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THfc  fwIVT  OI- 




Which  Dr.  Snider  has    been  engafired  upon  for  some 
years,  embraces  the  following  works: 


1.  Intellect  —  PsTCHOLOOT  AKD  rsTCHOsis  .    .   $1.50 

2.  The  Will  and  its  Wobld 

8.    Feeling,  with  Pboleoomena $i.5u 


1.  Ancient  European  PHiLCsopnY $1,50 

2.  MODERN  European  I^ilosopdy $i.50 


1.  Social  Institutions $1.50 

2.  The  State $1.50 


1.  architecture $1.50 

2.  Music  (in  preparation) $1.50 

3.  World's  Fair  Studies  (Chicago  and  St.  Louis)   $1.50 

The  plan  has  also  in  view  a  psychological  treatment  of 
History  and  of  Nature. 


Psychologically  Treated, 





210  PISE  ST. 

I).  J.  SNIDKR.  VJOTk 

NIXON'JONrS    PTO.    CO.,    SIS    PINK    ST  ,    8T.   LOUl*. 



Prolegomena  to  PsrcHOLoay    ...  i 


Tub  Eflo x 

Tub  XJnivebsal  Science     ....  xiii 

The  P8vcii08i8 xix 

Tub  Triad        xxvii 

Fkelino,  Willino,  and  Knowin«     .  xliii 

PitlMACY    IN    UKNEKAL 1 

PttlMACY    OF   THE    WiLL            ....  Ivii 

Method  op  Psychology     .     .*   .     .  Ixviii 

pROULEM  OF  Sensation       ....  Ixxvii 

Doctrine  of  Parallf,lism      .  Ixxxvi 

TiiorGHT  IN  Psychology    ....  xcvi 


Psychological  Norm cxi 

Divisions cxxv 

Pedagogical oxxvii 




Fkklin(}     . 


Pakt  First.  —  Elemental  Feeling 

Sect.       I. 

Sect.     II. 

Simple  Feeling 
Double  Feeling 
Total  Feeling   . 

cosmical    . 

Skc:t.   III. 


The  Hvdowed  Self 
roNsciors    . 

The  Conscious  Sei 

The  Free  Self 

Part  Second.  —  Finite  Feelinc} 

Sect.      I.     Impression 
Sect.     II.     Emotion     . 
Sect.  III.     Sympathy  . 



Part  Third.  —  Absolute  Feeling 
Sect.      I.     Religious  Sentiment 
Sect.    II.     Practical  Sentiment 
Sect.  III.     Theoretic  Sentiment 












prolegomena  to  pei^cbologi?. 

Ours  is  an  age  of  specialization.  The  details 
of  knowledge  lie  scattered  about  us  in  enormous 
and  ever-increasing  heaps,  with  as  yet  little  or- 
ganization. No  science,  since  the  decline  if  not 
dethronement  of  Philosophy,  has  been  able  to 
vindicate  itself  as  the  ordering  principle  of  our 
chaotic  piles  of  experience.  Still  the  prayers  for 
some  such  science  have  become  loud,  and  en- 
deavors have  been  made  to  point  it  out  in  an 
uncertain,  temporizing  manner.  But  when  an 
attempt  to  formulate  it  is  made,  we  behold  little 
els^  than  a  hasty  retreat  to  some  bygone  philo- 
sophical system.  In  such  an  emergency  all  are 
turning  to  a  new  science,  or  rather  to  an  old 
science  rejuvenatmg  itself  with  a  new  spirit  and 



Psychology  has  declared  itself,  as  the  Amer- 
ican colonies  once  did  upon  a  memorable  occa- 
sion, free  and  independent.  If  we  glance  through 
the  introductions  of  recent  books  on  this  subject, 
we  find  them  striking  a  more  or  less  triumphant 
note  of  the  grand  liberation.  No  longer  an  en- 
slaved science,  subject  to  Metjiphysics  on  the 
one  side  and  to  Natural  Science  on  the  other : 
let  us  celebrate  the  glorious  victory.  Thus  in 
general  a  happy  undertone  is  beard  singing 
through  the  work  of  many  a  psychologist  in 
these  days,  rising  sometimes  into  a  kind  of 
Fourth-of-July  jubilation. 

Of  the  fact  indicated  there  is  no  doubt.  Noth- 
ing can  be  more  evident  than  the  movement  away 
from  Philosophy  into  Psychology,  which  is  now 
studied  almost  universally  in  our  higher  institu- 
tions of  education  and  is  coining  to  be  regarded, 
even  if  vaguely  and  presentimentally,  as  the  cen- 
tral discipline  of  thought.  Moreover  Physical 
Science  is  perceptibly  retiring  from  the  fore- 
ground W'hich  it  occupied  not  many  years  ago, 
no  longer  dominating  the  psychical  domain,  but 
rather  being  dominated  by  it.  Even  experimental 
Psychology,  whose  disciples  have  certainly  not 
been  deficient  in  self-assertion,  is  beginning  to 
see  its  own  limits,  and  to  get  a  little  modest,  at 
least  in  some  of  its  propagators  who  recognize 
that  their  science  has  had  and  still  has  a  good  deal 
to  give  the  world  in  the  realm  of  Feeling  and  Sen- 


aatioD,  much  less  in  thut  of  Representiition,  and 
little  or  nothing  ia  that  of  Thought  and  Reason. 
And  yet  Thought  and  Reason  belong  to  the 
Psyche  and  its  science,  which  must,  therefore, 
make  a  new  delioiitaticm  of  itself. 

Let  US  all,  then,  rejoice  with  the  rejoiccrs  that 
PsjchoJogy,  having  gone  through  its  long  dis- 
cipline of  servitude  to  ulien  miisters,  and  gotten 
the  training  thereof,  has  attained  self-mastery 
and  freedom. 

And  now  comoa  the  new  problem,  for  the 
movement  cannot  stop  at  this  point  or  at  any 
other  for  that  matter.  What  will  Psychology 
do  with  her  freedom?  Such  ia  the  looming 
question,  enough  to  run  a  few  sober  lines  of  de- 
liberation, if  not  of  anxiety,  through  our  jubi- 
lating faces.  Will  she  keep  it  all  to  herself, 
completely  satisfied  to  have  a  good  tliiug  for  her 
own  private  use,  and  merely  remaining  one  indi- 
vidual science  among  many  others,  without 
further  ambition?  That,  in  our  opiuiun,  would 
be  the  best  way  to  lose  and  to  deserve  to  loae  her 
deeply  cherished,  newly  won  boon.  On  the 
other  hand  will  she  become  imperious  and  auto- 
cratic in  her  power,  seeking  to  force  her  terms 
upon  other  sciences  fi-oin  the  ouisidc?  Wo  may 
recollect,  in  our  readings  of  the  past,  that  when 
Philosophy  more  than  ever  became  the  absolutist, 
and  proceeded  with  an  external  might  through 
its  army   of   serried   categories   to    subject   the 

It"  >\\c  is  prepared  to  euter  upo 
as   the  universal    science,    Psyche 
ready  and  eager  to  impart  her  fret 
sciences,  and  organize  such  im parti 
presents  a  general  scheme  or  methc 
are  to  adopt,  it  must  be  their  owe 
from  them  the  seal  of  confirmation. 
ogy  evidences  them  as  her  own,  th( 
equal   force  evidence  her  as  their  c 
furnishes  the  law  which  they  obey  i; 
dom,  they  must  make  her  the  law-ma 
science,  being  self-legislative,   must 
the  other  sciences   on  that   basis,  i 
form  the  one  great  Republic  of  Scie 
own  organic   law.     Thus  we  shall  s< 
science  in  legislating  for  itself  or  in 
its  own  method,  has  therein  a  comm( 
with  all  the  rest,  which  common  prin 
to  have  its  formulation  as  science. 


peatcd  changed  in  it^  conception.  The  prevaiK 
ing  conception  of  it  at  present  i^  that  it  hiis 
simply  to  deal  with  the  phenomena  of  Mind  or 
ConKciou^inee:^.  To  use  a  epcciiil  term  for  this 
view,  it  is  a  Phekomkxolooy,  a  word  employed 
in  German  Philosophy, .though  generally  with  a 
somewhat  different  purport.  Moreover  such  a 
conception  with  its  term  shows  its  derivation  from 
Kant,  whose  grand  dualism  between  Phenomenon 
and  Thing-in-itself  lurks  in  the  very  definition 
of  Psychology  as  at  present  conceived,  even  if 
this  fact  be  unknown  to  nio-st  psychologiats. 
Thus  the  thought  (and  we  may  add,  the  limita- 
tion) of  the  philosopher  of  Kouigsberg  deter- 
mines, more  or  less  secretly  to  he  sure,  the 
definition  and  the  procedure  of  our  science  to- 

But  for  the  sake  of  the  future,  we  may  try  to 
look  a  little  more  deeply  into  this  word.  Psy- 
chology implies  by  its  con.stituents  that  there  is 
a  Logos  of  the  Psyche,  whioh  gives  the  ultimiite 
processes  of  the  Mind,  Soul,  Ego  as  they  nro  in 
themselves,  in  their  true  reality,  and  not  simply 
as  they  appear.  Such  a  view  intimites,  even  if 
from  afar,  that  there  is  another  and  profouuder 
side  to  Psychology  than  the  merely  phenome- 
nal —  a  side  which  is  not  to  bo  put  down  by  being 
branded  as  metaphysical  (as  is  usually  done). 
Thus  our  science  is  to  be,  when  fully  unfolded, 
not  another  special  science,   but  u  kind  of  Logic 


(truly  sprung  from  the  Logos)  of  the  Spirit 
which  runs  through  and  orders  all  sciences  as 
products  of  Mind.  This  kind  of  Logic  is  indeed 
not  the  old  Aristotelian  one,  nor  the  modern 
Hegelian  one,  but  their  complement  and  final 
evolution,  which  goes  back  to  these  and  shows 
them  to  be  earlier  forms  of  itself  in  this  line  of 
development.  Such  an  outlook  comes  to  us 
when  we  peer  into  the  depths  of  meaning  which 
lie  in  the  Logos  of  the  Psyche^  foreshadowing 
the  approach  of  a  new  universal  science. 

Taken  in  its  literal  simplicity,  Psychology 
signifies  the  science  of  the  Soul,  or  of  the  Miud. 
Even  such  a  definition  gives  to  it  a  broad  sweep 
which  has  been  narrowed  in  various  wavs  bv 
different  writers,  who  have  in  them  the  prevalent 
bent  toward  specialization.  On  the  whole,  how- 
ever. Psychology  shows  a  tendency  to  break  over 
artificial  restriction,  and  to  persist  in  being  the 
science  of  the  Ego,  which  means  the  Self  in  the 
largest  sense,  including  the  human  and  rising  to 
the  divine  Self. 

At  the  present  time,  as  already  stated,  the 
most  common  view  of  Psychology  holds  it  to  be 
the  science  of  the  phenomena  of  the  mind,  such 
as  perception,  sensation,  memory,  which  this 
science  finds  and  picks  up  (so  to  speak),  and 
then  proceeds  to  describe  and  to  put  into  some 
kind  of  order.  As  there  are  phenomena  of 
Nature   with    which    physical   science   deals,  so 


there  are  phenoDiena  of  Mind  with  which  psy- 
chological science  deals.  As  there  are  clusses  of 
flowers,  80  there  are  ellipses  of  mental  activities; 
as  there  are  strata  of  the  earth  in  geology,  so  there 
are  strata  of  mind  in  psychology.  Thus  both  kinds 
of  science,  psychiciil  and  physical,  treat  of  the 
pheDomena,  the  facts  as  they  appear,  or  are  made 
to  appear  by  experiment,  and  their  common  pro- 
cedure is  to  describe  and  to  order  these  facts. 

Kext  we  may  note  the  difference  in  the  two 
kinds.  The  geologist  perceives  the  stnituni  and 
arranges  it  according  to  his  scheme;  but  if  he 
perceives  himself  perceiving  the  stratum,  lie  no 
longer  geologizes  but  psychologizes.  The  mo- 
ment his  mind  passes  from  regarding  the  outer 
object  to  regarding  its  own  activity  he  changes  to 
a  new  field  which  has  its  distinct  science.  A 
wholly  different  set  of  phenomena  rises  to  view, 
whose  science  is  Psychology. 

The  preceding  view  of  Psychology  takes  it  to 
be  one  among  many  sciences,  separate,  in- 
dependent. It  is  not  Natural  Science,  not 
Philosophy,  not  Ethics,  not  Sociology,  each  of 
which  has  its  own  sphere  seemingly  quite  as 
separate  and  independent.  Once  indeed 
Psychology  was  subject  to  Pliilosophy,  and 
received  its  method  and  its  position  from  some 
metaphysical  system ;  but  that  time  has  passed 
except  for  a  few  antedihivians.  Ou  llic  other 
hand   it   was  subject   quite  recently  to   Natural 


Science,  particularly  to  Physiology;  but  this 
servitude  of  it  has  receded,  if  not  vanished. 
Psychology,  as  above  said,  at  present  proclaims 
itself  free  and  independent  as  a  science,  and 
places  itself  on  an  equality  with  other  sciences. 
It  is  to  be  noted  that  the  foregoing  conception 
of  Science  as  a  whole  regards  it  as  broken  up 
into  a  galaxy  of  disjointed  and  disparate  Sciences 
without  any  unity.  There  is  no  central  com- 
manding Science  which  can  hold  together  these 
centrifugal  units;  each  is  a  republic  in  itself 
distinct  from,  yea  jealous  of  its  sister  republics, 
and  ready  to  do  battle  against  any  one  of  them 
which  may  be  getting  too  prominent.  To  con- 
tinue the  political  metaphor,  there  is  no  federa- 
tion of  the  Sciences  with  its  supreme  Constitution 
governing  and  uniting  the  scattered  members, 
after  granting  them  and  even  securing  to  them 
inner  autonomy.  They  resemble  the  political 
system  of  Europe  with  its  cluster  of  separated 
and  antagonistic  sovereignties  instead  of  the 
United  States,  which  combines  a  central  govern- 
ment with  the  freedom  of  its  members.  In  other 
words  Science  at  present  is  European  and  is 
stamped  with  the  impress  of  the  institutional 
life  of  Europe.  In  this  form  it  has  been  brought 
to  America  and  is  cultivated  here.  Must  not  it 
too  bo  made  to  bear  the  visage  of  our  own  in- 
stitutional world,  so  different  from  the  European? 
If  so,  there  is  to  be  again  a  central  Science,  as 


there  is  :i  central  Goverument,  not  domintiting 
imperially  its  subject  provinces,  but  composed  of 
equal  and  autonomous  common  wealths  which 
both  create  and  are  created  by  their  union.  Art, 
Science  and  Institutions  are  the  work  of  titc 
nation's  spirit,  aiid  must  ultimately  wear  the  like- 
ness of  the  people  which  produce  them. 

Once  there  was  a  central  Science;  Philosophy 
bore  that  proud  title,  being  called  tlio  scicn/ia 
scientiarum.  But  it  has  been  deposed  from  its 
imperial  position  and  reduced  to  the  level  of  the 
other  sciences,  if  not  degraded  to  a  still  lower 
rank.  Philosophy,  the  supieme  European  Dis- 
cipline from  ancient  Greece  till  the  last  century, 
has  been  delimited,  if  not  dethroned  in  its  very 
home,  ID  Europe  itself.  Hardly  can  it  be  rein- 
stated in  its  former  spliere  of  honor  and  au- 
thority. What  is  to  take  its  place?  Or  is  the 
present  separative,  disorganized,  chaotic  condi- 
tion to  continue? 

From  tho  drift  of  the  foregoing  remarks  the 
vigilant  reader  will  observe  that  a  successor  t^) 
Philosophy  has  begun  to  rise  into  vision,  and 
show  its  outlines  to  watchmen  on  the  tower,  and 
also  that  its  name  is  Psychology.  Thi.ii,  how- 
ever, must  be  something  more  tiian  "  the  science 
of  the  phenomena  of  mind,"  though  it  be  that 
too;  the  phenomenoiogical  conception  is  not  to 
be  thrown  away  hut  is  to  be  evolved  into  some- 
thing higher,  and  thus  taken  along. 



A  little  attention  to  the  conception  of  Psychol- 
ogy just  set  forth  will  show  the  science  com- 
posed of  two  elements :  mind  and  its  phenomena 
(or  activities),  as  if  the  first  might  be  something 
different  from  the  latter,  and  indeed  quite  un- 
known or  unknowable  in  itself.  But  a  little 
further  attention  to  the  same  subject  will  reveal 
a  third  element  secretly  working  in  the  above 
definition,  namely  mind.  That  is,  the  very  thing 
(or  Thifig-in-itself )  whose  phenomena  are  to  be 
described  and  classified,  is  the  describer  and 
classifier;  the  hidden  demiurge  whose  mysteries 
are  to  be  revealed  in  our  science  is  just  the  re- 
vealer,  and  evidently  he  is  a  very  important  per- 
son in  this  whole  business.  In  fact,  so  impor- 
tant is  he  that  we  intend  to  call  him  by  a  name 
of  his  own;  this  name  is  Ego.  Mind  is  a  word 
somewhat  vague  and  general,  very  useful  in  its 
place,  quite  indispensable.  But  it  lacks  the  red 
blood  of  life  circulating  through  the  Ego  which 
is  so  personal  in  its  activity,  so  direct  in  its 
appeal  to  me,  the  learner  of  Psychology.  For 
after  all,  I  am  the  one  who  has  to  know  the 
phenomena  of  m^^self  knowing. 

It  is  evident,  then,  that  the  Ego  is  the  begin- 
ning and  end  of  the  psychological  process.  Its 
activity  is  to  see  and  order  its  own  phenomena, 
which  constitute   just  its  activity  seeing  and  or- 

TSB  SCIB2TCE  OF  TBB  BffO.  zt 

dering.  I,  this  personal  particular  Ego,  must  be 
an  explicit  element  of  the  science  of  the'Ego  in 
general.  The  facts  of  universiil  mind  are  not 
facts  for  the  individual  miod  till  the  latter  makes 
them  anew  and  thus  becomes  a  creative  part  of 
the  total  psychical  movement.  I  cannot  truly 
team  Psychology  without  constructing  myself  at 
the  same  time;  I  am  not  simply  to  commit  to 
memory  some  phenomena  of  miudand  perchance 
internally  or  externally  verify  tbem;  thus  I  leave 
myself  out,  though  I  am  the  subject-matter  of 
this  science.  While  building  it,  I  am  building 
myself;  the  play  of  Hamlet,  according  to  the 
atlage,  cannot  well  omit  Hamlet  himself.  What 
I  am,  I  must  re-create,  and  be  perpetually  re- 
creating, and  this  personal  Egoistic  activity  of 
mine  must  have  its  place  in  the  completely  for- 
mulated process.  Verily  the  worth  of  the  indi- 
vidual is  dawning,  and  his  true  position  in  the 
Universe  is  at  last  to  b«  fully  revealed  and 
organized  by  Psychology. 

Taking  up  once  more  the  ordinary  conception 
of  our  science,  we  said  that  it  showed  the  Kan- 
tian dualism.  This  is  undoubtedly  true,  espe- 
cially as  regards  its  definition.  Yet  more  deeply 
still,  it  shows  the  dualism  in  all  philosophy,  par- 
ticularly from  Plato  down.  For  the  Platonic 
dualism  formulates  the  Phenomenon  aud  its 
Substance  and  therein  divides  the  All  in  twain. 
Bat   Philosophy  itself    in    its  entire   sweep,    is 


seeking  for  the  Essence  of  Being  (the  ouaia  of 
the  o;i),  and  thus  presupposes  the  dualism  of  the 
universe  into  Essence  and  Being.  Now  this 
dualistic  view  of  the  world  is,  we  hold,  an  in- 
herent and  necessary  stage  of  mun*s  develop- 
ment, yet  the  time  is  coming  when  it  must  be 
transcended.  Philosophy  has  been  a  grand 
Discipline  for  our  race,  the  supreme  one  of 
Europe,  in  our  judgment.  Still  there  must  be  a 
return  out  of  its  dualism,  a  mediation  of  its  innate 
self-antagonism,  which  has  made  it  the  seething 
cauldron  of  this  earth,  if  not  of  the  whole  uni- 
verse. This  third  stage  of  mediation  and  resto- 
ration is,  if  we  mistake  not,  the  mission  and  the 
message  of  Psychology,  of  course  in  its  trans- 
figured norm,  which  elevates  it  into  a  new  world- 
discipline  succeeding  Philosoph\'. 

To  the  foregoing  *'  science  of  the  phenomena 
of  mind  "  must  now  be  joined  that  Ego  making 
the  science,  which  science  becomes  thus  truly 
its  own.  I,  the  individual,  make  the  universal 
which  makes  me,  I  determine  that  which  deter- 
mines me,  or  in  the  political  sphere  I  on  my  part 
must  make  the  law  which  governs  me.  The 
science  of  the  Self,  which  is  our  Psychology, 
must  be  self-determined;  thus  it  becomes  the 
free  science,  indeed  just  the  science  of  freedom, 
being  a  kind  of  archetype  of  all  self-govern- 
ment, personal,  political,  and  universal. 



The  thoughts  GontaiDed  in  the  previous  section 
are  fundamcutal,  though  perhaps  somewhat 
recondite,  at  least  for  the  beginner.  They  in- 
trotluce  tlie  Ego  as  the  central  moving  principle 
of  the  science  of  Psychology,  without  omitting 
'*  the  phenomena  of  mind"  as  an  element  of 
this  science.  The  subject  being  difficult,  we 
may  be  permitted  to  add  a  few  illustriitiona  as 
well  us  further  developments,  ut  the  risk  of  re- 
peating some  matters  which  have  been  already 

If  we  take  Psychology  to  be  eimply  the  science 
of  the  facts  of  mind  (or  of  the  Ego),  we  con- 
ceive it  primarily  as  a  mass  of  materials  which 
are  to  be  arranged  and  put  into  scientific  form 
by  some  power  outside  of  themselves,  as  is  the 
case  with  physical  science.  What  is  this  power? 
becomes  the  fundamental  question  of  Psychol- 
ogy, and  imiced  of  all  other  sciences,  which  are 
likewise  arranged  by  it  and  reduced  to  their 
order.  We  have  alluded  to  Geology,  which  has 
the  same  power  lying  back  of  it  and  making  it  a 
science.  Who  or  what  is  it  investigating  the 
strata  of  the  earth  and  throwing  them  into  the 
scheme  of  their  succession  in  time  and  place? 
There  seems  to  be  a  secret  demiurge  (already 
noted)  working  behind  the  phenomena  of  both 
mind   and   matter,    and  impressing   upon  them 


its    own  order,   which    transforms    them    into 

This  secret  demiurge  knows  the  object,  then 
it  turns  upon  itself  knowing  the  object  and  be- 
holds itself  in  such  act  of  knowing  the  object. 
It  may  make  a  mistake  in  describing  or  classify- 
ing this  knowledge,  but  it  corrects  its  own  mis- 
take; if  not,  there  is  no  power  in  the  universe 
which  can  make  the  correction.  Some  recent 
psychologists  have  said  that  their  science  has 
nothing  to  do  with  the  nature  of  the  object, 
being  concerned  only  about  its  appearance  in 
the  mind.  But  Psychology  must  come  to  tfiink 
the  object,  and  to  think  the  object  is  to  get  at 
its  very  truth  and  genesis.  Undoubtedly  there 
may  be  delusion;  but  what  is  to  know  delusion 
except  mind  (or  the  Ego)?  We  hear  likewise 
much  about  the  errors  of  introspection,  and  they 
are  real ;  but  who  detects  them  and  provides 
against  them?  Let  us  grant  that  the  Ego  is  the 
source  of  all  deception,  but  it  is,  too,  the  source 
of  all  overccmiing  of  deception.  Some  declare 
that  Psychology  does  not  trouble  itself  about 
the  truth  of  the  objective  world,  but  only  deals 
with  its  presentation  through  the  senses,  as  if 
there  was  no  such  thing  as  Thought  in  our 
science,  whose  very  end  and  outcome  is  to  know 
what  is  true.  Hence  one  of  the  psychological 
needs  of  the  time  is  to  vindicate  a  place  for 
Thought  in  what  is  truly  the  science  of  Thought. 


There  must  be,  in  treating  of  Intellect,  not  only 
Sense-perception  (Sensation,  Perception,  etc), 
not  only  Representation  (Memory,  Imagination, 
etc.),  but  also  Thought  a^  a  psychical  activity, 
yea  us  the  supreme  psychiciil  activity,  which 
makes  Psychology  itself  a  Science.  We  have 
to  think  Sensation,  for  inistance,  before  it  be- 
comes scientific,  for  it  ciuinot  think  and  order 
itself  as  Thoughtoin,  thelatter  being  the  highest 
point  of  the  reflexive,  self-returning,  solf-dc- 
finiug  Ego.  To  sense  the  object  may  be  psychi- 
cal, but  it  is  not  yet  psyehologiciil.  The  Ego 
perceives  the  outer  world,  but  this  Perception 
has  to  pass  through  the  alembic  of  Thought,  and 
therein  be  defined  and  ordered  ere  it  can  be  a 
part  of  the  science  of  Psychtilogy.  But  this 
science  cannot  omit  the  very  activity  of  the 
Psycho  which  makes  it. 

With  this  statement  we  have  reached  down  to 
the  peculiar  fact  of  the  Ego;  it  is  the  observing 
and  the  observed  in  one,  the  investigating  and 
the  investigated,  the  orderiug  principle  and  what 
is  ordered,  self-defining  and  thereby  all-defin- 
ing. From  this  point  of  view  we  may  regard 
it  us  the  imago  of  the  All,  of  the  Universe, 
since  the  All  must  define  itself,  if  it  be  defined, 
there  being  nothing  outside  of  it  to  define 
it.  The  Ego,  ludeod,  as  consciousness  we  shall 
hereafter  discover  to  be  the  child  of  the 
Universe,  bearing  its  impress  and  hence  capa- 


ble  of  becoming  universal  through  Thought. 
The  Ego  is,  accordingly,  self-defined,  not  de- 
fined through  anything  else  but  itself  —  a  gift 
possessed  by  nothing  besides  in  the  Universe 
but  the  Universe.  Every  definition  in  every 
science  must  ultimately  reach  back  to  self -defi- 
nition as  its  very  ground  and  generating  source. 
How  could  there  be  any  definition  of  anything 
unless  there  was  a  self-definer  to  give  it?  If 
science  rests  upon  right  definition,  it  must  go 
back  to  the  seif-defininoj  E^ro  for  the  fulfillment 
of  its  pur{)ose.  Certainly  this  looks  as  if  Psy- 
chology, when  it  gets  to  be  truly  the  science  of 
the  self-definino:  Eiijo,  would  be  the  universal 
Discipline,  the  science  of  all  sciences  and  no 
longer  simply  one  among  many  sciences. 

Let  the  student  not  forget  that  he  is  an  in- 
tegral part  of  this  psychological  movement,  he 
must  create  it,  or  rather  recreate  it  in  order  to 
possess  it.  Not  merely  is  he  to  test  each  fact  of 
the  Ego  from  the  outside,  but  he  testing  is  also 
one  with  the  fact  tested,  the  getter  of  the  fact  is 
also  the  fact  gotten.  There  is  a  peculiar  inti- 
macy between  this  science  and  the  one  working 
in  it.  When  the  Ego  of  the  student  defines  it- 
self to  be  the  self-definer,  it  is  in  that  very  act 
what  it  defines  itself  to  be.  Very  different  is 
the  case  in  other  sciences.  In  Ethics  a  man  may 
define  virtue  without  being  virtuous;  in  Aesthet- 
ics he  may  define  beauty  without  being  beauti- 


ful,  and  without  liia  definition  being  very  beauti- 
ful; in  Philosophy  he  may  define  the  Universe 
without  becoming  universal  himself.  But  in 
Psyehiilogy  at  its  best,  he  must  be  what  he  de- 
fines hinmelf  to  be,  he  thinking  cannot  help 
being  his  own  thought  of  himself.  In  the  self- 
defining  Ego  is  the  point  and  the  only  point 
where  Thinking  and  Being  are  one.  Thus  the 
Ego  as  part  or  individual,  rounds  itself  out  into 
its  own  total  process;  it  defines  that  which  de- 
fines it  and  therein  completes  its  own  inner 
cycle ;  and  its  future  psychological  character  will 
be  to  determine  that  which  determines  it,  to 
make  the  law  which  governs  it,  in  fine  to  create 
anew  the  Universe  which  created  it. 

Moreover  we  may  now  see  thtit  the  Ego  must 
always  participate  in  its  own  complete  process; 
it,  though  a  part,  an  atom,  must  have  in  it  the 
movement  of  the  whole  of  which  it  is  a  part, 
otherwise  it  cannot  be  a  part  of  its  own  whole. 
In  Metaphysics  the  Ego  projects  its  own  activities 
outside  of  itself,  beyond  its  own  horizon,  so  to 
epeak,  holding  itself  aloof  from  them  as  if  they 
were  something  alien,  and  thus  making  them 
mere  abstractions.  Still  these  abstractions  of 
Philosophy  are  not  to  be  thrown  away,  but  they 
are  to  be  filled  afresh  with  the  red  life  of  the 
Ego  whence  they  originally  sprang.  This  Ego, 
hitherto  the  secret  demiurge  making  Pliilosophy 
and  all  acieoce,  must  now  be  brought  out  of  its 


lair  to  sunlight  and  must  become  the  open  par- 
ticipator in  its  own  process,  being  determined  not 
simply  after  the  manner  of  some  abstract  defini- 
tion which  seems  picked  up  anyhow  or  anywhere, 
but  being  formuhited  as  self-definer,  who  always 
is  going  forth  and  defining  that  which  is  always 
coming  ]>iick  and  defining  it.  If  the  Ego  formu- 
lates any  science,  that  science  must  also  reveal 
and  even  formulate  the  Ego  jis  the  formulator  of 
itself  (the  said  science).  Moreover  this  Ego  as 
self-formulator  has  its  own  science  of  self -formu- 
lation, which  science  is  Psychology  proper. 

Accordingly  we  are  brought  face  to  face  with 
the  question :  IIow  shall  this  Ego,  so  long  en- 
sconced in  its  workshop,  be  brought  forth  and 
made  to  take  its  place  in  the  process  of  its  own 
organization?  This  docs  not  mean  that  it  is 
merely  to  show  itself  and  let  itself  be  described, 
measured,  classified  in  its  forms  as  some  outer 
thing — all  this  has  been  often  done  already, 
even  to  superfluity.  But  how  shall  the  Ego  be 
manifested,  formulated,  categorized  as  making 
the  made  which  makes  it,  as  doing  the  work 
which  reveals  it,  as  producing  the  process  which 
produces  it?  There  must  be  something  which 
explicitly  interlinks  the  Ego  with  all  its  activities, 
and  all  its  activities  with  it,  so  that  every  sepa- 
rate stage  of  it  is  not  only  seen  but  also  ex- 
pressed as  the  whole  of  it,  and  all  of  these  sepa- 
rate  stages    thereby  connected    together.     This 

TBB  F8T0HO8I3.  tix 

connecting  link  uniting  each  acHvity  or  faculty 
of  the  Ego,  even  the  most  minute,  with  the  whole 
of  it  or  with  it  as  a  whole,  we  call  the  Psychosis 
whose  character  and  function  must  next  be 
specially  set  forth. 


We  are  seeking  just  now  in  our  investigation 
the  means,  the  spiritual  instrument  by  which  the 
hitherto  implicit,  secretly  working  Ego  may  bo 
made  explicit  in  its  own  science,  and  may  be- 
come an  open,  formulated  factor  in  its  own  com- 
plete process.  Such  an  instrument  (so  we 
designate  it  for  the  nonce)  is  the  PsTcnosiB. 
This  is  the  primordial,  elemeutal  process  of  the 
Ego,  which  therein  formulates  its  own  inherent 
nature  as  self-movement.  The  Psychosis  not  only 
suggests  but  orders  the  ever-present  activity  of 
mind  in  all  the  works  of  the  Ego  human  and 
divine,  and  thus  makes  itself  the  unifying  prin- 
ciple of  the  Universe  both  in  its  totality  and  in 
its  parts. 

Such  is  the  fundamental  fact  or  germinal 
principle  of  Psychology  as  here  conceived,  the 
Psychosis,  which  is  not  to  be  grasped  as  some 
fixed  metaphysical  substance  but  as  the  primal 
psychical  process  of  the  Ego  itself  beholding  and 
formulating  itself.  The  word  is  derived  from 
the  Greek  psyche  (soul  or  Ego),  and  is  thus 
cognate  etymologically  with    Psychology.     The 


Greek  termination  sia  expresses  activity ;  in  the 
present  case  it  suggests  the  psyche  as  active,  as 
process.  The  word  has  been  not  a  little  per- 
verted by  recent  psychologists  from  its  original 
meaning,  being  applied  as  the  psychical  counter- 
part to  neurosis^  in  the  doctrine  of  parallelism 
between  soul  and  body.  Likewise  it  has  sunk 
down  to  a  purely  pathological  usage,  as  may  be 
seen  by  the  example  cited  in  the  Century  Dic- 
tionary. From  these  modern  impurities  we  hope 
to  assist  in  freeing  the  word  and  to  restore  it  to 
its  pure  Hellenic  fountain-head  of  meaning. 

In  the  P.svchosis,  the  Es^o  within  itself  unfolds 
and  formulates  its  elemental  process,  which  re- 
mains through  all  its  activities  and  binds  them 
together.  The  Psycho^sis  is,  accordingly,  the 
Ego's  primordial  act  of  self-definition,  which 
act  it  has  to  go  through  in  defining  everything 
else.  That  is,  every  activity,  every  object, 
every  science  completely  grasped  and  expressed 
by  the  Ego,  must  take  the  form  of  the  Psychosis. 
You  have  no  other  means  or  implement  for  get- 
ting things  mentally  except  through  the  process 
of  your  Ego,  and  that  is  the  Psychosis.  Thus  it 
is  the  mould  through  which  all  has  to  pass  in 
order  to  be  known.  It  is  the  impress  which  the 
Ego  stamps  upon  the  world,  (»r  rather  finds  al- 
ready stamped  upon  it,  for  we  shall  hereafter  see 
that  the  Universe  itself  is  a  Psychosis,  beinor  the 
very  process   of   the  All-Ego,  or  of  the  Divine 


TSS  F8TCB08I8.  ixl 

Self.  The  Ego  psychologizing"  is  the  Psychosis 
detecting  itself  and  unfolding  itself  in  all  its  own 
activities,  and  then  in  all  the  works  of  Nature  aud 

At  the  beginning,  therefore,  it  is  necessary  to 
comprehend  this  process  of  the  Ego,  which  has 
three  stages. 

1.  The  Ego,  in  the  first  stage  of  the  Psycho- 
sis, is  implicit,  undeveloped,  undivided  within 
itself,  and  hence  unconscious.  We  may  also 
call  this  its  immediate  or  potential  stage,  not  yet 
realized,  full  of  its  own  possibilities.  The  child 
is  the  potential  man,  but  the  man  too  has  in  him 
a  world  of  potentialities. 

But  the  Egt>  within  itself  has  the  breach,  the 
divisien,  the  separation  of  itself  from  itself. 
Hence  the  following. 

2.  The  second  stage  of  the  Psychosis  is  the 
divided,  the  different,  the  separative,  in  which 
the  Ego  separates  itself  and  nialfes  itself  its  own 
object.  From  the  simple  or  one-fold  it  becomes 
the  dual  or  two-fold,  which  fact  is  expressed  in 
the  two  terms,  subject  and  object.  The  Ego  can 
now  become  self-knowing,  self-conscious ;  at  this 
stage  introspection  can  begin  and  hold  up  the 
Ego  before  itself. 

Still  the  Ego  in  its  self-separation  is  also  one 
and  must  assert  its  oneness,  which  is  no  longer  the 
first  immediate  unity,  but  i:^  mediated  through 
the  separation. 


3.  The  third  £(tage  of  the  Psychosis  is  the 
self-returning  one,  the  Ego  returns  out  of  sepa- 
ration into  unity  with  itself.  This  new  concrete 
unity  of  the  Ego  has,  therefore,  separation  be- 
hind it,  present  but  overcome ;  it  completes  the 
Psychosis,  and  thus  reveals  the  total  Psychosis, 
which  is  now  seen  to  move  in  a  cycle,  in  a  going 
forth  (separation)  and  a  coming  back  (return). 

It  would  be  well  for  the  student,  who  is  not  in 
too  great  a  hurry,  to  find  some  illustrations  or 
trace  some  analogies  of  this  movement  of  the 
Psychosis.  It  shows  the  restoration  after  the 
fall,  the  recovery  after  the  lapse,  the  atonement 
(at-one-ment)  after  the  sin.  It  is  the  inner 
pulse  of  all  Bibles,  religious  and  literary.  It 
underlies  the  total  sweep  of  History,  from  Orient 
through  Europe,  to  Occident.  It  hints  the 
grand  harmony  of  existence  attained  through  the 
resolution  of  all  the  discords  of  life.  Finally 
the  Psychosis  must  be  seen  to  be  God's  as  well 
as  Man's. 

Especial  notice  is  to  be  taken  of  the  fact  that 
the  foregoing  germinal  process  of  the  Pigo  is 
threefold,  or  rather  triune,  thrce-in-ono.  If 
this  be  so,  it  follows  that  every  act  of  the  Ego, 
as  well  as  every  object  which  it  grasps,  will  ulti- 
mately assume  the  triune  form.  Any  other  way 
can  only  represent  some  stage  of  incomplotenc8s. 
(For  a  fuller  account  of  the  Psychosis,  see  our 
Psychology  and  Psychosis^  12—24.) 

TBS  P8TCB0ST8.  xxii! 

It  will  be  observed  that  in  the  above  account 
of  the  Psychosis,  wo  have  hud  to  employ  ab- 
Btract  or  metaphysical  terms  for  describing  its 
stages.  When  we  calliU  first  stage  immediate  or 
potential,  its  second  stage  separative  or  subject 
and  object,  its  third  stage  the  return  or  the 
restoration,  we  ore  usingdesignations  which  have 
long  been  known  in  the  History  of  Thought,  and 
which  Philosophy  had  already  elaborated  far 
back  in  ancient  Greece.  But  these  terms  when 
employed  b}'  Philosophy  are  taken  to  express 
the  essence  of  Being  (the  ounia  of  on  in  Aris- 
totle's phrase),  and  not  to  express  the  process 
of  the  Ego.  There  is  explicitly  no  Psychosis  in 
Greek  Philosophy,  or  in  any  Philosophy,  though 
implicitly  it  is  at  work  all  the  time,  since  Pliilos- 
ophy  likewise  is  made  by  the  Ego  and  bears  its 
stamp  from  beginningfo  end.  But  in  the  acknowl- 
edged, explicit  Psychosis,  Philosophy  is  seen 
passing  over  into  Psychology,  and  metaphysical 
terms  are  transformed  into  psychological,  being 
brought  to  describe  the  very  process  of  the  Ego, 
which  has  now  become  the  true  essence  of  Being, 
the  concrete  fact  of  it  and  of  all  the  abstractions 
generated  by  Metaphysics  for  explaining  it. 

In  these  statements  we  are  to  recoguizo  the 
great  service  rendered  by  Philosophy  to  man's 
culture.  It  has  elabomted  the  hmguage  of 
Thought,  and  trained  the  huninn  mind  to  tliink- 
iag  by  means  of  the  same.     But  its  abstractions 


thrown  out  from  their  source  in  the  Ego  and 
held  long  in  a  state  of  separation  (we  might 
almost  say,  alienation),  must  in  the  new  time 
and  in  the  new  world  be  brought  back  to  their 
psychical  fountain-head  and  thus  bo  restored  to 
their  original  birth-right  and  even  birth-place. 
Psychology,  when  it  gets  to  its  true  significance , 
can  only  mean  an  era  of  restoration  in  the  widest 
sense,  for  the  Ego,  Man  himself,  is  to  return 
out  of  his  long  period  of  dualism  and  self- 
estrangement  (very  necessary,  let  it  here  said), 
which  has  found  its  chief  expression  in  Philos- 
ophy. Herein  we  begin  to  see  that  Psychology 
in  its  new  form  belongs  itself  to  a  vast  World- 
Psychosis  of  which  it  is  the  third  stage,  the  Re- 
turn, and  of  which  Philosophy  is  the  second 
stage,  showing  the  grand  broach  and  separation 
of  the  Ego,  or  Man  in  his  self-alienated  con- 

Such  is,  then,  the  first  attempt  to  draw  the  out- 
line of  the  Psvchosis,  which  winds  throu^jh  our 
whole  science  in  its  vastest  sweeps  and  in  its 
smallest  detours,  binding  them  all  together  into 
one  complete  interconnected  Totality.  It  is  a 
simple  but  very  subtle  thing,  easy  enough  to  see 
at  the  start,  but  difficult  to  track  through  all  its 
mazes  and  mcanderinsrs  and  multitudinous  trans- 
formations  in  the  universe  of  mind.  Moreover, 
wo  mav  note  aorain  in  the  verv  terms  used  to  do- 
scribe    it   the  transition    from   Philosophy   into 


Psychology,  the  bridge  from  the  metaphysical 
iolo  the  psychical  renlm. 

A  warning  may  here  be  interpolated.  The 
Psychosis  h:i3  its  formal  aspect,  and  it  may 
degeoerate  into  a  mechanical  abacadabra.  It 
may  be  externally  clapped  on  anything  without 
being  made  to  reacli  tlie  inner  psychical  move- 
ment of  the  subject-matter.  Every  formulation 
of  thought,  particularly  Philosophy,  runs  tlie 
same  danger;  yea  language  itself,  being  com- 
posed of  univeraals  in  the  form  of  words,  easily 
doses  its  concreteness  in  unskillful  hands.  Yet 
the  Psychosis  by  its  very  nature  is  the  bringing 
back  of  all  abstract  forms  to  their  original 
creative  source  iu  the  Ego,  whicli  is  the  nmst 
concrete  thing  in  the  Universe.  Into  tlio  know- 
ing of  every  object  it  seeks  to  put  tlie  genetic 
process.  Least  of  all  formulations  has  it  the 
tendency  to  lapse  into  a  mere  machine  grinding 
out  categories.  Still  it  may  be  thus  perverted, 
since  it  cannot  do  without  wordu,  yea  abstract 
words,  even  if  these  abstract  words  it  always 
tries  to  fill  with  ita  own  vitalizing  movement. 
Though  it  seeks  to  save  every  organism  and 
every  science  from  being  reduced  to  a  heap  of 
dry  bones,  in  certain  minds  it  cannot  save  itself 
from  such  fate,  Undcmbtcdiy  it  is  a  system,  but 
it  is  peculiarly  that  which  makes  its  own  and  nil 
other  systems,  and  whose  system  niu^t  always  be 
making  itself.     It  docs  not  merely  applj'  to  the 


large  divisions  of  science,  but  to  the  small  and  the 
smallest,  since  it  is  universal.  It  cannot  fetter 
the  spirit  by  its  prescribed  movement,  since  this 
very  prescription  prescribes  separation  from  all 
prescription.  For  the  Psychosis  makes  separation 
an  integral  part  of  its  process,  even  the  separa- 
tion of  itself  from  itself.  Thus  freedom  in  every 
possible  shape  can  be  made  organic  in  the 
Pisychosis,  being  taken  up  and  put  inside  its 
process,  and  so  not  left  outside  where  it  turns 
itself  and  everything  else  into  anarchy.  The 
Psj'chosis  is  always  free  to  separate  from  its  own  * 
forms,  even  from  its  own  system,  yet  it  must 
always  return  out  of  such  separation,  or  whiz 
madly  into  chaos. 

And  now  it  lies  directly  on  our  path  to  take  a 
somewhat  detailed  survey  of  this  mechanical  side 
of  the  Psychosis  or  its  quantitative  expression, 
which  is  very  necessary  to  its  appearance  in  the 
world,  and  yet  can  hardly  be  deemed  its  inner 
governing  principle.  The  outer  mechanism  of 
the  Psychosis  is  a  Three,  a  Triplicity,  a  Triad,  as 
we  see  from  its  form  already  given.  Still  wc  are 
not  to  fororet  that  this  mechanism  and  all 
mechanism,  yea  quantity  itself  in  its  farthest 
mathematical  ramifications,  is  likewise  the  woivk 
of  the  Egro  and  the  Psvchosis.  Above  all,  let  us 
recQllect  that  the  numf)or  Throe  docs  not  make 
the  Psychosis,  but  ismadcprimordially  by  it,  and 

TBE  TRIAD.  xxTil 

bence  is  the  basic  number  as  representing   tlie 
basic  process  quHtititatively. 


From  the  nature  of  the  Psychosis,  the  infer- 
ence must  be  drawn  that  the  movement  of  the 
present  science  in  all  its  varied  development  will 
be  threefold,  triune,  triadal.  Hence  it  comes 
that  Psychology  will  call  up  and  apply  to  all  itd 
details  the  principle  of  The  Triad  as  the  form  of 
its  ultimate,  active,  psychical  germ,  of  its  genetic 

Equally  certain  is  it  that  such  a  procedure  will 
evoke  strong  objection.  Especially  at  the  pres- 
ent time  the  system  of  Triiids  is  in  disfavor,  as 
Eomething  methodical,  over-formulated,  long 
since  transcended.  Our  age  is  scientific,  inves- 
tigative, turning  to  the  particular  rather  than  to 
the  general;  even  our  universities  in  spite  of 
their  name,  are  distinguished  for  not  being  uni- 
versal. Specialization  is  the  watch-word  with  its 
deeply-rooted  prejudice  against  system,  which 
indeed  its  one-sided  devotees  become  impotent  to 
produce  or  oven  to  grasp  when  produced.  More- 
over, any  such  system  is  supposed  to  retard  if 
not  to  prevent  evolution,  though  it  requires  no 
great  knowledge  to  discover  that  the  evolution  of 
Mind  or  Spirit  has  mainly,  if  not  always,  pm- 
ceeded  through  systems.  Darwin  himself  has 
his  system  of  evolution. 

xxvlil      PBOLEGOMENA  TO  P8TCE0L0QT. 

Here  is  not  the  place  to  give  anything  like  a 
full  account  of  the  history  of  the  Triad  as  the 
form  of  expressing  what  is  deepest  and  most 
lasting  in  Man,  Nature,  God.  In  fact  just  these 
three  —  Man,  Nature,  God  —  make  the  exhaust- 
ive Triad  of  the  Universe,  and  hence  are  the 
theme  of  every  universal  Discipline,  such  as  Re- 
ligion, Philosophy,  and  finally  Psychology,  And 
we  may  note  here  in  advance  that  these  three 
Disciplines  constitute  a  Psychosis —  a  fact  which 
will  be  unfolded  later. 

At  present,  however,  we  wish  to  set  forth 
briefly  the  Evolution  of  the  Triad,  since  it  illus- 
trates  the  fundamental  psychical  activity  of 
man.  Three  staores  wo  shall  find  it  passing 
through  —  the  religious,  the  philosophical,  and 
the  psychological.  Their  history  shows  that 
mind  has  always  taken  this  form,  especially  in 
its  deeper  scarchings.  Wo  are  quite  entitled  to 
say  from  the  evidence  given  in  all  ages,  by  all 
races,  in  all  parts  of  the  world,  through  the 
three  chief  Disciplines  of  human  intelligence  — 
Religion,  Philosophy  and  Psychology  —  that 
man's  thougiit  both  of  himself  and  the  Universe 
precipitates  itself  ultimately  into  Triads.  This 
fact  we  shall  now  look  at. 

1.  The  conception  of  God  has  a  tendency  to 
take  some  form  of  the  rvlitjiou.^  Triads  which  is 
composed  of  divine  persons.  Asia  may  be 
deemed    the    home    of   Religions,    even    if   the 

TBS  TBIAD.  zziz 

eavage  man  everywhere  has  some  kind  of  wor- 
ship. In  the  great  Asiatic  River- Valleys  civi- 
lization dawned,  and  we  there  get  the  first 
peep  of  the  early  religion  which  has  unfolded 
into  our  own.  This  first  peep  shows  already 
some  kind  of  a  trinity.  In  a  recent  book  on 
Babylon  the  statement  is  made  that  "  its  great 
Triad  of  Gods,  Anu,  Bel,  and  Ea  "  can  be  traced 
back  "  to  the  very  beginning  of  History."  And 
in  the  valley  of  the  Nile  Egypt  was  full  of  divine 
trinities,  each  city  showing  the  tendency  to  have 
one  of  its  own.  Eleven  Triads  have  been  counted 
by  one  author,  and  the  list  is  probably  not  ex- 
haustive. But  Egypt  had  also  its  one  great 
Triad  known  as  Osiris  (father),  Isia  (tuotber), 
and  Horus  (son).  The  polytheism  of  the  Greeks 
often  drops  into  Triadism.  The  divine  dualism 
of  Persia  evolves  into  triplicity  (Ormuzd, 
Ahrimau,  and  finally  Mithras).  Even  in  the 
strong  Monotheism  of  the  Hebrews  an  implicit 
underlying  Trinity  has  been  shown  with  its 
Mediator.  Of  course  the  culmination  is  the 
Christian  Trinity,  the  heart  of  European  religion 
and  civilization,  which  may  well  be  regarded  as 
the  filial  evolution  of  the  religious  Triad,  which, 
however,  is  still  evolving. 

The  religious  Triad  has  many  forms,  and  its 
composition  varies  much.  At  times  it  seems 
hardly  more  than  three  separate  Gods  grouped 
together.     Then  it   is  indicated  that  these  throe 


are  somehow  one,  as  we  infer  from  many  three- 
headed  idols  with  one  body.  In  some  cases  all 
are  males ;  then  a  female  is  one  of  the  members, 
and  even  two  females  are  suggested  in  Homer  — 
Zeus  with  Ileni  and  Athena.  More  common  and 
more  significant  is  the  trinity  of  the  Family 
divinized  —  Father,  Mother,  Son.  Thus  the 
primal  institution  of  man  is  elevated  into  the 
upper  world  of  the  Gods,  and  its  creative  pro- 
cess is  put  at  the  center  of  all  creation.  Pos- 
sibly the  institutional  changes  in  the  evolution  of 
the  Family  —  Matriarchate,  Polygyny,  Monog- 
amy (see  our  Social  Inatitutioim^  pp.  137-154) 
may  have  found  its  reflection  in  the  different  re- 
lations of  women  in  the  reliofious  Triads  of  tribes 
and  nations  —  her  presence,  her  exclusion,  her 
restoration.  But  the  fact  now  to  be  emphasized 
is  that  throughout  all  this  diversity  divine 
triplicity  is  the  rule,  with  certain  exceptions. 

In  the  mind  of  every  thinking  man  the  ques- 
tion now  rises —  and  it  rose  long  ago :  Why  just 
the  number  three  in  this  matter?  Why  a  trinity 
of  Gods  or  a  tri-une  God?  Why  a  religious 
Triad,  and  not  a  religious  Dyad  or  even  Heb- 
domad? The  Persian  religion  was  indeed 
dvadal,  for  a  time  at  least,  and  we  know  that 
the  Hebrews  regarded  the  number  seven  as 
sacred.  Still  these  two  cases,  Persian  and 
Hebrew,  as  we  have  already  seen,  aie  but  seem- 
ing or  temporary  exceptions.     It  explains  noth- 

TBS  TBIAJ>.  xzxl 

iDg  to  say  that  the  number  three  was  regarded 
by  early  peoples  as  sacred,  for  the  point  is  to 
ascertain  why  it  was  sacred.  Maa,  the  buinaa 
Ego,  the  individual  Psychosis,  could  grasp  the 
Creator  of  the  Universe  only  aa  Ego,  as  a 
Psychosis  with  its  threefold  process  which  is 
expressed  in  the  manifold  forms  of  the  Trinity, 
these  showing  a  gradual  evolution  toward  a 
more  complete  conception  and  formulation. 
Lurking  in  the  religious  Triad  of  all  kinds,  and 
creating  it  is  the  Psychosis,  which  can  know 
God  only  as  the  All-Psychosis  (Pampsychosis), 
or  as  the  threefold  psychical  process  of  the  All. 
Such  is  the  underlying  genetic  fact  of  the  race's 
religious  Trinities,  both  ethnic  and  Christian. 

Here  we  may  inject  another  word  on  the 
number  three,  about  which  there  is  much  deep- 
rooted  misconception.  It  does  not  determine 
the  Trinity,  rather  the  Trinity  determines  it  — 
three  does  not  make  God  but  God  makes  three, 
making  himself  three  and  all  things.  Or  we 
can  say  that  the  Piitychosis  produces  the  Triad  as 
its  own  quantitative  expression,  and  not  the 

The  attempt  of  the  religious  Triad  to  make 
each  of  its  stages  a  personal  God  and  yet  to  hold 
them  in  a  unity,  is  an  extremely  suggestive 
psychical  fact  which  will  find  striking  analogies 
in  other  spheres  beside  that  of  religion.  St. 
AugusUne  seems  to  have  been  the  first  who  had 


some  <rliinp*^o  of  the  relation  between  the  tri- 
partite activity  of  the  human  mind  and  the 
Trinity,  ^^iiice  he  compares  the  two  in  his  work 
on  this  8iil)joct. 

2.  Aftc»r  Reli«xion,  which  is  essentially  Ori- 
ental  in  origin,  we  pass  to  Philosophy  which  is 
essentially  European.  The  fact  conies  to  light 
that  PhiIosr)|)hy  is  quite  as  triadal  as  Religion, 
sometimes  openly  and  consciously,  sometimes 
secretly  and  unconsciously.  Hence  we  must 
take  a  glance  at  tlw ])/iiIosophi ml  or  mctaphysi- 
cal  Triads  which  is  not  composed  of  persons  (as 
the  religious  Triad)  but  of  thoughts,  principles, 

The  Orient  h;is  philosophical  Triads  also, 
though  Philosophy  has  not  been  its  fundamental 
Discipline.  One  of  the  oldest  must  be  that  attrib- 
uted to  the  Chinaman  Lao-tsze,  five  centuries 
before  the  Christian  era,  who  speaks  of '*  the 
three  inscrutables  combined  into  one,"  w^hich 
three  are  categorized  as  ultimate  principles  in 
the  following  way:  "  Yin  the  positive,  Yang 
the  negative,  and  Chi  the  harmonizer."  These 
seem  to  be  abstract  thoughts  brought  into  a 
triune  process,  though  it  is  possible  that  a  per- 
sonal sul)strate  is  not  wholly  eliminated. 

But  Philosophy  as  a  creative  and  persist- 
ent World-Discij^line  arose  in  ancient  Greece. 
And  it  aro??e  as  a  reaction  ajrainst  Keliirion, 
specially  thiit  of    the  Orient,    with  its  divinely 

TBE  TRIAD.  3txxlll 

capricious  Will  ns  the  creator  of  all  thiags.  At 
Miletus  ill  tliottixth  centurj  B.  C,  the  old  Greek 
begaD  to  grope  after  and  to  formulate  the  abid- 
ing Cause,  Law,  Principle  of  the  Universe. 
These  are  all  abstract  Thoughts,  not  Persons. 
(  For  a  more  detailed  account  of  this  great  change 
see  OUT  Ancient  European  Philosophy,  y^.  16- 
22,  79-82.) 

At  present  we  wish  to  emphasize  the  fact  that 
these  abstract  metaphysical  principles  began  to 
take  a  triadal  form  in  the  early  Greek  philoso- 
phers. Very  pronounced  does  this  become  in 
Plato,  especially  in  his  Republic,  in  which  he 
unfolds  the  principles  or  activities  of  the  Soul. 
But  the  more  significant  matter  is  that  Pluto 
uses  this  Triad  of  the  Soul  as  the  ordering  prin- 
ciple of  the  Virtues  and  of  the  Classes  in  his 
State,  that  is,  of  his  moral  aud  institutional 
worlds.  Such  is  his  dim  prophecy  of  the  Psy- 
chosis as  the  world-orderer. 

Of  course  it  cannot  be  shown  that  Plato  in  all 
his  Dialogues  arranged  his  thought  triadally. 
Kor  did  Aristotle  put  his  system  into  Triads, 
though  he  baa  passages  which  show  his  insight 
into  the  threefold  order  of  things.  In  fiict  his 
whole  Works  easily  fall  into  Metaphysics, 
Physics,  and  Ethics,  the  triple  Norm  of  all 
Philosophy,  though  Aristotle  himself  seems  to 
have  made  no  such  division,  since  it  appears  first 
with  distinctness  in  one  of  his  disciples.     This 


Norm  remains  the  central  pivot  on  which  the 
philosophical  movement  of  every  age  has  turned. 

Passing  to  Neo-Platonism,  we  find  that  its 
greatest  names,  Plotinus,  lamblichus,  and  Pro- 
clus  cultivated  the  triadal  procedure.  Espe- 
cially should  we  note  Proclus  in  this  connection. 
In  him  the  metaphysical  Triad  as  the  essence  of 
all  things  is  explicitly  set  forth  and  formulated  in 
categories.  He  declares  that  the  fundamental 
process  of  the  world  has  three  stages  which  he 
calls  the  Stay  {Mone)  the  Going-forth  {Pro- 
odos)  and  the  Turning-back  {Epis(rophe).  Very 
similar  is  this  to  the  Psychosis  with  its  implicit, 
separative,  and  returning  stages,  as  already  de- 
scribed. Still  this  Triad  of  Proclus  is  not  the 
Psychosis,  since  it  is  never  brought  back  to  the 
Ego,  but  it  remains  metaphysi(5al,  giving  the 
abstract  formulation  of  the  essence  of  Being. 
Nevertheless  it  is  a  most  significant  fact  that 
Greek  Philosophy  in  its  last  great  exponent,  this 
Proclus,  winds  itself  up  by  laying  bare  its  meta- 
physical Triad  which  has  lurked  in  it  from  the 
beginning.  (See  account  of  Proclus  in  Ancient 
European  Philosophy,) 

The  medieval  Philosophers,  dominated  by  the 
thought  of  the  Trinity,  are  of  course  very  fully 
represented  in  the  present  field.  In  modern 
Philosophy  also  Triadism  takes  up  a  good  piece 
ot  history.  Kant  grew  into  it,  rathei  uncon- 
sciously  to   be   sure,    after    the   period   of   his 

THE  rniAD.  X«V 

CHfique  of  Pure  Reason,  whicli  work  is  essen- 
tially dyudal  rutlier  tlian  trindal.  But  the  great- 
est modern  expounder  and  promoter  of  pliilo- 
aophical  Triadism  is  Hegel.  It  appears  in  all 
liis  works,  and  is  particularly  employed  and  via- 
dicnted  in  his  Logic,  whose  tripartite  divisious 
are  Being)  Essence,  and  Conception.  Philosophi- 
cal Triadism  reaches  its  culmination  in  Hcgcl, 
and  at  times  shows  the  tendency  to  push  beyond 
itself  and  entcrthe  domain  of  Psychology.  That 
U,  the  threefold  process  of  the  Ego  (the  Psy- 
chosis) repeatedly  breaks  through  the  Hegelian 
metaphysical  Triads,  and  asserts  itself  as  the 
coming  new  procedure,  particularly  in  his  doctrine 
of  Conception.  (See  the  essay  on  Hegel  in  Mod- 
ern European  Philosophy,  pp.  727  et  seq.) 

We  have,  therefore,  the  right  to  infer  that 
Philosophy,  during  the  whole  coarse  of  its  his- 
tory, has  shown  an  inherent  tendency  to  be  tri- 
adal.  It  is  true  that  other  forms,  as  the  Monad 
and  Dyad  and  even  the  Decad,  have  appeared 
and  have  been  claimed  as  fundamental  in  this 
sphere.  But  such  cases  are  sporadic  and  are 
often  seen  on  a  deejjcr  view  to  vanish  into  the 
Triad.  Again  one  asks,  why?  Philosophy  as 
well  as  Rehgion  is  an  attempt  on  the  part  of  a 
human  Ego  (a  Psychosis)  to  grasp  and  to  formu- 
late the  All,  which  is  likewise  an  Ego  (the  Pani- 
paychosis).    Thus  we  have  a  triune  process  of  the 


Universe  in  abstract  terms  or  categories.  This 
gives  the  philosophical  or  metaphysical  Triad. 

3.  Secretly  lurking  and  working  in  the  entire 
movement  of  Philosophy  down  the  ages  is  the 
psi/chological  Triads  the  threefold  process  of 
the  Ego,  which  has  been  already  designated  as 
the  Psvchosis.  This  has  shown  itself  the  source 
and  inner  genetic  principle  of  the  preceding 
philosophical  Triad,  which  is  now  to  be  brought 
back  to  its  first  source  and  made  to  take  up  the 
Ego  that  created  it,  into  its  process,  this  Ego 
being  formulated  as  a  stage  or  element  of  the 
same.  Thus  the  creative  center  is  no  longer 
the  abstraction  separated  from,  yet  projected  by 
the  Ego,  but  thelatter's  own  process,  the  Psyche 
itself  in  its  triune  movement  —  the  concrete  self, 
not  an  abstract  projection  of  it. 

Let  us  illustrate.  The  above-mentioned  philo- 
sophic Triad  of  Proclus  is  declared  to  be  the 
Cause,  Principle,  generative  Energy  of  all  things, 
yet  it  is  the  philosopher's  Ego  which  projects 
this  Triad  out  of  itself  and  impresses  upon  the 
same  its  threefold  form.  Is  all  this  to  be  left 
out  of  the  formulated  process?  A  modern  illus- 
tration is  Hegel,  whose  creative  Conception 
i^Degriff)  has  the  three  stages,  Universality, 
Particularity  and  Individuality,  which  may 
be  deemed  Hegel's  fundamental  Triad,  which 
he  makes  the  organizing  principle  of  all 
science.     But    Hegel's   Ego    is  really  that    so- 

TBX  IVIAD.  xzxril 

cret  demiurgo  first  constraoting,  then  working 
hia  philosophicul  machine,  causing  it  to  produce 
all  its  wonderful  results.  But  is  that  demi- 
urgic Self  of  his  to  be  left  wholly  out  of  the 
account,  or  recognized  merely  as  "  looking  on  " 
at  its  own  world-making?  So  Hegel  says  re- 
peatedly, and  in  his  treatment  of  logical  Con- 
ception {^Begriff),  he  explicitly  eliminat«3  the 
psychological  element,  or  that  of  the  Ego.  Still 
it  is  his  Ego  which  is  doing  all  this,  and  cannot 
be  put  down.  In  like  manner  ancient  Aristotle 
posits  his  Thoughts  thinking-Thought  (noiisis 
nofiseos) ,  as  the  essence  of  Being,  which  has  noth- 
ing directly  to  do  with  the  Ego,  even  if  it  be  the 
Thought  which  thinks  itself.  In  otlier  words 
Aristotle  is  persistently  metaphysical,  and  Hegel 
as  European  philosopher  consciously  turns  away 
from  Psychology  to  his  philosophical  Triad. 
And  yet  both  these  greatest  philosophers  (being 
f^os)  have  the  psychological  Triad  fermenting 
underneath  and  secretly  determining  their  entire 

It  is  to  be  observed  in  these  three  vast  sweeps, 
religious,  philosophical,  and  psychological,  that 
the  triadal  character  of  human  thinking  per- 
sists, though  subject  to  great  variations.  The 
Orient  and  Europe,  through  their  fundamental 
disciplines.  Religion  and  Philosophy,  manifest 
in  their  deepest  struggles  for  self-utterance,  a 
threefold  process,  which  can  only  be  referred  to 


the  Ego  itself,  which  we  have  already  seen  de- 
scribing itself  as  a  Psychosis  in  abstract  or  meta- 
physical terms,  and  identifying  the  philosophic 
Triad  as  really  its  own. 

But  now  the  Ego  must  begin  to  look  at  itself 
by  its  own  light  and  describe  its  process  in  its 
own  nomenclature,  which  is,  therefore,  psycho- 
logical. When  I  say  that  I  feel  and  will  and 
know,  I  have  started  to  formulate  my  Psyche^ 
even  if  unconsciously,  in  its  own  speech.  To  be 
sure,  this  had  its  origin  far  back,  but  like  many 
another  old  thing  and  thought,  it  is  just  coming 
to  its  full  validity. 


An  observation  may  bo  made  at  this  point  in 
regard  to  the  religious  aspect  of  Psychology  in 
its  new  form.  Evidently  it  is  in  the  pro- 
f  oundest  sense  trinitarian,  and  rcquiresJts  student 
to  behold  the  creative  process  of  the  Trinity  in 
all  things,  which  indeed  are  unable  to  be  known 
or  even  sensed  by  the  individual  Ego  without 
reproducing  in  its  own  activity  the  triune  process 
of  the  Universe.  Thus  Psvchol()o:y  brinsfs  man 
to  God  in  the  large  and  in  the  small.  That 
Psychosis  of  his  re-enacts  the  divinely  creative 
act  in  its  form  at  least,  and  Psychology  is  the 
becomiiiij  conscious  of  the  Psvchosis  within  the 
EiTo  and  outside  of  it  in  the  world  and  finallv  in 
the  All.     Through  this  science  we  dwell  in  the 

BBLieiOUS  A8PB0T.  xxxfz 

eternal  presence  of  the  universal  Self  iu  whom 
we  now  conBciously  "  live  and  move  and  have  our 
being."  The  omnipresent  deity  is  still  a  feeling, 
but  no  longer  a  mere  feeling,  having  come  to  be 
a  participant  in  our  very  self-consciousness ;  we 
cannot  know  without  the  divine  factor,  and  know 
that  we  cannot  know.  Thus  Religion  begins  to  ■ 
be  secularized  in  the  right  sense,  not  being 
divorced  from  our  daily  life  but  perpetually  re- 
created in  our  occupation  with  the  affairs  of  this 

Some  such  ideal  has  indeed  always  hovered 
before  the  Christian  Churcli.  Its  greatest  the- 
ologian, Thomas  Aquinas,  bears  witness  to  its 
spirit  in  the  following  sentence :  Creare  est  com- 
mune tod  Trinitati.  The  triune  process  of  God- 
hood  is  creative,  and  is  common  to  its  three 
members  —  Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost. 
Drsiwing  out  the  thought  we  may  say:  the  total 
Trinity  (or  Divine  Psychosis)  imparts  its  triune 
movement  to  its  members,  each  of  whom  must 
have  within  himself  the  divinely  creative  process 
of  the  Whole,  in  order  to  be  a  member  of  that 
Whole.  Later  on  we  shall  discuss  more  fully 
the  psychological  nature  of  this  fact.  At  pres- 
ent, however,  it  is  enough  to  say  that  tlie  Psy- 
chosis has  three  stages  forming  its  process,  yet 
each  of  these  stages  must  sliow  tlio  siimo  tnune 
process  iu  order  to  be  a  stage  of  tliat  totality 
from  which  it  la  derived.     The  ChristJun  Trinity 


in  its  way  maintains  the  genetic  principle  of  the 
Universe  as  personal  and  also  as  triune,  as  an 
Ego  with  a  three-fold  process  within  itself,  each 
of  whose  members  is  also  an  Ego.  And  if  this  is 
what  creates  all  things  both  great  and  small, 
surely  wo  are  to  find  in  them  just  this  process  in 
order  to  know  them  in  their  truth,  that  is,  creat- 
ively. Hence  from  this  religious  point  of  view 
we  may  catch  a  glimpse  of  the  far-reaching  sig- 
nificance of  the  Psychosis. 

We  shall  also  put  some  stress  upon  the  point 
(already  hinted)  that  through  Psychology  thus 
conceived,  all  our  secular  existence  is  to  be  relig- 
ionized. The  old  distinction  between  religious 
and  secular  life  is  certainly  to  be  transcended, 
though  perchance  not  obliterated.  It  is  Euro- 
pean, sprung  of  Europe's  needs,  particuhirly  in 
the  propagation  of  Early  Christianity;  moreover 
it  manifests  the  dualism  inherent  in  European 
spirit  from  old  Greece  down  to  the  present. 

The  next  great  step  in  Ecligion  must  make 
the  triune  God  universal  in  Ilis  creativity,  which 
can  only  mean  that  Ilis  divine  process  must  be 
seen  in  the  least  thing  in  order  to  know  it  truly, 
as  it  is  in  itself.  The  Trinity  thus  may  become 
again  an  active  vital  fountain  of  Faith,  yea  of 
Knowledge.  Surely  it  is  not  to  be  hidden  away 
in  the  church,  made  an  object  of  devotion  on 
Sunday,  and  then  to  lapse  from  th()uj]^ht  and  life 
for  the  rest  of  the  week.     Psychology  is    to   re- 


store  Religion,  to  unify  it  nnd  universalize  it  out 
of  its  European  dualistic  stage.  In  the  State 
America  feels  and  knows  that  it  has  evolved  out 
of  Europe;  but  in  tbe  Cliurch  it  is  tlio  merest 
copyist  of  European  forms,  often  with  the  ten- 
dency to  revert  to  still  earlier  stages,  even 
Asiatic.  That  Bame  spirit  which  has  revealed 
and  realized  itself  in  our  political  institution, 
must  get  into  our  religious  organizations,  and 
make  them  over  into  an  institutional  counter- 
part of  our  State  nnd  our  Social  Order. 

If  the  Ego  in  knowing  has  the  triune  process, 
will  not  everything  known  by  it  have  to  be  also 
passed  through  such  a  triune  process,  which  must 
bo,  therefore,  the  very  form  of  knowledge? 
Science,  fashioned  and  formulated  by  the  Ego, 
cannot  help  being  psychical  in  its  order,  which 
must-ehow  the  Psychosis  working  through  all  its 
details.  You  have  no  other  instrument  except 
your  Ego  for  cognizing  the  world,  and  for  recog- 
nizing it  when  made  into  science.  And  the  crea- 
tive principle  of  the  Universe,  God,  must  be 
taken  as  Ego,  and  hence  his  creation  has  to  be 
likewise  triune,  having  within  it  the  genetic 
movement  of  the  Maker,  which  can  be  nothing 
else  but  the  Psychosis.  The  destiny  of  science 
is  that  it  be  psychologized  and  thereby  be  brought 
into  harmony  with  a  divinely  creative  Ego,  from 
which  it  has  been  so  deeply  estranged,  especially 
in  recent  times. 




Having  obtained  the  primordial  Triad  of  the 
Ego  (the  Psycho.sis),  the  immediate  ov psychical 
one,  which  cannot  vet  describe  itself  in  its  own 
speech,  we  come  to  the  more  developed /)^yc/fo- 
Joffical  Triad,  in  which  the  Ego  begins  to  unfold 
itself  in  its  special  categories.  This  Triad  is 
Feelin(J,  Willing,  and  Knowing,  which  terms 
always  implv  a  self-reference  of  the  E«:o  to  it- 
self.  In  them  the  mind  has  begun  to  formulate 
its  activities,  and  thus  to  cognize  itself.  Hence 
the  science  of  Psychology  proper  opens  its 
organization  with  Feelinjr,  Will,  and  Intellect 
which  are  its  primal  divisions,  in  their  due  order. 

Looking  back  at  the  genesis  of  this  last  triadal 
process,  we  can  observe  its  movement  through 
the  following  stages  —  the  metaphysical,  the 
psychical  (Psychosis),  and  the  psychological 
(Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect).  Taking  up  the 
metaphysical  Triad  in  its  three  phases  (the  Po- 
tential, the  Separative,  and  the  Returning)  we 
have  seen  them  brought  back  to  their  source,  the 
Ego,  and  employed  to  describe  the  process  of 
the  same,  which  we  have  designated  as  the 
Psychosis.  Let  us  here  emphasize  that  the  ab- 
stract nomenclature  of  the  world  is  the  work  of 
Philosophy,  which  is  still  the  language  of  think- 
insT  and  nuist  remain  so.     But  this  abstract  meta- 

FEELtNQ,   WILLiyg  AND  KNOWINO.        xH" 

pbysiciil  speech  is  to  be  filled  witli  tliat  which 
created  it,  namely  the  Ego's  genetic  activity, 
find  thereby  become  psychologicnl  in  matter,  if 
not  in  form.  To  express  its  primal  psychicnl 
process,  the  Psychosis,  tlie  Ego  hug  to  borrow 
its  tongue  from  the  antecedent  discipline.  Phi- 
losophy, for  it  has  as  yet  no  fonimlation  of  its 
own.  In  the  Psychosis,  therefore,  wo  see  the 
philosophical  Triad  transformed  into  the  psy- 
chological Triad.  Moreover  the  former  is  many, 
iippeariiig  different  in  each  kind  of  Pliilosophy; 
but  the  latter  is  one  fundamentally,  being  the 
one  process  of  the  Self  which  we  shall  find  to  be 
the  product  and  the  im  age  of  tlie  All , 

But  now  this  Psychosis,  being  born  and  started 
on  its  career,  begins  to  talk  its  own  language,  to 
formulate  its  process  in  its  own  terms.  When 
the  Ego  starts  to  appropriate  the  world  or  the 
non-Ego  and  to  be  determined  to  certain  states 
and  activities  by  the  same,  it  describes  these 
states  and  activities  of  itself  in  its  own  termi- 
nology. My  mind  getting  tlic  object,  is  like- 
wise influenced  by  it,  acts  and  is  acted  upon  in 
the  same  energy  or  faculty.  To  these  energies 
or  faculties  of  itself  it  begins  to  give  names 
peculiar  to  itself,  and  thus  them  rises  a  psycho- 
logical nomenclature,  which,  in  part  at  least,  sup- 
plants the  metaphysical.  When  1  speak  of  the 
stages  or  divisions  of  mind  as  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Intellect,    the  terms  are  psychical    and  are  ap- 


plied  to  the  Ego  purely,  and  with  them  the 
science  of  Psychology  proper  has  opened.  But 
as  long  as  I  was  defining  the  Ego  as  Psj'chosis 
in  metaphysical  terms  (Potentiality,  Separation, 
Return)  I  was  constructing  out  of  Philosophy 
into  Psychology  a  bridge,  which  by  the  by  must 
bo  perpetually  reconstructed  in  thought. 

It  is  not  intended  to  afGrm  that  psychical 
speech  orif/inat^s  after  philisophical  \  on  the  con- 
trary they  originate  together.  In  the  Greek 
philosophers  we  find  psychical  terms  mingled 
with  their  Metaphysics.  But  what  can  be  stated 
with  truth  is  that  the  completed  Psychology 
with  its  own  completed  expression  develojhi  after 
Philosophy,  and  out  of  Philosophy  into  a  new 

Thus  we  have  reached  the  primal  psychologi- 
cal process  (as  distinguished  from  the  psychical) 
in  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect.  They  all  together 
form  a  Psychosis  or  psychical  Trinity,  and  each 
is  likewise  aPsychosis  in  its  own  separate  field. 
Each  is  the  total  process  through  which  each  in- 
terlinks with  each,  and  thus  every  part  or  stage 
is  connected  with  the  rest  in  and  through  the 
Whole.  Such  is  our  first  glimpse  of  the  method 
of  Psychology,  which  method  is  to  be  applied  to 
every  activity  and  to  every  division  of  the  Ego 
large  and  small,  whereby  they  are  all  united  in- 
ternally, that  is  psychically,  into  a  great  scien- 
tific Totality. 


The  Ego,  let  us  repeat,  seeking  to  take  up  and 
to  make  iti^  own  the  objective  world  or  the  All, 
develops  within  itiielf  three  priinordiiil  energies 
or  forms  of  aiich  appropriation  —  namely  Feel- 
ing, Will,  and  Intellect,  which  are,  accordingly, 
the  fundamental  triune  process  of  the  Self  as 
psychological.  Here  starts  the  question.  Why 
does  the  Ego  thus  seek  to  make  its  own  the  All? 
Let  us  first  think  that  the  All  is  really  what  has 
created  the  Ego,  and  that  this  must  return  and 
reproduce  its  creator.  The  Ego  is  the  child  of 
the  All,  and  it  as  a  true  child  muHt  inherit  the 
creativity  of  the  parent,  and  so  be  likewise  cre- 
ative, reproducing  what  produced  it,  namely  the 
All,  the  Universe.  This  act  of  reproduction 
shows  itself  in  manifold  stages,  but  specially  in 
the  already  named  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect, 
these  being  distinct  from  the  elemental  Psycho- 
sis, which  is  the  Ego  immediately  turning  back 
upon  itself  and  describing  itself  abstractly. 

The  deepest  necessity  of  man,  the  Ego  as  in- 
dividual, is  that  he  may  feel,  will,  and  know  (or 
appropriate  mentally)  that  which  is  not  himself, 
the  world,  and  through  this  mental  appropriation 
rise  to  the  All-Ego,  to  God.  By  means  of  Feel- 
ing, Will,  and  Intellect  he  makes  himself  &  link 
in  the  total  cycle  of  creation,  and  participates  in 
the  process  of  the  Universe.  He  starts  with  the 
world,  the  external  object,  and  finds  in  it  the 
Psychosis  as  the  essential  principle  of  its  being. 


From  the  world  he  mounts  up  to  the  genetic 
source  of  it  and  of  himself,  to  the  All-Ego,  which 
lie  has  to  re-create  in  its  very  creativity,  making 
it  his  own  through  Feeling,  AVill,  and  Intellect. 
The  science  of  Psvcholo^rv  mav  bo  said,  there- 
fore,  to  bring  man  back  to  God.  But  it  does 
this  in  its  own  wav,  throu<^h  interlinkingr  the 
fc<»Iing,  willing  and  knowing  Ego  into  the  round 
of  the  Universe  which  is  made  up  of  God,  World 
and  Man,  or  Ego.  This  Ego  is  thus  the  pivot 
on  which  the  created  centrifugal  world  turns 
back  to  the  center  whence  it  came  to  the  creative 
All-Ego.  Yet  this  creative  All-Ego  is  not  simply 
the  center,  but  also  the  circumference,  and  yet 
not  the  circumference,  but  the  Universe,  of 
which  center  and  circumference  can  onlv  be 
imperfect  metaphors. 

It  is  evident,  therefore,  that  Feeling,  AVilling, 
and  Knowing,  with  which  our  science  makes  its 
beginning,  have  a  great  destiny  before  them.  It 
must  do  something  more  than  pick  up  and  ar- 
range, in  external  fashion,  some  phenomena  of 
mind.  Such  a  view  of  Psvcholoirv  <rcts  rather 
l)itiful  after  the  ])rece(ling  outlook  which  glances 
up  a  new  hisrhwav  to  the  all-creatino[  All.  And 
vet  in  a  sense  this  hi<rhwav  is  old,  verv  old,  as 
old  as  the  Ego  itself,  which  started  on  its  pivotal 
career  with  the  dawn  of  human  consciousness  far 
back  in  some  i)re-historic  aije. 

The    foregoing    tripartite    division    of     mind, 

PEELtSO,  WlLLlSa  AND  KNOWINQ.      ilvii 

however,  liiis  its  hUtory,  It  is  not  a  roceut  dis- 
covery, if  we  take  into  account  the  suggestions 
of  it  in  ancient  writers.  HoDier  explicitly  desig- 
nates the  two  classes  of  men  —  the  one  of  action 
fWill)  and  the  other  of  wisdom  and  deliberation 
(Intellect),  nor  does  he  fail  to  present  the  man 
of  emotion  and  passion  (Feeling).  Pluto  formu- 
lates three  psychical  activities  in  his  Republic 
which  have  some  analogy  to  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Intellect  though  their  complete  identification  is 
doubtful.  In  modern  Philosophy  all  three  can 
bo  distinctly  traced,  though  under  different 
names.  Some  recent  psj'chologists  have  sought 
to  invalidate  this  division)  which,  however,  may 
bo  regarded  as  the  Mind's  own  view  of  itself 
through  many  ages.  The  Ego  of  the  race  as 
expressed  in  its  best  thinkers  has  separated  itself 
into  Feeling,  Willing,  and  Knowing,  aud  wo  shall 
obey  this  vary  distinct  behest  of  Evolution,  this 
consensus  of  the  best  minds  thinking  upon  mind. 
If  there  is  a  substantial  unmiimity  in  regard  to 
the  preceding  divisions,  there  is  coiisiderablo  di- 
versity of  opinion  as  to  their  order.  Which 
ought  to  come  6rst  in  the  triudal  movement, 
Feeling,  Will,  or  Intellect?  Each  has  been  given 
the  priority,  though  most  psychologists  have 
been  inclined  to  place  Intellect  at  the  beginning. 
In  one  sense  this  is  correct.  Psychol(»gy  is 
science  and  must  know;  scientific  knowledge 
comes  through  the  Intellect  which  knows  itself 

il   1-^  I'linr,  ami  fnrni-lir^  l  he  priiip 
iii;il  i'l'ial  ii|M  'II  w  liicii  I  iiltllcct  work 
ill  fact  Intellect  develops.      Feelin 
plete  self-return;  though  it  has 
the  Ego,  this  is  as  yet  essentiiilb 
undeveloped.     In   our  terms,  Fee 
reference  but   is  not  yet  self-con 
following  pp.  60-1.) 

So  we  affirm    the   priority  of  F( 
ordering  of  Psychology.     We  may 
in  advance  that  this  priority  of  a  m 
is  a  different  thing  from  its  primacy 
tains  more  to  its  supremacy.     Feelii 
in  order,  it  is  the  potentiality  of  the 
which  is  Will.     We  may  imagine  t 
quiet  unruffled  lake,  till  it  be  stirred 
purely    within  itself  by  some  outw 
determinant.     The  wind  smites  thii 
Ego,  and  starts  it  to  rolling  within, 
wave,  each  echoing  each  responsively 
the  waters  strike  the  land  or  the  be 
see  the  power  fiwpoi^;.- 

. t 


itself,  it  would  l)e  Intellect,  which  has  this  re- 
flective, self-returning  power  within  itself,  and 
self-identification  or  self-awareness.  Such,  then, 
is  the  psychological  order  of  these  three  primal 
activities  of  the  mind. 

Still  we  must  be  careful  not  to  oret  lodj^ed  in 
their  separation.  These  three  activities  are  one 
and  a  process,  wherein  all  are  in  each.  When  I 
feel,  I  have  also  to  act  and  to  know,  even  if  in  a 
subordinate  way.  My  Feeling  may  dominate  my 
Ego,  nevertheless  Will  and  Intellect  are  not 
absent  from  it,  else  it  would  not  be  Ego.  We 
may  state  here,  though  the  subject  will  come  up 
later  for  fuller  treatment,  that  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Intellect  have  each  self-division  and  self-return ; 
each  is  the  total  process  (the  Psychosis)  which 
all  are,  otherwise  there  could  be  no  such  total 
process.  To  use  other  terms,  each  has  in  it  self- 
reference,  which  is  common  to  the  Ego  feeling 
itself  (as  in  Pain  and  Pleasure)  or  willing  itself 
(as  in  self-activity)  or  knowing  itself  (as  in  self- 
consciousness).  The  process  is  the  great  thing 
in  Psychology,  not  the  single  faculty  or  activity, 
which  taken  alone  is  abstract  and  always  runs 
the  danger  of  lapsing  into  something  like  a  meta- 
physical subtrate,  though  it  bo  predicated  of  the 

Finally  we  are  to  grasp  the  fundamental  reason 
of  the  foregoing  psychological  order  of  Feeling, 
Will,  and  Intellect:  litis  that  of  the  Psychosis, 



whose  three  stages  have  been  already  described 
as  the  potential,  the  separative,  the  returning. 
The  Psychosis  bears  the  impress  of  the  creative 
All,  and  is  the  fundamental  ordering  principle  of 
every  science,  especially  that  of  Psychology. 
Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  therefore,  form  a 
Psychosis,  and  this  we  may  deem  the  ultimate 
ground  of  their  order  in  science,  though  this 
order  reaches  back  through  the  Psychosis  to  the 
All-Ego  (Pampsychosis),  which  is  the  source  of 
it  and  of  everything  else. 


In  the  fore<?oinor  account  we  have  discussed  the 
question  of  priority  in  the  elemental  stages  of 
the  mind.  We  have  placed  Feeling  first  in  order, 
then  Will,  then  Intellect,  all  three  constituting 
the  primal  process  of  the  Ego  out  of  which  is  or- 
ganized the  science  of  Psychology.  But  a  very 
different  proposition  is  that  of  the  Primacy 
among:  these  same  stacrcs.  Which  comes  first  in 
authority  and  in  genetic  power,  irrespective  of 
their  order?  The  Primacv  of  Feeliuor,  for  in- 
stance,  must  be  regarded  as  quite  distinct  from 
that  of  its  Priority.  One  can  hold  to  the 
Priority  of  Feeling  in  the  psychological  process 
of  the  Ego  without  maintaining  its  Primacy  in 
the  same,  though  these  two  characteristics 
are  usually  confused  by  psychologists. 

The  question,  then,  comes  to  the  front:    Does 


ioiy  one  of  these  constituent  faculties  have 
authority  over  the  others?  Is  there  a  ruler, 
monarch,  autocrat  in  the  domain  of  the  Ego? 
Very  common  is  it  at  present  to  make  such  an 
ns!;crtiun,  or  at  least  to  imply  it ;  ali>o  a  claim  of 
this  sort  has  been  often  made  in  the  past.  The 
situation  we  may  briefly  outline  by  characteriz- 
ing its  three  leading  stages,  which  we  shall  call 
Emotionalism,    Voluntarism  and  Intellectualism. 

1,  A  certain  precedence  of  our  emotional 
nature  not  only  in  the  order  of  the  Psychosis  but 
in  rank  and  supremacy  has  been  often  maintained 
and  still  la  upheld.  This  we  may  call  the  Pri- 
macy of  Feeling  (Emotionalism).  Particularly 
Feehng  is  declared  superior  to  Intellect,  a 
doctrine  frequently  enounced  in  the  statement 
that  the  heart  is  always  to  bo  put  above  the  head. 
Instinct  is  said  to  be  higher,  more  unerring  in 
decision  than  the  Understanding,  especially  in 
the  case  of  women.  Instinct,  which  is  Feeling, 
is,  moreover,  far  wider  than  Intellect,  which 
animals  do  not  possess  in  any  high  degree.  And 
tlio  Imver  grades  of  mou,  and  man  in  his  lower 
grades  have  to  be  ruled  by  Instinct  as  they  have 
no  other  ruler. 

Religion  tends  to  assert  the  Primacy  of  Feel- 
ing from  Paul  to  Schleierniachci-.  The  su))rem- 
acy  «)f  Love  is  doctrinal  as  well  as  the  rule  of 
Faitli.  And  yet  the  man  of  Intellect  usually 
sways  the  man  of  Feeling,    unless  Intellect  can 


somehow  descend  and  take  possession  of  Feeling, 
whereby  is  attained  what  is  known  as  the  culture 
of  the  heart.  But  Feeling  feels  itself  incomplete 
without  passing  over  into  action  or  Will. 

The  unconscious  Ego  with  its  vast  reservoir  of 
Feeling,  the  untold  stores  of  our  antecedent  life 
through  all  the  stages  of  our  evolution,  has  also 
been  endowed  with  the  Primacy  over  the  con- 
scious Ego. 

2.  The  favorite  doctrine,  however,  in  this  field 
at  the  present  time  is  the  Primacy  of  the  Will  or 
Voluntarism,  which  can  be  traced  through  the 
ancient  and  medieval  periods,  but  which  gets  its 
preponderance  to-day  from  Kant  (who  derived 
it  from  Hume)  and  from  Schopenhauer  and 
Wundt.  From  these  philosophers  it  has  per- 
meated German  thinking,  and  from  Germany  it 
has  gone  forth  to  the  rest  of  the  world,  particu- 
lary  to  America,  on  whose  shores  echoes  of  it 
are  heard  on  many  sides.  In  the  form  which  it 
now  takes  it  is  peculiarly  a  German  doctrine, 
and  springs  from  the  German  institutional  situa- 
tion. We  see  the  Primacy  of  Will  absolute  and 
originative,  and  hence  arbitrary,  in  the  German 
emperor,  in  the  German  army,  in  the  German 
social  and  political  system.  Long  ago  it  was 
said  that  the  function  of  Philosophy  was  to  ex- 
press the  spirit  of  its  peo[)le  and  its  age  in  the 
pure  forms  of  thought.  The  German  thinker 
is,  therefore,  right  in  asserting  the  supremacy  of 

PBIMACT  /.V  aE^ERAL.  liii 

Will,  Strength,  Power,  for  tUat  is  the  preaent 
spirit,  and  probably  the  preseat  miasioQ  of  him- 
self and  his  nation.  But  why  should  such  a  doo- 
triue  be  transferred  to  the  United  States,  where 
Social  Institutions,  and  the  Ego  have  put  down 
such  an  arbitrary  Primacy  of  the  Will  and 
are  deeply  antagonistic  to  it?  For  it  means 
autocracy  both  in  the  individual  and  in  the 

The  arguments  which  are  usually  brought  for- 
ward to  support  this  doctrine,  do  not  prove  it, 
at  least  not  in  any  universal  sense.  It  is  claimed 
that  the  beginning  of  life  is  wholly  impulse; 
"  the  nurseling  is  all  Will."  Yet  the  nurseling 
must  liave  sensation  (which  is  a  form  of  Intel- 
lect) and  it  must  feel  what  is  agreeable  or  dis- 
iigreeable  to  it,  which  is  Feeling.  Thus  in  the 
young  of  aiiiuiiils  we  recognize  all  three,  Feel- 
ing, Will,  and  Intellect,  all  of  them  to  be  sure  in 
a  very  incipient  condition.  But  the  point  is  that 
they  belong  together  and  form  a  process  even  in 
their  developed  condition.  For  the  worm 
or  the  polyp  as  animated  must  sense,  must  feel, 
must  will.  The  Primacy  of  the  Will,  as  the 
original  primordial  function  of  mmd,  from  which 
Feeling  and  Intellect  are  derived  as  secondary, 
never  has  been  and  cannot  be  shown  to  be  a  uni- 
versal mental  fact,  though  the  Will  appears  at 
particular  times  in  the  life  of  the  individual  and 
of  the  nation  as  the  dominating  activity. 


3.  Ill  the  history  of  thought  the  Primacy  of 
the  Intellect  or  Intellectual  ism  has  been  very 
generally  accepted,  even  when  not  explicitly 
formulated.  It  is  an  old  belief  that  intelligence 
rules  the  world,  and  there  is  much  to  be  said  in 
.favor  of  the  doctrine.  We  must  recollect  that 
the  whole  gamut  of  Intellect  runs  from  Sensa- 
tion up  to  Reason,  deemed  often  the  godlike 

Let  it  be  said,  however,  that  Intellect  cannot 
possibly  do  without  Will,  or  without  Feeling. 
When  the  voluntarist  says  that  the  Intellect  is 
the  mere  instrument  of  the  Will,  important  but 
subordinate,  the  intellectualist  replies  that  the 
Will  is  the  mere  instrument  of  the  Intellect. 
Both  these  one-sided  advocates  are  right  and 
also  wrong;  each  of  these  activities  of  the  Ego 
is  the  means  as  well  as  the  end  of  the  other. 
Intellect  employs  Will,  and  Will  employs  Intel- 
lect, and  both  employ  Feeling,  and  Feeling  em- 
ploys them  and  all  three  form  the  process  of  the 
Ego  together,  in  which  process  each  is  for  and 
through  the  rest. 

Such  is  the  outcome  of  the  three  Primacies  of 
Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  which  have  played 
and  are  still  playing  a  great  part  in  the  theory 
of  mind.  Our  view  maintains  that  there  is  no 
such  Primacy  of  any  of  them,  no  original, 
monarchic,  autocratic  faculty  which  is  supreme 
in  rank,  authority  and  generative  power.     Feel- 


iog,  Will,  and  Intellect  nre  socially  equals,  of  the 
sunie  right  nnd  supremacy;  they  form  not  a 
itionarchy  in  the  Ego,  hut  a  democrucy.  It  is 
curious  and  significant  that  monarchical  Europe 
has  held  to  a  monarchical  Primacy  in  the  mind, 
which  fact  accords  with  the  institutional  world 
there.  Now  the  truer  doctrine  (we  maintain) 
is  that  aoy  one  of  these  coustituents  can  hold  the 
Primacy  for  a  time  and  for  a  given  emergency, 
But  there  is  no  born  Primacy  (or  Primogeni- 
ture), no  arij'tocracy  in  the  realm  of  the  psy- 
ciiological  Trinity.  Each  member  of  the  pro- 
cess can  become  Priiuate  (or  President)  and 
possess  authority  in  the  Republic  of  the  Self. 

Another  fact  to  be  noted  here  is  that  each  of 
these  three  Primacies,  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intel- 
lect is  essentially  psychological,  assuming  a  stage 
or  function  of  the  Ego  as  the  essence  of  it,  and 
indeed  of  all  Being.  Voluntarism,  for  instance, 
asserts  Will  to  be  the  fundimicntui  principle  of 
the  Universe.  We  see  in  this  statement  that  the 
form  is  philosophical,  though  the  content  is 
psychological ;  the  philosophical  problem  receives 
•A  psychological  answer.  The  essence  of  Being 
is  still  asked  for;  the  response,  however,  is  not 
the  Atom,  the  Good,  the  Oue,  Substance,  the 
Monad,  or  any  other  abstract  metaphysical  entity, 
but  is  the  Will,  a  ccmcrete  psychical  fact.  Here 
the  domination  of  the  one  principle  renuiins,  so 
that    we  have    still  an  autocracy,    though  it  be 


psychological  and  not  philosophical,  having  got- 
ten one  foot  out  of  Metaphysics,  while  the  other 
still  sticks  fast.  But  how  can  the  European 
mind,  where  these  Primacies  originated,  free 
itself  from  its  fundamental  Discipline  which  is 
Philosophy,  necessarily  aristocratic  or  autocratic? 
Now  the  democratic  Primacy  includes  all  as 
equals,  and  their  process ;  in  the  present  case  this 
is  the  process  of  the  Ego  itself  within,  which 
thus  can  make  an  outer  institutional  world  in 
correspondence  with  its  own  inner  nature. 

We  must,  accordingly,  see  that  if  the  Will  be 
put  as  the  primal,  authoritative,  genetic  essence 
of  the  Ego  or  Soul,  it  is  used  as  a  kind  of  fixed 
psychological  substance  instead  of  that  of  Meta- 
physics. This  may  bo  regarded  as  a  step  in  ad- 
vance, though  there  is  as  yet  no  psychological 
process.  The  essence  of  Being  must  be  grasped 
as  the  psychical  process  of  the  Ego,  as  the 
Psychosis,  then  Philosophy  has  passed  into 
Psychology.  The  process  must  not  be  a  meta- 
physical Triad,  like  that  of  Proclus  or  Hegel  for 
instance,  nor  must  the  principle  be  a  psycholog- 
ical faculty-unit,  such  as  we  see  in  all  kinds 
of  Primacy,  be  it  of  Will,  Intellect,  or  Feeling. 

The  essence  of  Being  (the  philosophical  prob- 
lem) is  not  now  Cause,  Law,  Atom,  but  the 
process  of  the  Ego  formulating  such  a  universal 
essence,  which  process  I  have  had  with  me  all 
the  while  I  was  seeking  it  through  Philosophy. 


Nor  are  we  to  put  instead  of  tliis  process  of  the 
Ego  one  of  its  constituent  members  as  possessing 
the  absolute  Primacy  to  the  exclusion  of  the 
rest.  Thus  we  are  half  in  Psychology  and  half 
in  Philosophy,  Between  these  two  Disciplines 
we  made  the  transition  when  treating  of  the 
Psychosis.  And  yet  this  halfness  has  its  period, 
yea  its  fervent  disciples. 


Perhaps  enough  has  been  said  on  the  preced- 
ing subject,  still  we  are  tempted  to  add  sonio 
paragraphs  especially  on  the  Primacy  op  the 
Will  which  is  having  so  much  currency  in 
recent  Psychology  as  well  as  in  Philosophy.  For 
it  in  a  manner  belongs  to  both,  having  one  foot 
in  the  one  and  the  other  foot  in  the  other,  and 
manifesting,  therefore,  a  straddle,  a  spiritual 
straddle  characteristic  of  the  time. 

It  has  been  already  stated  that  this  doctrine 
is  not  new.  Leaving  out  the  ancient  moralists, 
we  come  to  Christian  Origen  who  felt  the  need 
of  strongly  emphasizing  the  eternally  creative 
Will.  In  the  theological  development  of  the 
Western  Church  there  is  a  kind  of  running  fight 
between  the  two  Primacies  of  Will  and  Intellect, 
culminating  in  the  struggle  between  tlie  Scotists 
and  the  Thomists.  In  modern  German  Philoso- 
phy the  same  conflict  starts  auew  with  Kant  who 
substantially  destroys  the  validity  of  Intellect  in 


one  CHtique  (that  of  Pure  Reason) y  and  affirms 
strongly  the  positive  nature  of  the  Will  in  his 
second  Critique  (that  of  the  Practical  Reason). 
The  influence  of  Kant  has  brought  about  many 
variations  of  this  conflict,  notably  those  of 
Schopenhauer  and  the  neo-Kantians. 

But  the  man  who  above  all  others  has  been  the 
means  of  scattering  over  the  civilized  world  of 
to-day  the  doctrine  of  the  Primacy  of  the  Will 
is  Professor  Wundt  of  Leipzig.  He  may  be 
regarded  as  the  psychologist-philosopher  of  the 
present  era,  for  he  is  both,  not  exclusively  the 
one  or  the  other.  He  is  very  great,  probably 
the  greatest  psychologist  among  philosophers, 
and  the  greatest  philosopher  among  psycholo- 
gists. His  phenomenal  career  represents  better 
than  anything  else  the  transitional  stage  from 
Philosophy  into  Psychology,  with  its  ups  and 
downs,  its  forwards  and  backwards  repeated 
many  times.  For  Wundt  after  makino:  himself 
the  most  prominent  figure  in  a  new  department 
of  Psychology  (the  physiological),  and  declaring 
that  Philosophy  was  a  dead  duck  floating  on  the 
morass  of  past  thought,  took  the  back  track  and 
wrote  a  System  of  Philosophy  himself,  which  a 
little  investigation  shows  to  be  built  on  the  same 
old  lines  of  the  philosophic  Norm  of  the  ages. 
This  step,  which  we  hold  to  be  not  only  natural 
but  necessary,  is  said  to  have  brought  amaze- 
ment to  opponents  and  consternation  to  friends. 


It  reflects,  however,  the  mental  situation  and 
shows  Wundt  as  the  true  thinker  of  Europe  since 
ho  both  in  his  life  and  thought  has  given  ex- 
pression to  the  character,  institutional  and  in- 
tellectual, not  only  of  the  German  but  also  of 
the  European  world,  whose  spirit  has  never  been 
able  to  get  rid  of  a  deep  inner  separation  and 
dualism,  whereof  the  best  expression  has  always 
been  found  in  its  Philosophy.  Wundt's  career 
as  well  as  his  doctrines  show  the  conflict  betweei^ 
Psychology  and  Philosophy,  which  also  gave 
trouble  to  Kant,  and  may  be  shown  to  underlie 
the  various  conflicts  expressed  in  his  Paralogisms 
and  Antinomies. 

But  also  in  Wundt's  conception  of  Voluntar- 
ism there  lurks  acontradictorv  movement.  The 
two  sides  may  be  studied  separately. 

