and: 
northern  coasts  are  bleak  and  stormy  enough,  and  the  mountains,  of  im- 
mense height,  have  not  even  a  stalk  of  heath  on  their  barren  surfaces  ;  but 
the  south-eastern  part  of  the  country  is  more  sheltered,  and  not  a  great' 
deal  colder,  although  rather  more  backward  than  some  of  the  midland' 
counties  of  Scotland. 

The  soil  is  as  various  as  the  climate.  There  are  few  or  no  artificial 
grasses,  and  the  only  natural  meadows  are  the  valleys  formed  by  the  rivers; 
and  burns ;  on  them  some  cattle  are  fed,  but  on  the  higher  ground,  in 
Sutherland  and  Ross,  and  the  eastern  and  central  Highlands,  the  black 
cattle  have  given  way  to  sheep.  Although  four  times  as  large  as  Caith- 
ness, this  county  does  not  contain  twice  the  number  of  cattle.  It  has 
never  been  calculated  to  possess  more  than  25,000,  and,  probably,  there 
are  not  now  more  than  two-thirds  of  that  number. 

The  statistical  accounts  of  the  numbers  of  horses,  cattle,  and  sheep  in 
Sutherland,  in  1798  and  1808,  will  afford  a  convincing  proof  of  the  decrease 
of  horses,  cattle,  and  goats,  and  the  wonderful  increase  of  the  sheep: — 

Horsea.  Cattle.  Goats.  Sheep. 

1798     .     .     7736       .     .      24,287      .      .      .     6227        .      ,     37,130 
1808     .      .     4291       .      .      17,333      ...      1128       .      .     94,57C 

Decrease  3445     Decrease  6954        Decrease  5099     Increase  57,440 

If  the  value  of  each  were  the  same  at  both  truies,  we  stiould  tind  that 
20,670Z.  less  capital  was  employed  in  horses,  32,502^.  less  in  cattle,  IbSil. 
l«s«  in  ffOHts,  and  34,806^.  more  in  sheep.     But  the  manifest  improvement 


in  the  breed  of  cattle  would  materially  diminish  this  apparent  difference 
How  far  this  may  be  ultimately  advantageous  is  a  question  which  belongs 
more  to  political  economy  than  to  a  treatise  on  that  part  of  agriculture 
which  is  connected' with  cattle,  and  for  which  we  are  otherwise  not  quite 
prepared,  since  we  have  not  yet  inquired  into  the  nature  of  the  cultivation, 
and  the  comparative  value  of  sheep.  It  cannot  be  denied  that  the  sheep 
is  the  more  useful  animal — that,  in  the  aggregate,  he  is  reared  and  kept  at 
Ihe  least  expense — that  the  value  of  the  land  and  the  rent  of  the  farm  are  also 
enhanced — and  that  there  are  millions  of  acres  that  may  be  appropriated 
to  the  feeding  of  sheep,  and  especially  in  the  rugged  and  barren  parts  of  the 
country,  which  are  now  in  a  manner  useless.  There  is  one  objection,  it 
must  be  confessed,  to  the  exclusive  cultivation  of  sheep  anywhere,  and 
that  is  the  incompatibility  between  it  and  a  numerous  and  increasing 
population.  They  are  things  which  cannot  exist  together,  and  especially 
not  in  a  mountainous  district,  like  the  Highlands,  or  like  Scotland  gene- 
rally. If  a  quantity  of  food  is  raised,  sufficient  to  maintain  the  same 
number  of  inhabitants  as  before,  the  same  number  of  hands  are  not 
required  to  procure  it.  Towns  will  be  multiplied  and  filled,  but  the  pea- 
santry must  be  driven  from  the  country,  and  their  character  and  their 
occupation  must  be  changed :  this  will  be  a  work  of  time — it  cannot  be 
accomplished  in  one  generation — and  the  starving  cottagers  and  the  small 
farmers  (for  they  must  give  way  where  sheep  husbandry  is  introduced) 
have  no  resource  but  to  emigrate  to  foreign  climes.  All  this  is  worth  con 
sideration  as  a  general  principle,  and  also  as  applicable  to  particular 

Entering  now,  however,  on  that  part  of  the  Highlands  where  this 
new  system  has  been  adopted,  we  are,  in  a  manner,  compelled  to  draw 
some  more  detailed  comparison  between  the  old  and  the  new  way  of 
occupying  the  land.  We  will  suppose  that  the  proprietor  of  a  consider- 
able district  is  taking  a  survey  of  ibis  property, — the  produce  and  the  rent, 
the  improvement  or  deterioration  of  his  land,  the  character  and  the  degree 
of  happiness  of  its  occupants.  What  we  have  already  said  of  the  West 
Highlands,  and  of  Caithness,  will  prepare  us  for  the  result  of  his  inquiry. 
He  traverses  some  of  the  romantic  Highland  glens,  and  he  finds  them 
thickly  studded  with  miserable  huts,  the  occupants  of  which  rent  from  him  • 
little  patches  of  land,  for  which  they  nominally  pay  him  an  exceedingly 
trifling  sum  of  money. 

Each  farm,  if  so  it  may  be  called,  consists  of  a  strip  of  land  on  the  side 
of  the  glen,  and  a  larger  portion  on  the  hill  above.  Some  of  the  glen 
division  is  attempted  to  be  cultivated  to  raise  a  little  corn  for  the  winter 
support  of  the  family.  This  rarely  succeeds ;  for  the  torrent  pours  down 
and  destroys  the  greater  part  of  the  crop  long  before  it  is  ready  for  the 
harvest :  and  the  farmer  has  seldom  sufficient  remaining  for  the  support'  of 
his  family  during  the  winter,  and  that  a  long  one  in  such  a  climate.  But 
he  has  his  black  cattle  and  his  goats,  and  for  the  short  summer  months 
he  can  send  them  to  the  hills,  and  there,  at  the  shealings,  they  get  fat,  and 
he  is  happy. 

The  summer  rapidly  passes  over,  the  herbage  on  the  hills  is  all  con- 
sumed, and  he  and  his  cattle  return  to  the  glen.  The  grass  had.  in  the 
mean  time  grown  there  ;  it  had  ripened  for  hay  ;  some  of  the  family  had 
been  sent  to  mow  it,  and  he  has  a  little  stock  awaiting  his  return.  It  is  a 
little  one,  and  barely  sufficient  for  his  cows  and  his  calves.  His  growin<r 
cattle  have  nothing  but  the  straw  of  his  half-destroyed  oat  crop,  on  which 
•hey  are  to  starve  during  the  winter — and  starve  many  of  them  'iterally  do 
-r-while  the  rest  aie  mere  walking  skeletons,  Jind,  for  a  while,  compara- 
tively worthless. 


What  becomes  of  the  rent? — why  it  is  paid  when  the  tenant  can  pay  it 
Dut  that  is  not  regularly,  and  often  not  at  all :  on  the  contrary,  the  land- 
lord  has  to  supply  his  tenant  with  necessaries,  and  to  half-maintain  him 
during  a  great  part  of  the  year ;  and  his  land  is  all  this  while  becoming 
impoverished,  worn  out,  and  valueless. 

This  was  the  actual  state  of  things.  How  was  it  to  be  remedied  ? 
Why,  only  by  the  introduction  of  a  new  system  of  husbandry ;  by  intro- 
ducing stock  of  another  kind,  which  would  longer  feed  on  the  upland 
pasture, —  which,  with  some  help,  would-feed  there  all  the  year  round;  and, 
by  leaving  the  greater  part  of  the  lower  ground  for  the  feeding  of  the  nil 
cattle,  for  the  growing  of  corn,  and  for  the  preparation  of  winter  food  ;  and 
which  would  be  ready  and  in  its  prime  when  it  was  most  wanted  :  in  short, 
if  not  entirely  to  substitute  sheep  for  cattle,  yet  to  make  them  the  principal 
objects  of  the  farmer's  care. 

Would  the  Highlander  consent  to  this  ? — would  he  give  up  his  shealiiigs, 
the  joyous  time  of  his  miserable  year  ? — would  he  abandon  those  customs 
and  modes  of  management  which  had  been  practised  by  his  forefathers 
time  out  of  mind  ? — Never  !  Then  it  was  necessary  to  introduce  a  new 
race  of  men  to  accomplish  this  ;  and  that  was  attempted,  in  despite  of  the 
prejudices,  and  violent  opposition  of  the  people. 

The  new  settlers  were  at  first  maltreated  :  the  inhabitants  gathered  from 
every  part ;  they  broke  down  the  fences  ;  they  got  together  thousands  ot 
the  new  sheep  ;  some  they  forced  into  the  lakes  and  drowned,  and  the  rest 
they  drove  triumphantly  to  the  edge  of  the  county,  there  to  be  delivered 
over  to  the  mob  of  the  next  district,  until  they  were  expelled  from  the 
Highlands,  or  had  perished  by  the  way.  The  laws  of  the  country  were 
successfully  appealed  to ;  the  violence  of  the  mob  was  suppressed ;  and  the 
new  system  was  left  to  feel  its  own  way,  and  to  stand  or  fall  as  it  might 

It  has  weathered  the  storm,  and  is  now  the  established  system  of  hus- 
bandry in  most  of  the  Highland  districts.  Sheep  now  cover  the  hills  on 
which  the  half-starved  stot  and  goat  formerly  wandered.  The  deer-forests, 
which  had  not  then  been  intruded  upon, — which  were  perfect  deserts,^have 
been  brought  under  a  certain  degree  of  cultivation  ;  the  mountains,  which 
were  depastured  for  a  few  months  and  left  waste  for  the  rest  of  the  year, 
are  now  grazed  all  the  year  round  ;  and  the  low  land,  freed  from  that  which 
impoverished  it,  and  which  it  could  not  support,  yields  plentifully  for  man  and 
beast  The  cattle,  far  from  being  banished,  are  somewhat  reduced  in  num- 
ber— improved  in  quality — fatter,  and  happiw— ^fully  equal  to  the  demand — 
far  more  profitable  to  the  breeder,  and  only  confined  to  those  pastures  on 
which  sheep  could  not  be  safely  fed.  The  population  is  certainly  not  so 
numerous,  but  it  is  of  a  different  character, — more  intelligent,  more  indus- 
trious, more  respectable,  more  Useful ;  and  the  remainder  have  either 
sought  employment  in  the  south,  or  emigrated  to  America  or  some  of  the 
British  colonies.  The  value  and  the  rent  of  the  land  is  trebled — quadru- 
pled ;  and  the  tenant  can  pay  it,  which  he  could  not  before :  while,  in  a 
national  point  of  view,  the  addition  of  food,  the  increased  value  of  stock, 
and  the  unprecedented  supply  of  the  raw-  material  for  one  of  our  most  im- 
portant manufactures,  are  circumstances  of  immense  importance. 

Having  taken  this  cursory  view  of  the  change  in  the  system  of  agricul- 
ture, as  It  regards  cattle,  we  can  proceed  more  rapidly. 

The  native  breed  of  Sutheriand  is  much  smaller  than  that  of  Caithness 
but  far  more  valuable,  and  requiring  oiily  to  be  crossed  by  those  from 
Argute  and  Skye,  to  be  equal  to  any  that  the  northern   Highlands  can 
■  rt      »-  -T  — r-y-.  •".  h- 'c~—.-:t=d  that  the  Argyleshire  cattle,  in  the. 

**>  CAITLE. 

possession  of  the  Marquis  of  Stafford,  at  Dunrobin,  have  not  been  more 
employed  in  im|)r()vlng  the  breed  of  the  siirroundiiin:  districts.  The  best 
cattle  are  to  be  fuuiid  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Duurobin  and  Skibo,  on 
the  eastern  coast ;  and  most  of  them  are  the  pure  Argyle  or  Skyes,  or 
crosses  between  the  Sutherland  cow  and  the  West  Highland  bull.  At 
Skibo,  in  particular,  a  small  breed  is  carefully  preserved,  which  is  much 
sought  after  for  its  superior  propensity  to  fatten;  and  although  they 
do  not  often  weigh  more  than  fifteen  stones,  their  flesh  is  little  inferior 
to  venison.  Some  of  the  Skibo  cattle  have  been  raised,  in  southern  pastures, 
to  more  than  treble  that  weight. 

Assynt,  on  the  south-western  coast,  is  celebrated  for  its  cattle,  of  the 
pure  West  Highland  breed,  or,  if  occasionally  with  one  cross  of  the 
native  Sutherlands,  not  injured  by  that  mixture.  They  are  not  larger 
than  the  Skye  cattle  ;  but  they  are  hardier,  short-legged,  and  well  shaped^ 
A  great  many  other  breeds  have  been  tried,  as'the  Galloways,  the  Fifes, 
the  Banffs,  and  the  improved  Leice.sters;  but  none  of  them  have  answered 
so  well  as  the  West  Highlanders,  or  crosses  between  them  and  the  natiyes> 

Some  of  the  little  islands  on  the  coast  afford  very  good  winter-pastur? 
for  the  cattle.  Oldney  contains  some  valuable  pasturage  of  this  kind, 
which  is  strictly  preserved  during  the  harvest,  and  on  which  the  cattle  are 
turned  some  time  in  November,  and  gradually  taken  out  to  be  housed  in  the 
beginning  of  spring,  or  when  they  may  appear  to  need  provender.  Some  of 
the  cattle,  however,  are  lost  every  year  by  attempting  to  climb  to  little 
plots  of  grass  among  the  rocks,  with  which  the  coasts  of  the  islands 

Very  few  cattle  are  fattened,  but  only  got  into  good  travelling  condition 
for  the  drover.  The  four-year-old  improved  slots  will  probably  weigh 
36  or  40  stones ;  the  country  cattle  not  more  than  from  18  to  30  stones. 

The  manner  of  feeding  is  the  same  as  in  Caithness,  and  the  shealings  used 
to  be  of  the  same  kind.  The  sheep  now  have  left  but  little  upland 
feed  for  this  primitive  pastoral  life.  In  the  winter  most  of  the  cattle 
are  housed  at  night,  and  fed  with  straw,  and  turned  out  into  the  fields 
-during  the  day  ;  and,  on  the  whole,  although  the  system  of  stocking  is 
much  to  be  complained  of,  the  cattle  are  not  subject  to  all  the  hardships 
.which  are  so  injurious  to  them  in  Caithness.  When,  however,  it  is  consi- 
dered that  in  many  parts  of  Sutherland  the  cattle  are  not  merely  in  the  next 
room  to  the  owner,  but  actually  enjoy  the  fire  in  common  with  the 
family ;  and  then,  in  the  morning,  however  cold  or  wet  that  may  be,  they 
are  driven  out  to  wander  in  the  fields,  it  does  not  admit  of  niuch  doubt 
that  they  must  be  seriously  injured  by  the  sudden  transition.  In  the 
neighbourhood  of  Dunrobin,  they  are  not  housed  at  all,  not  even  the 
calves  after  they  have  been-- weaned,  nor  the  cows  except  at  calving  time. 

Mr.  Sellar  gives  the  following  account  of  the  management  of  cattle  on  the 
northern  coast  of  Sutherland  (Farmer's  Series — Farm  Reports,  p.  75)  :-^ 
'  The  grazing  cattle  are  all  bought-  in  from  the  people  who  are  settled 
round  the  sliores  of  Sutherland,  in  small  lots  of  land,  for  the  prosecution 
of  the  herring- fishing.  These  people  have  one,  two,  or  three  cows  each: 
they  sell  the  calves  at  from  nine  months  to  a  year  old.  The  tillage  farmer 
buys  them,  and  prepares  them  to  travel  south.  He  purchases  them  in  April, 
JDuts  them,  during  summer,  on  his  superabundance  of  deer-hair,  transfers 
them,  in  August,  to  certain  coarse  rushy  loams,  where  coarse  grass  grows ; 
Wflgs  them  to  his  courtines  to  eat  straw  in  winter,  and  finishes  them  off  for 
the  Toad  (luring  next  summer  in  the  inclosures  above-mentioned.  With 
.  some  little  assistance  from  the  field  appropriated  to  the  horses,  the  four 
iields  summer,  on  an  average,  one  beast  and  a  half  per  acre.     It  is  tht 


practice  to  fall  up  two  fields  with  three  cattle  per  acre,  and  to  shift  thenn 
once  a  fortnight.'  The  sales  for  the  southern  market  take  place  iu  July, 
August,  and  September,  and  the  fields  are  then  cleared,  in  order  to  pre- 
pare them  for  sowing  wheat. 

The  dairy  is  a  minor  consideration  with  the  Sutherland  farmer  ;  and  he 
only  manufactures  butter  and  cheese  enough  for  his  own  consumption. 
The  quantity  produced  will  not  exceed  70  lbs.  of  butter  per  year,  and  the 
same  quantity  of  cheese  from  each  cow,  and  one  calf  reared  between  two 
cows.  This  is  a  small  quantity  compared  with  what  some  of  the  southern 
cows  yield ;  yet  it  is  not  often  that  the  Sutherland  dairyman  gets  so 
much  as  this. 

There  is  the  same  superstition  among  the  peasantry  as  in  the  other 
Hig'hland  counties ;  and  when  sometimes,  as  will  naturally  occur  in  so 
barren  a  country,  and  under  such  absurd  and  injurious  management,  the 
cow  yields  little  milk,  or  becomes  suddenly  dry,  Mr.  Pennant,  in  hjs 
'  Second  Tour  to  Scotland,'  tells  us,  that  *  when  the  good  housewife 
perceives  the  effects  of  the  malicious  one  on  any  of  her  kine,  she  takes  as 
much  milk  as  she  can  drain  from  the  enchanted  herd;  for  the  witch  gene- 
rally leaves  her  very  little.  She  then  boils  it  with  certain  herbs,  and  adds 
to  them  flints  and  tempered  steel.  This  puts  the  witch  in  such  agony, 
that  Sihe  comes  nilling-wiUing  to  the  door,  and  begs  to  be  admitted  to 
obtain  relief,  by  touching  the  powerful  pot :  the  good  woman  makes  her 
own  terms;  the  witch  restores  the  milk  to  the  cattle,  and  is,  in  return, 
freed  from  her  pains.' 

Oxen  are  employed  to  a  considerable  extent  on  the  coast  of  Sutherland 
for  road'Work,  and  for  the  plough  on  niaiiy  of  the  farms  in  the  interior  ;  but 
they  are  getting  somewhat  out  of  use :  they  are  never  shod. 

~    ROSS    AND    CaoMARTV. 

These  were  originally  distinct  counties ;  but  Cromarty  was  so  small,  and 
the  additions  that  were  made  to  it  were  in  such  detached  portions,  and  so 
scattered  over  Ross,  that  it  is  now,  for  the  sake  of  convenience,  and 
almost  of  necessity,  considered  as  amalgamated  with  Ross,  and  the  two 
constituting  but  one  county.  The  climate,  like  that  of  most  of  the 
Highland  counties,  is  moist,  but  considerably  warmer  than  that  of  Caith- 
ness or  Sutherland.  The  meadow-ground  is  of  small  extent,  and  usually 
reserved  for  winter-feed  for  the  cattle,  and  comparatively  little  of  the 
arable  land  is  laid  down  for  permaneat-pasture.  The  eastern  part  of  Ross 
and  some  portions  of  Cromarty  contain  excellent  soil ;  and  not  only  the 
wheat  but  the  turnip  husbandry  is  carried  on  extensively  and  succesKfiilly. 
The  system  is  more  connected  with  sheep-feeding;  than  with  either  tlie 
breeding  or  rearing  of  cattle. 

For  many  excellent  observations  on  the  character  and  management  of 
the  Ross  cattle,  we  are  indebted  to  Sir  George  Stewart  Mackenzie's  able 
survey  of  that  county  and  Cromarty.  It  is  a  model  of  wliat  agricultural 
surveys  ought  to  be. 

Ross  may  be  divided  into  the  low  and  high  country  :  the  former  occu- 
pies the  eastern  coast  and  district,  and  the  latter  the  western  part  of  the 
county.  The  cattle  which  are  kept  in  the  lowlands  are  principally  for  the 
dairy,  and  they  are  a  mixed  breed.  There  are  many  pure  West  High- 
anders,  but  not  so  small  as  the  common  breed  of  ciittle  in  the  counties  far- 
ther north,  but  there  are  more  of  the  native  cattle,  with  various  degrees  of 
srossing;  and  others  have  the  Fife  and  the. Moray,  and  crosses  of  .every 
binJ  ^vi**?  **  ■•'".     Th»  dairv,.  b"wp>^er.  1=  not  attended  tO'  for  profit  heie  ; 

»*  CATTLE. 

but  the  farmer  must  have  milk  and  butter  and  cheese,  and  he  musi,  also 
have  cattle  to  eat  down  the  grass  where  he  doe.i  not  dare  to  turn  on  his 
sheep.  The  Leice&ters  have  been  tried,  but  they  did  not  answer  for 
breeding  or  for  the  dairy.  There  is  a  singular  practice  prevailing  in  Ross. 
On  some  parts  of  the  sea-coast  the  cheeses  are  buried  separately  within 
the  high-water-mark  for  several  days,  in  order  to  give  them  a  blue  colour, 
and  a  rich  taste. 

On  the  western  coast  the  pure  West  Highlanders  prevail,  and  this  is  de- 
cidedly a  breeding  district.  Next  to  the  pure  West  Highlanders,  is  a  cross 
between  them  and  the  small,  well-haired,  hardy  cattle  of  the  country. 
The  best  cow  for  the  dairy  is  here  supposed  to  be  produced  from  that  of 
upper  Fife,  crossed  with  the  true  Highland  bull  :  she  will  generally  yield 
four  gallons  of  milk  per  day, — is  easily  fattened,  and  will  weigh  from  120 
to  140  lbs.  perquarter.  They  are  a  middle-sized,  strong-,  compact,  hardy 
race,  well  suited  to  the  general  means  and  climate  of  the  country;  but 
they  are  very  apt  to  degenerate,  and,  after  the  third  or  fourth  generation, 
will  often  be  little  better  than  the  common  country  cattle.  The  cattle  of 
Kintail,  called,  on  this  account,  Kintait no  Bogh,  Kintail  of  cows,  are 
celebrated  all  over  the  Highlands.  Some  say  that  they  are  the  progenitors 
of  the  Argyle  breed ;  but  we  are  more  inclined  to  trace  them  to  the  Skye 
cattle,  to  which  they  bear  great  resemblance,  and,  like  them,  they  are 
smaller  than  the  Argyles.  Their  distinguishing  and  favourable  points 
are,  short  legs,  a  thick  pile,  and  weight  in  proportion  to  their  apparent 
size.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  Kilmure  there  used  to  be  a  peculiar  breed 
of  cattle,  the  result  of  a  cross  between  the  Fife  or  Aberdeen  and  the 
Highlander,  and  a  cross  that  added  to  the  size  and  value  of  the  beast. 

Before  cattle  became  so  valuable  in  this  district  it  was  customary,  as  in 
some  other  parts  of  the  Highlands,  to  allow  one  calf  to  suck  two  cows. 
The  foster-mother  was  easily  reconciled  to  it  after  it  had  been  covered  a 
few  times  with  the  skin  of  her  own  that  had  been  slaughtered  ;  but  now 
each  cow  rears  her  calf.  The  young  ones  are  sutTered  to  suck  for  four, 
five,  or  six  months,  according  to  the  time  at  which  they  were  dropped, — a 
part  of  the  milk  being  previously  drawn  for  the  dairy  ;  but  the  cow  will 
take  care  that  too  much  shall  not  go,  for,  after  the  dairy-maid  has  wrung 
the  last  drop  she  can  extract,  the  mother  has  retained  more  than  enough 
for  her  offspring.  The  latest  of  them  are  weaned  in  the  early  part  of 
November ;  and  all  are  then  sent  to  the  best  pasture  until  the  winter 
begins  thoroughly  to  set  in  ;  when  they  are  housed,  and  fed,  as  the  farm 
will  afford,  on  oat-straw  and  hay, 'to  which  turnips  or  potatoes,  and 
particularly  the  former,  are  occasionally  added.  On  the  following  spring 
they  are  sent  to  hill-pasture  ;  and  in  the  winter  are  brought  home  to  the 
grounds  which  had  been  occupied  by  the  milch-cows,  and  are  fed,  if 
necessary,  with  straw  and  hay.  Thence,  in  the  spring,  they  are  removed 
o  the  coarser  grass  of  the  farm,  and  still  occasionally  fed,  if  needful ; 
and  on  the  approach  of  the  third  winter  they  once  more  follow  the  cows 
in  the  reserved  and  best  winter  pasture  of  the  farm. 

The  overstocking  of  the  farm,  although  now  sometimes  to  be  com- 
plained of,  is  not  carried  to  the  ruinous  extent  to  which  it  used  to  be  ;  and 
if  the  farmer  has  fewer  cattle  for  the  drover,  they  bring  him  more  money  : 
they  are  at  once  fit  for  travelling,  and  he  has  escaped  the  serious  losses 
which  used  to  annoy  and  cripple  his  predecessors. 

The  cattle  are  usually  sold  at  three  and  a  half  and  four  years,  and 
drovers  come  from  Perth,  and  Sterling,  and  Dumbarton,  at  the  latter  end 
of  March,  to  purchase  them.  The  trysU  and  markets  continue  here  until 
September,  when  tJ<'.  cowf  come  into  request.     So  much  business,  how- 


ever,  is  not  done  at  these  public  meetinj^s  as  in  some  fither  counties;  out 
the  drovers  go  from  farm  to  farm,  anrl  ihe  sale  is  effected  privately. 

Mr.  Bai^rie,  who  wrote  the  account  of  Ross-shire  in  No  18  of  the 
Farmer's  Series,  informs  us  that  the  first  ref^ular  market  for  the  sale  of  the 
north  country  cattle  is  the  '  Stafford  Market,'  which  is  held  at  Clashmore, 
in  Sutherlandshire,  on  the  Monday  after  the  first  Wednesday  in  May. 
The  second  is  held  on  the  Tuesday  following  at  Kildary  in  Ross-shire,, 
and  the  third  at  the  Muir  of  Ord,  on  the  confines  of  Inverness  and  Ross-shire, 
being  the  first  of  the  series  of  great  caltle-markels  held  monthly  at  the 
latter  place  during  the  season.  The  cattle  from  all  these  early  markets« 
proceed  to  Cockhill. 

The  weight  of  the  stot  from  three  to  five  years  old  may  be  averaged 
at  70  or  80  lbs.  per  quarter,  but  he  will  fatten  to  110  lbs.  The  cow, 
when  lean,  will  weigh  from  60  to  70  lbs.  per  quarter,  and  will  likewise 
fatten  to  100  lbs. 

Very  few  beasts  are  fattened  in  any  part  of  Ross ;  and  the  few  that  are 
so  consist  of  old  oxen  or  cows,  and  principally  for  the  supply  of  Inverness 
and  Fort  St.  George.  For  home  consumption  the  West  Highlanders  are 
preferred^  but  the  spare  turnips  are  mostly  used  in  bringing  forward 
young  cattle. 

Oxen  were  formerly  more  used  for  husbandry  in  the  eastern  part  of  the 
county  than  they  are  at  present.  They  were  not  reared  in  Ross,  but 
purchased  at  the  different  fairs  in  this  county,  or  in  Sutherland.  Afler 
some  years'  work  they  were  generally  sold  to  the  grazier  or  the  butcher 
at  a  higher  price  than  that  at  which  they  were  bought.  Where  oxen  are 
now  used  generally  there  are  four  to  a  plough,  or  four  oxen  and  two 
horses.  On  a  stiff  and  stony  ground  six  oxen  were  occasionally  used. 
The  four  oxen  cannot  well  go  without  a  driver,  but  it  is  sometimes 
attempted.  The  pair  used  for  the  harrow,  on  very  light  land,  do  not 
require  a  driver.  Curious  stories  were  formerly  told  of  the  medley  of 
horses  and  oxen  and  cows  harnessed  to  the  ploughs  of  the  small  farmer. 
Oxen  are  rarely  used  on  the  road.  * 

*  Since  this  sketch  of  Ross-shire  was  sent  to  the  press,  we  have  been  favoured  with  a 
valuable  account  of  the  cattle  of  this  district  and  their  management,  by  Mr.  Mackenzie  of 
Millbank,  near  Dingwall.  It  strongly  corroborates  our  main  points ;  but  at  the  same  time 
giving  a  different  illustration  of  a.  few  particulars,  we  deem  it  right  to  present  it  to  our 

'  Although  it  is  difHcult  to  trace  the  history  or  true  pedigree  of  the  old  Ross-shire  breed 
of  cattle,  the  various  accounts  that  are  handed  down  regarding  it  shew  that  it  has  long 
existed  as  a  separate  and  distinct  one.  The  breed  taken  collectively,  or  as  it  may  be  termed 
the  north  Highland  breed,  is  exceedingly  hardy  and  of  very  compact  form.  It  is  compara- 
tively light  in  form,  but  the  bone  is  fine,  and  the  carcase  is  deep  and  lengthy,  it  is  round 
in  the  barrel,  straight  in  the  houghs  and  back,  with  a  pile  stronger  and  more  closely  laid 
than  that  of  almost  any  other  breed.  The  head  is  generally  light,  with  broad  forehead, 
short  shaggy  ears,  and  well-turned  horns ;  and  they  are  of  all  colours,  but  black  and 
brindled  predominate,  and  are  the  favourites,  as  indicating  most  constitution. 

'  No  description  of  cattle  answers  the  soil  and  climate  of  Ross-shire  so  well  as  the  original 
north  Highlanders ;  but  as  a  consideral)le  part  of  the  county  is  very  highly  cultivated,  yxo- 
■lucing  every  variety  of  feeding,  and  fit  for  the  reception  of  any  kind  of  stock,  several 
crosses  have  been  introduced,  and  some  with  advantage.  Of  these,  n  cross  with  the  Aber- 
deenshire horned  cattle  has  produced  very  superior  stock,  both  in  point  of  symmetry  and 
weight,  and  for  the  use  of  the  dairy.  For  the  latter  purpose,  a  cross  with  the  Ayrshire  is 
often  ibade;  but  that  is  found  advantageous  only  in  situations  where  there  is  great  pro- 
fusion of  grass  and  turnips  in  their  sea°un ;  and  the  stock  produced  from  it  is  coarse,  and 
not  in  demand  either  for  feeding  or  driving.  That  which  is  most  successfully  followed 
by  the  extensive  breeders  of  the  county,  is  a  cross  from  the  Arg»>''^ire  Highlander,  which 
is  of  greater  weight  and  size  than  the  cattle  of  the  north :  \>\t  in  availing  themselves  oi 
this  cross,  the  Ross-shire  breeders  are  always  anxious  to  preserve  as  much  as  possible  of 
their  owr  etamp«  because  it  is  mure  hardy,  more  suited  to  their  pastures  generally,  and  in 



This  district  extends  along  the  eastern  coast  from  Murray  Firtli  to  the 
Firth  of  Fortli,  and  there  is  a  general  resemblance  between  the  cattle  in 

more  general  demand  for  driving  to  the  south.  There  are  a  few  graiiiers  in  Ross  and  In 
vemess-shire  who  cross  their  cattle  with  superior  bulls  from  the  west  Highlands  of  Pt-rth- 
shire,  which  is  found  to  answer  equally  as  well  as,  if  not  better  than,  any  other  yet  intro- 
duced in  that  part  of  the  country. 

'The  Ross-shire  cattle,  as  already  described,  are  decidedly  more  adapted  for  the  grazmg 
than  the  dairy  system.  The  cows,  particularly  those  pastured  on  hilly  grounds,  uutBeld 
or  meadow,  are  not  famed  for  the  quantity  of  their  milk,  although  it  is  extremely  rich 
in  quality  ;  and  as  there  are  comparatively  but  few  cattle-farms  now  in  the  county,  dairy, 
pujduce  does  not  form  an  article  of  export,  or  of  which  money  is  made.  The  produce  of 
an  ordinary  country  cow  may  be  computed,  during  five  months  of  the  year,  at  from  five  to 
seven  Scotch  pints  of  milk  per  day,  and  from  four  to  six  pounds  of  butter, 'with  rather  more 
than  that  quantity  of  cheese,  in  the  week. 

•  Grazing,  as  the  more  profitable  course,  is -what  is  followed,  and  there  being  but  little 
encouragement  for  feeding,  the  cattle  are  chiefly  sold  to  the  southern  dealers  at  two  and 
three  years  old;  and  such  of  them  as  have  been  kept  for  some  time  by  the  agricultural 
farmers  of  the  county,  and  brought  to  their  full  growth,  are  as  fine  animals  as  can  be 
produced  anj  where.  It  also  very  often  happens  that  the  breeders  dispose  of  their  young 
stock  to  the  graziers  and  farmers  at  the  age  of  six  quarters,  there  being  many  farms  cal- 
culated fur  breeding  that  have  not  advantages  for  rearing,  and  vice  verii.  A  well-bred 
Ro!>$-shire  bullock  of  three  or  four  years  old,  when  fully  fed,  will  weigh  twenty- five  stones,  of 
twenty-one  pounds  Dutch ;  but  though  it  rarely  brings  a  remunerating  price  to  the  feeder . 
at  home,  the  breed  is  reputed  for  quick  feeding  and  for  yielding  more  tallow  in  propor- 
tion to  size  than  most  others,  while  it  is  ascertained  that,  when  they  arrive  on  the  pas- 
tures of  the  south,  they  compete  in  point  of  profit  with  any  kind  whatever. 

'  Of  all  the  cattle  that  are  sent  out  of  Ross-shire,  those  of  the  island  of  Lnoit  (from  whi^h 
three  thousand  are  annually  exported)  are  most  sought  after  for  tht  table,  from  the  ftn^, 
ness  of  their  quaUty.  Though  of  less  size,  and  less  prepossessing  in  appearance,  than 
most  other  cattle,  their  beef,  which  is  always  marbled  is  esteemed  as  beinj^  very  supe- 
lior ;  and  they  are  so  hardy,  that  in  driving  even  to  the  most  southern  parts  of  England 
they  rather  improve  than  lose  in  condition,  if  properly  attended  to. 

'  The  system  of  managing  a  breeding  stock  of  Highland  cattle  is  simple,  but  very  inte- 
restmg,  and  a  thorough  knowledge  of  it,  at  the  period  when  it  was  most  extensively  prac- 
tised in  Ross-shire,  was  confined  to  the  natives  of  its  pastoral  districts,  and  formed  their 
peculiar  element.  This  was  about  twenty  or  twenty-five  years  ago,  when  oiie-half  of  the 
county  was  under  black  cattle,  in  farms  carrying  from  twenty  to  sixty  breeding  cows,  of 
a  stamp  so  equal  as  to  be  always  distinguished  at  market.  The  principal  and  leading 
points  of  management  consist  in  particular  attention  to  pedigree  ;  in  a  careful  disposal  of  the' 
stuck  upon  the  farms ;  and  in  the  various  arrangements  connected  with  their  food,  whether 
in  stormg  up  the  produce  of  the  meadows,  or  in  the  appropriation  of  the  pasturage  to  the 
differentVasons,  scrupulously  reserving  the  roughest  grasses  and  more  sheltered  portions, 
for  the  fall  of  the  year,  when  it  is  of  great  consequence  to  have  the  stock  of  Highland 
fai  ms  kept  in  condition. 

'  Tl.e  establishment  necessary  for  a  breeding  fold  of  cows  is  generally  composed  of  an  ex- 
perienced principal  herdsman,  known  by  the  name  of  the  "  Bowman,"  whose  wife  is  head 
dairy  woman,  with  female  assistants,  at  the  rate  of  one  to  twenty  cows,  and  herd-lads  in 
the  same  proportion,  and  some  younger  followers  to  tend  the  calves,  during  the  intervals 
of  separation  from  their  dams.  It  is  customary,  on  extensive  farms,  to  have  "  sheal' 
bothies"  erected  at  different  stations,  for  the  temporary  accommodation. of  such  an  esta- 
blishment, when  it  is  necessary  to  move  the  cows  from  place  to  place  in  order  to  give' 
them  the  benefit  of  the  whole  grasses  in  due  season ;  and  as  undivided  attention  is  be- 
stowed on  the  charge,  verj-  superior  stock  is  bred  in  this  manner.  The  mode  of  learirig' 
calves,  under  such  management,  is  by  suckling,  and  not  by  hand.feeding— that  is,  by- 
allowing  them  to  9uck  a  certain  portion  of  the  milk  at  stated  periods  in  the  mornings  and' 
evenings.  The  common  way  is,  to  allow  the  calf  to  suck  two  teats,  while  the  dairy-maid, 
at  the  same  time,  milks  the  other  two ;  or  else  to  allow  the  calf  the  use  of  the  whole,  at 
the  discretion  of  the  dairymaid.  Both  calves  and  cows  are  found  to  thrive  much  better 
in  this  way  than  by  allowing  them  to  run  constantly  together ;  and  besides,  there  is  the  ad- 
vantage of  so  much  extra  dairy  produce.  This  mode  of  haltsuckling  prepares  them  likewise 
Sw  their  wiuter^feeding;  and  the  process  of  weaning  generally  takes  place  towards  the  end 
uf.  October.  Having  been  weaned,  the  stirks,  a.i  they  are  then  called,  are  put  up  for  the 
wtntet,  generally  lootM,  in  large  byres,  and  fed  on  the  finest  of  the  meadow  hay ;  and  as 
fwuipo  arejittti^'quiidtly  grown  to  any  extent  on  the  large  ]ia8toral  farms  of  thg  Hij;l» 


every  part  of  it.  Tliey  evidently  beiong  to  the  West  Highlanders,  but  the 
ilifTerence  of  pasture  has  given  them  a  larger  form.  We  will  commence 
at  the  north,  and  proceed  downwards. 


This  is  a  small  county  lying  between  Inverness  and  Elgin,  and  having 
the  Murray  Firth  on  the  north.  It  does  not  contain  many  more  than  six 
thousand  cattle,  and  about  double  that  number  of  sheep.  Towards  the 
borders  of  Inverness  some  of  the  pure  West  Highlanders  are  found,  but 
mixed)  on  the  lower  grounds,  with  the  Fife  &nd  with  other  varieties. 
Formerly  the  whole  of  the  husbandry  work  in  this  county  was  performed 
by  oxen,  and  then  the  object  of  the  farmer  was  to  obtain  a  stronger  and 
heavier  breed  than  the  native  one,  f)r  the  West  Highlanders.  That  object 
was,  to  a  certain  degree  accomplished,  but  the  b6ast  became  coarser,  and  did 
not  fatten  so  kindly,  and  even  its  qualities  as  a  milker  were  not  materially 
improved.  Very  few  pairs  of  oxen,  however,  are  now  seen,  and  the 
farmers  have  gone  back  to  the  native  and  smaller,  but  more  valuable  and 
profitable  breed.  The  Isle  of  Skye  bulls  have  been  in  much  request,  and 
being  crossed  with  the  best  cows,  there  are,  in  the  higher  parts  of  the 
county,  as  fine  specimens  of  Highland  cattle  as  any  part  of  Scotland  will 
produce ;  the  colour  is  not  so  uniform,  but  none  of  the  good  points  or 
qualities  are  lost. 

Nairn  is  a  breeding  and  rearing  district.  The  early  cattle,  as  they  get 
into  tolerably  good  grazing  condition,  are  sent  to  Banffshire,  where  the 
fairs,  in  almost  every  village,  succeed  one  another  from  the  spring  to  the 

lands,  a  run  or  outgo  during  the  d<iy,  on  the  roughest  of  the  pasture,  supplies  their  place. 
The  cows,  after  being  separated  from  their  calves,  are  sent  to  the  portion  of  the  farm  that' 
has  been  set  apart  for  a  general  wintering ;  but  when  calving  time  approaches,  or  when 
the  season  is  very  severe,  they  are  again  brought  near  to  the  byre,  fed  from  the  barn,  and* 
treated  with  much  care.  The  winter  aud  Spring  bving  past,  the  year-olds  are  generally 
put  upon  low'lying  haugh  or  woodland  pasture,  while  the  stronger  part  of  the  young  stock 
is  sent  to  graze  on  the  higher  and  more  remote  pendicles  of  the  farm,  to  await  a  sale ; 
special  care  being  taken  to  select  and  retain  such  of  them  as  are  best  calculated  for  sup- 
plying the  place  of  the  draft  of  aged  cows  annually  made  from  the  fold,  while  as  many 
young  bulls  are  kept  as  will  atibrd  a  choice. 

'  The  breeding  of  cattle  in  Koss-ihire,however,  has  decreased  very  much,  and  the  breed, 
generally  speaking,  has  become  much  deteriorated  within  the  last  twenty  years,  owing  to 
the  rapid  extension  of  sheep.farming.  Sheep  have,  in  fact,  become  the  staple  conitno» 
dity  of  the  North  Highlands,  and  the  system  is  attended  with  less  expense,  and  afibrds, 
perhaps,  a  more  certain  return  than  any  other  to  the  oocupier  of  the  land.  But  although 
the  greater  part  of  the  pastoral  districts  of  Ross-shire  is  best  adapted  for  sheep,  it  is  the 
opinion  of  many  persons  of  experience,  that,  from  the  almost  universal  breeding-  of  that 
species  of  stock,  cattle  would  pay  fully  as  well  in  situations  where  equal  justice  as  to 
keeping  could  be  afforded  in  winter  as  in  summer.  So  great  is  the  preference  given  to 
sheep  now  i»  Koss-shire,  that  the  breeding  of  Jine  cattle  is  almost  entirely  confined  to  tha 
amateur  proprietor,  and  a  few  tenants,  who  still  maintain  opinions  difiering  from  those 
of  the  shepherdtt,  who  have  acqi  lired  by  far  the  greatest  part  of  the  lainds.  Still  the  num- 
ber of  cattle,  of  all  descriptions,  bred  within  the  county  is  very  considerable^  but  though  the 
greater  proportion  of  them  are  of  the  native  breed,  they  have  become  diminutive,  from 
there  being  but  little  reservation  of  hill-grotind  made  in  nieir  favour,  and  from  being  ton- 
iequently  excluded  from  the  pastures  that  produce  most  bone  and  ooAstituiion.  The  sys- 
tem of  throwing  several  cattle-farms  iido  one  sheep-walk  has  limited  the  breeding  of 
cattle  generally  to  tenants  of  small  holdings,  in  the  least  favoured  situations,  and  to  cottara 
placed  either  along  the  shores,  or  on  the  outskirts  of  the  larger  tenements ;  and  from 
wanting  good  bulls  in  such  situations,  joined  to  other  disadftntages,  the  breed,  though  i» 
'■tains  the  original  character,  has  greatly  taWen  off. 

'  Upon  the  whole,  therefore,  there  is  at  present  a  great  decrease  and  a  general  deterVra 
tion  in  Rots-shire  cattle ;  but  many  of  a  superior  descniption.  are  still  bred  K>  the  connty 
irhiSs  the  graater  Dumbor  of  the  whole  are  of  the  original  stamp,' 



autumn.  Tlie  small  fanners  adopt  the  same  system  of  i  rerstocking  and 
false  economy  which  we  have  so  often  reprobated,  and  their  cattle  are 
seldom  got  into  condition  before  the  autumn,  when  they  are  disposed  of 
in  the  same  manner, 

,  The  dairy  used  to  be  sadly  neglected  in  Nairn,  and  even  now  it  is 
regarded  as  an  object  of  only  secondary  importance.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Leslie 
gives  a  curious  illustration  of  the  extent  to  which  this  neglect  was  carried  ; 
he  tells  us  that  considerable  quantities  of  butter  and  cheese  are  brought 
from  Banffshire,  and  even  from  Cheshire  and  Gloucester ;  and  that,  so 
late  as  1770,  on  many  farms  along  the  coast,  no  better  way  of  making 
butter  was  known  than  by  a  woman  whisking  about  the  cream,  with  her 
naked  arm,  in  an  iron  pot. 

Kl  GIN,    OR    MORAY. 

The  Elgin  breed  of  cattle  is  undoubtedly  the  Kyloe  improved,  or,  rather, 
raised  in  size  by  good  keeping,  and  crossing  with  Aberdeenshire  horned 
bulls,  and  by  the  great  number  of  Buchan  cows  brought  over  as  milch  cows. 
They  are  of  an  intermediate  size  between  the  Aberdeens  and  Kyloes,  a 
hardy  breed,  more  adapted  for  grazing  than  for  the  dairy,  affording  beef 
of  the  finest  quality,  but  scarcely  of  the  size  that  would  be  desirable. 

Mr.  Wagstaff  informs  us  that  some  short-horned  bulls  have  been  lately 
introduced,  with  a  view  to  the  production  of  an  animal  that  will  attain  a 
greater  weight.  There  has  not,  however,  been  time  to  ascertain  the  result 
of  the  experiment,  but  a  previous  cross  with  the  Galloways  did  not  answer 
the  expectations  of  those  who  tried  it.  The  cross  with  the  short-horns,  if 
it  succeeds,  will  effect  two  very  important  objects,  and  in  which  the  High- 
landers are  deficient, — increase  of  weight,  and  earliness  of  ripening. 
According  to  Mr.  Deuchar,  by  whom  we  have  been  favoured  with  some 
valuable  remarks,  the  Moray  or  Elgin  cattle  have  more  of  the  Aberdeen 
about  them  than  of  the  Kyloe;  but  they  are  neater  and  more  compact 
than  the  Aberdeens,  and  have  of  late  greatly  improved  in  consequence  of 
the  premiums  given  for  breeding  stock  by  the  Morayshire  Farming  Club 
and  the  Highland  Society. 

Very  few  are  full  fed  in  their  native  district,  being  too  far  distant  from 
the  large  markets.     A  four-year-old,  stalled  in  winter   and  fed  on  straw 
and  turnips,  will  average  about  45  stones.     Some  oxen  that  have  been 
worked  until  seven  or  eight  years  ild,  have  weighed  70  or  80  stones. 
Very  few,  however,  are  brought  to  perfection  in  Moray ;  but  after  having^ 
been  stalled  during  the  winter,  or  put  into  a  straw-yard,  and  fed  on 
straw,  with  as  many  turnips  as  will  keep  them  in  tolerable  condition  and  • 
fresh  for  grass,  they  are  generally  sold  to  the  Aberdeen  and  Angusshire " 
graziers  in  the  spring,  as  soon  as  the  grass  is  ready.     Several  cattle  have 
been  recently  full-fed  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Elgin,  particularly  by  Mr. 
Peter  Brown,    of  Linleswood,  and   conveyed  to   Smithfield   by  steam- 
vessels  from  Aberdeen.     Steam  navigation  will  probably,  ere  long,  effect 
a  material  alteration  in  the  system  of  breeding  and  feeding  in  the  niari-' 
time  counties  of  the  west  £ind  north-east  of  Scotland.  ' 

The  C9.1ves  are  suffered  to  suck  until  they  are  weaned.  In  winter  they 
are  kept  in  the  straw-yard,  and  fed  on  straw  or  turnips,  and  in  the  spring 
urned  to  grass.  The  queys  are  not  allowed  to  have  calves  until  they  are 
three  years-old,  and  are  fed  off  at  six  or  seven. 

The  straw-yard,  with  .he  same  quantity  of  straw  and  turnips,  is,  in  this 
distHct,  tho'jght  to  be  preferable  to  stall-feeding.  The  cattle-dealers 
anagine  tha-  the  beasTa  stand  the  road  better,  and  especially  in  case  of  bad 

THE  BANFF  BRiED.  101 

weather  happening  when  drivinir  south.  The  dealers  also  complain  of  the 
crosses  with  the  Galloway  and  short-horn,  the  progeny  not  being  sufRcieiitly 
hardy  to  drive  to  the  distant  markets. 

Sir  John  Sinclair,  in  his  general  report  of  Scotland,  computes  the 
number  of  cattle  in  Elgin  at  16,900.  There  are,  probably,  not  so  many 
at  present,  more  of  the  land  having  been  enclosed  and  submitted  to  the 


This  county,  lying  between  Elgin  and  Aberdeen,  contains  nearly  25,000 
cattle,  the  ancient  and  still  preponderating  breed  of  which  is  the  Aberdeen- 
shire horned,  the  qualities  of  which  are  well  known  to,  and  appreciated 
by  graziers  from  the  Firth  of  Moray  to  Smithfield.  The  Banffshire  cattle 
are  somewhat  smaller,  however,  than  the  Aberdeens,  and  of  finer 

Very  few  true  specimens  of  that  hardy  and  valuable  breed,  the  old 
Banffshire  cattle,  are  now  to  be  met  with,  except  in  some  of  the  upper 
districts  of  the  county ;  and  even  these,  from  the  shortness  of  keep  and 
the  want  of  turnips,  in  winter  are  considerably  stinted  in  their  growth. 
Mr.  Tait,  veterinary-surgeon  at  Portsoy,  to  whom  we  return  our  thanks 
for  some  valuable  information,  says,  that  *  Any  of  the  old  breed  that  are 
to  be  seen  in  the  better  cultivated  districts  are  very  handsome  animals;, 
for  the  most  part  with  tine  springing  white  horns  with  black  points,  fine 
small  heads,  but  broad  between  the  eyes,  and  with  short  clean  muzzles. 
They  are  short  in  the  legs,  clean  in  the  bone,  and  the  flesh  well  down 
upon  the  legs.  The  body  is  rather  long,  the  ribs  round,  and  the  back 
broad  and  straight ;  the  colour,  for  the  most  part,  black  or  brindled, 
party-colours  being  rarely  met  with  in  the  native  breed.  They  are  hardy, 
superior  travellers,  and  at  four  years  old  will  weigh  from  50  to  60  stones.' 

The  cows  are  not  celebrated  for  the  quantity  of  milk  that  they  yield, 
but  it  is  usually  of  very  superior  quality.  From  three  to  five  gallons  of 
milk  may  be  reckoned  the  average  produce  on  good  pasture  and  in  the 
prime  of  the  season. 

Banff  is  principally  a  breeding  country  ;  a  few  oxen  only  are  worked 
in  the  upper  part  of  the  district* ;  on  the  coast  some  cattle  are  pre- 
pared fur  the  Mearus  and  Aberdeen  markets:  most  of  them  are  sold 
half  fat;  but  a  few  are  finished  off  with  turnips  and  hay.  Mr.  Mill,i 
tenant  of  Mill  of  Byndie,  near  Banff,  feeds  a  considerable  number  of 
beasts  full-fat,  which  he  sends  to  Smithfield  by  the  smacks  from  Portsoy 
and  Banff,  and  by  the  Aberdeen  steam-vessels.  There  are  some  good 
artificial  pastures  about  the  coast,  but  in  the  upper  part  of  the  country 
there  is  little  beside  the  natural  herbage,  and  that  not  often  improved 
by  manure.  Banffshire  is  indebted  to  Lord  Findlater  for  the  greater 
part  of  the  improvements  that  have  taken  place-  in  that  district.  When 
his  Lordship  first  took  up  his  residence  in  Banff  Castle,  about  the  year 
1753,  there  were  no  roads,  no  turnips  or  potatoes  reared,  in  the  field, 
no  grass-seed  sown,  and  no  incloSure  made,  except  about  the  mansions 
of  a  few  of  the  proprietors.  He  first  took  into  his  own  possession  one 
of  his  farms  (Craigherbs)  near  Banff  Castle,  and  fallowed  and  limed 
it,  and  laid  down  part  of  it  in  turnips,  and  part  of  it  in  grass-seeds.  He 
sent  the  sons  of  some  of  the  farmers  to  study  agriculture.  As  soon  as  the 
iease  was  expired,  he  commenced  the  management  of  another  of  his  farms ; 

*  The  old  Banff  plough  used  to  be  drawn  by  six,  or  eight,  or  ten  oxen  or  by  oxen  and 
eowg  intermingled,  oi  by  oxen  and  horses.  The  black  cattle  were  usually  ought  in  about 
Wbitiuntide  and  sold  again  in  the  autumn. 

'02  CATTLE. 

he  raised  beller  and  constant  food  for  the  cattle,  he  inftproved  the  breetf 
by  crosses  from  the  best  of  his  own  stock  and  the  neighbouring  districts, 
and  the  agriculture  of  Banffshire,  about  the  lowland  part  of  the  country 
is  now  equal  to  any  in  Scotland.  The  local  Agricultural  Society  has  also 
been  of  great  service  in  carrying  on  the  work  of  improvement ;  and  the 
facilities  afforded  by  steam  passage  will,  in  Banffthire,  as  in  all  the  coun- 
ties on  the  coast,  give  an  additional  stimulus  to  improvement,  and  effect 
a  rapid  change  both  in  the  breeditig  and  management  of  cattle. 

The  lowland  farmers  sometimes  buy  young  cattle  at  two  years  old 
from  the  small  upland  farmers,  and  sell  them  again  at  three  years. 
Their  food  in  the  winter  is  almost  entirely  straw  and  turnips,  a  little  hay 
being  added  for  the  cows  that  have  calved  The  cattle  of  the  lower  districts 
of  Banffshire  are  of  a  medium  si^e,  between  those  of  the  native  Highlands 
and  the  better  fed  ones  of  Kincardine  *.  Mr.  M'Pherson,  factor  to  the 
Duke  of  Gordon,  infbrms  us,  that  about  thirty  years  ago  the  Galloway 
breed  of  cattle  was  introduced  into  this  districtt  and  has  increased  so  muclr, 
that  it  now  forms  a  large  portion  of  the  heavy  stock  ;  some  of  the  Buchan 
cattle,  also  polled,  but  a  distinct  breed,  appear  in  some  of  the  districts  of 
Banff;  they  are  devoted  to  the  purposes  of  the  dairy.  Many  of  the 
farmers  crossed  the  Banff  with  the  ppUed  breed  of  Aberdeen,  in  order  to 
obtain  greater  weight,  and  which  was  warranted  by  the  superior  system  of 
husbandry  that  has  lately  been  adopted  in  the  greater  part  of  the  county ; 
and  they  also  reckoned,  but  not  with  so  much  reason,  on  the  early  maturity 
of  this  cross.  Others,  and  at  the  head  of  them  stands  Mr.  Milne  of  Mill 
Boyndie,  and  to  whom  also  we  owe  much  obligation,  has  all  his  cows  of 
the  Banff  breed,  crossed  with  the  Isle  of  Skye  bull.  Mr.  Milne  considers 
this  to  be  the  most  valuable  stock  that  the  country  produces. 

A  few  Ayrshire  and  Teeswater  beasts  are  likewise  also  seen.  A  short- 
horned  bull  was  lately  introduced  by  Mr.  Wilson,  of  Brangan,  whose  stock 
is  promising.  There  is  much  prejudice  against  the  short-horns  at  present 
in  Banffshire.  It  is  supposed  that  the  keep  of  this  district  can  never  be 
good  enough  for  them,  and  that  the  greater  price,  in  proportion  to  their 
weight,  fetched  by  the  native  stock,  would  yield  greater  profit  to  the  farmer 
than  he  could  obtain  from  a  heavier  and  more  expensively  fed  beast. 
To  a  great  degree  this  is  an  unfounded  prejudice  ;  and  we  have  no  doubt 
that  in  Banffshire,  as  everywhere  else,  the  short-horn,  cautiously  and 
judiciously  introduced,  will  ultimately  have  justice  done  to  him. 

Much  injury  is  supposed  to  have  been  done  to  the  Banffshire  breed  of 
cattle  by  the  attempted  introduction  of  the  long- horns,  forty  or  fifty  years 
ago.  A  cross  with  these,  and  especially  when  persisted  in,  produced  an 
ill-framed,  unshapely  animal,  in  which  every  good  quality  of  the  progenitors 
■was  lost.  Among  the  most  intelligent  and  successful  breeders  in  Banff- 
shire we  may  reckon  Mr:  Gordon  of  Laggan,  Mr.  Gauld  of  Edinglassie, 
and  the  late  Rev.  A.  Milne  of  Boyndie. 

Although  horse-ploughing  has  superseded  ox-labour,  the  number  of 
cattle  in  Banffshire  has  materially  increased  since  the  establishment  of  the 
system  of  winter  feeding. 


This  extensive  county,  breeding  or  grazing  more  cattle  than  any  other 
district  of  Scotland,  will  require  particular  attention.  The  number  of 
♦  Mr.  Ballingall,  in  hi*  Statistical  Account  of  Forglen,  says,  in  1795,  that  '  on  tna 
y/aterside,  the  cattle,  bv  the  richness  of  the  pasture,  are  of  a  large  »\te.  One  tenant  in 
^agtiide  ^ad  a  plough  of  eight  oxen,  which  would,  in  most  seasons,  hate  been  good  beef 
from  the  yoke,  and  would  have  weighed  from  fifty  to  seventy  stones,  at  an  average,  and, 
if  full-fed  from  seventy  to  ninety,  and  some  seemed  «ze  enough  to  carry  one  hunted.' 


cattle  in  Aberdeenshire  lias  been  calculated  at  110,000,  at'  wbivli  more 
than  20,000  are  either  slaughtered,  or  sold  to  the  graziers  every  year. 

The  soil  and  climate  are  very  dilierent  in  the  hilly  country  towards 
the  south-west,  burdening  on  Forfar,  Perth,  ^.nd  Inverness,  and  in  the 
lowlands  skirtinig  the  sea.  There  is  better  natural,  pasture  on  the  hills 
than  the  Highlands  usually  afford,  except  upon  the  very  ridges  of  the 
Grampians,  while  the  mellow  clayey  soil  in  the  lower  parts  yield  abundant 
crops.  The  climate  on  the  hills  is  cold  enough,  and  especially  when  the 
wind  blows  from  the  north-east ;  but  in  the  lowlands  there  is  a  mildness 
and  an  equality  of  temperature,  scarcely  exceeded  in  the  south-eastern 
parts  of  England.  Storms  from  the  north  and  the  east,  however,  some 
times  do  considerable  injury,  and  especially  in  the  district  of  Buchau,  and 
when  the  crops  are  in  bloom. 

The  character  of  the  cattle  varies  with  that  of  the  country.  Towards 
the  interior,  and  on  the  hills,  formerly  occupying  the  whole  of  that  dis- 
trict, and  still  existing  in  considerable  numbers,  is  the  native  unmixed 
Highland  breed.  It  is  suited  to  its  locality:  hardy  but  not  docile  ;  living 
and  thriving,  to  a  certain  extent,  on  its  scanty  fare ;  and  at  four  years-old, 
and  when  it  was  thought  to  be  prepared  for  the  dea1ers,'weighing,  probably, 
not  more  than  3i^c7/t. ;  but  with  a  disposition  to  grow  to  the  full  extent  of 
which  its  natural  form  is  capable  when  conveyed  to  the  richer  pasture  of 
the  south. 

This  breed,  however,  would  be  out  of  its  place  in  the  milder  climate 
and  more  productive  soil  of  the  lower  district  of  Aberdeen  ;  another  kind 
of  cattle  was  therefore  gradually  raised,  the  precise  origin  of  which  it  is 
difficult  to  describe. 

It  was  first  attempted,  as  in  the  districts  that  we  have  already  surveyed, 
by  judicious  selections  from  the  native  breed,  and  some  increase  of  size 
was  obtained,  but  not  suffieient  for  the  pasture.  Some  spirited  individuals 
then  sent  far  south,  and  the  Lancashire  long-horn  was  introduced,  and 
the  short-horned  Durham  was  tried;  but  either  they  did  not  amalga- 
mate with  the  native  breed,  or  a  species  of  cattle  was  produced  too  large 
for  the  soil.  . 

There  were,  however,  some  splendid  exceptions  to  this,  and  we  are 
glad  that  we  can  present  our  readers  with  a  portrait  of  one  of  them  in 
two  stages  of  his  preparation  for  the  market. — (See  p.  104  and  10.5.) 

This  beautiful  animal  was  bred  by  Lord  Kintore  from  an  Aberdeenshire 
jow  and  a  Teeswater  bull.  We  are  indebted  to  his  lord-ship  for  the  chief 
materials  of  our  history  of  him.  He  was  calved  in  April,  1837,  and  from 
the  Michaelmas  of  that  year  he  was  tied  up  in  the  house,  according  to  the 
practice  of  the  country,  with  the  other  calves.  He  got  turnips,  with  clover, 
hay,  and  straw  alternately  twice  a  day,  They  were  the  Norfolk  globe 
turnips^  which  are  not  considered  so  nutritious  as  the  Aberdeen  yellow } 
and  four  or  five  ounces  of  salt  were  given  him  daily. 

In  1828  be  was  at  pasture  from  the  1st  of  May  to  the  20th  of  October, 
and  was  then  put  into  a  straw-yard  with  sheds,  getting  about  fire  pounds 
of  oil-cake  daily,  with  plenty  of  water  and  hay  and  straw,  until  the  10th  of 
May,  1829,  when  he  again  was  sent  to  pasture  until  the  middle' of  Oc» 
tober.  He  then  g,ot  a  limited  quantity  of  Aberdeen  yellow  turnips  in 
the  house,  as  Lord  Kintore  did  not  then  intend  to  have  him  fed  o£P.  He 
went  out  almost  daily  for  w^ter  and  exercise  uintU  the  1st  of  Aprils  1830, 
wben  he  was  again  put  into  the  straw-yard  until  the  middle  of  May,,  getting 
about  six  pounds  and  a  half  of  oil-cake  daily,  witlib  the  usual  qiiaatity  of 
hay  and  straw. 

He  was  afterwards  at  pasture  until  the  8th  of  October,  and  was  treated  in 

104  CATTLE. 

the  winter  as  before,  with  the  addition  of  oil-cake  for  about  ten  days,  previous 
to  his  being  again  turned  out  to  grass,  which  was  on  the  15th  of  May,  1831. 

From  the  latter  end  of  June  until  the  close  of  August  he  was  talsen  in 
the  house  during  the  day,  where  he»got  cut  grass,  and  was  turned  out  at 
night ;  and  from  that  time  until  the  2l8t  of  September  he  was  again  tied  up, 
getting  hay  and  turnips  until  the  6th  of  October,  when  he  left  Keith  alL 
and  was  sent  by  the  steamer  to  London.  His  weight  miight  have  been  con- 
siderably increased  had  he  been  full  fed  from  tlie  first,  but  he  was  ow  a 
very  fine  animal,  as  the  cut,  from  a  portrait  of  him  by  Cooper,  very  kindly 
lent  to  us  by  Mr.  Combe,  will  sufficiently  show.  He  was  now  supposed 
to  weigh  100  stones  imperial  weight,  or  175  stones  Smithfield  weight. 

I^TSe  Ktntore  Ox,  when  he  was  first  sent  to  the  South — o  Cross  lietmeen  the  Aberdeen 
and  the  Improved  Short-horn.'\ 

He  was  consigned  to  the  care  of  Lord  Kintore's  friend,  Mr.  Harvey 
Combe,  who  was  to  use  his  own  discretion  whether  he  would  exhibit  him 
at  the  next  Smithfield  cattle-show,  and  compete  for  a  prize  among  tlie 
extra  stock,  or  whether  he  would  keep  him  another  year,  and  try  for  the 
first  prize.  Mr.  Combe  decided,  and  very  judiciously,  to  give  him  ano- 
ther year's  feeding.  He  was  accordingly  taken  down  to  that  gentleman's 
estate  at  Cobham ;  and  from  October  to  April  was  fed  upon  Swedish 
turnips  and  hay,  with  about  six  pounds  of  oil-cake  daily,  and  during  the 
spring  and  summer  he  had  cut  grass  and  oatmeal.  He  was  let  out  daily 
for  exercise,  and  his  greatest  pleasure  seemed  to  be  to  go  among  the  cows 
as  they  came  into  the  yard,  and  talk  to  them.  He  was  exceedingly 
docile.  Whoever  approached  him  or  handled  him  he  scarcely  moved, 
except  that  he  would  not  suffer  the  man  who  was  once  compelled  to  bleed 
him  to  come  near  him  for  a  week. 

In  September  he  commenced  oil-cake  and  hay,  eating  about  twelve 
pounds  daily  of  the  former,  until  he  was  sent  to  Smithfield.  During  the 
last  two  months  he  had  a  lump  of  rock  salt  in  his  manger,  of  which  he 
was  particularly  fond.  A  basket  of  earth  also  stood  by  him,  of  which  he 
occasionally  ate  a  considerable  quantity,  and  which,  operated  as  a  gentle 



The  following  cut,  taken  from  a  painting  by  the  same  artist,  containi 
in  accurate  portrait  of  him  just  before  he  was  sent  to  the  Shew. 

[7»e  Kinlore  Oje,fatled.\ 

He  was  supposed  now  to  weigh  more  than  180  stones  imperial  weig'nt, 
and  nearly,  or  quite,  320  stones  Smithfield  weight.  He  was  universally 
admired,  particularly  his  still  beautiful  symmetry,  the  equable  manner 
in  which  the  fat  was  laid  upon  him,  and  his  almost  perfect  levelness  from 
the  shoulder  to  the  tail. 

In  the  mean  time  the  regulations  of  the  Smithfield  club  with  regard 
to  the  age  of  cattle  had  been  altered,  and  this  noble  animal  was  now  a 
year  too  old,  and  consequently  could  not  compete  for  any  prize.  This 
was  a  serious  mortification  both  to  Lord  Kintore  (from  whom  the  animal 
was  very  properly  called  the  Kintore  Ox)  and  to  Mr.  Combe.  This  gen- 
tleman, however,  was  bid  757.  for  him;  but  as  Lord  Kintore  had  ano- 
ther beast  at  Keith  Hall  a  year  younger,  and  nearly  as  good,  he  deter- 
mined to  have  him  sent  down  to  Scotland  again,  in  order  that  he  might 
exhibit  them  both  at  the  next  Highland  Society  cattle  show  at  Aberdeen. 
Lord  Kintore  is  a  great  advocate  for  one  cross  of  the  Teeswater  with  the 
Aberdeen,  This  animal  was  a  sufficient  proof  of  what  may  be  effected 
by  it ;  but  they  rapidly  degenerate  if  the  cross  is  further  pursued.  The 
convenience  of  carriage,  now  afforded  by  the  introduction  of  steam, 
will  probably  tempt  many  of  the  northern  breeders  to  try  this  first  cross. 

In  the  attempt  permanently  to  improve  the  Aberdeen  cattle,  all  the 
southern  Counties  of  Scotland  were  occasionally  resorted  to,  but  with 
doubtful  success,  until  at  length  the  breeders  directed  their  attention  nearer 
nome.  The  Fife,  or  Falkland  breed,  possessed  enough  of  the  old  cattle  to 
Did  fair  to  mingle  and  be  identified  with  the  natives,  while  the  bones  Were 
smaller,  the  limbs  cleaner,  and  yet  short ;  the  carcase  fairly  round,  and 
the  hips  wide,  and  they  were  superior  in  size,  hardy,  and  docile,  and 
excellent  at  work,  and  good  milkers.  These  were  desirable  qualities,  and 
particularly  as  mingling  with  the  Highland  breed.  Accordingly  bulls 
from  Fife  were  introduced  into  Aberdeen,  and  the  progeny  so  fully 
answered  the  expectation  of  the  breeder  as  to  be  generally  adopted,  and 
to  become  the  ioundation  or  origin  of  what  is  now  regarded  as  the  Abev* 
deenshire  native  breed 



The  lioms  do  not  taper  so  finely,  nor  stand  so  mach  upwardu  as  in  the  West 
Highlanders,  and  they  are  also  whiter;  the  hair  is  shorter  and  thinner; 
tlie  ribs  cannot  be  said  to  be  flat,  but  the  chest  is  deeper  in  proportion  to 
the  circumference  ;  and  the  buttock  and  thighs  are  likewise  thinner.  The 
colour  is  usually  black,  but  sometimes  brindled :  they  are  heavier  in  car- 
case ;  they  give  a  larger  quantity  of  milk ;  but  they  do  not  attain  matu- 
rity so  early  as  the  West  Highlanders,  nor  is  their  flesh  quite  so  beauti- 
fully marbled :  yet,  at  a  proper  age,  thejr  fatten  as  readily  as  the  others, 
not  only  on  good  pasture,  but  on  that  which  is  somewhat  inferior.  Mr. 
James  Rennie,'  of  Fantassie,  used  to  prefer  them  as  faiteners  to  any  of 
the  Scotch  cattle  Mr.  Walker,  of  Wester  Fintray,  on  the  banks  of  the 
Don,  has  some  very  fine  specimens  of  the  pure  Aberdeenshire  breed.  They 
are  perfectly  docile,  and  sufficiently  hardy  iibr  any  climate  to  which  they  are 
likely  to  be  transplanted.  They  are  now  rarely  used  for  husbandry  work, 
or,  if  they  are,  it  is  only  for  one  year.  At  four  years  old  they  are  usually 
sent  to  grass  for  six  months,  after  which  they  will  weigh  from  5  to 
6  cwt.  In  the  fertile  districts -of  the  low  country,  aboundift'g  with  sum- 
mer pasture  and  winter  food,  they  usually  reach  at  their  full  growth  from 
fifty  to  seventy  stones  Dutch ;  and  have  been  frequently  known  ,to  feed  from 
fifteen  to  sixteen  hundred  pounds.  The  breed  has  progressively  improved, 
and  that  by  judicious  selections  from  this  native  stock.  It  has  increased 
in  size,  and  become  nearly  double  its  original  weight,  without  losing  its 
propensity  to  fatten,  and  without  growing  above  its  keep.  The  alteration 
and  improvement  in  agriculture,  and  the  introduction  of  turnip-husbandry, 
have  contributed  to  effect  this.  Mr.  Leith  of  Wliitehaugfa,  and  Mr.  Canrine 
of  Auchery,  very  much  contributed  to  the  improvement  of  the  Aberdeen 
shire  cattle.  The  breed  of  the  former  gentleman  was  remarkable,  not 
:mly  for  their  increased  size,  and  the  perfection  of  some  of  their  points, 
but  for  being  more  than  usually  well  horned ;  the  cows  of  Mr.  Gamine 
yielded  from  six  to  ten  Scots  pints  of  milk,  instead  of  four  pints>  which 
irere  considered  to  be  the  average  produce  of  a  tolerable  cow. 

[rAe  Abetdnmhire  0*.\ 

Beside  tlieae  there  is  a  breed  of  "oH"'?  oaM'ps**'''  by  some  to  be  different 
from  the  Galloways,  and  to  hav 


biiWever,  ^ith  ^eater  reason,  consider  them  as  the  Galloways  inliodiiiied 
about  thirty  years  ago,  and  somewhat  changed  by  change  ot'ulimate  and  soil. 
They  are  of  a  larger  size  than  the  horned,  although  not  so  handsome.  Ot. 
late  they  have  been  much  improTed  by  careful  selection  from  the  best  of 
their  own  stock,  and  are  becoming  more  numerous.  In  some  districts  they 
are  equal,  to  or  are  superseding  the  horned  breed.  They  usually  equal 
in  weight  the  larger  varieties  of  the  horned  breedj  but  the  quality  of 
their  meat  is  said  to  be  inferior.  As  they  are  in  a  measure  occupying 
the  situation  of  the  larger  horned  cattle,  these,  in  their  turn,  are  intruding 
on  the  cattle  of  the  hill  country  ;  there  they  rapidly  diminish  in  size:  hence 
we  have  the  small  Aberdeetis  of  the  hills,  weighing  from  twenty  to  thirty 
stones,  and  contending  with  and  gradually  displacing  the  Highland  breed. 

The  Buchan  cattle  constitute  a  useful  variety  of  Aberdeenshire  cattle  with 
some,  peculiarities  of  form  and  properties.  Mr.  R.  Crray  thus  describes 
them  in  the  '  Quarterly  Journal  ot  Agriculture:' — 'The  cattle  in  Buchan 
are  chiefly  af  the  short-horned  kind,'  (he  means  comparatively  short,  and 
he  thus  speaks  of  them  in  opposition  to  the  long  horns,)  'not  very  large, 
but  short-legged  and  hardy.  The  best  sort  used  to  be  polled  *,  and  some 
of  them,  that  do  not  begin  to  have  the  Ayrshire  blood  in  them,  are  so  still, 
ami  are  of  a  dark  or  brown  colour.  The  oreed  of  cattle  in  Buchan  is  peculiar 
to  that  part  of  the  country,  and  deservedly  esteemed  fur  its  milking  quality, 
and  the  beef  it  produces.  From  the  great  extent  of  grass  lands  in  Buchan 
more  cattle  are  produced  in  it  than  in  most  other  districts.  They  are  gene- 
rally bought  by  dealers  from  the  south  when  two,  tliree,  and  four  years  old, 
and  at  the  latter  age  they  weigh  from  fifty  to  sixty  stones.  The  cows  of 
Buchan  are  not  large,  but,  on  account  of  the  excellent  quality  of  the  pasture, 
ttiey  yield  a  considerable  quantity  of  milk,  from  the  cream  of  which  butter 
is  made  to  a  great  extent,  and  of  excellent  quality,' 

Notwithstanding  their  small  size,  they  will  yield  ftwm  three  to  four, 
and  sometimes  seven  gallons  of  milk  per  day.  They  are  fed  principally 
with  oat-straw  in  the  winter,  but  they  sometimes  get  plotted  hay,  or  hay 
on  which  boiling  water  has  been  poured.  It  used  to  be  the  practice  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Peterhead  to  give  them  green  kale  in  April,  which 
is  sown  in  the  preceding  spring,  transplanted  in  June  or  July,  stands 
the  winter  belter  than  turnips,  and  vegetates  strongly  in  April.  By 
adopting  this  plan,  the  dreadful  interval  for  the  farmer  between  the  winter 
and  summer  feed  was  in  a  great  measure  filled  up. 

