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Vol I No 039 


PRC Supports UN Resolutions on DRA, Kampuchea 
Further on Multination Talks in New Delhi 
Adoption of Document Noted 
Correspondent on Conference 

Haig, Weinberger Policy Differences Viewed 

Development of DPRK-ASEAN Relations Noted 
Issues in Japanese Defense Policy Examined 


Visit of U.S. Official to Vietnam Reported 
Commentary Hits VNA Rejection of Thai Charges 
AFP: Son Sann Agrees to ‘Separate Meetings’ 


RENMIN RIBAO Comments on Yugoslav Elections 
[15 Feb] 
Romanian Trade Delegation Concludes Visit 


Further on Moroccan Prime Minister's Visit 
Zhao Attends Banquet 
Cultural Agreement Signed 
Morocco's Third World Contributions Assessed 
Algerian Air Force Delegation Concludes Visit 


RENMIN RIBAO Editorial Stresses Planned Econo y 

[24 Feb] 
RENMIN RIBAO on Cadres' Need To Study Theory [23 Feb] 
CCP Unit, Others Issue Courtesy Month Circular 
State Farms Work Meeting Held in Beijing 
Geng Biao Addresses Civil Aviation Work Meeting 
RENMIN RIBAO on Basis for Literary Works [17 Feb] 

26 February 1982 

>> > 

ee <n 

SS NON ee 

Ono UI Ww 

WENYI BAO Discusses Demands on Literature, Art 
1? Jan, 

Bai Hua Discusses Errors in ‘Unrequited Love' 
[WENYI BAO 7 Jan} 

RENMIN RIBAO on Chinese, Western Feudal Society 
[15 Feb] 

CHINA DAILY Reprints Article on Autonomy Policy 
[26 Feb] 


Xiang Nan, Others Attend Fuzhou PLA Meeting 
Xiang Nan at Fujian Meeting of Party Secretaries 
FUJIAN RIBAO Commentator on Self-Criticism 
[14 Feb] 
FUJIAN RIBAO on Abuses in Securing Exit Permits 
[12 Feb] 
Jiangsu Meeting Urges Combating Economic Crimes 
Jiangsu CCP Holds United Front Work Meeting 
Jiangxi: Fulfillment of Sowing Plans Discussed 
JIEFANG RIBAO Stresses Efforts in Agriculture 
[18 Feb] 


Guizhou Governor's Work Report to Congress 
SICHUAN RIBAO on Financial, Economic Discipline 
{23 Feb] 
Briefs: Sichuan Seminar; Sichuan 
Methane Production 


Zhou Hui Views 1982 Tasks in Nei Monggol 
Nei Monggol Urges Developing Livestock, Forestry 
Nei Monggol CYL Conference on Civility Campaign 
Briefs: Nei Monggol 1981 Revenue; Nei 

Monggol Grain Production; 

Nei Monggol Transportation 


Jilin Issues Rules on Improving Work Efficiency 
Protection of Jilin Transmission Lines Urged 
Liaoning Urges Protecting Transmission Lines 


NINGXIA RIBAO Urges Preparations for Census 

[9 Feb] 
QINGHAI RIBAO Urges Learning From Advanced 
Qinghai Sponsors Forum on Vegetable Production 
Shaanxi: Ma Wenrui on Planned Parenthood Problem 



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lL. 26 Feb 82 j 

CPPCC Member on U.S. Visit, Taiwan Arms Sales 
Taiwan Press Articles on Spring Festival Viewed 

Fujian Marks Anniversary of Recovery of Taiwan 


TA KUNG PAO on U.S. Human Rights Policy, Taiwan 
{25 Feb! 
WEN WEI PO Interviews PRC Petroleum Official 
Part I [14 Feb] 
Part II [15 Feb] 



rN A a 





OW260326 Beijing XINHUA in English 0220 GMT 26 Feb 82 

{Text] Geneva, February 25 (XINHUA) -- The U.N. Commission on Human Rights today adopted 
two resolutions condemning the Soviet i..vasion of Afghanistan and Vietnamese occupation 
of Kampuchea and their denial of the Afghan and Kampuchean peoples’ right to self- 

The resolution on Afghanistan notes that the international community has expressed increas- 
ing concern over the continued foreign armed intervention in Afghanistan and serious 
sufferings of the Afghan people and over the magnitude of social and economic problems 
posed to Pakistan and Iran by the presence on their soil of millions of Afghan refugees 

and the continuing increase in their numbers. 

"The people of Af istan continue to be denied their right to self-determination and 
to determine th wn form of government and to choose their economic, political and 
social svst » from outside intervention, subversion, coercion or constraint of any 

kind what oi, it says. 

The resolution calls for the immediate withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan and 
for a political settlement of the situation on the basis of the withdrawal of foreign 
troops and full respect for the independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity and 
non-aligned status of Afghanistan and strict observance of the principle of non- 
intervention and non-interference. 

The resolution on Kampuchea says, ''The withdrawal of all foreign forces from Kampuchea, 
the restoration and preservation of Kampuchea's independence, sovereignty and territorial 
integrity, the right of the Kampuchean people to determine their own Jestiny and the 
commitment by all states to non-interference and non-intervention in the internal affairs 
of Kampuchea are the principal components of any just and lasting resolution to the 
Kampuchean problem" 

"The primary violation of human rights in Kampuchea at present is the persistence of 
foreign occupation which prevents the people of Kampuchea from exeicisirnge their right to 
self-determination," it notes. 

The resolution calls for the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of foreign forces 

from Kampuchea in order to allow the people of Kampuchea to exercise their fundamental 
freedom and human rights, including the right to decide their own future through free and 
fair elections under the United Nations supervision without outside interference, subversion 
or coercion. 

32 countries, including China, voted in favour of the resolution on Afghanistan while 
seven, including the Soviet Union, voted against, with four abstentions. The resolution 
on Kampuchea was adopted with 28 votes, including China. Eight countries, includine the 
Soviet Union, voted against, and five abstained. 

Adoption of Document Noted 
OW241932 Beijing XINHUA in English 1906 GMT 24 Feb 82 

[Text] New Delhi, February 24 (XINHUA) -- The New Delhi consultations of d ;ing coun- 
tries came to a successful close here this evening after three days of extensive, frank 
discussions and exchange of views on the main issues with regard to Soutn-North relations 
and South-South cooperation. 

A document, entitled "The New Delhi Consultations Summing Up," adopted at tne final 

plenary session calls for fresh vigour and new efforts toward reaching an agreement on 
the early launching of global negotiations. 


A 30-point summary of the document was read out by the spokesman of the conference at 

the press conference here today. The document says: "There is a feeling that while 
being firm in approach on matters of principle and substance, we should be flexible on 
Strategy and avoid getting bogged down in detail and technicalities. The exchange of 
views, ‘e now hope, will enable the Group of 77 to discuss and negotiate more effectively 
witi. the industrialized countries to come to an agreenent on the procedures, agenda 

and time frame of global negotiations." 

On the problem of food, the document stresses the need to augment food production. 
"There was wide consensus that this was an area of priority concern to the international 
communits requiring concrete action on short-, medium- and long-term measures to eradi- 
cate hunger and malnutrition in developing countries, particularly the least developed. 
Establishing an effective international food security system was discussed. Individual 
countries have a responsibility in chalking out national p. ies and actions designed 
to achieve food self-sufficiency," it says. 

On the problem of energy, the document says: ‘There was emphasis c. ¢ over-riding 
necessity of developing indigenous energy resources. The major poten: ‘ists in 
developing countries. This, however, requires both technology and finan “esources. 

Different ways in which such additional financial resources can be mobilize: were considered. 
One of the possibilities is the establishment of an energy affiliate attached to the 
World Bank. However, the creating of any new institution would take time, and while this 
is under consideration and implementation, there would need to be larger allocations 
through additional funding to be made available through existing financial institutions." 

On financial flows, it says: "A sharp decline in the levels of concessional financial 
flows and deterioration of the overall climate for development assistance is deeply 
disturbing. The need for appropriate and concerted initiatives by developing countries 
at a political level were considered imperative to resist such trends and seek their 
reversal. A restructuring of the international monetary system in accordance with the 

goals and objectives of the new international economic order provides the only durable 

On trade, it says: "Developing countries must expand and diversify their exports to 
develop. Indeed, structural adjustments become necessary in the world economy to 

accommodate and promote an increased share of developing countries in world trade." 

On South-South cooperation, it says: "There was complete unanimity that South-South 
cooperation is a major instrument in the promotion of individual and collective self- 
reliance. It also has a strategic value in strengthening the negotiating power with 
the North, and at the same time such cooperation is not a substitute for North-South 
economic cooperation, nor can it relieve industrialized countries from their responsibili- 

ties and comm'tments towards the developing countries." 
The document says: "A greater political will is required to accelerate the pace of coopera- 
ti-n amongst developing countries. It would need wide-ranging contacts among the leaders 

* Susiness, commerce, industry, scientists, intellectuals, writers and journalists. 

rete measures have to be taken to stimulate action and facilitate sveedier implementa- 
i ‘f agreed programs." 

It In pursuance of this sentiment, the Caracas program of act -n, ten technical 

e. in the fields of finance, science and technology, food and agriculture, new and 
rene resources of energy, trade and technical cooperation will be held in the coming 
months — 

It says settle the problem of financial resources, India proposed the setting up 

of a multi ral financing authority on the basis of voluntary contribution by interested 
countrie is proposal was considered by all as interesting, constructive and important. 
Sri Lanka .° Kuwait suggested a new institutional framework for investment based on 

joint ventures in developing countries. This proposal would be elaborated and the inter- 
governmental coordinations committee for ECDE to be held in Manila in August, 1982." 
[sentence as received] 


Concluding the final plenary session, G. Parthasarathi, chairman of the New Delhi con- 
Sultations, said: "We appreciate the hard work that all of you have put in, both inside 
the committee rooms and outside," and "we can all draw satisfaction from the results." 

He expressed the hope that the spirit of mutual faith and the atmosphere of innovative and 
constructive cooperation during the deliberations will continue to assist the Group of 77 
in its further endeavours. 

Correspondent on Conference 
OW251238 Beijing XINHUA in English 1217 GMT 25 Feb 82 

['"'New Delhi Consultations' 

XINHUA headline] 

Shows Strength of Unity, Orientation of Cooperation" -- 

[Text] New Delhi, February 25 (XINHUA correspondent) -- The just-concluded South-South 
conference attended by representatives from more than 40 developing countries to discuss 
the issue of North-South dialogue and South-South cooperation proved to be timely and 
fruitful, thanks to the extensive consultations among the attendants in the spirit of 
coordination and unity. 

It is very pertinent to call it "New Delhi consultations" by India, the sponsor, for there 
is the need for the developing countries to meet from time to time in equal and frank 
consultations on either the North-South conference or South-South cooperation so that they 
can have a better understancing of the whole situation which will benefit the early 
establishment of a new international economic order. 

Some representatives expressed discontent with certain developed countries, particularly 
the United States, for their obstruction to the convening of a North-South conference. 

The 34th Session of the U.N. General Assembly in 1979 adopted a resolution on the convening 
of a North-South conference, and the Cancun meeting did once arouse some hope. But 

because of the rigid stand of the United States, and the obstacles it placed on the 
procedural issue and the issue of reforming the existing special international economic 
organs, the U.N. resolution is yet to be implemented. 

Some representatives pointed out that the convening of a global negotiation brooks no delay, 
as the present international economic situation is further deteriorating and developed 
countries are shifting the burden of the worsening situation onto the developing 

countries by resorting to protectionism and other means. Some least developed countries, 
being confronted with the shortage of food, finance and energy, had expected some measures 
to be taken to help them overcome their difficulties. As things now stand, they hold that 
it is important for them to strengthen the unity and coordination among the developing 
countries and to uphold their principled stand. The Yugoslav representative called on 

the developing countries to struggle, with determination and self-confidence, for the 
establishment of a new international economic order. 

There had been different views among the countries in the South on how to break through 
the stalemate in the global negotiations. Through the consultations, the representatives 
fully exchanged their views, which was conducive to reaching a consensus in the future. 
The representatives joined in criticising some developed countries for "lack of far- 
sightedness and wisdom" by showing no clear understanding of the trend of historical 
development. They pointed out that economic development and collective self-reliance 

of the countries in the South are beneficial to the developed countries as well. They 
welcomed and appreciated the cooperative attitude assumed by some people of insight in 
developed nations. 


South-South cooperation, in the view of the representatives, constitutes an extremely 
important part of a new international economic order. It is necessary and has broad 
fields to play in. The Caracas conference had worked out a program for such cooperation; 
the representatives pointed out that now is the time to put it into action. 

Quite a number of proposals and ideas were submitted to the conference. Romania expressed 
readiness to host a developing countries conference this spring to discuss the training 
of qualified industrial technicians. India proposed the establishment of a multilateral 
financing facility to help develop technical cooperation among the developing countries. 
Kuwait suggested the setting up of a joint Gulf investment authority to finance joint 
ventures of the developing countries, and Tanzania proposed the establishment of an 
agriculture coordinating group to strengthen their cooperation in agriculture. It is 
only natural for the developing countries to have different views on how to develcp 
effective cooperation, as they have different conditions and are in varying stages of 
economic development. However, they have the common desire to strengthen South-South 
cooperation with a view to changing the existing unjust international economic order. 
The consultations have built up their confidence in collective self-reliance. 

China attended the conference as a special invitee and received warm welcome by the 
representatives from various countries. Taking a clear-cut stand on the side of the 
Third World countries, China maintained that South-South cooperation, being of strategic 
importance, is a source of strength to enhance the South's position in the North-South 
negotiations and restructure the existing international economic relations as well as 

a principal means to eliminate the economic dependence on the developed countries. It 
opined that South-South cooperation and North-South negotiations are two interrelated 
aspects of the whole process of establishing a new international economic order. The 
success of the cooperation will create favourable conditions for a victory in the 

The representatives to the conference expressed their thanks to host India for making the 
consultations possible. They attached importance to and spoke highly of the nine-point 
program for bringing about effective international cooperation as put forth by Indian 
Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in her inauguration speech and the proposal for a 

"technical support group" as raised by Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere while receiving 
"The Third World Foundation Prize.'"' Many representatives held that the establishment of 
a new international economic order is a tough task for the developing countries. It 
needs their unity and cooperation. 



OW260209 Beijing Domestic Service in Mandarin 0300 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] There have been various reports by Western news agencies on foreign policy differences 
between U.S. Secretary of State Haig and Defense Secretary Weinberger. The reports maintain 
that further surfacing of these differences threatens the management of the Reagan administra- 
tion's foreign policy, harms its efforts in coordinating U.S. relations with those of its 
allies and plays into the hands of the Soviet Union. 

According to reports, their differences involve issues concerning Europe, the Middle East 
and Central America -- the three major hotspots of the world -- and concerning, in partic- 
ular, y.S, strategy in dealing with the Soviet Union. 

It was pointed out in the reports that both Haig and Weinberger advocate a strong stand 
towards Soviet expansionism. They believe that the United States must strengthen its own 
defense as well as that of Western Europe. They wish to establish a closer relationship 
between the United States and the Arab world and to achieve a strategic consensus vith it. 
They both want to stop the infiltration of Soviet and Cuban influence in Central america. 

But on European questions, according to the reports, Weinberger stresses that pressure 
should be brought to bear on the allies to share more of the burden of defense costs and 

to scrap their natural gas pipeline transaction with Moscow. Haig, on the other hand, 
stresses the importance of U.S.-European unity and the removal of their differences through 
consultation. He opposes blackmailing the allies on the issue of the natural gas pipeline. 

On Middle East issues, Weinberger stresses the importance of U.S. relations with friendly 
Arab countries and believes that the present U.S.-Israel relations are threatening American 
interests in the Middle East, while Haig disapproves changing the U.S. Middle East policy, 
partial to Israel. 

On Central American issues, Haig advocates the use of U.S. military forces to check Cuban 
influence and its interference in the affairs of Central American countries, while Weinberger 
opposes U.S. involvment in the armed conflicts in the area and disapproves a U.S. blockade 

of Cuba and Nicaragua. 

There has been a concern in the Western press over the feuding between Haig and Weinberger. 
There is fear that this feuding may lead to a rift in the U.S. Government, which will 
seriously affect the implementation of American foreign policies and give Moscow an oppor- 
tunity to weaken the U.S. position and increase its diplomatic offensive in Western Europe 
and the Middle East. 

The reports pointed out that it is not an easy job to resolve these differences within the 
American Government, and the differences may be aggravated if they are not handled properly. 

P The Washington POST said there is a possibility that the growing differences between Haig 
and Weinberger may force President Reagan to carry out a major reshuffle of the administra- 


OW250414 Beijing XINHUA in English 0130 GMT 25 Feb 82 
{"Round-up: Ties Between DPRK, ASEAN Grow'' -- XINHUA headline] 

[Text] Hong Kong, February 24 (XINHUA) -- Yi Chong-ok, premier of the Administracion 
Council of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, recently visited three ASEAN 
countries -- Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia~~ and discussed with leaders of these 
countries bilateral relations and matters of common interest. ASEAN public opinion 
described the Korean leader's visit as having great significance to the promotion of 
relations between the DPRK and ASEAN. 

The Korean Government has in recent years declared on many occasions that it supports 
ASEAN's effort to establish a zone of peace, freedom and neutrality in Southeast Asia. 
Premier Yi Chong-ok declared in his recent visit to Thailand that like ASEAN nations, 
Korea oppose: uny action taken by big powers against small countries and supports 
ASEAN's stand on the Kampuchean problem. This attitude of Korea is welcomed by ASEAN 

Meanwhile, the struggle waged by the Korean Government and people for the peaceful 
reunification has won sympathy and endorsement of the ASEAN nations which hope that 
the North and the South of Korea would effect the reunification through dialogue on 
the basis of mutual trust. Indonesia has reportedly pledged to contribute to Korea's 

Korea and ASEAN have expressed great concern about the future of the nonaligned movement. 
At a meeting of the foreign ministers of the nonaligned countries held in early 1981, 
representatives of Korea and ASEAN, in close coordination, endeavored to eliminate 

super, ~ers' influence upon the nonaligned movement. Premier Yi Chong-ok and Malaysian 
Prime ..inister Mahathir bin Mohamed and Indonesian President Suharto were of the 
identical view that the Nonaligned Movement should not be influenced by any force or 
ideology. They stressed that the movement should continue to pursue its established 
goal and keep to its basic principles. 

In recent years, personnel exchanges and economic and trade relations between Korea and 
the ASEAN countries have increased. In June, 1979, the then Malaysian Vice-Prime 
Minister Mahathir bin Mohamed paid an official visit to Korea and a trade agreement 

was signed between the two countries. In June last year, Korean Vice-Premier Kye Ung-tae 
visited Malaysia. The two sides conferred on bilateral trade development. 

Malaysia's export to Korea increased from 9.52 million ringgit (one U.S. dollar equals 
2.3 ringgit) in 1979 to 43 million ringgit in 1980. Rubber export trom Malaysia to 
Korea alone reached 38.31 million ringgit last year. Total export from Korea to 
Malaysia rose to 50 million ringgit last year. Malaysia and Korea set up joint ventures 
in 1980 in order to promote cooperation in the fields of small-sized hydro-generation, 
construction, mining and agriculture. Indonesia and Korea have also explored ways 

and means of developing bilateral economic cooperation. Korea will reportedly send 
technician groups and trade delegation to Indonesia to discuss technical and trade 
cooperation. Thailand and Korea have recently signed agreements on communication, 

post and telecommunication services. 


OW250631 Beijing Domestic Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 24 Feb 82 

[Commentary from "International Current Events" program: "On Japanese Defense Issues"] 
[Text] Since the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, the Japanese Government and 

public have begun to attach greater importance to defense matters, with a view to 
safeguarding the country's independence and security. 


The Japanese Government budget for fiscal year 1982, which was approved at a Cabinet 
meeting, totals 49.68 billion yen, 6.2 percent up from fiscal year 1981. The defense budget 
was increased by 7.754 percent from the previous year to 2.59 billion yen. In an interview 
with the press on this matter, rrime Minister Suzuki said that t.e increase in defense 
expenditure was made in response to the grim international situation. He stressed that, 
while peace and security of Japan depends on the Japanese-U.S. security system, it is more 
important for Japan to rely on itself, not on the strength of other countries, to defend 
the country. The U.S. Defense Department issued a statement welcoming the Japanese 
decision to increase its defense expenditure, but Pentagon officials also pointed out that 
the Japanese military expenditure is still less than 1 percent of GNP. This remark, 
according to AP, reflects the American view that Japan should make greater efforts in 

this regard. 

Debates between Japan and the United States over Japanese defense have continued over 
recent years. This is a major issue in their bilateral relations. The United States has 
complained that Japan has been unwilling to shoulder the international responsibilities 
commensurate with its economic power. In the U.S. view, Japanese military expenditure 
should reach at least 2 percent of GNP. But the Japanese Governmenc has put the ceiling 
on defense expenditure at only 1 percent. 

Why does the United States ask Japan to increase its defense bill at a faster rate? First, 
the United States believes that the world situation is dictated by the balance of power 
between East and West, the so-called unstable balance. The maintenance of this balance is 

a guarantee against Soviet expansionism. Since the 1970's, the Soviet Union has greatly 
expanded military power and + ildup under the smokescreen of detente. The balance of U.S. 
and Soviet military power is developing in favor of the Soviet Union. This has led to a 
sense of crisis on the part of the United States. As a result, the United States put 
forward a joint strategy by which the Western allies will shoulder their respective 
obligations. Western Europe and Japan, both links in this joint strategy, should therefore 
shoulder obligations greater than they are now carrying. 

Second, the United States tries to slow down Japan's economic development through an in- 
crease in Japan's military expenditure. Since the beginning of the 1980's, Japan has become 
the major economic rival of the United States. Many Japanese industrial products have 
outdone American products, not only in world markets, but also in the American domestic 
market. The Japanese trade surplus with the United States has continued to grow since 

1965. To the United States, Japan's economic development is achieved because it has 

little defense burden. Although the United States has tried to avoid the appearance 

of any link between the question of Japan's defense burden and that of Japanese-U.S. 
economic conflict, the U.S. intention is self-evident. 

While increasing its defense expenditure, the Japanese Government has expressed disapproval 
of the U.S. request. Why does Japan disapprove? First, Japan worries that in the midst 

of widespread depression in the capitalist world, the pou_ing of greater national resources 
into a military buildup is bound to deprive her of economic vitality and affect economic 

Second, Japan is concerned about opposition at home and abroad. Since the memory of the 
Pacific war is still fresh in the minds of the Asian people, any increase in Japanese 
military strength will always be a very sensitive issue at home and aborad. Japan believes 
that maintaining its image as a great peace power is in the interest of consolidating 
political powe at home and economic expansion abroad. 


Third, Japan is concerned that it might unduly provoke the Soviet Union. Japan believes 
that it lags too far behind the Soviet Union in military strength and that there is no 
chance of matching the Soviet Union in the future. It fears joining the United States 
in increasing military strength would unduly provoke the Soviet Union, and that the 
consequences would be harmful to Japan. Thus, Japan has tried to make Washington 

happy while at the same time trying to avoid irritating Moscow. 

It should be pointed out that although there are differences between Japan and the 
United States over the defense issue, Soviet expansion is the main threat facing them 
today. Strengthening their coordination and cooperation is in their fundamental 
interest, and neither country can do without the other. There will continue to be 
difficulties in their relations, but both have pledged to explore ways to resolve or 
ameliorate them. 

