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Presented  to  the 

LIBRARY  of  the 

UNIVERSITY  OF  TORONTO 

by 
Prof.  Harvey  Olnick 


0RDHEIHER8.    Li 


i 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 
in  2007 


http://archive.org/details/dictionaryofmusi04grovuoft 


A    DICTIONARY 


OF 


MUSIC    AND    MUSICIANS. 


ti»VoA^^Lx>x^ 


DICTIONARY 


OP 

MUSIC    AND    MUSICIANS 

(A.D.  1450-1889) 

BY  EMINENT  WRITERS,   ENGLISH   AND   FOREIGN. 

WITH    ILLUSTRATIONS    AND    WOODCUTS. 

EDITED  BY 

SIR  GEORGE   GROVE,   D.C.L. 

SOMETIME    DIRECTOR    OP    THE    ROYAL    COLLEGE    OF    MUSIC,     LONDO:^. 

WITH  AFPENDIX,  EDITED  BY 

J.    A.    FULLER    MAITLAND,    M.A. 

AND  INDEX  BY 

MRS.    EDMOND    WODEHOUSE. 

IN    FOUR    VOLUMES. 

VOL.    IV. 

ilontion 
MACMILLAN  AND   CO.,  Limited 

>  NEW   YORK:   TIIE  MACMILLAN   COMPANY 

1900 

{The  Right  of  Translation  and  Reproduction  is  reserved.} 


/ML 
lpc> 

JHPO 


Tlih  Dictionanj  was  originally  published  between  the  dates  1877  and  1889,  and  the  Pa)is 
have  since  been  reprinted  from  plates,  mth  corrections  as  required. 


OXFORD  :    HORACE    HART,    PRINTER  TO   THE    UNIVERSITY 


PREFACE, 


The  general  aims  and  intentions  of  the  Dictionary  of  Music  and 
Musicians  were  stated  in  the  Preface  to  Volume  I.,  and  need  not  be 
repeated  here.  The  work  now  appears  before  the  public  in  a  complete 
form.  The  large  demand  for  it,  which  has  gone  on  steadily  increasing, 
not  only  in  this  country  and  the  United  States  of  America,  but  on  the 
Continent  of  Europe,  shows  that  on  the  whole  the  book  has  fulfilled  the 
intentions  with  which  it  started.  Shortcomings  there  will  always  be  in 
^  a  work  of  this  description,  arising  from  inexperience,  from  the  progress 
•  of  the  general  subject,  or  from  deaths  of  old  musicians  and  arrivals  of 
new  ones  ;  but  it  is  hoped  that  these  have  been  met  by  the  Appendix 
promised  at  the  outset.  For  this  very  important  part  of  the  undertaking 
the  Editor  has  secured  the  able  co-operation  of  the  gentleman  whose 
name  appears  on  the  title-page  of  Volume  IV.,  and  who  has  been  of 
signal  assistance  to  him  in  a  very  trying  portion  of  his  work.  To  Mr. 
Fuller  Maitland,  and  to  all  the  other  contributors  to  the  Dictionary,  who 
have  so  successfully  and  so  cheerfully  laboured  throughout  the  long 
course  of  its  publication,  the  Editor  here  returns  his  heartfelt  thanks  for 
their  valuable  assistance ;  and  embraces  the  opportunity  to  express  his 
pride  and  pleasure  at  having  had  the  aid  of  so  distinguished  an  array 
of  workers.  To  the  publishers  he  offers  his  sincere  acknowledgements 
for  much  patience,  and  many  a  friendly  act. 

It  would  be  invidious  to  single  out  special  articles  in  addition  to 
those  already  mentioned,  where  all  have  been  written  with  such  devotion 
and  intelligence ;  but  the  Editor  cannot  help  mentioning,  amongst  many 
others,  the  long  articles  on  Schumann,  Spontini,  and  Weber,  by  Dr.  Spitta 
of  Berlin ;  on  Sonata,  Symphony,  and  Variations,  by  Dr.  Hubert  Parry ; 
on  Song,  by  Mrs.  Edmond  Wodehouse ;  on  Scotish  Music,  by  Mr.  J.  Muir 
Wood;  on  Wagner,  by  Mr.  Dannreuther;  on  the  Organ,  by  Mr.  E.  J. 
Hopkins ;  the  Piano  by  Mr.  Hipkins ;  the  Violin  by  Mr.  Payne ;  and 
those  on  Schools  of  Composition,  and  other  historical  subjects,  by  Mr.  W.  S. 
Rockstro. 

A  copious  Index  of  the  whole  four  volumes  has  been  prepared  by 
Mrs.  Wodehouse,  and  will  shortly  be  published  in  a  separate  volume. 

29  Bedford  Street,  Covent  Garden, 
Easter,  1889. 


LIST   OF   CONTRIBUTORS. 


Addison  F.  Andeews,  Esq.,  New  York 

Gael  Aembeustee 

David  Baptie,  Esq.,  Glasgow   . . 

James  E.  Steendale-Bennett,  Esq 

E.  H.  M.  BosANQUET,  Esq. 

Kev.  H.  E.  Beamlet 

HoEATio  F.  Beown,  Esq. 

De.  Heemann  Budy 

Hon.  Mes.  Bueeell 

Mes.  Waltee  Caeb 

"William  Chappell,  Esq.,  F.S.A. 

Alexis  Chitty,  Esq. 

M.  GusTAVE  Chouquet,  Keeper  of  the  Museum  of  the  Con 

servatoire  de  Musique,  Paris 
Arthue  Duke  Coleeidge,  Esq.,  Barrister-at-Law     . . 
Feedeeick  Coedee,  Esq.,  Mendelssohn  Scholar,  1875-79 
Geoege  Aethur  Crawford,  Major 
William  H.  Cummings,  Esq.    .. 
"W.  G.  CusiNS,  Esq.,  Conductor  of  the  Philharmonic  Society 

Master  of  the  Music  to  the  Queen 
Lionel  Cust,  Esq. 
Edward  Danneeuther,  Esq.    .. 
Heee  Paul  David 
John  Hunter  Davie,  Esq. 


A.  F.  A. 

C.  A. 

D.  B. 

J.  E.  S.-B. 

E.H.M.B. 
H.E.B. 
H.  F.  B. 
H.B. 
M.  B. 
M.  C.  C. 
W.C. 
A.C. 

G.C. 
A.  D.  C. 
F.C. 
G.  A.  C. 
W.  H.  C. 

W.  G.  0. 
L.  C. 
E.D. 
P.D. 
J.H.D. 


viii  LIST  OF   CONTKIBUTORS. 

James  W.  Davison,  Esq.  J.W.  D. 

Hakry  Collins  Deacon,  Esq.  . .  . .         . .         . .         , .  H.  C.  D. 

Db.  Alfbed  Dobffel,  Leipzig. .  . .  . .  . .         , .  A.  D. 

Edwabd  H.  Donkin,  Esq E.H.  D. 

Clabence  Eddy,  Esq.    . .         . .  . .         , .         . .         . .  C.  E. 

H.  Suthebland  Edwabds,  Esq.  H.  S.  E. 

Louis  Engel,  Esq.        . .         L.  E. 

Herb  Max  Feiedlandbb,  Berlin         . .  . .  . .  . .  M.  F. 

Henby  Fbedeeick  Fbost,  Esq.,  Organist  of  the  Chapel  Royal,  Savoy      H.  F.  F. 

J.  A.  FuLLEB  Maitland,  Esq.   . .      J.  A.  F.-M.,    or  in  Appendix  M. 

John  T.  Fyfe,  Esq J.T.F. 

Chables  Allan  Fyffe,  Esq.,  Barrister-at-Law         . .  . .  C.  A.  F. 

Db.  Fbanz  Gehbing,  Vienna     . .  . .  . .  . .         . .  F.  G. 

S.  B.  GosLiN,  Esq S.  B.  G. 

J.  C.  Gbiffith,  Esq.      . .  J.  C.  G. 

Rev.  Thomas  Helmobe,  Master  of  the  Children  of  the  Chapels  Royal     T.  H. 

William  Hendebson,  Esq.        . .         . .         . .         . .         . .  "W.  H. 

Geobge  Hebbebt,  Esq.  . .         . .  •  •         , .         . .  G.  H. 

Db.  Febdinand  Hillee,  Cologne  .»  ,.  ..  ..  H. 

A.  J.  HiPKiNS,  Esq.       . .  . .  . .         . .         . .         . .  A.  J.  H. 

Edwabd  John  Hopkins,  Esq.,  Organist  to  the  Temple        . .  E.  J.  H. 

Rev.  T.  Percy  Hudson  T.RH. 

Fbancis  Hueffeb,  Esq.  . .         . .         . .  . .         . .  F.  H. 

A.  Hughes-Hughes,  Esq.         ..  ..  ..         ..         ..  A.H.-H. 

John  Hullah,  Esq.,  LL.D.      . .  . .  . .         . .         . .  J.  H. 

W.  Hume,  Esq W.  He. 

William  H.  Husk,  Esq.,  Librarian  to  the  Sacred  Harmonic  Society  W.  H.  H. 

F.  H.  Jenks,  Esq.,  Boston,  Mass.,  U.S.A F.  H.  J. 

MoNS.  Adolphe  Jullien,  Paris  . .  . .  . .  . .  A.  J. 

J.  A.  Kappey,  Esq.        . .  J.  A.  K. 

MoBTON  Latham,  Esq.  . .  . .         . .         . .         . .         . .  M.  L. 

James  Lecky,  Esq.        . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         . .  J.  L. 

R.  B.  Litchfield,  Esq.  , ,  , .         , .  . .         , .  R.  B.  L. 


LIST  OF  CONTPvIBUTOES. 


Heney  J.  Lincoln,  Esq. 

Stanley  Lucas,  Esq.,  Secretary  to  the  Philharmonic  Society 
Herb  Feedinand  Ludwig 
Hercules  MacDonnell,  Esq.   .. 

Sir  George  Alexander  Macfarren,   Mus.   Doc,   Professor 
of  Music  in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  &c.,  &c.    .. 
Charles  Mackeson,  Esq.,  F.S.S. 
Herr  a.  Maczewski,  Concert-director,  Kaiserslautern 
Julian  Marshall,  Esq. 
Mrs.  Julian  Marshall 
EussEL  Martineau,  Esq. 

SiGNOR   GlANNANDREA   MaZZUCATO 

Eev.  John  Henry  Mee,  M.A.,  Mus.  Bac. 

Miss  Louisa  M.  Middleton 

Eev.  J.  E.  Milne 

Edwin  G.  Monk,  Esq.,  Mus.  Doc,  Organist  of  York  Cathedral 

Mrs.  Newmarch 

Sir  Herbert  S.  Oakeley,  Mus.  Doc,  Professor  of  Music  at 

the  University  of  Edinburgh 
Eev.    Sir  Frederick  A.    Gore  Ouseley,  Bart.,  Mus.  Doc, 

Professor  of  Music  in  the  University  of  Oxford 
Henry  Parr 

Walter  Parratt,  Esq.,  Mus.  Bac. 
C.  Hubert  H.  Parry,  Esq.,  Mus.  Doc. 
Here  Ernst  Pauer 

Edward  John  Payne,  Esq.,  Barrister-at-Law 
Eev.  Hugh  Pearson,  Canon  of  Windsor 
Edward  H.  Pember,  Esq.,  Q.C. 
Miss  Phillimore 
Here  C.  F.  Pohl,  Librarian  to  the  Gesellschaft  der  Musik- 

freunde,  Vienna    .. 

William  Pole,  Esq.,  F.E.S.,  Mus.  Doc 

E.  PoLONASKi,  Esq 

Victor  de  Pontigny,  Esq. 


H 

.  J. 

L. 

S. 

L. 

F. 

L. 

H 

.  M. 

.  D. 

G. 

A. 

M. 

C. 

M. 

A. 

,  M. 

J. 

M. 

F. 

A. 

M. 

E. 

M. 

G. 

M. 

J. 

H. 

M. 

L. 

M. 

M. 

J. 

E. 

M. 

E. 

G. 

M. 

K. 

N. 

H.  S.  O. 


F. 

A.G. 

0. 

H. 

Pr. 

W. 

Pa. 

C.  H.  H. 

P. 

P. 

E. 

J.  P. 

H. 

■  P. 

E. 

H.  P. 

C. 

M.  P. 

C. 

F.  P. 

W 

P. 

E. 

Pi. 

V. 

DE  P. 

X  LIST  OF    CONTRIBUTORS. 

Reginald  Lane  Poole,  Esq 

Ebenezeb  Prout,  Esq.  . .         . .         .  •         •  •         . .         • . 

Rev.  William  Pulling 

Charles  H.  Purday,  Esq. 

LuiGi  Ricci,  Esq.  ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ., 

Edward  F.  Rimbault,  Esq.,   LL.D.    .. 

SiGNOR  F.  Rizzelli 

W.  S.  RocKSTRO,  Esq.  .. 

Desmond  Lumley  Ryan,  Esq.  . . 

Curt  Schulz,  Esq. 

Carl  Siewers,  Esq. 

T.  L.  Southgate,  Esq.  . . 

Dr.  Philipp  Spitta,  Berlin  :  Professor  in  the  University ;  Se- 
cretary to  the  Royal  Academy  of  Arts ;  and  Managing- 
Director  of  the  Royal  High-School  for  Music 

W.  Barclay  Squire,  Esq. 

Sir  John  Staineb,  Mus.  Doc,  Oxon.  . . 

H.  H.  Statham,  Esq.     . . 

Charles  Edward  Stephens,  Esq.,  F.C.O.,  Hon.  Member 
R.  A.  M.,  &c 

Sib  Robert  P.  Stewart,  Mus.  Doc,  Professor  of  Music  in 
Dublin  University 

T.  L.  Stillie,  Esq.,  Glasgow    .. 

William  H.  Stone,  Esq.,  M.D.  

J.  Stuttaford,  Esq. 

Sib  Abthub  Seymour  Sullivan,  Esq.,  Mus.  Doc,  Principal 
of  the  National  Training  School  of  Music 

Franklin  Taylor,  Esq.  

H.  R.  Tedder,  Esq 

Alexandeb  W.  Thayer,,  Esq.,  United  States  Consul,  Trieste, 
Author  of  the  Life  of  Beethoven 

Miss  Bebtha  Thomas  . . 

John  Thomas,  Esq 


R.L.P. 
E.  P. 

W.  Pg. 

C.  H.  P. 
L.R. 

E.  F.  R. 

F.  Rz. 
W.  S.  R. 

D.  L.  R. 
C.  Sch. 

c.s. 

T.  L.  S. 


RS. 
W.B.S. 
J.S. 
H.  H.  S. 

C.E.S. 

R.  P.  8. 
T.L.S. 
W.  H.  8. 
J.Sd. 


F.  T. 

H.R.T. 

A.  W.  T, 

B.T. 

J.T. 

LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTORS. 


XI 


C.  A.  W.  Teoyte,  Esq.  

Colonel   H.  Ware,   Public   Library,    Boston,  Mass.,   U.S.A 

Frederick  Westlake,  Esq.     . 

Mrs.  Edmond  Wodehouse 

J.  MuiR  Wood,  Esq.,  Glasgow . 

h.  e.  wooldridge,  esq. 

The  Editor 


C.A.W.T. 
H.W. 
F.W. 
A.  H.  W. 
J.  M.  W. 
H.  E.  W. 
G. 


DICTIONARY 


OP 


MUSIC   AND   MUSICIANS, 


SUMER  IS  ICUMEN  IN  (continued  from 
Tol.  iii.  p.  768). 

While  receiving  with  due  respect  the  judg- 
ment of  the  writers  already  quoted,  we  cannot  but 
feel  that,  in  most  cases,  their  authority  is  weak- 
ened, almost  to  worthlessness,  by  the  certainty 
that  it  rests  on  evidence  collected  entirely  at 
second-hand.  Neither  Forkel,  de  Coussemaker, 
nor  Ambros,  ever  saw  the  original  document ; 
their  statements,  therefore,  tend  rather  to  confuse 
than  to  enlighten  the  enquirer.  Still,  great  as 
are  the  anomalies  with  which  the  subject  is  sur- 
rounded, we  do  not  believe  them  to  be  irrecon- 
cileable.  Some  critics  have  trusted  to  the  peculiar 
counterpoint  of  the  Rota,  as  the  only  safe  guide 
to  its  probable  antiquity.  Others  have  laid 
greater  stress  upon  the  freedom  of  its  melody. 
We  believe  that  the  one  quality  can  only  be 
explained  by  reference  to  the  other,  and  that  the 
student  who  considers  them  separately,  and  with- 
out special  reference  to  the  caligraphy  of  the 
MS.,  stands  but  a  slender  chance  of  arriving  at 
the  truth.  We  propose  to  call  attention  to  each 
of  these  three  points,  beginning  with  that  which 
seems  to  us  the  most  important  of  all — the  cha- 
racter and  condition  of  the  MS. 

I.  The  style  of  the  handwriting  corresponds 
so  closely  with  that  in  common  use  during  the 
earlier  half  of  the  "13th  century  that  no  one 
accustomed  to  the  examination  of  English  MSS. 
of  that  period  can  possibly  mistake  it.  So  positive 
are  the  indications,  on  this  point,  that  Sir  Fred- 
erick Madden— one  of  the  most  learned  palaeo- 
graphers of  the  present  century — did  not  hesitate 
to  express  his  own  conviction,  in  terms  which 
leave  no  room  for  argument.  •  The  whole  is  of 
the  thirteenth  century,'  he  says,  'except  some 
writing  on  ff.  15-17.*  And,  in  a  later  note, 
comparing  this  MS.  with  the  *  Cartulary  of 
Reading'  (MSS.  Cott.  Vesp.  E.  v.),  he  states  his 
belief  that,  'in  all  probability,  the  earlier  por- 
tion of  this  volume' — i,e.  that  which  contains 
VOL.  IV,   FT,  I, 


the  Rota — '  was  written  in  the  Abbey  of  Read- 
ing, about  the  year  1 240.'  ^  The  present  libra- 
rian, Mr.  E.  Maunde  Thompson,  unhesitatingly 
endorses  Sir  F.  Madden's  judgment;  and  the 
Palaeographical  Society  has  also  corroborated  it, 
in  connection  with  an  autotype  facsimile — Part 
VIII,  Plate  125  (Lond.  1878)— referred  to  the 
year  1 240. 

Fortunately  the  MS.  is  in  such  perfect  pre- 
servation that  the  corrections  made  during  its 
preparation  can  be  distinctly  traced.  In  a  few 
places,  the  ink  used  for  the  Antiphon  on  the 
preceding  page  can  be  seen  through  the  vellum  : 
but,  apart  from  the  spots  traceable  to  this  cause, 
there  are  a  considerable  number  of  evident 
erasures,  clearly  contemporary  with  the  original 
handwriting,  and  corrected  by  the  same  hand, 
and  in  the  same  ink.  The  second  note  on  Stave  i 
was  originally  an  F.  The  first  and  second  notes 
on  Stave  4  were  originally  two  C  s ;  the  fourth 
note  was  a  D;  and  the  fifth,  a  0.  Between 
the  sixth  and  seventh  notes,  in  the  same  Stave, 
there  are  traces  of  a  D,  and  also  of  an  F  :  the  D 
has  certainly  been  erased  to  make  room  for  the 
present  notes;  the  appearance  of  the  F  is  pro- 
duced by  a  note  showing  through  from  the 
opposite  side.  The  eighth  note  on  this  Stave  was 
an  E.  Over  the  ligature  which  immediately 
follows,  there  are  traces  of  a  C ;  and,  towards  the 
end  of  this  Stave,  a  last  erasure  has  been  made, 
for  the  insertion  of  the  solitary  black  square 
note.^  The  marks  which  show  through  the  vel- 
lum are  to  be  found  near  the  beginning  of  Stave 
3,  and  in  several  other  places.  Neither  these, 
nor  the  erasures,  are  to  be  seen  in  our  facsimile^ 
though  traces  of  both  may  be  found  in  the  auto- 
type of  the  Palaeographical  Society. 

2.  The  mixed  character  of  the  Part -Writing 
has  puzzled  many  an  able  commentator ;  for,  side 
by  side  with  passages  of  rudest  Discant,  it  exhibits 

1  See  vol.  iii.  p.  268  a  (note) ;  and  765  b  (note), 
a  Compare  witb/acnmtltf,  vol.  iii  o.  269. 


2  SUMER  IS  ICUMEN  IN. 

progressions  which  might  well  have  passed  un- 
censured  in  the  far  later  days  of  Palestrina. 
The  4th,  6th,  7th,  8th,  and  24th  bars*  are  in 
Strict  Two-Part  Counterpoint  of  the  First  and 
Second  Order,  of  irreproachable  purity.''  But, 
in  passing  from  the  9th  to  the  loth,  and  from 
the  13th  to  the  14th  bars,  a  flagrant  violation 
of  the  First  Cardinal  Rule »  results  in  the  form- 
ation of  Consecutive  Fifths  between  the  First 
and  Third  Cantus  Parts,  in  the  one  case,  and 
between  the  Second  and  Fourth  Cantus,  in  the 
other.  The  same  Rule  is  broken,  between  Cantus 
II,  and  Bassus  I,  in  passing  from  bar  1 7  to  bar 
18;  and,  in  bars  37,  38,  39,  a  similar  infraction 
of  the  Rule  produces  no  less  than  three  Con- 
secutive Fifths  between  Cantus  I,  and  Bassus  II. 
Between  bars  29  and  30,  Cantus  I  and  II  sing 
Consecutive  Unisons ;  and  the  error  is  repeated, 
between  bars  33, 34,  by  Cantus  II  and  Cantus  III, 
simultaneously  with  Consecutive  Fifths  between 
both  these  Parts  and  Cantus  I.  Similar  faults 
are  repeated,  as  the  Rota  proceeds,  with  per- 
sistent regularity. 

Now,  the  smooth  progressions  shown  in  the 
4th,  8th,  and  24th  bars,  are  as  stringently  for- 
bidden in  the  Diaphonia  of  the  nth  and  12th 
centuries,  as  the  Consecutive  Fifths  in  bars  37, 
38,  and  39,  are  in  the  Counterpoint  of  the  15th 
and  i6th,  or  even  in  that  of  the  14th  century. 
To  which  of  these  epochs,  then,  are  we  to  refer 
the  Rota  ?  The  peculiarity  of  the  Part- Writing 
clearly  affords  us  no  means  whatever  of  answer- 
ing the  question,  but  is  calculated  rather  to  mis- 
lead than  to  throw  new  light  upon  the  point  at 
issue. 

3.  Turning  from  the  Part- Writing  to  the  Me- 
lody, we  find  this  pervaded  by  a  freedom  of  rhythm, 
a  merry  graceful  swing,  immeasurably  in  advance 
of  any  kind  of  Polyphonic  Music  of  earlier  date 
than  the  Fa  las  peculiar  to  the  later  decads  of 
the  1 6th  century — to  which  decads  no  critic  has 
ever  yet  had  the  hardihood  to  refer  the  Rota. 
But,  this  flowing  rhythm  is  not  at  all  in  advance 
of  many  a  FolkSong  of  quite  unfathomable 
antiquity.  The  merry  grace  of  a  popular 
melody  is  no  proof  of  its  late  origin.  The 
dates  of  such  melodies  are  so  uncertain,  that 
the  element  of  Chronology  may  almost  be  said 
to  have  been  eliminated  from  the  history  of 
the  earlier  forms  of  National  Music.  In  most 
cases,  the  original  Poetry  and  Music  owed  their 
origin,  in  all  probability,  to  the  same  heart  and 
voice.  The  melodies  were  not  composed,  but 
inspired.  If  the  verses  to  which  they  were  in- 
debted for  their  existence  were  light  and  trip- 
ping, so  were  they.  If  the  verses  were  gloomy, 
the  melodies  naturally  corresponded  with  them. 
And,  because  their  authors,  however  unskilled 
they  might  be  in  the  Theory  of  Music,  were  in 
the  constant  habit  of  hearing  Church  Melodies 
sung  in  the  Ecclesiastical  Modes,  they  naturally 
conformed,  in  most  cases,  to  the  tonality  of  those 

J  In  thia.  and  all  other  cases,  the  references  appljf  to  OUT  own  Soore 
in  modern  Notation,  vol.  111.  p.  766, 

2  See  Strict  Codnterpoint,  vol.  111.  p.  741—743. 

3  lb.  p.  741  a. 


SUMER  IS  ICUMEN  IN. 

venerable  scales.  We  believe  the  Melody  of  the 
Rota  to  be  an  inspiration  of  this  kind — a  Folk-* 
Song,  pur  et  simple,  in  the  Transposed  Ionian 
Mode,  owing  its  origin  to  the  author  either  of 
the  English  or  the  Latin  verses  to  which  it  is 
wedded. 

Now,  some  Folk-Songs  of  great  antiquity 
possess  the  rare  and  very  curious  peculiarity  of 
falling  into  Canon  of  their  own  accord.  An 
old  version  of  *  Drops  of  brandy '  forms  a  very 
fair  Canon  in  the  unison  for  two  voices.  In  the 
days  of  Madame  Stockhausen,  three  independent 
Swiss  melodies  were  accidentally  found  to  fit 
together  in  the  same  way,  and  were  actually 
published  in  the  form  of  an  English  Round, 
which  soon  became  very  popular. 

The  melody  of  the  Rota — if  we  are  right  in 
believing  it  to  be  a  genuine  Folk-Song — possesses 
this  quality  in  a  very  remarkable  degree.  What 
more  probable,  then,  than  that  a  light'hearted 
young  Postulant  should  troll  it  forth,  on  some 
bright  May -morning,  during  the  hour  of  recrea- 
tion ?  That  a  second  Novice  should  chime  in,  a 
little  later  1  That  the  effect  of  the  Canon  should 
be  noticed,  admired,  and  experimented  upon,  until 
the  Brethren  found  that  four  of  them  could  sing 
the  tune,  one  after  the  other,  in  very  pleasant 
Harmony  ?  There  must  have  been  many  a 
learned  Discantor  at  Reading,  capable  of  modi- 
fying a  note  or  two  of  the  melody,  here  and 
there,  for  the  purpose  of  making  its  phrases  fit 
the  more  smoothly  together.  So  learned  a  mu- 
sician would  have  found  no  difl&culty  whatever  in 
adding  the  pes,  as  a  support  to  the  whole — and 
the  thing  was  done.  The  Harmony  suggested, 
in  the  first  instance,  by  a  veritable  •  Dutch  Con- 
cert,' became  a  Round,  or  Canon,  of  the  kind 
proved,  by  Mr.  Chappell's  opportune  discovery 
of  the  Latin  pun  [see  vol,  iii.  p.  768  a],  to  have 
been  already  familiar  to  English  ears ;  for  which 
very  reason  it  was  all  the  more  likely,  in  a  case 
like  the  present,  to  have  been  indebted  for  its 
confection  to  a  happy  accident. 

The  foregoing  suggestion  is,  of  course,  purely 
hypothetical.  We  do  not,  however,  make  it 
with  the  intention  of  evading  a  grave  chrono- 
logical diflBculty  by  a  mere  idle  guess.  The 
influence  exercised,  by  the  point  we  are  consider- 
ing, upon  the  history  of  Mediaeval  Music  in 
general,  and  that  of  the  Early  English  School  in 
particular,  is  of  so  great  importance,  that  the 
element  of  conjecture  would  be  altogether  out  of 
place  in  any  chain  of  reasoning  professing  to 
solve  the  difficulties  of  an  enigma  which  has  puz- 
zled the  best  Musical  Antiquaries  of  the  age. 
We  venture,  therefore,  to  propose  no  conjectural 
theory,  but  simply  to  epitomise  the  results  of  a 
long  course  of  study  which  has  rendered  the 
Reading  MS.  as  familiar  to  us  as  our  own 
handwriting ;  submitting  it  to  our  readers  with 
all  possible  deliberation,  as  a  means  of  accounting 
for  certain  peculiarities  in  the  Rota  which  would 
otherwise  remain  inexplicable.  It  accounts  for 
a  freedom  of  melody  immeasurably  in  advance 
of  that  attained  by  the  best  Polyphonists  of 
the  15th  century,  whether  in  the  Flemish  or 


SUMER  IS  ICUMEN  IN. 

Italian  School.  It  accounts  for  the  transcription, 
in  a  handwriting  of  the  13th  century,  of  pro- 
gressions which  were  not  sanctioned  by  scholastic 
authority  until  the  15th  ;  and,  at  the  same  time, 
for  the  admixture,  with  these,  of  other  progres- 
sions, which,  in  the  15th  century,  would  have 
been  peremptorily  forbidden;  in  other  words, 
it  accounts  for  simultaneous  obedience  to  two 
distinct  Codes  of  Law  diametrically  opposed  to 
each  other ;  two  systems  of  Part- Writing  which 
never  were,  and  never  could,  by  any  possibility 
be,  simultaneously  enforced — viz.theLaw  of  Coun- 
terpoint, which,  in  the  14th  and  15th  centuries, 
forbade  the  approach  to  a  Perfect  Concord  in 
Similar  Motion ;  and  that  of  Diaphonia,  which, 
in  the  nth  and  12th,  practically  enjoined  it, 
by  employing  no  other  Intervals  than  doubled 
Fourths,  Fifths,  and  Octaves.  It  accounts  for  the 
erasures  to  which  we  have  already  called  atten- 
tion ;  placing  them  in  the  light  of  improvements, 
rather  than  that  of  necessary  corrections.  More- 
over, it  accounts,  with  still  greater  significance, 
for  the  otherwise  inexplicable  absence  of  a  whole 
army  of  familiar  progressions,  conventional  forms 
of  ornamentation,  Cadences  true,  false,  plain, 
diminished,  modal,  or  medial,  and  of  Licences  in- 
numerable, which,  after  the  substitution  of  Coun- 
terpoint for  Discant,  never  failed  to  present  them- 
selves, at  every  turn,  in  Polyphonic  compositions 
of  every  kind,  produced  in  every  School  in  Eu- 
rope. These  anomalies  have  not  been  accounted 
for  by  any  critic  who  has  hitherto  treated  the 
subject.  Yet,  surely,  those  who  doubt  the  antifjuity 
of  the  Rota,  on  the  ground  of  its  advanced  construc- 
tion, owe  us  some  explanation  as  to  the  presence 
of  this  advanced  style  in  certain  passages  only. 
We  sorely  need  some  information  as  to  how  it 
came  to  pass  that  the  piece  was  written  in  three 
distinct  styles:  two,  of  part-writing,  separated  by 
an  interval  of  two  or  three  centuries,  at  least ; 
and  one,  of  melody,  which,  if  not  the  result  of  an 
inspired  Folk- Song,  of  remotest  antiquity,  must 
bring  us  down  to  a  period  subsequent  to  the  in- 
vention of  Monodia  in  the  1 7th  century.  Our 
theory,  if  admissible  at  all,  explains  all  these 
things.  A  learned  Musician,  deliberately  in- 
tending to  write  a  Canon  for  six  voices,  would, 
had  he  lived  in  the  1 2th  century,  have  adopted 
the  style  observable  in  bars  37,  38,  and  39,  as  that 
of  the  entire  composition.  Another,  flourishing 
in  the  15th  century,  would  have  confined  himself 
to  that  shown  in  bars  4,  6.  8,  and  24.  But, 
though  the  later  savant  would  never  have  passed 
the  Fifths  and  Octaves,  the  earlier  one,  had  he 
possessed  sufficient  natural  genius  to  enable  him 
to  rise  above  the  pedantry  of  the  age,  would 
surely  have  excused  a  great  deal  of  what  he 
considered,  and  taught,  to  be  licence.  Finding 
that  a  Popular  Melody  of  the  day  fitted  together, 
in  certain  places,  in  a — ^to  his  ear — delightful 
succession  of  similar  Perfect  Concords,  he  would 
surely  have  forgiven  certain  other  passages  which 
defied  his  rules,  but,  judged  by  his  natural  in- 
stinct, did  not  'sound  bad.'  Whether  John  of 
Fornsete  did  really  construct  the  Rota  on  this 
principle,  or  not,  we  can  never  know  for  cer- 


SUPPE.  8 

tain :  but,  since  the  accident  we  have  suggested 
certainly  has  happened,  and  been  turned  to 
advantage  in  other  cases,  there  is  nothing 
improbable  in  the  supposition  that  it  may 
have  happened  before,  in  that  which  we  are  now 
considering. 

The  fact  that  no  other  English  Rota  of  equal 
antiquity  with  this  has  as  yet  been  brought  to 
light,  proves  nothing.  The  wonder  is,  not  that 
we  can  find  no  similar  examples,  but,  that  even 
this  one  should  have  escaped  the  wholesale 
destruction  which  devastated  our  Cathedral  and 
Monastic  Libraries,  first,  during  the  reign  of 
King  Henry  VIII,  and  afterwards,  during  the 
course  of  the  Great  Rebellion.  Moreover,  we 
must  not  forget  that  the  Reading  MS.,  though  it 
contains  only  one  Rota,  contains  no  less  than 
three  Latin  Antiphons,  two  for  three  Voices, 
and  one  for  *four;  and  that  the  Chaucer  MS,' 
of  very  little  later  date,  contains  several  Compo- 
sitions for  two  Voices,  all  tending  to  prove  the 
early  date  at  which  the  Art  of  Polyphonic  Com- 
position was  cultivated  in  England.^ 

These  suggestions  are  made  for  the  express 
purpose  of  inviting  discussion  ;  and,  should  any 
new  light  be  thrown  upon  the  subject,  in  the 
meantime,  it  will  be  noticed  in  a  future  article 

on  ViLLANELLA.  _  [W.S.R.] 

SUPERTONIC.  The  second  note  of  the  scale 
upwards,  as  D  in  the  key  of  C.  It  is  brought 
into  much  prominence  in  modern  music  as  the 
dominant  note  of  the  dominant  key.  The  strong 
tendency  to  find  the  chief  balance  and  antithesis 
in  that  key,  and  to  introduce  the  second  subject 
of  a  movement  in  it,  as  well  as  the  tendency  to 
make  for  that  point  even  in  the  progress  of  a 
period,  necessarily  throws  much  stress  upon  the 
root-note  of  the  harmony  which  leads  most 
directly  to  its  tonic  harmony,  and  this  is  the  domi- 
nant of  the  new  key  or  supertonic  of  the  original 
one.  It  has  consequently  become  so  familiar, 
that  its  major  chord  and  the  chord  of  the  minor 
seventh  built  upon  it,  although  chromatic,  are 
freely  used  as  part  of  the  original  key,  quite 
irrespective  of  the  inference  of  modulation  which 
they  originally  carried.  Some  theorists  recognise 
these  chords  as  part  of  the  harmonic  complement 
of  the  key,  and  consequently  derive  several  of  the 
most  characteristic  and  familiar  chromatic  com- 
binations from  the  supertonic  root.     [C.H.H.P.] 

SUPPE,  VON,  known  as  Franz  von  Sdppe, 
the  German  Offenbach,  of  Belgian  descent,  though 
his  family  for  two  generations  had  lived  at 
Cremona,  was  born  at  Spalato,  or  on  board  ship 
near  it,  April  18,  1820,  and  his  full  baptismal 
name  is  Francesco  Ezechiele  Ermenegildo 
Cavaliere  Suppe  Demellt.  His  taste  for  music 
developed  early.     At  1 1  he  learned  the  flute,  at 


1  See  vol.  Hi.  p.  270  a.  _,     ,,    ^    „, 

2  Arundel  MSS.  No.  248.  See  vol.  111.  p.  4Z7  b.  The  MontpelHer 
MS.  is  certainly  no  older  than  this,  and  probably  not  so  old. 

3  Fosbroke,  in  his  '  British  Monachism '  (vol.  ii.  p.  113).  tells  us  that 
the  Song  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Monks  consisted  of  a  method  of  flgurato 
Discant,  in  which  the  various  Voices,  following  one  another,  were 
perpetually  repeating  different  words,  at  the  same  time.  Surely,  mia 
savours  strongly  of  the  '  form  of  the  Round.' 

B  2 


4  SUPPB. 

13  harmony,  and  at  15  produced  a  mass  at  the 
Franciscan  church  at  Zara.  His  father,  however, 
had  other  views  for  him,  and  sent  him  to 
the  University  of  Padua.  But  music  asserted 
itself;  he  learned  from  Cigala  and  Ferrari,  and 
wrote  incessantly.  At  this  moment  his  father 
died,  the  mother  settled  in  Vienna,  where  Fran- 
cesco joined  her;  and  after  a  little  hesitation 
between  teaching  Italian,  practising  medicine, 
and  following  music,  he  decided  on  the  last, 
got  lessons  from  Seyfried,  and  obtained  a  gra- 
tuitous post  as  Conductor  at  the  Josephstadt 
theatre.  This  was  followed  by  better  engage- 
ments at  Pressburg  and  Baden,  and  then  at  the 
theatres  ander-Wien,  Quai,  and  Leopoldstadt 
in  Vienna,  with  the  last-named  of  which  he 
is  still  connected.  His  work  at  these  houses, 
though  for  long  mere  patching  and  adding,  was 
excellent  practice,  and  he  gradually  rose  to  more 
independent  things.  In  1844  a  •  Sommemachts- 
traum,'  founded  on  Shakspeare,  and  composed 
by  him,  is  mentioned  in  the  A.  M.  Z.  *  Der 
Kramer  und  sein  Commis'  followed.  In  1847 
he  was  at  the  Theatre  an-der-Wien  and  (Aug.  7) 
brought  out  a  piece,  '  Das  Madchen  vom  Lande ' 
(The  country  girl),  which  met  with  wild  success. 
Ten  years  later  (Jan.  8,  1858)  a  Singspiel, 
*  Paragraph  3,'  spread  his  fame  into  North  Ger- 
many, and  from  th^  time  a  stream  of  pieces 
flowed  fivm  his  pen.  His  works  are  said  by  the 
careful  Wurzbach  ^  to  reach  the  astonishing  num- 
ber of  2  grand  operas,  165  farces,  comediettas, 
and  vaudevilles,  etc.,  as  well  as  a  Mass  ( 'Missa 
dalmatica,'  Spina,  1877),  a  Requiem  produced  at 
Zara  in  i860  under  the  title  of 'L'estremo  Giu- 
dizio'  etc.,  etc.  A  list  of  49  of  his  operatic  pieces 
is  given  by  Wurzbach,  but  a  few  only  are  dated. 
Another  list  of  21  is  given  by  Batka  in  Pougin's 
supplement  to  Fdtis,  but  the  titles  are  French, 
and  it  is  hard  to  make  the  dates  agree.  Some 
of  the  pieces  are  mere  parodies,  as  '  Tannen- 
hauser,'  'Dinorah,  oder  die  Turnerfahrt  nach 
Hutteldorf.'  One,  'Franz  Schubert,'  is  founded 
on  the  life  of  Schubert,  and  contains  five  of  his 
songs.  The  only  pieces  of  Suppe's  known  out 
of  Germany  are  '  Fatinitza,'  produced  at  Vienna, 
Jan.  5, 1876 ;  at  the  Alhambra,  London,  June  20, 
1878,  and  at  the  Nouveaut^s,  Paris,  March  1879 ; 
and  'Boccaccio,' which  was  brought  out  in  London, 
at  the  Comedy  Theatre,  April  22,  1882.  The 
overture  to  'Dichter  und  Bauer,'  the  only  one  of 
his  overtures  known  in  England,  must  be  his 
most  popular  work  abroad,  since  it  has  been 
arranged  for  no  less  than  59  different  combina- 
tions of  instruments,  all  published  by  Aibl  of 
Munich.  It  is  a  stock  piece  in  the  Crystal  Palace 
repertoire.  [G.] 

SURIANO.  [See  Soriano,  vol.  iii.  p.  638.] 
SURMAN,  Joseph,  bom  1803,  son  of  a  dis- 
senting minister  at  Chesham,  became  a  music 
copyist,  tenor  chorister,  and  clerk  at  a  dissenters' 
chapel.  On  the  establishment  of  the  Sacred 
Harmonic  Society  in  1832  he  was  appointed 
its  conductor.    In  1838  he  became  music  pub- 

1  Biov.  Lezikon  des  Oesterrelnb.   Fart  40;  188a 


SUSPENSION. 

lisher,  chiefly  of  sacred  music  in  separate  parts. 
About  the  same  time  he  was  assistant  conductor 
of  the  Melophonie  Society.  In  1842  he  was 
chosen  to  condact  the  Worcester  Festival.  An 
inquiry  by  a  special  committee  into  his  official 
conduct  ^s  agent  for  and  conductor  of  the  Sacred 
Harmonic  Society  having  resulted  in  an  unanim- 
ously adverse  report,  he  was  removed  from  his 
office,  Feb.  15,  1848.  He  then  attempted  the 
formation  of  the  *  London  Sacred  Harmonic  So- 
ciety,' but  failing  to  obtain  sufficient  members 
carried  on  concerts  in  the  society's  name  at  his 
own  expense  for  7  or  8  years.  Surman  died 
Jan.  20,  1871.  [W.H.H.] 

SUSANNA.  An  oratorio  in  three  parts,  by 
Handel ;  the  author  of  the  words  is  not  known. 
The  overture  was  begun  on  July  11,  1748,  a 
month  after  the  completion  of '  Solomon,*  and  the 
work  was  finished  on  the  24th  of  the  following 
mouth.  It  was  produced  during  the  season  ot 
1749.  [G.] 

SUSATO.     [See  Ttlman.] 

SUSPENSION  is  the  process  of  arresting  the 
conjunct  motion  of  one  or  more  parts  for  a  time, 
while  the  rest  of  the  components  of  the  chord 
proceed  one  step  onwards,  and  thereby  come  to 
represent  a  different  root.  The  part  which  is 
stayed  in  this  manner  commonly  produces  dis- 
sonance, which  is  relieved  by  its  then  passing  on 
to  the  position  it  would  have  naturally  occupied 
sooner  had  the  motion  of  the  parts  been  simul- 
taneous. Thus  in  the  progression  of  the  chord 
of  the  Dominant  seventh  to  Tonic  harmony  (a), 
the  part  which  takes  the  upper  note  (or  seventh) 
can  be  delayed  and  made  to  follow  into  its  position 
after  the  rest  of  the  chord  has  moved,  as  in  (6), 
thereby  producing  a  fourth  in  place  of  a  third 
for  a  time.  Similarly  the  fifth,  or  the  fifth  and 
third,  can  be  suspended,  producing  a  ninth,  or  a 
ninth  and  seventh,  against  the  tonic  note  ;  and 
the  dissonant  effect  is  similarly  relieved  by  their 
passing  on  to  their  normal  position  in  the  chord 
afterwards,  as  in  (c).  In  all  such  cases  the  first 
occurrence  of  the  note  in  the  part  whose  motion 
is  suspended  is  called  the  'Preparation,*  as  in 


A 

F^ 

rdi 

^-^)-n%^d=^ 

w=^ 

-<s>- 

i- 

^=±^^^ 

the  first  chord  of  (6)  and  of  (c) ;  the  moment  of 
dissonance  resulting  from  the  motion  of  the  other 
parts,  is  called  the  *  Percussion  *  of  the  discord, 
and  the  release  of  the  dissonance,  when  the  part 
proceeds  to  its  natural  place  in  the  harmony,  is 
called  the  '  Resolution.' 

Suspension  was  among  the  very  first  methods 
discovered  by  the  early  harmonists  for  introducing 
dissonance  into  their  music.  In  the  earliest  times 
composers  depended  chiefly  upon  the  different 
degrees  and  qualities  of  consonances — sixths, 
thirds,  fifths,  and  octaves — to  obtain  the  necessary 
effects  of  contrast  between  one  musical  moment 
and  another.  Then,  when,  in  the  natural  order  of 
things,  something  stronger  was  required,  it  was 
found  in  this  process  of  suspension.   But  for  some- 


SUSPENSION. 


SUSPENSION. 


time  it  was  used  very  sparingly,  and  c(Jmposers 
required  no  more  than  the  least  dissonant  forms  to 
carry  out  their  purposes.  For  a  long  while,  more- 
over, all  discords  appeared  to  the  early  writers 
as  no  more  than  artificial  manipulations  of  the 
motion  of  the  parts  of  this  kind,  and  it  was  only 
by  the  use  of  such  means  that  they  even  learnt 
to  use  some  discords,  which  are  at  the  present 
day  looked  upon  in  a  totally  diflFerent  light.  About 
the  beginning  of  the  17th  century  they  began  to 
realise  that  there  was  a  radical  difference  in  the 
character  and  constitution  of  certain  groups  of  dis- 
cords, and  to  use  at  least  one  freely  as  an  inde- 
pendent or  fundamental  combination.  From  that 
time  discords  began  to  be  classified,  instinctively, 
into  definite  groups.  Certain  of  the  less  dissonant 
combinations  have  in  course  of  time  been  grouped 
into  a  special  class,  which  is  freed  from  the  obli- 
gation of  being  prepared,  and  thereby  loses  one 
of  the  most  essential  characteristics  of  suspension. 
These  are  the  Dominant  discords  of  the  minor 
seventh  and  major  and  minor  ninths ;  certain 
corresponding  chromatic  chords  on  Tonic  and 
Supertonic  roots,  which  have  been  naturally  affi- 
liated upon  the  key;  and  the  chord  sometimes 
known  as  that  of  the  added  sixth.  Another  class 
has  been  created  by  some  theorists,  which  is  much 
more  intimately  connected  with  the  class  of  suspen- 
sions; if  indeed  they  are  not  actually  suspensions 
slightly  disguised.  These  are  the  discords  which 
are  arrived  at  by  the  same  process  of  staying  or 
suspending  the  motion  of  a  part,  but  which  are 
distinguished  by  further  motion  of  the  other  parts 
simultaneously  with  the  resolution  of  the  discord, 
thereby  condensing  two  motions  into  one ;  as  in 
{d)  and  (e).  When  treated  in  this  manner  the 
chords  are  described  by  some  theorists  as  *  Pre- 
pared  discords.'      The  province  of  suspensions 


^m 


:^- 


P 


:g: 


r 


III'        II 

appears  by  this  process  to  have  been  reduced, 
but  what  was  lost  by  the  process  of  classification 
has  been  amply  made  up  by  the  invention  of  a 
great  variety  of  new  forms. 

About  the  time  that  composers  first  began  to 
realise  the  character  of  the  dominant  seventh, 
they  also  began  to  use  a  greater  variety  and  a 
harsher  description  of  suspensions.  The  earliest 
experiments  of  note  in  both  directions  are 
commonly  ascribed  to  the  same  man,  namely 
Monteverde.  Since  his  time  the  progress  has 
been  tolerably  constant  in  one  direction ;  for  the 
tendency  to  look  for  fresh  and  more  vivid  points 
of  contrast  necessarily  leads  to  the  use  of  sus- 
pensions of  more  complicated  and  harsher  char- 
acter. At  the  present  time  the  varieties  of  possible 
suspensions  are  so  numerous  that  it  would  be 
almost  as  absurd  to  endeavour  to  make  a  catalogue 
of  them,  as  it  would  be  to  make  a  list  of  possible 


combinations  of  sounds.  But  if  the  principle  be 
properly  understood,  it  is  not  necessary  to  give 
more  than  illustrative  examples;  for  the  like 
rules  apply  to  all;  and  their  kinds  are  only 
limited  by  the  degree  of  harshness  considered 
admissible,  and  by  the  possibility  of  adequate 
and  intelligible  resolution.  Classical  authority 
not  only  exists  for  a  great  variety  of  chromatic 
suspensions,  often  derived  from  no  stronger  basis 
than  a  comljination  of  chromatic  passing  or  orna- 
mental notes ;  but  also  for  remarkable  degrees  of 
dissonance.  Beethoven  for  instance,  in  the  Bb 
Quartet,  op.  130,  iised  the  suspended  fourth  to- 
gether with  the  third  on  which  it  is  to  resolve, 
and  put  the  latter  at  the  top,  and  the  former  at 
the  bottom  (/);  and  Bach  supplies  many  ex- 
amples of  similar  character.    Certain  simple  rules 


wIT^ 


^ 


=pqt 


I 


=JRt 


3^ 


11 


are  almost  invariably  observed — such  as  that  the 
moment  of  percussion  shall  fall  upon  the  strong 
beat  of  the  bar ;  .and  that  the  progression  shall 
not  imply  a  violation  of  rules  against  consecutive 
perfect  concords,  which  would  occur  if  the  arti- 
ficial suspension  of  the  part  were  removed,  as 

in  (9)' 

Composers  early  discovered  a  means  of  varying 
the  character  of  the  process  by  interpolating 
notes  between  the  sounding  of  the  discord  and 
its  resolution,  as  in  (A).     Instances  are  also  to 

(9)      _  ih)  i^n^    I 


« 


f 


Pr 


*=i^ 


be  found  in  which  some  such  forms  were  used  as 
sufficient  to  constitute  resolution  without  arriving 
at  the  normal  note, — habit  and  familiarity  with 
a  particular  form  of  motion  leading  to  the  ac- 
ceptance of  a  conventional  formula  in  place  of  the 
actual  solution.  The  following  examples  from 
Corelli's  ist  Sonata  of  opera  2da  and  5th  of 
opera  4ta  are  clear  illustrations. 

(fc)     ^^    I       ,      (0_ ^ ^ 


This  particular  device  is  characteristic  rather  of 
the  early  period  of  harmonic  music  up  to  Corelli'a 
time  than  of  a  later  period.  The  following  pas- 
sage from  Schumann's  variations  for  two  piano- 


6  SUSPENSION. 

fortes  is  characteristic  of  modem  uses  of  combined 
and  chromatic  suspension,  and  also  of  interpola- 
tion of  notes  between  percussion  and  resolution. 


(m)  xst  Piano, 


Some  theorists  distinguish  the  combinations  which 
resolve  upwards  from  those  that  resolve  down- 
wards, styling  the  former  Retardations.  [See 
Ketardation;  Harmony.]  [C.H.H.P.] 

SVENDSEN,  Jo  HAN  Severin,  was  bom  Sept. 
30,  1840,  at  Christiania,  where  his  father  was 
a  military  band-master.  At  the  age  of  1 1  he 
wrote  his  first  composition  for  the  violin.  When 
15  he  enlisted  in  the  army,  and  soon  became 
band-master.  Even  at  that  age  he  played  with 
considerable  skill  flute,  clarinet,  and  violin.  He 
soon  left  the  army,  and  worked  during  the  next 
few  years  in  the  orchestra  of  the  Christiania 
theatre,  and  at  a  dancing  academy,  for  which  he 
arranged  some  dtudes  by  Paganini  and  Kreutzer 
for  dancing.  A  strong  desire  to  travel  drove 
him,  at  21,  on  a  roving  tour  over  a  great  part  of 
Sweden  and  North  Germany.  Two  years  after, 
being  in  Liibeck  in  extremely  reduced  circum- 
stances, he  fortunately  met  with  the  Swedish- 
Norwegian  Consul  Herr  Leche,  whose  interest 
he  gained,  and  who  shortly  after  obtained  a 
stipend  for  him  from  Charles  XV.  to  enable  him 
to  perfect  himself  as  a  violinist ;  but  being  soon 
afterwards  attacked  with  paralysis  in  the  hand, 
he  was  compelled  to  give  up  the  bow  for  com- 
position. He  came  to  Leipzig  in  1863,  ^^^  ^^ 
works  beii^  already  known  there,  he  was  placed 
in  the  finishing  class  of  the  Conservatorium,  re- 
ceiving, however,  instruction  in  elementary  theory 
of  music,  which  he  had  never  been  taught.  His 
instructors  were  Hauptmann,  David,  Richter, 
and  Reinecke,  of  whom  he  considers  that  he 
owes  most  to  the  first.  Whilst  in  Leipzig  he 
wrote  a  Quartet  in  A,  an  Octet  and  a  Quintet, 
all  for  strings ;  Quartets  for  male  voices  ;  and  a 
Symphony  in  D.  The  following  anecdote  of  this 
period  is  both  characteristic  and  authentic.  On 
hearing  that  his  octet  had  been  played  with 
great  success  by  the  students,  Reinecke  asked 
to  see  it ;  he  declined,  however,  to  suggest  any 
improvements  in  so  splendid  a  work,  but  re- 
marked somewhat  sarcastically,  *  The  next  thing 
will  be  a  symphony,  I  suppose.'    Barely  a  week 


SVENDSEN. 

after  Svendsen  laid  his  Symphony  in  D  before  his 
astonished  instructor. 

On  leaving  Leipzig  in  1867  ^^  received  the 
great  honorary  medal  of  the  Academy.  After 
travelling  in  Denmark,  Scotland,  and  Norway, 
Svendsen  went  in  1868  to  Paris.  The  French 
Empire  was  then  at  its  zenith,  and  hia  sojourn 
in  the  capital  of  France  influenced  the  com- 
poser to  a  very  great  extent.  Whilst  there, 
he  played  in  Musard's  orchestra,  and  at  the 
Oddon,  and  became  intimately  acquainted  with 
Wilhelmine  Szarvady,  De  Beriot,  Vieuxtemps, 
and  Leonard.  He  arranged  the  incidental  musio 
to  Copp^e's  'Le  passant,'  in  which  both  Sarah 
Bernhardt  and  Agar  performed,  but  on  the 
whole  his  Paris  productions  were  few — a  Con- 
certo for  violin  in  A,  and  orchestral  arrangements 
of  studies  by  Liszt  and  Schubert ;  he  also  began 
'Sigurd  Slembe,'  the  overture  to  a  Norwegian 
drama  of  that  name.  He  left  Paris  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  war  in  1870  for  Leipzig,  where 
he  had  been  offered  the  conductorship  of  the 
well-known  Euterpe  concerts,  which  however 
were  discontinued,  owing  to  the  war.  At  a 
great  musical  festival  at  Weimar,  in  the  same 
year,  he  first  met  Liszt  and  Tausig,  and  his 
octet  was  played  by  a  party  containing  David, 
Helmesberger,  Griitzmacher,  and  Hechmann,  with 
great  approbation.  Early  in  the  following  year 
his  Symphony  in  D  was  performed  at  the 
Gewandhaus,  and  his  fame  as  a  composer  esta- 
blished. He  composed  in  that  year  his  Concerto 
for  cello  in  D.  In  the  autumn  he  went  to 
America  to  be  married  to  an  American  lady, 
whom  he  had  met  in  Paris,  and  returned  the 
same  year  to  Leipzig,  where,  after  the  end  of  the 
war,  he  undertook  the  leadership  of  the  Euterpe 
concerts  for  one  year.  There  he  finished  the 
overture  to  *  Sigurd  Slembe,'  which  was  played 
at  the  Euterpe  then,  and  in  the  following  year 
at  the  musical  festival  at  Cassel,  where  Liszt 
was  present,  and  both  times  with  great  success. 
This  year  was  one  of  the  most  momentous  in 
Svendsen's  life,  since  in  it  he  met  Wagner  at 
Bayreuth,  and  soon  became  his  intimate  associate. 
He  took  the  opportunity  of  making  himself  fully 
acquainted  with  Wagner's  music  and  ideas.  In 
Wagner's  house  he  met  the  Countess  Nesselrode, 
who  formed  a  warm  friendship  for  the  Norwegian 
composer,  and  whose  talents  and  experience  be- 
came of  great  benefit  to  him.  In  Bayreuth  some 
of  his  happiest  days  were  spent,  and  it  was 
during  this  stay  he  composed  his  Camaval  k 
Paris,  a  charming  composition  which  depicts  with 
great  force  the  varied  aspects  of  the  capital  of 
pleasure.  The  longing  to  see  his  country  after 
an  interval  of  so  many  years  made  him  disregard 
various  tempting  offers,  and  he  left  Bayreuth  for 
home.  For  the  next  five  years  he  was  conductor 
of  the  Christiania  Musical  Association  and  teacher 
of  composition,  and  composed  comparatively  few 
works,  which  may  be  explained  by  the  unfor- 
tunate want  of  pecuniary  independence.  The 
pieces  of  this  period  are  : — Funeral  march  for 
Charles  XV;  'Zorahayde,'  a  legend  for  orchestra; 
Coronation  march  of  Oscar  II,  and  a  Polonaise  in 


I 


SVENDSEN. 

E  for  the  same  occasion  ;  *  Romeo  and  Juliet,'  a 
fantasiefor  orchestra;  four  Norwegian  rhapsodies; 
arrangements  of  some  Norwegian,  Swedish  and 
Icelandic  ballads  for  orchestra ;  and  his  chef- 
(Toeuvrey  a  symphony  in  Bb.  In  1874  his  labours 
found  some  appreciation  from  his  countrymen  in 
the  shape  of  an  annuity  granted  by  the  Storthing, 
and  several  decorations  conferred  on  him  by  the 
king.  After  five  years  of  hard  work,  he  was 
enabled  once  more  to  proceed  abroad.  In  1877 
he  revisited  Leipzig,  and  conducted  a  new  work 
at  the  Gewandhaus  ;  went  thence  to  Munich, 
and  eventually  to  Rome,  where  he  spent  the 
winter.  In  1878  he  visited  London  for  the  first 
time,  and  there  met  Sarasate,  who  assisted  him 
in  the  performance  of  his  quartet,  quintet,  and 
octet.  From  London  he  went  to  Paris,  where 
he  stayed  until  1880,  during  which  time  his 
works  were  several  times  performed — as  also  at 
Angers,  where  the  post  of  conductor  was  offered 
him  by  the  Musical  Association.  But  Svendsen, 
true  to  his  resolution  to  return  home,  refused 
this  lucrative  appointment,  and  in  the  autumn 
of  that  year  we  again  find  him  in  his  old  post 
as  conductor  of  the  Musical  Association  in  Chris- 
tiania,  in  which  capacity  he  has  since  acted. 
During  the  last  few  years  he  has  produced  only 
some  minor  compositions,  besides  arranging  for 
orchestra  several  studies  by  foreign  composers. 

Svendsen's  music  is  all  of  very  high  character, 
remarkable  for  strong  individuality,  conciseness, 
and  the  absence  of  anything  national  or  Scandi- 
navian ;  as  well  as  for  an  elaborate  finish  strictly 
in  harmony  with  the  traditions  of  the  great 
masters.  Of  these  there  is,  however,  only  one 
whose  influence  can  be  traced  in  his  compositions, 
namely  Beethoven.  He  is  one  of  the  most  cosmo- 
politan composers  of  the  age. 

His  printed  works  are  as  follow  :^ 

15.  Symphony  no.  2  In  Bt?. 

16.  Carnaval  des  artistes  Nor- 
vtjgiens. 

17.  Ehapsodie  Xorvegienne  no. 
1,  for  orch. 

18.  Overture    to    Komeo    and 
Juliet. 

19.  Ehapsodie  Norv^gienne  no. 
2. 

20.  Scandinavian  airs  arranged 
for  string  quartet. 

21,22.  Rhapsodies  Norv^giennes 
nos.  3,  4. 

23.  Five  songs,  French  and  Ger- 
man, for  voice  and  PF. 

24.  Four  do.,  French  and  Nor- 
vfegian,   do. 

25.  Bomance   by    Popper,  ar- 
ranged for  cello  and  PF. 

26.  Bomance    for   violin    and 
orch.  in  G.         fC  S  1 

SVENDSEN,  Olup,  a  distinguished  flute- 
player,  bom  in  Christiania  April  19,  1832.  He 
learnt  the  rudiments  of  playing  from  his  father, 
a  musician ;  when  1 2  years  old  played  the  flute 
in  small  orchestras ;  and  at  1 4  was  engaged  as 
first  flute  in  the  Christiania  theatre.  In  1851 
he  went  to  Copenhagen,  and  took  lessons  from 
Nils  Petersen,  then  a  flute-player  there.  In 
1853  he  entered  the  Conservatoire  at  Brussels, 
where  he  studied  for  two  year?,  after  which  he 
was  engaged  by  Jullien  for  his  Concerts  in  Lon- 
don.    In  September,  1856,  he  joined  the  Band 


Op.l.  string  quartet,  in  A  minor. 

2.  Songs  for  men's  voices. 

3.  Octet  for  strings  in  A  minor. 

4.  Symphony  in  D. 

6.  String  quintet  in  C. 

6.  Concerto    for    violin    and 

orch.  iu  A. 

7.  Do.  for  cello  and  orch.  in  D 

minor. 

8.  Overture  In  0  to  BjOmson's 

drama  of  '  Sigurd  Slem- 
be.' 

9.  Carnaval  k  Paris,  for  orch. 

10.  Funeral  march  for  Charles 

XV. 

11.  Zorahayde,  legend  for  orch. 

12.  Polonaise  for  orch. 

13.  Coronation  march  for  Oscar 

II. 

14.  Marriage  Cantata,  for  chor. 

and  orch. 


SWEELINCK.  7 

of  the  Crystal  Palace,  Sydenham,  where  he  re- 
mained tiU  the  end  of  1858.  In  1861  Svendsen 
was  appointed  first  flute  in  the  Queen's  private 
band,  and  the  same  year  joined  the  Philharmonic 
orchestra.  He  was  ten  years  in  the  orchestra 
at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre;  and  since  1867  has 
been  professor  of  his  instrument  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music.  He  is  well  known  as  a  solo- 
player  throughout  Belgium,  Norway,  Sweden, 
Denmark,  and  France.  [G.] 

SWEELINCK  or  SWELINCK,*  Jan  Pie- 
TERSZOON,  the  greatest  of  Dutch  organists,  was 
born  of  a  Deventer  family  in  the  summer  of  1562. 
His  father,  *  Mr.  Pieter,'  was  organist  of  the  Old 
Church  at  Amsterdam,  which  place  disputes  with 
Deventer  the  honour  of  having  given  the  son 
birth.^  Of  Sweelinck's  boyhood  we  know  nothing, 
except  that  he  was  taught  by  Jacob  Buyck 
(Buchius)  the  pastor  of  the  Old  Church.  There 
is  a  tradition  that  he  was  sent  to  Venice  to 
study  music  under  Zarlino  and  Gabrieli ;  but 
with  this  is  connected  a  mistake  of  old  stand- 
ing, which  places  his  birth  in  1540,  22  years 
too  early .3  Now,  as  we  know  that  he  was  in 
Holland  from  1577,  at  latest,  onwards,  it  be- 
comes barely  credible  that  the  lad  of  15  could 
have  followed  the  instruction  of  the  Venetian 
masters  to  any  important  extent ;  and  it  is  likely 
that  the  whole  story  is  based  upon  the  close  study 
which  his  works  prove  him  to  have  devoted  to 
those  of  *  the  apostle  of  musical  *science,*  whose 
*  Istituzioni  harmoniche '  he  translated.'*  Some 
time  between  1577  and  1581  Sweelinck  was  ap- 
pointed to  the  organ  istship  previously  held  by 
his  father  (who  died  in  1573);  and  this  post  he 
filled  until  his  death,  Oct.  16,  1621.  For  a 
generation  he  was  the  glory  of  Amsterdam. 
When  he  played  the  organ  there,  says  a  contem- 
porary, '  there  was  a  wonderful  concourse  every 
day ;  every  one  was  proud  to  have  known,  seen, 
heard  the  ®man.'  And  when  he  died  it  was 
the  greatest  of  Dutch  poets,  Vondel,  who  wrote 
his  epitaph,  and  surnamed  him  '  Phoenix  of 
Music'  He  must  also  have  been  a  distinguished 
figure  in  the  society  of  Amsterdam,  then  in  its 

1  Of  the  seven  or  more  ways  in  vrhich  the  name  is  spelled,  these 
two  have  the  warrant  of  the  musician's  own  signature.  The  Germans 
of  the  time  seem  to  have  naturalised  him  as  Schweling  ;  in  Amster- 
dam he  was  Itnown  as  plain  Jan  Pietersz. 

2  Deventer  is  consistently  mentioned  by  Sweelinck's  later  bio- 
graphers ;  but  the  Amsterdam  claim  has  the  support  of  the  oflBcial 
entry  of  his  marriage  there  in  1590,  in  which  his  birthplace  is  not 
stated.  The  omission  was  the  rule  when  the  person  was  a  native  of 
the  city.  Else  documentary  evidence  is  equally  wanting  on  both  sides. 

3  The  correction  of  this  and  the  rest  of  the  mistakes  which  confuse 
every  single  date  in  Sweelinck's  life  is  due  to  the  essay  of  F.  H.  J. 
Tledeman, '  J.  P.  Sweelinck,  een  bio-bibliografischeSchets,'  published 
by  the  Vereeniging  voor  Nederlandsche  Muziekgeschiedenis  (Amster- 
dam, 1876),  which  supersedes  a  shorter  sketch  published  by  the  same 
writer  as  an  introduction  to  the  'Begina  Coeli'  in  1869.  Both  are 
based  upon  a  biography,  which  remains  in  MS.  in  the  possession  of 
the  Vereeniging,  by  Bobert  Eitner,  who  has  done  good  service  liy 
rescuing  the  works  of  Sweelinck  from  the  obscurity  of  the  GrauB 
Kloster  at  Berlin. 

4  So  Zarlino  Is  entitled  by  his  modern  biographer,  P.  Caffl,  '  Delia 
Vita  e  delle  Opere  del  Prete  G.  Zarlino  '  (Venice  1836).  Neither  here 
nor  in  the  chapters  on  Zarlino  and  Andrea  Gabrieli  contained  in  his 
'  Storia  della  Musica  Sacra,*  vol.  i.  p.  129  etc.  (Venice  1854),  does  Caffi 
take  any  notice  of  the  Dutch  scholar.  Nor  have  I  been  able  to  dis- 
cover any  trace  of  his  residence  at  Venice  in  the  MS.  collections  of 
S.  Marco. 

5  MS.  at  Hamburg,  formerly  belonging  to  the  great  organistBeincke. 

6  Sweertius,  in  Tiedeman,  p.  16.  Sweelinck's  portrait  at  Darmstadt 
gives  his  strong  irregular  features  a  kindly  expression,  with  a  touch 
of  sadness  in  them.  It  is  reproduced  in  photograph  by  Mr.  Tledemaa, 


8 


SWEELINCK. 


greatest  brilliancy,  not  only  for  his  unmatched 
powers  as  an  organist,  but  also  for  his  skill, 
fancy,  and  charming  versatility  on  the  clavi- 
cymbel.^  The  town  bought  him  for  public  service 
a  new  *  clavecirapbel '  from  Antwerp  at  a  cost  of 
200  gulden  ;  and  the  instrument  seems  to  have 
travelled  with  him  all  over  the  country.' 

What  was  published  however  by  Sweelinck  in 
his  life-time  was  entirely  vocal  music,  and  in- 
cludes—  besides  occasional  canons,  marriage- 
songs,  etc.,  his  'Chansons  fran9aises'  (3  parts, 
Antwerp,  1592-4),  'Rimes  fran9aises  et  itali- 
ennes  '  (Ley den  16 1 2),  and  the  great  collections 
of  sacred  music  on  which,  with  his  organ  works, 
his  fame  chiefly  rests.  These  are  the  '  Pseaumes 
mis  en  musique '  for  4-8  voices  (published  in 
several  editions  at  Leyden,  Amsterdam,  and 
Berlin),  and  the  '  Cantiones  Sacrae '  (Antwerp 
1 61 9).  A  Regina  Coeli  from  the  latter,  3  Chan- 
sons, and  8  Psalms  in  6  parts  have  been  lately 
reprinted,  in  organ-score,  by  the  Association  for 
the  History  of  Dutch  Music  (pts.  i,  v,  vii,  and  vi; 
Utrecht  and  Amsterdam,  1869-1877);  which  has 
also  published  for  the  first  time  seven  of  Swee- 
linck's  organ  works  ^  (pt.  iii.)     [Vereeniging.] 

The  psalms  make  an  interesting  link  between 
the  tranquillity  of  the  old  polyphonists  and  the 
rhythm  of  modern  music.  Formally  they  stand 
nearest  to  the  earlier  style,  but  the  strictness  of 
their  counterpoint,  the  abundance  of  imitation 
and  fugue  in  them,  does  not  hinder  a  general 
freedom  of  effect,  very  pure  and  full  of  melody, 
to  a  greater  degree  than  is  common  in  works  of 
the  time.  The  organ  pieces  are  also  historically 
of  signal  importance.  Though  they  may  not 
justify  the  claim  made  for  Sweelinck  as  'the 
founder  of  instrumental  music,'  *  they  at  all 
events  present  the  first  known  example  of  an  in- 
dependent use  of  the  pedal  (entrusting  it  with  a 
real  part  in  a  fugue),  if  not  with  the  first  example 
of  a  completely  developed  organ-fugue. 

It  is  as  an  organist  and  the  founder  of  a  school 
of  organists  that  Sweelinck  had  most  influence, 
an  influence  which  made  itself  felt  through  the 
whole  length  of  northern  Germany.'  In  the  next 
generation  nearly  all  the  leading  organists  there 
had  been  his  scholars :  his  learning  and  method 
were  carried  by  them  from  Hamburg  to  Danzig. 
His  pupil  Sell eidemann  handed  down  the  tradition 
to  the  great  Reincke  * — ^himself  a  Dutchman — 
from  whom,  if  we  accept  a  statement  supported 
alike  by  unanimous  testimony  and  by  exhaustive 
analysis  of  their  works,  it  turned  to  find  its 
consummation  in  Sebastian  Bach.''  [R.L.P.] 


1  On  this  he  was  the  master  of  Christina  van  Erp,  the  famoo* 
lutenlst,  and  wife  of  the  more  famous  poet.  Pleter  Corneliszoon 
Hooft.    See  the  *  Bouwsteenen '  of  the  Vereenlglng,  vol.  1.  pp.  13  f. 

2  See  an  anecdote  In  Baudartius.  'Memoryen,"  xUl.  p.  163;  cited 
by  Tledeman,  p.  16. 

3  The  bibliography  of  Sweelinck  Is  given  at  length  by  Tledeman, 
pp.  43—75.  To  this  should  be  added  some  supplementary  particulars 
communicated  by  Dr.  J.  F.  Heije  In  the  'Bouwsteenen,' vol,  L  pp. 
39— »6. 

*  See  Eltner's  preface  to  the  edition,  and  Tledeman,  pp.  54  tl. 

»  The  wide  distribution  of  his  worits  Is  shown  by  early  transcripts 
existing  in  the  British  Uuseum,  and  by  copies  of  the  extremely  rare 
printed  works  preserved  in  the  Blblioth6que  Natlonale.  Curiously 
enough  not  a  single  MS.  of  Sweelinck  remains  in  Holland. 

»  Often  erroneously  known  as  Reinken. 

T  Spitta, '  J.  S.  Bach,"  i.  96. 192-213. 


SWERT. 

SWELL  (HARPSICHORD).    The  desire  for 

a  power  of  increase  and  decrease  on  keyboard 
instruments  like  the  harpsichord  and  organ,  so  as 
to  emulate  the  bow  instruments,  and  even  the 
human  voice,  in  that  flow  and  ebb  which  are  at 
the  foundation  of  form  no  less  than  of  expression, 
has  led  to  the  contrivance  of  mechanical  swells 
as  the  only  possible  approach  to  it.  A  swell  was 
first  attempted  on  the  Organ ;  the  harpsichord 
swell  was  introduced  by  Robert  Plenius  in  a 
sostenente  variety  of  the  instrument,  named  by 
him  •  Lyrichord,'  and  is  described  (in  1 755)  as 
the  raising  of  a  portion  of  the  lid  or  cover  of  the 
instrument  by  means  of  a  pedal.  Kirkman 
adopted  this  very  simple  swell,  and  we  find  it 
also  in  many  small  square  pianos  of  the  last  cen- 
tury. About  1 765  Shudi  introduced  the  Venetian 
swell,  and  patented  it  in  1769.  This  beautiful 
piece  of  joinery  is  a  framing  of  louvres  which 
open  or  close  gradually  by  means  of  a  pedal  (the 
right  foot  one)  and  thus  cause  a  swell,  which 
may  be  as  gradual  as  the  performer  pleases. 
Shudi  bequeathed  this  patent  to  John  Broad- 
wood,  who  inherited  it  on  the  death  of  Shudi  in 
1773.  When  the  patent  expired,  Kirkman  and 
others  adopted  it,  and  it  was  fitted  to  many  old 
harpsichords,  and  even  to  pianos,  but  was  soon 
proved  unnecessary  in  an  instrument  where 
power  of  nuance  was  the  very  first  principle. 

The  English  organ-builders  perceived  the  great 
advantage  of  Shudi's  Venetian  swell  over  the 
rude  contrivance  they  had  been  using  [see  Organ, 
vol.  ii.  p.  596  a],  and  it  became  generally  adopted 
for  organs,  and  has  since  been  constantly  retained 
in  them  as  an  important  means  of  eflfect.  [A.  J.H.] 

SWELL-ORGAN.  The  clavier  or  manual  of 
an  organ  which  acts  upon  pipes  enclosed  in  a 
box,  such  box  having  shutters,  by  the  opening  of 
which,  by  means  of  a  pedal,  a  crescendo  is  pro- 
duced. The  shutters  are  made  to  fold  over  each 
other  like  the  woodwork  of  a  Venetian  blind, 
hence  the  expressions  'Venetian  Swell'  and 
•Venetian  Shutters'  sometimes  found  in  specifi- 
cations. To  the  swell-organ  a  larger  number  of 
reed-stops  is  assigned  than  to  other  manuals. 

The  firat  attempt  at  a  '  swelling  organ'  was 
made  by  Jordan  in  171 2.  The  crescendo  was 
obtained  by  raising  one  large  sliding  shutter 
which  formed  the  front  of  the  box.  The  early 
swell-organs  were  of  very  limited  compass,  some- 
times only  from  middle  C  upwards,  but  more 
generally  taken  a  fourth  lower,  namely,  to  fiddle 
G-.  For  many  years  the  compass  did  not  extend 
below  Tenor  C,  and  even  now  attempts  are 
sometimes  made  to  reduce  the  cost  of  an  organ 
by  limiting  the  downward  compass  of  the  Swell ; 
but  in  all  instruments  with  any  pretension  to 
completeness  the  Swell  manual  is  made  to  CC, 
coextensive  with  the  Great  and  Choir.  [See 
Organ,  vol.  ii.  p.  596,  etc. ;  also  604.]       [J.S.] 

SWERT,  DE,  Jules.  An  eminent  violon- 
cellist, born  Aug.  16,  1843,  at  Louvain,  where 
his  father  was  Capellmeister  at  the  Cathedral. 
He  was  grounded  in  the  cello  and  in  music  by 
his  father,  and  afterwards  took  lessons  from 
Servais  in  preparation  for  the  Brussels  Conser- 


SWERT. 

vatoire.  After  gaining  the  first  prize  there,  at 
15,  he  went  to  Paris,  made  the  acquaintance  of 
Kossini,  and  was  much  applauded.  He  then 
began  a  lengthened  tour  through  Belgium,  Hol- 
land, Denmark,  Sweden,  South  Germany,  Switzer- 
land, etc.,  in  which  his  programmes  embraced 
both  classical  and  modern  pieces.  Two,  on  which 
he  gained  great  fame,  were  cello  arrangements 
of  the  violin  concertos  of  Beethoven  and  Men- 
delssohn. In  1865  he  took  a  post  as  leader  at 
Diisseldorf,  then  in  the  Court  band  at  Weimar, 
and  next  at  Berlin.  He  did  not  however  retain 
the  last  of  these  long,  but  gave  it  up  for  concert 
tours,  which  have  since  occupied  him.  In  the 
intervals  of  these  he  has  resided  at  Wiesbaden 
and  Leipzig.  His  first  opera,  *  Die  Albigenser,' 
was  produced  at  Wiesbaden  in  1878,  with  much 
success.  A  second,  'Die  Grafen  von  Hammer- 
stein,'  is  announced  for  publication.  De  Swert 
has  a  Primer  for  the  Cello  in  preparation  for 
Messrs.  Novello.  He  visited  England  in  the 
spring  of  1875,  ^^^  appeared  at  the  Crystal 
Palace  on  April  24.  [G.] 

SWIETEN,  Gottfried,  Baron  VAN.  A 
musical  amateur  of  great  importance,  who  resided 
at  Vienna  at  the  end  of  last  century  and  beginning 
of  this  one.  The  family  was  Flemish,  and  Gott- 
fried's father,  Gerhard,*  returned  from  Leyden  to 
Vienna  in  1745,  and  became  Maria  Theresa's 
favourite  physician.  Gottfried  was  bom  in  1 734, 
and  was  brought  up  to  diplomacy,  but  his  studies 
were  much  disturbed  by  his  love  of  music,  and 
in  1769  he  committed  himself  so  far  as  to  com- 
pose several  of  the  songs  in  Favart's  '  Rosibre  de 
Salency '  for  its  public  production  at  Paris.  In 
1 771  he  was  made  ambassador  to  the  Court  of 
Prussia,  where  the  music  was  entirely  under  the 
influence  of  Frederick  the  Great,  conservative 
and  classical.  This  suited  Van  Swieten.  Handel, 
the  Bachs,  and  Haydn  were  his  favourite  masters ; 
in  1774  he  commissioned  C.  P.  E.  Bach  to  vmte 
six  symphonies  for  orchestra.  He  returned  to 
Vienna  in  1778  ;  succeeded  his  father  as  Prefect 
of  the  Public  Library,  and  in  178 1  was  appointed 
President  of  the  Education  Commission.  He 
became  a  kind  of  musical  autocrat  in  Vienna, 
and  in  some  respects  his  influence  was  very 
good.  He  encouraged  the  music  which  he  ap- 
proved; had  regular  Sunday-morning  meetings 
for  classical  music,  as  well  as  performances  of 
the  great  choral  works  of  Bach,  Handel,  and 
Hasse,  etc. ;  employed  Mozart  to  add  accompani- 
ments to  Handel's  *  Acis,'  '  Messiah,'  ♦  St.  Ce- 
cilia,' and  *  Alexander's  Feast,'  and  Starzer  to  do 
the  same  for  'Judas';  translated  the  words  of 
the  *  Creation '  and  the  '  Seasons '  into  German 
for  Haydn;  and  himself  arranged  Handel's  'Atha- 
liah '  and  '  Choice  of  Hercules.'  He  supplied 
Haydn  now  and  then  with  a  few  ducats,  and  gave 
him  a  travelling -carriage  for  his  second  journey 
to  England.^  In  his  relation  to  these  great 
artists  he  seems  never  to  have  forgotten  the 
superiority  of  his  rank  to  theirs ;  but  this  was 
the  manner  of  the  time.     Van  Swieten  patron- 

i  Evidently  not  a  yery  wise  person.  See  Carlyle's  'Frledrlch,' 
Sk.  zzi.  cb.  5.  a  Griesinger,  Biog.  Not.  66. 


SWINY  9 

ised  Beethoven  also  [see  vol.  i.  p.  1760]  ;  but 
such  condescension  would  not  be  at  all  to  Bee- 
thoven's taste,  and  it  is  not  surprising  that  we 
hear  very  little  of  it.  His  first  Symphony  is, 
however,  dedicated  to  Van  Swieten.  He  was 
the  founder  of  the  '  Musikalischen  Gesellschaft,* 
or  Musical  Society,  consisting  of  25  members  of 
the  highest  aristocracy,  with  the  avowed  object 
of  creating  a  taste  for  good  music — a  foreruimer 
of  the  '  GeseUschaft  der  Musikfireunde,'  founded 
in  1808. 

Van  Swieten  died  at  Vienna  March  29,  1803. 
His  music  has  not  survived  him,  but  it  would  be 
interesting  to  hear  one  of  the  six  symphonies 
which,  in  Haydn's  words,^  were  '  as  stiff  as  him- 
self.' [G.] 

SWINNERTON  HEAP,  Charles,  was  born 
at  Birmingham  in  1847,  ^^^  educated  at  the 
Grammar  School  of  that  town.  Displaying  at  a 
very  early  age  an  aptitude  for  music,  on  leaving 
school  he  was  articled  to  Dr.  Monk  at  York, 
where  he  remained  for  two  years.  In  1865  he 
gained  the  Mendelssohn  Scholarship,  and  was 
sent  to  Leipzig  for  two-and-a-half  years,  studying 
under  Moscheles  and  Reinecke.  On  his  return 
he  became  a  pupil  of  Mr.  Best  at  Liverpool,  and 
since  1868  has  devoted  himself  to  professional 
duties  in  Birmingham,  at  the  classical  concerts 
of  which  town  he  has  constantly  appeared  as  a 
pianist,  and  in  which  district  he  is  widely  known 
as  a  conductor.  In  1870  he  wrote  an  exercise 
for  the  Cambridge  Degree  of  Mus.  Bac,  which 
produced  so  favourable  an  impression  upon  the 
Professor  of  Music  (Sir  Sterndale  Bennett)  that 
he  offered  to  accept  the  work  (the  ist  part  of  an 
oratorio  'The  Captivity')  as  an  exercise  for  the 
Mus.  Doc.  degree.  Mr.  Swinnerton  Heap  ac- 
cordingly set  the  3rd  Psalm  for  the  Mus.  Bac. 
exercise,  and  in  the  following  year  proceeded  to 
the  degree  of  Mus.  Doc.  His  principal  works 
are  a  pianoforte  trio  (performed  at  Leipzig),  a 
sonata  for  clarinet  and  piano,  a  quintet  for 
pianoforte  and  wind  instruments,  two  overtures 
(one  produced  at  the  Birmingham  Festival  of 
1879  and  afterwards  played  at  the  Crystal  Palace 
Concerts),  a  'Salvum  fac  Regem'  (performed 
at  Leipzig),  a  short  cantata,  'The  Voice  of 
Spring,'  and  numerous  anthems,  songs,  and  organ 
pieces.  [W.B.S.] 

SWINY,  Owen,  frequently  called  Mac  Swiny, 
'a  gentleman  born  in  *  Ireland.'  In  a  letter,* 
dated  Oct.  5,  1706,  and  addressed  to  Colley 
Gibber,  whom  he  calls  in  turn  *  puppy,'  'his 
Angel'  (twice),  'his  Dear,'  and  finally  'Unbe- 
liever,'— this  singular  person  describes  how  Rich 
had  sent  for  him  from  his '  Quarters  in  the  North,* 
and  how  '  he  was  at  a  great  charge  in  coming 
to  town,  and  it  cost  him  a  great  deal  of  money 
last  winter,'  and  '  he  served  him  night  and  day, 
nay,  all  night  and  all  day,  for  nine  months.' 
He  had  'quitted  his  post  in  the  army'  on  the 
faith  of  promises  that,  in  return  for  managing 
'  the  playhouse  in  the  Haymarkett '  under  Rich, 


»  Griesinger,  Biog.  Not.  67. 
•  la  the  writer's  possession. 


4  Biogr.  DiMD. 


10 


SWINY. 


he  was  to  have  *  lOo  Guineas  per  annum  Salary, 
ft  place  at  Court,  and  the  Devil  and  all.'  This 
was  the  somewhat  inauspicious  beginning  of 
Swiny's  theatrical  career.  Having  come  up  to 
London,  as  described,  in  1705,  he  soon  found 
that  Rich  intended  nothing  seriously  for  his  ad- 
vantage ;  and  he  announces  (in  the  same  letter) 
that,  in  consequence  of  the  general  discontent  of 
the  actors  with  Rich,  and  although  Rich  might 
have  had  the  house  for  £3  or  £3  io«.  a  day,  he 
(Swiny)  had  taken  a  lease  for  seven  years  at 
£5  a  day,  and  meant  to  begin  in  a  few  days. 

In  1 707  we  find  him  in  partnership  with  Wilks, 
Dogget,  and  Gibber  in  the  King's  Theatre,  having 
taken  the  lease  from  Vanbrugh,  and  very  soon 
quarrelling  with  them  and  petitioning  the  Lord 
Chamberlain's  interference  in  his  favour.  He 
was  mixed  up  in  most  of  the  quarrels  and  intrigues 
of  the  time. 

In  May,  1709,  Swiny  engaged  the  famous 
Nicolini  for  three  years,  that  great  singer  having 
recently  made  a  most  successful  dibut  in  London. 
Before  the  completion  of  this  term,  however, 
Swiny  appears  to  have  'absented  himself  from 
his  creditors '  and  become  bankrupt. 

After  this,  he  lived  for  some  years  in  Italy ; 
but,  on  his  return  to  England,  a  place  in  the 
Custom-house  was  found  for  him,  and  he  was 
appointed  Keeper  of  the  King's  Mews.  While 
in  Italy,  with  Lord  Boyne  and  Walpole,  he 
wrote  to  Colman  (July  12,  1730)  from  Bologna, 
•  on  the  subject  of  engaging  singers  for  the  Opera, 
then  in  the  liands  of  Handel.  Swiny  died  October 
2,  1 754,  leaving  his  fortune  to  Mrs.  WoflSngton. 
He  was  the  author  of  several  dramatic  pieces, 
viz.  '  The  Quacks,  or  Love's  the  Physician ' 
(1705);  'Camilla' (1706);  ' Pyrrhus  and  Deme- 
trius' (1709);  and  'The  Quacks,  or  Love's  the 
Physician,'  an  altered  version  of  the  first  piece. 

Two  years  before  his  death,  a  fine  portrait  of 
Swiny,  after  Van  Loo,  was  scraped  in  mezzotint 
by  J.  Faber,  junr.  It  represents  him,  in  black 
velvet,  holding  in  his  hand  a  book,  of  which  the 
title  seems  to  be  'Don  Quixote.'  [J.M.] 

SYLPHIDE,  LA.  One  of  the  most  famous 
ballets  on  record :  in  2  acts ;  libretto  by  A.  Nour- 
rit  the  singer,  music  by  Schneitzhoffer.  Pro- 
duced at  the  Grand  Opera,  Paris,  March  12, 
1832.  The  part  of  La  Sylphide  was  danced  by 
Mdlle.  Taglioni,  and  was  one  of  her  greatest 
parts,  both  in  Paris  and  in  London,  -where  the 
piece  was  brought  out  at  Covent  Garden  Theatre, 
for  her  benefit,  July  26,  1832.  Thackeray  has 
embalmed  it  in '  Pendennis '  (chap,  xxxviii.)    [G.] 

SYLVANA,  accurately  Silvana.  Weber's 
3rd  opera,  composed  at  Stuttgart,  18 10,  and 
produced  at  Frankfort,  Sept.  16,  1810,  [See 
Waldmadchen.] 

SYLVIA,  OU  LA  NYMPHE  DE  DIANE. 
' Ballet- pantomime '  in  2  acts  and  3  tableaux; 
libretto  by  Barbier,  music  by  Delibes.  Produced 
at  the  Grand  Opdra,  Paris,  June  14, 1876.     [G.] 

SYMPHONIQUES,  ETUDES,  t.  c.  Symphonic 
Studies.  The  name  of  a  theme  and  set  of  varia- 
tions in  C  J  minor  by  Robert  Schumann,  forming 


7.  FestklSnge. 

8.  H^roide  funfebre. 

9.  Hungaria. 

10.  Hamlet. 

11.  Hunnenschlacht  (Battle  with 

the  Huns). 

12.  Ideale. 


SYMPHONY. 

op.  13.  The  work  is  dedicated  to  W.  Stemdale 
Bennett,  and  Mr.  Spitta  has  pointed  out  that  the 
theme  contains  a  reference  to  him,  inasmuch  as 
it  is  identical  with  a  part  of  the  romance  in 
Marschner's  'Templer  und  Judin,*  *Du  stolzes 
England  freue  dich,'  in  which  this  country  is 
called  on  to  rejoice  in  her  famous  men.  [See 
vol.  iii.  p.  410  a.]  The  first  edition  was  published 
by  Haslinger  in  1 837,  as  •  Florestan  und  Eusebius, 
zwolf  Etuden  (Etudes  Symphoniques).'  Those 
published  after  that  date  are  entitled '  Etudes  en 
forme  de  Variations,*  and  have  been  materially 
altered.  [G.] 

SYMPHONISCHE  DICHTUNGEN— that 
is.  Symphonic  Poems.  A  title  employed  by  Liszt 
for  twelve  pieces  of  orchestral  music  of  cha- 
racteristic, i.  e.  descriptive,  kind,  and  of  various 
dates — one  feature  of  which  is  that  the  move- 
ments are  not  divided,  but  lead  into  each  other 
without  interruption. 

L  Ce  qu'on  entend  sur  la  mon- 
tagne. 

2.  Tasso.    Lamento  e  Trionfo. 

3.  Les  Preludes. 

4.  Orpheus. 
6.  Prometheus. 
6.  Mazeppa. 

Of  these  the  following  have  been  performed  at 
Mr.  Baches  annual  concerts : — no.  3,  May  26, 
1871  and  twice  besides;  no.  4,  Nov.  27,  73; 
no.  2,  Nov.  27,  73;  no.  6,Feb.  27,  77,  and  Feb.  25, 
79.  Nos.  6,  II,  and  12  have  also  been  played 
at  the  Crystal  Palace  (Dec.  9.  76 ;  May  17,  79 ; 
Apr.  16,  81  respectively) ;  and  nos,  2,  9  at  the 
Philharmonic  (June  9,  1873;  Feb.  23,  1882, 
respectively). 

St.  Saens  has  adopted  the  title  *  Pobmes  sym- 
phoniques '  for  4  pieces  : — 

1.  Le  Rouet  d'Omphale.  I  3.  Danso  macabre. 

2.  Phaeton.  I  4.  La  Jeunesse  d'Hercule.  [G.l 

SYMPHONY  (SiNFONiA,  Sinfonie,  Sym- 
PHONIE).  The  terms  used  in  connection  with  any 
branch  of  art  are  commonly  very  vague  and  in- 
definite in  the  early  stages  of  its  history,  and  are 
applied  without  much  discrimination  to  different 
things.  In  course  of  time  men  consequently 
find  themselves  in  difficulties,  and  try,  as  far  as 
their  opportunities  go,  to  limit  the  definition  of 
the  terms,  and  to  confine  them  at  least  to  things 
which  are  not  obviously  antagonistic.  In  the  end, 
however,  the  process  of  sifting  is  rather  guided  by 
chance  and  external  circumstances  than  deter- 
mined by  the  meaning  which  theorists  see  to  be 
the  proper  one ;  and  the  result  is  that  the  final 
meaning  adopted  by  the  world  in  general  is  fre- 
quently not  only  distinct  fi'om  that  which  the 
originad  employers  of  the  word  intended,  but 
also  in  doubtful  conformity  with  its  derivation. 
In  the  case  of  the  word  '  Symphony,!  as  with 
•Sonata,'  the  meaning  now  accepted  happens 
to  be  in  very  good  accordance  with  its  deriva- 
tion, but  it  is  considerably  removed  firom  the 
meaning  which  was  originally  attached  to  the 
word.  It  seems  to  have  been  used  at  first  in  a 
very  general  and  comprehensive  way,  to  express 
any  portions  of  music  or  passages  whatever  which 
were  thrown  into  relief  as  purely  instrumental 


SYMPHONY. 

in  works  in  which  the  chief  interest  was  centred 
upon  the  voice  or  voices.  Thus,  in  the  operas, 
cantatas,  and  masses  of  the  early  part  of  the 
17th  century,  the  voices  had  the  most  important 
part  of  the  work  to  do,  and  the  instruments'  chief 
business  was  to  supply  simple  forms  of  harmony 
as  accompaniment.  If  there  were  any  little  por- 
tions which  the  instruments  played  without  the 
voices,  these  were  indiscriminately  called  Sym- 
phonies ;  and  under  the  same  head  were  included 
such  more  particular  forms  as  Overtures  and 
Ritomelli.  The  first  experimentalists  in  harmonic 
music  generally  dispensed  with  such  independent 
instrumental  passages  altogether.  For  instance, 
most  if  not  all  of  the  cantatas  of  Cesti  and  Eossi  '■ 
are  devoid  of  either  instrumental  introduction  or 
ritomel ;  and  the  same  appears  to  have  been  the 
case  with  many  of  the  operas  of  that  time.  There 
were  however  a  few  independent  little  instru- 
mental movements  even  in  the  earliest  operas. 
Peri's  '  Euridice,'  which  stands  almost  at  the  head 
of  the  list  (having  been  performed  at  Florence  in 
1600,  as  part  of  the  festival  in  connection  with 
the  marriage  of  Henry  IV  of  France  and  Mary 
de'  Medici),  contains  a  '  Sinfonia '  for  three  flutes, 
which  has  a  definite  form  of  its  own  and  is  very 
characteristic  of  the  time.  The  use  of  short  in- 
strumental passages,  such  as  dances  and  intro- 
ductions and  ri torn  els,  when  once  fairly  begun, 
increased  rapidly.  Monteverde,  who  folio  wedclose 
upon  Peri,  made  some  use  of  them,  and  as  the 
century  grew  older,  they  became  a  more  and  more 
important  element  in  dramatic  works,  especially 
operas.  The  indiscriminate  use  of  the  word  'sym- 
phony,' to  denote  the  passages  of  introduction 
to  airs  and  recitatives,  etc.,  lasted  for  a  very  long 
while,  and  got  so  far  stereotyped  in  common 
usage  that  it  was  even  applied  to  the  instru- 
mental portions  of  airs,  etc.,  when  played  by 
a  single  performer.  As  an  example  may  be 
quoted  the  following  passage  from  a  letter  of 
Mozart's — *Sie  (meaning  Strinasacchi)  spielt 
keine  Note  ohne  Empfindung ;  sogar  bei  den 
Sinfonien  spielte  sie  alles  mit  Expression,'  etc.'' 
With  regard  to  this  use  of  the  term,  it  is  not 
necessary  to  do  more  than  point  out  the  natural 
course  by  which  the  meaning  began  to  be  re- 
stricted. Lulli,  Alessandro  Scarlatti,  and  other 
great  composers  of  operas  in  the  17th  century, 
extended  the  appendages  of  airs  to  proportions 
relatively  considerable,  but  there  was  a  limit 
beyond  which  such  dependent  passages  could 
not  go.  The  independent  instrumental  portions, 
on  the  other  hand,  such  as  overtures  or  toc- 
catas, or  groups  of  ballet  tunes,  were  in  different 
circumstances,  and  could  be  expanded  to  a  very 
much  greater  extent ;  and  as  they  grew  in  im- 
portance the  name  *  Symphony'  came  by  degrees 
to  have  a  more  special  significance.  The  small 
instrumental  appendages  to  the  various  airs  and 
so  forth  were  still  symphonies  in  a  general  sense, 
but  the  Symphony  par  excellence  was  the  in- 
troductory movement ;  and  the  more  it  grew  in 

>  MSB.  In  the  Christ  Church  Library,  Oxford. 
2  She  does  not  play  a  note  without  feeling,  and  even  in  the  Sym- 
phonies played  all  with  expression. 


SYMPHONY. 


11 


importance  the   more  distinctive  was  this  ap- 
plication of  the  term. 

The  earliest  steps  in  the  development  of  this 
portion  of  the  opera  are  chiefly  important  as 
attempts  to  establish  some  broad  principle  of 
form;  which  for  some  time  amounted  to  little 
more  than  the  balance  of  short  divisions,  of  slow 
and  quick  movement  alternately.  Lulli  is  credited 
with  the  invention  of  one  form,  which  came  ulti- 
mately to  be  known  as  the  '  Ouverture  h,  la  ma- 
nihre  Fran9aise.'  The  principles  of  this  form,  as 
generally  understood,  amounted  to  no  more  than 
the  succession  of  a  slow  solid  movement  to  begin 
with,  followed  by  a  quicker  movement  in  a^ 
lighter  style,  and  another  slow  movement,  not 
so  grave  in  character  as  the  first,  to  conclude 
with.  Lulli  himself  was  not  rigidly  consistent 
in  the  adoption  of  this  form.  In  some  cases,  as 
in  'Perse'e,'  'Thesee,'  and  *  Belldrophon,'  there 
are  two  divisions  only — the  characteristic  grave 
opening  movement,  and  a  short  free  fugal  quick 
movement.  'Proserpine,'  'Phadton,'  'Alceste,' 
and  the  Ballet  piece,  *  Le  Triomphe  de  I'amour,' 
are  characteristic  examples  of  the  complete 
model.  These  have  a  gi'ave  opening,  which  is 
repeated,  and  then  the  livelier  central  move- 
ment, which  is  followed  by  a  division  marked 
*  lentement ' ;  and  the  last  two  divisions  are 
repeated  in  full  together.  A  few  examples  are 
occasionally  to  be  met  with  by  less  famous 
composers  than  Lulli,  which  show  how  far  the 
adoption  of  this  form  of  overture  or  symphony 
became  general  in  a  short  time.  An  o|era 
called  'Venus  and  Adonis,'  by  Desmarests,  of 
which  there  is  a  copy  in  the  Library  of  the 
Royal  College  of  Music,  has  the  overture  in 
this  form.  '  Amadis  de  Grfece,'  by  Des  Touches,, 
has  the  same,  as  far  as  can  be  judged  from> 
the  character  of  the  divisions ;  *  Albion  and 
Albanius,'  by  Grabu,  which  was  licensed  for  pub- 
lication in  England  by  Eoger  Lestrange  in  16S7, 
has  clearly  the  same,  and  looks  like  an  imitation 
direct  from  Lulli;  and  the  '  Venus  and  Adonis' 
by  Dr.  John  Blow,  yet  again  the  same.  So  the 
model  must  have  been  extensively  appreciated. 
The  most  important  composer,  however,  who  fol- 
lowed Lulli  in  this  matter,  was  Alessandro  Scar- 
latti, who  certainly  varied  and  improved  on  the 
model  both  as  regards  the  style  and  the  form^ 
In  his  opera  of  '  Flavio  Cuniberto'^  for  instance, 
the  '  Sinfonia  avanti  I'Opera '  begins  with  a  divi- 
sion marked  grave,  which  is  mainly  based  vxi 
simple  canonical  imitations,  but  has  also  broad 
expanses  of  contrasting  keys.  The  style,  for  the 
time,  is  noble  and  rich,  and  very  superior  to 
LuUi's.  The  second  division  is  a  lively  allegro, 
and  the  last  a  moderately  quick  minuet  in  6-8 
time.  The  'Sinfonia'  to  his  serenata  *Venere, 
Adone,  Amore,'  similarly  has  a  Largo  to  begin 
with,  a  Presto  in  the  middle,  and  a  movement, 
not  defined  by  a  tempo,  but  clearly  of  moderate 
quickness,  to  end  with.  This  form  of  *  Sinfonia ' 
survived  for  a  long  while,  and  v/as  expanded  at 
times  by  a  succession  of  dance  movements,  for 
which  also  Lulli  supplied  examples,  and  Handel 

>  us.  in  Christ  Church  Library. 


42 


SYMPHONY. 


at  a  later  time  more  familiar  types ;  but  for  the 
history  of  the  modern  symphony,  a  form  which 
was  distinguished  from  the  other  as  the  *  Italian 
Overture,*  ultimately  became  of  much  greater 
importance. 

This  form  appears  in  principle  to  be  the  exact 
opposite  of  the  French  Overture  :  it  was  similarly 
divided  into  three  movements,  but  the  first  and 
last  were  quick  and  the  central  one  slow.  Who 
the  originator  of  this  form  was  it  seems  now 
-impossible  to  decide;  it  certainly  came  into 
vogue  very  soon  after  the  French  Overture,  and 
quickly  supplanted  it  to  a  great  extent.  Certain 
details  in  its  structure  were  better  defined  than 
in  the  earlier  form,  and  the  balance  and  dis- 
tribution of  characteristic  features  were  alike 
freer  and  more  comprehensive.  The  first  al- 
legro was  generally  in  a  square  time  and  of 
solid  character;  the  central  movement  aimed  at 
expressiveness,  and  the  last  was  a  quick  move- 
ment of  relatively  light  character,  generally  in 
some  combination  of  three  feet.  The  history 
of  its  early  development  seems  to  be  wrapped  in 
obscurity,  but  from  the  moment  of  its  appear- 
ance it  has  the  traits  of  the  modern  orchestral 
symphony,  and  composers  very  soon  obtained 
a  remarkable  degree  of  mastery  over  the  form. 
It  must  have  first  come  into  definite  acceptance 
about  the  end  of  the  17th  or  the  beginning 
of  the  1 8th  century;  and  by  the  middle  of  the 
latter  it  had  become  almost  a  matter  of  course. 
Operas,  and  similar  works  by  the  most  con- 
spicuous composers  of  this  time,  in  very  great 
numbers,  have  the  same  form  of  overture.  For 
instance,  the  two  distinct  versions  of  *La  Cle- 
menza  di  Tito  '  by  Hasse,  *  Catone  in  Utica '  by 
Leonardo  Vinci  (1728),  the  * Hypermnestra,' 
'Artaserse, '  and  others  of  Perez,  Piccini's '  Didone,' 
Jomelli's  'Betulia  liberata,'  Sacchini's  '  CEdipus,' 
Galuppi's  '  II  mondo  alia  reversa' — produced  the 
year  before  Haydn  wrote  his  first  symphony — 
and  Adam  Hiller's  'Lisuart  und  Dariolette,' 
"*Die  Liebe  auf  dem  Lande,'  'Der  Krieg,'  etc. 
And  if  a  more  conclusive  proof  of  the  general 
acceptance  of  the  form  were  required,  it  would 
be  found  in  the  fact  that  Mozart  adopted  it 
in  his  boyish  operas,  'La  finta  semplice'  and 
*Lucio  Silla.'  With  the  general  adoption  of 
'ihe  form  came  also  a  careful  development  of 
the  internal  structure  of  each  separate  move- 
ment, and  also  a  gradual  improvement  both  in 
the  combination  and  treatment  of  the  instru- 
ments employed.  Lulli  and  Alessandro  Scarlatti 
were  for  the  most  part  satisfied  with  strings, 
which  the  former  used  crudely  enough,  but  the 
latter  with  a  good  deal  of  perception  of  tone 
and  appropriateness  of  style;  sometimes  with 
the  addition  of  wind  instruments.  Early  in  the 
eighteenth  century  several  wind  instruments, 
such  as  oboes,  bassoons,  horns,  trumpets,  and 
flutes,  were  added,  though  not  often  all  together; 
and  they  served,  for  the  most  part,  chiefly  to 
strengthen  the  strings  and  give  contrasting  de- 
grees of  full  sound  rather  than  contrasts  of  colour 
and  tone.  Equally  important  was  the  rapid  im- 
provement which  took  place  simultaneously  in 


SYMPHONY. 

internal  structure;  and  in  this  case  the  develop- 
ment followed  that  of  certain  other  departments 
of  musical  form.  In  fact  the  progress  of  the 
•Sinfonia  avanti  I'Opera'  in  this  respect  was 
chiefly  parallel  to  the  development  of  the  Clavier 
Sonata,  which  at  this  time  was  beginning  to  at- 
tain to  clearness  of  outline,  and  a  certain  maturity 
of  style.  It  will  not  be  necessary  here  to  repeat 
what  has  elsewhere  been  discussed  from  different 
points  of  view  in  the  articles  on  Fobm,  So- 
nata, and  Suite  ;  but  it  is  important  to  realise 
that  in  point  of  time  the  form  of  this  '  Sinfonia 
avanti  I'Opera '  did  not  lag  behind  in  definition 
of  outline  and  mastery  of  treatment;  and  it 
might  be  difficult  to  decide  in  which  form 
(whether  orchestral  or  clavier)  the  important 
detail  first  presents  itself  of  defining  the  first  and 
second  principal  sections  by  subjects  decisively 
distinct.  A  marked  improvement  in  various 
respects  appears  about  the  time  when  the 
symphony  first  began  to  be  generally  played 
apart  from  the  opera ;  and  the  reasons  for  this 
are  obvious.  In  the  first  place,  as  long  as 
it  was  merely  the  appendage  to  a  drama,  less 
stress  was  laid  upon  it;  and,  what  is  more 
to  the  point,  it  is  recorded  that  audiences  were 
not  by  any  means  particularly  attentive  to  the 
instrumental  portion  of  the  work.  The  descrip- 
tion given  of  the  behaviour  of  the  public  at 
some  of  the  most  important  theatres  in  Europe 
in  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century,  seems 
to  correspond  to  the  descriptions  which  are 
given  of  the  audience  at  the  Italian  Operas  in 
England  in  the  latter  half  of  the  nineteenth. 
Burney,  in  the  account  of  his  tour,  refers  to 
this  more  than  once.  In  the  first  volume  he 
says,  *  The  music  at  the  theatres  in  Italy  seems 
but  an  excuse  for  people  to  assemble  together, 
their  attention  being  chiefly  placed  on  play 
and  conversation,  even  during  the  performance 
of  a  serious  opera.'  In  another  place  he  de- 
scribes the  card  tables,  and  the  way  in  which 
the  '  people  of  quality '  reserved  their  attention 
for  a  favourite  air  or  two,  or  the  performance 
of  a  favourite  singer.  The  rest,  including  the 
overture,  they  did  not  regard  as  of  much  con- 
sequence, and  hence  the  composers  had  but 
little  inducement  to  put  out  the  best  of  their 
powers.  It  may  have  been  partly  on  this  ac- 
count that  they  took  very  little  pains  to  connect 
these  overtures  or  symphonies  with  the  opera, 
either  by  character  or  feature.  They  allowed 
it  to  become  almost  a  settled  principle  that 
they  should  be  independent  in  matter ;  and  con- 
sequently there  was  very  little  difficulty  in  ac- 
cepting them  as  independent  instrumental  pieces. 
It  naturally  followed  as  it  did  later  with  an- 
other form  of  overture.  The  'Symphonies'  which 
had  more  attractive  qualities  were  played  apart 
from  the  operas,  in  concerts ;  and  the  precedent 
being  thereby  established,  the  step  to  writing 
independent  works  on  similar  lines  was  but 
short;  and  it  was  natural  that,  as  undivided 
attention  would  now  be  given  to  them,  and 
they  were  no  more  in  a  secondary  position 
in  connection  with  the  opera,  composers  should 


SYMPHONY. 

take  more  pains  both  in  the  structure  and  in 
the  choice  of  their  musical  material.  The  Sym- 
phony had  however  reached  a  considerable  pitch 
of  development  before  the  emancipation  took 
place ;  and  this  development  was  connected  with 
the  progress  of  certain  other  musical  forms  be- 
sides the  Sonata,  already  referred  to. 

It  will  accordingly  be  convenient,  before  pro- 
ceeding further  with  the  direct  history  of  the 
Symphony,  to  consider  some  of  the  more  im- 
portant of  these  early  branches  of  Musical 
Art.  In  the  early  harmonic  times  the  rela- 
tionships of  nearly  all  the  different  branches 
of  composition  were  close.  The  Symphony 
was  related  even  to  the  early  Madrigals, 
through  the  •  Senate  da  Chiesa,'  which  adopted 
the  Canzona  or  instrumental  version  of  the 
Madrigal  as  a  second  movement.  It  was  also 
closely  related  to  the  early  Fantasias,  as  the 
earliest  experiments  in  instrumental  music,  in 
which  some  of  the  technical  necessities  of  that 
department  were  grappled  with.  It  was  directly 
connected  with  the  vocal  portions  of  the  early 
operas,  such  as  airs  and  recitatives,  and  derived 
from  them  many  of  the  mechanical  forms  of 
cadence  and  harmony  which  for  a  long  time 
were  a  necessary  part  of  its  form.  The  solo 
Clavier  Suite  had  also  something  to  do  with 
it,  but  not  so  much  as  might  be  expected.  As 
has  been  pointed  out  elsewhere,  the  suite-form, 
being  very  simple  in  its  principle,  attained  to 
definition  very  early,  while  the  sonata-form, 
which  characterised  the  richest  period  of  har- 
monic music,  was  still  struggling  in  elementary 
stages.  The  ultimate  basis  of  the  suite-form 
is  a  contrast  of  dance  tunes  ;  but  in  the  typical 
early  symphony  the  dance-tunes  are  almost  in- 
variably avoided.  When  the  Symphony  was  ex- 
panded by  the  addition  of  the  Minuet  and  Trio, 
a  bond  of  connection  seemed  to  be  established ; 
but  still  this  bond  was  not  at  all  a  vital  one,  for 
the  Minuet  is  one  of  the  least  characteristic 
elements  of  the  suite-form  proper,  being  clearly 
of  less  ancient  lineage  and  type  than  the  AUe- 
mande,  Courante,  Sarabande,  or  Gigue,  or  even 
the  Gavotte  and  Bourr^e,  which  were  classed 
with  it,  as  Intermezzi  or  Galanterien.  The 
form  of  the  Clavier  Suite  movements  was  in 
fact  too  inelastic  to  admit  of  such  expansion 
and  development  as  was  required  in  the  or- 
chestral works,  and  the  type  did  not  supply  the 
characteristic  technical  qualities  which  would  be 
of  service  in  their  development.  The  position 
of  Bach's  Orchestral  Suites  was  somewhat  dif- 
ferent; and  it  appears  that  he  himself  called 
them  Overtures.  Dehn,  in  his  preface  to  the 
first  edition  printed,  says  that  the  separate  MS. 
parts  in  the  Bach  archives  at  Hamburg,  from 
which  he  took  that  in  C,  have  the  distinctive 
characteristics  of  the  handwriting  of  John  Se- 
bastian, and  have  for  title  'Ouverture  pour 
2  Violons,'  etc. ;  and  that  another  MS.,  probably 
copied  from  these,  has  the  title  'Suite  pour 
Orchestre.'  This  throws  a  certain  light  upon 
Bach's  position.  It  is  obvious  that  in  several 
departments  of  instrumental  music  he  took  the 


SYMPHONY. 


1^ 


French  for  his  models  rather  than  the  Italians. 
In  the  Suite  he  followed  Couperin,  and  in  the 
Overture  he  also  followed  French  models.  These 
therefore  appear  as  attempts  to  develop  an  in- 
dependent orchestral  work  analogous  to  the 
Symphony,  upon  the  basis  of  a  form  which  had 
the  same  reason  for  existence  and  the  same 
general  purpose  as  the  Italian  Overture,  but  a^ 
distinctly  different  general  outline.  Their  chief 
connection  with  the  actual  development  of  the 
modern  symphony  lies  in  the  treatment  of  the  in- 
struments ;  for  all  experiments,  even  on  different 
lines,  if  they  have  a  common  quality  or  principle^ 
must  react  upon  one  another  in  those  respects. 

Another  branch  of  art  which  had  close  con- 
nection with  the  early  symphonies  was  the 
Concerto.  Works  under  this  name  were  not  by 
any  means  invariably  meant  to  be  show  pieces 
for  solo  instruments,  as  modem  concertos  are ;, 
and  sometimes  the  name  was  used  as  almost 
synonymous  with  symphony.  The  earliest  con- 
certos seem  to  have  been  works  in  which  groups 
of  •  solo '  and  *  ripieno '  instruments  were  used, 
chiefly  to  obtain  contrasts  of  fullness  of  tone. 
For  instance,  a  set  of  six  concertos  by  Alessandro 
Scarlatti,  for  two  violins  and  cello,  '  soli,'  and 
two  violins,  tenor,  and  bass,  'ripieni,'  present 
no  distinction  of  style  between  one  group  and 
the  other.  The  accompanying  instruments  for 
the  most  part  merely  double  the  solo  parts,  and 
leave  off  either  to  lessen  the  sound  here  and 
there,  or  because  the  passages  happen  to  go  a 
little  higher  than  usual,  or  to  be  a  little  difficult 
for  the  average  violin-players  of  that  time.  When 
the  intention  is  to  vary  the  quality  of  sound 
as  well,  the  element  of  what  is  called  instru- 
mentation is  introduced,  and  this  is  one  of  the 
earliest  phases  of  that  element  which  can  be 
traced  in  music.  The  order  of  movements  and 
the  style  of  them  are  generally  after  the  manner 
of  the  Senate  da  Chiesa,  and  therefore  do  not 
present  any  close  analogy  with  the  subject  of 
this  article.  But  very  soon  after  the  time  of 
Corelli  and  Alessandro  Scarlatti  the  form  of 
the  Italian  overture  was  adopted  for  concertos, 
and  about  the  same  time  they  began  to  show 
traces  of  becoming  show-pieces  for  great 
performers.  Allusions  to  the  performance  of 
concertos  by  great  violin  -  players  in  the 
churches  form  a  familiar  feature  in  the  musical 
literature  of  the  i8th  century,  and  the  three- 
movement-form  (to  all  intents  exactly  like  that 
of  the  symphonies)  seems  to  have  been  adopted 
early.  This  evidently  points  to  the  fact  that 
this  form  appealed  to  the  instincts  of  com- 
posers generally,  as  the  most  promising  for  free 
expression  of  their  musical  thoughts.  It  may 
seem  curious  that  J.S.Bach,  who  followed  French 
models  in  some  important  departments  of  in- 
strumental music,  should  exclusively  have  fol- 
lowed Italian  models  in  this.  But  in  reality 
it  appears  to  have  been  a  matter  of  chance 
with  him;  he  always  followed  the  best  models 
which  came  to  his  hand.  In  this  department 
the  Italians  excelled  ;  and  Bach  therefore  fol- 
lowed them,  and  left  the  most  important  early 


14 


SYMPHONY. 


specimens  of  this  kind  remaining — almost  all  in 
the  three  movement-form,  which  was  becoming 
the  set  order  for  symphonies.  Setting  aside 
those  specially  imitated  from  Vivaldi,  there  are 
at  least  twenty  concertos  by  him  for  all  sorts  of 
Bolo  instruments  and  combinations  of  solo  instru- 
ments in  this  same  form.  It  cannot  therefore 
be  doubted  that  some  of  the  development  of 
the  symphony-form  took  place  in  this  depart- 
ment. But  Bach  never  to  any  noticeable 
extent  yielded  to  the  tendency  to  break  the 
movements  up  into  sections  with  corresponding 
tunes ;  and  this  distinguishes  his  work  in  a  very 
marked  manner  from  that  of  the  generation 
of  composers  who  followed  him.  His  art  belongs 
in  reality  to  a  different  stratum  from  that  which 
produced  the  greater  forms  of  abstract  instru- 
mental music.  It  is  probable  that  his  form  pf  art 
could  not  without  some  modification  have  pro- 
duced the  great  orchestral  symphonies.  In  order 
to  get  to  these,  composers  had  to  go  to  a  different, 
and  for  some  time  a  decidedly  lower,  level.  It 
was  much  the  same  process  as  had  been  gone 
through  before.  After  Palestrina  a  backward 
move  was  necessary  to  make  it  possible  to  arrive 
at  the  art  of  Bach  and  Handel.  After  Bach 
men  had  to  take  up  a  lower  line  in  order  to  get 
to  Beethoven.  In  the  latter  case  it  was  neces- 
sary to  go  through  the  elementary  stages  of  de- 
fining the  various  contrasting  sections  of  a  move- 
ment, and  finding  that  form  of  harmonic  treat- 
ment which  admitted  the  great  effects  of  colour 
or  varieties  of  tone  in  the  mass,  as  well  as  in  the 
separate  lines  of  the  counterpoint.  Bach's  position 
was  so  immensely  high  that  several  generations 
had  to  pass  before  men  were  able  to  follow  on 
his  lines  and  adopt  his  principles  in  harmonic 
music.  The  generation  that  followed  him  showed 
scarcely  any  trace  of  his  influence.  Even  before 
be  had  passed  away  the  new  tendencies  of  music 
were  strongly  apparent,  and  much  of  the  ele- 
mentary work  of  the  modem  sonata  form  of  art 
had  been  done  on  different  lines  from  his  own. 

The  *  Sinfonia  avanti  I'Opera '  was  clearly  by 
this  time  sufficiently  independent  and  complete 
to  be  appreciated  without  the  opera,  and  without 
either  name  or  programme  to  explain  its  meaning; 
and  within  a  very  short  period  the  demand  for 
these  sinfonias  became  very  great.  Bumey's  tours 
in  search  of  materials  for  his  History,  in  France, 
Italy,  Holland,  and  Germany,  were  made  in  1770 
and  72,  before  Haydn  had  written  any  of  his 
greater  symphonies,  and  while  Mozart  was  still 
a  boy.  His  allusions  to  independent  *  sympho- 
nies'  are  very  frequent.  Among  those  whose 
works  he  mentions  with  most  favour  are  Sta- 
mitz,  Emmanuel  Bach,  Christian  Bach,  and 
Abel.  Works  of  the  kind  by  these  composers 
and  many  others  of  note  are  to  be  seen  in  great 
numbers  in  sets  of  part -books  in  the  British 
Museum.  These  furnish  most  excellent  mate- 
rials for  judging  of  the  status  of  the  Symphony 
in  the  early  stages  of  its  independent  existence. 
The  two  most  important  points  which  they 
illustrate  are  the  development  of  instrumentation, 
and  the  definition  of  form.     They  appear  to 


SYMPHONY. 

have  been  generally  written  in  eight  parts.  Most 
of  them  are  scored  for  two  violins,  viola,  and 
bass ;  two  hautboys,  or  two  flutes,  and  two 
*  cors  de  chasse.'  This  is  the  case  in  the  six 
symphonies  of  opus  3  of  John  Christian  Bach ; 
the  six  of  Abel's  opus  10,  the  six  of  Stamitz's 
opus  9,  opus  13,  and  opus  16;  also  in  a  set 
of  'Overtures  in  8  parts'  by  Ame,  which  must 
have  been  early  in  the  field,  as  the  licence 
from  George  II,  printed  in  full  at  the  beginning 
of  the  first  violin  part,  is  dated  January  1 7^^. 
The  same  orchestration  is  found  in  many  sym- 
phonies by  Galuppi,  Ditters,  Schwindl,  and  others. 
Wagenseil,  who  must  have  been  the  oldest  of  this 
group  of  composers  (having  been  bom  in  the  17th 
century,  within  six  years  after  Handel,  Scarlatti, 
and  Bach),  wrote  several  quite  in  the  characteristic 
harmonic  style,  *k  4  parties  obligees  avec  Cors 
de  Chasse  ad  libitum.'  The  treatment  of  the  in* 
struments  in  these  early  examples  is  rather  crude 
and  stiff.  The  violins  are  almost  always  playing, 
and  the  hautboys  or  flutes  are  only  used  to  rein- 
force them  at  times  as  the  *  ripieni '  instruments 
did  in  the  early  concertos,  while  the  horns  serve 
to  hold  on  the  haniionies.  The  first  stages  of 
improvement  are  noticeable  in  such  details  as  the 
independent  treatment  of  the  strings.  In  the '  sym- 
phonies before  the  opera'  the  violas  were  cared 
for  so  little  that  in  many  cases  ^  not  more  than 
half-a-dozen  bars  are  written  in,  all  the  rest  being 
merely  *col  basso.'  As  examples  of  this  in  works 
of  more  or  less  illustrious  writers  may  be  men- 
tioned the  'Sinfonias'  to  Jomelli's  'Passione' 
and  'Betulia  Liberata,'  Sacchini's  'QEdipus,'  and 
Sarti's  '  Giulio  Sabino.'  One  of  the  many  honours 
attributed  to  Stamitz  by  his  admiring  contempo- 
raries was  that  he  made  the  violas  independent  of 
the  basses.  This  may  seem  a  trivial  detail,  but  it 
is  only  by  such  details,  and  the  way  in  which  they 
struck  contemporary  writers,  that  the  character 
of  the  gradual  progress  in  instrumental  composi- 
tion can  now  be  understood. 

The  general  outlines  of  the  form  were  extremely 
regular.  The  three  movements  as  above  described 
were  almost  invariable,  the  first  being  a  vigorous 
broad  allegro,  the  second  the  sentimental  slow 
movement,  and  the  third  the  lively  vivace.  The 
progress  of  internal  structure  is  at  first  chiefly 
noticeable  in  the  first  movement.  In  the  early 
examples  this  is  always  condensed  as  much  as 
possible,  the  balance  of  subjects  is  not  very  clearly 
realisable,  and  there  is  hardly  ever  a  double  bar 
or  repeat  of  the  first  half  of  the  movement.  The 
divisions  of  key,  the  short '  working^ut '  portion, 
and  the  recapitulation,  are  generally  present,  but 
not  pointedly  defined.  Examples  of  tlus  condition 
of  things  are  supplied  by  some  MS.  symphonies 
by  Paradisi  in  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum  at  Cam- 
bridge, which  in  other  respects  possess  excellent 
and  characteristically  modern  traits.  The  first 
thing  attained  seems  to  have  been  the  relative 
definition  and  balance  of  the  two  subjects.  In 
Stamitz,  Abel,  J.  C.  Bach,  and  Wagenseil,  this 
is  already  commonly  met  with.     The  following 

1  It  Is  notorious  that  Mozart  gave  fuller  parts  to  the  second  violin 
because  of  the  incompetence  of  the  viola-players. 


SYMPHONY. 

examples  from  the  first  movement  of  the  fifth 
symphony  of  Stamitz's  opus  9   illustrate  both 
the  style  and  the  degree  of  contrast  between  the 
two  principal  subjects, 
ist  subject. 


SYMPHONY. 


15 


^^i-^P-'nrm 


jm 


JUi  UJi^^  ^^ 


The  style  is  a  little  heavy,  and  the  motion 
constrained,  but  the  general  character  is  solid 
and  dignified.  The  last  movements  of  this  period 
are  curiously  suggestive  of  some  familiar  ex- 
amples of  a  maturer  time;  very  gay  and  obvious, 
and  very  definite  in  outline.  The  following  is 
very  characteristic  of  Abel : — 


I  %.  ji  g     ill      I     I  F  I    I      !     I 


—     ' '  '  '  'LLLl  bfcfi^  ^^ 

^  etc. 

• . — m r^ 


It  is  a  noticeable  fact  in  connection  with 
the  genealogy  of  these  works,  that  they  are 
almost    as   frequently   entitled    •  Overture '   as 


*  Symphony ' ;  sometimes  the  same  work  is 
called  by  the  one  name  outside  and  the  other  in ; 
and  this  is  the  case  also  with  some  of  the  earlier 
and  slighter  symphonies  of  Haydn,  which  must 
have  made  their  appearance  about  this  period. 
One  further  point  which  it  is  of  importance  to 
note  is  that  in  some  of  Stamitz's  symphonies 
the  complete  form  of  the  mature  period  is  found. 
One  in  J)  is  most  complete  in  every  respect.  The 
first  movement  is  Allegro  with  double  bars  and 
repeats  in  regular  binary  form ;  the  second  is  an 
Andante  in  G,  the  third  a  Minuet  and  Trio,  and 
the  fourth  a  Presto.  Another  in  Eb  (which  is 
called  no.  7  in  the  part-books)  and  another  in  F 
(not  definable)  have  also  the  Minuet  and  Trio. 
A  few  others  by  Schwindl  and  Ditters  have  the 
same,  but  it  is  impossible  to  get  even  approxi- 
mately to  the  date  of  their  production,  and 
therefore  little  inference  can  be  framed  upon  the 
circumstance,  beyond  the  fact  that  composers 
were  beginning  to  recognise  the  fourth  movement 
as  a  desirable  ingredient. 

Another  composer  who  precedes  Haydn  in 
time  as  well  as  in  style  is  Emmanuel  Bach.  He 
was  his  senior  in  years,  and  began  writing  sym- 
phonies in  1 741,  when  Haydn  was  only  nine 
years  old.  His  most  important  symphonies  were 
produced  in  1 776 ;  while  Haydn's  most  important 
examples  were  not  produced  till  after  1 790.  In 
style  Emmanuel  Bach  stands  singularly  alone, 
at  least  in  his  finest  examples.  It  looks  almost 
as  if  he  purposely  avoided  the  form  which  by 
1776  must  have  been  familiar  to  the  musical 
world.  It  has  been  shown  that  the  binary  form 
was  employed  by  some  of  his  contemporaries  in 
their  orchestral  works,  but  he  seems  determinedly 
to  avoid  it  in  the  first  movements  of  the  works 
of  that  year.  His  object  seems  to  have  been  to 
produce  striking  and  clearly  outlined  passages, 
and  to  balance  and  contrast  them  one  with  an- 
other according  to  his  fancy,  and  with  little 
regard  to  any  systematic  distribution  of  the  suc- 
cessions of  key.  The  boldest  and  most  striking 
subject  is  the  first  of  the  Symphony  in  D  : — 


I 


-•=^ 


:^ 


g^^r  ^ex^r 


16 


SYMPHONY*. 


The  opening  passages  of  that  in  Eb  are  hardly 
less  emphatic.  They  have  little  connection  with 
the  tendencies  of  his  contemporaries,  but  seem 
in  every  respect  an  experiment  on  independent 
lines,  in  which  the  interest  depends  upon  the 
vigour  of  the  thoughts  and  the  unexpected 
turns  of  the  modulations;  and  the  result  is 
certainly  rather  fragmentaiy  and  disconnected. 
The  slow  movement  is  commonly  connected 
with  the  first  and  last  either  by  a  special 
transitional  passage,  or  by  a  turn  of  modula- 
tion and  a  half  close.  It  is  short  and  dependent 
in  its  character,  but  graceful  and  melodious. 
The  last  is  much  more  systematic  in  structure 
than  the  first;  sometimes  in  definite  binary 
form,  as  was  the  case  with  the  early  violin  sonatas. 


SYMPHONY. 

In  orchestration  and  genei-al  style  of  expression 
these  works  seem  immensely  superior  to  the  other 
early  symphonies  which  have  been  described. 
They  are  scored  for  horns,  flutes,  oboi,  fagotto, 
strings,  with  a  figured  bass  for  '  cembalo,'  which 
in  the  symphonies  previously  noticed  does  not 
always  appear.  There  is  an  abundance  of  unison 
and  octave  passages  for  the  strings,  but  there  is 
also  good  free  writing,  and  contrasts  between 
wind  and  strings;  the  wind  being  occasionally 
left  quite  alone.  All  the  instruments  come  in 
occasionally  for  special  employment,  and  con- 
sidering the  proportions  of  the  orchestras  of  the 
time  Bach's  eflfects  must  have  been  generally  clear 
and  good.  The  following  is  a  good  specimen  of 
his  scoring  of  an  ordinary  full  passage : — 


fel^'^^h"!  ^  ^  ^^ 


viols 


It  has  sometimes  been  said  that  Haydn  was 
chiefly  influenced  byEnamanuel  Bach,  and  Mozart 
by  John  Christian  Bach.  At  the  present  time,  and 
in  relation  to  symphonies,  it  is  easier  to  understand 
the  latter  case  than  the  former.  In  both  cases 
the  influence  is  more  likely  to  be  traced  in  clavier 
works  than  in  those  for  orchestra.  For  Haydn's 
style  and  treatment  of  form  bear  far  more  re- 
semblance to  most  of  the  other  composers  whose 
works  have  been  referred  to,  than  to  Emmanuel 
Bach.  There  are  certain  kinds  of  forcible  ex- 
pression and  ingenious  turns  of  modulation  which 
Haydn  may  have  learnt  from  him;  but  their 
best  orchestral  works  seem  to  belong  to  quite 
distinct  families.  Haydn's  first  symphony  was 
written  in  1759  for  Count  Morzin.  Like  many 
other  of  his  early  works  it  does  not  seem  dis- 
coverable in  print  in  this  country.  But  it  is 
said  by  Pohl,*  who  must  have  seen  it  some- 
where in  Germany,  to  be  •  a  small  work  in  three 
movements  for  2  violins,  viola,  bass,  2  oboes, 
and  2  horns ' ;  from  which  particulars  it  would 

1  Joseph  Haydn,  rol.  1. 284  (1876). 


appear  to  correspond  exactly  in  externals  to  the 
examples  above  described  of  Abel's  and  J.  C. 
Bach's,  etc.  In  the  course  of  the  next  few 
years  he  added  many  more ;  most  of  which  appear 
to  have  been  slight  and  of  no  great  historical 
importance,  while  the  few  which  present  pecu- 
liarities are  so  far  isolated  in  those  respects  that 
they  do  not  throw  much  light  upon  the  course  of 
his  development,  or  upon  his  share  in  building  up 
the  art-form  of  the  Symphony.  Of  such  a  kind 
is  the  movement  (dramatic  in  character,  and  in- 
cluding long  passages  of  recitative)  in  the  Sym- 
phony in  C,  which  he  wrote  as  early  as  1 76 1 .'  For, 
though  this  kind  of  movement  is  found  in  instru- 
mental works  of  an  earlier  period,  its  appearance 
in  such  a  manner  in  a  symphony  is  too  rare  to 
have  any  special  historical  bearings.  The  course 
of  his  development  was  gradual  and  regular.  He 
seems  to  have  been  content  with  steadily  im- 
proving the  edifice  of  his  predecessors,  and  with 
few  exceptions  to  have  followed  their  lines.  A 
great  deal  is  frequently  attributed  to  his  con- 
« Ibid.  287. 397. 


