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THE ESSENTIALS OF 
CHILD STUDY 



INCLUDING 



Class Outlines, Brief Discussions, 

Topical References, and a 

Complete Bibliography 



BY 



George Washington Andrew Luckey, Ph. D. 

Dean of the Graduate School of Education 
University of Nebraska 



THE UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING CO. 
CHICAGO LINCOLN 



3'?Z77 



(OPVRIOHT/ 1917 
BY 

THK UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING CO. 

ALL RIGHTS RKSKRVFI) 






tKo JWp CliiHirfn 

Whose As f 'ration and Lives Have Furnished 
Much of the Material Herein Contained 



TilE Essentials of Child Study has grown out of 
twenty-one years' experience in teaching the 
subject in the University of Nebraska. It repre- 
sents the nucleus of a three hour college course for 
one semester of eighteen weeks, consisting of fifty- 
two class periods of fifty minutes each. It had its 
beginning in a series of class outlines i)repared pri- 
marily for college students having had the ecpiivalent 
of six hours' credit in biology and as many more hours' 
credit in ])sychology as a foundation to the study. To 
these outlines have been added from time to time new 
material showing the results of experimentation, call- 
ing attention to important child study literature, and 
giving in connection with each topic such information 
as will make clear the essentials in a course of child 
study. 

The Essentials of Child Study is used as a text in 
the beginning course of Child Study in the University 
of Nebraska and covers the nature, growth and devel- 
(jl)ment of the child from birth to adolescence — in a 
few instances through adolescence. The thread of 
thot running thru the whole is the changing nature 
and intelligent nurture of the child. It aims to give 
in a condensed form the essential facts that ought to 
be known by every student of childhood, teacher, and 
parent. It is published for the benefit of students who 
make such constant use of it, and to supply the de- 
mand for the former Child Study Outlines from which 
it grew. Other institutions have used the Outlines of 

3 



4 PREFACE 

Child Study as a text and it is thot that the present 
Essentials of Child Study will be found even more 
serv'^eable for such use, and of interest and value to 
both parent and teacher alike. 

The Bibliography has been prepared w^ith special 
care. It is confined almost wholly to references in 
English (especially those covering conditions of child 
life in the United States) and while sufficiently com- 
plete does not aim to be exhaustive. 

The Essentials of Child Study is published in the 
belief that it will find a ready welcome in many a 
student's library, and be of special service to teachers 
and parents who desire to become better acquainted 
with the nature and needs of children. 

G. W. A. LUCKEY. 



CONTENTS 



Page 
General References 7 

Chapter i. Beginning, Nature and Scope of Child Study 15 

Chapter 2. The Practical Importance of Child Study ai 

Chapter 3. The Child at Birth and Its Care: (a) Physical Condition; 

(b) Reflex Functions; (c) Mental Conditions; (d) Care of Child.. 26 

Chapter 4. The Physical Child, Including Health, Growth, Food, Exer- 
cise, Rest, Sanitation 30 

Chapter 5. The Nervous System: (a) Brain Growth; (b) Office of 
Nervous System 37 

Chapter 6. The Sense of Sight: (i) Sight Observations; (2) Phys- 
ical Movements and Adjustments of the Eyes; Observations Showing 
Early Adjustment of the Eyes to Light 41 

Chapter 7. The Sense of Sight — Continued: (3) Beginning of Con- 
scious Perception, Observations Showing the Beginning to Fixate 
Objects, Early Eye Movements; (4) Perspective 45 

Chapter 8. The Sense of Sight — Continued: (5) Color Discrimina- 
tion, Observations on Color Discrimination 49 

Chapter 9. The Sense of Sight — Concluded: (6) Defective Vision.. 54 

Chapter 10. The Sense of Hearing: Observations Indicating Sensi- 
tiveness to Sound, Beginning of Localization thru Sound, Defects in 
Hearing 58 

Chapter ii. The Sense of Touch: Observations on Touch, Asso- 
ciating Visual and Tactile Sensations 64 

Chapter 12. Taste and Smell: Early Indications of Taste, Observa- 
tions on Smell 69 

Chapter 13. Feeling: (i) Organic Sensation; (2) Emotion; (3) 
Fears, Signs of Fear from Unusual Sounds, Quotations Indicating 
the Child's Fear of Animals, Strange Objects and Persons, Fear of 
Falling, Fear of the Dark 75 

5 



CONTENTS 



Page 
Chapter 14. A Supplement to Feeling: An Introspective Study of 
Fears, A Plan for Gathering Data on Children's Fears, A Study of 
Fear in Infants, Facts Obtained from a Study of Fears 87 

Chapter 15. Feeling — Continued: (4) Surprise and Astonishment, 
Observations Indicating the Beginning of Surprise and Astonish- 
ment; (5) Curiosity, Indications of Curiosity; (6) Anger, Early 
Indications of Anger, Questions for the Introspective Study of 
Anger, Summary of a Study of Anger, The Uest Treatment of 
Children Subject to Fits of Passion 96 

Chapter 16. Feeling — Concluded : (7) Aesthetic Feelings; (8) Affec- 
tion; (9) Sympathy, Earliest Indications of Pleasure, Earliest Indi- 
cations of Pleasure — Music, Earliest Indications of Pleasure — Affec- 
tion, Indications of Sympathy, Indications of Jealousy, An Outline 
for Study, Summary of a Study on Affection of 448 University 
Students 1 09 

Chapters 17-18. Knowing: (i) Intellect; (2) Perception; (3) Mem- 
ory, The Beginning of Intelligence, Signs of Intelligence — Associa- 
tion, Observations on Memory, Earliest Memories; (4) Imagination, 
Records on Imagination 1 24 

Chapter 19. KnovAng— Concluded: Conception, Judgment, Reason- 
ing, Types of the Child's Reasoning 145 

Chapter 20. Ideas of Self : The Use of Pronouns 149 

Chapters 21-23. Willing, The Developincnt of the Will: (i) Impul- 
sive Movements; (2) Reflex Movements; (3) Instinctive Move- 
ments, — Seizing, Biting, Walking; (4) Ideational Movements, — 
Imitative, Expressive, Deliberative; Records of the Beginning of 
Imitation, Early Indication of Will 1 52 

Chapters 24-25. Children's Drawings : Plans for Obtaining Data 

for Study 165 

Chapters 26-27. The Beginning of Language: (1) The Babbling or 
Mamma Period; (2) The Beginning of Sound Imitation and Gesture 
Language; (3) The Acquisition and Understanding of Words; (4) 
The Stage of Sentence Building 170 

Chapter 28. Crying and Laughing 1 76 

Chapter 29. Children's Interests: Order of Interest in Literature.. 179 

Chapter 30. Methods of Child Study 185 

Chapter 3 1 . Fatigue 191 

Chapter 32. Moral and Religious Training 196 

Chapter 33. The Music Sense of Children and Its Cultivation 202 

Index 213 



GENERAL REFERENCES FOR 
CHILD STUDY 

1. Adler, Felix. Moral Instruction of Children, pp. 270. 

D. Appleton, New York, 1892. 

2. Aldrich, Thomas B. Story of a Bad Boy, pp. 261. Hough- 

ton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1897. 

3. Allen, Witt. H. Civic and Health, pp. 411. Ginn & Co.. 

Boston, 1909. 
74. Alport, Frank. The Eye and Its Care, Philadelphia, 1896. 

pp. 174. 
*5. Baldwin, J. M. Mental Development of the Child and 

the Race, pp. 496. Macmillan, New York, 1906. 
*6. Barnes, Earl. Studies in Education, Vols, i and 2. Earl 

Barnes, Editor, Philadelphia, 1897-1902. 
7. Birney, Mrs. Theodore W. Childhood, pp. 254. F. A. 

Stokes Co., New York, 1905. 
t8. Burbank, Luther. The Training of the Human Plant, 

pp. 99. Century, New York, 1907. 
9. Burnett, Frances Hodgson. The One I Knew Best of 

All: A Memory of the Mind of a Child, pp. 325. 

Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York, 1893. 
10. Canton, William. W. V., Her Book and Various Verses, 

pp. 150. E. P. Dutton, New York, 1912. 
n. Carus. Paul. Our Children, pp. 207. Open Court Pub. 

Co., Chicago, 1906. 
ti2. Chamberlain, A. F. The Child and Childhood in Folk- 
Thought, pp. 464. Macmillan, New York, 1896. 
713. Chamberlain, A. F. The Child : A Study in the Evolution 

of Man, pp. 498. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York, 

1901. 

14. Chenery, Susan. As the Twig is Bent. Houghton 

Mifflin Co., New York, 1901. 

15. ClaparMe, Ed. Psychologic de I'Enfant et Pedagogic 

Experimentale, trans, by Mary Louch and Henry 
Holman, pp 332. Longmans, Green & Co. New 
York, 191 1. 

7 



? THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

*i6. Compayrc, G. The Intellectual and Moral Development 
of the Child (Part I), pp. 298. 

*!/. Compayre, G. Development of the Child in Later In- 
fancy (Part II), pp. 331. D. Appleton, New York, 
1902-1909. 

fiS. Cooke, Joseph Broivn, M. D. The Baby Before and 
After Arrival, pp. 239. J. B. Lippincott Co., Phila- 
delphia, 1916. 

19. Cradock Mrs^. II. C. The Training of Children from 

Cradle to School, pp. '91. G. Bell & Sons, London, 
1909. 

20. Davison, Alviii. The Human Body and Health. Ameri- 

can Book Co., New York, 1908. 
t2i. Dazvson, G. E. The Child and His Religion, pp. 124. 

Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1909. 
*22. Dearborn, George V. N. Moto-Sensory Development, 

Observations on the First Three Years of a Child. 

Warwick & York, Inc., Baltimore, 1910. 
123. Drummond, W. B. The Child, His Nature and Nurture, 

pp. 146. J. M. Dent & Co., London, 1907. 
*24. Drummond, W. B. An Introduction to Child Study, pp. 

348. E. Arnold, London, 1907. 
t2S. DuBois, Patterson. Beckonings of Little Hands, pp. 166. 

J. D. Wattles, Philadelphia, Pa., 1894. 
*26. DuBois, Patterson. The Point of Contact, pp. 88. J. D. 

Wattles, Philadelphia, Pa., 1907. 

27. Earle, Alice Morse, Child Life in Colonial Days, pp. 418. 

Macmillan, New York, 1899. 

28. Earle, Alice Morse. Home Life in Colonial Days, pp. 470. 

Macmillan, New York, 1898. 

29. Elu'cs, Hcrvey. The Modern Child, pp. 246. T. N. 

Foulis, 15 Frederick St., Edinburgh and London, 

1908. 
*30. Fis'ke, John. The Meaning of Infancy, pp. 42. Houghton 

Miflflin Co., New York, 1909. 
t3i. Groszmann, Maximilian P. E. The Career of the Child, 

PP- 335- Richard E. Badger, Boston, 191 1. 
2,2. Gurlitt, Ludwig, Der Verkehr mit meinen Kindern, pp. 

194. Concordia deutsche verlags-anstalt. H. Ehbock, 

Berlin, 1907. 



GENERAL REFERENCES FOR CHILD STUDY 9 

t33- Guyer, Michael F. Being Well Born, pp. 373. The 
Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 1916. 

t34. Hall, G. Stanley, .\spccts of Child Life and Edncati'jn, 
pp. 326. Edited by T. L. Smith, Boston, 1907. 

*3S. Hall G. Stanley (Editor"). Pedagogical Seminary. Vols. 

1-25. 
t36. Hall G. Stanley. Ynnth : Its Education, Rcj^inun and 
Hygiene, pp. 379. D. Appleton, New York, 1906. 

37. Harrison, Rliz. A Study of Child Nature from the 

Kindergarten Standpoint, pp. 207. Chicago Kinder- 
garten College, Chicago, 1895. 

38. Heath, H. Llewellyn. The Infant, the Parent and the 

State; a Social Study and Review, pp. 191. P. S. 

King & Son, London, 1907. 
*39. Hogan, Louise E. A Study of a Child, pp. 219. Harper 

Bros., New York, 1898. 
t40. Hocjan, Louise I:. How to Feed Children, pp. 236. J. B. 

Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1899. 
41. Hogan, Mrs<. Jolin L. Children's Diet in Home and 

School, pp. 176. Henry Coates & Co., Philadelphia. 
t42. Holmes, Arthur. The Conservation of tlie Child, pp. 345. 

J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1912. 

43. Holmes, Arthur. Backward Children, pp. 2^7. The 

Bohbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 1915. 

44. Hozvclls. JVilliam Dean. A Boy's Town. Harper Bros., 

New York. 

45. Hunt. Una. Una Mary (The Inner Life of a Child), 

pp 268. Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York, 1914. 

46. Judd, C. H. Genetic Psychology for Teachers, pp. 329. 

D. Appleton, New York, 1903. 
t47. Keating, John M. Maternity; Infancy; Childhood. J. P. 
Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. Important to mothers 
and nurses entrusted with the early life of children. 

48. Keller, Helen. Story of My Life. pp. 441. Doubleday. 

Page & Co., New York, 1903. 

49. Kelly, Myra. Little Citizens : The Humors of School 

Life, pp. 352. McClure, Phillips & Co., New York, 
1904-1912. 

50. Key. Ellen. The Century of the Child, pp. 339. Putnam. 

New York, 1909. 



10 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

■1-51. Kidd, Dudley. Savage Childhciod, a Study of Kafir 
Children, pp. 314. A. and C. Black, London, 1906. 

T52. King, Irving. The Psychology of Child-Development, pp. 
265. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1903. 

t53- Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 384. 
Macmillan, New York, 1908. 

54, Kratz, H. E. Studies and Observations in the School 

Room, pp. 220. Educational Publishing Co., Boston, 
1907. 

55. Kriege, Matilda If. The Child, pp. 148. R. Steiger, New 

York, 1872. 
■(•56. Krohn, W. O. (Editor). Child Study Monthly, Vols. t-6. 

1895. 

57. Laughlin, Elmer Osborn. Johnnie : A Memory of Boy- 

hood. The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 1903. 

58. Loti, Pierre (Viaud). Romance of a Child, pp. 284. 

Rand, AIcNally, Chicago. 1891. 

59. McMillan. Margaret. Early Childhood. C. \V. Bardeen, 

Syracuse, New York, 1900. 
t6o. Major. David R. First Steps in Mental Growtli, pp. .^60. 
Macmillan, New York, 1906. 

61. Malleson, Mrs. F. Notes on the Early Training of Chil- 

dren, pp. 129. W. Swan Sonnenschein & Co., London, 
1885. 

62. Mangold, Geo. B. Child ProblcnT-, p]). t,>^\ . Macmillan, 

New York, 1910. 

63. Martin, George Madden. Emmy Lou : Her Book and 

Heart. Doubleday, Page & Co., New York, 1902. 

64. Meyer, Mrs. Bertha. Aids to Family Government, pp. 

208. M. L. Holbrook & Co., New York, 1879. 

65. Meyer, Mrs. Bertha. The Child Mentally and Physically. 

Fowler & Wells Co., New York. 

66. Meynell, Mrs. Alice C. The Children, pp. 1,^4. John 

Lane, New York, 1897. 

67. Michelct, Mme. A. M. A Story of My Childhood, p]). 

218. Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1867. 

68. Miller, J. H. (Editor). Northwestern Monthly. 

69. Monroe, Paul (Editor). Cyclopedia of Education: 

Topics, Child Study and Child Psycholog>'. 5 Vols. 
Macmillan, New York, T911-13. 



GEXERAL REFERENXES FOR CHILD STUDY 11 



*70. Moore, Kathleen. Mental Development of a Child, pp. 
149. Macmillan, New York, 1896. 

71. Mosher, Martha B. Child Culture in the Home, pp. 240. 

Fleming H. Revell, New York, 1898. 

72. .Jewell, IVilliom Welles. The Games and Songs of Amer- 

ican Children, pp. 2S2. Harper, New York. 1903. 
7.V .Wewshohnc, Arthur. School Hygiene, pp. 143. D. C. 

Heath & Co., Boston, 1894. 
t74. Oppenheim. Nathan. The Care of the Child in Health, 

pp. 308 (1900), and The Medical Diseases of Child- 
hood. The Macmillan Co., New York. 
*75- Oppenheim, Nathan. The Development of the Child, pp. 

296. Macmillan, New York, 1898. 
fyG. Oppenheim, Nathan. Mental Growth and Control, pp. 

296. Macmillan, New York, 1902. 
77. O'Shea, M. I'. Linguistic Development and Education, 

pp. 347. Macmillan, New York, 1907. 
t78. Peres, B. The First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 294. 

C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, New York, 1889. 
79.' Phillips', Walter S. Just .\bout a Boy. Duffield & Co., 

New York, 1899. 
8g. Plaisted, Laura L. The Early Education of Children, pp. 

398. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1909. 
*8i. Prcyer, W. Infant Mind (Mental Development of the 

Child), pp. 170. D. Appleton, New York, 1893. 
*82. Prcyer, ]\' . Mind of the Child (Vol. i. Senses and the 

Will, pp. 346. Vol. 2. The Development of the 

Intellect, pp. 317). D. Appleton, New York, 1892. 
83. Rankin, Francis H. Hygiene of ChildhocHl. pp. 140. D. 

Appleton, New York, 1890. 
X4. Richards, Mrs. L. E. (Howe). When I Was Your Age, 

pp. 210. Estes and Lauriat, Boston, 1893. 
785. Rozi'C, S. H. The Physical Nature of the Child, pp. 207. 

Macmillan, New York, 1899-1910. 
86. Riisisell, E. H., and Haskell. Ellen M. Child Observa- 
tions ; Imitation and Allied Activities, pp. 267. D. C. 

Heath & Co., Boston. 1896. 
+87. Sandiford, Peter. The Mental and Physical Life of 

School Children, pp. 346. Longmans, Green & Co., 

New York, 1913. 



12 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

88. Schoff, Hannah Kent. The Wayward Child, pp. 274. 

The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 1915. 

89. Schoh, Fricdrick. Die Characterfehler des Kindes, pp. 

233. Eduard Heinrich Mayer, Leipzig, 1896. 

90. Scovil, ElisebetJi Robinson. Care of Children, pp. 360. 

Henry Altemus, Philadelphia, 1895. 

91. Scndder, H. E. Childhood in Literature and Art, pp. 

253. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1894. 

92. Shaw, E. R. School Hygiene, pp. 260. Macmillan, New 

York, 1901. 

93. Shearer, U'ni. J. The Management and Trainirg of 

Children, pp. 287. Richardson and Smith, New 

York, 1904. 
*94. Shinn, Milicent IV. The Biography of a Baby, pp. 247. 

Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1900. 
t95. Shinn, Milicent W. Notes on the Development of a 

Child. Vols. I and 2, pp. 424. Univ. of California 

Studies. 

96. Smith, William Hawlcy. The , Evolution of "Dodd" ; a 

pedagogical story, pp. 245. Rand, McNally & Co., 
Chicago, 1884. 

97. Soldan, F. Louis. Tiedmann's Record of Infant Life, 

pp. 46. School Room Classics XIII. C. W. Bardeen, 
Syracuse, New York, 1890. 

98. Sforgo, John. The Bitter Cry of the Children, pp. 337. 

Macmillan, New York, 1906. 

99. Stoner. Winifred Sackvillc. Natural Education, pp. 293. 

The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 1914. 
*ioo. Sully, James. Studies in Childhood, pp. 527. D. Apple- 
ton, New York, 1896. 
loi. Szvift, Edgar James. The Mind in the Making, pp. 329. 

Chas. Scribner's Sons, New York, 1908. 
102. Swift, Edgar James. Learning and Doing, pp. 249. The 
Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 1914. 
*I03. Tanner, Amy. The Child, pp. 430. Rand, McNally & Co., 
Chicago, 1904. 
104. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 215. D. 
Appleton, New York, 1898. 
ti05. Thorndike, Edzv. L. Notes on Child Study, pp. 157. 
Columbia Univ. Contributions to Philos., Psych., and 
Educa., June, 1901 ; Vol. 8, Nos. 3 & 4- (P- i97 ^■) 



GENERAL REFERENCES FOR CHILD STUDY 13 

io6. Thorndike, Edw. L. The Study of Children, Teachers' 

College Record, 2:165-274. 
*I07. Tiedemann, F. Record of Infant Life. C. W. Bardecn, 

Syracuse, New York, 1890. 
*io8. Tracy F. and Stimpf, Jos'cph. Psychology of Childhood, 

pp. 219. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, 1909. (Tracy 

alone, pp. 176. 1906.) 
ti09. Transactions of the Illinois Society for Child Stndy. 

Vols. 1-5. 
fiio. Tucker, Blanche. Notes on the Care of Babies and 

Young Children, pp. 68. Longmans, Green & Co., 

New York, 1907. 

111. Twcddcll, Francis. How to take Care of the Baby, 

pp. 175. The Bobbs-Merrill Co., Indianapolis, 191 5. 

112. Tyler, John Mason. Growth and Education, pp. 294. 

Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 1907. 

113. Ufflcman, J. Manual of the Domestic Hygiene of the 

Child, pp. 224. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 
1891. 

114. Urwick, IV. E. The Child's Mind, Its Growth and 

Training, pp. 269. E. Arnold, London, 1907. 

115. WalUn, J. E. Wallace. The Mental Health of the School 

Child, pp. 463. Yale University Press, New Haven, 
1914. 

116. Warner, Charles Dudley. Being a Boy. Houghton 

Mifflin Co., New York. 
*ii7. Warner, Francis. The Study of Children and Their 

School Training, pp. 264. Macmillan, New York, 

1898. 
tii8. Warner, Francis. The Children: How to Study Them, 

pp. 108. Frances Hodgson, 1896. 
*iig. Whipple, Guy M. Manual of Mental and Physical Tests, 

Part I. Simple Processes, pp. 365. Warwich & 

York, Inc., Baltimore, 1914. 
ti20. Whipple, Guy M. Manual of Mental and Physical Tests. 

Part II. Complex Processes, pp. 336. Warwich & 

York, Inc., Baltimore, 1915. 

121. White, IVilliam Allen. Court of Boyville, pp. 358. Mac- 

millan, New York, 1910. 

122. Wiggin, Kate Douglas. Children's Rights, pp. 235. 

Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1892. 



14 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

123. Ji'iltse, Sarah. Place of the Story in Earlj- Education, 

pp. 132. Ginn & Co., Boston, 1892. 

124. JVinston, Annie Stegcr. Memoirs of a Child, pp. 169. 

Longmans, Green & Co., New York, 1903. 

125. IP'wtcrburn, Mrs. Florence. From the Child's Stand- 

point, pp. 278. The Baker & Taylor Co., New York, 

1899. 
12C1. Il'interburn, Mrs. Florence. Nursery Ethics, pp. 241. 
The Baker & Taylor Co., New York, 1899. 
-(•12/. Rodcr, A. H. (Editor.) Journal of Childhood ant' 
Adolescence. (See Journal of Adolescence.) Vols. 
1-3- 



*A book worthy to be added to a student's library consisting 
of twenty or more books on the Essentials of Child Study. 

tTo be added to the above library providing^ the number of 
books can be increased to fifty or more. 



CHAPTER T 

BEGINNING. NATURE AND SCOPE OF CHILD 
STUDY 

"To study is to observe, describe and think; and in 
studying children by scientific methods, we may hope 
not only to gain useful knowledge as to methods of 
educating and training boys and girls, but also to 
train ourselves to scientific accuracy in observing and 
thinking." Dr. Francis Warner. The (^hildren and 
How to Sudy Them. p. v. 

"In every age the child has been cared for, trained, 
instructed, watched over by hygienists, scolded and 
lectured by pedagogs. But with all this care and vigi- 
lance, with all this worship of which he has been 
the object, jjeople seem to have forgotten until now 
how to study him. to observe him in himself, in the 
humble beginnings of his intellectual and moral life, 
and psychologists even have hardly concerned them- 
selves with him." G. Compayre, The Intellectual 
and Moral Development of the Child, p. i. 

"It is not so much expert training in psychological 
laboratories or elsewhere that teachers and superin- 
tendents need, but their pressing need is rather to 
/overcome the all too common adult self-conceit that 
presumes to know what individuals should be, before 
it knows what they are.) The study of children in- 
creases our love and appreciation of them, which in 
turn will develop our ability to study them profitably." 
Dr. Herman T. Lukins, Educa. Rev. Feb. iSq/. 

15 



16 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

"Whatever success has attended educational efforts 
in the past has been due to the direct or indirect study 
of human nature. The newness of the movement of 
the last ten years consists in the fact that this study 
has become self-conscious ; that it concerns itself with 
the individual during the period of childhood and 
youth and that it uses to some extent the method of 
modern, inductive science. Child-study, as we under- 
stand it, is not, however, a pure science at all. Physi- 
ologists and psychologists who look out from their lab- 
oratories and laugh at our clumsy attempts to use 
their tools, make the mistake of thinking that we are 
trying to do their work. This is not true, tho we are 
trying to use some of their tools. Child-study is, at 
present, largely an applied science. It is prosecuted 
for the most part by teachers and parents who want 
knowledge that can be used in the development of the 
children for whose future happiness and usefulness 
they are immediately responsible." Prof. Earl Barnes, 
Studies in Education, i .-5. 

"The importance of this new movement it is hard 
to overestimate. It has brought a new and large hope 
into a field that was in danger of lapsing, either to 
mere literary brilliancy or to aridity in theories of ulti- 
mate reality, or in the massing of experimental data 
on points not always selected with breadth, wisdom 
and perspective. It is doing a work for the child at 
school akin to that of the reformation for the religious 
life of the adult, and the verdicts on many of the most 
important questions of method and matter for all edu- 
cational grades, from birth to college, when fully ren- 
dered, will be more or less final and will give education 
what it has long lacked — a truly scientific basis, and 
help to give to teachers a really professional status." 



.\.\ 1 L kh wi) ^5^^0PE OF i,! 1 1 Li ; .> i l u i i - 

Dr. G. Stanley Hall, Journ. of Childhood and Adoles- 
cence, Vol. 3, p. 50. 

"The observation of mental development in the 
earliest years naturally falls to the mother more than to 
any other person. But in order to initiate mothers into 
so complicated a science as that of psychogenesis, the 
results already attained in it must be presented to 
them in a form as easy of assimilation as possible. 
Other persons also — teachers, both male and female, 
fathers, older brothers and sisters — are to be induced 
to consider the importance of the facts in this field, 
which has indeed been lying open for hundreds of 
years, but has been little trodden, and is therefore a 
new field." Dr. W. Preyer, in Preface to Infant Mind. 

"One point of much importance must be empha- 
sized. While breeding can combine qualities already 
present in the selected individuals, and nurture can 
often bring such qualities to fuller development, 
^either breeding nor training can put in what is not 
already present.VWe can make new combinations, but 
we cannot create new qualitiesy Maynard M. Metcalf, 
Evolution and Man. The Journal of Heredity, 7:359. 

"Flower in the crannied wall, 
I pluck you out of the crannies, 
I hold you here, root and all, in my hand, 
Little flower — but if I could understand 
What you are, root and all, and all in all, 
I should know what God and man is." 

— Alfred Lord Tennyson. 

Mirrored in the soul of every boy and girl is the 
subconscious life of the adults about them. What we 
are today our children will be tomorrow. It is our 
own ideas and inner life that are reflected back to us 
by the conduct of the youth about us. The experien- 

2 



18 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

ces of the child in a large measure constitute the fruit 
of the man. ('Whatsoever a man soweth, that shall 
he also reap)" \\'hen we know what the past life of an 
individual has been, we know what the present life is. 

The processes of e\ olution are slow under the most 
favorable circumstances, but higher levels are reached 
and greater efficiency and truer happiness attained un- 
der suitable environments. 

What is Child Study? How different from genetic 
l)sychology? Studies that have aided in the move- 
ment: (a) liiology, — (i) Morphology, (2) Embryo- 
logy; (b) Psychology, — (t) Physiological, (2) Exper- 
imental, (3) (lenetic; (c) Pedagogy; id) Sociology. 

Child study is the conscious effort of teachers and 
parents to become better acquainted with the nature 
and nurture of the individual. It may be defined as 
the study of the psycho-physical development of the 
individual from the beginning of life to maturity. In 
this conscious, scientific phase, (child study is of quite 
recent origin, scarcely extending farther back than 
1880.' Among the most prominent early leaders of the 
movement are : Preyer, Tiedemann, Sigismund, Kuss- 
maul, Genzmer in Germany; Darwin, Sully, Pollock, 
Warner in England; Taine, Perez, Eggert, Binet, Com- 
payre in France ; Hall, Dewey, Baldwin, Barnes, Miss 
Shinn in America, not to mention others whose work 
has been exceedingly valuable in special lines. 

'(The results of child study have changed in a marked 
degree the methods of teaching and the health, 
strength, happiness, and worth of children. There 
has been a growing tendency, however, to popularize 
the movement thru selfish interests, encouraging 
pseudo-experimentation, and giving for truth what is 
not truth. This is a discourao^inc: feature to be met 



NATURE AND SCOPE OF CHILD STUDY 19 



with by progressive students in all fields of human 
activity, and tends always to hold back the advance- 
ment of civilization ■ 

The child at birth is a bundle of possibilities — groups 
of uncoordinated organs, complexes, impulses, in- 
stincts, — the result of nature. These call for nourish- 
ment and may be developed thru right nurture. In 
the long run more depends on nature than nurture. 
No amount of cultivation can change tare into wheat, 
corn into oats. The wild oats of one generation may 
become the garnered fruit of the next, f Under favor- 
able environment the plastic organism develops rapidly 
(toward higher levels — evolution ; or lower levels — 
devolution), but always in harmonv with fixed norms. 
Nothing can strengthen the teacher more than a deeper 
and truer understanding of the individual to be edu- 
cated, j 

The' new interest in the study of biology and other 
subjects mentioned above including the better meth- 
ods of approach (microscopy, fixing, staining, etc.) 
during the latter half of the nineteenth century, 
greatly stimulated the child study movement. The 
study of morphology disclosing the relation existing 
between form and function, the efifect of experience 
(use) on the structure of organisms; the study of 
embryology revealing the close relation existing be- 
tween the different forms of animal life, especially in 
the earlier stages. Man in common with all other 
animals, great and small, begins life in the same way — 
with a single cell — and seems to represent in his devel- 
opment all stages of lower animal life. Growth at first 
is largely the result of cell division and complexity of 
structure is very rapid. The change in weight during 
prenatal life is estimated liy G. Stanley Hall, Adoles- 



20 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

cence, 1.3, at nine hundred five million fold, and the 
total number of cells in the adult human being is esti- 
mated at four hundred billion, numbers too large to be 
grasped or appreciated by the mind. The rapid 
changes of growth and development during these early 
years and their influence in shaping the character of 
the individual are not sufficiently appreciated. 

Show the distinction between nature and nurture; 
heredity and environment. Is the teacher compelled 
to respect nature? Why? Of what does inheritance 
consist? How large a part does it play in the individ- 
ual's development? Can bad inheritance be rendered 
good thru education? What is the meaning of in- 
fancy? Of educability? 



CHAPTER II 

THE PRACTICAL IMPORTANCE OF CHILD 
STUDY 

(a) To the student of educational problems; (b) 
to the parents; (c) to the teacher; (d) to the child. 

Is the child an adult in miniature?* Differences 
between the child and the adult. The higher the 
organism the more complex the psychic activities and 
the more difficult to understand. iCnowledge may be 
increased in two ways, by observation and experience ; 
by introspection and reflection. Before we can 
classify we must gather, before we can teach we must 
understand.) 

Note close relation existing between physical and 
mental effort; between healthy ;)hysical and healthy 
mental growth. n?he interaction and mutual relation 
between the physical and psychical, make it necessary 
that teachers and parents understand the nature of the 
child in order to be effective in their teachingji 

In order that the teacher may keep in touch with 
the 'age, she needs to be interested in some living prob- 
lem. Nothing broadens so much as the carrying on 
of original investigation. Such investigation shoul'' 
be thoro and of vital interest to mankind. 



*The answer to this question is found in "The Development of the 
Child" by Nathan Oppenheim, Chaps. 2 and 3. Until within the last 
twenty-five years nearly all systems of education have been built upon the 
idea that the child is an adult in miniature) In 1882 Mrs. Harriet Beechef 
Stowe in Little Foxes, Fault-finding, p. 5'^ says: "Children . . . are 
grown people in miniature and need as careful consideration of their feelings 
as any of us." But the truth is that the child is different from the adult in 
almost every particular, and for this reason needs an almost entirely 
different treatment. Make note of the special differences for future appli- 
i-ation. 

21 



22 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



When we know the child, many of the difficult prob- 
lems of correlation, curricula, etc., will disappear. 
When parents realize the importance of nourishment, 
physical growth, and health to mental and moral 
vigor and activity, we will have a stronger and hap- 
pier race of people. Child study will in time bridge 
the gap between the home and the school. What are 
the difficulties in the study and the dangers on account 
of superficial work? 

The teacher of the child ought to be a biologist and 
true physician, but more he must be a sympathetic 
student of human nature and have the ability to im- 
part this knowledge. 

REFERENCES FOR LESSONS I AND II 

1. Adler, Mrs. Felix. Child Study in the Family. Child Study 

Mo., 2:138-151. 

2. Alleti, IVm. J. G. Child Study and Religious Education. 

Child Study Mo., 2:289-293. 

3. Baldzmn, J. M. Mental Development in the Child and the 

Race. Chap. i. 

4. Barnes, Earl. The Present and the Future of Child Study in 

America. Barnes' Studies in Education, Dec. 1902, Vol. 
2, pp. 363-372. 

5. Barnes, Earl. A Forgotten Student of Child Study. Paid- 

ologist, Nov. 1901, Vol. 3, pp. 120-123. 

6. Barnes, Earl. A Study Based on the Children of a State. 

Proc. of N. E. A., 1903, pp. 7S4-76i. 

7. Bennett, Beulah. Value of Child-Study to the Primary Sun- 

day School Teacher. Kindergarten Mag., 13:259-263. 

8. Bolton, Frederick E. New Lines of Attack in Child-Study. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1902, pp. 703-710. 

9. Browne-Crichton, Sir James. Address at the Child-Study 

Conference. Paidologist, Nov. 1902. Vol. 4, pp. I32-I37- 
10. Buchner, Edward Franklin. Some Characteristics of the 
Genetic Method. Psych. Rev., 9 : 490-507- 



REFERENCES FOR LESSONS I AND II 23 



Ti. Burbank, Luther. Train Children as I Do Plants. Jour, of 
Educa., Boston, 68: i4-i5- 

12. Burnham, Win. H. A Scheme of Classification for Child- 

Study. Per. Scm., 2:191-198. 

13. Cattell, Jas. McKeen. The School and the Family. Pop. 

Sci. Mo., 74:84-95. 

14. Chamberlain, Alexander F. Some Recent Child-Study Liter- 

ature. Per. Scm., 9:43-49: A Systematic Plan of Child 
Study. Paidologist (Lond.), Nov. 1901, Vol. 3, pp. 124- 
139- 

15. Chopin, H. D. Child Study in the Hospital. Forum, 17: 

125-126. 

16. Claparcde, Lid. Experimental Pedagogy. Trans, by Mary 

Louch and Henry Holman. Chap, i, Historical Sketch. 

17. Cravens, Frances. A Plea for Child Study. Child Study 

Mo., 2:176-178. 

18. Dressier, Fletcher B. Development of an Adequate Course 

of Manual Training for Elementary Grades. Proc. N. E. 
A., 1907, 766-771. 

19. Dressier, Fletcher B. Twenty-five Years of Child Study. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1907, pp. 910-914. 

20. Drummond, IV. B. The Cliild, His Nature and Nurture. 

Chaps. I and 2. 

21. Elwes, Hervcy. The Modern Child. 

22. Hall, G. Stanley. Aspect of Child Life and Education : 

also Child Study as a Basis for Psychology and Psycho- 
logical Teaching. Add. and Proc. of the Inter. Congress 
of Educa.. N. E. A., 1893, pp. 717-718. 

23. Hall, G. Sta^nley. The Ideal School as Based on Cliild 

Study. Paidologist, April, 1902. Vol. 4, pp. 32-38. 

24. Hancock, Jolm A. The Ohservation ol School Children. 

Per. Sem., Sept., 190 1. Vol. 8, pp. 291-340. 

25. Hogan, Louise. Study of a Child, Introduction. 

26. King, Irving. The Psychology' of Child Development. 

Chap. I. 

27. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study. Chap. I. 
28 Krohn, W. O. Practical Child Study. How to Begin 

Child Stnd> Mc. 1 ; 161 -176. 



24 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

29. Loesch, Angeline. The Child Study Department of the 

Chicago PubHc Schools. Also in Proc. N. E. A., 1902, 
pp. 710-716. 

30. Loiich, Mary. Some Common Objections to Child Study. 

Paidologist, Nov., 1902, Vol. 4, pp. 137-141. 

31. Luckey, G. IV. A. Child Study in Its Effects Upon the 

Teacher. Child Study Mo., i : 230. 

32. Luckey, G. W. A. Practical Lines of Child Study. Educa. 

Rev., 14 : 340. Also Proc. N. E. A., 1897, pp. 826-832. 

33. Mangold, Geo. B. Infant Mortality in American Cities. 

Annals of the Amer. Academy of Political and Social 
Science, 31 : 484-494. 

34. Mangold, Geo. B. Child Problems. Chaps. 1-3. 

35. Monroe, Will S. Notes on Child Study in Europe. Ped. 

Sem., 8:510-514. 

36. Morgan, Alex. Child Study in Relation to the Training 

of Teachers. Child Study, i :65-77. 
2,7. Morgan, C. Lloyd. Child Study. Paidologist, 3 : 62-75. 

38. Nicholson, Zella R. Child Study in the Kindergarten. 

Child Study Mo., 2 :675-684. 

39. Noss, Theodore B. What Our Schools Owe to Child Study. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1902, pp. 716-719. 

40. O'Shea, M. V. Method and Scope of Child Study. Child 

Study Mo., 1 : 1 29- 1 34. 

41. Plaisted, Laura L. The Early Education of Children. 

42. Sandiford, Peter. The Mental and Physical Life of School 

Children. Chap. I. 

43. Sherrington, Charles Scott. Some Points of Connection 

Between Child Study and Physiology. Paidologist, 
4:75-84- 

44. Smedley, Fred W. and Christopher, IV. S. Chicago Report 

on Child Study Investigation. Child Study Mo., 6: 1-4; 
127-140; 339-346. First Comprehensive Attempts at 
Child Study. Rep. Commissioner of Educa., 1901, 
1 : 709-729- 

45. Sully, James. Studies in Childhood, Introduction. 

46. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 9-14. 

47. Terman, L. M. Child Study; Its Reasons and Promise. 

Calif. Univ. Chronicle, 11:145-158. 1909. 



REFERENCES FOR LESSONS I AND II 25 

48. Thorndikc, Edw. Lee. The Study of Children. Teachers 

College Record, New York, 2:165 ff- (May, 1901). 

49. Thorndike, Edw. Lee. Notes on Child Study. Columbia 

Univ. Contributions to Phiios.. Psych., and Ednca., June 
1901. Vol. 8, Nos. 3-4. 

50. Tibbcy, T. C. The Ainatcur and Child Study. Paidologist, 

4: 144-146. 

51. Tibbey, T. G. Child Study and the New Educational 

Authorities. Paidologist, 6:28-33. 

52. Van Liew, CJias. C. Child Study as Related to Instruction. 

Trans. Illinois Soc. of Child Study. 1:9-21. 

53. Walker, M. R. Caution in Child Study. Paidologist. 

4 : 19-24 ; 84-92. 

54. Wyss, C. von. A Study of Children and Seedlings. Child 

Life, 1907. 9 : 67-69. 



CHAPTER III 
THE CHILD AT BIRTH AND ITS CARE 

(a) Physical Condition. The form and contour of 
the body : the muscles, the vegetative functions, and 
motor centers connected with the fundamental move- 
ments are well developed ; the nerve cells destined to 
form the central nervous system are complete in num- 
ber, tho for the most part immature and undeveloped. 

(b) Reflex Functions. Breathing rapid, averaging 
the first year about 44 respirations per minute; the 
fifth year, 26; in man, 18; rate of pulse at birth 130- 
140; end of the first year, 120-130; end of second year, 
106; normal rate in man, 71. Rate of pulse varies in 
different individuals and with the kind and amount of 
activity. Other reflex and instinctive movements ; 
their nature and influence on education. 

(c) Mental Conditions. Mind is practically a blank 
until the senses are awakened by external stimuli. 
However sharp the first sensations may seem to be, 
there is but little mental clearness. The child learns 
slowly to understand the causes of impressions. The 
muscular sense is active and apparently much pleasure 
is derived from its exercises. Sense of heat and cold 
are present, as is also that of taste. Touch is vague; 
smell, doubtful; sight, absent for the first few hours; 
hearing is also absent. 

(d) Care of the Child. At first the life of the nor- 
mal child consists almost wholly in eating and sleep- 
ing. The amount of sleep required by different indi- 
viduals under different circumstances varies, but judg- 

26 



THE CHILIJ A'l" BIRTH AXD ITS CARE 27 

ing- from the amount taken by healthy children under 
favorable environments, the need may be stated as 
follows: During the first three months from 20 to 22 
hours per day of 24 hours; from three to six months. 
16 to 18 hours per day; from one to two years. 14 to 
1^) hours per day ; from two to six years, 12 to 14 hours 
per day; from six to ten years, 10 to 12 hours per 
day; from ten to sixteen years, 8 to 10 hours per day. 
The growing child and the brain worker should never 
have less than the latter amount. The growing child 
may be induced to overeat but not oversleep. Many 
annoyances will be avoided and healthier conditions 
developed if the child from the first, is accustomed to 
habits of cleanliness and regular hours of sleep, alone 
in the dark. The evening bedtime should vary from 
six to eight during childhood ; even the youth would 
be stronger and happier if he went to bed regularly 
not later than 8 -.7,0. 