Like Western Europe, Japan also seeks more independence. However, the relationship 
between Japan and the United States is, after all, different than that between Western 
Europe and the United States. If there are conditions for Europe to cherish the 

hope of pursuing a European policy independent of the United States, there are no such 
conditions for Japan to realize its hope of pursuing a Japanese policy. In terms of 
trade, the current economic prosperity enjoyed by Japan results, to a large extent, 
from its exports to the United States. The United States is Japan's principal economic 
partner. It is also Japan's irreplaceable source of coal, oil, grain and other energy 
and raw material resources. It is especially true for grain. Japan depends on the 
United States for 50 percent of its wheat, 80 percent of its corn and 97 percent of 
its soybean needs. A quarter of Japan's nutrition intake is supplied by the United 

Militarily, although Japan has some doubts abort the reliability of the American nuclear 
umbrella, it still considers it the main protector of Japan's security. Because of 
historical, political, economic and other factors, Japan cannot expect to become a nuclear 
power very fast. In addition, it believes that to depend on the American nuclear umbrella 
is far more advantageous than to develop nuclear weapons itself. Therefore, the con- 
clusion is that although it is not reliable, Japan must still rely on it. 

These and other factors have compelled Japan to consider its relations with ‘1e United 
States from a political angle and to comply with the American requests in defense matters 
as much as possible. As a matter of fact, although Japan's military expenditure is 
still less than 1 percent of GNP, it has been growing in terms of absolute value. Japan 
has promised to shoulder the responsibility of its own defense. Japan is modernizing 
its Self-Detense Forces, especially its naval and air forces. Japanese-U.S. defense 
cooperation is developing in many important sectors to meet the needs of the U.S. global 
strategy. Japan has begun to fill the vacuum left by the United States after some war- 
ships of the U.S. 7th Fleet were transferred from the Pacific to the Indian Ocean. 

Japan is also increasing its economic aid to a number of countries with the aim of con- 
taining Soviet expansion. 

Generally speaking, Japan and the United States will continue their haggling over defense 
matters, and the haggling may be louder at times. But neither country wishes to see 
their strategic friendship and cooperation affected by the defense issue. 



OW260825 Beijing 1 Jie .sasese to Vietnam 1400 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] U.S. Deputy ‘stant Secretary of Defense Richard Armitage and four other offi- 
cials visited Hanoi  ... <3 and 24 February to discuss with Vietnam the question of searching 
for American soldiers missing in action during the Vietnam War. On leaving Hanoi, Armitage 
said he agreed with Vietnam only on the holding of further meetings between Vietnamese and 
U.S. delegations when necessary. 

This was the highest-level delegation sent to Hanoi by the U.S. Government since 1975, 
[Beijing Domestic Service in Mandarin at 1500 GMT on 25 February, reporting on the Armitage 
visit, adds at this point that: "Over the years, the Vietnamese Government has regarded 
the question of searching for Americans missing in action during the Vietnam war as a 
card with which to incite U.S. public opinion and haggle with the U.S. Government."] In 
Dec: nber last year, the Vietnamese authorities agreed to the U.S. sending of a delegation 
to Hanoi to discuss the MIA issue, and indicated it would endeavor to cooperate with the 
United States in this issue. Vietnamese Foreign Minister Nguyen Co Thach declared at that 
time that Vietnamese and U.S. relations had somewhat improved and hoped for the normaliza- 
tion of relations between the two countries. However, the U.S. Government indicated that 
so long as there is no real progress in the Kampuchean issue, the normalization of rela- 
tions between the United States and Vietnam is entirely unrealistic. 

It was reported that when the U.S. officials arrived in Hanoi this time, they were given 
a low-level reception. On the eve of their arrival in Hanoi, Nguyen Co Thach criticized 
the U.S. Government for using the MIA issue as a political weapon against Vietnam and 
said that because of this, Vietnam would not cooperate further with Washington. 


0W250935 Beijing in Vietnamese to Vietnam 1130 GMT 24 Feb 82 
[Correspondent (Yue Yu) commentary: "Double-Fdged Sword"'] 

[Text] On 19 February, VNA, the mouthpiece of the Vietnamese authorities, issued a statement 
refuting the statement by the spokesman for the Thai Armed Forces Supreme Command on the 
Vietnamese troops’ intrusion into Thai territory and clashes with armed Thai police. Cate- 
gorically refuting the so-called Thai fabrication, the VNA statement said the spreading 

of this lie was aimed at serving Beijing's schemes and creating tension along the Kampuchean- 
Thai border. 

The Hanoi authorities strongly hoped, with that stern denial, to deceive other people into 
believing what they said. However, also on 19 February, the Thai Armed Forces Supreme 
Command turned up some hard facts: the bodies of five armed Thai border policemen killed 
by Vietnamese artillery during fierce fighting on 1/ February against some 300 Vietnamese 
intruders in eastern Thailand. Sources said that the retreating Vietnamese soldiers 
removed military equipment, including boots, and other things from the bodies of the 

slain Thai policemen. 

On 19 February, an intruding Vietnamese aircraft from Kampuchea spread toxic chemicals 
on five localities of Chanthaburi Province in eastern Thailand. Furthermore, some 400 
tank-supported Vietnamese infantry troops advanced toward the Kampuchean-Thai border 
from the Vietnamese armed forces command in Pailin. This evidence was a stinging blow 
to the Vietnamese authorities and belied the so-called official VNA statement. 

_- = 
Ree ‘ 


lt is crystal clear who is causing tension along the Kampuchean-Thai border. This incident 
brings to mind the Vietnamese authorities’ ballyhoo about the Sino-Vietnamese border 
incidents during the Lunar New Year festival, On the one hand, they had their troops 
repeatedly conduct armed provocations along the Sino-Vietnamese border and, on the other, 
they empowered VNA to issue a statement denying their evil acts and holding China responsible 
for the tension along the border, 

Factea have proved that the Vietnamese authorities are accustomed to using the "double- 
edged sword” trick, They profess to be peace-lovers while stepping up the implementation 
of their aggressive and expansionist policy in foreign countries. They commit evil acts 
while seeking to whitewash them, They pretend to be victima in order to deceive world 
public opinion. They keep the Vietnamese people in the dark about what they really have 
done and cunningly conceal the stepped-up implementation of their regional hegemonism 
behind a smokescreen, 

However, the truth is always the truth regardless of their deceitful or brigandish state- 
ments. The Vietnamese people and the world's people are increasingly aware of their 
deceitful nature. Let this Vietnamese saying be a warning to them: “He who plays with a 
knife will cut himself some day." 


OW261228 Paris AFP in English 1218 GMT 26 Feb 82 

[Excerpt] Beijing, 26 Feb. (AFP) -- Former Cambodian premier Son Sann has agreed to 
separate meetings here with Khmer Rouge leader Khieu Samphan and former chief of state 

Prince Norodom Sihanouk, it was learned today. 

But, in a telegram to Prince Sihanouk, Son Sann apparently ruled out any tripartite summit 
of anti-Vietnamese Cambodian factions in the Chinese capital. 

The text of the telegram, given to reporters by Prince Sihanouk's secretariat, gave no 
indication of when Son Sann would travel to Beijing. It said he was prepared to visit China 
to meet "Chinese dignitaries" and to personally greet Prince Sihanouk as well as to meet 
Khieu Samphan "if necessary." 



HK1911130 Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 15 Feb 82 p 6 

[Report by XINHUA reporter Ding Xiangqi [0002 5046 6386): "Abolishing Life Tenure and Pledging 
Cadre Replacement; Yugoslavia Will Replace Half of its Government Officials") 

[Text] Belgrade, 14 February -- This year is an election year in Yugoslavia, Throughout the 
country, some 2 million delegation members and representatives will be elected before the 
middle of May, and then assemblies at various levels will be formed through election. About 
half the leading officials in the government will be replaced. The Federal Assembly of 
Yugoslavia is an organ of social autonomy and has supreme authority. The system of assembly 
delegates was instituted in 1974. Thus the term of office (4 years) of the delegates to the 
second assembly will soon be over. A new assembly should be elected this year. 

Election of assemblies will start at the grassroots level. First of all, a delegation will 
be elected from the grassroots units. From these delegates, representatives will be 
elected to form assemblies at the district level. Then, assemblies of the republics and 
autonomous provinces will be elected. Finally, a stipulated number of representatives will 
be appointed from all republics and autonomous provinces to form the Federal Assembly. 
Assemblies at all levels will then elect and appoint members to form their own executive 
organs (that is, government at all levels). 

At the moment, preparatory work for grassroots elections has started. According to a respon- 
sible person of the Legislative Committee of the Federal Assembly, in the course of preparing 
for grassroots elections, the major task is to appraise and sum up the work of the local 
assembly representatives, and based on this, to nominate candidates to form the delegation. 
Two-thirds of this year's delegation members will be people who are elected for the first 
time. Throughout the country, some 2 million delegation members and representatives will 

be elected. Assembly elections at the district level will officially commence in March 

and the Federal Assembly will be elected by the middle of May. 

The Constitution states that delegates of assemblies have a term of 4 years, and that no one 
can assume the same position for more than two successive terms. For this reason, about 

half the cadres presently holding leadership positions will be replaced. The provision 

to limit the term of office is a basic measure taken by Yugoslavia to do away with the 
so-called life tenure and to ensure the continuous replacement and renewal of its cadre 

ranks. Furthermore, with the implementation of the retirement system, about 100,000 personnel 
retire from office each year in Yugoslavia. All this provides a guarantee for the normal 
renewal of incumbent personnel. At present, the average age of members of the Yugoslav 
Federal Presidium is 65, while that of Presidium members in the Central Committee of the 
League of Communists of Yugoslavia is 59. 

At the same time, the 12th Congress Session of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia will 
be convened in June this year, while elections of party organizations at all levels will 
also start in succession. Therefore, elections and cadre replacements are going to be major 
events in the internal political life of Yugoslavia. 


OW250722 Beijing XINHUA in English 0712 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] Beijing, February 25 (XINHUA) -- The Romanian Government trade delegation led by 
Cornel Burtica, member of the Executive Political Committee of the Romanian Communist Party 
Central Committee, deputy premier and minister of foreign trade and international economic 
cooperation of Romania, left here for home today after a visit to China. 

Seeing the delegation off at the airport were Zheng Tuobin, Chinese minister of foreign trade, 
and Florea Dumitrescu, Romanian ambassador to China. 

While in China, the delegation toured Beijing and Xian. Burtica also had meetings with 
Tang Ke, minister of metallurigical industry; Li Peng, minister of power industry; and 
Lian Tianjun, vice-minister of economic relations with foreign countries. 



Zhao Attends Banquet 
OW251548 Beijing XINHUA in English 1528 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] Beijing, February 25 (XINHUA) -- Moroccan Prime Minister Maati Bouabid gave a 
return banquet in the Great Hall of the People here this evening. Among the guests were 
Zhao Ziyang, premier of the State Council; Banqgen Erdini Qoigyi Gyancan, vice-chairman 

of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress; and Chen Muhua, vice-premier. 

In his speech at the banquet, Prime Minister Bouabid hailed the existing profound friend- 
ship between Morocco and China. He said Morocco and China have many things in common: 
"The two countries have a long-standing history and have made contributions to the enrich- 
ment of the civilization of mankind; and these two developing countries are doing their 
utmost for world peace and security so that the world's people may live in harmony." 

Through his short visit to China, the Moroccan prime minister said that he and his 
delegation have acquainted themselves with an overview of China's culture of 4,000 years. 
"This enabled us to understand the characteristics of thinking of the Chinese people," 
he said. 

He said Morocco-China relations are being strengthened day by day, and friendship 
between the two countries is developing while their cooperation is based on mutual trust 
and the equality of rights and auties. He pledged to do his best in enhancing friend- 
ship and cooperation between Morocco and China. 

In return, Premier Zhao said that in the past few days he had had wide-ranging and fruitful 
talks with Prime Minister Bouabid on bilateral relations and international issues of 

common concern. "This morning Vice-Chairman Deng Xiaoping had a cordial and friendly 
meeting with Your Excellency. All these talks and meetings prove that the Governments 

of China and Morocco have identical or similar views on many important international 

issues and they cherish a common desire to further develop the fine cooperation between 

the two countries." 

He said: "The close cooperation between the Chinese Government and the Government 

of Morocco is in keeping with the basic interests of the people of the two countries, 
and is beneficial to the common struggle of the Third World countries for unity against 
hegemonism as well." 

Also present at the banquet were Huang Zhen, minister in charge of the Commission for 
Cultural Relations With Foreign Countries; Zhou Weizhi, acting minister of culture; and 
He Ying, vice-minister of foreign affairs. Others present were Prime Minister Bouabid's 
entourage and Moroccan Ambassador to China Abderrahim Harkett. 

Prior to the banquet, Premier Zhao met with Moroccan journalists accompanying the prime 
minister on the visit. Answering their questions, Premier Zhao said: "China and 
Morocco will actively coordinate efforts in opposing hegemonism and safeguarding 

world peace. We will also explore new areas for our cooperation in trade, economic 

and technical fields," he said. 

"Although China is a big country with a huge population," the premier said, "economically 
it is a fairly backward country. China will stand on the side of other Third World 
countries and make common efforts to promote North-South dialogue and the establishment 

of a new international economic order." 


He said: "The economy of the Third World countries are not well developed, but each 
country has its strong points, We can learn from each other and supply each other's 

needs and exchange experiences. China will further strengthen cooperation among developing 
countries, and regards such cooperation as the basic point in its economic cooperation with 
foreign countries." 

Cultural Agreement Signed 
OW251622 Beijing XINHUA in English 1521 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] Beijing, February 25 (XINHUA) -- A cultural agreement was signed here this evening 
between the Governments of the People's Republic of China and the Kingdom of Morocco. 
Zhao Ziyang, Chinese premier of the State Council, and Maati Bouabid, prime minister of 
Morocco, signed the agreement on behalf of their respective governments. 

The agreement, aimed et promoting friendly relations and cultural exchanges between the 
two countries, provides that both parties deve.op the exchanges and cooperation in the 
fields of culture, education, science, health, sports, publishing and newscasting, 
under the principle of equality and mutual benefit. 

Chen Muhua, Chinese vice-premier; Huang Zhen, Chinese minister in charge of cultural 
relations with foreign countries; the entourage of Prime Minister Bouabid, and Moroccan 

Ambassador to China Abderrahim Harkett attended the signing ceremony. 


OW210324 Beijing XINHUA in English 0133 GMT 21 Feb 82 
["Roundup: Morocco Contributes to Third World Unity" -- XINHUA headline] 

[Text] Rabat, February 20 (XINHUA correspondent (Wang Lianzhi)) -- Morocco is making an 
important contribution to the solution of Third World problems arising out of aggression 
and exploitation by imperialism and hegemony. 

The government of the kingdom, under the leadership of King Hassan II, has fully 
cooperated with other Third World countries in active pursuit of a policy of positive 
non-alignment, and supported the people of those countries in their struggle to safeguard 
national independence and state sovereignty, while endeavoring to develop their countries' 
economy and make social progress. 

Morocco has taken an active part in the activities of the Third World organizations and played 

an important role in bringing about unity among the countries concerned. It has made great 
efforts for the maintenance of Arab unity and consistently supported the just struggle of 
the Palestinian people. At the 12th summit conference of the Arab League in Feb last year, 
when differences surfaced among the Arab countries about the Saudi Middle East peace plan 
which could possibly have caused a split in the Arab ranks, King Hassan II, the chairman, 
resolutely called for an adjournment of conference proceedings so that the Arab leaders 
could further consider the matter. His suggestion, which averted an Arab political split, 
won the applause and support of those present. 


Morocco is now in consultation with the Arab countries about the possibilities of an 
early resumption of the Arab sumuit conference, so that the delegates can come together 
and discuss a common strategy in che new situation their respective countries now face. 

In 1969, Israel set fire to the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem, one of the world's biggest 
mosques. This outrage was deeply resented by the people of the Islamic world. It was 
on Morocco's proposal that the first summit of the Islamic countries was convened in 
Rabat in September of that year. This conference became the foundation stone on which 
the organization of the Islamic conference was built. 

The 19/9 Islamic summit was held in At-Ta'if, Saudi Arabia. It formed the Jerusalem 
committee, and Morocco was given the honor of successively chairing two of its meetings. 
King Hassan II presided over five of the committee meetings which discussed ways and 
means of bringing about the liberation of the holy city of Jerusalem, 

Morocco is one of the major independent states in Africa, and a member of the Organiza- 
tion of African Unity. It actively supports the African national liberation movement 
and has assisted in various ways the armed struggles against colonialism in 
Guinea-Bissau, Angola and Mozambique. 

Morocco is also one of the earliest member-countries of the Nonaligned Movement, has 
strictly adhered to the principles of the movement and vigorously opposed any attempt 
to change its orientation, 

It has defied brute force and taken resolute action at those critical momemts when other 
Third World countries have been subjected to foreign invasion or subversion. 

During the Middle East 1973 October war, 3,000 Moroccan soldiers were dispatched to 
Egypt's Sinai Peninsula and Syrian Golan Heights to assist Egyptian and Syrian 
defenders against Israeli intruders. A number of Moroccan soldiers laid down their 
lives in the Arab struggle for national liberation. 

In March 1977 and in May of the following year, the Soviet Union sought to implement a 
plot to cut the African Continent in half. Soviet mercenaries intruded into Zaire on 
both occasions. Morocco, true to its policy, soon sent armed forces to the Shaba front 
in Zaire to stand shoulder to shoulder with the Zairian Army and people in defence of 
their homeland. The intruders were driven out of Zaire and the hegemonic schemes of 
the Soviet Union were foiled. 

The Moroccan authorities and mass media have consistently expressed deep sympathy for 
the Afghan and Kampuchean peoples, now uuder the heel of hegemonists. The Moroccan 
Government has repeatedly openly voiced its condemnation of Soviet hegemonic actions, 
and at United Nations meetings and at meetings of other international organizations has 
persistently supported demands for the withdrawal of foreign troops from Afghanistan and 
Kampuchea. It has also repeatedly urged the right of the Afghan and Kampuchean peoples 
to choose their own respective system of government and way of life. 

Morocco now contends with a knotty problem in respect to the Western Sahara conflict, 

a problem left over by colonial dictators. At last year's OAU summit conference, King 

Hassan II announced that his country supported the principle of a referendum of the 

people living in the Western Sahara. this marked an important step forward towards the 
eful solution to the conflict. 


The OAU implementation committee on Western Sahara has tried to carry this principle to 
fruition and at its recent meeting tabled a series of proposals and decisions on the 
proposed referendum. 

Despite many differences and contradictions existing between the parties concerned, the 

Western Sahara issue will undoubtedly be solved and peace restored in northwest Africa, 

when consultations are on a basis of equality and foreign interference is cleared out of 
the way. 


OW260941 Beijing XINHUA in English 0725 GMT 26 Feb 82 

[Text] Beijing, February 26 (XINHUA) -- Commander Major Abdelli Hamid, head of an 
Algerian Air Force delegation, considers their week-long visit to China as "very 
satisfactory." He said this to XINHUA on leaving here for home today after touring 
Beijing, Xian, Chengdu and Shanghai. 

Relying on their own efforts, he said, the Chinese armed forces were working hard to 
improve their combat capabilities and modernize equipment. 

The talks between his delegation and the Chinese side, Major Abdelli said, were 
constructive and fruitful, resulting in agreement of views on all matters discussed. 
"The talks have helped us find new ways to develop friendship and cooperation between 
the two air forces," he said. More discussions in this respect would be held in the 
coming years, he added. 

He paid high tribute to the Chinese people's energetic support for the Algerian people 
in the years of hard struggle. "The friendship between our two fraternal peoples will 
keep growing," he concluded. 

Major Abdelli, who joined in the Algerian people's war of liberation in 1956, became a 
flyer two years later. 

The delegation was seen off at the guesthouse by Chinese air force Commander Zhang 

I. 26 Feb 82 CHINA K 1 

HK260825 Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 24 Feb 82 p 1 

[Editorial: "Establish the Concept of Coordinating All the Activities of the Nation Like 
Pieces in a Chess Game") 

[Text] Ours is a socialist country where the public ownership of the means of production 
enjoys absolute predominance. This fact predetermines that we must adhere to the principle 
of "taking the planned economy as the key link, with regulation by market mechanism playing 
the supplementary role" in our economic construction. In order to act in accordance with 
unified state planning, we must establish the concept of coordinating all the activities 
of the nation like pieces ir a chess game. The state is an organic entity. In carrying 
out economic construction, we must coordinate the forces of all quarters. It will not 

work if each moves in different directions and does things in his own way. 

In order to persist in coordinating the activities of the nation like pieces in a chess 
game, we must adorp’ an overall point of view and establish the concept of viewing the 
situation as a whole. In a match between famous chess players, every move is made out of 
overall consideration. For the sake of gaining the upper hand in the whole game, it is 
sometimes necessary to sacrifice a few moves. The same holds true for economic construction, 
For the good of the whole country, all departments and localities, even the industrial and 
mining enterprises and rural production teams, must take the whole situation into account 
and always bear in mind the needs of the 10 billion people and the socialist motherland. 
They must give up partial and local interests for the sake of the whole and subordinate 
immediate interests to long-term ones. As some comrades said: We must make "big 
calculations" for the state, not "petty calculations" for ourselves or our departments 

and localities. We must proceed from the interests of the whole and speak the "Beijing 
dialect" or "Putonghua." We should not merely represent partial and local interests and 
speak "local dialects." Of course, the interests of the localities and the enterprises, 
including personal interests, should also be recognized and taken into account as long as 
they are reasonable and just. 

At present, the central task in our efforts to coordinate all the activities of the nation 
like pieces in a chess game is to correctly understand and handle the relationship between 
the planned economy and regulation by the market mechanism. The planned economy gives 
expression to the superiority of our socialist system and embodies the fundamental interests 
of the state and the people. Regulation by the market mechanism supplements the planned 
economy and must be guided by the planned economy. The relationship between regulation 

by the market mechanism and the planned economy is subordinative, not parallel. Regulation 
by market mechanism can only be carried out within the scope permitted by the planned 
economy, not beyond. We must be able to make use of and have c.atrol over regulation 

by the market mechanism. 

We must make it quite clear in our minds that we must adhere to the principle of 

"taking the planned economy as the key link, with regulation by market mechanism 

playing a supplementary role" in both agricultural and industrial production. It is 
wrong to think that the rural areas no longer have to follow the guidance of the state 
plans after they have hegun t* implement various production responsibility systems. 

It is also wrong to think that industrial and mining enterprises no longer have to strictly 
enforce the state p's after they have been given greater decisionmaking power. Those 
who think this way ha dea of the meaning of coordinating all the activities of the 
nation like pieces in a chess game. Imagine, if the peasants only plant crops that will 
benefit themselves and the factories only produce goods that can fetch a lot of money 
without any planning whatsoever, they will invariably upset the state plans. If so, 

how can we begin to talk about carrying out socialist economic construction in a planned 
and proportionate way? In the final analysis, the peasants, the production teams and the 
industrial and mining enterprises alike must all operate within the scope permitted by 
the state plans. The broad masses of peasants and staff nd workers should be able to 
understand the reasoning behind this. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 2 CHINA 

In economic construction, there exists an intricate and complex relationship between 
different departments, localities and trades and between different industrial and mining 
enterprises and production teams. They are all interdependent and interrelated. In order 
to fulfill the production and construction plans of the state, they must cooperate with 

each other and make joint efforts. Products included in the state plans must be produced 
and delivered by the production departments in accordance with the plans. The departments 
of commerce, supplies, foreign trade and communications and transport must also organize 
procurement, allocation and supplies in accordance with the plans. In short, in the spheres 
of production, construction and circulation, it is necessary to take the fulfillment of 

the state plans as the most important task. 