SYMPHONY. 

nection  with  the  complete  musical  establishment 
which  Prince  Esterhazy  set  up  at  his  great  palace 
at  Esterh^ ;  where  Haydn  certainly  had  op- 
portunities which  have  been  the  lot  of  scarcely 
any  other  composer  who  ever  lived.  He  is  de- 
scribed as  making  experiments  in  orchestration, 
and  ringing  the  bell  for  the  band  to  come  and 
try  them  ;  and,  though  this  may  not  be  absolutely 
true  in  fact,  there  can  scarcely  be  a  doubt  that 
the  very  great  improvements  which  he  effected 
in  every  department  of  orchestration  may  to  a 
great  extent  be  attributed  to  the  facilities  for 
testing  his  works  which  he  enjoyed.  At  the 
same  time  the  really  important  portion  of  his 
compositions  were  not  produced  till  his  patron, 
Prince  Nicolaus  Esterhazy,  was  dead,  and  the 
musical  establishment  broken  up  ;  nor,  it  must 
be  remembered,  till  after  that  strange  and 
important  episode  in  Haydn's  life,  the  rapid 
flitting  of  Mozart  across  the  scene.  When 
Haydn  wrote  his  first  symphony,  Mozart  was 
only  three  years  old;  and  Mozart  died  in  the  very 
year  in  which  the  famous  Salomon  concerts  in 
London,  for  which  Haydn  wrote  nearly  all  his 
finest  symphonies,  began.  Mozart's  work  there- 
fore comes  between  Haydn's  lighter  period  and 
his  greatest  achievements ;  and  his  symphonies 
are  in  some  respects  prior  to  Haydn's,  and  cer- 
tainly had  effect  upon  his  later  works  of  all 
kinds. 

According  to  Kochel,  Mozart  wrote  altogether 
forty-nine  symphonies.  The  first,  in  Eb,  was 
written  in  London  in  1 764,  when  he  was  eight 
years  old,  and  only  five  years  after  Haydn 
wrote  his  first.  It  was  on  the  same  pattern  as 
those  which  have  been  fully  described  above,  be- 
ing in  three  movements  and  scored  for  the  usual 
set  of  instruments — namely,  two  violins,  viola, 
bass,  two  oboes  and  two  horns.  Three  more 
followed  in  close  succession,  in  one  of  which 
clarinets  are  introduced  instead  of  oboes,  and 
a  bassoon  is  added  to  the  usual  group  of 
eight  instruments.  In  these  works  striking 
originality  of  purpose  or  style  is  hardly  to  be 
looked  for,  and  it  was  not  for  some  time  that 
Mozart's  powers  in  instrumental  music  reached 
a  pitch  of  development  which  is  historically 
important ;  but  it  is  nevertheless  astonishing  to 
Bee  how  early  he  developed  a  free  and  even  rich 
style  in  managing  his  orchestral  resources.  With 
regard  to  the  character  of  these  and  all  but  a 
few  of  the  rest,  it  is  necessary  to  keep  in  mind 
that  a  symphony  at  that  time  was  a  very  much 
less  important  matter  than  it  became  fifty  years 
later.  The  manner  in  which  symphonies  were 
poured  out,  in  sets  of  six  and  otherwise,  by 
numerous  composers  during  the  latter  half  of 
the  eighteenth  century,  puts  utterly  out  of  the 
question  the  loftiness  of  aim  and  purpose  which 
has  become  a  necessity  since  the  early  years  of 
the  present  century.  They  were  all  rather  slight 
works  on  familiar  lines,  with  which  for  the  time 
being  composers  and  public  were  alike  quite 
content ;  and  neither  Haydn  nor  Mozart  in 
their  early  specimens  seem  to  have  specially 
exerted  themselves.      The    general    survey    of 

VOL.  IV.   FT.  I. 


SYMPHONY. 


ir 


Mozart's  symphonies  presents  a  certain  number 
of  facts  which  are  worth  noting  for  their 
bearing  upon  the  history  of  this  form  of  art. 
The  second  symphony  he  wrote  had  a  minuet 
and  trio;  but  it  is  hardly  possible  that  he 
can  have  regarded  this  as  an  important  point, 
since  he  afterwards  wrote  seventeen  others 
without  them ;  and  these  spread  over  the  whole 
period  of  his  activity,  for  even  in  that  which  he 
wrote  at  Prague  in  1 786,  and  which  is  last  but 
three  in  the  whole  series,  the  minuet  and  trio  are 
absent.  Besides  this  fact,  which  at  once  con- 
nects them  with  the  examples  by  other  com- 
posers previously  discussed,  there  is  the  yet 
more  noticeable  one  that  more  than  twenty  of 
the  series  are  written  for  the  same  peculiar 
little  group  of  instruments,  viz.  the  four  strings, 
a  pair  of  oboes  or  flutes,  and  a  pair  of  horns. 
Although  he  used  clarinets  so  early  as  his  third 
symphony,  he  never  employed  them  again  till 
his  thirty-ninth,  which  was  written  for  Paris, 
and  is  almost  more  fully  scored  than  any.  In 
the  whole  forty-nine,  in  fact,  he  only  used  clari- 
nets five  times,  and  in  one  of  these  cases  (viz. 
the  well-known  G  minor)  they  were  added  after 
he  had  finished  the  score.  Even  bassoons  are 
not  common ;  the  most  frequent  addition  to  the 
little  nucleus  of  oboes  or  flutes  and  horns  being 
trumpets  and  drums.  The  two  which  are  most 
fully  scored  are  the  Parisian,  in  D,  just  alluded 
to,  which  was  written  in  1778,  and  that  in  Eb, 
which  was  written  in  Vienna  in  1788,  and 
stands  first  in  the  famous  triad.  These  facts 
explain  to  a  certain  extent  how  it  was  possible 
to  write  such  an  extraordinary  number  in  so 
short  a  space  of  time.  Mozart's  most  con- 
tinuously prolific  period  in  this  branch  of  art 
seems  to  have  been  when  he  had  returned  to 
Salzburg  in  1771 ;  for  between  July  in  that 
year  and  the  beginning  of  1773,  it  appears  to  be 
proved  that  he  produced  no  less  than  fourteen. 
But  this  feat  is  fairly  surpassed  in  another  sense 
by  the  production  of  the  last  three  in  three  suc- 
cessive months,  June,  July,  and  August,  1788; 
since  the  musical  calibre  of  these  is  so  immensely 
superior  to  that  of  the  earlier  ones. 

One  detail  of  comparison  between  Mozart's 
ways  and  Haydn's  is  curious.  Haydn  began 
to  use  introductory  adagios  very  early,  and 
used  them  so  often  that  they  became  quite  a 
characteristic  feature  in  his  plan.  Mozart,  on 
the  other  hand,  did  not  use  one  until  his  44th 
Symphony,  written  in  1783.  What  was  the 
origin  of  Haydn's  employment  of  them  is 
uncertain.  The  causes  that  have  been  sug- 
gested are  not  altogether  satisfactory.  In  the 
orthodox  form  of  symphony,  as  written  by  the 
numerous  composers  of  his  early  days,  the  open- 
ing adagio  is  not  found.  He  may  possibly  have 
observed  that  it  was  a  useful  factor  in  a  certain 
class  of  overtures,  and  then  have  used  it  as  an 
experiment  in  symphonies,  and  finding  it  answer, 
may  have  adopted  the  expedient  generally  in 
succeeding  works  of  the  kind.  It  seems  likely 
that  Mozart  adopted  it  from  Haydn,  as  its  first 
appearance  (in  the  symphony  which  is  believed 

C 


18 


SYMPHONY. 


to  have  been  composed  at  Linz  for  Count  Thun) 
coincides  with  the  period  in  which  he  is  con- 
sidered to  have  been  first  strongly  influenced 
by  Haydn. 

The  influence  of  these  two  great  composers 
upon  one  another  is  extremely  interesting  and 
curious,  more  especially  as  it  did  not  take  efiect 
till  comparatively  late  in  their  artistic  careers. 
They  both  began  working  in  the  general  direc- 
tion of  their  time,  under  the  influences  which 
have  been  already  referred  to.  In  the  depart- 
ment of  symphony  each  was  considerably  in- 
fluenced after  a  time  by  a  special  circumstance  of 
his  life ;  Haydn  by  the  appointment  to  Esterh^z 
before  alluded  to,  and  the  opportunities  it  afforded 
him  of  orchestral  experiment;  and  Mozart  by 
his  stay  at  Mannheim  in  1777.  For  it  appears 
most  likely  that  the  superior  abilities  of  the 
Mannheim  orchestra  for  dealing  with  purely 
instrumental  music,  and  the  traditions  of 
Stamitz,  who  had  there  effected  his  share  in  the 
history  of  the  Symphony,  opened  Mozart's  eyes 
to  the  possibilities  of  orchestral  performance, 
and  encouraged  him  to  a  freer  style  of  compo- 
sition and  more  elaborate  treatment  of  the 
orchestra  than  he  had  up  to  that  time  attempted. 
The  Mannheim  band  had  in  fact  been  long  con- 
sidered the  finest  in  Europe;  and  in  certain 
things,  such  as  attention  to  nuances  (which  in 
early  orchestral  works  had  been  looked  upon  as 
either  unnecessary  or  out  of  place),  they  and 
their  conductors  had  been  important  pioneers; 
and  thus  Mozart  must  certainly  have  had  his  ideas 
on  such  heads  a  good  deal  expanded.  The  quali- 
ties of  the  symphony  produced  in  Paris  early  in 
the  next  year  were  probably  the  firstfruits  of  these 
circumstances ;  and  it  happens  that  while  this 
symphony  is  the  first  of  his  which  has  maintained 
a  definite  position  among  the  important  landmai-ks 
of  art,  it  is  also  the  first  in  which  he  uses 
orchestral  forces  approaching  to  those  commonly 
employed  for  symphonies  since  the  latter  part  of 
the  last  century. 

Both  Haydn  and  Mozart,  in  the  course  of  their 
respective  careers,  made  decided  progress  in 
managing  the  orchestra,  both  as  regards  the 
treatment  of  individual  instruments,  and  the 
distribution  of  the  details  of  musical  interest 
among  them.  It  has  been  already  pointed  out 
that  one  of  the  earliest  expedients  by  which 
contrast  of  effect  was  attempted  by  writers  for 
combinations  of  instruments,  was  the  careful 
distribution  of  portions  for  •  solo '  and  *  ripieno ' 
instruments,  as  illustrated  by  Scarlatti's  and  later 
concertos.  In  J.  S.  Bach's  treatment  of  the  or- 
chestra the  same  characteristic  is  familiar.  The 
long  duets  for  oboes,  flutes,  or  bassoons,  and  the 
solos  for  horn  or  violin,  or  viola  da  gamba,  which 
continue  throughout  whole  recitatives  or  arias, 
all  have  this  same  principle  at  bottom.  Com- 
posers had  still  to  learn  the  free  and  yet  well- 
balanced  management  of  their  string  forces,  and 
to  attain  the  mean  between  the  use  of  wind 
instruments  merely  to  strengthen  the  strings  and 
their  use  as  solo  instruments  in  long  independent 
passages.    In  Haydn's  early  symphonies  the  old 


SYMPHONY. 

traditions  are  most  apparent.  The  balance  be- 
tween the  difierent  forces  of  the  orchestra  is  as 
yet  both  crude  and  obvious.  In  the  symphony 
called  'Le  Matin'  for  instance,  which  appears 
to  have  been  among  the  earliest,  the  second 
violins  play  with  the  first,  and  the  violas  with 
the  basses  to  a  very  marked  extent — in  the  first 
movement  almost  throughout.  This  first  move- 
ment, again,  begins  with  a  solo  for  flute.  The 
slow  movement,  which  is  divided  into  adagio 
and  andante,  has  no  wind  instruments  at  all, 
but  there  is  a  violin  solo  throughout  the  middle 
portion.  In  the  minuet  a  contrast  is  attained 
by  a  long  passage  for  wind  band  alone  (as  in 
J.  S.  Bach's  2nd  Bourree  to  the '  Ouverture '  in  C 
major) ;  and  the  trio  consists  of  a  long  and 
elaborate  solo  for  bassoon.  Haydn  early  began 
experiments  in  various  uses  of  his  orchestra,  and 
his  ways  of  grouping  his  solo  instruments  for 
effect  are  often  curious  and  original.  C.  F.  Pohl, 
in  his  life  of  him,  prints  from  the  MS.  parts  a 
charming  slow  movement  from  a  Bb  symphony, 
which  was  probably  written  in  1766  or  1767* 
It  illustrates  in  a  singular  way  how  Haydn  at 
first  endeavoured  to  obtain  a  special  effect  with- 
out ceasing  to  conform  to  familiar  methods  of 
treating  his  strings.  The  movement  is  scored 
for  first  and  second  violins,  violas,  solp  violoncello 
and  bass,  all  *  con  sordini.'  The  first  and  second 
violins  play  in  unison  thoughout,  and  the  cello 
plays  the  tune  with  them  an  octave  lower,  while 
the  violas  play  in  octaves  with  the  bass  all  but 
two  or  three  bars  of  cadence  ;  so  that  in  reality 
there  are  scarcely  ever  more  than  two  parts 
playing  at  a  time.  The  following  example  will 
show  the  style : — 


vioiini  1*2 


Towards  a  really  free  treatment  of  his  forces  he 
seems,  however,  to  have  been  led  on  insensibly 
and  by  very  slow  degrees.  For  over  twenty  years 
of  symphony- writing  the  same  limited  treatment 
of  strings  and  the  same  kind  of  solo  passages  are 
commonly  to  be  met  with.  But  there  is  a  grow- 
ing tendency  to  make  the  wind  and  the  lower 
and  inner  strings  more  and  more  independent, 
and  to  individualise  the  style  of  each  within 
proportionate  bounds.  A  fine  symphony  (in  E 
minor,  'Letter  I')  which  appears  to  date  from 
1772,  is  a  good  specimen  of  Haydn's  inter- 
mediate stage.  The  strings  play  almost  inces- 
santly throughout,  and  the  wind  either  doubles 


SYMPHONY. 

the  string  parts  to  enrich  and  reinforce  them, 
or  else  has  long  holding  notes  while  the  strings 
play  characteristic  figures.  The  following  pas- 
sage from  the  last  movement  will  serve  to 
illustrate  pretty  clearly  the  stage  of  orchestral 
expression  to  which  Haydn  had  at  that  time 
arrived : — 

Presto 
Cornl in  E 


SYMPHONY. 


19 


P 


Cornl  In  O 


In  the  course  of  the  following  ten  years  the 
progress  was  slow  but  steady.  No  doubt  many 
other  composers  were  writing  symphonies  besides 
Haydn  and  Mozart,  and  were,  like  them,  im- 
proving that  branch  of  art.  Unfortunately  the 
difficulty  of  fixing  the  dates  of  their  productions 
is  almost  insuperable  ;  and  so  their  greater  re- 
presentatives come  to  be  regarded,  not  only  as 
giving  an  epitome  of  the  history  of  the  epoch, 
but  as  comprising  it  in  themselves.  Mozart's 
first  specially  notable  symphony  falls  in  1778. 
This  was  the  one  which  he  wrote  for  Paris  after 
his  experiences  at  Mannheim ;  and  some  of  his 
Mannheim  friends  who  happened  to  be  in  Paris 
with  him  assisted  at  the  performance.  It  is  in 
almost  every  respect  a  very  great  advance  upon 
Haydn's  E  minor  Symphony,  just  quoted.  The 
treatment  of  the  instruments  is  very  much  freer, 
and  more  individually  characteristic.  It  marks 
an  important  step  in  the  transition  from  the  kind 
of  symphony  in  which  the  music  appears  to  have 
been  conceived  almost  entirely  for  violins,  with 
wind  subordinate,  except  in  special  solo  passages, 
to  the  kind  in  which  the  original  conception  in 
respect  of  subjects,  episodes  and  development, 
embraced  all  the  forces,  including  the  wind  instru- 
ments. The  first  eight  bars  of  Mozart's  sym- 
phony are  sufficient  to  illustrate  the  nature  of 
the  artistic  tendency.  In  the  firm  and  dignified 
beginning  of  the  principal  subject,  the  strings, 
with  flutes  and  bassoons,  are  all  in  unison  for 
three  bars,  and  a  good  body  of  wind  instruments 
gives  the  full  chord.  Then  the  upper  strings  are 
left  alone  for  a  couple  of  bars  in  octaves,  and 
are  accompanied  in  their  short  closing  phrase  by 
an  independent  full  chord  of  wind  instruments, 
piano.  This  chord  is  repeated  in  the  same  form 
of  rhythm  as  that  which  marks  the  first  bars  of 
the  principal  subject,  and  has  therefore  at  once 
musical  sense  and  relevancy,  besides  supplying 


the  necessary  full  harmony.  In  the  subsidiary 
subject  by  which  the  first  section  is  carried  on, 
the  quick  lively  passages  of  the  strings  are  ac- 
companied by  short  figures  for  flute  and  horns, 
with  their  own  independent  musical  signifi- 
cance. In  the  second  subject  proper,  which 
is  derived  from  this  subsidiary,  an  excellent 
balance  of  colour  is  obtained  by  pairs  of  wind 
instruments  in  octaves,  answering  with  an  in- 
dependent and  very  characteristic  phrase  of  their 
own  the  group  of  strings  which  give  out  the 
first  part  of  the  subject.  The  same  well-balanced 
method  is  observed  throughout.  In  the  work- 
ing out  of  this  movement  almost  all  the  instru- 
ments have  something  special  and  relevant  of 
their  own  to  do,  so  that  it  is  made  to  seem  as 
if  the  conception  were  exactly  apportioned  to 
the  forces  which  were  meant  to  utter  it.  The 
same  criticisms  apply  to  all  the  rest  of  the 
symphony.  The  slow  movement  has  beautiful 
independent  figures  and  plirases  for  the  wind 
instruments,  so  interwoven  with  the  body  of  the 
movement  that  they  supply  necessary  elements 
of  colour  and  fulness  of  harmony,  without  ap- 
pearing either  as  definite  solos  or  as  meaningless 
holding  notes.  The  fresh  and  merry  last  move- 
ment has  much  the  same  characteristics  as  the 
first  in  the  matter  of  instrumental  utterance,  and 
in  its  working-out  section  all  the  forces  have,  if 
anything,  even  more  independent  work  of  their 
own  to  do,  while  still  supplying  their  appropriate 
ingredients  to  the  sum  total  of  sound. 

The  succeeding  ten  years  saw  all  the  rest  of 
the  work  Mozart  was  destined  to  do  in  the  de- 
partment of  symphony ;  much  of  it  showing  in 
turn  an  advance  on  the  Paris  Symphony,  inas- 
much as  the  principles  there  shown  were  worked 
out  to  greater  fullness  and  perfection,  while  the 
musical  spirit  attained  a  more  definite  richness, 
and  escaped  further  from  the  formalism  which 
characterises  the  previous  generation.  Among 
these  symphonies  the  most  important  are  the 
following  :  a  considerable  one  (in  Eb)  composed 
at  Salzburg  in  1780  ;  the '  HafFner '  (^in  D),  which 
was  a  modification  of  a  serenade,  and  had  ori- 
ginally more  than  the  usual  group  of  movements ; 
the  '  Linz '  Symphony  (in  C  ;  '  No.  6 ') ;  and  the 
last  four,  the  crown  of  the  whole  series.  The  first 
of  these  (in  D  major)  was  written  for  Prague  in 
1 786,  and  was  received  there  with  immense  favour 
in  January  1787.  It  appears  to  be  far  in  advance 
of  all  its' predecessors  in  freedom  and  clearness 
of  instrumentation,  in  the  breadth  and  musical 
significance  of  the  subjects,  and  in  richness 
and  balance  of  form.  It  is  one  of  the  few  of 
Mozart's  which  open  with  an  adagio,  and  that  too 
of  unusual  proportions ;  but  it  has  no  minuet  and 
trio.  This  symphony  was  in  its  turn  eclipsed 
by  the  three  great  ones  in  E  flat,  G  minor, 
and  C,  which  were  composed  at  Vienna  in  June, 
July  and  August,  1788.  These  symphonies  are 
almost  the  first  in  which  certain  qualities  of 
musical  expression  and  a  certain  method  in  their 
treatment  stand  prominent  in  the  manner  which 
was  destined  to  become  characteristic  of  the 
great  works  of  the  early  part  of  the  nineteenth 

C2 


flO  SYMPHONY. 

century.  Mozart  having  mastered  the  principle 
upon  which  the  mature  art-form  of  symphony 
was  to  be  attacked,  had  greater  freedom  for  the 
expression  of  his  intrinsically  musical  ideas,  and 
'  could  emphasise  more  freely  and  consistently  the 
typical  characteristics  which  his  inspiration  led 
him  to  adopt  in  developing  his  ideas.  It  must 
not,  however,  be  supposed  that  this  principle  is 
to  be  found  for  the  first  time  in  these  works. 
They  find  their  counterparts  in  works  of  Haydn's 
of  a  much  earlier  date ;  only,  inasmuch  as  the 
art-form  was  then  less  mature,  the  element  of 
formalism  is  too  strong  to  admit  of  the  musical 
or  poetical  intention  being  so  clearly  realised. 
It  is  of  course  impossible  to  put  into  words  with 
certainty  the  inherent  characteristics  of  these  or 
any  other  later  works  on  the  same  lines ;  but  that 
they  are  felt  to  have  such  characteristics  is  in- 
disputable, and  their  perfection  as  works  of  art, 
which  is  so  commonly  insisted  on,  could  not 
exist  if  it  were  not  so.  Among  the  many 
writers  who  have  tried  in  some  way  to  describe 
them,  probably  the  best  and  most  responsible 
is  Otto  Jahn.  Of  the  first  of  the  group  (that  in 
Eb),  he  says,  *  We  find  the  expression  of  per- 
fect happiness  in  the  charm  of  euphony'  which 
is  one  of  the  marked  external  characteristics  of 
the  whole  work.  '  The  feeling  of  pride  in  the 
consciousness  of  power  shines  through  the  mag- 
nificent introduction,  while  the  Allegro  expresses 
the  purest  pleasure,  now  in  frolicsome  joy,  now 
in  active  excitement,  and  now  in  noble  and 
dignified  composure.  Some  shadows  appear,  it 
is  true,  in  the  Andante,  but  they  only  serve  to 
throw  into  stronger  relief  the  mild  serenity  of 
a  mind  communing  with  itself  and  rejoicing 
in  the  peace  which  fills  it.  This  is  the  true 
source  of  the  cheerful  transport  which  rules  the 
last  movement,  rejoicing  in  its  own  strength 
and  in  the  joy  of  being.'  Whether  this  is  all 
perfectly  true  or  not  is  of  less  consequence  than 
the  fact  that  a  consistent  and  uniform  style  and 
object  can  be  discerned  through  the  whole  work, 
and  that  it  admits  of  an  approximate  descrip- 
tion in  words,  without  either  straining  or  violating 
familiar  impressions. 

The  second  of  the  great  symphonic  trilogy — 
that  in  G  minor — has  a  still  clearer  meaning. 
The  contrast  with  the  Eb  is  strong,  for  in  no 
symphony  of  Mozart's  is  there  so  much  sadness 
and  regretfulness.  This  element  also  accounts 
for  the  fact  that  it  is  the  most  modern  of  his 
symphonies,  and  shows  most  human  nature, 
E.  J.  A.  Hoffmann  (writing  in  a  spirit  very  dif- 
ferent from  that  of  Jahn)  says  of  it,  '  Love  and 
melancholy  breathe  forth  in  purest  spirit  tones  ; 
we  feel  ourselves  drawn  with  inexpressible  long- 
ing towards  the  forms  which  beckon  us  to  join 
them  in  their  flight  through  the  clouds  to  an- 
other sphere.'  Jahn  agrees  in  attributing  to  it 
a  character  of  sorrow  and  complaining ;  and 
there  can  hardly  be  a  doubt  that  the  tonality 
as  well  as  the  style,  and  such  characteristic 
features  as  occur  incidentally,  would  all  favour 
the  idea  that  Mozart's  inspiration  took  a  sad 
cast,  and  maintained  it  so  far  throughout;  so 


SYMPHONY. 

that,  notwithstanding  the  formal  passages  which 
occasionally  make  their  appearance  at  the  closes, 
the  whole  work  may  without  violation  of  prob- 
ability receive  a  consistent  psychological  ex- 
planation. Even  the  orchestration  seems  appro- 
priate from  this  point  of  view,  since  the  prevailing 
effect  is  far  less  soft  and  smooth  than  that  of 
the  jjrevious  symphony.  A  detail  of  historical 
interest  in  connection  with  this  work  is  the 
fact  that  Mozart  originally  wrote  it  without 
clarinets,  and  added  them  afterwards  for  a  per- 
formance at  which  it  may  be  presumed  they 
happened  to  be  specially  available.  He  did 
this  by  taking  a  separate  piece  of  paper  and 
rearranging  the  oboe  parts,  sometimes  combining 
the  instruments  and  sometimes  distributing  the 
parts  between  the  two,  with  due  regard  to  their 
characteristic  styles  of  utterance. 

The  last  of  Mozart's  symphonies  has  so  obvi- 
ous and  distinctive  a  character  throughout,  that 
popular  estimation  has  accepted  the  definite 
name  *  Jupiter  '  as  conveying  the  prevalent  feel- 
ing about  it.  In  this  there  is  far  less  human 
sentiment  than  in  the  G  minor.  In  fact,  Mozart 
appears  to  have  aimed  at  something  lofty  and 
self-contained,  and  therefore  precluding  the  shade 
of  sadness  which  is  an  element  almost  indis- 
pensable to  strong  human  sympathy.  When  he 
descends  from  this  distant  height,  he  assumes  a 
cheerful  and  sometimes  playful  vein,  as  in  the 
second  principal  subject  of  the  first  movement, 
and  in  the  subsidiary  or  cadence  subject  that  fol- 
lows it.  This  may  not  be  altogether  in  accord- 
ance with  what  is  popularly  meant  by  the  name 
'Jupiter,'  though  that  deity  appears  to  have 
been  capable  of  a  good  deal  of  levity  in  his  time  ; 
but  it  has  the  virtue  of  supplying  admirable  con- 
trast to  the  main  subjects  of  the  section ;  and  it 
is  so  far  in  consonance  with  them  that  there  is 
no  actual  reversal  of  feeling  in  passing  from  one 
to  the  other.  The  slow  movement  has  an  appro- 
priate dignity  which  keeps  it  in  character,  and 
reaches,  in  parts,  a  considerable  degree  of 
passion,  which  brings  it  nearer  to  human  sym- 
pathy than  the  other  movements.  The  Minuet 
and  the  Trio  again  show  cheerful  serenity,  and 
the  last  movement,  with  its  elaborate  fugal  treat- 
ment, has  a  vigorous  austerity,  which  is  an  ex- 
cellent balance  to  the  character  of  the  first 
movement.  The  scoring,  especially  in  the  first 
and  last  movements,  is  fuller  than  is  usual  with 
Mozart,  and  produces  effects  of  strong  and  clear 
sound  ;  and  it  is  also  admirably  in  character  with 
the  spirit  of  dignity  and  loftiness  which  seems  to 
be  aimed  at  in  the  greater  portion  of  the  musical 
subjects  and  figures.  In  these  later  symphonies 
Mozart  certainly  reached  a  far  higher  pitch  of 
art  in  the  department  of  instrumental  music  than 
any  hitherto  arrived  at.  The  characteristics  of 
his  attainments  may  be  described  as  a  freedom 
of  style  in  the  ideas,  freedom  in  the  treatment 
of  the  various  parts  of  the  score,  and  indepen- 
dence and  appropriateness  of  expression  in  the 
management  of  the  various  groups  of  instruments 
employed.  In  comparison  with  the  works  of  his 
predecessors,  and  with  his  own  and  Haydn's 


SYMPHONY. 

earlier  compositions  there  is  throughout  a  most 
remarkable  advance  in  vitality.  The  distribu- 
tion of  certain  cadences  and  passages  of  tutti 
still  appear  to  modem  ears  formal;  but  compared 
with  the  immature  formalism  of  expression, 
even  in  principal  ideas,  which  was  prevalent 
twenty  or  even  ten  years  earlier,  the  improve- 
ment is  immense.  In  such  structural  elements 
as  the  development  of  the  ideas,  the  concise  and 
energetic  flow  of  the  music,  the  distribution  and 
contrast  of  instrumental  tone,  and  the  balance 
and  proportion  of  sound,  these  works  are  gene- 
rally held  to  reach  a  pitch  almost  unsurpassable 
from  the  point  of  view  of  technical  criticism. 
Mozart's  intelligence  and  taste,  dealing  with 
thoughts  as  yet  undisturbed  by  strong  or  pas- 
sionate emotion,  attained  a  degree  of  perfection  in 
the  sense  of  pure  and  directly  intelligible  art  which 
later  times  can  scarcely  hope  to  see  approached. 
Haydn's  symphonies  up  to  this  time  cannot 
be  said  to  equal  Mozart's  in  any  respect ;  though 
they  show  a  considerable  improvement  on  the 
style  of  treatment  and  expression  in  the  '  Trauer ' 
or  the  •  Farewell'  Symphonies.  Of  those  which 
are  better  known  of  about  this  date  are  '  La 
Poule'  and  'Letter  V,'  which  were  written 
(both  for  Paris)  in  1786  and  1787.  'Letter  Q,' 
or  the  '  Oxford '  Symphony,  wliich  was  per- 
formed when  Haydn  received  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Music  from  that  university,  dates 
from  1788,  the  same  year  as  Mozart's  great 
triad.  'Letter  V*  and  'Letter  Q'  are  in  his 
mature  style,  and  thoroughly  characteristic  in 
every  respect.  The  orchestration  is  clear  and 
fresh,  though  not  so  sympathetic  nor  so  elastic 
in  its  variety  as  Mozart's ;  and  the  ideas,  with 
all  their  geniality  and  directness,  are  not  up  to 
his  own  highest  standard.  It  is  the  last  twelve, 
which  were  written  for  Salomon  after  1790, 
which  have  really  fixed  Haydn's  high  position 
as  a  composer  of  symphonies;  these  became  so 
popular  as  practically  to  supersede  the  numer- 
ous works  of  all  his  predecessors  and  contempo- 
raries except  Mozart,  to  the  extent  of  causing 
them  to  be  almost  completely  forgotten.  This  is 
owing  partly  to  the  high  pitch  of  technical  skill 
which  he  attained,  partly  to  the  freshness  and 
geniality  of  his  ideas,  and  partly  to  the  vigour 
a,nd  daring  of  harmonic  progression  which  he 
manifested.  He  and  Mozart  together  enriched 
this  branch  of  art  to  an  extraordinary  degree, 
and  towards  the  end  of  their  lives  began  to 
introduce  far  deeper  feeling  and  earnestness 
into  the  style  than  had  been  customary  in  early 
works  of  the  class.  The  average  orchestra  had 
increased  in  size,  and  at  the  same  time  had 
gained  a  better  balance  of  its  component  ele- 
ments. Instead  of  the  customary  little  group 
of  strings  and  four  wind  instruments,  it  had 
come  to  comprise,  besides  the  strings,  2  flutes, 
2  oboes,  2  bassoons,  2  horns,  2  trumpets,  and 
drums.  To  these  were  occasionally  added  2  clari- 
nets, as  in  Haydn's  three  last  (the  two  in 
D  minor  and  one  in  Eb),  and  in  one  move- 
ment of  the  Military  Symphony.  Neither 
Mozart   nor   Haydn   ever   used   trombones   in 


SYMPHONY. 


21 


symphonies ;  but  uncommon  instruments  were 
sometimes  employed,  as  in  the  'Military,'  in 
which  Haydn  used  a  big  drum,  a  triangle  and ! 
cymbals.  In  his  latest  symphonies  Haydn's 
treatment  of  his  orchestra  agrees  in  general  with 
the  description  already  given  of  Mozart's.  The 
bass  has  attained  a  free  motion  of  its  own ;  the 
violas  rarely  cling  in  a  dependent  manner  to  it, 
but  have  their  own  individual  work  to  do,  and 
the  same  applies  to  the  second  violins,  which  no 
longer  so  often  appear  merely  'col  imo.'  The  wind 
instruments  fill  up  and  sustain  the  harmonies 
as  completely  as  in  former  days ;  but  they  cease 
merely  to  hold  long  notes  without  characteristic 
features,  or  slavishly  to  follow  the  string  parts 
whenever  something  livelier  is  required.  They 
may  still  play  a  great  deal  that  is  mere  doubling, 
but  there  is  generally  method  in  it ;  and  the 
musical  ideas  they  express  are  in  a  great  measure 
proportioned  to  their  characters  and  style  of 
utterance.  Haydn  was  rather  fond  of  long 
passages  for  wind  alone,  as  in  the  slow  movement 
of  the  Oxford  Symphony,  the  opening  passage  of 
the  first  allegro  of  the  Military  Symphony,  and 
the  '  working  out '  of  the  Symphony  in  C,  no.  i 
of  the  Salomon  set.  Solos  in  a  tune-form  for 
wind  instruments  az"e  also  rather  more  common 
than  in  Mozart's  works,  and  in  many  respects  the 
various  elements  which  go  to  make  up  the  whole 
^re  less  assimilated  than  they  are  by  Mozart. 
The  tunes  are  generally  more  definite  in  their 
outlines,  and  stand  in  less  close  relation  with  their 
context.  It  appears  as  if  Haydn  always  re- 
tained to  the  last  a  strong  sympathy  with  simple 
people's-tunes ;  the  character  of  his  minuets 
and  trios,  and  especially  of  his  finales,  is  some- 
times strongly  defined  in  this  respect ;  but  his  way 
of  expressing  them  within  the  limits  he  chose  is 
extraordinarily  finished  and  acute.  It  is  possible 
that,  as  before  suggested,  he  got  his  taste  for  sur- 
prises in  harmonic  progression  from  C.  P.  E.  Bach. 
His  instinct  for  such  things,  considering  the  age 
he  lived  in,  was  very  remarkable.  The  passage 
on  the  next  page,  from  his  Symphony  in  C,  just 
referred  to,  illustrates  several  of  the  above  points 
at  once. 

The  period  of  Haydn  and  Mozart  is  in  every 
respect  the  principal  crisis  in  the  history  of  the 
Symphony.  When  they  came  upon  the  scene, 
it  was  not  regarded  as  a  very  important  form 
of  art.  In  the  good  musical  centres  of  those 
times — and  there  were  many — there  was  a  great 
demand  for  symphonies ;  but  the  bands  for  which 
they  were  written  were  small,  and  appear  from 
the  most  natural  inferences  not  to  have  been  very 
efiBcient  or  well  organised.  The  standard  of 
performance  was  evidently  rough,  and  composers 
could  neither  expect  much  attention  to  pianos 
and  fortes,  nor  any  ability  to  grapple  with  tech- 
nical diflBculties  among  the  players  of  bass  in- 
struments or  violas.  The  audiences  were  critical 
in  the  one  sense  of  requiring  good  healthy  work- 
manship in  the  writing  of  the  pieces — in  fact 
much  better  than  they  would  demand  in  the 
present  day ;  but  with  regard  to  deep  meaning, 
refinement,  poetical  intention,  or  originality,  they 


22 


SYMPHONY. 


Flutes 


±p£ 


i 


U    d 


US 


Obol 

-4— f-4 


:t=^JU^-^M 


^      ^      i      J 


bl 


appear  to  have  cared  very  little.  They  wanted 
to  be  healthily  pleased  and  entertained,  not 
stirred  with  deep  emotion;  and  the  purposes 
of  composers  in  those  days  were  consequently 
not  exalted  to  any  high  pitch,  but  were  limited  to 
a  simple  and  unpretentious  supply,  in  accordance 
with  demand  and  opportunity.  Haydn  was 
influenced  by  these  considerations  till  the  last. 
There  is  always  more  fun  and  gaiety  in  his  music 
than  pensiveness  or  serious  reflection.  But  in 
developing  the  technical  part  of  expression,  in 
proportioning  the  means  to  the  end,  and  in 
organising  the  forces  of  the  orchestra,  what  he 
did  was  of  the  utmost  importance.  It  is,  how- 
ever, impossible  to  apportion  the  value  of  the 
work  of  the  two  masters.  Haydn  did  a  great 
deal  of  important  and  substantial  work  before 
Mozart  came  into  prominence  in  the  same  field. 
But  after  the  first  great  mark  had  been  made 
by  the  Paris  S^phony,  Mozart  seemed  to  rush 
to  his  culmination ;  and  in  the  last  four  of  his 
works  reached  a  style  which  appears  richer, 
more  S3mipathetic,  and  more  complete  than  any- 
thing Haydn  could  attain  to.  Then,  again,  when 


he  had  passed  away,  Haydn  produced  his  greatest 
works.  Each  composer  had  his  distinctive  char- 
acteristics, and  each  is  delightful  in  his  own 
way;  but  Haydn  would  probably  not  have 
reached  his  highest  development  without  the 
influence  of  his  more  richly  gifted  contempo- 
rary ;  and  Mozart  for  his  part  was  undoubtedly 
very  much  under  the  influence  of  Haydn  at  an 
important  part  of  his  career.  The  best  that 
can  be  said  by  way  of  distinguishing  their  re- 
spective shares  in  the  result  is  that  Mozart's  last 
symphonies  introduced  an  intrinsically  musical 
element  which  had  before  been  wanting,  and 
showed  a  supreme  perfection  of  actual  art  in 
their  structure ;  while  Haydn  in  the  long  series 
of  his  works  cultivated  and  refined  his  own 
powers  to  such  an  extent  that  when  his  last 
symphonies  had  made  their  appearance,  the 
status  of  the  symphony  was  raised  beyond  the 
possibility  of  a  return  to  the  old  level.  In 
fact  he  gave  this  branch  of  art  a  stability  and 
breadth  which  served  as  the  basis  upon  which 
the  art  of  succeeding  generations  appears  to 
rest ;  and  the  simplicity  and  clearness  of  his  style 


SYMPHONY. 

and  structural  principles  supplied  an  intelligible 
model  for  his  successors  to  follow. 

One  of  the  most  important  of  the  contem- 
poraries of  Haydn  and  Mozart  in  this  depart- 
ment of  art  was  F.  J.  Gossec.  He  was  bom  in 
I733»  one  year  after  Haydn,  and  lived  like 
him  to  a  good  old  age.  His  chief  claim  to  re- 
membrance is  the  good  work  which  he  did  in  im- 
proving the  standard  of  taste  for  instrumental 
music  in  France.  According  to  Fdtis  such  things 
as  instrimiental  symphonies  were  absolutely  un- 
known in  Paris  before  1 754,  in  which  year  Gossec 
published  his  first,  five  years  before  Haydn's 
first  attempt.  Gossec's  work  was  carried  on 
most  effectually  by  his  founding,  in  1770,  the 
•Concert  des  Amateurs,'  for  whom  he  wrote 
his  most  important  works.  He  also  took  the 
management  of  the  famous  Concerts  Spirituels, 
with  Gavini^s  and  Leduc,  in  1773,  and  furthered 
the  cause  of  good  instrumental  music  there 
as  well.  The  few  symphonies  of  his  to  be 
found  in  this  country  are  of  the  same  calibre, 
and  for  the  same  groups  of  instruments  as  those 
of  J.  C.  Bach,  Abel,  etc.,  already  described  ;  but 
F^tis  attributes  importance  to  him  chiefly  because 
of  the  way  in  which  he  extended  the  dimensions 
and  resources  of  the  orchestra.  His  Symphony 
in  D,  no.  21,  written  soon  after  the  founding  of 
the  Concert  des  Amateurs,  was  for  a  full  set  of 
strings,  flutes,  oboes,  clarinets,  bassoons,  horns, 
trumpets,  and  drums ;  and  this  was  doubtless  an 
astonishing  force  to  the  Parisians,  accustomed 
as  they  had  been  to  regard  the  compositions 
of  Lulli  and  Eameau  as  the  best  specimens  of 
instrumental  music.  But  it  is  clear  from  other 
indications  that  Gossec  had  considerable  ideas 
about  the  ways  in  which  instrumental  music 
might  be  improved,  analogous  on  a  much  smaller 
scale  to  the  aspirations  and  attempts  of  Berlioz 
at  a  later  date.  Not  only  are  his  works  carefully 
marked  with  pianos  and  fortes,  but  in  some  (as 
the  Symphonies  of  op.  xii.)  there  are  elaborate 
directions  as  to  how  the  movements  are  to  be 
played.  Some  of  these  are  curious.  For  instance, 
over  the  ist  violin  part  of  the  slow  movement  of 
the  second  symphony  is  printed  the  following: 
*  La  difference  du  Fort  au  Doux  dans  ce  morceau 
doit  6tre  excessive,  et  le  mouvement  mod^r^,  k 
I'aise,  qu'il  semble  se  jouer  avec  le  plus  grand 
facility.'  Nearly  all  the  separate  movements  of 
this  set  have  some  such  directions,  either  longer 
or  shorter;  the  inference  from  which  is  that 
Gossec  had  a  strong  idea  of  expression  and  style 
in  performance,  and  did  not  find  his  bands  very 
easily  led  in  these  respects.  The  movements 
themselves  are  on  the  same  small  scale  as  those 
of  J.  C.  Bach,  Abel,  and  Stamitz ;  and  very 
rarely  have  the  double  bar  and  repeat  in  the 
first  movements,  though  these  often  make  their 
appearance  in  the  finales.  The  style  is  to 
a  certain  extent  individual ;  not*  so  robust  or  so 
full  as  that  of  Bach  or  Stamitz,  but  not  without 
attractiveness.  As  his  works  are  very  difficult 
to  get  sight  of,  the  following  quotation  from  the 
last  movement  of  a  symphony  in  Bb  will  serve  to 
give  some  idea  of  his  style  and  manner  of  scoring. 


SYMPHONY. 


2a 


I.    b^    J1^.J^^J] 


tcm 


It      it 


^=^ 


-4=- 


Another  composer  of  symphonies,  who  is  often 
heard  of  in  juxtaposition  with  Haydn  and 
Mozart,  and  sometimes  as  being  preferred  to 
them  by  the  audiences  of  the  time,  is  Gyrowetz. 
His  symphonies  appear  to  be  on  a  larger  scale 
than  those  of  the  prior  generation  of  composers 
of  second  rank  like  himself.  A  few  of  them 
are  occasionally  to  be  met  with  in  collections 
of  *  Periodical  overtures,'  *  symphonies,'  etc.,  pub- 
lished in  separate  orchestral  parts.  One  in  C, 
scored  for  small  orchestra,  has  an  introductory 
Adagio,  an  Allegro  of  about  the  dimensions  of 
Haydn's  earlier  first  movements,  with  double  bar 
in  the  middle;  then  an  Andante  con  sordini  (the 
latter  a  favourite  device  in  central  slow  move- 
ments) ;  then  a  Minuet  and  Trio,  and,  to  end  with, 
a  Rondo  in  2-4  time,  Allegro  non  troppo.  Others, 
in  Eb  and  Bb,  have  much  the  same  distribution  of 
movements,  but  without  the  introductory  Adagio. 
The  style  of  them  is  rather  mild  and  complacent, 
and  not  approaching  in  any  way  the  interest  or 
breadth  of  the  works  of  his  great  contemporaries  ; 
but  the  subjects  are  clear  and  vivacious,  and 
the  movements  seem  fairly  developed.  Other 
symphony  writers,   who   bad    vogue   and  even 


24 


SYMPHONY. 


celebrity  about  this  time  and  a  little  later,  sucli 
as  Krommer  (beloved  by  Schubert),  the  Rombergs, 
and  Eberl  (at  one  time  preferred  to  Beethoven), 
require  no  more  than  passing  mention.  They 
certainly  furthered  the  branch  of  art  very  little, 
and  were  so  completely  extinguished  by  the  ex- 
ceptionally great  writers  who  came  close  upon 
one  another  at  that  time,  that  it  is  even  dijQBcult 
to  find  traces  of  them. 

The  greatest  of  all  masters  of  the  Symphony 
followed  so  close  upon  Haydn,  that  there  is  less 
of  a  gap  between  the  last  of  Haydn's  Symphonies 
and  his  first  than  there  was  later  between  some 
of  his  own.  Haydn's  last  was  probably  written 
in  1795.  When  Beethoven  wrote  his  first  can- 
not be  ascertained ;  sketches  for  the  Finale  are 
found  as  early  as  the  year  last  mentioned ;  but 
it  was  not  actually  produced  in  public  tiU  April 
2,  1800.  Like  Schumann  and  Brahms  in  later 
days,  he  did  not  turn  his  attention  to  this 
blanch  of  composition  till  comparatively  late. 
The  opus-number  of  his  first  symphony  is  21. 
It  is  preceded  by  eleven  pianoforte  sonatas, 
several  works  for  pianoforte  combined  with 
other  instruments,  the  well-known  Septuor  in 
Eb,  and  several  chamber  compositions  for  strings. 
So  that  by  the  time  he  came  to  attacking 
Symphony  he  had  had  considerable  practice  in 
dealing  with  structural  matters.  Tlie  only  works 
in  which  he  had  tried  his  strength  with  the 
orchestra  were  the  two  concertos — the  Bb,  op.  19, 
which  was  written  in  or  about  1795,  and  the 
C  major,  op.  15,  which  was  written  about 
1796.  He  showed  himself  at  once  a  master  of 
the  orchestra ;  but  it  is  evident  that  at  first  he 
stepped  cautiously  in  expressing  himself  with 
such  resources.  The  ist  Symphony  is  less  free 
and  rich  in  expression,  and  has  more  elements 
of  formality,  than  several  works  on  a  smaller 
scale  which  preceded  it.  This  is  explicable  on 
the  general  ground  that  the  orchestra,  especially 
in  those  days,  was  not  a  fit  exponent  of  the  same 
kind  of  things  which  could  be  expressed  by  solo 
violins,  or  the  pianoforte.  The  scale  must  neces- 
sarily be  larger  and  broader;  the  intricate 
development  and  delicate  or  subtle  sentiment 
which  is  quite  appropriate  and  intelligible  in 
the  intimacy  of  a  domestic  circle,  is  out  of 
place  in  the  more  public  conditions  of  orchestral 
performance.  This  Beethoven  must  have  in- 
stinctively felt,  and  he  appears  not  to  have  found 
the  style  for  full  expression  of  his  personality  in 
either  of  the  first  symphonies.  The  second  is 
even  more  curious  in  that  respect  than  the  first, 
as  it  comes  after  one  of  the  richest  and  most 
interesting,  and  another  of  the  most  perfectly 
charming  and  original  of  the  works  of  his  early 
period,  namely  the  Sonatas  in  D  minor  and  Eb 
of  op.  31.  However,  even  in  these  two  sym- 
phonies there  is  a  massiveness  and  breadth  and 
seriousness  of  purpose,  which  mark  them  as  pro- 
ducts of  a  different  and  more  powerfully  consti- 
tuted nature  than  anything  of  the  kind  produced 
before.  At  the  time  when  the  ist  Symphony 
appeared,  the  opening  with  the  chord  of  the 
minor  7th  of  C,  when  the  key  of  the  piece  was 


SYMPHONY. 

C  major,  was  looked  upon  as  extremely  daring ; 
and  the  narrow-minded  pedants  of  the  day  felt 
their  sensitive  delicacy  so  outraged  that  some 
of  them  are  said  never  to  have  forgiven  it. 
The  case  is  very  similar  to  the  famous  introduc- 
tion to  Mozart's  C  major  String  Quartet,  about 
which  the  pedants  were  little  less  than  insulting. 
Beethoven  had  to  fight  for  his  right  to  express 
what  he  felt  to  be  true ;  and  he  did  it  without 
flinching;  sometimes  with  an  apparent  relish. 
But  at  the  same  time,  in  these  early  orchestral 
works  he  seems  to  have  experimented  with 
caution,  and  was  content  to  follow  his  predecessors 
in  a  great  deal  that  he  put  down.  There  are 
characteristic  things  in  both  symphonies ;  for  in- 
stance, in  the  ist  the  transitional  passage  which 
begins  at  the  65th  bar  of  the  Allegro,  passing 
from  G  to  G  minor  and  then  to  Bb  and  back  again, 
and  the  corresponding  passage  in  the  second 
half  of  the  movement.  The  working  out  of  the 
Andante  cantabile  and  the  persistent  drum 
rhythm  are  also  striking  points.  In  the  2nd 
Symphony  the  dimensions  of  the  Introduction 
are  unusual,  and  the  character  of  all  the  latter 
])art  and  the  freedom  of  the  transitions  in  it  are 
decisive  marks  of  his  tendencies.  The  Slow  move- 
ment has  also  a  warmth  and  sense  of  genuine 
sympathy  which  is  new ;  the  Scherzo,  though 
as  yet  short,  has  a  totally  new  character  about 
it,  and  the  abrupt  sforzandos  and  short  striking 
figures  and  still  more  the  coda,  of  the  Finale, 
are  quite  his  own.  In  the  orchestra  it  is  worth 
noting  that  he  adopted  clarinets  from  the  first, 
apparently  as  a  matter  of  course ;  in  the  first 
two  symphonies  he  continued  to  use  only  the 
one  pair  of  horns,  as  his  predecessors  had  done ; 
in  the  third  he  expanded  the  group  to  three. 
In  the  4th  he  went  back  to  two,  and  did  not 
use  four  till  the  9th.  The  disposition  of  his 
forces  even  in  the  first  two  is  more  indepen- 
dent and  varied  than  his  predecessors.  The 
treatment  of  the  several  groups  of  instruments 
tends  to  be  more  distinct  and  appropriate,  and 
at  the  same  time  more  perfectly  assimilated  in 
the  total  effect  of  the  music.  The  step  to  the 
3rd  Symphony  is  however  immense,  and  at  last 
shows  this  branch  of  composition  on  a  level  with 
his  other  works  of  the  same  period.  It  is  sur- 
rounded on  both  sides  by  some  of  his  noblest 
achievements.  Opus  47  was  the  Sonata  in  A  for 
violin  and  pianoforte,  known  as  the  'Kreutzer.* 
Opus  53  is  the  Sonata  in  C  major,  dedicated  to 
Count  Waldstein.  Opus  54  is  the  admirable  little 
Sonata  in  F  major.  Opus  55  is  the  Symphony, 
and  opus  57  the  Sonata  known  as  the  'Appas- 
sionata.'  It  appears  that  Beethoven  had  the  idea 
of  writing  this  symphony  as  early  as  1 798,  but 
the  actual  work  was  probably  done  in  the  summer 
and  autumn  of  1803.  There  seems  to  be  no 
doubt  that  it  was  written  under  the  influence  of 
his  admiration  for  Napoleon.  His  own  title-page 
had  on  it '  Sinfonia  grand  e.  Napoleon  Bonaparte,' 
and,  as  is  well  known,  the  name  '  Eroica '  was 
not  added  till  Napoleon  became  Emperor ;  after 
which  event  Beethoven's  feelings  about  him 
naturally  underwent  a  change.    To  call  a  great 


SYMPHONY. 


SYMPHONY. 


25 


work  by  the  name  of  a  great  man  was  quite  a 
different  thing  from  calling  it  by  the  name  of  a 
crowned  ruler.  However,  the  point  remains  the 
same,  that  the  work  was  written  with  a  definite 
purpose  and  under  the  inspiration  of  a  special 
subject,  and  one  upon  which  Beethoven  himself 
assuredly  had  a  very  decided  opinion.  The  result 
was  the  richest  and  noblest  and  by  far  the  biggest 
symphony  that  had  ever  yet  appeared  in  the 
world.  It  is  very  possible  that  Beethoven  meant 
it  to  be  so  ;  but  the  fact  does  not  make  the  step 
from  the  previous  symphonies  any  the  less  re- 
markable. The  scoring  throughout  is  most  freely 
distributed.  In  the  first  movement  especially 
there  is  hardly  any  one  of  the  numerous  subjects 
and  characteristic  figures  which  has  not  pro- 
perties demanding  different  departments  of  the 
orchestra  to  express  them.  They  are  obviously 
conceived  with  reference  to  the  whole  forces  at 
command,  not  to  a  predominant  central  force  and 
appendages.  The  strings  must  necessarily  have 
the  greater  part  of  the  work  to  do,  but  the  sym- 
phony is  not  written  for  them  with  wind  as  a 
species  of  afterthought.  But  it  is  still  to  be 
noticed  that  the  balance  is  obtained  chiefly  by 
definite  propositions  and  answers  between  one 
group  and  another,  and  though  the  effect  is 
delightful,  the  principle  is  rendered  a  little 
obvious  from  the  regularity  of  its  occurrence. 
The  second  movement  is  specially  noticeable  as 
reaching  the  strongest  pitch  of  sentiment  as  yet 
shown  in  an  orchestral  slow  movement.  In  the 
earliest  symphonies  these  movements  were  nearly 
always  remarkably  short,  and  scored  for  fewer 
instruments  than  the  first  and  last.  Frequently 
they  were  little  better  than  'intermezzi,'  attached 
on  both  sides  to  the  more  important  allegros. 
Even  Mozart's  and  Haydn's  latest  examples  had 
more  grace  and  sweetness  than  deep  feeling,  and 
frequently  showed  a  tendency  to  formalism  in  the 
expression  of  the  ideas  and  in  the  ways  in  which 
the  ornamental  fiorituri  were  introduced.  In 
the  Eroica  the  name  '  Marcia  funebre'  at  once 
defines  the  object ;  and  though  the  form  of  a 
march  is  to  a  certain  extent  maintained,  it  is 
obvious  that  it  is  of  secondary  importance,  since 
the  attention  is  more  drawn  to  the  rich  and  noble 
expression  of  the  finest  feelings  of  humanity  over 
the  poetically  imagined  death  of  one  of  the  world's 
heroes,  than  to  the  traditional  march  form.  The 
music  seems  in  fact  to  take  almost  the  definite- 
ness  of  speech  of  the  highest  order ;  or  rather,  to 
express  the  emotions  which  belong  to  the  im- 
agined situation  with  more  fulness  and  compre- 
hensiveness, but  with  scarcely  less  definiteness, 
than  speech  could  achieve.  In  the  third  move- 
ment appears  the  first  of  Beethoven's  large  or- 
chestral scherzos.  Any  connection  between  it 
and  the  typical  Minuet  and  Trio  it  is  hard  to  see. 
The  time  is  quicker  and  more  bustling  ;  and  the 
character  utterly  distinct  from  the  suave  grace 
and  somewhat  measured  paces  of  most  of  the 
previous  third  movements.  The  main  points  of 
connection  with  them  are  firstly  the  general  out- 
lines of  form  (that  is,  the  principal  portion  of  the 
Scherzo  corresponding  to  the  Minuet  comes  first 


and  last,  and  the  Trio  in  the  middle)  and  secondly 
the  humorous  element.  In  this  latter  particular 
there  is  very  great  difference  between  the  naif 
and  spontaneous  fun  of  Haydn  and  the  grim 
humour  of  Beethoven,  sometimes  verging  upon 
irony,  and  sometimes,  with  evident  purpose,  upon 
the  grotesque.  The  scherzo  of  the  Eroica  is  not 
alloyed  with  so  much  grimness  as  some  later 
ones,  but  it  has  traits  of  melancholy  and  serious- 
ness here  and  there.  The  effect  in  its  place 
is  chiefly  that  of  pourtraying  the  fickle  crowd 
who  soon  forget  their  hero,  and  chatter  and 
bustle  cheerfully  about  their  business  or  pleasure 
as  before ;  which  has  its  humorous  or  at 
least  laughter-making  ironical  side  to  any  one 
large-minded  enough  to  avoid  thinking  of  all 
such  traits  of  humanity  with  reprobation  and 
disgust.  The  last  movement  is  on  a  scale  more 
than  equal  to  that  of  all  the  others,  and,  like 
them,  strikes  an  almost  entirely  new  note  in 
symphonic  finales.  The  light  and  simple  cha- 
racter of  Haydn's  final  rondos  is  familiar  to 
every  one ;  and  he  was  consistent  in  aiming  at 
gaiety  for  conclusion.  Mozart  in  most  cases 
did  the  same;  but  in  the  G  minor  Symphony 
there  is  a  touch  of  rather  vehement  regret- 
fulness,  and  in  the  C  major  of  strength  and 
seriousness.  But  the  Finale  of  the  Eroica  first 
introduces  qualities  of  massiveness  and  broad 
earnest  dignity  to  that  position  in  the  symphony. 
The  object  is  evidently  to  crown  the  work  in  a 
totally  different  sense  from  the  light  cheerful 
endings  of  most  previous  symphonies,  and  to 
appeal  to  fine  feelings  in  the  audience  instead 
of  aiming  at  putting  them  in  a  cheerful  humour. 
It  is  all  the  difference  between  an  audience 
before  the  revolutionary  epoch  and  after.  The 
starting-point  of  the  movement  is  the  same 
theme  from  the  Prometheus  music  as  that  of  the 
pianoforte  variations  in  Eb  (op.  35).  The  basis  of 
the  whole  movement  is  mainly  the  variation- form, 
interspersed  with  fugal  episodes ;  and  a  remark- 
able feature  is  the  long  Andante  variation  im- 
mediately before  the  final  Presto — a  somewhat 
unusual  feature  in  such  a  position,  though 
Haydn  introduced  a  long  passage  of  Adagio  in 
the  middle  of  the  last  movement  of  a  symphony 
in  F  written  about  1777  ;  but  of  course  in  a  very 
different  spirit.  The  Finale  of  the  Eroica  as 
a  whole  is  so  unusual  in  form,  that  it  is  not 
wonderful  that  opinions  have  varied  much  con- 
cerning it.  As  a  piece  of  art  it  is  neither  so 
perfect  nor  so  convincing  as  the  other  move- 
ments ;  but  it  has  very  noble  and  wonderful 
traits,  and,  as  a  grand  experiment  in  an  almost 
totally  new  direction,  has  a  decided  historical 
importance. 

It  is  not  necessary  to  go  through  the  whole 
series  of  Beethoven's  Symphonies  in  detail,  for 
one  reason  because  they  are  so  generally  familiar 
to  musicians  and  are  likely  to  become  more  and 
more  so ;  and  for  another  because  they  have  been 
so  fully  discussed  from  different  points  of  view  in 
this  Dictionary.  Some  short  simple  particulars 
about  each  may  however  be  useful  and  interest- 
ing. The  order  of  composition  of  the  works  which 


26 


SYMPHONY. 


succeeded  the  Eroica  Symphony  is  almost  im- 
possible to  unravel.  By  opus-number  the  4th 
Symphony,  in  £b,  comes  very  soon,  being  op.  60; 
but  the  sketches  for  the  last  movement  are  in 
the  same  sketch-book  as  parts  of  Fidelio,  which  is 
op.  72,  and  the  Concerto  in  G,  which  is  op.  58,  was 
begun  after  Fidelio  was  finished.  It  can  only  be 
seen  clearly  that  his  works  were  crowded  close 
together  in  this  part  of  his  life,  and  interest 
attaches  to  the  fact  that  they  represent  the  warm- 
est and  most  popular  group  of  all.  Close  to  the 
Bb  Symphony  come  the  Overture  to  *  Coriolan,' 
the  three  String  Quartets,  op.  59,  the  Violin  Con- 
certo, the  PF.  ditto  in  G  major,  the  Symphony  in 
C  minor,  and  the  *Sinfonia  Pastorale.'  The  Bb 
is  on  a  smaller  scale  than  its  predecessor,  and  of 
lighter  and  gayer  cast.  The  opening  bars  of 
the  Introduction  are  almost  the  only  part  which 
has  a  trace  of  sadness  in  it ;  and  this  is  probably 
meant  to  throw  the  brightness  of  the  rest  of  the 
work  into  stronger  relief.  Even  the  Slow  Move- 
ment contains  more  serenity  than  deep  emotion. 
The  Scherzo  is  peculiar  for  having  the  Trio  re- 
peated— altogether  a  new  point  in  symphony- 
writing,  and  one  which  was  not  left  unrepeated 
or  unimitated.  What  the  symphony  was  meant 
to  express  cannot  be  known,  but  it  certainly  is 
as  complete  and  consistent  as  any. 

The  C  minor  which  followed  has  been  said  to 
be  the  first  in  which  Beethoven  expressed  him- 
self freely  and  absolutely,  and  threw  away  all 
traces  of  formalism  in  expression  or  development 
to  give  vent  to  the  perfect  utterance  of  his  musi- 
cal feeling.  It  certainly  is  so  far  the  most 
forcible,  and  most  remote  from  conventionalism 
of  every  kind.  It  was  probably  written  very 
nearly  about  the  same  time  as  the  Bb.  Notte- 
bohm  says  the  first  two  movements  were  written 
in  1805 ;  and,  if  this  is  the  fact,  his  work  on 
the  Bb  and  on  the  C  minor  must  have  overlapped. 
Nothing  however  could  be  much  stronger  than 
the  contrast  between  the  two.  The  C  minor  is,  in 
the  first  and  most  striking  movement,  rugged, 
terrible  in  force ;  a  sort  of  struggle  with  fate,  one 
of  the  moat  thoroughly  characteristic  of  Beetho- 
ven's productions.  The  second  is  a  contrast; 
peaceful,  though  strong  and  earnest.  The  Scherzo 
again  is  one  of  his  most  original  movements ;  in 
its  musical  spirit  as  utterly  unlike  anything  that 
had  been  produced  before  as  possible.  Fidl  of 
&nc7,  fun,  and  humour,  and,  notwithstanding  the 
pauses  and  changes  of  time,  wonderful  in  swing ; 
and  containing  some  devices  of  orchestration 
quite  magical  in  their  clearness,  and  their  fitness 
to  the  ideas.  The  last  movement,  which  follows 
without  break  after  the  Scherzo,  is  triumphant ; 
seeming  to  express  the  mastery  in  the  wrestling 
and  striving  of  the  first  movement.  It  is  histori- 
cally interesting  as  the  first  appearance  of  trom- 
bones and  contra&gotto  in  modem  symphony; 
and  the  most  powerful  in  sound  up  to  that  time. 
The  next  symphony,  which  is  also  the  next  opus- 
number,  is  the  popular 'Pastoral, 'probably  written 
in  1808,  the  second  of  Beethoven's  which  has  a 
definitely  stated  idea  as  the  basis  of  its  inspira- 
tion, and  the  first  in  which  a  programme  is  sug-  j 


SYMPHONY. 

gested  for  each  individual  movement;  though 
Beethoven  is  careful  to  explain  that  it  is  *  mehr 
Empfindung  als  Malerei.*  Any  account  of  this 
happy  inspiration  is  clearly  superfluous.  The 
situations  and  scenes  which  it  brings  to  the  mind 
are  familiar,  and  not  likely  to  be  less  beloved  as 
the  world  grows  older.  The  style  is  again  in 
great  contrast  to  that  of  the  C  minor,  being 
characterised  rather  by  serenity  and  content- 
ment ;  which,  as  Beethoven  had  not  heard  of  all 
the  troubles  of  the  land  question,  might  naturally 
be  his  feelings  about  country  life.  He  used 
two  trombones  in  the  last  two  movements,  but 
otherwise  contented  himself  with  the  same  group 
of  instruments  as  in  his  earliest  symphonies. 

After  this  there  was  a  pause  for  some  years, 
during  which  time  appeared  many  noble  and 
delightful  works  on  other  lines,  including  the 
pianoforte  trios  in  D  and  Eb,  the  Mass  in  C  minor, 
op.  86,  the  music  to  Egmont,  op.  84,  and  several 
sonatas.  Then  in  one  year,  181 3,  two  symphonies 
appeared.  The  first  of  the  two,  in  A  major,  num- 
bered op.  92,  is  looked  upon  by  many  as  the  most 
romantic  of  all  of  them ;  and  certainly  has  quali- 
ties which  increase  in  attractiveness  the  better 
it  is  known  and  understood.^  Among  specially 
noticeable  points  are  the  unusual  proportions 
and  great  interest  of  the  Introduction  {poca 
sostenuto) ;  the  singular  and  fascinating  wilful- 
ness of  the  first  movement,  which  is  enhanced  by 
some  very  characteristic  orchestration;  the  noble 
calm  of  the  slow  movement;  the  merry  humour 
of  the  scherzo,  which  has  again  the  same  peculi- 
arity as  the  4th  Symphony,  that  the  trio  is  re- 
peated (for  which  the  world  has  every  reason  to 
be  thankful,  as  it  is  one  of  the  most  completely 
enjoyable  things  in  all  symphonic  literature) ;  and 
finally  the  wild  headlong  abandonment  of  the 
last  movement,  which  might  be  an  idealised 
national  or  rather  barbaric  dance-movement,  and 
which  sets  the  crown  fitly  upon  one  of  the 
most  characteristic  of  Beethoven's  works.  The 
Symphony  in  F,  which  follows  immediately  a» 
op>  93>  is  again  of  a  totally  different  character. 
It  is  of  specially  small  proportions,  and  has  rather 
the  character  of  a  return  to  the  old  conditions 
of  the  Symphony,  with  all  the  advantages  of  Bee- 
thoven's mature  powers  both  in  the  development 
and  choice  of  ideas,  and  in  the  treatment  of  the 
orchestra.  Beethoven  himself,  in  a  letter  to  Salo- 
mon, described  it  as  *  eine  kleine  Symphonie  in 
F,'  as  distinguished  from  the  previous  one,  which 
he  called  *  Grosse  Symphonie  in  A,  eine  meiner 
vorziiglichsten.'  It  has  more  fun  and  light-heart- 
edness  in  it  than  any  of  the  others,  but  no  other 
specially  distinctive  external  characteristics,  ex- 
cept the  substitution  of  the  graceful  and  humor- 
ous 'Allegretto  scherzando'  in  the  place  of  the 
slow  movement,  and  a  return  to  the  Tempo  di 
Menuetto  for  the  scherzo.  After  this  came  again 
a  long  pause,  as  the  greatest  of  all  symphonies 
did  not  make  its  appearance  till  1824.  During  that 
time  however,  it  is  probable  that  symphonic  work 
was  not  out  of  his  mind,  for  it  is  certain  that  the 
preparations  for  putting  this  symphony  down  on 
1  Beethoren't  own  riew  of  it  may  b«  read  Jnst  below. 


SYMPHONY. 

paper  spread  over  several  years.  Of  the  intro- 
duction of  voices  into  this  form  of  composition, 
which  is  its  strongest  external  characteristic, 
Beethoven  had  made  a  previous  experiment  in 
the  Choral  Fantasia;  and  he  himself  spoke  of 
the  symphony  as  'in  the  style  of  the  Choral 
Fantasia,  but  on  a  far  larger  scale.'  The  scale  is 
indeed  immensely  larger,  not  only  in  length  but 
in  style,  and  the  increase  in  this  respect  applies 
to  it  equally  in  comparison  with  all  the  sym- 
phonies that  went  before.  The  first  movement  is 
throughout  the  most  concentrated  example  of 
the  qualities  which  distinguish  Beethoven  and 
the  new  phase  upon  which  music  entered  with 
him,  from  all  the  composers  of  the  previous  half 
century.  The  other  movements  are  not  less 
characteristic  of  him  in  their  particular  ways. 
The  second  is  the  largest  example  of  the  typical 
scherzo  which  first  made  its  appearance  for  the 
orchestra  in  the  Eroica;  and  the  supreme  slow 
movement  (the  Theme  with  variations)  is  the 
finest  orchestral  example  of  that  special  type 
of  slow  movement;  though  in  other  depart- 
ments of  art  he  had  previously  illustrated  it 
in  a  manner  little  less  noble  and  deeply  ex- 
pressive in  the  slow  movements  of  the  Bb  Trio 
and  the  Bb  Sonata  (op.  io6).  These  movements 
all  have  reference,  more  or  less  intelligible  ac- 
cording to  the  organisation  and  sympathies  of 
the  hearer,  to  the  Finale  of  the  Symphony,  which 
consists  of  a  setting  of  Schiller's  ode  'An  die 
Freude.'  Its  development  into  such  enormous 
proportions  is  of  a  piece  with  the  tendency  shown 
in  Beethoven's  previous  symphonies,  and  in  some 
of  his  sonatas  also,  to  supplant  the  conventional 
type  of  gay  last  movement  by  something  which 
shall  be  a  logical  or  poetical  outcome  of  the 
preceding  movements,  and  shall  in  some  way 
clench  them,  or  crown  them  with  its  weight 
and  power.  The  introduction  of  words  moreover 
gives  a  new  force  to  the  definite  interpretation  of 
the  whole  as  a  single  organism,  developed  as  a 
poem  might  be  in  relation  to  definite  and  co- 
herent ideas.  The  dramatic  and  human  elements 
which  Beethoven  introduced  into  his  instru- 
mental music  to  a  degree  before  undreamed  of, 
find  here  their  fullest  expression ;  and  most  of 
the  forms  of  music  are  called  in  to  convey  his 
ideas.  The  first  movement  of  the  symphony  is 
in  binary  form ;  the  Second  in  scherzo,  or  ideal- 
ised minuet  and  trio  form ;  the  third  in  the  form 
of  theme  and  variations.  Then  follows  the  curious 
passage  of  instrumental  recitative,  of  which  so 
many  people  guessed  the  meaning  even  before  it 
was  defined  by  the  publication  of  the  extracts 
from  the  MS.  sketch-books  in  the  Berlin  Library; 
then  the  entry  of  the  noble  tune,  the  theme  of  the 
entire  Finale,  introduced  contrapuntally  in  a  man- 
ner which  has  a  clear  analogy  to  fugal  treatment ; 
and  followed  by  the  choral  part,  which  treats 
the  theme  in  the  form  of  variations  apportioned 
to  the  several  verses  of  the  poem,  and  carries 
the  sentiment  to  the  extremest  pitch  of  exult- 
ation expressible  by  the  human  voice.  The 
instrumental  forces  employed  are  the  fullest ;  in- 
cluding, with  the  usual  complement,  four  horns, 


SYMPHONY. 


27 


three  trombones  in  the  scherzo  and  finale,  and 
contrafagotto,  triangle,  cymbals,  and  big  drum  in 
the  finale.  The  choral  forces  include  four  solo- 
voices  and  full  chorus,  and  the  sentiment  ex- 
pressed is  proportionate  to  the  forces  employed. 

In  Beethoven's  hands  the  Symphony  has  again 
undergone  a  change  of  status.  Haydn  and  Mo- 
zart, as  above  pointed  out,  ennobled  and  en- 
riched the  form  in  the  structural  sense.  They 
took  up  the  work  when  there  was  little  more 
expected  of  the  orchestra  than  would  have  been 
expected  of  a  harpsichord,  and  when  the  object 
of  the  piece  was  slight  and  almost  momentary 
entertainment.  They  left  it  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant branches  of  instrumental  music,  though 
still  to  a  great  extent  dependent  on  formal  per- 
fection and  somewhat  obvious  artistic  manage- 
ment for  its  interest.  Their  office  was  in  fact  to- 
perfect  the  form,  and  Beethoven's  to  use  it.  But 
the  very  use  of  it  brought  about  a  new  ratio 
between  its  various  elements.  In  his  work  first 
clearly  appears  a  proportion  between  the  force& 
employed  and  the  nobility  and  depth  and  general 
importance  of  the  musical  ideas.  In  his  hands 
the  greatest  and  most  pliable  means  available 
for  the  composer  could  be  no  longer  fit  for  light- 
ness and  triviality,  but  only  for  ideal  emotions  of 
an  adequate  standard.  It  is  true  that  earlier  com- 
posers saw  the  advantage  of  adopting  a  breadth  of 
style  and  largeness  of  sentiment  when  writing  for 
the  orchestra ;  but  this  mostly  resulted  in  posi- 
tive dullness.  It  seems  as  if  it  could  only  be 
when  the  circumstances  of  history  had  undergone 
a  violent  change  that  human  sentiment  could 
reach  that  pitch  of  comprehensiveness  which  in 
Beethoven's  work  raised  the  Symphony  to  the 
highest  pitch  of  earnest  poetic  feeling  :  and  the- 
history  of  his  development  is  chiefly  the  coor- 
dination of  all  the  component  elements  ;  the  pro- 
portioning of  the  expression  and  style  to  the 
means ;  the  expansion  of  the  form  to  the  require- 
ments of  the  expression ;  the  making  of  the  or- 
chestration perfectly  free,  but  perfectly  just  in 
every  detail  of  expression,  and  perfectly  balanced 
in  itself;  and  the  eradication  of  all  traces  of 
conventionalism  both  in  the  details  and  in  the 
principal  outlines,  and  also  to  a  great  extent  in 
the  treatment  of  the  instruments.  It  is  chiefly 
through  Beethoven's  work  that  the  symphony 
now  stands  at  the  head  of  all  musical  forms  what- 
ever; and  though  other  composers  may  here- 
after misuse  and  degrade  it  as  they  have  degraded* 
the  opera,  the  cantata,  the  oratorio,  the  mass, 
and  such  other  forms  as  have  equal  possibilities 
with  the  symphony,  his  works  of  this  kind  stand 
at  such  an  elevation  of  human  sympathy  and 
emotion,  and  at  such  a  pitch  of  individuality  and 
power,  in  expression  and  technical  mastery,  that 
it  is  scarcely  likely  that  any  branch  of  musical 
art  will  ever  show  anything  to  surpass  them. 

It  might  seem  almost  superfluous  to  trace  the 
history  of  Symphony  further  after  Beethoven.. 
Nothing  since  his  time  has  shown,  nor  in  the 
changing  conditions  of  the  history  of  the  race  is 
it  likely  anything  should  show,  any  approach 
to  the  vitality  and  depth  of  his  work.    But  it 


28 


SYMPHONY. 


is  just  these  changing  conditions  that  leave  a 
little  opening  for  composers  to  tread  the  same 
path  with  him.  In  the  millions  of  the  human 
species  there  are  endless  varieties  of  mental  and 
emotional  qualities  grouped  in  different  indi- 
viduals, and  different  bands  or  sets  of  men  ;  and 
the  many-sided  qualities  of  artistic  work,  even 
far  below  the  highest  standard,  find  their  ex- 
cuse and  explanation  in  the  various  groups  and 
types  of  mind  whose  artistic  desires  they  satisfy. 
Those  who  are  most  highly  organised  in  such 
respects  find  their  most  perfect  and  most  sus- 
tained gratification  in  Beethoven's  works;  but 
others  who  feel  less  deeply,  or  are  less  wide  in 
their  sympathies,  or  have  fewer  or  different 
opportunities  of  cultivating  their  tastes  in  such 
a  musical  direction,  need  musical  food  more  in 
accordance  with  their  mental  and  emotional  or- 
ganisation. Moreover,  there  is  always  room  to 
treat  an  accepted  form  in  the  mode  character- 
istic of  the  period.  Beethoven's  period  was  much 
more  like  ours  than  that  of  Haydn  and  Mozart, 
but  yet  it  is  not  so  like  that  a  work  expressed 
entirely  in  his  manner  would  not  be  an  anachron- 
ism. Each  successive  generation  takes  some 
colour  from  the  combination  of  work  and  changes 
in  all  previous  generations;  in  unequal  quantities 
proportioned  to  its  amount  of  sympathy  with 
particular  periods.  By  the  side  of  Beethoven 
there  were  other  composers,  working  either  on 
parallel  lines  or  in  a  different  manner  on  the 
same  lines.  The  succeeding  generations  were 
influenced  by  them  as  well  as  by  him;  and 
they  hStve  introduced  some  elements  into  sym- 
phony which  are  at  least  not  prominent  in  his. 
<)ne  of  the  contemporary  composers  who  had 
most  influence  on  the  later  generation  was 
Weber;  but  his  influence  is  derived  from  other 
departments,  and  in  that  of  Symphony  his  contri- 
bution is  next  to  nothing — two  only,  so  slight 
and  unimportant,  as  probably  to  have  had  no 
influence  at  all. 

Another  composer's  symphonies  did  not  have 
much  immediate  influence,  chiefly  because  they 
were  not  performed ;  what  they  will  have  in  the 
future  remains  to  be  seen.^  In  delightfulness, 
Schubert's  two  best  works  in  this  department 
stand  almost  alone ;  and  their  qualities  are 
unique.  In  his  earlier  works  of  the  kind  there  is 
an  analogy  to  Beethoven's  early  works.  Writing 
for  the  orchestra  seemed  to  paralyse  his  par- 
ticular individuality;  and  for  some  time  after 
he  had  written  some  of  his  finest  and  most 
original  songs,  he  continued  to  write  sym- 
phonies, which  were  chiefly  a  mild  reflex  of 
Haydn  and  Mozart,  or  at  most  of  the  early 
style  of  Beethoven.  His  first  attempt  was  made 
in  1813,  the  last  page  being  dated  October  28  of 
that  year,  when  he  was  yet  only  sixteen  years 
old — one  year  after  Beethoven's  Symphonies 
in  A  and  F,  and  more  than  ten  years  before  the 
great  D  minor.  In  the  five  following  years  he 
wrote  five  more,  the  best  of  which  is  No.  4,  the 
Tragic,  in  C  minor ;  the  Andante  especially  being 

1  As  we  write,  the  announcement  appears  of  a  complete  edition  of 
-Scbubert's  works,  published  and  MS.,  b;  Breltkopf  A  Hftrtel. 


SYMPHONY. 

very  fine  and  interesting,  and  containing  many 
characteristic  traits  of  the  master.  But  none  of  the 
early  works  approach  in  interest  or  original  beauty 
to  the  unfinished  one  in  B  minor,  and  the  very 
long  and  vigorous  one  in  C  major;  the  first  com- 
posed in  1822,  before  Beethoven's  No.  9,  and  the 
second  in  1828,  after  it.  In  these  two  he  seems  to 
have  struck  out  a  real  independent  symphony- 
style  for  himself,  thoroughly  individual  in  every 
respect,  both  of  idea,  form,  and  orchestration. 
They  show  singularly  little  of  the  influence 
of  Beethoven,  or  Mozart,  or  Haydn,  or  any 
of  the  composers  he  must  have  been  familiar 
with  in  his  early  days  at  the  Konvict ;  but  the 
same  spirit  as  is  met  with  in  his  songs  and  piano- 
forte pieces,  and  the  best  specimens  of  his  cham- 
ber music.  The  first  movement  of  the  B  minor 
is  entirely  unlike  any  other  symphonic  first  move- 
ment that  ever  was  composed  before.  It  seems 
to  come  direct  from  the  heart,  and  to  have  the 
personality  of  the  composer  in  it  to  a  most  un- 
usual degree.  The  orchestral  forces  used  are  the 
usual  ones,  but  in  the  management  of  them  there 
are  numbers  of  effects  which  are  perfectly  new 
in  this  department  of  art,  indicating  the  tend- 
ency of  the  time  towards  direct  consideration  ol 
what  is  called  'colour'  in  orchestral  combinations, 
and  its  employment  with  the  view  of  enhancing 
the  degree  of  actual  sensuous  enjoyment  of  a 
refined  kind,  to  some  extent  independent  of 
the  subjects  and  figures.  Schubert's  mature  or- 
chestral works  are  however  too  few  to  give  any 
strong  indication  of  this  in  his  own  person ;  and 
what  is  commonly  felt  is  the  supreme  attractive- 
ness of  the  ideas  and  general  style.  As  classical 
models  of  form  none  of  Schubert's  instrumental 
works  take  the  highest  rank;  and  it  follows 
that  no  compositions  by  any  writer  which  have 
taken  such  hold  upon  the  musicians  of  the  pre- 
sent time,  depend  so  much  upon  their  intrinsic 
musical  qualities  as  his  do.  They  are  therefore 
in  a  sense  the  extremest  examples  that  can  be 
given  of  the  degree  in  which  the  status  of  such 
music  altered  in  about  thirty  years.  In  the  epoch 
of  Mozart  and  Haydn,  the  formal  elements  abso- 
lutely predominated  in  importance.  This  was  the 
case  in  1795.  The  balance  was  so  completely 
altered  in  the  course  of  Beethoven's  lifetime,  that 
by  1824  the  phenomenon  is  presented  of  works  in 
the  highest  line  of  musical  composition  depend- 
ing on  the  predominating  element  of  the  actual 
musical  sentiment.  It  must  be  confessed  that 
Schubert's  position  in  art  is  unique;  but  at 
the  same  time  no  man  of  mark  can  be  quite 
unrepresentative  of  his  time,  and  Schubert  in 
this  way  represents  the  extraordinary  degree 
in  which  the  attention  of  musical  people  and 
the  intention  of  composers  in  the  early  years 
of  the  present  century  was  directed  to  the 
actual  material  of  music  in  its  expressive  sense, 
as  distinguished  from  the  external  or  structural 
aspect. 

The  relation  of  the  dates  at  which  more  or  less 
well-known  symphonies  made  their  appearance 
about  this  time  is  curious  and  not  uninstructive* 
Mendelssohn's  Reformation  Symphony  was  pro- 


SYMPHONY. 

duced  only  two  years  after  Schubert's  great 
Symphony  in  C,  namely  in  1830.  His  Italian 
Symphony  followed  in  the  next  year ;  and  Stem- 
dale  Bennett's  in  G  minor,  in  1834. 

The  dates  and  history  of  Spohr's  productions 
are  even  more  striking,  as  he  was  actually  a 
contemporary  of  Beethoven's,  and  senior  to 
Schubert,  while  in  all  respects  in  which  his  style 
is  characteristic  it  represents  quite  a  later  genera- 
tion. His  first  Symphony  (in  Eb)  was  composed 
in  181 1,  before  Beethoven's  7th,  8th,  and  Qth, 
and  when  he  himself  was  27  years  old.  This 
was  followed  by  several  others,  which  are  not 
without  merit,  though  not  of  sufficient  histo- 
rical importance  to  require  special  consideration. 
The  symphony  of  his  which  is  best  known  at 
the  present  day  is  that  called  the  *  Weihe  der 
Tone,'  which  at  one  time  enjoyed  great  celebrity. 
The  history  of  this  work  is  as  follows.  He  in- 
tended first  to  set  a  poem  of  the  same  name 
by  his  friend  Pfeiffer.  He  began  the  setting 
in  1832,  but  finding  it  unsatisfactory  he  aban- 
doned the  idea  of  using  the  words  except 
as  a  programme ;  in  which  form  they  are 
appended  to  the  score.  The  full  description 
and  purpose  of  the  work  as  expressed  on  the 
title  is  '  Characteristisches  Tongenialde  in  Form 
einer  Sinfonie,  nach  einen  Gedicht  von  Carl 
Pfeiffer';  and  a  printed  notice  from  the  com- 
poser is  appended  to  the  score  directing  that 
the  poem  is  to  be  either  printed  or  recited 
aloud  whenever  the  symphony  is  to  be  performed. 
Each  movement  also  has  its  title,  like  the  Pas- 
toral of  Beethoven;  but  it  differs  from  that 
work  not  only  in  its  less  substantial  interest,  but 
also  in  a  much  more  marked  departure  from  the 
ordinary  principles  of  form,  and  the  style  of  the 
Buccessive  movements. 

The  earlier  part  of  the  work  corresponds  fairly 
well  with  the  usual  principles  of  structure.  It 
opens  with  a  short  Largo  of  vague  character, 
passing  into  the  Allegro,  which  is  a  continuous 
movement  of  the  usual  description,  in  a  sweet, 
but  rather  tame  style.  The  next  movement  might 
be  taken  to  stand  for  the  usual  slow  movement, 
as  it  begins  Andantino  ;  but  the  development  is 
original,  as  it  is  broken  up  by  several  changes  of 
tempo  and  time-signatures,  and  is  evidently  based 
upon  a  programme,  for  which  its  title  supplies 
an  explanation.  The  next  movement  again  might 
be  taken  as  an  alternative  to  the  Minuet  and 
Trio,  being  marked  '  Tempo  di  Marcia,*  which 
would  suggest  the  same  general  outline  of  form. 
But  the  development  is  again  independent,  and 
must  be  supposed  to  follow  its  title.  From  this 
point  all  connection  with  the  usual  outlines 
ceases.  There  is  an  Andante  maestoso,  based 
upon  an  Ambrosianischer  Lobgesang,  a  Larghetto 
containing  a  second  hymn-tune,  and  a  short 
Allegretto  in  simple  primary  form  to  conclude 
with.  From  this  description  it  will  be  obvious 
that  the  work  is  an  example  of  thoroughgoing 
*  programme  music'  It  is  clearly  based  rather  on 
the  musical  portrayal  of  a  succession  of  ideas  in 
themselves  independent  of  music,  than  upon  the 
treatment  of  principles  of  abstract  form,  and  ideas 


SYMPHONY. 


29 


intrinsically  musical.  It  derives  from  this  fact  a 
historical  importance  which  its  musical  qualities 
taken  alone  would  not  warrant,  as  it  is  one  of 
the  very  first  German  examples  of  its  kind  pos- 
sessing any  high  artistic  excellences  of  treatment, 
expression,  and  orchestration.  It  contains  a 
plentiful  supply  of  Spohr's  characteristic  faults, 
and  is  for  the  most  part  superficial,  and  deficient 
in  warmth  of  feeling  and  nobility  of  thought; 
but  it  has  also  a  fair  share  of  his  good  traits — 
delicacy  and  clearness  of  orchestration,  and  a 
certain  amount  of  poetical  sentiment.  Its  suc- 
cess was  considerable,  and  this,  rather  than 
any  abstract  theorising  upon  the  tendencies  of 
modern  music,  led  him  to  several  further  experi- 
ments in  the  same  line.  The  symphony  (in  C 
minor)  which  followed  the  'Weihe  der  Tone'  was 
on  the  old  lines,  and  does  not  require  much  notice. 
It  contains  experiments  in  unifying  the  work  by 
unusual  references  to  subjects,  as  in  the  first 
movement,  where  conspicuous  reference  is  made 
in  the  middle  part  of  the  Allegro  to  the  charac- 
teristic feature  of  the  slow  introduction  ;  and  in 
the  last,  where  the  same  subject  is  somewhat 
transformed,  and  reappears  in  a  different  time 
as  a  prominent  feature  of  the  second  section. 
In  the  next  symphony,  and  in  the  7th  and 
9th,  Spohr  again  tried  experiments  in  pro- 
gramme. Two  of  these  are  such  curiosities  as 
to  deserve  description.  The  6th,  op.  n6,  in 
G,  is  called  *  Historische  Symphonic,'  and 
the  four  movements  are  supposed  to  be  illus- 
trations of  four  distinct  musical  periods.  The 
first  is  called  the  Period  of  Handel  and  Bach, 
and  dated  1720;  the  second,  the  Period  of 
Haydn  and  Mozart,  and  dated  1780  (i.e.  before 
any  of  the  greatest  instrumental  works  of  either 
Haydn  or  Mozart  were  produced);  the  third  is 
the  Period  of  Beethoven,  and  dated  18 10;  and 
the  fourth,  *  Allerneueste  Periode,'  and  dated 
1840.  This  last  title  seems  to  imply  that  Spohr 
regarded  himself  as  belonging  to  a  different 
generation  from  Beethoven.  The  first  period  is 
represented  by  an  introductory  Largo  in  contra- 
puntal style,  and  an  Allegro  movement,  part 
after  the  manner  of  the  old  Canzonas,  and  part 
a  Pastorale,  introduced  for  contrast.  The  style 
has  scarcely  the  least  affinity  to  Bach,  but  the 
Handelian  character  is  extremely  easy  to  imitate, 
and  hence  in  some  respects  it  justifies  its  title 
fairly  well.  The  slow  movement  which  follows 
has  good  qualities  and  graceful  points.  It  has 
more  the  flavour  of  Mozart  than  Haydn,  and 
this  is  enhanced  by  the  Mozartian  turns  and 
figures  which  are  introduced.  One  which  is  very 
conspicuous  is  the  short  figure:— 


which  is  found  in  several  places  in  Mozart'3 
works.  The  second  subject  moreover  is  only  an 
ingenious  alteration  of  the  second  subject  in 
the  slow  movement  of  Mozart's  Prague  Sym- 
phony in  D  : — 


30 


SYMPHONY 


Nevertheless,  the  whole  effect  of  the  move- 
ment is  not  whskt  its  title  implies.  The  scoring 
is  fuller,  and  the  inner  parts  richer  and  freer  in 
their  motion  than  in  the  prototypes,  and  the 
harmonization  is  more  chromatic,  after  Spohr's 
manner.  The  Scherzo  professes  to  be  in  Bee- 
thoven's style,  and  some  of  his  characteristic 
devices  of  harmony  and  rhythm  and  treatment  of 
instruments  are  fairly  well  imitated  {e.g.  the 
drums  in  G,  D,  and  Eb),  though  in  a  manner 
which  shows  they  were  but  half  understood. 
Curiously  enough,  one  of  the  most  marked  figures 
does  not  come  from  Beethoven,  but  from  Mozart's 
G  minor  Symphony  : — 


The  last  movement,  representing  the  then 
*  latest  period,'  has  of  course  no  names  appended. 
Spohr  probably  did  not  intend  to  imitate  any  one, 
but  was  satisfied  to  write  in  his  own  manner,  of 
which  the  movement  is  not  a  highly  satisfactory 
example.  It  is  perhaps  rather  to  the  composer's 
credit  that  his  own  characteristics  should  peep  out 
at  all  corners  in  all  the  movements,  but  the  result 
can  hardly  be  called  an  artistic  success.  However, 
the  experiment  deserves  to  be  recorded  and  de- 
scribed, as  unique  among  works  by  composers  of 
such  standing  and  ability  as  Spohr ;  and  the  more 
so  as  it  is  not  likely  to  be  often  heard  in  future. 
His  next  Symphony  (No.  7,  in  C  major,  op.  12 1)  is 
in  many  respects  as  great  a  curiosity  of  a  totally 
different  description.  It  is  called  *  Irdisches  und 
Gottliches  in  Menschenleben,'  and  is  a  double 
symphony  in  three  movements  for  two  orches- 
tras. The  first  movement  is  called  'Kinderwelt,' 
the  second  *Zeit  der  Leidenschaften,'  and  the 
last  (Presto)  'Endlicher  Sieg  des  Gottlichen.' 
In  the  first  two  the  second  orchestra,  which  is 
the  fuller  of  the  two,  is  little  more  than  an 
accompaniment  to  the  first.  In  the  last  it  has 
a  good  deal  of  work  to  do,  uttering  chiefly  vehe- 
ment and  bustling  passages  in  contrast  with 
quiet  and  sober  passages  by  the  first  orchestra ; 
until  near  the  end,  when  it  appears  to  be  sub- 
dued into  consonance  with  the  first  orchestra. 
The  idea  seems  to  be  to  depict  the  divine  and 
the  worldly  qualities  more  or  less  by  the  two 
orchestras ;  the  divine  being  given  to  the  smaller 
orchestra  of  solo  instruments,  and  the  worldly  to 
the  fuller  orchestra.  The  treatment  of  the  instru- 
mental forces  is  on  the  whole  very  simple ;  and  no 
very  extraordinary  effects  seem  to  be  aimed  at. 

Spohr  wrote  yet  another  programme  sym- 
phony after  this  (No.  9,  in  B,  op.  143)  called 
'  Die  Jahreszeiten,'  in  which  Winter  and  Spring 
are  joined  to  make  Part  I,  and  Summer  and 
Autumn   to   make  Part  II.      The  work   ap- 


SYMPHONY. 

proaches  more  nearly  to  the  ordinary  outlines  of 
the  Symphony  than  his  previous  experiments  in 
programme,  and  does  not  seem  to  demand  so 
much  detailed  description.  In  fact,  but  for  his 
having  been  so  early  in  the  field  as  a  writer  of 
thoroughgoing  programme-music,  Spohr's  position 
in  the  history  of  the  Symphony  would  not  be  an 
important  one ;  and  it  is  worthy  of  remark  that 
his  being  so  at  all  appears  to  have  been  an 
accident.  The  *Weihe  der  Tone*  would  not 
have  been  a  programme  symphony  but  for  the 
fact  that  Pfeiffer's  poem  did  not  turn  out  to  be 
very  suitable  for  a  musical  setting.  It  is  not 
likely  that  the  work  would  have  attained  such 
popularity  as  it  did  but  for  its  programme ;  but 
after  so  good  a  result  in  relation  to  the  public, 
it  was  natural  that  Spohr  should  try  further 
experiments  on  the  same  lines;  and  hence  he 
became  one  of  the  earliest  representatives  of 
artistic  speculation  in  a  direction  which  has 
become  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  subjects  of 
discussion  among  modem  musical  philosophers. 
As  far  as  intrinsic  qualities  are  concerned  it  is 
remarkable  how  very  little  influence  he  has  had 
upon  the  subsequent  history  of  the  Symphony, 
considering  the  reputation  he  enjoyed  in  his  life- 
time. His  greatest  excellence  was  his  treatment 
of  his  orchestra,  which  was  delicate,  refined,  and 
extremely  clear ;  but  it  must  be  confessed  that  he 
erred  on  the  side  natural  to  the  virtuoso  violinist, 
and  was  too  fond  of  bringing  his  first  violins  into 
prominence.  His. ideas  and  style  generally  were 
not  robust  or  noble  enough  to  stand  the  test  of 
time.  His  melodies  are  not  broad  or  strong ;  his 
hannonisation,  though  very  chromatic  to  look  at, 
is  not  radically  free  and  vigorous;  and  his  rhythm, 
though  sometimes  complicated  and  ingenious,  is 
neither  forcible  nor  rich  in  variety.  None  of 
his  works  however  can  be  said  to  be  without  their 
good  points,  and  the  singularity  of  his  attempts 
at  programme-music  give  them  an  interest  which 
the  unlikelihood  of  many  performances  in  the 
future  does  not  by  any  means  diminish. 

An  interesting  fact  in  connection  with  Spohr 
and  the  history  of  the  Symphony  is  that  he  seems 
to  have  been  the  first  to  conduct  an  orchestra 
in  England  with  a  baton;  the  practice  having 
previously  been  to  conduct  *at  the  pianoforte.* 
The  occasion  was  one  of  the  Philharmonic  Con- 
certs in  1820.  The  habit  of  conducting  at  the 
pianoforte  was  evidently  a  tradition  continued 
from  the  days  when  the  Symphony  was  an 
appendage  of  the  Opera,  when  the  principal 
authority,  often  the  composer  in  person,  sat  at 
the  principal  clavier  in  the  middle  of  the 
orchestra  giving  the  time  at  his  instrument,  and 
filling  in  the  harmonies  under  the  guidance  of  a 
figured  bass.  Almost  all  the  earlier  independent 
symphonies,  including  those  of  Philip  Emanuel 
Bach  of  1776,  and  some  of  Haydn's  earlier  ones, 
have  such  a  figured  bass  for  the  clavier  player, 
and  an  extra  bass  part  is  commonly  found  in  the 
sets  of  parts,  which  may  be  reasonably  surmised 
to  be  for  his  use.*     The  practice  was  at  last 

1  Mendelssohn's  early  Symphonlei  are  marked  *  KlaTler  mit  deflo. 
Basse.'  ISee  vol.  iL  265,  note  S.) 


SYMPHONY. 

abrogated  inEnglandby  Spohr,  possibly  because  he 
was  not  a  clavier  but  a  violin  player.  In  Germany 
it  was  evidently  discontinued  some  time  earlier. 
The  most  distinguished  composers  of  sym- 
phonies who  wrote  at  the  same  time  as  Spohr, 
were  entirely  independent  of  him.  The  first  of 
these  is  Mendelssohn,  whose  earliest  symphonies 
even  overlap  Beethoven,  and  whose  better-known 
works  of  the  kind,  as  before  mentioned,  begin 
about  the  same  time  as  Spohr's  best  examples, 
and  extend  over  nearly  the  same  period  as  his 
later  ones.  The  earliest  which  survives  in 
print  is  that  in  C  minor  dedicated  to  the  Lon- 
don Philharmonic  Society.  This  work  was 
really  his  thirteenth  symphony,  and  was  finished 
on  March  31,  1824,  when  he  was  only  fifteen 
years  old,  in  the  very  year  that  Beethoven's 
Choral  Symphony  was  first  performed.  The 
work  is  more  historically  than  musically  in- 
teresting. It  shows,  as  might  be  expected,  how 
much  stronger  the  mechanical  side  of  Mendels- 
sohn's artistic  nature  was,  even  as  a  boy,  than  his 
poetical  side.  Technically  the  work  is  extra- 
ordinarily mature.  It  evinces  not  only  a  perfect 
and  complete  facility  in  laying  the  outline  and 
carrying  out  the  details  of  form,  but  also  the 
acutest  sense  of  the  balance  and  proportion  of 
tone  of  the  orchestra.  The  limits  of  the  attempt 
are  not  extensive,  and  the  absence  of  strong 
feeling  or  aspiration  in  the  boy  facilitated  the 
execution.  The  predominant  influence  is  clearly 
that  of  Mozart.  Not  only  the  treatment  of  the 
lower  and  subordinate  parts  of  the  harmony,  but 
the  distribution  and  management  of  the  different 
sections  and  even  the  ideas  are  like.  There  is 
scarcely  a  trace  of  the  influence  of  Beethoven,  and 
not  much  of  the  features  afterwards  characteristic 
of  the  composer  himself.  The  most  individual 
movements  are  the  slow  movement  and  the  trio. 
The  former  is  tolerably  free  from  the  influence  of 
the  artificial  and  mannered  slow  movements  of 
the  Haydn  and  Mozart  style,  and  at  the  same 
time  does  not  derive  its  inspiration  from  Beetho- 
ven: it  contains  some  very  free  experiments 
in  modulation,  enharmonic  and  otherwise,  a  few 
characteristic  figures  similar  to  some  which  he 
made  use  of  later  in  his  career,  and  passages 
of  melody  clearly  predicting  the  composer  of 
the  Lieder  ohne  Worte  and  the  short  slow- 
movements  of  the  organ  sonatas.  The  Trio  is 
long  and  very  original  in  intention,  the  chief 
feature  being  ingenious  treatment  of  arpeggios 
for  the  strings  in  many  parts.  The  other  move- 
ments are  for  the  most  part  formal.  The  Minuet 
is  extraordinarily  like  that  of  Mozart's  G  minor 
Symphony,  not  only  in  accent  and  style,  but  in 
the  manner  in  which  the  strings  and  the  wind 
are  grouped  and  balanced,  especially  in  the  short 
passage  for  wind  alone  which  occurs  towards  the 
end  of  each  half  of  the  movement.  It  was 
possibly  owing  to  this  circumstance  that  Men- 
delssohn substituted  for  it  the  orchestral  arrange- 
ment of  the  Scherzo  of  his  Octet  when  the  work 
was  performed  later  in  his  life.  In  the  last 
movement  the  most  characteristic  passage  is  the 
second  subject,  with  the  short  chords  of  pizzicato 


SYMPHONY. 


31 


strings,  and  the  tune  for  the  clarinet  which 
comes  after  the  completion  of  the  first  period  by 
strings  alone.  He  used  the  same  device  more 
than  once  later,  and  managed  it  more  satis- 
factorily. But  it  is  just  such  suggestions  of  the 
working  of  the  musical  spirit  in  the  man  which 
make  an  early  work  interesting. 

His  next  symphony  happened  to  illustrate 
the  supposed  tendency  of  the  age  towards  pro- 
gramme. It  was  intended  for  the  tercentenary 
festival  of  the  Augsburg  Protestant  Confession 
in  1830,  though  owing  to  political  circumstances 
its  performance  was  deferred  till  later.  He  evi- 
dently had  not  made  up  his  mind  what  to  call 
it  till  some  time  after  it  was  finished,  as  he 
wrote  to  his  sister  and  suggested  Confession 
Symphony,  or  Symphony  for  a  Church  Festival, 
as  alternative  names.  But  it  is  quite  evident 
nevertheless  that  he  must  have  had  some  sort 
of  programme  in  his  mind,  and  a  purpose  to 
illustrate  the  conflict  between  the  old  and  new 
forms  of  the  faith,  and  the  circumstances  and 
attributes  which  belonged  to  them.  The  actual 
form  of  the  work  is  as  nearly  as  possible  what 
is  called  perfectly  orthodox.  The  slow  in- 
troduction, the  regular  legitimate  allegro,  the 
simple  pretty  scherzo  and  trio,  the  short  but  com- 
pletely balanced  slow  movement,  and  the  regular 
last  movement  preceded  by  a  second  slow  in- 
troduction, present  very  little  that  is  out  of  the 
way  in  point  of  structure ;  and  hence  the  work 
is  less  dependent  upon  its  programme  than 
some  of  the  examples  by  Spohr  above  described. 
But  nevertheless  the  programme  can  be  clearly 
seen  to  have  suggested  much  of  the  detail  of 
treatment  and  development  in  a  perfectly  con- 
sistent and  natural  manner.  The  external  traits 
which  obviously  strike  attention  are  two  ;  first, 
the  now  well-known  passage  which  is  used 
in  the  Catholic  Church  at  Dresden  for  the 
Amen,  and  which  Wagner  has  since  adopted 
as  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  religious  motives 
of  the  Parsifal;  and  secondly,  the  use  of 
Luther's  famous  hymn,  *  Ein'  feste  Burg,'  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  work.  The  Amen  makes  its 
appearance  in  the  latter  part  of  the  opening 
Andante,  and  is  clearly  meant  to  typify  the  old 
church ;  and  its  recurrence  at  the  end  of  the 
working  out  in  the  first  movement,  before  the 
recapitulation,  is  possibly  meant  to  imply  that 
the  old  church  still  holds  its  own:  while  in 
the  latter  portion  of  the  work  the  typical  hymn- 
tune,  introduced  softly  by  the  flute  and  by 
degrees  taking  possession  of  the  whole  orchestra, 
may  be  taken  to  represent  the  successful  spread 
of  the  Protestant  ideas,  just  as  its  final  utterance 
fortissimo  at  the  end  of  all,  does  the  establishment 
of  men's  right  to  work  out  their  own  salvation 
in  their  own  way.  There  are  various  other 
details  which  clearly  have  purpose  in  relation  to 
the  programme,  and  show  clearly  that  the  com- 
poser was  keeping  the  possible  succession  of  events 
and  circumstances  in  his  mind  throughout.  The 
actual  treatment  is  a  very  considerable  advance 
upon  the  Symphony  in  C  minor.  The  whole 
work  is  thoroughly  Mendelssohnian.    There  is  no 


32 


SYMPHONY. 


obvious  trace  either  in  the  ideas  themselves,  or  in 
the  manner  of  expression  of  the  Mozartian  in- 
fluence which  is  so  noticeable  in  the  symphony 
of  six  years  earlier.  And  considering  that  the 
composer  was  still  but  21,  the  maturity  of  style 
and  judgment  is  relatively  quite  as  remarkable 
as  the  facility  and  mastery  shown  in  the  work 
of  his  15  th  year.  The  orchestration  is  quite 
characteristic  and  free ;  and  in  some  cases,  as 
in  part  of  the  second  movement,  singularly  happy. 
The  principle  of  programme  here  assumed  seems 
to  have  been  maintained  by  him  thenceforward  ; 
for  his  other  symphonies,  though  it  is  not  so 
stated  in  the  published  scores,  are  known  to 
have  been  recognised  by  him  as  the  results 
of  his  impressions  of  Italy  and  Scotland.  The 
first  of  them  followed  very  soon  after  the  Re- 
formation Symphony.  In  the  next  year  after 
the  completion  of  that  work  he  mentioned  the 
new  symphony  in  a  letter  to  his  sister  as  far  ad- 
vanced ;  and  said  it  was  *  the  gayest  thing  he 
had  ever  done.'  He  was  in  Rome  at  the  time, 
and  it  appears  most  probable  that  the  first  and 
last  movements  were  written  there.  Of  the 
slow  movement  he  wrote  that  he  had  not  found 
anything  exactly  right,  '  and  would  put  it  oif  till 
he  went  to  Naples,  hoping  to  find  something  to 
inspire  him  there.'  But  in  the  result  it  is  dif- 
ficult to  imagine  that  Naples  can  have  had 
much  share.  Of  the  third  movement  there  is 
a  tradition  that  it  was  imported  from  an 
earlier  work ;  and  it  certainly  has  a  consider- 
able flavour  of  Mozart,  though  coupled  with 
traits  characteristic  of  Mendelssohn  in  perfect 
maturity,  and  is  at  least  well  worthy  of  its 
position ;  and  even  if  parts  of  it,  as  is  possible, 
appeared  in  an  earlier  work,  the  excellences  of 
the  Trio,  and  the  admirable  effect  of  the  final 
Coda  which  is  based  on  it,  point  to  considerable 
rewriting  and  reconstruction  at  a  mature  period. 
The  actual  structure  of  the  movements  is  based 
upon  familiar  principles,  though  not  without 
certain  idiosyncrasies  :  as  for  instance  the  appear- 
ance of  a  new  prominent  feature  in  the  working- 
out  portion,  and  the  freedom  of  the  recapitula- 
tion in  the  first  movement.  In  the  last  move- 
ment, called  Saltarello,  he  seems  to  have  giv6n 
a  more  free  rein  to  his  fancy  in  portraying  some 
scene  of  unconstrained  Italian  gaiety  to  which 
he  was  a  witness ;  and  though  there  is  an  un- 
derlying consistency  in  the  usual  distribution 
of  keys,  the  external  balance  of  subjects  is 
not  so  obvious.  The  last  movement  is  hence 
the  only  one  which  seems  to  depend  to  any 
extent  upon  the  programme  idea;  in  all  other 
respects  the  symphony  belongs  to  the  *  classical ' 
order.  Indeed  such  a  programme  as  the  pur- 
pose to  reproduce  impressions  of  particular 
countries  is  far  too  vague  to  lend  itself  to  ex- 
act and  definite  musical  portrayal  of  external 
ideas,  such  as  might  take  the  place  of  the 
usual  outlines  of  structure.  In  fact  it  could 
lead  to  little  more  than  consistency  of  style, 
which  would  be  equally  helpful  to  the  composer 
and  the  audience ;  and  it  may  well  have  served 
as  an  excuse  for  a  certain  laxity  and  profusion 


SYMPHONY. 

in  the  succession  of  the  ideas,  instead  of  that 
difficult  process  of  concentrating  and  making 
relevant  the  whole  of  each  movement  upon  the 
basis  of  a  few  definite  and  typical  subjects.  The 
characteristics  of  the  work  are  for  the  most  part 
fresh  and  genial  spontaneity.  The  scoring  is  of 
course  admirable  and  clear,  without  presenting 
any  very  marked  features;  and  it  is  at  the 
same  time  independent  and  well  proportioned  in 
distribution  of  the  various  qualities  of  sound,  and 
in  fitness  to  the  subject  matter. 

In  orchestral  effects  the  later  symphony — 
the  Scotch,  in  A  minor — is  more  remarkable. 
The  impressions  which  Mendelssohn  received  in 
Scotland  may  naturally  have  suggested  more 
striking  points  of  local  colour ;  and  the  manner 
in  which  it  is  distributed  from  first  page  to  last 
serves  to  very  good  purpose  in  unifying  the 
impression  of  the  whole.  The  effects  are  almost 
invariably  obtained  either  by  using  close  har- 
monies low  in  the  scale  of  the  respective  in- 
struments, or  by  extensively  doubling  tunes  and 
figures  in  a  similar  manner,  and  in  a  sombre 
part  of  the  scale  of  the  instruments ;  giving  an 
effect  of  heaviness  and  darkness  which  were  pos- 
sibly Mendelssohn's  principal  feelings  about  the 
grandeur  and  uncertain  climate  of  Scotland. 
Thus  in  the  opening  phrase  for  wind  instru- 
ments they  are  crowded  in  the  harmonies  almost 
as  thick  as  they  will  endure.  In  the  statement 
of  the  first  principal  subject  again  the  clarinet 
in  its  darkest  region  doubles  the  tune  of  the 
violins  an  octave  lower.  The  use  of  the  whole 
mass  of  the  strings  in  three  octaves,  with  the  wind 
filling  the  harmonies  in  rhythmic  chords,  which 
has  so  fine  and  striking  an  effect  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  'working  out'  and  in  the  coda, 
has  the  same  basis :  and  the  same  effect  is 
obtained  by  similar  means  here  and  there  in 
the  Scherzo;  as  for  instance  where  the  slightly 
transformed  version  of  the  principal  subject  is 
introduced  by  the  wind  in  the  Coda.  The  same 
qualities  are  frequently  noticeable  in  the  Slow 
movement  and  again  in  the  coda  of  the  last 
movement.  As  in  the  previous  symphony,  the 
structure  is  quite  in  accordance  with  familiar 
principles.  If  anything,  the  work  errs  rather 
on  the  side  of  squareness  and  obviousness  in 
the  outlines  both  of  ideas  and  structure;  as 
may  be  readily  perceived  by  comparing  the 
construction  of  the  opening  tune  of  the  intro- 
duction with  any  of  Beethoven's  introductions 
(either  that  of  the  D  or  Bb  or  A  Symphonies, 
or  his  overtures) :  or  even  the  introduction 
to  Mozart's  Prague  Symphony.  And  the  im- 
pression is  not  lessened  by  the  obviousness 
of  the  manner  in  which  the  succeeding  recita- 
tive passages  for  violins  are  introduced;  nor  by 
the  squareness  and  tune-like  qualities  of  the  first 
subject  of  the  first  movement,  nor  by  the  way 
in  which  the  square  tune  pattern  of  the  scherzo 
is  reiterated.  In  the  manipulation  of  the  fa- 
miliar distribution  of  periods  and  phrases,  how- 
ever, he  used  a  certain  amount  of  consideration. 
For  example,  the  persistence  of  the  rhythmic 
figure  of  the  first  subject  of  the  first  allegro. 


SYMPHONY. 

in  the  inner  parts  of  the  second  section  of  that 
movement,  serves  very  good  purpose;  and  the 
concluding  of  the  movement  with  the  melancholy 
tune  of  the  introduction  helps  both  the  senti- 
ment and  the  structural  effect.  The  scherzo  is 
far  the  best  and  most  characteristic  movement 
of  the  whole.  In  no  department  of  his  work 
was  Mendelssohn  so  thoroughly  at  home ;  and 
the  obviousness  of  the  formal  outlines  is  less 
objectionable  in  a  movement  where  levity  and 
abandonment  to  gaiety  are  quite  the  order  of 
the  day.  The  present  scherzo  has  also  certain 
very  definite  individualities  of  its  own.  It  is  a 
departure  from  the  'Minuet  and  Trio'  form, 
as  it  has  no  break  or  strong  contrasting  portion 
in  the  middle,  and  is  continuous  bustle  and 
gaiety  firom  beginning  to  end.  In  technical  de- 
tails it  is  also  exceptionally  admirable.  The 
orchestral  means  are  perfectly  suited  to  the  end, 
and  the  utterances  are  as  neat  and  effective  as  they 
could  well  be ;  while  the  perfect  way  in  which 
the  movement  finishes  off  is  delightful  to  almost 
every  one  who  has  any  sense  for  art.  The  slow 
movement  takes  up  the  sentimental  side  of  the 
matter,  and  is  in  its  way  a  good  example  of  his 
orchestral  style  in  that  respect.  The  last  move- 
ment. Allegro  vivacissimo,  is  restless  and  im- 
petuous, and  the  tempo -mark  given  for  it  in 
the  Preface  to  the  work,  'Allegro  guerriero,' 
affords  a  clue  to  its  meaning.  But  it  evidently 
does  not  vitally  depend  upon  any  ideal  pro- 
gramme in  the  least;  neither  does  it  directly 
suggest  much,  except  in  the  curious  independent 
passage  with  which  it  concludes,  which  has  more 
of  the  savour  of  programme  about  it  than  any 
other  portion  of  the  work,  and  is  scarcely  ex- 
plicable on  any  other  ground.  It  is  to  be  noticed 
that  directions  are  given  at  the  beginning  of  the 
work  to  have  the  movements  played  as  quickly 
as  possible  after  one  another,  so  that  it  may  have 
more  or  less  the  effect  of  being  one  piece.  Men- 
delssohn's only  other  symphonic  work  was  the 
Lobgesang,  a  sort  of  ecclesiastical  counterpart  of 
Beethoven's  9th  Symphony.  In  this  of  course 
the  programme  element  is  important,  and  is  il- 
lustrated by  the  calls  of  the  brass  instruments 
and  their  reiteration  with  much  effect  in  the 
choral  part  of  the  work.  The  external  form,  as 
in  Beethoven's  9th  Symphony,  is  that  of  the  three 
usual  earlier  movements  (i)  Introduction  and 
Allegro,  (2)  Scherzo,  or  Minuet  and  Trio,  and 
(3)  Slow  Movement  (which  in  the  present  case 
have  purposely  a  pietistic  flavour),  with  the 
Finale  or  last  moveriaent  supplanted  hy  the  long 
vocal  part. 

The  consideration  of  these  works  shows  that 
though  Mendelssohn  often  adopted  the  appearance 
of  programme,  and  gained  some  advantages  by  it, 
he  never,  in  order  to  express  his  external  ideas 
with  more  poetical  consistency,  relaxed  any  of  the 
familiar  principles  of  structure  which  are  regarded 
as  orthodox.  He  was  in  fact  a  thoroughgoing 
classicist.  He  accepted  formulas  with  perfect 
equanimity,  and  aimed  at  resting  the  value  of 
his  works  upon  the  vivacity  of  his  ideas  and  the 
great  mastery  which  he  had  attained  in  technical 

VOL.  IV.  PT.  I. 


SYMPHONY. 


33 


expression,  and  clearness  and  certainty  of  or- 
chestration. It  was  not  in  his  disposition  to 
strike  out  a  new  path  for  himself.  The  per- 
fection of  his  art  in  many  respects  necessarily 
appeals  to  all  who  have  an  appreciation  for  first- 
rate  craftsmanship ;  but  the  standard  of  his 
ideas  is  rather  fitted  for  average  musical  intel- 
ligences, and  it  seems  natural  enough  that  these 
two  circumstances  should  have  combined  suc- 
cessfully to  attain  for  him  an  extraordinary 
popularity.  He  may  fairly  be  said  to  present 
that  which  appeals  to  high  and  pure  sentiments 
in  men,  and  calls  upon  the  average  of  them  to 
feel  at  their  best.  But  he  leads  them  neither 
into  the  depths  nor  the  heights  which  are  be- 
yond them ;  and  is  hence  more  fitted  in  the  end 
to  please  than  to  elevate.  His  work  in  the  de- 
partment of  Symphony  is  historically  slight.  In 
comparison  to  his  great  predecessors  he  esta- 
blished positively  nothing  new ;  and  if  he  had  been 
the  only  successor  to  Beethoven  and  Schubert  it 
would  certainly  have  to  be  confessed  that  the 
department  of  art  represented  by  the  Symphony 
was  at  a  standstill.  The  excellence  of  his  or- 
chestration, the  clearness  of  his  form,  and  the 
accuracy  and  cleverness  with  which  he  balanced 
and  disposed  his  subjects  and  his  modulations, 
are  all  certain  and  unmistakeable ;  but  all 
these  things  had  been  attained  by  great  masters 
before  him,  and  he  himself  attained  them 
only  by  the  sacrifice  of  the  genuine  vital  force 
and  power  of  harmonic  motion  and  freedom  of 
form  in  the  ideas  themselves,  of  which  his 
predecessors  had  made  a  richer  manifestation. 
It  is  of  course  obvious  that  different  orders  of 
minds  require  different  kinds  of  artistic  food, 
and  the  world  would  not  be  well  served  without 
many  grades  and  standards  of  work.  Mendels- 
sohn did  good  service  in  supplying  a  form  of 
symphony  of  such  a  degree  of  freshness  and  light- 
ness as  to  appeal  at  once  to  a  class  of  people 
for  whom  the  sternness  and  power  of  Beethoven 
in  the  same  branch  of  art  would  often  be  too 
severe  a  test.  He  spoke  also  in  the  spirit  of  his 
time,  and  in  harmony  with  it ;  and  as  illustra- 
tions of  the  work  of  the  period  in  one  aspect  his 
symphonies  will  be  among  the  safest  to  refer  to. 
Among  his  contemporaries  the  one  most 
natural  to  bracket  with  him  is  Sterndale  Bennett, 
whose  views  of  art  were  extraordinarily  similar, 
and  who  was  actuated  in  many  respects  by  similar 
impulses.  His  published  contribution  to  the 
department  we  are  considering  is  extremely  slight. 
The  symphony  which  he  produced  in  1834 
was  practically  withdrawn  by  him,  and  the  only 
other  work  of  the  kind  which  he  allowed  to  be 
published  was  the  one  which  was  written  for 
the  Philharmonic  Society,  and  first  played  in  1864. 
The  work  is  slight,  and  it  is  recorded  that  he  did 
not  at  first  put  it  forward  as  a  symphony.  It  had 
originally  but  three  movements,  one  of  which, 
the  charming  minuet  and  trio,  was  imported 
from  the  Cambridge  Installation  Ode  of  1862. 
A  slow  movement  called  Komanze  was  added 
afterwards.  Sterndale  Bennett  was  a  severe 
classicist  in  his  views  about  form  in  music,  and 

D 


3i 


SYMPHONY. 


the  present  symphony  does  not  show  anything 
sufficiently  marked  to  call  for  record  in  that 
respect.  It  is  singularly  quiet  and  unpretentious, 
and  characteristic  of  the  composer,  showing  his 
taste  and  delicacy  of  sentiment  together  with 
his  admirable  sense  of  symmetry  and  his  feeling 
for  tone  and  refined  orchestral  effect. 

The  contemporary  of  Mendelssohn  and  Stem- 
dale  Bennett  who  shows  in  most  marked  contrast 
with  them  is  Robert  Schumann.  He  seems  to 
represent  the  opposite  pole  of  music  ;  for  as  they 
depended  upon  art  and  made  clear  technical 
workmanship  their  highest  aim,  Schumann  was 
in  many  respects  positively  dependent  upon  his 
emotion.  Not  only  was  his  natural  disposition 
utterly  different  from  theirs,  but  so  was  his 
education.  Mendelssohn  and  Stenidale  Bennett 
went  through  severe  technical  drilling  in  their 
early  days.  Schumann  seems  to  have  developed 
his  technique  by  the  force  of  his  feelings,  and 
was  always  more  dependent  upon  them  in  the 
making  of  his  works  than  upon  general  prin- 
ciples and  external  stock  rules,  such  as  his  two 
contemporaries  were  satisfied  with.  The  case 
affords  an  excellent  musical  parallel  to  the 
common  circumstances  of  life ;  Mendelssohn  and 
Stemdale  Bennett  were  satisfied  to  accept  cer- 
tain rules  because  they  knew  that  they  were 
generally  accepted ;  whereas  Schumann  was  of 
tlie  nature  that  had  to  prove  all  things,  and 
find  for  himself  that  which  was  good.  The 
result  was,  as  often  happens,  that  Schumann 
affords  examples  of  technical  deficiencies,  and 
not  a  few  things  which  his  contemporaries  had 
reason  to  compare  unfavourably  with  the  works 
of  Mendelssohn  and  Sterndale  Bennett ;  but  in 
the  end  his  best  work  is  far  more  interesting, 
and  far  more  deeply  felt,  and  far  more  really 
earnest  through  and  through  than  theirs.  It 
is  worth  observing  also  that  his  feelings  towards 
them  were  disinterested  admiration  and  enthu- 
siasm, while  they  thought  very  slightly  of  him. 
They  were  also  the  successful  composers  of  their 
time,  and  at  the  head  of  their  profession,  while 
he  was  looked  upon  as  a  sort  of  half  amateur, 
part  mystic  and  part  incompetent.  Such  cir- 
cumstances as  these  have  no  little  effect  upon 
a  man's  artistic  development,  and  drive  him 
in  upon  his  own  resources.  Up  to  a  certain 
point  the  result  for  the  world  in  this  instance 
was  advantageous.  Schumann  developed  alto- 
gether his  own  method  of  education.  He  began 
with  songs  and  more  or  less  small  pianoforte 
pieces.  By  working  liard  in  these  departments 
he  developed  his  own  emotional  language,  and 
in  course  of  time,  but  relatively  late  in  life  as 
compared  with  most  other  composers,  he  seemed 
to  arrive  at  the  point  when  experiment  on  the 
scale  of  the  Symphony  was  possible.  In  a  letter 
to  a  friend  he  expressed  his  feeling  that  the 
pianoforte  was  becoming  too  narrow  for  his 
thoughts,  and  that  he  must  try  orchestral  compo- 
sition. The  fruit  of  this  resolve  was  the  Bb  Sym- 
phony (op.  38),  which  was  produced  at  Leipzig 
in  1 841,  and  was  probably  his  first  important 
orchestral  work.    It  is  quite  extraordinary  how 


SYMPHONY. 

successfully  he  grappled  with  the  diflaculties  of 
the  greatest  style  of  composition  at  the  first 
attempt.  The  manner  is  thoroughly  S3'mphonic, 
impressive  and  broad,  and  the  ideas  are  more 
genuinely  instrumental  both  in  form  and  expres- 
sion than  Mendelssohn's,  and  far  more  incisive 
in  detail,  which  in  instrumental  music  is  a  most 
vital  matter.  Mendelssohn  had  great  readiness 
for  making  a  tune,  and  it  is  as  clear  as  possible 
that  when  he  went  about  to  make  a  large  instru- 
mental work  his  first  thought  was  to  find  a  good 
tune  to  begin  upon.  Schumann  seems  to  have 
aimed  rather  at  a  definite  and  strongly  marked 
idea,  and  to  have  allowed  it  to  govern  the  form 
of  period  or  phrase  in  which  it  was  presented. 
In  this  he  was  radically  in  accord  with  both 
Mozart  and  Beethoven.  The  former  in  his  in- 
strumental works  very  commonly  made  what  is 
called  the  principal  subject  out  of  two  distinct 
items,  which  seem  contrasted  externally  in  cer- 
tain characteristics  and  yet  are  inevitable  to  one 
another.  Beethoven  frequently  satisfied  himself 
with  one  principal  one,  as  in  the  first  movements 
of  the  Eroica  and  the  C  minor;  and  even  where 
there  are  two  more  or  less  distinct  figures,  they 
are  joined  very  closely  into  one  phrase,  as  in  the 
Pastoral,  the  No.  8,  and  the  first  movement  of 
the  Choral.  The  first  movement  of  Schumann's 
Bb  Symphony  shows  the  same  characteristic. 
The  movement  seems  almost  to  depend  upon  the 
simple  but  very  definite  first  figure — 


I 


which  is  given  out  in  slow  time  in  the  Intro- 
duction,^ and  worked  up  as  by  a  mind  pondering 
over  its  possibilities,  finally  breaking  away  with 
vigorous  freshness  and  confidence  in  the  *  Allegro 
molto  Vivace.'  The  whole  first  section  depends 
upon  the  development  of  this  figure ;  and  even 
the  horns,  which  have  the  last  utterances  before 
the  second  subject  appears,  continue  to  repeat 
its  rhythm  with  diminishing  force.  The  second 
subject  necessarily  presents  a  different  aspect  al- 
together, and  is  in  marked  contrast  to  the  first, 
but  it  similarly  depends  upon  the  clear  character 
of  the  short  figures  of  which  it  is  composed, 
and  its  gradual  work  up  from  the  quiet  begin- 
ning to  the  loud  climax,  ends  in  the  reappear- 
ance of  the  rhythmic  foi-m  belonging  to  the 
principal  figure  of  the  movement.  The  whole 
of  the  working-out  portion  depends  upon  the 
same  figure,  which  is  presented  in  various  as- 
pects and  with  the  addition  of  new  features 
and  ends  in  a  climax  which  introduces  the 
same  figure  in  a  slow  form,  very  emphatically, 
corresponding  to  the  statement  in  the  Introduc- 
tion. To  this  climax  the  recapitulation  is  duly 
welded  on.  The  coda  again  makes  the  most 
of  the  same  figure,  in  yet  fresh  aspects.  The 
latter  part  is  to  all  intents  independent,  appa- 
rently a  sort  of  reflection  on  what  has  gone 
before,  and  is  so  far  in  definite  contrast  as  to 
explain  itself.     The  whole  movement  is  direct 

1  6m  the  curious  anecdote,  toI.  ill.  p.  Hi. 


SYMPHONY. 

and  simple  in  style,  and  for  Schumann,  singu- 
larly bright  and  cheerful.  The  principles  upon 
which  he  constructed  and  used  his  principal 
subjects  in  this  movement  are  followed  in  the 
first  movements  of  the  other  symphonies ;  most 
of  all  in  the  D  minor ;  clearly  in  the  C  major ; 
and  least  in  the  Eb,  which  belongs  to  the  later 
period  of  his  life.  But  even  in  this  last  he 
aims  at  gaining  the  same  result,  though  by  dif- 
ferent means ;  and  the  subject  is  as  free  as  any 
from  the  tune-qualities  which  destroy  the  com- 
plete individuality  of  an  instrumental  subject  in 
its  most  perfect  and  positive  sense.  In  the  first 
movement  of  the  D  minor  he  even  went  so  far 
as  to  make  some  important  departures  from  the 
usual  outlines  of  form,  which  are  rendered  pos- 
sible chiefly  by  the  manner  in  which  he  used  the 
characteristic  figure  of  his  principal  subject.  It 
is  first  introduced  softly  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
Introduction,  and  gains  force  quickly,  so  that  in 
a  few  bars  it  breaks  away  in  the  vigorous  and 
passionate  allegro  in  the  following  form — 


SYMPHONY. 