'  In  the  course  of  the  year  there  are  nearly  .fifty  markets  held  in  this 
district  for  the  sale  of  cattle,  and  the  amount  of  the  sales  at  Aiky  fair 
may  be  estimated  at  upwards  of  12,000/.  annually.'  If  we  reckon  that 
one^fourth  of  the  Buchan  cattle  are  sold  at  this  fair,  we  shall  have  50,000/. 
as  the  annual  value  of  the  beasts  that  are  drafted  from  this  district ;  and, 
calculating  this  district  at  not  quite  a  fourth  of  the  superficial  extent  of 
the  county,  yet  containing  a  considerable  portion  of  the  richer  soil,  we 
•nay  fairly  conclude  that  15[0,P00/,  are  brought  into  the  county  by  the  sale 
of  black  cattle  alone  t- 

*  Mr.  M<Pherson  says,  that '  a  variety  of  the  polled  calttlen  the  principal  breed  in  tht 
Buchan  district  of  Aberdeenshire.'  The  native,  or  Buchan  cattht,  were  probably  polled, 
and  the  homed  ones  are  a  mixed  breed,  between  the  natives  and'  the  Ayrshire :  they  ar« 
out  so  hardy  as  the  common  Aberdeenshire  cattle,  and  do  not  fatten  so  speedily. 

t  The  vahie  of  those  slaughtered  Sir  home  consumption  should  be  added ;  and  which 
areabout  10,000,  at  10/.i>er  head,  yielding  100,000/.;  so  that  the  tatalvalueof  Aberdeen- 
shire cattle  annually  sold  or  killed  will  be  250,000/.  Dr.  Keith,  in  his  '  Snrvey  of  Aber- 
deenshiiv,'  has  given  a  very  laboured  account  of  the  value  of  the  cattle  stocl^  and  which 
may  be  interesting  to  the  reader,  since  some  of  the  principal  markets  for  the  sale  of  cattle 
ini  in  this  county,  and  it  contains  nearly  double  the  number  of  beasts  thai  are  to  b« 

108  CATTLE. 

A  fourth  variety  consists  o  a  .  tne  pure  breeds  from  the  north  of  Eng'*' 
land  and  the  south  of  Scotland.  The  Holderness  has  been  once  more 
attempted  to  be  introduced,  but  with  no  marked  success.  The  Ayrshire 
Cattle  do  well  wherever  they  go  if  the  soil  is  not  too  barren,  or  the  climate 
too  severe  ;  but  it  must  require  a  considerable  alteration  in  the  system  of 
husbandry  to  make  Aberdeen,  generally,  a  decidedly  dairy  county.  In  the 
estimation  of  the  Aberdeenshire  farmers,  no  breed  answers  so  well  as  the 
native  one  of  the  district ;  and  certainly  no  cattle  will  fetch  so  good  a  price 
among  the  drovers  at  Old  Deer  or  Aiky  fairs,  or  be  so  readily  sold  again 
to  the  English  graziers,  who  fatten  them  for  the  Smithfield  market.  The 
present  Duke  of  Gordon,  1o  whom  we  are  indebted  for  many  facilities'  in 
acquiring  a  knowledge  of  the  Aberdeen  cattle,  has  been  foremost  in  the 
attempt  to  improve  the  breed  of  this  district.  His  bulls  and  cows  from  Gal- 
loway, Argyleshire,  the  Scottish  islands,  and  Durham,  were  the  best  that 
could  be  procured,  while  his  selections  from  the  native  breed  were  most 
judicious ;  and  although  the  cuttle  retain  much  of  their  original  cha- 
racter, they  have  been  considerably  improved,  while  a  spirit  of  emulation 
has  been  excited  which  cannot  tail  to  be  useful. 

fuuiid  in  any  other  county  except  Perth.     His  calculation  was  mads  in    1810.     He  sup- 
noses  that  there  are 

28,000  cows  at  7/.  each,  value        ....  £196,000 

22,000  calves  are  reared  at  2/.  ....       44,000 

20,000  year-olds  at  3/.  15s.  .....       75,000 

19,000  two-year  olds  at  7/.  10».        ....      142,500 

21,000three-yearsandupwards,  at  12/.  10<.  .  .  .     262,500 

llO.OOOtotalnumber,  and  in  value  .  .  £720,000 

To  this  he  adds  from  the  records  of  Aberdeen, 
3680  beasts  slaughtered  in  the  city : 

Of  that  number  there  are  300  at  £30            ...  £  9000 

„                  „           600  at  25                 ,                  .                   .  15,000 

.  16,000 

.  12,800 

.  10,000 

.  3,800 

.  3,400 

800  at    20 

800  at    16 

Of  inferior  cattle 

800  at    12  10.. 

Of  cows 

380  at    10 


1621  worth  at  least 

Total  killed  in  Aberdeen     5301  .  .  .  Value  £70,000 

Killed  in  Peterhead,  Tarriff,  and  other  smaller  towns,  about  the  same 
number,  but  chiefly  cows  and  other  inferior  cattle,  und  the  value 
about  6/.  each  ......       30,000 

Sold  to  dealers  12,000  at  12/.  10«.  .  .  .     150  000 

Value  of  those  which  are  killed  or  sold  .  .  .     250,000 

Value  of  stock  as  above     .....     720,000 

Total  value  of  Aberdeenshire  Cattle  .  .  .     £970,000, 

or  nearly  five  times  the  annual  rent,  and  a  fourth  part  of  the  whole  annual  produce  and 
agricultural  property  of  every  kind. 

A  writer  in  the  Farmer's  Magazine  (1807)  gives  a  cunous  and  interesting  .account 
of  the  prices  of  husbandry  stock  in  this  district  in  the  year  1747.  He  obtained  it  from  a 
venerable  old  farmer  in  the  eighty-ninth  year  of  his  age.  <  On  the  death  of  his  father  he 
was  compelled  to  go  to  service,  and  the  highest  wages  he  ever  obtained  were  16*.  Sd.  in  the 
half-year.  In  1731  he'  a^eed  with  a  lauded  proprietor  to  cut  a  ditch  through  a  piece  of 
mossy  ground,  ten  feet  wide  at  top,  six  at  bottom,  and  six  feet  deep,  for  two-thirds  of  a 
penny  sterling  per  ell,  and  while  thus  employed  he  paid  13d.  per  week  for  his  hoard. 
By  persevering  in  a  course  of  honest  industry  and  frugality,  h^  found  his  stock,  in 
1747,  increased  to  50/.  sterling,  with  which  he  purchased  eight  oxen,  all  under  six  years 
of  age,  three  cows,  three  horses,  four  one-year-uld  stots  and  queys,  furnished  his  house, 
purchased  ploughs,  harrows,  &c.,  paid  the  expense  of  his  marriage,  servants'  nagt-s,  and 
other  incidents,  and  at  Lammas  1748,  when  he  began  to  harvest  his  first  crop,  he  was  nut 
due  a  peimy  to  the  world.' 


Anderson  says  that  Mr.  Farquharson,  of  Invercaiild,  has  a  breed  of 
Highland  beasts  once  crossed  with  the  Falkland  or  Fife  (which,  although 
tolerable  cattle,  are  by  no  means  valued  for  their  milk),  yet  the  descend- 
ants of  these  afford  a  large  quantity  of  milk  in  proportion  to  their  size, 
and  which  is  also  of  a  very  rich  quality.  One  of  these  smell  cows  will 
yield  during  the  season  four  gallons  and  a  half  of  milk  in  the  day,  the 
cream  of  which  being  separated  and  churned  will  aiford  1  lb.  10  or  12  oz. 
weight  of  butter. 

Many  cattle  are  grazed  in  Aberdeen  that  are  not  bred  there.  The 
farmer  begins  to  purchase  them  as  soon  as  the  grass  springs  up,  and  they 
are  sold  oflT  as  the  year  advances.  Some,  however,  are  continued  until 
January,  and  are  fed  in  the  stalls  on  turnips  and  hay,  and  then  driven  to 
Aberdeen,  and  sold. 

There  is  nothing  peculiar  in  the  rearing  of  the  calf,  or  the  system 
of  fattening  the  grown  beast.  The  general  practice  is  to  feed  the  calves 
with  milk  warm  from  the  cow  ;  but  they  are  sometimes  allowed  to 
suck  until  they  are  weaned,  and,  in  a  few  instances,  they  are  reared  partly 
on  oil-cakes.  Formerly,  however,  the  calves  were  permitted  to  go  at 
large  through  the  fields  during  summer,  and  pick  up  the  grass  at  the 
roots  of  the  corn.  The  practice  was  occasioned  by  the  want  of  proper 
food  and  enclosures,  and  the  fear  of  the  calves  being  injured  by  being 
confined  with  the  large  cattle  in  the  fold  ;  but  it  was  attended  by  much 
damage  to  the  corn  from  their  lying  upon  it  and  trampling  it  down,  v/hile 
the  calves  acquired  so  restless  a  habit,  that  it  was  afterwards  impossible 
to  confine  them,  except  by  the  strongest  and  almost  impenetrable  fences. 
The  cattle  are  pastured  in  the  fields  in  summer,  and  fed  with  straw 
and  turnips  in  winter,  and  sometimes  with  steamed  potatoes,  and  a  portion 
of  clover  hay*. 

Little  butter  or  cheese  is  sent  out  of  the  county  except  in  the  district 
of  Buchan  ;  the  rest  is  cousumed  by  the  farmers  or  the  inhabitants  of 
the  towns.  The  Buchan  cows  have  been  stated  to  be  good  milkers ;  and 
those  along  the  coast  answer  tolerably  for  the  dairy. 

Dr.  Keith  has  formed  a  curious  computation  of  the  value  of  the  milk, 
butter,  and  cheese  yielded  by  them. 

1000  best  cows,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  some  town,  and  prin- 
cipally of  Aberdeen,  yield  butter  and  cheese  to  the 
value  of  20i.  each,  oi  .  .  .  ^£20,000 

2000  at  15Z.  each  ....     30,000 

5000  at  10/.  each  .  ...     50,000 

10,000  farmers'  cows  at  SI.  each  .  .  .     SO.OOO 

5000  of  cottagers'  or  villagers"  at  6/.  each   .  .  .      30,000 

5000  small  Highland  cows  at  4Z.  each  .  .      20,000 

28.000  as  already  stated,  and  value  of  their  produce  oC230,000t 

*  Mr.  Gordon,  in  his  answers  to  certain  queries  circulated  by  the  Board  of  Agricul. 
tnre,  relates  a  singular  instance  of  fecundity  and  early  maturity  in  the  Aberdeen 
cattle : — '  On  the  25th  of  September,  1 805,  a  calf  of  five  months  old,  of  the  small  Aber- 
deenshire  breed,  happening  to  be  put  into  an  enclosure  among  other  cattle,  admitted  a 
male  that  was  only  one  year  old.  In  the  month  of  June  following,  at  the  age  of  fourteen 
months,  she  brought  forth  a  very  fine  calf,  and  in  the  summer  of  1807,  another  equally 
good.  The  first  calf,  after  working  in  the  winter,  spring  and  summer  of  1809,  was 
killed  in  January,  1810,  and  weighed  6cwt.  3qrs.  161b.  The  second  was  killed  Dec.  16, 
1810,  aged  three  years,  six  months,  and  weighed  exactly  7cwt  ;  and  on  December  30, 
1807,  the  mother,  after  having  brought  up  these  calves,  was  killed  at  the  age  of  two 
veats  and  eight  months,  and  weighed  4  cwt.  1  qr.  the  four  quarters,  sinking  the  oiFal. 
'  +  The  Statistical  Account,  describing  the  parish  of  -Udny,  states  that,  in  1791,  the  cows 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Aberdeen  yieldedfroin  six  to  ten  Scotch  pints  of  milk  (from  thret 

no  CA'ITMS 

The  horse  has  nearly  superseded  the  ox  for  husbandry  laoour.  At  a 
iitlle  more  than  half  a  century  ago  oxen  were  used  alinost  exclusively  f6r 
.the  plough.  Ten  or  twelve  were  often  yoked  together;  but  they  were  not 
the  cattle  of  Aberdeen, — they  came  from  the  southern  dounties  of  Scotland.* 
By  degrees,  part  of  the  cattle  were  reared  in  Aberdeenshire,  and  some  of 
the  improved  breed  and  some  of  the  Lothians  were  yoked  together 
Horses  then  began  to  occupy  the  place  of  the  southern  oxen,  and  the 
horse  and  the  ox  worked  together ;  the  nobler  quadruped  then  gradually 
displaced  the  cattle  from  the  road-wdrk,  bud  left  only  the  rougher  pari  of 
the  ploughing  to  the  ox,  and,  at  length,  has  nearly  driven  him  from  the 
plough  also  t 


Trh  small  county  insinuates  itself  in  the  form  of  a  wedge  between  Aber 
deenshire  and  Forfar.  It  is  only  thirty-two  miles  hi  length,  and  twenty- 
four  in  width  at  its  broadest  part,  and  much  diversified  with  hill  and  dale, 
and,  therefore,  possessing,  within  a  little  extent,  a  very  great  ditference  of 
climate.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Grampians,  occasionally  covered 
with  snow  even  in  the  summer,  the  climate  is  cold  ;  along  the  coast,  and 
open  to  the  easterly  wind,  it  is  likewise  chilling;  and  it  is  only  about  the 
banks  of  the  Dee  that  it  is  mild  and  genial.  The  character  of  the  cattle 
varies  with  the  climate.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Grampians  we  have 
the  West  Highlanders  ;  but  about  the  Dee,  and  even  on  the  coast,  they  are 
little  inferior  to  those  of  Buchan.  A  great  many  cattle  are  bred  in  the  Mearns, 
but  this  is  quite  as  much  a  grazing  as  a  breeding  country  ;  and  although 
it  sends  a  great  many  of  its  own  beasts  southward,  a  considerable  number 
are  bought  at  the  fairs  in  Aberdeenshire,  which  are  fed  on  what  are  termed 
the  grass-parks,  that  are  found  in  the  neighbourhood  of  almost  every  gen 
tleman'sseat :  these,  however,  are  on\y^.ying  stock. 

The  prevailing  colour  of  the  Mearns  cattle  is  black  ;  but  some  are  dark- 
brown,  or  brindled.  They  have  rather  larger  and  more  spreading  horns 
than  those  of  Aberdeenshire  ;  they  feed  as  kindly  as  the  Buchans,  and  are 
not  much  inferior  to  them  for  the  dairy. 

to  five  gallons)  daily,  and  that  one  faimer  kept  fourteen  cows,  the  milk  of  which,  after  the 
cream  was  taken,  was  sent  to  Aberdeen,  and  sold  at  Id.  andl)f<.  the  Scotch  pint  (2  quarts); 
while  the  bufter  from  these  cows  was  two  stones  per  week,  and  usually  sold  at  Sd.  per  lb. 
of  28  oz. 

*  The  Rev.  T.  Shepherd,  in  his  statistical  account  of  Bourtie  confirms  this.  Writitig 
in  1 79.3,  he  says, '  About  twenty  years  ago  our  country  did  not  breed  cattle  of  sufficient 
bulk  and  strength  to  labour  the  frround.  They  were  mostly  brought  from  the  south,  par- 
ticularly from  Fifeshire.  In  a  few  years,  by  hard  labour,  they  were  >»Orn  out  and  became 
unfit  for  service,  and,  as  the  farmer  had  not  the  means  of  fattening  them,  he  very  often 
sold  them  for  a  third  part  of  what  they  cost  him.  The  case  is  now  much  altered  for  the 
better.  The  farmer  brings  up  oxen  able  for  his  work ;  sells  them  or  fattens  them  vihea 
they  begin  to  be  upon  the  decline;  and  in  this  way  is  rather  a  considerable  gainer  than 
a  loser  upon  his  work  cattle.' 

The  Rev.  A.  Smith,  in  his  account  of  Keig,  in  the  same  year,  says  that  the  majority 
of  the  farms  are  small,  and  the  horses  and  cattle  of  two  neighbournig  tenants  are  oftMi 
joined  in  one  plough.  He  calculates  the  number  of  ploughs  at  47,  drawn  by  88  horn; 
tl  cows,  and  153  oxen  and  young  cattle. 

The  Rev.  T.  Birnie,  in  his  account  of  Alford,  in  1795,  says, '  Kvery  farmer  is  «mhi- 
tiiHis  of  having  many  pairs  of  oxen  in  his  plough :  some  have  six,  and  few  common  far- 
mers have  less  than  four.  Smaller  tenants  yoke  oxen,  horses,  and  even  bulls,  cows,  and 
j'oung  cattle,  to  make  up  what  they  deem  a  sufficient  strength.  Kvery  farmer  wUs  one 
cr  two  pairs  of  oxen  yearly,  and  replaces  them  by  others  of  his  own  rearing;'  ; 

f  Sir  John  Sinclair,  m  his  '  Statistical  Accotmt  of  Scotland,'  and  spealciag  of  the 
>«nsh«S  of  Keithhall  and  Kenhalt,  says  that  they  contained '  1038  cattle,  whofe  value '  s 


Mr.  G.  Robertson,  in  a  very  interesting  work,  entitled  '  Rural  Recol- 
lections,' and  now  quite  out  of  ,:  riot,  says,  that  '  Previous  to  the  yeat 
1774,. there  had  been  little  done  in  this  county  to  improve  the  breed  oi 
cattle ;  but  about  that  time  there  were  sundry  individuals  who  distin- 
guished themselves  by  attention  to  this  branch  of  rural  economy.  Oi 
these  may  be  mentioned  Sir  Alexander  Ramsay  of  Balmain  ;  Mr.  Leith, 
of  Whiterigs ;  his  brother.  Dr.  Leith,  at  Johnston  ;  and  Mr.  Fullarton  of 
Thornton.  These  gentlemen  were  all  at  great  pains  to  select  the  best- 
shaped  of  their  own  cattle  for  breeders ;  and,  what  was  of  as  muQh  im- 
portance, they  took  care  to  provide  a  full  supply  of  green  food  for  thein 
in  winter,  by  a  more  extensive  cultivation  of  turnips.  By  this  means  they 
imparted  animal  vigour  to  their  stock,  while  nature,  thus  aided,  still 
further  improved  the  shape. 

'At  the  pre-sent  time  (1807)  the  Kincardine  cattle  are  the  best  of  the 
Scottish  breed;  and,  unless  it  be  from  Buchan,  I  have  nowhere  in  Scot- 
land seen  a  more  stately  ox*. 

•  A  Mearns  ox  of  a  year  old  will  weigh  about  17  stones,  Imperial  weight ; 
one  of  two  years  will  average  28;  one  of  three  years  old  40;  and  one  of 
four  years  old  52 ;  increasing  in  weight  ten  stones  per  year  after  the  first 
year.  Some,  however,  will  grow  to  90  stones  ;  and  Sir  Alexander  Ram- 
say killed  one  that  was  above  1 56  stones.  A  century  ago  the  largest  07 
did  not  weigh  more  than  25  or  30  stones.' 

In  the  statistical  report,  it  appeared  that  the  number  of  cattle  was 
24,825,  or,  at  the  rate  of  one  beast  for  every  three  acres  in  cultivation. 
Uf  this  number  6236  were  milch  cows,  and  5280  calves  under  a  year  old. 

Mr.  Robertson  calculates  their  comparative  value,  and  also  with  resped 
to  the  land  on  which  they  are  fed. 

'  5280  calves,  each  worth  when  reared,  2Z.        .         .  .£10,560 

5016  year-olds,  each  worth  42.  t         .         .         .  20,064 

5016  two-year  olds,  at  8/.       .                  ...  40.128 

1672  three-year  olds,  at  12/.       .         .                  .  20,064 

446  draught  oxen,  at  15/.     .         .                   .         .  6690 

6236  milch  cows,  at  8/.      .         .                  .         .  40,888 

1159  cattle  bought  in  at  102 11,590 

24,825  beasts,  worth  each  on  the  average  6i.  Us.     .  j0158,984 

3733/.,'  and  that  the  number  of  cattle  has  veiy  much  decieaied,  owing  to  the  disuse  of 
oxen  for  the  plough.  In  1778  these  parishes  contained  twenty-six  ox-ploughs,  with  tea 
or  twelve  oxen  to  each,  besides  a  greater  number  of  smaller  ploughs;  but  that  in  1 711 
they  had  diminished  to  eight  ploughs.' 

*  The  StaUstical  Account  of  Scotland,  describing  the  parish  of  Banchory  Tornan,  in 
this  county,  gives  a  satisfactory  illustration  of  the  rapid  progress  of  impiovemeut.  In 
1758  that  parish  contained  only  two  carts,  in  1791  it  could  boast  of  120. 

f  By  year-olds,  and  two-year  elds,  is  understood  cattle  that  were  of  those  ages  in  the 
preceding  spring;  the  price  is  calculated  on  the  supposition  of  the  cattle  selling  at  8>. 
the  stone  weight,  of  16  Amsterdam  pounds,  sinking  the  ofiUl ;  and  the  Amsterdam  pound, 
which  used  to  be  the  standard  weight  of  that  part  of  Scotland,  containing  1 7^  oz.  This 
calculation  supposes  the  cattle  to  sell  at  3*.  8d.  the  Smithfield  stone  of  81bs. 

We  make  another  extract  from  this  work,  which  is  not  now  tobe  }urchased, and  will  not 
be  reprinted.  He  is  speaking  of  the  variatibn  io  the  price  of  cattle  '  The  price  of  cattle 
varies  here  from  year  to  year,  like  everything  elsej  but,  on  the  whole,  has  greatly  advanced 
Juring  the  last  fifty  years.  About  the  year  1740,  the  largest  ox  in  the  county,  weighing 
trom  25  to  30  stones  (Dntch  weight,  43  to  51  stones  Imperial  weight;,  could  have  been 
oought  for  20>.,  or,  at  most,  for  Hi.  Tfaey  rose  gradually  in  vtJue  till  about  the  year 
1764  when  cattle  of  that  mze,  and  as  fall  fed  as  the  country  could  make  them,  brought 
from  31.  to  4/.,  or  from  2>.  to  2<.  Sd  the  stone.  From  this  period,  cattle,  being  somewhat 
better  fed,  not  only  became  larger  in  siie,  but  were  imiiruved  in  condition ;  and.  from 
(be  inrrgMrd  demand  for  butcher-meat,  combined  wi'h  the  gradual  decline  in  the  vahia 

112  CATTLE. 

Tliis  is  at  the  rate  of  21.  3i.  9d.  on  each  acre,  or  33^  beasts  on  every  1 00 
acres ;  but  when  the  quantity  of  cultivated  pasture  alone  is  reckoned,  ii 
amounts  to  rather  more  than  one  beast  per  acre.  This,  however,  varies 
much  in  the  different  districts.' 

He  also  calculates  the  keep  of  these  cattle :  '  the  caJves  at  21.  each  per 
annum ;  the  year-olds  at  21.  10s. ;  the  two-years  at  3/. ;  th"  three' 
years  at  3/.  10s. ;  the  milch  cows  at  bl.'  He  also  takes  into  account  the 
average  number  of  «heep  and  horses  on  the  farm,  and  the  value,  expense, 
and  profit  of  each,  and  all  the  casualties  of  every  kind ;  and,  on  the 
whole,  he  proves  that '  the  farmer  does  not  derive  more  than  10  per  cent, 
ou  his  capital,  and  which  will  afiurd  him  but  a  scanty  subsistence  for 
his  family,  and  little  or  nothing  to  add  to  his  capital.' 

About  one-half  of  the  butter  and  cheese  is  usually  consumed  in  the  far- 
mer's own  family  or  among  his  labourers,  and  the  rest  is  sent  to  the  Aber- 
deen, or  Montrose,  or  Leith  markets.  The  butter  is  usually  excellent, 
but  the  cheese  of  an  inferior  quality  *. 

of  money,  by  the  yearl792,brought  up  the  price  of  half-fed  cattle  to  the  rate  of  6s.  8</.  the 
stone  (16  lbs.)  Since  that  time  the  price  has  risen  and  fallen  alternately;  iu  some  years 
it  has  been  as  high  as  10«.  a  stone,  and  in  others  as  low  as  As.  or  6.v. 

'  One  remarkable  circumstance  in  the  price  of  cattle  is,  that  they  are  generally  dear  or 
cheap  in  the  inverse  ratio  of  the  means  of  keeping  them.  Thus,  in  a  year  of  plenty,  con- 
joining a  weighty  crop  of  turnips  with  a  luxuriant  vuggage,  the  price  of  cattle  gets  up ; 
or  the  farmers,  not  only  can  afibrd  to  retain  their  cattle,  but  are  compelled  to  do  so,  in 
order  to  consume  their  crop.  In  a  year  of  scarcity,  again,  particularly  of  winter  food,  the 
price  of  cattle  declines  even  to  the  lowest  pitch,  the  farmers  being  forced  to  part  with 
them  at  any  price  they  can  get.  In  the  great  penury  of  fodder  in  1807,  some  cattle  were 
'sold  as  low  as  at  the  rate  of  1».  a  stone." — p.  440. 

The  a^ccoimt  of  the  introduction  of  turnips  into  Kincardineshire  must  not  be  omitted, 
rwrnijps.were  first  seen  in  this  county  about  the  year  1754,  being  introduced  by  Robert 
Scott,  Esq.,  Dunninauld,  on  the  farm  of  the  Miltown,  in  the  parish  of  St.  Cyrus,  which 
he  then  held  in  lease ;  but  he  had  few  to  follow  his  example  for  many  years.  In  1764, 
William  Lyall,  a  farmer  in  Wattiestim,  in  the  parish  of  Fordoun,  ventured  to  sow  half  an 
acre  in  turnips,  which,  at  the  time,  was  the  greatest  extent  of  them  in  any  farmer's  hand, 
and  they  were  disposed  lof  chiefly  in  small  parcels  to  his  neighbours  as  kitchen  vegetables, 
at  a  penny  the  stone.  It  was  not  till  about  the  year  1775  that  they  began  to  be  gene- 
rally cultivated.  They  are  now  universal  over  the  whole  county,  insomuch  that  about 
one-seventh  part  of  the  whole  land  in  tillage  is  in  turnips. 

'  They  are  cultivated  uniformly  in  drills ;  and  this  crop  now  forms  the  very  basis  of  good 
cultivation  in  the  Mearns,  whether  with  respect  to  the  succeeding  crops,  or  to  the  feeding 
of  cattle  to  which  it  is  applied,  but  more  for  the  rearing  than  for  the  fully  fattening  of 
them,  as  the  thin  population  of  the  county  does  not  require  a  tenth  part  of  the  fat  cattle 
'they  could  produce.' — p.  460. 

*  Of  the  keep  of  the  '  cotter's'  milch  cow,  and  of  the  situation  of  the  '  cotter"  himself, 
in  this  part  of  Scotland  (in  1807),  Mr.  Robertson  gives  an  interesting  description.  He 
had  been  speaking  of  the  cottages  of  the  mechanics  and  little  tradespeople,  which  are  built 
of  stone  and  turf,  or  sometimes  stone  and  lime,  and  consisting  of  two  apartments,  divided 
by  the  furniture,  the  walls  seldom  more  than  six  feet  in  height,  and  the  roofing  composed 
of  thin  turfs,  overlaid  with  a  thinner  coating  of  straw,  tied  down  with  straw  ropes,  like  a 
hay-stack ;  every  one  with  its  little  garden  or  kale-yard ;  and  many  of  them  displaying 
no  little  taste  in  its  cultivation,  and  growing  the  different  kinds  of  coleworts,  of  which 
a  dark-red  kind  is  most  prevalent,  and  forms  the  basis  of  '  old  Scotia's  kale-brose  ;'  and 
besides  this,  some  leeks  and  cresses,  and  bushes  of  gooseberries  and  currants,  and  flower- 
ing shrubs,  as  roses  and  honeysuckles, — and  fine-smelling  herbs,  as  thyme  and  lavender, 
and  southernwood,  and  tansy  '  to  kill  the  worms,"  and  a  sprinkling,  too,  of  perennial 
flowers,  as  polyanthus  and  cov/slips,  and  yellow  lilies ;  and,  in  some  cases,  an  apple-tree 
trained  upon  the  sunny  side  of  the  house  wall,  and  house-leeks  on  the  riggin.  He  goes 
on  next  to  speak  of  the  cottages  of  the  farm  servants. 

'  The  cottages  attached  to  the  difierent  farms  are  more  regularly  disposed,  being  gene- 
rally set  down  by  the  way-sides,  in  the  neighbourhood,  but  not  in  the  immediate  vicinity 
of  the  farm-stead.  They  are  beginning  to  be  constructed  in  a,  similar  style,  built  iif 
stone  and  lime,  and  of  an  increased  height  in  the  walls ;  but  the  roof  is  still  generally  of 
thatchjorinsomecasesof  gray  slate,  and  in  a  few  instances  of  tile,  which  is  the  worst 
-..'tofingof  any.     The  internal  acummodation  is  simply  as  it  was  wont,  with  two  apart- 



This  county  derives  its  first  name  from  its  principal  ano  central  town ; 
the  second  oftenest  occurs  in  ancient  records,  and  was  probably  the  original 
name.  The  eastern  part  of  it  stretches  iilong  the  coast  from  Kincardine- 
shire to  Fife,  and  the  soil  and  climate  resemble  those  of  the  coast  districts 
of  Kincnrdine,  Aberdeen,  and  Banff,  while  the  interior  (nearly  half  of  the 
county)  is  occupied  by  the  Grampian  HilLs.  The  cattle  (said  in  the  statistical 
account  to  be  45,4U0*)  may  be  divided  into  the  horned  and  the  polled. 
The  former,  and  of  the  West  Highland  breed,  used  to  prevail  in  the  interior, 
and  are  still  found,  but  of  a  diminutive  size,  and  rarely  exceediug  twenty 
or  twenty-five  stones.  Towards  the  coast  they  resemble  more  those  of 
Kincardine  and  Aberdeen  ;  but  there  are  some  points  of  diflerence.  The 
prevailing  colour  is  black,  but  wiih  more  admixture  of  other  tints:  some 

nents  Jivided  by  the  furniture,  but  having  nuw  a,  grate  in  the  fire-place,  and  a  glass  win- 
dow in  the  wall.  These  cottages  have  all  u  piece  of  garden  ground  lor  raising  potherbs ;. 
also  a  bit  of  potato  land,  along  with  the  master's  own  field ;  a  patch  of  flax  sown ;  and, 
what  is  best  of  all,  a  milch  cow,  that  feeds  in  the  fields  along  with  the  master's  own  cattle, 
und  is  otherwise  not  the  worst  fed  of  the  whole  herd.  These  good  things,  with  a  weekly 
allowance  of  two  (lecks  of  oatmeal,  and  an  adequate  money-fee,  which  has  improved  from 
31.  to  1 2/.  or  more  in  the  year,  makes  this  class  of  peasantry  the  most  comfortably  pro- 
vided for  of  any.  They  may  not  get  rich,  indeed,  but  they  never  feel  w&nt.'^Jiurat 
BecoUections,  p.  417. 

*  If  this  calculation  of  the  number  of  cattle  in  Foifarshire  be  considered  as  giving 
the  average  number  tolerably  correctly,  and  we  estimate  them  at  It.  per  head,  the  value 
of  this  division  of  live  stock  will  be  317,800/. 

The  Rev.  C  Peebles,  in  his  statistical  account  of  Mains,  in  Angus,  asserts  that  oxen 
were  not  used  for  husbandry  work  in  Angus  in  1790.  He  draws  a  very  curious  compa- 
lison  between  the  farmers  and  their  mode  of  management  in  1760,  when  he  first  began 
lo  observe  them,  and  1 790,  when  he  wrote.  The  following  are  only  a  few  of  the  points  on 
which  he  touches :  — 

1760.  1790. 

Land  ploughed  with  oxen.     Only  a  few  Oxen  not  employed  in  agriculture.   Fan 

horses  kept  to  draw  the  harrow  in  seed-  mers  have  their  saddle-horses,  worth  from 
time,  and  bring  in  the  common  harvest,  '24/.  to  30/.,  and  work-horses  from  20/.  to 
7/.  thought  a  great  price  for  a  horse.  25/.  each.*  , 

Land  rented  at  6>.per  acre,  and  only  two  Land  at  30s.  and  all  enclosed  with  dykes 

small  farms  enclosed.  and  thorn  hedges. 

No  English  cloth  worn  but  by  the  mi-  There  are  few  who  do  not  wear  English 

uister  and  a  quaker.  cloth,  and  several  the  best  superfine. 

Jtleu's  stockings  were  what  were  called  Cotton  and  thread  stockings  are  worn  by 

plaidiug  hose,  made  of  woollen  cluth.  The  both  sexes,  masters  and  servants.  Some 
women  wore  coarse  plaids.  Not  a  cloak  have  silk  ones.  The  women  who  wear 
nor  a  bonnet  was  worn  by  any  woman  in  plaids  have  them  fine  and  faced  with  silk. 
the  whole  parish.  Silk  plaids,  cloaks,  and  bonnets  are  very 


Only  two  hats  in  the  parish.    The  men  Few  bonnets  are  worn,  and  the  bonnet- 

wore  cloth  bonnets.  makers'  trade  is  given  up. 

There  was  only  one  eight-day  clock  in  Thirty  clocks,  one  hundred  watches,  and 

the  parish,  six  watches,  and  one  tea-kettle.        above  sixty  tea-kettles. 

The  people  never  visited  each  other  but  People  visit   each  other  often.     Six  or 

at  Christmas.  The  entertainment  was  seven  dishes  are  set  on  the  table  differently 
broth  and  beef,  and  the  visiters  sent  to  some  dressed.  After  dinner  a  large  bowl  of  rum 
ale-house  for  five  or  six  pints  of  ale,  and  punch  or  whisky  toddy  is  drunk — then  tea, 
were  merry  over  it  without  any  ceremony,         then  another  bowl,  then  supper^  and,  after 

that,  the  grace  drink. 

Every  person  in  the  parish,  if  in  health.  Much  lukewarmness  prevails  *ith  regard 

attended  divine  worship  on  Sunday,  which  to  religious  instruction,  and  a  consequent 
was  -egularly  and  religiously  observed.  inattention  and  indifference  to  worship  and 


Few  were  guilty  of  any  breach  of  the  The  third  commandment  seems  to  be 

tinrd  cummandment,  almost   forgotten,    and    profane   swearing. 

greatly  abounds 


114  tATlXK. 

have  wliite  spots  oii  ilie  Ibrehead,  and  white  on  ihe  flariks  and  belly.  There 
are  more  brindled  cattle  than  in  Aberdeen  ;  some  are  dark  red,  and  others 
of  a  silver  yellow  or  dun.  A  few  are  black  with  white  hairs  intermixed; 
and  occasionally  a  beast  is  seen  that  is  altogether  white,  with  the  exception 
of  a  few  black  hairs  about  the  head. 

The  Forfar  hnrned  cattle  are  shorter  in  the  leg,  thicker  in  the  shoulder, 
rounder  in  the  carcase,  straighter  in  the  back,  and  carry  the  liead  better 
than  the  Aberdeens.  The  horns  are  smaller,  better  proportioned,  curved 
upwards  and  forwards,  and  sharper  at  the  points.  They  are  evidently  a 
cross  between  the  Highland  and  the  Low  Country  or  doddied  breed. 

A  writer  in  the  '  Farmer's  Magazine'  for  1814,  replying  to  some  queries 
respecting  the  breed  of  Angus,  draws  the  following  comparison  between 
the  horned  cattle  of  this  county  and  those  of  the  neighbouring  districts. 

'  The  horns  of  Angus  and  Kincardineshire  cattle' are  much  the  samt, 
being  smaller  and  better  proportioned  than  those  of  the  Buchan  district 
of  Aberdeenshire,  and  more  like  those  of  the  middle  district.  At  three 
years  old  the  horns  of  an  Angusshire  slot  will  be  as  well  raised  and  sharp 
at  the  extremity  as  at  two  years  old,  but  not  so  strong  in  the  horn.  The 
horns  of  the  cattle  in  the  higher  districts  of  Aberdeenshire  are  by  far 
thicker,  rounder,  and  straighter  out  from  the  sides  of  the  head,  than 
those  of  the  cattle  in  the  middle  districts  of  Angus,  while  the  Fifeshire 
cattle  have  horns  larger,  more  oval,  and  not  so  sharp  at  the  point,  as  the 
generality  of  the  Angus  cattle. 

'The  Kincardineshire  cattle  are  rather  smaller  than  the  Angus,  but  the 
shapes  are  much  the  same.  Those  of  Fifeshire  are  stronger,  larger,  and 
rougher-boned  than  the  Angus  cattle. 

•  The  weight  of  the  Ang^s  horned  cattle  cannot  be  well  ascertained,  as 
few  are  kept  in  the  county  to  the  proper  age,  and  the  difference  in  keeping 
of  these  is  so  great ;  but  being  so  well  proportioned,  they  will  weigh  more 
to  their  appearance  than  the  cattle  of  either  of  the  above  counties.  The 
Angus  cattle  are  preferable  for  feeding,  having  all  the  good  qualities 
for  that  purpose.' 

An  account  of  the  Angus  polled  or  doddied  cattle,  and  which  is  now 
become  the  most  numerous  and  valuable  breed  of  that  county,  will  be 
given  hereafter  when  we  treat  of  the  polled  cattle  generally. 


The  county  of  Fife  is  a  kind  of  peninsula  included  between  the  river  Tay 
on  the  north,  and  the  Frith  of  Forth  on  the  south,  with  Perth,  Kinross, 
and  Clackmannan  on  the  east.  The  climate  along  the  Frith  of  Forth  is 
temperate ;  it  is  also  mild  along  the  banks  of  the  Eden  ;  but  the  west  and 
north-west  parts,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Lomond  hills,  are  chilly 
and  ungeniai.  In  no  county,  however,  is  the  character  of  the  cattle  so 
uniform,  and  in  fevr  parts  do  they  more  decidedly  unite  the  best  qualities 
which  cattle  can  possess.  They  bear  evident  impress  of  their  Highland 
origin,  but  there  has  been  a  cross  which  distinguishes  them  from  all  other 
Scotch  cattle.     Dr.  Thompson*,  in  his  not  altogether  scientific  or  satisfao- 

*  The  statistical  account  of  Scotland,  under  the  article  Duniehen,  gives  us  no  favourabln 
opinion  of  the  Scottish  cow-leeches,  when  he  describes  the  manner  in  which  they  were 
there,  and  probably  in  the  greater  part  of  Scotland  installed  in  their  office.  '  Formerly, 
one  blacksmith,  who  was  also  a  farrier,  was  alone  allowed  to  exercise  his  business  on  a 
barony  or  estate.  He  had  the  exclusive  privilege  of  doing  all  the  blacksmith  and  farrier's 
work.  For  this  he  paid  a  small  rent  to  the  proprietor,  and  i-vevy  tenant  paid  him  a  certain 
quantity  of  ^corn.  About  thirty  years  ago  a  person  of  this  description  had  this  sole  rightj 
en  the  baronv  of  Duniehen,  for  which  he  paid  U.  per  annum  yearly. 


lory  '  Survey  of  Fifeshire,'  thus  describes  them  : — '  Though  the  true  Fife 
breed  may  be  found  of  any  colour,  the  prevailing  one  is  black  ;  nor  are 
they  less  esteemed  though  spotted  or  streaked  with  v\rhite  or  of  a  grey 
colour.  The  horns  are  small,  white,  generally  pretty  erect,  or  at  least 
turned  up  at  the  points,  and  bending  rather  forward.  (The  Fife  ox  would 
be  readily  distinguished  at  a  considerable  distance  by  this  peculiarity  in 
the  form  of  the  horn.)  '  The  bone  is  small  in  proportion  to  the  carcase  ; 
the  limbs  clean,  but  short;  and  the  skin-  soft :  they  are  wide  between  the 
extreme  points  of  the  hock  bones  ;  the  ribs  are  narrow  and  wide  set,  and 
have  a  greater  curvature  than  in  other  kinds,  which  gives  the  body  a  thick, 
round  form.'  (The  thick,  round  form  of  the  Fife  cattle  is  evident  enough  ; 
but  we  confess  we  do  not  understand  this  account  of  the  peculiarities  or 
shape  which  are  to  give  it.)  '  They  fatten  quickly,  and  fill  up  well,  at 
all  the  choice  points.  They  are  hardy,  fleet,  and  travel  well ;  tame  and 
docile,  and  excellent  for  work,  whether  in  the  plough  or  in  the  cart.'  The 
use  of  oxen  in  husbandry,  however,  is  much  diminished  even  in  Fife.  In 
1792,  in  Auchterderran,  of  the  fifty-one  ploughs  which  the  parish  con- 
tained, seventeen  were  worked  by  horses,  and  now  8  smaller  number 
would  be  found  worked  with  oxen.  There  is  a  very  great  difference  in 
ilie  size  of  the  Fife  oxen,  and  this  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  difference 
in  the  quality  of  the  pasture,  and  the  attention  paid  in  breeding  and 
rearing.  When  fed  for  the  butcher,  they  generally  weigh  from  thirty-five 
to  sixty-five  stones.    They  have  been  slaughtered  at  more  than  100  stones.. 

They  are  far  from  unprofitable  for  the  dairy.  A  good  Fife  cow  will 
give  from  five  to  seven  gallons  of  milk  per  day,  or  from  seven  to  nine 
pounds  of  butter,  or  from  'ten  to  twelve  pounds  of  cheese  per  week  for  some 
months  afler  calving ;  while  the  cow  is  in  milk  for  ten  or  eleven 

Writers  have  amused  themselves  with  many  unsatisfactory  disquisitions 
as  to  the  origin  of  the  Fife  breed.  The  Highland  origin  cannot  be 
disputed;  bnt  a  southern  cow  or  bull  was  certainly  one  of  the  progenitors 
of  this  very  useful  variety  of  black  cattle.  Some  say  that  when  James  VI. 
(James  I.  of  England)  received  the  news  of  the  death  of  Elizabeth,  and 
was  cornpelled  to  set  out  on  his  journey  to  England  without  the  time  or 
ihe  means  to  make  his  triumphal  procession  sufficiently  splendid,  he 
hastily  borrowed  a  considerable  sum  of  money  from  some  of  his  faithful 
adherents  in  Fife.  The  English  treasury,  however,  was  not  sufficiently 
rich,  or  his  private  resources  not  such  as  to  enable  him  to  repay  the  debt 
in  specie  ;  but  as  an  honourable  acknowledgment  of  the  obligation,  and 
one  of  the  greatest  benefits  he  could  confer  on  his  former  subjects,  he  sent 
them  .some  valuable  cattle  from  England.  From  what  county  they  came, 
or. to  what  breed  they  belonged,  neither  history  nor  tradition  relates, 

A  more  generally  received  opinion  is,  that  in  addition  to  the  30,030 
angei-nobles,  which  Margeret,  the  daughter  of  Henry  VII.  of  England, 
brought  with  her  when  she  became  the  bride  of  James  IV.  of  Scotland, 
300  English  cows,  a  simple  but  invaluable  wedding  present,  were  added 
by  her  -fether  to  the  dowry.-  The  progeny  of  these  cattle  received  the  name 
of  Faikland.%  because  James  and  his  young  consort  resided  principally  at 
Falkland  palace,  and  to  the  park  belonging  to  which  this  present  from  her 
father  was  naturally  conveyed.  Here  again  tradition  is  silent  as  to  the 
district  whence  these  camel  Cambridge  claims  the  honour,  but  probably 
without  pretensions  better  founded  than  those  of  many  other  counties. 
There  is  no  doubt,  however,  that  at  a  considerably  remote  period,  the  Fife 
breed  was  materially  improved  by  intermixture  with  some  southern  variety, 
and  that  the  improvement  commenced  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Falkland. 

1    o 

116  CATTLE. 

Similar  attempts  have  since  been  made  in  other  parts  of  Scotland,  but 
'arely  with  such  decided  success ;  this,  however,  will  not  surprise  the 
agriculturist  when  it  is  recollected,  that  while  the  Highland  cattle  of 
Scotland  have  remained,  until  very  lately,  nearly  the  same  that  they  were 
centuries  ago,  the  English  cattle  generally  have  strangely  altered  their 
character,  and  doubled  their  size,  since  the  time  of  Henry  VII.,  and  even 
that  of  James  L  The  comparatively  small  cattle  of  England  might  then 
amalgamate  with  the  Scotch,  but  there  would  be  less  affinity  between  the 
Scotch  and  those  of  the  present  day*. 

However  the  fact  may  be  explained,  Fifeshire  now  contains,  as  decidedly 
as  Devonshire,  or  Herefordshire,  or  Sussex,  a  breed — and  an  excellent  one, 
too — of  her  own.  Made  wise,  and  somewhat  expensively  so  by  experience, 
the  Fifeshire  farmers  are  convinced  that  their  cattle  cannot  be  further 
improved  in  all  their  points,  or  as  a  whole,  by  any  foreign  cross,  and  they 
confine  themselves  to  a  judicious  selection  from  their  own*  The  Fifes, 
however,  have  never  established  themselves  in  the  south,  nor  penetrated 
towards  the  north  beyond  the  counties  immediately  contiguous.  The 
prejudice  of  each  district  in  favour  of  its  native  breed  may  partly  account 
for  this,  but  a  more  satisfactory  explanation  results  from  the  fact,  not 
sufficiently  regarded  by  agriculturists,  and  to  which  we  shall  often  refer, 
that  there  must  be  everywhere  a  kind  of  identity  between  the  breed  and 
the  soil,  and  which  is  always  slowly,  and  in  many  cases,  never  acquired. 

There  is  no  great  peculiarity  in  the  management  of  the  Fifeshire  cattle. 
In  some  parts  the  dairy  is  particularly  attended  to,  and  from  the  account 
which  we  have  given  of  the  quantity  of  milk  and  butter  yielded  by  a 
Fifeshire  cow,  it  returns  a  fair  average  profit. 

On  farms  adapted  to  breeding,  the  dairy  is  a  secondary  object.  A 
sufficient  number  of  cows  are  kept  to  rear  the  calves,  some  of  which  are 
bought  of  the  cottagers,  or  at  the  neighbouring  markets.  They  are  fed 
from  the  pail,  and  usually  obtain  every  day  2J,  or  three  gallons  of 
milk,  or  hay-tea,  or  gruel,  mixed  with  the  milk,  for  ten  or  twelve 
weeks,  when  they  are  weaned.  The  late  calves  are  generally  disposed  of 
as  soon  as  possible,  and  the  milk  converted  to  the  purposes  of  the  dairy. 
The  number  of  milk  cows  are  calculated  at  about  10,000,  Dr.  Thompson 
supposes  that   the  whole  stock  of  cattle,  including  lean    ones,  and  others 

•  They  have,  however,  in  some  cases,  advantageously  amalgamated.  Mr.  Adam 
Ferguson,  in  his  Essay  on  Crossing,  (Quarterly  Journal  of  Agriculture,  No.  1,)  after 
obseiving  that  ■  nothing  can  wear  a  more  inviting  aspect  than  the  idea  of  uniting  the 
early  fattening  propensity,  docile  habits,  and  large  size  of  the  one  breed  with  the  hardiness 
and  many  valuable  qualities  of  the  other,  securing,  as  is  thus  imagined,  a  permanent 
variety  exceeding  in  value  either  of  the  parent  stocks,'  and  acknowledging  that  'the  first 
fruits  will,  in  general,  tend  to  confirm  this  hope,'  yet 'cautions  the  bleeder  against  over- 
sanguine  hope  from  such  a  system.'  He  relates,  however,  some  instances  in  which  the 
experiment  did  succeed  to  a  very  great  extent.    His  account  is  as  follows : 

•  About  the  same  time  I  had  an  excellent  opportunity  of  observing,  during  three  years 
an  interesting  experiment,  conducted  upon  an  extensive  scale  by  a  gentleman  of  much 
talent  and  zeal  as  an  agriculturist.  His  object  was  to  obtain  a  mixed  breed  which  should 
permanently  retain  all  the  good  points  of  improved  short-horns,  and  choice  West  High- 
landers or  Kyliies.  He  bred  from  the  shorl-horn  bull  and  Highland  cow,  and  had  contir 
nued  to  do  so  through  many  gradations  for  ten  or  twelve  years  to  the  period  when  I  last 
inspected  his  stock.  At  this  time  my  impression  was,  that  the  variety  was  fast  returning 
to  the  pure  short-horn.    Many  fine  animals  were  brought  to  market. 

•  The  Rev.  John  Forrester,  however,  asserts,  in  his  '  statistical  account'  of  the  parish 
of  Anstruther  Wester,  in  this  county,  that  the  breed  of  cattle  has  been  much  improved 
by  crossing  with  the  Lanark  and  the  Holderness,  and  by  winter-feeding  on  turnips. 
The  first  result  is,  as  we  have  asserted  in  the  text,  contrary  to  the  experience  of  evwy 
agriculturist :  but  of  the  truth  of  the  latter  assertion  there  can  be  no  doubt,  for  there  an 
few  more  profitable  applications  of  turnips  in  a  breeding  country  than  to  the  suppoit  <if 
tha  Y  juBg  stock. 


brought  from  neighbouring  counties,  for  grazing,  is  about  60,000  ;  and 
Ihe  statistical  account  gives  the  same  number.  * 

Some,  however,  of  the  Fifeshire  farmers  have  suspected  that  their  cattle, 
although  excellent,  might  be  capable  of  improvement,  and  they  have 
crossed  them  with  the  Angus,  the  Ayrshire,  and  the  Teeswater.  A  breed 
of  polled  cattle  has  also  made  its  appearance  in  Fife,  possessing  all  the 
good  qualities  of  the  horned,  with  even  superior  propensity  to  fatten,  and 
much  greater  quietness  and  docility.  The  pure  Durhams  have  been  esta- 
blished in  some  parts  of  Fife,  but  not  always  without  difficulty.  Those 
that  were  imported  have  been  injured  by,  or  sunk  under,  the  greater  rigour 
of  the  climate;  but  many  of  the  calves  of  the  Durham  breed,  dropped  in 
Fifeshire,  have,  on  good  pasture,  retained  all  the  good  qualities  of  the 
short  horns,  combined  with  the  requisite  degree  of  hardihood.  Lady  Mary 
Lindsay  Crawfurd,  of  Crawfurd  Priory,  was  unsuccessful  at  first  in  her 
attempts  to  keep  the  Durham  breed,  but  she  has  now  many  pure  and 
beautiful  cattle  of  this  kind. 


This  consists  of  Perthshire,  Stirlingshire,  Clackmannan  and  Kinross,  and 
will  not  long  detain  us,  as  there  is  little  distinctness  of  breed,  and  few  pecu- 
liarities of  management. 


It  would  be  difficult  to  point  out  any  native  breed  of  cattle  in  Perthshire. 
If  it  can  be  found  in  any  district  it  is  in  the  moorland  part  of  the  county, 
where  the  attention  of  the  farmer  used  to  be  chiefly  directed  to  the  rearing 
of  cattle,  for  his  ground  was  good  for  nothing  else  until  the  sheep 
husbandry  was  introduced.t  If  we  consider  these  as  the  true  Perthshire 
cattle,  they  are  of  an  inferior  kind.     The  highland   origin  is  visible  about 

*  The  following  account  of  the  dimensions  of  a  celebrated  bull  belonging  to  the  Earl 
of  Devon  may  give  agriculturists  of  other  districts  a  mure  satisfactory  notion  of  the  pro-' 
portions  of  the  best  Fife  cattle : — 

Length  of  the  head  .... 

Do.        from  the  root  of  the  horn  to  the  rump    . 

Do.        from  the  root  of  the  horn  to  the  top  of  the  shoulder 

Do.        of  the  horn  .  .  .  . 

Distance  from  point  to  point  of  ditto  . 

Girth  of  the  body  at  the  shoulder        .  .  . 

Do  do.  before  hough  bones  ,  . 

Girth  of  the  body  fore  leg,  smallest  part  between  the  knee 
and  hoof 

Do.  do.  hinder  leg  at  ditto    . 

Do.  do.  fore  leg,  at  fore  spald  ^   . 

Height  at  the  shoulder 

Do.        at  hough  bone        .... 

Do.       from  the  shoulder  to  the  breast  bone 

Do.        of  the  knee-joint — fore  leg      . 

Breadth  of  the  hou:{h  bones 
+  Dr.  Robertson,  in  his  '  Survey  of  Perthshire,'  gives  an  eloquent  and  unanswerable 
defence  of  the  system  of  sheep-husbandry  introduced  here,  as  well  as  in  almost  every 
part  of  Scotland,  and  materially  diminishing  the  breed  of  cattle.  '  We  ought  by  no  means 
to  forget  the  improvement  occasioned  by  the  sheep.  They  enrich  the  quality,  and 
enlarge  the  quantity  of  grass  within  their  walk  more  than  any  other  species  of  animals. 
They  never  deteriorate  the  soil ;  they  render  it  more  and  more  productive ;  and  wherever 
their  numbers  arc  increased  upon  a  certain  extent  of  land,  they  help  to  support  that 
increase  of  numbers  by  producing  an  increase  of  food.  The  ground  is  not  only  made 
green,  and  the  heath  extirpated  by  the  enriching  quality  of  their  manure,  but  the  finest 
grass  springs  up  spontaneously  where  it  had  formerly  been  scanty  and  coarse  |  and  when 
thia  powerful  top-diMnng  of  our  "whole  hills  with  sheep-dung  and  urine  has  been 


































tlieni,  but  it  has  been  cleteicorated  by  some  southern  mixture;  or,  at  least; 
the  two  breeds  have  not  mingled  well  together — for  the  beauty  of  form 
and  propensity  to  fatten  of  the  Argyle  are  diminished,  and  the  milking 
properties  of  the  southrons  are  not  fully  developed. 

In  many  parts  of  Perthshire  the  breeds  of  the  nei»-libouring  counties  are 
found  unmixed.  In  the  vicinity  of  Perth  and  the  Bridge  of  Earn,  and  in 
the  Carse  of  Gowrie,  the  Fifeshire,  and  Angus  cattle  are  found,  either 
pure,  or  mingled  in  various  proportions.  About  Monteath  many  Gal- 
loways are  grazed.  In  other  parts  of  the  south,  and  on  the  borders  of 
Skirling  and  Dumbarton,  the  Ayrshire  cows  prevail,  or  have  superseded  all 
the  rest ;  and  on  the  borders  of  Argyle  the  true  West-Highlanders  are 
seen,  and  degenerated  in  none  of  their  essential  points.  A  few  gentle- 
men have  attempted  to  introduce  the  Devons,  others  the  Guernseys,  some 
the  short-horns,  and  even  the  long-horns  have  found  their  advocates. 
Perthshire,  like  many  of  the  midland  counties  of  England,  presents  a 
mixture  of  every  breed,  varying  according  to  the  soil,  or  the  description  of 
the  farm,  or  the  whim  of  the  occupier. 

Another  system  of  grazing  is  pursued  in  some  parts  of  the  county,  and 
particularly  in  the  grazing  districts.  Highland  stots  are  bought  in  at  the 
end  of  autumn,' and  fed  during  the  winter,  for  the  May  and  June  markets. 
TTiey  are  turned  out  on  the  foggage,  or  pastures  that  have  been  mown, 
until  the  middle  or  end  of  December,  accoiding  to  the  severity  or  mildness 
of  the  season.  Then  a  little  straw  with  bog-hay  is  carried  to  them,  and 
In  the  May  or  June  of  the  following  year,  they  pursue  their  course  soutii- 
ward,  yielding  to  the  farmer  a  profit  of  30s.  or  21.  per  head. 

In  respect  to  the  number  of  cattle  which  the  county  contains  it  stands 
second ;  the  statistical  account  assigns  to  it  more  than  79,000,  The 
cattle  have,  however,  of  late  materially  improved,  although  they  have  not 
assumed  any  distinguishing  character;  and  the  dairy  cattle,  in  the  midland 
parts  of  the  county,  have  taken  somewhat  the  start  in  the  career  of  improve- 
ment.     A  few  oxen  are  worked  in  the  plough,   but  none  on  the  road. 

Sheep  husbandry  has  advanced  as  rapidly  in  this  country  as  in  the 
neighbouring  ones,  and  the  bleak  mountains  of  Perth  are  nearly  aban- 
doned to  the  sheep  ;  on  the  other  hand,  the  management  of  cattle,  both 
in  the  graizing  and  dairy  districts,  is  materially  improved.  In  the  Carse 
of  Gowrie,  where  there  is  much  arable  land,  the  usual  stock  of  the  farm 
is  not  always  sufficient  to  consume  the  straw.  Young  cattle  are  therefore 
bought  in  from  the  neighbouring  markets,  which  are  kept  in  the  winter 
on  straw  and  turnips,  and  in  the   following  May  are  sold  to  the  dealers, 

completed,  there  is   little  dombt  that  the  Grampians  will  be   as  verdant  as  the  Ochils, 
while  the  Ochils  had  once  as  forbidding  an  aspect  as  the  Grampians.' 

We  may  compare  with  this,  an  account  given  of  the  management  of  cattle  on  the 
moorlands  twenty-five  years  ago  ('  Farmer's  Magazine,"  1807.)  Formerly  the  cattle  stock 
in  this  quarter  were  very  much  neglected  daring  winter,  no  provision  of  succulent  food, 
nor  indeed  of  anything  excepting  straw,  being  made  for  them.  In  the  spriug  this  was 
particularly  hard  upon  the  cows  in  calf.  They  were  sometimes  go  debilitated  as  to  be 
unable  to  bring  forth ;  and  frequently  contracted  diseases  under  which  they  laboured  for 
a  loug  time,  and  of  which  they  never  recovered.  I  well  remember  the  poor  wives  during 
the  nipping  north-east  winds  in  May,  provincially  called  the  Cowijuaie,  tending  their  cows, 
reduced  to  a  skeleton,  and  covered  with  a  blanket,  whue  they  picked  up  any  spring  grass 
which  had  begun  to  rise  in  the  kail-yard,  or  at  the  bottoms  of  walls  or  banks ;  and  to  such 
extremities  wei:e  they  reduced  at  times,  that  I  have  heard  of  their  taking  the  half-rotten 
thatch  from  the  roofs  of  houses,  and  giving  it  to  the  half-dead  animal,  as  the  means  of 
prolonging  its  miserable  existence.  On  this  account  the  half  of  them  did  not  take  the 
bull,  and  those  that  did  were  too  late  for  rearing  stout  calves.  The  yeld  cattle  were  so 
emaciated,  that  it  was  always  the  end  of  the  season  beforethe  heath,  and  steril,  hidebound 
leas  on  which  they  were  depastured,  brought  them  into  such  condition  as  would  now  la 
cunaidered  as  but  half-fat. 


or  tlie  farmers  of  the  adja^'ent  comities,  who  give  tiiem  a  few  tnonlhs' 
summer  pasturage,  and  dispose  of  ihem  lor  Eug-land,  or  the  southern 
districts  of  Scotland.  In  the  Carse  of  Gowrie  is  tbund  some  of  the  most 
fertile  soil,  and  also  some  of  the  most  intelligent  farmers  in  the  kin<;doiii ; 
but  in  the  Highland  districts,  even  the  sheep-husbandry  needs  much  im- 
provement, and  the  cattle  are  much  neglected.* 

Mr.  Gorrie,  in  his  '  Account  of  the  Carse  of  Gowrie,'  published  in 
the  Quarterly  Journal  of  Agriculture  for  June  1832,  says,  'Although  the 
nature  of  the  district  renders  the  rearing  of  cattle  less  profitable  than  the 
production  of  grain,  some  specimens  of  the  most  improved  breeds  have 
been  produced,  which  would  have  done  credit  to  the  most  eminent  breeders 
of  the  south.  On  the  Braes  (a  level  tract)  of  the  Carse,  breeding  and 
rearing  of  cattle  might  be  conducted  more  advantageously  and  toa  greater 
extent  than  at  present,  were  the  higher  part  of  the  ground  inclosed  and 
properly  sheltered  by  slips  of  planting. 


This  is  far  more  a  grazing  than  a  breeding  county  :  indeed,  the  attention 
of  the  farmers  iscontined  to  grazing,  to  the  exclusion  of  almost  everything 
else,  the  very  plough  being  chiefly  used  with  a  view  to  the  sustenance  of 
their  cattle  during  the  winter.  The  pastures  of  Stirling.shire,  both 
natural  and  artificial,  are  exceedingly  rich  ;  and  from  its  situation  it  forms 
the  first  convenient  halting  place  for  the  Western  Highland  cattle,  while 
it  is  the  great  thoroughfare  for  these  cattle  during  the  whole  of  the  sum- 
mer. Many  of  the  Stirlingshire  farmers  purchase  the  best  of  the  Skye  or 
Argyle  beasts  about  the  beginning  of  summer,  and  turn  them  on  their  fine 
natural  or  artificial  pastures,  on  which  they  are  made  ready  for  the  market 
by  the  end  of  autumn. 

The  carses  extending  from  Stirling  to  Boness  can  boast  a  soil,  perhaps, 
not  exceeded  by  any  in  Britain,  and  they  are  almost  entirely  under  tillage  ; 
and  to  the  west  of  Falkirk,  large  tracts  of  land  are  farmed  out  for  gt-aziiig, 
either  to  residents  in  the  neighbourhood  or  to  speculators,  and  many  of  the 
butchers  from  a  considerable  distance.  The  summer  feeding  never  fails, 
and,  except  in  a  year  of  extreme  scarcity,  the  winter  feeding  for  the  large 
stocks  of  sheep  and  cattle  bought  in  at  the  trysts  is  excellent. 

Jn  the  statistical  account  of  Fintry,  in  this  county,  honourable  mention 
is  made  of  Mr.  David  Dun,  who  established,  if  he  did  not  introduce,  this 
improved  mode  of  grazing,  and  which  has  been  adopted  in  a  considerable 
portion  of  the  west  and  south  of  Scotland.  His  principles  were,  to  select 
from  the  choicest  cattle  in  order  to  stock  his  farm,  and  to  keep  his  grass 
lighter  than  farmers  had  been  accustomed  to  do,  i.  e.  to  put  fewer  cattle 
upon  his  land  than  had  been  usual ;  and  the  consequence  was,  that  his 

"  111  the  statistical  account  of  Longforgan,  in  the  county  of  Perth,  a  singular  account  is 
givtin  uf  the  manner  of  fattening  calves.  '  They  are  led  iu  a  box,  which  is  made  of 
very  coarse  boards,  4^  or  5  feet  long,  and  4  or  4^  high,  and  about  2  feet  wide, 
in  proportion  to  the  breed  to  be  fed.  The  boards  of  which  the  box  is  made  are  to  be  put 
au  close  to  one  another,  as  to  let  in  sufficient  air,  but  no  moie,  as  the  exclusion  of  light  is 
;)ne  essential  part  of  the  process.  It  stands  upon  four  feet,  and  is  placed  a  little 
slanting  to  drain  o£f  all  wetness,  and  the  bottom  should  be  covered  with  straw  or  hay,  and 
which  should  be  changed  twice  a  week.  The  calf  is  put  into  this  box  when  newly  dropped, 
or  as  soon  afterwards  as  possible,  and  for  the  6rst  week  milk  is  given  to  it  cautiously, 
alter  which  the  milk  is  given  more  heely,  and  when  about  ten  days  old  it  is  bled.  It 
then  gets  as  much  sweet  milk  fresh  from  the  cow  as  it  can  take  three  times  a-day^  and  a 
large  piece  of  chalk  is  bung  in  the  box,  which  it  occasionally  licks.  The  bleeding  is 
ie]K'atetl  once  a  week,  and  it  hfcomes  fine  veal  in  ten  weeks,  it'  it  is  a  bull  calf,  it  is  cut 
u  about  a  week  old,  otherwise  i he  veal  will  neither'  be  so  good,  tiur  so  white.  ' 

'20  CATTLE. 

beasts  throve  with  a  rapidity  before  unexampled.  He  is  said  to  liave  sold 
one  Highland  stot,  which  yielded  fifty-two  stones  (tron)  of  beef*.  At  another 
lime  he  disposed  of  twenty-five  Highland  stots  for  12/.  each,  the  lightest 
of  which  weighed  thirty  stones  (tron).  He  died  in  1794.  He  was  leading 
a  sheep  across  a  wooden  bridge,  when  the  rail  of  the  bridge  giving  way, 
he  was  thrown  into  the  river,  and,  falling  upon  a  stone,  he  was  killed  On 
the  spot.  He  was,  -with  great  propriety,  called  the  Scotch  Bakewell ;  and 
there  was  no  man  to  whom  the  central  districts  of  Scotland  were  more 

The  breeding  of  cattle  is  mostly  confined  to  the  dairy  districts,  such  as 
Kilsyth,  Campsie,t  Strathblane,  St.  Ninians,  and  the  muir  lands  to  the 
south  of  Falkirk  ;  and  here  it  is  pursued  with  greater  ardour  than  formerly, 
although  seldom  to  much  greater  extent  than  to  keep  up  the  stock ;  but  this 
stock  is,  since  the  introduction  of  Agricultural  Societies  and  the  offering  of 
premiums,  very  materially  improved. 

The  dairy  cattle  have  been,  since  the  year  1817,  chiefly  of  the  Ayrshire 
breed,  and  that  mostly  pure ;  for  a  cross  between  the  Ayrshire  and  the 
native  cattle  has  not  generally  succeeded.  On  the  ground  of  some  cottager, 
however,  a  cow  of  the  mixed  breed  will  occasionally  be  found  yielding 
abundance  of  milk  and  tolerably  good  in  quality,  and  afterwards  fattening 
with  a  rapidity  scarcely  inferior  to  the  true  Highlander.  The  cattle  that 
are  designed  for  summer  fattening  are  out  day  and  night ;  but  the  milch 
cows  are  sometimes  housed  during  the  night,  while  by  other  farmers  they 
are  housed  and  fed  by  soiling  during  the  heat  of  the  day,  and  turned  out 
at  night 

Oxen  were  formerly  much  used  in  Stirlingshire;  but,  very  few  teams  are 
now  kept  in  any  part  of  the  country.  The  average  number  of  cattle  in 
Stirlingshire,  including  the  flying  stock,  is  rather  more  than  19,000. 

The  central  situation  of  Stirlingshire  with  regard  to  the  breeders  of  cattle 
in  the  northern  and  western  counties,  and  the  buyers  or  dealers  from  the 
southern  and  eastern  parts  of  Great  Britain,  cause  it  to  be  selected  for  the 

*  The  weight  is  commonly  calculated  in  these  districts  by  the  stone,  tron,  which  con- 
«ist3  of  16  lbs.,  at  22  oz.  each,  and,  consequently,  the  weight  of  the  beast  was  equivalent 
io  nearly  82  stones  of  Imperial  weight,  or  14  lbs.  each,  or  exactly  143  stones  Smithfield 
weight  of  8  lbs.  each. 

t  The  Rev.  Mr.  Lapslie,  in  his  statistical  account  of  Campsie,  gives  the  following 
accoiuit  of  the  cattle  in  that  parish  in  1 793 : — '  Milk  cows  749,  which,  within  the  last 
thirty  years  have  increased  considerably  in  bulk,  hence  they  have  a  tendency  to  be  in 
flesh  more  than  to  give  milk ;  they,  however,  give  on  the  average  from  seven  to  eleven 
Scots  pints  daily.  Below  seven  they  are  not  thought  worth  keeping  for  the  dairy ; 
above  eleven  they  are  considered  remarkable.  From  eight  Scots  pints  nearly  one  pound 
of  butter  is  produced,  and  the  cheese  is  equal  to  that  of  Dunlop.  Besides  these  there  are 
cow  and  queys,  503 ;  fat  cows,  and  young  beasts  for  the  Falkirk  market  and  the  butcher, 
917;  and  winterers,  which  are  mostly  grazed  next  summer  for  the  butcher,  345.  The  win- 
terers graze  in  the  open  fields  during  the  whole  winter  season,  and  are  fed  once  or  twice  a 
day  with  coarse  hay,  gathered  in  autumn  among  the  cows' feet  in  their  pastures.  The  gra 
tiers  commonly  begin  to  fodder,  as  they  terra  it,  about  Christmas,  (it  is  considered  to, be 
B  severe  winter  when  they  are  forced  to  begin  before  Christmas,)  and  continue  till  the 
beginning  of  April,  when  the  cattle  refuse  it.  There  are  few  cattle  grazed  but  High- 
landers, and  those  from  Argyleshire  are  preferred.  North  country  cattle  are  rejected, 
being  considered  by  the  graziers  sour,  and  difiicult  to  feed.' 

Mr.  Lapslie  gives  a  calculation  of  the  consumption  of  animal  food  in  this  parish.  '  In 
1714,  only  three  cows  were  killed  for  winter-beef  in  the  whole  parish,  the  gentry  excepted. 
In  1744,  the  better  farmers  joined,  and  got  a  cow  for  a  winter-mart,  the  price  then  being 
only  35».  or  40s.  for  a  fat  cow.  In  1759,  very  decent  farmers  thought  it  necessary  to 
have  some  part  of  a  fat  cow,  or  a  few  sheep,  salted  up  for  winter  store ;  and  in  1 794,  three 
hundred  fat  cows  were  killed  annually  about  Martinmas  time,  for,  winter  provision, 
beside  the  mutton,  beef,  and  lamb,  killed  through  the  season  ;  and  few  of  the  tradesmen 
•at  down  to  dinner  without  fresh  meat  otj  the  table,  and  malt  liquor  to  drink.' 


holding  of  the  principal  fairs  or  cattle-markets  of  Scotland.  The  Falkirk 
trysts  are  the  most  frequented  ;  they  are  held  on  the  second  Tuesday  in 
Auffust,  September,  and  October.  All  the  cattle  from  every  part  of  Scot- 
laud,  south  as  well  as  north,  which  are  intended  for  sale,  whether  in  good 
Store  condition,  or  almost  ready  for  the  butcher,  or  lean,  and  intended  for 
wintering  in  richer  pasture  in  the  south,  are  driven  to  Falkirk*. 


There  is  little  difference  in  the  character  and  general  treatment  of 
cattle  in  these  diminutive  counties  ;  they  approach  to  the  Perthshire  or 
Fifeshire  breeds,  in  proportion  as  they  bordfer  on  either  (iistrict.  A  great 
number  of  cattle  used  to  be  fattened  in  the  distilleries  of  Clackmannan,  and 
])arlicularly  in  that  of  Kilbogie;  seven  thousand  have  sometimes  been  fed 
at  this  distillery  in  one  year.  The  ordinary  stock  of  Kinross  is  5400,  and 
ttiat  of  Clackmannan  nearly  1400,  exclusive  of  those  in  the  distillery.  Th*" 
cattle  husbandry  of  Kinross  has  been  materially  improved  within  the  las» 
filly  years.  The  soil  of  Clackmannan  is  more  fertile,  and  the  few  cattle  of 
a  superior  description. 


This  district  consists  of  Dumbartonshire,  Renfrewshire,  Ayrshire,  and 
Lanarkshire.  It  is  a  manufacturing  district,  and  very  thickly  peopled. 
Although  occupying  only  one-thirteenth  part  of  the  extent  of  Scotland,  it 
contains  full  one-fourth  of  the  inhabitants ;  many  cattle  are,  therefore,, 
wanted  for  the  butcher  and  the  dairy.  The  soil  and  the  climate  ar^ 
admirably  adapted  to  the  rearing  and  fattening  of  live-stock,  and  a  more 
valuable  breed,  and  particularly  of  dairy  cows,  is  not  to  be  found  in  the 
whole  kingdom. 

*  The  tryst  used  to  be  held  on  a  large  common  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Falkirk, 
but  which  is  now  enclosed,  and  a  field  iu  the  neighbourhood  of  Stenhousmuir  has  since 
been  selected.  It  is  about  three  miles  from  Falkirk,  on  the  other  side  of  the  Carron  and 
the  Glasgow  canal,  and  is  the  property  of  Sir  Michael  Bruce.  The  road  from  Falkirk  to 
it  is  not  uninteresting ;  it  is  close  to  the  celebrated  Carron  foundry,  and  that  being  past,  the 
sheet  of  water  above  the  works,  and  the  woody  winding  way  between  it  and  the  village,  are 
very  pleasing,  while  the  traveller  is  but  a  little  way  from  two  spots  connected  with  early 
and  later  Scottish  history — ^the  peace  concluded  between  the  Romans  and  the  Scots,  and 
the  concealment  and  escape  oi  the  hero  Wallace. 

The  field,  or  the  toll  at  its  entrance,  is  let  to  a  taxman  at  120A  yearly,  and  he  demands 
Sd,  for  every  score  of  black  cattle,  'id.  for  every  score  of  sheepj  and  \d.  for  «very  horse. 
There  are,  beside,  several  tents  erected  on  the  field  at  which  refreshments  may  be  pro- 
cured, or  where  business  is  transacted,  and  money  paid  and  received ;  for  the  use  of  each 
uf  these  the  taxman  receives  13<. 

At  the  last  October  tryst  ( 1 832)  there  were,  on  the  lowest  computation,  more  than 
50,000  black  cattle,  30,0U0  sheep,  and  3000  horses.  It  is  worth  going  many  a  mile  to 
witness  such  a  collection  of  beasts,  and  including  every  variety  of  every  breed  of  Scotland. 
It  is  a  school  for  the  agriculturist,  from  which  he  will  not  fail  to  derive  tlie  most  useful 
lessons ;  and  then,  in  the  latter  part  of  the  day,  when  the  tryst  is  over,  to  see  every  spot, 
not  only  of  the  flat  muir,  but  of  the  beautifully  undulating  ground  above,  covered  wKk 
cattle  and  sheep,  and  the  herdsmen  in  their  characteristic  Scottish  dresses,  either  stiretchetl 
on  their  plaids  and  resting  for  a  while  their  wearied  limbs — but  still  watchful ;  or  gather- 
ing into  groups  and  relating  the  occurrences  and  bargains  of  the  day ;  this  is  a  scene 
which  the  agriculturist  will  not  soon  forget,  and  to  which  no  one  can  be  insensible. 