Ist.  Wundt,  recalling  Kant,  declares  that 
"  there  is  nothing  in  man  which  is  his  own  ex- 
cept his  Will"  (System  der  Phil.  s.  379)  — 
which  is  certainly  a  strong  statement  not  only  of 
the  Will's  Primacy  but  of  its  absoluteness. 
**  The  activit}'^  of  the  will  penetrates  all  the  single 
states  of  consciousness,  and  mediates  (heir  con- 
nection,^^ In  this  italicized  sentence  we  see  that 
Wundt  has  before  him  the  ideal  of  an  inter- 
connected Psychology  down  to  its  most  minute 
states  of  consciousness.  This  is  certainly  a  most 
import^int  thought.  But  when  he  takes  for  the 
single  mediating   element  the  Will,   necessarily 


arbitrary,  we  have  to  protest  in  the  interest  of 
that  very  experience  to  which  Wundt  appeals. 
Again,  **the  occurrences  of  the  Will  have  a 
typical  significance  which  gives  the  standard  for 
comprehending  all  psychical  activities  "  {Orund- 
rissy  8.  17).  This  is  no  longer  so  absolute  as 
the  preceding  citations,  but  it  still  asserts  the 
Will  to  have  the  criterion  or  measure  by  which 
we  understand  mind.  Though  Wundt  protests, 
he  nevertheless  here  metaphysicizes  the  Will 
making  it  a  kind  of  substance  which  determines 
the  other  activities  of  mind.  Or  we  may  say 
that  he  has  begun  to  psychologize  Metaphysics, 
putting  the  Will  in  place  of  Cause,  Essence,  Law 
or  other  abstract  principle. 

2nd.  Ndw  wo  shall  glance  at  the  other  side. 
Wundt  denies  that  **  the  activity  of  Willing  is  a 
single,  really  existent  form  of  psychical  activ- 
ity "  in  a  separate  state;  on  the  contrary  he 
aflSrms  that  **the  Feeling  and  Concepts  (Intel- 
lect) are  closely  joined  with  it,  and  form  insep- 
arable constituents  of  psychological  experience  '* 
(  GrundHsSy  s.  17).  In  our  translation  we  have 
brought  to  the  surface  what  we  think  lurks  some- 
what obscurely  in  Wundt's  statements.  Will 
is  indeed  first,  then  Feeling  and  Conception 
(  Vorstellung)  he  puts  together  with  it,  not  ex- 
actly into  a  process,  but  into  "  a  psychological 
experience."  He  holds  that  they  are  not  '*  sep- 
arate energies"  but  arc  united  *'in  a  psychical 


act."  He  sharply  aj-sails  "  tlio  attempt  to  de- 
duce special  activities  of  the  mind,  from  other. 
oQcs;  "  which  declunitioD  would  seem  to  jeopard 
hid  Primacy  of  the  Will,  to  which,  however,  he 
clings  after  hedging  it  about  with  a  number  of  ^ 
explanations  and  limitations,  evidently  made  to 
meet  objections. 

Tlie  two  preceding  paragraphs  must  be  re- 
garded as  containing  contradictory  statements 
and  doctrines.  The  supremacy  of  the  Will,  even 
its  absoluteness,  is  affirmed  in  the  one,  but  de- 
cidedly modified  in  the  other.  If  a  man  has 
nothing  but  Will  as  his  own,  thou  Will  is  bis 
All,  his  total  Ego,  And  yet  Wundt  in  other 
passages  is  not  far  from  recognizing  the  process 
of  Will,  Feeling,  and  Intellect,  as  the  three 
equal  constituents  of  the  Ego.  He  does  indeed 
affirm  the  process  of  the  Will  taken  by  itself,  for 
he  insists  upon  its  being  "  an  occurrence  not  an 
object."  'But  ho  does  nut  explicitly  reach  the 
fundamental  psychological  process,  otherwise  he 
would  have  made  use  of  it  in  his  organization  of 
the  science.  And  yet  this  process  is  fermenting 
within  him,  and  at  times  sporadically  breaks  up 
to  the  surface.  Wuudt  as  European  cannot 
abandon  Philosophy  as  the  supreme  World-Dis- 
cipline. Moreover  as  a  German  he  cannotrroject 
an  the  chief  iutellectujil  heritage  of  his  people, 
which  is  certainly  Philosophy.  Hence  Wundt 
returns   to  Metaphysics   from  Psychology,  and 


cannot  help  metaphysicizing  even  his  Psycholog3\ 
All  of  which  is,  to  our  mind,  deeply  character- 
istic not  only  of  the  man,  but  also  of  his  nation 
and  his  age,  revealing  that  old  European  rent  in 
its  most  modern  form.  The  Primacy  of  the 
Will  is  still  absolutistic  as  affirmed  by  Wundt, 
but  he  also  voices  the  protest  against  absolutism, 
at  least  in  the  realm  of  thought.  He  is  inher- 
ently dualistic  and  cannot  help  himself;  if  he 
were  not  so,  he  would  not  be  the  typical  thinker 
of  his  period. 

There  is  another  expression  above  cited  which 
ought  to  bo  expanded  a  little.  Wundt  conceives 
of  a  mental  activity  which  "penetrates  all  the 
single  states  of  conciousness  and  mediates  their 
connection."  Evidently  such  a  mental  activity 
would  be  the  organizing  principle  of  the  total 
science  of  Psychology,  penetrating  every  mental 
state,  even  the  most  minute,  and  mediating  the 
connection  of  them  all,  large  and  little.  Now 
Wundt  makes  the  Will  such  an  ororanizins:  and 
interconnecting  principle.  So  we  look  through 
hisPsycholgy  in  order  to  find  the  Will  perform- 
ing this  function.  But  it  does  not  appear  ful- 
filling any  such  task  unless  incidentally  and 
implicitly.  After  enouncing  an  explicit  media- 
ting activity  of  mind  for  his  science,  he  never 
uses  it,  but  drops  back  into  his  mereunmediated 
expcrimcntalism,  asserting  Psychology  to  be  "  the 
science  of  immediate  experience."     The   result 


is  that  he  has  only  an  external,  quite  arbitrary 
order  in  his  work,  whereby  he  may  affirm  the 
Primacy  of  his  own  subjective  Will  in  organiz- 
ing his  science,  though  this  Will  of  his  works 
and  must  work  capriciously,  so  that  the  principle 
of  his  scientific  edifice  cannot  be  other  than  his 
own  caprice. 

Out  of  Wundt's  performance  we  come  back  to 
that  striking  aspiration  of  his  for  a  fundamental 
psychical  activity  which  will  penetrate  all  the 
staores  of  mind  and  interlink  them  into  a  united 
and  completely  co-ordinated  science.  Our  at- 
tentive reader  has  probably  identified  such  a 
fundamental  psychical  activity  reaching  through 
and  ordering  all  other  psychical  activities  as  the 
Psychosis.  Of  course  Wundt  has  no  Psychosis ; 
though  he  calls  for  it,  his  call  remains  unanswered 
in  his  case. 

Wundt  starts  with  an  attack  on  the  lutellec- 
tualismof  Herbart,  approving  however  the  latter's 
opposition  to  the  old  idea  of  faculties  in  psy- 
chology, and  his  unification  of  mind.  But  the 
principle  of  such  unity  lies  for  him  not  in  the 
Intellect,  but  in  the  Will.  Thus  Wundt  seeks  to 
shift  Herbart's  Primacy  to  his  own,  and  lays 
himself  open  to  the  chief  objection  which  can 
be  urged  against  Intellectualism.  Mark  that 
both  these  eminent  psychologists  cannot  help 
})eing  philosophers  too,  though  each  has  his  own 
way  in  the  matter. 


Moreover  in  educational  science  there  has  been 
a  similar  movement  from  Intellectualism  to 
Voluntarism,  from  Herbart  to  Wundt.  And 
there  was  need  of  the  corrective :  Will  belongs 
to  the  complete  Ego  as  well  as  Intellect,  and 
both  are  to  receive  due  training.  But  the  result 
has  been,  particularly  in  America,  a  one-sided 
craze  for  the  so-called  motor  education,  imported 
of  course  directly  from  Germany  out  of  whose 
needs  and  character  it  doubtless  sprang.  For 
the  German  child  is  reported  phlegmatic  and 
demands  greater  motor  stimulation  than  the 
nervous  American  child,  whose  activity  often 
needs  the  check  more  than  the  spur.  At  any 
rate  the  total  Ego  is  to  be  educated,  not  merely 
the  Will,  or  Intellect,  or  Feeling,  no  single  one 
of  which  by  itself  is  to  have  the  Primacy  in 
Education  or  in  Psychology.  Let  us  study  Ger- 
man pedagogy  by  all  means,  but  let  us  acquire  its 
true  lesson  not  by  servile  imitation  but  by  adjust- 
ing it  to  our  institutions  and  character. 

Primacy  is,  therefore,  to  be  cast  out  of  Psy- 
chology, as  elevating  unduly  some  psychical  ele- 
ment of  the  total  man  at  the  cost  of  the  rest. 
It  is  the  autocracy  of  Philosophy  which  insists 
upon  the  one  ultimate  authority  without  the  pro- 
cess of  the  other  members.  Primacy,  therefore, 
properly  belongs  to  Philosophy,  out  of  which  it 
has  been  transferred  into  Psychology  by  our 
philosopher-psychologists.     Really     it     is     the 


whole  proceaa  —  Feeliog,  Will,  aad  lotellect  — 
which  has  the  psychological  Primacy,  the  whole 
man,  not  some  part  of  bim  over-riding  the  other 
parts.  At  the  same  time  we  may  see  that  there 
can  be  aud  have  been  philosophical  Primacies, 
as  many  indeed  as  there  have  been  Philosophies 
past  and  present.  On  the  contrary  there  is  but 
one  psychological  Primacy  (if  such  we  may  call 
it)  namely  the  above  mentioned  process,  which 
is  as  enduring  as  the  Ego  itself.  Thus  Psychol- 
ogy has  a  unitary  basis  which  Philosophy  never 
had,  and  cannot  have,  and  unfolds  itself  from  its 
center  into  the  cycle  of  the  sciences  through  its 
own  inner  evolution. 

Such  is  the  typical  order  of  these  mental  'activi- 
ties. At  the  same  time  there  is  no  denying  that 
one  of  them  may  and  often  must  temper  arily 
dominate  the  rest.  Feeling  may  rule.  Will  may 
rule.  Intellect  may  rule  the  kingdom  of  mind  for  a 
while  legitimately,  though  we  also  know  that  each 
may  lapse  into  excess,  into  tyranny,  which  can 
deeply  violate  the  right  mental  order.  Properly 
the  Ego  is  an  inner  Republic  in  which  each  psychi- 
cal niemt>ermay  be  endowed  with  supremacy  over 
the  Whole  through  the  Whole,  but  this  suprem- 
acy must  be  laid  down  at  the  end  of  its  term  of 
office.  Such  an  Ego  with  its  inner  Republic  can 
construct  and  administer  a  corresponding  outer 
Republic,  which  is  thus  nf)t  only  an  imago  but  a 
realization  of  this  Ego.     Letthe  reader  ponder  the 


fact  that  the  ConHtitution  of  the  United  States 
has  three  co-ordinate  Primacies  whose  process 
makes  the  Government,  one  not  being  allowed 
to  dominate  the  rest  permanently,  even  if  tem- 
porarily in  an  emergency. 

And  now  springs  up  the  question :  How  shall 
we  organize  this  inner  Republic,  giving  to  it  also 
its  rightly  formulated  Constitution?  In  other 
words,  how  shall  this  Ego,  Soul,  Mind,  Spirit 
find  and  state  that  general  activity  of  itself  which 
penetrates  all  the  special  activities  and  '*  medi- 
ates their  connection  "  (vermitteU  ihren  Zxisain- 
menhang)^  thus  fulfilling  the.  aspiration  of 
Wundt,  our  epoch-making  and  epoch-represent- 
ing philosopher-psychologist?  Surely  we  cannot 
take  as  final  his  conception  of  Psychology  as 
'*  the  science  of  inmiediato  experience  "  {unmit- 
telbarc)^  when  he  demands  in  the  preceding 
statement  that  it  be  mediated  (vermiffdt) 
through  and  through,  and  thereby  intercon- 
nected by  means  of  one  all-prevailing  activity  of 
mind.  With  such  an  organizing  principle  as 
pernaauent  and  penetrating,  our  science  cannot 
bo  turned  over  to  the  ever-varying  caprices  of 
the  subjective  Will,  or  of  immediate  experience. 

Better  it  would  be  to  define  Psychology  as  the 
science  not  of  immediate,  but  of  self-mediated 
experience.  Let  us  consider  the  process  of  Per- 
ception. When  I  i^erceivo  the  object,  it  is  an 
immediate    psychical    act,    an   immediate    expe- 


rience.  But  when  I  turn  back  and  grasp  and 
fortnutate  tbut  Perception,  I  have  decidedly 
mediated  tbo  experience,  mediated  it  with  my- 
self, my  Ego.  Still  it  is  my  Ego  doing  all  of 
this  work  of  mediation.  In  Psychology,  there- 
fore, my  Ego  mediates  its  own  activities  with 
itself,  it  is  self-mediated  (and  also  self-medi- 
ating), and  our  science  is  the  science  of  this 
self-mediation  formulated  and  ordered  according 
to  its  own  fundamental  process. 

This  thought  can  be  further  developed.  It  is  ' 
an  old  observation  that  the  total  miad  is  present 
in  every  special  act  of  it.  When  I  perceive 
something,  my  entire  Ego  with  its  process  (the 
Psychosis)  is  present  in  this  special  act  of  Per- 
ception. Now  when  I  turn  back  to  gra^p  and 
forinulato  this  aot  of  Perception,  my  entire  Ego 
with  its  process  (the  Psychosis)  is  what  grasps 
itself  (the  Psychosis)  perceiving.  That  is,  I  as 
process  (Psychosis)  identify  myself  as  process 
(Psychosis)  in  the  special  mental  activity  — 
which  movement  is  to  bo  brought  out  explicitly 
and  formulated  in  Psychology.  In  this  way  we  see 
the  complete  self-mediation  of  mind;  every  spe- 
cial activity  is  connected  with  the  whole  through 
the  whole  and  with  the  parts  through  thewhole. 
Or  we  may  say  somewhat  formally :  the  Psycho- 
sis recognizes  the  Psychosis  in  every  particular 
faculty  and    carries  it   back    to  the    Psychosis, 


thus  mediating  it  with  the  total  mind  yet  keeping 
it  particular  in  such  mediation. 

Have  we  not  now  caught  a  glimpse  of  the 
Method  which  runs  through  all  the  details  of 
Psychology  and  holds  them  together  in  a  scien- 
tific organism  of  never-ceasing  mental  processes, 
great  and  small?  Such  a  Method  will  give  a 
science  of  experience  not  merely  immediate,  but 
self-mediated  through  and  through,  actively  in- 
ter-relating itself  in  every  part  as  well  as  in  its 
grand  totality. 


If  the  preceding  view  be  correct.  Psychology 
must  show  and  formulate  each  activitv  of  the 
mind,  inter-connecting  with  all  its  other  activi- 
ties and  with  itself  as  a  whole.  And  this  is  not 
all :  it  reaches  out  and  includes  the  source  of  the 
mind,  or  Ego,  or  Consciousness,  such  source 
being  the  All-Ego,  the  Universe  itself.  But  this 
loftier  outlook  we  must  defer  at  present  and 
develop  more  fully  the  question  of  Method  in 
Psychology.  For  if  this  science  is  the  universal 
science,  as  it  has  begun  claiming  to  be,  its 
Method  cannot  lag  behind,  but  must  also  be  the 
universal  Method  of  Science. 

Psychology  is,  then,  to  reveal  and  formulate 
its  Method,  ere  this  can  be  carried  over  into 
other  Sciences.  In  a  profound  sense,  Psychol- 
ogy is  its  own  Method,   its  own   self-legislative 


process,  what  is  methodized  is  just  the  Method. 
We  may  deem  it  a  Methodology  which  first 
methodizes  itself  and  then  everything  else,  even 
the  Universe 

Let  us  start  the  discussion  of  the  subject  with 
a  ghince  at  the  procedure  existing  at  present  in 
Psychology.  There  is  a  full  recognition  that  the 
mind  is  one  in  all  its  activities.  Yet  this  very 
term  activities  takes  for  granted  that  the  mind  is 
many.  Thus  the  Ego  is  unity  in  one  breath, 
but  in  the  next  it  is  multiplicity.  Here  we  come 
upon  the  deep  distracting  contradiction  which 
tears  the  science  asunder  and  renders  it  impos- 
sible to  be  the  unitary  order  of  other  sciences. 
Unless  it  can  heal  this  rent  in  its  own  heart,  it 
can  never  bo  the  means  for  unifying  other 

In  order  to  emphasize  oneness  of  mind,  some 
psychologists  pour  out  the  vials  of  their  wrath 
(in  Herbartian  fashion)  upon  the  faculties  so- 
called,  implying  or  declaring  that  the^e  do  not 
exist;  yet  we  find  the  same  psychologists  (with 
Herbart  himself)  speaking  of  sensation,  mem- 
ory, judgment  and  other  faculties,  even  if  a  dif- 
ferent name  be  used.  Most  text-books,  how- 
ever, after  aflirming  the  mind's  unity,  quietly 
proceed  to  give  an  account  of  the  various  mental 
powers  one  after  the  other,  with  little  or  no 
inner  connection  or  evolution.    The  result  is  the 


Mind  lies  scuttered  about  in  pieces,  and  there 
is  no  unity  and  a  very  uncertain  arrangement. 

Now  the  purpose  of  Method  is  to  grapple  with 
the  foregoing  difficulty  and  reconcile  its  dual- 
ism, seeking  thus  to  bring  a  consistent  order 
out  of  the  psychological  chaos.  In  some  way 
unity  and  multiplicity  must  be  made  harmonious, 
nay,  must  be  seen  to  be  parts  or  elements  of  the 
same  underlying  mental  process.  Such  a  result% 
we  have  already  indicated  in  the  Psychosis  with 
its  three  stages  which  show  unity  as  implicit, 
then  separation,  then  the  return  to  unity.  The 
Ego  in  and  of  itself  is  primordially  self-separating 
and  then  self-unifying  out  of  its  first  potential 
protoplasmic  condition.  Thus  the  Ego,  here 
taken  as  mind,  has  in  it  from  the  start  the  mani- 
fold as  well  as  the  one  — the  one  both  as  begin- 
ning and  end,  or  the  immediate  and  mediated. 
The  Psychosis  is  accordingly  the  process  which 
unifies  in  the  mind  all  multiplicity.  Moreover 
it  formulates  both  many  and  one,  both  multi- 
plicity and  unity  in  its  process. 

In  the  Parinenides  Plato  shows  the  dialecti- 
cal play  of  the  Many  and  the  One,  which,  how- 
ever, are  only  two  stages  of  the  Ego's  process 
(Psychosis)  held  asunder  and  thereby  set  in  op- 
position to  each  other.  Both  are  really  members 
of  one  process  which  can  be  expressed  meta- 
physically, as  we  shall  soon  see,  but  whose  ulti- 
mate expression    must   be   psychological,  going 


back  to  the  Ego  itself,  which  \s  the  original  of 
its  owQ  ami  all  other  formuhitions. 

The  first  roanifestiition  of  the  Psychosis  in 
dividiag  and  unifying  Psychology  we  have 
Hiready  witnessed  in  the  case  of  Feeling,  Will, 
and  Intellect  —  each  a  separate  stage  yet  all  one 
process,  a  Psychosis.  But  each  of  these  stages 
as  Ego  and  total  Ego  divides  within  itself  and 
returns  to  itself.  For  instance,  lulellect  has  the 
well-kuowu  threefold  division  into  Sense-per- 
ception, Representation,  and  Thought,  which  is 
also  a  Psychosis,  indicating  that  the  whole  Ego 
is  present  and  active  in  the  8pecial  faculty.  Still 
further,  Seuse-perccptioa  has  likewise  its  three 
forms,  Sensation,  Perception,  and  Apperception, 
constituting  a  Psychosis,  which  not  only  unifies 
them  into  the  one  process  of  Sense-perception, 
but  interlinks  them  with  the  process  of  Intellect, 
yea  with  the  original  psychological  process  of 
the  Ego,  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect.  Thus  each 
special  activity  as  process  is  mediated  with  the 
total  Ego  as  process. 

It  will  now  be  seen  that  we  have  a  Method 
which  binds  together  in  an  explicit  formulation 
all  the  faculties  of  the  mind  from  the  largest  and 
most  comprehensive  to  the  smallest  and  least 
obtrusive.  The  Psychosis  has  in  its  separative 
power  the  infinite  divisibility  of  mind,  l>itt  also 
the  return  out  of  such  a  stage,  which  power  the 
physical  world  has  not  and  bcnce  remains  iu  its 


state  divided  and  divisible.  How  far  shall  we 
carry  these  mental  divisions  in  Psychology? 
That  depends  upon  the  occasion  and  the  man ; 
science  claims  for  itself  a  never-ending  special- 
ization. But  however  minute  this  specialization, 
the  total  Ego  is  there  with  its  Psychosis,  which 
inter-connects  and  organizes  every  psychical  act, 
even  the  humblest  into  the  entire  structure  of 

At  this  point  it  is  worth  while  to  note  that 
Philosophy  has  long  known  these  cyclical  pro- 
cesses in  their  abstract,  metaphysical  form. 
Proclus  holds  that  there  is  one  greatest  cycle  of 
the  All,  which  divides  into  greater  and  lesser 
cycles.  The  rest  of  the  Neo-Platonists  express 
a  similar  conception.  Hegel  in  his  Histor}j  of 
Philosophy  {\^  40)  has  the  following  passage: 
The  development  of  philosophic  Thought  pro- 
duces "a  row  of  Evolutions  which  must  not  be 
conceived  as  a  straight  line  running  out  to  infin- 
ity, but  as  a  circle  which  turns  back  into  itself, 
which  great  circle  has  as  its  periphery  a  vast 
multitude  of  lesser  circles  whose  entirety  is  a 
grand  succession  of  Evolutions  bending  around 
into  itself."  Thus  both  the  Greek  and  German 
philosophers  conceive  the  process  of  the  Uni- 
verse as  one  supreme  cyclical  Triad  unfolding 
into  a  succession  of  smaller  cyclical  Triads  each 
of  which  again  shows  a  triadal  development,  and 
so  on  to  infinity. 


Now  Proclua  and  Hegel,  the  one  representing 
the  outcome  of  ancient  and  the  other  the  out- 
come of  modern  Philosophy  —  each  may  well  be 
deemed  the  ul/imua philospJiortim  of  his  epoch- — 
have  both  canght  the  fundamental  procedure  of 
Mind,  but  have  given  to  it  such  an  abstract 
metaphysical  expression,  that  it  seems  unreal, 
purely  schematic  and  fanciful,  a  shadowy  repro- 
duction of  Shadows.  It  is  no  wonder  that  many 
a  modern  reader  takes  the  whole  thing  rh  a  sport 
of  imagination,  n  kind  of  a  philosophical  ro- 
mance. And  the  confession  must  be  made  that  the 
end  of  such  metaphysical  construction  has  come. 
Still  it  would  be  a  great  mistake  to  consider  the 
foregoing  work  of  Proclus  and  Hegel  tobomere 
fiction,  as  is  sometimes  e&\d.  It  expresses  the  pro- 
cess of  the  Self,  human  and  divine,  yet  in  such  an 
alien,  abstract  way  that  the  Self  cannot  recog- 
nize itself  in  its  own  formulation,  which  must  be 
now  triinsformed  from  its  philosophical  to  its  psy- 
chological stage.  This  means  not  merely  a  change 
of  words,  but  of  thought,  of  viewpoint,  yea  a 
decided  evolution  in  self-consciousness.  It  means 
a  new  Discipline,  not  special,  but  universal  as 
Philosophy  ever  claimed  to  be 

But  not  alone  in  the  inner  world  of  the  Ego 
do  we  observe  this  cyclical  movement;  it  is  seen 
in  the  remotest  outer  world,  in  the  sun,  stars 
and  planets,  whose  visible  ever-returning  cycles 
may  well  be  deemed  among  the  earliest  awaken- 


ers  of  man's  inner  self.  (See  following  pp. 

Accordingly  we  shall  unfold  the  cylical  move- 
ment of  the  inner  world  or  Ego,  beholding  and 
formulating  its  one  fundamental  process,  the 
Psychosis,  in  all  its  divisions.  Such  is  the  most 
direct  result  of  introspection,  of  our  own  Self's 
experience  with  Itself.  Over  and  over  again  we 
shall  have  to  repeat  that  in  each  part  or  division 
is  the  process  of  the  Whole,  which  is  just  what 
makes  it  a  part  of  the  Whole.  Any  organ  of  the 
Body  in  order  to  be  such  an  organ  shares  in  the 
total  corporeal  process,  must  have  in  it  the 
Whole,  otherwise  it  is  not  part  of  the  Whole. 
Cut  off  the  hand,  and  though  it  has  all  its 
physical  constituents,  it  is  dead,  it  has  no  longer 
within  itself  the  process  of  the  organic  Whole 
called  Life.  Spinoza  has  noted  the  element 
which  is  equally  in  the  part  and  in  the  Whole  (^y?^e 
in  parte  ac  in  ioto)  as  the  unifying  element  be- 
tween the  All  and  its  particulars,  or  between 
Substance  and  Mode  (see  Modern  European 
PhilosopJnj^  p.  221).  This  metaphysical  view- 
point (one  among  many  in  the  History  of  Phi- 
losophy), becomes  psychological  when  we  turn  it 
back  into  the  process  of  the  Ego  whence  it  origin- 
ally sprang. 

In  the  remotest,  most  external  manifestation 
of  the  Universe  we  may  note  this  cyclical  move- 
ment.    The   earth  moves  on   its   own  axis  in  a 


perpetual  self-returning  revolution  every  day; 
at  the  Sfime  time  it  is  revolving  around  the  cen- 
tral sun  in  an  orbit  which  returns  into  itself  every 
year;  the  satellite  of  the  earth,  a  stage  or  part 
of  it  probably,  hws  the  same  general  character. 
And  we  may  add  that  the  total  Sdlar  System 
with  all  its  revolving  planets  in  their  axial  and 
orbital  cycles  is  moving  in  still  a  vaster  cycle 
which  is  yet  to  be  passed  through  in  the  future 
seons.  Such  is  the  complete  outer  appearance  of 
the  All-Ego  in  the  physical  Universe,  which  we 
have  to  regard  as  the  visible  counterpart  of  the 
inner  psychical  Universe,  and  which  must  ulti- 
mately itself  be  psychologized  and  thus  be  made 
fully  scientific.  For  the  physical  Universe  also 
is  to  have  its  special  processes  interlinked  each 
with  each  and  with  the  All  by  the  Psychosis. 

In  the  teacher  who  reads  this  book,  the  sug- 
gestion has  probably  been  roused  that  the  Psy- 
chosis has  a  very  particular  and  iutimate 
application  to  pedagogical  science.  Long  ago 
the  old  Greeks  conceived  education  to  bo  cycli- 
cal, and  the  word  enojclopeilia  in  Greek  means 
cyclical  education.  When  instruction  follows 
the  process  of  mind  itself  in  seeking  to  inform 
and  develop  the  mind,  there  will  be  a  new  edu- 
cational epoch.  But  as  the  word  encyclopedia 
has  been  degraded  into  expressing  a  mere  ex- 
ternal arrangement  of  knowledge  according  to 
the  letters  of  the  alphabet  (which  undoubtedly 


is  useful  in  a  dictionary),  so  the  educative  pro- 
cess has  lost  its  cyclical  order,  not  to  speak  of 
its  inner  psychical  movement.  Pedagogy  cannot 
rest  till  it  shall  pass  out  of  its  present  abstract 
formal  condition,  and  be  concretely  psychologized 
through  the  Psychosis. 

And  yet  we  must  emphasize  again  that  it  is 
possible  to  make  the  Psychosis  formal,  mechan- 
ical, quite  meaningless  in  its  repetitions.  Its 
formulation  must  be  special  for  each  special 
activity,  as  well  as  general  for  the  universal 
process.  It  is  not  enough  to  say,  *'  that  is  a 
Psychosis,'*  for  everything  is  a  Psychosis.  The 
general  form  must  indeed  be  stated  in  the  defi- 
nition, but  also  the  specific  character,  which 
character  is  true  of  nothing  else  but  the  given 
activity.  You  can  make  the  Psychosis  a  machine, 
just  as  you  can  make  your  own  Ego  a  machine, 
though  such  is  not  the  true  nature  of  either. 
Psychology  is  indeed  a  system  and  must  employ 
words  which  have  to  be  re-thought,  re-created 
as  it  were  anew  every  time  they  are  used. 
Otherwise  they  become  hollow,  jingling  a  little 
with  their  own  meaningless  echoes. 

Still  we  must  beware  of  beinoj  misled  into  the 
notion,  very  common  in  these  days,  that  because 
a  system  of  thought  can  be  perverted  and 
mechanized,  therefore  all  system  is  to  be  re- 
jected. If  Pir^ychology  is  ever  to  fulfill  its 
function,  it  must  be  systematized  through  and 


through  in  the  hirgest  aod  smallest  divisions. 
Yut  it  must  not  be  concetvod  as  a  dead  passive 
system,  but  as  the  active,  creative,  universid 
systematizer  systematizing  not  only  itself  but  ail 
other  sciences,  [udeed  the  very  Alt.  The  horror, 
or  rather  hate  of  anything  like  system,  method, 
or  even  order  is  very  common  among  modern 
psycbologists,  who  write  Chaos  in  their  book  and 
teach  it  to  their  classes  at  the  University.  Really 
a  new  chair  ought  to  be  established  and  given  to 
the  gentleman  who  has  distinguished  himself 
most  in  this  line,  and  who  deserves  the  title  of 
Head  Professor  of  Chaotics  in  the  University  of 

Undoubtedly  there  should  be  a  dislike  of  for- 
mulation when  it  is  felt  to  be  wrong  or  merely 
mechanical  in  the  realm  of  the  spirit.  The  per- 
son who  cannot  make  his  skeleton  live,  had  bet- 
ter die,  in  fact  he  is  already  dead.  Vorily|he  can- 
not be  much  of  an  organism  without  a  skeleton, 
which  in  the  human  sphere  becomes  very  intri- 
cate and  marvelously  interconnected.  Much 
psychology  in  these  days  has  a  parallel  in  the 
jelly-fish  which  has  not  a  bone  in  its  body,  but 
is  "water  slightly  organized  in  a  gelatinous 


Having  recognized  the  fact  that  in  Psychology 

we  must  employ  a  Method  of  procedure,  which 


is  universal  ia  its  application,  and  that  our 
result  must  be  an  organized  System,  we  sliall 
proceed  to  point  out  some  of  the  more  difficult 
problems  connected  with  the  Science.  At  the 
very  threshold  lies  Sensation,  from  which  the 
two  opposing  world-views,  materialism  and  ideal- 
ism, take  their  start,  dividing  philosophers  into 
two  hostile  camps  quite  from  the  beginning.  It 
is  evidentally  a  psychological  question,  involv- 
ing Ego  and  object  and  their  primal  conjunc- 
tion. Here  lies  the  first  act  of  cognition,  the 
forerunner  and  the  type  of  all  other  such  acts, 
which,  being  once  made  intelligible ,  opens  up 
the  whole  field  of  intellection. 

The  most  persistently  difficult  problem  of  Psy- 
chology, then,  is  to  bridge  over  the  grand  separa- 
tion between  mind  and  the  world,  or  Ego  and 
non-Ego,  not  only  through  knowledge  but 
through  knowing  knowledge.  This  is  specially 
the  function  of  the  Intellect,  and  the  trouble 
begins  with  its  first  activity,  which  is  to  sense 
the  object.  Thus  Sensation  becomes  a  thorny 
theme  for  the  psychologist. 

When  we  say  that  we  perceive  something,  an 
outer  stimulus  starts  into  action  the  peripheral 
nerve-ends  of  the  body.  This  begins  a  move- 
ment in  the  nerve  toward  the  brain-center,  which 
movement  is  generally  represented  as  wave-like, 
proceeding  toward  its  goal  in  successive  undu- 
lations and  hence  measurable.     Now  these  neural 


waves  going  forward,  soon  reach  a  center  at 
which  the  movement  completely  changes  and 
sweeps  outward  to  the  object  whence  it  started. 
This  object  is  thereby  sensed^  having  been  taken 
up  through  one  of  the  senses. 

Thus  we  have  the  cycle  of  Sensation  in  it3 
simplest  form.  That  turning-point  or  rather 
pivotal  act  through  which  the  undulatory  move- 
ment of  the  nerve  wheels  about  and  returns  to 
its  beginning  is  the  Ego,  Soul  —  not  a  place,  but 
an  activity,  a  process.  It  is  not  material,  else  it 
would  stop  the  waves  as  an  obstacle,  or  simply 
continue  their  undulating  motion.  But  this  is 
received  and  turned  backward  to  its  starting- 
point;  no  wave  could  ever  do  that. 

We  may  conceive  that  there  are  many  thou- 
sands of  such  cycles  of  Sensation  going  round 
and  round  in  the  same  organism.  From  the 
periphery  of  the  whole  body  they  come,  every- 
thing that  touches  it  produces  a  cycle  faint  or 
strong,  unconscious  or  conscious,  painful  or 
pleasant.  From  the  distant  outer  world  they 
pour  in,  through  Sight  and  Hearing.  They 
concentrate  in  one  Ego  from  which  they  radiate 
outward  in  every  direction,  and  form  an  encom- 
passing invisible  sense-world  always  moving 
about  with  the  man  and  always  changing  and 
whirling  within  itself.  All  externality  seems  to 
be  hurrying  toward  an  Ego,  wafted  thither  as  it 
were,  in  order  to  be  passed  through  the  cycle  of 


Sensation  which  somehow  returns  what  was  sent 

But  the  pith  of  the  difficulty  still  remains. 
How  does  the  Ego  produce  this  pivotal  turn? 
How  can  it,  the  immaterial  and  unextended,  take 
up  the  material  and  extended?  All  matter,  the 
world  is  in  a  state  of  separation  in  itself;  the 
undulations  indicate  a  continual  active  separation. 
Now  the  Ego  has  also  this  side,  the  separative 
stage  as  a  part  of  its  process ;  still  it  has  also  the 
opposite,  the  overcoming  of  the  separation  and  the 
return  to  unity.  But  let  us  grasp  the  salient 
thought :  the  Ego  as  separative  is  one  with  the 
^external,  material  world  and  hence  can  and  does 
respond  to  and  take  up  the  hitter's  undulations; 
but  it  also  as  complete  Ego  must  overcome  this 
separative  condition  of  itself  and  of  the  world  in 
itself,  annulling  all  extension  yet  preserving  and 
restoring  it.  Thus  the  Ego  has  to  reproduce  the 
external  object  in  Sensation. 

For  instance,  I  see  yonder  flower.  From  it 
proceeds  a  movement  of  light-waves  one  after 
the  other  in  successive  separation  till  they  strike 
my  eye,  where  another  set  of  wave-movements, 
the  neural,  starts  for  the  brain-center.  The 
delicate  workings  of  that  center  no  vision  has  yet 
witnessed,  but  so  much  can  be  said  from  the 
results:  I  (my  Ego)  am  stimulated  by  the  in- 
coming influence  and  receive  it,  have  to  receive 
it  in  order  to  get  the  object.     But  this  object  as 


spatial  and  extended  is  annulled —  for  if  it  ever 
got  into  my  brain  with  its  material  extension, 
that  would  be  the  end  of  my  sensing  it  or  any- 
thing else.  I  annul  it  as  material,  passing  it 
through  the  zero-point  of  my  Ego ;  but  then  I 
at  once  reproduce  it  and  see  it  as  a  real  object 
before  me. 

The  Ego,  grasping  undulation  or  vibration, 
must  be  more  than  the  line  of  waves,  which  can 
never  turn  back  and  grasp  itself;  this  is  just 
what  the  Ego  is  and  does.  The  undulatory 
succession  has  to  be  reversed,  else  it  would  go 
on,  wave  after  wave  forever.  Such  a  reversion  is 
the  inhibition  of  matter,  immaterializing  the 
material  world,  and  thereby  ntaking  it  sensible. 
That  is,  the  extended  material  object  is  properly 
a  stage  of  mind,  a  constituent  of  its  total  pro- 
cess as  All-Ego,  which  stage  is  often  called 
Nature,  the  external  world,  the  material  Uni- 
verse. This  is  what  stimulates  the  individual 
Ego  in  Sensation,  causing  it  to  vibrate  in  response, 
since  it  too  has  a  corresponding  stage  (the  sec- 
ond of  the  Psychosis).  But  its  final  stage  is  the 
overcoming  of  the  undulatory  movement,  and 
therein  the  sensing  of  the  object. 

The  cycle  of  Sensation  may  be  conceived  with 
two  halves  or  arcs :  the  first  is  the  sweep  from 
the  outer  object  to  the  inner  Ego,  and  appears 
in  the  external  world  as  if  belonging  to  the  realm 
of  matter.     Hence  it   is   measureable,  subject  to 



quantity,  though  we  must  not  forget  that  this 
act  of  measuring,  yea  quantity  itself  is  the  work 
of  the  Ego  turning  back  upon  a  phase  of  itself. 
But  the  second  half  or  arc  is  the  sweep  back  from 
the  Ego  to  the  object,  and  inhibits  the  material 
succession  of  the  first  arc,  and  so  is  non-material, 
ideal.  The  first  arc  is  a  progression  in  Space 
and  a  succession  in  Time ;  but  the  second  arc  is 
instantaneous,  cancelling  both  Space  and  Time 
in  the  return  to  the  object.  Thus  the  Ego  on 
the  one  hand  responds  to  Space  and  Time,  and 
so  may  be  deemed  both  spatial  and  temporal ; 
vet  on  the  other  hand  it  neonates  both  and  so  is 
above  botli  and  determines  both. 

Hence  comes  ♦he  difficulty  about  localizing 
Ego,  Mind,  Soul.  Is  it  in  the  brain,  body,  or 
elsewhere?  It  is  in  one  sense  localized  as  re- 
sponding to  Space;  yet  it  is  the  inhibition  of  all 
localization  as  transcending  Space.  It  is  in  the 
brain,  yet  at  once  outside  of  it,  where  the  object 
is.  We  may  regard  the  external  world  flowing  in 
wavelets  to  the  universal  sea  of  the  Ego,  where  all 
the  special  forms  of  Space,  Time,  and  Matter  are 
r^wallowed  up  f or  a  moment  and  then  thrown  out 
again  into  externality  as  reproduced  i  n  Sensation 
by  that  Ego. 

Undoubtedly  there  are  many  points  in  this  pro- 
cess which  are  inexplicable.  The  very  first  fact 
is  a  mystery :  IIow  can  that  object  ride  on  the 
light- waves  to  my  retina,  and   then  stimulate  an 

THE  PEOBLEM  OF  SSySATION.      Ixxxiii 

image  of  itself?  Then  that  image  conveyed  by 
the  nervous  fluid  (as  is  supposed)  to  the  brain- 
center —  in  what  way,  tell  us?  Science  can  yet 
occupy  itself  with  such  details  for  a  million  of 
years,  more  or  less,  and  still  leave  something  for 
the  future.  Meanwhile  we  too  have  the  right  to 
know  somewhat;  we  can  in  a  general  way  com- 
prehend its  total  process,  as  above  given,  though 
an  infinity  of  details  remain  and  always  will 

In  addition  to  the  psychical  or  immaterial  arc 
producing  the  return  to  the  object  and  hence 
knowledge,  there  is  a  second  material  arc  return- 
ing through  the  nerves  to  the  surface  of  the 
organism  and  producing  action— the  so-called 
motor  energy,  a  primal  manifestation  of  Will. 
Thus  the  outgoing  movement  may  be  conceived 
to .  have  had  two  arcs,  a  psychical  one  to  the 
object,  which,  however,  makes  the  whole  cycle, 
and  a  physical  one  to  the  corporeal  periphery ; 
while  the  incoming  is  physical.  It  is  this  Sen- 
sation with  its  Feeling  (Pain  and  Pleasure), 
which  bifurcates  into  Will  and  Intellect  (Know- 
ing), in  the  outward  sweep.  That  is,  in  every 
Sensation  I  feel  the  object  to  be  agreeable  to  my 
organism  or  the  reverse,  then  I  will  it  in  some 
way  through  my  motor  organs,  finally  I  knoio  the 
object  as  sensed. 

The  outgoing  psychical  arc  turning  about  and 
transforming  the  incoming   physical   arc  makes 


itself  the  whole  round  of  Seusation  from  object 
to  Ego  and  back  again.  A3  this  psychical  return 
is  the  annulment  of  Time  and  Place,  it  cannot 
well  be  measured  in  its  velocity.  But  the  out- 
going motor  movement  being  physical  (like  the 
incoming)  may  bo  measurable.  Some  experi- 
mental psychologists  seem  to  have  confused 
these  two  outgoing  arcs  since  they  claim  to 
have  measured  the  time  of  the  psychical  return, 
which  is'  just  the  annulment  of  time  and  must  be 
instantaneous.  It  is  a  contradiction  to  say  that 
psychical  movements  occur  in  time.  Thought 
has  been  also  declared  to  be*'  a  form  of  motion." 
Yet  it  is  that  which  conceives,  creates  motion; 
the  latter  has  never  yet  been  able  to  think  itself 
and  formulate  what  it  is,  having  no  self-returning 
and  self-identifying  power. 

It  is  well  to  realize  fully  the  fact  that  oven  to 
sense  the  world  we  have  to  make  it  over.  The 
Ego  is  not  only  where  the  object  is,  but  re- 
creates it  in  form  at  least,  and  puts  it  there 
where  God  made  it  and  put  it.  It  is  the  Soul 
doing  this,  being  not  confined  to  the  Body,  but 
going  forth  and  reproducing  the  objective  world. 
When  I  see  yonder  house,  I  stay  with  myself 
here,  but  I  also  go  out  of  myself  to  it  and  re- 
produce it  and  bring  it  back.  Yet  all  this 
movement  of  mine  is  not  in  space,  for  I  remain 
in  one  spot  making  the  space  which  I  pass 
through.     My  body  has  to  penetrate  real  space 


in  order  to  reach  this  object,  but  not  my  Ego, 
which  is  three  things  in  one  process:  space- 
receiving,  space-negating  and  space-positmg. 

From  the  foregoing  account  the  doctrine  re- 
sults that  the  sensing  Ego  can  take  up  the  object 
and  reproduce  it  formally,  its  outward  form, 
color,  etc.,  through  the  process  of  the  Psychosis. 
But  Sensation  is  not  complete  reproduction; 
the  creative  principle  of  the  object,  its  essential 
inner  nature,  I  cannot  sense.  For  Sensation  the 
object  is  something  given,  already  existent.  But 
cannot  I  (or  Ego)  get  behind  it  to  its  creative 
source,  or  get  into  it  and  know  that  which  makes 
it  what  it  is  as  a  whole,  namely,  object?  Later 
an  answer  will  bo  given  to  this  question;  at  pres- 
ent we  can  only  say  that  Sensation  can  furnish 
no  such  knowledge.  Hence  in  the  sense-world 
the  physical  and  psychical  elements  are  not  fully 
harmonized,  both  sides  in  their  inner  creative 
essence  remain  apart,  and  the  dualism  persists. - 
The  object  still  defies  the  Ego  from  this  last 
inner  fortress  to  which  it  has  betaken  itself,  and 
in  which  Kant  says  it  can  never  be  captured. 
Hence  spring  a  number  of  doctrines  which  recog- 
nize both  belligerents  (Ego  and  Object)  and  seek 
to  formulate  a  kind  of  peace  or  compromise,  so 
that  there  may  be  a  modus  vivendi  between  the 
two  sides.  The  best  known  of  these  compromises 
may  be  next  considered — the  doctrine  of  Paral- 



Ever  since  the  philosopher  of  Eonigsberg  deliv- 
ered his  famous  utterance  that  man  cannot  know 
things  as  they  are  in  themselves,  but  only  their 
appearance,  the  European  philosophical  world 
has  been  much  troubled,  particularly  the  German 
portion  thereof.  It  is  true  that  the  same  prob- 
lem lurks  in  all  Modern  Philosophy  from  the 
Seventeenth  Century  down,  as  we  shall  soon 
note.'  The  herculean  labor  of  mind  has  been, 
and  is  yet  to  fill  up  somehow  the  yawning  chasm 
between  man  and  the  world,  or  at  least  to  build 
some  sort  of  bridge  or  even  rickety  gangway  from 
this  side  (Ego)  to  that  (Object).  Just  now  the 
crowd  seems  to  be  making  a  considerable  lurch 
for  a  passage  through  what  is  known  as  Paral- 
lelism, an  old  scheme  in  a  new  suit  of  clothes. 

The  cycle  of  Sensation  with  its  two  arcs, 
physical  and  psychical,  is  what  doubtless  called 
into  existence  this  doctrine  of  Parallelism,  which 
is  at  present  having  such  a  revival.  In  its 
simplest  form  it  runs  thus:  (1)  No  physical 
process,  specially  that  of  the  brain,  can  produce 
directly  a  psychical  process,  that  of  the  mind; 
(2)  no  psychical  process  can  produce  directly 
a  physical  process 5  (3)  still  between  the  two 
there  is  a  correspondence,  a  parallelism,  though 
there  bo  no  interaction 


Such  a  view  implies  that  there  are  not  two 
arcs  of  Sensation  material  and  ideal  (physical 
and  psychical)  but  two  cycles  thereof,  each  a 
complete  round  in  itself,  a  closed  circuit  in 
which  the  activities  and  processes  are  connected 
causally.  In  the  one  there  is  no  member  or 
link  of  the  chain  which  is  not  physical ;  in  the 
other  there  is  no  member  or  link  of  the  chain 
which  is  not  psychical.  Each  is  a  world  in 
itself  between  w^hich  there  are  no  openings 
for  intercommunication.  Like  the  Leibnizian 
Monad,  each  has  no  windows.  Each  of 
these  worlds  is  the  subject  of  investigation;  the 
scientist  works  in  the  one,  the  psychologist  in 
the  other,  each  having  its  own  phenomena  and 
laws.  The  body  is  an  automaton,  driving  its 
own  machinery  (as  Descartes  long  ago  held); 
the  mind  is  also  an  automaton,  though  of  a  very 
different  sort.  Let  the  physiologist  dig  for  his 
treasures  in  the  one  realm,  and  the  psychologist 
dig  in  the  other,  each  of  these  men  advancing 
thereby  his  own  special  science. 

And  still  the  physical  and  psychical  movements 
go  together  in  Sensation.  When  I  see  a  flcnver, 
there  is  a  psychical  outgoing  which  follows  and 
seems  to  respond  to  the  physical  incoming. 
What  causes  the  former  state  of  consciousness? 
Nothing  of  its  own  psychical  sort,  as  far  as  we 
are  aware,  yet  the  twain  move  together,  though 
they  cannot  supposedly  interact  in  a  causal  way 


as  Body  cannot  reach  Soul,  nor  Soul  reach 
Body.  Still  they  are  parallel,  each  is  the  in- 
separable companion  of  the  other.  Nothing 
psychical  without  the  concomitant  physical,  noth- 
ing physicaf  without  the  concomitant  psychical. 
No  body  without  the  shadow  and  no  shadow 
without  the  body,  yet  both  are  absolutely  sepa- 
rate in  their  mutual  concurrence.  Such  is  a 
glimpse  of  the  theory  usually  called  Universal 
Parallelism,  which  seeks  to  get  the  opposites, 
Nature  and  Spirit,  together,  and  yet  to  keep  them 

To  be  sure,  some  will  at  once  begin  to  search 
for  the  common  principle,  since  even  the  scien- 
tist and  the  naturalist  are  inclined  to  say  that 
Spirit  and  Nature,  Mind  and  Matter  are  at  bot- 
tom the  same.  But  the  metaphysician  particu- 
larly is  in  pursuit  of  this  common  principle, 
which  is  his  ousia  of  the  on  or  the  essence  of 
Being.  It  may  be  said  that  modern  Philosophy 
has  the  foregoing  problem  as  its  own  distinctive 
theme:  How  can  this  psychical  Ego  get  at 
yonder  physical  object,  sensing  it  and  knowing 
it?^  Unquestionably  the  doctrine  of  Parallelism 
between  Body  and  Soul  suggests  Descartes, 
who  directly  asserts  that  the  physical  organism 
of  man  is  an  automaton,  a  self-moving  machine. 
Yet  it  is  connected  with  the  Soul  which  has  its 
bodily  seat  in  the  pineal  gland.  (See  his  treat- 
ment  in    Passions   of  the    Soul^    art.    30,  etc. 


Also  briefly  stated  in  Modern  European   Philos- 
ophy^ p.  97,  etc.) 

But  it  is  the  second  great  philosopher  of  the 
Seventeenth  Century,  Spinoza,  who  has  brought 
to  the  surface  and  in  his  way  solved  the  problem 
of  Parallelism.  **  Body  does  not  determine  Mind 
to  think,  nor  does  the  Mind  determine  the  Body 
to  move"  (Ethica  Bk.  II,  Pr.  2).  Thus  any- 
thing like  mutual  causation  is  eliminated.  Still 
'*  the  order  of  ideas  is  the  same  as  the  order  of 
things"  (Ethica  Bk.  I,  Pr.  7).  Such  is  the 
decisive  statement  of  Parallelism :  ordo  idearum 
est  idem  ac  ordo  rerum.  Thus  there  are  two 
great  streams  of  Being,  which  Being  is  the  One, 
or  in  Spinozan  nomenclature  is  Substance  or 
sometimes  God  (Deus  sive  Substantia),  In  this 
way  he  gives  the  unitary  source  or  cause  of  his 
Parallelism,  which  in  its  recent  form  has  the 
tendency  to  remain  dualistic.  Nor  must  we  omit 
in  this  connection  the  third  great  philosopher  of 
the  Seventeenth  Centurv,  Leibniz,  who  also 
wrestles  with  the  same  problem  fundamentally 
and  answers  it  with  his  doctrine  of  Monads, 
which  are  the  primodial  units  or  individuals  con- 
stituting the  Universe.  Each  Monad  is  inde- 
pendent, **has  no  windows,"  either  for  receiv- 
ing or  giving  out,  a  self-contained  atom.  Now 
these  Monads,  both  physical  and  psychical,  have 
to  be  ordered,  which  supreme  principle  of  order 
Leibniz   calls    Pre-established     Harmon  v.       For 


instaace  Soul  and  Body  are  compared  by  Leibniz 
to  two  watches,  which  run  wholly  independent 
of  each  other,  yet  run  together,  keeping  the 
same  time  through  the  perfect  pre-established 
ordering  of  their  mechanisms  by  their  maker. 
It  is  God,  however,  who  establishes  this  pre- 
established  Harmony,  making  Soul  and  Body 
move  in  parallel  fashion,  though  they  are 
entirely  outside  of  each  other.  Thus  Leibniz 
unfolds  the  idea  of  Parallelism,  though  with  the 
Monads  below  and  God  above. 

From  the  foregoing  account  it  is  evident  that 
Parallelism  was  peculiarly  the  problem  of  the 
philosophy  of  the  Seventeenth  Century.  Des- 
cartes, Spinoza  and  Leibniz  all  have  it,  and  they 
all  assign  to  God  the  task  of  uniting  its  dualism, 
though  in  different  ways.  The  fact  is  significant 
that  so  many  philosophers  and  also  psychologists 
of  the  latter  part  of  the  Nineteenth  Century, 
show  the  tendency  to  revert  in  this  manner  to 
the  doctrines  of  the  Seventeenth  Centurv,  even 
if  with  considerable  changes.  It  looks  as  if 
Modern  Philosophy  was  completing  its  cycle  by 
going  back  to  its  beginning  and  thus  rounding 
itself  out  to  its  fullness,  perchance  in  preparation 
for  taking  some  great  new  step,  ©f  course  the 
modern  parallelist  is  inclined  to  leave  out  God 
entirely,  or  to  supply  his  place  with  some  **  work- 
ing hypothesis." 

Let  us  now  see  what  underlies  this  movement. 


going  back  to  its  source  in  the  great  philoso- 
phers of  the  Seventeenth  Century.  In  Spinoza 
(an  Ego)  Substance  determines  Thought  as 
Attribute,  and  still  further  down  the  scale,  deter- 
mines the  Ego  as  Mode.  Yet  what  can  be  plainer 
than  the  fact  that  Spinoza's  Thought  is  defining, 
ordering  and  re-creating  Substance?  Thus  Sub- 
stance or  God  is  said  to  determine  the  philoso- 
pher's Ego  as  Mode  at  the  bottom  of  the  scale, 
and  yet  this  philosopher's  Ego  is  what  is  secretly 
determining  Substance  or  God,  who  determines 
him.  Without  such  an  Ego  to  return  to  it  and 
think  it,  Substance  could  not  be;  Spinoza's  Ego 
is  the  hidden  unmentioned  pivot  of  his  whole 
scheme.  And  it  is  his  underlying  Ego,  lurking 
creatively  in  Substance,  which  constructs  the 
parallel  between  ordo  idearum  and  ordo  rerum^ 
and  unconsciously  links  them  together. 

Next  is  to  hear  Leibniz  state  his  Parallelism  in 
one  form:  **  in  this  system  the  Body  acts  as  if 
there  were  no  Soul,  and  the  Soul  acts  as  if  there 
were  no  Body ;  yet  both  act  as  if  one  influenced 
the  other"  (Monadologj/y  81.)  This  last  con- 
currence is  the  result  of  Pre-established 
Harmony  between  all  the  Monads  of  the  Uni- 
verse which  are  mutually  exclusive,  impene- 
trable, unknowable  to  each  other,  ''having  no 
windows."  Still  the  Ego  of  Leibniz  which  is  a 
Monad,  knows  all  these  things  about  unknowable 


Monads,  and  really  is  the  Pre-established  Har- 
mony ordering  them  from  top  to  bottom. 

In  the  case  of  both  Spinoza  and  Leibniz  the 
philosopher's  Ego  is  again  the  secret  demiurge 
creating  the  Universe  which  creates  it,  making  or 
at  least  re-making  the  God  who  makes  it,  in- 
plicitly  placing  itself  at  the  turning-point  of 
the  process  of  the  All.  Now  Psychology 
is  to  grasp  and  to  formulate  this  pivotal 
position  of  the  Ego,  and  explicitly  to  constitute 
it  an  essential  member  of  the  process  of  the 
All.  Our  recent  philosophers,  with  their  doc- 
trines of  Parallelism  and  of  psychical  Primacy 
of  various  sorts,  are  evidently  moving  out  of 
Philosophy  and  into  Psychology  as  the  universal 
science,  without,  however,  reaching  fully  the 
goal.  Pampsychism  was  certainly  suggested  by 
the  fertile  genius  of  Leibniz  (see  Modern  Euro- 
pean Philosophy^  p.  333).  Even  the  cell  of 
Biology  has  been  recently  endowed  with  a 

In  general  the  psychological  Norm  lies  back  of 
all  these  doctrines  of  Parallelism,  but  cannot 
make  itself  explicit.  The  Ego  cannot  yet  for- 
mulate itself  as  a  part  of  the  process  of  thinking 
and  of  formulating  the  Universe,  though  it  is 
doing  this  work  in  Philosophy.  But  in  the  lat- 
ter part  of  the  Nineteenth  Century  the  transi- 
tion begins,  showing,  as  already  noted,  a  psy- 
chological   content    in    a    philosophical     form. 


There  is  a  recent  and  growing  phase  of  this 
theory  which  is  especially  worthy  of  notice.  A 
view  is  extensively  held  that  the  physical  pro- 
cesses of  the  organism  have  in  them  a  psychical 
element  which  belongs  to  all  life  and  even  to 
every  cell.  Fechner  has  set  forth  that  the  plant- 
world  has  its  psychical,  yea  that  the  earth  and 
stars  and  inorganic  matter  are  sharers  in  the 
same  principle.  So  we  hear  the  word  pampsy- 
chum  uttered  as  a  category  which  expresses  the 
essence  of  all  Being,  and  affirms  "soul-life  "  to 
be  universal,  or  the  principle  of  the  universe. 

It  must  be  granted  that  this  is  a  great  step 
toward  a  psychological  view  of  the  world.  The 
universal  soul-life  is  not  conceived  as  a  fixed 
substance  but  an  active,  yea  self-active  entity. 
Still  it  is  in  form  metaphysical,  it  posits  dog- 
matically an  absolute  principle,  even  though  this 
be  psychical.  Nor  is  it  fully  conceived  as  the 
process  of  the  Ego,  the  Psychosis,  which  reveals 
itself  as  the  universal  inter-connecting  process  of 
the  All  and  of  all  things  both  physical  and  psy- 
chical. Fechner  likewise  belongs  to  the  transi- 
tion  from  Philosophy  to  Psychology,  partaking 
of  both  ;  he  is  a  psychologist-philosopher,  a  class 
to  which  Wundt  also  has  been  assigned,  being 
in  a  number  of  things  a  pupil  of  Fechner,  though 
he  has  surpassed  his  master. 

The  time  has  shown  that  any  philosophy  rest- 
ing in  Sensation  (op  Sense-perception),    ends  in 


Parallelism,  which  cannot  help  being  the  fore- 
going species  of  dualism.  The  Ego  and  the 
Object  can  touch  only  in  some  outer  relations  or 
properties.  The  Kantian  dualism  between  the 
two  sides,  mind  and  thing-in-itself ,  is  really  that 
of  Sense-perception,  and  unless  intelligence  has 
some  higher,  more  creative  activity  than  mere 
sensuous  Presentation,  Kant's  doctrine  must  hold 
in  one  form  or  other. 

We  find,  however,  that  there  is  such  an 
activity  as  Representation,  in  which  both  Ego 
and  Object  (as  image)  are  psychical.  But 
when  I  think  the  object  which  I  sense,  I 
have  to  penetrate  and  take  up  its  inner 
creative,  principle,  and  not  simply  rest  con- 
tent with  getting  its  outer  form  or  its  appear- 
ance. Thus  I  reach  beyond  and  behind 
the  realm  of  Sense-perception  (to  which  Sensa- 
tion belongs),  and  have  begun  to  recreate  the 
object  which  was  given  to  me  as  something 
fixed,  already  existent,  presupposed  when  I 
sensed  it.  Mark  the  result.  When  I  start  to 
thinking  the  object,  I  make  it  over,  appropriate 
it,  identify  it  with  myself  as  creative.  Its  inner 
essence  I  find  to  be  mine,  so  that  the  dualism 
between  it  and  me  begins  to  move  into  unity. 
What  now  has  become  of  the  independent  Paral- 
lelism of  the  physical  and  psychical?  The  two 
arcs  which  seemed  so  distinct  in  Sensation, 
have    found   a   common   creative    center,  from 


which  both  are  derived,  though  the  outer  sensu- 
ous appearance  still  remains,  and  is  to  be  ac- 
counted for. 

So  we  have  attained  to  another  mental  activity, 
Thought,  which  quite  reverses  the  situation  as  it 
came  to  light  in  Sensation.  For  in  the  sense- 
world  the  Ego  could  only  get  or  seem  to  get  the 
appearance  of  the  Object,  and  not  the  essence ; 
while  in  the  thought-world  the  Ego  gets  and 
identifies  with  itself  the  essence  of  the  Object, 
but  not  its  appearance,  whioh  lies  beyond  it  and 
cannot  be  re-created  by  it.  Thus  another  crea- 
tive principle  than  my  Ego  must  bring  forth  the 
manifestation  of  the  Object.  That  is,  the  indi- 
vidual Ego  (Psychosis)  has  reached  its  limit 
and  calls  for  the  creative  All-Ego  (Pampsy- 

One  cannot  truly  thinks  and  hold  to  the  doc- 
trine of  Parallelism,  since  this  vanishes  in  the 
presence  of  Thought.  We  have  seen  how  the 
Thought  of  Sensation  unites  into  one  process 
the  Ego  and  the  Object  sensed.  Spinoza,  upon 
whom  Parallelism  is  mainly  fathered,  is  not 
strictly  parallelistic  or  concurrent,  but  consub- 
stantial,  since  his  parallels,  Thought  and  Exten- 
sion (psychical  and  physical)  are  united  in  the 
same  Substance,  which  is  the  One  above  both. 
And  if  Fechner  holds  consistently  to  the  uni- 
versal Soul-Life  as  the  principle  of  Nature  and 


Miiul,   what   becomes  of  the  PaniUelism  of  the 
two  sides  as  wholly  separate? 

Undoubtedly  the  psychological  task  of  the 
preseet  time  is  or  has  been  to  investigrtto  Sense- 
perception,  or  specially  Sensation,  whose  paral- 
lelistic  suggestion  is  so  strong.  But  behind  and 
beyond  Sensation,  explaining  it,  unifying  it,  psy- 
chologizing it,  has  appeared  Thought  which  has 
a  good  right  to  be  cursorily  considered  in  the 
present  introductory  outline. 


We  have  already  had  our  look  at  Feeling, 
Will,  and  Intellect  as  the  basic  division  of  Psy- 
chology. Intellect  in  its  turn,  when  formally 
divided,  has  its  triune  process  of  three  stages 
which  we  name  Sense-perception,  Representation, 
and  Thought.  It  is  not  our  intention  here  to 
give  a  full  and  duly  ordered  exposition  of  these 
activities.  But  the  course  of  our  argument  in 
this  preliminary  discussion  has  brought  us  to  a 
place  where  we  must  unfold  briefly  the  meaning 
of  Thought  in  Psychology.  (For  a  fuller  ex- 
position of  it  the  reader  is  referred  to  our  Psy- 
chology and  Psychosis^  p.  425  etseqq,) 

It  has  been  already  said  that  when  I  think  the 
Object,  my  Ego  penetrates  to  the  creative  es- 
sence of  it  and  identifies  the  same  with  itself. 
Through  Thought  I  am  creatively  w^hat  the  Object 
is,  and  the  Object  is  what  I  am ;  the  process  of 


my  Ego  finds  itself  to  be  the  process  of  the 
Objettt,  that  is,  the  essential,  creative  process. 
When  I  thioli  yonder  house,  I  seek  for  its  mean- 
ing, purpose,  creative  essence,  which  I  try  to 
state  in  my  definition  of  it.  What  makes  it  a 
house?  is  the  query  of  my  Thought.  It  was 
built  by  an  Ego,  and  I  must  in  some  way  get  hold 
of  the  creative  design  of  the  Ego  in  building  it. 
Thus  I  re-build  the  house  in  and  by  my  Thought ; 
that  is  just  my  thinking  it  in  the  strict  sense  of 
the  term.  When  I  view  the  house,  I  obtain 
merely  its  outer  form  and  some  other  externals; 
when  I  image  the  house,  I  recall  or  re-make  that 
form  in  its  absence.  But  when  I  think  the 
house,  I  must  get  back  of  both  percept  and 
image;  I  must  enter  into  the  creative  idea  of  its 
maker,  and  see  that  at  work,  beholding  not  merely 
the  outer  result.  My  Ego  must  penetrate  to  his 
Ego  as  manifested  in  its  product,  commune  with 
him,  and  win  the  secret  of  hia  creating  the 
present  Object.  The  creativity  of  Thought  is, 
then,  the  element  which  should  be  emphasized 
in  defining  it. 

The  render  will  be  apt  to  interrogate  at  this 
point:  What  about  the  natural  object?  We 
know  that  a  man  made  the  house,  and  hence  we 
easily  pre-^uppoiee  his  Ego  building  it  after  some 
design  or  pattern.  But  how  is  it  with  a  tree,  for 
instance?  The  same  general  answer  must  be 
^ven.     When  I  truly  think  the  tree,  it  is  not  a 


percept,  not  an  image,  neither  an  external  nor  an 
internal  copy ;  I  must  get  its  Thought,  its  Idea, 
which  created  it;  my  conception  of  it  must  be 
genetic.  The  tree  belongs  to  Nature,  and  Nature 
in  all  her  forms  is  a  creative  manifestation  of  the 
Divine  Ego,  which  you  have  to  recognize  in  and 
through  your  Thought.  Natural  Science,  when 
we  reach  down  to  the  bottom  of  it,  will  be  found 
to  be  psychologic  also,  and  its  development  will 
reveal  the  Psychosis,  which  is  the  inner  working 
principle  of  Nature  as  well  as  of  Mind.  The 
architect  of  the  house  and  the  architect  of  the 
world  are  both  Egos,  and  have  ultimately  the 
same  archetypal  pattern  after  which  and  indeed 
with  which  they  build  their  structures. 

Going  back  to  the  illustration  of  the  house,  let 
the  reader  ask  himself:  If  I  had  some  cunning 
instrument,  some  peculiar  pair  of  tweezers,  by 
means  of  which  I  could  catch  hold  of  the 
Thought  of  this  house  where  I  am  now  sitting, 
and  jerk  it  out,  what  would  become  of  the  house 
and  perchance  of  me?  His  answer  to  himself 
will  be:  I  had  better  be  getting  out  of  it,  for  it 
will  tumble  to  ruin.  Thought  is  that  which  has 
constructed  this  ceiling  overhead  and  holds  it 
there ;  the  floor  which  I  tread  on  is  a  product  of 
thinking.  I  take  for  granted  that  yonder  door 
will  open  and  shut,  letting  me  in  and  out,  for 
that  is  what  created  it,  and  put  it  into  its  phice. 
Such  indeed  is   its  meaning,  purpose,  Thought, 

THO UQHT  m  P8 YCHOL OQY.  xcix 

which  we  at  once  identify  as  an  activity  of  the. 
Ego  creating  all  these  parts  of  the  House,  each 
being  a  Thought  which  I  have  to  recognize  or 
re-think  ere  I  can  employ  it.  Before  raising  the 
window  I  have  to  re-think  the  Thought  which 
made  it;  even  this  Thought  gets  to  acting  quite 
unconsciously  and  automatically. 

And  novv  the  confession  has  to  be  made  that 
this  fundamentally  creative  character  of  Thought 
is  hardly  found  with  any  degree  of  explicitness 
in  English  Psychology.  And  yet  Psychology 
itself  as  a  science  is  the  product  of  Thought. 
Sensation  by  itself  is  not  Psychology ;  you  have  to 
think  Sensation,  define,  order  it,  before  it  be- 
comes scientific.  Thought  is  the  third  stage  of 
Intellect  which  returns  upon  its  first  stage  (Sen- 
sation) and  then  tells  what  the  latter  is.  Yet 
this  Thought  creating  Psychology  is  usually  left 
hazy  or  left  out  of  its  own  science.  We  hold 
that  one  of  the  chief  needs  of  psychological 
science  is  to  restore  Thought.  We  call  it  a  res- 
toration, for  the  creative  nature  of  Thought  has 
long  been  recognized,  being  specially  promul- 
gated during  the  great  Hellenic  Period  whose 
three  illustrious  names  are  Socrates,  Plato,  and 
Aristotle,  each  of  whom  represents  a  stage  in 
the  evolution  of  Thought. 

So  important  do  we  deem  this  subject  that  we 
shall  unfold  it  further.  Socrates  'was  the  first 
philosopher  who  emphatically  declared  that  the 


essence  of  Being  (which  it  is  the  great  purpose 
of  Philosophy  to  find  and  formulate)  is  Thought. 
Before  him  indeed  there  was  philosophizing  and 
a  good  deal  of  it,  but  it  never  reached  the  point 
of  seeing  and  asserting  that  its  principle,  con- 
tent, purpose,  was  Thought.  This  means  that 
the  philosopher  must  get-  and  express  the  creative 
Thought  of  the  Object.  If  he  merely  utters  this 
or  that  opinion  about  it  without  coming  to  its 
genetic  center,  he  is  not  thinking.  Socrates  by 
his  so-called  dialectic  endeavored  to  lead  men  out 
of  opinion  into  Thought.  Thus  he  makes  the 
greatest  epoch  in  all  Philosophy ;  Plato  and  Aris- 
totle in  this  regard  simply  continued  and  devel- 
oped his  work.  That  the  essence  of  all  things 
must  be  formed  in  the  creative  Thought  of  them, 
is  the  world's  rich  inheritance  from  Socrates.  A 
consequence  is  that  the  essence  of  Psychology  is 
the  Thought  of  the  Ego,  which  has  to  go  back 
and  think  Feeling,  Will  and  Intellect,  formulat- 
ing them  into  science.  Finally  the  Ego  as 
Thought  must  think  itself  thinking,  wherein  we 
reach  the  famous  Aristotelian  formula  which 
declares  that  Thought-thinking-Thought  is  the 
supreme  principle  of  the  universe. 

The  Socratic  view  of  Thought  never  fully 
lapsed  from  Philosophy,  though  it  suffered 
obscurations.  At  the  Revival  of  Learning,  the 
great  philosophers  of  the  Seventeenth  Century 
had  it  and  employed  it,  often  quite  unconsciously ; 

THO UGBT  m  P8T0H0L0GT.  cl 

we  feel  it  lurking  in  that  marvelously  pregnant 
sentence  of  Descartes:  **  I  think  therefore  I 
am."  Now  comes  a  most  weighty  fact  in  Modern 
Philosophy:  the  negative,  skeptical  Eighteenth 
Century  abjured  the  Socratic  heritage,  declaring 
that  the  Ego  as  thinking  cannot  get  the  essence 
or  truth  of  the  Object,  cannot  know  the  Thing- 
in-itself.  Locke,  Hume,  and  Kant  will  all  echo 
this  doctrine  in  their  various  ways.*  Now  it  is 
the  influence  of  Locke  specially  which  has  driven 
Thought  out  of  Anglo-Saxon  Thinking,  which 
seldom  if  ever  conceives  of  Thought  genetically, 
as  the  creative  essence  of  the  Object. 

If  we  look  into  the  vast  mass  of  works  on 
Psychology  produced  to-day  throughout  Anglo- 
Saxondom,  we  find  that  usually  there  is  a  chapter 
on  Thought  set  apart  by  itself,  giving  as  its  two 
chief  characteristics  Abstraction  (of  attributes 
or  properties  of  the  Object)  and  Generalization, 
which  unites  these  special  attributes  into  a 
general  notion  or  idea.  This  general  idea  finds 
expression  m  language,  in  such  words  as  man^ 
coloVy  etc.,  which  are  then  concepts,  the  products 
of  Conception.  Without  denying  that  these 
processes  do  take  place,  it  is  evident  that  they 
all  lie  outside  of  the  essence  of  the  Object  which 
thus  cannot  indeed  be  known.  Thought,  it  is 
assumed,  is  not  able  to  reach  that  essence,  but 
deals  with  its  appearances,  its  phenomena,  ana- 


lyzing,  synthesizing  and  classing  them  according 
to  their  external  characteristics. 

Now  it  is  one  purpose  of  the  present  work  on 
Psychology  to  restore  the  creative  nature  of 
Thought,  to  recall  it  from  its  banishment  which 
took  place  in  the  Eighteenth  Century  by  the 
decree  of  John  Locke,  the  most  influential  phi- 
losopher that  the  English  race  has  produced. 
Moreover  we  hope  to  promote  it  from  its  former 
place  in  Philosophy,  which  it  lost  through  the 
weakness  of  its  philosophic  support,  to  a  new 
position  and  a  new  influence  in  Psychology, 
bringing  it  back  to  the  creative  energy  of  the 
Ego  and  endowing  it  with  the  latter' s  process 
in  the  Psychosis.  In  fact  the  science  of  Psy- 
chology is  the  product  of  creative  Thought; 
all  its  formulated  activities  beginning  with  Feel- 
ing are  Thoughts  re-creating  in  essence  and 
categorizing  each  stage  of  mentation.  Now  is 
Psychology,  the  science  of  Mind,  to  leave  out  the 
very  activity  of  Mind  which  creates  it?  Can  it 
be  complete  without  finding  and  formulating  that 
process  of  itself  which  reproduces  and  formulates 
all  the  other  process  of  itself? 

All  men  think,  but  they  rarely  know  them- 
selves thinking.  See  a  man  examining  a  new 
machine ;  he  seeks  to  think  it,  to  fiud  what 
makes  it,  what  is  its  creative  principle.  But  he 
hardly  thinks  himself  thinking,  unless  he  be  a 
psychologist.     Yet  the    psychologists   generally 

THO  UQB  T  m  PSYCHOL OQ T.  ciii 

have  not  grasped  themselves  thinking  Thought 
creatively ;  though  they  think  and  define  what  is 
Sensation,  Apperception,  or  Representation,  thus 
recreating  in  Thought  what  these  really  are, 
they  rarely  think  Thought  itself  which  is  the 
creative  energy  behind  the  foregoing  mental 
activities  when  psychologized.  They  making 
their  science  leave  out  the  maker. 

To  the  influence  of  Locke,  then,  we  ascribe 
the  fact  that  there  is  so  little  Psychology  of 
Thought  at  present  in  the  English  language. 
Over  and  over  again  he  affirms  that  we  have  **  no 
knowledge  of  the  internal  construction  of  things, 
being  destitute  of  the  faculties  to  attain  it;" 
that  we  have  '*but  some  few  superficial  ideas  of 
things"  given  by  Sensation  and  Reflection.  (See 
especially  Book  II  of  i\\Q  Human  Understanding, ) 
All  of  which  means  that  we  cannot  truly  think 
the  object.  Locke  deeply  influenced  French 
Philosophy  also,  and  we  may  find  numerous 
traces  of  him  to-day  in  German  Wundt  who  can 
define  Thought  simply  *'  as  a  relating  or  compar- 
ing activity." 

At  the  same  time  there  is  something  in  the 
Object  which  the  Ego  does  not  and  cannot 
recreate.  I  cannot  make  the  tree,  though  I  can 
think  what  makes  it.  Also  I  can  sense  the  tree 
as  Object,  which,  however,  is  a  thing  already 
created,  existent  in  its  own  right.  Ilcnce  we 
rise  to  the  question :  What  creates  the  Object, 


or  in  general  the  World?  Still  further,  whence 
comes  the  Ego  with  its  peculiar  power — what 
creates  the  Ego  creative?  As  Thought  pre- 
viously reached  back  of  the  sensuous  appearance 
to  the  generative  principle  of  the  Object,  so  now 
it  must  reach  back  to  the  generative  principle  of 
the  Ego,  which  has  been  likewise  hitherto  taken 
for  granted.  Thus  behind  and  beyond  the  indi- 
vidual Ego  begins  to  loom  up  an  All-Eg#,  out  of 
andabove  the  Psychosis  towers  the  Pampsychosis. 
If  Kant  had  said  that  we  cannot  sense  the 
Thing-in-itself,  we  would  have  to  accept  his 
statement;  but  when  he  implies  that  we  cannot 
think  the  Thing-in-itself,  we  draw  the  line 
against  him.  Knowledge  is  of  two  kinds,  sens- 
ing and  thinking ;  the  one  knows  the  Object  in 
its  external  presence  as  given  or  created,  the 
other  knows  the  Object  in  its  inner  creative 
essence.  Kant's  dictum  has,  therefore,  an  am- 
biguity; we  may  well  ask  him,  which  kind  of 
knowledge  do  you  mean,  that  furnished  by  Sen- 
sation or  by  Thought?  By  the  former  we  can- 
not know  the  Thing-in-itself,  by  the  latter  we 
can.  Yet  how  about  this  Ego  knowing,  think- 
ing, re-creating  the  Thing  or  the  Object? 
Hitherto  it  has  been  assumed  as  our  starting- 
point,  with  its  marvelous  gift  of  self-knowing 
and  world-knowing  in  one.  But  Thought,  the 
creative,  must  at  last  insist  upon  getting  back 
to  its  own  creation  in  order  to  be  true  to  its  own 


nature.     Herewith    we    impinge    upon    a    new 


In  the  foregoing  sections  we  have  taken  the 
Ego  for  granted  and  in  a  manner  let  it  unfold 
itself  from  its  own  center  according  to  its  inner 
power.  Thus  it  has  shown  its  peculiar  nature  in 
the  Psychosis  and  in  various  special  activities. 
But  now  we  are  to  regard  this  same  Ego  as  de- 
rived, created,  endowed  with  the  gift  of  its  own 
process.  From  such  a  view-point  it  is  conscious, 
and  its  activity  we  call  Consciousness.  This  is 
the  word  which  we  adopt  in  order  to  suggest  that 
the  Ego  must  now  be  seen  not  simply  as  original 
but  also  as  originated,  as  having  its  source  in  the 
All-Ego  or  the  Universe. 

Such  an  employment  of  the  term  is  not  usual. 
Consciousness  on  the  whole  has  been  conceived  as 
the  background  of  the  mind  behind  which  it  is 
quite  impossible  to  penetrate.  Still  the  Ego  as 
self-knowing  cannot  well  be  excluded  from 
knowing  its  own  origin.  Perhaps  more  desperately 
than  with  any  other  of  its  concepts  Psychology 
at  present  is  struggling  with  Consciousness.  It 
seems  to  lurk  in  every  mental  activity,  to  be  the 
presupposition  of  the  Ego  itself.  It  works 
largely  in  the  dark,  though  it  can  be  made  to 
throw  its  search-light  back  upon  itself.  That  is, 
the   action  of    Consciousness  is    mainlv  uncon- 


scious  —  a  contradiction  both  in  speech  and  con- 
ception till  it  be  solved.  The  unconscious 
means  the  possibility  of  Consciousness;  we 
hardly  speak  of  a  stone  as  unconscious,  but  the 
Ego  is  or  may  be.  The  sweep  of  Consciousness 
involves  the  unconscious  (as  potential),  the  con- 
scious (as  subject  and  object),  and  the  self- 
conscious  (the  self-returning,  self -knowing). 
Then  we  also  speak  of  the  sub-conscious  and  the 
supra-conscious.  All  these  different  meanings 
lurk  in  Consciousness,  which  is  thus  seen  to  be 
capable  of  developing  into  many  separate  stages, 
which  will  be  put  into  their  order  later  under 
Elemental  Feeling. 

Very  numerous  have  been  the  views  concern- 
ing Consciousness.  For  Hamilton  it  is  the  pri- 
mal material  •*  out  of  which  all  Philosophy  is 
evolved  "  (Lect.  Met.,  p.  198).  Wundt  takes  it 
to  be  the  interconnecting  medium  "  which  unites 
all  psychical  activities"  (Gnindriss,  s.  238). 
Lewes  holds  that  each  nervous  center,  each  arc 
has  its  own  Consciousness;  thus  we  have  mil- 
lions and  millions  of  Consciousnesses  located 
everywhere  in  our  body;  our  ordinary  Con- 
sciousness is  but  one  though  the  highest  one  for 
us,  which,  however,  in  its  turn  is  probably  inte- 
grated with  still  higher  forms.  Thus  Conscious- 
ness seems  to  be  the  unitary  principle  of  most  if 
not  of  all  things. 

These  statements  are  interesting  as  they  seem 

00N8CI0VS1TESS.  Cvit 

to  show  glimpses,  yet  oa\y  glimpses  of  wbat 
Consciousuess  truly  is,  the  Psychosis  in  its 
primordial  given  or  created  condition.  Another 
point  often  insisted  upon  is  the  absolute  veracity 
and  finality  of  Consciousness  in  mutters  of  mmd ; 
if  its  report  is  fal^e,  then  nil  philosophy  and 
science  are  delusions.  We  can  indeed  be  con- 
scious of  lying,  but  the  claim  is  that  just  therein  is  telling  the  truth  when  it  culls 
us  liars.  But  if  it  is  conceived  as  telling  an  un- 
truth, it  becomes  inherently  contradictory  and 
self-negative,  for  thus  Consciousness  is  made  to 
declare  the  truth  of  its  untruth,  and  I  am 
conscious  of  my  Consciousness  being  false.  The 
integrity,  that  is,  the  wholeness  or  allness  of 
Consciousness  (us  the  impress  of  the  All  in  me) 
is  asserted  in  its  so-called  veracity. 

Yet  there  is  a  doubleness  (as  well  as  oneness) 
in  Consciousness  which  lurks  even  in  the 
etymology  of  the  word.  I  know  with  Knowledge, 
(con,  acio),  but  also  I  feel  with  Feeling.  Thus 
Cansciousness  divides  in  itself,  and  therein 
goes  with  itself;  it  is  its  own  concomitant. 
What  does  this«iean?  Wo  see  that  Conscious- 
ness is  a  continual  self-separating,  and  self- 
uniting;  it  splits  if  self  in  twain  to  bo  one  with 
itself.  This  is  the  process  of  the  Psychosis,  of 
which  Consciousness  is  the  original  elemental 
manifestation  in  the  Egn,  imaging  ami  springing 
from  the  All-Ego.     So  we  affirm  that  Conscious- 

cvill         PROLEGOMENA  TO  P8TCH0L0GT. 

ness  is  the  Psychosis  in  its  primordial  proto- 
plasmic form,  with  the  suggestion  of  its  origin, 
which  goes  back  to  the  universal  Self,  bearing  the 
very  impress  of  the  same  in  the  threefold  pro- 
cess of  the  Psychosis.  Thus  Consciousness  is 
the  Ego  as  self-creating  and  therein  imaging  the 
Universe  as  self-creating.  For  the  Universe 
(or  All-Ego)  cannot  be  completely  itself,  that  is, 
completely  creative,  till  it  creates  an  Ego  like 
itself,  capable  of  creating  anew  the  Universe, 
which  is  itself. 

Consciousness  is  thus  the  ever-present  process 
of  the  Whole  in  each  stage  or  activity  of  the 
Ego.  The  entire  mind  at  work  is  really  the  en- 
tire Universe  in  each  part  or  individual,  who  has, 
accordingly.  Consciousness.  The  All  in  each  is 
first  shown  fully  in  Consciousness  which  thereby 
interlinks  each  mind  with  the  Universe. 

Or  we  may  say  that  God  makes  man  as  Ego, 
Consciousness,  Psychosis,  which,  though  created, 
must  return  to  its  source  and  re-create  what 
created  it  —  the  World,  the  All.  So  the  Ego  as 
conscious  starts  with  the  non-Ego  and  develops 
Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  as  different  ways  or 
stages  of  getting  the  world. 

Now  we  must  especially  note  the  word  for  this 
All-Ego  which  connects  with  Consciousness  — 
which  word  is  Pampsychosis,  the  psychical  act 
of  the  All,  or  the  Universe  as  psychical  process. 
In   this  sense  we  say  technically  that  the  Pain- 


psychosis  produces  the  Psychosis,  or  human 
Consciousness,  whose  special  trait  as  Conscious- 
ness is  to  return  and  reproduce  the  Parapsychosis. 
This  is  just  the  pure  activity  of  the  Ego  as  con- 
scious: it  reproduces  the  Parapsychosis,  or  the 
All-Ego  with  its  process.  Such,  then,  we  raay 
deem  in  Psychology  the  two  extreraes:  Psy- 
chosis and  Parapsychosis,  or  Man  and  God, 
between  whom  lies  Nature  or  the  Cosmos,  which 
three  and  their  process  form  the  content  of  the 
three  world-disciplines  —  Religion,  Philosophy, 
and  Psychology. 

At  present,  however,  we  wish  to  emphasize 
the  thought  of  Consciousness,  in  its  origin  and 
process,  both  of  which  spring  from  the  All, 
which  is  therefore  eternally  present  in  every  Ego. 
Pantheism  says  that  this  Ego  goes  back  at  death 
to  its  source  in  the  All,  and  vanishes  as  in- 
dependent. But  the  doctrine  of  immortality 
affirms  the  persistence  of  the  Ego,  which  must 
be  as  enduring  as  the  All-Ego,  which  makes  it 
and  is  made  by  it.  In  fact,  the  individual  Ego 
must  be  perpetually  recreating  the  All-Ego,  else 
it  would  not  exist.  God's  and  Man's  immor- 
tality is  one;  God  cannot  endure  in  His  cora- 
pleteness  unless  Man  makes  Him  endure,  and 
Man  must  be  incessantly  winning  immortality  by 
re-creating  God  in  and  through  Consciousness. 

In  our  technical  speech  we  may,  therefore,  say 
that  Consciousness   is  the  manifestation  of  the 


Parapsychosis  in  the  Psychosis.  The  two  belong 
together  creatively,  not  merely  along  side  of  each 
other  in  a  divine  and  human  parallelism.  Herein 
we  reach  down  to  the  deepest  suggestion  in  the 
word  Consciousness.  Conscio  —  I  (the  Psy- 
chosis) know  with  and  feel  with  the  Para- 
psychosis. My  Ego  cannot  work,  cannot  have 
its  process  without  the  active  irapress  and  indeed 
co-operation  of  the  All-Ego.  I  cannot  know  the 
object  without  being  conscious,  without  knowing 
it  with  the  Universe.  In  like  manner  I  not  onlv 
feel,  but  am  conscious  that  I  feel ;  in  order  to 
have  any  special  Feeling,  I  must  feel  with  the 
All  at  the  sarae  tirae,  and  the  process  of  the  All 
must  be  in  me. 

The  question  has  been  much  discussed  whether 
Consciousness  is  a  special  faculty,  one  among 
raauy  other  faculties.  According  to  our  view  it 
should  be  classified  as  Feeling,  yet  in  the  right 
way.  It  is  primarily  a  Psychosis,  haviDg  within 
itself  implicitly  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect. 
Still  its  dominating  character  puts  it  into  the 
vast  realm  of  Feeling  as  elemental.  Conscious- 
ness taken  by  itself,  is  the  immediate  impress  of 
the  Universe  in  the  Ego,  or  the  Feeling  of  the 
All.  It  is  not  a  specialized,  finite  Feeling  such 
as  love,  and  hate,  not  an  emotion  but  rather  the 
antecedent  condition  of  all  emotions.  Conscious- 
ness in  its  simple  abstraction  is  the  Ego  feeling 
the  Universe  as  self-creating,'  or  the  process  of 


the  All-Ego  in  the  individutil  Ego.  (Here  we 
shall  drop  the  subject  as  we  have  developed  it 
quite  fully  under  the  head  of  Elemental  Feeling 
whose  third  stage  is  this  All-Feeling  in  the  Ego, 
or  Consciousness.  (See  in  the  present  book,  pp. 

Our  next  step  must  be  to  make  explicit  what 
is  implied  in  the  nature  of  Consciousness  as  just 
set  forth,  this  being  the  product  and  the  ele- 
mental process  of  the  Universe  in  the  Ego, 
which  Ego  we  have  seen  rising  to  the  conception 
of  the  Universe  through  its  psychical  activities. 
Thus  a  vast  c^xle  begins  to  hover  before  the 
mind,  the  outlines  of  which  we  shall  try  to  make 
more  definite  in  the  following  section. 


From  the  preceding  account  it  is  evident  that 
Consciousness  as  the  created  process  of  the  All- 
Ego  in  the  individual  Ego,  which  is  thus  creating 
and  indeed  self -creating,  calls  up  for  fresh  for- 
mulation the  total  round  of  Being,  the  Norm  of 
the  Universe,  which  has  now  become  psychologi,- 
cal,  starting  with  the  Ego  whose  supreme  func- 
tion is  to  create  anew  the  Ail  which  created  it. 
Hence  at  present  we  have  to  give  some  consider- 
tion  to  the  Psychological  Norm  or  the  new 
construction  of  the  Universe  through  Psychology, 
which  thereby  becomes  a  new  World-Discipline 


not  supplanting  but  taking  its  place  alongside  of 
Religion  and  Philosophy. 

In  our  ordinary  psychical  life  we  begin  with 
two  given  factors,  the  Ego  on  the  one  side  and 
the  World  (or  the  Object,  or  non-Ego)  on  the 
other.  Now  this  Ego,  who  is  Man  himself,  has 
a  primordial  elemental  Feeling  (which  we  may 
here  simply  assume)  compelling  him  to  lake 
up  and  appropriate  the  World,  or  the  Object 
outside  of  him,  the  realm  of  the  non-Ego. 
Herewith  rises  into  activity  the  original  pro- 
cess of  his  Ego,  the  Psychosis,  which  grapples 
with  the  non-Ego  or  objective  World,  en- 
deavoring to  make  the  same  its  own  through 
•Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  which  three  in 
this  work  still  further  divide  into  many  forms 
or  faculties  so-called.  These  psychical  activi- 
ties of  the  Ego,  seeking  to  appropriate  the  Ob- 
ject, constitute  the  first  theme  of  Psychology, 
which  has  as  its  primary  function  to  formulate 
and  to  order  them  into  a  science. 

But  what  is  the  end,  scope,  design  of  our 
Psychology  thus  conceived?  Whither  is  it 
bound?  Evidently  it  is  trying  to  think  and  to 
re-create  in  itself  the  World,  to  find  in  the  same 
the  creative  principle  of  its  Creator,  to  whom 
we  are  necessarily  brought  in  this  psychological 
journey  through  creation.  Psychology  may  be 
deemed,  therefore,  in  its  primal  function  to  be 
the  return  of  the  individual  Ego  to   God,   not 


through  Feeling  alone,  or  Intellect  aloue,  but 
through  the  very  process  of  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Intellect,  which  brings  my  Ego  and  yours  into  a 
psychical  communion  with  the  All-Ego,  which 
likewise  has  in  itself  the  universal  process  of 
Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  or  that  of  the  Uni- 

In  this  way  the  Ego  has  made  an  ascent  (so 
we  may  conceive  it)  through  Psychology  to  the 
source  of  its  own  and  of  all  Being.  It  has 
mounted  through  the  World  reacting  upon  it 
and  producing  its  activities,  which  we  may 
image  as  a  ladder  of  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect, 
each  with  an  infinite  number  of  gradations,  till  it 
attains  the  all-creating  Ego,  which  it  must  like- 
wise recreate  in  order  to  win.  Thus  we  come  to 
the  psychological  insight  that  man  has  to  repro- 
duce that  which  produces  him,  he  has  to  make 
anew  not  only  the  World  but  even  his  and  its 
Creator.  For  man  is  the  true  child  of  God  only 
by  possessing  the  gift  of  his  Father,  namely, 
creativity,  and  possessing  it  to  a  similar  excel- 

What  is  now  the  outlook?  Through  Feeling, 
Will,  and  Intellect,  the  Ego  has  risen  to  the 
creative  fountain  head  of  all  things  including 
itself,  and  has  thereby  interlinked  itself  into 
the  process  of  the  Universe  which  is  consti- 
tuted of  God,  World,  and  Man.  The  Ego 
through  Psychology  has  made  or  rather  re-made 



its  place  in  the  grand  cycle  of  the  All.  It  is  the 
pivot  through  which  the  created  World  returns 
to  its  Creator,  this  pivotal  Ego  re-creating  all- 
the  stages  from  the  lowest  to  the  highest.  When 
I  sense,  represent  or  think  the  object,  I  have  to 
recreate  it  in  essence  as  God  created  it,  formu- 
lating and  putting  it  into  its  order  through  the 
Psychosis,  which  is  both  in  me  and  in  it,  though 
of  different  degrees.  Psychology  thus  is  the 
science  of  the  Psyche  returning  through  the 
World  to  its  Creator,  the  soul's  return  to  its 
divine  source. 

But  Psychology  does  not,  cannot  stop  with 
this  ascent  from  below ;  it  must  also  grasp  and 
formuhito  the  descent  from  above,  down  through 
the  created  world  till  it  conies  back  to  itself  as 
created,  for  it  has  to  know  itself  both  as  created 
and  creating,  the  derived  on  the  one  hand 
and  the  self-unfolding  (evolutionary)  on  the 
other.  Thus  Pvsycholoo:v  is  seen  to  embrace  the 
round  of  all  Being —  God,  World,  and  Man  —  in 
its  own  peculiar  Norm,  which  has  the  Ego  as  its 
turning-point  from  the  created  world  back  to  its 
Creator.  I,  re-creating  the  objective  world 
through  Feeling,  Willing  and  Knowing,  mount 
up  to  the  creative  All-Ego  who  has  created  me 
creative,  yea  self-creative  in  Consciousness  like 
unto  it.  Such  is,  wo  repeat,  the  psychological 
Norm  whose  content  is  God,  World,  and  Man, 
or  the  process  of  the  Universe  (Pampsychosis). 


We  may  now  see  that  the  Object  or  the  World 
bais  a  created,  given,  pheaomenal  side,  which  the 
Ego  can  eense  but  caanot  directly  create,  since 
it  la  already  just  the  created  element.  Strictly 
this  is  what  all  matter  U,  which  the  Ego  cannot 
create  but  can  transform.  The  £go  cannot, 
then,  create  the  World,  for  this  is  already 
created,  but  it  can  re-create  it,  can  think  its 
creative  Thought  along  with  its  Creator. 

Od  the  other  hand  the  Ego  has  likewise  a  side 
of  createdness.  It  is  God-made,  yet  also  Self- 
made;  in  fact  its  self-creative  power  is  just  its 
gift  from  the  All-Ego,  which  is  itself  this  self- 
creative  power  iu  its  universality  or  as  the  Uni- 
verse. The  Ego  is  the  created  like  Nature,  and 
evolves  its  own  self-creative  Consciousness,  which 
is  nevertheless  God-given.  I  am  made  by  the 
Universe  to  make  it  over,  I  ■am  created  tore- 
create  my  Creator,  and  thus  render  him  truly 
complete  in  his  creativity.  For  certainly  he  is 
not  complete  as  Creator  till  he  brings  forth  a 
being  as  creative  as  he  is  in  essence;  it  is  the 
complete  Man  that  makes  the  complete  God, 

Such  is,  then,  the  psychological  (or  pampsy- 
chical)  Norm,  whose  formulation  means  a  new 
World-Discipline  through  which  all  science  i-*  to 
be  organized  afresh.  The  philosophic  Norm, 
though  it  has  the  same  general  content,  namely 
God  (or  the  Absolute),  World,  and  Man,  is 
different,  since  it  leaves  out  the  Ego  recreating 


the  entire  process  of  the  Universe,  and  projects 
this  process  into  abstractions,  such  as  Cause, 
Law,  Essence.  But  now  we  are  to  reach 
buck  and  take  up  the  Ego  which  has  made 
Philosophy,  and  has  thrown  out  of  itself  these 
abstractions;  every  Ego  is  henceforth  to  have  as 
its  own  the  making  of  its  own  Philosophy,  which 
is  no  longer  to  dominate  it  autocratically  from 
the  outside,  even  in  form.  Not  the  Philosophy 
as  doctrine  is  alone  to  be  received,  but  the  crea- 
tivity of  the  philosophy-maker  is  what  is  to  be 
ultimately  imparted,  so  that  the  recipient  Ego 
becomes  also  creative,  being  taken  up  into  the 
process  of  the  Universe,  and  formulated  with  it 
as  an  integral  part  of  it,  as  returning  and  re- 
creating that  which  created  the  Ego  creative. 
Evolution  is  the  regnant  word  in  the  Philosophy 
andinthe  Science  of  the  Nineteenth  Century.  The 
Ego  is  indeed  evolved;  but  not  till  this  evolved 
Ego  evolves  the  All  which  evolves  it,  making  it- 
itself  both  sides,  and  completing  the  cycle  of 
the  Universe  (which  is  our  psychological  Norm), 
is  Evolution  completed,  being  seen  and  expressed 
as  a  part  or  stage  of  the  total  process  of  Being. 
For  if  Evolution  be  universal,  must  it  not  be 
itself  evolved?  The  psychological  Norm  shows 
the  Universe  evolvin^:  through  Nature  the  Ei^o, 
but  also  it  shows  this  Ego  evolving  the  Universe, 
and  thus  rounding  out  the  Great  Totality. 
We  have  alluded  to  the  religious  Norm  which 


posits  a  supreme  personal  Will  as  the  creative 
source  of  the  Universe.  On  the  other  hand  the 
philosophic  Norm  takes  an  abstract  principle, 
as  Cause,  Law,  Atom,  to  be  the  essence  of  Being. 
(For  a  further  discussion  of  the  three  Norms, 
religious,  philosophical  and  psychological,  the 
reader  is  referred  to  the  introduction  in  the 
author's  History  of  Ancient  European  Philoso- 
phy y  particularly  pp.  25-32.) 

We  may  next  ask.  What  is  the  meaning  of 
this  psychological  Norm  in  the  progress  of 
nations,  in  the  development  of  institutions,  in 
the  movement  of  humanity?  Very  distinctly 
does  it  put  chief  stress  upon  the  worth  of  the 
individual  who  is  now  to  take  his  pivotal  place 
in  the  Universe,  and  even  to  be  formulated  as  a 
necessary  element  of  all  science.  Hitherto  he 
has  done  the  work,  but  has  been  largely  left  out. 
He  is  now  to  determine  that  which  determines 
him,  make  the  law  which  governs  him,  in  fine 
re-create  afresh  what  has  created  him.  This 
does  not  mean  that  Law,  Institutions,  God  are  to 
be  abolished  or  to  be  lessened  in  any  way ;  on 
the  contrary  their  influence  will  be  heightened, 
when  they  no  longer  stand  over  against  the  in- 
dividual, dominating  him  from  the  outside,  but 
are  perpetually  re-created  by  him  as  an  element 
of  his  deepest  nature.  Ho  too  belongs  in  the 
process  of  the  All  in  spite  of  his  separate,  seem- 
ingly isolated  individuality. 


That  indtitutional  world  which  has  developed 
the  worth  of  the  individual  to  its  highest  place 
and  potency,  is  undoubtedly  found  in  the  Occi- 
dent. Psychology  in  this  new  sense  could  not  be 
the  offspring  of  European  Society,  still  less  of 
Oriental.  Every  great  period  and  indeed  every 
great  territorial  division  of  civilized  man  has  its 
own  social  and  institutional  character,  which 
ultimately  finds  its  highest  expression  in  a 
World-Discipline.  Creatively  Religion  belongs 
to  the  Orient,  the  prolific  home  of  many  Relig- 
ions, among  others  of  our  own.  But  Philosophy 
in  its  truly  genetic  soul,  belongs  to  Europe. 
Must  not  the  Occident  too  have  its  expression  in 
a  World-Discipline  sprung  of  its  deepest  spirit, 
which  has  already  manifested  itself  in  Institu- 
tions and  especially  in  the  State?  Such  is'  at 
least  our  view.  Accordingly  in  the  historic 
evolution  of  these  World-Disciplines,  Psychology 
will  be  creatively  developed  in  the  Occident. 


It  is  time  to  glance  back  at  the  preceding  expo- 
sition, and  to  re-state  the  three  leading  psychical 
forms  or  Psychoses  which  have  been  unfolded. 
This  statement  will  be  given  in  psychological 
nomenclature,  to  which  the  reader  will  have  to 
get  used,  since  it  is  what  definitely  formulates 
and  inter-connects  the  science.  Technical  terms 
cannot  be  avoided  in  any  strict  presentation  of  a 


Bcientific  subject.  We  have  already  spoken  of 
the  word  Pampsychosis,  through  which  we  seek 
to  suggest  that  the  Universe  is  psychical  and  also 
a  process,  as  distinct  from  the  divine  Ego  in  it- 
self, which  is  conceived  as  a  stage  of  this  pro- 
cess. Thus  we  hope  to  escape  in  Psychology 
the  everlasting  seesaw  between  Transcendence 
and  Immanence  (see  following  pp.  326-8), 
which  has  given  and  still  gives  so  much  trouble 
both  to  Theology  and  Philosophy,  especially  to 
the  Kantian  Philosophy  and  to  all  its  students. 

Here  then,  are  the  three  main  Psychoses, 
which  may  be  deemed  the  fundamental  sweep 
as  well  as  the  grand  inter-connecting  links  of  our 
science  in  its  completeness. 

1st.  The  Ego  as  the  primal  or  elemental 
Psychosis,  with  its  three  stages  metaphysically 
expressed.  This  we  may  regard  as  the  germinal 
transition  from  Philosophy  into  Psychology, 
since  the  latter  has  to  conceive  and  employ  the 
abstract  terms  of  the  former  in  order  to  declare 
and  to  define  itself.  Having  gotten  the  Psy- 
chosis we  possess  the  organizing  and  uniting 
activity  of  Psychology  and  all  its  sciences. 