35 


which  varies  in  the  course  of  the  movement  to 


^fe^^ 


and^F^^^ 


In  one  or  other  of  these  forms  it  continues 
almost  ceaselessly  throughout  the  whole  move- 
ment, either  as  actual  subject  or  accompaniment; 
in  the  second  section  it  serves  in  the  latter 
capacity.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  working-out 
section  a  fresh  subject  of  gentler  character  is 
introduced,  seeming  to  stem  and  mitigate  the 
vehemence  expressed  by  the  principal  figures  of 
the  first  subject :  from  the  time  this  new  subject 
makes  its  appearance  there  continues  a  sort  of 
conflict  between  the  two;  the  vehement  subject 
constantly  breaking  in  with  apparently  undimin- 
ished fire,  and  seeming  at  times  to  have  the  upper 
hand,  till  just  at  the  end  the  major  of  the  origi- 
nal key  (D  minor)  is  taken,  and  the  more  genial 
subject  appears  in  a  firm  and  more  determined 
form,  as  if  asserting  its  rights  over  the  wild 
first  subject ;  and  thereupon,  when  the  latter 
reappears,  it  is  in  a  much  more  genial  character, 
and  its  reiteration  at  the  end  of  the  movement 
gives  the  impression  of  the  triumph  of  hope  and 
trust  in  good,  over  the  seeds  of  passion  and 
despair.  The  result  of  the  method  upon  which 
the  movement  is  developed  is  to  give  the  impres- 
sion of  both  external  and  spiritual  form.  The 
requirements  of  key,  modulation,  and  subject 
are  fulfilled,  though,  from  the  point  of  view  of 
classical  orthodoxy,  with  unusual  freedom.  The 
spiritual  form, — the  expression  in  musical  terms 
of  a  type  of  mental  conflict,  so  depicted  that 
thinking  beings  can  perceive  the  sequence  to 
be  true  of  themselves — is  also  very  prominent, 
and  is  the  most  important  element  in  the  work, 
as  is  the  case  in  all  Schumann's  best  works ; 
moreover  in  this  movement  everything  is  strongly 
individual,  and  warm  with  real  musical  life  in 


his  own  style ;  which  was  not  altogether  the 
case  with  the  first  movement  of  the  Bb.  In 
the  C  major  Symphony  (op.  6i)  the  first  allegro 
is  ushered  in  by  a  slow  introduction  of  important 
and  striking  character,  containing,  like  those 
of  the  two  just  mentioned,  anticipations  of  its 
principal  figures.  In  the  allegro  the  two  principal 
subjects  are  extremely  strong  in  character,  and 
the  consistent  way  in  which  the  whole  movement 
is  developed  upon  the  basis  of  tlieir  constituent 
figures,  with  allusions  to  those  of  the  introduction, 
is  most  remarkable.  Here  again  there  is  a  sort 
of  conflict  between  the  principal  ideas.  The  first 
subject  is  just  stated  twice  (the  second  time 
with  certain  appropriate  changes),  and  then  a 
start  is  instantly  made  in  the  Dominant  key, 
with  new  figures  characteristic  of  the  second 
section ;  transition  is  made  to  flat  keys  and 
back,  and  an  allusion  to  the  first  subject  ends 
the  first  half;  but  all  is  closely  consistent, 
vigorous,  and  concise.  The  development  portion 
is  also  most  closely  worked  upon  the  principal 
subjects,  which  are  treated,  as  it  seems,  exhaus- 
tively, presenting  especially  the  figures  of  the 
second  subject  in  all  sorts  of  lights,  and  with 
freshness  and  warmth  of  imagination,  and  variety 
of  tone  and  character.  The  recapitulation  is  pre- 
ceded by  allusions  to  the  charactei-istic  features 
of  the  introduction,  considerably  transformed, 
but  still  sufficiently  recognisable  to  tell  their 
tale.  The  coda  is  made  by  fresh  treatment  of 
the  figures  of  the  principal  subjects  in  vigorous 
and  brilliant  development. 

The  Symphony  in  Eb  has  no  introduction,  and 
Schumann  seems  to  have  aimed  at  getting  his 
strong  effects  of  subject  in  this  case  by  means 
other  than  the  vigorous  and  clear  rhythmic  forms 
which  characterise  the  first  movements  of  the 
earlier  symphonies.  The  eff"ect  is  obtained  by 
syncopations  and  cross  rhythms,  which  alter- 
nately obscure  and  strengthen  the  principal 
beats  of  the  bar,  and  produce  an  eff'ect  of 
wild  and  passionate  effort,  which  is  certainly 
striking,  though  not  so  immediately  intelligible 
as  the  rhythmic  forms  of  the  previous  sym- 
phonies. The  second  subject  is  in  strong  con- 
trast, having  a  more  gentle  and  appealing  cha- 
racter ;  but  it  is  almost  overwhelmed  by  the 
recurrence  of  the  syncopations  of  the  principal 
subject,  which  make  their  appearance  with  per- 
sistency in  the  second  as  in  the  first  section, 
having  in  that  respect  a  very  clear  poetical  or 
spiritual  meaning.  The  whole  development  of 
the  movement  is  again  consistent  and  impressive, 
though  not  so  fresh  as  in  the  other  symphonies. 
As  a  point  characteristic  of  Schumann,  the 
extreme  conciseness  of  the  first  section  of  the  first 
movement  in  the  Bb,  D  minor,  and  C  major 
Symphonies  is  to  be  noticed,  as  it  bears  strongly 
upon  the  cultivated  judgment  and  intelligence 
which  marks  his  treatment  of  this  great  instru- 
mental form.  The  first  half  is  treated  almost  as 
pure  exposition;  the  working-out  having  logi- 
cally the  greater  part  of  interesting  development 
of  the  ideas.  The  recapitulation  is  generally 
free,  and  in  the  D  minor  Symphony  is  practically 

D  2 


86 


SYMPHONY. 


supplanted  by  novel  methods  of  balancing  the 
structure  of  the  movement.  The  coda  either 
presents  new  features,  or  takes  fresh  aspects 
of  the  principal  ones,  enhanced  by  new  turns 
of  modulation,  and  ending  with  the  insistance 
on  the  primary  harmonies  of  the  principal  key, 
which  is  necessary  to  the  stability  of  the  move- 
ment. In  all  these  respects  Schumann  is  a 
most  worthy  successor  to  Beethoven.  He  re- 
presents his  intellectual  side  in  the  consistency 
with  which  he  developes  the  whole  movement 
from  a  few  principal  features,  and  the  freshness 
and  individuality  with  which  he  treats  the 
firm;  and  he  shows  plenty  of  the  emotional 
and  spiritual  side  in  the  passionate  or  tender 
qualities  of  his  subjects,  and  the  way  in  which 
they  are  distributed  relatively  to  one  another. 
Schumann's  sjnnphonic  slow  movements  have 
also  a  distinctive  character  of  their  own.  Though 
extremely  concise,  they  are  all  at  the  same  time 
rich  and  full  of  feeling.  They  are  somewhat  in 
the  fashion  of  a  *  Romanze,'  that  in  the  D 
Symphony  being  definitely  so  called;  and  their 
development  depends  rather  upon  an  emotional 
than  an  intellectual  basis;  as  it  seems  most  just 
that  a  slow  movement  should.  His  object  appears 
to  have  been  to  find  some  noble  and  aspiring 
tjtrain  of  melody,  and  to  contrast  it  with  episodes 
of  similar  character,  which  carry  on  and  bear 
upon  the  principal  idea  without  diverting  the 
chain  of  thought  into  a  different  channel.  Hence 
the  basis  of  the  movements  is  radically  lyrical ; 
and  this  affords  an  important  element  of  contrast 
to  the  first  movement,  in  which  there  is  always 
an  antithetical  element  in  the  contrast  of  the 
two  principal  subjects.  The  romanze  of  the 
D  Symphony  is  constructed  on  a  different  prin- 
ciple ;  the  sections  and  musical  material  being 
strongly  contrasted;  this  may  be  partly  owing 
to  the  closeness  of  its  connection  with  other  parts 
of  the  symphony,  as  will  be  noticed  further  on. 
The  scherzos,  including  that  in  the  'Overture 
Scherzo  and  Finale '  (op.  52),  have  a  family  like- 
ness to  one  another,  though  their  outlines  are  dif- 
ferent ;  they  all  illustrate  a  phase  of  musical  and 
poetical  development  in  their  earnest  character 
and  the  vein  of  sadness  which  pervades  them. 
The  light  and  graceful  gaiety  of  most  of  the 
minuets  of  Haydn  and  Mozart  is  scarcely  to  be 
traced  in  them ;  but  its  place  is  taken  by  a 
certain  wild  rush  of  animal  spirits,  mixed  up  in 
a  strange  and  picturesque  way  with  expressions 
of  tenderness  and  regret.  These  scherzos  are  in 
a  sense  unique  ;  for  though  following  in  the  same 
direction  as  Beethoven's  in  some  respects,  they 
have  but  little  of  his  sense  of  fun  and  grotesc^ue, 
while  the  vein  of  genuine  melancholy  which  per- 
vades them  certainly  finds  no  counterpart  either 
in  Spohr  or  Mendelssohn ;  and,  if  it  may  be 
traced  in  Schubert,  it  is  still  in  comparison  far 
less  prominent.  In  fact  Schumann's  scherzos  are 
specially  curious  and  interesting,  even  apart  from 
the  ordinary  standpoint  of  a  musician,  as  illus- 
trating a  phase  of  the  intellectual  progress  of  the 
race.  Schumann  belonged  to  the  order  of  men 
with  large  and  at  the  same  time  delicate  sym- 


SYMPHONY. 

pathies,  whose  disposition  becomes  so  deeply 
impressed  with  the  misfortunes  and  unsolvable 
difficulties  which  beset  his  own  lot  and  that  of 
his  fellow  men,  that  pure  unmixed  lighthearted- 
ness  becomes  almost  impossible.  The  poetical 
and  thoughtful  side  of  his  disposition,  which 
supplied  most  vital  ingredients  to  his  music, 
was  deeply  tinged  with  sadness ;  and  from  this 
he  was  hardly  ever  entirely  free.  He  could 
wear  an  aspect  of  cheerfulness,  but  the  sad- 
ness was  sure  to  peep  out,  and  in  this,  among 
thoughtful  and  poetically  disposed  beings,  he 
cannot  be  looked  upon  as  singular.  Hence  the 
position  of  the  Scherzo  in  modem  instrumental 
music  presents  certain  inevitable  difficulties. 
The  lively,  almost  childish,  merriment  of  early 
examples  cannot  be  attained  without  jarring 
upon  the  feelings  of  earnest  men ;  at  least  in 
works  on  such  a  scale  as  the  symphony,  where 
the  dignity  and  importance  of  the  form  inevit- 
ably produce  a  certain  sense  of  responsibility 
to  loftiness  of  purpose  in  the  carrying  out  of 
the  ideas.  A  movement  corresponding  to  the 
old  Scherzo  in  its  relation  to  the  other  move- 
ments had  to  be  formed  upon  far  more  compli- 
cated conditions.  The  essential  point  in  which 
Schumann  followed  his  predecessors  was  the  de- 
finition of  the  balancing  and  contrasting  sections. 
The  outlines  of  certain  groups  of  bars  are  nearly 
always  very  strongly  marked,  and  the  movement 
as  a  whole  is  based  rather  upon  effects  attainable 
by  the  juxtaposition  of  such  contrasting  sections 
than  upon  the  continuous  logical  or  emotional 
development  which  is  found  in  the  other 
movements.  The  structural  outline  of  the  old 
dance-forms  is  still  recognisable  in  this  respect, 
but  the  style  and  rhythm  bear  little  trace  of  the 
dance  origin;  or  at  least  the  dance  quality  has  been 
so  far  idealised  as  to  apply  rather  to  thought  and 
feeling  than  to  expressive  rhythmic  play  of  limbs. 
In  Schumann's  first  Symphony  the  scherzo  has 
some  qualities  of  style  which  connect  it  with  the 
minuets  of  earlier  times,  even  of  Mozart;  but 
with  these  there  are  genuine  characteristic  traits 
of  expression.  In  the  later  scherzos  the  poetical 
meaning  seems  more  apparent.  In  fact  the  scherzo 
and  the  slow  movement  are  linked  together  as  the 
two  sections  of  the  work  most  closely  representa- 
tive of  human  emotion  and  circumstance ;  the  first 
and  last  movements  having  more  evident  depend- 
ence upon  what  are  called  abstract  qualities  of 
form.  In  its  structural  outlines  Schumann's 
Scherzo  presents  certain  features.  In  the  Sym- 
phonies in  Bb  and  C  he  adopts  the  device  of  two 
trios.  Beethoven  had  repeated  the  trio  in  two 
symphonies  (4th  and  7th),  and  Schimaann  ad- 
vanced in  the  same  direction  by  writing  a  second 
trio  instead  of  repeating  the  first,  and  by  making 
the  two  trios  contrast  not  only  with  the  scherzo, 
but  also  with  each  other ;  and  as  a  further  result 
the  trios  stand  centrally  in  relation  to  the  first 
and  last  statement  of  the  scherzo,  while  it  in  its 
turn  stands  centrally  between  them,  and  thus  the 
whole  structure  of  the  movement  gains  in  in- 
terest. It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  codas  to  all 
Schumann's  scherzos  are  specially  interesting  and 


SYMPHONY. 

full;  and  some  of  them  are  singular  in  the  fact 
that  they  form  an  independent  little  section  con- 
veying its  own  ideas  apart  from  those  of  the 
principal  subjects.  His  finales  are  less  remark- 
able on  general  grounds,  and  on  the  whole  less 
interesting  than  his  other  movements.  The  diffi- 
culty of  conforming  to  the  old  type  of  light 
movements  was  even  moresevere  for  him  than  it 
was  for  Beethoven,  and  hence  he  was  the  more 
constrained  to  follow  the  example  set  by  Bee- 
thoven of  concluding  with  something  weighty 
and  forcible,  which  should  make  a  fitting  crown 
to  the  work  in  those  respects,  rather  than  on  the 
principle  of  sending  the  audience  away  in  a  good 
humour.  In  the  Bb  Symphony  only  does  the 
last  movement  aim  at  gaiety  and  lightness ;  in 
the  other  three  symphonies  and  the  Overture, 
Scherzo,  and  Finale,  the  finales  are  all  of  the 
same  type,  with  broad  and  simple  subjects  and 
strongly  emphasised  rhythms.  The  rondo  form 
is  only  obscurely  hinted  at  in  one ;  in  the  others 
the  development  is  very  free,  but  based  on  binary 
form ;  and  the  style  of  expression  and  develop- 
ment is  purposely  devoid  of  elaboration. 

Besides  the  points  which  have  been  already 
mentioned  in  the  development  of  the  individual 
movements,  Schumann's  work  is  conspicuous  for 
his  attempts  to  bind  the  whole  together  in  various 
ways.  Not  only  did  he  make  the  movements 
run  into  each  other,  but  in  several  places  he 
connects  them  by  reproducing  the  ideas  of  one 
movement  in  others,  and  even  by  using  the  same 
important  features  in  different  guises  as  the  essen- 
tial basis  of  different  movements.  In  the  Sym- 
phony in  C  there  are  some  interesting  examples 
of  this ;  but  the  Symphony  in  D  is  the  most 
remarkable  experiment  of  the  kind  yet  produced, 
and  may  be  taken  as  a  fit  type  of  the  highest 
order.  In  the  first  place  all  the  movements 
run  into  each  other  except  the  first  and  second ; 
and  even  there  the  first  movement  is  purposely 
so  ended  as  to  give  a  sense  of  incompleteness 
unless  the  next  movement  is  proceeded  with  at 
once.  The  first  subject  of  the  first  movement 
and  the  first  of  the  last  are  connected  by  a 
strong  characteristic  figure,  which  is  common 
to  both  of  them.  The  persistent  way  in  which 
this  figure  is  used  in  the  first  movement  has 
already  been  described.  It  is  not  maintained 
to  the  same  extent  in  the  last  movement ;  but 
it  makes  a  strong  impression  in  its  place  there, 
pai-tly  by  its  appearing  conspicuously  in  the 
accompaniment,  and  partly  by  the  way  it  is  led 
up  to  in  the  sort  of  intermezzo  which  connects 
the  scherzo  and  the  last  movement,  where  it 
seems  to  be  introduced  at  first  as  a  sort  of  re- 
minder of  the  beginning  of  the  work,  and  as  if 
suggesting  the  clue  to  its  meaning  and  purpose ; 
and  is  made  to  increase  in  force  with  each  re- 
petition till  the  start  is  made  with  the  finale. 
In  the  same  manner  the  introduction  is  connected 
with  the  slow  movement  or  romanze,  by  the  use 
of  its  musical  material  for  the  second  division  of 
that  movement;  and  the  figure  which  is  most 
conspicuous  in  the  middle  of  the  romanze  runs  all 
through  the  trio  of  the  succeeding  movement.  So 


SYMPHONY. 


87 


that  the  series  of  movements  are  as  it  were  inter- 
laced by  their  subject-matter ;  and  the  result  is 
that  the  whole  gives  the  impression  of  a  single 
and  consistent  musical  poem.  The  way  in  which 
the  subjects  recur  may  suggest  different  ex- 
planations to  different  people,  and  hence  it  is 
dangerous  to  try  and  fix  one  in  definite  terms 
describing  particular  circumstances.  But  the 
important  fact  is  that  the  work  can  be  felt  to 
represent  in  its  entirety  the  history  of  a  series 
of  mental  or  emotional  conditions  such  as  may 
be  grouped  round  one  centre;  in  other  words, 
the  group  of  impressions  which  go  to  make  the 
innermost  core  of  a  given  story  seems  to  be 
faithfully  expressed  in  musical  terms  and  in 
accordance  with  the  laws  which  are  indispens- 
able to  a  work  of  art.  The  conflict  of  impulses 
and  desires,  the  different  phases  of  thought  and 
emotion,  and  the  triumph  or  failure  of  the  different 
forces  which  seem  to  be  represented,  all  give  the 
impression  of  belonging  to  one  personality,  and  of 
being  perfectly  consistent  in  their  relation  to 
one  another;  and  by  this  means  a  very  high 
example  of  all  that  most  rightly  belongs  to 
programme  music  is  presented.  Schumann  how- 
ever wisely  gave  no  definite  clue  to  fix  the  story 
in  terms.  The  original  autograph  has  the  title 
*  Symphonische  Fantaisie  fur  grosses  Orchester, 
skizzirt  im  Jahre  1841;  neu  instrumentirt  1851.' 
In  the  published  score  it  is  called  'Symphony,' 
and  numbered  as  the  fourth,  though  it  really 
came  second.  Schumann  left  several  similar 
examples  in  other  departments  of  instrumental 
music,  but  none  so  fully  and  carefully  carried 
out.  In  the  department  of  Symphony  he  never 
again  made  so  elaborate  an  experiment.  In  his 
last,  however,  that  in  Eb,  he  avowedly  worked 
on  impressions  which  supplied  him  with  some- 
thing of  a  poetical  basis,  though  he  does  not  make 
use  of  characteristic  figures  and  subjects  to  con- 
nect the  movements  with  one  another.  The 
impressive  fourth  movement  is  one  of  the  most 
singular  in  the  range  of  symphonic  music,  and  is 
meant  to  express  the  feelings  produced  in  him 
by  the  ceremonial  at  the  enthronement  of  a 
Cardinal  in  Cologne  Cathedral.  The  last  move- 
ment has  been  said  to  embody  *  the  bustle  and 
flow  of  Rhenish  holiday  life,  on  coming  out  into 
the  town  after  the  conclusion  of  the  ceremony  in 
the  Cathedral.'  ^  Of  the  intention  of  the  scherzo 
nothing  special  is  recorded,  but  the  principal 
subject  has  much  of  the  '  local  colour '  of  the 
German  national  dances. 

As  a  whole,  Schumann's  contributions  to  the 
department  of  Symphony  are  by  far  the  most 
important  since  Beethoven.  As  a  master  of 
orchestration  he  is  less  certain  than  his  fellows  of 
equal  standing.  There  are  passages  which  rise 
to  the  highest  points  of  beauty  and  effectiveness, 
as  in  the  slow  movement  of  the  C  major  Sym- 
phony; and  his  aim  to  balance  his  end  and 
his  means  was  of  the  highest,  and  the  way  in 
which  he  works  it  out  is  original ;  but  both  the 
bent  of  his  mind  and  his  education  inclined  him 
to  be   occasionally  less  pellucid  than  his  prede- 

»  For  Schumann's  Intention  see  Wassielewiky,  3rd  ed.  2C9. 272. 


38 


SYMPHONY. 


cessors,  and  to  give  his  instruments  things  to  do 
which  are  not  perfectly  adapted  to  their  idiosyn- 
crasies. On  the  other  hand,  in  vigour,  richness, 
poetry  and  earnestness,  as  well  as  in  the  balance 
which  he  was  able  to  maintain  between  origin- 
ality and  justness  of  art,  his  works  stand  at  the 
highest  point  among  the  moderns  whose  work  is 
done;  and  have  had  great  and  lasting  effect 
upon  his  successors. 

The  advanced  point  to  which  the  history  of 
the  Symphony  has  arrived  is  shown  by  the  way 
in  which  composers  have  become  divided  into  two 
camps,  whose  characteristics  are  most  easily 
understood  in  their  extremest  representatives. 
The  growing  tendency  to  attach  positive  mean- 
ing to  music,  as  music,  has  in  course  of  time 
brought  about  a  new  position  of  affairs  in  the 
instrumental  branch  of  art.  We  have  already 
pointed  out  how  the  strict  outlines  of  form  in 
instrumental  works  came  to  be  modified  by  the 
growing  individuality  of  the  subject.  As  long  as 
subjects  were  produced  upon  very  simple  lines, 
which  in  most  cases  resembled  one  another  in  all 
but  very  trifling  external  particulars,  there  was  no 
reason  why  the  structure  of  the  whole  movement 
should  grow  either  complex  or  individual.  But 
as  the  subject  (which  stands  in  many  cases  as 
a  sort  of  text)  came  to  expand  its  harmonic  out- 
lines and  to  gain  force  and  meaning,  it  reacted 
more  and  more  upon  the  form  of  the  whole  move- 
ment ;  and  at  the  same  time  the  musical  spirit 
of  the  whole,  as  distinguished  from  the  technical 
aspects  of  structure,  was  concentrated  and  unified, 
and  became  more  prominent  as  an  important 
constituent  of  the  artistic  etisemhle.  In  many 
cases,  such  as  small  movements  of  a  lyrical  cha- 
racter for  single  instruments,  the  so-called  classi- 
cal principles  of  form  were  almost  lost  sight  of, 
and  the  movement  was  left  to  depend  altogether 
upon  the  consistency  of  the  musical  expression 
throughout.  Sometimes  these  movements  had 
names  suggesting  more  or  less  of  a  programme ; 
but  this  was  not  by  any  means  invariable  or  neces- 
sary. For  in  such  cases  as  Chopin's  Preludes,  and 
some  of  Schumann's  little  movements,  there  is 
no  programme  given,  and  none  required  by  the 
listener.  The  movement  depends  successfully 
upon  the  meaning  which  the  music  has  sufficient 
character  of  its  own  to  convey.  In  such  cases  the 
art  form  is  still  thoroughly  pure,  and  depends  upon 
the  development  of  music  as  music.  But  in  pro- 
cess of  time  a  new  position  beyond  this  has  been 
assumed.  Supposing  the  subjects  and  figures  of 
music  to  be  capable  of  expressing  something 
which  is  definite  enough  to  be  put  into  words, 
it  is  argued  that  the  classical  principles  of  struc- 
ture may  be  altogether  abandoned,  even  in  their 
broadest  outlines,  and  a  new  starting-point  for 
instrumental  music  attained,  on  the  principle  of 
following  the  circumstances  of  a  story,  or  the 
Buccession  of  emotions  connected  with  a  given 
idea,  or  the  flow  of  thought  suggested  by  the 
memory  of  a  place  or  person  or  event  of  history, 
or  some  such  means  ;  and  that  this  would  serve 
as  a  basis  of  consistency  and  a  means  of  uni- 
fying the  whole,  without  the  common  resources 


SYMPHONY. 

of  tonal  or  harmonic  distribution.  The  story  or 
event  must  be  supposed  to  have  impressed  the 
composer  deeply,  and  the  reaction  to  be  an  out- 
flow of  music,  expressing  the  poetical  imaginings 
of  the  author  better  than  words  would  do.  In 
some  senses  this  may  still  be  pure  art ;  where 
the  musical  idea  has  really  sufficient  vigour  and 
vitality  in  itself  to  be  appreciated  without  the 
help  of  the  external  excitement  of  the  imagina- 
tion which  is  attained  by  giving  it  a  local  habi- 
tation and  a  name.  For  then  tlie  musical  idea 
may  still  have  its  full  share  in  the  development 
of  the  work,  and  may  pervade  it  intrinsically  as 
music,  and  not  solely  as  representing  a  story 
or  series  of  emotions  which  are,  primarily,  ex- 
ternal to  the  music.  But  when  the  element 
of  realism  creeps  in,  or  the  ideas  depend  for  their 
interest  upon  their  connection  with  a  given 
programme,  the  case  is  different.  The  test  seems 
to  lie  in  the  attitude  of  mind  of  the  composer. 
If  the  story  or  programme  of  any  sort  is  merely 
a  secondary  matter  which  exerts  a  general  influ- 
ence upon  the  music,  while  the  attention  is  con- 
centrated upon  the  musical  material  itself  and 
its  legitimate  artistic  development,  the  advan- 
tages gained  can  hardly  be  questioned.  The 
principle  not  only  conforms  to  what  is  known  of 
the  practice  of  the  greatest  masters,  but  is  on 
abstract  grounds  perfectly  unassailable  ;  on  the 
other  hand,  if  the  programme  is  the  primary 
element,  upon  which  the  mind  of  the  composer 
is  principally  fixed,  and  by  means  of  which  the 
work  attains  a  specious  excuse  for  abnormal  de- 
velopment, independent  of  the  actual  musical 
sequence  of  ideas,  then  the  principle  is  open  to 
question,  and  may  lead  to  most  unsatisfactory 
results.  The  greatest  of  modem  programme 
com])osers  came  to  a  certain  extent  into  this 
position.  The  development  of  pure  abstract 
instrumental  music  seems  to  have  been  almost 
the  monopoly  of  the  German  race ;  French 
and  Italians  have  had  a  readier  disposition  for 
theatrical  and  at  best  dramatic  music.  Berlioz 
had  an  extraordinary  perception  of  the  possi- 
bilities of  instrumental  music,  and  appreciated 
the  greatest  works  of  the  kind  by  other  com- 
posers as  fully  as  the  best  of  his  contemporaries ; 
but  it  was  not  his  ovm  natural  way  of  expressing 
himself.  His  natural  bent  was  always  towards 
the  dramatic  elements  of  eflfect  and  dramatic 
principles  of  treatment.  It  seems  to  have  been 
necessary  to  him  to  find  some  moving  circum- 
stance to  guide  and  intensify  his  inspiration. 
When  his  mind  was  excited  in  such  a  manner  he 
produced  the  most  extraordinary  and  original 
effects ;  and  the  fluency  and  clearness  with 
which  he  expressed  himself  was  of  the  highest 
order.  His  genius  for  orchestration,  his  vigor- 
ous rhythms,  and  the  enormous  volumes  of 
sound  which  he  was  as  much  master  of  as  the 
most  delicate  subtleties  of  small  combinations 
of  instruments,  have  the  most  powerful  efiect 
upon  the  hearer ;  while  his  vivid  dramatic  per- 
ception goes  very  far  to  supply  the  place  of 
the  intrinsically  musical  development  which 
characterises  the  works  of  the  greatest  masters 


SYMPHONY. 

of  abstract  music.  But  on  the  other  hand,  as  is 
inevitable  from  the  position  he  adopted,  he  was 
forced  at  times  to  assume  a  theatrical  manner, 
and  a  style  which  savours  rather  of  the  stage 
than  of  the  true  dramatic  essence  of  the  situa- 
tions he  deals  with.  In  the  *Symphonie  Fan- 
tastique,'  for  instance,  which  he  also  called  'Epi- 
sode de  la  Vie  d'un  Artiste,'  his  management  of 
the  programme  principle  is  thorough  and  well- 
devised.  The  notion  of  the  ideal  object  of  the 
artist's  affections  being  represented  by  a  definite 
musical  figure,  called  the  *id^e  fixe,'  unifying 
the  work  throughout  by  its  constant  reappear- 
ance in  various  aspects  and  surroundings,  is  very 
happy;  and  the  way  in  which  he  treats  it  in 
several  parts  of  the  first  movement  has  some  of 
the  characteristic  qualities  of  the  best  kind  of 
development  of  ideas  and  figures,  in  the  purely 
musical  sense;  while  at  the  same  time  he  has 
obtained  most  successfully  the  expression  of  the 
implied  sequence  of  emotions,  and  the  absorption 
consequent  upon  the  contemplation  of  the  •  be- 
loved object.'  In  the  general  laying  out  of  the 
work  he  maintains  certain  vague  resemblances 
to  the  usual  symphonic  type.  The  slow  intro- 
duction, and  the  succeeding  Allegro  agitato — 
representing  his  passion,  and  therefore  based  to 
a  very  great  extent  on  the  'id^e  fixe' — are  equi- 
valent to  the  familiar  opening  movements  of 
the  classical  symphonies ;  and  moreover  there  is 
even  a  vague  resemblance  in  the  inner  structure 
of  the  Allegro  to  the  binary  form.  The  second 
movement,  called'  Unbal,'  correspondsin  position 
to  the  time-honoured  minuet  and  trio ;  and 
though  the  broad  outlines  are  very  free  there  is 
a  certain  suggestion  of  the  old  inner  form  in  the 
relative  disposition  of  the  valse  section  and  that 
devoted  to  the  '  idde  fixe.'  In  the  same  way  the 
*Scfene  aux  Champs'  corresponds  to  the  usual 
slow  movement.  In  the  remaining  movements 
the  programme  element  is  more  conspicuous.  A 
'Marche  au  supplice'  and  a  *  Songe  d'une  nuit  de 
Sabbat'  are  both  of  them  as  fit  as  possible  to 
excite  the  composer's  love  of  picturesque  and 
terrible  effects,  and  to  lead  him  to  attempt 
realistic  presentation,  or  even  a  sort  of  musical 
scene-painting,  in  which  some  of  the  character- 
istics of  instrumental  music  are  present,  though 
they  are  submerged  in  the  general  impression  by 
characteristics  of  the  opera.  The  effect  produced 
is  of  much  the  same  nature  as  of  that  of  pas- 
sages selected  from  operas  played  without  action 
in  the  concert-room.  In  fact,  in  his  little  pre- 
face, Berlioz  seems  to  imply  that  this  would  be  a 
just  way  to  consider  the  work,  and  the  condensed 
statement  of  his  view  of  programme  music 
there  given  is  worth  quoting :  *  Le  compositeur 
a  eu  pour  but  de  d^velopper,  dans  ce  qu'elles  ont 
de  musical,  diffdrentes  situations  de  la  vie  d'un 
artiste.  Le  plan  du  drame  instrumental,  prive 
du  secours  de  la  parole,  a  besoin  d'etre  expose 
d'avance.  Le  programme  (qui  est  indispensable 
k  rintelligence  complete  du  plan  drainatique  de 
I'ouvrage)  doit  dont  etre  consider^  comme  le  texte 
parld  d'un  Opera,  servant  k  amener  des  morceaux 
de  musique,  dont  il  motive  le  caractbre  et  I'ex- 


SYMPHONY. 


39 


pression.'*  This  is  a  very  important  and  clear 
statement  of  the  position,  and  marks  suflBciently 
the  essential  difference  between  the  principles  of 
the  most  advanced  writers  of  programme  music, 
and  those  adopted  by  Beethoven.  The  results  are 
in  fact  different  forms  of  art.  An  instrumental 
drama  is  a  fascinating  idea,  and  might  be  carried 
out  perfectly  within  the  limits  used  even  by 
Mozart  and  Haydn ;  but  if  the  programme  is  in- 
dispensable to  its  comprehension  those  limits  have 
been  passed.  This  does  not  necessarily  make 
the  form  of  art  an  illegitimate  one;  but  it  is 
most  important  to  realise  that  it  is  on  quite  a 
different  basis  from  the  type  of  the  instrumental 
symphony;  and  this  will  be  better  understood 
by  comparing  Berlioz's  statement  with  those 
Symphonies  of  Beethoven  and  Mendelssohn,  or 
even  of  Raff  and  Rubinstein,  where  the  adoption 
of  a  general  and  vague  title  gives  the  semblance 
of  a  similar  use  of  programme.  Beethoven  liked 
to  have  a  picture  or  scene  or  circumstance  in 
his  ^  mind ;  but  it  makes  all  the  difference  to 
the  form  of  art  whether  the  picture  or  story  is 
the  guiding  principle  in  the  development  of  the 
piece,  or  whether  the  development  follows  the 
natural  implication  of  the  positively  musical  idea. 
The  mere  occurrence,  in  one  of  these  forms,  of  a 
feature  which  is  characteristic  of  the  other,  is 
not  suflficient  to  bridge  over  the  distance  between 
them;  and  hence  the  'instrumental  drama'  or 
poem,  of  which  Berlioz  has  given  the  world  its 
finest  examples,  must  be  regarded  as  distinct 
from  the  regular  type  of  the  pure  instrumental 
symphony.  It  might  perhaps  be  fairly  regarded 
as  the  Celtic  counterpart  of  the  essentially  Teu- 
tonic form  of  art,  and  as  an  expression  of  the 
Italo-Gallic  ideas  of  instrumental  music  on  lines 
parallel  to  the  German  symphony;  but  in  reality 
it  is  scarcely  even  an  offshoot  of  the  old  sym- 
phonic stem;  and  it  will  be  far  better  for  the 
understanding  of  the  subject  if  the  two  forms 
of  art  are  kept  as  distinct  in  name  as  they  are  in 
principle. 

The  only  composer  of  really  great  mark  who 
has  worked  on  similar  lines  to  Berlioz  in  modem 
times  is  Liszt;  and  his  adoption  of  the  name 
'Symphonic  poem'  for  such  compositions  suffi- 
ciently defines  their  nature  without  bringing  them 
exactly  under  the  head  of  symphonies.  Of  these 
there  are  many,  constructed  on  absolutely  inde- 
pendent lines,  so  as  to  appear  as  musical  poems 
or  counterparts  of  actual  existing  poems,  on  such 
subjects  as  Mazeppa,  Prometheus,  Orpheus,  the 
battle  of  the  Huns,  the  '  Preludes  '  of  Lamartine, 
Hamlet,  and  so  forth.  [See  p.  io6.]  A  work 
which,  in  name  at  least,  trenches  upon  the  old 
lines  is  the  'Faust  Symphony,'  in  which  the  con- 
nection with  the  programme-principle  of  Berlioz 

I  The  composer  has  aimed  at  developing  various  situations  in  the 
life  of  an  artist,  so  far  as  seemed  musically  possible.  The  plan  of  an 
Instrumental  drama,  being  without  vfords,  requires  to  be  explained 
beforehand.  The  programme  (which  is  indispensable  to  the  perfect 
comprehension  of  the  dramatic  plan  of  the  work)  ought  therefore  to 
be  considered  In  the  light  of  the  spoken  text  of  an  Opera,  serving  to 
lead  up  to  the  pieces  of  music,  and  indicate  the  character  and  ex- 
pression. 

3  This  important  admission  was  made  by  Beethoven  toNeate:  'I 
have  always  a  picture  iu  my  thoughts  wheu  I  am  composiug,  aad 
work  to  It.'  (Thayer.  III.  343.) 


40 


SYMPHONY. 


is  emphasised  by  the  dedication  of  the  piece  to 
him.  In  this  work  the  connection  with  the  old 
form  of  symphony  is  perhaps  even  less  than  in 
the  examples  of  Berlioz.  Subjects  and  figures  are 
used  not  for  the  purposes  of  defining  the  artistic 
form,  but  to  describe  individuals,  ideas,  or  cir- 
cumstances. The  main  divisions  of  the  work  are 
ostensibly  three,  which  are  called  'character  pic- 
tures'  of  Faust,  Margaret,  and  Mephistopheles 
severally ;  and  the  whole  concludes  with  a  setting 
of  the  'Chorus  mysticus.'  Figures  are  used 
after  the  manner  of  Wagner's  'Leit-motiven'  to 
portray  graphically  such  things  as  bewildered 
inquiry,  anxious  agitation,  love,  and  mockery, 
besides  the  special  figure  or  melody  given  for  each 
individual  as  a  whole.  These  are  so  interwoven 
and  developed  by  modifications  and  transfonna- 
tions  suited  to  express  the  circumstances,  as  to 
present  the  speculations  of  the  composer  on  the 
character  and  the  philosophy  of  the  poem  in 
various  interesting  lights  ;  and  his  great  mastery 
of  orchestral  expression  and  fluency  of  style  con- 
tribute to  its  artistic  importance  on  its  own  hasia; 
while  in  general  the  treatment  of  the  subject 
is  more  psychological  and  less  pictorially  realistic 
than  the  prominent  portions  of  Berlioz's  work, 
and  therefore  slightly  nearer  in  spirit  to  the 
classical  models.  But  with  all  its  striking  char- 
acteristics and  successful  points  the  music  does 
not  approach  Berlioz  in  vitality  or  breadth  of 
musical  idea,         '- 

The  few  remaining  modern  composers  of  sym- 
phonies belong  essentially  to  the  German  school, 
even  when  adopting  the  general  advantage  of 
a,  vague  title.  Prominent  among  these  are  KafF 
and  Rubinstein,  whose  methods  of  dealing  with 
instrumental  music  are  at  bottom  closely  related. 
Raff  almost  invariably  adopted  a  title  for  his 
instrumental  works ;  but  those  which  he  selected 
admit  of  the  same  kind  of  general  interpretation 
as  those  of  Mendelssohn,  and  serve  rather  as  a 
means  of  unifying  the  general  tone  and  style  of 
the  work  than  of  pointing  out  the  lines  of  actual 
development.  The  several  Seasons,  for  instance, 
serve  as  the  general  idea  for  a  symphony  each. 
Another  is  called  *Im  Walde.'  In  another 
several  conditions  in  the  progress  of  the  life  of  a 
man  serve  as  a  vague  basis  for  giving  a  certain 
consistency  of  character  to  the  style  of  expression, 
in  a  way  quite  consonant  with  the  pure  type.  In 
one  case  Raif  comes  nearer  to  the  Berlioz  ideal, 
namely  in  the  Lenore  Symphony,  in  some  parts 
of  which  he  clearly  attempts  to  depict  a  suc- 
cession of  events.  But  even  when  this  is  most 
pronounced,  as  in  the  latter  part  of  the  work, 
there  is  very  little  that  is  not  perfectly  intel- 
ligible and  appreciable  as  music  without  re- 
ference to  the  poem.  As  a  matter  of  fact  Raff 
is  always  rather  free  and  relaxed  in  his  form; 
but  that  is  not  owing  to  his  adoption  of  pro- 
gramme, since  the  same  characteristic  is  observ- 
able in  works  that  have  no  name  as  in  those  that 
have.  The  ease  and  speed  with  which  he  wrote, 
and  the  readiness  with  which  he  could  call  up  a 
certain  kind  of  genial,  and  often  very  attractive 
ideas,  both  interfered  with  the  concentration 


SYMPHONY. 

necessary  for  developing  a  closely-knit  and  com- 
pact work  of  art.  His  ideas  are  clearly  defined 
and  very  intelligible,  and  have  much  poetical 
sentiment ;  and  these  facts,  together  with  a  very 
notable  mastery  of  orchestral  resource  and  feeling 
for  colour,  have  ensured  his  works  great  success ; 
but  there  is  too  little  self-restraint  and  concentra- 
tion both  in  the  general  outline  and  in  the  state- 
ment of  details,  and  too  little  self-criticism  in  the 
choice  of  subject-matter,  to  admit  the  works  to  the 
highest  rank  among  symphonies.  In  the  broadest 
outlines  he  generally  conformed  to  the  principles 
of  the  earlier  masters,  distributing  his  allegros, 
slow  movements,  scherzos,  and  finales,  accordmg 
to  precedent.  And,  allowing  for  the  laxity  above 
referred  to,  the  models  which  he  followed  in  the 
internal  structure  of  the  movements  are  the 
familiar  types  of  Haydn,  Mozart,  and  Beethoven. 
His  finales  are  usually  the  most  irregular,  at 
times  amounting  almost  to  fantasias;  but  even 
this,  as  already  described,  is  in  conformity  with 
tendencies  which  are  noticeable  even  in  the 
golden  age  of  symphonic  art.  Taken  as  a  whole, 
Raff's  work  in  the  departtnent  of  symphony  is 
the  best  representative  of  a  characteristic  class 
of  composition  of  modem  times — the  class  in 
which  the  actual  ideas  and  general  colour  and 
sentiment  are  nearly  everything,  while  their 
development  and  the  value  of  the  artistic  side 
of  structure  are  reduced  to  a  minimum. 

Rubinstein's  works  are  conspicuous  examples 
of  the  same  class ;  but  the  absence  of  concentra- 
tion, self-criticism  in  the  choice  of  subjects,  and 
care  in  statement  of  details,  is  even  more  con- 
spicuous in  him  than  in  Raff.  His  most  im- 
portant symphonic  work  is  called  '  The  Ocean  * 
— the  general  title  serving,  as  in  Raff's  sym- 
phonies, to  give  unity  to  the  sentiment  and  tone 
of  the  whole,  rather  than  as  a  definite  programme 
to  work  to.  In  this,  as  in  Raff,  there  is  much 
spontaneity  in  the  invention  of  subjects,  and  in 
some  cases  a  higher  point  of  real  beauty  and 
force  is  reached  than  in  that  composer's  works ; 
and  there  is  also  a  good  deal  of  striking  interest  in 
the  details.  The  most  noticeable  external  feature 
is  the  fact  that  the  symphony  is  in  six  move- 
ments. There  was  originally  the  familiar  group 
of  four,  and  to  these  were  added,  some  years 
later,  an  additional  slow  movement,  which  stands 
second,  and  a  further  genuine  scherzo,  which 
stands  fifth,  both  movements  being  devised  in 
contrast  to  the  previously  written  adagio  and 
scherzo.  Another  symphony  of  Rubinstein's, 
showing  much  vigour  and  originality,  and  some 
careful  and  intelligent  treatment  of  subject,  is  the 
'  Dramatic'  This  is  in  the  usual  four  movements, 
with  well  devised  introductions  to  the  first  and 
last.  The  work  as  a  whole  is  hampered  by 
excessive  and  unnecessary  length,  which  is 
not  the  residt  of  the  possibilities  of  the  sub- 
jects or  the  necessities  of  their  development ;  and 
might  be  reduced  with  nothing  but  absolute 
advantage. 

The  greatest  existing  representative  of  the 
highest  art  in  the  department  of  Symphony  is 
Johannes  Brahms.    Though  he  has  as  yet  given 


SYMPHONY. 


SYMPHONY. 


41 


the  world  only  two  examples,^  they  have  that 
mark  of  intensity,  loftiness  of  purpose,  and  artistic 
mastery  which  sets  them  above  all  other  con- 
temporary work  of  the  kind.  Like  Beethoven 
and  Schumann  he  did  not  produce  a  sym- 
phony till  a  late  period  in  his  career,  when 
his  judgment  was  matured  by  much  practice 
in  other  kindred  forms  of  instrumental  com- 
position, such  as  pianoforte  quartets,  string 
sextets  and  quartets,  sonatas,  and  such  forms  of 
orchestral  composition  as  variations  and  two 
serenades.  He  seems  to  have  set  himself  to  prove 
that  the  old  principles  of  form  are  still  capable 
of  serving  as  the  basis  of  works  which  should 
be  thoroughly  original  both  in  general  character 
and  in  detail  and  development,  without  either 
falling  back  on  the  device  of  programme,  or 
abrogating  or  making  any  positive  change  in  the 
principles,  or  abandoning  the  loftiness  of  style 
which  befits  the  highest  form  of  art;  but  by 
legitimate  expansion,  and  application  of  careful 
thought  and  musical  contrivance  to  the  develop- 
ment. In  all  these  respects  he  is  a  thorough  de- 
scendant of  Beethoven,  and  illustrates  the  highest 
and  best  way  in  which  the  tendencies  of  the  age  in 
instrumental  music  may  yet  be  expressed.  He  dif- 
fers most  markedly  from  the  class  of  composers  re- 
presented by  Raff,  in  the  fact  that  his  treatment 
of  form  is  an  essential  and  important  element  in 
the  artistic  effect.  The  care  with  which  he  deve- 
lops it  is  not  more  remarkable  than  the  insight 
shown  in  all  the  possible  ways  of  enriching  it  with- 
out weakening  its  consistency.  In  appearance  it  is 
extremely  free,  and  at  available  points  all  possible 
use  is  made  of  novel  effects  of  transition  and  in- 
genious harmonic  subtleties  ;  but  these  are  used 
in  such  a  way  as  not  to  disturb  the  balance  of 
the  whole,  or  to  lead  either  to  discursiveness  or 
tautology.  In  the  laying  out  of  the  principal 
sections  as  much  freedom  is  used  as  is  consistent 
with  the  possibility  of  being  readily  followed 
and  imderstood.  Thus  in  the  recapitulatory  por- 
tion of  a  movement  the  subjects  which  charac- 
terise the  sections  are  not  only  subjected  to 
considerable  and  interesting  variation,  but  are 
often  much  condensed  and  transformed.  In 
the  first  movement  of  the  second  symphony,  for 
instance,  the  recapitulation  of  the  first  part 
of  the  movement  is  so  welded  on  to  the  working- 
out  portion  that  the  hearer  is  only  happily  con- 
scious that  this  point  has  been  arrived  at  with- 
out the  usual  insistance  to  call  his  attention  to 
it.  Again,  the  subjects  are  so  ingeniously  varied 
and  transformed  in  restatement  that  they  seem 
almost  new,  though  the  broad  melodic  outlines 
give  sufl&cient  assurance  of  their  representing  the 
recapitulation.  The  same  effect  is  obtained  in 
parts  of  the  allegrettos  which  occupy  the  place 
of  scherzos  in  both  symphonies.  The  old  type  of 
minuet  and  trio  form  is  felt  to  underlie  the  well- 
woven  texture  of  the  whole,  but  the  way  in  which 
the  joints  and  seams  are  made  often  escapes 
observation.     Thus  in  the  final  return  to  the 


1  A  third,  in  F,  was  produced  at  Vienna  on  Dec.  2. 1883,  but  the 
facts  ascertainable  about  it  are  not  yet  sufficiently  full  to  base  any 
discussiun  upon  (Dec.  31). 


principal  section  in  the  Allegretto  of  the  2nd 
Symphony,  which  is  in  G  major,  the  subject 
seems  to  make  its  appearance  in  Fj  major, 
which  serves  as  dominant  to  B  minor,  and  going 
that  way  round  the  subject  glides  into  the  prin- 
cipal key  almost  insensibly.^  In  the  Allegretto 
of  the  Symphony  in  C  the  outline  of  a  charac- 
teristic feature  is  all  that  is  retained  in  the 
final  return  of  the  principal  subject  near  the 
end,  and  new  effect  is  gained  by  giving  a  fresh 
turn  to  the  harmony.  Similar  closeness  of  tex- 
ture is  found  in  the  slow  movement  of  the 
same  symphony,  at  the  point  where  the  prin- 
cipal subject  returns,  and  the  richness  of  the 
variation  to  which  it  is  subjected  enhances 
the  musical  impression.  The  effect  of  these 
devices  is  to  give  additional  unity  and  consist- 
ency to  the  movements.  Enough  is  given  to 
enable  the  intelligent  hearer  to  imderstand  the 
form  without  its  appearing  in  aspects  with  which 
he  is  already  too  familiar.  Similar  thorough- 
ness is  to  be  found  on  the  other  sides  of  the 
matter.  In  the  development  of  the  sections,  for 
instance,  all  signs  of  'padding'  are  done  away 
with  as  much  as  possible,  and  the  interest  is 
sustained  by  developing  at  once  such  figures  of 
the  principal  subjects  as  will  serve  most  suitably. 
Even  such  points  as  necessary  equivalents  to 
cadences,  or  pauses  on  the  dominant,  are  by 
this  means  infused  with  positive  musical  in- 
terest in  just  proportion  to  their  subordinate 
relations  to  the  actual  subjects.  Similarly, 
in  the  treatment  of  the  orchestra,  such  a  thing 
as  filling  up  is  avoided  to  the  utmost  possible ; 
and  in  order  to  escape  the  over-complexity  of 
detail  so  unsuitable  to  the  symphonic  form  of  art, 
the  forces  of  the  orchestra  are  grouped  in  masses  in 
the  principal  characteristic  figures,  in  such  a  way 
that  the  whole  texture  is  endowed  with  vitality. 
The  impression  so  conveyed  to  some  is  that  the 
orchestration  is  not  at  such  a  high  level  of  per- 
fection as  the  other  elements  of  art ;  and  certainly 
the  composer  does  not  aim  at  subtle  combinations 
of  tone  and  captivating  effects  of  a  sensual  kind 
so  much  as  many  other  great  composers  of  modem 
times  ;  and  if  too  much  attention  is  concentrated 
upon  the  special  element  of  his  orchestration  it 
may  doubtless  seem  at  times  rough  and  coarse. 
But  this  element  must  only  be  considered  in  its 
relation  to  all  the  others,  since  the  composer 
may  reasonably  dispense  with  some  orchestral 
fascinations  in  order  to  get  broad  masses  of 
harmony  and  strong  outlines ;  and  if  he  seeks 
to  express  his  musical  ideas  by  means  of  sound, 
rather  than  to  disguise  the  absence  of  them 
by  seductive  misuse  of  it,  the  world  is  a  gainer. 
In  the  putting  forward  and  management  of 
actual  subjects,  he  is  guided  by  what  appears 
to  be  inherent  fitness  to  the  occasion.  In  the 
fiirst  movement  of  the  Symphony  in  C,  atten- 
tion is  mainly  concentrated  upon  one  strong 
subject  figure,  which  appears  in  both  the  prin- 
cipal sections  and  acts  as  a  centre  upon  which  the 
rest  of  the  musical  materials  are  grouped ;  and 

a  For  a  counterpart  to  thla  see  the  first  movement  of  BcethOTen'f 
" — ■"*  in  F,  op.  10,  no.  2. 


42 


SYMPHONY. 


the  result  is  to  unify  the  impression  of  the  whole 
movement,  and  to  give  it  a  special  sentiment  in 
an  unusual  degree.  In  the  first  movement  of 
the  Symphony  in  D  there  are  even  several  sub- 
jects in  each  section,  but  they  are  so  interwoven 
with  one  another,  and  seem  so  to  fit  and  illustrate 
one  another,  that  for  the  most  part  there  appears 
to  be  but  little  loss  of  direct  continuity.  In 
several  cases  we  meet  with  the  devices  of  trans- 
forming and  transfiguring  an  idea.  The  most 
obvious  instance  is  in  the  Allegretto  of  the 
Symphony  in  D,  in  which  the  first  Trio  in  3-4  time 
(a)  is  radically  the  same  subject  as  that  of  the 
principal  section  in  3-4  time  (6),  but  very  differ- 
ently stated.  Then  a  very  important  item  in  the 
second  Trio  is  a  version  in  3-8  time  (c)  of  a  figure 
of  the  first  Trio  in  a -4  time  (d). 


i.riiii  ^mw 


(c) 


^^^ 


•"  nnH 


^^ 


Of  similar  nature,  in  the  Symphony  in  C  minor, 
are  the  suggestions  of  important  features  of  sub- 
jects and  figures  of  the  first  Allegro  in  the  open- 
ing introduction,  and  the  connection  of  the  last 
movement  with  its  own  introduction  by  the  same 
means.  In  all  these  respects  Brahms  illustrates 
the  highest  manifestations  of  actual  art  as  art ; 
attaining  his  end  by  extraordinary  mastery  of 
both  development  and  expression.  And  it  is 
most  notable  that  the  great  impression  which  his 
larger  works  produce  is  gained  more  by  the  effect 
of  the  entire  movements  than  by  the  attractive- 
ness of  the  subjects.     He  does  not  seem  to 


SYMPHONY. 

aim  at  making  his  subjects  the  test  of  success. 
They  are  hardly  seen  to  have  their  full  meaning 
till  they  are  developed  and  expatiated  upon  in 
the  course  of  the  movement,  and  the  musical 
impression  does  not  depend  upon  them  to  any- 
thing like  the  proportionate  degree  that  it  did 
in  the  works  of  the  earlier  masters.  This  is  in 
conformity  with  the  principles  of  progress  which 
have  been  indicated  above.  The  various  elements 
of  which  the  art-form  consists  seem  to  have  been 
brought  more  and  more  to  a  fair  balance  of  func- 
tions, and  this  has  necessitated  a  certain  amount 
of  *  give  and  take '  between  them.  If  too  much 
stress  is  laid  upon  one  element  at  the  expense  ot 
others,  the  perfection  of  the  art-form  as  a  whole 
is  diminished  thereby.  If  the  effects  of  orchestra- 
tion are  emphasised  at  the  expense  of  the  ideas 
and  vitality  of  the  figures,  the  work  may  gain 
in  immediate  attractiveness,  but  must  lose  in 
substantial  worth.  The  same  may  be  said  of 
over-predominance  of  subject-matter.  The  sub- 
jects need  to  be  noble  and  well  marked,  but  if 
the  movement  is  to  be  perfectly  complete,  and  to 
express  something  in  its  entirety  and  not  as  a 
string  of  tunes,  it  will  be  a  drawback  if  the  mere 
faculty  for  inventing  a  striking  figure  or  passage 
of  melody  preponderates  excessively  over  the 
power  of  development ;  and  the  proportion  in 
which  they  are  both  carried  upwards  together  to 
the  highest  limit  of  musical  effect  is  a  great  test 
of  the  artistic  perfection  of  the  work.  In  these 
respects  Brahms's  Symphonies  are  extraordin- 
arily successful.  They  represent  the  austerest 
and  noblest  form  of  art  in  the  strongest  and 
healthiest  way;  and  his  manner  and  methods 
have  already  had  some  influence  upon  the  younger 
and  more  serious  composers  of  the  day. 

It  would  be  invidious,  however,  to  endeavour 
to  point  out  as  yet  those  in  whose  works  his 
influence  is  most  strongly  shown.  It  must  suf- 
fice to  record  that  there  are  still  many  com- 
posers alive  who  are  able  to  pass  the  symphonic 
ordeal  with  some  success.  Amongst  the  elders 
are  Benedict  and  Hiller,  who  have  given  the 
world  examples  in  earnest  style  and  full  of  vigour 
and  good  workmanship.  Among  the  younger 
representatives  the  most  successful  are  the  Bo- 
hemian composer  Dvorak,  and  the  Italian 
Sgambati;  and  among  English  works  may  be 
mentioned  with  much  satisfaction  the  Norwe- 
gian Symphony  of  Cowen,  which  was  original 
and  picturesque  in  thought  and  treatment ;  the 
Elegiac  Symphony  of  Stanford,  in  which  excel- 
lent workmanship,  vivacity  of  ideas,  and  fluency 
of  development  combine  to  isstablish  it  as  an  ad- 
mirable example  of  its  class ;  and  an  early  sym- 
phony by  Sullivan,  which  had  such  marks  of  excel- 
lence as  to  show  how  much  art  might  have  gained 
if  circumstances  had  not  drawn  him  to  more 
lucrative  branches  of  composition.  It  is  obvious 
that  composers  have  not  given  up  hopes  of  deve- 
loping something  individual  and  complete  in  this 
form  of  art.  It  is  not  likely  that  many  will  be 
able  to  follow  Brahms  in  his  severe  and  uncom- 
promising methods ;  but  he  himself  has  shown 
more  than  any  one  how  elastic  the  old  principles 


SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA. 

may  yet  be  made  without  departing  from  the 
genuine  type  of  abstract  instrumental  music  ; 
and  that  when  there  is  room  for  individual  expres- 
sion there  is  still  good  work  to  be  done,  though 
we  can  hardly  hope  that  even  the  greatest  com- 
posers of  the  future  will  surpass  the  symphonic 
triumphs  of  tlie  past,  whatever  they  may  do  in 
other  fields  of  composition.  [C.H.H.P.] 

SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  The  Boston 
(U.  S.  A.),  owes  its  existence,  and  its  large  per- 
petual endowment,  to  the  generosity  and  taste  of 
Mr.  Henry  Lee  Higginson,  a  well-known  citizen 
of  Boston,  and  affords  a  good  instance  of  the  muni- 
ficent way  in  which  the  Americans  apply  their 
great  riches  for  the  public  benefit  in  the  service 
of  education  and  art.  Mr.  Higginson  had  for 
long  cherished  the  idea  of  having  'an  orchestra 
which  should  play  the  best  music  in  the  best  way, 
and  give  concerts  to  all  who  could  pay  a  small 
price.''  At  length,  on  March  30,  1881,  he  made 
his  intention  public  in  the  Boston  newspapers  as 
follows : — ^The  orchestra  to  number  60,  and  their 
remuneration  to  include  the  concerts  and  'careful 
training.'  Concerts  to  be  twenty  in  number, 
on  Saturday  evenings,  in  the  Music  Hall,  from 
middle  of  October  to  middle  of  March.  Single 
tickets  from  75  to  25  cents  (3s.  to  is.) ;  season 
tickets  (concerts  only)  10  to  5  dollars ;  one  public 
rehearsal,  i«.  entrance.  Orchestra  to  be  per- 
manent, and  to  be  called  The  Boston  Symphony 
Orchestra. 

Mr.  Georg  Henschel  was  appointed  conductor, 
and  Mr.  B.  Listemann  leader  and  solo  violin.  A 
full  musical  library  was  purchased,  and  the  first 
concert  took  place  on  Oct.  22,  1881,  at  8  p.m. 
Its  programme,  and  that  of  the  17th  concert, 
Eeb.  18,  1882,  give  a  fair  idea  of  the  music  per- 
formed : — 

I.  Overture,  op.  124,  Beethoven.  Air,  Orpheus, 
Gluck.  Sjmiphony  in  Bb,  Haydn.  Ballet  music, 
Rosamunde,  Schubert.  Scena,  Odysseus,  Max 
Bruch.     Festival  Overture  [Jubilee],  Weber. 

XVII.  Overture,  Leonore,  no.  i,  Beethoven. 
Rhapsody  for  contralto,  chorus,  and  orch.  (op. 
53),  Brahms.  Symphony  no.  8,  Beethoven.  Vio- 
lin Concerto,  Mendelssohn.  Overture,  Phbdre, 
Massenet. 

There  were  twenty  concerts  in  all,  and  the 
last  ended  with  the  Choral  Symphony. 

Since  the  first  season  some  extensions  have 
taken  place.  There  are  now  24  concerts  in  the 
series.  The  orchestra  numbers  72,  and  there  is 
a  chorus  of  200.  There  are  three  rehearsals  for 
each  concert,  and  on  the  Thursdays  a  concert  is 
given  in  some  neighbouring  city  of  New  England. 
Both  the  performances  and  the  open  rehearsals 
are  crowded,  and  so  far  the  noble  intention  of 
the  founder,  *to  serve  the  cause  of  good  art 
only,*  has  been  fulfilled.  We  can  only  say  Esto 
perpdua.  [G.] 

SYMPHONY  SOCIETY,  New  York,  U.S., 
organised  October  15, 1878,  and  incorporated  by 
the  State  legislature,  April  8,  1879.  I^s  object 
is  the  advancement  of  music  by  procuring  the 

1  us.  letter  to  Editor. 


SYMPSON. 


43 


public  performance  of  the  best  classical  composi- 
tions, especially  those  of  a  symphonic  character. 
The  society  in  its  five  seasons  has  given  thirty 
regular  concerts  and  as  many  public  rehearsals 
(six  in  each  season),  and  two  special  concertat 
with  the  public  rehearsals — in  all,  sixty-four  en- 
tertainments. At  these  concerts  there  have  been 
brought  out  89  works,  14  of  them  for  the  first 
time  in  New  York.  The  orchestra  numbers  70 
players,  and  the  soloists,  vocal  and  instrumental, 
are  the  most  distinguished  attainable.  The 
concerts  of  the  first  four  seasons  were  given  in 
Steinway  Hall ;  those  of  the  fifth  in  the  Academy 
of  Music.  Dr.  Leopold  Damrosch  has  been  the 
conductor  since  the  start.  Ofl&cers  (1883") : — 
president,  Hilborne  L.  Rossevelt ;  treasurer,  W. 
H.  Draper,  M.D. ;  recording  secretary,  Rich- 
mond Delafield;  corresponding  secretary,  Morris 
Reno ;  librarian,  D.  M.  Knevals,  and  twelve 
others,  directors.  [F.H.J.] 

SYMPSON  (or  SIMPSON,  as  he  sometimes 
spelled  his  name),  Christopher,  was  an  eminent 
performer  on,  and  teacher  of  the  viol,  in  the  17  th 
century.  During  the  Civil  War  he  served  in 
the  army  raised  by  William  Cavendish,  Duke  of 
Newcastle,  in  support  of  the  royal  cause,  and 
afterwards  became  an  inmate  of  the  house  of  Sir 
Robert  Bolles,  a  Leicestershire  baronet,  whose 
son  he  taught.  In  1655  he  annotated  Dr.  Cam- 
pion's *  Art  of  Setting  or  Composing  of  Musick 
in  Parts,'  another  edition  of  which  appeared  in 
1664,  and  the  tract  and  annotations  were  added 
to  several  of  the  early  editions  of  Playford's 
'Introduction  to  the  Skill  of  Musick.'  [See 
Campion,  Thomas,  and  Playford,  John.]  In 
1659  he  published  'The  Division  Violist,  or. 
An  Introduction  to  the  Playing  upon  a  Ground,' 
dedicated  to  his  patron,  Sir  Robert  Bolles,  for 
the  instruction  of  whose  son  he  tells  us  the  book 
was  originally  prepared,  with  commendatory 
verses  by  Dr.  Charles  Colman,  John  Jenkins, 
Matthew  Lock,  John  Carwarden,  and  Edward 
Galsthorp,  prefixed.  In  1665  he  published  a 
second  edition  with  a  Latin  translation  printed 
in  parallel  columns  with  the  English  text,  and 
the  double  title,  'Chelys,  Minuritionum  Artificio 
Exomata  sive,  Minuritiones  ad  Basin,  etiam  Ex- 
tempore Modulandi  Ratio.  The  Division  Viol, 
or,  The  Art  of  Playing  Ex-tempore  upon  a 
Ground,'  dedicated  to  his  former  pupil.  Sir  John 
Bolles,  who  had  succeeded  to  the  baronetcy.  A 
third  edition  appeared  in  1712,  to  which  a  por- 
trait of  Sympson,  finely  engraved  by  Faithorne, 
after  J.  Carwarden,  was  prefixed.  In  1665  he 
published  'The  Principles  of  Practical  Musick,' 
of  which  he  issued  a  second  edition  in  1667, 
under  the  title  of  '  A  Compendium  of  Practical 
Musick,  in  five  Parts,  Teaching,  by  a  New  and 
Easie  Method,  i.  The  Rudiments  of  Song. 
2.  The  Principles  of  Composition.  3.  The  Use 
of  Discords.  4.  The  Form  of  Figurate  Descant. 
5.  The  Contrivance  of  Canon.'  This  was  dedi- 
cated to  the  Duke  of  Newcastle,  and  had  com- 
mendatory verses  by  Matthew  Lock  and  John 
Jenkins  prefixed.  It  became  popular,  and  other 
edifiona  with  additions  appeared  in  1678,  1706^ 


44 


SYMPSON. 


SYNTAGMA  MUSICUM. 


1714,  1722,  1727,  and  1732,  and  an  undated 
edition  about  1760.  A  portrait  of  the  author, 
drawn  and  engraved  by  Faithome,  is  prefixed 
to  the  first  eight  editions.  Sir  John  Hawkins 
in  his  History  gives  a  long  description  of  the 
Division  Viol  and  Compendium  (Novello's 
edition,  pp.  708-712).  He  tells  us  also  that 
Sympson  'dwelt  some  years  in  Turnstile,  Hol- 
bom,  and  finished  his  life  there'  (at  what  date 
is  not  stated),  and  that  he  was  of  the  Romish 
communion.  [W.H.H.] 

SYNCOPATION.  The  binding  of  two  simi- 
lar notes  so  that  the  accent  intended  for  the 
second  appears  to  fall  upon  the  first.  [See  Accent.] 
In  the  Coda  of  the  great  'Leonora'  Overture 
('No.  3')  Beethoven  has  a  passage  given  out  syn- 
copated on  the  wind  and  naturally  on  the  strings, 
then  vice  versa. 

It  was  not  however  always  sufficient  for  Bee- 
thoven's requirements,  as  may  be  seen  from  a 
well-known  place  in  the  Scherzo  of  the  Eroica, 
where  he  first  gives  a  passage  in  syncopation — 


and  then  repeats  it  in  common  time,  which  in 
this  instance  may  be  taken  as  an  extreme  form 
of  syncopation. 


Schumann  was  fonder  of  syncopation  than  any 
other  composer.  His  works  supply  many  in- 
stances of  whole  short  movements  so  syncopated 
throughout  that  the  ear  loses  its  reckoning,  and 
the  impression  of  contra-tempo  is  lost :  e.  g.  Kin- 
derscenen.  No.  10 ;  Faschingsschwank,  No.  i, 
and,  most  noticeable  of  all,  the  opening  bar  of 
the  •  Manfred  '  Overture. 


Presto. 


Wagner  has  one  or  two  examples  of  exceed- 
ingly complex  syncopation :  an  accompaniment 
figure  in  Act  2  of  '  Tristan  imd  Isolde,'  which 
runs  thus  throughout, 


AndanU. 


5^ 


^ 


m^^. 


and  a  somewhat  similar  figure  in  Act  i  of '  Gbt- 
terdammerung  *  (the  scene  known  as  'Hagen's 
watch '),  where  the  quavers  of  a  1 2-8  bar  are  so 
tied  as  to  convey  the  impression  of  6-4.  The 
prelude  to  Act  2  of  the  same  work  presents  a 
still  more  curious  specimen,  no  two  bars  having 
«t  all  the  same  accent. 


Its  effect  in  the  accompaniment  of  songs  may 
be  most  charming.  We  will  only  refer  to  Men- 
delssohn's 'Nachtlied'  (op.  71,  no.  6),  and  to 
Schumann's  *Dein  Bildniss'  (op.  39,  no.  2).  [F.C.] 

SYNTAGMA  MUSICUM,  i.e.  Musical  Trea- 
tise.  A  very  rare  work,  by  Michael  Praetorius. 

A  detailed  account  is  given  in  vol.  iii.  pp.  25-26. 
It  remains  only  to  speak  of  its  interest  as  a  biblio- 
graphical treasure.  It  was  originally  designed  for 
four  volumes,  three  only  of  which  were  published, 
with  a  supplementary  collection  of  plates  which 
Forkel  mistook  for  the  promised  fourth  volume. 
The  first  volume  of  the  edition  described  by 
Fetis  was  printed  at  Wittemberg  in  161 5;  the 
second  and  third  at  Wolfenbiittel  in  1619  ;  and 
the  collection  of  plates — Theatrum  Instrumen- 
torum  seu  Sciagraphia — at  Wolfenbiittel  in  1 620.* 
A  copy  of  this  edition  is  in  the  Town  Library  at 
Breslau;'*  Mr.  Alfred  H.  Littleton  also  possesses 
a  very  fine  and  perfect  copy,  which  corresponds, 
in  all  essential  particulars,  with  that  described 
by  F^tis.  But  neither  F^tis  nor  Mendel  seems 
to  have  been  aware  of  the  existence  of  an  older 
edition.  A  copy  of  this  is  in  the  possession  of 
the  Rev.  Sir  F.  A.  G.  Ouseley.  The  ist  volume 
bears  the  same  date  as  Mr.  Littleton's  copy, 
'  Wittebergae,  1615';  but  the  2nd  and  3rd 
volumes  are  dated  'Wolfenbiittel,  1618';  and 
the  difference  does  not  merely  lie  in  the  state- 
ment of  the  year,  but  clearly  indicates  an  earlier 
issue.  In  the  edition  of  161 8,  the  title-page  of 
the  2nd  volume  is  piinted  entirely  in  black  :  in 
that  of  1 6 19,  it  is  in  black  and  red.  The  title- 
page  of  the  3rd  volume  is  black  in  both  editions; 
but  in  different  type :  and,  though  the  contents 
of  the  2nd  and  3rd  volumes  correspond  generally 
in  both  copies,  slight  typographical  differences 
may  be  detected  in  sufficient  numbers  to  prove 
the  existence  of  a  distinct  edition,  beyond  all 
doubt.  It  has  long  been  known  that  twenty 
pages  of  the  General  Introduction  were  more 
than  once  reprinted;  but  these  belong  to  the 
first  volume,  and  are  in  no  way  concerned  with 
the  edition  of  161 8,  of  which,  so  far  as  we  have 
been  able  to  ascertain.  Sir  F.  Ouseley's  copy  is 
an  unique  example. 

But,  apart  from  its  rarity,  the  book  is  doubly 
interesting  from  the  extraordinary  dearth  of  other 
early  treatises  on  the  same  subject.  Three  similar 
works  only  are  known  to  have  preceded  it ;  and 
the  amount  of  information  in  these  is  compara- 
tively very  small.  The  earliest  is  a  small  volume, 
of  1 1 2  pages,  in  oblong  4to,  by  Sebastian  Vir- 
dung,  entitled '  Musica  getuscht  und  aussgezogen, 

1  In  our  description  of  this  edition,  In  the  article  Peaetobidb,  Um 
following  errata  occur— 

Vol.  Hi.  p.  266,  line  19.  for  1618  read  1618. 
note,  for  1519  read  1619. 
3  See  the  exhaustive  Catalogue  b;  Emil  BCbm  (Berlin,  1883). 


SYNTAGMA  MUSICUM. 


15 1 1.'  It  is  written  in  German  dialogue, 
carried  on  between  the  *  Autor '  and  '  Silvanus '; 
and  is  illustrated  by  woodcuts  of  Instruments, 
not  unlike  those  in  the  Syntagma.  The  next, 
also  in  small  oblong  4to,  is  the  '  Musica  instru- 
mentalisch  deudsch  *  of  Martin  Agricola,  printed 
at  Wittemberg  in  1529,  but  preceded  by  a  Pre- 
face dated  Magdeburg  1528.  This  also  con- 
tains a  number  of  woodcuts,  like  those  given  by 
Virdung.  The  third  and  last  treatise — another 
oblong  4to — is  the  'Musurgia  seu  praxis  musicae* 
of  Ottomarus  Luscinius  (Othmar  Naclitigal,  or 
Nachtgall),  dated  Argentorati  (Strasburg)  1536, 
and  reprinted,  at  the  same  place,  in  1542.  The 
first  portion  of  this  is  a  mere  Latin  translation  of 
the  dialogue  of  Virdung.  The  book  contains  102 
pages,  exclusive  of  the  Preface,  and  is  illustrated 
by  woodcuts,  like  those  of  Virdung  and  Agricola. 

All  these  three  volumes  are  exceedingly  scarce, 
and  much  prized  by  collectors,  as  specimens  of 
early  typography,  as  well  as  by  students,  for  the 
light  they  throw  upon  the  Instrumental  Music 
of  the  i6th  century,  concerning  which  we  pos- 
sess so  little  detailed  information  of  incontestable 
authority.  The  Breslau  Library  possesses  none 
of  them.  A  copy  of  Nachtigal's  '  Musurgia '  is  in 
the  British  Museum ;  and  also  a  very  imperfect 
copy — wanting  pages  1-49,  including  the  title- 
page— of  Agricola's  *  Musica  Instrumentalis.' 
Mr.  Littleton  possesses  perfect  copies  of  the  en- 
tire series. 

An  earlier  work  by  Nachtgall — '  Musicae  In- 
stitutiones' — printed  at  Strasburg  in  151 5,  does 
not  touch  upon  Orchestral  or  Instrumental 
Music  ;  and  does  not,  therefore,  fall  within  our 
present  category,  [W.S.R.] 

SYREN.     [See  Siren,  vol.  iii.  p.  517.] 


SCHUTZ. 


45 


SYSTEM.  The  collection  of  staves  necessary 
for  the  complete  score  of  a  piece — in  a  string 
quartet,  or  an  ordinary  vocal  score,  four;  a  PF. 
trio,  four ;  a  PF.  quartet,  five ;  and  so  on.  Two 
or  more  of  these  will  go  on  a  page,  and  then  we 
speak  of  the  upper  or  lower  system,  etc.         [G.] 

SZYMANOWSKA,  Marie,  a  distinguished 
pianist  of  her  day,  who  would,  however,  hardly 
have  been  remembered  but  for  Goethe's  infatua- 
tion for  her.  She  was  bom  about  1 790,  of  Polish 
parents  named  Wolowski,  and  was  a  pupil  of 
John  Field's  at  Moscow.  She  travelled  much 
in  Germany,  France,  and  England,  and  died  at 
St.  Petersburg  of  cholera  in  Aug.  1831.  One  of 
her  daughters  married  the  famous  Polish  poet 
Mickiewicz,  whom  she  had  introduced  to  Goethe 
in  July  1829.  Goethe  knew  her  as  early  as  18 21, 
and  even  then  overpraised  her,  setting  her  above 
Hummel ;  *  but  those  who  do  so,*  says  Felix 
Mendelssohn,  who  was  then  at  Weimar,^  *  think 
more  of  her  pretty  face  than  her  not  pretty  play- 
ing.' Goethe  renewed  the  acquaintance  in  Aug. 
1823,  at  Eger,  where  she  and  Anna  Milder  were 
both  staying,  calls  her  *an  incredible  player,' 
and  expresses  his  excitement  at  hearing  music 
after  an  interval  of  over  two  years  in  a  remark- 
able letter  to  Zelter  of  Aug.  24, 1823,  again  com- 
paring her  with  Hummel,  to  the  latter's  disad- 
vantage. Mme.  Szymanowska  appears  to  have 
helped  to  inspire  the  *  Trilogie  der  Leidenschaft,' 
and  the  third  of  its  three  poems,  called  '  Aussoh- 
nung,'  is  a  direct  allusion  to  her.  In  1824  she 
was  in  Berlin.  '  She  is  furiously  in  love  (rasend 
verliebt)  with  you,'  says  Zelter  to  the  poet, '  and 
has  given  me  a  hundred  kisses  on  my  mouth  for  you .' 

Her  compositions  were  chiefly  for  the  PF., 
with  a  few  songs.  [G.] 


SCHUTZ,  Heinrich  (name  sometimes  La- 
tinized Sagittarius),  'the  father  of  German 
music,'  as  he  has  been  styled,  was  bom  at 
Kostritz,  Saxony,  Oct.  8,  1585.  Admitted  as  a 
chorister  into  the  chapel  of  the  Landgraf  Mau- 
rice of  Hesse-Cassel,  besides  a  thorough  musical 
training,  Schiitz  had  the  advantage  of  a  good 
general  education  in  the  arts  and  sciences  of  the 
time,  which  enabled  him  in  1607  to  proceed  to 
the  University  of  Marburg,  where  he  pursued 
with  some  distinction  the  study  of  law.  The 
Landgraf,  when  on  a  visit  to  Marburg,  observing 
in  his  proUgi  a  special  inclination  and  talent  for 
music,  generously  offered  to  defray  the  expense 
of  his  further  musical  cultivation  at  Venice  un- 
der the  tuition  of  Giovanni  Gabrieli,  the  most 
distinguished  musician  of  the  age.  Schiitz  ac- 
cordingly proceeded  to  Venice  in  1609,  and 
already  in  i6ii  published  the  firstfruits  of  his 
studies  under  Gabrieli,  a  book  of  five-part  madri- 
gals dedicated  to  his  patron.  On  the  death  of 
Gabrieli  in  1612,  Schiitz  returned  to  Germany 
with  the  intention  of  resuming  his  legal  studies, 
but  the  Landgraf's  intervention  secured  him 
once  more  for  the  service  of  art.      A  visit  to 


Dresden  led  to  his  being  appointed  Capellmeister 
to  the  Elector  of  Saxony  in  161 5,  an  office  which 
he  continued  to  hold,  with  some  interruptions, 
till  his  death  in  1672.  His  first  work  of  import- 
ance appeared  in  1619,  '  Psalmen  David's  sammt 
etlichen  Motetten  und  Concerten  mit  8  und  mehr 
Stimmen,'  a  work  which  shows  the  influence  of 
the  new  Monodic  or  Declamatory  style  which 
Schiitz  had  learned  in  Italy.  His  next  work  in 
1623,  an  oratorio  on  the  subject  of  the  Resur- 
rection, testifies  the  same  earnest  striving  after 
dramatic  expression.  In  1627  he  was  commis- 
sioned by  the  Elector  to  compose  the  music  for  the 
German  version  by  Opitz  of  Riuuccini's  '  Daphne,' 
but  this  work  has  unfortunately  been  lost.  It 
deserves  mention  as  being  the  first  German 
opera,  though  it  would  appear  to  have  been 
remodelled  entirely  on  the  primitive  Italian 
opera  of  Peri  and  Caccini.  Schiitz  made  no 
further  efforts  towards  the  development  of  opera, 
but  with  the  exception  of  a  ballet  with  dialogue 
and  recitative,  composed  in  1638,  confined  him- 
self henceforward  to  the  domain  of  sacred  music, 
introducing  into  it,  however,  the  new  Italian 
1  Goethe  and  Mendelssohn,  p.  25. 


46 


SCIIUTZ. 


Stilo  Recitativo,  and  the  element  of  dramatic 
expression.  In  1625  appeared  his  'Geistliche 
Gesange,'  and  in  1628  his  music  to  Becker's 
metric  J  Psalms.  After  a  second  visit  to  Italy 
in  1628,  he  published  the  first  part  of  his  ♦  Sym- 
phoniae  Sacrae'  (the  second  part  appeared  in 
1647,  the  third  in  1650),  which  has  been  regarded 
as  his  chief  work,  and  testifies  how  diligently 
he  had  studied  the  new  art  of  instrumental  ac- 
companiment which  had  arisen  in  Italy  with 
Monteverde.  Two  pieces  from  this  work,  The 
Lament  of  David  for  Absalom,  and  the  Con- 
version of  S.  Paul,  are  given  in  Winterfeld's 
« Gabrieli.'  The  Thirty  Years  War  interrupted 
Schiitz's  labours  at  Dresden  in  1633,  and  com- 
pelled him  to  take  refuge  at  the  Court  of  King 
Christian  IV.  of  Denmark,  and  of  Duke  George 
of  Brunswick.  In  this  unsettled  time  appeared 
his  'Geistliche  Concerte  zu  i  bis  5  Stimmen, 
1636  and  1639,  and  in  1645  his  'Sieben  Worte ' 
(first  published  by  Riedel,  Leipzig,  1870).  This 
last  work  may  be  considered  as  the  germ  of 
all  the  later  Passion-music,  uniting  as  it  does 
the  musical  representation  of  the  sacred  narra- 
tive with  the  expression  of  the  reflections  and 
feelings  of  the  ideal  Christian  community.  As 
Bach  later  in  his  Passions,  so  Schiitz  in  this 
work  accompanies  the  words  of  our  Lord  with 
the  full  strings.  On  Schiitz's  return  to  Dresden, 
he  found  the  Electoral  Chapel  fallen  into  such 
decay,  and  the  difficulties  of  reorganisation  so 
great  for  want  of  proper  resources,  that  he 
repeatedly  requested  his  dismissal,  which  how- 
ever was  not  granted.  Ijike  Weber  at  Dresden 
with  Morlacchi,  so  even  in  1653  Schiitz  found  it 
difficult  to  work  harmoniously  with  his  Italian 
colleague  Bontempi.  Italian  art  was  already 
losing  its  seriousness  of  pujpose,  and  in  the 
further  development  of  the  Monodic  style,  and 
the  art  of  instrumental  accompaniment,  was 
renouncing  all  the  traditions  of  the  old  vocal 
and  ecclesiastical  style.  This  seems  to  have 
caused  a  reaction  in  the  mind  of  Schiitz,  the  re- 
presentative of  serious  German  art ;  and  his  last 
work — the  four  Passions,  '  Historia  des  Leidens 
und  Sterbens  unseres  Herrn  und  Heilandes 
lesu  Christi'  (1665-6) — is  an  expression  of 
this  reaction.  Instrumental  accompaniment  is 
here  dispensed  with,  and  dramatic  expression 
restricted  for  the  most  part  to  the  choruses ;  but 
in  them  is  manifested  with  such  truth  and  power 
as  to  surpass  all  previous  essays  of  the  same 
kind,  and  give  an  imperishable  historical  value 
to  the  work.  Schiitz  himself  regarded  it  as  his 
best  work.  Carl  Biedel  has  made  selections 
from  the  *  Four  Passions  *  so  as  to  form  one 
Passions-musik  suitable  for  modem  performances 
—  a  questionable  proceeding.  Schiitz  died  Nov. 
6,  167a.  His  importance  in  the  history  of 
music  lies  in  the  mediating  position  he  occupies 
between  the  adherents  of  the  old  Ecclesiastical 
style  and  the  followers  of  the  new  Monodic 
Btyle.    While  showing  his  thorough  appreciation 


STIMPSON. 

of  the  new  style  so  far  as  regarded  the  im- 
portance of  dramatic  expression,  he  had  no 
desire  to  lose  anything  of  the  beauty  and  power 
of  the  pure  and  real  a-capella  style.  And  so  by 
his  serious  endeavour  to  unite  the  advantages  of 
the  Polyphonic  and  the  Monodic  styles,  he  may 
be  considered  as  preparing  the  way  for  the  later 
Polyodic  style  of  Sebastian  Bach.  [See  vol.  ii. 
539 &»  6656.]  [J.R.M.] 

STIMPSON,  James,  a  well-known  Birming- 
ham musician,  born  at  Lincoln  Feb.  29,  1820, 
son  of  a  lay  vicar  of  the  cathedral,  who  removed 
to  Durham  in  1822,  where  James  became  a 
chorister  in  1827.  In  February  1834  he  was 
articled  to  Mr.  Ingham,  organist  of  Carlisle  Ca- 
thedral; in  June  1836  was  appointed  organist  of 
St.  Andrew's,  Newcastle  ;  and  in  June  1841,  on 
Ingham's  death,  was  made  organist  of  Carlisle. 

In  February  1 842  James  Stimpson  was  unani- 
mously chosen  organist  at  the  Town  Hall  and 
St.  Paul's,  Birmingham,  out  of  many  competitors, 
and  in  the  following  year  justified  the  choice  by 
founding  the  Festival  Choral  Society  and  its 
Benevolent  Fund,  in  connection  with  the  Trien- 
nial Festivals.  He  continued  organist  and 
chorus-master  to  the  Society  until  1855.  His 
activity,  however,  did  not  stop  here.  In  1844  he 
was  instrumental  in  starting  the  weekly  Monday 
Evening  Concerts,  of  which,  in  1859,  he  took  the 
entire  responsibility,  to  relinquish  them  only  after 
heavy  losses  in  1867. 

In  1845  Mr.  Stimpson  had  the  satisfaction 
of  having  the  pedals  of  the  Town  Hall  organ 
increased  from  2  to  2^  octaves,  so  that  he 
was  able  to  perform  the  works  of  J.  S.  Bach 
unmutilated.  He  is  still  organist  of  the  Town 
Hall,  and  gives  weekly  recitals  throughout  the 
year  to  audiences  varying  from  600  to  1 000. 
In  the  absence  of  a  permanent  orchestra — a  fact 
remarkable  in  a  town  of  the  wealth,  importance, 
and  intelligence  of  Birmingham — many  a  young 
amateur  has  derived  his  first  taste  for  classical 
music  from  the  excellent  programmes  of  Mr. 
Stimpson.  He  was  permanent  organist  of  the 
Birmingham  festivals,  and  Mendelssohn's  last 
visit  there  was  to  conduct  'Elijah'  for  Mr. 
Stimpsou's  benefit  April  25,  1847.  He  intro- 
duced Sims  Reeves  and  Charles  Halle  to  Bir- 
mingham, and  laboured  from  1849  ^^^^^  1868, 
in  many  ways,  in  the  service  of  good  music, 
gaining  thereby  the  gratitude  and  respect  of  his 
fellow  townsmen.  He  has  been  Professor  of 
Music  at  the  Blind  Institution  for  25  years. 

D'Almaine  published  in  1850  'The  Organists' 
Standard  Library,'  edited  by  Mr.  Stimpson,  con- 
sisting principally  of  pieces  hitherto  unpublished 
in  this  country.  His  other  publications  consist 
mostly  of  arrangements,  one  of  the  best  known 
being  the  favourite  anthem  '  As  pants  the  hart  * 
fix)m  Spohr's  'Crucifixion.'  His  long  experience 
in  teaching  the  theory  of  music  is  embodied  in  a 
manual  published  by  Rudall,  Carte  &  Co.     [G.] 


« 


T. 


TABLATURE  (La.t.Tabulatwa,  from  Tabula, 
a  table,  or  flat  surface,  prepared  for  writing; 
Ital.  Intavolatura;  Fr.  Tahlature;  Germ. 
Tabulatur).  A  method  of  Notation,  chiefly  used, 
in  the  15th  and  i6th  centuries,  for  the  Lute, 
though  occasionally  employed  by  Violists,  and 
Composers  for  some  other  Instruments  of  like 
character. 

In   common   with  all  other  true  systems  of 
Notation,  Tablature  traces  its  descent  in  a  direct 


line  from  the  Gamut  of  Guido,  though,  in  its 
later  forms,  it  abandons  the  use  of  the  Stave. 
It  was  used,  in  the  i6th  century,  by  Organists, 
as  a  means  of  indicating  the  extended  Scale  of 
the  instruments,  which,  especially  in  Germany, 
were  daily  increasing  in  size  and  compass.  For 
this  purpose  the  lower  Octave  of  the  Gamut 
was  described  in  capital  letters  ;  the  second,  in 
small  letters  ;  the  third,  in  small  letters  with  a 
line  drawn  above  them  :- 


This  Scale  was  soon  very  much  extended  ;  the 
notes  below  Gamut  G  (F)  being  distinguished  by 
double  capitals,  and  those  above  g  by  small  letters 
with  two  lines  above  them,  the  lower  notes  being 
described  as  belonging  to  the  Double  Octave,  and 
the  two  upper  Octaves  as  the  Once-marked,  and 
Twice-marked  Octaves. 

Several  minor  diff'erences  occur  in  the  works 
of  early  authors.    Agricola,  for  instance,  in  his 


•  Musica  instrumentalis,'  carries  the  Scale  down 
to  FF  ;  and,  instead  of  capitals,  permits  the  use 
of  small  letters  with  lines  below  them  for  the 
lower  Octaves — ff  g  a  etc.  But  the  principle 
remained  unchanged  ;  and  when  the  C  Scale 
was  universally  adopted  for  the  Organ,  its  Tabla- 
ture assumed  the  form  which  it  retains  in  Ger- 
many to  the  present  day : — 


Double  Octave. 


Great  Octave. 


Small  Octave. 


w 


CO 


^    EE    FF    GG 


Once-marked  Octave. 


AA   BB     0 


D      E      F      G      A     B 


c       d 


f      g      a      b 


Thrice-marked  Octave. 


Twice-marked  Octave. 


m 


-•-    JL 


cffeTgaScde   fg 

The  comparatively  recent  adoption  of  the  C 
Pedal-board  in  England  has  led  to  some  confusion 
as  to  the  Tablature  of  the  lower  Octave ;  and  hence 
our  English  organ-builders  usually  describe  the 
Great  C  as  Double  C,  using  tripled  capitals  for 
the  lowest  notes — a  circumstance  which  renders 
caution  necessary  in  comparing  English  and  Ger- 
man specifications,  where  the  actual  length  of  the 
pipes  is  not  marked. 

In  process  of  time,  a  hook  was  added  to  the 
letters,  for  the  purpose  of  indicating  a  Q ;  as, 
q  (cJJ),  4  (djf),  etc. :  and,  in  the  absence  of  a 
corresponding  sign  for  the  b,  c,  was  written  for  d  b, 
4  for  e  b,  etc.,  giving  rise,  in  the  Scale  of  Eb,  to 
the  monstrous  progression,  DJJ,  F,  G,  GjJ,  Aj,  C, 
D,  D  J — an  anomaly  which  continued  in  common 
use,  long  after  Michael  Prsetorius  had  recom- 
mended, in  his  '  Syntagma  Musicum,'  ^  the  use 
of  hooks  below  or  above  the  letters,  to  indicate 
the  two  forms  of  Semitone — q,  d,  etc.  Even  as 
late  as  1808  the  error  was  revived  in  connection 
with  Beethoven's  Eroica  Symphony,  which  was 

1  See  p.  44. 


c      d       e      ?      g      a      U    «*•=• 


announced   in  Vienna  as  'Symphonic  in  Dis' 

For  indicating  the  length  of  the  notes,  the 
following  forms  were  adopted,  at  a  very  early 
period  :— 

Breve. 

Seml- 
breve. 

Minim. 

Crotchet. 

Quaver. 

Semi- 
quaver. 

Notes. 

• 

1 
i 

h 

t! 

^ 

^ 

Rests. 

A 

J^ 

^ 

i 

J 

Grouped  ^ 

idea. 

c.  ete. 

ossible 
lexity. 

Tiro  Orotcheti  ~H~     Four  Qu 

By  mea,nH  of  these  Signs 
to  express  passages  of  con 

«  Xhayer'f  'ObronologUcliei 

iviir.    J_     '  "1  -        - 

,  it  was 
siderab] 

Vcnelchii 

quite  p 
e  comj 

48 


TABLATURE. 


without  the  use  of  a  Stave;  though,  very  fre- 
quently, the  two  methods  of  Notation  were  com- 
bined, especially  in  Compositions  intended  for  a 
Solo  Voice,  with  Instrumental  Accompaniment. 
For  instance,  in  .  the  following  example  from 
Arnold  Schlick's  •  Tabulaturen  Etlicher  lobgeseng 
iind  liedlein  ufF  die  orgeln  und  lauten '  (Mentz, 


Maria  Zart 


TABLATURE. 

15 1 2),  the  melody  is  given  on  the  Stave,  and  the 
Bass  in  Organ  Tablature,  the  notes  in  ihe  latter 
being  twice  as  long  as  those  in  the  former — a 
peculiarity  by  no  means  rare,  in  a  method  of 
Notation  into  which  almost  every  writer  of  emi- 
nence introduced  some  novelty  of  his  own  de- 
vising. 


Though  no  doubt  deriving  its  origin  from  this 
early  form,  the  method  of  Tablature  used  by 
Lutenists  differed  from  it  altogether  in  prin- 
ciple, being  founded,  in  all  its  most  important 
points,  upon  the  peculiar  construction  of  the  in- 
strument for  which  it  was  intended.  [See  Lute.] 
To  the  uninitiated.  Music  written  on  this  system 
appears  to  be  noted,  either  in  Arabic  numerals, 
or  small  letters,  on  an  unusually  broad  Six-lined 
Stave.  The  resemblance  to  a  Stave  is,  however, 
merely  imaginary.  The  Lines  really  represent 
the  six  principal  Strings  of  the  Lute ;  while  the 
letters,  or  numerals,  denote  the  Frets  by  which 
the  Strings  are  stopped,  without  indicating  either 
the  names  of  the  notes  to  be  sounded,  or  their 
relation  to  a  fixed  Clef.  And,  since  the  pitch  of 
the  notes  produced  by  the  use  of  the  Frets  will 
naturally  depend  upon  that  of  the  Open  Strings, 
it  is  clearly  impossible  to  decypher  any  given 
system  of  Tablature,  without  first  ascertaining 
the  method  of  tuning  to  which  it  is  adapted, 
though  the  same  principle  underlies  all  known 
modifications  of  the  general  rule.  We  shall  do 
well,  therefore,  to  begin  by  comparing  a  few  of 
the  methods  of  tuning  most  commonly  used  on 
the  Continent.     [See  Scordatuba.] 

Adrien  le  Roy,  in  his  'Briefve  et  facile  In- 
struction pour  aprendre  la  Tablature,' first  printed 
at  Paris  in  155 1,  tunes  the  Chanterelle — i.  e.  the 
I  at,  or  highest  String,  to  c,  and  the  lower  Strings, 
in  descending  order,  to  g,  d,  bb,  f,  and  c ;  see  (a) 
in  the  following  example.  Vincenzo  Galilei,  in 
the  Dialogue  called  'II  Fronimo'  (Venice,  1583), 
tunes  his  instrument  thus,  beginning  with  the 
lowest  String,  G,  c,  f,  a,  d,  g,  as  at  (6)  :  and  this 
system  was  imitated  by  Agricola,  in  his  'Musica 
Instrumentalis '  (Wittenberg,  1529);  and  em- 
ployed by  John  Dowland  in  his '  Bookes  of  Songes 
or  Ayres '  (London,  1 597-1 603),  and  by  most  Eng- 
lish Lutenists,  who,  however,  always  reckoned 
downwards,  from  the  highest  sound  to  the  lowest, 
as  at  (c).  Thomas  Mace  describes  the  English 
method,  in  *  Musick's  Monument '  (London,  1676 
fol.),  chap.  ix.    Scipione  Cerreto,  *  Delia  prattica 


musica  vocale  et  strumentale'  (Napoli,  1601), 
gives  a  somewhat  similar  system,  with  8  strings, 
tuned  thus,  beginning  with  the  lowest,  C,  D,  G, 
c,  f,  a,  d,  g,  as  at  (d)  in  the  example.  Sebastian 
Virdung,  in  *  Musica  getuscht'  (151 1),  gives  the 
following,  reckoning  upwards,  as  at  (e) — A,  d,  g, 
b,  e,  a ;  and  this  method,  which  was  once  very 
common  in  Italy,  is  followed  in  a  scarce  collection 
of  Songs  with  Lute  Accompaniment,  published  at 
Venice  by  Ottaviano  Petrucci,  in  1509. 


(a) 


Adribn  lb  Roy. 


i^^ 


p^ 


w 


V.  Galilbi. 


P^ 


^^ 


W^ 


(c) 


J.  Dowland. 


i 


^m 


(d) 


S.  Ckrreto. 


-..•-       FF=t 


O.  Petrucci.     Seb.  Virduno. 


f 


It  will  be  understood  that  these  systems  apply 
only  to  the  six  principal  Strings  of  the  Lute, 
which,  alone,  were  governed  by  the  Frets.  The 
longer  Strings,  sympathetically  tuned  in  pairs,  by 
means  of  a  separate  neck,  were  entirely  ignored, 
in  nearly  all  systems  of  Tablature,  and  used  only 
after  the  manner  of  a  Drone,  when  they  hap- 
pened to  coincide  with  the  Tonic  of  the  Key 
in  which  the  Music  was  written.  Of  this  nature 
are  the  two  lowest  Strings  at  (d)  in  the  foregoing 
example. 

Of  the  Lines  —  generally  six  in  number  — 
used  to  represent  the  principal  Strings,  Italian 
Lutenists  almost  always  employed  the  lowest  for 


TABLATURE. 

the  Chanterelle  and  the  highest,  for  the  gravest 
String.  In  France,  England,  Flanders,  and  Spain, 
the  highest  line  was  used  for  the  Chanterelle,  and 
the  whole  system  reversed.  The  French  system, 
however,  was  afterwards  universally  adopted,  both 
in  Italy  and  Germany — a  circumstance  which 
must  be  carefully  borne  in  mind  with  regard 
to  Music  printed  in  those  countries  in  the  1 7th 
century. 

The  Frets  by  which  the  six  principal  Strings 
were  shortened,  were  represented,  in  Italy,  by 
the  numerals  i,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  to  which 
were  afterwards  added  the  numbers  10,  ii,  12, 
writtMi  X,  X,  X.  In  France  and  England  the 
place  of  these  numerals  was  supplied  by  the 
letters  a,  b,  c,  d,  e,  f,  g,  h,  i,  etc. :  and,  after  a 
time,  these  letters  came  into  general  use  on  the 
Continent  also.  Of  course,  one  plan  was  just  as 
good  as  the  other ;  but  there  was  this  important 
practical  dlflference  between  them :  in  England 
and  France  a  represented  the  Open  String,  and 
b  the  first  Fret ;  in  Italy,  the  Open  String  was 
represented  by  a  cypher,  and  the  first  Fret  by 
the  number  i.  The  letter  &,  therefore,  corre- 
sponded to  the  figure  i ;  and  c  to  2.  The  letters, 
or  numerals,  were  written  either  on  the  lines  or 
in  the  spaces  between  them,  each  letter  or 
numeral  representing  a  Semitone  in  correspond- 
ence with  the  action  of  the  Frets.  Thus,  when 
the  lowest  String  was  tuned  to  G,  the  actual 
note  G  was  represented  by  a  (or  o)  ;  GjJ,  or 
Ab,  by  b  (or  i) ;  A,  by  c  (or  2) ;  AJ,  or  Bb, 
by  d  (or  3).  But  when  the  lowest  String  was 
tuned  to  A,  b  (or  i)  represented  Bb ;  c  (or  2) 
represented  Btl;  and  d  (or  3)  represented  c. 
The  following  example  shows  both  the  French 
and  the  Italian  Methods,  the  letters  being 
written  in  the  spaces — the  usual  plan  in  England 
— and  the  lowest  place  being  reserved  for  an 
additional  Open  Bass  String. 


TABLATURE. 


49 


G 

French 

Chanterelle 

and  English 

Tahlatun 
J.  DowJ 

[.AND. 

D 

A 

F 

abed 

C 

a  b  c  d  e 

G 

abode 

(D 

)    Loveri  string 

a 

Solution. 


Italian  Tahlature. 


G- 

V.  GALILKt. 

F- 
A- 
D- 
G- 

-0—1-2    3 

-o-x-,-3-4- 

ChanterMt 

Solution. 


In  order  to  indicate  the  duration  of  the  notes, 
the  Semibreve,  Minim,  Crotchet,  Quaver,  and 
Dot — or  Point  of  Augmentation — were  repre- 
sented by  the  following  signs,  written  over  the 
highest  line  ;  each  sign  remaining  in  force  until 
it  was  contradicted  by  another — at  least,  during 
the  continuance  of  the  bar.  At  the  beginning 
of  a  new  bar,  the  sign  was  usually  repeated. 


Semibreve. 
I 


Uinim. 

^ 


Crotchet. 


Quaver. 


In  order  to  afford  the  reader  an  opportunity  of 
practically  testing  the  rules,  we  give  a  few  short 
examples  selected  from  the  works  already  men- 
tioned; showing,  in  each  case,  the  method  of 
tuning  employed — an  indulgence  very  unusual 
in  the  old  Lute-Books.  Ordinary  notation  was 
of  course  used  for  the  voice  part. 

J.  DOWLAND. 


mi 


5: 


Ch 

(G) 

Awake,  sweet 
anterelle.    |S 

c     c     d 

love 

1 
C 

thou 
a 

art     re  - 

turned. 

W 

d     d     a 

d 

d 

d      d 

(A) 

odd 

d 

b 

db 

d      f 

(F) 

^      a 

a 

a 

e      f 

(C) 

f 

(G) 

Lowett  String. 


=S=3 


g 


:2± 


m 


1        ^ 

^ 

h 

^        ^.(^ 

c            d 

c 

a     a 

d 

d  b  a 

d 

d      d 

c 

oca 

e       a     a 

a 

a 

a 

e  a  f         ace 

f              d 

^ 

^    ^^     M 

d      d  c 

d            d      . 

d          d      b 

aba      a 

e           c 

c      a  . 

f       a 

^^=^=^====^^=^ 

-^    r'r — r^ ■ 

^r=^^^ 

VOL.  IV.   PT.  I. 


50 


3 


TABLATURE. 


:!=&= 


f=r=r=T 


r  [  ^  i  J 


a 


^^ 


Br=Ff 


i 


J^t 


Italian  method. 

Ottaviano  Petrttcci. 


i 


g^    f=^     g^: 


1 h 


Af  -  flit  •  U  spir-ti 


Lowest  String. 


(A)- 
(D). 
(G)- 
(B) 
(E)- 
(A). 


^  > 

^    h    h    > 

^  ^^  N  N 

^ 

3                  .... 

_e-x — 

3-1— o 

o— 

o — 

ChanterelU. 


N    h    ^    N 

e 

N  N    1 

tc. 

Q 

333 

3 

These  examples  will  enable  the  student  to  solve 
any  ordinary  forms  of  Tablature.  Those  who  wish 
to  study  the  supplementary  Positions  of  Galilei, 
and  the  complicated  methods  of  Gerle,'  Besardus,^ 
and  other  German  writers,  will  find  no  difficulty 
in  understanding  the  rules  laid  down  in  their  re- 
spective treatises,  after  having  once  mastered  the 
general  features  of  this  system. 

It  remains  only  to  speak  of  Tablature  as 
applied  to  other  intruments  than  that  for  which 
it  was  originally  designed. 

During  the  reign  of  King  James  T,  Coperario, 
then  resident  in  England,  adapted  the  Lute 
Tablature  to  Music  written  for  the  Bass  Viol. 

1  In  nuMt  modern  editions,  this  note  Is  erreueously  printed  O. 

a  Hiuica  Teutscb  CNarnberg,  1642). 

>  Tbesaonu  barmonlciu  (Colon.  Agr.  1603). 


TABLE  ENTERTAINMENT. 

Tins  method  of  Notation  was  used  for  beginners 
only,  and  not  for  playing  in  concert.  John  Play- 
ford,  in  his  '  Introduction  to  the  Skill  of  Music  * 
(loth  edit.,  London,  1683),  describes  this  method 
of  Notation  as  the  'Lyra-way';  and  calls  the 
instrument  the  Lero,  or  Lyra- Viol.  The  six 
strings  of  the  Bass  Viol  are  tuned  thus,  be- 
ginning with  the  6th,  or  lowest  String,  and 
reckoning 'upwards— D,  G  (F),  c,  e,  a,  d;  and 
the  method  proposed  is  exactly  the  same  as  that 
used  for  the  Lute,  adapted  to  this  system  of 
tuning.  Thus,  on  the  6th  String,  a  denotes  D 
(the  Open  String)  ;  b  denotes  D  J  ;  c  denotes  E ; 
etc.  ^  A  player,  therefore,  who  can  read  Lute- 
Music,  will  find  no  difficulty  in  reading  this. 

John  Playford,  enlarging  upon  Coperario's  idea, 
recommended  the  same  method  for  beginners  on 
the  Violin,  adapting  it  to  the  four  Open  Strings  of 
that  instrument— G,  D,  A,  E.  The  following  Air, 
arranged  on  this  system,  for  the  Violin,  is  taken 
from  a  tune  called  *  Parthenia.' 

J  J  J  J  J  J.J.  j.^i  JJ 

ACDFH       PDCAC 


A 

F 

:^ 

J.J.  J.^J  J  J 


D      C         A 


F  E     F 


This  adaptation  to  the  Violin  is  one  of  the  latest 
developments  of  the  system  of  Tablature  on 
record  :  but  Mendel,*  not  without  show  of  reason, 
thinks  the  term  applicable  to  the  Basso  Continue, 
or  Figured-Bass ;  and  we  should  not  be  very  far 
wrong  were  we  to  apply  it  to  the  Tonic-Sol-Fa 
system  of  our  own  day.  [W.S.R.] 

TABLE  ENTERTAINMENT.  A  species  of 
performance  consisting  generally  of  a  mixture  of 
narration  and  singing  delivered  by  a  single  in- 
dividual seated  behind  a  table  facing  the  audience. 
When  or  by  whom  it  was  originated  seems  doubt- 
ful. George  Alexander  Steevens  gave,  about 
1765,  entertainments  in  which  he  was  the  sole 
performer,  but  such  were  probably  rather  lec- 
tures than  table  entertainments.  In  May  1775, 
R.  Baddeley,  the  comedian  (the  original  Moses  in 
•The  School  for  Scandal'),  gave  an  entertain- 
ment at  Marylebone  Gardens,  described  as  •  an 
attempt  at  a  sketch  of  the  times  in  a  variety  of 

*  If  uslkallschei  Conversations  Lexicon  (Berlin,  1869). 


TABLE  ENTERTAINMENT. 

caricatures,  accompanied  with  a  whimsical  and 
satirical  dissertation  on  each  character ' ;  and  in 
the  June  following  George  Saville  Carey  gave  at 
the  same  place  *  A  Lecture  on  Mimicry,'  in  which 
he  introduced  imitations  of  the  principal  theatri- 
cal performers  and  vocalists  of  the  period.  John 
Collins,  an  actor,  in  1775  gave  in  London  a  table- 
entertainment,  written  by  himself,  called  'The 
Elements  of  Modern  Oratory,'  in  which  he  intro- 
duced imitations  of  Garrick  and  Foote.  After 
giving  it  for  42  times  in  London  he  repeated 
it  in  Oxford,  Cambridge,  Belfast,  Dublin,  and 
Birmingham.  He  subsequently  gave,  with  great 
success,  an  entertainment,  also  written  by  him- 
self, called  'The  Evening  Brush,'  containing  seve- 
ral songs  which  became  very  popular;  among 
them  the  once  well-known  'Chapter  of  Kings' 
— 'The  Romans  in  England  once  held  sway, 
etc.' ^  Charles  Dibdin  commenced  in  1789  a 
series  of  table  entertainments  in  which  song  was 
the  prominent  feature,  and  which  he  continued 
with  great  success  until  1801.  Dibdin's  posi- 
tion as  a  table  entertainer  was  unique.  He 
united  in  himself  the  functions  of  author,  com- 
poser, narrator,  singer,  and  accompanyist.  [See 
Dibdin,  Charles,  in  which  article  it  was  by 
mistake  stated  that  Dibdin  was  the  originator 
of  this  class  of  entertainment.]  On  April  3, 181 6, 
the  elder  Charles  Mathews  gave,  at  the  Lyceum 
Theatre,  his  '  Mail  Coach  Adventures,'  the  first 
of  a  series  of  table-entertainments  which  he  con- 
tinued to  give  for  many  years,  and  with  which 
he  achieved  an  unprecedented  success.  Into  these 
his  wonderful  power  of  personation  enabled  him 
to  introduce  a  new  feature.  After  stooping  be- 
hind his  table  he  quickly  reappeared  with  his 
head  and  shoulders  in  costume,  representing  to 
the  life  some  singular  character.  The  old  Scotch- 
woman, the  Thames  waterman,  and  the  Milton- 
struck  ironmonger  were  a  few  only  of  such  per- 
sonations. Mathews's  success  led  to  similar 
performances  by  others.  Foremost  among  these 
were  the  comedians  John  Reeve  and  Frederick 
Yates,  whose  fwU  was  imitation  of  the  principal 
actors  of  the  day.  W.  S.  Woodin  gave  for  seve- 
ral seasons,  with  very  great  success,  table-enter- 
tainments at  the  Lowther  Rooms,  King  William 
Street,  Strand;  a  place  now  known  as  Toole's 
Theatre. — ^Henry  Phillips,  the  bass  singer,  and 
John  Wilson,  the  Scotch  tenor,  gave  similar  enter- 
tainments, of  a  more  closely  musical  kind  :  and 
Edney,  the  Erasers,  and  others,  have  followed  in 
their  wake.  [See  Phillips,  Henry  ;  and  Wilson, 
John.]  [W.H.H.] 

TABOR.  A  small  drum  used  to  accompany 
a  pipe,  both  being  played  by  the  same  man.  [See 
Pipe  and  Tabor.]  Tabret  is  a  diminutive  of 
Tabor.  [V.deP.] 

TABOUROT.    [See  Abbeau,  vol.  i.  p.  80.] 

TACCHINARDI,  Niccol5,  a  distinguished 
tenor  singer,  bom  at  Florence  in  September  1776. 
He  was  intended  for  an  ecclesiastical  career,  but 
his  artistic  bias  was  so  strong  that  he  abandoned 

I  See  a  copy  of  the  worda  In  '  Notes  and  Queries '  for  1866. 


TADOLINI. 


51 


the  study  of  literature  for  that  of  painting  and 
modelling.  From  the  age  of  eleven  he  also  re- 
ceived instruction  in  vocal  and  instrumental 
music.  When  17  he  joined  the  orchestra  at  the 
Florence  t-lieatre  as  violin-player,  but  after  five 
years  of  this  work,  his  voice  having  meanwhile 
developed  into  a  beautiful  tenor,  he  began  to  sing 
in  public.  In  1804  he  appeared  on  the  operatic 
stages  of  Leghorn  and  Pisa ;  afterwards  on  those 
of  Venice,  Florence,  and  Milan,  where  he  took  a 
distinguished  part  in  the  gala  performances  at 
Napoleon's  coronation  as  king  of  Italy. 

At  Rome,  where  his  success  was  as  permanent 
as  it  was  brilliant,  his  old  passion  for  sculpture 
was  revived  by  the  acquaintance  which  he  made 
with  Canova,  in  whose  studio  he  worked  for  a 
time.  Canova  executed  his  bust  in  marble,  thus 
paying  homage  to  him  in  his  v/orst  aspect,  for 
he  was  one  of  the  ugliest  of  men,  and  almost  a 
hunchback.  When  he  appeared  at  Paris  in  181 1, 
his  looks  created  a  mingled  sensation  of  horror 
and  amusement ;  but  such  was  the  beauty  of  his 
voice  and  the  consummate  mastery  of  his  style, 
that  he  had  only  to  begin  to  sing  for  these  per- 
sonal drawbacks  to  be  all  forgotten.  He  is  said 
to  have  taken  Babini  for  his  model,  but  it  is 
doubtful  if  he  had  any  rival  in  execution  and 
artistic  resource.  The  fact  of  so  ugly  a  man  sus- 
taining the  part  (transposed  for  tenor)  of  Don 
Giovanni,  with  success,  shows  what  a  spell  he 
could  cast  over  his  audience. 

After  three  successful  years  in  Paris,  Tacchi- 
nardi  returned  in  1 814  to  Italy,  where  he  was  ap- 
pointed chief  singer  to  the  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany, 
with  liberty  to  travel.  He  accordingly  sang  at 
Vienna,  and  afterwards,  in  Spain,  distinguishing 
himself  especially  at  Barcelona,  although  then  50 
years  old.  After  1831  he  left  the  stage,  and  lived 
at  his  country  house  near  Florence.  He  retained 
his  appointment  from  the  Grand  Duke,  but  de- 
voted himself  chiefly  to  teaching,  for  which  he 
became  celebrated.  He  b  uilt  a  little  private  theatre 
in  which  to  exercise  his  pupils,  of  whom  the  most 
notable  were  Mme.  Frezzolini,  and  his  daughter 
Fanny,  Mme.  Persiani,  perhaps  the  most  striking 
instance  on  record  of  what  extreme  training  and 
hard  work  may  effect,  in  the  absence  of  any  su- 
perlative natural  gifts.  His  other  daughter,  Elisa, 
was  an  eminent  pianiste.  Tacchinardi  was  the 
author  of  a  number  of  solfeggi  and  vocal  exercises, 
and  of  a  little  work  called  *  Dell'  opera  in  musica 
sul  teatro  italiano,  e  de'  suoi  difetti.'  He  died  in 
i860.  [F.A.M.] 

TACET.  i.e.  Ms  silent.'  An  indication  often 
found  in  old  scores,  meaning  that  the  instrument 
to  which  it  refers  is  to  leave  off  playing.        [G.] 

TADOLINI,  Giovanni,  bom  at  Bologna  in 
1793,  learned  composition  from  Mattei,  and  sing- 
ing from  Babini,  and  at  the  age  of  1 8  was  appointed 
by  Spontini  accompanyist  and  chorus-master  at 
the  Theatre  des  Italiens,  Paris.  He  kept  this  post 
till  the  faU  of  Paris  in  18 14,  when  he  retumed  to 
Italy.  There  he  remained,  writing  operas  and 
occupied  in  music  till  1830,  when  he  went  back 
to  the  Theatre  Italien,  with  his  wife,  Eugeni* 

E2 


52 


TADOLINI. 


Savorini  (born  at  ForVi,  1809),  whom  he  had  mar- 
ried shortly  before,  and  resumed  his  old  functions 
till  1839,  when  he  once  more  returned  to  Italy, 
and  died  at  Bologna  Nov.  29,  1872.  His  operas 
are  'La  Fata  Alcina '  (Venice,  1814) ;  'La  Princi- 
pessa  di  Navarra '  (Bologna,  i8i6?)  ;  'II  Credulo 
deluso'  (Rome,  1820?);  'Tamerlano'  (Bologna, 
1822?)  'Moctar*  (Milan.  1824?);  'Mitridate' 
(Venice,  1826?);  'Almanzor'  (Trieste,  1828?). 
One  of  his  canzonets,  'Eco  di  Scozia,'  with  horn 
obligato,  was  much  sung  by  Rubini.  Tadolini 
was  at  one  time  credited  with  having  written 
the  concluding  fugue  in  Rossini's  Stabat  (see 
Berlioz,  'Soirees  de  I'orchestre'  2bme  Epilogue). 
The  above  is  chiefly  compiled  from  Fdtis.      [G.] 

TAGLICHSBECK,  Thomas,  bom  of  a  musical 
family  at  Ansbach,  in  Bavaria,  Dec.  31,  1799, 
studied  at  Munich  under  Eovelli  and  Gratz,  and 
by  degrees  became  known.  Lindpaintner  in  1 820 
gave  him  his  first  opportunity  by  appointing  him 
his  deputy  in  the  direction  of  the  Munich  theatre, 
and  about  this  time  he  produced  his  first  opera, 
'Weber's  Bild.*  After  this  he  forsook  Munich 
and  wandered  over  Germany,  Holland,  and  Den- 
mark, as  a  violinist,  in  which  he  acquired  great 
reputation.  He  then  settled  in  Paris,  and  on 
Jan.  24,  1836,  a  symphony  of  his  (op.  10)  was 
admitted  to  the  unwonted  honour  of  peiform- 
ance  at  the  Conservatoire.  It  must  have  had 
at  least  the  merit  of  clearness  and  effect,  or  it 
would  not  have  been  followed  by  a  second  per- 
formance on  April  2, 1837 — ^  ^^^6  honour  for  any 
German  composer  but  a  first-rate  one. 

In  1827  he  was  appointed  Kapellmeister  of  the 
Prince  of  HohenzoUern  Hechingen,  a  post  which 
he  retained  till  its  dissolution  in  1848.  The  rest 
of  his  life  was  passed  between  Lowenberg  in 
Silesia,  Dresden,  and  Baden  Baden,  where  he  died 
Oct.  5,  1867.  His  works  extend  to  op.  33,  and 
embrace,  besides  the  symphony  already  men- 
tioned, three  others — a  mass,  op.  25  ;  a  psalm, 
op.  30 ;  a  trio  for  PF.  and  strings ;  a  great 
quantity  of  concertos,  variations,  and  other  pieces 
for  the  violin  ;  part-songs,  etc.,  etc.  [G.] 

TAGLIAFICO,  Joseph  Dieddonn4  bom 
Jan.  I,  182 1,  of  Italian  parents,  at  Toulon,  and 
educated  at  the  College  Henri  IV,  Paris. 
He  received  instruction  in  singing  from  Pier- 
marini,  in  acting  from  Lablache,  and  made  his 
<M)ut  in  1844  at  the  Italiens,  Paris.  He  first 
appeared  in  England  April  6,  1847,  at  Covent 
Garden  Theatre,  as  Oroe  in  'Semiramide,'  on  the 
occasion  of  the  opening  of  the  Royal  Italian 
Opera.  From  that  year  until  1876  he  appeared  at 
Covent  Garden  season  by  season,  almost  opera 
by  opera.  His  parts  were  small,  but  they  were 
thoroughly  studied  and  given,  and  invariably 
showed  the  intelligent  and  conscientious  artist. 
In  the  intervals  of  the  London  seasons  he  had 
engagements  in  St.  Petersburg,  Moscow,  Paris, 
and  America ;  was  stage  manager  at  the  Thd3.tre 
des  Italiens,  Monte  Carlo,  etc.,  and  for  many 
years  corresponded  with  the  'Menestrel'  under 
the  signature  of  *  De  Retz.'  In  1877,  on  the  death 
of  M.  Desplaces,  he  was  appointed  stage  manager 
of  the  Italian  Opera  in  London,  which  post  he 


TALLYS. 

resigned  in  1882  on  account  of  iU  health.  Mme. 
Tagliafico,  formerly  Cotti,  was  for  many  years  a 
valuable  'comprimaria*  both  at  Covent  Garden 
and  Her  Majesty's.  [A.C.] 

TALEXY,  Adrien.  A  pianist  and  voluminous 
composer,  born  about  1820;  produced  between 
1872  and  1878  six  one-act  operettas  at  the 
Bouffes-Parisiens  and  other  Paris  theatres,  none 
of  which  met  with  any  special  favour.  He  is 
the  author  of  a  '  Mdthode  de  piano ' ;  20  '  Etudes 
expressives,'  op.  80  (with  Colombier) ;  and  of 
a  large  number  of  salon  and  dance  pieces  for 
piano  solo,  some  of  which  enjoyed  great  popu- 
larity in  their  day.  In  i860  M.  Talexy  con- 
ducted a  series  of  French  operas  at  the  St.  James's 
Theatre,  London,  for  Mr.  F.  B.  Chatterton,  begin- 
ning with  La  Tentation,  May  28,  which  however 
did  not  prove  a  good  speculation.  He  died  at 
Paris  in  1 88 1.  [G.] 

TAILLE.  Originally  the  Fiench  name  for 
the  tenor  voice,  Basse-taille  being  applied  to  the 
baritone ;  but  most  frequently  employed  to  de- 
signate the  tenor  viol  and  violin.  It  properly 
denominates  the  large  tenor,  as  distinguished 
from  the  smaller  contralto  or  haute-contre :  but 
zttf  —  ^s  often  applied  to  both  instruments.  The 
-M—  tenor  violoncello  clef  was  originally  ap- 
~"  propriated  to  the  Taille.  [See  Tenor 
Violin.]  [E.J.P.] 

TALISMANO,  Hi.  Grand  opera  in  3  acts ; 
music  by  Balfe.  Produced  at  Her  Majesty's  Opera, 
June  II,  1874.  The  book,  founded  on  Walter 
Scott's  'Talisman,'  was  written  by  A.  Mattheson 
in  English,  and  so  composed  ;  but  was  translated 
into  Italian  by  Sig.  Zaflfira  for  the  purpose  of 
production  at  the  Italian  Opera.  The  work  was 
left  unfinished  by  Balfe,  and  completed  by  Dr. 
G.  A.  Macfarren.  [G.] 

TALLYS  (as  he  himself  wrote  his  name), 
TALYS,  or  TALLIS  (as  it  is  usually  spelled), 
Thomas,  the  father  of  English  cathedral  music, 
is  supposed  to  have  been  bom  in  the  second 
decade  of  the  i6th  century.  It  has  been  con- 
jectured that  he  received  his  early  musical 
education  in  the  choir  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral 
under  Thomas  Mulliner,  and  was  removed 
thence  to  the  choir  of  the  Chapel  Royal ;  but 
there  is  no  evidence  to  support  either  state- 
ment. The  words  *  Child  there '  which  occur  at 
the  end  of  the  entry  in  the  Cheque-book  of  the 
Chapel  Royal  recording  his  death  and  the  appoint- 
ment of  his  successor,  and  which  have  been  relied 
upon  as  proving  the  latter  statement,  are  am- 
biguous, as  they  are  applicable  equally  to  his 
successor,  Henry  Eveseed,  and  to  him.  It  is  how- 
ever highly  probable  that  he  was  a  chorister 
in  one  or  other  of  the  metropolitan  choirs.  He 
became  organist  of  Waltham  Abbey,  which 
appointment  he  retained  until  the  dissolution 
of  the  abbey  in  1540,  when  he  was  dismissed 
with  20s.  for  wages  and  20*.  for  reward.^  It  is 
probable  that  he  soon  after  that  event  obtained 
the  place  of  a  Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal. 
His  celebrated  Preces,  Responses  and  Litany,  and 

1  This  fact  was  discovered  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Cumming*. 


TALLYS. 

his  Service  in  the  Dorian  mode,  were  most  prob- 
ably composed  soon  after  the  second  Prayer  Book 
of  Edward  VI.  was  issued  in  1552.  In  1560  he 
contributed  eight  tunes  to  Day's  Psalter  (one  of 
which,  a  canon  2  in  i,  was  subsequently  adapted 
and  is  still  used  to  Ken's  Evening  Hymn),  and 
four  anthems  to  Day's  Morning,  Communion, 
and  Evening  Prayer.  On  January  2 1,  1575-6  he 
and  William  Byrd  obtained  Letters  Patent  giving 
them  the  exclusive  right  of  printing  music  and 
ruled  music  paper  for  twenty-one  years ;  the  first 
of  the  kind.  The  first  work  printed  under  the 
patent  was  the  patentees'  own  *  Cantiones  quae  ab 
argumento  Sacrae  vocantur,  quinque  et  sex  par- 
tium,'  containing  34  motets,  16  by  Tallis,  and  18 
by  Byrd,  and  dated  1575.  In  the  patent  the 
grantees  are  called  *  Gent,  of  our  Chappell '  only, 
but  on  the  title-page  of  the  'Cantiones'  they 
describe  themselves  as  '  Serenissimae  Regineee 
Maiestati  h.  priuato  Sacello  generosis,  et  Organis- 
tis.'  The  work  is  a  beautiful  specimen  of  early 
English  musical  typography.  It  contains  not 
only  three  laudatory  poems,  one  '  De  Anglorum 
Musica'  (unsigned),  and  two  others  by '  Richardus 
Mulcasterus'  and  'Ferdinandus  Richardsonus,' 
but  also  at  the  end  a  short  poem  by  Tallis  and 
Byrd  themselves : — 

AUTORES  CANTIONUM  AD  LECTOREM. 

Haft  tibi  primitias  sic  commendamus,  amice 
Lector,  ut  ivfantem  deponitura  suum 
Nutricijidei  vix  Jirma  puerpera  credit. 

Quels  pro  lacte  tuce  gratea  frontis  erit 
Eac  etenimfretce,  magnam  promittere  messem 

Audebunt,  cassce,  falcis  honore  cadent. 

which  has  been  thus  happily  Englished : — * 

The  Framees  of  the  Musicke  to  the  Reader. 
As  one,  that  scarce  recouer'd  from  her  Throes 
With  trustie  Nurse  her  feeble  Babe  bestowes ; 
These  firstlings,  Reader,  in  thy  Hands  we  place, 
Whose  Milk  must  be  the  Fauour  of  thy  Face  ; 
By  that  sustayn'd,  large  Increase  shal  they  shew, 
Of  that  depriued,  ungarner'd  must  they  gee. 

About  the  same  time  Tallys  composed  his 
markable  Song  of  Forty  parts,  for  8  choirs 
of  5  voices  each,  originally  set  to  Latin 
words,  but  adapted  to  English  words  about 
1630.''  [See  vol.  iii.  p.  274.]  Tallys,  like 
his  contemporary,  the  famous  Vicar  of  Bray, 
conformed,  outwardly  at  least,  to  the  various 
forms  of  worship  which  successive  rulers 
imposed,  and  so  retained  his  position  in  the 
Chapel  Royal  uninterruptedly  from  his  ap- 
pointment in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII  until 
his  death  in  that  of  Elizabeth.  From  the 
circumstance  of  his  having  selected  his  Latin 
motets  for  publication  so  lately  as  1575  it  may 
be  inferred  that  his  own  inclination  was  toward 
the  older  fai'.h.  He  died  November  23,  1585, 
and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  the  parish 
church  at  Greenwich,  where  in  a  stone  before 
the  altar  rails  a  brass  plate  was  inserted  with  an 
epitaph  in  verse  engraven  upon  it.  Upon  the 
church  being   taken  down  for  rebuilding  soon 

1  By  Mr.  H.  F.  Wilson,  of  Trinity  Colleee,  Cambridge,  to  ivhom  the 
Editor's  best  acitnowledgmnents  are  due. 

2  Copies  are  to  be  found  in  the  Madrigal  Society's  Library,  made  by 
John  Immyns ;  the  British  Museum ;  the  Royal  College  of  Music ; 
the  Library  of  Sir  F.  A.  G.  Ouseley. 


TALLYS. 


53 


after  1710  the  inscription  was  removed,  and  Tallys 
remained  without  any  tombstone  memorial  for 
upwards  of  150  years,  when  a  copy  of  the  epitaph 
(which  had  been  preserved  by  Strype  in  his 
edition  of  Stow's  Survey  of  London,  1720,^  and 
reprinted  by  Hawkins,  Bumey  and  others)  was 
placed  in  the  present  church.  The  epitaph  was 
set  to  music  as  a  4-part  glee  by  Dr.  Cooke, 
which  was  printed  in  Warren's  collections. 
Tallys's  Service  (with  the  Venite  as  originally 
set  as  a  canticle),  Preces  and  Responses,  and 
Litany,  and  5  anthems  (adapted  from  his  Latin 
motets),  were  first  printed  in  Barnard's  Selected 
Church  Musick,  1641.  The  Service,  Preces,  Re- 
sponses and  Litany,  somewhat  changed  in  form 
and  with  the  substitution  of  a  chant  for  Venite 
instead  of  the  original  setting,  and  the  addition 
of  a  chant  for  the  Athanasian  Creed,  were  next 
printed  by  Dr.  Boyce  in  his  Cathedral  Music, 
All  the  various  versions  of  the  Preces,  Responses 
and  Litany  are  included  in  Dr.  Jebb's  '  Choral 
Responses  and  Litanies.'  He  appears  to  have 
written  another  service  also  in  the  Dorian  mode, 
but  *  in  5  parts  two  in  one,'  of  which,  as  will  be 
seen  from  the  following  list,  the  bass  part  only 
is  at  present  known.  A  Te  Deum  in  F,  for  5 
voices,  is  much  nearer  complete  preservation 
(see  List).  Hawkins  included  in  his  History 
scores  of  two  of  the  Cantiones,  and,  after  having 
stated  in  the  body  of  his  work  that  Tallys  did  not 
compose  any  secular  music,  printed  in  his  appen- 
dix the  4-part  song,  •  Like  as  the  doleful  dove.* 
Bumey  in  his  History  printed  an  anthem  from 
Day's  Morning,  Communion,  and  Evening  prayer, 
and  two  of  the  Cantiones.  Several  MS.  compo- 
sitions by  Tallys  are  preserved  at  Christ  Church, 
Oxford,  in  Queen  Elizabeth's  Virginal  Book,  in 
the  British  Museum,  and  elsewhere.  (See  the 
List.)  We  give  his  autograph  from  the  last  leaf 
of  a  MS.  collection  of  Treatises  on  Music, 
formerly  belonging  to  Waltham  Abbey,  now  in 
the  British  Museum  (Lansdowne  MS.  763). 