The  October  is  the  largest  tryst,  for  all  the  cattle  which  the  farmer  wishes  to  dispose  of 
before  the  winter  are  then  brought  forward.  In  the  three  trysts  there  cannot  be  less 
than  80,000  cattle,  50,000  sheep,  and  5000  horses,  and,  averaging  the  price  of  the  cattle 
at  71.  each,  and  of  the  gheep  at  18>.,  and  of  the  horses  at  10/.,  their  gross  value  is  neady 

'28  CATTLE. 


In  a  great  part  of  Dumbartonshire  the  introduction  of  sheep-husbaiulry 
has  materially  lessened  the  number  of  cattle :  of  this  the  author  of  the 
statistical  account  of  Anoquhar  gives  a  convincing  proof,  when  he  says 
that  in  the  whole  of  that  parish  there  were  (in  1791)  only  480  black 
cattle,  although  10,000  sheep  were  kept.  The  cattle,  however,  are 
materially  improved,  and  the  formerly  desolate  appearance  of  the  country 
is  essentially  changed. 

The  neat  stock  of  Dumbartonshire  may  be  divided  into  three  classes  : 
those  that  are  wintered  in  the  county,  those  that  are  fattened  there,  and 
the  dairy  cattle ;  for  few  are  bred  there  beyond  the  annual  consumption. 

The  portion  of  land  appropriated  to  the  wintering  of  cattle  is  the  natural 
pasture,  or  uncultivated  ground,  of  which  there  is  a  great  deal.  The  grass 
is  long  and  coarse,  but  it  will  be  eaten  by  cattle  that  have  not  been  accus 
tomed  to  anything  better;  and  it  is  generally  contrived  that  some  part  of  it 
shall  be  a  little  sheltered  from  the  blast  Many,  and 
principally  from  Argyle,  are  purchased  in  October  or  November,  and  chiefly 
at  Falkirk  market,  and  they  are  turned  in  the  wintering  grounds*  without 
any  other  provender,  until  the  winter  thoroughly  sets  in,  and  the  ground 
is  covered  with  snow;  they  are  then  fed  on  coarse  hay  or  straw  given 
in  the  tield,  on  some  sheltered  spot.  It  is  thrown  carelessly  down,  and 
the  strongest  beast  gets  the  better  share,  and  part  of  it  is  trodden  under 
foot  and  spoiled. 

There  is  often  barely  sufficient  of  this  coarse  hay  and  straw  to  last 
through  a  winter  of  moderate  length,  and,  therefore,  after  one  of  unusual 
severity,  the  cattle,  although  not  so  reduced  as  we  have  described  them  to 
be  in  some  parts  of  the  Highlands,  are  brought  to  market  in  poor  con- 
dition, and  sold  »*  a  very  inferior  price. 

A  few  cattle  are  wintered  in  the  straw-yard,  but  they  fare  not  much 
better,  for  they  rarely  get  turnips,  they  have  straw  only,  or  this  coarse 
bog-hay,  and  they  do  not  thrive  so  well  upon  it  as  if  they  were  turned  on 
the  pasture,  scanty  as  it  is. 

in  April  or  May  they  are  usually  sold  to  the  dealers,  who  drive  them 
farther  south.  They  are  generally  two-year-olds  who  go  through  this 
process,  and  the  owner  of  the  coarse  pasture  is  fairly  repaid  by  the  growth 
of  the  cattle,  and  the  greater  price  which  beasts  even  of  the  same  size 
obtain  in  May,  above  that  which  would  be  given  for  them  in  November. 

Thus  commences  the  succession  of  journeys  and  stages  of  improvement 
which  a  great  proportion  of  the  Highland  cattle  pass  through.  Messrs. 
Whyte  and  Macfarlane  thus  speak  of  it  in  their  '  Survey  of  Dumbarton- 
shire :' — '  The  reader  will  perceive  here  some  traces  of  that  extensive 
distribution  of  labour,  in  the  management  of  stock  and  the  application  of 
grass  ground,  which  is  at  once  most  profitable  to  individuals,  and  econo- 
mical to  the  public.  The  cattle  bred  in  the  West  Highlands  are,  at  the 
age  of  two  years,  or  two  years  and  a  half,  removed  into  Dumbartonshire 
and  the  neighbouring  counties.  At  three  years  old  they  are  carried  to 
the  northern  couuties  of  Euglaud,  and  so  by  degrees  southward,  enjoying 

*  These  wintering  grounds  are  usually  bo(^meiidow8,  which  are  formed  by  the  filling 
up  uf  lakes  and  deposits  of  water,  in  consequence  of  the  gradual  accumulation  of  vegetable 
matter,  and  which,  at  length,  attain  a  sufficient  degree  of  solidity  to  bear  the  cattle.  The 
herbage  is  at  first  of  the  coarsest  nature,  but  it  gradually  improves,  and,  although  sheep 
will  not  eat  it,  becomes  a  valuable  part  of  the  farm,  aud  thechief  support  of  the  cattle  both 
in  summer  and  winter.  On  the  edges  of  most  of  the  high  sht'Hi- jiastures,  there  are  slips 
ttud  tracks  uf  land  on  which  the  sheep  will  not  feed,  but  uu  wliic'   cattle  readily  thrive. 


at  each  remove  a  milder  climate  and  a  richer  pasture  than  before,  till  they 
attain  their  full  size,  and  reach  the  butcher  in  prime  condition.  By  this 
arrangement  the  power,  so  to  speak,  which  each  district  of  land  possesses 
in  breeding,  rearing,  or  fattening,  is  fully  called  into  action  ;  tlie  cattle  are 
exposed  to  no  sudden  or  violent  change,  but  their  situation  is  from  time 
to  time  altered  in  a  moderate  degree  for  the  better;  their  rapid  growth 
and  continued  improvement  afford  a  reasonable  profit  to  each  grazier 
through  whose  hands  they  pass,  and,  after  all,  they  are  brought  to  market 
much  cheaper  than  if  every  beast  had  remained  until  it  was  fit  for  being 
killed  on  the  soil  where  it  was  originally  bred.' 

The  profit  derived  from  the  cattle  thus  wintered  must  vary  with  a  great- 
many  circumstances,  and  especially  with  the  length  and  severity  of  the, 
winter  and  the  change  of  price  in  the  market,  but  the  Dumbartonshire 
grazier  Is  supposed  to  get  about  35s.  by  each  beast. 

Some  cattle  are  fattened  altogether  in  Dumbartonshire,  and,  perhaps, 
originally  bred  there.  These  also  are  West  Highlanders.  If  the  pasturage, 
although  coarse,  is  abundant  and  nutritive  (for  these  moory  ground 
often  yield  much  good  produce),  the  cattle  remain  on  the  same  enclosure, 
or  they  are  removed  to  other  fields  that  are  not  so  closely  eaten  down, 
and  when  the  flush  of  grass  comes,  they  grow  and  fatten  at  a  most  rapid, 

Some  of  the  farms  do  better  for  summer  than  for  winter  fattening,  and 
then  the  Highlanders,  or  some  old  oxen  or  cows,  are  bought  from  their 
neighbours,  or  at  the  surrounding  markets,  and  turned  on  this  natural 
grass,  which  is  changed,  in  due  time,  for  the  aftermath  of  the  clover, 
or,  in  a  few  instances,  they  are  turned  at  once  into  the  best  pasture,  when 
a  portion  of  it  can  be  spared  from  the  cows.  In  November  they  are  fit 
for  the  butcher,  and  average  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  stones.  The  profit 
on  this  summer-grazing  varies  in  different  seasons,  but  cannot  be  com- 
puted at  less  than  50s.  per  head. 

In  a  few  parts  of  the  country  the  North  Highlanders  have  been  tried, 
Bs  being  cheaper  than  the  others,  but  they  have  not  fattened  so  kindly,  nor 
so  well  repaid  the  prime  cost,  and  expense  of  keeping. 

Stall-feeding  has  been  introduced,  and  has  answered  well,  particularly 
as  consuming  the  better  kind  of  grass  to  much  greater  advantage  than  if 
it  were  eaten  down  ;  and  Ukewise  converting  the  turnip  crop  to  the  most 
profitable  use.  On  rich  ground,  and  with  much  artificial  food,  it  is  a 
method  of  feeding  which  will  gradually  supersede  the  pasturing  in  the 
field  ;  but,  in  a  district  like  this,  the  coarse  grass  and  the  fog-hay  would 
not  be  in  any  other  way  consumed  than  by  the  old  method  of  summer  and 
more  particularly  of  winter  feeding. 

The  Highlanders  never  answered  for  the  dairy,  and  therefore  would  not 
be  kept  for  this  purpose  in  so  populous  a  county  as  Dumbartonshire,  and 
more  especially  the  small  and  inferior  variety  which  passes  under  the 
name  of  the  native  cow.'  Some  attempts  have  been  made  to  cross  her 
wil:h  the  Fife,  and  afterwards  with  the  Ayrshire  cattle,  but  they  did  not 
perfectly  succeed;  and  the  true  Ayrshires  have  gradually ,  established 
themselves  in  the  greater  part  of  the  dairies.  They-  used  to  be  purchased  • 
from  the  neighbouring  counties  of  Renfrew  and  Ayr,  but  the  greater  part 
of  them  are  now  bred  in  Dumbartonshire,  and  are  in  no  way  inferior  to . 
the  original  stock ;  or  rather,  when  properly  managed,  th^y  are  more  valu- 
able to  the  dairyman,  for  it  is  not  often  that  a  cow  will  thrive  anywhere  so 
well,  flr  yield  so  much  milk  as  in  the  counttyt  and  even  on  the  farm  in 
which  she  was  bred :  and,  most  certainly,  in  cases  of  disease  the  strang^i 
sow  is  lost  much  oftener  than  the  one  that  is  breathing  her  native  air. 

124  CATTLE. 

Ill  winter  the  milch  cows  are  fed  on  straw  with  turnips  or  potatoes,  and 
are  let  out  once  in  the  day  for  water  and  exercise ;  but  as  soon  as  they 
become  dry  the  turnips  and  potatoes  are  too  often  withdrawn,  and  the 
poor  animals  are  fed  on  straw  alone.  This  is  done  from  the  absurd  idea 
that  the  succulent  food  is  relaxing,  and  apt  to  make  them  calve  before 
their  time;  whereas  they  are  improperly  weakened  at  the  time,  when,  if  it 
is  dangerous  for  them  to  be  in  full  condition,  they  should  at  least  be  in 
good  plight ;  in  addition  to  this,  the  continuance  of  dry  food  will  prevent 
the  natural  flush  of  milk  at  the  time  of  calving. 

During  the  summer  months  the  milch  cow  is  in  the  field  during  the 
night,  but  sheltered  from  the  flies,  and  supplied  with  green  meat  in  the 
cowhouse  during  the  day ;  and  when  the  flies  cease  to  torment,  and  the 
nights  become  cold,  they  are  housed  during  the  night,  and  graze  at  liberty 
in  the  day. 

This  county,  and  the  whole  of  the  district  including  part  of  Stirling- 
shire and  Perth,  is  much  indebted  to  the  patriotic  exertions  of  the  Duke  of 
Montrose.  His  Grace's  factor,  Mr.  Geekie,  informs  us,  that  as  late  as  the 
year  1817,  the  dairy  cattle  was  of  a  very  inferior  kind, — small,  coarse, 
unshapely,  and  possessing  few  of  the  qualifications  requisite  in  a  dairy 
stock.  The  Duke  of  Montrose  and  the  principal  landed  proprietors  of  the 
district,  then  formed  themselves  into  a  society,  for  the  express  purpose  of 
the  improvement  of  cattle,  and  the  introduction  of  the  Ayrshire  breed. 
High  premiums  were  oflered  for  the  best  bulls  and  cows  which  had  been 
bred  out  of  this  district.  Liberal  donations  were  added  by  the  Highland 
Society  of  Scotland.  Great  emulation  was  thus  excited  among  the  tenantry, 
and  the  desired  effect  was  produced  of  introducing  many  excellent  animals 
from  Ayrshire  and  Lanarkshire ;  their  progeny  became  naturalized  here, 
and,  for  the  reasons  just  stated,  they  are  even  more  valuable  than  the  ori- 
ginal breed. 

The  produce  of  a  good  Ayrshire  cow,  bred  in  Dumbarton,  is  fully  equal 
to  that  yielded  by  any  of  its  progenitors.     Mr.  Geekie  thus  averages  it : — 
For  the  first  three  months  after  calving,  10  Scots  pints  daily. 
For  the  second  .  .         8  „ 

For  the  third  .  .  .  3  „ 

For  the  next  six  weeks  .  .        1 J :    she    is   then   dried  ; 

having  given,  all  the  year  round,  more  than  5J  Scots  pints,  or  nearly  3 
gullons  daily. 

The  calves  for  the  dairy  are  generally  taken  from  their  dams  as  soon  as 
dropped,  and  fed  with  milk  from  the  hand  for  about  two  months,  the  quan- 
tity of  milk  being  gradually  decreased  when  they  begin  to  take  other  food. 
Linseed-tea  is  given  in  small  quantities  in  order  to  keep  the  bowels  in  a 
proper  state  while  under  milk.  Where  there  is  other  demand  for  the  milk, 
bean  or  pease  flour  are  gradually  mixed  with  it  or  substituted  for  it.  After 
the  calves  are  weaned  they  are  turned  on  good  pasture,  and  during  the  first 
winter  are  housed,  and  fed  on  oat-straw  or  meadow  hay,  with,  at  least 
once  in  every  day,  some  turnips  cut  and  mixed  with  the  dry  food. 

During  the  second  summer  thev  should  have  better  pasture  than  they 
usually  get,  or  they  will  not  be  raised  sufficiently  in  size  ;  and  in  the 
second  winter  they  are  generally,  and  always  should  be,  housed  :  a  few 
agriculturists,  who  study  their  own  interests,  as  well  as  the  comfort  of 
their  cattle,  allow  them  some  turnips  in  addition  to  their  straw  and  hay. 
On  the  third  summer  inferior  pasture  is  sufficient,  or  they  will  get  too  fat, 
but  in  the  third  winter  they  should  be  well  kept,  and  particularly  in  the 
spring  and  until  they  have  calved. 

Heifers  at  three  years  old  will  weigh  from  twenty-eight  to  forty-  five 


•tones  imperial  weight ;  the  ox  will  average,  at  that  age,  Iroin  forty-five 
to  fifty-five  stones,  but  some  have  weighed  130  stones. 

Oxen  have  gradually  given  way  to  horses  on  the  road  and  for  husbandry 
work,  and  there  is  now  scarcely  a  team  employed  in  the  whole  county. 

The  statistical  account  assigns  9120  as  the  number  of  cattle  in  Dum- 
bartonshire, being  not  more  than  one  to  every  sixteen  acres.  If  these  are 
averaged  at  61.  per  head,  the  value  of  the  cattle  will  be  54,720?. 


Renfrewshire  is  on  the  Firth  of  Clyde,  and  south  of  Dumbartonshire. 
Its  greatest  length  is  only  thirty-one  miles,  and  its  breadth  thirteen  miles, 
and  it  is  decidedly  a  manufacturing  county,  three-fourths  of  the  inhabitants 
living  in  the  small  towns.  It  contains  10,000  cattle,  or  about  one  to  every 
fifteen  acres ;  so  that  a  sufficient  number  only  are  kept  for  the  purposes  of 
the  dairy,  and  scarcely  enough  for  the  consumption  of  beef. 

The  Highland  cow  is  rarely  met  with  ;  she  has  been  properly  superseded 
by  the  dairy  cow  of  Scotland,  the  Ayrshire*.  The  Alderney  was  tried,  as 
promising  to  be  valuable  in  a  dairy  county,  from  both  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  her  milk,  but  she  was  not  found  to  answer.  She  was  crossed, 
but  with  no  success,  by  the  native  bull.  The  Durham  was  afterwards 
attempted,  and  the  Alderney  crossed  with  it ;  but,  except  on  a  few  estates, 
all  have  given  way  to  the  Ayrshire.  The  Ayrshire  breed  has  been 
materially  improved  in  Renfrewshire  within  the  last  twenty  years,  not  so 
much,  perhaps,  in  size  as  in  fineness  of  bone  and  beauty  of  form.  There 
was  long  a  very  great  error  in  the  Renfrew  system  of  management ;  four- 
fifths  of  the  calves  were  sold  almost  as  soon  as  they  were  dropped,  and  the 
stock  was  kept  up  by  purchasing  from  Ayrshire.  It  is  true  the  whole 
milk  of  the  cow  was  thus  preserved,  and  that  was  an  object  of  great  im- 
portance in  a  dairy  country ;  but  the  breed  of  cows  in  Renfrew  suffered  to  a 
certain  degree.  The  farmer  did  not  systematically  rear  the  calves  of  those 
cows  which  from  experience  he  knew  to  be  the  best,  and  thus  secure  the 
improvement  of  his  stock,  bilt  he  trusted  to  the  chance  of  purchase,  which 
was  a  perfect  uncertainty,  whatever  judge  of  cattle  he  might  be  ;  and  sup- 
posing him  to  be  always  so  fortunate  as  to  select  a  good  milker,  he  had 
moved  her  from  her  native  place,  and,  with  the  exception,  perhaps,  of  the 
Ayrshire  cow,  oftener  than  any-other,  he  had,  to  a  much  greater  degree  than 
some  imagine,  lessened  her  value.  To  a  considerable  extent,  this  practice 
has  been  rectified ;  but  there  are  still  yet  too  many  dairymen  who  look 
more  t»  present  convenience  and  profit  than  to  distant  although  not  un- 
certain advantage. 

A  great  deal  of  the  milk  supplies  the  dense  population  of  Paisley  and 
Greenock,  and  also  of  Glasgow,  which  is  close  on  the  borders  of  the 
county.  The  remainder  is  manufactured  into  butter,  with  which  these 
and  the  other  towns  are  supplied,  and  which  is  often  made  from  the  milk, 
instead  of  waiting  for  the  separation  of  the  cream.  The  remainder  goes 
to  the  making  of  cheese,  than  which  Scotland  cannot  produce  any  better. 
It  is  known  under  the  nanr<e  of  the  Dunlop  cheese,  but  no  great  quantity 
of  it  has  for  some  years  past  been  made.     The  greater  part  of  it  is  manu- 

*  TheRev.  Mr.Maxvrelljinhis  Statistical  Account  of  Kilbarchan(  1799),  in  this  county, 
tinknowingly  proves  that  the  Ayrshire  cow  was  early  introduced  here  when  he  says, '  Tha 
lows  most  esteemed  here  are  those  of  a  small  miiuth,  head  and  neck  long  and  smtU. 
With  respect  to  colour,  those  spotted  brown  and  white  are  preferred.'  The  Rev.  Sir. 
M'Latchie,  in  his  account  of  Mearns,  in  1796,  says,  'Most  of  the  cows  here  are  of  a 

give  from  ten  to  fifteen  Scots  pints 

'26  CATTLE. 

factured  in  Ayrshire,  as  will  be. presently  described.  The  population  n 
far  too  dense  for  a  cheese  dairy,  and  the  farmer  can  find  a  readier  and  moie 
profitable  sale  for  his  milk. 

Sir  Michael  Stewart,  to  whom  we  owe  some  useful  information,  is  ot 
opinion  that  the  Ayrshire  cow  has  not  been  deteriorated  by  her  removal  to 
Renfrew ;  that  during^  eight  months  in  the  year  she  will,  on  the  average, 
yield  four  gallons  of  milk  per  day,  and  will  produce  nearly  one  pound  of 
butter  daily,  and  that,  although  used  almost  exclusively  for  the  dairy, 
she  is  only  inferior  to  the  West  Highlanders  for  grazing. 

Mr.  Wilson,  who  compiled  the  survey  of  this  county,  says,  The  dairy 
seems  at  all  times  to  have  been  an  important  object  in  Renfrewshire. 
Crawford,  who  wrote  his  history  a  century  ago,  says,  'The  higher  parts  of 
the  county  abound  with  grass,  and  choice  pasturage,  where  there  is  made 
excellent  butter  and  cheese;  and  besides  what  is  made  use  of  in  the  county, 
there  are  considerable  quantities  carried  to  the  neighbouring  shires  ;  and 
the  rents  of  the  extensive  property  in  Lockwinnoch  parish,  which  belong 
to  ttie  abbey  of  Paisley,  were  paid  in  iticks  and  cheese.' 

The  Renfrew  dairymen  manage  thieir  cattle  better  at  calving  time  than 
those  of  Dumbartonshire,  for  while  they  are  allowed  potatoes  with  their 
straw  during  winter,  the  quantity  of  succulent  food  is  increased  as  the 
time  (if  calving  approaches,  in  order  to  prepare  for  an  increased  flow  of 
milk,  which,  if  not  wanted  for  the  calf,  is  profitable  to  the  dairyman. 

The  calves  usually  get  three  gallons  of  new  milk  daily  for  about  two 
months  :  they  are  then  put  on  young  grass  for  six  months,  and  upon 
inferior  pasture  for  the  next  eighteen  months;  after  which,  when  supposed 
to  be  in  calf,  they  are  fed  along  with  the  dairy  cows.  The  summer  feeding 
fur  grazing  cattle  consists  chiefly  of  grass  in  the  field,  with  vetches  or 
clover  in  the  house.  The  winter  feeding  consists  of  turnips  and  potatoes 
boiled  or  steamed  with  chaff  or  cut  hay,  or  the  turnips  and  potatoes 
given  raw,  with  straw  and  meadow  hay.  In  spring,  bean-meal  is  fre- 
quently mingled  with  these.  Near  distilleries  a  great  deal  of  draff  and 
dreg  is  used  at  all  seasons. 

The  Renfrewshire  Agricultural  Society,  which  holds  its  annual  meeting 
at  Paisley,  has  contributed  very  materially  to  the  improvement  of  the 
cattle  in  this  district*. 


This  county  extends  along  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Firth  of  Clyde,  and 
the  North  Channel  from  Renfrew  to  Wigtownshire,  by  the  former  of  which 
it  is  bordered  on  the  north,  and  by  the  latter  on  the  south,  while  it  has 
Kircudbright,  Dumfries,  and  Lanark  on  the  east.  It  is  necessary  to 
ineiilion  this,  in  order  that  the  reader  may  better  comprehend  the  rapid 
distribution  of  the  Ayrshire  cattle  over  all  these  districts.  The  climate  is 
mojst  but  mild ;  and  the  soil,  with  its  produce,  is  calculated  to  render  it 
the  finest  dairy  country  in  Scotland,  and  equal  perhaps  to  any  in  Great 

*  A  district  society,  consisting  of  the  parishes  of  Kilmalcolm,  Port  Glasgow,  Grreenock. 
ami  Inneskip,  in  Renfrewshire,  and  Largs,  in  Ayrshire,  has  since  started  in  honourable 
rivalry,  under  the  patronage  of  the  Highland  Society.  The  show  is  held  at  Greenock  in  the 
first  Week  in  August..  In  1830,  one  hundred  guineas  were  distributed  in  prizes  fortheheit 
cattle,  horses,  xheep,  and  swine  :  89  Ayrshire  cattle,  12  West  Highlanders,  28  sheep,  and 
17  horses  were  exhibited— making  a  total  of  166;  and  the  number  of  competitors  was  57. 
In  1851,  115  Ayrshire  cattle,  18  West  Highlanders,  86  sheep,  and  40  horses  were  exhi- 
•iited: — total  259;  and  62  competitors.  In  1832,  110  Ayrshire  cattle  were  shown, 
14  West  Highlanders,  160  sheep,  and  33  horses: — total  317 ;  and  63  competitors.  For 
information  respecting  this  branch  society,  we  are  indebted  to  Claud  Marshall,  Ksij,  of 
Greeoock,  a  very  active  member  of  the  parent  ona. 


Britain.  There  is  a  great  deal  of  permanent  pasture  on  tlie  sides  and 
tops  of  the  hills,  which  is  covered  by  sheep  ;  but  tlie  greater  part  of  the 
arable  land  is  pustnre  and  crop  alternately.  The  pasture-ground  is  occu- 
pied by  the  beautiful  dairy-stock,  a  very  small  portion  of  i*.  being 
reserved  for  the  fattening  of  onwstoo  old  to  milk.* 

Ayrshire  is  divided  into  three  districts ; — that  lying  on  the  south  aide  of 
the  river  Doon  is  called  the  Bailiary  Carrick — the  country  between  the 
Doon  and  the  Irvine  is  the  Bailiary  of  Kyle,  and  the  district  on  the  north  of 
the  Irvine  is  Cunningham.  It  is  this  last  division  which  lays  principal, 
claim  to  be  the  native  country  of  the  Ayrshire  cattle,  and,  indeed,  they 
went  by  the  name  of  the  Cunninn-hani  cattle  before  these  three  Bailieries 
were  united  into  one  county  under  the  name  of  Ayr. 

Mr.  Aiton,  in  his  '  Treatise  on  the  Dairy  Breed  of  Gows,'  (the  most 
valuable  work  on  the  Dairy  husbandry  of  the  north,  and  on  Pairy  hus- 
bandry generally,  that  has  yet  been  published,)  thus  describes  th^  Ayr- 
shire cattle  (p.  86)— 'The  shapes  most  approved  of  in  the  dairy  breed  are 
as  follows : — 

'  Head  small,  but  rather  long  and  narrow  at  the  muzzle ;  the  eye  small, 
but  smart  and  lively  ;  the  horiis  small,  clear,  crooked,  and  their  routs  at 
considerable  distance  from  each  other ;  neck  long  and  slender,  tapering 
towards  the  head,  with  no  loose  skin  below;  shoulders  thin  ;  fore -quarters 
light;  hind-quarters  \-drge ;  back  straight,  broad  bt hind,  tlie  joints  rather 
loose  and  open  ;  carcase  deep,  and  pelvis  capacious,  and  wide  over  the 
hips,  with  round  Qeshy  buttocks  t.  TaiZ  long  and  small ;  legs  small  and 
short,  with  firm  joints ;  udder  capacious,  broad  and  squarf,  stretching 
forward,  and  neither  Seshy,  low  hung,  nor  loose ;  the  niiik  veins  large 
and  prominent ;  to^  short,  all  pointing  outwards,  and  at  considerable 
distance  from  each  other;  mn  thin  and  loose;  hair  siA'l  and  woolly. 
The  head,  bones,  horns,  and  all  parts  of  Uast  vaiue,  small ;  and  the 
general  figure  compact  and  well  proportioned.' 

Mr.  Aiton  also  informs  us,  that  '  the  Ayrshire  farmers  prefer  their 
dairy-bulls,  accordiqg  to  the  feminine  aspect  of  their  heads  and  necks  ;  and 

*  It  may  not  be  uninteresting  to  contrast  the  present  improved  state  of  agriculture  and 
agriculturists  with  what  it  was  eighty  or  .ninety  years  ago.  Colunel  Fullertun,  in  his 
'  Surrey  of  Ayrshire,'  thus  describes  it  :^— '  There  was  scarcely  a  practicable  road  iu  the 
county; — ^tbe  farm-houses  were  mere  hovels  moated  with  clay,  having  the  open  hearth 
or  fire-place  in  the  middle,  the  dunghill  at  the  dour,  the  cattle  starving,  and  the  people 
wretched-  The  land  was  overrun  with  weeds  and  rushes,  and  gathered  into  high  broad 
serpentine  ridges — the  soil  collected  on  the  top  of  the  ridge,  and  the  furrow  drowned 
with  water — no  fallow^-^no  green  crop— no  sown  grasses— hardly  a  potato,  or  any  other 
esculent  root — no  garden  vegetables,  unless  a  few  Scotch  kail;  little  straw;  no  hay, 
except  a  scanty  portion  of  the  coarsest  quality  collected  from  the  bogs — little  or  no 
available  dung — no  carts  or  waggons  to  convey  it  to  the  land,  but  the  ground  scourged 
with  oats  after  oats  as  long  as  it  would  pay  for  seed  and  labour,  and  afford  a  small 
surplus  of  oatmeal  for  the  family,  and  then  was  left  in  a  state  of  absolute  sterility,  or 
overrun  with  thistles,  until  r^st  again  enabled  it  to  produce  a  scanty  crop.  No  dung 
was  ever  spread  on  the  out-field ;  the  starved  csttled  were  suffered  to  poach  the  fields 
from  the  end  of  harvest  until  the  ensuing  seed-time, — thus  the  natural  grass  was  cut  up, 
or  drowned  with  water  standing  in  the  cattle's  footsteps.  As  there  were  fejv  or  no 
enclosures,  the  horses  were  either  tethered  during  the  summer  months,  or  loose  as  well  as 
the  cattle,  but  under  the  tendancy  of  a  boy  and  a  cur-dog,  and  the  poor  aninials  were  kept 
in  constant  agitation,  and  impelled  by  starvation  to  fly  from  their  bare  leys.  Thus  the 
poor  cattle,  starved  during  the  winter  in  the  houses,  and  perpetually  harassed  during 
summer  in  the  fields,  were  never  in  a  fit  condition  fur  the  market ;  the  finest  lands  were 
<et  for  two  or  three  shillings  per  acre  ;  and  there  was  neither  ski",  capital,  industry,  nor 
credit  to  do  away  all  this  wretchedness.' 

f  Mr.  Rankine  Very  properly  remarks,  that,  '  ci'mpnted  With  other  improved  breeds, 
the  thighs,  or  what  are  called  the  twist  of  the  Ayrshire  cuw   are  thin.     She  is,;  charae- 

'28  CATTLE. 

wish  them  not  round  behind,  but  broad  at  the  hook-bones  jind  hips,,  and 
full  in  the  flanks.'  (p.  27.)  Experience,  and  tliat  rather  dearly  bought  by 
the  dairyman,  led  to  this,  for  the  consequence  of  the  crossing  of  the  small 
native  breeds,  with  the  heavy  cattle  imported  from  the  south,  was  the 
production  of  a  bony,  ill-sliaped  animal,  not  much  improved  as  a  milker, 
and  its  disposition  to  carry  fat  lamentably  decreased;  it  may,  however, 
demand  consideration  whether  the  round  and  compact  form  of  the  West 
Highlander  and  the  Galloway  have  not  been  rather  too  much  sacrificed, 
and  even  the  defects  of  the  short^horn  needlessly  perpetuated. 

Mr.  Aiton  adds,  in  his  '  Survey' — '  The  qualities  of  a  cow  are  of  great 
importance.  Tameness  and  docility  of  temper  greatly  enhance  the  value 
of  a  milch  cow.  Some  degree  of  hardiness,  a  sound  constitution,  and  a 
moderate  degree  of  life  and  spirits  are  qualities  to  be  wished  for  in  a 
dairy-cow,  and  what  those  of  Ayrshire  generally  possess.  The  most 
valuable  quality  which  a  dairy-'COw  can  possess-  is,  that  she  yields  much 
milk,  and  that  of  an  oily  or  butyraceous,  or  caseous  nature,  and  that  after 
she  has  yielded  very  large  quantities  of  milk  for  several  years,  she  shall 
be  as  valuable  for  beef  "as  any  other  breed  of  cows  known  ;  her  fat  shall 
be  much  more  mixed  through  the  whole  flesh,  and  she  shall  fatten  faster 
than  any  other.'  This  is  high  praise,  and  if  it  can  be  truly  affirmed 
of  the  Ayrshire  cattle,  we  are  naturally  anxious  to  know  the  origin, 
the  progressive  history,  and  the  general  management  of  this  valuable 

[The  Agnhire  Cow.'\ 
The  origin  of  the  Ayrshire  cow  is  even  at  the  present  day  a  matter  of 
dispute ;  all  that  is  certainly  known  about  her  is,  that  a  century  ago  there 
was  no  such  breed  in  Cunningham,  or  Ayrshire,  or  Scotland.  Did  the  Ayr- 
shire cattle  arise  entirely  from  a  careful  selection  of  the  best  of  the  native 
breed  ? — ^if  they  did,  it  is  a  circumstance  unparalleled  in  the  history  of 
agriculture.  The  native  breed  may  be  ameliorated  by  careful  selection,  its 
value  may  be  incalculably  increased, — some  good  qualities — some  of  its 
best  qualities — may  be  for  the  first  time  developed :  but  yet  there  will  be 
some  resemblance  to  the  original  stock,  and  the  more  we  examine  thia 
animal,  the  more  clearly  we  can  trace  out  the  characteristic  point»  of  the 
ancestor,  although  every  one  cf  therr  ■"'"»""<»'' 



Mr.  Alton  gives  the  following  description  of  the  Ayrshire  cattle 
fifty  }'ear8  ago: — 'The  cows  kept  in  the.  districts  of  Kyle  and  Cun- 
ningham were  of  a  diminutive  size,  ill  fed,  ill  shaped,  and  they 
yielded  but  a  scanty  return  in  milk ;  they  were  mostly  of  a  black 
colour,  with  large  stripes  of  white  along  the  chine  or  ridge  of  their 
backs,^  about  their  flanks,  and  on  their  faces.  Their  horns  were  high 
and  crooked,  having  deep  ringlets  at  the  root,  the  plainest  prool 
that  the  cattle  were  but  Bcantily  fed;  the  chine  of  their  backs  stood 
up  high  and  narrow ;  their  sides  were  lank,  short  and  thin ;  their  hides 
thick,  and  adhering  to  the  bones ;  their  pile  was  course  and  open ;  and 
few  of  them  yielded  more  than  three  or  four  Scotch  pints  of  milk  per 
day,  when  in  their  best  plight;  or  weighed,  when  fat,  more  than  from 
twelve  or  sixteen  to  twenty  stones  avoirdupoise,  sinking  offal.' — p.  19. 

He  very  naturally  adds — '  It  was  impossible  that  these  cattle,  fed  as 
they  then  were,  could  be  of  great  weight,  well  shaped,  or  yield  mucri 
milk.  Their  only  food  in  winter  and  spring  was  oat-straw,  and  what  they 
could  pick  up  in  the  fields  to  which  they  were  turned  out  almost  every 
day,  with  a  mash  of  a  little  corn  with  chaff  daily  for  a  few  weeks  after 
calving,  and  their  pasture  in  summer  was  of  the  very  worst  quality ;  and 
that  coarse  pasture  was  so  overstocked,  and.  eaten  so  bare,  that  the  cattlo 
irere  half-starved.' 

[The  Ayrshire  Biili.] 

If  Mr.  Alton's  description  of  the  present  improved  Ayrshire  is  correct, 
the  breed  is  very  much  changed,  and  yet  there  is  so  much  indistinct 
resemblance,  that  a  great  deal  of  it  must  have  been  done  by  careful  selection, 
from  among  the  native  cattle,  and  better  feeding  and  treatment;  but 
when  we  look  closer  into  the  matter,  the  shortness,  or  rather  diminu- 
tiveness  of  the  horns,  their  width  of  base,  and  awkward  setting  on — the 
peculiar  tapering  towards  the  muzzle ;  the  narrowing  at  the  girth ;  the 
bellying ;  and  the  prominences  of  all  the  bones — these  are  features  which 
it  would  seem  impossible  for  any  selection  from  the  native  breed  to  give. 
While  therefore  the  judge  of  cattle  will  trace  the  features  of  the  old 
breed,  he  will  suspect,  what  general  tradition  confirms,  that  it  was 
a  fortunate  crosi.  or  a  succession  of  nroasRS  with   some  foreign  Stock 


J  30  CATTLE. 

and  that,  probably,  it  was  the  Holderness  that  helped  to  produce  the 
improved  Cunrtinghaiii  cattle. 

In  many  a  district  the  attempt  to  introduce  the  Teeswater  breed,  or  to 
establish  a  cross  from  it,  had  palpably  failed,  for  the  soil  and  the  climate 
suited  only  the  hardihood  of'  the  Highlander ;  but  here  was  a  mild 
climate — a  dairy  country ;  the  Highlander  was  in  a  manner  out  of  his 
place  ;  he  had  degenerated,  and  the  milking  properties  of  the  Holderness, 
and  her  capability  of  ultimately  fattening,  although  slowly,  and  at  con- 
siderable expense,  happily  amalgamated  with  his  hardihood,  and  dispo- 
sition to  fatten,  and  there  resulted  a  breed,  bearing  about  it  thfe  stamp  of 
Its  progenitors,  and,  to  a  very  considerable  degree,  the  good  qualities  of 

Mr.  Robertson,  in  his  '  Rural  Recollections,'  says — 'Who  introduced 
the  present  breed  is  not  very  precisely  ascertained,  but  the  late  Colonel 
FuHarton,  whose  account  of  "^  The  Husbandry  of  AyrMre,"  which  was 
published  in  1793,  and  whose  authority  is  of  considerable  weight  in  every- 
thing relating  to  it,  states,  that  a  gentleman  of  long  experience,  Mr.  Bruce 
Campbell,  asserts  that  this  breed  Was  introduced  by  the  late  Earl  of 
Marchmont.'  The  Earl  of  Marchmont  alluded  to  must  have  been  that 
Alexander  Hume  Campbell,  who  married  Margaret  Campbell,  heiress  of 
Assnoch,  in  the  same  parish,  and  who  became  Earl  of  Marchmont  in  1724, 
and  died  in  1740.  The  introduction,  then,  of  this  dairy-stock  must  have 
happened  between  these  two  dates,  and  so  far  corresponds  with  the 
traditionary  account. 

Mr.  Robertson  goes  on  to  say,  '  from  what  particular  part  of  the 
country  they  came  there  appears  no  evidence.  My  own  conjecture  is, 
that  they  are  either  of  the  Holderness  breed,  or  derived  from  it ;  judging 
from  the  varied  colour,  or,  from  somewhat  better  evidence,  the  small  head 
and  slender  neck,  in  which  they  bear  a  striking  resemblance  to  them*.' 

These  cattle,  from  which,  by  crosses  with  the  native  breed,  the  present 
improved  Ayrshire  arose,  were  first  introduced  on  Lord  Marchmont's 
estates  in  Berwickshire.  They  were  soon  afterwards  carried  to  the  farms 
belonging  to  the  same  nobleman  at  Sornberg  in  Kyle.  A  bull  of  the  new 
stock  was  sold  to  Mr.  Hamilton  of  Sundrum ;  then  Mr.  Dunlop  in 
Cunningham  imported  some  of  the  Dutch  cattle,  and  their  progeny  was 
long  afterwards  distinguished  by  the  name  of  the  Dunlop  cows.  These 
were  the  first  of  the  improved,  or  stranger  breed  that  reached  the  bailliery 
of  Cunningham.  Mr.  Orr,  about  the  year  1767,  brought  to  his  estate  of 
Grongar,  near  Kilmarnock,  some  fine  milch  cows  of  a  larger  size  than 
any  which  had  been  on  the  farm.  It  was  not,  however,  until  about  1780 
that  this  improved  breed  might  be  said  to  be  duly  estimated,  or  generally 

*  Some  bleeders,  however,  have  maintained  that  they  were  produced  from  the  native 
cow,  crossed  by  the  Alderney  bull.  It  requires  but  one  moment's  inspection  of  the  ani- 
mals, to  convince  us  that  this  supposition  is  altogether  erroneous. 

In  Kawlin's  '  Complete  Cow-doctor,'  published  at  Glasgow,  in  1794,  the  following 
account  is  given  of  the  Ayrshire  cattle  at  that  time — '  They  have  anothei  breed  called 
the  DuioIdp  cows,  which  are  allowed  to  be  the  best  race  for  yielding  milk  in  Great 
Britain  or  Ireland,  not  only  for  large  quantities,  but  also  for  richness  in  quality.  It  is 
said  to  be  a  mixture,  by  bulls  brought  from  the  Island  of  Alderney,  with  their  own  cows. 
These  are  of  a  small  size,  not  weighing  more,  upon  an  average,  than  from  24  to  30  stones. 
These  are  allowed  to  yield  more  milk  daily  than  any  other  kind  of  cattle,  when  a  just 
comparison  is  made  of  their  size  and  pasture.  They  are  much  leaner  and  thinner  than 
any  other  of  the  Scotch  or  English  breeds,  when  in  the  best  grass.  They  are  not  deemed 
a  race  of  handsome  cattle,  but  rather  the  contrary,  being  shaped  more  like  the  Dutch 
breed  than  any  of  the  natives  of  Scotland.  Their  horns  are  small,  and  stand  remark- 
ably awkward ;  their  colour  is  generally  pied  or  of  a  sandy  red,  varying  in  this  from  all 
l^er  races.'— P.  66. 


established  in  that  part  of  Ayrshire  ;  althousrh  they  had  begun  to  extend 
heyond  the  Irvine  into  Kyle.  About  1790,  according  to  Mr.  Aiton, 
Mr.  Fulton  from  Blith  carried  them  first  into  Carrick,  and  Mr.  Wilson  of 
Kilpatrick  was  the  first  who  took  them  to  the  southern  parts  of  that 
district.  So  late  as  1804  they  were  introduced  on  the  estate  of  Penmore, 
ou  the  Stonchar,  and  they  are  now  the  established  cattle  of  Ayrshire: 
they  are  increasing  in  the  neighbouring  counties,  and  have  found  their  way 
to  most  parts  of  Briton. 

The  breed  has  nmch  improved  since  Mr.  Aiton  described  it,  and  is 
short  in  the  leg.  the  neck  a  little  thicker  at  the  shoulder,  but  finely  shaped 
towards  the  heid  U  the  horns  smaller  than  those  of  the  Highlanders,  but 
clear  and  smOQth,  pointing  forwards,  and  turning  upwards,  and  taper- 
ing to  a  point.  They  are  deep  in  the  carcase,  but  not  round  and  ample, 
and  especially  not  so  in  the  loins  and  haunches.  Some,  however,  have 
suspected,  and  not  without  reason,  that  an  attention  to  the  shape  and 
beauty,  and  an  attempt  to  produce  fat  and  sleeky  cattle,  which  may  be 
admired  at  the  show,  has  a  tendency  to  improve  what  is  only  their 
second  point — their  quality  as  grazing  cattle, — and  that  at  the  hazard  or 
the  certainty  of  diminishing  their  value  as  milkers.  The  statistical 
account  assigns  61,000  cattle  to  Ayrshire,  of  which  more  than  half  are 
dairy-cows.    The  average  will  be  one  beast  to  every  fifteen  acres  *. 

We  agree  with  Mr.  Aiton,  that  the  excellency  of  a  dairy  cow  is  esti- 
mated by  the  quantity  and  the  quality  of  her  milk.  The  quantity  yielded 
by  the  Ayrshire  cow  is,  considering  her  size,  very  great.  Five  gallons 
daily,  for  two  or  three  months  after  calving,  may  be  considered  as  not 
more  than  an  average  quantity.  Three  gallons  daily  will  be  given  for 
the  next  three  months,  and  one  gallon  and  a  half  during  the  succeeding 
four  months.  This  would  amount  to  more  than  850  gallons ;  but,  allowing 
for  some  unproductive  cows,  600  gallons  per  year  may  be  considered 
as  the  average  quantity  obtained  annually  from  each  cow.  We  shall 
enter  more  into  this  presently. 

The  disposal  of  the  milk  varies  according  to  the  situation  of  the  farm 
and  the  character  of  the  neighbourhood.  If  it  is  sold  as  new  milk,  at  8d, 
per  gallon  at  the  first  hand,  the  produce  of  the  cow  will  be  201.  per  annum. 
Some  imagine  that  the  profit  will  be  greater  if  employed  in  the  fattening 
of  calves.  Others,  at  a  distance  from  any  considerable  town,  convert  it 
into  butter  or  cheese. 

The  quality  of  the  milk  is  estimated  by  the  quantity  of  butter  or  cheese 
that  it  will  yield.  Thnee  gallons  and  a  half  of  this  milk  will  yield  about  a 
pound  of  butter,  country  weight,  or  a  pound  and  a' half  avoirdupois  ;  and 
when  one  gallon  of  water  is  added  to  four  of  milk,  the  butter-milk  is 
worth  to  the  farmer,  or  will  sell  at,  2d.  per  gallon.  An  Ayrshire  cow, 
therefore,  may  be  reckoned  to  yield  257  English  pounds  of  butter  per 

*  Mr.  Robertson,  who,  in  1819,.  examined  all  the  farms)  in  Cunningham,  fonn-l  the 
number  of  milch  cows  to  be  12,563,  and  that  of  yetl  cattle  (those  not  in  milk)  of  all 
ages  to  be  8991,  making  a  total  of  21,554.  'I  should  conceive,'  he  says — ('  Rural 
Recollections,  p.  573,') — 'that  not  more  than  the  odd  1554  would  be  Highland  stots,  or 
other  yell  cattle,  bought  iu  at  Dumbarton,  or  other  Highland  fairs  for  grazing  iu 
gentlemen's  parks,  or  in  cattle-dealers'  pastures  for  feeding  or  for  sale ;  and  that  the  rest 
would  be  of  the  native  breed  of  Cunningham,  and  consisting  of  about  437  bulls,  12,563 
dairy-cows,  and  7000  young  cattle  of  all  descriptions  under  the  third  year  for  keeping  up 
ihe  stock.  Of  these  a  very  considerable  proportion  are  annually  sold,  and  particularly  of 
the  etterlins,  or  quays  in  calf  in  their  third  year,  and  also  of  milch  cows  of  all  ages.  From 
1200  to  1500  cows  are  sold  annually  out  of  the  county  in  Cunningham  alone.  They 
bring  a  very  considerable  price,  and  this  probably,  combined  with  the  yearly  produce  of 
the  dairy,  is.  nerhans,  little  less  than  the  amount  of  all  the  land-rents. 

K  2 


annum,  or  about  five  pounds  per  week  all  the  year  round,  beside  ili* 
value  of  the  butter-milk  and  her  calf. 

When  the  calculation  is  formed,  according  to  the  quantity  of  cheese 
that  is  usually  produced,  the  following  will  be  the  result: — twenty-eight 
gallons  of  milk,  with  the  cream,  will  yield  a  stone  (241bs.)  of  sweet-milk 
cheese,  or  514  lbs.  avoirdupois  per  annum,  beside  the  whey  and  thecal!*. 

This  is  certainly  an  extraordinary  quantiiy  of  butter  and  cheese,  and 
fully  establishes  the  reputation  of  the  Ayrshire  cow,  so  far  as  the  dairy  is 

It  is  the  practice  in  many  parts  of  Ayrshire  to  let  the  cows  to  a  professed 
milkman  at  so  much  per  cow  per  annum.  This  is  provincially  called  a 
bowing,  or  boyening,  from  boyen,  a  milk-pail.  The  farmer  provides  the 
cows  and  requisite  dairy-vessels,  the  whole  summer  pasture  and  winter 
foddering,  and  houses  and  litter  for  the  cows,  and  a  habitation  for  the 
milkman ;  while  the  boyener  takes  the  whole  charge  of  the  milking,  and  ilie 
management  and  disposal  of  the  butter,  or  milk,  or  cheese,  or  whey,  as  he 
chooses.  The  price  varies  from  8Z.  to  15/.  In  the  neighbourhood  of 
large  towns  it  may  be  averaged  at  15Z. ;  and  if  to  this  be  added  the  wage.s 
of  a  milkman  or  milkmaid  for  every  eight  cows,  the  whole  expense  of  the 
cow  will  be  18Z. ;  and  the  money  received,  at  lOd.  per  gallon,  for  600 
gallons,  being  but  26i!.,  there  will  result  only  11.  per  annum  profit  on  each 
cow  ;  but  this  supposes  that  the  milk  of  the  cow  is  fairly  disposed  of  without 
adulteration  or  trickery  \.     Mr.  Alton  rates  the  profit  of  the  Ayrshire  cow 

*  A  Scotch  pint  is  nearly  two  English  quarts.    An  Ayrshire  pound  consists  of  24 
ounces,  and  sixteen  of  these  pounds,  or  24  lbs.  avoirdupois,  make  a  stone.     Mr.  FuUar- 
ton,  in  his  '  Statistical  Account  of  Dulry,'  in   this  county,  states  that  in  1794,  before 
the  establishment  of  this  improved  Ayrshire  cow,  each  cow  would  yield,  on  the  average,  in 
the  course  of  the  season,  18  stones,  or  288  lbs.  of  sweet-milk  cheese. 

t  In  s«me  experiments  conducted  at  the  Earl  of  Chesterfield's  dairy  at  Bradley-Hull 
farm,  it  appeared  that,  in  the  height  of  the  season,  the  Holderness  would  yield  7  gallons 
and  a  quart ;  the  long  horn  and  the  Alderney,  4  gallons  3  quarts ;  and  the  Devon,  4  cal- 
lous 1  pint  per  day :  and  when  this  was  made  into  butter,  the  result  was,  from  the  Holder- 
ness, 384  ounces ;  from  the  Devon,  28  ounces ;  and  from  the  Alderney,  25  ounces.     Tlit 
Ayrshire  yields  5  gallons  per  day,  and  from  that  is  produced  34  ounces  of  butter. 

I  Mr.  Robertson  gives  a  curious  extract  from  the  farm-book  of  Mr.  David  Blair,  of 
GifFordland,  in  this  county,  dated  1743: — 

'  Mind  thatP.  Lawson  farmed  7  cows  at  8  pounds  each(13*.  id.,  the  Scots  pound  being 
equivalent  to  Is.  Sd.).     She  entered  to  the  milk  on  the  21st  of  May,  to  the  end  of  harvest. 
•  She  made  of  sweet-milk  cheese  9f  stone,  at  2/.  0».  lOrf.       .  .      ^19  10     0 

6|  stone  of  butter,  at  2/.  13«.  4rf.  .  .  .  .  .  .         18     0     0 

1 1^  stone,  common  cheese,  at  1/.  fis.  8rf.  .  .  .  .         15     6     8 

Milk  and  cream  to  the  house         .  .  .  .  .  .  6     0     0 

Scots  £58  16    8 
'  She   also   sent  ^  stone  sweet-milk   cheese   to   Glasgow,  in   a  compliment.' — Rur. 
ReciMec,  p.  62. 

The  woman  ijained  2,1.  I6».  8rf.  Scots,  or  4».  Hd.  by  her  bargain,  and  the  system  of 
bowing  or  boyemny  was  not  again  attempted  during  the  period  of  thirty-six  years,  which 
this  bouk  embraces. 

This  extract  is  interesting,  as  showing  the  improvement  of  the  Ayrshire  cow  since  that 
period.  These  cows  were  taken  at  the  very  height  of  the  season;  and  yet,  reckoning 
9  Scotch  pints  for  a  pound  of  butter,  or  4^  pints  for  a  pound  of  cheese,  and  that  the 
season  lasted  twenty  weeks,  they  scarcely  yielded  3  pints  (1^  gallon)  each  per  day.  Tt 
is  a  bad  Ayrshire  covp  that  does  not  now  yield  three  times  that  quantity. 

The  same  hook,  extending  from  1729  to  1 76,'),  also  records  tlie  ainimnt  of  waires  — 
1729—1742.         1743-1759.  176(1—1765. 

A  ploughman, yearly  .      .     i2  13     4     ..     jt;j     6     8     ..   i3   10     0     to     £5     0     Cl 
A  maid  servant     ,,     •      ;        16     8..        1    10     0     ..      1    10     0     to       2     0     C 

In  more  modern  times,  ir  that  part  of  the  country,  the  wages  were  as  follows  ■ 

179C.  1828.     ■ 

A  ploughman,  yearly   .      .  £12     0     0     to  £16     0     0         £14     0     C     to  £18     0     i< 
k  maid  servant    „       .     .       5     t     ^     „  „     .. 


at  a  higher  value.  He  says,  '  To  sum  up  all  in  one  sentence,  I  now  repeat 
that  hundreds  and  thousands  of  the  best  Scotch  dairy  cows,  when  they  are 
in  their  best  condition  and  well  fed,  yield  at  the  rate  of  2000  Scotch  pints  of 
milk  (1000  gallons)  in  one  year ;  that,  in  general,  from  7  J  to  8  pints  (3|  to 
4  gallons)  of  their  milk  will  yield  a  pound  of  butter,  county  weight  (IJlb. 
avoirdupois) ;  that  55  pints  (27^  gallons)  of  their  milk  will  produce  one 
stone  and  a  half  imperial  weight  of  full  milk-cheese  ;  that  at  the  proper 
season,  and  when  a  healthy  calf  is  fed,  and  the  prices  of  veal  as  high  as 
they  have  frequently-  been  within  the  last  fifteen  years,  milk  will  yield 
a  profit  in  veal  equal  to  3^d  or  id.  per  pint  (^  gallon)  ;  and  where  the 
buttermilk  can  be  sold  that  will  yield  a  similar  profit. 

Mr.  Rankine,  the  author  of  an  excellent  report  of  a  Kyle  farm  (in  the 
Reports  of  Select  Farms,  No.  2,  Farmer's  Series,  No.  12),  and  some  of 
whose  observations,  with  which  we  have  been  privately  favoured,  we  have 
embodied  in  our  account  of  the  Ayrshire  cattle,  very  justly,  we  think, 
maintains  that  Mr.  Aitoli's  statement  is  far  too  high,  and  his  calculations 
not  well  founded.  '  He  deduces  his  statement,'  says  Mr.  Rankine,  '  from 
the  circumstance  of  some  farmers  letting  the  milk  of  their  cows  for  a  year 
at  15/.  and  17Z.,  which,  taking  60  pints  (half-gallons)  to  produce  an  Ayr- 
shire stone  (24  lbs.)  of  cheese,  and  the  price  being  10s.,  would  require 
2160  pints  for  each  cow.  But  he  is  not  warranted  in  inferring  that  the 
milk  from  which  these  rents  were  paid  was  all  converted  into  cheese.  I 
am  convinced  that  no  such  rents  were  ever  paid  for  cows  where  a  consi- 
derable portion  of  the  milk  was  made  into  cheese.  In  the  vicinity  of  a 
town  where  the  whole  of  the  milk  could  be  sold  for  4d.  a  pint  (half-gallon), 
900  pints  would  bring  Ibl.  Where  the  whole  of  the  milk  could  have  been 
turned  to  such  an  account,  such  rents  might  have  been  paid ;  but  it  is  erro- 
neous to  calculate  the  quantity  of  milk  given  from  the  quantity  of  cheese 
required  to  enable  a  rent  of  15Z.  to  be  paid.  His  first  statement  (page 
110  of  this  work)  that  1200  Scots  pints  (600  gallons)  are  yielded,  though 
far  above  the  average  of  all  the  cows  in  the  county,  may  be  too  low  when 
applied  to  the  best-selected  stocks  and  on  good  land,  but  I  have  reason  tc 
believe  that  no  stock  of  20  cows  ever  averaged  1 800  or  1700  pints  (900  or 
850  gallons)  each  in  the  year.  I  have  seen  eighteen  pints  of  milk  drawn 
from  a  cow  in  one  day.  I  had  a  three-year-old  quey  that  once,  for  six 
weeks  after  calring,  gave  14  pints  a  day.  The  dairymaid  predicted  that 
there  "had  been  o'ermuckle  talk  about  her,  for  ony  luck  to  come  of  her," 
and  she  soon  afterwards  received  an  injury  in  her  udder,  which  caused 
one  of  her  quarters  to  become  dry  of  milk.  These,  however,  are  rare 
'  instances.' 

'  I  quote  with  confidence,'  Mr.  Rankine  proceeds,  '  the  answers  to 
queries  which  I  sent  to  two  individuals.  The  first  is  a  man  of  superior 
intelligence  and  accuracy,  and  who  has  devoted  himself  very  much  to 
dairy  hu.sbandry.  He  keeps  between  twenty  and  thirty  cows,  and  his 
stock  has  for  many  years  been  the  handsomest  I  ever  saw,  and  his  farm 
being  close  to  a  small  town,  he  had  every  inducement  to  keep  them  in  the 
highest  condition  that  is  requisite  for  giving  the  largest  produce  in  milk. 
He  states  that,  at  the  best  of  the  season,  the  average  milk  from  eadh  is  9 
Scots  pints  (4J  gallons),  and  in  a  year  1300  Scots  pints  (650  gallons) ; 
tliat  in  the  summer  season  64  pints  (32  gallons)  of  entire  milk  will  make 
an  Ayrshire  stone  (24  lbs.)  of  cheese ;  and  96  pints  (48  gallons)  of 
skimmed  milk  will  produce  the  same  quantity :  and  that  180  pints  (90 
gallons)  will  make  24  lbs.  of  butter. 

Another  farmer,  in  a  different  district  of  this  county,  and  who  keeps  a 
stock  of  between  30  and  40  very  superior  cows,  and  always  in  conditionf 

134  CATTLE. 

states  thai  the  average  produce  of  each  is  1375  pints  (6S7J  gallons). 
My  belief,  on  the  whole,  is,  that  although  there  may  be  Ayrshire  cows 
capable  of  giving  1800  pints  in  the  year,  it  would  be  difficult  to  bring  half 
a  score  of  them  together;  and  that  in  stocks  of  the  greater  number  most 
carefully  selected,  and  liberally  fed,  from  1300  to  1400  pints  is  the  very 
highest  produce  of  each  in  the  year.' 

Mr.  Rankine  concludes  with  giving  his  experience  on  his  own  farm, 
the  soil  of  which  is  of  an  inferior  nature,  and  on  which  his  cows  produced 
about  1100  pints  (550  gallons),  and  the  receipts  from  which  amounted  to 
only  Tl.  13s.  Qd.  per  cow. 

We  Tiave  entered  at  considerable  length  into  this,  because  it  is  of  some 
importance  to  ascertain  the  real  value  and  produce  of  this  celebrated 
Scottish  breed  of  cattle,  and  also  to  correct  an  error  in  an  agricultural 
work,  deservedly  a  standard  one  in  Scotland,  and  which  may  otherwise  be 
implicitly  relied  on. 

We  have  spoken  of  the  improvement  which  a  cross  with  the  Ayrshire 
has  effected  in  some  of  the  Welsh  cattle  ;  but  the  Ayrshire  cattle  are  not 
yet  sufficiently  known,  and  cannot  be  procured  cheap  enough,  or  in  ade- 
quate numbers,  to  undergo  a  fair  trial  in  the  south.  Some  of  them  have 
been  tried  in  the  London  dairies.  As  mere  milkers,  they  could  not  compete 
with  the  long-established  metropolitan  dairy  cow,  the  short-horn.  They 
yielded  as  much  milk,  in  proportion  to  their  size  and  their  food,  but  not  in 
proportion  to  the  room  they  occupied,  and  the  increased  trouble  which 
they  gave  from  being  more  numerous  in  order  to  supply  the  requisite 
quantity  of  milk.  They  produced  an  unusual  quantity  of  rich  cream  ;  but 
there  was  so  much  difficulty  in  procuring  them,  so  as  to  keep  up  the 
stock,  and  the  price  asked  for  them  was  often  so  great,  that  they  were  com- 
paratively abandoned. 

The  fattening  properties  of  the  Ayrshire  cattle  we  believe  to  be  a  little 
exaggerated.  They  will  feed  kindly  and  profitably,  and  their  meat  will  be 
good.  They  will  fatten  on  farms  and  in  districts  where  others  could  not 
be  made  to  thrive  at  all,  except  partly  or  principally  supported  by  artificial 
food.  They  unite,  perhaps,  to  a  greater  degree  than  any  other  breed  the 
supposed  incompatible  properties  of  yielding  a  great  deal  of  milk  and  beef. 
It  is,  however,  as  Mr.  Rankine  well  obserTes,  on  the  inferior  soil  and  the 
moist  climate  of  Ayrshire  and  the  west  of  Scotland  that  their  superiority  as 
milkers  is  most  remarkable.  On  their  natural  food  of  poor  quality  they 
give  milk  abundantly  and  long,  and  often  until  within  a  few  days  of 
calving ;  but  when  they  are  moved  to  richer  pasture,  their  constitution 
changes,  and  they  convert  their  food  more  into  beef.  In  their  own  country, 
a  cow  of  a  fleshy  make,  and  which  seldom  proves  a  good  milker,  mav  be 
easily  raised  to  40  or  50  stones,  and  bullocks  of  three  years  old  are  brought 
to  weigh  from  50  to  60  stones.  There  is  a  lurking  tendency  to  fatten  about 
them  which  good  pasture  will  bring  to  light ;  so  that  when  the  Ayrshire 
cow  is  sent  to  England  she  loses  her  superiority  as  a  milker,  and  begins 
to  accumulate  flesh.  On  this  account  it  is  that  the  English  dealers  whc 
purchase  the  Ayrshire  cows  generally  select  the  coarsest  animals  they  can 
find,  in  order  to  avoid  this  consequence  of  the  change  of  climate  and  food. 
It  is  useless  to  exaggerate  the  qualities  of  any  cattle,  and  it  canntit  be  denied 
that  even  in  this  tendency  to  fatten  when  their  milk  begins  to  fail,  or  which 
often  causes  it  to  fail,  the  Ayrshires  must  yield  to  their  forefathers  the 
Highlanders,  and  also  to  their  neighbours  the  Galloways,  when  put  on  a 
poor  soil ;  and  they  will  be  left  considerably  behind  their  short-horn  sires 
when  transplanted  to  luxuriant  pasture.  It  will  be  long,  perhaps,  before 
they  will  be  favourites  with  the  butchers,  for  the  fifth  quarter  will  n<» 


naually  weigh  well  in  them.  Their  fat  is  mingled  with  the  flesh  rathei 
than  separated  in  the  form  of  tallow;  yet  this  would  give  a  more  beau- 
tiful appearance  to  the  meat,  and  should  enhance  its  price  to  the  consumer. 

Two  circumstances,  however,  may  partially  account  for  their  not  being 
thought  to  succeed  so  well  when  grazed:  they  are  not  able  to  travel  so  far 
on  the  same  keeping  as  the  Highland  cattle  can  do ;  and,  from  their  great 
value  as  milkers,  they  are  often  kept  until  they  are  too  old  to  fatten  to 
advantage,  or  for  their  beef  to  become  of  the  best  quality. 

Mr.  Alton  gives  an  account  of  the  treatment  of  the  Ayrshire  cow  in 
large  farms  generally  when  he  describes  the  management  of  that  of  his  friend 
Mr.  Ralston  of  Kirkiim,  in  the  county  of  Wigton. 

'  He  keeps  sixty  milch  cows  at  Kirkum,  and  nearly  the  same  number  at 
another  farm  a  few  miles  distant ;  besides,  he  rears  on  one  or  two  other 
farm.s  thirty  or  forty  young  cows  to  keep  up  the  stock  and  for  sale.  His 
cows  are  of  the  Ayrshire  breed  in  its  greatest  perfection,  and  so  well 
managed,  that  every  milch  cow  on  his  farms  yields  him  her  own  weight  of 
the  best  cheese  to  be  met  with  in  Scotland,  and  for  which  he  draws  the 
value  of  the  cow  annually. 

'  Mr.  Ralston  keeps  his  cows  constantly  in  the  byre  till  the  grass  has  risen 
so  as  to  aSbrd  them  a  full  bite.  Many  put  them  out  every  good  day  through 
the  winter  and  spring,  but  they  poach  the  ground  with  their  feet,  and  nip 
up  the  young  grass  as  it  begins  to  spring,  which,  as  they  have  not  a  full 
meal,  injures  the  cattle.  Whenever  the  weather  becomes  dry  and  hot,  he 
feeds  his  cows  on  cut  grass  in  the  b^'re  from  six  o'clock  in  the  morning  to 
six  at  night,  and  turns  them  out  to  pasture  the  iither  twelve  hours.  When 
rain  comes,  the  house-feeding  is  discontinued.  Whenever  the  pasture -grass 
begins  to  fail  in  harvest,  the  cows  receive  a  sujiply  of  the  second  growth 
of  clover,  and  afterwards  of  turnips  strewed  over  the  pasture-ground. 
When  the  weather  becomes  stormy  in  the  months  of  October  or  Novem- 
ber, the  cows  are  kept  in  the  byre  during  the  night,  and,  in  a  short  time 
after,  during  both  night  and  day ;  they  are  then  fed  on  oat-straw  and  tur- 
nips, and  continue  to  yield  a  considerable  quantity  of  milk  for  some  tinie. 
Part  of  the  turnip  crop  is  eaten  up  in  the  end  of  harvest  and  beginning  of 
winter  to  protract  the  milk,  and  part  of  them  are  stored  up  for  green  food 
during  the  winter.  After  they  are  exhausted,  the  Swedish  turnip  and  pota- 
toes are  used  along  with  dry  fodder  till  the  grass  can  support  the  cows. 
Chaff,  oats,  and  potatoes  are  boiled  for  the  cows  after  calving,  and  they 
are  generally  fed  on  rye-grass  during  the  latter  partot  the  spring.'  (Sur- 
vey, p.  439.) 

Mr.  Rankine,  in  his  account  of  his  own  farm  of  poorer  ground,  and 
deficient  in  winter  food,  (Farmer's  Series,  No.  12,  p.  45,)  enters  more 
into  particulars.  '  In  the  end  of  autumn,  when  the  nights  become  cold, 
they  are  kept  in  the  house  after  sunset,  and  get  a  little  fodder  ;  and  from 
the  middle  of  November  until  the  pasture  is  again  ready  for  them,  they 
are  fed  entirely  in  the  house,  and  let  out  only  in  fine  weather  to  get  water. 
They  are  regularly  curried  and  kept  as  clean  as  possible.  As  there  is  not 
a  sufficient  quantity  of  green  crop  to  supply  them  with  succulent  food,  the 
milk  is  put  off  them  as  quickly  after  they  are  taken  from  the  grass  as  it 
can  with  safety.  Those  that  are  to  calve  late  in  the  spring,  and  that  are 
continuing  to  give  a  considerable  quantity  of  milk,  get  a  little  extra  feeding; 
the  rest  have  straw  alone.  When  the  calving  time  approaches,  they  get 
chaff  or  cut-hay,  boiled  in  a  good  deal  of  water,  and  enriched  with  a  few 
potatoes  or  a  little  pea-meal,  with  hay  to  eat.  In  this  way  tliey  go  to  the 
grass,  which  happens  in  general  about  the  middle  of  May,  in  as  good 
condition  as  when  they  left  it.     No  food  is  found  to  produce  so  much 

'3«  CATTLE. 

effect  as  pea -meal,  and  will  be  profitably  bestowed  at  the  ordinary  price  of 
the  ^ain,  and  though  given  in  very  moderate  quantity*.  Till  the  beginnitig 
of  June  they  are  seldom  allowed  to  lie  in  the  field  during  the  night;  but 
though  they  are  protected  as  much  as  possible  fi-om  cold,  their  houses  are 
at  all  seasons  kept  well  aired  and  cool.' 

The  advantage  of  feeding  well  in  winter,  and  sending  a  cow  to  grass  in 
good  condition,  is  now  generally  understood  ;  but  the  defect  in  practice  is, 
that  what  can  be  afforded  to  the  cows  in  this  way  is  given  only  while  they 
are  in  milk  or  when  they  calve.  The  return  is,  indeed,  rendered  more 
immediate,  but  it  would  be  still  more  advantageous  if  a  fair  portion  of 
the  proper  winter's  food  were  given  to  the  dairy  cows  after  they  were  dry 
of  milk. 

Among  smaller  and  poorer  farmers,  however,  the  Ayrshire  cow  under- 
goes more  hardships  than  she  should  be  exposed  to.  It  is  in  the  winter 
food  ftiat  these  people  are  most  deficient,  and  the  cows  frequently  have 
nothing  besides  oat-straw  and  bog-hay,  or  a  very  small  quantity  of  turnips 
in  the  winter,  and  potatoes  in  the  spring  ;  so  that,  when  they  are  turned 
out  to  grass  in  May,  they  are  very  poor,  and  it  is  long  before  they  give 
their  proper  quantity  of  milk,  or  the  milk  is  good  for  anything.  It  is  well 
for  theni  if  there  are  any  turnips  left  at  winter,  for  in  many  cases  these  are 
all  given  in  the  autumn  in  order  to  preserve  the  milk  a  little  longer.  If  the 
oat  crop  should  fail,  the  cows  of  the  small  farmer  fare  hardly  indeed. 
Mr.  Alton  says  that  'in  1800  more  than  a  third  part  of  the  cows  and 
horses  were  killed  for  want  of  fodder.  •Nothing  could  be  done  but  to  kill 
part  of  the  stock  that  the  rest  might  be  saved.* 

Mr.  Alton  ('Dairy  Husbandry,'  p.  31)  gives  a  satisfactory  account  of 
the  rearing  of  the  dairy  stock.  They  are  selected  from  parents  of  the  best 
quality,  and  few  are  brought  up  that  are  not  of  the  fashionable  colour, 
'i'hose  are  preferred  that  are  dropped  about  the  end  of  March  or  the 
beginning  of  April,  as  they  are  ready  for  the  early  grass,  and  attain 
some  size  before  winter. 

Calves  reared  for  dairy  stock  are  not  allowed  to  suck  their  dams,  but  are 
always  fed  by  the  hand  from  a  dish.  They  are  generally  fed  on  milk, 
only  for  the  first  four,  five,  or  six  weeks,  and  are  then  allowed  from 
four  to  five  quarts  of  new  milk,  twice  in  the  twenty-four  hours  (Mr. 
Rankine  says  '  from  10  to  12  quarts').  Some  never  give  them  any  other 
food  when  young,  except  milk ;  and  lessen  the  quantity  when  the  calves 
begin  to  eat  grass  or  other  food,  which  they  will  generally  do  at  about  five 
weeks  old :  the  milk  is  totally  withdrawn  about  the  seventh  or  eighth 
week  of  the  calf's  age.  If,  however,  the  calf  is" reared  in  the  winter,  or 
early  in  the  spring  before  the  grass  rises,  it  must  be  longer  supplied  with 
milk,  for  it  will  not  so  soon  learn  to  eat  hay  or  straw.  Some  mix 
meal  with  the  milk  after  the  third  or  fourth  week ;  others  add  new  whey 
to  the  milk,  which  has  been  first  mixed  with  meal ;  and  when  the  calf 
gets  two  months  old  they  withdraw  the  milk,  and  feed  it  on  whey  and 
porridge.  Hay-tea,  broths,  of  peas  or  beans,  or  of  pea  or  bean  straw, 
linseed  beaten  into  powder,  treacle,  &c.  have  all  been  sometimes  used  to 

*  Take  a  bushel  of  chaff,  and  eight  or  ten  sound  yellow  or  Swedish  turnips,  having  the 
tops  and  tails  carefully  taken  off:  add  a  sufficient  quantity  of  water,  and  boil  them  together 
four  or  five  hours.  Add  as  much  water  as  will  allow  the  hand  to  move  easily  through  the 
mass.  Squeeze  down  the  turnips,  and  add  three  pounds  of  pea-meal.  Give  this  to  a  cow 
in  the  morning,  and  the  same  in  the  evening,  and  as  much  sweet  hay  as  she  will  eat  up 
rlean,  five  times  a  day ;  then,  without  much  expense,  her  butter  will  be  as  rich,  and  of  as 
fine  a  flavour  as  can  be  produced  in  winter.  Should  the  peculiar  flavour  of  the  turnip  lie 
detected,  which  is  not  likely,  a  small  quantity  of  saltpetre  put  to  the  cream  will  lake 
it  off. 


advantage  in  feeding  calves  ;  but  milk,  wlien  it  can  he  spared,  is  tlie  most 
natural  food. 

Tiie  dairy  calves  are  generally  fed  on  the  best  pasture  during'  the  first 
summer,  and  have  some  preference  over  the  otlier  stock  in  fooddiirinsf  the 
next  winter;  or  they  are  allowed  to  run  loose  in  a  yard  with  a  shed,  and 
are  supplied  with  green  food  in  cribs.  When  the  green  food  is  eaten, 
they  get  with  straw  as  many  turnips  as  can  be  afforded  them,  and  that  is 
generally  a  very  small  quantity.  Mr.  Eankine  saVs  that  "  there  is  no 
reason  to  doubt  that  this  mode  of  feeding  during  the  first  season  is  prefer- 
able to  pasturing.  Besides  the  excellent  dung  produced,  the  animals 
arrive,  under  this  treatment,  at  a  much  greater  size."  From  that  time,  until 
they  drop  their  first  calf,  they  are  generally  turned  on  inferior  pasture,  and 
are  no  better  fed  in  winter  than  any  other  species  of  stock.  They  are 
allowed  what  oat-straw  they  can  eat  during  the  night  and  morning,  and, 
except  in  time  of  snow,  are  turned  out  to  the  fields  during  the  daytime. 
The  greatest  part  of  the  young  dairy  stock  are  kept  in  byres  or  in  sheds 
during  winter,  but  some  are  laid  out,  and  supported  with  straw  in  the 

There  is  nothing  peculiar  in  the  mode  of  manufacturing  the  Ayrshire 
butter,  nor  even  the  sweet  milk  or  Dunlop  cheese,  so  called  from  the  dis- 
trict in  Cunningham  in  which  it  was  either  first  or  best  made.  It  is 
difficult  to  tell  when  it  was  first  made,  for  a  well-known  rhyme  says  that,  in 
the  olden  time,  it  was  customary  to  look  to 

'  Kyle  for  a  man, 
And  Cairick  for  a  cow, 
Cunningham  for  butter  and  cheese, 
And  Galloway  foi  woo'.' 