This  elemental  Psychosis,  or  the  process  of 
the  Ego  as  it  is  in  itself,  proceeds  to  grapple  with 
the  non-Ego,  or  the  World,  and  passes  over  into 
the  following. 

2nd.  The  Ego  as  psychological  Pychosis  with 
its   Feeling,    Will,    and   Intellect,    which    arise 


through  the  Ego's  attempt  to  take  apand  appro- 
priate its  other  J  the  external  world.  We  need  a 
common  word  for  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect 
dealing  with  the  object  or  the  world,  and  taking 
it  up  emotionally,  volitionally  and  intellectually, 
and  thereby  being  determined  to  many  activities 
which  it  is  the  function  of  Pdychology  as  science 
to  evolve,  describe,  and  put  in  order.  For  this 
purpose  we  have  often  used  the  word  appropina- 
tion^  with  some  similar  terms,  which  the  reader 
has  to  make  his  own  in  the  given  sense.  Feel- 
ing, Will,  and  Intellect,  then,  manifest  various 
grades  of  appropriating  the  object. 

But  the  Ego  as  this  psychological  Psychosis 
moves  through  the  given,  created  world  up  to 
the  All-Ego  which  has  created  it  (the  Ego)  and 
the  world.  Here  then  is  a  new  turn  downward 
into  creation. 

3rd.  The  Ego  as  pampsychical  Psychosis,  or 
the  All-Ego  composed  of  God,  World,  and  Man 
which  constitute  the  psychical  process  of  the 
Universe  or  Panipsychosis. 

Often  we  have  said  that  Man  or  Ego  is  the 
child  of  the  Universe  and  bears  the  impress  of 
the  same  in  Consciousness,  which  is  also,  in 
itself  considered,  the  elemental  Psychosis  above 
mentioned,  or  the  primordial  process  of  the  Ego. 
The  Universe  is  fundamentally  self-creative,  for 
what  is  there  to  create  it  but  itself?  Still  its 
self-creativity  must  be  a  process,  which  involves 


the  (»reated  Ego  returning  and  recreating  its 
Creator.  It  requires  the  whole  Universe  to  pro- 
duce man  (Ego),  but  this  product  must  in  its 
turn  be  productive  of  what  produces  it,  else  ' 
this  producing  principle  is  not  the  Universe, 
which,  to  be  itself ^  has  to  produce  itself  as  pro- 
ductive, has  to  create  itself  as  Creator.  That  is, 
the  All-parent  must  impart  to  his  child  (the 
Ego)  that  which  makes  him  All-parent,  namely 
the  power  of  begetting  anew  the  All.  Thus 
through  the  Ego  begotten  of  the  source,  yet 
returning  and  re-begetting  the  same,  the 
cycle  of  the  All  or  of  the  Universe  is 
completed,  the  Ego  being  that  oft-mentioned 
pivot  which  finishes  the  round  of  the  Great 
Totality,  whose  expression  is  now  the  psycho- 
logical (or  pam psychical)  Norm. 

This  Norm  we  may  briefly  indicate  in  its  three 
stages  as  follows,  ((():  The  Absolute  Ego  as 
creative,  the  First  Self,  (  Urstdbst  of  Schelling, 
the  All-Ego  in  itself;  (Jj)  the  World  as  created, 
the  not-Self  as  the  utterance,  or  externalization, 
or  appearance  of  the  First  Self;  (c)  Man,  the 
Second  Self,  created  but  also  creating  and  self- 
creating  as  conscious,  whoso  supreme  function  is 
to  go  back  to  his  creative  source,  recreating  and 
formulating  the  same  through  its  entire  course. 

Such  is  the  grand  Totality  of  Being  in  its  pro- 
cess psychologically  conceived.  It  is  not  the 
philosophical  Norm  of  that  same   Totality,    nor 

cxrii        PSOLEQOMENA  TO  P8TCH0L0GT. 

does  it  assert  the  primacy  of  any  special  mental 
activity.  On  the  contrary  the  Ego  is  taken  as 
the  complete  process  of  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Intellect  rising  to  its  genetic  soarce,  in  the  All- 
Ego  through  its  own  psychical  act,  the  Psy- 

If  I  say  that  the  essence  of  Being  (the  oiuna  of 
the  on  in  philosophical  speech)  is  the  Psychosis, 
this  is  no  longer  a  mere  abstract  principle  like 
Cause  or  Law,  but  is  the  Ego  itself  declaring  its 
process  to  be  the  essence  of  Being.  The  philo- 
sophic Ego  of  all  time,  seeking  the  essence  of 
Being  in  some  abstraction  projected  out  of  itself 
as  universal,  has  now  discovered  that  it  (the 
Ego)  in  its  own  process  is  what  it  has  been 
searching  for  down  the  ages.  So  it  necessarily 
makes  the  transition  from  Philosophy  to  Psy- 
chology, the  latter  supplementing  and  completing 
the  former. 

Thus  Psychology  gives  primarily  as  the  science 
of  the  Ego,  the  inner  movement  of  all  Being. 
Considered  in  this  light  it  is  a  kind  of  logic, 
formulating  in  its  categories  the  essence  of 
whatever  exists.  As  already  stated  it  is  etymo- 
logicallythe  Logos  of  the  Psyche, which,  penetrates 
and  interconnects  both  the  inner  and  outer  worlds. 
The  old  logic  of  Being  is  thus  supplemented  if 
not  supplanted  by  what  originally  made  it, 
namely  the  process  of  the  Ego. 

But  our  Psychology  remains  not  engrossed  in 


its  own  pure  movement ;  on  the  contrary  it  has 
its  side  of  application,  yea  it  applies  itself  to  the 
other  sciences,  giving  their  inner  fundamental 
movement  and  connection.  We  have  seen  Pi«y- 
chology  proper  evolving  itself  by  appropriating 
the  object  through  Feeling,  Willing,  and  Know- 
ing, till  it  attains  the  creative  All-Ego  creating 
and  putting  the  impress  of  itself  upon  all  creation. 
When  the  Ego,  rising  through  its  psychological 
ascent,  reaches  its  pampsychical  process  as  God, 
World,  and  Man,  it  finds  the  creative  principle 
not  simply  of  itself,  but  of  the  Universe,  which 
it  proceeds  to  re-create  in  thought,  that  is,  to 
psychologize.  Hero  lies  the  realm  of  its  applica- 
tion to  Science,  whose  material  the  Universe 
must  furnish.  The  Ego  goes  forth  from  its  inner 
subjective  realm  with  the  certainty  of  finding  its 
own  creative  process  in  everything.  Thus  the 
Ego  having  psychologized  itself,  must  proceed  to' 
psychologize  the  Universe,  not  merely  as  a  Whole 
but  in  all  its  special  divisions,  which  give  of 
course  the  special  sciences. 

In  another  and  possibly  more  technical  way 
we  can  state  this  matter.  The  Psychosis,  having 
evolved  the  Pampsychosis  as  the  creative  process 
of  the  Universe,  itself  included,  will  proceed 
to  identify  this  process  (the  Pampsychosis) 
particularizing  itself  in  every  specijil  de- 
partment of  science  —  in  Nature,  Art,  Institu- 
tions, etc.     That  is,  the  elemental  Ego  (Psycho- 


818),  being  itself  the  created  process  of  the  cre- 
ating Universe  (Parapsychosis)  will  seek,  recog- 
nize and  formulate  this  process  as  the  funda- 
mental creative  fact  of  every  science.  Psychol- 
ogy thus  has  to  re-create  the  subject-matter  of 
every  department  of  which  it  treats,  giving  the 
origin  thereof  from  the  All,  as  well  as  formu- 
lating the  details  in  their  psychical  order. 

The  next  topic  naturally  will  be  a  survey  of 
the  sciences  psychologized.  As  Psychology 
starts  its  movement  in  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intel- 
lect, these  are  to  be  taken  as  the  ordering  principle 
of  the  sciences.  First  comes  a  Psychology  of 
Religion,  since  the  Feeling  of  the  All-Ego  or 
God  is  the  primordial  act  of  the  Ego,  is  indeed 
our  very  consciousness.  Out  of  Will,  with  its 
native  sense  of  Freedom,  spring  the  sciences  of 
Ethics  and  Institutions.  From  Intellect  mainly 
we  have  to  derive  Art,  Poetry,  ai/d  what  we  may 
call  the  alethic  sciences  of  Nature,  History,  and 
Philosophy.  This  brief  summary  we  cannot 
here  expand ;  we  can  only  say  that  Psychology 
is  their  one  normative  science.  (A  somewhat 
fuller  account  of  this  subject  is  given  in  the 
following  pages  under  the  head  of  Absolute 
Feeling,  since  all  these  sciences,  though  un- 
folded from  and  organized  under  different  psy- 
chical activities,  call  forth  Feelings  of  their  own. 
See  the  introductory  statements  at  pp.  309,  336. 
363,  etc.) 

DinStONS.  CJtrv 

Tlie  main  thought  i^,  however,  that  Psychol- 
ogy, when  it  attains  its  supreme  purpose,  is  to 
show  and  formulate  each  activity  of  the  mind 
interconnecting  with  all  things  and  with  the 
very  All,  through  their  eocnmon  process,  the 


We  have  now  reached  the  point  at  which  we 
can  take  up  the  divisions  of  Psychology  proper, 
and  give  some  idea  concerning  them  in  advance 
of  their  detailed  exposition.  These  divisions 
are  our  well-known  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect, 
each  of  them  a  vast  subject  in  itself.  As  already 
stated  they  all  are  seeking  to  appropriate  the 
Object,  are  stimulated  by  it  in  some  way  to- their 
own  respective  inner  activities.  The  Ego,  in 
thus  endeavoring  to  make  the  world  its  own,  is 
really  trying  to  find  its  own  origin  (always  the 
deepest  instinct  in  man,  as  the  poetry  of  all 
peoples  shows).  Upon  this  origin  or  creative 
source  of  itself  it  will  come  when  it  fully  attains 
the  All-Ego  or  the  Pam psychosis,  which  will  also 
reveal  the  genetic  element  not  only  in  it  but  also 
in  the  world,  its  counterpart.  At  present,  how- 
ever, we  are  sim|)Iy  outlining  the  total  process 
of  Psychology,  iu  its  three  main  stages  or 

1.  Feeling.  This  Is  the  process  of  the  Ego 
within  itself  turned  inward,  immediately,  by  some 


outer  determinant.  The  object  or  the  world 
stirs  the  Ego  to  its  primal  psychical  act  which 
varies  according  to  the  different  stimulating  ob- 
jects outside.  (Feeling  is  specially  set  forth  in 
the  succeeding  portion  of   the  present  volume.) 

2.  The  Will.  The  Ego  with  its  elemental  pro- 
cess is  stirred  by  the  object  to  go  forth  out  of 
itself,  and  to  meet  and  to  transform  the  same 
(the  object)  after  its  own  pattern.  Hence  the 
Will  is  psychologically  the  stage  of  primal  sepa- 
ration, and  develops  various  inner  forms  of  its 
own  which  gives  the  basis  for  Ethics  and  Insti- 
tutions. (This  subject  is  specially  treated  iua 
volume  of  the  present  series  called  The  Will  and 
if 8  World.) 

3.  The  Intellect.  The  Ego  with  its  elemental 
process  is  stimulated  by  the  Object  to  reproduce 
this  object  in  some  form  within  itself.  I  repro- 
duce within  myself  the  thing  sensed,  represented, 
thought,  though  in  different  degrees  of  repro- 
ductive energy.  Thus  I  know  it,  Intellect  giving 
knowledgre  as  distinct  from  feeliuor  and  volition. 
(This  subject  has  likewise  its  special  treatment 
in  a  volume  of  the  j)re.sent  series  entitled: 
Psycholofjf/  and  the  Pst/chosis — Intellect.) 

Some  general    observations  upon    these  three 

divisions  may  be  discursively  added.     Feeling  is 

thcnative,  elemeutal,alm()st  automatic  Psychosis; 

the  object   is  not  known  by   it,    but  influences 

'merely.     Nor  does  the  Psychosis  strictly    know 


itself  in  Feeling,  though  it  has  what  we  call  self- 
reference  (see  p.  58).  ConsciouHQOsa  is  prima- 
rily a  Feeliug,  and  even  Self-conscioueness  has 
its  roots  in  Feeling,  and  cannot  be  divorced  from 
it  in  treatment.     (See  following  p.  147.) 

Moreover  these  three  —  Feeling,  Will,  and  In- 
tellect—  form  a  Psjchosis  together,  and  each 
forms  a  Psychosis  in  itself — which  fact  has  been 
set  forth  iu  the  section  on  Method. 

It  may  be  here  remarked  that  Psychology  has 
unfolded  more  and  more  toward  a  complete  de- 
velopment of  each  of  these  three  stages.  Feel- 
ing, for  instance,  though  the  first  in  order  has 
boon  tlie  last  to  develop,  in  fact  it  is  not  yet  de- 
veloped in  science  to  the  same  degree  that  we 
lind  in  Will  and  Intellect.  The  reason  for  this 
backwardness  is  tliat  it^cannot  get  hold  of  itself, 
it  hits  to  be  organized  through  another  power, 
namely,  Intellect.  On  the  other  hand  Intellect, 
though  the  last  in  order,  has  been  the  first  to 
develop,  since  it  knows  iind  fornmlatos  itself  in 
thoaght,  and  thus  is  the  organizer  and  forniu- 
lator  of  the  olhcr  mental  activities  and  indeed  of 


The  educator  who  has  entered  into  the  mean- 
ing and  scope  uf  this  preliminary  essay  cauuot 
have  failed  to  note  that  it  has  certain  far-reaching 
pedagogical  implications.     If  the  method  of  the 


Psychosis  is  the  true  method  of  all  mentation 
and  indeed  of  all  science,  then  the  science  of 
Education  is  assuredly  to  be  psychologized  after 
this  norm.  Education  deals  primarily  with  the 
human  Ego,  particularly  with  that  of  the  child. 
If  the  Psychosis  is  the  fundamental  process  of 
this  Ego,  which  on  the  one  hand  is  to  be  un- 
folded in  itself  into  its  complete  activity,  and  on 
the  other  is  to  be  seen  and  formulated  as  the 
essential  principle  of  God,  World,  and  Man,  then 
the  Psychosis  must  have  the  supreme  stress  in 
pedagogical  science.  Moreover  it  is  to  enter 
the  class-room  practically,  and  become  the 
organizing  principle  of  the  recitation,  since  it  is 
the  deepest  inner  bond  between  teacher  and 
pu])il.  Particularly  if  our  American  pedagogy 
is  ever  to  move  out  of  its  present  chaotic  dis- 
tress, it  must  be  through  a  world-discipline 
which  is  sprung  of  and  images  our  social  and 
institutional  life. 

And  here  we  feel  compelled  to  insert  an  ob- 
servation which  is  derived  from  personal  experi- 
ence. In  teaching  this  Psychology  a  class  can 
be  easily  wrecked  by  following  the  old  rectilineal 
way  of  going  straight  through  the  book,  instead 
of  proceeding  cyclically  with  the  whole  subject 
and  then  with  its  parts.  For  instance,  if  the  class 
is  studying  lutellect,  the  Psychosis  of  the  entire 
subject  must  be  first  given ;  at  the  start  we  must 
grasp  the  totality  of  the   theme   and  its  process 


as  Sense- perception,  Represeatatioa,  and 
Thought.  Then  each  of  these  stages  is  to  be 
formulated  as  a  Psychosis,  before  descending  to 
further  details.  That  is,  Sense-Perception,  the 
first  stage  of  Intellect,  has  itself  three  stages  of 
the  £go,  whi<4i  is  present  as  a  Whole  in  it, 
these  three  stages  being  Sensation,  Perception, 
and  Apperception.  Then  each  of  these  three, 
being  the  mind  in  one  of  its  special  activities, 
has  likewise  its  Psycbosis,  which  connects  it  as 
a  part  not  only  with  Sen.^'e-perception,  but  also 
with  Intellect,  yea  with  all  Psychology,  and  in- 
deed with  the  Universe  itself,  which  is  a  Psy- 
chosis. Such  is  the  method  here  employed, 
which  internally  interlinks  every  special  activity 
of  iniad  with  all  other  special  activities  and  with 
the  whole  mind,  and  finally  with  the  All.  Now 
unless  this  process  is  brought  out  by  the  instruc- 
tor in  its  lesser  round  as  well  as  its  largest  sweep, 
the  miiiu  fruit  of  studying  Psychology  i»  lost, 
and  the  science  drops  dead,  which  otherwise  is 
and  can  be  made  the  ultimate  comraunicatioo  to 
the  very  Self  of  the  pupil.  The  true  teacher  is 
always  dealing  with  that  soul  before  him,  and  the 
Psychosis  is  the  common  bond  between  the  two, 
which  in  Psychology  is  to  be  brought  out  from 
its  lurking  place  and  is  to  be  manifested  through 
the  activity  of  both  minds  in  a  kind  of  mutual 
integration.  But  when  this  integration  does  not 
take  place,  the  two  souls  remain  outside  of  each 

cxxx        PROLEGOMENA  TO  P8TCH0L0GT. 

other,  and  the  Psychosis  falls  down  to  a  shriveled 
and  ghastly  formalism,  which  causes  the  Ego  to 
shiver,  as  if  in  the  presence  of  its  own  corpse. 
The  formalist,  particularly  the  formalist  trained 
by  metaphysical  science,  is  apt  to  wreck  concrete 
Psychology,  till  he  gets  the  discipline  of  the 
Psychosis,  his  procedure  being  so  different  from 

The  mental  particularism  and  narrowness  which 
comes  of  the  infinite  division  and  specialization 
in  the  science  of  to-day,  is  to  find  its  corrective 
in  Psychology,  of  course  in  the  right  Psychology. 
For  this  moves  in  the  other  direction :  it  brings 
to  unity  all  the  scattered  particulars,  which  are 
the  result  of  special  investigation;  it  gathers  tlie 
products  of  many  minds  and  indeed  of  many 
centuries,  and  stamps  them  with  the  impress  of 
one  mind,  which  can  organize  them  after  their 
fundamental  principle.  Such  was  once  the  func- 
tion of  Philosophy,  and  tliis  discipline  is  by  no 
means  yet  to  be  dispensed  w  ith  in  a  complete 
education.  There  must  come  a  new  Universitv, 
the  universitds  extra  universitatem^  which  will 
show  itself  truly  universal  by  universalizing  the 
mind,  by  making  it  go  through  and  appropriate 
the  very  process  of  the  Universe  Such  is  one  of 
the  tasks,  now  getting  urgent,  of  Psychology. 

In  conclusion  werc-affirm  the  new  position  and 
worth  of  man  iu  the  Supreme  Order,  as  set  forth 
in  Psychology,     He  is  to  determine  what  deter 


mines  him,  is  to  make  the  law  which  governs 
him,  13  to  re-create  what  created  him.  Philoso- 
phy posits  dogmatically  its  principle  which  the 
Ego  13  to  accept  and  follow,  but  Psychology  trains 
the  Ego  finally  to  miike  its  own  doctrinal  sys- 
tem, to  be  creative  in  the  highest  sense,  and  so 
to  formulate  its  own  Absolute.  I  am  to  acquire 
from  Psychology  not  merely  a  body  of  princi- 
ples, but  aUo  the  creativity  behind  them;  every 
one  is  ultimately  to  be  hisown psychologist  mak- 
ing his  own  Psychology,  to  be  not  simply  the 
learner  but  to  become  the  master.  Moreover  the 
true  teacher  is  tohuvehiscalliug  transformed  by 
Psychology,  for  he  is  endowed  by  it  with  a  new 
function.  He  is  not  simply  to  propagate  his 
doctrines  and  his  formulus  to  a  band  of  devoted 
disciples  whose  life-work  is  chiefly  to  repeat  him, 
though  this  may  have  to  be  done  atfirstand  even 
continued  for  years.  He  is  to  impart  not  alone 
his  organized  thought  but  the  power  to  organize 
it,  which  is  the  great  ultimate  end  of  education, 
even  if  it  be  yetau  unuttained  ideal.  The  pupil 
is  indeed  to  learn  and  to  learn  thoroughly  the 
formulated  system  of  Psychology,  but  this  is  only 
the  means  for  bringing  him  to  make  his  own 
formulation.  We  have  to  think  that  every  Ego- 
as  the  child  of  theUniverse  must  be  endowed  with 
the  latter's  creativity  in  some  degree,  if  Ibis  be 
hut  brought  out  in  the  right  way;  and  to  bring  it 
out  is  just  the  function  of  the  teacher,  who  shows 


his  highest  capacity  by  rearing  pupils  who  sur- 
pass him.  When  the  philosophic  master  has  his 
school  with  its  members  bearing  his  name  — 
Platonist,  Aristotelian,  Herbartian,  Hegelian  — 
and  thinking  only  in  his  categories  after  him 
perchance  with  a  certain  chivalrous  sense  of 
loyalty  beautiful  and  admirable  in  its  place, 
that  we  call  European,  feeling  in  it  a  certain 
autocratic  or  aristocratic  supremacy  of  the  mas- 
ter which  Psychology  is  to  transcend  when  it 
becomes  fully  matured.  But  not  this  alone :  Edu- 
cation has  now  the  outlook  of  making  every  Ego 
not  only  his  own  psychologist,  but  even  of 
making  him  his  own  Genius  (see  following  pp. 

With  a  little  gasp  at  such  a  prospect,  far-off 
as  yet,  we  may  wind  up  these  Prolegomena 
(fore-words),  and  start  to  grapple  with  our  main 
task,  by  no  means  inconsiderable,  of  defining, 
organizing,  and  interconnecting  the  science  of 
Psychology,  in  its  three  grand  divisions  of  Feel- 
ing, Will,  and  Intellect.  When  this  task  is  fairly 
done,  another  and  much  greater  looms  up,  that 
of  applying  our  central  creative  science  to  the 
total  cycle  of  special  sciences,  re-creating  them 
psychically,  and  uniting  them  together  in  a  uni- 
versal order,  from  every  part  of  which,  even 
the  smallest  details,  gleams  the  creative  soul  of 
the  Universe. 

Intro&uction  to  fcclina. 

Of  the  three  divisioDs  of  Paychology  —  Feel- 
ing, Will,  and  Intellect  —  there  ia  no  doubt  that 
Feeling  is  in  the  least  developed,  most  chaotic 
condition.  In  fact,  it  has  heen  called  just  the 
chnotic  part  or  stage  of  mind,  which  the  other 
stages  (especially  Intellect)  are  to  organize  and 
to  bring  iato  some  sort  of  order.  Will  sncli  an 
order  be  Feeling  still?  Certainly;  otherwise 
there  can  be  no  science  of  Feeling,  which  is  a 
chaos  till  it  be  ordered.  A  chief  difficulty  is  that 
Feeling  has  in  itself  small  power  of  self-order- 
ing; this  ha»  to  be  done  from  the  outaide,  has  to 
be  largely  imposed  upon  it  through  the  self-con- 
scious Intellect. 

We  often  say  and  truly  say,  "  my  feelings  in 


this  matter  cannot  be  described.*'  Some  psy- 
chologists accordingly  have  affirmed  that  language 
is  inadequate  to  tell  what  Feeling  is,  since  ^^  the 
essence  of  Feeling  consists  in  being  felt." 
Nevertheless  these  same  psychologists  continue 
to  talk  and  to  give  us  good  long  Treatises  upon 
Feeling.  After  having  decapitated  themselves, 
they  still  walk  around  without  difficulty,  holding 
their  beads  in  their  hands  (like  St.  Denys)  with 
no  diminution  of  the  power  of  speech.  Now  it 
must  be  granted  that  the  description  or  definition 
of  Feeling  is  not  the  Feeling  itself.  But  the 
same  objection  would  hold  against  any  other  de- 
partment of  mind,  and  could  be  directed  against 
all  science.  Feeling,  however,  can  be  described 
fairly  well,  and  ordered  too;  at  least  the  begin- 
ning already  made  can  be  continued.  The  object 
of  the  Psychologist  is  not  to  feel,  but  to  know 
Feeling.  Another  favorite  statement  found  in 
the  works  of  most  Psychologists  of  to-day  is  that 
Feeling  is  *'the  subjective  side  of  mind,"  its 
internal  phase,  and  hence  its  interesting  aspect 
to  itself  (Sully  and  many  after  him.)  But  cer- 
tainly Will  and  Intellect  are  just  as  subjective  as 
Feeling  —  all  three  being  stages  of  the  subjective 
Self.  And  it  is  difficult  to  see  why  Feeling  is 
more  interesting  to  the  Ego  than  its  Will  and 
Intellect.  These  categories  or  descriptive  terms 
pertaining  to  Feeling  tell  us  nothing  distinctive, 
and  hence  are  inadequate. 


I.  In  the  treatment  of  Feeliag  we  have  to 
start  with  the  concrete  Ego  as  assumed,  though 
this  assumption  must  be  unfolded  into  a  proof 
of  itself  in  the  course  of  the  exposition.  The 
Self  ia  to  reproduce  itself  in  its  development, 
and  thereby  show  its  origin.  Thus  it  reflects 
the  Universe,  which  must  be  its  own  eternal  self- 
reproduction.  Moreover  we  may  also  take  for 
granted  at  present  that  the  Ego  is  a  process  in 
its  Feeling,  is  what  we  call  a  Psychosis,  which  is 
the  underlying  unitary  movement  in  all  forms  of 

At  this  point,  then,  we  shall  give  a  preliminary 
definition  of  Feeling  as  the  process  of  the  Ego 
within  ilself  turned  inward.  Such  a  preliminary 
definition  must  be  iu  the  first  place  as  general 
and  as  all-embracing  as  is  the  entire  field  of 
Feelhig;  but,  in  the  second  place,  it  must  be 
capable  of  being  specialized  into  the  definition  of 
every  particular  Feeling  within  this  field.  Now 
the  starting-point  of  specializing  Feeling  in 
general  lies  in  the  question:  Turned  inward  by 
what?  By  some  object  or  class  of  objects  which 
stimulate  it  to  activity  or  determine  it.  With 
such  a  determinant  variety  of  Feeling  enters  and 
classification  begins. 

Going  back  to  the  other  part  of  the  definition, 
we  find  the  statement :  ike  process  of  the  Ego 
within  itself.  This  indicates  the  subjective 
character  of   Feelmg;    it  is  the  process  of  the 


Ego  within  itself.  But  both  Will  and  Intellect 
are  also  such  a  process ;  hence  this  part  of  the 
definition  expresses  what  is  common  to  all  three 
primal  divisions  of  the  Ego,  to  Feeling,  Will, 
and  Intellect.  Each  is  a  process,  and  a  psychi- 
cal process  or  Psychosis,  not  a  dead  or  quiet 
result;  moreover,  the  Ego  has  this  process  within 
itself,  which  fact  makes  it  subjective,  as  distinct 
from  an  objective  process,  which  takes  place 
outside  the  Ego.  For  this  reason  (we  may  re- 
peat) it  is  a  mistake  to  say  that  Feeling  is  the 
subjective  side  or  aspect  of  mind,  as  if  differing 
in  this  regard  from  Will  and  Intellect. 

But  there  is  in  the  above  definition  a  point  at 
which  Feeling  is  seen  differentiating  itself  from 
Will.  If  Feelmg  is  turned  inward^  Will  is 
turned  outward.  We  may  consider  the  Will,  to 
be  the  process  of  the  Ego  within  itself  turned 
oviward  toward  the  object,  which  it  endeavors  to 
possess  or  transform.  This  is,  of  course,  sub- 
jective Will,  the  original  of  all  forms  of  Will. 
Intellect,  the  third  stage  of  the  Ego  is  in  its 
way  a  union  of  Will  and  Feeling,  the  two  other 
stages  of  the  Ego.  It  is  primarily  turned  out- 
ward toward  the  object  which  it  appropriates 
and  then  turns  inward,  assimilating  the  same  to 
itself  in  knowledge. 

In  this  way  we  define  Feeling  and  contrast  it 
with  its  two  correlative  elements  in  the  process 
of  the  Ego    (Will  and  Intellect).     If  the  fore- 

IKTRODUOnoy.  9 

going  exposition  be  correct,  we  have  a  general 
formula  wliich  covers  the  entire  domain  of  Feel- 
ing, and  from  which  all  its  particular  forms  can 
be  derived  through  its  varied  determinants. 

11.  We  may  state  the  general  fact  of  Feeling 
to  be  the  reception  of  the  world  immediately  into 
the  Fgo,  which  ia  stirred  thereby  to  its  primal, 
native,  automatic  activity,  to  what  we  may  call 
its  elemental  Psychosis,  or  the  Feeling  of  Self  in 
its  ■  primordial  manifestation.  The  world,  or 
we  may  say  the  Universe,  is,  therefore,  the  first 
determinant  of  the  Ego  to  Feeling. 

Now  this  Feeling  cannot  know,  and  cannot 
express  itself.  Hence  the  Psychology  of  Feel- 
ing as  a  science  must  employ  Intellect,  which 
goes  back  and  knows  Feeling.  Through  Intel- 
lect Mind  is  self-knowing  and  thus  becomes 
conscious  of  itself  even  as  unconscious,  con- 
scious of  itself  as  Feeling.  It  is  Intellect  which 
can  determine  by  definition  the  undetermined, 
universalize  the  particular,  express  what  cannot 
express  itself.  A  twofoldness  we  note  here  in 
the  science  as  distinct  from  Feeling  itself;  the 
first  stage  of  the  Ego  (Feeling)  must  be  taken 
up  and  organized  by  the  third  stage  (Intel- 
lect), in  order  that  it  become  known,  which  is 
indeed  its  higher  destiny.  In  Feeling  we  simply 
feel ;  in  the  science  of  Feeling  we  no  longer  feel 
(or  perchance  we  feel  a  little)  but  we  know 
Feeling.     The  Ego  as  Feeling  has  to  move  for- 

10  FEBL1N9. 

ward  to  Intellect  in  order  to  comolete  itself;  the 
Ego  as  Intellect  has  to  move  backward  to  Feel- 
ing in  order  to  complete  itself.  Feeling  has  in 
it  a  negative,  grinding,  self-triturating  element, 
from  which  it  obtains  a  certain  relief,  if  not  total 
release  through  the  Intellect,  which  separates 
the  Ego  from  its  Feeling  and  brings  it  to  look 
back  at  the  same  as  a  stage  transcended. 

It  is  evident  that  Feeling  properly  comes 
before  Intellect  in  the  psychical  order,  not  after 
it,  as  many  psychologists  affirm.  Feeling  is 
more  individual,  capricious,  and  even  irrational, 
while  Intellect  is  more  universal,  self -reflecting 
and  hence  deliberative,  having  as  its  culmination 
Reason,  which  Feeling  in  itself  has  not  or  has 
confusedly  in  the  form  of  instinct.  The  so- 
called  training  of  the  heart  is  not  the  work  of 
Feeling  alone;  rather  is  it  the  work  of  the 
Intellect  putting  a  rational  content  into  Feeling 
and  making  it  permanent  in  our  emotional 
nature.  In  fact  Feeling  as  such  cannot  disci- 
pline itself,  though  it  certainly  can  take  dis- 
cipline the  profoundest,  and  be  completely 
transformed  and  even  transfigured . 

III.  It  is,  accordingly,  my  Intellect  and  not  my 
Feelinff  which  can  create  and  utter  thoforeojointy 
formula  of  Feeling  as  theprocesss  of  (he  Egowithin 
itself  titrned  inward.  Feeling  does  not  know 
itself,  though  we  may  well  say  that  it  feels 
itself,    having   an   inner  resonance   or   echo  of 


itself.  Feeling  has  this  eleineDt  of  self-sepa- 
ration and  Belf-return,  which  act,  .  however, 
never  rises  to  a  full  self-coasciousness,  such  as 
we  see  in  Intellect.  Still  the  total  process  of 
the  Ego  is  present  in  Feeling,  though  implicit. 
(More  at)Out  this  dual  character  of  Feeling  later, 
particulnrly  under  the  head  of  Pain  and  Pleasure.) 

Now  Intellect,  being  the  explicit  self-conscious 
process  nf  the  Ego,  can  unfold  and  make  explicit 
this  implicit  unconscious  process  of  the  Ego 
which  is  Feeling,  giving  to  the  same  a  language 
and  an  organization. 

It  is  evident  that  Feeling  is  much  more  diffi- 
cult to  formulate  than  Intellect,  which  is  in  a 
manner  self-formulating,  self-conscious,  knowing 
and  exffVessing  itself.  The  word  is  universal. 
Feeling  is  particular ;  hence  the  two  are  opposite 
till  their  contradiction  is  harmonized  by  thought. 
The  words  fear  and  love  express  Feelings  but 
are  not  Feelings,  being  the  thought  thereof, 
which  properly  has  no  Feeling.  Thought  can 
think  Feeling  and  define  it,  but  Feeling  cannot 
feel  Thought  except  remotely  and  implicitly,  and 
cannot  define  it  at  all,  having  strictly  no  articu- 
late speech  of  its  own,  though  we  speak  meta- 
phorically of  a  language  of  the  emotions. 
Properly  the  Psychology  of  Feeling  is  its  right 
language,  though  quite  devoid  of  Feeling. 

There  is,  accordingly,  an  immediate  element 
in  Feeling  which   escapes  our  science,  because 

12  FBELIN9. 

the  one  is  immediate  and  the  other  mediate  or 
knowing.  Feeling  thus  has  its  own  right  and 
its  own  place  in  the  process.  Here  again  we 
must  insist  upon  the  order  of  these  two  activities : 
Feeling  is  to  come  before  Intellect,  whose  chief 
function  in  the  present  relation  is  to  turn  back 
upon  Feeling  as  given,  to  know  it  and  to  formu- 
late it  in  a  system  of  definitions,  which  constitute 
its  science.  Intellect  must  be  grasped  or  rather 
grasp  itself  as  the  third  or  self -returning  stage 
of  the  Ego  whose  first  stage  is  Feeling  as  imme- 

IV.  The  world  and  all  that  is  in  it  are  made 
to  be  felt,  as  well  as  to  be  known.  Feeling  may 
be  said  to  have  this  end :  it  is  to  take  up  and 
appropriate  all  that  is  external  to  it  including  its 
own  echo  or  reverberation.  It  is  primarily  to 
make  inside  what  is  outside,  putting  the  All  into 
the  form  of  the  unconscious  Ego  which  is  a 
stage  in  the  grand  journey  toward  self-con- 
sciousness. The  Universe  must  be  felt  as  well 
as  thought,  indeed  before  it  is  thought. 
Thought  itself  may  be  deemed  a  clarification  of 
Feeling,  a  working-over  of  the  unconscious  into 
the  self-conscious. 

From  the  standpoint  of  Feeling  the  Ego  must 
be  regarded  as  capable  of  feeling  all  things  and 
the  All  (panaisthedkon.)  Out  of  this  primal 
stage,  which  is  merely  a  capacity  or  potentiality, 
the  feeling  Ego  will  advance  till  it  feels  the  All 


organized  in  Religion,  Art  and  Institutioae , 
which  organization  or  order  (the  work  of 
an  organizing  Ego)  it  will  take  up  into  Feel- 
ing and  thereby  mount  to  ita  supreme  point  in 
the  present  sphere.  la  other  words  the  Psy- 
chosis will  feel  the  Pampsychosis  as  ordered,  and 
attain  w^at  we  call  Absolute  Feeling. 

Thus  the  feeling  Ego  runs  through  a  vast 
gamut  of  tones  from  lowe^^t  to  highest,  being 
struck  like  an  instrument  of  music  by  an  ever- 
varying  outside  world  to  whose  lightest  touch  or 
hardest  blow  it  thrills  in  response.  Or  we  may 
compare  Feeling  to  the  chameleon  which  is  said 
to  take  the  color  of  the  object  upon  which  it 
rests,  having  its  own  inoer  process  as  alive,  yet 
also  changing  with  its  determinant.  In  like 
manner  Feeling  remains  the  one  subject  ever 
shifting  and  turning  ia  accord  with  its  environ- 
ment. But  for  such  adjustment  it  has  to  have 
its  own  movement  within;  a  stone  cannot  thus 
change,  and  so  cannot  feel. 

If  now  we  revert  to  our  formula  of  Feeling  as 
the  process  of  the  Ego  within  itself  turned  i'n- 
ward,  we  find  that  it  is  turned  inward  by  the 
world,  which  thus  is  felt.  An  omnisentient 
Ego  on  one  side  and  an  omnisensible  world  on 
the  other  may  be  regarded  as  the  two  given 
extremes  of  Feeling,  between  which  lie  all  its 
varied  forms, 

V.  That  feeling  is  one  of  the  three  stages  or 

14  FEELlNa. 

elements  in  the  tripartite  division  of  the  Ego  or 
Soul  has  long  been  seen.  Indeed  the  conflict 
between  Reason  and  Feeling  is  as  old  as  rational 
man,  who,  as  soon  as  he  began  to  reflect  upon 
himself,  must  have  discriminated  between  the 
two  sides.  With  the  rise  of  Philosophy  and 
especially  of  Ethics,  the  nature  of  Feeling  must 
have  been  recognized  and  described. 

It  is,  therefore,  a  serious  mistake  to  say  that 
the  threefold  division  of  Mind  originated  with 
Kant.  Such  is  generally  the  statement  of  Ger- 
man writers,  who  are  largely  followed  herein  by 
English  and  American  psychologists.  A  far 
better  case  could  be  made  out  for  ancient 
Plato  with  his  triple  division  of  the  soul,  though 
there  are  uncertainties  in  such  an  interpreta- 
tion. But  we  need  only  consider  his  Philebus, 
which  is  essentially  a  treatise  upon  Pleasure,  in 
order  to  find  Feeling  examined  and  emphasized 
with  great  distinctness.  It  is  curious  to  ob- 
serve Sir  William  Hamilton  denying  in  the 
most  dogmatic  manner  Plato's  claim  in  favor 
of  Kant's  (Led.  Met,^  p.  560),  and  then  to  see 
him  citing  the  Philebus  in  regard  to  the  nature 
of  Pleasure  and  Pain,  which  Hamilton  regards 
(erroneously,  we  believe)  as  quite  the  sum 
total  of  Feeling. 

We  shall  have,  then,  to  think  that  Feeling  had 
been  observed  separately  and  designated  clearly 
as  a  leading  division  of  the  mind,  together  with 


Intellect  and  Will,  long  before  Kant.  Still  it 
must  be  confes^jed  that  Feeling  has  been  tbe 
slowest  of  the  three  to  get  organized;  in  fact  it 
is  not  yet  satisfactorily  organized.  The  divi- 
sions of  both  Will  and  Intellect  are  pretty  gen- 
erally accepted  by  psychologists,  at  least  such  is 
the  case  with  their  primary  divisions.  But  how 
to  divide  Feeling  Is  still  an  unsettled  question. 
This  comes  from  its  indefinite  nature,  io  which  all 
limits  seem  to  run  together  into  one  indistin- 
guishable'mass.  Still  these  limits  exist  though 
they  have  to  be  dug  out  and  brought  to  light  by 
Intellect,  which  is  the  self-defiaing  and  hence  the 

Such  is  tbe  task  which  lies  at  hand.  We  shall 
attempt,  before  preceding  to  details,  to  give 
some  notion  of  the  three  leading  divisions  of  the 
total  realm  of  Feeling,  which  must,  however, 
find  their  justification  later,  when  their  complete 
sweep  is  seen  with  all  the  subdivisions. 

VI.  At  this  point,  then,  we  must  again  pick 
up  our  formula  and  show  it  differentiating  itself 
into  the  three  fundamental  stages  of  Feeling. 
If  this  be  l/it  process  of  the  Ego  within  itself 
turned  inward  by  various  determinants,  we  must 
first  seek  to  find  the  leading  classes  of  the  latter 
in  the  present  sphere.  Already  we  have  noted 
the  extremes  —  Ego  on  one  side,  and  on  the 
other  the  Object,  the  World,  the  Universe. 
These  two  side&  begin  interacting  in  Feeling ;  the 


function  of  the  one  is  to  feel  the  other  in  all  its 
gradations.  Let  us  call  the  determinant  of  the 
Ego  to  Feeling  the  All  in  the  present  very  general 
outline   of   the   total  movement  of  our  theme. 

(I. )  Turned  inward  by  the  Ail  in  itself,  which 
stimulates  the  Ego  immediately,  as  member  of 
itself  (the  All).  The  Ego  here  is  not  separated 
from  its  determinant,  th6  Universe,  but  is  an 
organic  part  of  it,  and  as  such  feels  its  influence, 
as  the  limb  feels  what  affects  the  whole  body. 
So  the  total  organism  of  the  Universe  deter- 
mines the  Ego  as  member  to  a  Feeling  of  that 
Totality.  I  feel  the  All  in  every  glance  upward 
at  the  starry  sky  in  the  night. 

The  movement  in  this  sphere  is  from  the  Ego 
given,  to  the  Ego  reproduceed,  individualized, 
separated  from  the  AIL  The  All  in  its  turn  has 
its  process  likewise,  moving  from  an  implicit 
unity  with  the  Ego  to  an  explicit  condition, 
which  divides  from  it  the  Ego.  This  stage  of 
Feeling  we  call  the  elemental^  being  an  element 
of  the  All,  as  well  as  the  earliest  form  of  Feeling. 

(II.)  Turned  inward  by  the  All  separated  and 
particularized,  which  is  the  outer  world  of  mani- 
fold determinants  moving  the  Ego  to  Feeling. 
The  All  must  now  be  conceived  as  divided  into 
the  Ego  and  itself,  each  being  taken  as  outside 
of  the  other.  This,  however,  is  really  not  the 
case,  the  separation  between  Ego  and  Universe 
is  an  appearance,  which  is  to  be  overcome. 


The  movement  is  now  from  this  dismember- 
ment to  a  re-organization,  from  a  separative  indi- 
vidual Feeling  to  an  associative  Feeling  (sym- 
pathy), in  which  the  Ego  begins  to  re-unite 
itself  with  the  All.  This  second  stage  of  Feeling 
shows  the  Ego  asserting  its  individual  freedom 
(as  Feeling)  against  the  determination  of  tHe 
external  world  limiting  it  and  making  it  finite. 
So  we  call  this  stage  of  Feeling_/?mfc, 

(III.)  Turned  inward  by  the  All  organized 
and  formulated  as  the  process  of  the  Universe 
(the  Pampsychosis)  which  is  creative  of  the  Ego 
now  determined  by  it.  That  is,  the  Ego  as 
recipient  is  stimulated  to  take  up  into  Feeling 
and  to  unite  with  itself  the  Universe  as  self- 
mediated,  or  as  absolute. 

But  this  formulated  process  of  the  All  or 
Universe  is  the  work  of  an  Ego  endowed  with 
the  creative  power  of  thought  (genius),  which 
work  determines  many  recipient  Egos  to  a  com- 
mon Feeling  with  it,  and  so  unites  them  in  Be- 
ligion  and  Social  Institutions,  in  Ethics  and 
Aesthetic.  This  is  the  third  leading  stage  of 
Feeling  which  will  be  named  absolute  in  the 
present  exposition. 

Thus  we  find  that  the  third  stage  of  Feeling 
aa  just  set  forth  returns  to  the  first  stage  and 
takes  up  the  unorganized  All  which  the  Ego 
there  felt,  and  oi^anizes  the  siime  into  a  process 
which  every  Ego  is  to  feel  —  it  is  to  feel  the 

18  FBELlNa. 

ordered  Universe  (third  stage)  not  merely  the 
unordered  (first  stage)  or  the  disordered  or  dis- 
membered (second  stage).  Such  is  the  purpose 
and  end  of  the  entire  movement  of  Feeling :  to 
bring  the  Ego  to  feel  the  order  of  the  Universe 
in  the  latter's  psychical  process  (the  Pampsy- 
chosis).  This  we  may  well  deem  the  highest 
development  and  cultivation  of  Feeling. 

The  whole  subject  of  Feeling  will,  accord- 
ingly, be  considered  under  the  three  following 
heads : — 

(I.)  Elemental  Feeling:  the  Ego  united  with 
the  All  as  organic  member,  is  determined  to 
Feeling  by  the  same. 

(II.)  Finite  Feeling:  the  Ego  disunited  from 
the  All  which  is  itself  disunited  and  dismembered, 
is  determined  to  Feeling  by  the  same. 

(III.)  Absolute  Feeling :  the  Ego  re-united  to 
the  All  rc-organized,  is  determined  to  Feeling  by 
the  same. 

The  nomenclature  of  Feeling  offers  peculiar 
diflScultics.  The  English  word  (Feeling)  has  the 
same  form  as  adjective,  participle,  and  noun. 
This  linguistic  defect  is  fundamental,  and  makes 
the  formulation  of  the  present  subject  more 
diflScult  in  English  than  in  any  other  European 
tongue  of  equal  development.  And  no  different 
word  can  be  found  to  take  its  place.  We  shall 
help  ourselves  out  in  part  by  writing  the  word 


with  a  capital  letter  when  a  noun  (Feeling),  and 
by  using  a  small  letter  to  begin  it  when  an 
adjective  or  participle  (feeling).  So  we  can 
distinguish  between  the  Ego  as  Feeling  and  the 
Ego  (18  feeling . 

part  ifiret* 


This  is  the  first  general  division  of  the  entire 
realm  of  Feeling.  The  process  of  the  Ego  with- 
in itself  is  now  turned  inward  immediately  by 
the  All  of  which  it  is  a  part.  Conceive  your 
Ego  to  be  an  organic  member  of  the  total  Uni- 
verse, and  as  such  member  to  be  determined  by 
this  Universe.  Your  arm  is  an  organic  member 
of  your  entire  body  and  responds  in  many  ways 
to  the  determinations  of  the  latter ;  it  feels  the 
corporeal  Whole  immediately,  acting  spontane- 
ously in  defense  of  the  same  or  dropping  help- 
lessly when  its  source,  the  body,  is  incapacitated. 
Carry  this  relation  up  into  the  All  and  behold 
yourself  as  a  member  of  it  receiving  its  influ- 


ences  and  makiDg  them  an  element  of  jour  own 
inner  life.  Such  influences  springing  from  the 
Great  Totality  and  wrought  over  directly  into 
the  procesa  of  your  own  Ego,  become  Feelings, 
since  they  are  the  process  of  the  Ego  within  it- 
self turned  inward,  its  primal  activity  (or  Psy- 
chosis) roused  and  thrown  back  upon  itself.  And 
more  specially,  they  become  Elemental  Feelings 
of  the  Ego,  since  the  latter  is  not  separated  from 
the  determining  Totality,  but  is  an  element  of  it, 
organically  connected  with  it  as  member.  Later 
the  Ego,  having  attained  its  free  individuality, 
will  hold  itself  separate  from  the  Totality  — in 
which  state  it  will  have  a  wholly  different  kind 
of  Feelings  called  Finite,  which  are  to  be  con- 
sidered hereafter. 

In  the  present  sphere  of  Elemental  Feeling  we 
must  not  forget  that  the  Ego  is  inside  the  uni- 
versal organism,  of  which  it  is  a  directly  con- 
nected limb  or  member,  in  immediate  unity  with 
the  same.  The  human  Ego  as  individual  soul 
with  its  body  is  determined  by  the  All-soul  with 
an  All-body  (cosmos). 

And  now  having  fairly  settled  the  limits  of 
Elemental  Feeling  as  a  whole,  we  are  next  to 
grasp  its  inner  movement.  In  it  we  first  find 
the  idea  of  Feeling,  as  this  is  taken  by  itself, 
abstractly,  quite  apart  from  the  concrete  Ego, 
though  the  latter  is  implicitly  present.  Next 
comes  the  fact  that  this  abstract  or  ideal  Feeling 

22  FEELINa. 

is  determined  by  the  Totality  as  external  or  as 
Nature  (or  the  world),  which  thus  becomes  the 
content  of  this  otherwise  empty  form  of  Feeling 
and  produces  what  is  often  called  natural  Feel- 
ing. Finally  rises  the  all-feeling  Ego  which  has 
lain  back  of  the  two  preceding  stages,  but  is  now 
become  explicit,  distinct,  yet  still  elemental, 
being  kept  in  organic  relation  to  the  determining 
Totality,  though  reacting  against  it,  and  strug- 
gling to  get  free  of  it. 

In  accordance  with  these  statements,  we  shall 
definitely  bring  together  under  the  following 
heads  the  process  of  Elemental  Feeling :  — 

I.  Self-Feeling  ;  this  shows  the  feeling  Ego 
taken  by  itself,  abstracted  from  its  outer  con- 
tent, as  formal,  ideal.  Yet  this  abstract  Self- 
Feeling  has  to  be  determined  to  its  activity  by 
the  All,  of  which  it  is  a  part.  The  subjective 
process  in  itself  or  the  pure  Psychosis. 

II.  World-Feeling;  the  feeling  Ego  is  now 
filled  with  a  content  from  the  external  world 
which  is  outside  of  it,  yet  which  with  it  belongs 
to  the  same  great  Totality  or  the  All.  The 
subjective  process  is  here  really  determined  by 
the  object,  both  being  within  the  All. 

III.  All-Feeling;  the  content  or  the  deter- 
minant of  the  Ego  is  now  the  All  in  its  Self- 
reproductive  process,  which  stimulates  the  Self- 
feeling  Ego  to  participate  in  the  process  of  the 
Universe,  that  is,  to  become  All-Feeling  (Feehng 


of  the  All),  The  process  of  Self-Feeling  (pure 
Psychosia)  is  determined  by  the  process  of 
World-Feeling  (reproductive)  to  the  process  of 

Such  is  the  round  of  Feeling  in  its  present 
st^Q  (the  elemental)  showing  respectively  asits 
determiaants  Self,  World,  and  All.  Other  terms 
we  might  apply,  as  the  adjectives  formal,  real, 
concrete.  But  the  main  thing  at  present  is  to 
observe  the  cyclical  movement,  which  is  that 
of  the  Ego  primordially  (Psychosis),  verily  the 
elemental  one  of  Feeling,  in  which  there  is 
the  participation  of  the  inner  Self,  of  the  outer 
World,  and  then  of  both  together  in  the  Great 

This  process  remains  elemental,  since  it  is  an 
element  of  the  one  organic  Totality,  being  con- 
neeed  with  the  same  organically,  that  is  as  an 
organ  or  member.  Such  is,  then,  in  our  no- 
menclature the  Elemental  Psychosis  of  Feeling, 
composed  of  Self,  World,  and  All  as  determi- 
nants, whose  subordinate  stages  we  shall  next 


In  the  study  of  this  subject  we  first  seek  to 
describe  and  define  the  basic  process  of  the  Ego 
in  Feeling  —  that  process  which  underlies  and 
organizes  into  unity  all  the  diversified  states  of 
the  feeling  Self,  from  the  simplest  to  the  most 
complex.  We  are  to  find  and  to  formulate  the 
one  fundamental  fact  of  Feeling,  its  common 
principle,  or  Feeling  as  it  is  in  itself.  This  we 
shall  call  by  the  name  above  given.  It  is*  the 
primal  Psychosis  of  the  Ego  in  its  immediate 
stage  as  Feeling,  being  the  original  psychical 
process  which  is  to  take  up  into  itself  all  exter- 
nality as  its  stimulus  and  thereby  produce  the 
vast  multiplicity  of  Feelings.  Yet  it  must  be 
ultimately  conceived  as  a  part  of  the  All,  else  it 

BSLF-FSEL1N9.  26 

could  not  feel,  having  no  determinant  and  banco 
no  activity. 

Self-Feeliag,  regarded  as  Feeling  in  itself, 
implies  abstraction,  as  if  it  were  taken  from  a 
concrete  or  real  Feeling.  Still  it  la  the  first, 
being  the  underlying  Form  or  Idea  of  all  Feel- 
ings which  have  a  content  derived  from  the  out-.  \ 
side  world.  Now  it  is  the  inside  world  of  Feeling!/ 
taken  by  itself  which  we  are  at  present  trying 
conceive  and  organize.  For  it  is  a  world  hnvingf 
its  own  process  with  many  states  and  kinds  or 

In  this  way  we  reach  back  to  whai  may  be 
named  Simple  Feeling,  or  First  Feeling,  which, 
however,  is  always  a  process  even  if  implicit,  a 
Psychosis,  and  not  a  fixed  substrate  or  supersen- 
sible substance.  If  we  regard  it  as  originative 
and  primordial,  it  \s  still  Feeling  which  in  its 
passivity  receives  all  outside  determinations,  and 
then  in  its  activity  transforms  them  into  its  own 
special  forms. 

The  question  will  come  up :  How  did  this 
primordial  Feeling  of  the  individual  Ego  get  to  ' 
be?  Not  now  can  such  a  question  be  fully  an- 
swered; still  we  may  note  here  that  the  Ego  as 
Feeling  is  the  child  of  the  Universe  as  Ego,  of 
the  Parapsychosis,  which  has  also  the  process  of 
Feeling,  as  well  as  of  Will  and  Intellect.  Hence 
arises  the  fact,  which  is  destined  to  have  a  very 
important  bearing  upon  the  coming  Psychology, 


that  through  the  Psychosis  of  Feeling  the  indi- 
vidual may  be  brought  into  a  more  direct  connec- 
tion with  the  Psychosis  of  the  All  than  through 
any  other  form  of  mental  activity,  and  becomes 
more  amenable  to  its  influence. 

We  have  already  noted  that  Feeling  is  subjec- 
tive, very  individual ;  man  in  Feeling  is  exclu- 
sively himself  and  nobody  else.  Indeed  it  has 
been  maintained  that  Feeling  is  so  completely  it- 
self that  it  can  never  be  truly  known,  even  by 
that  Ego  of  which  it  is  a  stage.  In  other  words 
Intellect  cannot  understand  Feeling  in  the  same 
person.  But  if  such  were  the  case,  there  could 
be  no  Psychology  of  Feeling,  since  science  would 
be  unable  to  reach  it  through  knowing. 

Nevertheless  we  may  well  say  that  all  men  are 
most  alike  in  this  primary  Feeling,  but  most  un- 
like in  Intellect.  In  fact  man  and  the  animals 
resemble  each  other  closely  in  Feeling,  but  very 
remotely  in  Intellect.  The  law  then  runs :  the 
more  individual  the  stage  of  mind  (such  as  Feel- 
ing), the  more  similar  it  is  in  all  individuals ;  the 
more  universal  the  stage  of  mind  (such  as  Intel- 
lect), the  more  dissimilar  it  is  in  individuals. 

We  have  called  this  sphere  of  Self-Feeling  a 
world ;  it  is  indeed  the  innermost  circle  of  the 
feeling  world.  All  Feeling  is  internal,  still  it 
has  various  grades  of  internality,  according  to 
the  degree  in  which  it  is  influenced  by  the  outer 
world.     But  Feeling  in  its  present  stage  of  Self- 

BBLF-FBBLiya.  27 

Feeling  is  wholly  divorced  from  externality  and 
grasped  as  it  is  in  itself,  purely,  abstractly, 
ideally.  It  is,  however,  nqt  merely  oae  abstract 
Feeliag  but  a  world  of  such  Feelings  which  is 
now  to  be  organized,  constituting  the  system  of 

I.  /Simple  Feeling,  or  the  act  of  Self-Feeling 
in  its  primal  simplicity  and  pure  abstractness ; 
the  original  movement  of  it  taken  by  itself.  It 
is  the  primal  Psychosis  of  Feeling  as  abstract, 
formal,  having  the  form  of  the  feeling  Ego,  but 
not  its  content.  (The  original  typical  aisthests 
underlying  all  the  stages  of  Feeling.) 

II.  Double  Feeling,  or  the  twofoldness  of 
Self-Feeling  manifested  in  Pleasure  or  Pain, 
which  is  the  accompaniment  of  every  act  of 
Feeling.  All  Feeling  is  in  some  degree  pleasur- 
able or  painful,  necessarily  having  such  a  con- 
comitant. Thus  Feeling  shows  its  first  real 
separation,  being  itself  as  pure  Feeling  and  as 
its  own  echo  (  or  otherness  )  iu  Pain  and  Pleasure, 
which  are  likewise  Feelings  and  have  their  own 
process  (co-sentient  Feeling,  sunaisthesis). 

III.  Total  Feeling,  or  Self-Feeling  as  the  total 
process  of  the  Self  in  Feeling,  which  is  now  in- 
dividualized. This  completes  the  movement  of 
Self-Feeling,  whose  inner  world  has  herein 
reached  the  point  of  the  Self  feeling  its  total 
threefold  inner  process  of  Feeling,  Willing,  and 
Knowing.     Kecollect,  the  Self  feels  this  process 


now,  does  not  will  it  or  know  it ;  feels  it  as  ab- 
stract, as  taken  by  itself,  without  other  content 
than  itself. 

Such  are  the  primal  lines  of  our  pure  inner 
world  of  Self -Feeling,  or.  Feeling  as  it  is  in  it- 
self. Still  we  are  to  see  that  it  belongs  under 
the  head  of  Elemental  Feeling,  being  the  ideal 
element  thereof,  and  hence  a  necessary  constit- 
uent or  stage,  in  contrast  with,  yet  also  in  union 
with,  the  real  or  natural  stage. 

As  to  Pain  and  Pleasure,  we  shall  always  find 
in  them  a  separation  from  the  pure  act  of  Feel- 
ing and  a  reference  to  the  Self.  This  Self  now 
appears,  being  called  forth  in  the  present  case 
by  Pain-and-Pleasure,  in  which  the  Feeling  (so 
to  speak)  feels  itself,  returns  upon  itself,  and 
so  posits  Self  or  Ego,  whose  special  characteris- 
tic through  all  its  stages  is  its  self-returning 
power.  Intellect  has  the  corresponding  mani- 
festation in  its  self-conscious  act.  That  is,  In- 
tellect knows  itself  and  Feeling  feels  itself ;  in 
like  manner  Will  wills  itself  in  order  to  be  self- 
active.  All  three  (Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect) 
are  forms  of  the  Ego  and  show  the  Ego's  self- 
reference  or  self -return  in  every  act,  each  in  its 
own  way. 

The  foregoing  Elemental  Feeling  of  the  Self 
in  its  full  process  reaches  back  to  the  primordial 
act  of  simple  Feeling,  takes  up  the  double  Feel- 
ing of  Pain  and  Pleasure,  and  thereby  becomes 



not  merely  the  bare  Psychosis  of  Feeling  but  the 
Psychosis  of  the  Self  as  Feeling  —  which  dis- 
tinction the  student  will  do  well  to  note,  since  it 
shows  the  movement  from  implicit  Self -Feeling 
to  explicit. 


I.  Simple  Feeling. 

There  is  a  first  Psychosis  of  Feeling  which  does 
not  properly  feel,  since  it  has  not  yet  that  inner 
separation  and  return  which  bring  to  it  Pain-and- 
Pleasure.  It  is  abstract,  being  quite  without 
any  concrete  content  of  Feeling;  it  is  formal, 
being  the  form  which  all  Feeling  takes ;  it  is 
universal,  being  applied  to  each  and  every  Feel- 
ing. In  such  way  we  attempt  to  grasp  this 
primal  act  of  Elemental  Feeling,  the  fundamen- 
tal type  which  all  kinds  of  Feeling  have  to 
assume.  Or,  since  it  is  not  a  fixed  mould  but  a 
psychical  process,  we  can  conceive  it  to  be  the 
basic  movement  which  constitutes  Feeling. 

Taking  a  Greek  conception,  we  may  call  this 
stage  the  Panaisthesis^  a  kind  of  archetype  of  all 
Feeling,  which  is  of  course  nothing  more  than 
that  first  wholly  simple  Psychosis  already  men- 
tioned. We  begin  with  it  as  something  given, 
as  the  starting-point  taken  for  granted,  of  which, 
however,  we  must  see  at  last  the  origin.  This 
goes  forward  to  the  Universe  as  Psychosis  (the 
Pampsyehosis)  between  which  and  this  first 
Psychosis  of  Feeling  lies  the  whole  gamut  of 

We  have  alreadv  stated  that  this  act  of  Feel- 
ing,  though  simple  and  primordial,  is  a  process 

8SLF-  PBSLTN9  —  SIMPLE.  81 

and  hence  mnBt  be  seen  in  its  etogea  or  compo- 
nent elements.    These  are  the  following :  — 

I.  77ie  SeTisorium  (ot  PanaisthetiTcon).  The 
mind  is  here  conceived  as  the  absolutely  passive 
totality  of  Feeling,  wholly  potential  and  so  not 
yet  real  in  any  special  Feeling,  This  is  not  yet 
the  first  act  of  Feeling,  but  its  antecedent  pos- 
sibility. We  may  deem  it  the  all-containing 
womb  of  every  Feeling  yet  to  be  bom,  the 
mother-principle  of  the  future  world  of  Feeling. 
The  Senaorium  in  its  present  meaning  is 
supremely  receptive  of  what  determines  it  to 
activity ;  in  itself  it  is  ju^t  active  enough  to  re- 
ceive its  determinant  and  to  become  real  Feel- 

We  have  called  it  a  totality,  which  contains 
potentially  the  Universe  in  the  form  of  Feeling, 
and  is  the  Ego's  primordiul  impress  of  the  All. 
The  Universe  asleep  in  the  Self  is  thoSensorium 
which,  however,  is  to  be  stimulated,  awakened, 
determined  by  some  determinant  outside  of  itself. 

Of  the  two  words  mentioned  in  the  caption, 
our  preference  is  for  Panaiathefikon,  though 
never  before  employed,  as  far  as  our  knowledge 
goes.  It  means  that  which  is  capable  of  all 
Feeling,  capable  of  the  Universe  of  Feelings  from 
the  lowest  to  the  highest.  It  expresses  the  Ego's 
potentiality  of  tlie  All.  The  word  Sensorium 
may  have  the  same  meaning,  but  it  is  entangled 
with  the  notion  of  Sensation,  which  is  something 


quite  different  from  Feeling,  as  we  shall  see 
later.     Still  it  will  answer  the  purpose. 

II.  The  Determinant.  This  is  the  second 
principle  which  we  must  conceive  as  stimulating 
and  even  impregnating  the  Sensorium  to  an  ac- 
tivity which  brings  forth  the  Feeling.  It  is 
external  to  the  Sensorium  as  such,  separated 
from  it  and  producing  separation  within  it  as  the 
condition  of  its  new  life.  Thus  it  is  the  second 
stage  of  that  primal  act  of  Feeling  which  we  are 
seeking  to  grasp. 

What  is  to  be  the  Determinant  in  the  present 
case?  All  externality  may  impinge  upon  the 
Ego  as  Sensorium  and  set  it  to  work.  Every 
form  of  the  outer  world  may  be  thus  transformed 
into  Feeling.  In  fact  it  is  the  destiny  of  every- 
thing unfelt  to  be  felt,  to  become  transmuted 
into  a  Feeling  through  the  Sensorium.  We  may 
truly  say  that  the  end  of  the  Universe  is  to  be  felt 
as  well  as  to  be  known,  to  be  a  Feeling  as  well 
as  to  be  a  Thought.  And  both  the  Feeling  and 
the  Thought  of  the  All  are  to  be  organized  into 
a  system  which  shows  each  of  them  as  an  ordered 
totality . 

In  general  the  All,  both  in  its  wholeness  and  in 
its  separation,  is  to  be  the  Determinant  of  the 
Ego  as  capable  of  feeling  all  and  the  All  (^Pan^ 
aisthetikon).  In  this  sense  the  Ego  may  be  re- 
garded as  absolute  potentiality,  which  calls  for 
an  absolute  reality  as  its  supreme   determinant 


in  Feeling.     This  we  shall  see   later  under  the 
head  of  absolute  Feeling. 

III.  The  Coalescence  (^Panaisfhesis) .  The 
Determinant,  having  stimulated  the  Sensorium, 
coalesces  with  it  and  produces  the  determined 
Feeling,  which  is  thus  the  potential  All  of  Feeling 
realized,  particularized,  metamorphosed  into  an 
actual  Feeling.  Now  the  primal  act  of  elemental 
Feeling  is  complete;  this  Coalescence  is  the 
unity  of  the  universal  Sensorium  with  the  particu- 
lar Determinant  whereby  both  sides  become  one 
in  the  process  of  Feeling. 

Still  this  process  we  must  see  to  be  a  formal 
one,  properly  the  Norm  of  every  special  Feeling 
which  is  to  rise  hereafter.  It  is  the  universal  as 
Sensorium  becoming  particular:  which  statement 
is  just  that  of  the  normal  or  typical  Feeling  in  its 
process.  Infinitely  elastic  and  variable  we  shall 
find  this  Norm  to  be,  yielding  to  the  untold 
diversity  of  Determinants  yet  remaining  itself  in 
all  this  diversity.  The  ever-shifting  emotional 
coloring  of  our  inner  life  springs  from  its  Norm 
yielding  to  every  influence  coming  to  it  from 
the  outside.  This  is  likewise  the  weakness  of 
the  purely  emotional  nature. 

Such  is,  then,  the  process  of  what  we  here 
term  Simple  Feeling,  the  form  of  Feeling  which 
contains  all  Feeling.  It  may  be  regarded  as  the 
vast  deep  sea  of  the  Soul,  at  first  quiet  but  capa- 
ble  of   all   sorts   of  billows  and  surges  (Panais- 



thetikon)  when  stirred  up  by  some  Determinant. 
It  has  its  regular  rhythmic  rises  and  falls,  like 
the  daily  flow  and  ebb  of  the  tide.  The  winds 
blow  upon  it  in  certain  places  and  in  certain 
directions,  causing  special  upheavals ;  the  exter- 
nal cause  may  stir  in  us  a  similar  tempest.  The 
winds  of  passon,  we  say,  blowing  on  the  soul 
produce  the  interruption  of  its  diurnal  rhythm. 
Then  from  the  bottom  of  the  sea  there  rise  vol- 
canic outbursts,  unseen  earthquakes  which  dis- 
turb this  same  regular  order;  nobody  sees  the 
cause,  but  there  is  a  vast  overwhelming  tidal 
wave,  circling  the  earth  possibly,  or  crossing  the 
ocean,  and  engulfing  the  land.  Finally,  from 
some  peculiar  obstruction  the  regular  tide  mounts 
higher  at  certain  points  every  day,  as  at  the  Bay 
of  Fundy. 

The  sea  is  indeed  a  kind  of  material  earth- 
soul,  an  outer  visible  manifestation  and  counter- 
part in  nature  to  the  unseen  soul  within.  Water 
with  its  absolute  movability  and  formability, 
taking  all  shapes  yet  losing  them  at  once,  is 
Feeling  externalized.  Yet  water  has  its  invisi- 
ble phase  (vapor  in  the  air),  and  the  soul  its 
visible  phase  (the  bodily  reflex).  Water  too  has 
its  winged  form  in  the  cloud,  rising  from  the 
earth  against  gravitation,  mounting  visibly  and 
invisibly  toward  Heaven.  Poets  have  used  the 
sea  as  a  metaphor  of  the  soul  with  its  Feelings 
both  peaceful  and  tempestuous.     The  Odyssey 



is  largely  a  sea-poem  reflecting  in  its  transparent 
depths  the  inner  nature  of  man,  and  especially 
of  its  hero  or  world-man,  Ulysses.  The  storm 
in  ITing  Lear  is  directly  connected  by  the  poet 
with  the  soul's  tossings  of  the  old  kiag. 

But  Feeling  cannot  remain  simple  and  be 
itself;  it  has  to  be  something  more  than  the 
mere  Norm  of  itself.  Now  comes  the  fact  which 
has  always  created  surprise  and  investigation: 
Feeling  divides  within  itself  and  duplicates  itself, 
passing  from  its  simple  to  it«  double  stage. 


II.  Double  Feeling. 

.  When  I  bite  into  an  apple  of  a  certain  kind,  I 
find  it  has  a  sweet  taste ;  this  taste  is  a  sensation, 
in  which  the  Feeling  is  as  as  yet  quiescent  or 
potential,  a  mere  Norm.  But  when  I  declare 
this  sweet  taste  to  be  agreeable,  the  Feeling  is 
not  only  aroused,  but  has  a  determinate  char- 
acter; I  not  only  feel,  but  feel  pleasure.  I  may 
also  feel  the  opposite  which  is  pain.  A  Sensation 
is  conceived  as  single,  but  a  Feeling  has  to  be 
double ;  it  must  not  only  be,  but  be  agreeable 
or  the  opposite.  Here  then  we  enter  the  realm 
of  Pain  and  Pleasure. 

In  order  to  avoid  misconception  at  this  point 
we  are  always  to  recollect  that  the  doubleness 
lies  not  in  the  two  Feelings  of  Pain  and  Pleasure 
(which  we  shall  later  find  to  be  threefold),  but 
in  the  first  Feeling  and  its  echo,  the  latter  being 
painful  or  pleasurable. 

Pain  and  Pleasure  are  conceived  together  as 
counterparts,  opposites  yet  belonging  to  one  and 
the  same  process.  This  fact  we  shall  seek  to 
suggest  by  the  hyphens  in  the  expression.  Pain- 
and'Pleasure  (Algedonism). 

Moreover  Pain-and-Pleasure  in  some  form  is 
the  concomitant  of  every  act  of  Feeling,  though 
not  the  act  itself.     All  Feeling,  we  say,  is  pleas- 


urabte  or  painful ;  Pain-and-Pleaaure  is  there- 
fore, the  predicate  of  Feeling,  not  the  subject, 
not  the  Feeling  itself.  Still  Puin-and-Pleaaure 
accompanies  Feeling,  inseparable  from  it  yet 
distinct ;  thus  it  h  the  second  stage  of  a  Psjchosis 
of  Feeling  taken  as  it  is  in  itself  (Self-Feeling). 

Thus  Feeling  has,  through  Pain-and-Pleasure, 
a  kind  of  an  echo  of  itself,  which,  going  forth, 
comes  back  to  itself,  a  process  self -separating  yet 
self -returning.  This  is  the  doubleness  which 
now  appears  in  the  movemeut  of  Flemental 
Feeling,  a  rcsonunco  issuiog  from  it,  encom- 
passing it,  and  accompanying  it  always.  Pain- 
and-Plensure  is  a  sort  of  atmosphere  springing 
from  and  enveloping  the  sphere  of  Feeling  in  all 
its  movements  and  variations. 

Having  thus  indicated  that  Fain-and-PIeasnre, 
taken  together,  is  the  second  or  separative  stage 
of  the  total  process  of  Self-Feeling  or  Feeling  in 
itself,  we  pass  to  the  fact  that  this  stage  (Pain- 
and-Pleasure)  is  a  process  within  itself,  a  full 
Psychosis  with  its  own  three  stages.  The  mem- 
ber of  the  Whole,  in  order  to  be  truly  such  a 
member,  must  have  as  its  own  process  that  of 
the  Whole. 

Accordingly  we  look  for  the  three  stages  of 
Pain-and-Pleasuro.  On  the  surface  there  ap- 
pear but  two.  But  now  comes  the  fact  which 
has  uhvays  provoked  much  discussion:  the  mind 
seems  to  discern  two  quite  different  kinds  of 

88  FEELma  —  ELEMENTAL. 

Pleasure,  which,  however,  with  their  common 
name  produce  confusion.  But  here,  without  un- 
tangling the  many  opinions  upon  this  subject 
which  we  find  in  books  on  Psychology,  let  us 
state  at  once  our  conclusion:  there  is  a  first 
Pleasure  before  Pain,  there  is  a  second  Pleasure 
after  Pain.  Thus  Pain  is  the  middle  or  divisive 
stage  of  the  total  Psychosis  of  what  we  have 
named  Pain-and-Pleasure.  Consequently  in  the 
ordering  of  this  subject  we  shall  have  the  fol- 
lowinor  movement :  first  is  that  immediate  Pleas- 
ure  which  spontaneously  rises  with  the  free 
primal  act  of  Feeling;  second  is  Pain  which 
springs  from  that  act  interrupted;  third  is  the 
second  or  mediated  Pleasure  resulting  from  Pain 
overcome  wherein  the  primal  energy  of  Feeling 
is  restored.  These  three  stages  which  form  the 
Psychosis  of  Pain-and-Pleasure  in  its  complete 
process  will  be  next  more  fully  described. 

I.  The  First  Pleasure.  —  All  free  energizing 
of  the  Ego  has  in  it  Pleasure,  as  a  kind  of  har- 
monious response  to  itself.  The  primal  act  of 
Feeling  is  declared  to  be  agreeable,  it  agrees 
with — ^"what?  Certainly  with  itself — which 
agreement  is  our  First  Pleasure.  The  Psychosis 
of  Feeling  at  its  start  separates  indeed  within 
itself,  but  only  to  be  the  more  completely  one 
with  itself  and  to  enjoy  itself.  As  Ego  it  must 
divide  in  itself,  but  just  through  this  self-division 
it  can  feel  with  itself   or  indeed   feel  itself  in 

PAiy  AND  PLSA3UBS.  89 

Pleasure.  Thus  Pleasure  is  a  kind  of  sympathy, 
the  fundameatal  one,  ia  which  Feeling  becomes 
sympathetic  with  itself.  The  first  instauco  of 
fellow-feeling  is  Pleasure,  which  is  thereby  the 
fountain  of  all  other  sorts  of  fellow-feeling. 
Co-sentient  with  the  first  Feeling  is  the  First 
Pleasure  which  is  always  the  companiou,  and  of 
course  the  pleasant  companion,  of  its  mate. 

The  First  Pleasure  is  the  innocent,  the  un- 
fallen,  never  having  passed  through  its  apposite, 
which  is  Pain.  It  may  be  deemed  the  Pleasure 
of  the  angels,  of  the  cherubs,  of  the  celestial 
hosts  who  never  followed  Satan  into  Sin  and 
Pain.  The  little  child  seems  often  to  be  a 
sharer  in  this  pure  Pleasure,  which  is  the  jttyful 
accompaniment  of  tiiat  primal  Psychosis  of  Feel- 
ing which  may  well  bo  deemed  the  most  imme- 
diate impress  of  the  Pauipsychosis  upon  the 
human  soul.  Perchance  also  for  the  adult  man 
there  is  a  sphere  in  which  the  First  Pleasure  still 
remains  in  its  pristine  purity.  The  Pleasure  of 
living  is  a  First  Pleasure,  and  usually  continues 
to  the  end. 

Still  the  negative  element  will  not  fail  to  creep 
in  and  mingle  with  life.  The  finite  being  has 
not  escaped  and  cannot  escape  his  own  limitation 
which  interrupts  and  even  corrupts  this  First 
Pleasure,  introducing  a  new  and  opposite  stage 
of  its  process.  So  it  cornea  that  in  this  First 
Pleasure  the  process  begins,  the  very  process  of 


the  aspiring  Ego»  and  drives  the  same  in  various 
ways  upon  its  limit,  making  it  tragic.  As  it  is 
finite,  it  shows  itself  transitory,  self-canceling, 
dialectical.  This  fact  we  may  note  in  three  dif- 
ferent aspects : — 

(a)  Quantity.  It  is  well  known  that  the  sim- 
plest Pleasure  of  the  child,  going  beyond  a  cer- 
tain amount,  begins  to  pall,  to  turn  to  its  opposite. 
Sweetness  gets  to  be  loathed  through  its  excess. 

(6)  Quality.  Pleasures  generally,  and  par- 
ticularly the  First  Pleasure,  may  be  of  different 
kinds  in  different  individuals,  being  determined 
perchance  by  heredity.  The  earliest  play  of 
children  indicates  a  special  quality  in  their  First 
Pleasure.  Still  even  this  will  undo  itself  and 
demand  a  change,  and  of  change  also  we  get 

(c)  Intensity.  The  degree  of  First  Pleasure 
is  likewise  manifest  and  tends  to  rise  to  the  point 
of  self-undoing  and  passing  into  complete  leth- 
argy and  fatigue.  Intensity  of  delight  turns  even 
to  Pain. 

These  three  aspects  of  the  First  Pleasure  we 
may  compare  with  the  three  aspects  of  musical 
sound,  which  has  loudness  (quantity),  timbre 
(quality),  and  pitch  (height,  intensity).  Sound 
is  indeed  a  kind  of  soul  of  the  material  object 
expressing  itself  at  some  assault  or  stimulation. 
It  gives  an  outer  response  or  resonance  which 
may  be  loud  or  low  merely,  or  fine  or  coarse,  or 


high  Strang  or  unstrung.  But  the  First  Pleas- 
ure has  an  inner  resonance,  nnd  is  primarily  self- 
stimulated  to  its  states.  It  feels  itself,  hears  its 
own  echo,  enjoys  its  own  song.  Still  it  can  be 
and  is  stimulated  from  the  outside  to  this  activity 
of  itself,  particularly  by  the  Fine  Arts. 

Music,  through  its  sound,  which  has  also  a 
Quantity,  Quality,  and  Intensity  of  its  own,  stim- 
ulates primarily  this  First  Pleasure  and  sets  it 
to  moving  in  its  own  sphere  of  activity.  But 
music,  increasing  in  its  complexity,  appeals  to 
the  more  complex  Feelings.  The  correlate  to 
the  inner  world  of  Feeling  with  its  organiza- 
tion, is  the  outer  world  of  music  with  its  organi- 
zation, which  reaches  it3  culminating  point  in 
the  orchestra.  The  ordered  social  life  of  civili- 
zation finds  its  musical  instrument  in  that  body 
of  players  which  also  represents  a  social  life 
of  sound.  But  the  First  Pleasure  has  its  First 
Music  in  the  simplest  self-returning  vibration  of 

Into  this  little  inner  Paradise  of  First  Pleas- 
ure, being  very  limited  and  as  innocent  as  Eden, 
creeps  the  real  original  Fiend,  bringing  with  him 
all  our  woes. 

II.  Pain.  —  Such  is  the  demon  who  breaks  into 
our  pure  First  Pleasure,  which  knows  not  itself, 
but  simply  feels  itself.  There  comes  sooner  or 
later  an  external  power,  a  Determinant  which 
stops  it,  diverts  it,  transforms  it  to  its  opposite. 


Hence  Pain  on  this  side  has  been  called  negative, 
in  contrast  to  the  positive  First  Pleasure  just 
mentioned.  It  is  an  interruption,  an  assault, 
and  may  be  a  destruction.  It  is  that  stage  of 
Feeling  in  which  the  outer  Determinant  weaves 
itself  into  the  soul-life,  which,  previously  quite 
homogeneous,  now  becomes  heterogeneous. 

It  is  evident,  therefore,  that  the  Determinant 
of  Pain  is  the  main  ground  of  its  variety,  and 
hence  the  principle  of  its  classification.  If  this 
Determinant  is  external,  coming  from  the  outer 
world  through  the  senses,  we  may  call  the  result 
Sensational  or  Organic  Pain,  but  if  it  is  inter- 
nal, springing  out  of  the  inner  life  of  the 
mind,  we  may  call  the  resulting  Pain  Ideational ; 
finally  if  it  is  universal,  coming  from  the  All-life 
(or  the  Pampsychosis)  we  may  call  it  the  Uni- 
versal Pain. 

These  Determinants  of  Pain  (the  sensational, 
ideational  and  universal)  are  the  main,  though 
not  the  only  ones ;  they  are  crossed  by  other 
influences  which  have  to  be  taken  into  account. 
There  are  the  quantity,  quality,  and  intensity  of 
the  stimulating  Determinant^  which  distinctions 
have  been  already  noticed  in  connection  with  the 
First  Pleasure.  Stimulated  bej^ond  a  certain 
point  it  turns  to  Pain.  That  point  of  transition 
has  been  sought  for,  and  the  line  of  the  rise  to 
the  supreme  Pleasure  and  of  the  descent  to  Pain 


^^t  the  crossing  of  the  boundary  has  been  marked 
in  diagrams. 

Here,  however,  we  shall  note  only  the  main 
divisions  and  their  facts. 

(a)  What  we  call  Sensational  Pain  springs 
from  sensation,  or  from  the  outer  world  intrud- 
ing into  that  Inner  round  of  the  happy  Self 
already  designated  as  the  First  Pleasure.  This 
intrusion  comes  through  the  Senses.  As  this 
Pain  is  measured  largely  by  the  external  De- 
terminant it  can  be  to  a  certain  extent  measured 
and  tabulated.  That  is,  in  this  sphere  the 
quantitative  principle  is  dominant  in  the  Deter- 
minant, even  if  the  quality  and  intensity  bo  not 
wanting.  The  outer  force  with  which  one  per- 
son strikes  another  is  mechanical  and  calculable 
in  its  production  of  the  effect  which  is  connected 
with  Pain. 

(6)  What  we  call  Ideational  Pain  springs 
from  the  inner  world  with  its  idea,  image,  or 
conception.  To  be  sure  there  may  be  the  outer 
sensuous  stimulus  which  stirs  this  inner  move- 
ment of  the  soul.  But  an  intermediate  Determi- 
nant between  Sense  and  Feeling  has  arisen  from 
the  depths  of  the  Ego  and  asserts  itself  as  the 
dominating  power.  Or  we  may  consider  the 
present  aa  emodonal  Pain,  since  its  character  is 
determined  by  an  emotion  as  stimulus. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  qualitative  principle, 
that  of  kind,  enters  this  stage  of  Pain  and  gives 


to  it  not  60  much  quantitative  mass  as  qualitative 
character,  which  belongs  to  the  endless  diversity 
of  subjective  spirit.  The  pangs  of  remorse  and 
of  the  tooth-ache  are  qualitatively  different,  and 
it  is  not  so  easy  to  compare  them  quantitatively 
(to  say  which  is  the  greater  in  magnitude  of 
Pain).  The  variety  of  subjectivities  is  far  greater 
than  that  of  organisms.  Still  here  too  quantity 
has  its  place,  and  the  Determinant  is  quanti- 

(c)  What  we  call  the  Universal  Pain  springs 
from  the  Universe  which  is  a  thought  and  is  not 
directly  presentable  through  the  Senses.  Still 
it,  like  the  object  of  Sensation,  is  external  to  the 
Ego,  which,  however,  is  inside  of  it  and  hence  a 
part  of  it.  Thus  the  Ego  feels  itself  within  the 
object,  not  the  object  within  itself.  But  the 
Determinant  to  Pain  is  now  the  totality,  the 
Universe,  which  not  only  includes  the  Ego  but 
produces  it;  the  First  Pleasure  is  interrupted  by 
what  creates  it,  and  the  Feeling  of  separation  is 
absolute.  The  First  Pleasure  is  not  only  cut  off 
from  its  source,  but  is  transformed  into  the  Pain 
of  hostility  against  the  All. 

Such  is  that  peculiar  Pain  of  existence  called 
Pessimism,  which  is  not  onlv  a  doctrine  of  In- 
tellect,  but  a  state  of  Feeling,  a  permanent  dis- 
position which  sometimes  defends  itself  by  a 
Philosophy,  by  a  view  of  the  Universe  in  corre- 
spondence with  the  mentioned  Feeling.   A  lighter 


form,  QBually  tranxitory,  of  universal  Fain  ib 
known  to  Germans  as  Weltschmerz  {v/otXA-^-aiti). 
The  French  have  alfio  their  word  (^blase)  for  a 
person  with  a  similar  affliction,  whioh  is  rather 
that  of  disgust  or  satiety,  the  cosmical  egg  hav- 
ing been  sucked  absolutely  dry,  The  horror  of 
the  Englishman  is  the  Pain  of  being  bored,  which 
utterly  destroys  his  First  Pleasure,  while  the 
Determinant  lusts ;  but  when  the  Universe  gets 
to  be  a  bore,  he  has  reached  his  stage  of  univer- 
sal Pain.  Closely  allied  is  the  Pain  of  Civiliza- 
tion,  which  is  rampant  in  older  civilized  lands, 
and  makes  its  victims  look  back  with  longing 
eyes  to  their  pre-historic  barbarism  and  even  to 
their  ancestral  animulity. 

Thus  to  some  minds  an  omnipresent  Pain  is 
the  great  fact  of  the  Universe  which  becomes, 
when  formulated,  the  principle  of  a  Philosophy. 
Germans  have  not  beeu  slow  in  evolving  a  scheme 
of  thought  of  this  sort,  which  indeed  lies  im- 
plicit in  their  modern  philosophic  beginning,  in 
Kant  himself  of  whom  in  this  aspect  Schopen- 
hauer is  the  spiritunl  child.  Such  a  doctrine 
hardly  belongs  in  a  new  country,  like  America, 
with  the  possible  exception  of  Boston. 

If  Pain  be  negative,  then  universal  Pain  must 
be  self-ueg!itive;  Pain,  made  universal  comes 
back  to  itself  and  undoes  itself,  becoming  the 
Pain  of  Pain.  The  Universe  as  Determinant  has 
turned  out  the  destroyer  of  the  First  Pleasure 


which  it  created.  But  the  Uaiverse  is  to  over- 
come Paiu  as  its  enemy,  or  its  disturber.  So 
really  the  Determinant  overcomes  the  Pain  and 
we  have  a  return  to  Pleasure.  The  All  cannot 
be  painful,  cannot  be  negative  without  self-con- 

If  all  activity  be  in  itself  pleasurable,  then 
Pain  as  active,  must  have  underneath  itself  the 
possibility  of  Pleasure,  by  the  very  fact  of  its 
activity.  Nature  heals,  it  is  said,  is  self-correct- 
ing; disease,  sin.  Pain  is  unnatural.  The  denial 
of  truth  implies  at  least  the  truth  of  denial. 
Still  the  Negative  with  its  Pain  is  a  part  of  the 
process,  we  cannot  refuse  to  it  an  existence, 
even  if  it  be  inherently  self-destroying. 

Pain  is,  therefore,  an  important  thing  in  this 
world  of  ours,  particularly  has  it  had  an  impor- 
tant place  in  Religion.  What  shall  we  do  with 
Suffering,  especially  undeserved  Suffering?  The 
Christian  Reliojion  has  been  called  a  Reliorion  of 
Pain;  rather  is  it  of  Pain  overcome  or  even  self- 
overcome.  Whereupon  follows  a  new  Pleasure, 
which  certainly  cannot  be  the  first. 

III.  The  Second  Pleasure.  —  There  are, 
then,  two  kinds  of  Pleasure,  as  regards  origin  and 
also  quality ;  both  have  the  common  element  of 
being  agreeable,  but  each  stands  ina  different  rela- 
tion to  Pain.  The  next  fact  is  that  both  belono: 
together  in  one  process  with  Pain,  which  process 
is  that  of  the  Ego  itself  —  a  Psychosis. 


Such  are  the  two  basic  facts  upon  this  sub- 
ject, which,  if  clearly  seized,  will  be  a  guiding 
thread  through  the  mazes  of  the  numerous 
theories,  ancient  and  modern,  concerning  Pleas- 
ure-and-Puin.  Of  some  of  these  theories  a  brief 
survey  may  hero  be  taken. 

Plato  (in  the  Philebus)  holds  that  Pain  is  the 
first  in  order,  the  source,  the  condition  of 
Pleasure,  which  is  simply  a  restoration  from  a 
disturbance;  that  is.  Pleasure  is  only  the  nega- 
tive of  Pain,  by  which  it  is  determined  and  upon 
which  it  is  dependent.  Pleasure  is  the  vanish- 
ing, the  becoming,  the  appearance,  not  the 
essence,  which  is  Pain.  Out  of  thi^  doctrine  has 
been  inferred  the  pessimism  of  Plato, 

Aristotle  (in  his  N'icomachean  Ethics  X  3) 
traverses  the  foregoing  view  of  Plato  about 
Pleasure,  maintaining  that  there  are  many 
forms  of  Pleasure  which  are  not  preceded  by 
Pain.  lutelloctual  delights,  such  aa  those  which 
Mathematics  furnish,  and  also  certain  sensuous 
delights,  such  as  those  of  tu^te  and  hearing  and 
vision,  have  no  antecedent  Pain  which  must  be 
overcome  before  there  is  enjoyment.  In  other 
words  tlicy  do  not  result  from  a  negation  of  the 
negative  (Pain)  but  are  primordial,  and  are  the 
accompaniment  of  the  native  energy  of  the  mind. 
Such  is  Aristotle's  view  —  Pleasure  is  the  con- 
comitant of  mental  euergy  unimpeded  by  any 
outer  obstruction. 


Now  it  may  he  said  that  each  of  these  views 
has  its  truth  but  not  the  whole  truth.  We  can 
well  say  with  Plato  that  Pleasure  follows  and 
with  Aristotle  that  Pleasure  precedes,  Pain. 
The  real  solution  of  these  ancient  difficulties  as 
well  as  many  modern  ones  about  the  theory  of 
Pleasure-and-Pain  is  to  grasp  them  in  a  process 
together.  This  process,  as  already  set  forth,  is 
threefold,  and  has  the  native  Pleasure  of  the  act 
of  Feeling  as  its  first  stage,  which  is  followed 
by  its  negative  (Pain)  as  the  second  stage;  but 
this  Pain  is  negated  in  turn  and  succeeded  by  a 
new  kind  of  Pleasure  which  is  thus  mediated  by 
Pain,  and  which  we  call  the  Second  Pleasure. 
Such  is  the  Psychosis  of  Pain-and-Pleasure, 
whose  final  stage  we  are  here  considering  as  the 
Second  Pleasure. 

Now  comes  another  curious  fact  in  regard  to 
these  two  greatest  Greek  philosophers.  Plato, 
whose  main  drift  has  been  above  given,  also 
declares  (particularly  in  the  Republic)  that  there 
are  pleasures,  both  intellectual  and  sensuous, 
which  have  no  preceding  pain .  Thus  he  acknowl- 
edges the  existence  of  a  First  Pleasure  as  the 
immediate  concomitant  of  energy  in  mind  and 
also  in  body.  On  the  other  hand  Aristotle  affirms 
that  Pleasure  results  from  the  fulfilling  of  a  want 
which  is  otherwise  painful.  Here  the  Stagirite, 
the  great  supporter  of  the  First  Pleasure,  ac- 
knowledges even  in  his  refutation  of  Plato,  the 


Second  Pleasure.  Thus  the  two  doctrines  stand 
opposed  again,  though  each  has  shifted  to  the 
other's  side,  seeking  somehow  to  come  together, 
yet  not  finding  distinctly  the  way. 

Next  let  us  introduce  the  modern  philosopher. 
Hamilton  who  affirms  strongly  the  opposition 
between  Plato  and  Aristotle  as  above  given 
{Led,  Met,  XLIII),  seeks  to  reconcile  them  by 
a  theory  or  rather  a  distinction  of  his  own. 
**  The  counter  theories  of  Plato  and  Aristotle  are 
right  in  what  they  affirm  and  wrong  in  what  they 
deny,'*  says  he.  But  this  is  not  an  adequate 
view  of  the  old  philosophers.  So  he  affirms  that 
Pain  and  Pleasure  are,  each  of  them,  both  abso- 
lute and  relative  —  a  view  which  harSly  meets 
the  problem. 

The  foregoing  may  be  taken  as  a  sample  of 
the  voluminous  discussion  of  this  subject  down 
to  the  present  time.  The  two  Pleasures  are  duly 
recognized,  analyzed  and  speculated  upon,  but 
a  distinct  comprehension  of  them  as  stages  of  a 
process  with  Pain  and  the  corresponding  formu- 
lation of  all  three  in  such  a  process,  are  wanting. 

Under  this  head  of  Second  Pleasure  we  place 
states  of  Feeling  which  show  the  long,  multi- 
farious and  often  desperate  struggle  between 
Pain  and  Pleasure.  This  struggle  ends  in  the 
return  out  of  Pain,  and  the  triumph  of  Pleasure 
in   its  new  form.     The  divisions  of  the  subject 

must  show   the    main   ways   of    enfranchising 



Pleasure,  which  in  its  first  form  has  been  (so  to 
speak)  captured  and  imprisoned  by  Pain.  These 
we  may  regard  as  follows :  first  is  the  interac- 
tion, or  the  commingling  of  Pain  and  Pleasure,  a 
compromise,  often  ending  in  a  neutral  result; 
second  is  the  liberation  from  Pain,  the  separa- 
tion from  it  and  suppression  of  it  through  the 
Will ;  third  is  the  theoretical  liberation,  in  which 
the  contemplation  of  some  form  of  the  All  is  the 

1.  The  Interaction.  This  brings  about  some 
adjustment  or  compromise.  All  Pain  may  be 
deemed  a  separation  between  form  and  content  — 
the  form  being  activity  and  the  content  being 
some  impediment  to  that  activity.  In  the  pres- 
ent case  form  and  content  interact,  and  thereby 
come  to  a  kind  of  equilibrium.  A  little  lyric 
says:  **  I'm  pleased  and  yet  I'm  sad.''  There 
is,  moreover,  a  kind  of  inebriation  of  sorrow,  a 
revelry  of  pain,  a  luxury  of  suffering  —  in  which 
statements  the  two  opposites  are  united. 

We  can  often  experience  in  ourselves  and  others 
that  Pain  and  Pleasure  conjoin  in  producing  a 
feeling  which  partakes  of  both,  a  shading  off 
of  one  into  the  other.  They  are  by  no  means 
mutually  exclusive  or  always  antagonistic  to  each 
other.  Indeed  if  all  enerojiziuo:  has  in  it  a  Pleas- 
ure.  Pain  must  have  the  possibility  of  its  oppo- 
site. A  violently  repressed  or  an  overstrained 
activity  produces  Pain,  according  to  the  degree 


of  excess.  Hence  Pain  creeps  into  Pleasure 
when  excessively  repressed  or  stimulated. 
Perhaps  here  lies  the  ground  of  the  paroxysms, 
the  rises  and  falls  of  grief,  for  example;  they 
show  the  struggle  of  activity  agunst  interrup- 
tion, of  form  against  content. 

(a)  We  may  observe  a  rhythm  between  Pain 
and  Pleasure,  a  sort  of  mutual  yielding  and  op- 
posing, quietly  billowy  or  boisterously  paroxys- 
mal, both  in  body  and  mind.  It  has  a  sympathy 
with  the  vibration  of  sound,  and  hence  is  roused 
or  soothed  by  music.  Finally  these  opposing 
forces  may  neutralize  each  other  and  settle  down 
into  an  equilibrium. 

(b)  The  inner  opposition  may  reach  defi- 
ance, refusal  to  surrender.  Stoicism.  Men  have 
courted  bodily  pain  as  the  enemy  of  Pleasure, 
particularly  of  the  sensuous  sort.  The  cruci- 
fixion of  the  fiesh  seems  to  mean  that  the  Second 
Pleasure  (as  bliss)  Ciin  bo  attained  by  destroy- 
ing the  First  Pleasure  through  self-infiictcd  Pain. 

(c)  Not  only  physical  Pain,  but  an  ideal  Pain 
as  in  Tragedy  is  employed  as  a  means  for  reach- 
ing the  Second  Pleasure,  which  is  also  ideal  in 
this  case.  Aristotle  called  Fear  and  Pity  a 
catharsis  (purification). 

2.  Liberation  (practical).  Now  comes  the  sec- 
ond main  act  in  this  movement  of  the  Second 
Pleasure  —  the  Liberation  from  Pain  by  its  com- 
plete mastery  and    suppression.     For  Pain  is 


allied  to  enslavement,  and  Pleasure  both  First 
and  Second,  to  freedom.  First  Pleasure  accom- 
panies the  primal  free  activity  of  the  Self,  and 
the  Second  Pleasure  is  the  enfranchisement 
from  Pain  and  a  return  to  the  primal  Pleasure. 
The  present  sphere  involves  particularly  the 
Will,  which  is  stimulated  to  interfere  against 
Pain.  —  Three  kinds  of  Liberation. 

(a)  There  is  first  the  outer  Liberation  from 
Sensational  Pain,  and  the  restoration  of  the 
body  to  its  free  organic  activity  —  the  corporeal 
overcoming  of  the  interference.  Thus  the  body 
has  a  limit-transcending  power. 

(6)  The  inner  Liberation  from  Ideational 
Pain,  from  the  mind  as  determinant  to  Pain  (see 
under  Pain).  The  Ego  within  triumphs  over  its 
own  negative  states,  and  returns  to  Pleasure 
through  its  Pain,  thus  showing  itself  transcend- 
ing its  limit  and  asserting  its  supremacy. 

(c)  The  universal  Liberation  from  the  Pain  of 
the  All,  or  of  the  Universe,  whose  thought  pro- 
duces this  sort  of  Pain  (World-pain).  Goethe 
says  that  he  obtained  release  from  suicidal 
thoughts  by  writing  his  IferMet',  in  which  novel 
the  hero  instead  of  the  writer  kills  himself.  All 
activity  has  a  liberating  power  in  this  direction. 

The  struggle  for  liberation  from  Pain  has  in 
it  an  analogy  to  the  struggle  for  political  free- 
dom. Coming  so  emphatically  from  the  Will, 
we  may  call   this   liberation  the  practical  one,  in 

PAJN  AlfD  FLEA8UBS.  58 

contrast  with  the  theoretical  one  which  springs 
from  the  Intellect,  and  to  which  we  pass  next. 

3.  Liberation  {theoretical).  This  is,  in  gen- 
eral, reached  by  seeing  the  Univorge  and  its  pro- 
cess as  creative  of  the  Ego.  The  latter  feels  the 
response  within  itself  as  Pleasure,  to  which  the 
Ego  returns  from  finitude  and  Pain.  Such  is  the 
result  of  contemplating  the  divinely  creative  Soul 
in  Art,  Poetry,  and  Science.  This  is  the  supreme 
Liberation,  through  the  Intellect,  which  beholds 
the  Pampaychosis.  The  accompaniment  of  euch 
an  act  is  the  Feeling  of  Pleasure  again  attained 
after  interruption  —  not  by  action  as  in  the  pre- 
ceding case,  but  by  cunt«mpIatiuD. 

Here  we  speak  only  of  the  Pleasure  which 
accompanies  the  highest  contemplation.  Its 
content,  or  that  which  is  productive  of  it,  cannot 
be  now  given,  but  belongs  to  the  last  stage  of 
what  we  call  Absolute  Feeling.  At  present  we 
shall  note  merely  the  following  points,  whose  full 
meaning  will  be  understood  later :  — 

(o)  There  comes  a  liberation  from  Pain 
(World-pain,  pessimism)  through  the  contem- 
plation of  Art  which  is  positive  (negative  Art,  od 
the  contrary,  fosters  it). 

(6)  There  comes  a  similar  liberation  through 
Poetry,  which  reveals  the  Negative  undone,  in- 
deed self-undone. 

(c)  There  comes  a  similar  liberation  through 


formulated  Thought  as  Science,  Philosophy,  and 
specially  Psychology  in  its  wide  sense. 

Such  is  a  slight  outline  of  the  scheme  of  the 
Liberation  from  Pain,  which  in  its  complete 
sense  is  the  enfranchisement  of  the  individual 
from  whatever  interrupts  his  free  activity,  and 
brings  him  back  to  Pleasure,  which  is  thus  not 
the  First  but  the  Second,  and  has  in  it  the  full 
process  embracing  the  return.  The  great 
thinkers  of  the  17th  century  saw  the  complete- 
ness of  this  Second  Pleasure,  and  from  it  derived 
their  notion  of  Pleasure  as  some  sort  of  perfec- 
tion. Descartes  rather  vaguely  says  that  * '  Pleas- 
ure is  the  consciousness  of  some  perfection  of 
ours,"  which  could  hardly  mean  the  First  Pleas- 
ure. Spinoza  regards  as  Pleasure  the  state  '*  in 
which  the  mind  moves  to  a  greater  perfection," 
overcoming  its  obstruction.  Leibniz  also  holds 
that  Pleasure  is  the  Feeling  of  perfection.  In 
all  these  examples  wo  find  the  conception  of  a 
movement  out  of  limitation  and  Pain  to  a  tran- 
scendent condition,  the  process  of  the  Ego  therein 
being  taken  as  implicit. 