The natural food of the child is the mother's milk; 
when this is not to be had other milk should be substi- 
tuted. To the infant milk is a perfect food containing 
all the requirements of a balanced ration as follows: 

Human Milk Cow's Milk 

Fat 3-50% 350% 

Milk-Sugar 6.50 4.30 

Proteids 1.50 400 

Mineral Salts 0.15 0.70 

Water 88.3S 87.00 

(Oppenheim) 

All persons entrusted with the care of children 
should be familiar with dietetics. Departments of 
home economics should give special attention to the 
care of children and the foods best adapted to their 
needs. 



28 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

The nervous system is very sensitive to impressions 
from without, and habits are quickly formed which 
may influence beyond repair the whole after life of the 
child. The disposition of the child may be greatly 
modified by the environment. 

Fortunate is the child born in a sensible home with 
not over-indulgent parents. With wholesome food, 
cleanliness, fresh air, sunshine, rest and sleep the nor- 
mal child is almost sure to thrive if left free to work 
out its own salvation. 

REFERENCES 

1. Buckman, S. S. Babies and Monkeys. 19th Cent., 36:727- 

743. Pop. Sci. Mo., 46:371-388. 

2. Buckman, S. S. Human Babies — What They Teach. Nature, 

62 : 226-228. 

3. Butler, N. M. The Meaning of Infancy and Education. 

Educa. Rev., 13 158-75. 

4. Chamberlain, A. F. The Child. A Study in the Evolution 

of Man. Children's Claim Upon Childhood, Rep. Comm. 

of Educa., 1899-1900. Vol. i, pp. 810-825. 
Compayre, G. Intellectual and AToral Development of Chil- 
dren, pp. 28 ff. 
Darwin, Chas. Biographical Sketch of an Infant. Mind, 

2:285-294. Also Pop. Sci. Mo., 57:197-205. 
Fiske, John. The Meaning of Infancy. Chap. I. 
Growth of Children. Ped. Sem., 1:117, 246-249, 279, 298, 

and 2: 17-18. 
Drummond, W. B. The Child; His Nature and Nurture. 

Chaps. I and 4. 
Hall, G. Stanley. Notes on the Study of Infants. Ped. 

Sem. 1 : 127-138. 
Hall, Mrs. W. S. First Five Hundred Days of a Child's 

Life. Child Study Mo., 2:330-339. 
Hogan, Mrs. L. E. A Study of a Child, Also Children's 

Diet in Home and School. 

13. Hoefding, H. Psychology, pp. 3-5. 

14. Kidd, D. Savage Childhood. Chap. I. 



THE CHILD AT BIRTH AND ITS CARE 29 

15. King, Irving. The t*sychology of Child Development. 

Chap. 2. 

16. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study. Chap. 2. 

17. McLeish, Mrs. A. Observations on the Development of a 

Child. Transactions of the Illinois Soc. for Child Study, 
3: 109-124. 
t8. Oppenheim, N. The Development of the Child. Chaps. 
2 and 3; also The Care of the Child in Health. Chaps. 
4-9. 

19. Peckham, Grace. Infancy in the City. Pop. Sci. Mo., 

28:683-689. 

20. Perez, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 7-13, 44. 

21. Preyer, W. Mental Development of the Child, pp. 1-15. 

22. Preyer, IV. Senses and Will, pp. v-xv, 1-3, 72-77, 211, 217, 

237- 

23. Putnam, Dr. Helen C. Birth Registration and Prevention 

of Infant Mortality. Proc. Child. Conf. for Research 

and Welfare (Clark University). Vol. 2, 1910, pp. 119- 
128. 

24. Rnbinson, I.. Darwinism in the Nursery. igth Cent., 

30:831-842. 

25. Shinn, Milicent IV. Notes on the Development of a Child. 

Vol. I, p. 10 ff., and the Biography of a Baby. Chaps. 
2 and 3. 

26. Seguin, E. Pre-Natal and Infantile Culture. Pop. Sci. 

Mo., 10:38-43. 

27. Tweddell, Francis. How to Take Care of the Baby. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE PHYSICAL CHILD, INCLUDING HEALTH, 

GROWTH, FOOD, EXERCISE, REST, 

SANITATION. 

The average weight of a girl at birth is about 7.1 
pounds. The boy is a few ounces heavier. There 
is usually a decrease in weight for the first few days, 
and then a rapid increase, which becomes proportion- 
ally less each month. The height or length at birth 
averages between 19 to 20 inches or about 2^ inches 
in length to one pound in weight. The proportion 
changes until at five years the weight in pounds equals 
the height in inches. Average weight and height for 
the first few years : 

Ht. in. Inches Wt. in Pounds 

Age M. F. M. F. 

Birth 19.6 19.3 7-3 7-i 

1 year 28.5 27.6 20.5 19.8 

2 years 33.6 32.5 27.2 26.1 

3 years 36.8 35.6 33.4 32.2 

4 years 38.5 37-8 37-1 35-8 

5 years 411 40-7 4io 40.5 

Table showing the average height and weight of 
45,151 American boys and 43,298 American girls ob- 
tained from the calculations of Franz Boaz : 

Boys Girls 

Age Inches Pounds Inches Pounds 

5-5 417 416 41-3 40.1 

6.5 43-9 45-2 43-3 43-4 

7-5 46.0 49-5 ^ 45-7 475 

30 



THE PHYSICAL CHILD 31 



Boys Girls 

Age Inches Pounds Inches Pounds 

8.5 48.8 54.5 47.7 52.5 

9-5 50.0 59.6 59.7 57.4 

10.5 51-9 65.4 517 62.9 

H.5 536 70.7 53-8 69.5 

12.5 55-4 76.9 56.1 78.7 

13-5 57.5 84.8 58.5 88.6 

14.5 60.0 95.2 60.4 98.8 

15.5 62.4 107.4 61.6 106.7 

16.5 64.9 121.0 62.2 112.3 

17-5 66.5 128.5 62.7 1 15.4 

18.5 67.4 134-7 62.7 1 15.0 

What facts of value to the teacher have been ob- 
tained thro the physical measurements of children? 
Xote that (a) American children are taller than chil- 
dren of other nations; (b) children of the laboring 
classes are shorter and lighter than those of the non- 
laboring classes; (c) country children are larger than 
city children ; (d) the death rate of children is large, 
reaching in some localities 25% during the first year, 
averaging in United States 14 to 16%. The causes 
are chiefly ignorance, carelessness, poverty, unsani- 
tary conditions. 

The eiTect of growth on death-rate, disease and 
school work, (i) Responsibility of the teacher for 
the physical condition of the children. (2) Low stand- 
ards and almost criminal neglect of physical education. 

(3) Why is the physical education of vital importance? 

(4) What is the end in view? 

(The child is very different from the adult in in- 
stincts, interests, activities, needs. There are three 
important periods or levels of growth and development 
during childhood, duplicated again in the same order 
during adolescence. The first from birth to two or 



32 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

three years is one of feeling, sense, and dermal develop- 
ment; the second from three to eight is one of voli- 
tional, fundamental muscular development; the third 
from eight to twelve is one of intellectual, accessory- 
muscular development. What kind of mental food is 
best for each of these levels? Is there danger of arrest/ 
thru too early, or improper approach of the subject?. 

REFERENCES ON THE PHYSICAL CHILD 

1. Beyer, H. G. The Influence of Exercise on Growth. Am. 

Phys. Educa. Rev., i : 76-87. 

2. Boaz, Franz. Anthropological Investigations in Schools. 

Ped. Sem., i : 225-228. 

3. Boas, Franz. Growth of First-Born Children. Sci. (N. S.), 

1 : 402-404. 

4. Boas, Franz. The Growth of Children. Scie nce. 19 : 2 56^7. 

281-2; 20:351-2; (N. S.) 5:570-3; (N. S.) 1:225-30. 
Report of U. S. Comm. Educa., 1904, Vol. i, 25-132. 

5. Bobbitt, John F. The Growth of Philippine Children. Ped. 

Sem., 16:137-168. 

6. Burk, F. Growth of Children in Height and Weight. Am. 

Jour. Psyjcli^_9J^63-326. 

7. Buf'k', F. Physical Measurements. Northw. Mo., 8:586-88. 

8. Burks, Jesse D. The Health of School Children. Proc. 

Child Conf. for Research and Welfare (Clark Univ.), 
Vol. 2. 1910, pp. 138-141. 

9. Channing, Walter. Importance of Physical Training in 

Childhood. Educa. Rev., 10:262-272. 

10. Christopher, IV. S. Child Study in Chicago Public Schools. 

Child Study Mo., 6: 127-140 (Oct., 1900). 

11. Christopher, W. S. Report of Child-Study Investigation. 

Annual Rep. of Board of Educa. of Chicago, 1898-1899, 
pp. 27-79- 

12. Christopher, IV. S. Three Crises in Child Life. Child Study 

Mo., 3 : 324-335- 

13. Clouston, T. S. Neurosis of Development, etc., pp. 7-9. 

14. Curtis, Henry S. The Duty of the Community to School 

Children. Proc. Child Conf. for Research and Welfare 
(Clark Univ.), Vol. 2, pp. 178-182. 



THK PHYSICAL CHILD 33 

15. Davison, Alvin. The Human Body and Health. 

16. Donaldson, H. H. Growth of the Brain, pp. 51-80. 

17. Drummond, IV. B. An Introduction to Child Study. Chaps. 

7 and 8. 

18. Eaton, Amasa M. Vital Statistics in the United States. 

Proc. Child Conf. for Research and Welfare (Clark 
Univ.), Vol. 2, 1910, pp. 284-286. 

19. Farrand, Lii'ingston. Our Duty to the Tuberculosis Child. 

Proc. of Child Conf. for Research and Welfare (Clark 
Univ.), Vol. 2, 1910, pp. 183-186. 

20. Gilbert, J. A. Researches on the Mental and Physical Devel- 

opment of School Children. Studies from Yale Psych. 
Lab., 1.894, 2:40-100. 

21. Growth of Children. Science, 11:28. 

22. Hall, IV. S. First Five Hundred Days of a Child's Life. 

Child Study Mo., pp. 332-342. 

23. Hall, G. Stanley. Adolescence. Vol. i, Chap, i. 

24. Hancock, John A. Work and Play. Education, 25:257-268. 

25. Hastings, IV. W. Anthropometric Studies in Nebraska. 

Am. Phys. Educa. Rev., 5:53-66; also Proc. N. E. A., 
1899, PP- 1076-1084. 

26. Hudson, G. H. Phenomena of Child Growth in Education. 

Educa., 14: 466-477. 

27. Kerr, Jas. Psychological Variations in Children. Child 

Study, 2 : 65-82. Oct., 1909. 

28. Key, Alex. Schulhygienische Untersuchungen, p. i fif. 

29. Kirkpatrick, P.. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. I5-I9- 

30. Kraepelin. Emil. Measure of Mental Capacity in Children. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., 49:756-63. Pub. Opin., 2:529. 

31. Lee, Joseph. Open Air Rooms in the Boston Schools. 

Proc. of Child Conf. for Research and Welfare (Clark 
Univ.), Vol. 2, 1910, pp. 187-191. 

32. LeGrange, M. F. Physical Training of Young Children. 

Pop. Sci. Mo.. 34:449-54- 
T^^. McXamara, T. J. Physical Condition of the Working-Class 
Children. 19th Cent., 56 : 307-3"- 

34. Marzoedel, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 334-340. 

35. Opdcri. J. Lnws of Humnn Growth. Educa.. i2:207--;i2. 

36. Oppenhcim, NcUhan. The Recognition of the Physical 

Development of the Child in the Training of Kinder- 
gartners. Proc. N. E. A., 1905, 344-346- 
3 



34 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

T,y. O'Shea, M. V. The Relation of Physical Training to Mental 
Activity. Amer. Phys. Educa. Rev., 9:28-35. 

38. Parsons, Bell Ranger. Physical Training by Means of Play. 

School Journal, N. Y., 69 : 520-522. 

39. Pearson, K. Dilettanteism and Statistics — A Criticism on 

the Growth of St. Louis School Children. Nature, 
51 : 145-6. 

40. Porter. ]]'. T. Growth of St. Louis Children. Transac- 

tions of the Academy of Science, of St. Louis, Vol. VI, 
No. 12, also Am. Statist. Assn., 4:28-34. 

41. Porter, W. T. Application to Individual School Children 

of Anthropological Measurements from the Generalizing 
Method. Am. Statist. Assn., 3 : 576-587. 

42. Porter, W. T. Anthropometrical Measurements in Schools. 

Educa. Rev., 11 : 126-133. 

43. Porter, W. T. The Physical Basis of Precocity and Dull- 

ness. Am. Phys. Educa. Rev., 2:155-175; also in the 
Transactions of the Academy of Science, St. Louis. 
6: 161-181. 

44. Prior, Mary D. Notes on the First Three Years of a Child. 

Ped. Sem., 3 ■-339-341 • 

45. Rankin, Francis H. Hygiene of Childhood, pp. 11-17, I37- 

140. 

46. Reid, G. W. Relation of the Physical Nature of the Child 

to His Mental and Moral Development. Proc. of N. E. 
A., 1907, 305-7. 

47. Robinson, L. Darwinism in the Nursery. Pop. Sci. Mo., 

19th Cent., 30:831-842. 

48. Robinson. L. The Primitive Child. N. Am. Rev., 159:467- 

478. 

49. Rowe, Stuart H. The Child's Physical Development. School 

Jour.. N. Y., 71 : 125. 

50. Rowe, Stuart H. The School and the Child's Physical De- 

velopment. Proc. N. E. A., 1905, 742-749- Also in Jour. 
Educa., Boston, 63:116-117. 

51. Roive, S. H. Physical Nature of the Child. Chap. 12. Also 

see Index. 

52. Sandiford, Peter. The Mental and Physical Life of School 

53. Stoner, Mrs. Winifred S. Natural Education, pp. 245-257. 

Children. Chap. 2. 



THE PHYSICAL CHILD 35 

54. Tanner, Amy E. The Child. Chap. 2. 

55. Tyler, J. M. Study of Growth in Children. Proc. of N. E. 

A., 1908, 913-916. 

56. Waller, Jessie O. Mental and Physical Training of Chil- 

dren. Pop. Sci. Mo., 36:213-222. 

57. Warner, F. Mental and Physical Conditions of Children. 

Jour. Statis. Soc. of London, 59 : 125-162. 

58. Warner, F. Study of Children. Pages 6, 16, 27, 60. 

59. West, G. M. Growth of the Human Body. Educa. Rev., 

12 : 284-289. 

60. Zeitschrift fur Schulgesundheitspflege. 

61. Northwestern Monthly (Physical Child Number), July, 1897, 

8: I flF. 



CHAPTER V 
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 

(a) Brain growth. The relation of size, weight, con- 
vokition and density of the brain to intelligence. 

According to Leiiret the ratio of brain weight to 
body weight increases as we ascend the animal scale. 
Beginning with the fishes the proportion of brain to 
body is i to 5668; in reptiles i to 132 1 ; in birds i to 
212; in mammals i to 186; in man 1 to 36. But there 
are some notable exceptions to the rule, as follows : 
the brain weight to body weight in the field-mouse 
is I to 31; marmoset i to 22; canary and linnet i to 
20; blueheaded tit i to 12; the child at birth i to 6; 
at ten i to 14; at twenty i to 30. Primitive animals, 
as the dinosaurs, had immense bodii<es but small brains. 
Usually the convolutions increase in both convexity 
and number as we ascend the andmal scale; texture 
and specific gravity may indicate i'.ntelligence. 

At birth the brain weighs about; 382 grams and dif- 
fers but little in the sexes. It has reached one-fourth 
of its maximum weight, while th«e body has reached 
only about one-twentieth of its ma>:imum weight. At 
the end of the first year the brain vi^eighs 2>4 times as 
much as at birth, or nearly tv^o-thirds of the adult 
brain. After birth a boy's brain grows more rapidly 
than that of a girl until the age of 14, when, accord- 
ing to Vierodt, the girl's brain surpasses the boy's 
for a time. The brain reaches its tp^aximum weight 
in a girl at about 14 and in th<? boy two years later. 

Z6 



THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 37 

However, there may be a slight increase in brain 
weight until forty. 

According to Kaes and Vulpius there is a rapid in- 
crease of the middle layer (highest level of Jackson) 
including the tangential fibers connecting different 
parts of the cortex between i8 and 38 or even 50. It 
is now that the developing tangential fibers become 
mcdullatcd or take on the myelin sheath. These 
fil)ers and the associative cells which they connect are 
probably concerned with higher intelligence (Flech- 
sig) and enable the normal individual to become in- 
terested in abstract reasoning, science, higher analytic 
and synthetic processes, moral and esthetic judg- 
ments. 

The brain, like the body, has periods of growth and 
periods of rest. A notable period of rest occurs at 
iniberty. The increase in brain weight after birth is 
not due to increase in nerve cells, but to an increase 
in the size of these cells. At birth many of these 
cells are immature and undeveloped. They do not 
all develop at once, but follow a certain definite order. 
The cells controlling the vegetative functions and the 
fundamental movements attain their normal activity 
first; then those controlling the fundamental muscles 
and coarser sense discriminations, and later the acces- 
sory muscles and finer sense discriminations. Of what 
educational significance are these facts? 

Nerve cells decrease in size during work (I lodge), 
while muscles grow during exercises, and lose bulk 
during subsequent rest (Parks, Bains' Logic, Bk. 
Ill, Chap, evil I, note 6). Account for this. 

(b) Office of the nervous system. For convenience, 
the different groups of nerve cells may be divided into 
(i) The sensory group, whose function is to convey 



38 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

different impulses to the great central nerve mass. (2) 
The distributive (associative group), v^hose function 
is to take up and convey the different impulses to the 
third, or (3) Motor group, which completes the circuit 
by conveying the impulses to the organs of expression. 
The first and third groups differ but little in higher 
animals and in man. It is with the central group that 
the greatest differences occur. The function of this 
group of nerve cells is to serve the higher intelligence, 
judgment, reason, aesthetics, ethics and constructive 
thinking. In this group the brain of the man of 38 is 
twice as rich as the boy of 18 (Kaes). The office of 
the nervous system is to create, conserve and dis- 
tribute nerve-force or energy. The nerve cells must 
depend for their surplus energy upon physical health 
and nutrition. The child's efficiency depends upon the 
amount of available nervous energy and his wisdom 
in using it. Why is it important to know the order of 
development and the nascent periods of individual 
growth ? 

REFERENCES 

1. Anatomy, Physiology and Diseases of the Brain. Science, 

5:258-260; 7:359-360. 

2. Arrowsmith, John. Brain Development Through Play. 

Paidologist, 9 : 52-64. 

3. Baldwin, J. M. Maudsley on the Double Brain. Mind, 14: 

545-550. 

4. Baldwin, J. M. Mental Development in the Child and the 

Race: also a Review of the Same. Child Study Mo., 
1 : 191-192. 

5. Boaz, Franz. Anthropological Investigation in Schools. 

Ped. Sem., i : 225-228. 

6. Boileau, J. P. H. Brain Weight and Brain Pov*^er. Pop. 

Sci. Mo., 22: 172-174. Brain Growth and Body Growth. 
Science, 10: 172-173. 



THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 39 



7. Burk, Frederick. From Fundamental to Accessory in the 

Development of the Nervous System. Ped. Sem., 6: 2-64; 
also a digest of Rep. Comm. of Educa., 1900-1910, Vol. 
I, 327-344- 

8. Burnham, W. H. Outlines of School Hygiene. Ped. Sem., 

2:9-18. 

9. Clarke, Ediv. H. The Building of a Brain. 

10. Clousten, T. S. What the Brain Has to Do in Youth Be- 

sides "Getting Educated." Child Study Mo., 5:417-424. 

11. Donaldson, H. H. The Growth of the Brain, pp. 103-105, 

336-345 ; also Education of the Nervous System. Educa. 
Rev., 9: 105-121 ; Growth in Relation to Training. Trans, 
of Illinois Soc. of Child Study, 1 :59-63- 

12. Drummond, IV. B. The Child: His Nature and Nurture, 

p. 56. 

13. Ferguson, John. The Care of the Nervous System and Its 

Relation to Education. Pop. Sci. Mo., 47 : 528-538. 

14. Ferrier, David. The Functions of the Brain. 

15. Gilbert, J. A. Research on the Mental and Physical Devel- 

opment of School Children. Studies from Yale Psych. 
Laboratory, 1894, 2:40-100. 
t6. Gilbert, J. A. Relation of Physical and Mental Growth. 
Child Study Mo., i : 222. 

17. Hall, G. Stanley. Growth of the Brain. Adolescence, i : 

105-112. 

18. Halleck, R. P. Laws of Cerebral Development and Modi- 

fication of Child Study. Proc. N. E. A., 1897, pp. 833- 

843. 

19. Hodge, C. P. Some Effects of Electrically Stinuilating Gan- 

glion Cells. Amer. Jour, of Psych., 2 : 376-402. 

20. Hodge, C. F. Process of Recovery from the Fatigue Occa- 

sioned by the Electrical Stimulation of the Cells of the 
Spinal Ganglia. Am. Jour. Psych., 3 : 530-543- 
2T. Hyslop, Theo. B. Brain Fag in Children. Jour, of Pre- 
ventative Med., 13 : 603-612. 

22. Kidd, D. Savage Childhood (The Dawn of Self-Conscious- 

ness). Chap. 2. 

23. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, p. 19. 

24. Krohn, Wm. 0. Physical Education and Brain Building. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1903, pp. 818-823. 



40 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

25. Macnamara, N. C. The Human Brain in Relation to Edu- 

cation. Westminster Review, 154:634-640. 

26. Martin, E. S. Mind of the Child. Harper, 114:70-76. 

27. Mcrcicr, Clias. The Nervous System and the Mind. 

28. O'Shea, M. V. Encouraging the Mental Powers of the Child. 

Cosmop., 28:358-362. 

29. Porter, W. T. On the .\pplication to Individual School 

Children of the Mean Values Derived from Anthro- 
pometrical Measurements by the Generalizing Method. 
Am. Statis. Assn. (Boston), 3:576-587. 

30. Pozi'cr, M. A. About the Minds of Little Children. Educa., 

6 : 26-34. 

31. Preyer, W. Mental Development of the Child (Infant 

Mind), p. 9. 
22. Preyer, IV. The Development of the Intellect, p. 272. 
3^. Sandiford, Peter. The Mental and Physical Life of School 

Children, pp. 81-107. 

34. Scribner, G. H. Brain Development as Related to Evolution. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., 46:525-538- 

35. Shinn, Miliccnt W. Notes on the Development of a Child. 

36. Sinvms, J. Brain Weights, Human. Pop. Sci. Mo., 31 : 355- 

359- 

2,7. Spitzka, E. A. The Brain Weight of Japanese. Sci. n. s., 

18:371-373- 

38. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 276, ff. 

39. The Mental Condition of Babies. Cornhill, 7 : 649-656. 

40. The Size of the Brains in Men and Women. Cornhill, 7: 

276-278. 

41. Warner, Francis. The Study of Children, pp. 33-51. Men- 

tal Faculty, pp. 33-50. 

42. Waterman, Jr., R. Anthropometric Statistics. Am. Statis- 

tical Assn. (Boston), 2:443-444. 

43. Whiiaker, J. R. Anatomy of the Brain and Spinal Cord. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE SENSE OF SIGHT 

The child at birth cannot see, hear or smell. Touch, 
including temperature, sense, taste, and the muscular 
sense, are more or less responsive to the proper stimuli. 

It is essential to effective teaching that the teacher 
become familiar with the anatomy, physiology, and 
hygiene of the sense organs and their relation to 
mental development. This is especially true of the 
eye and ear, the two sense organs that have the 
most to do with public education. Students who have 
not made an extended study of the eye and ear should 
do so before proceeding further with the course. 

(i). Sight observations indicate that the child is 
sensitive to light soon after birth. This is shown by 
slight contractions of the pupil, and later by turning 
the head toward the light ; also by slightly opening or 
closing the eyes to approaching or receding light. 
The ability to see objects occurs much later. A light 
so bright as to be painful to the child on first awaken- 
ing may be borne later without any signs of pain. 
Note the accounts of early sensitiveness to light, and 
some of the early purposive eye movements. How do 
these agree? 

(2). Physical movements and adjustments of the 
eyes. From the first the pupil accommodates itself to 
the brightness of the light by contracting and expand- 
ing. Both pupils contract when light affects one. At 

41 



42 T HE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

first many of the eye movements are unsymmetrical. 
The look may be directed downward while the lids 
are beino- raised, or one eye may follow a moving 
object without the other. The eyes of the infant close 
reflexively from the first when the conjunctiva, the 
cornea, or even the lashes are touched, but winking 
as the result of a suddenly approaching object does 
not occur according to Preyer until the close of the 
second month. Does this indicate that touch pre- 
cedes sight? What must be the physiological process 
in the child when differing intensities of light produce 
changed expressions? What eye movements may be 
considered inborn, and what acquired? Account for 
the contracting and expanding of both pupils of the 
eves of the infant when only one is stimulated. 



OBSERVATIONS SHOWING EARLY SENSITIVENESS 
TO LIGHT 

1. "During the first day the child's eyebrows were 
contracted when a strong light was thrown upon 
the eyes even tho they were closed." Winifred 
Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2 :458. 

2. "Long before the close of the first day the child's 
expression, as he was held with his face toward 
the window, became suddenly different when I 
shaded his eyes with my hand." W. Preyer, The 
Mind of the Child. Part i :2. 

3. "On the second day the eyes closed quickly when 
a candle was brought near them." Ibid, i :3. 

4. "The eyes close (reaction time one second) from a 
sudden bright light in the eyes" — sixth day. Geo. 
Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Develop- 
ment, page 5. 

5. "The eyes were fixed on a candle when a week 
old." Champneys, Mind, 6: 105. 



THE SENSE OF SIGHT 43 

6. "The eyes of a newborn child open by preference 
at twilight and in the evening." Epinas, quoted by 
Compayre in The Intellectual and Moral iJevel- 
opment of the Child, Part i, p. 99. 

7. "'The second day, the child likes darkness better 
than light; he does not open his eyes except when 
in darkness." Cuiget-ibid, p. 100. 

EARLY ADJUSTMENTS OF THE EYES TO LIGHT 

1. "The eyes opened gradually within a few minutes 
after birth and were perfectly coordinated from 
the first." Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, 
p. I. 

2. "C's father noticed on the second day that a good 
deal of ocular movement was forthcoming." Jas. 
Sully, Studies of Childhood, page 401. 

3. "At seventy-five hours (the fourth day) his eyes 
were \vk\& open and turned from one object to an- 
other. The eyes were not in focus." Kathleen 
Moore, Mental Development of a Child, page 45. 

4. "On the ninth day, the left eye opens somewhat 
more slowly than the right." Dearborn, Moto- 
Sensory Development, p. 7. 

5. "It was on the twenty-third day of his life that 
my child who w^as gazing at the candle burning 
steadily at the distance of one metre before him, 
turned both eyes to the left when I moved the 
candle to the left and to the right when the candle 
was moved to the right." Preyer, The Mind of the 
Child, page 43. 

6. On the fifty-second day, "L. seems to be trying to 
move her eyes, for she looks into her mother's face 
and is badly cross-eyed at these times, which 
is something entirely new w'ith her." Dearborn, 
Moto-Sensory Development, page 21. 

7. "On the fifty-seventh and fifty-eighth days, I no- 
ticed for the first time that winking made its ap- 
pearance, occurring when I put my head quickly 
near the child's face." Preyer, The Mind of the 
Child, page 26. 



44 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



8. "When he had attained the age of three months, 
non-co-ordinated movements of the eyes were no 
longer to be observed." Preyer, The Mind of the 
Child, page 37. 

REFERENCES 

1. Black, J. S. Education of the Physical Senses. Educa., 

16:68-77. 

2. Chrisman, Oscar. Sight and Hearing in Relation to Edu- 

cation. Proc. N. E. A., 1904, pp. 939-946. 

3. Compayre, G. Intellectual and Moral Development of the 

Child. Chap. III. 

4. Hall, Mrs. W. S. First Five Hundred Days of a Child. 

Child' Study Mo., 2 : 45^465- 

5. Kidd, D. Savage Childhood (The Development of the 

Faculties). Chap. 4. 

6. Le Conte, John L. Evidence of the Senses. No. Am. Rev., 

140:85-96. 

7. Lovett, R. W. The Development of the Senses. Pop. Sci. 

Mo., 21 : 34-37. 

8. Lubbock, J. Problematical Organs of Sense. Pop. Sci. 

Mo., 34: 101-107. 

9. Oppenheim, N. Origin of the Senses. Sat. Rev., 81 : 471- 

472. Development of the Child, p. 61. 

10. Perez, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 40-41. 

11. Preyer, IV. Mental Development of the Child; Also Infant 

Mind, pp. 1-15. 

12. Preyer, IV. The Mind of the Child (Part I, The Senses 

and the Will, p. i ff). 

13. Sandiford, Peter. The Mental and Physical Life of School 

Children, pp. 108-123. 

14. Shinn, Milicent W. Notes on the Development of a Child, 

pp. 10-56. 

15. Shinn, Milicent W. Comparative Importance of the Senses 

in Infancy. Northwr. Mo., 8:544-547. 

16. Shinn, Milicent IV. The Biography of a Baby, Chap. 3- 

17. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 69 ff. 

18. Tracy, F. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 1-8; 7th Ed., pp. 

1-6. 

19. Warner, FraHcis. Study of Children, p. 128. 



CHAPTER VII 
THE SENSE OF SIGHT— Continued. 

(3) Beginning of Conscious Perception. To fixate 
an object the child must have control over some of 
the muscles of the head and eyes. Evidently fixation 
does not occur before the tenth day. Preyer, Raehl- 
man, Witewski. From the first the fovea is the most 
sensitive part of the retina and the eyes or even the 
head may turn so as to bring the direct rays of light 
upon it. 

At first the infant simply stares passively in the 
direction of the bright object with no volitional effort, 
but after the first few weeks it becomes able grad- 
ually to fixate objects and to turn from one object 
to another, then to follow slowly moving objects. 
This requires considerable co-ordination of movements 
and is generally noticed first about the fifth or sixth 
week. A little later the child has changed from 
simply looking at objects to the observation of ob- 
jects and the active searching for them. Raehlman 
points out two specially important periods in this 
development, one at about the end of the fifth week 
when the child begins to fixate objects in the direct 
line of vision, co-ordinating the eye and lid move- 
ments ; the other at the end of the fifth month, when 
the child first seems to be attracted by objects on the 
periphery of the field of vision. The latter period 
serves especially for development of the powers of 

45 



46 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

observation and the association of visual and tactile 
sensations. 

OBSERVATIONS SHOWING THE BEGINNING TO 
FIXATE OBJECTS 

1. "Again on the eleventh day, the child seemed to 
be much pleased by a candle burning before him 
at a distance of one-half metre, for he gazed at it 
steadily with wide open eyes." Preyer, The Mind 
of the Child, page 3. 

2. "In like manner behaved a female child who, on 
the 14th day directed her gaze, which had been 
fastened upon her father's face, to some one who 
came up, and, at the sight of this person's head- 
covering, the child's gaze became rooted as if with 
surprise." Frau Professor Von Striimpell, from 
Preyer, The Mind of the Child. 

3. "On the twenty-fifth day my child fixed his eyes 
for the first time upon the face of his nurse, then 
upon mine and his mother's, and when I nodded, 
he opened his eyes wider, and shut and opened the 
lids several times." Preyer, The Mind of a Child, 
page 30. 

4. "In the third week the child looked long and stead- 
ily at a bright red waist worn by his aunt." 
Winifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:458. 

5. "In the tenth week the child looked attentively at 

a stray lock of dark hair hanging beside a familiar 
face." Kathleen Moore, Mental Development of 
a Child, page 54. 

6. "A third child began, after the end of the sixteenth 
week, to look at its hands." E. Schulte, in Preyer, 
The Mind of the Child, page 47. 

EARLY EYE MOVEMENTS 

I. On the twenty-eighth day — ^"He turned his head 
(while lying down) in order to follow with his 
eyes the face of a person speaking to him." Kath- 
leen Moore, Mental Development of a Child, 
page 46. 



THE SENSE OF SIGHT 47 



2. "I used my hand to move to and fro before the 
baby, and could not satisfy myself that she fol- 
lowed it, tho she sometimes seemed to; but the 
day after she was a month old I tried a candle, 
and her eyes followed it unmistakably; she even 
threw back her head to follow it farther." Mili- 
cent Shinn. The Biography of a Baby, page 68. 

3. "In the fifth week, as the mother was brushing 
her hair, the child's eyes followed the slow motions 
of the brush." Winifred Hall, Child Study 
Monthly, 2 : 459. 

4. '"The last observation of the matter was recorded 
on the thirty-seventh day when the child followed 
moving objects in the room — as a person — by 
turning both eyes and head, the eyes turning first." 
D. R. Major. The l'"irst Stej) in Mental Growth, 
page 341. 

5. "His eyes followed his aunt across the room at the 
age of'three and a half months." L. Hogan. The 
Study of a Child, page 17. 

6. "Sigismund's boy at nineteen weeks paid great 
attention to the movements of a pendulum, and 
afterwards followed the movements of a spoon 
from dish to mouth and back again, with eager 
mien." Frederick Tracy. The Psychology of 
Childhood, page 6. 

7. "But it was not till the twenty-ninth week that 1 
saw the child look distinctly beyond all doubt, 
after a sparrow flying by." Preyer. The Mind of 
the Child, page 48. 

8. "In the sixty-sixth week, lying on his back, his 
eves followed the flight of a fly which circled 
somewhat slowly above his bed." Kathleen 
Moore, Mental Development of a Child, page 57. 

(4) Perspective. At the first all objects are seen 
as if at the same distance. Observations on the blind 
just restored to sight indicate that objects first appear 
as touching the eyes. In perspective, the animal in- 
herits at birth what the child must acquire slowly 



48 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

thru experience. The animal has but few possible 
associations and these well established, while the 
child has innumerable potentialities, which rest on ex- 
perience for development. The embryonic life of the 
child is too short for this myriad of associative tracts 
to be fully established, and each generation increases 
the number of potentialities and lengthens the depend- 
ent period. Education means little to the animal, but 
everything to the child. 

Children learn to rightly interpret distance of ob- 
jects in nature earlier than in pictures. Why is this? 
How does the individual learn to see perspective? 

REFERENCES 

1. Brczver, Dunstan. Mind of the Child. Kind. Mag., 20:74- 

78, Nov., 1909. 

2. Cotnpayre, G. Intellectual and Moral Development of the 

Child, pp. 114-135- 

3. Darwin, Chas. Biography of an Infant. Mind., 2:286-287. 

4. Hall, Mrs. W. S. First Five Hundred Days of a Child's 

Life. Child Study Mo., 2:458-465. 

5. Harris, Mrs. L. H. The Mind of the Child. Independent, 

64: 1 398- 1 399. 

6. King, I. Psychology of Child Development, pp. 28-41. 

7. Marwedel, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 334-359- 

8. Moore, Kathleen C. Mental Development of a Child, pp. 

51-60. 

9. Preyer, W. The Mind of the Child. Senses and Will, pp. 

41-71. 

10. Peres, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 224-228. 

11. Shinn, Milicent W. Notes on the Development of a Child. 

Vol. I, pp. 14-25; also Interest in Seeing, pp. 79-88. 
79-88. 

12. Sully, J. Studies of Childhood, pp. 401-406. 

13. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, 82-93. 

14. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 41-53. 

15. Tracy, F. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 8-14; 7th Ed., pp. 

6-11. 

16. Uffelmann, J. Domestic Hygiene of the Child, pp. 183-190. 



CHAPTER VIII 
THE SENSE OF SIGHT— Continued 

(5) Color Discrimination. We may safely assume 
that at first all children are absolutely color blind, only 
light and darkness being discriminated. A brigiit col- 
ored object may attract not on account of the color 
but on account of the light it contains. This is doubt- 
less the case of the girl ten days old, reported by Mrs. 
Talbot, who seemed attracted by the various colors 
of her mother's dress ; also with Preyer's boy who, 
when 23 days old, seemed attracted by a rose colored 
curtain, brightly lighted by the sun. 

Make note of all cases of early color perception for 
the purpose of comparison. When does the child see 
color as color? Why difificult to determine? What 
theory of color seems most plausible? What facts of 
interest have been noted thru a study of the effects 
of indirect color vision? 

In order to test the color sense it is necessary to have 
the colors as nearly alike as possible in the degree of 
brightness. A simple test : Place within the child's 
reach, when able to sit alone, one small hank of 
zephyr, red, yellow, blue or green, etc., along with 
five similar hanks of neutral gray of equal brightness, 
or light intensity, and watch when the child first sin- 
gles out the colored hank. Results of such test will 
be given in class. 

I. What are some of the methods of testing color 

blindness ? 

49 

4 



50 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

2. What method yields the most accurate results? 

3. Is color blindness curable? 

4. What per cent of men and women are color 
blind ^ 

5. What is the basis of color harmony, i. e., the true 
test of harmony of colors? 

The center of the retina is the hrst to become sensi- 
tive to color, and this sensitive color area gradually 
increases thru youth up to adult life. There is only 
about half as much of the retinal surface sensitive to 
green and red as to yellow and blue. Can you account 
for these observed facts? 

OBSERVATIONS ON COLOR DISCRIMINATION 

(In some cases at least these observations may not 
indicate color discrimination.) 

1. "The first object that made an impression on 
account of its color, upon my boy, was probably 
a rose colored curtain which hung, brightly 
lighted by the sun but not dazzlingly bright, 
about a foot before the child's face. This was on 
the twenty-third day. The child laughed and 
uttered sounds of satisfaction." W. Preyer, The 
Mind of the Child, page "6. 

2. "With respect to vision — his eyes were fixed on a 
candle as early as the ninth day, and up to the 
forty-fifth day nothing else seemed thus to fix 
them, but on the forty-ninth day his attention 
was attracted by a bright colored tassel, as was 

shown by his eyes becoming fixed and the move- 
ments of his arms ceasing." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 
2 : 286. 
3. Sixty-ninth day — "L. looked for sometime at the 
violets printed on her bed covering and then tried 
to pick them up." Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto- 
Sensory Development, page 32. 



THE SENSE OF SIGHT 51 



4. "In the third month R's pleasure in looking at 
brightly colored objects became more pronounced. 
On the fifth day of the month, brightly colored 
tassels, dangled over the child, evoked broad 
smiles' and wriggling, the latter being a fore- 
runner of reaching toward and grasping." D. R. 
Major, First Steps in Mental Growth, page 78. 

5. "One boy began before he had reached the age of 
four months, to prefer a brilliant red to other col- 
ors." Genzmer-Preyer, The Mind of the Child, 
page 20. 

6. "The sight of a yellow flower (sixteenth week) 
incited him to his first successful effort to obtain a 
desired object." Winifred Hall, Child Study 
Monthly, 2:460. 

7. "One hundred eighty-third day— She consistently 
picks her bright-red celluloid rattle-ball (two-and- 
a-half inches in diameter) out of a basket of toys." 
Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Develop- 
ment, page 82. 

8. "By the twenty-seventh week he manifested a de- 
cided preference for yellow, stretching out his 
hands for anything of that color — lemons, oranges, 
sunflowers, and even the butter on the table." 
Winifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2 : 460. 

9. "In his nineteenth month C. was observed to desig- 
nate by the sound "Appo" (apple) a patch of red- 
ish color on the mantlepiece, which bore in its 
form no discoverable resemblance to an apple." 
James Sully, Studies in Childhood, page 422. 

10. Five hundred fifty-third day (about 13/2 years)— 
"L. rarely now confuses yellow, red, blue, and 
black. She always picks out yellow as her fav- 
orite among these four — yellow, red, blue, and 
black." Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory 
Development, page 172. 

REFERENCES 

I. Abney, Win. DeW. Tests for Color Blindness. In Color 
Visions, pp. 167-186. 



52 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



2. Baird, J. W. The Problems of Color Blindness. Psych. 

Bulletin, 5 : 294-300, Sept., 1908. 

3. Baldunn, J. M. New Methods of Child Study. Science, 

21:213-214, Apr. 21 and 28; also found in his Mental 
Development in the Child and Race, pp. 34-47; 48-55. 

4. Bryan, W. L. Suggestions on the Study of Children. 

Transactions Illinois Society for Child Study, Vol. i, 
No. I, pp. 64-73- 

5. Dougall, Wm. An Investigation of the Color Sense of Two 

Infants. British Joui. of Psych., 2:338-352. 

6. Edridge-Green, F. W. Color Blindness and Color Percep- 

tion, pp. 257-307. 

7. Franklin, Christine Ladd. Color Interpretation of the 

Eskimo. Psych. Rev., 8 : 396-402. 

8. Jefferies, Dr. B. Joy. Frequency of Color Blindness. In 

"Color Blindness," pp. 111-124 and 182-195. 

9. Kirk, Mrs. The Training of the Color Sense in Children. 

Child Life, 1907, 9:119-122. 

10. Krohn, IV. 0. How to Test the Vision. Child Study Mo., 

Vol. I, pp. 164-165. 

11. Luckey, G. W. A. Observations of the Indirect Color 

Range of Children, etc. Am. Jour, of Psych., 6: 489-504. 

12. Marsden, Rufus. The Study of the Early Color Sense. 

Psych. Rev., 10 : 37-47. 

13. Monroe, Will S. Color Sense of Young Children. Paidolo- 

gist, 1907, 9:7-10. 

14. Preyer, W. The Mind of the Child; and also Senses and 

Will, pp. 6-22. 

15. Freyer, W. Mental Development in the Child. Infant 

Mind, pp. 12-13. 

16. Rivers, W. H. R. The Color Vision of the Eskimo. Proc. 

Cambridge Philos. Soc, 11: I43-I49- 

17. Scripture, E. W. System of Color Teaching. Educa. Rev., 

6:464-474; 7:382. 

18. Scripture, E. W. Tests on School Children. Educa. Rev., 

5 : 52-61. 

19. Scripture, E. W. A Safe Test for Color Vision. Studies 

from Yale Psych. Lab., 1901, 8: 1-20. 