Some  have  traced  the  secret  to  an  old  woman  who  returned  from  Ireland 
after  the  revolution  of  1688:  but  the  whole  mystery  consists  in  the  rich- 
ness of  the  milk  ;  in  the  cheese  being  honestly  made  of  the  milk,  cream 
and  all,  although  strange  stories  are  sometimes  told  of  the  pilferings  of 
the  cream,  and  the  extent  to  which  it  may  be  carried  without  detection ; 
in  the  milk  being,  as  its  name  imports,  perfectly  sweet ;  in  particular 
attention  being  paid  to  the  temperature  of  the  milk  when  the  rennet  is 
added  (75  degrees,  and  that  most  accurately  ascertained  by  the  dairy- 
maid's thermometer,  the  tip  of  her  finger),  and  in  the  cheese  being  dried 
in  a  cool  place,  without  any  painting  or  sweating,  or  rubbing  with  grease 
or  oil  *. 

The  Dunlop  sweet-milk  cheese  has  a  peculiarly  mild  and  rich  taste,  and 
also  a  frequent  want  of  firmness  ;  thus  being  readily  distinguished  from  the 
harder,  rougher,  dryer  Cheshire,  and  the  mild  and  fatty  but  somewhat 
sticky  Gloucester  cheese. 

Tiie  sldm-milk,  or  common  cheese,  is  made  in  Ayrshire,  as  everywhere 
else,  of  the  milk  from  which  the  cream  has  been  separated  t- 

In  Carrick  chiefly,  but  not  exclusively,  many  black  cattle  are  grazed 
and'  fattened  for  the  Scotch  and  English  markets.  They  are  mostly  a 
peculiar   breed,  the  history   of  which   cannot   be   perfectly  ascertained. 

*  Mr.  Alton  says,  '  I  had  access  to  know  that  John  Reid,  tenant  in  Silverwood,  in  the 
parish  of  Kilmarnock,  made  full-milk  cheese  on  that  farm  as  eaily  as  the  year  1750.  It 
was  made  by  John  Love  in  Monkland  in  that  neighbourhood,  about  the  same  period : 
but  it  was  not  until  the  year  1770,  that  any  considerable  numher  of  the  farmers  in  o. 
neighbouring  parishes  began  to  make  full-milk  chtese.     ('  Pairy  Husbandry.') 

t  For  a  very  interesting  comparison,  and  one  rich  in  practical  uilormation,  between 
the  manufacture  of  the  Cheshire  and  Dunlop  cheise,  we  refer  lo  Mr.  Alton's  invalnabin 
'  Tieadtise  on  Dairy  Husbandry.'  and  also  to  the  ■  British  Husbandry'  of  the  '  FarmM'i 

♦38  CAITLK 

They  are  polled,  yet  they  differ  from  the  Galloways,  and  they  differ  as 
essentially  from  the  Kyloes.  An  intelligent  writer  in  the  '  Farmer's 
Mag^uzine'  (1807)  describes  them  as  'black,  with  long  thick  hair— their 
shape  round  and  square,  straight  on  the  back,  well  limbed,  and  when 
standing  upright,  the  more  they  have  of  the  four-footed  stool,  they  are 
esteemed  the  more  perfect.  Their  general  look  and  figure  indicate 
strength  and  hardiness,  and  the  finer  and  more  perfect  that  figure  is, 
the  easier  they  are  fed.  They  consist  of  stots  and  spayed  queys,  and 
of  cows.' 

The  stots  and  spayed  queys  are  purchased  from  the  breeder  at  a  year 
and  a- half  or  two  years  old,  and  kept  until  they  are  three  or  four,  when 
they  are  driven  to  England  along  with  the  Galloway  droves.  They  are 
never  in  the  house  from  the  time  they  come  from  the  breeder,  but  are 
fed  in  the  fields  on  grass  and  hay  until  they  are  driven  away. 

The  transfer  of  these  cattle  is  carried  on  by  the  drovers  and  country- 
dealers  (a  kind  of  middle  men  between  the  Scotch  and  English  dealers) 
Some  of  them  have  a  little  capital  to  begin  with,  but  others,  at  theii 
outset,  have  only  the  credit  of  a  fair  character.  Their  common  practice  was 
to  deal  upon  credit,  by  giving  their  bill  for  what  they  purchase,  payable  at 
three  months  :  the  grazier  took  this  bill  to  a  bank,  endorsed  it  as  a  cau- 
tioner, and  got  the  money.  If  the  drover  met  with  a  ready  market  in 
England,  he  took  up  the  bill  when  it  became  due— 'if  not,  the  cautioner 
had  the  debt  to  pay. 

In  consequence  of  this  mode  of  doing  business,  there  was  a  great  dea. 
of  speculation  and  risk ;  and  when  a  great  drover  happened  to  fail,  a 
whole  country-side  was  almost  laid  waste.  This  mode  of  dealing  yet 
continues  to  some  extent,  but  the  farmer,  grown  wise  by  experience,  is 
now  far  more  anxious  to  deal  for  ready  money. 

Some  of  the  farmers  in  Carrick  carry  on  an  extensive  business  ir. 
grazing  cows.  They  buy  up  those  that  are  old,  or  which  fail  at  the 
pail,  or  are  not  good  breeders,  and  lay  them  on  the  pasture  about 
Hallow-day,  where  they  remain  a  year,  when  they  are  bought  up  by 
dealers  or  butchers  for  supplying  the  Edinburgh  and  Glasgow  markets. 
They  require  grass  of  a  better  quality  than  the  stots  ;  they  are  fed  in  the 
open  fields  during  the  whole  season ;  they  seldom  get  turnips  or  other 
green  food  during  the  winter,  but  when  the  pastures  begin  to  fail,  hay  and 
straw  are  given  to  them  twice  in  the  day  until  about  the  beginning 
of  May. 

On  the  heath-covered  mountains  of  the  south  and  south-east  extremities 
of  Ayrshire  a  considerable  number  of  black  cattle  are  reared.  They 
are  of  the  same  kind  as  those  which  we  have  just  described  ;  but  even  in 
the  present  improved  state  of  husbandry,  many  more  stock  are  kept  on 
the  ground  than  can  possibly  thrive,  and  there  is  a  sad  deficiency  of 
wholesome,  nourishing  food  during  the  winter. 

In  the  beautiful  village  of  Colmonell,  on  the  banks  of  the  Struchian, 
there  are  usually  at  least  three  thousand  black  cattle ;  the  breeding  of 
them  is  a  great  object  in  this  part  of  the  country,  and  their  value  has 
rapidly  increased*. 

*  A  singular  practice  used  to  prevail  in  some  parts  of  Ayrshire,  and  particularly  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Largs. — ^The  husbandry  horses  were  hired  during  the  winter  and  spring 
from  the  neighbouriug  districts,  and  after  the  ploughing  and  sowing  were  over,  they  were 
returned  home,  often  in  a  poor  state,  to  do  the  work  of  their  ill-judging  masters.  The 
saving  of  fodder,  and  the  earning  of  a  little  money,  were  the  alleged  excuses. 

Mr.  Lockart,  in  his  statistical  account  of  the  parish  of  Lanark,  gives  an  interesting  account 
of  the  commencement  of  the  inclosure  and  planting  of  Lanark-moor,  which  consisted  of 
1500  acres  of  land  abandoned  to  heath  e.iii  bM*  Krass,  Jn  the  iw'irhbQurhoQd  of  a  nonulous 


A  few  of  the  native  wild  cattle  are  found  in  Androssan  park  belonging 
to  the  Earl  of  Eglintown,  and  in  Auchencruive  park,  the  seat  of  ^.r. 
Oswald.  They  are,  however,  suspected  not  to  be  in  a  state  of  perfect 
purity ;  they  are  of  a  cieam  colour,  with  black  muzzles,  and  black  or 
brown,  or  red  ears. 

Oxen  are  not  worked,  nor  is  there  any  creditable  account  of  their 
ever  having  been  worked,  in  Ayrshire ;  and  the  system  of  straw-yard 
feeding  is  seldom  practised. 


The  latter  name  is  derived  from  the  river  Clyde,  which  rises  in  the 
south-west  on  the  borders  of  Peebles,  and  pursues  its  winding  course  for 
sixty  miles  through  the  heart  of  the  county.  The  climate  is  mild,  and 
severe  frosts  or  snow  are  seldom  of  long  continuance; — there  is  a  great 
deal  of  natural  pasture  and  meadow-land,  fitting  it  to  become  an 
excellent  dairy-country,  and  which  has  been  its  character  for  nearly  a 

Lanark  is  supposed  to  contain  30,000  cattle,  all  of  which  are  connected 
with  the  dairy,  except  a  very  few  that  are  bought  in  to  feed  on  the 
summer  pastures.  The  breed,  as  in  the  majority  of  dairy  counties,  is 
strangely  various,  according  to  the  caprice,  or  skill,  or  ignorance  of  the 
occupier  of  the  ground.  They  may,  however,  be  divided  into  two 
classes-T-the  Highlanders,  with  all  their  varieties  and  crosses,  and  the  Ayr- 
shires,  which  are  gradually  superseding  everything  else. 

The  dairy  breed,  on  the  borders  of  the  Clyde,  although  of  the  Ayrshire 
stock,  are  somewhat  altered  by  the  difference  and  superiority  of  soil. 
They  are  longer  and  rounder  in  the  chest,  heavier  in  the  fore-quarters, 
and  less  capacious  behind ;  they  appear  to  have  materially  improved  in 
their  grazing  qualities,  and  yet,  contrary  to  their  usual  character,  they  have 
not  suffered  much  deterioration  as  milkers. 

Mr.  Aiton  ('J)airy  Husbandry,'  p.  27)  says  that '  Lord  Belhaven  kept 
at  Wishaw-hduse  for  several  years  a  bull  of  the  dairy  breed,  of  uncommon 
beauty  ;  he  was,  however,  a  native  of  Beith,  in  the  county  of  Ayr.  He 
was  longer  and  rounder  in  the  chest,  deeper  in  the  ribs  near  to  the 
shoulder,  and  his  fore-quarters  stronger  and  heavier  than  the  bulls  most 
approved  of  in  the  county  of  Ayr.'  From  him  descended  a  great  part  of 
the  Lanarkshire  cattle.  The  fact  was,  that  the  richer  soil  of  Lanark 
would  maintain  a  heavier  beast  than  that  of  Ayrshire:  Lanark  was 
not  so  decidedly  and  proverbially  a  dairy  county ;  therefore  this  bull 
became  deservedly  a  favourite,  on  account  of  his  superior  weight  before 

and  manufacturing  town.  Mr.  Honeyman,  advocate  of  Groemsaj',  was  the  first  who  ven- 
tured to  fen,  or  take  on  lease  any  great  quantity  of  this  common  land.  He  obtained  a  grant 
from  the  magistrates  of  nearly  300  acres.  Part  of  it  he  inclosed  forpasturage,  and  the  rest 
he  planted  with  Scots  pine  and  larch,  and  beech  and  ash;  but  he  was  violently  opposed 
by  some  of  the  burgesses,  who  claimed  an  immemorial  right  of  servitude  upon  this  moor 
for  the  pasturage  of  a  certain  number  of  cattle,  and  for  fuel,  seal  and  divoi;  and  it  was 
long  before  they  could  be  induced  to  accept  a  more  than  equivalent  for  this  right. 

He  also  states,  that  until  after  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  '  the  lands  of  the  out 
parish  were  generally  let  in  small  farms  for  nineteen  years,  the  rents  paid  in  victuals,  and 
the  labour  performed  by  the  tenant  and  his  own  family.  A  few  acres  adjoining  to  the 
house  were  kept  in  constant  tillage ;  upon  which  all  the  dung  of  the  farm  was  laid,  and 
the  out-fields  were  kept  alternately  for  three  years  in  oats  and  three  years  in  pasture.' 
This  is  the  wretched  system  of  infield  and  outfield,  to  which  we  have  before  referred ; 
but  he  adds,  when  the  victual  rents  were  abolished,  a  spirit  of  industry  and  improvement 
began  to  difi'use  itself  over  the  parish,     A  regular  system  of  inclosincf  commenced,  and 

40  CATTLE. 

and  his  being  deep  and    level  at  the  heart  placet  which  are  points  o< 
essential  innportance  for  grazing. 

The  object  of  the  dairy  is  chiefly  pursued  on  the  banks  of  the  Clyde, 
and  much  butter  and  cheese  are  manufactured  which  find  a  ready  sale  at 
Paisley,  Glasgow,  and  Edinburgh.  Even  the  higher  parts  of  this  district, 
which  elsewhere  would  be  devoted  to  sheep-feeding,  and  which  ought 
to  be  so  devoted  here,  are  converted  into  dairy  grounds  ;  and  the  butter, 
although  not  so  oily,  is  equally  well  flavoured,  and  scarcely  ever  becomes 
rancid.  The  milch  cows  are  fed  on  the  best  pastures  during  summer,  and 
a  few  turnips  are  given  in  the  autumn  to  protract  the  milk  ;  but  not  in 
sufficient  quantity  to  produce  the  unpleasant  taste  of  the  butter  which 
usually  accompanies  full  turnip-feeding. 

Lanarkshire  is  principally  noted  for  its  feeding  of  calves,  which  is 
chiefly  carried  on  in  the  district  of  Strathaven,  on  the  borders  of  Ayrshire. 
The  Lanark  or  Strathaven  veal  is  supposed  to  possess  a  peculiarly 
delicate  flavour,  and  is  much  esteemed  in  the  markets  of  Edinburgh 
and  Glasgow.  The  calves  which  are  dropped  in  Ayrshire  and  La- 
narkshire in  the  winter  and  the  spring  are  sold  to  those  who 
attend  to  this  branch  of  dairy  husbandry  in  Ayrshire  and  Strat- 
haven. Mr.  Alton  ('  Survey  of  Ayrshire,'  p.  442)  gives  the  follow- 
ing account  of  the  management  of  this  department  of  dairy  hus- 
bandry : — '  They  are  fed  on  milk,  which  they  are  taught  to  drink 
from  a  dish ;  it  is  given  to  them  by  some  feeders  sparingly  at  first,  to 
render  their  appetite  more  keen,  and  to  prevent  them  from  loathing  their 
food,  and  as  they  grow  up,  the  quantity  of  milk  is  gradually  increased  to 
as  much  as  the  calves  can  be  made  to  drink ;  but  others,  with  better 
success,  give  them  a  good  supply  from  first  to  last.'  For  the  first  week  or 
two  they  will  not  be  able  to  consume  more  than  one-half  of  a  good  cow's 
milk ;  but  when  they  are  coaxed  to  eat  in  order  to  make  fat  veal,  a  calf 
at  a  month  old  will  consume  a  cow's  milk,  and,  before  it  is  two  months 
old,  it  will  take  the  greater  part  of  the  milk  of  two  cows.  The  calves 
that  are  reared  for  stock  have  usually  the  first  drawn  milk,  and  those 
that  are  feeding  for  veal,  that  which  is  last  drawn  from  two  or  three  cows; 
or,  if  all  are  fattening  for  veal,  the  first  milk,  provincially  named /oreiroarfs, 
is  given  to  the  younger  ones,  and  that  which  is  last  drawn,  the  afteringi, 
to  the  older  ones.  Mr.  Aiton  reprobates  the  practice  of  mixing  eggs  and 
meal  with  the  milk,  from  the  erroneous  notion  of  their  darkening  the 
flesh  and  web  and  lights  of  these  animals: — certainly  they  cannot  be 
needed  if  plenty  of  milk  is  allowed,  but  of  this  crime  of  darkening  the  car- 
case they  are  perfectly  innocent. 

He  very  properly  adds,  and  it  contains  the  whole  mystery  of  calf 
feeding:  — 'The  only  art  now  used  in  feeding  calves  in  the  vicinity 
of  Strathaven  is  to  give  them,  after  the  first  two  or  three  weeks,  abun. 
dance  of  milk,  to  keep  plenty  of  dry  litter  under  them,  in  a  place  that 
is  well  aired,  neither  too  hot  nor  too  cold,  and  to  exclude  the,  light,  as 
they  are  apt  to  become  too  sportive  when  they  enjoy  much  light.' 

When  the  calves  become  costive,  a  little  bacon  or  mutton-broth  will 
open  the  bowels,  and  if  they  begin  to  purge,  a  small  quantity  of  rennet 
put  into  their  milk  will  cure  the  disease.  A  lump  of  chalk  is  usually 
placed  within  their  reach,  and  with  decided  advantage. 

The  practice  of  bleedmg  to  expedite  their  fattening  is  not  approved  of; 
neither  are  infusions  of  hay,  or  oil-cake,  or  linseed,  or  any  other  food 
beside  milk.  They  are  occasionally  reared  to  a  most  extraordinary  size  ; 
they  have  weighed  nearly  twenty-six  stones,  exclusive  of  the  oBal.  An 
account  is  on  record  of  one  that  weighed  more  than  forty  stones.     After 


Ihe  animal  is  eight  or  ten  weeks  old,  and  perhaps  is  worth  from  four  to 
six  pounds,  the  continued  feeding  will  seldom  be  profitable,  and  the  milk 
may  be  put  to  a  better  use*.  T^vo  or  three  days  before  the  calf  is  des- 
tined to  be  killed,  he  is  sometimes  fed  on  water-gruel,  in  order  to  dilute, 
as  it  is  supposed,  his  blood,  and  to  give  more  whiteness  to  the  flesh. 

In  this  manner  rich  veal  is  fattened  and  sent  to  Glasgow,  but  prin- 
cipally to  Edinburgh,  from  Christmas  to  the  end  of  summer,  and  it  some- 
times obtains  a  most  exorbitant  price. 

This  is  a  simple,  but  somewhat  expensive  method  of  feeding,  and  we 
record  it  among  the  peculiarities  of  certain  districts  as  they  pass  in  review 
before  us.  The  profit  from  it  is  very  great.  A  thriving  calf  can  be  pur- 
chased, newly  dropped,  at  from  6s.  to  8s.,  and  raised  on  the  milk  of  one 
cow  to  the  price  of  50s.  or  60s.  by  the  time  it  is.  four  or  five  weeks  old, 
and  to  AL,  or  more,  when  it  is  seven  weeks  old.  If  it  is  kept  much  longer, 
the  milk  of  more  than  one  cow  must  be  given  to  it,  and  then,  at  ten 
weeks  old,  and  in  proper  season,  it  will  be  worth  61.  or  71.  The  Strathaven 
farmer,  therefore,  realises  a  profit  of  more  than  10s.  per  week  from  a  thriv- 
ing calf,  and  some  have  gained  as  much  as  12s.  or  i6s.  per  week.  There 
is  one  practice  of  too  frequent  recurrence  in  Strathaven,  which  demands 
unmingled  reprehension.  We  relate  it  in  the  language  of  Mr.  Alton  (p.  99): 
— '  Butchers  and  others  who  purchase  young  calves  in  the  country  to  carry 
them  to  towns  to  be  slaughtered,  do  not  in  Scotland  transport  then  stand- 
ing on  their  feet,  as  is  (sometimes)  done  in  England,  but  they  hang  such 
of  them  as  cannot  travel,  in  pairs  by  the  feet  over  a  horse's  back,  with 
their  backs  and  heads  hanging  downwards  ;  three  or  four  pairs  of  them 
on  one  horse,  while  the  butcher  sits  upon  the  top  of  the  group,  deaf  to 
their  agonizing  cries.  Others  heap  as  many  living  calves  into  a  cart, 
above  each  other,  all  tied  by  the  feet,  as  a  horse  can  draw.  It  would 
be  worthy  of  the  magistrates  of  the  district  to  extend  their  commiseration 
to  these  animals,  so  cruelly  and  so  unnecessarily  tortured,  and  to  compel 
the  butchers,  or  others  who  deal  in  that  species  of  stock,  to  treat  them 
with  a  proper  degree  of  humanity.  A  merciful  man  is  merciful  even  to 
brutes,  and  those  who  practise  cruelty  towards  animals  will  not  long  act 
mercifully  towards  the  human  racet-' 

.  *  Mr.  Alton  illustrates  this  in  his  '  Dairy  Husbandry,'  p.  90.  '  Thomas  Hamilton  \>t 
Great  Hill,  near  Strathaven,  fed,  about  the  year  1765,  a  calf  to  such  a  degree,  that  he 
sold  it  at  the  price  of  5/.  The  price  of  veal  was  not  higher  at  that  time  than  2^d.  jier  lb., 
which  woald  make  the  calf  more  than  34  stones  imperial  weight.'  '  In  1815,  Mr.  Stiaug 
of  Shawton,  near  Strathaven,  fed  a  calf  to  the  weight  of  35  stones,  and  he  was  ofiered 
nearly  16A  for  it;  he  refused  to  sell  it  at  that  price,  and  it  soon  afterwardb  sickened  and 
died.'  In  1819,  Mr.  William  Granger  of  Dykehead  fatted  one  to  more  than  38  stones  im- 
perial weight.  Mr.  Aiton  properly  remarks,  that '  feeding  to  those  weights  proceeds,  per- 
haps, more  from  ostentation  than  prudence.  A  calf  well  fed  until  it  is  from  four  to  six 
weeks  old,  will  (in  the  neighbourhood  uf  Strathaven)  if  it  is  ordinarily  thriving,  and 
when  the  market  is  not  very  low,  sell  at  from  41.  to  6/. ;  but  when  a  calf  is  brought  to 
that  pitch,  the  milk  may  be  turned  to  better  account  by  feeding  a  young  one,  than  by 
forcing  one  already  sufficiently  fed  to  a  size  and  weight  above  nature.' 

t  We  extract  from  the  same  author  (p.  65)  an  accouut  of  the  dairy  established  by 
Mr.  Harley,  at  Willowbank,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Glasgow,  and  from  which  that  city 
is  principally  supplied  with  milk.  He  previously  tells  us  that '  the  number  of  cows  in 
Glasgow  and  its  neighbourhood  whose  milk  is  sold  sweet  to  the  citizens,  may  probably 
amount  to  two  thousand ;  and  as  these  cuws  are  the  very  best  of  the  dairy-breed,  collected 
from  all  parts  of  the  country,  and  are  highly  fed,  both  to  pricine  milk  and  to  render 
them  fat ;  and  as  they  are  always  sold  to  the  butcher  whenever  they  are  fatted,  and  are 
replaced  by  other  cuwsthat  are  lean  and  newly  calved,  it  may  je  reasonable  to  suppose  that 
each  cow  will  yield,  on  the  average,  twelve  Scotch  pints  (six  gallons)  of  milk  every  day.' 
Tliis  svems  to  be  an  enormous  quantity,  and,  allowing  for  occasional  deficiency,  amount- 
ing tu  about  20UU  gallons  yearly  from  each  cow.  Then,  after  telling  us  that  '  the  feed- 
ing is   similar   tu    that  practi^ied  in   other  towns  in  Scotland,  consisting  of  grains  and 

l«  CATTLE. 

Butter-milk  is  used  to  a  great  extent  by  the  labouring  classes  in  ail  part* 
of  Scotland,  and  particularly  in  the  town  of  Glasgow.  The  milk  of  the 
greater  part  of  the  cows  that  are  kept  more  than  two  miles,  and  less 
than  twelve,  from  Glasgow,  is  manufactured  into  sour  milk,  and  used  by 

draff  from  the  breweries,  burnt  ale,  or  other  refuse  from  the  distilleries,  the  refuse  of 
flour  usually  termed  hen's  meal,  oats  and  beans  ;  that  they  have  green  clover  and  rye- 
grass in  summer,  with  the  offal  of  gardens;  and  turnips  and  potatoes  in  the  winter, 
both  raw  and  boiled,  with  grain,  chaff,  infusions  of  hay,  &c.,  but  no  oil-cake  ;'  he 
proceeds  to  describe  the  extensive  dairy  of  Mr.  Harley : — 

'  Like  many  other  useful  establishments,  Mr.  Harley's  dairy  proceeded  more  from 
accident  than  original  design.  It  was  begun  at  first  on  a  very  limited  scale,  and  has 
been  gradually  extended  and  improved  to  its  present  refinement.  Mr.  Harley,  who  had 
been  long  eng  ged  in  manufacturing  cotton  goods,  and  who  still  carries  on  that  branch 
on  an  extensive  scale,  happened  to  discover  in  a  field,  which  he  had  purchased  near 
Glasgow,  a  copious  spring  of  excellent  water.     He  not  only  converted  that  spring  to 

Sublic  use  by  supplying  the  city  better  'than  it  had  been  before,  but  he  erected  cold  and 
ot  baths,  the  first  and  still  the  only  thing  of  the  kind  provided  for  public  use  in  or  near 
that  city.  Some  of  the  people,  who  took  the  benefit  of  tliese  baths,  having  expressed  a 
wish  to  be  provided  with  warm  milk  after  bathing,  Mr.  Harley  procured  a  cow  fur  that 
purpose  ;  and  as  the  baths  Soon  became  a  place  of  general  resort,  he  not  only  increased 
the  number  of  the  cows,  so  as  to  answer  the  demand,  but  perceiving  that  the  city  of 
Glasgow  was  ill  supplied  with  that  valuable  article  of  food,  and  that  much  of  that 
which  was  sold  there  was  of  bad  quality,  he  began  at  first  to  supply  his  friends,  and 
afterwards  the  city,  with  milk  entire  as  it  was  drawn  from  the  cow,  and  in  a  state  of 
cleanliness  formerly  unknown  in  that  department  of  agricultural  produce.  His  byre  is 
formed  to  hold  ninety-six  cows,  but  he  has  for  some  time  past  had  about  twenty  more 
in  out-houses,  and  purposes  to  add  to  the  cow-houses.. 

'  The  byre  having  been  enlarged  at  different  periods,  its  external  figure  is  not  so  com- 
plete as  it  might  otherwise  have  been,  but  in  its  internal  construction,  it  is  the  most 
perfect  of  any  byre  in  the  kingdom.  The  cattle  are  placed  in  double  rows  across  the 
building,  two  rows  facing  each  other,  with  a  road  or  passage  between  them,  from  which 
both  rows  are  fed,  each  cow  having  a  grip  or  groove  behind,  into  which  they  drop  their 
dung  or  urine,  with  a  road  between  it  and  that  of  the  next  row.  Stalls  for  two  cows  are 
divided  from  each  other  by  pillars  of  cast  iron,  having  grooves,  into  which  the  division 
boards,  called  trevises,  are  fixed.  Each  cow  is  bound  to  an  upright  stake,  with  an  iron 
chain  connected  by  a  turn  swivel  to  a  ring  round  the  stake,  and  which  slides  up  and  down 
as  the  cow  raises  or  lowers  her  head ;  and  when  the  cows  are  to  be  fed  with  potatoes,  a 
pin,  suspended  from  the  trevis  by  a  small  chain,  is  put  through  a  hole  in  the  stake,' 
which,  by  keeping  down  the  ring,  prevents  the  cow  from  raising  her  head,  and  thereby 
choaking  herself  with  the  potatoes.  A  trough,  or  crib,  is  placed  before  each  cow,  and,  to 
prevent  them  from  scattering  their  fodder,  a  grating  of  strong  wire,  suspended  on 
puUies  like  the  sash  of  a  window,  is  placed  in  front  of  each  pair  of  cows.  It  is  thrown 
up  when  food  is  to  be  set  in,  and  put  down  to  prevent  the  straw,  &c.,  being  thrown  out 
of  the  stall  to  the  passage.  The  grating,  while  it  keeps  the  iodder  from  being  thrown 
out  of  the  crib,  permits  the  cow's  breath  to  escape,  and  does  not  confine  it  within  the 
stall,  where  it  would  render  the  food  unpalatable,  and  oblige  the  cows  to  breathe  in  a 
polluted  atmosphere. 

'  The  byre  is  lighted  chiefly  from  the  ceiling,  and  the  windows  are  constructed  so  that 
they  can  be  raised  in  order  to  give  vent  to  the  bad  air,  and  by  opening  the  doors  or 
windows  on  the  sides  of  the  byre,  more  or  less,  according  to  the  state  of  the  weather, 
the  ventilation  of  the  house  is  so  completely  commanded,  that  it  car  be  rendered  at  all 
times  as  cool  as  the  surrounding  atmosphere. 

'  The  byre  is  kept  as  near  as  possible  at  sixty-two  degrees  on  Fahrenheit's  scale ;  and  to 
enable  the  keeper  to  do  so,  a  thermometer  is  placed  within  the  house. 

'  Besides  the  roads  between  the  heads  of  every  two  rows  of  cows,  and  one  between  the 
two  grips,  another  runs  down  the  centre  of  the  house,  from  the  one  end  of  it  to  the  other, 
and  all  these  roads  af-  lain  with  hewn  pavement,  and  are,  with  the  gratings,  division 
boards,  &c.,  carefully  washed  every  day,  and  kept  as  clean  as  the  lobby  of  a  dwelling- 
house.  The  whole  of  the  cows  are  curried  and  brushed  daily,  and  kept  as  clet  a  as 
-  cavalry  horses 

'  The  bottom  of  the  grips  declines  a  little  towards  the  centre,  to  lead  the  water  mto  the 
common  drain,  and  also  towards  the  cows,  so  that  the  urine  may  run  off  when  the 
dung  is  drawn  back.  The  whole  urine  and  washings  of  the  byre,  with  the  juices  of  the 
dunghill,  that  of  a  public  washing-house,  connected  with  the  baths,  &c.,  are  collected 
into  a  proper  reservoir,  and  used  as  manure.  The  cribs  incline  towards  the  centre,  where 
a  stone  trough  is  placed,  so  that  by  pourinnr  a  small  tmsmtstv  of  vf,iter  it  ihr.  a?h—  — •• 


the  inhabitants  of  that  city.  Mr.  Aiton  speaks  of  this  with  much 
national  feeling  (Dairy  Husbandry,  p.  111.)  'The  butter-milk  is,  on 
the  authority  of  the  Secretary  to  the  Board  of  Agriculture  (Arthur 
Young),  adjudged  to  the  pigs ;  but  it  is  in  the  western  counties  of  Scot, 
land,  as  well  as  in  Ireland,  used  to  a  vast  extent  as  human  food.  It  is 
used  as  drink,  and  is  certainly  far  superior  to  the  miserable  table  beer 
generally  drunk  in  England.  It  serves  as  kitchen  to  pottage,  bread, 
potatoes,  &c. ;  and  when  a  linen  bag,  like  a  pillow  slip,  is  filled  with  it, 
and  hung  up  till  the  serum  drops  out,  and  a  small  quantity  of  sweet  cream 
is  mixed  with  what  remains  in  the  bag,  and  a  little  sugar,  where  the  milk 
is  too  sour,  it  forms  a  dish  that  might  be  placed  on  the  table  of  a  peer  of 
the  realm.' 

The  coarse  upland  on  the  eastern  part  of  the  county  is  devoted  to 
grazing.  The  rough  pastures  there  are  allowed  to  grow  from  the  end  of 
May  to  that  of  August.  The  herbage  on  the  better  spots  is  then  mown, 
and  the  hay  stored  up  for  winter  food,  and  the  pasture  is  stocked  with 
young  Highland  cattle,  who  live  on  the  grass  while  the  weather  continues 
fine,  and  to  whom  some  of  this  bog-hay  is  given  when  the  storms  of  winter 
come  on,  or  the  snow  is  on  the  ground.  If  there  is  no  sheltered  spot 
for  this  purpose,  a  rude  kind  of  shed  is  erected,  to  which  they  imme- 
diately betake  themselves.  These  cattle  are  sold  off  in  May,  and  are  sup- 
posed to  have  increased  2bs.  or  30«.  in  value.  On  some  farms  of  this 
description,  many  neat  cattle  are  bred :  the  females  are  retained  to  keep 
up  the  milking  stock,  or  to  sell  at  two  years  old  ;  the  calves  are  almost 
immediately  disposed  of. 

This  district  contains  the  three  Lothians,  with  Roxburgh  and  Berwick. 
It  is  an  arable  district,  and  in  no  part  of  Scotland  has  agriculture  in  all 
its  branches  been  carried  to  a  greater  degree  of  perfection. 


This  county  is  beautifully  situated  on  the  Firth  of  Forth ;  its  rich  land  is 
occupied  in  pasture,  or  devoted  to  the  raising  of  grain.     The  dairy  occu- 

the  grains  and  refuse  of  food  is  washed  into  the  trough,  and  is  from  thence  carried  to  the 

'  The  milk  is  clean,  and  free  from  every  impurity ;  it  is  poured  immediately  from  the 
milking  pails  through  a  hair-sieve  into  the  milk  vessel  in  which  it  is  carried  to  town. 

'  The  pails  into  which  the  cows  are  milked,  and  other  vessels  used,  being  graduated, 
and  each  cow  having  a  running  number,  the  quantity  of  milk  drawn  from  each,  and 
s&g'^sS*^  of  the  whole,  is  ascertained,  ahd  regularly  entered  in  a  book  by  the  overseer, 
every  time  the  cows  are  milked.  Part  of  the  milk  is  sold  at  the  dairy-house  near  the 
byres,  and  part  of  it  is  carried  though  the  streets  of  Glasgow,  in  large  cans  fixed  on 
carts,  each  drawn  by  a  pony. 

'  A  given  quantity  is  put  under  the  charge  of  the  driver,  for  which  he  is  accotmtable , 
and  so  tenacious  is  Mr.  Harley  of  supplying  the  citizens  with  milk  pure  and  unadulte- 
rated, that  he  puts  it  out  of  the  power  of  those  who  retail  it  on  the  streets  to  introduce 
water,  or  any  other  impurity.  When  the  milk  is  placed  in  the  cans,  they  are  locked  up 
so  close  that  no  air  is  admitted,  except  as  much  as  will  make  the  milk  run  at  the  cock 
below ;  and  the  air  hole  is  so  constructed,  that  it  is  not  in  the  power  of  the  driver  to  intro- 
duce water,  or  any  other  liquid,  by  it.  The  milk-pails,  and  the  whole  of  the  vessels, 
are  well  washed  and  scalded  in  boiling  water  every  time  they  are  used.  The  cocks  for 
running  off  the  milk  are  so  constructed,  that  they  can  be  opened  and  cleaned  in  the 
inside  at  pleasure. 

'  Mr.  Harley  has  erected  within  the  byres  a  very  handsome  steam-engine,  which  he 
uses  to  raise  water  to  supply  the  byres,  drive  a  straw-cutter,  and  a  machine  for  slicing 
potatoes  and  turnips,  on  the  principle  of  that  used  in  cutting  logwood.  The  steam  from 
the  boiler  is  used  in  steaming  potatoes  and  other  food  for  the  cows,  in  a  large  vat  wfticb 
the  work  people  term  "  the  cows'  tea-pot." ' 

144  CATTLE. 

pies  some  share  ot  the  aiteniion  of  the  farmer  ;  for  the  proximity  of  this 
little  district  to  the  northern  metropolis  affords  him  an  excellent  market 
for  the  sale  of  the  produce. 

The  breeds  of  milch  cattle  are  as  various  as  can  be  imagined — some 
Fifes  are  kept — with  many  more  of  the  Ayrshire  cattle ;  but  with  the  small 
farmer,  the  native  breed,  still  bearing'  about  it  much  of  the  Highlander,  is 
either  preserved  entire,  or  crossed  in  every  possible  way ;  and  crossed  with 
most  advantage  by  tlie  short-horn. 

Mr.  Dawson,  of  Bonnylear,  informs  us  that  '  the  cow,'  (i.e.  the  prevail- 
ing breed)  '  in  Linlithgow,  is  something  like  the  Ayrshire  breed.'  (It  is 
almost  identical  with  the  Roxburgh  breed,  of  which  we  shall  have  fre- 
quently to  speak,  when  describing  these  districts.)  '  She  is  small  in  the 
head,  small  and  long  in  the  neck,  with  horns  bent  round  to  the  centre  of 
the  forehead,  with  a  long  tail,  short  small  legs,  and  a  straight  back;  the 
colour  generally  black,  brown,  or  a  mixture  of  brown,  or  a  black  and 
white,  but  the  black  prevails.  The  cow  will  feed  to  from  28  to  35  stones 
Dutch.  She  will  give  about  six  imperial  gallons  of  milk  per  day,  and 
about  six  or  seven  pounds  of  butter  per  week,  for  the  first  two  months 
after  calving;  after  which,  the  milk  will  gradually  decline,  until  three 
months  before  her  calving,  when  she  will  become  dry.' 

We  are  also  indebted  to  Mr.  Dawson,  for  the  following  valuable  account 
of  the  management  of  cattle  in  Linlithgow.  '  The  farmer  occasionally 
preserves  a  quey'-calf  of  a  favourite  cow  ;  but  in  general,  the  calves,  both 
bulls  and  queys,  are  sent  to  the  butcher*.  The  calves  that  are  preserved, 
are  fed  on  their  mother's  milk  newly  drawn  for  one  month,  and  consun)- 
ing  two-thirds  of  the  milk.  The  cow  generally  calves  in  May,  and  the 
calf  is  put  out  to  good  grass  in  June.  In  the  succeeding  winter  the  calf 
is  put  into  a  covered  place,  and  fed  on  straw-chaff  and  the  refuse  of 
grain  and  a  few  turnips,  and  turned  out  to  graze  in  the  ensuing  spring  on 
the  best  grass.  The  bull-calf  is  castrated  when  two  or  three  days  old, 
when  intended  to  be  reared  ;  and  after  being  grazed  and  fed  in  the  cart- 
yard  for  four  seasons,  he  is  dispo.sed  of  to  the  butcher,  and  will  weigh 
from  45  to  55  stones  Dutch — he  will  give  from  four  to  six  stones  of  tallow, 
and  his  hide  will  weigh  from  four  to  four  and  a  half  stones.  The  Lotliian 
ox  is  a  fine  animal,  compared  with  the  cow  of  that  district.  The  differ- 
ence in  the  horn  is  very  striking.  It  is  a  full-sized  middle  horn,  the  head 
and  neck  are  still  small,  but  the  ribs  are  deep  and  the  legs  are  shori. 

'  The  grazitig  cattle  are  chiefly  of  the  West  Highland  breed,  purchased 
at  the  great  trysts  in  Falkirk.  They  are  put  into  a  strawyard  that  is  walled 
round,  with  a  shed  or  covered  place  to  afford  them  shelter;  and  they  are 
supported  during  the  winter  on  straw  and  water,  with  the  refuse  of  the 
grain.  This  is  what  is  called  watering,  and  it  affords  a  good  supply  of 
dung  for  the  farm.  In  the  spring  they  are  turned  out  to  graze,  and  if 
they  get  into  sufficient  condition,  are  sold  in  the  autumn  to  the  butcher 
but  in  many  instances  they  are  finished  off  with  turnips. 

'  Cattle  that  have  been  previously  well  grazed,  are  likewise  bought  at  these 
trysts,  to  consume  the  better  sort  of  turnips.  Tliey  are  slall-Ced  from 
October  to  February,  and  are  then  usually  ready  for  market.  They  vveiah 
from  about  35  to  50  lbs.  Dutch,  and  an  acre  of  turnips  will  teed  two 
oxen  for  foiir  months.' 

•  Mr.  Eobertson  confirms  this ;  he  says,  '  The  farmers  now  do  not  even  rear  their  own 
milch  cows,  but  purchase  them  from  time  to  time  as  required  ;  in  some  cases  every 
season,  so  that  their  dairy  is  always  in  full  milk,  the  new  cows  being  {nirchased  newly, 
calved,  and  those  of  the  former  year  put  to  fatten  as  soon  as  they  become  yell,  or  dried  uy 
ill  milk,  the  ample  store  of  succulent  foiwl  enablinc  the  husbandman  so  tu  du.' 


The  chief  attention  of  the  fanner  is  devoted  to  grazing,  for  which  the 
proximity  of  Linlithgow  to  Falkirk.,  the  great  cattle  tryst  of  the  south, 
and  the  facilities  afforded  by  the  passage-boats  at  Queen's  ferry,  for  the 
procuring  of  lean  or  store  cattle ;  and  also  the  neighbourhood  to  the 
best  markets  for  fat  beasts,  and,  more  than  all,  the  excellence  of  the  pas- 
ture, are  well  adapted.  The  true  Highlanders  are  usually  selected,  or 
sometimes  the  Fifes;  but  the  former  fatten  most  speedily,  and  the  beef 
is  usually  preferred.  The  old  inclosed  pastures,  and  the  artificial  grasses 
afford  abundant  provender  in  the  summer,  and  in  the  winter  too,  when 
the  ground  is  not  covered  with  snow ;  and  there  is  plenty  of  straw,  hay, 
and  turnips.  There  are  supposed  to  be  about  8500  cattle  in  the  county  of 
all  kinds,  or  about  one  to  every  nine  acres.  Horses  have  now  quite  super- 
,eded  oxen  in  husbandry  work*. 


This  county,  although  not  of  great  extent,  has  more  variety  of  climate,  soil, 
and  produce,  than  any  other  in  Scotland.  The  northern  part  of  it,  along 
the  Firth  of  Forth,  is  rich  and  highly  cultivated.  On  the  south  side  of  the 
metropolis,  and  to  the  very  feet  of  the  Pentland  and  Moorland  hills,  and 
even  up  the  sides  of  them,  there  is  much  ground  tolerably  productive,  at 
least  in  good  seasons ;  but  on  the  tops  of  the  hills,  and  in  a  great  part  of 
the  upland  district,  there  are  tracts  of  land  which  bid  defiance  to  culti* 

Not  more  than  one-fifth  of  the  arable  land  of  the  county  is  fairly  de- 
voted to  pasture,  and  the  greater  part  of  that  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Edin- 
burgh butchers,  whose  stock  is  continually  changing,  and  cannot  be  said 
to  have  any  specific  character,  and  which  is  only  halted  and  preserved 
upon  it  rather  than  fed.  Much  of  the  pasture  in  the  occupation  of  the 
farmer  is  devoted  to  the  same  purpose,  and  his  profit  principally  derived 
from  the  sums  he  receives  from  the  occasional,  or  regular  turning  out 
of  horses  and  cattle.  ,  The  permanent  stock,  and  especially  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Edinburgh,  consists  of  dairy  cattle ;.  and  that,  as  every  where 
else,  comprising  all  kinds  of  breeds. 

The  original  Lothian  breed,  about  1765,  according  to  Mr.  Robertson, 
tiras  generally  of  a  black  colour,  or  having  a  great  proportion  of  black  in 
Vis  composition  ;  though  intermixed  with  white  in  various  proportions  and 
on  various  parts,  as  on  the  flanks,  the  belly,  the  shoulders,  or  not  un- 
frequently  In  a  stripQ.  along  the  back.  They  were  generally  from  22  to  27 
stones  in  weight,  when  they  were  fed  to  a  marketable  condition ;  and  in 
order  to  which,  in  those  days,  they  were  not  required  to  be  very  fatf. 

•  Mr.  Gray,  in  his  statistical  account  of  Livingstone,  gives  a  curious  description  of  the 
ol«l  Linlithgow  plough.  He  writes  in  1798,  '  Not  much  more  than  25  years  ago,  it  was 
nut  uncommon  to  see  four  horses  and  four  oxen,  dragging  and  staggering  before  a  large 
heavy  plough,  with  a  very  small  furrow,  at  the  rate  of  about  a  mile  in  an  hour,  whilst  the 
gadman  or  driver,  the  only  active  being  of  the  .lavalcade,  was  obliged  to  traverse  at  least 
three  miles  to  their  one,  to  prevent  them  from  falling  asleep.  Now  we  see  no  plough 
drawn  by  more  than  two  horses,  carrying  with  them  a  furrow  of  twice  the  weight,  and 
going  with  apparent  ease  and  three  times  faster ;  while  the  horses  are  of  a  better  breed, 
in  better  order,  and  maintained  at  a  less  expense.'  This  and  several  other  improvements 
in  agriculture  were  introduced  by  Sir  William  Cunningham. 

t  Mr.  Robertson  (Rural  Recollections,  p.  165)  gives  an  amusing  account  of  the  ma- 
nagement of  these  cattle: — 'This  species  of  stock  was  rather  better  cared  for  than  that  of 
tne  horses.  They  were  peculiarly  under  the  gudewif'e's  management,  who  with  her  maid 
took  care  that  the  milch  cows  should  not  be  neglected  in  their  sodden  meat,  which  con- 
iiis:ed  in  a  hotchpotch  of  small  potatoes,  weak  corn,  with  cabbage  and  greens,  all  boiled 
up  in  a  mass  among  bean-chaff,  in  a  large  cauldron  for  the  purpose  in  an  outhouse ;  aa 
aim.  in  «.nAratf*  masses  the  kavinaa  or  rakin&rs  from  the  b^rn-floor,  and  the  ahorteit  or 


The  Ayrshire,  however,  which  was  scarcely  introduced  in  1880,  has 
gradually  prevailed;  but  the  English  short-horn  is  kept  by  many  who 
naturally  look  for  profit  in  the  quantity,  and  not  the  quality  of  the  milk 
in  a  metropolitan  dairy ;  and,  of  late,  the  Roxburgh  cow  has  been  much 
used  in  dairy  establishments,  on  account  both  of  the  quantity  and  the  qua- 
lity of  its  milk.  It  is  a  cross  between  the  short-horned  bull  and  the 
Kyloe  cows,  and  comprising  the  good  qualities  of  both. 

Mr.  Brown,  however,  the  present  intelligent  manager  of  the  Caledonian 
dairy  at  Meadow-bank,  in  the  suburbs  of  Edinburgh,  prefers  the  Ayrshire. 
In  a  communication  with  which  he  has  kindly  favoured  us,  he  draws  the 
following  comparison  between  the  Ayrshire  and  the  Teeswater  cow.  '  I 
would  prefer  the  Ayrshire :  take  them  in  general,  they  give  as  much  milk 
as  the  Teeswaters,  and  can  be  purchased  at  a  much  less  price.  A  Tees- 
water  cow  will,  at  the  present  time,  cost  from  121.  to  16/.,  whereas  an 
Ayrshire  cow  will  cost  from  9/.  to  121.  The  Teeswater  cow,  after  standing 
long  in  the  dairy,  will  occasionally  fail  in  her  feet,  and  she  will  then  cease 
to  feed,  and  become  a  total  wreck,  especially  if  she  is  old.  The  Ayrshire 
being  smaller,  is  not  so  heavy  on  her  feet,  and  although  only  half  fat,  may 
be  sold  to  better  advantage  and  with  less  loss,  if  she  too  should  begin  to 
feed  badly,  from  tenderness  in  her  feet,  or  any  other  cause.'* 

best  of  the  straw,  together  with  the  bladings  of  the  greens  in  theii  raw  state  from  the 
kail-yard,  and  then  (as  alleged)  rips  of  corn  drawn  hiddling-wise  from  the  stacks  in  the 
bam- yard,  especially  to  the  new-calved  cows,  or  any  stray  stuff  that  bore  a  semblance  of 
going  otherwise  to  unuse.  The  herd  boy,  too,  was  enjoined-to  let  the  cows  get,  aye,  the 
most  choice  patches  of  grass  in  preference  to  the  horse,  among  the  balks  and  waste 
grounds  that  abounded  so  much  in  thuse  times  on  almost  every  farm.  This  anxiety  in 
the  gudewife  for  the  welfare  of  her  cows  was  generally  connived  at  by  the  gudemaii, 
who  failed  not  to  observe  any  little  pilferings  of  the  kind,  as  he  knew  it  would  be  all  very 
thriftily  applied.' 

*  The  Caledonian  Joint-Stock  Dairy  Company  was  established  in  1825,  for  the  pu> 
pose  of  supplying  the  inhabitants  of  Edinburgh  with  pure  milk.  The  grounds  called 
Meadow-bank,  situated  about  a  mile  from  Edmburgh  on  the  London  road,  and  alio  some 
other  property  named  Wheatfield,  were  purchased  at  the  expense  of  8000/. ;  and  14,000/. 
more  were  expended  in  the  erection  of  a  noble  building.  In  the  front  of  the  edifice  is  a 
semicircular  projection,  in  the  centre  of  which  is  the  principal  entrance,  having  a  column 
on  either  side  supporting  a  handsome  pediment.  Tlie  interior  uf  this  projection  contains 
a  saloon  corresponding  with  it  in  form,  and  through  which  the  visitor  passes  into  the 
Great  Byre.  This  is  a  noble  place,  and  is  supportt^d  by  two  rows  of  cast-metal  pillars. 
The  stalls  are  divided  by  the  same  material,  and  are  capable  of  containing  200  cows  under 
one  roof.  It  is  30  feet  high,  and  from  the  centre  of  it  rises  a  large  dome,  for  the  purpose 
of  light  and  ventilation.  It  is  also  lighted,  and  air  admitted  at  both  ends,  and  on  one  of 
the  sides.  From  a  gallery  over  the  principal  door,  the  visitor  has  a  pleasing  view  of 
the  whole. 

The  troughs  are  of  stone,  and  each  is  supplied  with  a  pipe ;  by  means  of  which  it  can 
be  readily  cleansed,  or  water  admitted  fur  the  common  drink  of  the  animals. 

Arched  vaults  extend  below,  through  the  whole  length  of  the  byre.  The  urine  readily 
passes,  and  the  dung  is  conveyed  without  difficulty  into  these  vaults,  whence  they  are 
removed  through  a  tunnel  that  opens  on  the  main  road. 

Over  the  saloon  is  a  room  for  the  Directors,  and  one  above  that  for  servants.  The 
other  part  of  the  building,  parallel  with  the  byre,  contains  the  manager's  house,  counting- 
house,  milk-house,  churning-house,  engine-house  to  churn  the.  milk,  store-houses  fur 
potatoes,  lofts  for  hay,  a  steaming-house  to  prepare  food  for  the  cows,  stables  for  the 
horses,  a  shed  for  a  bull,  and  everything  that  can  be  wanted  in  such  a  place.  The  ground 
next  to  the  road,  and  in  front  of  the  building,  is  tastefully  laid  out  as  a  shrubbery ;  and 
there  is  an  ice  well  to  prepare  the  cream. 

Like  many  other  speculations  of  the  kind,  it  did  not  answer.  There  were  never  more 
than  160  or  170  cows  in  the  byre ;  these  rapidly  diminished  in  number,  until  the  concern 
was  so  plainly  a  losing  one,  that  it  was  abandoned  by  the  company,  and  let  to  a  spirited 
individual,  (Mr.  Bellis,)  by  whom  it  is  still  conducted,  and  who  has  60  or  80  cows  in  the 

For  much  of  this  information,  and  als»  on  many  subjects  connected  with  our  work,  we 
Ve  indebted  to  oui  kind  friend,  Mr.  Dick  of  Kdinburf(h. 


Little  butter,  and  still  less  cheese  is  made  in  such  a  district,  the  greatest 
profit  arising  from  the  sale  of  the  fresh  milk.* 

Except,  however,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Edinburgh,  there  are  fewer 
milch  cows  kept  in  all  the  Lothians,  than  tliere  were  before  a  portion  of 
the  wild  lands  on  the  west  and  the  south  was  brought  under  cultivation. 
The  crops  of  an  arable  farm  are  most  easily  disposed  of,  and  more  profit* 
able  in  the  vicinity  of  a  great  city. 

The  Lothian  farmers  rarely  breed  their  own  dairy  cattle,  but  purchase 
them  from  time  to  time  as  some  of  their  stock  become  dry,  or  in  condition 
for  the  butcher.  Some  dairy  men  thus  change  the  greater  part  of  their 
stock  every  year ;  those  of  the  former  year  being  put  to  fatten  as  goon  as 
their  milk  is  dried  away,  and  thus,  as  we  have  stated  when  describing  West 
Lothian,  their  dairy  is  always  full  of  milk,  for  the  new  cows  have  only 
recently  calved.  Edinburgh  is  supplied  with  sweet  milk  by  cowkeepers  in 
the  neighbourhood,  or  large  dairies ;  two  of  which  are  established  in  the 
outskirts  of  the  town.  The  butter-milk,  or  sour  milk,  is  brought  from  a 
greater  distance. 

A  few  cattle  are  bred  among  the  hills,  and  more  are  grazed,  principally 
winter  grazing.  These  are  chiefly  of  the  West  Highland  breed.  There 
are  many  tracts  of  ground  sufliciently  sheltered,  where  they  may  run 
during  the  winter,  aud  on  which  sheep  cannot  safely  be  tamed,  while 
other  still  wetter  portions  of  the  moorlands  produce  plenty  of  hay — coarse 
enough — but  which  the  stock  readily  eat  during  the  winter  months. 

Mr.  Brown  has  given  us  some  valuable  hints  as  to  the  management  of  these  cows. 
He  prefers  the  fresh  draff  or  grams  irom  a  strong  4le  brewery,  to  any  other  feeding  for 
the  prudaction  of  milk  and  of  a  good  quality.  He  gives  them  two  feeds  of  this  (half 
a  bushel  constituting  a  feed)  twice  every  day,  and  also  two  feeds  of  grass  or  turnips. 
When  green  beans,  or  peas,  or  tares,  are  to  be  obtained  at  a  moderate  price,  they  are  pre- 
fened,  as  imparting  a  richer  quality  to  the  milk  than  the  grass  will  do.  A  certain  quan- 
tity of  salt  is  given  at  every  meal  to  promote  the  digestion  of  the  food,  and  preserve  the 
health  of  the  animal,  and  produce  a  degree  of  thirst  that  will  make  them  eager  to  drink, 
and  thus  yield  more  milk.  He  considers  the  draff  from  table  beer  or  draught  ale  as  of 
a  very  inferior  quality,  and  producing  a  less  quantity  of  milk  and  of  a  very  inferior  kind. 

The  sproutings  (pummini)  of  malt  furnish  a  valuable  article  of  driuk.  He  puts  two 
bushels  into  a  large  tub,  and  adds  as  muchboiling  water  as  will  fairly  draw  it  as  tea.  He 
covers  it  up  close  for  seven  or  eight  hours,  and  then  adds  hot  or  cold  water,  as  may  be 
required,  so  that  the  infusion  may  be  given  to  the  cows  comfortably  warm,  having  pre- 
viously put  in  a  very  consideral<le  quantity  of  salt.  The  tea  from  these  two  bushels  will 
be  as  much  as  70  or  80  cows  will  drink  at  one  time,  and  he  commonly  gives  it  to  them 
twice  every  day,  before  they  are  led  with  the  drafil 

At  the  commencement  of  the  turnip  iieason,  and  when  the  iurni]is  are  juicy  and  green, 
he  gives  less  of  the  cummina  to  drink,  or  has  recourse  to  distillers'  draff,  in  order  to 
prevent  the  milk  from  being  too  much  lowered  in  quality.  Potatoes  likewise  make  a 
very  useful  drink,  when  boiled,  until  they  are  dissolved  through  the  water.  •  Two 
bushels  of  potatoes  may  be  thus  mixed  with  sufficient  water  to  satisfy  70  cows,  and  they 
will  -very  considerably  enrich  the  milk,  when  given  with  salt  before  the  draff. 
Steamed  potatoes  he  seldom  uses  for  the  milch  cows ;  they  fatten  well,  but  they  do  not 
produce  so  much  milk  as  raw  potatoes.  Sometimes,  when  the  turnips  are  fresh  and  juicy, 
he!  gives  one  feed  of  them,  and  one  of  steamed  ptjtatoes,  with  the  usual  feeds  of  dratll 
Steamed  potatoes,  with  which  a  little  bruised  or  ground  grain  is  mixed,  have  been  very 
useful  in  preparing  the  dried  cows  for  the  butcher. 

*  The  Costorpmne  cream  used  to  b^  in  high  repute  in  Edinburgh  and  the  neighbour- 
ing country.  The  process,  as  extracted  from  the  statistical  account  of  the  parish  of  Cos- 
torphine,  is  very  simple.  '  They  put  the  milk  when  first  drawn  into  a  barrel  or  wooden 
vessel,  which  is  submitted  to  a  certain  degree  of  heat,  generally  by  immersion  in  warm 
water ;  this  accelerates  the  separation  of  the  oleaginous  from  the  serous  p<irts,of  the  milk. 
The  milk  is  then  drawn  off  by  a  hole  in  the  lower  part  of  the  vessel,  what  remains  is  put 
into  the  plunee-churn,  and,  after  being  agitated  some  tiaie,  is  sent  to  market  as  Costor- 
phine  cream. 


148  CATTLE. 


This  highly  cultivated  district  i.cs  partly  on  the  Firth  of  Forth,  Biid 
partly  on  the  North  Sea.  On  the  sea-coast  the  system  of  g^razing  is  pur 
isued,  but  not  to  a  considerable  extent ;  the  central  parts  are  mostly 
urable;  and  the  hills  of  Lammermuir  are  devoted  to  sheep  husbandry,  or 
to  the  breeding  of  a  few  Highland  cattle.  The  old  cattle  were  of  a  black 
or  dark-brown  colour,  with  a  thick  hide  of  hair,  handsome  and  hardy, 
but  not  yielding  much  milk.  A  few  of  them  are  stall  bred,  and  more  are 
grazed  on  the  natural  pastures  of  Liammermuir,  where  sheep  would  not 
be  nafe. 

East  Lothian  cannot  be  called  a  breeding  country,  and  theie  are  few 
of,  the  farmers  who  breed  cattle  as  a  regular  branch  of  their  husbandry. 
The  great  bulk  of  the  cattle  are  bought  at  Falkirk,  in  September  aiid 
October,  and  selected  not  from  any  particular  breed,  but  according  t(> 
the  fancy  of  the  purchaser.  They  are  mostly  Aberdeens,  Angus,  or 
Fife  cattle,  with  a  few  Highlanders,  which  are  put  into  the  yard  im- 
nediately  on  getting  home,  and  are  fed  in  the  beginning  of  winter  on 
*liite  turnips,  and  afterwards  on  Swedes.  They  are  rarely  tied  up,  but 
feed  in  the  yard.  The  reasons  assigned  for  this  are,  that  the  skin  and  the 
reet  are  in  a  better  state  to  bear  the  journey  to  the  market ;  and  that  the 
same  number  of  cattle  can  rot  a  greater  quantity  of  straw.  Mr.  Rennie, 
to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  much  useful  information,  tells  us,  that  he 
has  from  700  to  1300  bullocks  feeding  during  the  winter,  and  that  he 
always  prefers  the  short  horns  when  he  can  get  them  well  bred. 

The  dairy  eows,  until  within  a  (iew  years,  were  so  various  in  their  form 
and  quality,  that  it  was  difficult  to  tece  their  ancestry  with  anything  like 
precision;  yet  there  were  among  them  many  very  excellent  milkers. 
Mr.  George  Rennie,  of  Fantassie,  had  a  cow,  that,  during  one  week,  yielded 
23  Scotch  pints  (11  gallons  daily),  from  which  were  produced  22  pounds 
10  ounces  avoirdupois  of  butter. 

They  were  chiefly  a  cross  of  the  Holdernegs  with  the  native  breed,  bu, 
they  have  yielded  in  a  great  measure  to  the  Fifeshire  and  the  Ayrshire 
breeds,  which,  with  an  increasing  number  of  tolerably  pure  short-horns, 
divide  the  county  among  them. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Ormiston  there  used  to  be  a  mixture  of  the 
Holderness  with  the  native  cattle.  They  were  short-horned  and  hand- 
some, they  fattened  well,  and  gave  much  milk.  Five  or  six  gallons  of 
milk  daily  was  no  uncommon  produce. 

We  have  been  honoured  with  a  letter  from  Mr.  John  Rennie  on  the 
subject  of  his  stock,  from  which  we  make  the  following  extract,  c(m 
firmatory  of  Mr.  Brown's  account,  and  which,  in  justice  to  so  enterprising 
and  skilful  a  breeder  as  Mr.  Rennie,  should  be  placed  upon  record.  '  The 
principal  breed  (he  means  among  the  few  who  have  directed  their  atten- 
tion to  the  breeding  of  cattle)  is  short  horns,  or  Teeswaters,  which 
were  introduced  by  myself;  having  selected  them  from  Mr.  Robertson,  of 
Lady-kirk,  who,  I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying,  had  some  of  the  best 
nhort  horns  in  the  kingdom.  1  also  had  two  or  three  bulls  of  the  best 
blood  from  the  county  of  Durham.  I  had  three  or  four  large  sales  of 
stock,  which  were  attended  by  some  of  the  most  celebrated  breeders  in 
England  and  Scotland.  Bulls  were  bought  at  from  50/.  to  120/.  each,  to 
go  200  miles  north,  and  above  300  miles  south.' 

Mr.  Brown,  of  Drylaw-hill,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  some  previous 
remarks,  informs  us,  that  about  the  year  1818  and  1819,  the  short- 
hornedj  or  Teeswater   breed  of  the  best  and  purest  sort,  was  introduced 


into  the  county  principally  from  the  stock  of  the  late  Mr,  Robertson,  of 
Lady-kirk,  and  which  were  descended  in  a  direct  line  from  those  of 
Messrs.  Collinjr,  of  Darlinn;ton.  Others  were  likewise, brought  from  some 
of  the  most  celebrated  st(,cks  in  the  north  of  England.  For  this,  he  sajs, 
the  county  was  indebted  to  Mr.  John  Rennie,  son  of  Mr.  George  Rennie. 
The  produce  of  his  stock  is  now  spread  over  the  county;  and  as  a  proof 
of  its  merit,  a  bullock,  bred, by  Mr.  Rennie,  and  fed  by  Mr.  Boyne,  ot 
Woodhail,  received  the  second  prize  at  the  Smithfield  Cattle  Show, 
hi  1831. 

Mr.  Rennie  obtained  many  prizes  from  the  Highland  and  his  own 
district  Society.  He  has  had  many  beasts  that  weighed  from  80  to. 
lot)  stones  (imperial  weight)  when  at  2^  or  3  years  old  ;  and  he  once 
sold  18  steers,  at  2i^  years  old,  which  weighed  from  85  to  100  stones,  and 
for  which  he  received  33/.  per  head. 

The  spirited  exertions  of  Mr.  Rennie  have  not  been  followed  up  by- 
others  as  they  should  have  been,  partly  froui  disinclination  to  move  out 
of  the  old  track,  but  more  from  the  badness  of  the  times. 

Some  agriculturists,  however,  began  to  direct  their  attention  to  the  cross- 
ing -of  the  short-horn  bull  with  some  of  the  Scottish  breeds,  such  as  the 
West  Highland  and  Ayrshire  cows,  and  confining  themselves  to  one  cross. 
In  this  way  they  have  produced  some  very  fine  animals,  possessing  many 
of  the  best  qualities  of  both  breeds,  and  particularly  combining  the  early 
maturity,  aptitude  to  fatten,  and  beautiful  form  of  the  sire,  with  the  fine 
beef  and  hardy  constitution  of  the  dam.  A  few  went  beyond  the  first 
cross,  and  the  best  qualities  of  both  breeds  were  lost. 


The  cattle  of  this  district  are  much  changed  since  Dr.  Douglas  wrote  his 
•  Survey  of  Roxburghshire'  in  1798.  ^  He  says,  that  '  if  there  ever  was 
a  breed  of  black  oattle  peculiar  to  this  county  it  cannot  now  be  distin- 
guished. For  several  years  a  number  of  the  Northumberland,  Lancashire^ 
Galloway  kinds,  a  few  of  the  Dutch  and  Guernsey,  and  many  from  the 
northern  counties  of  Scotland,  have  been  brought  into  Roxburghshire, 
and  their  offspring,  from  various  crosses  with  each  other,  forms  the  princi- 
pal part  of  its  present  motley  stock.' — P.  144. 

Now,  except  with  tjie  small  farmer,  and  it  is  the  same  with  him 
everywhere,  there  are  few  counties  in  which  the  breed  is  so  distinct.  He 
acknowledges  that  two  kinds  were  beginning  to  obtain  a  preference  ; 
'  one  of  them,  the  polled  or  Galloway  kind,  whose  properties  are  well 
known  over  all  the  island  ;  and  the  other  (to  which  he  does  not  give  a 
name)  with  small  horns  of  a  middling  length,  thin  necks,  round  deep 
bodies,  and  short  legs.' 

This  nameless  breed,  which  was  indeed  the  Ayrshire,  beginning  to 
assert  its  superiority  over  the  other  cattle  of  the  south  of  Scotland,  by 
degrees  drove  before  it  the  polled  breed  and  all  the  crosses,  and  became 
the  prevailing  stock  in  Roxburghshire.  Within  the  last  ten  or  twelve 
years,  however,  a  second  revolution  has  been  commencing.  The  short- 
horns, zealously  cultivated  on  the  Englii<h  portion  of  the  south  of  the 
Tweed,  have  been  finding  their  way  in  increased  numbers  across  the 
borders,  and  disputing  the  palm  with  the  Ayrshire,  and  threatening  to 
oeat  them  out  of  the  field.  The  last  cattle-show  at  Kelso  (1832)  will  com- 
plete the  victory,  for  while  thirty  short-horned  bulls  competed  for  tha 
prize,  only  two  Ayrshire  heifers  were  produced. 

The  rich  soil  of  a  considerable  part  of  Roxburghshire,  and    of  th* 


south  of  Scotland  generally,  may  support  this  large  and  excellent  breed  , 
but  even  in  the  southern  counties  there  is  no  inconsiderable  portion  oi 
inferior  land,  and  in  the  northern  counties  there  is  a  great  deal  of  it,  and 
it  may  be  worth  while  to  consider  how  far  it  may  be  prudent  so 
decidedly  to  encourage  a  race  of  cattle,  that  must  be  restricted  to  compa 
ratively  favoured  districts  and  localities.  With  all  their  pre-eminent  quaii 
ties,  and  we  shall  do  them  full  justice  in  the  proper  place,  they  have  alrea*^ 
been  tried  in  the  middle  and  the  north  of  Scotlai.d,  and  have  failed. 

The  greater  part  of  the  rich  pastures  of  Roxburghshire  are  devoted  to 
sheep,  yet  there  are  many  cattle.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  Kelso,  and 
extending  thence  to  Jedburgh,  much  veal  is  fatted.  Dr.  Douglas  says, 
that  620  calves  are  killed  by  the  butchers  in  Kelso  alone,  and  1400  in 
Jedburgh  and  the  other  inferior  markets.  To  fatten  2000  calves,  and  to 
rear  as  many  more  for  after-sale,  or  to  keep  up  the  stock,  will  require 
more  than  an  equal  number  of  cows,  so  that  in  this  district  there  is  little 
cheese  made,  and  no  more  butter  than  is  sufficient  for  the  consumption  of 
the  inhabitants. 

Towards  the  middle  and  south  of  the  county  there  is  much  fine  pas- 
ture, on  which  a  great  many  cattle,  bought  at  the  northern  trysts,  or 
from  Northumberland,  are  grazed  during  the  summer,  or  stall-fed  in  the 

Dr.  Douglas  computes  the  turnip-fed  cattle  at  6000,  and  those  that  ar« 
grass-fed  at  the  same  number. 

Very  few  oxen  are  en.ployed  in  husbandry. 


This  county  has  well  beeu  called  the  cradle  of  Scottish  agriculture. 
Here  some  of  the  most  important  improvements  in  husbandry  generally, 
and  particularly  in  the  breeding  and  management  of  cattle,  commenced  ; 
and  although  the  march  of  improvement  has  been  rapid  elsewhere,  some 
parts  of  Berwick  are  not  Inferior  to  the  most  highly  cultivated  districts  oi 
the  south  of  Scotland. 

So  late  as  the  year  1772,  one  of  the  parishes  was  described  as  pos- 
sessing all  the  peculiarities  of  bad  husbandi-y  to  which  we  have  so  often 
alluded  in  our  sketch  of  the  cattle  husbandry  of  Scotland.  '  The  country 
was  almost  to'ally  uninclosed,  and  let  out  into  small  farms ;  an  incon- 
siderable part  only  of  each  could  be  kept  in  condition  for  tillage.  The 
croft  part  had  all  the  little  manure,  the  out-field  was  partly  cropped  with 
oats,  without  any  kind  of  manure,  and  partly  allowed  to  lie  waste,  pas- 
tured by  some  half-starved  cattle.  When  that  which  was  cropped  was 
quite  "exhausted,  it  was  allowed  to  rest,  and  a  portion  of  the  other  waste 
ground  was  taken  up  in  its  place  ,  and  the  whole  face  of  the  country  exhi 
bited  marks  of  extreme  indigence*.'  This  was  a  faithful  picture  of  Berwick- 
shire; but  now,  by  the  introduction  of  turnip-husbandry,  and  a  more 
scientific  attention  to  the  rearing  and  feeding  of  cattle,  a  great  part  of  it 
has  been  converted  from  a  bleak  and  neglected  district  into  a  beautiful 
and  well-cultivated  country. 

Among  the  earlier  labourers  in  the  work  of  improvement  may  be 
reckoned  Mr.  Pringle,  of  Coldstream,  who,  in  1755,  began  to  cultivate 
turnips  in  drills.     About  the  year   1770  Mr.  Robert  Hogarth,  of  Corpse. 

*  In  consequence  of  a  djjught,  which  continued  duiing  the  whole  summer  of  1766, 
two-thirds  of  the  cattle  at  Lauder,  in  this  county,  were  slaughtered  at  Martinmas,  and 
•old  at  2f  rf.  per  pound.  Many  of  those  that  remained  died  at  the  stall  in  the  foUowinjj 
ipriog,  iutei  having  consumed  all  the  straw  that  remained. 


on  the  property  of  the  Marquess  of  Tweeddale,  took  up  the  culture  of  the 
turnip  and  of  sown  grasses.  Mr.  Brodie,  of  Ledgert  Wood,  speedily 
iuUowied,  and  many  spirited  improvers  were  soon  found  in  the  Merse,  or 
lower  part  of  the  countiy. 

The  parish  of  Gordon,  in  Berwickshire,  affords  a  singular  illustration 
of  the  rapid  progress  of  turnip  husbandry.  In  1775  there  were  only 
eleven  beasts  fed  with  turnips  for  the  butcher;  in  1781,  an  interval  of 
only  six  years,  there  were  200,  beside  a  great  many  sheep. 

This  increase  of  more  nutritious  food  for  cattle  necessarily  led  to  the 
introduction  of  a  better  stock.  It  is  difficult  to  say  what  was  the  native 
stock  of  cattle  in  Berwickshire.  They  were  small  and  ill  formed,  especially 
on  the  high  moors  which  occupy  the  north  of  the  country,  but  they  were 
essentially  of  the  Highland  breed.  In  the  lower  parts  of  the  country  they 
were  of  larger  size,  and  crossed  in  every  possible  way.  They  were  hardy, 
kindly  feeders,  especially  when  moved  to  richer  pasture  than  the  place  of 
their  birth  produced,  or  than  was  allotted  to  them  there.  In  the  drier 
turnip-soiled  part  of  the  country,  a  somewhat  larger  breed  could  be 
maintained ;  and  the  natives  were  crossed  by  the  Teeswaters,  and  a  half- 
bred  and  improved  stock  was  the  result.  This  differs  little  from  the 
Roxburgh  cattle  already  described  ;  but  some  of  the  richer  pastures,  and 
especially  the  vale  of  Merse,  could  support  yet  heavier  cattle,  and  the 
pure  improved  short-horn  was  established  there.  Mr.  Robertson  (Rural 
Recollections,  p.  369)  thus  describes  the  progress  which  Mr.  Hogarth 
had  made  :  '  He  had  the  finest  hirsel  of  beautiful  cattle,  of  his  own  rear- 
ing, that  I  have  seen  in  any  one  breeder's  possession.  On  one  occasion  I 
counted  136,  full  grown,  pasturing  in  one  field  on  the  Carfrae  farm,  of  an 
elegant  form,  and  fine  brindled  brown  and  white  colour.' 

Among  the  better  kind  of  farmers,  and  where  the  ground  will  bear 
them,  the  Teeswater  is  the  favoarite  breed  ;  but  by  them  it  is  often  very 
capriciously,  sometimes  injuriously,  and  at  other  times  advantageously 
crossed.  The  smaller  farmers  have  more  of  the  half-bred,  likewise 
strangely  mingled ;  for  many  of  the  calves  are  bought  of  their  servants, 
or  at  some  fair,  almost  without  reference  to  the  breed,  and  reared  for 
the  dairy. 

Grazing  is  carried  to  a  considerable  extent  in  the  low  country,  where 
there  is  plenty  of  hay  and  turnips.  Some  short-horns  are  raised  to  a 
great  size ;  and  a  great  many  Highlanders  are  bought  for  winter-grazing, 
or  to  consume  the  straw  and  inferior  turnips  in  winter,  and  be  prepared 
lor  sale  by  grass  in  the  spring  and  summer. 

A&.  Kerr,  in  his  excellent  Survey  of  this  County,  published  in  1809, 
says,  that  '  there  are  few  regular  grazing  farms  in  Berwickshire,  but  the 
pastures  are  variously  stocked  with  mixed  feeding  beasts,  or  young 
cattle,  or  sheep  of  various  ages,  or  young  horses,  or  all  mixed  together. 
These  are  occasionally  going  off  to  market,  or  taken  home  to  the  parti- 
cular farms,  as  the  home  pastures  become  thinned  of  stock,  or  when  the 
latter-math  of  the  hay-fields  are  ready  for  pasturing ;  and  their  places  are 
supplied  by  draughts  from  the  farms,  by  weaned  lambs  or  calves  ffr  by  pur- 
chase from  diffierent  markets  for  feeding,  or  for  carrying  on  to  feed  in 
■  winter  upon  turnips ;  or  these  fields  are  occupied  by  the  still  more  miscel- 
laneous and  continually  changing  stock  of  butchers  or  jobbers,  serving  as 
receiving  fields  for  their  constant  purchases,  until  the  demand  at  market 
enables  them  to  kill  or  sell  to  advantage.' — p.  326. 