Pleasure  with  its  counterpart.  Pain,  has  played 
an  important  part  in  Philosophy,  Ethics,  and 
-Psychology.  As  philosophical  it  has  been 
taken  as  the  fundamental  principle  of  being. 
As  ethical  it  has  been  regarded  as  the  ground  or 
end  of  all  conduct,  and  has  given  rise  to  many 
forms  of  moral  science  as  Hedonism,  Epicurian- 


ism,  Utilitariaaism.  Aa  psychological  we  have 
discussed  it  in  the  preceding  account,  showing 
it  to  be  a  stage  of  the  process  of  the  Ego  in  the 
sphere  of  Feeling. 

Such  is,  then,  the  threefold  process  {or  Psy- 
chosis) of  the  dual  Feeling  of  Paiu-and-Pleasure. 
Recollect  that  the  duality  consists  not  in  the  two 
forms,  one  being  Pain  and  the  other  Pleasure, 
for  these  forms  or  stages  we  have  found  to  be 
really  three.  Properly  the  duality  lies  in  the 
Feeling  itself,  that  it  divides  within  itself  and  is 
pleasurable  or  painful,  by  an  inner  necessity  of 
its  nature.  All  Feeling  is  thus  self-separative, 
self-echoing,  double;  it  agrees  with  or  disagrees 
with  the  total  process  of  the  Ego,  hence  we  call 
it  agreeable  or  disagreeable.  If  I  sense  an  ob- 
ject I  always  have  a  feeling  in  connection  with 
the  sensation;  but  the  feeling  separates  itself 
and  lets  itself  be  felt  as  a  pain  or  a  pleasure,  or, 
more  exactly  as  First  Pleasure,  or  ns  Pain,  or  as 
Second  Pleasure,  iu  each  of  which  stages  the 
Feeliug  is  dual.  Hence  we  call  the  present  the 
threefold  process  of  the  dual  Feeling  of  Pain- 

We  have  already  implied  repeatedly  that  the 
total  Ego  lies  behind  this  Double  Feeling,  which 
agrees  or  disagrees  with  it,  and  so  becomes 
agreeable  or  disagreeable  to  the  entire  Self.  "  I 
do  ni.t  like  it,"  I  say;  why?  Something  felt 
within   me   stirs   a  feeling    which   obstructa   or 


pssLnra — elemental. 

assails  my  total  Self  in  its  inner  process.  This 
total  Self  here  begins  to  rise  into  the  horizon  of 
Feeling;  or  rather  it  has  been  present  all  the 
time,  though  unrecognized.  But  now  it  must  be 
brought  out  to  light  and  unfolded  by  Intellect, 
of  course  as  Feeling. 

The  outcome  is  that  a  new  stage  has  appeared — 
the  feeling  Ego  in  its  complete  process,  or  Total 
Self-Feeling.  When  we  say,  *'the  Ego  feels 
Pain-and-Pleasure,"  we  have  introduced  the  back- 
ground (Ego),  which  is  next  to  become  fore- 
ground. In  this  expression  lurks  the  entire  pro- 
cess of  Self-Feeling,  namely  Simple,  Double,  and 
also  Total  Feeling.  This  last  stage  is  now  before 
us  for  special  consideration. 


in.  Total  Feeling. 

The  caption  is  intended  to  suggest  that  the 
Self-feeling  Ego  at  present  feels  its  total  process 
of  Self,  which  it  has  not  hitherto  done.  This 
process  is  what  is  to  be  unfolded  in  the  following 
account.  We  are  to  see  the  Eojo  advancins:  to 
the  point  of  feeling  its  own  process  as  Ego. 
Total  Feeling  may  also  bo  grasped  as  a  return  to 
Simple  Feeling,  or  to  the  Norm  whose  empty 
abstract  form  it  fills  with  the  movement  of  the 
Self.  Thus  the  Norm  becomes  truly  concrete, 
a  very  real  object  in  the  possession  of  every 
man,  namely  his  Ego  which  feels. 

So  we  have  att^iined  the  third  stage  "of  Self- 
Feeling,  of  the  inside  world  of  Feeling  taken  by 
itself,  removed  from  the  outer  world  and  grasped 
in  its  bare  abstractness.  In  this  sphere  Feeling 
reaches  the  point  of  finding  or  feeling  its  own 
pure  process,  and  has  thus  become  total  and 
threefold  as  distinct  from  its  preceding  dual  con- 
dition. It  feels  both  itself  and  the  echo  or  reflex 
of  itself  (in  Pain-and-Pleasuro)  to  be  one  and  a 

Total  Self-Feeling  is,  therefore,  the  Feeling 
of  the  process  of  the  Self,  not  the  Knowing  of 
it  or  the  Willing  of  it,  though  Intellect  and  Will 
are  certainly  implicit  in  this  process  of  the  Feel- 


ing  of  the  Self.  The  whole  Ego  with  its 
Psychosis  is  here,  but  in  the  form  of  Feeling, 
which  is  everywhere  (according  to  the  formula) 
the  process  of  the  Ego  within  itself  turned  in- 
ward—  in  the  present  case  turned  inward 
through  itself,  and  not  by  any  outward  Deter- 

Elemental  Feeling  has,  accordingly,  completed 
the  round  of  its  first  general  stage  by  attaining 
Self-Feeling  as  this  Feeling  of  the  process  of  the 
Self,  or  the  Psychosis  as  it  is  in  itself,  such  Feel- 
ing being  stimulated  by  itself  directly,  though 
ultimately  by  the  All.  Thus  Feeling  has  mani- 
fested its  primal  simplicity  or  it^  Norm  as  Simple 
Feeling;  then  its  self-separation  as  Double  Feel- 
ing, which  finally  unites  itself  in  the  threefold 
process  of  the  Self  as  Feeling. 

The  preceding  stage,  Pain-and-Pleasure,  im- 
plies self-reference,  or  the  Feeling  of  Feeling. 
Feeling  feels  itself  and  hence  calls  for  the  Self 
as  such.  When  you  feel  a  smooth  piece  of 
wood,  there  is  a  sensation  which  pertains  to  a 
knowledge  of  the  object  (Intellect);  but  there 
is  likewise  a  Feeling  stimulated  which  is  prima- 
rily a  movement  of  the  Ego,  a  bare  Psychosis, 
yet  is  also  a  pleasure  or  a  pain.  The  smooth 
piece  of  wood  is  not  only  felt  (rouses  an  act  of 
Feeling),  but  is  felt  to  be  agreeable  (rouses  the 
act  of  self-reference).  Feeling  feels  itself  as 
process;  that  is,  it  separates  within   itself  and 


refers  its  determination  back  to  itself;  it  feels 
smooth  (ugreeable)  to  itself.  Feeling  caanot 
think  the  term  agreeable^  because  it  does  not 
think  at  all,  it  simply  feels.  The  Intellect  is  the 
power  which  gives  to  it  language.  Feeling  is 
not  Self-knowing,  but  is  Self-feeling. 

In  comprehending  this  Total  Self-Feeling,  the 
difBcultj  common  to  the  science  of  all  Feeling, 
rises  up  with  a  special  force.  Intellect  has  to 
know  Feeling  and  its  process,  not  simply  feel  it; 
the  mind  as  Self-knowing  has  to  separate  itself 
from  Self-Feeling,  then  turn  back  and  grasp  the 
same  as  a  Feeling  which  does  not  then  feel. 
And  that  is  not  all.  Self-Feeling  must  contain 
implicitly  Self-knowing  as  a  part  or  stage  of  it- 
self, otherwise  it  does  not  feel  the  total  process 
of  the  Ego  as  feeling,  willing  and  knowing. 
Thus  Intellect  must  explicitly  know  itself  as  im- 
plicit in  Self-Feeling  and  formulate  such  knowl- 
edge for  the  science  of  Feeling.  This  will  give 
the  Ego  knowing  itself  to  be  the  Psychosis  of 
Self  in  the  present  form  <if  Feeling. 

We  have  already  noted  the  Psychosis  in  the 
Norm  or  Act  of  Fceling{first  stage), since  every 
possible  thought  suid  formula  must  be  a  Psycho- 
sis. This  also  appears  in  the  movement  of  Puin- 
and-Pleasure  (second  stage).  But  now  the  ab- 
stract Norm  of  Feeling  aud  its  concomitant  or 
resonance  in  Piiin-and-Pleasure  have  developed 
into  their    fundamental    substance   or    genetic 


source  which  is  the  feeling  Self.  For  it  is  really 
the  Ego  or  Self  which  primordially  feels,  then 
feels  Pain  or  Pleasure  as  the  accompaniment  of 
its  first  Act  of  Feeling.  But  Ego  is  essentially 
activity,  process,  hence  the  feeling  Ego  we  may 
deem  the  third  grand  Act  of  Self-Feeling,  the 
concrete  Act,  not  the  abstract  one  (.as  is  the 
first),  which  is  now  filled  with  a  content  making 
it  concrete. 

I.  Accordingly,  when  Feeling  gets  to  Total 
Self-Feeling,  we  have  the  Feeling  of  Self  or  of 
Ego.  We  see  that  Feeling  separates  within 
itself  (as  we  have  already  observed  in  Pain-aud- 
Pleasure)  and  then  reaches  back  and  overcomes 
the  separation,  uniting  with  itself  in  this  act  of 
self -reference.  Now,  the  foregoing  process  is 
just  that  of  the  Ego,  which  divides  within  itself, 
and  out  of  this  self-division  returns  to  itself, 
performing  the  primal  psychical  act  called  the 
Psychosis.  But  it  is  the  Ego  as  Feeling  thus 
dividing  within  itself  and  returning  to  itself,  not 
as  Intellect,  nor  as  Will.  For  the  Feeling  which 
feels  itself,  docs  not  yet  know  itself,  is  not  self- 
conscious.  It  is  that  first  self -reference  of  the 
Ego  which  is  the  basis  and  beginning  of  all 
mentation.  Nor  is  Feeling  self -active,  as  the 
Will  is,  going  forth  out  of  itself  and  grappling 
with  its  opposite,  the  world.  On  the  contrary 
Feeling  is  more  the  passive  principle  of  mind; 
its  very  activity  is  to  show  its  passivity ;  it  seeks 


not  to  transform  its  externality  (as  does  the 
Will)  but  it  turns  the  same  buck  into  itself, 
employing  it  as  a  means  or  determinant  to  make 
itself  feel. 

Here  again  we  may  recall  the  basic  distinctions 
in  Psychology  as  the  Science  of  Feeling,  Will, 
and  Intellect,  each  of  which  is  a  form  of  self- 
reference  of  the  Ego.  Now  self -reference  of  the 
Ego  as  self-knowing  or  self-conscious  belongs  to 
the  Intellect;  but  self-reference  of  the  Ego  as 
dominantly  self-active  belongs  to  the  Will; 
while  pure  self-reference  of  the  Ego,  without  its 
self-consciousness  or  self-activity,  belongs  to 
Feeling.  To  be  sure  the  most  passive  Feeling 
has  an  element  of  self-activity  (or  Will)  and 
also  a  strain  of  self-consciousness  (or  Intellect), 
though  neither  of  the  latter  has  the  stress  or 
dominates  the  Ego.  When  I  feel,  I  have  to  act 
and  I  have  even  to  know,  perhaps  in  a  faint  sub- 
ordinate wav.  In  fact,  wo  are  to  see  that  unless 
every  Feeling  of  the  Ego  had  in  itself  the  com- 
plete process  of  the  Ego,  that  is,  had  Will  and 
Intellect  as  well  as  Feeling,  it  could  not  be  a 
stage  or  phase  of  the  Ego.  Unless  the  part  has 
in  it  the  reflection  of  the  totality,  it  cannot  be  a 
part  of  that  totality. 

In  the  complete  cycle  of  mentation,  therefore. 
Feeling  has  the  fundamental  essence  of  the  Ego, 
namely  self-reference,   or   the  psychical  act  of 


self-separatioa  and  self -return,  but  in  the  main 
as  uuconscious  and  passive. 

We  may  now  see  that  the  Ego  as  Feeling 
throws  out  its  fringe  of  Pain-and-Pleasure  in 
every  activity  of  itself,  which  also  follows  the 
Norm  or  the  primal  Type  of  itself.  Thus,  we 
repeat,  the  abstract  Norm  becomes  real,  con- 
crete, an  existent  entity  in  the  world,  namely 
the  Ego.  This  has  been  implicit  from  the  be- 
ginning, but  now  it  is  explicit,*  an  actual  fact, 
describable,  yea  self-describable  in  its  supreme 
manifestation  as  Intellect.  But  as  regards  Feel- 
ing we  have  in  the  foregoing  view  the  elemental 
principle;  this  is  specially  Total  Self- Feeling, 
which  embraces  and  unifies  into  its  process  the 
three  given  elements:  the  primal  Actor  Norm, 
the  second  stage  of  Paiu-and-Pleasure,  which 
then  drives  forward  to  the  third  factor,  the  Ego 
which  feels  Pain  and  Pleasure. 

II.  Necessj*rily  the  question  rises  here  and 
elsewhere:  Whence  comes  this  Ego,  Self,  Soul? 
It  has  been  taken  for  granted,  inspected,  or 
rather  self-inspected;  but  has  it  no  prototype, 
no  Creator?  Hardlv  can  it  stand  in  the  Uni- 
verse  in  mere  isolation. 

At  this  point,  then,  we  have  to  take  note  of 
the  counterpart  of  the  individual  Ego,  namely 
the  All,  the  Absolute,  the  great  Totality,  which 
must  have  likewise  the  process  of  the  Ego. 
Thus   the   extremes   of  the   Universe   come  up 

8ELF-FEBLm9  —  TOTAL.  68 

before  us,  both  of  them  Egos,  the  iadividaal  and 
the  univer^iul.  Between  these  two  extreme 
Egos  ]iea  our  Psychology,  which  U  the  record  of 
the  one  Ego,  the  individual  finite,  created  Ego, 
seeking  to  find,  to  know  and  to  appropriate  the 
other  Ego,  its  creator  and  his  works.  For  under- 
standing this  fact  aright,  we  need  a  new  nnmen- 
claturc;  at  least  we  need  two  words  to  express 
afresh  these  two  extreme  Egos  and  to  suggest 
their  process.  Hence  we  shall  employ  the  terms 
Psychosis  and  Pampsychosis.  The  latter  is  the 
psychical  process  of  the  All  which  creates  the 
individual  Ego  in  its  own  image,  that  is,  as  a 
psychical  process.  Thus  the  creating  is  implanted 
in  the  created,  whose  destiny  must  be  to  return 
and  to  re-create  its  creator. 

At  present,  however,  we  seek  to  catch  a 
glimpse  of  what  the  feeling  Ego  has  to  do  with 
the  Pampsychosis.  This  has  its  own  pr<»cess 
composed  of  the  Absotute  (as  Ego),  Nature,  and 
Man,  who  is  a  commiDgliug  of  both.  But  the 
destiny  of  Man  is  to  be  also  an  Ego  with  ita  pro- 
cess; though  a  ])roduct  he  must  also  reproduce 
what  produces  him.  Now  the  first  impress  of 
the  Pampsychosis  having  its  process  stamped 
upou  man  is  tlio  process  of  Feeling  or  of  the  Ego 
as  Feeling,  or  more  fully  stated,  of  the  Ego  feel- 
ing in  itself  the  process  of  the  All. 

We  must  often  repeat  to  ourselves  and  make 
real  withiu  ourselves  that  every  man  is  the  child 


of  the  Universe.  His  origintd  ancedtor  is  just 
the  AH,  and  this  is  what  he  feels  primarily.  His 
Ego  is  his  inheritance  from  his  father  the  Uni- 
verse, and  tlie  first  form  or  stage  of  this  Ego  is 
Feeling.  And  having  it  he  has  all  or  rather  the 
All  with  its  process  which  is  likewise  Ego  (the 
Pampsychosis).  To  be  sure  he  has  to  take  pos- 
session of  his  heritage  just  through  his  Ego;  the 
Psychosis  must  be  perpetually  re-creating  its 
source,  the  Pampsychosis,  in  order  to  dwell  in 
harmony  with  itself  and  its  world,  in  order  to 
receive  and  enjoy  its  own. 

in.  With  this  outlook  upon  what  is  to  be  soon 
more  fullv  set  forth,  we  turn  back  to  our  view 
of  Total  Self -Feeling  with  its  process.  Primarily 
we  have  noted  that  it  is  the  third  stage  of  the 
process  of  Self-Feeling  in  general.  All  three  of 
these  stages  are  contained  in  the  statement :  / 
feel  Pain-and' Pleasure.  First  is  the  Feeling 
(simple),  second  is  the  Feeling  of  Pain-and- 
Pleasure  (dual),  third  is  my  Self  or  *'  I  "  feel- 
ing Pain-and-Pleasure.  Such  is  a  kind  of  theo- 
rem or  formula  of  all  Feeling  taken  as  it  is  in 
itself,  abstractly,  ideally.  We  have  attained  the 
feeling  Self,  which,  however,  must  be  seen  to 
have  its  own  inner  process. 

This  process  we  have  already  set  forth  quite 
fully  in  the  foregoing  account  of  Self-Feeling. 
Here  wo  need  merely  summarize  the  result  as 
follows :  — 

SF.LF  FEEUNi}  —  TOTAL.  C5 

1.  The  feeling  Ego  feels  itself  to  he  Self- 
Feeling  as  such,  as  immediate,  as  potential  — 
feels  its  own  possihilities  and  inheritances  human 
and  pre-human.  The  original  chaos  of  Feeling 
which  is  to  become  cosmos;  in  it  the  process  of 
Feeling  is  implicit,  unborn,  yet  is  existent. 

2.  The  feeling  Ego  in  Self-Feeling /ee/«  itself 
to  be  Self-willing  also,  but  it  is  not  Self-willing, 
it  simply /ee/«  itself  to  be  such.  That  is.  Self- 
willing  means  here  not  the  going-forth  to  the 
outer  world,  but  the  purely  internal  act  of  self- 
separation  of  the  feeling  Ego,  in  order  that  it 
attain  its  complete  process. 

3.  The  feeling  Ego  in  Self -Feeling  feels  itself 
to  be  Self-knowing,  but  it  is  not  Self-knowing, 
it  i>\mxAy  feels  itself  to  be  such.  That  is.  Self- 
knowing  means  here  (in  the  process  of  Self- 
Feeling)  not  the  self-conscious  act  of  Intellect 
but  simply  the  self -returning  act  of  Feeling,  its 
mere  self-relation,  which  does  not  rise  to  self- 
knowledge,  though  certainly  on  the  way  thereto. 

We  may  now  see  the  end  and  purpose  of  this 

movement  of  Self-Feeling:   the  unfolding  of  the 

threefold  process   of  all  mentation  in  the  form 

of    Feeling.     The  development   of   the   feeling 

Ego  this  is,  not  its  reproduction,  which  belongs 

to    the    coming    chapter.     The    present    stage 

shows  the  Ego  with  its  process  of  Feeling,  Will, 

and  Intellect,  but  as  Feeling;  moreover  it  is  this 

Ego  turned  inward  through  itself  y  hence  we  call 




nuf'.h  Vo.cVmv  Self-Feeling.  But  next  this  feeling 
K;(o,  having  hcen  won,  is  to  be  turned  inward, 
not  thniugh  itself,  but  through  something  ex- 
t<Tn:il  to  it.-elf,  which  is  nevertheless  one  with  it 
in  the  All.  A  new  movement  of  Feeling  therein 
(Mimniences  with  a  new  end  and  purpose. 

Lf>(>king  back  at  the  three  stages  of  Self- 
^^M•]i^g,  we  find  that  we  have  attained  the  fol- 
lowing n*.sultr»:  the  simple  Norm  of  all  Feeling 
whatsoever,  then  tlie  Feeling  itself  in  its  double- 
U(*«.  finallv  the  Eiro  which  lies  back  of  all 
Feeling.  These  results  we  are  to  keep  and  unfold 
in  what  follows.  The  feeling  Ego  has  deepened 
till  it  has  reached  down  to  its  own  process  and 
made  the  same  explicit.  Still  even  thus  it  is  a 
part  which  seciks  to  be  the  whole,  and  hence 
through  itself  it  is  drivenforth  to  complete  itself 
by  appropriating  its  counterpart  —  the  World. 
This  will  give  to  it  a  new  content  and  a  new 


The  Self-feeliog  Ego  \a  to  take  up  the  World 
into  itself  and  thereby  become  the  World-feel- 
ing Ego.  The  felt  process  of  the  Self  we  have 
just  had;  the  felt  process  of  the  World  we  are 
next  to  have.  The  latter  is  what  really  stirs  to 
activity  and  develops  the  former.  The  World  is 
the  primordial  teacher  of  the  Self,  calling  forth 
the  inner  through  the  outer.  As  such  educator 
the  World  must  be  grasped  in  its  movements, 
which  will  always  be  found  to  be  self-returning, 
or  in  cycles,  which  thus  correspond  externally  to 
the  internal  movements  of  the  Ego. 

In  the  previous  section  the  feeling  Ego  taken 
by  itself  or  the  Self-feeling  Ego  was  considered, 
being  it?  own  inner  Determinant.  But  now  we 



come  to  the  World-feel iug  Ego,  having  the  outer 
AVorld  (Macrocosm)  for  its  Determimmt.  Thus 
a  separation  manifests  itself  between  the  two 
Determinants,  the  inner  and  outer,  and  two  cor- 
responding Worlds  rise  into  view  —  the  inner  and 
outer,  or  the  Microcosm  and  the  Macrocosm. 

Still  our  World-Feeling  is  elemental,  the 
World-feeling  Ego  is  a  member  of  the  great 
cosmical  Body  which  determines  it  and  which  is 
distinct  from  it,  yet  is  in  immediate  organic 
connection  with  it.  That  is,  the  World-feelinor 
Ego  is  embodied,  and  is  often  called  the  soul. 
Thus  in  the  i>resent  field  two  Bodies  appear, 
the  microcosmic  and  the  macrocosmic,  each 
with  its  own  soul.  At  the  same  time  wc  nni^t 
not  forget  that  these  two  Bodies  with  their  souls 
are  parts  of  the  one  great  pampsychical  organ- 
ism within  which  they  mutually  interact  and 
determine  each  other. 

The  Soul  is  Life,  but  it  is  something  more. 
Life  is  the  central  ])riuciple  (or  ideal  unity)  of 
the  Body  merely;  it  unifies  all  the  corporeal 
or>j;ans,  but  is  confined  to  the  bodilv  on2:anism 
and  passes  away  with  its  exit.  But  the  Soul  in- 
dicates a  central  principle  outside  of  and  higher 
than  the  Bodv,  and  uses  the  Bodv  as  a  means  for 
that  principle,  I  give  my  Life  for  a  higher  end 
than  Life,  for  my  souKs  existence  or  eternal  Life. 
Soul  is  that  Life  of  which  the  total  Bodv  is  but 
an  organ  or  member,  hence  Soul  is  the  mauifes- 


tiition  of  the  macrocosm ic  whole  which  deter- 
mines Life  and  Body,  iiud  to  which  tliey  belong. 

So  we  see  the  outer  Universe  with  itji 
process  is  tho  ultimate  and  ever-present  De- 
terminnut  of  the  individual  Ego  &s  Soul  with 
Uh  ])roce8s.  The  Macrocosm  is  what  stimu- 
hitca  the  Microcosm,  which  is  to  take  up  the 
inovemeut  of  the  former,  and  thus  live  iu 
tlie  great  Whole,  enacting  verily  the  integral 
life.  It  is  true  that  tho  All  would  not  be  itself 
unless  the  Ego  performed  its  part  in  the  univer- 
sal process,  and  creatively  reproduced  its  source. 
The  Psychosis  is  necessary  to  the  Pampsycliosis, 
even  if  the  latter  be  the  Determinant  primarily. 

And  now  we  are  to  bring  before  ourselves  tho 
All  determining  tho  individual  Ego  to  its  process 
of  Feeling.  This  All  is  at  first  outside  of  the 
Ei;o,  is  in  the  form  of  non-Ego,  or  Nature.  Such 
is  properly  tiie  second  stiige  iu  the  total  move- 
ment of  the  All ;  we  begin  with  it  as  the  imme- 
diate external  world  (Macrocosm)  determining 
the  individual  Ego  (Mierocosm)  which  is  also 
here  the  immediate,  tho  given,  the  assumed  for 
a  starting-point,  though  this  F^go  has  been  un- 
folded m  Self-Keeling.  But  the  course  of  the 
exposition  is  to  .show  both  these  extremes,  as 
mediated;  what  is  nww  [licked  up  and  takcu  for 
jfranted  must  be  reproduced  ant!  so  proven  iu  the 

The    aliove    iiientioned    function    of    Nature 


grasped  as  a  whole,  and  employed  as  the  De- 
terminant of  the  given  Ego  to  Feeling  we  may 
call  the  Natural  Totality,  which  will  show  itself 
working  in  the  following  three  ways. 

I.  The  World-Feeling  as  cosmical.  The  Nat- 
ural Totality  (Macrocosm,  Nature,  World)  de- 
termines the  Ego  to  Feeling  (here  World-Feel- 
ing) directly  through  the  individual  Body  as 
given,  untransformed.  This  Feeling  is  essen- 
tially the  cyclical,  as  seen  in  the  Heavenly 
Bodies,  as  felt  in  the  round  of  the  seasons,  of 
day  and  night,  etc.  The  Feeling  of  the  external 
or  mechanical  cycle. 

II.  The  World-Feeling  as  somatic.  The  Nat- 
ural Totality  (Macrocosm,  Nature,  World)  de- 
termines the  Ego  to  Feeling  (World-Feeling) 
through  the  individual  Body  transformed  in 
Race,  Age,  Sex.  This  second  (separative)  stage 
leads  to  the  great  bifurcation  of  all  animate 
Nature  into  the  two  sexes,  whereby  the  indi- 
vidual Body  reproduces  itself  as  sexual,  and 
thus  completes  its  somatic  cycle. 

II.  The  World-Feeling  as  reproductive.  The 
Natural  Totality  determines  the  Ego  to  Feeling 
(which  is  a  World-Feelmg)  of  self-reproduction 
through  the  individual  Body,  whereby  Nature  as 
Totality  reproduces  itself.  That  is.  Nature 
taken  as  a  living  Whole,  as  All-Life,  has  to  re- 
produce itself  through  the  self-reproduction  »f 


individuals  in  their  bi-sexuul  process.  Thus  the 
Totality  of  Nature  mukes  its  reproductive  cycle. 

Such  are  the  three  stages  of  World-Feeling  or 
the  Ego  within  itself  turned  inward  by  three 
leading  forms  of  the  World's  process,  and  re- 
ceiving their  impress.  This  process  of  the 
World  or  Macrocosm  taken  by  itself  we  may 
grasp  as  follows  for  our  present  purpose :  first 
its  simple  spatial  oneness,  with  movements  in  it 
external  and  mechanical;  then  its  self-division 
within  itself  culminating  in  a  bi-sexuul  Totality 
of  Nature,  in  order  that,  finally,  the  living 
World  may  be  renewed  and  be  eternally  self- 

A  favorite  conception  of  certain  philosophers 
has  been  to  endow  this  Natural  Totality  with  a 
Soul  (World-Soul)  in  correspondence  with  the 
individual  Body  and  its  Soul.  Plato  has  the 
thought,  though  he  was  not  the  first  Greek 
thinker  to  broach  it;  Bruno  started  it  afresh, 
Schclling  elaborated  it,  Hegel  mentions  it  but 
passingly.  The  World  certainly  has  its  process, 
which  is  a  Psychosis,  and  which  stirs  the  Ego  to 
a  correspondence  in  Feeling. 


I.  CosMiCAL  Feeling. 

The  World-Feeling  Ego  (Soul)  is  determined 
directly  by  the  Totality  of  Nature  (World) 
through  the  Body  as  intermediate,  without 
transforming  the  latter  (which  transformation 
takes  place  in  the  next  stage —  somatic).  The 
resultant  Feeling  is  called  Cosmical,  the  Feeling 
of  the  Cosmos,  which  may  be  said  to  have  its 
soul  also  (often  called  World-soul).  Thus  the 
two  souls,  individual  and  cosmical,  communicate 
through  their  physical  bodies,  producing  primar- 
ily what  is  here  named  Cosmical  Feeling.  Each 
is  a  soul  incorporate,  separated  as  bodies  yet 
coming  together  as  souls. 

The  fundamental  fact  which  Cosmical  Feeling 
stirs  in  the  soul  is  that  the  Universe  is  cyclical, 
eternally  self-returning  and  therein  like  the  soul 
itself.  The  Cosmos  is  forever  rounding  itself 
out  in  nature,  and  its  separate  elements,  as  sini, 
stars  and  earth,  have  the  same  characteristic. 
Now  all  the  cosmical  shapes  rouse  the  primor- 
dial movement  of  the  Ego  (or  soul),  which  i> 
also  a  cycle  (Psychosis),  but  unconscious,  a 
Feelinor.  Thus  Cosmical  Feclin<?  is  the  corre- 
spondeuce  of  the  feeling  Ego  with  the  Cosmos, 
or  of  the  Microcosm  with  the  Macrocosm ;  \vc 
may  deem  it  the  harmony  of  the  individual   soul 


with  the  World-soul,  both  beiug  incorporate  unci 
working  through  their  bodies. 

Elemental  is  such  Cosmical  Feeling  inasmuch 
as  both  bodies  with  their  souls  are  organic 
parts  of  one  Whole,  and  ultimately  belong 
together.  In  fact,  it  is  just  this  Cosmical 
Feeling  which  unites  the  individual  with  the 
Cosmos,  makes  him  cosmical,  a  member  of  the 
grjmd  Totality  of  Nature.  Through  it  he  feels 
himself  to  be  this  Totality  within,  and  a  link  of 
it  without;  it  revolves  with  him  inside,  and  he 
revolves  with  it  outside.  I  take  up  the  motion 
of  the  cosmical  All  within  me,  and  it  takes  me 
up  into  its  motion  outside  of  me.  Our  respective 
spheres,  each  with  its  own  process,  form  one  pro- 
cess together,  which  is  elemental  and  is  given  in 
the  present  form  of  Elemental  Feeling. 

And  now  we  are  to  see  this  Cosmical  World- 
Feeling  in  its  own  psychical  movement,  being 
determined  by  the  external  World  to  its  activity. 
Such  activity  will  be  varied  according  to  the 
diversity  of  cosmical  Determinants,  to  which 
beh)ng  Space  and  Time  for  instance,  as  well  as 
Sun  and  Earth.  Taking  these  together  and 
getting  their  process,  we  shall  tind  the  following 
stages  in  order:  — 

I.  Cosmical  Feeling  uncenteved^  yet  strug- 
gling to  get  a  center;  the  feeling  of  pure  out- 
sidcncss  with  which  the  external  World  starts. 

II.  Cosmical  Fveliiuj  centered^    in  which  the 


Ego  feels  itself  to  be  the  center  of  the  cosmical 
cycles,  beholdiag  these  with  its  outer  vision. 

III.  Cosmical  Feeling  sel/^cenferedy  in  which 
the  Eo^o  comes  to  feel  that  each  cosniicul  body 
has  its  own  center  and  cycle,  beholding  with  its 
inner  (intellectual)  vision. 

The  individual  looking  out  upon  the  Macro- 
cosm feels  it  as  a  Whole.  It  is  what  stirs  the 
iFeeling  of  the  Infinite,  of  that  which  has  no 
bounds.  The  Cosmos  thus  starts  in  man  the 
primal  Feeling  of  his  limit-transcending  Self, 
which  is  the  potential  source  of  all  his  future 
activity.  He  seeks  to  encompass  the  All  by 
passing  from  limit  to  limit,  from  Beyond  to  Be- 
yond —  in  one  sense  a  vain  search,  but  in  an- 
other sense  very  fruitful.  For  he  is  driven  to 
look  not  outward  but  inward  for  his  Infinite. 

I.  TiiK  World-Fkelixg  uncentered.  —  Here 
we  have  a  World-feeling  Ego,  but  it  has  no 
center  as  yet  without  or  within.  That  is,  the 
Soul  feels  itself  to  be  immediatelv  one  with  the 
cosmical  elements  which  determine  it.  TheE<^o 
hence  feels  no  true  inwardness,  and  still  it  feels, 
vea  feels  itself.  In  fact,  it  feels  itself  to  be  out- 
side  of  itself;  even  when  turning  inside  it  is 
carried  ever  beyond  and  beyond  itself.  Here  is 
the  Feeling  of  the  World  without  a  center,  and 
our  feeling  Self  is  a  part  of  such  a  World.  Ver}^ 
va«rue  is  this  Fcelin<x  and  even  contradictorv 
when  stated;  still  it  exists  and  must  be  grasped. 


Nny,  it  has  its  process  with  the  cosmicul  forms 
of  Space,  Time,  and  Motion  as  Determinants. 

1,  Space.  The  Cosmos  or  the  Totality  of  Na- 
ture is  outside  the  Ego  and  determines  it  to  feel 
this  outside  a3  self,  to  be  self-outside  in  Feeling. 
The  World-feeling  Ego  first  feels  the  world  as 
pure  externality  or  outsideness,  which  ia  the 
prim:d  Feeling  of  Space.  The  World  in  the  be- 
ginning is  not  only  outride,  but  sclf-outside, 
chaotic,  unordered,  potential.  And  this  is  the 
first  and  naturally  the  easiest  condition  of  the 
feeling  Ego,  for  it  has  no  self-separation,  no 
self-effort.  Ou  the  other  hand  such  a  condition 
is  the  hardest  for  the  thinking  Ego,  being  so  re- 
mote from  the  same.  Still  I  must  be  in  Space, 
and  also  it  must  be  in  me;  my  Ego  must  be  spa- 
tial and  feel  itself  spatial. 

Space  is  the  pure  continuum  of  the  World 
without  anything  in  it,  containing  only  its  empty 
self.  It  has  no  division,  though  the  possibility 
of  all  division,  which  is  now  to  become  actual. 

2,  Time.  The  Totality  of  Nature  has  in  it  di- 
vision, active  division,  which  is  Time  as  <listinct 
from  the  static  continuity  of  Space.  The  Cos- 
mos is  this  eudless  self-division  within  itself,  as 
Space  is  an  endless  coutinuity  or  extension  out- 
side itself.  This  Time-form  of  the  Cosmos  also 
determines  the  Ego  to  its  Cosmical  Feeling  of 
Time,  that  of  pure  division  eternally  at'tivc. 
Time  impresses  upon  the  Ego  that  the  Universe 


is  and  must  be  self-separative  as  against  the 
simple,  immovable  fixity  and  self-sameness  of 
Space,  whicB  is  tlie  primordial  oneness  of  the 
All  taken  by  itself.  Space  is  divisible  only  from 
without.  Time  is  self-divisible,  eternally  divid- 
ing itself  within  itself. 

The  main  point  to  be  here  noticed  is  that  Space 
and  Time  stimulate  correspondences  to  themselves 
in  the  Ego,  which  we  call  Cosmical  Feeling 
(spatial  and  temporal)  since  the  Ego  within 
itself  is  turned  inwardly  by  them,  and  is  made  to 
feel  harmonious  with  these  forms  of  the  Cosmos, 
re-enacting  an  inner  Time  and  Space  as  stages  of 
the  soul.  Moreover  we  are  to  see  that  external 
Time  and  Space  are  stages  of  the  Cosmos  which 
is  also  a  Psychosis,  having  a  soul  or  World-soul 
with  its  process.  So  we  catch  the  thought:  the 
soul-process  of  the  Cosmos  with  its  two  stages  of 
Space  and  Time  rouse  the  c()rresi)onding  two 
stages  of  the  soul-process  of  tlie  individual. 

But  there  is  a  third  stage  to  which  wo  must 

3.  Motion.  The  Feeling  of  Pure  Motion 
divested  of  every  substrate  may  be  grasped  thus  : 
Time,  the  self-dividing  Cosmos,  returns  and 
divides  Space, the  undivided  Cosmos,  which  is  only 
divisible  from  the  outside;  through  which  pro- 
cess rises  the  moving  Cosmos,  or  the  Cosmos  as 
Motion.  Time  tluH  measures  Space,  giving  to 
the  same  a  unitv  which  now  has  division   in  it. 


and  is  no  lunger  tiie  first  undivided  proceasless 
unity  of  Space.  Motion  begiua  to  have,  there- 
fore, the  cycle  in  itself,  even  if  not  fuily  devel- 
oped. A  limited  body  as  Space-occupying  when 
it  moves,  is  always  returning  to  occupy  spatial 
limits  co-terminous  with  those  which  it  leaves. 
What  it  separates  from,  it  goes  to.  Ancient 
Zeno's  dialectic  of  Motion  glimpsed  this  con- 

On  the  whole  Space,  Time,  and  Motion  are 
without  the  center,  though  calling  for  it  and 
going  towards  it.  The  center  of  Space  is  said  to 
be  everywhere;  the  center  of  Time  is  every- 
when;  the  center  of  Motion  (as  pure)  is  every- 
where through  everywhen  back  to  everywhere. 
Thus  Motion  is  not  a  real  cycle  but  the  poten- 
tiality of  all  cycles. 

The  individual  must  feel  himself,  not  only  in 
Space,  Time,  and  Motion  (external)  but  as  Space, 
.  Time,  and  Motion  (internal).  Possessing  them 
as  Feeling,  he  will  begin  to  separate  them  from 
their  unconscious  condition  through  Intellect,  and 
tlifircby  start  to  know  them.  Unless  they  were 
in  him  as  Feeling,  ho  could  not  know  them,  in 
fact  ho  would  never  be  stimulated  to  know  them. 
Philosophy  finds  its  first  difiiculty  in  grasping 
and  formulating  Space,  Time,  and  Motion.  Very 
wimple  and  natural  for  Feeling,  they  are  very 
abstract  and  alien  for  Intellect.  They  are  the 
easiest  to  feel,  but  the  hardest  to  think.     The 


outer  and  ianer  worlds  seems  to  flow  together 
and  coalesce  in  Space,  Time,  and  Motion;  the 
individual  soul  and  the  World-soul  in  them  seem 
twinned  in  Siamese  fashion  and  very  difficult  to 
separate.  Hence  it  comes  that  Kant,  the  famous 
German  philosopher,  makes  Space  and  Time 
subjective  forms  of  Sense-perception,  belong- 
ing to  the  Ego  and  not  objective. 

Wo  may  well  deem  Cosmical  Feeling,  especially 
in  its  spatial  form,  as  the  first  Feeling  of  the 
beginning  Ego,  as  the  primal  turning  inward 
through  a  Determinant  (Space)  which  has  no 
center  except  anywhere.  And  this  first  Feeling 
is  equally  indeterminate  and  unfixed,  hardly 
more  than  the  possibility  of  getting  fixed.  The 
movement  out  of  Si)ace  through  Time  into 
Motion,  though  still  indefinite,  begins  to  define 
the  cycle  externally,  and  hence  to  stai*t  it  or  to 
wake  it  up.  Indeed  Motion  may  be  said  in  a 
sense  to  wake  up  the  Ego,  not  so  much  to  itself 
as  to  the  outer  world,  which  now  appears  circling 
about  it,  and  therein  manifesting  to  it  the  primal 
order  of  the  All. 

II.  The  World-Feeling  Centered.  — When 
we  behold  or  seem  to  behold  the  Heavens  turning 
around  above  us  in  the  night,  or  the  Sun  revolv- 
ing over  our  heads  m  the  day-time,  we  acquire 
the  notion  of  a  cycle  of  celestial  bodies,  of 
which  we  are  the  center.  Definitely,  materially, 
visibly  does  the  circular  movement  of  the  Great 

yrOBLD-FESLtSa  —  COSMtCAL.  79 

Totality  now  appear,  and  it  appears  circling 
about  us.  Space,  Time,  and  Motion  bad  no 
such  center  apparent,  being  disembodied,  imma- 
terial, and  only  relatively  visible,  though  fully 
felt.  But  they  have  become  incorporate,  ma- 
terialized, individualized  in  the  multitudinous 
spheres  of  the  physical  Universe,  which  have  a 
scl^- returning  movement  in  their  orbits,  elliptical 
for  the  most  part. 

Of  this  cyclical  education  imparted  gratu- 
itously from  above  to  every  son  of  man,  we  may 
note  the  following  colossal  instructors:  — 

1.  The  iHolar  C>/cle.  The  Sun  impresses  it- 
self upon  my  sense  of  sight  aa  revolving  around 
me  every  twenty-four  hours,  rising  in  the  Eiist 
and  setting  in  tho  West,  bringing  to  me  light  by 
his  presence  and  leaving  to  me  darkness  by  his* 
absence.  The  illuminating  principle  of  our  vis- 
ible Universe  moves  for  me  iu  a  cycle,  and  my 
Ego  responds  in  Feeling.  Moreover  he  has  an 
apparent  variation  in  his  motion;  he  shifts  his 
place  in  the  course  of  the  year  and  returns  to  it, 
producing  another  cycle,  the  annual,  which  I 
feel  specially  in  the  change  of  tho  seasons.  The 
Sun,  therefore,  seems  to  have  two  cycles,  the 
daily  and  the  yearly;  if  it  varies  from  the  reg- 
ular cycle,  the  variation  is  seen  to  be  cyclical,  dis- 
pensing thus  its  gifts  of  tho  seasons  as  well  as  of 
daylight  and  darkness.  But  its  chief  gift  to  the 
Ego  is  the  educative  one,  the  cycle  ever  self-re- 


turning,  without  whioli  the  Universe  would  rush 
to  chaos  in  a  dav. 

2.  The  Celestial  Cycle,  When  the  sun  has 
disappeared  under  the  sea,  another  cycle  makes 
its  appearance  by  way  of  counterpart.  The 
whole  Heavens  break  out  into  stars,  which  also 
seem  to  revolve  about  the  Ego,  rising  and  set- 
ting, each  of  which  must  make  a  cycle.  It 
if  the  sun  had  been  cut  into  millions  of  shining 
pieces  and  flung  by  the  almighty  hand  through 
the  skies  to  the  remotest  limits  of  the  Universe. 
But  each  piece  insists  upon  being  a  sun  and 
moving  throu^jjh  its  cvcle  with  the  rest.  The 
stellar  world  seems  to  individualize  the  cycle, 
filling  the  celestial  spaces  with  an  infinitude  of 
these  self-returning  lines. 

Thus  the  Eoro  through  outer  vision  comes  to 
feel  itself  the  center  of  an  infinite  number  of 
cycles.  Impressed  uj)ou  it  not  only  day  and 
night,  but  hy  day  and  night  literally  is  the 
cyclical  as  the  universal  fact  of  Great  Nature. 
Such  as  the  primary  education  which  the  visible 
Universe  gives  to  the  Ego  under  its  training. 
At  the  same  time  the  Ego  is  such  a  cycle  inter- 
nally but  undeveloped.  The  World-soul  in  its 
outer  manifestation  is  unfolding  the  individual 
soul  into  the  possession  of  the  All  (the  Pam- 
psychosis).  The  centering  of  the  World-feeling 
Ego  is  a  great   step  which  the  child  as  well  as 


the  primitive  man  must  txke  in  its  spiritual 

Tliua  by  day  and  hy  night  the  Ego  beholds 
itself  a  center  for  a  complete  revolution  of  the 
external  All.  It  feels  likewise  that  it  Has 
passed  through  two  corresp()nding  conditions, 
waking  and  sleeping,  which  form  a  diurnal  cycle 
always  turning  around.  It  is  the  center  of  the 
revolving  Whole,  and  It  revolves  in  its  way  with 
Ihe  same.  The  great  fact  18  that  through  this 
experience  the  Ego  gets  centered,  passing  out 
of  its  drifting,  uncentercd  state  in  Space,  Time, 
and  Motion  to  its  primal  cyclical  c<mdition  in 
which  it  finds  its  place  in  the  All.  Thus  the  Self 
takes  its  position  in  the  Universe,  making  itself 
the  center  thereof. 

3.  The  Planetary  Cycle.  Yet  some  of  these 
seeming  stars  do  not  move  with  the  rest,  but 
have  a  motion  of  their  own  which  cuts  across 
the  regular  paths.  Hence  they  are  called  wan- 
derers (i)lanets),  which  assert  their  own  particu- 
lar orbit<,  though  these  are  also  cyclical  in  the 
end.  Thus  the  eye  observing  these  celestial 
bodies,  marks  a  difference,  an  individuality  in 
the  motions  of  some  of  them  which  seein  to 
break  loose  from  the  universal  frame  of  the  cir- 
cling universe,  and  to  go  their  own  way.  Still 
they  always  get  back  to  their  starting-pomt,  they 
return  into  themselves.  The  satellite,  the  moon, 
ia  anotli«r  variation  of    the  cycle  perpetually 



drawn  round  tho  iskios.  Even  the  comet  burst- 
ing into  our  Solar  System  is  cyclical  and  will 
return  after  hundreds,  and  in  some  cases  possi- 
bly after  thousands  of  years.  This  vast  cycle, 
however,  lies  beyond  individual  vision  and  also 
bevond  individual  life. 

Such  is  the  traininor  of  our  cosmical  vision  bv 
day  and  by  night,  which  are  themselves  recurring 
or  in  a  cycle.  Our  Ego  gets  centered  funda- 
mentally in  and  through  Feeling,  beholding  the 
whole  heavenly  sphere  and  all  its  individual 
spheres  sweeping  around  ourselves  as  a  center. 
But  not  onlv^  vision,  life  itself  moves  throuirli 
this  circular  course  in  the  seasons  with  their  heat 
and  cold,  and  in  the  diurnal  circle  of  light  and 
darkness  briniriuo:  into  our  dav  wakintj  and  sleep- 
in«f.  We  live  the  cvcles  of  Nature  as  well  as 
see'them.  Thus  man  linds  evorvwhere  the  cvcli- 
cal  Macrocosm  impressing  itself  upon  him,  and 
calling  for  the  correspondence  in  his  Ego,  the 

But  now  soon  this  external  orbital  motion  of 
the  celestial  body  round  tho  center  is  to  pass  into 
the  rotary  motion  of  the  body  itself  around  its 
own  center. 

III.  The  World-Fekling  self-cextered.  — 
It  was  a  mighty  step  in  man's  training  through 
the  Macrocosm  when  he  found  that  it  has  its  own 
center  outside  of  himself  and  the  earth,  and  that 
every  moving  body  of  it  is  also  self-centered,  or 


ut  least  has  such  a  tendency.  Thus  we  pass  to 
a  new  kind  of  cycliciil  motion  in  the  Cosmos, 
Iho  axial  or  rotnry  as  distinct  from  the  orbital.' 
The  heavenly  body  turns  upon  its  own  inner 
center,  while  revolving  around  its  external 

In  the  history  of  science  this  is  known  as  the 
traup^ition  from  the  geocentric  to  the  heliocentric 
theory.  The  sun  is  center  of  the  solar  system; 
the  Earth  revolves  around  it  in  an  elliptical  orbit 
producing  the  seasons,  and  also  revolves  upon  its 
own  axis  producing  day  and  night.  Such  a 
sttitement  contradicts  our  outi-r  vision,  we  have 
now  to  behold  the  motioQ  of  the  Macrocosm  and 
its  bodies  not  with  the  sensuous  eye  merely,  but 
with  the  mental.  We  pass  from  what  seems  to 
what  is,  we  have  to  seethe  Universe  now  as  God 
sees  it. 

The  Ego  now  makes  itself  universal  as  center; 
having  centered  itself  in  tlie  All,  it  must  see  that 
every  Ego  is  thus  self-centered;  and  then  that 
every  celestial  body  is  self-centered. 
That  is,  the  self-centered  Ego  begins  to  behold 
itself  as  the  princi|ile  of  all  things;  it  begins  to 
feel  tha.t  what  the  Universe  is,  it  is,  and  what  it 
is  the  Universe  is. 

1.  Siii'jle  Rotation  (TeiTes/rial).  In  the 
present  spheie  we  note  the  self-contradiction  of 
the  sensuous  world.  We  see  no  longer  a  ri.«ing 
and  a  setting  sun,  but  the  earth  rotating  on  its 


axis  like  a  wheel  and  thereby  causing  the  cycle 
of  day  and  night.  Herein  certainly  lies  a  great 
training  for  the  race  out  of  the  immediate  sense- 
life.  The  sensuous  manifestation  of  the  physi- 
cal Universe  remains,  but  we  must  view  each 
part  through  viewing  the  Whole.  The  Earth 
taken  by  itself  stands  still,  while  the  Sun  moves 
about  it,  but  taken  as  a  part  of  the  cosmical 
Totality,  just  the  opposite  is  true.  Hence  we 
must  consider  the  heavenly  bodies  together,  cen- 
tering each  part  as  we  center  the  Whole. 

2.  Associative  Rotation  (^Planetary),  Each 
individual  planet  of  the  solar  system  rotates  on 
its  own  axis  in  its  own  way,  at  a  certain  distance 
from  the  sun,  also  at  a  certain  inclination  of  its 
axis  to  its  equator  which  helps  produce  climate. 
Thus  it  has  its  own  individual  character. 

But  all  the  planets  have  their  common  char- 
acter in  revolving  about  the  center  outside  their 
bodies  yet  inside  their  orbit  —  which  center  is 
the  sun.  Thus  they  are  associated,  and  form  a 
society ;  each  indivividual  as  self -centered  has  its 
own  life,  but  as  centered  outside  in  a  different 
body  it  has  a  communal  life.  The  solar  system 
is  thus  a  social  system,  and  the  planets  form  a 
little  village  of  the  skies. 

But  this  total  solar  system,  composed  of  sun 
and  planets,  is  said  to  be  revolving  around  some 
far-off  center,  and  moving  in  an  orbit  of  yet  un- 
calculated  dimensions.     But  what  does  it  meet 


in  its  journey?  Other  stellar  communities, 
which  must  have  also  their  cycles. 

3.  Universal  Rotation  {cosmical).  It  is  gen- 
erally agreed  that  each  star  is  a  sun,  often  much 
larger  than  our  sun,  with  its  planetary  retinue, 
and  the  corresponding  cycles,  orbital  and  axial. 
Thus  the  starry  Heavens,  filled  with  constella- 
tions, is  really  a  kind  of  social  order  made  up  of 
millions  of  communities  also  moving  in  their 
orbits.  Each  of  these  communities  we  may  sup- 
pose to  have  its  own  law  expressed  cyclically. 
Thus  we  conceive  of  a  Federation  of  Solar  Sys- 
tems, to  which  all  belong,  and  which  also  re- 
volves in  some  unknown  way.  Such,  when  we 
can  grasp  it,  will  be  the  Astral  Republic. 

The  Ego  within  itself  is  turned  inward  by  the 
Cosmos,  and  produces  the  foregoing  cosmical 
Feeling,  wherein  the  Ego  feels  not  only  its  own 
centering,  but  the  universal  self-centering,  in 
which  the  Totality  as  well  as  each  of  its  parts  is 
self -centered.  The  heliocentric  view,  of  our 
solar  system  is  known  as  the  theory  of  Coperni- 
cus, and  has  a  most  important  place  in  the  Re- 
nascence, or  the  New  Birth  of  the  Spirit.  In 
Philosophy  the  Ego  comes  to  the  front  as  the 
chief  object  of  speculation.  For  the  Ego  begins 
to  see  its  own  process  in  the  great  Totality  of 
Nature,  and  very  naturally  it  turns  back  upon 
itself  to  find  itself  out.  The  formula  of  Des- 
cartes, **  I  (Ego)  think,  thereforel  (Ego)  am/' 



expresses  at  least   the  search  after   the   essence 
of  the  Ego. 

The  relation  between  man  and  his  cosmical 
environment  has  always  been  felt,  and  has  led 
to  many  exaggerations  and  supeirstitionsy  of 
which  astrology  furnishes  a  striking  instance. 
So  much  delusion  has  had  its  source  in  this 
sphere  that  many  are  inclined  to  regard  it  as 
containing  nothing  but  delusion  and  fraud.  But 
the  Cosmos  has  been  and  still  is  a  great  educator 
of  man,  particularly  in  bringing  him  first  to  feel 
and  then  to  understand  his  cyclical  Self. 



II.  Somatic  Feeling. 

The  second  stage  of  Worlcl-Feelinor  is  called 
somatic  since  the  Body  is  transformed  by  the 
Totality  of  Nature  or  the  physical  environment 
of  the  individual.  In  the  previous  stage  (cos- 
mical)  the  Body  was  indeed  the  means,  but  it 
was  not  organically  changed :  it  was  taken  as  it 
existed  then  and  there  without  being  wrought 
over  by  the  Totality  of  Nature.  For  instance 
Race  lies  in  the  bodv,  even  in  the  external  color 
of  it  as  well  as  in  shape,  size  and  structure  of 
organs,  being  a  product  of  physical  conditions. 

Accordingly  our  World-Feeling  becomes  dis- 
tinctively somatic  in  manifestation,  showing 
itself  now  in  and  through  the  corporeal  organism 
adapted  to  its  environment,  whi(^h  is  of  course 
still  macrocosmic.  The  result  is  that  everv  in- 
dividual,  each  one  of  us,  has  a  Body  with  char- 
acteristic's which  have  been  produced  by  the  phys- 
ical Universe,  and  which  bring  with  them  Feeling. 
I  have  a  Feeling  which  comes  from  my  facial 
aniile,  and  which  is  roused  at  the  view  of  a  human 
beino:  who  is  more  prognathic. 

Thus  the  Totality  of  Nature  keeps  transform- 
incr  the  Bodv,  while  this  transformation  has  it^ 
echo  in  the  Soul  and  Feeling.  The  Soul  is  more 
distinctly    incorporate     than     in    the     previous 


(cosmical)  stage,  in  which  the  Body  was  rela- 
tively implicit.  But  now  it  is  intermediate 
between  Cosmos  and  Ego  and  has  the  explicit 

The  attempt  to  locate  certain  activities  of 
mind  in  certain  parts  of  the  body  is  very  old  and 
is  always  renewing  itself  in  one  form  or  other. 
Physiognomy  sought  to  read  the  soul  in  the 
face;  Phrenology  in  the  conformation  of  the 
skull;  Palmistry  in  the  lines  of  the  hand.  Un- 
doubtedly the  greatest  scientific  success  in  this 
field  must  be  accorded  to  Physiological  Psychol- 
OjSfy,  which  deals  particularly  with  somatic  stim- 
ulation in  order  to  bring  about  psychical  re- 

Somatic  Feelino;  shows  itself  in  three  leadino: 
forms,  all  of  which  spring  from  a  transformation 
of  the  Body  by  the  Totality  of  Nature,  though 
in  various  ways. 

I.  Racial  Feeling^  arising  from  Race  in  which 
the  Body  as  a  whole  is  transformed  by  the  Total- 
ity of  Nature,  but  is  varied  according  to  its  lo- 
cality on  the  earth.  This  variation  produces 
difference  of  Races,  out  of  which  a  separation 
of  Feeling  is  born.  Racial  Feeling. 

II.  Periodic  Feeling^  arising  from  the  Periods 
of  Life  (Youth,  Manhood,  Old-Age),  in  which 
the  Body  is  transformed  by  the  Totality  of 
Nature,  but  is  varied  according:  to  the  years 
passed  througli   by  the    Individual,   with  which 


variation  always  come  changes  of  Feeling,  here 
called  Periodic. 

III.  Sexual  Feding^  arising  from  the  differ- 
ence of  sex  in  which  the  Body  is  transformed  by 
the  Totality  of  Nature,  but  is  varied  by  a  special 
set  of  organs  out  of  which  variation  springs 
Sexual  Feeling. 

Here  it  should  be  noted  that  Sexual  Feeling  is 
different  from  Reproductive  Feeling.  The  one 
asserts  the  difference  of  the  sexes,  the  other  is 
the  overcoming  of  that  difference.  There  is  a 
prejudice  of  Sex  as  well  as  a  prejudice  of  Race. 
When  the  man  will  not  take  the  woman  as 
preacher,  lawyer,  or  doctor,  he  manifests  his 
Sexual  Feeling,  affirming  his  masculinity.  The 
woman  in  literature  has  also  roused  protests 
which  have  their  basis  in  sex. 

Somatic  Feeling  is,  accordingly,  the  process 
of  the  Ego  within  itself  turned  inward  through 
the  human  body  transformed  by  the  Totality  of 
Nature,  of  which  it  (the  body)  is  an  integral 
part.  Thus  somatic  Feeling  is  an  elemental 
World-Feeling  rising  from  some  special  transfor- 
mation of  the  corporeal  organism,  and  dividing 
itself  into  three  stages  above  given.  When  I 
say,  **I  belong  to  this  race"  as  against  other 
races,  or  *'  I  am  in  this  period  of  life  "  in  con- 
trast ivith  other  periods,  or  ♦»  I  am  of  this  sex  " 
and  not  of  the  other   (thank  the  Lord),  I  give 


expression  to  a  somatic  Feeling,  with  its  worth 
and  possibly  with  its  narrowness. 

The  movement  of  somatic  Feeling  is  from  the 
body  determined  and  transformed  by  the  Total- 
ity of  Nature  to  the  body  reproduced  through 
itself  as  sexual.  This  likewise  we  are  to  grasp 
as  a  round  or  cycle  in  which  the  individual  body 
returns  into  itself  in  its  offspring,  which  is  also 
racial,  periodic  and  sexual. 

I.  Racial  Feeling.  —  Every  man  is  a  member 
of  one  of  the  races  which  are  usually  given  as 
five.  Primarily  Nature  has  .made  him  racial  in 
Body,  and  with  this  special  form  of  the  Body  if< 
the  corresponding  Feeling  as  somatic.  More- 
over his  Body  is  the  product  of  a  long  develop- 
ment in  a  certain  environment. 

The  Totality  of  Nature  produces  a  diversity  on 
the  surface  of  the  earth  in  various  wavs,  and 
this  diversity  is  most  strikingly  nianifcj^t  in  the 
grand  divisions  of  the  globe.  Baees  arc  geo- 
graphical, each  has  its  locality.  The  Mongolian 
is  found  in  Eastern  Asia,  the  Negro  in  Africa 
except  in  the  northern  part;  the  Caucasian  has 
had  his  home  in  the  lands  around  the  Mediter- 
ranean in  Northern  Africa,  and  also  in  Western 
Asia  and  in  all  of  Europe.  Thus  the  Kaces 
have  seemingly  developed  in  different  grand 
divisions  of  the  Earth's  surface,  being  deterniincMl 
and  differentiated  hv  i)h\'sii'al  conditions,  or  th(^ 
Totalitv  of  Naliirc.      These  jrcoirraphital   bound- 


jiries  of  Race  still  prevail,  though  they  are  being 
broken  into  on  all  sides  by  the  Caueasiaus  of 

The  marks  of  Raee  are,  therefore,  indelibly 
stamped  upon  every  human  organism  and  are 
read  at  a  glance.  Every  man  recognizes  at  once 
and  primarily  the  man  of  a  different  race,  and 
draws  the  racial  line.  He  manifests  his  racial 
Feeling,  and  probably  his  racial  prejudice.  As 
if  a  printed  page  he  peruses  the  conformation 
of  the  head,  the  more  or  less  protruding  jaw,  the 
shape  of  the  nose,  the  slit  of  the  eye,  the  kind 
of  hair:  all  of  which  and  much  more  are  printed 
on  the  skin  of  man  in  a  printer's  ink  of  many 

The  simplest  classification  of  the  Races  — 
simplest,  because  most  manifest — is  that  ac- 
cordinor  to  color,  which  is  best  seen  in  the  follow- 
ing  scheme:  — 

1.  The  White  Race  —  Caucasian,  the  domi- 
nant Race  at  present,  with  a  tendency  to  rule 
other  Races. 

2.  IVie  Black  Race  —  the  least  developed  phy- 
sically and  institutionally,  with  the  least  racial 
Feeling  probably. 

3.  The  Yellow  Race  —  The  civilized  counter- 
part of  the  White  Race.  More  nearly  allied  to 
the  Yellow  Race  than  to  the  White  or  Black  afe 
the  Malay  with  a  brownish-yellow  tinge,  and  the 


American  (Indian)  with  a  reddish-yellow  tinge 
( copper-colored  ) . 

That  there  is  a  great  process  going  on  between 
these  Baces  at  present,  is  apparent  to  all  who 
can  read  a  newspaper.  It  looks  as  if  the  future 
World's  History  is  going  to  be  racial  more  than 
national,  having  been  chiefly  the  latter  hitherto. 
The  historic  process  of  Nations  is  to  be  widened 
into  that  of  Races  and  is  to  pass  out  of  Europe 
and  her  colonies  into  all  the  grand  divisions  of 
the  globe. 

In  particular  the  American  Republic  has  to 
grapple  with  the  problem  of  the  Races,  whose 
chief  difficulty  lies  in  racial  Feeling.  Wc  have 
in  the  midst  of  our  population  the  extremes,  the 
White  and  the  Black,  not  to  speak  of  the  van- 
ishing Red  man.  In  the  outlying  territory  is  the 
Brown  Philippino,  along  with  various  other 
racial  layers.  Nor  should  we  leave  out  of  the 
account  various  backward  elements  of  our  own 
Race.  Europe  never  had  such  a  problem,  not 
even  Rome ;  its  political  units  have  been  nations 
of  the  same  Race.  But  now  the  political  units 
are  getting  to  be  the  different  Races  which  are 
working  toward  some  kind  of  an  institutional 

II.  Periodic  Feeling.  —  In  every  individual, 
whatever  may  bo  his  Race,  there  are  Periods  of 
Life  through  which  he  passes,  and  which  mani- 
fest themselves  in  a  change  of  his  Body.     These 


corporeal  changes  determine  Feeling ;  every  per- 
son feels  different  at  different  times  of  Life, 
ho  is  not  the  same  in*  old  age  as  in  boyhood. 
Thus  spmatic  Feeling  is  not  only  racialized,  but 
individualized,  and  moreover  diversified  in  every 
individual  according  to  successive  Periods  of  Life. 
Such  periodic  Feelings  spring  from  periodic 
transformations  of  his  Body  which  have  their 
course  or  cycle.  They  are  differentiated  in 
Time,  while  the  Races  are  differentiated  in  Space. 
These  somatic  Periods  are  the  work  of  Nature  in 
the  organism  and  outside  of  it,  the  work  of 
Nature's  Totality. 

As  the  human  organism  receiving  the  sun's 
rays  is  transformed  into  a  kind  of  spectrum 
which  shows  its  varied  colors  in  the  skin  of  the 
several  Races,  so  that  same  sun  manifests  in  that 
same  organism  its  daily  rise,  culmination  and 
decline,  as  well  as  its  yearly  circle  of  the  seasons, 
in  which  Nature  is  born  again,  matures  and 
declines.  Wider  still  than  the  daily  and  yearly 
cycles,  is  the  Period.  The  Body  has  thus  a 
Feeling  of  the  World  and  its  movement  (World* 
Feeling)  which  reflects  itself  in  the  above  men- 
tioned cycles,  and  permanently  in  the  so-called 
Ages  of  Man,  which  may  be  ordered  in  many 
ways.  Shakespeare  has  the  well-known  seven, 
but  they  are  presented  on  their  negative  side  by 
the  melancholy  (pessimistic)  Jaques.  Simple 
and  more  organic  is  the  following. 


1.  Youth  moves  physically  from  being  born 
(infancy)  to  being  sexed  (adolescence).  This 
is  the  period  of  acquisition.,  of  education,  of  mas- 
tering both  in  body  and  in  mind  the  racial 
heritage.  The  individuality  of  nature  is  made 
complete  by  sex. 

2.  Manhood  is  physically  sex  realized,  tlie 
individual  does  not  remain  a  mere  individual,  but 
becomes  the  generic  process  which  reproduces 
the  individual.  With  this  natural  element  is  con- 
nected a  corresponding  spiritual  trait  of  creating 
through  Will  and  Intellect.  Or  we  may  say 
in  abstract  terms,  the  individual  universalizes 
himself.  The  character  of  the  sexual  and  the 
reproductive  Feelings  which  form  the  basis  of 
this  division  into  Periods,  is  set  forth  under  the 
next  head  (of  sex). 

3.  Old-Age  has  the  tendency  to  break  with 
the  living  Present,  and  to  turn  toward  Past  and 
Future.  The  vital  vigor  declines,  the  elasticity 
of  the  Body  becomes  hardened  into  routine,  cus- 
tom, regularity.  The  Spirit  may  follow  the 
Body  or  it  may  rebound  from  it  and  become 
more  active  and  original  than  ever.  The  Nine- 
teenth Century  has  been  famous  for  its  great 

The  Feeling  of  Old-Age  gets  to  know  itself 
by  the  contrast  with  tlie  Feeling  of  Youth,  which 
hardly  knows  itself  but  feels  itself  with  all  the 
greater  intensity.     Hence  Old-Age  is  more  self- 


conscious,  more  reflective.  In  fact  we  see  that 
these  three  Periods  are  in  the  main  dominated  by 
Feeling  (Youth),  hy  Will  (Manhood),  and  by  In- 
tellect (Old- Age).  Undoubtedly  there  are  many 
fluctuations  and  exceptions  in  this  Psychosis  of 
the  Periods  of  Life,  still  it  holds  good  in  general, 
and  has  long  been  recognized. 

It  is  evident  that  each  of  these  Periods  is 
capable  of  sub-division.  Particularly  Youth  as 
the  time  of  education  must  be  separated  into 
special  epochs  from  tli(?  suckling  (and  even  from 
the  pre-natal  condition  )  through  various  school- 
ages.  Moreover  Youth  passes  through  a  far 
orreater  number  of  changes  in  a  brief  time  than 
either  of  the  other  two  Periods,  since  it  has  to 
re-enact  in  small  the  evolution  of  its  race. 

III.  Sexual  Fekling.  —  In  the  Bodv  sex  is 
manifested  organically,  having  its  own  organs, 
with  their  corresponding  Feeling  which  hence  be- 
longs to  the  somatic  class.  In  the  preceding 
Periods  of  Life  Nature  changes  the  Body  sym- 
metrically, all  parts  being  transformed  equally, 
though  some  member  may  become  disproportion- 
ately old  through  some  defect  or  injury.  But 
sex  is  individualized  in  a  special  part,  and  sexual 
Feeling  is  correspondingly  special,  not  general 
like  the  Feeling  of  Age  (periodic).  You  feel 
young  or  old  all  over  and  all  the  time,  though  in 
this  sphere  too  there  are  variations. 

The  fact  before  us  here  is  the   sexing  of  the 


living  Universe.  There  is  this  line  of  separation 
throu«:h  all  life  from  the  hij^hest  to  the  lowest 
vcirctable  as  well  as  animal.  Nature  dualizes 
itself  into  the  two  sexes,  male  and  female.  It 
makes  each  individual  a  half,  so  to  speak;  the 
two  halves  of  humanity  are  said  to  be  almost 
equally  divided,  as  if  there  was  some  kind  of 
control  in  this  matter.  The  Totality  of  Nature 
splits  itself  into  two  sexual  halves,  making  every 
individual  even  pre-natally  on  one  side  or  the 
other.  As  to  race  each  person  is  the  whole 
of  it;  but  as  to  self  he  is  only  the  half  of  it  — 
Man  and  all  living:  creation  being  bi-sexual. 

Manv  duties  of  life  divide  on  the  sexual  line. 
Man  has  sexual  Feeling  in  all  that  he  does;  the 
same  is  true  of  woman.  He  goes  forth  into  the 
world,  does  its  business,  fights  its  battles,  rules 
its  political  Institution.  He  does  not  like  being 
governed  in  the  State  by  woman,  who  sways  par- 
ticularly in  tlie  domestic  sphere.  The  dual  sexual 
Feeling  thus  tinges  human  existence  through  and 
through,  dividing  it  into  symmetrical  moieties 
which  form  or  ouirht  to  form  an  harmonious 
Whole.  This  divisicm  of  'sex  pays  no  attention 
to  other  divisions  such  as  Race  or  Age,  but 
cleaves  across  them  both  through  their  whole 
length,  and  reaches  down  to  the  first  forms  of 

So  we  bring  before  us  this  great  fact  of  sexual 
separation   throughout   the  Totality  of  Nature. 


It  has  always  excited  wonder  and  speculation, 
particularly  about  its  origin.  Plato  has  fabled  of 
a  unisexual  being,  who  was  primordial,  and  who 
became  bisexual.  But  a  more  famous  passage  is 
the  following:  **And  the  Lord  God  caused  a 
deep  sleep  to  fall  upon  the  man,  and  he  slept. 
And  he  took  one  of  his  ribs"  and  made  the 
woman.  Man  is  thus  conceived  as  unisexual  at 
first,  and  out  of  the  first  sex  the  second  is 
created.     Then  the  Race  becomes  bisexual. 

Along  with  the  problem  of  origin  rises  a  more 
searching  question :  What  is  the  ground  of  this 
separation  into  sexes?  To  the  end  that  the  in- 
dividual reproduce  himself  and  thereby  preserve 
the  species,  the  Race.  But  herewith  a  new 
kind  of  Feeling  comes  into  view,  springing  from, 
yet  quite  opposite  to  the  sexual  Feeling  in  the 
proper  sense.  For  sexual  Feeling  affirms  the 
separation  into  the  two  sexes,  while  reproductive 
Feeling  unites  them. 

In  the  Totality  of  Nature  the  component  parts 
of  the  sexual  process  are  male  and  female;  to 
these  the  offspring  must  be  added  as  the  end  and 
purpose  of  this  process.  But  the  offspring  is 
also  sexual,  in  this  respect  following  one  or  the 
other  of  its  parents.  Hence  with  it  the  process 
begins  over  again,  and  we  see  what  may  be  called 
the  somatic  cycle  or  round  complete,  ever  return- 
ing into  itself.     Such  is  the   pivot  of  the  great 



Natural  Whole  of  Life  turning   on  the  self-re- 
production of  the  individual  body. 

But  this  vast  process  with  its  varied  reflex  in 
Feeling  cannot  be  here  given;  we  can  only  make 
brief  mention  of  the  human  sphere:  woman, 
man,  child. 

1 .  We  place  the  Woman  first  in  the  psycho- 
logical order,  since  she  undoubtedly  represents 
the  stage  of  Feeling  more  than  the  man  whose 
distinctive  trait  in  the  present  relation  is  rather 
the  Will.  Her  Ego  is  inclined  within  itself  to 
turn  inward  at  the  outer  Determinant;  the  world 
stimulates  her  to  Feeling  more  than  to  Action, 
though  she  is  not  without  the  latter.  Nature 
has  made  her  part  a  recipient  one  in  the  repro- 
ductive process ;  she  overcomes  her  one-sidedncss 
of  the  sexual  separation  by  the  acceptance  of 
what  comes  instead  of  taking  the  offensive. 

2.  The  Many  as  already  indicated,  is  Will 
when  considered  as  a  part  of  the  psychical  process, 
of  which  both  Man  and  Woman  are  stages.  And 
yet  each  must  have  the  total  ps}  chical  process  of 
which  each  is  a  part,  in  order  to  be  a  part  or 
member  thereof.  Nature  has  made  him  the  ag-^ 
gressive,  assailing,  outward-going  element  of  the 
total  human  Psychosis ;  he  goes  forth  into  the 
world  to  transform  it,  to  re-create  it.  And  of 
this  kind  is  the  share  that  he  has  in  the  present 
process  of  sex. 

3.  The    Child  is    the  result  and  end  of  the 


somatic  process  as  sexual,  the  third  stage  of  it, 
and  its  fulfillment.  If  the  mother  is  Feeling 
and  the  father  Will,  the  infant  ought  apparently 
to  be  Intellect,  which  sounds  contradictory. 
Developed  Intellect  the  Child  is  certainly  not; 
rather  is  it  Feeling,  as  all  Youth  is  dominantly. 
Still  the  main  function  of  child-life  is  to  know 
the  World;  and  this  knowing  is  the  process  of 
Intellect.  In  play,  in  school,  even  in  mischief 
the  Child  is  grappling  with  objects  that  it  may 
know  them  for  its  future  activity  and  culture. 
In  this  sense  the  Child  is  mainly  an  intellectual 
process,  and  its  Feeling  is  for  knowledge,  not 
always,  however,  by  way  of  the  school.  Thus 
the  vocation  of  childhood  is  to  rise  from  an 
emotional  toward  a  rational  state  of  mind. 

If  we  accept  the  idea  of  progress,  of  evolu- 
tion, of  a  continued  betterment  of  the  human 
race  on  the  whole,  we  have  to  say  that  in  the 
average  the  Child  is  an  improvement  on  the  pa- 
rent, is  greater  mentally  and  morally.  Rela- 
tively therefore  he  has  more  Intellect.  Every- 
body knows  the  many  individual  exceptions  to 
this  statement.  We  are,  however,  speaking  of 
the  total  movement  of  mankind.  Every  parent 
feels  some  such  possibility  in  his  infant  and 
prays  that  it  may  become  reality.  Hector  on  the 
walls  of  Troy  takes  his  boy  Astyanax  in  his 
arms  and  holds  him  up  toward  Heaven  with  the 
fervent  petition  to   the   Gods;  **  May   he  bea 


better  man  than  his  father!  "  Such  a  possibil- 
ity even  the  hero  feels  to  be  in  his  child, 
imaging  harmoniously  in  his  soul's  supplication 
the  movement  of  humanity. 

Hence  comes  the  interest  in  the  Child  as  the 
bearer  of  all  future  progress  and  civilization. 
With  every  people  who  have  faith  in  their  own 
worth,  and  who  wish,  therefore,  to  perpetuate 
their  social  and  political  life,  the  education  of 
the  Child  is  becoming  a  chief  national  end,  and 
is  calling  forth  a  new  Institution  just  for  this 
purpose.  Not  simply  one  is  to  be  educated  to  be 
ruler  and  the  rest  to  be  ruled,  but  all  must  be 
educated  to  be  rulers  and  ruled. 

The  Child  is  the  product  of  two  reproductive 
processes  united ;  he  inherits  traits  from  each 
parent  separately,  but  he  also  inherits  from  both 
taken  together,  what  neither  has  separately  as 
individuals,  namely  himself,  his  own  individ- 
uality. For  he  is  the  product  of  both,  not  of 
one  or  the  other.  Something  is  added  to  every 
born  Ego  from  the  stream  of  descent.  Each 
parent  is  the  product  of  the  process  of  his  or 
her  parents,  and  so  has  something  which  neither 
had,  and  which  may  bo  transmitted.  Heredity 
means  not  simply  the  transmission  of  what  is 
like  to  the  ancestors  but  also  of  whatis  different. 
This  difference  lies  in  the  very  nature  of  the 
reproductive  process.  This  fact  comes  out 
strongly  in  the  improvement  of  the  breed  of  ani- 


mals  and  also  of  vegetables.  If  their  creative  or 
reproductive  process  is  protected  by  domestica- 
tion, there  takes  place  an  evolution  which  im- 
parts something  more  than  the  transmitted  qual- 
ities of  individual  ancestors.  But  in  man  the 
great  inheritance  always  is  his  limit-transcending 

Here  we  have  reached  the  conclusion  of  the 
somatic  process  as  determining  World-Feeling 
and  have  found  its  purpose  to  be  the  reproduc- 
tion of  the  individual  body.  But  this  body 
reproduced  is  still  sexual,  and  must  reproduce 
the  same  process  which  produced  it,  and  thus  the 
creative  round  begins  anew  with  every  repro- 
duced individual  of  Nature,  who  is  endowed  by 
inheritance  with  the  same  originative  Feeling 
which  gave  to  it  its  own  origin.  Such  we  name 
the  somatic  cycle,  the  cycle  of  our  own  bodies,  in 
contrast  with,  yet  also  in  deep  harmony  with  the 
outer  cycle  of  the  heavenly  bodies  which  we 
observed  in  cosmical  Feeling. 

Though  the  self-reproductive  individual  drops 
back  into  sex  and  its  division,  he  has  brought  to 
light  a  new  and  greater  process,  namely  that  of 
the  self-renewal  of  all  Nature  through  the  self- 
renewal  of  the  individual.  This  gives  rise  to  a 
new  kind  of  World-Feeling,  in  which  the  Ego 
feels  the  universally  reproductive  energy  of  the 
Totality  of  Nature. 


in.  Reproductivb  Feeling. 

In  order  to  understand  the  present  Feeling,  we 
grasp  the  Totality  of  Nature  in  itself,  or  the 
World  in  its  complete  self-reproducing  process. 
We  recollect  that  in  the  movement  of  'Self- 
Feeling  we  reached  in  its  third  stage  (as  Total 
Feeling)  the  complete  process  of  the  Ego  in 
itself,  or  as  the  subjective  Psychosis.  In  like 
manner  we  have  at  present  reached  the  third 
stage  of  World-Feeling,  in  which  the  Ego  feels 
the  total  World-process  as  self-reproductive. 

In  thinking  out  the  problem  before  us,  we  may 
first  ponder  the  following  proposition :  the  Ego 
feels  the  World-process,  or  the  World  repro- 
ducing itself  through  the  self-reproduction  of 
the  individual.  The  renewal  of  the  World  is  the 
renewal  of  all  its  individuals.  Thus  the  individ- 
ual as  self-renewing  or  self -reproducing  deter- 
mines the  liviuor  AH  as  self-renewino:  or  self- 
reproducing,  which  in  its  turn  determines  the 
individual  to  be  self-renewing  or  self-reproducing. 
Let  the  reader  observe  this  new  total  cycle  of 
self-reproduction  in  the  individual,  in  the  world, 
back  to  the  individual.  Such  is  what  the  World- 
feeling  Ego  finally  feels  as  its  complete  mani- 

Another  fact  we  may  note  at   this  point :   the 


individual  Body  with  its  process  (somatic)  does 
not  now  determine  the  feeling  Ego,  but  is  deter- 
mined by  this  Ego  and  reduced  to  being  a  part 
of  its  present  process  of  Reproductive  Feeling. 
Thus  we  distinctly  pass  from  Life  which  is  cor- 
poreal to  Soul  which  is  supra-corporeal,  using 
the  body  for  its  purpose,  and  making  the  same  a 
member  of  a  greater  Whole.  Hence  we  are  no 
longer  in  Somatic  Feeling  which  reached  its  con- 
clusion in  the  self-reproduction  of  the  sexual 
body.  But  now  this  process  is  subordinated  to 
the  self-reproduction  of  the  living  Universe. 

So  the  new  individual  comes  to  light  —  the 
purpose  and  end  of  the' sexual  separation  of  the 
Totality  of  Nature.  We  have  seen  how  the  All 
as  Life,  the  All-Life,  divides  within  itself  and 
becomes  sexual  in  order  to  re-create  itself.  The 
object  of  the  All  (as  vital)  is  to  produce  the  new 
individual  who  keeps  the  process  going  by  repro- 
ducing himself.  The  child  is  not  only  the 
renewal  of  both  parents,  but  of  the  whole  Uni- 
verse, by  which  it  is  reared  as  well  as  by  father 
and  mother.  The  sun  and  moon  and  planets 
take  part  in  the  training  of  every  child,  giving  a 
cosmical  education,  as  we  have  already  seen. 
His  body  is  transformed  and  made  racial ;  then 
he  is  also  sexed,  that  he  may  participate  in  the 
reproductive  process  of  the  Universe  and  keep 
it  moving.  Thus  he  is  a  link  of  the  All  as  it 
returns  into  itself  and  remakes  itself  in  a  per- 


petual  round  of  creation.  On  the  other  hand 
he  individually  must  make  this  round  also,  par- 
ticipating in  the  reproductive  process  of  the 
Universe  in  order  to  get  and  to  beget  himself  in 
harmony  with  the  movement  of  the  AIL 

Here  likewise  we  are  to  see  the  fundamental 
movement  of  the  Psyche,  the  Psychosis,  which 
manifests  itself  both  as  soul  of  the  Universe  and 
soul  of  the  individual.  There  is  the  first  undif- 
ferentiated unity,  then  the  separation  into  the 
sexes,  out  of  which  state  both  Man  and  the  Uni- 
verse are  to  return  through  the  reproductive  pro- 
cess, which  makes  creation  creative.  Such  is 
the  Psychosis  underlying  and  determining  what 
we  have  above  called  World- Feeling,  of  which 
Reproductive  Feeling  is  the  third  and  self- 
returning  stage. 

But  in  Reproductive  Feeling  taken  by  itself 
there  is  also  the  Psychosis  as  has  been  already 
indicated.  Man,  Woman  and  Child  form  a 
Psychosis,  are  parts  of  a  process  including  them 
all.  Yet  each  member  of  this  process  is  also  a 
Psychosis,  being  a  Psyche,  an  individual  soul  or 
Ego,  which  is  now  the  produced,  though  at  the 
start  (in  cosmical  Feeling)  it  was  taken  for 

These  discursive  statements  we  may  bring  to- 
gether in  the  following  order  which  indicates  the 
underlying  thought  in  its  general  sweep. 

1.  The  Universe  grasped  immediately  can  only 


be  self-reproductive,  for  there  is  nothing  outside 
of  itself  to  produce  it  or  to  cause  its  reproduc- 
tion. The  All  or  the  All-Life  must  be  conceived 
as  dividing  within  itself  and  generating  itself; 
it  is  the  self -reproductive  process  within  itself. 
The  Universe  is  its  own  Self-Life,  the  rounded 
Totality  of  animate  existence,  ever  turning  back 
upon  itself  and  reproducing  itself. 

But  what  is  the  pivot  upon  which  it  thus  turns? 
For  it  is  making  its  vital  cycle  now,  not  its  me- 
chanical, as  in  Cosmical  Feeling. 

2.  This  pivot  is  the  individual  with  its  self-re- 
producing process  through  the  sexual  separation. 
We  have  already  in  somatic  Feeling  noted  this 
process  which  manifests  itself  especially  in 
Woman,  Man,  and  Child,  returning  to  itself  in 
the  new  sexed  individual  (offspring).  We  call 
it  the  pivot  (or  the  axis)  since  all  animate  Na- 
ture renews  itself  through  the  self -reproducing 
individual,  vegetable  and  animal.  The  living 
Whole  of  the  World  divides  itself  on  this  line  of 
sex  from  top  to  bottom,  and  out  of  this  division 
it  returns  to  itself  and  forms  its  process  of  All- 
Life  through  the  process  of  the  individual,  who 
is  driven  thereto  by  what  we  above  designate  as 
Reproductive  Feeling. 

The  individual  sexed  or  halved  by  the  Totality 
of  Nature,  feeh  his  halfness,  feels  his  lack  of 
being  a  Totality  in  himself,  and  so  he  seeks  the 
other  half  or  the  other  sex  in  order  to  complete 


himself  as  a  self-creating  Whole.  For  he  feels 
this  Whole,  though  he  is  not  it  corporeally;  this 
Feeling  is  what  drives  him  to  make  himself  en- 
tire through  the  process  of  reproducing  himself 
as  individual.  He  is  not  wholly  himself  till  he 
recreates  himself. 

The  Body  is  not  transformed  in  the  present 
sphere,  hence  it  is  not  somatic  in  the  sense  above 
given.  Nor  is  this  the  Body  of  the  cosmical 
sphere,  in  which  it  was  taken  as  a  whole  receiv- 
ing the  impress  of  the  Macrocosm  and  its  cycles. 
Thus  we  have  here  a  new  stage  of  the  World- 
Feeling,  which  is  now  determined  by  the  Total- 
ity of  Nature  to  the  reproduction  of  the  indi- 
vidual hitherto  given  or  taken  for  granted.  The 
reproductive  process  presupposes  also  the  dual- 
ism of  sex  whose  separation  and  isolation,  and 
we  may  say  selBshness  it  must  overcome  by  the 
Feeling  of  completeness  through  another  of  the 
opposite  sex  (Love),  which  Feeling  is  realized 
in  the  family. 

3.  Each  living  thing  is  a  self-reproducing  in- 
dividual with  its  own  round  of  life,  moving 
through  its  orbit  of  birth,  bloom,  decay.  The 
entire  organism  of  Nature  is,  therefore,  com- 
posed of  an  infinitude  of  living  cycles,  crossing 
each  other,  intertwining,  strugglingf or  existence, 
and  forming  the  colossal  panorama  of  the  All- 
Life.  We  may  compare  these  vital  orbits  of 
animate  objects  in  all  their  varied  interaction  to 


the  vast  complex  of  the  cosmical  orbits  drawn 
through  the  skies  by  the  numberless  heavenly 
bodies  of  every  description.  From  both  cases 
we  see  that  the  Natural  Universe,  as  a  whole 
and  in  its  parts,  moves  in  self-returning  cycles, 
whether  these  be  external  and  cosmical  or  inter- 
nal and  reproductive. 

Thus  all  living  things  with  their  individual 
process  form  a  Social  Whole,  or  animate  Uni- 
verse, which  is  determined  by  them  reproduc- 
tively,  yet  which  in  turn  determines  them  repro- 

The  World-Feeling  has  now  become  reproduc- 
tive, determining  the  individual  Body  to  repro- 
duce itself,  and  thereby  to  reproduce,  for  its 
part,  the  living  All.  This  is  the  final  purpose  of 
World-Feeling,  which  always  works  in  and 
through  the  human  organism,  and  brings  it  at  last 
to  complete  its  cycle,  by  turning  it  back  upon  itself 
and  cau&ing  it  to  reproduce  itself  and  the  World. 
This  is  the  cycle  of  Nature  in  the  individual,  who 
reproduces  himself  in  another  individual,  his 
offspring,  going  back  to  his  pre-natal  starting- 
point,  and  passing  through  birth  and  youth 
again.  Such,  too,  is  the  movement  of 
World-Feeling  herein  set  forth:  as  cosmical 
it  assumes  the  Body  as  something  given,  as 
somatic  it  transforms  the  Body  in  its  parts  and 
organs,  as  reproductive  it  re-makes  what  it  as- 
sumed   at    the  beginning  in  Cosmical   Feeling. 


Thus  reproductive  is  a  return  to  the  first  or 
given  Feeling,  which  it  accounts  for  in  the  true 
way,  namely  by  creating  it  anew,  wherein  the 
sexed  individual  becomes  generic,  creative  of 
itself,  by  returning  to  itself  out  of  the  sexual 
dualism  through  another  individual  of  the  oppo- 
Hite  sex. 

Here  we  have  the  natural  basis  for  the  Family, 
which  has  also  its  institutional  element,  by  which 
the  union  of  two  sexes  is  elevated  out  of  its 
purely  physical  side  and  made  permanent. 

With  the  idea  of  the  Individual  reproducing 
itself  (axial)  and  in  this  act  also  reproducing  the 
animate  Universe  (orbital)  in  connection,  of 
course,  with  all  other  living  individuals,  we  have 
reached  the  conclusion  of  Reproductive  Feeling, 
and  also  the  greater  movement  including  it, 
namelv,  World-Feeling.  The  individual  with 
which  we  started  as  assumed  has  now  been  gen- 
erated, having  been  through  Feeling  turned  back 
upon  itself  and  made  to  reproduce  itself,  and 
therewith  also  the  World-Life.  The  Ego  from 
being  a  recipient  of  the  Totality  of  Nature,  has 
wheeled  about  on  its  own  axis  (so  to  speak) 
and  reproduced  itself,  and  with  itself  the  Total 
ity  of  Nature.  Such  is  the  cycle  of  the  present 
sphere  of  the  World-feeling  Ego,  embracing  both 
the  Ego  and  the  World  as  self-reproductive. 

Casting  a  glance  over  this  entire  field,  we 
observe  a  common  movement  in  all  three  stages 


of  World-Feeling.  Cosmical  Feeling  brought 
out  the  axial  and  orbital  cycles  and  also  that  of 
the  Totality  of  Nature  as  determinants.  So- 
matic Feeling  ended  in  a  similar  movement  of 
the  sexual  individual  with  its  reproduction  and 
return  to  itself  as  a  new  individual.  Reproduc- 
tive Feeling  manifests  likewise  in  its  way  an 
axial,  orbital,  and  universal  cycle  —  the  individ- 
ual self-renewal  in  itself,  the  individual  self- 
renewal  as  means  for  renewing  the  living  All, 
finally  the  universal  self-renewal  of  the  living 
All,  or  the  animate  Universe. 

Still  the  self -reproductive  process  of  the  ani- 
mate Universe  or  of  the  World  is  an  outside 
process  in  the  sense  of  producing  individuals 
which  are  born  in  separation,  and  remain  in 
separation  to  the  end  —  this  being  the  second  or 
separative  stage  of  the  present  sphere.  But  the 
true  Universe  as  the  complete  All  is  an  inside 
process,  self -reproducing  through  itself,  since 
there  is  no  outside  to  the  Universe ;  even  the 
self-reproducing  individual  is  now  inside  the 
total  process,  and  a  part  or  stage  of  the  same. 

But  now  comes  the  thought  that  every  part  or 
member  of  any  Whole  must  have  the  process  of 
that  Whole  within  it  as  its  own  ideal  principle  or 
soul  in  Older  to  be  such  part  or  member  of  the 
given  Whole.  The  individual  as  part  or  mem- 
ber of  the  Universe  must  have  the  latter's  pro- 
cess within  itself  as  its  very  Self  or  Soul  in  order 


to  be  such  individual.  This  is  now  the  Ego 
itself  produced  by  the  All,  the  child  of  the  Uni- 
verse with  the  latter's  process. 

Herewith  we  have  come  to  the  end  of  World- 
Feeling  which  has  the  World  >asMts  det^mhiant 
more  or  less  external,  and  we  have  reached  the 
feeling  Ego  which  has  witl|i^  tts^lf •  the  self- 
creative  process  of  the  Universe  as  its  very 
essence.  We  must  now  conceive  the  self-gener- 
ating All  as  producing  the  individual  and  impart- 
ing to  the  same  its  own  universal  process,  thus 
calling  into  existence  the  conscious  Self  or  Ego, 
which  as  Feeling  is  the  Feeling  of  the  All  or 

With  this  thought  we  have  moved  into  a  new 
stage  of  Feeling,  which  we  call  All-Feeling,  and 
in  which  we  are  to  witness  the  unfolding  of  the 
new  individual  as  Ego,  with  its  All-process.  The 
Universe  is  now  felt  in  its  self-creating  move- 
ment: first  as  the  one  primal  Whole,  secondly 
as  self-separating,  thirdly  as  returning  out  of 
this  self -separation  to  its  concrete  unity.  Such 
becomes  the  movement  of  the  Ego  within  itself, 
stamped  as  it  were  by  this  self-creative  process 
of  the  Universe,  whereby  we  designate  it  as  con- 
scious. This  is  a  great  new  dawning  in  the 
history  of  man  who  now  begins  to  possess  con- 
sciousness. Mmd  as  conscious  is  eternally  self- 
begetting,  self-creative,  like  its  first  parent,  the 
Universe,    who  endowed    this   conscious   Mind 


with  his  own  self -creative  power,  which  enables 
thought  not  only  to  create  itself,  but  to  re-create 
its  parent,  the  Universe. 

We  may  use  somewhat  more  familiar  terms, 
but  more  vague,  to  express  the  order  which  we 
have  passed  through.  (1)  Life  —  the  self- 
reproducing  individual  in  himself,  or  as  physical 
Body,  reproduces  another  individual  as  Body  — 
the  corporeal  round.  (  2  )  Soul  —  the  self-repro- 
ducing individual  as  pivot  reproduces  the  Total- 
ity of  Nature,  not  merely  single  Life  but  the 
All-Life  —  the  mundane  round.  (3)  Conscious- 
ness  —  the  self -reproducing  individual  repro- 
duces, not  another  individual,  nor  the  Totality 
of  Nature,  but  the  absolute  Totality  or  the 
Universe  within  itself,  which  thus  has  created 
after  its  own  image  (or  process)  the  individual 
as  conscious  Ego. 

Consciousness  has  probably  given  more  trouble 
to  the  psychologist  than  any  other  mental  activ- 
ity, with  the  possible  exception  of  Free-Will. 
It  is  often  said  to  be  indefinable,  being  that 
through  which  everything  else  is  defined,  but 
not  itself.  Some  regard  it  as  feeling,  others  as 
knowledge,  still  others  as  volition.  We  shall 
find  that  it  is  all  three  and  yet  neither.  Then 
its  origin  has  given  much  trouble.  Is  it  a  state 
of  the  nerves  or  does  it  come  from  some  other 
source?  A  distinguished  psychologist  has  pro- 
posed to  drop  tne  term  from  the  science,  as  if 



the  difficulty  lay  in  the  word  and  not  in  the 
thing.  Other  psychologists  will  keep  any  view 
of  its  origin  out  of  psychology  proper  as  such  a 
view  belongs  to  metaphysics.  Only  the  pheno- 
mena of  Consciousness  belong  to  the  psycholog- 
ical domain,  and  can  be  truly  known. 

These  limitations  we  shall  have  to  disregard. 
Undoubtedly  the  word  has  several  meanings, 
according  as  it  is  applied  to  larger  or  smaller 
fields  of  the  self -recognizing  or  self -relating  mind. 
But  such  an  obstacle  is  found  everywhere  in  the 
formulation  of  thought.  Consciousness,  which 
for  us  is  the  Ego  as  All-Feeling,  must  be  seen  in 
an  order  from  which  flow  all  its  divisions  and 
their  definitions. 


We  have  now  cnmetoanewstago  of  Feeling,  the 
Feeling  of  the  All,  or  the  All-feeling  Ego,  which 
feeU  the  Universe  as  eelf-reproductive.  It  is  the 
process  of  the  Ego  within  itself  turned  inward 
by  the  process  nf  the  All  iind  determined  by  the 
same  to  its  own  inner  self -reproduction  or  eelf- 
activity.  Such  Feeling  ia  etill  elemental;  the 
All-feeling  Ego  is  still  in  an  organic  unity  with 
the  All  determining  it.  But  it  differs  from  the 
two  previous  stages  of  Elemental  Feeling,  Self- 
Feeling  and  World-Feeling;  in  the  former  the 
Ego  reaches  the  point  of  feeling  its  own  inner 
process  (as  Total  Feeling),  in  the  latter  the  Ego 
reaches  the  point  of  feeling  the  process  of  the 
external  world  or  of  the  Totality  of  Nature, 
8  (113) 



whereby  this  is  self-reproductive.  All-Feeling, 
however,  is  determined  by  the  All ;  it  is  the  All- 
feeling  Ego  which*  is  stirred  by  the  All  to  feel  the 
All  and  its  process,  not  simply  the  process  of  the 
Self  or  of  the  World.  The  Totality  now  deter- 
mines the  Ego  as  Feeling  to  feel  the  Totality. 

All-Feeling  is,  therefore,  the  third  stage  of 
Elemental  Feeling,  and  forms  a  Psychosis  with 
the  two  previous  stages,  Self-Feeling  and  World- 
Feeling,  embracing  them  both  in  one  process. 
The  interaction  of  the  two  psychical  movements 
of  the  Self  and  the  World  is  that  which  is  to  be 
reflected  as  Feeling  in  the  Self.  Or  the  Self  as 
All-Feeling  is  to  take  up  both  itself  and  the 
World  into  its  own  process  of  Feeling. 

In  World-Feeling  the  feeling  Ego  came  to  feci 
the  self-reproductive  process  of  the  Totality  of 
Nature,  which  pivoted  upon  the  individual  self- 
reproducing.  Thus  the  Totality  of  Nature  took 
up  the  individual  into  its  process.  But  now  it  is 
taken  up  in  its  turn  by  the  individual  which  in 
consequence  feels  itself  within  itself  to  be  the 
self-reproductive  process  of  the  All,  which  means 
that  the  conscious  Self  has  arrived,  that  the  Ego 
has  attained  consciousness,  self-dividiug  yet 
self-returning  wholly  within  itself. 

Our  leading  proposition  under  the  head  of 
All-Feeling  is,  therefore,  that  the  conscious  Ego 
here  reached  has  in  it  the  Feeling  of  tlie  All  as 
self-reproductive  process,  is  properly  All-Feel- 

ALL-PSKLiyff.  116 

ing.  Every  act  of  consciousness  is  the  iadivid- 
uiil  feeling  the  Universe  jis  self-creating.  The 
conscious  Ego  has  the  self-separatian  and  self- 
returning  power  of  the  All  whose  process  it  re- 
enutjts  in  its  iiiuveiiient.  The  consciousness  of 
the  iniiividual  is,  therefore,  the  impress  of  the 
Greiit  Totality  upon  Man,  who  has  to  be  inter- 
nally the  All  in  order  to  be  conscious. 

Let  us  take  an  example.  The  conscious  Self 
not  only  sees  yonder  object  outwardly,  but  sees 
itself  at  the  same  time  inwardly  ]>erforming  this 
act.  It  turns  buck  upon  itself  and  beholds  itself 
separating  from  itself  and  then  returning  to 
itself  with  the  external  percept.  Now  this  inner 
process  of  the  self-separating  and  self- return  ing 
Ego  is  tlie  truly  universal  one,  that  of  the  Uni- 
verse eternally  self-creating,  which  process  the 
Ego  baa  to  pass  through  in  order  to  see  con- 
sciously. Nothing  in  the  Universe  has  the 
Ego's  process  except  the  Universe.  The  indi- 
vidual thing  outside  of  it  cau  stimulate  it,  must 
stimulate  it  to  behold  the  All  in  beholding  the 
part.  Ljiug  back  of  my  sensations,  my  voli- 
tions and  my  thoughts  is  my  conscious  Egn, 
which  as  conscious  has  in  it  immediately  the 
process  of  the  All,  or  is  the  Feeling  of  the  All. 
Now  this  process  in  the  Ego  and  in  each  of  its 
activities  has  been  designated  by  a  special  name, 
the  Psychosis. 

We  have  already  found  that  the  process  of  the 


Ego  ia  itself,  or  as  purely  psychical,  has  the  three 
forms  —  Feeling,  Willing,  Knowing.  But  now 
we  find  that  each  of  these  forms  has  behind  it 
consciousness,  or  the  Ego  as  conscious,  as  Psy- 
chosis, re-enacting  in  the  individual  the  self-sepa- 
ration, and  self-returning  All,  which  is  properly 
its  source.  We  shall  set  down  these  points  in 
order :  (1)1  feel,  will,  and  know ;  ( 2)  I  am  con- 
scious that  I  feel,  will,  and  know;  (3)  this  con- 
sciousness of  mine  is  the  All-process  in  me,  which 
I  feel  as  present  and  active  (All-Feeling). 

Such  may  be  deemed  the  basic  act  of  Mind. 
Not  till  the  self-reproducing  process  of  the  Uni- 
verse is  internalized  in  me,  this  individual,  am  I 
universal,  or  a  mental  member  of  the  Universe, 
having  its  self-creative  movement  in  me  as  an 
ever-active  Feeling.  Consciousness  is  the  mark 
of  humanity.  Every  animal,  yea,  every  vegetable 
is  a  physical  member  of  the  self-reproducing 
Universe,  participating  in  its  self-reproduction. 
But  when  the  Ego  feels  itself  to  be  All-Feeling, 
feels  within  itself  the  self-reproducing  process  of 
the  All,  it  has  become  Mind,  Spirit,  Conscious- 
ness. To  sense  even  the  particular  external 
thing,  it  has  to  reproduce  internally  the  Universe 
which  creates  that  thing  of  sense. 

Self -Feeling  (first  stage  of  Elemental  Feeling) 
is  now  to  reproduce  itself,  not  merely  to  find 
itself  as  already  existent.     The  Self -feeling  Ego 


we  came  upon  ia  Total  Feeling,  as  it  lay  back  of 
the  process  of  Feeling,  Willing,  and  Knowing. 
But  how  does  it  get  to  be?  We  are  to  penetrate 
behind  it  and  see  its  origin.  This  origin,  as  al- 
ready stated,  lies  in  the  self -reproducing  Uni- 
verse, which  gives  to  the  Ego  All-Feeling  and 
makes  it  conscious. 