For some time, the leading cadres of a small number of departments, localities and enter- 
prises have been putting the purtial and local interests of their units above everything 

else in approaching problem. and handling work when they should have proceeded from the 
interests of the whole or example, in the drive to develop the production of consumer 
goods, they have som mes rushed headlong into producing popular items hat promised good 
profits and hav | regarded subjective and objective conditions. A cet ain province has 
built more th. J washing machine factories in an unplanned way. ‘his © esults in stock- 
piling, w. | raw and processed materials and waste of energy, while brand-name products 
truly welc..ed by the masses still fall short of demand. This is a common problem in the 

production of durable consumer goods such as radio and television sets, wristwatches, 
bicycles and electric fens. Meanwhile, the production of popular goods of dependable 
quality and small commodities needed by the masses in their everyday life has been declining 
or even stopped because such items yield little or no profit. Due to our failure to 
strengthen guidance over the implementation of state plans in the countryside, there is 

a sharp increase in the sown acreage of tobacco in some places and a much too swift develop- 
ment in rapeseed production in others. Unless these problems are properly solved, our 
overall economic construction will suffer. 

The following phenomenon can also be seen in a few isolated places: For the sake of pro- 
moting the sale of locally produced goods of poor quality, some districts have resorted to 
blockade measures to keep quality products of other provinces and municipalities from 
entering their domain. This will not be tolerated. No matter where they are located, these 
districts are all part of the People's Republic of China. As long as they are PRC goods, 
they can be sold in every part of the country. No district, department or leader has the 
power to stop such sales. We must permit legitimate competition and must not protect the 

Administrative intervention is necessary for the practice of the planned economy. Under 
ordinary circumstances, we will of course handle economic problems by economic means. In 
developing industrial production in the future, it is necessary to follow this rule: 

Products not wanted on the market will not be produced. Enterprises which turn out unsalable 
and costly products of poor quality will continue to be closed or ordered to stop production, 
merged with other units or switched to other lines of production. In the energy-deficient 
areas, those indigenous coking furnaces and small refineries, calcium carbide plants, 

lead plants and steel plants which are ordered to stop production should resolutely do so 

for the interests of the whole. Commune- and brigade-run industries which consume a huge 
amount of electricity should be put under strict control. 

Adhering to the principle of coordinating all the activities of the nation like ' es in 

a chess game and strengthening planning and management does not mean a return t 

previous practices which were characterized by overconcentration and rigid con’: In 
recent years, we have carried out a number of reforms in the fields of, industry, 
finance and trade. These reforms, which are local and explorative in nature, ‘ove yielded 
notable results. The policy of activating the economy is completely correct. it will con- 
tinue to be upheld and will not be changed. Our purpose in coordinating ie activities 
of the nation like pieces in a chess game and in upholding the principle » ‘taking the 
planned economy as the key link, with regulation by market mechanism ple /iu he supple- 
mentary role" is to combine the unified leadership of the state with the .-yitimate 

decisionmaking power of the enterprises and production teams in order to aci\ieve control 
withont overrigidity and flexibility without confusion, 

I. 26 Feb 82 K 3 CHINA 

HKk260906 Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 23 Feb 82 p 5 

[Article by Shi Xun [4258 6064]: "Party Cadres Must Have Marxist Theoretical Training -- 
Reading Liu Shaoqi's ‘Speech to the First Class of Students at the Institute of 

[Text] In December 1948, the situation of the war and the revolution was developing 
rapidly. In this busy period in the history of the Chinese revolution, Comrade Liu 
Shaogi, who was concurrently the president of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism, 
personally gave a lecture to the institute's first class of students. This showed that 
he attached top importance to theoretical study. In this lecture he explained the 
profound in simple terms, summed up experiences and compreiensively analyzed the overall 
situation. The problems he pointed out in his lecture were siar» and profound, his 
language was simple and his feelings were sincere. When we reac it today, it still 
touches our hearts as if it had been written about the present situ’: icn. Studying 
this speech and linking the study with recalling historical experience ‘'oce the 
founding of the nation will be very helpful to the intensification of th. retical 
education of our full-time cadres in the future. 

Liu Shaoqi made a brilliant statement on the necessity of theoretical study. He said, 
"Our revolutionary actions are guided by revolutionary theory. If the theory is correct, 
there will be correct guidance and the revolution will succeed, otherwise it cannot 
succeed.'' He analyzed the cadre ranks and pointed out, "During the past few years 

our cadres have done a great deal of work. They nave fought bitterly against the 
Japanese imperialists, Chiang Kai-Shek and the landlord class. This is very good. 

But they still have shortcomings due to their lack of theoretical training and for 

many comrades, this is their major shortcoming." 

How did we know there was lack of theoretical training? Liu Shaoqi said that the reason 
why the comrades engaged in practical work could not solve the many problems in their 
work and committed various kinds of mistakes, lay in their ignorance, that is, in 

their lack of knowledge. ‘Perhaps many comrades among you do not understand this now, 
but they will know when they graduate that many mistakes of the past had previously 
been theoretically analyzed by Marx and Lenin." He also cited the historical experiences 

of some comrades and said, "After the failure of the great revolution in 1927, some 
comrades read the book 'Two Tactics’ (Lenin's ‘Two Tactics of Social-Democracy in the 
Democratic Revolution’) and regretted that they had not read it earlier because many 
problems had long been solved by Lenin. If they had read the ‘Two Tactics' earlier, 
they would have carefully studied the problems related to the founding of the party and 
the cooperation between the CCP and Kuomintang, thus we would not have been taken by 
surprise when the Kuomintang and Chiang Kai-shek betrayed the revolution." There have 
been many such similarities in historical events. What Comrade Shaoqi pointed out at 
that time also happens today. Last year, some comrades studied the second volume of 
Mar»'s "Das Kapital" (abridged version) and suddenly became aware of the reason for 
the r mistakes in the past. They said, "We have been communists for decades and have 

tu and again professed that we believe in Marxism, but for so many years, we knew 
not g about Marx's theory of expanded reproduction. What a shame!" This feeling 

of 1e was precisely the feeling of regret mentioned by Comrade Shaoqi at that time. 
Eve ‘vy was of the opinion that in the past we had committed mistakes but did not 
know reasons why we did so. After we studied Marx's writings we knew it was 
becaus’ »» had failed to act in accordance to the theory of reproduction and disrupted 
the ba. > between the two major industrial components and the balance between the 
various ' rs in the components. This inevitably resulted in setbacks in developing 
social pr | ion. Only those who have experienced the long and difficult course of 
the revol.' and have conscientiously read Marx's writings will be able to have such 

feeling of | ghtenment. 

26 Feb 82 K 4 CHINA 

However, even today some of our comrades still fail to understand the importance in 
studying Marxist theory or to realize that they have a poor theoretical understanding. 
Some of them have been so busy with attending meetings, giving speeches and issuing 
directives that they have failed to set aside some time to study Marxist theory. Some 
of them are contentedly enjoying their high position and easy and comfortable lives 
and sticking to their old way of doing things or drifting along. Others were full of 
grievances when talking about their mistakes, but have failed to conscientiously sum 
up their experiences, For these comrades, it is especially imperative to study this 
speech and heighten their consciousness in studying theory. 

For many years a kind of muddled idea has been in vogue that studying theory is a kind 
of "easy task" while doing practical work is a "hard task." The influence of this evil 
idea has been so serious that some of our comrades, especially leading comrades, wrongly 
believe that without studying theory they can do their work just as well. In fact, 

this idea was criticized by Liu Shaoqi in his speech as far back as more than 30 years ago. 
After he criticized the erroneous idea that without studying theory one could do the 
work of county or prefectural CCP committee secretaries just as well, Liu Shaoqi 
emphatically pointed out, "Especially after the victory of the revolution, we should 
read even more theoretical books and become more familiar with the theory. Otherwise, 
it will be very dangerous for us because of the complexity of the conditions." Has 

not our experience since the founding of our nation repeatedly proved how correct and 
important his view is! Studying theory and raising the Marxist theoretical standards 

of the whole party, above all the leading cadres at all levels, is indeed a vital major 
issue that concerns the success and failure of the party's cause and the destiny of 

the nation. How can we treat it as an "easy task?" For a long time we overlooked this 
instruction and therefore suffered great losses both in developing our socialist cause 
and in training the large number of our cadres. Was this not a fact? It is time to 
thoroughly discard this fallacy about an "easy task" and prevent it from continuing 

to poison our minds and hindering our progress! 

In order to read Marxist theory with understanding, Liu Shaoqi pointed out the necessity 
to study history. He said, "Giving correct guidance is impossible unless we know well 
both the experience at home and abroad." He pointed out, "You have another shortcoming, 
that is, if the directive of the Central Committee is wrong, you cannot see that it is 
wrong but will still follow it. When other people are wrong, you cannot see that they 
are wrong and cannot but follow their wrong directives. This shows that you are not 
qualified for leading posts." Here, he pointed out the problem related to the qualifi- 
cations for leading posts. This is really a problem of great significance, which 
requires our careful consideration. Countless facts in the past many years prove that 
if we do not conscientiously study theory, we cannot sum up our experience in practice 
and we inevitably lack the ability to think independently an! the ability to tell right 
from wrong. Then we are indeed not qualified for leading posts. 

Liu Shaoqi pointed out, "If one is to be considered a good cadre and to really be 
qualified for leading posts, one must know how to determine the right direction on his 
own. For this purpose, one must have knowledge about both China and other countries 
and have both theoretical knowledge and practical experiences. If one did his work 
fairly well in the past, after studying theory, he will do his work even better and 
make even greater progress in his work." Let us bravely admit our shortcoming in 
theoretical understanding and study Marxism and historical knowledge both about China 
and other countries in order to improve our theoretical understanding and augment 

our ability to think independently and solve problems, and thus strive to become 
competent cadres in the new historical period. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 5 CHINA 


OW260411 Beijing XINHUA Domestic Service in Chinese 1428 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] Beijing, 25 Feb (XINHUA) -- Sixteen units including the Propaganda Department of the 
CCP Central Committee today issued a "joint circular on getting mobilized and grasping well 
the 'all-people decorum and courtesy month’ activities in a down-to-earth manner" calling 
on all localities to make a good start and set an example in successfully carrying out 
activities in the first 'all-people decorum and courtesy month" in March this year. 

The circular says: Numerous localities and departments have made arrangements in real 
earnest to do the work after the General Office of the CCP Central Committee, acting upon 

the directive of the Secretariat of the CCP Central Committee, transmitted to lower levels 
the CCP Propaganda Department's "report on developing in-depth activities to promote the 
"five stresses and four beauties.'" It is requested that propaganda departments, trade 
unions, CYL organs, women's fede ations, patriotic health campaign committees and departments 
of education, culture, public health, physical culture, public security, commerce, communi- 
cations, railways, posts and telecommunications, forestry and civil aviation and mass organi- 
zations in all localities do mental mobilization well and organize the broad masses of cadres 
and people to earnestly take part in the '"all-people decorum and courtesy month" activities. 
These types of activities must have momentum and must be carried out in a down-to-earth 
manner. They should not stop at just making general appeals but should provide specific 
targets and effective measures in keeping with realities in order to achieve noticeable 
results. At the start of these activities, various localities should invite principal 
responsible comrades to make speeches, including speeches at radio and television stations. 
Leading cadres at all levels should set an example, take the lead in these activities and 

act as models. 

The circular says: In carrying out this year's '"all-people decorum and courtesy month" 
activities, efforts should be made to do well specifically in the following areas: 1) All 
professions and trades, households and people should be mobilized to improve environmental 
sanitation and especially to admonish people to do away with bad habits such as spitting, 
littering and dumping garbage and polluted water everywhere co as to bring about noticeable 
changes in the appearance of nooks and crannies and sectors that are not rated as being up 
to sanitation standards, 2) Commercial and service enterprises and other units in the public 
health, education, public security, communications, posts and telecommunications, railways 
and civil aviation networks should conduct education on decorum and courtesy in a practical 
manner. Workers and staff members should be aroused to put forth specific measures for 
improving work attitude and the quality of services, to formulate or revise service compacts 
and rules for workers and staff members, to launch activities to compare and single out 
quality performance through public appraisal and to strive to be models in promoting the 
"five stresses and four beauties." Efforts should also be made to educate the masses to 

be courteous passengers, courteous customers and courteous audiences and to promote the 

new habit of showing respect for one another. 3) Efforts should be made to strengthen 
management, draw up necessary regulations and rules, organize forces and arouse the masses 
to consolidate public order in railway stations, wharves, major thoroughfares, tourist areas, 
in public tramcars (buses), theaters (opera houses), sports fields (stadiums), hospitals, 
village fairs andother public places. 4) Steps should be taken to keep the appearance of 
the cities in good order, sort out posters and billboards and replace outdated slogans and 
unhealthy or improperly installed billboards with posters and propaganda picture-posters 
that reflect the specific themes of the "decorum and courtesy month" (such as "please do 
not spit everywhere," "please take care of flowers and trees," "please observe traffic 
rules,'' and so forth). While we are not after the number of posters they must be neat and 
artistic, 5) Cadres, the masses, especially young workers and staff members and young 
students, should be organized to perform good deeds, show concern for others and to take 
part in social welfare activities in a planned manner in preserving public sanitation, 
social order and traffic order. The youngsters should be taught to become vanguards in 
building socialist spiritual civilization. 6) Various localities should adopt practical 
measures in line with local conditions to guide activities in planting trees, flowers and 


I. 26 Feb 82 K 6 CHINA 

The circular points out: The '"all-people decorum and courtesy month" activities must be 
particular about actual results and carried through vigorously. Leading government 
comrades in all localities should organize responsible persons of departments concerned 
in March, plan and organize forces carefully, personally go down to the grassroots levels 
to inspect and supervise work and solve problems. In particular, they must inspect those 
departments and units closely related to the people's livelihood such as eating and 
drinking establishments, service trades, ships, hospitals, post and telegraph bureaus 
(offices), neighborhoods, collective dormitories, stations and airports. Various systems 
and units must assign special persons to take charge and must also carry out mass super- 
vision and inspection. 

The circular calls on newspapers and periodicals, radio and television stations and 
literary and art organizations to create public opinion with publicity in a big, lively 
and sustained way about the "all-people decorum and courtesy month." The publicity 
must be vivid and vigorous showing typical examples, offering praises and criticism and 
promoting the new mood in promoting "five stresses and fou. beauties" so as to give the 
cadres and the masses a lively education in building socialist spiritual civilization. 

The circular stresses: Various localities must, through this year's "all-people decorum 
and courtesy month" activities, lay a good foundation for pushing forward the activities 
to promote the "five stresses and four beauties" in a sustained and deepgoing way. 

All departments in various localities should sum up experience earnestly from the "all- 
people decorum and courtesy month" activities. They should command the advanced and make 
the best of the situation in popularizing the good experience created by the masses to 
the grassroots levels. The activities to promote the "five stresses and four beauties" 
should be carried out regularly and institutionalized. 

This circular was jointly issued by the Propaganda Department of the CCP Central Committee, 
the All-China Federation of Trade Unions, the CYL Central Committee, the All-China Women's 
Federation, the central patriotic health campaign committee, the Ministry of Education, 

the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Public Health, the State Physical Culture and 
Sports Commission, the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Commerce, the Ministry 
of Communications, the Ministry of Railways, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, 
the Ministry of Forestry and the Civil Aviation General Administration. 


0W252130 Beijing XINHUA Domestic Service in Chinese 0711 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] Beijing, 25 Feb (XINHUA) -- The major task for state farms and land reclamation 
departments this year is to conduct high-standard overhauls on enterprises and earnestly 
improve their economic results. This was the decision of the national conference of 
directors of state farms and land reclamation departments and bureaus held recently in 

The meeting pointed out that high-standard overhaul means doing the following work well: 

Further perfecting the production responsibility system, vigorously developing diversified 
economy, strengthening operation and management and practicing strict business accounting, 
striving to raise the cultural and scientific levels of workers and staff and improving 
leadership of state farms. 

State farms and land reclamation departments have done a lot of work over the years to 
overhaul exterprises and improve economic results. In 1981 state farms in a dozen or more 
provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions were hit by natural disasters of all 
kinds and 44 percent of the cultivated land was affected. In spite of this, increased 
output was reported for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline occupations, 
fishery and industry, with the exception of grain output and the number of hogs which 
decreased. Tn 1981 the total industrial and agricultural output value topped 1980 by 

5.4 perc d the annual profits reached 120 million yuan. 

26 Feb 82 K 7 CHINA 

The meeting urged all state farms to further perfect the production responsibility system 
this year by centering their efforts on solving two problems: First, correctly handle 

the relationship between the state, the collective and individuals. Make sure that the 
state is really receiving more revenues before allowing enterprises to retain more profits 
and individuals to earn more income. Production and cost targets, the fixed labor quota 
and the proportion of profit sharing should be revised to become more practical and to 
prevent the tendency of neglecting state interests by placing undue stress un greater 
shares for the workers. Second, contractors should observe state unified plans and 

the state farms should, in a unified manner, handle the major products, supply the major 
goods and materials, transfer and assign the labor force and work out methods of rewards 
and penalties. The means of production should never be designated to and owned by 
individuals. Free planting is not permitted and products cannot be disposed of freely. 
The economy based on the system of ownership by the whole people should not be turned into 
an individual economy. 

The meeting urged state farms in all areas to strive to stabilize grain acreage and step 
up grain production while developing a diversified economy in a planned way. Special 
attention should be given to the two weak links: forestry and animal husbandry. It is 
necessary to develop the land reclamation industry and joint agriculture-industry-commerce 
complexes, increase commodity output and improve product quality. 

The meeting also said: This year state farms and land reclamation departments should 
continue to train senior and medium-ranking financial and accounting cadres, lower 
production costs and scale down or halt production facilities that yield low profits or 
incur deficits as a result of mismanagement. It is also necessary to reassure current 
sicentists and technicians, fully arouse their enthusiasm and popularize the effective 
experience of increasing output as well as advanced technologies. 

Directors of state farms and land reclamation departments and bureaus of the various 
provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions attending this meeting were revolutionary 
veteran cadres as well as veteran fighters on the land reclamation front. They whole- 
heartedly supported the decision of the party Central Committee and the State Council 

for streamlining administration and restructuring the system. They said that before they 
step back to the second echelon or retire, they will select and promote a number of 
middle-aged and young cadres to leading posts, help them arrange this year's work and 
strive to accomplish the heavy tasks for state farms and land reclamation departments this 
year, namely, raising the total industrial and agricultural output value by 7 percent as 
compared with last year and reducing the number of enterprises in the red to 25 percent 
from last year's 35 percent. 


OW252024 Beijing Domestic Service in Mandarin 1200 GMT 24 Feb 82 

[Text] As a result of efforts to strengthen management and raise economic returns, 
China's civil aviation departments overfulfilled all production and flight quotas for air 
transportation in 1981, hitting the best record since the founding of the country. A 
total of 535 million dun/kilometers of cargo, which is equivalent to 122 percent of the 
target,and some 3.6 million passengers were transported. 

Recently, the Civil Aviation General Administration held a work conference and decided 

that the main tasks for civil aviation in 1982 are to popularize the economic responsibility 
system while reorganizing enterprises, consolidate the existing aviation routes, ensure 
flight safety and further improve services. 

Vice Premier Geng Biao attended and addressed the conference. He pointed out that China's 
civil aviation has yet to bring into full play its efficiency and that while comprehensively 
reorganizing the enterprises, it is necessary to effectively tap potential and raise 
economic returns in order to reach the world's advanced level. 

I. 26 Feb 82 K 8 CHINA 


HK241430 Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 17 Feb 82 p 5 

[Article by Chen: Baoyun [7115 1405 7189]: "Literature Must Give a Helping Hand to 
Social Progress" 

[Text] For quite some time in the past, under the guidance of leftist ideology, in regard 
to the question of eulogy and exposure, there emerged the deviation of only being able to 
eulogize clic glorious and not being able to expose the seamy. This erroneous ideology 
caused our literature and art to veer off the course of realism for a while. During the 
10 years of chaos, literature and art even fell into the gutter of concealment and 
deception. Since the 3d Plenary Session of the 1lth CCP Central Committee, the party 

has adopted a series of policies and measures and rectified "leftist'' guiding ideologies. 
Thus, the question of eulogy and exposure in literature and art has also been quite 
correctly solved. Our literature and art has once again returned to the course of 
revolutionary realism. Many fine works have emerged which botn dare to expose the seamy 
side of life in society and actively eulogize the glory of socialism. These have been 
warmly received and praised by the party and people. Although there has appeared among 
these works the extremely one-sided point of view that "only literature that sets out to 
expose has any historical value,'' as well as works with other serious erroneous tendencies, 
the party's principles and policies have remained the same. This point was discussed 
quite clearly by Comrade Hu Yaobang at the playwrights’ conference held the year before 
last and by Comrade Hu Qiaomu at last year's conference on questions on the ideological 
front. Therefore, the problem of not being allowed to expose the seamy side of life 
basically does not exist. Carrying out the necessary criticism of individual erroneous 
viewpoints and works with erroneous ideological tendencies enables eulogy and exposure 

in literature and art to advance along their proper course and to guide them along the 
path of healthy development. 

At present, as far as the question of eulogy and exposure is concerned, it is not a matter 
of having to eulogize or to expose. Neither is it a question of whether we are able to 
expose the seamy side of life, but rather one of how to correctly understand and profoum ly 
reflect our social lives and of how to use literature and art to promote the building of 

a socialist spiritual civilization and to lend a helping hand to the progress of socialism. 
Here I would like to comment on a few miscellaneous ideas. 

The question of demarcation. Everything in our lives has its own fixed qualities and has 
its own fixed limits. If literature and art are to faithfully reflect life, thev must 
accurately master the fixed quality of things and accurately master the demarcation between 
things. The question of eulogy and exposure is also like this. If we obscure or confuse 
the demarcation between things for instance, or obscure and confuse the true, the good and 
the beautiful with the false, the evil and the ugly, then, regardless of whether we are 
eulogizing or exposing, there will be no reality or accuracy to speak of. Therefore, we 
must first clearly delineate the demarcation between right and wrong, straight and crooked, 
good ana evil, beautiful and ugly, glorious and seamy, and worthy and unworthy in life. 
Then we can "be good to the good, be evil to the evil, be virtuous to the worthy, and base 
to the unworthy" and so eulogize what should be eulogized and expse what should be exposed. 

The reason why errors in ideological tendency have emerged in certain works is that the 
works have obscured and confused the demarcation between things. As has been pointed out 
by some comrades, one of the lessons to be learned from "Unreqiited Love" is that it 
obscured the demarcation between new China and old China and confused the demarcation 
between our social system and the crimes of the "gang of four," in fact equating Lin Biao 
and the "gang of four" with the motherland. Due to the confusion of the demarcation 
between right and wrong, the exposure and accusations that should originally have been 
directed toward Lin Biao and the "gang of four' were transformed into serious doubts 
about and lamentation over socialism under the party. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 9 CHINA 

Other works seem to expose the disaster that befalla people who believe in contemporary 
superstitions. If we are able to stand on the side of the party and the people and adopt 
party principles as the leading ideology to faithfully reveal the dangers and effects of 
contemporary superstitions, that, naturally, is beyond reproach. However, if we are to 
faithfully and profoundly expose the contemporary euperstitions created by Lin Biao and 
the “gang of four," we need to conscientiously study the lives that are enshrouded by 
contemporary superstitions, and to study the various abnormal relationships between 
people who are affected by contemporary superstitions and their various psychological 
states. We must also conscientiously probe the complicated social and historical reasons 
behind contemporary superstitions. However, in some works, we are unable to discern 

such study and searching. They are confused and illogical compositions. They mix 
together things of differing natures and have fundamentally obscured the demarcation 
between the two. 

There is both a glorious and a seamy side to life. Glory is the dominant aspect of life. 
Writers are quite at liberty to eulogize glory or expose seaminess. However, no matter 
what they are writing, they must look at life with both eyes open. They must see both 
seaminess and, what is more important, see glory. It is only in this way that they can 
master life, and it is only by mastering Life that they can reflect life through one 
Single incident. Everyone should properly understand this. Certain works of Comrade 

Li Zhao, like "Drunkard in the Garden,"' "Bowing in Homage" and so forth, have overplayed 
the seamy side of life and have, whether inadvertently or not, neglected the glorious 
side of life. A mood of absolute misery runs through his works, whether they are about 
life during the 10-year disorder or about life after the smashing of the "gang of four." 
Not a single ray of hope is discernible in them. Phrases like "I feel that the ocean 
will not only swallow up China, but will also swallow up the whole of mankind,” "I am 
surprised and bewildered that I have come to the world of ghosts" and so forth, show how 
bleak and terrifying his view of life in our society is. It may well be asked where the 
future of the motherland lies and where the hopes of the people lie. If, in order to 
fill the works with greater misery, a person does not hesitate to neglect the glorious 
things in life, this is not realism. Nor does this faithfully reflect life, for it is a 
distortion of life. 