'  No  regular  dairy  grounds  are  to  be  found  in  Berwickshire.  Any 
little  dairy  there  is,  is  entirely  confined  to  such  quantity  of  milk  as  can 
be  spared  from  rearing  the  regular  yearly  supply  of  young  stock  on  eacli 

162  CATTLE. 

farm,  or  rather  after  the  calves  are  reared.  This  serves  to  supply  each 
family  with  milk,  butter,  and  cheese,  and  sometimes  leaves  a  small  super- 
fluity, chiefly  of  butter,  for  sale.  The  wives  of  the  married  ploughmen 
and  herds,  who  have  always  one  cow  each,  make  their  little  dairies  an 
object  of  particular  attention,  and  by  them  chiefly  the  few  contiguous 
markets  within  their  reach  are  supplied*.' — p.  327. 

The  winter  food  differs  with  the  different  kinds  of  stock.  The  cows  in 
calf,  and  those  giving  milk,  are  fed  on  white  straw,  with  a  few  turnips. 
Young  cattle  that  are  only  carrying  forward  in  the  three  first  years  are 
treated  in  the  same  manner  by  farmers  that  have  few  turnips ;  but  where 
this  valuable  root  can  be  spared,  the  younglings  have  a  more  liberal  allow- 
ance, and  which  is  amply  repaid  by  their  manure  aud  increase  of  size. 
Hay  is  rarely  allowed  to  the  cattle  stock,  except  to  early  calving  cows  a 
little  while  before  calving,  or  to  other  cattle  when  turnips  fail  before  the 
spring-grass  comes  in.  Oil  cake  is  not  much  used,  except  for  carrying  on 
some  favourite  to  a  great  siae.    Soiling  cattle  is  getting  more  into  practice. 

These  contain  Selkirk,  Dumfries,  Kirkcudbright,  and  Wigtown. 


More  tnan  live-sixths  of  this  little  and  thinly-populated  county  is  devoted 
to  sheep  pasture,  and  consequently,  neither  the  rearing  nor  the  fattening 
of  cattle  is  an  object  of  much  attention  to  the  Selkirk  farmer ;  but,  as  on 
most  of  the  sheep  pastures  there  is  a  considerable  quantity  of  coarse 
grass  which  the  sheep  will  not  touch,  the  agriculturist  is  compelled  to 
keep  a  certain  number  of  cattle,  either  to  eat  it  down  in  the  field,  or  to 
consume  it  when  made  into  hay.  Dr.  Douglas,  in  his  '  Survey  of  Selkirk' 
in  1798,  calculated  that  about  2200  black  cattle  were  kept  in  the  whole 
county,  while  the  number  of  sheep  were  118,000  ;  but  since  the  draining 
of  so  great  a  proportion  of  the  bog-land,  the  succulent  grass  has  increased 
so  much,  that  a  mixture  of  cattle  with  the  sheep  is  indispensable  on  every 
recovered  and  drained  pasture.  Mr.  Hogg  calculates  that  there  are 
now  3000  head  of  dairy  cattle,  besides  a  great  number  of  the  Highland 
breed  which  are  grazed  on  the  sheep  grounds. 

The  middle  division  of  Selkirk  is  said  to  have  been  first  occupied  as  a 
sheep  country  by  James  IV.,  in  1503 ;  but  the  old  prejudices  in  favour  of 
black  cattle  remained  in  the  other  districts  for  more  than  two  centuries 
afterwards,  and  the  Ettrick  Shepherd  (in  his  short  but  interesting  account 

*  Mr.  Alton,  in  his  '  Treatise  on  Daity  Husbandry,'  p.  S,  has  some  valuable  remarki 
on  this  too-negl«cted  branch  of  agriculture.  '  In  a  large  store  farm  in  the  Lammermuir, 
Annandale,  or  in  any  other  of  the  southern  or  eastern  districts  of  Scotland,  fifty,  one 
hundred,  perhaps  several  hundred,  acres  of  land,  much  of  it  lying  in  a  state  of  com- 
plete waste,  overrun  with  brambles,  heath,  and  rushes,  or  burns,  or  streams  of  water  at 
times  running  over  and  wasting  the  best  uf  it,  might,  by  proper  industry,  be  converted 
into  excellent  dairy-ground,  and  rendered  productive  of  much  grain,  roots,  aud  hay, 
without  doing  greal  injury  to  the  sheep  walks.  Fart  of  it  could  be  appropriated  every 
winter  to  the  feeding  of  the  young  or  weak  of  the  sheep  flock ;  and,  when  the  hilUpaa. 
ture  was  buried  under  snow,  the  sheep  would  often  find  relief  on  the  low  and  cultivated 
lands,  or  be  supported  on  the  hay,  turnips,  &c  raised  thereon,  and  stored  up  for  theii 
u»e  in  winter.  Some  of  the  store-masters  argue,  that  the  rich  grass  on  such  land 
would  induce  disease  on  the  sheep-stock ;  yet,  when  deep  snow  lies  long,  they  drive  theii 
(heep  many  miles  to  come  at  similar  pasture.  The  range  of  sheep-pasture  would,  no 
doubt,  be  a  little  narrowed  by  taking  off  the  lowest  lands  fur  dairy-ground,  but  is  nothing 
to  be  reckoned  upon  10,  15,  or  20  roilch  cow>  and  a  wnsideiable  portion  of  good 
giain  m  early  ordinary  seasons.' 


rfthe  '  Statistics  of  Selkirkshire,"  published  in  the  18th  number  of  the 
Quarterly  Journal  of  Agriculture)  says,  '  in  all  the  high-lying  grassy 
farms,  the  occupiers  had  shielings  for  the  summer  tending  of  cattle,  of 
which  there  are  unequivocal  marks  in  every  glen.  You  have  the  mark 
of  the  little  bothy  or  shieling  there,  the  small  round  fold  for  the  calves, 
the  larger  one  for  the  cows,  and  the  little  milking  bught  for  the  cross 
camstray  ones.  There  you  have  the  long  raggled  fence  between  the  high 
and  the  low  grounds,  or  between  the  summer  and  winter  grazing.  Within 
this  all  their  arable  land  was  contained,  spread  in  patches  here  and  there 
over "  an  immense  surface ;  and  within  this  fence  the  cattle  were  not 
admitted  until  the  harvest  was  over 

Mr.  Hogg,  in  a  private  communication,  with  which  he  kindly  favoured 
us,  says  that  '  in  his  early  remembrance,  the  cattle  of  Ettrick  Forest  (an- 
other name  for  Selkirkshire,  or  for  that  part  of  it  which  includes  the  two 
pastoral  rivers,  the  Ettrick  and  the  Yarrow,  with  all  their  tributary  streams, 
and  the  land  around  them)  were  all  of  one  breed,  a  sort  of  cross  made  red, 
or  red  and  white  breed,  and  rather  a  hardy  and  useful  breed  ;  but  now 
the  short-horns,  or  the  Ayrshires,  or  a  cross  between  the  two,  have  almost 
totally  superseded  them.  The  short-horns  are  becoming  more  and  more 
the  favourites,  yet  for  domestic  purposes  it  may  be  doubtful  whether  they 
excel  either  the  old  breed  or  the  Ayrshire  cross. 

'  The  premiums  for  cattle,  given  by  the  pastoral  society  of  Selkirkshire, 
are  all  for  the  short-horned  breed,  and  therefore  the  principal  farmers 
cherish  that  breed ;  but  the  cattle  of  the  smaller  farmers  and  the  cottagers 
are  nearly  all  of  the  Ayrshire,  or  of  the  cross  of  which  I  have  spoken, 
and  which  is  really  the  best  for  domestic  purposes,  producing  more  milk 
and  butter,  proportioned  to  the  weight  of  the  carcase,  than  any  other 
breed  or  cross  in  Scotland.' 

Mr.  Hogg  deserves  much  praise  for  his  zeal  in  improving  the  forest 
breed  of  cattle.  The  late  Mr.  Milne  brought  a  fine  short-horn  bull- 
calf  from  Northumberland,  which  proved  so  fine  a  beast,  that  he  was 
anxious  to  retain  his  produce  as  much  as  he  could  to  himself.  Mr.  Hogg, 
however,  obtained  a  calf  of  his  getting,  which  proved  as  fine  an  animal  as 
his  sire,  the  use  of  which  he  permitted  to  all  his  neighbours,  and  by  means 
of  which  he  effected  a  change  in  the  breed  of  the  whole  district.  He  thus 
describes  them  :  '  They  are  of  the  short-homed  breed,  with  horns  white  to 
the  top,  and  the  prevailing  colour  white ;  but  the  breed  is  rather  small, 
weighing  when  fat  60  or  70  stones.  The  quantity  of  milk  they  give  is  no» 
large,  but  rich  in  butter.' 

Speaking  of  the  management  of  cattle  in  Selkirk,  he  says,  that '  There 
is  generally,  over  Selkirkshire,  a  boundary  between  the  sheep  and  cattle 
pastures,  over  which  the  cows  are  not  allowed  to  rang-e.  It  is  always  an 
article  in  the  Duke  of  Buccleugh's  leases,  that  no  cattle  shall  be  allowed 
lo  graze  on  the  sheep  pasture :  nevertheless,  many  farmers,  both  of  his, 
and  of  all  the  other  proprietors,  graze  young  cattle,  and  Highland  cattle  ou 
their  mountain  pastures,  wherever  the  farms  are  rough,  coarse,  and 
spritty,  for  the  cattle  eat  all  the  coarser  grasses  which  the  sheep  have  left 
The  fact  is,  that  on  many  of  our  forest  and  Eskdale  farms,  the  more 
cattle  they  keep  from  May  to  September,  the  more  sheep  they  can  keep ; 
as  the  former  eat  all  the  large,  rich  and  succulent  grasses,  which,  unless 
they  were  mown,  would  lodge  and  perish.  These  Highland  and  young 
cattle  sometimes  graze  in  the  fields  the  greater  part  of  the  winter,  but  go 
into  the  sheds  and  are  foddered  at  night,  and  when  fodder  is  plentiful, 
and  manure  is  wanted,  they  are  fed  in  the  sheds  during  tha  whole.of  the 

The  calves  are  fed  three  times  in  the  day,  and  get  two  quarts  at  each 
meal  fur  three  months ;  ailer  that,  the  farmers'  wives  begin  to  take  A 
stoup  out  o'  their  bicker,'  as  they  term  it,  giving  them  less  and  less  with 
a  little  skimmed  milk,  until  they  are  weaned.  After  this,  the  calves  are 
generally  turned  out  into  coarse  pasture.  The  fattening  cattle  are  fed 
solely  on  grass  in  the  summer,  and  on  hay,  straw  and  turnips  in  the  winter. 
The  shepherds'  cows  are  fed  solely  on  bog-hay  during  the  winter,  and 
graze  with  the  sheep  all  the  summer. 

In  his  Statistical  Account  of  this  county,  Mr.  Hogg  speaks  of  Lord 
Napier,  as  having  done  much  to  improve  the  Selkirk  cattle,  and  especially 
by  having  established  a  pastoral  society  for  the  improvement  of  the  breed 
of  all  kinds  of  live  stock ;  the  e£Fects  of  which,  in  a  local  point  of  view,  have 
been  as  beneficial  as  those  of  the  Highland  Society  in  a  general  one. 

Having  now  treated  of  all  the  different  breeds  of  the  middle  horns,  we 
must,  in  order  to  complete  our  description  of  the  Scottish  cattle,  com> 
mence  a  new  chapter. 



We  have  already  stated  that  there  appear  to  be  the  remnants  of  two  dis- 
tinct breeds  of  aboriginal  cattle  in  the  parks  of  Chillingham  in  Northum- 
berland, and  Chatelherault  in  Lanarkshire ;  the  first  are  middle  horns,  and 
the  second  are  polled.  The  continuation  of  the  first  we  have  evidently 
traced  in  the  Devon,  the  Hereford,  the  Sussex,  and  the  Highland  cattle  ; 
the  others  would  appear  to  survive  in  the  Galloways,  the  Angus  humlies, 
the  Suffolks  and  the  Norfolk*.  How  far  this  may  be  correct  will  aopear 
as  we  take  a  rapid  survey  of  these  districts. 


The  stewartry  of  Kirkcudbright  and  the  shire  of  Wigton,  with  a  part  oi 
Ayrshire  and  Dumfries,  formed  the  ancient  province  or  kingdom  of  Gal- 
loway. The  two  first  counties  possess  much  interest  with  us  as  the  native' 
district  of  a  breed  of  polled,  or  dodded,  or  */mmble  cattle,  highly  valued  in 
some  of  the  southern  Scottish  counties,  and  in  almost  every  part  of 
England,  for  its  grazing  properties.  So  late  as  the  middle  of  the  last 
century  the  greater  part  of  the  Galloway  cattle  were  horned — they  were 
middle-hornj ;  but  some  of  them  were  polled — they  were  either  remnants 
of  the  native  jjreed,  or  the  characteristic  of  the  aboriginal  cattle  would 
be  occasionally  displayed  although  many  a  generation  had  passed. 

For  more  than  150  years  the  surplus  cattle  of  Galloway  had  been  sent 
%r  into  England,  and  principally  to  the  counties  of  Norfolk  and  Suffolk.t 

•  Dr.  Johnson  gives  a  curious  derivation  of  the  term  humble.  He  says  of  their  black 
(attle,  (iourney  to  the  Western  Isles,  p.  186)  '  Some  are  without  horns,  called  by  th€ 
.Scots  humble  cows,  as  we  call  a  bee  a  humble  bee  that  wants  a  sting.' 

t  In  1 663  the  Rev.  Andrew  Symson  was  appointed  minister  of  the  parish  of  Kirkinner,  in 
the  county  of  Wigton;  and  in  1682  he  published  a  work,  entitled  '  A  large  Description  o 
Galloway.'  The  manuscript  was  accidentally  found  in  the  Library  of  the  Faculty  of  Adv». 
tates  in  E  iinbuigh,  and  was  published ''"  s.  <»ontiu,r...„  ■     •■■   -  ■■ 

,.™*..-i  ...uu  n„ii 


The  polled  beasts  were  always  favourites  with  the  English  farmers;  they 
fattened  as  kindly  as  the  others,  they  attained  a  larger  size,  their  flesh  lost 
none  of  its  firmness  of  grain,  and  they  exhibited  no  trace  of  the  wildness  and 
dangerous  ferocity  which  were  sometimes  serious  objections  to  the  High- 
■and  breed.  Thence  it  happened  that,  in  process  of  time,  the  horned  breed 
decreased,  and  was  at  length  quite  superseded  by  the  polled ;  except  that, 
now  and  then,  to  show  the  uncertainty  of  the  derivation  of  the  breed,  a  few 
of  the  Galloways  would  have  diminutive  horns,  but  these  were  of  a 
very  curious  nature,  for  they  were  attached  to  the  skin  and  not  to  the 

The  agriculture  of  Galloway,  like  that  of  every  part  of  Scotland,  was  in 
a  sadly  deplorable  state  until  about  1786,  when  the  Earl  of  Selkirk  be- 
came desirous  of  effecting  some  improvement  in  the  management  of  his 
estates  both  in  the  shire  and  the  stewartry.  He  was  however  too  far 
advanced  in  life  to  engage  personally  in  the  business,  and  he  delegated  the 
whole  management  of  his  property  to  one  of  his  sons.  Lord  Daer. 

This  young  nobleman  entered  enthusiastically  into  the  views  of  his 
father,  and  although  he  encountered  much  opposition,  and  many  a  diffi- 
culty, from  the  ignorance  and  prejudice  of  the  tenantry,  he  was  beginning 
to  possess  the  satisfaction  of  witnessing  the  accomplishment  of  several  of 
his  projects,  when  he  was  carried  off  by  consumption  at  the  age  of  thirty. 
His  plans,  however,  were  adopted  and  zealously  pursued  by  his  brother, 
who  succeeded  to  the  earldom,  and  Galloway  owes  much  of  its  present 
prosperity  to  these  liberal  and  patriotic  noblemen. 

In  addition  to  the  Selkirk  family,  we  may  reckon  among  the  most  zea- 
lous and  successful  improvers  of  the  breed  of  Galloway  cattle,  the  JVIurrays 

now  out  of  print.  The  foUowing  extracts  from  it  will  be  interesting,  as  exhibiting  the  state 
of  the  breed  and  management  of  cattle  in  Galloway  at  that  period.  '  The  north  parts  of  the 
comitrey  are  hilly  and  mountanous ;  the  southern  parts  more  level  and  containing  much 
arable  land.  The  soil  is  thin  and  gravelly,  but  towards  the  sea  it  is  deeper.  The  snow 
uses  to  melt  shortly  after  it  falls,  unless  it  be  accompanied  by  violent  frosts.  The  pro- 
ducts are  bestiall,  small  horses,  sheep,  wool,  white  woUen,  bier  (barley),  oats  and  hay; 
as  for  wheat,  there  is  very  little.  The  bestiall  are  vented  in  England,  the  sheep  at  Edin- 
burgh, the  wool  at  Ayr  and  Glasgow  and  Stilling,  and  the  horses  and  woolen  cloath  at 
the  faires. 

'  In  this  parish  of  Kirkinner,  Sir  David  Dunbar  of  Baldone  (a)  hath  a  park,  about  two 
miles  and  an  halfe  in  length,  and  a  mile  and  an  halfe  in  breadth,  the  greatest  part  whereof 
is  rich  and  deep  valley  ground,  and  yeelds  excellent  grass.  This  park  can  keep  in  winter 
and  in  summer  about  a  thousand  bestiall,  part  whereof  he  buys  from  the  countrey  and 
grazeth  there  all  winter ;  other  part  whereof  is  of  his  owne  breed,  for  he  hath  neer  two 
hundred  milch  kine,  which  for  the  most  have  calves  yearly.  He  buys  also  in  the  summer 
time  from  the  countrey  many  bestial,  oxen  for  the  most  part,  which  he  keeps  till  August 
or  September ;  so  tBat  yearly  he  either  sells  at  home  to  drovers,  or  sends  to  St.  Faiths, 
Satch,  and  other  faires  in  England,  about  eighteen  or  twentie  scores  of  the  four  year  olds ; 
those  of  his  owne  breed  are  very  large,  and  may  bring  five  or  six  pounds  sterling  apeece. 
Those  of  his  own  breed  are  very  large,  yea,  so  large,  that  in  August,  1682,  nine  and  fifty  of 
that  sort  were  seized  upon  in  England  for  Irish  (b)  cattell,  and  tecause  the  person  to  whom 
they  were  entrusted  had  not  witnesses  there  ready  at  ibe  time  to  swear  that  they  were 
seen  calved  in  Scotland,  (although  he  offered  to  depone  that  he  lived  within  a  mile  of  the 
park  where  they  were  calved  and  reared,)  they  were,  by  the  sentence  of  Sir  J.  T  and 

some  others,  knocked  on  the  head  and  lulled :  a  very  hard  measure,  and  an  act  unworthy 
^wrsons  of  that  quality  and  station. 

<  I  canisay  that  the  park  of  Baldone  is  the  chiefe,  yea,  I  may  say,  tlie  first,  and,  as  it 
*ere,  the  mother  of  all  the  rest,  Sir  David  Dunbar  being  the  first  man  that  brought  parla 
to  be  in  request  in  this  countrey ;  but  now  many  others,  finding  the  great  benefit  thereof, 
have  foBowed  his  example,  as  the  Earl  of  Galloway,  Sir  William  Maxwell,  Sir  Godfrey 
M'CuIloch,  Sir  James  Dalrymple,  and  many  others,  who  have  now  their  parks  and  en- 
closed grounds,' 

fo)  The  ancestor  of  the  Earl  of  Selkirk's  family. 
..  ..  .1-    — ■--..u.:_„^...:„„.fM..i..„.n„r.„p  Ireland  was  prohibited. 



of  Broughton,  the  Herons  of  Kirrouchtrie,  the  Gordons  of  Greenlaw,  the 
Maxwells  of  Munches,  and  the  Maitlands  in  the  valley  of  Tarff  in  Kirk- 
cudbright; and  in  Wigton,  the  Earls  of  Galloway,  the  Maxwells  of 
Mouneith,  the  M'Dowals  of  Logan,  the  Cathcarts  of  Genoch,  the 
Hathorns  of  Castle- Wig,  and  the  Stewarts  of  Phygell. 

For  much  of  the  description  of  the  Galloway  beast,  and  for  the  greater 
part  of  our  account  of  the  management  of  the  cattle  in  that  district,  we 
are  indebted  to  an  old  and  skilful  and  well-known  breeder,  whose  name 
we  regret  that  we  are  enjoined  to  withhold;  but  he  will  accept  our 
thanks,  and,  at  some  future  period,  possibly  the  public  will  know  to 
whom  we  and  they  are  much  indebted. 

<^,  ^S>- 

[Ziean  GcUloutay  Oac."] 

This  cut  is  the  portrait  of  a  lean  Galloway  ox  which  gained  the  High- 
land Society's  prize  in  1821.  It  was  bred  by  Mr.  Mure  of  Grange,  near 
Kirkcudbright,  (we  wish  that  we  were  permitted  to  acknowledge  all  our 
obligations  to  this  gentleman,)  and  .belonged  to  James  Bell,  Esq.,  of 
Woodford  Lees. 

The  Galloway  cattle  are  straight  and  broad  in  the  back,  and  nearly  level 
from  the  head  to  the  rumy,.  They  are  round  in  the  ribs,  and  also  between 
the  shoulders  and  the  ribs,  and  the  ribs  and  the  loins.  ^  They  are  broad 
in  the  loin  without  any  large  projecting  hook  bones.  In  roundness  of  bar- 
rel and  fulness  of  ribs  they  will  compare  with  any  breed,  and  also  in  the 
proportion  which  the  loins  bear  to  the  hook  bones,  or  protuberances  of  the 
ribs.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Smith,  the  author  of  the  survey  of  Galloway,  says 
that, '  when  viewed  from  above,  the  whole  body  appears  beautifully  rounded 
like  the  longitudinal  section  of  a  roller.'  They  are  long  in  the  quarters 
and  ribs,  and  deep  irk  the  chest,  but  not  broad  in  the  twist.  The  slightest 
inspection  will  show  that  there  is  less  space  between  the  hook  or  hip  bones 
and  the  ribs  than  in  most  other  breeds,  a  consideration  of  much  import- 
ance, for  the  advantage  of  length  of  carcase  consists  in  the  animal  being 
well  ribbed  home,  or  as  little  space  as  possible  lost  in  the  flank. 


The  Galloway  is  short  in  the  leg,  and  moderately  fine  in  the  shank  bones, 
— the  happy  medium  seems  to  be  preserved  in  the  leg,  which  secures  hardi- 
hood and  a  disposition  to  fatten.  With  the  same  cleanness  and  shortness  of 
shank,  there  is  no  breed  so  large  and  muscular  above  the  knee,  while  there 
is  more  room  for  the  deep,  broad,  and  capacious  chest.  He  is  clean,  not 
fine  and  slender,  but  well  proportioned  in  the  neck  and  chaps  ;  a  thin  and 
delicate  neck  would  not  correspond  with  the  broad  shoulders,  deep  chest, 
and  close  compact  form  of  the  breed.  The  neck  of  the  Galloway  bull  is 
thick  almost  to  a  fault.  The  head  is  rather  heavy;  the  eyes  are  not 
prominent,  and  the  ears  are  large,  rough,  and  full  of  long  hairs  on  the 

The  Galloway  is  covered  with  a  loose  mellow  skin  of  medium  thickness, 
and* which  is  clothed  with  long,  soft,  silky  hair.  The  skin  is  thinner  than 
that  of  the  Leicestershire,  but  not  so  fine  as  the  hide  of  the  improved  Dur^ 
ham  breed,  but  it  handles  soft  and  kindly.  Even  on  the  moorland  farms, 
where  the  cattle,  during  the  greater  part  of  the  year,  are  fed  on  the  scantiest 
fare,  it  is  remarkable  how  little  their  hides  indicate  the  privations  they 

The  prevailing  and  the  fashionable  colour  is  black, — a  few  are  of  a 
dark  brindled  brown,  and  still  fewer  are  speckled  with  white  spots ;  and 
some  of  them  are  of  a  dun  or  drab  colour,  perhaps  acquired  from  a  cross 
with  the  Suffolk  breed  of  cattle.  Dark  colours  are  uniformly  preferred, 
from  the  belief  that  they  indicate  hardness  of  constitution.* 

[  Tlie  Galloway  Ox  in  good  condition.l 

*  Mr.  CuUey,  who  is  great  authority  in  these  cases,  thus  describesthe  Galloways :  '  lo 
most  lesuects,  except  wanting  hnins,  '^hese  cattle  resemble  the  long-horns  both  in  ciilonr 
and  shape,  only  they  are  shorter  in  thej  form,  which  probably  makes  them  weigh  less' 
Tneir  hides  seem  to  be  a  medium  between  the  long  and  the  short  horns ;  not  so  thick  as 
the  former,  nor  so  thin  as  the  latter ;  and,  like  the  best  feeding  kind  of  long-horns,  they  lay 
their  fat  upon  the  most  valuable  parts,  and  their  beef  is  well  marbled  or  mixed  with  fat. 
They  are  mostly  bred  upon  the  moors  or  hilly  country  in  Galloway,  until  rising  four  or  five 
rears  old,  when  they  are  taken  to  the  fairs^ih  Norfolk  and  Suffolk  previous  to  the  turn^ 


This  cut  represents  the  Galloway  bullock  almost  ready  for  the  butcher 
The  beautifully  level  bying  on  of  the  flesh  and  fat  will  not  escape  the  notice 

the  reader. 

The  breeding  of  cattle  has  been,  from  time  almost  immemorial,  the  prin- 
(jpal  object  of  pursuit  with  the  Galloway  farmer ;  indeed  it  is  calculated  that 
more  than  thirty  thousand  beasts  are  sent  to  the  south  every  year.  The 
soil  and  face  of  the  country  are  admirably  adapted  for  this.  The  soil, 
although  rich,  is  dry  and  healthy,  particularly  in  the  lower  districts,  the 
substratum  being  either  gravel  or  schistus  rock.  There  are  many  large 
ti'acts  of  old  grass  land,  that  have  not  been  ploughed  during  any  one's 
recollection,  and  which  still  maintain  their  superior  fertility  ;  while  the  finer 
pastures  are  thickly  covered  with  natural  white  clover,  and  other  valuable 
grasses.  The  surface  of  the  ground  is  irregular,  sometimes  rising  into 
small  globular  hills,  and  at  other  times  into  abrupt  banks,  and  thus  form- 
ing small  fertile  glens,  and  producing  shelter  for  the  cattle  in  the  winter 
and  early  vegetation  in  the  spring.  In  the  low  districts  there  is  little  frost 
and  snow,  but  the  climate  is  mild  and  rather  moist ;  and  thus  a  languid 
vegetation  is  supported  during  the  winter,  and  the  pastures  constantly 
retain  their  verdure 

The  rent  of  every  farm  is  derived  chiefly  from  rearing  and  feeding  the 
true  Galloway  cattle,  except  in  the  mountainous  districts,  where  sheep  and 
Highland  beasts  are  grazed.  There  are  very  few  exclusively  tillage  lands, 
or  dairy  farms,  where  cows  are  the  principal  stock  and  kept  for  making 
cheese.  In  the  few  districts  in  which  cows  are  introduced,  they  are  of 
the  Ayrshire  breed,  which  are  undeniably  better  milkers  than  the  Gal- 

On  every  farm  a  portion  of  the  land  is  tilled,  but  the  com  crop  is  quite  a 
subordinate  consideration ;  the  object  of  the  farmer  being  to  produce  straw 
and  turnips  and  other  food  for  the  cattle  in  winter,  and  to  improve  the 
pastui'e  grounds.  The  young  cattle  are  chiefly  bred  and  reared  to  a  cer- 
tain age  upon  the  hig-her  districts,  or  upon  the  inferior  lands  in  the  lower 
grounds.  A  few  cows  are  kept  in  the  richer  soils  to  produce  milk,  butter, 
and -cheese  for  the  families,  but  it  is  found  more  profitable  to  breed  and 
rear  the  cattle  upon  inferior  lands,  and  afterwards  to  feed  them  upon  the 
finer  ground,  and  the  rich  old  pastures.  There  would  probably  be  no 
objection  to  this  if  the  Galloway  farmers  would  atford  their  young  stock 
a  little  shelter  from  ihe  driving  blasts  of  winter.  No  inconsiderable  num- 
ber of  the  Galloway  farms  are  as  low  as  bOl.  per  annum,  and  even  lower ; 
a  greater  number  are  from  300Z.  to  500Z.,  while  a  few  may  reach  nearly  or 
quite  1000/. ;  but  the  average  rent  may  be  fairly  computed  at  about  2001. 
per  annum. 

The  calves  are  reared  in  a  manner  peculiar  to  Galloway.  From  the 
time  they  are  dropped,  they  are  permitted  to  suck  the  mother  more  or  less, 
as  long  as  she  gives  milk*.     During  the  first  four  or  five  months  they  arc 

feeding  season,  whence  the  greater  part  of  them  are  ramoved  in  the  winter  and  spring 
(when  fat)  to  supply  the  consumption  of  the  capital,  where  they  are  readily  sold  and  at 
high  prices,  for  few  or  no  cattle  sell  so  high  in  Smithfield  market,  owing  to  their  laying 
their  fat  on  the  most  valuable  parts ;  and  it  is  no  unusual  thing  to  see  one  of  these  little  bui- 
•ocks  outsell  a  coarse  Lincolnshire  bullock,  although  the  latter  is  heavier  by  several  stones. 
.— Culley  on  Live  Stock,  p;  59. 

Mr.  Lawrence  says,  in  his  excellent  treatise  on  cattle,  that  •  the  pure  Galloway  breed 
exist  perhaps  no  where  in  original  purity  except  in  the  moors  of  Monigaff  and  Glenlova, 
■ud  that  theae  cattle  are  thinner  in  the  hinder  quarters  than  such  as  have  been  crossed 
tty  other  breeds.' — ^p.  79. 

*  Mr.  Culley  gives  a  curious  account  of  this—'  The  calves,  from  the  time  they  are 


allowed,  morning  and  evening,  a  liberal  supply ;  generally  mere  than  hail 
the  milk  of  the  cow.  The  dairy-maid  takes  the  milk  from  the  teats  on  one 
side,  while  the  calf  draws  it  at  the  same  time,  and  exclusively,  from  the 
other  side  When  the  calf  begins  to  graze  a  little,  the  milk  is  abridged, 
by  allowing  the  calf  to  suck  only  a  shorter  time,  and  he  is  turned  upon  the 
best  young  grass  on  the  farm.  In  winter  he  is  uniformly  housed  during 
the  night,  and  fed  upon  hay  with  a  few  turnips,  or  potatoes ;  for  the 
breeder  knows  that,  if  he  is  neglected  or  stinted  in  his  food  during  the  first 
fifleen  months,  he  does  not  attain  his  natural  size,  nor  does  he  feed  so  well 

The  practice  of  allowing  the  calf  to  suck  its  mother  is  objected  to  by 
some,  and  is  apparently  slovenly,  and  not  economical ;  but  the  rearing  of 
cattle  is  considered  of  more  importance  than  the  money  that  could  be 
realized  from  the  milk  and  butter  saved  by  starving  the  calf.  It  is  also 
imagined  that  the  act  of  sucking  produces  a  plentiful  supply  of  saliva, 
which  materially  contributes  to  the  digestion  of  the  milk  and  the  health  of 
the  calf.  The  Galloway  farmer  maintains  that  an  evident  difference  may 
be  perceived  between  the  calf  that  sucks  its  dam,  and  another  that  is  fed 
from  the  pail — the  coat  of  the  former  is  sleek  and  glossy,  indicating  health  ; 
while  the  hide  of  the  other  is  dry  and  hard,  nor  is  the  unthriily  appearance 
removed  until  some  time  after  the  animal  has  been  weaned  and  fed  wholly 
on  grass.  It  is  also  said  that  a  greater  proportion  of  calves  fed  i'rom  the 
pail  die  of  stomach  complaints,  than  of  those  that  suck  the  cow 

It  is  desirable  that  the  calves  should  be  dropped  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
winter  or  the  beginning,  of  spring.  A.  Galloway  farmer  attaches  a  great 
deal  of  importance  to  this,  for  he  finds  that  nearly  a  year's  growth  and 
profit  is  lost  if  the  calf  is  born  in  the  middle  of  the  summer. 

The  regular  Galloway  breeders  rarely  sell  any  of  their  calves  for  veal*  : 
that  is  obtained  only  from  those  who  keep  cows  for  supplying  the  village»-s 
with  milk,  and  from  the  few  dairy  farms  where  cows  afe  kept  for  makmg 

The  best  queys  are  retained  as  breeders,  in  order  to  supply  the  place  of 
those  whose  progeny  is  not  valuable,  or  who  are  turned  off  on  account  of 
their  age.  The  other  female  calves  are  spayed  during  the  first  year.  The 
spayed  heifers  are  usually  smaller  than  the  bullocks,  but  they.arrive  sooner 
at  maturity  ;  they  fatten  readily  ;  iheir  meat  is  considered  more  delicate, 
and,  in  proportion  to  their  size,  they  sell  at  higher  prices  than  the  bullocks. 

Mr.  CuUev  says,  '  In  Galloway  they  spay  more  heifers  than  perhaps  in 

dropped,  until  aUe  to  supportthemaelves,  are  allowed  to  run  with  their  dams,  out  are  pre- 
vented from  sucking  by  means  of  a  small  piece  of  leather,  with  sharp  ^ikes  of  iron 
Bxed  upon  the  outside,  tied  upon  the  upper  part  of  the  calf's  nose,  which,  by  pricking 
the  cow  every  time  the  calf  attempts  to  suck,  prevents  her  from  letting  it,  until  the 
milk-maid  comes,  when  she  takes  off  the  muzzle  from  the  little  animal's  nose,  aud 
while  she  strips  two  of  the  teats,  the  calf  takes  care  to  empty  the  other  two.  As  soon 
as  the  maid  has  done,  she  fixes  on  the  instrument  again,  but  it  is  done  in  such  a  man- 
ner as  nut  to  hinder  the  calf  from  feeding  upon  the  grassJ  This  might  have  been  the 
practice  in  Mr.  Culley's  time,  but  little  or  nothing  of  it  is  seen  now. 

*  It  is  an  old  proverb  in  Galloway,  that  a  good  farmer  would  rather  kill  his  son 
than  a  calf.  '  The  people  of  this  country  do  very  seldom^  or  rather  not  at  all,  kill  or 
sell  their  calves,  as  they  do  in  other  places,  so  that  it  is  a  rare  thing  to  see  veal,  except 
some  times,  and  at  some  few  gentlemen's  tables.  They  give  two  reasons  for  this :  one 
is,  because,  they  say,  a  cow  will  not  give  down  her  milk  without  her  calf,  and  so,  should 
%ey  sell  or  kill  the  calfe,  they  should  want  the  use  of  the  cow ;  but  this,  I  suppose, 
night  be  helped,  would  they  but  traine  up  the  cow  otherwise  at  her  first  calving.  The 
>ther  reason  is  of  more  weight,  viz.,  since  a  great  part  of  their  wealth  consasts  in  tha 
Iroduct  of  their  oattel,  they  think  it  very  ill  husbandry  to  sell  that  for  a  shilling,  whicl^  ill 
We,  would  yeeld  poundi.'  — Symson'i '  Lvga  Account  of  Galloway,'  1682. 



all  the  island  besides,  and  in  this  too  their  method  is  different  from  any 
other  part  I  am  acquainted  with,  for  they  do  not  castrate  them  until  they 
are  about  a  year  old,  whereas  in  every  other  place  I  know  the  heifer  calvei 
are  spayed  from  one  to  three  months  old ;  and  it  is  now  generally  admitted 
as  the  safest  practice  to  castrate  calves  and  lambs,  male  or  female,  while 
very  young.*  They  are  now  generally  spayed  much  earlier  than  they  used 
to  be,  but  some  of  the  breeders  adhere  to  the  old  custom. 

The  young  cattle  are  rarely  housed  after  the  first  winter ;  they  are  on 
their  pastures  day  and  night,  but  in  cold  weather  they  receive  hay  and 
straw  in  the  fields,  supporting  themselves  otherwise  on  the  foggage  left 
unconsumed  after  the  summer  grass.  Many  of  the  farmers  are  beginning 
to  learn  their  true  interest,  and  the  pastures  are  not  so  much  overstocked 
in  summer  as  they  used  to  be,  and  a  portion  of  herbage  is  left  for  the 
cattle  in  the  winter ;  therefore,  although  the  beasts  are  not  in  high  con- 
dition in  the  spring,  they  had  materially  increased  in  size,  and  are  in  a 
proper  state  to  be  transferred  to  the  rich  pastures  of  the  lower  district. 

Mr.  Craig  of  Arbigland,  in  Kirkcudbright,  introduced  the,  green  crop 
husbandry  into  Galloway  about  the  year  1770.  He  began  about  that  time 
to  raise  drilled  crops  of  potatoes,  turnips,  and  cabbages,  and  is  considered  the 
father  of  agriculture  in  the  south-west  of  Scotland  ;  many  years,  however, 
passed  before  the  generality  of  the  farmers  followed  his  example.  The  cul- 
ture of  potatoes  began  to  become  general  about  1 780,  but  the  other  green 
crops  hare  never  been  universally  cultivated.  Turnips  are  produced 
extensively  on  a  few  farms ;  turnips  and  rape  in  a  less  proportion  to  the 
size  of  the  farm  ;  but,  more  generally,  there  are  yet  too  many  farms  on 
which  neither  of  them  is  grown. 

[Gallouiay  Heifer.'] 

This  cut  is  the  portrait  of  a  beautiful  heifer,  deservedly  called  the  '  Queen 
of  Scots,'  bred  also  by  Mr.  Mure,  and  grazed  by  Mr.  Wright  of  Rougham, 
in  Norfolk,  The  following  were  her  proportions :  height  of  .shoulder,  5  ft. 
8  in. ;  length  from  nose  to  rump,  10  ft.  4  in. ;  width  across  the  hip,  2  fit. 



6in. ;  across  the  middle  of  the  back,  Sft. ;  across  the  shoulders,  2ft.  4in. ; 
girth  of  leg  below  knee.  Sin. ;  distance  of  breast  from  the  ground,  1ft. 
3i^in. ;  width  between  fore  legs,  1ft.  bin.  The  weight  was  190  stones, 
of  81b.  to  the  stone,  or  108  stones  101b.  imperial  weight.  She  was  exhi- 
bited at  the  Smithfield  Cattle  Show,  and  her  portrait  engraved  under  the 
sanction  of  the  Club. 

[Galloway  Caw.] 

This  cut  contains  the  portrait  of  a  beautiful  Galloway  cow,  belonging 
to  Mr.  Gurney,  near  Norwich. 

The  Galloway  cows  are  not  good  milkers;  but  although  the  quantity 
of  the  milk  is. not  great,  it  is  rich  in  quality^  and  yields  a  Targe. proportion 
of  butter.  _  A-  cow  that  gives  from  twelve  to  sixteen  quarts  of  milk  per  day, 
is  considered  a  very  superior  milker,  and, that  quantity  produces  more 
than  a  pound  and  a  half  of  butter.  The  average  milk, ,  however,  of  a 
Galloway  cow  cannot  be  reckoned  at  more  than  six  or  eight  quarts  per 
day,  during  the  five  summer  months  after  feeding  her  calf.  During  the 
next  four  months  she  does  not  give  more  than  half  of  th^t  quantity,  and 
for  two  or  three  months  she  is  dry. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  young  Galloway, cattle  are  more  exposed  than 
others  to  iterfwaier,  particularly  on  grass  lands  that  have  not  been  ma- 
nured with  lime.  This  disease,  however,  is  easily  checked  at  an  early 
period  by  a  few  doses  of  Epsom  salts,  and  removing  the  animal  to  good 
young  grass,  where  the  field  has  been  recently  limed.  Quarter  Evil  is  also 
•  frequent  arid  fatal  disease  among  these  young  cattle.  From  its  highly 
inflammatory  character,  it  must  be  attacked  in  its  earliest  stage,  or  medical 
skill  will  be  of  no  avail.  When,  however,  the  Galloways  become  two 
years  old,  they  will  yield  in  hardihood  to  none,  and  are  comparatively 
exempt  from  every  complaint. 

It  has  been  remarked  in  this,  as  in  some  other  breeding  districts,  that 
cows  and  queys  of  good  quality  are  to  be  met  with  everywhere,  but  that 
it  is  difBcult  to  find  a  Galloway  bull  free  from  defect.  Too  many  breeders 
have  become  careless  from  this  circumstance.  They  have  been  contented 
■with  a  bull  of  moderate  pretensions,  and  the  form  and  value  of  their  catd 


l«2  CATTLE. 

have  been  depreciated ,  yet  not  to  the  extent  that  might  be  feared,  for  the 
imperfections  of  the  sire  do  not  always  appear  in  the  progeny,  but  the 
sterling  characteristics  of  the  Galloway  cattle  break  out  again,  although 
obscured  in  one  generation 

A  bullock  well  fattened  will  weigh  from  40  to  60  stones  at  3  or  3j  years 
I  lid,  and  some  have  been  fed  to  more  than  100  stones  imperial  weight,  at 
5  years  old.  The  average  prices  foi  good  Galloway  beasts  may  be  stated 
as  follows.  Stirks  at  about  15  months  old  are  worth  from  31.  10s.  to 
41.  10s.  per  head ;  cattle  of  2  years  old  will  bring  from  6/.  to  81.,  and  at 
8  and  Sj  years,  they  ought  to  sell  at  10/.  or  121.  per  head ;  this,  however, 
supposes  them  to  be  sold  in  the  lot,  and  no  particular  beast  selected.* 
Since  the  year  1818,  Galloway  cattle,  like  all  others,  have  fallen  in  price, 
nearly  or  quite  one-third. 

It  'has  often  and  truly  been  remarked,  with  regard  to  the  Galloway 
cattle,  that  while  in  "most  districts  there  may  be  some  good  beasts,  but 
mingled  with  others  of  a  different  and  very  inferior  kind,  there  is  a 
uniform  character,  and  tnat  of  excellence,  here ;  one  bullock  selected  at 
haphazard  may  generally  be  considered  a  fail  sample  of  the  lot.  The 
breeders  know,  from  long  experience,  what  kind  of  cattle  will  please  the 
farmers  in  Norfolk,  and  by  whom  they  are  chiefly  prepared  for  the 
London  market,  and  to  that  kind  of  cattle  they  most  carefully  adhere. 
The  drover,  likewise,  becomes  by  his  profession  an  excellent  judge  of 
cattle,  which  he  often  purchases  in  large  lots.  He  is  unable  to  handle 
half  of  them,  but  long  practice  has  taught  him  to  determine  at  a  glance 
whether  they  are  of  equal  value  and  will  prove  good  feeders,  and  in  the 
Galloway  phrase,  '  will  sell  best  at  the  far  end." 

The  chief  sales  for  the  southern  markets  take  place  in  September  and 
October,  to  suit  those  at  St.  Faith's  on  October  the  17th,  and  Hampton 
on  Novernber  the  16th.  The  cattle  are  sent  off  in  droves  of  from  200  to 
300,  under  the  charge  of  a  person  called  the  topsman,  who  generally  goes 
before  to  see  that  grass  is  secured  at  proper  stations  and  to  make  all  ne- 
cessary arrangements,  and  who  has  under  him  other  drovers,  in  the  pro- 
portion of  one  to  about  30  cattle.  The  journey  to  Norfolk  occupies  about 
three  weeks.  The  expense  in  summer  and  autumn  is  from  \L  to  12.  4s. 
per  head,  and' in  winter,  when  they  are  fed  with  hay,  they  cost  10s.  or  15s. 
per:  head  additional. 

The  cattle  are  purchased  and  paid  for  by  the  drovers,  sometimes  in 
•ash,  but  moie  generally  a  part  of  the  pric^  is  paid  in  bills,  and  sometimes 
the  whole  of  it.  In  some  instances,  where  the  farmer  has  confidence  in 
the  drover,  he  consents  that  the  purchase  money  shall  be  remitted  from 
Norwich;  or  that  the  money  shall  be  paid  when  the  jobber  returns  to 
Galloway.  The  business  is  hazardous,  and  now  and  then  unfortunate ; 
but  the  drover  considers  himself  well  paid,  if,  every  expense  of  the  journey 
Deing  discharged,  he  clears  from  2s.  6d.  to  5s.  per  head ;  and  when  he 
has  either  money  or  credit  sufficient  to  take  a  drove  of  600  or  1000  head 
of  cattle  to  the  market,  that  is  a  good  remunerating  price.  From  20,000 
to  25,000  cattle  are  disposed  of  in  this  way  every  year,  of  which  about 
iwo-thirds  are  bullocks  and  one-third  heiferst. 

*  The  aj»e  of  tjie  teast  is  reckoned  somewhat  differently  from  that  of  horses ;  they  are 
tailed  two  years  M  until  they  are  three,  and  three. years  old  until  they  are  four. 

f  Thfi  Galloway  farmers,  who  breed  for  sale,  however,  are  continually  on  the  watch  foi 
»  favourable  opportunity  of  disposing  of  a  portion  of  their  stock ;  and  there  are  others  io 
the  richer  districts  of  the  country  who  consider  it  more  profitable  to  buy  young  cattle  than 
to'feip  a  large  hreeding  stock.    They,  too,  are  continually  buying  aDdsellinf;;  and 


There  is;  perhaps,  no  breed  of  cattle  which  can  be  more  truly  said  to  be 
indigenous  to  the  country,  and  incapable  of  improvement  by  any  foreign 
cross  than  the  Galloways.  The  short-horns  almost  every  where  else  have 
improved  the  cattle  of  the  districts  to  which  they  have  travelled.  They 
have,  at  least  in  the  first  cross,  produced  manifest  improvement,  although 
the  advantage  has  not  often  been  prolonged  much  beyond  the  second 
generation ;  but  even  in  the  first  cross,  the  short-horns  have  done  little 
good  in  Galloway,  and,  as  a  permanent  mixture,  the  choicest  southern 
bulls  have  manifestly  failed.  The  intelligent  Galloway  breeder  is  now 
perfectly  satisfied  that  his  stock  can  only  be  improved  by  adherence  to  the 
pure  breed,  and  by  care  in  the  8election> 

iheuce,  according  to  Mr.  Smith,  arose  a  peculiarity  in  the  character  of  the  Galloway  fa> 
mer.  We  do  not  believe,  as  he  seems  to  think,  that  it  belongs  to  the  greater  portion  of 
them,  but  some  features  of  it  are  yet  to  be  traced  in  some  of  the  cattle  breeders  and 
(rraziers.  We  give  it  in  Ids  own  words  in  his  Survey  of  Galloway.  '  Frequent  transfers 
of  cattle  are  necessary,  and  he  seems  to  acquire  the  habit  of  buying  and  selling  without 
uny  other  object  than  the  prospect  of  a  good  bargain.  Some  of  them,  therefore,  keep  a 
b'lllock  more  than  a  year,  or  when  markets  are  brisk,  not  more  than  a,  few  weeks. 
With  very  good  judges  this  has.  succeeded  to  a  great  degree.  Some  of  the  most  opulent 
fanners  have  been  indebted  'for  their  success  to  their  skill  in  cattle  and  their  address  in 
striking  a  bargain  ;  and  this  success  has  tempted  others  to  embark  in  the  trade,  without 
either  the  talents  or  resources  for  carrying  it  on.  The  truth  is,  it  possesses  all  the  fasci- 
nation of  the  gaming  table.  The  fluctuation  and  uncertainty  of  markets,  the  sudden 
gains  and  losses  that  follow,  the  idea  of  skill  and  dexterity  requisite,  the  risk  connected 
with  the  business,  these  excite  the  strong  passions  of  the  mind,  and  attach  the  cattle- 
dealer,  like  the  gambler,  to  his  profession,  although  he  may  be  assured  that  he  is  frequently 
pursuing  the  road  to  ruin.  He  counts  his  gains,  but  seldom  calculates  his  losses.  After 
a  long  succession  of  bad  luck,  he  hopifs  that  a  few  successful  adventures  will  enable  him 
to  retrieve  the  desperate  situation  of  his  affairs,  and  the  failure  and  ruin  of  those  who 
have  been  gambling  in  a  large  way  are  productive  of  great  detriment  to  the  agriculturist 
and  the  community  generally.  The  inevitable  consequence  of  this  mode  of  proceeding  is, 
that  the  farmer  is  a  constant  attendant  on  fairs  and  markets  whether  he  has  anything  ta 
do  or  not.  Qne  or  two  days  in  the  week  are  (iseless,  or  worse  than  useless.  That  accu- 
rate attention  to  minutiae  on  which  so  j;nuch  of  the  farming  business  depends,  order  and 
regularity  in  his  habits,  are  forsaken  and  forgotten ;  serious  expenses,  exceeding  his  profits, 
are  incurred;  habits  of  dissipation  are  contracted;  every  moral  principle  is  gradually 
sapped  and  destroyed,  and  he  becomes  at  last  disqualified  for  any  business  or  employment.' 
This  is  a  dark  picture.  It  is  not  so  true  and  faithful  a  one  as  it  formerly  was,  but  the 
farmer  may  learn  wisdom. 

Of  the  lower  kind  of  dealers,  Mr.  Ross,  in  one  of  his  statistical  accounts,  gives  a  very 
vivid  description. 

'  A  mountaineer  will  travel  from  fair  to  fair  for  SO  miles  round  with  no  other  food  than 
the  oaten  cake  which  he  carries  with  him,  and  what  requires  neither  fire,  table,  knife,  nor 
other  instrument  to  use.  He  will  lay  out  the  whole,  or  perhaps  treble  of  all  he  is  worth 
(to  which  the  facility  of  the  country  banks  is  a  great  encouragement)  in  the  purchase 
of  30  or  100  head  of  cattle,  with  which,  when  collected,  he  sets  out  for  England,  a  country 
with  the  roads,  manners  and  inhabitants  of  which  he  is  totally  unacquainted. 

'  In  this  journey,  he  scarcely  ever  goes  into  a  house,  sleeps  but  little,  and  then  generally 
in  the  open  air,  and  lives  chiefly  upon  his  favourite  oaten  bread.  If  he  fail  of  disposing 
of  his  cattle  at  the  fair  of  Carlisle,  the  usual  place  of  sale,  he  is  probably  ruined,  and  h^ 
to  begin  the  world,  as  he  terms  it,  over  again.  If  he  succeeds,  he  returns  home  only  to 
commence  a  new  wandering  and  a  new  labour,  and  is  ready  in  about  a  month  perhaps  to 
get  out  again  for  England. 

'There  are  others  who  job  about  from  fair  to  fair  without  leaving  the  country.  Tho 
wandering  a^d  unsettled  habits  which  this  species  of  life  induces  are  very  unfavourable  to 
Improvement ;  whenever  by  any  accident  the  cattle  trade  is  suspended,  or  becomes  un- 
profitable, the  persons  accustomed  to  be  employed  in  it,  being  unfit  for  any  soberer  occu- 
pation, remain  in  a  great  measure  idle.  Even  agriculture  is  burdensome  to  them  as  want- 
ing the  variety  and  interest  which  their  usual  occupation  affords  :  thus  the  fruits  of  so 
much  labour  and  enterprise  are  often  wasted  during  tfaa  long  intervals  of  indolence  and 
inactivity.'  The  drovers,  however,  of  the  present  day,  deserve  a  fiir  better  character,  aai 
are,  generally  speokiui;,  a  very  respectable  and  deserving  class  of  men. 

M  3 



*"  *f*  J 

%J^f^--  'j-lg 

[Gu//oK'ay  Bull.] 

For  this  cut  also  we  are  indebted  to  Mr.  Gurney. 

The  Galloway  cattle  are  generally  very  docile.  This  is  a  most  valuable 
point  about  them  in  every  respect.  It  is  rare  to  find  even  a  bull  furious 
or  troublesome. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Smith,  in  his  Survey  of  Galloway,  has  some  very  good 
remarks  on  the  old  management  of  the  breeders  here,  and  a  little  applicable 
to  some  of  the  present  day.  '  The  graziers  in.Galloway  are  generally  censu- 
rable for  overstocking,  although  they  are  less  so  now  than  at  former  ti^mes, 
or  perhaps  than  the  graziers  of  some  other  districts.  Their  greatest  fault 
lies  in  their  winter  and  spring  management,  and  this  is  more  the  effect  of 
necessity  than  choice,  for  the  bulk  of  farms  cannot  keep  the  same  number 
of  cattle  in  winter  as  in  summer,  and  on  a  reduction  of  prices,  which,  often 
occurs  about  the  end  of  autumn,  they  must  either  sell  to  great  disadvantage 
or  wait  the  issue  of  the  spring  market.  Hence  in  ordinary  pastures  the 
full  stock  of  summer  still  remains  with  but  a  scanty  allowance  of  fodder, 
and  are  compelled  by  hunger  to  devour  every  remnant  of  grass,  and 
leave  the  fields  naked  and  exposed,  and  thus  not  a  little  retard  the  subse- 
quent vegetation.  But  this  is  not  all ;  for,  from  the  deficiency  of  fodder, 
the  cattle  are  eager  to  snatch  up  every  pile  of  new  grass  as  it  rises,  and  the 
pasture  being  thus  kept  completely  eaten  down,  and  denuded  in  this  first 
vigoroiis  period  of  vegetation,  never  afterwards  acquires  a  full  growth,  nor 
can  it  feed  the  same  stock  in  summer  which  it  might  have  fattened  under 
better  management.  Every  experienced  grazier  knows  the  great  advantage 
of  sparing  his  pastures  in  spring,  until  they  have  acquired  their  full  cover 
of  herbage.' 

During  the  last  fifty  years  a  very  great  improvement  has  taken  place 
both  in  the  tillage  management,  and  in  the  rearing  and  grajiingf  of  cattle 
in  Galloway.  Most  of  the  great  landholders  farm  a  portion  of  their  own 
c'^tates,  and  breed  and  graze  cattle,  apd  some  of -them  very  extensively. 
Agricultural  societies  have  been  established  in  the  counties  of  Kirkcud- 
bright and  ,Wigton,  and  all  the  land  proprietors,  and  the  greater  part  of 
the  tenants,  have  become  members  of  them.    These  societies  have  bten 


enabled  to  grant  numerous  premiums  for  the  best  tillage  husbandry  and 
mafiagement  of  stock,  and  rearing  of  stock,  and  the  consequence  has 
been  very  considerable  improvement  in  the  breed  of  cattle,  on  the  uii- 
deviating  principle,  however,  of  selection  and  adherence  to  the  pure  breed. 
Of  the  grazing  properties  of  these  valuable  cattle,  we  cannot  give  u 
more  satisfactory  illustration  than  by  staling,  that  60  Galloways  were 
bought  in  September  last  at  Barnet  fair  for  10/,  per  head,  to  be  turned 
into  his  Majesty's  Home  Park  at  Hampton  Court,  and  are  now,  (March, 
1833,)  after  being  fed  occasionally  with  hay,  selling  at  an  average  of  18/, 

About  ten  thousand  Irish  cattle  are  annually  landed  at  Port  Patrick  in 
Wigtonshire,  a  few  of  which  remain  in  that  district,  but  the  greater  part 
find  their  way  into  England.  Port  Patrick  is  well  situated  for  this  pur- 
pose, on  account  of  the  shortness  of  the  passage  from  Ireland.  This  com- 
merce was  once  prohibited,  from  the  absurd  notion,  that  it  would  be  detri- 
mental to  the  interests  of  the  English  breeders  ;  at  length  it  was  permitted 
for  seven  years  by  way  of  experiment,  in  the  fifth  year  of  George  III., 
and  made  perpetual  in  the  sixteenth  year  of  the  reign  of  the  same  mo- 
narch. There  is  a  great  deal  of  speculation  attending  this  traffic  in  cattle. 
It  is  influenced  materially  by  the  quality  of  grass,  and  hay,  and  turnips 
in  England,  or  by  the  probability  of  large  crops  of  these  articles,  and  large 
sums  are  often  speedily  gained  or  lost  in  the  speculation  *. 


This  is  a  considerable  wedge-shaped  county,  interposed  between  Lanark, 
Peebles,  Selkirk,  and  Roxburgh  on  the  east,  and  Kirkcudbright  on  the 
west,  and  divided  from  Cumberland  by  the  river  Liddel.  The  native  cattle 
of  Dumfries  were,  according  to  Dr.  Singer,  in  his  survey  of  that  county, 
horned,  long  in  the  leg,  narrow  in  the  back,  thin  and  short  in  the  hair, 
and  neither  weighty  for  their  height  nor  hardy.  These,  however,  have 
been  superseded  by  the  Galloways  for  grazing,  and  by  the  Ayrshires,  which 
in  their  turn  have  partly  yielded  to  the  short-horns,  for  milking.  There 
is  beside  a  fluctuating  and  uncertain  number  of  flying  stock  consisting  ol 
Highlanders,  principally  from  Falkirk  tryst,  and  even  a  few  Irish  which 
are  grazed  a  part  of  the  year,  or  wintered  in  the  county. 

The  richer  pasture  of  Dumfries  has  given  to  the  Galloways,  bred  ot 
grazed  there,  a  somewhat  larger  form  and  earlier  maturity,  than  they 
possess  in  their  native  district,  and  on  this  account  they  used  to  be  held 

*  Dr.  John  Scott,  in  his  account  of  the  parish  of  Swyneholm  in  Kirkcudbright,  in  1 795, 
deieribes  the  polled  Galloways  as  then  highly  valued  by  the  Norfolk  farmers.  They 
would,  at  one  year  old,  bring  from  2/.  to  5/. ;  at  two  years  old,  they  would  bring  from 
4/.  to  9/. ;  and  at  three  years,  from  6/.  to  10/.  Atthattime,  thebest  pf  the  two  years  old  were 
usually  sent  with  the  three  years  old  to  the  English  market.  Speaking  of  the  attempt'!  at 
improvement,  he  says,  '  our  farmers  cannot  be  too  careful  to  [preserve  this  breed^  for  any 
trials  to  meliorate  it  by  crossing  with  other  bulls  have  hitherto  failed.  A  gentleman  in 
this  country,  who  had  a  large  dairy  remarkable  for  rearing  the  best  cattle,  and  who  kept 
and  fed  them  until  a  proper  age,  when  he  sent  them  with  other  cattle  which  lie  bought 
from  his  tenants  to  the  English  markets,  in  order  to  try  the  experiment,  purchased  one  of 
Mr.  Bakewrll's  bulls.  He  put  one  half  of  his  cows  to  this  beast,  and  the  other  half  to  a 
Moorland  bull' bred  upon  his  owu  estate.  He  fed  the  product  equally  until  tbey  were  sent 
to  market  at  J\  orfolk,  when  those  bred  from  the  Galloway  bull  brought  considerably  more 
Dfiuney  than  the  others,  besides  being  easier  to  feed.' 

'  On  the  other  hand,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Wilson,  in  his  account  of  Kirkbean,  says  that  Mr, 
Craik  of  Arbigland  introduced  the  Bakewell  breed  upon  his  estate,  and  that  the  same 
number  of  cattle  upon  the  sa  ne  field  fattened  equ.dly  with  thotz  of  the  Galloway  kind.' 

166  CATTLE 

in  much  estimation.  They  were  bought  at  the  Dumfries  market  by  the 
Galloway  farmers  themselves,  who,  after  keeping  them  for  a  certain  time, 
drafted  them  among  their  own  cattle  of  a  twelvemonth  older,  and  sent 
them  for  sale  to  Carlisle.  It  was  doubtful,  however,  whether  these 
beasts  had  the  perfect  form  of  the  native  Galloways,  and  whether  the  fine 
«^rain  and  flavour  of  their  meat  were  not  somewhat  deteriorated.  The 
cattle  market  at  Dumfries  is  the  largest  in  the  south  of  Scotland. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Wilson  gives  the  following  account  of  the  cattle  of  Dum- 
fries in  1811.  '  The  cows  for  breeding  are  principally  of  the  Galloway 
kind.  The  return  or  annual  profit  per  cow  is  about  61.  The  young  two- 
year-old  bullocks  kept  for  grazing  are  one-half  Galloways,  and  the  other 
half  West  Highlanders,  bought  at  Falkirk  tryst  in  October;  and,  after  being 
fed  one  year,  they  are  sold  to  drovers  to  be  forwarded  to  the  English  mar- 
kets, after  having  yielded  to  the  grazier  a  profit  of  31.  3s.  per  head.  Others 
sell  them  early  in  the  summer,  after  having  fed  them,  on  fog-hay  in  the 
fields  during  the  winter,  and  usually  given  from  11.  to  21.  per  head*. 

A  very  superior  and  finely  flavoured  butter  is  made  on  the  borders  of 
the  Esk  in  this  county.  It  is  made  from  the  cream  only,  and  no  part  of 
the  milk  is  churned.  The  milk  is  suffered  to  stand  about  36  hours,  when 
the  cream  is  collected,  and  the  different  meals  thrown  together,  until  there 
is  enough  to  be  conveniently  churned  at  one  time,  or  the  cream  has  be- 
come a  little  sour  of  its  own  accord,  and  the  sooner  it  is  churned  after  it 
has  begun  to  become  acid,  the  better  will  be  the  butter. 

Robert  Burns  rented  a  farm  at  Dunscore  in  Dumfries,  and,  not  content 
with  the  Galloway  breed,  he  introduced  some  of  the  west-country  cows, 
which  he  thought  would  produce  more  milk.  The  climate  did  not  agree 
with  them,  and  the  speculation  was  decidedly  unsuccessful. 


There  have  always  been  some  polled  cattle  in  Angus  ;  the  country-people 
call  them  humlies  or  dodded  cattle.  Their  origin  is  so  remote,  that  no  account 
of  their  introduction  into  this  country  can  be  obtained  from  the  oldest  far- 
mers or  breeders.  The  attention  of  some  enterprising  agriculturists  appears 
to  have  been  first  directed  to  them  about  sixty  years  ago,  and  particularly 
on  the  eastern  coast,  and  on  the  borders  of  Kincardineshire.  Some  of  the 
first  qualities  which  seem  to  have  attracted  the  attention  of  these  breeders 
were  the  peculiar  quietness  and  docility  of  the  doddies,  the  easiness 
with  which  they  were  managed,  the  few  losses  that  were  incurred  from 
their  injuring  each  other  in  their  stalls,  and  the  power  of  disposing  of  a 
greater  number  of  them  in  the  same  space. 

A  few  experiments  upon  them  developed  another  valuable  quality — 
their  natural  fitness  for  stall-feeding,  and  the  rapidity  with  which  they 
fattened.  This  brought  them  into  much  repute  during  the  revolutionary 
war,  not  only  in  their  own  country,  where  great  numbers  were  fattened  for 
the  Glasgow  and  Edinburgh  markets,  but  also  in  England,  whither  they 
we-e  sent  in  numerous  droves  for  the  supply  of  Smithfield,  and  of  the 

•  A  writer  in  the  '  Gentleman's  Magazine,'  says  that  '  he  was  at  the  hridge  end  of 
Dumfries  in  1736,  when  Anthony  M'Kie,  of  Nellverlon,  sold  five  score  of  five  years  old 
Gallowav  cattle  in  good  condition,  to  an  Enghshman,  for  2/.  I2j.  6d.  each ;  and  old  Hob. 
Halliday,  who  was  a  tenant  of  a  great  part  of  Preston  estate,  said  that  he  reckoned  he 
could.  giBie  hii  cattle  on  his  farms  at  2».  6rf.  per  head,  i.  e.  his  rent  corresponded  to  that 


mrmy  and  navy.  They  were  purchased  for  Smithfield  chiefly  by  the  Nor- 
folk and  Leicestershire  graziers,  and  after  from  one  year  and  a  half  to  two 
years'  English  feeding  they  paid  for  their  keep  at  least  equal  to  the  most 
approved  English  cattle.  They  were  brought  to  the  south  under  the 
denomination  of  Galloways,  partly  because  they  were  a  comparatively 
unknown  breed,  bearing  much  resemblance  to  the  Galloways,  and  also 
because  the  purchasers  of  the  Angus  cattle  were  known  to  be  extensive 
speculators  in  the  Galloway  beasts.  They  were  usually  fed  off  at  about 
Aree  years  old,  and  reached  to  an  average  weight  of  sixty  imperial 

They  have  much  of  the  Galloway  form,  and  by  those  unaccustomed  to 
cattle  would  often  be  mistaken  for  the  Galloways.  A  good  judge,  how- 
ever, would  perceive  that  they  are  larger,  somewhat,  longer  in  the  leg, 
thinner  in  the  shoulder,  and  flatter  in  the  side. 

Climate  and  management  have  caused  another  difference  between  the 
Angus  doddies  and  the  Galloways.  The  Galloways  have  to  encounter 
moist  climate ;  they  are  in  most  cases  wintered  out  in  the  fields,  <  . 
at  least  receive- only  a  scanty  allowance  of  natural  hay  during  the  severest 
part  ofthe  season,  and  are  chiefly  sent  to  the  Norfolk  market  in  a  lean 
state  i^l^jjce  they  have  a  more  robust  appearance,,  a  much  thicker  skin, 
and  a  rougher  ccjat.  of  hair  than  the  Angus,  oxen.  Forfarshire  is  a  great 
turnip  country,  and  has  its  fields  for  the  most  part  inclosed  ,  the  cattle  are 
regularly  kept  in  straw-yards  during  six  months  of  the  year,  receiving  tur- 
nips with  their  fodder  every  day,  and  in  summer  they  are  grazed  on  com- 
paratively dry  and  warm  pastures.  By  this  mode  of  treatment  they  look 
and  fefel  mwre;  kindly  than  the  Galloways. 

Thi'greatbripartof  them  are  black  or  with  a  few  white  spots.  Thenfext 
general  colour  is  yellow,  comprehending  the  brindled,  dark  red,  and  silver 
coloured  yellow. 

They  are  a  valuable  breed,  and .  have  rapidly  gained  ground  on  the 
horned  cattle.  They  have  become  far  more  numerous  than  the  others, 
particularly  in  the  Lowlands  ;  and  when  the  agriculturist  now  speaks  of 
the  Angus  breed,  he  refers  to  the  polled  and  not  to  the  horned  species. 

One  of  the  most  spirited  and  successful  breeders  of  the  dodded  Angus 
cattle  is  Mr.  Watson,  of  Keillor,  by  Meigle,  in  Angus,  and  to  him  we  are 
indebted  for  much- valuable  iuformation  respecting  the  breed. 

His  stock  of  Angus  cattle  has  deservedly  obtained  the  name  of 
the  Keillor  breed,  and  a  most  excellent  one  it  is.  He  has  gained,  on 
account  of  them,  more  than  100  prizes,  besides  several  valuable  pieces  of 
p,late.  The  facilities  which  will  now  be  afforded,  by  the  establishment  of 
steam-carriage,  will  enable  him  and  other  enterprising  breeders  to  send 
many  beasts  to  the  London  mairket,  which  will  find  a  ready  and  pro- 
fitable sale  there. 

The  following  cut  contains  the  portrait  of  one  of  a  pair  of  oxen  exhibited 
by  him  at  the  show  of  the  Highland  society  at  Perth,  in  1829,  and  which 
obtained  the  prize  as  "  the  best  pair  of  oxen  of  the  Angus  breed  ''  He 
was  afterwards  sent  to  the  Smithfield  show,  at  the  Christinas  of  the  same 
year,  when  he  was  particularly  admired.  The  butcher  wh«9  purchased  him, 
Mr.  Sparks,  of  High-street,  Mary-le-bone,  with  whom  we  have  conversed 
on  the  subject,  and  who  may  be  considered  to  be  a  competent  judge,  said, 
after  he  was  slaughtered,  that  he  was  one  of  the  best  quality  he  ever  saw, 
and  he  thought  must  have  been  the  best  of  the  breed  that  ever  Waa 
exhibited.  The  meat  was  finely  grained,  and  there  w^e  more  than 
MOlhs.  offat  '    '" 



[Angus  Oj^jjat.^ 

'Ihe  next,  cut  is  a  fair  specimen  of  an  Angus  bullock,  in  good  store 
rinidilion.     It  was  the  property  of  Mr.  Clarke,  a  dealer  in  polled  cattle. 

The  following  cut  gives  us  the  portrait  of  a  heifer,  bred  and  fattened  by 
Mr,  Watson.     She  was  exhibited  at  the  same  show  at  Perth,  and  obtained 



the  medal '  for  extra  stock  of  superior  quality,'  She  also  was  sent  to  the 
Smithfield  show,  and  obtained  the  medal  in  the  class  of  extra  stock:  The 
Hiirhland  Society  requested  that  she  might  be  sent  there  as  a  sample  of 
the  excellence  to  which  this  breed  of  Scottish  cattle  could  arrive :  she  was 
then  4i^  years  old.  The  chturman,  in  presenting  the  medal,  stated  '  that 
the  judg^es  deemed  it  their  duty  to  mention  her  as  a  most  extraordinary 
animal,  and  which  they  could  not  too  highly  commend.'  Her  dead  weight 
was  estimated  at  130  or  140  stones,  and  yet  it  was  imagined  th»t  she  had 
not  arrived  at  her  point  of  extreme  weight.  She  sold  for  50/.,  and  wag 
publicly  exhibited  for  a  considerable  time  before  she  was  slaughtered,  and 
realised  a  consiclerable  sura  for  her  purchasers*.  We  admired  a  very 
superior  pair  of  Angus  oxen,  exhibited  by  the  same  gentleman  at  the  show 
of  the  Highland  Society  at  Kelso,  in  1832 :  one  of  them  seemed  to  be 
perfect  in  all  his  pmntst. 

[Angus  Cow,"] 

We  must,  however,  acknowledge  that  the  Angus  polled  cattle  generally 
are  not  of  that  very  superior  quality  and  value  which  this  account  of  the 
Keillor  breed  would  seem  to  indicate,  or,  what  is  the  case  with  many  other 
breeds,  they  are  exceedingly  valuable  in  their  own  climate  and  on  their, 
own  soil,  but  they  do  not  answer  the  somewhat  unreasonable  expectations 
ot  their  purchasers,  when  driven  to  the  south.     They  have  yielded  a  good 

*  She  was  out  of  a  very  small  cow  with  a  lemote  dash  of  Guernsey  blood  in  her  yet 
retaining  all  the  best  features  of  the  pure  Angus  blood.  The  bone  of  herfoie  leg,  which 
Mr.  Watson  has  in  his  possession,  was  not  thicker  than  that  of  a  red  deer,  and  she  was 
exceedingly  active  to  the  last.  When  killed  her  breast  was  nOt  quite  8  inches  clear  from  i 
the  ground,  and  her  inside  fat  was  equal  to  a  quarter  of  her  wliole  weight  of  beef. 

t  At  one  year  old  this  beast  gained  a  prize  at  the  annual  show  of  the  Strathinore 
Agricultural  Society  at  Coupar,  Angus ;  at  t^o  years  old  he  also  carried  off  the  priae  at 
the  next  show  of  the  same  society.  At  three  years  old  he  and  another  ox,  also  bred  by 
Mr,  Watson,  gained  the  first  premium  of  the  same  society  for  the  best  pair  of  fat  «xru 
of  any  breed ;  and  in  the  same  year  the  same  pair  were  shown,  as  we  have  stated,  at  the 
fleeting  of  the  Highland  Society  at  Perth, 


lemunerating  price,  and  the  grazier  has  had  no  cause  to  complain,  but 
.hey  are  not  quite  equal  to  their  ancestors  the  Galloways  in  quickness  of 
feeding,  or  fineness  of  grain.  They  attain  a  larger  size,  but  they  do 
not\pay  the  grazier  or  the  butcher  so  well.  They  have  been  fairly  tried 
m  the  south,  and,  on  the  faith  of  the  excellency  of  the  Keillor  breed,  Mr. 
Watson  sold  a  bull  in  1831  for  100  guineas,  and  in  the  same  year  he  sold 
a  lot  of  breeding  heifers  in  calf  at  the  rate  of  40/.  per  head,  yet  in  many 
places  the  Angus  cattle  have  gradually  given  way  to  the  old  occupiers  of 
the  land,  the  Galloways. 

The  greatest  shows  of  this  kind  of  stock  in  Angusshire  are  at  Brechin, 
in  June,  and  Forfar  in  July  and  August.  The  beasts  are  chiefly  purchased 
by  English  dealers.  We  saw  a  great  many  of  them,  and  very  fine  ones 
too,  at  the  Falkirk  Tryst  in  October,  1832.  When  in  good  condition  they 
sell,  at  3  years  old,  at  from  10/.  to  15Z. 

In  the  statistical  account  of  Angus  it  is  said  to  contain  45,400  cattle ; 
but  there  could  be  no  certain  grounds  on  which  to  form  the  calculation, 
the  numbers  depending  on  the  season  and  on  the  quantity  of  keep.  The 
flying  stock  bear  a  greater  proportion  to  the  whole  number  of  cattle  than 
in  almost  any  other  county. 

The  calves  that  were  reared  always  fared  better  here  than  in  many  dis- 
tricts ;  they  got  nearly  two  gallons  of  milk,  warm  from  the  cow,  every  day  for 
more  than  three  months;  and  were  then  put  on  the  best  grass,  and' had  tur- 
nips and  hay,  or  sometimes  only  straw,  in  the  winter,  wh6n  they  were 
always  housed  :  the  cows  were  also  generally  housed,  except  there  :Was  a 
scarcity  of  straw  and  other  fodder,  when,  and  especially  in  the  hilly  country, 
they  were  permitted  to  wander  over  some  rough  pasture  djiring  the  day. 