20. Shinn, Milicent W. Notes on the Development of a Child. 

Vol. I, 25-56. 



THE SENSE OF SIGHT 53 

21. Taylor, Wm. J. The Color Element in Early Education. 

Jour, of Ped., 16:315-327. 

22. Tracy, F. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 14-18; 7th Ed., 

pp. 11-18. 

23. Washburn, IV. W., and Houston, H. E. On the Naming of 

Colors. Am. Jour, of Psych., 18:519-523. 
24- Whitney, A. S. Some Practical Results of Child Study. 

Child Study Mo., 2: 16-21. 
25. Wolfe, H. K. The Color Vocabulary of Children. Neb. 

Univ. Studies, July, 1890, pp. 205-234. 



CHAPTER IX 
THE SENSE OF SIGHT— Concluded 

(6) Defective Vision. The importance of normal 
vision will be appreciated when we understand that 
most of our knowledge is acquired thru the sense 
of sight. An unremedied defect in vision may prove 
as serious to the child's education as the entire loss of 
sight, for in the latter case other senses are educated to 
take the place of vision. Teachers and parents should 
know how to direct and remedy the more common 
defects of vision. Children have been considered dull 
or indolent when the real trouble was due to a defect 
in sight or hearing. Common defects of sight which 
may be remedied by the use of glasses are myopia, 
hypermetropia and astigmatism. 

Dr. Cohn of Breslau in examining the eyes of 10,060 
children found 1,072 myopic, 239 hypermetropic, 23 
stigmatic and 239 with impaired vision as the result 
of previous sickness. Further tests in elementary vil- 
lage schools showed 1% myopic; in elementary town 
schools 6.7% ; in intermediate schools 14.3% ; in high 
schools 19.7%. Drs. Loring and Derby of New York 
found that in the lowest classes 3.5% of the children 
were myopic; in the highest classes 26.78%. Other 
investigations show that myopia increases rapidly 
during school life, averaging (under favorable condi- 
tions) from 2% in the lowest grades to 25% or more 
in the highest grades. — Account for this. How can 
it be remedied? What are the best tests for discover- 

54 



THE SENSE OF SIGHT 



in;^ defective vision? When fatigued, or sleepy, or 
when recovering from sickness the eyes are ai)t to be 
injured by use. Headaches frequently result from 
over-strain of the muscles of accommodation. What 
colors of print are best for the eyes? Notice the signs 
on sign boards and observe what combinations of col- 
ors can be seen at the greatest distance. 

What encouraging improvement of the eye sight 
of school children has occurred in recent years thru 
improved methods of teaching and better sanitation of 
homes and school buildings? 

REFERENCES 

1. Adams, Almcda C. The Education of the Blind Child with 

the Seeing Children in the Public Schools. Proc. N. E. 
A., 1908, pp. 1137-1142. 

2. Allport, Frank. The Eye and Its Care ; also Defective Sight 

in American Children. Rev. of Rev., June, 1897, 15: 
696-699. 

3. Allport, Frank. The Eyes and Ears of School Children. 

Proc. Third Congress Am. School Hygiene Assn., Chi- 
cago, 111., 1909, pp. 218-231 ; also A Plea for the Exam- 
ination of School Children's Eyes, Noses and Throats. 
Proc. N. E. A., 1909, pp. 266-273. 

4. Allport, Frank. Tests for Defective Vision. Educa. Rev., 

14: 150-159- 

5. Bell, A. G. Correlation of Defective Senses. Science, 5: 

127-129. 

6. Booth, F. W. (Chairman). Report of Committee on 

Statistics of Defective Sight and Hearing of Public 
School Children. Proc. N. E. A., 1903, pp. 1036-1037. 
and 1904, PP- 946-952. 

7. Burnett, S. M. Hints on the Use and Care of Eyes. Scrib- 

ner Mo., 14 : 700-706. 

8. Burnham. W. H. School Hygiene. Ped. Sem., 2:33-39, 

59-61. 

9. Campbell, Mary R. Some Laboratory Investigations of 

Subnormal Children. Proc. N. E. A.. 1904. pp. 744-754 



56 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

Cattell, J. McK. Tests on Senses and Faculties. Educa. 

Rev., 5 : 257-265. 
Cohn, Herman. Eyes and School Books. Pop. Sci. Mo., 19: 

54-59- 
Cohn, Herman. Hygiene of the Eye in Schools, pp. 37-53, 

84-87, 131-145- 

13. Cohn, Herman. Eyesight and School Work. Science, 12: 

207-209. 

14. Cohn, Herman. Effects of Student Life on Eyesight. Bu- 

reau of Education, Circular of Information, 1881-82, 
No. 6 (1881), 327-350. 

15. Eberhardt, John C. The Examination of the Eyes of School 

Children. Proc. N. E. A., 1906, pp. 173-177. 

16. Eyesight of Children. Sat. Rev., 82 : 57-58. 

17. Fox, L. W. Care of the Eyes in Infancy and Youth. Jour. 

Frankl. Inst., 132, 172 (1891). 

18. Galbraith, L. N. The Eyes of School Children and Their 

Defects. Child Study Mo., i : 390-391, and Proc. N. E. 
A., 1896, p. 850. 

19. Gray, Mary R. What Chicago is Doing for the Abnormal 

Child. School Jour. (New York), 69:585-586. 

20. Green, S. M. What Teachers May Learn from the Model 

School for the Deaf and Blind, and Their Exhibits. 
Proc. N. E. A., 1904, pp. 937-939- 

21. Greenwood, Allen. Some Eye Defects of Feeble-minded 

and Backward Children. Proc. N. E. A., 1903, pp. 1023- 
1028. 

22. Hall, Percival. Defective Sight and Hearing of School 

Children. School Jour. (New York), 69:91. 

23. Howe, L. Art and Eyesight. Pop. Sci. Mo., 47:458-471. 

24. Lezms, F. Park. Conservation of Vision and the Prevention 

of Blindness. Proc. N. E. A., 1910, pp. 1055-1061. 

25. MacLean, W. Effects of Study on the Eyesight Pop. ScL 

Mo., 12 : 74-86. 

26. Risley, S. D. Defective Vision in School Children. Educa. 

Rev., 3 : 348-354- 

27. Roosa, D. B. Effects of Civilization on the Eyes. Cosmop., 

13 : 759-768. 

28. Roosa, D. B. Shall We Put Spectacles on Our Children? 

Pop. Sci. Mo., 25 : 429-430. 



THE SENSE OF SIGHT 57 

29. School Life and Eyesight. Pop Sci. Mo., i : 760-761. 

30. Scott, W. D. The Sacrifice of the Eyes of School Children. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., 71 : 303-312. 

31. Standish, Miles M. D. Facts and Fallacies in the Examina- 

tion of School Children's Eyes. Proc. N. E. A., 1903, 

pp. 1020- 1023. 
2,2. Swift, Edgar J. Eye Defects in Students and Children. 

Ped. Sem., 5 : 202-220. 
2^. Weeks, J. E. The Care of the Eyes of Children While in 

School. Teacher's College Record, 6 : 30-42. 

34. Wells, David W. Sight and Hearing of School Children. 

Jour, of Educa., 51:99-100; 117:121-122, Feb. 15, 22, 
1900. 

35. West, G. M. Eye Tests on Children. Am. Jour, of Psych., 

4 : 595-596. 

36. Whitney, A. S. Some Practical Results of Child Study. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1896, p. 372. 
2,7. Williams, Alida S. Visual Inaccuracies in School Children. 
Educa. Rev., 26:180-189. 

38. Williams, H. W. How to Care for the Eyes. Atlan., 27: 

62-67, 177-183, 332-337, 462-466, 636-639. 

39. Wolfe, H. K. Defects of Sight. Northw. Mo., 8:35-39. 

40. Yorke, S. Defective Eyesight. Pop. Sci. Mo., 24:357-361. 



CHAPTER X 

THE SENSE OF HEARING 

Different views, based on more or less careful obser- 
vations, as to when the infant is able to hear for the 
first time vary all the way from several hours to 
several days. Note and account for these differences. 
Personal observations will add to the value of the 
study. What are the conditions necessary to hearing? 
Which of these are wanting at birth? Hearing, as a 
rule, is necessary for the acquisition of speech, and 
plays an important part in all instruction. The speech 
that an infant hears has much to do with its articula- 
tion. Music and rhythm are early appreciated by the 
child and may be used as an important factor in educa- 
tion. Owing to the plasticity of the child's cerebral 
elements and the ease with which early formative 
processes take place, the child in time enjoys the 
sounds which were at first grating and disagreeable. 
For this reason the beauty and richness of the child's 
oral speech is the natural outgrowth of the speech he 
hears. 

OBSERVATIONS INDICATING SENSITIVENESS 
TO SOUND 

1. "Three hours after birth the child's hands were 
thrown up suddenly at the sound of an electric 
bell situated on the outer wall of the house." Wini- 
fred Hall, Child Study Mo., 2 :465. 

2. "Dr. Deneke found one child of six hours who 
started and closed his eyes tighter at the sound of 
two metallic covers striking together ; while Preyer 

58 



THE SENSE OF HEARING 59 

observed one who did not react at all on the third 
day, and another, who, on the sixth day, reacted 
only very slightly. Sully noticed, on the second 
day, a distinct movement of the head in response 
to sound, and this is confirmed by Baldwin. Bur- 
dach declares the child hears nothing during the 
first week." Fred Tracy, the Psychology of Child- 
hood, page 22. 

3. "A friend tells me that on the morning after her 
baby was born it was frightened almost into con- 
vulsions by the explosion of a cannon fire cracker 
near her window." A. R. Taylor, The Study of 
the Child, page 32. 

4. "The first definite reactions to auditory sensations 
were observed on the second day during which the 
child several times stopped crying when his father 
began to whistle." Kathleen Moore, Mental 
Development of a Child, page 63. 

5. "The baby showed no sign of hearing anything un- 
til the third day when she started violently at the 
sound of tearing paper, some eight feet from her." 
Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a Baby. Page 

6. "But he adds that another cautious observer, Feld- 
bausch, has seen sleeping children more than three 
days old start when he broke the silence by clap- 
ping his hands hard." Kussmaul-Preyer, The 
Mind of the Child, page yy. 

7. "The sixth day — she seemed to hear and notice a 
sirene whistle out on the Hudson river for she 
stopped moving." George Van Ness Dearborn, 
Moto-Sensory Development, page 6. 

8. "The thirteenth day. When a watch was held at 
her ear L. turned her eyes in its direction for sev- 
eral seconds and made this reflex adaptation on 
several occasions." George Van Ness Dearborn, 
Moto-Sensory Development, page 10. 

9. "During the first fortnight he often started on 
hearing any sudden sound, and blinked his eyes." 
Charles Darwin, Mind, 2 : 286. 



60 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

10. "The twenty-fourth day. Twice he stopped crying 
while the clock struck, and once he was aroused 
from a light sleep by its gong." Kathleen Moore, 
Mental Development of a Child, page 6i. 

11. Gensmer found the distances that the striking of a 
bell was heard by the child were: first day — 8 
inches ; sixth day — 18 inches ; twenty-fourth day — 
24 inches. Oscar Chrisman, Ped. Sem., 2:400. 

BEGINNING OF LOCALIZATION THRU SOUND 

1. "On the thirtieth day he began to turn his head 
in the direction whence sounds proceeded." Kath- 
leen Moore, Mental Development of a Child, 
page 66. 

2. "In the sixth week the baby for the first time 
turned his head toward a sound to see what made 
it." James Sully, Studies in Childhood, page 402. 

3. "In the tenth week a girl child looked for the face 
of the person calling her, altho it was with diffi- 
culty that she held her head erect." Preyer, The 
Mind of the Child, page 47. 

4. "At two and a half months, hearing her grand- 
mother's voice she turns her head to the side from 
which it comes." M. Taine, Mind, 2 : 252. 

5. "In the eleventh week I noticed for the first time 
what some others have not perceived before the 
second quarter of the year tho some have done so 
earlier, that the child beyond doubt moved his 
head in the direction of the sound heard." Preyer, 
The Mind of the Child, page 84. 

6. "In the sixteenth week sounds began to prove a 
real source of distraction, causing him to pause 
and look around many times during his meal." 
Kathleen Moore, Mental Development of a Child, 
page 64. 

7. "Altho so sensitive to sound in a general way, he 
was not able even when he was one hundred and 
twenty-four days old, easily to recognize whence 
a sound proceeded, so as to direct his eyes to the 
source." Charles Darwin, Mind, 2 :286. 



THE SENSE OF HEARING 61 

8. "In the twenty-first week he turned in the direc- 
tfon of sounds heard." Winifred Hall, Child Study 
Mo. 2:465. 

9. "The 187th day the child knew when he was called, 
but it required three calls to induce him to turn 
toward the sound. At the first call a change took 
place in the facial expression, at the second he 
laughed and at the third he turned toward the 
speaker." Winifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 
2 :466. 

(i) When does the child first ^begin to localize 

sound? 

(2) When does he begin to understand the mean- 
ing of sounds? 

Defects in Hearing: Reichard of Riga in examin- 
ing the hearing of 1,000 school children found 22% 
suffering from defective hearing. Weil of Stuttgart 
in examining 6,000 children found 31% defective; 
Moure found \y% defective; Saxton of New York 
13% and Worrell of Terre Haute 25%. Probably the 
average will not fall short of 20%. Some of the 
causes of defective hearing : Congenital, closing of the 
auditory canal from inflammation, wax, or foreign 
bodies, festering or perforating the drum head, puru- 
lent or catarrhal inflammation of the ear, closing of 
the eustachian tube, cold in the head, and many dis- 
eases of childhood. What are some of the ways by 
which teachers may test the hearing of their children? 
What are adenoids? Their cause and effect upon 
health and hearing? What is the proper treatment? 

REFERENCES 

1. Adams, Mabel E. A Deaf Child of Six. Educa. Rev., 10: 

273-276. 

2. Allport, Frank. The Eyes and Ears of School Children. 

Proc. Third Congress Am. Hygiene Asso. (Chicago, 
111.), Feb., 1909, pp. 218-231. 



62 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

3. Blake, C. J. The Importance of Hearing Tests in Public. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1903, pp. 1013-1019. 

4. Bowles, Mary E. Emotions of Deaf Children Compared 

with Emotions of Hearing Children. Ped. Sem., 3 : 330- 
334; also Child Study Mo., 1:213-215. 

5. Brandt, Francis Burke. The State in Its Relation to the 

Defective Child. Proceedings N. E. A., 1901, pp. 876- 
880. 

6. Bruner, F. G. The Hearing of Primitive Peoples. Archives 

of Psych., 2: 1-113, 1908. 

7. Bryan, W. L. Eye and Ear Mindedness. Addr. and Proc. 

Intern. Cong. Educa. (N. E. A.), 1893, pp. 779-781. 

8. Chrisman, O. The Hearing of Children. Ped. Sem., 2 : 297- 

441. 

9. Chrisman, O. Defects of Hearing. Northw. Mo., 8:31-35. 

10. Chrisman, O. Sight and Hearing in Relation to Education. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1904, pp. 939-946. (A Review.) 

11. Compayre, G. Intellectual and Moral Development of a 

Child, pp. 136-145. 

12. Cutter, Ephraim. Pupils' Defective Hearing. Proc. N. E. 

A., 1^4, pp. 947-952. 

13. Deficient Hearing Power. Child Study Mo., i : 337-338. A 

Review of an Article by Dr. Permewan. 

14. Drummond, W. B. An Introduction to Child Study, pp. 150- 

153- 

15. Fanning, Dr. A. M. Deafness and Care of the Ears. Pop. 

Sci. Mo., 42:211-216. 

16. Griffith, George. Study of Children in the Utica Schools. 

Child Study Mo., 2:434-437. 

17. Hall, Mrs. W. S. The First Five Hundred Days of a Child's 

Life. Child Study Mo., 2:465-469. 

18. Hinton, James. Hygiene of the Ear. Pop. Sci. Mo., 3 : 139- 

145- 

19. Inflammation of the Ear in Early Life. Child Study Mo., 

1 : 153- 

20. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Some Simple Methods of Recognizing 

Physical Fitness and Unfitness of School Children for 
School Work. Proc. N. E. A., 1905, pp. 762-763. 

21. Kratz, H. E. Fatigue and Sense Defects. Proc. N. E. A., 

1897, pp. 280-284. 



THE SENSE OF HEARING 63 

22. Krohn, IVm. O. Hearing. Child Study Mo., i : 169-176. 

23. MacMillan, D. P. Some Results of Hearing Tests of Chi- 

cago School Children. Proc. N. E. A., 1901, pp. 880-888. 

24. Marwcdel. Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 11Q-121, 360- 

369. 

25. Miller, E. H. One Boy's Debt to Child Study. Child Study 

Mo., 1 : 259-261. 

26. Moore, Kathleen C. Mental Development of a Child, pp. 

60-72. 

27. Morgan, Charlotte L. Outlook of Kindergarten Work for 

the Deaf in Leading Cities. Kindergarten Mag., 14 : 
198-203. 

28. Percy, F. F. Causes of Deafness in School Children Child 

Study Mo., I : 97-109. 

29. Perez, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 41-43. 

30. Preyer, W. The Senses and the Will, pp. 72-96. 

31. Preyer, IV. Mental Development in the Child (Infant 

Mind), pp. 5-6. 

32. Reik, H. O. Report of the Examination of the Ears of 400 

School Children. Johns Hopkins Bulletin, 1900, 11:318- 
321. 
23. Shinn, Milicent W. Notes on the Development of a Child. 
1 : 107-135- 

34. Shinn, Milicent IV. The Biography of a Baby, pp. 43, 72, 

82, 91, 120, 137, 156. 

35. Tanner, Amy. The Child, pp. 75-77. 

36. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 31-40. 

37. Townsend, E. Education of the Deaf and Dumb in Rela- 

tion to Child Study. Paidologist, 2 : 3-9. 

38. Tracy, F. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 20-26; 7th Ed., 

pp. 21-27. 

39. Wells, David W. Sight and Hearing of School Children. 

Jour, of Educa. (Boston), 51:99-100, 117. 

40. Whitney, A. S. Some Practical Results of Child Study. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1896, pp. Z7^-Z7^- 



CHAPTER XI 
THE SENSE OF TOUCH 

The sense of touch has not become so highly spe- 
cialized as the other senses, but it has been termed, 
not unwittingly, the fundamental sense out of which 
all the other senses have developed. It is perhaps the 
first sense to give impressions to the child and the 
last to give way in age. While touch does not enter 
prominently into the education of the schools, it has 
great influence in shaping our judgment of space, 
time and reality. The child wishes to handle the ob- 
jects that he sees, and the adult feels surer when he 
is able to reinforce his sight impression by touch. We 
all know how drawing and writing help us to remem- 
ber a lesson, and to what extent touch can be trained 
to take the place of sight and hearing. 

Kussmaul gives the eye-lashes of the infant as the 
most sensitive to touch impressions. Kroner and 
Frye agree, the latter holding that the hairs form 
during all ages the most sensitive touch apparatus of 
the body. Genzmer and Preyer hold that the cornea 
is more sensitive. All parts of the body are not 
equally sensitive to touch. 

E. W. Scripture says : "The threshold of sensation 
for the sense of pressure in an average subject was 
2 mg. for the forehead, temples and back of forearm 
and hand ; 3 mg. for inner side of forearm ; 5 mg. for 
nose, hip, chin and abdomen; 5-15 mg. on the inner 

64 



THE SENSE OF TOUCH 65 

surface of the fingers, and looo mg. on heels and 
nails." 

How does this agree in relation to the parts given 
by Preyer as the most sensitive in the child? What 
different movements are produced by touching the 
lips and tongue of an infant? Is the child more or 
less sensitive to touch, temperature and pain than 
the adult? 

The reaction time of touch reflexes are longer in 
the new born than in the adult. How do you account 
for this? Also the fact that a prick or pinch may 
not produce a reflex when a slap will? When does 
active touch begin? Explain some of the early condi- 
tions and educational influences of the muscular feel- 
ings. Account for the quality known as common 
sense. Can it be cultivated? How? 

OBSERVATIONS ON TOUCH 

1. "Pressure caused by a hand resting upon his body 
. was soothing to the child from birth." Kathleen 

Moore, Mental Development of the Child, p. 78. 

2. '"'Even when only two hours old, at a period of 
life when there is certainly no sound for the ear 
and possibly no light for the eye C immediately 
clasped the parental finger which was brought into 
the hollow of the tiny hand." James Sully, 
Studies in Childhood, p. 400. 

3. "Our baby showed from the first that she was 
aware when she was touched. She stopped cry- 
ing when she was cuddled or patted." Milicent 
Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, p. 46. 

4. "I saw my child in the twenty-first hour of life 
move both arms symmetrically, at a loud call, but 
this is perhaps to be attributed to being breathed 
on ; for clapping of hands, whistling, speaking, 
produced no results, and on the second and third 



66 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

days no reaction upon sound stimulus could be 
induced." Preyer, The Mind of the Child, p. 8i. 

5. "First day — a mere touch on the upper lip or a 
strong^er one on the lower lip causes the imme- 
diate screwing up of the mouth." Geo. Van Ness 
Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, page 2. 

6. "First day of life — According to Kussmaul, tick- 
ling of the inner surfaces of the wings of the nose 
with a feather calls from children first of all 
winking of the eyelids, a stronger on the tickled 
side than the other; if the irritation be increased, 
the child not only knits the eyebrows but moves 
the head and the hands, which latter it carries to 
the face." Fred Tracy, Psychology of Childhood, 
page 28. 

7. "The functional activity of touch was observed 
still more plainly on the second day, when the 
child was seen to carry out awkwardly enough 
what looked like exploring movements of the 
hands over his mouth and face." James Sully, 
Studies in Childhood, page 400. 

8. Sixth, eighth, eleventh, twelfth, twenty-second, 
twenty-fifth, fiftieth and fifty-fifth days. "During 
this period the softest touch of the lashes, of the 
edges of the lids, of the conjunctiva, or the cornea 
occasioned an immediate closing of the lids." 
Preyer, The Mind of the Child, page 26. 

9. "On the seventh day, I touched the naked sole of 
his foot with a bit of paper and he jerked it away, 
curling at the same time his toes like a much 
older child when tickled." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 
2 :28.S. 

10. "A feather passed over the eyes and nose of a 
child of fifteen days made it frown, contract its 
nose obliquely, and close its eyes." Perez, First 
Three Years of Childhood, page 39. 

11. "In this same twelfth week I saw the little finger- 
tips go fumbling and feeling over our hands and 
dresses." Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a 
Baby, page 103. 



THE SENSE OF TOUCH 67 

12. "On the eleventh day of the third month the child, 
R. enjoyed rubbing his hands over a fur coat which 
was laid in front of him as he sat propped up in 
his crib." D. R. Major, First Steps in Mental 
Growth, page 79. 

13. "In the fourteenth week, when rubbing his hands 
over a face, he encountered a handful of hair and 
was surprised thereby." Kathleen Moore, Mental 
Development of the Child, page 79. 

14. "In the nineteenth week flies walking on the face 
of the child caused his muscles to twitch, but 
when on the hands they seemed not to annoy 
him." Kathleen Moore, Mental Development of 
the Child, page 79. 

15. "In the twenty-ninth week he perceived the pres- 
ence of salt or sugar in the mouth, acting as one 
does who finds his mouth filled with sand." Kath- 
leen Moore, Mental Development of the Child, 
page 79. 

16. "214th day. The rubbing of her fingers over the 
bristles of her hair brush made L. shiver and with- 
draw her hand from it vigorously." Geo. Van 
Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, 
page 95. 

17. "Egger adds that when Emile was fourteen 
months old he scratched his finger, he cried, but 
he did not show his finger nor put the other hand 
upon it." Compayre, The Intellectual and Moral 
Development of the Child, page 163. 

ASSOCIATING VISUAL AND TACTILE SENSATIONS 

1. "At a month and five days, likewise the child 
distinguished between himself and external things 
by making for the first time an efifort to seize an 
object by extending his hands and by bending his 
whole body." Tiedemann (Perez Translation) Rec- 
ord of Infant Life, page 15. 

2. "From the eighth to the tenth week his manual 
performances greatly improved in quality. He 



68 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

was rapidly learning to carry the organ of touch 
to the point of which his eye told him." James 
Sully, Studies in Childhood, page 403. 
3. "In the third month the little girl observed by 
Taine began to feel things with her hands, to 
move her arms to reach objects, to associate blots 
of color with tactile and muscular impressions of 
distance and of form." Taine-Compayre, The In- 
tellectual and Moral Development of a Child, 
page 132. 

REFERENCES 

1. Compayre, G. Intellectual and Moral Development of the 

Child, pp. 154-164. 

2. Dresslar, F. B. Psychology of Touch. Am. Jour, of Psych., 

6:313-368. 

3. Hall, Mrs. W. S. First Five Hundred Days of a Child's 

Life. Child Study Mo., 2:394. 

4. Manvedel, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 127-129, 370- 

376. 

5. Moore, Kathleen. Mental Development of a Child, pp. 

72-82. 

6. Peres, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 36-40. 

7. Preyer, IV. Mental Development in the Child (Infant 

Mind), pp. 4-5- 

8. Preyer, W. The Senses and the Will, pp. 96-116. 

9. Rivers, W. H. R. The Senses of Primitive Man. Science, 

n. s., 11: 740-742. 

10. Shinn, Milicent W. Comparative Importance of the Senses 

in Infancy. Northw. Mo., 8 : 544-547. 

11. Shinn, Milicent W. The Biography of a Baby, pp. 46, 51, 

63, 90, 99, no, 118, 120-129, 141-160. 

12. Sully, J as. Studies of Childhood, p. 400 fif. 

13. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 77-8o. 

14. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 24-30. 

15. Tracy, F. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 27-31. 



CHAPTER XII 
TASTE AND SMELL 

Taste. According to Sigismund and Preyer, taste 
is the first sense to develop or furnish memory images. 
After the first few days the child distinguishes be- 
tween sweet and sour. The former seems to give 
satisfaction and the latter to produce movements of 
repulsion. How can this early discrimination be ex- 
plained? 

Kussmaul experimenting on twenty infants and 
Genzmer on twenty-five infants just born, found that 
in most cases the child responds to sweet by sucking 
movements and to bitter by movements of repulsion, 
making similar facial expressions as adults under the 
same circumstances. Preyer agrees with the above. 
As some of the infants were premature, it seems to 
indicate that taste is ready to function before birth. 
But many infants did not respond in the same way 
and all showed a weaker sensibility to taste than 
adults. Many a mother has learned to her sorrow 
that it is difficult to break a child from sucking its 
thumb even tho she uses quinine, aloes, and the whole 
list of bitter herbs. Man is controlled by habit, as 
the lower animals are by instinct. In infancy these 
habits are quickly formed and may act as cables 
against health and progress. The sucking reflex is 
fully developed at birth and needs no practice other 
than that of food taking. To soothe the child by 
means of sugar teats, empty rubber nipples, fingers or 

69 



70 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

Other pacifiers is vicious, and is apt to develop habits 
injurious to health and comfort. Fond parents should 
not forget that the primary physical functions of the 
infant are eating, breathing, sleeping, cleanliness. Na- 
ture can be trusted to provide for these functions 
when given a chance without the formation of bad and 
pernicious habits. 

Are we justified in ascribing to taste the first im- 
pressions of pleasure? What other senses seem to 
furnish early pleasure impressions? 

The early importance of taste is seen in the per- 
sistence of the child in placing every new object in its 
mouth. 

May taste be relied upon as a true guide to the 
food best adapted to the needs of the body? Explain. 

Smell. Taste and smell are closely associated, and 
neither seems far differentiated from touch. The func- 
tioning of the sense of smell is not possible in pre- 
natal life, but according to the experiments of Kuss- 
maul and others it must occur shortly after birth ; how- 
ever, pronounced and disagreeable odors, in most in- 
stances, are less acute in the child than in the adult. 
For the first two or three months the discrimination 
between pleasant and unpleasant odors is not very 
accurate and after two years a child is apt to place 
a richly perfumed object in its mouth rather than to 
its nose. 

What part of a child's education would be lost if 
smell is lost? 

In the education of the child ought we to give more 
attention to the cultivation of touch, taste, and smell? 
Why? 

Experiments on sense discrimination of children 
and their value to the teacher. 



TASTE AND SMELL 71 



EARLY INDICATIONS OF TASTE 

1. "Kussmaul tested the sense of taste in this way in 
more than twenty newly born children, making 
use of cane-sugar, quinine, common salt, and tar- 
taric acid. Kussmaul found that the salt, quinine, 
and acid occasioned grimaces as an expression 
of dislike but with much variation in the manifes- 
tation in individual cases. The sugar on the other 
hand produced movements of sucking." Preyer, 
The Mind of the Child, page 117. 

2. "Thirteenth day. He rejected some medicines 
after having tasted several doses; he distinguished 
them from his food by the smell, and by the mode 
in which they were offered him." Tiedemann 
(Perez Trans.). Record of Infant Life, page 10. 

3. "A baby fifteen days old who had just gone to 
sleep, and in whose mouth I put a feeding bottle 
filled with plain water, sucked it for a few minutes 
and then began to make faces, to open its mouth, 
and finally to cry." Perez, The First Three Years 
of Childhood, page 134. 

4. "On the twenty-first day some soda mint in hot 
water was administered. He swallowed it, as he 
did water, giving no evidence of having experi- 
enced a different flavor." Kathleen Moore, Men- 
tal Development of the Child, page 82. 

5. "Fifty-eighth day. She dislikes the taste of pep- 
permint but will take it when sugar is added." 
Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Devel- 
opment, page 24. 

6. "Prior to the sixteenth week he was content to 
suck his own thumb when hungry, the feeling of 
milk in the mouth was, therefore, not an essential 
element in the feeding complex. But in the thirty- 
eighth week it undoubtedly was ; for he then at 
once spat out the thickened cream of sterilized 
milk." Kathleen Moore, Mental Development of 
a Child, page 79. (Referred to under touch). 



72 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

7. "113th day. She does not object in the least to 
the taste of castor oil." Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, 
Moto-Sensory Development, page 57. 

8. "153rd day. When she is given a little wet cane 
sugar she works her taste organs, especially her 
tongue, very actively, just as a young calf does 
under the same circumstances." Geo. Van Ness 
Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, page ']2.. 

9. "159th day. A piece of candy experimentally put 
within her lips causes them to take on the sucking 
position with active 'licking of the chops.' " Geo. 
Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, 
page 74. 

OBSERVATIONS ON SMELL 

1. "Kussmaul has seen that new born children, even 
when asleep, show their sensitiveness to odor, if 
the fumes of asafoetida for instance are placed 
under their nose they quickly shut their eyelids 
tight, wrinkle up their faces, become restless, move 
their arms and head, wake up, then fall asleep 
again when the fumes have passed away." Com- 
payre, The Intellectual and Moral Development of 
the Child, page 153. 

2. "A girl babe of 18 hours obstinately refused the 
breast upon the nipple of which a little petroleum 
or oil of amber had been rubbed, but gladly took 
the other breast." Preyer, The Mind of the Child, 
page 132. 

3. "But in my own child it was not till the eighth 
day of life that I saw this groping about (for the 
nipple) and whether the sense of smell co-operates 
in this is doubtful, for the child often sucked at 
the wrong place." Preyer, The Mind of the Child, 
page 134. 

4. "Early in the third month the experiment was 
made of holding close to the child a cloth moist- 
ened with milk. He began at once to act as if 
hungry." Kathleen Moore, Mental Development 
of a Child, page 84. 



TASTE AND SMFXL 73 



5. "144th day. There was today just a suggestion 
of a frown of L.'s forehead from the odor of my 
tobacco breath." Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Mo- 
to-Sensory Development, page 65. 

6. "154th day. L. smiled repeatedly at the odor of 
sweet smelling incense which was burned near 
her." Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Scnsory 
Development, page 'J2. 

7. "One child of ten months, when I prevented his 
seizing hold of a rose evidently begged me to give 
them to him. When I again held them up to his 
nose he remained some time quite motionless smil- 
ing with pleasure." Perez, First Three Years of 
Childhood, page 34. 

8. "In the fifteenth month, freshly ground coffee 
and cologne water, both of which he liked very 
much to smell in his third year, made no impres- 
sion at all, or only a slight one." Preyer, The 
Mind of the Child, page 134. 

9. "In the eighty-sixth week he began to ask to have 
flowers given him to smell and leaves also." Kath- 
leen Moore, Mental Development of a Child, page 

84. 

REFERENCES 

1. Bailey. E. H. S., and Xichols, E. L. Delicacy of the Sense 

of Taste. Nature, 37 : 557-558- 

2. Bailey, E. H. S., and Nichols, E. L. Sense of Smell. Na- 
ture, 35 : 74-75- 

3. Cotnpayre, G. Intellectual and Moral Development of the 

Child, pp. 145-154- 

4. Dillon, E. A Neglected Sense. 19th Century, 35 : 574-58/- 

5. Henry, M. Charles. Odors and the Sense of Smell. Pop. 

Sci. Mo., 41 : 682-690. 

6. Jastrozv. J. Plea for Sense of Smell. Science, 8:520-521. 

(Old Series.) 

7. Marwedcl, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 122-127, 377- 

386. 

8. Moore, Kathleen. Mental Development of a Child, pp. 82-84. 

9. Morgan, T. J. Sense of Smell. Science, 10-240. (Old 

Series.) 



74 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

10. Perez, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 32-35- 

11. Preyer, W. The Mind of the Child (The Senses and the 

Will), pp. 1 1 6- 1 40. 

12. Preyer, W. Mental Development in the Child (Infant 

Mind), pp. 1-4. 

13. Shinn, Milicent W. Notes on the Development of a Child, 

1 : 160-177. 

14. Shinn, Milicent IV. The Biography of a Baby, pp. 45, 126, 

198. 

15. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 73-75- 

16. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 7-17. 

17. Tracy, F. The Psychology of Childhood, pp. 31-37- 



CHAPTERS XIII AND XIV 
FEELING 

1. Organic Sensation, In addition to the special 
senses, there are the organic sensations or general 
feelings, due to internal changes, and generally classi- 
field as feelings of comfort and discomfort, pleasure 
and displeasure. They include feelings of hunger, 
thirst, satiety, cold, warmth, fatigue, etc. The nerves 
indispensable to such feelings are doubtless well de- 
veloped at birth for unmistakable signs of comfort and 
discomfort occur during the first days and sometimes 
even during the first hours. These sensations may be 
considered the beginnings of emotion and as such fur- 
nish the springs of action of man's intellectual activi- 
ties. The extraneous bodily activities and the com- 
fort or discomfort to which they give rise interfere 
materially with the disposition, character, and mental 
product acquired. Hence a lecture inspiring to some 
in the proper mood may be dry and uninteresting to 
others suffering from annoying bodily disturbances. 
The richness of one's culture depends largely upon the 
health conditions, happiness, and optimism thru 
which it was obtained. To truly educate one must 
possess for the time being the undivided attention 
and interest of the entire being. The social life with 
its disturbing influences must be reckoned with in 
order that the class-room may produce the most satis- 
fying results. 

2. Elmotion. The special senses are the connecting 

75 



76 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

links or paths thru which the external may become in- 
ternal ; the muscles, the organs by means of which the 
internal is made to appear external — i. e., expressed or 
recorded. It is these organs that play the important 
role in the transformation from the strictly physical 
to the predominantly psychical. It is these organs 
also that are most affected by education. The special 
senses act as the instruments for gathering intelli- 
gence (knowledge), the muscles for distributing it. 

The emotions are the most subtle of all the elements 
of mind and by far the most difficult to yield to scien- 
tific treatment. For this reason there is a dearth of 
scientific data concerning the nature and treatment of 
the feelings, altho they make up at least four-fifths 
of the whole life of man. The effort to solve the intri- 
cacy of feelings, and to educate them, has been one 
of indirection thru knowing or willing. 

If we include the feelings under the emotions we 
may consider them as first of all psychic phenomena 
to appear with definiteness to the child. Men differ 
greatly in intelligence but only slightly in feelings. 
Hence the commonality of children. The feelings are 
racial and common. Experience separates us, feelings 
unite us. Partridge quotes G. Stanley Hall as saying: 
"Pleasure and pain have been the great educators in 
the world — a truth which in the present artificial- con- 
ditions of life we are likely to forget." The easiest 
approach to the study of the emotions is thru a study 
of the basal feelings. 

3. Fears. The fears of children as well as of adults 
differ greatly, due in part to environment, stage of 
development, state of health, fatigue, heredity. Make 
a list of the fears that seem to be due to the latter 
cause. What are some of the things that excite fear 



ORGANIC SENSATIONS 12_ 

in children? How do you account for these fears? 
Are children more or less fearful than adults? Why? 

The tendency of the child is to pass thru all the 
fears of the race somewhat abbreviated. Fears that 
have been found useful to the race, persist and are 
inherited as instincts. These continue to exist long 
after their usefulness thru changed civilization has 
passed away. The great category of ancestral fears 
may often remain in the child's mind as a mere germ 
or rudimentary fear — the spice of life — or, thru con- 
centration, one or more of these incipient fears may 
be developed into morbid fears, or persistent ideas un- 
dermining the whole life. It is both cruel and danger- 
ous to arouse needless fears in children for the pur- 
poses of control. 

A neurotic person increases the fears of children. 
; Hence, a nervous mother or teacher is apt to produce 
untold injury and should be relieved of the care of 
childrenj It must not be inferred, however, that it 
would be advisable to free the individual from all fear, 
even if that could be done, for fear has its legitimate 
place and is a strong motive in education and progress. 

To determine this i)lace and to know how to evalu- 
ate the fears of children it is necessary to increase our 
knowledge of the subject. This can be accomplished 
in one of three ways: i. Introspection of our pre- 
sent fears, and thru memory, those of childhood. 2. 
By gathering and studying the fears of a great num- 
ber of children, differing in age, sex. nationality, en- 
vironment. 3. By carefully observing and recording 
the beginning, development and disappearance of fears 
in individual children. 

The study of children's fears, already made, indi- 
cates that the majority of fears are of an indefinite 



78 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

type, "a vague something I know not what," while a 
very small per cent are based upon real danger. Many 
of these fears no longer serve any useful purpose. 
Girls are more subject to fear than boys. Education 
has a tendency to remove indefinite and useless fears. 
A plan for studying the fears of children will be 
given in class. The tendency of fear is to restrain 
action and to lessen the joy of living. Overwork, de- 
ranged nervous system, and ill health are among the 
principal causes of fear. 

SIGNS OF FEAR RESULTING FROM UNUSUAL 
SOUNDS 

1. "Twelfth day. Fright from a sharp exclamation 
was shown by a short, gasping cry lasting, how- 
ever, but a second or two." Geo. Van Ness Dear- 
born, Moto-Sensory Development, page 9. 

2. "Considerably earlier, nineteenth day, R. was 
frightened, so it seemed, by ringing a small break- 
fast bell near him as he lay nursing. At first he 
stopped sucking, held his breath for a moment, 
then broke out crying." D. R. Major, First Steps 
in Mental Growth, page 89. 

3. "On the thirtieth day this fright was still more 
strongly manifested. I was standing before the 
child as he lay quiet, and being called I said aloud, 
without changing my position 'ja' (yes).^ Directly 
the child threw both arms high up, quickly, and 
made a convulsive start with the upper part of his 
body, while at the same time his expression, which 
had been one of contentment, became very se- 
rious." Preyer, The Mind of the Child, page 82. 

4. "Fifth week. The baby was lying half asleep on 
my lap when her tin bath was brought in and set 
down rather roughly, so that the handles clashed 
on the sides. At this she started violently, with a 
cry so sharp that it brought her grandfather anx- 



The first five are probably not "fear" so much as "shock." 



OBSERVATIONS ON SIGNS OF FEAR 79 



iously in from two rooms' distance ; she put up her 
lip at the same time, with regular crying grimaces 
known to every nursery." Milicent Shinn, The 
Biography of a Baby, page 8i. 

5. "Once when he was sixty-six days old I happened 
to sneeze, and he started violently, frowned, 
looked frightened, and cried rather badly; for an 
hour afterward he was in a state which would be 
called nervous in an older person, for every slight 
noise made him start." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 
2:286. 

6. "On the sixty-eighth day R. was frightened by 
the strange sound made by gently tapping on a tin 
cup; and even as early as the last week of the first 
month strangeness seemed to be a factor of fear- 
producing sounds." D. R. Major, First Steps in 
Mental Growth, page 91. 

7. "Ninety-seventh day. She listened to the crack- 
ling of a piece of brown paper and when it was 
carried behind her she nearly sat up, by a sudden 
movement, to look at it. When the paper was 
brought near to her she was very afraid of it, and 
even of me, although I no longer held it. Fear 
is shown by her starting backwards, etc., and by 
closing the eyes." Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Mo- 
to-Sensory Development, pages 44-55- 

8. "A child of three and a half months in the midst 
of the alarm of a house on fire surrounded by 
flames and tottering walls, showed neither aston- 
ishment nor fear. But the sound of the bugle and 
of the firemen coming up and the noise of the 
engine wheels made him tremble and cry." 
Perez, First Three Years of Childhood, page 64. 

9. "Before the present one was four and a half 
months old, I had been accustomed to make close 
to him many strange and loud noises which were 
all taken as excellent jokes, but at this period I 
one day made a loud snoring noise which I had 
never done before. He instantly looked grave and 
then burst out crying." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 
2:288. 



80 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

10. "A strong wind making uproar in the trees quite 
upset him when he was about five months old, tho 
he soon got over his dislike and would laugh at 
the wind even when it blew cold." James Sully, 
Studies in Childhood, page 409. 

11. "176th day. L. was frightened today also by the 
loud noise of putting in coal under the window ; 
each time a basket full was turned in, her attention 
was engaged to it. then in about two seconds she 
would cry and cling convulsively to her nurse's 
neck, in a way not before observed." Geo. Van 
Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensorv Development, page 
80. 

12. "The first symptom of fear was noticed at about 
nine months. It was excited by an unusual sound 
in the room but not in the child's immediate neigh- 
borhood ; he opened his eyes very wide and burst 
out crying." Champneys, Mind, 6: 106. 