The question of depth. Both eulogy and exposure require depth. This is because depth is 
necessary for enlightening and helping people. It is necessary to help people to under- 
stand life, to transform their lives and to promote the progress of life. If we merely 
write everyday trivia, even if we flower it up or write in a singular way, it will have 
absolutely no meaning. However, profundity does not in any way mean that we should paint 
a seamy and miserable picture of life. It does not mean that the greater the picture of 
seaminess and misery ar the more serious the problem, the deeper it is and the greater 
the profundity. The question of the profundity of literary works refers to the extent 
to which works reflect and sum up the essence of life. Only those which reveal the 
essence of life can be said to be profound. Those which merely describe the superficial 
phenomena of life have no profundity to speak of. Looking at works reflecting the 10- 
year disorder, we can discern a phenomenon which gives us quite a lot of food for 
thought. Some ideologically profound works do not paint a seamy or miserable picture of 
life. It is usually those works which do not have a profound knowledge of, or penetrat- 
ing insight into, life that skim the surface of life and have a go at describing life in 
all its seaminess and misery. For instance, Comrade Feng Jicai's medium-length novel 
"Ah!" is widely recognized as quite a profound work. However, this work did not set out 
to introduce us to various cruel punishments. It merely described the psychological 
contradictions and conflicts of a handful of people during the "purge." However, in so 
doing, it profoundly reflected the essence of the "purge" movement. Through "Ah!," we 
can see how the “purge" movement annihilated and tormented souls, how it distorted 
relationships between people and how it gave tormenters of the people like Jia Dazhen 
the chance to use force However, some comrades content themselves with a vivid 

ription of misery, exhibiting filth and using the same old techniques to show 

‘iness, but in a new guise. If we do not have a profound knowledge of and penetrating 
ght into Life and mess around with describing life in all its seaminess and misery, 
!] never be able to achieve profundity in our work. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 10 CHINA 

Profundity in a work is the result of a writer studying, analyzing and pondering the themes 
of life. It is only by studying and deeply pondering the themes of life and, through the 
surface of life, delving to the bottom of and mastering life, that works of some ideological 
depth can be written. 

Of course, studying and pondering over life brings up the question of how we are to study 
and ponder. I recall one work in which the writer, through his characters, put forth and 
answered the questions of why, during the "Great Cultural Revolution," some people behaved 
so badly and so cruelly. It is quite meaningful to study and feel out this question. 
However, I do not know how the writer studied and felt it out, for, in the end, he drew 
this starting conclusion: The reason why, during the "Great Cultural Revolution," some 
people behaved so badly and cruelly was because they were "poor," and "poverty" is the root 
of cruelty! This conclusion is obviously untenable. Therefore, if we lack a correct 
viewpoint and method, even if we conscientiously study and ponder over life, our pondering 
will not achieve any degree of profundity and we will not get any correct answers. 

The question of ideals. Since criticizing the Lin Biao and Jiang Qing cliques for practic- 
ing deception and fraud in literature and art and for concocting lies, exaggerations and 
empty words, there has appeared the phenomenon of rejecting idealism in literature and art. 
In fact, literary and artistic creation cannot be separated from ideals. Ideals are the 
flame illuminating reality. It is only in the light of ideals that writers can see clearly 
which things in life are new and belong to the future, and which are old and are soon to 
die out, and can see clearly which should be eulogized and which should be exposed. Why 

do some works describe life in such bleak, sad and miserable terms? One important reason 
is that, in the writers’ hearts, they lack the light of ideals, they cannot see life's 
glories, cannot make the future of the motherland and the direction of the development of 
society, and cannot find the connection between today and tomorrow and reality and the future. 
Therefore, they can only chant, lament and grieve over certain harsh aspects of reality. 
This is not so in the case of Comrade Jiang Zilong. A desire burns within him. This is 
the desire to participate actively in real-life struggles, to change the face of reality, 
and to pursue and create ideals of a promising future for the motherland. It is precisely 
because of this that he is able to correctly judge and distinguish between the glorious 

and seamy aspects of real life. He dares to reveal and lash out at seaminess, that is, 
reveal and lash out at those old forces and people who hamper the progress of our cause 

and to eulogize the pioneers, pace setters and explorers of the four modernizations, like 
Qiao Guangpu and Che Pengkuan. Comrade Jiang Zilong's experiences in creation tell us that 
it is only when the author's ideals and the people's wishes, the country's future and the 
direction of the development of the times accord, that he can sing a tune that meets the 
needs of the times and the people. In recent years, we have noticed other eulogies: 
eulogies to individualism, to doubting everything, to conversion to a religion, to 
fickleness in love, to talented men and beautiful women and so forth. Why have these kinds 
of eulogies emerged? I think the reason is that writers lacked a correct viewpoint and 
ideal in their minds and so ended up treating those outmoded viewpoints as correct and as 
ideal things to eulogize. Of course, when we say that writers must have correct ideals, 

we do not require them to idealize life. Using the glory of ideals to illuminate reality 
is different from idealizing reality. There is a clear-cut line separating the two. 


HK250914 Beijing WENYI BAO in Chinese No 1, 7 Jan 82 pp 3-5 
[Article by Ji Kai [1015 0418]: "The Everlasting Spring of Literature and Art") 

[Text] Spring, what a beautiful season! The vast land is coming back to life. The 
flowers are blooming. Spring brings people warmth, hope and happiness.... 

I, 26 Feb 82 K ll CHINA 

Since the 3d Plenary Session of the llth CCP Central Committee, the world of literature 
and art has ushered in a beautiful spring. In a matter of a few years, great progress has 
been achieved in literature and art. A large number of fine works have appeared on the 
scene. Literary and art teams have grown quickly. A colorful and varied picture and a 
thriving scene have unfolded before us. The party and the people have warmly affirmed 

the marked progress and achievements in literature and art and set great value on them. 
The masses of literary and art workers are basking in the warmth of spring with its 
caressing breeze, full of confidence and full of pep and drive. They are drawing on their 
talent and wisdom to portray our great era and our great people giving full vent to their 

Some unwelcome weeds have inevitably grown in the garden of literature and art with the 
arrival of spring. For several years, in carrying out the line of the 3d Plenary Session 
of the llth CCP Central Committee, people in literary and art circles have suffered from 
interference from the "left" or the right. Especially recently there has appeared a 
tendency toward bourgeois liberalization. In ‘iterary and art works, there have often 
appeared mistakes of one kind or another. Therefore, the party has called for correctly 
criticizing these mistakes according to the scientific laws governing literature and art 
and overcoming the ideological state of weakness and laxity. This is an entirely correct 
and timely move. 

However, some comrades have still not gotten used to the conducting of normal criticism in 
the literary and art field. On hearing that literary and art criticism and ideological 
struggle will be started, they begin to think that there must have been a change in party 
policy. They may also worry that this will affect the thriving growth of literature and 
art. Some even say mournfully, "If a few rainstorms come, the spring will be gone before 
we know it.'' They sound as if the spring of socialist literature and art is behind them. 
This is obviously incorrect. 

Our party has called for strengthening the criticism of literature and art. This is a 
normal demand in the development of socialist literature and art. The criticism of 
literature and art is a science. It complements creation in the literary and art field. 
Our purpose in criticizing literature and art in a scientific and normal way is, on the 

one hand, to affirm the outstanding results achieved and criticize those works that are 
failures or misguided. More important, our aim is to study the problems of how law relates 
to art and aesthetics and sum up the experiences in creation through analyzing the phenomena 
of literature and art. This will enable correct aesthetic thinking to guide and stimulate 
the development of literature and art. Meanwhile, this will also help the masses to raise 
their capacity for appreciation. Therefore, the conduct of normal Marxist literary and 

art criticism is nothing but an indispensable part of the effort to develop socialist 
literature and art. Conversely, without such healthy literary and art criticism, creation 
will come to the stage where there is no distinction between good and bad works. Where 
"flowers are not watered" and "weeds are not removed," the spring of literature and art 
cannot last long. 

However, our criticism of literature end art still leaves much to be desired. There are 
still only very few literary and art commentators who are really "well versed in Marxist- 
Leninist marksmanship." The ranks of literary and art commentators are still widely 
scattered, falling far short of meeting the needs in the current situation of literature 
and art. We must further promote and strengthen literary and art criticism. This criticism 
should be further stimulated and be made a normal procedure. Through the actual practice 
of scientific literary and art criticism, we must cultivate and train a strong force of 
critics of theory. This is actually an unusually urgent task in literature and art. Some 
comrades have said: Our level of literary and art criticism is not high. This is a fact. 
But where does a high-level Marxist literary and art criticism force come from? It is a 
result of practical training. Without starting normal literary and art criticism, we can 
never have a high-level literary and art criticism force. 

frue, the world of literature and art for years did witness crude and excessive "literary 
and art criticism" and “ideological struggle" running counter to the science of Marxism. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 12 CHINA 

Many comrades hated this, They still now have misgivings. This is entirely understand- 
able. But it should be noted that major changes have taken place in actual life. Our 
party has correctly summed up both positive and negative experiences in literature and 
art over the past 30-odd years. It has solemnly declared on many occasions: We can 
never repeat the past mistakes. It has also worked out a series of correct principles 
and methods on the conducting of literary and art criticism. It was pointed out: 

"Those works and opinions that are wrong can and also should be subject to ission 
and criticism. Any such discussion or criticism should be really comradely, : tional, 
sensible, appropriate and convincing and must also consider opposing arguments." Speak- 
ing on behalf of the party Central Committee, Comrade Hu Qiaomu recently stressed: 
"Comrade Deng Xiaoping's greeting speech at the fourth national congress of literary and 
art circles in 1979 and the CCP Central Committee's notice on seriously upholding the 
spirit of the fourth national congress of literary and art circles in 1980 still hold 
good in every way. Since the third plenary session, the party's guideline has been 
consistent. The party's line on literature and art, culture, academics and 
intellectuals has also been consistent. No fluctuation has been seen. Nor is any 
fluctuation likely or allowed."' Comrade Hu Yaobang also pointed out: On the 
ideological front, the party "has always been mindful and capable of eliminating 
interference from any quarter." "The party Central Committee has conscientiously guided 
the whole party and will continue to do so. It has taken an analytical attitude toward 
those people in literary and art circles, theoretical circles, publishing circles and 
press circles who published seriously erroneous views, and has taken a correct approach 
toward them while keeping different conditions in mind." The recent criticism of the 
film script "Unrequited Love" and other works in the literary and art circles is a vivid 
case in point. Such healthy and normal criticism has shown initial satisfactory 
results. This has not only proved helpful to the criticized writers themselves but also 
resulted in an elevation of people's awareness. The masses of literary and art workers 
have thus felt the strength of party policy and the warmth of the spring of literature 
and art. 

Of course, the key to a more beautiful spring in literature and art lies in really 
producing works worthy of our great era. This requires us to greatly develop the 
capacity for creation. For some time recently, certain comrades had misgivings when it 
came to the subject of writing. They took a doubtful and wait-and-see attitude toward 
writing. This is also uncalled for. Since the third plenary session, our party has 
never stipulated what can be written about and what cannot, or which characters should 
be portrayed and which should not. On the contrary, it has been pointed out many times: 
"Such complicated mental work as literature and art calls greatly for the development of 
the creative spirit of writers and artists. What should be written and how it is 
written can only be matters explored and gradually solved by writers and artists in 
artistic practice. There should be no undue interference in this regard." This is to 
say that the theme of literature and art “ranges far and wide," spanning ages and cover- 
ing vast distances. The writer can write freely with his pen. Meanwhile, the party has 
also called on writers and artists to stir vp their spirits and shift the focus of 
creation to the current struggle of the people throughout the country in building a new 
life. They must strive to reflect the new life related to the modernization effort and 
create the images of new socialist persons, so that we can more effectively give 
expression to the spirit of our era and boost morale on various fronts and the morale 

of the people of the whole country in a joint effort aiming toward modernization. These 
ideas are usually timely and necessary, as far as current literary and art work is 
concerned. They will also have a far-reaching influence on the development of the 

whole socialist cause of literature and art. 

Several years ago, our literature and art gave relatively great attention to writing on 
the 10 years of turmoil. Most of the works had a positive effect on the masses. The 
themes then taken up can of course be given continuous attention in the future. So long 
as we treat them in a correct and penetrating manner, we can inspire people with and 
give them strength to push forward and win the support of the people. 

26 Feb 82 CHINA 

But we must also note that, after all, works of this kind cannot replace those on the new 
life and new people, Today, we have entered a great new era. Hundreds of millions of 
people are marching forward at an unprecedentedly steady pace in a joint struggle to 

build new life under the leadership of the party. With their own acts, people are 

writing the most glorious history of the socialist motherland. Meanwhile, in the 
struggle, they are creating a supremely new and beautiful spirit. New persons, new deeds 
and new ideas have kept surging forth. Such is the shining history that has appeared -- 
history which is quickly developing as time goes by. What should we do, as far as our 
literature and art are concerned? Should we take a wait-and-see attitude, or should we 
reflect the situation in a timely and enthusiastic manner? Should we seek reflection in 
a casual and brief manner, or should we, in an artistic form, penetratingly portray the 
features of the era and present the new spirit of the nation and historical laws? This 

is the problem of "writing one's own history," as far as literature and art are concerned, 
This new history in the form of literature and art, written well or badly, concerns every 
artist or writer. Therefore, reflecting the new life of the masses of people and portraying 
new socialist people is an important matter in the current creative efforts in the 
literary and art field. The masses of people fervently hope that they can see the new 
history and new beautiful things that they themselves have created in the new era. They 
can be inspired and influenced thereby and build a new life with still greater vigor. 

This is needed by the people, needed in the era and needed in the development of socialist 
literature and art. 

In February 1980, Comrade Hu Yaobang said sincerely in a speech at a forum on the writing 
of scripts: "It has been over a year since we shifted the focus of our work. If after 

the first year of the 1980's, we have still failed to produce a few operas, films and 
novels that reflect relatively well real life in the ‘four-modernization' effort, comrades, 
will we then still have nothing to be ashamed of? Willwe,on our part, still have 

nothing to be ashamed of? Should we not be anxious? But it helps nothing if we are 

merely anxious; you on your part must first of all feel anxious. Therefore, you must pay 
attention to works which reflect the 'four-modernization' effort and which call for a 

brave march toward modernization." Almost 2 years have passed since this was said. 
What have we done? It should be admitted that we have not done enough. Now, given 
socialist reality marked by rapid and spectacular progress, can we just sit tight? How 
can we still not feel anxious? 

In sum, subjects of creation in literature and art must be varied and have a reference 
point. A writer must not only portray the kind of life with which he is familiar. 
Rather he must also continuously broaden his horizon and acquaint himself with current 
new life. This is a broad path. All writers and artists bent on developing socialist 
literature and art should rid themselves of all unnecessary worries, face up to reality, 
arouse their spirits, write boldly, seek increasing perfection and really produce for 
the people works of art which are of high standard and which are a source of inspiration 
to the people in their advance. 

To this end, literary and art workers must live intensively, plunge into the heat of 
struggle of the masses of people, imitate their lofty qualities, experience what they 
think and feel, improve their own capacity for understanding the world amidst the masses' 
life of struggle and thus draw on their subject matter. The artistic life of all 
progressive literary and art workers depends on their flesh-and-blood ties with the 
people. If such ties are forgotten, neglected or severed, artistic life will peter out. 
Just as Comrade Deng Xiaoping said, "We must consciously turn to the life of the people 
for source material, themes, scenes, language, poetic inspiration, and so forth and 
thrive on the brave spirit which the people have demonstrated in making history. This 
is a basic path toward the thriving growth of our socialist literature and art." This 
basic path has been proved correct by the history of the development of literature and 
art. Since the Yanan forum on literature and art, all of those revolutionary writers 

who have really made their mark have had close ties with the masses. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 14 CHINA 

Those writers and those works divorced from the people and from real life have long been 
consigned to oblivion, One of the weaknesses that has gradually been discovered in some 
writers' recent works is precisely a lack of involvement with life and mediocre performance 
in thinking. Therefore, we must adopt varied patterns to organize an increasingly large 
number of writers and artists to consciously plunge into the struggle of the masses of 
people in building a new life. This is, in every sense, an urgent matter calling for 
immediate attention to developing socialist literature and art. 

To correctly portray life, writers and artists must first of all correctly acquaint them- 
selves with life. To this end, we must, while being deeply involved with life, step up 

the study of Marxism-Leninism and strive to use the stand, viewpoint and method of 
dialectical materialism and historical materialism, Thus we will be able to analyze life 
and understand life in an effort to raise our ability to see through the outward appearance 
to get at the essence. Subjectively, some writers have dearly wanted to reflect life 
truthfully, but as a result of their own complicated lives, they lack correct judgment, or 
just see the appearance and not the essence of things, or just see the part and not the 
whole of a thing. The main reason for this is that they have not properly mastered 
dialectical materialism and historical materialism as a sharp weapon. Therefore, stepping 
up the study effort in this respect is likewise an urgent task in literary and art circles. 
At present, an extremely small number of people on the social scene have vehemently denied, 
underrated and distorted the role and significance of Marxist theory, spreading such ideas 
as "theory is useless," "writers are capable of producing equally good works without 
studying theory," "the study of theory is likely to deprive people of the power to produce 
good works," and so forth. Of course, this is wrong. 

A new year is now before us. Let us score still greater outstanding achievements under 
the leadership of the party, so that the spring of socialist literature and art can last, 
develop and grow more beautiful! 

HK250748 Beijing WENYI BAO in Chinese 7 Jan 82 pp 29-31 

[Article by Bai Hua: "On the Correspondence About 'Unrequited Love' -- Letter 
to the Editorial Departments of JIEFANGJUN BAO and WENYI BAO"} 

[Text] Thanks to JIEFANGJIIN BAO and WENYI BAO I have been able to read quite a few 
critical articles on "Unrequited Love." These articles fully embody the responsible 
attitude the nation's people have towards the party's artistic cause as well as the 
concern they have for me personally. I should like to discuss here both my own under- 
standing and my sense of gratitude. 

The resentment I felt when JIEFANGJUN BAO first began its criticism of "Unrequited Love" 
in the spring only goes to show that I lacked the open-minded attitude of "feeling happy 
when errors are pointed out" and that I completely ignored the principled stand of 
JIEFANGJUN BAO. Looking back on this today, I am even more convinced that JIEFANGJUN BAO's 
launching of such criticism was entirely called for. The signed article in WENYI BAO both 
inspired and assisted me. It was only after a considerable length of time that I came to 
recognize that the errors of the film script "Unrequited Love" were "a clear expression 

in the area of artistic creation of the tide of erroneous thinking that has led certain 
people to deviate from the leadership of the party and the socialist path." The fact 

that the party could earnestly admonish an ordinary party-member writer in such a heart- 
to-heart manner fully embodies the importance it attaches to and the concern it has for 
literary and artistic work. Furthermore, the party gave me ample time to consciously 
understand and ponder the problem. Such a great current of warmth had never been felt 
before. Some comrades asked me whether or not I felt I was under great pressure. I 
answered honestly, saying, on the contrary, I only felt great warmth. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 15 CHINA 

As everyone knows, my film script contained a great deal of material depicting an 
intellectual's so-called "bitter love for the motherland," but failed to draw any rigor- 
ous distinction between the "gang of four" on one hand, and tie socialist motherland, the 
party and the people on the other. Yecause of this, the more the film script played up 
this love, the louder it praised this intellectual's unhealthy feelings of loneliness, 
with the result that this "love" was transformed into resentment against the socialist 
motherland. This could not but leave people with only one possible impression: Neither 
communism nor the socialist system is any good. The facts of life, however, are that 
during the 10 years of chaos the party, the motherland and people of all nationalities 
suffered hardships. My film script, however, gave an inadequate description of the love 
felt toward intellectuals dyring this time of common suffering by the party, the country 
and people of all nationalities. The love felt by those who shared the same fate was 

the very source of the intellectuals’ unshakable faith and indomitable fighting spirit. 
During the 10 years of chaos there were many moving examples of this; and it is only 
because I enjoyed the protection and constant encouragement of the party, the army and 
the broad masses of the people that I managed to surv’ve and was able to retain my 
ideals. This proves that I was never an “unrequited lover" of the motherland. While 

the film script did offer glimpses of the masses, it depicted them as being weak and 
powerless. Rather than expressing the faith of the masses, a faith which was the driving 
force behind the smashing of the "gang of four" by the party and people, the people in 
the film script merely sighed and meekly submitted to suppression. Because I departed 
from my own positive experience of real life and began wallowing in the tragedy of what 
had happened to certain intellectuals during the 10 years of chaos, I came to neglect 

the mighty power of the people and to exaggerate the evil strength of the "gang of four." 
In actual fact, the 10 years of the "Cultural Revolution" "never actually destroyed our 
party, and it was still possible to maintain unity.'' This was the foundation of the 
united broad masses of the people's victorious struggle against the "gang of four." It 
was only because "the basis of our country's socialist system still existed" and because 
the "party, the people's political power, the People's Army and the basic nature of 
society all remained unchanged" that once the "gang of four" had been smashed, especially 
after the 3d Plenary Session of the llth CCP Central Committee, the political situation 
became increasingly vivid and lively. The wide scope of the film script highlighted 
catastrophe and persecution and gave a confused picture of the proportion between light 
and darkness: The image of society is one of hopeless bleakness and terror. The way in 
which the film script played up the protagonist's "love" by exaggerating the contrast 
between his good fortune abroad and the unhappiness and injustice he felt after returning 
home could only increase the doubts of those people who have lost faith in the party 

and the socialist cause. 

In addition to this, the film script also used the notion of idolatry to erroneously 
reduce the whole of the 10-year period of disorder to the question of the personality cult 
centered on Comrade Mao Zedong. The power of art lies in the use of images, and the 
power of negative images often goes far beyond their own logical implications, becoming 
nothing more than mistaken outlines. The only possible result of this is satire and 

the simple negation of Mao Zedong. This obviously damages the deep affection the broad 
masses have toward revolutionary leaders and reveals the absence of a serious scientific 
attitude with regard to the merits and demerits of Comrade Mao Zedong. At the same time, 
to attribute such adoration to the ignorance of the masses was also entirely unjustified. 

As JIEFANGJUN BAO and WENYI BAO pointed out, "Unrequited Love" only helped to promote 
certain ideological trends which had not yet been corrected. This amounted to dereliction 
of the artist's responsibility. 

As the article in JIEFANGJUN BAO and WENYI BAO present a comprehensive analysis of the 
ideological and artistic aspects of "“Unrequited Love," offering both honest appraisal 
and assistance, there is not much more to be said here. But please let me take this 
opportunity to discuss the lessons of "Unrequited Love" in the light of the questions 
raised by the confused and contradictory aspects of my own view of the world. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 16 CHINA 

The fact that at any historical turning point a serious-minded author will both examine 
various questions in the hope of summing up the lessons of history and give expression to 
such thoughts in his works does not give cause for criticism, However, because of my 
incorrect starting point I created a work such as "Unrequited Love" which benefited neither 
the people nor socialism, 

On the one hand, the line of the 3d Plenary Session of the llth CCP Central Committee and the 
popularity among the people of the core of the Central Committee's leadership have aroused 
both a feeling of heartfelt joy and a sense of great confidence in the party and the socialist 
cause, The steadfast courage displayed by the masses during the tortuous course of history 
has given me great hope. On the other hand, however, I failed to examine and correctly 

judge the 10 years of chaos and its sequela, often preferring to slip into feelings of 
aloofness and confusion. Such a mood is amply demonstrated by my uncritical portrayal of 

an ideologically weak intellectual as the protagonist in "Unrequited Love." 