Mr.  Watson,  about  20  years  ago,  introduced  the  practice  of  suckling  the 
calves  in  the  house,  and  has  .since  continued  the  system  with  great  success. 
We  find  this  plan  thus  described  by  himself  in  a  letter  to  the  conductor  of 
a  work  on  domestic  animals,  under  the  patjronage  of  the  Highland  Society 
of  Scotland. 

*  The  cows  intended  for  nursing  generally  calve  early  in  ..the  season, 
about  the  month  of  January  or  February,  when  a  stranger  calf  is  procured 
from  some  of  the  small  tenants  in  the  district  who  have  dairies.  This 
calf  is  suckled  with  the  others,  by  the  same  cow  ;  and,  although  the  cow 
at  first  shows  great  dislike  to  the  stranger,  in  a  few  days  she  receives  it  very 
quietly — care  being  taken  that  both  are  put  to  suck  (one  on  each  side) 
exactly  at  the  same  time,  by  tying  the  calves'  bands  to  the  stall,  or  the 
band  of  the  cow,  so  as  to  keep  each  calf  at  its  own  side.  They  remain 
with  the  cow  for  fifteen  or  twenty  minutes,  by  which  time  her  milk  is  per- 
fectly drawn  away.  As  the  calves  advance  in  age  they  eat  hay,  sliced  pota- 
toes, porridge,  and  other  food  that  they  are  inclined  to  take.  By  the  Jst 
of  May,  or  as  soon  as  grass  is  ready,  they  are  weaned  and  turned  out  from 
he  byre,  when  two  fresh  calves  are  immediately  put  into  their  stalls  and 
teceive  the  same  treatment,  excepting  that  they  are  turned  out  at  12  o'clock, 
after  they  have  got  their  suck,  to  eat  grass,  and  are  brought  into  the  byre 
again  in  the  evening,  when  the  cows  come  in  to  be  sucked.  This  set  is 
ready  to  wean  by  the  1st  of  August,  and  a  single  calf  is  put  into  the  feed- 
ing pen  and  fattened  for  the  butcher,  the  season  being  now  too  late  for 
rearing.  As  these  are  fed  off,  the  cows  are  let  off  milk,  having  each 
suckled _/£«e  calves.  It  is  necessary  to  have  a  very  careful  and  steady  per- 
spp  to  attend  to  the  suckling,  which  has  to  be  done  three  times  a  day,  viz., 
early  in  the  morning  before  the  cows  are  turned  out  to  grass,  at  mid-day, 
and  in  the  evening  when  the  cows  come  into  the  byre  for  the  night  and  ge% 
k  littl«  cut  grass,  tares,  or  other  green  food.   The  byre  is  arranged  so  that  th* 


cowa  have  each  a  stall  of  about  four  feet  wide,  with  their  heads  to  the  well ; 
and  ou  the  opposite  wall  the  calves  are  tied  up,  two  in  a  stall,  exactly  be- 
hind the  cow,  so  that  there  is  little  trouble  in  putting  them  to  the  cows, 
and  no  chance  of  misplacing  them.  The  fat  calves  have  in  some  seasons 
been  sold  at  5Z.  each,  this  being  the  scarcest  time  of  the  year  for  veal. — 
Keillor,  October  1831.' 

The  quantity  of  milk  yielded  by  the  dairy  cows  is  various.  In  the 
hilly  district  from  two  to  three  gallons  are  given  per  day,  but  that  is  very 
rich.  In  the  lowlands  the  cows  will  give  five  gallons  during  the  best  of 
the  season.  The  cows  of  this  district  were  formerly  regarded  as  some 
of  the  best  dairy-cows  in  Scotland,  but  since  the  breed  has  been  more  im- 
proved, and  greater  attention  paid  to  the  fattening  qualities,  they  have 
fallen  off  in  their  character  for  the  pail.  About  half  of  the  milk  is  con- 
sumed at  home,  the  rest  is  made  into  butter  and  cheese.  The  butter,  as  is 
generally  the  case  in  this  part  of  Scotland,  is  good,  but  the  cheese  poor 
and  ill-flavoured.     No  oxen  are  used  on  the  road,  and  few  for  the  plough. 

Although  there  is  so  great  a  mixture  of  different  breeds  in  Forfarshire, 
they  are  all  of  Scottish  origin.  The  southern  breeds  have  been  repeatedly 
tried  and  have  failed,  and  so  has  the  Guernsey,  which  has  contributed  so 
much  to  the  improvement  of  some  English  dairies*. 

Hating  now  returned  to  the  districts  with  the  character  of  the  cattle  of 
which  the  greater  part  of  our  readers  may  be  supposed  to  be  tolerably 
well  acquamted,  our  description  both  of  the  peculiarities  of  the  breeds  of 
the  different  counties,  and  the  general  management  of  cattle,  will  be  brief. 

Until  the  beginning  of  the  last  century,  and  for  some  years  afterwards, 
the  native  breed  of  Norfolk  belonged  to  the  middle-horns.  Their  colour 
was  usually  red,  or  sometimes  black  ;  they  possessed  many  of  the  charac- 
ters of  the  Devons  on  a  smaller  scale,  with  their  pointed,  turned  up  horns. 
A  few  of  them  are  yet  occasionally  seen  in  the  less  cultivated  parts  of  the 
county,  and  in  the  possession  of  the  small  farmer  or  the  cottager.  They 
have,  however,  been  almost  superseded  by  a  polled  breed. 

We  have  stated  that  from  a  very  early  period,  a  great  part  of  the  Gallo- 
way cattle  were  prepared  for  the  Smithfield  market  on  the  pastures  of 
Norfolk  and  Suffolk;  nearly  one-half  of  the  beasts  that  supply  the  metro- 
pohs  come  from  these  counties.  Some  of  the  Galloways,  either  accident- 
ally, or  selected  on  account  of  their  superior  form  and  quality,  remained 
in  Norfolk ;  and  the  farmer  attempted  to  naturalize  and  to  rear  in  his 
own  county,  and  he  hoped  at  somewhat  less  cost,  a  breed  of  cattle  so  highly 

*  Some  curious  sports  in  nature  have  been  observed  in  the  breeding  of  Angus  doddies. 
One  remarkable  fact  is  stated  by  John  Boswell,  Esq.,  of  Balmuto  and  Kingcaussie,  in  an 
essay  upon  the  breeding  of  live  stock,  communicated  to  the  Highland  Society  in  1825.— 
'  One  of  the  most  intelUgent  breeders  I  have  ever  met  with  in  Scotland,  Mr  Mustard,  an 
extensive  farmer  on  Sir  James  Carnegie's  estate  in  Angus,  told  me  a  singular  fact  with 
regard  to  what  I  have  now  stated.  One  of  his  cows  chanced  to  come  into  season  while 
pasturing  on  a  field  which  was  bounded  by  that  of  one  of  his  neighbours,  out  of  which 
field  an  ox  jumped  and  went  with  the  cow,  until  she  was  brought  home  to  the  bull.  The 
ox.  was  white,  with  black  spots,  and  homed.  Mr.  Mustard  had  not  a  homed  beast  in  bis 
possession,  nor  one  with  any  white  on  it.  Nevertheless,  the  produce  of  the  following 
-uring  was  d black  and  white  calf,  tidlh  horns'  Another  fact,  which  shows  the  great iuire 
lequired  in  keeping  pure  this  breed,  is  related  of  the  Keillor  stock,  where,  two  different 
seasons,  a  dairy  cow  of  the  Ayrshire  breed,  red  and  white,  was  allowed  to  pasture  witb 
the  black  daddies.  In  the  first  experiment,  firom  pure  black  bulls  and  cows,  there 
appeared  three  red  and  white  calves;  and. on  the  second  trial  two  of  the  calves  were  li( 
mixed  colours.     Since  that  time,  care  has  been  taken  to  have  almost  every  animal  on  th« 



valued  in  the  metropolitan  market.  To  a  certain  degree  he  succeeded ;  and 
thus  the  polled  cattle  gradually  gained  upon  the  horned  ones,  and  at  length 
became  so  much  more  numerous  and  profitable  than  the  old  sort,  that 
they  began  to  be  regarded  as  the  peculiar  and  native  breed  of  the  county. 
They  retain  much  of  the  general  form  of  their  ancestors,  the  Galloways, 
hut  not  all  their  excellencies.  They  have  been  enlarged  but  not  improved 
by  a  southern  climate  and  a  richer  soil.  They  are  usually  red,  some, 
however,  are  black,  or.  either  of  these  colours  mixed  with  white,  with  a 
characteristic  golden  circle  about  the  eye.  They  are  taller  than  the  Gallo- 
ways, but  thinner  in  the  chine,  flatter  in  the  ribs,  longer  in  the  legs,  some- 
what better  milkers,  of  greater  weight  when  fattened,  but  not  fattening  so 
kindly,  and  the  meat  not  quite  equal  in  quality. 

[^Norfolk  CW.] 

This  cut  presents  a  favourable  specimen  of  them.  The  cow  was  bred 
by  Mr.  George,'  of  Eaton,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Norwich.  This  beast, 
at  least,  is  an  exception  to  the  censure  which  has  been  passed  upon  them 
as  '  ugly  and  misshaped.' 

Although  too  little  care  is  taken  in  any  part  of  this  county  to  improve 
the  breed,  yet  it  has  been  improved  in  many  districts,  not  only  in  attain- 
ing larger  weights  at  all  ages,  but  in  the  quality  of  the  meat  beiHg  con-' 
siderably  better;  yet  it  must  be  confessed  that  the  Galloways  afforded  so 
ample  a  remuneration  to  the  Norfolk  grazier  during  their  temporary 
abode  with  him  in  their  journey  to  the  Smithfield  market,  that  the  home-. 
bred  cattle  were,  after  a  while,  comparatively  neglected. 

Norfolk  is  principally  a  grazing  co\mty,  and  the  cattle  chiefly  grazed- 
there  are  the  Galloway  Scots.  The  following  estimate  of  the  expense  and 
profit  in  feeding  them,  is  taken  from  the  Agricultural  Survey  of  Norfolk, 
and  was  furnished  by  Mr.  Barton.  The  more  complete  establishment  of 
the  turnip  husbandry  has  made  some  alteration,  and  that  in  favour  of  the 

'  Of  the  Scotch  cattle  there  are  three  sorts  wnich  require  consideration  ; 
the  first  is  a  bullock,  turned  of  four  years  old,  and  bought  at  St.  Faith», 
Octrber  I7th,  for  about  91.,  and  in  such  candition  as  to  be  fit  to  be  put. 


immeiliately  on  turnips.  He  is  put  on  turnips,  and  kept  there  about  34 
wetfks ;  in  bad  weather  a  little  hay  is  given,  and  when  to  this  is  added 
the  customary  straw,  carriage,  attendance,  &c.,  the  expense  will  amount 
to  about  4s.  per  week,  bringing  the  cost  of  the  ox  to  13/.  16s.  He  will 
now  probably  weigh  from  ."iO  to  52  stones  of  141bs,  whioh  at  5s.  6d.  per 
stone,  or  3s.  8d.  per  Smithfield  stone  of  8  lbs.,  will  amount  to  14/.  i6s., 
leaving  only  11.  clear  profit  per  head. 

A  second  lot,  and  a  year  younger,  is  probably  bought  lean  at  the  same 
time,  and  at  about  6/.  They  are  put  on  stubble  or  ordinary  grass,  until 
the  straw-yard  is  open.  They  are  then  sent  into  the  straw-yard  at  night, 
where  they  eat  the  offals  of  every  description,  and  follow  the  best  beasts 
during  the  day.  This,  for  21  weeks,  until  May  day,  and  at  Is.  6d.  per 
week,  will  amount  to  U.  16s.  They  are  then  put  into  the  marshes,  or  on 
good  pasture,  until  a  fortnight  alter  Michaelmas,  which,  reckoning  28 
weeks  at  2s.  3d.  per  week,  will  cost  31.  3s.  more  ;  then  to  turnips  for  S 
weeks  at  3s.,  which  will  be  11.  4s.,  and  amounting  in  the  whole  to  12/.  3s. 
The  weight  of  the  bullock  will  now  generally  be  about.  44  stones,  and  the 
value  12/.  2c. 

A  third  lot  is  probably  bought  at  Harleston  in  December.  The  beasts 
are  lean,  of  the  same  age,  and  the  price  averages  at  about  7/.  per  head. 
They  are  sent  immediately  to  the  straw-yard,  and  fed  on  offal  turnips  for 
8  weeks  at  Is.  6d.  per  week,  and  amounting  to  12s.  They  then  go  on 
full  keeping,  turnips  by  day,  and  the  straw-yard  at  night,  for  10  weeks, 
which  at  2s.  6d.  per  week,  will  give  an  additional  expense  of  1/.  5s.  They 
then  go  into  the  two  years'  lay,  or  good  pasture,  for  20  weeks,  making,  at 
3s.  per  week,  3/.  more,  which  brings  their  cost  to  the  graz.ler  to  11/.  17s. 
They  will  now  probably  weigh  46  stones,  which  at  5s.  6d.  per  stone  will 
amount  to  12/.  13s. 

It  would  appear  from  these  calculations  that  the  first  lot  paid  10  per 
cent,  interest  on  the  capital  laid  out,  and  a  fair  price  for  what  they  con- 
sumed. The  second  yielded  no  interest  on  the  original  cost,  but  a  fair 
price  for  the  food  ;  and  the  third  gave  15  per  cent,  in  addition  to  the  same 
remunerating  price  ;  but  to  this  seemingly  little  profit  must  be  added  the 
increased  value  of  the  succeeding  crops,  from  the  great  quantity  of 

The  grand  fairs  for  the  purchase  of  the  Galloway  cattle  are  at  St.  Faiths, 
on  October  17th*;  Hampton  Green,  November  22ud.;  and  Harleston, 
November  28th.  The  horned  Scotch  cattle  are  often  grazed,  although 
not  to  the  extent  of  the  Galloways.  Mr.  Marshall,  in  that  valuable  work. 
'  The  Rural  Economy  of  Norfolk,'  gives  the  following  account  of  two  lots 
of  Kyhies.  The  buying  and  selling  prices  are  now  very  different,  but  the 
proportion  between  them  is  nearly  the  same.  '  How  profitable  are  th» 
little  Isle-of-Sky  cattle  to  the  Norfolk  farmer,  who  has  rough  meadows  to 

them  to  run  in?     had  eleven,  bought  last  Hemlingreen  fair,  (ju'-t 

twelve-months  ago,)  for  three  guineas  a-pieee.     They  were  kept  entirely 

*  Mr.  Marshall  thus  describes  the  Fair  of  St.  Faiths : — 

On  Wednesday,  17th  instant,  I  went  to  the  first  day  of  the  fair  of  St.  Faiths,  a  village 
near  Norwichj  where  one  of  the  largest  fairs  iu  the  kingdom  is  held  annually  on  that  day, 
for  cheese  and  butter,  and  a  variety  of  wares,  but  most  especially  the  first,  which  is  brought 
in  great  quantities  out  of  Suffolk  to  supply  this  country  during  the  winter  months,  when 
a  Norfolk  cheese  is  not  to  be  purchased  in  this  part  of  the  country. 

The  first  day  of  this  feir  also  draws  togethtr  a  good  show  of  cattle,  iiiincipally  'home 
bred,'  either  for  store  or  for  fatting  on  turnips,  and  for  which  purpiises  a  show  of  Scotch 
bullocks  is  also  exhibited  upon  a  rising  ground  at  a  small  distance  from  the  fair-field. 

The  sale  of  Scotch  cattle  continues  for  a  fortnight,  or  longer  time,  until  this  quiuter  ot 
aha  cauntv  be  snoolied  with  that  species  of  stock. — Marshall's  Ecouom\  of  Nor.ulk.  ii.  49- 

1  0 
3     6 


4  18 
6     0 


174  CATTLE. 

on  stratr  and  rushy  grass,  wtiich  nothing  else  would  have  eaten,  until  the 
month  of  May,  when  they  were  turned  into  some  Norfolk  meadowS; 
(worth  about  ten  shilhngs  an  acre)  where  they  remained  until  September, 
since  which  time  they  have  been  at  good  lattermath.  Some  of  them  are 
now  quite  fat,  and  the  rest  nearly  so ;  one  with  another  they  are  worth 
•bout  six  pounds  a-piece.  n  j 

Supposing  each  occupied  an  acre  of  meadow,  which")    q'  in     n 
(with  town  charges)  reckon  at j 

Ten  weeks'  lattermath,  at  two  shillings  (the  price  of  \ 
such  cattle) / 

First  cost  and  interest     ...  .  .  .     . 

Total  cost     .     . 
Present  value    . 
Clear  gain,  besides  a  fair  remunerating  price  for  the")     i      i      g 

meadow  ground  and  aftermath J 

A  neighbouring  farmer  bought  a  parcel  at  the  same  time,  and  at  the 
same  price ;  also  some  refuse  ones  so  low  as  five-and-twenty  shillings 
a-piece;  two  of  which  he  sold  a  few  days  ago  for  111.  4s. 

These,  however,  were  followers  at  turnips  the  first  winter.  In  summer 
they  were  sent  to  a  grazing  ground  ;  since  harvest  they  have  been  in  the 
stubble  and  '  roweus'  at  good  keep*. 

The  short  horns  have  established  themselves  in  many  parts  of  Norfolk. 
Some  of  them  are  bought  in  to  graze  and  others  are  bred  there  with  con- 
siderable success.  The  Devons  have  zealous  advocates  in  Norfolk.  The 
Earl  of  Albemarle's  straw-yard  and  sheds  rarely  contain  fewer  than  60  of 
them  every  winter ;  and  Mr.  Coke,  while  he  selects  the  Devons  for  his 
dairy,  is  zealously  employed  in  grazing  and  winter  feeding  the  improved 
short  horn.  The  Devons  are  selected  for  whatever  husbandry  work  is 
performed  by  oxen  in  Norfolk. 


The  Suffolk  Dun  used  to  be  celebrated  in  almost  every  part  of  the 
kingdom,  on  account  of  the  extraordinary  quantity  of  milk  that  she  yielded. 
The  dun  colour  is  now,  however,  although  occasionally  met  with  out  of  the 
county,  rarely  seen  in  Suffolk,  and  rejected  as  an  almost  certain  indication 
of  inferiority.  The  breed,  consistently  with  the  title  of  the  chapter  under 
which  it  is  placed,  is  in  general  polled,  but  some  of  the  calves  would 
have  horns  if  they  were  reared,  and  even  in  the  polled  the  rudiment  of  a 
horn  is  often  to  be  felt  at  an  early  age. 

■  The  Suffolk,  like  the  Norfolk  beast,  undoubtedly  sprung  from  the  Gal- 
loway ;  but  it  is  shorter  in  the  leg,  broader  and  rounder  than  the  Norfolk, 
with  a  greater  propensity  to  fatten,  and  reaching  to  greater  weights.  Mr. 
John  Kirby,  the  author  of  'The  Suffolk  Traveller,'  published  nearly  a  cen- 
tury ago,  describes  the  Suffolk  cow  as  Laving  'a  clean  throat, with  little 
dewlap,  a  snake  headt,  thin  and  short  legs,  the  ribs  springing  well  from 
the  centre  of  the  back,  the  carcase  large,  the  belly  heavy,  the  back-bone 
ridged  the  chine  thin  and  hollow,  the  loin  narrow,  the  udder  square,  large, 

•  Marshall's  Economy  of  Norfolk,  ii.  74. 

t  There  is  much  variation  with  regard  to  this.  We  have  seen  many  Suffolk  cows 
whose  heads  might  be  almost  said  to  be  clumsy,  and  who  had  theii  fair  share  ot 
dewlap,  but  they  were  not  celebrated  as  milkers,  and,  being  soon  discarded  on  that 
account,  fattened  with  great  rapidity.  There  was  too  much  of  the  Galloway  blood 
about  them. 

THE  SUFFOLK  BREED.  .  )  75 

.nose,  and  creased  when  empty,  the  milk  veins  remarkably  large  aud  rising 
in  knotted  pufTs ;  and  this  so  general,  that  I  scarcely  ever  saw  a  famous 
milker  that  did  not  possess  this  point,  a  general  habit  of  leanness,  hip 
bones  high  and  ill  covered,  and  scareely  any  part  of  the  carcase  so  formed 
and  covered  as  to  please  an  eye  that  is  accustomed  to  fat  beasts  of  the  ffnei 
breeds.'  The  prevailing  and  the  best  colours  are  red,  red  and  white, 
brindled,  and  a  yellowish  cream  colour.  The  bull  is  valued  if  he  is  of  a 
pure  and  unmingled  red  colour.  In  no  part  of  the  kingdom  were  the  far- 
mers more  careless  as  to  the  breed,  providing  only  that  the  cows  were  true 
Suffolks.  They  merely  inquired  whether  the  bull  came  from  a  dairy  of 
good  milkers  ;  and  even  the  cows,  which  they  rarely  kept  in  milk  for  more 
than  two  or  three  years,  they  bought  at  the  neighbouring  markets  and  fairs 
much  oftener  than  they  bred  them. 

Some  exaggerated  accounts  have  been  given  of  the  milking  properties  of 
the  Suffolk  cow,  but.  nevertheless,  she  is  not  inferior  to  any  other  breed  in 
the  quantity  of  milk  that  she  yields.  In  the  heigh  of  the  season  some  of 
these  cows  will  give  as  much  as  8  gallons  of  milk  in  the  day  ;  and  6  gal- 
lons is  not  an  unusual  quantity.  The  produce  of  butter,  however,  is  not 
in  proportion  to  the  quantity  of  milk*.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Aspin,  of  Cockfield, 
had  three  cows  one  of  them  a  heiler  with  her  first  calf.  They  were  kept 
on  three  acres  only  of  grass,  without  any  change  of  pasture  until  afler 
mowing  time,  and  in  the  winter  chiefly  on  straw  with  very  little  hay.  Both 
the  old  ones  yielded  8  gallons  of  milk  per  day  during  the  height  of  their 
season,  and  the  quantity  of  butter  made  from  June  to  December  was 
683  lbs.  The  Rev.  Arthur  Young,  the  Secretary  to  the  Board  of  Agricul- 
ture, forty  years  ago,  adds,  that  one  Holderness  cow  would  have  consumed 
all  the  food  of  the  three,  without  returning  half  of  the  produce.  There  are 
few  short-horn  cows,  although  fer  superior  in  size  to  the  Suffolks,  and  con- 
suming nearly  double  the  quantity  of  food,  that  will  yield  more  milk  than 
is  usually  obtained  from  the  smaller  polled  breed. 

Fifty  thousand  firkins  of  butter  are  sent  to  London  every  year  from  Suf- 
folk, of  which  each  cow  furnishes  on  an  average  three  firkins,  each  weigh 
ing  i  cwt.,  with  J  of  a  wey  of  cheese  t. 

*  Some  experiments  were  made  by  Mr.  Chevalier,  of  Aspal,  near  Debenham,  which 
would  give  a  more  favourable  opinion  of  the  richness  of  the  Suffolk  cow's  milk.  Three 
quarts  of  milk  from  a  Suffolk  cow,  and  the  same  quantity  frbm  a  long-horn  of  Mr.  Toosey'a 
breed  were  set  in  separate  bowls  for  36  hours.  The  milk  of  each  was  then  skimmed,  and 
Hie  cream  from  the  milk  of  the  Suffolk  weighed  2J  ounces  more  than  that  from  the  horned 
cow.  The  cream  was  after  that  put  into  two  bottles  and  churned,  and  one  quarter  part 
more  butter  was  extracted  from  the  cream  of  the  polled  cow  than  from  that  of  the  horned 

A  variety  of  experuuents,  however,  must  be  made  before  this  question  can  be  settleJ. 
and  particularly  in  summer,  when  the  milk  of  both  is  so  much  more  abundant.  The  time 
which  has  elapsed  from  the  calving  of  each  should  also  be  attended  to,  and  the  condition 
and  food  of  the  animals.  The  milk  of  a  cow  that  keeps  herself  in  good  condition  is  well 
known  to  be  more  productive  of  cream  and  butter  than  that  of  a  half-starved  one,  who  pos- 
sibly may  yield  a  greater  quantity  of  milk ;  and  yet  it  may  be  questioned  whether  the 
superiority  of  quality  always  mikes  amends  for  the  diminution  of  quantity.  The  most 
extraordinary  milkers  are  usually  the  very  worst  looking  animals. 

t  Mr.  Culley  extracts  from  Mr.  Young's  Survey  of  Suffolk,  an  estimate  of  the  produce 
■»f  one  of  the  cows ; — 

jf     *.    d. 
Three  firkins  of  butter,  dach  weighing  J  cwt.  at  32».     .      .     4  16     0 

i  wey  of  cheese 140 

A  hog         1     0     » 

Acalt  0  10    0 


7  10    (J 



A  little  good  cheese  is  made  in  Suffolk,  but,  generally  speaking,  th« 
milk  is  more  profitably  converted  into  butter,  and  the  cheese  ntariufactiiied 
from  the  skim-milk  alone  is  of  very  inferior  quality. 

\_Suffolk  Caw.] 

The'cattle  are,  by  the  majority  of  the  farmers,  much  better  attended  lo 
than  they  were  when  Mr.  Young  wrote  his  '  Survey.'  He  says,  that '  few 
cows  were  confined  in  the  winter  to  a  cow-yard,  but  the  cattle  ranged  over 
the  fields  almost  at  their  pleasure,  poaching  the  land  dreadfully.  Somer 
times,  however,  they  were  tied  up  in  the  field,  without  house,  or  shed,  or 
roof  to  cover  them.  A  rough  manger  was  placed  on  the  ground  in  which 
turnips  or  cabbages*,  or  straw  was  given  to  them,  and  small  posts  were 
driven  into  the  ground  3ft.  6in.  asunder,  to  which  the  cows  were  tied.  A 
faggot,  hedge  was  set  up  before  them,  or  they  were  placed  before  a  thick 
hedge  in  order  to  screen  them  from  the  blast.  They  were  regularly  littered, 
and  the  dung  was  piled  up  behind  them  in  the  form  of  a  wall,  which  served 
them  for  another  screen  ;  while  a  slight  trench  was  dug  at  their  heels  to 
conduct  away  the  urine.'     It  was  imagined  that  this  was  better  than  letting 

la  his  third  eilition,  Mr.  Young  calcuIatiDg  the  butter  and  cheese  at  ahighei  price,  makes 
the  produce  8/.  1 2s.  6d. 

Mr.  Parkinson,  a  very  excellent  writer  on  the  breeds  and  general  treatment  of  cattle, 
but  not  to  be  depended  upon  when  he  speaks  of  theii  diseases,  has  the  following  very 
appropriate  remMks  on  this,  vol.  i.  p.  119,  which  we  have  somewhat  condensed 
'  When  it  is  asseited  that  the  best  of  the  cows  give  24  quarts  of  milk  in  one  day,  and  that 
the  profit  uf  one  of  them  f>ir  a  year  is  only  71. 10«.,the  milk  and  the  quantity  of  butter  bear 
no  sort  of  proportion  to  each  other.  There  must  be  an  error  in  the  one  ;  for  if  the  produce 
of  this  cow  be  only  calculated  at  half  a  year,  or  26  weeks,  the  butter  would  be  1 841b3., 
which,  at  1<.  a  pound,  would  give  9/.  it. ;  the  hog  would  be  worth,  in  other  butter  and 
cheese  counties,  2/. ;  and  the  calf  about  15<.  Skim-milk  cheese  fetches  from  2/.  5s.  to 
2/.  15*.  in  Dorsetshire  and  Somersetshire,  which  would  make  the  produce  amount  to 
1 5/.  1 3»„  a  sum  much  nearer  the  truth  than  «rfat  stated  by  Mr.  Young.' 

*  Forty  years  ago  (1792)  the  practice  of  growing  cabbages  was  almost  universal  among 
(he  dairy  farmers ;  but  the  butter  was  sometimes  bad  when  the  cabbages  began  to  be 
decayed,  and  thb  vegetable  did  considerable  damage  to  the  succeeding  crop.  The  cultaif 
of  this  food  for  milch  cows  is  therefore  in  a  great  measure  superseded. 



tliein' range  at  will,  and  that  every  kind  of  food  went  much  farther.  The 
laniiers  believed  that  they  were  more  healthy  and  profitable  when  thus 
exposed  to  the  weather,  than  if  they  had  a  roof  over  them,  and  that  (he 
warmth  produced  by  their  lying^  so  close  to  each  other,  aud  by  the  screen 
before  and  behind,  was  sufficient.  Mr.  Young  remarks, '  if  they  do  as  well 
as  under  sheds  much  expense  is  saved,  but  this  is  a  very  doubtful  question.' 
When  they  had  calved,  or  were  near  the  time  of  calving,  they  were  brought 
into  the  cow-house.  The  land  is  now  thrown  a  great  deal  more  open  than 
it  formerly  was.  These  high  impervious  hedges  are  rarely  to  be  found, 
and  this  system  of  feeding  in  the  field  is  comparatively  seldom  adopted. 

There  used  to  be,  and  still  to  a  very  considerable  degree  remain,  some 
other  points  of  bad  management.  Although  the  calves  that  are  reared  are 
.selected  according  to  the  milking  properties  of  the  dam,  few  of  the  early 
dropped  ones,  which  are  generally  the  best,  are  saved.  The  price  of  veal 
then  offers  a  temptation  which  the  farmer  cannot  resist ;  and  the  yonug 
ones  are  fattened  and  disposed  of  as  soon  as  po!>sibIe.  The  selection  is 
therefore  made  almost  entirely  from  the  later  calves,  and  they  have  not  so 
good  a  chance  as  the  early-dropped  ones  would  have  had  of  becoming 
strong  and  hardy  before  winter,  and  thus  acquiring  a  good  constitution,, 
and  the  certainty  of  thriving  and  yielding  well. 

[Suffnill   Bll//.] 

"Another  instance  of  mismanagement  is  not  always  avoided  even  at  the 
prej^ent  day.  He  says  that '  the  bnlls  are  rarely  suffered  to  live  after  they 
are  three  years  old,  however  excellent  they  may  be,  for  the  farmer  believes 
that  if  they  are  kept  longer  they  do  not  get  a  stock  equally  good,  and  par- 
ticularly that  their  calves  are  not  so  large  after  that  period.'  Nothing  can 
be  more  erroneous  or  mischievous.  A  bull  is  never  in  finer  condition  than 
from  four  to  seven  years  old. 

Beside  this,  the  practice  of  the  Suffolk  breeders  is  subject  to  radical  ob- 
jection, for  before  the  value  of  the  progeny  of  a  bull  can  be  known  he  is 
slanghtered,  so  that  if  the  cows  got  by  him  turn  out  to  be  the  most  excel- 
lent milkers,  no  advantage  could  be  derived  from  the  discovery,  the  sire  oi 

•  1...    ..*.w.1r    U..:»«.    ...^na 


I7«  (JAITLK. 

To  such  an  extent  was  this  absurd  practice  formerly  carried,  ihal  Ms. 
Voung  justly  observes  that  '  having  obtained  by  accident,  or  by  exeitiims, 
the  memory  of  which  is  now  lost,  a  good  breed  of  milkers,  (he  SulK)ik 
people  have  preserved  them  almost  by  mere  chance,  and  without  any  of 
the  care  and  attention  which  their  value  demanded.' 

Somewhat  of  the  same  system  was  and  is  pursued  with  regard  to  the 
heifers.  A  heifer  of  scarcely  two-years  old,  with  a  calf  at  her  toot,  is  no 
rare  object.  This  system  of  breeding  before  the  form  of  either  the  sire  or 
the  dam  is  developed ;  this  tax  upon  the  power  of  nature  to  contribute  to 
the  growth  of  the  young  mother  as  well  as  to  that  of  the  calf,  must  be 
exceedingly  injurious.  She  also  at  four-years  old  is  frequently  discarded 
and  fattened  for  the  butcher,  unless  she  has  displayed  more  than  usually 
good  milking  properties. 

The  Suffolk  cow  when  thus  discharged,  poor  and  angular  as  she  may 
look,  fattens  with  a  rapidity,  not  equal,  indeed,  to  that  ot  the  Galloways, 
but  greater  than  could  be  expected  from  her  gaunt  appearance.  Whence  she 
obtained  the  faculty  of  yielding  so  much  milk,  is  a  question  that  no  one  has 
yet  solved.  Her  progenitor,  the  Galloway,  has  it  not.  The  Holderiiess 
could  scarcely  be  concerned;  for,  more  than  a  hundred  years  ago,  the  Suffolk 
dun  was  as  celebrated  as  a  milker,  as  the  breed  of  this  county  is  at  present, 
and  the  Holderness  had  not  then  been  introduced.  The  fattening  property 
derived  from  the  northern  breed  is  not  yet  impaired.  The  discarded 
cow  is  easily  fattened  to  forty  or  five-and-forty  stones,  and  the  quality  of 
her  meat  is  excellent*. 

The  grazing  property  of  the  Suffolk  has  been  supposed  to  be  increasea 
by  a  cross  with  the  short-horn ;  but  although  they  are  both  excellent 
milkers,  their  value  has  been  uniformly  lessened  as  milch  cows  by  the 
admixture  of  the  two,  and  the  progeny,  although  better  tlian  the  Suffolk 
for  grazing,  is  decidedly  inferior  to  the  improved  short-horn.  Very 
few  of  the  Suffolks,  however,  are  bred  for  the  mere  purpose  of  grazing  ; 
for,  notwithstanding  what  we  have  said  of  their  value  in  this  respect,  they 
are  decidedly  inferior  to  the  pure  Galloways. 

Vast  numbers  of  the  Galloways  are  bought  at  the  fairs  after  Michaelmas. 
The  same  management  is  pursued  as  in  Norfolk,  and  the  Galloways  from 
Suffolk  join  those  from  Norfolk  in  their  journey  to  the  London  market,  in 
the  s|)rin:;-  and  early  part  of  the  summer. 

A  great  many  Welsh  cattle,  and  a  few  Irish,  are  also  grazed,  both  in 
Suffolk  and  Norfolk  ;  but  they  do  not  bear  so  high  a.  price  in  the  market 
as  the  Galloways,  and  their  meat,  although  very  good,  is  somewhat 
inferior.  The  short-horns  are  also  establishing  themselves  in  some  parts 
of  this  county  as  grazing  cattle;  but  as  milkers,  they  cannot  contest  the 
palm  with  the  Suffolks  on  their  native  soil.  Some  Devons  are  found, 
but  they  are  not  so  numerous  or  such  favourites  as  they  are  in  Norfolk. 

Lord  Huntingfield  has  a  very  fine  dairy  of  North  Devon  cows,  and  he 
spares  no  expense  to  procure  the  purest  and  most  beautiful  bulls  from  that 
district.  In  the  year  1832,  he  gave  two  hundred  and  eighty  guineas  for  a 
bull  of  that  breed.  His  lordship  \s  also  very  successfully  engaged  in  the 
grazing  and  winter  feeding  of  the  improved  short-horn.  Some  very  fine 
beasts  of  his  stock  were  exhibited  at  the  last  Smilhfield  cattle  show, 

There  is  no  other  breed  of  polled  cattle  of  siifficient  consequence  to 
ieserve  distinct  mention  here.      Mr.  John   Lawrence,  in  his   excellent 

•  M.-.  Paikiiison  says, — 'The  oxen  of  this  breed  weigh  from  570  lbs.  to  700  lbs.  j  aoil 
ihrcuw'j  (cum  420  lbs.  to  560  lbs.,  and  io  a  ceneial  way,  1  do  not  find  any  beef  befun 


Work  on  caule,  speaks  of  the  Northern  or  Yorkshire  polled  cattle. 
He  describes  them  as  having  the  same  qualities  as  the  short-horna, 
of  different  sizes,  but  some  of  them  carrying  vast  substance,  and  he  think* 
that  most  of  the  various  breeds  of  horned  cattle  are  attended  with  horn- 
'ess,  but  perfectly  consrenial  varieties.  This  is  true  to  a  very  considerable 
extent.  The  Devonshire  Nats,  or  polled  cattle,  now  rapidly  decreasing  in 
number,  possess  the  general  figure  and  most  of  the  good  qualities  of 
the  horned  beasts  of  that  district ;  and  the  Yorkshire  polls  are  almost  as 
large  as  the  horned  beasts  of  that  county,  and  as  good  for  grazing  and 
for  the  pail.  Many  breeders  pay  particular  attention  to  the  shape  of  the 
head  in  these  polled  cattle,  and  to  a  certain  extent,  also,  in  the  horned 
ones.  If  the  crown  of  the  head  is  fine,  like  that  of  a  doe,  and  drawn  almost 
to  a  point  on  t'le  top,  the  breed  is  supposed  to  be  good. 

Chapter.  V. 


Before  we  enter  on  the  consideration  of  the  two  remaining  breeds  of 
English  cattle,  the  long  and  the  short-horns,  we  will  take  a  very  rapid 
glance  at  the  Irish  cattle. 

They  are  evidently  composed  of  two  distinct  breeds ;  the  middle  and 
■the  long-horns 

The  former  is  plainly  an  aboriginal  breed.  They  are  found  on  the 
mountains  and  rude  parts  of  the  country,  in  almost  every  district.  They 
are  small,  light,  active,  and  wild.  The  head  is  small,  although  there  are 
exceptions  to  this  in  various  parts,  and  so  numerous,  indeed,  are  those 
exceptions,  that  some  describe  the  native  Irish  cattle  as  having  thick  heads 
and  necks;  the  horns  are  short  compared  with  the  other  breed,  all  of  them 
fine,  some  of  them  rather  upright,  and  frequently,  alter  projecting  forward, 
then  turning  backward.  Although  somewhat  deficient  in  the  hind  quarters, 
they  are  high-boned,  and  wide  over  the  hips,  yet  the  bone  generally  is  not 
heavy.  The  hair  is  coarse  and  long ;  in  some  places  they  are  black, 
in  others  brindled;  and  in  others  black  or  brindled,  with  white  facfis. 
Some  are  finer  in  the  bone,  and  finer  in  the  neck,  with  a  good  eye,  and 
sharp  nnizzle,  and  great  activity. 

They  are  exceedingly  hardy ;  they  live  through  the  winter,  and  some- 
times fatten  on  their  native  mountains  and  moors ;  and  when  removed  to 
abetter  climate  and  soil,  they  fatten  with  all  the  rapidity  of  the  aboriginal 
cattle  of  the  Highlands  and  Wales.  They  are  generally  very  good 
milkers,  and  many  of  them  are  excellent  in  this  respect.  The  cow  ol 
Kerry,  with  a  portrait  of  which  the  reader  is  here  presented,  is  a  favourable 
specimen  of  them.  Where  they  have  much  of  the  Kerry  blood  in  them, 
their  very  wildness  proves  them  to  be  the  native  breed ;  for  there  is  no 
fence  nor  ditch  which  they  will  not  leap. 

The  cow  of  Kerry  is  truly  a  poor  man's  cow,  living  everywhere  hardy, 
yielding,  for  hsr  size,  abundance  of  milk 'of  a  good  quality,  and  fattening 
riipidly  when  required.     The  slightest  inspection  of  the  cit  will  convindi 

N  2 



the  reader  of  tlie  difference  between  this  breed  and  both  the  larger  and  Ihe 
smaiier  long-horned  Irish  one ;  were  it  not  for  the  cloddiness  about  the 
fhoulder,  and  the  shortness  and  thickness  of  the  lower  part  of  the  neck, 
«nd  the  pied  colour,  we  should  almost  fancy  that  we  saw  the  middle-horn 
North  Devon  cow*. 

These  cattle  usually  run  small,  and  are  confined  to  the  hilly  and  moor 
{^rounds,  or  to  the  scanty  portion  of  land  possessed  by  the  cottager  and 
the  small  farmer.  There  are,  however,  some  exceptions  to  this.  In  Con- 
naught  this  breed  runs  to  a  very  considerable  size,  and  are  improved  in 
form  as  well  as  in  weight.  The  horns,  usually  of  middle  length,  turn  up ; 
as  do  the  horns  of  those  on  the  mountains;  but  they  are  shorter  in  the 
leg,  and  shorter  in  the  body ;  their  loins  and  haunches  are  heavy  and 
wide ;  although  the  hair  is  thick,  the  hide  is  mellow,  and  they  thrive  with 
a  rapidity  rarely  excelled  by  any  other  breed. 

[  Kerry  Cow'\ 

Mr.  Walker,  of  Belmont,  in  Wexford,  informs  us,  that  this  breed  is  now 
not  to  be  met  with  pure,  except  inland  on  the  mountains ;  being  nearly 
worn  out  in  the  more  civilized  parts  of  the  country,  by  repeated  crosses 
with  the  Leicester,  the  Hereford,  and  the  Devon  ;  but  that  for  the  dairy,  all 
the  farmers  still  prefer  those  cows  which  show  most  of  the  native  Irish  blood. 

Mr.  CuUey  seems  to  consider  the  middle-horn  Irish  as  a  mixed  breed 
between  the  long-horns  and  the  Welsh  or  Scotch,  but  most  inclined  to  the 

*  Mr.  Rawson,  in  his  Survey  of  Kildare,  gives  the  following  description  of  the  native 
Irish  beast : — It  should  have  a  sweet,  placiil  countenance, — a  neat,  clean  horn, — head  very 
small, — neck  very  thin  at  the  head,  tapering  i;i^ntly,  and  increasing  where  it  meet*  the 
slioulder,  so  as  gently  to  cover  it, — shoulders  flat,  and  thin  in  the  blade, — chine  not  too 
fine, — chest  very  deep  and  full  at  the  breast, — ribs  rising  roundly  and  swelling  from  the 
chine,-^auples  close, — ^hip  not  too  wide,  and  nearly  cunceali'd  by  the  high  arching  of  the 
ribs,  and  the  closeness  of  the  couples, — hind-quarters  broad  and  lengthy,  narrowing  gra 
dually  to  the  tail,  which  should  lie  snug  between  the  bones,  the  quarters  pu  the  outside 
0at,  on  the  inside  full,  but  not  fcT.tvnding  too  low, — legs  tine,  and  clean  in  the  bone,  but 
»»t  lKgK>\ 



long^hnrns.  This  is  an  opininn  to  wbir.h  we  can  by  no  meani!  aMsent 
The  very  locality  of  these  cattle,  (the  smaller  varieties  especially,) — the 
mountainous  and  comparatively  inaccessible  situation  which  tbey  occupv, 
seem  to  point  them  out,  liUe  the  Welsh  and  the  Scotch,  as  the  aboriginal 
breed,  and  to  prove  that  one  of  a  very  similar  character  was  indigenous 
to  both  is.ands. 

The  other  breed  is  of  a  larger  size.  It  is  the  old  or  the  partially  im- 
proved Craven  or  Lancashire  beast,  which  we  shall  have  presently  to 
describe.  It  is  the  true  long-horn  ;  the  horns  first  taking  a  direction  out- 
ward, then  forming  a  curve,  and  returning  towards  the  face,  sometimes 
threatening  to  pierce  the  bones  of  the  nose,  or  at  other  times  so  to  cross 
before  the  nnizzle,  that  the  animal  shall  be  unable  to  graze. 

The  following  cut  represents  this  large  variety  of  Irish  cattle,  and  is 
evidently  identical  with  the  Craven  or  Lancashire.  In  Tipperary,  Limerick, 
Meath,  a  great  part  of  Munster,  and  particularly  in  Roscommon,  many  of 
these  cattle  are  found,  of  which,  although  we  cannot  say  with  the  author 
of  the  Survey  of  the  county  of  Dublin,  that  '  the  cattle  of  Ireland  are  in 
such  a  progressive  state  of  improvement,  that  in  a  few  years  the  English 
themselves  will  be  out-done,  and  will  finally  resort  to  ui  to  improve  iheir 
breed,'  yet  we  can  affirm  that  they  arc  most  valuable  animals. 

llrish  Calt!e.] 
Whence  these  long-horns  originally  came,  is  a  question  that  has  been 
much  disputed.  There  is  no  doubt  that  they  very  much  resemble  the 
English  long-horns,  and  have  been  materially  improved  by  them ;  but 
whether  Ireland  or  England  was  the  native  country  of  this  breed  will  never 
be  determined.  Ancient  records  are  silent  on  the  subject;  and  in  both 
countries  we  can  trace  the  long-horns  to  a  very  remote  period.  As  from 
very  early  times  Ireland  has  materially  contributed  to  the  supply  of  the 
British  capital  and  the  British  navy,  and  thousands  of  Irish  beasts 
yearly  trsiverse  almost  every  part  of  Great  Britain,  from  Port  Patrick  to 

i»2  cArn.E. 

the  Itiamps,  many  persons  have  concluded  thiit  the  English  loii^-horn* 
sprung  from  some  of  the  Irish  ones  who  were  arrested  in  different  parts  o( 
their  journey.  Others,  however,  and  we  think  with  more  reason,  finding 
he  middle-horns  in  every  mountainous  and  unfrequented  part  of  the 
country,  ana  the  long-horns  inhabiting  the  lower  and  more  thickly  inhabited 
districts,  regard  the  first  as  the  pure  native  breed,  and  consider  the  other 
to  have  been  a  stranger  race,v.and  introduced,  probably  from  Lancashire 
where  a  breed  of  cattle  of  the  same  character  and  form  is  found. 

However  this  may  be,  there  were  a  variety  of  circumstances  which  ren 
dered  the  march  ofirnprovement  much  more  rapid  in  England  than  in  Ireland. 
While  the  British  long-horns  had  materially  improved,  those  in  Ireland, 
owing  to  the  depressed  state  of  the  peasantry,  their  proverbial  indolence 
in  these  matters,  and  the  law  of  gavel-kind*,  which,  by  the  dirision 
of  even  the  smallest  portion  of  land  among  all  the  children,  produced  a 
too  numerous  class  of  embarrassed  and  starving  tenants  or  little  land- 
holders, had  not  progressed  in  the  slightest  degree. 

More  than  a  century  ago,  some  zealous  agriculturists  in  Meath  com- 
menced the  work  of  improvement.  Mr.  Waller  introduced  some  of 
the  old  Lancashires,  a  few  of  which  long  remained  in  Allenstown.  Sixty 
years  afterwards,  a  namesake  and  successor  of  his  brought  over  one  of 
the  new  Leicester  breed.  He  permitted  his  neighbours  and  tenants  to 
have  the  almest  unrestrained  use  of  him,  and  there  was  scarcely  a  cottager 
within  three  or  four  miles  of  Allenstown,  that  did  not  possess  a  cow  dis- 
playing some  traces  of  the  Leicestershire  blood.  Mr  Lowlher,  the  Earl  of 
Beclive,  and  Mr.  Noble,  successively  contributed  tc  the  improvement  of 
the  breed  in  this  part  of  Ireland. 

About  the  same  time,  Lord  Mas^areiie  introduced  some  fine  long-horned 
cattle  into  Antrim  ;  in  1775,  Mr.  Lesly,  of  Lesly-hill,  imported  one  of 
Mr.  Bakewell's  bulls ;  and  the  cattle  of  the  neighbouring  country  was 
materially  and  rapidly  improved.  The  Marquis  of  Donegal  imported  an- 
other true  Leicester  from  the  stock  of  Mr.  Astley.  Mr.  Watson,  of  Bros- 
hill,  likewise  diligently  crossed  the  country  cows  with  a  valuable  Leicester 

Lord  Farnham  was  zealously  em|)loyed  in  improving  the  cattle  of 
Cavan,  but  he  was  long  opposed  by  the  not  unfounded  ajiprehensions  of 

♦  Mr.  Ross,  in  his  Survey  of  Londonderry,  g^ves  an  interesting  account  of  this  custom  of 
gavel-kind  and  its  pernicious  effects.  '  One  great  obstacle  to  imprnvemenT,  ami  which  is 
too  general  in  Ireland,  is  their  notion  of  the  equal  a,ud  unaheuaMe  ri^ht  of  all  their 
children  to  the  inheritance  of  their  father's  property,  whether  land  or  giiuils.  This 
opinion,  so  just  and  reasonable  in  theory,  t}ut  so  ruinous  and  absurd  in  practice,  is  inter- 
woven in  such  a  manner  in  the  very  constitution  of  their  minds,  that  it  is  next  to  im. 
possible  to  eradicate  it.  In  spite  of  every  argument,  the  smaller  Irish  landholders  con- 
tinue to  divide  their  farms  among  their  cmldren,  and  these  divide  on  until  division  is  no 
longer  practicable ;  and  in  the  course  of  two  or  three  generations,  the  most  thriving  family 
must  necessarily  go  to  ruin. 

•  I  knew  a  respectable  farmer  who  held  about  thirty  acres  of  arable  land,  in  one  of  the 
mountain  town-lands,  and  had  two  sons,  between  whom,  according  to  custom,  he  equally  di- 
vided his  farm,  which  was  thus  barely  able  to  support  them  and  their  families.  One  of 
these  had  himself  four  sons,  among  whom,  during  his  lifetime,  he  also  divided  his  fifteen 
acres,  reserving  to  himself  an  equal  share.  Here  then  were  five  persons  with  three  acres 
apiece ;  and  as  each  of  the  suns,  considering  himself  at  once  an  established  landholder, 
immediately  married,  there  were  five  of  the  poorest  and  most  wretched  families  that  can 
be  well  imagined,  without  scope  for  their  industry,  trade  or  manufacture  to  employ 
them,  or  land  sufficient  to  produce  for  them  the  common  necessaries  of  Ufe. 

'  Landlords  blindly  encourage  this  to  increase  their  political  influence.  If  the  farm  had 
been  bequeatiied  to  one  of  the  sons,  and  the  others  bad  been  taught  some  useful  trade, 
and  a  little  sum  of  money  given  to  them  to  set  up  with,  all  might  have  been  respectable 
ud  happy.' 


.hB  oottag^ers  and  small  fanners.  It  was  soon  evident  that  he  was  able  to 
fatten  his  cattle  on  less  ground  and  poorer  pasture  than  he  could  before, 
and  raise  them  to  a  much  a;realer  weight ;  but  it  was  also  plain,  that  in 
proportion  as  he  gave  this  dispdsition  to  fatten,  he  lessened  the  quantity 
of  milk,  which  the  cottager  could  ill  spare  :  thence  arose  a  prejudice 
against  improvement  altogether,  and  which  was  not  surmounted  without 
considerable  difficulty. 

In  Langford  the  cattle  were  much  improved  by  the  exertions  of  the  late 
Earl  of  Rosse,  who  imported  several  bulls  of  the  best  English  breeds,  and 
brought  them  to  his  liighly  cultivated  demesne  at  Newcastle.  On  May 
21,  1802,  10  six-year-old  bullocks  were  sold  at  the  fair  of  Ballyniahoe 
for  400  guineas,  and  10  foiir-years-old  heifers  for  300  guineas.  These 
cattle  were  the  property  of  Lord  Oxraantown,  (afterwards  Earl  of  Rosse) 
and  for  size,  shape,  and  fatness,  could  not  be  excelled.  They  were  all  fed 
on  common  hay  and  grass. 

In  Clare,  Sir  Edward  O'Biieii  and  Mr.  Doxan  of  Fountain,  Mr.  Molony 
of  Kiltannon,  and  Mr.  Blood  of  Riverstoiv,  did  much  to  render  the  breed 
more  valuable,  by  the  importation  of  the  improved  Leicesters.  In  Ros- 
common, the  Messrs.  Finch  were  particularly  active  in  introducing  the 
Lancashire,  Leicestershire,  and  Warwickshire  cattle. 

Almost  every  county  and  barony  of  Ireland  had  its  zealous  and  suc- 
cessful improver  of  the  native  breed,  until,  in  the  richer  and  more  culti- 
vated districts,  the  cattle  became  of  as  great  a  size  and  as  perfect  form  as 
any  which  the  midland  districts  of  England  could  produce. 

There  were,  however,  either  two  distinct  breeds  of  long-horns,  the  one 
capable  of  rapid  improvement,  while  the  other,  in  a  manner,  set  at  de- 
fiance every  means  to  add  to  the  size,  or  give  a  tendency  to  early  maturity, 
or  there  were  found  too  great  a  proportion  of  agriculturists  who  obsti- 
nately refused  to  adopt  the  proper  means  for  the  amelioration  of  their 
stock;  or  there  were  many  districts  into  which  the  improved  long- 
horns  rarely,  or  to  a  very  inconsiderable  degree,  penetrated.  From  one  or 
all  of  these  causes  it  happened,  that  there  are  at  the  present  moment 
two  kinds  of  these  cattle  in  Ireland,  in  character  essentially  different ;  the 
larger,  which  we  have  described,  and  a  smaller,  prevailing  principally  in 
the  north  of  the  island.  At  first  view,  perhaps,  these  would  appear  to 
be  the  same  cattle,  only  smaller  from  poor  keep  and  bad  management  ;- 
but  their  horns,  long  out  of  all  proportion,  their  clumsy  heads,  large  bones 
and  thick  hides,  their  bulkiness  of  dewlap  contrasted  with  their  lightness 
of  carcase,  in  fine,  an  accumulation  of  di'tects  about  them,  clearly  mark 
them  as  being  of  far  inferior  value 

Thousands  of  them,  and  more  perhaps  than  of  the  improved  breed,  find 
their  way  to  the  midland  counties  of  England,  in  order  that  some  attempt 
may  be  made  to  prepare  them  for  the  metropolitan  market.  The  pur- 
chase of  them  is  quite  a  lottery,  or  demands  great  skill  and  experience. 
Occasionally  they  will  thrive  to  a  degree  not  much  inferior  to  the 
Welch  cattle,  while  at  other  times  a  lot  of  them  may  be  put  on  as  good 
'attening  pasture  as  any  in  England,  and  be  continued  there  the  whole  of 
,.he  summer,  consuming  almost  as  much  food  as  the  largest  oxen,  and  yet 
scarcely  improving  in  condition. 

In  process  of  time,  the  English  long-horns,  although  of  the  improved 
Bakewell  breed,  began  to  lose  ground  even  in  their  native  country ;  or 
rather  a  rival  with  somewhat  higher  pretensions  appeared  in  the  field. 
The  improved  short-horns  began  lo  attract  the  attention  of  the  breeder ; 
and  their  propensity  to  fatten,  and  the  comparatively  earlier  period  at 
v>,  hich  they  arrived  at  maturity,  soon  became  evident.     There  were  not 


wanting  spirited  agriculturists  in  Ireland,  who  quickly  availed  Ihemselvea 
of  this  new  mode  of  improving^  the  Hibernian  cattle.  Sir  Henry  Vane 
Tempest  was  one  of  the  first  who  introduced  the  short-horned  bull.  The 
improvement  effected  by  the  first  cross  was  immediately  evident  in  the 
early  maturity  of  the  progeny.  The  pure  short-horii,  or  this  cross  with 
the  long-horn,  weighed  as  much  at  three  years  old  as  the  pure  long-horn 
used  to  do  at  five.  But  the  breed  rapidly  degenerated,  and  it  perhaps 
must  be  confessed  that  the  first  experiment  in  a  great  degree  failed,  and 
particularly  as  it  was  found  that  while  the  cattle  bred  back  to  the  native 
Irish  character,  they  never  fully  regained  their  hardihood,  or  their  repu- 
tation as  milkers. 

It  was  likewise  found  that  the  pure  Teeswater  did  not  suit  the  ordinary 
management  of  cattle  in  Ireland.  They  answered  only  where  the  farmer 
had  capital  and  quick  return,  and  where  he  could  house  and  feed  them 
well.  The  Irish  farmer  had  too  much  to  alter  in  the  system  of  treatment 
to  which  he  and  his  forefathers  had  been  accustomed ;  and  he  often  had 
not  the  means  to  effect  the  requisite  change,  or  if  he  had,  his  prejudices 
forbade  him  to  use  them. 

The  reputation  of  the  short-horn,  however,  becoming  more  fully  esta- 
blished in  England,  other  attempts  were  made  to  introduce  him  into 
Ireland,  and  the  experiments  were  more  systematically  conducted.  Mr. 
Conolly  of  Castletown,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  some  valuable  infor- 
mation, effected  much  improvement  in  Donegal.  The  pure  short-horn 
was  found  too  delicate  for  the  severe  weather  and  inferior  food  which  they 
were  destined  to  find  in  that  mountainous  district  j  but  a  half-bred  stock 
was  introduced,  which  improved  the  shape  and  increased  the  size  of  the 
Donegal  cattle,  and  produced  a  better  price.  Mr.  Conolly  sent  four  bulls 
to  his  estates  in  that  county,  and  they  were  highly  approved.  The  prizes 
of  the  Farming  Society  of  Donegal  were  adjudged  to  them,  and  theii 
evident  value  has  produced  more  attention  to  the  care  and  feeding  ot 
Cattle  generally. 

Mr.  Walker  tells  us,  that  *  within  the  last  ten  years  the  breed  has  been 
greatly  improved  by  crossing  with  the  Dutch,  the  A.yrshire,  and  the  Dur- 
ham ;  yet  that  the  improvements  are  mostly  confined  to  the  gentlemen 
and  large  farmers,  for  the  smaller  farmers  (who  are  the  majority  of  the 
inhabitants)  consider  that  the  short-horns  require  too  much  care  and 
feeding,  and  that  their  milk  is  not  so  good  as  that  of  the  native  breed.' 

When  speaking  of  the  management  of  cattle  in  Wexford,  Mr.  Walker 
gives  a  faithful  account  of  that  which  takes  place  over  a  great  part  o' 
Ireland.  '  The  farms  are  small,  and  the  occupiers  of  them  have  little 
capital ;  therefore,  except  in  summer,  when  grass  is  plenty,  the  cattle  live 
poorly  and  are  exposed  to  hardships.'  For  the  same  reason,  the  calves 
and  young  cattle  are  stinted  in  their  growth  ;  but  this  does  not  appear  to 
injure  their  milking  qualities.  They  generally  go  to  the  bull  at  a  year,  or 
a  year  and  a  half  old,  so  that  they  come  into  the  dairy  at  two,  or  rising 
three  years  old. 

All  cattle  are  here  fed  abroad  on  grass  in  the  summer*      Some  of  the 

*  The  Rev.  A.  Boss,  is  his  ■  Survey  of  Jjindondeny,'  published  in  18 14,  thus  speaks  ol 
the  mode  of  letting,  and  the  cost  of  these  summerings : '  The  grazing  of  cattle  is  paid  by  the 
tamm,  by  which  is  to  be  understood,  the  grazing  of  a  cow  when  above  three  year*  old. 

The  proportions  of  other  kinds  of  cattle  are  estimated  by  this  in  the  following  manner : 

A  summ  is  divided  into  three  equal  parts  called  feet,  which  is  thus  applied.  A  year-old 
calf,  is  called  a  foot ;  a  two-year  old,  two  feet ;  a  summ  is  three  feet ;  a  horse  is  five  feet ; 
two  colts  are  equal  to  a  horse ;  six  sheep,  or  four  ewes  and  four  lambs,  the  same ;  24  geese 
■le  a  lumm.    Thus  then,  if  6».  be  the  price  of  a  surpm  a  year  old  will  be  2».,  a  two-yea 

THE  IRISH  BUKKtt  185 

gentlemen  an<l  larjje  farmers  are  bes:iiinin{f  to  cultivate  mangel-wurzel 
aiiH  turnips,  and  to  use  hay  ;  but  the  generality  of  the  cuttle  are  wintered 
on  straw  and  potatoes,  and  many  of  them  very  imperfectly  housed.  They 
nf  course  thrive  better  and  afford  a  largjer  profit,  where  care  is  taken  of 
them;  but  they  are  so  hardy  in  constitution,  as  to  yield  a  fair  return 
under  tlie  common  management*. 

Mr.  Anderson,  of  Shelton,  in  a  letter  with  which  we  have  been  favoured 
from  him  at  the  request  of  the  Earl  of  Wicklow,  describes  the  old  Irish 
cattle  there,  as  a  low,  broad,  hardy  breed,  with  thick  heads  and  necks,  and  a 
thick  hide.  He  says,  that  '  tlie  farmers  run  their  cattle  out  nearly  all  the 
season,  only  takings  them  in  in  the  evening,  and  then  giving-  them  a  small 
quantity  of  hay.  They  are  good  dairy  cows,  but  do  not  answer  well  for 
tlie  siraaier,  as  they  do  not  fatten  so  well,  and  have  more  coarse  meat  than 
the  improved  breed.  The  average  weight  of  the  cows  are  from  four  to 
five  hundred  weight,  (Mr.  Walker  states  that  the  average  weight  of  the 
Wexford  cow  is  about  4jcwt.) — but  they  might  be  greatly  improved,  it 
proper  attention  were  paid  to  them  ;  for  the  calves,  after  the  two  first 
weeks,  are  generally  reared  upon  butter-milk,  and  then  left  to  shift  for 
themselves ;  only  they  have  a  little  hay  at  night  in  winter. 

Mr.  Anderson  adds  that  '  the  breed  is  considerably  improved  of  late 
years,  by  crossing  with  the  Durham  and  Ayrshire.'  Lord  Wicklow,  whose 
stock  consists  almost  entirely  of  the  Durhams,  much  to  his  credit,  gives 
his  tenants  the  free  use  of  his  bulls  without  charge ;  and,  encouraged  by 
the  improvement  that  has  taken  place,  he  purposes  not  only  to  continue, 
but  to  extend  the  system. 

Soiling  in  the  house  is  not  much  practised  in  this  district ;  but  grazing- 
in  the  summer,  and  hay  in  the  winter,  constitute  the  mode  of  feeding; 
except  that  some  of  the  graziers  keep  up  part  of  their  pasture  for  the  fat 
cattle,  which  they  retain  at  the  end  of  the  season.  These  run  out  in  all 
weathers,  and  ha^e  cribs  fixed  in  the  field  to  give  them  hay  in  a  stormy 
niiitit,  but  they  have  no  shed  over  them. 

Lord  Wicklow,  who  stall-feeds  with  turnips,  mangel-wurzel,  and  potatoes, 
prefers  the  latter.  The  calves  are  reared  on  the  cows,  or  have  new  milk 
given  to  them  from  the  pail,  and  they  are  housed  in  winter,  and  fed  on 
hay,  with  a  few  turnips  or  mangel-w\irzel,  each  day. 

Lord  Dunally,  in  a  letter  with  which  we  have  been  honoured  from  him, 
says,  that  '  in  Tipperary  he  has  kept  the  North  Devon  cattle  for  many 
years,  and  much  approves  of  them  tor  feeding,  for  the  dairy,  for  working, 
and  also  for  hardness,  or  quality  to  bear  bad  weather. 

His  Lordship  states,  that  the  usual  weight  of  the  native  cattle,  when 
fattened,  is  about  five  hundred  pounds.  He  also  gives  a  favourable  account 
of  the  grasing  properties  of  these  cattle.     He  says,  that  '  they  are  (iften 

old  4«.,  a,  horse  10<.,  and  so  on.  The  charge  for  a  summ  in  the  mountains,  from  I^'^y  ^ 
November,  varies  from  6t.  to  16<.,  according  to  the  goodness  of  the  pasture,  in  the  P  rks 
which  are  kept  up  for  fattening,  it  is  from  21.  to  21.  lOs.' 

•  Mr.  Rawson  gives  the  following  account  of  the  strange  privations  to  which  the  cattle 
are  sometimes  exposed.  '  The  droves  of  cattle  when  tunned  nut  are  generally  att  ended 
by  a  solitary  herdsman  and  bis  boy,  who  are  obliged  to  keep  boundaries.  Hay  is  never 
dreamed  of  as  necessary ;  and  in  case  of  deep  snow  of  long  continuance,  the  healing  bul- 
locks have  nothing  to  resort  to  but  coarse  grass  on  undrained  and  unimproved  mours  and 
wet  lands,  which  have  scarcely  been  trodden  ou  during  the  previous  summer.  Turnips, 
rape,  or  even  straw  are  never  thought  of;  nay,  an  extensive  grazier  would  laugh  at  wJiat 
he  would  call  your  folly,  if  you  doubted  the  health  of  his  bullocks  on  his  coarse  crags.' 
Houses  or  coverings  of  a^iy  kind  are  not  thought  of.  Yet  alter  all  these  severe  trials  nf 
thriftiness,  when  at  four  years  old,  they  are  put  to  fatten  about  the  1st  of  May,  ai<d  in 
five  montl.s  pre  n.ade  tit  fur  sUrighter.' 

186  CATTLE. 

brousrht  to  be  fat  without  stall-reeding ;  and  when  upon  gDod  land,  onljp 
require  fodder  with  hay  upon  the  ground  for  about  three  months,  and 
without  housing.  They  are,  however,  frequently  housed,  and  fed  with 
turnips  and  potatoes  with  good  .success.' 

Mr.  Moore  O'Farrell  speaks  also  of  the  great  improvement  effected  in 
the  Irish  cattle  within  the  last  twelve  years,  by  the  importation  of  the 
Durham  breed.  He  says,  that  '  they  have  displaced  a  cross  of  the  long- 
horn  Leicester  on  the  Irish  cow,  and  that  the  farmers  of  the  country 
now  prefer  a  cross  of  the  Durham  bull,  on  the  Irish  cow,  to  the  pure 
breed,  as  being  less  delicate,  and  giving  a  richer  and  greater  quantity  of 
milk ;'  but  he  very  properly  adds,  that  '  the  two  tirst  crosses  Me  most 
approved  of.' 

Sir  Robert  Bateson,  of  Bel  voir  Park,  Belfast,  purchased  in  1820,  a 
bull  and  three  cows,  of  Mr.  Charles  Howard  of  Melbourn,  of  »he  best 
sliort-horn  b|;eed,  which  succeed  admirably  in  that  district. 

Mr.  M'Neil,  of  Lam,  in  Antrim,  tried  a  Highland  bull,  but  the  breed 
was  not  improved,  either  for  the  dairv  or  the  butcher. 

Perhaps  there  is  po  country  in  the  world  which,  in  proportion  to  Its 
number  of  acres,  contains  so  many  cattle  or  possesses  so  extensive  a  trade 
in  cattle  and  their  produce,  as  Ireland  does.  In  1812,  no  less  than 
79,285  live  oxen  and  cows  were  exported  from  Ireland,  constituting  full 
one-eighth  part  of  the  beef  consumed  in  England,  and  stated  to  be  of  the 
official  vaiue  of  439,128Z.  From  that  period,  the  number  seemed  to  be 
gradually  diminishing.  In  1S24,  there  were  only  62,393  oxen  and  cows 
exported  ;  in  182.^,  there  were  63,524,  and  of  the  value  of  about  350,000/. 
No  later  details  can  be  given,  fiir  the  traffic  between  Britain  and  Ireland 
was  then  placed  on  the  footing  of  a  coasting  trade:  the  numbers,  however, 
were  not,  until  lately,  fewer  than  the.y  were  in  1825. 

Before  the  establishment  of  sti  am  navigation,  many  inconveniences 
and  difficulties  attended  the  transport  of  the  Irish  cattle.  Many  of  them 
were  driven  a  hundred  or  a  hundred  and  fifty  miles  to  the  coast,  where,  if 
the  wind  was  contrary,  they  were  detained  perhaps  several  days,  with  a 
very  scanty  allowance  of  food.  They  had  none  on  the  voyage  ;  and  when 
they  arrived  at  the  English  shore,  they  were  often  in  a  starved  state,  and 
scarcely  able  to  walk.  This  may  be  placed  in  another  point  of  view. 
In  a  dry  summer,  the  English  fed  cattle  are  sent  to  some  of  the  markets, 
and  particularly  to  those  on  the  western  coast,  and  especially  Liverpool, 
to  great  disadvantage.  From  the  scarcity  of  food  and  water,  they  do  not 
arrive  in  a  prime  slate  of  fatness  ;  they  have  a  long  way  to  be  driven,  and 
are  often  badly  supported  on  the  road.  In  Ireland,  they  have  had  a 
capital  summer  for  grazing,  never  Wanting  grass  or  water, — and  the  finest 
long-horned  cattle,  a  breed  now  almost  extinct  in  this  country,  are  sent, 
over  in  the  highest  condition.  Such  is  the  facility  of  conveyance,  that  a 
steam-packet  with  a  cargo  of  fat  cattle  will  leave  Ireland  one  day,  and 
have  deUvered  and  be  cleared  out  in  good  time  on  the  following  day. 

In  addition  to  this  transport  of  cattle  for  the  graziers  in  England, 
Ireland  supplies  an  immense  quantity  of  beef,  for  the  navy  and  merchants' 
vessels  at  all  periods.  During  the  late  war,  the  cattle  slaughtered  at 
Cork  for  the  use  of  the  navy  were,  perhaps,  more  numerous  than  all  that 
were  disposed  of  in  every  other  way.  Mr.  Culley  saw  at  one  fair  at 
Ballinasloe,  in  Roscommon,  35,000  head  of  cattle,  and  half  of  them 
fat,  all  of  which  were  bought  up  for  slaughter  at  Cork. 

Of  the  vexatious  mode  in  which  the  business  between  the  gra- 
rier  and  the  contractor  was  often  transacted,  we  subjoin  in  a  note 
•  somewhat    humorous    account,   extracted    from  Diittoii's    Survey   or 

i.ilt    litlSU  ^JKKKD.  18» 

ftie  count)   ol  Clare  we  hope  that  ilie  piclure  .is  iirc  a  little  over- 


The  perfect  establishment  of  steam  navigation,  while  it  afibrds  facilities 
for  the  transport  of  live-stock,  yields  still  greater  ones  for  the  carriage  of 
the  carcase  ;  and  cattle  may  now  be  slaughtered  in  the  evening  at  any 
uf  the  ports  on  the  eastern  coast  of  Ireland,  and  sent  to  Liverpool,  and, 
by  means  of  the  railway,  even  to  Manchester,  in  time  for  the  morrow's 

We  baye  stated  that  the  old  breed  of  Irish  cattle  is  most  valueoTor  the 
dairy.  They  give,  in  proportion  to  their  size,  a  much  greater  quantity  of 
milk  than  the  long-horns,  and  richer  in  butter.  A  cow  is  supposed  to 
yield  from  84  lbs.  to  112  lbs.  of  butter  in  the  year;   a  very  good  cow  will 

*  When  the  merchants  are  combined,  the  |i;raziers  are  comiilettly  at  their  mercy,  and 
snffKr.  not  only  evi-»y  kind  of  ^oss  indignity  ot  treatment  irom  these  great  men,  but 
serioas  losses  from  the  cheating  of  every  person  concerned  in  slaughtering  these  cattle.  As 
it  is  scarcely  known  in  other  parts  of  the  kingdom,  it  may  be  at  least  amusing  to  detail 
the  business  a  little.  The  grazier,  finding  no  agent  attending  the  fairs  to  buy,  except 
some  trusty  friend  of  the  merchants,  who  reails  a  letter  from  Cork  or  Limerick  stating 
the  rumours  of  a  peace  or  the  expected  very  tow  price,  is  obliged  to  drive  his  cattle  to 
either  of  these  markets. 

After  driving  them  into  either  of  these  towns,  he  waits  upon  the  great  man,  and  with 
all  humility,  begs  to  know  if  he  wants  any  iat  cattle  ;  alter  a  good  deal  of  pretended 
hurry  of  business,  and  waiting  for  a  repetition  of  the  question, 'he  believes  he  shall  not 

want  anything  more  than  what  he  has  already  engaged,  but  to  oblige  Mr. ,  he  will 

endeavour  to  make  room  for  them  as  to  the  price,  it  is  to  be  regulated  by  what  the 
other  graziers  receive.' 

When  this  is  settled,  he  must  drive  his  beasts  to  a  slaughter-house,  many  of  which  are 
erected  for  this  purpose.  He  pays  for  this  a  high  price,  and  must  give  also  the  heads 
and  ofial.  He  must  sit  up  all  night,  superintending  the  slaughtering,  and  must  silently 
observe  every  species  of  fraud  committed  by  the  very  worst  kind  of  butchers  ;  for,  as  has 
frequently  happened,  if  resentful  language  is  used  to  those  scoundrels,  they  begin  to 
whet  their  knives,  and  put  themselves  in  an  assassinating  altitude.  This  in  a  slaughter- 
ing-house at  night,  and  amongst  the  horrid  scene  of  carnage  around  him,  requires  no 
small  share  of  nerve. 

Next  morning,  without  taking  any  rest,  he  must  bring  his  meat  to  the  cutters  up  ; 
here,  unless  they  are  feed,  begins  the  second  part  of  the  fraud  he  has  to  sufier.  First; 
they  take  for  their  perquisites  several  pounds  of  his  best  beef ;  and  if  he  has  cows,  unless 
they  are  well  paid,  will  cut  away  large  quantities  of  the  udder,  which  they  call  offal,  and 
which  is  the  property  of  the  merchant,  though  he  pays  nothing  for  it.  The  merchant 
also  gets  the  tongues;  and  if,  perhaps,  the  grazier  wants  a  few,  must  buy  them  at  the  rate 
of  three  shillings  each.  , 

The  third  scene  begins  at  the  scales :  here  another  perquisite  must  be  paid,  and  much 
good  meat  is  reliised,  tiecause,  truly,  it  should  be  a  few  pounds  less  than  the  stipulated 
weight  per  beast. 