A  head,  purporting  to  be  his  likeness,  together 
with  that  of  Byrd,  was  engraved  (upon  the  same 
plate)  for  Nicola  Haym's  projected  History  of 
Music,  1726.  A  single  impression  alone  is  known, 
but  copies  of  a  photograph  taken  from  it  are 
extant.  [W.H.H.] 


The  following  is  a  first  attempt  to  enumerate 
the  existing  works  of  Tallys  : — 


3  By  an  odd  misprint  the  composer's  name  It  called  'Qallys' 
Strype^  copy. 


14 


TALLYS. 


TAMBERLIK. 


L    PRINTED. 
The  earliest  appearance  is  giren. 


Hear  the  Tolce  and   prayer  (» 
Prayer  •). 

0  Lord  in  thee  Is  all  my  trust  ('  a 

Prayer  ')• 
Remember  not,  O  Lord  God  ('  the 

Anthem'). 
If  ye  lore  me  ('  the  Anthem  *). 

1  glye  you  a  new  Commandment.) 
(All  for  four  voices.   Printed  In 

John  Day's 'Homing  and  Evening 
Prayer  and  Communion,'  1560  ?) 

Han  blest  no  doubt.  1st  tune. 
Let  God  arise,  2iid  do. 
Why  fumeth  in  flght,  3rd  do. 
O  come  In  one,  4th  do. 
Even  like  the  hunted  hind,  5th  do. 
Expend,  O  Lord,  6th  do. 
Why  bragst  in  malice  high.  7th  do. 
God  grant  with  grace,  8th  do. 
Come,  Holy  Ghost,  eternal  God. 
(All  for  four  voices.  In  John  Day's 
'Whole  Psalter*  1663?  The 8 tunes 
(In  the  Tenor  part)  are  in  the  8 
modes,  1  in  each.   No.  8— a  Canon 

2  In  1,  sung  upside  down— is  the 


In  Jejunio  et  fletu,  &  S,  No.  ZflL 

SuscipequsBSO,  47.  No.  27. 

SlenimC^dapars),  i7.  No.  28. 

Miserere  nostrl.  47.  No.  34  (Haw- 
.  kins,  HI.  276). 
(All  from  the  Cautlones  sacre. 

etc.  157Sw) 

•  First  Service,*  or  •  Short  Service  * 
—In  D  dor.  Venite.  Te  Deum. 
Benedfctus,  Kyrie,  Creed, 
Sanctus.  Gloria  in  Excelsis, 
Uagniflcat,  NuncDImittis;  all 
ki. 

'  First  preces.* 

First  Psalm  to  do.'  (P«.  cxix.) 
'  AVherewithal,'  a  chant  har- 
monised. 

Second  do., '  0  do  well,'  do. 

Third  do.  '  My  soi^l  cleavelh,'  do. 
all  four  it  4. 

Responses,  Lord's  Prayer,  and 
Litany  4  5. 

(Anthem)  O  Lord,  give  thy  Holy 
Spirit,  4  4.  (Adapted  from 
Latin,  according  to  Tudway.) 


tune  usually  sung  to  'Glory  to'With all  our  hearts.  4  5  (Sal vator 

Thoe.  my  God  this  night.')  Mundl,  No.  1). 

Blessed  be  thy  name.  4  6  (Mihi 

Salvator  mundi,  4  5.  No.  1  (Bur- 1       autem  nimis). 

ney,  iii.76).  Adapted  to 'With  i  call  and  cry,  4  5(0  sacrum  con- 
all  our  hearts,'  by  Barnard,  j       vivium). 
Also(?)  to  'Teach  me,  O  Lord,',  Wipe  away  my  Mns,  4  5  (Absterge 
Ch.  Ch.,  and  '  When  Jesus.'  Domine).2    See  '  Forgive  me,' 

Absterge  Domine,  4  5.  No.  2  (Haw-         MS. 

khis.   111.  267).     Adapted    to    (All  from  Barnard's  '  First  Book 
'Wipe    away.'    by    Barnard  If  g^i^^jg^  church  Music,  1641.) 
Also   to  '  Discomfit  them,   O 
Lord '(1588?)  and  'I  look  for  Litany.  Preces,  and  Responses.  4 4. 


the  Lord. 
In  manus  tuas,  4  5.  No.  3. 
Uihl   autem   nimis,    4  5.     No.  7. 

Adapted  to  'Blessed   be  thy 


In  Rimbault's '  Full  Cathedral 
Service  of  Thomas  Tallis ' ;  and 
Jebb's  '  Choral  Responses  and 
Litanies' (1817). 
name,'  by  Barnard.  Also  to  Like  as  the  doleful  dove,  4  4.  In 
Great  and  marvellous.'   by        Hawkins,  Appendix. 


Motett  Society 
Onata  lux  (Hymn),  45.  No.  8. 
O  sacrum  convivium.  4  5.   No.  9. 

Adapted  to  'I  call  and  cry,' 

by  Barnard. 
Derelinquit  Implus,  4  5.    No.  13 

(Burney,  Hi.  80). 
Sabbathum  dum  translsset,  46. 

No.  14. 
Virtus,  honor  et   potestas,   4  6. 

No.  15. 
IlliB  dum  pergunt  (Hymn),   4  5. 

No.  16  (?  has  a  2nd  part.  Rex 

Christe). 
Proculrecedant(Hymn),45.  No.20 
SalvatorMundl.  45.  No. 21  (differ- 
ent from  No.  1). 
FMtl  sunt  Nazarel,  4  5.   No.  22. 


All  people  that  on  earth  do  dwell, 
4  4.  In  Arnold's  Cathedral 
Music,  vol.  1. 

Hear  my  prayer,  44.  In  'Anthems' 
and  Services  forChurchChoirs. 
Burns,  1846,  vol.  1. 15. 

Blessed  are  those.  4  5.  In  Motett 
Society's  Collection,  liL  131. 

Great  and  marvellous,  4  5.  Ibid, 
ill.  99,  adapted  from  '  Mlhi  au- 
tem nimis,'  Cantio  7;  and 
'  Blessed  be  thy  Name.'  in  Bar- 
nard. 

Verba  mea  auribus,  4  5.  In  Roch- 
litz's  Sammlung.  A  retransla- 
tlon  of '  I  call  and  cry.' 

'Come,  Holy  Ghost,  our  souls  in- 
spire.' Parish  Choir. 


IL   MANUSCRIPT  (NOT  PRINTED). 

Oh.  Ch.  -  (3hrlst  Church  Library,  Oxford.  M.S.O.  ■=■  Music  School, 
Oxford.  R.C.M.-Llbrary  of  Royal  College  of  Music.  Add.  MS.^ 
Additional  MS3.  British  Museum.  F.W.-Fitzwilliam  Museum, 
Cambridge.  O.-Library  of  Rev.  Sir  F.  A.  G.  Ouseley.  Bt.  P.H.— 
Peterhouse,  Cambridge. 

'Second  Psalms'  to  Preces,  viz.  Adesto  nunc.  4  5.    Ch.  Ch. 

Pss.  ex.  and  cxxxii.    Probably  Ad  nlhilum  deductus,  4  5.   2nd 


Part  of  '  Domine  quis.' 

MSS.  5,059. 
A  new  commandment  (?)  » 
Arise,  O  Lord.    P.  H. 


Chants  harmonised.  rart  of  '  Domine  quis.'   Add. 

•  Third  Psalms 'to  Preces,  viz.  Ps. 
cxix.  145-176.    Do. 
(Both  these  are  In  a  Bass  part 

book,  formerly  Juxon's,  in  the  Li-  Ave  Dei  patris.  43.    R.C.H. 

brary  of  St.  John's  Coll.,  Oxford.)  |  Ave  Domini  fllia.  4  3.    Do. 

Service  'of  five  parts,  two  in  one'i^J^  Sa  gr;t1a'-4  J^Do 
In  D  dor.,  containing  Venite.  ^-rosa  42     n'o 
Te  Deum,  Benedlctus.  Kjrle.tr    1       \         u 
Nloene  Creed,  Sanctus,  GlorIa|B^e»if<^,»™  those  that  are  unde- 
In  Excelsis.   Magnificat,  and        filed,  4.5.    M.S.O. 
Nunc  Dimittis.    Bass  part  In  De  lamentatione  (Gimel,  Daleth) 
Juion  book.  St. John's.  Oxford.        4  6.    Ch.  Ch.    Add.M8.5or>9.' 
No  other  parts  yet  known.       |  Deliver  me,  0  God.  St.  Paul's  list. 

»  Printed  by  Day  with  the  name  of  Sheppard ;  and  given  In  '  Parish 
Choir '  as  by  Sheppard.    See  Add.  MS.  30,513. 

»  Of  these  four5-part  anthems  there  are  transcripts  In  the  Fitz- 
WiUiam  Museum  of  'I  call  and  cry'  by  Blow  and  by  Purcell ;  of 
'  With  all  our  heart,'  '  Blessed,'  and  '  Wipe  away,'  by  Blow  only. 

3  I  have  not  been  able  to  discover  If  this  is  the  same  as  '  I  give  you 
a  new  commandment.' 


Discomfit  them,  0  Lord,  adapted 
(?15«8)  from  'Absterge  Do- 
mine.'   Ch.  Ch. 

Domine  quis  habltabit,  4  5.  Ch.Ch. 
Add.  MS.  5.059. 

Dominus  tecum,  43.   B.C.M. 

Eccetempus,44.   Add.  MS. 30.513. 

Et  benedictus.  In  Lute  tablature. 
Add.  MS.  29,246. 

Ex  more  docti  mistico.  Add.  MS. 
30,613. 

'  Fancy '  for  the  Organ  in  A  minor. 
Ch.  Ch. 

Felix  namque.  No.  1,  for  Virginals. 
Virginal  Book.  Fitzwllliam 
Library.  Cambridge. 

Felix  namque.  No.  2.  lor  do.    Do. 

Felix  namque.  No.  3,  'Mr.  Thos. 
Tallis  Offetary.'  for  do.  Add. 
MS.  No.  30.485. 

Fond  youth  is  a  bubble.  4  4. 
Add.  MS.  30.513.4 

Forgive  me.  Lord,  my  sin.  Clif- 
ford's list.  This  Is  probabl}- 
only  a  variant  of  '  Wipe  away 
my  sins.' 

Gaude  glorlosa,  48.    Ch.  Ch. 

Gaudegloriosa.  43.    R.C.M.s 

Gaude  Virgo  Maria.  46.    M.S.O. 

Gloria  tibl  Trinitas,  44(?)  Ch.Oh 

Gloria  tibl  Domine.  4  5  (?)    0. 

Hec  deum  cell.  4  5.    Ch.  Ch. 

How  long,  4  4(?)  In  Lute  tablature. 
Add.  MS.  29,247 ;  31,992, 

If  that  a  sinner's  sighs,  4  5.    O. 
I  look  for  the  Lord,  4  5.    Ch.  Ch, 

An  adaptation  of  'Absterge 

Domine.' 
Inciplt  lamentatio  (Aleph,  Beth) 

4  5.    Do.    Add.  MS.  5.059. 
In  nomine.  44.    M.S.O. 
In  nomine,  44.       Do. 
In  nomine.  Lute  tablature.  Add. 

MSS.  'iy.'>46. 
I  will  give  thanks.  St.  Paul's  list. 
I  will  cry  unto  God.    Do. 

Laudate  Dominum,  45.    Ch.  Ch. 
Let  the  wicked  forsake  his  way. 
Calvert's  list. 

Magnificat  anlma  mea  46.  Cb.Ch. 
Maria  Stella,  43.    R.C.M. 
Miraculum  videte.  4  6.    Ch.  Ch. 
Natus  est  nobis  4  2.     Add.  MS. 

Nunc  dimittis  Domine,  4  6.  Ch.Ch. 


Ogive  thanks.  MS.  by  A.  Batten, 
O. 

0  God  be  merciful.    P.H. 

O  thou  God  Almighty.  4  4.  Ch.Ch. 

O  praise  the  Lord.  Adapted  to  '  O 
Salutaris.'  Bass  part  in  Bar- 
nard's MS.  Coll.  R.C.M. 

0  Salutaris,  45.    Ch.Ch. 

O  sing  unto  the  Lord  (Ps.  cxllz), 
6.    M.S.O. 

O  thou  God  Almighty,  4  4.  Ob.  Ch. 

Out  of  the  deep.  44.    Ch.Ch. 

0  ye  tender  babes,  44.  Add.  MS. 
ao.613. 

Fange  lingua  (no name),  44.    Do. 
range  lingua  (no  name).  4  4.    Do. 
Pange  lingua  (no  name),  4  4.    Do. . 
Per  haec  nos.  4  3.    R.C.M. 
Per    haec   nos.   4  4.     Add.   MS. 

30,513. 
Poyncte,  a  (for  the  Virginals).  44. 

Do. 

Quidamftilt.  40.    Ch.Ch. 

Salve  Intemerata,  4  6.  Ch.  Ch. 
Salve  intemerata,  4  3.  R.0.M.» 
Save  Lord  and  hear  us.    St.  Paul's 

list. 
Soleimis  urgebat,  4  5.    Ch.  Ch. 

Te  Deum,  English,  In  F,  a  6, 
Parts  for  1st  Countertenor, 
Tenor,  Bass  Cant.,  in  Barnard's 
MS.  Collection  in  R.C.M.  An 
Organ  part  in  Ch.  Ch. 

Teach  me,  O  Lord,  45.  Ch.  Ch.  (?) 
adaptation  of  Salvator  Mundl 
No.  1. 

Teach  me  thy  way,  44.    Ch.Ch. 

Tu  fabricator.  4  5.    Do. 

Tu  nimirum,  4  4.  Add.  MS.  29,246. 

Up.  Lord,  and  help  us.  St.  Paul's 
list. 

Varlis Unguis.  47.    Ch.Ch. 
Veni  redemptor,  4  4.    Add    MS. 

30,513. 
Veni  redemptor  ( No  2),  4  4.    Do. 
Verily,  verily,  4  4.     Ely.     P.H. 

Add.  MS.  15,166. 

When  Jesus  went  Into  Symon  the 
Pharisee's  house,  4  5.  Adapted 
to  '  Salvator  mundi '  (No.  21). 
Add.  MS.  31,226. 


The  Editor  has  to  express  his  sincere  thanka 
to  the  Rev.  Sir  F.  A.  G.  Ouseley,  Bart. ;  Rev.  J. 
H.  Mee ;  Rev.  W.  E.  Dickson ;  Mr.  John  Bishop  ; 
Mr.  Bertram  Pollock,  and  several  others,  for  their 
kind  help  in  making  out  this  list.  [G.] 

TAMBERLIK,  Enrico,  bom  March  i6, 1820, 
at  Rome,  received  instruction  in  singing  irom 
Borgna  and  Guglielmi,  and  made  his  dibut  in 
1841  at  the  Teatro  Fondo,  Naples,  in  Bellini's 

4  The  volumes  In  the  Add.  MSS.  numbered  30.613  and  30.488 
are  valuable,  not  only  because  they  contain  works  not  known  else- 
where, but  because  of  the  light  they  throw  on  the  domeitie 
position  of  music  in  thelGth  century.  They  are  arrangements  for  the 
Virginals— the  fashionable  keyed  instrument  of  the  day— exactly 
analogous  to  the  arrangements  for  the  Pianoforte  of  our  own  times  t 
and  It  is  startling  to  find  that  the  sacred  choral  music  of  that  day  was 
the  favourite  music,  and  that  the  learned  contrapuntal  5-  and  6- 
part  motets  of  Tallis,  Edwardes,  Farrant,  Taverner,  Byrde,  Crequil- 
lon,  Josquin,  Orlando  Lasso,  and  others,  were  compressed  for  the 
amusement  of  musical  amateurs  Just  as  oratorios,  operas,  and  oper- 
ettas are  now.  From  Add.  MSS.  29,246,  29,247,  another  thing  is  plain, 
tliat  these  learned  compositions  were  arranged  for  the  Lute  so  that 
the  top  part  could  be  .suiig  solo,  and  the  other  parts  played  as 
accompaniment.  An  example  of  this  may  be  found  in  the  '  Echos  du 
temps  pass6,'  where  Gibbons's  '  Silver  Swan  '  is  set  to  French  words 
(Le  Croisu  captiO  as  a  solo  with  accompaniment ;  but  It  will  be  new 
to  many  to  find  the  same  practice  In  the  16th  century. 

s  This  and  '  Salve  Intemerata,'  for  3  voices  in  R.O.M.,  no.  1737,  ap- 
pear to  be  portions  of  5-part  motets  to  the  same  words,  reduced  to 
3  parts  by  simple  omissions  of  voice-parts.  The  same  probably 
applies  to  all  the  3- part  motets  in  R.C.M.  mentioned  above ;  but  they 
require  Investigation. 


TAMBERLIK. 

*I  Capuletti.'  He  sang  with  success  for  several 
years  at  the  San  Carlo,  also  at  Lisbon,  Madrid, 
and  Barcelona.  He  first  appeared  in  England 
April  4,  1850,  at  the  Royal  Italian  Opera,  as 
Masaniello,  and  obtained  immediate  popularity 
in  that  and  in  his  other  parts  of  the  season,  viz. 
PoUio,  Robert,  Roderick  Dhu,  Otello ;  April  20, 
Amenofi,  on  the  production  of  a  version  of 
*Mose  in  Egitto,'  entitled  *Zora';  and  July  25, 
in  Leopold,  on  the  production  of  *La  Juive'  in 
England.  He  possessed  a  splendid  tenor  voice, 
of  great  richness  of  tone  and  volume,  reaching 
to  C  in  alt,  which  he  gave  with  tremendous 
power,  and  'as  clear  as  a  bell.'  His  taste  and 
energy  were  equal,  and  he  was  an  excellent 
singer,  save  for  the  persistent  use  of  the  'vibrato.' 
In  person  he  was  singularly  handsome,  and  was 
an  admirable  actor.  He  remained  a  member 
of  the  company  until  1864  inclusive,  excepting 
the  season  of  1857,  singing  in  the  winters  at 
Paris,  St.  Petersburg,  Madrid,  North  and  South 
America,  etc.  His  other  parts  included  Arnold ; 
Emani;  Aug.  9,  51,  Phaon  (Saffo);  Aug.  17, 
52,  Pietro  il  Grande;  June  25,  53,  Benvenuto 
Cellini;  May  10,  55,  Manrico  (Trovatore) — on 
production  of  those  operas  in  England ;  also.  May 
27,  51,  Florestan  (Fidelio);  July  15,  52,  Ugo 
(Spohr's  Faust) ;  Aug.  5,  58,  Zampa  ;  July  2,  63, 
Gounod's  Faust — on  the  revival  or  production 
of  the  operas  at  Covent  Garden,  etc.  He  re- 
appeared at  the  same  theatre  in  1870  as  Don 
Ottavio,  the  Duke  (Rigoletto),  John  of  Leyden ; 
and  in  1877,  at  Her  Majesty's,  as  Ottavio,  Otello, 
and  Manrico,  and  was  well  received,  though  his 
powers  were  on  the  wane.  He  is  now  living  at 
Madrid,  where  he  carries  on  a  manufactory  of 
arms,  occasionally  singing  in  public.  [A.C.] 

TAMBOUR    DE    BASQUE.      [See    Tam- 
bourine.] [V.deP.] 

TAMBOURIN.  A  long  narrow  drum  used 
in  Provence,  beaten  with 
a  stick  held  in  one  hand, 
while  the  other  hand  plays 
on  a  pipe  or  flageolet  with 
only  three  holes,  called  a 
galouhet.  [See  Drum  3,  vol. 
i.p.  466.]  [V.deP.] 

TAMBOURIN,  an  old 
Proven9al  dance,  in  its  ori- 
ginal form  accompanied  by 
a  Flute  and  Tambour  de 
Basque,  whence  the  name 
was  derived.  The  drum  ac- 
companiment remained  a 
characteristic  feature  when 
the  dance  was  adopted  on  the  stage,  the  bass 
of  the  tune  generally  consisting  of  single  notes 
in  the  tonic  or  dominant.  The  Tambourin  was 
in  2-4  time,  of  a  lively  character,  and  generally 
followed  by  a  second  Tambourin  in  the  minor, 
after  which  the  first  was  repeated.  A  well- 
known  example  occurs  in  Rameau's  *  Pieces 
de  Clavecin,'  and  has  often  been  reprinted. 
It  was  introduced  in  Scene  7,  Entr^  III,  of 
the  same  composer's  '  FStes  d'H^b^,'  where  it 


TAMBOURINE. 


55 


is  entitled  'Tambourin  en  Rondeau,'  in  allu- 
sion to  its  form,  which  is  that  of  an  8-baried 
Rondeau  followed  by  several  'reprises.*  The 
same  opera  contains  (in  Entree  I,  Scenes  5  and  9) 
two  other  Tambourins,  each  consisting  of  two 
parts  (major  and  minor).  We  give  the  first  part 
of  one  of  them  as  an  example.  Mile.  Camargo 
is  said  to  have  excelled  in  this  dance. 


i 


w- 


is 


=a: 


^ff^j^^a 


^J^tJ=^^Q-;=j 


BEQ 


[W.B.S.] 
TAMBOURINE  (Fr.  Tamhour  de  Basque). 
This  consists  of  a  wooden  hoop,  on  one  side  of 
which  is  stretched  a  vellum  head,  the  other  side 
being  open.  Small  rods  with  fly-nuts  serve  to 
tighten  or  loosen  the  head.  It  is  beaten  by  the 
hand  without  a  stick.  Several  pairs  of  small 
metal  plates,  called  jingles,  are  fixed  loosely  round 
the  hoop  by  a  wire  passing  through  the  centres 
of  each  pair,  so  that  they  jingle  whenever  the 
tambourine  is  struck  by  the  hand  or  shaken. 
Another  effect  is  produced  by  rubbing  the  head 
with  the  finger.  It  is  occasionally  used  in  or- 
chestras, as  in  Weber's 
overture  to  'Preciosa,'  and 
at  one  time  was  to  be  seen 
in  our  military  bands.  In 
the  last  century  it  was  a 
fashionable  instrument  for 
ladies.  The  instrument  is 
probably  of  Oriental  origin,  being  very  possibly 
derived  from  the  Hebrew  TopTi^  (Exod.  xv.  20). 
The  Egyptian  form  is  somewhat  similar  to  our 
own,  but  heavier,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  wood- 
cut, taken  from  Lane's  '  Modern  Egyptians.' 

The  French  Tambourin  is  "quite  a  different 
thing,  and  is  described  under  the  3rd  kind  of 
Drums,  as  well  as  under  its  proper  name. 
[Drum  3,  and  Tambourin.] 

The  modem 
Egyptians  have 
drums  (Dara- 
hulikeh)  with  one 
skin  or  head,  and 
open  at  the  bot- 
tom, which  is  the 
only  reason  for 
classifying  them 
with  tambour- 
ines. [See  vol.  i. 
p.  463.]  The  an- 
nexed woodcut  (also  from  Lane)  shows  two 
examples ;  the  first  of  wood,  inlaid  with  tortoise- 

1  This  root  survives  in  the  Spanish  advfe.  a  tambourine. 


56 


TAMBOUEINE. 


pbell  and  mother-of-pearl,  1 7  inches  high  and  6| 
diameter  at  top ;  the  second  is  of  earthenware, 
Io|  inches  high  and  8|  diameter.  [V.deP.] 

TAMBURINI,  Antonio,  baritone  singer,  emi- 
nent among  the  great  lyric  artists  of  the  19th 
century,  was  bom  at  Faenza  on  March  28,  1800. 
His  father  was  director  of  military  music  at 
Fossombrone,  Ancona.  A  player  himself  on  horn, 
trumpet,  and  clarinet,  he  instructed  his  son,  at 
a  very  early  age,  in  horn-playing,  accustoming 
him  in  this  way  to  great  and  sustained  efforts, 
even  to  overtaxing  his  undeveloped  strength.  At 
nine  the  boy  played  in  the  orchestra,  but  seems 
soon  to  have  been  passed  on  to  Aldobrando  Rossi 
for  vocal  instruction.  At  twelve  he  returned 
to  Faenza,  singing  in  the  opera  chorus,  which 
was  employed  not  only  at  the  theatre  but  for 
mass,  a  fact  which  led  him  to  devote  much  time 
in  early  youth  to  the  study  of  church  music.  He 
attracted  the  notice  of  Madame  Pisaroni  and 
the  elder  Mombelli ;  and  the  opportunities  which 
he  enjoyed  of  hearing  these  great  singers,  as  well 
as  Davide  and  Donzelli,  were  turned  by  him  to 
the  best  account.  At  eighteen,  and  in  possession 
of  a  fine  voice,  he  was  engaged  for  the  opera  of 
Bologna.  The  piece  in  which,  at  the  little  town 
of  Cento,  he  first  appeared,  was  *  La  Contessa  di 
colle  erboso, '  of  Generali.  His  favourable  reception 
there  and  at  Miiandola,  Correggio,  and  Bologna, 
attracted  the  notice  of  several  managers,  one  of 
whom  secured  him  for  the  Carnival  at  Piacenza, 
where  his  success  in  Rossini's  *  Italiana  in  Algeri' 
procured  for  him  an  engagement  that  same  year 
at  the  Teatro  Nuovo  at  Naples.  Although  his 
beautiful  baritone  voice  had  now  reached  its  full 
maturity,  his  execution  was  still  imperfect,  and 
the  Neapolitan  public  received  him  somewhat 
coldly,  though  speedily  won  over  by  his  great 
gifts  and  promise.  The  political  troubles  of  1 820, 
however,  closed  the  theatres,  and  Tamburini  sang 
next  at  Florence,  where,  owing  to  indisposition, 
he  did  himself  no  justice.  The  memory  of  this 
was  speedily  wiped  out  by  a  series  of  triumphs  at 
Leghorn,  Turin,  and  Milan.  About  this  time  he 
lost  his  mother,  an  affliction  which  so  plunged 
him  in  melanclioly  that  he  thought  of  retiring  to 
a  cloister.  It  is  fortunate  for  the  public  that  his 
calling  interposed  a  delay  between  this  design  and 
its  execution,  so  that  it  was  never  carri^  into 
effect.  At  Milan  he  met  and  married  the  lovely 
singer,  Marietta  Gioja,  for  whom,  as  well  as  for 
him,  Mercadante  wrote  the  opera  of  *I1  Posto 
abbandonato.' 

Proceeding  to  Trieste,  he  passed  through  Ven- 
ice, where  an  unexpected  toll  was  demanded  of 
him.  Special  performances  were  being  given  in 
honour  of  the  Emperors  of  Austria  and  Russia, 
then  at  Venice,  and  Tamburini  was  not  allowed 
to  escape  scot-free.  He  was  arrested  •  by  author- 
ity,* and  only  after  a  few  days,  during  which  he 
achieved  an  immense  success,  was  he  allowed  to 
proceed.  From  Trieste  he  went  to  Rome,  where 
he  remained  for  two  years ;  thence,  after  singing 
in  'Mosfe'  at  Venice,  with  Davide  and  Mme. 
Meric  Lalande,  he  removed  to  Palermo,  where  he 


TAM-TAM. 

spent  another  two  years.  He  now  received  an 
engagement  from  Barbaja  for  four  years,  during 
which  he  sang  in  Naples,  Milan,  and  Vienna, 
alternately.  At  Vienna  he  and  Rubini  were 
decorated  with  the  order  of  'the  Saviour,'  an 
honour  previously  accorded  to  no  foreigner  but 
Wellington.  Tamburini  first  sang  in  London  in 
1832,  and  soon  became  an  established  favourite. 
His  success  was  equally  great  at  Paris,  where  he 
appeared  in  October  of  the  same  year  as  Dandini 
in  the  *  Cenerentola.'  For  ten  years  he  belonged 
to  London  and  Paris,  a  conspicuous  star  in  the 
brilliant  constellation  formed  by  Grisi,  Persiani, 
Viardot,  Rubini,  Lablache,  and  himself,  and  was 
long  remembered  as  the  baritone  in  the  famous 
•Puritani  quartet.'  Without  any  single  com- 
manding trait  of  genius,  he  seems,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  Lablache,  to  have  combined  more  attractive 
qualities  than  any  man-singer  who  ever  appeared. 
He  was  handsome  and  graceful,  and  a  master  in 
the  art  of  stage-costume.  His  voice,  a  baritone 
of  over  two  octaves  extent,  was  full,  round,  sonor- 
ous, and  perfectly  equal  throughout.  His  exe- 
cution was  unsurpassed  and  unsurpassable ;  of  a 
kind  which  at  the  present  day  is  wellnigh  obsolete, 
and  is  associated  in  the  public  mind  with  soprano 
and  tenor  voices  only.  The  Parisians,  referring; 
to  this  florid  facility,  called  him  '  Le  Rubini  des 
basse-tailles.'  Although  chiefly  celebrated  as  a 
singer  of  Rossini's  music,  one  of  his  principal 
parts  was  Don  Giovanni.  His  readiness,  versati- 
lity and  true  Italian  cleverness  are  well  illustrated 
by  the  anecdote  of  his  exploit  at  Palermo,  during 
his  engagement  there,  when  he  not  only  sang  his 
own  part  in  Mercadante's  *  Elisa  e  Claudio '  but 
adopted  the  costume  and  the  voice — a  soprano 
sfogato — of  Mme.  Lipparini,  the  prima  donna,  who 
was  frightened  off  the  stage,  went  through  the 
whole  opera,  duets  and  aU,a,nd  finished  by  dancing 
a  pas  de  quatre  with  the  Taglionis  and  Mile.  Ri- 
naldini.  For  the  details  of  this  most  amusing 
scene  the  reader  must  be  referred  to  the  lively 
narrative  of  Mr.  Sutherland  Edwards'  'History  of 
the  Opera,'  ii.  272. 

In  1 841  Tamburini  returned  to  Italy  and  sang 
at  several  theatres  there.  Although  his  powers 
were  declining,  he  proceeded  to  Russia,  where  he 
found  it  worth  his  while  to  remain  for  ten  years. 
When,  in  1852,  he  returned  to  London,  his  voice 
had  all  but  disappeared,  in  spite  of  which  he  sang 
again  after  that,  in  Holland  and  at  Paris.  His 
last  attempt  was  in  London,  in  1859.  From  that 
time  he  lived  in  retirement  at  Nice,  till  his  death 
November  9th,  1876.  [F.A.M.] 

TAMERLANO.  Opera  in  3  acts;  libretto  by 
Piovene,  music  by  Handel.  Composed  between 
July  3  and  23, 1724,  and  produced  at  the  King's 
Theatre,  London,  Oct.  31,  1724.  It  comes  be- 
tween *Giulio  Cesare'  and  'Rodelinda.'  Pio- 
vene's  tragedy  has  been  set  14  times,  the  last 
being  in  1824.  [G.] 

TAM-TAM.  The  French  term  for  the  gong 
in  the  orchestra;  evidently  derived  from  the 
Hindoo  name  for  the  instrument  (Sanscrit  turn- 
turn),    [See  Gong.]  [G.] 


TANCREDI. 

TANCREDI.  An  opera  seria  in  2  acts ;  the 
libretto  by  Rossi,  after  Voltaire,  music  by  Ros- 
sini. Produced  at  the  Teatro  Fenice,  Venice, 
Feb.  6,  1 81 3.  In  Italian  at  the  ThdMre  des 
Italiens,  Paris ;  and  in  French  (Castil  Blaze)  at 
the  Odeon.  In  England,  in  Italian,  at  King's 
Theatre,  May  4,  1820.  Revived  in  1837,  Pasta; 
1841,  Viardot;  1848,  Alboni;  and  July  22,  29, 
1856,  for  Johanna  Wagner.  Tancredi  contains 
the  famous  air  '  Di  tanti  palpiti.'  [G.] 

TANGENT,  in  a  clavichord,  is  a  thick  pin  of 
brass  wire  an  inch  or  more  high,  flattened  out 
towards  the  top  into  a  head  one-eighth  of  an  inch 
or  so  in  diameter.  It  is  inserted  in  the  back  end  of 
the  key,  and  being  pushed  up  so  as  to  strike  the 
pair  of  strings  above  it,  forms  at  once  a  hammer 
for  them  and  a  temporary  bridge,  from  which 
they  vibrate  up  to  the  soundboard  bridge.  In 
the  clavichord  no  other  means  beyond  this  very 
primitive  contrivance  is  used  for  producing  the 
tone,  which  is  in  consequence  very  feeble,  al- 
though sweet.  The  common  damper  to  all  the 
strings,  a  strip  of  cloth  interwoven  behind  the 
row  of  tangents,  has  the  tendency  to  increase  this 
characteristic  of  feebleness,  by  permitting  no 
sympathetic  reinforcement. 

In  all  clavichords  made  anterior  to  about  1725 
there  was  a  fretted  (or  gehunden)  system,  by 
which  the  keys  that  struck,  what  from  analogy 
with  other  stringed  instruments  may  be  called 
open  strings,  were  in  each  octave  F,  G,  A, 
Bb,  C,  D,  E  b.  With  the  exception  of  A  and  D 
(which  were  always  independent),  the  semitones 
were  obtained  by  the  tangents  of  the  neighbour- 
ing keys,  which  fretted  or  stopped  the  open 
strings  at  shorter  distance,  and  produced  Fjf, 
G  J,  B  CI,  C J,  and  E I3.  Owing  to  this  contrivance 
it  was  not  possible,  for  example,  to  sound  F  and 
F  J  together  by  putting  down  the  two  contiguous 
keys;  since  the  Fj  alone  would  then  sound. 
We  have  reason  to  believe  that  the  independence 
of  A  and  D  is  as  old  as  the  chromatic  keyboard 
itself,  which  we  know  for  certain  was  in  use  in 
1426.  Old  authorities  may  be  quoted  for  the 
fretting  of  more  tangents  than  one ;  and  Adlung, 
who  died  in  1762,  speaks  of  another  fretted 
division  which  left  Eb  and  B  independent, 
an  evident  recognition  of  the  natural  major 
scale  which  proves  the  late  introduction  of  this 
system. 

The  tangent  acts  upon  the  strings  in  the  same 
way  that  the  bridging  or  fretting  does  upon  the 
simple  monochord,  sharpening  the  measured 
distances  which  theory  demands  by  adding  ten- 
sion. Pressing  the  key  too  much  therefore  makes 
the  note  sound  intolerably  out  of  tune.  An 
unskilful  player  would  naturally  err  in  this 
direction,  and  Emanuel  Bach  cautions  against  it. 
In  his  famous  essay  ^  on  playing  he  describes  an 
effect  special  to  the  tangent,  unattainable  by 
either  jack  or  hammer,  viz.  the  Beben  or  Behung, 
which  was  a  tremolo  or  vibrato  obtained  by  a 
tremulous  pressure  upon  the  key  with  the  fleshy 

» '  Versuch  tlber  die  wahre  Art  Klavier  ni  spielen/  1753,  another 
edition.  1780.  and  republished  by  ScheUing.  1857. 


TAN-TA-RA. 


57 


end  of  the  finger.  It  was  marked  with  a  line 
and  dots  like  the  modern  mezzo  staccato^  but 
being  upon  a  single  note,  was,  of  course,  en- 
tirely different. 

The  article  Clavichord  is  to  be  corrected  by 
the  foregoing  obsei-vations.  [A.  J.H.] 

TANNHAUSER  UND  DER  SANGER- 
KRIEG  AUF  WARTBURG.  An  opera  in  3 
acts ;  words  and  music  by  Wagner.  Produced 
at  Dresden,  Oct.  20,  1845.  At  Cassel,  by  Spohr, 
after  much  resistance  from  the  Elector,  early  in 
1 853.  At  the  Grand  Opera,  Paris  (French  transla- 
tion by  Ch.  Nuitter),  March  13,  186 1.  It  had 
three  representations  only.^  At  Covent  Garden, 
in  Italian,  May  6,  1876.  The  overture  was  first 
performed  in  England  by  the  Philharmonic 
Society  (Wagner  conducting).  May  14,  1855. 
Schumann  saw  it  Aug.  7,  1847,  and  mentions  it 
in  his  •  Theaterbiichlein '  as  *an  opera  which 
cannot  be  spoken  of  briefly.  It  certainly  has 
an  appearance  of  genius.  Were  he  but  as  melo- 
dious as  he  is  clever  he  would  be  the  man  of  the 
day.'  [G.] 

TANS'UR,  William,  who  is  variously  stated 
to  have  been  born  at  Barnes,  Surrey,  in  1699, 
and  at  Dunchurch,  Warwickshire,  in  1700,  and 
who  was  successively  organist  at  Barnes,  Ewell, 
Leicester,  and  St.  Neot's,  compiled  and  edited 
several  collections  of  psalm  tunes,  and  was  author 
of  some  theoretical  works.  The  principal  of  his 
several  publications  are  *  The  Melody  of  the 
Heart,'  1737;  'A  Compleat  Melody,  or.  The 
Harmony  of  Sion,'  1735  and  1738;  'Heaven  on 
Earth,  or.  The  Beauty  of  Holiness,'  1738;  'A 
New  Musical  Grammar,'  1 746 ;  in  which  he 
styles  himself,  'William  Tans'ur  Musico  Theo- 
rico ' ;  *  The  Royal  Melody  compleat,  or,  The  New 
Harmony  of  Zion,'  1754  and  1755;  *The  Royal 
Psalmodist  compleat '  (no  date) ;  *  The  Psalm 
Singer's  Jewel,' 1760;  *Melodia  Sacra,'  1772; 
and  'The  Elements  of  Musick  displayed,*  1772. 
He  died  at  St.  Neot's,  Oct.  7, 1 783.  He  had  a  son 
who  was  a  chorister  at  Trinity  College,  Cam- 
bridge. [W.H.H.] 

TAN-TA-RA.  A  word  which  occurs  in  English 
hunting  songs,  and  is  evidently  intended  to  imi- 
tate the  note  of  the  horn.  One  of  the  earliest 
instances  is  in  '  The  hunt  is  up,'  a  song  ascribed 
by  Chappell  to  Henry  VIII's  time : — 

Tlie  horses  snort  to  be  at  the  sport. 

The  dogs  are  running  free, 
The  woods  rejoice  at  the  merry  noise 

Of  hey  tantara  tee  ree  I 

Another  is  ' News  from  Hide  Paik,'  of  Charles 

II's  time : — 

One  evening  a  little  before  it  was  dark, 
Sing  tan-ta-ra-ra-ra  tan-ti-vee,  etc. 


2  For  the  extraordinary  uproar  which  it  created  see  Prosper 
Meriinde's  '  Lettres  ^  une  Inconnue,'  li.  151-3.  One  ot  the  joltes  was 
'qu'on  s'ennuie  aux  rt5citatifs,  et  qu'on  se  lanne  aux  airs.'  Even 
a  man  of  sense  lilte  MerimtSe  says  that  he  *  could  write  something 
as  good  after  hearing  his  cat  wallc  up  and  down  over  the  key* 
of  the  piano.'  Berlioz  writes  about  it  in  a  style  which  is  equallj 
discreditable  to  his  taste  and  his  penetration  (Correspondance  iuedite, 
Xos.  cliitocvl). 


68 


TAN-TA-JRA. 


But  the  word  is  as  old  as  Ennius,  who  has 
At  tuba  terribili  sonitu  taratantara  dixit. 

And  the  same  form  occurs  in  Giimald  (1557) 
and  Stanyhurst  (1583).  [G.] 

TANTO,  i.e.  'too  much,'  as  in  Beethoven's 
String  Trio  (op.  9,  no.  i) — 'Adagio  ma  non 
tanto,'  i.e.  Slow,  but  not  too  slow.  Tanto  has 
practically  the  same  force  as  *  Troppo.'  [G.] 

TANTUM  ERGO.  The  first  words  of  the 
last  two  stanzas  of  the  Hymn  'Pange  lingua 
gloriosi  Corporis  Mysterium,'  written  by  S.  Thomas 
Aquinas,  for  the  Festival  of  Corpus  Christi.^ 

The  extreme  solemnity  of  the  circumstances 
under  which   'Tantum    ergo'   is   sung  in   the 

Modus  I. 


TARANTELLA. 

Roman  Catholic  Church,  renders  its  adaptation 
to  solemn  Music  more  than  ordinarily  impera- 
tive. It  is  used  whenever  the  Eucharist  is  carried 
in  Procession ;  at  the  conclusion  of  the  Ceremony 
of  Exposition ;  and  at  the  Office  of  Benediction : 
and  never  heard  but  in  the  presence  of  the 
Eucharist.  Except,  of  course,  in  Processions,  it 
is  sung  kneeling. 

The  Plain  Chaunt  Melody  of  '  Tantum  ergo ' 
is  the  same  as  that  used  for  *Pange  lingua.' 
The  purest  printed  version  is  that  given  in  the 
new  Batisbon  Office-Books;  but,  owing  to  the 
excision  of  certain  'grace-notes,'  this  version  is, 
at  present,  less  popular  than  that  printed  in  the 
Mechlin  Vesperal.*  The  pure  version  stands 
thus — 

From  the  Ratisbon  Vesperal. 


_,  ■'27'    _ 

Tan-tum    er  -  go    Sa  -  era 
Gen  -  i  -   to  •  ri     gen  -  i 


men   -   turn 
to    -    que 


Ve     - 

Laus 


-re  -  mur  cer  -  iiu 
Ju  -  bi-la- tl 


Et    an  -  tl  -  quum  doo  -  u  -  men-tum 
6a  -  lus,  ho  >  nor,    vir  -  tus   quo-qae 


^^-^^=r* — 

No  -  TO    ce  -  dat    rl  -  tu     - 
Sit  et   ben  -  e  -  die  •  ti     • 


fe=2I^ 


■^S'— ^1^— gy— p^g- 


i^^a: 


rrses-tet    fl  -  des  sup-pie  -  men  -  turn     6en-su-um 

Fro  -  ce  -  den  -  ti     ab    u   •   tro  -  que    Compar    sit   lau-da  -  ti  -  o 


de  -  fec-tui.  A    •   •   men. 


The  antient  Melody  has  been  frequently  treated  j 
in  Polyphonic  form,  and  that  very  finely ;  but 
no  setting  will  bear  comparison  with  the  mag- 
nificent *  Pange  lingua '  in  Palestrina's  *  Hymni 
totius  anni,'  which  concludes  with  a  *  Tantum 
ergo '  for  5  Voices,  in  which  the  Melody  is  as- 
signed, entire,  to  the  First  Tenor,  while  the  re- 
maining Voices  accompany  it  with  Harmonies 
and  Points  of  Imitation.  Vittoria  has  also 
written  a  very  beautiful  '  Pange  lingua,'  which, 
unhappily,  treats  the  alternate  stanzas  only ; 
the  first  stanza  of  'Tantum  ergo'  is  there- 
fore omitted,  though  the  music  written  for  the 
second — 'Genitori,  Genitoque' — may  very  con- 
sistently be  sung  to  it. 

The  almost  daily  use  of  '  Tantum  ergo '  at 
the  Office  of  Benediction  has  led  to  the  fabrica- 
tion of  an  immense  number  of  modern  Melodies, 
of  more  or  less  demerit.  One  of  the  best  of 
these — a  really  good  one — attributed  to  Michael 
Haydn,  is  extremely  popular,  in  England,  as 
a  Hymn-Tune — 8.6.8.6.8.6 — under  the  title  of 
'Benediction.'^  Another,  said  to  be  'Gre- 
gorian,' and  probably  really  of  Plain-Chaunt 
origin,  is  scarcely  less  popular,  under  the  title  of 
•S.  Thomas.'*  A  third,  set  for  two  Voices  by 
V.  Novello,  is  equally  pleasing,  though  wanting 
in  solemnity.  These,  however,  are  quite  ex- 
ceptionally good  specimens.  Notwithstanding 
the  beauty  of  the  text,  and  the  solemnity  of 
the  occasions  on  which  it  is  sung,  it  is  doubtful 
whether  any  Hymn  has  ever  been  fitted  to  so 
much  irreverent  music  as  *  Tantum  ergo.'  The 
present  Cardinal  Archbishop  of  Westminster  has 
sternly  condemned  the  use   of  such  Music  in 

1  Not  to  be  mistaken  for  the  Hrmn  (better  known  in  England), 
■ung,  under  the  same  title,  during  Holy  Week— 'Fange  lingua  gloriosi 
Lauream  certaminis.' 

2  Hymns  Ancient  and  Modern,  Hymn  67,  new  ed. 
•  Ibid..  Hymn  51.  ibid. 


England,  and  his  remonstrance  has  not  been 
without  efiect;  but  hitherto  the  reform  has 
only  been  a  partial  one. 

Of  orchestral  settings  of  'Tantum  ergo,'  the 
two  fiinest  are  unquestionably  those  by  Mozart — 
Nos.  142  and  197  in  Kochel's  Catalogue — for 
4  Voices,  with  accompaniments  for  Stringed  In- 
struments, 2  Trumpets,  and  Organ.  Schubert 
has  left  three ;  one,  op.  45,  and  one  in  MS.,  both 
in  C,  and  both  for  quartet,  orchestra,  and  organ  ; 
and  one  in  Eb  (MS.,  1828).  [W.S.R.] 

TAPPERT,  WiLHELM,  German  critic  and 
writer  on  music,  born  Feb.  19,  1830,  at  Ober- 
Thomaswaldau  in  Silesia;  began  life  as  a  school- 
master, but  in  1856  adopted  music,  under  Dehn 
for  theory  and  KuUak  for  practice.  Since  that 
time  he  has  resided  in  Berlin,  where  he  is  well 
known  as  a  teacher  and  musical  writer,  and  an 
able  and  enthusiastic  partisan  of  Wagner.  He 
was  a  teacher  in  Tausig's  school  for  higher  PF.- 
playing.  His  'Wagner  Lexicon'  (1877)  con- 
tains a  collection  of  all  the  abuse  that  has  been 
lavished  on  that  composer  and  his  friends — a 
useless  and  even  mischievous  labour.  Much 
more  important  are  his  researches  into  ancient 
Tablatures,  on  which  it  is  to  be  hoped  he  will 
soon  publish  something.  From  1 876-80  he  edited 
the  *Allgemeine  Deutsche  Musikzeitung.'  He 
is  a  contributor  to  the  '  Musikalisches  Wochen- 
blatt '  and  has  published  several  pamphlets,  es- 
pecially one  on  consecutive  fifths, '  Das  Verbot 
von  Quintenparallelen '  (1869).  C^O 

TARANTELLA,  a  South  Italian  dance,  which 
derives  its  name  from  Taranto,  in  the  old  pro- 
vince of  Apulia.  The  music  is  in  6-8  time, 
played  at  continually  increasing  speed,  with 
irregular  alternations  of  minor  and  major.     It  is 

«  For  a  free  reading  of  the  Impure  version,  see  •  Hymns  Ancient 
and  Modern,'  Hymn  309,  no.  3,  new  ed. 


TARANTELLA. 

generally  danced  by  a  man  and  a  woman,  but 
sometimes  by  two  women  alone,  who  often  play 
castagnets  and  a  tambourine.  It  was  formerly 
sung,  but  this  is  seldom  the  case  now.  The 
Tarantella  has  obtained  a  fictitious  interest  from 
the  idea  that  by  means  of  dancing  it  a  strange 
kind  of  insanity,  attributed  to  the  effects  of 
the  bite  of  the  Lycosa  Tarantula,  the  largest 
of  European  spiders,  could  alone  be  cured.  It 
is  certain  that  a  disease  known  as  Tarantism 
prevailed  in  South  Italy  to  an  extraordinary  ex- 
tent, during  the  15th,  i6th,  and  17th  centuries, 
if  not  later,  and  that  this  disease — which  seems 
to  have  been  a  kind  of  hysteria,  like  the  St. 
Vitus  dance  epidemic  in  Germany  at  an  earlier 
date — was  apparently  only  curable  by  means  of 
the  continued  exercise  of  dancing  the  Tarantella; 
but  that  the  real  cause  of  the  affection  was 
the  bite  of  the  spider  is  very  improbable, 
later  experiments  having  shown  that  it  is  no 
more  poisonous  than  the  sting  of  a  wasp. 
The  first  extant  notice  of  Tarantism  is  in 
Niccolo  Perotto's  'Cornucopia  Linguae  Latinse' 
(p.  20  o,  ed.  1489).  During  the  i6th  century  the 
epidemic  was  at  its  height,  and  bands  of  musi- 
cians traversed  the  country  to  play  the  music 
which  was  the  only  healing  medicine.  The  forms 
which  the  madness  took  were  very  various : 
Home  were  seized  with  a  violent  craving  for 
water,  so  that  they  were  with  difficulty  pre- 
vented from  throwing  themselves  into  the  sea, 
others  were  strangely  affected  by  different  colours, 
and  all  exhibited  the  most  extravagant  and  out- 
rageous contortions.  The  different  forms  which 
the  disease  assumed  were  cured  by  means  of 
different  airs,  to  which  the  Tarantists — the  name 
by  which  the  patients  were  known — were  made 
to  dance  until  they  often  dropped  down  with 
exhaustion.  The  epidemic  seems  only  to  have 
raged  in  the  summer  months,  and  it  is  said  that 
those  who  had  been  once  attacked  by  it  were 
always  liable  to  a  return  of  the  disease.  Most 
of  the  songs,  both  words  and  music,  which  were 
used  to  cure  Tarantism,  no  longer  exist,  but  the 
Jesuit  Kircher,  in  his  'Magnes'  (Rome,  1641), 
book  III,  cap.  viii.,  has  preserved  a  few  speci- 
mens. He  says  that  the  Tarantellas  of  his  day 
were  mostly  rustic  extemporisations,  but  the  airs 
he  gives  (which  are  printed  in  Mendel's  Lexicon, 
sub  voce  Tarantella)  are  written  in  the  Ecclesi- 
astical Modes,  and  with  one  exception  in  common 
time.  They  bear  no  resemblance  to  the  tripping 
melodies  of  the  modem  dance.^  Kircher' s  work 
contains  an  engraving  of  the  Tarantula  in  two 
positions,  with  a  map  of  the  region  where  it  is 
found,  and  the  following  air,  entitled  'Antidotum 
Tarantulae,'  which  is  also  to  be  found  in  Jones's 
'Maltese  Melodies'  (London,  1805)  and  in  vol.  ii. 
of  Stafford  Smith's  'Musica  Antiqua'  (1812), 
where  it  is  said  to  be  derived  from  Zimmermann's 
'Florilegium.'" 

>  It  has  been  suggested  that  these  fragments  of  melodies— for  they 
are  little  more— are  ancient  Greek  tunes  handed  down  traditionally 
In  Taranto. 

2  In  Mazella's '  Ball!,  Correntl,'  etc.,  (Rome,  1689),  Is  a  Tarantella  In 
common  time  in  the  form  of  a  short  air  with  '  partite,'  or  variations. 
Mattheson  (Vollkomener  Kapellmeister,  1739)  says  there  U  one  In  the 
'  Quintessence  des  Nouvelles '  for  1727. 


TARARE. 


5& 


^ 


-•-• 


1 


r=T=j= 


^, 


a 


^^ 


1    J       i    ^ J.  ^  1*1  ' 


^^ 


J-      J-J-  J    J    1^1 


I     1^ 


4=^: 


?=: 


^m 


-r- 

For  farther  information  on  this  curious  sub- 
ject we  must  refer  the  reader  to  the  following 
works : — 

N.  Perotto,  'Cornucopia'  (Venice,  1480);  A.  Kircher, 
•Magnes'  (Rome,  1641);  'Musurgia'  (Kome,  1G50) ;  Her- 
mann Grube,  'De  Ictu  Tarantulae'  (Frankfurt,  1G7!») ; 
G.  Baglivi,  '  De  Praxi  Meclica'  (Eome,  16',)(j) ;  Dr.  Peter 
Shaw,  'New  Practice  of  Physic,'  vol.  i.  (London,  1720); 
Fr.  Serao,  'Delia  Taran tola '^  (Eome,  1742);  Dr.  II.  Mead,^ 
'  Mechanical  account  of  Poisons'  (3rd  ed., London,  1745) ; 
J,  D.  Tietz,'Von  den  Wirkunsen  der  T6ne  auf  den  mensch- 
lichen  Korper'  (in  Justi's  'NeuenWahrheiten,'  Leipzig, 
1745) ;  P.  J.  Buc'hoz,  '  L'art  de  connaitre  et  de  designei* 
le  pouls  par  les  notes  de  la  musique '  (Paris,  1806) ;  J.  F. 
E.  Hecker,  'Die  Tanzwuth'  (Berlin,  18a2) ;  A.  Vergari, 
'Tarantismo'  (Naples,  183'J) ;  De  Reuzi,  in  ' Eaccoglitorw 
Medico'  for  1842;  C.  Engel,  'Musical  Myths,'  vol.  ii, 
(London,  1876). 

The  Tarantella  has  been  used  by  many  modern 
composers.  Auber  has  introduced  it  in  '  La 
Muette  de  Portici,'  Weber  in  his  E  minor  Sonata, 
Thalberg  wrote  one  for  Piano,  and  Rossini  a  vocal 
Tarantella  *  La  Danza '  (said  to  have  been  com- 
posed for  Lablache)  the  opening  bars  of  which 
are  here  cfiven  : — 


-Jl-^^-^-^-»- 

»  •    a'        •     ■■■       1^      S  'f^.      s 

(^.U.-L—L.l    U  ■ 

*^                   Gli  la 

luna   6  in  mez  -  zo       al     ma  -  re  mamma 

=j=g_J      J^ 

,         f     -•         ji  •  "  p      -.  •       .     - 

—4- — 1 U iJ i — Hd 1 — 

mla     81     sal-teri 

— *^  ...^-tfct: 

I'ora    i, 

bel    -    la       per     danz  - 

— \ 

a  •  re  chl  d    In  amor  non  man  -  che  -  ra,  etc. 

One  of  the  finest  examples  is  in  the  Finale 
to  Mendelssohn's  Italian  Symphony,  where  it  is 
mixed  up  with  a  Saltarello  in  the  most  effective 
and  clever  manner.  Good  descriptions  of  the 
dance  will  be  found  in  Mme.  de  Stael's  'Corinne  ' 
(Book  VI.  ch.  i.),  Mercier  Dupaty's  '  Lettres  sur 
ritalie'  (1797),  and  Goethe's  'Fragmente  tiber 
Italien.'  It  was  danced  on  the  stage  with  great 
success  by  Cotellini  (i  783-1 785)  at  the  Teatro 
dei  Fiorentini  at  Naples,  and  in  our  own  day  by 
the  late  Charles  Matthews.  [W.B.S.] 

TARARE.  Opera,  in  prologue  and  5  acts 
(afterwards  3  acts) ;  words  by  Beaumarchais, 
music  by  Salieri.  Produced  at  the  Grand  Op^ra 
June  8,  1787.  Translated  into  Italian  (with 
many  changes  of  text  and  music)  as  *  Axur,  Re 
d'Ormus,'  for  the  betrothal  of  the  Archduke 
Franz  with  Princess  Elizabeth  of  Wurtemberg 
at  Vienna,  Jan.  8,  1788.  Produced  in  English 
as  'Tarrare,  the  Tartar  Chief,'  at  the  English. 
Opera  House,  London,  Aug.  15,  1825.  L^""'] 


eo 


TARTINT. 


TARTINI,  Giuseppe,  famous  violin-player  and 
composer,  was  born  at  Pirano,  a  town  in  Istria, 
-April  12,  1692.  His  father,  a  Florentine  by 
birth  and  an  elected  Nobile  of  Parenzo,  intended 
him  for  the  Church,  and  sent  him  to  the  school  of 
the  Oratorians  in  his  native  town.  Later  on  he 
attended  an  ecclesiastical  school  at  Capo  d'Istria, 
and  there  received  his  first  instruction  in  music. 
Being  entirely  averse  to  the  Church  career,  he 
went,  at  eighteen,  to  Padua,  and  matriculated  as 
a  student  of  law.  But  law  was  not  more  to  his 
taste  than  theology.  Led  by  his  highly  impulsive 
temperament  he  even  set  aside  his  musical  studies 
in  favour  of  the  then  fashionable  art  of  fencing. 
In  this  he  soon  became  so  great  an  adept  as  to 
propose  seriously  to  adopt  it  as  a  profession  at 
Naples  or  Paris.  Fortunately  for  music  Tartini's 
passionate  character  involved  him  in  a  serious 
difficulty  and  caused  him  to  exchange  the 
sword  for  the  fiddlestick  and  the  pen.  He  fell  in 
love  with  a  niece  of  the  Archbishop  of  Padua, 
•Cardinal  Comaro,  and  was  secretly  married  to  her. 
The  immediate  consequences  of  this  hasty  step 
were  disastrous.  His  parents  withdrew  all  further 
support,  and  the  Cardinal  was  so  incensed  by 
what  he  considered  an  insult  to  his  family,  that 
Tartini  had  to  fly  from  Padua.  He  first  went 
to  Rome,  but  not  considering  himself  safe  there, 
took  refuge  in  a  monastery  at  Assisi,  of  which  a 
relative  of  his  was  an  inmate.  Here  he  remained 
for  two  years,  and  in  the  solitude  of  monastic  life 
resumed  his  musical  studies,  and  at  last  discovered 
his  true  vocation.  The  organist  of  the  monastery. 
Padre  Boemo,  was  an  excellent  musician,and  being 
delighted  to  find  so  talented  a  scholar,  spared  no 
time  and  trouble  in  teaching  him  counterpoint  and 
■composition.  As  a  violinist  he  appears  to  have 
been  his  own  teacher.  His  progress  however 
must  have  been  very  rapid,  as  we  know  that  his 
performances  at  the  services  of  the  monastery 
chapel  soon  became  a  well-known  attraction  to 
the  neighbourhood.  The  development  of  his  mu- 
sical genius  was  not  however  the  only  fruit  of 
these  two  years:  he  underwent  a  remarkable 
change  of  character.  Influenced  by  the  peaceful 
religious  life  around  him,  he  seems  entirely  to 
have  lost  his  quarrelsome  temper,  and  acquired 
that  modesty  of  manner  and  serenity  of  mind  with 
which  he  has  been  credited  by  all  who  knew  him 
later  in  life.  His  residence  at  Assisi  came  to  a 
sudden  end  by  a  curious  accident.  One  day,  at  the 
service,  a  gust  of  wind  blew  aside  the  curtain 
behind  which  Tartini  was  playing  a  solo.  A 
Paduan,  who  happened  to  be  present,  instantly 
recognised  his  strongly-marked  features,  and 
brought  the  news  of  his  whereabouts  to  his  native 
town.  Meanwhile  the  Archbishop's  pride  had 
softened,  and  Tartini  was  allowed  to  rejoin  his 
wife.  He  went  with  her  to  Venice,  where  he 
met  Veracini,  and  was  so  much  struck  with  the 
great  Florentine  violinist,  as  at  once  to  recognise 
the  necessity  for  fresh  studies,  in  order  to  modify 
his  own  style  and  correct  the  errors  into  which 
he,  being  almost  entirely  self-taught,  had  very 
(naturally  fallen.  For  this  purpose  he  went  to 
Ancona,   leaving    even   his   wife    behind,   and 


TARTINI. 

remained  for  some  time  in  complete  retirement. 
In  1 72 1  he  appears  to  have  returned  to  Padua, 
and  was  appointed  solo  violinist  in  the  chapel  of 
San  Antonio,  the  choir  and  orchestra  of  which 
enjoyed  a  high  musical  reputation.  That  his 
reputation  must  have  been  already  well  estab- 
lished is  proved  not  only  by  this  appointment, 
but  more  especially  by  the  fact  that  in  1723  he 
received  and  accepted  an  invitation  to  perform 
at  the  great  festivities  given  for  the  coronation 
of  Charles  VI  at  Prague.  On  this  occasion  he 
met  with  Count  Kinsky,  a  rich  and  enthu- 
siastic amateur,  who  kept  an  excellent  private 
band,  and  prevailed  on  Tartini  to  accept  the 
post  of  conductor.  This  he  retained  for  three 
years  and  then  returned  to  his  old  position  at 
Padua.  From  this  time  he  appears  never  again 
to  have  left  his  beloved  Padua  for  any  length  of 
time,  where  he  held  an  highly  honoured  position, 
with  an  income  sufficient  for  his  modest  require- 
ments. An  invitation  to  visit  England,  under 
most  brilliant  conditions  (£3000),  which  he  re- 
ceived from  Lord  Middlesex,  he  is  reported  to 
have  declined  by  stating  ♦  that,  although  not  rich, 
he  had  sufficient,  and  did  not  wish  for  more.'  His 
salary  at  San  Antonio's  was  400  ducats,  to  which 
must  be  added  the  fees  from  his  numerous  pupils 
and  the  produce  of  his  compositions.  Burney, 
who  visited  Padua  a  few  months  after  his  deatla, 
gives  a  few  interesting  details.  But  when  he 
writes,  *  He  married  a  wife  of  the  Xantippe  sort, 
and  his  patience  upon  the  most  trying  occasions 
was  always  truly  Socratic,'  we  need  not  attach 
too  much  weight  to  such  a  statement.  Great 
artists  are  frequently  but  indifferent  managers, 
and,  in  their  honest  endeavours  to  restore  the 
balance,  their  wives  have  often  most  undeserv- 
edly gained  unpleasant  reputations.  Burney 
continues,  'He  had  no  other  children  than 
his  scholars,  of  whom  his  care  was  constantly 
paternal.  Nardini,  his  first  and  favourite  pupil, 
came  from  Leghorn  to  see  him  in  his  sickness 
and  attend  him  in  his  last  moments  with  true 
filial  affection  and  tenderness.  During  the  latter 
part  of  his  life  he  played  but  little,  except  at  the 
church  of  S.  Antony  of  Padua,  to  which  he  de- 
voted himself  so  early  as  the  year  1722,  where 
his  attendance  was  only  required  on  great  festivals, 
but  so  strong  was  his  zeal  for  the  service  of  his 
patron-saint,  that  he  seldom  let  a  week  pass  with- 
out regaling  him  to  the  utmost  of  his  palsied 
nerves.'  He  died  Feb.  16,  1770,  was  buried  in 
the  church  of  S.  Catherine,  a  solemn  requiem 
being  held  in  the  chapel  of  S.  Antonio.  At  a 
later  period  his  statue  was  erected  in  the  Prato 
della  Valle,  a  public  walk  at  Padua,  where  it  may 
still  be  seen  among  the  statues  of  the  most  emi- 
nent men  connected  with  that  famous  university. 
Tartini's  fame  rests  on  threefold  ground.  He 
was  one  of  the  greatest  violinists  of  all  time,  an 
eminent  composer,  and  a  scientific  writer  on  musi- 
cal physics.  To  gain  an  idea  of  his  style  of 
playing  we  must  turn  to  the  testimony  of  his 
contemporaries.  They  all  agree  in  crediting  him 
with  those  qualities  which  make  a  great  player : 
a  fine  tone,  unlimited  command  of  fingerboard 


TARTINI. 

and  bow,  enabling  him  to  overcome  the  greatest 
difficulties  with  complete  ease ;  perfect  intonation 
in  double-stops,  and  a  most  brilliant  shake  and 
double-shake,  which  he  executed  equally  well  with 
all  fingers.  That  the  composer  of  the  '  Trillo  del 
Diavolo,'  and  many  other  fine  and  noble  pieces, 
could  not  have  played  but  with  the  deepest  feeling 
and  most  consummate  taste,  it  is  almost  super- 
fluous to  say.  Indeed  we  have  his  own  testimony, 
when  Campagnoli  in  his  Violin-School  reports 
him  as  having  remarked  upon  a  brilliant  virtuoso : 
'  That  is  beautiful !  That  is  difficult !  but  here 
(pointing  to  the  heart)  he  has  said  nothing  to  me.' 
At  the  same  time  it  ought  to  be  mentioned  that 
QUANZ  (see  that  article),  who  heard  him  at  Prague, 
and  who  certainly  was  no  mean  authority,  while 
granting  his  eminence  as  a  player  generally, 
adds:  'his  manner  was  cold,  his  taste  wanting 
in  noblesse  and  in  the  true  style  of  singing.' 
Whatever  the  reason  of  this  strange  criticism 
may  have  been,  to  our  mind  it  stands  condemned 
by  the  deeply  emotional  and  pathetic  character 
of  Tartini's  compositions,  and  the  want  of  taste 
we  presume  to  have  been  on  the  side  of  the 
critic  rather  than  of  the  artist.  Quanz  also  states, 
that  he  was  fond  of  playing  in  extreme  positions, 
a  statement  which  is  difficult  to  understand, 
because  in  his  works  we  very  rarely  find  him 
exceeding  the  compass  of  the  third  position.  But 
if  it  is  to  be  understood  that  Tartini,  in  order  to 
continue  the  same  musical  phrase  on  the  same 
string,  frequently  used  the  higher  positions  for 
passages  which,  as  far  as  the  mere  mechanical 
production  of  the  sounds  was  concerned,  he  might 
have  pLiyed  in  lower  ones,  Quanz's  criticism 
would  imply  that  Tartini  used  one  of  the  most 
important  and  efPective  means  for  good  musical 
phrasing  and  cantabile  playing,  in  doing  which  he 
was  anticipating  the  method  by  which  the  great 
masters  of  the  Paris  School,  and  above  all  Spohr, 
succeeded  in  making  the  violin  the  'singing 
instrument'  par  excellence.  That  Tartini  should 
ever  have  condescended  to  astonish  his  audiences 
by  the  execution  of  mechanical  tricks  after  the 
fashion  of  a  Locatelli  (see  that  article),  appears, 
from  the  character  of  all  his  known  compositions, 
morally  impossible.  Both  as  player  and  com- 
poser he  was  the  true  successor  of  Corelli,  re- 
presenting in  both  respects  the  next  step  in  the 
development  of  the  art.  But  there  is  an  undeni- 
able difference  of  character  and  talent  between 
the  two  great  masters.  They  are  striking  in- 
stances of  the  two  main  types  of  the  Italian 
artist,  which  can  be  distinguished  from  the  oldest 
times  down  to  our  days.  The  one,  to  which 
Corelli  belongs,  gifted  with  an  unerring  sense  of 
artistic  propriety  and  technical  perfection,  the 
strongest  feeling  for  beauty  of  form  and  sound — 
with  pathos,  dignity  and  gracefulness  their  chief 
means  of  expression ;  the  other,  of  which  Tartini 
was  a  representative,  while  sharing  all  the 
great  qualities  of  the  former,  adds  to  them  that 
southern  fire  of  passionate  emotion  which  carries 
everything  before  it.  In  technique  Tartini  re- 
presents a  considerable  progress  upon  Corelli  by 
his  introduction  of  a  great  variety  of  bowing, 


TARTINI. 


61 


which  again  was  only  possible  by  the  use  of  a 
longer  and  elastic  bow.  [See  Bow ;  and  Tourte.] 
His  work,  'Arte  dell'  Arco,*  'L'art  de  I'archet' 
— a  set  of  studies  in  the  form  of  50  Variations  * 
gives  a  good  idea  not  only  of  his  manner  of 
bowing,  but  also  of  his  left-hand  technique.  In 
respect  of  the  latter  the  advance  upon  Corelli  is 
still  more  striking.  Double  stops  of  all  kinds, 
shakes,  and  double  shakes  are  of  frequent  oc-: 
currence.  We  remember  how  Corelli  (see  that 
article)  was  puzzled  by  the  difficulty  of  a  passage 
in  an  overture  of  Handel's.  That  could  certainly 
not  have  happened  with  Tartini.  In  some  of  his 
works  there  are  passages  which,  even  to  the 
highly  developed  technique  of  the  present  day 
afford  no  inconsiderable  difficulty.  We  will 
mention  only  the  famous  shake-passage  in  the 
•  Trillo.'  But  at  the  same  time  he  shows  his 
appreciation  of  purity  of  style  by  the  absence  of 
mere  show-difficulties,  which  he  certainly  was 
quite  capable  of  executing. 

How  great  he  was  as  a  teacher  is  proved  by 
the  large  number  of  excellent  pupils  he  formed. 
The  most  eminent  are  Nardini,  Bini,  Manfredi, 
Ferrari,  Graun,  and  Lahoussaye.  Some  of  these 
have  borne  most  enthusiastic  testimony  to  his 
rare  merits  and  powers  as  a  teacher,  to  liis  un- 
remitting zeal  and  personal  devotion  to  his 
scholars,  many  of  whom  were  linked  to  him  by 
bonds  of  intimate  friendship  to  his  life's  end.  Of 
the  pre-eminently  methodical  and  systematic  style 
of  his  teaching,  we  gain  an  idea  from  a  most 
interesting  letter,  addressed  by  him  to  his  pupil 
Maddalena  Lombardini-Sirmen,  and  from  his 
pamphlet  '  Trattato  delle  appogiature.'  [See 
Violin-playing.]  The  following  characteristic 
head  is  reproduced  from  a  drawing  in  possession 
of  Julian  Marshall,  Esq. 


As  a  composer,  not  less  than  as  a  player,  he 
stands  on  the  shoulders  of  the  greatest  of  his  pre- 
decessors, Corelli.  He  on  the  whole  adopts  the 
concise  and  logical  forms  of  that  great  master  and 
of  Vivaldi  (see  that  article) ;  but  in  his  hands  the 
forms  appear  less  rigid,  and  gain  ampler  and 
freer  proportions ;  the  melodies  are  broader,  the 
phrases  more  fully  developed ;  the  harmonies  and 
»  Becently  republUhed  bj  Ford.  DftTld.  Offenbach,  Andrf. 


62 


TARTINI. 


modulations  richer  and  more  varied.  Still  more 
striking  is  the  progress  if  we  look  at  Tartini's 
subject-matter,  at  the  character  of  his  ideas, 
and  the  spirit  of  their  treatment.  Not  content 
with  the  noble  but  somewhat  conventional  pathos 
of  the  slow  movements  of  the  older  school,  their 
well-written  but  often  rather  dry  fugues  and 
fugatos  and  traditional  dance-rhythms,  he  intro- 
duces in  his  slow  movements  a  new  element  of 
emotion  and  passion;  most  of  his  quick  move- 
ments are  highly  characteristic,  and  even  in  their 

*  passages '  have  nothing  dry  .ind  formal,  but  are 
full  of  spirit  and  fire.  In  addition  to  all  this  we 
not  rarely  meet  with  an  element  of  tender  dreamy 
melancholy  and  of  vivid  imagination  which  now 
and  then  grows  into  the  fantastic  or  romantic. 
His  works  bear  not  so  mucli  the  stamp  of  his  time 
as  that  of  his  own  peculiar  individuality ;  and  in 
this  respect  he  may  well  be  regarded  as  a  proto- 
type of  the  most  individual  of  all  violinists, 
Paganini.  What  we  know  from  one  of  his 
pupils  about  his  peculiar  habits  in  composing, 
throws  a  significant  light  on  the  more  peculiarly 
intellectual  bent  of  his  musical  talent.  Before 
sitting  down  to  a  new  composition,  he  would 
read  a  sonnet  of  Petrarch ;  under  the  notes  of 
his  violin-parts  he  would  write  the  words  of  a 
favourite  poem,  and  to  single  movements  of  his 
sonatas   he   would   often  give   mottos,   such  as 

*  Ombra  cara  '  or  *  Volgete  il  riso  in  pianto  o  mie 
pupille.'  The  most  striking  illustration  of  this 
peculiar  side  of  his  artistic  character  is  given  in 
his  famous  sonata  '  II  Trillo  del  Diavolo.'  Ac- 
cording to  Lalande  (*  Voyage  d'un  Francais  en 
Italic  1765  et  66,'  torn.  8)  Tartini  himself  used 
to  relate  the  circumstances  under  which  he  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  this  singularly  fine  piece,  in 
the  following  manner :  '  One  night  I  dreamt  that 
I  had  made  a  bargain  with  the  devil  for  my  soul. 
Everything  went  at  my  command, — my  novel 
servant  anticipated  every  one  of  my  wishes.  Then 
the  idea  struck  me  to  hand  him  my  fiddle  and  to 
see  what  he  could  do  with  it.  But  how  great 
was  my  astonishment  when  I  heard  him  play 
with  consummate  skill  a  sonata  of  such  exquisite 
beauty  as  surpassed  the  boldest  flight  of  my 
imagination.  I  felt  enraptured,  transported,  en- 
chanted; my  breath  was  taken  away;  and  I 
awoke.  Seizing  my  violin  I  tiied  to  retain  the 
sounds  I  had  heard.  But  it  was  in  vain.  The 
piece  I  then  composed,  the  Devil's  Sonata, 
although  the  best  I  ever  wrote,  how  far  below  the 
one  I  had  heard  in  my  dream  1' 

The  number  of  his  compositions  is  enormous. 
F^tis  enumerates  over  50  Sonatas  with  bass,  18 
Concertos  with  accompaniment  of  stringed  orches- 
tra, and  a  Trio  for  2  violins  and  bass,  all  which 
■were  published  in  various  editions  at  Paris,  Lon- 
don, and  Amsterdam.  In  addition  to  these  a 
large  number  of  works  exist  in  MS.  Gerber 
speaks  of  over  200  violin  concertos,  F^tis  of  48 
unpublished  sonatas  and  127  concertos.  He  also 
composed  a  Miserere,  which  was  performed  during 
Holy  Week  in  the  Sistine  Chapel  in  the  year  1 768 ; 
but  according  to  F^tis  this  was  a  work  of  little 
importance  and  has  never  been  performed  again. 


TASKIN. 

It  remains  to  speak  of  Tartini's  writings  on 
the  theory  of  music.  During  his  stay  at  Ancona, 
probably  in  1716,  he  discovered  the  fact  that,  in 
sounding  double  stops,  a  third  or  combination- 
sound  was  produced.  He  was  not  content  to 
utilise  this  observation  by  making  the  appear- 
ance of  this  third  note  a  criterion  of  the  perfect 
intonation  of  double  stops  (which  do  not  produce 
it  at  all  unless  taken  with  the  most  absolute 
correctness),  but  he  tried  to  solve  the  scientific 
problem  underlying  the  phenomenon.  In  the 
then  undeveloped  state  of  acoustics  it  was  im- 
possible for  him  to  succeed.  It  is  also  highly 
probable  that  his  knowledge  of  mathematics 
was  insufficient  for  the  task.  At  any  rate  he 
wrote  and  published  an  elaborate  work  on  the 
theory  of  musical  science  generally,  and  on  the 
phenomenon  of  a  third  sound  in  particular,  un- 
der the  title  'Trattato  di  Musica  secondo  la 
vera  scienza  dell'  Armenia'  (Padua,  1754).  His 
theories  were  attacked  in  a  number  of  pamph- 
lets, amongst  them  one  by  J.  J.  Rousseau. 
In  1767  he  published  a  second  book,  *Dei  prin- 
cipii  dell*  Armenia  Musicale  contenuta  nel 
diatonico  genere,'  and  towards  the  end  of  his  life 
he  wrote  a  third  one  on  the  mathematics  of  music, 
'  Delle  ragioni  e  delle  proporzioni,'  which  how- 
ever has  never  been  published  and  appears  to  be 
lost.  The  absolute  value  of  Tartini's  theoretical 
writings  is  probably  not  great,  but  there  remains 
the  fact,  that  he  was  the  discoverer  of  an  interest- 
ing acoustical  phenomenon  which  only  the  ad- 
vanced scientific  knowledge  of  our  days  has 
been  able  to  explain  (Helmholtz) — a  fact  which; 
coupled  with  his  serious  attempts  to  solve  the 
problem,  speaks  much  for  his  intellectual  attain- 
ments and  versatility  of  mind. 

Finally  he  wrote,  under  the  title  *  Trattato  delle 
appogiature  si  ascendenti  che  discendenti  per  il 
violino,'  etc.,  a  little  work  on  the  execution  and 
employment  of  the  various  kinds  of  shakes,  mor- 
dents, cadenzas,  etc.  As  giving  an  authentic 
explanation  and  direction  for  the  execution  of 
these  ornaments  according  to  the  usage  of  the 
classical  Italian  school,  this  work  is  most  interest- 
ing. It  appears  that  it  has  never  been  published 
in  Italian,  but  a  French  translation  exists,  under 
the  title  'Traits  des  agr^mens  de  la  Musique, 
compost  par  le  c^lbbre  Giuzeppe  Tartini  k  Padoue, 
et  traduit  par  le  Sigr.  P.  Denis.  A  Paris  chez 
M.  de  la  Chevardier.'  ^  [P.D.] 

TASKIN,  Pascal,  celebrated  instrument- 
maker,  and  head  of  a  family  of  musicians,  bom 
1 723,  at  Theux  in  the  province  of  Li^ge,  migrated 
early  to  Paris,  and  was  apprenticed  to  Etienne 
Blanchet,  the  best  French  clavecin-maker  of  the 
period.  Succeeding  eventually  to  the  business, 
he  improved  the  tone  of  his  spinets  and  harpsi- 
chords, by  substituting  slips  of  leather  for  the 
crowquills  then  in  use  in  the  jacks  (1768).  [See 
vol.  ii.  p.  27a.]  In  1772  Louis  XV.  offered  him 
the  post  of  Keeper  of  the  Musical  Instruments 
and  the  Chapel  Royal,  vacant  by  the  death  of 

»  The  writer  of  this  article  has  to  acknowledge  his  obllgatloiu 
for  much  valuable  Information  contained  in  Waslelewsky's  book. '  Dia 
Violine  und  Ihre  Meister.' 


TASKIN. 


TATTOO. 


63 


Chiquelier,  but  tlie  life  at  Versailles  would  not 
have  suited  the  inventor,  who  wished  to  be  at 
liberty  to  continue  his  experiments,  and  he 
contrived  to  get  his  nephew  and  pupil,  Pascal 
Joseph,  appointed  in  his  stead.  Having  thus 
succeeded  in  preserving  his  independence  with- 
out forfeiting  the  royal  favour,  he  was  shortly 
after  elected  an  acting  member  of  the  corporation 
of  musical  instrument-makers  (1775).  He  was 
brought  more  before  the  public  by  a  piano  made 
for  the  Princess  Victoire  in  the  shape  of  our 
present  'grands,'  the  first  of  the  kind  made  in 
France.  Other  inventions  were  for  using  a  single 
string  doubled  round  the  pin  in  his  two-stringed 
pianos,  working  the  pedal  by  the  foot  instead  of 
by  the  knee,  and  the  '  Armandine'  (1789)  called 
after  Mile.  Armand,  a  pupil  of  his  niece,  who  be- 
came an  excellent  singer  at  the  Opdra  and  the 
Opdra  Comique.  This  fine  instrument,  now  in 
the  museum  of  the  Paris  Conservatoire,  is  like 
a  grand  piano  without  a  keyboard,  and  with  gut- 
strings,  and  is  therefore  a  cross  between  the  harp 
and  the  psaltery.  Other  specimens  of  his  manu- 
facture are  the  harpsichord  with  two  keyboards 
made  for  Marie  Antoinette  and  still  to  be  seen 
in  the  Petit  Trianon,  the  pretty  instrument  in 
the  possession  of  the  distinguished  pianist  Mile. 
Josephine  Martin,  and  those  in  the  Conserva- 
toire, and  the  Mus^e  des  Arts  ddcoratifs  in  Paris. 
Pascal  Taskin  died  in  Paris,  Feb.  9,  1795.  His 
nephew, 

Pascal  Joseph,*  born  Nov.  20,  1750,  at 
Theux,  died  in  Paris,  Feb.  5,  1829,  Keeper  of  the 
King's  Instruments  and  the  Chapel  Royal,  from 
1772  to  the  Revolution,  was  his  best  pupil  and 
assistant.  He  married  a  daughter  of  Blanchet, 
and  was  thus  brought  into  close  connection  with 
the  Couperin  family.  Of  his  two  sons  and  two 
daughters,  all  musicians,  the  only  one  calling  for 
separate  mention  here  is  the  second  son, 

Henri  Joseph,  born  at  Versailles,  Aug.  24, 
1779,  died  in  Paris,  May  4,  1852,  learned  music 
as  a  child  from  his  mother,  and  so  charmed  the 
Court  by  his  singing  and  playing,  that  Louis  XVI 
made  him  a  page  of  the  Chapel  Royal.  Later 
he  studied  music  and  composition  with  his  aunt, 
Mme.  Couperin,  a  talented  organist,  and  early 
made  his  mark  as  a  teacher,  virtuoso,  and  com- 
poser. Three  operas  were  neither  performed  nor 
engraved,  but  other  of  his  compositions  were 
published,  viz.  trios  for  PF.,  violin,  and  cello  ;  a 
caprice  for  PF.  and  violin ;  a  concerto  for  PF. 

I  and  orchestra;  solo-pieces  for  PF.,  and  songs. 
A  quantity  of  Masonic  songs  remained  in  MS. 
Like  his  father  he  had  four  sons ;  none  of  them 
became  musicians,  but  his  grandson  Alexandre 
seems  to  have  inherited  his  talent.  This  young 
singer  (born  in  Paris,  March  8,  1853)  is  a 
thorough  musician,  has  already  created  several 
important  parts,  and  may  be  considered  one  of 
the  best  artists  at  the  Opera  Comique  (1883). 
The  writer  of  this  article,  having  had  access  to 
fEunily  papers,  has  been  able  to  correct  the  errors 
of  previous  biographers.  [G.C] 

>  F^tis  confuses'  tbe  uncle  and  nephew. 


TASTO  SOLO.  Tasto  (Fr.  toucTie)  means  the 
part  in  an  instrument  which  is  touched  to  pro- 
duce the  note ;  in  a  keyed  instrument,  therefore, 
the  key.  '  Tasto  solo,'  the  key  alone,  is  in  old 
music  written  over  those  portions  of  the  bass  or 
continue  part  in  which  the  mere  notes  were  to 
be  played  by  the  accompanyist,  without  the  chords 
or  harmonies  founded  on  them.  [G.] 

TATTOO  1  (Eappel:  Zapfenstreich),  the  signal 
in  the  British  army  by  which  soldiers  are  brought 
to  their  quarters  at  night.  The  infantry  .signal 
begins  at  20  minutes  before  the  hour  appointed 
for  the  men  to  be  in  barracks,  by  the  bugles  in 
the  barrack-yai-d  sounding  the  *  First  Post '  or 
*  Setting  of  the  Watch.'  This  is  a  long  passage 
of  29  bars,  beginning  as  follows — 


■  1  ■rs 


$ 


E 


^^ 


^ 


S 


t=3-r-r 


t- — r  -1 


:t=P= 


and  ending  with  this  impressive  phrase  : — 


This  is  succeeded  by  the  'Rolls,'"  consisting  of 
three  strokes  by  the  big  drum,  each  stroke  fol- 
lowed by  a  roll  on  the  side-drums : — 


m 


^ 


4 


li  I-  - 


Li)    r    ■    — I   »    r    - 


The  drums  and  fifes  then  march  up  and  down 
the  barrack-yard  playing  a  succession  of  Quick 
marches  at  choice,  till  the  hour  is  reached. 
Then  '  God  save  the  Queen '  is  played,  and  the 
Tattoo  concludes  by  the  '  Second  Post '  or  '  Last 
Post,'  which  begins  as  follows — 


$ 


f 


^s 


^ 


^ 


and  ends  like  the  'First  Post.'  The  other 
branches  of  the  service  have  their  tattoos,  which 
it  is  not  necessary  to  quote. 

J  The  Tvord  Is  derived  by  Johnson  from  the  French  tapotez  totu ; 
and  its  original  form  seems  to  have  been  '  tap-to'  (see  Count  Mans- 
field's '  Directions  of  Warre,'  1624),  as  if  It  were  the  signal  for  the 
tap-rooms  or  bars  of  the  canteen  to  put-to  or  close.  Curiously 
enough,  however,  'tap'  seems  to  be  an  acknowledged  term  for 
the  drum  — 'tap  of  drum.'  Tapoter  is  probably  allied  to  the 
German  zapfen,  the  tap  of  a  casli,  and  tap/enstreich,  the  German 
term  for  tattoo  ;  this  also  may  mean  the  striking  or  driving  home 
of  the  taps  of  the  beer-barrels.  The  proverbial  expression  '  the  devil's 
tattoo'— meaning  the  noise  made  by  a  person  absorbed  In  thought 
drumming  with  foot  or  fingers,  seems  to  show  tliat  the  drum  and  not 
the  trumpet  was  the  original  instrument  for  sounding  the  tattoo. 

a  For  det^ms  see  Potter's  '  Instructions  for  the  Side  Drum.' 


64 


TATTOO. 


Since  the  time  of  Wallenstein  the  Zapfen-  ^ 
streich  in  Germany  has  had  a  wider  meaning, 
»nd  is  a  sort  of  short  spirited  march  played  not 
only  by  drums  and  fifes  or  trumpets  but  by  the 
whole  band  of  the  regiment.  It  is  in  this  sense 
that  Beethoven  uses  the  word  in  a  letter  to 
Peters  (1823  ?) : — 'There  left  here  last  Saturday 
three  airs,  six  bagatelles,  and  a  tattoo,  instead 
of  a  march  . . .  and  to-day  I  send  the  two  tattoos 
that  were  still  wanting  . . .  the  latter  will  do  for 
marches.'     [See  Zapfenstreich.]  [G.] 

TAUBERT,  Karl  Gottfried  Wilhelm,  one 
of  those  sound  and  cultivated  artists  who 
contribute  so  much  to  the  solid  musical  repu- 
tation of  Germany.  He  was  the  son  of  a 
musician,  and  was  born  at  Berlin  March  23, 
181 1.  Though  not  actually  brought  up  with 
Mendelssohn  he  trod  to  a  certain  extent  in  the 
same  steps,  learned  the  piano  from  Ludwig 
Berger,  and  composition  from  Klein,  and  went 
through  his  course  at  the  Berlin  University 
1827-30.  He  first  appeared  as  a  PF.  player; 
in  1831  was  made  accompany ist  to  the  Court 
concerts,  and  from  that  time  his  rise  was  steady. 
In  1 834  he  was  elected  member  of  the  Academy 
of  Arts,  in  1841  became  music- director  of  the 
Royal  Opera,  and  in  1845  Court  Kapellmeistei- — 
a  position  which  he  held  till  his  retirement  from 
the  Opera  in  1869  with  the  title  of  Oberkapell- 
raeister.  Since  that  time  he  has  conducted  the 
royal  orchestra  at  the  Court  concerts  and 
soirees,  in  which  he  has  distinguished  himself 
as  much  by  very  admirable  performances  as  by 
the  rigid  conservatism  which  has  governed  the 
programmes.  In  1875  he  was  chosen  member 
of  council  of  the  musical  section  of  the  Academy. 
Among  his  first  compositions  were  various  small 
instrumental  pieces,  and  especially  sets  of  songs. 
The  songs  attracted  the  notice  of  Mendelssohn, 
and  not  only  drew  from  him  very  warm  praise 
and  anticipation  of  future  success  (see  the  letter 
to  Devrient,  July  15,  1831),  but  led  to  a  corre- 
spondence, including  Mendelssohn's  long  letter 
of  Aug.  27,  1 83 1.  In  these  letters  Mendelssohn 
seems  to  have  put  his  finger  on  the  want  of 
strength  and  spirit  which,  with  all  his  real 
musicianlike  qualities,  his  refined  taste  and 
immense  industry,  has  prevented  Taubert  from 
writing  anything  that  will  be  remembered. 

The  list  of  his  published  works  is  an  enormous 
one : — 3  Psalms  and  a  Vater  unser ;  7  Operas,  of 
which  the  last,  'Macbeth,'  was  produced  Nov. 
16,  1857 ;  Incidental  music  to  8  dramas,  in- 
cluding 'The  Tempest'  (Nov.  28, 1855)  ;  4  Can- 
tatas; 294  Solo-songs,  in  52  nos.,  besides  Duets 
and  Part-songs;  3  Symphonies  and  a  Festival- 
overture  for  full  orchestra ;  2  Trios  for  PF.  and 
strings;  3  String- quartets ;  6  Sonatas  for  PF. 
and  violin ;  6  Sonatas  for  PF.  solo ;  and  a  host 
of  smaller  pieces.  The  complete  catalogue,  with 
full  details  of  Taubert's  career,  will  be  found  in 
Ledebur's  *  Tonkunstler-Lexicon  Berlins.' 

In  this  country  Taubert  is  almost  unknown,  [G.] 

TAUDOU,  Antoine,  composer  of  the  modem 
French  school,   bom  at  Perpignan,  Aug.   24, 


TAUSIG. 

1846,  early  evinced  such  aptitude  for  music  that 
he  was  sent  to  Paris  and  entered  at  the  Conser- 
vatoire, where  he  carried  off  successively  the  first 
prizes  for  solfeggio,  violin  (1866),  harmony  (67), 
fugue  (68),  and  finally,  after  two  years'  study  of 
composition  with  Reber,  the  Grand  Prix  de  Rome 
(69).  The  subject  of  the  cantata  was  'Francesca 
da  Rimini,'  and  the  prize  score  was  distinguished 
for  purity  and  elegance. 

So  far,  no  work  of  M.  Taudou's  has  been  pro- 
duced on  the  stage,  but  his  chamber-music  and 
orchestral  pieces  have  been  well  received.  These 
include  a  trio  for  flute,  alto,  and  cello ;  another 
for  PF.,  violin,  and  cello ;  a  violin-concerto  played 
at  the  Soci^t^  des  Concerts  du  Conservatoire,  of 
which  M.  Taudou  is  one  of  the  best  violinists ; 
a  string-quartet  in  B  minor,  often  heard  in  Paris; 
and  for  orchestra  a  '  Marche-Ballet,'  a  '  Chant 
d'automne,'  and  a  '  Marche-Noctume.'  He  has 
published  songs  and  pieces  for  PF.,  but  a  cantata 
written  for  the  inauguration  of  a  statue  to  Arago 
(1879)  at  Perpignan,  is  still  in  MS.  In  January 
1883  he  was  chosen  professor  of  harmony  and 
accompaniment  at  the  Conservatoire.  [G.C.] 

TAUSCH,  Julius,  born  April  15,  1827,  at 
Dessau,  where  he  was  a  pupil  of  F.  Schneider's. 
In  1844  he  entered  the  Conservatorium  of  Leip- 
zig, then  in  the  second  year  of  its  existence, 
and  on  leaving  that  in  1846  settled  at  Dusseldorf. 
Here  he  gradually  advanced ;  on  Julius  Rietz's 
departure  in  1847  taking  the  direction  of  the 
artists'  Liedertafel,  and  succeeding  Schumann 
as  conductor  of  the  Musical  Society,  temporarily 
in  1853,  and  permanently  in  1855.  He  was 
associated  in  the  direction  of  the  Lower  Rhine 
Festivals  of  1863,  1866  (with  O.  Goldschmidt), 
1869,  1872,  and  1875.  In  the  winter  of  1878 
he  conducted  the  orchestral  concerts  at  the 
Glasgow  Festival. 

Tausch  has  published  a  Fest-overture,  music 
to  Twelfth  Night,  various  pieces  for  voices  and 
orchestra,  songs,  and  pianoforte  pieces,  solo  and 
accompanied.  His  last  publication  is  op.  17.  [G.] 

TAUSIG,  Carl  (1841-1871),  ♦  the  infallible, 
with  his  fingers  of  steel,'  as  Liszt  described  him, 
was,  after  Liszt,  the  most  remarkable  pianist  of 
his  time.  His  manner  of  playing  at  its  best 
was  grand,  impulsive,  and  impassioned,  yet  with- 
out a  trace  of  eccentricity.  His  tone  was  superb, 
his  touch  exquisite,  and  his  manipulative  dex- 
terity and  powers  of  endurance  such  as  to  astonish 
even  experts.  He  made  a  point  of  executing 
his  tours  de  force  with  perfect  composure,  and 
took  pains  to  hide  every  trace  of  physical  effort. 
His  repertoire  was  varied  and  extensive,  and  he 
was  ready  to  play  by  heart  any  representative 
piece  by  any  composer  of  importance  from  Scar- 
latti to  Liszt.  A  virtuoso  par  excellence,  he  was 
also  an  accomplished  musician,  familiar  with 
scores  old  and  new,  a  master  of  instrumentation, 
a  clever  composer  and  arranger. 

Carl  Tausig  was  bom  at  Warsaw,  Nov.  4, 
1 841,  and  was  first  taught  by  his  father,  Aloys 
Tausig,  a  professional  pianist  of  good  repute. 
When  Carl  was  fourteen,  his  father  took  him  to 


TAUSIG. 

Liszt,  who  was  then  at  Weimar,  surrounded  by 
a  very  remarkable  set  of  young  musicians.  It  will 
suffice  to  mention  the  names  of  Billow,  Bronsart, 
Klind  worth,  Pruckner,  Cornelius,  Joseph  Joachim 
(concertmeister),  Joachim  E-aff  (Liszt's  amanu- 
ensis) to  give  an  idea  of  the  state  of  musical 
things  in  the  little  Thuringian  town.  During 
the  interval  from  1850-1858  Weimar  was  the 
centre  of  the  'music  of  the  future.*  Liszt,  as 
capellmeister  in  chief,  with  a  small  staff  of  singers 
and  a  tolerable  orchestra,  had  brought  out '  Tann- 
hauser'  and  'Lohengrin,'  Berlioz's  *Benvenuto 
Cellini,'  Schubert's  'Alfonso  and  Estrella,'  etc. 
He  was  composing  his  '  Pofemes  symphoniques,' 
revising  his  pianoforte  works,  writing  essays  and 
articles  for  musical  papers.  Once  a  week  or  of  tener 
the  pianists  met  at  the  Alte  Burg,  Liszt's  re- 
sidence, and  there  was  an  afternoon's  'lesson' 
(gratis  of  course).  Whoever  had  anything  ready 
to  play,  played  it,  and  Liszt  found  fault  or  en- 
couraged as  the  case  might  be,  and  finally  played 
himself.  Peter  Cornelius  used  to  relate  how  Liszt 
and  his  friends  were  taken  aback  when  young 
Tausig  first  sat  down  to  play.  'A  very  devil  of 
a  fellow,'  said  Cornelius, '  he  dashed  into  Chopin's 
Ab  Polonaise,  and  knocked  us  clean  over  with 
the  octaves.'  From  that  day  Tausig  was  Liszt's 
favourite.  He  worked  hard,  not  only  at  piano- 
forte playing,  but  at  counterpoint,  composition, 
and  instrumentation.  In  1858  he  made  his  dihut 
in  public  at  an  orchestral  concert  conducted  by 
Billow  at  Berlin.  Opinions  were  divided.  It 
was  admitted  on  all  hands  that  his  technical 
feats  were  phenomenal,  but  sober-minded  people 
talked  of  noise  and  rant,  and  even  those  of  more 
impulsive  temperament  who  might  have  been 
ready  to  sympathise  with  his  '  Lisztian  eccen- 
tricities,' thought  he  would  play  better  when  his 
period  of  'storm  and  stress '  was  over.  In  1859 
and  60  he  gave  concerts  in  various  German 
towns,  making  Dresden  bis  head-quarters.  In 
1862  he  went  to  reside  at  Vienna,  when,  in 
imitation  of  Billow's  exertions  in  Berlin,  he 
gave  orchestral  concerts  with  very  'advanced'  pro- 
grammes. These  concerts  were  but  partially  suc- 
cessful in  an  artistic  sense,  whilst  pecuniarily  they 
were  failures.  After  this,  for  some  years,  little 
was  heard  of  Tausig.  He  changed  his  abode 
frequently,  but  on  the  whole  led  the  quiet  life  of 
a  student.  The  *  storm  and  stress  *  was  fairly  at 
an  end  when  he  married  and  settled  in  Berlin, 
1865.  Opinions  were  now  unanimous.  Tausig  was 
hailed  as  a  master  of  the  first  order.  He  had 
attained  self-possession,  breadth  and  dignity  of 
style,  whilst  his  technique  was  as  '  infallible '  as 
ever.  At  Berlin  he  opened  a  school,  '  Schule  des 
hoherenClavierspiels,'  and  at  intervals  gave  piano- 
forte recitals,  of  which  his  '  Chopin  recitals '  were 
the  most  successful.  He  played  at  the  principal 
German  concert-institutions,  and  made  the  round 
of  the  Russian  towns.  He  died  of  typhoid  fever,  at 
Leipzig,  July  17,  1 87 1. 

Shortly  before  his  death  Tausig  published  an 
Opus  I, — •  Deux  Etudes  de  Concert.*  With  this 
he  meant  to  cancel  various  compositions  of  pre- 
vious date,  some  of  which  he  was  sorry  to  see  in 

VOL.  IV.  PT.  I. 


TAVERNER. 


65 


the  market.  Amongst  these  latter  are  a  piano- 
forte arrangement  of  '  Das  Geisterschiff,  Syni- 
phonische  Ballade  nach  einem  Gedicht  von 
Strachwitz,  op.  i ,'  originally  written  for  orchestra ; 
and  'Reminiscences  de  Halka,  Fantaisie  de 
concert.'  A  pianoforte  concerto,  which  contains 
a  Polonaise,  and  which,  according  to  Felix  Drae- 
seke  was  originally  called  a  Phantasie,  several 
'  Po^mes  symphoniques,'  etc.,  remain  in  manu- 
script. Tausig's  arrangements,  transcriptions, 
and  fingered  editions  of  standard  works  deserve 
the  attention  of  professional  pianists.  They  are 
as  follows : — 

Wagner :  Die  Meiatersinger  von  NUrnberg,  vollstan- 
diger  Clavierauszug. 

Bach:  Toccata  und  Fuge  fUr  die  Orgel  in  D  moll; 
Choral -Vorspiele  fiir  die  Orgel ;  Praeludium,  Fuge,  und 
Allegro  ;  'Das  wohltemperirte  Clavier,'  a  selection  of  the 
Preludes  and  Fugues,  carefully  phrased  and  fingered, 

Berlioz :  Gnomenreigen  und  Sylphentanz  aus  'La  Dam- 
nation de  Faust.' 

Schumann :  El  Contrabandista. 

Schubert :  Andantino  und  Variationen,  Kondo,  Marche 
militaire.  Polonaise  m^lancolique. 

Weber :  Aufforderung  zum  Tanz. 

Scarlatti :  3  Sonaten,  Pastorale,  und  Capriccio. 

Chopin :  Concerto  in  E  minor ;  score  and  PF.  part  dis- 
creetly retouched. 

Beethoven :  6  Transcriptions  from  the  string  quartets, 
op.  59, 130, 131,  and  135. 

'  Nouvelles  soirees  de  Vienne— Valses  caprices  d'apr^a 
Strauss.'  1-5.  (These  are  pendants  to  Liszt's  'Soirees  de 
Vienne'  after  Schubert.) 

'Ungarische  Zigeunerweisen'  (fit  to  rank  with  the 
best  of  Liszt's  '  Khapsodies  hongroises '). 

Clementi :  Gradus  ad  Parnassum,  a  selection  of  the 
most  useful  Studies,  with  additional  fingering  and 
variantes. 

Tausig*s  •  Tagliche  Studien '  is  a  posthumous 
publication,  consisting  of  ingeniously  contrived 
finger  exercises ;  among  the  many  *  Indispensables 
du  Pianiste,'  it  is  one  of  the  few  really  indispens- 
able. [E.D.] 

TAVERNER,  John,  was  organist  of  Boston, 
Lincolnshire,  and  afterwards  (about  1530),  of 
Cardinal  (now  Christ  Church)  College,  Oxford. 
Being  associated  with  John  Frith  and  other 
favourers  of  the  Reformation,  he  was  imprisoned 
upon  suspicion  of  having  concealed  some  (so- 
called)  heretical  books,  but,  by  the  favour  of 
Wolsey,  was  released.  His  compositions  consist 
of  masses  and  motets,  many  of  which  are  extant 
in  MS.  in  the  Music  School  and  Christ  Church,^ 
Oxford,  the  British  Museum,^  and  elsewhere. 
Hawkins  printed  a  3-part  motet  by  him,  'O 
splendor  gloriae,'^  and  Bumey  a  5-part  motet, 
'Dum  transisset  Sabbatum.'  Morley  includes 
him  among  the  eminent  musicians  of  his  time. 
He  died  at  Boston  and  was  buried  there. 

Another  John  Taverneb,  of  an  ancient  Nor- 
folk family,  son  of  Peter  Tavern  er,  and  grandson 
of  Richard  Tavemer,  who  in  the  reigns  of  Ed- 
ward VI.  and  Elizabeth  was  a  lay-preacher,  and 
in  the  latter  reign  high-sheriff  of  Oxfordshire, 
was  bom  in  1584.  On  Nov.  17,  1610,  he  was 
appointed  professor  of  music  at  Gresham  College 
upon  the  resignation  of  Thomas  Clayton.  His 
autogi'aph  copy  of  9  lectures,  part  in  Latin  and 
part  in  English,  delivered  by  him  in  the  college 

»  17  motets  for  S,  4,  5,  6  voices. 

a  Among  the  most  Interesting  are  parts  of  a  Mass  for  6  voices 
•  Gloria  tlbl,  Trinitas.'  copied  by  Dr.  Bumey.  Add.  MS.  11.687. 
3  TbU  U  noted  in  the  Christ  Church  Catalogue  as  '  partly  by  Tye. 

F 


66 


TAVERNER. 


in  that  year,  is  preserved  in  the  British  Museum 
(Sloane  MSS.,  2329).  He  subsequently  entered 
into  Holy  Orders,  and  in  1622  became  Vicar  of 
Tillingham,  Essex,  and  in  1627  Rector  of  Stoke 
Newington.  He  died  at  the  latter  place  in 
August,  1638.  [W.H.H.] 

TAYLOR,  Edward,  was  bom  Jan.  22,  1784, 
in  Norwich,  where,  as  a  boy,  he  attracted  the 
attention  of  Dr.  Beckwith,  who  gave  him  in- 
struction. Arrived  at  manhood  he  embarked  in 
business  in  his  native  city,  but  continued  the 
practice  of  music  as  an  amateur.  He  possessed 
a  fine,  rich,  full-toned  bass  voice,  and  became 
rot  only  solo  vocalist,  but  an  active  manager 
of  the  principal  amateur  society  in  Norwich.  He 
took  a  leading  part  in  the  establishment  in  1824 
of  the  existing  triennial  Norwich  Musical  Fes- 
tival, training  the  chorus,  engaging  the  band  and 
singers,  and  making  out  the  entire  programmes. 
In  1825  he  removed  to  London,  and,  in  connec- 
tion with  some  relatives,  entered  upon  the  pro- 
fession of  civil  engineer,  but  not  meeting  with 
success  he,  in  1826,  adopted  music  as  a  profession, 
and  inamediately  attained  a  good  position  as  a 
bass  singer.  In  1830  he  translated  and  adapted 
Spohr's  'Last  Judgment.'  This  led  to  an  in- 
timacy v«dth  Spohr,  at  whose  request  he  subse- 
quently translated  and  adapted  the  oratorios, 
♦Crucifixion'  (or  'Calvary'),  1836,  and  'Fall  of 
Babylon,'  1842.  On  Oct.  24,  1837,  he  was  ap- 
pointed professor  of  music  in  Gresham  College  in 
succession  to  R.  J.  S.  Stevens.  He  entered  upon 
his  duties  in  Jan.  1838,  by  the  delivery  of  three 
lectures,  which  he  subsequently  published.  His 
lectures  were  admirably  adapted  to  the  under- 
standing of  a  general  audience ;  they  were 
historical  and  critical,  excellently  written,  elo- 
quently read,  and  illustrated  by  well  chosen 
extracts  from  the  works  described  efficiently 
performed.  In  1 839  he  published,  under  the  title 
of  'The  Vocal  School  of  Italy  in  the  i6th  century,* 
a  selection  of  28  madrigals  by  the  best  Italian 
masters  adapted  to  English  words.  He  conducted 
the  Norwich  Festivals  of  1839  and  1842.  He 
wrote  and  composed  anode  for  the  opening  of  the 
present  Gresham  College,  Nov.  2, 1843.  In  1844 
he  joined  James  Turle  in  editing  *  The  People's 
Music  Book.'  In  1845  ^®  contributed  to  'The 
British  and  Foreign  Review,'  an  article  entitled 
*The  English  Cathedral  Service,  its  Glory,  its 
Decline,  and  its  designed  Extinction,'  a  produc- 
tion evoked  by  some  then  pending  legislation 
connected  with  the  cathedral  institutions,  which 
attracted  great  attention,  and  was  afterwards 
reprinted  in  a  separate  form.  He  was  one  of  the 
originators  of  the  Vocal  Society  (of  which  he  was 
the  secretary),  and  of  the  Musical  Antiquarian 
Society  (for  which  he  edited  Purcell's  'King 
Arthur'),  and  the  founder  of  the  Purcell  Club. 
[See  Musical  Antiquarian  Society,  Purcell 
Club,  and  Vocal  Society.]  Besides  the  before- 
named  works  he  wrote  and  adapted  with  great 
skill  English  words  to  Mozart's  'Requiem,' 
Graun's  *Tod  Jesu,'  Schneider's  'Siindfluth,' 
Spohr  s  '  Vater  Unser,'  Haydn's  '  Jahreszeiten,' 
and  a  very  large  number  of  compositions  intro- 


TEDESCA. 

duced  in  his  lectures.  He  was  for  many  years 
music  critic  to  *  The  Spectator '  newspaper.  He 
died  at  Brentwood,  March  12,  1863.  His  valu- 
able library  was  dispersed  by  auction  in  the  fol- 
lowing December.  [W.H.H.] 

TAYLOR,  Franklin,  a  well -known  pianoforte- 
player  and  teacher  in  London,  bom  at  Birming- 
ham, Feb.  5, 1843,  began  music  at  a  very  early  age ; 
learned  the  pianoforte  under  Chas.  Flavell,  and 
the  organ  under  T.  Bedsmore,  organist  of  Lichfield 
Cathedral,  where  at  the  age  of  1 1  he  was  able 
to  take  the  service.  In  1859  he  went  to  Leipzig 
and  studied  in  the  Conservatorium  with  Sullivan, 
J.  F.  Barnett,  etc.,  under  Plaidy  and  Moscheles 
for  pianoforte,  and  Hauptmann,  Richter,  and 
Papperitz  for  theory.  He  left  in  1861  and  made 
some  stay  in  Paris,  where  he  had  lessons  from 
Mme.  Schumann,  and  was  in  close  intercourse  with 
Heller,  Schulhoff,  Mme.  Viardot,  etc.  In  1862 
he  returned  to  England,  settled  permanently  in 
London,  and  began  teaching,  and  playing  at  the 
Crystal  Palace  (Feb.  18,  1865,  etc.),  the  Monday 
Popular  Concerts  (Jan.  15, 66,  etc.),  as  well  as  at 
the  Liverpool  Philharmonic,  Birmingham  Cham- 
ber Concerts,  and  elsewhere.  At  the  same  time 
he  was  organistsuccessively  of  Twickenham  Parish 
Church,  and  St.  Michael's,  Chester  Square.  In 
1876  he  joined  the  National  Training  School  as 
teacher,  and  in  1882  the  Royal  College  of  Music 
as  Professor  of  the  Pianoforte.  He  is  President 
of  the  Academy  for  the  higher  development  of 
pianoforte-playing. 

His  Primer  of  the  Pianoforte  (Maemillan  1879) 
— emphatically  a  '  little  book  on  a  great  subject,' 
and  a  most  useful  and  practical  book  too — has 
been  published  in  German.  He  has  also  compiled 
a  PF.  tutor  (Enoch),  and  has  edited  Beethoven's 
Sonatas  I-12  for  C.  Boosey.  He  has  translated 
Richter's  treatises  on  Harmony,  Counterpoint, 
and  Canon  and  Fugue  (Cramer  &  Co.)  ;  and  ar- 
ranged Sullivan's  Tempest  music  for  four  hands 
on  its  production.  With  all  his  gifts  as  a  player 
it  is  probably  as  a  teacher  that  his  reputation 
will  live.  His  attention  to  his  pupils  is  unre- 
mitting, and  his  power  of  imparting  tone,  touch, 
and  execution  to  them,  remarkable.  Gifted  with 
a  fine  musical  organisation  himself,  he  evokes 
the  intelligence  of  his  pupils,  and  succeeds  in 
making  them  musicians  as  well  as  mere  fine 
technical  performers.  [G,] 

TECHNIQUE  (Germ.  TechniJc).  A  French 
term  which  has  been  adopted  in  England,  and 
which  expresses  the  mechanical  part  of  playing. 
A  player  may  be  perfect  in  technique,  and  yet 
have  neither  soul  nor  intelligence.  [G.] 

TEDESCA,  ALLA  (Italian),  '  in  the  German 
style.*  *  Tedesca '  and '  Deutsch'  are  both  derived 
&om  an  ancient  term  which  appears  in  mediaeval 
Latin  as  Theotisca.  Beethoven  employs  it  twice 
in  his  published  works — in  the  first  movement  of 
op.  79,  the  Sonatina  in  G, — 

Presto  alia  tedaca. 


TEDESCA. 

and  again  in  the  fifth  movement  of  the  Bb 
quartet  (op.  130)  — 

Alia  danza  tedesca.    Allegro  assai. 


In  a  Bagatelle,  No.  3  of  op.  1 19,  he  uses  the 
term  in  French — *  A  rallemande,'  but  in  this  case 
the  piece  has  more  affinity  to  the  presto  of  the 
sonatina  than  to  the  slower  movement  of  the 
dance.  All  three  are  in  G.  The  term  '  tedesca,' 
says  Eiilow,  has  reference  to  waltz  rhythm,  and 
invites  changes  of  time. — [See  Teutsche.]      [G.] 

TE  DEUM  LAUDAMUS  (Eng.  We  praise 
Thee,  0  God).  A  well-known  Hymn,  called  the 
Ambrosian  Hymn,  from  the  fact  that  the  poetry 
is  ascribed  by  tradition  to  S.  Ambrose  and  S. 
Augustine.  The  English  "^  version,  one  of  the 
most  magnificent  to  be  found  even  in  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer,  appears  in  the  first  of  the 
English  Prayer-books  in  the  place  which  it  now 
occupies.  The  custom  of  singing  Te  Deum  on  great 
Ecclesiastical  Festivals,  and  occasions  of  special 
Thanksgiving,  has  for  many  centuries  been  uni- 
versal in  the  Western  Church ;  and  still  pre- 
vails, both  in  Catholic  and  Protestant  countries. 


TE  DEUM. 


67 


And  this  circumstance,  even  more  than  the  sub- 
limity of  the  Poetry,  has  led  to  the  connection  of 
the  Hymn  with  music  of  almost  every  known 
School. 

The  antient  Melody  —  popularly  known  as 
the  'Ambrosian  Te  Deum' — is  a  very  beautiful 
one,  and  undoubtedly  of  great  antiquity ; 
though  it  cannot  possibly  be  so  old  as  the  Hymn 
itself,  nor  can  it  lay  any  claim  whatever  to  the 
title  by  which  it  is  popularly  designated,  since 
it  is  written  in  the  Mixed  Phrygian  Mode — i.e, 
in  Modes  III  and  IV  combined;  an  extended 
Scale  of  very  much  later  date  than  that  used  by 
S.  Ambrose.  Numerous  versions  of  this  vener- 
able Melody  are  extant,  all  bearing  more  or  less 
clear  traces  of  derivation  from  a  common  original 
which  appears  to  be  hopelessly  lost.  Whether 
or  not  this  original  was  in  the  pure  Mode  III  it 
is  impossible  to  say  with  certainty;  but  the 
older  versions  furnish  internal  evidence  enough 
to  lead  to  a  strong  conviction  that  this  was  the 
case,  though  we  possess  none  that  can  be  referred 
to  the  age  of  S.  Ambrose,  or  within  two  centuries 
of  it.  This  will  be  best  explained  by  the  sub- 
joined comparative  view  of  the  opening  phrases 
of  some  of  the  earliest  known  versions. 


i 


From  the  Dodccachoidon  of  Glareamis  (Basiliae,  1547). 


-& <&- 


ter  •  num      Fa  -  trem      om   -   nls 


The  traditional  Roman  Version,  from  the  Supplement  to  the  Ratisbon  Gradual. 


Te      De 


«     mm :       Te      Do      -      mi    -      num    con  -  fl  -   te      •      mur. 


-    ra    •      -    tur. 


Early  Anglican  Version,  from  Marbecke's  'Booke  of  Common  Praier  noted  *  (London,  i^go). 

-/7\- 


wor  -   shipp 


the. 


In  all  these  cases,  the  music  to  the  verse  *  Te 
aetemum  Patrem  '  ('AH  the  earth  doth  worship 
Thee ')  is  adapted,  with  very  little  change,  to  the 
succeeding  verses,  as  far  as  *  Te  ergo  quaesumus  ' 
(*  We  therefore  pray  Thee'),  which  verse,  in  Ca- 

1  In  one  yerse  only  does  this  grand  paraphrase  omit  a  character- 
istic expression  in  the  original— that  which  refers  to  the  WhU*  Bcbei 
of  the  Martyrs : 

'  Te  Hartymm  eandidaiu$  laudat  exercitus.' 
•  The  noble  army  of  Martyrs  praise  Thee.* 
The  name  of  the  translator  is  not  ImoTrn. 


tholic  countries,  is  sung  kneeling.  The  only 
exception  to  this  is  the  phrase  adapted  to  the 
word  'Sanctus'  ('Holy'),  which,  in  every  in- 
stance, difiers  from  all  the  rest  of  the  Melody.' 
As  far,  then,  as  the  verse  *  Te  ergo  qusesumus* 
inclusive,  we  find  nothing  to  prevent  us  from 
believing  that  the  Music  is  as  old  as  the  text ; 
for  it  nowhere  deviates  from  the  pure  Third 
Mode,  as  sung  by  S.  Ambrose.     But,  at  the  next 

a  Harbecke,  however,  makes  another  marked  change  at  'Thou  arte 
the  Kyng  of  Glorye.' 

F2 


$8 


TE  DEUM. 


TE  DEUM. 


verse,  *  .sterna  fac'  ('Make  them  to  be  num-  I  with  a  marked  allusion  to  the  Fomrth  Gregorian 
bered'),  the  Melody  passes  into  the  Fourth  Mode,  |  Tone,  of  which  S.  Ambrose  knew  nothing. 


tar-  aa 


cum  Sanc-tts 


This  phrase,  therefore,  conclusively  proves, 
either  that  the  latter  portion  of  the  Melody  is  a 
comparatively  modem  addition  to  the  original 
form ;  or,  that  the  whole  is  of  much  later  date 
than  has  been  generally  supposed.  We  are 
strongly  in  favour  of  the  first  supposition ;  but 
the  question  is  open  to  discussion  on  both  sides. 
The  beauty  of  the  old  Melody  has  led  to  its 
frequent  adoption  as  a  Canto  fermo  for  Poly- 
phonic Masses ;  as  in  the  case  of  the  fifth  and 
sixth  Masses — *In  Te,  Domine,  speravi,'  for  5 
voices,  and  'Te  Deum  laudamus,'  for  6 — in 
Palestrina's  Ninth  Book.  But  the  number  of 
Polyphonic  settings  is  less  than  that  of  many 
other  Hymns  of  far  inferior  interest.  The  reason 
of  this  must  be  sought  for  in  the  immense  popu- 
larity of  the  Plain  Chaunt  Melody  in  Italy,  and 
especially  in  the  Roman  States.  Every  peasant 
knows  it  by  heart ;  and,  from  time  immemorial, 
it  has  been  sung,  in  the  crowded  Roman  Churches, 
at  every  solemn  Thanksgiving  Service,  by  the 
people  of  the  city,  and  the  wild  inhabitants  of 
the  Campagna,  with  a  fervour  which  would  have 
set  Polyphony  at  defiance.^  There  are,  however, 
some  very  beautiful  examples  j  especially,  one 
by  Felice  Anerio,  printed  by  Proske,  in  vol.  iv.  of 
*  Musica  Divina,'  from  a  MS.  in  the  Codex 
Altaemps.  Othobon,,  based  on  the  antient  Me- 
lody, and  treating  the  alternate  verses  only  of 
the  text — an  arrangement  which  would  allow 
the  people  to  take  a  fair  share  in  the  singing. 
The  'Tertius  Tomus  Musici  opens'  of  Jakob 
Hand!  contains  another  very  fine  example,  in 
which  all  the  verses  are  set  for  two  Choirs,  which, 
however,  only  sing  alternately,  like  the  Decani 
and  Cantoris  sides  in  an  English  Cathedral. 

Our  own  Polyphonic  Composers  have  treated 
the  English  paraphrase,  in  many  instances,  very 
finely  indeed :  witness  the  settings  in  Tallis's 
and  Byrd's  Services  in  the  Dorian  Mode,  in 
Farrant's  in  G  minor,  in  Orlando  Gibbons's  in 
F  (Ionian  Mode  transposed),  and  many  others 
too  well  known  to  need  specification.  That  these 
fine  compositions  should  have  given  place  to 
others,  pertaining  to  a  School  worthily  repre- 
sented by  *  Jackson  in  F,'  is  matter  for  very 
deep  regret.  We  may  hope  that  that  School 
is  at  last  extinct:  but,  even  now,  the  'Te 
Deum'  of  Tallis  is  far  less  frequently  heard, 
in  most  Cathedrals,  than  the  immeasurably  in- 
ferior *  Boyce  in  A ' — one  of  the  most  popular 
settings  in  existence.  The  number  of  settings, 
for  Cathedral  and  Parochial  use,  by  modern  Com- 
posers, past  and  present,  is  so  great  that  it  is 
difficult  even  to  count  them.' 

»  An  exceedingly  corrupt  excerpt  from  the  Boman  version— the 
Terse  'Te  SBternum  Patrem'— has  long  been  popular  here,  as  the 
'  Roman  Chant.'  In  all  probability  It  owes  its  introduction  to  this 
country  to  the  zeal  of  some  traveller,  who  •  picked  it  up  by  ear.' 

'i  A  second  setting  in  the  Dorian  mode,  and  a  third  In  F,  by  Tallis, 
both  for  5  voices,  are  unfortunately  incomplete.    [See  p.  54,1 


in      kIo  •  rl  •  •      DO  • 

It  remains  to  notice  a  third  method  of  treat- 
ment by  which  the  text  of  the  '  Te  Deum '  has 
been  illustrated,  in  modern  times,  with  extra- 
ordinary success.  The  custom  of  singing  the 
Hymn  on  occasions  of  national  Thanksgiving 
naturally  led  to  the  composition  of  great  works, 
with  Orchestral  Accompaniments,  and  extended 
movements,  both  for  Solo  Voices  and  Chorus. 
Some  of  these  works  are  written  on  a  scale 
sufficiently  grand  to  place  them  on  a  level  with 
the  finest  Oratorios ;.  while  others  are  remark- 
able for  special  effects  connected  with  the  par- 
ticular occasion  for  which  they  were  produced. 
Among  these  last  must  be  classed  the  Compo- 
sitions for  many  Choirs,  with  Organ  and  Orches- 
tral Accompaniments,  by  Benevoli,  and  other 
Italian  Masters  of  the  1 7th  century,  which  were 
composed  for  special  Festivals,  and  never  after- 
wards permitted  to  see  the  light.  Sarti  wrote 
a  *  Te  Deum '  to  Russian  text,  by  command  of 
the  Empress  Catherine  II,  in  celebration  of 
Prince  Potemkin's  victory  at  Otchakous,  in  which 
he  introduced  fireworks  and  cannon.  Notwith- 
standing this  extreme  measure,  the  work  is  a 
fine  one ;  but  far  inferior  to  that  composed  by 
Graun,  in  1756,  by  command  of  Frederick  the 
Great,  in  commemoration  of  the  Battle  of  Prague, 
and  first  performed  at  Charlottenburg,  in  1762, 
at  the  close  of  the  Seven  Years'  War.  This  is 
unquestionably  the  most  celebrated  '  Te  Deum  * 
ever  composed  on  the  Continent ;  and  also  one 
of  the  finest.  Among  modem  Continental  set- 
tings, the  most  remarkable  is  that  by  Berlioz, 
for  two  Choirs,  with  Orchestra  and  Organ  06- 
hh'f/ato,  of  which  he  says  that  the  Finale,  from 
'Judex  crederis,'  is  *  without  doubt  his  grandest 
production.'  Of  this  work  (op.  22)  nothing  is  yet 
known  in  England ;  but  it  was  performed  at  Bor- 
deaux, Dec.  14, 1883.  Cherubini,  in  early  youth, 
wrote  a  Te  Deum,  the  MS.  of  which  is  lost;  but, 
strangely  enough,  his  official  duties  at  the  French 
Court  never  led  him  to  reset  the  Hymn. 

But  the  grandest  Festal  settings  of  the  *  Te 
Deum'  have  been  composed  in  England.  The 
earliest  of  these  was  that  written  by  Purcell 
for  S.  Cecilia's  Day,  1694;  a  work  which  must 
lit  least  rank  as  one  of  the  greatest  triumphs  of 
the  School  of  the  Restoration,  if  it  be  not, 
indeed,  the  very  finest  production  of  that  bril- 
liant period.  As  this  work  has  already  been 
described  in  oup  account  of  that  School,'  it  is 
unnecessary  again  to  analyse  it  here.  It  is,  how- 
ever, remarkable,  not  only  as  the  first  English 
*  Te  Deum '  with  Orchestral  Accompaniments  ; 
but  also  as  having  stimulated  other  English  Com- 
posers to  the  production  of  similar  works.  la 
1695,  Dr.  Blow  wrote  a  'Te  Deum,'  with  Accom- 
paniments for  2  Violins,  2  Trumpets,  and  ~ 

<  See  VOL  Ut.  pp.  281-886. 


TE  DEUM. 


TELEMANN. 


the  exact  Orchestra  employed  by  Purcell ;  and,  not 
long  afterwards.  Dr.  Croft  produced  another  work 
of  the  same  kind,  and  for  the  same  Instnunents. 

The  next  advance  was  a  very  important  one. 
The  first  Sacred  Music  which  Handel  com- 
posed to  English  words  was  the  'Utrecht  Te 
Deum,'  the  MS.  of  which  is  dated  Jan.  14, 1 71 2.* 
Up  to  this  time,  Purcell's  Te  Deum  had  been 
annually  performed,  at  S.  Paul's,  for  the  benefit 
of  the  'Sons  of  the  Clergy.'  To  assert  that 
Handel's  Te  •  Deum  in  any  way  resembles  it 
would  be  absurd  :  but  both  manifest  too  close  an 
affinity  with  the  English  School  to  admit  the  possi- 
bility of  their  reference  to  any  other ;  and,  both 
naturally  fall  into  the  same  general  form,  which 
form  Handel  must  necessarily  have  learned  in  this 
country,  and  most  probably  really  did  learn  from 
Purcell,  whose  English  Te  Deum  was  then  the 
finest  in  existence.  The  points  in  which  the 
two  works  show  their  kinship,  are,  the  massive 
solidity  of  their  construction;  the  grave  de- 
votional spirit  which  pervades  them,  from  be- 
ginning to  end ;  and  the  freedom  of  their  Subjects, 
in  which  the  sombre  gravity  of  true  Ecclesiastical 
Melody  is  treated  with  the  artless  simplicity  of  a 
Volkslied.  The  third — the  truly  national  char- 
acteristic, and  the  common  property  of  all  our 
best  English  Composers — was,  in  Purcell's  case, 
the  inevitable  result  of  an  intimate  acquaintance 
with  the  rich  vein  of  National  Melody  of  which 
we  are  all  so  justly  proud ;  while,  in  Handel's, 
we  can  only  explain  it  as  the  consequence  of  a 
power  of  assimilation  which  not  only  enabled 
him  to  make  common  cause  with  the  School  of 
his  adoption,  but  to  make  himself  one  with  it. 
The  points  in  which  the  two  compositions  most 
prominently  differ  are,  the  more  gigantic  scale 
of  the  later  work,  and  the  fuller  development  of  its 
Subjects.  In  contrapuntal  resources,  the  Utrecht 
Te  Deum  is  even  richer  than  that  with  which 
Handel  celebrated  the  Battle  of  Dettingen, 
fought  June  27,  1743;  though  the  magnificent 
Fanfare  of  Trumpets  and  Drums  which  intro- 
duces the  opening  Chorus  of  the  latter,  surpasses 
anything  ever  written  to  express  the  Thanks- 
giving of  a  whole  Nation  for  a  glorious  victory.'^ 

The  Dettingen  Te  Deum  represents  the  cul- 
minating point  of  the  festal  treatment  to  which 
the  Ambrosian  Hymn  has  hitherto  been  sub- 
jected. A  fine  modern  English  setting  is  Sul- 
livan's, for  Solos,  Chorus,  and  Orchestra,  com- 
posed to  celebrate  the  recovery  of  the  Prince  of 
Wales,  and  performed  at  the  Crystal  Palace.  A 
more  recent  one  is  Macfarren's  (i 884).    [W.S.R.] 

TELEMANN,  Geobg  Philipp,  German  com- 
poser,  son  of  a  clergyman,  bom  at  Magdeburg 
Marcli  14,  168 1,  and  educated  there  and  at 
Hildesheim.  He  received  no  regular  musical 
training,  but  by  diligently  studying  the  scores 
of  the  great  masters — he  mentions  in  particular 
LuUy  and  Campra  —  made  himself  master  of 
the  science  of  music.     In  1 700  he  went  to  the 

»  Old  Style;  representing  Jan.  14,  1713,  according  to  our  present 
mode  of  reckoning. 

2  For  an  account  of  the  curious  work  which,  of  late  years,  has  been 
»<>  frequently  quoted  In  connection  with  the  Dettingen  Te  Deum,  we 
must  refer  the  reader  to  the  article  on  Ubio,  Doh  Fbancbsoo. 


university  of  Leipzig,  and  while  carrying  on 
studies  in  languages  and  science,  became  organist 
of  the  Neukirche,  and  founded  a  society  among 
the  students,  called  'Collegium  musicum.'  In 
1 704  he  became  Capellmeister  to  a  Prince  Prom- 
nitz  at  Sorau,  in  1708  Concertmeister,  and  then 
Capellmeister,  at  Eisenach,  and,  still  retaining 
this  post,  became  Musikdirector  of  the  Church 
of  St.  Catherine,  and  of  a  society  called  *  Frau- 
enstein'  at  Frankfort  in  1711,  and  also  Capell- 
meister to  the  Prince  of  Bajnreuth,  In  1721  he 
was  appointed  Cantor  of  the  Johanneum,  and 
Musikdirector  of  the  principal  church  at  Ham- 
burg, posts  which  he  retained  till  his  death.  He 
made  good  musical  use  of  repeated  tours  to 
Berlin,  and  other  places  of  musical  repute,  and 
his  style  was  permanently  atFected  by  a  visit  of 
some  length  to  Paris  in  1737,  when  he  became 
strongly  imbued  with  French  ideas  and  taste. 
He  died  June  25,  1767. 