13. "Thus Champneys observed (1881) that his boy, 
when about nine months old showed signs of fear 
for the first time, becoming attentive to any un- 
usual noise in a distant part of the room opening 
his eyes very wide and beginning to cry. A month 
or so later this child had a toy given him, that 
squeaked when it was squeezed. The child at 
once screamed, and screamed afterward again and 
again when it was offered to him." Preyer, The 
Mind of the Child, page 167. 

14. "Nine months. At this time he showed a shrink- 
ing sort of fear when he heard a noise like a ham- 
mer striking something in the next room, and also 
when he heard a coal fall from the grate." L. 
Hogan, The Study of the Child, page 19. 

QUOTATIONS INDICATING THE CHILD'S FEAR OF 
ANIMALS 

I. "A little girl was afraid of cats as early as the 
fourteenth week of life." Sigismund-Preyer, The 
Mind of the Child, page 164. 



THE CHILD'S F EAR OF ANIMALS 81 

2. "244th day. The first time the child saw a cat he 
excitedly held out his hands to touch it, but when 
taken near enough he drew back and turned his 
suddenly half closed eyes away from the cat." 
Winifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:470. 

V "In the ninth month I observed him for the first 
time cryint^. turning away, and drawing back from 
fear when a small dog barked at a nurse who vyas 
carrying my child on her arm." Prcyer, Ttie Mind 
of the Child, page 167. 

4. "321st day. L. was a little afraid of the sight of the 
calves today, altho she has not been so before." 
Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Develop- 
ment, page 120. 

5. "R's first sight of a worm (middle of the nine- 
teenth month) caused fear. The child was sitting 
on the lawn playing when a little worm not over 
an inch long caught his eye. He at once began to 
tremble and cry." D. R. Major, First Steps in 
Mental Development, page 103. 

6. "I may give as an instance that I took the child in 
question when two and a quarter years old to the 
Zoological gardens and he enjoyed looking at all 
the animals which were like those he knew such 
as deer, antelopes, etc., and all the birds, even the 
ostriches, but was much alarmed at the various 
larger animals in cages." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 
2 :288. 

STRANGE OBJECTS AND PERSONS 

1. "Since January when he was eleven months old, 
he has shown fear whenever he sees a wire dress 
form that is in the sewing room, and all our efforts 
to familiarize him with it seem to be useless." Mrs. 
Hogan, The Study of a Child, page 30. 

2. "319th day. A large black football lay unnoticed 
upon the floor until it was suddenly kicked toward 
the child whereupon he screamed and threw his 
arms about his mother's neck but kept his head so 



82 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

turned as not to lose sight of the ball." Winifred 
Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:469. 

3. "The boy when about a year old, manifested the 
most abject terror at the sight (and sound) of a 
bright red humming top which had been bought 
for him." Frederick Tracy, The Psychology of 
Childhood, page jy. 

4. "For example when just twelve weeks old, he was 
quite upset by his mother donning a red jacket in 
place of the usual flower spotted dress." Jas. Sully, 
Studies in Childhood, page 410. 

5. "107th day. In the sixteenth week the child cried 
upon seeing a strange face." Winifred Hall, Child 
Study Monthly, 2 1469. 

6. "About the middle of the fourth month she cried 
while a caller was present, dressed in black with 
a large hat." Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a 
Baby, page 135. 

7. "4 months, 10 days later she was quite upset when 
her father leaned over suddenly bringing his face 
into view from one side." Milicent Shinn, The 
Biography of a Baby, page 135. 

8. "About the same time (on the 137th day) I ap- 
proached with my back towards him and then 
stood motionless ; he looked very grave and much 
surprised, and would soon have cried had I not 
turned around." 

9. "^ months. In the first week of the month she 
was frightened by some one who came in suddenly 
between her and her mother, in a strange house 
and spoke abruptly in a deep, unfamiliar voice; and 
after that she often cried when strange men took 
her or came near her especially if they were 
abrupt." Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a 
Baby, page 171. 

10. "200th day. L. cried repeatedly today at a strange 
gentleman with white hair." Geo. Van Ness 
Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, page 86. 

11. "In the latter part of the fifteenth month, the child 
R. had a big cry when the doctor who had had 



FEAR OF FALLING 83 

much experience with babies wanted to take him 
in his lap." D. R. Major, First Steps in Mental 
Growth, page 107. 
12. "The child R. in the twenty-fourth month ran to 
his mother and hid his face in the folds of her dress 
when I appeared one day wearing a strange hat." 
D. R. Major, First Steps in Mental Growth, page 
q6. 

FEAR OF FALLING 

1. "Fear was first manifested in the fifth week. The 
child was laid nude on the bed, whereupon he 
started and threw up his arms as tho afraid of 
falling. His fears were removed by throwing a 
light covering over him or by putting on a gar- 
ment." Winifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2 : 469. 

2. "Fifth month. When after having been carried 
on the arm he was lowered suddenly he managed 
to take a firm hold with his hands to protect him- 
self from falling, and it seemed disagreeable to 
him to be raised very high." Tiedemann, Record of 
Infant-Life, page 22. 

3. "178th day. L. for the first time showed undoubted 
fear of falling while being carried upstairs. She 
was looking down the stairs and clung convul- 
sively, unmistakably afraid, to the neck of the per- 
son carrying her. Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Mo- 
to-Sensory Development, page 80. 

4. "In the latter part of R.'s nineteenth month he de- 
veloped the very curious fear of narrow cracks in 
side-walks. When we came to them while out for 
a walk, he would stop, utter a fretful cry and 
refuse to step across them tho in many cases they 
were not over an inch wide." D. R. Major, First 
Steps in Mental Growth, page iii. 

FEAR OF THE DARK 

I. "2 years, 4 months. On the evening of Nov. 30, 
1Q03, the first instance of what was possibly a dis- 
tinct fear of the dark was noticed. Ruth wanted 



84 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



to go out in the back room to put the butter away 
in the refrigerator. The room was dark. She at 
first peeped cautiously around the door and then 
said 'Mama, watch Ruth put away butter.' When 
she was thru she ran back into the kitchen saying, 
'Tiger will get Ruth.' " C. F. and I. C. Chamber- 
lain, Fed. Sem., ii : 274. 

Other cases should be added to the above list, in- 
cluding personal observations. The development of 
accuracy in observing, interpreting, and recording 
child activity is essential both in child study and suc- 
cessful teaching. Too often the teacher's knowledge 
of the child is so vague that she can be of no aid in 
his enfoldment, and may even thwart his highest de- 
velopment. It is pitiful to see the cruel waste of time 
and energy to meet demands that have no place what- 
ever in true development. 

REFERENCES 

1. Bozi'Ies, Mary E. Emotions of Deaf Children Compared 

with Emotions of Hearing Children. Ped. Sem., 3 : 330- 
334; also in Child Study Mo., 1:213-215. 

2. Calkins, Mary W. The Emotional Life of Children. Ped. 

Sem., 3:319-330; also The Relation of Feeling to Emo- 
tion. Psych. Bulletin, 5 : 340-344- 

3. Cohbe, F. P. Education of the Emotions. Fortn., 49 "•223- 

236. 

4. C.ompayre, G. Intellectual and Moral Development of the 

Child, pp. 165-188. 

5. Darwin. Biography of Infant. Mind., 2 : 285-294. 

6. Drummond, W. B. The Child, His Nature and Nurture, 

pp. 83-86. 

7. Drummond, W. B. An Introduction to Child Study, pp. 

212-217. 

8. Gurney, Edmund. What Is an Emotion? Mind., 9:421- 

426. 



REFERENCES ON EMOTION 85 

9. Hall, C. Stanley. A Study of fears. Am. Jour. Psych., 
8:147-248; Adolescence, 2:370-373. 

10. Hall, Mrs. W. S. The First Five Hundred Days of a 

Child's Life. Child Study Mo., 2:469-471. 

11. Harrison, Mary M. Children's Sense of Fear. Arena, 16: 

960-969. 

12. Holbrook, Agnes S. Fears in Childhood. (Studies in 

Educa., Earl Barnes, Vol. i, pp. 18-21 ; see also pp. 123, 
175) 

13. Irons, D. Nature of Emotion. Philos. Rev., 6:242-256. 

14. Irons, D. Recent Developments in the Theory of Emotion. 

Psych. Rev., 2 : 279-284. 

15. James, IV. What is an Emotion? Mind., 9: 188-205. 

16. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 99- 

106. 

17. King, Irving. The Psychology of Child Development, pp. 

43-63. 

18. M'Lennan, S. F. Emotion, Desire and Interest. Psych. 

Rev., 2 : 462-474. 

19. Marwedel, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 134-142, 387- 

401. 

20. Moore, Kathleen. Mental Development of a Child, pp. 37-41, 

89. 

21. Mosso, Angela. Fear, pp. 213-225. 

22. Oppenheirn, Nathan. Fear in Babies. Child Study Mo., 

2 : 32-34- 

23. Patchy Kate Whiting. The Sensitive Child. Kind. Rev., 

17:416-420. 

24. Payton, C. L. Feeling as a Factor in School Training. 

N. Y. School Journal, 64:594-595, 615. 

25. Perez, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 23-32, 

60-66. 

26. Preyer, W. The Senses and the Will, pp. 140-176; Infant 

Mind, pp. 16-29. 

27. Scott, Colin A. Study of Children's Fears as Material for 

Expression and a Basis for Education in Art. Trans. 
111. Society for Child Study, 3: 12-17. 

28. Shinn, Milicent W. The Biography of a Baby, pp. 28-83, 

127-136. 



86 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

29. Shinn, Milicent IV. Notes on the Development of a Child, 

2: 211-298. 

30. Siviter, Anna P. Fear of Childhood. Kind. Mag., 12 : 82-87. 

31. Slack, H. JV. Origin and Development of the Emotional 

Nature. Child Study Mo., 6:96-105. 

32. Stanley, H. M. A Study of Fear as a Primitive Emotion. 

Psych. Rev., i : 241-256. 
2,Z- Stryker, Mabel F. Children's Joys and Sorrows. Child 

Study Mo., 4: 217-224. 
34. Sully, James. Studies of Childhood, pp. 191-227. 
35- Suzsalo, Henry. The Training of the Child's Emotional 

Life. Proc. N. E. A., 1907, pp. 905-909. 

36. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 212-225. 

37. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 1-6, 106-111. 

38. Tracy, Fred. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 38-47; 7th Ed., 

pp. 38-40, 75-79- 

39. Tyrrell, M. A. Fear in the Home and the Household. 19th 

Cent., 63 : 447-453, IQOS. 

40. Vostrovsky, Clara. A Study of Children's Superstitions, 

Studies in Educa., Earl Barnes, i : 123-143. 



CHAPTER XIV 
A SUPPLEMENT TO FEELING 

AN INTROSPECTIVE STUDY OF FEARS 

1. Make a list of all your early fears in order of 
their vividness, underscore those that seemed most 
persistent, and whenever possible give the age when 
the fear was most prominent. 

2. Describe some of the symptoms of your most 
vivid early fears, also the eflfects. Were they of fre- 
quent occurrence? 

3. What have you found to be most helpful in dis- 
pelling needless fears? 

4. What fears still persist in coming up even 
against your better judgment? 

5. Have you discovered any relation between the 
recurrence of those fears and the state of your health, 
including fatigue? 

A PLAN FOR GATHERING DATA ON CHILDREN'S 

FEARS 

After distributing papers to the class for a written 
exercise, have each person head the paper with his 
name, age, grade and school. Then ask all to write 
as much as they can on the subject which you will in- 
dicate on the board. Tell them that you wish to know 
all the things that people fear. Do not discuss the 
subject, nor announce it until ready to begin writing. 
Place the following on the board : 

I. Name all the things that you can remember 
having once feared. 

87 



88 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

2. What things used to frighten you? Why do 
you think you were afraid of them? 

3. How old were you when you were afraid of 
these things? 

4. What are some of the things you are afraid of 



now 



5. Can you tell how you feel and act when you are 
afraid? 

A STUDY OF FEAR IN INFANTS 

An outline for studying the fears of an individual 
child. Give the name, age, nationality, height, weight, 
health and temperament of the child: 

1. Make a list of all the things that the child fears. 

2. How does the child express his fears by what 
questions, physical signs, sounds or words? 

3. How does he learn to fear harmful objects? 
Does telling suffice? Is one painful experience suffi- 
cient? 

4. What unreasonable fears has he? What class 
of fears seems to be most vivid and persistent? State 
the origin of his fears, if known. 

5. What fears, if any, has the child outgrown? 
Hiow was this change brought about? 

6. Is the child especially afraid of the mysterious 
and unknown? When were the signs of each fear 
first noticed? Give examples. 

7. When and how did the child first show signs of 
fear in displeasing those in authority? 

8. Do you know any of his fears that are traceable 
to the suggestions" of others? What ones? What of 
these fears seem traceable to heredity? 

.Other items may occur to the one making the obser- 
vation. Do not fail to note them as they may prove 
helpful. 



A STUDY OF FEARS 89 



FACTS OBTAINED FROM A STUDY OF FEARS 

The follovvinj^ facts were obtained from collating 
the answers of 727 students of the University of Ne- 
braska (male 107, female 620) on Fear as given in 
the Supplement under the head, "Introspective Study 
of Fears." 

Grouping of the more common fears according to 
the number of times mentioned. 

1. Fear of darkness or due to the dark; male in, 
female 766. 

' TIME.S MENTIO.NED 

Male 

1. Darkness n 

2. Catching feet in the dark 11 

3. Unusual sounds at night 12 

4 Following at night 5 

5. Jumping out from dark places 3 

6. Eyes in the dark 3 

7. Peeping at night 

8 White spots in dark 

9. Monster in dark 

Total Ill 766 877 

2. Fear of animals, total mention; male 141, female 

^ ■ ANIMATES AND TIMES MENTIONED 

M. F. Ttl. M. F. Ttl. 

Snakes 44 301 345 Wild animals 16 102 118 

Strange cattle 2 142 144 Mice 5 100 105 

Worms 7 105 1 12 Bugs 5 5i 56 

Spiders 5 77 82 Horses 44 44 

Rats 9 2,7 46 Bees 30 30 

Cats 5 2>7 42 Sitting hens 2 23 25 

Toads 2 23 25 Turkey gobbler. . .. 14 14 

Domestic animals 9 t2 21 Chickens 14 M 

Hogs 14 14 

Dogs 30 180 210 Total 141 1306 1447 

Other animals mentioned fewer times were : Wolves, bears, 
coyote, caterpillar, cockroach, dragonfly, goats, sheep, geese. 



;male 


Total 


523 


600 


93 


104 


44 


56 


33 


38 


2.7 


40 


9 


12 


II 


II 


9 


9 


7 


7 



90 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

3. Fear of strange or undesirable people, total men- 
tion ; male 80, female 656. 

CLAS5 AND TIMES MENTIONED 

M. F. Ttl. M. F. Ttl. 

Burglars 14 no 124 Indians 5 107 112 

Tramps 14 84 98 Strangers 16 81 97 

Drunken men 14 72 86 Gypsies 75 75 

Negroes 63 63 A particular per- 

Policemen 5 12 17 son 5 23 28 

Boys 12 12 Chinamen 7 7 

Blind or deformed 

people 7 10 17 Total 80 656 736 

4. Phenomena of nature, total mention : male 103, 
female 607. 

ELEMENTS AND TIMES MENTIONED 

Male 

1. Lightning 23 

2. Thunder 26 

3. Storms 14 

4 Water 14 

5. Fire 5 

6. Wind 9 

7. Earthquake 2 

Total 103 607 700 

Eclipse, snow, stars, fog, woods, open spaces, rain, rainbow, 
moonlight, are alsb mentioned. 

5. High places and falling, total mention; male 18, 

female 114. 

Male Female Total 

1. Falling 7 56 63 

2. High places 9 28 37 

3. Crossing bridge 2 30 32 

Total 18 114 132 



male 


Total 


119 


142 


no 


136 


112 


126 


93 


107 


91 


96 


70 


79 


12 


14 



A STUDY OF FEARS 



91 



6. Fears of the supernatural, times mentioned; 
male 75, female 313. 



M. F. Ttl. 



84 112 



Ghosts (bogie 

man) 28 

World coming to 

end 2 

Cemetery 14 

Dreams 5 

Big eyes 

7. Special objects, times mentioned ; male 20, fe- 
male 182. 



40 


42 


14 


28 


14 


19 


9 


9 



M. 

Deaths 19 

Corpse 5 

Weird stories 

Hell 2 

Devil 



F. 


Ttl. 


82 


lOI 


35 


40 


21 


21 


9 


II 


S 


5 



Total 75 313 



M. 



Trains 2 

Gun 7 

Knives 2 

Blood 5 

Holes 

Machinery 33 

Shadows 21 



F. 
47 
23 
16 

7 
9 



Ttl. 
49 
30 
18 
12 
9 
33 
21 



M. 

Violence 2 

Strange places. . . 2 
Babies (kittens, 
chickens, etc.) . . . 



F. 


Ttl. 


12 


14 


7 


9 



Total 



20 182 202 



Other things mentioned, principally by the girls, were : Hair- 
less and headless dolls, jails, haunted places, deserted houses, 
scenic railroad, electric wires, black clothes, fur rugs, feathers. 

8. Fear of personal injury, times mentioned: male 
33, female 410. 



M. F. Ttl. 



54 


175 


33 


35 


33 


33 


23 


23 


14 


14 


9 


9 



M. 
Disapproval .... 2 

Accident 2 

Losing parents. . . 2 

Stage fright 2 

Being lost 2 

Contagious 



F. 


Ttl. 


40 


42 


33 


35 


23 


25 


21 


23 


9 


II 


9 


9 



Being alone at 
night 21 

Punishment 2 

Being kidnapped . . . 

Buried alive 

Being poisoned . . . . 

Being suffocated. . . 

Doctors and den- 
tists 9 9 

Mention is also made of insanity, choking, fever, medicine, 

going blind, shooting oneself, cancer, being a dwarf, falling under 

train, falling of plaster, roof, tree, sky. 



Total 33 410 443 



92 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

From the above tabulation it appears that the 107 
men gave the expression to 581 particular fears, an 
average of 5.4, while the 620 women gave expression 
to 4354 special fears, an average of 7. This indicates 
that women are more expressive, else more subject to 
fear, than men. There are other sex differences shown. 

Many fears mentioned by women are not found in 
the papers of the men, while a few of the fears, as 
cemetery, are given in larger proportion by the men. 

SYMPTOMS OF FEAR AS EXPRESSED BY THE 
SUBJECT 

Heart Action 

MORE ACTIVE LESS ACTIVE 

M. F. M. F. 

Quickened pulse 28 72 Heart stands still 23 

Flushing 9 7 Pale 9 I9 

Bursting head 2 2 Faint feeling 16 

Hot and dry 5 5 Chills 26 54 

Perspire 2 5 

Respiration 
Rapid breathing 5 2 Loss of breath 7 56 

Motor Action 

Desire to run 19 130 Rigid and tense 7 103 

Desire to cover up 7 61 Shrinking (sinking).. .. 28 

Scream 63 Can not speak 12 

Sharp looking around. .. 12 Starting with fixed 

Extreme nervousness ... 47 eyes 5 16 

Trembling 30 100 Numbness 2 5 

Shrug and think rap- Dizzy and sleepy 16 

idly 12 Close eyes and ears 9 

Creepy feeling 5 5 Shudder 5 

It is difHcult to analyse the symptoms, since they 
have not always been fully expressed and in many 
cases omitted altogether. All signs of quickened 
action, as rapid breathing, flushed face, desire to run, 



A STUDY OF FEARS 93 

etc., seem to be grouped; when one is present the 
others are present also; so with the inactive symp- 
toms. Slight fear increases action but greater fear 
paralyzes. 

Some After Effects of Fear 

M. V. M. F. 

Physical exhaustion. . . 37 11 1 I*"atiguc 11 43 

Crying spell 43 Fxtrenic nervousness . 5 26 

Depression 11 22 Exciting dreams 6 18 

Dazed 12 Irritable 3 10 

The answer to the above question was frequently 
omitted in the papers tabulated. 

Aids in Dispelling Fear 

M. F. M. F. 

Reason 62 250 Investigation 16 124 

Diverting attention ... 21 135 Faith 3 26 

Company 19 y^ , 

Ridicule 2 26 Total 165 753 

Force of will 42 119 

Conditions that Accentuate Fear 

Fatigue 28 254 III health 19 154 

Nervousness 5 105 Exciting stories 2 16 

FEARS THAT STILL PERSIST 
(Juniors and Seniors in the University) 

M. F. M. F. 

Darkness 40 217 Strangers 2 16 

Being alone 93 .Sitting hens 7 9 

Burglars 7 65 Tramps 2 14 

Storms 5 56 Falling 2 14 

Dogs 16 28 Insane men 2 12 

Water 5 28 Corpse 5 9 

Winds 28 Accident to family 14 

Accident to self 2 26 Gun 2 9 

Height 2 26 Rats 2 9 

Bugs 26 Death 5 5 

Disapproval 2 19 Being buried alive 9 



94 



THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



FEARS THAT STILL PERSIST— Continued 
(Juniors and Seniors in the University) 



Imaginary monsters 

Snakes 

Mice 

Worms 

Lightning 14 

Spiders 2 

Drunken men 2 

Fire 

Strange cattle 

Following after 2 

Catching feet 

Springing upon from 
the dark 2 



F. 
7 
131 
72 
61 
47 
37 
30 
28 
28 
19 
19 

16 



M. F. 

Thunder 16 

Horses 14 

Cemetery 7 7 

Stage fright 2 12 

Crossing bridge 12 

Peeping in window... 2 9 

Wild animals 7 5 

Ghosts 5 5 

Weird sounds 2 7 

Cats 9 

Total 17s 1323 



Many more fears were given as continuing until 
the present. These being represented by eight or 
fewer cases are not given in the above table. About 
one-third of the earliest fears seem to persist. 



AGE WHEN FEAR WAS MOST PROMINENT 

Darkness 

Age I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

Female . . 3 8 14 20 26 34 39 44 48 45 47 yj 29 14 xi 11 5 2 

Male .... I 3 6 8 11 15 15 16 17 18 17 15 15 6 6 3 3 .. 

Storms, Lightning, Thunder 

Age I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

Female . . 2 6 6 9 12 21 27 36 39 42 50 43 43 41 41 29 26 14 
Male 33688889998888632 

Tramps, Indians, Negroes, Gypsies 

Age I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 

Female .. i 3 5 11 18 38 41 44 42 29 30 14 12 6 s 5 3 3 
Male I 2 2 433 3 2 



A STUDY OF FEARS 



95 



Animals, Snakes, Dogs, Cattle 

Age I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

Female .. 4 15 18 20 29 48 53 54 60 42 41 36 39 21 18 15 6 5 
Male ....255555966552221111 

Ghost, Bogieman, Monster 

Age I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

Female ... i 3 9 7 i7 I5 M i? 14 I7 M 12 4 3 i .. .. 
Male I 2325 5 5546632 I.... 

Being Alone 

Age I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ID II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

Female ..3 5 6 8 9 12 12 11 11 9 I5 n 9 9 12 11 9 9 
Male I I 2235333333632 I I.. 

Catching Feet 

Age I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 

Female 12368 11 15 995433 i- 



Many papers failed to give the time when the fears 
were most pronounced ; others gave a period of time 
extending over several years, as "two to six," "six to 
ten," "eight to twelve," etc. ; while others were quite 
definite giving the exact year. 



CHAPTER XV 
FEELING— Continued 

(4). Surprise and astonishment are closely related 
to fear; novelty of impression, ignorance, quickness of 
movement, or suddenly meeting the unexpected being 
the underlying causes of all three. 

Surprise indicates a more active or less intense state 
than astonishment. The former may occur in the 
second or third week, the latter probably not much 
before the sixth month. 

What are the motor symptoms of the latter? How 
do you account for the universality of the expression 
of the various feelings by different peoples? 

OBSERVATIONS INDICATING THE BEGINNING OF 
SURPRISE AND ASTONISHMENT 

1. "Twenty-first day. When gently slapped on the 
cheek while nursing, she seemed surprised and then 
puckered up her mouth and cried loudly." Geo. 
Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, 
page 17. 

2. '*A little girl of less than a month, on being taken 
downstairs into new quarters stared around in 
great wonder for a time, but this soon passed 
away." Fred Tracy, Psychology of Childhood, 
page 82. 

3. "Six to seven weeks. She lay making cheerful 
little sounds and suddenly by some new combina- 
tion of the vocal organs, a small high crow came 
out — doubtless causing a most novel sensation in 
the little throat, not to speak of the odd sound. 
The baby fell silent instantly and a ludicrous 
look of astonishment overspread her face." Mili- 
cent Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, page 86. 

96 



FEELING 97 

4. "Seventy-third day. She made a large vocal sound, 
seemed surprised, and then laughed aloud." Geo. 
V. N. Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, page 

33- 

5. "Thus it is recorded that in the tenth week the 

sound produced by striking a wine glass excited an 
agreeable wonder." Jas. Sully, Studies of Child- 
hood, page 409. 

6. Five and a half months. "C. when he first began 
to notice reflections of the fire and other objects in 
a mirror showed considerable marks of surprise." 
Jas. Sully. Studies of Childhood, page 406. 

7. "At the age of five months and a half, the exclama- 
tion 'ah' expressed for the first time his astonish- 
ment and his pleasure." Tiedeman, Record of 
Infant Life (Perez Trans), page 27. 

8. "Twenty-second week. When the child was in a 
railway carriage and I suddenly entered after a 
brief separation, so that at the same moment he 
saw my face and heard my voice, he fixed his gaze 
upon me for more than a minute, with open mouth 
(the lower jaw dropped) with wide-open motion- 
less eyes, and in other respects absolutely immov- 
able exhibiting the typical image of astonishment." 
Preyer, The Mind of the Child, page 173. 

9. "E. G., the child was thus astonished in the 
thirty-first week at the clapping together of a fan ; 
in the thirty-fourth at an imitation of the voices 
of animals; in the forty-fourth, at a strange face 
near; in the fifty-second at a new sound; in the 
fifty-eighth, at a lantern (after waking). Preyer, 
The Mind of the Child, page 173. 

(5). Curiosity, one of the important factors in the 
development of the child, begins as a kind of general 
hunger for a new sensation, but later becomes a desire 
to know. It is the desire for change which distin- 
guishes life from death. According to F. Tiedemann. 
Perez, and others, signs of curiosity appear at the end 



98 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

of the second or third month while from the sixth 
month to the sixth or eighth year it forms a great part 
of the child's life and enjoyment. More attention 
should be given to a study of the curiosity of children 
— its beginnings, culmination and decline or inhibition. 
Is its decline in later years due to nature or environ- 
ment? ; Should the genuine curiosity of the child be 
satisfied by evasive answers or by truth? If truth is 
presented before the mind is ripe for it, has it a tend- 
ency to interfere with development ?J 

INDICATIONS OF CURIOSITY 

1. "M. Six weeks. Examined his hands turning his 
fingers over and over." G. Stanley, Hall, Aspects 
of Child Life and Education, page 88. 

2. "F. One month. Stared intently at a patch of 
sunlight on the wall for several minutes; looked 
pleased." G. Stanley, Hall, Aspects of Child Life 
and Education, page 88. 

3. "At one month and twenty-seven days, the child 
seemed better able to distinguish his body from 
other things, for he no longer scratched himself; 
his curiosity developed, for he follows none but 
new objects with his eyes (exaggerated) ; he rec- 
ognizes the expression of feelings for he considers 
with greater attention the gestures of the people 
that are talking to him, and allows himself to be- 
come pacified by gentle words." Tiedeman, Record 
of Infant Life, page 15. 

4. "F. Two months. Was much interested in a bright 
red necktie at which she gazed intently following 
it with her eyes when the wearer moved." G. 
Stanley Hall, Aspects of Child Life and Education, 
page 90. 

5. "Seventy-ninth Day. L. stared at a familiar face 
and head with an unfamiliar bonnet on with great 
interest (looking rather at the bonnet !) for a long 
time." Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory 
Development, page 39. 



FEELING 99 

6. "Sixty-seventh Day. She looked very interestedly 
at her own and my reflections in the mirror, gaz- 
ing- intently at them for nearly two minutes." Geo. 
Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, 
page 28. 

7. "M. Three months. Was much interested in 
watching his own hands." G. Stanley Hall, As- 
pects of Child Life and Education, page 91. 

(6). Anger, including its many symptoms, may 
vary in degree from mere displeasure to intense fury. 
It also varies in its intellectual accompaniments. It 
is as important to the perfection of human life as are 
sympathy and love. Some psychologists consider 
anger the basal emotion, the acme of self-assertion and 
egoism. G. Stanley Hall, in Studies in Abnormal 
Psychology, 4:83, says: "Children and older human 
brutes spit, hiss, yell, snarl, bite noses and ears, scratch, 
gouge out eyes, pull hair, mutilate sex organs, with a 
violence that sometimes takes on epileptic features and 
which in number of recorded cases causes sudden 
death at its acme, from the strain it imposes upon the 
system." It has doubtless been an important force in 
human evolution, and may still act as a moral cathartic 
to extremes of altruism or self-sacrifice. It is not the 
feeling of anger that is wrong, but the failure to keep 
this feeling under proper control. The more springs 
of action properly co-ordinated, the stronger and safer 
the individual. The danger line is passed when one of 
the forces becomes the all-controlling influence of the 
mind. At first it is difficult to distinguish between 
anger and pain or distress, but by the fourth month 
the child frequently pushes away distasteful objects 
and shows signs of real anger. By the end of the first 
year the child may show anger by striking with his 



100 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



fists. From this time on the fits of anger increase until 
reason is sufficiently developed to exert its inhibiting 
power. What concerns us here, however, is the peda- 
gogy of anger. 

T. What is the normal feeling of anger? 

2. When insufficient and when excessive? 

3. What is the process by which the most health- 
ful conditions may be established? 

4. Which exerts the greater curative influence, to 
give way to anger or to control it? 

5. Under what circumstances are you most apt to 
give way to fits of anger? 

6. What is the best treatment of children who are 
subject to fits of passion? 

A careful study of anger and other emotions will be 
helpful to the teacher. 

EARLY INDICATIONS OF ANGER 

1. "Angry revolt against the order of things showed 
itself early in C's case as in that of his sister, the 
occasion being in each instance a momentary dif- 
ficulty in seizing the means of appeasing appe- 
tite." Third week. James Sully, Studies of Child- 
hood, page 407. 

2. "Fifty-ninth Day. She showed 'Temper' for the 
first time by crying when her out-door clothes 
were put on for her daily ride." Geo. V. N. 
Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, page 25. 

3. "When about ten weeks old. he was given some 
rather cold milk and he kept a slight frown on 
his forehead all the time that he was sucking 
." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2 : 287. 

4. "When nearly four months old, and perhaps 
much earlier, there could be no doubt from the 
manner in Avhich the blood gushed into his whole 
face and scalp that he easily got into a violent 
passion." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2 : 287. 



FEELING 101 

5. "Fourth month K. — . On the tvventieth day, 
his inabiUty to reach a watch and cluster of tas- 
sels which were held over him called forth a fret- 
ful cry." D. R. Major, First Steps in Mental 
Growth, page 83. 

6. "A small cause sufficed; thus, when a little over 
seven months old, he screamed with rage because 
a lemon slipped away and he could not seize it 
with his hands." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2 : 287. 

7. "297th Day. . . . Mild anger is now shown 
often by her throwing herself quickly backward." 
Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Develop- 
ment, page 1 17. 

8. "One of the earliest signs of anger I ever de- 
tected in the baby — a tone of temper in crying — 
was on occasion of an extra dressing one day, at 
eleven months old ; and thereafter whenever she 
cried over being dressed, there was the same 
slight tone of temper." Milicent Shinn, Notes 
on the Development of a Child, page 3. 

9. "I have seen a capricious little creature eleven 
months old put herself in a violent temper be- 
cause she could not succeed in seizing hold of 
her grandfather's nose." Perez, The First Three 
Years of Childhood, page 70. 

10. "A little boy of fifteen months old used to bite 
his mother when she put him to bed." Perez, 
The First Three Years of Childhood, page 70. 

11. "One of my sons when four and a half years old 
would get into a veritable rage every time I 
spoke to him in the patois of my country." Com- 
payre. The Intellectual and Moral Development 
of the Child, page 180. 

GROUPS OF QUESTIONS TO BE USED IN THE 
STUDY OF ANGER 

I. Introspective. In your own experience with 
anger, note and describe : 

(a) Vaso motor symptoms, such as flushing or 
paling, in different parts of the body or face, also 



102 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

sweating, chilling, choking, tremor, twitching, numb- 
ness, etc., accompanying sensations of taste, smell, 
hearing, etc. 

(b) Describe all motor changes or actions. 

2. Under what circumstances is there most likely 
to be a loss of self-control ; when alone, with friends, 
or with strangers? 

3. Is this loss of control complete or only partial? 

4. Do the feelings of anger culminate quickly or 
slowly; soon over or long continued? 

5. What differences does controlling anger make on 
its duration? 

6. When angry do you feel bolder or more timid, 
stronger or weaker, more or less active? 

7. What is your feeling immediately after a fit of 
anger, physical, mental and moral? 

8. Do you get angry more or less often than 
formerly? 

Observation. Make a careful investigation of all 
the vaso motor symptoms and motor changes in 
others during a fit of anger, and have some of your 
friends describe their feelings in personal cases of 
anger. 

QUESTIONS FOR GATHERING DATA CONCERNING 
ANGER OF CHILDREN 

Remember always to give age, sex, etc. After the 
usual preparation for a writing exercise and, perhaps 
a few interesting remarks on the prevalence and fre- 
quent justness of anger, and on the necessity of know- 
ing what things make people angry so as to avoid 
them, write the following questions on the board to 
be answered by all : 

I. What things make you angry? 



FEELING 103 

2. When do you get angry easiest? 

3. How do you feel and act when angry? 

4. What helps you most to get over it? 

5. When you are angry do you feel strong or weak, 
brave or timid? 

6. How do you feel when you get over the anger? 

7. Can you talk and work better when you are 
angry? 

8. What do you like to do best when you are really 
angry? 

STUDY OF ANGER 
Summary representing the returns of 654 (male 67, 
female 587) juniors and seniors in the University of 
Nebraska : 

I. Accompanying Symptoms of Anger. 

Vaso-motor M. F. Vaso-motor M. F. 

Flush 35 399 Pale 25 162 

Tremble 14 I97 Perspire 1 1 loi 

Chill 3 70 Numb 7 26 

Hands and feet cold.. 3 18 Heart pressure 2 15 

Dizzy 17 Kidney disturbance ... 2 5 

Backache 

Total 102 1015 

Mention was made of tickling sensation of scalp, 
swelling of the veins of the neck, dryness, bloodshot 
eyes, pale around the mouth, finger nails aching, loss 
of breath. 

Modification of the Senses 

M. F. M. F. 

Loss of taste 8 28 Loss of sight 5 11 

Ringing in ears 5 18 Loss of smell 8 5 

Keener senses 5 " Bitter taste 3 5 

Keener hearing 18 

Dilated nostrils 3 Total 44 114 

Loss of hearing 10 15 



104 



THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



F. 

Choking 13 I57 

Crying 80 

Clenched fists i5 48 

Twitching muscles 10 38 

Bite lips 3 I3 

Set jaws 3 I3 

Talk loud 5 n 

Head high 13 

Fighting attitude 5 

Impulse to throw 3 33 

Impulse to bang 18 

Impulse to fight 9 

Impulse to talk 8 

Impulse to kick 5 



Motor Impulses and Action 

M. 



M. 



F. 
115 
63 
53 
33 
25 
II 



Rigid muscles 13 

Loss of speech 5 

Grit teeth 3 

Flash eyes 5 

Compress lips 5 

Pace floor 5 

Talk rapidly 5 

Husky voice 5 5 

Impulse to stamp 38 

Impulse to strike 5 35 

Impulse to walk 15 

Impulse to tear 3 13 

Impulse to bite finger. .. 5 

Total 120 848 



2. Under what circumstances is there most likely 
to be a loss of self-control ; when alone, with friends, 
or with strangers? 



M. F. 

Alone 23 175 

With strangers 6 17 



With friends 



M. 
28 



F. 

375 



Total 57 567 



3. Is the loss of control complete or only partial? 

M. F. 

Complete ° 75 

Partial 58 480 

Total 66 555 

Of the eighty-three persons mentioning comj^lete 
loss of control, forty-eight state there "is sometimes 
complete loss of control."' 



FEELING 10£ 

4. Do the feelings of anger culminate quickly or 
slowly; soon over or long continued? 

M. F. M. F. 

Culmination quick .... 40 270 Culmination slow 33 172 

Duration short 40 361 Duration long 28 186 

Usually quick culmination goes with short dura- 
tion and vice versa. Most i)eople fall naturally under 
one or the other type, being always either quick or 
slow. Many other persons, however, state that they 
find in themselves both types; now one, now the 
other, depending somewhat upon the cause of anger 
and the surrounding circumstances. 

5. What differences does controlling anger make 
on its duration? 

M. F. 

Anger continues longer when suppressed....; 30 313 

The duration of anger is shorter when suppressed 30 188 

Many express the feeling that the suppression or 
holding in check of anger tends to arouse the feeling 
of revenge or desire to get even. Others believe that 
the only true way to overcome the too frequent 
tendency to give way to fits of passion is to com- 
pletely control or suppress all expression of anger; 
holding further that such action tends to sweeten 
rather than sour the disposition. 

6. When angry do you feel bolder or more timid, 
stronger or weaker, more or less active? 

M. F. M. F. 

Bold 65 486 Timid 38 

Strong . 58 447 Weak 5 75 

Active 53 325 Inactive 8 65 



106 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

7. AMiat is your feeling- immediately after a fit of 
anger; physical, mental, moral? 

M. F. M. F. 

Physically weak 58 417 Headaches 33 

Mentally confused 33 100 Mentally alert 23 

Morally ashamed 48 462 Morally stronger 8 20 

Terms classified under "Morally ashamed" were: 
guilty, foolish, blue, sorry, dejected, remorse, forgiv- 
ing, sheepish, mean, repentant, depraved, depressed, 
humiliated, degenerate, blamed self. 

Terms classified under "Mentally confused" were: 
lack of concentration, tired, disturbed, inaccurate, 
agitated, not clear, lacked control, confused, indolent, 
unbalanced, can not think, reckless, dull. 

8. Do you get angry more or less often than for- 
merly? 

M. F. M. F. 

Less often 65 470 More often 3 48 

Do the answers to question 8 indicate a growing 
healthier state of humanity? Are the provocations 
to anger of university students equal to those of per- 
sons in other walks of life? Should increasing civil- 
ization tend to decrease the feeling- of anger? 

THE BEST TREATMENT OF CHILDREN SUBJECT 
TO FITS OF PASSION 

Of the many letters in answer to the above question, 
one from Miss Auretta S. Aldrich has special merit, 
and is here given that it may aid others : "I had the 
care of a boy of four years. His parents were Ameri- 
cans. The father was a lawyer of education and 
refinement, but selfish and a hypocondriac; the 
mother was young and inexperienced but exceedingly 
conscientious. 



FEELING 107 

"From his babyhood the boy had fits of crying. 
Nothing ever stopped these till he was exhausted and 
fell asleep, though the mother did everything possible 
to turn his attention or induce him to stop. His 
health and disposition seemed to suffer from these 
attacks. 

"At the age of four he came to me. I tried to fill 
his little life so full of happy occupations and keep 
his body so well that he would not have these attacks. 
But after a few weeks something displeased him and 
he began to cry. He began by shutting his eyes and 
opening his mouth, and the cry was an incessant 
monotonous noise with absolutely no variation except 
what was necessitated by breathing. His hands hung 
limp. His shoulders dropped and his head settled 
upon or into his shoulders, and the whole attitude 
was one of extreme sagging. 

"I tried to arouse interest in something or to get 
him to speak to me, with no response. When I saw 
that one of his spells was inevitable, I told him I was 
sorry that he felt too bad to open his eyes or speak to 
me, and that I would bathe his head and face with 
cool water which I hoped would relieve him. He 
would not stir one step and his face was as immobile 
as if it were wood or clay. So I lifted him in my 
arms and took him to a bowl of water and with a 
cloth bathed his head and face freely. For an instant 
there was no change but then he angrily screamed, 
'That's enough.' I said, 'Are you relieved enough to 
open your eyes and speak to me?' There was no 
reply whatever but the same stolid face and monoto- 
nous cry. I applied the water freely again, and again 
he screamed, 'That's enough.' I repeated my ques- 
tion and he screamed, 'Yes,' very angrily, but did not 



108 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

open his eyes. I bathed his face the third time, saying 
with perfect quiet that I knew the water would re- 
Heve him so that he would be able to stop crying and 
to speak to me in his usual tone. 

"My manner, which was the expression in perfectly 
good faith, of my conviction and my entire sympathy 
with him, more than my words, which were few and 
quiet, made him confident that he could stop crying 
and also that I would bathe his face until he did stop. 
When he fully understood this he did stop. I took 
him in my arms to the nursery, undressed him, rubbed 
his body and put him in bed, at the same time telling 
him a pleasant story or singing to him until he fell 
asleep. He awoke placid and bright and never again 
had another attack. Twice afterward when he was 
displeased he began to settle his head into his shoul- 
ders in that peculiar way and his arms hung heavily, 
but I sprang to take him in my arms, explaining to 
him that I would bathe his face before his eyes became 
shut too tight, and he immediately came to himself. 
His health and temper improved from that time. 

"I give this in detail because such a large ])roportion 
of children's faults are from some inheritance allowed 
to develop, or some habit acquired before conscious- 
ness or responsibility began ; and could be overcome 
if we could be intelligently firm and sympathetic."^ 



CHAPTER XVI 
FEELING— Concluded 

7. Aesthetic Feelings, ^\'e are compelled in this 
part of the course to give only a passing word to the 
beginnings of aesthetic feelings. We shall have occa- 
sion, however, to return to these feelings later on. 
The child gives expression to pain or discomfort from 
the first, but it is not until two or three months old 
that it gives genuine expressions of pleasure. The 
first smiles are generally reserved for the mother or 
nurse. Here, no doubt, along with the visual image 
are mingled the former impressions of satisfaction 
through nourishment. The child early shows an ap- 
preciation of bright objects, and within the first two 
years shows considerable attraction for flowers, etc. 