An  appeal  ,then  is  made  to  the  great  man, — '  he  is  gone  out,' — '  he  won't  be  home  to- 
night,"— '  he  is  so  busy  he  can't  be  seen;'  at  length,  perhaps,  he  is  visible, — and  when 
matters  are  explained, — ■'  Really,  Sir,  1  do  not  wish  to  take  your  cattle ;  the  prices  I 
r«ceive  in  England  are  so  low,  1  shall  lose  by  my  contract ;  suppose  you  would  try  if  you 
could  do  better  elsewhere,  btit  I  will  agree  to  take  your  beef,  though  below  the  weight,  if 
you  make  the  terms  lower.'  The  grazier  has  now  no  redress,  and  must  agree  to  any 
terms.  The  business  does  not  end  here.  Th'-ohe  enquires  what  mode  of  iiayinent; 
bills  at  ninety-one  days  are  the  best  terms  he  can  get.  He  then  applies  to  a  diaudler  to 
buy  his  fat.  When  this  is  settled,  the  tanner  must  be  waited  on;  and  here,  as  well  as 
with  the  chandler,  bills  at  a  long  date  are  the  only  payment  he  can  receive ;  and  as  they 
are  generally  men  of  small  or  no  capital,  if  their  speculations  should  not  succeed,  their 
bills  are  worth  little. 

This  is  but  a  small  part  of  the  gross  indignities  the  grazier  has  to  suffer.  He  has  to 
transact  a  business  totally  foreign  to  his  habits  of  life,  consequently  unable  to  cope  with 
those,  who,  from  their  infancy,  are  used  to  the  tricks  practised  in  this  business,  and, 
therefore,  able  to  avoid  them,  or  turn  them,  perhaps,  to  their  own  benefit.  The  prica 
depends,  not  only  on  the  causes  before-mentioned,  but  on  the  size  of  the  beast, — those  of 
*  large  size  bringing  more  per  cwt.  than  those  uf  a  .smaller  one,  which  is  a  premium  oa 
large  bone ;  and  cows  are  always  lower  in  price  than  oxen,  though  they  are  sent  ta 
Kn({land  in  the  same  packages  ;  and,  if  fat,  go  as  the  best  beef,  called  planter's  men. 

t88  CAn'LK. 

yield  Ijcwt. ;  about  Jialf  of  which  is  consumed  by  the  family,  or  in  the 
country,  and  the  remainder  is  exported  to  England,  Carlow  bus  the  repu- 
tation of  producing  the  best  butter ;  but  the  firkins  containing  that  which  is 
manulkclured  iu  all  the  surroanding  counties  are  often  branded  with  the 
name  of  Carlow.  It  is  highly  esteemed  in  London,  and  is  often  sold  for 
Cambridge  butter ;  but  much  of  the  Irish  butter  is  very  salt,  and  some- 
times smoky  and  tallowy.  In  fact,  there  are  three  distinct  sorts  of  butter 
in  the  Irish  market.  The  best  is  sent  to  Dublin  and  to  England ;  and 
from  the  latter  country,  exported  to  the  East  and  West  Indies.  An 
inferior  sort  finds  a  market  in  Spain  ;  and  an  inferior  still,  used  to  be  sent 
to  Boulogne.  In  Cork,  the  half  Holderness  breed  is  chiefly  used  tor  the 
dairy.  The  principal  dairy  counties  are — Carlow,  Cork,  Fermanagh, 
Kerry,  Leitrim,  Longford,  Slign,  Waterford,  and  Westmeath. 

Very  little  cheese  is  made  in  Irc'aiid,  and  that  is  of  an  inferior  quality. 

Chapter  VI 


In  the  district  of  Craven,  a  I'erlile  corner  of  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire, 
bordering  on  Lancashire,  iiiid  separated  from  Westmoreland  chiefly 
by  the  western  moorlands,  there  has  been,  from  the  earliest  records  of 
British  agriculture,  a  peculiar  and  valuable  breed  of  cattle.  They  were 
distinguish'>d  from  the  home-breds  of  other  counties,  by  a  disproportionate 
and  frequently  unbecoming  length  of  horn.  In  the  old  breed  this  horn 
frequently  projected  nearly  horizontally  on  either  side,  but  as  the  cattle 
were  improved  the  horn  assumed  other  directions  ;  it  hung  down  so  that 
the  animal  could  scarcely  graze,  or  it  curved  so  as  to  threaten  to  meet  be- 
fore the  muzzle,  and  so  also  to  prevent  the  beast  from  grazing  ;  or  imme- 
diately under  the  jaw,  and  so  to  lock  the  lower  jaw;  or  the  points  pre- 
sented themselves  against  the  bones  of  the  nose  and  face,  threatening  to 
perforate  them.  We  have  given  a  similar  description  of  the  improved 
Irish  breed.  In  proportion  as  the  breed  became  improved  the  horns 
lengthened,  and  they  are  characteristically  distinguished  by  the  name  of 
'  The  Long  Horns.'  The  cut  of  the  Irish  cattle  in  page  181,  will  give  no 
unfaithful  representation  of  their  general  appearance  and  form.  Cattle  of  a 
similar  description  were  found  on  the  districts  of  Lancashire  bordering  on 
Craven,  and  also  in  the  south-eastern  parts  of  Westmoreland ;  but  tradi- 
tion, in  both  of  these  districts,  pointed  to  Craven  as  the  original  habitation 
of  the  long-horn  breed.  If  there  gradually  arose  any  difference  between 
them,  it  was  that  the  Craven  beasts  were  the  broadest  in  the  chine,  the 
shortest,  the  handsomest,  and  the  quickest  feeders  ;  the  Lancashire  ones 
were  larger,  longer  in  the  quarters,  but  with  a  fall  behind  the  shoulders, 
and  not  so  level  on  the  chine. 

Whence  these  cattle  were  derived  was  and  still  is  a  disputed  point.  Our 
opinion  of  this  matter  has  been  already  expressed  when  treating  of  the 
Irish  cattle. 

The  lojig  horns  seem  to  have  first  appeared  in  Craven,  and  gra- 
dually to  have  spread  along  the  western  coast,  and  to  have  occupied 
linioel  e:iclusively  the  midland  counties. 



There  atv,  as  in  Ireland,  two  distinct  breeds ;  the  smaller  Cravens 
{nhabiling;  the  mountains  and  moorlands,  hardy,  useful  valued  by  the 
cottager  and  little  farmer  on  account  of  the  cheapness  with  which  they 
are  kept,  the  superior  quantity  and  excellent  quality  of  the  milk  which 
they  yield,  and  the  aptitude  with  which  they  fatten  when  removed  to  better 
pasture.  The  larger  Cravens,  occupying  a  more  level  and  richer  pasture, 
are  fair  milkers,  although  in  proportion  to  their  size  not  equal  to  the 
others;  but  possess  a  tendency  to  fatten  and  acquire  extraordinary  bulk 
scarcely  inferior  to  that  of  the  short-horns  of  the  present  day. 

As  either  of  these  found  their  way  to  other  districts,  they  mingled  to  a 
greater  or  less  degree  with  the  native  cattle,  or  they  felt  the  influence  of 
change  of  clitnate  and  soil,  and  gradually  adapted  themselves  to  their  new 
situation  ;  and  each  assumed  a  peculiarity  of  form  which  characterized  it 
as  belonging  to  a  certain  district,  and  rendered  It  valuable  and  almost 
perfect  there.  The  Cheshire,  the  Derbyshire,  the  Nottinghamshire,  the 
StafTordshire,  the  Oxfordshire,  and  the  Wiltshire  cattle  were  all  essentially 
long-horns,  but  each  had  its  distinguishing  feature,  which  seemed  best  to 
fii  it  for  its  situation,  and  the  purposes  for  which  it  was  bred.  Having 
a>isumed  a  decided  character,  varying  only  with  peculiar  local  circumstances, 
the  old  long-horns,  like  the  Devons,  the  Herefords,  and  the  Scotch,  con- 
tinued nearly  the  same.  There  is  no  authentic  detail  of  their  distinguish- 
ing points.  Mr.  CuUey  says  that '  the  kind  of  cattle  most  esteemed  before 
Mr.  Bakewell's  time  were  the  large,  long-bodied,  big-boned,  coarse,  flat- 
sided  kind,  and  often  lyery  or  black  fleshed.'  This,  however,  is  rather  too 
severe  a  censure  on  the  Cravens  or  Lancashire  beasts  of  that  day.  From 
hints  given  by  old  writers,  we  may  conclude  that  some  of  them  at  least 
were  characterized  by  their  roundness  and  length  of  carcass,  coarseness  o( 
bone,  thickness  and  yet  mellowness  of  hide,  and  the  rich  quality  although 
not  abundant  quantity  of  their  milk. 

((Vd,C-«if«  8ui<.] 

90  CATTLK. 

The  toregoiiig  cut  contains  the  portrait  of  a  Craven  bull  of  the  pr« 
sent  Hay,  but  suppostd  to  bear  ahout  h  m  many  of  the  characters  of  the 
old   breed.     He   was  drawn  by  Mr.    Harvey  as  he  stood  in  Smithfield 

Here  were  evident  materials  for  some  skilful  breeder  to  work  upoi) ;  a 
connexion  of  excellencies  and  defects  by  no  means  inseparable.  That 
which  was  {rood  might  be  rendered  more  valuable,  and  the  alloy  mii>ht 
.be  easily  thrown  off.  It  was  not,  however,  until  about  the  year  1720  that 
any  agriculturist  seemed  to  possess  sufficient  science  and  spirit  tu  attempt 
the  work  of  improvement  in  good  earnest.  A  blacksmith  and  farrier,  of 
Linton,  in  Derbyshire,  on  the  very  borders  of  Leicestershire,  who  at  the 
same  time  rented  a  little  farm,  has  the  honour  of  standing  first  on  the 
list.  His  name  was  Welby.  He  had  a  valuable  breed  of  cows,  which 
came  from  Drakelow  house,  a  seat  of  Sir  Thomas  Gresley,  on  the  banks 
of  the  Trent,  about  a  mile  from  Burton.  He  prided  himself  much  in 
them,  an  they  deserved  ths  care  which  he  took  in  improving  them  and 
keeping  the  breed  pure;  but  a  disease,  which  defied  all  remedial  measures 
then  known,  broke  out  and  carried  off  the  greater  part  of  them,  thus  half 
ruining  Welby,  and  putting  a  final  stop  to  his  speculations. 

Soon  after  this  Mr.  Webster,  of  Canley,  near  Coventry,  distinguished 
himself  as  a  breeder.  He  too  worked  upon  Sir  Thomas  Gresley's  stock, 
some  of  whose  cows  he  brought  with  him  when  he  first  settled  at  Canley. 
He  was  at  considerable  trouble  in  procuring  bulls  from  Lancashire  and 
Westmoreland,  and  he  is  said  to  have  had  the  best  stock  of  cattle  then  known. 
One  of  his  ndmirers  says  that  '  he  possessed  the  best  stock,  especially  of 
beace,  that  ever  were,  or  ever  will  be  bred  in  the  kingdom.'  This  is  high 
praise,  and  is  recorded  as  evidence  of  the  excellent  quality  of  Mr.  Web- 
ster's breed. 

It  is  much  to  be  regretted  that  we  have  such  meagre  accounts  of  the 
proceedings  of  the  early  improvers  of  cattle.  Little  more  is  known  of  Mr. 
Webster  than  that  he  established  the  Canley  breed,  some  portion  of  whose 
blood  flowed  in  every  improved  long-horn  beast. 

The  bull,  Bloxedoe,  the  Hubback  of  the  long  horns,  and,  like  Him, 
indebted  to  accident  for  the  discovery  of  his  value,  was  out  of  a  three- 
year  old  heifer  of  Mr.  Webster's,  by  a  Lancashire  bull,  belonging  to  a 
neighbour.  When  a  yearling  he  was  so  unpromising  that  he°  was  dis- 
carded and  sold  to  a  person  of  the  name  of  Bloxedge,  (hence  the  name  of 
the  beast,)  but  turning  out  a  remarkably  good  stock-getler,  Mr.  Webster 
re-purchased  him,  and  used  him  for  several  seasons.  He  was  afterwards 
sold  to  Mr.  Hanison,  of  Deakenedye,  in  Warwickshire,  and  Mr.  Flavel,  of 
Hogshill,  where  he  died. 

Now  appeared  the  chief  improver  of  the  long-horns,  and  to  whom  his 
cotemporaries  and  posterity  have  adjudged  the  merit  of  creating  as  it 
were  a  new  breed  of  cattle.  It  is  a  disgrace  to  the  agriculture  of  the 
times  that  Bakewell  should  have  been  suffered  to  pass  away  without  some 
authentic  record  of  what  he  effected,  and  the  principles  that  guided  him, 
and  the  means  by  which  his  objects  were  accomplished. 

The  only  memoir  we  have  of  Robert  Bakewell  is  a  fugitive  paper  in  the 
Gentleman's  Magazine,  from  which  every  writer  has  "borrowed,  and  his 
•jbligation  to  such  a  source  none  has  condescended  to  acknowieage.  It 
.ells  us  that  Robert  Bakewell  was  born  atDishley,  in  Leicestershire,  about 
1725.  His  fat  her  and  grandfather  had  resided  on  the  same  estate.  Hav- 
ng  remarked  that  domestic  animals  in  general  produced  others  possessing 
qualities  nearly  similar  to  their  own,  he  conceived  that  he  had  rnl;^  to 


*eleLt  from  tho  most  valuable  breeds,  such  as  promised  to  return  llie  possible  emolument  to  the  breeder,  and  that  he  should  then  be 
«l)le.  by  careful  attention  to  progressive  improvement,  to  produce  a  breed 
whence  he  could  derive  a  maximniu  of  advantage. 

Under  the  influence  of  this  excellent  notion,  he  made  excursions  into 
different  parts  of  England,  in  order  to  inspect  the  different  breeds,  and  to 
select  those  that  were  best  adapted  to  his  purpose,  and  the  most  valuable 
of  tijeir  kind  ;  and  his  residence  and  his  early  habits  disposed  him  to  give 
the  preference  to  the  long- horn  catile. 

We  have  no  account  of  the  precise  principles  nrhich  guided  him,  nor  of 
the  motives  that  influenced  him  in  the  various  selections  which  he  made; 
but  Mr.  Marshall,  who  says  that  he  '  was  repeatedly  favoured  with  oppor- 
tunities of  makinn:  ample  observations  on  Mr.  Bakeweli's  practice,  and 
with  liberal  communications  from  him  on  all  rural  subjects,'  gives  us  some 
2liie.  He  tells  us,  however,  thiit  '  it  is  not  his  intention  to  deal  out  Mr. 
Bakeweli's  private  opinions,  or  even  to  attempt  a  recital  of  his  particular 
practice.'  Mr.  Marshall  was  doubtless  influenced  by  an  honourable 
motive  in  witliholding  so  much  that  would  have  been  highly  valuable;  and 
we  can  only  rej-ret  that  he  was  so  situated  as  to  have  this  motive  pressing 
upon  his  mind 

He  speaks  of  the  general  principles  of  breeding  ;  and  when  he  does 
this  in  connexion  with  the  name  of  JBakewell,  we  shall  not  be  veiy  wrong 
in  concluding  that  these  were  the  principles  by  which  that  great  agricultu- 
rist was  influenced. 

'The  most  oeneral  principle,"  he  says,  (we  are  referring  to  his  '  Eco- 
nomy of  the  Midland  Counties,'  vol.  i.  p.  297)  '  is  beauty  of  form.  It  is 
observable,  however,  that  this  principle  was  more  closely  attended  to  at 
the  outset  of  improvement  (under  an  idea  in  some  degree  falsely  grounded, 
that  the  beauty  of  form  and  utility  are  inseparable)  than  at  present,  when 
men  who  have  long  been  conversant  in  practice  make  a  distinction  be- 
tween a  "useful  sort"  and  a  sort  which  is  merely  "  handsome." 

'The  next  principle  attended  to  is  a  proportion  of  parts,  or  what  may  be 
ca\led  utility  of  form  in  distinction  from  beauty  of  form;  thus  the  parts 
which  are  deemed  offal,  or  which  bear  an  inferior  nrice  at  market,  should 
be  small  in  proportion  to  the  belter  parts. 

'  A  third  principle  of  improvement  is  the  texture  of  the  muscular  parts, 
or  what  is  termed  Jlesh,  a  quality  of  live  slock  which,  familiar  as  it  may 
ong  have  been  to  the  butcher  and  the  consumer,  had  not  been  sufiiciently 
attended  to  by  breeders,  whatever  it  might  have  been  by  graziers.  This 
principle  involved  the  fact  that  the  grain  of  the  meat  depended  wholly  on 
the  breed,  and  not,  as  had  been  before  considered,  on  the  size  of  the  ani- 
mal. But  the  principle  which  engrossed  the  greatest  share  of  attention, 
and  which,  above  all  others,  is  entitled  to  the  grazier's  attention,  in  fatten- 
ing quality,  or  a  natural  propensity  to  acquire  a  state  of  fatness  at  an  early 
aire,  and  when  in  full  keep,  and  in  a  short  space  of  time ;  a  quality  which 
is  clearly  found  to  be  hereditary.' 

Therefore,  in  Bakeweli's  opinion,  every  thing  depended  on  breed,  and  the 
beauty  and  utility  of  the  form,  the  quality  of  the  flesh  and  the  propensity 
to  fatnes.s  were,  in  the  offspring,  the  natural  consequence  of  similar 
qualities  in  the  parents.  His  whole  attention  was  centered  in  these  four 
points ;  and  he  never  forgot  that  they  were  compatible  with  each  other, 
tnd  might  be  occasionally  found  united  in  the  same  individual. 

Impr»)vement  had  hitherto  been  attempted  to,  be  produced  by  selecting 
.^emales  from  the  native  stock  of  the  country,  and  crossing  them  with 
males  of  an  alien  breed.     Mr.  Bakeweli's  good  sense  led  him  to  imagine 

»2  tATTLE. 

Uiat   the   oliject    niijiht   be  belter  accomplished   oy  uniting;  the    siiporioi 
branches  of  the  same  breed,  than  by  any  mixture  of  foreign  onis. 

On  this  new  and  judicious  principle  he  started.  He  purchased  two 
long-horn  heifers  from  Mr.  Webster,  and  he  procured  a  promising  long- 
horn  bull  from  Westmoreland.  To  these  and  their  progeny  he,  confined 
himself;  coupling  them  as  he  thought  he  could  best  increase,  or  establish 
some  excellent  point,  or  speedily  and  effectually  remove  a  faulty  one. 

As  his  stock  increased,  he  was  enabled  to  avoid  the  injurious  and  ener- 
vating consequence  of  breeding  too  closely  'in  and  in.'  The  breed  was  the 
same,  but  he  could  interpose  a  remove  or  two,  between  the  members  oV 
the  same  family.  He  could  preserve  all  the  excellencies  of  the  breed, 
without  the  danger  of  deterioration;  and  the  rapidity  of  the  improve- 
ment which  he  effected  was  only  equalled  by  its  extent. 

Many  years  did  not  pass  before  his  stock  was  unrivalled  for  the  round- 
ness of  its  form,  and  the  smalluess  of  its  bone,  and  its  aptitude  to  acquire 
external  fat ;  while  they  were  small  consumers  of  food  in  proportion  to 
their  size  ;  but  at  the  same  time,  their  qualities  as  milkers  were  very  con- 
siderably lessened.  The  grazier  could  not  too  highly  value  the  Dishley, 
or  new  Leicester  long-horn  ;  but  the  dairyman,  and  the  little,  farmer, 
clung  to  the  old  breed  as  most  useful  for  their  purpose. 

Mr.  Bakewell  had  many  prejudices  opposed  to  him,  and  many  difficul- 
ties to  surmount,  and  it  is  not  therefore  to  be  wondered  at  if  he  was  more 
than  once  involved  in  considerable  embarrassment ;  but  he  lived  to  see 
the  perfect  success  of  his  undertaking*. 

He  died  when  verging  on  his  seventieth  year.  His  countenance  be- 
spoke activity,  and  a  high  degree  of  benevolence.  His  manners  were 
frank  and  pleasing,  and  well  calculated  to  maintain  the  extensive  popu- 
larity he  had  acquired.  His  hospitality  to  strangers  was  bounded  only  by 
his  means. 

Many  anecdotes  are  related  of  his  humanity  towaids  the  various  tribes 
of  animals  under  his  management.  He  would  not  suffer  the  slightest  act 
of  cruelty  to  be  perpetrated  by  any  of  his  servants,  and  he  sternly  depre- 
cated the  barbarities  practised  by  butchers  and  drovers ;  showing,  by 
examples  on  his  own  farm,  the  most  pleasing  instances  of  docility  in  every 

»  In  that  jileasing  and  instructive  work,  '  Illustrations  of  Natural  History,'  we  find 
the  fullDwing  ingenious,  but  too  severe  criticism,  on  Bakewell's  system.  'It  was  his 
graiiil  maxim,  that  the  bones  of  an  animal  intended  for  food  could  not  be  too  small,  and 
iliat  the  fat  being  the  most  valuable  part  of  the  carcase,  it  could  consequently  not  be  too 
aliuiidant.  In  pursuance  of  this  leading  theory,  by  inducing  a  preteiuatural  smallness 
i.f  lione,  and  rotundity  of  carcass,  he  sought  to  cover  the  bones  of  all  his  animals  exter- 
nally with  masses  of  fat.  Thus,  the  entirely  new  Leicester  breed,  from  their  excessive 
temiency  to  fatten,  produce  too  small  a  quantity  of  eatable  meat,  and  that,  too,  necessarily 
iif  inferior  flavour  and  quality.  They  are  in  general  found  defective  in  weight,  propor- 
tiunably  to  their  bulk,  and  if  not  thoroughly  fattened,  their  flesh  is  crude  and  without 
flavour :  while,  if  they  be  so,  their  carcasses  produce  little  else  but  fat,  a  very  considerable 
part  of  which  must  be  sold  at  an  inferior  price,  to  make  candles  instead  of  food,  not  to 
forget  the  very  great  waste  that  must  ever  attend  the  consumption  of  over-fattened  meat. 

'  This  great  and  sagacious  improver,  very  justly  disgusted  at  the  sight  of  those  huge, 
gaunt,  leggy,  and  misshapen  animals  with  which  his  vicinity  abounded,  and  which 
scarcely  any  length  of  time  or  quantity  of  food  would  thoroughly  fatten,  patriotically 
dctrrmined  upon  raising  a  more  sightly  and  a  more  profitable  breed ;  yet,  rather  unfor- 
tunately, his  zeal  impelled  him  to  the  opposite  extreme.  Having  painfidly,  and  at  much 
cost,  raided  a' variety  of  cattle,  the  chief  merit  of  which  is  to  make  fat,  he  has  appareutly 
laid  his  disciples  and  successors  under  the  necessity  of  substituiing  another  that  will 
makn  lean.' — p.  5 — 8.  ^ 

+  The  writer  in  the  '  Gentleman's  Magazine,  to  whom  we  have  before  referred,  sayi 
that    the  i;cutleiiess  of  the  different  breeds  of  cattle  coiild  not  escape  th«  attention  of  uay 


Mr.  Bakewell's  celebrated  bull  Twopenny  was  the  produce  of  the 
Westmoreland  bull,  out  of  old  Comely,  who  was  one  of  the  two  heifen 
purchased  from  Mr.  Webster ;  therefore  he  was,  by  the  side  of  his  dam, 
a  direct  descendant  of  the  Canley  blood. 

Mr.  Bakewell  had  afterwards  a  more  valuable  bull  than  this,  named  D. 
He  retained  him  principally  for  his  own  use,  except  that  he  was  let  for 
part  of  a  season  to  Mr.  Fowler,  and  that  a  few  cows  were  brought  to  him 
at  five  guineas  a  cow.  He  was  got  by  a  son  of  Twopenny,  out  of  a 
daughter  and  sister  of  the  same  bull,  she  being  the  produce  of  his  own 
dam.  The  method  of  rearing  the  young,  as  practised  by  Mr.  Bakewell, 
was  not  very  different  from  that  now  in  use.  '  The  calves  sucked  for  a 
week  or  a  fortnight,  according  to  their  strength  ;  new  milk  in  the  pail, 
was  then  given  a  few  meals ;  next,  new  milk  and  skim-milk  mixed,  a  few 
meals  more  ;  then  sknii-milk  alone,  or  porridge  made  with  milk,  water, 
ground  oats,  &c.,  and  sometimes  oil-cake,  until  cheese-making  com- 
menced, if  it  was  a  dairy  farm ;  after  whichj  whey  porridge,  or  sweet 
whey  in  the  field,  being  careful  to  house  them  in  the  night  until  the 
warm  weather  was  confirmed.  BuU  calves,  and  high-bred  heifers,  however 
were  suffered  to  remain  at  the  teat  until  they  were  six,  nine,  or  perhaps 
twelve  months  old,  letting  them  run  with  their  dams,  or  more  frequently 
less  valuable  cows  or  heifers*.' 

Starting  a  few  years  afterwards,  and  rivalling  Mr.  Bakewell  in  the 
value  of  his  cattle,  was  Mr.  Fowler  of  Rollwright,  in  Oxfordshire,  on  the 
borders  of  Warwickshire.  His  cows  were  also  of  the  Canley  breed;  most 
of  them  having  been  purchased  from  Mr.  Bakewell ;  and  his  bull  Shak- 
speare,  the  best  stock-getter  that  the  long-horn  breed  ever  possessed,  was 
got  by  D,  out  of  a  daughter  of  Twopenny,  and  therefore  of  pure  Canley 

Mr.  Marshall  gives  the  following  description  of  this  bull,  and  a  very 
interesting  and  instructive  one  it  is.  It  is  a  beautiful  explication  of  some 
of  the  grand  principles  of  breeding.  '  This  bull  is  a  striking  specimen  of 
what  naturalists  term  accidental  varieties.     Though  bred  in  the  manner 

observer.  It  seemed  to  run  through  them  all.  At  an  age  when  most  of  his  brethren  are 
either  fuaming  or  bellowing  with  rage  and  madness,  old  C,  a  bull,  a  son  of  the  old  parent 
Comely,  had  all  the  geutleness  of  a  lamb,  both  in  his  look  and  action.  He  would  lick 
the  hand  of  his  feeder;  and  if  any  one  patted  or  scratched  him,  he  would  bow  himself 
down  almost  ou  his  knees,' 

The  same  writer  describes  Mr.  Bakewell's  servants,  one  of  whom  had  been  with  him 
20  years,  and  another  32,  and  another  40  years.  He  likewise  gives  a  curious  account  of 
Mr.  Bakewell's  hall.  '  The  separate  joints  and  points  of  each  of  the  more  celebrated  of 
his  cattle  were  preserved  in  pickle,  or  hung  up  side  by  side ;  showing  the  thickness  of  the 
flesh  and  external  fat  on  each,  and  the  smallness  of  the  ofial.  There  were  also  skeletons 
of  the  different  breeds,  that  the^  might  be  compared  with  each  other,  aUd  the  compara^ 
tive  difference  marked.  Some  lulnts  of  beef,  the  relics  of  old  Comely,  the  mother  of  the 
stock,  and  who  was  slaughtered  when  her  existence  had  become  burdensome  to  her,  were 
particularly  remarked.   The  fat  of  the  sirloin  on  the  outside  was  four  inches  in  thickness.' 

Mr.  Young,  in  his  Eastern  Tour,  gives  the  following  account  of  Mr.  Bakewell's  manage- 
ment of  the  cattle-^'  Another  peculiarity  is  the  amazing  gentleness  in  which  he  brings  up 
these  animals.  All  his  bulls  stand  still  in  the  field  to  be  examined :  the  way  of  driving 
them  from  one  field  to  another,  or  home,  is  by  a  little  switch :  he  or  his  men  walk  by  their 
side,  and  guide  them  with  the  stick  wherever  they  please ;  and  they  are  accustomed  to  this 
method  from  being  calves.  A  lad,  with  a  stick  three  feet  long,  and  as  big  as  his  finger, 
will  conduct  a  bull  away  from  other  bulls,  and  his  cows,  from  one  end  of  the  farm  to 
the  other.  All  this  gentleness  is  merely  the  eflect  of  niianagement ;  and  the  mischiel 
often  done  by  bulls  is  undoubtedly  owing  to  practices  very  "lontrary,  or  else  to  a  total 

*  AUrshall's  iMioland  Counties,  vol.  i.  p,  35S. 


.'J4  CATTLE. 

that  has  been  mentioned,  he  scarcely  inherits  a  single  point  of  the  long- 
horned  breed,  his  horns  excepted.  When  I  saw  him  in  1784,  then  six 
years  old,  and  somewhat  below  his  usual  condition,  though  by  no  means 
low  in  flesh,  he  was  of  this  description. 

'  His  head,  chap  and  neck  remarkably  fine  and  clean;  his  chest  extra- 
ordinarily deep, — his  brisket  down  to  his  knees.  His  chine  thin,  and 
rising  above  the  shoulder  points,  leaving  a  hollow  on  each  side  behind 
them.  His  loin,  of  course,  narrow  at  the  chine ;  but  remarkably  wide 
»t  the  hips,  wOiich  protuberate  in  a  singular  manner.  His  quarters  long 
in  reality,  but  in  appearance  short ;  occasioned  by  a  singular  formation  of 
the  rump.  At  first  sight,  it  appears  as  if  the  tail,  which  stands  forward, 
had  been  severed  from  the  vertebrae  by  the  chop  of  a  cleaver,  one  of  the 
vertebrae  extracted,  and  the  tail  forced  up  to  make  good  the  joint ;  an 
appearance,  which,  on  examining,  is  occasioned  by  some  remarkable 
wreaths  of  fat  formed  round  the  setting  on  of  the  tail  ;  a  circumstance 
which  in. a  picture  would  be  deemed  a  deformity,  but  as  a  point  is  in  the 
highest  estimation.  The  round  bones  snug,  but  the  thighs  rather  full 
and  remarkably  let  down.  The  legs  short  and  their  bone  fine.  The 
carcase,  throughout,  (the  chine  excepted)  large,  roomy,  deep,  and  well 

'  His  horns  apart,  he  had  every  point  of  a  Holderness  or  a  Teeswater 
bull*.  Could  his  horns  have  been  changed,  he  would  have  passed  in 
Yorkshire  as  an  ordinary  bull  of  either  of  those  breeds.  His  two  ends 
would  have  been  thought  tolerably  good,  but  his  middle  very  deficient; 
and  I  am  of  opinion,  that  had  he  been  put  to  cows  of  those  breeds,  his 
stoel-  would  have  been  of  a  moderate  quality  ;  but  being  put  to  cows 
deficient  where  he  was  full,  (the  lower  part  of  the  thigh  excepted,)  and 
full  where  he  was  deficient,  he  has  raised  the  long-horned  breed  to  a 
degree  of  perfection,  which  without  so  extraordinary  a  prodigy  they  never 
might  have  reached.' 

No  wonder  that  a  form  so  uncommon  should  strike  the  improvers  of 
this  breed  of  stock,  or  that  points  they  had  been  so  long  striving  in 
vain  to  produce,  should  be  rated  at  a  high  price.  His  owner  was  the 
first  to  estimate  his  worth,  and  could  never  be  induced  to  part  with  him 
except  to  Mr.  Princep,  who  hired  him  for  two  seasons,  at  the  unusual 
price  of  eighty  guineas  a  season.  He  covered  until  he  was  ten  years  old, 
but  then,  although  otherwise  healthy,  he  became  paralytic  in  his  hind 
quarters,  and,  consequently,  useless.  His  sire,  D,  at  the  age  of  12  or 
13,  was  more  active  than  bulls  usually  are  at  three  or  four  years  old. 

At  a  public  sale  of  Mr.  Fowler's  cattle,  in  1791,  the  following  prices 
were  given  for  some  of  the  favourite  beasts.  This  is  a  sufficient  proof  o( 
the  estimaiion  in  which  the  improved  Leicesters  were  now  beginning  to 
be  held. 

Garrick,  five  years  old 
Sultan,  two  years  old     . 
Washington,  do.     . 
A,  by  Garrick,  one  year  old 
Young  Sultan,  do. 
E,  by  Garrick,  do, 

*  This  may  he  true,  accorfing  to  the  character  of  the  short-horns  at  that  time,  but 
Shaksiwaie  does  not  so  stric'lv  resemble  them  in  their  present  improved  stato. 
























Brinaled  Beauty,  by  Shakspeare       .  .     273     0     0 

Sister  to  Garrick  .  .  .  1-iO     0     0 

Nell,  by  do.  .  .  .  .      136     0     0 

Young  Nell,  by  brother  of  do.       .  .  126     0     0 

Black  Heifer  .  .  .  .      l4l     0     0 

Dam  of  Washiiiffton       .  .  .  194     0     0 

Fifty  breed  ot' cattle  produced*       .  .  4-289     4     6 

Another  improver  of  the  long- horns  deserves  mention  before  we 
proceed,  and  that  is  Mr.  Princep  of  Croxall,  in  Derbyshire.  He  was 
supposed,  at  that  time,  to  have  the  best  dairy  of  long-horn  cows  in  the 
whole  of  the  midland  counties.  He  originally  bred  them  from  a  cow  of 
the  name  of  Bright,  who  was  got  by  Mr.  Webster's  Bloxedge,  the  father 
of  the  Canley  blood,  and  he  much  improved  his  breed  through  the  me- 
dium of  Shakspeare,  which,  as  we  have  just  stated,  he  hired  of  Mr. 
Fowler  for  two  successive  seasons.  It  was  remarked,  that  every  cow  and 
heifer  of  the  Shakspeare  blood  could  be  recoguized  at  first  sight  as  a 
descendant  of  his  t. 

Mr.  Paget  of  Ibstock,  in  Leicestershire,  should  be  added  to  the  list  of 
the  improvers  of  the  long-horns.  His  cattle  were  of  the  purest  of  the 
RoUwright  blood,  and  consequently  of  the  Canley  stock. 

Mr.  Mundy  of  Derby  must  not  be  forgotten,  whose  cattle,  although 
not  so  large  as  some  of  the  improved  Leicesters,  were  excelled  by  none 
in  beauty  of  form  or  aptitude  to  fatten  \  :  and,  last  of  all,  mention  should 

*  Mr,  Fowler  used  to  conduct  his  business  on  the  old  principle  of  selling.  Mr.  Mar- 
shall says  that  Mr.  Coke  of  Norfolk  used  to  have  all  the  cow  calves  he  could  spare  at  ten 
guineas  each,  taking  them  when  young ;  and  in  1 789,  Mr  Fowler  had  ten  bull-calves, 
for  which  he  refused  500  guineas.  The  practice  of  letting  bulls  originated  in  this  dis- 
trict, and  chiefly  with  Mr.  Bakewell,  and  was  generally  adopted.  The  bulls  were  sent 
out  in  April  or  the  beginning  of  May,  and  were  returned  in  August.  The  prices  varied 
from  ten  to  fifty  or  sixty  pounds ;  but  in  one  case,  as  we  have  just  stated,  a  bull  (Mr. 
Fowler's  Shakspeare)  was  let  at  eighty  guineas  a  season. 

Si>me  inconvenience  occasionally  resulted  from  this  ;  and  a  bull  that  appeared  a  very 
'  desirable  one  in  the  show-yard,  was  now  and  then  returned,  long  before  his  season  was 
over,  not  only  as  deficient  in  some  material  point,  but  as  absolutely  useless.  Mr.  Mar- 
shall very  ingeniously  accounts  for  this :  he  says  that  '  the  breeder's  object  is  to  render 
his  bull,  to  the  eye  at  least,  as  near  perfection  as  may  be  .  he  is  therefore  made  up  for 
the  show  by  high  keep,  as  well  to  evince  his  propensity  to  fatten  as  to  hide  his  defects, 
thereby  showing  him  off  to  the  best  advantage  :  the  consequence  of  which  is,  that  being 
taken  from  this  high  keep,  and  lowered  at  once  to  a  common  cow-pasture,  he  flags. 
Hence  it  is  become  a  practice  of  judicious  breeders,  when  their  bulls  are  let  early  enough, 
to  lower  them  down  by  degrees  to  ordinary  keep,  previous  to  the  season  of  employment. 

f  Mr.  Parkinson  says',  '  One  of'the  greatest  excellencies  in  Mr.  Frincep's  cattle,  is 
their  length,  with  smallness  in  their  shoulders,  giving  so  many  fine  cuts  along  their 
upper  parts.  Mr.  Frincep's  cows  are  remarkably  fat,  so  much  so,  I  think,  that  if  half  a, 
dozen  of  them  were  put  in  at  the  Smithfield  show  in  their  milking  state,  there  would  be 
very  few  of  the  cattle  exhibited,  and  made  up  for  that  purpose  that  would  equally  attract 
the  eyes  of  the  public'    Vol.  i.  p.  154. 

We  learn  from  the  same  authority,  that  Mr.  Princep  was  bid  500  guineas  for  a  two- 
year  old  bull,  and  thirty  (another  acccint  says  fifty)  guineas  a  cow  for  the  use  of  hii 
best  bull  to  thirty  cows,  \ol.  i.  p.  102.  He  was  also  ofiiired  20002.  for  twenty  dairy  cows. 
A  four-year  old  steer  of  Mr.  Frincep's  breed,  weighed  248  stones  of  14  lbs.  to  the  stone, 
(424  stones  Smithfield  weight,  or  3472  lbs.)  In  addition  to  this,  there  were  350  lbs.  of 
fat,  and  the  hide  weighed  177  lb. 

Another  of  Mr.  Frincep's  oxej  w  .s  fed  by  the  Marquis  of  Donegal,  in  1794.  The 
four  quarters  weighed  1988  lbs.,  the  tallow  200  lbs.,  and  the  hide  177  lbs. 

J  Mr.  Pirkinson  bears  the  following  testimony  to  the  sdperiority  of  tlie  new  cattle, 
even  at  this  early  period.  He  is  speaking  of  Mr.  Mundy.  '  There  was  one  thing  whieh 
prejudiced  my  mind  much  in  favovir  of  Mr.  Mundy's  cattle,  viz.,  it  was  in  the  month  oi 
September  that  I  visited  his  farm,  and  his  park  lying  very  conveniently  situated  for  tha 




be  made  of  Mr.  Astley,  whose  breed,  larfjer  than  Mr.  Mundy's.but  setdorn 
80  heavy  as  Mr.  Princep's,  were  much  admired. 

And  now  we  may  inquire,  a  little  more  particularly,  what  was  the  resul 
of  all  these  combined  efforts?  Was  a  breed  produced,  worthy  of  the 
talents  and  zeal  of  all  these  skilful  agriculturists?  On  the  Leicestershire 
cattle,  and  in  particular  districts  in  the  neighbouring  counties,  the  change 
was  great  and  advantageous  so  far  as  the  grazing  and  fattening,  and 
especially  the  early  maturity  of  the  animals  were  concerned. 

We  present  our  readers  with  the  following  two  cuts  of  the  improved 
I  eicesters. 

[A'««  Leicester  Biil/,'\ 

This  cut,  and  the  following  one,  are  taken  from  Garrard's  beautiful 
engravings  of  British  oxen.  Both  the  bull  and  the  cow  were  of  the  pure 
Pishley  breed,  and  were  the  property  of  Mr.  Honeybourn,  Mr.  Bakewell's 
nephew  and  successor. 

What  is  now  become  pf  this  improved  long-horn  breed?  Where  is  it 
to  be  found?  It  was  a  bold  and  a  successful  experiment.  It  seemed  for 
awhile  to  answer  the  most  sanguine  expectation  of  these  scientific  and 

inhabitants  of  Derby,  he  permits  them  to  pasture  their  cows  in  it.  I  think  the  number 
seemed  to  be  about  eighty ;  and  as  they  probably  belonged  to  half  as  many  different 
people,  without  doubt  bought  of  jobbers  cow  by  cow  and  from  various  parts  of  the  king-' 
dom,  it  seems  almost  impossible  that  the  whole  mass  of  these  cows  could  be  selected  of  a, 
bad  kind ;  and  as  many  of  them  had  grazed  in  the  park  all  the  summer,  they  had  had  a 
sufficient  time  to  fatten,  yet  there  was  not  a  single  cow  in  the  whole  number  that  had  the 
least  pretensions  to  fat ;  while  Mr.  Mundy  had  some  of  his  own  cows  pasturing  among 
them,  many  of  which  were  fatter  ihan  any  single  cow  could  be  found  on  some  market- 
days  in  Smithfield.  '  I  do  not  know,'  he  adds, '  that  a  better  trial,  as  an  ezperimentr' 
could  be  made,  to  show  the  superior  value  of  Mr.  Mundy's  cattle.'  These  cows  could 
not  be  very  deKcient  at  the  pail,  for  one  of  Mr,  Mundy's  gave  fourteen  pounds  oi  buttar 
Id  one  week. 


•pirited  breeders.  In  the  districts  in  which  the  experiments  were  carried 
on,  it  established  a  breed  of  cattle  equalled  by  few,  and  excelled  by  none 
but  the  Herefords.  It  enabled  the  iong-horns  to  contend,  and  often  suc- 
cessfully, with  the  heaviest  and  best  of  the  middle-horns.  It  did  more ; 
it  improved,  and  that  to  a  material  degree,  the  whole  breed  of  long-horns. 
The  Lancashire,  the  Derbyshire,  the  Staffordshire  cattle  became,  and  still 
are  an  improved  race ;  they  got  rid  of  a  portion  of  their  coarse  bone. 
They  began  to  gain  their  flesh  and  fat  on  the  more  profitable  points  * 
they  acquired  a  somewhat  earlier  maturity,  and  the  process  of  improve, 
ment  not  being  carried  too  far,  the  very  dairy-cattle  obtained  a  disposition 
to  convert  their  aliment  into  milk  while  milk  was  wanted,  and  after  that, 
to  use  the  same  nutriment  for  the  accumulation  of  flesh  and  fat.  The 
midland  counties  will  always  have  occasion  to  associate  a  feeling  of 
respect  and  gratitude  with  the  name  of  Bakewell.  The  Irish  breeders 
owe  everything  to  the  new  Leicester  cattle.  A  new  stock,  in  fact,  has 
arisen  since  the  improved  long-horns  were  grafted  on  the  native  Irish 

[New  Leicester  Coto.] 

Mr.  Marshall,  to  whom,  for  a  reason  that  will  presently  be  stated,  we  are 
compelled  again  to  have  recourse,  thus  describes  the  improved  Leicesters 
in  his  own  time,  which  was  that  of  Bakewell,  Princep,  and  Fowler. 

'  The  forend  long;  but  light  to  a  degree  of  elegance.  The  neck  thin, 
the  chap  clean,  the  head  fine,  but  long  and  tapering. 

'  The  eye  large,  bright  and  prominent. 

*  The  horns  vary  with  the  sex,  &c.  Those  of  bulls  are  comparatively 
short,  from  fifteen  inches  to  two  feet ;  of  the  few  oxen  that  have  been 
reared  of  this  breed,  are  extremely  large,  being  from  two  and  a  half  to 
three  and  a  half  feet  long  ;  those  of  the  cows  nearly  as  long,  but  much 
finer,  tapering  to  delicately  fine  points.  Most  of  them  hang  downward 
by  the  side  of  the  cheeks,  and  then,  if  well  turned,  as  many  of  the  eowi 
are,  iboot  forward  at  the  points. 

:98  CAl'TLE. 

'  The  shoulders  remarkably  fine  and  thin,  as  to  bone ;  but  thickly 
covered  with  flesh — not  the  smallest  protuberance  of  bone  discernible* 

'  The  gtrtli  small,  compared  with  the  short-horn  and  middle-horn 
breeds  t. 

•  The  chine  remarkably  full  when  I'at,  but  hollow  when  low  in  con- 

'  The  loin  broad,  and  the  hip  remarkably  wide  and  protuberant  § 

'  The  quarters  long  and  level ;  the  nache  of  a  middle  width,  and  the 
tail  set  on  variously,  even  in  individuals  of  the  highest  repute  [j. 

'  The  round-bones  small,  but  the  thighs  in  general  fleshy ;  tapering, 
however,  when  in  the  best  form  toward  the  gambrels. 

'  The  legs  small  and  clean,  but  comparatively  long^.  The  feet  in 
general  neat,  and  of  the  middle  size. 

'  The  carcase  as  nearly  a  cylinder,  as  the  natural  form  of  the  animal 
will  allow.     The  ribs  standing  out  full  from  the  spine.    The  helly  small**. 

'  The  flesh  seldom  fails  of  being  of  the  first  quality. 

'  The  hide  of  a  middle  thickness. 

'  The  colour  various  ;  the  brindle,  the  finch-back,  and  the  pye,  are 
common.     The  lighter  they  are,  the  better  they  seem  to  be  in  esteem  tt- 

'  The  fattening  quality  of  this  improved  breed,  in  a  state  of  maturity, 
is  indisputably  good. 

'  As  grazier's  stock,  they  undoubtedly  rank  high.  The  principle  of  the 
utility  of  form  has  been  strictly  attended  to.  The  bone  and  ofFal  are 
small,  and  the  forend  light ;  while  the  chine,  the  loin,  the  rump  and  the 

*  The  Dishley  breed  excelled  in  this  (loiiit.  Some  uf  the  heifers  had  shoulders  as  fine 
as  race-hurses. 

f  Many  of  Mr.  Fowler's  breed,  however,  were  very  fairly  let  down  in  the  girth. 

\  This  is  considered  hy  accurate  judges  to  be  a  criterion  of  good  mellow  flesh.  The 
large  hard  ligaments,  (the  continuation  of  the  ligaments  uf  the  neck,  united  with  those  of 
the  vertebrae  uf  the  spine  itself,)  which  iu  some  individuals,  when  in  low  condition,  stretch 
tightly  along  the  chine,  from  the  setting  on  of  the  neck  to  the  fore  part  of  the  loins,  is 
said  to  be  a  mark  of  the  flesh  being  of  a  bad  quality.  They  are  only  proofs  of  great 
strength  iu  the  spine,  and,  probably,  in  the  animal  generally  ;  and  indicating  that  the 
meat  will  be  sinewy  and  tough. 

§  A  wide  loin,  with  projections  of  fat  on  the  hips,  may  be  desirable  ;  but  there  can  be 
neither  beauty  nor  use  in  the  protuberance  of  the  tuberosities  of  the  bone.  A  full  hip 
»nay  be  of  advantage,  but  scarcely  a  protuberant  one. 

II  The  quarters  of  Shakspeare  have  been  described.  Ttibse  of  the  bull  1)  were  not  less 
remarkable,  his  tail  appearing  to  grow  out  of  the  top  of  his  spine,  instead  of  being  a  cou- 
tinuation  of  the  .vertebrae;  and  the  upper  part  of  the  tail  forming  an  arch,  which  rose  some 
inches  above  the  general  level  of  the  back.  This,  viewing  him  as  a  picture,  has  a  good 
effect ;  but  as  a  point,  is  a  very  bad  one  foi  the  grazier,  as  tending  to  hide  the  fatness  of 
the  rump.  In  this,  and  in  many  other  points,  the  son  and  the  sire  are  as  dissimilar  as 
if  they  had  no  consanguinity. 

Mr.  Parkinson  relates  an  aisecdote  respecting  the  peculiar  length  of  quarters,  and 
length  generally  of  these  cattle.  '  On  my  observing  to  Mr.  Frincep  the  remarkable 
length  of  his  cattle,  he  said  he  was  one  day  showing  them  to  a  gentleman,  who,  as  the 
men  were  turning  the  best  bull  out  of  the  house,  exclaimed  in  astonishment,  "  When  will 
c*  your  bull  be  out  ?  "  ' — Parkinson  on  Live  Stock,  vol.  i.  p.  154. 

4  This,  however,  is  more  owing  to  the  gauntness  of  the  carcase,  than  to  the  actual 
length  of  the  legs. 

**  ITie  improvers  of  the  long-horns  have  been  in  error,  when  they  have  considered  this 
an  excellence.  The  discussion  of  this  point,  however,  will  be  advantageously  deferred 
until  we  have  considered  the  anatomy  and  proper  form  of  oxen. 

■j-f  A  light-coloured  beast  always  appears  to  be  larger  than  a  dark-brown,  or  black  one 
of  equal  weight;  therefore,  perhaps  it  is,  that  theJighter  ones  are  preferred.  There  is  a 
kind  of  optical  deception  in  their  favour ;  but,  otherwise,  if  coloM  has  anything  to  do 
with  the  value  of  the  animal,  we  should  give  the  preference  to  a  dark-coloured  one,  aa 
mdicating  superior  hardihood,  and  generally  with  equal  mellowness  of  skin. 

It  is  said  that  Mr.  Webster's  cows,  the  parents  of  the  Canley  breed,  were  red ;  and  w 
ireie  some  of  the  best  of  Mr.  Fowler's, 


ribs  are  heavily  loaded,  and  with  flesh  of  the  finest  quality.  In  point  of 
early  maturity,  they  have  also  materially  gained.  In  general,  they  have 
gained  a  year  |n  preparation  for  the  butcher ;  and,  aUhongh,  perhaps  not 
weighing  so  heavy  as  they  did  before,  the  little  diminution  of  weight  is 
abundantly  compensated,  by  the  superior  excellence  of  the  meat,  its  earlier 
readiness,  and  the  smaller  quantity  of  food  consumed. 

*  As  dairy-stock,  their  merit  is  less  evident ;  op  rather,  it  ■does 
not  admit  of  doubt  that  their  milking  qualities  have  been  very  much 

'  As  beasts  of  draught,  their  general  form  renders  them  unfit ;  yet 
many  of  them  are  sufficiently  powerful,  and  they  are  more  active  than 
some  other  breeds  used  for  the  plough,  or  on  the  road ;  but  the  horns 
generally  form  an  insuperable  objection  to  this  use  of  them.' 

But  what  is  become  of  Bakewell's  improved  long-horn  breed?  A  veil 
of  mystery  was  thrown  over  most  of  his  proceedings,  wliich  not  even  his 
friend  Mr.  Marshall  was  disposed  to  raise.  The  principle  on  which  he 
seemed  to  act,  breeding  so  completely  '  in  aiid  in,'  was  a  novel,  a  bold, 
and  a  successful  one.  Some  of  the  cattle  to  which  we  have  referred  were 
very  e&traordinary  illustrations,  not  only  of  the  harmlessness,  but  the 
manifest  advantage  of  such  a  system ;  but  he  had  a  large  stock  on  which 
to  work  ;  and  no  one  knew  his  occasional  deviations  from  this  rule,  nor 
his  skilful  interpositions  of  remoter  affinities,  when  he  saw  or  apprehended 

The  truth  of  the  matter  is,  that  the  master  spirits  of  that  day  had  no 
sooner  disappeared,  than  the  character  of  this  breed  began  imperceptibly 
to  change.  It  had  acquired  a  delicacy  of  constitution,  inconsistent  with 
common  management  and  keep ;  and  it  began  slowly,  but  undeniably  to 
deteriorate.  Many  of  them  had  been  bred  to  that  degree  of  refinement, 
that  the  propagation  of  the  species  was  not  always  certain. 

In  addition  to  this,  a  rival, —  a  more  powerful  rival,  appeared  in  the 
field.  The  improved  short-horns  began  to  occupy  the  banks  of  the  Tees. 
They  presented  equal  aptitude  to  fatten,  and  greater  bulk  and  earlier 

Westmoreland  was  the  native  land  of  the  long-horns.  Webster  had 
brought  thence  the  father  of  the  Canley  stock  ;  and  Bakewell  had  sought 
the  father  of  his  breed  there  :  but  even  in  Westmoreland  the  short-horns 
appeared;  they  spread;  they  established  themselves ;  they,  in  a  manner,  su- 
perseded the  long-horns.  They  found  their  way  to  southern  districts ;  they 
mingled  with  the  native  breeds ;  a  cross  from  them  generally  bestowed 
increase  of  milk,  aptitude  to  fatten,  and  early  maturity.  It  is  true, 
that  a  frequent  recourse  to  the  short-horn  was  generally  necessary  in  order 
to  retain  these  advantages,  but  these  advantages  were  bestowed,  and 
might  be  retained,  except  in  a  few  districts,  and  for  some  particular  pur- 
poses. Thus  they  gradually  established  themselves  every  where ;  they 
were  the  grazing  cattle  of  the  large  farmer  and  the  gentleman,  and  an- 
other variety  of  them  occupied  the  dairy.  The  benefits  conferred  by  the 
improved  long-horns  remained,  but  the  breed  itself  gradually  diminished; 
in  some  places  it  almost  disappeared ;  and  at  the  present  moment,  and  even 
in  Leicestershire,  the  short-horns  are  fast  driving  the  long-horns  from  the 
field.'  The  reader  may  scarcely  give  credit  to  the  assertion,  but  it  is 
strictly  true,  that  at  the  present  moment  (1833)  there  is  not  a  single 
improved  Leiceste/  on  the  Dishley  farm,  and  scarcely  a  half-horn^ 
There  are  not  a  dozen  pure  Leicesters  within  a  circuit  of  a  dozen  miles 
nf  Dishley,     It  would  seem  as  if  some  strange  convulsion  of  nature,  or 

*»  CATTLE. 

some  murderous  pestilence,  had  suddenly  5wc|)t  away  the  whole  of  this 
valuable  breed. 

Havinn^  thus  endeavoured  to  do  this  breed  of  cattle  the  justice  which  it 
deserves,  we  will  take  a  very  rapid  survey  of  the  different  counties  which 
it  formerly,  or  still  occupies. 


In  the  part  of  this  county  bordering  on  Lancashire  and  Yorkshire,  and 
in  the  neiglibourhnod  of  Kirby  Lonsdale,  the  long  horns  used  to  exist  in 
their  greatest  purity ;  but  whether  the  farmers  have  suffered  the  best  of 
their  stock  to  be  drawn  away,  in  order  to  keep  up  that  of  the  midland 
counties,  while  the  best  of  the  Teeswater  are  brought  into  Westmoreland 
in  return  ;  or,  whatever  may  have  been  the  cause,  the  effect  is  unde- 
niable, that  the  short-horns  are  establishing  themselves,  and  the  long- 
horns  retrograding. 

A  vast  number  of  Scotch  catt'le  are  grazed  in  Westmoreland.  They 
are  bought  at  Brough  Hill  fair  in  the  beginning  of  September ;  win- 
tered on  coarse  pasture,  or  in  the  straw-yard  ;  sent  to  the  commons  in 
May ;  and  the  foremost  being  put  upon  the  best  grounds,  they  are  ready 
to  journey  farther  south,  or  even  to  be  killed  for  the  Westmoreland  con- 
sumption in  October. 

On  the  wastes  there  are  many  Scotch,  and  also  many  of  the  native 
breed,  (the  smaller  Cravens,)  with  whieh  neither  the  heavier  improved 
long-horns,  nor  the  short-horns  interfere. 

In  the  better-cultivated  parts  of  the  country,  the  old  and  large  long- 
horns  are  found ;  they  are  excellent  feeders ;  they  grow  to  a  very  con- 
siderable size,  and  lay  their  fat  on  the  valuable  parts. 


In  the  southern  part  of  this,  the  native  county  of  the  long-horns,  that 
breed  is  now  rarely  seen  in  a  pure  state.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  large 
towns,  the  Yorkshire  milch  cow  is  chiefly  kept ;  for  where  the  quantity  of 
milk  is  regarded,  no  breed  can  vie  with  the  Holderness*.  Where  butter 
is  made,  a  cross  between  the  long  and  the  short-horn  is  preferred.  These 
cattle  are  said  to  be  more  hardy,  less  liable  to  illness,  and  the  milk  of  the 
-short-horn  progenitor  is  little  diminished  in  quantity,  while  it  acquires 
much  of  the  peculiar  richness  of  that  which  is  given  by  the  long-liorn 

Even  for  grazing,  the  native  breed  is  rarely  seen  ;  but  at  the  annual 
me«tings  of  the  Manchester  Agricultural  Society,  the  short-horns  bear 
away  the  principal  prizes,  and  in  the  centre  of  the  county,  although  a 
premium  was  formerly  offered  for  the  best  long-horn  bull,  nut  one  has 

*  Tbe  average  quantity  of  milk,  yielded  by  a  good  floldemess  cow  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  Manchester,  is  about  nine  quarts  per  day.  A  good  long-horn  cow  will  yield 
about  seven  quarts.  Mr.  Stevenson,  who  published  a  Survey  of  Lancashire,  in  1814, 
thus  computes  the  expenses  and  returns  of  a  milk-farm,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Mau> 
cheater.  The  farm  to  which  he  refers  was  under  the  management  of  Mr.  Peter  M'Miven^ 
it  contained  115^  Lancashire  acres. 


Bent  per  annum      ,         .         520 
Taxes  .         .  ,8.4 

Servanti'  wages  234 

FtaBt  ....        867 



15  acres  cf  oats  at  15/.  .  225 
20  ditto  at  20/.  .  .  400 
40  cows'  milk  at  12/.        .     480 



tfeen  s.iown  for  the  last  three  or,  four  years.  We  are  much  indebted  to 
thi>t  society,  and  particularly  to  its  indefatigable  secretary  Mr.  Thomas 
Ashworlh.  for  some  valuable  information  respecting  the  present  stale  of 
cattle  in  this  part  of  Laticashire. 

On  the  hills  and  moors  some  Welsh  cattle  are  found,  and  also 
small  long-horn  beasts,  whether  Irish  or  home-bred,  and  mingled  with 
crosses  of  every  kind.  A  society  has  lately  been  established  at  Liverpool, 
which  promises  to  be  of  essential  service  in  benefiting  the  ag-ricultiiral 
concerns  of  that  district;  and  the  example  lately  set  by  a  few  great  land- 
holders, and  especially  by  the  Earl  of  Derby,  of  keeping  good  bulls  lor 
the  use  of  their  tenantry,  will  speedily  efifect  a  considerable  and  very 
llesirable  alteration.  If  the  old  long-horn  breed  is,  in  a  manner,  gone 
Jlere,  something  as  valuable  should  be  substituted  ;  but  as  yet,  with  the 
exception  of  the  introduction  of  the  Teeswater  cattle,  to  the  extent  which 
we  have  stated,  among  the  larger  farmers,  and  the  Yorkshire  cows  among 
the  milk  dairies,  there  cannot  be  said  to  be  any  prevailing  breed  esta- 
blished in  the  southern  part  of  Lancashire. 

Mr.  Bunnell,  V.  S.  of  Liverpool,  assures  us  that  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  that  town,  very  few  cattle  are  bred  for  the  purpose  of  grazing,  and  that 
those  which  are  fed  are  chiefly  confined  to  gentlemen's  parks,  and  are 
pi'incipally  Scotch  Highland  bullocks.  To  the  same  gentleman  we  are 
indebted  tor  the  following  account  of  the  supply  of  the  Liverpool  market. 

Weekly  Ateraqe. 

'  600  Irish  beasts,  average  about      6  cwt.  of  120  lbs. 
'  140  English  do.  do.  6j^  do. 

*   60  Scotch  do.  do.  5^  do. 

'  Of  the  cattle  from  Ireland,  abo\it  twenty  are  short- horns  ;  sixty  of  the 
long-horn  Leicester  breed,  and  the  remainder  of*the  old  Irish  breed,  with 
the  exception  of  a  few  Devons  and  Ayrshires. 

'  Of  the  English  cattle,  about  one-third  are  short-horns ;  one-third 
Cumberland  long-horns  ;  and  one-third  Herefordshire  and  other  breeds. 

'  Of  the  Scotch  cattle,  about  one-eighth  are  snort-horns,  and  the  rest 
Galloways  and  Highlanders,  of  various  descriptions.' 

Towards  the  middle  of  Lancashire,  we  find  some  zealous  breeders 
of  the  short-horns.  Mr.  Almond,  of  Standish,  is  foremost  amongst 
them,  and  his  cattle  bear  off  the  bell,  even  among  the  most  successful 
cultivators  of  this  breed.  The  Earl  of  Wilton  is  a  frequent  competitor 
at  the  meetings  of  the  Manchester  society.  In  1830,  he  exhibited  the 
best  yearling  short-horn  bull,  and  some  very  fine  specimens  of  cows 
fattening  after  milking. 

We  meet  with  more  of  the  long-horns,  but  they  are  principally  of  an 
inferior  sort.  Mr.  Harrison,  V.  S.  at  Lancaster,  thus  expresses  himself : 
'  Since  the  rage  for  short-horned  cattle  has  commenced,  and  still  goes  on 
ill  this  neighbourhood,  the  breed  of  the  native  long-horn  has  impercep- 
ably  declined,  and  it  is  now  a  very  difficult  point  to  find  a  good  stock  of 
loug-horns ;  there  not  being  more  than  half  a  dozen  breeders  of  them  in 
a  district  of  20  miles.  There  is,  however,  Mr.  Allen  Kirk's  stock  of  long- 
horns  .at  Middleton,  which  for  purity  of  breed  cannot  be  excelled. 

'  The  cattle  in  this  neighbourhood  are  mostly  cross-bred — long  and 
short-horn,  short-horn  and  Scot;  but  the  short-horn,  with  its  various 
crosses,  is  that  which  has  encroached  most  upon  the  long-horn,  and  seems 
to  be  rapidly  superseding  that  breed. 

'  Thai  the  long-horn  breed  has  deteriorated  of  late  years  is  not  to  be 
vondercd  at,  when  a  half-bred  cow,  or  any  other  cross,  will  fetch  a  (^reutei 

202  CATTLE. 

price  in  any  of  our  markets  than  the  pure  '.ong-horn,  whether  it  be  for 
the  grazier  or  the  dairy.' 

Mr.  Harrison  gives  the  following  account  of  the  long-horn  of  the  pre- 
sent day.  •  The  head  long  and  thick,  with  a  broad  forehead,  and  the  top 
of  the  head  broad  and  flat ;  large  eye ;  rather  small  ear ;  horns  flat  at  the 
base,  becoming  rounder  towards  the«r  apes,  rather  drooping  from  their 
origin,  and  then  ascending  and  curling  in  various  directions.  The  neck 
and  fore-quarters  thick  and  heavy,  but  fine  in  the  chine ;  wide  in  the 
chest,  but  the  sternum  (the  breast-bone)  does  not  extend  so  far  ante 
riorly  nor  so  high  as  in  the  short-horn,  thereby  making  the  neck  appear 
to  issue  low  out  of  the  chest.  Ribs  short,  body  very  circular  and  long  in 
the  sides.  The  horns  are  rather  long,  but  the  transverse  processes  of  the 
lumbar  vertebrae  are  much  shorter  than  in  the  short-horn;  the  quarters 
are  also  narrow,  owing  to  the  ilium  not  presenting  so  broad  and  horizontal 
a  surface  as  in  tne  short-horn — many  of  them  are  also  roughish  about 
the  rump,  from  the  bones  in  the  centre  of  the  hip  (the  sacral  bones). 
The  thigh  is  generally  rounder  and  larger,  consequently  affording  a  better 
round  of  beef  than  the  short-horn :  the  tail  is  thicker,  and  the  bones  of 
the  leg  are  thicker  and  heavier.  The  long-horn  weighs  heavier  in  propor- 
tion to  his  size  and  measure  than  the  short-horn,  and  his  hide  is  heavier, 
but  it  does  not  handle  su  loose  and  free.  The  colour  varies ;  but  a  red 
roan  with  mottled  or  red  legs,  and  a  white  streak  down  the  back,  is  the 
prevailing  colour.  Their  average  weight  when  fattened  is  eight  score  per 
quarter,  but  their  value  is  not  so  great  either  for  grazing  or  milking  by 
nearly  or  quite  21.  per  head.' 

We  have  extracted  this  accurate  account  of  the  best  of  the  present  long- 
horns,  that  the  reader  may  be  enabled  to  compare  them  with  the  old  Bake- 
wellian  breed  already  described,  p.  195.  Crosses  of  all  descriptions  abound 
in  the  centre  of  Lancashire  ;  one  between  the  long-horn  and  the  Holderness 
or  the  Durham  being  the  most  frequent  and  the  most  valuable;  and  said 
here,  more  particularly,  not  only  to  retain  but  to  possess  in  an  increased 
degree  the  good  qualities  of  both.  They  suit  all  parts  of  the  county. 
They  are  of  a  more  hardy  nature  than  the  short-horn,  and  they  gain  by  the 
cross  an  advantage  of  more  milk  and  butter ;  they  are  also  better  graziers 
than  the  long-horns,  fattening  in  less  time,  and  arriving  at  maturity  much 
earlier.  They  are  finer  in  the  head  and  neck,  the  ribs  are  longer,  and 
they  still  preserve  their  cylindrical  form.  They  are  wider  also  across  the 
loins  and  quarters.  They  handle  more  freely,  attain  a  greater  weight 
when  fattened,  and  the  hide  is  not  so  heavy.  The  prevailing  colour  of 
this  cross  is  red  and  white. 

This  first  cross  is  excellent,  but  the  produce  is  uncertain ;  and  in  the 
majority  of  cases,  the  third  or  fourth  generation  are  iong-horns  again,  but 
without  the  good  qualities  of  the  original  stock.  They  are  of  diminished 
size,  they  are  bad  milkers,  and  will  not  graze  kindly  ;  in  addition  to 
which,  there  is  much  uncertainty  whether  the  cows  will  hold  to  the  bull. 
Full  one-third  of  the  cows  among  some  of  these  half-breds  fail  of  being 
in  calf. 

Some  breeders,  fully  sensible  of  these  disadvantages,  have  wished  once 
more  to  restore  the  pure  long-horn  breed,  but  there  is  more  difficulty  in 
procuring  good  long-horn  bulls  than  could  be  conceived  to  be  possible  in 
Lancashire,  the  original  district  of  the  long-horns :  they  have,  therefore, 
been  compelled  to  have  frequent  recourse  to  the  short-horn  bull,  or  their 
cattle  would  become  almost  worthless;  yet  the  cottager,  without  any 
resource  of  this- kind,  often  has  a  half-horn  cow  that  is  invaluable  for  his 
purpose.     Mr.  Harrison,  although,  with  natural  partiality,  he  isunwillinfr 


to  abandon  his  native  long-horns,  relates  two  vxpcriments  Which  ttrmi 
naied  unfavourably  with  regard  to  them.  The  late  Mr.  Gibson,  of  Querit- 
moor  Park,  near  Lancaster,  tried  an  equal  number  of  long  and  short 
horns  for  twelve  months  ;  and  on  summing  up  the  profit  and  loss  at 
the  expiration  of  the  time,  the  short-horns  had  given  considerably  more 
milk  :  the  butter  account  was  also  in  their  favour ;  and  they  had 
improved  considerably  more  in  condition. 

Mr.  Lamb,  of  Hay  Carr,  having  to  stock  Ashton  Park,  a  seat  belonging 
to  the  Duke  if  Hamilton,  wished  to  have  done  so  vfith  thejon,g-horns ; 
but  not  being  able  to  procure  a  sufficient  number  at  the  fair  to  which  he 
went,  he  was  compelled  to  buy  a  great  number  of  half-bred  ones.  The 
half-bieds  fattened  and  were  sold  off  a.  considerable  time  before  the  long- 
horns  were  fit  lor  ihe  market, 

Mr.  Bolden  of  Kyniug,  and  Mr.  Jackson  of  Bowick  Hall,  are  breeders 
of  short-hcirn  cattle;  Mr.  Allen  Kirk  of  Middleton,  and  Mr.  Cottam  of 
Heaton,  are  almost  the  only  patrons  of  the  long-horns  in  this  district. 

Some  good  cheese  is  made  in  this  district.  The  dairy-farmers  usually 
prefer  the  long-horns  ;  or,  if  they  permit  any  admixture  of  shori-horu 
blood,  they  are  anxious  that  that  of  the  old  Lancashires  shall  decidedly 
prevail.  These  cattle,  when  their  milk  fails,  and  they  are  in  tolerably  fat 
condition,  average  from  thirty-six  to  forty  stones,  imperial  weight.  Their 
summer  food  is  the  native  grass  ;  their  winter  food,  meadow  hay,  with 
cut  potatoes  (those  which  are  too  small  for  household  purposes)  with 
oatmeal  or  bran,  or  cut  straw ;  but  they  are  suffered  to  stand  out  in  the 
field  a  great  part  of  the  day,  although  there  may  be  little  or  no  grass  for 
them  to  eat.  The  calves  are  reared  only  in  the  spring,  and  suckled  by 
the  hand  until  they  are  seven  or  eight  weeks  old,  when  they  are  turned 
to  grass,  but  still  have  a  little  hay  for  some  time,  and  also  hay-tea,  or  some 
other  preparation  in  the  evening. 

Ralph  Thicknesse,  Esq.  of  Beech-hall,  near  Wigan,  will  please  to  accept 
our  thanks  for  his  polite  attention  to  us  respecting  the  cattle  of  this 

We  have  described  the  north  of  Lancashire  as  being  peculiarly  the 
native  district  of  the  long-horns,  and  there,  although  a  few  short  and  half 
horns  are  occasionally  seen,  these  are  the  prevailing,  or  only  distinct 
breed :  yet  even  there  they  are  not  what  thiey  once  were,  and  compa- 
ratively few  traces  of  the  Bakewellian  improvement  remain ;  nor  do  the 
cattle  generally  appear  to  be  more  valuable  than  when  he  sent  to  the 
borders  of  Westmoreland  for  the  fathers  of  the  improved  Leicester 

Within  the  last  few  years,  however,  excited  probably  by  the  improve- 
ment going  forward  in  Westmoreland,  in  the  north,  and  in  all  the  south 
of  Lancashire,  and  jealous  of  the  superiority  of  the  short-horns,  some 
farmers  have  endeavoured,  and  with  considerable  success,  to  renovate 
the  long-horned  breed.  It  is  an  object  worthy  of  their  attention,  for 
although,  as  it  regards  the  quantity  of  milk,  the  long-horns  must  ultimately 
be  superseded  by  one  description  of  short-horn  cattle,  and  in  early 
maturity  by  another,  yet  it  is  too  valuable  a  breed  to  be  lost,  or  to  be 
much  deteriorated. 

There  are  many  large  dairy-farms  in  this  part  of  the  country ;  the  long- 
horned  cow  is  usually  kept.  The  average  produce  is  from  2J  to  3  cwt.  of 
cheese  from  each  cow,  in  a  strict  cheese-dairy  farm,  the  family  beirg  also 
provided  with  milk  and  a  little  butt«r 



In  the  Survey  of  Lancashire  we  find  the  fullowing  account  of  a  dairy 
•s  usually  conducted  in  this  district : — 

Cow-grass  for  20  weeks 
Winter  keep  in  hay     . 
Green  food       .     . 
Attendance  set  against 


3  13 


4     0 


0  10 


4  10 


12  13 


£.    ..  d. 

Cheese,  1 1  lbs.  weekly  for 

20  weeks,  at  6d.  per  lb.  5  10  0 
Butter,  6  lbs.  weekly  for  20 

weeks  at  Is.  per  lb.         6     0  0 

Calf 13  6 

12  13     6 


The  Derbyshire  cows  were  originally  long-hprns;  and  although  of  a 
somewhat  inferior  breed,  they  were  very  useful  animals,  and  especially  in 
the  dairies  of  this  county,  the  cheese  of  which  has  long  been  admired. 
What  cross  gave  them  their  peculiar  character,  and  especially  their  sin- 
gular horns,  it  is  now  impossible  to  determine.  The  head  was  frequently 
thick  and  heavy,  the  chops  and  neck  foul,  the  bone  too  large,  the  hide  heavy, 
and  t  he  hair  long ;  even  the  bag  was  often  overgrown  and  covered  with 
hair — a  circumstance  very  objectionable  to  the  dairyman ;  they  were  little 
disposed  to  take  on  flesh  and  fat,  for  when  some  of  the  improved  bred 
heifers  had  fattened  for  the  butcher,  the  beasts  of  the  old  sort  would  be 
little  better  than  skin  and  bone ;  yet  they  were  excellent  dairy  cows. 

[Derby  Cow.'\ 

The  above  cut  is  a  faithful  portrait  of  one  of  the  best  of  them.  The 
noms  are  altogether  characteristic. 

An  attempt  was  first  made  to  cross  the  Derby  with  the  improved  short- 
horn. The  first  cross  answered  admirably ;  but,  as  we  have  said,  when 
speaking  of  Lancashire,  the  progeny  of  this  cross  was  clumsily  shaped, 
and  in  every  respect  inferior  to  its  progenitors.  . 



Some  partial  attempts  were  also  made  to  introduce  a  cross  from  the 
short-horns  and  the  Devons,  but  it  failed  ;  for  although  a  considerable 
aptitude  to  fatten  was  thus  obtained,  yet,  as  a  decrease  of  milk  was  the 
consequence,  the  breed  was  removed  from  the  dairy  ;  although,  for  grazing, 
it  probably  would  have  answered  well. 

[DerAy  Bui/.] 

This  cut  gives  a  faithful  representation  of  the  old  Derby  bull.  This 
breed,  however,  has  gradually  died  away,  and  it  is  comparatively  seldom 
that  a  pure  Derby  can  now  be  met  with.  The  short-horns  have  taken 
possession  of  this  portion  of  the  territory  of  the  long-horns  also.  The 
prejudice  against  them  as  to  their  want  of  hardiness,  and  the  thinness  of 
their  milk,  has  vanished ;  and  there  are  few  dairy  farmers  now,  and  especially 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Derby,  that  have  any  long-horns  in  their  dairy ; 
and  yet  it  is  confidently  asserted  that  some  cows  of  the  ancient  stock  have 
yielded  as  much  as  seventeen  pounds  of  butter  in  the  space  of  seven  days 


The  short-horn  breed  has  penetrated  into  this  dairy-county,  and  with 
variable  advantage.  Amidst  the  dense  population  of  some  of  the  agricul- 
tural districts  the  short-horn  has  materially  increased  the  quantity  of 
milk,  but  it  is  more  than  doubtful  whether  he  has  not  injured  rather  than 
benefited  the  cheese  dairy. 