On the one hand, I feel deeply indebted to the party for the efforts that have been made 
since the 3d Plenary Session of the llth CCP Central Committee to implement the party's 
policy toward intellectuals. The injustices of the past 10 or more years have been brought 
to light and redressed. The position of intellectuals in the revolutionary cause has again 
been emphasized and there have been efforts to bring the intelligence and wisdom of 
intellectuals into full play. My own experience offers a very convincing example of this. 
Never before has any historical period excited me or filled me with so much creative vigor 
as the last few years. On the other hand, however, I linked and even equated what has been 
the fate of feudal intellectuals ever since Qu Yuan with the unfair treatment I suffered 
myself because of the leftist errors of the party's policy. The tragic and dispirited mood of 
the final scene of "Unrequited Love" reflected this contradiction. 

On the one hand, I am the same as many other comrades who marched a long and victorious 

road under the banner of the party and Mao Zedong and am deeply aware of the contributions 
Comrade Mao Zedong made both to our people's liberation and to the founding of new China. 

On the other hand, however, I felt perplexed by the mistakes of Comrade Mao Zedong in his 
later years and the blind adoration of him by myself and others. In "Unrequited Love" the 
revolutionary leader was compared to a Buddhist idol, a symbol of feudal superstition. This 
was a reflection of my own confusion and emotional immaturity. 

I realize that in the past I was apt to follow other people blindly and to readily believe 
what other people said. This problem should have been resolved through a strengthening of 
both my party spirit and Marxist-Leninist theoretical cultivation. Instead, however, I 

went from one extreme to the other, from having no self-confidence to being overly confident, 
becoming someone who often expressed a deep contempt for everyone else. 

I have been involved off and on in literary work for more than 30 years. While I am deeply 
aware of the complexities of spiritual production, products of the spirit must in the end 

all reflect the spiritual condition of the spiritual laborer. In the past, wrong 

criticism from any quarter made me feel as if I had been wronged. Unable to accept 

criticism, I was unable to find the reason for my mistakes in the contradictions of my view of 
the world. This too was a reflection of my weak party spirit and my arrogant pride. Whenever 
contradictions develop in an author's view of the world or confusion arises in his creative 
thinking, the party should promptly alert him and even carry out criticism. As far as 

authors who have made mistakes themselves and the ranks of writers in general are concerned, 
such treatment reflects the greatest care and concern. Moreover, this is the party's 
consistent policy. During the war of resistance against Japan the party Central Committee 
held the Yanan forum on art and literature. Even today the speech given by Comrade Mao 
Zedong is of general guidng significance. The entire course of criticism against "Unrequited 
Love" showed that we are at present trying to put criticism and self-criticism back on the 
right path. It also proved that both the party and the broad masses pay a great deal of 
attention to an author's progress. Rather than attack me they chose to offer their sympathy 
and helped me move forward. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 17 CHINA 

Even now I am still unable to say that my understanding is particularly deep. My under- 
standing will gradually deepen in accordance with the forward progress of life in society; 
and by increasingly accepting social practice and taking serious note of its lessons, I 
shall be able to correct past mistakes in my new works. In the past I paid considerable 
attention to the lessons of historical errors and distanced myself from the heat of bring- 
ing order out of chaos, and even began to lose my sense of proportion. In the future, if 
I am to conscientiously examine and study life in society during this period of great 
change and familiarize myself with all types of people, I must go deep into the thick of 
life itself. At the same time, it is necessary for me to raise my theoretical level of 
Marxism-Leninism, to strengthen my party spirit, and to uphold the four basic principles. 
One should sing praises to the communist ideals, the main current of life which struggles 
to make China rich and strong, and also the tremendous achievements of the People's Army 
both in war and in socialist construction. One must be truly responsible to history, to 
the people and to the party. 

I offer my heartfelt thanks to those comrades in the editorial department of JIEFANGJUN 

BAO and WENYI BAO for having taken such a keen interest in my progress. Let us advance 
arm-in-arm along the road towards the magnificent goal of the four modernuizations. 


HK231502 Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 15 Feb 82 p 5 

[Article by Shen Dingping [3088 1353 1627] excerpted from the No 1, 1982 issue of 
of Discussions on the Cause of the Prolonged Existence of China's Feudal Society"] 

[Text] As early as the 1930's, the cause of the prolonged existence of China's feudal 
society was one of the topics of debate in the field of the history of social development. 
During the 1950's and 1960's, some scholars went further into the topic. 

In recent years, scholars have put forth some new problems in their discussions on the 
cause of the prolonged existence of China's feudal society. Liu Chang's article "A 
Tentative Discussion on the Prolonged Existence of China's Feudal Society" (published in 
the No 2, 1981 issue of LISHI YANJIU [HISTORICAL RESEARCH] has caught people's attention. 
Basically, the focus of the present discussion is on some fundamental viewpoints in this 
article. The main differences of opinion can be summed up in the following questions: 

1. Was China's feudal society fully feudalized? After comparing the history of China 
with that of Western Europe, Lui Chang maintains that the feudalization of Western Europe 
was marked by serfdom, land ownership based on the manorial system and pluralist politics. 
In regard to its cause and contents, the feudalization of China was the same as that of 
Western Europe. However, only Western Europe experienced the changes of feudalization. 
The degree of feudalization in the Chinese society was not as high as that experienced by 
Western Europe after the ninth century. Feudalization was never completed in China, 
although some traces of feudalization repeatedly occurred. Therefore, the system of 
unified and autocratic centralized state power in China was able to last for a long time. 
It stifled the only economic force (the free and independent development of industry and 
commerce) which would bring about basic changes in the feudal society, and blocked and 
destroyed any minor social progress. This was the cause of the prolonged existence of 
China's feudal society. 

Comrades Cheng Hong, Wang Shoujia and Zhu Xiaoyuan do not agree with the above views. In 
his article entitled "On the Cause of the Prolonged Existence of China's Feudal Society" 
(published in the No 4, 1981 issue of FUDAN XUEBAO [FUDAN UNIVERSITY JOURNAL]; Cheng Hong 
said: The cause of the prolonged existence of China's feudal society was not due to the 
fact that feudalization had never been completed in China. On the contrary, the high- 
level development of the feudal social form blocked the transition of the society to a 
newer social form. The high-level feudalization of China was obviously imbued with more 
progressive colorings than the feudal and manorial system in Western Europe. As to the 
reason why the high-level feudalization of China was not able to turn the country into a 
capitalist society, the author of the article thinks that this problem can be explored 
from two aspects. 

I. 26 Feb 82 K 18 CHINA 

First, the high-level feudalization of China opened up brighter prospects for the develop- 
ment of China's productive force than that of the manorial system in Western Europe. More 
concessions were made. Therefore, the outbreak of a general feudal social crisis was 
postponed, Second, the high-level of feudalization enabled the Chinese society to acquire 
an ability for spontaneous readjustment and constant motion so that the basic social con- 
tradictions could be eased and the disastrous "earthquake" be turned into several "minor 
earthquakes."' This considerably prolonged the life of the feudal social form. 

In his article, "On Several Viewpoints of 'A Tentative Discussion on the Prolonged 
Existence of China's Feudal Society'" (published in the No 3, 1981 issue of ZHONGGUOSHI 
YANJIU [CHINESE HISTORICAL RESEARCH ), Wang Shoujia pointed out: According to an historical 
materialist viewpoint, feudalization refers to the shaping and establishment of the feudal 
production relationships; that is, the historical process of the replacement of a slave- 
owning system by a feudal system. Historical facts have proved that when the feudalization 
in Western Europe was completely established, China had already passed the golden age of 
feudalism -- the prosperous Tang period -- and was advancing toward the later stages of 

the feudal society. The Chinese people had developed very splendid science and culture 
which had played a great role in promoting the civilization of the world. This was 
inseparable from the completion of the feudalization of China. Therefore, the viewpoint 
that feudalization in Chin? was never completed cannot be theoretically justified. 

Zhu Xiaoyuan queries the validity of Liu Chang's viewpoint from the angle of methodology. 
In his article "Full Development Is the Cause of the Prolonged Existence of a Social Form -- 
a Discussion on Why Feudal Society in China Existed for Such a Long Time," (published in 
the No 4, 1981 issue of FUDAN XUEBAO) he pointed out: The reason why some scholars think 
that feudal society in China did not fully develop is that they fail to proceed from the 
characteristics of the feudal society itself to explore the problem of "complete 
feudalization."" Instead, they take the "results" that Western Europe became a capitalist 
society faster than China as the starting point of the discussion. Due to their erroneous 
methodology, their aryuments are self-contradictory. On the one hand, they admit that the 
feudal system in Chine was very powerful and incomparably autocratic; on the other hand, 
they believe that this kind of very powerful feudal system was rudimentary feudalism 
which was not typical nor fully developed. 

2. Did peasant war curb the progress of feudalization? Liu Chang maintains that small 
farmers who accounted for the majority of population in China's feudal society always 
played a latent and decisive role in the society. Their political influence was reflected 
not only in the unified and autocratic state of power, but also in large-scale peasant 
uprising and peasant war which broke out periodicaily. Peasant war was actually a tool 
used by the supporters of the autocratic system to avert crises in the imperial court and 
realize their aim of dynastic changes [as published] and was a special means employed by 
the supporters of the autocratic system to oppose feudalization. Thus by repeatedly 
utilizing this means, the autocrats stubbornly blocked the progress of feudalization. 
Therefore, Liu Chang argues that each and every large-scale peasant uprising severely 
curbed the progress of feudalization. From a long-term historical view, peasant war not 
only failed to promote the progress of history, but also impeded it to a certain extent. 

Cheng Wutong challenges this viewpoint. In his article "Some Ideas on the Current Study 

of the History of Peasant War" (published in GUANGMING RIBAO, 17 August 1981), he points 
out first of all that he does not accept the view that the feudal autocracy and centralized 
state power in China were based on a small-scale peasant economy. He maintains that the 
land ownership by the landlords was the nucleus of the production relationships of 
feudalism. Feudal autocracy and centralized state power were established on this economic 
basis and also served it. The small-scale peasant economy was only dependent and 
supplementary to the landlord economy, and it did not play a decisive role in the feudal 
society. He cites the Ming and Qing Dynasties as examples, because they were critical 
periods in which China was turned from an advanced to a backward country. 

I. 26 Feb 82 K 19 CHINA 

Chen Wutong stresses that peasant war in these two dynasties not only continued to 

smash the feudal production relationships which were increasingly decadent, but also 
promoted the development of productive forces and the commodity economy. This paved 

the way for the rudiments and development of capitalist factors and played the role of 
destroying the feudal production modes. Wang Shoujia thinks that although war naturally 
brought about destruction, each large-scale peasant uprising destroyed the most rotten 
part of the productive relationships of feudalism and thus the feudal productive relation- 
ships could readjust themselves to suit the needs of the productive forces. Therefore, 
the feudal productive forces developed in spirals and feudal society in China advanced 
amid this spiral development. 

3. Were the threats and invasions by the alien nomadic tribes the key factors which 
widely distributed the history of China from that of the west? Liu Chang maintains that 
in the entire world history of feudalism, just like Byzantium and India, China was an 
agricultural society which was threatened by the subsistence encirclement of the nomadic 
tribes. To defeat and guard against the constant invasion and harassment of the nomadic 
tribes, the entire society had to be unified and the manpower and material resources 

of the whole country had to be concentrated. At that time, only the centralized auto- 
cratic state power could adopt this organizational device. This was the basic reason why 
feudal society in China could curb the normal progress of feudalism and prolong the existence 
of autocratic centralized state power. Unlike feudal society in China, there was no 
foreign aggression in the feudal era of Western Europe. Its road toward feudalization was 
not obstructed bv any alien factors or forces. It is safe to say that the feudalization 
of Western Europe was purely the result of the movement of opposing forces within the 
society. therefore, Liu Chang said: The conclusion is obvious that the constant invasion 
of the alien nomadic tribes was a crucial factor which distinguished the history of China 
from that of the West. 

Wang Shoujia argues that we should look at problems from all sides while analyzing the 
sabotaging role played by the constant invasion of the nomadic tribes from the north of 

our country. On the one hand, their invasion did influence the progress of feudal society 
in China; on the other hand, it accelerated the assimilation of the Chinese mationalities 
and promoted the feudalization process of various minority nationalities, bésides the 

Han nationality, and speeded up the econom’c development of the areas to the south of the 
Chang Jiang. What then was the real cause of the prolonged existence of the feudal society 
in China? He maintains that neither the external cause nor geographical environment played 
t! . crucial role. The prolonged existence of the feudal society in China was determined 

by the mode of production and characteristics of the society itself. It is necessary to 
make a comparison between the feudal society in the West and that in China. However, it 

is not advisable for us to use the matrix of Western history to interpret Chinese history. 


HK260130 Beijing CHINA DAILY in English 26 Feb 82 p 4 

{("Opinion" column article: "China's Autonomy Policy in Line With Marxist Principles" -- 
reprinted from XINJIANG RIBAO; date not given] 

[Text] The Chinese Communist Party's policy on regional autonomy for minority nationalities 
is a good illustration of the practice of Marxist principles. 

China is a unitary multi-national state. The existing :onstitution stipulates: ''Regional 
autonomy applies in an area where a minority nationality lives in a compact community. 
All the national autonomous areas are inalienable parts of the People's Republic of China." 

This principle is based on Marxist theory which holds that the problem of national minorities 
is an important part of the whole proletarian revolution, and the settlement of this 
problem should accord with the fundamental interests of the working class. 

I, 26 Feb 82 K 20 CHINA 

China has five autonomous regions -- the Inner Mongolian, Ningxia Hui, Xinjiang Uygur, 
Guangxi Zhuang and Tibetan Autonomous Regions -- 29 autonomous prefectures and 73 
autonomous counties or banners. These areas can be grouped into three types: 

-- Autonomy for a single minority inhabiting an exclusive area. This applies to the 
Tibetans in Tibet, the Hui in Ningxia, the Yi in Liangshan in Sichuan and the Olunchun 
in Heilongjiang. 

-- Autonomy for one major minority with another one or two groups living in the same 
area. This is the case in Xinjiang and Guangxi. 

-- Autonomy in an area with two or more minorities living together. Examples are the 
Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture in Hunan, the Mongolian-Tibetan-Kazak Autonomous 
Prefecture of Haixi in Qinghai, and the Miao-Dong Autonomous Prefecture in Guizhou. 

In addition, some minorities are spread among several autonomous areas. The Tibetans, 
for instance, live in more than 10 autonomous prefectures or counties in Gansu, Qinghai, 
Sichuan and Yunnan as well as Tibet. 

The party's autonomous policy has proved successful in guaranteeing minority peoples 

the right to run their own internal affairs, promoting unity among nationalities, 
consolidating national unity and developing the culture and economy of the minority 


China employs national autonomy under a state central goverment rather than federations 
or a union of states like the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia for the following reasons: 

-- China is a multinational state with the Han nationality making up the overwhelming 
majority of the population -- 94 percent. The over 50 national minorities with a total 
population of about 55 million make up only 6 percent. But their members are widely 
spread over some 50-60 percent of the nation's territory. Minority groups usually live 
among one another, with a few examples of groups living in their own exclusive areas. 

-- China has been a unified state under a central government since the Qin (221-206 B.C.) 
and Han (206 B.C.-220 A.D.) Dynasties. Cultural and economic interchanges among 
nationalities have gone on since then. The different groups have lived, worked and 
fought oppressors and invaders together. They have become inseparable in making up 

the nation and the culture of China as a whole. 

-- The party wants to further consolidate national unity and unity among the nationalities 
in the current modernisation drive. The minority areas are comparatively backward in 
culture and economy, and for historical reasons, have sparse populations. But they 

live on vast lands with rich natural resources. The Han, though more advanced in culture 
and economy, is troubled by overpopulation. The Han and the minorities must help each 
other to bring both human and natural resources into full play in the building of 

No other road but joining the big family of the nation can lead the minorities towards 
prosperity and advancement. Separation and independent development would go against 
popular will. 



OW260611 Fuzhou Fujian Provincial Service in Mandarin 1120 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] A meeting of representatives of advanced units and individuals of the Fuzhou 
PLA units in building a socialist spiritual civilization opened ceremoniously in 
Fuzhou this morning. Yang Chengwu, commander of the Fuzhou PLA units; Fu Kuiqing, 
political commissar of the same units; Xiang Nan, first secretary of the Fujian 
Provincial CCP Committee; Ma Zingyuan, Fujian governor; and Fu Yutian, secretary 

of the Jiangxi Provincial CCP Committee; as well as representatives of advance 

units and individuals and commanders and fighters of PLA units stationed in Fuzhou -- 
totaling more than 2,300 people -- attended this morning's meeting. 

Comrade Yang Chengwu presided. Comrade Fu Kuiqing gave the opening speech. 

Fu Kuiqing said: The purpose of this meeting is to commend the advanced units and 
individuals who distinguished themselves in building a socialist spiritual civilization, 
to sum up the experience of the past year in launching the activities of the "four haves," 
"three stresses" and "two fear not's" [have ideals, morality, knowledge and physical 
strength stress soldier's appearance and bearing, courtesy, and discipline; fear neither 
hardship nor sacrifice] and to further implement the series of instructions issued by the 
CCP Central Committee and its military commission on building a socialist spiritual 
civilization. It aims at further promoting activities in the army units on building 

a socialist spiritual civilization and speeding up the building of a modern, regular 
revolutionary army. 

Fu Kuiqing asked all advanced units and individuals to regard as their bounden duty 
serving as pace setters in building a socialist spiritual civilization and play an 
exemplary role at their respective posts. He asked all subordinate military units to 
seriously study the experience of the advanced units and individuals and the experience 
of Fujian and Jiangxi Provinces in building socialist spiritual civilization in order 
to produce more advanced units and individuals. 

Comrades Xiang Nan and Fu Yutian gave their warm greetings to the meeting on behalf of 
the Fujian and Jiangxi Provincial CCP Committees, standing committees of the provincial 
people's congresses and people's governments. 

Cao Punan, director of the political department of the Fuzhou PLA units, delivered a 
work report entitled: "Enhance spirit, vigorously carry out the tasks and advance the 
work of buildine a socialist spiritual civilization." 

Also attending today's meeting were Zhu Shaoqing, Zhu Yaohua, (Zhang Xianyang), Shi Yichen, 
Wu Chunren, (Tian Shixing), Liao Haiguang, Long Feihu, (Song Weishi), Wang Zhi, Lu Sheng, 
Yin Mingliang, Xie Jiaxiang, Zhang Lixiong and (Zhao Huaqing), leading comrades of the 
Fuzhou PLA units. 

Leading comrades of the leading organs and various services and arms under the Fuzhou 
PLA units and leading comrades of the Fuzhou Municipal CCP Committee and people's government 

were also present. 


OW260353 Beijing Domestic Service in Mandarin 1200 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] While speaking at the meeting, which was concluded yesterday, of party secretaries 
at prefecture, nunicipal and county level in Fujian Province, First Secretary Xiang Nan 

of the Fujian Provincial CCP Committee emphatically pointed out: Cadres of the party must 
strive to become resolute, clear-headed and promising Marxists. He added: Simultaneously 
with waging a resolute struggle against smuggling, corruption, bribery and other economic 
crimes, we must also persist in an open-door policy and, at the same time, enliven our own 
domestic economy. Under no circumstances should we slacken our efforts to conduct economic 
work with foreign countries. 


Comrade Xiang Nan said: Various localities of Fujian Province have severaly dealt with some 
cases of economic crimes over the past month. This has received warm support from the broad 
masses of people, and heightened our cadres' spirit. The situation in Fujian is splendid. 
The question now is how to raise our understanding, draw a clear-cut line of demarcation 
between right and wrong and adopt more effective measures in dealing with economic crimes. 

He added: Leading comrades of the central authorities have recently pointed out that 

we must strive to become resolute, clear-headed and promising Marxists, and that we 

must clearly understand the seriousness of smuggling, corruption and bribery in corroding 
Our party and damaging our social practices. Only by resolutely fighting against criminal 
activities in the economic field and checking unhealthy practices such as smuggling, 
corruption and bribery, can special policies be implemented in Fujian, the four fundamental 
principles be upheld and economic work with foreign countries be developed healthily. 

Xiang Nan pointed out: In order to win victory in this struggle, it is important to adopt 
policies of punishment, reorganization and education separately in dealing with each case. 
Regarding those major important and long-standing cases, especially the major cases of 
economic crime which involved responsible party cadres, we must maintain a firm grip and 
deal with them resolutely. In dealing with those who have committed serious offenses, they 
must be punished swiftly and severely. Regarding coastal counties, communes and production 
brigades which are seriously involved in smuggling activities, work teams formed by 

capable personnel should be sent to carry out restructuring work there. The masses of cadres 
and people throughout the province must be thoroughly educated in socialism and patriotism 
to help them adhere to the four fundamental principles; to give due consideration to the 
interests of the state, collectives and individuals; and to combat smuggling, speculation 
and profiteering. 

Xiang Nan said: In this struggle, it is necessary to strengthen the party leadership and 
adopt different measures to fight economic crimes. 


0W240103 Fuzhou FUJIAN RIBAO in Chinese 14 Feb 82 p 1 
[Commentator's article: "Take Up the Weapon of Criticism and Self-Criticism"] 

[Text] The meeting on organizational life, sponsored by the Standing Committee of the 
Quanzhou Municipal CCP Committee has earnestly carried out criticism and self-criticism and 
seriously dealt with the issue involving two municipal-level responsible cadres who seized 
land for building their own private homes. 

This is a good kind of meeting on organizational! life. To rectify party style, it is 
necessary to take up the weapons of criticism and self-criticism. 

It would be impossible for the Quanzhou Municipal CCP Committee to solve the problem of the 
illegal seizure of land by cadres and the masses for building their own homes, if the 
municipal CCP committee were unable to conscientiously criticize leading comrades such as 
Lin Zhizheng and Zhuang Lishui and seriously deal with them, and if the two of them were to 
refuse to conduct self-criticism and recognize and correct their mistakes. Now the Quanzhou 
Municipal CCP Committee has corrected the mistakes made by its leading members, and it is 
possible to solve the issue of illegal seizure of land for building houses in the city. 

Even the two comrades -- Lin Zhizheng and Zhuang Lishui -- can now justly and boldly carry 
out this work. 

There are other signs of incorrect party style, such as seeking employment or exit permits 
through pull or influence, the illegal practice of "changing farming to non-farming jobs," 
entert. ining guests and giving them gifts. As soon as the leading organs of our party and 
government discover that some leading cadres are taking the lead in carrying out evil prac- 
tices, they must seriously criticize such evil practices, help erring comrades conduct 
self-criticism and then take proper action. Only by doing so will it be possible to educate 
the persons involved, as well as the broad masses of cadres and people, rectify incorrect 
style and further develop a good style among the people by promoting a good party style. 

Now there are some leading party and government organs and leading cadres who have 

forgotten the party's fine traditions. They are unable to conscientiously conduct criticism 
and self-criticism. Sometimes there are problems which reflect an incorrect party style. 


However, when a meeting for organizational life is held, no one is willing to conduct 
criticism. Everyone wants to become a "peacemaker." Some of the comrades fully realize 
that they themselves are in error, but they often sidestep the issue and would rather 
talk about other things. They usually only talk about problems of comrades at the lower 
level. Some of the comrades clearly understand that other comrades have made errors, 

but they adopt a liberalist attitude and keep silence. Sometimes they touch on the issue 
only lightly, and the "ground remains dry after the rain," because they are unable to 
take up the weapons of criticism and self-criticism, This kind of leading organ is 

bound to be weak and lax in leadership. There is no militancy at all in such an organ, 
where the evil practices will only become more and more rampant. 