Music is also early responded to by the child with 
expressions of joy or pleasure. After a few months, 
the child is apt to show distinct signs of joy at all 
musical sounds. What other aesthetic feelings are 
shown in the child? What feelings of pleasure seem 
to be the beginning of the aesthetic feelings? 

8. Affection. From an outburst of anger the child 
may surprise us in the next moment with genuine 
expressions of tenderness. The emotions of children 
may be intense, but they lack depth and persistence. 
The new-born begins to recognize and show affection 
for those in charge of him by the fourth month and 
by the eighth month other persons may receive a 
share of this afifection : while by the middle of the 
second year, or earlier, even animals and inanimate 

109 



110 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

objects may share in this bestowal of tenderness. 
This early love is flattering to the parents, but it is 
also an exceedingly important factor in the education 
of the child, and must be clearly understood and care- 
fully respected by everyone who would be a trainer 
of children and youth. It indicates a higher order of 
intelligence to rule by love than by fear. 

9. Sympathy, Which rises out of the instinct 
for companionship and rests on the community of ex- 
perience, is closely associated with love. Some ob- 
servers have noticed signs of sympathy as early as 
the third to the sixth month, though the cases of sym- 
pathy before the first year are not very marked. Jeal- 
ousy begins to show itself clearly after the first six 
or eight months and forms a large part of the child's 
early life. Why is it important to understand the 
feelings of jealousy in children? An outline for study 
will be given in class. 

EARLIEST INDICATIONS OF PLEASURE 

1. "By the nineteenth day the sound of the voice 
was distinctly associated with pleasant experi- 
ences, so that he smiled when addressed." Kath- 
leen Moore, Mental Development of a Child, 
page 67. 

2. "The first smile that I could conscientiously 
record occurred the day before the baby was a 
month old, and it was provoked by the touch of 
a finger on her lip ; and a day or two later she 
smiled repeatedly at touches on her lip." Mili- 
cent Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, page 73. 

3. "Audible and visible laughing which appeared 
first on the twenty-third day, is simply an ad- 
vanced stage of this expression pleasure, in which 
'the eyes laugh.' " Preyer, The Mind of the 
Child, page 32. 



FEELING HJ_ 

4. "This infant smiled when 45 days, a second infant 
when 46 days old; and these were true smiles, 
indicative of pleasure, for their eyes brightened 
and eyelids slightly closed." Chas. Darwin, 
Mind, 2 : 288. 

5. "Forty-sixth Day — Laughed aloud upon several 
occasions (at persons)." Kathleen Moore, Men- 
tal Development of a Child, page 37. 

6. "Fifty-seventh Day. . . . She laughed a 
good deal at the sight of her mother's face and 
at her voice; the open mouth was the conspic- 
uous feature of the smiles." Geo. V. N. Dear- 
born, Moto-Sensory Development, page 22. 

7. "Third month. . . . The sensations which 
because more and more strong and vivid 
strengthen the feelings; we perceive for the first 
time a strong emotion of pleasure ; heretofore a 
smile had been the sign of contentment, now it 
is replaced by a pronounced laugh." F. Tiede- 
man, Record of Infant Life, page 16. 

8. "When no days old he was exceedingly amused 
by a pinafore being thrown over his face and 
then suddenly withdrawn ; and so he was when 
I suddenly uncovered my own face and ap- 
proached his." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2 : 298. 

9. "The first real laughing sound was heard on the 
twenty-third day of the fourth month." D. R. 
Major, First Steps in Mental Growth, page 79. 

10. "It was rather a laugh than a smile that sur- 
prised me on the ii6th day, where as even on 
the 113th the image in the mirror was regarded 
with a fixed and attentive look, to be sure, but 
without any sign of satisfaction." Preyer, The 
Mind of the Child, page 297. 

11. "Sigismund's boy, in his sixth month, expressed 
pleasure by a peculiar crowing shout, accom- 
panied by kicking and prancing." F. Tracy, Am. 
Jour, of Psych., 6: 113. 



112 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

MUSIC 

1. "Fifteenth Day. She was pleased and quieted by 
the sound of a soft whistling." Geo, V. N. Dear- 
born, Moto-Sensory Development, page 14. 

2. Twenty-sixth Day. "But the next day, at the 
sound of chords, strongly struck, she hushed when 
fretting with hunger, and listened quietly for five 
minutes her first pleasant exercise through the 
sense of hearing." Milicent Shinn, The Biogra- 
phy of a Baby, page 72. 

3. "Tiedeman's son heard the piano played for the 
first time when he was forty days old, and he is 
said to have shown singular delight and excite- 
ment at the sound." Perez,. The First Three 
Years of Childhood, page 42. 

4. "In the sixth week the child laughed in response 

to his mother's crooning." Winifred Hall, The 
Child Study Monthly, 2 : 466. 

5. "When four months old, he showed in an unmis- 
takable manner that he liked to hear the piano- 
forte played ; so that here apparently was the 
earliest sign of an aesthetic feeling, unless the 
attraction of bright colors, which was exhibited 
much earlier, may be so considered." Chas. Dar- 
win, Mind, 2 : 289. 

6. "A little girl in her eleventh month takes pleasure 
in hearing music. When one begins to sing she 
springs and accompanies the singing with move- 
ments of her body." Oscar Chrisman, Fed. Sem., 
2 : 403. 

AFFECTION 

1. "When nearly five months old, he plainly showed 
his wish to go to his nurse." Chas Darwin, 
Mind, 2 : 289. 

2. Five months, two weeks. "Once she leaned out 
of her baby carriage, calling and reaching to me, 
as if she wished to be taken ; but when I came 



FEELING 113 

to her she wanted only to get hold of me to put 
her hands and mouth softly on my face." Mili- 
cent Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, page 172. 

3. "126th Day. . . . She seems to take great 
and real interest in her mother and to love to 
watch her face." Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto- 
Sensory Development, page 58. 

4. "Excepting the smile accompanied by rapid arm 
and leg motions, which denoted his pleasure in 
seeing the members of the family, no especial 
sign of affection was shown until the thirty-first 
week when the child first looked into his mother's 
face with an indescribable look of love." Wini- 
fred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:471. 

5. "228th Day. Two weeks after this first expres- 
sion he showed his love for his father by extend- 
ing both arms toward him as he approached after 
a two weeks' absence." Winifred Hall, Child 
Study Monthly, 2:471. 

6. "315th Day. . . . For the first time in her 
life she today had hold of a little girl about her 
own age, and it was surprising to see how de- 
lightfully she hugged her and how emphatic were 
the signs of instinctive 'natural' affection for even 
an entirely strange little girl ; she certainly filled 
a long-felt want." Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto- 
Sensory Development, page 119. 

7. "In the forty-seventh week he was asked. 'Where 
is mother?' and for answer drew his mother's 
face down to his and with a prolonged 'ah' he 
laid his moutlV again and again upon hers." 
Winifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:471. 

8. "A child of twelve months who came back to 
his father's house after a month's absence, took 
no notice of the purrings and caresses with which 
his old friend the cat welcomed him home. . . . 
Scarcely, however, did he catch sight of the faith- 
ful old servant before even she had called him 
by his name — than he, held out his arms to her, 

8 



114 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

Starting and jumping with delight." Perez, The 
First Three Years of Childhood, page 76. 

9. "But he did not spontaneously exhibit affection 
by overt acts until a little above a year old, 
namely by kissing several times his nurse who 
had been absent for a short time." 

lO- "375th Day. . . . She offered 'Johnnie B.' all 
her favorite toys." Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto- 
Sensory Development, page 134. 

11. Fourteen and a half months. "He has had a 
great fashion lately of kissing me at odd mo- 
ments, often on each eye successively, especially 
when I am lying down face upward," Louise 
Hogan, The Study of a Child, page 27. 

12. "When two years and three months old, he gave 
his last bit of ginger-bread to his little sister, and 
then cried out with high self-approbation, *Oh 
kind Doddy, kind Doddy.' " Chas. Darwin, 
Mind, 2 : 291. 



INDICATIONS OF SYMPATHY 

1. "My child H. cried out, when I pinched a bottle 
cork in her fifth month, and wept in her twenty- 
second week at the sight of a picture of a man 
sitting weeping, with bowed head in his hands and 
his feet held fast in stocks." James Baldwin, 
Mental Development of the Child, page 316. 

2. "With respect to the allied feeling of sympathy, 
this was clearly shown at six months and eleven 
days by his melancholy face with the corners of his 
mouth well depressed when his nurse pretended 
to cry." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2 : 289. 

3. "The first advance to signs of a truer fellow feeling 
was made when the child was six years and a half 
old. His father pretended to cry. Thereupon C. 
bent his head down so that his chin touched his 
breast and began to paw his father's face, very 



FEELING lis 

much after the manner of a dog in a fit of tender- 
ness." Jas. Sully, Studies in Childhood, page 408. 

4. "231st day. A cry from the mother caused by the 
child's vigorous use of his teeth was followed by 
a grieved cry from the child. The same proceed- 
ing was repeated later." Winifred Hall, Child 
Study Monthly, 2:472. 

5. "Eighth month. . . . and adds 'he cried when 
he was made to believe that his mother or nurse 
was being whipped." F. Tiedeman, Record of 
Infant Life, page 28. 

6. "307th day. One day when the mother imitated 
a crying street sound, supposing the child had 
heard it, he cried as tho he thot his mother was 
hurt." Winifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 
2 : 472. 

7. "473rd day. While at the park he saw a boy push 
a dog into the pond. As the dog went in he gave 
a quick cry of exclamation, but when it came out 
dripping wet his face became puckered with pity 
for the dog." Winifred Hall, Child Study 
Monthly, 2:473. 

8. "497th day. . . . Gentleness and tenderness 
seem her most prominent emotional characteristics 
at present— the notion of 'Little Tommy Green' 
putting pussy in the well makes her invariably 
cry." Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto-Sensory De- 
velopment, page 163. 

INDICATIONS OF JEALOUSY 

1. Three and a half months. "If her elder sister is 
placed beside her on her mother's lap, and the 
mother kisses the sister, quite a tragic scene en- 
sues; for a few seconds she remains still with her 
eyes fixed, then her mouth begins to twitch, her 
eyes fill with tears." Perez, First Three Years 
of Childhood, page 29. 

2. "On the fifth day of the eighth month Tiedeman 
notes that the association of ideas was constantly 



116 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

increasing, and that it gave rise to complex sensa- 
tions and desires." In proof of this he mentions 
the fit of anger of his son when he saw another 
child placed, for a joke, on his mother's lap, and 
the efforts of the jealous child to draw the other 
away." F. Tiedeman. Record of Infant Life, 
page 29. 

3. "A child of fifteen months was evidently jealous 
if sugar or dessert was given to its nurse." Perez, 
First Three Years of Childhood, page 71. 

4. "In the forty-first week he showed a decided pref- 
erence for his mother over other people. In the 
forty-eighth week he began to regard her as ex- 
clusively his and resented attention shown her by 
anyone else." Kathleen Moore, Mental Develop- 
ment of a Child, page 99. 

5. "A child of fifteen months used to enact very 
curious little scenes out of jealousy. If his father 
and mother kissed each other in his presence, he 
would run up and try to separate them, scolding 
and pushing away his father, who was by no 
means the favorite." Perez, First Three Years 
of Childhood, page 11. 

6. "Jealousy was plainly exhibited when I fondled a 
large doll, and when I weighed his infant sister, 
he being then fifteen and a half months old." 
Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2 : 289. 

7. "Twenty-second month. . . . Jealousy and 
vanity developed more and more ; when his little 
sister was being caressed, he came to be caressed 
also. He tried to take away from her what was 
given to her and even tried to strike her by 
stealth." F. Tiedeman, Record of Infant Life, 
page 38. 

AN OUTLINE FOR STUDY 

Observe and describe any cases of affinity or antipa- 
thy of children toward other children, or individuals 
of the same, or of opposite sex. How do these likes 



FEELING 117 

and dislikes manifest themselves and what is their 
efifect on both parties? 

Descriljc cases of mutual attraction or repulsion 
among children before the dawn of adolescence. .\lso 
similar cases after adolescence. Upon what does this 
mutual feeling seem to rest? What are the circum- 
stances under which children are most prone to give 
and to receive this affection? Is this attraction help- 
ful or otherwise? 

Examine introspectively your own experience in 
regard to these questions. Of what value is this 
knowledge to the parent and teacher? 

The following questions are taken from one of Dr. 
Hall's syllabi for child study (April, 1895) : 

"Will you describe from your own memory, can- 
didly and fully, but if you wish with any suppression 
of names or details, always stating age, sex and na- 
tionality, the dawn and progress of the first attach- 
ment felt toward a person of the opposite sex, stating 
fully what you did, felt, feared, how it affected your 
studies, conduct, relation to other friends, whether 
the person loved was older, younger, like or unlike 
you in temperament, disposition, tastes, culture? 
What particular act, feature or trait, if any, had chief 
charm for you ? Whether your attachment was known 
and returned and by what tokens: any rivalries, jeal- 
ousies, etc. Describe all plainly and objectively, 
without extravagancies or indulgence in current poetry 
or romance, and state how, from adult years, you 
look back upon this first experience of affection. " 

I am collecting the answers to this study and would 
be pleased to have the reader add to the value of the 
study by furnishing me with additional answers. 



118 



THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



AFFECTION 

Summary of a study of 448 University students (y^ 
male, 375 female) : 

I. Ag-e of the first attachment felt toward a person 
of the opposite sex. 

Ages 123456789 10 II 

Female 3 8 15 13 33 30 40 33 

Male 3 4 3 12 II 

Ages 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Total 

Female 47 38 37 18 20 10 5 5 2 . .— 357 

Male 10 12 4 3 4 I 2 I 2 .. — 73 



II. How it affected them. 

(a) Open affection Male Female 

Walked with him (her) 18 60 

Partners in games 25 55 

Watched him 34 

Did things to please him (her) 15 18 

Competed for her 13 

Giggled 10 

Showed off 8 

Laughed louder 5 

Cancelled names 8 

Talked of him 5 

Teased her 5 

Solved her difficulties 6 



(b) Hidden affection 

Day dreams 18 58 

Concealed attachment 10 14 

Stayed away from him 13 

Listened for news of him il 

Sought his society only when with others S 



FEELING 



119 



III. How they felt. 

M. F. 

Self-conscious 43 

Happier 11 18 

Loved to be with him. .. 10 

Nervous 8 

Wanted the feeling re- 
turned 5 

Uneasy pleasure 4 

Despondent 3 



IV. What they feared. 

M. F. 
That he would know 

how much she cared . . 23 

Being teased 8 17 

That nothing would 

prevent them from 

being together 3 



• M. F. 

Superior to other girls . . 28 

Embarrassed 23 

Could never love any- 
one else 8 

Guilty 7 

Bolder and freer 5 

Liked to be teased 3 

Liked to confide secret 

to girl friends 3 



M. 



Interference of parents 
That he would not re- 
turn affection 



F. 
20 



V. How it affected their studies. 

M. F. M. F. 

Work deteriorated 35 85 Work became better. . 16 82 

No effect 2 64 

VI. The effect on conduct. 

Male Female 

More careful of dress and appearance 11 39 

Changed general conduct for the better 37 13 

Changed general conduct for the worse 3 25 



VII. Relation to other friends. 

M. F. M. F. 

Lacked interest in Kinder and nicer to 
friends 19 53 friends il 16 



120 



THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



VIII. A,2:e differences of the parties in cases of first 
attachment. 

M. F. The affinity was young- M. F. 

The affinity was older. 28 233 er 35 30 

The affinity of the 

same age 10 53 Cases reported 73 316 



Male 

The affinity one year older 3 

The affinity three years older 

Affinity five years older 

Affinity seven years older 

Affinity nine years older 

Affinity eleven years older 

Affinity eighteen years older 

Affinity two years younger I5 

The affinity two years older 5 

Affinity four years older 2 

Affinity six years older 

Affinity eight years older 3 

Affinity ten years older 2 

Affinity twelve years older 

Affinity one year younger 5 

Affinity three years younger 3 



Female 
55 
23 
10 

8 

5 

3 

2 

40 

5 

7 

8 
10 

3 
8 

3 



Number of cases reported 38 182 

IX. Was the person loved like or unlike you in 
temperament, disposition, tastes, culture? 

M 



Unlike in temperament 31 
Unlike in disposition.. 23 

Unlike in tastes 16 

Unlike in culture 24 



F. 
120 
93 
42 
84 



M. F. 
Like in temperament. . 20 68 

Like in disposition 15 75 

Like in tastes 29 116 

Like in culture 21 74 

Total unlike qualities 94 339 

Total like qualities. . .85 333 

It will be noted that the unlike qualities prevail in 
all cases e.xcept that of tastes where the reverse is 



FEELING 



121 



true. It is difficult to account for the fact that cul- 
ture does not combine with tastes in bringing to the 
fore like qualities in these cases of early attachment. 
May it be due to a misinterpretation of culture for 
veneer? 

X. Charms that attracted. 







M. F. 


Physical features . . 




49 141 


(a) Handsome ii 


63 




(b) Eyes 


34 




(c) Smile II 


8 




(d) Hair ii 


5 




(e) Voice 6 


8 




(f) Face 5 


5 




(g) Carriage . . 5 


5 




(h) Complexion. . 


10 




(i) Bigness of 






body 


3 


M. F. 


Physical prowess. . . 




8 26 



(a) Strength 15 

(b) Daring 3 3 

(c) Vivacious . . 5 

(d) Protection .... 5 

M. F. 
Ideas 33 

(a) Good 12 

(b) Religious 7 

(c) Sober 6 

(d) Silent 5 

(e) Musical 3 



M. F. 
Personal traits 135 

(a) Geniality 45 

(b) Sympathetic na- 

ture 40 

(c) Gentlemanly 

manners 50 

(The forms of expression 
from which these traits were 
grouped were quite variant, but 
are quite fairly represented tn 
a, b and c.) 

M. F. 
Mental ability 48 

(a) Witty 18 

(b) Brilliant 28 

(c) Good reciter .... 2 

M. F. 
Miscellaneous, particular 
charms and traits hard 
to classify 3 38 



XI. Was the attachment known and returned? 

M. F. M. F. 

Known 47 142 Unknown 9 19 

Returned 47 157 .\ot returned 9 37 



122 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

XII. Overt acts or tokens of attachment. 

M. F. M. F. 

Rivalries 62 145 Exchanges 40 213 

(a) Jealousies ..48 in (a) Gifts 18 109 

(b) Fighting for.14 13 (b) Notes 19 83 

(c) Rivals 21 (c) Caresses 3 16 

(d) Winks 3 

(e) Rings 2 

Other studies of a similar nature can be added in 
class provided the time of the course will permit. 

REFERENCES 

1. Baldwin, J. M. Mental Development, pp. 216-331. 

2. Baldwin, J. M. Bashfulness in Children. Educa. Rev., 

8:433-441- 

3. Barnes, Earl. Feelings and Ideas of Sex in Children. Fed. 

Sem., 2 : 199-203. 

4. Barnes, Earl. Studies in Education. Vol. i, pp. 24-26, 

266-269. 

5. Bradley, F. H. Sympathy and Interest. Mind, 8:573-575- 

6. Burk, Frederick. Teasing and Bullying. Fed. Sem., 

4:336-371- 

7. Calkins, Mary W. An Attempted Experiment in Psycho- 

logical Aesthetics. Psych. Rev., 7 : 580-591. 

8. Clapp, H. L. Educational Value of Children's Questioning. 

Pop. Sci. Mo., 49 : 799-810. 

9. Compayre, G. Intellectual and Moral Development of the 

Child, pp. 188-208. 

10. Darwin, Chas. Expressions of Emotion in Man and Ani- 
mals, pp. 239-309. 

n. Dearborn, G. V. N. The Nature of the Smile and Laugh. 
Science, n. s., 11 : 851-856. 

12. Drummond, W. B. The Child, His Nature and Nurture, 

pp. 58, 86-92. 

13. Hall, G. Stanley. Adolescence. (See Index, Vol. II.) 

14. Hall, W. S. The First Five Hundred Days of a Child's 

Life. Child Study Mo., 2:471-473- 



FEELING 123 

15. King, Irving. The Psychology of Child Development, pp. 

64-70. 

16. Kirk Patrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 105, 

118-125, 209-212, 214-218. 

17. Marwedel, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 142-157. 

18. Patch, Kate Whiting. The Sensitive Child. Kind. Rev., 

17:416-420. 

19. Perez, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 66-86, 263- 

279. 

20. Preyer, W. Infant Mind, pp. 16-29. 

-. Preyer, W. Senses and Will, pp. 140-176. 
i. Scott, C. A. Children's Fears as Material for Expression 
and a Basis for Education in Art. Trans. Illinois Soc. 
for Child Study, 3:12-17. 

23. Shinn, Milicent. Biography of a Baby, pp. 78-83. 

24. Skinner, W. H. Aesthetics of Children. Series of articles 

in Northwestern Journal of Education for the Years 
1895-7, 7 ■■7'^, 102, 135, 160, 224, 248, 277, 337. 

25. Stryker, Mabel F. Children's Joys and Sorrows. Child 

Study Mo., 4:217-224. 

26. Sully, Jas. Studies of Childhood, pp. 408-411. 

27. Suzzalo, Henry. Training of the Child's Emotional Life. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1907, pp. 905-909. 

28. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 225-228. 

29. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 111-114. 

30. Tracy, Frederick. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 43-59 ; 7th 

Ed., pp. 79-92, 166. 

31. IVestermarck. Edzi'ord. The Essence of Revenge. Mind, 

n. s., 8: 289-310. 



CHAPTERS XVII AND XVIli 
KNOWING 

I. Intellect. Writers differ regarding the place to 
be assigned to the intellect of the new born. Some 
give first prominence to the mental activities, while 
others believe that those activities play but a small 
part during the first years of childhood. The differ- 
ence of opinion arises no doubt from the difficulty of 
distinguishing between intellectual activities and mere 
reflexes. The brain is furnished with impressions be- 
fore birth, traces of which remain, forming the begin- 
ning of memory. 

What are the fundamental stages of the intellect? 
What are the earliest indications of intellect in the 
child? 

II. Perception. The process of perception includes 
three stages: ist, a discrimination of the sense im- 
pressions; 2nd, a localization of the sensation in space 
and the referring of it to some point in time ; 3rd, a 
combination of these scattered sensations into an idea 
of the object producing them. The different stages 
may often occur simultaneously and in many percep- 
tions only the last one seems to have been present. 

Taste is generally conceded to be the first sense 
from which the child obtains definite perceptions. As 
before stated, the child seems to be able to distinguish 
between sweet and bitter on the first day, and before 
the end of the first year many articles of diet are 
clearly known and recognized. 

124 



KNOWING 125 



In reference to sight and hearing, the sense precepts 
are by no means pronounced at first, but by the end of 
the first week some signs of the early stages of per- 
ception may be seen. Among the first objects recog- 
nized by tile child is the mother's face. This occurs 
about the third month. The child has but little idea 
of distance before the end of the sixth month, and 
most of this knowledge is obtained through touch and 
the muscular sense. He is able to distinguish between 
sounds and locate their direction after two or three 
months. Touch plays an important part in the early 
perceptions; but the sense of smell, while reacting to 
strong odors from the first, does not seem to enter 
largely into the child's early education. 

What are some of the earlier sense perceptions and 
the educational importance of the senses? 

III. Memory, The term memory is used to include 
retention and rejjroduction. All experiences may leave 
permanent traces in the central nervous system, but 
only a few of these are subject to recall. 

1. Make a list of the things you can remember be- 
fore five. 

2. Describe the earliest event of your life that you 
can recall. 

3. Is the memory due to the vividness of the event 
or to statements made by older persons? 

4. Signs of early memories? 

5. Age when memory is most tenacious. Sense 
furnishing the most lasting memory. How can we 
strengthen memory? 

IV. Association has its physiological foundations 
in the distributive groups of nerve cells and their con- 



126 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

nective paths. Man's superiority over animals is shown 
principally in this group which at birth is least devel- 
oped, — association being- at a minimum. Probably 
two-thirds of the gray matter of the brain belongs to 
this group and has no direct connection with the 
external muscles and sense organs. The function of 
this group of nerve cells is to serve the higher intelli- 
gence, judgment, reason, aesthetics, ethics, and con- 
structive thinking. 

After the first six months the child begins to show 
distinct signs of association, even earlier indications 
of association have been reported by some observers. 
The law of association may be reduced to two prin- 
ciples — contiguity in space and time and similarity — 
the former being much more prominent in the early 
associations of children and generally more lasting. 
Some of the cases reported by Tracy as due to sim- 
ilarity can better be explained in another way. 

What are some of the first indications of association 
by contiguity? By similarity? Does the order of the 
development of these two laws of association indicate 
their relative importance, (a) to the individual? (b) 
to the race? What tests can be made to show which 
form of association children use at different ages? 

THE BEGINNING OF INTELLIGENCE 

I. "Eight weeks old. She stopped in the middle 
of nursing to throw her head back and gaze at 
the bow at her mother's neck and would not 
go on with the comparatively uninteresting 
business of food till the bow was put out of 
sight." Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a 
Baby, page 95. 



KNOWING 127 



2. "Mary at the age of three and a half months, 
can already disting-uish several parts of her 
body. When her mother says to her 'Where 
are your feet?' she directs her eyes to the 
feet." 

3. "At the age of four months the baby showed 
by certain signs that he recognized and dis- 
tinguished between people." Charles Darwin, 
quoted by Compayre in The Intellectual and 
Moral Development of the Child, i 1123. 

4. "When four and a half months old, he repeat- 
edly smiled at my image and his own in a mir- 
ror and no doubt mistook them for real objects; 
but he showed sense in being evidently sur- 
prised at my voice coming from behind him." 
Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2 -.zSg. 

5. "Five months. In the second week of the month 
she began to watch things as they fell, and 
then throw them down purposely, to watch 
them falling." Milicent Shinn, The Biogra- 
phy of a Baby, page 166. 

6. "The fiftieth week he tried to pick large letters 
off the paper on which they were printed, but 
a little later seemed rather suddenly to under- 
stand pictures." G. Stanley Hall, Ped. Sem. 
I :i30. 

7. "Seventy-seventh week. He called the photo- 
graph of a baby, baby, any man, papa, any 
woman, girl." Kathleen Moore, Mental De- 
velopment of a Child, page 112. 

SIGNS OF INTELLIGENCE— ASSOCIATION 

1. "At seven weeks old she opened her mouth for 
the nipple on being laid in the proper position." 
Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, 
page 84. 

2. "Sixty-first day. The day before the child 
had looked upon the friendly face of his mother 
for some minutes and then gave a cry of joy." 
Preyer, The Mind of the Child, page 46. 



128 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

3. "Romanes adds that in the case of his own 
child he found that the faculty of associating 
ideas grew stronger during the ninth week, 
as soon as her bib was put on — an action that 
always preceded that of giving her the bottle — 
she stopped crying for her bottle." Compayre, 
The Intellectual and Moral Development of the 
Child, 1 :292. 

4. "Last week of the third month. In the same 
week the child recognized his nursing bottle. 
Whenever it was held over him he uttered little 
fretful, half laughing cries until it was given 
to him." D. R. Major. First Steps in Mental 
Growth, page 190. 

5. "Fourth month. While seated on his nurse's 
lap, the child, whenever he sees anyone drink, 
turned toward the breast, even when it was 
covered, and made a movement with his mouth 
as if he were tasting something." Tiedeman, 
Record of Infant Life, page 18. 

6. "115th Day. She recognizes her name instant- 
ly, and when nursing sometimes stops, turns 
'round her head and bursts into passionate 
tears when called by her name ; it seems to 
be a 'reflex' already, this head turning when 
she hears her name." Geo. Van Ness Dear- 
born, Moto-Sensory Development, page 52. 

7. "When five months old, associated ideas aris- 
ing independently of any instruction, became 
fixed in his mind ; thus as soon as his hat 
and cloak were put on he was very cross if 
he was not immediately taken out of doors." 
Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2:290. 

8. "148th Day. L. evidently associates a person's 
hand with the face of that person, for today 
when hands were offered her from behind, she 
immediately looked up to see whose they were." 
Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory De- 
velopment, page 68. 



KNOWING 129 



9. "Six months, three weeks. To test it I stood 
behind her and in an ordinary tone accosted 
her as Bobby, Tom, Kitten, Mary, Jacob, Baby, 
and all sorts of other names. Whenever I said 
Ruth, Toodles or Toots she turned and looked 
expectantly at me but not at any other name." 
Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, 
page 176. 

10. "When exactly seven months old, he made the 
great step of associating his nurse with her 
name, so that if I called it out he would look 
round for her." Chas. Darwin, Mind, 2:290. 

11. "When a few days over 9 months he learnt 
spontaneously that a hand or other object caus- 
ing a shadow to fall on the wall in front of 
him was to be looked for behind." Chas. Dar- 
win, Mind, 2 1290. 

12. "Fourteen and one-half months. One day this 
week, while in his coach on the street, coming 
home, he began to throw kisses just before 
falling aslee])." Louise Hogan, The Study of 
a Child, page 19. 

13. "Thus in his eighteenth month C. took to ap- 
plying the name 'bow wow' to objects, such as 
fragments of bread or biscuit as well as draw- 
ings having something of a triangular form 
with a sharp angle at the apex." Jas. Sully, 
Studies in Childhood, page 423. 

14. "Nineteen months. On March 7, 1903, while 
sitting in her father's lap at the window, look- 
ing up at the sky, she discovered the new moon, 
which interested her very much. The evening 
of the same day she called the half of a biscuit 
in her hand 'moor,' i. e., moon." Arthur and 
I. C. Chamberlain, Fed. Sem., 11:265. 

OBSERVATIONS ON MEMORY 

I. "Fifty-third day. By the eighth week he had 
come to know that the placing of a napkin un- 
der his chin was always followed by food, for 



130 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

he closed his eyes and opened his mouth." Win- 
ifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:524. 

2. "130th day. Today there was the first direct 
evidence of the presence of a visual memory-> 
ima^e in her mind. She w^as near a lamp and 
looking at it with delight, but was then turned 
away so that her back was toward the light; 
she twice turned her head around as far as it 
would go both ways to see the light again." 
Geo. Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Devel- 
opment, page 61. 

3. "148th day. The child recognized both his 
father and aunt after an absence of five days, 
but subsequently did not at once recognize his 
father after an absence of twenty days." Win- 
ifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:524. 

4. "A little boy, six months old, whose hand had 
been slightly burnt by a hot vase, shrank back 
at the sight of the article a few days after." 
Fred Tracy, The Psychology of Childhood, page 
48. 

5. "At six months Emile was slightly burned by 
touching a warm dish with his hand, when it is 
presented to him again he draws his hand back 
with an evident intention to escape pain." Ibid 
page 10, Compayre, The Intellectual and Moral 
Development of a Child, i :224. 

6. "Sigismund gives an interesting case of memory 
in a boy about eight months old. While in the 
bath he tried repeatedly to raise himself up by 
the edge of the tub, but in vain. Finally he suc- 
ceeded by grasping a handle, near which he ac- 
cidentally fell. Next time he was put into the 
bath, he reached out immediately for the afore- 
said handle and raised himself up in triumph." 
Fred Tracy, The Psychology of Childhood, 
page 48. 

7. "Twelfth month. In the second week of the 
month her uncle showed her how he lifted the 
window sash, and four days after, catching 



KNOWING 



131 



sight of the finger handle, she tugged at it with 
impatient cries, trying to make the sash go up." 
Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, page 
244. 

8. "Hence it is worthy of note that a girl in her 
twelfth month recognized her nurse after six 
days' absence, immediately 'with sobs of joy,' as 
the mother reports (Frau Von Striimpell), an- 
other recognized her father after a separation of 
four days even in the tenth month (Lindner). 
Preyer, The Development of the Intellect, 
page 7. 

9. "The child J. in his twelfth month, remembered 
after an interval of two days that a marble was 
to be put in a tin can, and that the can was then 
to be shaken; that a can lid goes on a can; that 
blocks were to be set on his head ; and that they 
were to be piled on top of another." D. R. 
Major, First Steps in Mental Growth, page 132. 

MEMORIES 
Earliest memories as reported by members of the 
course. Describe the earliest event of your life that 
you can recall, and give the reason for the persistence 
of the memory. 

Females 

Pres- Age 

ent at time Incident 

age of event 

21 4 Accident to sister. 

21 4 Attending (visiting) a Kinder 

garten. 

19 4 Moving from one house to an- 

other. Event. 

24 5 Quarrelling with brother. 

21 3 Sickness (self). 

21 3 Little dish in rain, getting it as 

gift and taking it home. Having the dish 

later. 



Cause of 

Memory 

Elxcitement. 

Event. 



132 



THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



Females 
Pres- Age 
ent at time 
age of event 



Incident 



22 



ig mo. 



24 


2 


23 


5 


20 


3 


19 


4 


21 


4 


22 


3 



Discovering Santa Claus by see- 
ing toys before Christmas. 

Moving to different town, first 
trip on the train. 

Cut head, blood in water, new 
bonnet, ice cream. 

First day at school, picture of 
pig, teacher took her on her 
lap. 

Learning to walk with red chair ; 
father took chair and kept a 
little ahead. She walked alone 
until she became conscious of 
walking alone, then sat down, — 
surprise and indignation. 



Being baptized. 

Can of lye spilled on face — pain- 
ful. 
Crossing Miss. River on train ; 

saw men in a boat. 
Building new house ; carpenter 

took her up ladder to chimney 

— seeing country. 
Drinking maple sap out of small 

tin bucket. 
Visiting California calla lily bed, 

burying head in the white 

flowers. 



Cause of 
Memory 

Nobody ever 
mentioned it. 

Remember what 
was seen. 

Great event. 



Keen attention. 



People say I do 
not remember 
this but I think 
I do. 

Excited. 

Pain. 



Event. 



Proof of mem- 
ory, showed 
spot to mother 
after 13 years. 







KNOWING 


1 


33 


Females 
Pres- Age 
ent at time 
age of event 
21 3 Rocking 
tive. 


Incident 
cradle at home of rela- 


Cause of 
Memory 

First view 
cradle. 


of 



30 3 Birth of sister — father carried 

her to see the baby. 

22 3 Very sick — medicine in blue bot- 

tles — learning to walk after 
sickness. 
21 7 Excitement on hearing Santa 

Claus in house. 

20 3 Building new house, and birth of 

brother. 
24 2V2 Blizzard — looking through win- 
dow. 

24 3 Birth of brother. 

23 3 Put carbolic acid to mouth, car- 

ried to neighbors, given cream. 

21 4 Hitching dog to sleigh and trying 

to whistle. 

25 2Y2 Finger crushed — mother crying. 
23 3 Barefoot man with gun came for 

drink. 
20 2-3 Walking barefoot in yard, and 
(2) carrying little kittens in 
apron. Probably the 



first time. 



21 3 Picture taken — lace apron, bare 

feet. 

20 2 Seeing baby wrapped in red 

blanket. 

2\ 3 The corner where playthings 

were kept; (2) taking medicine 
for whooping cough. 

20 4 Going to bed alone for the first 

time, pillow fell on floor in 
dark, did not pick it up. 



134 



THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



Females 






Pres- Age 






ent at time Incident 


Cause of 


age of event 


Memory 


19 2H 


Prairie fire. 


Not sure. 


19 6 


Trip with mother — being sick on 
trip. 




24 3 


Trying to build windmill with 
nails. 




24 4 


Running away from home with 
brother, scared at movers — 






ran home. 


The disobedi- 
ence. 



22 3 Lying on floor playing with domi- 

noes, sunlight on red carpet. 

22 4 or 5 Playing in neighbor's house, fell 
and hurt head — carried home — 
what she said to mother. 



Visit at school. 
Birth of brother. 
Birth of brother. 

Falling down stairs. 
Rolling two-year old brother 
down stairs. 

Wheeling baby carriage. 
Brother whipping me on birthday. 

Broke doll and bank to show 

force. 
Dance of father and new mother. 

When moving left blunt shears. 
Grandfather sat on baby chair. 



3 Illness — rabbits for taking medi- 

cine. 



20 


4 


19 


2K2 


24 


2/2 


22 


3 


21 


4 


21 


3K2 


24 


4 


21 


3 


20 


3 


21 


3 


23 


3 



Remembers 
vividly all de- 
tails. 

Joy. 

Joy. 

Father's laugh- 
ing. 

Frightened. 

Sick feeling of 
fear at result. 

Pride. 

Hurt my feel- 
ings. 

Heart broken. 

First view of 
new mother. 

Cried on train. 

Pride at grand- 
father being 
the baby. 

Weakness and 
desire. 



KNOWING 



135 



Females 
Pres- Age 
ent at time 
age of event 

21 5 Girl thinking she had swallowed 

pins. 



Incident 



20 


5 


20 


3 


21 


3 


20 


4 


19 


3 


21 


4/2 


21 


3 


20 


7 


19 


4 



23 



Going to barn — freezing hands. 
Clothes around neck — hung on 

tree. 
Swing on Sunday morning "till 

old cat dies." 
Let brother run away. 

Naming of brother. 

Sister started to school. 

Bananas at party. 

Sister's death. 

Boys slid dishpan down cellar 
steps to entertain her while 
sick. 

Wasp sting. 



Christmas away from home — 
mother came instead of Santa 
Claus. 

Taken from home at brother's 
death, contagious disease. 



20 4 Running away from home. 

23 2Y2 Foxes in sack. 



21 



First ice cream at band concert. 



Cause of 

Memory 

Druggist saying 
she would have 
to be cut open. 

Pain. 

Scared — nearly 
hung. 

Pleasure. 

Sorry at disap- 
proval. 

Co mp romise 
made. 

Lonesomeness 
first day. 

Good — black 
specs — seeds. 

Fear of dark 
room. 



Disobeyed 
warning and 
hurt. 



Joy. 

Fear in going — 
joy in return- 
ing. 

Punishment. 

Fear of wrig- 
gling. 

Best ever tasted. 



136 



THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



Incident 



Females 
Pres- Age 
ent at time 
age of event 

27 2J/2 Flood and work to save mill- 
dam. 

22 4 Bit by dog. 

22 4 Playing with cousin who could 

not talk English. 
3 Ride in a little wagon. 



19 



24 



18 



27 



21 


S 


22 


4 


20 


5 


33 


5 


24 


4 


21 


3 


21 


2 



Fell from upstair's window. 
Chased by turkey gobbler. 
Grandfather, day he left for fair 

— he died at fair. 
Fall from attic ladder. 

Placed nickel in baby's mouth — 

choked. 
Dress — gray and red velvet. 
Shut aunt in closet with spring 

lock — was going away, could 

not get out. 



Cause of 
Memory 



Excitement. 
Scared. 



Seemed small 
by mother. 
Shaking her. 
Laughing at her. 

His happiness. 
How house 

looked as I 

fell. 

Scared. 



Disappointment 
and fright. 



2H 


Man sitting on water in river, 






fishing. 


Wondered at it. 


2/2 


Mother's death, sent to aunt, 
wanted to go ofif with father, 
tried to climb in. 




3 


Girl playing with fire and burned 






when she walked into it. 


Terror. 


4 


Would not come into house, 






father slapped. 


Only punish- 
ment. 


2^ 


Rat dropped dead onto bed from 






cabin. 


Fright. 


7 


Caterpillar put on her. 


Frightened and 
made sick. 



There were only seven cases of males given and 



KNOWING 137 



these have been omitted from the above list. Not 
all of the cases of the women who replied to the que?- 
tionaire have been given but probably sufficient to indi- 
cate the nature of the early memories that may be 
recalled in after life. From the information obtained 
it would seem that not more than twelve per cent of 
the class can go back in memory to the third year or 
earlier, about twenty per cent to the fourth year or 
earlier, and less than fifty per cent to the fifth year or 
earlier. The greatest variety, as well as the most last- 
ing memories occur in the teens. 

IV. Imagination. Every one who has studied chil- 
dren is aware of the important part played by imagi- 
nation in childhood. Both passive and active imagi- 
nation seem to be laying the foundation for future 
intellectual strength and activity. For a number of 
years the child is scarcely able to distinguish between 
imagination and reality. He peoples his world with 
all sorts of things. The inanimate objects around him 
are furnished with souls and real life. They feel and 
receive proper chastisement when disobedient. A relic 
of this personification may be seen even in manhood 
when we are tempted to kick the inanimate object 
that has caused us to stumble. No field of child study 
seems to ofifer more interesting and profitable returns 
than the imagination of children. Observe for an 
hour all the activities of a child (from three to seven) 
at play, flitting now to real, now to unreal, his whole 
creative world changed to a new one by the mere 
chirp of a bird, or the movement of an object, and 
the beginnings of intellect, of emotion and of aesthet- 
ics, will be presented with new meaning. Such study 
will enlarge the sympathy of the observer and rejuve- 
nate his mind. 



138 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

The many incongruities of this make-believe world 
of the child do not occur to him. The myth, the 
fairy tale, the folklore, the imaginative and the hero 
stories are alike real to him, and, may we not say, 
furnish the food for the later stages of intellect. 

Imagination does not create but only revives or 
reproduces material already in mind. By transform- 
ing and reuniting parts of former experiences the 
product may seem new. The power of imagination 
differs greatly with individuals. 

The fuller and richer the mind the greater the play 
and possibilities of imagination. Passive imagination 
(spontaneous uncontrolled imagining or living over 
of the past), including fancy, reverie or day-dreaming 
reaches its acme only in a well filled mind, and is 
prevalent among artists, poets, and scientists. It has, 
no doubt, a legitimate place, but only when these 
images and day-dreams are put into thought and ac- 
tion. But the kind of imagination most essential to 
progress is the active or constructive imagination. 
Here again the scientists and artists lead. A study 
of the natural processes of constructive imagination 
is important to every student. There is the breaking 
up or disassociation of past experiences, the fading or 
dropping away of some, the reappearing and combin- 
ing of others in new and unnatural forms, the recom- 
bining of these forms into still others more in har- 
mony with the individual's faith, instincts, and intel- 
ligence. In this process there are four important 
steps which will be discussed further in class; (i) 
The individual's natural impulse or tendency (atti- 
tude) ; (2) the intention, aim, purpose; (3) selective 
attention; (4) the judgment of appropriateness to the 
ideal, the feeling of fitness. 