Telemann,  like  his  contemporaries  Matheson 
and  Keiser,  is  a  prominent  representative  of  the 
Hamburg  school  in  its  prime  during  the  first 
half  of  the  i8th  century.  In  his  own  day  he  was 
placed  with  Hasse  and  Graun  as  a  composer  of 
the  first  rank,  but  the  verdict  of  posterity  has 
been  less  favourable.  With  all  his  undoubted 
ability  he  originated  nothing,  but  was  content 
to  follow  the  tracks  laid  down  by  the  old  con- 
trapuntal school  of  organists,  whose  ideas  and 
forms  he  adopted  without  change.  His  fertility 
was  so  marvellous  that  he  could  not  even  reckon 
up  his  own  compositions;  indeed  it  is  doubtful 
whether  he  was  ever  equalled  in  this  respect. 
He  was  a  highly-skilled  contrapuntist,  and  had, 
as  might  be  expected  from  his  great  productive- 
ness, a  technical  mastery  of  all  the  received  forms 
of  composition.  Handel,  who  knew  him  well, 
said  that  he  could  write  a  motet  in  8  parts 
as  easily  as  any  one  else  could  write  a  letter, 
and  Schumann  quotes  an  expression  of  his  to 
the  effect  that  'a  proper  composer  should  be 
able  to  set  a  placard  to  ^music ' :  but  these 
advantages  were  neutralised  by  his  lack  of  any 
earnest  ideal,  and  by  a  fatal  facility  naturally 
inclined  to  superficiality.  He  was  over-addicted, 
even  for  his  own  day,  to  realism;  this,  though 
occasionally  effective,  especially  in  recitatives, 
concentrates  the  attention  on  mere  externals, 
and  is  opi)osed  to  all  depth  of  expression,  and 
consequently  to  true  art.  His  shortcomings  are 
most  patent  in  his  church  works,  which  are  of 
greater  historical  importance  than  his  operas  and 
other  music.  The  shallowness  of  the  church- 
music  of  the  latter  half  of  the  i8th  century  is 
distinctly  traceable  to  Telemann's  influence,  al- 
though that  was  the  very  branch  of  composition 
in  which  he  seemed  to  have  everything  in  his 
favour — position,  authority,  and  industry.  But 
the  mixture  of  conventional  counterpoint  with 
Italian  opera  air,  which  constituted  his  style, 
was  not  calculated  to  conceal  the  absence  of  any 
true  and  dignified  ideal  of  church  music.  And 
yet   he   composed  12  complete  sets  of  services 

3  '  Gesammelte  Schriften,'  li.  235.    Compare  Bameau't  '  Qu'on  m« 
donne  la  Gazette  de  Hollande.' 


70 


TELEMANN. 


for  the  year,  44  Passions,  many  oratorios,  in- 
numerable cantatas  and  psalms,  32  services  for 
the  installation  of  Hamburg  clergy,  33  pieces 
called  'Capitans-musik,'  20  ordination  and  anni- 
versary services,  12  funeral,  and  14  wedding  ser- 
vices— all  consisting  of  many  numbers  each.  Of 
his  grand  oratorios  several  were  widely  known 
and  performed,  even  after  his  death,  especially  a 
'  Passion'  to  the  well-known  words  of  Brookes  of 
Hamburg  (1716) ;  another,  in  3  parts  and  9 
scenes,  to  words  selected  by  himself  from  the 
Gospels  (his  best-known  work) ;  *  Der  Tag  des 
Gerichts  ';  *  Die  Tageszeiten '  (from  Zechariah)  ; 
and  the  *Tod  Jesu'  and  the  'Auferstehung 
Christi,'  both  by  Ramler  (1730  and  1757).  To 
these  must  be  added  40  operas  for  Hamburg, 
Eisenach,  and  Bayreuth,  and  an  enormous  mass 
of  vocal  and  instrumental  music  of  all  kinds, 
including  no  less  than  600  overtures  in  the 
French  style.  Many  of  his  compositions  were 
published,  and  he  even  found  time  to  engrave 
several  himself;  Gerber  ('Lexicon,'  ii.  631)  gives 
»  catalogue.  He  also  wrote  an  autobiography, 
printed  in  Matheson's  '  Ehrenpforte '  and  '  Gen- 
eralbass-schule '  (1731,  p.  168).  A  fine  chorus 
for  2  choirs  is  given  in  Rochlitz's  Sammlung,  and 
Hullah's  Vocal  Scores.  Others  will  be  found  in 
Winterfeld,  and  in  a  collection — 'Beitrag  zur 
Kirchenmusik' — published  by  Breitkopf.  Organ 
fugues  have  been  printed  in  Korner's  *  Orgel 
Virtues.'  Very  valuable  examinations  of  his 
Church-Cantatas,  and  comparisons  between  them 
and  those  of  Bach,  will  be  found  in  Spitta's 
'  Bach '  (Transl.  i.  490  etc.)  [A.M.] 

TELLEFSEN,  Thomas  Dyke  Acland,  a 
Norwegian  musician,  born  at  Dronthjem  Nov.  26, 
1823,  and  probably  named  after  the  well-known 
M.P.  for  North  Devon,  who  was  much  in  the  habit 
of  travelling  in  Norway — was  a  pupil  of  Chopin, 
and  first  came  to  England  with  his  master  in 
1848.  He  was  in  the  habit  of  returning  to  this 
country,  had  many  pupils,  and  used  to  give  con- 
certs, at  one  of  wliich  he  was  assisted  by  Madame 
Lind-Goldschmidt.  He  edited  a  collection  of 
Chopin's  PF.  works  (Paris,  Richault),  and  was 
interesting  chiefly  from  his  intimate  connexion 
with  that  remarkable  composer  and  player, 
though  it  can  hardly  be  said  that  his  playing 
was  a  good  representation  of  Chopin's.  He  died 
at  Paris  in  Oct.  1874.  [G.] 

TELL-TALE.  A  simple  mechanical  con- 
trivance for  giving  information  to  an  organ- 
blower  (and  sometimes  also  to  an  organist)  as 
to  the  amount  of  wind  contained  in  the  bellows. 
A  piece  of  string  is  fixed  by  one  end  to  the 
top  board  of  the  bellows  and  carried  over  a  pul- 
ley; a  small  metal  weight  is  attached  to  the 
otiier  end  of  the  string.  As  the  bellows  rise 
the  weight  descends,  as  they  sink  the  weight 
ascends ;  and  the  words  ♦  Full'  and  *  Empty '  mark 
the  limits  of  the  journey  down  and  up.       [J.S.] 

TEMPERAMENT  (Fr.  Tempirament ;  Ger. 
Temperatur ;  comp.  Ital.  temperare,  to  tune)  is 
the  name  given  to  various  methods  of  Tuning, 
in  which  certain   of  the  consonant  intervals, 


TEMPERAMENT. 

chiefly  the  Fifth  and  Major  Third,  are  inten- 
tionally made  more  or  less  false  or  imperfect; 
that  is  to  say,  either  sharper  or  flatter  than 
exact  consonance  would  require.  If,  on  the  con- 
trary, all  the  consonant  intervals  are  made  per- 
fectly smooth  and  pure,  so  as  to  give  no  Beats 
(see  Appendix),  the  tuning  is  then  called  Just 
Intonation. 

When  a  piece  of  music  containing  much 
change  of  key  is  executed  in  just  intonation,  we 
find  that  the  number  of  notes  employed  in  each 
Octave  is  considerable,  and  that  the  difference 
of  pitch  between  them  is,  in  many  cases,  com- 
paratively minute.  Yet,  however  great  the 
number  of  notes  may  be,  and  however  small 
the  intervals  which  separate  them,  all  these 
notes  can  be  correctly  produced  by  the  voice ; 
as  they  may  be  derived  from  a  few  elementary 
intervals,  namely  the  Octave,  Fifth,  Major 
Third,  and  Harmonic  Seventh.^  Instruments 
like  the  violin  and  the  trombone  are  also  suit- 
able for  the  employment  of  just  intonation ; 
because,  in  these  cases,  the  player  can  modify 
the  pitch  of  each  note  at  pleasure,  being  guided 
by  his  sense  of  key-relation.  But  it  is  other- 
wise with  instrimients  whose  tones  are  fixed, 
such  as  the  pianoforte,  organ,  and  harmonium. 
Here  the  precise  pitch  of  each  note  does  not 
depend  on  the  player,  but  is  settled  for  him 
beforehand  by  the  tuner.  Hence,  in  these  in- 
struments, the  number  of  notes  per  Octave  is 
limited,  and  cannot  furnish  all  the  varieties  of 
pitch  required  in  just  intonation.  A  few  scales 
may,  indeed,  be  tuned  perfectly ;  but  if  so,  cer- 
tain notes  which  belong  to  other  scales  will  be 
missing.  Compromise  then  becomes  a  mechani- 
cal necessity;  and  it  is  found  that  by  putting 
most  of  the  consonant  intervals,  except  the  Oc- 
tave, slightly  out  of  tune,  the  number  of  notes 
required  in  modulation  may  be  considerably  re- 
duced, without  too  much  offence  to  the  ear. 
This  mode  of  tuning  is  called  Temperament, 
and  is  now  usually  applied  to  all  instruments 
with  fixed  tones.  And  although  voices,  violins, 
and  trombones  naturally  have  no  need  of  tem- 
perament, they  must  all  conform  to  the  intona- 
tion of  any  tempered  instrument  which  is  played 
in  concert  with  them. 

We  shall  omit  from  the  present  article  all  re- 
ference to  the  arithmetical  treatment  of  tempera- 
ment, and  simply  deal  with  its  physical  and 
audible  effects.  We  shall  describe  the  means 
by  which  any  student  may  obtain  for  himself 
a  practical  knowledge  of  the  subject,  and  point 
out  some  of  the  conclusions  to  which  such  know- 
ledge will  probably  lead  him.^  The  first  and 
most  important  thing  is  to  learn  by  experience  the 
effect  of  temperament  on  the  quality  of  musical 
chords.    To  carry  out  this  study  properly  it  is  ne- 

1  Some  theorists  exclude  the  Harmonic  Seventh  from  the  list  of 
elementary  intervals,  but  It  is  often  heard  In  unaccompanied  vocal 
harmony.    See  below,  p.  77  o. 

2  Those  who  wish  to  study  the  subject  more  In  detail  may  consult  :— 
(1)  Bosanquet,  *  Elementary  Treatise  on  Musical  Intervals  and  Tem- 
perament' (Macmlllan):  (2)  Helmholtz,  'Sensations  of  Tone."  chap- 
ters xiv,  to  xvli. ;  and  Ellis's  Appendix  xix.  sections  A  to  G,  tables  i.  to 
vi.:  (3)  Perronet  Thompson,  'On  the  Principles  and  Practice  of  Just 
Intonation ' :  (4)  Woolhouse, '  Esssy  on  Musical  Intervals.' 


TEMPERAMENT. 

eessary  to  have  an  instrument  which  is  capable  of 
producing  all  the  combinations  of  notes  used  in 
harmony,  of  sustaining  the  sound  as  long  as  may 
be  desired,  and  of  distinguishing  clearly  between 
just  and  tempered  intonation.  These  conditions 
are  not  fulfilled  by  the  pianoforte ;  for,  owing  to 
the  soft  quality  of  its  tones,  and  the  quickness 
with  which  they  die  away,  it  does  not  make  the 
effects  of  temperament  acutely  felt.  The  organ 
is  more  useful  for  the  purpose,  since  its  full  and 
sustained  tones,  especially  in  the  reed  stops,  en- 
able the  ear  to  perceive  differences  of  tuning 
with  greater  facility.  The  harmonium  is  superior 
even  to  the  organ  for  illustrating  errors  of  in- 
tonation, being  less  troublesome  to  tune  and  less 
liable  to  alter  in  pitch  from  variation  of  tempera- 
ture or  lapse  of  time. 

By  playing  a  few  chords  on  an  ordinary  har- 
monium and  listening  carefully  to  the  effect,  the 
student  will  perceive  that  in  the  usual  mode  of 
tuning,  called  Equal  Temperament,  only  one 
consonant  interval  has  a  smooth  and  continuous 
sound,  namely  the  Octave.  All  the  others  are  in- 
terrupted by  heats,  that  is  to  say,  by  regularly 
recurring  throbs  or  pulsations,  which  mark  the 
deviation  from  exact  consonance.  For  example, 
the  Fifth  and  Fourth,  as  at  (a;),  are  each  made 
to  give  about  one  beat  per  second.  This  error 
is  so  slight  as  to  be  hardly  worth  notice,  but  in 
the  Thirds  and  Sixths  the  case  is  very  different. 
The  Major  Third,  as  at  (y),  gives  nearly  twelve 
beats  per  second :  these  are  rather  strong  and  dis- 
tinct, and  become  still  harsher  if  the  interval 
is  extended  to  a  Tenth  or  a  Seventeenth.  The 
Major  Sixth,  as  at  (2),  gives  about  ten  beats  per 
second,  which  are  so  violent,  that  this  interval 
in  its  tempered  form  barely  escapes  being  reckoned 
as  a  dissonance. 


The  Difference-Tones  resulting  from  these  tem- 
pered chords  are  also  thrown  very  much  out  of 
tune,  and,  even  when  too  far  apart  to  beat,  still 
produce  a  disagreeable  effect,  especially  on  the 
organ  and  the  harmonium.  [Resultant  Tones,] 
The  degree  of  harshness  arising  from  this  source 
varies  with  the  distribution  of  the  notes ;  the 
worst  results  being  produced  by  chords  of  the 
following  types — 


TEMPERAMENT. 


71 


By  playing  these  examples,  the  student  will 
obtain  some  idea  of  the  alteration  which  chords 
undergo  in  equal  temperament.  To  understand 
it  thoroughly,  he  should  try  the  following  simple 
experiment.  *  Take  an  ordinary  harmonium  and 
tune  two  chords  perfect  on  it.  One  is  scarcely 
enough  for  comparison.  To  tune  the  triad  of 
C  major,  first  raise  the  G  a  very  little,  by  scraping 
the  end  of  the  reed,  till  the  Fifth,  C— G,  is  dead 
in  tune.     Then  flatten  the  Third  E,  by  scraping 


the  shank,  till  the  triad  C — E — G  is  dead  in 
tune.  Then  flatten  F  till  F— C  is  perfect,  and 
A  till  F — A — C  is  perfect.  The  notes  used  are 
easily  restored  by  tuning  to  their  Octaves. 
The  pure  chords  obtained  by  the  above  process 
offer  a  remarkable  contrast  to  any  other  chords 
on  the  instrument.'*  It  is  only  by  making  one- 
self practically  familiar  with  these  facts,  that  the 
nature  of  temperament  can  be  clearly  understood, 
and  its  effects  in  the  orchestra  or  in  accompanied 
singing,  properly  appreciated. 

Against  its  defects,  equal  temperament  has 
(me  great  advantage  which  specially  adapts  it  to 
instruments  with  fixed  tones,  namely  its  extreme 
simplicity  from  a  mechanical  point  of  view.  It 
is  the  only  system  of  tuning  which  is  complete 
with  twelve  notes  to  the  Octave.  This  result  is 
obtained  in  the  following  manner.  If  we  start 
from  any  note  on  the  keyboard  (say  Gb),  and 
proceed  along  a  series  of  twelve  (tempered)  Fifths 
upwards  and  seven  Octaves  downwards,  thus — 


5  ^^^  7 

we  come  to  a  note  (FjJ)  identical  with  our  original 
one  (Gb).  But  this  identity  is  only  arrived  at 
by  each  Fifth  being  tuned  somewhat  too  flat  for 
exact  consonance.  If,  on  the  contrary,  the  Fifths 
were  tuned  perfect,  the  last  note  of  the  series 
(Fj)  would  be  sharper  than  the  first  note  (Gb) 
by  a  small  interval  called  the  'Comma  of  Pytha- 
goras,' which  is  about  one-quarter  of  a  Semitone. 
Hence  in  equal  temperament,  each  Fifth  ought 
to  be  made  flat  by  one-twelfth  of  this  Comma; 
but  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  accomplish  this 
practically,  and  the  error  is  always  found  to  be 
greater  in  some  Fifths  than  in  others.  If  the 
theoretic  conditions  which  the  name  '  equal 
temperament'  implies,  could  be  realised  in  the 
tuning  of  instruments,  the  Octave  would  be 
equally  divided  into  twelve  Semitones,  six  Tones, 
or  three  Major  Thirds.  Perfect  accuracy,  in- 
deed, is  impossible  even  with  the  best-trained 
ears,  but  the  following  rule,  given  by  Mr.  Ellis, 
is  much  less  variable  in  its  results  than  the  or- 
dinary process  of  guesswork.  It  is  this  : — '  make 
all  the  Fifths  which  lie  entirely  within  the 
Octave  middle  c'  to  treble  c"  beat  once  per  second  ; 
and  make  those  which  have  their  upper  notes 
above  treble  c"  beat  three  times  in  two  seconds. 
Keeping  the  Fifth  treble  /'  and  treble  c"  to  the 
last,  it  should  beat  once  in  between  one  and  two 
seconds.'  ^  In  ordinary  practice,  however,  much 
rougher  appi-oximations  are  found  suflScient. 

The  present  system  of  tuning,  by  equal  tem- 
perament, was  introduced  into   England   at  a 
comparatively   recent    date.      In    1854   organs 
I  Bosanquet, '  Temperament.*  p.  S.  <  Ibid.  p.  0. 


72 


TEMPERAMENT. 


built  and  tuned  by  this  method  were  sent  out 
for  the  first  time  by  Messrs.  Gray  &  Davison, 
Walker,  and  Willis.  1854  is  therefore  the  date 
of  its  definite  adoption  as  the  trade  usage  in 
England.  There  was  no  equally  tempered  organ 
of  English  make  in  the  Great  Exhibition  of  1 85 1 ; 
and  before  that  time  the  present  system  appears 
to  have  been  only  used  in  a  few  isolated  cases, 
as  in  the  organ  of  S.  Nicholas,  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne,  which  was  retuned  in  1842.  For  the 
pianoforte  equal  temperament  came  into  use 
somewhat  earlier  than  for  the  organ.  It  was 
introduced  into  the  works  of  Messrs.  Broad- 
wood  about  1846.  In  France  the  change  had 
already  taken  place,  for  M.  Aristide  Cavaill^- 
Coll  states  that  since  1835  ^^  ^^^  consistently 
laboured  to  carry  out  the  equal  principle  in  the 
tuning  of  his  organs.^  What  little  is  known  of 
the  history  of  temperament  in  Germany,  seems 
to  show  that  the  new  tuning  was  employed  there 
at  a  still  earlier  date,  but  there  are  reasons  for 
believing  that  equally  tuned  organs  had  not 
become  general  even  as  late  as  the  time  of  Mozart 
(died  1 791).  Emanuel  Bach  seems  to  have  been 
the  first  musician  who  advocated  in  a  prominent 
manner  the  adoption  of  equal  temperament, 
whence  we  may  infer  that  it  was  unusual  in 
his  day.^  His  father  is  also  said  to  have  en- 
ployed  this  system  on  his  own  clavichord  and 
harpsichord:  but  even  his  authority  was  not 
sufficient  to  recommend  it  to  his  contemporary 
Silbermann,  the  famous  organ-builder  (1683- 
1753).  An  earlier  builder,  Schnitger,  is  said  to 
have  used  something  approaching  it  in  the  organ 
built  by  him  about  1688-93,  in  the  S.  Jacobi 
Church  at  Hamburg.  Before  that  time  the  sys- 
tem appears  to  have  had  hardly  more  than  a 
theoretic  existence  in  Europe.^ 

The  mode  of  tuning  which  prevailed  before 
the  introduction  of  equal  temperament,  is  called 
the  Meantone  System.*  It  has  hardly  yet  died 
out  in  England,  for  it  may  still  be  heard  on 
a  few  organs  in  country  churches.  According 
to  Don  B.  Yniguez,  organist  of  Seville  Cathedral, 
the  meantone  system  is  generally  maintained  on 
Spanish  organs,  even  at  the  present  day.'  Till 
about  a  century  ago,  this  tuning,  or  a  closely 
allied  variety,  was  almost  universally  employed, 
both  in  England  and  on  the  Continent.  It  was 
invented  by  the  Spanish  musician  Salinas,  who 
was  bom  at  Burgos  in  15 13,  lived  for  many 
years  in  Italy,  and  died  at  Salamanca  in  1590." 
On  account  of  its  historical  interest,  as  well  as 
its  intrinsic  merits,  the  meantone  system  requires 
a  short  explanation.  It  will  be  convenient  to 
take  equal  temperament  as  the  standard  of  com- 
parison, and  to  measure  the  meantone  intervals 
by  the  nmnber  of  equal  Semitones  they  contain. 

I  BllU.  In  •  Nature '  for  Aug.  8, 1878,  p.  388. 

s  0.  P.  K.  Bach,  'Versuch  fiber  die  wahre  Art  du  Clavier  rn 
splelen,  Elnleltung,  sect.  14  ;  published  1753. 

3  ElHs.  'History  of  Musical  Pitch,'  In  Journal  of  Society  of  Art*. 
March  5  and  April  2,  1880,  and  Jan.  7,  1881.  From  these  valuable 
papers  many  of  the  facts  given  In  the  text  have  been  derived. 

*  Otherwise  Mesotonic  ;  so  called  because  In  this  tuning  the  Tone 
is  a  mean  between  the  Major  and  the  Minor  Tones  of  Just  Intonation  ; 
or  half  a  Major  Third.    See  p.  79  b. 

'>  The  invention  of  this  temperament  has  also  been  attributed  to 
Zarlino  and  to  Guido  d'Aiezzo. 


TEMPERAMENT. 

The  relations  of  the  two  systems  may  therefore 
be  described  as  follows. 

If  we  start  from  say  D  on  the  keyboard, 
and  proceed  along  a  series  of  four  equal  tempera- 
ment Fifths  upwards  and  two  Octaves  down- 
wards, thus — 


*  ^^      ■••w^ 


we  arrive  at  a  note  (Fj)  which  we  employ  as 
the  Major  Third  of  our  original  note  (D).  This 
tempered  interval  (D — Fjf)  is  too  sharp  for  ex- 
act consonance  by  nearly  one-seventh  of  a  Semi- 
tone ;  but  if  we  make  these  Fifths  flatter  than 
they  would  be  in  equal  temperament,  then  the 
interval  D — Fj  will  approach  the  perfect  Major 
Third.  We  may  thus  obtain  a  number  of  systems 
of  tuning  according  to  the  precise  amount  of 
flattening  we  choose  to  assign  to  the  Fifth.  Of 
this  class  the  most  important  is  the  Meantone 
System,  which  is  tuned  according  to  the  following 
rule.  First,  make  the  Major  Third  (say  D— F|) 
perfect;  then  make  all  the  intermediate  Fifths 
(D— A— E— B— Fjf)  equally  flat  by  trial.  After 
a  little  practice  this  can  be  done  by  mere  estima- 
tion of  the  ear ;  but  if  very  accurate  results  are 
desired,  the  following  method  may  be  used.  A 
set  of  tuning  forks  should  be  made  (say  at  French 
pitch)  giving  </  «=  260.2,  ^  =  389.1,  d'  =  290*9, 
a'=  435  vibrations  per  second.  The  notes  c',  flr', 
d',  a',  of  the  instrument  should  be  tuned  in  unison 
with  the  forks,  and  all  other  notes  can  be  ob- 
tained by  perfect  Major  Thirds  and  perfect 
Octaves  above  or  below  these. 

There  is  one  difficulty  connected  with  the  use 
of  the  meantone  system,  namely  that  it  requires 
more  than  twelve  notes  to  the  Octave,  in  order 
to  enable  the  player  to  modulate  into  any  given 
key.  This  aiises  from  the  nature  of  the  system; 
for  as  twelve  meantone  Fifths  fall  short  of  seven 
Octaves,  the  same  sound  cannot  serve  both  for 
Gb  and  for  Fj.  Hence  if  we  tune  the  following 
series  of  meantone  Fifths 

Eb-Bb-F-C-G-D-A-E-B-Fj-Cj-G# 
on  the  piano,  or  on  any  other  instrument  with 
twelve  notes  to  the  Octave,  we  shall  have  only 
six  Major  scales  (Bb,  F,  C,  G,  D,  A),  and  three 
Minor  scales  (G,  D,  A).  When  the  remoter  keys 
are  required,  the  player  has  to  strike  GjJ  instead 
of  Ab,  or  Eb  instead  of  Dj,  producing  an  intoler- 
able eficct.  For  in  the  meantone  system  the  in- 
terval Gj— Eb  is  sharper  than  the 'perfect  Fifth 
by  nearly  one-third  ot  a  Semitone,  and  the  four 
intervals  B— Eb,  F#— Bb,  CJ— F,  GJ— C,  are 
each  sharper  than  the  perfect  Major  Third  by 
more  than  three-fifths  of  a  Semitone.  The 
extreme  roughness  of  these  chords  caused  them 
to    be    compared  to    the    howling  of  wolves. 

[WOLP.] 

To  get  rid  of  the  '  wolves  *  many  plans  were 
tried.  For  instance,  the  GjJ  was  sometimes  raised 
till  it  stood  half-way  between  G  and  A ;  but  the 
result  was  unsatisfactory,  for  the  error  thus 
avoided  in  one  place  had  to  be  distributed  else- 


TEMPERAMENT. 

where.  This  was  called  the  method  of  Unequal 
Temperament,  in  which  the  notes  played  by  the 
white  keys  were  left  in  the  meantone  system, 
while  the  error  was  accumulated  on  those  played 
by  the  black  keys.  The  more  usual  scales  were 
thus  kept  tolerably  in  tune,  while  the  remote 
ones  were  all  more  or  less  false.  Such  a  make- 
shift as  this  could  not  be  expected  to  succeed, 
and  the  only  purpose  it  served  was  to  prepare 
the  way  for  the  adoption  of  equal  temperament. 
The  meantone  system  is  sometimes  described 
as  an  *  unequal  temperament,'  but  wrongly,  since 
in  it  the  so-called  'good  keys'  are  all  equally 
good  ;  the  '  bad  keys '  are  simply  those  for  which 
the  necessary  notes  do  not  exist  when  the  system 
is  limited  to  twelve  notes  per  Octave.  The  de- 
fect therefore  lies  not  in  the  system  itself,  but  in 
its  application,  and  the  only  legitimate  remedy 
is  to  increase  the  number  of  notes,  and  so  pro- 
vide a  more  extended  series  of  Fifths.  This  was 
well  understood  from  the  first,  for  we  find  that 
as  early  as  the  1 6th  century  many  organs  were 
constructed  with  extra  notes. ^  Salinas  tells  us 
that  he  had  himself  played  on  one  in  the  Domi- 
nican Monastery  of  Santa  Maria  Novella  at 
Florence.  Similar  improvements  were  attempted 
in  England.  In  the  deed  of  sale  of  the  organ 
built  by  Father  Smith  in  1682-3  for  the  Temple 
Church,  London,  special  mention  is  made  of  the 
additional  notes,  which  were  played  in  the  fol- 
lowing manner : — two  of  the  black  keys  were 
divided  crosswise ;  the  front  halves,  which  were 
of  the  usual  height,  playing  GJJ  and  Eb  ;  the  back 
ones,  which  rose  above  them,  A  b  and  D  J.  About 
1865,  this  organ  was  tuned  for  the  first  time 
in  equal  temperament,  but  the  extra  keys  were 
not  removed  till  1878.  The  same  method  was 
followed  in  designing  another  organ  of  Father 
Smith's,  which  was  built  for  Durham  Cathedral 
in  1684-5,  although  the  additional  notes  do  not 
appear  to  have  been  actually  supplied  till  1691.^ 
A  different  but  equally  ingenious  plan  of  con- 
trolling the  extra  notes  was  used  in  the  organ  of 
the  Foundling  Hospital,  London.^  Here  the  key- 
board was  of  the  ordinary  form,  without  any 
extra  keys ;  but  by  means  of  a  special  mechanism 
four  additional  notes,  Db,  Ab,  DJ,  AJJ,  could  be 
substituted  at  pleasure  for  C$,  GjJ,  Eb,  Bb  of  the 
usual  series.  Close  to  the  draw-stops  on  either 
side  there  was  a  handle  or  lever  working  in  a 
horizontal  cutting,  and  having  three  places  of 
rest.  When  both  handles  were  in  the  mid 
position,  the  series  of  notes  was  the  same  as  on 
an  ordinary  instrument,  namely 

Eb-Bb-F-C-G-D-A-E-B-Fj-CjJ-Gjt ; 
but  when  the  handles  on  both  sides  were  moved 
in  the  outward  direction,  the  Eb  and  Bb  pipes 
were  shut  off,  and  the  DjJ  and  AJ  were  brought 
into  operation.    The  use  of  this  mechanism  was 

>  The  extra  notes  were  sometimes  called  '  Quartertones,'  not  a  very 
suitable  name,  since  a  Quartertone  is  not  a  sound,  but  an  interval, 
and  the  Semitone  is  not  divided  equally  In  the  meantone  system. 

2  See  vol.  ii.  p.  593,  note. 

3  The  history  of  this  instrument  has  been  carefully  Investigated 
by  Mr.  Alexander  J.  Ellis.  F.R.S.  The  facts  given  in  the  text  were 
derived  by  him  from  a  MS.  note-book  made  by  Mr.  LefiBer  (died 
1819).  organist  of  8.  Katharine's  (then  by  the  Tower),  and  father  of 
the  singer  William  Lefflek.    [See  vol.  ii.  p.  112.] 


TEMPERAMENT. 


78 


afterwards  misunderstood ;  the  levers  were  nailed 
up  for  many  years,  and  at  last  removed  in  1848; 
but  the  tuning  remained  unaltered  till  1855, 
when  the  organ  itself  was  removed  and  a  new 
one  built  in  its  place.  The  history  of  the  old 
organ  just  described  is  of  special  interest,  as 
bearing  on  Handel's  position  with  reference  to 
the  question  of  temperament.  Unfortunately  all 
that  we  can  now  ascertain  on  the  subject  amounts 
to  this : — that  Handel  presented  an  organ  to  the 
Hospital ;  that  he  performed  on  it  at  the  opening 
ceremony  on  May  i,  1750  ;*  and  that  it  was  still 
in  existence  in  1785.*  We  first  hear  of  the  extra 
notes  in  1 799,^  but  there  is  nothing  to  show  that 
they  did  not  belong  to  the  original  instrument 
given  by  Handel  half  a  century  before.  Assuming 
this  to  have  been  the  case,  it  would  tend  to  show 
that  the  great  composer  was  not  in  favour  of 
abolishing  the  meantone  system,  but  of  remedy- 
ing the  defective  form  in  which  it  was  then 
employed.  His  example,  and  that  of  Father 
Smith,  found  few  imitators,  and  those  who  did 
attempt  to  solve  the  problem  seem  often  to  have 
misunderstood  its  nature.'^  The  difficulty  how- 
ever could  not  be  shirked ;  for  the  development 
of  modern  music  brought  the  remote  keys  more 
and  more  into  common  use ;  and  as  instruments 
continued  to  be  made  with  only  twelve  notes  per 
Octave,  the  only  possible  way  to  get  rid  of  the 
'  wolves '  was  to  adopt  equal  temperament. 

The  long  contest  between  the  different  systems 
of  tuning  having  practically  come  to  an  end,  we 
are  in  a  position  to  estimate  what  we  have  gained 
or  lost  by  the  change.  The  chief  advantage  of 
equal  temperament  is  that  it  provides  keyed  in- 
struments with  unlimited  facility  of  modulation, 
and  places  them,  in  this  respect,  more  on  a  level 
with  the  voice,  violin  and  trombone.  It  has 
thus  assisted  in  the  formation  of  a  style  of  com- 
position and  execution  suited  to  the  pianoforte. 
It  is  the  only  system  of  intonation  which,  in 
concerted  music,  can  be  produced  with  the  same 
degree  of  accuracy  on  every  kind  of  instrument. 
Its  deviations  from  exact  consonance,  though 
considerable,  can  be  concealed  by  means  of  unsus- 
tained  harmony,  rapid  movement,  and  soft  quality 
of  tone,  so  that  many  ears  never  perceive  them. 
By  constantly  listening  to  the  equally  tempered 
scale,  the  ear  may  be  brought  not  only  to  tolerate 
its  intervals,  but  to  prefer  them  to  those  of  any 
other  system,  at  least  as  far  as  melody  is  con- 
cerned. It  has  proved  capable  of  being  applied 
even  to  music  of  a  high  order,  and  its  adoption 

*  Brownlow, '  History  and  Objects  of  the  Foundling  Hospital,'  p.  78. 

5  Burney, '  Slcetch  of  the  life  of  Handel,'  p.  28,  prefixed  to  '  Account 
of  the  Commemoration.' 

6  See  remarks  by  an  anonymous  writer  in  '  The  European  Maga- 
zine," for  Feb.  1799.  who,  however,  states  (l)that  the  organ  with  extra 
notes  was  not  given  by  Handel,  and  (2)  that  it  was  built  under  the 
direction  of  Dr.  Robert  Smith,  Master  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 
The  contradiction  between  this  writer  and  Burney  might  be  removed 
by  supposing  that  a  new  instrument  was  built  between  1785  and  1799 ; 
but  of  this  we  have  no  record.  If  the  extra  notes  were  designed  by 
Dr.  Smith,  it  must  have  been  before  1768,  as  he  died  in  that  year, 
aged  79.  In  1762  he  had  published  a  '  Postscript '  to  his  treatise  on 
'  Harmonics,'  recommending  an  arrangement  of  stops  by  which  a 
meantone  series  of  nineteen  notes  to  the  Octave  (Db  to  Fjfjf)  aWW 
be  played  with  the  ordinary  keyboard.  He  had  this  plan  cibrried 
out  in  a  harpsichord  constructed  by  Eirkman. 

7  See  account  of  Renatus  Harris's  invention,  Hopkins, '  The  Organ, 
in  RImbault's  '  History  of  the  Organ,'  pp.  121, 122. 


74 


TEMPERAMENT. 


may  be  considered  an  artistic  success.  From  a 
commercial  point  of  view,  the  change  has  been 
highly  advantageous.  It  has  enabled  the  maker 
of  the  pianoforte  or  the  organ  to  obviate  a 
serious  imperfection  without  disturbing  the  tra- 
ditional structure  of  the  instrument;  while,  on 
the  other  hand,  alterations  both  in  the  internal 
mechanism  and  in  the  form  of  keyboard  would 
have  been  necessary  if  musicians  had  insisted 
that  the  *  wolves '  should  be  got  rid  of  without 
abolishing  the  old  tuning.  Trade  usage  will, 
therefore,  be  strongly  on  the  side  of  equal  tem- 
perament for  a  long  time  to  come,  and  any  at- 
tempt to  recover  the  nieantone  system  can  only 
be  made  on  a  small  scale,  and  for  special  pur- 
poses. Still,  as  many  writers  have  pointed  out, 
such  a  limited  restoration  would  be  useful.  It 
would  enable  us  to  hear  the  music  of  the  earlier 
composers  as  they  heard  it  themselves.  The 
ecclesiastical  compositions  of  Bach,  and  all  the 
works  of  Handel  and  his  predecessors  as  far  back 
as  the  1 6th  century,  were  written  for  the  mean- 
tone  system.  By  performing  them  in  equal  tem- 
perament we  fail  to  realise  the  original  intention. 
This  would  not  be  matter  for  regret  if  the  old 
music  were  improved  by  our  alteration;  but  such 
is  certainly  not  the  case.  The  tuning  in  which 
the  old  composers  worked  is  far  more  harmonious 
than  that  which  has  replaced  it.  This  much  is 
generally  admitted  even  by  those  who  do  notfavour 
any  attempt  to  restore  the  meantone  system. 
They  sometimes  appeal  to  the  authority  of  Se- 
bastian Bach,  and  quote  his  approval  of  equal 
temperament  as  a  reason  why  no  other  tuning 
should  be  used.  But  in  reality  very  little  is  cer- 
tainly known  of  Bach's  relations  to  the  subject. 
We  are  told  that  he  was  accustomed  to  tune  his 
own  clavichord  and  harpsichord  equally,  though 
the  organ  still  remained  in  the  meantone  system. 
This  statement  is  borne  out  by  internal  evidence. 
In  Bach's  organ  works  the  remoter  keys  are 
scarcely  ever  employed,  while  no  such  restrictions 
are  observable  in  his  works  for  the  clavichord. 
With  his  preference  for  a  wide  range  of  modula- 
tion he  would  naturally  find  the  limits  of  the 
old-fashioned  meantone  organ  irritating,  and  we 
can  easily  understand  that  he  would  have  fa- 
voured any  tuning  which  made  all  the  keys 
available.  He  would  doubtless  have  welcomed 
any  practical  method  of  extending  the  meantone 
system ;  but  to  provide  this  was  a  task  beyond 
the  inventive  capacity  of  that  age.  His  authority, 
then,  may  fairly  be  quoted  to  show  that  all  the 
keys  must  be  in  tune  to  the  same  degree ;  but 
this  condition  can  be  realised  by  many  other 
systems  besides  temperament  when  a  sufficient 
number  of  notes  is  provided  in  each  Octave. 
If  the  question  were  to  be  decided  by  an  appeal 
to  authority  alone,  we  might  quote  the  names  of 
many  musicians  of  last  century  who  were  ac- 
quainted with  both  kinds  of  temperament,  and 
whose  judgment  was  directly  opposed  to  that  of 
Bach.  But  this  style  of  argument,  always  in- 
conclusive, will  appear  peculiarly  out  of  place 
when  we  consider  what  changes  music  has 
passed  through  since  Bach's  day.    That  the  de- 


TEMPERAMENT. 

fects  of  equal  temperament  were  not  so  notice- 
able then  as  now,  may  be  attributed  both  to  the 
different  kind  of  instrument  and  the  different 
style  of  composition  which  have  since  been  de- 
veloped. The  clavichord  which  is  said  to  have 
been  an  especial  favourite  with  Bach,  was  cha- 
racterised by  a  much  softer  quality  of  tone,  and 
feebler  intensity,  than  the  modern  pianoforte.* 
Again,  composers  of  a  century  and  a  half  ago 
relied  for  effect  chiefly  on  vigorous  counterpoint 
or  skilful  imitation  between  the  various  melodic 
parts,  and  not  on  the  thick  chords  and  sustained 
harmonies  which  have  become  so  marked  a  fea- 
ture in  modern  music.  Owing  to  these  changed 
conditions  the  evils  of  temperament  are  greatly 
intensified  nowadays,  and  the  necessity  for  some 
remedyhas  become  imperative.  There  is  but  one 
direction  in  which  an  efficient  remedy  can  be 
found,  namely  in  the  use  of  some  more  har- 
monious form  of  intonation  than  that  which  at 
present  prevails.  It  is  only  by  the  help  of  an 
instrument  on  which  the  improved  systems  of 
tuning  can  be  employed  in  an  adequate  manner, 
that  the  student  will  be  able  to  estimate  their 
value.  Such  an  instrument  we  will  now  proceed 
to  describe. 

If  we  wish  to  employ  any  other  system  of  tuning 
than  equal  temperament,  we  must  increase  the 
number  of  notes  per  Octave,  since  the  ordinary 
twelve  notes,  unless  tuned  equally,  are  useless  for 
anything  beyond  illustration  or  experiment.  The 
methods  used  by  Father  Smith  and  byHandel  can- 
not be  followed  nowadays.  The  ordinary  keyboard 
is  already  so  unsymmetrical,  that  the  insertion 
of  a  few  additional  black  or  white  keys  would 
make  it  almost  unplayable ;  and  the  changing  of 
levers  would  be  a  troublesome  interruption  of 
the  performance.  The  only  way  to  bring  the 
improved  systems  of  temperament  within  the 
range  of  practical  music,  is  to  remodel  and 
simplify  the  keyboard.  This  has  been  done  in 
different  ways  by  several  inventors  of  late  years. 
At  a  meeting  of  the  Musical  Association  ot  Lon- 
don on  May  i,  1875,  an  organ  on  which  one  of 
the  stops  was  tuned  according  to  the  meantone 
system  was  exhibited  by  Mr.  R.  H.  M.  Bosan- 
quet,  of  S.  John's  College,  Oxford.  The  key- 
board of  this  instrument — which  is  now  in  the 
South  Kensington  Museum — is  arranged  sym- 
metrically, so  that  notes  occupying  the  same 
relative  position  always  make  the  same  musical 
interval.  There  are  twelve  finger  keys  in  the 
Octave,  of  which  seven  as  usual  are  white  and 
five  black.  The  distance  across  from  any  key 
to  its  Octave,  centre  to  centre,  is  six  inches  ; 
each  key  is  three-eighths  of  an  inch  broad,  and 
is  separated  on  either  side  from  the  next  key  by. 
the  space  of  one-eighth  of  an  inch.  As  the 
Octave  is  the  only  interval  in  which  all  systems 
of  intonation  agree,  keys  an  Octave  apart  are 
on  the  same  level  with  each  other.  The  rest 
of  the  keys  are  placed  at  various  points  higher 
or  lower  to  correspond  with  the  deviations  of 
the  pitch  of  their  notes  from  equal  temperament. 
Thus  the  G  key  is  placed  a  quarter  of  an  inch 
X  Bosanquet,  'Temperament,'  pp.  28, 29. 


TEMPERAMENT. 

farther  back,  and  one-twelfth  of  an  inch  higher 
than  the  C.  The  D  key  recedes  and  rises  to  the 
same  extent  relatively  to  the  G,  and  so  with 
the  rest.  After  twelve  Fifths  we  come  to  the 
Bj  key,  and  find  it  three  inches  behind  and 
one  inch  above  the  C  from  which  we  started. 
This  oblique  arrangement  enables  us  to  greatly 
increase  the  number  of  notes  per  Octave  without 
any  inconvenience  to  the  player.  At  the  same 
time  the  fingering  is  greatly  simplified,  for  any 
given  chord  or  scale  always  has  the  same  form 
under  the  hand,  at  whatever  actual  pitch  it  may 
be  played.  Nor  is  it  necessary  to  decide  before- 
hand on  the  exact  key- relationship  of  the  passage, 
as  it  will  be  played  in  the  same  manner,  what- 
ever view  may  be  taken  of  its  analysis.  The 
advantage  of  having  thus  to  learn  only  one  style 
of  fingering  for  the  Major  scale,  instead  of  twelve 
different  styles,  as  on  the  ordinary  keyboard,  is 
self-evident.  Chromatic  notes  are  played  accord- 
ing to  the  following  rule  : — put  the  finger  up  for 
a  sharp  and  down  for  a  flat.  This  results  from 
the  principle  on  which  the  keyboard  is  arranged, 
the  higher  keys  corresponding  to  notes  which 
are  reached  by  an  upward  series  of  Fifths,  and 
the  lower  keys  to  notes  reached  by  a  downward 
series.  The  following  diagram  shows  the  positions 
of  the  notes  on  the  keyboard  when  applied  to  the 
meantone  system : — 

en 

aff  .     . 

.    .     .   riJt 

//ff    .     .     .     . 


TEMPERAMENT. 


75 


6    . 


bb 


eb 


db 


cb 


P 


hbb 


ebb 


abb 


rfbb 


dbb 


As  all  proposed  improvements,  either  in  music 
or  anything  else,  are  sure  to  meet  with  opposi- 
tion, we  will  here  consider  some  of  the  objections 
which  may  be  made  to  the  use  of  an  instrument 
such  as  we  have  just  described.  It  is  natural 
that  the  new  form  of  keyboard  should  be  re- 
ceived with  some  hesitation,  and  that  its  style  of 
fingering  should  be  thought  difficult ;  but  in  fact 
the  old  keyboard  is  far  from  being  a  model  of 
simplicity,  and  many  attempts  have  been  made 
to  reform  it,  independently  of  any  aim  at  im- 
proving the  tuning.     [See  Key,  vol.  ii.  pp.  54, 


55.]  On  the  new  keyboard  the  fingering  is  of 
the  simplest  possible  character,  and  permits  the 
attainment  of  any  required  rate  of  speed.  All 
desirable  combinations  lie  within  easy  grasp  • 
related  notes  beinix  nearly  on  the  same  level. 
To  prove  that  ordinary  music  can  be  easily 
adapted  to  the  meantone  organ,  Mr.  Bosanquet 
performed  on  it  three  of  Bach's  preludes  at  the 
meeting  of  the  Musical  Association  already  re- 
ferred to.  There  would  be  no  difficulty  in  con- 
structing this  form  of  keyboard  with  several 
manuals,  nor  in  applying  the  same  symmetrical 
arrangement  to  a  pedal. 

The  advantage  gained  by  employing  an  im- 
proved system  of  tuning  depends  so  much  on 
the  quality  of  tone  of  the  instrument,  that  it 
is  very  doubtful  whether  it  would  be  worth  while 
to  adopt  the  meantone  system  for  the  pianoforte. 
It  is  only  on  the  modern  'concert-grand'  that  the 
defects  of  equal  temperament  are  felt  to  any 
great  extent,  and  it  might  therefore  be  well  to 
construct  these  instruments  with  a  complete 
meantone  scale.  Still,  the  result  would  hardly 
be  so  satisfactory  as  on  the  organ,  whether  used 
in  solo  performance  or  in  leading  the  voices  of 
a  choir. 

The  last  objection  which  has  to  be  considered 
is  that  enharmonic  changes  are  supposed  by 
some  to  be  impossible  in  any  system  of  tuning 
which  provides  distinct  sounds  for  Gb  and  Fj. 
This  view  is  incorrect,  as  we  shall  recognise  if 
we  enquire  what  enharmonic  changes  really  are. 
For  the  most  part  they  are  merely  nominal,  being 
used  to  avoid  the  strange  appearance  of  remote 
keys.  Thus  in  the  '  Pro  Pecc.itis '  of  Rossini's 
'  Stabat  Mater,'  there  is  apparently  an  enhar- 
monic modulation  from  the  key  of  At]  to  that 
ofDb. 


0    A !     ■    ! — m—  -^m~, , — I — <ii — ; — m—] — i*--. 


But  in  reality  it  is  a  chromatic  modulation 
from  Aq  to  CJI,  with  no  enharmonic  element 
whatsoever.  The  passage  would  be  played  on  a 
meantone  instrument  as  follows  : — 

3. 


76 


TEMPERAMENT. 


It  would  be  unnecessary  in  general  to  translate 
passages  of  this  kind  into  correct  notation  before 
performing  them,  as  in  most  cases  the  key- 
relations  would  be  tolerably  clear,  in  whatever 
way  they  were  written.  Should  there  be  any 
chance  of  error  in  taking  the  accidentals  literally, 
a  large  acute  or  grave  mark  might  be  drawn 
across  the  staif,  to  indicate  that  the  notes  are 
to  be  played  twelve  Fifths  higher  or  lower  than 
they  are  written.  In  the  present  instance,  the 
acute  mark  could  be  used. 

Sometimes  the  enharmonic  change  is  real,  and 
not  merely  a  device  of  notation.  Take  the  fol- 
lowing extract  from  *  The  people  shall  hear  *  in 
the  *  Israel  in  Egypt ' : — 


Here  Bb  must  be  played  in  the  second  bar 
and  A  J  in  the  third,  a  modulation  which  is 
rendered  easy  by  the  general  construction  of  the 
passage.  *  Enharmonic  changes  (Helmholtz  re- 
marks) are  least  observed  when  they  are  made 
immediately  before  or  after  strongly  dissonant 
chords,  or  those  of  the  Diminished  Seventh. 
Such  enharmonic  changes  of  pitch  are  already 
sometimes  clearly  and  intentionally  made  by 
violinists,  and  where  they  are  suitable  even  pro- 
duce a  very  good  eiFect.'  ^ 

The  necessity  of  avoiding  •  wolves '  in  the 
raeantone  system  sometimes  restricts  the  choice 
of  notes.  Thus  in  a  passage  in  the  'Lachrymosa* 
of  Mozart's  Requiem : — 


the  discord  Ab — F — Bb — Eb  must  be  played 
exactly  as  it  is  written,  owing  to  the  Bb  and  Eb 
lieing  prepared.  Even  if  Gj  stood  in  the  text, 
Ab  would  be  substituted  in  performance,  as  the 
'wolf  G% — Eb  is  inadmissible.  All  such  dif- 
ficulties can  be  solved  in  a  similar  way.  On  the 
other  side,  we  have  to  reckon  the  great  variety 
of  chords  and  resolutions  which  are  available  in 
the  meantone  system,  but  have  no  existence  in 
-«qual  temperament.  Many  chromatic  chords 
i  '  Sensationi  of  Tone,'  p.  613. 


TEMPERAMENT. 

may  have  two  or  more  forms,  such  as  the  fol- 
lowing : — 

4- 


##ii#^l#f^ 


each  of  which  may  be  used  according  to  the  key- 
relation  of  the  context,  or  the  eflfect  required  in 
the  melodic  parts.  Again,  the  Augmented  Sixth 
is  much  flatter  in  the  meantone  system  than  in 
equal  temperament,  slightly  flatter  even  than 
the  interv^  called  the  Harmonic  Seventh.  When 
the  strange  impression  which  it  causes  at  first 
has  worn  ofi",  its  effect  is  peculiarly  smooth  and 
agreeable,  especially  in  full  chords.  It  is  also 
available  as  Dominant  Seventh,  and  may  be 
written  with  the  acute  mark  (G — /F),  to  dis- 
tinguish it  from  the  ordinary  Minor  Seventh  got 
by  two  Fifths  downwards  (G— C— F). 

It  is  important  to  recognise  the  fact  that  the 
forms  of  chords  can  only  be  settled  by  actual 
trial  on  an  instrument,  and  that  the  judgment 
of  the  ear,  after  full  experience  of  the  different 
modes  of  tuning,  cannot  be  set  aside  in  favour 
of  deductions  from  any  abstract  theory.  Practice 
must  first  decide  what  chord  or  progression  sounds 
best ;  and  this  being  done,  it  may  be  worth  while 
to  ask  whether  theory  can  give  any  reasons  for 
the  ear's  decision.  In  many  cases  our  curiosity 
will  be  unsatisfied,  but  our  preference  for  one 
effect  rather  than  another  will  remain  unchanged. 
Neither  can  theory  solve  those  questions  which 
sometimes  arise  as  to  the  correct  mode  of  writing 
certain  chords.  All  questions  of  notation  can 
only  be  decided  by  playing  the  disputed  passage 
in  some  system  of  tuning  which  supplies  a  sepa- 
rate sound  for  each  symbol.  The  reason  why 
Gb  and  FjJ  were  not  written  in  the  same  chord 
was  a  purely  practical  one ;  these  two  signs  ori- 
ginally meant  different  sounds,  which  formed 
combinations  too  rough  for  use.  Our  notation 
having  been  formed  long  before  equal  tempera- 
ment came  into  use,  it  is  not  surprising  that 
the  symbols,  do  not  correspond  with  the  sounds. 
But  they  correspond  exactly  with  the  mean- 
tone  scales,  and  it  is  on  this  system  of  tuning 
that  all  our  rules  of  notation  are  founded.  *  It 
is  only  necessary  to  remember  that  we  have  here 
the  original  system,  which  belongs  from  the  very 
beginning  of  modern  music  onward  to  our  musicid 
notation,  to  see  that  by  employing  it  we  have 
the  true  interpretation  of  our  notation ;  we  have 
the  actual  sounds  that  our  notation  conveyed  to 
Handel,  to  all  before  Bach,  and  many  after  him, 
only  cured  of  the  wolf,  which  was  the  consequence 
of  their  imperfect  methods,'* 

To  carry  out  any  system  of  temperament  con- 
sistently in  the  orchestra  is  practically  an  im- 
possible task.  Tempered  intervals  can  only  be 
produced  with  certainty  on  a  small  nimxber  of 
the  instruments,  chiefly  the  wood-wind.  The 
brass  instruments  have  an  intonation  of  their 
own,  which  differs  widely  from  either  of  the 
temperaments  we  have  described.  Thus  the 
French  horn,  whose  notes  are  the  harmonics 
3  Bosanquet, '  Temperament,'  p.  S9. 


TEMPERAMENT. 

arising  from  the  subdivision  of  a  tube,  gives  a 
Major  Third  much  flatter  than  equal  tempera- 
ment, and  a  Fifth  much  sharper  than  the  meantone 
system.  [See  Node  ;  and  Pabtial  Tones.]  There 
is  necessarily  a  great  deal  of  false  harmony  when- 
ever the  brass  is  prominently  heard  in  tempered 
music.  Again,  the  tuning  of  the  string-quartet  is 
accomplished  by  just  Fifths  (C— G— D— A— E), 
but  as  these  instruments  have  free  intonation, 
they  can  execute  tempered  intervals  when  sup- 
ported by  the  pianoforte  or  organ.  In  the  ab- 
sence of  such  an  accompaniment,  both  violinists 
and  singers  seem  unable  to  produce  equally 
tempered  scales  or  chords.  This  is  precisely 
what  might  have  been  expected  on  theoretic 
grounds,  .is  the  consonant  relations  of  the  different 
notes  being  partially  lost  through  temperament, 
the  altered  intervals  would  naturally  be  difficult 
to  seize  and  render.  Fortunately,  we  have  positive 
facts  to  prove  the  truth  of  this  deduction.  The 
subject  has  been  recently  investigated  by  two 
French  savans,  MM.  Cornu  and  Mercadier.^ 
'  Their  experiments  were  made  with  three  profes- 
sional players,  M.  Leonard  the  Belgian  violinist, 
M.  Seiigmann,  violoncellist,  and  M.  Ferrand, 
violinist  of  the  Opdra  Comique,  besides  amateur 
players  and  singers.  The  i-esults  showed  that  a 
wide  distinction  must  be  drawn  between  the  in- 
tervals employed  in  unaccompanied  melody,  and 
those  employed  in  harmony.  In  solo  perform- 
ances, continual  variety  of  intonation  was  ob- 
served ;  the  same  pitch  was  seldom  repeated, 
and  even  the  Octave  and  the  Fifth  were  some- 
times sharpened  or  flattened.  So  far  as  any 
regularity  could  be  traced,  the  intervals  aimed 
at  appeared  to  be  those  known  as  Pythagorean, 
of  which  the  only  consonant  ones  are  the  Octave, 
Fifth,  and  Fourth.  The  Pythagorean  Major 
Third  is  obtained  by  four  just  Fifths  up,  and  is 
consequently  so  sharp  as  to  amount  to  a  disson- 
ance. In  melody,  a  scale  tuned  in  this  manner 
is  found  to  be  not  unpleasant,  but  it  is  impossible 
in  harmony.  This  fact  also  was  verified  by 
Cornu  and  Mercadier,  who  report  that,  in  two- 
part  harmony,  the  players  with  whom  they  ex- 
perimented invariably  produced  the  intervals  of 
just  intonation.  The  Thirds  and  Sixths  gave 
no  beats,  and  the  Minor  Seventh  on  the  Do- 
minant was  always  taken  in  its  smoothest  form, 
namely  the  Harmonic  Seventh.  'I  have  myself  ob- 
served,' says  Helmholtz,  •  that  singers  accustomed 
to  a  pianoforte  accompaniment,  when  they  sang 
a  simple  melody  to  my  justly  intoned  harmonium, 
sang  natural  Thirds  and  Sixths,  not  tempered, 
nor  yet  Pythagorean.  I  accompanied  the  com- 
mencement of  the  melody,  and  then  paused  while 
the  singer  gave  the  Third  or  Sixth  of  the  key. 
After  he  had  given  it,  I  touched  on  the  instru- 
ment the  natural,  or  the  Pythagorean,  or  the 
tempered  interval.  The  first  was  always  in  uni- 
son with  the  singer,  the  others  gave  shrill  beats.'* 
Since,  then,  players  on  bowed  instruments  as 
well  as  singers  have  a  strong  natural  tendency 
towards  just  intervals  in  harmony,  it  is  not  clear 

1  See  Ellis'*  Appendix  to  the  'Seasatlons  of  Tone,'  p.  787. 
s  *  Sensations  of  Tone,'  p.  6i0. 


TEMPERAMENT. 


77 


why  their  instruction  should  bo  based  on  equal 
temperament,  as  has  been  the  practice  in  recent 
times.  This  method  is  criticised  by  Helmholtz 
in  the  following  words : — '  The  modem  school  of 
violin-playing,  since  the  time  of  Spohr,  aims 
especially  at  producing  equally  tempered  intona- 
tion. .  .  .  The  sole  exception  which  they  allow  is 
for  double-stop  passages,  in  which  the  notes  have 
to  be  somewhat  differently  stopped  from  what 
they  are  when  played  alone.  But  this  exception 
is  decisive.  In  double-stop  passages  the  indi- 
vidual player  feels  himself  responsible  for  the 
harmoniousness  of  the  interval,  and  it  lies  com- 
pletely within  his  power  to  make  it  good  or  bad. 
.  .  .  But  it  is  clear  that  if  individual  players  feel 
themselves  obliged  to  distinguish  the  different 
values  of  the  notes  in  the  different  consonances, 
there  is  no  reason  why  the  bad  Thirds  of  the 
Pythagorean  series  of  Fifths  should  be  retained 
in  quartet-playing.  Chords  of  several  parts,  exe- 
cuted by  a  quartet,  often  sound  very  ill,  even  when 
each  one  of  the  performers  is  an  excellent  solo 
player;  and,  on  the  other  hand,  when  quartets 
are  played  by  finely  cultivated  artists,  it  is  im- 
possible to  detect  any  false  consonances.  To  my 
mind  the  only  assignable  reason  for  these  results, 
is  that  practised  violinists  with  a  delicate  sense 
of  harmony,  know  how  to  stop  the  tones  they 
want  to  hear,  and  hence  do  not  submit  to  the 
rules  of  an  imperfect  school.' 

Helmholtz  found,  by  experiments  with  Herr 
Joachim,  that  this  distinguished  violinist  in 
playing  the  unaccompanied  scale,  took  the  just 
and  not  the  tempered  intervals.  He  further  ob- 
serves that,  *if  the  best  players,  who  are  tho- 
roughly acquainted  with  what  they  are  playing, 
are  able  to  overcome  the  defects  of  their  school 
and  of  the  tempered  system,  it  would  certainly 
wonderfully  smooth  the  path  of  performers  of  the 
second  order,  in  their  attempts  to  attain  a  per- 
fect ensemble,  if  they  had  been  accustomed  from 
the  first  to  play  scales  by  natural  intervals.' 

The  same  considerations  apply  to  vocal  music. 
*  In  singing,  the  pitch  can  be  made  most  easily 
and  perfectly  to  follow  the  wishes  of  a  fine  musi- 
cal ear.  Hence  all  music  began  with  singing, 
and  singing  will  always  remain  the  true  and 
natural  school  of  all  music.  .  .  .  But  where  are 
our  singers  to  learn  just  intonation,  and  make 
their  ears  sensitive  for  perfect  chords  ?  They  are 
from  the  first  taught  to  sing  to  the  equally  tem- 
pered pianoforte. .  . .  Correct  intonation  in  sing- 
ing is  so  far  above  all  others  the  first  condition 
of  beauty,  that  a  song  when  sung  in  correct  in- 
tonation even  by  a  weak  and  unpractised  voice 
always  sounds  agreeable,  whereas  the  richest 
and  most  practised  voice  offends  the  hearer  when 
it  sings  false  or  sharpens.  .  .  .  The  instruction  of 
our  present  singers  by  means  of  tempered  instru- 
ments is  unsatisfactory,  but  those  who  possess 
good  musical  talents  are  ultimately  able  by  their 
own  practice  to  strike  out  the  right  path  for 
themselves,  and  overcome  the  error  of  their  ori- 
ginal instruction.  .  .  .  Sustained  tones  are  prefer- 
able as  an  accompaniment,  because  the  singer 
himself  can  immediately  hear  the  beats  betweea 


78 


TEMPERAMENT. 


the  instrnment  and  his  voice,  when  he  alters  the 
pitch  slightly.  .  .  .  When  we  require  a  delicate 
use  of  the  muscles  of  any  part  of  the  human 
body,  as,  in  this  case,  of  the  larynx,  there  must 
be  some  sure  meims  of  ascertaining  whether  suc- 
cess has  been  attained.  Now  the  presence  or 
absence  of  beats  gives  such  a  means  of  detecting 
success  or  failure  when  a  voice  is  accompanied 
by  sustained  chords  in  just  intonation.  But 
tempered  chords  which  produce  beats  of  their 
own,  are  necessarily  quite  unsuited  for  such  a 
purpose.'  * 

For  performance  in  just  intonation  the  three 
quartets  of  voices,  strings,  and  trombones  have  a 
pre-eminent  value  ;  but  as  it  requires  great  prac- 
tice and  skill  to  control  the  endless  variations  of 
pitch  they  supply,  we  are  obliged  to  have  some 
fixed  and  reliable  standard  by  which  they  can  at 
first  be  guided.  We  must  be  certain  of  obtaining 
with  ease  and  accuracy  any  note  we  desire,  and 
of  sustaining  it  for  any  length  of  time.  Hence 
we  come  back  once  more  to  keyed  instruments, 
which  do  not  present  this  difficulty  of  execution 
and  uncertainty  of  intonation.  The  only  question 
is  how  to  construct  such  instruments  with  an 
adequate  number  of  notes,  if  all  the  intervals  are 
to  be  in  perfect  tune.  Theoretically  it  is  neces- 
sary that  every  note  en  the  keyboard  should  be 
furnished  with  its  Fifth,  Major  Third,  and  Har- 
monic Seventh,  upwards  and  downwards.  There 
should  be  Fifths  to  the  Fifths,  Thirds  to  the 
Thirds,  and  Sevenths  to  the  Sevenths,  almost  to 
an  unlimited  extent.  Practically  these  condi- 
tions cannot  be  fully  carried  out,  and  all  instru- 
ments hitherto  constructed  in  just  intonation 
have  been  provided  with  material  for  the  simpler 
modulations  only.  One  of  the  best-known  histo- 
rical examples  is  General  Perronet  Thompson's 
organ,  now  iii  the  collection  of  instruments  in  the 
South  Kensington  Museum.  In  each  Octave 
this  organ  has  forty  sounds,  which  may  be  di- 
vided into  five  series,  the  sounds  of  each  series 
proceeding  by  perfect  Fifths,  and  being  related 
to  those  of  the  next  series  by  perfect  Major 
Thirds.  The  interval  of  the  Harmonic  Seventh 
is  not  given.  With  a  regular  and  consistent 
form  of  keyboard  it  would  have  been  more  suc- 
cessful than  it  was,  but  the  idea  of  arranging 
the  keys  symmetrically  had  not  then  been  de- 
veloped. The  first  application  of  this  idea  was 
made  by  an  American,  Mr.  H.  W.  Poole,  of 
South  Danvers,  Massachusetts.  His  invention 
is  described  and  illustrated  in  *  Silliman's  Jour- 
nal' for  July,  1867.  The  principle  of  it  is  that 
keys  standing  in  a  similar  position  with  regard 
to  each  other  shall  always  produce  the  same 
musical  interval,  provided  it  occurs  in  the  same 
relation  of  tonality.  But  if  this  relation  of 
tonality  alters,  the  same  interval  will  take  a 
different  form  on  the  keyboard.  There  are  five 
series  of  notes,  each  proceeding  by  perfect 
Fifths : — (i)  the  keynotes ;  (2)  the  Major  Thirds 
to  the  keynotes ;  (3)  the  Thirds  to  the  Thirds ; 

(4)  the  Hai-monic   Sevenths   to   the  keynotes; 

(5)  the  Sevenths   to   the  Thirds,      The  Major 

I  '  Sensations  of  Tone,'  pp.  605-510. 


TEMPEIIAMENT. 

Thirds  below  the  keynotes,  which  are  so  often 
required  in  modem  music,  as  for  instance  in  the 
theme  of  Beethoven's  Andante  in  F,  are  not 
given.  So  that  the  range  of  modulation,  though 
extensive,  is  insufficient  for  general  purposes.^ 

Owing  to  the  limited  number  of  notes  which 
keyed  instruments  can  furnish,  the  attempt  to 
provide  perfect  intervals  in  all  keys  is  regarded 
by  Helmholtz  as  impracticable.  He  therefore 
proposes  a  system  of  temperament  which  ap- 
proaches just  intonation  so  closely  as  to  be  in- 
distinguishable from  it  in  ordinary  performance. 
This  system  is  founded  on  the  following  facts : — 
We  saw  that  in  equal  temperament  the  Fifth  is 
too  flat  for  exact  consonance,  and  the  Major 
Third  much  too  sharp.  Also  that  the  interval 
got  by  four  Fifths  up  (D— A— E— B— Fj)  is 
identified  with  the  Major  Third  (D— FJJ).^  Now 
if  we  raise  the  Fifths,  and  tune  them  perfectly, 
the  interval  D — Fj  becomes  unbearable,  being 
sharper  than  the  equal  temperament  Third.  But 
in  a  downward  series  of  just  Fifths  the  pitch 
becomes  at  each  step  lower  than  in  equal  tem- 
perament, and  when  we  reach  Gb,  which  is  eight 
Fifths  below  D,  we  find  that  it  is  very  nearly 
identical  with  the  just  Major  Third  of  D,  thus — 


The  best  way  of  applying  this  fact  is  to  tune  a 
series  of  eight  notes  by  just  Fifths — say  Db,  Ab, 
Eb,  Bb,  F,  C,  G,  D  ;  then  a  similar  series  form- 
ing just  Major  Thirds  with  these ;  whence  it  will 
result  that  the  last  note  of  the  latter  series 
(FjJ)  will  form  an  almost  exact  Fifth  with  the 
first  note  of  the  former  series  (Db).* 

In  applying  the  ordinary'  musical  notation  to 
systems  of  temperament  of  this  class,  a  difficulty 
arises ;  for  the  Major  Third  being  got  by  eight 
Fifths  downward,  would  strictly  have  to  be 
written  D — Gb.  As  this  is  both  inconvenient  and 
contrary  to  musical  usage,  the  Major  Third  may 
still  be  written  D — FjJ,  but  to  distinguish  this  Fj 
from  the  note  got  by  four  Fifths  up,  the  following 
convention  may  be  used.  The  symbols  Gb  and 
Fj  are  taken  to  mean  exactly  the  same  thing, 
namely  the  note  which  is  eight  Fifths  below  D. 
We  assume  Gb— Db— Ab— Eb— Bb— F— C-— 
G — D — A — E — B  as  a  normal  or  standard  series 
of  Fifths.  The  Fifth  of  B  is  written  indifferently 
/Gb  or  /Fj,  the  acute  mark  (/)  serving  to  show 
that  the  note  we  mean  belongs  to  the  upward, 
and  not  to  the  downward  series.  The  Fifth  of 
/Fj  is  written  fCf,  and  so  on  till  we  arrive  at 
/B,  the  Fifth  of  which  is  written  //  Fj.  In  like 
manner,  proceeding  along  a  downward  series,  the 

*  The  keyboard  Invented  by  Mr.  Colin  Brown  of  Glasgow,  Is  similar 
in  principle  to  Mr.  Poole's,  except  that  it  does  not  give  the  two  series 
of  Harmonic  Sevenths.    See  Bosanquet,  '  Temperament.' 

»  In  general  when  a  series  of  Fifths  Is  compared  with  a  Major 
Third,  the  number  of  Octaves  (by  which  we  must  ascend  or  descend 
In  order  to  bring  the  notes  into  the  same  part  of  the  scale)  Is  not 
expressed,  but  can  be  easily  supplied  by  the  reader. 

*  The  error,  which  is  called  a '  Skhlsma,'  is  about  the  fifty-first 
part  of  a  Semitone.  This  system,  therefore,  differs  so  slightly  from 
Just  Intonation,  that  we  shall  henceforward  treat  them  as  practically 
Identical. 


TEMPERAMENT. 

Fifth  below  Fj  (or  Gb)  is  written  \B,  and  so  on 
till  we  arrive  at  \FJJ,  the  Fifth  below  which  is 
written  \\B.  The  notes  B,  E,  A,  D  have  their 
Thirds  in  the  same  series  as  themselves,  thus 
D — Fjf,  \D— \FjJ.  Other  notes  have  their  Thirds 
in  the  series  next  below,  thus  C— \E,  \C— wE. 
These  marks  may  be  collected  at  the  signature, 
like  sharps  and  flats.  The  keys  of  A  and  E  will 
be  unmarked ;  the  key  of  C  will  have  three  grave 
notes,  \A,  \E,  \B.  When  it  is  necessary  to 
counteract  the  grave  or  acute  mark  and  restore 
the  normal  note,  a  small  circle  (o)  may  be  pre- 
fixed, analogous  to  the  ordinary  natural. 

To  apply  this  mode  of  tuning  to  the  organ 
would  be  expensive  without  any  great  advantages 
in  return.  Ordinary  organ-tone,  except  in  the 
reed  and  mixture  stops,  is  too  smooth  to  distin- 
guish sharply  between  consonance  and  dissonance, 
and  the  pipes  are  so  liable  to  the  influence  of  heat 
and  cold  that  attempts  to  regulate  the  pitch 
minutely  are  seldom  successful.  Still  less  would 
it  be  worth  while  to  tune  the  pianoforte  justly. 
It  is  chiefly  to  the  orcliestra  that  we  must  look 
for  the  development  of  just  intonation ;  but 
among  keyboard  instruments  the  most  suitable 
for  the  purpose  is  the  harmonium,  which  is 
specially  useful  as  a  means  of  studying  the 
effects  obtainable  from  untempered  chords. 

// 

flP  .     , 

,     .     ,/e^ 

/a"  .... 


TEMPERAMENT. 


"9 


./c/l? 


fU" 


h^ 


d^ 


\h    , 


\e 


\d 


\9 


\c 


\G 


There  is  in  the  South  Kensington  Museum  a 
harmonium,  the  tuning  of  which  may  be  con- 
sidered identical  with  the  system  just  explained. 
The  form  of  keyboard  is  that  which  has  already 
been  described  in  connexion  with  the  meantone 
temperament ;  and  it  is  equally  applicable  to  the 
system  of  perfect  Fifths.  Being  an  experimental 
instrument  it  was  constructed  with  eighty-four 
keys  in  each  Octave,  but  for  ordinary  purposes  it 
is  found  that  about  half  that  number  would  be 
suflficient.  The  fingering  of  the  Major  scale 
resembles  that  of  Ab  Major  on  the  ordinary  key- 
board, and  is  always  the  same,  from  whatever 


note  we  start  as  Tonic.  Moreover  the  form  which 
any  given  chord  takes  does  not  depend  on 
theories  of  tonality,  but  is  everywhere  symme- 
trical. The  diagram  in  the  preceding  column 
shows  the  positions  of  the  notes  on  the  keyboard 
when  applied  to  the  system  of  perfect  Fifths. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  consider  here  the  objections 
which  might  be  made  to  the  use  of  this  tuning, 
as  they  would,  no  doubt,  be  similar  to  those  we 
have  already  noticed  in  dealing  with  the  mean- 
tone  temperament.  But  it  may  be  pointed  out 
that  the  supposed  difficulty  of  enharmonic  change 
no  more  exists  here  than  elsewhere.  We  may 
even  modulate  through  a  series  of  eight  Fifths 
down,  and  return  by  a  Major  Third  down,  without 
altering  the  pitch.  The  following  passage  from 
a  madrigal,  *  0  voi  che  sospirate,'  by  Luca  Mar- 
enzio  (died  1 590)  illustrates  this : — 


'.h<SL. 


p^= 


■:?^ 


^-^ 


r&^ 


^^^^ 


1^2=^ 


1 1- 


^=W^ 


UJ. 


^^=^=^ 


^^^ 


g-g-  ^S'g'-' 


i^iS*- 


^^3s=3Ep±zt 


-    ins '  .^.^ 


In  the  4th  bar  Gj  and  CjJ  are  written  for  Ab 
and  Db ;  and  in  the  5th  bar  FjJ,  \B  and  D 
for  Gb,  \Cb,  Ebb,  but  the  confused  notation 
would  not  affect  the  mode  of  performance  either 
with  voices  or  the  justly  tuned  harmonium. 

The  practical  use  of  this  instrument  has 
brought  to  light  certain  difficulties  in  applying 
just  intonation  to  ordinary  music.  The  chief 
difficulty  comes  firom  the  two  forms  of  Supertonio 
which  are  always  found  in  a  perfectly  tuned 
Major  Scale.  Thus,  starting  from  C,  and  tuning 
two  Fifths  upwards  (C — G — D)  we  get  what 
might  be  considered  the  normal  Supertonic  (D); 
but  by  tuning  a  Fourth  and  a  Major  Sixth  up- 
wards (C — F — \D)  we  arrive  at  a  flatter  note, 
which  might  be  called  the  grave  Supertonic  (  \D). 


80 


TEMPERAMENT. 


The  first  form  will  necessarily  be  employed  in 
chords  which  contain  the  Dominant  (G),  the 
uecond  form  in  chords  which  contain  the  Sub- 
dominant  (F)  or  the  Superdominant  (\A).  Other- 
wise, false  Fifths  or  Fourths  (G— \D;  D— \A) 
would  be  heard.  The  result  is  that  certain 
chords  and  progressions  are  unsuitable  for  music 
which  is  to  be  performed  in  perfect  tuning.  Let 
us  take  the  following  example  and  arrange  it  in 
its  four  possible  forms  : — 

(l)  (2) 


All  of  these  are  equally  inadmissible  ;  No.  i 
being  excluded  by  the  false  Thirds  (F — A; 
A— C) ;  No.  2  by  the  false  Fourth  (\A— D) ; 
No.  3  by  the  false  Fifth  (G— \D) ;  No.  4  by  the 
sudden  fall  of  the  pitch  of  the  tonic.  If  this 
kind  of  progression  is  employed,  all  the  advan- 
tages of  just  intonation  are  lost,  for  the  choice 
only  lies  between  mistuned  intervals  and  anabrupt 
depression  or  elevation  of  the  general  pitch. 

The  idea  of  writing  music  specially  to  suit 
different  kinds  of  temperament  is  a  somewhat  un- 
familiar one,  although,  as  already  remarked.  Bach 
employed  a  narrower  range  of  modulation  in  his 
works  for  the  meantone  organ  than  in  those  for 
the  equally  tempered  clavichord.  The  case  has 
some  analogy  to  that  of  the  different  instruments 
of  the  orchestra,  each  of  which  demands  a  special 
mode  of  treatment,  in  accordance  with  its  capa- 
bilities. The  same  style  of  writing  will  evidently 
not  suit  alike  the  violin,  the  trombone,  and  the 
harp.  In  the  same  way,  just  intonation  differs 
in  many  important  features  both  from  the  equal 
and  from  the  meantone  temperament ;  and  before 
any  one  of  these  systems  can  be  used  with  good 
effect  in  music,  a  practical  knowledge  of  its 
peculiarities  is  indispensable.  Such  knowledge 
can  only  be  gained  with  the  help  of  a  keyed 
instrument,  and  by  approaching  the  subject  in 
this  manner,  the  student  will  soon  discover  for 
himself  what  modulations  are  available  and  suit- 
able in  perfect  tuning.  He  will  see  that  these 
restrictions  are  in  no  sense  an  invention  of  the 
theorist,  but  are  a  necessary  consequence  of  the 
natural  relations  of  sounds. 

If  just  intonation  does  not  permit  the  use  of 
certain  progressions  which  belong  to  other  sys- 
tems, it  surpasses  them  all  in  the  immense 
variety  of  material  which  it  places  within  the 
composer's  reach.  In  many  cases  it  supplies  two 
or  more  notes  of  diflferent  pitch  where  the  or- 
dinary temperament  has  but  one.  These  alter- 
native forms  are  specially  useful  in  discords, 
enabling  us  to  produce  any  required  degree  of 
roughness,  or  to  avoid  disagreeable  changes  of 
pitch.  For  instance,  the  Minor  Seventh  may  be 
taken  either  as  C — /Bb  (ten  Fifths  up),  or  as 
C— Bb  (two  Fifths  down),  or  as  C— \Bb  (four- 
teen Fifths  down).    When  added  to  the  triad 


TEMPERAMENT. 

C— \E— G,  the  acute  Seventh,  /Bb,  is  the 
roughest,  and  would  be  used  if  the  Minor  Third 
G — /Bb  should  occur  in  the  previous  chord. 
The  intermediate  form,  Bb,  would  be  used  when 
suspended  to  a  chord  containing  F.  The  grave 
Seventh,  \Bb,  is  the  smoothest,  being  an  ap- 
proximation to  the  Harmonic  Seventh.  Many 
other  discords,  such  as  the  triad  of  the  Aug- 
mented Fifth  and  its  inversions,  may  also  be 
taken  in  several  forms.  But  this  variety  of 
material  is  not  the  only  merit  of  perfect  tuning. 
One  of  the  chief  sources  of  musical  effect  is  the 
contrast  between  the  roughness  of  discords  and 
the  smoothness  of  concords.  In  equal  tempera- 
ment this  contrast  is  greatly  weakened,  because 
nearly  all  the  intervals  which  pass  for  consonant 
are  in  reality  more  or  less  dissonant.  The  loss 
which  must  result  from  this  in  the  performance 
of  the  simpler  styles  of  music  on  our  tempered 
instruments,  will  be  readily  understood.  On  the 
other  hand,  in  just  intonation  the  distinction  of 
consonance  and  dissonance  is  heard  in  its  full 
force.  The  diflferent  inversions  and  distributions 
of  the  same  chord,  the  change  from  Major  to 
Minor  Modes,  the  various  diatonic,  chromatic, 
and  enharmonic  progressions  and  resolutions  have 
a  peculiar  richness  and  expressiveness  when  heard 
with  untempered  harmonies. 

There  is  yet  another  advantage  to  be  gained 
by  studying  the  diflferent  kinds  of  tuning.  We 
have  seen  that  even  in  those  parts  of  the  world 
where  equal  temperament  has  been  established 
as  the  trade  usage,  other  systems  are  also  em- 
ployed. Many  countries  possess  a  popular  or 
natural  music,  which  exists  independently  of  the 
conventional  or  fashionable  style,  and  does  not 
borrow  its  system  of  intonation  from  our  tempered 
instruments.  Among  Oriental  nations  whose 
culture  has  come  down  from  a  remote  antiquity, 
characteristic  styles  of  music  are  found,  which 
are  unintelligible  to  the  ordinary  European,  only 
acquainted  with  equal  temperament.  Hence 
transcriptions  of  Oriental  music,  given  in  books 
of  travel,  are  justly  received  with  extreme  scep- 
ticism, unless  the  observer  appears  to  be  well 
acquainted  with  the  principles  of  intonation  and 
specifies  the  exact  pitch  of  every  note  he  tran- 
scribes. As  illustrations  of  these  remarks  we 
may  cite  two  well-known  works  on  the  history 
of  the  art,  Kiesewetter's  'Musik  der  Araber,' 
and  Villoteau's  *  Musique  en  ifegypte.'  Both  of 
these  authors  had  access  to  valuable  sources  of 
information  respecting  the  technical  system  of  an 
ancient  and  interesting  school  of  music.  Both 
failed  to  turn  their  opportunities  to  any  advan- 
tage. From  the  confused  and  contradictory  state- 
ments of  Kiese wetter  only  one  fact  can  be  gleaned, 
namely,  that  in  the  construction  of  the  lute,  the 
Persians  and  the  A.rabs  of  the  Middle  Age  em- 
ployed the  approximately  perfect  Major  Third, 
which  is  got  by  eight  downward  Fifths.  From 
the  work  of  Villoteau  still  less  can  be  learnt,  for 
he  does  not  describe  the  native  method  of  tuning, 
and  he  gives  no  clue  to  the  elaborate  musical 
notation  in  which  he  attempted  to  record  a  large 
number  of  Egyptian  melodies.    Yet  it  would 


TEMPERAMENT. 

have  been  easy  to  denote  the  oriental  scales  and 
melodies,  so  as  to  enable  us  to  reproduce  them 
with  strict  accuracy,  had  these  authors  possessed 
a  practical  knowledge  of  un  tempered  intervals. 

It  may  be  useful,  in  concluding  this  article,  to 
refer  to  some  current  misapprehensions  on  the 
subject  of  temperament.  It  is  sometimes  said 
that  the  improvement  of  intonation  is  a  mere 
question  of  arithmetic,  and  that  only  a  mathe- 
matician would  object  to  equal  tuning.  To  find 
fault  with  a  series  of  sounds  because  they  would 
be  expressed  by  certain  figures,  is  not  the  kind 
of  fallacy  one  expects  from  a  mathematicifin.  In 
point  of  fact,  equal  temperament  is  itself  the 
outcome  of  a  mathematical  discovery,  and  fur- 
nishes about  the  easiest  known  method  of  calcu- 
lating intervals.  Besides,  the  tenor  of  this  article 
will  show  that  the  only  defects  of  temperament 
worth  considering  are  the  injuries  it  causes  to 
the  quality  of  musical  chords.  Next,  it  is  said 
that  the  differences  between  the  three  main 
systems  of  tuning  are  too  slight  to  deserve  atten- 
tion, and  that  while  we  hear  tempered  intervals 
with  the  outward  ear,  our  mind  understands 
what  are  the  true  intervals  which  they  represent. 
But  if  we  put  these  theories  to  a  practical  test, 
they  are  at  once  seen  to  be  unfounded.  It  lias 
been  proved  by  experiment  that  long  and  ha- 
bitual use  of  equal  temperament  does  react  on 
the  sense  of  hearing,  and  that  musicians  who 
have  spent  many  years  at  the  keyboard  have 
a  dislike  to  just  chords  and  still  more  to  just 
scales.  The  Major  Sixth  is  specially  objected  to, 
as  differing  widely  from  equal  temperament. 
This  feeling  is  so  entirely  the  result  of  habit 
and  training,  that  those  who  are  not  much  ac- 
customed to  listen  to  keyed  instruments  do  not 
share  these  objections,  and  even  equally  tempered 
ears  come  at  last  to  relish  just  intervals.  We 
may  infer,  then,  that  the  contrast  between  the 
various  kinds  of  intonation  is  considerable,  and 
that  the  merits  of  each  would  be  easily  appre- 
ciated by  ordinary  ears.  And  although  the  student 
may,  at  first,  be  unable  to  perceive  the  errors 
of  equal  temperament  or  be  only  vaguely  con- 
scious of  them,  yet  by  following  out  the  methods  de- 
tailed above,  he  will  soon  be  able  to  realise  them 
distinctly.  It  need  not  be  inferred  that  equal 
temperament  is  unfit  for  musical  purposes,  or  that 
it  ought  to  be  abolished.  To  introduce  something 
new  is  hardly  the  same  as  to  destroy  something 
old.  An  improved  system  of  tuning  would  only 
be  employed  as  an  occasional  relief  from  the 
monotony  of  equal  temperament,  by  no  means 
as  a  universal  substitute.  The  two  could  not, 
of  course,  be  heard  together ;  but  each  might  be 
used  in  a  different  place  or  at  a  different  time. 
Lastly,  it  is  said  that  to  divide  the  scale  into 
smaller  intervals  than  a  Semitone  is  useless. 
Even  if  this  were  true,  it  would  be  irrelevant. 
The  main  object  of  improved  tuning  is  to  diminish 
the  error  of  the  tempered  consonances :  the  sub- 
division of  the  Semi  tone  is  an  indirect  result  of  this, 
but  is  not  proposed  as  an  end  in  itself.  Whether 
the  minuter  intervals  would  ever  be  useful  in 
melody  is  a  question  which  experience  alone  can 

VOL.  IV.  TT.  I. 


TEMPLETON. 


81 


decide.  It  rests  with  the  composer  to  apply  the 
material  of  mean  and  just  intonation,  with  which 
he  is  now  provided.  The  possibility  of  obtaining 
perfect  tuning  with  keyed  instruments  is  one 
result  of  the  recent  great  advance  in  musical 
science,  the  influence  of  which  seems  likely  to  be 
felt  in  no  bianch  of  the  art  more  than  in  Tem- 
perament. [J.L.] 

TEMPESTA,  LA.  An  Italian  opera  in  3 
acts ;  libretto  partly  founded  on  Shakspeare, 
translated  fiom  Scribe  ;  music  by  Hal^vy.  Pro- 
duced at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre,  London,  June  8, 
1850  (Sontag,  Lablache,  Carlotta  Grisi,  etc.). 
Produced  in  Paris,  Theatre  Italien,  Feb.  25, 185 1. 
Mendelssohn,  at  the  end  of  1847,  had  the  libretto 
under  consideration,  but  it  came  to  nothing.  [See 
vol.  ii.  289  6.]  [G.] 

TEMPEST,  THE.  'The  music  to  Shak- 
speare's  Tempest'  was  Arthur  Sullivan's  op.  i. 
It  consists  of  twelve  numbers : — No.  i.  Introduc- 
tion; No.  2,  Act  I,  Sc.  2,  Melodrama  and  Songs, 
'  Come  unto  these  yellow  sands,'  and  'Full  fathom 
five';  No.  3,  Act  2,  Sc.  i,- Andante  sostenuto, 
Orch.  and  Melodrama  ;  No.  4,  Prelude  to  Act  3 ; 
No.  5,  Act  3,  Sc.  2,  Melodrama,  Solemn  music; 
and  No.  6,  Banquet  dance ;  No.  7,  Overture  to 
Act  4 ;  No.  8,  Act.  4,  Sc.  i.  Masque,  with  No.  9, 
Duet,  SS.  'Honour,  riches';  No.  10,  Dance  of 
Nymphs  and  Reapers ;  No.  1 1,  Prelude  to  Act  5  ; 
No.  12,  Act  5,  Sc.  I,  Andante,  Song,  *  Where 
the  bee  sucks,'  and  Epilogue.  It  was  first  per- 
formed at  the  Crystal  Palace  April  5,  1862. 
The  music  is  arranged  for  4  hands  with  voices 
by  F.  Taylor,  and  published  by  Cramers.       [G.] 

TEMPLETON,  John,  tenor  singer,  born  at 
Riccai'ton,  Kilmarnock,  July  30,  1802.  At  the 
age  of  fourteen  he  made  his  first  appearance  in 
Edinburgh,  and  continued  to  sing  in  public  until  his 
sixteenth  year,  when  his  voice  broke.  Appointed 
precentor  in  Dr.  Brown's  church,  Edinburgh,  at 
the  age  of  twenty,  he  began  to  attract  attention, 
until  Scotland  became  too  limited  for  his  am- 
bition, and  he  started  for  London,  where  he 
received  instruction  from  Blewitt  in  thorough 
bass,  and  from  Welsh,  De  Pinna,  and  Tom 
Cooke  in  singing.  In  vocalisation,  power,  com- 
pass, flexibility,  richness  of  quality,  complete 
command  over  the  different  registers,  Templeton 
displayed  the  perfection  of  art ;  though  not  re- 
markable for  fulness  of  tone  in  the  lower  notes, 
his  voice  was  highly  so  in  the  middle  and  upper 
ones,  sustaining  the  A  and  Bb  in  alt  with  much 
ease  and  power.  The  blending  of  the  chest 
register  with  his  splendid  falsetto  was  so  perfect 
as  to  make  it  difficult  to  detect  the  break.  He 
now  resolved  to  abandon  his  prospects  in  Scot- 
land and  take  to  the  stage.  His  first  theatrical 
appearance  was  made  at  Worthing,  as  Dermot 
in  'The  Poor  Soldier,'  in  July  1828.  This 
brought  about  engasrements  at  the  Theatre 
Royal,  Brighton,  Southampton  and  Portsmouth, 
and  Drury  Lane.  He  made  his  first  appearance 
in  London,  Oct.  13,  1831,  as  Mr.  Belville  in 
'  Rosina.'  Two  days  later  he  appeared  as  Young"' 
Meadawa  in   '  Love  in   a  Village,'  Mr.  Wood 

G 


82 


TEMPLETON. 


taking  tlie  part  of  Hawthorn,  with  Mrs.  Wood 
(Miss  Paton)  as  Rosetta.  After  performing  for 
a  few  months  in  stock  pieces,  he  created  the 
part  of  Reimbaut  in  Meyerbeer's  'Robert  le 
Diable '  on  its  first  performance  in  this  country, 
Feb.  20, 1832.    He  appeared  as  Lopez  in  Spohr's 

•  Der  Alchymist'  when  first  produced  (March  20, 
1832),  Bishop's  'Tyrolese  Peasant'  (May  8, 
1832),  and  John  Bamett's  'Win  her  and  wear 
her'  (Dec.  18,  1832)  ;  but  the  first  production  of 
'  Don  Juan'  at  Drury  Lane,  Feb.  5, 1833,  afforded 
Templeton  a  great  opportunity.  Signer  Begrez, 
after  studying  the  part  of  Don  Ottavio  for  eight 
weeks,  threw  it  up  a  week  before  the  date  an- 
nounced for  production.  Templeton  undertook  the 
character,  and  a  brilliant  success  followed.  Bra- 
ham,  who  played  Don  Juan,  highly  complimented 
Templeton  on  his  execution  of  '  II  mio  tesoro,' 
and  Tom  Cooke  called  him  *  the  tenor  with  the 
additional  keys.' 

Madame  Malibran,  in  1833,  chose  him  as 
her  tenor,  and  'Malibran's  tenor'  he  remained 
throughout  her  brief  but  brilliant  career.  On  the 
production  of  *  La  Sbnnambula,'  at  Drury  Lane, 
May  I,  1833,  Templeton's  Elvino  was  no  less 
successful  than  Malibran's  Aniina.  After  the  per- 
formance Bellini  embraced  him,  and,  with  many 
compliments,  promised  to  write  a  part  that  would 
immortalise  him.  *  The  Devil's  Bridge,'  *  The 
Students  of  Jena'  (first  time  June  4, 1833),  'The 
Marriage  of  Figaro,'  'John  of  Paris,' etc.,  gave 
fresh  opportunities  for  Templeton  to  appear  with 
Malibran,  and  Tvith  marked  success.  In  Auber's 
*Gustavus  the  Third,'  produced  at  Covent  Garden, 
Nov.  13,  1833,  he  made  another  great  success  as 
Colonel  Lillienhom.  During  the  season  the  opera 
was  repeated  one  hundred  times.  Alfred  Bimn, 
then  manager  of  both  theatres,  so  arranged  that 
Templeton,  after  playing  in  *La  Sonnambula'  or 
•Gustavus  the  Third'  at  Covent  Garden,  had 
to  make  his  way  to  Drury  Lane  to  fill  the  rdle  of 
'Masaniello' — meeting  with  equal  success  at  both 
houses. 

On  the  return  of  Madame  Malibran  to  England 
in  1835,  the  production  of '  Fidelio'  and  of  Balfe's 

•  Maid  of  Artois  '  (May  27,  1836)  brought  her  and 
Templeton  again  together.  July  16,  1836,  was 
fated  to  be  their  last  appearance  together.  At 
the  end  of  the  performance  Malibran  removed  the 
jewelled  betrothal  ring  from  her  finger  which 
she  had  so  often  worn  as  Amina,  and  presented 
it  to  Templeton  as  a  memento  of  respect  for  his 
talents ;  and  it  is  still  cherished  by  the  veteran 
tenor  as  a  sacred  treasure.  Templeton  sustained 
the  leading  tenor  parts  in  Auber's  'Bronze 
Horse'  (1836),  in  Herold's  'Corsair'  (1836), 
Rossini's  'Siege  of  Corinth*  (1836),  in  Balfe's 
*Joan  of  Arc'  (1837)  and  'Diadeste'  (1838), 
in  Mozart's  'Magic  Flute'  (1838),  Benedict's 
'Gipsy's  Warning'  (1838),  H.  Phillips'  'Har- 
vest Queen'  (1838),  in  Donizetti's  'Love  Spell' 
(1839),  and  in  'La  Favorita'  (1843)  on  their 
first  performance  or  introduction  as  English 
operas ;  altogether  playing  not  less  than  eighty 
different  leading  tenor  characters. 

In  1836-37  Templeton  made  his  first  profes- 


TEMPO. 

sional  tour  in  Scotland  and  Ireland  with  great 
success.  Returning  to  London,  he  retained  liis 
position  for  several  years.  In  1842  he  visited 
Paris  with  Balfe,  and  received  marked  attention 
from  Auber  and  other  musical  celebrities.  The 
last  twelve  years  of  his  professional  career  were 
chiefly  devoted  to  the  concert-room.  In  1846  he 
starred  the  principal  cities  of  America  with  his 
'Templeton  Entertainments,'  in  which  were  given 
songs  illustrative  of  England,  Scotland,  and  Ire- 
land, and  as  a  Scottish  vocalist  he  sang  himself 
into  the  hearts  of  his  countrymen.  With  splendid 
voice,  graceful  execution,  and  exquisite  taste,  he 
excelled  alike  in  the  pathetic,  the  humorous,  and 
the  heroic ;  his  rendering  of  '  My  Nannie  O,' 
'  Had  I  a  cave,'  '  Gloomy  winter,'  '  Jessie,  the 
Flower  o'  Dunblane,'  'Com  Rigs,'  'The  Jolly 
Beggar,'  and  'A  man's  a  man  for  a'  that,'  etc.,  left 
an  impression  not  easily  effaced.  Mr.  Templeton 
retired  in  1852,  and  now  enjoys  a  well-earned 
repose  at  New  Hampton.  [W.  H.] 

TEMPO  (Ital.,  also  Movimento ;  Fr.  Mouve- 
ment).  This  word  is  used  in  both  English  and 
German  to  express  the  rate  of  speed  at  which  a 
musical  composition  is  executed.  The  relative 
length  of  the  notes  depends  upon  their  species, 
as  shown  in  the  notation,  and  the  arrangement 
of  longer  and  shorter  notes  in  bars  must  be  in 
accordance  with  the  laws  of  2'ime,  but  the  actual 
length  of  any  given  species  of  note  depends  upon 
whether  the  Tempo  of  the  whole  movement  be 
rapid  or  the  reverse.  The  question  of  Tempo  is 
a  very  important  one,  since  no  composition  could 
suffer  more  than  a  very  slight  alteration  of  speed 
without  injury,  while  any  considerable  change 
would  entirely  destroy  its  character  and  render 
it  unrecognisable.  The  power  of  rightly  judging 
the  tempo  required  by  a  piece  of  music,  and  of 
preserving  an  accurate  recollection  of  it  under 
the  excitement  caused  by  a  public  performance, 
is  therefore  not  the  least  among  the  qualifications 
of  a  conductor  or  soloist. 

Until  about  the  middle  of  the  17th  century, 
composers  left  the  tempi  of  their  compositions 
(as  indeed  they  did  the  nuances  to  a  great  extent) 
entirely  to  the  judgment  of  performers,  a  correct 
rendering  being  no  doubt  in  most  cases  assured 
by  the  fact  that  the  performers  were  the  com- 
poser's own  pupils ;  so  soon  however  as  the 
number  of  executants  increased,  and  tradition 
became  weakened,  some  definite  indication  of 
the  speed  desired  by  the  composer  was  felt  to  be 
necessary,  and  accordingly  we  find  all  music 
from  the  time  of  Bach  *  and  Handel  (who  used 
tempo-indications  but  sparingly)  marked  with 
explicit  directions  as  to  speed,  either  in  words, 
or  by  a  reference  to  the  Metronome,  the  latter 
being  of  course  by  far  the  most  accurate  method. 
[See  vol.  ii.  p.  318.] 

Verbal  directions  as  to  tempo  are  generally 
written  in  Italian,  the  great  advantage  of  thig 
practice  being  that  performers  of  other  nation- 
alities, understanding  that  this  is  the  custom, 

>  In  the  48  Preludes  and  Fugues  there  is  but  one  tempo-indlcft* 
tion.  Fugue  24,  toI.  i.  is  marked  '  Largo,'  and  even  this  is  rather  ait 
Indication  of  style  than  of  actual  speed. 


I 


TEMPO. 

and  having  learnt  the  meaning  of  the  terms  in 
general  use,  are  able  to  understand  the  directions 
given,  without  any  further  knowledge  of  the 
language.  Nevertheless,  some  composers,  other 
than  Italians,  have  preferred  to  use  their  own 
native  language  for  the  purpose,  at  least  in  part. 
Thus  Schumann  employed  German  terms  in  by 
far  the  greater  number  of  his  compositions,  not 
alone  as  tempo-indications  but  also  for  diiections 
as  to  expression,^  and  Beethoven  took  a  fancy 
at  one  time  for  using  German,'^  though  he  after- 
wards returned  to  Italian.     [See  vol.  i.  p.  193.] 

The  expressions  used  to  denote  degrees  of 
speed  may  be  divided  into  two  classes,  those 
which  refer  directly  to  the  rate  of  movement,  as 
Lento — slow ;  Adagio — gently,  slowly ;  Moderato 
— moderately;  Presto — quick, etc.;  and  those  (the 
more  numerous)  which  rather  indicate  a  certain 
character  or  quality  by  which  the  rate  of  speed 
is  influenced,  such  as  Allegro — gay,  cheerful; 
Vivace — lively;  Animato — animated;  Maestoso — 
majestically  J  Grave — with  gravity;  Largo — 
broad;  etc.  To  these  last  may  be  added  ex- 
pressions which  allude  to  some  well-known  form 
of  composition,  the  general  character  of  which 
governs  the  speed,  such  as  Tempo  di  Minuetto — 
in  the  time  of  a  Minuet;  Alia  Marcia,  Alia 
Polacca — in  the  style  of  a  march,  polonaise,  and 
so  on.  Most  of  these  words  may  be  qualified  by 
the  addition  of  the  terminations  etto  and  ino, 
which  diminish,  or  issimo,  which  increases,  the 
effect  of  a  word.  Thus  Allegretto,  derived  from 
Allegro,  signifies  moderately  lively.  Prestissimo 
— extremely  quick,  and  so  on.  The  same 
varieties  may  also  be  produced  by  the  use  of  the 
words  molto — much ;  assai — very  ;  piu — more  ; 
meno — less ;  un  poco  (sometimes  un  pocketiino  ^) 
— a  little  ;  nan  troppo — not  too  much,  etc. 

The  employment,  as  indications  of  speed,  of 
words  which  in  their  strict  sense  refer  merely  to 
style  and  character  (and  therefore  only  indirectly 
to  tempo),  has  caused  a  certain  conventional 
meaning  to  attach  to  them,  especially  when  used 
fcy  other  than  Italian  composers.  Thus  in  most 
vocabularies  of  musical  terms  we  find  Allegro 
rendered  as  'quick,'  Largo  as  'slow,'  etc., 
although  these  are  not  the  literal  translations 
of  the  words.  In  the  case  of  at  least  one  word 
this  general  acceptance  of  a  conventional  mean- 
ing has  brought  about  a  misunderstanding  which 
is  of  considerable  importance.  The  word  is 
Andante,  the  literal  meaning  of  which  is  '  going,'  * 
but  as  compositions  to  which  it  is  applied  are 
usually  of  a  quiet  and  tranquil  character,  it  has 
gradually  come  to  be  understood  as  synonymous 
with  '  rather  slow.'  In  consequence  of  this,  the 
direction  piit  andante,  which  really  means 
•going  more*  i.e.  faster,  has  frequently  been 
erroneously  understood  to  mean  slower,  while 
the  diminution  of  andante,  andantino,  literally 

1  He  used  Italian  terms  In  op.  1-4,  7-11, 13-15,  88,  41,  44,  47,  62,  64, 
and  61 ;  the  rest  are  In  German. 

3  Beethoven's  German  directions  occur  chiefly  frpm  op.  81a  to  101, 
irlth  a  few  isolated  instances  as  for  on  as  op.  128. 

3  See  Brahms,  op.  34.  Finale. 

*  The  word  is  derived  trom  andare, '  to  go.'  In  his  Sonata  op.  81  a, 
Beethoven  expresses  AndanU  by  the  words  In  gehtnder  Betoegung— 
la  going  movement. 


TEMPO. 


83 


'going  a  little,'  together  with  meno  andante — 
'going  less' — both  of  which  should  indicate  a 
slower  tempo  than  andante — have  been  held  to 
denote  the  reverse.  This  view,  though  certainly 
incorrect,  is  found  to  be  maintained  by  various 
authorities,  including  even  Koch's  'Musikal- 
isches  Lexicon,'  where  piii,  andante  is  distinctly 
stated  to  be  slower,  and  andantino  quicker, 
than  andante.  In  a  recent  edition  of  Schumann's 
•  Kreisleriana '  we  find  the  composer's  own  in- 
dication for  the  middle  movement  of  No.  3, 
'Etwas  langsamer,'  incorrectly  translated  by 
the  editor  poco  piii  andante,  which  coming  im- 
mediately after  animato  has  a  very  odd  effect. 
Schubert  also  appears  to  prefer  the  conventional 
use  of  the  word,  since  he  marks  the  first  move- 
ment of  his  Fantasia  for  Piano  and  Violin,  op.  159, 
Andante  molto.  But  it  seems  clear  that,  with 
the  exception  just  noted,  the  great  composers 
generally  intended  the  words  to  bear  their  literal 
interpretation.  Beethoven,  for  instance, places  his 
intentions  on  the  subject  beyond  a  doubt,  for  the 
4th  variation  in  the  Finale  of  the  Sonata  op.  109 
is  inscribed  in  Italian  *  Un  poco  meno  andante,  cio 
h,  un  poco  piii  adagio  come  il  tema ' — a  little  less 
andante,  that  is,  a  little  more  slowly  like  (than  ?) 
the  theme,'  and  also  in  German  Etwas  langsamer 
als  das  Thema — somewhat  slower  than  the  theme. 
Instances  of  the  use  of  piii  andante  occur  in 
Var.  5  of  Beethoven's  Trio  op.  i,  no.  3,  in 
Brahms's  Violin  Sonata  op.  78,  where  it  follows 
(of  course  with  the  object  of  quickening)  the 
tempo  of  Adagio,  etc.  Handel,  in  the  air 
'  Revenge,  Timotheus  cries  !  '  and  in  the  choruses 
'  For  unto  us '  and  '  The  Lord  gave  the  word,' 
gives  the  direction  Andante  allegro,  which  may 
be  translated  *  going  along  merrily.' 

When  in  the  course  of  a  composition  the 
tempo  alters,  but  still  bears  a  definite  relation  to 
the  original  speed,  the  proportion  in  which  the 
new  tempo  stands  to  the  other  may  be  expressed 
in  various  ways.  When  the  speed  of  notes  of 
the  same  species  is  to  be  exactly  doubled,  the 
words  doppio  movimento  are  used  to  denote  the 
change,  thus  the  quick  portion  of  Ex.  i  would 
be  played  precisely  as  though  it  were  written 
as  in  Ex.  2. 

Brahms,  Trio,  op.  8. 

Allegro  doppio  viovhnento 
Adagio  non  troppo 

4 


Another  way  of  expressing  proportional  tempi  is 
by  the  arithmetical  sign  for  equality  ( =  ),  placed 
between  two  notes  of  different  values.  Thus 
(^  =s  J  would  mean  that  a  crochet  in  the  one 
movement  must  have  the  same  duration  as  a 

s  Beethoven's  Italian,  however,  does  not  appear  to  have  bee« 
faultless,  for  the  German  translation  above  shows  him  to  have  used 
the  word  come  to  express  '  than '  Instead  of  'like.' 

G2 


u 


TEMPO. 


minim  in  the  other,  and  so  on.  But  this  method 
is  subject  to  the  serious  drawback  that  it  is 
possible  to  understand  the  sign  in  two  opposed 
senses,  according  as  the  first  of  the  two  note- 
values  is  taken  to  refer  to  the  new  tempo  or  to 
that  just  quitted.  On  this  point  composers  are 
by  no  means  agreed,  nor  are  they  even  always 
consistent,  for  Brahms,  in  his  '  Variations  on  a 
Theme  by  Paganini,'  uses  the  same  sign  in 
opposite  senses,  first  in  passing  from  Var.  3  to 
Var.  4,  where  a  J^  of  Var.  4  equals  a  J  of  Var. 
3  (Ex.  3),  and  afterwards  from  Var.  9  to  Var. 
10,  a  J  of  Var.  10  being  equal  to  a  ^**  of  Var.  9 
(Ex.  4). 
Ev.8.  Var.3.        ^ 


-^ 1       J       ^-<^-^-» —  — 


~rrrTT"£^ 


Var.  10.  (J=^N 


P^^ 


333s 


A  far  safer  means  of  expressing  proportion  is  by 
a  definite  verbal  direction,  a  method  frequently 
adopted  by  Schumann,  as  for  instance  in  the 
'Faust'  music,  where  he  says  Ein  Taltt  loie  vorher 
zicei — one  bar  equal  to  two  of  the  preceding  move- 
ment; and  Um  die  JIdlfte  langsamer  (by  which  is 
to  be  understood  twice  as  slow,  not  hcilf  as  slow 
again),  and  so  in  numerous  other  instances. 

When  there  is  a  change  of  rhythm,  as  from 
common  to  triple  time,  while  the  total  length  of 
a  bar  remains  unaltered,  the  words  Vistesso  tempo, 
signifying  *  the  same  speed,'  are  written  where  the 
change  takes  place,  as  in  the  following  example, 
where  the  crotchet  of  the  2-4  movement  is  equal 
to  the  dotted  crotchet  of  that  in  6-8,  and  so,  bar 
for  bar,  the  tempo  is  unchanged. 

Bbethovbn,  Bagatelle,  op.  119,  No.  6. 
AUearetto. 


The  same  words  are  occasionally  used  when 
there  is  no  alteration  of  rhythm,  as  a  warning 
against  a  possible  change  of  speed,  as  in  Var.  3 


TEMPO. 

of  Beethoven^s  Variations,  op.  lao,  and  also, 
though  less  correctly,  when  the  notes  of  any 
given  species  remain  of  the  same  length,  while 
tlie  total  value  of  the  bar  is  changed,  as  in  the 
following  example,  where  the  value  of  each  quaver 
remains  the  same,  although  the  bar  of  the  2-4 
movement  is  only  equal  to  two-thirds  of  one  of 
the  foregoing  bars, 

BsKTHOVEN,  Bagatelle,  op.  126,  No.  1. 
Andante  con  tnofo.  Vistesso  tempo. 


A  gradual  increase  of  speed  is  indicated  by 
the  word  accelerando  or  stringendo,  a  gradual 
slackening  by  ralkntando  or  ritardando.  All 
such  effects  being  proportional,  every  bar  and 
indeed  every  note  should  as  a  rule  take  its  share 
of  the  general  increase  or  diminution,  except 
in  cases  where  an  accelerando  extends  over 
many  bars,  or  even  through  a  whole  composition. 
In  such  cases  the  increase  of  speed  is  obtained 
by  means  of  frequent  slight  but  definite  changes 
of  tempo  (the  exact  points  at  which  they  take 
place  being  left  to  the  judgment  of  performer  or 
conductor)  much  as  though  the  words  piit  mosso 
were  repeated  at  intervals  throughout.  Instances 
of  an  extended  accelerando  occur  in  Mendels- 
sohn's chorus,  '  0  !  great  is  the  depth,*  from  '  St. 
Paul'  (26  bars),  and  in  his  Fugue  in  E  minor, 
op.  35,  no.  I  (63  bars).  On  returning  to  the 
original  tempo  after  either  a  gradual  or  a  precise 
change  the  words  tempo  pHmo  are  usually  em- 
ployed, or  sometimes  Tempo  del  Tema,  as  in 
Var.  1 2  of  Mendelssohn's  '  Variations  S^rieuses.* 

The  actual  speed  of  a  movement  in  which  the 
composer  has  given  merely  one  of  the  usual 
tempo  indications,  without  any  reference  to  the 
metronome,  depends  of  course  upon  the  judg- 
ment of  the  executant,  assisted  in  many  cases  by 
tradition.  But  there  are  one  or  two  considera- 
tions which  are  of  material  influence  in  coming 
to  a  conclusion  on  the  subject.  In  the  first 
place,  it  would  appear  that  the  meaning  of  the 
various  terms  has  somewhat  changed  in  the 
course  of  time,  and  in  opposite  directions,  the 
words  which  express  a  quick  movement  now  signi- 
fying a  yet  more  rapid  rate,  at  least  in  instru- 
mental music,  and  those  denoting  slow  tempo  a 
still  slower  movement,  than  formerly.  There  ia 
no  absolute  proof  that  this  is  the  case,  but  a 
comparison  of  movements  similarly  marked,  but 
of  different  periods,  seems  to  remove  all  doubt. 
For  instance,  the  Presto  of  Beethoven's  Sonata, 
op.  10,  no.  3,  might  be  expressed  by  M.M. 
,s5  =  144.  while  the  Finale  of  Bach's  Italian 
Concerto,  also  marked  Presto,  could  scarcely  be 
played  quicker  than  <5l  =  i26  without  disad- 
vantage. Again,  the  commencement  of  Handel's 
Overture  to  the  *  Messiah '  is  marked  Grave,  and 
is  played  about  J  =  60,  while  the  Grave  of  Bee- 
thoven's Sonata  Pathdtique  requires  a  tempo  of 
only  J^  =  60,  exactly  twice  as  slow.  The  causes 
of  these  difierences  are  probably  on  the  one  hand 
the  greatly  increased  powers  of  execution  pos- 


TEMPO. 

sessed  by  modem  instrumentalists,  which  have 
induced  composers  to  write  quicker  music,  and 
on  the  other,  at  least  in  the  case  of  the  piano- 
forte, the  superior  sostenuto  possible  on  modem 
instruments  as  compared  with  those  of  former 
times.  The  period  to  which  the  music  be- 
longs must  therefore  be  taken  into  account  in 
determining  the  exact  tempo.  But  besides  this, 
the  general  character  of  a  composition,  especially 
as  regards  harmonic  progression,  exercises  a  very 
decided  influence  on  the  tempo.  For  the  appa- 
rent speed  of  a  movement  does  not  depend  so 
much  upon  the  actual  duration  of  the  beats,  as 
upon  the  rate  at  which  the  changes  of  harmony 
succeed  each  other.  If,  therefore,  the  harmonies 
in  a  composition  change  frequently,  the  tempo 
will  appear  quicker  than  it  would  if  unvaried 
harmonies  were  continued  for  whole  bars,  even 
though  the  metronome-time,  beat  for  beat,  might 
be  thd  same.  On  this  account  it  is  necessary,  in 
order  to  give  effect  to  a  composer's  indication 
of  tempo,  to  study  the  general  structure  of  tlie 
movement,  and  if  the  changes  of  harmony  are 
not  frequent,  to  choose  a  quicker  rate  of  speed 
than  would  be  necessary  if  the  harmonies  were 
more  varied.  For  example,  the  first  movement 
of  Beethoven's  Sonata,  op,  22,  marked  Allegro, 
may  be  played  at  the  rate  of  about  <sJ  =  72,  but 
the  first  movement  of  op.  31,  no.  2,  though  also 
marked  Allegro,  will  require  a  tempo  of  at  least 
<d  =  1 20,  on  account  of  the  changes  of  harmony 
being  less  frequent,  and  the  same  may  be  ob- 
served of  the  two  adagio  movements,  both  in 
9-8  time,  of  op.  22  and  op.  31,  no.  i ;  in  the 
second  of  these  most  bars  are  founded  upon  a 
single  harmony,  and  a  suitable  speed  would  be 
about  ^N  =  1 1 6,  a  rate  which  would  be  too  quick 
for  the  Adagio  of  op.  22,  where  the  harmonies 
are  more  numerous.^ 

Another  cause  of  greater  actual  speed  in  the 
rendering  of  the  same  tempo  is  the  use  of  the 
time-signature  dJ  or  alia  breve,  which  requires 
the  composition  to  be  executed  at  about  double 
the  speed  of  the  Common  or  C  Time.  The 
reason  of  this  is  explained  in  the  article  Bbeve^ 
vol.  i.  p.  274. 

A  portion  of  a  composition  is  sometimes 
marked  a ptacere,  or  ad  libitum,  at  'pleasure,'  sig- 
nifying that  the  tempo  is  left  entirely  to  the  per- 
former's discretion.  Passages  so  marked  however 
appear  almost  always  to  demand  a  slower,  rather 
than  a  quicker  tempo — at  least,  the  writer  is  ac- 
quainted with  no  instance  to  the  contrary.  [F.T.] 

TEMPO  DI  BALLO  is  the  indication  at  the 
head  of  Sullivan's  Overture  composed  for  the 
Birmingham  Festival  1870,  and  seems  less  to  in- 
dicate a  particular  speed  than  that  the  whole  work 
is  in  a  dance  style  and  in  dance  measures.     [G.] 

J  Hummel,  In  hii  '  Pianoforte  School,'  speaking  In  praise  of  the 
Metronome,  gives  a  list  of  instances  of  the  variety  of  meanings 
attached  to  the  same  words  by  different  composers,  in  which  we  find 
JPretto  varying  from  ol=72  to  0=224,  Allegro  from  0=60  to 
0=172,  Andantt  from  J^=S2  to  J^  =  1S2  etc.  But  Hummel  does 
not  specify  the  particular  movements  be  quotes,  and  it  seems  prob- 
able that,  regard  Iselng  had  to  their  varieties  of  harmonic  structure, 
the  discrepancies  may  not  really  have  been  so  great  as  at  first  sight 


TENDUCCf. 


g5 


TEMPO  ORDINARIO  (Ttal.),  common  time, 
rhythm  of  four  crotchets  in  a  bar.  The  time- 
signature  is  an  unbarred  semicircle  C  ,  or  in 
modem  form  Q,  in  contradistinction  to  the  barred 
semicircle  (^  or  0,  which  denotes  a  diminished 
value  of  the  notes,  i.  e.  a  double  rate  of  movement. 
[See  Breve;  Common  Time.]  In  consequence  of 
the  notes  in  tempo  ordinario  being  of  full  value 
(absolutely  as  well  as  relatively),  the  term  is 
understood  to  indicate  a  moderate  degree  of 
speed.  It  is  in  this  sense  that  Handel  employs 
it  as  an  indication  for  the  choruses  '  Lift  up  your 
heads,'  '  Their  sound  is  gone  out,'  etc.        [F.T.] 

TEMPO  RUBATO  (Ital.,  literally  roUed  or 
stolen  time).  This  expression  is  used  in  two  differ- 
ent senses ;  first,  to  denote  the  insertion  of  a  short 
passage  in  duple  time  into  a  movement  the 
prevailing  rhythm  of  which  is  triple,  or  vice  versa, 
the  change  being  effected  without  altering  the 
time-signature,  by  means  of  false  accents,  or 
accents  falling  on  other  than  the  ordinary  places 
in  the  bar.  Thus  the  rhythm  of  the  following 
example  is  distinctly  that  of  two  in  a  bar,  al- 
though the  whole  movement  is  3-4  time. 

Schumann,  Jsovellette,  Op.  21,  No.  4. 


I 


^^ 


R^^=i- 


^ 


'-rf 


2.  In  the  other  and  more  usual  sense  the  term 
expresses  the  opposite  of  strict  time,  and  indicates 
a  style  of  performance  in  which  some  portion  of 
the  bar  is  executed  at  a  quicker  or  slower  tempo 
than  the  general  rate  of  movement,  the  balance 
being  restored  by  a  corresponding  slackening  or 
quickening  of  the  remainder.  [Kubato.]  Perhaps 
the  most  striking  instances  of  the  employment  of 
tempo  ruhato  are  found  in  the  rendering  of  Hun- 
garian national  melodies  by  native  artists.  [F.T.] 
TENDUCCI,  GiusTO  Ferdinando,  a  cele- 
brated sopranist  singer,  very  popular  in  this 
country,  was  bom  at  Siena,  about  1 736,  whence 
(like  a  still  greater  singer)  he  was  sometimes 
called  Senesino.  His  earliest  stage-appearances 
in  Italy  were  made  at  about  twenty  j^ears  of  age, 
and  in  1758  he  came  to  London,  where  he  finst 
sang  in  a  pasticcio  called  'Attalo.'  But  it  was 
in  the  *  Ciro  riconosciuto '  of  Cocchi  that  he  first 
attracted  special  notice.  Although  he  had  only 
a  subordinate  part,  he  quite  eclipsed,  by  his  voice 
and  style,  the  principal  singer,  Portenza,  and 
from  that  time  was  established  as  the  successor 
of  Guadagni.  In  company  with  Dr.  Ame,  in 
whose  *  Artaxerxes '  he  sang  with  great  success, 
he  travelled  to  Scotland  and  Ireland,  retuming  to 
London  in  1765,  where  he  was  the  idol  of  the 
fashionable  world,  and  received  enormous  sums 
for  his  performances.  In  spite  of  this,  his  vanity 
j  and  extravagance  were  so    unbounded  that  in 


89 


TENDUCCT. 


1776  he  was  forced  to  leave  England  for  debt. 
In  a  year,  however,  he  found  means  to  return, 
and  remained  in  London  many  years  longer, 
singing  with  success  as  long  as  his  voice  lasted, 
and  even  when  it  had  almost  disappeared.  In 
1785  he  took  part  in  a  revival  of  Gluck's  *Orfeo,* 
and  appeared  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre  as  late  as 
1790.  He  also  sang  at  the  Handel  Commemo- 
ration Festivals  at  Westminster  Abbey,  in  1784 
and  1 791.  Ultimately  he  returned  to  Italy,  and 
died  there  early  in  this  century. 

Tenducci  was  on  friendly  terms  with  the 
Mozart  family  during  their  visit  to  London  in 
1764.  In  1778,  at  Paris,  he  again  met  Mozart, 
who,  remembering  their  former  intercourse,  wrote 
a  song  for  him,  which  has  been  lost.  He  was  the 
author  of  a  Treatise  on  Singing,  and  the  composer 
of  an  overture  for  full  band  (Preston,  London), 
and  of  *  Ranelagh  Songs,'  which  he  sang  at  con- 
certs. [F.A.M.] 

TENEBR^  (Liteially,  Darkness).  The 
name  of  a  Service  appointed,  in  the  Roman 
Breviary,  for  the  three  most  solemn  days  in 
Holy  Week,  and  consisting  of  the  conjoined 
Matins  and  Lauds,  ^  for  the  Thursday,  Friday, 
and  Saturday,  which  are  sung  '  by  anticipation ' 
on  the  afternoons  of  the  Wednesday,  Thursday 
and  Friday.  The  name  is  taken  from  the  open- 
ing sentence  of  the  Responsorium  which  follows 
the  Fifth  Lesson  on  Good  Friday,  Tenebrce 
factce  sunt — There  was  darkness. 

The  Service  begins  with  three  Nocturns,  each 
consisting  of  three  Psalms,  with  their  doubled 
Antiphons,  a  Versicle  and  Response,  and  three 
Lessons,  each  followed  by  its  appropriate  Re- 
sponsorium. The  Psalms  and  Antiphons  are 
sung  in  unisonous  Plain  Chaunt ;  and,  at  the  con- 
clusion of  each,  one  of  the  fifteen  candles  on  the 
huge  triangular  Candlestick  by  which  the  Chapel 
is  lighted  is  ceremoniously  extinguished.  The 
Lessons  for  the  First  Noctum  on  each  of  the 
three  days  are  the  famous  'Lamentations,' 
which  have  already  been  fully  described.''  The 
Lessons  for  the  Second  and  Third  Nocturns  are 
simply  monotoned.  Music  for  the  Responsoria 
has  been  composed  by  more  than  one  of  the 
greatest  Polyphonic  Masters  ;  but  most  of  them 
are  now  sung  in  unisonous  Plain  Chaunt.  The 
Third  Noctum  is  immediately  followed  by  Lauds, 
the  Psalms  for  which  are  sung  in  the  manner, 
and  with  the  ceremonies,  already  described. 
Then  follows  the  Canticle,  •  Benedictus,'  during 
the  singing  uf  which  the  six  Altar  Lights  are 
extinguished,  one  by  one.  And  now  preparation 
is  made  for  the  most  awful  moment  of  the  whole 
— that  which  introduces  the  first  notes  of  the 
'Miserere.''  The  fifteenth  candle,  at  the  top 
of  the  great  Candlestick,  is  removed  from  its 
place,  and  hidden  behind  the  Altar.  The  An- 
tiphon,  *  Christus  factus  est  obediens,'  is  sung  by 
a  single  Soprano  Voice;  and,  after  a  dead  silence 
of  considerable  duration,  the  Miserere  is  sung, 
in  the  manner,  and  with  the  Ceremonies  de- 
scribed in  vol.  ii.  pp.  335-338.     The  Pope  then 

1  Sm  Uatins,  and  Lauds.  2  See  Lamentations. 

i  See  MisiBEBi. 


TENOR. 

says  an  appointed  Prayer ;  the  Candle  is  brought 
out  from  behind  the  Altar;  and  the  Service 
concludes  with  a  trampling  of  feet,  sometimes 
said  to  represent  the  passage  of  the  crowd  to 
Calvary,  or  the  Jews  seizing  our  Lord. 

The  Services  proper  for  Holy  Week  are  de- 
scribed, in  detail,  in  the  'Manuel  des  C^r^monies 
qui  ont  lieu  pendant  la  Semaine  Sainte,'  formerly 
sold  annually  in  Rome,  but  now  very  difficult  to 
obtain.  The  Music  was  first  published  by  Dr. 
Bumey,  in  •  La  Musica  della  Settimana  Santa,' 
now  very  scarce,  and  has  since  been  reprinted, 
by  Alfieri,  in  his  ♦  Raccolta  di  Musica  Sacra.' 

A  minute  and  interesting  account,  though 
somewhat  deformed  by  want  of  sympathy  vrith 
the  ancient  Ritual,  will  be  found  in  Mendelssohn's 
letter  to  Zelter,  of  June  16,  183 1.  [W.S.R.] 

TENERAMENTE;  CON  TENEREZZA— 

'  tenderly' ;  a  term  slightly  stronger  and  used  more 
emphatically  than  dolce,  but  having  very  much  the 
same  meaning  and  use  in  music.  A  good  instance 
of  the  distinction  between  the  terms  is  found  in 
the  lovely  second  movement  of  Beethoven's  Sonata 
in  E  minor,  op.  90,  where  the  subject,  at  its  first 
entry  labelled  dolce,  is  subsequently  directed  to 
be  played  teneramente.  From  the  whole  charac- 
ter of  the  movement  it  is  evidently  intended  to 
become  slightly  more  impassioned  as  it  goes  on ; 
and  it  is  generally  understood  that  the  second 
and  following  entries  of  the  subject  should  be 
played  with  more  feeling,  and  perhaps  in  less 
strict  time,  than  the  opening  bars  of  the  move- 
ment. [J.A.F.M.] 

TENOR  (Fr.  Taille;  Ger.  Tenor  Stimme)- 
The  term  applied  to  the  highest  natural  adult 
male  voice  and  to  some  instruments  of  some- 
where about  the  same  compass.  Its  etymology 
is  accepted  to  be  teneo,  '1  hold,'  and  it  was 
the  voice  that,  in  early  times,  held,  took,  or 
kept  the  principal  part  (originally  the  only- 
real  part),  the  plainsong,  subject,  air,  or  mo- 
tive of  the  piece  that  was  sung.  It  holds  the 
mid-position  in  the  musical  scale.  Its 
clef  is  the  C  clef  on  the  fourth  line  of 
the  stave  (in  reality  the  middle  line  of 
the  great  stave  of  eleven  lines  *)  generally  super- 
seded in  the  present  day  by  the  treble  or  G  clef, 
which  however  does  not  represent  or  indicate 
the  actual  pitch,  but  gives  it  an  octave  too  high. 
The  average  compass  of  the  tenor  voice  is  C  to 
A  or  B  (a),  though  in  large  rooms  notes  below  F 
(6)  are  usually  of  little  avail.  In  primitive  times, 
(o)      j=a.  or  i^  „  „       (6) 


before  true  polyphony  or  harmony  were  known, 
it  was  natural  that  what  we  now  call  the  tenor 
voice  should  hold  the  one  real  part  to  be  sung, 
should  lead,  in  fact,  the  congregational  singing, 
for  the  reason  that  this  class  of  voice  is  sweeter 
and  more  flexible  than  the  bass  voice,  and  also 
would  most  readily  strike  the  ear,  as  being  the 
higher  voice  in  range,  until  boys  were  employed; 
4  See  'A  Short  Treatise  on  the  Stare '  (Hullah). 


TENOR. 

and  even  then  boys  could  not  have  either  the 
knowledge  or  authority  to  enable  them  to  lead 
the  singing,  more  especially  as  the  chants  or 
hymns  were  at  first  transmitted  by  oral  tra- 
dition; and  females  were  npt  officially  engaged 
in  the  work.  The  boys  probably  sang  in  unison 
with,  at  times  an  octave  higher  than,  the  tenor, 
and  the  basses  in  unison  with,  or  an  octave 
below,  the  tenor,  as  suited  them  respectively. 

An  elaborate  classification  of  voices  was  not 
then  necessary.  Indeed  it  is  most  probable  that 
at  first  the  only  distinction  was  between  the 
voices  of  boys  and  men,  alius  and  hasstis  {high 
and  l(yvo),  the  very  limited  scales  then  in  use 
coming  easily  within  the  compass  of  the  lower 
part  of  tenors  and  the  higher  part  of  basses ;  and 
it  will  have  been  only  observed  that  some  men 
could  sing  higher  or  lower  than  others,  while 
the  different  qualities  of  voices  will  not  have 
been  taken  into  account.  If  a  very  low  bass 
found  a  note  rather  high,  he  may  have  howled 
it  as  he  best  could,  or  it  would  perhaps  itself 
have  cracked  up  into  falsetto,  or  he  will  have 
gone  down  instinctively  to  the  octave  below, 
or  remained  where  he  was  until  the  melody 
came  again  within  his  reach — ears  being  not  yet 
critically  cultivated.  Even  now,  towards  the  end 
of  the  19th  century,  it  is  not  at  all  unusual  to 
hear  amongst  a  congregation  basses  singing  the 
air  of  a  hymn  below  the  actual  bass  part,  or 
soprani  singing  in  the  tenor-compass  for  con- 
venience sake.  In  a  few  village  churches,  and 
in  many  Scotch  kirks,  an  after-taste  of  such 
early  singing  is  still  to  be  had.  But  with  the 
extension  of  the  scale  and  the  introduction  of 
a  system  of  notation,  and  the  consequent  gradual 
replacement  of  the  empirical  mode  of  practice 
by  more  scientific  study,  the  first  rude  attempts 
at  harmony  and  polyphony,  diaphony  or  or- 
ganum  (which  see),  would  necessitate  a  more 
exact  classification  of  voices. 