The  Ego  as  Consciousness  is  self -creative 
wholly  within  itself,  making  itself  over  in  a  per- 
petual round  of  self-activity,  which  is  its  primor- 
dial gift  from  the  Universe  also  eternally  self- 
creative.  But  in  this  getting  of  Consciousness  by 
the  Ego  there  are  stages,  we  behold  a  movement 
which  must  be  set  forth.  The  Self  internalizes 
gradually  the  self-reproducing  Universe,  which 
in  some  special  form  of  itself  stimulates  the  indi- 
vidual to  the  act  of  inner  self-reproduction,  to 

It  is  the  object  of  an  exposition  of  All-Feeling 
to  show  the  various  stages  of  the  same  as  it  un- 
folds in  the  All-feeling  Ego  as  determined  by  the 
All  in  its  self-reproducing  process.  For  this  All 
has  as  its  end  to  determine  the  Ego  to  determine 
itself,  to  assert  its  own  freedom  as  self-reproduc- 
tive or  self-conscious,  and  thus  to  liberate  itself 
from  the  stage  of  Elementalisni,  that  is,  of  being 
determined  immediately  by  the  All  as  an  organic 
part  of  itself.  The  All-feeliug  Self  must  attain 
finally  the  point  of  determining  its  Determinant, 
of  determining  the  All  which  determines  it. 


The  stages  in  this  movement  of  All-Feeling  or 
of  the  All-feeling  Ego,  from  being  wholly  deter- 
mined by  the  All,  to  its  determining  the  All  are 
as  follows :  — 

I.  Feeling  of  the  Endowed  (Pre-conscious) 
Self;  the  sphere  of  what  is  often  called  natural 
endowment,  the  gift  of  nature  to  the  Self,  which 
is  wholly  determined  by  the  same.  Yet  the  Self 
must  have  the  capacity  to  receive. 

II.  Feeling  of  the  Conscious  Self;  the  indivi- 
dual Self  begins  to  determine  itself  and  hence  to 
separate  from  the  All  which  determines  it;  the 
sphere  of  interaction  and  struggle  between  the 
two  sides.     Eise  of  Subject  and  Object. 

III.  Feeling  of  (he  Free  Self;  the  Self  now 
not  only  determines  itself  against  its  Determi- 
nant (the  All),  but  determines  the  same. 

It  should  be  observed  that  in  the  course  of  the 
exposition  we  shall  employ  three  terms  express- 
ing essentially  the  same  fact,  but  from  different 
points  of  view:  these  terms  are  All-Feeling, 
Consciousness,  and  the  self-reproducing  All  as 
individual  Ego.  We  may  put  them  together  in 
the  statement  that  the  Ego  feels  the  All  in  be- 
coming conscious. 

Such  is  the  round  of  All-Feeling  as  here  con- 
ceived, in  which  the  feeling  Self  is  a  member  of 
the  Universe  felt,  being  inside  (so  to  speak)  the 
determining  All.     Moreover  each  is  self-repro- 



duciDg  within  itself;  this  power  has  been  im- 
parted by  the  All  to  the  iDdividual  Ego,  which 
is  thus  tlio  letter's  child.  Now  this  child,  at  first 
determined  wholly  by  the  parent,  we  shall  see 
develop  till  it  determines  its  parent. 


I.  Feeling  of  the  Endowed  Self. 

There  is  a  pre-conscious  state  of  the  Ego 
when  it  is  ready  to  receive  its  endowment  from 
the  All-Giver.  This  state  is  the  potential  one 
for  the  coming  Consciousness,  which  is  the 
primordial  gift  of  the  Universe  giving  itself  to 
man  in  order  to  make  him  man.  That  is,  the 
All  imparts  its  self-reproductive  process  to  the 
Ego  which  thus  becomes  internally  self -creating, 
or  the  primal  Psychosis  as  the  All-feeling  Self. 

But  man  had  already  the  capacity  to  receive 
and  to  appropriate  this  gift.  Whence  such  a 
capacity?  This  we  are  to  see  in  the  Ego  as  Re- 
productive Feeling,  in  which  the  individual 
exercises  its  own  self-reproductive  power  and 
thus  makes  itself  the  pivot  of  the  process  of  the 
All.  Having  assisted  in  producing  the  animate 
Universe,  the  individual  has  the  latter  in  itself  im- 
plicitly ami  is  a  part  of  the  great  Whole  and  its 
process.  Such  is  its  capacity  for  being  endowed, 
its  potentiality  which  is  now  to  become  real. 

What  then  is  the  endowment  which  the  All 
imparts  to  the  Ego,  of  course  with  the  hitter's 
capacity  and  co-operation^  It  is  in  itself  a  pro- 
cess with  stages  of  its  own,  though  it  be  also  a 
stage  of  a  larger  process.  The  endowed  Ego  we 
shall  classify  thus :  — 


I.  The  general  Gifi^  given  to  every  Ego  that 
it  be  Ego. 

II.  The  special  GiftSy  indicating  how  the 
endowment  varies  in  individuals. 

III.  The  absolute  Oifl^  which  is  the  All  en- 
dowing the  Ego  with  its  own  self-creative  power. 

Popular  speech  furnishes  a  hint  of  the  present 
sphere  when  it  designates  a  man  as  gifted  by 
Nature,  which  thus  endows  his  Soul  or  Self  with 
a  certain  mental  or  spiritual  attribute.  The 
mind  therein  is  recipient,  receiving  from  the 
outside  a  present,  really  the  present  of  itself 
as  having  this  particular  bent  or  talent.  Its 
donor  is  declared  to  be  in  general  terms, 
Nature — Nature  imparting  not  a  physical  but 
a  spiritual  Gift. 

I.  The  General  Gift.  —  The  common  Gift 
to  all  mankind  is  Consciousness,  which  comes 
from  the  self-reproducing  Universe  internalized 
in  the  Ego,  whereby  the  latter  reproduces  itself 
wholly  within  itself,  self -separating  and  self- 
uniting  in  one  process.  This  inner  power  of 
perpetual  self-reproduction  is  the  universal  Gift 
from  the  All  to  man,  being  his  primordial  attri- 
bute of  humanity.  Such  is  Consciousness  as 
given,  as  passive  or  potential,  not  yet  as  active 
and  realized. 

We  have  seen  the  Totality  of  Nature  at  its 
highest  as  self-reproductive,  keeping  up  its  per- 
petual round  of  life  through  the  sexed  individual 


reproducing  himself.  This  process  of  self-pro- 
duction, having  become  internal,  and  completing 
itself  in  one  individual,  makes  the  same  a  con- 
scious Self,  elevating  it  out  of  the  dualism  of 
sex.  We  may,  therefore,  say  that  Nature  in  its 
Totality  as  process  determines  the  individual  to 
be  in  itself  the  total  process  as  self-producing. 
In  this  way  we  behold  Nature  as  the  Whole  en- 
dowing man  with  the  supreme  gift  of  itself, 
namely  Ego,  which  divides  within  itself  like  sex, 
and  then  returns  to  itself  out  of  such  division,  in 
an  eternal  round  of  self-production. 

The  Endowed  Self,  of  which  we  are  treating 
in  the  present  sphere,  is,  accordinghs  gifted  by 
Nature,  or  better,  by  the  All  which  imparts  its 
self-creative  process  as  the  endowment  of  the 
Self.  Such  is,  in  general,  the  endowment. 
The  Endowed  Self  does  not  simply  feel  the  All 
as  cosmical  or  as  somatic,  or  as  even  reproduc- 
tive, but  it  does  have  the  All -Feeling  of  creat- 
ivity; it  feels  the  tendency  or  the  ability  to 
recreate  in  one  form  or  other  its  Determinant, 
the  Universe.  It  is  not  only  the  given,  but  the 
specially  gifted. 

The  Ego,  therefore,  being  primordially  en- 
dowed with  the  process  of  the  Universe,  and 
thereby  becoming  universal,  begins  to  get  its 
first  Psychosis  and  to  employ  the  same  in  order 
to  re-create  for  itself  the  world.  It  feels  the 
process    of  the    All    and    thus    has  All-Feeliug, 


which  is  a  present  from  the  All-piirent  to  every 
Ego  on  its  becoming  conscious. 

II.  Special  Gifts.  —  But  not  only  all  men 
receive  a  common  endowment,  but  each  man  has 
his  own  special  endowment.  From  the  side  of 
.  the  Ego  and  its  inherited  past  many  a  modifica- 
tion of  the  General  Gift  plays  in.  The  process 
of  the  Universe  being  passed  into  and  through 
the  limited  Ego,  becomes  laden  with  and  con- 
fined in  the  latter's  limitations.  Thus  the  Ego 
reproduces  itself  in  a  certain  way,  the  self-repro- 
ducing All  being  made  to  go  through  the  indi- 
vidual alembic  of  heredity.  Every  stage  of  the 
Effo  as  Feelins:,  Willing  and  Knowins:  manifests 
some  form  of  the  self-reproducing  All  limited 
and  specialized.  We  call  these  Gifts  special, 
and  designate  them  by  special  names,  as  Dispo- 
sition, Character,  Talent.  Upon  each  of  these 
a  few  words. 

1.  lyisposition.  Every  Self  is  endowed  with 
what  is  called  a  Disposition,  a  natural  bent,  or 
temperament.  It  is  hardly  yet  an  activity,  but 
rather  the  possibility  of  what  he  will  do.  It  is 
not  simply  a  Feeling,  but  a  Feeling  as  Feeling, 
not  as  as  Will,  or  Intellect.  The  Disposition  of 
the  man  is  the  original  protoplasmic  Feeling 
which  has  not  yet  become  definite  oven  as 

Still  we  may  and  do  define  certain  general 
tendencies  of  Disposition.     We  say  that  a  man  is 


of  an  optimistic  Disposition,  or  he  may  be  pes- 
simistic. Formerly  a  good  deal  was  made  of 
the  cladsification  of  the  temperaments,  of  which 
four  were  usually  designated,  sanguineous, 
choleric,  melancholic,  and  phlegmatic,  each  of 
which  was  supposed  to  have  its  counterpart  in  , 
the  fluids  of  the  body,  and  to  be  somatically 
determined.  Rightly  has  such  a  scheme  been 
abandoned  as  chimerical.  The  Disposition  (or 
Temperament)  simply  reflects  in  its  special  way, 
which  is  indeed  very  aqueous,  the  self -reproduc- 
tive All  as  its  determinant;  it  is  an  All-Feeling, 
a  primordial  endowment  of  the  Self  from  the 

But  this  Disposition,  or  Feeling  of  the  En- 
dowed Self  merely  as  Feeling,  quite  passive  and 
potential,  has  to  become  active  and  real,  in  order 
to  be  of  the  Ego. 

2.  Character.  The  Endowed  Self  has  also 
specially  a  Feeling  of  Character,  which  implies 
Will.  Character  means  a  distinct  mark  stamped 
upon  the  Self,  which  others  may  read.  A  man 
of  Character  leads,  rules;  he  is  the  gathering 
point,  the  concentrating  energy  for  united  effort, 
great  and  small.  Disposition  is  only  the  may-he 
which  in  Character  solidifies  into  the  mu^t-he. 
The  result  is  that  Character  may  beget  a  failing, 
obstinacy,  by  holding  fast  to  the  small  and 
unimportant  matter  as  firmly  as  to  the  greatest. 
Hence    Character    must    be    supplemented    by 


another  Gift,  that  of  Talent  or  Intelligence  in 
order  to  save  itself  from  its  own  grip. 

Thus  Character  must  have  a  content  adequate 
to  its  power.  A  great  Will  should  have  a  great 
Intellect  to  give  to  it  something  worthy  of  its 
doing.  A  man  of  Character  we  consider  not 
only  as  having  great  energy,  but  also  as  having 
an  universal  end  in  his  energy — especially  a 
moral  or  institutional  end.  This  brinors  us  to 
our  next  endowment  of  the  Self  which  we  name 
Talent.  . 

Goethe  in  a  famous  distich  has  contrasted  the 
two  endowments  as  follows :  — 

Es  bildet  ein  Talent  sich  in  der  SUUe, 
Sich  ein  Character  in  dem  Strom  der  Welt. 

These  lines  speak  of  their  development  rather 
than  their  origin,  the  one  unfolding  in  the  world 
of  contemplation,  the  other  in  the  world  of 

3.  Talent.  The  essential  element  of  Talent 
is  the  Intellect,  in  contrast  with  Character  which 
is  Will,  and  with  Dispositicm  which  is  Feeling. 
Yet  all  three  are  in  Feeling,  and  in  Elemental 
Feeling.  We  may  set  down  these  three  stages 
of  the  specially  Endowed  Self  as  follows:  — 

The  Feeling  of  the  Endowed  Self  as  Feeling  — 

The  Feeling  of  the  Endowed  Self  as  Will  — 


The  Feeling  of  the  Endowed  Self  as  Intel- 
led  —  Talent. 

In  the  present  division,  the  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Intellect  of  the  Ego,  endowed  severally  by  the 
All  with  its  self-reproductive  process,  form  to- 
gether a  movement  which  is  the  Psychosis  of 
the  All-Feeling  of  the  specially  Endowed  Self. 
Each  is  more  or  less  distinctly  the  Feeling  of 
the  All  self-creating.  Talent  has  this  Feeling 
along  with  the  content  of  Intellect,  and  hence  is 
more*definite  than  the  other  two,  than  Disposi- 
tion and  Character.  When  a  person  has 
Talent,  he  feels  himself  able  to  grasp  and  to 
appropriate  intellectually  what  is  universal. 
For  the  typical  act  of  the  Intellect  is  the  Ego 
consciously  taking  up,  appropriating,  and  iden- 
tifying with  itself  the  objective  world  and  its 
process.  Talent  is  primarily  a  Feeling  in  which 
the  Ego  feels  (but  does  not  fully  know  or  formu- 
late) the  process  of  the  All  in  its  own,  being 
stimulated  thereto  by  that  process,  and  being 
receptive  of  it  as  a  definite  process.  On  the 
contrarv.  Character  beincr  Will  throws  this 
primal  Feeling  out  of  itself  into  action  and  con- 
duct. But  Disposition  simply  receives,  and  feels 
this  process  of  the  All,  and  remains  still  therein 
an  indefinite  Feelincr. 

Talent  thus  shows  more  or  less  distinctlv  the 
cycle  underlying  itself  and  all  mind:  the  Ego 
feels  the  All  determining  it  (the  Ego)  to  repro- 

FEELINQ  OF  THE  ENDOWED  8 ELF.         127 

duce  itself  (the  All)  in  its  process,  the  Psycho- 
sis. Talent  as  intellectual  has,  therefore, 
various  grades,  according  to  the  ability  of  the 
Ego  to  reproduce  this  process  of  the  Universe, 
or  to  make  itself  universal.  The  following 
stages  may  be  noted  : 

(a)  Appreciation:  This  is  Talent  as  recep- 
tive, capable  of  receiving  the  impress  of  the 
universal  process,  and  hence  of  recreating  the 
same  as  given.  A  person  should  bo  appreciative, 
it  is  the  first  stage,  that  of  assimilating  the 
divinely  creative  movement  of  the  All.  Educa- 
tion has  to  begin  with  appreciating,  in  order  to 
rescue  the  Ego  from  mere  feeling  and  sensation. 
It  must  receive  the  stamp  of  the  Universe,  which 
is  already  within  it  potentially,  and  then  proceed 
to  reca.r't  or  to  make  over  the  same.  This,  how- 
ever, comes  next  in  order. 

(6)  Imitation:  This  means  that  we  must  not 
only  receive  passively  but  reproduce  actively  the 
given  thing  or  process.  Here,  then.  Will  enters 
decidedly  into  Talent.  Much  ha:^  been  recently 
made  of  Imitation  in  educational  books.  Un- 
doubtedly it  holds  an  imi)ortant  place  in  the 
child's  training;  and  the  man,  the  most  highly 
developed  and  original,  never  wholly  gets  rid  of 
it,  particularly  as  a  means  of  learning,  of  the 
acquiv-^ition  of  knowledge.  Talent  usually  signi- 
fies the  gift  for  acquiring  what  has  been  already 
elaborated  by  time;  it  is  deemed  acquisitive  more 


than  creative.  Undoubtedly  by  this  kind  of 
Talent  the  process  of  the  All  is  reproduced  in  the 
Ego,  but  as  something  already  formed,  given, 
transmitted.  Hence  the  question  must  arise 
concerning  what  forms  it,  concerning  that  origi- 
nal power  which  has  the  unique  endowment  of 
being  able  to  put  into  an  enduring  form  the 
divinely  creative  process  of  the  Universe,  so  that 
the  rest  of  mankind  can  appreciate  and  perchance 
imitate  the  same. 

(c)  Adaptation:  We  would  still  place  under 
the  head  of  Talent  the  gift  of  adapting  the  old 
invention  or  the  known  general  principle  to  new 
contingencies.  This  is  not  strictly  Imitation 
which  makes  the  copy,  but  the  power  of  Adap- 
tation which  can  change  the  copy  to  make  it  suit 
chano:ed  conditions.  Undoubtedlv  a  creative 
strain  begins  to  show  itself  in  Adaptation ;  the 
idea  as  given  though  it  creates  for  itself  a  new 

But  is  there  any  endowment  which  can  bring 
forth  the  new  idea,  the  creative  principle  itself? 
This  has  its  process,  which  is  ultimately  that  of 
the  All,  the  self-reproducing  process  of  the 
Universe,  of  which  we  have  had  a  good  deal  to 
say  hitherto.  But  the  question  now  is.  Does  it 
descend  into  the  individual  Ego  with  anything 
like  its  native  genetic  energy?  Certainly  men 
have  thought  so  and  have  given  the  appearance 
a  name  —  Genius. 


III.  The  Absolute  Gift.  —  This  is  not  the 
coiumoQ  Gift  of  all  muukiad,  like  Consciousness, 
but  the  most  uncommon  one.  In  a  sense  it  is 
tlie  universal  Gift,  being  the  Gift  of  the  Uni- 
verse, which  now  imparts  itself  as  the  very 
process  of  the  All  to  the  human  Ego,  who  may 
feel  it,  act  it,  think  it,  formulating  it  also  in 
words.  Thus  Genius  is  the  most  special  yet  the 
most  universal  of  Endowments.  In  a  general 
way  we  may  deem  it  the  creative  power  of  the 
Universe  humanized,  individualized,  Egoized. 

We  can  still  regard  it  as  a  kind  of  Talent,  but 
the  all-embracing,  all-creating  kind.  It  is  at  its 
best  intellectual,  though  not  without  strong  Will 
and  strong  Feeling,  if  it  ever  accomplishes  any- 
thing. It  has  the  Feeling  of  the  endowed  Self 
as  Intellect  (to  use  our  formula),  but  the  Talent 
has  risen  to  Genius,  whose  root  gen^  means  to 
create  and  is  found  in  old-Aryan  speech  and  in 
many  Greek  and  Latin  derivatives  (among  them 
are  generation,  regeneration,  and  also  degener- 

In  Literature  the  distinction  between  Talent 
and  Genius  is  most  striking .  Tasso  is  a  great 
Talent,  imitating  and  reproducing  a  previous 
poetic  form  (the  epic)  with  transcendent  ability; 
Dante,  on  the  other  hand,  is  a  great  Genius, 
really  creating  his  form  as  he  goes  along,  in  spite 
of  his  predilection  for  Virgil.  A  similar  dis- 
tinction holds  between  Milton  and  Shakespeare, 



thv)  hitter  re-creating  the  transmitted  draniatio 
form.  Something  of  the  sort  can  be  said  in 
regard  to  Schiller  and  Goethe.  The  same  dif- 
ference  can  be  traced  throughout  all  human 

Genius  has  also  its  negative  side  and  through 
this  can  go  to  pieces.  It  is  divine  yet  can  be- 
come diabolic,  in  fact  it  always  has  a  demonic 
power  in  its  endowment.  What  is  more  often 
seen  wrecking  itself  than  Genius?  A  man  of 
Talent  often  does  more  for  himself  and  for  the 
world  than  the  man  of  Genius.  Can  the  Genius 
train  his  demon  to  work  in  the  harness  or  must 
he  rush  headlong  into  chaos?  Goethe  came  to 
have  the  best-trained  Demon  of  any  modern 
poet,  though  in  early  life  he  passed  through 
great  danger.  Hence  the  recent  talk  about 
genius  as  a  form  of  degeneration,  putting  stress 
upon  the  negative  side. 

The  man  whom  the  All  has  endowed  with 
Genius  has  always  to  be  recognized  as  unique, 
and  as  having  a  unique  work  to  do  in  the  world. 
It  is  the  Genius  who  feels  most  intimately  the 
creative  process  of  the  All,  and  re-creates  it  in  a 
new  form  for  mankind.  In  Art  there  must  bo 
the  Genius  to  reproduce  the  Absolute  Self  with 
His  process,  and  to  make  Him  appear  (in  marble, 
color,  sound,  etc.)  to  the  senses  that  even  the 
common  man  may  participate  in  the  Divine. 
The  Genius  is  the  originative  man,  the  founder 


of  Religions,  Sciences,  Institutions,  and  usually 
evolves  at  the  turning-point  of  the  new  epoch 
in  the  World's  Order.  We  call  his  the  abso- 
lute Gift  of  the  Absolute,  which  imparts  to  him 
its  own  very  essence. 

In  the  present  book  we  shall  have  to  consider 
Genius  again  in  its  relation  to  Absolute  Feeling, 
which  is  the  third  and  highest  form  of  Feeling. 
Then  the  function  of  Genius  as  man's  creative 
power  of  the  Universe,  which  he  has  to  re-create 
and  organize  anew  for  human  participation,  will 
be  dwelt  upon  more  fully. 

We  have  thus  gone  through  the  round  of 
what  we  call  the  Feeling  of  the  Endowed  Self,  or 
the  Ego  feebng  its  natural  endowments,  which 
culminate  in  Genius.  But  now  this  passively 
endowed  Ego  must  begin  to  show  itself  active; 
having  received  the  gift  of  the  process  of  the  All, 
it  must  manifest  that  process  within  itself  as 
distinct  from  All,  yet  in  connection  with  it.  The 
Ego  having  received  its  gift  of  inner  determination 
has  to  make  it  valid  against  the  determinant  — 
in  which  fact  lies  the  twofoldness  of  Con- 
sciousness. Thus  we  pass  from  the  feeling  Ego 
as  pre-conscious  to  the  feeling  Ego  as  conscious. 

1 82  FEELING  —  ELEMENT  A  L, 

II.  Feeling  of  the  Conscious  Selt. 

The  process  of  endowing  the  Pre-conscious 
Self  with  Consciousness  has  just  been  given. 
The  self-reproductive  All  has  imparted  itself  to 
the  Ego,  whereby  the  latter  has  this  All-process 
within  itself,  as  its  own.  Such  is  the  power 
which  the  Ego  now  receives,  whereby  it  becomes 
truly  Ego,  passing  from  its  potential  condition 
as  pre-conscious  into  its  conscious  reality.  The 
All  self-reproducing  is  made  over  into  the  indi- 
vidual who  as  conscious  separates  within  himself 
and  returns  to  himself  in  the  one  subjective  act 
of  consciousness,  which  is  an  eternal  self- 
begetting  of  the  Self.  We  have  already  spoken 
of  the  conscious  Ego  as  the  dualism  of  sex  in- 
ternalized, for  Consciousness  still  shows  the  sep- 
arative, dualistic  character  of  Nature,  but  as 
overcome  and  transformed  into  the  inner  process 
of  Mind. 

But  now  a  new  separation  takes  place.  We 
have  before  us  the  created,  produced  Ego  en- 
dowed by  the  All  with  its  own  creative  process. 
What  is  the  result?  Just  this:  the  Ego  becomes 
creative,  self -reproductive  on  its  part,  like  the 
All.  Thus  we  have  the  Universe  apparently  split 
in  twain,  revealing  two  self-reproducing  centers, 
namely  itself  and  the  Ego.     Or  rather,  as  there 


are  many  Egos,  we  have  many  individual  centers, 
and  one  All-center.  Each  Ego,  through  the  very 
endowment  of  the  All,  has  become  an  All  within 
itself,  having  its  own  inner  world  with  its  process 
which  is  the  Psychosis.  The  gift  of  the  Universe 
to  the  Ego  is  the  gift  of  separation  from  the 
Universe,  of  aloofness  and  independence,  per- 
chance of  Adam's  and  even  Satan's  fall.  Such 
is  the  Feeling  of  the  All  (All-Feeling)  as  con- 
scious, with  its  two  elements. 

We  are,  therefore,  to  see  the  Universe  in  its 
supreme  self-movement  nourishing,  providing 
for,  evolving  the  new-born  individual  as  Ego, 
stimulating:  in  the  latter  its  own  self-creatins: 
Process,  so  that  the  Ego  will  also  possess  in  its 
way  the  genetic  power  which  is  that  of  the  Uni- 
verse. Thus  the  Ego  gets  to  be  universal,  and 
performs  the  Process  of  the  Universe,  first  in 
Feeling  and  then  in  Thought  and  Will.  It  is  the 
grand  Totality  which  causes  the  Ego  itself  to  be 
total  also,  and  to  have  in  itself  the  genesis  of 
the  All.  This  is  the  meaning  which  is  really 
lodged  in  that  much-misunderstood  term  umver- 
saly  which  should  be  seen  as  the  essential  char- 
acteristic of  the  Universe.  The  Ego  can  be 
endowed  with  universality  only  by  the  Universe. 

The  Ego  is  now  to  be  stimuhited  by  the  All 
with  its  self-reproductive  process  to  the  Feeling 
of  itself  as  likewise  self-reproductive.  Such  is 
the  twofold  interaction  and  even  opposition :  the 

1 84  FEELING  —  EL  B MENTAL. 

Ego  on  its  side  is  to  assert  its  own  creative  Self, 
wliile  the  Universe  must  do  so,  too,  in  order  to 
remain  Universe.  So  it  comes  that  the  conscious 
Ego,  having  been  endowed  by  the  self-reproduc- 
ing All  with  its  own  inner  power  of  self-repro- 
duction, starts  to  reproducing  itself  against  its 
Determinant,  its  creative  source.  It  turns  back 
upon  itself  from  the  All,  and  becomes  conscious 
of  the  All  within  itself. 

In  spite  of  this  separation,  yea  through  it 
finally,  the  conscious  Ego  is  still  a  member  of 
the  Universe,  from  which  indeed  it  derives  its 
innermost  nature,  its  consciousness.  It  is  apart, 
which,  however,  is  endowed  with  the  process  of 
the  Whole,  whereby  it  truly  becomes  a  part,  and 
in  the  present  case  a  conscious  part  perpetually 
recreating  the  Whole  in  itself.  Here  we  behold 
the  theoretic  origin  of  the  process  of  the  Ego, 
of  the  Psychosis,  which  is  the  impress  of  the 
All-process  (  Pampsy chosis  ) . 

In  the  present  (conscious)  sphere  of  All-Feel- 
ing we  are  to  graj>p  the  Ego  as  actively  deter- 
mined by  the  self-reproducing  All,  not  merely 
endowed  passively  by  it,  as  in  the  preceding 
sphere.  The  Ego  must  itself  be  self -reproduc- 
tive now,  though  stimulated  thereto  by  the  All. 
But  there  are  various  stages  of  this  response  of 
the  conscious  (internally  self-reproductive)  Ego 
to  the  stimulation  of  the  process  of  the  All. 
The  feeling    Ego   can    be    stirred  to  conscious 


activity  without  being  aware  of  its  Determinant, 
without  being  self-conscious.  The  stimulating 
thing  though  present,  is  not  yet  known  though 
its  influence  works.  But  the  outcome  must  be 
that  it  becomes  known,  whereby  the  Ego  passes 
from  what  we  call  its  sub-conscious  state  to  its 
self-conscious  one.  But  this  self-conscious  Ejro 
is  again  to  be  submerged  into  the  process  of  the 
All  and  lose  for  a  time  its  self -consciousness  (for 
instance  in  sleep). 

These  stages  of  the  All-feeling  Ego  as  con- 
scious we  shall  summarize  in  the  following  way. 

A.  The  sub-conscious  Ego^  the  movement  into 
self-consciousness,  in  which  the  new  individual 
is  still  mainly  passive,  recipient,  asleep,  receiv- 
ing its  native  endowment  from  its  ancestry  and 
from  its  original  parent,  the  Totality,  till  it 
obtains  the  complete  Process  of  the  latter,  which 
is  self-consciousness.  The  Ego  gets  its  division 
within  itself  into  subject  and  object. 

B.  The  self-conscious  Ego^  in  which  the  new 
individual  wakes  up  to  a  knowledge  of  itself  and 
of  its  environing  world,  being  determined  thereto 
by  the  Process  of  the  Totality.  Here  is  the 
great  separation  of  the  present  sphere,  the  Ego 
now  consciously  separating  itself  from  the 
Totality  and  putting  the  same  outside  of  itself. 
The  Ego  as  subject-object  gets  the  non-Ego. 

C.  The  supra-coiiscious  Ego^  the  movement 
out  of  self-conscious  separation  back  to  the  sub- 


oonscious  condition  (in  sleep).  The  Ego  returns 
to  its  first  unity  with  the  All,  yet  takes  its  inner 
division  into  subject-object  along.  That  is,  the 
outer  separation  into  Ego  and  non-Ego  is  can- 
celled, but  the  inner  separation  into  subject  and 
object  is  preserved. 

More  briefly  we  may  characterize  the  three 
stages:  the  Ego  gets  to  be  subject  and  object 
(within) ;  the  Ego  gets  to  be  Ego  and  non-Ego 
(within  and  without);  the  non-Ego  (without) 
gets  the  Ego  as  subject  and  object  (within).  In 
single  words:  the  Under-Self ,  the  self-conscious 
Self,  and  the  Over-Self. 

Such  is  the  general  sweep  of  the  present 
sphere,  in  whose  movement  we  observe  the 
universal  psychical  process  (the  Psychosis). 
Looking  at  it  from  the  standpoint  of  the  Ego,  we 
note  the  first  Sleep  of  unconscious  growing  Self, 
then  the  great  awakening  into  Self-consciousness, 
then  the  second  Sleep  which  comes  after  this 
awakening  and  recurs  periodically  or  cyclically 
during  life,  repeating  its  process  till  the  third 
and  final  Sleep. 

We  may  also  glance  at  the  present  sphere  from 
the  standpoint  of  the  Totality  which  is  likewise 
a  Self,  just  the  universal  Self,  whose  function  is 
to  create  an  individual  Self  which,  rising  through 
its  sub-conscious  life,  becomes  self-conscious  and 
separates  from  the  Totality  which  brought  it 
forth.     But  this  separation  it  renounces  in  sleep 


and  goes  back  to  its  parent  and  becomes  one  with 
the  same  again,  receiving  in  that  unity  many  im- 
pressions and  intimations  from  the  universal  Self 
not  obtainable  in  its  waking  self-conscious  state. 

In  this  movement,  then,  we  must  grasp  two 
Selves,  the  individual  and  the  universal;  or, 
bettor  stated  for  our  present  purpose,  the  sub- 
conscious and  the  supra-conscious  Selves  (the 
Under-Self  and  the  Over-Self)  between  which 
is  interjected  the  self-conscious  Self,  or  the  realm 
of  self  consciousness  which  is  in  opposition  to 
and  in  a  struggle  with  both  the  other  Selves. 
Hence  it  is  the  realm  of  division  outer  and  inner, 
whereof  more  will  be  said  in  the  special  treat- 
ment. At  present  we  shall  set  forth  some  details 
pertaining  to  the  first  stage. 

A.  The  Sub-conscious  Ego.  — All  the  forms 
of  World-Feeling,  cosmical,  somatic,  reproduc- 
tive are  gathered  up  from  the  past  of  the  indi- 
vidual and  preserved  in  the  sub-conscious  Ego. 
Not  as  active  (unless  stimulated  by  some  special 
cause)  but  as  potential,  implicit,  quiescent  do 
they  lie  slumbering  in  the  little  universe  of  the 

And  not  only  experiences  of  the  past  quite 
from  Nature's  beginning,  but  also  the  endow- 
ments of  Nature  given  to  the  pre-conscious  Ego 
are  not  lost  but  are  secretly  laid  away  in  the  sub- 
conscious Ego  till  called  for  by  the  emergency. 
Chiefly  that  Gift  of  Consciousness  lying  back  of 


and  really  constituting  the  Ego  is  not  only  con- 
served but  develoi)ed  in  this  nocturnal  world  of 
the  Under-Self,  till  it  breaks  forth  into  the  self- 
conscious  dawn. 

We  make  a  distinction  between  the  pre-coiu 
scious  and  the  sub-conscious,  the  one  belonginar 
to  the  endowed  Self,  the  other  to  the  conscious 
Self.  The  Endowment  as  such  is  a  given  thing, 
given  by  the  All  to  the  Ego  when  pre-couscious, 
which  Ego,  when  it  possesses  and  stores  up  this 
Endowment  as  its  own,  becomes  sub-conscious, 
having  in  itself  primarily  the  Gift  of  Conscious- 
ness though  not  yet  of  Self-consciousness.  That 
is,  Consciousness  becomes  now  twofold,  being 
the  Ego  as  recipient  (subject)  and  as  the  thing 
received  or  endowment  (object);  within  itself 
the  Ego  becomes  subject  and  object,  and  both 
together  in  one  process.  The  object  is  the 
given,  yet  this  given  object  is  the  Self,  which 
also  must  be  subject  or  recipient.  Hence  the 
Ego  as  the  total  process  of  itself  is  often  desig- 
nated as  subject-object. 

Every  person  is  aware  of  having  within  him- 
self a  vast  reservoir  of  Feeling  which  on  some 
provocation  rises  to  the  surface  from  unknown 
depths,  we  may  say,  depths  of  the  past.  For  in 
the  house  of  the  Ego,  in  its  cellar  as  it  were, 
are  stored  the  results  of  an  untold  past  evolu- 
tion, potential,  (luicbcent,  till  duly  stimulated, 
and  roused  from  their  dark  resting-place.     We 


may  deem  them  the  successive  layers  of  the  sub- 
merged Ego,  building  itself  and  being  built  up- 
ward to  its  self-conscious  condition. 

Beneath  the  threshold  of  consciousness,  as  the 
expression  now  runs,  lies  this  wide  domain  be- 
longing to  the  Ego,  which  is  being  explored 
more  and  more  by  a  certain  class  of  recent  psy- 
chologists. Even  the  adjective  is  coming  into 
usage  which  designates  it  as  under  the  threshold 
(^subliminal).  It  is  often  called  the  sphere  of 
the  Unconscious,  though  a  stage  of  Conscious- 
ness in  the  wide  sense  of  the  word.  It  is  the 
world  of  Feeling  extending  immeasurably  beyond 
the  sun  of  Self-consciousness,  like  the  Space  of 
the  Cosmos.  We  may  call  it  the  Under-Self,  in 
which  the  Self  exists,  and  is  secretly  working  and 
developing  its  own  germ  of  Selfhood,  but  is  not 
yet  fully  aware  of  itself  and  of  its  process, 
though  going  that  way.  It  is  a  dark  Nether- 
world of  potential  shapes  of  mind,  some  of  which 
(but  not  all)  are  destined  to  rise  out  of  the  abyss 
of  the  Ego  to  Self-consciousness. 

Whence  do  these  shapes  come  into  the  Under- 
Self?  From  the  unknown  predecessors  with  all 
their  transmissions;  from  all  the  ancestral  forms 
reaching  back  to  that  primal  hoary  progenitor  in 
whom  Darwin  and  Haeckel  behold  the  origin  of 
human  kind,  glimpsing  the  first  faint  spark  of 
life  in  animate  creation.  Still  within  our  sub- 
conscious Ego  lie   the  worms,  fishes,  and  mym- 


male  of  the  geologic  ages  down  which  we  have 
traveled  in  our  descent  to  the  present.  We  have 
in  us  still  the  deinotherion,  the  megalosauros, 
and  all  the  stages  of  savage  man  stored  away  in 
the  millions  of  nooks  of  our  souls.  Former 
stages  of  evolution,  now  transcended  but  once 
actual,  now  asleep  but  once  awake,  now  past  but 
once  present  and  alive,  repose  in  the  Under- 
Self  of  every  man  and  may  sometimes  be  made 
to  stir  in  him  and  even  to  assert  for  awhile  their 
former  possession  of  his  being.  In  general  this 
is  the  original  generative  realm  of  Feeling,  whoso 
sub-conscious  origin  often  reaches  back  for 
untold  aeons  to  some  remote  ancestor  who^e 
species  has  long  since  disappeared  from  the  face 
of  the  earth. 

These  past  stages  of  the  sub-conscious  Ego , 
which  once  existed  and  had  reality,  but  now  are 
possible  only  as  Feeling,  were  determined  then 
as  now  by  the  Totality  which  fosters,  cherishes 
and  unfolds  the  individual.  And  the  end  was  also 
the  same  as  now :  the  getting  of  a  self-conscious 
individual  or  Ego  as  the  outcome  and  bloom  of 
this  sub-conscious  world.  Yet  it  took  a  long: 
labor  to  bring  forth  this  flowering  of  the  indi- 
vidual, this  birth  of  the  self-knowins:  Et/o. 

Dim  outlines  of  a  movement  we  may  catch 
here,  though  the  Under-world  of  the  Eg6  is  not 
sunlit  by  the  self-conscious  Intellect.  A  search- 
light, however,  may  be  thrown  down  upon,  if 


not  into,  these  abysses,  and  reveal  some  indica- 
tions of  what  is  there  going  on. 

1.  The  human  embryo  may  be  deemed,  for 
our  present  purpose,  the  starting-point  of  the 
Under-Self  in  its  rise  through  the  mani- 
fold strata  of  sub-conscious  life.  The  sexual 
process  we  have  seen  reproducing  the  Ego 
as  the  embryonic  form  which  is  to  relive  the 
life  of  its  race  from  the^start  onwards.  Already 
as  unborn  child  it  receives  the  endowment  of  its 
kind  transmitted  from  the  past;  it  assumes 
states  of  antecedent  animate  existence  and 
transcends  them  with  great  rapidity.  Of 
course  it  is  largely  unknown  what  primeval  con- 
ditions the  foetus  passes  through ;  but  we  may 
consider  that  vast  areas  of  early  life  with  their 
corresponding  Feelings  rise  again  to  the  surface 
and  become  active  once  more,  perchance  only  for 
a  moment,  and  then  again  are  submerged  in  the 
sub-conscious  ocean  of  the  Ego.  The  bearing 
of  an  individual  Self  is  the  re-bearing  of  the 
whole  race,  indeed  of  all  animate  existence,  and 
possibly  the  line  may  extend  still  farther  back. 

In  this  embryonic  state  influences  are  taken 
up  by  the  Ego  with  great  facility  from  the  out- 
side. It  is  the  paffsive  condition  of  the  sub-con- 
scious Ego  which  is  ever  responsive  to  the  exter- 
nal determinant  by  which  it  is  often  molded  both 
in  body  and  in  character.  Pre-natal  influences 
coming   through  the  mother  from  the  Totality 


give  the  primal  bent  to  the  new  Ego  in  the 
process  of  formation. 

2.  Still  this  new  Ego  is  also  active y  has  its  own 
inner  movement,  though  it  bo  dominantly  pas- 
sive; to  receive  requires  some  activity.  Its  gifts 
of  heredity,  which  it  has  to  appropriate,  extend 
from  the  immediate  parents  as  a  center  outward 
to  the  periphery  of  the  cosmos  (Macrocosm) 
which  imparts  to  the  geron  (Microcosm)  all  its 
possibilities.  Thus  we  note  already  the  incipient 
struofofle   between  the   two   Selves   before  men- 


tioned,  the  Under-Self  and  the  Over-Self,  or 
in  general  the  individual  and  the  universe.  But 
the  outcome  is  that  the  Process  of  the  Universe 
is  impressed  upon  the  responsive  Ego  and  be- 
comes the  latter's  fundamental  Process  for  all 
and  in  all. 

Still  with  this  Process  and  indeed  by  means  of 
it  the  new  Ego  asserts  itself  persistently  and 
keeps  on  transcending  stage  after  stage,  all  of 
which  stages  it  buries  in  the  depths  of  the  sub- 
conscious Self,  where  they  are  by  no  means  an- 
nihilated but  continue  to  exist  as  potential,  and 
whence  they  may  be  resurrected  as  forms  of 
Feeling  under  the  right  stimulus.  Herein  we 
behold  the  new  Ego  endowed  with  the  gift  of 
self-evolution,  alwavs  striving  to  rise  above  its 
real  condition  to  a  higher  end. 

3.  Thus  the  Under-Self  or  the  sub-conscious 
Ego  becomes  a  vast  storehouse  of  transcended 


stages  which  were  once  actual  but  which  have 
dropped  back  into  sleep  whence  they  may  be 
aroused  by  some  Determinant  into  Feeling.  No 
human  being  can  ever  know  what  treasures  of 
Time's  coinage  lie  buried  in  the  dark  Nether- 
world of  his  own  Ego,  nor  can  he  imagine  what 
strange  spectral  monsters  of  the  aforetime  are 
crouching  off  in  the  dim  corners  of  his  far-reach- 
ing Under-Self  with  its  antediluvian  history  in 
Time  and  Space.  The  race-consciousness  of  the 
Past  every  Ego  possesses,  put  away  somewhere 
in  the  cellar  of  his  soul,  possibly  barreled  up  by 
itself  where  it  can  be  tapped  with  the  proper  in- 
strument and  made  to  spirt  forth  into  daylight  at 
times  with  surprising  energy. 

Such,  in  general  outline,  is  the  work  of  the 
sub-conscious  Ego.  First  it  is  passive  and  in 
this  state  receives  manifold  outer  influences  till 
it  gets  the  Process  of  the  All ;  but  it  is  likewise 
active  and  elaborates  its  own  contents,  always 
transcending  the  given  stage  through  self-evolu- 
tion, till  it  finally  becomes  the  huge  receptacle 
of  all  the  forms  of  its  antecedent  development. 
Nor  does  it  stop  with  the  past ;  the  present  is  its 
actual  existence  which  is  perpetually  struggling 
to  bring  forth  the  future,  and  thus  will  in  turn 
be  submerged,  being  overwhelmed  into  the  Nether- 
world of  transcended  forms  of  itself  which  com- 
pose the  great  population  of  the  sub-conscious 
Ego.     So  the  city  of  the  Under-Self,  already  of 


enormous  extent,  is  continually  receiving  addi- 
tions to  its  denizens,  and  these  additions  by  no 
means  perisli,  but  are  transmitted  to  coming 
Egos  who  inherit  the  past  of  their  total  ancestry. 

The  grand  endowment  of  the  sub-conscious  Ego 
from  its  parent  the  Universe,  is  the  Process  of 
the  latter,  the  threefold  movement  which  makes 
the  Ego  what  it  is  in  itself,  and  gives  to  it  the 
power  of  penetrating  all  things,  since  these  are 
likewise  products  of  that  same  universal  Process. 
Thus  the  Ego  divides  within  itself  and  returns  to 
itself,  therein  becoming  separate,  even  separate 
from  the  All  which  is  its  source.  That  is,  the 
Ego  has  now  reached  self-conscious  individuality, 
and  knows  itself  as  distinct  from  everything  else. 
It  has  become  the  little  Universe  (Microcosm), 
yet  possesses  as  its  own  the  Process  of  the  great 
Universe  (Macrocosm). 

The  sub-conscious  Ego  has  been  seen  continu- 
ally moving  toward  the  threshold  of  self-con- 
sciousness and  now  we  may  consider  it  to  have 
crossed  the  same,  entering  thereby  into  a  new 
sphere.  The  first  long  sleep  of  the  Ego  is 
broken,  and  it  is  awake,  being  aware  of  itself. 
During  that  sleep  the  All  and  the  Ego  were  in 
immediate  unseparatcd  unity ;  the  Ego  was,  so 
to  speak,  an  incorporate  member  of  the  All, 
receiving  and  appropriating  its  powers  till  it 
attains  the  supreme  one,  the  very  process  of  the 
Universe.     The  Pampsychosis  has  imparted  the 


Psychosis  to  the  individual  Ego.  Still  in  the 
present  sphere  (that  of  Elemental  Feeling)  this 
Ego,  though  it  has  become  self-conscious,  is  not 
wholly  separated  from  the  All ;  it  is  still  a  mem- 
ber even  in  its  separation,  as  we  shall  see  later, 
and  feels  the  whole  as  member,  otherwise  it 
would  not  be  conscious  at  all. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  a  treatise  on  the  Feel- 
ings differs  a  good  deal  from  a  treatise  on  the 
Intellect  whose  activities  stand  in  the  full  blaze 
of  self-consciousness.  But  Feeling  (specially  as 
sub-conscious)  cannot  know  itself;  the  Ego  has 
to  know  its  own  Feelings  by  a  borrowed  lamp 
since  they  are  not  self-illuminating.  Hence  all 
the  statements  about  Feeling  repose  in  a  kind 
of  moonlight,  or  ratner  twilight;  certainly 
these  sub-conscious  Feelings  are  in  a  crepuscular 
realm,  which  gives  them  a  kind  of  unreality,  a 
spectral  appearance.  The  Intellect  shines  like 
the  sun  by  its  own  light,  and  we  may  compare  it 
to  sunlight,  while  the  Will  is  seen  in  a  kind  of 
moonlight,  reflected  from  the  central  sun  (Intel- 
lect), from  which  the  world  of  Feeling  is 
farthest  removed  and  hence  it  reposes  in  a  sort 
of  twilight. 

Much  remains  to  be  done  in  discovering,  de- 
fining, and  ordering  these  layers  of  Feeling 
in  the  sub-conscious  Ego.  They  are  the  historic 
record  of  uncounted  aeons  of  the  Past;  we  may 
c'mII  it  the  Natural  History  of  the  Soul,  not  to  be 



chronologized  according  to  years.  Not  only 
sub-conscious  but  pre-conscious  is  this  story  of 
man,  with  speech  welling  up  not  in  vocables,  but 
in  Feelings  whose  alphabet  we  are  just  begin- 
ning to  decipher. 

We  might  also  call  this  stage  the  Getting  of 
Self-consciousness,  in  which  the  Ego  attains  the 
total  process  of  the  All,  rising  from  its  undivided 
and  implicit  state  to  self-division  or  the  dual 
Ego,  which  divides  itself  within  itself  and  still 
remains  itself  in  such  self -division  —  the  only 
object  in  the  Universe  that  can  do  so  except  the 

This  begins  the  grand  struggle  of  the  Ego's 
existence,  that  between  itself  and  its  creator  as 
the  All — the  Eoro  hoklino:  its  own  for  two-thirds 
of  life,  but  yielding  the  other  third  to  the  All, 
which,  however,  restores  and  re-vivifies  it,  when 
it  gives  up  and  goes  to  sleep. 

In  the  sub-conscious  Ego  as  All- Feeling  we 
have  retichcd  the  Eojo  as  fcclinor  within  itself  the 
complete  process  of  the  All.  The  evolution  of 
the  self-reproducing  Universe  is  stored  up  in 
the  sub-conscious  Ego  which  has  unfolded  into 
self-consciousness,  whereby  the  Ego  gets  aware 
of  itself  and  also  of  what  is  not  itself.  This 
last  we  call  the  non-Ego,  which  now  enters  the 
field  of  our  theme. 


B.  The  Self-conscious  Ego. — The  Ego  is 
now  self -centered ,  revolving  upon  its  own  axis  in 
its  own  orbit.  It  turns  back  upon  itself ,  and  be- 
comes fully  aware  of  itself  as  distinct  from  what 
is  not  itself  (or  non-Ego).  Thus  it  separates  the 
All  into  two  parts,  Ego  and  the  rest  of  the  world. 
It  isolates  itself,  though  it  cannot  stay  isolated. 

We  call  this  still  a  Feeling  since  it  is  the  pro- 
cess of  the  Ego  within  itself  turned  inward  by  the 
self-reproducing  All  whose  process  it  receives  and 
operates  as  its  endowment.  The  sub-conscious 
Ego  had  this  process  also,  but  as  past,  as  capable 
of  becoming  self-conscious,  but  not  yet  self-con- 
. scions  in  itself.  Moreover  Feeling  now  rises  to 
a  kind  of  knowledge,  or  self-knowledge,  since 
the  Ego  as  self-conscious  identifies  completely 
itself  as  object  with  itself  as  subject,  thus  becom- 
ing subject-object  as  one  process. 

The  new  Ego  whose  sub-conscious  career  we 
have  sought  to  follow  in  the  preceding  stage, 
takes  another  great  step  when  it  becomes  self- 
conscious,  that  is,  when  it  (actually,  not  poten- 
tially) divides  itself  within  itself,  and  yet  unifies 
itself  and  keeps  itself  one  in  that  division.  Thus 
it  is  like  unto  the  All,  truly  made  in  the  image  of 
God.  Such  an  act  we  call  self -knowing  or  self- 
conscious,  and  means  self-dependence,  Individ- 
uality,  freedom. 

Yet  it  involves  also  separation  from  the  great 
All   that  created  it  and  reared  it  to  its  present 


lofty  condition.  For  now  the  Ego  possesses  the 
Process  of  tbe  All  in  its  own  right,  and  thus  be- 
comes the  little  All,  taken  by  itself.  It  is  not 
only  individualized  but  individualizes  itself  con- 
tinuously in  this  Process.  It  sets  up  its  own 
Universe  against  the  other  Universe,  and  makes 
the  latter  outside  of  itself,  has  to  do  so  in  fact. 
Such  is  the  great  division  which  now  takes  place 
between  the  Ego  and  the  All,  which  finally  reaches 
decided  opposition  and  it  may  be  antagonism. 
It  is  that  wonderful  tree  of  knowledge  (here  we 
may  call  it  self-knowledge)  which  causes  the 
grtmd  separation  from  the  AH,  from  God.  The 
Ego  ejects  the  Cosmos,  flings  it  from  itself  and 
asserts  independence,  no  longer  determined  by  it 
but  internally  self-determined.  A  mighty  stride, 
audacious,  and  not  unattended  with  peril.  In 
one  sense  we  may  deem  it  the  Fall  of  Man,  in 
another  sense  it  is  his  Rise. 

And  yet  the  self-conscious  Ego  remains  a  part 
of  that  All  from  which  it  separates  itself  and 
turns  back  into  itself.  It  is  determined  to  such 
separation  by  the  All  which  has  produced  it,  and 
has  imparted  to  it  just  its  self-conscious  power, 
which  power  we  have  already  seen  to  be  the 
self-reproductive  act  of  the  All  internalized. 
Without  the  All,  therefore,  the  self-conscious 
Ego  would  not  be  determined  to  its  self-con- 
sciousness, which  operates  not  merely  once  but 
continuously.     It  is  the  presence  of  the  Universe 


which  insures  the  presence  of  self-consciousness 
in  the  Ego.  Accordingly  we  must  not  forget 
that  just  in  this  separation  from  the  All,  the  self- 
conscious  Ego  is  still  a  member  of  it  and  deter- 
mined by  it. 

Henceforth  the  Ego  must  unfold  itself  through 
its  own  Process,  having  broken  loose  from  the 
direct  training  of  the  All,  which  it  had  as  sub- 
conscious Ego.  Then  it  received  its  determina- 
tions as  the  babe  sucks  in  its  mother's  milk,  till 
it  gets  the  supreme  endowment,  just  this  self- 
conscious  power,  when  the  infant  is  weaned,  in 
fact  weans  itself.  But  as  Under-Self  it  acquires 
and  retains  all  those  aptitudes  which  constitute 
its  gifts,  its  individual  capacities,  which  well  up 
into  self-conscious  life  from  these  primal  unseen 
sources,  whereby  it  returns  to  and  shares  in  the 
creative  power  of  the  Universe.  In  this  way  we 
shall  often  see  the  self-conscious  waking  Ego  go 
back  to  its  sub-conscious  world,  re-establishing 
there  its  former  connection  with  the  genetic  All, 
and  drawing  thence  recuperation  and  indeed  re- 
generation. Such  a  power  t.iking  possession  of 
the  self-conscious  Ego  in  its  unknown  depths 
and  making  it  surpass  itself  is  often  called  the 
Demonic,  coming  as  it  does  from  the  dark 
Underworld  of  the  Ego's  ancient  shapes.  Not  of 
necessity  is  such  an  energy  diabolic,  even  if  de- 
monic, for  it  may  make  for  the  good,  yea  for  the 


But  on  account  of  the  above  mentioned  sepa- 
ration there  rises  the  struggle  between  the  self- 
conscious  Ego  and  the  Totality  which  it  projects 
outside  of  itself,  making  the  same  into  a  non- 
Ego  which  it  must  subsume  and  also  consume, 
at  least  in  part.  We  see  the  gradual  rise  of  this 
opposition  to  the  Totality  in  the  growth  of  the 
child.  With  teething  it  starts  to  elaborate  its 
own  food  from  the  outside,  turning  gradually 
away  from  the  mother  to  the  All-mother.  When 
it  stands  erect,  it  resists  the  center  o^  gravita- 
tion as  its  determinant;  walking  is  a  still  fur- 
ther conquest  of  outer  determination  through 
the  Totality  of  Nature.  But  with  speech  it 
begins  to  express  what  is  within,  to  manifest  its 
self-conscious  or  self-centered  nature.  Thus  the 
Ego  in  the  present  stage  resists  external  deter- 
mination through  the  All,  and  begins  to  assert 
its  self-determination. 

Seldom  can  we  recall  the  moment  when  we 
first  became  self-aware,  though  Richter  thought 
he  could  remember  it.  Still  less  has  the  race 
been  able  to  bring  back  from  the  remote  past 
the  time  and  place  in  which  man  fir^t  broke 
through  into  self-consciousness.  Investigation  is 
in  pursuit  of  that  notable  event,  and  may  yet  be 
able  to  find  it,  or  at  least  to  fence  it  in  certain 
limits,  between  a  before  and  after. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  Self-conscious  Ego 
is  a  stage  of  inner  separation  and  self-contradic- 

THE  8ELF'C0N8CI0V8  EGO.  151 

tion.  It  puts  the  All  outside  of  itself,  or  seeks 
to  do  so,  wherein  it  contradicts  itself  and  denies 
its  own  source,  claiming  to  be  different  from  the 
All.  Likewise  it  separates  from  its  own  pre- 
supposition, the  sub-conscious  Ego,  thrusting  it 
down  into  the  dark  Underworld.  The  result  will 
be  a  struggle  in  both  directions.  There  will  be 
upbursts  of  the  Under-Self  and  downbursts  of 
the  Over-Self,  into  this  middle  realm  which  sep- 
arates from  these  two  Selves.  The  sub-conscious 
and  the  supra-conscious  realms  will  break  into 
the  self-conscious  realm  as  into  the  enemy's 
fortress,  and  there  assert  themselves  with  a 
peculiar  energy  often  startling  to  the  self-know- 
ing Ego. 

Accordingly  there  will  be  manifested  in  this 
movement  the  following  phases :  — 

I.  The  self-conscious  Ego  isolated^  individual- 
ized, parted  from  its  connections,  in  which  act  is 
seen  its  separation  from  below  and  from  above, 
and  also  within  itself. 

II.  The  self-conscious  Ego  assailed  and  re- 
absorbed by  the  Under- Self ^  or  the  Upburst  of 
the  Under- Self  from  hc\ow. 

III.  The  self-conscious  Ego  assailed  and  re- 
absorbed bfj  the  Over-Self  or  the  Downburst  of 
the  Over- Self  from  above. 

Here  again  we  should  note  with  care  the  three 
stages  or  realms,  the  sub-conscious,  the  self- 
conscious,    and   the  supra-conscious.     They   all 


are  forms  of  the  Self,  or  we  may  call  them  three 
Selves  now  in  a  process  with  one  another :  the 
Under-Self,  the  Middle-Self ,  and  the  Over-Self . 
On  either  side  of  the  Middle  Self  are  two  border- 
lands, out  of  which  rush  the  enemy,  the  antac^o- 
nists  of  the  self-conscious  Ego.  Forays  in  the 
night  we  may  call  them,  often  surprising  and 
unaccountable  to  the  dweller  of  that  middle 

Though  the  stress  of  the  sphere  of  the  self- 
conscious  Ego  be  placed  upon  the  separation 
from  the  All,  let  us  note  again  that  the  Ego  still 
remains  an  organic  link  of  the  All  in  such  sepa- 
ration, being  determined  by  the  same  to  its  self- 
conscious  act.  Not  till  the  Ego  can  determine 
the  All,  which  determines  it,  can  there  take  place 
an  organic  or  elemental  separation.  At  present, 
however,  both  sides  are  in  a  struggle,  the  one 
separating,  the  other  resisting. 

I.  Thk  self-conscious  Ego  isolated.  —  This 
means  that  it  must  separate  it^^elf  from  its  en- 
tanglements below  and  above,  and  round  itself 
out  to  individuality.  The  self-conscious  Eofo  is 
now  to  be  shown  getting  itself,  turning  from  all 
outsideuess  to  its  own  self-movement. 

In  a  general  way  we  may  regard  the  present 
stage  as  the  complete  awakening  of  the  Ego, 
which  it  has  gradually  reached  out  of  its  first 
Sleep  of  birth  and  early  development.  The 
great  fact  here  is  that  the  Ego  refuses  to  be  a 


passively  organic  part  of  the  All,  but  asserts  it- 
self as  a  total  Organism  within  itself  against  the 
All.  It  sets  up  for  itself,  having  the  universal 
process  as  its  own ;  it  will  not  let  itself  be  sub- 
sumed under  another  and  be  determined,  but  re- 
solves to  be  self-determined  within  its  sphere. 
It  thus  reveals  its  end  to  bo  freedom ;  the  sepa- 
rated individual  is  to  be  as  free  as  the  Universe 
itself.  Self-consciousness  may  be  deemed  the 
primal  Declaration  of  Independence  of  the  Ego 
in  its  career  for  the  goal  of  its  striving,  freedom. 

The  characteristic  of  this  sphere  will,  there- 
fore, show  itself  in  separation  —  separation  of 
the  Self  from  the  Under-Self,  also  from  the 
Over-Self,  and  finally  the  separation  of  the  Self 
within  itself.  But  there  is  likewise  the  return 
out  of  separation,  specially  of  the  Ego,  which 
thus  becomes  self-conscious.  So  we  have  the 
self-conscious  Ego,  which  having  overcome  its 
own  inner  separation,  will  fall  into  a  new  con- 

1.  Separation  from  the  Under- Self.  Already 
we  have  considered  the  Under-Self  or  the  realm 
of  the  sub-conscious  Ego  as  the  immense  store- 
house or  receptacle  of  all  native  endowments  and 
past  experiences,  not  only  of  our  own  previous 
life,  but  of  our  race  and  of  our  total  heredity. 
There  they  lie  sublated,  not  dead  but  asleep,  in 
a  kind  of  spiritual  aestivation,  till  the  right 
Determinant  comes  and  wakes  them  uo.  restor- 


ing  them  to  a  fresh  activity  even  if  but  tempo- 
rary. The  unconscious  Underworld  of  the  Soul 
we  may  deem  it,  which  every  Ego  has  to  pass 
through  and  appropriate  in  the  form  of  Feeling. 

But  the  Ego,  unfolding  more  and  more,  sepa- 
rates from  and  leaves  behind  this  antecedent 
stage  of  itself  with  all  its  human  and  pre-human 
elements,  rising  above  the  threshold  which  sepa- 
rates the  Under-Self  from  the  Self  as  such,  which 
is  to  be  self-conscious.  The  Ego  has  found 
itself  and  recognizes  itself,  it  can  no  longer  be 
ignorant  of  itself  and  of  its  process.  The  sun- 
liorht  which  illuminates  All  in  illuminatino:  itself 
has  risen  above  the  horizon. 

Whence  does  it  come?  We  may  say  it  unfolds 
itself,  it  is  self-evolved.  Yet  this  only  throws 
the  question  a  step  further  back:  whence  comes 
this  gift  of  self-evolution?  Only  from  the  All, 
the  Universe,  which  is  just  its  own  evolution,  its 
own  creation,  as  self-reproduced,  its  own  defini- 
tion, or  however  else  we  may  choose  to  state  the 
fact.  But  the  All,  having  imparted  to  the  Ego  this 
power  of  evolving  itself  and  thus  determining 
itself,  can  no  longer  determine  it  passively  as  a 
part  or  member  of  itself.     Hence  the  next  stage. 

2.  Separation  from  the  Over- Self.  This  new 
separation  is  indicated  in  the  fact  that  the  Ego, 
having  gotten  the  Universe  as  its  own,  declares  or 
begins  to  declare  itself  inde[)endent  of  the  Uni- 
verse.    When  I  am  possessed  of  the  process  of 


the  All,  I  am  no  longer  its  prisoner.  I  put  it 
outside  of  me,  I  make  it  object  while  I  am  sub- 
ject. In  a  manner  I  negate  it,  calling  it  the  realyu 
of  the  non-Ego. 

Such  is  the  sharp  dualism  which  has  entered 
the  Universe.  The  latter  is  no  lono:er  in  imme- 
diate  unity  with  Ego,  determining  the  same  in 
many  ways  as  member  of  itself,  and  imparting 
to  the  same  its  potentialities.  The  child  which 
it  so  fondly  cherishes  has  thrown  it  off.  The 
two  extremes  stand  not  only  in  separation,  but 
in  opposition  and  even  hostility.  The  Ego  seeks 
now  to  subject  the  non-Ego  as  the  latter  in  the 
sub-conscious  world  subjected  it.  Great  is  the 
struggle  manifesting  itself  in  all  stages  of  the 
Ego — in  Intellect,  Will,  and  Feeling. 

Still  it  is  just  this  non-Ego,  as  the  All,  which 
has  brought  the  Ego  to  its  present  supremacy, 
giving  to  it  the  universal  process  (the  Psychosis) 
and  rearing  it  to  self-determination  and  inde- 
pendence. It  is  the  All,  the  Universe,  which 
has  brought  forth  the  Self,  has  nursed  it  through 
its  long  pupilage  in  its  sub-conscious  career 
which  is  the  Soul's  School  of  the  Past,  and  has 
finally  given  to  the  same  its  own  chief  essence, 
its  very  selfhood,  namely  its  Process,  which  is 
that  of  the  absolute  Ego.  This  Process  which 
is  self-consciousness,  we  may  now  look  at. 

3.  Separation  of  the  Self  within.  Often  we 
have   alluded   to  the  separative  act  of  the  Ego 


which  has  the  power  of  dividing  within  itself 
and  still  remaininor  itself   in  that  act  of  eelf-divi- 


sion.  No  external  body  has  any  such  power;  if 
it  cuts  itself  in  two,  it  stays  so.  The  Ego  is  the 
only  thing  in  the  Universe  that  can  do  such  an 
act,  except  the  Universe  itself.  For  this  has  all 
division  inside  of  itself,  and  as  a  part  of  its  pro- 
cess, and  still  it  remains  one,  or  rather  is  a 
perpetual  return  to  unity  with  itself  from  self- 

Such  is,  then,  the  self-conscious  Ego  in  its 
inner  constitution.  It  has  the  complete  Process 
(the  Psychosis)  primarily  within  itself,  as  self- 
dividing  and  self-returning,  or  as  subject-object. 
But  as  self-conscious  it  makes  a  new  division, 
separating  the  All  into  Ego  and  non-Ego,  the 
latter  of  which  it  (the Ego)  begins  to  subordinate 
to  itself,  reducing  the  All  to  a  part  or  member 
of  itself,  subjecting  the  creator  to  the  creature. 

The  result  will  be  a  conflict  from  both  direc- 
tions, from  the  Under-Self  and  from  the  Over- 
Self,  both  of  which  the  self-conscious  Self  is 
seeking  to  subsume,  thus  making  itself  the  Whole 
or  the  All  when  it  is  but  a  part  or  a  stage.  In 
this  way  self-consciousness  is  pretty  certain  to 
find  its  limit,  and  to  be  assigned  to  its  true  place 
in  the  Process  of  the  Universe  (the  Pampsy- 

But  the  self-conscious  Ego  at  present,  insists 
upon   isolation,    exclusiveness,    wishing   to    get 

THE  8ELF'C0N8CI0U8  EQO.  157 

itself  purely,  or  to  become  fully  centered  withia 
itself,  or  to  revolve  freely  upon  its  own  axis.  It 
thus  attains  its  own  pure  process,  it  is  subject- 
object  wholly  to  itself;  it  is  not  only  Self  but 
perchance  selfish.  Still  we  are  to  see  the  present 
attainment:  the  Ego  gets  itself  as  its  own  inner 
process,  gets  individuality. 

And  yet  the  self-conscious  Ego  in  spite  of  its 
love  of  isolation  cannot  remain  alone  with  itself 
in  the  Universe.  If  it  withdraws  into  itself,  it 
must  withdraw  from  something  which  it  leaves 
outside.  Thus  its  very  exclusiveness  posits 
its  other,  the  non-Ego.  In  getting  aware  of 
it!?elf,  it  must  at  the  same  time  get  aware  of 
its  not-Self.  Such  is  the  real  dualism  of  Self- 
consciousness,  the  separation  and  indeed  mutual 
hostility  of  the  two  worlds,  inner  and  outer. 

The  next  important  fact  is  that  this  outer 
world,  the  non-Ego,  is  not  simply  passive, 
quiescent,  taking  the  8[)urns  of  the  self-conscious 
Ego  with  an  unresisting  submissivcness,  but  it 
becomes  actively  hostile  and  starts  an  assault 
upon  its  foe  whose  self-occupied  isolation  it  seeks 
to  break  up.  Necessarily  the  Totality  cannot  allow 
a  piece  to  be  taken  out  of  itself,  for  thus  it  is  no 
longer  Totality.     Here,  then,  the  fight   opens. 

The  first  struggle  will  come  from  the  side  of 
the  sub-conscious  Ego,  that  vast,  silent  Under- 
world of  endowments  and  experiences  which  the 
self-conscious  Ego  is  inclined  to  suppress  with  a 


heavy  hand.  So  we  behold  cavernous  if  not 
sepulchral  shapes  of  the  long-past  Under-Self 
bursting  into  the  present  moment,  supplant- 
ing and  even  re-submerging  the  self-conscious 

II.  The  Upburst  of  the  Under-Self. — 
This  we  may  take  as  the  first  protest  of  the  com- 
plete Self  against  the  autocracy  of  a  part.  The 
sub-conscious  Ego  with  its  world  is  not  going  to 
be  altogether  suppressed  and  negatived  by  the 
self-conscious  Ego  which  is  really  an  evolution 
out  of  itself  and  which  presupposes  the  existence 
of  all  the  forms  of  the  Under-Self  in  order  to 
reach  self-consciousness.  The  consequence  is  a 
subliminal  struggle  followed  often  by  an  up- 
burst  of  shapes  from  that  Netherworld  of  the 
Ego,  which  produces  a  peculiar  effect  of  mys- 
tery upon  the  self-conscious  man  living  in  the 
bounded  sunlight  of  his  own  self-awareness. 

We  may  well  believe  that  the  entire  realm  of 
the  Under-Self  is  in  a  state  of  striving  to  be- 
come Self;  the  sub-conscious  has  as  final  object 
and  purpose  the  becoming  self-conscious.  The 
whole  Netherworld  of  the  Ego  is  struggling  up- 
wards in  accord  with  its  deepest  evolutionary 
nature;  it  longs  to  be  self -knowing  as  man,  and 
even  as  God,  or  as  the  absolute  Process.  Be- 
neath the  threshold  of  our  self-conscious  life  is 
a  vast  reservoir  of  Feelings,  which  have  indeed 
been  transcended,  mastered   and  suppressed  as 


dominant  states,  but  which  can  still  be  stimuhited 
to  assert  themselves  anew  against  the  present 
authority  of  self-consciousness  which  is  placed 
over  them.  Such  is  the  struggle  before  men- 
tioned, likely  to  arise  from  almost  any  provoca- 

The  suppression  of  these  rebellious  children  of 
Erebos  is  the  function  of  the  Gods  of  Light,  the 
self-conscious  authorities  of  the  Over-world. 
Religion  is  primarily  to  subject  them  to  the  uni- 
versal principle;  Ethics  has  the  same  duty.  The 
passion,  the  hate,  the  uncontrolled  emotions  of 
the  sub-conscious  Ego  have  to  be  put  down  in 
part,  and  in  part  transformed  with  a  new  con- 
tent. Irritabilities,  caprices,  whimsicalities  are 
sudden  wellings-up  from  these  unlit  sources. 
Not  a  few  civilized  people  seem  still  to  be  gov- 
erned by  their  uncivilized  Self,  savage  and  even 
animal.  In  fact  civilization  and  savagery  are 
perpetually  fighting  their  battles  over  in  every 
human  soul  with  alternating  victory  and  defeat. 

We  cannot  pretend  to  organize  this  immense 
area  of  conflict  between  the  two  Selves.  Science 
has  begun  to  look  at  it  with  new  eyes  and  collect 
facts,  without  much  order  as  yet.  Still  it  is  pos- 
sible to  inspect  some  leading  groups  of  these 

1.  The  8ubme7*ged  Self.  Or  we  may  better 
deem  it  the  re-submcrgeuce  of  the  self-conscious 
Ego;  which  previously  had  arisen  and  asserted  it- 


self  by  thrusting  down  into  the  Under-Self  its 
own  past  shapes.  But  now  comes  the  counter- 

The  upburst  of  the  Under-Self  may  break 
through  the  threshold,  and  overflow  a  large  area 
of  self-conscious  life,  possibly  the  whole  of  it  for 
a  time.  We  may  compare  such  an  eruption:  to 
that  of  a  volcano,  which  pours  out  over  the  sur- 
face of  the  earth  the  molten  contents  of  the 
earth  underneath,  often  submerging  great  tracts 
and  producing  a  new  surface  which  also  has  its 
peculiar  life  and  vegetation.  An  unhappy  love 
may  bring  to  the  surface  an  overflow  of  Feeling 
and  a  tendency  of  the  mind  which  changes  char- 
acter. A  sudden  f rio;ht  from  a  conflao^ration  can 
call  up  terrors  from  the  Netherworld  of  the  Ego 
which  probably  belong  to  an  antecedent  condi- 
tion of  animality.  The  sight  of  a  cat  has  been 
known  to  throw  people  into  a  fit  of  trembling 
which  caused  them  to  flee  as  if  from  a  wild 

On  the  other  hand  the  self-conscious  level 
seems  at  times  to  sink  down  of  itself,  and  to 
pass  under  the  threshold,  while  some  sub-con- 
scious state  rises  to  the  surface  and  takes  its 
place.  It  is  a  subsidence  resembling  that  of 
land  which  disappears,  sometimes  gradually  and 
sometimes  suddenly,  beneath  the  waters  of  the 
Ocean  which  rise  and  fill  the  vacant  space. 
What  is  called  hysteria  shows  many  illustrations 


of  this  fact.  Bodily  feeling  may  quite  vanish. 
A  person  may  cut  his  arm  and  feel  no  pain  in 
such  a  condition.  Sensation  separates  from  the 
organism  (anaesthesia).  Where  vacancies  occur 
in  the  self -conscious  Ego,  some  isolated  fancy 
rushes  in  and  acts  by  itself,  refusing  to  be  regu- 
lated by  the  total  self-conscious  Ego  (the  fixed 
idea  so-called).  These  subsidences  or  holes  in 
the  Ego,  being  filled  with  activitiesfrom  another 
world  (the  sub-conscious)  cause  distraction  and 
may  end  in  insanity. 

Thus  we  see  an  interplay  between  the  two 
worlds  sub-conscious  and  self-conscious,  an 
activity  partial,  intermittent,  rising  and  falling 
on  both  sides,  an  apparent  struggle  between  the 
two  Selves  for  supremacy.  The  upburst  from 
below  and  the  subsidence  from  above  have  many 
manifestations,  which  cannot  here  be  described. 
But  they  all  drive  forward  to  the  question: 
What  if  the  Under-Self  or  some  form  of  it 
takes  possession  of  the  self-conscious  Ego, 
changing  its  character,  making  it  as  it  were  a 
new  Ego?  This  question  leads  to  the  next 

2.  The  Dual  Self.  The  dualism  of  the  Self, 
the  cleft  personality,  is  now  generally  acknowl- 
edged as  a  very  significant  fact  in  Psychology, 
though  it  has  been  recalcitrant  to  any  order  in 
the  science.  The  sub-conscious  element  not 
only   breaks  through   the   threshold,   but  stays 



above  it  and  rulea  that  world  like  a  conqueror. 
The  result  is  a  loss  of  one  personal  identity 
and  the  getting  of  another;  a  change  of  Selves 
takes  place  so  that  one  man  is  another  man, 
two  individuals  shape  one's  conduct  and  des- 

How  can  such  a  change  take  place?  A  state 
or  condition  from  below  supplants  the  subject 
in  the  Ego  as  subject-object,  and  my  Self  as  this 
subject  vanishes.  That  is,  I  am  a  new  subject, 
which,  however,  still  has  the  same  object  or  the 
same  power  of  self-division  and  self-return.  I 
am  in  this  new  condition  self-conscious,  going 
through  the  process  of  Self  (Psychosis).  So 
thereis  the  complete  conscious  activity  of  the  Ego, 
but  I  am  a  new  subject  without  any  connection 
with  my  former  subjective  side.  Often  there  is 
no  mcmor}^  of  it,  the  secondary  subject  has 
usurped  the  place  of  the  primary. 

Tliis  psychologic  change  is,  therefore,  to  be 
grasped  by  considering  the  separative  stage  of 
the  EiTo.  But  there  is  no  return  to  self-con- 
sciousne«s  of  the  primary  Self,  on  the  contrary 
the  substitute  enters  at  that  point  of  self-sepa- 
ration, becomes  the  active  subject  and  makes 
the  return  to  itself.  Thus  there  are  two  acts  of 
self-consciousness,  controlling  successively  and 
sometimes  synchronously  the  individual.  The 
dual  Self,  therefore,  springs  from  the  duality  of 
the  Ego,  which  is  overcome  not  through  its  own 


subject  but  through  another,  an  intruder  seem- 
ingly from  the  sub-conscious  world. 

These  points  we  shall  illustrate  by  a  concrete 
example.  Perhaps  the  most  famous  case  of  the 
dual  Self  is  that  of  Ansel  Bourne  (see  Proceed- 
ings of  Society  for  Psychical  Research,  Vol.  7, 
and  Myers,  Human  Personality,  Vol.1.,  p.  309). 
At  the  age  of  61  years  he  suddenly  left  home, 
and  no  trace  of  him  could  be  found.  After  two 
weeks  he  arrived  in  a  distant  town,  under 
another  name,  and  started  a  little  store.  He 
did  his  business  in  a  proper  way,  and  nothing 
unusual  was  observed  in  his  conduct.  After  about 
eight  weeks  ho  woke  up  one  morning,  he  did  not 
know  where  he  was  or  what  he  had  been  doing. 
While  the  secondary  condition  lasted  he  was  in 
complete  control  of  himself  in  all  his  transac- 
tions, but  when  he  returned  to  his  primary  con- 
dition his  memory  was  a  bhmk  in  regard  to  what 
had  transpired  during  the  eight  weeks  of  his  sec- 
ondary state,  and  joined  on  to  the  last  event  of 
his  former  primary  condition. 

Here  the  same  man  shows  two  Selves,  each  of 
them  perfectly  self-conscious,  yet  entirely  dis- 
connected. At  what  point  docs  the  separation 
enter,  making  him  two?  Not  in  self-conscious- 
ness proper  for  he  is  equally  self-conscious  in 
both  conditions.  But  in  the  separative  stage  of 
the  Ego,  where  he  is  subject  and  object,  the  sec- 
ond subject  slips  in  and  gets  control  of  the  total 


Ego,  leaving  tbb  first  subject  to  drop  back  into 
the  Uader-Self,  till  called  for.  What  caused 
such  a  substitution?  That  i^^,  of  course,  un- 
known; all  that  we  can  say  say  is,  some  struggle 
between  the  sub-conscious  and  the  self-conscious 
results  in  the  triumph  of  the  former  and  the 
temporary  displacement  of  the  latter.  Possibly 
some  weakness  of  the  present  subject  causes 
it  to  sink  down  into  the  Under-Self,  when  its 
place  is  taken  by  some  past  state,  wish,  or 

It  is  evident  that  Ansel  Bourne  recovered  his 
primary  subject  through  himself,  the  secondary 
subject  seems  to  have  run  its  course  when  it  in 
turn  was  dethroned  by  the  former  occupant,  his 
primary  subject.  But  there  are  cases  in  which 
the  new  Self  maintains  its  position  against  the 
old  Self,  though  after  many  fluctuations  and 
relapses,  or  we  may  say,  after  many  battles  in 
which  the  old  Self  temporarily  wins  the  victory. 

Significant  is  the  loss  of  memory,  so  that  when 
the  new  Self  is  supplanted  by  the  old,  the  latter 
has  no  recollection  of  what  has  transpired  while 
the  former  held  sway.  On  the  whole  each 
state  has  its  own  retention  and  hence  its  own 
recall  of  events.  We  can  see  how  this  comes 
about.  Memory  is  based  upon  the  identification 
of  the  object  recalled  with  the  subject  recall- 
ing; I  remember  that  I  once  had  a  certain  expe- 
rience.    Suppose,  however,  that  the  "  I  "  which 


had  that  experience  is  supplanted  by  another 
'•  I;  "  it  is  evident  that  the  latter  cannot  recall 
the  experience  of  the  former  unless  the  second 
"I"  has  absorbed  the  first.  This  absorption 
seems  to  take  place  sometimes,  so  that  the 
secondary  state  remembers  all  the  events  of  the 
primary,  while  the  primary  has  no  power  of 
recalling  anything  which  belongs  to  secondary 
state.  This  fact  was  observed  in  the  oft-cited 
case  Felida  X.- whose  life  was  one  continuous 
strufforle  and  alternation  between  two  Selves,  till 
at  last  the  secondary  Self  triumphed,  with  a  few 
brief  relapses  at  considerable  intervals. 

3.  The  Multiple  Self.  It  is  now  generally 
acknowledged  by  experts  that  the  cleavage  of  the 
Ego  may  be  not  merely  into  two  Selves,  but  into 
several,  each  of  which  has  its  own  activity  and 
character,  is  indeed  a  kind  of  independent  per- 
son. The  classic  instance  is  that  of  Louis  Viv^ 
in  whose  psychical  career  no  less  than  six  differ- 
ent Selves  participated,  according  to  the  French 
physicians  who  watched  and  studied  his  case. 
The  upburst  from  the  sub-conscious  world  is  not 
a  single  dominant  state,  but  a  number  of  states 
from  below  rise  up  and  determine  the  self-con- 
scious Ego.  The  arena  of  such  a  person's  soul 
is  indeed  a  strange  spectacle,  being  a  kind  of 
dramatic  presentation  of  the  various  characters 
which  his  race  has  i)assed  through  in  their  devel- 
opment.    Thus  it  seems  likely  that  every  former 


condition  of  man  from  his  first  animate  condition 
upwards  may  become  personalized  and  brought 
to  appear  on  the  stage  of  the  real  living  man  and 
made  to  play  its  long-forgotten  part. 

Another  peculiar  fact  about  this  Multiple  Self 
is  that  two  or  perhaps  more  of  its  sub-conscious 
States  may  rise  up  together  and  perform  their 
actions  contemporaneously,  like  personages  in  a 
drama.  Previously  the  states  followed  one  after 
the  other,  but  now  they  co-exist,  acting  and 
talking  in  relation  to  one  another,  since  each  is 
an  Ego  in  his  given  character. 

A  very  curious  case  is  reported  by  Dr.  Prince, 
an  American  physician  (Proceedings  of  Society 
for  Psychical  Research,  Vol.  15).  The  one  Miss 
Beauchamp  developed  into  several  Misses  Beau- 
champ,  no  less  than  four  altogether.  Miss 
Beauchamp  No.  I "  is  a  very  serious-minded  per- 
son, fond  of  books  and  study,  of  a  religious  turn 
of  mind  and  possesses  a  very  morbid  conscien- 
tiousness." But  Miss  Beauchamp  No.  Ill,  who 
named  herself  Sally  one  day  in  a  lit  of  jollity, 
"  is  full  of  fun,  does  not  worry  about  anything, 
hates  books,  hates  church."  The  one  is  well- 
educated,  the  other  is  not ;  the  one  knows  French, 
the  other  does  not.  Now  comes  the  curious  fact 
that  Sally  took  a  strong  dislike  to  Miss  Beau- 
champ No.  I,  and  said  to  the  Doctor;  '*  Why,  I 
hate  her,  Doctor  Prince."  Manv  tricks  and 
practical  jokes  Sally  played  upon  her  other  Self. 


Finally  Miss  Beauchamp  No.  IV  appeared,  when 
there  was  a  new  adjustment  of  the  personal  rela- 
tions of  that  curious  group  called  the  Misses 
Beauchamp.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  all  had  differ- 
ent characters  and  acted  different  parts  in  this 
strange  drama  of  multiple  personality.  So  at 
least  it  is  set  down  in  the  amusing  account  of 
Doctor  Prince. 

On  the  whole  we  may  consider  William  Shake- 
speare as  the  greatest  example  of  the  multiple 
Self  that  ever  lived.  What  a  variety  of  charac- 
ters do  we  not  find  in  a  single  play  of  his  1  Yet 
he  must  have  been  all  of  them  in  the  course  of 
his  life,  and  very  often  several  of  them  at  once. 
Sometimes  we  find  a  transformation  in  one  of 
his  characters  equal  to  that  of  Sally  Beauchamp. 
Shakespeare  had  the  whole  race  in  him  and  all 
its  personalized  gradations;  moreover  he  pos- 
sessed in  his  own  right  the  gift  of  projecting 
them  into  living  souls  which  pass  before  us  in  a 
kind  of  transparent  bodies.  Shakespeare  in  his 
way  shows  the  working  of  the  multiple  Self, 
but  not  disintegrated.  In  fact  Genius  has  the 
power  of  descending  into  the  sub-conscious  Ego, 
and  thence  calling  up  many  shapes,  which,  how- 
ever, are  still  held  in  the  unity  of  self-conscious- 
ness. But  if  they  rush  asunder,  each  becoming 
an  independent  unit  with  its  own  center,  the 
self-conscious  Ego  flies  to  pieces,  and  even 
Genius  will  then  go  crazy,  as  it  has  often  done. 


The  dual  Self  has  become  a  popular  proverb 
in  recent  years  through  the  little  masterpiece  of 
romance  known  as  Dr.  Jekyll  and  Mr.  Hyde^ 
still  kept  before  us  by  theatrical  representation. 

It  is  manifest  that  the  Upburst  of  the  Under- 
Self  can  have  a  destructive  result.  It  may  dis- 
solve the  self-conscious  Self  back  in  the  sub- 
conscious units  of  its  transcended  past.  This  is 
the  uncentering  of  the  self-centered  or  self- 
conscious  Ego,  its  self-division  into  its  own 
primordial  atoms,  which  can  only  produce  the 
destruction  of  personal  identity. 

If  we  go  back  to  Cosmical  Feeling  we  observe 
that  the  Totality  of  Nature,  the  Cosmos,  works 
for  the  centering  of  the  Ego  (see  preceding  p. 
78).  But  what  the  All  has  been  long  doing  for 
the  Ego  is  (or  may  be)  now  reversed,  the  Ego  at 
its  very  culmination  in  self-consciousness  can 
become  uncentered,  being  resolved  back  into  its 
antecedent  sub-conscious  states  (or  atoms).  The 
very  intensity  of  the  self-conscious  Ego  provokes 
its  opposite,  incites  the  rebellion  of  the  old 
monsters  of  the  Underworld.  Also  the  weak- 
ness or  even  the  unguardedness  of  the  self-con- 
scious Ego  may  be  the  occasion  of  an  upburst  cf 
the  Powers  from  below. 

How  is  the  emergency  to  be  met?  The  crea- 
tive AH,'  which  produced  the  self-conscious  Ego, 
which  gave  to  it  its  process  of  unity,  now  ap- 
pears in  defense  of  it — the  original  parent  rush- 



ing  down  to  the  defense  of  his  child,  taking  the 
same  again  to  his  bosom.  This  is  the  Down- 
burst  of  the  Over-self,  which  re-absorbs  the  Ego 
into  its  own  Totality,  making  tl)is  Ego  an  un- 
separated  member  of  the  All  again. 

III.  The  Downburst  of  the  Over-Self. — 
There  is  a  second  threshold  or  limit  bounding  the 
self-conscious  Ego,  which  limit  must  be  conceived 
as  above  it,  not  below  it,  as  we  have  observed  in 
the  sub-conscious  Ego.  This  new  world  of  the 
Self. we  may  name  the  Over-Self,  since  it  is  a 
Self,  an  Ego,  with  the  hitter's  process.  But  it 
is  strictly  the  All,  the  Universe  of  which  the 
ordinary  self-conscious  Ego  is  only  a  part  or 
member.  Thus  the  latter  is  reallv  inside  of  the 
Over-Self,  though  projecting  it  outside,  and  re- 
garding it  as  something  supra-conscious.  This 
division,  therefore,  is  only  apparent,  and  exists 
merely  as  subjective,  for  the  self-conscious  Ego. 

Now  in  the  present  sphere  the  Over-Self  or 
supra-conscious  Ego  will  break  through  this 
limit  made  against  it  by  the  self-conscious  Ego, 
nullifying  the  same  and  asserting  itself  as  the 
All,  or,  we  may  add,  as  the  All-Ego.  This  will 
be  the  essential  fact  of  what  we  call  the  Down- 
burst  of  the  Over-Self,  primarily  into  the  self- 
conscious  Ego,  whereby  the  latter  is  taken  up 
into  the  All  and  made  a  part  of  its  process. 

Thus  we  may  see  that  the  separation  of  the 
preceding  sphere  (the  self-conscious  Ego)  is  now 


overcome!  the  disintegration  of  the  Self  which 
was  so  striking  there,  is  here  redintegrated. 
The  Ego  is  made  whole  again,  healed,  it  ciin  be 
affirmed  often  literally,  for  a  man'eloua  therapeu- 
tical power  frequently  luanifests  itself  just  in  the 
present  sphere  as  the  previous  sphere  frequently 
shows  malady,  dissolution,  insanity.  It  is  the 
Totality  which  totiiies  the  finite  self-uonscious- 
ness,  wheeling  it  into  line  with  the  universal 

The  general  way  of  doing  this  is  to  take 
it  out  of  its  limitations  in  Space  and  Time, 
which  do  not  exist  for  the  Universe  r)r 
rather  are  inside  of  it,  as  is  all  separation.  For 
Space  and  Time  are  the  primordial  separatists  of 
the  finite  world,  separating  all  individual  objects 
from  one  another  and  separative  (infinitely 
divisible)  within  themselves.  Now  the  Ego  can 
be  removed  from  their  control,  it  can  be  every- 
where and  everywhen. 

We  have,  therefore,  to  conceive  of  the  uui- 
yersal  Sensorium,  of  which  each  sense  of  the 
individual  Ego  is  a  particular  form  or  uiember 
which  connects  with  total  organism  or  univeral 
Sensorium.  The  Universe  as  Sensorium  must  be 
specialized  into  single  senses  which  still  keep 
their  living  organic  relation,  not  merely  to  the 
human  body  but  to  the  universal  body,  to  the 
All  as  Feeling.  What  will  stinmlate  a  given 
sense,  such  as  vision,   to  reach    far  beyond  the 


Here  and  the  Now,  and  to  see  objects  in  remote 
times  and  places?  Evidently  the  medium  must 
be  universal,  yet  must  feel  in  its  parts  every- 
where the  stimulus  at  a  given  point,  like  the 
human  orgranism  made  universal. 

In  its  present  condition,  the  Ego  can  feel  and 
sense  at  a  distance  from  its  periphery,  since  the 
Over-Self  breaks  down  its  limit,  appropriates  it, 
making  it  a  stage  or  participant  in  the  universal 
process.  In  the  ordinary  sense-perception  of 
the  self-conscious  Ego,  the  object  must  be  in 
some  sort  of  contact  with  the  nerve-ends  of  the 
bodily  organism.  But  now  a  new  power  appears, 
a  power  of  seeing,  hearing,  feeling  what  is  dis- 
tant in  Space  and  Time. 

There  are  numerous  cases  in  which  a  person 
has  seen  things  and  events  which  were  many 
miles  away.  Evidently  there  must  be  some 
medium  between  the  two  extremes,  the  Ego  and 
its  distant  object.  Also  there  nmst  have  been  a 
stimulus  which  specially  caused  the  Ego  to  act. 
Usually  this  is  found  in  some  personal  tie  or  in- 
terest, as  when  a  father  sees  his  son  injured  in  a 
distant  town,  or  when  there  is  a  vague  brooding 
over  something  which  is  going  to  happen  to  ours. 

This  brings  us  to  the  other  and  more  surpris- 
ing fact  of  the  present  sphere:  the  Ego  can 
sense  (both  see  and  hear)  what  is  distant  in 
Time,  the  event  of  the  future.  And  also  the 
occurrence   which  is    distant  both  in  Space  and 

172  FEELma  —  ELEMENTAL. 

Time,  which  is  to  happen  in  another  place  and 
on  another  day,  has  been  often  described  and 
announced .  Is  there  some  such  truth  in  proph- 
ecy, and  in  the  oracle? 

Space  and  Time  and  Motion  must  be  not  out- 
side but  inside  the  Determinant  in  order  to  pro- 
duce such  results.  The  Ego  is  still  awake,  self- 
conscious,  though  dominated  and  even  absorbed 
by  the  Over-Self.  It  largely,  though  not 
wholly,  loses  its  exclusiveness,  its  self-centered 
individuality.  It  is  no  longer  isolated,  but  gets 
into  such  complete  unity  with  the  All  that  it 
shares  in  the  lattcr's  Space,  Time,  and  Motion. 
The  Universe  now  centers  mc,  I  do  not  center  it; 
it  takes  me  back  into  itself  so  that  I  am  everywhere 
and  every  when.  Thus  I  am  again  cosmical  with- 
out wholly  losing  my  self-consciousness  which  has 
been  won  after  such  a  long  evolution.  Into  this 
evolution  the  All  dips  mo  afresh,  often  with  a  great 
restorative  effect,  as  if  I  were  being:  made  over. 
Already  we  have  noticed  the  dissolution  to  which 
the  self-conscious  Ego  seems  liable  by  its  very 
nature.  The  Downburst  of  the  Over-Self  makes 
for  its  reproduction,  its  new  evolution. 

But  there  are  moments  in  which  the  sound 
self-conscious  Ego  lapses  or  is  overpowered  by  the 
Over-Self.  Some  strong  emotion  of  my  friend, 
or  perchance  some  thought  of  his  impresses 
itself  upon  me  who  am  many  miles  away.  As  to 
the  transference  there   is  now  little  doubt,  as  to 


the  nature  of  the  transferring  power  there  is 
a  good  deal  of  speculation.  A  medium  of  psy- 
chical transference  may  be  conceived,  a  Pam- 
paychikon  which  under  certain  conditions  can 
bring  together  every  separated  Psyche  in  exist- 
ence. Under  what  conditions?  That  is  indeed 
the  mystery. 

Still  we  may  put  together  into  something  like 
an  order  the  main  facts  of  this  most  obscure  part 
of  Psychology.  All  the  states  of  the  Ego  can  be 
taken  up  into  the  Over-Self  (or  Pampsychikon)^ 
and  carried  far  beyond  the  natural  limits  or  the 
periphery  of  the  Ego,  which  thereby  seems  to 
acquire  a  new  and  vastly  extended  periphery. 
Now  the  Ego,  as  already  often  observed,  has 
three  supreme  stages  or  activities — Feeling,  Will, 
and  Intellect.  Each  of  these  will  be  found  work- 
ing at  a  distance  through  the  Over-Self.  The 
whole  man  as  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  is 
borne  beyond  his  immediate  environment,  and 
can  produce  his  influence  far  away. 

Thus  we  may  observe  in  the  present  field  the 
following  stages:  (1)  Feeling- transference  — 
Telepathy;  (2)  Will-transference — Telehoulesis ; 
(3)  Thought-transference —  Telenoesis,  Upon 
each  of  these  a  remark  or  two. 

1.  Ttlepafhy.  There  is  a  communication  of 
Feeling  between  two  (or  more)  separated  Egos, 
still  awake  and  self-conscious.  The  conceived 
medium  is  now  the  Over-Self  (universal  Scn>!'»- 


rium,  or  Pampsychikou).  The  general  move- 
ment may  be  grasped  as  follows :  an  Ego  under 
the  influence  usually  of  some  strong  emotion 
stirs  this  Over-Self  to  a  corresponding  vibration 
which  reaches  the  second  and  sympathetically 
connected  Ego  at  a  distance.  The  Ego  receives 
through  Telepathy  its  communication  of  Feeling. 

We  may  compare  this  process  to  that  of  the 
individual  as  related  to  the  Social  Whole  receiv- 
ing and  giving,  whose  analogon  is  here  the  feel- 
ing Whole  or  Over-Self.  Still  more  striking 
both  in  name  and  thing  is  the  similarity  to  the 
telegraph  and  telephone  which  operate  at  a  dis- 
tance through  electricity.  And  yet  closer  is  the 
suggestion  of  wireless  telegraphy,  whose  medium 
is  supposed  to  be  currents  of  a  very  subtle  ether. 
At  a  certain  point  is  the  stimulus  of  those  ether- 
waves  which  reach  another  point  to  be  stimulated 
hundreds  of  miles  distant.  In  fact,  the  tele- 
pathic connection  Crookes  has  supposed  to  take 
place  by  means  of  ether- waves  (or  brain-wave^) 
finer  than  those  of  the  X-ray ;  '*of  smaller  ampli- 
tude and  less  frequency"  they  must  be  than 
those  which  communicate  between  the  two  dis- 
tant points  in  wireless  telegraphy. 

A  special  bond  of  Feeling,  as  kinship,  twin- 
ship,  friendship,  love,  finds  its  other  at  a  dis- 
tance. Sympathy  is  telepathic,  connecting  two 
not  merely  in  each  other's  presence,  but  far  apart 
through  the  universal  Sensorium.     The  commu- 


nicatioa  niav  amount  to  aa  imasrins:  of  the  agent 
by  the  recipient  or  of  the  recipient  by  the  agent, 
and  they  may  converse.  And  even  another  per- 
son present  may  see  the  projected  form,  as  two 
or  more  see  the  same  ghost  in  Hamlet. 

Telepathy  shows  the  Over-Self  removing  the 
limits  of  the  self-conscious  Ego,  particularly 
those  of  Space  and  Time,  overcoming  the  sepa- 
ration of  it  from  the  same,  and  uniting  it  (the 
Ego)  with  the  same  (the  Over-Self)  in  one 

2.  Teleboulesis,  Not  only  Feeling,  but  also 
the  power  of  Will  can  exert  itself  through  dis- 
tance, quite  beyond  the  limited  periphery  of  the 
body.  Most  of  us  have  seen  material  objects 
move  without  any  apparent  mechanical  cause. 
Often  this  is  done  by  means  of  a  trick ;  indeed 
just  here  lies  a  great  domain  of  deception  and 
also  delusion.  But  this  delusion  is  twofold;  it 
may  result  from  excessive  credulity  or  just  as 
well  from  excessive  skepticism. 

The  general  fact,  however,  cannot  be  denied 
in  view  of  the  careful  evidence  which  has  re- 
cently been  collected.  It  has  been  given  a 
special  name.  Telekinesis,  motion  at  a  distance, 
for  which  we  prefer  to  use  the  psychical  term 
above  stated,  which  connects  this  class  of  phe- 
nomena with  the  Will,  whereby  they  are  co- 
ordinated in  the  science  of  the  Psvche.  We 
accordingly  accept  the  fact  that  the  Ego  exerts 


its  power  of  volitioa  at  a  distance  with  effect, 
and  under  certain  conditions  can  move  and  lift 
things  animate  and  inanimate  without  bodily 
contact.  The  medium  is  the  Over-Self  which 
can  be  agent  as  well  as  recipient,  has  a  motor 
power  of  its  own  as  well  as  sensory,  possesses 
Will  as  well  as  Feeling. 

Another  fact  in  this  connection  is  that  the 
muscular  strength  of  the  individual  is  often 
enormously  increased,  becomes  supra-normal,  as 
if  the  Over-Self  im[)arted  itself  physically  to  the 
man  and  endowed  him  with  a  superhuman  power 
of  body. 

3.  Telenoesis.  The  activities  of  Intellect  as 
such  — sense-perception,  representation,  and 
thought  —  can  be  transferred  to  a  distance 
through  the  medium  of  the  Over-Self,  which 
often  bursts  down  into  the  limited  self-conscious 
Ego  and  carries  its  intellectual  powers  far  beyond 
their  ordinary  range.  Not  only  may  I  sense 
things  far  away,  as  if  I  were  for  a  time  endowed 
with  universal  sensation  (by  what  we  may  call 
the  universal  Sensorium),  but  also  I  image 
distant  persons  and  objects.  Also  an  imageless 
thought  may  be  transferred. 

The  difficulty  is  we  do  not  know  how  to  start 
the  Over-Self — it  usuallv  starts  of  its  own  ac- 
cord.  It  is  not  a  machine  which  acts  from  our 
Will,  but  has  its  own  volition  and  also  intelli- 
gence.    Really  it  too  is  Ego  as  well  as  the  man. 


Hence  it  has  its  end,  its  nature,  possibly  its 
caprice,  and  the  self-conscious  Ego  can  only 
become  a  stage  in  its  process  and  subject  to  the 

In  Telepathy  the  Ego  may  still  be  awake,  self- 
conscious  and  world-conscious,  making  the  dis- 
tinction between  the  Self  and  the  not-Self.  But 
this  distinction  gets  less  and  less  strong,  the  Over- 
Self  in  the  telepathic  state  is  the  decided  Deter- 
minant and  is  canceling  the  opposition  of  self- 
consciousness.  Finally  all  resistance  ceases,  the 
Ego  unites  with  the  Over-self  and  becomes  one 
with  it,  unseparatedfromit;  the  division  between 
Ego  and  non-Ego  is  wiped  out  as  real,  sinking 
away  in  the  mind  as  ideal,  and  man  is  again 
asleep  as  he  was  once  before  asleep  in  the  sub- 
conscious (embryonic)  state.  So  he  returns  to 
Sleep,  which,  however,  is  different  from  the  first 
one,  having  passed  throiljgh  the  stage  of  self- 
consciousness,  and  retaining  the  stores  of  expe- 
rience gained  during  that  time  in  the  memory. 
That  is,  the  Ego  is  now  full  of  new  material, 
not  empty  of  all  self-conscious  life,  as  it  was 
when  the  Under-self. 

It  is  at  this  point,  then,  that  we  pass  from  the 

Downburst  of  the   Over-Self  to  the  Over-Self 

proper,  or  from  the  self-conscious  Ego  as  such 

(waking)     to     the     same    as     supra-conscious 




C.  The    Supra-conscious    Ego. — The   self- 
conscious  Ego,   being  taken  up  into  the  Over- 
Self,    becomes   supra-conscious,  the  distinction 
between  Self  and  the  World  (or  Ego  and  non- 
Ego)  being  substantially  transcended.     The  inner 
distinction    of    the    Ego    between   subject  and 
object  remains  and  is  active  during  its  stay  in  the 
Over-self   (for   instance,  during  a  dream).     In 
the  preceding  stage  (the  Downburst  of  the  Over- 
self)  the  Ego  was  not  only  self-conscious  inter- 
nally,   but    self-centered     externally     (awake), 
though  integrated   in   the  proces3  of  the  Over- 
Self,    and   thus   carried  beyond  its  own  natural 
periphery.     But  now  this  external  self-centering 
is  to  be  obliterated  in  sleep. 