KNOWING 139 



What are some of the early indications of imagi- 
nation? Give examples of the dififerent types. Is a 
vivid imagination a hindrance to scientific study? Are 
we apt in ovir educational methods to overestimate 
the imagination? Does a vivid imagination tend to 
increase deception or dishonesty of character? 

RECORDS ON IMAGINATION 

1. "Mme. Necker de Saussure says, 'I have seen 
a child eleven months old recognize a very 
small dog in an engraving.' " Mme. Necker 
de Saussure — Compayre, The Intellectual and 
Moral Development of the Child, i :247. 

2. "427th Day. The kindergarten balls, which 
had been to the child nothing more than balls, 
were one day, swung back and forth, like the 
pendulum of the clock, while he said, 'Tick, 
tock, tick, tock'." Winifred Hall, Child Study 
Monthly, 2:533. 

3. "479th Day. That imagination had changed 
his shoe to a running horse was evident when 
he pushed it rapidly across the table, saying 
'horse' ; and had imbued an apple with loco- 
motive power when he rolled it across the 
floor as he cried 'apple walk'." Winifred Hall, 
Child Study Monthly, 2 1533. 

4. "484th Day. He came one day with a half- 
inch square of white paper, which he desired to 
put on his mother's head, saying with a merry 
laugh 'hat'." Winifred Hall, Child Study 
Monthly, 2:533. 

5- "577th Day. She called a toy pitcher 'milk 
man' because it had contained milk but she did 
it with a laugh, clearly realizing how far the 
metaphor was stretched." Geo. Van Ness Dear- 
born, Moto-Sensory Development, page 175. 

6. "She drew with chalk a round mark on the 
floor, put a row of dots within it and said they 



140 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

were buttons — end of eighty-third week." Geo. 
Van Ness Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Develop- 
ment, page 175. 

7. "A little girl aged only one year and ten months 
insisted upon being addressed by a fancy name, 
Isabel, when she was put to bed but would not 
be called by this name at any other time." Jas. 
Sully, Studies of Childhood, page 39. 

8. "A little boy not yet two years old would 
spend a whole wet afternoon 'painting' the 
furniture with the dry end of a bit of rope." 
Jas. Sully, Studies of Childhood, page 37. 

9. "For example, R. looking at columns of coal- 
smoke rolling out of a chimney of a nearby 
house, cried 'choo-choo,' twenty-sixth month." 
Dr. R. Major, First Steps in Mental Growth, 
page 238. 

10. "When he is in his cradle he shows me the 
middle of the bed and then the edge, and says 
'This is the road and that is the ditch'. Two 
and a half years old." Guyon — Compayre, 
The Intellectual and Moral Development of 
the Child, i 1257. 

11. "There sits a little charming master of three 
years before his small table busied for a whole 
•hour in a fanciful game with shells. He has 
three so-called snake heads in his domain, a 
large one and two smaller ones ; this means two 
calves and a cow. In a tiny tin dish the little 
farmer has put all kinds of petals, that is the 

fodder for his numerous and fine cattle 

When the play has lasted a time the fodder dish 
transforms itself into a heavy wagon with hay; 
the little shells now become little horses and 
are put to the shafts to pull the terrible load." 
Goltz — Sully, Studies of Childhood, page 42. 

12. "Another little boy well on in his fourth year 
when tracing a letter L happened to slip so 
that the horizontal limb formed an angle thus, 

He instantly saw the resemblance to 



k 



KNOWING 141 



the sedentary human form and said, 'Oh, he's 
sitting down.' " Jas. Sully, Studies of Child- 
hood, page 30. 

REFERENCES 

Aiken, Catherine. Methods of Mind Training, pp. 46-60. 
Baldurin, James M. Mental Development in the Child and 

the Race, pp. 249-275. 
Baldwin, Jos. Psychology Applied to Art of Teaching, pp. 

96, 102 f. 
Bastion, H. C. Sensation and Perception. Nature, 1 : 213- 

214, 309-311- 
Bolton, T. L. Growth of Memory in School Children. Am. 

Jour, of Psych., 4 : 362-378. 
Boyd, Wm. Ideational Memory. Paidologist, 7 :28-32. 
Brittain, Horace L. A Study in Imagination. Ped. Sem. 

1907, 14: 137-207. 
Burnham, Wm. H. Individual Difference in the Imagination 

of Children. Ped. Sem., 2 : 204-225. 
Burnham, Wm. H. Illusions of Memory. Scribner Mag., 

11: 185-195. 
Burnham, Wm. H. Memory, Historically and Experiment- 
ally Considered. Am. Jour, of Psych., 2 : 39-90, 225-270. 
Chalmers, Lillian IJ. Studies in Imagination. Ped. Sem., 

7: 111-123. 
Colegroze, F. W. Individual Memories. Am. Jour, of 

Psych., 10: 228-255. 
Colegrove, F. W. Memory, Chap. 6. 
Colvin, S. S. and Meyer, I. F. Imaginative Elements in the 

Written Work of Children. Ped. Sem., 13 : 84-93. 
Compayrc, G. Intellectual and Moral Development, pp. 

207-264. 
Davidson, Thos. Perception. Mind, 7 : 496-513. 
Dcnio, F. B. Memory and Its Cultivation. Educa., 18:217- 

228. 
Drummond, Margaret. Memory. Paidologist, 9:34-52. 
Drummand, W. B. The Child; His Nature and Nurture, 

pp. 93-106. 



142 THE E SSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

20. Edridge-Green, F. W. Memory — Its Logical Relations and 

Cultivation. Part II. 

21. Evans, Wm. L. Memory Training (see Contents). 

22. Frans, S. I. and Houston, Henry E. Accuracy of Observa- 

tion and Recollection in Children. Psych. Rev., 3: 531-535- 

23. Hall, G. Stanley. Contents of Children's Minds; also in 

Aspects of Child's Life and Education, pp. 1-52; also 
Ped. Sem., i : I39-I73- 

24. Hall, G. Stanley, and Wallin, J. E. W. How Children and 

Youth Think and Feel About Clouds. Ped. Sem., 9: 460- 
506. 

25. Hall, G. Stanley. Note on Early Memories. Ped. Sem., 

6 : 485-512. 

26. Hall, Mrs. W. S. The First Five Hundred Days of a Child's 

Life, 2 : 522-526. 

27. Henri, Victor and Catherine. Earliest Recollections. Pop. 

Sci. Mo., 53: 108-115. 

28. Holbrook, M. L. Hovf to Strengthen the Memory. 

29. Jastrow, Joseph. A Statistical Study of Memory and Asso- 

ciation. Educa. Rev., 2 : 442-452. 

30. Kay, David. Memory, What It Is, and How to Improve It. 

Chaps. I, 2, 7, 8, 9. 

31. King, Irving. The Psychology of Child Development, pp. 

28-109. 

32. Kirkpatrick, E. A. An Experimental Study of Memory. 

Psych. Rev., i : 602-609. 

33. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 247- 

271. 

34. Lukens, H. K. The Connection Between Thought and 

Memory. 

35. McCady, Louisa L. The Child and the Imaginative Life. 

Atlan. Mo., 100 : 480-488. 

36. McMillan, Margaret. Education Through the Imagination. 

37. Monroe, Will S. Tone Perception and Music Interest of 

Young Children. Ped. Sem., 10:144-146. 

38. Monroe, Will S. Memory Test of Students. Sch. Journal 

(N. Y.), 68:242-243. 

39. Monroe, Will S. Perception of Children. Ped. Sem., 

11:498-507. 



KNOWING 143 



40. Moore, Kathleen C. Mental Development of a Child, pp. 

85-114- 

41. Morton, Aima B. The Heredity of the Power of Obser- 

vation, the Memory and the Intelligence. Educa., 
18:562-566, 624-632. 

42. O'Hara, Julie C. A Few Reflections on a Young Child's 

Mind. Child Study Mo., 2:301-305. 

43. Origin of the Intellect. Edin. Rev., 170:359-388. 

44. Paget, Walburya. A Child's Recollections. 19th Cent., 

63 : 232-244. 

45. Patrick, G. T. W. Memory in Education. Educa. Rev., 

4 : 463-474- 

46. Perez, Bernhard. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 

110-162. 

47. Pick, Edzvard. On Memory, pp. 55. 

48. Pillsbury, IV. B. The Effect of Training on Memory. 

Educa. Rev., 36:15-27. 

49. Potwin, Elisabeth B. Study of Early Memories. Psych. 

Rev., 8: 596-601. 

50. Preyer, Wm. Mental Development of the Child (Infant 

Mind), pp. 30, 47. 

51. Preyer, W. The Development of the Intellect, pp. 1-23. 

52. Radestock, Paul. Habit and Its Importance in Education. 

53. Ribot, Theo. Diseases of Memory (see Index). 

54. Salisbury, Albert. The Disparagement of Memory. Jour. 

of Educa. (Boston), 59:35-36, 51-52. 

55. Shaw, J. C. Text of Memory in School Children. Ped. 

Sem., 4: 61-78. 

56. Shaw, E. R. Comparative Study of Children's Interests. 

Child Study Mo., 2: 152. 

57. Shinn, Milicent 11'. The Biography of a Baby, pp. 238-247, 

161-181. 

58. Small, Maurice H. The Suggestibility of Children. Ped. 

Sem., 4: 176-220. 

59. Smith, Theodate L. Psychology of Day Dreams, in Aspects 

of Child Life and Education, by G. Stanley Hall, pp. 
53-83. 

60. Sully, Jas. The Age of Imagination. Pop. Sci. Mo., 45 : 323- 

330. 



144 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

6i. Sully, J as. The Imaginative Side of Play. Pop. Sci. Mo., 

45 : 577-588. 

62. Sully, Jas. Studies of Childhood, pp. 25-63. 

63. Tanner, Amy Eliza. The Child, pp. 96-140. 

64. Taylor, A. F. Study of the Child, pp. 54-75, 124-136. 

65. Tracy, Fred. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 60-87. 7th 

Ed., pp. 42-63. 

66. Vaschide, N. Experimental Research Upon the Creative 

Imagination ip the Child. Paidologist, 2: 111-113. 

67. Vaughan, IV. Memory Training in the Public Schools. 

Educa., 12 : 468-477- 

68. Warner, F. Study of Children, pp. 1 19-136. 

69. Wiltse, Sara E. Mental Imagery of Boys. Am. Jour, of 

Psych., 3: 144-148. 



, CHAPTER XIX. 

KNOWING— Concluded 
CONCEPTION— JUDGMENT— REASONING 

These terms, representing as they do the higher pro- 
cesses of thought, need more explanation than can 
be given here. In passing from the concrete or in- 
dividual notion to the abstract or general notion, we 
pass from the percept to the concept, and in comparing 
or connecting two or more percepts or concepts we 
perform an act of judgment. Likewise reasoning pro- 
cesses are necessary in forming judgments, while the 
judgment when formed becomes the starting point 
for new processes of reasoning. These processes are 
so closely connected, differing rather in quantity 
than quality, that it becomes necessary to treat them 
together. 

It is not easy to determine when the child first be- 
gins to generalize. Locke, Condillac, Taine and oth- 
ers place this period with the beginning of speech, 
while Perez, Preyer, Sully, with others, place it earlier. 
There is certainly not much progress in abstraction 
prior to the use of words, and yet, as explained by 
Preyer and Perez, there may be considerable judg- 
ment and reasoning, and even vague abstraction, with- 
out language. 

Make note of the earliest indications of thought in 
children and the age of the child observed. Also, when 
possible make the original observations on children 
under three and bring to class for comparison. 

Along with the age of imagery mentioned in a for- 

145 

10 



146 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

mer lesson, there is another equally pronounced period 
known as the age of questioning. This age generally 
begins in the third year, reaches the maximum in the 
fifth, and declines through inhibition with the sixth 
year. First, a seeking for facts — "What is it?" Then 
the cause, "Why is it?" and then "How are things 
made?" That little "Why" which passes through all 
phases of thought becomes most difficult to satisfy. 
The meaning of this questioning. Its importance to 
intellectual growth. Its value as a key to the child's 
mind. ^Show how these three questions of the child 
illustrate the three important phases of intelligence : 
Scientific (gathering) ; philosophic (interpreting) ; in- 
ventive (constructive teaching) ? What is a good way 
to gather data on the reasoning of children ?'j 

TYPES OF THE CHILD'S REASONING 

1. "After grasping my finger and drawing it to 
his mouth, his own hand prevented him from 
sucking it; but on the 114th day, after acting 
in this manner, he slipped his own hand down 
so that he could get the end of my finger into 
his mouth." (This was repeated,) Chas. Dar- 
win, Mind, 2 1287. 

2. "ii8th Day. When drinking, if the cup was 
withdrawn from his mouth, he took hold of his 
mother's hand and drew it back, letting go 
when he had obtained the milk." Winifred 
Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:534. 

3. "When the little boy R. was four months old, 
he was playing one day on the floor surrounded 
by his toys. One toy rolled away beyond his 
reach. He seized a clothespin and used that 
as a "rake" with which to draw the toy within 
reach of his hand." Fred Tracy, The Psychol- 
ogy of Childhood, page 68. 



KNOWING 147 



4. "The baby showed intelligence in her actions 
in several little ways, such as tugging with im- 
patient cries at her mother's dress when she 
wanted her dinner and leaning over to pluck at 
the carriage blanket under which her mother 
had laid some flowers to keep them from her." 
Five months old. IMilicent Shinn, The Biog- 
raphy of a Baby, page 167. 

5. "At six months Marcel watches attentively the 
shadows cast on a white wall by movements of 
the fingers. He follows them with his eyes, 
but turns frequently to look at his father's 
hand." Compayre, The Biography of a Baby, 
11:37. 

6. "In the thirty-seventh week when anyone pass- 
ed a certain window the child looked on to the 
door by which the room was entered." Win- 
ifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2 :535. 

7. "342nd day. A ball, with which he was play- 
ing in his bed, rolled out of reach upon a 
blanket, he began at once to pull the blanket 
toward him until he could reach the ball." Win- 
ifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:535. 

8. "One year, four months. C. likes to climb 
into a chair beside the dining room table and 
play with the colored vinegar bottle and other 
dishes, but has been taught that he must not. 
He was playing about the room with a tin can 
and a wooden stopple when he w^alked up to 
the table, pushed them vip on it until he could 
not reach them, then drew a chair up to the 
table and climbed into it as tho he had a right 
to his playthings. This same thing has been 
repeated." H. W. Brown, Ped. Sem. 2:369. 

9. "A little girl of this age (eighteen mos.) used 
to feign sleep until the nurse left the room, 
when she would immediately resume her in- 
terrupted romps." Fred Tracy, The Psychol- 
ogy of Childhood, page 69. 



148 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

10. One year, eight months. "S. was trying to 
put on her rubbers. Her mother told her to 
push. When she was putting on her dress 
soon after, S. said 'push.' " H. W. Brwn, Ped. 
Sem. 2:369. 

11. "One year, eight mos. S. had a doll whose 
hair had all come off, and after visiting her 
grandfather, who was bald, she named the doll 
'grandpa.'" H. W. Brown, Ped. Sem. 2:369. 

12. Two and a half years. "When the child did 
not see the sun in the sky he said, 'It has gone 
to bed ; tomorrow it will get up and drink tea 
and eat a piece of bread and butter.' " F. Tiede- 
man. Record of. Infant Life, page 45. 



CHAPTER XX 
IDEAS OF SELF 

Little by little the child learns to distinguish be- 
tween self and not self — its objective and subjective 
world. The earliest difference in the sensations when 
the child touches its own body or some foreign object 
must soon be observed, and the same is true of 
the muscular feeling accompanying bodily movements, 
and its absence in movements made by others. By 
the fifth month the child may be seen to observe at- 
tentively its hands and fingers, and later other parts of 
the body; however, its idea of what is included in self 
is quite vague for the first two or three years. Preyer 
tells of a boy of nineteen months who endeavored to 
hand over his foot on being asked. All the senses play 
a part in the development of consciousness. 

Considerable advance in the ideas of self occurs 
when the child perceives itself as the cause of the 
change taking place. It discovers its ability to make 
sounds, to move its limbs, to tear paper, to move 
others by appeals, etc. Thru these it learns to dis- 
tinguish between its body and its higher self. Sully 
relates the case of a girl of three who gave evidence 
of making this distinction. 

It is interesting to note in this connection the child's 
action toward its image in the mirror. It recognizes 
the image of its attendant sooner than its own. 
Preyer's boy first connected his image with himself on 
the twenty-first month. How do young animals act 
upon first seeing their images in the mirror; likewise 

149 



150 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

children? When and how do children come to recog- 
nize the image as their own? 

THE USE OF PRONOUNS 

The child first uses concrete names as "baby good," 
"mama play," "papa come," etc. The transition from 
"baby" to "I" occurs about the twenty-fifth month. 
"Me" is generally used before "I," and "I" and "me" 
before "you." 

The child acquires the use of the language by imita- 
tion. How about personal pronouns? The correct 
use of "I" is taken by many observers as marking the 
beginning of a clear idea of itself. 

Observe a child of twenty or thirty months to see 
what use he makes of pronouns. The Pedagogics of 
the subject. 

REFERENCES 

1. Allen, Grant. A Thinking Machine. Pop. Sci. Mo., 28:596- 

605. 

2. Baldxmn, J. M. Mental Development in the Child and the 

Race, pp. 276-316. 

3. Bowen, H. C. Training of the Judgment and Reasoning 

Faculties. Sci., 9:63-68, 164-168. 

4. Children's Questions. Pop. Sci. Mo., 43 : 238-239. 

5. Compayre, G. The Intellectual and Moral Development of 

the Child, pp. 265-298. 

6. Compayre, G. Development of the Child in Later Infancy, 

pp. 1-61, 260-288. 

7. Davis, Anna I. On Children's Interests in the Casual Idea. 

Child Study Mo., 2 : 226-232. 

8. Drummond, W. B. The Child: His Nature and Nurture, 

pp. 102-103. 

9. Franklin, Christine L. Intuition and Reason. Monist., 

3: 211-219. 
10. Hall, Mrs. W. S. First Five Hundred Days of a Child's 
Life. Child Study Mo., 2 : 530-537- 



IDEAS OF SELF 151 



11. Hancock, J. A. Children's Ability to Reason. Educa. Rev., 

12: 261-268. 

12. Kidd, D. Savage Childhood, pp. 57-78. 

13. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 274- 

286, 302-317. 

14. Marwedel, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 192, 209-224, 

501-S11, 514-547- 

15. Perez, Bernard. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 163- 

231, 280-285. 

16. (J.J.) Psychology of Reasoning. Science, 8 : 265-266. 

17. Preyer, W. Mind of the Child. Development of the Intel- 

lect, pp. 189-207. 

18. Preyer, W. Infant Mind, or Mental Development in the 

Child, pp. 66-83, 141-156. 

19. Russell, E. H. Child Observations. Imitation Introductions, 

pp. xv-xxviii. 

20. Scott, Colin A. Secondhand Science and Children's Reason- 

ing. Educa. Rev., 31 : 167-179. 

21. Sully, Jas. Studies of Childhood, pp. 64-120, 178-182. 

22. Sully, Jas. Psychology of Conception. Monist., i : 481-505. 
22,- Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 141-172. 

24. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 137-158. 

25. Tracy, Fred. Psychology of Childhood, pp. 75-87. 7th Ed., 

pp. 63-74. 

26. Wright, C. Evolution of Self-Consciousness. North Am. 

Rev., 116: 245-310. 



CHAPTERS XXI-XXIII 

WILLING 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WILL 

Whatever theory is held regarding the origin and 
freedom of the will, no one will deny its importance 
in the scheme of education. The sign of will is mus- 
cular movement; but not all movements indicate will, 
for the first movements of the child are impulsive, 
reflexive, or instinctive and wholly involuntary. These 
movements furnish the sensations, perceptions and 
ideas out of which the first imitative (will) movements 
are developed, and are consequently important factors 
in the child's education. As stated by Preyer, "On the 
forming of the will depends well nigh everything in 
the earliest education." 

I. Impulsive Movements. According to Preyer's 
most interesting scheme of classification the impulsive 
movements take place without previous peripheral 
excitement, but are the result of internal changes af- 
fecting the lower motor centers. They are unconscious, 
aimless and entirely involuntary. Most of the early 
movements are of this class, such movements as 
stretching, yawning, spontaneous movements of the 
legs and arms, body, eyes, spreading or bending of the 
toes and fingers, contortions of the face, doubling up 
in sleep and many other movements due to internal 
stimulus. Some of these movements like stretching 
and yawning persist thru life, others continue for 
years, as seen in sleep, while a majority of them be- 

152 



WILLING 153 



come eliminated by the end of the second year. Many 
of these movements are transformed into expressive 
movements as when the legs, thru rapid movement, 
show that the child is displeased. The impulsive 
movements are involuntary but they furnish the foun- 
dation for later voluntary ones. 

II. Reflex Movements require peripheral excite- 
ment and both sensory and motor apparatus, but do 
not involve consciousness prior to the movement. 
They are later in origin than the impulsive or spon- 
taneous movements and increase in efficiency after 
birth. Many pass thru a double transformation from 
reflex to voluntary and back again to reflex or auto- 
matic. A majority seem inborn, while others, as reflex 
eye movements, pain reflexes, etc., seem acquired. Do 
reflexes continue thru life? How do reflexes aid in the 
development of the will? 

III. Instinctive Movements require at least three 
sorts of centers, more or less connected, — lower sen- 
sory, higher sensory and lower motor centers; they 
have an aim without foresight of it, and are not im- 
parted by education. They are the result of inherited 
psychophysical complexes, coordinated impulses and 
reflexes; spontaneous, congenital modes of action; or- 
ganized and controlled nervous responses. They are 
numerous and accurate in animals, more numerous but 
less accurate in man wherein they change to habits 
and lose their value as modes of response and control. 
They furnish the foundation for the development of 
intelligence. A thorough study of the psychology of 
the instinct and its relation to habit and intelligence 
will be specially helpful to the teacher. 

(i) Seizing. Moving the hands and arms is partly 
impulsive, partly reflex, but also has instinctive ele- 



154 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

ments, as movements towards the face and holding 
fast to objects in the hands. First intentional grasp- 
ing, i8th week (Sigismund and Preyer). Contraposi- 
tion of thumb twelfth week, — not of great toe. Right 
and left handedness — first both hands move together, 
then separately about equally; from the eighth month 
the right hand is preferred. 

(2) Instinctive Mouth Movements: Sucking, lick- 
ing, biting, chewing, grinding the teeth. These move- 
ments may contain other elements, but every one 
contains without doubt an instinctive, unconscious 
purpose. 

(3) Learning to walk comprises another series of 
instinctive movements, resulting first in ability to bal- 
ance head (3rd or 4th month), next ability to sit up- 
right (7th to loth month ; with support a few months 
earlier) ; then ability to stand with and without sup- 
port (9th to I2th month), and finally ability to balance 
the body in walking, which is most difficult and varies 
most in time. This series includes creeping, running, 
jumping, and climbing. Why should these movements 
be classed as instinctive? Wherein are they mani- 
festations of will? Should children be urged in, or 
prevented from any of these movements? Why? How 
do they aid in the later development of the child? How 
are instincts related to intelligence? 

IV. Ideational Movements: Due to sense percep- 
tion with a conscious idea of the end sought and the 
means to its realization. They require at least four 
sorts of nerve centers — lower and higher sensory, the 
lower and higher motor. Here we have for the first 
true will movements — actions in the true sense. This 
group completes the list of possible movements. From 
the simplest to the most complex there is a gradual 



WILLING 155 

graduation with considerable over-lapping and no dis- 
tinct lines of demarkation. The ideational movements 
are best studied thru the three subdivisions, imitative, 
expressive, and delil^erative movements. 

(a) Imitative Movements. The beginnings of im- 
itation is of special interest in furnishing proof of 
cerebral acti\'ity. What are the steps necessary in 
imitation? Customary movements arc most frequent- 
ly imitated. Preyer's son imitated pursing of lips in 
the fifteenth week. But did not repeat it until the 
seventh month, when imitative movements of the head 
and laughing occurred. By the end of the first year, 
the child's life is full of imitation. It forms its chief 
mode of expression and is exceedingly important in 
shaping its life. The child imitates the voice and 
actions of all who come under its notice, and hence is 
more or less like them. Make a list of the prominent 
early imitations of children. 

(b) Expressive Movements. Facial expressions 
and gestures arise chiefly from imitation, but move- 
ments like crying, pouting the lips, shaking the head, 
wrinkling the forehead, smiling, etc., begin as reflex 
or impulsive movements which arc later brought under 
the control of the will. The peculiar form of these 
expressions is due to heredity. Prominent among ex- 
pressive movements are : Crying, at first a pure reflex, 
which becomes expressive with variations in intona- 
tion in the second or third month ; tears, occur about 
the third month and are very expressive; smiling and 
laughing, which differ only in degree and are not ob- 
served until the second or third month. Impulsive 
movements of face early simulate a smile. The first 
real smile seldom occurs before the end of the second 
month. Laughing a few weeks later. Pouting of lips 



156 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

as seen in attention, questioned negation and sullen- 
ness. Shaking the head and nodding: The former is 
an inborn reflex, instinctive movement and the latter 
an acquired one. Shaking the head becomes expres- 
sive almost from the first as in turning the head, refus- 
ing the breast, etc., while nodding is not acquired 
before the second year. Kissing, a late acquired, ex- 
pressive movement, not of the universal practice — 
seldom imitated before the second year, and then with- 
out intelligence of its meaning. Begging with the 
hands and pointing, before the end of the first year. 
Shrugging shoulders, common in some people but not 
universal. Attitude of the body as in fear, anger, jeal- 
ousy, pride, ambition, etc. Many other movements 
of face and hands may be added, also the higher forms 
of expression thru language spoken and written and 
thru drawing. 

(c) Deliberate Movements. These movements 
made as the result of choice and understanding indi- 
cate that the child has assumed control of his own 
activities. They also presuppose many involuntary 
movements of inborn impulsive, reflexive and instinc- 
tive movements. No movement can be made volun- 
tarily which has not first been made involuntarily. 

The will does not spring into existence all at once, 
but is developed so gradually out of the movements 
already studied that it is difficult to say when we first 
have will, doubtless not before the third or fourth 
month. It is at first weak and easily diverted by a 
slightly stronger stimulus, hence the inability of sus- 
tained attention. A more important step is made 
when the child first becomes able to inhibit some move- 
ments in order to allow freer play of others. The first 
few years of the child are important above all others 



WILLING 157 

in establishing the foundations for will and character. 
Then are sown the seeds which will produce vacillation 
on the one hand and obstinate, narrow-mindedness on 
the other. The truest conceptions of child nature are 
indispensable here. Awaken in the child a sense of 
responsibility — use just prohibitions — give reasons as 
soon as the child can understand them — be sympa- 
thetic and invariably consistent. Inhibition and self- 
control are often truer indications of a cultured will 
than expression. Show the relation of feeling, know- 
ing, willing. Which field is the more important in 
character building? Why? 

RECORDS OF BEGINNING OF IMITATION 

1. "Sixtieth Day. She 'talks' with her mother a good 
deal — the imitative beginnings of a voluntary use 
of the vocal organs." Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto- 
Sensory Development, page 25. 

2. "Eighty-seventh Day. Imitation seems to be on 
the way today, for L. immediately attempts to 
shake her hand when one makes this movement 
before her, and often with good success." Geo. V. 
N. Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, page 42. 

3. "Sixteenth week. The first attempt at imitation 
was evinced one day when her father was playing 
with her. Holding her in front of him, he alter- 
nately approached and withdrew his face to the 
side of hers, making for her amusement a snorting 
noise. We then observed her (after I know not 
how many performances of his) advance her head 
towards his uttering a long deep a — a — a. He re- 
peated his actions and she hers ten times." Kath- 
leen Moore, Ped. Sem., 8:236. 

4. "When only four months old he would cry if he 
saw another baby cry." Louise Hogan, The Study 
of a Child, page 36. 



158 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

5. "At the end of the fifteenth week appeared for the 
first time the beginnings of an imitation, the in- 
fant making attempts to purse the lips when I did 
it close in front of him." Preyer, Pop. Sci. Mo., 
33 :250. 

6. "The youngest imitative act that seems to pre- 
suppose an idea of motion and sound of Avhich I 
have a record is the case of Baby Florence who 
'When five months old imitated very closely the 
growling of a pet dog and at six months associated 
the name by growling when asked what Bonnie 
did.' " Bell Waldo, Child Study Monthly, 2:77. 

7. "Her uncle had a fashion of slapping his hand 
down on the table by way of salutation to her, and 
one day (when she had passed a week of her sixth 
month) she slapped down her hand in return." 
Milicent Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, page 
167. 

8. "Seventh month. On the fourteenth of March the 
infant began to articulate and repeat sounds." F. 
Tiedman, Record of Infant Life, page 27. 

9. "220th day. The child was not seen to deliberately 
imitate until the thirty-second week, when immedi- 
ately after seeing his grandfather emit a short 
quick breath, he did so. He then imitated a cough, 
shrugging of the shoulders, and other motions." 
Winifred'Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2:529. 

10. "231st day. Over and over this morning after I 
had pounded with a round stick or wand on a 
pillow, thus making a loud noise, she would take 
the wand and similarly shake it against the pillow." 
Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, 
page loi. 

11. "Examples of mimetic responses to these early, 
crude, sensory images are : — the child J's protrud- 
ing his tongue (234th day) as he watched the copy 
which was made for him ; also the child R's imitat- 
ing shaking a newspaper to make it rattle (237th 
day)." D. R. Major, First Steps in Mental Growth, 
page 128. 



WILLING 159 

12. "A young relation of mine eleven months old, came 
once on a visit to my family. On the day of his 
arrival, seeing me smoking a cigar, he began to 
pufif vigorously as if he were blowing smoke thru 
his lips." Perez, The First Three Years of Child- 
hood, page 78. 

13. "H's first clear imitation was on May 24th (begin- 
ning of the ninth month) in knocking a bunch of 
keys against a vase, as she saw me do it, in order 
to jjroduce the bell-like sound." J. M. Baldwin, 
Science (old series), 19:15. 

14. "Thirty-eighth week. In this week I saw for the 
first time a conclusive proof of the imitation of the 
action of another j)erson, when he took from my 
hand two spoons which I had been clapping to- 
gether and awkwardly reproduced the perform- 
ance." Kathleen Moore, Ped. Sem. 8:236. 

15. "281st day. A handkerchief had been used upon 
his nose and then laid beside his hand. He picked 
it up and laughingly tried to wipe his own nose." 
Winifred Hall, Child Study Monthly, 2 ■.c,2g. 

16. "He sang the music of two lines of 'Annie Rooney' 
correctly from imitation, when nine months old. 
His nurse maid sang this song daily." Louise 
Hogan. The Study of a Child, page 19. 

17. "303rd day. L. tried to imitate the out blowing of 
a candle, but succeeded only in blowing her nose, 
not getting the necessary mode of holding her 
mouth open and her soft palate shut." Geo. V. N. 
Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, page 118. 

18. "Another female child imitated the following 
movements in a recognizable manner : In the 
eleventh month she threatened with the forefinger 
if any one did so to her; used a brush after she had 
seen brushes and combs; used a spoon properly 
and drank from a cup; and made a kind of cradling 
movement with her doll, singing 'Eia — eia.' " 
Frau von Striimpell — Preyer, Pop. Sci. Mo. 33:251. 

19. "Frank — age one yr. Frank was sitting on the 
floor watching his mother sweep. She used a 



160 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

small brush to sweep under the table. The next 
day Frank found the brush on the floor, crept to 
the table, and moved the brush about under it." 
E. H. Russell, Child Observation — Imitation and 
Allied Activities, page 3. 

20. "Baby Janet thirteen months old puts her doll in 
a chair and rocks it singing 'bye, bye.' " Bell 
Waldo, Child Study Monthly, 2 :8o. 

21. "Kate — age one yr. three mos. When Katie is 
sleepy she rocks her cradle and sings, 'By — by.' " 
E. H. Russell, Child Observations — Imitation and 
Allied Activities, page 2. 

22. "A little girl only fifteen months old had already 
begun to imitate her father's frown and irritable 

way and angry voice; ." Perez, The First 

Three Years of Childhood, page 92. 

23. "Thus when sixteen months old he (C) spontane- 
ously imitated in a rough fashion the puffing 
sound produced by his father when indulging in 
the solace of tobacco; and he uttered a similar 
explosive sound hearing the wind." Jas. Sully, 
Studies of Childhood,, page 147. 

24. "Arthur, age one year five months. Arthur gave 
the cat a share of his bread and butter, and wiped 
the cat's mouth with his napkin." E. H. Russell, 
Child Observation — Imitation and Allied Activi- 
ties, page 3. , . , ^ 

25. "My father always said grace before meals. One 
morning nearly all the family were seated waiting 
for some of the others, when my little nephew one 
and a half years old folded his hands, bowed his 
head, murmured something in a low tone. He then 
lifted his head with a satisfied look and passed his 
plate for food." Bell Waldo, Child Study Monthly, 
2 78. . 

EARLY INDICATIONS OF WILL 

I. "Fourth day. My child refused to nurse at the left 
breast, which was somewhat more inconvenient for 
him than the right. He refused, turning his head 



WILLING 161 



away decidedly from it, and on the sixth day he 
screamed besides." Preyer, The Mind of the Child, 
Part I :3i3. 

2. "Thirty-eighth day. Air. C. called and the baby 
looked attentively at him. When sitting on his 
mother's laj) he made vigorous and repeated efforts 
to hold his head erect in order to see this visitor." 
Kathleen Moore, Mental Development of a Child, 
page 23. 

3. "Fifty-ninth day. If the child lost his hold upon 
the nipple, with open mouth and eyes fixed upon 
the breast, he made "reaches with his head and 
neck till he succeeded in regaining his hold." Kath- 
leen Moore, Mental Development of a Child, 
page 23. 

4. "Sixty-eighth day. L. hung tightly to the handle 
of her rattle this morning for five minutes when 
it gradually slipped out of her fist ; the thumb was 
l^roperly and strongly opposed to the fingers." 

5. "My child F. early in her second month, strained 
to lift her head at the sound of any one entering 
the room ; and in her fourth month, after the child 
had been frequently lifted to a sitting posture by 
the clasping of her hands around her mother's 
fingers, the mere sight of fingers extended before 
her made her grasp at them and 'attempt' to raise 
herself." J. M. Baldwin, Mental Development of 
the Child, page 370. 

6. "In the tenth week she began to turn her head 

aside in refusal or dislike ." Milicent 

Shinn, The Biography of a Baby, page 108. 

7. "In the tenth week he evinced a desire to sit up 
in order to see." Kathleen Moore, Mental De- 
velopment of a Child, page 54. 

8. "C. was just ten and a half weeks old when he first 
showed himself capable of lying on his back and 
turning his head to the side, and even half turning 
his body also, in order to have a good view of his 
father moving to a distant part of the room." Jas. 
Sully, Studies of Childhood, page 412. 



162 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

9. "The other effort of will was sitting up." Three 
months old. Milicent Shinn, The Biography of 
a Baby, page no. 

10. 'T knew one child who at the age of four or five 
months could not be got to bed without the assist- 
ance of several people." Perez, The First Three 
Years of Childhood, page 104. 

11. "Fifth month. He pushed a bitter medicine away 
from him with all his might, but he took wine and 
eatables with pleasure." F. Tiedeman, Record of 
Infant Life, page 24. 

12. "Fifth month. Meat offered with a fork is seized 
with the hand and carried slowly to the mouth ; 
many times incorrectly, but once properly." 
Preyer, The Development of the Intellect, page 

329- 

13. "190th day. She grabbed her mother's dress in 
front to prevent herself being laid down to go to 
sleep." Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto-Sensory De- 
velopment, page 83. 

14. "427th day. The last two days and today she has 
actively rotated her head back and forth to avoid 
a spoonfiil of food when she had had enough." 
Geo. V. N. Dearborn, Moto-Sensory Development, 
page 141. 

15. "Nineteenth month. When strangers want to be 
kissed by the child, he holds off; accordingly he 
is fastidious in his choice in regard to approach." 
Preyer, The Development of the Intellect, page 
306. 

16. "In the twentieth month she would cry, 'Ruth 
walk!' or 'Own self!' if lifted in arms, and pull 
away her hand, crying, 'No!' if one tried to lead 

her; ." Milicent Shinn, Notes on the 

Development of a Child, Nos. 3 — 4:185. 

REFERENCES 

1. Bain, A. The Emotion and the Will, pp. 303-586; also The 

Feelings and the Will. Fortn., 3 : 575-588. 

2. Baldzvin, J. M. Mental Development in the Child and in 

the Race, pp. 332-408, also 428-451. 



WILLING 163 

3. Baldwin, J. M. Imitation. Mind., n. s., 3 : 26-55. Origin 

of Volition in Childhood. Sci., 20:286-287; see also 
Infant's Movements, Sci., 19:15-16; and Suggestion in 
Infancy, Sci., 17:113-117. 

4. Balliet, Titos. M. Value of Motor Exlucation. Jour, of 

Educa. (Boston), 48:317- 

5. Bosanquet, B. Will and Reason. IMonist., 2: 18-30. 

6. Bryan, W. L. Development of Voluntary Motor Ability. 

Am. Jour, of Psy., 5: 125-204. 

7. Buisson, Ferdinand. Education of the Will. Report of 

Commissioner of Educa. for 1902, i : 721-740. 

8. Carpenter, IV. B. Physiology of the Will. Contem., 17: 192- 

217. 

9. Comfayre, G. Intellectual and Moral Development of the 

Child, pp. 61-95. 

10. Compayre, G. Development of the Child in Later Infancy, 

pp. 118-152. 

11. Craig, Anne Throop. The Development of a Dramatic Ele- 

ment in Education. Ped. Sem., 15:75-81. 

12. Deahl, J. H. Imitation in Education. Its Nature, Scope 

and Significance. Columbia Univ. Contrib. to Philos. 
1900, Vol. 8, No. I, pp. 7-101. 

13. Donaldson, H. H. The Education of the Nervous System. 

Educa. Rev., 9: 105-121. 

14. Drummond, W. B. The Child: His Nature and Nurture, 

pp. 71-83, 106-119. 

15. DuBois-Reymond, Emil. The Physiology of Exercise. Pop. 

Sci. Mo., 21 : 317-328, 433-444- 

16. Edgar, J. Individuality and Imitation in Childhood. Child 

Study, 1 : 12-23, 1908. 

17. Frear, Caroline. Imitation. Ped. Sem., 4 : 384-386. 

18. Hall, G. Stanley. Moral Education and Will Training. Ped. 

Sem., 2 : 72-89. 

19. Hall, G. Stanley. Adolescence, pp. i : 131-236. 

20. Hall, Mrs. W. S. The First Five Hundred Days of a 

Child's Life. Child Study Mo., 2 : 394-407, S26-530. 

21. Halleck, R. P. Psychology and Psychic Culture, p. 307. 

22. Hancock, J. A. Study of Motor Ability. Ped. Sem., 3:9- 

29, 308-313. 



164 T HE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

23. Haskell, Ellen M. Imitation in Children. Ped. Sem.. 

3 : 30-47. 

24. Herford, Caroline. The Development of the Will Between 

the Ages of Five and Thirteen. Paidologist (London), 

3 : 75-84- 

25. Jastrom, Jos. Involuntary Movements. Pop. Sci. Mo., 

40 : 743-750 ; 41 : 636-643. 

26. King, Irving. The Psychology of Child Development, pp. 

71-131. 

27. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 65-88, 

129-144. 

28. Laughter as a Mode of Expression. Atlan., 59:427-429. 

29. Marwedel, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 158-164, 414- 

500. 

30. Moore, Kathleen C. Comparative Observations of the 

Development of Movements. Ped. Sem., 8:231-238. 

31. Moore, Kathleen C. The Mental Development of a Child, 

pp. 8-44- 

32. Murry, J. Clark. The Education of the Will. Educa. Rev., 

2:57-68. 
23. Peeke, Margaret B. The Will and Its Training. Arena, 
14:487-494. 

34. Perez, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 11-22, 90-94- 

99-109. 

35. Preyer, W. Senses and the Will, pp. 188-346. Mental 

Development in the Child or Infant Mind, pp. 48-65. 

36. Preyer, W. The Imitative Faculty of Infants. Pop. Sci. 

Mo., 33:249-255. 
27. Rome, Stuart H. Action and Reaction in Primary Schools. 
. Educa., 27 : 420-429. 

38. Royce, Josiah. Imitative Functions and Their Place in 

Human Nature. Cent, 26: 137-145. 

39. Shepardson, Everett. A Preliminary Critique of the Doc- 

trine of Fundamental and Accessory Movements, with 
Bibliography. Ped. Sem., 14:101-116. 

40. Shinn, Milicent IV. Notes on the Development of a Child, 

pp. 179-210, 299-424. 

41. Shinn, Milicent W. The Biography of a Baby, pp. 26-38. 

42. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 252-310. 

43. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 93-105. 115-123. 

44. Tracy, F. The Psychology of Childhood, pp. 93-117 (7th Ed.). 



CHAPTERS XXIV AND XXV 
CHILDREN'S DRAWINGS 

The spontaneous drawings of children afford one of 
the best means of studying the early workings of the 
child mind. It is surprising that this key to child 
nature has not received greater attention. A few quite 
interesting studies have been made, and Sully has 
given a chapter in his book, "Studies of Childhood," 
on the subject showing the similarity of the early 
drawings of children and those of primitive man. 
These studies are quite valuable, yet they arc only be- 
ginnings. They show that in their early drawings 
children are more or less anthropomorphic and usually 
begin with that part of the subject with which the 
artists end, that is, with man. Note the artistic evolu- 
tion of man as seen in the illustrations given by Sully, 
and account for the order. 