We advocate vigorous ideological struggles. This is the basic condition to decisively 
change the party style for the better. Every Communist Party member must consciously 
take up this weapon of criticism and self-criticism. 


OW230957 Fuzhou FUJIAN RIBAO in Chinese 12 Feb 82 p 1 

[Text] Toward the end of last year the Discipline Inspection Commission of the Fujian 
Provincial CCP Committee laid down a rule strictly prohibiting party members and cadres 
from securing exit permits for their family members, relatives or friends through pull 
or influence. 

The rule stipulates that when family members, relatives or friends of party members 

and cadres apply for exit permits, they must send in their applications for examination 
and approval in strict accordance with relevant regulations. It is strictly prohibited 
to take advantage of one's position and power, to treat such applications as special 
cases and to secure exit permits through underhand connections or through pull or influ- 
ence; it is strictly prohibited to secure exit permits by resorting to deception or by 
inventing some excuse. Violators of this rule will be criticized and educated, or dis- 
ciplinary measures will be taken against them according to the seriousness of their 
individual cases. 

The rule requires the leading cadres at various levels to act strictly according to the 
relevant regulation concerning the examination and approval of applications for exit 
permits. They are not allowed to interfere with the examination and approval department 
in performing its duties. If one Violates this rule, the concerned party organization 
should educate him and correct his mistakes in good time. In serious cases, those 
involved must be investigated and severely dealt with. Leading cadres in charge of 
examination and approval of applications for exit permits and personnel working in this 
field must strictly implement policies, uphold principles and handle such applications 
impartially. Those who take advantage of their position and power to ask for gifts or 
take bribes must be seriously dealt with in accordance with party discipline and the 
state law. Violations of law and discipline which have occurred in the past must also 
be seriously investigated and dealt with. 


0W221047 Nanjing Jiangsu Provincial Service in Mandarin 2300 GMT 21 Feb 82 

[Excerpts] The provincial people's procuratorate called a provincial meeting of pre- 
fectural aad county procurators 11-16 February emphatically urging procurators to 
combat unlawful and criminal activities in the economic field. Comrade Hui Yuyu, sec- 
retary of the provincial CCP committee, and (Hu Zhiming), standing committee member of 
the provincial CCP committee, spoke at the meeting. 

While summing up the progress made last year, the meeting noted that social order in 
Jiangsu had not shown any improvement. It was clearly pointed out at the meeting that 
economic crimes had been rampant and that a handful of government personnel had broken 
the law in the economic field. The precuratorial organs, therefore, must actively 
combat criminal activities in the economic field under the unified leadership of the 
provincial CCP committee. 



OW240545 Nanjing Jiangsu Provincial Service in Mandarin 2300 GMT 23 Feb 82 

[Text] The Jiangsu provincial-level organs held a meeting of cadres with party membership 
at and above departmental level to transmit the guidelines of the national conference on 
the united front work and the important speeches by Comrade Hu Yaobang and other central 
leaders, Some 3,000 people attended the meeting. Comrade Bao Houchang, secretary of the 
provincial CCP committee, presiced over the meeting. Comrades Jiang Zonglu and Lu Xunru 
of the provincial CCP committee's united front work department conveyed the guidelines 
and the speeches. 

Comrade Jiang Zonglu said: The CCP Central Committee and the Secretariat gave their 
attention to the national conference on united front work during its entire session. 

The central leading comrades emphatically pointed out: Every party comrade should understand 
the significance of united front during the new period. The united front was not merely a 
magic weapon of the past. It will also play an important role in fulfilling the three 
major tasks of the 1980's. It will remain a great magic weapon for a considerably long 
period in history. As long as there is a Communist Party, there is a need to uphold 
cooperation between the party and people outside the party and to uphold the united front. 
The united front work will make no progress, and we shall encounter great difficulties 

or even suffer serious setbacks if we fail to resolve the question of understanding 

first. Comrade Jiang Zonglu continued: To further develop and expand the patriotic 
united front, we must make as many friends as possible with people outside the party 

and treat them without discrimination. We must establish a close relationship that will 
enable party and non-party people to show utter devotion to one another and share joys and 
sorrows together. 

Comrade Bao Houchang spoke at the end of the meeting. He said: The united front work 

is an important part of our party work. To ensure its success, it is not enough to rely 
on the united front work departments alone. The whole party must help make it a success. 
Party committees at all levels must regard the united front work as an important item on 
their agenda. They must continue to implement the various united front policies and 
open up a new phase in united front work. 


OW230137 Nanchang Jiangxi Provincial Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 22 Feb 82 
[Station commentary: "Conscientiously Implement This Year's Sowing Plans") 

[Excerpts] "Rainwater" day on the traditional Chinese calendar is over. Spring sowing 

will soon begin. Following the guidelines laid down by the party Central Committee's 
directive on working hard this year to achieve even greater developments in agriculture, 
various localities in the countryside throughout the province are now paying full attention 
to implementing this year's plans in agricultural production. However, according to a 
department concerned, quite a few communes and brigades have made arrangements for 
production according to their own needs rather than state plans. Thus, the acreage of 
farmland sown to grain, cotton and other crops has been reduced. This will jeopardize 

our efforts to win an overall bumper harvest this year. Our province is a grain-producer. 
In implementing this year's sowing plan, all localities must firmly adhere to the principle 
of placing emphasis cn grain production, while developing a diversified economy. First of 
all, we must ensure the acreage of farmland sown to grain crops. 

Our experience in many localities has proved that, to help communes and brigades follow 

the guidance of the state plans, the party organizations at all levels must strengthen 

their leadership, carry out political and ideological education among peasants; and assist 
the basic-level cadres and commune members to foster an overall point of view, adhere to 

the principle of putting the interests of the state above those of the collective and 
individuals, consciously follow the guidance of the state plans and earnestly carry out this 
year's sowing plans. 


At present, various localities where sowing has not begun yet must vigorously carry out 
education among cadres and commune members, while enthusiastically making farming 
preparations, They must adopt effective measures to rapidly carry out the sowing plans 

on a solid basis, Particularly, it is essential to implement well the plans for 

sowing early and intermediate rice, cotton and other spring crops. Efforts must also 

be made to implement plans for breeding farm oxen, hogs and fish. For those sowing plans 
which we have no time to fulfill, we must make every effort to make up as soon as possible 
in order to do a good job in spring farming and lay a solid foundation for fulfilling 

and overfulfilling the production targets for the whole year. 

OW231405 Shanghai JIEFANG RIBAO in Chinese 18 Feb 82 p | 
[Commentator's article: "Concentrate Greater Efforts on Agriculture") 

[Text] The economic situation is very good in Shanghai's suburban areas because of the 
implementation of the party's series of principles and policies on rural areas since the 
jd plenary session of the llth party Central Committee. However, everything divides 
into two. As far as agricultural production is concerned, output of various major 

crops has been high but unstable, and in some cases signs of decline have appeared. In 
the past 2 years, one important cause of this situation is, of course, that crops have 
been hit by natural disasters during critical growth periods. Nevertheless, if we 
consider the thinking of the leadership of the counties and communes, this is by no 
means beyond reproach. We can say that some leading comrades have failed to concentrate 
their main efforts on agriculture, or that they have concentrated their efforts on 
developing commune- andbrigade-run industries. This cannot but affect the thinking of 
the peasant masses, the coordinated development of agriculture, sideline production and 
industry, and the steady increase of the output of various crops. In some places there 
is the tendency to quit farming among the labor force, the tendency to depart from 

state plans and grow whatever crops one wants to grow, the tendency to sell farm and 
sideline products on the free market rather than to the state, and the tendency to 
expand the role of market regulation in developing industrial and sideline production. 
This reflects to a certain degree the failure of the leadership to pay concentrated atten- 
tion to agriculture and should be brought to the serious attention of the leadership 

at all levels in the suburban areas. 

It is necessary to develop the commune- and brigade-run industries in Shanghai's suburban 
areas while readjusting them, and it is also necessary to develop sideline production. 
However, the question is how important they are in comparison with agriculture. Among 
agriculture, sideline occupations and industry, agriculture is the principal occupation, 
which has a bearing on the fundamental interest of the state, the collective and the 
peasant masses and should be greatly strengthened. When this is understood, the 
leadership at various levels will concentrate greater efforts on agriculture, place 
agriculture on the agenda and seriously study it. 

While concentrating greater efforts on agriculture, the leadership at various levels 

in the suburban areas should do thoroughgoing and painstaking ideological and political 
work. Conditions are not all the same in different communes, production brigades and 
teams, and it is necessary to make concrete analyses of the tendencies among some 

cadres and masses to quit farming and so forth. Moreover, these erroneous tendencies 

are after all not the principal aspect of the situation, and we must not try to check 
these tendencies all at once and must not use coercive means. So long as we proceed 

from actual conditions, give positive leadership and conduct thoroughgoing and painstaking 
ideological work, agriculture in the suburban areas will develop along the road toward 
stable high yields. 



HK250341 Guiyang Guizhou Provincial Service in Mandarin 2315 GMT 24 Feb 82 

[Summary] In his government work report to the fourth session of the fifth provincial 
people's congress, Guizhou Governor Su Gang said: The province's agricultural situation 
last year was good despite severe drought. Total agricultural income increased, and 
total output value was 5.9 percent greater than in 1980, Total value of agricultural 
and sideline product procurement rose by 48.8 percent. The rural markets are 

prosperous and have recorded a large increase in business. New developments have been 
achieved in diversification, According to surveys in 23 counties, the average net 
income of peasants last year was 208.8 yuan, an increase of 47 yuan over 1980. 

Governor Su Gang stressed: "At present we must treat striking at criminal activities in 
the economic field as a major affair." He said: "Due to the fact that our 
administrative and economic rules and regulations and our management svstems have not 
been sufficiently perfected, in addition to our laxness and weakness in leadership, 
embezzlement, speculation, smuggling, tax evasion and other economic crimes are somewhat 
rampant in various places. Hence we must currently regard striking at criminal 
activities in the economic field as a major affair. We must investigate a number of 
major economic crimes involving leading cadres, including smuggling and peddling of 
contraband, engaging in bribery and corruption, and stealing large amounts of state 
property. Cadres guilty of serious violations of law, and first those cadres in leading 
positions, must be severely punished according to law." 

Governor Su Gang stressed that the province must continue to do a good job in planned 
parenthood work and control population growth. He said: "If we fail to summon up the 
greatest resolve and adopt resolute and effective measures to control the momentum of 
population increase, extremely unfavorable effects will be caused for our modernization 
drive and also for posterity. The government at all levels must therefore strengthen 
leadership, bring the population plans within the national economic and social develop- 
ment plans, and get a thoroughly good grasp of the work." 


HK250355 Chengdu Sichuan Provincial Service in Mandarin 2300 GMT 22 Feb 82 

[Report on 23 February, SICHUAN RIBAO contributing commentator's article: "Strengthen- 
ing Financial and Economic Discipline Is One of the Important Aspects of Improving Party 
Work Style" ] 

[Text] The article says: Strengthening financial and economic discipline is not only 
an economic problem but also one of the important aspects of improving party work style. 
Every CCP member and government worker must pay great attention to it. At present 

there are cases of violating financial and economic discipline in many local departments 
and units of our province; some of the cases are quite serious. In accordance with the 
spirit of the relevant instructions made by the central authorities and the province, 

we should continue to carry out in depth the work of strengthening financial and 
economic discipline. It is necessary to combine the work of strengthening financial and 
economic discipline with that of straightening out enterprises, overhauling organiza- 
tions and improving work style. Through this work, it is necessary to further change 
the unhealthy tendencies in the economic field and to raise the consciousness of the 
cadres in observing discipline and laws and in fighting against all practices of 
violating discipline and laws. 

The article continues: It is necessary to strengthen the concept of the legal system 
in tightening financial and economic discipline. The cases of breaching discipline that 
have been discovered must be handled as soon as possible, and each case must be soundly 
and clearly explained. All state funds that are misappropriated, embezzled or diverted 
for other purposes must be turned over to the higher authorities to the exact amount. 
Indiscriminate expenditures and payments must be paid back in the exact amount; they 
must not be regarded as something occurring just once, with no definite action taken. 


All responsible personnel concerned, especially the leading cadres who deserve 
criticism and education, must be criticized and educated and those who deserve economic 
sanctions and disciplinary actions must receive this treatment accordingly. Those who 
violate discipline, must be handled in a serious manner. 

The contributing commentator's article concludes: The responsible departments of leading 
organs at all levels and of enterprises should take responsibility with the determination 
to carry out this work properly. The workers of financial and accounting departments 

and of discipline inspection departments should make efforts to upgrade their level 

of understanding policies and mastering professional knowledge, stick to principles, 

set an example, loyally carry out their duties, dare to struggle, and closely link 
supervision with improvement of work, so as to make contributions to the development 

of the national economy and stepping up construction of the four modernizations. 


SICHUAN SEMINAR -- The Propaganda Department of the Sichuan Provincial CCP Committee and 
the party school and No 2 party school of the provincial CCP committee recently and 
jointly held a seminar to discuss the theory of socialist spiritual civilization. One 
hundred and twenty comrades of the relevant units of organs at provincial level, the 
propaganda departments and party schools of all municipal, prefectural and autonomous 
prefectural CCP committees, PLA nits, factories and mines attended the seminar. Yang 
Chao, secretary of the provincial CCP committee, made a report on socialist spiritual 
civilization and on correctly handling the contr idictions among the people. The comrades 
present held that building a high degree of socialist spiritual civilization is a great 
strategic task for building a powerful modernized socialist country. [Chengdu Sichuan 
Provincial Service in Mandarin 2300 GMT 17 Feb 82 HK] 

SICHUAN METHANE PRODUCTION -- According to statistics, Sichuan Province set up 250,000 
new methane-generating pits in 1981, 50,000 more than in the previous year. The 

design and quality were also improved. [Chengdu Sichuan Provincial Service in Mandarin 
2300 GMT 19 Feb 82 HK) 



SK260500 Hohhot Nei Monggol Regional Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Text] According to our sources, the regional meeting of secretaries of banner and county 
CCP committees held a plenary session 24-25 February. At the session, Zhou Hui, first 
secretary of the regional CCP committee, made an important speech. Ting Mao, second 
secretary of the regional CCP committee, relayed the guidelines of the relevant meeting 
held by the party Central Committee, Yun Shiying, secretary of the regional CCP committee, 
also spoke. The session was presided over by Wang Duo, permanent secretary of the regional 
CCP committee, and Kong Fei, secretary of the regional CCP committee. 

Comrade Zhou Hui's speech is in four parts: 1) the present situation of our region; 

2) principles and tentative plans for the region's construction in the future; 3) the 

major tasks for 1982; and 4) enhancing spirit, improving party work style and strengthening 
party leadership. 

Referring to our region's situation, Zhou Hui said: Our region's political and economic 
situations are good. First, the large numbers of cadres and masses have understood and 
conscientiously implemented the lines, principles and policies formulated by the third 
plenary session of the party Central Committee. Second, our material conditions have 
remarkably improved and the people's enthusiasm in production has enlivened. Third, the 
important directives on Nei Monggol's work put forward by the party Central Committee have 
offered correct principles for Nei Monggol's political and economic construction in the 

With regard to principles and tentative plans for the region's construction, Zhou Hui said: 

I will put forward principles and tentative plans for economic and political construction in 
line with the guidelines of the party Central Committee. In the field of economics, from now 
on and for a considerably long period, we shall emphatically develop forestry, animal 
husbandry and diversified economy with the stress on forestry and animal husbandry. By doing 
so, we can take advantage of our favorable conditions to gradually achieve an ecological 
balance; accelerate the development of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, sideline 
production, fisheries and a diversified economy; and improve production and living conditions 
in rural and pastoral areas. 

In addition, grain production should be grasped. All grain-producing areas should attend 
to grain production and agricultural capital construction in a planned way to increase 
per-unit grain output. While grasping agricultural production, we should acclerate 
development of light industry to promote development of other industries. 

In this way, we can rationalize step by step our region's economic structure and develor 
economic construction in proportion, in a planned way and at a stable speed. 

In the field of political construction, the main tasks, Zhou Hui said, are to implement the 
guidelines of the central directives, to uphold the four basic principles, to build a 
socialist spiritual civilization, to properly handle relations along the people of all 
nationalities to steel their unity, to develop the regional autonomy of minority nationalities 
and to consolidate and defend the northern borders of our country. 

The major tasks for 1982, Zhou Hui pointed out, are to firmly and unswervingly implement 

the guidelines of the 6th plenary session of the llth party Central Committee, the Fourth 
Session of the Fifth NPC and the party Central Committee's directives on Nei Monggol's work, 
to intensify the readjustment and reorganization of various fronts, especially the economic 
front, to build a material and spiritual civilization and to consolidate and develop a 
united and stable situation. He also put forward many tasks for other fields. 

Referring to the work of enhancing spirit, improving party work style and strengthening 
party leadership, Zhou Hui said: What counts is that leading departments and comrades at 
the regional, league, municipal, banner and county levels enhance spirit, improve party 
work style and strengthen party leadership. 


He said: The most important thing is to grasp ideologica’ leadership and intensify 
ideological and political work. At present and in the future, leading departments and 
cadres at or above banner and county levels should pay attention to the following tasks: 
1) Firmly and unswervingly implement the party's lines and conscientiously observe 

the party's political discipline. 2. Earnestly conduct studies. 3) Pay attention to 
investigative and research work. 4) Correctly conduct criticism and self-criticism. 

5) Strictly handle major crimes in the economic field. 

Attending the session were standing committee members of the regional CCP committee 
and leading comrades of the regional people's congress standing committee, the people's 
government, the CPPCC committee and the military district. 


SK221121 Hohhot Nei Monggol Regional Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 21 Feb 82 

[Station commentary: '"Persistently Follow the Road of Taking Livestock and Forestry as 
a Key Link and Developing a Diversified Economy"] 

[Excerpt] The CCP Central Committee has set forth an economic policy for Nei Monggol -- 
that is to devote 20-30 years or half a century, following the spirit of the foolish old 
man who removed the mountains and in light of local conditions, to find a road for taking 
livestock and forestry as a key link and developing a deversified economy. This is a 
scientific summing up of Nei Monggol's experience of 30 years and the only correct way to 
transform Nei Monggol's backwardness and poverty and improve Nei Monggol's economic 

Our region is a highland in a temperate zone under the influence of the southeast monsoon. 
Our ecosystem is very vulnerable because of serious drought, strong winds and much sand. 
Most areas suffer from little precipitation, a shortage of underground water resources, 
low temperatures, long frost periods and poor soil. Therefore our region is not suitable 
for growing grain crops. However, our region covers a vast area and contains a third of 
the entire country's grasslands. The acreage of farmland occupied by each person is 2.7 
times more than that of the national level. Our region has rich resources for agriculture 
and animal husbandry, ample sunshine, great contrasts between daytime and nighttime 
temperatures and precipitation concentrated in the crop growing period, all of which is 
conducive to crop growth. So long as we follow natural law developing forestry, animal 
husbandry and agriculture in accordance with local conditions, we have great potential for 
developing a diversified economy. 

Over a long period, due to our misunderstanding of. the region's natural features and 
agricultural and livestock resources and our inadequate understanding of the degradation 
of the region's ecosystem, we ignored forestry and grassland work and a diversified 
economy, engaged in rampant deforestation and reclamation, overemphasized grain as a key 
link, went in for a single-product economy and small-scale agriculture and resorted to 
management resembling plunder under the influence of leftist ideas. As a result, many 
resources have been destroyed; grasslands have deteriorated; soil has become sandy, 
degraded and eroded and the ecosystem become imbalanced: hence frequent disasters and 
unstable production. In particular, serious sabotage in the 10-year civil strife 
exacerbated the vicious circle. 

Since our party's third plenary session, the regional CCP committee's 25-character prin- 
ciple of taking forestry and animal husbandry as a key link has effectively promoted 
production. The CCP Central Committee fully affirmed the region's principle and inves- 
tigations and further affirmed that the principle of taking forestry and animal husbandry 
as a key link and developing a diversified economy is a principle for economic construc- 
tion in Nei Monggol. This principle is a perfection and improvement of the region's 
original 25-character principle and is more scientific and suitable to the region's 
objective reality. Implementing this principle will not only transform our backward 
small-scale agriculture to scientific large-scale agriculture and accelerate agricultural 
and animal husbandry development, but it also will promote the light and textile 
industries, heavy industry and the whole national economy. 



SK260604 Hohhot Nei Monggol Regional Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Excerpts] According to our reporters (Wu Xinmin) and (Ma Lixia), on the evening of 

24 February the regional CYL committee held a telephone conference urging CYL organizations 
at all levels and the youths of all nationalities throughout the region to be shock workers 
in conducting the all-people decorum and courtesy month campaign and pioneers in building 

e socialist spiritual civilization. 

Badalahu, secretary of the regional CYL committee, presided over the conference. Ting 
Mao, second secretary of the regional CCP committee, spoke. He said: In building 
socialist modernization, it is neceSsary to grasp material and spiritual civilization 
simultaneously. Conducting the activity of the five stresses and four beauties is an 
important work in building the socialist spiritual civilization. That the party Central 
Committee designates each March as all-people decorum and courtesy month is an important 
measure to improve social morale and promote the socialist spiritual civilization. CCP 
committees, people's governments and PLA units at all levels, as well as all trades and 
professions, should fully understand the significance of the decorum and courtesy month 
campaign and regard the conducting of this campaign as an important task of the party. 

Attending the conference were responsible persons of the departments directly under the 
regional authority; institutes of higher learning; various large plants, mines and enter- 
prises; secretaries in charge of journalism work of various league, municipal, banner 

and county CCP committees; and responsible persons of CYL organizations at or above 
banner and county levels. 


NEI MONGGOL 1981 REVENUE -- In 1981 party committees at all levels in Nei Monggol Auto- 
nomous Region stepped up leadership over financial work. The regional autonomous CCP 
committee convened two ad hoc standing committee meetings in May to discuss the slump 

in financial revenue and adopted a resolution on improving financial work. The regional 
government issued circulars on five occasions calling for increasing production and 
reducing expenditure. As a result, financial revenue picked up gradually in June. The 
region's 1981 revenue was 415 million yuan [as heard], 14.7 percent more than the budget 
called for. This is an increase of 3 percent over the 1980 revenue. [Hohhot Nei Monggol 
Regional Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 21 Jan 82 SK] 

NEI MONGGOL GRAIN PRODUCTION -- Hanggin Hou Banner, in the Nei Monggol Autonomous Region, 
has actively implemented the responsibility system and promoted scientific farming with 
good results. In 1981, the banner produced 260 million jin of grain and sold 85 million 
jin to the state. The banner's per capita income was 190 yuan. [Hohhot Nei Monggol 
Regional Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 19 Feb 82 SK] 

NEI MONGGOL TRANSPORTATION -- Highway transportation departments in Nei Monggol Autonomous 
Region transported 32.47 million tons of goods in 1981, overfulfilling the annual plan 

by 7.4 percent. Passenger transport departments paid great attention to improving service 
and safety. The volume of highway passenger transport in 1981 was 22.63 million persons. 
[Hohhot Nei Monggol Regional Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 19 Jan 82 SK] 



S§K251259 Changchun Jilin Provincial Service in Mandarin 2200 24 Feb 82 

[Excerpts] According to JILIN RIBAO, the provincial CCP committee and govemment 
recently promulgated some regulations on reducing the "five excesses" and on improving 
work efficiency. 

1. Reduce the number and length of meetings: Dispensable meetings should never be held. 
We must not call massive, lengthy meetings to deal with problems which can be solved at 
small, brief meetings. The various administrative departments must not hold meetings 
under the aegis of leading party and government organs to deal with problems they can 
solve on their own. Meetings should be held effectively. Ample preparations should 

be made in advance and, after a meeting begins, it should concentrate discussions on 

the problems to be solved. Once a resolution is adopted, it should be resolutely 
implemented to solve problems [words indistinct]. 