Here  comes  to  light  an  old  problem :  to  dis- 
tinguish between  waking  and  sleeping.  We  can- 
not say  that  the  difference  lies  in  the  act  of 
self-consciousness,  for  the  Ego  is  self-conscious 
in  sleep  as  well  as  in  a  waking  state.  When 
sleeping  it  can  still  perform  its  processes  of  Feel- 
ing, Will,  and  Intellect,  with  the  accompanying 
self-consciousness.  Where,  then,  lies  the  dis- 
tinction? The  outer  world  is  shut  off  now  by 
the  closed  eyes,  the  resistance  to  the  terrestrial 
power  ceases  through  the  prostration  of  the 
body,  the  separation  between  Ego  and  non-Ego 
is  quite  canceled.  I  give  up  in  sleep  my  own 
self-centering  in  the  Cosmos,  going  back  to  and 
becoming   one   with   the   cosmical  center,  from 


which  I  originally  unfolded  into  self-conscious- 
ness. Just  this  process  of  unfolding  or  of  evo- 
lution is  to  be  re-enacted  by  the  Ego  that  it  be 
re-born  every  day.  Asleep  I  no  longer  behold 
myself  the  center  of  the  solar  or  celestial  cycles 
(see  preceding  pp.  78,  81,  etc.)  of  the  outer 
world;  in  that  respect  I  am  uncentered,  unre- 
sisting, having  gone  back  to  the  primal  Cosmos 
in  Space,  Time  and  Motion,  with  which  I  am 
now  in  unity.  Herein  lies  my  possible  control 
through  the  universal  medium  (the  Over-Self  or 
Pampsychikon)  of  spatial  and  temporal  separa- 
tion; that  is,  things  and  events  become  no 
longer  separated  for  my  Ego,  as  it  lies  sleeping 
in  the  Pampsychikon. 

The  phenomenon  of  Sleep  must,  therefore,  be 
carried  back  primarily  to  the  decentering  of  the 
self-conscious  Ego,  whereby  it  renounces  tem- 
porarily its  central  place  in  opposition  to  the 
cosmical  All,  giving  up  for  a  time  its  own  cycle 
and  passing  into  that  of  the  All.  Its  compensa- 
tion for  this  self-surrender  is  that  it  becomes  en- 
dowed with  the  universal  power  of  the  latter. 
It  becomes  what  we  here  designate  as  the  supra- 
conscious  Ego,  wiping  out  its  opponent,  the  non- 
Ego,  which  hitherto  has  limited  it,  and  asserting 
mastery  over  cosmical  limitation,  that  of  Space 
and  Time. 

The  Ego  awake  has  already  felt  Space  and 
Time  in  World-Feeling  as  bounding  it  on  every 


side  outwardly.  But  in  All-Feeling  the  Ego  as 
supra-conscious,  finds  these  spatial  and  temporal 
bounds  broken  down,  or  rather  put  under  its  con- 
trol, since  they  are  now  internal,  apart  of  it.  In 
its  supra-conscious  realm,  the  Ego,  being  one 
with  the  All-Ego,  has  internalized  and  appropri- 
ated Space  and  Time  and  so  asesthem  as  its  own 

In  this  fashion  we  conceive  the  self-conscious 
Ego  to  be  taken  up  by  the  Over-Self,  re-absorbed 
as  an  element  of  its  process,  whereby  it  loses  its 
separation  from  and  opposition  to  the  world. 
This  is  the  phenomenon  of  sleep,  the  second 
sleep  of  man,  in  distinction  from  the  first  embry- 
onic sleep,  hence  it  is  a  return  which,  however, 
takes  along  with  itself  the  self-consciousness  of 
the  Ego.  The  Over-Self  is  now  triumphant,  its 
antagonist  stops  resistance,  surrenders,  and  falls 
into  unity  with  the  All,  or  the  universal  process. 
Meanwhile  we  are  not  to  forget  that  the  activity 
of  the  Ego  is  not  lost,  but  is  controlled  by  a  new 
Determinant,  the  Totality,  with  which  it  is  now 
integrated.  The  result  is  we  shall  find  in  Sleep 
what  we  may  call  a  new  kind  of  self-conscious- 
ness which  has  also  its  world,  namely  thedream- 
w^orld.  So  we  have  to  put  together  the  two  facts : 
the  double  Self  of  Ego  and  non-Ego  is  asleep, 
suspended,  yet  its  doubleness  (as  subject-object) 
is  preserved,  and  is  manifesting  itself  in  a  new 


Sleep  is  a  kind  of  re-birth  involving  a  return 
to  the  All-mother  for  a  new  creation  of  the  Self. 
Every  twenty-four  hours  in  the  natural  order  of 
things  man  has  to  be  restored  out  of  his  separa- 
tion from  his  creative  source,  which  thus  shows 
itself  to  be  an  estrangement  to  be  overcome 
temporarily  at  least  during  life.  Daily  the 
self-conscious  Ego  has  to  re-enact  its  rise  to 
self-consciousness,  to  go  back  to  the  first  Sleep, 
to  pass  through  the  same  and  to  re-awake  in  the 
world  of  finite  sensation,  of  phenomena,  of 
appearances.  But  these  wear  him  out  in  a  few 
hours,  the  struggle  to  assert  his  self-conscious 
Self  in  opposition  to  the  Over-Self  as  separated 
from  him,  grinds  him  to  utter  fatigue;  he  gives 
up  the  conflict,  his  head  droops  first,  being  the 
scat  of  opposition,  then  his  body  follows  drop- 
ping prostrate,  unable  to  resist  even  gravitation 
toward  the  common  center  of  the  earth.  Thus 
he  renounces  his  own  bodily  center,  after  his  men- 
tal center  succumbs.  As  he  lies  stretched  out  and 
relaxed  in  slumber,  he  is  the  picture  of  submis- 
sion to  the  All,  his  self-conscious  individuality  is 
submerged  into  the  great  sea  of  being,  whose 
healing  or  rather  creative  waters  must  flow 
through  him  again  ere  he  can  become  a  man. 

Such,  however,  is  the  reward:  through  his 
renunciation  of  Self  for  a  while  he  gets  it  back 
recovered,  re-boru,  ready  for  new  effort.  He 
has  been  refreshed  by  Sleep,  we  say ;  really  it  is 

182  FESima  —  EL  EMENTAL, 

a  renewal,  are-creation  through  the  All,  through 
God,  who  (according  to  a  passage  already  cited) 
of  old  wrought  in  this  way.  ''And  the  Lord 
God  caused  a  deep  sleep  to  fall  upon  man  and 
he  slept.  And  He  took  one  of  his  ribs  "  to  cre- 
ate a  new  being.  Sleep  was  considered  a  divine 
gift.  **  He  giveth  unto  his  beloved  Sleep,"  and 
also  during  Sleep. 

Moreover  the  alternation  of  waking  and  sleep- 
ing is  intimately  connected  with  a  cosmieal  pro- 
cess, the  alternation  of  day  and  night,  which  has 
a  terrestrial  cause  in  the  diurnal  revolution  of 
the  earth  upon  its  axis.  Thus  our  globe  has  its 
hours  of  sleeping  and  waking,  for  Nature  shares 
in  the  process.  Still  further,  day  and  night 
have  their  origin  in  the  sun  whose  steady  light  is 
divided  into  two  opposite  halves  by  the  rotation 
of  the  planet.  Thus  our  sleeping  and  waking  go 
b^lck  to  the  center  not  only  of  the  Earth  but  of 
the  Solar  System,  and  through  it  to  the  center 
of  the  Cosmos.  I  resist  gravitation  when  I  am 
awake,  being  one  with  the  sunlight  which  also 
rays  out  in  opposition  to  gravitation.  But  I  lie 
down  and  become  one  with  the  earth  in  darkness, 
with  closed  senses  as  if  unborn,  till  the  terres- 
trial revolution  brings  me  back  to  light  and  self- 
consciousness,  as  if  re-born  from  the  womb  of 
the  All-mother.  Thus  our  sleeping  and  waking 
have  a  remote  Determinant  in  the  total  Cosmos. 

It  is  manifest  that  the  All  (thePampsychosis) 


re-bears  the  Ego  (the  Psychosis)  every  day;  for 
what  purpose?  It  imparts  to  the  Ego  its  own 
creative  power,  which  the  latter  is  to  use  ulti- 
mately to  re-create  the  All  and  so  be  a  link  in 
the  Process  of  the  Universe.  In  the  waking 
state,  the  self-conscious  man  asserts  himself  as 
individual  against  the  All  till  he  in  turn  goes  back 
and  recreates  in  thought  the  All  which  creates 
him.  This  is  the  supreme  waking  act  of  man : 
he,  the  created  by  the  Universe,  being  endowed 
with  the  latter's  creative  power,  goes  back  and 
recreates  its  source,  recreates  that  which  created 
it.  This  completes  the  ring  or  the  cycle  of  the 
All,  the  ex[)licit  Pampsychosis  in  whose  Process 
lies  all  Being,  even  Nothing.  This  cycle  em- 
braces God  (the  All  as  creative  Idea  or  the 
Absolute),  Nature  (the  Cosmos),  and  Man,  who 
is  to  return  to  the  All  and  unite  the  two  extremes, 
bending  them  around  into  the  ring  of  the 
Universe  (to  continue  the  metaphor),  or  better, 
to  complete  the  Pampsychosis.  Not  till  God 
has  created  that  which  can  re-create  Ilim,  is  He 
perfect,  or  is  the  Universe  truly  universal. 

Man,  then,  being  created  in  a  sleep,  must  at 
last  wake  up  and  recreate  his  Creator  creating 
not  only  him  (Man)  but  the  whole  Process  of 
the  Universe  —  God,  Nature,  Man.  It  may  be 
said  that  Man  is  not  fully  awake  till  he  does  this, 
nor  is  the  Universe  fully  awake  as  long  as  he 
partially  sleeps,  he  being  an  essential  link  thereof. 


So  man  is  likewise  to  wake  up  the  sleeping  or 
somnolescent  Universe  by  his  thought,  which 
makes  the  Pampsychosis  explicit,  a  complete 
Process  by  means  of  the  fully  awakened  Man 
reproducing  its  Process  in  himself  (as  God, 
Nature,  and  Man)  through  his  own  psychical 
Process  (Feeling,  Will,  Intellect). 

Still  man  is  finite  also,  and  that  he  is  finite  in 
his  creativity,  that  he  is  not  the  creative  All,  is 
seen  in  the  fact  that  he  must  often  stop  and  go 
to  sleep  again  in  order  to  be  re-created  himself 
by  the  All  ere  he  can  reproduce  the  world  even  in 
sensation.  For  his  external  senses  wear  out 
every  day  and  have  to  be  re-made  in  Sleep  by 
that  power  which  first  made  them,  and  of  which 
they  are  properly  special  manifestations. 

In  Sleep,  accordingly,  we  have  a  process,  in 
fact  several  processes  of  the  Self.  It  is  true 
that  the  self-conscious  Ego  is  inhibited  in  Sleep, 
but  after  self-consciousness  has  been  won ;  this 
is  not  the  first  Sleep,  which  is  before  the  arising 
of  self-consciousness,  but  is  the  second  Sleep, 
and  it  has  three  leading  stages. 

I.  Natural  Sleep  (Hypnos);  along  with 
the  process  of  Nature  (earth  and  sun)  the  Self- 
conscious  Ego  spontaneously  drops  back  into 
unity  with  the  All. 

II.  Induced  Sleep  (Hypnosis);  another 
Ego,  the  agent,  brings  on  Sleep  by  artificial 
means  employed  upon  the  recipient. 


m.  Self-induced  Sleep  (Self-Hypnosis), 
the  Ego  becomes  its  own  agent  as  well  as  recip- 
ient, and  so  in  Sleep  reaches  a  kind  of  self-deter- 

It  must  be  remembered  that  in  all  these  forms 
of  Sleep,  the  Ego  remains  Ego  and  keeps  its 
power  of  being  subject-object.  That  is,  it  can 
still  divide  within  itself  and  return  to  itself  as 
pure  Ego,  and  hence  it  retains  a  stage  of  self- 
consciousness.  But  it  no  longer  separates  itself 
from  the  world;  it  cannot  sense  external  things 
and  so  cannot  make  the  separation  between  Ego 
and  non-Ego.  This  is  the  separation  which  sub- 
sides in  Sleep,  while  the  Ego  as  subject-object 
remams,  and  in  its  way  is  still  self-aware  in  the 
dream . 

I.  Natural  Sleep.  —  Nearly  one-third  of  the 
normal  human  life  is  spent  in  sleep.  Such  is  the 
command  of  Nature  herself  which  the  self-con- 
scious Ego  obeys,  and  thereby  gives  up  its  rela- 
tion to  the  outer  world  of  sense.  Sometimes  in 
disease  the  organism  refuses  to  yield  to  this  hQ- 
hQ9t  (^insomnia)  \  the  result  is  that  the  creative 
power  of  the  mind  is  seriously  impaired,  being 
quite  unable  to  think  and  act  in  any  originative 
way.  The  return  to  the  All-mother  for  the  new 
daily  birth  is  cut  off;  the  negation  of  Sleep  ends 
in  the  negation  of  the  Ego  itself,  and  the  waking 
state  is  no  longer  fully  awake.  This  regeneration 
takes  place  periodically  along  with  the  alternation 


of  day  and  night,  harmonious  with  the  move- 
ment of  earth  and  sun.  Natural  Sleep  thus 
corresponds  to  the  movement  of  Nature  in  its  to- 
tality. In  iXnn  harmony  the  individual  Soul  com- 
munes with  the  creative  Soul  of  the .  All,  and 
receives  afresh  its  power  of  creativity. 

There  are  various  degrees  of  the  foregoing 
unity  of  the  soul  with  the  All- Soul,  or  of  the 
self  with  the  Over-Self.  There  may  be  merely 
the  doze  which  is  still  half-awake.  But  in  Sleep 
proper  the  activity  of  Self-consciousness  is 
changed,  the  relation  between  Ego  and  non-Ego 
drops  away,  though  sensation  and  vitality  be 
present.  Then  the  feeling  Ego  can  be  dimmed 
or  canceled.  Finally  there  may  be  in  Sleep  a 
cataleptic  condition,  an  apparent  suspension  of 
vital  functions — no  breath,  no  heart-beat,  along 
with  rigidity  of  the  limbs.  Still,  there  is  not 
death  but  a  going  back  to  a  germinal,  pre-natal 
condition  for  a  renewal  of  life  and  mind.  Such 
states  often  occur  in  times  of  religious  excitement 
and  change  the  character  of  the  whole  man  for 
the  future,  often  producing  in  him  a  regene- 
ration not  only  physically  and  mentally,  but 

1.  Sleep  restores.  We  are,  therefore,  to  see 
that  Sleep  is  not  a  mere  absence  of  waking 
activities,  as  this  would  be  quite  nothing,  a  blank 
negative.  On  the  contrary  Sleep  has  a  positive 
nature,   a  life  and  character  of   its  own.     Not 


only  is  it  not  a  mere  negative,  but  rather  the 
negation  of  a  negative  —  the  negation  of  the 
worry  and  weariness  which  result  from  all 
waking  self-conscious  activity.  Its  destruction 
is  very  decidedly  reconstruction.  Sometimes  a 
momentary  nap  gives  not  simply  a  cessation  of 
the  tension  of  life,  but  a  renewed  creative  power 
which  solves  the  problem  before  which  the  mind 
previously  sank  down  hopeless.  Here  the  fact 
is  the  impartation  of  genetic  energy  in  Sleep 
from  the  primal  generative  power  of  the  Uni- 
verse, which  restores  the  waning  individuality  to 

The  Ego  has,  accordingly,  its  own  peculiar 
activity  in  Sleep.  It  is  no  longer  in  Space  and 
Time  as  when  awake;  rather  Space  and  Time 
are  in  it  or  one  with  it  through  the  All.  For 
Space  and  Time  are  inside  the  All,  not  outside 
of  it,  else  it  would  not  be  the  All.  Hence  the 
Ego  in  Sleep  senses  through  Space  and  Time, 
feels  at  a  distance  and  in  the  future  (Telepathy). 
Sleep  makes  the  Ego  a  member  of  the  universal 
Sensorium  which  may  feel  with  the  right  stim- 
ulus what  is  happening  or  indeed  what  will  hap- 
pen in  the  most  distant  parts. 

2.  Sleep  obliterates.  We  have  already  noted 
the  primary  fact  that  Sleep  obliterates  the  sep- 
aration between  Ego  and  non-Ego.  In  Sleep 
the  particular,  finite  sense-world  in  which  the 
waking  Ego  is  placed,  is  supplanted,  and  a  new 


world  with  its  own  Space  and  Time,  takes  us  up 
into  itself,  and  endows  us  with  its  qualities. 
Sleep  does  away  with  the  centering  of  the  Ego 
in  the  cosmical  cycles  of  sun  and  stars,  so  that 
it  is  absorbed  and  carried  along  by  the  All  in  a 
wholly  new  kind  of  revolution  to  points  far 
beyond  its  ordinary  periphery. 

Thus  Sleep  has  its  negative  side  as  well  as 
positive  —  in  fact  it  is  positive  and  re-creative 
through  its  being  negative.  It  is  a  fountain  of 
oblivion  as  well  as  of  renewal.  The  Ego  through 
Sleep  obliterates  its  old  world  in  order  to  build 
its  new  one,  for  it  is  still  Ego,  self-conscious 
and  a  builder. 

What  is  this  new  world  for  which  the  Ego  is 
prepared  through  Sleep?  Evidently  the  Dream, 
which  has  new  sensations,  and  specially  new 
images,  and  even  new  thoughts.  Out  of  such 
materials  it  constructs  its  unique  architecture. 
Moreover  a  new  kind  of  mind-transference  or 
mental  activity  at  a  distance  takes  place  in  the 

3.  The  Dream.  A  counterpa/'t  of  the  real 
waking  life  of  man  now  weaves  itself  into  his 
existence.  It  is  still  the  realm  of  psychical 
activity,  yea  of  the  purest  psychical  activity, 
since  it  is  all  Ego,  and  no  non-Ego,  or  only  the 
slightest.  The  Drciim,  therefore,  will  show  the 
total  process  of  the  Ego  in  Feeling,  Willing,  and 


Thinking,    all     these   stages    beng    manifested 
in  its  activities. 

Here  we  must  emphasize  the  fact  that  the  Ego 
in  order  to  be  at  all,  must  be  active;  when  cut 
off  from  the  stimulation  of  the  outer  world  of 
sense,  it  still  is  working,  elaborating  its  stores  of 
laid-up  experiences.  Being  no  longer  controlled 
by  the  external  fact,  by  the  non-Ego,  it  falls  to 
unmeasured  caprice ;  the  Ego  shows  itself  to  be 
self-active,  without  control;  it  asserts  its  free- 
dom by  license,  and  manifests  the  primal  spon- 
taneity of  the  Self  stark  naked.  The  so-called 
laws  of  association  may  sometimes  be  traced  in 
the  sudden  leaps  of  a  dream,  and  sometimes 
not ;  its  obedience  to  law  is  as  capricious  as  its 
disobedience.  The  Ego  as  subject-object  pure 
and  simple  we  have  iu  the  dream,  calling  up  its 
stores,  specially  of  images,  as  it  pleases.  The 
natural  liberty  of  man  is  greater  in  the  Dream 
than  it  can  be  in  the  waking  state,  being  under 
no  restraint  from  a  sense-world,  still  less  from  a 
moral  and  institutional  world. 

(a)  The  dream  has,  then.  Feeling^  in  fact  the 
fundamental  Feeling  of  the  Ego,  namely  self- 
consciousness,  or  self-awareness.  Otherwise  it 
could  not  be  self-active  Ego  at  all,  which  has  to 
separate  within  itself  and  then  return  to  itself. 

The  dreaming  Ego  is  on  the  one  side  self- 
stimulated,  yet  is  on  the  other  side  in  unity  with 
the  All.     The  outer  sense  is  shut,  but  the  inner 


sense  is  greatly  intensified ;  in  a  dream  the  Ego 
sees  ail  object  as  vividly  as  when  awake.  It  also 
becomes  telepathic,  feels  things  distant  in  Space 
and  Time.  Its  organic  connection  with  the 
Over-Self  gives  it  the  universal  power  of  Feel- 
ing, so  that  it  often  sees  and  feels  the  event 
taking  place  far  away,  and  forefeels  what  is  to 
transpire  in  the  future.  There  are,  however, 
often  presentiments  which  turn  out  untrue,  and 
thus  the  Dream  can  lie,  as  it  did  in  a  famous 
instance  to  Agamemnon. 

(6)  In  the  Dream  the  Ego  also  exerts  WilU 
which  manifests  itself  in  external  movements  of 
various  kinds.  The  Dream  as  mere  Feeling, 
takes  place  on  the  inner  stage  of  mind  whose  al- 
ready acquired  stores  it  combines  in  many  ways. 
But  it  can  also  move  the  body  ;  the  motor  prin- 
ciple too  responds  to  the  Dream.  The  child 
smiles  in  sleep,  and  the  grown  person  can  laugh 
loud  enough  to  be  waked  up  by  the  noise.  Per- 
haps everybody  talks  a  little  now  and  then  in 

But  the  striking  fact  of  the  present  sphere  is 
known  as  sleep-walking  (somnambulism).  The 
subject  gets  up  and  performs  the  most  difficult 
feats  of  skill,  which  are  beyond  his  ability  in  hi> 
waking  state;  he  runs  perilous  risks  which  he 
would  not  ordinarily  venture.  He  seems  to  have 
new  powers  directing  mind  and  body,  beyond 
his  self-conscious  Ego.     A  new  Self  has  posses- 


sion  of  him  which  has  its  senses  or  universal 
sense,  not  limited  by  the  waking  capacities. 
The  Over-Self  determines  him  as  body,  and 
makes  him  transcend  his  real  self-consciousness. 
Such  a  condition  is  not  normal,  but  supra-nor- 
mal. The  function  of  Sleep,  which  is  to  repro- 
duce the  worn-out  Ego,  is  not  fulfilled ;  the 
Over-Self  in  a  manner  usurps  what  is  reserved  for 
the  self-conscious  Self. 

Such  is  spontaneous  somnambulism,  springing 
up  through  the  caprice  of  the  sleeping  Ego. 
Here  we  note  in  advance  the  fact  that  this  state 
can  be  brought  about  through  another  Ego  taking 
the  place  of  the  lapsed  Will.  And  not  only  this 
state  but  most  other  kinds  of  Sleep  can  be 
induced  from  the  ostside. 

(c)  In  the  Dream  the  Ego  also  employs  Intel- 
hcfy  often  in  a  surprising  manner,  far  surpassing 
the  capability  of  its  waking  state.  Particularly 
mathematical  problems  which  have  baffled  the 
person  awake,  have  been  done  by  the  same  per- 
son asleep.  The  revelations  of  the  Dream  in 
poetry  and  even  in  philosophy  are  vouched  for 
by  many  a  poet  and  thinker.  Prodigies  (like 
blind  Tom)  seem  to  live  and  work  in  a  kind  of 
Dream.  Some  peculiar  accession  of  power  from 
which  the  waking  state  is  excluded,  manifests  it- 
self often  in  the  Dream  —  and  of tener  not. 

Here  lies  the  uncertainty  of  the  pre-jent 
sphere.     The  higher  energy  —  Over-Self,  Pam- 

192  FEELING  —  EL  E  MENTAL. 

psychikon,  the  All-Ego  —  refuses  to  be  con- 
trolled so  that  its  working  at  a  given  time  in  a 
given  way  cannot  be  counted  upon.  We  may 
deem  it  the  supreme  object  of  this  phase  of  psy- 
chical science  to  got  hold  of,  or  at  least  to  find 
the  law  of  the  Pampsychikon,  into  which  the  Ego 
enters  as  a  Dream,  and  which  tells  to  it  seemingly 
at  random  the  prof  oundest  truths  or  the  biggest 

From  the  foregoing  account  it  is  evident  that 
we  have  in  the  Dream  a  mind-transference  to  a 
distance,  similar  to  what  we  saw  in  the  Downburst 
of  the  Over-Self.  Agai^l  there  are  cases  of 
Feeling,  Will  and  Intellect  acting  beyond  their  or- 
dinary periphery  (cjises  of  Telepathy,  Teleboule- 
sis,  and  Telenoesis,  in  the  terms  of  the  preced- 
ing nomenclature).  Space  and  Time  seem  to  be 
put  under  the  control  of  the  dreaming  Ego,  as 
they  were  before  under  the  control  of  the  waking 
sui)ra-cons('i()us  Ego. 

The  difference  is  tliat  the  Ego  in  its  first  supra- 
conscious  state  is  still  self-conscious,  being  aware 
of  its  activities  as  supra-normal  and  as  different 
from  their  ordinary  range;  it  knows  itself  tele- 
pathic, for  instance.  But  in  the  Dream,  the  Ego 
has  lost  its  relation  to  the  non-Ego,  though  it  be 
internally  self-aware;  what  it  dreams  is  real  to 
it,  is  the  new  non-Ego  created  by  it,  and  seems 
normal.  There  is,  however,  a  half- waking  state 
in  which  the  reality  of  the  Dream  begins  to  get 


unreal  to  the  dreaming  Ego.  But  in  the  full 
Dream  the  Ego  is  quite  one  with  the  Over-Self, 
through  which  as  its  very  Self,  it  operates  at  a 

In  Sleep  with  its  Dream  the  Ego  of  its  own 
accord  once  a  day  enters  this  supra-conscious 
realm,  and  passes  through  some  of  the  experi- 
ences just  mentioned.  But  next  we  find  that  for 
this  spontaneous  activity  of  the  Ego  falling  into 
Sleep  and  Dream,  the  purposed  activity  of  an- 
other Ego  can  bo  substituted. 

II.  Induced  Sleep.  —  Hypnosis.  Here  we 
enter  the  reahn  of  what  is  usually  called  Hypno- 
tism, which  in  its  typical  form  is  Sleep  induced 
in  a  subject  (recipient)  by  another  Ego  (agent), 
with  its  attendant  phenomena.  Moreover,  be- 
tween these  two  Egos  (agent  and  recipient,  or 
hypnotizer  and  hypnotized)  is  the  medium,  which 
we  have  alreadv  called  the  Over-Self.  Hence  the 
hypnotized  Ego  belongs  still  in  the  realm  of  the 
supra-conscious,  being  no  longer  self-conscious  as 
Ego  and  non-Ego,  though  it  is  still  internally 
self-conscious,  as  subject-object.  Its  own  inner 
activity  as  Pc^ychosis  it  still  possesses  and  must 
possess  in  order  to  be  Ego  at  all.  But  to  dis- 
tinoruish  itself  from  the  outer  world  is  not  now 
its  function,  or  only  in  a  diminishing  degree. 

The  sleeping  Ego  is,  accordingly,  controlled 
by  another  Ego,  which  makes  the  distinction 
from  the  previous  state,  where  the  Sleep  was 



spontaneous.  Also  this  controlled  Hypnosis  is 
distinct  from  the  self-controlled  Hypnosis,  which 
comes  later.  Two  Egos  (hence  the  doubleness 
of  this  stage)  play  the  leading  parts;  yet  the 
medium,  the  Over-Self,  must  not  be  left  out,  as 
is  too  often  done.  Indeed  just  in  it  lies  the 
main  problem,  which  is  still  to  be  wrought  out 
by  investigators. 

The  exact  relation  of  the  Hypnosis  to  Sleep  is 
still  under  discussion,  the  subject  sometimes 
sleeping  and  sometimes  not.  The  difficulty  lies 
in  the  medium,  the  Over-Self,  into  which  the 
hypnotized  person  enters  asleep,  or,  it  may  be, 
awake,  as  we  saw  where  there  is  a  Downburst  of 
the  Over-Self.  The  essence  of  Hypnotism  is 
in  the  relation  of  the  Ego  to  the  Over-Self,  in 
whose  power  it  usually  sleeps,  though  not  always. 
The  scientific  Hypnotists,  especially  the  Sugges- 
tionists,  neglect  this  Over-Self,  and  so  fail  to 
give  an  adequate  view  of  their  science,  in  spite 
of  their  great  practical  expertness. 

It  is  evident  that  controlled  Hypnosis  must  be 
ordered  according  to  the  nature  of  the  control. 
The  one  Ego  is  the  determiner,  and  the  other  is 
the  determined,  the  induced  or  artificial  sleep 
being  the  central  phenomenon.  We  see  that  the 
first  question  will  be:  How  does  the  hypnotizer 
bring  about  this  state  in  his  subject?  What  will 
then  be  the  reaction  of  this  subject,  or  the  interac- 
tion between  the  two  Egos?    What,  finally,  will  bo 

liTD  UOBD  SL  SEP  —  HTPI^OSIS.  195 

the  reproducing  power  of  the  Hypnosis  —  its 
ability  to  go  back  and  bring  up  former  states  of 
the  Ego?  Hence  we  shall  consider  (1)  Methods 
of  producing  the  Hypnosis,  (2)  Interaction  of  its 
elements,  (3)  its  Eeproductive  Character  seen  in 
its  evoking  previous  conditions  of  the  Self,  in 
its  health-restoring  power,  and  even  in  its  calling 
forth  hidden  talents. 

1.  Methods,  The  ways  of  inducing  Hypnosis 
are  varied,  but  they  have  a  common  purpose  and 
a  common  principle. 

The  purpose  is  to  bringthe  waking  mind  which 
still  clings  to  the  distinction  between  itself  and 
the  world,  away  from  this  distinction  so  that  it 
is  more  or  less  obliterated.  Then  the  Ego  drops 
back  into  the  Over-Self,  becoming  a  more  or  less 
intimate  member  thereof,  though  it  still  retains 
its  inner  activity.  The  problem  essentially  is  to 
transform  the  waking  self-conscious  Ego  into  the 
supra-conscious  Ego. 

The  instrumentalities  for  this  purpose,  how- 
ever different  they  may  be,  have  a  common 
principle.  They  turn  back  the  mind  upon  itself, 
they  seek  to  confine  the  Ego  to  its  own  inner 
movement,  they  concentrate  it  within,  cutting  it 
off  from  outer  attention  to  the  world  (or  to  the 
non-Ego).  The  recurrence  of  motion,  for  in- 
stance, in  the  repeated  passes  of  the  mesmerist, 
or  the  recurrence  of  sounds  produces  sleep  by  a 
kind  of  correspondence,  the  Ego  being  thrown 


into  its  inner  round  of  activity  by  these  outer 
manifestations.  Such  rocurrenoe  of  sound  is  in 
the  lullaby  for  children,  in  the  susurrus  of  the 
trees,  in  the  little  waterfall  of  the  brook.  We  can- 
not say  that  it  is  always  fatigue  which  produces 
Sleep.  The  general  purpose  of  the  hypnotist 
must  be  to  submerge  the  self-conscious  distinc- 
tion between  the  E<jo  and  non-Eoro.  The  wak- 
ing  state  involves  a  continuous  reproduction  of 
this  distinction,  which,  being  eliminated,  causes 
the  Ego  and  non-Ego  to  become  one  in  Sleep,  be 
it  natural  or  artificial. 

In  this  connection  we  must  again  mention  that 
the  inner  self-con-^cious  Ego  in  its  first  stage,  as 
subject-object,  remains  in  the  Hypnosis  as  in  the 
Dream.  Hynotized  people  know  up  to  a  cer- 
tain point  what  is  going  on  around  them,  yet  not 
in  the  ordinary  waking  way.  It  comes  rather 
through  the  Over-self  with  which  they  are  now 

(a)  The  first  and  most  external  method  of 
inducing  the  hypnotic  state  is  the  Braidian,  so- 
called  after  a  physician  by  the  name  of  Braid, 
of  Manchester,  Ens^land,  who  also  introduced  the 
term  Ilf/pnotLvn,  The  subject  looks  at  some 
bright  object,  fixing  the  attention  upon  it  till 
sleep  intervenes.  Here  the  means  is  an  external 
object  with  no  direct  interference  of  an  Ego  as 
agent.  The  subject,  so  to  speak,  hypnotizes 
himself,  though  Braid  acknowledges  the  infla* 


ence  of  suggestion.  Through  attending  to  the  one 
object  the  Ego  cuts  off  its  relation  to  all  other 
objects,  abstracts  from  the  multiplicity  of  the 
world  and  finally  from  the  one  given  object. 
Thus  it  becomes  simply  its  own  inner  activity, 
and  in  this  condition  cannot  help  uniting  with  the 

The  famous  school  of  Charcot  at  Paris  em- 
ploys essentially  the  same  sort  of  means  for 
inducing  the  Hypnosis,  which,  however,  it  re- 
gards as  a  disordered  condition  of  the  nervous 

(6)  The  second  method  for  bringing  forth  the 
hypnotic  state  is  Suggestion,  which  has  become 
the  triumphant  category  of  the  present  stage  of 
the  science  of  Hypnotism.  The  term  seems  to 
have  been  brought  into  use  (though  certainly 
not  invented)  by  the  so-called  school  of  Nancy, 
France,  whose  founder  was  Li^bault,  and  whose 
chief  propagator  was  Bernheim. 

An  oral  suggestion  is  given  to  the  subject  that 
he  is  to  sleep;  really  it  is  a  command,  autocratic, 
perchance  over-bearing, by  which  awaking  Will, 
that  of  the  hypnotizer,  supplants  another  Will, 
that  of  the  hypnotic,  who  obeys  his  hypnotizing 
lord  during  the  Hypnosis,  and  often  afterwards 
during  the  waking  state.  Here  we  see  an  outer 
control  through  an  Ego  which  keeps  awake  itself 
and  dominates  its  sleeping  subjects.  This  school 
also  holds  that   every  man  is   suggestible,    and 


hence  affirms  that  Hypnotism  is  not  merely  a 
pathological  condition ;  the  Ego  by  its  very  con- 
stitution is  capable  of  Suggestion. 

(c)  The  third  method  brings  about  thehypno- 
tization  of  both  Egos,  of  both  the  agent  and  the 
recipient.  The  hypnotizer  hypnotizes  himself, 
at  least  in  part,  in  hypnotizing  the  subject. 
Both  of  them  from  different  sides  are  integrated 
with  the  Over-Self,  yet  without  losing  their 
characteristic  relation  to  each  other  (that  of 
hypnotizer  and  hypnotized). 

This  must  be  deemed  the  completed  method 
of  inducing  the  Hypnosis.  Both  the  Egos, 
agent  and  recipient,  are  now  in  full  rapport, 
being  in  the  same  supra-conscious  state;  the 
hypnotizer  is  no  longer  in  the  self-conscious 
waking  state  (or  at  least  not  entirely  so),  auto- 
cratically commanding  or  ''suggesting"  his 
behests  to  the  hypnotic  Ego  from  the  outside  or 
from  above.  Both  are  on  an  equal  footing  as 
far  as  condition  is  concerned,  though  there  is 
still  impartation  from  one  to  the  other.  But  the 
most  important  fact  is  that  the  Over-Self,  of 
which  both  Egos  have  become  integral  members, 
now  comes  out  of  its  background  and  demands 
to  be  taken  into  the  account.  Undoubtedly  this 
Over-Self  is  the  most  obscure,  the  least  devel- 
oped portion  of  Hypnotism  in  general,  and  it  is 
probably  the  most  difficult.     Still  the  future  of 

IND UCED  SLEEP  —  EYPN08I8.  1 99 

the  science  lies  largely  in  its  investigation  and 

The  third  Method  hero  outlined  does  not  ex- 
clude external  means  for  starting  the  hypnotic 
act.  Especiallv  a  svstem  of  circular  movements 
of  the  hand  oft  repeated,  of  passes  so  called, 
starts  the  Ego  on  its  inner  round  till  it  loses  its 
relation  to  the  outer  world,  to  that  of  the  non- 
Ego.  It  should  be  added  that  the  agent,  being 
also  an  Ego,  gets  involved,  partially  at  least,  in 
his  own  process  and  shares  in  the  hypnotization 
of  the  recipient. 

In  the  historic  unfolding  of  Hypnotism  this 
third  method  was  the  first  to  become  prominent. 
It  was  essentially  the  method  of  Mesmer  and  his 
disciples,  who  ascribed  the  phenomena  to  a  mag- 
netic fluid.  Out  of  Mesmerism  grew  Braid  and 
Charcot,  and  after  them  came  the  Suggestionists. 
But  the  Braidists  and  the  Suggestionists  by  no 
means  exhaust  the  phenomena,  as  they  largely 
leave  out  the  medium,  the  Over-Self ,  and  thus 
move  in  a  limited  stage  of  the  science.  Notice- 
able is,  therefore,  the  present  trend  back  to 
Mesmerism  without  its  unnecessary  theories,  its 
mystifications,  and  doubtless  its  frequent  char- 

2.  Interaction,  It  has  been  already  noted 
that  there  are  interacting  elements  in  the  hyp- 
notic state  —  agent,  medium  (Over-Self)  and 
recipient.     In  inducing   the  Hypnosis  we   have 


seen  these  three  elements  combining  or  co- 
operating in  various  ways.  Often  the  recip- 
ient is  passive  and  yields  easily,  though  there 
are  many  degrees  of  hypnotic  susceptibility. 
There  may  bo,  however,  a  keen  struggle  be- 
tween the  hypnotizer  and  the  hypnotized.  An 
immoral  suggestion  may  be  resented.  It  is  de- 
clared that  a  hypnotized  prohibitionist  could 
not  be  induced  to  take  a  drink  of  water,  when 
he  believed  it,  under  the  influence  of  suggestion, 
to  be  whiskey.  There  is  a  decided  opinion  not- 
withstanding, that  Hypnotism  can  be  employed 
to  commit  crime,  and  jurisprudence  has  begun  to 
take  cognizance  of  the  fact.  If  there  is  resist- 
ence  at  times,  there  is  likewise  submission. 
Nothing  is  more  common  than  to  see  the  hyp- 
notized person  stoutly  refuse  at  first  to  obey  the 
request  of  the  hypnotizer,  but  gradually  yield  to 
his  more  insistent  commands  when  repeated. 
The  hypnotic  also  asserts  his  individuality,  he 
cannot  allow  his  own  Will  to  be  supplanted  by 
another  Will  without  a  struggle.  Then  he  too 
is  an  Ego  and  has  his  own  power  of  suggestion 
which  may  counteract  the  efforts  of  the  hypno- 
tizer. This  is  known  as  auto-suggestion  and  is 
often  cited  to  account  for  failures  in  hypnotic 

On  the  other  hand  the  hypnotized  person  is 
often  endowed  with  a  power  far  beyond  his 
natural  Self.     He  may  show  abilities  in  thought 


and  speech,  in  writing  and  in  drawing,  which  his 
friends  never  suspected.  It  is  declared  that  his 
character  is  often  changed  and  elevated,  and 
his  mind  may  be  heightened  into  genius. 

(a)  The  general  proposition  holds  that  every 
Ego  has  in  its  normal  state  some  degree  of  sug- 
gestion, suggestibility,  and  auto-suggestion. 
Every  Ego  can  hypnotize,  be  hypnotized,  and 
resist  hypnotization. 

(6)  There  are  various  gradations  of  the 
hypnotic  state.  The  first  is  usually  called  the 
light  Hypnosis,  which  again  may  be  subdivided. 
In  general  this  state  can  be  remembered  after 
waking.  The  Ego  may  recall  its  separation 
from  the  world  and  even  from  its  own  body. 
This  condition  is  reported  in  the  following  state- 
ment of  one  who  had  returned  to  self -conscious- 
ness: •*!  was  immeasurably  far  away,"  and 
«*the  world  was  escaping  from  me."  Also 
«•  my  voice  "  sounded  afar  off.  My  legs  seemed 
••  not  to  belong  to  mc."  I  was  no  longer  my- 
self but  "  another  had  taken  my  form."  (Cited 
by  Dr.  Sidis  in  his  Psychology  of  Suggestion^ 
p.  65.)  It  is  manifest  that  the  patient  has  here 
remembered  his  hypnotic  condition.  But  iii, 
what  is  called  deej)  Hj^pnosis  there  is  forgetful- 
ness  after  waking  (known  as  amnesia). 

(c)  This  brings  us  to  consider  the  post-hyp- 
notic condition,  which  is  of  considerable  impor- 
tance in   Hypnotism.     During  Hypno.sis  a  .sug- 



gestion  is  given  which  is  to  be  carried  out  after 
waking.  A  hypnotized  person  will  measure 
time.  If  he  is  told  to  wake  up  in  half  an  hour 
and  light  the  lamp,  his  sleep  will  conclude  on 
time,  and  he  will  perform  the  act.  Yet  he 
thinks  he  is  free  in  such  an  act,  and  scouts  the 
notion  of  its  having  been  suggested  to  him. 
Thus  suggestions  are  stored  away  during  Hyp- 
nosis in  the  sub-conscious  Ego  till  the  time  comes 
for  them  to  burst  forth  into  action.  The  hyp- 
notizer  in  this  way  may  determine  in  part  our 
waking  activities. 

3.  liejyroductive  Hypnosis.  It  has  been  indi- 
cated that  all  stages  of  the  supra-conscious  Ego 
are  inter-related  in  a  common  character.  The 
first  of  these  stages  we  came  upon  dii<tinctly  in 
the  Downburst  of  the  Over-Self,  in  which  the 
Ego  remained  awake  and  self-conscious,  yet  was 
integrated  with  the  Over-Self  and  became  thus 
supra-conscious  in  Feeling,  Will  and  Intellect 
(Telepathy,  Teleboulesis,  and  Telenoesis).  But 
the  Ilypnoftiis  may  extend  back  even  to  the  sub- 
conscious realm,  if  not  to  the  pre-conseious, 
reproducing  and  re-instating  some  form  of  the 
submerged  Self. 

(a)  It  has  been  repeatedly  shown  by  experi- 
ment that  the  sccoudaiy  person  in  the  ca.-se  of 
the  Dual  Self  (see  preceding  p.  IGl)  can  be 
restored  bv  Hypnotism.  For  instance  Ansel 
Bourne,   having   recovered  his  natural   state   or 


his  primary  Self,  could  be  hypnotized  back  into 
his  secondary  Self,  during  which  be  called  him- 
self A.  J.  Brown.  Thus  the  Upburst  of  the 
Under-Self  can  be  brought  about  hypnotically. 
This  fact  may  become  of  importance  in  education. 
If  the  stores  of  undeveloped  traits  lying  in  the 
sub-conscious  Ego  from  a  long  ancestry,  can  be 
put  under  command  of  the  hypnotizer  who  may 
select  and  develop  certain  traits,  a  vast  new  field 
of  mental  training  opens  to  the  view. 

(b)  Much  more  common  is  it  that  the  self- 
conscious  Ego  is  taken  up  into  the  Over-Self  in 
a  sleeping  and  also  in  a  waking  state.  Here  on 
the  whole  we  place  the  well-known  therapeutic 
effects  of  Hypnotism.  The  diseased  or  defective 
body  is  dipped  anew  into  the  creative  All  and  is 
made  over.  The  self-conscious  Ego  with  its  sep- 
aration from  the  Cver-Self  is  renounced,  and  the 
restoration  begins.  This  is  often  called  the  power 
of  mind  over  body,  whereof  the  appearance  of 
the  bleeding  stigma  is  a  striking  example.  Hyp- 
notic suggestion  has  also  its  negative  power:  it 
can  produce  paralysis,  catalepsy,  disease.  The 
various  kinds  of  cures,  mind-cure,  faith-cure. 
Christian  science,  and  hypnotic  suggestion,  go 
back  ultimately  to  the  one  principle. 

(c)  There  is  still  another  phenomenon,  which 
sometimes  results  from  hypnotization.  An 
ordinary  man  becomes  possessed  with  rare  gifts 
of  thought  and  insight.     We  seem  herein  to  go 


back  to  the  All-giver,  who  presents  a  new  and 
great  endowment  to  the  hypnotized  person , 
reaching  beyond  the  sub-conscious  world  into 
what  we  have  above  named  the  pre-conscious 
realm.  It  would  seem  that  Hypnotism  in  rare 
cases  may  rouse  some  form  of  genius  in  its 
patient.  A  poor  shoemaker  boy,  without  edu- 
cation, without  exceptional  intelligence  appar- 
ently, is  hypnotized,  and  begins  to  construct  in 
thought  the  Universe,  writing  out  in  his  hypnotic 
states  a  vast  system  of  philosophy  which  has 
had  many  followers.  Before  each  revelation  it 
appears  that  he  (A.  J.  Davis)  had  to  be  put  into 
an  hypnotic  trance  by  another  agent.  Sweden- 
borg,  who  was  a  learned  man,  seems  to  have 
been  self-hypnotized  in  working  out  his  grand 
scheme  of  God,  Nature,  and  Man. 

The  poetic  genius  appears  often  to  see  and  to 
speak  in  a  state  allied  to  the  Hypnosis.  Goethe 
has  declared  that  he  wrote  when  in  a  kind  of 
somnambulistic  condition.  The  genius  may  well 
be  supposed  to  be  in  some  intimate  relation  to  the 
creative  energy  of  the  All,  But  he  too  usually 
hypnotizes  himself,  to  which  fact  we  may  next 
devote  some  attention. 

HI.  Self-induced  Sleep.  —  Self-Hypnosis. 
The  agent  is  now  the  recipient  also,  the  second 
Ego  as  hypnotizer  disappears.  The  command  is 
a  self-command,  the  hypnotized  person  is  the 
dominating  will  over  himself.     In  relation  to  the 


preceding  forms  thiH  may  be  deemed  the  self- 
determined  or  free  Hypnosis,  the  dualism  of  two 
persons  having  been  eliminated.  It  is  a  return 
to  Natural  Sleep,  in  so  far  as  this  also  belongs  to 
the  single  Ego.  Still  it  is  not  spontaneous,  but 
induced,  hence .  it  has  the  second  stage  as  an 
element  of  its  i)rocess.  Here  indeed  occurs  a 
difficulty,  that  of  drawing  any  exact  line  between 
spontaneous  and  self-induced  Sleep;  the  two 
stages  shade  off  into  each  other  imperceptibly. 
Indeed  we  often  go  to  sleep  by  an  effort  of  will, 
which  inhibits  the  thought  keeping  us  awake. 

Still  in  Self-Hypnosis  occur  the  peculiar  phe- 
nomena of  Hypnotism.  The  Over-Self  is  set  to 
work  by  the  act,  and  we  behold  often  what  is 
called  the  trance,  into  which  the  subject  is  said  to 
throw  himself  by  an  act  of  Will.  Sometimes, 
however,  it  is  quite  involuntary  and  unconscious, 
especially  in  the  case  of  a  person  who  has  been 
often  hypnotized.  Moreover  in  Self-Hypnosis 
the  subject  is  by  no  means  always  asleep,  but 
may  be  quite  awake,  though  still  hypnotized. 
Nevertheless  we  call  it  Hypnosis  since  there  is  an 
element  of  Sleep  or  something  akin  to  Sleep 
weaving  through  his  waking  consciousness. 

The  result  is  that  the  single  individual  contains 
within  himself  the  cycle  of  the  Hypnosis,  not 
being  determined  from  the  outside,  but  deter- 
mining himself  to  produce  the  phenomena.  He 
brings  himself  to  feel,  to  will  and  to  know  at  a 


distance.  He  may  see  and  hear  from  afar 
(clairvoyance  and  clairaudience).  What  we  have 
already  come  upon  and  designated  as  Telepathy , 
Teleboulesis,  and  Telcnoesis,  rise  to  the  surface 
again,  but  in  a  new  way  and  from  a  new  source ; 
not  now  bursting  down  from  above  (from  the  Over- 
Self)  upon  the  self-conscious  Ego,  nor  again 
induced  from  the  outside  by  another  Ego,  the 
hypnotizer,  but  induced  by  the  one  Ego  which  is 
both  hypnotizer  and  hypnotized,  he  having 
become  the  total  process  within  itself. 

We  might,  therefore,  call  Self -Hypnosis  the  free 
Hypnosis,  insofar  as  such  a  state  can  be  free.  The 
Ego  freely  hypnotizing  itself,  calls  up  amaster  (the 
Over-Self)  just  in  that  act.  By  its  own  free  act  it 
puts  itself  under  the  yoke.  Self-Hypnosis  must 
accordingly  be  transcended  in  the  interest  of  the 
freedom  of  the  Self.  This  rise  we  shall  behold 
in  the  coming  stage,  which  is  the  Feeling  of  the 
Free  Self.  But  at  present  we  must  consider 
Self-Hypnosis  (less  frequently  but  more  correctly 
called  Auto-Hypnosis). 

1.  The  self-hypnotizing  power  is  manifested 
by  the  control  which  the  Ego  cun  get  over  the 
tissues  of  the  body.  It  can  change  them,  caus- 
inor  disinteorration  of  them  and  restoration.  The 
two  most  famous  recent  instances  of  the  produc- 
tion of  stia:mata  with  bleeding  at  the  wound 
(Katherine  Emmerich,  and  Louise  Lateau)  may 
be  taken  as  forms  of  Self-Hypnosis,  produced 


by  long  and  intense  concentration  of  Feeling  and 
Thought,  and  doubtless  Will  at  the  start,  upon 
the  crucifixion.  The  total  Ego,  not  through  itself 
merely,  but  through  the  medium  of  the  Over- 
Self,  began  changing  the  organic  structure  of 
the  body. 

Again  the  peculiar  working  of  the  Over-Self 
forces  itself  upon  our  attention.  Many  have 
thought  long  and  intensely  upon  the  crucifixion 
without  producing  stigmatization.  Why  just  in 
these  cases?  Such  is  verily  the  problem  of  the 
Over- Self,  as  already  noted  repeatedly.  The 
medium  exists,  but  is  not  yet  controllable  by 
science.  We  may  compare  it  with  a  recent 
marvel,  wireless  telegraphy,  which  is  just  now 
getting  control  of  a  new  medium  (apparently 
physical)  hitherto  uncontrollable  and  indeed 

2.  This  same  self-concentration  we  have  notevl 
in  all  methods  of  inducing  Hypnosis.  Both 
the  hypnotizer  and  the  hypnotized  inhibits  the 
outer  and  develops  the  inner  activity  of  mind 
through  attention  to  the  one  object,  which  finally 
becomes  the  simple  Psychosis  of  the  Ego.  This 
easily  unites  itself  with  the  All-Ego  or  with  the 
Over-Self,  which  is  inherently  creative,  construct- 
ing and  also  destroying.  Undoubtedly,  here  lies 
the  mystery  of  the  present  sphere ;  the  methods 
by  which  the  Over-Self  works  have  hitherto 
escaped  the  law  of  scientific  procedure. 


Virchow  is  reported  to  have  said  in  regard  to 
the  mentioned  case  of  Louise  Lateau,  that  it  was 
either  fraud  or  miracle.  But  the  alternative  does 
not  hold.  There  is  another  element,  the  medium 
called  here  the  Over-Self,  which  the  scientist,  in 
spite  of  his  seeming  aversion,  must  grapple  with 
and  formulate. 

3.  Aorain  we  return  to  the  fact  that  the  Ego 
can  and  docs  hypnotize  itself  through  its  own 
Will,  doing  away  with  the  autocratic  suggestion 
of  another  Ego,  and  controlling  in  a  measure  the 
previous  accidental  descent  of  the  Over-Self. 
Thus  the  Ego  even  in  the  realm  of  the  Hypnosis 
is  transcending  Fate  and  Chance,  and  rising  to- 
ward Freedom.  Mind-transference  in  the  forms 
of  Feeling,  Will  and  Intellect  is  not  now  thrust 
upon  the  Ego  from  outside,  but  the  mind  trans- 
fers itself  through  its  own  process  and  can  show 
itself  transcending  its  ordinary  self-conscious 
periphery  through  Telepathy,  Teleboulesis,  and 
Telenoesis,  as  already  observed  in  cognate  states. 

At  this  point  one  may  well  ask  the  question, 
Is  Sleep  trainable?  Can  we  get  possession  of  it 
so  completuly  that  we  can  employ  its  states  and 
its  powers  for  the  purposes  of  life?  We  mean 
of  course  Sleep  in  its  widest  sense,  including 
the  Hypnosis  and  the  Self- Hypnosis  —  the  spon- 
taneous, the  directed  and  the  self -directed  Sleep. 
It  is  highly  [)robable  that  the  Ego  asleep  is  edu- 
cable  as  well  as  awake.     Hitherto  we  have  only 

8ELF'EYPN08I8.  809 

trained  our  waking  life,  the  sleeping  strand  of 
existence  lies  undeveloped.  Can  we  cultivate  the 
two  kinds  of  sensation,  the  two  kinds  of  memory, 
in  general  the  two  kinds  of  Feeling,  Willing  and 
Knowing  —  the  dis^tant  and  the  present?  Is 
every  human  being  finally  to  be  endowed  with 
Telepathy,  Teleboulesis,  and  Telenoesis  as  a  por- 
tion of  his  educational  outfit?  The  culture  of 
Sleep  with  its  supra-conscious  Self  may  well  be 
a  part  of  the  future  programme  of  the  School  of 
Life.  We  still  throw  away  Sleep  as  an  educative 
means,  quite  as  we  once  threw  away  the  play  of 
children,  which  is  now  organized  into  the  system 
of  their  most  fruitful  instruction. 

With  the  conclusion  of  Self- Hypnosis  we 
finish  the  sphere  of  what  we  have  called  the 
supra-conscious  Ego  with  its  peculiar  problems 
of  the  Over-Self,  in  which  center  the  strange 
phenomena  of  mind-transference —  Telepathy, 
Teleboulesis  and  Telenoesis.  Each  of  the  three 
kinds  of  Sleep,  natural,  induced,  and  self-in- 
duced, manifest  these  phenomena,  which  already 
began  to  appear  in  the  realm  of  the  self-con- 
scioiis  Ego  with  the  Downburst  of  the  Over- 
Self,  Moreover,  the  Feeling  of  the  Conscious 
Self,  has  run  through  its  three  stages,  sub-con- 
scious, self-conscious,  and  supra-conscious. 
There  remains  one  other  division  of  All-Feeling, 
the  Feeling  of  the  Free  Self,  whose  turn  has 
now  come.     In  it  the  Ego  breaks  loose  from  the 



Over -Self  whose  peculiar  manifestations  hence- 
forth disappear. 

Observation.  Hypnotism  and  its  allied  phe- 
nomena are  beginning  to  creep  into  modern 
Psychology,  though  on  the  whole  they  are  not 
very  heartily  received.  Their  place  in  the  science 
is  uncertain,  they  seem  recalcitrant  to  any  order, 
being  mostly  put  oflf  into  a  little  corner  by  them- 

The  London  Society  for  Psychic  Research 
deserves  the  most  credit  for  its  careful  and  elab- 
orate work  in  this  new  field,  as  well  as  for  its 
valiant  battle  against  excessive  credulity  on  the 
one  side  and  excessive  skepticism  on  the  other. 
Its  vast  materials  are,  however,  of  different 
values,  and  must  bo  sifted.  Then  they  have  no 
order,  could  not  have  in  the  nature  of  the  case* 
The  attempt  of  Myers  in  his  two  large  volumes 
on  Hnynan  Personality^  cannot  be  deemed  a  suc- 
cess in  organizing  the  present  subject,  though 
otherwise  very  suggestive,  and  specially  fascinat- 
ing on  account  of  the  unusual  excellence  of  the 
author's  literary  presentation. 

The  subject,  being  of  such  an  undefined  and 
problematical  character,  has  been  afflicted  with  a 
very  hypertrophy  of  theorizing.  To  account  for 
the  unique  working  of  the. Over-Self  there  have 
been  invoked  the  act  of  God,  the  act  of  disem- 
bodied spirits,  as  well  as  physical  forces  and 
fluids.     Indeed  this  is  the  very  region  of  mysti- 

8BLFHTPN08I8.  211 

fication,  with  its  army  of   votaries  made  up  of 
the  deceived,  the  deceivers,   and   self-deceived. 

Our  purpose  has  been  to  put  the  phenomena 
into  their  psychical  order  so  that  they  explain 
themselves  without  theory.  For  instance  Sense- 
perception,  Representation  and  Thought  as  the 
psychical  process  of  the  Intellect  need  no  theory 
for  their  explanation  when  once  duly  formulated 
and  ordered.  There  was  a  time,  however,  when 
Sense-perception  (the  Ego  sensing  the  object) 
had  its  theory  which  invoked  for  its  accom- 
plishment the  assistance  of  God  (assistenda  Dei 
in  the  Cartesianism  of  the  Seventeenth  Century). 
Psychology  banishes  such  a  theory  by  defining 
and  ordering  the  fact.  Sometimes  it  happens 
that  the  fact  is  called  a  theory  by  mistake. 
Mind-transference,  for  instance,  seeks  to  stat«  a 
fact,  not  a  theory.  If  the  transfer  is  supposed 
to  take  place  through  the  medium  of  a  disem- 
bodied spirit,  we  have  a  theory.  And  the  Over- 
self  in  the  preceding  account  is  not  given  as  a 
theory  but  seeks  to  express  a  fact  or  at  least  to 
give  some  glimpse  of  a  fact,  which  has  been  as 
yet  by  no  means  fully  explored. 

Out  of  this  dreamy,  unfree,  often  abnormal, 
yet  very  real  realm  of  the  sleeping  Ego,  we  pass  to 
its  awakening  to  a  new  consciousness,  which  is 
the  feeling  of  its  self-determining  power  against 
its  previous  Determinant. 


III.  Feeling  op  the  Free  Self. 

The  Free  Self  of  Feeling,  at  which  we  have 
now  arrived,  is  self-conscious  again  but  In  a 
new  way.  Previously  (see  p,  147)  the  self- 
conscious  Ego  sought  to  separate  and  to  isolate 
itself  from  the  All,  and  so  was  really  determined 
to  its  isolation  through  the  latter.  But  at 
present  the  feeling  Self  as  free  starts  to  deter- 
mininor  the  All  and  thus  asserting  its  freedom. 

A  phase  of  the  feeling  Self  seeking  to  deter- 
mine the  All  as  Over-Self  we  have  just  witnessed 
in  Self-Hypnosis,  in  which  the  Eoro  may  be  said 
to  invoke  the  Over-Self  to  take  control  and  to 
put  it  to  sleep,  voluntarily  subjecting  itself,  as 
it  were,  to  the  despot,  using  its  freedom  to  give 
up  freedom.  But  the  truly  Free  Self  tackles 
the  despot  and  seeks  to  subject  him  to  itself, 
though  it  can  grasp  him  only  piece  by  piece. 
That  is,  the  Free  Self  begins  to  divide  up  the 
All  outside  of  it,  getting  possession  of  the 
same  throuijh  division.  It  is  evident  that  the 
elemental  relation  between  the  Ego  and  the  All 
is  now  broken;  the  Ego  no  longer  feels  itself 
a  member  of  the  Great  Totality,  but  distinct 
from  it;  nay,  it  proceds  to  dismember  that 
Totality  and  to  appropriate  its  parts. 


In  the  movement  of  All-Feeling,  or  of  the 
All-feeling  Ego,  the  third  stage  has  now  been 
reached,  in  which  the  Ego  goes  back  and  starts 
to  determining  its  previous  Determinant  (the 
All  in  the  First  Stage).  In  the  Second  or  Con- 
scious Stage  (just  finished),  the  Ego  is  in  a  state 
of  struggle  with  its  Determinant  (the  All), 
striving  to  determine  itself  apart  from  and  even 
in  opposition  to  the  same  —  wherein  it  was  de- 
feated and  put  to  sleep  or  hypnotized.  But  in 
the  present  stage  the  Ego  wakes  up  and  begins 
to  assert  its  new  freedom,  whose  universal  Feel- 
m^  is  that  the  E^fo  must  determine  that  which 
determines  it. 

In  Self-Hypnosis  we  saw  the  Ego  assert  its 
power  by  controlling  the  All  which  produces 
Sleep.  Thus  the  Determinant  which  originally 
quenched  the  self-conscious  Ego  begins  to  be 
determined  itself  by  that  Ego,  not,  however,  to 
conscious,  but  to  supra-conscious  action. 

The  Free  Self  of  the  present  sphere  goes  back 
to  the  Endowed  Self,  which  was  gifted  by  the 
All  directly  with  its  varied  attainments  —  Dis- 
position, Character,  Talent,  Genius.  But  now 
the  individual  Self  is  to  control  the  All  and  is 
not  to  be  controlled  by  it,  transforming  it  and 
not  transformed  by*  it.  Thus  we  see  the  cycle 
of  All-Feeling:  What  at  first  determined  the 
All-feeling  Ego,  is  now  determined  by  it. 

Such  is  a  general  statement  of  the  stage  before 


US,  in  which  we  may  mark  a  movement  through 
the  following  steps. 

1.  When  the  Ego  waKes  up  after  its  renewal 
through  Sleep,  it  has  a  feeling  of  freedom,  of 
activity  untrammeled.  We  may  call  this  a  feel- 
ing of  triumph  rising  with  the  triumph  of  day 
and  the  flight  of  darkness,  and  running  parallel 
with  the  cosmical'  appearance  of  light.  But  the 
deeper  feeling  of  triumph  is  that  the  self-con- 
scious Ego  defeats  its  former  antagonist,  the 
Over-Self,  who  in  the  last  stage  overwhelmed  it, 
absorbed  it  and  submerged  it  into  the  Tartarean 
realm  of  Sleep  and  Dream.  Such  is  the  second 
great  awakening  of  the  Self,  not  the  first,  which 
is  birth,  or  the  first  unconscious  plunge  into  light. 
To  be  sure,  this  second  awakening  of  the  Self 
must  repeat  itself  every  twenty-four  hours,  inas- 
much as  it  is  succeeded  by  a  second  Sleep  with 
its  renewal.  Thus  there  is  the  continuous  battle 
between  waking  and  sleeping,  belween  whose 
alternations  the  river  of  Life  rises  and  falls. 

The  Ego,  having  been  renewed  through  Sleep 
in  its  supra-conscious  State,  comes  back  to  Self- 
consciousness,  having  recovered  the  difference 
between  Ego  and  non-Ego  or  Self  and  the  World. 
But  this  second  awakening  is  not  a  mere  relapse 
to  the  first  one,  as  self-conscious  Ego;  it  has 
brought  with  it  not  simply  the  feeling  of  separa- 
tion,but  also  the  feeling  of  positive  freedomwhicb 
asserts  itself  against  the  previous  Determinant. 


2.  The  All-feeling  Ego  in  its  inner  freedom 
finds  that  it  is  limited  by  an  outer  world  and 
thrown  back  upon  itself.  Such  is  the  contra- 
diction which  it  has  now  to  overcome  if  it  be 
really  free.  Wo  saw  in  the  preceding  sphere  the 
self-conscious  Ego  asserting  itself  as  separate 
from  the  All,  in  which  conflict  it  was  vanquished 
and  re-submerged.  But  the  present  struggle  is 
a  deeper  one :  the  self-conscious  Ego  must  be  not 
simply  separate,  but  free ;  the  separation,  the  dual- 
ism must  be  overcome.  The  external  world  which 
now  appears  to  it,  stands  in  its  way,  limits  it, 
resists  it,  obstructs  its  feeling  of  freedom,  which, 
accordingly,  proceeds  to  assert  itself  anew. 

So  we  conceive  for  a  moment  the  present  Ego 
feeling  free  internally,  yet  feeling  un free  exter- 
nally, and  then  starting  to  make  itself  free 
externally  by  creating  a  free  world. 

3.  The  self-conscious  Ego,  in  order  to  liberate 
itself  from  the  sway  of  an  external  Determinant, 
the  world,  feels  that  it  must  transform  that 
world,  making  the  same  over  into  an  image  of 
and  also  into  a  means  of  its  freedom,  changing 
the  same  into  things  beautiful  as  well  as  useful 
for  its  end.  Such  is  the  feeling  which  propels 
the  Ego  to  re-make  external  Nature  into  its  own 
forms.  The  great  industrial  transformation 
which  we  see  going  on  around  us  everywhere, 
springs  from  this  feeling  of  freedom.  The 
works  of  man  proceed  ultimately  from  his  aspira- 
tion for  a  liberated  Self. 



Thus  we  find  the  Ego  striving  to  determine 
that  outer  world  which  has  determined  it.  In 
general,  (the  self-determined  All  has  created  a 
member  as  Ego  which  is  self-determined  and  free 
as  it  is.  It  has  imparted  to  the  created  Self  its 
own  creative  process  within  itself  and  thus  pre- 
sented it  with  an  individuality  which  ideally 
reflects  the  Universe,  and  which  must,  therefore, 
subsume  whatever  limits  it  externally. 

On  the  one  hand  this  individual  Ego  while 
determining  the  world,  finds  that  the  world  still 
determines  it,  stimulates  it  to  its  free  process,  to 
its  assertion  of  itself.  Both  sides  are  separate, 
and  the  separation  has  become  explicit.  The 
Ego  on  its  part  determines  the  world,  yet  is  de- 
termined by  it  to  such  free  determination.  On 
the  other  hand  the  world  is  determined  by  the 
Ego,  yet  determines  the  same  to  make  it  deter- 
mined. That  is,  each  side  has  its  own  distinct 
process  as  separate  and  works  upon  the  other 

Now  follows  the  main  result  of  this  formula- 
tion. The  elemental  stage  of  the  feeling  Ego 
has  come  to  its  end  in  the  complete  separation 
and  mutual  opposition  of  its  elements.  The 
feeling  Ego  no  longer  feels  itself  to  be  anorganic 
part  of  the  Totality;  it  is  divided  from  the  same 
and  has  its  own  distinct  process,  which  is  deter- 
mined by  the  All,  not  from  the  inside,  but  from 
the  outside.  To  be  sure  this  separated  All  is 
not  the  true  one,  but  an  All  which  appears,  yet 


is  not,  since  it  is  now  limited,  finite,  not  the  . 
whole  but  a  part.  The  Ego  in  Feeling  is  no 
longer  a  member  of  the  All,  in  immediate  unity 
with  it  like  the  limb  of  the  total  organism,  but 
has  become  an  independent  individuality  in  its 
own  right  and  with  its  own  work. 

Such  is  then  the  dissolution  of  Elemental 
Feeling,  which  we  have  followed  so  long  through 
its  many  devious  passages,  above  ground  and 
under  ground,  requiring  no  small  degree  of  pa- 
tience, and  calling  forth  at  times  a  skeptical 
amazement  at  its  labyrinthine  circuits,  large  and 
little.  But  we  have  clung  to  the  basic  Norm 
throughout  and  have  found  it  with  us  still  at  the 
conclusion.  Feeling  as  belonging  to  tho  Ego, 
as  being  its  primordial  stage,  must  manifest  the 
process  of  the  same,  the  Psychosis,  and  thereby 
get  its  order  and  organization. 

But,  having  passed  through  Elemental  Feeling, 
whither  shall  we  go  next?  The  two  realms,  the 
Ego  and  the  outer  world,  hitherto  united  and 
having  their  separation  as  yet  only  implicit,  have 
become  explicitly  disconnected,  and  3'et  mutually 
determined  through  their  external  relations.  The 
feeling  Ego  still  feels  the  world,  but  not  as  a 
whole  within  itself,  but  as  divided,  specialized, 
cut  up  into  an  infinite  number  of  particulars. 
Each  of  these  is  to  stimulate  its  special  Feeling, 
making  the  whole  into  a  realm  of  limited,  finite 
Feeling.  The  latter  term  is  the  one  which  we 
shall  employ. 


part  Secon^« 


In  the  preceding  Feeling,  that  of  the  Free 
Self,  the  Ego  has  come  to  feel  itself  as  the  deter- 
minant of  what  is  outside  of  itself.  We  see  it 
not  only  separating  from  the  Universe  which 
created  it,  but  also  determining  the  same  as 
something  distinct  from  itself.  Thus  the  elemen- 
tal relation  between  the  Ego  and  the  All  is 
broken  up,  and  at  the  same  time  the  All  is 
broken  up  within,  divided,  dismembered,  partic- 
ularized by  the  Ego,  its  product  or  offspring. 
We  recollect  that  in  consciousness  the  Universe 
imparted  to  its  child,  the  Ego,  its  own  process, 
thus  endowing  this  child  with  its  own  gift  of  a 
separate,  independent  individuality,  which  also 
must  be  creative  in  accord  with  the  innermost 
nature  of  the  parent.     So  the  Ego,  having  been 



endowed   with   the   feeling  of   freedom,   tarns 

against  the  All  which  gave  just  this  endowment 

of  freedom,  and  asserts  itself  as  free  against  its 

former   Determinant,   which   limits   it,  seeking 

freely  to  reproduce  in  Feeling  what  produced  it. 

For  such  purpose  it  divides  up  and  particularizes 

the  All  as  its  outer  world,  in  accord  with  its 

nature,  since  it  sprang  from  a  dividing  of  the 


The  feeling  Ego  as  free  having  reduced  the 

Universe  to  parts  or  particulars,  a  new  move- 
ment begins.  Each  of  these  particulars  becomes 
or  may  become  a  Determinant  of  the  Ego  (which 
is  itself  now  a  particular)  to  Feeling.  That  is, 
the  Universe,  no  longer  as  Totality  (as  in  Ele- 
mental Feeling)  but  as  Particularity,  determines 
the  Ego  to  Feeling,  so  that  we  enter  the  realm 
of  particular  Feelings,  which  we  shall  call  Finite 
Feeling.  Again,  therefore,  the  world  stimu- 
lates the  feeling  Self,  but  it  is  the  world  par- 

We  have  accordingly  come  to  a  stage  of  Feel- 
ing which  embraces  a  much  greater  diversity 
than  the  last  (Elemental  Feeling),  in  fact  the 
present  is  just  the  sphere  of  diversity,  separation, 
multiplicity  in  Feeling.  The  Determinant  be- 
comes specially  many  Determinants,  and  the  im- 
plicit All  of  which  the  feeling  Ego  is  a  member, 
is  explicit  in  a  vast  manifoldness  of  forms  which 
more  or  less  externally  stimulate  the  Ego  to  its 


Feeling.  la  other  words,  the  finite  world  is 
now  to  be  the  determining  principle  of  Feeling. 
We  might  call  this  entire  stage  by  the  name 
of  Passion  y  though  the  latter  term  is  of  varied 
usage.  Passions  are  properly  what  the  Ego 
suffers,  and  the  word  puts  stress  upon  its  recip- 
ient character.  But  the  more  common  sisrnifi- 
cance  of  Passion  is  at  present  the  violent  out- 
burst—  which  meaning  is  quite  opposite  to  its 
etymological  sense.  Descartes  means  all  Feel- 
ings by  what  he  calls  Passions  of  the  JSoul^  and 
this  is  the  better  usage. 

Goino:  back  to  our  formula  of  Feelinsr  as  the 
process  of  the  Ego  within  itself  turned  inward  by 
some  Determinant,  we  mark  that  this  Determi- 
nant is  not  immediately  connected  with  its  object 
as  in  the  previous  stage.  Nature  or  the  All 
stimulating  the  Ego  as  a  member  of  its  own 
organism,  is  now  separated  into  many  determin- 
ing objects  moving  the  Ego  which  is  likewise 
separated  from  the  All.  A  new  world  of  De- 
terminants is  thus  interjected  between  the  two 
extremes.  Ego  and  the  All.  This  is  of  necessity 
a  world  of  finite  Determinants,  each  of  which 
stimulates  the  primal  Norm  of  Feeling  and  so 
produces  its  own  distinct  act  of  Feeling.  Or, 
better,  the  All  is  itself  divided,  particularized, 
finitized  into  a  world  of  Determinants. 

If  we  look  closely  into  the  relation  between 
these  two  stages.  Elemental  Feeling  and  Finite 



or  Determinate  Feeling,  we  shall  find  that  the 
former  is  stimulated  directly  from  within  —  the 
Ego  feels  itself  feeling  the  Whole,  though  this 
Feeling  also  has  various  forms.  Strictly,  Ele- 
mental Feeling  has  no  external  Determinant, 
being  really  inside  the  All  in  whose  organic  move- 
ment it  shares  as  a  member  of  the  organism  of 
the  Universe.  But  Finite  Feeling  is  conceived  as 
having  the  distinct  external  Determinant  which 
is  separated  from  itself  and  lies  outside  of  itself. 
Thus  it  too  is  finite  and  becomes  a  particular 
member  of  the  finite  world  which  is  composed  of 
a  multiplicity  of  particulars,  each  of  which  may 
be  a  Determinant  of  the  Ego  to  some  finite  or 
special  form  of  Feeling. 

In  this  way  the  Determinant  is  seen  to  come 
from  the  outside  and  is  taken  up  by  the  primal 
Psychosis  or  Norm  of  Feeling,  whereby  it  receives 
its  special  character.  We  may  conceive  the 
Universe  divided  up  into  Determinants  which 
produce  every  variety  of  Feeling.  The  sight  of 
the  flag  of  my  country  rouses  in  me  the  Feeling 
of  patriotism  — a  particular  Feeling  excited  by  a 
particular  object.  The  Norm  of  Feeling  as  uni- 
versal is  thus  particularized  by  some  special 
occurrence,  which  comes  upon  the  Ego  from  the 
bosom  of  the  Great  All  lying  back  of  particularity, 
and  stimulates  it  to  that  process  within  itself 
called  Feeling. 

There  is  another  fact  about  this  sphere  which 



must  be  brought  out  in  the  expositiou :  The  par- 
ticular determinant  does  not  directly  pass  to  its 
particular  Feeling,  but  stirs  the  whole  man  with 
his  associated  store  of  Feeling.  In  order  that 
the  flag  of  my  country  may  rouse  my  patriotism, 
I  must  have  had  many  experiences,  and  quite  a 
little  bit  of  knowledge.  For  the  insignificant 
piece  of  bunting  has  to  be  transformed  by  me 
into  a  symbol  of  what  my  country  means  to  me 
and  to  the  world. 

The  next  question  is,  How  shall  we  order  this 
large  and  diversified  sphere  of  Finite  Feelings? 
As  usual,  by  the  kind  of  Determinants,  which 
we  may  see  to  have  the  following  classes. 

I.  Impression:  The  outer  sense-world  is  the 
Determinant  coming  to  the  Ego  through  the 
senses  associated  in  the  physical  body. 

II.  Emotion:  The  inner  mind-world  is  the 
Determinant  coming  to  theEojo  through  images, 
thoughts,  impressions,  in  fine  the  associated 
stores  of  mental  concepts. 

III.  SYMPATin^:  The  inner  mind-world  of  one 
Ego  is  the  Determinant  coming  to  the  inner 
mind-world  of  another  Ego  or  other  Egos,  which 
are  thereby  associated  in  a  common  Feeling 
(Sympathy).  Or,  the  Emotion  of  one  person 
stirs  a  like  Emotion  in  another  or  in  many  per- 
sons, who  are  then  said  to  sympathize,  or  feel 
together  in  common  bond. 


Thus  Sympathy  associates  separate  individuals 
who  are  capable  of  Emotion  which  goes  back 
still  further  to  Impression.  In  general  we  shall 
find  that  every  being  which  has  Pain  and  Pleas- 
ure, will  rise  to  associate  with  other  similar  be- 
ings through  Sympathy.  Such  is  indeed  the 
movement  of  Finite  Feeling,  which,  starting  with 
a  separate  world  full  of  separated  Egos,  brings 
them  to  union  and  association  through  Sym- 

We  shall  find,  accordingly,  that  the  end  and 
purpose  of  Finite  Feeling  is  to  overcome  the 
state  of  division  with  which  this  stage  begins, 
and  to  bring  the  separated  units  into  an  inner 
emotional  association,  which  renders  possible  the 
external  organization  of  men  in  institutions.  The 
natural  bond  or  the  subjective  fusion  from  which 
the  institutional  world  springs,  is  Sympathy. 
Such  is  the  conclusion  of  Finite  Feeling,  whose 
starting-point  we  must  first  consider  under  the 
head  of  Impression,  which  is  its  most  external 

Here  it  may  be  stated  that  we  use  the  term 
Imjyression  also  in  Intellect  under  Sense-percep- 
tion (see  Psychology  and  Psychosis^  p.  126), 
where  it  designates  a  form  of  particularized  Sen- 
sation. But  in  the  present  case  it  is  regarded  as 
a  form  of  particularized  Feeling  accompanying 
Sensation.  Or,  there  is  an  intellectual  Imprc's;';-.  ^ 
sion  and  a  feeling  Impression.  '    '    * 


Impression,  as  here  used,  means  the  Feeling 
or  group  of  Feelings  which  are  stimulated  into 
activity  by  tlie  external  world  reaching  the  Ego 
through  the  Senses.  The  external  world  thus 
specialized  produces  a  corresponding  specialized 
Feeling.  These  are  frequently  called  sensuous 
Feelings,  or  the  Feelings  of  the  Sense-world. 

The  particular  Determinant  impinges  upon  the 
totality  of  organized  Sewsatjon  as  found  in  the 
human  body,  out  of  which  proceeds  the  particu- 
lar Feeling.  The  so-called  Five  Senses  constitute 
this  organic  Whole,  which  we  may,  from  the 
present  point  of  view,  call  associated  Sensation. 
;l!he  different  organs  of  associated  Sensation 
(the  five  Senses)  are  the  product  of  a  long 



heredity,  and  contain  a  store  of  Sensations  which 
were  developed  in  the  past  but  can  be  stimulated 
to  activity  in  the  present. 

But  Sensation  is  not  what  we  call  Feeling, 
though  tlie  hitter  is  its  concomitant.  An  Im- 
pression is  that  form  of  Feeling  immediately 
connected  with  and  springing  from  Sensation, 
when  the  latter  is  felt  to  be  agreeable  or  disa- 
greeable. In  a  burn  of  the  hand,  there  is  a  Sen- 
sation, also  a  Feeling,  or  what  we  call  here  an 
Impression.  This  distinction  we  shall  illustrate 
more  fullv. 

If  a  pin  sticks  you,  there  is  a  peculiar  inter- 
nal movement  involving  your  body,  which  both 
recoils  from  and  reacts  against  the  intrusion. 
Your  organism,  asserts  itself,  and  you  are  said  to 
feel.  It  does  not  yield  or  resist  simply  at  a 
given  spot,  like  so  nmch  matter,  as  when  the  pin 
is  stuck  into  a  piece  of  wood,  but  the  total  body 
responds  with  an  inner  self-assertion.  In  this 
case  we  observe  that  there  is  first  a  special  stimu- 
lus at  a  special  point  of  the  organism  ;  then  the 
total  organism  is  affected  and  proceeds  to  posit 
or  localize  the  disturbing  stimulus  at  the  special 
point  whence  the  latter  originated.  Thus  a  cycle 
of  organic  activity  takes  place,  from  the  stimu- 
lated spot,  through  the  totality  of  the  body, 
back  to  the  starting-point.  This  is  the  primitive 
process  which  underlies  all  Sensation. 

The  pin  does  not  stick  into  the  spinal  cord  or 



the  brainy  it  touches  only  the  bodily  periphery, 
still  this  stimulus  is  taken  to  the  central  organs 
by  the  molecular  movement  of  the  afferent  nerve 
and  is  returned  by  the  efferent  nerve  to  the  point 
affected.  If  the  pin  actually  went  to  the  center, 
that  would  be  the  end  of  you;  still  it  gets  there 
ideallv,  with  its  material  extension  canceled,  and 
you  feel  the  prick  of  the  pin  only  in  that  way. 
The  one  spot  must  be  made  over  into  the  total 
organism,  must  be  annulled  as  particular,  then 
ideally  reproduced  and  localized.  Moreover,  in 
the  case  of  the  prick  of  the  pin,  there  is  an  inter- 
ference with  the  organic  totality  as  process, 
which  stoppage  gives  the  color  or  form  of  the 
Feeling  as  Pain.  All  Pain,  therefore,  has  an 
ideal  element,  as  well  as  a  physical;  the  inhibi- 
tion of  the  organic  rhythm  must  be  ideally 
reproduced  in  order  to  be  painful,  or  become 

The  total  Organism  is  sensitive,  capable  of 
Sentience.  Any  part  of  the  bodily  surface  can 
be  touched  and  will  create  a  sensitive  reponso. 
To  be  sure  there  is  a  great  difference  in  various 
parts  of  the  body;  a  few  excrescences  —  hair, 
nails  —  have  no  feeling.  The  nervous  system  is 
the  instrument  of  Sentience. 

Any  obstruction  of  this  fundamental  process 
of  Sentience  brings  forth  Pain,  which  is  the 
negation  of  the  free  process  of  the  Organism, 
the  inhibition,  in  some  form,  of  the  primal  self- 

IMFBESSlOlf.  227 

activity  of  the  somntic  Ego.  Thus  a  negative 
power  enters  the  regular  orgimic  activity,  dis- 
turbs it,  and  nmy  destroy  it.  Still  the  organism 
is  to  overcome  this  negation,  and  transform  it 
into  Fleiisure.  With  Fain  and  Pleasure  wo  have 

Olio  nitiy  as  well  ask:  What  is  the  meaning 
or  purpose  of  this  companion  to  Seusation  called 
Feeling?  Sensation  has  two  relations:  the  sens, 
ing  of  the  object  and  the  sensing  of  the  Ego 
at  the  same  time,  Ttio  sensing  of  the  object 
gives  simply  knowledge  of  a  certata  kind; 
but  this  knowledge  calls  forth  Feeling  also- 
Does  the  act  of  sending  the  object  pro- 
mote or  retard  the  process  of  the  Self?  In 
the  first  case  the  response  is  Pleasure,  in  the  sec- 
ond case  the  response  is  Pain.  Here  Feeling 
enters  Sensation  and  in  its  way  judges  the  same 
as  favorable  or  unfavorable  to  itself.  Now  Feel- 
ing is  usually  said  to  be  of  the  Soul  whose  voice 
it  is,  yea  whoso  judgment  it  is,  uttered  in  the 
form  of  Plensuro  and  Pain.  The  Soul  feels,  or 
tlio  Ego  as  Soul  is  Feeling.  The  Ego  is  present 
ill  every  act  of  Sensation  and  approves  or  dis- 
iipproves  of  that  act  by  Feeling. 

The  present  sphere  of  Feeling  as  Impression 
is  next  to  be  brought  into  order.  We  must  keep 
in  mind  that  Impression  is  stimuLited  by  some 
pjiriicular  form  of  the  external  world  (as  the 
point  of  &  piu  iu  the  preceding  illustration),  and 


is  itself  the  particular  counterpart  (in  Pleasure 
or  Pain)  of  a  special  Sensation  which  is  also 
produced  by  the  foregoing  stimulation.  So  we 
shall  have  to  consider  (I)  Sensibility^  or  the 
capacity  of  the  Ego  to  receive  Sensation  and 
therewith  Impression ;  (II)  TIib  Special  SeiiseSy 
through  which  the  outer  world  is  particularized 
and  received  by  the  Ego;  III.  Impression  in 
general,  as  separated  from  Sensation,  which  being 
stored  awav  becomes  the  material  for  Emotion  in 
the  comins:  stage. 

I.  Sensihiliiy,  Here  we  must  again  grasp 
the  receptive  or  pathic  principle  of  the  Ego, 
alonfi:  with  its  reaction  aofainst  the  external  De- 
terniinant.  Thus  it  is  capable  of  receiving  Sen- 
sations and  Impressions,  of  adopting  and  unify- 
ing with  its  own  immediate  process  this  external 
Determinant.  The  Ego  is  ever  ready  to  be  at 
one  with  the  world  in  Feeling.  This  world  may 
come  to  it  and  determine  it  in  every  shape  of  ex- 
ternal nmltiplicity,  each  shape  as  stimulus  pro- 
ducing its  own  special  Feeling.  In  this  sphere  all 
externality  has  as  its  destiny  to  bec^ome  an  Impres- 
sion, reducing  its  outer  separation  and  finitude 
to  the  inner  unitv  of  Feelin<r.  Yet  havincr  at- 
tained  such  unitv,  Feelino:  too  will  diversifv 
itself  into  multitudinous  forms  in  accord  with 
the  Determinant. 

Passing  through  the  woods  on  a  warm  day,  I 
observe  a  breeze  springing  up  and  stirring  the 


treo-tops,  producing  a  movement  of  their  curves 
which  is  pleasing  to  the  eye,  as  well  as  an  undula- 
tion of  sound  gratifying  to  the  eat.  Also  an  in- 
vigorating coolness  is  brought  to  my  cheek,  and 
draughts  of  fresh  air  fill  my  lungs.  What  a 
receptive  being  is  man!  AH  the  diversities  of 
external  nature  stimulate  him  and  produce  an 
activity  within  him  called  Feeling  which  in  the 
above  cases  is  grateful.  But  the  same  breeze 
may  be  the  last  little  thrust  which  loosens  the 
dead  branch  above  my  head;  down  falls  the  new 
stimulus  of  the  external  world  and  calls  forth^ 
a  new  Impression  from  my  bruised  scalp,  which 
may  be  the  beginning  of  a  painful  line  of  Im- 
pressions indefinitely  extended. 

In  this  illustration  we  have  the  two  factors  of 
the  present  sphere ;  the  outer  world  in  its  vast 
diversity  with  a  process  all  its  own  of  which  the 
breeze,  the  tree,  the  limb,  are  elements,  and  on 
the  other  hand  the  Ego  with  its  process,  here 
that  of  Feeling,  and  specially  that  of  Impression. 
This  Ego  is  capable  of  Sensation  and  Impression, 
has  Sensibility,  is  a  kind  of  individual  Sensorium, 
which  takes  up  and  transforms  into  its  own  in- 
ner process  whatever  comes  upon  it  from  the 
outside.  Such  is  the  two-sided  relation  or  dual- 
ism of  the  present  sphere. 

But  Sensibility,  in  order  to  be  capable  of  sens- 
ing anything,  must  have  its  process  which  may 
be'more  definitelv  set  forth  as  follows. 



1.  Organic  lihythm.  This  is  the  state  of  the 
Organism  in  its  free,  natural,  undisturbed  pro- 
cess, as  it  is  in  complete  health.  Wo  might  con- 
ceive of  it  as  the  happy  equilibrium  of  the  bodily 
energies,  except  that  this  equilibrium  is  not  a 
stand-still,  not  passive.  The  perfect  adjustment 
and  co-operation  of  all  the  corporeal  parts  make 
this  rhythm,  not  indifferent,  not  excessive,  show- 
ing the  happy  mean,  the  proportion  suggestive 
pf  the  Greek  moderation. 

Yet  this  rhythm  is  the  result  of  activity.  The 
Organism  gives  many  external  manifestations  of 
it,  inspiration  and  expiration  of  the  lungs,  systole 
and  diastole  of  the  heart,  recurrence  and  cessa- 
tion in  many  forms.  The  appetites  have  this 
rhythm  or  oscillation,  as  hunger  and  satiety, 
thirst  and  its  slaking.  It  is  the  undertone 
throughout  the  realm  of  Feeling,  and  thus  images 
the  Ego,  which  is  rhythmical,  alternatino:  he- 
twcen  unity  and  separation. 

2.  TIte  Disturbance  {D^tt^i'tniaant),  The  inner 
rhythmical  movement  of  the  Oro^anisin  is  dis- 
turbcd  by  the  environing  world,  primarily 
through  Sensation.  Our  bodies  have  to  receive; 
if  we  look  up  with  open  eyes,  we  have  to  see 
yonder  tree;  if  we  brush  against  a  hot  stove,  we 
have  to  accept  its  heat,  though  it  burn  up  the 
recipient  organ.  There  is  an  inflowing  stream 
of  sensed  objects  from    all  our  environment,  a 


vast  current  of  Sensation  is  always  sweeping  in- 
ward to  the  central  Eoro, 

But  if  there  is  an  inflow,  there  is  a  correspond- 
ing outflow  from  the  Ego  to  the  environment, 
making  the  cycle  of  Sensation.  Even  the  Organ- 
ism has  the  corresponding  sets  of  nerves,  afferent 
and  efferent,  which  are  the  roads  upon  which  the 
Ego  travels  from  andf  to  the  sensed  object,  and 
thus  in  turn  to  and  from  the  central  Ego.  The 
human  body  may  be  likened  to  a  sphere,  whose 
periphery,  netted  over  and  over  with  the  recip- 
ient organs  of  Sensation,  takes  up  the  external 
Universe  part  by  part  and  conveys  these  parts 
along  the  afore-mentioned  roads  as  radii  to  the 
center,  whose  grand  capacity  is  to  turn  the  Sen- 
sation around  and  send  it  back  again  to  its  start- 
ing point  over  new  radiating  roads  outward  (the 
efferent  nerves). 

Such  is  the  round  or  cycle  of  Sensation  which 
the  Disturbance  from  the  environing  world  has 
introduced.  It  is  very  different  from  that  quiet 
inner  round  of  Life  which  wo  noted  as  Organic 
Rhythm.  But  now  the  round  gets  outside  the 
bodvand  connects  with  the  external  world,  which 
is  wheeled  into  this  new  cycle  through  the  Ego 
within.  So  we  may  conceive  a  series  of  cycles 
reaching  out  from  the  Ego  and  picking  up 
every  outside  thing  in  the  environment,  and  then 
rcturnintr  with  it  to  the  center  wiiich  is  Eojo. 
Moreover  each   of    these    cycles   of    Sensation 

282  FEELIK&  —  FINl  TE. 

bears  with  it  a  Feeling  or  specially  an  Impres- 
siou  as  we  shall  see  later. 

But  this  Disturbance  of  the  organic  equilibrium 
is  going  on  continually,  and  has  been  going  on 
for  indefinite  ages  —  what  is  the  result? 

3.  T/ie  Store.  The  Organism  is  a  vast  store 
of  these  Sensations,  which  are  united  with  it  and 
indeed  change  it,  giving  to  it  new  capacities  of 
sensing  the  outer  world.  Every  fresh  Sensation 
is  a  new  potentiality,  and  has  in  a  manner  made 
or  remade  an  organ  for  itself,  which  falls  back 
into  the  Organic  Rhythm  of  the  body  awaiting 
another  stimulus.  Every  day  our  physical  Organ- 
ism is  being  re-created  by  exercise  in  the  struggle 
with  externality.  The  Disturbance  from  environ- 
ment is  a  call  for  a  new  adaptation  of  our  cor- 
poreal system  to  meet  the  emergency.  Hence  we 
are  to  conceive  our  Organism  as  an  immense 
reservoir  containins^  ororans  which  have  been 
evolved  in  the  past,  arc  now  evolving,  and  will 
be  evolved  still  further  in  the  future. 

The  development  of  the  organ  has  been  studied 
a  good  deal  since  Darwin  set  the  pace.  The 
hand,  for  instance,  with  its  keen  tactile  sense 
at  the  tips  of  the  fingers  has  been  traced  back 
through  a  long  scries  of  analogues  to  the  fins  of 
the  fish.  By  use  it  has  grown  through  ever- 
renewed  struggle  for  life  with  environment,  till 
we  reach  the  Bimana.  Now  all  these  trans- 
cended stages  still  lie  in  the   hand,  and    some- 

IMPIipSSIOy.  233 

times  it  may  relapse  to  one  of  them,  showing 
the  potentiality  of  the  past  as  still  existent.  And 
tlie  whole  human  organism  is  simply  full  of 
organs  like  the  hand,  with  a  history  in  them 
which  we  can  read  in  the  ascending  order  of  the 
organic  world. 

The  Evolution  through  the  struggle  for  Ex- 
istence it  has  been  called,  and  this  is  certainly 
present.  But  there  is  something  more  than  Life 
involved.  Unless  the  organ  can  improve,  unless 
it  has  within  itself  a  limit- transcending  power,  it 
can  give  no  guaranty  of  safety  to  Life.  That 
organism  which  can  unfold  out  of  itself  in  the 
briefest  time  to  meet  the  emergency  of  environ- 
ment will  survive.  Here  we  catch  a  glimpse  of 
something  at  work  above  Life,  of  something 
beyond  the  mere  vital  activity  of  the  Organism, 
of  that  realm  of  Feeling  which  is  not  simple 
Sensation,  but  which  is  often  identified  as  Soul. 

At  present,  however,  we  are  to  behold  the  Ego 
meeting  the  multiplicity  of  the  world  half-way 
as  it  were,  on  the  surface  of  the  body.  The 
corporeal  unity  separates  into  the  Senses  which 
are  to  take  up  all  the  diversity  of  the  macrocosm ; 
the  body  particularized  has  now  to  sense  the 
world  particularized. 

II.  Sentience.  —  The  Five  Senses.  Here 
we  come  to  the  active  principle  (senfiens)  which 
stirs  the  previous  passive  element  (seitsihi/r)^ 
Sensibility.     The   result  is  the  Ego,    the  inner 


and  non-extended,  takes  up  the  outer  and  ex- 
tended in  a  sensiition.  How  this  is  done,  is 
Indeed  the  first  and  probably  greatest  crux  of 
Philosophy  and  also  of  Psychology. 

The  realm  of  Sentience  —  the  Five  Senses  — 
is  to  be  regarded  as  an  organized  Whole  for 
transforming  the  outer  material  world  into  the 
inner  mental  world,  both  sides  being  differenti- 
ated into  a  multiplicity  of  parts.  Thus  the  part 
of  the  great  external  All  is  taken  up  by  the  part 
(organ)  of  the  corporeal  totality  in  A  multitude 
of  ways.  It  belongs  properly  to  natural  science 
to  treat  of  the  physical  media  (light,  sound,  etc.)  ; 
to  physiological  science  to  treat  of  the  organs  in 
themselves;  but  to  Psychology  it  belongs  to  con- 
sider how  they  stimulate  the  Ego  to  Feeling, 
Will,  and  Intellect. 

In  the  activity  of  all  the  Senses  we  shall  find 
lurking  some  form  of  Feeling,  somethiuo:  agree- 
able  or  disagreeable.  This  is  the  fact  for  which 
we  here  bring  to  notice  the  Senses,  in  a  very 
brief  survey.  The  Five  Senses  are  associated  in 
the  corporeal  totality,  and  are  ordered  as 
follows :  — 

(1)  Touch  is  the  most  general  sense,  being 
distributed  over  the  corporeal  periphery  in  vary- 
ing degrees  of  intensity.  It  senses  immediate 
contact  with  matter,  reporting  weight,  warmth 
and  form  to  a  doi2rrce,  and  cohesion. 

(2)  Taste  and   Snidl    are    often    called    the 


chemical  Senses,  since  they  report  the  dissolu- 
tion of  the  external  body.  Connected  with  their 
Sensation  is  a  very  decided  Feeling,  agreeable 
and  disagreeable,  so  that  these  Senses  are  often 
stimulated  artificially. 

(3)  Sight  and  Hearing  do  not  sense  the 
dissrolution  of  the  object  (as  do  Taste  and 
Smell),  but  leave  it  in  its  integrity  while  sensing 
its  vibrations,  which  convey  its  message  from  a 
distance.  Artistic  Feeling  as  pleasurable  and 
painful  is  specially  connected  wilh  these  two 
senses,  which  have  been  accordingly  called  the 
Art  Senses. 

The  sphere  of  Sentience  is,  in  general,  the 
stinmlating  or  determining  element  of  Sensation 
which  has  its  echo  in  Feeling  as  Impression. 
With  the  activity  of  each  of  the  Senses  there  is 
an  accompaniment  of  Pain  or  Pleasure,  which 
is  the  primal  characteristic  of  Feeling  as  distinct 
from  Sensation  and  gives  the  general  form  of 

In  this  connection  we  may  cite  a  statement 
of  Weber.  He  declares  that  by  plunging  his 
hand  into  very  cold  or  very  hot  water  (intense 
enough  to  produce  Pain  in  both  cases),  he  had 
the  Sensation  of  cold  or  heat  before  feelinjr 
the  consequent  Pain.  The  re-action  of  the 
•rganism  is  immediate  in  Sensation,  after  which 
comes  Feeling  as  the  counterpart  or  resonance, 
separate    in  time    and    in    consciousness.     This 

236  FEELjya  —  FINITE. 

Feeling  is  Impression,  springing  from  a  special- 
ized Sensation,  yet  endowed  with  a  universal 
element.     To  this  we  pass. 

III.  Impression  as  Universal.  That  is,  the 
Sensation  is  transformed  into  Feeling  through 
the  universal  attribute  of  the  latter,  namely 
Pain-and-Pleasure,  which  wo  have  already  seen 
to  be  in  itself  a  process,  a  Psychosis  (see  pp. 
36-38).  This  Feeling  in  its  present  form,  as 
finite  and  particularized,  receives  its  basic 
characteristic,  namely  Pain-and-Pleasure,  in 
which  the  Ego  may  bo  said  to  have  its  first  real 
Feeling  as  distinct  from  its  abstract  Norm 
(p.  30). 

The  distinction  between  Sensation  and  Feeling 
in  general  often  recurs  in  the  Psychology  of 
Feeling,  and  has  been  already  stated  several 
times.  When  I  say  that  t  he  column  before  me 
is  round,  I  affirm  a  fact  of  Sensation,  which 
belongs  to  the  Intellect;  when  I  say  that  the 
same  object  is  agreeable  to  mc,  I  am  in  the  realm 
of  Feeling.  In  relation  to  the  object  Sensation 
gives  some  kind  of  knowledge  ;  but  in  relation  to 
me  Sensation  either  promotes  or  disturbs  my 
inner  harmonv,  and  causes  like  or  dislike. 
Here  again  wo  observe  the  two  extremes,  the 
Ego  and  the  outer  world;  Sensation  (with  the 
five  Senses)  stands  between  the  two  and  has  a 
reference  to  l)oth.  On  the  one  side  it  is  a  know- 
ing, and  on  the  other  it  is  a  feeling,  or  specially 


an  impression.  These  two  sides  of  Sensation  are 
twinned  indissolubly,  yet  they  are  also  distinct. 
Likewise  the  phraseology  is  double;  Sensation  is 
applied  to  Feeling,  as  a  Sensation  of  Pain,  or  to 
an  act  of  knowledge,  as  a  Sensation  of  the  round 
column.  Sometimes  the  two  sides  are  called  its 
subjective  and  objective  aspects,  or  better,  its 
affective  and  presentative  characters. 

Such  is  the  doubleness  which  comes  from  the 
Five  Senses;  each  Sense  and  every  act  of  each 
has  its  own  echo  in  Feeling,  which  is  primarily 
an  Impression.  This  must  now  be  separated 
and  looked  at  by  itself.  Tlie  Sensation  must 
arouse  or  disturb  the  inner  harmony  of  the  Ego, 
must  excite  Pain  or  PI  easure,  ere  its  counterpart 
of  Feeling  appears. 

In  this  connection  we  shall  again  have  to  con- 
sider Pain  and  Pleasure.  Already  (under  Ele- 
mental Feeling)  we  have  looked  at  them  by 
themselves,  as  elemental.  But  we  have  to  renew 
our  acquaintance  with  them  in  connection  with 
Sensation,  which  in  a  manner  begets  them,  or  has 
them  as  an  accompaniment,  sometimes  quite 
unobserved,  but  sometimes  overwhelming.  It  is 
through  Pain  and  Pleasure  that  Sensation  is  trans- 
formed into  Impression,  which  is  the  first  stage 
of  Finite  Feeling  and  runs  through  all  its  stages. 