Children think in wholes, but while the adult's whole 
is the man, the child's whole is an ear, an eye or a hand. 

At first any scribble or scrawl made by the child 
will represent to him the object he has in mind. Grad- 
ually as he accidentally hits ui)on a more fortunate 
stroke which suggests to him an object, it is at once 
accepted as the proper symbol. 

To a child, drawing begins as a gesture language, 
a means of expression. He draws from memory, not 
from observation. He sees the head of a boy at a 
window, he knows the entire boy must be there, and 
completes the missing part. A model is placed before 

165 



166 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

him, he glances at it, turns away and draws from his 
memory an image of it. 

One difference between the drawing of a child and 
those of an adult is that the latter represents artis- 
tically an instantaneous photograph, while the former 
described in a single picture a series of photographs. 

Mrs, Louis Maitland, who made a careful study of 
children's drawings, gives three fairly distinct stages 
corresponding to different ages, (i) From six to about 
nine years of age, one of illustration, when children 
respond eagerly with drawings illustrating scenes of 
their own lives, or visualize parts of stories told or 
read. (2) From ten to twelve, when children tho still 
interested in illustrating mental images (pictures) are 
far more interested in making sketches of every day 
objects; (3) From twelve onward, when the whole in- 
terest of the child seems directed toward accurate 
work; to represent with fidelity, geometrical, decora- 
tive designs, figures from life casts, landscapes and ob- 
jects about them. In the first stages the child's sponta- 
neous drawings were quite free from geometrical de- 
sign, dealing almost exclusively with the pictures of 
men, women and children, animals, houses and trees, 
while at fifteen and sixteen geometrical drawings pre- 
dominate. 

From these preliminary studies it seems that we 
have not been following the order of nature in our 
teaching of drawing, tho in many instances there has 
been great improvement. Are the natural tendencies in 
the child's development right and to be encouraged, or 
are they wrong and to be held in check or directed by 
other standards imposed by the philosophy of man? 
In either case we must know what the natural ten- 
dencies are in order to accomplish the best results. 



CHILDREN'S DRAWINGS 167 

What is the purpose of instruction in drawing — to 
stimulate and keep alive the imagination, to cultivate 
a love for the beautiful, to make artists, or to give an 
additional means of expression? Whatever the pur- 
pose; are we succeeding? 

PLAN FOR OBTAINING DATA FOR STUDY 

Always have age, sex, school, etc., given, and when 
possible use uniform paper, (i) Tell the children you 
wish them to make a drawing for you today, some- 
thing that you may keep. Give them thirty minutes 
in which to draw anything they like. (2) Another 
day stick a pencil horizontally thru an apple or a 
potato and place it on the desk so that the children can 
see both ends of the [pencil, then without any sugges- 
tion, have all draw it. Draw a picture of the object 
yourself and send with the papers. (3) ''George, Mary 
and little Harry were playing in a large room upstairs. 
The room was filled with all sorts of playthings. 
Little Harry was still on his rockinghorse in the mid- 
dle of the room, but George and Mary had stejjped 
to the window to look out. Just then a lady artist 
passing by in a carriage, noticing the beautiful home 
and the children at the window, stopped to make a 
sketch of the place." 

After the children have written name, age, etc., on 
their papers and are ready for drawing, read the story 
thru to give them a general idea of it. Then tell them 
to play that they are the artist and to sketch (draw) 
for you the picture. Reread the story but ofTer no 
suggestions. Judging from the different interests of 
the child in drawing, what plan of instruction should 
be followed ? 

What advantage is gained in following nature? 



168 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

What use can be made of drawing in nature study? 

How do you account for children becoming more 
timid in drawing as they grow older? Why is this so 
noticeable at the beginning of adolescence? 

When would you begin the grammar of drawings? 

Should the teaching of drawing precede or follow 
the teaching of writing? Why? 

Judging from the natural interest of the child what 
are the important steps in the teaching of drawing? 

REFERENCES 

1. Baldzvin, J. M. Mental Development in the Child and the 

Race, pp. 78-99. 

2. Barnes, Earl. A Study on Children's Drawings. Ped. Sem., 

2 : 455-463- 

3. Barnes, Earl, and Maitland, Mrs. Louise. Art of Little 

Children. (A Condensed Translation of a Study of 
Children's Drawings. Made by Corrado Ricci in 1887.) 
Ped. Sem., 3 : 302-307. 

4. Barnes, Clifford P. Child Study in Relation to Elementary 

Education. Kind. Rev., 19:396-401. 

5. Brown, E. E. Editor. Notes on Children's Drawings. Univ. 

of Cal. Studies. 

6. Broum, E. E. Art in Education. Proc. N. E. A., 1899, pp. 

112-121. 

7. Burnhani, Wm. H. The Hygiene of Drawing. Ped. Sem., 

14 : 289-304. 

8. Chamberlain, A. F. The Child. A Study in the Evolution 

of Man, pp. 173-21 1. 

9. Clark, Arthur B. Child's Attitude Toward Perspective 

Problems. Studies in Educa. (Barnes), 1:283-295. 

10. Clark, J. S. Some Observations on Children's Drawings. 

Educa. Rev., 13 : 76-82. 

11. Cook, Eheneezer. The Methods of Nature is the Archetype 

of All Methods. Paidologist, 8: 28-35. 

12. Drummond, W. B. An Introdpction to Child Study, pp. 

276-280. 



CHILDREN'S DRAWINGS 169 

13. Fits, H. G. Free Hand Drawing in Education. Pop. Sci. 

Mo., 51:755-765- 

14. Gallagher, Marguerite. Children's Spontaneous Drawings. 

Northw. Mo., 8: 130-134. 

15. Hart, Mrs. Mary R. The Child Revealed Through Its 

Drawings. Northw. Mo., 8: 193-196. 

16. Hart, W. R. Children's Choice in Pictures. Northw. Mo., 

7 : 24-29. 

17. Herrick, Mary .-/. Children's Drawings. Ped. Sein., 3:338- 

339- 

18. Hicks, Mrs. Mary Dana. Color in Public Schools. Proc. 

N. E. A. 1894, 906-915. 
\g. Hicks, Mrs. Mary Dana. Art in Early Education. Ped. 
Sem., 2 : 463-466. 

20. Jackson, W. S. Representative Expression in Nature Study. 

Educa. Rev., Oct., 1895, 10:248-261. 

21. Lo7vd, Edna B. Object Drawing. Proc. N. E. A. 1907, pp. 

843-848. 

22. Luckey, G. W. .1. Teaching Drawing. Northw. Mo., 8: 185. 

23. Liikens, H. T. A Study of Children's Drawings in the Early 

Years. Ped. Sem., 4:79-110. 

24. McCormack. T. J. Brush Work and Inventional Drawing. 

Open Court, Chicago, 15:30-42. 

25. McDermott, Louisa. Favorite Drawings of Indian Children. 

Northw. Mo., 8: 134-137. 

26. Maitland, Mrs. Louise. Notes on Eskimo Drawings. 

Northw. Mo., 9 : 443-450. 

27. Maitland, Mrs. Louise. Art With Young Children, Earl 

Barnes' Studies, i : 24, 63, 105, 155, 180, 223, 265, 338. 

28. Notes on Children's Drawings. Ped. Sem.. i : 445-447. 

29. O'Shea, M. V. Children's Expression Through Drawing. 

Proc. N. E. A. 1894, pp. 1015-1023; also Some Aspects 
of Drawing. Educa. Rev., 14 : 263-284. 

30. Sully, J. The Young Draughtsman. In Studies in Child- 

hood, pp. 331-398- 

31. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 373-392. 

32. Tracy, F. The Psychology of Childhood, pp. 166-179 (7th 

Ed.). 

33. Volk, Douglas. Public School .'Xrt Instruction. Northw. 

Mo., May, 1899, 9 : 396-400. 



CHAPTERS XXVI AND XXVII 
THE BEGINNING OF LANGUAGE 

In a former lesson we referred to indications of 
thinking without words ; however, the thot activity 
possibly without language is of the crudest sort. Lan- 
guage, speech, is one of the distinguishing marks be- 
tween human and animal intelligence. Show the 
meaning and importance of language in the evolution 
of thot. Will the study of the language of children 
furnish a clue to the origin of language in the race? 
How can a study of children's acquisition of language 
aid teachers? 

(i) The Babbling, or Mamma Period. Tracy is no 
doubt right in stating that the early utterances of the 
child have no psychic significance. From the first 
spontaneous sound to the complete sentence, the vocal 
expressions of the child pass thru a series of advancing 
stages comparable to movement. For instance, the 
first cry of the infant is doubtless the result of an im- 
pulsive movement due to the adjusting of nervous 
energy for the control of respiration. It then be- 
comes a pure reflex with no variation, but a little later 
(2nd month) it takes on instinctive proportions ; be- 
ginning to differentiate and varying with kind and 
degree of stimulus. Later still the cry may result from 
purely ideational movements. 

Likewise vocal sounds resulting from pleasurable 
feelings, such as cooing, babbling, etc., pass thru simi- 
lar stages. During this period, covering the first six 

170 



THE BEGINNING OF LANGUAGE 171 

or eight months, the child has used in its vocal utter- 
ances nearly all the sounds used later in speech. It 
is the unconscious practice period of the voice and 
doubtless adds much to its later flexibility. By the 
close of this period the child forms correctly many 
syllables. These he reduplicates as ma-ma-ma, pa-pa- 
pa, ba-ba-ba, etc., with seeming delight; probably due 
in part to physiological inertia and in part to the be- 
ginning of self imitation. What is the order of the 
appearance of the vowels and consonants? Upon what 
does the order depend? 

(2) The Beginning of Sound Imitation and Ges- 
ture Language. During the second half of the first 
year the child makes progress in imitating sounds. 
Many words, such as boo, coo, moo, mew, quack, bow- 
wow, bang, illustrate this onomatopoetic tendency. 
During this period the child, thru imitation and inven- 
tion, has developed quite a gesture language by which 
he is able to make his wants known. The cry as well 
as the babble has become quite expressive thru differ- 
entiation. To the sound-play of the last period have 
been added as many new elements, but the voice is 
beginning to conform to environment. Several inven- 
tive, but few or no conventional words are correctly 
used before the close of the first year. How do you 
account for what is known as "child language"? Ex- 
plain and account for the secret language of children. 

(3) The Acquisition and Understanding of Words. 
At the beginning of the second year two important 
l^rocesses of the child's life are taking place — learning 
to walk and learning to talk. Few words are correctly 
used before the child begins to walk, but on the advent 
of walking there seems to be a temporary interruption 



172 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

of speech processes. Why? Note the relation be- 
tween the rise of speech and righthandedness. 

The child's understanding of words precedes the use 
of them. Many commands arc ntnv intelligently per- 
formed; as, "come to papa," "go to mamma," "bring 
the ball," etc. It is interesting to note the many trans- 
formations that the child makes of our words, and the 
relation of these changes to the law of adult phonetic 
changes. First, perhaps in the shortening of the word, 
as "da" for dance, "ka" for candy, "hanky" for hand- 
kerchief. Next he holds to the accent and the right 
number of syllables but changes the form as "no- 
bella" for umbrella, "ta-ta" for papa; then comes the 
omission of consonants difhcult to make as "ook" for 
look, "tair" for stairs, "neezc" for sneeze, followed by 
substituting one consonant for another; as, "mouf" 
for mouth, "Berfa" for Bertha, "dis" for this, "dood" 
for good, etc. 

(4) The Stage of Sentence Building. At first the 
sentence is contained in the single word of the child 
as when "chair" means put me in the chair; but from 
the i8th to the 24th month, differing much in children, 
there is a transition from the single word to the 
abridged sentence. Note the many inconsistencies in 
the form and use of words and the difficulty this 
makes in the learning of a language. 

Quotations, from three-year-old children : "I will 
undress my doll and put it to sleep;" "Will the man 
undress the chicken for us;" "I will undust the book 
and put it away;" "I will unpeel the apple for you;" 
"Oh mamma, Look ! the people car is coming," mean- 
ing the passenger car; "Mamma, give me a slice of 
paper to write;" "Mamma, may I spatter the corn," 
meaning to sow ; "We are waiting for Frances to get 



THE BEGINNING OF LANGUAGE 173 



her lamers," meaning crutches; "Do you know what I 
am fixing my nighty for, mamma? So when I am bared 
T can get into it fiuickcr;" "I don't want a baked apple, 
mamma, I want a rawed apple;" "Mamma, tliis waist 
tights me when I sit down, but don't tight mc when I 
stand lip" ( llu' band was too tight); "W'c had a nice, 
clean bye-bye," meaning a nice or pleasant walk ; "Oh 
my hands are just burning cold." Many more odd ex- 
pressions might bo added. This i^ieriod will be further 
discussed in class. 

REFERENCES 

1. A Case of Arrested Speech Development. Child Study Mo., 

2 : 665-674. 

2. Baldzvin, J. M. The Origin of Righthandedness. Sci., 

16:247; also, Mental Development in the Child and the 
Race, pp. 409-427. 

3. Barker, Henry J. Language of Children. Spec., 62:302- 

303 (Review). 

4. Buckman, S. S. Speech of Children. 19th Century, 41 : 793- 

807. Spec, 78:657-659. 

5. Chamberlain, A. F. Notes on Indian Children's Language. 

Am. Anthropologist, 4:237-242: 6:321-322: also The 
Child and Childhood in Folk Thought, pp. 248-269. 

6. Chamberlain, A. F. The Child, a Study in the Evolution of 

Man, pp. 107-171. 

7. Chamberlain, A. F. Acquisition of Written Language of 

Primitive Peoples. Am. Jour. Psych., Vol. 17:69-80. 

8. Chamberlain, A. F., and Isabel C. Studies of a Child. Ped. 

Sem., 11:264-291, 452-483; 16:64-103. 

9. Chrisman, O. Secret Languages of Children. Child Study 

Mo., 2:202-211; Northw. Mo., 8:187-193, 375-379, 649- 
651; Cent. 34:54-58. 

10. Compayre, G. Development of the Child in Later Infancy, 

pp. 62-117. 

11. Conradi, Edward. Children's Interest in Words, Slang, 

Stories, etc. Ped. Sem., 10:359-404. 



174 T HE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

12. Conradi, Edzuard. Psychology and Pathology of Speech 

Development in the Child. Ped. Sem., ii:32&-38o. 

13. Cooley, Chas. H. A Study of the Early Use of Self-Words 

by a Child. Psych. Rev., 15 : 339-357- 

14. Dewey, J. The Psychology of Infant Language. Psych. 

Rev., 1 : 63-66. 

15. Drummond, W. B. The Child: His Nature and Nurture, 

pp. 103-106. 

16. Drummond, W. B. An Introduction to Child Study, pp. 256- 

276. 

17. Hale, Harlow J. The Vocabularies of Three Children of 

One Family to Two and a Half Years of Age. Psych. 
Studies, Univ. of Minn., July, 1900, No. i, pp. 70-117. 

18. Hall, Mrs. W. S. First Five Hundred Days of a Child's 

Life. Child Study Mo., 2 : 586-608. 

19. Holden, E. S. On the Vocabularies of Children Under Two 

Years of Age. Trans. Am. Philo. Assn., 1887, pp. 58-68. 

20. Howard, F. E. The Child Voice. Proc. N. E. A. 1897, pp. 

784-790. 

21. Kidd, D. Savage Childhood, pp. 204-206. 

22. Kirk Patrick, E. A. A Vocabulary Test. Pop. Sci. Mo., 

70 : 157-164. 

23. Kirkpatrick, E. A. How Children Learn to Talk. Science 

(Sept. 25, 1891), 18:175-176; also A Promising Line of 
Child Study for Parents. Trans. Ills. Soc. for Child 
Study, 3 : 179-182. 

24. Kirkpatrick, E. A. The Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 

221-240. 

25. Lukens, H. T. Preliminary Report of the Learning of 

Language. Ped. Sem., 3 : 424-460. 

26. Marwedel, Emma. Conscious Motherhood, pp. 210-218, 512- 

540. 

27. Mateer, Florence. The Vocabulary of a Four Year Old 

Boy. Ped. Sem., 15:63-74- 

28. Moore, Kathleen. Mental Development of the Child, pp. 

I 15-145- 

29. Mulford, H. J. The Throat of the Child. Educa. Rev., 

13 : 261-272. 

30. Noble, E. Child Speech and the Law of Mispronounciation. 

Educa., 9:44-52, 117-121, 188-194. 



THE BEGINNING OF LANGUAGE 175 

31. O'Shea, M. V. Linguistic Development and Education. 

32. Perez, B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 234-262. 

^:i. Pollock, F. An Infant's Progress in Language. Mind, 
3:392-401. 

34. Preyer, W. Development of the Intellect, pp. 33-188. Infant 

Mind, pp. 84-122. 

35. Salisbury, A. A Child's Vocabulary. Educa. Rev., 7: 289-290. 

36. Sanford, E. C. Language of Children. Fed. Sem., i : 257- 

260. 

37. Shinn, Milicent IV. The Biography of a Baby, pp. 86-8g. 

137-140, 156-159, 169-171, 176-212, 224-247. 

38. Smith, Margaret K. The Psychological and Pedagogical 

Aspects of Language. Ped. Sem., 10:438-458. 

39. Stephenson, A. The Speech of Children. Science, 21:118- 

120. 

40. Street, J. R. A Study of Language Teaching. Ped. Sem., 

4 : 269-293. 

41. Stoner, Mrs. Winifred S. Mental Education, pp. 27-41. 

42. Sully, James. Studies of Childhood, pp. 133-190. Baby 

Linguistics. Eng. Illust. M., 2:110-118 (1884-1885). 

43. Taine, M. The Acquisition of Language of Children. Mind, 

2 : 252-259. 

44. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 311-338. 

45. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 76-92. 

46. Tolstoi, L. Boyhood, Adolescence, Youth. 

47. Town, Clara Harrison. An Infantile Stammer (baby talk) 

in a Boy of Twelve Years. Psych. Clinic, i : 10-20. 

48. Tracy, F. Language of Childhood. Am. Jour, of Psych., 

6:107-138; and Psych, of Childhood, pp. 114-160 (7th 
Ed., pp. 1 18-165). 

49. Warner, F. Studies of Children, p. 120. 

50. IVhipple, Guy M. and wife. The Vocabulary of a Three 

Year Old Boy. Ped. Sem., 16 : 1-22. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 

CRYING AND LAUGHING 

We become accjuainted with children thru a study 
of their activities. Every movement, every action, has 
weight ; nothing can be omitted, only the nature and 
order of the study remain a matter of doubt. Crying 
and laughing are important activities. Their value in 
the acquisition of language — furnishing the first means 
of vocal expression — has already been mentioned ; but 
they are of equal importance in furnishing a key to the 
feelings and emotions. 

Crying usually begins the activities of the new born, 
and precedes laughing by many weeks, which indicates 
that pain precedes pleasure as a motive. Crying does 
not always mean pain. In infancy sex seems to have 
no influence on crying, but in youth and adult life the 
difference due to sex is quite marked. Why? There 
is also a racial as well as an individual dilTerence in 
crying and laughing. Why do we cry or laugh? Does 
crying and laughing indicate weakness or strength of 
character? Should children be permitted to cry and 
laugh at will, or should we try to prevent the one or 
both? What is the proper treatment? 

The following outline for the study of crying and 
laughing is for the most part a condensation of a simi- 
lar outline by Dr. G. Stanley TIall: Give a careful 
description of a cry, whether mild or violent, whether 
in an infant, a child, or in yourself. Give age, sex, 
health, nationality. First symptoms, at corners of 

176 



CRYING AND LAUGHING 177 

mouth, lips, eyes, corrugations of forehead. Which 
of these symptoms occur first? Changes in breathing, 
movement of nostrils, efforts of restraint, position of 
body, head and arms, and hands. Does he sit, lie 
down, stand still, stop or slow up in walking, hold 
things or drop them. Is there tension or relaxation of 
muscles? What are the premonitory symptoms; also 
mental, moral, physical reactions, after a fit of crying? 
Are there tears, sighing, sniffing? Indicate vocal 
sounds used: Length, pitch, stress, variation, rhythm, 
number, internal, beginning, ending etc. Causes of 
crying. Are attacks periodical? Advantages of cry- 
ing. What differences in a cry for effect and one for 
real suffering or fright? What is the best treatment? 
Describe the phenomena of laughing, as of crying. 
What are the characteristic differences between cry- 
ing and laughing? Note the cases where crying passes 
into laughing and vice versa. 

REFERENCES 

Bliss, Sylvia H. The Origin of Laughter. Am. Jour. Psych. 

April, 191S, p. 236. 
Borgquist, Alvin. Crying. Am. Jour, of Psych., 17: 149-205. 
Bruce, H. Addington. Why Do We Laugh. Outlook, 104- 

816-821, August 9, 1913. 

4. Cams, Paul. Philosophy of Laughter. Alinist., 8:250-272. 

5. Christopher, W. S. Three Crises in Child Life. Child Study 

Mo., 3 : 324-335. 
Dearborn, G. V. N. The Nature of the Smile and the 

Laugh. Science, n. s., 11:851-856. 
Hall, G. Stanley, and Allin, Arthur. The Psychology of 

Tickling, Laughing and the Comic. Am. Jour, of Psych., 

9:1-41. 
Laughter as a Mode of Expression. Atlan., 59 : 427-429. 

12 



178 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



9. Mellinand, M. Camille. Psychological Cause of Laughter. 
Pop. Sci. Mo., 53 : 39S-402 ; Public Opinion, 25 : 48-49 ; 
also in Chautauquan, 21 : I95-I99- 

10. Morris, Lewis. The Disuse of Laughter. Forum, 24:319- 

324. 

11. Patrick, G. T. IV. The Psychology of Laughter. In The 

Psychology of Relaxation, pp. 99-140. 

12. Sidis, Boris. Psychology of Laughter. 

13. Sully, Jas. The Laughter of Savages. International Mo., 

4:379-402. 

14. Sully, James. An Essay on Laughter. Its forms, its causes, 

its development and its value. Longmans, Green & Co., 
N. Y., pp. 441. 

15. IViltse, Sara E. A Study of Laughter. Northw. Mo., 

8: 142-143- 



CHAPTER XXIX) 
CHILDREN'S INTERESTS 

As is well known, children have greater interests 
in some things than in others. The subjects that 
interest a child at one age may not interest him at 
another or vice versa. A few observations are suffi- 
cient to convince one of the changing interests of 
children, whether seen in their plays, their studies, 
their collections, or their questions and answers. For 
the first few years the child seems to be influenced 
most by stimulation from within. The surrounding 
objects furnish but little attraction unless they in some 
way supply this inner need. The physiological changes 
due to growth furnish the dominant stimulus to action. 

The child begins to live over in a brief way the es- 
sential experiences of the race. Thru the overflow 
or outcropping in the child of these primitive instincts 
and racial experiences we obtain a view of the un- 
written history of the race. During these early years 
the child lives much of the time in a sort of invisible 
make-believe-world influenced more by inheritance 
than by environment. Altho instinct results from 
changes from within it always requires an external 
stimulus to set it ofif. To what is the changing inter- 
est of the child due? Is there sufficient uniformity of 
interest in children to be of value in determining 
courses of study? How can the natural interests of 
children be ascertained? How may these interests be 
turned to the advantage of the child? Can any teach- 

179 



180 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

ing be successful which does not conform to the nat- 
ural interests of the child? To answer these questions 
we need extended observations. The data will be in- 
teresting and the results helpful. 

Many important studies have already been made 
covering different phases of children's interests. "The 
Contents of Children's Minds" by G. Stanley Hall, and 
"Children's Definitions" by Earl Barnes and Edw. R. 
Shaw, are of special value. Use, action, larger term, 
substance, place, form, color, is the order according to 
Barnes of "Children's Interest in Things." I wish to 
use the following list of words suggested by Prof. 
Barnes for obtaining material for further study. 
Teachers willing to assist can use the list instead of a 
spelling or composition lesson. When children are 
ready to begin, read : What is glass, bread, doll, mar- 
ble, silk, bottle, orange, ice, grass, shell, finger, cat, 
seed, wool, picture, fire, cloud, summer, river, the earth, 
cow, star, pond, garden, iron, mouse, water, sky, dia- 
mond, sun, boat, wagon? 

Offer no further directions or suggestions. Papers 
should contain name, a^e, grade of child and name of 
teacher. 

ORDER OF INTEREST IN LITERATURE 

Note the order and growth of children's interest in 
literature; — wonderland, myth, fairy tales, folk-lore, 
adventure, hero tales, love-songs, biography, aesthet- 
ics, ethics, philosophy, science. Make a list of ten 
or more best books for children from five to eight, 
eight to twelve, twelve to sixteen, sixteen to twenty. 

The following books and stories were read and 
appreciated by two children of nine and ten. They 
had not yet entered public schools and were free to 



CHILDREN'S INTERESTS 181 

select at will, in intervals of rest from play or other 
activities, from a much larger children's library: — 

Mother Goose. Kirby : Beauty and the Beast. 

yEsop's Fables. Red Riding Hood. 

Puss-in-Boots. Babyland Magazine. 

Jack and the Bean Stalk. Cinderella. 

Seven Little Sisters. Jack the Giant Killer. 
Andrew's Aunt Martha's Cup- Andrews : Each and All. 

board. Sleeping Beauty. 

THE FIVE CENT CLASSICS 

Story of the Pilgrims. Legends of the Springtime. 

Story of Louise M. Alcott. Story of Pocahontas. 

Story of Cyrus M. Field. Story of Robert L. Stevenson. 

Story of Norsemen. Story of Audobon. 

Story of the Boston Tea Party. Alice in Wonderland. 

King of the Golden River, Ruskin; Oldtime Stories Retold, 
Smythe ; Water Babies, Kingsley; Hiawatha, Longfellow; 
Lullaby Land, Eugene Field; Bird's Christmas Carol, Kate 
Douglas Wiggin ; Captain January, Richards ; Old Greek Stories, 
Baldwin; The Golden Fleece, Smythe; Stories of Rome, Guerber ; 
Stories of Great Americans, Eggleston ; Fifty Famous Stories 
Retold, Baldwin ; Robinson Crusoe, DeFoe ; Heroic Deeds, 
Johonnot ; Pilgrim's Progress, Bunyan ; Wonder Book and 
Tanglewood Tales, Hawthorne; Plants and Their Children, 
Dana; Rab and His Friends, Brown; Golden Rod Books, Univer- 
sity Publishing Company, New York; Bible Stories, Yonge; Old 
Stories of the East, Baldwin; Black Beauty, Sewell ; Little Lord 
Fauntleroy, Burnett ; Ten Boys. Andrews ; Five Little Peppers, 
Sidney; Story of the Illiad, Church; Story of Troy, Clarke; 
Story of Ulysses. Cook; Stories of Animal Life, Holder; Matka 
and Kotik. Jordan; Brooks and Brook Basins, Frye ; Gods and 
Heroes, Francillon ; Round the Year in Myth and Song, Hol- 
brook; The Children of the Bible, The Colportage Library: 
Myths of Greece, Guerber. 

REFERENCES 

1. Arnold, Felix. The Psychology of Interest. Psych. Rev.. 

13: 221-238, 291-315. 

2. Barnes, Mrs. M. S. Studies in Historical Method, pp. 57- 

105. 



182 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

3. Barnes, Earl. A Study on Children's Interests. Barnes' 

Studies in Education, i : 203-212. 

4. Barnes, Earl. The Child's Favorite Study in the Elementary 

Curriculum. Proc. N. E. A. 1903, pp. 420-425. 

5. Barnes, Earl. A Study on the Children of a State. Kinder- 

garten Magazine, 16:26-31. 

6. Binet, A. Perceptions d'enfante. Revue Philosophique, 

30:68-81, 582-611. 

7. Broziti, E. E. A Study of Children's Interest. Trans. 111. 

Soc. for Child Study, Vol. I, No. 2, pp. 73-76. 

8. Buckbee, Anna. Fourth School Year. (A. Flanagan & Co., 

1904.) 

9. Burk, Caroline. The Collecting Instinct. Ped. Sem., 7: 179- 

207. 

10. Burnham, Wm. H. Attention and Interest. Am. Jour. 

Psych., 19: 14-18. 

11. Cash, Miss K. G. Children's Pets, a Side Study. Barnes' 

Studies in Education, 2 : 100-107. 

12. Chambers, Will Grant. Why Children Play. Proc. N. E. A. 

1909, pp. 720-726. 

13. Davis, Anna. Children's Interest in the Casual Idea. Child 

Study Monthly, 2 : 226-232. 

14. Dawson, Geo. E. Children's Interest in the Bible. Ped. 

Sem., 7: 151-178. 

15. Drummond, IV. B. An Introduction to Child Study, pp. 

235-255- 

16. Du Bois, Patterson. The Things That Abide. (Children's 

Interests.) Kind. Rev., 18:321-324. 

17. Ellis, Havelock. The Psychology of Yellow. Pop. Sci. Mo., 

68 : 456-463- 

18. Foster, W. E. Some Successful Methods of Developing 

Children's Interest in Good Literature. Lib. Journ., 
20 : 377-2,79- 
T9 Galbreath, Louis H. The Study of Children by Teachers. 
Northw. Mo., 8: 541-544. 

20. Grudzinska, Anna. A Study of Dolls Amongst Polish 

Children. Ped. Sem., 14:384-390. 

21. Guillet, Cephas. A Study in Interests. Ped. Sem., 14:322- 

328. 



CHILDREN'S INTERESTS 183 

22. Hall, G. Stanley. Contents of Children's Minds. Ped. Sem., 

i: 139-173; also Reprints, by E. L. Kellogg & Co. 

23. Hall, G. Stanley. Story of a Sand Pile. Ped. Sem., i : 229- 

232. 

24. Hall, G. Stanley. Children's Collections. Ped. Sem., i : 234- 

237. 

25. Hall, G. Stanley, and Smith. Theodate L. Curiosity and 

Interest. Ped. Sem., 10:315-358. 

26. Hoffman, L. W. The Pedagogical Value of Mediate In- 

terest. Jour, of Ped., 16:49-55. 

27. Kent, Ernest B. The Constructive Interest of Children. 

(Columbia Univ., N. Y., 1903, pp. 78.) 

28. King, Irving. The Psychology of Child Development, pp. 

154-221. 

29. Kirkpatrick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 168- 

177, 239-242. 

30. Kratz, H. E. A Study of Pupil's Preferences. Northw. 

Mo., 8: 143-147; also Studies and Observations in School- 
room, Chap. I. 

31. Lawrence, Isabel. Children's Interest in Literature. Proc. 

N. E. A., 1899, pp. 1044-51. 

32. Luckey, G. W. A. Children's Interests. Northw. Mo., 7: 

67-69, 96-98, 133-134, 156-158, 193-195, 221-223, 245-248, 
278-279, 306-309, 2>3S-3i7; Journ. of Educa. (Boston), 45: 
223-4. 
22. McMillan, Margaret. Early Childhood, pp. 98-112. 

34. Marsh, Mabel A. Children and Animals. Barnes' Studies 

in Education, 2 : 83-99. 

35. Monroe, Will S. Vocational Interests of Children. Educa. 

18: 259-261. 

36. Monroe, Will S. Tone Perception and Music Interest of 

Young Children. Ped. Sem., 10: 144-146. 

37. O'Shea, M. V. Interests in Childhood. Proc. N. E. A., 

1896, pp. 873-881. 

38. St. John, Ed. P. A Genetic Study of Veracity. Ped. Sem., 

15 : 246-270. 

39. Shaw, Edward R. A Comparative Study on Children's In- 

terests. Child Study Mo., 2:152-167. 

40. Starke-Jones, H. R. Interest and the Child. Child Study, 

I : 38-47, 1908. 



184 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

41. Starr, Laura B. The Educational Value of Dolls. Ped. 

Sem., 16:566-567. 

42. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 231-251. 

43. Thayer, Alice. A Study of Children's Interest in Flowers. 

Ped. Sem., 12:107-140. 

44. Trask, Bertha M. What One Baby Learned in a Summer. 

Kindergarten Magazine, 15 : 377-380. 



CHAPTER XXX 
METHODS OF CHILD STUDY 

Everyone will admit the importance of having a 
good plan for successful effort in any direction. For 
this reason a consideration of the more important 
methods used in child study is of interest to those 
who wish to take up the subject. It is difficult, how- 
ever, to classify the methods, since they vary accord- 
ing to the environments and personal equations of 
the investigator. A few of the more typical methods 
may be given as follows : (a) First, the plan used by 
E. E. Russell of the Worcester, Mass., Normal School. 
The students are directed to make careful observations 
of the various activities of children which come under 
their notice. An accurate record of these observa- 
tions, minus inferences, is kept, properly labeled, and 
filed away for future use in class, or individual study. 
The main object of this plan is to direct the attention 
of the student to the personality of the child, and to 
enable him to give accurate pen pictures of what he 
sees. This method varies, of course, with the ad- 
vancement of the student from the mere recording of 
observations to a careful study of similar activities in 
many children. It may be designated the observa- 
tional or collective method, and has many commend- 
able features. It is one of the best methods for the 
teacher, especially so, if she is not familiar with ex- 
perimental psychology. 

(b) In the second place, we have the method seen 
185 



186 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



in much of the work by Pres. Hall of Clark University, 
and in most of the work of Professor Barnes, formerly 
of Stanford University. It is frequently called the 
questionnaire method. It is in the nature of statistical 
studies and consists of gathering data under similar 
conditions from large numbers of children differing 
in age, nationality, environment, etc. The material 
is carefully collated with the thot of determining thru 
large general averages some basic principles for action. 
This method differs from the former principally in 
the manner of collecting and collating the data. By 
means of carefully prepared syllabi covering single 
traits like anger, fear, play, ambition, lines of interest, 
drawing, etc., teachers and parents thruout the country 
are interested in gathering data, which are classified 
by the student as indicated. This method, as v/ill be 
seen, is valuable in mapping out general tendencies 
and preparing the way for more specific studies to 
follow later on. It is the method most frequently 
pursued by departments of education, and in combi- 
nation with the former plan furnishes the most prom- 
ising method for the teacher. 

(c) In the third place we have the method used 
so successfully by Preyer, Taine, Darwin, Miss Shinn, 
Mrs. Hogan, Mrs. Winifred Hall, and others, in which 
the various activities of a single child are carefully 
observed and recorded, and generalizations reached 
regarding the order of development. These observa- 
tions generally extend over several years and to be 
valuable to others require intelligence and patience 
on the part of the investigator. It is the method more 
often used by intelligent parents, as it is necessary 
to have continuous access to the child being studied. 
This was one of the first methods used in child study 



METHODS OF CHILD STUDY 187 

and has proved helpful to science. It is known as 
the individual method and is best suited to the spe- 
cialist. 

(d) Next, we have the method of child study more 
frequently used by psychologists, and illustrated by 
the studies of Dr. Scripture, Patrick, Wolfe, Thorn- 
dike, Judd,. Whipple, and others. It consists in an 
extended series of experiments with specially devised 
api)aratus, on few or many children varying in age, 
sex, etc. Such problems as attention, memory span, 
recreation time, sensibility, fatigue, etc., are con- 
sidered and the material used for comparative study. 
In so far as the child's mind may yield to direct 
experimentation, this method offers the most accurate 
results, but it is the method of the scientist and should 
be used only by experts. It is known as the scientific 
or laboratory method. These four methods, either 
singly or in combination, represent fairly well the most 
important modes of approach in the study of children. 
l>ut they do not represent the kind of work offered 
in the different courses of child study. For instance, 
in some institutions the student is immediately set 
to work in making direct observations on children ; 
in others he 1)egins by recording reminiscences of his 
(wn childhood, which compared with similar activities 
of children, furnish direction for important syllabi ; 
again he begins by making a study of the literature 
of the subject; or, as in this institution, after prepara- 
tion in experimental psychology, the student spends 
the first semester in the study of the important litera- 
ture on individual development and its pedagogical 
significance. Some observations on children are made, 
but original work is not expected in the introductory 
course. It is only in the following course entitled 



188 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

Experimental Education that students begin investi- 
gation and independent, original study of children. 
This thoro preparation before attempting original 
work in child study has many advantages when we 
consider the importance and delicacy of the material 
upon which we must experiment. Child Study, as thus 
presented, affords as much culture value as any other 
subject and is taken by many students who have no 
thot of becoming teachers, tho the course is primarily 
intended for teachers. 

Note and compare the best studies made by the 
different methods described above. Which method 
has given best results? Why? 

Make a list of the best books, monographs, and 
periodicals of child study that would furnish the 
nucleus of an excellent child study library. In addi- 
tion to the references found in the Outlines of Child 
Study, some help may be obtained from the articles, 
"The Best Works on Child Study," by G. W. A. 
Luckey, Northw. Mo. 1897, 7:48; and the Bibli- 
ography of Child Study by Louis N. Wilson, published 
annually in the Pedagogical Seminary, Clark Univer- 
sity, Worcester, Mass. Examine also recent child 
study literature. 

REFERENCES 

1. Baldwin, J. M. New, Methods of Child Study. Sci., 21 : 

213-214. 

2. Barnes, Earl. Methods of Studying Children. Barnes' 

Studies in Educa., i : 5-14. 

3. Barnes, Earl. A Study Based on the Children of a State. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1903, pp. 754-759- 

4. Barus, Annie H. Methods and Difficulties of Child Study. 

Forum, 20: 113-119, Sept., 1895. 

5. Buckbee, Anna. Methods of Teaching Child Study in Nor- 

mal Schools. Proc. N. E. A., 1904, pp. 787-790. 



METHODS OF CHILD STUDY 189 

Burnham, Wm. H. A Scheme and Classification for Child 

Study. Ped. Sem., 2: 191-198. 
Burnham, Wm. H. Scientific Study of Children. Proc. 

N. E. A., 1908, pp. 908-913. 
Chambers, Will Grant. Qiiestionaire Methods of Child 

Study. Proc. N. E. A., 1904, pp. 762-770. 
Claparcde, Rd. Experimental Pedagogy, pp. 209-320. In- 
tellectual Fatigue. 
Clouston, T. S. Child Study from the Medical Point of 

View. Paidologist, 5 : 66-77. 
Drummond, W. B. Child Study: Preparation, Difficulties 

and Dangers. Paidologist, 5 : 22-32. 
Drummond, W. B. An Introduction to Child Study, pp. 

69-108. 
Grudsinska, Anna. A Bibliography of Child Study in Po- 
land. Ped. Sem., 12:97-98. 
Hall, G. Stanley. Child Study at Clark University, An 

Impending New Step. Am. Jour, of Psych., 14 : 96-106. 
Hancock, J. A. The Observations of School Children. 

Ped. Sem., 8:291-340. 
Lee, F. S. Nature of Fatigue. Pop. Sci. Mo., 76; 182-195. 
Luckey, G. W. A. Methods Pursued in Child Study. 

Northw. Mo., 7 : 33-35. 
Luckey, G. W. A. Brief Survey of Child Study. Northw. 

Mo., 7 : 2-s. 
Lukens, H. T. Mental Fatigue. Am. Phys. Ed. Rev.. 4 : 19- 

29, 131-135- 
McDougall, W. The Conditions of Fatigue in the Nervous 

System. Brain, 32 : 256-268. 
Marsh, Harriet A. Report of Child Study. 57th .Annual 

Rep. Bd. of Educa., Detroit, Mich., igoo. 
Monroe, Will S. Notes on Child Study in Europe. Ped. 

Sem., 8:510-514. 
Monroe, Will S. Typical Child Study Methods at the St. 

Louis Exhibit. Proc. N. E. A., 1904, pp. 759-762. 
Moore, Kathleen C. The Mental Development of a Child, 

pp. 1-7- 
Mosso, .-i. Fatigue. Eng. Trans., New York, 1904. 
Offner. M. Mental Fatigue. Eng. Trans., Baltimore. 191 1. 



190 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

27. Palmer, Luella A. Method of Child Study in the Kinder- 

garten. Proc. N. E. A., 1904, pp. 794-797. 

28. Spaulding, F. E. The Teacher's Practical Application of 

the Results of Child Study. Jour, of Ped., 16:34-42. 

29. Tanner, Amy. The Child, pp. 10-14. 

30. Thorndike, E. L. The Study of Children. Teacher's Col- 

lege Record, 2 : 165-175. 

31. Warner, F. The Study of Children, pp. 52-136. 

32. Wiltse, Sara E. A Preliminary Sketch of the History of 

Child Study in America. Ped. Sem., 3 : 189-212. 
2,3. Winchester, Myra H. Comparison of Methods and Results 

in Child Study. Proc. N. E. A., 1904, 791-792. 
34. Young, Sara. An Investigation . Circle. Paidologist, 6 : 

33-35. 



CHAPTER XXXI 
FATIGUE 

Chapter 31 is devoted to Fatigue as seen in the child 
in the early school activities. If time will permit 
three other studies might be taken up with profit; the 
application of the results of child study to the teaching 
of Reading, Writing, Music. 

Continued activity of any kind leads to fatigue. 
Rapid metabolism consumes energy and gives ofi toxic 
products faster than they can be eliminated, producing 
fatigue. 

Fatigue is both subjective and objective, mental and 
physical, depending upon whether the functional in- 
efficiency is due to disturbance in the one field or the 
other. The younger the child the sooner it becomes 
fatigued thru efifort. The ordinary activities of the 
day reduces the supply of nervous energy and in- 
creases the amount of fatigue. When only the surplus 
supply of energy has been used we have the state 
known as normal fatigue, which is not an unhealthy 
condition. But by prolonging the labor (overexer- 
tion) we reach a state of exhaustion, pathological fa- 
tigue, a breaking down of nerve centers which is very 
injurious to health and development. Individuals dif- 
fer greatly in fatiguability. The nature of the work, 
the time of day, the strength and duration of the efifort, 
the state of health, the emotional tone, the environ- 
ment, interest, will and understanding all tend to 
modify the amount of fatigue. Owing to the complex 
condition of fatigue it is difficult to analyze. 