The  term  Baritone  is  of  comparatively  late  intro- 
duction. This  voice  is  called  by  the  French  hasse- 
taille,  or  low  tenor,  taille  being  the  true  French 
word  for  tenor,  and  it  is  not  impossible  that, 
as  this  word  signifies  also  the  waist  or  middle  of 
the  human  figure,  it  may  have  been  adopted  to  ex- 
press the  middle  voice.  The  addition  of  a  second 
part,  a  fourth  or  fifth  above  or  below  the  Canto 
Fermo  or  plain-chant,  v»rould  also  so  much  in- 
crease the  compass  of  music  to  be  sung,  that  the 
varieties  and  capacities  of  different  voices  would 
naturally  begin  to  be  recognised,  and  with  the 
addition  of  a  third  part,  triplum  (treble),  there 
would  at  once  be  three  parts,  altus,  medius, 
and  bassus, — high,  middle,  and  low ;  and  as  the 
medius,  for  reasons  already  given,  would  natu- 
rally be  the  leader  who  held  {tenuit)  the  plain- 
song,  the  term  tenor  would  replace  that  of  medius. 
Then,  as  the  science  and  practice  of  music  ad- 
vanced, and  opera  or  musical  drama  became  more 
and  more  elaborated,  the  sub-classification  of  each 
individual  type  of  voice  in  accordance  with  its 
varied  capacities  of  expression  would  be  a  matter 
of  course.  Hence  we  have  tenore  rohusto  (which 
used  to  be  of  about  the  compass  of  a  modern 


TENOR. 


87 


high*  baritone),  tenore  di  foizay  tenore  di  mezzo 
carattere,  tenore  di  grazia,  and  tenore  leggiero, 
one  type  of  which  is  sometimes  called  tenore 
contraltino.  These  terms,  though  used  very 
generally  in  Italy,  are  somewhat  fantastic,  and 
the  different  qualifications  that  have  called  them 
forth  are  not  unfrequently  as  much  part  of  the 
morale  as  of  the  physique.  Although  not  only 
a  question  of  compass  but  of  quality,  the  word 
'  tenor '  has  come  to  be  adopted  as  a  generic  term 
to  express  that  special  type  of  voice  which  is  so 
much  and  so  justly  admired,  and  cannot  now  be 
indicated  in  any  other  way. 

The  counter-tenor,  or  natural  male  alto,  is  a 
highly  developed  falsetto,  whose  so-called  chest 
voice  is,  in  most  cases,  a  limited  bass.  Singers 
of  this  class  down  to  the  beginning  of  the  17th 
century  came  principally  from  Spain,  they  being 
afterward  chiefly  superseded  by  artificial  male 
alti.  One  of  the  finest  examples  of  counter-tenor 
known  in  London  at  the  time  of  writing  this 
article  is  an  amateur  distinguished  for  his  excel- 
lent part-singing.  Donzelli  was  a  tenore  rohusto 
with  a  voice  of  beautiful  quality.  It  has  been 
the  custom  to  call  Duprez,  Tamberlik,  Wachtel, 
Mongini,  and  Mierzwinski  tenori  robtisti,  but 
they  belong  more  properly  to  the  tenori  di  forza. 
The  tenore  rohusto  had  a  very  large  tenor  quality 
throughout  his  vocal  compass. 

It  is  not  easy  to  classify  precisely  such  a  voice 
as  that  of  Mario,^  except  by  calling  it  the  per- 
fection of  a  tenor  voice.  Mario  possessed,  in 
a  remarkable  degree,  compass,  volume,  richness, 
grace,  and  flexibility  (not  agility,  with  which 
the  word  is  often  confounded  in  this  country, 
but  the  general  power  of  inflecting  the  voice 
and  of  producing  with  facility  nice  gradations  of 
colour).  Historical  singers  are  generally  out  of 
the  usual  category,  being  in  so  many  cases  gifted 
with  exceptional  physical  powers.  Rubini,  a 
tenore  di  grazia,  physically  considered,  was  en- 
dowed with  an  extraordinary  capacity  of  pathetic 
expression,  and  could  at  times  throw  great  force 
into  his  singing,  which  was  the  more  striking 
as  being  somewhat  unusual,  but  he  indulged  too 
much  perhaps  in  the  vihrato,  and  may  not  im- 
probably be  answerable  for  the  vicious  use  of  this 
(legitimate  in  its  place)  means  of  expression,  which 
has  prevailed  for  some  years  past,  but  which,  be- 
ing now  a  mannerism,  ceases  to  express  more  than 
the  so-called  ' expression  stop'  on  a  barrel  organ. 
But  it  must  be  said  of  Rubini  that  the  vibrato 
being  natural  to  him,  had  not  the  nauseous  effect 
that  it  has  with  his  would-be  imitators. 

Davide,  who  sang  in  the  last  half  of  the  iStli 
century,  must  have  been  very  great,  with  a  beau- 
tiful voice  and  a  thorough  knowledge  of  his  art. 
[See  vol.  i.  p.  434.]  His  son  is  said  to  have  been 
endowed  with  a  voice  of  three  octaves,  comprised 
within  four  B  flats.  This  doubtless  included 
something  like  an  octave  o(  falsetto,  which  must 
have  remained  to  him,  instead  of  in  great  part 
disappearing  with  the  development  of  the  rest  of 

1  Baritone  may  etymologically  be  considered  to  mean  a  heavy 
voice,  and  as  the  priccipal  voice  was  the  tenor,  it  may  be  taken  to 
mean  heavy  tenor,  almost  equivalent  to  Basse-laille, 

3  Died  at  Borne  Dec.  11, 1863. 


68 


TENOR. 


the  voice,  as  is  usually  the  case.  In  connection  with 
this  may  be  mentioned  the  writer's  experience 
of  a  tenor,  that  is  to  say  a  voice  of  decided  tenor 


tone,  with  a  compass  of  ^ 


that  of 


a  limited  bass  only,  thus  showing  how  the  word 
'  tenor'  has  come  to  express  quality  quite  as  much 
as  compass. — Roger  (French),  another  celebrity, 
and  a  cultivated  man,  overtaxed  his  powers,  as 
many  otheis  have  done,  and  shortened  his  active 
artistic  career. — Campanini  is  a  strong  tenore  di 
mezzo  caratlere.  This  class  of  tenor  can  on  oc- 
casions take  parti  di  fwza  or  di  grazia. 

If  the  Germans  would  only  be  so  good  as  to 
cultivate  more  thoroughly  the  art  of  vocalisation, 
we  should  have  from  them  many  fine  tenori  di 
forza,  with  voices  like  that  of  Vogel. 

A  tenore  di  grazia  of  modern  times  must 
not  be  passed  without  special  mention.  Italo 
Gardoni  possessed  what  might  be  called  only 
a  moderate  voice,  but  so  well,  so  easily  and 
naturally  produced,  that  it  was  heard  almost  to 
tiie  same  advantage  in  a  theatre  as  in  a  room. 
This  was  especially  noticeable  when  he  sang  the 
part  of  Florestan,  in  ♦  Fidelio,*  at  Covent  Garden, 
after  an  absence  of  some  duration  from  the  stage. 
The  unaffected  grace  of  his  style  rendered  him 
as  perfect  a  model  for  vocal  artists  as  could  well 
be  found.  Giuglini  was  another  tenore  di  grazia, 
with  more  actual  power  than  Gardoni.  Had  it 
not  been  for  a  certain  mawkishness  which  after 
a  time  made  itself  felt,  he  might  have  been 
classed  amongst  the  tenori  di  mezzo  carattere. 
In  this  country  Braham  and  Sims  Reeves  have 
their  place  as  historical  tenori,  and  Edward 
Lloyd,  with  not  so  large  a  voice  as  either  of 
these,  will  leave  behind  him  a  considerable  repu- 
tation as  an  artist. 

Of  the  tenore  leggiero,  a  voice  that  can  generally 
execute  fioritura  with  facility,  it  is  not  easy  to 
point  out  a  good  example.  The  light  tenor, 
sometimes  called  tenore  contraliino,  has  usually 
a  somewhat  extended  register  of  open  notes,  and 
if  the  singer  is  not  seen,  it  is  quite  possible  to 
imagine  that  one  is  hearing  a  female  contralto. 
The  converse  of  this  is  the  case  when  a  so-called 
female  tenor  sings.  One  of  these,  Signora  Mela, 
appeared  at  concerts  in  London  in  the  year  1868. 
A  favourite  manifestation  of  her  powers  was  the 
tenor  part  in  Rossini's  Terzetto  buffo  *  Pappataci.' 
Barlani-Dini  is  another  female  tenor,  singing  at 
present  in  Italy.  These  exhibitions  are,  however, 
decidedly  inartistic  and  inelegant,  and  may  easily 
become  repulsive.  A  list  of  tenor  singers  will  be 
found  in  the  article  Singing.  [See  vol.  iii.  p.  5 1 1 .] 

Tenor  is  also  the  English  name  of  the  viola. 
[See  Tenor  Violin.]  The  second  of  the  usual 
three  trombones  in  a  full  orchestra  is  a  tenor 
instrument  both  in  compass  and  clef. 

The  Tenor  Bell  is  the  lowest  in  a  peal  of  bells, 
and  is  possibly  so  called  because  it  is  the  bell 
11  pon  which  the  ringers  hold  or  rest.  The  Tenor- 
drum  (without  snares)  is  between  the  ordinary 
side-drum  and  the  bass-drum,  and,  worn  as  a 
side  drum,  is  used  in  foot-regiments  for  rolls. 


TENOR  VIOLIN. 

There  are  various  opinions  as  to  the  advisa- 
bility of  continuing,  or  not,  the  use  of  the  tenor 
clef.  There  is  something  to  be  said  on  both 
sides.  It  undoubtedly  expresses  a  positive  position 
in  the  musical  scale;  and  the  power  to  read 
it,  and  the  other  G  clef,  is  essential  to  all 
musicians  who  have  to  play  from  the  music 
printed  for  choirs  and  for  orchestra  up  to  the 
present  day.  But  as  a  question  of  general  utility 
a  simplification  in  the  means  of  expressing  mu- 
sical  ideas  can  scarcely  be  other  than  a  benefit, 
else  why  not  continue  the  use  of  all  the  seven 
clefs  ?  The  fact  that  the  compass  of  the  male 
voice  is,  in  round  terms,  an  octave  lower  than 
the  female  (though  from  the  point  of  view  of 
mechanism  the  one  is  by  no  means  a  mere 
re -production  of  the  other),  renders  it  very  easy, 
indeed  almost  natural,  for  a  male  voice  to  sing 
music  in  the  treble  clef  an  octave  below  its 
actual  pitch,  or  musical  position  in  the  scale, 
and  as  a  matter  of  fact,  no  difficulty  is  found  in 
so  doing.  In  violoncello  or  bassoon-music  the 
change  from  bass  to  tenor  clef  is  made  on  ac- 
count of  the  number  of  ledger  lines  that  must 
be  used  for  remaining  in  the  lower  clef.  This 
objection  does  not  exist  in  expressing  tenor  music 
in  the  treble  clef.  On  the  contrary,  if  it  exists 
at  ail  it  is  against  the  tenor.— A  kind  of  com- 
promise is  made  by  Mr.  Otto  Goldschmidt  in 
the  •  Bach  Choir  Magazine '  (Novello),  where  a 
~-  double  soprano  clef  is  used  for  the 
tenor  part.  This  method  was  proposed 
by  Gr^try,  Essai  s.  la  musique,  v.  200, 
While  on  the  subject  of  clefs,  passing  reference 
may  be  made  to  Neukomm's  somewhat  erratic 
idea  of  putting  the  whole  of  the  tenor  part  in 
his  edition  of  Haydn's '  Creation '  in  the  bass  clef. 
It  was  an  attempt  to  make  the  desired  simplifi- 
cation, and  at  the  same  time  denote  the  actual 
pitch  of  the  voice.  [H.  C.  D.] 

TENOROON,  a  name  sometimes  given  to 
the  Tenor  Bassoon  or  Alto  Fagotto  in  F.  It  is 
obviously  a  modification  of  the  word  Bassoon, 
for  which  little  authority  can  be  found.  The 
identity  of  this  instrument  with  the  Oboe  di 
Caccia  of  Bach  has  already  been  adverted  to, 
and  the  error  of  assigning  parts  written  for  it 
by  that  composer,  Beethoven,  and  others,  to  the 
Como  Inglese  or  Alto  Oboe  in  the  same  key  has 
been  corrected.  At  the  present  time  it  has 
entirely  gone  out  of  use.  A  fine  specimen,  now 
in  the  writer's  possession,  was  until  lately  in 
the  boys'  band  at  the  Foundling  Hospital; 
supposed  to  be  intended,  from  its  smaller  size, 
for  the  diminutive  hands  of  young  players. 

Its  tone  is  characteristic,  somewhat  more  reedy 
than  that  of  the  Bassoon.  The  word  was  used  by 
Gauntlett  for  the  compass  of  a  stop.     [W.H.S.] 

TENOR  VIOLIN  (Alto,  Contralto,  Quinte, 
Taillb,  Bratsohe,  Viola,  etc.)  A  violin  usually 
about  one-seventh  larger  in  its  general  dimen- 
sions than  the  ordinary  violin,  and  having  its 
compass  a  fifth  lower,  or  an  octave  above  the 
violoncello.  As  its  name  implies,  it  corresponds 
in  the  string  quartet  to  the  tenor  voice  in  the 


TEXOR  VIOLIN. 

vocal  quartet.    Its  part  is  written  in  the  C  alto 
clef,  thus — 


The  three  uppermost  strings  of  the  Tenor  are 
identical  in  pitch  with  the  three  lowest  strings 
of  the  violin ;  but  their  greater  length  requires 
them  to  be  proportionately  stouter.  The  fourth 
string,  like  the  third,  is  covered  with  wire.  The 
player  holds  the  Tenor  like  the  violin ;  but  the 
stop  is  somewhat  longer,  the  bow  used  for  it  is 
somewhat  heavier,  and  it  requires  greater  mus- 
cular force  in  both  hands.  The  method  of  execu- 
tion in  other  respects  is  identical  with  that  on 
the  violin.  The  tone  of  the  Tenor  however, 
owing  to  the  disproportion  between  the  size  and 
pitch  of  its  strings  on  the  one  hand,  and  the 
comparatively  small  size  of  its  body  on  the  other, 
is  of  a  different  quality  from  that  of  the  violin.  It 
is  less  powerful  and  brilliant,  having  a  muflSed 
character,  but  is  nevertheless  sympathetic  and 
penetrating.  Bad  Tenors  are  worse  than  bad  vio- 
lins ;  they  are  unequal  and  '  wolfish,'  and  have 
sometimes  a  decided  nasal  twang.  The  instrument 
is  humorously  described  by  Schnyder  von  Warten- 
see,  in  his  'Birthday  Ode'  addressed  to  Guhr: — 

Mann  nennt  mich  Frau  Base,  (Aunt) 

Denn  etwaa  sprech*  ich  durch  die  Nase, 
Doch  ehrlich  mein'  ich  ea,  und  treu : 

Altmodisch  bin  ich:  meine  Sitte 

Ist  stets  zu  bleiben  in  der  Mitte. 
Und  nie  mach'  ich  ein  gross'  Geschrei. 

In  this  article,  following  common  usage,  the 
word  '  Tenor '  is  used  to  denote  the  intermediate 
member  of  the  quartet  to  the  exclusion  of '  Alto ' : 
but  the  fact  is  that  the  Tenor  and  Alto  were 
once  distinct  instruments,  and  the  instrument 
which  we  call  'Tenor'  is  really  the  Alto,  the 
true  Tenor,  which  was  a  size  larger,  though  of 
the  same  pitch,  being  practically  obsolete. 

The  Tenor  is  an  earlier  instrument  than  the 
violin,  and  is  in  fact  the  oldest  instrument  of 
the  quartet.  Both  'Violitio'  in  Italian  and 
'Violon'  in  French  appear  to  have  originally 
designated  the  Tenor.  In  the  first  piece  of 
music  in  which  *  Violino'  occurs,  a  double  quar- 
tet in  the  church  style,  published  in  1597,'  this 
instrument  has  a  part  written  in  the  alto  clef, 
from  which  the  following  is  an  extract : — 


This  could  not  be  played  on  the  violin,  and  was 
obviously  written  for  the  Tenor :  and  an  instru- 
ment of  such  a  compass  capable  of  holding  its 
own  against  a  cornet  and  six  trumpets,  however 
lightly  voiced  the  latter  may  have  been,  can 
have  been  no  ordinary  fiddle.  The  large  and 
solid  Tenors  of  this  period  made  by  Gaspar  di 

I  Giovanni  Gabriel!,  Sonate  Plan  e  Forte  allaquarta  bassa.  Frinted 
in  the  Musical  Appendix  to  Waslelewskls  '  Die  Violine  im  xvii  Jahr- 
liundert).'  The  lowest  parts  iii  each  quartet  are  assigned  to  trum- 
vets  \.Ti'omboui},  the  other  soprano  part  to  the  cornet  (Ziuken). 


TENOR  VIOLIN.  8D 

Salo,  the  earlier  Amatis,  Peregrine  Zanetto,  etc., 
many  of  which  are  still  in  existence,  appear  to 
represent  the  original  'Violine'  These  Tenors 
when  new,  must  have  had  a  powerful  tone,  and 
they  were  probably  invented  in  order  to  produce 
a  stringed  instrument  which  should  compete  in 
church  music  with  the  comet  and  trumpet.  Being 
smaller  than  the  ordinary  bass  viola,  which  was 
the  form  of  viol  chiefly  in  use,  they  obtained  the 
name  *Violino.'  This  name  was  however  soon 
transferred  to  the  ordinary  violin.  When  the  latter 
first  made  its  appearance  in  Italian  music,'*  it 
was  called  *  Piccolo  Violino  alia  Francese ' ;  indi- 
cating that  this  smaller  '  Violino,'  to  which  the 
name  has  been  since  appropriated,  though  not 
generally  employed  in  Italy,  had  come  into  use 
in  France.  It  accords  with  this  that  the  original 
French  name  of  the  violin  is  '  Pardessus '  or 
*  dessus '  '  de  Violon,'  or  '  treble  of  the  Violon,' 
Violon  being  the  old  French  diminutive  of  Viole,* 
and  exactly  equivalent  to  *  Violino.'  Again,  the 
very  old  French  name  'Quinte'  for  the  Tenor, 
and  its  diminutive  '  Quinton,'  used  for  the  violin, 
seems  to  indicate  that  the  latter  was  a  diminutive 
of  some  larger  instrument  in  general  use.  We 
have  therefore  good  ground  for  concluding  that 
the  Tenor  is  somewhat  older  than  the  treble  or 
common  violin,  and  is  in  fact  its  archetype. 

Very  soon  after  the  '  Orfeo '  of  Monteverde, 
which  is  dated  1608,  we  find  the  above-mentioned 
composer,  Gabrieli,  writing  regular  violin  passages 
in  a  sonata  for  three  common  violins  and  a  Bass, 
the  former  being  designated  *  Violini.'  *  We  may 
therefore  fairly  suppose  that  the  early  years  of 
the  17th  century  saw  the  introduction  of  the 
violin  into  general  use  in  Italy,  and  the  transfer 
of  the  name  '  Violino '  to  the  smaller  instrument. 
In  the  same  year  (16 15)  we  have  a  'Canzonk 
6'  by  the  same  writer,  with  two  treble  violins 
(Violini),  a  comet,  a  tenor  vioKn  (called  Tenore) 
and  two  trumpets.'  In  Gregorio  Allegri's  '  Sym- 
phonia  k  4'*  (before  1650)  the  Tenor  is  deno- 
minated 'Alto,'  and  the  Bass  is  assigned  to  the 
'Basso  di  Viola'  or  Viola  da  Gamba.  Massi- 
miliano  Neri  (1644),  in  his  'Canzone  del  terzo 
tuono ' '  has  a  Tenor  part  in  which  the  Tenor  is 
called  for  the  first  time  'viola,'  a  name  which 
has  clung  to  it  ever  since. 

Shortly  after  this  (1663)  we  have  a  string 
quintet  with  two  viola  parts,  the  upper  of  which 
is  assigned  to  the  'Viola  Alto,'  the  lower,  written 
in  the  Taille  or  true  tenor  clef,  to  the  'Viola 
Tenore.'*  It  appears  from  the  parts  that  the 
compass  of  the  two  violas  was  identical,  nor 
is  any  distinction  observable  in  the  treatment. 
This  use  of  the  two  violas  is  common  in  the 
Italian  chamber  music  of  the  end  of  the  17th 
century,  a  remarkable  instance  being  the  'So- 
nate Varie'  of  the  Cremonese  composer  Vitali 
(Modena,  1684):  and  Handel's  employment  of 
the  two  instruments,  mentioned  lower  down,  is 

2  In  the  '  Orfeo '  of  Monteverde. 

3  So  voXIk,  vaXlon  ;  iupe,  jupon,  etc. 

«  Sonata  con  tre  Violini.  1615.    Wa*ielewtki,  Appendix,  p.  13. 

6  Ibid.  p.  15.  6  Ibid.  p.  26.  7  Ibid.  p.  32. 

«  Sonata  a  cinque,  da  Giovanni  Legrenzi.  Wasielewslci.  Appendix, 
p.  43.  The  treble  parts  are«ssigned  to  violins,  ttae  tiaas  to  the  '  Viola 
da  brazzo.* 


90 


TENOR  VIOLIN. 


TENOR  VIOLIN. 


probably  based  on  reminiscences  of  this  class  of 
music.  But  the  compass  and  general  effect  ol  the 
instruments  being  the  same,  the  disappearance 
of  the  great  viola  was  only  a  matter  of  time. 
Though  the  fiddle-makers  continued  for  some 
time  to  make  violas  of  two  sizes,  alto  and 
tenor  [see  Stradivari],  the  two  instruments 
coalesced  for  practical  purposes,  and  the  superior 
facility  with  which  the  smaller  viola  (Alto)  was 
handled  caused  the  true  Tenor  to  drop  out  of  use. 
From  about  the  end  of  the  century  the  Alto 
viola  appears  to  have  assumed  the  place  in  the 
orchestra  which  it  still  occupies,  and  to  have 
had  substantially  the  same  characteristics. 

The  Tenor  has  been  made  of  all  sizes,  ranging 
from  the  huge  instruments  of  Caspar  di  Salo 
and  his  contemporaries  to  the  diminutive  ones, 
scarcely  an  inch  longer  than  the  standard  violin, 
commonly  made  for  orchestral  use  a  century  or 
so  ago  :  and  its  normal  size  of  one-seventh  larger 
than  the  violin  is  the  result  of  a  compromise. 
The  explanation  is  that  it  is  radically  an  ano- 
malous instrument.  Its  compass  is  fixed  by 
strictly  musical  requirements:  but  when  the 
instrument  is  built  large  enough  to  answer 
acoustically  to  its  compass,  that  is,  so  as  to 
produce  the  notes  required  of  it  as  powerfully  as 
the  corresponding  notes  on  the  violin,  it  conies 
out  too  large  for  the  average  human  being  to  play 
it  fiddle-wise,  and  only  fit  to  be  played  cello- 
wise  between  the  knees.  If,  however,  the  Tenor 
is  to  be  played  like  the  violin,  and  no  one  has 
seriously  proposed  to  play  it  otherwise,  it  follows 
that  its  size  must  be  limited  by  the  length  of  the 
human  arm  when  beat  at  an  angle  of  about  1 20 
degrees.  But  even  the  violin  is  already  big 
enough :  though  instruments  have  from  time  to 
time  been  made  somewhat  larger  than  usual,  and 
that  by  eminent  makers  [see  Stradivari],  play- 
ers have  never  adopted  them ;  and  it  is  practi- 
cally found  that  one-seventh  longer  than  the 
ordinary  violin  is  the  outside  measurement  for 
the  Tenor  if  the  muscles  of  the  arms  and  hands 
are  to  control  the  instrument  comfortably,  and  to 
execute  ordinary  passages  upon  it.  The  Tenor 
is  therefore  by  necessity  a  dwarf :  it  is  too  small 
for  its  pitch,  and  its  tone  is  muffled  in  conse- 
quence. But  its  very  defects  have  become  the 
vehicle  of  peculiar  beauties.  Every  one  must 
have  remarked  the  penetrating  quality  of  its 
lower  strings,  and  the  sombre  and  passionate 
effect  of  its  upper  ones.  Its  tone  is  consequently 
so  distinctive,  and  so  arrests  the  attention  of  the 
listener,  that  fewer  Tenors  are  required  in  the 
orchestra  than  second  violins. 

Composers  early  discovered  the  distinctive 
capabilities  of  the  Tenor.  Handel  knew  them, 
though  he  made  but  little  use  of  them  :  they 
were  first  freely  employed  in  that  improvement 
of  the  dramatic  orchestra  by  Cluck  and  Sacchini, 
which  preceded  its  full  development  under  Mozart. 
Previously  to  this,  the  Tenor  was  chiefly  used 
to  fill  up  in  the  Tutti.  Sometimes  it  played  in 
unison  with  the  violins ;  more  frequently  with 
the  violoncellos :  but  in  general  it  was  assigned 
a  lower  second  violin  part.    Handel  employs  the 


Tenor  with  striking  effect  in 'Revenge,  Timotheua 
cries.'  The  first  part  of  the  song,  in  D  major, 
is  led  by  the  violins  and  hautboys  in  dashing 
and  animated  passages ;  then  succeeds  the  trio 
in  C  minor,  which  introduces  the  vision  of  the 
♦  Crecian  ghosts,  that  in  battle  were  slain.'  Here 
the  violins  are  silent,  and  the  leading  parts,  in 
measured  largo  time,  are  given  to  the  tenors  in 
two  divisions,  each  division  being  reinforced  by 
bassoons.  The  effect  is  one  of  indescribable  gloom 
and  horror.  It  is  noteworthy  that  the  composer, 
whether  to  indicate  the  theoretical  relation  of 
the  two  parts,  or  the  practical  employment  of 
the  larger  Tenors  by  themselves  for  the  lower 
one,  has  written  the  first  part  only  in  the  alto 
clef,  and  headed  it  '  Viola,'  the  second  part  being 
written  in  the  Taille  or  true  tenor  clef,  and 
headed  'Tenor':  but  the  compass  of  the  parts  is 
identical.  The  climax  will  serve  as  a  specimen : — 


J^ii^-J- 


-Tpn 


^J   J  j-*-r--U-f  i  I   I    r3EB 


^ 


glo-rioos  on  the  Plain 


andun ' 


^^1^^ 


TENOR  VIOLIN. 


TENOR  VIOLIN. 


Berlioz,  who  overlooks  this  passage  in  Handel, 
enumerates  among  the  early  instances  of  the  em- 
ployment of  its  distinctive  qualities,  the  passage 
in  *Iphigenia  in  Aulis,'  where  Orestes,  over- 
whelmed with  fatigue  and  remorse,  and  panting 
for  breath,  sings  *Le  calme  rentre  dans  mon 
ccEur';  meanwhile  the  orchestra,  in  smothered 
agitation,  sobs  forth  convulsive  plaints,  unceas- 
ingly dominated  by  the  fearful  and  obstinate 
chiding  of  the  Tenors.  The  fascination,  the 
sensation  of  horror,  which  this  evokes  in  the 
audience,  Berlioz  attributes  to  the  quality  of 
the  note  A  on  the  Tenor's  third  string,  and  the 
syncopation  of  the  note  with  the  lower  A  on  the 
basses  in  a  different  rhythm.  In  the  overture  to 
•  Iphigenia  in  Aulis,'  Gluck  employs  the  Tenors 
for  another  purpose.  He  assigns  them  a  light 
bass  accompaniment  to  the  melody  of  the  first 
violins,  conveying  to  the  hearer  the  illusion  that 
he  is  listening  to  the  violoncellos.  Suddenly,  at 
the  forte,  the  basses  enter  with  great  force  and 
surprising  effect.  Sacchini  uses  the  Tenors  for  the 
same  effect  (pour  preparer  une  explosion)  in  the 
air  of  (Edipus,  *  Votre  coeur  devient  mon  asyle,' 
(This  effect,  it  may  be  observed,  is  also  to  be 
found  in  Handel.)  Modern  writers  have  often 
used  the  Tenor  to  sustain  the  melody,  in  antique, 
religious,  and  sombre  subjects.  Berlioz  attributes 
its  use  in  this  way  to  Spontini,  who  employs  it 
to  give  out  the  prayers  of  the  Vestal.  Mehul, 
fancying  that  there  resided  in  the  Tenor  tone  a 
peculiar  aptitude  for  expressing  the  dreamy  cha- 
racter of  the  Ossianic  poetry,  employed  Tenors 
for  all  the  treble  parts,  to  the  entire  exclusion 
of  violins,  throughout  his  opera  of  '  Uthal.*  It 
was  in  the  course  of  this  dismal  and  monotonous 
wail  that  Grdtry  exclaimed  '  Je  donnerai  un  louis 
pour  entendre  une  chanterelle  ! ' 

Berlioz,  in  '  Harold  en  Italic,'  and  Bennett,  in 
his  Symphony  in  G  minor,  have  employed  the 
Tenor  with  great  effect  to  sustain  pensive  melo- 
dies. When  melodies  of  a  similar  character  are 
entrusted  to  the  violoncellos,  the  tone  acquires 
great  roundness  and  purity  if  reinforced  by  the 
Tenors — witness  the  Adagio  of  Beethoven's  Sym- 
phony in  C  minor.  In  chamber  music,  the  Tenor 
executes  sustained  and  arpeggio  accompaniments, 
occasionally  takes  up  melodic  subjects,  and  em- 
ployed in  unison  is  a  powerful  supporter  of  either 
of  its  neighbours.  Mozart's  Trio  for  piano,  clari- 
net, and  viola,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  and 
effective  works  in  the  whole  range  of  chamber 
music,  affords  admirable  illustrations  of  its  gen- 
eral capacities  when  used  without  a  violoncello. 

Brahms's  Quintet  in  Bb,  and  one  of  his 
string  quartets,  will  afford  good  examples  of  the 
prominent  use  of  the  viola,  and  the  special  effect 
produced  by  it.  It  is  interesting  to  observe  that 
the  modem  chamber  string  quartet,  of  which 
the  Tenor  is  so  important  a  member,  is  based, 
not  on  the  early  chamber  music,  but  on  the 
stringed  orchestra  of  the  theatre.  Corelli,  Pur- 
cell,  and  Handel  employed  the  Tenor  in  their 
orchestral  writings,  but  excluded  it  from  their 
chamber  music;  nor  was  it  until  the  orchestral 
quartet  had  been  perfected  for  theatrical  pur- 


poses by  Handel,  Gluck,  and  Sacchini  that  the 
chamber  quartet  settled  into  its  present  shape  in 
the  hands  of  Haydn,  Abel,  J.  C.  Bach,  and  their 
contemporaries.  Mozart  marks  the  period  when 
the  Tenor  assumed  its  proper  rank  in  both  kinds 
of  music. 

The  Tenor  is  essentially  an  ancillary  instru- 
ment. Played  alone,  or  in  combination  with  the 
piano  only,  its  tone  is  thin  and  ineffective  :  and 
the  endeavours  which  have  been  made  by  some 
musicians  to  create  an  independent  school  of 
tenor-playing,  and  a  distinctive  class  of  tenor 
music,  are  founded  on  error.  It  is  simply  a  large 
violin,  intended  to  fill  up  the  gap  between  the 
fiddle  and  the  bass  ;  and  except  in  special  effects, 
where,  as  we  have  seen,  it  is  used  for  purposes 
of  contrast,  it  imperatively  demands  the  ringing 
tones  of  the  violin  above  it. 

Competent  musicians,  who  are  masters  of  the 
piano,  attracted  by  the  simplicity  of  the  tenor  part 
in  most  quartets,  often  take  up  theTenor  with  but 
little  knowledge  of  the  violin.  This  is  a  mis- 
take :  it  is  usually  found  that  the  Tenor  can  only 
be  properly  played  by  a  practised  violinist.  The 
Violin  and  Tenor  make  an  effective  duet ;  witness 
the  charming  works  of  Haydn,  Mozart,  and 
Spohr,  and  the  less  known  but  very  artistic 
and  numerous  ones  of  Rolla,  by  the  aid  of  which 
any  competent  violinist  will  soon  become  master 
of  the  Tenor.  Mozart  wrote  a  concerto  for  Vio- 
lin, Tenor,  and  Orchestra.  The  trios  of  Mozart 
and  Beethoven  for  Violin,  Tenor,  and  Violoncello 
are  too  well  known  to  need  more  than  mentioning. 

Owing,  probably,  to  the  structural  peculiarities 
that  have  been  explained  above,  what  is  the  best 
model  for  the  violin  is  not  the  best  for  the  Tenor. 
It  would  seem  that  the  limitation  which  neces- 
sity imposes  upon  its  length  ought  to  be  com- 
pensated by  an  increase  in  height :  for  Tenors  of 
high  model  are  undoubtedly  better  than  those  of 
flat  model,  and  hence  Stradivari  Tenors  are  kept 
rather  to  be  admired  than  played  upon.  The  best 
Tenors  for  use  are  certainly  those  of  the  Amati 
school,  or  old  copies  of  the  same  by  good  English 
makers :  in  this  country  the  favourite  Tenor- 
maker  is  undoubtedly  Banks.  New  fiddles  are 
sometimes  fairly  good  in  tone :  but  new  Tenors 
are  always  intolerably  harsh,  from  the  combined 
effect  of  their  newness  and  of  the  flat  model  which 
is  now  universally  preferred.  If,  however,  makers 
of  the  Tenor  would  copy  Amati,  instead  of  Stra- 
divari, this  would  no  longer  be  the  case. 

Mr.  Hermann  Ritter,  a  Tenor-player  resident 
in  Heidelberg,  in  ignorance  of  the  fact  that  the 
large  Tenor  was  in  use  for  more  than  a  century, 
and  was  abandoned  as  impracticable,  claims  a 
Tenor  of  monstrous  proportions,  on  which  he  is 
said  to  play  with  considerable  effect,  as  an  inven- 
tion of  his  own.^  If  all  Tenor-players  were  of  the 
herculean  proportions  of  Mr.  Ritter,  the  great 
Tenor  might  perhaps  be  revived :  but  human 

1  See  'Die  Qeschlchte  der  Viola  Alts,  tind  die  GnindsStze  Ihret- 
Baues,  Von H.  Ritter '  (Leipzio,  Weber.  18T7);  'Hermann  Kitter  und 
seine  Viola  Alta,  Von  E.  Adema'  (Warzburg,  Stuber,  1881).  The  prac- 
tical vlolln-maker  may  estimate  the  value  of  Instruments  constructed 
on  Mr.  Bitter's  rules  from  the  fact  that  he  takes  as  his  guide  the 
'calcolo '  of  Bagatella ! 


92 


TENOR  VIOLIN. 


TENTH  SYMPHONY. 


beings  of  ordinary  stature  are  quite  incapable  of 
wrestling  with  such  an  instrument :  to  which  it 
may  be  added  that  tlie  singular  and  beautiful 
tenor  tone,  resulting  from  the  necessary  dispro- 
portion between  the  pitch  and  the  dimensions  of 
the  instrument,  is  now  too  strongly  identified 
with  it  to  admit  of  any  change. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  special  music  for  the 
Tenor. 

Methods : 

Bbdni,  Marsh,  Fickert,  Lutgen  (recom- 
mended). 

Studies  : 
Campagnoli — 41  Caprices,  op.  22. 
Kayser — Studies,  op.  43,  op.  55. 

Tenor  and  Orchestra : 
F.  David— Concertino,  op.  12. 

Tenor  and  Piano : 

Schumann — op.  113,  *Mahrchen  Bilder,*  4 
pieces. 

W.  Hill  — Nottumo,  Scherzo,  and  Romance. 

Joachim — Op.  9,  Hebrew  Melodies ;  op.  10, 
Variations  on  an  original  theme. 

Kalliwoda — 6  Nocturnes,  op.  186. 

LiJTGBN— Barcarole,  op.  33. 

Taglichsbeck — Op.  49,  Concertstiick. 

HoFMANN.  C. — Reverie,  op.  45. 

Wallner — Fantaisie  de  Concert. 

Herr  H.  Ritter  has  also  edited  *  Repertorium 
fiir  Viola  Alta*  (Niimberg,  Schmid),  containing 
twenty-two  pieces,  mostly  classical  transcriptions 
with  pianoforte  accompaniment.  [E.  J.P.] 

Scherzo.  Presto. 


TENTH    SYMPHONY,    BEETHOVEN'S. 

In  Beethoven's  (dictated)  letter  to  Moscheles 
acknowledging  the  £100  sent  by  the  Philhar- 
monic Society,  and  dated  Vienna,  March  18, 
1827,  eight  days  before  his  death,  there  occur 
the  words  'A  Symphony  completely  sketched 
is  lying  in  my  desk,  as  well  as  a  new  Overture 
and  other  things.*  This  therefore  was  the 
'Tenth  Symphony.'  It  should  however  be  re- 
marked that  a  large  part  of  the  letter  con- 
taining the  words  quoted  is  struck  through  with 
the  pen.  Two  days  afterwards,  says  Schindler 
(ii.  142),  'he  was  greatly  excited,  desired  to 
have  the  sketches  for  the  Tenth  Symphony 
again  brought  to  him,  and  said  much  to  me 
on  the  plan  of  the  work.  He  intended  it  abso- 
lutely for  the  Philharmonic  Society.*  Some 
sketches — whether  those  alluded  to  or  not — 
were  printed  in  the  ist  no.  of  Hirschbach's 
♦  Musikalisch-kritisches  Repertorium.'  for  Jan. 
1844,  with  an  introduction  which  we  translate : — 

'  From  Beethoven's  sketch-books.  Herr  Schind- 
ler on  his  return  from  Berlin  to  Aix  la  Chapelle, 
not  only  showed  many  very  remarkable  relics  of 
Beethoven  to  his  friends  at  Leipzig,  but  has 
been  good  enough  to  allow  us  to  publish  some 
of  them  in  this  periodical.  The  following  are 
some  of  the  existing  sketches  of  the  Tenth  Sym- 
phony and  of  an  Overture  on  the  name  of  Bach,^ 
all  belonging  to  the  summer  months  of  the  year 
1824,  and  in  the  order  in  which  they  were  noted 
down. 

*From  the  sketches  for  the  Tenth  Sym- 
phony : — * 


-#--#--•- 


S^ 


tit 


^ 


Jii 


Trio. 


g-rfTTTCiC 


i 


It 


^111        I 


ffTT 


i==t 


±f|=J=t 


-^ 


rff 


Andante.    A  flat. 


^pr. 


m:  I  r  fmn 


^ 


Ferma. 

Some  further  scraps  of  information  have  been 
Mndly  furnished  by  Mr.  Thayer,  *Carl  Holz 
told  Otto  Jahn  that  there  was  an  Introduction 
to  the  Tenth  Symphony  in  Eb  major,  a  soft 
piece;  then  a  powerful  Allegro  in  C  minor. 
These  were  complete  in  Beethoven's  head,  and 
had  been  played  to  Holz  on  the  piano.'  Con- 
sidering that  the  date  of  Beethoven's  death  was 
1827,  nearly  three  years  after  the  sununer  of 
1824,  and  considering  also  Beethoven's  habit 


of  copious  sketching  at  works  which  were  in 
his  head,  it  is  almost  impossible  but  that  more 
sketches  than  the  trifles  quoted  above  exist  in 
some  of  the  sketch-books.  And  though  Notte- 
bohm  is  unhappily  no  more,  some  successor  to 
him  will  doubtless  be  found  to  decypher  and 
place  these  before  us.  [G.] 

1  rosslbly  for  the  overture  mentioned  above.  These  are  omitted  in 
the  present  reprint. 

2  We  have  no  clue  as  to  whichof  the  words  attached  to  theslcetchea 
are  Beethoven's,  and  which  Schindler's. 


TENUTO. 

TENUTO,  'held';  a  direction  of  very  frequent 
occurrence  in  pianoforte  music,  though  not  often 
used  in  orchestral  scores.  It  (or  its  contraction 
ten. )  is  used  to  draw  attention  to  the  fact  that  parti- 
cular notes  or  chords  are  intended  to  be  sustained 
for  their  full  value,  in  passages  where  staccato 
phrases  are  of  such  frequency  that  the  players 
might  omit  to  observe  tliat  some  notes  are  to  be 
played  smoothly  in  contrast.  Its  effect  is  almost 
exactly  the  same  as  that  of  legato,  save  that  this 
last  refers  ratlier  to  the  junction  of  one  note  with 
another,  and  tenuto  to  the  note  regarded  by  itself. 
Thus  the  commoner  direction  of  the  two  for  pas- 
sages of  any  length,  is  legato:  tenuto  however 
occurs  occasionally  in  this  connection,  as  in  the 
slow  movement  of  Beethoven's  Sonata,  op.  2,  no. 
2,  in  A,  where  the  upper  stave  is  labelled  '  tenuto 
sempre,*  while  the  bass  is  to  be  played  staccato. 
Another  good  instance  is  in  the  slow  movement 
of  Weber's  Sonata  in  Ab,  op.  39.        [J.A.F.M.] 

TERCE  (Lat.  Officium  {vel  Oratio)  ad  horam 
tertiam.  Ad  tertiam).  The  second  division  of 
the  Lesser  Hours,  in  the  Roman  Breviary.  The 
Office  consists  of  the  Versicle  and  Response, 
•Deus  in  adjutorium';  the  Hymn  'Nunc  Sancte 
nobis  Spiritus';  48  Verses  of  the  Psalm,  'Beati 
immaculati,'  beginning  at  Verse  33,  and  sung 
in  three  divisions  under  a  single  Antipbon  ;  the 
Capitulum  and  Responsorium  for  the  Season  ; 
and  the  Prayer  or  Collect  for  the  Day.  The 
Plain  Chaunt  Music  proper  to  the  Office  will 
be  found  in  the  *Antiphonarium  Romanum,'  and 
the  *  Directorium  Chori.'  [W.S.R.] 

TERPODION.  A  musical  friction-instrument, 
invented  by  Buschmann  of  Berlin  in  1816,  and 
improved  by  his  sons  in  1832.  The  principle  ap- 
pears to  have  been  the  same  as  that  of  Chladni's 
clavicylinder,  except  that  instead  of  glass,  wood 
was  employed  for  the  cylinder.  [See  Chladni.] 
In  form  it  resembled  a  square  piano,  and  its  keys 
embraced  6  octaves.  Warm  tributes  to  its  merits 
by  Spohr,  Weber,  Rink  and  Hummel  are  quoted 
(A.  M.  Z.  xxxiv.  857,  858,  see  also  634,  645; 
and  1.  451  note),  but  notwithstanding  these,  the 
instrument  is  no  longer  known.  [G.] 

TERZETTO  (Ital).  Generally  a  composition 
for  three  voices.  Beyond  one  instance  in  Bach, 
and  a  few  modern  examples  consisting  of  pieces 
not  in  sonata-form,  the  term  has  never  been 
applied  to  instrumental  music.  It  is  now  be- 
commg  obsolete,  being  superseded  by  Trio, 
which  is  the  name  given  to  music  written  for 
three  instruments,  and  now  includes  vocal  music 
as  well.  It  would  have  been  wiser  to  preserve 
the  distinction. 

A  Terzetto  may  be  for  any  combination  of  three 
voices,  whether  for  three  trebles — as  the  unac- 
companied Angels*  Trio  in  'Elijah,'  those  of  the 
three  ladies  and  three  boys  in  *  Die  Zauberflote,' 
and  that  for  three  florid  sopranos  in  Spohr's 
*  Zemire  und  Azor' — or  for  three  male  voices,  like 
the  canonic  trio  in  the  last-named  opera.  More 
frequent,  naturally,  are  Terzetti  for  mixed  voices, 
the  combinations  being  formed  according  to  the 
exigencies  of  the  situation.     There  is  nothing  to 


TESI-TRAMONTINI. 


93 


be  observed  in  the  form  of  a  Terzetto  different 
from  that  of  any  other  vocal  composition ;  but  as 
regards  harmony  it  should  be  noticed  that  when 
a  bass  voice  is  not  included  in  the  combination 
the  accompaniment  usually  supplies  the  bass 
(where  4-part  harmony  is  required)  an(t  the  three 
upper  parts,  taken  by  the  voices,  must  be  so 
contrived  as  to  form  a  tolerable  3-part  harmony 
themselves.     Such  writing  as  the  following,  for 


^^ 


though  sounding  well  enough  when  played  on  the 
piano,  would  have  a  detestable  effect  if  sung,  as 
the  bass  would  not  really  complete  the  chords  of 
6-^  demanded  by  the  lower  parts,  on  account  of 
the  difference  of  timbre. 

We  may  point  to  the  end  of  the  2nd  act  of 
Wagner's  'Gotterdaminerung'  as  an  example  of 
three  voices  singing  at  the  same  time  but  cer- 
tainly not  forming  a  Terzetto.  [^-C] 

TESI-TRAMONTINI,  Vittoria,  celebrated 
singer,  bom  at  Florence  in  1690.^  Her  first 
instructor  was  Francesco  Redi,  whose  school  of 
singing  was  established  at  Florence  in  1706. 
At  a  later  date  she  studied  under  Campeggi,  at 
Bologna,  but  it  is  evident  that  she  sang  on  the 
public  stage  long  before  her  years  of  study  were 
over.  Fdtis  and  others  say  that  her  debut  was 
made  at  Bologna,  after  which  nothing  transpires 
about  her  till  1719,  in  which  year  she  sang  at 
Venice  and  at  Dresden,  and  just  at  the  time 
when  Handel  arrived  there  in  quest  of  singers 
for  the  newly-established  Royal  Academy  in 
London.  It  seems  probable  that  he  and  Vittoria 
had  met  before.  In  his  Life  of  Handel,  Dr. 
Chrysander  suggests,  and  shows  good  reason  for 
doing  so,  that  Vittoria  Tesi  was  the  young  prima 
donna  who  sang  in  Handel's  first  Italian  opera 
*  Rodrigo,'  at  Florence,  in  1707,  and  in  his 
*Agrippina,'  at  Venice,  in  1708,  and  who  fell 
desperately  in  love  with  the  young  Saxon 
maestro.  Her  voice  was  of  brilliant  quality  and 
unusual  compass.  Quantz,  who  heard  her  at 
Dresden,  defines  it  as  *  a  contralto  of  masculine 
strength,'  but  adds  that  she  could  sing  high  or 
low  with  equally  little  effort.  Fire,  force,  and 
dramatic  expression  were  her  strong  points,  and 
she  succeeded  best  in  men's  parts :  in  florid 
execution  she  did  not  greatly  excel.  Her  fame 
and  success  were  at  their  zenith  in  17 19,  but  it 
does  not  appear  that  Handel  made  any  effort  to 
secure  her  for  England.  Perhaps  he  objected  to 
her  practice  of  singing  bass  songs  transposed 
alV  oltava.  La  Tesi  sang  at  Venice  in  1723,  at 
Florence  and  Naples  in  1724-5,  at  Milan  in 
1727,  Parma  1728,  Bologna  1731,  Naples  (San 
Carlo  Theatre)  from  November  4,  1737*  t^l^  *^^® 


u 


TESI-TRAMONTINI. 


end  of  the  ensuing  Carnival,  for  which  engage- 
ment she  received  about  500^.,  a  large  sum  in 
those  days.  In  1 748  she  was  at  Vienna,  where, 
in  1749,  she  played  in  Jommelli's  'Didone.'  The 
book  was  by  Metastasio,  who  wrote  of  this 
occasion,  *'  The  Tesi  has  grown  younger  by 
twenty  years.'  She  was  then  fifty- five.  Bumey 
met  her  at  Vienna  in  1772,  and  speaks  of  her 
«s  more  than  eighty.  Hiller  and  Fetis  say  she 
was  only  that  age  at  her  death,  in  1775.  But 
if  Gerber's  date  and  Chrysander's  theory  are 
right,  Bumey  was  right.  Her  nature  was 
vivacious  and  emporU  to  a  degree,  and  many 
tales  were  told  of  her  freaks  and  escapades. 
Perhaps  most  wonderful  of  all  is  the  story  of  her 
marriage,  as  told  by  Bumey  in  his  '  Musical 
Tour  *  ;  in  which,  to  avoid  marrying  a  certain 
nobleman,  she  went  into  the  street,  and  ad- 
dressing herself  to  a  poor  labouring  man,  said 
she  would  give  him  fifty  ducats  if  he  would 
marry  her,  not  with  a  view  to  their  living  to- 
gether, but  to  serve  a  purpose.  The  poor  man 
readily  consented  to  become  her  nominal  hus- 
band, and  they  were  formally  married;  and 
when  the  Count  renewed  his  solicitations,  she 
told  him  that  she  was  already  the  wife  of  another. 
Among  the  pupils  of  La  Tesi  were  the  •  Teube- 
rinn,'  and  Signora  de  Amicis,  who  took  a  friendly 
interest  in  the  boy  Mozart,  and  sang  in  his 
earliest  operatic  efforts  in  Italy.  [F.  A.  M.] 

TESSITURA  (Italian),  literally  texture,  from 
tessere,  to  weave.  A  term,  for  wliich  there  is  no 
direct  equivalent  in  English,  used  by  the  Italians 
to  indicate  how  the  music  of  a  piece  *  lies ' ;  that 
is  to  say,  what  is  the  prevailing  or  average 
position  of  its  notes  in  relation  to  the  compass 
of  the  voice  or  instrument  for  which  it  is  written, 
whether  high,  low,  or  medium.  '  Range  *  does  not 
at  all  give  the  idea,  as  the  range  may  be  ex- 
tended, and  the  general  tessitura  limited;  while 
the  range  may  be  high  and  the  tesdtura  low, 
or  medium.  In  place  of  a  corresponding  word 
we  say  that  a  part  'lies  high  or  low.' 

'  Vedrai  carino,'  •  Dalla  sua  pace,'  'Dove  sono,' 
are  examples  of  high  tessitura,  fatiguing  gene- 
rally to  voices  that  are  not  highly  developed. 
Indeed,  there  are  many  who  would  prefer  sing- 
ing the  'Inflammatus'  from  Rossini's  'Stabat 
Mater'  to  such  a  piece  as  'Dove  sono.'  Many  of 
the  old  Italian  composers  wrote  music  of  a  high 
tessitura,  though  it  is  true  that  the  pitch  was 
lower  in  their  day  than  it  is  now.  *  Deh !  vieni, 
non  tardar,'  is  an  example  of  moderate  tessitura,' 
though  it  has  a  compass  of  two  octaves.  The  fes- 
eitura  of  the  vocal  music  in  Beethoven's  9th  Sym- 
phony is  justly  the  singers'  nightmare.  [H.C.D.] 

TETRACHORD  (Gr.  TerpaxopSov).  A  system 
of  four  sounds,  comprised  within  the  limits  of  a 
Perfect  Fourth. 

It  was  for  the  purpose  of  superseding  the  cum- 
brous machinery  of  the  Tetrachords  upon  which  the 
old  Greek  Scale  depended  for  its  existence,*  that 

I  A  description  of  the  Greek  Tetrachords  would  be  quite  beside  the 
purpose  of  the  present  article.  Those  who  wish  for  a  closer  ac- 
quaintance with  the  peculiarities  of  the  Greek  .Scale  will  do  well  to 
consult  a  little  tract,  by  General  Perronet  Thompson,  called  'Just 
Intouatioa '  (Loudon,  EfflDgham  Wilson,  11  Boyal  Exchanse). 


TEUFELS  LUSTSCHLOSS. 

Guido  d'Arezzo  invented  the  series  of  Hexa- 
chords,  which,  universally  accepted  by  the  Poly- 
phonic Composers  of  the  Middle  Ages,  remained 
in  constant  use  until  the  Ecclesiastical  Modes 
were  finally  abandoned  in  favour  of  our  present 
Scale  ;^  and  it  is  only  by  comparing  these  Hexa- 
chords  with  the  divisions  of  the  older  system  that 
their  value  can  be  truly  apfireciated.  It  is  not 
pretended  that  they  were  perfect ;  but  modem 
mathematical  science  has  proved  that  the  step 
taken  by  Guido  was  wholly  in  the  right  direc- 
tion. The  improvement  which  led  to  its  aban- 
donment was,  in  the  first  instance,  a  purely 
empirical  one ;  though  we  now  know  that  it 
rests  upon  a  firm  mathematical  basis.  The 
natural  craving  of  the  refined  musical  ear  for 
a  Leading  Note  led,  first,  to  the  general  employ- 
ment of  a  recognised  system  of  '  accidental ' 
sounds';  and,  in  process  of  time,  to  the  un- 
restricted use  of  the  ^olian  and  Ionian 
Modes — the  prototypes  of  our  Major  and  Minor 
Scales.  These  changes  naturally  prepared  the 
way  for  the  unprepared  Dissonances  of  Monte- 
verde  ;  and,  with  the  introduction  of  these,  tlie 
old  system  was  suddenly  brought  to  an  end,  and 
our  present  Tonality  firmly  established  upon  its 
ruins. 

Our  present  Major  Scale  is  formed  of  two 
Tetrachords,  separated  by  a  greater  Tone:  the 
Semitone,  in  each,  occurring  between  the  two 
highest  sounds. 


i 


Our  Minor  Scale  is  formed  of  two  dissimilar 
Tetrachords,  also  disjunct  (i.e.  separated  by  a 
greater  Tone) ;  in  the  uftpermost  of  which  the 
Semitone  occurs  between  the  two  gravest  sounds, 
as  at  (a) ;  while,  in  the  lower  one,  it  is  placed 
between  the  two  middle  ones ;  as  at  (6)  (&). 


(«). 


(P) 


This  last  Tetrachord  maintains  its  form  un- 
changed, whether  the  Scale  ascend  or  descend; 
but,  in  the  ascending  Minor  Scale,  the  upper 
Tetrachord  usually  takes  the  form  of  those  em- 
ployed in  the  Major  Mode. 


[W.S.R.] 

TEUFELS  LUSTSCHLOSS,  DES  (The 
Devil's  Country-house).  A  comic  opera  in  3  acts, 
by  Kotzebue,  music  by  Schubert;  composed  be- 
tween Jan.  II  and  May  15,  18 14,  and  re-written 
in  the  autumn.  Act  2  was  afterwards  burnt.  Acts 
I  and  3  of  the  2nd  version  are  in  the  collection 
of  Herr  Nicolaus  Dumba  of  Vienna.  The  overture 
was  played  by  the  London  Musical  Society,  June 
17,  1880,  and  at  the  Crystal  Palace  on  Oct.  23 
following.  It  contains  a  singular  anticipation  of 
the  muted  violin  passage  in  the  overture   to 


3  8«e  hexacbord. 


a  8m  Ucsica  Ficta. 


TEUFELS  LUSTSCHLOSS. 

*Euryanthe.'  The  work  will  form  no.  6  of 
Series  XV,  in  the  complete  critical  edition  of 
Schubert,  announced  by  Messrs.  Breitkopfs.  [G.] 

TEUTSCHE.  Mozart's  way  of  spelling  Deut- 
sche, i.e.  Deutsche  Tanze — little  German  waltzes 
in  3-8  or  3-4,  of  which  he,  Beethoven,  and 
Schubert,  wrote  many.  For  Schubert's  *Atzen- 
brucker  Deutsche,  July  1S21,'  see  vol.  iii.  p. 
334  6.  The  famous  '  Trauer-Waltzer,'  sometimes 
called  *Le  D^sir'  (op.  9,  no,  2),  for  long  attri- 
buted to  Beethoven,  is  a  Teutsch.  [Allemande, 
no.  2,  vol.  i.  p.  55  6.]  [G.] 

THALBERG,  Sigismond,  one  of  the  most 
successful  virtuosi  of  this  century,  was  born  at 
Geneva — according  to  his  biographer,  Mendel,  on 
May  5,  according  to  Fetis  on  Jan.  7,  according 
to  a  brother  of  his  now  established  at  Vienna,  on 
Feb.  7,  1812.  Being  the  son  of  Prince  Dietrich- 
stein,  who  had  many  wives  without  being  mar- 
ried, Thalberg  had  several  brothers  of  different 
family  names.  The  one  just  mentioned  is  Mr. 
Leitzinger,  three  months  older  than  Thalberg — 
a  fact  which  speaks  for  itself.  Another  half- 
brother  of  his  is  Baron  Denner.  Thalberg's 
mother  was  the  Baroness  Wetzlar,  a  highly- 
educated  lady,  full  of  talent,  who  took  the 
greatest  care  of  Thalberg's  early  education.  In 
Geneva  he  remained  in  the  pension  Siciliewski 
under  the  guidance  of  a  governess,  Mme.  Denver, 
and  the  superintendence  of  his  mother.  This 
Mme.  Denver,  and  Miiller — a  Frenchman,  al- 
though his  name  be  German — took  Thalberg  to 
Vienna  to  his  father's  palace.  He  was  then  just 
10  years  old.  The  Prince  was  so  fond  of  him 
that  he  gave  up  an  Ambassador's  appointment 
to  devote  all  his  time  to  the  education  of '  Sigi ' 
(this  was  his  pet-name).  Thalberg  showed  a 
great  aptitude  for  music  and  languages,  and 
was  destined  by  his  father  to  become  a  diplo- 
matist, and  with  a  view  to  this  had  the  best 
masters  to  teach  him.  If  a  friendly — perhaps 
too  friendly — source  is  to  be  credited,  he  made 
rapid  progress,  especially  in  Greek  and  geo- 
graphy, which  may  account  for  the  curious 
collection  of  maps  with  which  he  adorned  his 
room  at  Naples.  His  first  success  dates  back 
so  far  as  1826,  when  he  was  14  years  old,  and 
played  at  an  evening  party  at  Prince  Clemens 
]Metternich's,  the  then  master  of  the  diplomatic 
world,  of  whom  it  is  said  that,  when  a  lady,  a 
great  patroness  of  music,  asked  him  whether  it 
was  true  that  he  was  not  fond  of  music,  he  re- 
plied : — 'Oh,  Madame,  je  ne  la  crains  pas!' 
About  Thalberg's  piano  teachers  a  number  of 
divergent  reports  are  current;  but  it  is  certain 
that  he  learned  from  Mittag,  and  that  the  great 
organist  and  harmonist,  Sechter,  the  first  Ger- 
man who  simplified  and  most  clearly  demon- 
strated the  principles  of  harmony,  taught  him 
counterpoint.  F^tis's  statements  about  Thalberg 
are  not  sufiiciently  verified.  Czemy  never  taught 
him,  though  he  gave  five  or  six  lessons  to  Franz 
Liszt.  The  first  opportunity  which  offered  for 
Thalberg's  celebrity  was  in  1833,  at  a  soiree 
given  by  Count  Apponyi,  then  Austrian  Am- 


THALBERG. 


95 


bassador  at  Paris,  and  later  Austrian  Ambas- 
sador in  London.  Thalberg  was  then  2 1  years 
old,  of  an  agreeable  aristocratic  appearance,  re- 
fined manners,  very  witty  ;  only  a  trifle  too  much 
given  to  making  puns,  an  amusement  rather  easy 
in  French,  and  in  which  foreigners  too  much  in- 
dulge. Kind-hearted,  and  uncommonly  careful 
not  to  say  an  incautious  word  which  might  hurt 
any  one's  feelings,  he  became  at  once  the  ladies' 
pet— and  what  that  means  in  Paris,  those  who 
know  French  society  will  not  undervalue.  His 
innovations  on  the  piano  were  of  the  smallest 
possible  importance  ;  he  invented  forms  and 
effects.  He  had  wonderfully  formed  fingers,  the 
forepart  of  which  were  real  little  cushions.  This 
formation  and  very  persevering  study  enabled 
Thalberg  to  produce  such  wonderful  legates,  that 
Liszt  said  of  him,  *  Thalberg  is  the  only  artist, 
who  can  play  the  violin  on  the  keyboard.'  When 
he  played  for  the  first  time  in  public,  at  Viexma, 
1829,  his  touch  and  expression  at  once  conquered 
the  audience,  but  even  then  principally  the  ladies. 
In  Paris  his  winning  manners  and  the  touch  of 
scientific  education,  which  with  adroit  modesty  he 
knew  how  to  show  under  pretence  of  concealing 
it,  contributed  as  much  as  his  talent  to  render  him 
the  talk  of  the  day.  Thalberg  was  so  fond  of  music 
that  he  overcame  Prince  Dietrichstein's  idea  of 
a  diplomatic  career,  by  dint  of  earnest  determin- 
ation. He  often  left  his  bed  at  three  o'clock  in 
the  morning  to  practise  his  piano,  and  those  who 
heard  hini  privately  and  knew  him  intimately  were 
much  more  apt  to  estimate  the  ease  with  which  he 
overcame  difficulties,  than  those  were  who  heard 
him  play  his  compositions  in  public.  Among  all 
great  piano-players,  it  should  be  said  of  him, 
as  Catalani  said  of  Sontag  :  '  His  genre  was  not 
great,  but  he  was  great  in  his  genreJ'  He  was  . 
amiable,  both  as  a  man  and  as  a  performer.  It 
was  certainly  a  curious  anomaly  that  while  he 
so  earnestly  preached  against  the  mania  of  the 
century  to  sacrifice  everything  to  effect,  the  gist 
of  his  art,  the  aim  and  purpose  of  all  his  musical 
studies,  was  nothing  but  to  produce  effect. 

In  his  career  as  a  composer  of  operas,  two  events, 
both  unfoitunate,  must  be  mentioned.  His  opera 
'Cristina'  was  a  dead  failure.  'Florinda,'  which 
was  performed  under  Balfe's  direction  in  London 
in  185 1,  with  Cruvelli,  Sims  Reeves,  Lablache, 
was,  as  an  eyewitness  states,  by  the  best  critics  of 
the  time  found  ugly,  difficult  to  sing,  uninter- 
esting. Even  the  song  which  was  the  hit  of  the 
evening,  so  well  sung  by  Sims  Reeves  that  it 
created  a  genuine  success,  was,  to  say  the  least, 
unhandsome.  The  Queen  and  Prince  Albert 
headed  a  most  brilliant  assembly,  and  everything 
was  done  that  could  make  the  work  acceptable,  but 
the  thin  stuff  of  the  score  could  not  be  sustained. 
The  story  was  badly  told,  the  music  devoid  of 
interesting  ideas,  and  so  the  fate  of  the  opera 
was  sealed  ;  partly,  it  was  asserted  by  Thalberg's 
j  friends,  Mme.  Cruvelli  bore  the  fault  of  the  non- 
success,  because,  not  being  pleased  with  her  r6le, 
she  deliberately  sacrificed  it,  and  at  one  moment 
hummed  her  air  instead  of  singing  it ;  so  much 
so,  that  a  person  "sitting  in  the  front  row  of  the 


96 


THALBERG. 


8tall8,  behind  Balfe,  who  conducted,  heard  him 
call  out  to  Cruvelli,  *  Sing  properly,  for  if  you  do 
not  respect  yourself,  you  ought  at  least  to  respect 
the  audience,  and  Her  Majesty  the  Queen.* 

But  if  Thalberg  was  not  successful  on  the 
stage,  it  is  but  fair  to  say  that  his  compositions 
for  the  piano  not  only  combined  novel  effects 
both  in  form  and  arrangement,  but  real  inven- 
tion, because  he  had  the  talent,  through  adroit 
use  of  the  pedal  and  new  combinations,  to  make 
you  believe  that  you  heard  two  performers  at 
the  same  time. 

A  catalogue  at  the  end  of  this  article  gives  a 
list  of  his  piano  compositions.  It  comprises  more 
than  ninety  numbers,  many  of  which  earned 
glory  and  money  for  their  author,  and  stamped 
him  as  a  specialist  for  his  instrument,  the  com- 
bined effects  of  which  nobody  had  ever  better 
understood.  Robert  Schumann  was  one  of  the 
composers  for  whom  Thalberg  entertained  a  per- 
fect enthusiasm,  although  their  natures  both 
as  musicians  and  men  widely  differed.  It  is 
undeniable  that  until  1830  the  performers  of 
Mozart,  Beethoven, Hummel,  Moscheles,  etc.,  sub- 
mitted their  talent  to  the  interpretation  of  the 
composer,  whereas  afterwards  the  sacrifice  of  the 
composer  to  the  virtuoso  became  the  fashion, 

Thalberg  married,  not,  as  F^tis  states,  in  1845, 
but  in  1843,  at  Paris,  Mme.  Boucher,  the  daughter 
of  the  famous  Lablache,  and  widow  of  a  painter 
of  merit.  He  travelled  through  Belgium,  Hol- 
land, England,  and  Russia  in  1839,  and  Spain 
1845,  went  to  Brazil  in  1855,  North  America 
1856,  and  settled  in  Posilipo  (Naples)  in  1858. 
He  appeared  again  in  public  in  1862,  and  in  1863 
played  in  London,  in  concerts  arranged  by  his 
brother-in-law,  Frederic  Lablache,  after  which 
.  he  retired  to  Naples  and  lived  as  a  landowner 
and  winegrower.  The  writer  saw  him  in  his 
house  at  Posilipo,  that  wonderfully  picturesque 
position  above  the  Bay  of  Naples,  opposite  San 
Agata,  and  over  all  the  property  there  was  not 
a  trace  of  a  piano  to  be  found.  His  collection 
of  autographs  (still  apparently  unsold)  was  of 
extraordinary  interest  and  value.  Thalberg  died 
at  Naples  on  April  27,  1871.  He  leaves  a 
daughter  (granddaughter  of  Madame  Angri), 
who  resembles  him  much,  and  who  broke  what 
seemed  to  be  a  promising  career  as  a  prima 
donna  by  singing  too  early  and  straining  her 
voice  in  parts  too  high  for  her  tessitura,  both 
common  faults  with  present  singers,  who  are 
always  too  anxious  to  reap  before  they  have 
sown,  and  who  fancy  that  shouting  high  notes 
to  elicit  injudicious  applause  is  all  that  is  re- 
quired to  make  them  renowned  singers. 

Schumann,  in  an  access  of  ill-humour  (boser 
Laune),  says  that  Thalberg  kept  him  in  a 
certain  tension  of  expectancy,  not '  on  account  of 
the  platitudes  which  were  sure  to  come,  but  on  ac- 
count of  the  profound  manner  of  their  preparation, 
which  warns  you  always  when  they  are  to  burst 
upon  you.  He  deceives  you  by  brilliant  hand  and 
finger  work  in  order  to  pass  off  his  weak  thoughts, 
and  it  is  an  interesting  question  how  long  the 
world  will  be  pleased  to  put  up  with  such  me- 


THALBERG. 

chanical  music*  It  was  the  Grand  Fantaisie 
(op.  22)  which  so  irritated  Schumann.  It  once 
happened  that  while  Mme.  Schumann  was  playing 
Thalberg's  waltzes,  Schumann  laid  a  few  roses 
on  the  desk,  which  accidentally  slipped  down 
on  the  keyboard.  By  a  sudden  jump  of  the 
left-hand  to  the  bass  her  little  finger  was 
wounded  by  one  of  the  thorns.  To  his  anxious 
inquiries  she  replied  that  nothing  much  was  the 
matter,  only  a  slight  accident,  which  showed, 
like  the  waltzes  themselves,  no  great  suffering, 
only  a  few  drops  of  blood  caused  by  rose-thorns. 
Thalberg's  first  Caprice  (E  minor),  says  Schu- 
mann, containsawell-developed principal  thought, 
and  is  sure  to  provoke  loud  a))plause  ;  and  he  ex- 
presses the  wish  that  Thalberg  might  furnish  for 
the  appreciation  of  the  critic  a  piece  thoroughly 
well-written  throughout.  His  wrath  however 
relents  when  speaking  of  Thalberg's  Variations 
on  two  Russian  airs.  He  finds  the  intro- 
duction,* through  which,  every  now  and  then,  the 
childs  song  peeps  like  an  angel's  head,  fanciful 
and  effective.'  '  Equally  tender  and  flexible  are 
the  variations,  very  musicianlike,  well-flowing, 
and  altogether  well  rounded  off.  The  finale,  so 
short  that  the  audience  is  sure  to  listen  whether 
there  is  nothing  more  to  come  ere  they  explode 
in  spontaneous  applause,  is  graceful,  brilliant, 
and  even  noble.'  These  expressions  seem  cer- 
tainly enthusiastic  enough,  and  scarcely  bear 
out  the  severity  of  his  judgment  on  the  general 
qualities  of  the  composer  of  the  Fantaisie.  (See 
'Ges.  Schriften,'  i.  316;  ii.  55). 

Concerning  Thalberg's  fantasia  on  motifs  from 
the  'Huguenots,'  some  of  Erard's  friends  fancied 
that  he  had  written  the  brilliant  octave  repetition 
variation  to  show  off  the  double  echappement  of 
Erard.  This  is  not  very  likely.  Thalberg  had  one 
thing  in  view,  and  that  only — to  find  new  forms, 
new  effects,  new  surprises  for  the  public.  Schu- 
mann says  that  in  this  fantasia  Thalberg  reminds 
him  of  Goethe's  saying : — *  Happy  are  those  who 
by  their  birth  are  lifted  beyond  the  lower  stratum 
of  humanity,  and  who  need  not  pass  through  those 
conditions  in  which  many  a  good  man  anxiously 
passes  his  whole  life '  (G.  S.  ii.  66). 

Thalberg  had  the  great  art  of  composing  works 
much  more  difficult  in  appearance  than  in  reality. 
His  studies,  incomparably  easier  than  those  of 
Moscheles  and  Chopin,  sound  as  brilliantly  as 
if  they  required  the  most  persevering  labour  to 
overcome  their  difficulties.  That  makes  them 
grateful  to  play  and  pleasing  to  the  ear.  It  has 
been  said  of  the  *  Etudes  *  that  they  are  graceful 
work  for  ladies, '  for  the  tepid  temperature  of  the 
drawing-room,  not  for  the  healthy  atmosphere 
outside  the  house.'  His  studies  and  his  *  Art  du 
chant '  are  only  specimens  of  what  he  could  do 
best.  It  is  in  one  or  another  form  his  full,  light, 
energetic  and  singing  touch.  His  studies  are  the 
expression  of  his  successes,  of  his  glory,  and  of 
his  very  industrious  hard  work.  For  be  it  well 
known,  he  studied  perpetually.  Thalberg  was  es- 
sentially the  pianist  of  the  French,  who  in  art,  poli- 
tics, and  life,  have  only  one  desire,  'Autre  chose  !' 
He  was  therefore  continually  forced  to   devise 


THALBERG. 

gome  surprising  effect,  and  thereby  to  find  at 
every  moment  'autre  chose.'  Schumann,  who 
knew  human  nature  well,  says  that  to  criticise 
Thalberg  would  be  to  risk  a  revolt  of  all  the 
French,  German,  and  foreign  girls.  'Thalberg 
sheds  the  lustre  of  his  performance  on  whatever 
he  may  play,  Beethoven  or  Dussek,  Chopin  or 
Hummel.  He  writes  melody  in  the  Italian  style, 
from  eight  bars  to  eight  bars.  He  knows  wonder- 
fully how  to  dress  his  melodies,  and  a  great  deal 
might  perhaps  be  said  about  the  difference  between 
real  composition,  and  conglomeration  in  this  new- 
fashioned  style ;  but  the  army  of  young  ladies 
advances  again,  and  therefore  nothing  remains 
to  be  said  but,  He  is  a  god,  when  seated  at  the 
piano.*    (G.  S.  iii.  75.) 

That  Thalberg,  like  De  Beriot,  once  took  a  grand 
motif  of  Beethoven  and  distorted  it  into  'effective 
variations,'  enraged  Schumann,  as  it  must  every 
true  musician.  His  was  a  certain  mission:  elegance 
and  effect ;  to  pour  a  rain  of  rosebuds  and  pink 
diamonds  into  the  eager  listener's  ear  and  enchant 
him  for  the  moment — no  more. 

It  is  interesting  to  learn  the  opinion  of  two 
great  authorities  both  in  piano  and  composition, 
viz.  Mendelssohn  and  Rubinstein,  on  the  relative 
merits  of  Liszt  and  Thalberg.  Mendelssohn,  in 
his  Letters,  speaks  of  the  'heathen  scandal 
(Heidenscandal)  both  in  the  glorious  and  the 
reprehensible  sense  of  the  word,  which  Liszt 
created  at  Leipsic'  He  declares  Thalberg's  calm 
ways  and  self-control  much  more  worthy  of  the 
real  virtuoso.  Compare  this  with  Liszt's  opinion 
of  himself,  when  he  has  been  heard  to  say,  after 
Thalberg's  immensely  successful  concerts,  given 
at  Vienna  after  his  return  from  Paris,  that  '  he 
hoped  to  play  as  Thalberg  did,  when  once  he 
should  be  partly  paralysed  and  limited  to  the  use 
of  one  hand  only.'  Undoubtedly  Liszt's  execution 
was  more  brilliant,  and  particularly  more  crush- 
ing. The  strings  flew,  the  hammers  broke,  and 
thus  Chopin  said  once  to  him,  *  I  prefer  not 
playing  in  public,  it  unnerves  me.  You,  if  you 
cannot  charm  the  audience,  can  at  least  astonish 
and  crush  them.*  Mendelssohn  continues,  in  his 
comparison  of  the  two  men,  that  Liszt's  com- 
positions are  beneath  his  performance,  since 
above  all  'he  lacks  ideas  of  his  own,  all  his 
writing  aiming  only  at  showing  off  his  virtuosity, 
whereas  Thalberg's  "Donna  del  lago,"  for  in- 
stance, is  a  work  of  the  most  brilliant  effect,  with 
an  astonishing  gradual  increase  of  difficulties  and 
ornamentation,  and  refined  taste  in  every  bar. 
His  paw  {Favst)  is  as  remarkable  as  the  light 
deftness  of  his  fingers.  Yet  Liszt's  immense 
execution  {Technik)  is  undeniable/  Now  put 
against  this,  what  Rubinstein  said,  when  asked 
why  in  a  Recital  programme  he  had  put 
Thalberg's  Don  Juan  fantasia  immediately  after 
Liszt's  Fastasia  on  motifs  of  the  same  opera : 
*Pour  bien  faire  ressortir  la  difference  entre 
«et  Spicier  et  le  Dieu  de  la  musique.'  Un- 
necessary to  point  out  that  with  Rubinstein  the 
*God  of  music'  is  Liszt,  and  Thalberg  the 
'grocer.*  Thalberg,  a  perfect  aristocrat  in 
look,  never  moved  a  muscle  beyond  his  elbow. 

VOL.  IV.  PT.  I. 


THALBERG. 


97 


His  body  remained  in  one  position,  and  what- 
ever the  difficulties  of  the  piece,  he  was,  or  at  any 
rate  he  appeared,  unmoved,  calm,  master  of  the 
keyboard,  and  what  is  more  difficult,  of  himself. 
Liszt,  with  his  long  hair  flying  about  at  every 
arpeggio  or  scale,  not  to  mention  his  restlessness 
when  playing  rapid  octaves,  studied  his  public 
unceasingly.  He  kept  the  audience  well  under 
his  eye,  was  not  above  indulging  in  little 
comedies,  and  encouraging  scenes  to  be  played 
by  the  audience — for  instance,  that  the  ladies 
should  throw  themselves  upon  a  glove  of  his, 
expressly  forgotten,  on  the  piano,  tear  it  to  bits 
and  divide  the  shreds  among  themselves  as 
relics !  It  gave  a  sensational  paragraph ! 
Thalberg  thoroughly  disdained  such  a  petty 
course.  In  their  fantasias — because,  not  until 
the  gray  hair  adorned  the  celebrated  Abbe's 
forehead,  did  his  orchestral  fertility  assert  itself 
— there  was  a  marked  difference  to  this  effect : 
Liszt  heaped,  as  Mendelssohn  and  Schumann 
said,  difficulty  upon  difficulty,  in  order  to  furnish 
himself  with  a  pretext  for  vanquishing  them 
with  his  astounding  mechanism.  His  smaller 
works,  arrangements  of  Schubert's  songs,  Rossini's 
*  Soirees  musicales,'  etc.,  or  the  little  Lucia  fan- 
tasia— which  so  pleased  Mendelssohn — with  its 
arpeggios  and  shakes  for  the  left  hand  excepted, 
there  are  very  few  that  le  commun  des  martyrs 
of  the  pianist-world  could  even  attempt  to  play. 
In  his  Puritani  fantasia  and  others  there  are 
sometimes  shakes  for  the  last  two  fingers,  ex- 
tending over  several  pages,  which  he  himself 
played  divinely,  his  shake  with  the  little  finger 
being  most  stupendous ;  but  who  else  could  do 
it?  His  concertos,  unhandsome  and  unmusical, 
requiring  a  strength  and  execution  very  rarely 
to  be  met  with,  are  not  grateful,  while  Thalberg's 
compositions  are  so.  In  the  latter,  first  of  all, 
you  find  the  fundamental  basis  of  all  music — 
singing.  Where  there  is  not  one  of  those  graceful 
little  Andante-cantabile  which  he  ordinarily  puts 
at  the  beginning  of  his  pieces,  one  finger  is  sure 
to  sing  a  motif  which  the  others  in  varied  modes 
accompany.  Whether  the  figure  be  that  of 
chromatic  scales  as  in  the  Andante,  or  the  motif 
be  surrounded  with  arpeggios  as  in  *  Moise,*  or 
interwoven  in  scales  as  in  the  minuet  of  'Don 
Juan,'  or  changing  hands  as  in  the  Airs  Russes,  or 
specially  brilliantly  arranged  for  the  left  hand 
to  play  the  motif,  with  accompanying  chords 
written  on  two  lines,  while  the  right  hand  plays 
a  brilliant  variation  noted  on  a  third  line,  as  in 
his  fantasia  on  'God  save  the  Queen' — you  always 
hear  the  two  hands  doing  the  work  of  three, 
sometimes  you  imagine  that  of  foxu*,  hands. 

Forty  years  ago  photography  had  not  reached 
its  present  place  in  artistic  life — at  least  not  por- 
trait photography — and  the  likenesses  of  artists 
depended  on  the  engraver :  witness  the  wonder- 
ful portrait  of  Jenny  Lind  engraved  at  that 
date.  At  Vienna  that  was  the  grand  time 
for  the  lithographers.  Kaiser  and  the  famous 
Kriehuber  made  the  most  successful  portraits 
both  of  Thalberg  and  Liszt,  especially  of  the 
latter,  who  courted  advertisement  of  any  kind,  as 

H 


98 


THALBERG. 


much  as  Thalberg  treated  it  infra  dignitatem. 
Kriehuber  made  a  splendid  portrait  of  Thal- 
berg, though  it  seems  never  to  have  gone 
largely  into  the  trade.  In  fact  Thalberg  never 
encouraged  the  hero-worship  of  himself  in  any 
shape. 

Thalberg  appeared  at  the  Philharmonic 
Concerts  in  London  on  May  9  and  June 
6,  1836.  He  played  at  the  first  concert  his 
Grand  Fantasia,  op.  i,  and  at  the  second  his 
Caprice  No.  2  in  Eb. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  his  published  com- 
positions, in  the  order  of  their  opus-number,  from 
the  *  Biographical  Lexicon  of  the  Austrian  Em- 
pire' of  Dr.  von  Wurzbach  (1882).  The  first 
three  were  published  as  early  as  1828,  when  he 
[6  years  old. 


was 

I.  Fant&Isle  et  Tariations  (Eu- 

ryanthe). 
S.  Do.    Do.  (Tb£m»  dcossals). 
S.  Impromptu  (Si6ge  do  Corin 

the). 

4.  Souvenirs  de  VIenne. 

5.  Gran  Concerto  (F  minor). 

e  hi*.  Hommage  ^  Bossini  (Gull 
Tell). 

6.  Fantalsle  (Robert  le  Diable). 

7.  Grand       Divertissement      (F 

minor). 

8.  Sechs  deutsche  Lleder  (1—6). 

9.  Fantaisle  (La  Straniera). 

10.  Gr.  Fantaisie  et  Variations  (I 

Montecchi). 

11.  Seclis  deutsche  Lleder  (7—12). 

12.  Gr.    Fiintaisle    et    Variations 

(Norma). 

13.  Seclis  deutsche  Lleder  aS— 18) 

14.  Or.  Fantaisie   et    Variations 

(Don  Juan). 

15.  Caprice  B  minor. 

16.  2  Nocturnes  (V%,  B). 

17.  2  Airs  russes  varies  (G). 

18.  DiTertissemeut  (Soirees  musi- 

cales). 

19.  2nd  Caprice  (Eb). 

20.  Fantaisie  (Uuguenots). 
2L  3  Nocturnes. 

22.  Grand  Fantaisie. 

23.  Sechs  deutsche  Lleder  (19—24). 
S4.  Sechs    ditto    do.     (25-30). 

25.  Sechs    ditto     do.    (31-36). 

26.  12  Etudes. 

27.  Gr.  Fantaisie  (God    save  the 

Queen  and  Rule  Britannia) 
Ab. 

28.  Nocturne  (E). 

29.  Sechs  deutsche  Lleder  (37—42). 

30.  Sechs    ditto     do.    (43—48). 

31.  Scherzo  (A). 

32.  Andante  In  D». 
S3.  Fantaisie  (Moise). 
84.  Divertissement  (Gipsy's  Warn- 
ing). 

88.  Grand  Nocturne  (F{> 
86&ts.  Etrennes   auz  Jeunes   Pi- 
anistes.    Nocturne. 

86.  (1)  La  Cadence.    Impromptu 

(A  minor).  (2)  Nouv.  Etude 
de  Perfection.  (3)Mi  manca  la 
voce(Ab).  (4)LaKomanesca. 
(6)  Canzonette  Italienne.  (6) 
Romance  sans  paroles. 

87.  Fantaisie  (Oberon). 

88.  Romance  et  Etude  (A). 
99.  Souvenir  de  Beethoven.   Fan- 
taisie (A  minor). 

40.  Fantaisie  (Donna  del  Lago), 
41. 2  Romances  sans  paroles. 
42.  Gr.    Fantaisie    (Serenade   et 
Henuet,  D.  Juan). 


Gr.  Fantaisie  No.  2  (Hugue- 
nots). 

Andante  final  de  Lucia,  varl^e. 

Theme  orig.  et  Etude  (A 
minor). 

Gr.  Caprice  (Sonnambula). 

Gr.  Valses  brillantes. 

Gr.  Caprice  (Charies  VI). 

Fantaisie  (Lucrezia). 

Gr.  Fantaisie  (Semi  ramide). 

Fantaisie  (La  Muette). 

Gr.  Fantaisie  (Zampa) 

Thalberg  et  de  Beriot.  Or. 
Duo  concertante  (Semlra- 
mide). 

Le  Depart.  varI6e  en  forme 
d'Ktude. 

Grand  Senate  (C  minor). 

10  Morceaux,  servant  d'Ecole 
preparatolre. 

Gr.  Caprice  (Marche  de  Ber- 


59.  Marche  funSbre  varide. 
«).  Barcarole. 

61.  Melodies  Styrlennes  Gr.  Fant. 
arr.  par  Wolflf. 

62.  Valse  melodique. 

63.  Gr.  Fantaisie  (Barbler). 

64.  Les  Caprlcleuses,  Valses. 

65.  Tarantelle. 
65.  Souvenir  de  Festb. 

Introd.  et  Var.  sur  la  Barcarole 
deL'Elisire. 
67  Gr.  Fantaisie  (Don  Pasquale). 

Fantaisie  (Fille  du  Regiment). 
69.  Trio. 

0.  L'Art  du  chant  appllqud  au 
Piano.    4  Series  containing 
22  transcriptions. 
70  o.  Ballade  de  Preciosa;  transc. 
70  b.  Grand  duo  de  Freischiltz. 
71.  Florinda,  op^ra.    6  Transcrii>- 

tlons. 
72  or  74.  Home,  sweet  home  I  .  . 
Vari^e, 

73.  The  last  rose  of  summer.  .  . 
VarWe. 

74.  Lilly  Dale  . .  Varide. 

75.  Les  Soirees  de  Pausillppe.  24 
Fens^es  musicales,  in  6 
books. 

76.  O^lebre  Ballade. 

77.  Gr.  Fantaisie  de  Concert  (H 
Trovatore). 

78.  Ditto.         do.    (Traviata). 
a.  8  Melodies  de  F.  Schubert 

transcrltes. 
796.  Romance  dramatlque. 

80.  La  Napolltalne.    Danse. 

81.  Souvenir  duBallo  in  Maschera. 

82.  Ditto    de  RIgoletto. 

83.  Air  d'AmazUy  (Fernand  Cor- 
tei). 

JJnimnAereS  pfeee*.— Anf  Flttgeln  (Mendelssohn)  transcr.— 2  Mor- 
ceaux  sur  Lucrezia. -Arietta,  'No  so  fremar.'— Zwel  Gedlchte.— 
Thalberg  and  Panofka,  Grand  Duo.— Graciosa,  Rom.  sans  paroles.— 
Kocturno  In  D'\— Romance  Tari4e  In  Eb.— Viola,  Melodle.— Thalberg 
Oaloppe.— La  Berceuse.— Le  flls  du  Corse.— FauUne.  Yalse.— Larmes 
d'uneieuns  fllla.— Pianoforte  School. 

[L.E.] 


THAYER. 

THAYER,  Alexander  Wheelook,  the  bio. 
grapher  of  Beethoven,  was  born  near  Boston, 
U.  S.  A.,  at  South  Natick, .  Massachusetts,  Oct. 
2  2,  1 817,  and  is  descended  from  original  settlers 
of  1629.  In  1843  he  graduated  at  Harvard 
University,  took  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of  Laws 
there,  and  was  for  a  few  years  employed  in  the 
College  library.  In  1849  he  left  America  for 
Europe,  and  remained  for  more  than  two  years  in 
Bonn,  Berlin,  Prague,  and  Vienna,  studying  Ger- 
man, corresponding  with  newspapers  at  home,  and 
collecting  materials  for  a  life  of  Beethoven,  the 
idea  of  which  had  presented  itself  to  him  while  at 
Harvard,  and  which  has  since  been  his  one  serious 
pursuit  for  30  years.  In  1852  he  tried  journal- 
ism on  the  staff  of  the  New  York  'Tribune,'  but 
only  to  the  detriment  of  his  health.  '  Dwight's 
Journal  of  Music '  was  started  at  Boston  in 
April  1852,  and  Thayer  soon  became  a  promi- 
nent and  favourite  writer  therein.  In  1854 
he  returned  to  Germany,  and  worked  hard  at 
the  rich  Beethoven  materials  in  the  Royal 
Library  at  Berlin  for  nearly  a  year.  Hi-health 
and  want  of  means  drove  him  back  to  Boston 
in  1856,  and  amongst  other  work  he  there 
catalogued  the  musical  library  of  Lowell  Mason. 
In  the  summer  of  1858,  by  Mason's  help,  he 
was  enabled  to  cross  once  more  to  Europe,  re- 
mained for  some  months  in  Berlin  and  Frank- 
fort on  the  Oder,  and  in  1859  arrived  at  Vienna 
more  inspired  than  ever  for  his  mission.  A  severe 
and  able  review  of  Marx's  Beethoven  in  the 
'  Atlantic  Monthly,'  republished  in  German  by 
Otto  Jahn,  had  made  him  known  in  Germany, 
and  henceforth  the  Biography  became  his  voca- 
tion.  The  next  year  was  passed  in  Berlin, 
Vienna,  Gratz,  Linz,  Salzburg,  Frankfort,  Bonn, 
etc.,  in  intercourse  with  Hiittenbrenner,  We- 
geler,  Schindler  and  other  friends  of  Beethoven, 
in  minute  investigation  of  documents,  and  in 
a  fruitless  visit  to  Paris  for  the  sake  of  papers 
elucidating  the  history  of  Bonn.  His  next  vibit 
was  to  London,  where  he  secured  the  reminis- 
cences of  Neate,  Potter,  and  Hogarth  (Neate's 
particularly  valuable),  and  received  much  sub- 
stantial kindness  from  Chorley.  From  England 
he  returned  to  Vienna,  and  in  1863  accepted 
a  small  post  in  the  U.  S.  Legation  there, 
afterwards  exchanged  for  that  of  U.  S.  Consul 
at  Trieste,  where  he  still  resides.  His  book 
is  entitled  *Ludwig  van  Beethoven's  Leben.* 
It  was  written  in  English,  translated  into  Ger- 
man by  Herr  H.  Deiters  of  Bonn,  and  published 
by  Weber  of  Berlin — vol.  i  (1770-1796)  in  1866; 
vol.  3  (1792-1806)  in  1873;  vol.  3  (1807-1816) 
in  1879.  Vol.  4  is  in  preparation,  but  can  hardly 
finish  the  work,  since  ii  full  and  complicated 
years  are  still  left  to  be  described. 

The  quantity  of  new  letters  and  facts,  and 
of  rectifications  of  dates,  contained  in  the  book 
is  very  great.  For  the  first  time  Beethoven's  life 
is  placed  on  a  solid  basis  of  fact.  At  the  same 
time  Mr.  Thayer  is  no  slavish  biographer.  He 
views  his  hero  from  a  perfectly  independent 
point  of  view,  and  often  criticises  his  caprice 
or  harshness  (as  in  the  cases  of  Malzel  and 


THAYER. 


THEME. 


Johann  Beethoven)  very  sharply.  When  the 
work  is  completed  it  will  be  a  mine  of  accurate 
information,  indispensable  for  all  future  stu- 
dents. With  some  condensations  an  English 
edition  would  be  very  welcome. 

Besides  the  Biography,  Mr.  Thayer  is  the 
author  of  counties^  articles  in  American  news- 
papers; of  'Signer  Masoni'  (Berlin,  Schnei- 
der, 1862)  ;  of  *Ein  kritischer  Beitrag  zur  Bee- 
thoven-Literatur '  (Berlin,  Weber,  1877);  ^^^ 
of  'The  Hebrews  and  the  Red  Sea'  (Andover, 
Mass.,  Draper).  [G.] 

THEATRE.  A  terra  usually  employed  in 
England  for  a  house  in  which  plays  are  acted, 
in  contradistinction  to  an  opera-house,  in  which 
musical  pieces  are  performed.  Abroad  this  dis- 
tinction, either  of  house  or  word,  does  not  pre- 
vail to  at  all  the  same  extent  as  here.  [G.] 

THEILE,  Johann,  known  to  his  contem- 
poraries as  'the  father  of  contrapuntists,'  the 
son  of  a  tailor,  was  born  at  Naumburg,  July  29, 
1646,  learned  music  under  great  difficulties  at 
Halle  and  Leipzig,  and  became  a  pupil  of  the 
great  Heinrich  Schtitz.  In  1673  he  became 
Capellmeister  to  the  Duke  of  Holstein  at  Got- 
torp,  and  in  1678  produced  a  Singspiel,  'Adam 
and  Eva,'  and  an  opera, '  Orontes,'  at  Hamburg. 
In  1685  he  became  Capellmeister  at  Wolfen- 
biittel,  then  went  to  Merseburg  and  finally  back 
to  his  native  town,  where  he  died  in  1724. 
Buxtehude,  Hasse,  and  Zachau  were  all  his 
scholars.  His  principal  works  are  a  German 
Passion  (Liibeck  1675)  ;  a  Christmas  Oratorio 
(Hamburg,  1681,  MS.) ;  *  Noviter  inventum 
opus  musicalis  compositionis  4  et  5  vocum,'  etc. 

20  masses  in  Palestrina  style ;  Opus  secundum 

— instrumental;  two  treatises  on  double  counter- 
point, 1 69 1.  Korner  has  printed  in  the  '  Orgel- 
virtuos'  No.  65  a  chorale  by  Theile,  which  is 
characterised  by  Spitta  (Bach,  i.  p.  98)  as  'very 
scientific  but  intolerably  pedantic  and  stifi".' 
No  other  work  of  his  appears  to  have  been 
reprinted.  [G.] 

THEMATIC  CATALOGUE.  A  catalogue 
of  musical  works,  in  which,  in  addition  to  the 
title  and  other  particulars  of  each,  the  first  few 
bars— the  theme— either  of  the  whole  work  or  of 
each  movement  are  given  in  musical  notation. 

1.  The  earliest  published  list  of  this  description 
was  in  six  parts,  issued  between  1762  and 
1765,  and  16  supplements  extending  from  1766 
to  1787,  the  whole  forming  a  thick  8vo.  volume 
of  792  pages.  Part  I  is  signed  by  Johann  Gottlob 
Immanuel  Breitkopf,  the  virtual  founder  of  the 
great  firm.  [See  vol.  i.  p.  272.]  It  is  mentioned 
by  Burney  in  his  Musical  Tour  (ii.  74). 

2.  Haydn,  towards  the  end  of  his  life  (1797), 
made  a  thematic  catalogue  of  a  large  number 
of  his  works.  This  has  not  been  printed,  but 
copies  have  been  made  by  Dehn,  Otto  Jahn, 
and  others.  It  is  now  superseded  by  the  com- 
plete thematic  list  which  forms  so  valuable  a 
part  of  Mr.  C.  F.  Pohl's  '  Life  of  Haydn '  (i.  284, 
etc.;  317,  etc.;  334;  345  J  ii.  Anhang). 

3.  A  thematic  catalogue  has  been  preserved,  in 


which  Mozart  entered  his  works  as  he  composed 
them,  from  Feb.  9,  1784,  to  Nov.  15,  1791.  This 
interesting  document  was  published  by  Andre  in 
Nov.  1828.  The  title,  in  Mozart's  hand,  runs  as 
follows  :— 

Verzeichniss 
aller  meaner  Werke 
vom  Monath  Febraio  1784  bia  Monath  1. 

Wolfgang  Amade  Mozart. 
It  contains  145  works,  begins  with  the  PF.  con- 
certo in  Eb  (K.  449),  *  9te  Hornung,'  ^  1 784,  and 
ends   with   the   '  kleine    Freymaurer   Kantate,* 
Nov.  15,  1 791 — nineteen  days  before  his  death. 

4.  A  thematic  catalogue  of  the  MSS.  by  Mozart 
then  in  the  hands  of  Andre — an  octavo  pamphlet 
of  79  closely  printed  pages — was  published  by 
him  at  Offenbach  on  May  i,  1841 ;  one  of  172 
important  symphonies  and  overtures  was  issued 
by  Hofmeister  in  1831 ;  and  one  of  Mozart's 
PF.  sonatas,  prepared  by  Edward  Holmes,  by 
Messrs.  NoveUo  &  Co.  in  1849. 

5.  In  1851,  Breitkopf  &  Hartel  published  their 
first  thematic  catalogue  of  Beethoven's  works. 
This  was  a  thick  volume  of  167  pages,  large 
8vo,  and  a  great  advance  on  anything  before 
it.  It  is  arranged  in  order  of  opus-numbers, 
with  names  of  dedicatees  and  publishers,  arrange- 
ments, etc.  The  2nd  edition,  1868,  is  much  en- 
larged (220  pages)  by  the  addition  of  many 
interesting  particulars,  dedications,  dates  of  com- 
position, etc.  It  is  in  fact  a  new  work,  and  is  a 
model  of  accuracy,  as  may  be  infei-red  from  the 
name  of  its  compiler,  Gustav  Nottebohm.  So  is 
the  Catalogue  of  Schubert  by  the  same  inde- 
fatigable explorer  and  critic — 288  pages,  pub- 
lished by  Schreiber.  Vienna,  1 8  74,  dealing  both 
with  the  published  and  the  unpublished  works, 
and  extraordinarily  accurate  considering  the  im- 
mense difficulties  involved.  Catalogues  of  Men- 
delssohn, Schumann,  Chopin,  and  Liszt  have  been 
published  by  Breitkopf;  of  Moscheles  by  Kistner ; 
and  of  Bach's  instrumental  works  in  Peters's 
collected  edition  (by  A.  Dorffel,  Aug.  1867). 

Two  Catalogues  stand  apart  from  the  rest 
owing  to  the  vast  amount  of  information  that 
they  contain,  and  still  more  to  the  important  fact 
that  they  are  arranged  in  the  chronological  order 
of  the  composition  of  the  works — the  only  real 
method  of  contemplating  the  productions  of  a 
composer.  These  are  Von  Kochel's  '  Chronolog- 
isch-thematisches  Verzeichniss '  of  all  Mozart's 
works  (Breitkopfs,  1862,  551  pages),  and  Jahns's 
'  Carl  Maria  von  Weber  in  seinen  Werken. 
Chron.  Them.  Verzeichniss,'  etc.  (Schlesinger, 
1 87 1 — 480  pages,  and  8  pages  more  of  facsimiles 
of  handwriting).  These  two  works  (the  latter 
perhaps  a  trifle  overdone)  are  indispensable  to 
all  students.  [G.] 

THEME— t.g.  Subject,  or  Text  (Ital.  B  Tema,^ 
H  Soggetto,  H  Motivo  ;  Germ,  from  Lat.  Thema, 
from  Ital.  Motiv  ;  Fr.  Tli^me,  Air).  A  term 
only  to  be  applied,  in  its  fullest  significance,  to 
the  principal  subject  of  a  musical  composition ; 

1  The  old  German  term  for  February. 

a  Used  thus,  with  the  masculine  article,  In  order  to  dlstingulsli  « 
from  La  Tema  (fear). 

H2 


100 


THEME. 


THEORBO. 


although,  in  general  language,  it  is  frequently 
used  to  denote  a  Subject  of  any  kind,  whether 
of  a  leading  or  subsidiary  character.  From  the 
time  of  Sebastian  Bach  to  our  own,  the  terms 
Theme  and  Subject  have  been  used  with  much 
looseness.  In  his  '  Musikalisches  Opfer,'  Bach 
designates  the  Motivo  given  to  him  by  Frederick 
the  Great  as  'II  Soggetto  reale,'  in  one  place, 
and  '  Thema  regium  *  in  another ;  thus  proving, 
conclusively,  that  he  considered  the  two  terms  as 
interchangeable.  But,  in  another  work,  founded 
on  a  Motivo  by  Legrenzi,  he  calls  the  principal 
Subject  •  Thema,'  and  the  Counter-Subject  *  Sub- 
jectum';  and  this  is  unquestionably  the  more 
correct  method  of  using  the  terms.  [See  SuB- 
JEC3T,  vol.  iii.  p.  749.] 

A  familiar  application  of  the  word  '  Thema '  is 
found  in  connection  with  a  Subject  followed  by 
Variations  ;  as,  '  Tema  con  Variazioni,'  with  its 
equivalent  in  other  languages.  In  the  18th 
century,  this  form  of  composition  was  called 
*Air  et  Doubles';  the  substitution  of  the  word 
'Doubles'  for  *  Variations,'  clearly  owing  its  origin 
to  the  then  almost  universal  custom  of  wiiting 
the  two  first  Variations  in  the  Second  and  Third 
Orders  of  Counterpoint — that  is  to  say,  in  notes 
the  rapidity  of  which  was  doubled  at  each  new 
form  of  development.  [W.S.R.] 

THEORBO  (Fr.  Thdorbe,  Tuorbe ;  Ital.  Tiorba 
or  Tuorha,  also  Archi- 
liuto).  The  large 
double-necked  lute  with 
two  sets  of  tuning  pegs, 
the  lower  set  holding 
the  strings  which  lie 
over  the  fretted  finger- 
board, while  the  upper 
set  are  attached  to  the 
bass  strings,  or  so -called 
diapasons,  which  are 
used  as  open  notes. 
The  illustration  has 
been  engraved  from  a 
specimen  at  South 
Kensington  Museum, 
According  to  Baron's 
*  Untersuchung  des  In- 
struments d.  Lauten* 
(Numbergi727,p.i3i), 
thePaduan  theorbo  was 
the  true  one.  The  Eng- 
lish Archlute  of  that 
time,  so  frequently 
named  as  an  alterna- 
tive to  the  harpsichord 
or  organ  for  the  Basso 
Continuo  or  'Through 
Base'  accompaniment, 
was  such  a  theorbo, 
and  we  must,  onBaron's 
authority,  allow  it  a 
deeper  register  than 
has  been  stated  in  the 
article  Abchlute  [vol, 
i.  p.  81].     He  gives 


— eight  notes  on  the  fingerboard  and  nine  off. 
This  is  the  old  lute-tuning  of  Thomas  Mace 
('Musick's  Monument,'  London  1676),  who  says 
(p.  -207)  that  the  theorbo  is  no  other  than  the 
old  English  lute.  But  early  in  the  1 7  th  century 
many  large  lutes  had  been  altered  to  theorbos 
by  substituting  double  necks  for  the  original 
single  ones.  These  altered  lutes,  called,  accord- 
ing to  Mersenne,  *  luth  tdorbd '  or  '  liuto  attior- 
bato,'  retained  the  double  strings  in  the  bass. 
The  theorbo  engraved  in  Mersenne's  '  Harmonie 
Universelle '  (Paris,  1636)  is  really  a  theorboed 
lute.  He  gives  it  the  following  accordance : — 


The  Chanterelle  single.  For  the  '  Tuorbe '  as 
practised  at  Rome  the  same  authority  gives 
(p.  88)- 


P^ 


mt^^ 


^ 


In  the  musical  correspondence  of  Huygens, 
edited  by  Jonckbloet  and  Land,  and  published 
(1882)  at  Leyden,  is  to  be  found  a  letter  of 
Huygens  wherein  he  wishes  to  acquire  a  large 
lute,  to  elevate  it  to  the  quality  of  a  theorbo, 
for  which  he  considered  it  from  its  size  more 
fit.  The  same  interesting  work  enables  the 
writer  to  make  some  corrections  to  Lute.  [See 
vol.  ii.  p.  177  &.]  It  was  Charles  I  who  bought 
a  Laux  Maler  lute  for  £100  sterling,  and 
gave  it  to  his  lutenist,  whose  name  should  be 
spelt  Gaultier.*  The  lute  had  belonged  to  Jehan 
Ballard,  another  famous  lutenist  who  never  would 
part  with  it.  The  King  bought  it  of  his  heritors. 
Two  other  corrections  in  the  same  article  may 
be  here  appropriately  introduced.  As  M.  Chou- 
quet  has  pointed  out,  the  wood  of  old  lutes 
could  not  be  used  for  repairing  fiddles.  What  hap- 
pened was,  the  lutes  were  transformed  into  Vielles 
or  Hurdy-gurdies.  Professor  Land  suggests  that 
Luther  is  a  local  name.  Lutemaker  in  German 
would  be  Lauter.  The  drawing  of  the  Maler 
lute,  vol.  ii.  p.  1 76,  shows  a  guitar  head  and  single 
stiinging,  which  became  adopted  before  the  lute 
went  entirely  out.  Following  Gaultier  in  the 
Huygens  correspondence,  Maler's  period  was 
about  1500-20,  later  than  the  date  given  by  Carl 
Engel. 

Prjetorius  ('Organographia,*  Wolfenbiittel 
1619,  p.  50),  with  whom  Mersenne  agrees, 
states  that  the  diflference  between  lute  and  the- 
orbo is  that  the  lute  has  double  and  the  theorbo 
single  basses.  The  Paduan  theorbo  is  about  4  ft. 
7  ins.  high.    Praetorius,  in  the  work  referred  to 

1  Huygens  met  Gaultier  In  England,  In   1C22  at  the  EilliKrewi^ 
whoK  musical  reunions  he  remembered  all  his  life. 


THEORBO. 

{V'  52).  seems  to  prefer  the  Roman  theorbo  or 
Chitarronb,  which,  although  according  to  his 
measurement  about  6  ft.  i  in.  in  height,  is  not 
so  broad  in  the  body  or  so  awkward  to  hold 
and  grasp  as  the  Paduan.  Baron  praises  espe- 
cially the  Roman  theorbos  of  Buchenberg  or 
Buckenberg,  a  German  lute-maker,  who  was 
living  at  Rome  about  a.d.  1606.  His  instru- 
ments had  '  ovalround '  bodies  of  symmetrical 
form  and  a  delicate  and  penetrating  metallic 
timbre ;  a  criterion  of  good  tone  in  a  stringed 
instrument. 

Mace  regards  the  lute  as  a  solo  instrument, 
and  the  theorbo  as  a  concert  or  accompanying 
instrument :  the  name  theorbo,  however  it  origin- 
ated, certainly  became  fixed  to  the  double-necked 
lute ;  which  first  appeared  with  the  introduction 
of  opera  and  oratorio,  when  real  part-playing  was 
exchanged  for  the  chords  of  the  figured  bass. 
Merseime  ('Harmonicorum,'  Kb.  xii.  Paris,  1636) 
calls  it  'Cithara  bijuga.'  One  account  credits 
the  invention  of  the  double  neck  to  a  Signor 
Tiorba  about  1600.  Athanasius  Kircher  (*Mu- 
surgia,'  Rome  1650,  cap.  ii.  p.  476)  attributes 
the  introduction  of  the  theorbo  to  a  Neapolitan 
market  follower,  who  gave  it  the  name  in  a  joke. 
His  idea,  says  the  same  authority,  was  brought 
to  perfection  by  a  noble  German,  Hieronymus 
Capsberger.  M.Victor  Mahillon,  in  his  catalogue 
of  the  Brussels  Museum  (1880,  p.  249),  names  as 
the  inventor,  a  Roman  called  Bardella  (properly 
Antonio  Naldi)  who  was  in  the  service  of  the 
Medicis,  and  was  much  praised  by  Caccini  in 
the  preface  to  'Nuove  Musiche'  (a.d.  1601). 
These  attributions  all  centre  in  the  same  epoch, 
that  of  the  rise  of  accompaniment.  The  theorbo 
was  last  written  for  by  Handel,  as  late  as  1732, 
in  the  oratorio  of  '  Esther,'  in  combination  with 
a  harp,  to  accompany  the  song  *  Breathe  soft,  ye 
winds,'  a  fact  which  would  seem  to  support 
Mace's  view  of  its  being  an  orchestral  instrument. 
The  Archiliuto  also  appears  in  'Deborah,'  1733, 
in  '  Gentle  Airs.'  It  remained  in  occasional  use 
until  the  end  of  the  i8th  century.  Breitkopf's 
Thematic  Catalogue  for  1 769  contains  eight  pages 
of  *  Partite  per  il  Liuto  solo.' 

The  drawing  to  Aechlute  and  Chitarronb 
should  be  referred  to.  [A.J.H.] 

THEORY.  A  term  often  used  in  England  to 
express  the  knowledge  of  Harmony,  Counter- 
point, Thorough-bass,  etc.,  as  distinguished  fi^om 
the  art  of  playing,  which  is  in  the  same  way  called 
*  Practice.*  '  The  theory  and  practice  of  music'  is 
an  expression  often  heard,  and  to  be  interpreted 
as  above.  [G.] 

THESIS  (from  06<tis,  a  putting  down),  an  an- 
cient musical  term,  the  opposite  of  Arsis.  [See 
vol.  i.  p.  95&].  It  is  now  only  occasionally 
employed  for  the  down -beat  of  the  bar  in  con- 
ducting. [G.] 

THESPIS,  OR  THE  GODS  GROWN  OLD. 
Comic  opera  in  2  acts  ;  words  by  W.  S.  Gilbert, 
music  by  Arthur  Sullivan.  Produced  at  the  Gaiety 
Theatre,  Dec.  23,  1871,  the  tenor  part  being 
taken   by  Mr.  Toole.     It   ran   80   nights   con- 


THIBAUT. 


101 


secutively,  but  has  not  been  revived.  Thespis 
was  the  first  of  the  series  of  Gilbert-Sullivan 
pieces  which  have  proved  so  popular.  [G.] 

THIBAUT,  Anton  Friedrich  Justus,  born 
Jan.  4,  1772,  at  Hameln  on  the  Weser,  studied 
law  at  Gottingen,  became  tutor  at  Konlgsberg, 
and  law-professor  at  the  University  of  Kiel, 
then  at  Jena,  and  in  1805  at  Heidelberg,  where 
he  remained  till  his  death,  March  25,  1840.  The 
Archduke  of  Baden  made  him  Geheimrath.  He 
was  an  ardent  admirer  of  the  old  Italian  church- 
composers,  especially  of  Palestrina,  and  founded 
a  society  for  the  practice  of  such  music  at  his 
own  house.  ^  The  performances  took  place  be- 
fore a  select  circle  of  invited  guests,  and  were 
distinguished  for  their  variety,  Thibaut  placing 
at  their  disposal  the  whole  of  his  valuable  and 
scarce  collection  of  music.  After  his  death 
Heidelberg  no  longer  took  the  same  interest  in 
the  Palestrina  school,  but  in  the  meantime  a 
large  proportion  of  the  professors  and  amateurs 
of  Germany  had  become  familiarised  with  one 
of  the  noblest  and  most  elevating  branches  of 
the  art.  Mendelssohn  for  instance  writes  with 
the  greatest  enthusiasm  about  Thibaut,  'There 
is  but  one  Thibaut,'  he  says,  'but  he  is  as  good 
as  half  a  dozen.  He  is  a  man.'  Again,  in  a 
letter  to  his  mother  from  Heidelberg,  dated 
Sept.  20,  1827,  is  the  following  characteristic 
passage.  'It  is  very  singular,  the  man  knows 
little  of  music,  not  much  even  of  the  history  of 
it,  he  goes  almost  entirely  by  instinct ;  I  know 
more  about  it  than  he  does,  and  yet  I  have 
learned  a  great  deal  from  him,  and  feel  I  owe 
him  much.  He  has  thrown  quite  a  new  light 
on  the  old  Italian  church  music,  and  has  fired 
me  with  his  lava-stream.  He  talks  of  it  all 
with  such  glow  and  enthusiasm  that  one  might 
say  his  speech  Uossoms.  I  have  just  come  from 
taking  leave  of  him,  and  as  I  was  saying  that 
he  did  not  yet  know  the  highest  and  best  of 
all,  for  that  in  John  Sebastian  Bach  the  best  of 
everything  was  to  be  found,  he  said  Good- 
bye, we  will  knit  our  friendship  in  Luis  da 
Vittoria  (Palestrina's  favourite  pupil,  and  the 
best  exponent  of  his  traditions)  and  then  we 
shall  be  like  two  lovers,  each  looking  at  the  full 
moon,  and  in  that  act  no  longer  feeling  their 
separation.'  ^ 

One  of  Thibaut's  greatest  services  to  the  cause 
of  art  was  his  collection  of  music,  which  included 
a  very  valuable  series  of  Volkslieder  of  all  nations. 
The  catalogue  was  published  in  1 847  (Heidelberg) 
and  Thibaut's  widow  endeavoured  to  sell  it  to 
one  of  the  public  libraries  of  Germany,  but  was 
unable  to  do  so  till  1850,  when  it  was  acquired 
for  the  court  library  of  Munich.  Of  still  greater 
value  is  his  book  'Ueber  Reinheit  der  Tonkiinst* 
(Heidelberg  1825,  with  portrait  of  Palestrina; 
2nd  edition  1826).  The  title  does  not  indicate 
(as  his  friend  Bahr  observes  in  the  preface  to 
the  3rd  edition,  1853)  purity  either  of  con- 
struction  or   execution,  but  purity  of  the  art 

1  From  this,  Gervlnus  seems  to  have  taken  the  Idea  of  his  Sodetf 
for  the  cultivation  of  Handel's  music. 
i      «  See  •  The  Mendelssohn  Family.'  vol.  1.  p.  138. 


102 


THIBAUT. 


itself.  Music  was  to  him  an  elevating,  I  might 
Bay  a  moral,  art,  and  this  treatise  may  justly 
claim  to  have  exercised  a  moral  influence.  Thibaut 
maintains  that  as  there  is  music  which  acts 
as  a  powerful  agent  in  purifying  and  cultivating 
the  mind,  so  there  is  music  which  has  as  de- 
praving an  influence  as  that  exercised  by  im- 
moral literature.  From  this  point  of  view  he 
urges  the  necessity  of  purity  in  music,  and  sets 
himself  firmly  against  all  that  is  shallow,  com- 
mon, unhealthy  or  frivolous.  But  this  is  diflfi- 
cult  ground.  His  idea  of  impurity  may  be 
gathered  from  the  fact  that  in  the  essay  on  instru- 
mentation he  unhesitatingly  condemns  the  flutes, 
clarinets,  and  bassoons,  added  by  Mozart  to  'The 
people  that  walked  in  darkness,'  urging  that  they 
entirely  change  the  character  of  the  piece.  He  also 
strongly  censures  the  frequent  changes  of  tempo 
and  expression  by  which  Mozart  gives  colour 
to  his  splendid  motet  'Misericordias  Domine.' 
The  remaining  articles  are  on  the  following 
topics : — The  Chorale ;  Church-music  outside  the 
Chorale ;  Volksgesange ;  The  study  of  models  as 
a  means  of  culture ;  Instrumentation  as  a  means  of 
effect ;  the  great  masters  compared ;  Versatility  ; 
Corruptions  of  the  text ;  and  Choral  unions.  It 
is  not  too  much  to  say  that  this  book,  dealing  as 
it  does  in  a  spirit  of  great  earnestness  with 
questions  which  are  at  this  moment  agitating 
the  musical  world,  will  always  be  of  interest. 
The  last  German  edition  came  out  in  1861. 
The  English  version  ('Purity  in  Musical  Art,' 
John  Murray  1877)  is  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Gladstone, 
son  of  the  Premier.  [F-GrO 

THILLON,  Anna,  was  bom  in  1819  in  Lon- 
don. Her  father's  name  was  Hunt.  At  the  age 
of  fourteen  she  left  England  for  France  with  her 
mother  and  sister,  and  received  instruction  from 
Bordogni,  Tadolini,  and  M.  Thillon,  conductor  of 
the  Havre  Philharmonic  Society,  whom  she  mar- 
ried at  the  early  age  of  fifteen.  She  appeared  at 
Havre,  Clermont,  and  Nantes,  with  such  success 
as  to  obtain  an  engagement  at  the  Th^^tre  de  la 
Renaissance,  Paris  (Salle  Ventadour),  where  she 
made  her  debut  Nov.  15, 1838,  as  the  heroine,  on 
the  production  of  Grisar's  *  Lady  Melvil.'  She 
was  very  popular  in  that  and  several  new  operas, 
as  Argentine  in  *L*Eau  Merveilleuse,'  Grisar; 
D^nise  in  *La  Chasse  Royale,'  Godefroid;  La 
chaste  Suzanne,  Monpou;  etc.  Her  voice  was 
a  'soprano  sfogato'  of  marvellous  timbre,  from 
Bb  below  the  stave  to  Eb  in  alt.,  and,  combined 
with  her  personal  charms,  it  obtained  for  her  the 
favour  of  the  public  in  a  remarkable  degree.  In 
August  1840  she  first  appeared  at  the  Opdra 
Comique  as  Mathilde  in  *La  Neige.'  She  next 
played  Elizabeth  in  'Lestocq,'  and  became  a 
great  favourite  with  Auber,  who  gave  her  in- 
struction, and  composed  'Les  Diamans  de  la 
Couronne'  (produced  March  6,  1841)  expressly 
for  her.  She  also  sustained  the  parts  of  Bianca 
di  Molina  and  Casilda  in  his  *Duc  d'Olonne' 
and  *Part  du  Diable'  on  their  production. 
Mme.  ThiUon  also  created  Geraldine  (•  Les  Puits 
d' Amour'),  Balfe;  Gorilla  ('Cagliostro'),  Adam  ; 
Maro[uise  de  Gfevres  ('Sainte  Cecile*);  Montfort; 


THIRD. 

and  played  Laurette  on  the  revival  of  Gr^try's 
*  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion.'  On  May  2, 1 844,  she  first 
appeared  in  public  in  England  at  the  Princess's 
in  the  *  Crown  Diamonds,'  and  met  with  extra- 
ordinary success,  both  on  account  of  her  voice, 
her  charming  acting  and  attractive  manners; 
and  the  opera,  then  first  produced  in  England, 
ran  to  the  end  of  the  season.  She  was  also  well 
received  at  the  Philharmonic  and  other  concerts. 
She  afterwards  appeared  in  England  in  45  and 
46  at  Drury  Lane,  playing  Stella  in  the  'En- 
chantress,' on  its  production  May  14,  45,  a  part 
composed  expressly  for  her  by  Balfe ;  in  46  at 
the  Haymarket  in  *  Le  Domino  noir '  and  *  L'Eau 
merveilleuse';  and  in  48  at  the  Princess's  in 
*La  Fille  du  Regiment.'  She  also  played  at 
Brussels  and  in  the  French  and  English  provinces, 
and  from  51  to  54  in  America,  first  introducing 
opera  at  San  Francisco.  She  reappeared  in 
54  at  JuUien's  concerts,  after  which  she  was 
only  heard  at  intervals,  on  account  of  a  severe 
throat  attack.  Her  last  appearances  in  opera 
were  in  1856  at  the  Lyceum  as  La  Catarina.  The 
performances  ended  abruptly  on  account  of  her 
illness.  She  was  last  heard  in  public  at  Kuhe's 
Festival  of  1867.  She  and  her  husband  now  reside 
at  Torquay.  [A.C.] 

THIRD.  One  of  the  most  important  intervals 
in  modem  music,  since,  by  one  or  other  of  its 
principal  forms,  it  supplies  the  means  of  de- 
finition in  all  the  most  characteristic  chords. 
Three  forms  are  met  with  in  modern  music- 
major,  minor,  and  diminished.  The  first  of  these 
occurs  most  characteristically  in  the  major  scale 
between  the  Tonic  and  the  Mediant — as  between 
C  and  E  in  the  key  of  C  (a).  It  is  also  an  im- 
l^ortant  factor  in  the  Dominant  chord,  whether  in 
the  major  or  minor  mode — as  between  G  and  B 
in  the  Dominant  of  the  key  of  C  (6).  The  minor 
third  occurs  most  characteristically  in  the  minor 
scale  as  the  converse  to  the  principal  major  third 
in  the  major  scale  ;  that  is,  between  Tonic  and 
Mediant ;  as  C  and  Eb  in  C  minor  (c).  It  also 
makes  its  appearance  characteristically  in  the 
chord  of  the  subdominant — as  F-Ab  in  C  minor 
(d) ;  but  both  this  minor  third  and  the  major 


third  of  the  dominant  chord  are  sometimes  sup- 
planted by  major  and  minor  thirds  respectively 
for  the  convenience  of  melodic  progression  in 
the  minor  mode.  In  all  fundamental  discords, 
such  as  the  Dominant  seventh  and  Dominant 
major  and  minor  ninths,  the  first  interval  from 
the  root-note  in  the  original  position  of  the 
chord  is  a  major  third. 

The  major  third  is  well  represented  in  the 
series  of  partial  tones  or  harmonics,  by  the  tone 
which  comes  fourth  in  order,  and  stands  in  the 
second  octave  from  the  prime  tone  or  generator. 

The  ratio  of  the  sounds  of  the  major  third  is 
4 :  5,  and  that  of  the  minor  third  5  :  6.  Thirds 
were  not  accepted  by  the  ancients  as  consonances. 


THIRD. 


THOMAS. 


103 


and  when  they  began  to  come  into  use  in  the 
early  middle  ages  as  so-called  imperfect  con- 
sonances the  major  third  used  was  that  commonly 
known  as  the  Pythagorean  third,  which  is  ar- 
rived at  by  taking  four  fifths  from  the  lower 
note.  The  ratio  of  this  interval  is  64:  8i,  and 
it  is  therefore  considerably  sharper  than  the  just 
or  natural  third ;  while  the  major  third  of  equal 
temperament  generally  used  in  modem  music  lies 
between  the  two,  but  a  little  nearer  to  the 
Pythagorean  third. 

The  resultant  tones  of  thirds  are  strong.  That 
of  the  major  third  is  two  octaves  lower  than  the 
lowest  of  the  two  notes,  and  that  of  the  minor 
third  two  octaves  and  a  major  third. 

Diminished  thirds  are  rough  dissonances ;  they 
occur  in  modem  music  as  the  inversions  of  aug- 
mented sixths,  as  FjJ — Ab  (e)  ;  and  their  ratio 
is  225  :  256.  They  are  of  powerful  effect,  but  are 
sparingly  used  by  great  masters  of  the  art.  They 
rarely  appear  in  the  position  of  actual  thirds,  but 
more  commonly  in  the  extended  position  as  dimin- 
ished tenths.  [C.H.H.P.] 

THIRLWALL,  John  Wade,  born  Jan.  11, 
1809,  at  a  Northumbrian  village  named  Shil- 
bottle,  was  the  son  of  an  engineer  who  had  been 
the  playmate  of  George  Stephenson.  He  ap- 
peared in  public  before  he  was  8  years  old,  at 
the  Newcastle  Theatre,  afterwards  became  music 
director  at  the  Durham  Theatre,  and  was  en- 
gaged by  the  Duke  of  Northumberland  to  collect 
Northumbrian  airs.  He  subsequently  came  to 
London,  was  employed  in  the  Opera  band,  and 
was  music  director  at  Drury  Lane,  the  Hay- 
market,  Olympic,  and  Adelphi  Theatres  suc- 
cessively. After  the  death  of  Nadaud  in  1864 
he  was  appointed  conductor  of  the  ballet  music 
at  the  Royal  Italian  Opera.  In  1843  he  com- 
posed the  music  for  *  A  Book  of  Ballads,'  one  of 
which,  '  The  Sunny  Days  of  Childhood,'  was  very 
popular ;  also  many  songs,  violin  solos,  and  in- 
strumental trios.  He  was  for  some  time  music 
critic  to  the '  Pictorial  Times,'  *  Literary  Gazette,' 
and  'Court  Circular.'  Besides  music  he  culti- 
vated poetry  and  painting,  and  in  1872  published 
a  volume  of  poems.     He  died  June  15,  1875. 

His  daughter  and  pupil,  Annie,  a  soprano 
singer,  first  appeared  at  the  National  Concerts, 
Exeter  Hall,  in  1855.  On  Feb.  4,  1856,  she 
first  performed  on  the  stage  at  the  Strand  Thea- 
tre, whence  she  removed  to  the  Olympic,  Oct.  1 2, 
1856.  In  Oct.  1859  she  joined  the  Pyne  and 
Harrison  company  at  Covent  Garden.  A  few 
years  afterwards  she  became  the  leading  member 
of  an  English-Opera  company  which  performed 
in  the  provinces,  and  retired  in  1876.    [W. H.  H.] 

THOINAN,  Ernest,  the  nom  de  plume  of 
Ernest  Roquet,  a  distinguished  amateur  and  col- 
lector of  works  on  music.  From  collecting  he 
advanced  to  writing,  first  as  a  contributor  to  '  La 
France  musicale,'  •£' Art  musical,'  and  others.  His 
essays  in  these  periodicals  he  has  since  pub- 
lished : — *La  Musique  k  Paris  en  1862 '  (Paris, 
1863) ;  •  L'Opera  des  Troy  ens  au  Pdre  La  chaise' 
(1863);  *Les  origines  de  la  Chapelle  musique 
des  souverains  de  France  '  (1864);  'Les  deplora- 


tions  de  Guillaume  Crestin'  (1864)  »  *  Mangars' 
(1865) ;  •  Antoine  de  Consu'  (1866) ;  'Curiosit^s 
musicales'  (1866);  *  Un  Bisaieul  de  Molifere  : 
recherches  sur  les  Mazuel'  (1878);  Louis  Con- 
stantin,  roi  des  violons'  (1878);  'Notes  biblio- 
graphiques  sur  la  guerre  des  Gluckistes  et  des 
Piccinnistes '  (1878).  These  pamphlets  contain 
much  curious  information,  and  many  corrections 
of  F^tis's  mistakes.  He  has  also  republished 
the  very  scarce  *  Entretien  des  musiciens,'  by 
Annibal  Gantaz  (1878),  with  notes  and  ex- 
planations. He  has  in  preparation  a  book  on 
Lully,  said  to  embody  many  unpublished  docu- 
ments. .[Gr.C] 

THOMAS,  Arthue  Goring,  born  at  Ratton, 
Sussex,  in  November,  1851,  was  educated  for 
another  profession  and  did  not  begin  to  study 
music  seriously  until  after  he  came  of  age.  In 
1875  he  went  to  Paris,  and  studied  for  two  years 
under  M.  Emile  Durand.  On  his  return  to 
England  he  entered  the  Royal  Academy,  studied 
there  for  three  years  under  Messrs.  Sullivan  and 
Prout,  and  twice  gained  the  annual  prize  for 
composition.  His  principal  compositions  are  an 
opera  in  3  acts  (MS.),  libretto  by  Mr.  Clifford 
Harrison,  on  Moore's  poem  *The  Light  of  the 
Harem ' ;  four  Concert-scenas,  two  of  which  have 
been  performed  in  London  and  one  at  the  Crystal 
Palace ;  an  anthem  for  soprano  solo,  chorus,  and 
orchestra,  performed  at  S.  James's  Hall  in  1878 ; 
some  detached  pieces  for  orchestra ;  ballet  music, 
etc. ;  a  number  of  songs ;  and  a  cantata,  'The  Sun- 
worshippers,'  given  with  success  at  the  Norwich 
Festival  in  1881.  His  4-act  opera,  'Esmeralda,' 
words  by  Randegger  and  Marzials,  was  produced 
by  Carl  Rosa  at  Drury  Lane,  March  26,  1883, 
with  great  success,  and  has  since  been  reproduced 
at  Cologne.  [W.B.S.] 

THOMAS,  Charles  Ambroise,  eminent 
French  composer,  bom  at  Metz,  Aug.  5,  1811. 
The  son  of  a  musician,  he  learnt  his  notes  with 
his  alphabet,  and  while  still  a  child  played  the 
piano  and  violin.  Having  entered  the  Paris 
Conservatoire  in  1828,  he  carried  off  the  first 
prize  for  piano  in  1829,  for  harmony  in  1830, 
and  the  Grand  Prix  in  1832.  He  also  studied 
the  piano  with  Kalkbrenner,  harmony  with  Bar- 
bereau,  and  composition  with  the  venerable  Le- 
sueur,  who  used  to  call  him  his  'note  sensible' 
(leading-note),  because  he  was  extremely  sensi- 
tive, and  the  seventh  of  his  pupils  who  had 
gained  the  Prix  de  Rome.  His  cantata  *  Her- 
mann und  Ketty '  was  engraved,  as  were  also 
the  works  composed  during  his  stay  in  Italy, 
immediately  after  his  return.  The  latter  com- 
prise a  string-quartet  and  quintet;  a  trio  for 
PF.,  violin,  and  cello ;  a  fantasia  for  PF,  and 
orchestra ;  PF.  pieces  for  2  and  4  hands ;  6 
Italian  songs;  3  motets  with  organ;  and  a 
'  Messe  de  Requiem '  with  orchestra. 

Early  works  of  this  calibre  gave  promise  of 
a  musician  who  would  work  hard,  produce  much, 
and  by  no  means  rest  content  with  academical 
honours.  He  soon  gained  access  to  the  Op^ra 
Comique,  and  produced  there  with  success  'La 
double   Echelle,'  i  act   (Aug.  23,   1837);    'Le 


104 


THOMAS. 