1.  Pleasure  stimu  ated.  What  the  First  Pleas- 
ure is  in  itself,  as  an  element  of  Self-Feeliuir, 
belongs  to  the  elemental  stage,  and  has  already 


been  considered  (p.  38).  At  present  we  must 
regard  it  as  specialized,  particularized,  stimulated 
through  the  senses  from  the  outside  world.  The 
First  Pleasure  is  inherent  in  all  unobstructed 
activity  even  the  most  simple ;  also  it  can  lurk  in 
the  Organic  Rhythm  which  keeps  the  Organism 
in  equilibrium  unless  disturbed.  Such  an  activity 
may  be  called  pleasurable  though  not"*  intense, 
not  rising  to  consciousness.  It  is  a  kind  of 
middle  lying  between  stagnation  and  excess,  and 
has  what  we  may  call  a  mean  stimulus  whose 
presence  we  shall  note  in  three  different  relations. 

(a)  There  must  be  the  mean  in  the  strength 
of  the  stimulus —  which  is  to  be  not  too  strong 
nor  too  weak.  The  direct  rav  of  the  sun  and 
complete  darkness  disturb  the  equability  of  the 
rhythm;  the  noise  may  be  too  loud,  or  too  low, 
if  you  are  eager  to  hear. 

(h)  There  must  be  a  mean  in  the  duration  of 
the  stimulus.  The  dulcet  sound  may  become 
monotonous  and  tiresome;  the  golden  tint  is 
charming  at  first,  but  may  last  too  long.  Even 
novelty  get^  to  be  no  longer  novel  by  too  much 
of  it,  and  the  love  of  change  transforms  itself  by 
a  surfeit  into  the  hate  of  change. 

(c)  Stimulation  has  also  a  qualitative  element, 
as  well  as  a  quantitative ;  the  bitter  taste  distur])s 
its  rhythm,  also  the  discordant  sound,  and  often 
certain  kinds  of  color.  The  Organism  selects 
divers  qualities  of  objects  as  harmonious  with  it, 


or  agreeable ;  it  manifests  a  mean  not  only  as  to 
strength  and  duration  but  also  as  to  kind  of 

It  is  evident  that  this  finely  balanced  equi- 
librium is  perpetually  exposed  to  disturbance,  in 
fact  life  itself  is  such  a  disturbance. 

2.  Pain  stimulated.  The  world  of  externality 
in  some  form  comes  into  contact  with  the  Organ- 
ism and  interferes  with  this  rhythm  of  it,  which 
is  its  primal  immediate  activity.  Such  is  the 
appearance  of  Ptiin,  an  inhibition  of  the  native 
organic  energy,  the  struggle  of  the  corporeal 
totality  with  a  foreign  interference. 

Pain  is  the  negation  of  Pleasure,  that  is,  of 
that  first  unconscious  Pleasure,  which  is  the 
undisturbed  Organic  Rhythm  already  mentioned. 
But  of  this  Pleasure  we  are  hardly  conscious, 
we  come  to  know  it  when  it  is  gone.  Pain  wakes 
up  the  Soul,  is  the  grand  stimulus  to  self-knowl- 
edge and  self-activity ;  it  has  its  very  important 
place  in  the  Universe. 

The  Organism  itself  will  manifest  this  inter- 
ference in  a  variety  of  ways.  The  rhythm  is 
thrown  into  disorder,  the  breathing  is  irregular, 
restrained,  spasmodic ;  the  heart  beats  faster, 
out  of  order;  in  general,  the  orderly  rhythmic 
movement  is  ajar,  the  body  responds  to  the  dis- 
turbance, often  very  emphatically. 

Wo  observe  the  following  process  in  Pain :  — 

(a)  The  outside  interference  is  taken  up  by 



the  Organism  and  internalized,  becoming  a  con- 
stitutent  part  of  the  organic  movement. 

{b)  This  makes  an  inner  contradiction  between 
alien  and  native  elements,  a  struggle  between  the 
disturber  and  the  rhythm. 

(c)  This  inner  conflict  is  what  produces  the 
Pain,  which  is  a  Feeling  separating  itself  from 
Sensation.  It  is  as  if  an  enemy  manifests  his 
hostility  by  a  blow  which  goes  inward  and  sets 
the  body  into  hostility  with  itself  —  whereof 
the  indication  is  Pain.  Corporal  punishment 
seeks  to  make  the  doer  feel  his  outer  act  against 
order  by  transferring  it  to  his  own  organism 
which  experiences  thereby  Pain.  The  dissonance 
of  the  deed  is  made  over  into  a  dissonance  of 
the  bod  v. 

The  general  aspects  of  Pain  as  well  as  its  pro- 
cess have  been  already  set  forth  under  Elemen- 
tal Feeling  (pp.  41-4()).  Here  we  repeat  that 
Pain  as  activity  has  in  itself  its  own  opposite,  if 
all  activity  be  pleasurable.  Thus  it  has  the  ten- 
dency to  undo  itself  as  being  not  only  negative 
but  self-negative.  Completely  seen,  Pain  is  not 
merely  a  destroyer  but  a  destroyer  of  something 
which  is  itself  destructive,  a  negation  of  a  nega- 
tive. Whereby  it  mediates  a  new  Pleasure, 
which  is  not  the  First  Pleasure  above  given,  but 
a  restoration. 

3.  .Pleasure  n,s(orcd.  This  is,  in  its  present 
form,  the  restoration    of   the  Organic  Khytlim 

IMPBE88I0N.  241 

which  has  been  disturbed ;  it  is  the  triumph  of 
the  total  body  over  its  aliea  intruder,  the  over- 
coming  of  Pain. 

It  is  not  intended  to  aflSrni  that  all  Pleasure  is 
through  the  mastery  of  its  opposite.  The  present 
is  a  mediated  Pleasure  brought  about  through 
its  negative,  Pain,  which  is  now  negated  in  turn. 
But  there  is  an  immediate  Pleasure  in  the  Or- 
ganic Rhythm,  in  the  normal,  uninterrupted  ac- 
tivity of  the  bodily  functions.  There  is  also  a 
Pleasure  in  intensifying  this  activity  up  to  a  cer- 
tain point.  Increased  muscular  activity  is  often 
pleasant,  nay,  necessary  to  health;  the  organism 
does  not  like  to  stay  in  its  old  round,  is  limit- 
transcending.  What  Pleasure  -play  gives  to 
children  1  Yet,  here,  too,  the  negative  in  the 
milder  form  of  fatigue  rises  in  opposition,  and 
has  to  be  overcome,  like  Pain,  when  a  new  Pleas- 
ure sets  in. 

Thus  the  whole  organism  asserts  itself  as 
master  of  Pain,  but  is  also  the  source  thereof. 
Pleasure  too  has  its  process,  it  can  lapse  into 
Pain  through  its  own  excess. 

(a)  We  feel  a  restored  Pleasure  in  the  re- 
covery from  illness,  in  the  new  upbuilding  of 
the  organism;  also  in  the  gratification  of  hunger, 
thirst  or  other  appetite,  which  implies  a  want, 
vacuit}^  chasm,  the  filling  which  gives  pleasure, 
by  restoring  the  Organic  Khythm. 

{h)  Equally  certain  is  it  that  Pleasure  in  this 

242  PBELmO  —  FINITE. 

last  case  cnn  fall  biick  ii>t<t  its  nej^ativa  character 
and  can  become  ii  disturber,  through  the  excess 
of  gratification.  Appetite  is  a  void,  but  the 
filling  of  the  void  cau  produce  Pain.  Pleasure 
as  the  indulgence  of  the  appetites  is  self-de- 

(c)  Thus  the  void  and  the  fullness,  the  want 
and  the  excess  are  equally  inhibitive  of  the 
Organic  Rhythm,  which  is  the  process  of  the 
totality,  to  which  we  again  return. 

Pain  has  a  mission,  which  is  to  interrupt  tho 
uniform,  identical  movement  of  the  orgiiulsni 
and  make  it  master  its  opposite,  wliluh  is  the 
extornid,  the  other  side  of  it  in  some  sliapo.  The 
infant  starts  with  Pain,  Hunger  and  Thirst, 
through  which  it  is  driven  to  take  po^riessiou  of 
the  outer  world  and  assimilate  it  to  its  own  organ- 
ism. Pain  is  thus  a  great  trainer  of  tlie  organ- 
ism into  a  mastery  over  what  is  outside  of  itsolf, 
and  also  over  itself.  The  immediate  Orpaiiic 
Rbythui,  or  First  Pleiisnrc,  has  to  be  lirokcn  into, 
and  to  get  out  of  its  little  self-satisfied  round,  if 
there  is  to  be  any  development.  In  fact  Feeling 
to  a  degree  pivots  u|>on  Pain,  upon  tliat  inter- 
ruption of  mere  Sensation  wliieh  produces  the 
echo  characteristic  of  the  feeling  Self.  Pain  in 
some  form  is  the  piiinal  stimulus,  whieh  rouses 
tho  quiescent  organism;  but  it  may  in  its  nega- 
tive iutensity  bring  on  death. 



Wo  have  now  brought  the  sphere  of  Impres- 
sion to  the  point  at  which  it  is  stored  up  in  the 
Ego  and  becomes  a  past  experience.  Sensation 
with  its  affective  counterpart  in  Feeling  is  inter- 
nalized by  the  Ego ;  thus  the  Impressions  arising 
from  the  outer  sense-world  are  laid  away  in  the 
inner  mind- world,  from  whose  depths  they  may 
be  recalled  by  Memory,  and  become  the  Deter- 
minants to  a  new  kind  of  Feeling. 


From  the  outer  particularized  world  of  Sense- 
perception  as  Determinant  to  the  inner  particu- 
larized world  of  Representation  and  Thought  as 
Determinant  is  now  the  transition.  This  is  still 
the  realm  of  Finite  Feeling,  but  it  is  the  mind 
which  is  finitized  and  made  particular,  being 
divided  into  numerous  activities  which  determine 
the  Ego  to  Feeling.  The  process  of  the  Ego 
tvifhin  itself  is  t aimed  inward  at  present  by 
special  forms  of  mentation. 

Instead  of  the  sensuous  Determinant  of  Im- 
pression we  have  the  mental  Determinant  of 
Emotion.  Impression  springing  from  Sensation 
is  internalized  by  the  Ego  and  stored  up ;  Emo- 
tion in  its  turn  springs  on  tiie  whole  from  this 


EMOTION.  245 

internalized  Impression,  and  may  be  regarded 
from  tl\e  present  point  of  view  as  the  Impres- 
sion of  Impression.  A  man  docs  me  a  favor  in 
an  emergency,  this  act  taken  by  itself  remains 
with  me  as  an  Impression  with  its  Pleasures. 
But  when  I  recall  this  Impression  afterwards, 
it  stirs  within  me  a  new  Feeling,  that  of  grati- 
tude to  my  benefactor,  which  is  an  Emotion,  as 
we  are  using  the  term.  Every  Impression,  or 
Feeling  with  its  Pain  or  Pleasure,  stored  up  in 
my  memory,  starts  some  Emotion  when  recalled. 
It  is  the  second  echo  or  duplication  of  Feeling, 
of  which  we  noted  the  first  in  Pain-and-Pleasure. 
A  remembered  impression  reverberates,  often 
very  powerfully,  in  Emotion. 

It  is  evident  that  Memory  has  a  very  impor- 
tant place  in  the  present  sphere.  Also  Imagi- 
nation rouses  Emotion,  as  when  an  imagined 
wrong  brings  on  a  fit  of  anger.  But  not  merely 
our  own  stored-up  experiences  are  Determinants 
to  Emotion;  our  instincts  and  impulses  coming 
down  through  a  long  heredity  have  their  influ- 
ence, and  at  least  pre-dispose  us  to  certain 
Emotions,  which  may  thus  be  deemed  natural 

So  it  comes  that  our  Ego  is  a  vast  magazine 
of  Emotion,  quite  inflammable,  ready  to  be  lit  by 
a  spark.  Etymologically  Emotion  is  conceived 
as  a  moving  outwards  on  the  part  of  Feeling,  an 
outburst  in  a  particular  direction  from  the  great 


reservoir  of  the  Ego  which  includes  man's  sub- 
conscious and  even  pre-oonscious  states.  These 
we  may  take  as  forming  the  inner  society  of  the 
Self,  composed  of  many  members,  some  very 
old  and  some  very  young.  As  we  saw  in  the  last 
sphere  a  body  of  associated  Senses,  so  now  we 
behold  an  associated  inner  world  of  the  feeling 
Ego,  from  which  our  Emotion  in  all  its  variety  is 
to  be  unfolded. 

Accordingly  we  shall  set  forth  first  the  Process 
of  Emotion  in  general,  then  the  particular 
Emotions^  winding  up  with  the  universal  Emo- 

I.  The  Process  of  Emotion.  —  The  main 
attainment  of  the  preceding  sphere  was  the  store 
of  Impressions  laid  up  in  the  mind  and  body  to 
be  called  forth  by  a  proper  stimulus.  The  Sen- 
sation with  its  attendant  Pain  or  Pleasure  has 
gone  from  present  to  past,  and  has  become 
quiescent,  a  matter  of  memory.  In  such  a  state 
it  is  no  longer  real  but  ideal,  and  can  be  recalled 
only  as  image  or  representation.  The  Impres- 
sion of  a  burnt  hand  with  its  Pain  is  a  sensuous 
Feeling,  which  is  stored  away  in  Memory ;  but 
the  presence  of  a  hot  stove  may  produce  the 
Emotion  of  terror  through  recalling  the  former 
painful  experience.  Thus  it  comes  (as  already 
noted)  that  a  second  Feeling  (Emotion)  springs 
out  of  that  first  Feeling  (Impression)  recalled 
from  the  store-house. 

EMOTION,  247 

1 .  Tlie  Store  sfi?nufa(efL  We  start,  then,  with 
our  store  of  Impressions,  each  of  which  is  a 
Feeling  capable  of  being  recalled  by  a  stimulus. 
But  this  recalled  Feeling,  we  must  observe,  is 
not  merely  the  old  Impression,  but  it  is  a  new 
one  with  its  own  peculiar  Pleasure  or  Pain,  not 
sensuous  and  corporeal,  but  ideal  and  mental. 
I  recall  the  severe  blow  inflicted  by  a  windlass; 
the  Pain  then  was  real  and  of  the  bodv,  while 
the  Pain  now,  that  of  fear  and  avoidance,  is  of 
the  mind,  coming  from  memory.  In  one  sense 
this  may  be  said  to  be  no  actual  Pain,  being 
brought  about  so  completely  through  the  mind. 
Still  my  body  reacts  in  the  latter  case  also;  the 
representation  of  my  past  experience  has  its  echo 
in  the  bodv,  which  makes  a  movement  in  corre- 
spondence  with  the  event  recalled. 

The  Stimulus  is  what  starts  the  image  or  idea 
recalled,  being  outside  of  it,  yet  connected  with 
it  externally  or  internally. 

(a)  First  is  the  sensuous  Stimulus,  the  pre- 
sented object,  which  excites  the  image  directly, 
causing  to  be  represented  the  former  similar 
object  along  with  the  experience  connected  with 
it.  A  child  leaning  on  a  window  sill  in  the  upper 
story  of  a  house,  may  cause  great  discomfort 
to  the  passing  stranger  who  has  seen  a  child  fall 
to  its  death  from  a  similar  position. 

(h)  But  the  Stimulus  may  be  also  internal. 
The  stream  of  ideas  may  run  along  smooth,  till 

248  FEELmQ  —  FINITE, 

a  thougrht  rises  ia  the  cbaia  which  stimulates  an 
outburst  of  tears.  There  may  have  been  origi- 
nally some  sensuous  Stimulus  starting  the  chain, 
but  the  intervening  links  are  internal,  till  they 
call  up  the  given  Stimulus.  Revery  is  full  of 
such  instances. 

(c)  The  Stimulus  may  be  conscious  and  pur- 
posed, being  evoked  by  an  act  of  Will.  It  is  the 
actor's  business  to  rouse  these  emotional  states  in 
himself,  which  pre-suppose  the  stimulating  image 
or  representation,  in  order  to  manifest  themselves 
in  bodily  action.  For  the  organic  response  in 
Emotion  cannot  come  of  itself,  but  must  be  an 
answer  to  an  imaged  condition  whose  visible 
outburst  in  the  body  reveals  the  inner  workings 
of  the  soul.  Wo  may  read  the  play  of  King 
Lear  with  its  mass  of  emotional  imagery  seeth- 
ing in  the  mind  with  almost  no  corporeal  outlet ; 
but  histrionic  art  is  to  restore  to  this  imagery  its 
counterpart  in  the  organism,  to  reproduce  along 
with  the  spoken  word  ( which  conveys  the  image) 
its  corresponding  world  of  action. 

2.  Impressions  rejwesented.  Already  the 
place  of  Representation  in  the  genesis  of  Emo- 
tion has  been  passingly  indicated.  It  is  the 
representing  mentally  of  that  which  was  once 
presented  sensuously.  It  is  the  separation  of 
the  stored-up  Impression  from  its  store  in  the 
mind  by  means  of  the  Stimulus.  It  is,  there- 
fore, in  the  form  of  image,  idea,  an  inner  copy 

EMOTION.  249 

of  the  total  Impression;  in  general  we  call  it 
Representation  versus  Presentation,  since  it 
corresponds  to  the  Representative  function  in 

Here  it  must  be  grasped  specially  as  a  medium 
or  Mean,  since  it  mediates  what  goes  before  with 
what  comes  after:  the  Stimulus  and  the  Emotion 
proper.  The  Stimulus  presented  starts  it,  call- 
ing it  up  from  the  deep  cave  of  Retention,  where 
all  past  Impressions  lie  sleeping  till  they  be 
awakened  by  the  right  call.  It  is  the  second 
stage  of  the  total  Ego  (as  Psychosis)  which 
makes  this  separation,  and  sets  forth  the  repre- 
sented object  or  image,  making  ideally  present 
what  is  really  past. 

This  representative  Mean  is,  accordingly,  an 
axis  of  the  entire  sphere  of  Emotion,  being 
roused  by  the  Stimulus  and  bringing  the  whole 
Ego  to  a  new  .kind  of  Feeling.  We  shall,  there- 
fore, give  a  little  study  to  the  ways  in  which  the 
Stimulus  may  excite  this  Mean  preparatory  to  its 
going  over  into  Emotion.  These  ways  we  may 
designate  in  advance  as  instinctive  or  uncon- 
scious, conscious,  and  automatic.  The  Impres- 
sions which  they  call  forth  may  be  the  inherit- 
ance of  a  long  line  of  ancestry,  historic  and 
pre-historic,  or  they  may  be  the  fruit  of  our  own 
life's  experience  past  and  present. 

(a)  The  connection  between  Stimulus  and 
Mean  may  be  immediate  in  the  sense  of  being  an 


inherited  instinct,  which  works  without  apparent 
cause.  The  fear  of  a  child  for  certain  animals 
seems  to  be  transmitted ;  even  grown  people  are 
not  free  from  unaccountable  emotions  of  this 
kind.  A  woman  sees  a  harmless  little  pussy  on 
the  walk  just  before  her ;  slie  gives  a  shriek,  leaps 
to  one  side  and  runs  away  from  it  in  abject  terror. 
Yet  she  cannot  recollect  of  any  cat  ever  harming: 
her.  Many  of  these  instinctive  stimuli  coming 
to  us  by  inheritance  course  through  our  daily  life 
darkly,  and  vaguely,  and  sometimes  can  rise  to 
sudden  overmastering  prominence.  Yet  the 
tendency  of  culture  is  to  su[)press  them. 

(i)  Some  past  experience  injects  into  our  life 
a  Mean  of  which  we  are  conscious,  and  which  we 
can  remember.  Wo  may  recall  the  lime  when  a 
cow  scared  us  in  childhood;  the  mere  presence 
of  a  cow  thereafter  may  bo  sufficient  to  rouse 
the  dormant  terror.  The  imago  of  possible  harm 
will  come  in  spite  of  all  reason,  and  the  conse- 
quent organic  response  will  take  place.  Not 
only  this,  but  association  plays  in  variously;  the 
locality  where  the  fright  took  place  may  be  for- 
ever afterwards  an  uncanny  sj)ot;  the  house  near 
by  may  be  a  forbidden  abode ;  the  person  who 
had  some  hand  in  the  matter,  or  who  laughed  at 
us,  maybe  held  in  secret  execration.  The  Stim- 
ulus prods  the  memory  which  recalls  the  experi- 
ence ;   the  emotional  act  repeats  itself,  you  ideally 

EMOTION,  251 

go  through  that  same  disagreeable  process  every 
time  you  see  the  object. 

In  teaching,  the  nature  of  this  ideal  Mean 
plays  an  important  part.  The  school-house 
yonder  which  you  see  —  what  emotive  reactions 
does  it  rouse  within  you?  Those  of  tortures,  of 
tasks,  of  whippings?  Or  of  festival,  of  triumph, 
of  knowledge  gained?  Many  a  strand  of  the 
career  of  the  child  depends  upon  his  school  expe- 
rience. How  do  you  feel  at  hearing  the  school 
bell  in  the  distance?  You  are  never  too  old  to 
be  without  some  emotive  re-action  at  its  sound. 
When  the  call  is  heard:  '*  come  to  the  class  in 
Psychology" — what  is  your  inner  echo? 
*' There  I  another  roasting!  once  more  to  be 
ground  in  the  mill !  when  will  this  desolation 
cease  I  "  Effort  there  must  be,  but  what  is  the 
association  and  its  echo  in  Feeling? 

(c)  The  Mean  itself  with  its  own  immediate 
reflex  in  Emotion  becomes  the  Stimulus  for 
another  Mean  with  its  reflex  in  Emotion ;  thus  it 
propagates  itself  and  there  is  the  chain  of  Emo- 
tions. The  fright  from  a  cat  may  be  transferred 
to  any  animal,  similar  to  it  or  dissimilar;  the 
child  which  is  afraid  of  a  dog  is  likely  to  receive 
a  Stimulus  of  a  similar  sort  from  a  swine  or  a 
calf.  Association  again  links  the  original  stimu- 
lating object  with  others;  not  only  the  barn 
where  the  fright  first  took  place,  but  all  barns 
may    become    disagreeable.     Each    vivid  Emo- 


tion — with  its  Stimulus,  mean,  and  response  — 
has  a  tendency  to  become  a  center  from  which 
many  circles  of  Feelino;  are  roused  in  the  sea  of 
the  Soul ;  as  the  stone  flun^  into  calm  water  pro- 
duces a  series  of  concentric  ripples  more  and 
more  remote  from  the  central  disturbance. 

Still  further,  a  different  Emotion  may  be  ex- 
cited  by  the  same  Mean,  the  one  stone  produces 
many  separate  ripples,  which  may  be  broken  in 
upon  by  others  from  the  outside.  I  hear  the 
croak  of  a  raven ;  it  recalls  a  country  scene  of 
my  childhood  with  attendant  pleasant  emotion ; 
the  image  of  this  scene  brings  up  a  descriptive 
passage  in  a  poem,  and  so  on  through  a  chain  of 
Emotions.  But  in  a  different  mood  or  place, 
that  croak  of  the  raven  may  stimulate  an  uncanny 
Emotion,  may  suirirest  death  (as  it  did  to  Mac- 
beth).  So  the  Mean  stimulates  diversely  the 
Feeling  which  becomes  specially  Emotion. 

3.  Emotion  specialized.  Repeatedly  we  have 
had  to  speak  of  Emotion  in  the  preceding  ac- 
count. But  it  properly  follows  the  Mean,  or 
Representation,  which  mediates  it  by  transform- 
ing Impression.  That  is,  the  represented 
Impression  also  throws  out  its  fringe  of  Pain  or 
Pleasure  not  now  immediate  but  represented, 
imaged,  ideated,  and  produces  Emotion.  The 
outer  Impression  bcir.g  made  internal  as  image, 
has  a  new  character,  non-sensuous,  ideal.  A 
real  Pain  ideated  is  likely  to  rouse  some  form  of 

EMOTION.  253 

fear,  which  seeks  to  avoid  the  real  Pain.     But 
this  fear  is  disagreeable,  is  a  kind  of  Pain. 

(a)  It  is  evident  that  the  great  variety  of 
Impressions  stored  up  in  the  Ego  will  produce  a 
corresponding  variety  of  Emotions.  These  in 
their  turn  arc  stored  up  and  become  a  constituent 
of  the  inner  life  of  the  Ego.  There  is  also  a 
continuous  transition  of  Impressions  into  Emo- 
tions going  on  within  us,  a  perpetual  metamor- 
phosis of  stages  of  Feeling  into  one  another. 
Memory  calls  up  former  Pains  and  Pleasures 
connected  with  things  remembered.  Every  remi- 
niscence has  its  peculiar  tinge  of  Emotion.  It 
is  not  necessary  that  the  original  Impression  be 
l)ainf  ul  in  order  to  have  some  regret  or  sorrow 
in  its  remembrance.  My  intercourse  with  a 
friend  gave  the  greatest  Pleasure  at  the  time,  but 
the  recalling  of  that  fact  may  be  colored  by 
many  intervening  occurrences  which  change  that 
Pleasure  to  melancholy.  The  play  of  Emotion 
is  like  shot-silk  which  throws  a  different  sheen 
with  every  ripple  of  the  material.  The  total  Ego 
is  involved  in  this  dramatic  interplay  of  Impres- 
sions and  Emotions,  which  chase  one  another  on 
the  inner  stage  with  panoramic  fullness  and 

(6)  Thus  each  special  Emotion  has  a  tend- 
ency to  stir  the  total  emotional  man  by  a  kind 
of  sympathy.  On  the  other  hand  the  Ego,  in 
accord  with  it  deepest  character,  is  inclined  to 


totify  the  single  object  represented,  whose  im- 
age thereby  becomes  the  center  of  a  whole  world 
of  connected  images.  Yonder  real  bell-stroke 
on  top  of  the  old  school-house  becomes  an  ideal 
bell-stroke,  in  its  sphere  universal  and  creative, 
summoning  into  existence  a  world  of  events, 
persons,  actions  with  their  accompanying  Emo- 
tions. We  separate  and  specialize  the  Feelings, 
but  in  reality  they  arise  in  multitudinous  groups 
or  flocks  from  the  sea  of  the  soul.  In  this  way 
we  see  that  Emotion  is  of  a  social  nature,  asso- 
ciating its  kindred  in  retinues  which  people  the 
inner  world  in  lines  of  vanishing  forms. 

(c)  Finally  we  are  to  note  the  return  to  the 
organism  from  which  the  Stimulus  to  Emotion 
first  started.  As  my  body  once  responded  to  the 
sensuous  Impression,  so  now  it  gives  a  simihir 
response  to  the  memory  of  it,  the  Emotion.  As 
I  once  jerked  my  burnt  hand  from  the  hot  stove, 
so  now  I  withdraw  it  when  I  sense  the  heat  and 
thus  am  reminded  of  my  former  experience.  In 
the  second  instance  I  have  a  fear  of  the  hot 
object  which  I  did  not  have  in  the  first  instance. 
But  that  fear  causes  a  movement  of  the  organism 
corresponding  to  the  movement  caused  by  the 
burn.  This  is  the  outer  corporeal  resonance  of 
the  inner  Emotion  with  its  ideal  Pain  which  is 
the  concomitant  of  the  remembrance  of  the  real 
Pain.  Thus  we  behold  the  corporeal  expres- 
sion of  the  Emotions,  anger,  fear,  love. 

EMOTION.  ^255 

There  is  also  echoed  in  the  body  the  movc- 
niont  of  Einiition  —  its  t\»c,  cutniination  and 
suhisidciice.  For  Emotion  is  not  nn  even  thing 
in  its  progress,  upon  its  wines  there  me  wavelets 
and  npon  its  wavelets  tlicre  are  ripples.  Par- 
ticularlv  auger  is  subject  to  rises  and  falls;  when 
seemingly  quiescent  it  suddenly  flushes  out  anew, 
calls  up  the  original  cause  even  when  this  has 
l)oen  withdrawn,  mid  no  longer  properly  exists. 
Still  the  image  of  it  rotuni:^  and  with  it  comes  a 
fresh  paroxysm,  producing  reverberation  upon 
reverberation.  Herein  the  eternal  example  is 
the  wrath  of  Achilles  depicted  by  Homer  with 
such  psychological  truth.  When  the  atonement 
for  the  insult  has  been  made,  he  keeps  going 
back  to  the  original  cause,  repeating  it  over  and 
over  again  and  totally  unable  to  hear  the  voice 
of  reconciliation  from  his  own  friends. 

Thus  wo  have  completed  the  general  Process 
of  Emotion,  showing  how  it  starts  with  an  outer 
Stinmhis  of  bodily  Sensation  (for  instance  the 
sight  of  an  object)  which  stirs  the  memory  of 
some  former  experience  and  produces  a  Repre- 
sentation with  its  peculiar  fringe  of  Feeling  con- 
stituting it  an  Emotion ,  the  latter  having  its  final 
echo  in  the  phyi^ical  body.  It  is,  however,  evi- 
dent lliiit  there  are  many  kinds  of  Emotion ;  the 
diversilied  wcirld  passing  through  the  Senses 
diversifies  EnniLion  thousandfold.  Whereat  rises 
a  BCW  stage  of  our  present  subject. 

256  FBBLINQ  —  FtSITE. 

II,  The  Particulab  Emotions.  —  The  general 
process  of  Eiiiottoii  lias  been  nnfoldecl;  wliat  we 
111*6  next  to  designate  is  its  special  nianifeatations 
in  tlie  purticniar  Emotions.  We  found  that  in 
Impression  tlie  Ego  was  to  a  great  extent  exter- 
nally determined  tlirotigh  the  Senses  to  which 
it  spontaneously  resptmdcd.  But  in  Emotion 
the  Ego  rallies  upon  itself  as  center,  and  asserts 
itself  as  individual  primarily,  against  the  deter- 
mination from  without.  So  we  see  its  character- 
istic to  be  detormtnation  from  within,  and  it 
proceeds  from  within  outwards;  hence  its  name 
(Emotion),  If  a  |)ersnn  treads  on  my  toes,  there 
is  the  sensation  and  the  pain,  or  the  Impression 
which  conies  from  the  world  outside  of  me.  But 
if  the  act  is  intentional  and  insulting,  I  am  likely 
to  have  an  additional  Feeling,  that  of  indigna- 
tion, the  latter  coming  from  within,  from  my 
Ego,  which  asserts  itself  at  least  to  that  extent, 
and  may  proceed  furllier. 

Evidently  Emotion  is  a  form  of  Self-feeling, 
in  distinction  from  a  Sense-feeling  (Impression), 
and  it  may  become  selfish.  It  asserts  the  indi- 
vidual side,  and  may  become  individualistic 
(which  is  the  excess).  Here,  then,  rises  the 
question,  in  what  hounds  is  it  allowable,  and  in 
what  is  it  to  be  suppressed?  It  can  be  pushed 
to  a  point  at  which  it  is  contradictory  of  itself 
and  becomes  destructive  of  the  end  for  which  '\i 

EMOTION.  267 

exists,  namely,  the  preservation  and  furtherance 
of  the  individual. 

In  the  present  sphere  the  difficulty  is  to  bring 
some  kind  of  order  into  the  vast  diversity  of 
Emotion.  It  specializes  itself  almost  to  infinity, 
still  we  may  be  able  to  see  certain  organizing 
lines  running  through  the  apparently  capricious 
mass.  The  particular  Emotion  we  shall  observe 
gradually  transcending  its  limit  by  getting  rid  of 
its  particularity  and  reaching  out  for  universality. 
Still  in  form  Emotion  remains  particular  (other- 
wise it  would  not  be  Emotion),  but  in  content  it 
becomes  universal  through  Recognition,  as  we 
shall  see  later. 

The  term  or  category  by  which  one  may  best 
see  the  movement  of  the  particular  Emotions,  is, 
in  our  judgment,  Self-love.  It  is  the  Ego  turned 
back  upon  itself  and  asserting  itself  with  no 
small  regard  for  itself,  which  is  a  form  of  love. 
Any  conflict  with  the  outer  world  provokes  it  to 
take  its  own  part,  to  feel  with  itself,  to  have 
special  Self-feeling.  Yet  it  will  have  to  deal 
with  another  Self  or  Selves  having  the  same 
quality  of  Self-love,  or  Self-assertion  against  all 
else.  Now  the  particular  Emotion  is  to  affirm 
particularity,  yet  is  also  on  the  other  hand  to  get 
rid  of  it  and  to  be  universal.  The  leading 
stages  of  this  process  we  may  designate  in  the 
following  captions :  ( 1 )  Self-love  as  immediate, 



(2)  Self-iove  as  medmted  through  another  Self, 

(3)  Self-love  reciprocally  mediated. 

1.  Self-love  aa  immediate.  The  Ego  in  Emo- 
tion asserts  itself  immediately,  without  regard  to 
other  Egoa  or  to  external  circamstances.  This 
is  the  primal  affirmation  of  individuality,  of  the 
right  of  self-preservation  against  all  opposition. 
The  Ego  feels  that  it  must  first  secure  itself  in  a 
world  of  contingency.  Undoubtedly  this  form 
of  Self-feeling  has  its  negative  side,  but  at  the 
beginning  it  is  positive,  preservative  of  the  indi- 
vidual. It  may  be  said  that  every  object  with 
which  I  como  in  contact  stimulates  me  primarily 
to  Self-love  or  the  assertion  of  my  existence 
in  the  world  against  other  existence.  Says 
Spinoza:  Every  particular  thing  must  persist  in 
its  own  being,  aud  that  is  the  foundation  of  vir- 
tue (though  not  by  any  means  its  superstruc- 
, ture ) . 

/  Self-love  as  immediate  has  many  forms.  The 
reaotiou  of  the  Ego  against  the  world  in  favor  of 
itself  dcvcrsilies  itself  in  a  multitude  of  ways, 
acc(»rdiitg  to  the  outer  stimulus  as  well  as  the 
inner  mood  and  character. 

(a)  Self-love  shows  itself  in  the  direct  satis- 
faction of  bodily  want,  as  hunger,  thirst,  etc. 
The  animal  shows  little  restraint  upon  its  imme- 
diate impulse  to  gratification,  civilized  mau  puts 
many  a  limit  upon  himself  in  this  regard. 

(i)   Fear  in  its  primal  form  is  an  Emotion 

EMOTION.  269 

which  seeks  to  preserve  the  Ego.  Its  end  is  the 
safety  of  the  Self  in  the  pre^ieiice  of  some  real 
or  supposed  danger,  which  usually  causes  ii  recoil 
from  the  peril.  Hope  has  the  same  regard  for 
the  welfare  of  the  Ego,  though  it  does  not  recoil 
(like  Fear)  but  advances  with  look  upon  the 
future . 

(c)  But  the  chief  Emotions  in  thia  sphere  are 
known  as  Pride,  Envy,  and  Auger.  These  all 
involve  tlie  other  Ego  or  Egos,  and  have,  there- 
fore, a  social  substrate.  They  have,  likewise,  a 
decided  double  cliaracter,  positive  and  negative, 
preservative  and  destructive,  like  the  whole  realm 
of  Emotion,  like  individuality  itself, 

Pride  may  be  regarded  as  the  basic  Emotion 
of  human  existence,  tlio  primordial  Sclf-fecling, 
which  cannot  be  separated  from  the  very  nature  of  I 
the  individual.     In  this  sense  it  affirms  the  iD6- 
nite  worth  of  the  Self  and  is  positive.     Yet  it  I 
also  has  a  corresponding  negative  side  which  is 
perchance  more  striking,  since  it  seems  to  have  : 
attracted  more  attention,  particularly  from  the  I 
religious  mind.     Pride  is  declared  to  be  the  pri- 
mordial sin  of  man  (or  of  individuality)  by  which  i 
Satan  fell  from  Heaven  and  thus  came  down  into 
our  world.     In  Pride   the  Ego  turns  away  from 
the  other  Ego  into  itself  ignoring  all  association. 
The  two  Prides  may  be  described  as  follows: 
The  first  or  positive  Pride  asserts  the  infinite 
worth  of  the  individual ;  the  second  or  negatire 

260  FSBLINQ  —  FIlflTS. 

Pride  asserta  the  infinite  worthlessnees  of  all 
otlier  iadividuals.  In  which  statement  the  inner 
contradiction  of  Pride  becomes  apparent. 

Envy  Is  likewUe  an  Emotion  turned  toward 
the  Ego  and  affirming  its  validity  when  this  is 
supposed  to  be  jeopanled.  It  also  goes  out 
toward  the  other  Ego  whose  excellence  it  must 
first  recognize  and  then  belittle  or  deny.  Thus 
Envy  seeks  to  destroy  the  very  worth  which  it 
cannot  help  seeing  (hence  called  invidia,  a 
refusing  to  see  what  it  sees).  Here  too  the 
inner  contradiction  is  apparent.  We  can  trace 
in  Envy  the  same  double  character,  positive  and 
negative,  which  we  noted  in  Pride. 

Anger  is  also  a  self -asserting  Emotion,  but 
proceeds  to  action  against  the  other  Ego  or  Egos 
who  may  antagonize  it.  Thus  it  differs  froui 
Pride  aud  Envy  which  stayed  inside  the  Ego  and 
brooded  there.  To  be  sure  there  are  many  kinds 
of  Anger,  from  a  mere  superficial  ebullience  to 
the  wrath  of  Achilles.  Properly  it  has  au  ele- 
ment of  revenge  which  pays  back  the  supposed 
wrong  or  meanness  which  it  has  received.  Of 
Anger  we  may  also  say  that  it  has  a  good  aud 
bad  side,  a  positive  and  a  negative  manifestation 
as  in  the  preceding  cases. 

It  is  to  be  noted  that  the  Church  has  taken 
hold  of  tiicse  three  Emotions  and  formulated 
them  as  the  three  fundamcutal  Sins  of  the  eutire 
system  of  the  aeven  mortal  Sins,  on  account  of 

EMOTION.  261 

their  negative  character.  (For  a  full  discussion 
of  Pride,  Envy,  and  Anger  both  in  their  psychi- 
cal and  religious  aspects  see  our  Commentary  on 
Dante^s  Purgatorio^  pp.  196-263.) 

It  has  been  already  observed  that  the  individual 
who  through  Self-love  falls  into  conflict  with 
another  individuality,  has  a  decided  tendency  to 
undo  himself;  really  he  is  in  conflict  with  himself, 
with  his  own  self -hood.  His  next  Emotion 
will,  accordingly,  assume  a  new  attitude  toward 
the  other  Self. 

2.  Self 'Love  as  mediated  through  another 
Self.  This  form  of  Self-love  shows  itself  in  the 
love  of  approbation,  love  of  praise,  and,  still 
further  down  the  scale,  in  the  love  of  flattery. 
The  individual  now  loves  himself  by  a  reflected 
light,  loves  his  image  as  thrown  back  to  him 
with  new  radiance  from  another  Ego  or  from  a 
multitude  of  Egos.  In  the  previous  stage  the 
individual  loved  himself  immediately,  against  the 
world,  but  now  he  loves  himself  mediately, 
through  an  [alternate.  It  is  a  new  gratification 
of  our  Self-love  to  have  our  own  good  opinion 
of  ourselves  confirmed  by  an  Ego  different  from 
ours  and  also  having  its  own  quota  of  Self-love, 
which  is  doubtless  seeking  a  similar  gratification. 
We  seem  then  to  have  first  gained  a  complete 
right  to  our  Self-love,  when  such  right  is  so 
completely  acknowledged  by  others.  Thus  it 
becomes  explicit,  existent  in  the  world,  no  longer 

262  PEELIKa  —  FINITE. 

merely  implicit  and  subjective  in  ourselves.  Not 
merely  a  potential  but  an  actual  possession  does 
it  become  in  such  a  case. 

It  is  evident  that  this  form  of  Self-love,  like  the 
previous  one,  has  its  positive  and  negative  sides. 
Not  only  legitimate,  but  indispensable  is  it  within 
its  due  limits.  The  worth  of  the  individual 
must  not  only  assert  itself,  but  must  be  acknowl- 
edged by  other  individuals.  The  recognition  of 
merit  is  necessary  not  merely  to  its  possessor ; 
those  who  see  it  must  recognize  it  or  lose  their 
ability  to  see  it.  And  yet  the  present  sphere  has 
its  excess  in  adulation,  tuft-hunting,  insincere 
praise  for  gaining  private  ends.  Thus  the  love 
of  approbation  is  a  two-edged  sword  for  both 
the  seeker  and  the  giver.  It  is  cai)able  of  breed- 
ing vanity  on  the  one  side  and  hypocrisy  on  the 

The  following  points  may  be  specially  noticed 
in  the  present  connection :  — 

(a)  The  emotion  of  Self-love  mediated  through 
another  has  primarily  to  subordinate  Self-love  as 
immediate  on  its  negative  side.  That  is,  Pride, 
Envy,  and  Anger  may  turn  against  the  other  Ego 
which  is  the  means  of  Self-love  in  the  present 
sphere.  There  had  to  be,  accordingly,  the  over- 
coming of  that  Self-love  which  excludes  the 
other  Self  from  co-operation. 

(6)  The  Emotion  of  Self-love  through  another 
Self  is,  therefore,  associative  in  its   character, 

SMOTZOy.  263 

not  exclusive.  The  other  Self  or  Selves  are 
anited  in  a  common  bond  of  appreciating  one 
and  the  same  Self.  It  may  be  his  deed  which  ia 
admired  aod  which  is  deemed  heroic.  Thus  peo- 
pie  will  appreciate  thoir  heroes,  and  become  one 
with  them  in  the  net.  Or  it  may  be  his  doctrine, 
his  view  of  God,  his  philosophy,  la  this  way 
religions,  sects,  schools  are  founded.  The 
strong  man  is  not  lacking  in  the  assertion  of 
himself,  wliich  rests  upon  Self-love.  Whatever 
binds  many  souls  together  is  holy,  says  Qocthe. 
Such  is  the  positive  side  of  the  love  of  appreci- 
ation: it  is  social,  uniting  men  into  societies, 
great  and  small. 

(c)  That  this  form  of  Self-love  has  a  negative 
side  has  beeu  already  noted.  To  see  yourself 
reflected  caressingly  in  the  regard  of  a  multitude 
of  people  is  an  intoxicating  sight.  Many  seek 
to  get  it  without  duly  paying  for  it  through 
merit.  Love  of  popularity  is  an  emotion  of 
Self-love  which  often  leads  to  demagoguery  in 
the  State,  and  to  a  lowering  or  suppression  of 
conviction  in  word  and  deed  generally. 

In  the  foregoing  instance  we  have  taken  Self- 
love  as  reflected  through  another  Self.  But  this 
second  Self  h;is  likewise  Self-love  which  requires 
reflection  in  another  Self,  and  thus  demands 
back  what  it  gives.     This  is  a  new  stage. 

?.  Sulf'love  reciprocaUy  mediated.  Tiie  me- 
diation has  now  come   to   be  mutual ;   my  Self- 

264  FEELma  —  FINITE. 

love  mediated  through  another  Self  is  one-sided 
till  this  other  Self  has  its  Self-love  mediated 
through  me.  As  Ego  it  too  must  have  Self-love, 
or  be  without  individuality ;  and  I  must  grant 
to  another  that  which  I  demand  for  myself. 
Thus  it  comes  that  I  not  only  assert  my  Self- 
love  through  another,  but  he  also  asserts  his 
Self-love  through  me.  In  this  reciprocal  media- 
tion, the  cycle  of  Self-love  rounds  itself  out  to 

Moreover  Self-love  now  recognizes  Self-love 
in  the  other  Self,  which  is  no  longer  merely  a 
reflector  of  the  first  Self,  but  demands  a  like 
office  for  itself.  Thus  both  are  on  an  equality, 
whereas  in  the  first  stage  the  second  Self  was  in 
a  kind  of  servitude  to  the  first. 

In  this  sphere  we  may  note  some  leading  mani- 
festations which  also  show  an  inner  connection. 

(a)  The  Emotion  of  Justice  springs  from  this 
mutuality  of  Self-love.  I  am  in  possession  of  a 
piece  of  property,  and  I  request  that  others  rec- 
ognize my  ownership.  But  they  too  have  their 
possessions,  and  demand  from  me  the  same  rec- 
ognition for  theirs  which  I  demand  from  them 
for  mine.  In  fact  my  Emotion  of  Justice  grants 
in  advance  their  right  to  theirs,  since  it  is  the 
same  as  my  right  to  mine.  Even  among  ani- 
mals we  can  find  a  certain  degree  of  recognizing 
ownership.  Suum  cuique  is  the  adage  of  Jus- 
tice, which  renders  peace  possible  among  clash- 

EMOTION.  266 

ing  individuals,  each  with  his  own  Self-love  and 

This  mutuality  of  Self-love  associates  men  and 
produces  law,  which  is  to  define  and  administer 
Justice.  For  law  is  primarily  to  settle  what 
belongs  to  me  and  what  to  the  other  man.  Both 
the  conflicting  sides  in  a  lawsuit  appeal  to  the 
common  Emotion  of  Justice,  saying  not  only 
I  want  mine^  but  also  I  loant  you  to  have  yours. 
The  individual  litigant  may  not  always  feel  this 
Emotion  of  Justice  in  the  heat  of  the  contest, 
but  the  Law  and  Institution  have  only  this  stand- 
point and  compel  him  to  submit  to  the  decision. 

(6)  Friendship  is  based  on  the  mutuality  of 
Self-love  in  two  individuals,  each  of  whom  gains 
himself  through  the  other.  Friendship  expects 
to  receive  back  what  it  gives,  namely  itself;  if 
one-sided,  it  is  not  likely  to  last  very  long.  Why 
should  it?  It  is  an  emotion  of  Self-love,  there- 
fore, but  also  of  Self-love  sacrificed  as  immedi- 
ate ;  it  is  a  process  of  the  Ego  which  gets  itself 
by  giving  up  itself.  Friendship  implies  equality, 
if  not  an  outer  equality  (of  rank,  age,  ability, 
etc.),  at  least  an  inner  equality  of  Selves. 

The  Emotion  of  Friendship  belongs  largely  to 
youth  and  middle-age;  with  time  the  Ego  be- 
comes self-centered  and  self-sufficient,  and  is  its 
own  Friendship.  Moreover  it  exists  chiefly 
between  two  persons  of  the  same  sex ;  but  when 


a  difference  of  sex  enters  in,  the  mutual  Emotion 
undergoes  usually  a  great  change. 

(c)  Sexual  Emotion  is  or  may  be,  and  per- 
haps ought  to  be,  the  strongest,  deepest  and 
most  lasting  of  the  Emotions.  The  grand  sep- 
aration of  Nature  into  male  and  female  individ- 
uals is  the  source  of  an  Emotion  which  drives 
each  individual  to  sacrifice  himself  or  herself  for 
and  through  the  other,  and  therein  to  recover 
and  even  to  reproduce  the  Self. 

There  may  be,  however,  the  sacrifice  without 
the  return ;  the  mutuality  of  the  Emotion  may 
bo  cut  in  twain.  Then  follows  the  pang  of 
Emotion  unreciprocated;  the  mediation  through 
the  other  being  left  out  throws  the  individual 
back  upon  himself  to  recover  his  lost  Self  as 
best  he  can.  Such  a  negative  condition  is  pos- 
sible in  the  present  sphere.  Literature  has  not 
failed  to  celebrate  unreciprocated  love  in  a  great 
diversity  of  forms  in  poetry,  drama,  and  novel. 

But  the  true  mediation  of  the  sexual  emotion 
lies  in  the  Institution  of  the  Family.  The  mutual 
Emotion  of  the  sexes  is  thus  made  permanent, 
and  becomes  the  basis  and  creative  source  of 
other  Institutions.  Also  it  is  the  central  prin- 
ciple of  many  varieties  of  reciprocal  Emotion. 
Gratitude  is  a  feeling  of  requital  for  kindness 
said  or  done.  Independence  of  character  will 
not  take  favors  without  reciprocation.  Honesty 
will  not  take  something  for  nothing,  but  demands 


a  mutuality  of  service.  la  education  a  similar 
principle  holds.  The  rational  mother  trains  her 
child  not  only  to  receive,  but  to  give,  yea,  to 
make  some  return  to  her  for  what  it  gets  from 
her.  A  one-sided  maternal  devotion  makes  the 
child  selfish  and  anti-social. 

Still  there  is  a  love  which  is  defiant  of  the 
reciprocity,  which  can  fidl  back  upon  itself  and 
enjoy  itself  without  seeming  to  care  for  the  return 
through  the  other.  In  Goethe's  Meister  the 
light-hearted  Philina  can  say:  Ich  Hebe  dich; 
was  geht  das  dich  an?  Her  love  claims  not  to 
need  any  requital  from  the  one  whom  she  loves, 
being  sufficient  unto  itself. 

This  suggests  an  Emotion  which  rises  out  of 
the  present  sphere  of  love  proper,  and  does  with- 
out the  reciprocity,  reposing  upon  the  pure 
recognition  of  the  Self  without  the  return,  with- 
out the  individual  mediation.  This  brino:s  us  to 
a  new  field  which  we  shall  look  at  next. 

ni.  Emotion  as  Universal.  —  The  particular 
Emotion  is  to  evolve  more  and  more  till  it  has 
Self  as  universal  for  its  content.  When  I  no 
longer  demand  of  the  other  Self  that  it  give  back 
to  me  what  I  give  to  it,  but  regard  it  in  its  own 
absolute  right  of  Selfhood,  I  have  attained  the 
stage  of  recognitive  Emotion  which  is  universal 
as  far  as  Emotion  can  be.  Self-love  has  become 
the  love  of  the  Self;  the  individual  previously 
loved  himself   individually  even  when  mediated 

S68  PSBLiya  —  FiyiTS. 

throogh  anotber;  uow  he  lores  himBelf  univer- 
Bally,  as  Selfhood  which  embraces  all  Selves. 
This  meana  that  I  recognize  the  Self  in  the  other 
whether  he  recognize  me  or  not.  I  regard  the 
worth  of  the  man  in  his  manhood,  even  if  he 
personally  disregards  me.  I  am  no  longer  to  be 
determined  in  my  feeling  or  conduct  by  his  feel- 
ing or  conduct  toward  me. 

In  such  case  we  say  that  the  individual  Self  in 
its  Emotion  has  attained  a  universal  content, 
namely  the  Self  as  such,  regardless  of  any  per- 
sonal attitude  friendly  or  unfriendly.  The 
supreme  value  of  the  E^o  has  thuii  become  the 
content  of  the  Emotion  which  is  stirred  by  every 
stimulus.  Or  the  Self  as  univer&al  is  the  object 
of  my  individual  Self  in  Emotion. 

This  ia  the  true  intellectual  Emotion,  since  it 
requires  Intellect,  Thought,  the  faculty  of  the 
Universal,  to  attain  it.  The  Self  now  seizes  it- 
self as  universal  and  possesses  the  same  not  only 
in  Thought  but  also  in  Emotion.  Herein  also 
man  has  become  emotionally  free,  though  he 
may  not  be  legally  free. 

Emotion  as  universal  has  a  process  through 
which  the  emotional  Self  passes  in  order  to  at- 
tain this  supreme  stage  of  itself.  The  Self  must 
be  suppressed  in  its  individual  form,  yet  affirmed 
in  its  universal  form  in  and  through  niiothor, 
and  finally  affirmed  as  universal  through  itself. 
Three  phases :  — 

EMOTION.  269 

1.  Self-auppressiug  Emotion,  The  forms  of 
particular  Eaiotion  which  ussert  the  Ego  immedi- 
ately, must  DOW  be  subordinated  ia  the  presence 
of  the  higher  end.  The  stages  of  Self-love,  such 
as  pride  and  also  approbation,  cannot  now  be 
allowed  to  dominiite  in  their  own  right. 

2.  Self-affirming  Emotion.  Not  the  special 
Self  in  any  form,  but  the  uiiiversnl  Self  must  be 
afBrmed.  The  negative  act  of  suppressing  Self- 
love  is  transformed  into  the  positive  love  of  the 
Self  as  such,  as  Selfhood  in  general,  which, 
however,  at  first  goes  out  toward  another  Self 
manifesting  this  love.  The  rise  to  universality 
is  primarily  through  two  Egos  mutually  affirming 
not  simply  each  other's  Self-love,  but  each 
other's  Love  of  the  Self. 

3.  Sdf-determiiiing  Emotion.  But  the  Ego  in 
its  completeness  is  nut  to  be  determined  by  an- 
other Self  to  the  Love  of  the  Self,  but  by  its  own 
Self.  The  friend  may  turn  out  disloyal,'  you 
are  not  to  follow  him  therein,  or  to  requite  him 
in  kind;  thus  you  become  what  he  is,  disloyal. 
Even  his  negative  act  is  not  to  determine  you  to 
a  similar  act  which  undoes  the  Love  of  the  Self. 
Bather  you  are  to  affirm  it  anew  through  your- 
self, showing  that  yrm  are  self-contained,  self- 
determined,  a  free  being  even  in  Emotion.  You 
feel  the  worth  of  the  Self  us  such  and  are  de- 
voted to  that,  whatever  may  be  the  conduct  of 
the  individual  toward  you. 


FBBLnfS  —  FimTE. 

Thus  yoa  have  attaiDed  uoiversality,  as  far  as 
this  13  posaiblo  to  EniotioD,  which  is  still  finite, 
being  inanifested  in  the  single,  separate  Kgo. 
You  have  also  attained  freedom  in  Emstion, 
since  this  is  here  determined,  not  by  somctliing 
or  somebody  external  to  you,  but  by  the  Self  as 
such  which  is  now  yours.  It  may  be  said  that 
you  have  attained  the  love  of  Humanity,  of  the 
Self  as  universal. 

And  yet  this  love  in  Emotion  remains  individ- 
ual, cooped  up  in  the  Ego  of  which  it  is  a  sub- 
jective state.  So  it  is  not  rightly  universal  and 
cannot  be;  it  must  go  forth  and  manifest  itself. 
The  emotional  Ego  finds  itself  limited  from  its 
lowest  to  its  highest  stage  and  yet  (as  Ego)  en- 
dowed with  an  impulse  and  aspiration  to  rise  out 
of  its  limits  of  mere  Emotion. 

Accordingly  the  Emotion  of  one  Ego,  getting 
outside  of  itself,  stirs  the  Emotion  of  another 
Ego,  which  thus  responds  to  the  first.  Here  we 
enter  a  new  stage  of  Finite  Feeling,  that  of  Sym- 
pathy, in  whose  sphere  Feeling  will  again  show 
both  its  resonance  and  its  harmony. 


Emotion,  being  roused  or  stimulated,  becomes 
itself  a  stimulant  of  Emotion,  reproducing  itself 
in  the  Ego  or  Egos.  Such  an  echo  or  response 
of  one  Emotion  to  another  is  Sympathy,  which 
is  Einotion  associating  itself  au.l  thereby  bring- 
in":  together  the  whole  man  with  other  men. 
Sympathy  is  the  welding  principle  of  society. 
Emotion  taken  by  itself  is  individual,  belong- 
ing to  the  one  Self.  But  when  Self-love  rises  to 
love  of  the  Self  as  such,  this  love  (which  is  an 
Emotion)  goes  out  toward  the  other  Self  and 
unites  with  it  in  one  process  of  Sympathy  or 
Fellow-feeling,  since  Emotion  has  roused  and 
taken  a  fellow  or  comrade  in  order  to  make  itself 
complete  and  a  reality. 

It  will  be  observed  that  Emotion  now  makes 


272  FESLIN9  -  FINITE. 

itself  twofold,  with  the  end  of  becoming  three- 
fold in  the  process  of  Sympathy.  Starting  from 
one  Ego,  it  sounds  back  or  reverberates  from  a 
second  Ego,  and  the  two  Egos  unite  in  a  mutual 
resonance  which  forms  a  new  totality  of  Feel- 
ing, and  this  is  just  the  mentioned  process  or 
round  of  Sympathy. 

Already  we  have  noted  that  Feeling  in  its  very 
nature  is  twofold  and  self-echoing,  or  self-sep- 
arating and  self-returning.  ItT  duplicates  itself 
within  itself  in  order  to  be  its  own  inner  act,  as 
was  observed  in  the  case  of  Pain-and-Pleasure 
(see  p.  36).  But  iu  Sympathy  this  duplication 
is  manifested  not  merely  in  the  one  Ego  subjec- 
tively, but  it  shows  itself  objective,  involving  in 
its  round  two  Egos,  and  possibly  many. 

In  the  present  sphere  of  Sympathy,  Emotion 
has  become  an  external  Determinant  since  it 
stimulates  externally  Emotion  in  another  Ego. 
From  this  point  of  view  we  may  consider  Sym- 
pathy to  be  a  return  to  Impression,  which  had  as 
its  stimulus  the  outer  world  of  Sensation.  But 
now  the  inner  world  of  Emotion  has  become  an 
outer  stimulus,  which  stirs  a  similar  Emotion  in 
a  separate  person.  Thus  the  internal  Emotion, 
preserving  its  internality,  becomes  an  external 
Determinant,  moving  the  Ego  from  the  outside, 
as  did  the  five  Senses  in  Impression.  That  is, 
the  inner  Ego  moves  the  inner  Ego  externally, 
and  the  two  Egos  are  one  in  Sympathy. 


So  the  twain  (or  more)  are  fused  in  the  com- 
mon Feeling  of  unity.  Primordially  they  cannot 
help  themselves,  they  naturally  answer  each 
other's  Feeling,  though  they  may  and  often 
mudt  learn  to  inhibit  or  to  control  such  response. 
Sympathy  melts  the  hard  limits  of  individuality, 
and  associates  men,  canceling  for  the  nonce  their 
separation  and  joining  them  spontaneously  in  a 
common  humanity.  All  diversity  of  Selves  has 
the  tendency  through  Sympathy  to  become  one 
Self,  or  to  manifest  the  All-Self  (Pampsychosis) 
in  Feeling.  Sympathy  as  universal  we  may, 
therefore,  define  to  be  the  Feeling  of  the  All- 
Self  in  each  individual. 

Here  we  catch  a  glimpse  of  the  purpose  and 
end  of  this  whole  sphere  of  Finite  Feeling 
pushing  forward  to  its  conclusion  in  universal 
Sympathy :  it  is  to  unite  the  separated,  invidual- 
ized  man  into  Society.  Sympathy  is  the  primal 
associative  principle  of  the  individual  which  thus 
feels  the  All-Self  as  the  unitary  bond  of  human- 
ity. "One  touch  of  nature  makes  the  whole 
world  kin,"  and  Sympathy  is  just  this  natural 

What  we  have  stated  in  a  general  discursive 
way,  we  shall  now  seek  to  formulate  more 
exactly.  Sympathy  has  its  movement,  which  we 
shall  set  forth  under  the  following  heads :  first, 
the  Process  of  Sympathy ;  second,  the  Particular 
Sympathies;  third.  Universal  Sympathy. 



I.  The  Process  of  Sympathy.  —  The  fact 
which  is  to  be  grasped  at  the  start  is  that  Sym- 
pathy means  the  second  Feeling  which  is  roused 
by  the  first  Feeling;  it  not  only  feels  but  feels 
with^  it  is  a  Feeling  which  feels  with  another 
Feeling  so  that  the  two  are  in  one  process 
together.  Sympathy,  accordingly,  implies  two 
Feelings,  an  antecedent  and  a  consequent,  with  a 
copula  or  connective  which  forms  them  into  one 
round  of  Feeling  mutually  causative  and  sym- 

Feeling  thus  as  Sympathy  echoes  itself  or 
rather  causes  a  vibration  of  itself.  This  may 
take  place  in  one  and  the  same  Ego  which,  being 
a  reservoir  of  stored-up  Feelings,  can  be  thrilled 
by  Sympathy  wholly  within  itself.  Oue  Emotion 
of  the  soul  may  internally  set  to  throbbing  many 
Emotions  or  perchance  the  entire  Self.  But 
Emotion  is  able  to  stimulate  to  response  not  only 
its  own  Ego,  but  another  differeut  Ego.  And 
not  merely  one  other  but  many  Egos  it  can  rouse 
to  activity,  which  we  may  note  in  the  Sympathy 
of  a  herd  of  animals,  or  in  a  multitude  of  men, 
who  mutually  intensify  the  passions  of  one 

In  general  we  find  the  following  factors  in  the 
Process  of  Feeling :  there  must  be  first  the  stimu- 
lating, suffering  Ego,  which  we  may  call  the 
pathic  element ;  secondly  there  must  be  the  stimu- 
lated,  responsive  Ego   which    we  may  call  the 


sympathetic  element;  third  is  the  return  of  the 
second  to  the  first  which  thus  becomes  the 
recipient  Ego,  wherewith  the  cycle  of  Sympathy 
is  completed. 

1.  The  Pathic  Element.  Let  us  take  the 
human  being  in  some  state  of  Emotion,  as  joy  or 
sorrow,  which  is  usually  expressed  by  it  in  such 
a  way  that  others  are  reached  and  stimulated  by 
this  expression  to  a  similar  state.  The  Ego  is  an 
immense  emotional  storehouse,  upon  which  some 
occurrence  may  fall  from  the  outside,  rousing  one 
or  more  of  its  quiescent  Emotions  into  action. 
Such  is  the  pathic  element  of  the  Ego,  being  the 
possibility  of  all  Emotions,  nvhose  nature  and 
order  have  been  already  considered. 

Now  this  Pathic  Ego  is  conceived  as  stirred  or 
struck  by  some  Determinant,  which  has  the 
power  of  evoking  its  laid-up  Emotion.  The 
result  is  a  concomitant  Emotion  or  a  companion 
of  like  sort  which  feels  with  it  and  which  is  ex- 
pressed linguistically  in  many  words  with  the 
Latin  prefix  con  (cum)  such  as  compassion^  com^ 
miseration^  condolence.  All  of  these  are  forms 
of  Sympathy. 

2.  The  Sympathetic  Element,  Here  again  we 
must  bring  before  ourselves  the  Ego  with  its 
store  of  Emotions,  implicit,  inherited,  and  pre- 
served from  the  past.  Then  comes  the  roused 
Emotion,  explicit,  active,  throbbing;  this  is  now 
the  Determinant,  is  really  the  suffering  or  Pathic 


Ego,  which  breaks  in  upon  the  primal  or  dormant 
Ego  and  starts  it  to  vibrating  in  accord.  Thus 
the  latter  becomes  the  Sympathetic  Ego. 

Sympathizable  more  or  less  is  every  person 
and  indeed  every  animal.  Primarily  the  Ego 
sympathizes  with  itself,  containing  in  its  depths 
many  Emotions,  each  of  which,  being  stirred  to 
a  thrill,  will  start  others  to  thrilling  in  response, 
or  perchance  the  whole  mass.  Sometimes, 
indeed,  we  are  too  intent  upon  our  own  Emotions 
and  excite  them  artificially  or  indulge  in  them 
excessively.  Self-Emotion  is  inclined  to  degen- 
erate into  selfishness  of  Emotion,  and  in  a  man- 
ner to  tyrannize  over  the  whole  Eofo,  The  best 
cure  for  these  self-occupied  states  of  Feeling  is 
to  give  them  an  outlet  upon  another  Ego. 

On  the  other  hand  the  one  Emotion  may  stim- 
ulate not  only  many  Emotions  within  the  one 
Ego,  but  also  many  Egos  outside  of  it,  in  the 
multitude  or  the  flock.  Both  are  societies  or 
associations  of  Emotion,  the  one  inner,  the 
other  outer;  both  can  be  started  to  vibrating  by 
a  pathic  Determinant.  The  inner  association  of 
Emotions  in  the  single  Ego  is  the  prototype  and 
the  germ  of  the  outer  association  of  many  Egos, 
the  latter  being  a  realization  of  the  former.  We 
may  well  regard  the  chief  object  and  the  essen- 
tial movement  of  Sympathy  to  be  the  outer  asso- 
ciation of  many  individuals  through  the  inner 
association  of  Emotion.     That  is,  man,  having 


Emotion  within  himself,  must  realize  outwardly 
this  Emotion,  and  so  associate  with  his  fellow- 
man  through  Fellow-feeling  (Sympathy.) 

3.  The  Recipient  Element.  Two  sides  have 
now  appeared,  or,  let  us  say,  two  Egos,  the 
Pathic  and  the  Sympathetic,  the  suffering  and 
the  responsive,  the  antecedent  and  the  conse- 
quent in  Emotion,  or  the  Feeling  in  the  first 
Ego,  and  its  Fellow-feeKng  in  the  second  Ego. 
Of  this  second  Ego  we  distinctly  predicate  Sym- 
pathy, which  is  a  responding  to  and  also  a  going 
back  to  the  first  Ego  with  its  roused  Emotion,  in 
which  act  takes  place  a  fusion  or  union  of  the 
two  Egos  in  Feeling.  Such  is  the  round  of 
Sympathy,  composed  of  the  pathic,  sympathetic 
and  recipient  elements,  the  latter  of  which  is  a 
return  to  the  first,  yet  through  the  second. 
Thus  Sympathy  reveals  a  self-returning  cycle  in 
its  process,  in  which  two  Egos  primarily  unite 
into  a  ring  of  Emotions,  through  which  ring  not 
merely  two  but  many  Egos  can  be  interlinked  into 
a  society.  In  this  way  we  can  again  see  Sym- 
pathy as  the  basic  social  bond  of  men,  as  they 
unfold  into  institutions. 

Moreover  through  this  process  of  Sympathy 
individual  Emotion  finds  a  vent,  passing  from 
within  outward  through  the  aid  of  others. 
Sympathy  gives  relief  and  brings  restoration. 
It  was  characteristic  of  Emotion  that  it  went 
outward  (in   accord  with  its  etymology)  toward 


the  other  Ego  in  love,  hate,  anger,  etc.  But  in 
Sympathy  the  Ego  as  sympathetic  moves  the 
other  way,  responding  to  the  Emotion  of  the  first 
person  or  pathic  Ego,  which  returns  the  response, 
wherein  we  see  the  Ego's  nature  to  be  that  of 
fellowship,  that  of  the  responsive  comrade. 

And  yet  we  must  not  fail  to  mention  the  oppo- 
site trend.  In  certain  cases  the  pathic  Ego 
rouses  Antipathy  instead  of  Sympathy,  driving 
asunder  the  two  or  more  Egos  instead  of  asso- 
ciating them.  Between  these  two  opposites  lie 
many  kinds  and  degrees  of  their  intermingling, 
which  gives  manifold  phases  of  the  Particular 

This  manifoldness  of  Sympathy  lies  already  in 
the  manifoldness  of  Emotion.  When  the  outer 
Determinant  is  another  Ego  with  its  associated 
store  of  Emotions,  we  have  two  inner  emotional 
societies  which  become  an  outer  society  of  Sym- 
pathies, being  fused  together  by  their  common 

II.  Particular  Sympathies.  — In  the  preced- 
ing account  we  have  given  the  general  movement 
or  Norm  of  Sympathy.  The  next  step  is  that 
this  Norm  specializes  itself  and  becomes  the 
Particular  Sympathies.  But  what  is  it  that 
specializes  the  previous  round  of  Sympathy,  or 
the  abstract  Norm  of  it,  making  it  truly  Feel- 
ing which  has  to  be  particular?  Pain-and- 
Pleasure  now  enters   the  Process  of  Sympathy 


and  gives  to  it  the  required  particularity.  Feel- 
ing is  not  real  Feeling  till  it  has  some  strain  of 
the  agreeable  or  disagreeable,  till  it  has  its  con- 
comitant of  Pain  or  Pleasure  (see  under  Ele- 
mental Feeling,  p.  36). 

In  the  present  case  the  elements  of  Sympathy — 
the  pathic,  the  sympathetic,  and  the  recipient  — 
must  each  become  pleasurable  or  painful,  and 
manifest  the  process  of  Pain-and-Pleasure  along 
with  their  own  process.  For  instance,  the 
Pathic  Ego  is  stimulated  to  an  Emotion  pleasant 
or  painful,  which  then  stirs  in  another  Ego  a 
corresponding  Emotion,  which  is  Sympathy. 
And  this  Sympathy  being  thus  endowed  with 
Pain  or  Pleasure,  is  a  particular,  real  one  —  we 
may  call  it  specialized. 

1.  The  First  Sympathy,  We  have  already 
noted  the  First  Pleasure  (p.  38)  as  the  primal 
stage  of- the  process  of  Pleasure-and-Pain,  as  the 
unalloyed  agreement  of  the  Ego  with  itself.  It 
was  also  observed  (p.  39)  that  Pleasure  is  by  its 
very  nature  a  kind  of  Fellow-feeling  of  the  man 
for  himself,  and  thus  may  be  deemed  the  inner 
source  of  all  other  sorts  of  feeling.  That  is,  the 
Ego  is  first  sympathetic  with  itself,  and  then  be- 
comes sympathetic  with  others. 

All  joy  is  contagious,  we  say;  it  reproduces 
itself  in  every  soul  within  the  sphere  of  its  in- 
fluence. The  innocent  delight  of  children  has  a 
peculiar  power  of  starting  the  echo  of   itself  in 


grown  people.  The  sympathetic  vibration  of 
laughter  may  become  irresistible,  and  the  panic 
cannot  be  withstood. 

2.  Compassion.  If  the  First  Pleasure  of  the 
Pathic  Ego  sends  oflf  its  ripples  of  joy,  which 
stirs  in  response  the  Sympathetic  Ego,  Pain  in  its 
turn  produces  a  similar  effect.  Indeed  Pain 
has  almost  monopolized  Sympathy,  since  this 
word  suggests  a  Fellow-feeling  with  Pain  rather 
than  with  Pleasure.  Pain  needs  Sympathy,  being 
an  interruption  of  the  rhythm  of  life,  which 
calls  for  the  help  of  another.  The  one  that 
suffers  or  lacks  must  receive  from  those  who  can 
give  and  so  restore. 

Pleasure,  accordingly,  is  more  self-sufficing 
than  Pain,  and  is  not  especially  in  want  of  Sym- 
pathy. Hence  Pain  binds  man  to  man  more 
than  Pleasure.  In  joy  the  primal  rhythm  of 
existence  is  unbroken  and  runs  of  itself;  Pain 
breaks  into  this  paradisaical  happiness,  while 
Sympathy  seeks  to  restore  the  original  process 
of  Pleasure.  Pain  is,  therefore,  more  deeply 
associative  than  Pleasure. 

There  is  also  a  form  of  Pleasure  in  Pain,  which 
designates  a  particular  kind  of  Sympathy,  in 
which  the  sympathizer  finds  delight  in  Pain  — 
not  in  causing  it,  but  in  sharing  it  and  assuming 
it  when  found  in  another.  Perhaps  all  truly 
sympathetic  natures  find  an  inborn  delight  in 
condolence  which  means  f ellow-sufferiug.     Com- 


passion  comes  to  mean  not  merely  the  feeling  of. 
sorrow  for  the  Pathic  Ego,  but  a  feeling  of  self- 
satisfaction  in  such  sorrow. 

At  this  point  rises  an  excess.  Sympathy  be- 
comes a  dissipation,  a  self-indulgence  which  can 
only  be  compared  to  the  destructive  effects  of 
any  other  appetite  in  excess.  The  emotive 
nature  is  disordered  and  gets  to  be  deeply  nega- 
tive, as  in  all  intemperance,  be  it  that  of  eating 
and  drinking,  or  that  of  inebriated  Sympathy. 
People  may  be  pain-intoxicated  and  seek  their 
stimulant  as  the  drunkard  seeks  alcohol.  In 
fact  there  are  epochs  of  history  which  show  this 
trait.  A  person  of  this  sort  often  attracts  an 
army  of  cormorants,  who  retail  their  little  ills 
and  feast  off  the  roused  Sympathy,  to  the  un- 
doing of  the  sympathizer. 

3.  Self-undoing  Sympathy.  It  is  evident 
from  the  preceding  stage,  that  Sympathy  driven 
beyond  a  certain  point  becomes  negative,  assailing 
and  perchance  destroying  the  sympathizer  spe- 
cially, and  even  the  object  of  such  Sympathy. 
You  may  choose  to  suffer  for  another  that  he 
escape  suffering  for  his  deeds ;  you  may  bear  the 
burden  that  he  have  none  to  bear.  You  take  the 
doer's  place  and  put  him  into  yours;  you  accept 
the  consequences  of  another's  wrongful  act,  in 
order  that  he  may  go  free.  Thus  the  Ego  quite 
reaches  the  point  of  self -undoing  through  its 
Sympathy,  substituting  for  itself  another  Self, 


even  unto  death.  This  is  the  height  of  altruism » 
or  self-sacrificing  Sympathy,  but  it  bears  within 
itself  a  tremendous  contradiction,  since  the  Ego 
destroys  itself  in  order  to  save  another  Ego, 
which  has  no  such  self-sacrificing  spirit. 

(a)  Through  Sympathy  unselfishness  may 
cause  itself  to  perish  in  keeping  alive  selfishness. 
The  sympathetic  man  may  go  hungry  in  order 
that  the  unsympathetic  man  may  be  filled. 

(6)  Sympathy  is  often  so  unregulated  that  it 
is  not  only  ready  to  take  the  burden  of  the  little 
ills  of  others,  but  it  easily  passes  into  assuming 
the  enmities  of  others,  with  a  whole  line  of  lies, 
prejudices,  misconceptions.  Thus  Sympathy 
starting  with  love,  passes  into  hate,  its  concord 
turns  to  dissonance.  In  this  way  it  is  trans- 
formed into  a  negative  force  against  the  other 
instead  of  a  preservative. 

But  the  person  who  receives  this  intemperate 
Sympathy  is  in  the  long  run  not  improved.  It 
destroys  self-help,  makes  him  a  kind  of  parasite, 
pensioner,  beggar,  or  at  least  generates  selfish- 
ness. The  ill  effects  of  indiscriminate  public 
charity  are  now  very  generally  acknowledged. 

(c)  Sympathy  has  also  a  tendency  to  turn  anti- 
social, assailing  secretly  the  bed-rock  of  society 
which  rests  upon  the  individual  giving  of  his  own 
for  what  ho  receives.  When  a  man  seeks  to  live 
from  the  bounty  of  others,  he  is  at  least  a  dead 
weight,  and  has  the  tendency  to  become  actively 


hostile  to  order,  anarchic.  Sympathy  gets  to 
hating  any  order  in  which  misery  is  possible, 
little  attending  to  the  conduct  of  the  individual 
which  has  caused,  in  many  cases,  his  own  misery. 
Commiseration  is  not  supposed  to  ask  questions. 
Hence  Sympathy  can  and  often  does  issue  in  the 
hate  of  the  other,  and  mounts  up  to  the  hate  of 
all  institutions,  culminating  in  the  anarchistic 
tendency  of  our  age. 

Thus  Sympathy  has  touched  the  point  of  self- 
annihilation,  it  has  become  anything  but  sympa- 
thetic, is  ratlier  the  most  hardened  inhuman 
feeling.  Yet  anarchism  may  certainly  start  with 
Sympathy.  Still  Sympathy  is  not  for  this  reason 
to  be  destroyed,  but  rather  purified;  it  is  to  get 
rid  of  its  negative  element,  or  to  subordinate  the 
same.  So  now  we  are  to  see  a  new  Sympathy, 
that  which  feels  its  own  negative  power  and 
negates  it  in  its  own  act.  This  is  based  upon 
the  complete  recognition  of  the  other  as  Self  and 
your  Self  likewise ;  as  you  recognize  him,  so  he 
must  return  the  deed  and  recognize  you  in  just 

III.  Universal  Sympathy. — We  have  seen 
that  Sympathy  can  become  destructive  to  both 
sides,  to  the  Pathic  and  the  Sympathetic  Egos, 
which  can  only  mean  destruction  to  the  Self  as 
such.  In  this  extreme  result  Sympathy  has 
shown  itself  to  be  self-destructive.  Consequently 
the  problem  arises :   How  shall  we  preserve  the 


positive     and    avoid     the    negative    power    of 

The  sympathetic  person  is  not  to  allow  his 
Sympathy  to  undo  himself,  and  so  undo  Self  as 
such.  If  his  Sympathy  be  truly  universal,  it 
includes  his  own  Ego,  as  well  as  the  other.  So 
he  must  reach  the  point  of  sympathizing  with 
Self,  even  his  own.  In  this  way  he  starts  to 
universalizing  his  Sympathy.  If  in  universal 
Emotion  man  attains  the  love  of  the  Self  as 
such,  which  includes  all,  not  excluding  his  own, 
so  in  universal  Sympathy  he  sympathizes  with 
the  Self  as  such,  which  includes  all  not  exclud- 
ing his  own. 

1.  If  Sympathy  be  truly  universal,  both  sides, 
the  Pathic  and  the  Sympathetic  Egos,  receive 
back  what  they  give;  if  there  is.the  sacriGce, 
there  is  also  the  reooverv.  If  all  feci  for  others, 
each  who  feels  for  his  fellow-man  is  felt  for  in 
return,  being  also  a  fellow-man.  If  all,  imitating 
the  great  Exemplar,  perform  the  Christian  sacri- 
fice, each  must  get  back  in  essence  what  he  has 
immolated.  Through  all  is  restored  to  the  indi- 
vidual what  he  imparts. 

2.  Sympathy  must  not  relieve  the  man  so  that 
he  is  not  responsible  for  his  deeds,  his  place  is 
not  to  be  taken  by  another,  nor  is  the  conse- 
quence of  his  act  to  be  withheld.  True  mercy 
supplements  justice,  not  supplanting  it,  nor 
destroying   it.     Universal  Sympathy  will   help, 

6YMPATHTT.  286 

but  not  undermine  your  self -activity ;  it  will  in- 
sist that  you  the  helped  be  also  helper,  be  what 
I  am  in  helping  you  and  others.  It  will  refuse 
generally  to  help  you  to  be  an  idler,  a  pauper,  a 
pensioner,  for  that  is  just  what  it  is  not.  I  shall 
give  you  myself,  but  you  must  not  leave  out  just 
this  giving  of  Self  to  others. 

The  foundations  patterned  after Toynbee  Hall, 
are  a  two-edged  weapon,  capable  of  good  and 
evil.  If  they  simply  help,  their  benefit  is  dubi- 
ous; but  if  they  help  the  other  to  help  himself 
and  others,  and  insist  upon  that,  then  they  can 
do  much  good.  In  such  societies  too.  Sympathy 
may  develop  its  negative,  anti-institutional  side, 
and  lead  some  ardent  members  quite  a  little  dis- 
tance on  the  road  toward  anarchism. 

3.  But  even  Universal  Sympathy  belongs  still 
to  Finite  Feeling,  and  so  reveals  a  limit  which 
makes  it  not  truly  universal,  and  hence  contra- 
dictory and  self -annulling.  It  remains  subjec- 
tive, in  the  individual,  even  when  manifesting 
itself  in  its  process.  Universal  Sympathy  with 
its  responsiveness  unites  many  Egos  in  acommon 
bond,  but  this  bond  is  still  internal  or  subjective. 
It  is  the  associative  principle,  or,  perchance,  the 
associative  protoplasm  of  man,  formable  but  not 
yet  formed,  not  yet  actualized  in  an  institutional 
world  but  the  possibility  thereof. 

Thus  all  Egos  through  Universal  Sympathy 
become  one  feeling  Ego  as  it  were,  a  kind  of  All- 


Ego,   which,  however,  maaifests  itself  in  each 
individual.     Such  is,   indeed,   the  highest  out- 
come of  Sympathy,  and  of  the  entire  sphere  of 
Finite  Feeling:  the  All-Ego  is  felt  in  each  Ego, 
which  Feeling  sympathetically  unites  it  with  its 
fellows.     This  is  not  the  All-Feeling  which  we 
had  back  in  the  elemental  stage,  and  which  was 
the  conscious  Ego  as  direct  product  of  the  Uni- 
verse (see  p.  132).     Keeping  up  the  analogy  in 
expression  we  may  call  the  present  stage  All- 
Fellow-feeling,  which  presupposes  the  conscious 
Ego  as  already  existent  and  separated,  but  which 
is  to  overcome  this  separation  and  to  transform 
the  many   individual   Egos   into   unity   through 
Sympathy.     Thus   the    People   feel  a  common 
Self,  an  All-Ego  (God);   each  Self  has  such  a 
Feeling,  and  is   moved   by  it   to  transcend  the 
bounds  of  his  individual  Self  and  to  rise  into  an 
universal  Self  through  which  he  associates  with 
other  Selves. 

Still  wo  are  to  mark  just  here  the  limitation. 
Though  the  Many,  the  People,  have  this  Univer- 
sal Sympathy,  it  stays  in  the  manifestation  of 
their  Egos,  it  is  not  objectively  existent,  not 
truly  universal.  Hence  comes  the  call  to  take 
the  next  great  step :  the  All-Ego  stirring  each 
person  in  Universal  Sympathy  must  be  made 
actual,  existent  in  the  world,  institutional.  Or 
the  internal  totality  of  social  Sympathy  is  to 
become  the  external  totality  of  associated  man. 


his  social  institutions,  which  will  rouse  in  their 
turn  a  wholly  new  order  of  Feeling.  These  in- 
stitutions, however,  have  to  be  organized,  have 
to  be  formed  out  of  the  original  protoplasmic 
Sympathy  of  Human  Nature,  ere  they  can  stimu- 
late afresh  the  feeliu«:  E«:o. 

Man  is  'and  ought  to  be  sympathetic,  but  he 
should  also  rise  out  of  Sympathy,  making  it  a 
means  for  something  higher.  Through  it  the 
bond  of  association  between  man  and  man  is  to 
unfold  from  the  more  or  less  fluctuating  inner 
Self  into  an  established  outer  Self,  an  actualized 
Will,  an  Institution,  round  which  his  Feelings 
will  cluster  anew  as  a  permanent  anchorage. 

Herewith,  however,  the  realm  of  Finite  Feel- 
ing is  brought  to  its  conclusion.  It  started,  we 
recollect,  with  the  Ego  separating  from  the 
World  or  the  All,  throwing  it  outside  and  seek- 
ing to  determine  it  by  manifold  division.  But 
now  the  feeling  Ego,  having  passed  through 
its  finite,  particularized  forms,  has  come  back 
to  the  Feeling  of  the  All  (or  of  the  All-Self)  in 
Sympathy.  Thus  the  All  is  mediated  by  the 
Ego,  is  brought  to  manifestation  by  it  through 
the  sympathetic  process.  Formerly  we  saw  the 
All  (or  Universe)  create  the  feeling  Ego  as  con- 
scious (in  All-Feeling),  but  now  the  feeling 
Ego  re-creates  the  AU  which  once  created  it, 
evoking  the  same  subjectively  in  Universal  Sym- 
pathy.    We  see,  too,  that  the  whole  movement 



of  Finite  Feeling  tlirough  Impression,  Emotion, 
and  Sympathy,  has  been  to  overcome  the  present 
separative  condition  of  the  feeling  Ego,  and  to 
restore  it  to  harmony  with  the  All  by  means  of 
its  own  inner  activity  of  Feeling.  Moreover  it 
has  become  evident  that  underneath  these  varied 
phenomena  of  finite  particularized  Feeling  the  All 
was  lurking  and  working  toward  its  own  self- 
manifestation,  yet  as  developed  and  organized 
through  the  individual  Ego.  But  with  this  organ- 
ized All  rises  into  our  horizon  a  wholly  new 
realm  of  Feeling  which  is  next  to  be  considered. 



1.  The  present  stage  of  FiQite  Feeling,  as  the 
second  of  the  total  Psychosis  of  Feeling  must 
have  a  separative  character  as  compiired  with 
the  previous  stage  of  Elemental  Feeling.  This 
is  primarily  seen  in  tlie  fact  that  the  Ego  and  its 
determining  All  are  no  longer  taken  as  organic- 
ally united  (as  io  Elemental  Feeling)  but  are 
divided  into  distinct  parts,  opposed  yet  interact- 
ing. Still  further  the  organic  All  is  in  itself 
divided  and  dismembered,  as  well  as  the  Ego. 

2.  But  this  second  stage,  which  is  Finite  Feel- 
ing as  a  whole,  muSt  be  grasped  as  having  its 
own  movement  within  itself.  It  too  is  a  Psy- 
chosis with  its  triple  process — Impression, 
Emotion,  Sympathy.  The  first  (Impression  or 
Sense-impression)  is  the  Feeling  which  accom- 
panies immediately  every  act  of  Sensatioo. 

But  the  second  (Emotion)  spriugs  from  the 
image  or  mental  state  separated  from  the  Sensa- 
tion and  intorualizcd,  and  moreover  is  individual 
(as  in  SeW-love)  over  against  other  individuals. 
But  these  separated  individuals  begin  to  become 
one  in  the  third  stage  (Syuipathy),  in  whicli 
Finite  Feeling  starts  to  return  into  itself,  and  to 
become  one  with  itself  in  the  sympathetic  round. 
We  can  also  observe  that  the  one  Emotion 
10  (289) 


(pathic)  in  Sympathy  stira  another  (sympa- 
thetic) externally,  as  the  sensuous  object  stira 
the  Ego  in  Impression.  Thus  the  third  stage  is 
a  return  to  the  first,  and  still  keeps  up  the  sepa- 
ration of  the  two  sides,  though  both  are  now 

Moreover  it  may  be  here  noted  that  the  non- 
Ego,  which  is  in  general  the  Determinant  in 
Impression,  becomes  an  Ego,  the  other  Ego,  in 
Sympathy,  which  internally  cancels  their  differ- 

3.  So  we  are  to  see  that  in  this  stage,  which  is 
Sympathy,  the  separation  is  for  the  time  over- 
come, and  the  two  Egos  are  united  in  Finite 
Feeling  which  has  therein  attained  its  conclusion. 
The  disjointed  is  now  jointed,  at  least  subject- 
ively and  temp(»rarily.  Whereat  the  question 
must  come  up :  Cannot  this  union  felt  in  Sympa- 
thy be  made  objective  and  permanent?  The 
answer  carries  us  out  of  Finite  Feeling  into  the 
next  higher  part,  Absolute  Feeling. 

4.  It  is,  however,  well  to  remember  that  each 
of  the  foreo:oino:  sta^res  of  Finite  Feelino:  had  its 
process,  which  ended  by  calling  for  something 
beyond  itself,  beyond  its  Finite  nature.  Sense- 
impression  showed  a  universal  element  in  its  Pain- 
and-Pleasure.  Particularl  v  Pain  means  a  strufrffle 
against,  a  breach  with,  fiaitu<le,  in  which  that 
which  is  bevond  the  Finite  besrins  to  make  itself 
felt.     Hence  Finite  Feeling  is  full  of  suffering. 


which  intimntee  something  traQsoendiag  its  limi- 
tiitioQ.  EmotioD  also,  as  Self-love,  universnlizecl 
itself  an  love  of  Self,  ia  which  the  All-Self  begins 
to  peer  forth.  Likewise  Sympathy,  becoming 
universal,  manifests  a  universal  Self  in  all  indi- 
vidual Selves. 

5.  This  last  point  we  shall  unfold  a  little. 
Sympathy  reveals  in  the  individual  Ego  the  All- 
Ego  as  Feeling.  Or  what  we  may  name  the  All- 
fccling  All  cornea  to  hght  in  each  person  through 
the  manifestation  of  Sympathy,  which  unites 
souls,  being  the  medium  of  fusion  between  all 
Egos,  and  indicating  the  common  Self  of  all 
Selves.  We  often  speak  of  being  stirred  by  a 
common  humanity,  or  a  common  selfhood  in 
which  all  Egos  share  through  Sympathy.  This 
universally  feeling  principle  we  may  call  the  God 
in  us,  the  uuiversal  Ego  as  Feeling.  It  is  what 
makes  every  sort  of  human  community  possible, 
and  must  be  seized  and  organized  in  order  that 
it  may  keep  alive  and  render  permanent  the 
community-making  element  of  man,  his  asso> 
ciation.  Such  is  primarily  the  work  of  Religion, 
that  which  binds  many  souls  together.  So  this 
common  bond  is  not  to  remain  subjective  and 
individual,  but  is  to  become  objective  and  uni- 
versal . 

We  have  above  noted  that  Sympathy  has  a 
powerful  negative  side,  it  may  turn  dissevering 
and    antt-Bociat    il  left  simply  to  itself.     The 

292  PESLIITO  —  FimTS. 

personal  elemeot  must  rise  into  the  institutional 
in  order  to  save  itself.  The  All-Self  in  Sympa- 
thy must  be  eieparatcd  from  the  special  person, 
and  organized  iu  ita  own  right,  which  new  organ- 
ization gives  a  nniver^eal  content  to  Sympathy, 
making  it  over  into  a  new  kind  of  Feeling  (here 
called  absolute). 

In  the  transition  from  Finite  to  Absolute 
Feeling  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  we  rise 
from  the  Fellow-feeling  with  man  to  the  Fellow- 
feeling  with  God. 

6.  There  is  a  connection  between  the  appear- 
ance of  the  Over-Self  iu  Elemental  Feeling  and 
the  AU-feeliug  Self  iu  Sympathy.  Both  miiy  bo 
deemed  to  be  phases  or  manifestations  of  the  uni- 
versal Self  as  a  medium  between  individual  Egos 
which  feel  it  and  are  determined  by  such  Feel- 
ing. We  saw  the  Over-Self  as  a  means  of  com- 
munication between  Egos  far  aj)art  in  Space  and 
Time,  uniting  them  autocratically  from  the  out- 
side as  it  were.  But  in  Sympathy  the  Over-Self 
has  become  inside  the  separated  Egos,  who  are, 
however,  in  each  other's  presence,  but  who  are 
united  by  the  common  Feeling  or  medium  exist- 
ing within  both.  Tims  the  Over-Self  is  individ- 
ualized in  Synii)athy,  yet  is  working  to  free  itself 
from  its  individual  prison,  and  to  manifest  itself 
again  as  the  All-Ego,  which  it  will  do  next. 

7.  In  Finite  Feeling  through  all  its  stages  — 
Impression,  Emotion,  Sympathy  —  the  Ego  baa 



this  uDiversal  elemeot  (the  All-Ego)  lurking  in 
it,  but  not  separated  from  it  or  separable,  not 
freed  from  the  pain  of  finitude,  like  the  sighing 
Ariel  pegged  up  in  the  cleft  log.  And  yet  the 
movement  of  Finite  Feeling  is  the  aspiration,  the 
grand  search  for  the  All-feeling  Self  organized, 
the  bringing  forth  of  the  new-membered  from 
the  dismembered  Whole.  Sympathy  begins  to 
break  down  the  hard  limits  of  individuality  with 
its  separativeness,  and  to  reveal  what  is  common 
to  all  individual  Egos,  a  universal  selfhood  which 
can  only  be  of  the  universal  Self,  the  All-feeling 
All  as  Ego.  Such  is  the  object  which  has  now 
evolved  for  our  consideration. 

part  tI;bir^. 


We  have  now  reached  the  third  stage  in  the 
total  development  of  Feeling,  in  which  the  feeling 
Ego  again  has  as  its  Determinant  the  All,  the 
Universe,  the  Great  Totality.  The  latter, 
however,  is  in  the  present  field  ordered,  or- 
ganized, formulated,  and  that  too  by  an  Ego, 
by  a  finite  individual,  whom  in  general  we  shall 
call  the  Genius.  Such  is  the  great  new  sphere 
of  Feeling  which  is  stimulated  in  man  by  the 
process  of  the  Universe,  not  directly  now  (as  in 
Elemental  Feeling)  but  mediately,  through  its 
order,  this  order  being  the  work  of  man. 

Absolute  Feeling  is,  accordingly,  the  Feeling 


of  the  Absolute  ordered.  Such  a  Feeling  we 
may  call  a  Sentiment,  though  the  word  in  its 
common  usage  does  not  adequately  express  the 
present  sphere;  so  the  reader  will  have  to  recon- 
struct it,  partially  at  least.  The  suggestion  for 
its  employment  is  that  modern  Psychology  speaks 
of  the  moral  Sentiment,  of  the  aesthetic  Senti- 
ment, and  sometimes  of  the  religious  Sentiment, 
though  with  small  interconnection,  and  with  in- 
sufficient grasp  of  their  meaning.  These  are 
properly  stages  or  forms  of  Absolute  Feeling, 
which,  however,  has  many  others,  all  of  which 
should  finally  be  seen  as  members  of  one  great 
Whole  organized. 

We  are  to  keep  in  mind  that  we  have  returned 
to  All-Feeling  or  Consciousness,  which  is  the 
product  of  the  Ail  or  of  the  Universe  as  Ego 
(see  pp.  113-5).  Consciousness  must,  there- 
fore, have  within  itself  the  process  of  the  Ego 
as  Feeling,  Will  and  Intellect,  though  as  yet 
undeveloped.  Now  it  is  the  process  of  the  All- 
Ego  which  is  to  be  developed  and  organized  in 
Absolute  Feeling.  Thus  it  is  made  absolute  in 
the  sense  here  employed,  after  having  been 
finitized  in  Finite  Feeling. 

Sentiment  as  now  used  is  the  Feeling  of  the 
Universe,  and  indeed  of  the  Universe  psychically 
organized,  or  as  Ego.  Sentiment  is  the  Feeling 
of  the  All  as  the  explicit  process  of  the  Self 
universal.     The  individual  Ego  feels  not  merely 


in  a  dumb  and  instinctive  way  this  universal 
Ego  —  as  a  limb  feels  the  whole  organism  —  but 
feels  it  as  Ego,  as  a  psychical  Totality,  which  has 
likewise  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  and  is  per- 
petually creating  itself  as  the  Universe.  The 
created  Ego  or  Psychosis,  by  the  very  fact  of 
being  created,  feels  the  All  which  has  created  it 
and  continues  to  stimulate  it  to  Feeling  in  the 
form  of  Sentiment  or  Feeling  of  the  Absolute. 
Every  human  Ego  feels  the  Divine  All  of  which 
it  is  a  spark  endowed  with  the  creativity  of  its 
source,  being  a  created  Self  creating,  and  destined 
to  recreate  its  own  creative  origin.  Thus  man 
begins  to  reveal  himself  as  the  image  of  his 
Creator,  namely  by  creating  the  Universe  which 
created  him.  The  creative  impulse  from  its 
lowest  to  its  highest  manifestation  in  re-creating 
the  original  All,  is  the  Feeling  of  the  Absolute 
as  its  own  essential  process.  The  individual 
Ego  is  indeed  but  a  link  of  the  total  process, 
yet  a  link  which  bears  in  it  this  process  in  order 
to  exist  as  a  link  of  the  same. 

Thus  in  Absolute  Feeling  the  Ego  has  to  take 
its  place  within  the  Whole  (which  is  the 
Universe),  of  which  it  is  a  part  or  member,  and 
feel  that.  Its  Feeling  is  no  longer  finite,  as  in 
the  preceding  stage,  or  a  part  feeling  a  part;  the 
part  must  now  feel  the  Totality  of  which  it  is  a 
part,  and  \yhose  process  it  bears  within  itself  as 
its  essential  nature. 


Moreover  we  shall  find  Pain-aad-Pleasure  as 
the  concomitant  of  Absolute  Feeling.  In  this 
sense  it  too  ia  double  and  has  itn  echo,  like  every 
form  of  Feeling.  Sentiments  are  agreeable  and 
disagreeable;  sometimes  there  is  a  commingling  of 
the  two  sides.  Still  the  Pleasures  and  the  Pains 
of  the  Feeling  of  the  Absolute  have  their  own 
distinct  character  and  hence  their  own  special 

We  are  again  to  mark  that  the  Ego  in  the 
present  sphere  is  inside  of  that  which  stimulates 
it  to  Feeling.  Such  was  also  the  case  in  the  first 
or  elemental  sphere,  as  already  noted.  But  that 
primal  Feeling  of  the  All  (or  All-Feeling)  did 
-not  have  the  All  organized  as  a  Self  by  a  Self. 
The  Universe  determined  every  Ego  as  an  organic 
part  or  member  directly,  without  being  ordered 
anew.  But  the  Ego  returns  to  the  great  All  and 
reconstructs  it,  is  in  fact  stimulated  by  it  to  such 
reconstruction,  since  it  is  likewise  Ego.  This  of 
course  takes  place  after  the  individual  has  had 
the  experience  of  Finite  Feeling,  in  which  the 
Ego  feels  itself  outside  of  its  stimulating  world, 
and  really  determines  the  same.  Finally  the  Ego 
moves  forward  through  the  particulars  of  Finite 
Feeling  to  what  embraces  them  all,  namely  the 
All,  and  begins  to  determine  it,  organizing  its 
various  stages. 

We  have  repeatedly  stated  that  the  All  must 
be  organized  in  the   present  sphere  of  Absolute 


Feeling,  and  thiit  in  this  organization  consists  its 
fundamental  distinction  from  Elemental  Feeling. 
But  by  whom  is  it  to  be  organized  and  in  what 
way?  Such  a  question  calls  for  the  man  who 
possesses  supremely  creative  power  —  the  power 
to  re-create  the  All,  precipitating  it  into  forms 
through  which  it  can  bo  appropriated  by  other 
minds.  Such  is  the  Genius,  the  unique  Ego 
specially  endowed  by  Nature  or  rather  by  the 
All  with  its  own  creative  energy.  He  belongs  in 
every  department  of  this  Absolute  Feeling,  since 
he  is  the  one  who  organizes  the  Absolute  so  that 
it  can  be  felt  hff  his  people.  Thus  he  is  a 
mediator,  bringing  the  Divine  and  the  Human 
together  in  a  common  act  of  participation  through 
Feelintr,  as  well  as  throu^jh  Will  and  Intellect. 

Already  we  have  seen  the  Genius  as  the  one 
endowed  of  the  All-Giver,  and  have  briefly  des- 
ignated his  character  (see  preceding  p.  129). 
He  has  primordially  an  elemental  power,  being 
gifted  with  an  elemental  Feeling  of  the  Great 
Totality  of  which  he  is  the  product  and  whose 
immediate  creative  nature  he  is  endowed  with  in 
his  sphere.  So  he,  though  a  finite  individual, 
proceeds  to  re-create  the  All  and  its  order,  ac- 
cording to  his  special  gift  (as  poet,  philosopher, 
founder  of  a  religion,  etc.).  The  Genius  may 
be  said  to  have  an  immediate  Feelins:  of  theUni- 
verse  in  its  self-generative  process,  which  he  pos- 
sesses   the  ability  to  form  anew   in  his   si)ecial 


field  for  finite  minds,  that  these  too  may  share 
in  the  Absolute  through  Feeling,  and  thus  be 
brought  to  be  participators  in  Absolute  Feeling. 

It  is  evident  that  we  here  pre-suppose  two  dif- 
ferent kinds  of  Egos,  the  one  gifted  with  Genius, 
the  other  not.  The  one  is  the  unique  man  of 
his  time  and  people,  perchance  of  his  whole  race. 
Then  come  the  Many,  the  multitude,  the  mass 
of  Egos  who  are  nevertheless  to  be  made  mem- 
bers of  the  organized  All. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  both  the  Genius  and 
the  Many  have  a  common  Elemental  Feeling, 
both  being  conscious  Egos  and  children  of  the 
same  Universe,  which  has  imparted  to  them  the 
one  general  consciousness  of  Humanity  (see  pre- 
ceding pp.  121,  132).  But  the  Many  do  not 
and  cannot  at  first  organize  this  primal  Elemental 
Feeling,  though  they  certainly  feel  it  as  Egos. 
Then  rises  the  Genius  who  also  has  this  same 
Elemental  Feeling,  but  with  the  additional  ability 
of  organizing  it  in  its  divinely  creative  character 
for  the  Many,  who  thereby  are  enabled  to 
advance  out  of  their  immediate  elemental  stage 
into  Absolute  Feeling. 