191 



192 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



There have been a number of interesting studies to 
test the varying amount of fatigue in school children. 
Thru these studies two methods of procedure have 
been used; the physiological and psychological. 
The former uses the dynamometer, the ergograph, 
aesthesiometer, algometer, ataxiagraph, spirometer, 
plethysmograph, sphygmograph and many other in- 
struments used in measuring changes in physical effi- 
ciency. The psychological method makes use of vari- 
ous mental tests thru memory, attention, computation, 
dictation, rapidity and accuracy of reading, writing, etc. 

In an article summing up the study of such meas- 
urements of fatigue Dr. G. M. Whipple says: "The 
net outcome of these experimental investigations is 
the establishment of a number of fairly well-defined 
laws of fatigue. Much remains to be done, but we 
know that individuals fall into four fairly distinct types 
of fatiguability ; that fatiguability is a function of age ; 
that sixty minutes is too long a lesson period for the 
average school child ; that the forenoon are more favor- 
able than the afternoon hours; that formal school 
work should not exceed five hours per day or twenty- 
five hours per week ; that home work should be reduced 
to the minimum and arranged so that it will not exact 
intensive application; that short pauses, when filled 
with free play out of doors, but not with gymnastics, 
are invaluable offsets of fatigue ; that the pauses should 
increase in frequency and in length as the work con- 
tinues; that a pause, even of short duration, may work 
disadvantageously when it interrupts easy work of 
relatively long duration ; that the noon intermission 
often fails to fulfill its desired recuperative effect be- 
cause the afternoon work begins before digestion is 
sufficiently advanced; that pupils should obtain from 



FATIGUE 193 

nine to eleven hours of sound sleep ; — a desideratum all 
too frequently unfulfilled— that adequate sleep is the 
best protection against overburdening; that a change 
of work does not add positively to the store of energy, 
but may operate advantageously by setting aside en- 
nui ; that exercise, especially in the form of free play, 
ccjnsumes energy, yet is of benefit because it stimulates 
metabolism and accelerates the removal of waste pro- 
ilucts; that gymnastics constitute a positive source 
of fatigue for many pupils; that the fatiguability of 
school work is partly a function of the subject, partly 
of the method of instruction, and partly of the teacher; 
that individual instruction is more fatiguing than class 
instruction ; that the school program should be planned 
to bring the hard subjects "early, to alternate hard and 
easy work, and to insert frequent and progressively 
longer pauses." 

What is the cause of fatigue? Why does the young 
child fatigue more easily than the old? Is fatigue 
specific and local or general? Does a change of activ- 
ity rest? Why? Does the present school work tend 
to overburden children and youth? Explain. How 
can education be made stimulating and healthful? 

REFERENCES ON FATIGUE 

1. Adsersen, H. Eine asthesiometrische Untersuchung. Zeit- 

schrift fur schulgesundheitspflege, 1904, 17 : 540-543- 

2. Baker, Smith. Fatigue in School Children. Educa. Rev., 

15:34-39- 
7,. Bellei, Guiscppe. An Hour's Work Done by School Chil- 
dren. Educa. Rev., 25 : 364-386. 

4. Bergstrom, J. A. An Experimental Study of Some Con- 

ditions of Mental Activity. Am. Jour. Psych., 6:247- 

273- 

5, Blake. Isabella T. M. Fatigue. Jour, of Fed., 12:319-325. 



194 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 



6. Bolton, Thaddeus M. The Fatigue Problem. Jour, of Pcd., 

i6: 96-123. 

7. Burnham, IV. H. Fatigue. Fed. Sem., 2: 13-17. 

8. Burnham, W. H. Recent Studies in Fatigue in Relation 

to the Need of Oxygen. Proc. of Fifth Cong. Am. Sch. 
Hygiene Association. 

9. Claparede, Ed. Experimental {-"edagogy. Trans, by Mary 

Louch and Henry Holman. Chap. V. fntcllectual Fa- 
tigue. 

10. Dresslar, f. B. Fatigue. Ped. Sem., 2:102-106. 

11. Drummond, IV. B. An Introduction to Child Study, pp. 

172-193. 

12. Dukes, Clement. Work and Overwork. Educa. Rev., 6: 

415-416. (A Review.) 

13. FJlis, A. C, and Shipe, Maud Margaret. A Study of the 

Accuracy of the Present Methods of Testing Fatigue. 
-Am. Jour, of Psych., 14:496-509. 
'.4. Janet, Pierre. Mental Pathology. Psych. Rev., 12 : 98-117. 

15. Kemp, H. Overwrork in Schools. Am. Phys. Educa. Rev.. 

5:114-116. (An Abstract.) 

16. Krafc, H. E. How May Fatigue in the Schoolroom be Re- 

duced to the Minimum. Proc. N. E. A., 1899, pp. 1090- 
1096. 

17. Lee, F. S. Nature of Fatigue. Pop. Sci. Mo., 76: 182-195. 



t8 



19 



Leuba, J. H. On the Validity of the Greisbach Method of 
Determining Fatigue. Psych. Rev., 6 : 573-598. 

Lukens, H. T. Mental Fatigue. Am. Phys. Educa. Rev., 
4: 19-29, 121-135. 

Lukens, H. T. The School Fatigue Question in Germany. 
Educa. Rev., 15 : 246-254. 

McDongall, IV. The Condition of Fatigue in the Nervous 
System. Brain (1909), 32 : 256-268. 

McMillan, Margaret. Early Childhood, pp. 155-180. 

Monroe, IV. S. Fatigue Among School Children. Proc. X. 
E. A., 1899, pp. 90-93. 

Masse, Angela. Fatigue. Trans. l)y Margaret and W. B. 
Drummond, 1904. 

Offner, M. Mental Fatigue. Eng. Trans, by G. M. Whip- 
ple. 



FATIGUE 195 

26. Ravenhill, Alice. Some Results of an Investigation into the 

Hours of Sleep of School Children in the Elementary 
Schools of England. Child Study, 1:116-124. I909- 

27. Rogers, Jas. F. Physical and Moral Training. Pcd. Sem.. 

16: 301-304 

j8. Sandiford, Peter. Lite of School Children— Fatigue, pp. 
161-173. 

2Q. Seashpre. C. /:. The Experimental Study of Mental Fa- 
tigue. Psych. Bulletin, March 15, 1894. 1:97-101. 

30. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 35-46, 115, 396-397 

31. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 199-202. 

2,2. Thorndike, Edn'ard. Mental Fatigue. Sci., n. s., 9:712- 
713; Psych. Rev.. 7:466-482, 547-579. 

33. Warner, F. The Study of Children, pp. 138-148. 

34. Wells, Fred L. A Neglected Measure of Fatigue. Am. 

Jour, of Psych., 19:345-358. Also Studies in Retarda- 
tion as Given in the Fatigue Phenomena of the Tapping 
Test. Am. Jour, of Psych.. 20 : 38-59. 

35. ll'hipple, G. M. Manual of Mental and Phy.sical Tests. 

Vols. I and 2. 

36. Williams, Alida S. The Investigation of Fatigue from the 

Teacher's Point of View. Jour, of Ped., 17:199-213. 

37. Wimms, J. H. The Relative Effects of Fatigue and Prac- 

tice Produced by Different Kinds of Mental Work. 
British Jour, of Psych., 2: I53-I95- 
},^. Winch, W. H. Some Measurements of Mental F'atigue in 
Adolescent Pupils in Evening Schools. Jour, of Educa. 
Psych., I : 13-23, 83-100. 

39. Wright, Wm. R. Some Effects of Incentives on Work and 

Fatigue. Psych. Rev., 13 : 23-34. 

40. Yoakum, C. S. An Experimental Study of Fatigue. Psycho. 

Monographs, No. 46, Baltimore. 1909. 



CHAPTER XXXII 
MORAL AND RELIGIOUS TRAINING 

Thots for Consideration, i. What is included un- 
der the term morality? Why the moral education of 
the young is so impbrtant. The effect of intellectual 
growth on morality. The relation of feelings to moral 
training. The contagion of feeling as a factor in edu- 
cation. The function of the will in moral training. 
The meaning and place of religion in complete living. 
Discipline and school punishment in their effect on 
morality. Is there a common unit by which we may 
measure the moral acts of children? 

2. Character. Its true meaning and proper place 
in a system of education. Is character static or dy- 
namic? Is the character of the people becoming less 
trustworthy? Are we inbreeding deception and dis- 
honesty thru our ideals of education, social, religious, 
and political life? Do we really believe that "Honesty 
is the best policy?" As citizens of a republic, are we 
willing to practice, absolutely, that belief with our 
children and neighbors? Is belief in war and rule by 
might wholly incompatible with Christianity and a 
true democracy? Do fraternal organizations tend to 
advance honesty and the rule of right or dishonesty 
and the rule of might? Can a nation prosper that ac- 
cepts as its standard in dealing with men, reason, jus- 
tice, honesty, worth, sympathy, kindness? Can par- 
ents and teachers instill honesty and uprightness of 
character in children without themselves living true to 
such ideals? ^'^^^at changes should be made in our 

196 



MORAL AND RELIGIOUS TRAINING 197 

teaching and social life to harmonize them with the 
highest moral efficiency? The character of any society 
depends upon the individual character of the members 
of which it is composed. "As the twig is bent the tree 
is inclined." 

3. Suggestions for Consideration. The individual, 
tho a complex of body and mind, must act as a unit. 
TrTic character depends upon the proper develojjment 
of body and mind (soul) ; the latter covering feeling, 
knowing (appreciating), willing (serving). .\n oft 
repeated act becomes a habit ; habits determine char- 
acter. Every lesson, every play, every movement, 
every thot is influencing character. The moulding of 
character takes place more rapidly under the condi- 
tions of health and interest. 

4. Requisites of an Ideal Character. Good Health 
and a well developed body, abundance of life and en- 
ergy, keen sensibilities and a hopeful disposition, a 
sound, well cultivated mind, pure motives, a strong, 
consecrated will, and complete mastery of self; add to 
this sympathy and love for others and the list is nearly 
complete. 

REFERENCES 

1. Adler, F. Moral Instruction of Children. 

2. Allen, IVm. J. G. Child Study and Religious Education. 

Child Study Mo., 2 : 289-293. 

3. Bagley, Wm. C. The Pedagogy- of Morality of Religion 

as Related to the Periods of Development. Religious 
Educa., 2 : 253-257. 

4. Bain, A. Education as Science, pp. 398-424. 

5. Balmforth, R. The Moral Development of the Native 

Races in South Africa. International Jour, of Ethics, 
18:137-151. 

6. Barnes, Earl Theological Life of .-» C.ilifornia Child Prd. 

Sem., _' : 442-448. 



198 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

7. Barroivs, IV. The Teaching of Morals in the Public Schools. 

New Eng., 43 : 840. 

8. Bisbic, M. D. Moral Instruction in the Public Schools. 

Educa., 2 : 253-257. 
0. Botiton, Eugene. Moral Training in Schools. Educa., 8: 
411-421. 

10. Brereton, Claudesley. The True Inwardness of Moral In- 

struction in France. Jour, of Educa., London, n. s., 
30: 111-113. 

11. Brooks, C. Moral Education. Am. Jour. Educa., 1:336- 

344- 

12. Brozim, Miss R. M. H. Moral Education. Jour, of Educa., 

London, 31 : 116-117. 

13. Coc, Geo. A. Moral and Religious Education from the 

Psychological Point of View. Religious Educa., 3 : 165- 
179- 

14. Collins, Jos. V. Religious Education and the Sunday 

School. Educa. Rev., ^y : 271-283. 

15. Compayre, G. Psychology Applied to Education, pp. 148- 

202. 

16. Compayre, G. Development of the Child in Later Infancy, 

pp. 153-259- 

17. Daniels, Arthur H. The New Life. A Study of Regenera- 

tion. Am. Jour, of Psych., 6:61-106. 

18. Dazvson, Geo. E. The Child and His Religion. 

19. De Garmo, Chas. Kind and Amount of Moral Instruction 

to be Given in Public Schools. Religious Educa., 3 : 125- 
128. 

20. Dewey, John. The Chaos in Moral Training. Pop. Sci. 

Mo., 45 : 433- 

21. Dewey, John. Moral Principles in Education. 

22. Drummond, W. B. The Child : His Nature and Nurture, 

pp. 1 19-130. 

23. Drummond, IV. B. An Introduction to Child Study, pp. 

281-316. 

24. Dunton, L. Moral Training in the Schools. Educa., 11 : 

394-400, 466-473, 526-534; 12:65-73- 

25. Dunton, L. School Discipline. Educa., 12:323-330, 399-426. 



MORAL AND RELIGIOUS TRAINING 199 

jf). Ellis, A. Caswell. Sunday School Work and Bible Study 
in the Light of Modern Pedagogy. Ped. Scm., 3:363- 
412. 

_7. Fauiice. IV. H. -f. Moral Education in Public Schools. 
Educa. Rev., 25 : 225-340. 

28. h'ere, M. Ch. Morbid Heredity. 

29. Calpin, /'". 7". The Normal Religion of a Boy. Relig. 

Educa.. 271-276. 

30. Glade, Violet. Moral Education and the Teacher. Jour. 

of Educa., London, 30:781-782, 1908. 
3t. (lOodzvirt, Hdiv. J. Exclusion of Religious Instruction from 

the Public Schools. Educa. Rev., 35: 129-138. 
T,2- ('>'ity, H. S. The Boy and the Cigarette Habit. Educa.. 

29:294-315. 
T,:^. Guycr, Michael /•'. Being Well Born, pp. 195-227, 263-288. 

34. Haihnaii, IV. N. What Moral Results Should Common 

School Training Give? Educa., 4:415-420. 

35. Hall, G. Stanley. Moral Education and Will Training. Ped. 

Sem., 2 : 72-89. 

36. Hall, G. Stanley. The Moral and Religious Training of 

Children and Adolescents. Ped. Sem., i : 196. 
^7. Hall, G. Stanley. Children's Lies. Am. Jour. Psych., 3 : 
59-70. 

38. Hall, G. Stanley. The Relation of the Church to Educa- 

tion. Ped. Sem., 15 : 186-196. 

39. Hulleck, R. P. Psychology and Psychic Culture, pp. 299- 

360. 

40. Harrison, Elizabeth. The Religious Training of Children. 

Relig. Educa., 4:256-260. 

41. Higgs, Mary. The Moral Development of the Child. Child 

Life, 10:203-206, 230-235, 1908; II: 6-1 1, 39-43. 71-74- 
1909. 

42. Hinsdale, B. A. The Dogma of Formal Discipline. Dogma 

of Form. Educa. Rev., 8:128-142. 

43. Jackson, E. P. Moral Educability. Pop. Sci. Mo., 40: 

647-649. 

44. .Johnson. O. Morality in the Public Schools. Atlan., 51 : 

748. 

45. Jordan, D. S. Nature Stud\ ;ind Moral Culture. Sciencr 

n. s., 4: 149-156. 



200 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

Kiug, Irving. The Psychology of Child Development, pp. 

132-153- 
Kirkpairick, E. A. Fundamentals of Child Study, pp. 181- 

200. 
Leuha, Jas. H. A Study in the Psychology of Religious 

Phenomena. Am. Jour. Psych.. 7 : 309-385. 
Lewis, Henry K. The Child ; Its Spiritual Nature. 
Luckey, G. W. A. The Development of Moral Character. 

Proc. N. E. A., 1899, pp. 127-T36. 
McMillan, Margaret. Early Childhood, pp. 64-97. 
Oppenheim, N. The Development of the Child, pp. 122- 

147- 
Oppenheim, N. Why Children Lie. Pop. Sci. Mo., 47 : 

382-387. 
Osborn, F. W. Ethical Content of Children's Minds. 

Educa. Rev., 8: 143-146. 
Palmer, G. H. Moral Culture. Can Moral Conduct Be 

Taught in Schools? Forum, 14:673-685. 
Parker, Francis. Talks on Pedagogics, pp. 2>2>7-2>7^- 
Patton, F. L. Moral Instruction in the Public Schools. No. 

Am. Rev., 137:99-117. 
Peaslee, John B. Moral and Literary Training in the Public 

Schools. Educa., 2: 150. 
Perez. B. First Three Years of Childhood, pp. 231-233, 285- 

292. 
Price, L. V. Moral Education, 16: 1-7. 
Prince, J. T. Moral Training and School Government. 

Educa., 5: 1 13-126. 
Roark, R. N. Psychology of Education, pp. 148-154, 219- 

228. 
Rogers, Jas. F. Physical and Moral Training. Ped. Sem., 

16:301-304. 
Russell, Wm. Moral Education. Am. Jour. Ed., 9 : 19-48. 
Schoff, Mrs. Hannah K. The Wayward Child. 
Sisson, Edw. O. The Essentials of Character. Contains 

Bibliography. 
Soares, Theo. G. Religious Training for the High School 

Age. Relig. Educa., 4:451-457. 
Starbuck, Edwin D. The Child Mind, and Child Religion 

Biblical World, 31:101-112, 1908; 33:8-22, 1909. 



MORAL AND RELIGIOUS TRAINING 201 

69. Starbuck, Edwin D. A Study of Conversion. Am. Jour. 

of Psych., 8 : 268-308. 

70. Starbuck, Edzvin D. Some Aspects of Religious Growth. 

Am. Jour, of Psych., 9:70-124. 

71. Stoner, Mrs. Winifred S. Natural Education, pp. 218-244. 

72. Street, J. R. A Study in Moral Education. Ped. Sem., 

5 : 5-40. 

73. Sully, Jas. Development of the Moral Faculty. Pop. Sci. 

Mo., 29 : 29-33. 

74. Sully, Jas. Studies in Childhood, pp. 228-297. 

75. Swain, Jos. Religious Education in the Public Schools. 

Religious Education, 4 : 348-352. 

76. Tanner, Amy E. The Child, pp. 173-21 1. 

77. Taylor, A. R. The Study of the Child, pp. 153-158, 168- 

178. 

78. Thurber, Clias. H. The Relation of Child Study to Sunday 

School Work. Northw. Mo., 8: 137-141. 

79. Tracy, F. The Psychology of Childhood, pp. 179-192. 

80. Woods, F. A. City Boys Versus Country Boys. Science 

n. s., 29:577-579. 



CHAPTER XXXIII* 

THE MUSIC SENSE OF CHILDREN AND ITS 
CULTIVATION 

Music is preeminently the language of the soul — 
and an expression of the emotions. In its best and 
most exalted state, it elevates man's soul to an ideal 
state of being. This is particularly true of the one 
who creates art. 

The instinct of the child, as early as he can make 
the climb, is to get up and drum on the keys of the 
piano. This tendency is strongly marked even in the 
crawling stage, where it is necessary to cling with one 
hand to the bench, while playing with the other. 
Smaller children generally need to be shut out of the 
parlor while the practice is being done. Frequently. 
a child of three or four years of age will sit very quietly 
during the entire lesson period of the older brother or 
sister. 

Preyer's child was quieted by music at the age of six 
weeks. Preyer also observed rhythm at the age of 
eighteen months. 

If the observing student will attend any afternoon 

*At the suggestion of the author of the Essentials of Child 
Study, chapter XXXIII on The Music Sense of Children and Its 
Cultivation was added by Miss Rose Yont, Ph. D., author of 
■'The Status and Value of Music in Education." America has 
not kept pace with Europe in the cultivation and appreciation 
of music, and less attention has been given to the subject in 
public education. The fault is not in the subject nor in the 
people but in the unpedagogical teaching. There is at present 
a growing Interest in public school music that promises better 
things. Music is so vital in the civilization of a people that 
It seemed appropriate to add a chapter on the subject to the 
Essentials of Child Study. No one seemed more fitting, in 
interest, scholarship, and teaching experience, to prepare such 
a chapter than T)v. Rose Yont. 

202 



THE MUSIC SENSE OF CHILDREN' 203 

band concert in an open park where children are 

present in lar^e numbers, he will notice many instances 
of the beating of rhythm by very small children. 

The mother's lullaby soothes the child when all else 
fails. The tinkle of the rattle causes every muscle t<j 
become tense with lively interest. The distant notes 
of the band draw the small boy with a peculiar mes- 
meric power. 

A'lusic is the universal language which needs no 
translation and which makes the same appeal to all 
races. 

G. Stanle}- Hall says music, in its broadest sense, is 
the most liberal, most humanistic of all studies, not 
even excepting literature. It is the language of the 
emotions, and these constitute three-fourths of life. It 
is the best and truest of all expressions, especially if 
with singing we consider gesture, mimesis and dra- 
matic action, which arose w^ith it. Music is the expres- 
sion of this antique, half buried racial soul. Music 
compels every mood in the gamut of human experi- 
ence, and gives a sense of exhilarating freedom, as if 
we lived in a world where nothing is impossible. 

Shopenhauer says music is the last word of the 
highest philosophy. 

German aestheticians say music expresses all the 
cosmic emotions. 

Tolstoy says art is an activity arising even in the 
animal kingdom, and springs from sex life and the 
propensity to play. It is accompanied by a pleasurable 
excitement of the nervous system. The lower animals 
expend all energy in life and race maintenance. In 
man, a surplus is left. This is used in play, which 
passes over into forms of art. 

The source of real art is the artist's need to express 



204 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

an inner accumulated emotion or feeling. To produce 
real art, a man must stand on the highest life concep- 
tion of his time, must experience the feeling, must 
have the power to transmit and a deep love for his art. 

It is impossible to teach art. It is only possible to 
furnish the environment. If appropriate, an emotional 
combustion takes place, the soul yields itself to this 
higher life, and art begins. Thus the individual re- 
serves all right to absorb or reject the material at 
hand. 

No other art is changing so fast, or showing such 
bold, new departures, or making more progress in get- 
ting close to life than is music. Nor in any other art 
does the teaching lag so far behind what it should and 
could do for the development of the individual. Young 
children do not feel it, as a rule. School music should 
palpitate with emotional life. Even psychologists are 
realizing that feelings are vaster than the intellect or 
will, and are more important for the sake of health 
and sanity. 

Miss Hofer (N. E. A., 1900, pp. 397-402) says self- 
activity, spontaneity, self-expression and the play 
spirit must be the watch word in music. The native 
impulses must be respected. 

E. L. Morton (The Selection of School Songs, "Ele- 
mentary School Teacher," 1904, 5 : 148-158) says 
music must conform to the actual present interests of 
the child, and to the potential adult. The best songs 
are those in which the most are interested, and whose 
effects last longest. Early songs should be simple, 
with a bright tempo, and closely related to life. 

It is hard for children to feel music without move- 
ment, so dancing is necessary at some stage of the 



THE MUSIC SENSE OF CHILDREX 205 

music education ; and by this we also draw out the 
immense reservoir of motor tendency. 

The story should precede the song, and all should 
be set in imagination, romance and poetry. The child 
should never play or sing what he does not feel, or 
cannot experience. The first accessory to a musical 
education should be mythology, especially (jf the 
cycles that have made so many of the great musical 
dramas. Wagner only suggested the possibilities along 
this line. 

G. Stanley Hall says: "Break the iron law which 
puts Tonic Sol Ta in the kindergarten, staiT. scale and 
intervals in the grades, and liarniony. counterpoint, 
orchestration and instrumentation in the University 
ahead of a wide acquaintance and appreciation of mas- 
terpieces. Too much technic and too little early fa- 
miliarity with music is the letter that kills." 

The earliest instrumental lessons show a love for 
bright, melodious pieces, with distinct rhythm, and 
strong desire for words to the music, in the years from 
four or five to six or eight. 

The average instrumental teacher concentrates upon 
note reading and a corresponding finger precision. This 
leaves the child to master the following principles 
simultaneously: Two clefs to read, a corresponding 
placement upon some instrument, varying rhythms, 
usually audible counting, correct hand [)osition. loose 
arm muscles, and, if piano, the pedal must be attended 
to. Hall says the child who dislikes the typical music 
lesson is to be admired and respected. 

Instinctively the child feels right or wrong condi- 
tions and will respond with interest, enthusiasm and 
rapid advance, if the approach is truly pedagogical. 

For all practical purposes, all people may be said to 



206 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

be musical if normal. However, the best talent may 
be deflected by wrong pedagogy. 

Give a child a short, bright phrase that can be played 
in rapid sequences, and be will execute it with muscu- 
lar freedom, with ease, and. in four or five weeks, will 
reach a high degree of finger velocity, with great fas- 
cination for this dexterity. (live the identical sequence 
on the printed page, unknown to the child, and he will 
read painfully, at a snail's pace, with cramped muscular 
conditions. Follow the latter method up with endless 
books of mechanical exercises, and a muscular condi- 
tion is reached which is hard to uproot. The advanced 
symptoms are inability to ])crform technically, but with 
good mental concept, accompanied by muscular fa- 
tigue, sometimes rheumatic conditions. Such a state is 
generally recognized by the instructor, but with no 
ability to ofifer a solution. The last resort is parental 
abuse to enforce practice. 

The same application in the school song period leads 
to cramped throat muscles, sharp voices and bad voice 
placement. The child's voice is naturally placed in 
the normal condition, and needs only to be preserved 
in the natural state. 

Notation, which is hard at any stage, came late in 
the development of the race, and hence should not be 
prematurely presented. When the learning process is 
reduced to a minimum, even the young child of four or 
five years can reckon by position if he once for all gets 
a starting point firmly located. If music is a language, 
why teach the notes at all, if we no longer learn the 
alphabet? Notation need not enter in to the process 
of musical education. 



THE MUSIC SENSE OF CHILDREN 207 



SUGGESTIONS FOR PRACTICE 

In teaching the child, let liini become the composer 
at once. For example, start on middle C for a begin- 
ning, and go up one octave to the next C above, where 
the voice naturally falls at rest on the key note. Since 
it is a rising scale, take "kite" for a subject, and use 
these words: "Vp went my kite into the air." We 
have a song. Xow reverse the scale and descend from 
the high C. Since leaves fall let us change the words 
to: "All the brown leaves came tumbling down." Any 
child will do this readily, and we have at once the full 
fledged emotional life, with a strong impetus toward 
creative instinct and initiative. Many short phrases, 
such as "Sing, birdie, sing." "spring has come." come 
readily to the child's mind. Without rules of harmony, 
the free and easy comjwsition is natural and easily 
acquired. This in turn suggests instrumental per- 
formance as a means of more ex])ression. Ijy careful 
direction, the child can soon work out his own orches- 
tration, and score his own parts. In this way, school 
music can easily become the original product of the 
school children. 

Musical games, musical contests, and musical 
themes, all furnish great inspiration, while the various 
mechanical players afford abvmdant opportunity to 
exhaust the realm of musical classics, even to grand 
opera and symphony. 

Beautiful song has been conceived by artistic souls 
who knew not a single note, but had felt the divine 
spark of genius. On the other hand, the modern com- 
position has evolved from the student fully equipped 
with a course of harmony, counterpoint and orchestra- 
tion. I^hus we have the two extremes todav. As a 



2m THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD S TUDY 

result, the soul turns with an unsatisfied longing, back 
to the simple beauty and dignity of the old folk song, 
the singular expression of the common people, living 
the life of homely duty. 

One is the music of the intellect; the other is a 
creation of the emotions, and as such has a place 
deeply entrenched in the hearts of all. 

The transition period is at hand when music is 
struggling for its very existence. Its need is felt as 
never before, and the adjustment is very rapid, very 
irrational at times, and very unstable at present. 

The future music, if it is to be a national expres- 
sion, will not be the exclusive feelings or an expression 
of human satiety, interesting only to those of like per- 
sonality, but the development of emotions common to 
all mankind. Art is not a pleasure ; it is a great matter, 
an organic part of human life, transmitting man's rea- 
sonable perceptions with higher values and ideals. 

The future music must express sound feeling which 
can only be engendered when man is living on all sides 
the life natural and proper to his kind. No position 
is more injurious to artistic expression than an exist- 
ence of security and luxur3^ The latter type leads a 
life of consumption and of destruction, the former one 
of active and real productivity. 

QUESTIONS 

Of what value is music in educational lines? Is its 
value unique, and if so, in what way? Why is it of 
more value at the present time than it has been in the 
past? 

If our present methods of teaching music are non- 
pedagogical, what is the difficulty and how might they 
be improved? 



THE MUSIC SENSE OF CHILDREN 20i» 

Music is sometimes spoken of as the triple art or 
of threefold value. Can you sec why this is so? 

If you had the responsibility of directing a child's 
musical training, how would you set about it? 

What seems to be the essential points in music 
teaching? 

What modern tendency in life shows the lack of 
musical training? 

Do you see any reason why a musical training should 
unfit a man for business life. If so, explain. 

What is the tendency of exclusive musical training? 
Of exclusive scholastic study. 

What is the serious danger of music study outside 
of school as at present? Do you see a remedy? 

REFERENCES 
Educational 

1. *Hall, G. Stanley. Educational Problems, Chapter 3 — The 

Pedagogy of Music — pp. 91-135. 

2. *HaU, G. Stanley. Adolescence. See index, Vol. 2. 

Psychological 

3. *Bartholomew, Edward F. Relation of Psychology to Music. 

Introduction and Chaps., 1-8. 

4. *Davies, Henry. Art in Education and Life. Chaps, i, 2, 3, 

4, 6, 7. 

5. *Hirn. The Origin of Art. Chaps. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 

14, 17, 18, 20. 

6. *Stumpf, Carl. The Psychology of Tone — The Degrees of 

Tonal Fusion from the Classical Psychologists. 

7. *Tolstoy, Leo. What is Art? From the Russian. 

8. Wundt, Wilhelm. Outlines of Psychology — Complete Feel- 

ing, P- 175- 
14 



210 rHK ESSENTIALS Ul" CHILD STUD^' 



Musical 

a ^Bntan, Halhert Haines The Philosophy of Mn"i)r Chapfi. 

I. 4, S. 8. p. 
lo. *Ciddings, T. P. School Music Teaching, 
u. *Tombard. Levis. The Art Melodious. Chaps, i. 2. 34, 36. 

Periodicals 

1. American Journal of Psychology. 

a. "Muscle Sense in Singing" 1887 — ^' -^5 

b. "Morbid Psychology — Musical Expres- 

sion" 1888-8Q : ^ 75, 347 

c. "Report of Experimental Test of Musical Ex- 

pressiveness" 1891 : 558 

d. "Primitive Music" 1893-95 : 459 

e. "Music and Psycho — Physiology" (895-96 : 440 

f. "A Musical Experiment" 1897-98 : 63 

g. "Distraction of Musical Sounds ; EfTects of 

Pitch upon Attention" 1897-98 : 332 

h. "Contribution to a Psychological Ther)ry of 

Music" 1900-01 : 609 

i. "Experimental Studies in the Psychology of 

Music" 1903 : 192 

2. Journal of Educational Psychology. June, 1910. 
"Training the Voice by the ."Md of the Eye in 

Singing." 

3. Psychological Monograph, July 2, 1914. 

"The Tonoscope" (C E. Seashore, Uni. of 
Iowa). 

4. Psychological Review, Vol. 5 1898 : 463 

"Music Imagery" (Dr. Robert Macdougal. 

Western Reserve Uni.). 
"Elements of Psychology, Theory of Melody". . 1900 : 241 

5. Music Teachers' National Association. 

a. "Music in College and Secondary Schools'". 1906 70 

b. "Music Credits in Secondary Schools" 1906 76 

c. "The Movement for the Advancement of 

Music in Secondary Schools" 1907 69 

d. "The Aims of Courses in Grammar Schools". 1907 : n8 
f. "Exigencies and Possibilities of Secondary 

Music Education" 1008 : 14^ 



THE ^[ITSIC SENSE OE CHILDREX 211 



g. "Report of Committee on Public Schooh". 1908 : 165 

h "Chorus Work in High School" IQ08 170 

i. "Social Music in Indianapolis" 1908 180 

j. "A High School Music Course" 1008 : 187 

k. "A Conclusion Drawn from Inquiry Into the 
Status of Music Education in Secondary 

Schools, Colleges and Universities'' ic)o8 : 191 

I. "The Emphasis in Instruction" 1Q09 : 126 

m. "Report of Public School Conference" 1909 141 

n. "The Musicianship of the Grade Teacher" .. 1909 : 144 

o. "The High School Curriculum" 1909 : 151 

p. "Music in the Home and Its Bearing Upon 

the Training of the Grade Teacher'' 1910 : 157 

q. 'The Grade Teacher's Relation to Music in 

the Public Schools'' 1910 : 164 

r. "State Certification of Teacher^" 1910 : 174 

s. "The Reconciliation of Art and Science in 

"Vocal Teaching" 191 1 : 181 

t. "Specific Musical Education in the Grades'. . 1911 : 204 

u. "High School Music'' 19x1 : 211 

V. "Report Concerning Present Status of Music 
in High Schools of New England. New 

York and New Jersey". 191 1 : 217 

w. "Music in Cincinnati" 1913- : 7 

X. "Municipal Music in New York City" 1913- : 16 

y. "Music as a Factor in Social Uplift" 1913 : 25 

z. "The Need of Correlation Between the Pri- 
vate and the Public School Music 

Teacher" 191,^ : 154 

.\. "The Language Method in Teaching Appre- 
ciation" 1913 : i6t 

B. "An Unsuspected Popular Instinct for Mu- 

sical Education" 1913 : 179 

C. "The Standardization of Music Teaching". . 1913 : 219 
National Educational Association 

a. "Music in the High School" 1908 : 844 

h. "Music in the Schools from ilic Standpoint 

of the Superintendent" 1908 : 840 

0. "Music on an Accredited Basis" 1909 : 696 

d. "Modern Psycholog}- and Music Stud\ ' 1900 : 687 



212 THE ESSENTIALS OF CHILD STUDY 

e. 'Boston the Cradle of Public School Music 

in America" iqio : 7jt 

f . "The Automatic Players in Schools" igio : 808 

g. "High School Orchestras" 1910 : 815 

h. "Some of the Defects of Music Instruction 

in the Schools" 1910 : 822 

i. "Public School Music in Relation to Music 

of the Community" 191 1 : 790 

j. "The Opportunity and the ResponsibiHty of 

Normal Schools in Public School Music". 191 1 : 822 
k. "A Presentation of the High School Course 
Adopted by the Music Supervisors' Na- 
tional Conference" 1912 : 1004 

7. Pedagogical Seminary, Vol. 15. 

"The Psychology' of Music and the Light It 

Throws on Musical Education" 1903 : 358 

8. Education, Vol. 28, June, 1908. 

"The Worth of Music in Education" 1908 : 646 

Q. Outlook. 

"Music in New York City" Vol. 88 — 1908 63 

"Music and East Side Children". .. .Vol. 88 — 1908 : 427 

"The Music Layman" Vol. 90 — 1908 : 494 

"Music and City Children" Vol. 97 — 1911 : 483 

"Music School Settlement" Vol. 98 — 191 1 : 233 

"The Wisconsin Idea of Music" Vol. 105 — 1913 : 509 

10. World Today. 

"Pop-Concerts in Chicago" Vol. 18 — 1910 : 360 

Doctors' Theses 

1 1 . "Variation in Pitch Discrimination with the Tonal Range." 

University of Iowa. T. F. Vance. 

12. "The Effect of Training in Pitch Discrimination." F. O. 

Smith. 

13. "Accuracy of the Voice in Simple Pitch Singing." Uni- 

versity of Nebraska. W. R. Miles. 

14. "Status and Value of Music in Education." Rose Yont. 

"Music in the Public Schools." Part i, pp. 5-73. 
"Private Music Study in Lincoln Schools, and in 

Nebraska," pp. 245-266. 
"System of Incorporating Music Study in the Public 

Schools," pp. 299-315. 



INDEX 

Page 

Aesthetic Feelings 109 

Arising from music 112 

Affection 112, 1 18-122 

Affection between individuals of opposite sexes.. 116 

Age differences 120 

Age of first attachment 118 

Effect on individual 118 

Effect on studies 119 

Effect on conduct 119 

Effect on other friendships 119 

Overt acts or tokens of 122 

Qualities that attracted 121 

Study of affection 118 

Anger 99-108 

Accompanying feelings 105 

Accompanying symptoms 103 

After feelings 106 

Best treatment of 106 

Early indications of 100 

Effect of control on 105 

Frequency of outbursts 106 

Loss of self control 104 

Length of outbursts 105 

Modification of senses 103 

Motor impulses and actions under 104 

Questions for gathering data on 102 

Summary of study made of 103 

Association: Early signs of 125 

21s 



2U INDEX 

Page 

Breathing at Birth 26 

Bibliography, General References 7-i i 

Brain Growth 36 

Child at Birth 26-29 

Brain 26,36 

Care of 26 

Height 30 

Mental condition 26 

Nervous system 26, 36 

Organic sensation 75 

Physical condition 26, 30 

Reflex functions 26 

Weight 30 

ChUd Study 15-2S, 185-190 

Beginning of ^5 

Different authorities on I5 

Importance and value of 21 

Methods of 185-190 

Individual 186 

Laboratory 187 

Observational ^°S 

Questionaire i"5 

Nature of ^5 

Scope of ^S 

Children's Interests 179-184 

Books and stories 180 

Change of ^79 

Racial interests ^79 

Studies made on ^80 

Color Discrimination 49-53 

Color blindness 49 

Early perception of color 49 

Observations on 50 

Conceptions, the Child's i45 

Crying *55 

In the new born ^55 

Outline for study of 17^ 



INDEX 215 

Page 

Curiosity 97 

Indications of fiS 

Influence in the child's development 98 

Drawings of Children 165-169 

Method for study of 167 

Three stages of 166 

Emotions 75-123 

Eye 41-57 

Accommodation of pupil 41 

Adjustment to light 41 

F'ixation of • 45 

Movement of 41. 4^ 

Sensitiveness to light 41. 42 

Fatigue I9i-i95 

Laws of. in relation to schoolroom 192 

Methods of testing 192 

Fears 76-95 

Age when most prominent 94 

After effects 93 

Aids in dispelling 93 

Conditions accentuating 93 

Effect of 77 

Evaluation of childish fears 71 

Animals 80, 89 

Dark «3, 89 

Falling 83. 90 

Natural phenomena 90 

Other objects 9' 

Unusual sounds 78 

Influence of a neurotic person 11 

Plans for study of 61-62. 78-87 

Persisting fears 93 

Quotations showing sources of fear in children. 78 

Racial fears 77 

Results of an introspective study of 87 

SvTnptoms ot • **-' 



216 INDEX 

Page 

Feeling 75-123 

Aesthetic 109, 110-114 

Affection 109, 112 

Anger 99-108 

Curiosity 97 

Emotion 75 

Fear 76-95 

Jealousy 115-117 

Pleasure i lo-i 14 

Sex feeling 1 16-122 

Surprise 96 

Sympathy no, 114 

Growth of the Child 30-35 

Average 30 

Dependent on race 31 

Dependent on class 31 

Dependent on localities 31 

Difference between boys and girls 30 

Periods of 31 

Hearing 58-63 

Beginning of localization 60 

Defects in 61 

Sensitiveness to sound 58 

Ideas of Self 149 

Beginnings of I49 

Use of pronouns 150 

Imagination 137-141 

Constructive 138 

Importance of I37 

Passive I37 

Records on 139-141 

Uncreative I37 

Imitation i35, i57-i6o 

Record of iS7-i6o 

Intelligence 124 

Beginning of 126 

Intelligent association 127 

Jealousy, Indications of nS 

Judgment i4S 



INDEX ^ 

Page 

Knowing 124-151 

Language '70-175 

Acquisition of words '7^ 

Babbling period ^70 

Beginning of gesture '7i 

Beginning of language ^7© 

Beginning of sound imitation J70 

First stage '70 

Odd expressions '7^ 

Sentence building '7^ 

Laughing '76-178 

Beginning of '7" 

Outline for study of '7^ 

Value of '76 

Memory ^25, i29-i37 

Definition of '^5 

Earliest '3i 

Observations on children 129 

Plan for study of '25 

Results obtained from introspection ^3^-^37 

Milk: Human as compared to cow's 27 

Moral Training 196-200 

Character building ^96 

Requisites of character 196 

Value of habit in ^96 

Movement I52-IS7 

Deliberate ^56 

Expressive '55 

Facial '52 

] deational '54 

Impulsive ^52 

Imitative ^55 

Instinctive ^53 

Learning to walk ^54 

Mouth movement ^54 

Reflex 153 

Seizing ^53 

Music Sense of Children and it« Cultivation 202-212 



218 INDEX 

Page 

Nervous System 36-40 

At birth 36 

Development 36 

Effect of work on 37 

Growth of 36 

Oflfice of 37 

Periods of growth of 37 

Organic Sensations 75 

At birth 75 

Development of 75 

Perception 45. 124 

Beginning of conscious 45 

Process of 124 

Perspective 47 

Development of 47 

Physical Child 30-35 

Pleasure 109 

Earliest indications of no 

Reasoning 145-148 

Types of child reasoning 146 

Reflex Functions: At birth 26, 153 

Religious Training. (See Moral Training.) 

Sensation 41-74 

Beginning of 41 

Hearing 58-63 

Sight 41-57 

Smell 70,72 

Taste 69,71 

Touch 64-68 

Sex Feeling. (See Afifection.) 

Sight 41-57 

Beginnings of 41 

Color 49-51 

Defective vision 54 

Observations showing early sensitiveness to light 42 

Sleep 26, 193 

Amount necessary in infancy 26 

Amount necessary tn overcome fatigue I93 



INDEX 219 

Page 

Smell 70,72 

Beginnings of 70 

Observation of 72 

Surprise 96 

Observations showing beginnings of 96 

Relationship to astonishment 96 

Relationship to fear 96 

Sympathy 110, 1 14 

Beginnings ot no 

Indications of 114 

Taste 69, 71 

Development of • 69 

Observations of 71 

Response to 69 

Touch 64-68 

Associating visual and tactile sensation 67 

Localization 64 

Observations on 65 

Reaction time 65 

Use in development 64 

Vision. (See Sight.) 

Weight of Child 30 

At birth 30 

Normal 30 

Will 152-164 

Development of 152 

Connection between movement and will 152 

Early indications of 160 



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