Perruquier  de  la  licence,'  3  acts  (Maxell  30, 
1838) ;  and  *  Le  Panier  fleuri/  i  act  (May  6, 
1839).  Ambition  however  prompted  him  to 
attempt  the  Academic,  and  there  he  produced 
*La  Gipsy  *  (Jan.  28,  1839),  a  ballet  in  3  acts,  of 
which  the  2nd  only  was  his;  'Le  Comte  de 
Carmagnola'  (April  19,  1841) ;  *  Le  Guerillero ' 
(June  2,  1842),  both  in  2  acts;  and  'Betty' 
(July  10, 1846),  ballet  in  2  acts:  but  it  was  hard 
for  so  young  a  composer  to  hold  his  own  with 
Auber,  Halevy,  Meyerbeer,  and  Donizetti,  so 
Thomas  returned  to  the  Op^ra  Comique.  There 
he  composed  successively  *  Carline,*  3  acts  (Feb. 
24, 1840)  ;  'Ang^Iique  et  MMor,'  i  act  (May  10, 
1843);  *Mina,'  3  acts  (Oct.  10,  1843);  'Le 
Caid,'  2  acts  (Jan,  3,  1849);  *Le  Songe  d'une 
nuit  d'dt^,'  3  acts  (April  20,  1850)  ;  'Raymond,' 
3  acts  (June  5,  1851);  *La  Tonelli,'  2  acts 
(March  .^o,  1853);  *La  Cour  de  C^limfene/  2 
acts  (April  11,  1855) ;  'Psych^,'  3  acts  (Jan.  26, 
1857,  revived  with  additions  May  21,  1878)  ; 
'Le  Camaval  de  Venise,'  3  acts  (Dec.  9,  1853); 
•Le  Roman  d'Elvire,'  3  acts  (Feb.  3,  i860); 
'Mignon,'  3  acts  (Nov.  17,  i866) ;  and  'Gille  et 
Gillotin,'  I  act,  composed  in  1861,  but  not  pro- 
duced till  April  22,  1874.  To  these  must  be 
added  two  cantatas  composed  for  the  inaugura- 
tion of  a  statue  to  Lesueur  at  Abbeville  (Aug,  10, 
1852),  and  for  the  Boieldieu  centenary  at  Rouen 
(June  13, 1875)  ;  a  *  Messe  Solennelle'  (Nov.  22, 
1857),  a  'Marche  R^ligieuse  *  (Nov.  22,  1865) 
composed  for  the  Association  des  Artistes 
Musiciens;  and  a  quantity  of  part-songs  and 
choral  scenas,  such  as  'France,'  'Le  Tjnrol,'  'L'At- 
lantique,'  'Le  Carnavalde  Rome,' '  LesTraineaux,' 
*  La  Nuit  du  Sabbat,'  etc.  The  life  and  dramatic 
movement  of  his  unaccompanied  part-songs  for 
men's  voices  showed  the  essentially  dramatic 
nature  of  M.  Thomas's  genius,  which  after  en- 
larging the  limits  of  opera  comique,  found  a 
congenial  though  formidable  subject  in  *  Hamlet,' 
5  acts  (March  9,  1868).  The  Prince  of  Denmark 
was  originally  cast  for  a  tenor,  but  there  being 
at  that  time  no  tenor  at  the  Opdra  capable  of 
creating  such  a  part,  Thomas  altered  the  music 
to  suit  a  baritone,  and  entrusted  it  to  Faure. 
The  success  of  this  great  work  following  im- 
mediately on  that  secured  by  '  Mignon,'  pointed 
out  its  composer  as  the  right  man  to  succeed 
Auber  as  director  of  the  Conservatoire^  (July  6, 
1871).  The  work  he  has  done  there— daily  in- 
creasing in  importance — has  been  already  de- 
scribed. [See  CoNSERVATOiBE,  vol.  i.  393.]  A 
post  of  this  nature  leaves  scant  leisure  for  other 
employment,  and  during  the  last  twelve  years  M. 
Tliomas  has  composed  nothing  beyond  the  solfeg- 
gios and  exercises  for  the  examinations,  except 
one  opera  '  Fran9oise  de  Rimini '  (April  14, 1882), 
the  prologue  and  fourth  act  of  which  are  en- 
titled to  rank  with  his  'Hamlet.' 

The  musical  career  of  Ambroise  Thomas  may 
be  divided  into  three  distinct  periods.  The  first 
period  extended  to  1848,  and,  taking  'Mina' 
and  'Betty'  as  specimens, its  main  characteristics 

1  He  had  been  Professor  of  Composition  since  1852  and  a 
of  the  lostitate  from  1861. 


THOMAS. 

were  elegance  and  grace.  The  second  began 
with  the  op^ra  bouffe  '  Le  Caid/  the  refined  wit 
of  which  was  a  protest  against  the  hackneyed 
phrases  and  forced  declamation  of  the  Italian 
school,  and  continuing  with  *Le  Songe  d'une 
Nuit  d'dt^,' '  Raymond,'  and  'Psych^,'  all  works 
novel  in  form,  and  poetic  in  idea,  ended  in  i86i. 
The  last  20  years  include  *  Mignon,*  *  Hamlet/ 
and  •  Fran9oise  de  Rimini,'  all  full  of  earnest 
thought,  and  showing  continuous  progress. 

Carrying  forward  the  work  begun  by  Harold, 
he  brings  to  his  task  an  inborn  instinct  for  the 
stage,  and  a  remarkable  gift  of  interpreting 
dramatic  situations  of  the  most  varied  and  op- 
posite kinds.  His  skill  in  handling  the  orchestra 
is  consummate,  both  in  grouping  instruments  of 
different  timbre,  and  obtaining  new  effects  of 
sound ;  but  though  carrying  orchestral  colouring 
to  the  utmost  pitch  of  perfection,  he  never  allows 
it  to  overpower  the  voices.  With  a  little  more 
boldness  and  individuality  of  melody  this  accom- 
plished writer,  artist,  and  poet — master  of  all 
moods  and  passing  in  turn  from  melancholy 
musings  to  the  liveliest  banter — would  rank  with 
the  leaders  of  the  modern  school  of  composers ; 
as  it  is,  the  purity  and  diversity  of  his  style 
make  him  a  first-rate  dramatic  composer. 

Ambroise  Thomas  is  one  of  the  few  survivors 
of  a  society  of  eminent  artists — Gatteaux,  Baltard, 
Hippolyte  Flandrin,  Alexandre  Hesse,  and  many 
others — who  gathered  round  Ingres  as  their  head. 
Intimate  from  his  youth  with  the  family  of 
Horace  Vernet,  he  was  much  in  good  society, 
though  it  would  be  unfair  to  call  him  devoted 
to  it.  Tall,  slender,  and  fond  of  physical  exer- 
tion, he  enjoys  country  life,  but  he  is  also  known 
as  a  connoisseur  of  old  furniture  and  hHc-a-brac, 
and  an  assiduous  fi'equenter  of  the  Hotel 
Drouot.  Indeed  his  rooms  at  the  Conservatoire, 
his  villa  at  Argenteuil,  and  his  island  retreat 
at  Zilliec  in  Brittany,  may  almost  be  called 
museums.  M.  Thomas  was  made  a  Grand  Cross 
of  the  Legion  of  Honour  in  1880. 

There  is  a  fine  oil-painting  of  him  by  Hippolyte 
Flandrin,  a  terra-cotta  bust  by  Doublemard,  and 
a  marble  bust  and  medallion,  the  last  a  striking 
likeness,  by  Oudind.  [G.Cj 

THOMAS,  Harold,  bom  at  Cheltenham, 
July  8,  1834,  a  favourite  pupil  of  Stemdale 
Bennett,  under  whom  he  was  placed  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music  at  a  very  early  age.  His 
other  masters  were  Cipriani  Potter  (theory),  and 
Henry  Blagrove  (violin).  He  made  his  first  ap- 
pearance as  a  pianist  at  a  Royal  Academy  Con- 
cert, May  25,  1850,  and  after  this  appeared 
frequently  at  the  same  concerts,  both  as  pianist 
and  composer.  In  1858,  Mr.  Thomas  played 
before  the  Queen  and  Prince  Consort  at  Windsor, 
and  in  1864  played  Bennett's  First  Concerto  at 
the  Philharmonic.  A  few  years  later,  he  retired 
from  public  life  and  devoted  himself  to  teaching. 
Mr.  Thomas  is  now  Professor  of  the  piano  at  the 
Royal  Acadeniy  of  Music,  and  the  Guildhall 
School  of  Music.  His  compositions  include  many 
original  piano  pieces,  some  songs,  many  arrange- 
ments, etc.,  and  three  overtures  for  orchestra : — 


THOMAS. 

*  Overture  for  a  Comedy ' ;  *  As  you  like  it,* 
produced  by  the  Musical  Society  of  London  in 
1864;  and  'Mountain,  Lake,  and  Moorland,' 
produced  at  the  Philharmonic  in  1880.  The 
last  two  works  have  been  frequently  played  with 
great  success.  [W.B.S.] 

THOMAS,  John  (known  in  Wales  as  *  Pen- 
cerdd  Gwalia,'  i.e.  chief  of  the  Welsh  minstrels, 
a  title  conferred  on  him  at  the  Aberdare 
Eisteddfod  of  1861),  a  very  distinguished  harpist, 
was  born  at  Bridgend,  Glamorganshire,  on  St. 
David's  Day,  1826.  He  played  the  piccolo  when 
only  four,  and  when  eleven  won  a  harp  at  an 
Eisteddfod.  In  1840  he  was  placed  by  Ada, 
Countess  of  Lovelace  (Byron's  daughter),  at  the 
Royal  Academy,  where  he  studied  under  J.  B. 
Chatterton  (harp),  C.  J.  Read  (piano),  and  Lu- 
cas and  Cipriani  Potter  (composition).  He  re- 
mained at  the  Academy  for  about  eight  years, 
during  which  time  he  composed  a  harp  concerto,  a 
symphony,  several  overtures,  quartets,  two  operas, 
etc.  On  leaving  the  Academy  he  was  made  in 
succession  Associate,  Honorary  Member,  and 
Professor  of  the  Harp.  In  185 1  he  played  in 
the  orchestra  of  Her  Majesty's  Opera,  and  in  the 
same  year  went  a  concert  tour  on  the  continent, 
a  practice  he  continued  during  the  winter  months 
of  the  next  ten  years,  playing  successively  in 
France,  Germany,  Russia,  Austria,  and  Italy.  In 
1862  Mr.  Thomas  published  a  valuable  collection 
of  Welsh  melodies,  and  in  the  same  year  gave 
with  great  success  the  first  concert  of  Welsh 
music  in  London.  In  1871  he  was  appointed 
conductor  of  a  Welsh  Choral  Union,  which  for 
six  years  gave  six  concerts  annually.  In  1872, 
on  the  death  of  Mr.  J.  B.  Chatterton,  he  was 
appointed  Harpist  to  the  Queen,  and  is  now 
teacher  of  the  harp  at  the  Royal  College  of 
Music. 

Mr.  Thomas  has  always  taken  a  deep  interest 
in  the  music  of  his  native  country.  There 
has  scarcely  been  an  Eisteddfod  of  importance 
held  during  the  last  twenty  years  at  which 
he  has  not  appeared  as  both  adjudicator  and 
performer,  and  he  has  recently  (1883)  collected 
a  large  sum  with  which  he  has  endowed  a  per- 
manent scholarship  for  Wales  at  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music.  In  1866,  at  the  Chester 
Eisteddfod,  he  was  presented  with  a  purse  of 
500  guineas  in  recognition  of  his  services  to 
Welsh  music.  Mr.  Thomas  is  a  member  of 
the  Academies  of  St.  Cecilia  and  the  Philhar- 
monic of  Rome,  the  Florentine  Philharmonic, 
and  the  Royal  Academy,  Philharmonic,  and 
Royal  Society  of  Musicians,  of  London.  His 
compositions  include  a  large  amount  of  harp 
music,  amongst  which  are  2  concertos,  one  of 
which  was  played  at  the  Philharmonic  in  1852  ; 
'  Llewelyn,'  a  cantata  for  the  Swansea  Eisteddfod 
(1863)  ;  and  'The  Bride  of  Neath  Valley,'  for 
the  Chester  Eisteddfod  (1866).  [W.B.S.] 

THOMAS,  Lewis  William,  bom  in  Bath,  of 
Welsh  parents,  learnt  singing  under  Bianchi  Tay- 
lor, and  in  1850,  when  24,  was  appointed  lay-clerk 
in  Worcester  Cathedral.  In  1852  he  was  made 
master  of  the  choristers,  and  during  the  next  few 


THOMAS. 


105 


years  sang  frequently  at  Birmingham,  Gloucester, 
Hereford,  and  Worcester.  In  1854  he  made  his 
first  appearance  in  London,  at  St.  Martin's  Hall; 
in  1855  ^^  sang  at  the  Sacred  Harmonic,  and 
in  1856  settled  in  London,  with  an  appoint- 
ment at  St.  Paul's.  In  the  following  year 
Mr.  Thomas  left  St.  Paul's  for  the  choir  of  the 
Temple  Church,  and  in  the  same  year  was  ap- 
pointed a  gentleman  of  Her  Majesty's  Chapel 
Royal.  In  1857  he  had  lessons  of  Mr.  Randegger, 
and  appeared  under  his  direction  on  the  operatic 
stage,  which  however  he  soon  abandoned  for  the 
concert-room,  where  he  is  chiefly  known  as  a 
bass  singer  of  oratorio  music.  During  the  last 
few  years  Mr.  Thomas  has  been  a  contributor 
to  the  press  on  matters  connected  with  music 
and  art.  [W.B.S.] 

THOMAS,  Theodore,  born  Oct.  11,  1835,  at 
Esens,  in  Hanover ;   received  his  first  musical 
instruction  from  his  father,  a  violinist,  and  at 
the  age  of  six  made  a  successful  public  appear- 
ance.  The  family  emigrated  to  the  United  States 
in  1845,  and  for  two  years  Theodore  made  fre- 
quent appearances  as  a  solo  violinist  in  concerts 
at  New  York.     In  1851  he  made  a  trip  through 
the  Southern  States.     Returning  to  New  York 
he  was  engaged  as  one  of  the  first  violins  in 
concerts  and  operatic  performances  during  the 
engagements  of  Jenny  Lind,  Sontag,  Grisi,  Ma- 
rio,  etc.     He  occupied  the  position  of  leading 
violin  under  Arditi,  and  subsequently,  the  same 
position  in  German  and  Italian  troupes,  a  part 
of  the  time  officiating  as  conductor,  until  1861, 
when  he  withdrew  from  the  theatre.     In  1855 
he  began  a  series  of  chamber-concerts  at  New 
York,  with  W.  Mason,  J.  Mosenthal,  Carl  Berg- 
mann,  G.  Matzka,  and  F,  Bergner,  which  were 
continued  every  season  until  1869,    In  1864  Mr. 
Thomas  began  his  first  series  of  symphony  con- 
certs at  Irving  Hall,  New  York,  which  were 
continued  for  five  seasons,  with  varying  success. 
In  1872  the  symphony  concerts  were  resumed 
and  carried  on  until  he  left  New  York  in  1878. 
Steinway  Hall  was  used  for  these  concerts,  and 
the  orchestra  numbered  eighty  performers.     In 
the  summer  of  1866,  in  order  to  secure  that  effi- 
ciency which  can  only  come  from  constant  practice 
together,    he  began   the  experiment   of  giving 
nightly  concerts  at  the   Terrace  Garden,  New 
York,  removing,  in  1868,  to  larger  quarters  at 
the  Central  Park  Garden.     In  1869  he  made  his 
first  concert  tour  through  the  Eastern  and  Western 
States.     The  orchestra,  at  first  numbering  forty 
players,  was,  in  subsequent  seasons,  increased  to 
sixty.     The  programmes  presented  during  these 
trips,  as  well  as  at  New  York,  were  noticeable 
for  their  catholic  nature,  and  for  the  great  number 
of  novelties  brought  out.    But  it  was  also  notice- 
able that  the  evenings  devoted  to  the  severer  class 
of  music,  old  or  new,  in  the   Garden  concerts 
at  New  York,  were   often  the  most  fully  at- 
tended.  Thomas's  tendencies,  it  was  plainly  seen, 
were  toward  the  new  school  of  music;   but  he 
was  none  the  less  attentive  to  the  old,  and  he 
introduced  to  American  amateurs  a  large  num- 
ber of  compositions  by  the  older  masters.    The 


106 


THOMAS. 


repertory  of  the  orchestra  was  very  large,  and 
included  compositions  in  every  school.  In  1878 
Thomas  was  appointed  director  of  the  new  Col- 
lie of  Music  at  Cincinnati.  In  April,  1879,  he 
■was  unanimously  elected  conductor  of  the  New 
York  Philharmonic  Society,  a  position  which  he 
had  occupied  in  the  season  of  1877-78.  The 
concerts  by  the  Brooklyn  Philharmonic  Society 
were  in  his  charge  during  the  seasons  of  1862, 
1866  to  1870  inclusive,  and  have  been  since  his 
last  election.  May  26,  1873.  He  has  directed 
several  festivals  at  Cincinnati  and  New  York 
since  1873.  In  1883  he  went  from  New  York 
to  San  Francisco  with  an  orchestra  and  several 
eminent  singers,  giving,  on  his  way,  concerts  in 
the  principal  cities.  In  some  cities  embraced  in 
this  tour,  notably  Baltimore,  Pittsburg,  Chicago, 
Milwaukee,  St.  Louis,  Denver,  and  San  Fran- 
cisco, festivals,  in  which  were  included  perform- 
ances of  important  choral  works,  were  given 
with  the  aid  of  local  societies  under  his  direction. 
Mr.  Thomas  withdrew  from  the  College  of  Music 
at  Cincinnati  in  1880.  At  present  (18S3)  he 
is  director  of  the  Philharmonic  Societies  of 
Brooklyn  and  New  York,  and  of  the  New  York 
Chorus  Society.  [F.H.J.] 

THOMSON,  George,  born  at  Limekilns, 
Edinburgh,  Mar.  4,  1757  or  1759,  died  at  Leith, 
Feb.  II,  1 85 1,  was  for  tifty  years  'Secretary  to 
the  Board  of  Trustees  for  the  Encouragement 
of  Arts  and  Manufactures  in  Scotland.'  His 
place  in  musical  history  is  that  of  the  most  en- 
thusiastic, persevering  and  successful  collector 
of  the  melodies  of  Scotland,  Wales  and  Ireland, 
a  work  begun  in  his  youth  and  continued  for 
forty  years  or  more. 

I.  (i)  Scotland.  He  proposed  to  rescue  from 
oblivion,  so  far  as  it  could  possibly  be  accom- 
plished, every  existing  Scotch  melody,  in  all  its 
forms  and  varieties.  Being  in  correspondence 
■with  and  knowing  personally  gentlemen  in  every 
part  of  Scotland,  no  man  had  greater  facilities 
for  the  work.  He  proposed,  further,  to  publish 
*  all  the  fine  airs  both  of  the  plaintive  and  lively 
kind,  unmixed  with  trifling  and  inferior  ones.' 
The  precise  date  at  which  he  began  the  publi- 
cation in  'sets'  does  not  appear;  but  the  preface 
to  the  second  edition  of  the  first  volume — con- 
taining 25  songs — is  dated  Edinburgh,  Jan.  i, 
1794. 

(2)  Ireland.  At  first  he  included  20  favourite 
Irish  airs  in  his  'sets,'  denoting  them  in  the 
index  by  an  asterisk.  Burns  persuaded  him  to 
undertake  a  separate  publication  of  Irish  me- 
lodies, and  offered  to  write  the  new  texts.  This 
was  the  origin  of  the  two  volumes  under  that 
title,  for  the  collection  of  which  Thomson  was 
indebted  especially  to  Dr.  J.  Latham  of  Cork, 
and  other  friends  in  various  parts  of  Ireland,  who 
are  responsible  for  whatever  faults  of  omission  and 
commission  they  exhibit.  [See  Irish  Music, 
vol.  ii.  p.  22.] 

(3)  Wales.  Meantime  he  undertook  to  collect 
the  melodies  played  by  Welsh  harpers  and  adapt 
them  to  the  voice.  The  project  found  favour 
in  Wales,  and  friends  in  all  parts  of  it  sent 


THOMSON. 

them  to  him  as  played  by  the  harpers ;  '  but 
the  anxiety  he  felt  to  have  a  complete  and  au- 
thentic collection  induced  him  to  traverse  Wales 
himself,  in  order  to  hear  the  airs  played  by  the 
best  harpers,  to  collate  and  correct  the  manu- 
scripts he  had  received,  and  to  glean  such  airs 
as  his  correspondents  had  omitted  to  gather.' 
There  was  of  course  no  deciding  as  to  the 
original  form  of  an  air  on  which  no  two 
harpers  agreed,  and  Thomson  could  only  adopt 
that  which  seemed  to  him  the  most  simple  and 
perfect.  Very  few  if  any  had  Welsh  texts,  or 
were  at  all  vocable.  To  make  them  so,  he  in 
some  cases  omitted  monotonous  repetitions;  in 
some  repeated  a  strain;  in  most  discarded  the 
ornaments  and  divisions  of  the  harpers ;  but  no 
changes  were  made  in  the  tunes  except  such  as 
were  absolutely  necessary  to  'make  songs  of 
them.'  ^ 

II.  In  regard  to  their  texts,  these  three  col- 
lections of  melodies  consisted  of  four  classes: 
(i)  without  words ;  (2)  with  none  in  English  ; 
(3)  with  English  texts,  silly,  vapid,  or  indecent, 
not  to  say  obscene ;  (4)  a  few  with  unimpeachable 
words,  even  in  which  cases  he  mostly  thought  it 
well  to  add  a  new  song.^  In  fact,  in  the  first 
24  Scotch  airs,  16  have  2  songs  each,  most  if 
not  all  written  expressly  for  the  work.  A 
large  number  of  eminent  authors  were  employed 
by  Thomson  for  this  purpose. 

When  the  melody  was  known  to  the  poet,  there 
was  no  difficulty  in  writing  an  appropriate  song ; 
when  not,  Thomson  sent  a  copy  of  it  with  its 
character  indicated  by  the  common  Italian  terms. 
Allegro,  etc.,  which  were  a  sufficient  guide. 
Burns  was  the  principal  writer.  Allan  Cunning- 
ham, in  his  '  Life  and  Works '  of  the  poet,  leaves 
the  impression  that  Thomson  was  niggardly  and 
parsimonious  towards  him.  Thomson  disdained  to 
take  any  public  notice  of  Cunningham's  charges ; 
but  in  a  copy  of  the  work  in  possession  of  his  son- 
in-law,  George  Hogarth  (i860),  there  are  a  few 
autograph  notes  to  the  point.  Thus  in  July 
1793,  Bums  writes: 

•I  assure  you,  my  dear  sir,  that  you  truly  hurt 
me  with  your  pecuniary  parcel.  It  degrades  me 
in  my  own  eyes.  However,  to  return  it  would 
savour  of  affectation ;  but  as  to  any  more  traflBc 
of  this  debtor  and  creditor  kind,  I  swear  by  that 
HONOUB  which  crowns  the  upright  statue  of 
Robert  Burns's  integrity — on  the  least  motion 
of  it  I  will  indignantly  spurn  the  by-past  trans- 
action, and  from  that  moment  commence  entire 
stranger  to  you  !'^ 

Thomson  writes,  Sept.  i,  to  Bums : — 

*  While  the  muse  seems  so  propitious,  I  think 
it  right  to  inclose  a  list  of  all  the  favours  I  have 
to  ask  of  her— no  fewer  than  twenty  and  three  ! 
. .  .  most  of  the  remaining  airs  ...  are  of  that 
peculiar  measure  and  rhythm  that  they  must  be 
familiar  to  him  who  writes  for  them.' 

A  comparison  of  dates  removes  the  doubt  in 

I  This  of  course  detracts  largely  from  the  value  of  his  labour.   [G.} 
3  The  same  leaven  of  Interference. 

»  This  protest  evidently  refers  to  all  songs  written  or  to  be  writteu, 
and  thus  disposes  of  Cuuniogham's  arguments. 


THOMSON. 

relation  to  Moore,  raised  in  the  article  on  Irish 
Music.  True,  the  completed  volumes  of  Thom- 
son's ' Irish  Melodies'  are  dated  1814 ;  but  they 
were  completed  long  before,  except  as  to  the 
instrumental  accompaniments.  Messrs.  Power 
engaged  Moore  to  write  songs  for  their  rival 
publication  in  1806,  at  which  time  the  poet  was 
only  known  in  Edinburgh  as  a  young  writer  of 
indecent  and  satiric  effusions.  (See  '  Edinburgh 
Review'  of  July  1806.) 

Til.  As  to  the  instrumental  accompaniments, 
Thomson's  plan  was  as  new  and  original  as  it 
was  bold.  Besides  the  pianoforte  accompani- 
ment each  song  was  to  have  a  prelude  and  coda, 
and  parts  ad  libitum  throughout  for  violin,  or 
flute,  and  violoncello,  the  composition  to  be 
entrusted  to  none  but  the  first  composers. 

In  the  years  1 791-3,  Pleyel  stood  next  to  Haydn 
and  Mozart ;  they  in  Vienna,  he  at  that  time 
much  in  London.  Thomson  engaged  Pleyel  for  the 
work,  but  he  soon  ceased  to  write,  and  Thomson 
was  compelled  to  seek  another  composer.  Mo- 
zart was  dead ;  Haydn  seemed  to  occupy  too 
lofty  a  position ;  and  Kozeluch  of  Vienna  was 
engaged.  But  the  appearance  of  Napier's  Collec- 
tion of  Scotch  Songs  with  pianoforte  accompani- 
ments, written  by  Haydn  during  his  first  visit  to 
London,  showed  Thomson  that  the  greatest  living 
composer  did  not  disdain  this  kind  of  work. 
Thomson  applied  to  him ;  and  Haydn  worked  for 
him  until  about  1806.  The  star  of  Beethoven 
had  now  risen,  and  he  did  not  disdain  to  continue 
the  work.  But  he,  too,  died  before  Thomson's 
work  was  completed,  and  Bishop  and  George 
Hogarth  made  up  the  sixth  volume  of  Scotch 
songs  (1841). 

The  following  list  exhibits  each  composer's 
share  in  the  work : — 

Scotch  Songs. 

Vol.  I.  originally  all  by  Pleyel. 

Vol.  II.         „  „       Kozeluch  (?). 

In  the  second  edition  of  these  (1803)  Thomson  substi- 
tuted arrangements  by  Haydn  for  several  which 
were  '  less  happily  executed  than  the  rest.' 

Vols,  in.,  IV.  all  by  Haydn. 
Vol.V.(Pref.  dated  June  1,1818)  Haydn  .    .    .     4 
Beethoven    .    26 


THOMSON. 


107 


Vol.  VI.  (dated  Sept.  1841) 


Haydn.    .    .  12 

Beethoven     .  13 

Kozeluch  .    .  1 

Hogarth    .    .  21 

Bishop  ...  6 


52 


Welsh  Melodies. 

The  Preface  is  dated  May,  1809. 

Vol.  I.  Kozeluch 10 

Haydn 20 

go 

Vol.  n.  Kozeluch 15 

Haydn 17 

Kozeluch  and  Haydn      1 

33 

Vol.  ni.  Haydn     .....      4 
Beethoven  ....    26 

30 

As  a  means  of  extending  the  knowledge  of  the 
Scotch  melodies,  Thomson,  at  the  beginning  of 
his  intercourse  with  Pleyel  and  Kozeluch,  ordered 
sonatas  based  upon  such  airs.     Both  composed 


works  of  this  kind;  but  how  many  does  not 
appear.  It  is  evident  from  a  letter  of  Beethoven 
to  Thomson  (Nov.  1, 1806)  that  besides  arrange- 
ments of  melodies,  the  latter  had  requested  trios, 
quintets,  and  sonatas  on  Scotch  themes  from  him 
also.  Beethoven's  price  for  compositions,  which 
could  only  sell  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland, 
was  such  as  could  not  be  acceded  to,  and  none 
were  written.  About  1818-20  he  wrote  varia- 
tions on  a  dozen  Scotch  melodies,  which  Thomson 
published,  but  which  never  paid  the  cost  of 
printing  either  in  Great  Britain  or  Germany.  At 
the  lowest  estimate  Beethoven  received  for  his 
share  in  Thomson's  publications  not  less  than 
•£5 50*  George  Hogarth,  who  married  Thomson's 
daughter,  told  the  writer  that  the  Scotch  songs 
only  paid  their  cost. 

In  the  winter  of  1860-61  there  appeared  in 
Germany  a  selection  of  these  songs  from  Bee- 
thoven's MSS,,  edited  by  Franz  Espagne,  in  the 
preface  to  which  he  writes  :  '  The  songs  printed 
in  Thomson's  collection  are,  both  as  to  text  and 
music,  not  only  incorrectly  printed,  but  wilfully 
altered  and  abridged.'  These  groundless  charges 
were  made  honestly,  but  with  a  most  plentiful 
lack  of  knowledge.  They  need  not  be  discussed 
here,  as  they  were  amply  met  and  completely 
refuted  in  the  Vienna  'Deutsche  Musikzeitung' 
of  Nov.  23  and  Dec.  28,  1861.  All  Beethoven's 
Scotch  and  Irish  songs  are  contained  in  Breit- 
kopf 's  complete  edition  of  his  works,  Series  24, 
Nos.  257-260.  [A.W.T.] 

THOMSON,  John,  first  Professor  of  Music 
at  Edinburgh  University,  was  the  son  of  an 
eminent  clergyman,  and  was  born  at  Ednam, 
Kelso,  Oct.  28,  1805.  His  father  afterwards 
became  minister  of  St.  George's  Church,  Edin- 
burgh. He  made  the  acquaintance  of  Mendels- 
sohn during  the  visit  of  the  latter  to  Edinburgh 
in  the  summer  of  1829,  and  showed  him  much 
attention,  which  Mendelssohn  requited  by  a 
warm  letter  of  introduction  to  his  family  in 
Berlin,  in  which  he  says  of  Thomson '  *  he  is 
very  fond  of  music ;  I  know  a  pretty  trio  of  his 
composition  and  some  local  pieces  which  please 
me  very  well  *  (ganz  gut  gefallen).  During  his 
visit  to  Germany  he  studied  at  Leipzig,  kept 
up  his  friendship  with  Mendelssohn,  and  made 
the  intimate  acquaintance  of  Schumann,  Mo- 
scheles,  and  other  musicians,  and  of  Schnyder 
von  Wartensee,  whose  pupil  he  became.  In  1839. 
he  was  elected  the  first  Keid  Professor  at  Edin- 
burgh, a  result  which  was  doubtless  not  unin- 
fluenced by  the  warm  testimonials  from  his 
Leipzig  friends  which  he  submitted.  He  gave 
the  first  Reid  Concert  on  Feb.  12,  1841,  and 
the  book  of  words  contains  analytical  remarks 
by  him  on  the  principal  pieces — probably  the 
first  instance  of  such  a  thing.  Thomson  died 
May  6,  1841,  deeply  lamented.  He  wrote  three 
operas  or  dramatic  pieces,  '  Hermann,  or  the 
Broken  Spear,'  *  The  House  of  Aspen,'  and  •  The 
Shadow  on  the  Wall.'  The  last  two  were  brought 
out  at  the  Royal  English  Opera  (Lyceum),  on 

1  He  spells  the  name  Thompson,  but  it  must  surely  be  the  sam»  . 
man.    See  '  Die  Familie  Mendelssohn,'  1. 243. 


108 


THOMSON. 


Oct.  27,  1834,  and  April  21,  1835  respectively, 
and  had  each  a  long  run.  Two  of  his  songs, 
•  Harold  Harfager/  and  'The  Pirates'  Serenade,' 
are  mentioned  as  spirited  and  original.  [G.] 

THORNE,  Edward  H.,  bom  at  Cranboume, 
Dorsetshire,  May  9,  1834,  received  his  musical 
education  at  St.  George's  Chapel,  Windsor,  where 
he  was  articled  to  Sir  George  Elvey.  In  1832 
he  was  appointed  to  the  Parish  Church,  Henley, 
and  in  1862  to  Chichester  Cathedral,  which 
appointment  he  resigned  in  1870  in  order  to 
devote  himself  more  closely  to  the  more  con- 
genial work  of  teaching  the  pianoforte.  Mr. 
Thome  removed  to  London,  and  has  been  suc- 
cessively organist  at  St.  Patrick's,  Brighton; 
St.  Peter's,  Cranley  Gardens ;  and  St.  Michael's, 
Comhill.  His  published  works  comprise  several 
services,  including  a  Magnificat  and  Nunc  Di- 
mittis  for  chorus,  soli,  and  orchestra,  written  for 
the  Festival  of  the  Sons  of  the  Clergy ;  the  1 25th 
Psalm;  a  festival  march,  toccata  and  fugue, 
funeral  march,  overture,  and  six  books  of  volun- 
taries for  the  organ ;  some  pianoforte  pieces ; 
several  songs  and  part-songs ;  the  47th  Psalm 
(for  female  voices),  etc.  His  unpublished  works 
include  trios  for  piano-violin,  and  violoncello; 
sonatas  for  the  violoncello,  and  the  clarinet ;  the 
57th  Psalm  for  tenor  solo,  chorus,  and  orchestra ; 
and  many  other  compositions.  [W.B.S.] 

THORNE,  John,  of  York,  an  eminent  musi- 
cian in  the  middle  of  the  16th  century,  is  men- 
tioned by  Morley  in  his  *  Introduction.'  He 
was  probably  attached  to  York  Cathedral.  A 
3-voice  motet  by  him,  'Stella  cceli,'  is  printed 
in  Hawkins's  History.  He  was  also  a  skilled 
logician.  He  died  Dec.  7,  1573,  and  was  buried 
in  York  Cathedral.  [W.  H.  H.] 

THOROUGHBASS  (Thoroughbase,  Figured- 
Bass;  Lat.  Bassus  generalis,  Bassus  continuus  ; 
Ital.  Continuo,  Basso  coniinuo^;  Germ.  General- 
bass  ;  Fr.  Basse  continue,  Basse  chiffrie).  An 
instrumental  Bass-Part,  continued,  without  in- 
terruption, throughout  an  entire  piece  of  Music, 
and  accompanied  by  Figures,  indicating  the  gene- 
ral Harmony. 

In  Italy,  the  Figured-Bass  has  always  been 
known  as  the  Basso  continuo,  of  which  term  our 
English  word.  Thorough  (i.e.  Through)  bass,  is  a 
sufficiently  correct  translation.  But,  in  England, 
the  meaning  of  the  term  has  been  perverted, 
almost  to  the  exclusion  of  its  original  intention. 
Because  the  Figures  placed  under  a  Thorough- 
bass could  only  be  understood  by  a  performer 
well  acquainted  with  the  rules  of  Harmony,  those 
rules  were  vulgarly  described  as  the  Rules  of 
Thoroughbass ;  and,  now  that  the  real  Thorough- 
bass is  no  longer  in  ordinary  use,  the  word  sur- 
vives as  a  synonym  for  Harmony — and  a  very 
incorrect  one. 

The  invention  of  this  form  of  accompaniment 
was  long  ascribed  to  Lodovico  Viadana  (1566- 
1644),  ^^  ^^^  authority  of  Michael  Praetorius, 
Johann   Cruger,  Walther,   and   other  German 

1  Not  to  l>e  mistaken  for  Bcmw  oUinato  (Fr.  Bau«  eontreinU)  irhtch 
Indicates  a  Ground-Bass. 


THOROUGHBASS. 

historians  of  almost  equal  celebrity,  fortified  by 
some  directions  as  to  the  manner  of  its  perform- 
ance, appended  to  Viadana's  'Concerti  ecclesi- 
astici.'  But  it  is  certain  that  the  custom  of  in- 
dicating the  Intervals  of  a  Chord  by  means  of 
Figures  placed  above  or  below  the  Bass-note, 
was  introduced  long  before  the  publication  of 
Viadana's  directions,  which  first  appeared  in  a 
reprint  of  the  *  Concerti '  issued  in  161 2,  and  are 
not  to  be  found  in  any  earlier  edition;  while  a 
true  Thoroughbass  is  given  in  Peri's  *  Euridice,* 
performed  and  printed  in  1600 ;  an  equally  com- 
plete one  in  Emilio  del  Cavaliere's  Oratorio,  *  La 
rappresentazione  dell'  anima  e  del  corpo,'  pub- 
lished in  the  same  year ;  and  another,  in  Caccini's 
'Nuove  Musiche'  (Venice,  1602).  There  is,  in- 
deed, every  reason  to  believe  that  the  invention 
of  the  Continuo  was  synchronous  with  that  of  the 
Monodic  Style,  of  which  it  was  a  necessary  con- 
tingent; and  that,  like  Dramatic  Recitative,  it 
owed  its  origin  to  the  united  eflPbrts  of  the  en- 
thusiastic reformers  who  met,  during  the  closing 
years  of  the  i6th  century,  at  Giovanni  Bardi's 
house  in  Florence.  [See  Viadana,  Ludovico  ; 
MoNODiA ;  Recitative  ;  also  vol.  ii.  p.  98.] 

After  the  general  establishment  of  the  Mono- 
dic School,  the  Thoroughbass  became  a  necessary 
element  in  every  Composition,  written,  either 
for  Instruments  alone,  or  for  Voices  with  Instru- 
mental Accompaniment.  In  the  Music  of  the 
1 8th  century,  it  was  scarcely  ever  wanting.  In 
the  Operas  of  Handel,  Buononcini,  Hasse,  and 
their  contemporaries,  it  played  a  most  important 
part.  No  less  prominent  was  its  position  in 
Handel's  Oratorios ;  and  even  in  the  Minuets 
and  Gavottes  played  at  Ranelagh,  it  was  equally 
indispensable.  The  *  Vauxhall  Songs '  of  Shield, 
Hook,  and  Dibdin,  were  printed  on  two  Staves, 
on  one  of  which  was  written  the  Voice-Part, 
with  the  Melody  of  the  Ritomelli,  inserted 
in  single  notes,  between  the  verses,  while  the 
other  was  reserved  for  the  Thoroughbass.  In 
the  comparatively  complicated  Cathedral  Music 
of  Croft,  Greene,  and  Boyce,  the  Organ-Part 
was  represented  by  a  simple  Thoroughbass, 
printed  on  a  single  Stave,  beneath  the  Vocal 
Score.  Not  a  chord  was  ever  printed  in  full, 
either  for  the  Organ,  or  the  Harpsichord ;  for  the 
most  ordinary  Musician  was  expected  to  play,  at 
sight,  from  the  Figured-Bass,  just  as  the  most 
ordinary  Singer,  in  the  days  of  Palestrina,  was 
expected  to  introduce  the  necessary  accidental 
Sharps,  and  Flats,  in  accordance  with  the  laws 
of  Cantus  Fictus.    [See  MusiCA  Ficta.] 

The  Art  of  playing  from  a  Thoroughbass  still 
survives — and  even  flourishes — among  our  best 
Cathedral  Organists.  The  late  Mr.  Turle,  and 
Sir  John  Goss,  played  with  infinitely  greater 
efiect  from  the  old  copies  belonging  to  their 
Cathedral  libraries,  than  from  modem  '  arrange- 
ments '  which  left  no  room  for  the  exercise  of 
their  skill.  Of  course,  such  copies  can  be  used 
only  by  those  who  are  intimately  acquainted 
with  all  the  laws  of  Harmony  :  but,  the  applica- 
tion of  those  laws  to  the  Figured  Bass  is  exceed- 
ingly simple,  as  we  shall  now  proceed  to  show. 


THOROUGHBASS. 

1.  A  wholesome  rule  forbids  the  insertion  of 
any  Figure  not  absolutely  necessary  for  the  ex- 
pression of  the  Composer's  intention. 

2.  Another  enacts,  that,  in  the  absence  of  any 
special  reason  to  the  contrary,  the  Figures  shall  be 
written  in  their  numerical  order;  the  highest 
occupying  the  highest  place.  Thus,  the  full 
figuring  of  the  Chord  of  the  Seventh  is,  in  all 
ordinary  cases,  s  ;  the  performer  being  left  at 
liberty  to  play  the  Chord  in  any  position  he  may 
find  most  convenient.  Should  the  Composer 
write  a,  it  will  be  understood  that  he  has  some 
particular  reason  for  wishing  the  Third  to  be 
placed  at  the  top  of  the  Chord,  the  Fifth  below 
it,  and  the  Seventh  next  above  the  Bass ;  and 
the  performer  must  be  careful  to  observe  the 
directions  implied  in  this  departure  from  the 
general  custom, 

3.  In  conformity  with  Rule  i,  it  is  understood 
that  all  Bass-notes  unaccompanied  by  a  Figure 
are  intended  to  bear  Common  Chords.  It  is  only 
necessary  to  figure  the  Common  Chord,  when  it 
follows  some  other  Harmony,  on  the  same  Bass- 
note.  Thus,  at  (a),  in  Example  i,  unless  the 
Common  Chord  were  figured,  the  ^  would  be 
continued  throughout  the  Bar ;  and  in  this  case, 
two  Figures  are  necessary  for  the  Common  Chord, 
because  the  Sixth  descends  to  a  Fifth,  and  the 
Fourth  to  a  Third.  At  (6)  two  Figures  are  equally 
necessary;  otherwise,  the  performer  would  be 
perfectly  justified  in  accompanying  the  lower  G 
with  the  same  Chord  or  the  upper  one.  Instances 
may  even  occur  in  which  three  Figures  are 
needed,  as  at  (c),  where  it  is  necessary  to  show 
that  the  Ninth,  in  the  second  Chord,  descends 
to  an  Eighth,  in  the  third.  But,  in  most  ordi- 
nary cases,  a  3,  a  5,  or  an  8,  will  be  quite  suf- 
ficient to  indicate  the  Composer's  intention. 


THOROUGHBASS. 


109 


The  First  Inversion  of  the  Triad  is  almost 
always  sufficiently  indicated  by  the  Figure  6, 
the  addition  of  the  Third  being  taken  as  a  matter 
of  course ;  though  cases  will  sometimes  occur  in 
which  a  fuller  formula  is  necessary;  as  at  (a), 
in  Example  3,  where  the  3  is  needed  to  show 
the  Resolution  of  the  Fourth,  in  the  preceding 
Hannony ;  and  at  (6),  where  the  8  indicates  the 
Resolution  of  the  Ninth,  and  the  3,  that  of  the 
Fourth.  We  shall  see,  later  on,  how  it  would 
have  been  possible  to  figure  these  passages  in  a 
more  simple  and  convenient  way. 

A  small  treatise  which  was  once  extraordin- 
arily popular  in  England,  and  is  even  now  used 
to  the  exclusion  of  all  others,  in  many  *  Ladies 
Schools,'  foists  a  most  vicious  rule  upon  the 
Student,  with  regard  to  this  Chord ;  to  the  effect 
that,  when  the  Figure  6  appears  below  the 


Supertonic  of  the  Key,  a  Fourth  is  to  be  added  to 
the  Harmony.  We  remember,  when  the  treatise 
was  at  the  height  of  its  popularity,  hearing  Sir 
Henry  Bishop  inveigh  bitterly  against  this  abuse» 
which  he  denounced  as  subversive  of  all  true 
musical  feeling  ;  yet  the  pretended  exception  to 
the  general  law  was  copied  into  another  treatise, 
which  soon  became  almost  equally  popular.  No 
such  rule  was  known  at  the  time  when  every  one 
was  expected  to  play  from  a  Thoroughbass. 
Then,  as  now,  the  Figure  c  indicated,  in  all 
cases,  the  First  Inversion  of  the  Triad,  and 
nothing  else;  and,  were  any  such  change  now 
introduced,  we  should  need  one  code  of  laws  for 
the  interpretation  of  old  Thorough-Basses,  and 
another  for  those  of  later  date. 


Ex.: 
(a) 


(P) 


^^ 


^^r 


~-Bt 


-^^ 


^rw 


m 


9  8 
5  8 
4      S 


The  Second  Inversion  of  the  Triad  cannot  be 
indicated  by  less  than  two  Figures,  J-  Cases 
may  even  occur,  in  which  the  addition  of  an  8  is 
needed ;  as,  for  instance,  in  the  Organ-Point  at 
(a),  in  Example  3  ;  but  these  are  rare. 

Ex.3. 


^^g^- 


In  nearly  all  ordinary  cases,  the  Figure  7  only 
is  needed  for  the  Chord  of  the  Seventh  ;  the  ad- 
dition of  the  Third  and  Fifth  being  taken  for 
granted.  Should  the  Seventh  be  accompanied  by 
any  Intervals  other  than  the  Third,  Fifth,  and 
Octave,  it  is,  of  course,  necessary  to  specify  them ; 
and  instances,  analogous  to  those  we  have  already 
exemplified  when  treating  of  the  Common  Chord, 
will  sometimes  demand  even  the  insertion  of  a  3 
or  a  6,  when  the  Chord  follows  some  other  Har- 
mony, on  the  same  Bass-note.  Such  cases  are 
very  common  in  Organ  Points. 

The  Inversions  of  the  Seventh  are  usually  indi- 
cated by  the  formulae,  «,  *,  and  *  ;  the  Intervals 
needed  for  the  completion  of  the  Harmony  being 
understood.  Sometimes,  but  not  very  often,  it 
will  be  necessary  to  write  s,  *.  or  4.  In  some 
rare  cases,  the  Third  Inversion  is  indicated  by  a 
simple  4  :  but  this  is  a  dangerous  form  of  abbre- 
viation, unless  the  sense  of  the  passage  be  very 
clear  indeed ;  since  the  Figure  4  is  constantly 
used,  as  we  shall  presently  see,  to  indicate  another 
form  of  Dissonance.  The  Figure  2,  used  alone, 
is  more  common,  and  always  perfectly  intelligible; 
the  6  and  the  4  being  understood. 


no 


THOROUGHBASS. 


The  Figures  »,  whether  placed  under  the 
Dominant,  or  under  any  other  Degree  of  the  Scale, 
indicate  a  Chord  of  the  Ninth,  taken  by  direct 
percussion.  Should  the  Ninth  be  accompanied  by 
other  Intervals  than  the  Seventh,  Fifth,  or  Third, 
Buch  Intervals  must  be  separatelynoticed.  Should 
it  appear  in  the  form  of  a  Suspension,  its  figuring 
will  be  subject  to  certain  modifications,  of  which 
we  shall  speak  more  particularly  when  describing 
the  figuring  of  Suspensions  generally. 

The  formulae  I  and  ?  are  used  to  denote  the 
chord  of  the  Eleventh — i.e.  the  chord  of  the 
Dominant  Seventh,  taken  upon  the  Tonic  Bass. 
The  chord  of  the  Thirteenth — or  chord  of  the 
Dominant  Ninth  upon  the  Tonic  Bass — is  repre- 

»  9  7 

tented  by  e  or  I  or  f .     In  these  cases,  the  4  re- 

4  4  jj 

presents  the  Eleventh,  and  the  6  the  Thirteenth : 
for  it  is  a  rule  with  modern  Composers  to  use 
no  higher  numeral  than  9  ;  though  in  the  older 
Figured  Basses — such  as  those  given  in  Peri's 
'Euridice,'  and  Emilio  del  Cavaliere's  '  La  Rap- 
presentazione  dell'  anima  e  del  corpo,' — the 
numerals,  Id,  11,  12,  13,  and  14,  are  constantly 
used  to  indicate  reduplications  of  the  Third, 
Fourth,  Fifth,  Sixth,  and  Seventh,  in  the  Octave 
above. 

Accidental  Sharps,  Flats,  and  Naturals  are  ex- 
pressed in  three  different  ways.  A  J,  b,  or  tj,  used 
alone — that  is  to  say,  without  the  insertion  of  a 
numeral  on  its  own  level — indicates  that  the  Third 
of  the  Chord  is  to  be  raised  or  depressed  a  Semi- 
tone, as  the  case  may  be.  This  arrangement  is 
entirely  independent  of  other  numerals  placed 
above  or  helow  the  Accidental  Sign,  since  these 
can  only  refer  to  other  Intervals  in  the  Chord. 
Thus,  a  Bass-note  with  a  single  b  beneath  it,  must 
be  accompanied  by  a  Common  Chord,  with  a  flat- 
tened Third.  One  marked  s  must  be  accom- 
panied by  the  First  Inversion  of  the  Chord  of  the 
Seventh,  with  its  Third  flattened.  It  is  true 
that,  in  some  Thoroughbasses  of  the  last  century, 
we  find  the  forms  J3,  bs,  or  |j3 ;  but  the  Figure 
is  not  really  necessary. 

A  dash  drawn  through  a  B,  or  4,  indicates  that 
the  Sixth  or  Fourth  above  the  Bass-note,  must 
be  raised  a  Semitone.  In  some  of  Handel's 
Thoroughbasses,  the  raised  Fifth  is  indicated  by 
d  ;  but  this  foim  is  not  now  in  use. 

In  all  cases  except  those  already  mentioned, 
the  necessary  Accidental  Sign  must  be  placed 
before  the  numeral  to  which  it  is  intended  that 
it  should  apply;  as  be,  jj7,  tj5,  b9,  b4,  [j4,  [j6, 
etc.;  or,  when  two  or  more  Intervals  are  to  be 

Altered,  1%,  ''^  \,h  etc. ;  the  Figure  3  being  always 

b 
suppressed  in  modem  Thoroughbasses,  and  the 
Accidental  Sign  alone  inserted  in  its  place  when 
the  Third  of  the  Chord  is  to  be  altered. 

By  means  of  these  formulae,  the  Chord  of  the 
Augmented  Sixth  is  easily  expressed,  either  in  its 
Italian,  French,  or  German  form.  For  instance, 
with  the  Signature  of  G  major,  and  Eb  for  a  Bass- 
note,  the  Italian  Sixth  would  be  indicated  by  B, 
the  French  by  4,  the  German  by  \,5,  or  bs* 


THOROUGHBASS. 

The  employment  of  Passing-Notes,  Appoggi- 
aturas,  Suspensions,  Organ-Points,  and  other  pas- 
sages of  like  character,  gives  rise,  sometimes,  to 
very  complicated  Figuring,  which,  however,  may 
be  simplified  by  means  of  certain  formulae,  which 
save  much  trouble,  both  to  the  Composer  and  the 
Accompanyist. 

A  horizontal  line  following  a  Figure,  on  the 
same  level,  indicates  that  the  note  to  which  the 
previous  Figure  refers  is  to  be  continued,  in  one 
of  the  upper  Parts,  over  the  new  Bass-note,  what- 
ever may  be  the  Harmony  to  which  its  retention 
gives  rise.  Two  or  more  such  lines  indicate  that 
two  or  more  notes  are  to  be  so  continued;  and, 
in  this  manner,  an  entire  Chord  may  frequently 
be  expressed,  without  the  employment  of  a  new 
Figure.  This  expedient  is  especially  useful  in  the 
case  of  Suspensions,  as  in  Example  4,  the  full 
Figuring  of  which  is  shown  above  the  Continue, 
and,  beneath  it,  the  more  simple  form, abbreviated 
by  means  of  the  horizontal  lines,  the  arrangement 
of  which  has,  in  some  places,  involved  a  departure 
fi:om  the  numerical  order  of  the  Figures. 

Ex.  4.  

l^T^.     I H-.— . U 


3  8  -  -  8 

Any  series  of  Suspended  Dissonances  may  be 
expressed  on  this  principle— purposely  exaggerated 
in  the  example — though  certain  very  common 
Suspensions  are  denoted  by  special  formulsB 
which  very  rarely  vary.  For  instance,  4  3  is 
always  understood  to  mean  *  ^ — the  Common 
Chord,  with  its  Third  delayed  by  a  suspended 
Fourth — in  contradistinction  to  «  3  already  men- 
tioned; 9  8  means  the  Suspended  Ninth  re- 
solving into  the  Octave  of  the  Common  Chord ; 
9  I  indicates  the  Double  Suspension  of  the  Ninth 
and  Fourth,  resolving  into  the  Octave  and  Third ; 
etc. 

In  the  case  of  Appoggiaturas,  the  horizontal 
lines  are  useful  only  in  the  Parts  which  accompany 
the  Discord.  In  the  Part  which  actually  contains 
the  Appoggiatura,  the  absence  of  the  Concord  of 
Preparation  renders  them  inadmissible,  as  at  (o) 
in  Example  5. 

Passing-Notes,  in  the  upper  Parts,  are  not  often 
noticed  in  the  Figuring,  since  it  is  rarely  necessary 
that  they  should  be  introduced  into  the  Organ 
or  Harpsichord  Accompaniment ;  unless,  indeed, 
they  should  be  very  slow,  in  which  case  they  are 
very  easily  figured,  in  the  manner  shown  at  (6)  iu 
Example  5. 


THOROUGHBASS. 


THOROUGHBASS. 


Ill 


The  case  of  Passing-Notes  in  the  Bass  is  very 
different.  They  appear,  of  course,  in  the  Continue 
itself ;  and  the  fact  that  they  really  are  Passing- 
Notes,  and  are,  therefore,  not  intended  to  bear  in- 
dependent Harmonies,  is  sufficiently  proved  by 
a  system  of  horizontal  lines  indicating  the  con- 
tinuance of  a  Chord  previously  figured ;  as  in 
Example  6,  in  the  first  three  bars  of  which  the 
Triad  is  figured  in  full,  because  its  intervals  are 
continued  on  the  three  succeeding  Bass-Notes. 

Ex.6. 


^^ 


s=€= 


Tr 


S= 


But  in  no  case  is  the  employment  of  horizontal 
lines  more  useful  than  in  that  of  the  Organ  Point, 
which  it  would  often  be  very  difficult  to  express 
clearly  without  their  aid.  Example  7  shows  the 
most  convenient  way  of  figuring  complicated  Sus- 
pensions upon  a  sustained  Bass-Note. 


In  the  Inverted  Pedal-Point,  the  lines  are  still 
more  valuable,  as  a  means  of  indicating  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  sustained  note  in  an  upper  Part ; 


as  in  Example  8,  in  which  the  Figure  8  marks  the 
beginning  of  the  C,  which,  sustained  in  the  Tenor 
Part,  forms  the  Inverted  Pedal,  while  the  hori- 
zontal line  indicates  its  continuance  to  the  end  of 
the 


Ex.8. 

t-^ = l-n 1 1-, , 1  ^^-1 U-r-^ U, 

4     'y^  a  N  :j   5  fj    j-^ 

3-6 

When,  in  the  course  of  a  complicated  Move- 
ment, it  becomes  necessary  to  indicate  that  a  cer- 
tain phrase — such  as  the  well-known  Canto-Fermo 
in  the  'Hallelujah  Chorus' — is  to  be  delivered  in 
Unison, — or,  atmost,only  doubled  in  the  Octave — 
the  passage  is  marked  Tasto  Solo,  or,  T.  S. — i.  e. 
'  with  a  single  touch'  ( =  key).^  When  the  Sub- 
ject of  a  Fugue  appears,  for  the  first  time,  in  the 
Bass,  this  sign  is  indispensable.  When  it  first 
appears  in  an  upper  Part,  the  Bass  Clef  gives 
place  to  the  Treble,  Soprano,  Alto,  bv  Tenor,  as 
the  case  may  be,  and  the  passage  is  written  in 
single  Notes,  exactly  as  it  is  to  be  played.  In 
both  these  cases  it  is  usual  also  to  insert  the  first 
few  Notes  of  the  Answer,  as  a  guide  to  the  Ac- 
companyist,  who  only  begins  to  introduce  full 
Chords  when  the  figures  are  resumed.  In  any 
case,  when  the  Bass  Voices  are  silent,  the  lowest 
of  the  upper  Parts  is  given  in  the  Thoroughbass, 
either  with  or  without  Figures,  in  accordance  with 
the  law  which  regards  the  lowest  sound  as  the 
real  Bass  of  the  Harmony,  even  though  it  may 
be  sung  by  a  Soprano  Voice.  An  instance  of  this 
kind  is  shown  in  Example  9. 
Ex.  9.        ill  III  Handel. 


We  shall  now  present  the  reader  with  a  general 
example,  serving  as  a  practical  application  of  the 
rules  we  have  collected  together  for  his  guidance ; 
selecting,  for  this  purpose,  the  concluding  bars 
of  the  Chorus,  'All  we  like  sheep,'  from  Handel's 
'  Messiah.* 


Ex.  10. 


Handeu 


1  As  lately  as  the  last  century,  the  keys  of  the  Organ  and  Harpd- 
cbord  were  called  *  Touches '  by  English  vriten . 


112 


THOROUGHBASS. 


^^1^^ 


g=^p4y^ 


The  Figuring  here  given  contains  nothing  which 
the  Modern  Professor  of  Harmony  can  safely 
neglect  to  teach  his  pupils.  The  misfortune  is, 
that  pupils  are  too  often  satisfied  with  writing 
their  exercises,  and  too  seldom  expected  to  play 
from  a  Thoroughbass  at  sight.  Many  young  stu- 
dents could  write  the  figured  Chords  correctly 
enough ;  but  few  care  to  acquire  sufficient  fluency 
of  reading  and  execution  to  enable  them  to  ac- 
company a  Continuo  effectively,  though  this  power 
is  indispensable  to  the  correct  rendering,  not  only 
of  the  works  of  Handel  and  Bach,  but  even  of  the 
Oratorios  and  Masses  of  Haydn  and  Mozart — 
the  latest  great  works  in  which  the  Organ  Part  is 
written  on  a  single  Stave.  [W.S.R.] 

THREE  CHOIRS,  OF  GLOUCESTER, 
WORCESTER,  and  HEREFORD,  Meetings, 
OB  Festivals  of  the.  These  Meetings  were 
first  held  in  1724,  if  not  earlier,  but  became 
permanent  in  that  year,  when  the  Three  Choirs 
assembled  at  Gloucester  for  the  performance  of 
cathedral  service  on  a  grand  scale,  with  or- 
chestral accompaniment.  Their  establishment 
was  mainly  promoted  by  Rev.  Thomas  Bisse, 
chancellor  of  Hereford,  and  brother  of  Dr.  Philip 
Bisse,  bishop  of  the  diocese,  and  the  proceeds 
were  applied  in  aid  of  a  fund  for  the  relief  of  the 
widows  and  orphans  of  the  poorer  clergy  of  the 
three  dioceses,  or  of  the  members  of  the  three 
choirs.^  In  1725  a  sermon  was  preached  at 
Worcester  for  the  benefit  of  the  charity,  and  in 
1726  a  remarkable  one  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Bisse 
at  Hereford.  The  meetings  have  since  con- 
tinued to  be  held,  in  unbroken  succession,  up  to 
the  present  time,  the  i6oth  meeting  having 
taken  place  at  Gloucester  in  1883.  They  are 
held  alternately  in  each  of  the  three  cities, 
each  having  thereby  in  its  turn  a  triennial  fes- 
tival. On  their  first  establishment  it  was  cus- 
tomary for  the  members  of  the  Three  Choirs 
to  assemble  on  the  first  Tuesday  in  Septem- 
ber, and  unitedly  to  perform  choral  service  on 
the  following  two  days.  Six  stewards,  two 
from  each  diocese,  were  appointed  to  superintend 
the  distribution  of  the  charity.     Evening  con- 

1  The  utter  did  not  long  continue  to  participate  in  the  benefits 
of  the  charity ;  the  relief  Is  supposed  to  have  been  discontinued  when 
their  performance  ceased  to  be  gratuitous. 


THREE  CHOIRS. 

certs  were  given,  in  the  Shire  Halls  usually, 
on  each  of  the  two  days.  Purcell's  Te  Deum 
and  Jubilate  in  D,  and  Handel's  Utrecht  Te 
Deum  and  Jubilate  were  constantly  performed, 
and  from  1748  the  Dettingen  Te  Deum.  Ora- 
torios were  given,  as  well  as  secular  music, 
at  the  evening  concerts,  but  it  was  not  until 
1759  *^3,t  they  were  admitted  into  the  cathe- 
drals, when  the  *  Messiah '  was  performed  in 
Hereford  Cathedral,  and  continued  to  be  the 
only  oratorio  so  performed  until  1787,  when 
'  Israel  in  Egypt '  was  given  in  Gloucester  Ca- 
thedral. In  1753  the  festivals  were  extended 
to  three  days,  and  in  1836  to  four  days,  at 
which  they  have  ever  since  continued.  It  has 
always  been  the  practice  to  hand  over  the  col- 
lections made  at  the  cathedral  doors  after  the 
morning  performances  intact  to  the  charity, 
the  excess,  if  any,  of  expenditure  over  receipts 
from  sale  of  tickets  being  made  good  by  the 
stewards.  The  excess  became  eventually  so 
permanent  that  in  1837  great  difficulty 'was 
experienced  in  inducing  gentlemen  to  undertake 
the  office  of  steward,  and  the  existence  of  the 
Meeting  was  seriously  imperilled  ;  but  the  diffi- 
culty has  been  since  overcome  by  very  largely 
increasing  the  number  of  stewards.  The  festivals 
are  conducted  by  the  organist  of  the  cathedral  in 
which  they  are  successively  held,  the  organists 
of  the  other  two  cathedrals  officiating  respect- 
ively as  organist  and  pianoforte  accompanist. 
Deviations  from  this  practice  have,  however, 
sometimes  occurred.  For  instance,  Mr.  (after- 
wards Dr.)  Boyce  conducted  in  1737,  and  for 
several  subsequent  years ;  Dr.  William  Hayes 
(at  Gloucester),  in  1757  and  1760;  and  Dr.  John 
Stephens  (at  Gloucester)  in  1 766.  The  last  occa- 
sion upon  which  a  stranger  was  called  upon  to 
conduct  was  in  1842,  when,  in  consequence  of 
the  illness  of  the  then  organist  of  Worcester 
cathedral,  the  baton  was  placed  in  the  hands  of 
Mr.  Joseph  Surman.  Until  1859  the  first  morning 
of  the  festival  was  devoted  to  the  performance  of 
cathedral  service  by  the  whole  of  the  performers, 
but  since  that  time  the  service  has  been  per- 
formed at  an  early  hour  by  the  members  of  the 
Three  Choirs  only,  to  organ  accompaniment,  and 
an  oratorio  given  later  in  the  day.  In  1875  an 
attempt  was  made,  at  Worcester,  to  alter  the 
character  of  the  performances  in  the  cathedrals, 
by  excluding  oratorios  and  substituting  church 
music  interspersed  with  prayers.  But  this  met 
with  decided  opposition  and  has  not  been  re- 
peated. The  band  at  these  festivals  is  com- 
posed of  the  best  London  professors,  and  the 
chorus  comprises,  in  addition  to  the  members 
of  the  Three  Choirs,  members  of  the  local  choral 
societies  and  others.  The  most  eminent  prin- 
cipal singers  of  the  day  are  engaged  for  the 
solo  parts.  The  pieces  usually  selected  for  per- 
formance at  the  Meetings  were  those  which  were 
most  popidar.  But  occasionally  new  and  untried 
compositions  were  introduced.  For  instance,  an 
anthem  by  Boyce,  Worcester,  1 743 ;  anthems  by 
Dr.  Alcock  and  J.  S.  Smith,  Gloucester,  1773; 
Clarke- Whitfeld's  'Crucifixion/  Hereford,  1822  ; 


THREE  CHOIRS. 


TIE. 


113 


F.  Mori's  'Fridolin,'  Worcester,  1851 ;  an  an- 
them (1852)  and  Jubilate  (1855)  by  G.  T.  Smith, 
Hereford ;  anthems  by  G.  J.  Elvey,  Gloucester, 
1853,  and  Worcester,  1857;  and  Sullivan's  'Pro- 
digal Son,' Worcester,  1869;  Beethoven's  Mass 
in  D,  Mendelssohn's  Lobgesang  and  Elijah, 
Spohr's  Oratorios,  and  other  favourite  works. 
In  later  years  new  compositions  were  more  fre- 
quently produced,  and  recently  scarcely  a  year 
has  passed  without  some  new  work  being  given. 
At  the  Gloucester  Meeting  of  1883  no  fewer 
than  three  new  works  were  performed  for  the 
first  time,  viz.  sacred  cantatas  by  Drs.  Stain er 
and  Arnold,  and  a  secular  choral  work  by  Dr. 
Hubert  Parry.  This  is  not  the  place  to  dis- 
cuss, from  either  an  artistic  or  a  financial  point 
of  view,  the  desirability  of  such  a  course,  but  it 
may  be  noted  that  at  the  Gloucester  Festival 
of  1883  the  excess  of  expenditure  over  receipts 
from  sale  of  tickets  exceeded  500Z.  [W.H.H.] 
THURNAM,  Edward,  bom  at  Warwick, 
Sept.  24,  1825,  was  organist  of  Reigate  Parish 
Church  from  1849,  and  from  1849  to  1876  con- 
ductor of  the  Reigate  Choral  Society,  and  also 
an  able  violinist,  and  the  composer  of  a  Cathedral 
Service,  and  several  songs  and  pieces  for  various 
instruments,  of  considerable  merit.  He  died 
Nov.  25,  1880.  [W.H.H.] 

THURSBY,  Emma,  bom  at  Brooklyn,  New 
York,  Nov.  17,  1857,  is  the  daughter  of  an 
Englishman,  and  is  descended  by  her  mother 
from  an  old  United  States  family.  She  received 
instruction  in  singing  first  from  Julius  Meyer 
and  Achille  Erani,  then  in  1873  at  Milan  from 
Lamperti  and  San  Giovanni,  and  finally  com- 
pleted her  studies  in  America  under  Madame 
RudersdorfF.  In  1875  she  undertook  a  tour 
through  the  United  States  and  Canada.  She 
made  her  debitt  in  England  May  22,  1878,  at 
the  Philharmonic,  with  such  success  that  she  was 
engaged  at  a  subsequent  concert  of  the  Society 
in  the  same  season.  She  remained  in  England 
until  the  end  of  1879,  singing  with  acceptance 
at  the  Crystal  Palace,  the  Popular  'Concerts, 
Leslie's  Choir,  etc.,  and  in  the  summer  of  the 
same  year  sang  in  Paris  and  the  French  pro- 
vinces. In  1880-81  she  made  an  extended  con- 
cert-tour through  Germany,  Austria,  Holland, 
Belgium,  Spain,  Norway,  Denmark,  etc.,  and 
returned  to  America  at  the  end  of  82.  In  1883 
she  was  singing  in  the  States  and  Canada. 

Her  voice  is  a  soprano,  of  remarkable  compass, 
ranging  from  middle  C  to  E  b  above  the  lines ; 
not  large  but  rich ;  somewhat  veiled,  but  noble 
and  sympathetic.  •  Miss  Thursby's  technique  is 
extraordinary ;  her  legato  and  staccato  are 
models  of  certainty  and  correctness,  her  respira- 
tion is  admirably  managed,  and  her  shake  as 
rippling  as  it  is  long  enduring.'  *  [A.C.] 

TICHATSCHEK,  Joseph  Alois,  bom  July 
II,  1807,  at  Ober  Weckelsdorf,  in  Bohemia.  He 
began  by  studying  medicine,  but  abandoned  it  for 
music,  and  received  instruction  in  singing  from 

J  'ninstnted  Sporting  and  Dramatic  News/  Oct.  18,  1879;  and 
F.  Gumbert.  in  the  Neue  Berliner  HusikzeitunK. 
VOL.  IV.   FT.  I. 


Ciccimara,  a  favourite  Italian  singing  master. 
In  1830  he  became  a  chorus  singer  at  the 
Kamthnerthor  theatre,  was  next  appointed 
chorus  inspector,  played  small  parts,  and  after- 
wards, those  of  more  importance,  viz,  Idreno 
(*  Semiramide '),  Alphonse  (*Stumme'),  and 
Raimbaud  ('Robert').  He  sang  for  two  years 
at  Gratz,  and  again  at  Vienna,  as  principal 
tenor.  On  Aug.  11,  1837,  he  made  his  debut  at 
Dresden  as  Gustavus  III.  (Auber),  with  such 
success  as  to  obtain  an  engagement  for  the  fol- 
lowing year.  At  this  period  he  attracted  the 
attention  of  Schroeder-Devrient,  who  gave  him 
the  benefit  of  her  advice  and  experience,  with 
the  result  of  a  long  and  intimate  friendship, 
which  terminated  only  with  her  death.  Until 
his  retirement  in  1870,  he  remained  permanently 
in  Dresden,  where,  on  Jan.  16,  as  Idomeneo, 
he  celebrated  the  40th  anniversary  of  his  pro- 
fessional career,  having  previously,  on  Jan.  17, 
1863,  celebrated  his  25th  anniversary  at  Dresden, 
as  Hernando  Cortes  (Spontini).  His  repertoire 
consisted  of  the  tenor  parts  in  the  operas  of  Gluck, 
Mozart,  Beethoven,  Weber,'  Marschner,  Mdhul, 
Boieldieu,  Auber,  Nicolo,  Meyerbeer,  Spontini, 
Flotow,  Spohr,  etc. ;  and  on  Oct.  20,  42,  and 
Oct.  19,  45  respectively,  was  the  original  Rienzi, 
and  Tannhauser.  In  1 841  he  sang  for  a  few  nights 
in  German  at  Drury  Lane  Theatre  as  Adolar, 
Tamino,  Robert,  etc. ;  also  at  Liverpool  and 
Manchester,  and  is  thus  described  by  a  con- 
temporary— *Herr  Tichatschek  has  proved  him- 
self the  hit  of  the  season  ;  he  is  young,  prepossess- 
ing, and  a  good  actor ;  his  voice  is  excellent,  and 
his  style,  though  not  wanting  in  cultivation,  is 
more  indebted  to  nature  than  art.'  *  [A.C.] 

TIE.  A  curved  line  uniting  two  notes  of  the 
same  pitch,  whereby  they  form  a  single  note 
which  is  sustained  for  the  value  of  both.  The 
tie  is  also  called  the  Bind,  and  by  some  writers 
the  Ligature,  although  this  term  properly  refers 
to  certain  slurred  groups  of  notes  which  occur 
in  ancient  music.  [Ligature,  vol.  ii.  p.  136.] 
It  has  already  been  described  under  the  former 
heading,  but  to  what  was  there  stated  it  may  be 
added,  that  ties  are  occasionally  met  with  in 
pianoforte  music  where  the  note  is  actually 
repeated.  [See  Bind,  vol.  i.  p.  242.]  To  efiect 
this  repetition  properly  some  skill  and  care  are 
required ;  the  finger  which  strikes  the  first  of  the 
two  tied  notes  is  drawn  inwards,  and  the  fol- 
lowing finger  falls  over  it  as  closely  and  rapidly 
as  possible,  so  as  to  take  its  place  before  the  key 
has  had  time  to  rise  to  its  full  distance,  and 
therefore  before  the  damper  has  quite  fallen. 
Thus  there  is  no  actual  silence  between  the 
two  sounds,  the  repetition  takes  place  before 
the  first  sound  has  ceased,  and  an  efiect  is  pro- 
duced which  resembles  the  old  effect  of  Bebuno 
as  nearly  as  the  modem  pianoforte  can  imitate 
it.  [See  vol.  i.  p.  1 60.]  The  particular  occasions 
on  which  this  effect  is  required  are  not  indicated 

2  On  Oct.  13, 1842,  he  sang  the  part  of  Max  on  the  occasion  of  tha 
hundredth  performance  of  '  Der  Freischatz.'  a  part  he  sang  no  less 
than  106  times  during  his  career  up  to  1863. 

1  •  Musical  World.'  June  17, 1841. 


114 


TIE. 


by  any  specific  sign,  since  an  experienced  per- 
former can  always  judge  from  the  nature  of  the 
passage.  As  a  rule,  it  may  be  said  that  when- 
ever two  tied  notes  are  written  for  which  a 
single  longer  note  might  have  been  substituted, 
repetition  is  indicated — for  the  use  of  the  tie 
proper  is  to  express  a  note -value  which  cannot 
be  represented  by  a  single  note,  e.ff.  five  quavers. 
Thus  Ex.  I,  which  is  an  instance  in  point,  might, 
if  no  repetition  had  been  required,  have  been 
written  in  quavers,  as  in  Ex.  2. 

llEKTHovEN.    Sonata,  op.  io6.  Adagio. 


Another  instance  of  the  employment  of  this 
close  repetition  sometimes  occurs  when  an  un- 
accented note  is  tied  to  an  accented  one,  as  in 
Ex.  3.  Here  the  rhythm  would  be  entirely  lost  if 
the  tied  notes  were  sustained  instead  of  repeated. 
Chopin.    Valse,  op.  31,  no.  i. 

Ex.3,      n— 5      I 


^^^^S^^p 


?^ 


t^^^ 


^ 


In  the  same  sense  it  seems  quite  possible  that 
the  subject  of  the  scherzo  of  Beethoven's  Sonata 
for  piano  and  violoncello,  op.  69,  and  other 
similar  phrases,  may  have  been  intended  to  be 
played  with  repetition ;  and  in  support  of  this 
view  it  may  be  mentioned  that  an  edition  exists 
of  the  Sonata  Pastorale,  op.  28,  by  Cipriani 
Potter,  who  had  opportunities  of  hearing  Bee- 
thoven and  becoming  acquainted  with  his  inten- 
tions, in  which  the  analogous  passage  in  the  first 
movement  is  printed  with  what  is  evidently 
meant  for  a  sign  of  separation  between  the  tied 
notes,  thus — 

Ex.  4.  —  __ 


fe 


^ 


izzt 


±=t 


TIEDGE,  Christoph  August,  bom  1752, 
died  March  8,  1841 ;  a  German  elegiac  poet 
and  friend  of  Beethoven's,  who  in  Rhineland 
dialect  always  called  him  'Tiedsche,'  and  who 
set  some  lines  to  Hope — 'an  die  Hoffnung' 
— from  his  largest  and  best  poem,  *  Urania,'  to 
music  twice,  once  in  Eb,  op.  32,  and  again  in 
G,  op.  94.  Both  are  for  voice  and  piano ;  the 
former  dates  from  1808,  the  latter  from  18 16. 
Tiedge's  name  occurs  in  the  correspondence  be- 
tween Beethoven  and  Amalie  Sebald,  and  there 
is  a  most  interesting  letter  from  Beethoven 
to  him  of  Sept.  ii,  181 1,  betokening  great  in- 
timacy.   (Thayer,  iii.  179,  21 3,  etc.)  [G.] 


TIERSCH. 

TIERCE,  i.  e.  Tiers,  third.  I.  A  name  given  to 
the  interval  of  the  Third,  whether  Major  or  Minor. 

I I.  The  fourth  of  the  series  of  natural  har- 
monics, being  the  Major  Third  in  the  third 
octave  above  the  ground-tone  or  prime ;  its  vi- 
brations are  five  times  as  numerous  as  those  of 
its  prime. 

III.  An  open  metal  organ  stop  of  the  same 
pitch  as  the  similarly-named  harmonic;  i.e.  if 
the  note  CC  is  held  down  and  the  Tierce-stop 
drawn,  the  E  above  middle  C  will  be  heard. 
That  such  a  stop  can  only  be  used  in  combina- 
tion with  certain  other  harmonics,  and  then  but 
sparingly,  will  be  evident  when  it  is  remem- 
bered that  if  C,  E,  and  G  be  held  down  there 
will  be  heard  at  the  same  time  G  sharp  and  B. 
Hence,  the  Tierce  when  found  in  a  modern 
organ  is  generally  incorporated  as  a  rank  of 
the  Sesquialtera  or  Mixture,  in  which  case  it 
is  of  course  combined  with  other  harmonics,  its 
near  relations.  Some  organ-builders,  however, 
altogether  exclude  it.  A  serious  difficulty  is 
now  met  with,  if  a  Tierce  be  introduced ;  it  is 
this — modern  organs  are  tuned  to  *  equal  temper- 
ament,' whereas  the  Tierce  (whether  a  separate 
stop  or  a  rank)  certainly  ought  to  be  tuned 
to  its  prime  in  'just  intonation,'  in  which  case 
tempered  and  natural  thirds  would  be  heard 
simultaneously  when  the  Tierce  is  used.  Much 
difference  of  opinion  exists  as  to  the  utility  or 
effect  of  this  stop.  [J.  S.] 

TIERCE  DE  PICARDIE.    In  Polyphonic 

Music,  it  is  essential  that  every  Composition 
should  end  with  a  Major  Third,  even  though  the 
Third  of  the  Mode  in  which  it  is  written  should 
be  Minor.  The  Third,  thus  made  Major  by  an 
Accidental  Sharp  or  Natural,  is  called  the  'Tierce 
de  Picardie.'  It  is  not  very  easy  to  arrive  at  the 
origin  of  the  term ;  though  it  may  perhaps  be 
accounted  for  by  the  proximity  of  Picardy  to 
Flanders,  in  which  country  the  characteristic 
Interval  was  in  common  use,  at  a  very  early 
period.  Rousseau's  explanation  of  the  term 
(Dictionn&ire,  '  Tierce ')  is  a  very  strange  one, 
viz.  that  it  was  given  '  in  joke,  because  the  use 
of  the  interval  on  a  final  chord  is  an  old  one  in 
church  music,  and  therefore  frequent  in  Picardy, 
where  there  is  music  in  many  cathedrals  and 
other  churches' !  [W.S.R.] 

TIERSCH,  Otto,  bom  Sept.  1, 1838,  at  Kalbs- 
rieth  in  Thuringia,  received  instruction  from 
Topfer  of  Weimar,  Billermann,  Marx,  and  Erk ; 
was  then  teacher  in  Stern's  Conservatorium,  and 
is  now  teacher  of  singing  to  the  city  of  Berlin. 
His  writings  are  practical,  and  concern  them- 
selves much  with  an  endeavour  to  make  the 
modern  discoveries  of  Helmholtz  and  others,  in 
acoustics,  available  in  teaching  singing.  The 
principal  are  as  follows,  'System  und  Method 
der  Harmonielehre'  (1868) ;  *  Elementarbuch  der 
musikalischen  Harmonie  und  Modulationslehre ' 
(1874);  'Kurzes  praktisches  generalbass  Har- 
monielehre '  (1876) ;  the  same  for  Counterpoint 
and  Imitation  (1879).  The  article  on  'Har- 
monielehre' in  Mendel's  Lexicon  is  by  him.  [G.], 


TIETJENS. 


TIGRANE. 


115 


TIETJENS  or  TITIENS,  Therese  Caroline 
Johanna,  the  great  prima  donna,  was  bom  at 
Hamburg,  of  Hungarian  parents,  according  to 
some  biographers  in  1834,  to  others,  in  183 1.  The 
latter  date  agrees  best  with  subsequent  facts,  and 
also  with  the  inscription  on  her  tombstone,  which 
states  that  she  died  in  1877,  aged  46. 

Her  voice,  even  in  childhood,  gave  so  much 
promise  of  future  excellence  that  she  was  edu- 
cated for  the  lyric  stage.  She  appeared  for  the 
first  time  at  the  Hamburg  Opera,  in  1849,  as 
Lucrezia  Borgia,  and  achieved  an  immediate 
success.  She  proceeded  to  Frankfort,  and  thence, 
in  1856,  to  Vienna,  where,  though  not  engaged 
as  the  leading  prima  donna,  her  performance  of 
Valentine  raised  her  at  once  to  the  highest  rank. 

The  late  Madame  Jullien  heard  her  at  this 
time,  and  it  was  largely  due  to  her  glowing  ac- 
counts that  Mdlle.  Tietjens  was  quickly  engaged 
by  Mr.Lumley  for  his  last  season  at  Her  Majesty's 
Theatre  in  London;  and  when,  on  April  13,  1858, 
she  appeared  in  '  The  Huguenots,'  her  imperson- 
ation of  Valentine  achieved  a  success  which  in- 
creased with  every  repetition  of  the  opera,  and 
was  the  first  link  in  that  close  union  between 
the  performer  and  the  public  which  was  only  to 
be  severed  by  death. 

England  from  that  time  became  her  home. 
She  remained  at  Her  Majesty's  Theatre  during 
the  successive  managements  of  Mr.  E.  T.  Smith 
and  Mr.  Mapleson,  and  after  the  burning  of  the 
theatre  in  1867  followed  the  fortunes  of  the  com- 
pany to  Drury  Lane.  She  sang  at  Covent  Gar- 
den during  the  two  years'  coalition  of  the  rival 
houses  in  69  and  70,  returning  to  Drury  Lane  in 
71,  and  finally,  just  before  her  death,  to  the  new 
house  in  the  Haymarket. 

Her  performances  are  still  fresh  in  the  memory 
of  all  opera  and  concert  goers.  Never  was  so 
mighty  a  soprano  voice  so  sweet  and  luscious  in 
its  tone  :  like  a  serene,  full,  light,  without  dazzle 
or  glare,  it  filled  the  largest  arena  without  appear- 
ing to  penetrate.  It  had  none  of  a  soprano's 
shrillness  or  of  that  peculiar  clearness  called 
'  silvery ' ;  when  it  declined,  as  it  eventually  did, 
in  power,  it  never  became  wiry.  It  had  a  mezzo- 
soprano  quality  extending  to  the  highest  register, 
perfectly  even  throughout,  and  softer  than  velvet. 
Her  acting  in  no  way  detracted  from  her  singing ; 
she  was  earnest,  animated,  forcible,  in  all  she 
did  conscientious  and  hearty,  but  not  electric. 
Her  style  of  singing  was  noble  and  pure.  When 
she  first  came  to  England  her  rapid  execution  left 
much  to  be  desired ;  it  was  heavy  and  imperfect. 
Fluency  and  flexibility  were  not  hers  by  nature, 
but  by  dint  of  hard  work  she  overcame  all  diffi- 
culties, so  as  to  sing  with  success  in  the  florid 
music  of  Hossini  and  Bellini.  Indeed  she  at- 
tempted almost  everything,  and  is  perhaps  the 
only  singer,  not  even  excepting  Malibran,  who 
has  sung  in  such  completely  opposite  r61es  as 
those  of  Semiramide  and  Fides.  But  her  perform- 
ance of  light  or  comic  parts  was  a  mere  tour 
de  force;  her  true  field  was  grand  opera.  As 
Lucrezia,  Semiramide,  Countess  Almaviva,  she 
was  great ;   as  Donna  Anna  and  Valentine  she 


was  greater ;  best  of  all  as  Fidelio,  and  as  Medea 
in  Cherubini's  opera,  revived  for  her  and  not 
likely  to  be  forgotten  by  any  who  heard  it. 

In  the  *  Freischtitz,'  as  in  *  Fidelio,'  her  ap- 
pearance was  unsuited  to  her  part,  but  she  sang 
the  music  as  no  one  else  could  sing  it.  In  her 
later  years  she  set  a  good  example  by  undertaking 
the  r6le  of  Ortrud  in  '  Lohengrin.*  The  music 
however  did  not  show  her  voice  to  advantage, 
and  this  was  still  more  the  case  with  the  music 
of  Fides,  although  her  acting  in  both  parts  was 
very  fine.  Her  repertoire  also  included  Leonora 
(•Trovatore'),the  Favorita,  Alice,  Lucia,  Amalia 
('Un  Ballo  in  Maschera*),  Norma,  Pamina, 
Margherita,  Marta,  Elvira  ('Ernani')  Reiza 
('  Oberon'),  and  Iphigenia  in  Tauris. 

Her  voice  was  as  well  suited  to  sacred  as  to 
dramatic  music,  and  she  applied  herself  as- 
siduously to  the  study  of  oratorio,  for  which  her 
services  were  in  perpetual  request.  Perhaps  the 
hardest  worked  singer  who  ever  appeared,  she 
was  also  the  most  faithful  and  conscientious  of 
artists,  never  disappointing  her  public,  who  knew 
that  her  name  on  the  bills  was  a  guarantee  against 
change  of  programme,  or  apology  for  absence 
through  indisposition.  No  doubt  her  splendid 
physique  enabled  her  often  to  sing  with  impunity 
when  others  could  not  have  done  so,  but  her 
ceaseless  eff'orts  must  have  tended  to  break  up 
her  constitution  at  last.  This  great  conscien- 
tiousness, as  well  as  her  genial  sympathetic  nature, 
endeared  her  to  the  whole  nation,  and,  though 
there  never  was  a  '  Tietjens  fever,'  her  popularity 
steadily  increased  and  never  waned.  Her  kind- 
ness and  generosity  to  young  and  struggling 
artists  and  to  her  distressed  countrymen  knew  no 
bounds  and  became  proverbial. 

The  first  symptoms  of  the  internal  disorder 
which  proved  fatal  to  her  appeared  in  1875,  but 
yielded  to  treatment.  They  recurred  during  a 
visit  to  America  in  the  next  year,  but  were  again 
warded  off  for  the  time,  and  throughout  a  sub- 
sequent provincial  tour  in  this  country  she  sang 
'as  well  as  she  had  ever  done  in  her  life.'  In 
1876  she  had  her  last  benefit  concert,  at  the 
Albert  Hall.  In  April  1877  her  illness  increased 
to  an  alarming  extent,  and  her  last  stage-ap- 
pearance was  on  May  19,  as  Lucrezia.  'She 
fainted  twice  during  the  performance,  in  her 
dressing-room;  but  she  would  appear,  though 
she  had  to  undergo  a  painful  operation  on  the 
following  Tuesday.  *If  I  am  to  die,'  she  said 
to  a  friend,  *I  will  play  Lucrezia  once  mqre.' 
Those  who  then  heard  her  will  always  recall  her 
rendering  of  the  despairing  cry  after  Gennaro's 
death.  She  died  Oct.  3,  1877,  and  was  buried 
in  Kensal  Green  Cemetery.  On  the  day  before, 
a  messenger  had  arrived  from  the  Queen  and 
Princesses  with  special  enquiries,  which  had 
greatly  pleased  her.  Her  death  was  felt  as  a 
national  loss,  and  it  may  be  long  before  any 
artist  arises  who  can  fill  the  place  she  filled  so 
worthily  and  so  well.  [F.A.M.] 

TIETZE.     [See  Titze.] 

TIGRANE,  IL.  An  Italian  opera,  composed 
by  Righini,  1800,  the  overture  of  which  was  at 

12 


116 


TIGRANE. 


TIMBRE. 


one  time  a  favourite  in  London.  The  discovery 
of  the  parts  of  this  overture  in  his  father's 
warehouse  gave  Schumann  his  first  opportunity 
of  conducting.*  It  lias  been  lately  re-scored, 
and  published  by  Aibl  of  Munich.  [G.] 

TILMANT,  TniopHiLE,  French  conductor, 
bom  at  Valenciennes  July  8,  1 799,  and  educated 
at  the  Paris  Conservatoire,  where  he  took  the 
first  violin  prize  in  R.  Kreutzer's  class  in  1818. 
He  played  with  great  fire  and  brilliancy,  and 
had  a  wonderful  instinct  for  harmony,  though 
without  much  scientific  knowledge.  On  the 
formation  of  the  Soci^t^  des  Concerts  in  1828  he 
was  appointed  vice-conductor,  and  also  played 
solo  in  a  concerto  of  Mayseder's.  In  1834  ^® 
became  vice-  and  in  1838  chief-conductor  at  the 
Theatre  Italien,  where  he  remained  till  1849. 
In  1838,  with  his  brother  Alexandre,  a  distin- 
guished cellist  (bom  at  Valenciennes  Oct.  2, 1808, 
died  in  Paris  June  1 3,  i88o),he  founded  a  quartet- 
society,  which  maintained  its  popularity  for  some 
ten  years  or  so.  In  1849  he  succeeded  Labarre 
as  conductor  of  the  Op^ra  Comique,  an  enviable 
and  responsible  post,  which  he  held  for  nearly 
20  years.  The  composers  whose  operas  he  mounted 
found  him  earnest  and  conscientious,  and  he  con- 
ducted with  a  fire  and  a  dash  perfectly  irresistible, 
both  there  and  at  the  Concerts  du  Conservatoire, 
which  he  directed  from  i860  to  1863.  In  1868  he 
left  the  Opdra  Comique,  and  retired  to  Asniferes, 
where  he  died  May  7,  1878.  He  received  the 
Legion  of  Honour  in  1861.  [G.C.] 

TIMANOFF,  Vera,  a  native  of  Russia,  re- 
ceived pianoforte  instruction  in  music  fi:om  Liszt, 
and  for  a  long  time  past  has  enjoyed  a  wide 
continental  reputation.  She  made  her  debut  in 
England,  August  28,  1880,  at  the  Promenade 
Concerts,  Covent  Garden,  where  she  fulfilled  six 
nights'  engagement  under  the  conductorship  of 
Mr.  F.  H.  Cowen,  and  made  a  lively  impression 
by  her  brilliant  rendering  of  the  works  of  her 
master  and  other  pieces  of  the  same  school.  On 
May  19,  1881,  she  played  Chopin's  Concerto  in 
F  minor  at  the  Philharmonic,  and  *  by  her  bril- 
liant execution  of  the  florid  passages,  by  the 
delicacy  with  which  she  rendered  the  fairylike 
fancies  of  the  composer,  and  by  the  marked 
character  resulting  from  her  strong  feeling  for 
rhythm  and  accent,  gave  the  concerto  an  ad- 
ventitious interest."  On  May  13,  1882,  she 
played  at  the  Crystal  Palace  Liszt's  'Fantasia 
on  the  Ruins  of  Athens,'  and  on  June  6  of  the 
same  year  she  gave  a  recital  and  was  heard  with 
pleasure  in  light  pieces  of  Moskowski,  Liszt,  and 
Rubinstein.  [A.C.] 

TIMBALES  is  the  French  word  for  Kettle- 
drams.  [See  Drum  2 ;  vol.  i.  p.  463.]  In  that 
article,  at  p.  464  6,  it  is  mentioned  that  Meyer- 
beer used  3  drums,  G,  C,  and  D,  in  No.  17  of 
the  score  of  *  Robert  le  Diable ' ;  but  it  was  really 
written  for  4  drums,  in  G,  C,  D,  and  E,  and  was 
so  played  at  the  Paris  Acaddmie,  where  it  was 
produced.     This  real  kettle-drum   solo   begins 


1  WMlelemki,  p.  14. 


3  Daily  Telesrapb. 


thus,  and  is  probably  a  unique  example  of  its 
kind : — 


'V  9^   J 

— 1 

,       -)       M 

TH 1  rn  .N^ 

pp 

-  -r-  —\ 

T^ 

1  Lj  s  1  = 

— •  •■•^ 

tiA 

-Z4^-^ 

*  -d*  *  ^  1  - 

The  printed  score  has  only  3  drums,  G,  C,  and 
D,  to  facilitate  the  performance  in  ordinary 
orchestras,  the  E  being  then  played  by  the  con- 
trabasso.  [V.  de  P.] 

TIMBRE.  A  French  word,  originally  signify- 
ing a  bell,  or  other  resonant  metallic  instrument, 
of  which  the  sense  was  subsequently  extended  to 
denote  peculiar  ringing  tones,  and  lastly  employed 
by  the  older  writers  on  Acoustics  to  indicate  the 
difference  between  notes  which,  though  of  iden- 
tical pitch,  produce  dissimilar  effects  upon  the 
ear.  The  cause  of  this  variety  not  being  then 
understood,  the  vagueness  which  characterises 
the  expression  was  hardly  misplaced.  But  the 
researches  of  Helmholtz  put  an  end  to  the 
ambiguity,  by  showing  that  difference  of  timbre 
was  due  to  change  in  the  upper-partial  tones,  or 
harmonics,  which  accompany  the  foundation-tone, 
or  ground-tone,  of  a  note  or  sound. 

A  somewhat  better,  but  rather  metaphorical 
phrase  was  afterwards  suggested  in  Germany; 
by  which  varieties  of  timbre  were  termed  Klang- 
fdrhe  or  Sound-colours.  This  term,  in  the  out- 
landish shape  of  'Clangtint,'  was  adopted  by 
Tyndall  and  other  writers  as  an  English  equiva- 
lent of  the  German  word. 

But  a  term  has  been  latterly  employed  which 
must  commend  itself  to  all  as  at  once  a  pure  English 
word  and  a  symbol  to  express  the  idea,  now  become 
definite ;  namely  the  word  Quality.  A  sound 
may  therefore  be  said  in  fair  English  to  possess 
three  properties,  and  no  more— Pitch,  Intensity, 
and  Quality ;  respectively  corresponding  to  the 
Frequency,  the  Amplitude,  and  the  Form  of  the 
Sound-wave.  In  case  this  definition  be  objected 
to  as  unnecessarily  geometrical,  the  Quality,  or 
Timbre,  of  a  note  may  be  described  as  the 
sum  of  the  associated  vibrations  which  go  to 
make  up  that  complex  mental  perception. 

*  If  the  same  note,'  says  Helmholtz,'  'is  sounded 
successively  on  a  pianoforte,  violin,  clarinet,  oboe, 
or  trumpet,  or  by  the  human  voice,  notwith- 
standing its  having  the  same  force  and  pitch, 
the  musical  tone  of  each  is  different,  and  we 
recognise  with  ease  which  of  these  is  being  used. 
Varieties  of  tone-quality  seem  to  be  infinitely 
numerous  even  in  instruments ;  but  the  human 
voice  is  still  richer,  and  speech  employs  these  very 
qualitative  varieties  of  tone  in  order  to  distin- 
guish different  letters.  The  different  vowels 
belong  to  the  class  of  sustained  tones  which  can 
be  used  in  music ;  while  the  character  of  conson- 
ants mainly  depends  on  brief  and  transient  noises.* 

It  is  well  known  that  he  analysed  these  com- 
pound tones  by  means  of  Resonators,  and  sub- 
sequently reproduced  them  synthetically  by  a 

»  •Senskttoai  of  Tpne.'  EUU't  tnuul.  p.  28. 


TIMBRE. 

system  of  electrically  controlled  tuning-forks. 
Hie  full  demonstration  of  these  facts  occupies 
the  larger  part  of  his  classical  work  on  '  Sensa- 
tions of  Tone,'  and  can  hardly  be  given  in  a  brief 
summary.  Pure  tones  can  be  obtained  from  a 
tuning-fork  held  over  a  resonance  tube,  and  by 
blowing  a  stream  of  air  from  a  linear  slit  over 
the  edge  of  a  large  bottle.  The  quality  of  tone 
in  struck  strings  depends  on  (i)  the  nature  of 
the  stroke,  (2)  the  place  struck,  and  (3)  the 
density,  rigidity,  and  elasticity  of  the  string. 
In  bowed  instruments  no  complete  mechanical 
theory  can  be  given;  although  Helmholtz's 
beautiful  •  Vibration  Microscope '  furnishes  some 
valuable  indications.  In  violins,  the  various  parts, 
such  as  the  belly,  back,  and  soundpost,  all  con- 
tribute to  modify  the  quality ;  as  also  does  the 
contained  mass  of  air.  By  blowing  across  the 
/-hole  of  a  Straduarius  violin,  Savart  obtained 
the  note  c' ;  in  a  violoncello,  F ;  and  in  a  viola,  a 
note  one  tone  below  that  of  the  violin. 

Open  organ  pipes,  and  conical  double  reed 
instruments,  such  as  the  oboe  and  bassoon,  give 
all  the  notes  of  the  harmonic  series.  Stopped 
pipes  and  the  clarinet  give  only  the  partial  tones 
of  the  uneven  numbers.  On  this  subject,  neither 
Helmholtz  nor  any  other  observer  has  given  more 
detailed  information:  indeed  the  distinguished 
German  physicist  points  out  that  here  there  is 
still  •  a  wide  field  for  research.* 

The  theory  of  vowel-quality,  first  enunciated 
by  Wheatstone  in  a  criticism  on  Willis's  experi- 
ments, is  still  more  complicated.  Valuable  as  are 
Helmholtz's  researches,  they  have  been  to  some 
extent  corrected  and  modified  of  late  by  R.  Koenig 
in  his  •  Experiences  d'Acoustique.'  ^  The  latter 
writer  begins  by  stating  that,  according  to  the 
researches  of  Bonders  and  Helmholtz,  the  mouth, 
arranged  to  produce  a  particular  vowel-sound,  has 
a  powerful  resonance-tone  which  is  fixed  for  each 
vowel,  whatever  be  the  fundamental  note.  A 
slight  change  of  pronunciation  modifies  the  sound 
sufficiently  to  sustain  the  proposition  made  by 
Helmholtz  of  defining  by  these  accessory  sounds 
the  vowels  which  belong  to  different  idioms  and 
dialects.  It  is  therefore  very  interesting  to  deter- 
mine the  exact  pitch  of  these  notes  for  the  dif- 
ferent vowels.  Helmholtz  and  Bonders  however 
difier  considerably  in  their  results.  Koenig  de- 
termines the  accessory  resonance-tones  for  the 
vowels  as  pronounced  by  the  North-Germans  as 
follows : — 


TIME. 


ii7 


ou 

0 

A 

E 

I 

Bb, 

Bt>a 

Bb4 

Bb« 

Bb. 

335 

4io 

900 

1800 

3600  vibrations. 

The  simplicity  of  these  relations  is  certainly  in 
their  favour,  and  is  suggested  by  M.  Koenig  as 
the  reason  why  we  find  essentially  the  same 
five  vowels  in  all  hvnguages,  in  spite  of  the  un- 
doubted powers  which  the  human  voice  possesses 
of  producing  an  infinite  number  and  v.iriety  of 
such  sounds.  [W.H.S.] 

1  Quelques  Gzp^rieneeB  d'Acoustique.  Tula  1882  (prirately  printed). 
Bssajr  vi.  p.  42. 


TIME  (Lat.  Tempus,  Tactus;  Ital.  Tempo, 
Misura,  Tatto ;  Fr.  Mesure;  Germ.  TaJd,  Tdktart, 
Tahtordnung). 

No  musical  term  has  been  invested  with  a 
greater  or  more  confusing  variety  of  significa- 
tions than  the  word  Time ;  nor  is  this  vagueness 
confined  to  the  English  language.  In  the  Middle 
Ages,  as  we  shall  show,  its  meaning  was  very 
linaited ;  and  bore  but  a  very  slight  relation  to 
the  extended  signification  accorded  to  it  in  modern 
Music.  It  is  now  used  in  two  senses,  between 
which  there  exists  no  connection  whatever.  For 
instance,  an  English  Musician,  meeting  with  two 
Compositions,  one  of  which  is  headed,  '  Tempo  di 
Valza,'  and  the  other,  'Tempo  di  Menuetto,'  will 
naturally  (and  quite  correctly)  play  the  first  in 
'  Waltz-Time ' ;  that  is  to  say,  at  the  pace  at  which 
a  Waltz  is  commonly  danced ;  and  the  second,  at 
the  very  much  slower  pace  peculiar  to  the  Minuet. 
But  an  Italian  Musician  will  tell  us  that  both 
are  written  in  *  Tempo  di  tripla  di  semiminima'; 
and  the  English  Professor  will  (quite  correctly) 
translate  this  by  the  expression,  ♦  Triple  Time,* 
or  '  3-4  Time,'  or  '  Three  Crotchet  Time.'  Here, 
then,  are  two  Compositions,  one  of  which  is  in 

*  Waltz-Time,'  and  the  other  in  '  Minuet  Time,* 
while  both   are  in  'Triple  Time';    the   words 

*  Tempo '  and  '  Time '  being  indiscriminately  used 
to  indicate  pace  and  rhythm.  The  difficulty 
might  have  been  removed  by  the  substitution  of 
the  term  *  Movimento '  for  '  Tempo,'  in  all  cases 
in  which  pace  is  concerned ;  but  this  word  is 
very  rarely  used,  though  its  French  equivalent, 
'  Mouveraent,*  is  not  uncommon. 

The  word  Tempo  having  already  been  treated, 
in  its  relation  to  speed,  we  have  now  only  to 
consider  its  relation  to  rhythm. 

In  the  Middle  Ages,   the   words  *  Tempus,' 

*  Tempo,*  'Time,'  described  the  proportionate 
duration  of  the  Breve  and  Semibreve  only; 
the  relations  between  the  Large  and  the  Long, 
and  the  Long  and  the  Breve,  being  determined 
by  the  laws  of  Mode,'*  and  those  existing  be- 
tween the  Semibreve  and  the  Minim,  by  the 
rules  of  Prolation.'  Of  Time,  as  described  by 
mediaeval  writers,  there  were  two  kinds — the 
Perfect  and  the  Imperfect,  In  Perfect  Time, 
the  Breve  was  equal  to  three  Semi  breves.  The 
Signature  of  this  was  a  complete  Circle.  In 
Imperfect  Time — denoted  by  a  Semicircle — the 
Breve  was  equal  to  two  Semibreves  only.  The 
complications  resulting  from  the  use  of  Perfect 
or  Imperfect  Time  in  combination  with  the 
different  kinds  of  Mode  and  Prolation,  are 
described  in  the  article  Notation,  and  deserve 
careful  consideration,  since  they  render  possible, 
in  antient  Notation,  the  most  abstruse  combina- 
tions in  use  at  the  present  day. 

In  modern  Music,  the  word  Time  is  applied 
to  rhythmic  combinations  of  all  kinds,  nxostly 
indicated  by  fractions  (^  etc.)  referring  to  the 
aliquot  parts  of  a  Semibreve — the  norm  by  which 

2  Here,  again,  we  meet  witli  another  curious  anomaly ;  for  th« 
word  '  Mode '  is  also  applied,  by  mediaeval  writers,  to  the  peculiar 
forms  of  Tonality  which  preceded  the  Invention  of  the  modera 
Scale.  •*  See  MojjE,  Tuolaiiok,  and  Vol.  U.  pp.  471 6 -472 a. 


118 


TIME. 


the  duration  of  all  other  notes  is  and  always  has 
been  regulated.     [See  Time-Signature.] 

Of  these  combinations,  there  are  two  distinct 
orders,  classed  under  the  heads  of  Common  (or 
Duple)  Time,  in  which  the  contents  of  the  Bar* 
— as  represented  by  the  number  of  its  Beats — 
are  divisible  by  a  ;  and  Triple  Time,  in  which 
the  number  of  beats  can  only  be  divided  by  3. 
These  two  orders  of  Time — answering  to  the 
Imperfect  and  Perfect  forms  of  the  earlier  system 
— are  again  subdivided  into  two  lesser  classes, 
called  Simple  and  Compound.  We  shall  treat 
of  the  Simple  Times  first,  begging  the  reader  to 
remember,  that  in  every  case  the  rhythmic 
value  of  the  Bar  is  determined,  not  by  the 
number  of  notes  it  contains,  but  by  the  number 
of  its  Beats.  For  it  is  evident  that  a  Bar  of 
what  is  generally  called  Common  Time  may  just 
as  well  be  made  to  contain  two  Minims,  eight 
Quavers,  or  sixteen  Semiquavers,  as  four  Crotch- 
ets, though  it  can  never  be  made  to  contain 
more  or  less  than  four  Beats.  It  is  only  by  the 
number  of  its  Beats,  therefore,  that  it  can  be 
accurately  measured. 

I.  Simple  Common  Times  (Ital.  Tempi  pari;  Fr. 
Mesures  d  qiiatre  ou  d  deux  temps ;  Germ.  Einfache 
gerade  Tdkt),  The  forms  of  these  now  most  com- 
monly used,  are — 

I.  The  Time  called  'Alia  Breve,'  which  con- 
tains, in  every  Bar,  four  Beats,  each  represented 
by  a  Minim,  or  its  value  in  other  notes. 
A  ,  ^^     ^     ^^     ^ 


This  species  of  Time,  most  frequently  used  in 
Ecclesiastical  Music,  has  for  its  Signature  a 
Semicircle,  with  a  Bar  drawn  perpendicularly 

through  it'   ^ 


and  derives  its  name 


from  the  fact  that  four  Minims  make  a  Breve. 

a.  Four  Crotchet  Time  (Ital.  Tempo  ordi- 
nario  ;'  Fr.  Mesure  d,  quatre  temps ;  Germ.  Vier- 
vierteltaJd)  popularly  called  Common  Time,  par 
excellence. 


s= 


1 — r 


m^-gis^ 


This  kind  of  Time  also  contains  four  Beats  in  a 
Bar,  each  Beat  being  represented  by  a  Crotchet — 
or  its  value,  in  other  notes.     Its  Signature  is  an 

unbarred  Semicircle  (  -  {*  ■  )  ,  or,  less  com- 
monly, J.  • 

3.  The   Time    called   Alia   Cappella— some- 
times very  incorrectly  misnamed  Alia  Breve — 

1  strictly  speaking,  the  term '  Bar'  applies  only  to  the  lines  drawn 
perpendicularly  acros.i  the  Stave,  for  the  purpose  of  dividing  a  Com- 
position into  equal  portions,  properly  called  '  Measures.'  But.  in 
common  language,  the  term  'Bar'  Is  almost  invariably  substituted 
for  '  Measure.'  and  consequently  used  to  denote  not  only  the  perpen- 
dicular lines,  but  also  the  Music  contained  between  them.  It  is  in 
this  latter  sense  that  the  word  is  used  throughout  the  present 
wtiele. 

3  Not  a  'capital  0,  for  Common  Time,'  as  neophytes  sometimes 


TIME. 

containing  two  Minim  Beats  in  the  Bar,  and 
having  for  its  Signature  a  barred  Semicircle  ex- 
actly similar  to  that  used  for  the  true  Alia  Breve 
already  described  (No.  l). 


This  Time — essentially  modem— is  constantly 
used  for  quick  Movements,  in  which  it  is  more 
convenient  to  beat  twice  in  a  Bar  than  four 
times.  Antient  Church  Music  is  frequently 
translated  into  this  time  by  modem  editors, 
each  bar  of  the  older  Notation  being  cut  into 
two ;  but  it  is  evidently  impossible  to  call  it 
*  Alia  Breve,'  since  each  bar  contains  the  value 
not  of  a  Breve  but  of  a  Semibreve  only. 

4.  Two  Crotchet  or  Two-four  Time,  sometimes, 
though  very  improperly,  called '  French  Common 
Time'  (Ital.  Tempo  di  dupla;  Fr.  3Iesure  A 
dev^  temps;  Germ.  Zweivierteltdkt),  in  which 
each  Bar  contains  two  Beats,  each  represented 
by  a  Crotchet. 


In  very  slow  Movements,  written  in  this  Time, 
it  is  not  at  all  unusual  for  the  Conductor  to 
indicate  four  Beats  in  the  Bar  instead  of  two  ; 
in  which  case  the  effect  is  precisely  the  same  as 
that  which  would  be  produced  by  Four  Crotchet 
Time,  taken  at  the  same  rate  of  movement  for 
each  Beat.  It  .would  be  an  excellent  plan  to 
distinguish  this  slow  form  of  ^  by  the  Time- 
Signature,  ^ ;  since  this  sign  would  indicate  the 
subsidiary  Accent  to  be  presently  described. 

5.  Eight  Quaver  Time  (Germ.  AchtachteltaJct) 
— that  is,  eight  Beats  in  a  Bar,  each  represented 
by  a  Quaver — is  not  very  frequently  used  :  but 
an  example,  marked  |,  will  be  found  in  the  PF. 
arrangement  of  the  Slow  Movement  of  Spohr's 
Overture  to  'Faust.' 

A  A  A  A  A  A  h  A 


In  the  Orchestral  Score,  each  Bar  of  this  Move- 
ment is  divided  into  two,  with  the  barred  Semi- 
circle of  Alia  Cappella  for  its  Time-Signature. 
It  is  evident  that  the  gross  contents  of  a  Bar  of 
this  Time  are  equal,  in  value,  to  those  of  a  Bar 
of  4;  but  there  is  a  great  difference  in  the 
rendering,  which  will  be  explained  later  on. 

6.  Two  Quaver  Time  (Germ.  Zweiachteltdkt, 
or  Viersechszehntheiltakt),  denoted  by  2  or  j"^  is 
also  very  uncommon  :  but  examples  will  be  found 
in  the  Chorus  of  Witches  in  Spohr's  Faust,  and 
in  his  Symphony  *  Die  Weihe  der  Tone.' 
A A  A  A 


3  Not  to  be  mistaken  for  the  '  Tempo  ordlnarlo '  so  often  nsed  by 
Handel,  In  which  the  term  'Tempo'  refers  to  pace,  and  not  to 
rhythm,  or  meoswr*. 


The  forms  of  Simple  Common  Time  we  have 
here  described  suffice  for  the  expression  of  every 
kind  of  Rhythm  characterised  by  the  presence  of 


I 


TIME. 

two,  four,  or  eight  Beats  in  a  Bar,  though  it 
would  be  possible,  in  case  of  necessity,  to  invent 
others.  Others  indeed  have  actually  been  in- 
vented by  some  very  modem  writers,  under 
pressure  of  certain  needs,  real  or  supposed.  The 
one  indispensable  condition  is,  not  only  that  the 
number  of  Beats  should  be  divisible  by  2  or  4, 
but  that  each  several  Beat  should  also  be  capable 
of  subdivision  by  2  or  4,  ad  infinitum} 

II.  When,  however,  each  Beat  is  divisible  by 
3,  instead  of  2,  the  Time  is  called  Compound 
Common  (Germ.  Gerade  zusammengesetzte  Told)-. 
Common,  because  each  Bar  contains  two,  four, 
or  eight  Beats ;  Compound,  because  these  Beats 
are  represented,  not  by  simple,  but  by  dotted 
notes,  each  divisible  by  three.  For  Times  of 
this  kind,  the  term  Compound  is  especially 
well-chosen,  since  the  peculiar  character  of  the 
Beats  renders  it  possible  to  regard  each  Bar  as 
an  agglomeration  of  so  many  shorter  Bars  of 
Triple  Time. 

The  forms  of  Compound  Common  Time  most 
frequently  used  are — 

la  Twelve-four  Time  (Germ.  Zwolfviertel- 
faJct),  ^?,  with  four  Beats  in  the  Bar,  each  Beat 
represented  by  a  dotted  Minim — or  its  equi- 
vjJent,  three  Crotchets;  used,  principally,  in 
Sacred  Music. 


2  a.  Twelve-eight  Time  (Ital.  Tempo  di  Do- 
diciupla;   Germ.  ZwolfachteltaJct),  ^ ,  with  four 
Beats  in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  dotted 
Crotchet,  or  its  equivalent,  three  Quavers. 
A  A  A 


3  a.  Twelve-sixteen  Time,  j| ;  with  four 
Beats  in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  dotted 
Quaver,  or  its  equivalent,  three  Semiquavers. 


TIME. 


119 


4  a.  Six-two  Time,  f ;  with  two  beats  in  each 
Bar ;  each  represented  by  a  dotted  Semibreve — 
or  its  equivalent,  three  Minims;  used  only  in 
Sacred  Music,  and  that  not  very  frequently. 


5  a.  Six-four  Time,  (Germ.  Sechsvierteltaht), 
with  two  Beats  in  the  bar,  each  represented  by  a 
dotted  Minim — or  its  equivalent,  three  Crotchets. 
A A- 


6  a.  Six-eight    Time    (Ital.    Tempo   di    Sea- 
tupla;  Germ.  Sechsachteltakt),  with  two   Beats 

»  This  law  does  not  militate  against  the  use  of  Triplets,  Sextoles. 
or  other  groups  containing  any  odd  number  of  notes,  since  these 
abnormal  groups  do  not  belong  to  the  Time,  but  are  accepted  as 
infractions  of  itt  rules. 


in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  dotted  Crotchet 
— or  its  equivalent,  three  Quavers. 
^       A  A 


7  a.  Six-sixteen  Time,  p^,  with  two  Beats 
in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  dotted  Quaver 
— or  its  equivalent,  three  Semiquavers. 


8  a.  Twentyfour-sixteen,   H,  with  eight  Beats 
in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  dotted  Quaver 
— or  its  equivalent,  three  Semiquavers. 
A  A  A  A  A 


III.  Unequal,  or  Triple  Times  (Ital.  Tempi  dis- 
pari ;  Fr.  Mesures  a  trois  temps  ;  Germ.  Ungerade 
Taht ;  Tripel  TaU)  diflfer  from  Common,  in  that 
the  number  of  their  Beats  is  invariably  three. 
They  are  divided,  like  the  Common  Times,  into 
two  classes — Simple  and  Compound — the  Beats 
in  the  first  class  being  represented  by  simple 
notes,  and  those  in  the  second  by  dotted  ones. 

The  principal  forms  of  Simple  Triple  Time 
(Germ.  Einfache  ungerade  Taht)  are — 

16.  Three  Semibreve  Time  (Ital.  Tempo  di 
Tripla  di  Semibrevi),  \,  or  3,  with  three  Beats 
in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  Semibreve. 
This  form  is  rarely  used  in  Music  of  later  date 
than  the  first  half  of  the  1 7th  century ;  though, 
in  Church  Music  of  the  School  of  Palestrina,  it 
is  extremely  conunon. 

A A^      ^-s      ,--s 


26.  Three-two  Time,  or  Three  Minim  Time 
(Ital.  Tempo  di  Tripla  di  Minime)  with  three 
Beats  in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  Minim, 
is  constantly  used,  in  Modern  Church  Music,  as 
well  as  in  that  of  the  i6th  century, 

A 


3  b.  Three-four  Time,  or  Three  Crotchet  Time 
(Ital.  Tempo  di  Tripla  di  Semiminime,  Emiolia 
maggiore;  Germ.  Dreivierteltakt)  with,  three  Beats 
in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  Crotchet,  is 
more  frequently  used,  in  modern  Music,  than 
any  other  form  of  Simple  Triple  Time. 

A  A  


46.  Three-eight  Time,  or  Three  Quaver  Time 
(Ital.  Tempo  di  Tripla  di  Crome,  Emiolia 
minore  ;  Germ.  Dreiachteltakt)  with  three  Beats 
in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a  Quaver,  is  also 
very  frequently  used,  in  modem  Music,  for  slow 
movements. 


,120 


TIME. 


It  is  possible  to  invent  more  forms  of  Simple 
Triple  Time  (as  ^q,  for  instance),  and  some  very 
modem  Composers  have  done  so  ;  but  the  cases 
in  which  they  can  be  made  really  useful  are 
exceedingly  rare. 

IV.  Compound  Triple  Time  (Germ.  Zusammen- 
gesetzte  Ungeradetakt)  is  derived  from  the  simple 
form,  on  precisely  the  same  principle  as  that 
already  described  with  reference  to  Common 
Time.     Its  chief  forms  are — 

ic.  Nine-four  Time,  or  Nine  Crotchet  Time 
(Ital.  Tempo  di  Nonupla  maggiore ;  Germ.  Neun- 
vierteltakt)  contains  three  Beats  in  the  Bar,  each 
represented  by  a  dotted  Minim — or  its  equiva- 
lent, three  Crotchets. 


2C.  Nine-eight  Time,  or  Nine  Quaver  Time 
(Ital.  Tempo  di  Nonupla  minore ;  Germ.  Neun- 
addeltakt)  contains  three  Beats  in  a  Bar,  each 
represented  by  a  dotted  Crotchet — or  its  equiva- 
lent, three  Quavers. 
A  A 


3  c.  Nine-sixteen  Time,  or  Nine  Semiquaver 
Time  (Germ.  NennsecJiszehntheiltakt),  contains 
three  Beats  in  the  Bar,  each  represented  by  a 
dotted  Quaver— or  its  equivalent,  three  Semi- 
quavers. 


It  is  possible  to  invent  new  forms  of  Compound 
Triple  Time  (as  2)  i  but  it  would  be  difficult  to 
find  cases  in  which  such  a  proceeding  would  be 
justifiable  on  the  plea  of  real  necessity. 

V.  In  addition  to  the  universally  recognised 
forms  of  Rhythm  here  described,  Composers  have 
invented  certain  anomalous  measures  which  call 
for  separate  notice:  and  first  among  them  we 
must  mention  that  rarely  used  but  by  no  means 
unimportant  species  known  as  Quintuple  Time 
(4  ^^  ^)'  ^^^^  ^^®  Beats  in  the  Bar,  each  Beat 
being  represented  either  by  a  Crotchet  or  a 
Quaver  as  the  case  may  be.  As  the  peciiliarities 
of  this  rh3rthmic  form  have  already  been  fully 
described,^  we  shall  content  ourselves  by  quoting, 
in  addition  to  the  examples  given  in  vol.  iii.  p.  6 1, 
one  beautiful  instance  of  its  use  by  Brahms,  who, 
in  his  'Variations  on  u  Hungarian  Air,'  Op.  21, 
No.  2,  has  fulfilled  all  the  most  necessary  condi- 
tions, by  writing  throughout  in  alternate  Bars 
of  Simple  Common  and  Simple  Triple  Time, 
under  a  double  Time-Signature  at  the  beginning 
of  the  Movement. 

There  seems  no  possible  reason  why  a  Com- 
poser, visited  by  an  inspiration  in  that  direction, 
should  not  write  an  Air  in  Septuple  Time,  with 

1  See  QUIKTCFLE  TlUK. 


TIME. 

seven  beats  in  a  bar.  The  only  condition  need- 
ful to  ensure  success  in  such  a  case  is,  that  the 
inspiration  must  come  first,  and  prove  of  suffi- 
cient value  to  justify  the  use  of  an  anomalous 
Measure  for  its  expression.  An  attempt  to 
write  in  Septuple  Time,  for  its  own  sake, 
must  inevitably  result  in  an  ignoble  failure. 
The  chief  mechanical  difficulty  in  the  employ- 
ment of  such  a  Measure  would  lie  in  the  un- 
certain position  of  its  Accents,  which  would  not 
be  governed  by  any  definite  rule,  but  must 
depend,  almost  entirely,  upon  the  character  of 
the  given  Melody,  and  might  indeed  be  so 
varied  as  to  give  rise  to  several  different  species 
of  Septuple  Time  ' — a  very  serious  objection,  for, 
after  all,  it  is  by  the  position  of  its  Accents  that 
every  species  of  Time  must  be  governed.'  It  was 
for  this  reason  that,  at  the  beginning  of  this 
article,  we  insisted  upon  the  necessity  for  measur> 
ing  the  capacity  of  the  Bar,  not  by  the  number 
of  the  notes  it  contained,  but  by  that  of  its 
Beats :  for  it  is  upon  the  Beats  that  the  Accents 
fall ;  and  it  is  only  in  obedience  to  the  position 
of  the  Beats  that  the  notes  receive  them.  Now 
it  is  a  law  that  no  two  Accents — that  is  to 
say,  no  two  of  the  greater  Accents  by  which 
the  Rhythm  of  the  Bar  is  regulated,  without 
reference  to  the  subordinate  stress  which  ex- 
presses the  division  of  the  notes  into  groups — 
no  two  of  these  greater  Accents,  we  say,  can 
possibly  fall  on  two  consecutive  Beats;  any  more 
than  the  strong  Accent,  called  by  Grammarians 
the  '  Tone,'  can  fall  on  two  consecutive  syllables 
in  a  word.  The  first  Accent  in  the  Bar — ^marked 
thus  (  A  )  in  our  examples,  corresponds  in  Music 
with  what  is  technically  called  the  *  Tone-syllable' 
of  a  word.  Where  there  are  two  Accents  in  the 
Bar,  the  second,  marked  thus,  (  A  ),  is  of  much  less 
importance.  It  is  only  by  remembering  this,  that 
we  can  understand  the  diflference  between  the 
Time  called  'Alia  Cappella,' with  two  Minim  Beats 
in  the  Bar,  and  4  with  four  Crotchet  Beats : 
for  the  value  of  the  contents  of  the  Bar,  in  notes, 
is  exactly  the  same,  in  both  cases ;  and  in  both 
cases,  each  Beat  is  divisible  by  2,  indefinitely. 
The  only  difference,  therefore,  lies  in  the  distri- 
bution of  the  Accents;  and  this  difference  is 
entirely  independent  of  the  pace  at  which  the 
Bar  may  be  taken. 

A A A 


In  like  maimer,  six  Quavers  may  be  written, 

s  See  the  remarks  on  an  analogous  uncertainty  in  Quintuple  Time. 
Vol.  Hi.  p.  616. 

8  The  reader  will  bear  in  mind  that  we  are  here  speaking  of 
Accent,  pur  et  simple,  and  not  of  emphasis,  A  note  may  be  em- 
phasised, in  any  part  of  the  Bar ;  but  the  quiet  dwelling  upon  it 
which  constitutes  true  Accent— Accent  analogous  to  that  used  In 
speaking— can  only  take  place  on  the  accented  Beat,  the  position  of 
which  Is  invariable.  Hence  it  follows  that  the  most  strongly  accented 
notes  in  a  given  passage  may  also  be  the  softest.  In  all  questions 
concerning  Rhythm,  a  clear  understanding  of  the  difference  between 
Accent— produced  by  quieUy  dwelling  on  a  note— and  Empfaasis— 
produced  by  forcing  it.  U  of  the  utmost  importance. 


TIME. 


TIME. 


121 


with  equal  propriety,  in  a  Bar  of  ^  or  in  one  of 
^  Time.  But  the  effect  produced  will  be  alto- 
gether different ;  for,  in  the  first  case,  the  notes 
will  be  grouped  in  three  divisions,  each  contain- 
ing two  Quavers  ;  while,  in  the  second,  they  will 
form  two  groups,  each  containing  three  Quavers. 
Again,  twelve  Crotchets  may  be  written  in  a 
Bar  of  §,  or  ^?  Time  ;  twelve  Quavers,  in  a  Bar 
of  ^,  or  ^g  ;  or  twelve  Semiquavers,  in  a  Bar  of 
^,  or  § ;  the  division  into  groups  of  two  notes, 
or  three,  and  the  effect  thereby  produced,  de- 
pending entirely  upon  the  facts  indicated  by  the 
Time- Signature — in  other  words,  upon  the  ques- 
tion whether  the  Time  be  Simple  or  Compound. 
For  the  position  of  the  greater  Accents,  in 
Simple  and  Compound  Time,  is  absolutely  identi- 
cal ;  the  only  difference  between  the  two  forms 
of  Khythm  lying  in  the  subdivision  of  the  Beats 
by  2,  in  Simple  Times,  and  by  3,  in  Compound 
ones.  Every  Simple  Time  has  a  special  Com- 
pound form  derived  directly  from  it,  with  the 
greater  Accents — the  only  Accents  with  which 
we  are  here  concerned — falling  in  exactly  the 


same  places;  as  a  comparison  of  the  foregoing 
examples  of  Alia  Breve  and  ^^,  C  and  3^*  -A-Ua 
Cappella  and  §,  4  and  §,  |  and  Jg,  |  and  j^,  g 
and  6^,  §  and  ^,  3  and  §,  g  and  9^,  wiU  dis- 
tinctly  prove.  And  this  rule  applies,  not  only 
to  Common  and  Triple  Time,  but  also  to  Quint- 
uple and  Septuple,  either  of  which  may  be 
Simple  or  Compound  at  will.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  we  believe  we  are  right  in  saying  that 
neither  of  these  Rliythms  has,  as  yet,  been  at- 
tempted, in  the  Compound  form.  But  such  a 
form  is  possible :  and  its  complications  would  in 
no  degree  interfere  with  the  position  of  the 
greater  Accents.^  For  the  strongest  Accent  wiU, 
in  all  cases,  fall  on  the  first  Beat  in  the  Bar; 
while  the  secondary  Accent  may  fall,  in  Quin- 
tuple Time — whether  Simple  or  Compound — 
either  on  the  third  or  the  fourth  Beat ;  and 
in  Septuple  Time — Simple  or  Compound — on  the 
fourth  Beat,  or  the  fifth — to  say  nothing  of 
other  places  in  which  the  Composer  would  be 
perfectly  justified  in  placing  it.'' 

In  a  few  celebrated  cases — more  numerous, 
nevertheless,  than  is  generally  supposed — Com- 


Danza  Tbdesca. 


Ex.  1. 


From  '  II  Don  Giovanni. 


1  Compound  Quintuple  Bhythm  would  need,  for  Its  Time-Signa-  i  means  satisfactory  'rule  of  thumb,'  that  all  firactions  with  i 
ture.  the  fraction  ^'  or  \^;  and  Compound  Septuple  Bhythm.  2^^  or      rator  greater  than  5  denote  Compound  Timea. 
i'^.   Tyrus  are  sometimes  taught  the  perfectly  correct  though  by  no  I      2  See  TiHE-BEATWa. 


122 


TIME. 


TIME,  BEATING. 


posers  have  produced  particularly  happy  effects 
by  the  simultaneous  employment  of  two  or 
more  different  kinds  of  Time.  A  very  simple 
instance  will  be  found  in  Handel's  so-called  •  Har- 
monious Blacksmith,'  where  one  hand  plays 
in  Four-Crotchet  Time  ( C ).  and  the  other  in 
^&.  A  more  ingenious  combination  is  found  in 
the  celebrated  Movement  in  the  Finale  of  the  First 
Act  of  *Il  Don  Giovanni,'  in  which  three  dis- 
tinct Orchestras  play  simultaneously  a  Minuet  in 
?  Time,  a  Gavotte  in  ^,  and  a  Waltz  in  3,  as  in 
Ex.  I  on  previous  page ;  the  complexity  of  the  ar- 
rangement being  increased  by  the  fact  that  each 
three  bars  of  the  Waltz  form,  in  their  relation  to 
each  single  bar  of  the  Minuet,  one  bar  of  Compound 
Triple  Time  (S)  ;  while  in  relation  to  each  single 
bar  of  the  Gavotte,  each  two  bars  of  the  Waltz 
form  one  bar  of  Compound  Common  Time  (§). 

A  still  more  complicated  instance  is  found  in 
the  Slow  Movement  of  Spohr's  Symphony,  '  Die 
Weihe  der  Tone '  (Ex.  a  on  previous  page) ;  and 
here  again  the  difficulty  is  increased  by  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  slow  Tempo — Andantino — in  the 
part  marked  ^,  while  the  part  marked  Allegro 
starts  in  Doppio  movlmento,  each  Quaver  being 
equal  to  a  Semiquaver  in  the  Bass. 

Yet  these  complications  are  simple  indeed 
when  compared  with  those  to  be  found  in  Pales- 
trina's  Mass  *L'hommearmd,'  and  in  innumerable 
Compositions  by  Josquin  des  Pres,  and  other 
writers  of  the  15th  and  i6th  centuries ;  triumphs 
of  ingenuity  so  abstruse  that  it  is  doubtful 
whether  any  Choristers  of  the  present  day  could 
master  their  difficulties,  yet  all  capable  of  being 
expressed  with  absolute  certainty  by  the  various 
forms  of  Mode,  Time,  and  Prolation,  invented 
in  the  Middle  Ages,  and  based  upon  the  same 
firm  principles  as  our  own  Time-Table.  For, 
all  the  mediaeval  Composers  had  to  do,  for  the 
purpose  of  producing  what  we  call  Compound 
Common  Time,  was  to  combine  Imperfect  Mode 
with  Perfect  Time,  or  Imperfect  Time  with  the 
Greater  Prolation;  and,  for  Compound  Triple 
Time,  Perfect  Mode  with  Perfect  Time,  or  Perfect 
Time  with  the  Greater  Prolation.  [W.S.R.] 