Work conferences convened by the various administrative departments should not invite 
leading party and government comrades. If a meeting wants to invite party committee 
secretaries or deputy secretaries at the county level or above, it must apply for approval 
to the provincial CCP committee and obtain a certificate from the office under the 
provincial CCP committee. If a meeting wants to invite leading government cadres from 

the county level or above, it must also apply for approval to the provincial government and 
obtain a certificate from the office under the provincial government. No meetings, 
irrespective of their nature, may invite irrelevant persons to attend. Meetings should 

be held in a simple, frugal fashion; unnecessary formalities, extravagance and waste 
should be strictly banned. Conference bulletins should bc dispensed with except in 

the case of major meetings of exemplary and overall importance. Ordinary work conferences 
should not invite irrelevant leaders. It is forbidden to hold welcome or farewell 
receptions, take pictures or provide television coverage. Except for special seats for 
the chairman and speakers, ordinary meetings should not erect rostrums for irrelevent 
leaders. With the exception of emergency situations, a meeting's agenda must be submitted 
to higher levels for approval before the meeting is held. Reception departments are 
forbidden from arranging venues for meetings held without prior approval. Expenses 

for such meetings cannot be submitted to the treasurer's office for reimbursement. 

2. Reduce the number of documents: Nonessential documents should be dispensed with. 
Repetition of contents and generalizations should be avoided. Articles on work 
experiences that have been published in party periodicals and provincial newspapers 

should not be printed and distributed in documents. No dacuments should be issued on work 
that has been arranged at meetings. Speeches by leaders, as a rule, should not be printed 
and distributed in official documents. Documents on administrative departments should 
not be issued under the name of the provincial CCP committee or government. Efforts 

should be made to simplify the procedure of the circulation of a document and reduce 

the time and unnecessary links in circulation of a document. 

3. Reduce the number of bulletins, periodicals and tabloids: The various departments 
should earnestly sort out their existing bulletins and periodicals. From now on, bulletins 
should be dispensed with. Each department may publish one bulletin if it is «eemed 
absolutely necessary. Both the size and circulation of bulletins should be reduced. 

All departments at all levels should stop publishing tabloids. Statistics should be 
standarized in accordance with the statistics bureau. 

4, Streamline and abolish temporary organs: Temporary commissions, leading groups and 
offices should be streamlined. Efforts should be made to abolish all temporary 
organs except those charged with everyday work. 

5. Resolutely stop the tendency to organize welcome and farewell ceremonies, entertainment 
or excessive publicity for individuals: When a leading cadre goes to work at lower levels, 
it is forbidden to hold welcome or farewell ceremonies, serve cigarettes and tea or 
entertain them with public funds. 


Cadres should greet one another as "comrade" regardless of position. Party members 
should avoid greeting one another with their official titles. Exceps in activities 
involving foreigners, red-letter days and major representatives meetings, the local 
media should refrain from reporting the activities of provincial, municipal and 
prefectural leaders. When leading comrades participate in voluntary labor such as 
planting trees and sanitation work, photographing and televising such work are generally 
forbidden. If such activities are reported, scenes should be focused on the masses. 

Do not give prominent publicity to individuals. 

6. Overcome the sluggish work style: Leading party and government organs should 
gradually implement and improve the personal responsibility system from higher levels 
downward so that each cadre can attend to his duties and shoulder his responsibilities. 
We must promptly deal with reports submitted by lower levels. After reading a document 
which requires one's opinion, it is imperative to express opinions clearly, voicing 
approval or disapproval. 


SK210800 Changchun Jilin Provincial Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 20 Feb 82 
[Station short commentary: "Go Into Action To Protect Power Transmission Lines" ] 

[Text] The power industry is the driving force behind the national economy and power 
transmission lines are the artery of the power industry. It is of great significance 

to the four modernizations to protect transmission lines and to ensure power supply 
safety. Public security departments should closely cooperate with power departments 

to mobilize mines, plants, enterprises, organizations, PLA units, schools and rural 
communes and brigades along power transmission lines, publicize the government circular 
and power department regulations and ensure they are known to everybody. Mass organiza- 
tions should be established along transmission lines and the responsibility system 
should be implemented to protect transmission lines. Units and individuals which 
contribute to protecting transmission lines should be commended and rewarded. Criminals 
who cause power accidents and great losses by stealing or disrupting transmission 
facilities should be punished according to law. 


SK210709 Shenyang Liaoning Provincial Service in Mandarin 1100 GMT 20 Feb 82 

[Text] The northeast power administration and the provincial public security department 
recently issued a joint circular urging the various municipalities and prefectures to 
step up protection of power transmission facilities. In recent years larceny cases 
involving power transmission facilities have been reported frequently in many parts of 
the province. These caused a loss of 2 million yuan and 1.6 million kWh of electricity 
and directly affected power supply safety. 

The circular points out: Power is the driving force behind the development of the 
national economy. It is incumbent upon the power departments, public security depart- 
ments and governments at all levels to ensure the safe operation of power transmission 
lines. Therefore we must step up protection of power transmission facilities, improve 
safeguards along transmission lines and strengthen the coordination among organs in 
charge of protecting transmission lines. 

The circular calls for popularizing the state regulations on protecting transmission 
lines and the provincial government circular to this effect and making them known to 
everyone. Law breakers who damage power transmission lines should be resolutely 
arrested and punished. Concentrated efforts should be made to promptly investigate 
cases of theft of transmission facilities and disruption of power transmission. 



HK240203 Yinchuan NINGXIA RIBAO in Chinese 9 Feb 82 p 1 
[Commentator's article: "Get a Good Grasp of Preparations for the Population Census"] 

[Text] The CCP Central Committee and the State Council have decided to set zero hour on 

1 July this year as the official time for the third national census. This is an important 
event in the social life of China. Recently, the people's government of the autonomous 
region held a meeting to make dispositions and arrangements for our regional census, and 
preparations for the census will soon be developed throughout the region. Leading members 
and cadres at various levels throughout the region must conscientiously implement the 
guidelines of this meeting, unify their thinking, raise their understanding, heighten 
their fighting spirit, get a good grasp of preparations and make a success of the task of 
taking the consus. 

The census is a large-scale social investigation of our country's national conditions. 

The objective of struggle of our party is to build China into a modern and strong socialist 
country with a high degree of democracy and civilization. To realize this objective, 

we must have a clear and thorough understanding of our country's national conditions 

in order to formulate correct policies and principles as well as plans for economic 
construction. National conditions include such aspects as society, economy, territory, 
resources and population, of which the population aspect is the most fundamental national 
condition. China has a population of 1 billion people, of whom 800 million are peasants. 
This reality of our country is different from that of any other country, and we must always 
proceed from .his reality in all our work. Therefore, taking a census, obtaining a clear 
picture of the population situation and grasping the fundamental national condition are 
most important for the four modernizations. In a certain sense, this is the basic work 

of the four modernizations. 

This census will ascertain 19 demographic factors. Each of these factors contains data 

we must have on hand to understand our population situation, has a direct bearing on the 
development of political, economic, educational, scientific and cultural undertakings and 
is the basis for the planning of our policies and principles. For example, obtaining 

a clear picture of the size of the population and such factors as births, deaths and family 
planning, we will be able to control the trend of population growth and its effect on the 
national economy and solve such problems as water supply, food and housing in a planned 
manner. Obtaining a clear picture of the amount of labor forces in our country and their 
distributions, occupations and sectoral compositions, we will be able to readjust the 
structure of the national economy accordingly so that political and economic development 
will be more in keeping with objective laws and gradually solve such problems as employ- 
ment. Obtaining a clear picture of the cultural situation will contribute to proceeding 
from reality, adopting effective measures to develop educational and cultural undertakings 
and fostering qualified pepple with all-round moral, intellectual and physical development. 
Besides this, a clear understanding of the statistics of every factor will also supply a 
vast amount of accurate and reliable data for the research of social science. 

As ours is a minority nationalities region, the taking of a census will also be of even 
greater significance to our region. The census will provide a clear picture of the 
numbers, the distribution and the cultural and occupational composition of minority 
nationalities in our region, and enable us to better formulate and implement the nation- 
ality policy of the party, strengthen autonomy in nationality areas and help the minority 
nationalist communities to develop political and economic as well as cultural and educa- 
tional undertakings according to their respective conditions and, thereby, promote a 
more vigorous development of the socialist cause of our region. 

In snort, in the present day development of the socialist cause, the utilization of a 
certain amount of manpower and resources to make a success of the census is very necessary. 
Here, what counts is the high degree of importance the leading members at various levels 
must ideologically attach to this work. Some people hold that the census is nothing but 

a counting of heads and donot consider it to be important. 

I. 26 Feb 82 T 



This way of looking at things is wrong. As we have mentioned before, we cannot overlook 
the important significance of the census. On the other hand, we must also see that this 
census is larger in scale and encompasses more demographic factors than the two previous 
censuses. This requires a high degree of accuracy as well as the use of modern scientific 
and technological means to process the statistics,and the tasks are heavy. As a result 

of the 10 years of internal disorder, the work of population supervision has been seriously 
disrupted. We have no clear picture of the population base figure and the concrete situa- 
tion is also very complicated. It is absolutely impossible to carry out a census without 
hard and meticulous work. Therefore, leading members at various levels must fully under- 
stand the importance and complexity of this census and must never approach it lightly. 

To realistically strengthen leadership, we must first properly carry out propaganda work 
and take advantage of newspapers, radio broadcasts, television broadcasts as well as 
various blackboard bulletins and artistic performances to publicize it with great fanfare, 
so that all the people will understand the significance and methods of the census. At the 
same time, we must set up and strengthen census-taking organs and step up the allocation 
of personnel as quickly as possible and create conditions so that they will work with one 
heart and one mind. We must insist on selecting and allocating good census takers and 
carry out intensive training according to the condition of the census takers. Moreover, 
we must also make a success of population consolidation work and material preparations. 

We must also point out here that the census is not only the affair of various local party 
and government leaders, but also the affair of the whole party, and all departments and 
units must attach importance to it. Newspapers, publications and cultural departments 
must coordinate by carrying out various forms of propaganda and other departments and units 
must also give their energetic support. They must ensure the quality and quantity of the 
personnel required by the census and they definitely must not do things in a perfunctory 
manner because of departmental selfishness and affect the work adversely. In the census, 
they must also pay attention to diligence and thrift. Money which ought to be spent must 
be spent and work which ought to be done must be done. However, they definitely must not 
be extravagant or wasteful. They must try to do more work with less money and must 
resolutely save what ought not be spent. They must maintain the fice tradition of hard 

To conduct a census in a country with a tion of 1 billion people is unprecedented 

in world history. It has aroused not on .e attention of the people of the whole country 
but also the attention of the whole world. Now we have only 4 more months of preparations 
left until the formal registration date of the census on 1 July. We must give full play 

to the superiority of the socialist system, give play to the role of party organizations 

at various levels, fully carry out preparations, make a success of the census and win 

honor for the state and for socialism. 


SK251159 Xining Qinghai Provincial Service in Mandarin 2330 GMT 24 Feb 82 

[Text] QINGHAI RIBAO today carries a commentator's article discussing ways to learn from 
and catch up with the advanced. 

The article points out: Launching activities to learn from and catch up with the advanced, 
we must have the courage to support the righteous and eliminate all evils. We must note 
that the adverse influence caused by the 10-year turmoil has not been completely eliminated 
in some districts and units and among a small number of people. There still exist such 
phenomena whereby some people are afraid of becoming advanced individuals and of fostering 
exemplary cases, whereby talented persons have no way to show their abilities and nobody 
bothers to learn from the advanced or to help those who have lagged behind. The advanced 
individuals and units are often being attacked, criticized and envied by those who are not 
doing as well. There are also some cynical remarks that it is not the people's duty to 
become advanced individuals and to make contributions and that being backward or relying 

on the state for grain is legitimate. These are all big obstacles hindering our campaign 
to study from and to catch up with the advanced. 


Leaders at all levels must exert efforts to correct the above-mentioned erroneous words 
and deeds, be brave in supporting the righteous and eliminating evils and be bold in pro- 
tecting and commending the advanced so as to foster a general mood that it is glorious 

and noble to become one of the advanced, and to steel the people's confidence and courage 
in emulating and catching up with the advanced. By doing so, the people will take the 

lead in learning from and catching up with the advanced, helping those lagging behind, 
studying others' strong points to offset their weaknesses and making contributions jointly. 

The commentator's article continues: We must devise plans to emulate and catch up with 

the advanced and, according to our specific situations, set forth struggle goals which must 
be reached in 1 to 2 years or even in 3 to 5 years. Enterprises which have lots of problems 
or are less developed must, all the more so, aim high, set forth struggle goals and march 
toward the advanced target step by step and in a down-to-earth way. 


SK220712 Xining Qinghai Provincial Service in Mandarin 2330 GMT 21 Feb 

[Excerpts] According to our correspondent, the provincial people's government recently 

held a forum on vegetable production and marketing for Xining municipality and Minhe, Ledu, 
Pingan and Datong Counties. In light of some problems in our province's vegetable production 
and marketing, the forum called for efforts to strengthen leadership in a planned way over 
vegetable production and marketing to ensure a good supply of vegetables in urban areas. 

The forum suggested that teams specializing in vegetable growing should concentrate their 
energy on vegetable production and not replace the production of vegetables with industrial 
sideline products. Responsibility systems adopted by these teams should be suitable to their 
special characteristics and should stress the system of signing contracts for specialized 
production and assessing payments in accordance with output. Vegetable output should be 
equal to or slightly surpass the needed quantity. Vegetables should be produced and marketed 
in a planned way. Vegetable marketing departments must sign contracts with teams specializing 
in vegetable growing in accordance with the state plan and work out clear methods for rewards 
and compensation. All vegetables produced under contract must be marketed to state vegetable 
companies and should not be marketed privately. On the other hand, state vegetable companies 
should not refuse to buy these vegetables. 

With regard to the price of vegetables, the forum held that, with the primary goal of basically 
stabilizing the retail prices of vegetables, it is permissible to properly raise or cut 
vegetable prices because of changes in the seasons, in quality, in varieties and differences 
in retail and wholesale prices, so as to enable retail shops to have good prospects for gain. 

A short commentary by our correspondent (Mou Ping) entitled 'We Must Do a Good Job in 
Vegetable Production" states: Vegetables are a major food for the people and therefore should 
be grown well. In recent years, the general vegetable supply situation in urban and mining 
areas has been good. However, the people are not quite satisfied with vegetable quality, 
variety and price. The supply of vegetables is unstable -- sometimes good, sometimes bad -- 
and the off seasons are very long. There are many objective reasons for this problem; the 
main one is poor weather and geographical conditions. From a subjective standpoint, some 
teams specializing in vegetable growing fail to implement the principle of mainly growing 
vegetables in suburban areas and utilize funds and labor to develop the production of indus- 
trial sideline products. Another reason for this problem is that many vegetable growing 
fields have been used by collectives and individuals to build houses. In addition, scienti- 
fic research work on vegetables cannot meet needs, the varieties of vegetables are too few 
and plant diseases and insect pests are serious. 


The forum on vegetable production sponsored by the provincial people's government mapped 
out ways to solve these problems, and the suggestions raised at this forum are very 
important. Vegetable growing areas should conscientiously study and implement them 

in cooperation with others so as to achieve success in vegetable production and to 
ensure a good supply of vegetables for urban people. 


HK260331 Xian Shaanxi Provincial Service in Mandarin 2300 GMT 25 Feb 82 

[Excerpts] Shaanxi Provincial CCP Committee First Secretary Ma Wenrui has made a speech 
at the provincial congress of progressive collectives and individuals in planned 
parenthood work. He said: Promoting planned parenthood work and properly controlling 
population growth is a major problem facing our country. Shaanxi's population was only 
13 million at the time of liberation. It is now over 28 million, more than double that 
figure. The area of arable land per person has declined from 5 mu in the early 
postliberation years to 2 mu. It is only something over 1 mu in Shangluo, Ankang and 
Hanzhong Prefectures. The province's grain output has more than doubled in the past 30 
years, but the amount of grain available per person declined from 619 jin in 1956 to 
530 jin last year, a fall of more than 80 jin. The excessive speed of our population 
increase has completely canceled out the increase in grain production. This is not 
just a question of food. The people have also encountered very great difficulties in 
clothing, housing, employment, education, transportation, public health and so on. 
Practice has proven that the sooner we become aware of the population problem, the more 
we can gain the initiative, and the later we become aware of it, the more passive we 
become. The difficulties will get bigger and bigger if we fail to get a good grasp of 
planned parenthood work in the future. 

We should say that Shaanxi has scored very great success in planned parenthood work. 
From 1971 to 1981, the population increase was 2.9 million less than what it would 
normally have been, and we initially reversed the situation of unplanned population 
growth and thus created favorable conditions for developing the national economy. Even 
more important, as a result of a long period of propaganda and education and practice in 
work, the leaders at all levels and the masses have gained a certain degree of under- 
standing of the strategic importance of planned parenthood work. More and more comrades 
can see the gravity of the population question. More and more comrades are demanding 
that resolute and effectives steps be taken to control excessive speed of population 
growth. The masses have enhanced awareness in practicing planned parenthood. 

However, our work lags far behind the demands of the central authorities on controlling 
population growth, and also when compared with progressive provinces and municipalities. 
Last year the province's planned population growth rate was 9 per 1,000. According 

to initial statistics, the actual figure reached 9.65, which was about the same as the 
1979 level. We did not fulfill the population plan. Although there are many objective 
reasons for this, the main problem was one of work. Many places have somewhat relaxed 
planned parenthood work since the second half of 1980. There has been a rather serious 
laissez-faire attitude. Population growth in some places results from loss of control. 
The number of babies born outside the plan in 1981 accounted for 40 percent of the 
province's births. The momentum of increase in the natural population growth rate after 
its decline is very strong. The tasks of planned parenthood work are therefore rather 

We must, in particular, point out that some people lack sufficient understanding of 
planned parenthood work, especially of the notion of each couple having only one child. 
They babble that for each couple to have only one child does not conform to the national 
condition or find favor with the people. They even describe it as leftist ideology. 
This view is extremely wrong. 

As everyone knows, China's population is great, the base figure is high and growth rapid. 
Meanwhile, the level of industrial and agricultural production is still not high; our 
economy and culture are rather backward. This is our national condition. 


The people urgently demand to speed up the four modernigations program; this is what finds 
favor with the people. Permitting blind population increase is bound to increase the burden 
on the state and people and affect the speed of national construction and the improvement of 
people's living standards. That would truly not conform with the national condition or find 
favor with the people. We must clearly explain this reasoning to the cadres and masses. 

Comrade Ma Wenrui said: We must stress the following points: 
1, Everyone must fully understand the strategic significance of planned parenthood work. 

2. We must seriously carry out the policies. The instructions of the Central Committee 
and State Council demand that every couple among state cadres, staff and workers and urban 
residents have only one child, except where approval has been given for more in exceptional 
circumstances. In the rural areas we must universally advocate that each couple has only 
one child. Arrangements can be made in a planned way for certain couples who want a 
second child on account of practical difficulties, after examination has been carried out 
and approval given. Nobody may have a third child whatever the circumstances. It is 
necessary to get a particularly good grasp of late marriage and parenthood work. 

Certain stipulations raised by the instructions of the Central Committee and State Council 
are not covered by the provincial regulations. For instance, on questions of rewards 

and care for single children and their families, the province can act according to the 
spirit of the instructions and first decide on some supplementary regulations and [word 
indistinct] methods in light of local conditions, and ensure that the policies are 
properly implemented. 

Party and CYL members and the whole body of cadres, staff and workers must take the 

lead in implementing the party and state regulations on planned parenthood. Those who refuse 
to practice planned parenthood or to heed advice will, in serious cases that have a bad 
effect, be subject to the necessary disciplinary punishment in addition to economic 
sanctions. Discipline inspection departments at all levels must get a good grasp of this 
work. We must continue to expose and deal resolute blows at bad people who sabotage 

planned parenthood. 

3. Strengthen leadership. This is the key to promoting planned parenthood work. 

The party committees and government at all levels must overcome the laissez-faire approach 
and do well in grasping the two kinds of production and the two kinds of responsibility 

I, 26 Feb 82 CHINA Ul 


OW241303 Beijing in Mandarin to Taiwan 1830 GMT 23 Feb 82 

[Talk by Jia Yibin, Standing Committee member of the CPPCC National Committee, on his visit 
to the United States as a member of a CPPCC delegation -- recorded] 

[Excerpts] On the eve of our National Day last year, Chairman Ye Jianying, in an interview 
with XINHUA reporters, made public a nine-point proposal for the realization of China's 
reunification with the return of Taiwan to the motherland. On 9 October last year, at a 
meeting to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the 1911 revolution, Chairman Hu Yaobang, 
in his capacity as a leading member of the CCP, invited Mr Chiang Ching-kuo and other per- 
sonages from all walks of life in Taiwan to visit the mainland. Comrade Hu Yaobang's 
speech at the meeting demonstrates the broadmindedness of the CCP and the desire of the 
entire Chinese nation for the peaceful reunification of the motherland. Moreover, it also 
drew favorable reactions at home and abroad. 

At about this time, China's CPPCC National Committee delegation paid a friendly visit to 
the United States from 28 October to 12 November at the invitation of the U.S. National 
Committee on U.S.-China relations. 

I was deeply moved and impressed by the friendliness shown by the American people to the 
Chinese people. All the American friends our delegation met told us that they hoped the 
friendship between the American and Chinese people would be everlasting and that the 
friendly relations between the two countries would continue to develop. I had talks with 
many old American friends who were formerly in the U.S. Army and Navy. They said that 
Chairman Ye's nine-point proposal is reasonable, adding that it is conducive to peace in 

the Far East and the world. They hoped that China's peaceful reunification will be realized 
at an early date. Some American Government officials and some U.S. senators and congressmen 
also noted that it is necessary to develop friendly relations and cooperation between the 
United States and China. They all approved of China's »eaceful reunification, adding that 
the nine-point proposal is very good. Reagan also said: This is very good. I hope you 
will realize it peacefully. 

Many American friends and people with insight have openly expressed their opposition to 
U.S. arms sales to Taiwan. They have openly criticized those in the U.S. Government and 
Congress who advocate arms sales to Taiwan and who say that old friends should not be 

Chairman Ye Jianying's nine-point proposal embodies the fundamental interests of the Chinese 
nation. Our compatriots in Taiwar will not enjoy a truly bright future unless Taiwan is 
returned to the motherland and its peaceful reunification is realized. The present inter- 
national situation is characterized by increasing turbulence and instability. To make the 
Chinese nation strong internationally, we must build a highly developed material civiliza- 
tion as well as a highly developed spiritual civilization at home. Moreover, the CCP and 
the Kuomintang of China should hold talks on a reciprocal basis so that the two ~ irties will 
cooperate for the third time to jointly carry out the task of national construc on after 
the realization of peaceful reunification. Not only the Chinese people, includiig those 

in Taiwan, but also the people of various countries of the world, wish to see China peace- 
fully reunified. 


HK240809 Beijing RENMIN RIBAO in Chinese 19 Feb 82 p 3 

[Report: "Deep Feelings of Kinship, Infinite Longings for Each Other -- Newspapers of 
Taiwan Carry Articles on Longing for Home During Spring Festival Period"] 

[Text] During the Chinese Spring Festival this year, the newspapers of Taiwan published 
many articles recollecting the Chinese New Year celebrations in mainland China and expressing 
feelings of kinship and longings for home. 