The  Cheshire  was  chiefly  a  long-horned  breed,  of  very  mingled  origin, 
but  which  by  degrees  accommodated  itself  to  the  climate  and  the  soil. 
It  contained  in  it  a  portion  of  the  blood  of  the  old  Lancashire,  the  Derby- 
shire, the  Shropshire,  the.  Staffordshire,  and  the  new  Leicester  ;  and  this  in 
some  slight  degree  dashed  with  the  Irish  long-horn,  the  Welsh  and  Scotch 
middle-horn,  and  the  Yorkshire  short-horn,  and  from  a  strange  inter- 
mingling of  the  whole  proceeded  the  Cheshire  cow.  She  was  a  rather 
small,  gaunt,  and  ill-shaped  animal ;  yet  she  possessed  a  large  thin-skinned 

20fi  CATTLK. 

baaj,  swelling  milk-veins,  shallow  and  light  tore-quarter,  wide  loini,  • 
thin  thigh,  a  white  ()orn,  a  long  thin  head,  a  brisk  and  lively  eye,  and  a 
fineness  and  cleanness  about  the  chops  and  throat.  She  has  been  crossed 
still  more  with  the  Durham.  She  has  become  of  larger  size,  handsome 
in  form,  apter  to  fatten,  but  she  has  been  decidedly  injured  as  a  cheese- 
dairy  cow  ;  her  quantity  of  milk  has  not  been  materially  increased,  aud 
the  quantity  of  caseous  matter  produced  from  it  has  been  diminished,  and 
somewhat  deteriorated. 

Mr.  Holland,  following  closely  a  former  report  by  Mr.  Wedge,  and 
before  the  short-horns  were  so  extensively  introduced,  says  that  '  calves 
to  keep  up  the  dairies  are  generally  reared  from  the  best  milkers,  both  as 
it  regards  bull-calves  and  heifers.  Those  which  are  reared  are  generally 
calved  in  February  or  March,  and  are  kept  on  the  cows  for  about  three 
weeks.  They  are  afterwards  kept  on  warm  green  whey,  scalded  whey 
and  butter-milk  mixed,  or  hard  fleetings.  Some  give  oatmeal  gruel  and 
butler-milk,  with  a  little  skimmed-mllk  mixad.  This  is  given  twice  in  the 
day,  until  the  calves  are  turned  to  grass,  ai;d  once  in  the  day  for  three  or 
four  weeks  after  that.  During  the  first  and  second  winters  they  are  kept 
in  a  yard  with  an  open  shed,  well  foddered,  and  turned  out  as  soon 
as  the  grass  is  ready.  In  the  summer  following,  when  they  are  two- 
years-ofF,  they  are  put  to  the  bull ;  and  during  the  third  winter,  they  are, 
by  the  best  farmers,  tied  up  at  the  same  time  that  the  cows  are  :  they  are 
fed  with  straw  night  and  morning,  until  a  month  before  calving ;  hay  is 
afterwards  given  as  long  as  they  continue  housed,  and  sometimes  crushed 
oats  when  they  calve  early. 

The  cows  are  taken  up  into  the  cow-houses  as  soon  as  the  weather  gets 
biid,  and  are  permitted  to  go  dry  about  ten  weeks  before  calving.  The 
usual  dry  food  is  wheat,  barley,  and  oat-straw,  hay,  and  crushed  oats. 
The  two  former  kinds  of  straw  are  given  to  those  which  are  expected  to 
calve  early,  on  account  of  a  supposed  tendency  to  dry  the  milk  up  sooner; 
oat-straw,  and  sometimes  hay,  is  given  to  those  that  are  not  expected  to  calve 
until  late  in  the  spring;  hay  is  given  to  all  of  them  three  or  four  weeks 
before  they  are  expected  to  calve.  From  the  time  they  have  calved  until 
they  are  turned  out  to  grass,  crushed  oats  are  given  twice  in  the  day,  and 
at  the  rate  of  three-fourths  of  a  bushel  per  week.  The  cows  are  turned 
into  an  outlet  (a  bare  pasture -field)  near  the  building,  from  nine  or  ten  in 
the  morning  until  three  or  four  in  the  afternoon,  but  have  no  fodder  in 
the  outlet;  or  if  they  show  a  desire  of  being  taken  up  again,  they  are  let 
into  the  yard  and  housed,  and  this  is  better  than  suffering  them  to  stand 
shivering  with  cold  in  a  field  wiihout  shelter.  The  turning  the  cows  out 
to  grass  in  good  condition  is  a  matter  much  attended  to,  in  order  that 
they  may  start  well ;  for  if  a  cow  is  not  in  good  condition  when  turned  out 
to  grass,  or  has  been  too  much  dried  with  barley-straw,  it  is  a  long  time 
before  she  gets  into  full  milk. 

The  introduction  of  green  crops  and  particularly  of  turnips,  and  the 
practice  of  stall-feediti^  for  dairy  cows,  has  materially  altered  the  old 
.system  of  management.  'I'he  grand  object  with  the  dairy  farmer  is  to 
increase  the  quantity  of  his  milk,  and  to  continue  it  as  long  as  possible. 
This  cannot  be  more  effectually  done  than  by  giving  green  or  succulent 
food.  The  milk  is  more  abundant,  and  it  may  be  continued  a  month 
lono-er.  The  ox-cabbage  and  the  Swedish  turnips  are  the  kinds  ot 
oreen  food  most  cultivated  in  Cheshire.  The  former  is  given  when  the 
after-grass  is  consumed ;  the  latter  are  used  in  the  winter,  when  the 
cattle  are  feeding  on  straw  ;  and  as  little  cheese  is  then  made,  the  flavour 
which  they  communicate  to  the  milk  is  not  of  so  much  conseauence. 


The  peculiar  art  of  the  manufacture  of  the  Cheshire  cheese  belongs  to 
our  work  on  '  British  Husbandry,'  generally.  We  have,  at  present,  only  tc 
]o  with  the  cattle  themselves.  To  that  portion  of  '  The  Farmer's  Series 
we  beg  to  refer  our  readers,  and  also  to  Holland's  '  General  View  of  the 
Agriculture  of  Cheshire,'  and  Alton's  '  Treatise  on  Dairy  Husbandry*.' 

There  is,  however,  nothing  singular  in  the  management ;  and  Mr. 
Holland  states  it  to  be  the  prevalent  opinion,  that  the  quality  of  the  soil  is 
the  principal  thing  concerned.  The  breed  of  the  cattle  has  much  to  do 
with  it,  and  the  new  breed  has  not  yet  identified  itself  with  the  soil. 

Mr.  Fenna  calculates  the  number  of  dairy  cows  kept  in  Cheshire  at 
about  93,000  ;  and,  averaging  the  quantity  of  cheese  made  annually  from 
each  cow  at  2^  cwt.,  it  will  appear  that  the  amazing  quantity  of  11,500 
tons  of  cheese  are  made  every  year  in  that  county  f. 


This  county,  fifly  yea  s  ago,  contained  few  cattle  except  long-horns. 
It  has  already  been  stated,  in  page  189,  that  the  females,  from  whom  ulti- 
Mialely  sprung  the  improved  Leicester  breed,  were  from  Nottinijhamshire. 
The  earliest  breed  of  which  we  have  mention  came  from  Drakelow,  on 
the  borders  of  the  Trent.  The  cows  which  Mr.  Webster  brought  to 
Canley  were  from  the  same  farm  ;  and  Mr.  Bakewell's  two  heifers,  the 
mothers  of  all  his  stock,  were  purchased  from  Mr.  Webster. 

The  better  kinds  of  cattle,  however,  were  confined  to  the  banks  of  the 
Trent.  In  the  clay  district,  the  beasts  were  poor  and  coarse  ;  and  in  the 
'brest,  few  that  were  valuable  were  bred.  The  short-horns  have  here  also 
completely  superseded  the  old  cattle.  They  first  began  to  appear  in  the 
vale  of  Belvoir,  and  thence  spread  through  the  lime  and  coal  districts ; 
and  now,  either  in  the  form  of  the  pure  Yorkshire  cow,  or  many  a  varying 
and  mingled  breed,  they  occupy  nearly  the  whole  of  the  county. 


In  this  county,  in  which  the  long-horns  had  been  brought  to  their 
highest  perfection,  it  would   be  imagined   that  the  latest  and  most  obsti- 

'  Fuller,  in  his  '  Worthies,*  p.  68,  thus  speaks  of  the  Cheshire  cheese.  '  This  coiinty 
doth  afford  the  best  cheese  for  quantity  and  quality,  and  yet  thei);  cows  are  not,  as  in  other 
shires,  housed  in  the  winter ;  so  that  it  may  seem  strange  that  the  hardiest  kine  do  make 
the  tenderest  cheese.  Some  essayed  in  vain  to  make  the  like  in  other  places,  though 
from  thence  they  fetched  both  their  kine  and  dairy-maids:  it  seems  they  should  have 
fetched  .their  ground  too,  whereiv.  is  surely  some  occult  excellency  iu  this  kind,  or  else  so 
good  cheese  will  not  be  made.  I  hear  not  the  like  commendation  of  the  butter  in  this 
county,  and  perchance  these  tv/o  commodities  are  like  stars  of  a  different  horizon,  so 
that  tiie  elevation  of  the  one  to  eminency  is  the  depression  of  the  other.' 

Dr.  Leigh,  in  his  '  Natural  History  of  Cheshire,'  and  Dr.  Campbell,  in  his  '  Political 
Survey,'  attribute  the  peculiar  flavour  of  the  Cheshire  cheese  to  the  abundance  of  saline 
particles  in  the  soil  of  this  county,  and  the  latter  says  that  where  the  brine  springs  most 
abound,  the  cheese  is  esteemed  to  be  of  the  most  superior  quality;  but  this  notion  is  now 

The  places  and  districts  most  celebrated  for  making  the  prime  cheese  are — the  neigh- 
:)ourhoud  of  Nantwich,  the  parish  of  Over,  the  mater  part  of  the  banks  of  the  river 
Weaver,  and  several  farms  near  Congleton  and  Middlewich. 

f  In  Lyme  Park  is  a  herd  of  upwards  of  twenty  wild  cattle,  of  the  same  sort  as  those 
at  Chillingham,  chiefly  white  with  red  ears.  They  have  been  in  the  park  beyond  the 
memory  of  any  one  now  living ;  and  as  there  is  no  account  of  when  they  were  placed 
there,  the  tradition  is  that  they  are  indigenous.  In  hot  weather,  these  cattle  generally 
herd  on  the  hilts  and  high  grounds ;  and  in  winter  in  the  woudy  parts  of  the  park.  In 
severe  weather  they  are  fed  with  hay,  for  which,  before  the  hollies  with  which  the  park 
abfMmded  were  cut  down,  holly-branches  were  substituted.  Two  of  the  cows  are  generally 
-I    4 1..  f...  i„.„r — r,v<ion'R  Matrna  Bi-ilannica.  Chester,  p.  729 


nate  battle  for  supremacy  would  be  toug^ht  between  the  long  and  the 
short-horns.  What  was  the  peculiar  breed  of  Leicester  before  the  time  ot 
Bakewell,  it  is  now  impossible  to  ascertain.  Probably  there  was  not 
any  distinct  one ;  at  least  we  have  no  record  of  it,  and  it  was  altogether 
neglected  by  Bakewell,  throughout  the  whole  of  his  experiments. 

The  Leicestershire  grazing  grounds  were  always  occupied  by  a  strange 
variety  of  beasts  from  Ireland,  Scotland,  and  Wales,  and  from  Stafford- 
shire and  Shropshire,  and  Herefordshire  and  Lancashire,  and  every 
neighbouring  county.  It  was  one  of  the  recognized  feeding  districts  for 
the  metropolitan  market,  and  its  own  breed  was  made  up  of  a  mixture  of 
all  the  sojourners. 

Bakewell,  however,  created  a  breed  for  this  county,  the  name  and  reco'- 
ection  of  which  will  never  be  lost,  notwithstanding  the  bretd  itself  has  so 
completely  passed  away.  Although,  however,  the  improved  Leicester 
lonir-horns  have  disappeared,  it  was  from  no  fault  of  theirs, — Bakewell's 
was  decidedly  an  improved  breed,  the  coarser  parts  of  the  animal  were 
lessened,  and  the  more  valuable  were  increased  ;  b>it  they  gradually 
yielded  to  the  superior  claims  of  a  race  of  cattle  at  that  time  scarcely 

Where  a  few  of  the  long-horns  do  linger,  the  improved  Leicesters  are 
gone ;  they  are  the  old  breed  cf  the  country  retained  or  returned.  For 
grazing,  and  for  early  maturity,  the  long-horns  must  yield  to  the  Durhams.; 
and  it  is  only  their  adaptation  for  particular  localities,  and  the  peculiar 
quality  of  their  smaller  quantity  of  milk,  in  the  production  of  certain 
varieties  of  dairy  produce,  that  enable  them  anywhere  to  maintain  the  con- 
test. Thus  they  remain  in  Cheshire,  in  despite  of  the  somewhat  injudi- 
cious attempts  to  displace  them,  and  the  stock  of  few  of  the  dairy  farms 
of  this  and  the  neighbouring  counties.  About  Hinchley,  Bosworth,  Ap- 
pleby, and  Snarestown,  a  few  of  the  farms  are  supplied  by  the  long-horni>,! 
and  more  by  a  mixed  breed  between  the  Lancashire  and  the  Durham. 
More  than  1500  tons  of  cheese  are  made  in  Leicester  every  year,  and  it  is 
said  that  5000  tons  are  annually  sent  down  the  Trent  from  this  and  the 
neighbouring  counties  *. 


This  little  county  couid  never  make  pretensions  lo  a  peculiar  breed. 
Grazing  was  always  the  principal  object  here,  and  the  Irish  and  small 
Scotch  were  most  in  request.  Marshall,  in  his  •  Agriculture  of  the  Midland 
Counties,'  says  that  in  his  time,  the  Irish  had  not  long  been  known  in  Rut- 
landshire ;  but  that  they  were  then  bought  in  preference  to  the  Welsh,, 
and  Shropshire,  and  large  Scotch,  which  had  been  previously  grazed. 
After  one  summer's  grass  they  were  usually  sent  to  London,  stall-feeding 
being  little  practised ;  and  occasionally  hay  was  given  in  the  fields  to 
some  of  the  best  of  them,  to  keep  them  until  after  Christmas.     Many  of 

*  The  celebrated  Stilton  cheese  was  first  made  at  Wimondham,  in  the  Melton  quarter 
of  Leicestershire.  Mr.  Marshall  gives  the  following  account  cf  it: — '  Mr.  Paulet,  who 
resided  at  Wimondham,  a  relation  of  Cooper  Thornhill,  who  formerly  kept  the  Bell  a* 
Stilton,  in  Huntingdonshire,  on  the  great  north  road  from  London  to  Edinburgh,  fur- 
nished his  house  with  cream-cheese,  which,  being  of  a  singularly  fine  quality,  was  coveted 
by  his  customers ;  and  through  the  assistance  of  Mr.  P.,  his  customers  were  gratified  at 
the  expense  of  half  a  crown  a  pound.  In  what  country  this  cheese  was  mamifactuied 
was  not  publicly  known,  and  hence  it  obtained  the  name  of  Stilton  cheese.  At  length 
the  place  of  producing  it  was  discovered,  and  the  art  of  producing  it  learned  by  other 
dairy-women  of  the  neighbourhood.  Ualby  first  took  the  lead,  but  it  soon  made  its  way 
in  almost  every  village  in  that  quarter  of  Leicestershire,  as  well  as  in  the  neighbouring 
Milages  of  Rutlandshire.     Many  tons  of  it  are  made  every  year.' 


itie  short-horn  cattle,  however,  are  now  grazed  in  Rutland.  The  heifers 
are  bought  in  at  two  years  old,  and  sold  in  calf  at  three  years  old  to  the 
jobbers,  who  take  them  to  the  dairy  counties,  or  to  London. 


In  the  statistical  account  of  it,  it  is  stated  that  the  county  contained 
'  924b  head  of  cattle,  almost  all  of  a  mixed  breed,  and  of  a  very  inferior 
one  too,'  Parkinson  in  his  '  Survey'  of  this  county  adds,  that  they  were 
'  of  all  kinds,  but  good  ones :'  yet  he  confesses  that  they  were  beginning 
to  improve  on  the  side  of  Bedfordshire  and  Northamptonshire.  Stone 
says,  that  they  are  for  the  most  part  purchased  at  distant  fairs,  and  are 
the  refuse  of  the  Lancashire,  Leicestershire,  and  Derbyshire  breeds,  or 
are  bred  from  these  sorts  without  any  particular  care  in  selecting,  them. 
They  have  very  materially  improved.  The  mongrel  long-horned  breed  of 
the  county  has  disappeared,  and  a  great  many  pure  short-horns  are  now 
found,  or  a  cross  between  them  and  the  Derbyshire.  The  cross  between 
I  he  two  is  gradually  disappearing,  and  the  short-horns  are  taking  undis- 
puted possession  of  the  district. 


The  native  breed  of  this  county  was  a  long-horn  one ;  but  now  the 
short-horns  prevail  in  every  dairy  where  the  land  is  tolerably  good,  and 
on  poorer  land  there  is  a  smaller  half-horn  breed,  which  yields  more  and 
better  milk  than  its  appearance  would  indicate,  but  is  slow  and  unprofit- 
able to  fatten.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Gooch,  in  his  '  Survey  of  Cambridgeshire,' 
tells  us  that  Cambridgeshire  having  been  a  dairy  country  from  time  imme- 
morial, among  other  good  milking  stock  attempted  to  be  introduced,  were 
the  polled  cattle,  from  the  neighbouring  county  of  Suffolk.  Mr.  Fuller 
purchased  a  dairy  of  them,  but  they  began  speedily  to  decline,  when  he 
re-sold  them  to  their  former  owner,  who  took  them  back  to  their  native 
situation,  in  which  they  were  speedily  restored  to  their  original  health. 

It  is  true  that  the  SufTolks  have  never  extensively  established  them- 
selves in  Cambridgeshire  ;  but  we  know  some  dairies  of  them  which 
answer  exceedingly  well. 

Few  parts  of  England  produce  better  butter  than  Cambridgeshire.  It 
is  curiously  rolled  up  in  pieces  of  more  than  a  foot  in  length,  and  not  two 
inches  in  diameter,  for  the  convenience  of  the  collegia/is,  to  whose  table  it 
is  sent  in  slices,  called  pats.  A  great  deal  of  butter  is  likewise  sent  to  the 
London  market,  but  there  is  not  much  cheese  made,  except  at  Sohan  and 
Cottenham.  A  great  many  bullocks  are  grazed,  consisting  chiefly  of  the 
country  stock,  the  Norfolks  and  SufFolks,  and  the  Galloway  Scots.  The 
most  profitable  method  of  grazing  is  to  buy  them  about  autumn,  and  sell 
them  at  the  succeeding  autumn  ;  keeping  them  on  'nay  and  grass  in  the 
winter,  and  finishing  them  off  on  grass.  On  the  grazing  grounds  about 
the  fens,  many  Devon  cattle  are  now  prepared  for  the  markets. 


Northamptonshire  is  not  a  breeding  district,  but  cattle  are  brought  from 
other  districts  and  purchased  for  the  London  market,  and  they  as  usual 
consist  of  a  great  variety  of  breeds.  An  Agricultural  Society  has,  however, 
tieen  established  in  this  county,  and  is  conducted  with  much  spirit ;  and  iu 
'consequence  of  this,  the  short-horns  are  now  diligently  cultivated  by  many 
intelligent  farmers* 

*  Marshall,  in  his  *  Agriculture  of  the.  Midland  Counties,'  and  quoting  from  '  Donald- 
•Oil's  Survey  of  Northamptonshire,'  says,  '  Very  few  cattle  are  reared  in  thi»  county ; 

»'"  CATTLK. 

Tlie  soil  of  Northamptonshire  varies  from  a  cold  ilaj  to  a  red  loam. 
The  cattle  are  first  g^razed  in  the  old  pastures,  and  those  that  have  not 
been  made  fat  at  grass  are  afterwards  stall  fed.  In  the  red  loamy  .soils 
ivtiich  are  adapted  for  turnips,  stall-feeding  on  them,  with  an  addition  ol 
seed-hay,  is  generally  adopted. 
No  cattle  are  u.sed  in  husbandry. 

It  has  been  remarked  to  us  by  an  eminent  Northamptonshire  breeder, 
that  the  quarter  evil,  or  black  leg  (inflammatory  fever)  is  rarely  known 
among  young  cattle  in  this  county.  If  this  be  true,  it  is  an  impor- 
tant fact,  for  there  is  nothing  peculiar  in  the  management  of  cattle 
here,  and  it  would  seem  to  connect  the  disease  in  some  measure  with  the 
climate  or  the  soil,  and  its  productions.  Observations  on  the  districts 
where  this  disease  is  most  prevalent,  or  rarely  found,  and  the  manage- 
ment of  soil  and  produce  of  those  districts,  might  lead  to  some  useful  coo 
elusions  as  to  the  cause  of  so  generally  prevalent  and  fatal  a  disea-ie, 


In  Bedfordshire,  also,  the  long-horns,  the  old  cattle  of  the  county,  havp 
altogether  disappeared.  There  is  not  a  single  farmer  who  breeds  them 
in  their  pure  state.  Some  half-horn  cattle  are  to  be  found  among  the 
small  farmers,  and  the  cow  of  th*  cottager  is  here,  as  in  so  many  othei 
districts,  the  produce  of  the  old'  long-horn  and  the  Yorkshire,  crossed  in 
every  possible  way,  and  retainjng  the  milking  properties  of  the  one,  and 
the  hardihood  of  the  other,  and  therefore  fitted  to  become  the  poor  man's 

With  this  exception,  there  is  no  distinguishing  breed  belonging  to  the 
county.  A  tew  gentlemen  have  the  Devons — more  prefer  the  Hereford*, 
and  still  more  the  short-horns  ;  the  short-horns,  indeed,  are  here,  as 
everywhere  else,  superseding  the  rest. 

Bedfordshire  contributes  much  to  the  supply  of  the  dairy  cattle  of  fhe 
metropolis.  Many  heifers  are  brought  from  the  north,  and  having  been 
delayed  for  a  while  in  this  county,  and  become  heavy  in  calf,  are  sent 
forward  to  the  metropolis.  By  some  farmers,  and  in  this  respect  we  ima- 
gine foolishly  over-reaching  themselves,  they  are  detained  longer;  they 
are  milked  for  one  or  two  years,  and  then  despatched  to  the  metropolis. 

a  few  only  in  the  open  field  (lordships  excepted),  and  thefe  are  so  crossed  and  mixed 
with  the  breeds  of  other  counties,  which  are  often  improperly  chosen,  and  so  stinted  ia 
their  food,  as  to  render  them  comparatively  of  little  value. 

*  In  a  few  instances  where  attention  is  paid  to  the  breed  of  cattle  on  the  inclosed  farms, 
the  long-horns  are  the  kind  most  preferred,  and  are  far  superior  to  the  original  breed  of 
the  county,  both  in  size  and  shape,  and  extraordinary  disposition  to  fatten. 

'  The  dairy  farmers  in  the  south-west  part  of  the  county,  however,  prefer  the  short 
horn  Yorkshire  cows,  from  which  county  they  are  principally  supplied;  and  as  they  never 
rear  any  calves,  they  sell  them  when  a  few  days  old  to  a  set  of  men  who  make  a  trade 
of  carrying  them  to  the  markets  of  Buckingham  and  other  places,  where  they  are  pur- 
chased by  dairy-farmers  from  Essex,  to  he  fatted  for  veal  for  the  London  markets. 

'  Soon  after  Lady-day,  the  farmer  begins  to  purchase  bullocks,  and  the  breeds  of  Shrop- 
shire and  Herefordshire  are  preferred.  In  the  course  of  the  summer,  some  Scotch  and 
Welsh  cattle  are  bought  in — he  btsgins  selling  off  in  September,  and  by  the  beginning 
of  February  the  whole  are  disposed  of. 

'  The  manner  of  transporting  the  calves  used  to  be  both  absurd  and  cruel.  The  jobber 
had  often  a  long  round  to  take  to  complete  his  purchases ;  and  after  that,  he  had  to 
travel  70  or  80  miles  before  he  reached  his  abode  or  place  of  sale  in  Essex.  Sometimes 
twelve  or  sixteen  calves  were  put  into  one  cart,  and  laid  on  their  backs  in  the  straw, 
with  their  feet  tied  together;  and  if  the  journey  occupied  seven  or  eight  days,  they  had 
rarely  aoy  thing  to  eat  hut  wheat-flour  and  gin  mixed  together,  well  known  in  that  line 
uf  country  by  the  name  of  gin -ball,  and  thus  the  calves  were  kept  in  a  state  of  stupidity  w 
'utoxicatiuu  during  the  whole  of  the  time.' 


Very  few  short-horns  are  bred  in  Bedfordshire,  and,  indeed,  very  few  o 
any  other  breed,  except  by  two  or  three  spirited  af^riculturists,  at  the  hejiiJ 
of  whom  stands  the  Dulve  of  Bedford. 

Frarcis,  Duke  of  Bedford,  began  to  devote  himself  to  agricultural  pur 
suits  in  the  year  1795  or  1796.  The  chief  object  of  his  attention  was  the 
improvement  of  the  breed  of  sheep ;  and  of  the  spirit  with  which  he  en- 
tered into  this,  and  the  extent  to  which  the  country  is  indebted  to  him, 
and  of  those  interesting  and  princely  meetings,  the  annual  sheep-shearings 
and  the  exhibition  of  stock,  we  shall  speak  in  our  volume  on  Sheep.  In 
other  parts  of  the  '  Farmer's  Series,'  and  particularly  in  the  treatise  on 
'  British  Husbandry,' justice  will  be  attempted  to  be  done  to  the  labours 
i)f  this  patriotic  nobleman  in  every  department  of  agricultural  science. 
There  were  few  breeds  of  cattle  whose  relative  qualities  and  value  were 
not  put  fairly  to  the  test  at  Woburn,  and  one  breed  after  another  was 
abandoned,  until,  at  his  decease  in  1802,  he  was  balancing  between  the 
North  Devons  and  the  Herefords. 

His  brother,  the  present  Duke  of  Bedford,  (1833,)  to  whom  we  are 
indebted  for  permission  to  view  every  part  of  his  farm,  and  for  much 
valuable  information  besides,  gave  the  preference  to  the  Herefords ;  and 
they,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  Ayrshire  and  Yorkshire  cows,  to  pro- 
vide milk  for  the  calves  and  for  the  house,  and  always  a  succession  of 
West  Highlanders  to  graze,  constitute  the  whole  of  his  stock*.  Although 
he  abandoned  the  North  Devons,  he  still  considered  them  to  be  an  ad- 
mirable breed  of  cattle,  and  only  inferior  to  the  Herefords,  as  not  suiting 
the  soil  of  Woburn  quite  so  v\ell.  A  few  North  Devons  are  still  kept  for 
farm  work,  but  they  are  not  the  true  Bideford  breed,  but  of  the  some- 
what heavier,  but  still  more  useful  variety,  most  prevalent  on  the  borders 
nf  Somersetshire. 

The  pasture  at  Woburn  is  somewhat  inferior  to  that  of  Herefordshire 
generally,  and  the  cattle  selected,  and  having  much  in  them  of  the  blood 
of  Messrs.  Tulley's,  and  Tomkin's,  and  Price's  stock,  are  not  so  large  as 
those  which  are  principally  met  with  on  their  native  soil ;  and  they  are 
not  the  worse  for  this.  They  lose  much  of  the  heaviness  and  coarseness 
of  the  shoulder  which  has  sometimes  teen  objected  to  in  the  Herefords, 
and  they  retain  all  the  length  of  qiiarter,  and  much  of  the  wideness  and 
roundness  of  hip,  and  fullness  of  thigh,  which  have  been  esteemed  the 
peculiar  excellencies  of  the  Herefords.  A  few  of  them  might  in  their 
fore-quarters  be  mistaken  for  Devonshires  ;  but  wiih  a  broadness  of 
chine  and  weight  behind  which  the  Devons  have  rarely  attained.  There 
is  little  that  is  unusual  in  the  feeding  of  these  beasts.  The  calf  lies  with 
the  mother  for  about  a  week,  and  is  then  taken  away,  and  fed  at  first  with 
milk  from  the  dairy,  and,  afterwards,  with  skim-milk.  It  then  runs  on  the 
ordinary  pastures  until  two  years  old,  when  it  ie  put  on  better  keep;  it 
passes  the  third  summer  at  grass,  is  stall-fed  in  the  winter,  and  ready  for 
market  at  three  years  of  age,  and  will  attain  the  average  weight  of  ninety 
or  ninety-five  stones.'  His  Grace  has  often  exhibited  cattle  at  Smithfield 
of  a  far  superior  weight. 

His  present  stock  consists  of  from  thirty  to  forty  cows.  The  bull-calves 
are  fattened;  the  best  of  the  females  are  retained  for  breeding;  and  other 
beasts  being  bought  in   in  the  summer  and  autumn,  seventy  or  eighty 

*  No  polled  cattle  are  now  grazed  on  the' Woburn  estate.  After  many  trials,  and 
some  of  thena  on  a  large  scale,  the  Duke  of  Bedford  gives  a  decided  preference  to  the 
horned  breeds.  When  the  polled  cattle  were  grazed  there,,  the  Galloways  had  gradually 
given  way  to  the  Angus,  and  Mr.  Todd  expressed  to  us  his  decided  ooinion,  that  they  fe? 
tiiste'  than  the  Galloways,  and  afibrded  meat  equally  as  good. 

212  CATTLK. 

are  usually  stall  fed  every  winter.  A  new  range  of  cattle•^hpds  and  pig- 
geries has  been  lately  erected  ;  a  water-mill  in  the  yard  is  fed  by  a  con- 
cealed stream  ;  the  straw-yards  are  excellently  contrived  ;  and  every  pos- 
sible convenience,  of  a  simple  and  unostentatious  form,  but  in  the  strue'urf 
of  which  neither  expense  nor  ground  has  been  spared,  is  to  be  friend 
on  the  premises.  Although  the  Herefords  are  now  established  atWoburn, 
the  spirited  proprietor  of  the  abbey  has  not  discontinued  the  experiments 
which  were  instituted  by  his  brother,  in  order  to  determine  the  compara- 
tive value  of  other  breeds.  Mr.  Todd,  the  very  intelligent  bailiff  of  his 
Grace,  permitted  us  to  have  access  to  many  of  the  records  of  these  expe- 
riments. Our  readers  will  not  object  to  the  transcription  of  one  or  two 
of  them. 

'  1819,  May  20th,  four  Pembroke  spayed  heifers  in  good  store  con- 
dition, bought  April  the  29lh,  at  161.  bs.  each,  and  four  polled  Galloway 
spayed  heifers,  bought  December  22d,  1818,  at  Ml.  lis.  each,  in  store 
order,  but  rather  fresher  than  the  above,  having  been  wintered  on  the 
farm  with  very  refuse  bad  hay,  were  put  to  grass  in  the  same  field,  and 
kept  there  until  October  21st,  being  a  period  of  five  mouths. 

Tod.    Cwt.   QrB. 

The  Perabrokes  weighed  on  May  20       .  ,  .112     0 

On  October  21st  they  weighed         .  .  .  1     19     2 

Gained  in  weight  in  the  five  months      •  • 

The  Scots  weighed  in  May 

Ditto  in  October  .  •  •  . 

Having  gained       .  .  ,  .  .081 

And  being  an  excess  of  weieht  gained  above  that  of  thel,,       ,,     o 

PemlLkes  of  .  .  .  .  T       "     ^ 

£.  £.  >.  £.    ». 

The  Fembrokes  sold  at     84  Cost  65  0  Gained  by  (rrazing  19     0 

The  Scots         .         .       74  Cost  46  4  Gained      . '        .     27  1  fi 


7     2 



10     1 
18     2 

Excess  of  gain  in  favour  of  the  Scots    .         .  .  .  .  ,         .       8  16 

From  which,  however,  is  to  be  deducted  the  value  of  the  refuse  hay 
which  they  ate. 

'  Twenty  Devons  and  twenty  Scots  were  bought  in  in  October,  1822, 
and  wintered. 

'  Ten  of  each  sort  were  fed  in  a  warm  straw-yard  upon  straw  alone,  but 
with  liberty  to  run  out  upon  the  moor. 

'  Ten  were  fed  in  a  meadow,  having  hay  twice  every  day  until  Christmas. 

'  They  afterwards  lay  in  the  farm-yard,  and  had  oat-straw  and  hay,  cut 
together  into  chaff.  They  were  then  grazed  in  different  fields,  equal  pro- 
portions of  each  sort  being  put  into  the  same  field. 

'  Those  that  lay  in  the  warm  straw-yard  with  straw  only,  were  ready  as 
soon  as  the  others,  although  the  others  had  an  allowance  of  hay  d.ring 
the  winter. 

'  Sixteen  of  each  were  sold  at  different  times  ;  March  24th,  1824, 
being  the  last  sale.  'J  he  Scots  were  ready  first,  and  disposed  of  before 
the  Devons. 

The  Scots  cost  71.  12».  lOd.  each,  amounting  to  122/.  5».  id. ;  they  sold  for  £.  ».  rf. 
235/.  IBs.  &d.     Gain  by  grazing  .  .  .  .  .  .  ^  .   113  13  2 

The  Devons  cost  71.  6».  6d.  each,  amounting  to  1 17/.  4s.,  and  they  sold  for 
250/. ;  but  not  being  ready,  on  the  average,  until  between  six  and  seven  weeks 
after  the  Scots,  and  estimating  their  keep  at  3j.  %d.  per  week  each,  amounting 
to  18/.  14j.  6rf.,  and  this  being  subtracted  from  230/.,  there  will  remain  as  the 
sum  actually  obtained  for  them  211/.  5s.  6f/.     Gain  .  .         .  .     94     j   6 

Making  a  balance  in  favour  of  the  Scots  .....         ±79  Tl  ^ 


The  remaining  four  of  eacli  breed  were  kept  and  stall-fed  on  turnips 
ami  hay.  The  Scots  sold  at  75/.,  and  the  Devons  at  841!.,  the  account  of 
which  will  be  as  follows  : — 

■£.    »  i. 

Four  Devuns  at  7t.  G».  6d.,  cost  29/.  6«. ;  they  sold  for  84/.;  leaving  gain  by 
stall-feeding .  .  .      54  14  0 

Four  Scots  at  71.  12s.  lOt/.,  coist  30/.  llj.  id.;  they  sold  for  75i. ;  leaving 
gain  by  stall-feeding 44     8  8 

Making  balance  in  favour  of  Devons  .  .         .  .         .  .      10     5  4 

Or  total  balance  in  favour  of  Scuts      .  .  .  .  .  ,  .964 

This  experiment  seemed  to  establish  the  superiority  of  the  Scots  for 
a^razing,  and  the  Devons  for  stall-feeding.  But  ag  the  gain  by  the  four 
stall-fed  Devons  was  half  as  much  as  that  by  the  sixteen  Scots  at  straw- 
yard,  it  was  determined  that  another  experiment  should  be  made,  in  which 
the  whole  should  be  fed  alike,  both  at  grass,  and  in  the  stall. 

Twenty  Scots  and  twenty  Devons  were  again  bought  in  in  Octobfc,. 
and  sold  at  different  times,  but  alvirays  an  equal  number  of  each  at  each 
time,  the  last  sale  taking  place  in  March. 

The  twenty  Devons  cost  189/.  9i. ;  they  sold  for  370/.  17«.  1  Od. ;  leaving  £.  j.   d. 

for  feeding       .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  181  8  10 

The  twenty  Scots  cost  212/.  3*. ;  they  sold  for  374/.  5».  \^d. ;  leaving  for 

feeding  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  162  1      ]| 

Balance  in  favour  of  the  Devons        .  .  .  .  .     £19     6     84 

Two  experiments,  on  the  fattening  properties  of  different  kinds  of 
food,  will  not  be  unacceptable  to  our  readers. 

Six  Scots,  previously  grazed  together  in  the  same  field,  were  taken  up 
and  stall-fed  on  the  6th  of  January,  1823,  and  the  feeding  was  continued 
until  the  I4th  of  April.     They  were  divided  into  pairs. 

To  each  of  one  and  two  were  given  daily,  one  bushel  of  mangel-wurzel, 
two  quarts  o^  bean  and  barley  flour  mixed,  and  as  much  hay  as  they 
would  eat. 

Three  and  four  had  one  bushel  of  Swedes  each,  with  the  bean  and 
barley  flour,  and  hay. 

Five  and  six  had  three  pecks  and  a  half  of  potatoes,  with  the  bean 
and  barley  flour,  and  potatoes 

£.    >.  d.  £.  ,.  d. 

One  and  two  consumed  18  cwt.  I  qr.  of  hay 
at  3/.,  amounting  to  2/.  14s.  9f/. ;  l^qr.  of  flour  at 
3s.  1/.  16s.;  and  196  bushels  of  mangel-wurzel  at 
9</.  7/.  7s.  amounting  to      .  ,  .     11   17  9  ^ 

They  gained  3  cwt.  1  qr.  7  lb.  at  5s.  id.  per 
stone  at  that  time  .  .  .     12     7  4  Gained  by  feeding    0     9  7 

Three  and  four  consumed  20  cwt.  2  qrs.  of 
hay  at  3/.,  3/.  6s. ;  beau  flour  1/.  16s.;  and  196 
bushels  of  Swedes  at  9rf.,  7/.  7s.,  amounting  to       12     9  0 

They  gained  3  cwt.  2  qrs.  21  lb.  at  5s.  id.  13  15  4  Gained  'by  feeding    16  6 

Five  and  six  consumed  23  cwt.  of  hay  at  3/., 
3/.  9s.;  bean  flour  \l  16s.;  78  bushels  of  potatoes 
at  Is.  \d.,  41.  is.  6d.       .  .  .  .990 

They  gained  2  cwt,  3  qrs.  7  lb.  at  5s.  4(/.  10     0  0   Gained  by  feeding   0  11  0 

We  will  condense  our  account  of  the  second  experiment.  Two  Scots 
were  fed  on  English  linseed  cakes;  two  Devons  on  unboiled  linseed,- 
two  others  on  boiled  linseed,  and  another  pair  of  Devons  on  foreign,  all 
of  them  having  as  much  hay  and  chaflf  as  they  could  eat.  It  was  a  losing 
concern  in  every  case  :  the  value  of  the  manure  was  not  equal  to  the 
difference  of  the  cost  and  the  selling  prices,  and  strange  as  it  may  appear, 

ts  were  fed  on  oil  cake :  the 

^4  CATTLE. 

next  when  foreign  cake  was  used,  the  next  when  boiled  linseed  was  used, 
and  the  least  of  all  when  the  simple  unboiled  linseed  was  given*. 

We  might  make  many  more  extracts,  but  these  will  show  the  spirit 
with  which  this  noble  agricultural  concern  was  conducted,  and  give  us 
some  idea  of  the  value  of  those  who  will  devote  their  time  and  their  pro- 
perty to  such  pursuits 


This  county,  once  inhabited  by  the  lonn-horns,  has  now  no  distinct 
breed  of  its  own.  The  greater  part  of  the  cows  and  grazing  stock  is 
bought  in.  It  consists  almost  uniformly  of  the  short-horns  for  both 
purposes  :  many  of  the  Lincolns  are  selected  for  grazing,  and  the  York- 
shire milch  cow  for  the  dairy. 

Mr.  Marshall  truly  says,  that,  with  the  exception  of  Pevensey  Level  and 
Romney  Marsh,  there  is  no  land  in  the  kingdom  better  adapted  for 
grazing  than  the  vale  of  Aylesbury.  Its  amazing  fertility  soon  makes  ii 
visible  alteration  in  the  appearance  of  every  beast,  and  causes  them  to 
attain  to  an  extraordinary  size — these  are  proofs  of  the  qualities  ot  the 
land.  The  cattle  are  grazed  about  ten  months,  and  do  not  often  require 
any  additional  care  than  a  supply  of  hay  in  the  field  during  winter. 

Vast  quantities  of  excellent  butter  are  sent  from  the  Vale  of  Aylesbury 
to  the  metropolis.  The  butter  merchants  contract  for  it  at  different  prices, 
vafying  with  the  season  of  the  year ;  and  the  carrier  contracts  for  the 
transport  of  it,  at  a  certain  charge  for  each  dozen  pounds,  finding  cloths, 
baskets,  &c.  He  fetches  it  from  the  dairyman  and  deliYers  it  to  the 


The  longhorns  had  penetrated  as  far  south  as  this  county,  and  at  the 
close  of  the  last  century  fully  occupied  it.  They  bore  much  resemblance 
to  the  cattle  of  Oxfordshire  and  Warwickshire.  The  different  breeds  of 
the  Yorkshire  cattle  have  now,  however,  completely  superseded  them.  A 
long-horn  beast  is  now  rarely  seen,  and  even  the  half-horns  are  disap- 
pearing. Mr.  Tomkins,  of  Abingdon,  and  Mr.  Webb,  of  Oakingham, 
were  particularly  distinguished  by  their  early  introduction  of  this  breed. 

In  the  forest  districts  of  Berkshire,  many  Welsh  and  Scotch  cattle  are 
grazed,  and  heavier  cattle  occupy  the  more  fertile  pastures. 

A  considerable  quantity  of  butter  is  made  on  the  borders  of  Oxford- 
shire, and  a  part  of  the  Vale  of  the  White-horn  is  celebrated  for  its 
It  is  principally  sold  in  London,  under  the  name  of  single  Gloucestei 
cheese,  and  is  formed  in  the  press  into  a  variety  of  curious  shapes.  Mr. 
Mavor  conjectures  that  '  they  sell  more  dearly  than  other  cheese,  partly 
on  account  of  their  shape,  and  partly  because  the  best  cheese  is  supposed 
to  be  thus  honoured.'  These  pine-apple  cheeses  are  made  without  any 
pressure  from  a  machine :  they  are  suspended  in  nets  which  gives  then 
the  curious  indentations  which  they  present.  From  the  wharf  of  Barcot, 
in  Oxfordshire,  nearly  three  thousand  tons  of  cheese  are  sent  down  the 
Thames  for  metropolitan  consumption,  partly  collected  from  neighbouring 
)>arishes  in  other  counties,  but  principally  from  Berkshire. 

*  To  many  records  of  experiments  on  the  comparative  fattening  qualities  of  tlie 
Hereford  and  Durham  cattle,  we  will  not  now  refer.  One,  although  not  then  assigned  to 
its  proper  author,  the  present  Duke  of  Bedford,  was  detailed  at  page  34  of  this  work. 
We  will  content  ourselves  with  referring  to  that.  The  patrons  of  the  short-horns,  how- 
ever, have  not  considered  it  as  altogeth -         ...  . ,..  ,.;. 



Hither  also  the  long-horns  penetrated,  and  were  the  prevailinjj  breed 
out  they  may  be  said  to  have,  perfectly  disappeared.  They  have  given 
way  to  the  Devons,  and  indeed  to  breeds  of  every  sort,  ami,  more  particu- 
larly near  the  coast,  to  the  Alderney,  or  smaller  breed  of  Norman  cows 

The  latter  are  the  favourites  in  consequence  of  the  greater  quantity  of  milk 
which  they  yield  in  proportion  to  the  food  which  they  consume.  Good 
meadow  land,  however,  ih  not  plentiful  in  this  district,  and  is  very  dear ;  the 
dairy,  therefore,  is  comparatively  neglected  on  too  many  farms,  and  little 
more  butter  is  manufactured  than  is  necessary  for  the  consumption  of  the 
county.  The  short-horns  are  beginning  to  find  their  way  into  Hampshire, 
and  where  the  soil  is  productive  they  are  profitable,  but  much  of  the 
county  is  incapable  of  supporting  so  large  an  animal.  Our  friend,  Mr. 
Moulden,  informs  us,  that  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Winchester,  the 
Norman  is  often  crossed  with  the  Hereford;  the  Norman  is  not  injured 
as  a  milker,  while  she  is  improved  in  size  and  disposition  to  fatten. 
About  Southampton,  the  Alderney  is  the  prevalent  breed.  There  are 
many  facilities  for  obtaining  her  from  the  contiguous  islands  of  Guernsey 
and  Jersey.  In  this  part  of  the  county,  the  Alderney  has  been  crossed  with 
the  forest  breed,  and  also  with  the  Suffolk.  The  forester  has  improved,  and 
the  Norman  has  deteriorated  in  consequence  of  the  first  cross,  and  the 
second  has  been  attended  with  doubtful  success.  Next  to  the  Alderneys, 
the  Suffolks  are  most  in  favour  on  the  coast  of  Hampshire. 

Mr.  Gawler,  in  his  '  Report  of  -i  North  Hampshire  Farm,'  (Farmer's 
Series,  No.  VII.  p.  15,)  states  that '  the  stock  in  general  best  adapted  to 
this  soil  are  the  Alderney,  and  the  smaller  race  of  Norman  cows.  The 
Devonshire  and  larger  breeds  require  richer  pasture  ;  and  although  they 
may  be  kept  in  condition,  the  milk  they  give  is  by  no  means  in  proportion 
to  the  bulk  of  food  they  consume.  Mr.  Gawler's  dairy  stock  was  in  the 
proportion  of  one  cow  of  the  Devonshire  breed  to  three  of  the  Alderney 
or  Norman,  and  the  milk  was  mixed  on  the  presumption  that,  being  thus 
diluted,  it  produced  better  butter,  and  a  larger  quantity  of  it.' 

Sir  Richard  Simeon  has  favoured  us  with  a  description  of  the  cattle  in 
the  Isle  of  Wight.  They  are  a  small  mixed  kind  without  any  of  those 
peculiarities  which  would  mark  them  as  distinct  breeds.  Scarcely  any 
oxen  are  bred  from  them ;  cow-calves  are  saved  for  the  purpose  of  keep- 
ing up  the  dairy ;  invariably  from  the  best  milkers,  and  not  with  any  view 
to  their  aptitude  to  fatten. 

The  dairy  stock  has  been  ocsasionally  mixed  with  the  Guernsey  or 
Alderney  cattle,  and  with  success  so  far  as  the  quantity  and  quality  of  milk 
go.  Some  attempts  have  been  made  to  introduce  the  short-horns,  and 
in  some  instances  the  cattle  of  the  island  have  been  improved  in  size  and 
appearance;  but,  looking  to  the  general  capabilities  of  the  island  for  the 
maintenance  of  large  stock,  and  fitting  them  for  the  purpose  of  the  butcher, 
it  may  be  doubtful  whether  the  smaller  and  rougher  kind  of  cattle  may 
not  be  a  safer  description  of  stock,  and  likely  to  produce  a  better  result  to 
the  farmer.  The  Alderney  is  a  favourite  breed — a  cross  between  the 
Devon  has  produced  some  very  good  cows  here,  well  adapted  for  the 
dairy,  and  not  unprofitable  for  the  butcher. 

The  value  of  the  Isle' of  Wight  cattle  depends  almost  exclusively  upon 
their  being  good  milkers :  for  the  purposes  of  the  butcher,  many  of  them 
are  of  little  value,  on  account  of  the  generally  received  opinion,  that  a 
cow  which  has  an  aptitude  to  fatten  is  a  bad  milker.     The  farmers  rarely 


216  CATTI.K. 

The  smallesi  farmer  in  the  Isle  of  Wight,  has  a  dairy,  and  the  contrast 
is  very  striking  to  au  inhabitant  of  the  island  who  visits  the  neighbourhood 
af  Winchester,  in  the  same  county,  where  he  may  ride  many  a  mile 
without  seeing  a  cow,  because  it  is  the  custom  to  keep  bullocks  on  that 
land  only  that  will  not  do  for  sheep. 

Mr.  R.  G.  Kirkpatrick  has  informed  us,  that  the  only  farms  (hat  are 
calculated  for  grazing  lie  along  the  streams  that  run  through  the  valley 
on  the  south  side  of  the  Chulk  Downs,  and  chiefly  on  the  Grading  stream. 
Lord  Yarboiough,  at  Appeldurcombe,  is  one  of  the  most  extensive 
graziers  in  the  island.  He  annually  imports  forty  or  tifty  head  of  cattle 
from  his  estates  in  Lincolnshire  and  from  Scotland.  The  other  graziers 
attend  the  different  markets  in  the  south  and  west  of  England,  and 
buy  chiefly  Sussex,  Welsh,  Devonshire,  and  other  west  country  cattle. 
The  whole  importation  amounts  to  about  500  annually,  besides  which 
there  are  about  100  west  country  calves  brought  into  the  island  a  little 
before  midsummer.  These  are  partly  taken  into  the  dairies  and  partly 
kept  for  fattening.  One  of  the  finest  dairies  in  the  island  belongs  to 
Sir  Richard  Simeon.  His  cows  are  of  a  larger  sort  than  are  generally 
seen  here,  and  crossed  with  the  Durham.  He  has  devoted  a  great  deal  of 
time  and  expense  to  agricultural  pursuits.  He  first  introduced  mangel- 
wurzel  and  Swedish  turnips  into  the  Isle  of  Wight. 

Oxen  are  not  much  used  in  husbandry  labour ;  and  the  few  o.x- 
teams  which  we  see  on  the  south  side  of  the  Downs  are  generally  brought 
"Trom  the  west  of  England.  They  are  used  in  field  labour,  but  not  on  the 
road,  from  the  notion  that  their  feet  would  sutfer,  and  that  they  are  not 
so  well  adapted  as  horses  i'oT  this  kind  of  work.  They  are  found  to  work 
in  the  field  nearly  as  fast  and  as  well  as  horses,  and  are  kept  at  much 
less  expense. 


The  whole  of  Wiltshire,  but  particularly  the  northern  division  of  it 
surrounded  by  the  counties  of  Gloucestershire  and  Berkshire,  was,  at  the 
close  of  the  eighteenth  century,  chiefly  occupied  by  the  long-horns.* 
They  are  described  by  Mr.  Baden,  of  Day-house,  (to  whom  we  are  in- 
debted for  much  information  respecting  this  district,)  as  "  a  fine,  healthy 
sort,  good  for  the  dairy  and  for  feeding,  and  with  immense  spreading 
horns.  Those,  however  which  were  formerly  most  approved  of  for  the 
dairy,  had  smaller  horns,  bending  towards  the  mouth,  but  they  were  not 
favourites  with  the  grazier  or  butcher,  because  their  flesh  was  sometimes 
tough.  They  used  to  average  from  thirty-six  to  forty-eight  scores."  Mr. 
Baden  has  raised  them  to  fifty  scores,  and  a  relative  of  his  has  carried 
ihem  on  to  sixty  scores,  confining  them  to  grass  and  hay  alone.  Many 
scientific  agriculturists  used  to  object  to  these  long-horned  cattle.  They 
were  said  to  be  too  heavy — they  injuriously  poached  a  land,  the  great 
*ault  of  which  was,  that  it   was  already  too  cold  and  wet, — they  did  not 

*  '  It  does  not  appear  what  was  the  original  kind  of  cow  kept  in  this  district,  pro 
bably  the  old  Gloucestershire  cow,  a  sort  now  almost  lost,  or,  perhaps,  as  is  the  case  in 
Somersetshire,  a  mixture  of  all  sorts :  hut  the  universal  rage  for  upwards  of  twenty  years 
past  has  been  for  the  long-horns,  or,  as  they  are  called,  the  "  North  country  cows,"  and 
at  this  time,  perhaps,  nine-teuths  of  the  dairies  in  this  district  are  entirely  of  tljat  kind. 
The  reasons  given  for  the  general  introduction  of  that  sort  are  the  nearness  of  their 
situation  to  the  north  country  breeders,  but  perhaps  the  real  reason  is  that  "  pride  of 
stock,"  which,  operating  like  "  the  pride  of  sheep  and  horses,"  in  south  Wiltshire,  has 
gradually  led  the  farmers  to  an  emulation  in  beauty  and  size  more  than  in  usefulness 
and  profit,  and  which  pride  the  breeders  have  not  been  wanting  in  using  every  artifice  tu 
create  and  promote.' 


tome  to  pei'fectiun  until  they  were  at  least  two  years  older  tliiiii  tiie  com- 
mon cattle  of  the  country,  (Bakewell's  improvements  were  then  unknown  ; ) 
and,  comparing  bulk  lor  bulk,  they  did  not  yield  a  proportionate  quantity 
of  milk,  nor  equal  to  the  additional  quantity  of  food  which  they  consume. 
Some  strenuous  efforts  were  made  to  replace  them  by  the  Devons,  smaller 
in  size,  and  beings  less  liable  to  tread  and  poach  the  wet  lands — ripe  at  an 
earlier  age  than  the  long-horned  cow,  and  fattening  more  speedily,  but 
there  seemed  to  he  these  objections,  that  they  were  deficient  in  milk  ; 
that  milk  was  good,  but  not  better  than  the  milk  of  the  long-horn,,  and  con- 
sequently the  same  quantity  of  cheese  was  not  produced,  and  they  were  not 
sufficiently  hardy  for  the  cold  and  wet  grounds  on  which  they  were 
placed  :  they  therefore  never  obtained  any  firm  footing  in  Wilts. 

The  long-horns  are  now,  however,  almost  extinct.  Although  they  were 
really  valuable,  they  seemed  to  retreat  before  the  short-horns,  even  more 
ra|)idly  than  the  other  varieties  of  the  old  long-horns.  A  cross  of  them 
with  the  short-horns  remains,  and  are  excellent  dairy  cattle.  They  yield 
daily  from  four  to  five  gallons  of  milk,  during  the  height  of  the  season. 
They  are  an  improved  breed,  for  they  retain  the  hardihood  of  the  old  long- 
horns  and  good  quality  of  the  milk,  with  the  early  mutuiity  and  quantity  of 
milk  of  the  short-horn. 

This  cross-breed,  however,  must  be  carefully  watched,  for  it  is  exceed 
innly  apt  to  degenerate.  Frequent  recurrence  must  be  had  to  the  short- 
horn bull,  and  the  bull  must  often  be  changed.  There  are,  however,  in 
various  parts  of  North  Wilts,  and  particularly  in  the  hands  of  the  cotta-' 
gers,  as  various  and  inexplicable  crosses  as  are  to  be  met  with  in  any  ))art 
of  the  kingdom,  and  some  of  them  exceedingly  useful  beasts.  It  should  be 
contrived  that  the  cows  shall  calve  from  Christmas  to  Lady-day  on  a 
warm,  early  soil,  but  not  until  three  weeks  later  on  a  backward,  cold  land. 

Mr.  Baden  recommends  that  warm  water  should  be  given  to  the  cow 
after  calving,  especially  if  she  has  not  cleansed,  for  cold  water  will  often 
retard  or  prevent  the  expulsion  of  the  after-birth,  arid  particularly  not  to 
draw  all  the  milk  from  the  teats  for  the  first  twelve  hours. 

if  the  calf  is  strong  and  healthy,  the  best  time  for  weaning  is  at  the 
expiration  of  the  third  week  ;  it  should  be  put  into  a  cow-house,  and 
served  from  a  pail :  it  will  drink  readily  after  being  kept  one  meal  from 
the  mother.  One  quart  of  skimmed  milk,  added  to  one  warm  from  the  cow, 
is  deemed  a  sufficient  meal,  and  good  hay  should  be  placed  before  them, 
for  they  will  eat  earlier  than  has  been  imagined ;  they  should  be  fed  as 
nearly  as  possible  at  the  same  hour  morning  and  evening ;  and  as  soon 
as  the  grass  appears,  they  should  be  turned  out  into  a  meadow  during 
the  day,  and  the  milk  by  degrees  left  off.  In  the  month  of  October,  they 
should  be  put  into  a  house  and  bled,  and  three  ounces  of  Glauber's  salts 
should  be  given  on  three  alternate  mornings,  to  prevent  the  murrain  : 
in  winter,  a  warm  pen,  or  dry  pasture,  should  be  allowed.  If  they  are  to 
have  calves  at  two  years  old,  they  should  be  weaned  in  February,  and 
iihey  should  not  calve  before  May.  If  they  are  to  calve  at  three  years 
old,  time  and  feed  are  not  material.* 

The  cast-ofF  cows  and  the  steers  are  fatted   somttim«8  on  grass  and 

*  In  many  parta  of  this  district,  the  calves  are  seldom  reared.  The  farmers  say  tliat 
they  can  generally  buy  them  cheaper  than  they  can  rear  them  on  land  that  is  generally 
too  good  for  the  purpose,  and  tented  too  dear;  and  that  calves  will  jviy  better  to  be  solil 
as  veal,  than  to  be  kept  for  stock.  There  is  one  thing,  however,  of  which  the  Jairy-mnn 
Bferywhere  does  not  seem  to  be  sufficiently  aware,  that  few  cows  will  settle  so  wlI'  oh 
t  farm,  or  turn  out  so  profitable,  as  those  that  have  been  reared  un  it. 

218  CATILK. 

!iav,  sometimes  on  hay  and  meal,  or  hay  and  Swedish  turnips  ;  the  latter 
.s  preferable  when  the  hay  is  old  and  good. 

We  have  given  this  account  somewhat  at  length,  as  embodying  the 
management  of  cattle  by  the  best  farmers  in  North  Wilts.  There  is  a 
very  great  proportion  of  grass  to  arable  land  through  the  whole  of  this 
division  of  Wiltshire,  and  very  much  of  the  grass  land  is  heavy  and  wet : 
hence  the  necessity  for  more  cattle  than  are  usually  found  on  such  extent 
of  ground,  and  custom,  old  as  the  memory  of  man,  has  made  it  a  district 
for  the  production  of  cheese.  The  North  Wiltshire  cheese  is  known  in 
every  part  of  the  kingdom.  It  was  at  first  an  humble  imitation  of  the 
Gloucester,  but  it  is  now  equal  to  the  best  from  that  county,  and  even 
from  the  Vale  of  Berkheley  itself. 

Mr.  Davis,  in  his  Survey  of  Wiltshire,  gives  an  opinion,  that  is  to  a 
very  considerable  extent  well  founded,  and  from  which  dairymen  every 
where  might  derive  instruction.  '  One  circumstance,'  says  he,  '  goes  a 
great  way  to  explain  the  goodness  of  the  North  Wiltshire  cheese,  viz., 
the  convenient  situation  of  most  of  the  farm-houses  in  the  centre  of  the 
farm,  so  that  all  the  cows  can  be  driven  home  to  milk,  and  all  the  milk 
can  be  put  together,  of  an  equal  temperature,  and,  by  beginning  their  work 
early,  the  dairymen  can  make  cheese  twice  in  the  day.  Where  servants 
are  sent  to  milk  in  detached  and  extensive  pastures,  this  cannot  be  done. 
Bad  cheese  can  generally  be  traced  to  some  fundamental  fault  in  the  art 
of  making  it,  and  particularly  in  that  essential  article,  the  rennet.'  We 
thus  far  agree  with  the  author  of  the  '  Survey;'  that  a  great  deal  is  tn 
be  attributed  to  bad  management,  but  we  are  inclined  to  think  fully  as 
much,  or  even  more,  is  connected  with  soil  and  pasture. 

The  quantity  of  cheese  that  is  made  from  each  cow  in  this  district  was 
greater  than  is  common  in  any  other  cheese-making  country  ;  sometimes 
as  much  as  4^  cwt.  or  5  cwt.  per  cow,  seldom  lower  than  3  cwt.  Per- 
haps 3J  cwt.  is  a  fair  average  in  a  good  cheese-making  year  on  every 
Eow  that  calves  in  proper  time*. 

South  Wilts  is  a  very  different  country.  A  considerable  portion  of  it 
is  occupied  by  extensive  and  open  plains  where  sheep  only  will  thrive. 
There  are,  therefore,  comparatively  few  cattle  kept  in  this  district,  and 
there  would  be  still  fewer  were  there  not  much  wet  and  boargy  ground 
in  the  valleys  between  the  different  elevations  of  Salisbury  plain,  and 
where  sheep  could  not  livef-     The  old  Wiltshires  never  completely  occu- 

*  The  produce  of  cheese  is,  however,  tnatetially  influenced  by  the  season ;  Mr.  Mar. 
shall  gives  an  illustration  of  this  in  his  '  Economy  of  the  Midland  Counties.'  '  One 
year  twenty  cows  produced  foiu:  tons  of  factor's  cheese,  besides  the  expenditure  of  the 
family,  making  altogether  upwards  of  4  cwt.  per  cow  ;  yet  in  the  next  year  the  same 
cows,  with  the  addition  of  four  or  five  more  cows  to  the  dairy,  did  not  produce  so  much 

'  The  first  summer  was  warm  and  moderately  wet ;  neither  too  wet  nor  too  dry  ;  a 
happy  mixture  of  warmth  and  moisture.  The  pastures  were  eaten  level  even  to  a  degree  of 
bareness,  yet  always  wore  a  freshness,  and  the  cows  throughout  the  summer  looked  sleek 
and  healthy.     The  next  was  a  wet  summer.' 

f  A  writer  in  the  Bath  Society  Papers,  vol.  vii.  p.  170,  very  properly  says,  that  '  the 
great  error  in  this  stock  is  the  smallness  of  the  ijurntity  kept,  the  rage  for  fine  sheep 
having  almost  driven  the  cow  stock  out  of  the  district.  South  Wiltshire  farms  are  not 
calculated  to  keep  many  cows,  but  the  greater  part  of  them  would  keep  more  than  they  do. 
Where  there  are  water  meadows  cows  are  indispensably  necessary  to  eat  the  after  grass, 
and  in  winter  they  are  always  so  to  eat  the  barley-straw,  and  make  dung.  There  is 
always  as  much  distant  land  on  a  South  Wiltshire  farm  as  the  sheep-fold  can  manure  , 
the  home  land  should  be  manured  with  hot  dung,  and  particularly  when  in  preparation 
for  a  turnip  crop.  If  cows  were  formerly  thought  so  useful  as  to  be  indispensable  on 
the  farms  of  this  district,  they  must  certainly  be  much  more  so  now  when  their  produce 
18  worth  one-third  more.' 


pied  the  cow  pastures  of  South  Wilts.     They  were  long-horns,  hut   little 
."are  was  taken  about  the  breed. 

The  cows  are  here  as  uniformly  devoted  to  the  production  of  butter,  aa 
those  of  North  Wilts  are  to  that  of  cheese,  and  with  almost  equal  success, 
for  the  butter  of  South  Wilts  is  in  high  repute.  There  is  no  particular 
description  of  cow  in  the  one  to  produce  butter  only,  and  in  the  other  to 
produce  cheese,  for  the  old  breed  in  both  is  nearly  gone.  The  short- 
horns liave  been  introduced,  and  they  remain  in  some  cases  pure,  in  others 
crossed  in  various  ways  with  the  native  breed  *.  Mr.  Davis  accounts  for 
this  in  the  most  satisfactory  manner;  '  perhaps  it  is  custom  or  prejudice, 
and  these  producing  greater  skill  in  the  manufacture  of  each  in  the  re- 
spective districts." 


The  improved  short-horns  lingered  longer  in  Oxfordshire  than  in  most 
of  the  districts  which  they  had  occupied.  It  has  been  stated,  that  Mr 
Fowler,  of  Hollwright,  derived  his  breed  immediately  trocn  Mr.  Bakewell, 
and  carried  the  improvement  of  the  long-horn  cattle  to  a  greater  extent 
than  Mr.  Bakewell  did.  His  bull,  Shakspeare,  has  been  already  described 
as  the  best  stock-getter  that  the  long-horn  breed  ever  had.  After  Mr. 
Bakewell  died,  his  stock  began  to  lose  its  high  character  under  the 
management  of  his  nephew,  Mr.  Honeybourn  ;  Mr.  Fowler's  cattle 
maintained  their  reputation  for  many  years,  until  they,  too,  gradually 
yielded  to  the  superior  claims  of  the  short-horns. 

Before  Mr.  Fowler's  time,  Oxfordshire  could  not  be  said  to  have  any 
peculiar  breed,  but  the  improved  long-horns,  bred  and  patronised  by  him, 
speedily  became  the  prevailing  stock  of  the  county.  A  few  long-horns, 
but  somewhat  deteriorated,  are  yet  to  be  found  in  Oxfordshire  ;  the  short- 
horn, or  the  halt-horn,  or  a  mixture  between  the  short  and  the  supposed 
native  cow,  principally  prevail. 

Sir  C.  Willoughby  was  one  of  the  first  who  introduced  the  short-horn 
He  had  a  dairy  of  19  cows  of  that  breed.  The  very  intelligent  Secretary 
to  the  Board  of  Agriculture,  the  Rev.  Arthur  Young,  (in  his  Survey  of 
Oxfordshire,  published  in  1809,)  could  not  quite  reconcile  himself  to  this 
intrusion,  and  speaks  pointedly  of  the  necessity  of  their  being  well  fed 
and  taken  care  of  in  the   winter.     This  was  a  grand  objection  when  they 

*  '  Few  reasons  need  he  adduced  to  prove  that  the  best  kind  of  cow  for  this  district 
IS  that  whicli  will  bear  hard  keeping  best,  and  particularly  that  kind  which  will  best  bear 
wintering  in  a  straw-yard.' — Bath  Papers,  vol.  vii.  p.  170. 

The  cow-commons,  or  cow-tlowns  that  used  to  be  described  by  every  statistical  writer 
and  which  were  in  a  manner  peculiar  to  the  South  Wiltshire  and  Hampshire  Downs, 
are  diminished  in  number,  and  in  many  parts  of  these  districts  they  are  no  longer 
known.  Tliese  commons  were  on  the  best  and  most  level  parts  of  the  down  lands. 
Mr.  Marshall  gives  the  following  account  of  them.  '  The  cattle  are  collected  in  one  com- 
mon herd,  each  township  or  hamlet  having  their  cow-herd,  who  drives  them  to  the  downs, 
tends  them  there,  and  brings  them  back  in  the  evening  to  be  milked,  distributing  them 
among  their  respective  owners,  who  take  the  charge  of  them  during  the  night.  The 
herdsman  collects  them  again  in  the  morning,  by  sound  of  horn,  a  custom  probably  of 
many  centiries  standing.  I  have  seen  a  hundred  head  at  least  in  one  of  these  town 
herds.  In  summer,  when  the  weather  is  sultry,  the  cows  remain  in  the  house,  or  yard, 
and  are  fed  there  with  grass  and  weeds  collected  for  them,  or  are  suffered  to  drop  their 
dung  unprofitably  in  lanes,  and  other  shady  places,  and  are  driven  to  the  down  in  the 
tool  of  the  evening.' 

The  stuUble-fields  being  opened,  they  took  possession  of  them  also,  in  common  with 
the  sheep.  If  there  are  common  meadows,  they  have  no  exclusive  right  to  feed  on  them 
until  St;.  Martin 's-day,  when  the  owners  take  them  home  to  the.  straw-yard.  After  the 
""+""■"  into  the  stubble-field,  it  becomes  common  for  the  sheep- 
en  it  is  again  laid  up  for  the  cows. 

.   1 AU„    „n 

220  CATTLE. 

w-ci-e  first  brought  into  notice,  but  it  was  perfectly  groundless,  for  lliej 
have  thriven  where  many  other  breeds  would  have  failed,  and  they  ai« 
now  finding  their  way  into  Scotland,  to  contend  with  the  northern  cattle 
on  their  own  ground  *. 


We  have  recorded  the  name  of  Webster  of  Canley,  in  this  county,  as 
one  of  the  earliest  improvers  of  the  long-horns.  The  prevailing  breed  of 
Warwickshire  was,  before  his  time,  long-horned,  and  from  the  shape  and 
size  of  the  beasts,  seemed  to  have  been  originally  brought  from  Lan- 
cashire. Webster,  however,  began  to  vrork  upon  a  better  stock,  for  he 
obtained  some  cows  from  the  banks  of  the  Trent,  at  that  time  celebrated 
lOr  the  value  of  tlie  cattle  produced  there.  After  Bakewell  had  traversed 
every  part  of  the  kingdom  in  order  to  select  subjects  on  which  to  com- 
mence his  experiments,  he  selected  two  heifers  from  Mr.  Webster's  dairy 
as  the  foundation  of  his  future  stock. 

Mr.  Guibbs,  of  Blackford,  soon  afterwards  emulated  the  example  of 
Webster,  and  produced  a  superior  breed  of  cattle,  hardy,  short-legged, 
and  wide  and  deep  in  their  frame.  He  first  hired  bulls  from  Mr.  Bake- 
well,  and  then  bred  from  his  own  stock  until  he  bought  a  bull  that  was 
bred  by  Mr.  Meeks,  after  which  he  still  further  improved  his  cattle  by  cross- 
ing with  Mr.  Prince's  long-horns. 

Other  breeders  pursued  the  same  landable  course,  and  the  consequence 
was  that  the  Warwickshire  cattle  would  not  yield  to  the  improved  Leices- 
ters  in  any  valuable  point,  hut  were  acknowledged  as  genuine  branches 
of  the  same  stock.  They  also  retained  a  considerable  portion  of  all  their 
sterling  value  when  Mr.  Honeybourn's  slock  had  dwindled  into  mere 
shadows  of  what  they  once  were. 

At  the  present  day,  some  long-horns  are  to  be  met  with  in  Warwick- 
shire, and  the  most  valuable  dairy  breed  is  at  least  a  mixture  of  the  long 
with  the  short  horn.  The  short-horn  is,  however,  gaining  ground. 
Lord  Clonmell  had  a  fine  breed  of  pure  Durhams  at  his  seat  Chateau- 
Margeaux,  some  of  which  were  afterwards  purchased  by  Mr.  King,  then 
living  at  Amberslade  House,  in  this  county  t. 

•  The  Secretary  to  the  Board  was  always  partial  to  the  use  of  oxen  at  the  plough, 
and  on  the  road.  The  advantage  and  disadvantage  to  be  derived  from  using  them  was 
in  few  places  put  more  to  the  test  of  experience  tlian  in  Oxfordshire,  and  the  consequence 
was,  that  many  farmers  who  had  tried  both  the  Devons  and  the  Hereford,  returned 
again  to  the  use  of  the  horse.  Mr.  Young,  however,  gives  an  account  of  the  experience 
of  others  on  the  contrary  side  of  the  question,  so  interesting,  that  we  are  induced  to  quote 
a  tew  paragraphs.  '  Mr.  Thomas  Latham,  of  Clifton,  had  a  team  of  four  oxen  that  drew 
with  ease  '  0  quarters  of  wheat  in  a  waggon  ;  and  which  were  far  beyond  horses  for 
timber  cartmg. "  They  were  Scotch  beasts.  He  worked  them  three  years,  and  sold  them 
lean  for  48/.  They  ploughed  as  well  and  as  much  as  horses,  and  did  not  cost  nearly  so 
much.  JUr.  Foster,  of  Bigual,  worked  a  team  of  five  spayed  heifers  in  harness.  He 
began  to  plough  with  them  at  two  years  old  ;  they  were  in  full  work  at  three,  and  fat- 
tened at  seven.  He  had  sold  them  as  high  as  100/.  per  pair.  They  were  not  shod,  and 
although  on  this  stone-brash  surface,  they  worked  as  well  as  horses. 

f  Mr.  Murray,  who  published  a  '  Survey  of  Warwickshire,'  in  1813,  gives  the  following 
estimate  of  the  profit  per  acre,  on  diflferent  kinds  of  farms  and  differently  managed. 

'  Thin  clay  land,  under  the  rotation  of  fallow,  wheat,  beans,  barley,  clover,    £.    i.    d. 
and  oats  per  acre        ......  Loss.     016 

'  Good  elay  land,  on  marl  or  limestone  rock,  same  rotation  Gain.     2  14     9 

'  Light,  poor,  sandy  soil  under  the  rotation  of  turnip,  fallow,  from  turf, 
luruips  eaten  off  by  sheep,  barley  and  seeds,  clover  eaten  off  by  sheep     Gain.     0     5     0 

'  lied  sandy  loam  under  rotation  of  wheat,  after  leys,  and  the  other  crops, 
IS  iu  the  last       .  •  •  •  .  .  .  .282^ 

'  A  grazing  farm  ....  .340 

'  Dairy  farm    .... 



This  county  cannot  be  said  to  have  possessed  any  distinguishing  breed 
of  cattle.  It  was  surrounded  by  breeding  districts,  but  ils  own  pasture 
was  too  good  for  khe  rearing  of  young  stock,  therefore  it  purchased  from 
al!  around  it,  whether  Herefords,  or  Shropshire,  or  Staffordshire,  or  Welsh. 
The  few  that  are  bred  in  the  county  are  of  a  mixed  character,  or  there  is 
rarely  any  particular  object  of  improvement  in  tlieir  selection,  but  chiefly 
to  procure  milk  and  butter  and  cheese  for  the  supply  of  the  district,  and 
scarcely  sufficient  of  either  of  them.  The  native  cattle,  however,  are 
evidently  long-horns,  and  are  very  fair  milkers.  In  some  of  tiie  dairies, 
there  is  a  cross  between  them  and  the  Holderness,  and  in  a  very  consider- 
able part  of  the  county  the  pure  short-horn  is  found,  and  begins  to  pre- 
dominate as  a  dairy  cow.  The  Herefords  and  the  Durhams  are  strug- 
gling for  superiority  on  the  grazing  lands,  and  are  the  prevailing