TIME,  BEATING.  Apart  from  what  we  know 
of  the  manners  and  customs  of  Greek  Musicians, 
the  practice  of  beating  Time,  as  we  beat  it  at  the 
present  day,  is  proved,  by  the  traditions  of  the 
Sistine  Choir,  to  be  at  least  as  old  as  the  15th 
century,  if  not  very  much  older.  In  fact,  the 
continual  vaiiations  of  Tempo  which  form  so  im- 
portant an  element  in  the  interpretation  of  the 
works  of  Palestrina  and  other  mediaeval  Masters, 
must  have  rendered  the  *  Solfa  '^-or,  as  we  now 
call  it,  the  Baton — of  a  Conductor  indispens- 
able ;  and  in  the  Pontifical  Chapel  it  has  been 
considered  so  from  time  immemorial.  When 
the  Music  of  the  Polyphonic  School  gave  place 
to  Choruses  accompanied  by  a  full  Orchestra, 
or,  at  least,  a  Thoroughbass,  a  more  uniform 
Tempo  became  not  only  a  desideratum,  but  al- 
most a  necessity.  And  because  good  Musicians 
found  no  difficulty  in  keeping  together,  in  Move- 


ments played  or  sung  at  an  uniform  pace  from 
beginning  to  end,  the  custom  of  beating  time 
became  less  general ;  the  Conductor  usually  ex- 
changing his  desk  for  a  seat  at  the  Harpsichord, 
whence  he  directed  the  general  style  of  the 
performance,  while  the  principal  First  Violin — 
afterwards  called  the  Leader — regulated  the 
length  of  necessary  pauses,  or  the  pace  of  ritar- 
dandi,  etc.,  with  his  Violin-bow.  Notwithstand- 
ing the  evidence  as  to  exceptional  cases,  afforded 
by  Handel's  Harpsichord,  now  in  the  South 
Kensington  Museum,*  we  know  that  this  custom 
was  almost  universal  in  the  i8th  century,  and 
the  earlier  years  of  the  19th — certainly  as  late 
as  the  year  1829,  when  Mendelssohn  conducted 
his  Symphony  in  C  Minor  from  the  Pianoforte, 
at  the  Philharmonic  Concert,  then  held  at  the 
Argyle  Rooms.''  But  the  increasing  demand  for 
effect  and  expression  in  Music  rendered  by  the 
full  Orchestia,  soon  afterwards  led  to  a  per- 
manent revival  of  the  good  old  plan,  with  which 
it  would  now  be  impossible  to  dispense. 

Our  present  method  of  beating  time  is  directly 
derived  from  that  practised  by  the  Greeks; 
though  with  one  very  important  difference.  The 
Greeks  used  an  upward  motion  of  the  hand,  which 
they  called  the  dpais  (arsis),  and  a  downward 
one,  called  Oeais  {thesis).  We  use  the  same.  The 
difference  is,  that  with  us  the  Thesis,  or  down- 
beat, indicates  the  accented  part  of  the  Measure, 
and  tlie  Arsis,  or  up-beat,  its  unaccented  portion, 
while  with  the  Greeks  the  custom  was  exactly 
the  reverse.  In  the  Middle  Ages,  as  now,  the 
Semibreve  was  considered  as  the  norm  from 
which  the  proportionate  duration  of  all  other 
notes  was  derived.  This  norm  comprised  two 
beats,  a  downward  one  and  an  upward  one, 
each  of  which,  of  course,  represented  a  Minim. 
The  union  of  the  Thesis  and  Arsis  indicated  by 
these  two  beats  was  held  to  constitute  a  Measure 
— called  by  Morley  and  other  old  English  writers 
a  'Stroake.'  This  arrangement,  however,  was 
necessarily  confined  to  Imperfect,  or,  as  we  now 
call  it.  Common  Time.  In  Perfect,  or  Triple 
Time,  the  up-beats  were  omitted,  and  three 
down-beats  only  were  used  in  each  Measure ; 
the  same  action  being  employed  whether  it  con- 
tained three  Semibreves  or  three  Mimims. 
When  two  beats  only  are  needed  in  the  bar, 
„  .^          we  beat  them,    now,  as 

Fig.  1.      1  they  were  beaten  in  the 

time  of  Morley;  the 
down-beat  representing 
the  Thesis,  or  accented 
part  of  the  Measure,  and 
A  1  cs  B    1  f5    the    up-beat,  the   Arsis, 

^)  I  «^    or  unaccented  portion,  as 

at   (a)   in  the    annexed 
diagram.'  But  it  some- 
times happens  that  Pres- 
1  i      tissimo    Movements    are 

taken  at  a  pace  too  rapid  to  admit  the  delivery 

1  See  vol.  11.  p.  564,  note.  2  See  vol.  II.  p.  263. 

»  The  diagrams  indicate  a  downward  motion  towards  1,  for  the 
beginning  of  the  bar.  The  hand  then  passes  through  the  other 
beats.  In  the  order  In  which  they  are  numbered,  and,  on  reaching  the 
last,  is  supposed  to  descend  thence  perpendicularly,  to  1.  tor  the  be- 
glonlug  of  the  oezt  bar. 


TIME,  BEATING. 

of  even  two  beats  in  a  bar ;  and,  in  these  cases, 
a  single  down-beat  only  is  used,  the  upward 
motion  of  the  Conductor's  hand  passing  unnoticed, 
in  consequence  of  its  rapidity,  as  at  (b). 

When  three  beats  are  needed  in  the  bar,  the 
custom  is,  in  England,  to  beat  once  downwards, 
once  to  the  left,  and  once  upwards,  as  at  (a) 
in  Fig.  2.  In  France,  the  same  system  is 
used  in  the  Concert-room;  but  in  the  Theatre 
it  is  usual  to  direct  the  second  beat  to  the  right, 


TIME,  BEATING. 


12S 


as  at  B,  on  the  ground  that  the  Conductor's  Baton 
is  thus  rendered  more  easily  visible  to  performers 
seated  behind  him.  Both  plans  have  their  advan- 
tages and  their  disadvantages;  but  the  fact  that 
motions  directed  downwards,  or  towards  the 
right,  are  always  understood  to  indicate  either 
primary  or  secondary  accents,  weighs  strongly  in 
favour  of  the  English  method. 

But  in  very  rapid   Movements — such   as  we 
find  in  some  of  Beethoven's  Scherzos — it  is  better 


Fig.  2. 


FiQ.9. 


Em.  4. 


to  indicate  3-4  or  3-8  Time  by  a  single  down- 
beat, like  those  employed  in  very  rapid  2-4 ;  only 
that,  in  this  case,  the  upward  motion  which  the 
Conductor  necessarily  makes  in  preparation  for 
the  downward  beat  which  is  to  follow  must  be 
made  to  correspond  as  nearly  as  possible  with 
the  third  Crotchet  or  Quaver  of  the  Measure, 
as  in  Fig.  3. 


"When  four  beats  are  needed  in  the  bar,  the 
first  is  directed  downwards ;  the  second  towards 
the  left;  the  third  towards  the  right;  and  the 
fourth  upwards.     (Fig.  4.) 

It  is  not  possible  to  indicate  more  than  four 
full  beats  in  a  bar,  conveniently.  But  it  is  easy 
to  indicate  eight  in  a  bar,  by  supplementing  each 
full  beat  by  a  smaller  one  in  the  same  direction. 


Fi&.  5. 


as  at  (a)  in  Fig.  5 ;  or,  by  the  same  means,  to 
beat  six  Quavers  in  a  bar  of  very  slow  3-4  Time, 
as  at  (b),  or  (0). 

Compound  Times,  whether  Common  or  Triple, 
may  be  beaten  in  two  ways.  In  moderately 
quick  Movements,  they  may  be  indicated  by  the 
same  number  of  beats  as  the  Simple  Times  from 
which  they  are  derived :  e.  g.  6-8  Time  may  be 
beaten  like  2-4;  6-4  like  Alia  Cappella;  12-8 
like  4-4 ;  9-8  like  3-4 ;  9-16  like  3-8,  etc.,  etc. 
But,  in  slower  Movements,  each  constituent  of 
the  Compound  Measure  must  be  indicated  by  a 
triple  motion  of  the  Baton ;  that  is  to  say,  by 
one  full  beat,  followed  by  two  smaller  ones,  in 


the  same  direction ;  6-4  or  6-8  being  taken  as 
at  (a)  in  Fig.  6 ;  9-4  or  9-8  as  at  (b)  ;  and 
12-8  as  at  (0).  The  advantage  of  this  plan  is, 
that  in  all  cases  the  greater  divisions  of  the  bar 
are  indicated  by  full  beats,  and  the  subordinate 
ones  by  half-beats. 

For  the  anomalous  rhythmic  combinations 
with  five  or  seven  beats  in  the  bar,  it  is  difl&cult 
to  lay  down  a  law  the  authority  of  which  is 
sufl&ciently  obvious  to  ensure  its  general  accepta- 
tion. Two  very  different  methods  have  been  re- 
commended; and  both  have  their  strong  and 
their  weak  points. 

One  plan  is,  to  beat  each  bar  of  Quintuple 


124  TIME,  BEATING. 

Time  in  two  distinct  sections;  one  containing 
two  beats,  and  the  other,  three:  leaving  the 
question  whether  the  duple  section  shall  precede 
the  triple  one,  or  the  reverse,  to  be  decided  by 
the  nature  of  the  Music.  For  Compositions  like 
that  by  Brahms  (Op.  21,  No.  2),  quoted  in  the 
preceding  article,  this  method  is  not  only  excel- 
lent, but  is  manifestly  in  exact  accordance  with 
the  author's  intention — which,  after  all,  by  divid- 


TIME,  BEATING. 

ing  each  bar  into  two  dissimilar  members,  the 
one  duple  and  the  other  triple,  involves  a  com- 
promise quite  inconsistent  with  the  character  of 
strict  Quintuple  Rhythm,  notwithstanding  the 
use  that  has  been  made  of  it  in  almost  all  other 
attempts  of  like  character.  The  only  Composition 
with  which  we  are  acquainted,  wherein  five  in- 
dependent beats  in  the  bar  have  been  honestly 
maintained  throughout,  without  any  compromise 


Fig.  6. 


whatever,  is  Reeve's  well-known  'Gypsies'  Glee ';' 
and,  for  this,  the  plan  we  have  mentioned  would 
be  wholly  unsuitable.  So  strictly  impartial  is 
the  use  of  the  five  beats  in  this  Movement,  that 
it  would  be  quite  impossible  to  fix  the  position 
of  a  second  Accent.  The  bar  must  therefore  be 
expressed  by  five  full  beats ;  and  the  two  most 
convenient  ways  of  so  expressing  it  are  those 
indicated  at  (a)  and  (b)  in  Fig.  7. 

This  is  undoubtedly  the  best  way  of  indicating 
Quintuple  Rhythm,  in  all  cases  in  which  the  Com- 


poser himself  has  not  divided  the  bar  into  two 
unequal  members. 

Seven  beats  in  the  bar  are  less  easy  to  manage. 
In  the  first  place,  if  a  compromise  be  attempted, 
the  bar  may  be  divided  in  several  different  ways ; 
e.g.  it  may  be  made  to  consist  of  one  bar  of 
4-4,  followed  by  one  bar  of  3-4 ;  or,  one  bar  of 
3-4,  followed  by  one  bar  of  4-4 ;  or,  one  bar  of 
3-4,  followed  by  two  bars  of  2-4 ;  or,  two  bars 
of  2-4,  followed  by  one  of  3-4 ;  or,  one  bar  of  2-4, 
one  of  3-4,  and  one  of  2-4.    But,  in  the  absence 


Fig.  7. 


of  any  indication  of  such  a  division  by  the  Com- 
poser himself,  it  is  much  better  to  indicate  seven 
honest  beats  in  the  bar.     (Fig.  8.) 

Yet  another  complication  arises,  in  cases  in 
which  two  or  more  species  of  Rhythm  are  em- 
ployed simultaneously,  as  in  the  Minuet  in  'Don 
Giovanni,'  and  the  Serenade  in  Spohr's  'Weihe 
der  Tone.*  In  all  such  cases,  the  safest  rule  is, 
to  select  the  shortest  Measure  as  the  norm,  and 
to  indicate  each  bar  of  it  by  a  single  down-beat. 
Thus,  in  *Don  Giovanni,'  the  Minuet,  in  3-4 
Time,  proceeds  simultaneously  with  a  Gavotte  in 

1  6«eT0l.iiLp.61& 


2-4,  three  bars  of  the  latter  being  played  against 
two  bars  of  the  former ;  and  also  with  a  Waltz 
in  3-8,  three  bars  of  which  are  played  against 
each  single  bar  of  the  Minuet,  and  two  against 
each  bar  of  the  Gavotte.  We  must,  therefore, 
select  the  Time  of  the  Waltz  as  our  norm ;  in- 
dicating each  bar  of  it  by  a  single  down-beat ;  in 
which  case  each  bar  of  the  Minuet  will  be  in- 
dicated by  three  down  beats,  each  bar  of  the 
Gavotte  by  two,  and  each  bar  of  the  Waltz  by 
one — an  arrangement  which  no  orchestral  player 
can  possibly  misunderstand. 
In  like  manner,  Spohr*8  Symphony  will  be 


TIME,  BEATING. 

most  easily  made  intelligible  by  the  indication 
of  a  single  down-beat  for  each  Semiquaver  of  the 
part  written  in  9-16  Time — a  method  which 
Mendelssohn  always  adopted  in  conducting  this 
Symphony.* 

This  method  of  using  down-beats  only  is  also 
of  great  value  in  passages  which,  by  means  of 
complicated  syncopations,  or  other  similar  ex- 
pedients, are  made  to  go  against  the  time ;  that 
is  to  say,  are  made  to  sound  as  if  they  were 


TIME,  BEATING. 


125 


written  in  a  different  Time  from  that  in  which  they 
really  stand.  But,  in  these  cases,  the  down- 
beats must  be  employed  with  extreme  caution, 
and  only  by  very  experienced  Conductors,  since 
nothing  is  easier  than  to  throw  a  whole  Orchestra 
out  of  gear,  by  means  used  with  the  best  possible 
intention  of  simplifying  its  work.  A  passage 
near  the  conclusion  of  the  Slow  Movement  of 
Beethoven's  '  Pastoral  Symphony '  will  occur  to 
the  reader  as  a  case  in  point. 


Fig.  8. 


The  rules  we  have  given  will  ensure  mechanical 
correctness  in  beating  Time.  But,  the  iron  strict- 
ness of  a  Metronome,  though  admirable  in  its 
proper  place,  is  very  far  from  being  the  only 
qualification  needed  to  form  a  good  Conductor, 
who  must  not  only  know  how  to  beat  Time  with 
precision,  but  must  also  learn  to  beat  it  easily 
and  naturally,  and  with  jiisb  so  much  action  as 
may  suffice  to  make  the  motion  of  his  B^ton  seen 
and  understood  by  every  member  of  the  Orches- 
tra, and  no  more.  For  the  antics  once  practised 
by  a  school  of  Conductors,  now  happily  almost 
extinct,  were  only  so  many  fatal  hindrances  to 
an  artistic  performance. 

Many  Conductors  beat  Time  with  the  whole 
arm,  instead  of  from  the  wrist.  This  is  a  very 
bad  habit,  and  almost  always  leads  to  a  very 
much  worse  one — that  of  dancing  the  Baton, 
instead  of  moving  it  steadily.  Mendelssohn, 
one  of  the  most  accomplished  Conductors  on 
record,  was  very  much  opposed  to  this  habit, 
and  reprehended  it  strongly.  His  manner  of 
beating  was  excessively  strict ;  and  imparted 
such  extraordinary  precision  to  the  Orchestra, 
that,  having  brought  a  long  level  passage— such, 
for  instance,  as  a  continued  forte — into  steady 
swing,  he  was  sometimes  able  to  leave  the  per- 
formers, for  a  considerable  time,  to  themselves ; 
and  would  often  lay  down  his  Baton  upon  the 
desk,  and  cease  to  beat  Time  for  many  bars 
together,  listening  intently  to  the  performance, 
and  only  resuming  his  active  functions  when  his 
instinct  told  hira  that  his  assistance  would  pre- 
sently be  needed.  With  a  less  experienced  chief, 
such  a  proceeding  would  have  been  fatal :  but, 
when  he  did  it — and  it  was  his  constant  practice 

I  See  the  examples  of  these  two  passages,  tn  the  foregoing  article 
(p.  121). 


— one  always  felt  that  everything  was  at  its  very 
best. 

It  may  seem  strange  to  claim,  for  the  me- 
chanical process  of  time-beating,  the  rank  of  an 
element — and  a  very  important  element — neces- 
sary to  the  attainment  of  ideal  perfection  in  art : 
yet  Mendelssohn's  method  of  managing  the 
BS,ton  proved  it  to  be  one.  He  held  'Tempo 
rubato  '  in  abhorrence ;  yet  he  indicated  nuances 
of  emphasis  and  expression — as  opposed  to  the 
inevitable  Accents  described  in  the  foregoing 
article — with  a  precision  which  no  educated 
musician  ever  failed  to  understand ;  and  this 
with  an  effect  so  marked,  that,  when  even  Ferdi- 
nand David — a  Conductor  of  no  ordinary  ability 
— took  up  the  baton  after  him  at  the  Gewand- 
haus,  as  he  frequently  did,  the  soul  of  the  Orches- 
tra seemed  to  have  departed.'^  The  secret  of  this 
may  be  explained  in  a  very  few  words.  He 
knew  how  to  beat  strict  Time  with  expression ; 
and  his  gestures  were  so  full  of  meaning,  that  he 
enabled,  and  compelled,  the  meanest  Ripieno  to 
assist  in  interpreting  his  reading.  In  other  words, 
he  united,  in  their  fullest  degree,  the  two  quali- 
fications which  alone  are  indispensable  in  a  great 
Conductor — the  noble  intention,  and  the  power 
of  compelling  the  Orchestra  to  express  it.  No 
doubt,  the  work  of  a  great  Conductor  is  immea- 
surably facilitated  by  his  familiarity  with  the 
Orchestra  he  directs.  Its  members  learn  ta 
understand  and  obey  him,  with  a  certainty 
which  saves  an  immensity  of  labour.  Sir  Michael 
Costa,  for  instance,  attained  a  position  so  eminent, 
that  for  very  many  years  there  was  not,  in  all 
England,  an  orchestral  player  of  any  reputation 

'  We  do  not  make  this  assertion  on  our  own  unsupported  authority. 
The  circumstance  has  been  noticed,  over  and  over  again ;  and  all 
who  carefully  studied  Mendelssohn's  method  will  bear  witness  to 


126 


TIME,  BEATING. 


who  did  not  comprehend  the  meaning  of  the 
slightest  motion  of  his  hand.  And  hence  it  was 
that,  during  the  course  of  his  long  career,  he 
was  ahle  to  modify  and  almost  revolutionise 
the  method  of  procedure  to  which  he  owed  his 
earliest  successes.  Beginning  with  the  com- 
paratively small  Orchestra  of  Her  Majesty's 
Theatre,  as  it  existed  years  ago,  he  gradually 
extended  his  sway,  until  he  brought  under 
command  the  vast  body  of  4000  performers  as- 
sembled at  the  Handel  Festivals  at  the  Crystal 
Palace.  As  the  number  of  performers  increased, 
he  found  it  necessary  to  invent  new  methods  of 
beating  Time  for  them ;  and,  for  a  long  period, 
used  an  uninterrupted  succession  of  consecutive 
down-beats  with  a  freedom  which  no  previous 
Conductor  had  ever  attempted.  By  using  down- 
beats with  one  hand,  simultaneously  with  the 
orthodox  form  in  the  other,  he  once  succeeded, 
at  the  Crystal  Palace,  in  keeping  under  command 
the  two  sides  of  a  Double  Chorus,  when  every  one 
present  capable  of  understanding  the  gravity  of 
the  situation  believed  an  ignoble  crash  to  be 
inevitable.  And,  at  the  Festival  of  1883,  his 
talented  successor,  Mr.  Manns,  succeeded,  by 
nearly  similar  means,  in  maintaining  order  under 
circumstances  of  unexampled  difficulty,  caused 
by  the  sudden  illness  of  the  veteran  chief  whose 
place  he  was  called  upon  to  occupy  without  due 
time  for  preparation.  In  such  cases  as  these  the 
Conductor's  left  hand  is  an  engine  of  almost  un- 
limited power,  and,  even  in  ordinary  conducting, 
it  may  be  made  extremely  useful.  It  may  beat 
four  in  a  bar,  or,  in  unequal  combinations,  even 
three,  while  the  right  hand  beats  two ;  or  the 
reverse.  For  the  purpose  of  emphasising  the 
meaning  of  the  right  hand.its  action  is  invaluable. 
And  it  may  be  made  the  index  of  a  hundred 
shades  of  delicate  expression.  Experienced  players 
display  a  wonderful  instinct  for  the  interpretation 
of  the  slightest  action  on  thepart  of  an  experienced 
Conductor.  An  intelligent  wave  of  the  baton  will 
often  ensure  an  effective  sforzando,  even  if  it  be 
not  marked  in  the  copies.  A  succession  of  beats, 
beginning  quietly,  and  gradually  extending  to 
the  broadest  sweeps  the  baton  can  execute,  will 
ensure  a  powerful  crescendo,  and  the  opposite  pro- 
cess, an  equally  effective  diminuendo,  unnoticed 
by  the  transcriber.  Even  a  glance  of  the  eye 
will  enable  a  careless  player  to  take  up  a  point 
correctly,  after  he  has  accidentally  lost  his  place 
— a  very  common  incident,  since  too  many  players 
trust  to  each  other  for  counting  silent  bars,  and 
consequently  re-enter  with  an  indecision  which 
energy  on  the  part  of  the  Conductor  can  alone 
correct. 

It  still  remains  to  speak  of  one  of  the  most 
important  duties  of  a  Conductor — that  of  start- 
ing his  Orchestra.  And  here  an  old-fashioned 
scruple  frequently  causes  great  uncertainty. 
Many  Conductors  think  it  beneath  their  dignity 
to  start  with  a  preliminary  beat :  and  many  more 
players  think  themselves  insulted  when  such  a 
beat  is  given  for  their  assistance.  Yet  the 
value  of  the  expedient  is  so  great,  that  it  is  mad- 
ness to  sacrifice  it  for  the  sake  of  idle  prejudice. 


TIME-SIGNATURK 

No  doubt  good  Conductors  and  good  Orchestras 
can  start  well  enough  without  it,  in  all  ordinary 
cases ;  but  it  is  never  safe  to  despise  legitimate 
help,  and  never  disgraceful  to  accept  it.  A 
very  fine  Orchestra,  playing  Beethoven's  Sym- 
phony in  0  minor  for  the  first  time  under  a 
Conductor  with  whose  'reading'  of  the  work 
they  were  unacquainted,  would  probably  escape 
a  vulgar  crash  at  starting,  even  without  a  pre- 
liminary beat;  but  they  would  certainly  play 
the  first  bar  very  badly :  whereas,  with  such  a 
beat  to  guide  them,  they  would  run  no  risk  at  all. 
For  one  preliminary  beat  suffices  to  indicate  to 
a  cultivated  Musician  the  exact 'rate  of  speed  at 
which  the  Conductor  intends  to  take  the  Move- 
ment he  is  starting,  and  enables  him  to  fulfil  his 
chiefs  intention  with  absolute  certainty.  [W.S.R.] 

TIME-SIGNATURE  (Lat.  Signum  Modi, 
vel  Temporis,vel  Prolationis;  Germ.  Taktzeichen). 
A  Sign  placed  after  the  Clef  and  the  Sharps  or 
Flats  which  determine  the  Signature  of  the  Key, 
in  order  to  give  notice  of  the  Rhythm  in  which 
a  Composition  is  written. 

Our  present  Time-signatures  are  directly  de- 
scended from  forms  invented  in  the  Middle  Ages. 
Mediaeval  Composers  used  the  Circle — the  most 
perfect  of  figures — to  denote  Perfect  (or,  as  we 
should  now  say.  Triple)  Rhythm ;  and  the  Semi- 
circle for  Imperfect  or  Duple  forms.  The  Sig- 
natures used  to  distinguish  the  Greater  and  Lesser 
Modes,^  Perfect  or  Imperfect — Signa  Modi, 
Modal  Signs — were  usually  preceded  by  a  group 
of  Rests,^  showing  the  number  of  Longs  to 
which  a  Large  was  equal  in  the  Greater  Mode, 
and  the  number  of  Breves  which  equalled  the 
Long  in  the  Lesser  one — that  is  to  say,  three 
for  the  Perfect  forms,  and  two  for  the  Imperfect. 
Sometimes  these  Rests  were  figured  once  oiUy : 
sometimes  they  were  twice  repeated.  The  fol- 
lowing forms  were  most  commonly  used  :  — 

Greater  Mode  Perfect. 


Pi 


:e: 


i^^^ 


i^ 


Greater  Mode  Imperfect. 
-    or 


m 


s 


Lesser  Mode  Perfect, 


Lesser  Mode  Imperfect. 


Combinations  of  the  Greater  and  Lesser  Modes, 
when  both  were  Perfect,  were  indicated  by  a 
Point  of  Perfection,  placed  in  the  centre  of  the 
Circle,  as  at  (a)  in  the  following  example.  When 
the  Greater  Mode  was  Perfect,  and  the  Lesser 
Imperfect,  the  Point  was    omitted,  as  at  (Jb). 

1  See  Mode. 

3  The  reader  mnst  be  careful  to  obserre  the  position  of  these 
Rests ;  because  It  Is  only  when  they  precede  the  Circle  or  Semicircle, 
that  they  are  used  as  signs.  When  they  follow  It,  they  must  be 
counted  as  marks  of  silence. 


TIME-SIGNATUEE. 

When  both  Modes  were  Imperfect,  or  the 
Greater  Imperfect  and  the  Lesser  Perfect,  the 
difference  was  indicated  by  the  groups  of  Rests, 
as  at  (c)  and  (d). 

(6)  Greater  Mode  Perfect, 
and  Lesser  Imperfect. 


TINCTORIS. 


127 


(a)  Both  Modes  Perfect. 


^^i 


i 


B^B5 


/-\  T>^iu  nir^A^^  T ^»_fc^*     («0  Greater  Modes  Imperfect, 

(c)  Both  Modes  Imperfect.  and  Lesser  Perfect. 


i 


fl=F 


The  Circle  and  the  Semicircle,  were  also  used 
either  alone  or  in  combination  with  the  figures 
3  or  2,  as  Signatures  of  Time,  in  the  limited 
sense  in  which  that  term  was  used  in  the  Middle 
Ages;^  i.e.  as  applied  to  the  proportions  existing 
between  the  Breve  and  the  Semibreve  only — 
three  to  one  in  Perfect,  and  two  to  one  in  Im- 
perfect forms. 

Perfect  Time. 


EEO: 


i 


;e 


Imperfect  Time. 


lB~z 


\E^ 


The  same  signs  were  used  to  indicate  the  pro- 
portion between  the  Semibreve  and  the  Minim, 
in  the  Greater  and  Lesser  Prolation  ;  ^  but  gener- 
ally with  a  bar  drawn  perpendicularly  through 
the  Circle  or  Semicircle,  to  indicate  that  the 
beats  were  to  be  represented  by  Minims ;  and 
sometimes,  in  the  case  of  the  Greater  Prolation, 
with  the  addition  of  a  Point  of  Perfection. 

The  Greater  Prolation. 


s 


i^$^°-|=s=i 


i 


:E 


The  Lesser  Prolation. 
-  or 


i^ 


Combinations  of  Mode,  Time,  and  Prolation 
sometimes  give  rise  to  very  complicated  forms, 
which  varied  so  much  at  different  epochs,  that 
even  Omitoparchus,  writing  in  15 17,  complains 
of  the  diflficulty  of  understanding  them.^  Some 
writers  used  two  Circles  or  Semicircles,  one 
within  the  other,  with  or  without  a  Point  of 
Perfection  in  the  centre  of  the  smaller  one.  The 
inversion  of  the  Semicircle  ( D)  always  denoted 
a  diminution  in  the  value  of  the  beats,  to  the  ex- 
tent of  one-half;  but  it  was  only  at  a  compara- 
tively late  period  that  the  doubled  figure  (C  )) 
indicated  an  analogous  change  in  the  opposite 
direction.  Again,  the  barred  Circle  or  Semi- 
circle always  indicated  Minim  beats ;  but  the 
unbarred  forms,  while  indicating  Semibreves,  in 
Mode,  and  Time,  were  used,  by  the  Madrigal 
writers,  to  indicate  Crotchet  beats,  in  Prolation. 

The  application  of  these  principles  to  modern 


1  See  p.  176. 


2  See  Trolation. 


s  See  TOl.  111.  p.  12. 


Time-signatures  is  exceedingly  simple,  and  may 
be  explained  in  a  very  few  words.  At  present 
we  use  the  unbarred  Semicircle  to  indicate 
four  Crotchet  beats  in  a  bar ;  the  barred  Semi- 
circle to  indicate  four  Minim  beats,  in  the  Time 
called  Alia  breve,  and  two  Minim  beats  in  Alia 
Cappella.  Some  German  writers  once  used  the 
doubled  Semicircle,  barred,  (C|  ))  for  Alia  breve 
— which  they  called  the  Grosse  Allabrevetalct, 
and  the  ordinary  single  form,  barred, for  Alia  Cap- 
pella— Kleine  AllabrevetaJct :  but  this  distinction 
has  long  since  fallen  into  disuse. 

The  Circle  is  no  longer  used ;  all  other  forms 
of  Rhythm  than  those  already  mentioned  being 
distinguished  by  fractions,  the  denominators  of 
which  refer  to  the  aliquot  parts  of  a  Semibreve, 
and  the  numerators,  to  the  number  of  them  con- 
tained in  a  bar,  as  ^  ( =  J ),  §  (  =  |^ ),  etc.     And 

even  in  this  we  only  follow  the  mediseval  cus- 
tom, which  used  the  fraction  §  to  denote  Triple 
Time,  with  three  Minims  in  a  bar,  exactly  as 
we  denote  it  at  the  present  day. 

A  complete  list  of  all  the  fractions  now  used  as 
Time-Signatures  will  be  found  in  the  article 
Time,  together  with  a  detailed  explanation  of  the 
peculiarities  of  each.  [W.S.R.] 

TIME  TABLE.  A  Table  denoting  the  forms 
and  proportionate  duration  of  all  the  notes  used 
in  measured  Music. 

The  earliest  known  indication  of  a  Time  Table 
is  to  be  found  in  the  well-known  work  on  Can- 
tus  mensurahilis,  written  by  Franco  of  Cologne 
about  the  middle  of  the  nth  century.  Franco 
mentions  only  four  kinds  of  notes,  the  Large  (or 
Double  Long),  the  Long,  the  Breve,  and  the 
Semibreve.  Franchinus  Gafurius,  in  his  'Practica 
musicae,'  first  printed  at  Milan  in  1496,  de- 
scribes the  same  four  forms,  with  the  addition  of 
the  Minim.  These  were  afterwards  supplemented 
by  the  Greater  Semiminim,  now  called  the 
Crotchet,  and  the  Lesser  Semiminim,  or  Quaver ; 
and,  later  still,  by  the  Semiquaver,  the  Demi- 
semiquaver,  and  the  Half-Demisemiquaver. 

The  modern  Time  Table,  denoting  the  pro- 
portionate value  of  all  these  notes,  is  too  well 
known  in  our  schoolrooms  to  need  a  word  of  de- 
scription here.  [W.S.R.] 

TIMIDAMENTE.  The  indication  written  by 
Beethoven  in  his  MS.  of  the  Mass  in  D  at  the 
well-known  passage  in  the  '  Agnus '  where  the 
trumpets  produce  their  thrilling  effect — 'Ah 
Miserere  ! '  etc. ;  but  changed  by  the  engravers  of 
the  first  score  and  subsequent  editions  to  *  Tra- 
midamente.'  The  mistake  was  corrected  in 
Breitkopf 's  critical  edition.  [G.] 

TIMPANI  is  the  Italian  word  for  kettle- 
drums. Printers  and  copyists  often  substitute 
y  for  i  in  this  word,  which  is  a  great  fault,  as 
the  letter  y  does  not  exist  in  the  Italian  lan- 
guage. [V.  de  P.] 

TINCTORIS,  Joannes  de,  known  in  Italy 
as  Giovanni  del  Tintore,  and  in  England  as 
John  Tinctor.  was  born  at  Nivelle  in  Brabant 


12g 


TINCTORIS. 


in  the  year  1434  or  1435.^  The  peculiar  form 
of  his  name  has  led  to  the  supposition  that  he 
was  the  son  of  a  dyer ;  but  the  custom  of  using 
the  genitive  case,  when  translating  proper  names 
into  Latin,  was  so  common  in  Flanders  during 
the  Middle  Ages,  that  it  cannot,  in  this  instance, 
be  accepted  as  a  proof  of  the  fact.  All  we  really 
know  of  his  social  status  is,  that  his  profound 
learning  and  varied  attainments  were  rewarded 
with  honourable  appointments,  both  in  his  own 
country  and  in  Italy.  In  early  youth  he  studied 
the  Law;  took  the  Degree  of  Doctor,  first  in 
Jurisprudence,  and  afterwards  in  Theology ;  was 
admitted  to  the  Priesthood,  and  eventually  ob- 
tained a  Canon  ry  in  his  native  town.  He  after- 
wards entered  the  service  of  Ferdinand  of 
Arragon,  King  of  Naples,  who  appointed  him 
his  Chaplain  and  Cantor,  and  treated  him 
with  marked  consideration  and  respect.  At 
Naples  he  founded  a  public  Music-School,  com- 
posed much  Music,  and  wrote  the  greater 
number  of  his  theoretical  works.  He  returned 
to  Nivelle  in  1490,  and  died  there,  as  nearly 
as  can  be  ascertained,  in  1520.  Franchinus 
Gafurius  makes  honourable  mention  of  him 
in  several  places.  None  of  his  Compositions 
have  been  printed,  but  several  exist  in  MS. 
among  the  Archives  of  the  Pontifical  Chapel. 
One  of  these,  a  *  Missa  Thomrae  armd,'  It  5,  is 
remarkable  for  the  number  of  extraneous  sentences 
interpolated  into  the  text.  In  the  'Sanctus' 
the  Tenor  is  made  to  sing  *  Clierubim  ac  Sera- 
phim, cseterique  spiritus  angelici  Deo  in  altissi- 
mis  incessabili  voce  proclamant';  in  the  first 
*Osanna,'  the  Altus  sings  'Pueri  Hebraeorum 
stementes  vestimenta  ramos  palmarum  lesu  filio 
David,  clamabant ' ;  and  in  the '  Benedictus,'  the 
Tenor  interpolates  '  Benedictus  semper  sit  filius 
Altissimi,  qui  de  coelis  hue  venit ';  while,  in  each 
case,  the  other  Voices  sing  the  usual  words  of  tlie 
Mass.^  This  senseless  corruption  of  the  authorised 
text,  it  will  be  remembered,  was  one  of  the 
abuses  which  induced  the  Council  of  Trent  to 
issue  the  decree  which  resulted  in  the  composition 
of  the  *  Missa  Papje  Marcelli.' ' 

The  theoretical  works  of  J.  de  Tinctoris  are 
more  numerous  and  important,  by  far,  than  his 
Compositions.  Their  titles  are  *  Expositio  manus,' 

*  Liber  de  natura  et  proprietate  tenorum,'  'De 
notis  ac  pausis,*  *De  regulari  valore  notarum,' 

*  Liber  imperfectionum  notarum,*  'Tractatus 
alterationum,'  'Super  punctis  musicalibus,' '  Liber 
de  arte  contrapuncti,'  *  Proportionale  musices,' 
'Complexus  efFectuum  musices/ and  'Termino- 
rum  musicse  diffinitorium.' 

This  last-named  work  will,  we  imagine,  be 
invested  with  special  interest  for  our  readers, 
since  it  is  undoubtedly  the  first  Musical  Diction- 
ary that  ever  was  printed.  It  is  of  such  extreme 
rarity,  that,  until  Forkel  discovered  a  copy  in  the 
Library  of  the  Duke  of  Gotha,  in  the  latter  half 
of  the  last  century,  it  was  altogether  unknown. 
About  the  same  time,  Dr.  Bumey  discovered  an- 

1  Not,  u  some  hUtorians  have  supposed,  tn  liSO. 

>  Bee  rol.  U.  pp.  228b,  229a. 

>  Bee  TOl.  Ui.  p.  ass. 


TIRARSL 

other  copy,  in  the  Library  of  King  George  III, 
now  in  the  British  Museum.*  The  work  is  un- 
dated, and  the  place  of  publication  is  not  men- 
tioned ;  but  there  is  reason  for  believing  that  it 
was  printed  at  Naples  about  the  year  1474.  It 
contains  291  definitions  of  musical  terms,  arranged 
in  alphabetical  order,  exactly  in  the  form  of  an 
ordinary  Dictionary.  The  language  is  terse  and 
vigorous,  and,  in  most  cases,  very  much  to  the 
purpose.  Indeed  it  would  be  difficult  to  over- 
estimate the  value  of  the  light  thrown,  by  some 
of  the  definitions,  upon  the  Musical  Terminology 
of  the  Middle  Ages.  Some  of  the  explanations, 
however,  involve  rather  curious  anomalies,  as 
for  instance,  '  Melodia  idem  est  quod  armonia.* 

Forkel  reprinted  the  entire  work  in  his  'Liter* 
atur  der  Musik,'  p.  204  etc.;  and  his  reprint 
has  been  republished,  in  the  original  Latin,  under 
the  editorship  of  Mr.  John  Bishop,  of  Chelten- 
ham, by  Messrs.  Cocks  &  Co.' 

No  other  work  by  J.  de  Tinctoris  has  ever 
been  printed ;  though  both  F^tis  and  Choron  are 
said  to  have  once  contemplated  the  publication 
of  the  entire  series.  [W.  S.  R.] 

TIRABOSCHI,  GiROLAMO,  a  well-known 
writer  on  Italian  literature,  born  at  Bergamo, 
Dec.  28,  1 731,  and  educated  by  the  Jesuits,  to 
which  order  he  at  one  time  belonged.  He  was 
librarian  of  the  Brera  in  Milan  for  some  years, 
and  in  1 770  removed  to  a  similar  post  at  Modena. 
His  'Storia  della  Letteratura  Italiana'  (13  vols, 
quarto,  1772  to  1782)  includes  the  history  of 
Italian  music.  He  published  besides  'Biblloteca 
Modenese '  (6  vols.  1 781  to  86)  the  last  volume  of 
which,  '  Notizie  de'  pittori,  scultori,  incisori,  ed 
architetti,  nati  degli  Stati  del  Sig.  Duca  di 
Modena,'  has  an  appendix  of  musicians.  Tira- 
boschi  died  June  3,  1797,  at  Modena.        [P.G.] 

TIRANA.  An  Andalusian  dance  of  a  very 
graceful  description,  danced  to  an  extremely 
rhythmical  air  in  6-8  time.  The  words  which 
accompany  the  music  are  written  in  *  coplas '  or 
stanzas  of  four  lines,  without  any  *  estrevillo.* 
[See  Seguidilla,  vol.  iii.  p.  457  a.]  There  are 
several  of  them  in  Preciso's  *Colleccion  de  Coplas,* 
etc.  (Madrid,  1 799),  whence  the  following  example 
is  derived: — 

TCi  eres  mi  primer  amor, 
T(i  me  enseBaste  &  querer 
No  me  ensefies  d.  olvidar, 
Que  no  lo  quiero  aprender.' 

Tiranas  are  generally  danced  and  sung  to  a 
guitar  accompaniment.  The  music  of  one  (*  Si 
la  mar  fuera  de  tinta')  will  be  found  in  'Arias 
y  Canciones  Nacionales  Espafloles*  (London, 
Lonsdale,  18  71).  [W.B.S.] 

TIRARSI,  DA,  Ho  draw  out.'  Trombe,  or 
Comi,  da  tirarsi,  i.e.  Trumpets  or  Horns  with 
slides,  are  found  mentioned  in  the  scores  of 
Bach's  Kirchencantatas,  usually  for  strengthen- 
ing the  voices.  See  the  Bachgesellschaft  volumes, 
ii.  pp.  293,  317,  327  ;  X.  189,  etc.  etc.  [G.] 

*  King's  Lib.  66.  e.  121. 

5  At  the  end  of '  Hamilton's  Dictionary  of  2000  Musical  Terms.' 
s  Translation :— Thou  art  my  first  love.  Thou  taughtest  me  to  love. 
Teach  me  not  to  fortet,  For  I  do  not  wish  to  learn  it. 


'TIS  THE  LAST  EOSE  OF  SUMMER. 

'TIS  THE  LAST  ROSE  OF  SUMMER. 
A  song  written  by  Thomas  Moore  to  the  tune 
of  'The  Groves  of  Blarney';  this  again  being 
possibly  a  variation  of  an  older  air  called  '  The 
Young  Man's  dream,'  which  Moore  has  adapted 
to  the  words  'As  a  beam  on  the  face  of  the 
waters  may  glow.'  Blarney,  near  Cork,  be- 
came popular  in  1788  or  1789,  and  it  was  then 
that  the  words  of  *The  Groves  of  Blarney*  were 
written  by  R.  A.  Millikin,  an  attorney  of  Cork. 
The  tune  may  be  older,  though  this  is  not  at 
all  certain :  it  is  at  all  events  a  very  beautiful 
and  characteristic  Irish  melody.  We  give  it  in 
both  its  forms,  as  it  is  a  good  example  of  the 
way  in  which  Moore,  with  all  his  taste,  often 
destroyed  the  peculiar  character  of  the  melodies 
he  adapted.* 

The  Groves  of  Blarney, 


TOCCATA. 


129 


na  ..  ~ 

■/*  :i — 

^=^ 

\T^=^G'~r^i'=^-^i^ 

^^ 

14 "^^J    1  La **-     J 

The  Latt  Rose  of  Summer, 


'Tls    the     last  rose     of  sum-mer.     Left 


K        0   — A       I         '  ^  •  •- 


bloom  -  tog  a     -     lone;     All    her    love  -  ly 


give     sigh 


sigh. 


Beethoven  (20  Irische  Lieder,  No.  6)  has  set 
it,  in  E  b,  to  the  words  *  Sad  and  luckless  was  the 
season.'  Mendelssohn  wrote  a  fantasia  on  the 
air,  published  as  op.  15,^  considerably  altering 

>  The  writer  Is  Indebted  to  Mr.  T.  W.  Joyce  for  the  above  Informa- 
tion. See  too  Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  0.  Hall's  *  Ireland,'  i.  49,  and  Lover's 
•  Lyrics  of  Ireland.' 

2  Of  the  date  of  this  piece  no  trace  Is  forthcoming.   It  probably  be- 
longs to  his  first  English  visit.  Its  publication  (by  Spina)  appears  to 
date  from  Mendelssohn's  visit  to  Vienua,  e»  rouU  to  Italy. 
VOL.  IV.   PT.  3. 


the  notation  ;  and  Flotow  has  made  it  the  leading 
motif  in  the  latter  part  of  'Martha.'  Berlioz's 
enthusiasm  for  the  tune  equals  his  contempt  for 
the  opera.  *  The  delicious  Irish  air  was  so  simply 
and  poetically  sung  by  Patti,  that  its  fragrance 
alone  was  sufficient  to  disinfect  the  rest  of  the 
work.' 3  [G.] 

TITZE,  or  TIETZE,  LuDwm,  member  of  the 

Imperial  chapel  and  of  the  Tonkiinstler-Societat, 
and  Vice-Pedell  of  the  University  of  Vienna,  bom 
April  I,  1797,  died  Jan.  11,  1850.  Possessor  of  a 
sympathetic  and  highly-trained  tenor  voice,  with 
a  very  pure  style  of  execution,  Titze  was  univer- 
sally popular.  He  sang  at  the  Concerts  Spirituels, 
and  acted  as  choir-master,  Karl  Holz  being  leader, 
and  Baron  Lannoy  conductor.  Between  1822  and 
1 8  39  he  appeared  at  2  6  concerts  of  the  Tonkiin  stler- 
Societat,  singing  the  tenor  solos  in  such  works  as 
Handel's  'Solomon,'  'Athaliali,'  *  Jephthah,'  and 
'  Messiah,' and  Haydn's  '  Creation'  and  '  Seasons,' 
associated  in  the  latter  with  Staudigl  after  1833. 
From  1822  he  also  sang  at  innumerable  concerts 
and  soirdes  of  the  Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde. 
His  special  claim  to  distinction,  however,  was  his 
production  of  Schubert's  songs  at  these  soirees. 
He  sang  successively,  '  Rastlose  Liebe'  (1824 
and  31);  *Erlkonig'  (1825);  'Der  Einsame' 
(1826);  'Nachthelle'  (1827)  ;  'Norman's  Ge- 
sang'  (March  8,  1827,  accompanied  by  Schubert 
on  the  PF.,  and  1839);  'Gute  Nachf  (1828); 
'  Der  blinde  Knabe,'  and  '  Drang  in  die  Feme' 
(1829) ;  *  Liebesbotschaft,'  and  'Auf  dem  Strome' 
(1832)  ;  'An  mein  Herz,'  'Sehnsucht,'  and  '  Die 
Sterne'  (1833);  besides  taking  his  part  in  the 
quartets  'Geist  der  Liebe'  (1823  and  32)  ;  'Die 
Nachtigall'  (1824)  ;  'Der  Gondelfahrer'  (1825); 
and  the  solo  in  the  'Song  of  Miriam'  (1832). 
At  the  single  concert  given  by  Schubert,  March 
26,  1 828,  he  sang  'Auf  dem  Strome,'  accompanied 
on  the  French  horn  by  Lewy,  jun..  and  on  the 
PF.  by  Schubert.  These  lists  show  that  Schu- 
bert's works  were  not  entirely  neglected  in 
Vienna.  His  name  appears  in  the  programmes 
of  the  Gesellschaft  soirees  88  times  between  182 1 
and  1840.  [C.F.P.] 

TOCCATA  (Ital.),  from  toccare,  to  touch,  is  the 
name  of  a  kind  of  instrumental  composition 
originating  in  the  beginning  of  the  17th  cen- 
tury. As  the  term  Sonata  is  derived  from  the  verb 
suonare,  to  sound,  and  may  thus  be  described  as 
a  sound-piece,  or  Tonstiick,  so  the  similarly  formed 
term  Toccata  represents  a  touch-piece,  or  a  com- 
position intended  to  exhibit  the  touch  and  exe- 
cution of  the  performer.  In  this  respect  it  is  some- 
what synonymous  with  the  prelude  and  fantasia ; 
but  it  has  its  special  characteristics,  which  are 
so  varied  as  to  make  them  difficult  to  define 
clearly.  The  most  obvious  are  a  very  flowing 
movement  in  notes  of  equal  length  and  a  homo- 
phonous  character,  there  being  often  indeed  in 
the  earlier  examples  but  one  part  throughout, 
though  occasionally  full  chords  were  employed. 
There  is  no  decided  subject  which  is  made  such 
by  repetition,  and  the  whole  has  the  air  of  a 

*  'Lettreiiatimes.'p.283. 


ISO 


TOCCATA. 


showy  improvisation.  Giovanni  Gabrieli  (i557~ 
1 613)  and  Claudio  Merulo  (1533-1604)  were  the 
first  writers  of  any  importance  who  used  this 
form,  the  Toccatas  of  the  latter  being  scarcely 
80  brilliant  as  those  of  the  former,  though  more 
elaborate.  Frescobaldi,  Luigi  Rossi,  and  Scherer 
developed  the  idea  and  sometimes  altered  the 
character  of  the  movement,  using  chords  freely 
and  even  contrapuntal  passages.  It  was  Bach 
however  who  raised  the  Toccata  far  beyond  all 
previous  and  later  writers.  The  Toccatas  to  his 
Fugues  for  Clavecin  are  in  some  cases  a  chain 
of  short  movements  of  markedly  different  tempi 
and  styles.  The  fourth  of  those  in  the  Peters 
Volume  of '  Toccatas  and  Fugues '  is  the  only  one 
which  answers  to  the  description  given  above, 
the  others  being  almost  overtures.  That  to  the 
G  minor  Fugue  in  No.  211  of  the  same  edition  is 
very  extended.  His  organ  Toccatas  are  very 
grand,  one  of  the  finegt  being  that  in  F  on  this 
subject^ — 


the  semiquaver  figure  of  which  is  treated  at  great 
length  alternately  by  the  two  hands  in  thirds 
and  sixths  over  a  pedal  bass,  and  then  by  the 
pedals  alone.  Another  in  C  (Dorffel,  830)  is 
equally  brilliant.  Bach  sometimes  begins  and 
ends  with  rapid  cadenza-like  passages  in  very 
short  notes  divided  between  the  two  hands,  as  in 
the  well-known  Toccata  in  D  minor,  with  its  fugue, 
which  Tausig  has  arranged  as  a  piano  solo.'' 

Probably  from  the  fact  of  its  faint  individuality 
the  Toccata  has  in  later  times  had  but  a  flickering 
vitality,  and  has  found  scant  favour  with  com- 
posers of  the  first  rank.  A  collection  of  six 
Toccatas  for  piano  published  by  Mr.  Pauer  has 
resuscitated  as  prominent  specimens  one  by 
F.  Pollini  (not  the  famous  one  of  his  32)  in  G, 
and  others  by  Czerny,  Onslow,  Clementi,  etc. 
That  by  Pollini  is  of  the  form  and  character  of  a 
Bourr^e,  and  the  others  would  be  better  named 
Etudes  in  double  notes,  having  all  definite  sub- 
jects and  construction.  The  same  may  be  said  of 
Schumann's  Toccata  in  C  (op.  7),  which  is  a 
capital  study  for  practice,  and  is  in  sonata  form. 
Contemporary  musicians  have  given  us  two  or 
three  specimens  of  real  Toccatas  worth  mention, 
prominent  among  them  being  that  in  G  minor 
by  Rheinberger,  which  is  a  free  fugue  of  great 
boldness  and  power.  The  same  composer  has 
used  the  diminutive  term  TOCOATINA  for  one  of 
a  set  of  short  pieces;  and  another  instance  of 
the  use  of  this  term  is  the  Toccatina  in  Eb  by 
Henselt,  a  short  but  very  showy  and  difficult 
piece.  Dupont  has  published  a  little  PF.  piece 
entitled  Toocatella.  Toccatas  by  Walter  Mac- 
farren  and  A.  H.  Jackson  may  close  our  list  of 
modem  pieces  bearing  that  name.  [See  Touch  ; 
Tucket.]  [F.C] 

1  (Dflrffel's  Cat.  816).  In  the  old  edltloni  of  tblc,  Behumsnn  hu 
pointed  out  a  hoit  of  errors.    See  '  Gesammelto  Schriften,'  W.  59. 

»  Both  these— hi  D  and  F— are  entitled  *  Prnludlum  (Toccata).' 
Three  Toccatas— in  F  with  a  fugue,  in  D  minor,  and  in  E  with  two 
fugues— are  printed  in  vol.  15  of  the  Bachgesellschaft  edition. 


TODI. 

TODI,  Ldiza  Rosa  de  Aquiar,  known  as 
Madame  Todi,  from  her  husband  Francesco 
Saverio  Todi,  was  a  famous  mezzo-soprano 
singer,  and  was  born  at  Setubal,  Jan.  9,  1753- 
She  received  her  musical  education  from  David 
Perez,  at  Lisbon.  When,  in  her  seventeenth 
year,  she  first  appeared  in  public,  she  at  once 
attracted  notice  by  the  beautiful,  though 
somewhat  veiled,  quality  of  her  voice.  She 
made  her  cUhtct  in  London  in  1777,  in  Pai- 
siello's  *  Due  Contesse,'  but  was  not  success- 
ful. Her  voice  and  style  were  unsuited  to 
comic  opera,  which,  from  that  time,  she  aban- 
doned. At  Madrid,  in  the  same  year,  her  per- 
formance of  Paisiello's  '  Olimpiade '  won  warm 
admiration,  but  her  European  fame  dates  from 
1778,  when  her  singing  at  Paris  and  Versailles 
created  a  lasting  sensation.  She  returned  for  one 
year  to  Lisbon,  but  in  1781  was  at  Paris  again. 
In  1782  she  engaged  herself  for  several  years 
to  the  Berlin  Opera,  at  a  yearly  salary  of  2000 
thalers.  But  the  Prussian  public  thought  her 
affected  and  over-French  in  manner,  and  at  the 
end  of  a  year  she  gave  up  her  engagement  and 
returned  to  Paris,  where  she  always  found  an 
enthusiastic  welcome.  Madame  Mara  was  also 
in  Paris,  and  the  two  queens  of  song  appeared 
together  at  the  Concert  Spirituel.  The  public 
was  divided  into  'Maratistes'  and  'Todistes,' 
and  party  spirit  ran  as  high  as  between  the 
'Gluckistes '  and  *  Piccinnistes,'  or  the  adherents 
of  Cuzzoni  and  Faustina.  The  well-known  retort 
shows  that  the  contest  was  not  conducted  with- 
out wit : — *  Laquelle  etoit  la  meilleure  ?  C'est 
Mara.    C'est  bien  Todi  (bient6t  dit).' 

Mara  excelled  in  bravura,  but  Todi  would 
seem  to  have  been  the  more  pathetic.  Their 
rivalry  gave  rise  to  the  following  stanza — 

Todi,  par  sa  voix  touchante, 
De  doux  pleurs  raoiiille  mes  yeux; 
Mara,  plus  vive,  plus  brillante, 
M'^tonne,  me  transporte  aux  cieux. 
IVune  ravit  et  I'autre  enchante, 
Mais  celle  qui  platt  le  mieux 
Est  toujours  celle  qui  chante. 

Todi  returned  to  Berlin  in  1 783,  where  she  sang 
the  part  of  Cleofide  in  *Lucio  Papirio.*  The 
king  wished  her  to  remain,  but  she  had  already 
signed  an  engagement  for  St.  Petersburg.  There 
her  performance  of  Sarti's  'Armida'  was  an 
immense  success.  She  was  overwhelmed  with 
presents  and  favours  by  the  Empress  Catherine, 
between  whom  and  the  prima  donna  there 
sprang  up  a  strange  intimacy.  Todi  acquired 
over  Catherine  an  almost  unbounded  influence, 
which  she  abused  by  her  injustice  to  Sarti,  the 
imperial  Chapelmaster,  whom  she  disliked. 
Seeing  that  she  was  undermining  his  position  at 
court,  Sarti  revenged  himself  by  bringing  Mar- 
chesi  to  St.  Petersburg,  whose  wonderful  vocal 
powers  diverted  some  part  of  the  public  admira- 
tion from  Todi.  Todi  retorted  by  procuring  Sarti's 
dismissal.  This  ugly  episode  apart,  she  is  asserted 
to  have  been  amiable  and  generous. 

Meanwhile  the  king  of  Prussia  was  tempting 
her  back  to  Berlin,  and,  as  the  Russian  climate  was 
telling  on  her  voice,  she,  in  1 786,  accepted  his  offers. 


TODI. 

and  was  far  more  warmly  received  than  upon  her 
first  visit.  With  the  exception  of  six  months  in 
Russia,  she  remained  at  Berlin  till  1 789,  achiev- 
ing her  greatest  triumphs  in  Reichardt's  *  Andro- 
meda' and  Neumann's  'Medea.'  In  March  1789 
she  reappeared  in  Paris,  and  among  other  things 
sang  a  scena  composed  for  her  by  Cherubini, 
*Sarete  alfin  contenti,'  eliciting  much  enthusiasm. 
After  a  year's  visit  to  Hanover  she  proceeded  to 
Italy,  and  sang  with  great  success.  In  1792  she 
returned  to  Lisbon,  where  she  died  October  i, 

1833. 

It  is  strange  that  Todi  should  have  made  no 
impression  in  this  country,  for  there  seems  no 
doubt  that  she  was  one  of  the  best  singers  of 
her  time,  equal  in  many  respects,  superior  in 
some,  to  Mara,  who  was  much  admired  here. 
Lord  Mount-Edgecumbe  speaks  of  her  as  having 
*  failed  to  please  here,'  and  Bumey,  later  in  her 
career,  writes  of  her,  '  she  must  have  improved 
very  much  since  she  was  in  England,  or  we 
treated  her  very  unworthily,  for,  though  her  voice 
was  thought  to  be  feeble  and  seldom  in  tune 
while  she  was  here,  she  has  since  been  extremely 
admired  in  France,  Spain,  Russia,  and  Germany, 
as  a  most  touching  and  exquisite  performer.' 

There  is  a  pretty  and  scarce  portrait  of  her  in 
character,  singing,  called  '  L'Euterpe  del  Secolo 
XVIII  *  (i  79 1 ) .  She  was  twice  married,  and  left 
to  her  husband  and  her  eight  children,  who  sur- 
vived her,  a  sum  of  400,000  francs,  besides  jewels 
and  trinkets  worth  a  fortune.  [F,A.M.] 

TOD  JESU,  DER,  ».  e.  the  Death  of  Jesus— 
the  'Messiah'  of  Germany,  a  *  Passions-Cantate,' 
words  by  Ramler,  music  by  Graun.  It  was 
first  performed  in  the  Cathedral  of  Berlin,  on 
Wednesday  before  Easter,  March  26,  1755,  and 
took  such  hold  as  to  become  an  essential  part  of 
the  Passion  week  at  Berlin.  It  is  still  given 
there  at  least  twice  a  year.  In  England  I  can 
find  no  record  of  its  complete  performance.  There 
are  three  editions  of  the  full  score — 1760,  1766, 
1810;  and  PF.  arrangements  without  number, 
beginning  with  one  by  J.  Adam  Hiller,  1783,  and 
ending  with  one  in  Novello*s  8vo.  series.       [G.] 

TOFTS,  Mbs.  Cathbeinb,  *  little  inferior, 
either  for  her  voice  or  her  manner,  to  the  best 
Italian  women,' ^  was  the  first  of  English  birth 
who  sang  Italian  Opera  in  England.  A  sub- 
scription concert  was  instituted  in  November 
1703  at  the  Theatre  in  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields, 
where  Mrs.  Tofts  sang  several  songs,  both 
Italian  and  English."  In  the  following  year 
she  continued  to  sing  at  the  '  Subscription 
Music'  On  January  29,  Margherita  de  I'Epine 
sang  for  the  first  time,  at  Drury  Lane.  On  the 
second  appearance  of  this,  Tofts's  future  rival,  a 
disturbance  occurred  at  the  Theatre,  while  she 
was  singing,  which  *was  suspected'^  to  have  been 
created  by  her  emissaries,'  a  suggestion  which 
she  denied  in  the  'Daily  Courant,'  Feb.  8,  1704. 
In  the  same  year  she  sang  and  played  the  part 
of  Pallas  in  Weldon's  'Judgment  of  Paris.' 

In  1 705  came  the  first  attempt  to  plant  Italian, 

1  Hawkins.  >  Borsey. 


TOFTS. 


131 


or  psendo-Italian,  Opera  in  England ;  and  to 
the  success  of  this  endeavour  Mrs.  Tofts  and 
her  rival  were  the  chief  contributors,  the 
former  playing  successively  the  chief  parts  in 
•Arsinoe,'  'Camilla,'  *  Rosamond,'  'Thomyris,' 
and  'Love's  Triumph.*  *Mrs.  Tofts,'  who  took 
her  first  grounds  of  musick  here  in  her  own 
country,  before  the  Italian  taste  had  so  highly 
prevailed,  was  then  not  an  adept  in  it;  yet 
whatever  defect  the  fashionably  skilful  might 
find  in  her  manner,  she  had,  in  the  general 
sense  of  her  spectators,  charms  that  few  of 
the  most  learned  singers  ever  arrive  at.  The 
beauty  of  her  fine  proportioned  figure,  and 
the  exquisitely  sweet,  silver  tone  of  her  voice, 
with  that  peculiar  rapid  swiftness  of  her 
throat,  were  perfections  not  to  be  imitated 
by  art  or  labour.'  At  a  very  early  stage  of 
her  short  but  brilliant  career,  she  drew  a  salary 
of  £500,*  higher  than  that  which  was  paid  to 
any  other  member  of  the  company, — a  sure 
test  of  the  estimation  in  which  she  was  held 
by  the  management  and  the  public:  at  the 
same  time,  Valentin!  and  de  I'Epine  only  drew 
£400  apiece,  and  the  Baroness,  £200.  At 
another  time,  this  salary  was  commuted*  into  a 
share  in  the  profits  of  the  theatre.  Again,  we 
find  her*  offering  to  sing  for  20  guineas  a  night, 
or  'in  consideration  the  year  is  so  far  advanced* 
for  400  guineas  till  the  ist  of  July,  provided 
she  was  allowed  to  sing  in  another  play,  to  be 
produced  elsewhere,  if  not  on  an  opera  night. 
These  were  high  terms  in  1 708.  She  sang  also 
at  the  concerts  at  Court.  Meanwhile,  she  was 
no  stranger  to  the  quarrels  and  disputes  which 
seem  to  have  prevailed  at  the  Opera  then  as  in 
later  times.  There  was  a  warm  correspondence  * 
about  a  bill  of  80  guineas,  for  Camilla's  dress, 
which  Rich  declined  to  pay ;  but  Camilla  refused  to 
appear  in  *  Thomyris '  till  it  was  paid ;  and  Rich 
then  compromised  the  matter.  She  further  de- 
manded* an  allowance  for  'locks  for  hair,  Jewells, 
ribbons,  muslin  for  vails,  gloves,  shoes,  washing 
of  vails,  etc.,'  for  which  she  modestly  affirmed 
that  *£ioo  was  not  sufficient  for  the  season.' 

Were  it  not  that  similar  complaints  and 
demands  were  common  from  other  singers,  there 
would  seem  to  be  here  some  foundation  for  the 
charge  brought  against  Mrs.  Tofts  in  the  epigram, 
attributed  to  Pope  : — 

So  bright  is  thy  beauty,  so  charming  thy  Bong, 

As  had  drawn  both  the  beasts  and  their  Orpheus  along ; 

But  such  is  thy  avarice,  and  such  is  thy  pride, 

That  the  beasts  must  have  starved,  and  the  poet  have  diedl 

She  must  however  have  had  a  great  passion 
for  money,  and  a  great  disregard  of  the  means 
of  raising  it,  if  Lady  Wentworth's  contemporary 
account  may  be  trusted.  'Mrs.  Taufs,'  says 
that  delightful  writer  and  most  eccentric  speller, 
*  was  on  Sunday  last  at  the  Duke  of  Somerset's, 
where  there  were  about  thirty  gentlemen,  and 
every  kiss  was  one  guinea;  some  took  three, 
others  four,  others  five  at  that  rate,  but  none 
less  than  one.'* 

•  Otbbar's  Apology.         «  Colce  Papers,  In  the  writer's  possession. 
»  Letter.  March  17, 1709,  in  *  Wentworth  Papers,'  p.  66. 


182 


TOFTS. 


This  unfortunate  singer,  the  first  English-  j 
woman  distinguished  in  Italian  Opera,  lost  her 
reason  early  in  1709.  In  a  most  ungenerous 
vein  Steele  alludes  to  her  affliction/  and 
attributes  it  to  the  habit  she  had  acquired  of 
regarding  herself  as  really  a  queen,  as  she 
appeared  on  the  stage,  a  habit  from  which  she 
could  not  free  herself.  Bumey  supposes  that 
this  was  an  exaggeration,  by  means  of  which 
the  writer  intended  only  to  •  throw  a  ridicule  on 
opera  quarrels  in  general,  and  on  her  particular 
disputes  at  that  time  with  the  Margarita  or 
other  female  singers.'  Hawkins  says  that  she 
was  cured,  temporarily  at  least,  and  *in  the 
meridian  of  her  beauty,  and  possessed  of  a  large 
sum  of  money,  which  she  had  acquired  by 
singing,  quitted  the  stage  (1709),  and  was 
married  to  Mr.  Joseph  Smith,  afterwards  Eng- 
lish consul  at  Venice.  Here  she  lived  in  great 
state  and  magnificence,  with  her  husband,  for  a 
time ;  but  her  disorder  returning'  (which,  if  true, 
upsets  Bumey's  theory),  'she  dwelt  sequestered 
from  the  world  in  a  remote  part  of  the  house, 
and  had  a  large  garden  to  range  in,  in  which 
she  would  frequently  walk,  singing  and  giving 
way  to  that  innocent  frenzy  which  had  seized 
her  in  the  earlier  part  of  her  life.'  She  was 
still  living  about  the  year  1735.' 

Her  voice  did  not  exceed  in  compass'  that  of 
an  ordinary  soprano,  and  her  execution,  as  shown 
by  the  printed  airs  which  she  sang,  'chiefly 
consisted  in  such  passages  as  are  comprised  in 
the  shake,  as  indeed  did  that  of  most  other 
singers  at  this  time.'  It  may  be  observed, 
however,  that  all  singers  *  at  this  time '  added  a 
good  deal  to  that  which  was  •  set  down  for  them' 
to  execute ;  and  probably  she  did  so  too. 

It  is  somewhat  strange  that,  of  a  singer  so 
much  admfred  as  Mrs.  Tofts  undoubtedly  was,  no 
portrait  should  be  known  to  exist,  either  painted 
or  engraved.  [J.M.] 

TOLBECQDE,  a  family  of  Belgian  musicians, 
who  settled  in  France  after  the  Restoration. 
The  original  members  were  four  brothers :— the 
eldest,  Isidore  Joseph  (bom  at  Hanzinne  Ap.  17, 
1 794,  died  at  Vichy  May  10, 1871),  was  a  good  con- 
ductor of  dance-music.  Jean  Baptiste  Joseph 
(bom  at  Hanzinne  in  1797,  died  in  Paris,  Oct.  23, 
1869),  violinist,  composer,  and  excellent  conductor, 
directed  the  music  of  the  court  balls  during 
Louis  Philippe's  reign,  and  also  those  at  Tivoli 
when  those  public  gardens  were  the  height  of 
the  fashion.  He  composed  a  quantity  of  dance- 
music — quadrilles,  vakes,  and  galops — above  the 
average  in  merit;  an  op^ra-comique  in  one  act 
•Charles  V.  et  DuguescUn'  (Od^on,  1827),  with 
Gilbert  and  Guiraud ;  and  with  Deldevez, '  Vert- 
Vert'  (Op^ra,  1 851),  a  3-act  ballet,  his  most 
important  work.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
8oci6t6  des  Concerts  du  Conservatoire  from  its 
foundation  in  1859.  The  third  brother,  Auguste 
Joseph,  also  bom  at  Hanzinne,  Feb.  28,  1801, 
died  in  Paris,  May  2  7, 1 869.    A  pupil  of  Kudolph 

1  Tatler,  No.  20,  May  26. 1709. 

2  Hawkins.   Buruey  says  (probably  a  miqirlnt)  In  170B. 
'  Buraey. 


TOMASCHEK. 

Kreutzer,  he  took  the  first  violin  prize  at  the 
Conservatoire  in  1821,  made  some  mark  as  a 
virtuoso,  was  an  original  member  of  the  Soci<5t6 
des  Concerts,  and  one  of  the  best  violinists  at 
the  Op^ra,  and  for  several  seasons  was  well 
known  in  London,  where  he  played  first  violin  at 
Her  Majesty's  Theatre.  The  youngest,  Chables 
Joseph,  bom  May  27,  1806,  in  Paris,  where  he 
died  Dec.  39,  1835,  was  also  a  pupil  of  R.  Kreut- 
zer, and  an  original  member  of  the  Society  des 
Concerts.  He  took  a  prize  at  the  Conservatoire 
in  1824,  and  became  conductor  at  the  Vari^tds  in 
1830.  In  this  capacity  he  composed  pretty  songs 
and  pieces  for  interpolation  in  the  plays,  several 
of  which  attained  some  amount  of  popularity. 

The  Tolbecque  family  is  at  this  moment  re- 
presented by  Auguste,  son  of  Auguste  Joseph, 
a  distinguished  cellist,  born  in  Paris,  March  30, 
1830.  He  took  the  first  cello  prize  at  the  Con- 
servatoire in  1849,  and  has  published  some  15 
works  of  various  kinds  for  his  instrument,  in- 
cluding *La  Gymnastique  du  Violoncelle'  (op. 
14),  an  excellent  collection  of  exercises  and 
mechanical  studies.  He  is  also  a  clever  restorer 
of  old  instruments,  and  formed  a  collection, 
which  he  sold  to  the  Brussels  Conservatoire 
in  1879.  H^^  ^o"»  Jean,  bom  at  Niort,  Oct.  7, 
1857,  took  the  first  cello  prize  at  the  Paris  Con- 
servatoire in  1873,  and  has  studied  the  organ 
with  Cdsar  Franck.  [G.C.] 

TOLLET,  Thomas,  composed  and  published 
about  1694,  in  conjunction  with  John  Lenton, 
*  A  Consort  of  Musick  in  three  parts,'  and  was 
author  of  *  Directions  to  play  on  the  French 
flageolet.'  He  was  also  a  composer  of  act  tunes 
for  the  theatre,  but  is  best  known  as  composer 
of  *  Toilet's  Ground,'  printed  in  the  Appendix  to 
Hawkins's  History.  [W.H.H.] 

TOMASCHEK,  Wenzel,  composer,  bom 
April  17,  1774,  at  Skutsch  in  Bohemia.  He 
was  the  youngest  of  a  large  family,  and  his 
father,  a  well-to-do  linen-weaver,  having  been 
suddenly  reduced  to  poverty,  two  of  his  brothers, 
a  priest  and  a  public  official,  had  him  educated. 
He  early  showed  talent  for  music,  and  was  placed 
at  Chrudim  with  Wolf,  a  well-known  teacher, 
who  taught  him  singing  and  the  violin.  He 
next  wished  to  learn  the  piano  and  organ,  and 
his  brother  the  priest  sent  him  a  spinet,  on 
which  he  practised  day  and  night.  The  Minorite 
fathers  of  Iglan  offered  him  a  choristership,  with 
instruction  in  theory.  On  the  breaking  of  his 
voice  in  1 790,  he  went  to  Prague  to  study  philo- 
sophy and  law,  supporting  himself  the  while  by 
giving  lessons.  All  his  spare  time,  even  the 
hours  of  rest,  was  spent  in  studying  the  works 
of  Marpurg,  Kirnberger,  Matheson,  Tiirk,  and 
Vogler,  and  he  thus  laid  a  solid  foundation  of 
scientific  knowledge.  Neither  did  he  neglect 
practical  music,  but  made  himself  familiar  with 
the  works  of  Mozart  and  Pleyel,  and  became  ac- 
quainted with  Winter,  Kozeluch,  and  above  all, 
Beethoven,  who  exercised  a  life-long  influence 
over  him.  In  his  autobiography,  published  in  a 
volume  called  'Libussa'  (1845,  etc.),  Tomaschek 
writes,  *  It  was  in  1 798,  when  I  was  studying 


TOMASCHEK. 

law,  that  Beethoven,  that  giant  among  players, 
came  to  Prague.  At  a  crowded  concert  in  the 
Convict-hall  he  played  his  Concerto  in  C  (op.  15), 
the  Adagio  and  Rondo  grazioso  from  the  Sonata 
in  A  (op.  2),  and  extemporised  on  a  theme  from 
Mozart's  Clemenza  di  Tito,  "Ah  tu  fosti  il  primo 
oggetto."  His  grand  style  of  playing,  and 
especially  his  bold  improvisation,  had  an  extra- 
ordinary effect  upon  me.  I  felt  so  shaken  that 
for  several  days  I  could  not  bring  myself  to  touch 
the  piano ;  indeed  it  was  only  my  inextinguishable 
love  for  the  art,  that,  after  much  reasoning  with 
myself,  drove  me  back  to  the  instrument  with 
even  increased  industry.'  Before  long,  however, 
the  critical  faculty  returned.  After  hearing  Bee- 
thoven twice  more,  he  says,  'This  time  I  was 
able  to  listen  with  greater  calmness  of  mind,  and 
though  I  admired  as  much  as  ever  the  power 
and  brilliancy  of  his  playing,  I  could  not  help 
noticing  the  frequent  jumps  from  subject  to 
subject  which  destroyed  the  continuity  and 
gradual  development  of  his  ideas.  Defects  of 
this  kind  often  marred  those  most  magnificent 
creations  of  his  superabundant  fancy.'  'Had 
Beethoven's  compositions  (only  a  few  of  which 
were  then  printed)  claimed  to  be  classical 
standard  works  as  regards  rhythm,  harmony, 
and  counterpoint,  I  should  perhaps  have  been 
discouraged  from  carrying  on  my  self-cultivation ; 
but  as  it  was,  I  felt  nerved  to  further  effort.' 
Three  years  later  Tomaschek  declared  Beethoven 
to  have  still  further  perfected  his  playing.  He 
himself  about  this  time  published  some  'Un- 
garische  Tanze*  (without  ever  having  heard  a 
Hungarian  air)  and  Holty's  *  Elegie  auf  eine 
Kose,'  an  early  specimen  of  programme-music. 
Twelve  waltzes  had  a  great  success  at  the 
Prague  Carnival  of  1797;  but  these  he  burnt. 
He  was  known  as  a  pianist,  and  esteemed  as 
a  teacher  by  the  principal  nobility,  bat  hesi- 
tated between  the  profession  of  music  and  an 
official  career.  Meantime  Count  Bucquoi  von 
Longueval  offered  him  the  post  of  composer  in 
his  household,  with  such  a  salary  as  to  place 
him  at  ease  in  money-matters;  and  this  he 
accepted.  Prague  continued  to  be  his  home, 
but  he  made  occasional  journeys,  especially  to 
Vienna.  In  November  1814  he  paid  Bee- 
thoven a  visit,  of  which  he  has  left  an  account 
('Libussa,'  1846)  in  the  form  of  a  conversation. 
He  tells  us  that  Meyerbeer  and  other  artists 
had  put  themselves  at  Beethoven's  disposal,  for 
the  performance  of  the  *  Battle  of  Vittoria,'  and 
that  Meyerbeer  played  the  big  drum.  *  Ha !  ha  ! 
ha ! '  exclaims  Beethoven,  'I  was  not  at  all  pleased 
with  him ;  he  could  not  keep  time,  was  always 
coming  in  too  late,  and  I  had  to  scold  him  well.^ 
Ha !  ha !  ha  !  I  dare  say  he  was  put  out.  He 
is  no  good.  He  has  not  pluck  enough  to  keep 
time.'  Pluck  was  a  quality  which  Meyerbeer 
never  possessed,  even  at  the  time  of  his  greatest 
successes.  A  fortnight  later  Tomaschek  repeated 
the  visit,  and  describes  it  in  even  greater  detail 
('Libussa'  1S47).     Meyerbeer's  'Two  Caliphs' 

I  This  looks  as  if  Beethoven,  even  in  1814,  wuld  hear  pretty  well  on 
oocasiuu. 


TOMASINI. 


133 


v/as  then  being  performed,  and  on  Tomaschek 
saying  that  it  began  with  a  Hallelujah  and  ended 
with  a  Requiem,  Beethoven  remarked,  *  Yes,  it 
is  all  up  with  his  playing.'  And  again,  'He 
knows  nothing  of  instrumental  music;  singing 
he  does  understand,  and  that  he  should  stick  to. 
Besides,  he  knows  but  little  of  composition.  I 
tell  you  he  will  come  to  no  good.'  Beethoven's 
prophecy  was  not  fulfilled ;  but  these  notes  are 
interesting  records  of  his  opinions,  and  show  a  high 
esteem  for  Tomaschek. 

Tomaschek's  house  became  the  centre  of  mu- 
sical life  in  Prague,  and  the  list  of  his  pupils  in- 
cludes Dreyschock,  Kittl,  Kuhe,  Schulhoff,  Bock- 
let,  Dessauer,  Worzischek,  and  Wiirffel.  In 
1823  he  married  Wilhelmine  Ebert,  remaining 
in  Count  Bucquoi's  service,  though  with  a  house 
of  his  own,  where  he  was  much  visited  by 
strangers,  especially  by  English.  He  was  hos- 
pitable and  pleasant  except  on  the  subject  of 
music,  on  which  he  was  given  to  laying  down 
the  law.  In  person  he  was  tall,  and  of  a  mili- 
tary carriage.  The  superficial  was  his  abhorrence. 
Even  in  his  smaller  works  there  was  a  technical 
completeness,  which  procured  him  the  title  of  the 
'  Schiller  of  music'  His  church  music  includes 
a  Missa  Solennis  in  Eb,  and  several  Requiems, 
but  his  predilection  was  for  dramatic  music,  to 
which  he  was  led  by  its  connection  with  the 
Ballad  and  the  Lied.  He  set  several  of  Goethe's 
and  Schiller's  poems,  and  also  old  Czech  songs 
from  the  Koniginhof  MS.'* 

Tomaschek  played  his  setting  of  Goethe's 
poems  before  the  poet  himself  at  Eger,  and 
was  very  kindly  received.  His  opera  '  Seraphine' 
(181 1)  was  weU  received  at  the  National  Theatre 
in  Prague,  in  spite  of  a  poor  libretto ;  but  in  spite 
of  this  success  he  declined  to  permit  the  appearance 
of  two  other  operas,  'Alvara'  and  'Sakuntala.' 
He  left  scenas  from  Goethe's  '  Faust,'  and  from 
'Wallenstein,*  'Maria  Stuart,'  and  the  'Braut 
von  Messina,'  as  well  as  other  vocal  compositions, 
which  were  presented  with  his  other  remains  to 
the  Bohemian  National  Museum  in  Prague,  by 
his  nephew  Freiherr  von  Tomaschek. 

Besides  a  quantity  of  smaller  works,  chiefly 
Lieder,  Tomaschek  published  1 10  with  opus 
numbers,  including  the  interesting  'Eklogues' 
(op-  35'  39»  47.  51.  5.3,  66  and  83)  and  '  Dithy- 
ramb '  (op.  65,  Prague,  Berra),  which  would  still 
repay  the  attention  of  pianists.  It  is  unfor- 
tunate for  Tomaschek's  fame  that  his  works 
were  contemporaneous  with  Beethoven's,  but 
they  exercised  a  material  influence  on  such  an 
artist  as  Robert  Schumann.  Is  it  too  much  to 
hope  that  these  lines  may  direct  some  musicians 
to  an  unjustly  forgotten  composer  ? 

Tomaschek  died  April  3,  1850,  and  was  buried 
in  the  churchyard  of  Koschir,  near  Prague.  [F.G.] 

TOMASINI,  LuiGi  (Aloysius), eminent  violin- 
ist, and  distinguished  member  of  Prince  Ester- 
hazy's  band  under  Haydn,  born  174I  at  Pesaro. 
In  1757  he  became  a  member  of  Prince  Paul 
Anton's  household  at  his  palace  of  Eisenstadt  in 

2  The  authenticity  of  which  has  been  disproved  by  Sembora,  th* 
great  authority  on  Csech  literature. 


184 


TOMASINI. 


Hungary,  and  on  Haydn's  undertaking  the  Vice- 
Capellmeistership  in  1761,  was  at  once  promoted 
by  him  to  be  first  violin.  He  was  afterwards 
leader,  and  director  of  the  chamber-music,  with  a 
largely  increased  salary.  Prince  Nicholas  (suc- 
cessor to  Paul  Anton)  left  him  a  pension  in  1 790, 
but  Tomasini  remained  in  the  service  till  his 
death,  April  25,  1808.  He  was  on  the  most  in- 
timate terms  with  Haydn,  who  wrote  all  his 
quartets  with  a  view  to  Tomasini's  playing,  and 
remarked  to  him,  'Nobody  plays  my  quartets  so 
much  to  my  satisfaction  as  you  do.'  He  only 
once  appeared  in  public  in  Vienna,  at  a  concert 
of  the  Tonkiinstler-Societat  (1775),  of  which  he 
had  been  a  member  from  its  foundation  in  1771. 
In  all  probability  Haydn  gave  him  instruction  in 
composition.  He  published  violin-concertos,  quar- 
tets, duos,  concertants  (dedicated  to  Haydn),  etc. 
For  the  Prince  he  wrote  *  24  Divertimenti  per  il 
Paridon  (barytone),  violino,  e  violoncello,'  now  in 
the  archives  of  the  Gesellschaft  der  Musikfreunde 
in  Vienna.  A  few  of  Haydn's  violin-concertos 
were  written  expressly  for  Tomasini  ('  fatto  per  il 
Luigi' ).  Besides  two  daughters,  who  saug  in  the 
church  and  opera  at  Eiaenstadt,  Tomasini  had  two 
talented  sons.     The  eldest, 

Luigi,  bom  1779,  ^^  Esterhaz,  an  excellent 
violinist,  was  received  into  the  chapel  in  1796, 
dismissed  several  times  for  incorrigible  levity,  but 
as  often  readmitted  at  Haydn's  request.  The 
latter  speaks  of  his  *rare  genius,'  and  so  did 
Hummel.  He  played  in  Vienna  in  1796  and  1801 
at  the  Tonkiinstler-Societat,  and  in  1806  at  the 
Augarten  concerts.  In  1808  he  had  to  fly,  for 
having  married,  without  the  Prince's  leave,  Sophie 
GroU,  a  singer  in  the  chapel,  but  he  secured  an 
appointment  as  Concertmeister  to  the  Duke  of 
Mecklenburg-Strelitz.  In  18 12  he  and  his  wife 
gave  a  concert  in  Berlin,  when  Luigi  played 
Beethoven's  concerto,  and  his  wife,  a  pupil  of 
Righini's,  was  much  applauded.  In  18 14  he  gave 
a  concert  in  the  court  theatre  in  Vienna,  after 
which  he  wholly  disappears.     His  brother, 

Anton,  bom  1775  at  Eisenstadt,  played  in  the 
chapel  as  an  amateur  from  1791  to  96,  when  he 
became  a  regular  member.  His  instrument  was 
the  viola.  He  married  the  daughter  of  a  Polish 
General  in  1803,  in  which  year  he  also  became  a 
member  of  the  Tonkiinstler-Societat.  He  resem- 
bled his  brother  both  in  talent  and  disposition, 
and,  like  him,  was  several  times  dismissed,  and 
taken  on  again  with  increased  salary.  In  1820 
be  became  leader  of  the  band,  and  died  at  Eisen- 
stadt June  12,  1824.  [C.F.P.] 

TOMKINS.  A  family  which,  in  the  i6th  and 
1 7th  centuries,  produced  many  good  musicians. 

Rev.  Thomas  Tomkins  was  chanter  and  minor 
canon  of  Gloucester  Cathedral  in  the  latter  part 
of  the  1 6th  century.  He  contributed  to  'The 
Triumphes  of  Oriana,'  1600,  the  madrigal  *The 
feunes  and  satirs  tripping,'  commonly  attributed 
to  his  more  celebrated  son  and  namesake. 

John  Tomkins,  Mus.  Bac.,  one  of  his  sons,  was 
probably  a  chorister  of  Gloucester  Cathedral.  He 
afterwards  became  a  scholar  of  King's  College, 
Cambridge,  of  which  in  1606  he  was  appointed  1 


TONAL  FUGUE. 

organist.  He  resigned  ini62  3  upon  being  chosen 
organist  of  St.  Paul's  Cathedral.  In  1625  he  was 
appointed  gentleman  extraordinary  of  the  Chapel 
Royal  *  for  the  next  place  of  an  organist  there/ 
and  in  1625  became  Gospeller.  He  died  Sept. 
27,  1638,  and  was  buried  at  St.  Paul's.  Some 
anthems  by  him  are  contained  in  Barnard's  MS. 
collection.  His  son,  Robert,  was  in  1641  one  of 
the  King's  musicians. 

Thomas  Tomkins,  Mus.  Bac,  another  son  of 
Thomas,  was  a  pupil  of  Byrd,  and  graduated  at 
Oxford,  July  11,  1607.  He  soon  afterwards  be- 
came organist  of  Worcester  Cathedral.  On  Aug. 
2,  162 1,  he  was  sworn  in  as  one  of  the  organists 
of  the  Chapel  Royal  upon  the  death  of  Edmond 
Hooper.  In  1622  he  published  '  Songs  of  3,  4,  5 
and  6  parts,'  containing  28  madrigals  and  an- 
thems of  a  high  degree  of  excellence.  He  died 
in  June,  1656,  and  was  buried  at  Martin  Hass- 
ingtree,  Worcestershire.  A  collection  of  hia 
church  music,  comprising  5  services  and  68 
anthems,  was  published  in  1664  under  the  title 
of  'Musica  Deo  Sacra  &  Ecclesiae  Anglicanae; 
or,  Musick  dedicated  to  the  Honor  and  Service  of 
God,  and  to  the  Use  of  Cathedral  and  other 
Churches  of  England,  especially  to  the  Chappel 
Royal  of  King  Charles  the  First.'  A  second  im« 
pression  appeared  in  1668. 

Many  MSS.  of  his  music  are  found  in  the 
Tudway  collection,  at  Ely,  Ch.  Ch.  Oxford,  etc. 
At  St.  John  8  Coll.  Oxford,  there  is  a  volume 
written  by  him  and  Este,  containing,  among  other 
remarkable  things,  the  bass  part  of  a  Service  by 
Tallis  for  5  voices,  otherwise  unknown.  [See 
Tallis,  vol.  iv.  p.  54  a.] 

Giles  Tomkins,  a  third  son,  succeeded  his 
brother,  John,  as  organist  of  King's  College, 
Cambridge,  in  1622.  He  afterwards  became 
organist  of  Salisbury  Cathedral,  which  appoint- 
ment he  held  at  the  time  of  his  death  in  1668. 

Nathaniel  Tomkins,  bom  1584,  son  of  a  gen- 
tleman of  Northampton,  chorister  of  Magdalen 
College,  Oxford,  from  1596  to  1604,  clerk  there 
from  1604  to  1606,  and  usher  of  the  College 
School  from  1606  to  161  o,  and  Abeaham  Tom- 
kins, chorister  of  the  same  College  from  161 1  to 
1617,  were  probably  members  of  another  branch 
of  the  same  family.  [W.  H.  H.] 

TONAL  FUGUE  (Fr.  Fugue  du  Ton ;  Germ. 
Einfache  Fuge,  Fuge  dea  Tones).  A  form  of 
Fugue,  in  which  the  Answer  {Comes),  instead  of 
following  the  Subject  {Dux)  exactly.  Interval 
for  Interval,  sacrifices  the  closeness  of  its  Imita- 
tion to  a  more  important  necessity — that  of  exact 
conformity  with  the  organic  constitution  of  the 
Mode  in  which  it  is  written ;  in  other  words,  to 
the  Tonality  of  its  Scale.    [See  Subject.] 

This  definition,  however,  though  sufiBcient 
to  distinguish  a  Tonal  Fugue  from  a  Real  one 
of  the  same  period  and  form,  gives  no  idea  what- 
ever of  the  sweeping  revolution  which  followed 
the  substitution  of  the  later  for  the  earlier 
method.  A  technical  history  of  this  revolution, 
though  giving  no  more  than  a  sketch  of  the 
phases  through  which  it  passed,  between  the 
death  of  Palestrina  and  the  maturity  of  Handel 


TONAL  FUGUE. 

and  Sebastian  Bach,  would  fill  a  volume.  We 
can  here  only  give  the  ultimate  results  of  the 
movement ;  pausing  first  to  describe  the  position 
from  which  the  earliost  modern  Fuguists  took 
their  departure. 

The  Real  Fugue  of  the  Polyphonic  Composers, 
as  perfected  in  the  i6th  century,  was  of  two 
kinds  —  Limited,  and  Unlimited.  With  the 
Limited  form— now  called  Canon — we  have,  here, 
no  concern.^  The  Unlimited  Real  Fugue  started 
with  a  very  short  Subject,  adapted  to  the  opening 
phrase  of  the  verbal  text — for  it  was  always  vocal 
— and  this  was  repeated  note  for  note  in  the 
Answer,  but  only  for  a  very  short  distance.  The 
Answer  always  began  before  the  end  of  the  Sub- 
ject; but,  after  the  exact  Imitation  carried  on 
through  the  first  few  notes,  the  part  in  which  it 
appeared  became  '  free,'  and  proceeded  whither 
it  would.  The  Imitation  took  place  generally  in 
the  Fifth  above  or  the  Fourth  below ;  sometimes 
in  the  Fourth  above,  or  Fifth  below,  or  in  the 
Octave ;  rarely,  in  Unlimited  Real  Fugue,  in  any 
less  natural  Interval  than  these.  There  was  no 
Counter-Subject ;  and,  whenever  a  new  verbal 
phrase  appeared  in  the  text,  a  new  musical  phrase 
was  adapted  to  it,  in  the  guise  of  a  Second  "Sub- 
ject. But  it  was  neither  necessary  that  the  open- 
ing Subject  should  be  heard  simultaneously  with 
the  later  ones  ;  nor,  that  it  should  reappear,  after 
a  later  one  had  been  introduced.  Indeed,  the 
cases  in  which  these  two  conditions — both  indis- 
pensable, in  a  modern  Fugue — were  observed, 
even  in  the  slightest  degree,  are  so  rare,  that 
they  may  be  considered  as  infringements  of  a 
very  strict  rule. 

The  form  we  have  here  described  was  brought 
to  absolute  perfection  in  the  so-called  *  School  of 
Palestrina,'  in  the  latter  half  of  the  i6th  century. 
The  first  departure  from  it — rendered  inevitable 
by  the  substitution  of  the  modern  Scale  for  the 
older  Tonalities — consisted  in  the  adaptation  of 
the  Answer  to  the  newer  law,  in  place  of  its 
subjugation,  by  aid  of  the  Hexachord,  to  the 
Ecclesiastical  Modes.  [See  Hexachobd.]  The 
change  was  crucial.  But  it  was  manifest  that 
matters  could  not  rest  here.  No  sooner  was  the 
transformation  of  the  Answer  recognised  as  an 
unavoidable  necessity,  than  the  whole  conduct 
of  the  Fugue  was  revolutionised.  In  order  to 
make  the  modifications  through  which  it  passed 
intelligible,  we  must  first  consider  the  change 
in  the  Answer,  and  then  that  which  took  place 
in  the  construction  of  the  Fugue  founded  upon 
it — the  modern  Tonal  Fugue. 

The  elements  which  enter  into  the  composition 
of  this  noble  Art-form  are  of  two  classes ;  the  one, 
comprising  materials  essential  to  its  existence  ; 
the  other  consisting  of  accessories  only.  The  es- 
sential elements  are  (i)  The  Subject,  (3)  The 
Answer,  ( 3)  The  Counter-Subject,  (4)  The  Codetta, 
(5)  The  Free  Part,  (6)  The  Episode,  (7)  The 

1  Those  who  wish  to  trace  the  relation  between  the  two  wHI  do 
well  to  study  the  •  Messa  Canonica,'  edited  by  La  Fage,  and  by  him 
attributed  to  Palestrina,  or  the  '  Mlssa  Canonica '  of  Via,  side  by 
side  with  Palestrlna's  '  Mlssa  ad  Fugam' ;  taking  the  two  first-named 
works  as  examples  of  Limited,  and  the  third  of  Unlimited  Beal 
Fugue. 


TONAL  FUGUE. 


135 


Stretto,  and  (8)  The  Pedal-Point,  or  Organ-Point. 
The  accessories  are,  Inversions  of  all  kinds,  in 
Double,  Triple,  or  Quadruple  Counterpoint  ; 
Imitations  of  all  kinds,  and  in  all  possible  Inter- 
vals, treated  in  Direct,  Contrary,  or  Retrograde 
Motion,  in  Augmentation,  or  Diminution  ;  Modu- 
lations ;  Canonic  passages ;  and  other  devices  too 
numerous  to  mention. 

Among  the  essential  elements,  the  first  place 
is,  of  course,  accorded  to  the  Subject;  which 
is  not  merely  the  Theme  upon  which  the  Com- 
position is  formed,  but  is  nothing  less  than  an 
epitome  of  the  entire  Fugue,  which  must  contain 
absolutely  nothing  that  is  not  either  directly 
derived  from,  or  at  least  more  or  less  naturally 
suggested  by  it. 

The  qualities  necessary  for  a  good  Subject  are 
both  numerous  and  important.  Cherubini  has 
been  laughed  at  for  informing  his  readers  that 
'  the  Subject  of  a  Fugue  ought  neither  to  be  too 
long,  nor  too  short' :  but,  the  apparent  Hibernian- 
ism  veils  a  valuable  piece  of  advice.  The  great 
point  is,  that  the  Subject  should  be  complete 
enough  to  serve  as  the  text  of  the  discourse, 
without  becoming  wearisome  by  repetition.  For 
this  purpose,  it  is  sometimes  made  to  consist  of 
two  members,  strongly  contrasted  together,  and 
adapted  for  separate  treatment ;  as  in  the  fol- 
lowing Subject,  by  Telemann,  in  which  the  first 
member  keeps  up  the  dignity  of  the  Fugue,  while 
the  second  provides  perpetual  animation. 


i 


w 


^; 


First  Member,    | 


Second  Member. 


e 


:g^ 


i=Mz 


Sometimes  the  construction  of  the  Subject  is 
homogeneous,  as  in  the  following  by  Kirnberger ; 
and  the  contrast  is  then  produced  by  means  of 
varied  Counterpoint. 


-f^r-rf-&. 


g 


S 


-tJ?2= 


^1^ 


Many  very  fine  Subjects — perhaps,  the  finest 
of  all — combine  both  qualities ;  aff'ording  suffi- 
cient variety  of  figure  when  they  appear  in  com- 
plete form ;  and,  when  separated  into  fragments, 
serving  all  necessary  purposes,  for  Episodes, 
Stretti,  etc.,  as  in  the  following  examples — 

Prescobaldi. 


136  TONAL  FUGUE. 

Mbndblssohn    (Op.  3S,  No.  4). 


Sometimes,  the  introduction  of  a  Sequence,  or 
the  figure  called  ROSALIA,  affords  opportunities 
for  very  effective  treatment. 

Ebbrlin. 


Sebastian  Bach  constantly  made  use  of  this 
device  in  his  Pedal  Fugues,  the  Subjects  of 
■which  are  among  the  longest  on  record.  There 
are  few  Subjects  in  which  this  peculiarity  is 
cnrried  to  greater  excess  than  in  that  of  his 
Pedal-Fugue  in  E  Major. 


Very  different  from  these  are  the  Subjects 
designed  by  learned  Contrapuntists  for  the  ex- 
press purpose  of  complicated  devices.  These  are 
short,  massive,  characterised  by  extremely  con- 
cordant Intervals,  and  built  upon  a  very  simple 
rhythmic  foundation.  Two  fine  examples  are  to 
be  found  in  Bach's  •  Art  of  Fugue ' ;  and  the  '  Et 
vitam*  of  Cherubini's  '  Credo '  in  G  for  8  voices. 


S.  Bach. 


i 


Cherubini. 


rf^-^-^ 


^= 


Next  in  importance  to  the  Subject  is  the 
Answer;  which,  indeed,  is  neither  more  nor 
less  than  the  Subject  itself,  presented  from  a 
different  point  of  view.  We  have  already  said 
that  the  Tonal  Answer  must  accommodate  itself, 
not  to  the  Intervals  of  the  Subject,  but,  to  the 
organic  constitution  of  the  Scale.  The  essence  of 
this  accommodation  consists  in  answeringtheTonic 
by  the  Dominant,  and  the  Dominant  by  the  Tonic : 
not  in  every  unimportant  member  of  the  Subject — 
for  this  would  neither  be  possible  nor  desirable 
— ^but  in  its  more  prominent  divisions.  The  first 
thing  is  to  ascertain  the  exact  place  at  which 
the  change  from  Real  to  Tonal  Imitation  must 
be  introduced.  For  this  process  there  are  cer- 
tun  laws.    The  most  important  are — 

(i)  When  the  Tonic  appears  in  a  pr(»mnent 
position  in  the  Subject,  it  must  be  answered  by 
the  Dominant ;  all  prominent  exhibitions  of  the 
Dominant  being  answered  in  like  manner  by  the 
Tonic.  The  most  prominent  positions  possible 
are  those  in  which  the  Tonic  passes  directly  to  the 
Dominant,  or  the  Dominant  to  the  Tonic,  without 
the  interpolation  of  any  other  note  between  the 
two ;  and,  in  these  cases,  the  rule  is  absolute. 


TONAL  FUGUE. 

Subject.    Answer.        Subject.  Answer. 


(2)  When  the  Tonic  and  Dominant  appear  in 
less  prominent  positions,  the  extent  to  which 
Rule  I  can  be  observed  must  be  decided  by  the 
Composer's  musical  instinct.  Beginners,  who 
have  not  yet  acquired  this  facidty,  must  carefully 
observe  the  places  in  which  the  Tonic  and  Do- 
minant occur ;  and,  in  approaching  or  quitting 
those  notes,  must  treat  them  as  fixed  points  to 
which  it  is  indispensable  that  the  general  contour 
of  the  passage  should  accommodate  itself. 


(o)  Dominant,  answered  by  Tonic,  at  («). 

(6)  Dominant,  answered  by  Supertonic,  at  (d). 

(3)  The  observance  of  Rules  i  and  2  will 
ensure  compliance  with  the  next,  which  ordains 
that  all  passages  formed  on  a  Tonic  Harmony,  in 
the  Subject,  shall  be  formed  upon  a  Dominant 
Harmony  in  the  Answer,  and  vice  versd. 

Subject.  Answer. 


Tonic 
Harmony, 


Dominant      Dominant        Tonic  "^ 
Harmony.     Harmony.    Harmony. 


(4)  The  Third,  Fourth,  and  Sixth  of  the  Scale 
should  be  answered  by  the  Third,  Fourth,  and 
Sixth  of  the  Dominant,  respectively. 


Subject 


W  («)    (/) 

(a)  Sixth  of  Tonic    (6)  Third  of  Tonic,    (c)  Fourth  of  Tonic, 
(d)  Sixth  of  Dominant    (e)  Third  of  Dominant. 
(/)  Fourth  of  Dominant. 

(5)  The  Interval  of  the  Diminished  Seventh, 
whether  ascending  or  descending,  should  be  an- 
swered by  a  Diminished  Seventh. 


Subject. 


Answer. 


(6)  As  a  general  rule,  all  Sevenths  should  be 
answered  by  Sevenths  ;  but  a  Minor  Seventh, 
ascending  from  the  Dominant,  is  frequently  an- 
swered by  an  ascending  Octave  ;  in  which  case, 
its  subsequent  descent  will  ensure  conformity  with 
Rule  4,  by  making  the  Third  of  the  Dominant 
answer  the  Third  of  the  Tonic. 


p 


Subject. 


TONAL  FUGUE. 


Answer. 


TONAL  FUGUE. 


137 


^^^ 


(7)  The  most  difficult  note  of  the  Scale  to 
answer  is  the  Supertonic,  It  is  frequently  ne- 
cessary to  reply  to  this  by  the  Dominant ;  and 
when  the  Tonic  is  immediately  followed  by 
the  Supertonic,  in  the  Subject,  it  is  often  ex- 
pedient to  reiterate,  in  the  Answer,  a  note, 
which,  in  the  original  idea,  was  represented  by 
two  distinct  Intervals  ;  or,  on  the  other  hand,  to 
answer,  by  two  different  Intervals,  a  note  which, 
in  the  Subject,  was  struck  twice.  The  best  safe- 
guard is  careful  attention  to  Rule  3,  neglect  of 
which  will  always  throw  the  whole  Fugue  out 
of  gear. 

Answer. 


Subject. 


22ZZS: 


^^S^^p^PP 


(a)     (6)  (c)     (d) 

(a)  Tonic,  answered  by  Dominant,  at  (e). 

(6)  Supertonic,  answered  by  Dominant,  at  (d). 

Simple  as  are  the  foregoing  Rules,  great  judg- 
ment is  necessary  in  applying  them.  Of  all  the 
qualities  needed  in  a  good  Tonal  Subject,  that  of 
suggesting  a  natural  and  logical  Tonal  Answer 
is  the  most  indispensable.  But  some  Subjects 
are  so  difficult  to  manage  that  nothing  but  the 
insight  of  genius  can  make  the  connection  between 
the  two  sufficiently  obvious  to  ensure  its  recogni- 
tion. The  Answer  is  nothing  more  than  the  pure 
Subject,  presented  under  another  aspect :  and, 
unless  its  effect  shall  exactly  correspond  with 
that  produced  by  the  Subject  itself,  it  is  a  bad 
answer,  and  the  Fugue  in  which  it  appears  a 
bad  Fugue.  A  painter  may  introduce  into  his 
picture  two  horses,  one  crossing  the  foreground, 
exactly  in  front  of  the  spectator,  and  the  other 
in  such  a  position  that  its  figure  can  only  be 
truly  represented  by  much  foreshortening.  An 
ignorant  observer  might  believe  that  the  pro- 
portions of  the  two  animals  were  entirely 
different ;  but  they  are  not.  True,  their  actual 
measurements  differ;  yet,  if  they  be  correctly 
drawn,  we  shall  recognise  them  as  a  well- 
matched  pair.  The  Subject  and  its  Answer 
offer  a  parallel  case.  Their  measurement  (by 
Intervals)  is  different,  because  they  are  placed 
in  a  different  aspect;  yet,  they  must  be  so  ar- 
ranged as  to  produce  an  exactly  similar  effect. 
We  have  shown  the  principle  upon  which  the 
arrangement  is  based  to  be  simply  that  of  an- 
swering the  Tonic  by  the  Dominant,  and  the 
Dominant  by  the  Tonic,  whenever  these  two 
notes  follow  each  other  in  direct  succession; 
with  the  farther  proviso,  that  all  passages  of 
Melody  formed  upon  the  Tonic  Harmony  shall 
be  represented  by  passages  formed  upon  the 
Dominant  Harmony,  and  vice  versd.  Still,  great 
difficulties  arise,  when  the  two  characteristic 
notes  do  not  succeed  each  other  directly,  or, 
when  the  Harmonies  are  not  indicated  with 
inevitable  clearness.  The  Subject  of  Handel's 
Chorus,  'Tremble,  guilt,'  shows  how  the  whole 
swing  of  the  Answer  sometimes  depends  on  the 


change  of  a  single  note.  In  this  case,  a  per- 
fectly natural  reply  is  produced,  by  making  the 
Answer  proceed  to  its  second  note  by  the  ascent 
of  a  Minor  Third,  instead  of  a  Minor  Second, 
as  in  the  Subject — i.e.  by  observing  Kule  4,  with 
regard  to  the  Sixth  of  the  Tonic. 


Subject.                          .«..  ^  5^ 

r^^«r-n 

1^  r  '    '  T  1  h  1 

Answer. 

t^ — i— r~» — 1 — r — t-^*r-F- 

4«^p-g*-p- 

.^-h p — 1 h — J 1   --  ^'    \rd__ 

-1 ^?-_^_iL. 

The  Great  Masters  frequently  answered  their 
Subjects  in  Contrary  Motion,  giving  rise  to 
an  apparently  new  Theme,  described  as  the  In- 
verted Subject  (Inversio;  Bivolta,  Eivolzimento; 
Umkehrung).  This  device  is  usually  employed 
to  keep  up  the  interest  of  the  Composition,  after 
the  Subject  has  been  discussed  in  its  original 
form  :  but  some  Masters  bring  in  the  Inverted 
Answer  at  once.  This  was  a  favourite  device 
with  Handel,  whose  Inverted  Answers  are  so 
natural,  as  to  be  easily  mistaken  for  regular  ones. 
The  following  example  is  from  Cherubini's 
•  Credo '  already  mentioned. 
Subject. 


I 


gaee 


-^-t 


^^^^Ml 


Et  Titam. 
Inversion ;  or  Answer  in  Contrary  Motion. 


Another  method  of  answering  is  by  Diminu- 
tion, in  which  each  note  in  the  Answer  is  made 
half  the  length  of  that  in  the  Subject.  This, 
when  cleverly  done,  produces  the  effect  of  a  new 
Subject,  and  adds  immensely  to  the  spirit  of  the 
Fugue;  as  in  Bach's  Fugue  in  E,  No.  33  of 
the  XL VIII,  bars  26-30 ;  in  the  Fugue  in  Cj 
minor,  No.  27  of  the  same  set;  and,  most  espe- 
cially, in  Handel's  Chorus,  •  Let  all  the  Angels.' 


3"^^ 


Answer,  by  1  diminution. 
Allied  to  this,  though  in  the  opposite  direc- 
tion, is  a  highly  effective  form  of  treatment  by 
Augmentation,  in  which  each  note  in  the  An- 
swer is  twice  the  length  of  that  in  the  Subject, 
or  in  Double  Augmentation,  four  times  its  length. 
The  object  of  this  is,  to  give  weight  to  massive 
passages,  in  which  the  lengthened  notes  produce 
the  effect  of  a  Canto  fermo.     See  Bach's  Fugue 

1  The '  Answer  'here  might  with  equal  propriety  be  considered  as  tho 
*  Subject  • ;  In  wbicb  case  ibe  answer  would  be  by  Augmentation. 


138 


TONAL  FUGUE. 


in  DJ  minor,  no.  8,  in  the  XL VIII,  and  many 
other  celebrated  instances. 

Subject.  Chbrubini.   '  Et  vitam.' 


By  these  and  similar  expedients,  the  one  Sub- 
ject is  made  to  produce  the  effect  of  several  new 
ones ;  though  the  new  Motivo  is  simply  a  modified 
form  of  the  original. 

But  a  good  Subject  must  not  only  suggest  a 
good  Answer :  it  must  also  suggest  one  or  more 
subsidiary  Themes  so  constructed  as  to  move 
against  it,  in  Double  Counterpoint,  as  often  as  it 
may  appear.^  These  secondary  Themes  are  called 
Counter -Subjects  {Contra-Subjectum;  Contra- 
Tema\  Contra-suhjekt\Contre-sujet).  The  Counter- 
Subject  or  Counter-Subjects,  however  numerous 
they  may  be,  must  not  only  move  in  Double 
Counterpoint  with  the  Subject,  but  all  must  be 
capable  of  moving  together,  in  Triple,  Quadruple, 
or  Quintuple  Counterpoint,  as  the  case  may  be. 
Moreover,  after  the  Subjecthas  once  been  proposed, 
it  must  nevermore  be  heard,  except  in  company 
with  at  least  one  of  its  Counter-Subjects.  The 
Counter-Subjects  usually  appear,  one  by  one,  as 
the  Fugue  develops ;  as  in  Bach's  Fugue  in  CjJ 
Minor — No.  4  of  the  XLVIII.  Less  frequently, 
one,  two,  or  even  three  Counter-Subjects  appear 
with  the  Subject,  when  first  proposed,  the  Com- 
position leading  off,  in  two,  three,  or  four  Parts, 
at  once.  It  was  an  old  custom,  in  these  cases, 
to  describe  the  Fugue  as  written  upon  two, 
three,  or  four  Subjects.  These  names  have 
sometimes  been  erroneously  applied  even  to 
Fugues  in  which  the  Counter-Subjects  do  not 
appear  until  the  middle  of  the  Composition, 
or  even  later.  For  instance,  in  Wesley  and 
Horn's  edition  of  Bach's  XLVIII,  the  Fugue 
in  CJJ  minor  is  called  a  'Fugue  on  3  Subjects,' 
although  the  real  Subject  starts  quite  alone, 
the  entrance  of  the  first  Counter-Subject  taking 
place  at  bar  35,  and  that  of  the  second  at  bar 
49.  Cherubini  very  justly  condemns  this  no- 
menclature, even  when  the  Subject  and  Counter- 
Subjects  begin  together.  *A  Fugue,*  he  says, 
'neither  can  nor  ought  to  have  more  than  one 
principal  Subject  for  its  exposition.  All  that 
accompanies  this  Subject  is  but  accessory,  and 
neither  can  nor  ought  to  bear  any  other 
name  than  that  of  Counter-Subject.  A  Fugue 
which  is  called  a  Fugue  on  two  Subjects,  ought 
to  be  called  a  Fugue  on  one  Subject,  with  one 
Counter-Subject,'  etc.  etc.  It  is  highly  desirable 
that  the  nomenclature  thus  recommended  should 
be  adopted:  but  there  is  no  objection  to  the 
terms  Single  and  Double  Fugue,  as  applied 
respectively  to  Fugues  in  which  the  principal 
Counter-Subject  appears  after  or  simultaneously 
with  the  Subject;  for,  when  the  two  Motivi 
begin  together,  the  term  'Double'  is  surely 
not  out  of  place.     When  two  Counter-Subjects 

1  8m  0«UKTIB-SDBJI0T.  TOl.  I.  p.  4M, 


TONAL  FUGUE. 

begin  together  with  the  Subject,  the  Fugue  may 
fairly  be  called  Triple ;  when  three  begin  with  it, 
it  may  be  called  Quadruple  ;  the  number  of  pos- 
sible Counter-Subjects  being  only  limited  by  that 
of  the  Parts,  with,  of  course,  the  necessary  reserva- 
tion of  one  Part  for  the  Subject.  A  Septuple 
Fugue,  therefore,  is  a  Fugue  in  seven  Patts, 
written  upon  a  Subject,  and  six  Counter-Subjects, 
all  beginning  together. 

The  Old  Masters  never  introduced  a  Counter- 
Subject  into  their  Real  Fugues.  Each  Part,  after 
it  had  replied  to  the  Subject,  was  free  to  move 
wherever  it  pleased,  on  the  appearance  of  the 
Subject  in  another  Part.  But  this  is  not  the  case 
in  the  modem  Tonal  Fugue.  Wherever  the 
Subject  appears,  one  Part,  at  least,  must  accom- 
pany it  with  a  Counter-Subject ;  and  those  Parts 
only  which  have  already  performed  this  duty 
become  free— that  is  to  say,  are  permitted,  for 
the  moment,  to  fill  up  the  Harmony  by  unfettered 
Counterpoint. 

When  the  Subject  and  Counter-Subject  start 
together,  the  Theme  is  called  a  Double-Subject ; 
as  in  the  last  Chorus  of  Handel's  'Triumph  of 
Time  and  Truth,'  based  on  the  Subject  of  an 
Organ  Concerto  of  which  it  originally^  formed  the 
concluding  Movement;  in  the  'Christe'  of  Mo- 
zart's Requiem ;  and  in  the  following  from  Haydn's 
*  Creation.' 


It  is  very  important  that  the  Subject  and 
Counter-Subject  should  move  in  different  figures. 
A  Subject  in  long-sustained  notes  will  frequently 
stand  out  in  quite  a  new  aspect,  when  contrasted 
with  a  Counter-Subject  in  Quavers  or  Semi- 
quavers. In  Choral  Fugues  the  character  of 
the  Counter-Subject  is  usually  suggested  by  a 
change  in  the  feeling  of  the  words.  For  instance, 
the  words  of  the  Chorus,  *  Let  old  Timotheus,' 
in  'Alexander's  Feast,'  consist  of  four  lines  of 
Poetry  each  sung  to  a  separate  Motivo. 

In  order  that  the  Subject  may  be  more  naturally 
connected  with  its  first  Counter-Subject,  it  is 
common  to  join  the  two  by  a  Codetta  (Fr. 
Querie;  Germ.  Nachsatz),  which  facilitates  the 
entrance  of  the  Answer,  by  carrying  the  leading 
Part  to  a  note  in  harmonious  continuity  with  it. 
The  following  Codetta  is  from  the  celebrated  Fugue 
called  '  The  Cat's  Fugue,'  by  D.  Scarlatti. 
Subject. 


^ 


W^ 


bJ-C^  • 


^^[-p^- 


Codetta.       Counter-Subject. 


^  " — 

Answer. 

ht 

r^ 

z  See  the  original  MS.,  in  the  British  Museum,  George  III.  MSS. 
SIO  [274.  d.] 


TONAL  FUGUE. 


TONAL  FUGUE. 


139 


The  alternation  of  the  Subject  with  the  An- 
swer— called  its  Kepercussion  (Lat.  Bepercussio ; 
Ital.  Hepercussione  ;  Germ.  Wiederschlag) — is 
governed  by  necessary,  though  somewhat  elastic 
laws.  Albrechtsberger  gives  twenty-four  different 
schemes  for  a  Fugue  in  four  Parts  only,  showing 
the  various  order  in  which  the  Voices  may  con- 
sistently enter,  one  after  the  other.  The  great 
desideratum  is,  that  the  Answer  should  follow  the 
Subject,  directly;  and  be  followed,  in  its  turn, 
by  an  immediate  repetition  of  the  Subject,  in 
some  other  Part:  the  process  being  continued, 
until  all  the  Parts  have  entered,  in  turn,  with 
Subject  and  Counter-Subject,  alternately,  and 
thus  become  entitled  to  continue,  for  a  time, 
as  Free  Parts.  But  the  regularity  of  this  alter- 
nation is  not  always  possible,  in  Choral  Fugues, 
the  management  of  which  must  necessarily  con- 
form to  the  compass  of  the  Voices  employed. 
For  instance,  in  Brahms's  'Deutsche  Requiem,' 
there  are  two  Subjects,  each  embracing  a  range 
of  no  less  than  eleven  notes — a  fatal  hindrance 
to  orthodox  fugal  management. 

When  the  Subject  has  been  thus  clearly  set 
forth,  so  as  to  form  what  is  called  the  Exposition 
of  the  Fugue,  the  order  of  its  Repercussion  may 
be  reversed ;  the  Answer  being  assigned  to  the 
Parts  which  began  with  the  Subject,  and  vice 
versd :  after  which  the  Fugue  may  modulate  at 
pleasure.  But,  in  common  language,  the  term 
Subject  is  always  applied,  whether  accurately  or 
not,  to  the  transposed  Theme,  even  though  it 
may  appear  in  the  aspect  proper  to  the  Answer. 

As  the  Fugue  proceeds,  the  alternation  of 
Subject  and  Answer  is  frequently  interrupted 
by  Episodes  (Ital.  Andamenti;  Fr.  Divertisse- 
ments), founded  on  fragments  of  the  Subject,  or 
its  Counter-Subjects,  broken  up,  in  the  manner 
explained  on  page  135  ;  on  fragments  of  contra- 
puntal passages,  already  presented,  or  on  passages 
naturally  suggested  by  these.  Great  freedom  is 
permitted  in  these  accessory  sections  of  the  Fugue, 
during  the  continuance  of  which  almost  all  the 
Parts  may  be  considered  as  Free,  to  a  certain 
extent.  Nevertheless,  the  great  Fuguists  are 
always  most  careful  to  introduce  no  irrelevant 
idea  into  their  Compositions ;  and  every  idea  not 
naturally  suggested  by  the  Subject,  or  by  the  con- 
trapuntal matter  with  which  it  is  treated,  must 
necessarily  be  irrelevant.  It  is  indeed  neither 
possible  nor  desirable,  that  every  Part  should  be 
continuously  occupied  by  the  Subject.  When  it 
has  proposed  this,  or  the  Answer,  or  one  of  the 
Counter-Subjects  deduced  from  them,  it  may 
proceed  in  Single  or  Double  Counterpoint  with 
■ome  other  Part.  But,  after  a  long  rest,  it 
must  always  re-enter  with  the  Subject,  or  a 
Counter-Subject ;  or,  at  least,  with  a  contra- 
puntal fragment  with  which  one  or  the  other  of 
them  has  been  previously  accompanied,  and  which 


may,  therefore,  be  fairly  said  to  have  been  sug- 
gested by  the  Subject,  in  the  first  instance.  And 
thus  it  is,  that  even  the  Episodes  introduced  into 
a  really  good  Fugue  form  consistent  elements  of 
the  argument  it  sets  forth.  In  no  Fugue  of  the 
highest  order  is  a  Part  ever  permitted  to  enter, 
without  having  something  important  to  say. 

After  the  Exposition  has  been  fully  carried 
out,  either  with  or  without  the  introduction  of 
Episodes,  the  subsequent  conduct  of  the  Fugue 
depends  more  on  the  imagination  of  the  Com- 
poser than  on  any  very  stringent  rule  of  construc- 
tion ;  though  the  great  Fuguists  have  always 
arranged  their  plans  in  accordance  with  certain 
well-recognised  devices,  which  are  universally 
regarded  as  common  property,  even  when  trace- 
able to  known  Masters.  And  here  it  is  that 
the  ingenious  Devices  (Fr.  Artifices  ;  Germ.  Kun- 
steleien)  described  at  page  135  as  accessory  ele- 
ments of  the  Fugue,  are  first  seriously  called 
into  play.  The  Composer  may  modulate  at 
will,  though  only  to  the  Attendant  Keys  of  the 
Scale  in  which  his  Subject  stands.  He  may 
present  his  Subject,  or  Counter-Subject,  upside- 
down — i.  e.  inverted  by  Contrary  Motion  ;  or 
backwards,  in  '  Imitatio  cancrizans ' ;  or,  *  Per 
recte  et  retro ' — half  running  one  way,  and  half 
the  other ;  or,  by  single  or  double  Augmentation, 
in  notes  twice,  or  four  times,  as  long  as  those  in 
the  original ;  or  by  Diminution,  in  notes  half  the 
length.  Or,  he  may  introduce  a  new  Counter- 
Subject,  or  even  a  Canto  fermo.  In  short,  he 
may  exercise  his  ingenuity  in  any  way  most  con- 
genial to  his  taste,  provided  only  that  he  never 
forgets  his  Subject.  The  only  thing  to  be  de- 
sired is,  that  the  Artifices  should  be  well  chosen : 
not  only  suggested  by  the  Subject,  but  in  close 
accordance  with  its  character  and  meaning.  It 
is  quite  possible  to  introduce  too  many  De- 
vices ;  and  the  Fugue  then  becomes  a  mere 
dry  exhibition  of  learning  and  ingenuity.  But 
the  Great  Masters  never  fall  into  this  error. 
Being  themselves  intensely  interested  in  the  pro- 
gress of  their  work,  they  never  fail  to  interest  the 
listener.  Among  the  most  elaborate  Fugues  on 
record  are  those  in  Sebastian  Bach's  'Art  of 
Fugue,'  in  which  the  Subject  given  on  page  136 
is  treated  with  truly  marvellous  ingenuity  and 
erudition.  Yet,  even  these  are  in  some  respects 
surpassed  by  the  *  Et  vitam  venturi,'  which  forms 
the  conclusion  of  Cherubini's  Credo,  Alia  Cap- 
pella,  for  eight  Voices,  in  Double  Choir,  with 
a  Thorough-Bass.  The  Subject  (quoted  on  page 
136)  is  developed  by  the  aid  of  five  distinct 
Counter-Subjects,  three  of  which  enter  simul- 
taneously with  the  Subject  itself;  the  First  after 
a  Minim-rest;  the  Second  after  three  Minims; 
the  Third  after  two  bars  :  the  Subject  itself  oc- 
cupying three  bars  and  one  note  of  Alia  Breve 
Time.  It  may  therefore  justly  be  called  a  Quad- 
ruple Fugue.  ThetworemainingCounter-Subjects 
enter  at  the  fifth  and  sixth  bars,  respectively; 
and,  because  the  first  proposal  of  the  Subject 
comes  to  an  end  before  their  appearance,  Cheru- 
bini,  though  giving  them  the  title  of  Counter- 
Subjects,  does  not  number  them,  as  he  did  the- 


140 


TONAL  FUGUE. 


first  three,  but  calls  one  I'autre,  and  the  other  le 
nouveau  contre-sujet.  The  Artifices  begin  at  the 
fourth  bar,  with  an  Imitation  of  the  Third 
Counter-Subject  in  the  Unison,  and  continue 
thence  to  the  end  of  the  Fugue,  which  em- 
bodies 243  bars  of  the  finest  contrapuntal  writing 
to  be  found  within  the  entire  range  of  modern 
Music. 

When  the  capabilities  of  the  Subject  have 
been  demonstrated,  and  its  various  Counter-Sub- 
jects discussed,  it  is  time  to  bind  the  various 
members  of  the  Fugue  more  closely  together,  in 
the  form  of  a  Stretto  ^  (Lat.  Restrictio ;  Ital. 
Stretto,  Restretto ;  Germ.  Engfuhrung ;  Fr.  Rap- 
pi-ochement),  or  passage  in  which  the  Subject, 
Answer,  and  Counter-Subjects,  are  woven  to- 
gether, as  closely  as  possible,  so  as  to  bind  the 
whole  into  a  knot.  Aptitude  for  the  formation 
of  an  artful  Stretto  is  one  of  the  most  desir- 
able qualities  in  a  good  Fugal  Subject.  Some 
Subjects  will  weave  together,  with  marvellous 
ductility,  at  several  difierent  distances.  Others 
can  with  difficulty  be  tortured  into  any  kind  of 
Stretto  at  all.  Sebastian  Bach's  power  of  inter- 
twining his  Subject  and^Counter-Subjects  seems 
little  short  of  miraculous.  The  first  Fugue  of 
the  XL VIII,  in  C  major,  contaixis  seven  distinct 
Stretti,  all  differently  treated,  and  all  remark- 
able for  the  closeness  of  their  involutions.  Yet, 
there  is  nothing  in  the  Subject  which  would 
lead  us  to  suppose  it  capable  of  any  very  extra- 
ordinary treatment.  The  secret  lies  rather  in 
Bach's  power  over  it.  He  just  chose  a  few  simple 
Intervals,  which  would  work  well  together ;  and, 
this  done,  his  Subject  became  his  slave.  Almost 
all  other  Fugues  contain  a  certain  number  of 
Episodes  ;  but  here  there  is  no  Episode  at  all : 
not  one  single  bar  in  which  the  Subject,  or  some 
portion  of  it,  does  not  appear.  Yet,  one  never 
tires  of  it,  for  a  moment ;  though,  as  the  Answer 
is  in  Real  Fugue,  it  presents  no  change  at  all, 
except  that  of  Key,  at  any  of  its  numerous  re- 
currences. Some  wonderfully  close  Stretti  will 
also  be  found  in  Bach's  'Art  of  Fugue';  in 
Handel's  *Amen  Chorus';  in  Cherubini's  'Et 
vitam,'  already  described;  in  the  *Et  vitam'  of 
Sarti's  *  Credo,'  for  eight  Voices,  in  D ;  and  in 
many  other  great  Choral  Fugues  by  Masters  of 
the  1 8th  century,  and  the  first  half  of  the  19th, 
including  Mendelssohn  and  Spohr.  Some  of 
these  Stretti  are  found  on  a  Dominant,  and 
some  on  a  Tonic  Pedal.  In  all,  the  Subject  is 
made  the  principal  feature  in  the  contrapuntal 
labyrinth.  The  following  example,  from  the 
'Gloria*  of  Purcell's English  'Jubilate,'  composed 
for  S.  Cecilia's  Day,  1694,  is  exceptionally  in- 
teresting. In  the  first  place,  it  introduces  a 
new  Subject, — a  not  uncommon  custom  with 
the  earlier  Fuguists,  when  new  words  were  to 
be  treated — and,  without  pausing  to  develop 
its  powers  by  the  usual  process  of  Repercus- 
sion, presents  it  in  Stretto  at  once.  Secondly, 
it  gives  the  Answer,  by  Inversion,  with  such 
easy  grace,  that  one  forgets  all  about  its  inge- 
nuity, though  it  really  blends  the  learning  of 

1  From  »ringere,  to  biad. 


TONAL  FUGUE. 

Polyphony  with  the  symmetry  of  modem  Form 
in  a  way  which  ought  to  make  us  very  proud  of 
our  great  Master,  and  the  School  of  which  he 
was  so  bright  an  ornament.  For,  when  Purcell'g 
*Te  Deum'  and  'Jubilate'  were  written,  Se- 
bastian Bach  was  just  nine  years  old. 

Subject  Inversion. 


With  the  Stretto  or  Organ-Point  the  Fugue 
is  generally  brought  to  a  conclusion,  and,  in  many 
examples,  by  means  of  a  Plagal  Cadence. 

Having  now  traced  the  course  of  a  fully  de- 
veloped modern  Tonal  Fugue,  from  its  Exposi- 
tion to  its  final  Chord,  it  remains  only  to  say  a 
few  words  concerning  some  well-recognised  ex- 
ceptions to  the  general  form. 

We  have  said  that  the  modem  Fugue  sprang 
into  existence  through  the  recognition  of  its 
Tonal  Answer,  as  an  inevitable  necessity.  Yet 
there  are  Subjects — and  very  good  ones  too — 
which,  admitting  of  no  natural  Tonal  Answer 
at  all,  must  necessarily  be  treated  in  Real  Fugue : 
not  the  old  Real  Fugue,  formed  upon  a  few  slow 
notes  treated  in  close  Imitation  ;  but,  a  form  of 
Composition  corresponding  with  the  modern  Tonal 
Fugue  in  every  respect  except  its  Tonality.  Such 
a  case  is  Mendelssohn's  Fugue  in  E  minor  (op.  35, 
no.  i),  in  which  the  Answer  is  the  Subject  ex- 
actly a  fifth  higher. 


Subject, 


^f?^^. 


Again,  a  Fugue  is  sometimes  written  upon,  or 
combined  with,  a  Canto  fermo ;  and  the  resulting 
conditions  very  nearly  resemble  those  prevailing 
on  board  a  Flag-Ship  in  the  British  Navy ;  the 
functions  of  the  Subject  being  typified  by  those 
of  the  Captain,  who  commands  the  ship,  and  the 
privileges  of  the  Canto  fermo,  by  those  of  the 
Admiral,  who  commands  the  Captain.  Some- 
times the  Subject  is  made  to  resemble  the 
Canto  fermo  very  closely  only  in  notes  of  shorter 
duration  ;  sometimes  it  is  so  constructed  as  to 
move  in  Double  Counterpoint  against  it.  In 
neither  case  is  it  always  easy  to  determine  which 


TONAL  FUGUE. 

is  the  real  Subject ;  but  attention  to  the  Expo- 
sition will  generally  decide  the  point.  Should 
the  Canto  fermo  pass  through  a  regular  Expo- 
sition, in  the  alternate  aspects  of  Dux  and 
Comes,  it  may  be  fairly  considered  as  the  true 
Subject,  and  the  ostensible  Subject  must  be  ac- 
cepted as  the  principal  Counter-Subject.  Should 
any  other  Theme  than  the  Canto  fermo  pass 
through  a  more  or  less  regular  Exposition,  that 
Theme  is  the  true  Subject,  and  the  Canto  fermo 
merely  an  adjunct.  Examples  of  the  first  method 
are  comparatively  rare  in  Music  later  than  the 
17th  century.  Instances  of  the  second  will  be 
found  in  Handel's  *  Utrecht  Te  Deum  and  Ju- 
bilate,' 'Hallelujah  Chorus,'  'The  horse  and  his 
rider,'  Funeral,  and  Foundling  Anthems;  and 
in  J