I, 26 Feb 82 U 2 CHINA 

During the Spring Festival period, the CHUNG YANG JIH PAO of Taiwan carried an article by 
writer Chi Chun in its supplement entitled "The Joy of Spring" recalling the happy Chinese 
New Year celebrations during her childhood in her native village of Quxi in Wenzhou, 
Zhejiang. She wrote: "The warmth of the stove, the bright red color of the lanterns, the 
noise and excitement of gongs and drums of temple plays always filled you with the warm and 
happy atmosphere of the New Year." In recalling the New Year party, she wrote: "Many of those 
whom we normally regarded as enemies were also invited to the party. When the firecrackers 
were set off, all became friends again and everything was forgotten, In thinking of it now, 
the New Year celebration was in fact very important. All unpleasant matters were laid aside 
at the end of the year, and on the first day of the new year, everybody wished each other 
good fortune in a most joyful and magnanimous frame of mind." In conclusion, this well-known 
writer earnestly wrote: "If we could adjust the mood of everyday life in the manner of 
celebrating the new year, would there still be any dispute among people?" 

The LIEN HO PAO of Taiwan organized a "New Year's Page" feature in its supplement for the 
Spring Festival. The editor wrote: "I hope that the ‘New Year's Page' will open the door 
to a bright and beautiful spring for you."" Liang Shih-chiu's "New Year Celebrations" 
recalled the scene of S;ring Festival celebrations in Beijing of his childhood. When he 
wrote about the tangled fighting among the warlords, he emotionally said: "From that time 
on each year would cast a shadow on my mind that could not be dispelled, Everybody said: 
Happy New Year, but I did not know what there was to be happy about." Yang Ming-hsien's 
"The New Spring Comes With the First Month of the Lunar Year" introduced the customs of 

the people celebrating the Spring Festival in Beijing. He cherished the memory of such 
scenes on the eve of the new year as "dumplings steaming in the pot" and "the entire family 
sitting happily around the table and enjoying a sumptuous New Year's Eve dinner with rich 
native flavor."' Liang Hsuan, in "I Do Not Want To Get Rid of Old Customs," remembered the 
pieces of red paper with the characters "no taboos and restrictions" put up during the 
Chinese New Year. He thought that "no taboos and restrictions represented the greatest 
broadmindedness of people and a sign of great tolerance. If we could print these words in 
our minds at the beginning of the year and always remember them, we would indeed be fortunate 
people. We could at least learn something from them: accepting all people, matters and 
things, we could be on friendly terms with people and with the universe and become friends 
with all those agreeable or disagreeable to us." 

In Hsia Yuan-yu's "On Reading 800 years of History" carried in the supplement of CHUNGGUO 
SHIHPAO of Taiwan on the fourth day of the Chinese New Year, the writer introduced the 
"history of China" since the Song Dynasty and explained the "changes" of dynasties. 

These articles generally do not have the "stereotyped" tone of the past, but have quite 
sincerely portrayed warm recollections and deep longings for the motherland, native places 
and kinsfolk. Moreover, from meanings which can only be sensed in the articles, we can 
perceive precisely the aspirations the people of Taiwan are trying to express today. 

"Every year the flowers are similar, year by year the people are different." "New scenes 
are always appearing" in the motherland and conditions in Taiwan are also changing. The 
feelings of kinship and longing for home published in the newspapers of Taiwan during the 
Spring Festival are a testimonial. The infinite longings of people on both shores during 
the Spring Festival have further explained the desire of everyone for the early approach 
of the day of the reunification of the motherland and the reunion of family members. This 
has already become an irresistible historical trend. 


OW211046 Beijing XINHUA Domestic Service in Chinese 1640 GMT 20 Feb 82 

[Text] Xiamen, 20 Feb (XINHUA) -- Two thousand people from all walks of life in Fujian 
Province gathered at a meeting held in Xiamen this morning to commemorate the 320th 
anniversary of the recovery of Taiwan by Zheng Chenggong. 

26 Feb 82 CHINA 

Wu Hongxiang, director of the commemorative meeting, secretary of the Fujian Provincial 
CCP Committee and chairman of the provincial CPPCC committee, addressed the meeting. He 
pointed out that Zheng Chenggong is a great national hero and patriot in Chinese history. 
In April 1661, after braving hardships and dangers in crossing the Strait, the several 
tens of thousands of Chinese troops he headed fought heroically for 9 months against 

the Dutch colonialists and forced them to surrender on 1 Febreary in 1662, thus returning 
to the motherland's embrace our country's territory of Taiwan, which had been occupied 

by the Dutch colonialists for as long as 38 years. Zheng Chenggong's patriotic thinking 
and his contributions to the Chinese people were prominently demonstrated by his defiance 
of brute force, resistance to aggression, recovery of Taiwan and the safeguarding of our 
motherland's territorial integrity and unification. 

We Hongxiang said: Our motherland has now become an independent new China, one which is 
free from domination by any foreign power, a country that had been enslaved, oppressed 
and exploited by various imperialist powers for more than a century. Under the patriotic 
banner, our Taiwan compatriots will one day join the people on the mainland in a common 
struggle to accomplish the glorious task of unifying our motherland. We hope that the 
KMT authorities in Taiwan will put the national interests above everything else and con- 
tribute their part in realizing the great cause of national reunification. 

Wu Hongxiang pointed out that the contral authorities have authorized Fujian to carry out 
a special policy and flexible measures and set up a special economic zone in Xiamen for 
conducting its economic activities with foreign countries. He welcomes Taiwan compatriots 
to set up various types of economic undertakings in the zone and said that their legal 
rights, interests and profits would be protected. 

In recent years, many fishermen from Taiwan have come to coastal Fujian to seek shelter 
from typhoons, to have their ships repaired, their illnesses treated and to tour the 
province, and all of them have been warmly received. The number of Taiwan compatriots 
returning to Fujian forsightseeing, visiting their relatives and seeking their roots 
has also been increasing. Dozens of them have returned to settle or to work in the 

Fu Bocui, vice chairman of the Fujian provincial people's congress and director of the 
provincial revolutionary Guomindang committee, also addressed the meeting on behalf of 
various democratic parties. He said: Xiamen is only separated from Taiwan, Penghu, 
Kinmen and Mazu by narrow waters. While we remember national hero Zheng Chenggong we 
miss our flesh and blood on the other side of the Taiwan Strait even more. We hope the 
Taiwan authorities will correctly understand the nine-point proposal presented by NPC 
Standing Committee Vice Chairman Ye Jianying, put the national cause and the national 
interests above everything else, relinquish the previous grudges and carry out the third 
cooperation with the CCP so as to accomplish the great cause of national reunification 
and console the ancestors of the Chinese people. 

Wu Meiyu, deputy magistrate of Nanan County, the hometown of Zheng Chenggong, said at 

the meeting that, after the recovery of Taiwan by Zheng Chenggong, many commanders and 
soldiers of the Southern Song Dynasty settled in Taiwan, and so the people of 

Zheng Chenggong's hometown and the people in Taiwan have inseparable flesh-and-blood ties. 
She said: The best way to commemorate Zheng Chenggong is to carry forward the patriotic 
spirit, ardently love the great socialist motherland and dedicate heart and soul to 
building a strong country. She hopes that people in Taiwan will return to tour hometowns, 
the national hero's tomb and other historical sites. 

Zhu Tianshun, president of the Fujian Provincial Association for the Promotion of 
Friendship Among Taiwan Compatriots; Xu Zuyi, a representative from Xiamen; Professor 
Fu Jialin, vice president of the Xiamen University; and Yu Xinhe, a native of Shijing 
village in Nanan County and a Hong Kong compatriot, also addressed the meeting. 

I, 26 Feb 82 CHINA Wil 


HK260500 Hong Kong TA KUNG PAO in Chinese 25 Feb 82 p 2 
{"Special Feature" by Han Feng [1383 7364]: "Human Rights, National Rights and Hegemonism") 

[Text] In recent years, the term "human rights" has again been in vogue in international 
political life, "Human rights" are discussed nearly every day in Western papers, particularly 
in American papers, The U.S. Government even wants to become a "champion" in "respecting 
human rights" and "protecting human rights." 

However, it is a pity that glaring flaws are seen on the great banner of "respecting human 
rights" held aloft by the United States. In South Korea, Chon Tu-hwan is butchering students. 
The United States has never given protection to victims of these atrocities of trampling 

on human rights. The perpetrators of apartheid in South Africa are persecuting the black 
people and the United States has never uttered a word of indignation. Nor has the United 
States mentioned the atrocities of the military government in El Salvador, but instead has 
given it support. 

Why is it that the United States, which is holding aloft the great banner of safeguarding 
"human rights," turns a blind eye to these shocking crimes in violation of human rights 
and does not take any action? It turns out that this banner of "protecting human rights" 
has become a "magic wand" for the U.S. politicians to play "political magic" with. It 

can achieve different magical effects in different countries and regions and at different 
times. Sometimes they "make a fuss over a trifle," sometimes they "do little about a major 
issue,'' sometimes they "do nothing about an issue," sometimes they "make a fuss over a 
major issue" and sometimes they "make a fuss over nothing." 

Of course, we should respect true human rights. But, after all, human rights are the internal 
affair of a country. They usually have nothing to do with the relations between countries. 
Compared with "national rights" -- a country's sovereign rights over its territory, 
territorial air, waters and resources -- they are always secondary. No matter what fuss may 
be made over “human rights," at most some political influence will be exercised and force 
will not be resorted to. As for national rights, they are much more serious because they are 
not the rights of a small number of people but the rights of all the people of a country. 
Therefore, they have always occupied an important place in international relations. Few 
wars have been caused by issues of “human rights." But many wars have been caused by 
violating a country's sovereignty. Nearly all international wars have been caused by 
violating a country's sovereignty with armed force. Obviously, respecting national rights 

is a matter of prime importance in guarding against war and safeguarding peace. It is 
certain that only by respecting the sovereignty of other countries can there be peace. Some 
people may say: In 1968, Soviet troops occupied Czechoslovakia and violated its 

sovereignty, yet no war broke out. Be patient. Sooner or later the Czechoslovak people 

will take up arms to resist the aggressors. Good deeds will be rewarded and evildoings 

will be retributed. It is only a matter of time! 

Whether or not sovereignty is respected is a very sensitive matter to a country, particularly 
to a Third World country. Most of the Third World countries have suffered for a long time 
from imperialist and colonial rule and oppression. They have drawn lessons from their 

bitter experiences and they will never permit violation of their sovereignty again. "Do 

unto others as you would have them do unto you." They also pay much attention to respecting 
the sovereignty of other countries. 

However, superpowers have another logic -- violating the sovereignty of another country 
has in fact become their profession. Brezhnev's "theory of limited sovereignty" (which 
is also called "international dictatorship") is the "sweeping generalization" of this 

26 Feb 82 W 2 CHINA 

It “has the right" to send its troops into member states of the "big socialist family." 
It also “has the right" to drive its tanks into a "neighboring country of the Soviet 
Union." The other superpower, the United States, has also done foolish things of this 
kind. The U.S. Government's insistence on selling arms to the Taiwan authorities is a 
violation of China's sovereignty. In the Sino-U.S. communique on establishing 
diplomatic relations, the U.S. Government already affirmed that "there is only one 
China" and "the Government of the People's Republic of China is China's sole legal 
government." It also affirmed that "Taiwan is a part of China" and stated that the 
United States would sever its diplomatic relations with Taiwan from then on. Three 
years have now passed since these "three acknowledgements" and "one severance of rela- 
tions." Yet the United States still insists on selling arms to Taiwan in order to 
obstruct the reunification of China by peaceful means. As a matter of fact, it is 
prompting Taiwan to "launch a counterattack against the mainland." How can China 
tolerate this! The United States is talking glibly about "human rights" every day. Why 
then is it enthusiastic in violating China's sovereignty and interfering in China's 
internal affairs? There can only be one answer to this: To date, some people in the 
United States are still clinging to their hegemonist ambition toward Taiwan! 

We should like to offer a piece of advice to the U.S. Government and the public: While 
talking glibly about "protecting human rights,"' they should learn to respect the 
national rights of other countries. In face of the Soviet overall expansion and out of 
consideration of the strategic advantages, the three successive administrations of the 
two major parties in the United States have pursued the policy of establishing normal 
relations with China in the past decade. In order to normalize relations, sincerity is 
needed and China's sovereignty should at least be respected. What type of role are you 
playing if you slip the left hand into someone's pocket while shaking hands with him? 
We should also point out that the United States has not only directly violated China's 
sovereignty on the question of Taiwan but also violated the sovereignty of the Arab 
countries in the Middle East by putting Israel under its aegis. The fire of war has 
been repeatedly kindled there. The United States has driven its friends to the side of 
its enemy and has offended many Arab countries. Even the U.S. ambassador to the United 
Nations also complained a few days ago that the U.S. policy in the Middle East is 
unpopular in the United Nations and many countries do not support this policy. 

The United States does not respect the national rights of other countries but prattles 
about “human rights."' This is something very strange in the foreign affairs of the 
United States. Violating the national rights of other countries while talking glibly 
about human rights is in fact seeking hegemony while holding aloft the signboard of 
"human rights!" 


Part I 

HK161110 Hong Kong WEN WEI PO in Chinese 14 Feb 82 p 1 

[Part I of specia] feature by correspondent Lan Ching-chung [5663 7231 0022): 
“Guangdong and Hong Kong Will Both Benefit From Inviting Tenders for Exploiting the 
Oilfields -- Petroleum Industry Vice Minister Zhang Wenbin Gives Details"] 

[Text] In the middle of last month, following the State Council's adoption of "regula- 
tions of the People's Republic of China on the exploitation of offshore petroleum 
resources in cooperation with foreign enterprises," this reporter visited Zhang Wenbin, 
vice minister of petroleum industry, and general manager of the Chinese Oil Company 
[zhongguo shiyou gongsi -- 0022 0948 4258 3111 0361 0674] to discuss the various 
important aspects of China's efforts to open up the vast storehouse of undersea oil. 
These regulations were officially made public on 10 February and in view of the 1980's 
energy crisis they make very encouraging news. 

I, 26 Feb 82 W 3 CHINA 

The Pearl River Estuary Is Equal to Four Daqings 

According to the different estimates made by foreign oil companies, one area of the South 
China Sea -- the Pearl River estuary basin -- has oil reserves of at least several billion 
tons and possibly as much as 30 or more billion tons. In other words, even the lowest 
estimate means that the area is considerably richer in oil than all of the oilfields dis- 
covered so far in China -- the Daqing oilfield has 2,7 billion tons. Thi. places it among 
the top oilfields in the world. Furthermore, the East China Sea may show even greater 
promise. There will be plenty of time for the development of China's oil industry. It 

is of far-reaching significance that we should speed up the process of oil exploration by 
using foreign capital and technology in accordance with the principle of protecting national 
sovereignty. The promulgation of these regulations constitute important legislative pre- 
paration for the invitation of tenders for the exploitation of China's offshore oil. 

So that the exploitation of offshore oil reserves may be carried out in cooperation with 
foreign enterprises, preparatory work has already been completed for the establishment of 

the China National Offshore Oil Corporation. This company will be responsible for organizing 
the invitation of tenders. The corporation will also establish four regional companies: 
Western South China Sea Oil Company, Eastern South China Sea Oil Company, Southern Yellow 

Sea Oil Company and the Bohai Sea Oil Company. Each one of these regional companies will 
establish various specialized companies and will set up production supply bases. The Eastern 
South China Sea Oil Company, which is to be established in Guangzhou, will play a major 

role in the construction of the Chiwan petroleum base in Shekou, Shenzhen, turning it into 

a modern central base for South China Sea oil work within the year. Aside from preparations 
for a series of basic construction projects such as the pier, plans are also in hand for 

the training of managers, technicians and translators. A base area in Shantou is also 

being planned. The oilfields in the Gulf of Tonkin and in the waters around Yinggehai 

are under the management of the western company in Zhanjiang and a forward supply base 

will be built at Sanya on Hainan Island. 

Tens of Thousands of Chinese and Foreign Technicians and Workers To Enter Guangdong 

It is expected that once oil exploration work begins in the South China Sea, thousands 
of technicians and staff members of foreign oil companies as well as tens of thousands 
of Chinese workers and technicians will have to be moved in to man the vast production 
line and the logistics bases. In order to meet the needs of this new development, the 
richly endowed Province of Guangdong is now planning the establishment of the South China 
Sea Oil Logistics Service Corporation. This massive service enterprise will establish 
separate specialized companies to provide boats and ships, helicopters, communications 
satellites, accommodation, tourist facilities, food services, labor services and repair 
services. A communications satellite station is to be built in Guangzhou and a food 
service company will provide the offshore rigs with food. Work is to be stepped up in 
the construction of facilities such as piers, a-.ports, warehouses, support bases, 
accommodation, offices and tourist facilities. 

Vice Minister Zhang Wenbin predicts that Shenzhen will develop into an oil city. The exploi- 
tation of the South China Sea's vast wealth of offshore oil reserves will not only directly 
promote the development of sea, land and air transport facilities in the seaboard base area 
of Guangdong but will also set off a chain reaction of development in industry, technology, 
tourism, commerce and agriculture, promoting the prosperity of the whole economy. Having 
adopted special policies and flexible measures, Guangdong Province is already leading the 
way and the awakening of the oil industry in the South China Sea will expand the province's 
sphere of economic activity and development even further. Moreover, Hong Kong and Macao 
will also benefit greatly from this. The establishment of oil bases and the provision 

of logistic service facilities also provides an opportunity for cooperation with foreign 

I, 26 Feb 82 W 4 CHINA 

Tenders Being Called for 43 Zones 

Faced with the world energy crisis, people are increasingly placing their hopes on offshore 
oil reserves. Between 1979 and 1980, 48 oil companies from 13 different countries carried 
out geological survey work lasting 16 months on the oilfields in the south Yellow Sea and 
South China Sea, for which tenders are now being invited. This work covered an area of 
41,600 square kilometers. It has been agreed that China will publicly invite tenders for 
one third of the total area surveyed. In accordance with this agreement, the first round 
of bidding will cover five offshore regions: the Pearl River estuary basin in the South 
China Sea, the southern section of the Gulf of Tonkin, the western section of the water 
around Yinggehai and, the northern and southern sections of the south Yellow Sea. Tenders 
will be invited for the 43 contract zones that have been drawn out in the offshore area 

of 15,000 square kilometers. (In reality this is more than one third of the total area 

Part II 
HK161114 Hong Kong WEN WEI PO in Chinese 15 Feh 82 pp 1, 2 

[Part II of special feature by correspondent Lan Ching-chung [5663 7231 0022]: "Advance 
Toward the Huge Oil Treasure House Under the Sea -- an Interview With Petroleum Industry 
Vice Minister Zhang Wenbin"] 

[Text] Since carrying out geophysical prospecting and drilling over a vast area of the 
South China Sea and in the southern part of the Yellow Sea, China has made many preparations 
for exploitation of oil resources in cooperation with foreign enterprises. In legislation, 
it has worked out and issued "the foreign enterprise income tax law" and "regulations on 
the exploitation of offshore petroleum resources in cooperation with foreign enterprises." 
According to stipulations of the latter, foreign contractors may export the petroleum they 
receive as their share and/or as their purchases. Consequently, China will also work out 
customs regulations for exploitation of offshore petroleum resources in cooperation with 
foreign enterprises. These are expected to be issued soon. China will further improve its 
legislative work in this respect and will work out a petroleum law on the basis of existing 
rules and regulations. 

Over 80 Companies Have Signed Up To Tender 

The law and regulations already issued constitute important legal preparation for openly 
inviting first round tenders. The promising prospects for commercial exploitation shown by 
geological data of the waters of the South China Sea and the southern part of the Yellow 

Sea have attracted the attention of foreign petroleum circles who have hurried to buy 

this data and to sign up to tender. By the middle of January, over 80 foreign enterprises 
had signed up to tender. Among them, 48 companies have participated in physical prospecting 
and drilling and these companies will be given priority in exploiting sea areas where they 
have carried out physical prospecting and drilling if the terms they offer are the same as 
those offered by others. 

It Is Estimated That Tenders Will Not Be Accepted Before the End of This Year 

The procedure of inviting tenders will be a time-consuming process. The Chinese Oil 
Corporation [zhongguo shiyou zonggongsi 0022 0948 4258 3111 4920 0361 0674) which will 

soon be officially set up, will issue notices inviting tenders when preparations are 
completed. Foreign enterprises must lodge their applications to enter a tender within 1 
month after they have received the notice. If their applications are accepted, they will 

be given documents for entering a tender, including a quotation form, a standard contract 

and relevant laws and regulations. After collecting all the quotation forms, the Chinese 

0il Corporation will carry out serious and careful assessment on the tenders and will finally 
make known the accepted tenders. The whole process of inviting tenders is expected to 

be concluded by the end of this year or by next spring. 

I. 26 Feb 82 W5 CHINA 

Foreign enterprises whose tenders uave been accepted will sign contracts with the Chinese 
Oil Corporation and these enterprises should start operation in their contracted zones 
of areas within 60 days. 

In order to meet next year's initial drilling requirements, China will gradually build new 
bases for producing offshore drilling platforms in addition to the Dalian and Guangzhou 
Huangpu shipping factories which have started building these platforms. China will build 
stationary drilling platforms besides self-elevating ones. This is one of China's impor- 
tant measures to support the long-term economic plans of exploiting offshore petroleum. 
According to China's regulations on exploitation of offshore petroleum resources in coop- 
eration with foreign enterprises, preference shall be given to procuring drilling equipment 
and materials, including platforms, manufactured and supplied by China's factories. If 
enormous structures such as offshore drilling platforms are manufactured and supplied by 
factories on China's coastline, they will be highly competitive as a result of time and 
money saved from transportation alone. 

One of the principles for exploitation of offshore petroleum resources in cooperation 
with foreign enterprises is that during the prospecting and drilling period, foreign 
contractors shall bear all explorable risks. In cases where the results of prospecting 
and drilling prove that an oilfield is not commercially viable, China shall not be respon- 
sible for this. If a commercial oil and/or gas field is discovered, both the foreign 
contractor and China shall make investment in its cooperative development. China shall 
have 51 percent of the shares and the foreign enterprise shall have 49 percent. 

The regulations on exploitation of offshore petroleum resources in cooperation with 
foreign enterprises stipulate that all Chinese and foreign enterprises involved in the 
exploitation of offshore petroleum resources shall pay taxes in accordance with the tax 
laws and pay royalties. It is reported that royalties are 12.5 percent and industrial 
and commercial taxes are 5 percent. As to income tax, it shall be 46 percent or so, based 
on the annual oil output. 

Plan for the Chiwan Base in Shenzhen 

On the eve of calling for tenders, Zhang Wenbin, petroleum industry vice minister; Tang 
Zhenhua, general manager of the Chinese Petroleum Prospecting and Development Company; 

and others have visited Chiwan in Shekou of Shenzhen municipality, where it has been 
planned to build a petroleum base, and Shantou, where another petroleum base will be 

built in the future. They hold that Chiwan, which is located at the mouth of the Zhujiang 
River, has many excellent conditions as a South China Sea petroleum base. It is required 
that before prospecting oil fields in the Zhujiang River basin next year, must basic 
construction such as storehouses, living quarters, offices and helicopter landing pads 
should be completed and ships and helicopters should be bought. While the Shekou wharf 

is being used temporarily, active preparations should be made to build a deepwater wharf 
at Chiwan at which 8,000 ton tankers can -erth. Efforts should be made to complete the 
basic construction of Chiwan as a general affairs base for the South China Sea oilfields 
within 5 years. When the question was raised as to whether China has taken into considera- 
tion equipment for refining oil in its long-term plan for developing offshore petroleum 
resources, it was replied that China's existing equipment for refining oil has an annual 
capacity of 96 million tons whereas the current annual output is only 60 million tons 

or so. There will still be much spare refining capacity for 3 to 4 years. 

Vice Minister Zhang Wenbin and others have expressed their full support for setting up 
the South China Sea Petroleum Service Corporation which is being set up by Guangdong 
Province. Many financial groups in Hong Kong and Macao and foreign financial groups have 
made enquires about this corporation and have expressed their desire to cooperate with it.