If  we  go  back  to  Sympathy  (in  Finite  Feel- 
ing), we  find  that  all  individuals  are  similar  in  it, 
a  mass  of  Egos  on  quite  the  same  level.  But 
now  behold  the  one  individual,  the  Genius, 
rising  out  of  this  common  prostrate  mass  through 
possessing  the  power  of  putting  this  Feeling  of 

800  PEELING  —  PAB  T  TfflBD. 

the  All-Effo  into  a  form  for  the  innumerable 
finite  Egos,  and  thereby  elevating  them  into 
communion  with  the  ordered  All  as  Ego,  or  with 
the  Pampsychosis.  Sympathy  is  the  grand  po- 
tentiality of  the  Feeling  of  the  Absolute  organ- 
ized; it  is  the  associative  protoplasm  in  which 
the  Genius  works  and  which  he  forms  into 
Religions,  Institutions,  Philosophies,  all  of  which 
are  his  organizations  of  the  Self  universal. 

If  we  look  into  the  history  of  the  past,  we  find 
that  the  Genius  takes  his  place  at  the  important 
turning  points  of  human  development.  The 
Great  Men  of  the  world  have  been  its  spiritual 
architects  who  have  possessed  the  divinely  cre- 
ative gift ;  for  this  reason  they  have  been  often 
regarded  as  gods,  demi-gods,  and  heroes.  Evi- 
dently in  tracing  the  Psychology  of  Man  they 
are  not  to  be  left  out,  but  must  be  assigned  their 
true  position  in  the  universal  Order.  The  Great 
Man  we  meet  at  every  turn  building  the  edifice 
of  his  age  or  some  part  of  it,  according  to  his 
special  endowment.  The  race  moves  on  a  line 
through  its  mighty  individuals,  who  for  their 
time  are  the  vicegerents  of  the  All-Ego. 

It  is  manifest,  however,  that  the  Genius  as  he 
has  hitherto  appeared  in  our  world,  is  autocratic 
through  his  endowment.  The  Many  are  to 
receive  gratefully  and  submissively  what  he  has 
to  give,  namely  his  law,  his  scheme,  his  formu- 
lation.    Ilis  is  the  Absolute  Gift,  which  is  just 


the  Gift  of  the  Absohite,  and  nothing  further  is 
to  1)0  said.  He  rules  by  a  God-granted  power, 
the  original  unlimited  monarch.  To  him,  how- 
ever, there  is  a  limited,  finite,  mortal  side, 
though  a  Heaven-descended  Genius.  He  dom- 
inates and  also  domineers,  he  is  absolute  and 
also  absolutistic ;  he  runs  the  eternal  danger  of 
mixing  up  the  universal  Self  with  his  individual 
Self.  How  can  he  separate  the  divine  decree  of 
which  he  is  the  mouth-piece  from  his  personal 
whim  or  passion?  Moreover,  how  can  he  impart 
freedom  to  the  Many  who  receive  his  doctrine  as 
the  law  and  the  truth?  For  as  long  as  they  take 
the  truth  from  the  outside,  at  the  instance  of 
another,  it  is  not  truth,  at  least  not  the  highest, 
and  they  are  not  truly  free. 

The  Genius  must  rise  to  an  even  more  exalted 
position  than  he  has  hitherto  held.  He  also 
must  evolve.  To  the  Many,  to  the  recipient 
mass  he  is  to  impart  not  so  much  his  dogmatic 
doctrine,  as  his  Genius,  his  creative  power. 
Thus  the  protoplasmic  multitude  of  Egos  is  in- 
dividualized, no  longer  a  mass  or  simply  the 
Many  (Hoi  Polloi),  but  each  is  a  Genius  for 
himself  through  the  training  of  this  new  king  of 
Genius  in  the  World's  History.  Every  man  is 
brought  to  partake  of  the  creative  energy  of  the 
All,  which  he  re-creates  for  his  own  behoof,  hav- 
ing been  unfolded  thereto  by  the  new  educative 
Genius,  who,  still  endowed  by  Nature,  is  to  train 



the  world  out  of  the  uncertainty  of  Nature.  For 
Nature  showers  her  gifts,  even  the  rain  and  sun- 
shine, in  a  rather  desultory  fashion  upon  her 
beneficiaries,  who  must  in  some  way  get  control 
of  her  and  direct  her  supply.  So  the  birth  of  a 
Genius  has  been  and  will  remain  an  accident  of 
Nature  till  some  Genius  will  train  every  born 
Ego  to  be  a  Genius. 

The  supreme  act  of  Genius  is,  then,  to  impart 
its  own  creative  Self,  not  merely  its  own  formula 
or  its  own  special  view  of  the  Divine  Order. 
Such  a  formula  is,  indeed,  necessary,  but  simply 
as  a  stepping-stono  leading  up  to  that  excellence 
bv  which  each  £«;()  can  make  his  own  formula  or 
his  own  philosophy.  Genius  is  a  sign  of  degen- 
eration only  to  degenerates,  even  if  we  grant  that 
it  has  its  neo^ative  side.  It  has  vet  something  to 
do;  we  think  its  greatest  manifestation  lies  in 
the  Future.  For  the  Genius  of  the  Past  has 
transmitted  his  deed  and  not  his  power  of  doing, 
his  song  and  not  his  power  of  singing,  his 
thought  and  not  his  power  of  thinking.  He  has 
not  imparted  his  creativity  but  his  creation, 
for  which  indeed  we  are  very  thankful,  since 
it  has  given  us  our  start.  When  Genius  can 
educate  the  mass  to  be  Genius,  then  it  is  begin- 
ning to  reach  its  true  destiny. 

Genius  hitherto  autocratic  or  at  least  aristo- 
cratic, is  henceforth  to  be  democratized.  This, 
however,  must  be  done  in  the  right  way.     The 

AB80L  U TE  FEELING.  803 

Many  are  not  to  drag  down  tlio  Genius  to  their 
natural  level,  but  he  is  to  lift  them  up  to  his 
creative  level.  His  problem  is,  Can  I  make  all 
men  my  equals?  For  they  are  not  certainly  so 
by  nature,  or  only  in  a  limited  sense,  hardly 
more  than  that  of  mere  consciousness.  In  this 
way  the  Genius  shares  his  original  birthright 
with  all  men ;  he  becomes  a  leveler,  not  down- 
ward but  upward.  Moreover  he  calls  forth  and 
trains  the  free  man,  who  is  certainly  not  born 
free  according  to  any  high  view  of  freedom. 
When  Genius  can  unfold  men  into  creativity, 
then  they  can  be  free,  determining  the  order 
which  determines  them,  and  so  being  self- 

We  are  still  in  the  realm  of  Feeling,  which 
has  been  already  often  defined  as  f he  process  of 
the  Ego  within  itself  turned  inivardj  of  course 
by  some  Determinant  inner  or  outer  or  both.  In 
the  present  sphere  this  Determinant  we  call  abso- 
lute, which  here  signifies  that  the  determining 
All  is  organized  by  the  Ego  and  is  no  longer 
merely  elemental. 

Already  in  Sympathy  we  noticed  that  this  De- 
terminant of  Feeling  has  a  triple  movement,  go- 
ing inward,  then  outward,  then  inward  again. 
That  is,  the  first  or  Pathic  Ego  was  stirred  to 
some  Emotion  inward,  which  then  passed  out- 
ward and  became  itself  a  stimulus  stirring  the 
second  or  Sympathetic  Ego  to  a  corresponding 


Eiiiotion  inward,  which  was  tho  act  of  Sympathy. 
Now  this  triple  inoveinont  —  inward,  outward, 
inward  —  is  kept  up  in  Absolute  Feeling.  In- 
ward the  Genius  is  stimulated  by  the  ever-present 
All  to  organize  the  same,  which  is  thereby  thrown 
outward  into  a  form  as  deed,  word,  system ;  then 
tliis  form  is  taken  up  and  made  inward  by  the 
multitude  of  Egos  to  whom  it  appeals,  whereby 
thev  share  in  and  make  their  own  the  work  of 
Genius.  Note  that  the  unorganized  Feeling 
which  is  the  medium  between  two  Egos  in  Sym- 
pathy, is  now  organized,  and  becomes  in  Abso- 
lute Feeling  an.  existent  object  from  which  a . 
wholly  new  order  of  Feelings  spring,  and  round 
which  they  cluster.  For  instance,  religious  or 
political  Feelings  arise  from  a  Church  or  a  State 
as  an  organized  institution,  through  which  the 
process  of  the  Ego  within  itself  is  turned  back 
upon  itself  and  so  feels. 

We  can,  therefore,  say  that  the  organized 
All  (Pampsychosis)  is  the  Determinant  of  the 
present  sphere,  determining  the  Ego  (Psychosis) 
through  all  its  stages  to  Feeling.  That  is,  the 
Ego  as  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect  must  be 
stirred  to  Absolute  Feeling,  which  will  accord- 
ingly manifest  these  distinctions  of  the  Ego,  and 
be  divided  bv  them.  The  Universe  in  its  total 
self-creatiuijj  movement  is  to  reach  the  individual 
man,  and  to  fill  the  forms  of  his  Feeling  with  a 
supreme  content,  so  that  he  has  the  Feeling  of 


the  Absolute.  And  this  is  to  rise  within  him 
through  the  various  channels  of  his  Ego,  and 
thereby  to  assume  various  shapes  and  degrees, 
which  constitute  the  order  of  the  present  sphere. 

In  this  connection  we  may  look  back  for  a 
moment  at  the  Over-Self,  which  we  noticed  as  a 
peculiar  indeterminate  medium  in  the  movement 
of  All-Feeling  (see  preceding  p.  169  etseq.). 
It  would  burst  down  upon  the  Ego  awake  in  a 
fleeting,  intangible  manner;  then  it  would  put 
the  Ego  to  sleep  in  a  variety  of  ways.  Here, 
however,  we  may  note  that  this  indeterminate 
Over-Self  has  become  determined  and  ordered 
by  the  Genius  who  feels  it  and  its  process,  and 
formulates  the  same.  The  unorganized  All  of 
All-Feeling  has  become  the  organized  All  of 
Absolute  Feeling.  Through  the  discipline  of 
Finite  Feeling,  which  drives  the  Ego  to  determine 
the  world  for  the  sake  of  freedom,  it  (the  Ego) 
has  attained  the  Over-Self  determined,  ordered, 
realized  in  institutions  and  in  religion.  This 
we  designate  by  a  new  name,  the  Absolute. 

If  we  look  back  still  further  to  World-Feeling, 
we  find  that  its  external  cycles,  which  were  the 
primeval  training  of  man  to  a  presentimentif  not 
to  a  knowledge  of  his  Ego,  have  become  internal. 
We  recollect  that  the  orbital  and  the  axial  move- 
ments were  everywhere  thrust  upon  his  vision 
from  the  physical  Universe,  and  called  forth  the 
first   Feeling  of   the  process   of   his  own  Self, 



But  now  thia  Self  has  produced  and  organized 
its  owa  world,  )□  which  we  find  a  profound  cor- 
respondence with  the  orbital  and  axial  movements 
of  the  Cosmos.  Moreover  the  view  of  this  new 
world  rouses  its  own  characteristic  set  of  Feel- 
ings, different  from  yet  related  to  World- 

We  shall  now  endeavor  to  put  into  order  this 
domain  of  Absolute  Feeling,  seeking  to  set  forth 
its  total  process  and  then  its  subordinate  pro- 
cesses, each  of  which  must  ultimately  find  its 
unitary  principle  in  tlio  process  of  the  Ego  itself, 
the  Psychosis.  If  we  connect  together  the  main 
points  in  the  foregoiug  remarks,  we  shall  obser^'e 
the  following  movement. 

The  Absolute  (organized)  stimulates  the  Ego 
(recipient)  to  oneness  with  itself  (the  Absolute) 
in  three  main  ways. 

(I.)  To  that  oneness  with  itself  which  is  to 
be  attained  first  through  Feeling. 

The  Absolute  as  the  All  stirs  some  Ego 
(prophet,  founder  of  a  religion)  to  express  and 
to  organize  itself  in  an  order  which  the  recipient 
Ego  may  commune  with  directly  through  Feel- 
ing. Thus  the  latter  feds  God,  gets  the  God- 
consciousness  ordered —  the  sphere  of  Ecligious 

(11.)  To  that  oneness  with  itself  (the  Abso- 
lute), which  is  to  be  attained  secondly  through 


The  Absolute  as  the  All  stirs  some  Ego  (moral- 
ist, lawgiver  of  a  State)  to  express  and  organize 
itself  in  an  order  which  the  recipient  Ego  may 
make  real  in  himself  and  in  the  world,  in  con- 
duct and  in  institutions.  The  act  of  making 
real  is  that  of  the  Will. 

(III.)  To  that  oneness  with  itself  (the  Ab- 
solute), which  is  to  be  attained  thirdly  through 
Intellect,  that  is,  through  vision,  contemplation, 

The  Absolute  as  the  All  stirs  some  Ego  (artist, 
poet,  scientist,  philosopher)  to  express  and  to 
organize  itself  in  an  order  which  the  recipient 
Ego  can  behold  and  know,  and  therein  be  moved 
to  Feeling. 

Such  may  be  deemed  the  three  grand  divisions 
of  Absolute  Feeling,  following  the  stages  of  the 
Ego  itself — Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect.  Em- 
ploying for  Absolute  Feeling  the  term  Sentiment^ 
we  can  name  these  divisions  as  follows : — 
(I.)  Religious  Sentiment. 
(II.)  Practical  Sentiment. 

(III.)   Theoretic  Sentiment. 

Primarily  this  division  is  to  be  referred  to  the 
individual  Ego  as  its  source.  For  every  person 
has  the  triune  process  of  the  Self — Feeling,  Will, 
and  Intellect.  But  the  All-Ego  likewise  has  the 
same  process  within  itself,  which  at  first  creates 
and  then  continues  to  stimulate  the  individual 
Ego.     That  is,  we   have  (1)  an  All-feeling  All, 

308  FEELIS&  —  FAB  T  THIRD. 

(2)  an  All-willing  All  (3)  uq  All-knowing  Alias 
Detcrrainiints  of  the  present  sphere,  dotcrmining 
the  finite  Ego  to  feel  primarily  these  three 
activities  of  the  All-Ego  or  God.  The  transmit- 
ted conception  of  the  divine  attributes  as  psycho- 
logical embraces  these  three  stages  of  deity  as 
omnipresence  (omnisentience),  omnipotence,  and 
omniscience,  repreeenting  Divine  Feeling,  Will, 
and  Intellect. 

Thus  the  individual  Ego  rises  out  of  its  finite 
realm  of  Feeling,  iu  which  it  feels  a  part,  to  the 
Feeling  of  the  All,  and  that  too  of  the  All  as 
organized.  Still  this  All  as  Ego  has  its  process 
which  impresses  itself  upon  the  feeling  Ego.  I 
feel  the  All-fceling  All  immediately,  in  the  form 
of  Feeling;  I  feel  the  All-willing  All  in  my  Feel- 
ing of  Freedom;  I  feel  the  All-knowing  All  in 
my  Feeling  of  Knowledge,  Upon  these  pri- 
mordial Feelings  of  the  Ego  giving  the  first 
impress  of  the  All,  the  religous,  ethical  and 
intellectual  worlds  are  built. 

The  whole  realm  of  Absolute  Feeling  is  essen- 
tially religious,  since  it  springs  from  the  All-Ego 
felt  in  me,  or  my  God-consciousness.  I  feel  the 
Divine,  feel  it  as  Feeling  (onmiseutient),  as  Will 
(omnipolent),  as  Intellect  (omniscient).  I  feel 
God  in  Religion  pro|)er,  I  will  God  in  Ethics,  I 
know  God  in  Art,  Poetry,  and  Philosophy.  All 
thcso  may  be  Religion  in  the  wide  sense.  We 
shall,  however,  coutine  the  term  religious  to  the 
first  sphere,  which  is  now  to  be  considered. 


Such  is  the  first  stage  in  the  total  sweep  of 
what  we  call  Absolute  Feeling,  or  the  Feeling  of 
the  All  ordered.  It  is  not  the  Feeling  of  the  All 
such  as  we  have  previously  noted  in  Elemental 
Feeling,  in  which  the  Ego  feels  as  an  organic 
part  or  limb  of  the  total  cosmos,  giving  its  re- 
sponse in  Feeling  to  daylight  and  darkness,  for 
instance.  Now  the  Ego  is  separated,  individual- 
ized, and  it  gives  its  response  in  Feeling  to  the 
All  as  Ego.  Using  our  terms,  we  may  say  that 
the  Psychosis  is  determined  by  the  Pampsy- 
chosis,  the  latter  being  what  is  felt  by  the 
former.  Yet  on  the  other  hand  we  arc  not  to 
forget  that  this  All  has  been  determined,  formu- 
lated, organized  by  an  Ego  whom  we  distinctively 
call  the  Genius. 


■-•■^^^•-■^  -i^' 

810  FEE  LI  y  a  —  ABSOL  UTE. 

Religious  Seiitiincnt,  however,  shows  a  pe- 
culiar form  of  this  Determinant,  which  therein 
stimulates  or  moves  the  Ego  to  Feeling  immedi- 
atehj;  the  Absolute  (or  the  Pampsychosis)  stirs 
the  Ego  to  unity  with  itself  directly  as  Feeling, 
not  as  Will  or  Intellect.  Or  we  may  say.  that 
the  Absolute  Self  is  felt  by  the  finite  Self,  in 
Religious  Sentiment,  to  be  one  with  itself  as  re- 
cipient—  this  unity  being  felt,  not  necessarily 
willed  or  known.  Thus  the  finite  Self  feels  God 
immediately  as  its  own,  and  enjoys  its  Feeling 
of  Him.  This  is  the  first  Sentiment,  indeed  pri- 
mordial, the  source  of  all  other  Sentiments, 
which  must  have  this  divine  content.  The  All  in 
Religions  Sentiment  is  taken  as  Ego,  Person, 
God,  who  likewise  feels;  the  human  Ego  feel- 
ing feels  the  divine  Ego  feeling,  and  becomes 
therein  one  with  the  same.  Thus  there  are  two 
Feelings  in  the  present  sphere,  manifested  in  the 
two  extremes,  God  and  Man,  who  are  by  them 
fused  together  so  to  speak.  The  Absolute  of 
Reliirious  Sentiment  must  feel  and  stimulate  us 
to  a  Feeling  of  its  Feeling.  God  has  a  heart,  we 
say;  by  it  Man's  heart  is  stirred  to  a  throbbing 
in  concordance. 

At  the  same  time  Religion  must  have  an  or- 
ganization or  formula  of  some  sort,  even  if  this 
be  nothing  more  than  munibo-jumbo.  Around 
such  an  ordering  principle  Religious  Sentiment 
clings  and  generates  itself  afresh,  getting  there- 


from  its  chief  nourishment.  The  humblest  tribe 
of  savages  has  a  religious  organization  of  some 
sort,  which  becomes  more  complex  with  advanc- 
ing culture.  The  simple  Feeling  of  God  or  the 
Absolute  is  not  the  whole  content  of  Religious 
Sentiment,  which  demands  an  order  for  its  con- 
tent, with  rite,  offerings,  ceremonies.  Through 
these  the  recipient  Ego  (the  people)  comes  into 
communion  with  the  Divine  Self  and  is  made  to 
feel  its  presence,  or  its  Feeling,  is  made  to  feel 
God  feeling. 

Hence  the  question  comes  up :  Who  establishes 
this  religious  order?  It  grows  in  a  sense  with 
the  growth  of  the  popular  mind.  Still  it  is  often 
the  product  of  men,  or  of  a  man,  the  prophet, 
the  founder.  There  rises  the  religious  genius 
who  gives  expression  to  his  nation's  or  his  race's 
view  of  God  in  rite,  symbol,  word.  He  orders 
the  Absolute  as  the  Determinant  for  his  people, 
who  thus  are  brought  to  share  in  their  creative 
source,  which  they  in  their  way  feel  afresh  every 
day.  In  fact  through  worship  they  are  in  a 
manner  to  be  re-made  by  their  God  or  Gods 
with  every  diurnal  round  of  the  sun,  quite  as 
often  as  they  sleep. 

Thus  the  recipient  Ego  by  means  of  Beligious 
Sentiment  feels  the  universal  order  through  an 
order  which  the  religious  hero  creates.  The 
object  of  the  sacred  rite  and  word  is  to  stir  in 
the  man  the  Religious  Sentiment  and  to  keep  it 

r  --^- -—   ■  ~ --------* J-* j^MM 

3 1 2  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTE. 

active  —  his  Feeling  of  harmony  with  the  All, 
whence  he  sprang  and  whence  he  receives  his 
creative  power.  He  is  brought  through  religious 
Sentiment  to  take  his  place  in  the  grand  process 
of  the  Universe,  of  which  he  is  a  part  and  whose 
process  he  is  to  reproduce  in  every  act  of  his 
conscious  Ego. 

On  the  other  hand  the  individual  can  become 
estranged  from  the  All  and  its  order,  can  become 
hostile  to  the  divine  origin  of  himself.  Feeling 
of  alienation  in  connection  with  the  Bcligious 
Institutions  is  not  uncommon  in  all  countries. 
This  negative  attitude  is  a  phase  of  the  total 
proccs:?  and  is  not  to  be  left  out. 

Certainly  the  Universe  is  an  ever-present  fact 
to  every  born  individual,  who  is  its  offspring. 
This  offspring  has  as  its  deepest  character  that 
of  the  parent  whose  process  (the  Pumpsychosis) 
is  to  he  taken  up  and  felt  by  its  descendant,  the 
human  Self  (the  Psychosis).  Tluis  man, 
th()uo:h  created,  communes  with  what  created 
him,  and  he  makes  it  his  own,  namely  the  creat- 
ive power  of  the  Universe.  Through  the  Relig- 
ious Sentiment  he  shares  in  divine  creation, 
turnino:  it  into  his  own  soul  as  Feeling.  There 
is  a  renewal  of  vourself  in  thinkincj  God,  and  in 
contemplating  his  manifestations  in  the  Beauti- 
ful, the  Good  and  the  True.  You,  the  created, 
must  recreate  yourself  in  Feeling  through  feeling 
the  creative  All. 


And  now  into  thi^^  aud  complex  realm  of 
Religious  Sentiment  we  are  to  bring  something 
akin  to  order.  This  will  be  lilie  wliat  we  have 
seen  in  other  spheres  of  Feeling.  There  are  the 
following  stages  which  also  form  a  movement: 
(I)  Tfie  Process  of  Rtligious  Sentiment,  its 
inner  character  which  makes  it  religious;  (II) 
The  Particular  Relief ionji;  theuaireligtous  Senti- 
ment necessarily  (that  is,  psychically)  splits  up 
and  becomes  multiroligious;  (HI)  The  Sentiment 
of  Universal  Religion;  the  multiplicity  has  in  it 
the  one,  though  implicit,  which,  however,  drives 
foward  to  become  explicit  and  organized  in  the 
one  Universal  Kcligion  which  exists  as  a  Feel- 
ing in  every  particular  Religion. 

Of  all  the  Feelings  that  move  the  human  soul, 
Beligionprobablyproduces  the  deepest,  strongest, 
most  universal.  Along  with  Self -consciousness 
arose  in  the  primitive  mind  God-conaciousness, 
the  two  were  born  together  and  they  have  re- 
mained twinned  in  some  form  ever  since.  To 
be  sure  they  may  be  and  have  been  separated  by 
an  act  of  abstraction;  but  sooner  or  later  they 
reunite  themselves  with  increased  power  begotten 
of  their  separation.  It  is  a  curious  fact  that 
modern  Psychology  has  almost  nothing  to  say 
of  the  Religious  Sentiments,  when  it  comes  to 
treat  of  the  Feelings.  A  cursory  survey  of  the 
works  of  our  leading  psychologists  will  show 
that   the  present  sphere   does  not  enter  their 

3 1 4  FEELING  —  ABSOL  UTE. 

horizon ;  at  least  such  is  generally  the  case. 
Thus  the  fundamental  Feeling  of  humanity  is 
left  out  of  the  account  —  that  Feeling  which 
has  roused  a  greater  activity  in  the  history  of 
the  human  race  than  any  other ,  and  still  exer- 
cises its  potency  around  us  everywhere.  We 
might  call  it  the  genetic  Feeling,  that  which 
creates  all  others,  the  Feeling  of  the  Absolute 
as  creative  of  the  Universe,  the  Feeling  of  that 
which  creates  all  Feeling  as  well  as  everything 

It  shall  be  our  attempt,  therefore,  to  put  the 
Religious  Sentiment  as  the  Feeling  of  the  Abso- 
lute into  its  proper  place  in  the  World  of  Feel- 
ing, and  to  organize  its  most  distinctive  elements 
into  some  kind  of  an  order. 

I.  The  Pkocess  OF  Religious  Sentiment. — 
Here  we  have  to  bring  before  us  the  Self  as 
human  and  the  Self  as  absolute.  These  two 
Selves  are  distinct  and  influence  each  other,  yet 
they  are  one,  belonging  to  one  process,  and  to  one 
and  the  same  Universe.  The  human  Ego  mi\st 
have  within  it  potentially  that  which  created  it, 
namely  the  absolute  Ego.  It  could  not  feel  the 
AU-Sclf  (Pamp"^ychosi.s),  unless  it  were  a  Self 
(Psychosis).  Feeling  is  the  process  of  the  Ego 
within  itself  turned  inward  and  made  to  function 
by  the  Determinant;  in  the  present  case  this 
Determinant  is  the  Absolute  as  process  which 
stirs  the    Ego  to    an    immediiitc    oneness    with 


itself,  and  this  oneness  is  Feeling,  the  direct 
Feeling  of  the  Absolute  or  God.  I  feel  the  Uni- 
verse creating  me,  of  which  I  am  a  member 
not  only  feeling  the  Whole,  but  reproducing  its 
process  in  Feeling. 

But  this  process  is  usually  prepared  for  me, 
being  already  formulated  and  estjiblished  as  a 
special  Religion.  Some  man  or  men  have  to  put 
into  form  for  me  (as  recipient  Ego)  the  Divine 
Process  in  order  that  I  may  truly  share  it,  in 
order  that  my  implicit  Feeling  of  God  may  be- 
come explicit,  and  present  to  me  in  outer  shape 
my  inner  aspiration  for  the  All-Self  (  Urselbst  of 
Schelling)  whence  came  my  very  Self. 

At  this  point,  then,  we  have  to  see  that  man 
is  primordially  God-conscious,  that  the  Ego  in 
order  to  be  Ego  must  have  God-consciousness. 
Such  may  be  well  regarded  as  the  fundamental 
fact  of  the  human  Ego :  as  created  by  the  abso- 
lute process  of  the  Universe,  and  internally  en- 
dowed with  that  process,  it  must  become  con- 
scious of  it.  The  starting-point  of  Religion  is 
not  to  be  located  in  some  special  faculty  of 
mind,  but  is  itself  the  mind  starting  to  become 
aware  of  itself.  Self -consciousness  and  God- 
consciousness  are  counterparts,  belong  together, 
and  develop  together.  The  first  self-knowing 
of  the  E":o  is  the  first  knowino;  of  the  divine  or 
absolute  Ego,  who  is  also  person  and  self- 
knowing.      Cognizing  myself   I    recognize    God 


3 1 6  FEELING  —  ABSOL  UTE. 

who  ban  imparted  to  mo  tho  process  of  his  Self. 
Given  tho  self-conscious  man,  he  is  in  the  same 
act  God-conscious  primordially ;  his  inner  process 
of  Bolf-consciousnsss  is  one  with  that  of  his 

This  is  the  first  Absolute  Feeling  and  the  basis 
of  all  the  rest.  For  the  Absolute  Self  is  the 
Determinant  and  determines  me  to  feel  itself  in 
my  self-conscious  act.  It  imparts  to  me  cre- 
atively iti3  own  process,  so  that  I  have  to  repro- 
duce it  in  self-consciousness.  When  I  begin  to 
know  myself,  I  begin  to  feel  God,  performing 
the  process  which  is  his;  and  conversely,  when  I 
begin  to  feel  God,  I  begin  to  know  myself  truly, 
as  participant  in  the  divine  act.  Now  this  im- 
mediate unitv  between  tho  human  and  divine 
Egos  in  man  we  call  his  Feeling  of  God,  of  the 
absolute  Ego.  Such  is  the  basic  fact  of  all  Ee- 
ligion:  the  total  Ego  in  its  first  self-conscious 
act  feels  the  absolute  Eiro  as  the  (^rround  of  its 
being  as  Ego,  for  that  self-consciousness  is  man 
re-enacting  the  divine  process,  which  lies  im- 
plicitly therein. 

But  this  implicit  state  of  the  absolute  Self  in 
the  human  Ego  is  to  be  made  explicit.  In  the 
primal  condition  of  God-consciousness  the  Ego 
does  not  yet  know  God,  but  feels  him  in  his  own 
self-knowinor.  Or  wo  may  say  that  the  absolute 
process  is  as  yet  potential   in  the  human  Ego,  a 


mere  Feeling  accompanyiDg  it,  subjective,  uncon- 
scious, personal. 

The  next  stage  is  evidently  that  of  making 
actual  this  potential  state,  of  putting  into  objec- 
tive and  permanent  form  this  fleeting  subjective 
Feeling,  of  uniting  in  a  religious  society  these 
God-conscious  individuals.  Accordingly  we 
must  first  ask,  Who  is  the  doer,  and  then  more 
definitely.  What  is  the  work  done,  and  finally. 
For  whom  is  it  done. 

1 .  The  Religious  Genitis,  —  Such  we  must  call 
the  founder  of  a  Religion,  who  unfolds  or  creates 
the  forms  which  hold  together  vast  portions  of 
humanity  in  Feeling,  like  Mahomet  or  Buddha. 
It  is  true  that  the  earliest  stages  of  Religion  seem 
to  be  an  evolution  of  the  tribe  or  people ;  still  we 
have  to  regard  such  a  work  as  done  by  persons, 
though  these  be  nameless.  But  the  most  im- 
portant and  lasting  Religions  of  the  world  have 
not  only  a  known  founder  but  are  usually  named 
after  him. 

The  unique  man  appears  when  the  great  work  is  to 
be  done.  We  call  him  the  Religious  Genius,  who 
possesses  the  original  power  to  represent  the  abso- 
lute Ego  in  a  form  which  keeps  it  ever-present  to 
his  people.  He  reproduces  in  his  way  the  divine 
process  which  has  been  hithel*to  a  vague  Feeling, 
and  establishes  it  objectively  in  rite,  ceremony, 
creed.  The  Absolute  stirs  him  also  to  God-con- 
sciousness; but  his  Genius   lies  in  making  the 

3 1 8  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTE. 

implicit  God  of  a  self-conscious  Ego  into  an  explicit 
God  whose  process  is  given  in  a  realized  Religion. 
All  have  the  former,  he  alone  the  latter.  He 
as  Genius  can  by  his  creative  power  organize  the 
Pampsychosis  into  a  new  order  whereby  all  can 
participate  in  what   he  has   by  divine    insight. 

Thus  he  unites  his  people  —  tribe,  nation,  even 
race  —  in  a  common  faith  and  worship.  They  all 
share  in  his  peculiar  way  of  looking  at  the 
divinely  creative  process  of  the  Universe.  Hence 
Religion  associates  men  up  to  a  certain  point,  for 
it  also  separates  them.  Persian,  Egyptian, 
Greek  —  each  had  a  national  Religion,  which 
unified  and  nationalized  these  peoples  as  nothing 
else  did,  yet  also  separated  them. 

Such  is,  then,  the  pro[)het,  the  religious  law- 
giver, the  founder  of  a  Faith.  A  curious  fact 
is  that  he  belongs  quite  exclusively  to  one  part  of 
the  globe,  to  oue  grade  of  mind,  to  the  original 
home  of  the  civilized  race,  to  Asia. 

2.  Relifjion  organized.  —  The  God-conscious- 
ness is  not  to  remain  implicit  in  the  Ego,  unsep- 
arated  from  the  self-consciousness  with  which  it 
is  twinned  by  the  creative  act  of  the  Universe. 
On  the  contrary  it  is  to  have  its  special  organiza- 
tion and  institution  through  which  man  becomes 
conscious  of  it  and  its  source.  This,  as  alreadv 
stated,  is  the  work  of  the  religious  Genius,  who 
rises  up  from  the  mass  of  God-conscious  Egos, 
and  constructs  for  them  their  Religion. 


In  the  earlier  appearances  of  religious  organi- 
zation the  Prophet  (or  Founder)  and  the  God 
are  not  yet  separated  with  distinctness.  He  at 
first  is  the  very  incarnation  of  the  deity,  and 
utters  divine  decrees  and  makes  the  divine  reve- 
lations in  person.  Among  Orientals  the  mon- 
arch was  often  deemed  the  God,  and  the  Roman 
Emperors  also  asserted  their  divinity.  Christ, 
the  Founder  of  Christianity,  is  a  person  of  the 
Trinity  and  as  such  is  worshiped  throughout 
Christendom.  The  Religious  Sentiment  of  the 
people  longs  to  see  the  real  God  as  personally 
present,  to  see  the  All  as  Ego,  or  the  universal 
as  individual.  -A  Theophany  in  some  form 
underlies  all  Religion,  and  the  Genius  himself  is 
literally  a  divine  appearance,  whether  he  betaken 
as  the  God  Himself  or  the  God's  vicegerent  and 
inspired  mouthpiece.  To  organized  Religion 
belong  also  the  priest,  the  ritual,  the  creed, 
all  of  them  being  means  for  calling  up  and 
keeping  alive  the  Religious  Sentiment  in  man 
through  worship. 

When  the  founder  dies,  the  organized  Religion 
continues,  in  some  cases  has  continued  thousands 
of  years. 

3.  The  worsfiipers. — The  vast  mass  of  man- 
kind obtain  their  formula  for  holding  communion 
with  the  Divine  Order  from  some  transmitted 
religious  institution.  They  could  hardly  of 
themselves   make  any  such  formula ;  that  is  the 


work  of  the  religious  Geuius,  or  perchance  of 
many  of  tliein.  Were  it  not  for  the  established 
ritual,  iniin  could  hardly  rise  out  of  the  mere 
Feeling  of  God,  quite  unconscious  and  purely 
individual.  But  the  formulated  Beligiou,  through 
its  rites,  creed  and  organization  enables  every 
human  soul,  however  humble,  to  participate 
directly  and  consciously  in  the  creative  process 
of  the  Universe.  To  be  sure,  the  formula  which 
suits  the  savage,  does  not  suit  the  civilized 
man.     Still  both  are  seeking  the  same  end. 

It  has  been  alreadv  noted  that  the  Bclis^ious 
Institution  associates  men,  who  would  otherwise 
be  mere  individuals,  through  objectifying  their 
Feeling  of  God.  But  this  Feeling  still  remains, 
though  now  it  has  a  known  content,  around  which 
it  clusters  with  the  greatest  intensity.  The 
stroui^^est  Feelin":  seems  to  bo  that  which  clings 
to  the  rites  of  a  given  Religion.  It  has  often 
suffered  without  swerving  banishment,  torture, 

Moreover  throuirh  the  Relisjious  Institution 
every  participant  is  trained  to  a  continuous 
harmwny  with  the  Divine  Order.  This  is  truly 
the  salvation  of  the  soul  from  its  own  negative 
condition  into  which  it  is  whelmed  by  the  very 
fact  of  being  an  individual. 

Such  wemav  rcirard  as  the  Process  of  Religious 
SentiuK'nt  as  it  has  ai)i)eared  and  still  appears 
upon  our  globe.     There  is  first  the  original  God- 

heliqio  u8  sentiment  —  pab  tic  ULAB.   32 1 

consciousness,  born  with  the  Ego  and  inherent  in 
it  as  Feeling;  then  this  subjective  Feeling  of 
God  is  made  objective  in  the  Religious  Institution 
by  the  Genius  who  is  here  the  founder  of  the 
Religion;  finally  through  this  Religious  Insti. 
tution  all  the  people  participate  in  the  absolute 
Process  which  created  them. 

It  is  evident  that  with  these  external  forms  of 
the  Religious  Institution,  a  great  diversity  sets  in 
corresponding  to  tribe,  nation,  race;  evea  a  con- 
tinental division  can  be  noted,  as  Asiatic  Religion 
differs  from  European. 

II.  Particular  Religions.  —  This  is  not  the 
place  to  give  any  account  of  the  vast  diversity  of 
Religions  on  our  globe.  Hardly  more  than  the 
fact  that  Religion  has  the  tendency  to  an  infinite 
divisibility  of  sects,  forms,  creeds,  can  here  be 
noted.  It  is  such  a  personal  matter  that  every 
individual  seems  to  move  toward  having  his  own 
special  Religion.  And  yet  there  is  the  one  com- 
mon God-conscibusness  out  of  which  all  this 
multiplicity  springs.  The  unity  of  Religion 
comes  from  the  unity  of  man,  the  oneness  of 
consciousness  which  is  the  distinctive  mark  of 
the  human  Ego.  If  Religion  has  been  a  great 
unifier,  it  has  been  an  equally  great  separator, 
drawing  its  lines  of  separation  around  race, 
nation,  tribe,  city,  and  also  individual. 

1.  The  primal  act  of  particularizing  the  orig- 
inal God-conscipusness  is   seen  in  the  religious 


322  FBELINQ  —  AB80L  UTE. 

reformer  who  begins  a  new  religion.  The  old 
forms  have  grown  inadequate  or  corrupt,  the  re- 
ligious Genius  arises  who  is  to  reconstruct  them. 
At  every  such  event — a  religious  reformation 
or  revolution  —  there  leaps  forth  a  mighty  dis- 
})l{iy  of  the  Religious  Sentiment,  both  construc- 
tive and  destructive,  both  for  and  against  the 
new  order.  The  religious  heroes  of  the  race 
appear  at  such  turning-points,  and  arouse  a  fierce 
persecution  and  equally  fierce  devotion.  Buddha, 
Socrates,  Chris^t,  are  the  most  famous  examples. 
All  ^vars  in  the  Orient  have  had  a  decided  religious 
substrate,  though  the  European  has  recently  in- 
troduced there  his  political  domination,  warily 
leaving  Religion  untouched. 

Religion  dividing  itself  and  making  itself  par- 
ticular calls  forth  the  most  intense  Feelino:.  Yet 
Races  seem  to  differ  in  this  regard.  It  is  usu- 
ally stated  that  the  Semitic  Race  is  capable  of 
the  deei)est  and  most  abiding  Religious  Senti- 
ment, and  hence  is  most  susceptible  of  fanaticism. 
The  Arabian  Mahometans  are  still  easilv  stirred 
to  a  holy  war  by  the  preaching  of  some  enthusi- 
ast, and  the  Jew  clings  to  his  faith  amid  alien 

Religious  Sentiment  progresses  and  forms 
new  Religions,  or  new  sects  and  varieties  of  the 
old  Religions.  But  there  is  also  a  i)ronounced 
a  counter  tendency,  a  going  back  from  the  new  to 
the  old,  from  the  existent  to  the  past. 


2.  If  there  is  religious  progress,  there  is  also 
religious  reversion.  We  are  indeed  to  return  to 
former  Religions  and  study  them  for  the  pur- 
pose of  broadening  our  Religious  Sentiment. 
But  we  are  not  to  return  to  these  former  creeds 
and  stay  there.  It  may  be  laid  down  as  a  general 
rule  that  the  present  has  no  decisive  call  to  re- 
habilitate a  past  Religion. 

Still  the  thing  is  done  and  has  to  be  allowed 
within  given  limits.  Especially  in  America  we 
give,  among  our  other  freedoms  great  and  small, 
the  freedom  of  religious  reversion.  Particularly 
in  the  Christian  world  exists  the  tendency  to  go 
back  to  forms  and  states  depicted  in  the  Hebrew 
Bible.  We  have  witnessed  in  our  day  the  The- 
ocracy revived,  with  the  leader  proclaiming  him- 
self both  priest  and  king  in  one,  both  being  ab- 
solute functions  of  the  one  autocrat  who  is 
wholly  irresponsible  to  his  people.  These  peo- 
ple have  likewise  the  principle  of  reversion,  hav- 
ing honestly  gone  back  to  an  ancient  and  tran- 
scended stage  of  Religion.  Even  the  old 
Hebrew  polygamy  has  been  revived,  as  well  as 
the  communistic  ideas  of  the  New  Testament. 

Thus  reversion  plays  a  very  important  part  in 
Religious  Sentiment.  The  ideal  of  the  Holy 
Books  lies  rearward,  not  frontward;  to  it  Re- 
ligious Sentiment  longs  to  assimilate  itself ,  trans- 
forming the  wicked  world  by  a  headlong  retreat 
to  the  past.    To  be  sure  the  roads  of  this  retreat 

324  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTE. 

are  exceediDgly  diverse,  each  of  which  is  trav 
cled   by   a  flock    of    reversionists    under   their 
leader . 

3.  And  yet  this  prodigious  diversity  of  Re- 
ligions has  in  it  everywhere  a  reaching  out  for 
the  one  Religion  which  lies  in  the  very  nature  of 
the  God-consciousness  of  man.  These  manifold 
forms  of  Faith  show  a  tendency  to  come  together 
in  classes  and  groups  from  one  point  of  view 
or  other,  and  thus  to  unite  or  at  least  to  federate 
under  some  common  arrangement.  For  Relig- 
ious Sentiment  shows  a  unifying  power  just 
through  its  separative  tendency  which  must  at 
last  undo  itself. 

In  this  connection  we  shall  only  note  the  three 
great  World-Religions,  Mahometanism,  Bud- 
dhism and  Christianity.  All  these  have  shown 
themselves  able  to  transcend  Nativism,  they  have 
not  been  confined  to  the  people  and  race  of  their 
respective  founders,  but  have  been  adopted  by 
other  peoples  and  races,  who  have  cast  away 
their  own  native  or  racial  Religion.  Of  the  three 
the  Mahometan  is  perhaps  the  most  violent  in 
his  Religious  Sentiment,  being  famous  specially 
for  his  fanaticism,  though  this  term  is  applied 
by  each  to  the  others.  Mahometanism  seems 
the  most  immediate,  spontaneous  Religion  of  the 
three,  if  we  judge  by  the  fact  that  it  holds  to- 
gether in  Religious  Sentiment  a  greater  diversity 


of  race  and  of  culture  than  either  of  the  other 
two  (see  our  Social  Institutions^  p.  449,  etseq.). 

These  three  World-Religious  begin  to  touch  the 
boundaries  of  one  another  on  many  sides.  The 
result  is  a  world-process  of  Religions,  especially 
in  Asia,  the  great  religious  home  of  the  human 
race.  A  new  Religious  Sentimant  seems  to  be 
slowly  evolving  in  the  very  source  of  all  Relig- 
ions, which  Sentiment  can  only  bo  called  universal. 

III.  The  Sentiment  of  Universal  Relig- 
ion.— This  is  not  the  primal  Feeling  of  God  which 
has  been  already  considered,  and  which  accom- 
panies the  self-conscious  act  of  the  Ego,  yet  we 
may  regard  it  as  a  return  to  that  stage  through 
all  the  diversity  of  Religions,  which  have  some 
underlying  unity,  some  universal  principle  or 
process.  That  primal  Feeling  of  God  may  be 
taken  as  the  first  germ  or  creative  cell  out  of 
which  develop  the  particular  Religions.  But 
these  now  seek  for  the  one  all-embracing  relig- 
ious process  which  can  be  made  institutional  in  a 
Universal  Religion.  Such  is  the  Feeling  every- 
where existent  at  present,  though  as  yet  but  a 
Feeling,  subjective,  individual,  unorganized. 

A  profound  religious  Sentiment  of  unity  ani- 
mates the  best  souls  of  all  the  most  different 
Religions.  Can  we  find  its  inner  moving  princi- 
ple, its  process?  That  such  exists  is  evident, 
else  there  would  not  be  this  common  aspiration 
of  such  diverse  peoples  and  indeed  diverse  races. 

326  FBELINQ  —  AB80L  UTE. 

Every  Religioa  must  formulate  the  movement  of 
tho  Universe  and  man's  relation  to  it  in  some 
way.  So  they  all  have  deep  down  a  common 
process  which  makes  them  religious;  this  pro- 
cess we  shall  try  to  bring  to  light  in  a  few 

1 .  The  Conception  of  Ood.  —  Such  is  the 
matter  of  deepest  import  in  a  Religion:  What 
is  its  view  of  God?  Of  course  the  answer  is 
exceedingly  diversified  and  complicated,  when 
we  take  into  account  the  lowest  and  highest 
and  all  intervening  forms  of  faith.  Still  in 
this  variety  runs  a  common  thought.  Is  the 
creator  of  the  world  outside  or  inside  of  it? 
And  is  tho  creative  act  personal  or  impersonal? 
And  is  it  capricious  or  rational?  Hero  again  we 
we  shall  do  well  to  mark  the  process  if  we  would 
escape  the  contradictions  which  are  involved  in 
the  present  subject. 

(a)  God's  Transcendence  is  the  most  direct 
and  immediate  way  of  conceiving  Ilim.  He  is 
outside  of  the  world  which  he  creates  by  the  fiat 
of  his  Will.  Moreover  the  creation  of  the  All 
depends  entirely  upon  his  pleasure,  his  caprice. 
He  was  the  perfect  and  self-suflScient  from  the 
start,  without  the  world  or  without  creating  any- 
thing. He  is  not  pure  self-activity,  but  rather 
self-contemplation  {noesis  noeseos).  And  still 
he  creates  the  world  and  Man  who  arc  quite  ex- 
ternal to   his  process.     Man   is   the  poor  finite 


creature,  a  worm  in  the  sight  of  God,  yet  made 
ill  the  divine  image. 

The  difficulties  which  beset  the  conception  of 
God's  Transcendence  causes  a  protest  both  of 
Thought  and  Feeling.  If  He  is  so  completely 
outside  the  world,  then  He  is  limited  by  it,  and 
becomes  finite.     Hence  the  opposite  doctrine. 

(6)  God's  Immanence  becomes  at  times  the 
prevailing  conception  of  Him.  It  is  the  view 
that  dominates  most  of  the  thinkers  and  scientists 
of  the  present  age.  It  is  essentially  the  basis  of 
all  kinds  of  Pantheism  from  the  ancient  Hindoo 
form  to  recent  monism.  God  becomes  one  with 
the  world  and  loses  his  distinct  personal  charac- 
ter. Or  he  may  be  divided  into  many  persons 
who  appear  with  consciousness,  which,  however, 
is  to  be  re-absorbed  into  the  one  above  con- 
sciousness (Plotinus).  Or  He  may  be  regarded 
as  the  one  Substance  without  Intellect  and  Will 
(Spinoza).  Thus,  however,  there  is  no  psychi- 
cal process  in  God,  he  is  not  Ego  which  is  a  mere 
appearance,  a  mode  of  Substance.  Such  is  the 
general  result  of  the  pantheistic  view:  the  ex- 
tinction of  the  Self  in  God  and  man. 

In  such  a  conception  great  difficulties  arise. 
Immanence  finitizes  God  by  putting  Self  outside 
of  Him  as  Transcendence  finitized  God  by  put- 
tins:  the  world  outside  of  Him.  It  is  evident 
that  both  Transcendence  and  Immanence  are 
two  phases  or  stages  of  one  complete  conception 


of  God   which   beholds  Him   as  the  universal 
process  embracing  both. 

(c)  This  is  what  we  have  to  designate  by  a 
new  name,  the  Pampsychosis,  which  has  the  pro- 
cess of  God,  World  and  Man:  of  God  as  trans- 
cendent and  creating ;  of  the  World  as  His  crea- 
tion and  immanently  containing  Him ;  find  also 
of  Man,  the  Ego  who  has  to  re-create  Him  creating 
the  All ,  Both  the  preceding  views  really  leave 
out  the  third  stage  of  the  cycle  of  the  Universe, 
namely  Man,  the  created  who  is  to  recreate  the 
All  and  thus  unite  creator  and  creature  in  one 
process  of  the  Absolute.  Such  is  the  Pampsy- 
chosis,  which  puts  mo  inside  the  process  of  the 
Universe  which  both  Transcendence  and  Imma- 
nence were  inclined  to  leave  outjside. 

2.  The  breach, — Having  thus  taken  up  the 
human  Ego  into  the  process  of  the  All,  we  must 
now  add  the  other  side,  the  negative  one :  it  can 
refuse  to  perform  its  part  of  the  process,  it  can 
stand  out  against  God  and  the  Religious  Senti- 
ment. Being  free,  as  God  is  free,  the  Ego  can 
use  its  freedom  by  destroying  the  harmony  of  the 
Universe  in  deed,  and  by  denying  it  in  thought. 
Man,  the  created,  is  a  part  of  Nature,  but  that 
part  which  can  overcome  its  separation  and  return 
to  God,  completing  the  grand  cycle  of  the  Uni- 
verse. On  the  other  hand  he  can  stay  with 
Nature  and  decline  his  universal  function  assert- 
ing the  purely   individual  side  of  his  existence. 


vith  which  his  birth  into  Nature  has  endowed 
him.  He  can  refuse  the  return  and  thereby 
break  the  round  of  the  All,  at  least  as  far  as  he 
is  concerned.  Man  is  the  turning-point  at  which 
Nature  remains  in  separation  from  its  divine 
source  or  is  restored  to  the  same. 

At  this  point  of  division  between  Man  and  God 
rise  up  the  strongest  Feelings  of  which  the 
human  soul  is  capable.  It  is  the  grand  breach 
between  creator  and  creature,  giving  origin  to 
internal  struggles  which  shake  the  Universe. 
The  absolute  Process  stimulates  the  Ego  to  a 
harm©ny  with  itself,  but  the  latter  resists  and 
seeks  to  be  for  itself.  And  yet  from  this  pro- 
foundest  of  estrangements  Religion  has  made  a 
way  of  return  and  restoration.  This  we  may 
briefly  note,  as  it  is  and  always  has  been  a  con- 
trolling part  of  Eeligious  Sentiment. 

(a)  That  which  is  called  Wrong,  Sin,  Evil 
reaches  back  ultimately  to  a  Feeling  of  defiance 
of  the  providential  order,  which  is  the  process  of 
the  All.  The  Ego  in  its  negative  state  refuses 
compliance,  and  may  assail  the  divine  supremacy. 
All  the  passions  of  individualism.  Pride,  Hate, 
Anger,  may  bo  directed  against  the  Supreme 
Person  as  well  as  against  a  human  Self.  One 
thinks  that  the  Pessimism  which  regards  this 
world  of  ours  as  the  worst  of  all  possible  worlds, 
is  the  deepest  abyss  of  spiritual  estrangement 
and  utters  the  Feeling  of  strongest  hatred  for 

830  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTE. 

the  Process  of  the  Universe.  The  pessimist  has 
dug  a  new  circle  in  Dante's  Inferno  and  put  him- 
self into  it,  far  down  toward  the  bottom,  pos- 
sibly among  **  the  violent  toward  God." 

(6)  Such  a  Feeling  has  a  tendency  to  nag  it- 
self to  death.  There  can  be  no  rest  for  it  till 
the  Nirvana.  Hence  it  begins  to  feel  its  own 
negativity,  its  own  slow-consuming  fire.  A  con- 
viction rises  that  such  an  attitude  is  not  only 
destructive,  but  self-destructive,  and  this  convic- 
tion also  has  its  element  of  Feeling  which  gnaws 
back  at  the  soul  (remorse),  bringing  home  to  it 
its  own  self -negation. 

At  this  stage  is  found  a  vast  variety  of  Feel- 
ings which  must  be  deemed  religious,  such  as 
tribulation,  heart's  sorrow,  contrition.  The 
Scriptures  express  this  agony  with  vivid  and  har- 
rowing metaphors  which  for  certain  cases  can 
hardly  be  too  strong.  The  process  of  Repent- 
ance in  its  various  stages  becomes  often  an 
immense  generating  reservoir  of  Religious  Sen- 
timents which  we  need  not  follow  out  in  the 
present  connection. 

(c)  The  positive  outcome  is  a  transformation  of 
the  Self,  and  with  it  neccssarilv  a  transformation 
of  Feeling,  which  now  becomes  that  of  harmony 
with  order  of  the  Universe.  The  Self  as  limit- 
transcending  must  master  its  own  negative  con- 
dition and  reconcile  itself  with  the  process  of  the 
All    against  which    it  formerly  stood  out.     The 


result  is  the  positive  Religious  Sentiment,  that  of 
reconciliation  with  God,  as  contrasted  with  the 
foregoing  negative  Religious  Sentiment. 

But  this  is  not  merely  an  individual  matter. 
The  return  of  the  estranged  Ego  to  the  divine 
fountain-head  rounds  out  the  grand  cycle  of  the 
Universe  —  which  fact  also  reflects  itself  in  re- 
ligious Feeling. 

3.  The  Return  to  God, — Such  is  the  state- 
ment often  made  concerning  the  end  and  aim  of 
Religion:  to  bring  man  back  to  God.  This  pre- 
supposes that  by  the  divine  act  of  creation  man 
has  been  separated,  ejected,  and  made  alien  by 
his  Creator.  Thus  man  is  a  part  of  Nature,  or 
the  created ;  but  he  is  also  to  reach  out  of  the 
created  back  to  the  creating,  and  interlink  the 
disrupted  ring  of  the  All. 

Nature  we  may  regard  as  the  emanation  of 
God,  His  overflow  into  something  different  from 
Himself.  Man  shares  in  this  difference  in  so  far 
as  he  belongs  to  Nature,  and  has  a  body.  But 
his  function  is  to  change  emanation  into  restora- 
tion ;  he  is  to  turn  back  to  the  divine  source,  and 
his  Ego  is  the  turning-point  of  the  Universe. 
We  may  express  the  same  thought  thus :  with- 
out the  Psychosis  the  Pampsychosis  would  never 
get  back  to  itself,  and  complete  its  cycle  of  God, 
Nature,  and  Man. 

In  this  way  we  grasp  the  place  of  Man  in  the 
Universe,  giving   him   his  axial  position  in  the 


process  of  the  Absolute.  He  must  thereby 
come  to  feel  his  infinite  value ;  without  him  there 
could  be  no  process  of  the  All. 

(a)  We  may  conceive  the  return  to  God  to 
be  an  immediate  one ;  the  individual  returns  to 
a  transcendent  God  in  Heaven,  in  whose  blessed- 
ness he  participates  after  death  with  many  a 
foretaste  of  bliss  in  this  life.  Religious  Feel- 
ings of  untold  strength  have  clustered  around 
this  view,  giving  comfort  and  sustaining  power 
against' suffering  down  the  ages  to  milliards  of 
human  beings. 

Or  the  Ego  may  be  conceived  to  be  re-absorbed 
in  God  pantheistically,  and  thus  the  separation 
involved  in  all  individuality  is  canceled.  In  this 
life  such  a  state  might  be  temporarily  reached 
through  ecstasy,  according  totheNeo  Platonists. 

It  is  evident  that  each  of  these  Returns  is  but 
to  a  part  or  stage  of  the  total  process  of  the 
Absolute.     Hence  the  following:  — 

(ft)  The  Return  is  now  conceived  to  be  to 
God  as  the  complete  movement  of  the  Universe, 
as  both  transcendent  and  immanent,  or  as  the 
Pampsychosis.  The  ordinary  formula  of  the 
grand  Totality,  God,  Nature,  Man,  implies  a 
transcendent  deity  as  first,  from  whom  Nature 
and  then  Man  are  separated.  Thus,  however, 
God  is  finitizcd,  with  the  world  as  such  outside 
of  Him.     But  as  truly  universal  he  must  be  the 


total  process  of  the  Universe,  which  by  way  of 
distinction  we  call  the  Pampsychosis. 

With  this  thought  a  new  Feeling  of  the  har- 
mony of  the  All  enters  the  Soul,  being  relieved 
of  the  contradiction  between  Transcendence  and 
Immanence,  which  causes  a  profound  dissonance, 
not  only  in  the  thinking  mind,  but  also  in 
Religious  Feeling, 

(c)  The  return  to  God  is  not  completed  in  the 
last  stage,  in  which  the  Ego  feels  or  grasps  the 
Pampsychosis  or  the  Universe  as  process.  I  am 
not  only  to  take  up  the  divine  movement  of  the 
All,  but  also  to  take  up  myself  reproducing  this 
movement.  That  is,  I  am  to  include  myself  in 
mv  own  universal  act,  and  not  stand  outside  of 
it,  looking  at  it  so  to  speak.  For  it  is  I  who 
am  functioning  this  process  of  the  Absolute, 
and  I  must  feel  myself  as  a  link  in  the  chain. 

Reliorious  Sentiment   now  feels  God  creatinor 

o  o 

man  who  recreates  God  creative.  Let  each  of 
these  words  bo  duly  weighed.  Thus  the  Psy- 
chosis (my  Ego)  feels  its  place  in  the  eternal 
process  of  the  Universe,  or  in  the  Pampsychosis. 
Reliorious  Sentiment  has  herein  attained  its 
height.  The  Pampsychosis  or  the  divine  Total- 
ity (God,  Nature,  Man)  stirs  the  Ego  as  Feel- 
ing to  take  up  this  Divine  Totality  as  the  process 
of  the  Universe,  to  recreate  it,  and  to  live  its  life. 
Such  is  the  ultimate  training  of  the  heart.  We 
are  not  only  to  dwell  in  harmony  with  God,  but 

884  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTE. 

but  we,  each  individual,  are  to  help  recreate  Him 
who  has  created  us. 

But  there  is  a  still  more  personal  attainment 
in  the  foregoing  process ;  it  is  a  renewal  of  the 
Self,  a  daily  regeneration  of  the  Ego.  We 
recreate  ourselves,  make  ourselves  over  by  re- 
creating our  Creator.  A  perpetual  rejuvenes- 
cence of  Selfhood  is  won  by  this  intimate  daily 
communion  with  its  source,  the  process  of  the 

Such  is  the  Sentiment  of  Universal  Beligion 
in  its  supreme  attainment.  I  in  my  highest 
worth,  in  my  strongest  individuality,  am  to  re- 
create perpetually  the  Greater  who  created  me, 
and  thus  am  to  bo  perpetually  recreated  myself. 
The  process  of  creation  spiritually  must  never 
stop,  my  Ego  is  pure  self -activity,  which  it 
inherits  from  its  Creator  the  Universe,  the  All- 
Ego,  whose  process  must  ever  bo  the  re-creating 
one;  and  I  as  Psychosis,  am  always  re-creating  it 
as  Pampsychosis.  Thus  the  universal  Religious 
Sentiment  has  risen  to  what  we  may  call  the 
Sentiment  of  the  Pampsychosis. 

Another  great  phenomenon  of  Religious  Senti- 
ment in  the  past  is  that  of  Religious  Bibles, 
which  have  usually  been  produced  by  the  Re- 
ligious Genius,  and  have  remained  the  great  pro- 
moters and  preservers  of  instituted  Religions. 
After  the  death  of  their  authors  they  remain  and 
bring  the  believing  people  into  harmony  with  their 


conception  of  God,  becoming  in  their  turn  the 
center  of  a  vast  and  very  active  body  of  Religious 

And  yet  the  fact  remains  which  came  strik- 
ingly to  light  in  negative  Religious  Sentiment; 
the  individual  can  refuse  to  dwell  in  harmony 
with  God ;  my  Ego  can  hold  aloof  from  the  posi- 
tive process  of  the  All-Ego,  declining  to  make 
the  grand  Return,  and  rejecting  its  restorative 
power.  The  ability  to  do  thus  lies  in  my  Will. 
I  can  take  sides,  and  go  one  way  or  the  other;  I 
am  free,  as  the  saying  runs,  to  do  or  not  to  do. 
This  Freedom,  implicit  though  secretly  active  in 
the  feeling  Ego,  must  now  be  made  explicit,  and 
be  looked  at  it  as  in  itself. 

Already  the  Feeling  of  Freedom  has  been 
noticed  under  the  head  of  All-Feeling  as  elemen- 
tal (see  p.  212).  The  conscious  Ego  as  product 
of  the  free  Universe,  must  also  be  free  internally, 
and  thus  manifest  Will,  which  is  the  power  of 
self -separating  within  itself  and  of  uttering  itself 
in  the  object.  This  elemental  Feeling  of  Free- 
dom is  now  to  be  organized,  and  thereafter  to 
become  the  source  of  a  new  set  of  Feelings, 
which  are  still  absolute,  not  as  religious  but  as 
practical.  The  individual  Ego  is  not  simply 
moved  by  the  Absolute  to  feel  the  All-Ego  im- 
mediately and  rest  there  (as  it  were,  in  the  bosom 
of  God),  but  also  to  make  it  rejil  in  conduct  and 
in  institutions.     This  is  what  comes  next. 



We  must  again  conceive  of  an  All-Ego  having 
Feeling,  Will,  and  Inti3llect,  each  of  which  has 
its  manifestation  in  Absolute  Sentiment.  That 
is,  one  of  these  activities  is  dominantly  present 
as  the  Determinant,  though  the  other  two  are 
by  no  means  absent  or  even  quiescent.  The  All- 
Ego  organized  or  the  Absolute  stimulates  the  re- 
cipient Ego  to  a  Feeling  of  oneness  with  itself  — 
which  oneness  is  now  to  be  attained  through 
Will  (not  through  Feeling  merely,  as  in  the 
previous  stage  of  Religion).  We  call  this  sphere 
practical  {praxhy  doing)  as  it  drives  forward  to 
the  Deed  out  of  Feeling.  Accordingly  I  am  pri- 
marily stirred  to  the  Feeling  of  Will  (practical) 
by  the  All-Ego  as  Will,  or  more  completely 


stilted,  by  the  All-willing  All.  This  primordial 
practical  Feeling  (that  of  Will)  is  the  first  Feel- 
ing of  Freedom,  not  yet  strictly  the  Sentiment 
of  Freedom. 

Taking  up  the  general  proposition  that  Senti- 
ment is  the  Feeling  of  the  All  or  of  the  Universe 
organized,  we  pass  from  its  first  or  immediate 
form  (religious)  to  its  second  or  separative  form 
corresponding  to  that  of  Will.  This  Sentiment 
embraces  the  large  area  of  Feeling  known  as  the 
Sentiments  of  Freedom.  What  a  part  it  has 
played  in  the  History  of  World,  the  records  of 
the  Past  tell  very  fully.  We  are  still  stirred  by 
the  account  of  the  struggle  for  liberty  on  part 
of  the  Athenians  against  the  Orient.  This  Feel- 
ing lies  at  the  root  of  Universal  History,  which 
has  been  the  movement  into  a  more  complete 
Freedom.  Endowed  with  Will  man  has  this 
Practical  Sentiment  as  his  original  endowment 
for  Freedom,  the  end  and  fulfillment  of  Will 
being  Freedom.  The  mere  Feeling  of  Freedom 
is  often  called  an  instinct,  and  so  it  is,  being  also 
unconscious  in  the  Human  Race,  and  even  in 
animals  it  is  found. 

The  first  matter,  then,  is  to  grasp  the  univer- 
sal Will,  or  the  Will  of  the  Universe.  Psychi- 
cally the  All-Ego  is  (as  Ego)  self -separating 
within  itself,  and  externalizes  itself  as  its  own 
other,  or  object,  which  is  still  itself.  Such  is 
the  movement  of  the  All  in  its  freiedom.     By  a 



direct  glance  we  can  sec  that  the  Universe  must 
be  free,  ns  there  is  nothing  outside  of  it  to  de- 
termine it,  otherwise  it  would  not  be  the  Uni- 
verse. It  must  be  self-determined,  its  verj*  ne- 
cessity is  its  freedom.  Conceived  as  Will,  the 
Universe  has  to  divide  its  own  Self  and  yet  come 
back  to  that  same  Self  in  such  a  division.  Its 
activity  must,  therefore,  be  an  eternal  process, 
cyclical,  that  of  the  All-Ego. 

Now  just  this  process  is  also  that  of  the  human, 
recipient,  finite  Ego,  created  by  the  All-Ego, 
the  child  of  the  Universe.  This  Ego  of  mine 
has  also  for  its  primordial  heritage  the  Feeling  of 
Freedom  as  my  own,  or  as  subjective,  which  is 
verily  my  endowment  from  my  father,  the  All- 
Ego.  Every  conscious  act  of  mine  has  in  it  the 
Feeling  of  Freedom,  self -separating  and  then 
self-returning  within  itself,  like  the  Universe.  In 
this  sense  I  am  universal,  having  such  a  process 
within  me,  as  my  consciousness.  (See  preceding 
pp.  113-5,  132-4.)  From  this  point  of  view  I 
am  born  free,  subjectively  not  objectively  free ; 
objective  freedom  I  am  to  get  through  myself 
by  making  institutions.  In  my  conscious  Self 
and  in  its  free  process  as  Will  lies  the  germ  of 
all  actualized  freedom;  having  consciousness 
inside,  I  am  to  make  mv  world  free  outside. 
Such  a  great  work,  nothing  less  than  the  build- 
ing of  man's  instituticms,  unfolds  out  of  human 
consciousness  with  its  Feeling  of  Freedom.    And 


these  institutions  will  in  their  turn  beget  new 
Feelings,  all  of  which  spring  primordially  from 
this  inner  Free-Will  of  consciousness. 

But  in  order  to  produce  the  institutional  world 
of  Freedom  from  this  mere  aspiration  or  Feel- 
ing of  Freedom,  the  Genius  must  again  appear, 
endowed  with  his  divinely  creative  power  in  this 
field.     Of  him  we  shall  again  speak. 

Freedom  may  then  be  deemed  the  ultimate 
purpose,  the  moving  end  of  the  Universe  as  Will, 
or  as  active,  as  process  purely.  My  most  insig- 
nificant deed  carries  out  and  reflects  the  All- Will, 
which  is  really  the  final  design  of  every  move- 
ment of  man  and  even  of  the  animal.  Such  a 
movement  in  itself  is  free  or  is  self -moving,  and 
usually  struggles  for  greater  Freedom, 

In  the  present  sphere  we  have  to  grasp  two 
Wills,  that  of  the  Universe  and  that  of  the  indi- 
vidual, co-operating  to  produce  a  Feeling,  this 
Practical  Sentiment.  The  All-Ego  as  Will,  or 
the  All-willing  All  (omnipotence)  stirs  the 
human  Ego  to  feel  it  as  Will.  As  conscious  I 
feel  Will,  yea,  the  All-Will,  which  is  my  primal 
Feeling  of  Freedom. 

We  may  note  a  separation,  and  to  a  certain 
degree  an  opposition  between  Religious  and 
Practical  Sentiment.  The  All-feeling  Ego 
stimulates  the  recipient  Ego  to  be  one  with  itself 
as  the  Feeling  of  All.  But  the  All-wilhng  Ego 
stimulates  in  the  recipient  Ego  the   Feeling  of 


Will,  of  Freedom,  agaiast  even  the  All  as  Deter- 
minant. Beligious  Sentiment  makes  the  recip- 
ient Ego  submissive,  yielding  to  the  All  in  Feel- 
ing. But  Practical  Sentiment  has  its  root  in  the 
Ego  as  endowed  with  Freedom,  with  the  very 
Freedom  of  the  All.  So  the  Ego  having  received 
such  a  gift,  must  feel  self-determining,  self- 
assertive  even  against  the  donor. 

Still  in  Practical  Sentiment  we  shall  find  the 
same  general  movement  which  belongs  to  Abso- 
lute Feeling  in  all  its  stages:  (I)  the  Process 
of  Practical  Sentiment ;  (II)  its  particularization 
in  Moral  Sentiment ;  (III)  finally  it  will  be  made 
universal  in  Institutional  Sentiment.  The  whole 
sphere  may  be  regarded  as  an  unfolding  of  the 
Feeling  of  Freedom. 

I.  The  Process  of  Practical  Sentiment.  — 
The  Sentiment  of  Freedom  is  what  is  here  called 
practical ;  active  Feeling  or  the  Feeling  of  action 
means  that  the  Ego  has  internally  at  least  the 
capacity  to  act.  Indeed  the  Ego  is  activity  itself 
and  must  act  in  order  to  be;  such  is  its  primal 
Freedom.  Not  stagnant,  not  crystallized,  but 
ever  moving  and  self-moving;  thus  it  is  the  child 
of  the  All-Ego,  which  is  eternally  process  or 
Will.  My  Ego  can  never  stop  without  passing 
into  non-existence.  This  is  its  heritage  from  its 
Creator,  who  has  made  it  like  unto  Himself. 
The  Universe  is  free  and  man  as  universal  has 
primarily  the  Feeling  of  Freedom. 


Thus  we  seek  to  bring  before  ourselves  that 
original,  spontaneous  Freedom  which  belongs  to 
the  soul  itself  antecedent  to  moral  and  institutional 
forms  of  liberty,  that  is,  before  it  realizes  itself 
in  Morals  or  actualizes  itself  in  Institutions.  The 
Ego  is  primordially  free,  has  an  inner  Freedom 
of  its  own.  Ere  it  can  be  free  in  personal  con- 
duct, or  make  a  free  world  for  its  own  security, 
it  must  be  psychically  free.  Under  the  most 
galling  despotism  the  Ego  can  have  its  own  in- 
ternal Freedom,  or  as  the  Stoic  said,  can  be  free 
in  chains.  But  it  may  have  to  suppress  Free- 
dom in  the  deed  and  do  without  the  same  in  the 

In  some  such  manner  we  seek  to  grasp  the 
Sentiment  of  Freedom  as  purely  psychical,  the 
original  endowment  of  Free-Will  which  seems 
to  be  given  by  nature  itself.  Still  we  have  to 
ask  whence  it  came .  Undoubtedly  it  has  evolved 
and  is  still  evolving;  it  is  working  out  its  own 
salvation.  But  whence  this  power  of  self-evo- 
lution? Here  we  have  to  invoke  the  creative 
process  of  the  Universe  which  is  the  first 
Freedom  and  is  generative  of  all  other  mani- 
festations of  Freedom.  The  Pampsychosis  is 
absolute  Free-Will  and  so  must  create  Free-Will 
in  order  to  be  itself.  The  Sentiment  of  Freedom 
as  psychical  is  a  reflection  of  its  origin  as  pam- 
psychical.  If  God  is  free,  He  must  make  man 
free  or  give  up  His  divinity. 


The  Sentiment  of  Freedom  as  psychical  will 
also  have  its  process  (like  the  Universe)  whose 
main  stages  we  may  note  by  way  of  explanatory 
preface  to  what  follows.  It  is  well  known  that 
men  have  very  diverse  conceptions  about  Free- 
dom; in  fact  Freedom  itself  is  a  changeful, 
diversified  thing.  The  different  historic  ages 
give  different  definitions  of  Freedom.  Prob- 
ably Time  will  continue  to  evolve  our  free 

Of  this  inner  or  psychical  Freedom  the  follow- 
ing forms  are  to  be  looked  at  with  care  in  order 
to  understand  fully  the  present  sphere. 

(a)  There  is  first  the  spontaneous  Freedom  of 
the  Ego,  its  primal  Freedom,  which  can  also  be 
named  capricious^  as  having  no  motive  or  con- 
tent but  itself.  The  earliest  consciousness  of 
the  free  Self  is  that  simple  subjective  activity  of 
the  Will  which  knows  as  yet  no  limit  within  it- 
self. It  acts  of  itself,  it  cannot  yet  accept  any 
determination  but  its  own,  is  without  rule  or  law. 
Such  is  the  primordial  free-acting  individual, 
showing  the  original  power  of  initiative  in  every 
Ego,  which  thus  is  able  to  make  itself  a  center  of 
deeds.  We  call  it  caprice  or  capricious  Freedom, 
the  germ  of  all  higher  forms  of  Freedom,  which 
develop  out  of  it  through  the  addition  of  external 
materials  of  growth. 

To  recognize  this  germ  is  a  very  important 
point  in  education,  but  it  must  be  recognized  as 


the  germ.  It  is  to  be  unfolded  into  and  filled  with 
the  moral  and  institutional  ere  it  become  truly  free. 
The  child  is  largely  a  creature  of  caprice,  which 
is  but  the  possibility  or  the  condition  of  rational 
Freedom,  The  main  duty  of  education  is  to 
train  this  capricious  Freedom  into  a  Freedom 
through  law  and  institution.  It  is  a  great  mis- 
take of  some  recent  educators  to  think  that  we 
must  go  back  to  the  caprice  of  the  child  and  be 
guided  by  it  in  building  a  system  of  education. 

Still  this  first  spontaneity  of  the  human  Self  is 
by  no  means  to  be  ignored  or  even  rudely  sup- 
pressed. It  is,  indeed,  the  original  Freedom  of 
man  which  conditions  all  other  forms  of  its 
development.  In  a  profound  sense  it  is  the  God- 
given,  yet  this  gift  of  God  must  be  made  over  by 
man,  else  he  is  not  free.  Freedom  is  given  to 
man  that  he  may  make  himself  free. 

(6)  But  Freedom  finds  limits,  hence  we  have 
determined  Freedom.  The  twofold  and  indeed 
contradictory  nature  of  this  expression  is  what 
our  reader  must  first  grasp.  In  the  stage  of 
psychical  Freedom  which  we  are  now  consider- 
ing the  Ego  is  moved  to  be  self -moved,  is  de- 
termined to  be  self-determined  or  free.  Your 
body  has  self-movement;  when  you  dodge  a 
stone  thrown  at  you,  you  move  yourself  through 
an  external  cause  or  determinant.  An  object 
which  has  no  power  of  self-movement,  like  a 
piece  of  wood  could  not  be  so  influenced.     This 


is  an  outer  cause,  but  there  are  also  inner  causes. 
For  instance,  my  desire  for  an  apple  moves  me 
to  a  self-movement,  namely  to  extend  my  hand. 
Still  more  complex  is  my  choice  between  two  or 
more  motives  for  action. 

In  all  these  cases  we  see  our  first  unconditioned 
Freedom  or  Caprice  is  conditioned  or  determined 
by  something  outside  of  itself.  This  is  the 
sphere  of  what  is  known  as  Determinism.  It  is 
in  this  sphere  that  there  arises  the  much-dis- 
cussed question:  Is  man  a  free  agent?  Or  is  he 
always  determined  by  some  impulse,  desire,  or 
motive?  The  answer,  if  wo  confine  our  view  of 
Freedom  to  the  present  sphere,  can  only  be  that 
man  is  both,  he  is  moved  to  be  self-moved  or  is 
determined  to  be  self-deteriniucd.  Hence  both 
Determinist  and  the  Libertarian  may  prove  their 
distinctive  points,  but  each  cannot  disprove  the 
position  of  his  opponent. 

But  there  is  another  sphere  of  Freedom  in 
which  it  is  possible  to  escape  from  this  dualistic 

(c)  This  we  shall  call  in  contrast  with  the  last, 
self-determined  Freedom.  The  Sentiment  of 
Freedom  as  psychical  reaches  its  culmination  in 
the  fact  that  man  is  to  make  an  outer  world  in 
order  to  be  wholly  free,  not  only  subjectively 
but  also  objectively  free.  In  the  preceding 
sphere  he  had  a  determined  Freedom;  but  his 
instinct  for  complete  Freedom  impels  him  forth 


to  that  which  determines  him  and  which  he 
is  to  transform  into  a  means  of  Freedom.  For 
instance,  before  man  lies  the  vast  Ocean  which 
he  cannot  cross,  and  which,  therefore,  puts  a 
limit  upon  his  Freedom.  Ho  proceeds  to  build  a 
raft  (like  Ulysses)  or  finally  a  steamboat  (like 
Fulton)  in  order  to  overcome  this  obstacle  to  his 
Free-Will.  In  the  final  view  every  blow  struck 
by  a  workman  in  making  and  putting  together  a 
locomotive  is  a  blow  for  Freedom  in  the  supreme 
sense.  That  is,  his  Free-Will  in  his  work  is  will- 
ing Freedom,  is  transmuting  material  nature  into 
an  implement  of  Freedom  for  man,  who  thereby 
is  able  to  transcend  greatly  the  limitation  through 
Space  and  also  Time.  The  Sentiment  of  Free- 
dom underlies  the  colossal  industrial  develop- 
ment of  our  age,  which  is  seeking  the  trans- 
formation of  the  physical  world  into  the  habi- 
tation of  the  free  man.  Of  course  other  ends 
play  in,  such  as  the  making  of  money  and  the 
acquisition  of  power.  But  ultimately  it  is  the 
Sentiment  of  Freedom  which  drives  the  human 
being  to  free  himself  from  the  trammels  of 
external  nature. 

If  we  wish  to  express  the  present  fact  psychi- 
cally, we  can  formulate  it  as  follows:  The  Free 
Will  af  man  wills  Free-Will,  has  itself  as  its  own 
end,  motive,  content.  Man  reaches  true  Free- 
Will  only  when  he  wills  Free  Will.  Or  we  may 
also  say  he  determines  himself  to  be  self -deter- 



mined.  Every  Maruthoniiin  soldier  went  out  to 
fight  against  the  Persian  for  Freedom,  his  Free 
Will  willed  Freedom,  while  his  enemy's  Free- 
Will  (for  the  Persian  doubtless  acted  freely) 
willed  shivery.  So  during  the  Revolutionary 
War,  our  fathers  determined  themselves  to  be 
self-determined,  their  free  activity  had  freedom 
as  its  content.  This  was  their  persistent  Senti- 
ment of  Freedom,  not  a  transitory  Caprice,  of 
Freedom,  which  Senthnent  would  be  likely  to 
vanish  at  the  first  serious  obstacle. 

But  man  is  not  only  to  transform  physical 
nature  into  a  realm  of  Freedom ;  he  is  also  to 
construct  an  entirely  new  world  of  Freedom 
through  Law  and  Institutions.  In  these  the 
Sentiment  of  Freedom  finds  its  highest  realiza- 
tion ;  it  is  no  longer  a  subjective  Caprice,  as  we 
saw  it  at  the  start,  but  has  evolved  an  objective 
Order  whose  purpose  is  to  secure  Freedom. 
Having  thus  realized  itself,  the  Sentiment  of 
Freedom  as  psychical  and  subjective  has  reached 
its  conclusion.  It  has  manifested  its  great  pur- 
pose, which  is  in  the  widest  sense  of  the  word  to 
make  man  ethical.  But  this  cannot  be  done 
without  an  order  or  process  which  is  briefly  in- 
dicated as  follows. 

1.  The  Ethical  Genius, — The  creative  man 
again  appears,  rising  up  from  the  mass  of  hu- 
manity, all  of  whom  have  the  foregoing  primor- 
dial   Sentiment  of  Freedom,  since  they  possess 


Wills.  But  the  Genius  organizes  this  Sentiment, 
so  that  it  is  a  new  objective  order  in  the  World, 
a  moral  or  institutional  system  whose  great  end 
is  to  make  Freedom  real,  and  to  safeguard  it 
against  its  foes.  This  system  in  turn  becomes 
the  source  of  Sentiment,  Tsrhich  has  likewise  its 
absolute  character,  being  derived  from  a  form  of 
Freedom  organized. 

In  the  Orient  the  Ethical  and  the  Religious 
Genius  is  usually  one  and  the  same  man,  as  we 
see  in  the  case  of  Moses,  of  Zoroaster,  and 
Buddha.  But  in  Europe  the  two  are  quite  differ- 
entiated, as  in  the  example  of  Socrates,  who 
cannot  be  deemed  the  founder  of  a  Religion, 
though  he  makes  an  epoch  in  the  development  of 

Under  the  head  of  Ethical  Genius  we  class  two 
different  kinds  of  men,  the  Moral  and  the  Insti- 
tutional.  The  strictly  Moral  Genius  is  he  who 
unfolds  the  Moral  Law  for  the  individual,  the 
latter  taking  it  for  guidance  in  conduct.  The 
Institutional  Genius  is  the  man  who  makes  the 
objective  Law  over  all,  in  the  State  for  instance. 
Plato  and  Aristotle  had  both  elements,  moral 
and  institutional,  while  Epicurus  and  Zeno  seem 
to  have  developed  the  moral  spirit,  each  in  his 
own  way. 

2.  The  Ethical  Order.— The  Sentiment  of 
Freedom  is  to  be  organized  mto  an  Ethical 
Order  that  it  may   exist  and  do  its  work  in  the 




world.  The  mere  subjective  Feeling  of  Free- 
dom is  indeed  the  germ,  and  yet  but  a  germ 
which  is  to  be  unfolded.  It  springs  from  the 
All-Ego  as  Will,  which  cannot  be  hindered  or 
determined  by  anything  outside  of  itself.  Con- 
scious man,  ci*eatod  of  the  All-Ego,  must  like- 
wise have  Will,  or  the  self-determining  act  of 
the  Ego  within,  which,  however,  is  to  become 
an  object,  an  entity  in  the  world.  Thus  natural 
Freedom  is  ethicised^  filled  with  the  All-Ego  ( its 
original)  ordered.  This,  as  before  stated,  is  the 
work  of  the  Ethical  Genius. 

The  moral  life  and  the  institutional  life  are 
now  possible,  having  their  presupposition  in  the 
psychical  element  already  given  —  that  of  Free- 

3.  The  Recipients.  —  These  are  the  people,  the 
mass  of  Egos,  who  are  also  born  with  the  Feel- 
ing of  Freedom,  but  are  not  al)le  of  themselves 
to  rise  into  an  ordered  Freedom  either  inner 
(moral)  or  outer  (institutional).  Ilence  they  are 
to  be  brought  into  participation  with  the  Divine 
Will  not  only  immediately,  but  also  mediately 
through  the  Ethical  World  of  Morals  and  Insti- 
tutions. Every  man  is  to  be  ethicised,  yea 
every  deed  of  every  man.  The  Sentiment  of 
Freedom  in  this  way  gets  to  have  a  universal 
content,  that  of  the  Universe  or  All-Eofo  as  Will 
organized  by  the  Genius,  whose  work  is  thereby 


not  siQiply  for  himself,  but  also   for  his  people 
or  race. 

II.  Practical  Sentiment  Particularized.  — 
That  is,  the  Sentiment  of  Freedom  ordered  is 
to  be  made  particular  in  each  individual  and  is 
to  determine  his  conduct.  The  All-Ego  organized 
as  Will  universal  is  to  be  taken  up  by  the  par- 
ticular Ego  which  is  thereby  moralized.  The 
Moral  Sentiment  is,  accordingly,  God  or  the 
Universe  in  the  feeling  individual,  who  acts 
universally  in  his  relations  to  others. 

Such  is  the  Sentiment  of  Freedom  as  moral, 
or  what  is  often  called  the  Moral  Sentiment, 
whose  nature  has  always  attracted  much  atten- 
tion. How  shall  we  formulate  it  so  that  we 
may  really  get  at  it?  And  what  is  its  origin? 
It  too  has  been  often  called  the  God-given ;  spe- 
cially the  Moral  Conscience  has  been  identified 
with  the  voice  of  God  Himself. 

Free- Will  certainly  plays  an  important  part  in 
this  field,  or  at  least  a  supposed  Free-Will,  since 
Herbert  Spencer  and  many  others  deem  Free- 
Will  a  delusion.  Still  in  every  moral  act  there 
is  an  immediate  Feeling  of  Freedom  that  most 
men  will  not  allow  to  be  sophisticated  out  of 
themselves  by  the  cunning  of  the  philosopher. 
The  Sentiment  is  there,  and  is  to  be  accounted 
for,  and  rather  the  shallowest  way  of  account- 
ing for  it  is  to  brand  it  as  a  delusion.  Psychol- 
ogy  teaches   that   the  man  who  sees   so  much 


350  AB80L  UTE  FEELING. 

delusion  in  others,  is  apt  to  have  a  large  fragment 
of  it  kinuiolf . 

The  Moral  Will  rests  upon  the  psychical  idea  of 
Freedom  which  it  is  to  realize  in  conduct.  Life 
is  to  be  moralized  through  and  through,  in  its 
great  and  its  small  activities,  by  an  ideal  end, 
which  is  the  realization  of  a  complete  Free-Will 
in  the  personal  career.  What  is  this  complete 
Free-Will  which  hovers  before  the  moral  doer? 
It  is  the  Freedom  of  the  Universe,  of  the  Absolute 
Process  of  Spirit.  The  human  individuid  Ego  is 
to  have  as  ideal  end  in  conduct  the  Universe 
which  is  the  original  divine  Freedom.  The 
Psyclio.sis  is  to  realize  on  its  personal  side  the 
Piimpvsychoisis,  which  created  it  and  gave  it  a 
moral  character.  My  Moral  Sentiment  is  ulti- 
mately the  Fcclins:  that  I  can  and  ought  to  in- 
corporate  in  my  doing  the  great  Totality,  though 
I  in  my  Freedom  can  refuse  to  do  so. 

Such  is  the  attainment  of  Virtue,  and  the 
development  of  the  completely  moralized  man. 
Still  even  he  does  not  wholly  get  rid  of  the  sep- 
aration, the  two  Selves  are  present  and  persist- 
ently active  in  his  moral  consciousness.  He  is 
the  finite,  not  the  infinite;  he  is  the  created  Ego 
who  is  to  realize  the  process  of  the  Absolute 
Ego ;  he  is  not  and  never  can  be  that  Absolute 
Ego.  Thus  the  Moral  Sentiment  must  always 
recognize  the  chasm  between  the  two  Selves,  and 
feel   that   the  Ideal  when  realized  is  no  longer 


ideal.  God  is  after  all  not  exactly  man,  though 
the  latter  recreates  Him  in  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Thought.  We  may  say,  however,  that  the  Uni- 
verse is  not  truly  moralized  till  man  has  done  the 
work.  We  can  add  that  man  is  to  realize  in 
himself  God's  Freedom,  in  order  to  make  the 
Universe  objectively  free.  This  we  hold  to  be 
the  ultimate  purpose  and  aim  of  the  Moral  Ego. 
1 .  The  Moral  Consciousness,  —  The  basic  fact 
of  the  Moral  Consciousness  is  the  two  Egos,  the 
finite  and  the  infinite,  and  their  interaction 
through  the  Will.  When  I  say  /  ought ^  there 
are  suggested  two  Selves,  one  of  which  may  be 
called  my  real  Self,  the  other  my  ideal  Self,  one 
of  which  I  am  now  and  here,  the  other  of  which 
I  am  not,  but  would  be  if  I  truly  realized  my  ideal 
Self  in  my  daily  existence.  Such  is  the  twofold- 
ness  which  gives  rise  to  the  Moral  Sentiment,  the 
Feeling  of  an  eternal  ideal  Self  to  which  I  must 
strive  to  make  my  real  Self  conform  in  all  the 
details  of  life.  There  is  no  exception,  even  the 
most  trivial  of  my  practical  concerns  are  to 
be  moralized,  for  every  act  of  Will  has  in  it  the 
double  character  before  mentioned.  Will  is 
naturally,  that  is  psychically,  free,  and  Freedom 
is  the  own  gift  of  the  Universe,  of  its  very  pro- 
cess. Every  act  of  mine  has  in  it  both  myself 
and  the  All.  My  Will  is  there,  but  my  Will 
bears  the  stamp  of  the  one  great  Totality  which 
is  free. 


To  go  to  my  dinner  at  a  certain  timet  to  go 
down  this  street  or  the  other,  to  buy  a  pin  or 
not  are  usually  deemed  acts  morally  indifferent, 
and  they  may  be;  but  the  Moral  Sentiment  in 
its  universality  demands  that  every  act,  however 
small,  share  in  the  Moral  Ideal  or  be  left  undone. 
If  it  cannot  be  moralized,  or  be  made  conducive 
to  the  realization  of  Free-Will,  let  it  be  dropped. 
The  non-moral  element  is  to  be  eliminated  from 
human  life;  not  only  the  positively  immoral,  but 
the  indifferently  non-moral  belongs  not  in  the 
Moral  Universe  and  hence  not  in  the  Soul  which 
is  inoral . 

2.  Moral  Ends. — The  Moral  Sentiment  has 
called  forth  many  theories  to  account  for  itself. 
Whence  comes  that  oughtness  which  so  imperi- 
ously speaks  down  to  my  isness?  I  am  obligated 
to  obey  its  behest,  but  if  I  disobey  (which  I  can  in 
my  freedom)  there  is  a  peculiar,  but  very  effec- 
tive punishment.  There  is  the  law,  the  tribunal, 
the  judge,  the  culprit,  the  decision,  the  penalty; 
the  whole  process  of  an  inner  Judicature  takes 
place  within  my  Self.  It  often  proceeds  in 
direct  opposition  to  my  wish ;  whence  its  author- 
ity? The  problem  is  often  stated  as  a  search 
for  the  Ground  of  Moral  Obligation,  a  hunt  for 
the  source  of  that  power  which  imposes  upon 
me  Duty,  endows  nie  with  a  Conscience,  com- 
mands me  with  its  categorical  Imperative  more 
coercive  and  sometimes  more  crushing  than  any 


external  edict  of  king  or  emperor.  It  is  a  phe- 
nomenon which  thinking  men  have  been  curious 
about  and  have  speculated  upon,  especially  since 
the  time  of  the  old  Greeks. 

It  is  evident  that  the  source  of  Duty,  or  of 
Moral  Obligation,  and  therewith  of  the  Moral 
Sentiment,  is  the  great  object  to  be  attained,  to 
be  known  and  formulated  in  the  Science  of 
Ethics,  Such  is  that  ideal  End  which  we  seek 
to  realize  by  moral  conduct.  What  shall  it  be 
declared  to  be? 

One  of  the  first  ends  which  man  finds  himself 
pursuing  is  Pleasure.  But  the  great  difficulty 
with  this  end  is  that  it  does  not  moralize  life,  it 
is  not  an  ideal  End ;  it  is  not  really  universal  but 
is  very  particular,  since  one  man's  Pleasure  is 
likely  to  be  different  from  that  of  another.  A 
variation  of  the  Hedonistic  Theory  affirms  that 
Happiness,  and  then  that  the  greatest  Happiness 
of  the  greatest  number  are  the  right  formulas 
for  moralizing  human  conduct.  But  these  also 
show  an  insufficiency,  and  even  the  Theory  of  Be- 
nevolence will  not  adequately  account  for  the 
Moral  Sentiment  in  its  origin. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  all  these  Moral  Ends 
have  a  certain  particular  validity,  each  in  its 
limited  sphere.  But  Moral  Sentiment  must  have 
a  universal  content,  being  itself  a  product  of  the 
All-Ego  though  confined  to  the  individual. 

3.   TJie  Universal   Moral  End,  —  The  Moral 



Sentiment  is  stirred  by  the  Universe*  otherwise 
it  could  not  be  rightly  called  universal.  There 
conies  the  Feeling  of  oneness  with  the  All  and 
its  process,  which  give  rise  to  every  form  of  Ab- 
solute Feeling.  The  moral  consciousness  hears 
this  All  commanding  it  as  individual.  The  two 
Selves,  the  finite  and  the  infinite,  are  now  in  the 
relation  of  lawgiver  and  subject. 

But  we  are  not  to  think  that  every  Ego  can  be 
its  own  moral  lawgiver.  Here  the  Genius  must 
appear  in  person  and  formulate  for  his  people 
just  this  moral  Law.  The  Decalogue  was  an 
early  code  of  this  kind,  and  shows  the  process. 
Moses  was  the  lawgiver  of  the  Hebrews,  the  ten 
commandments  he  received  from  God,  who  did 
not  give  them  directly  to  each  individual  of  the 
people.  It  is  true  that  each  individual  had  po- 
tentially the  Law  within  him,  his  Ego  was  itself 
sprung  of  the  Absolute  Ego  and  bore  its  im- 
press. Still  the  intermediate  Genius  was  re- 
quired who  could  formulate  the  Divine  Will  and 
thus  make  it  possible  for  every  man  to  share  in 
the  Universal. 

The  early  Greek  had  a  similar  process,  since  it 
is  said  that  the  Delphic  Oracle  gave  to  certain 
lawgivers  their  codes.  But  Socrates  separated 
the  inner  La\y  from  the  outer,  and  thus  unfolded 
the  distinction  between  the  moral  and  institu- 
tional, which  were  not  differentiated  by  the  early 
lawgivers.     In  fact  the  life  and  death  of  Socrates 


manifest  the  conflict  which  may  arise  between 
the  Law  of  Conscience  and  the  Law  of  the 

It  is  a  great  thing  for  man,  the  finite  individ- 
ual, to  realize  Freedom  coming  from  the  infinite 
Ego.  Thus  he  becomes  a  kind  of  a  God  on 
Earth.  Still  this  inner  freedom  of  the  moral 
Sentiment  is  to  be  made  objective,  actual,  truly 

III.  Practical  Sentiment  Universalized. — 
If  in  the  previous  stage  the  Sentiment  of  Free- 
dom was  particularized,  now  it  is  to  be  universal- 
ized, rising  from  its  subjective  or  moral  order,  to 
its  objective  or  institutional  order.  It  is  true 
that  the  universal  element  is  in  both  stages,  but 
the  first  shows  it  in  the  individual  Ego,  while  the 
second  shows  it  existent  in  the  world,  where  it 
stands  forth  in  its  own  right.  Hence  in  Institu- 
tions Practical  Sentiment  is  truly  universalized; 
Free-Will  becomes  objective  and  universal,  mak- 
ing a  new  Universe  of  Freedom  for  securing  it- 
self. All  men  are  associated  in  the  institutional 
world  which  the  Genius  establishes  or  helps  to 
establish,  being  driven  to  such  a  work  by  the 
Sentiment  of  Freedom.  This  Sentiment,  being 
objectified  and  organized  in  Institutions,  makes 
thereby  a  new  source  of  itself,  which  permeates 
and  unites  the  multitude,  the  people. 

An  institutional  Sentiment  we  find  existent 
and  very  powerful  in  the  present  sphere  of  Free- 


dom,  for  Institutions  have  as  their  ultimate  pur- 
pose the  securing  of  man's  Free-Will.  Our 
Feelings  are  stirred  by  Family,  State,  Church  in 
a  unique  way  and  to  a  high  degree  of  intensity. 
Thus  we  have  an  institutional  Determinant  rous- 
ing in  us  a  distinct  kind  of  Feeling  which  is  des- 
ignated institutional  Sentiment.  Patriotism  is 
such  a  Sentiment  and  it  moves  men  to  oflfer  life 
for  country.  There  is  a  Sentiment  for  Church 
which  is  very  distinct  from  the  religious  Senti- 
ment as  such.  Indeed  the  ecclesiastical  and  the 
religious  Sentiments  may  be  antagonistic  and 
seek  to  put  down  ejich  other. 

In  this  connection  it  is  well  to  mark  the  differ- 
ent usage  of  two  words  related  and  sometimes 
employed  as  synonyms,  realized  and  actualized. 
The  Moral  Will  realizes  Freedom  in  individual 
conduct  directly ;  the  Institutional  Will  actualizes 
Freedom  in  and  through  Institutions.  The  Insti- 
tutional man  is,  therefore,  different  from  the 
Moral  man.  The  latter  takes  up  and  is  ruled  by 
the  Pampsychosis  immediately;  the  former  is 
determined  by  it  mediately,  through  Institutions, 
which  are  social  forms,  or  products  of  associated 
man.  The  Universe  (or  the  All-Ego)  with  its 
process  working  through  a  society  of  some  kind 
is  what  stirs  the  Institutional  Sentiment.  An 
Institution  is  Will  actualized,  existent  in  the 
world,  whoso  end  is  to  secure  Freedom.  Thus 
Institutional  Sentiment  is  a  Sentiment  of  Free- 


dom,  not  immediate  or  psychical,  not  moral  with 
an  inner  law,  but  institutional  with  an  outer  law 
becoming  inner  not  in  one  soul  but  in  many  souls 
associated  together  and  forming  one  nation  or 
one  faith. 

1.  Institutional  Consciousness, — Every  man 
feels  the  oneness  of  his  people  or  of  his  race. 
This  is  the  social,  or  better  the  institutional  con- 
sciousness (or Feeling)  out  of  which  Institutions 
spring.  We  may  call  it  the  inborn  sense  of 
society,  of  men  associating  together  for  the  great 
ultimate  end  of  securing  their  Freedom.  The 
individual  finds  that  he  can  become  free  not 
through  himself  alone,  but  through  others  who 
along  with  him  will  his  Free-Will.  Such  a 
society  of  Egos  organizes  itself  and  becomes  an 

Undoubtedly  such  an  inborn  tendency  to 
association  in  the  individual  is  a  product  of  the 
Parapsychosis  which,  creating  the  Ego  and  en- 
dowing the  same  with  its  own  process,  gives  to  it 
the  power  of  self-evolution,  of  rising  above  the 
finite  limits  of  nature  toward  the  All.  So  the 
individual  creates  a  greater  Self  in  Institutions, 
combining  many  Selves  into  a  society  which 
unites  them. 

Every  born  person  has  accordingly  this  insti- 
tutional consciousness,  which,  the  germ  of  Free- 
dom being  given,  starts  on  a  long  career  of 
evolution,  manifesting  itself  in  various  institu- 

'8  th&t  m&D  is  a  '*  po- 

_    .-"f^  ire  may  iuterpret  in  its  uni- 

'•^' ^'" ^ iaatitat'ion'iaakiag  animal," 

'"  "    -'  "*  '^^eiState  (political  Institution), 

—With  the  develop- 

-'"'       ,,.  /natiluHotta. 

i^t  f""  j.W'tf'"  Jnaniuaons.  — vv  im  me  aeveiop- 
'■  "Cniiti  Institutions   become  differentiated 
"""j-rtrtifi*^-'   Association  reveals  itself  as  the  . 
"""     „  /net  of  human  activity,  man  turns  or- 
itfr  of  societies,  builds  them  great  and  small 
j?T(iiB  thousand.     Indeed  the  greatness  of   man 
jB  ao^  tested  by  his  ability  to  associate  men  for 
g  great  purpose.     Tlic    individual  is  fast  ap- 
proaching the  sttige  where  he  will  do  no  impor- 
tant thing  alone,  but  organize  a  society  for  doing 
it.     Tlie  chief  function  of  man  will  be  to  organ- 
ize men.     This  power  will  grow  more  and  more 
a  teachable  matter,  an  inheritance  of  training. 
At  first    only  the  divinely  gifted  genius  could 
unit©  hia  fellow-man  in  one  Institution. 

Already  we  see  that  a  chief  end  of  education 
is  not  merely  to  accumtilate  stores  of  knowledge 
but  to  learn  to  organize  for  important  ends,  par- 
ticularly for  that  most  important  of  all  end^,  the 
aocuring  of  Freedom.  This  Institutional  Senti- 
ment has,  therefore,  a  great  future  before  it, 
greater,  we  think,  than  the  Moral  Sentiment, 
though  this  of  is  not  to  lapse.  The  old 
Greeks  had  Moral  Science,  in  fact  created  it  and 
set  it  moving  on  lines  which   it  largely  keeps  to- 


day.  But  the  Greeks  had  no  complete  institu- 
tional science,  though  they  had  Institutions. 
Plato's  Republic  and  Aristotle's  Politics  are  very 
valuable  documents  of  thought  pertaining  to  the 
State.  But  they  hardly  give  a  complete  Science 
of  Institutions  for  Greece  even. 

The  time  has  come,  then,  particularly  in 
America,  for  the  citizen  to  become  conscious  of 
his  Institutions.  He  must  know  them  in  order 
to  preserve  them.  The  Institutional  Sentiment 
is  no  longer  to  remain  in  blissful  ignorance  of 
itself,  but  is  to  become  self -a  ware,  that  it  may 
develop  rationally  and  continuously,  not  fitfully 
and  gropingly.  The  coming  age  belongs  to  it, 
and  it  cannot  be  left  to  be  a  Feeling  only,  but 
must  rise  to  a  knowledge  of  its  destiny. 

Of  Social  Institutions  we  may  count  five  great 
ones,  connected,  overlapping  in  places,  yet  each 
with  its  distinct  process.  These  are  Family, 
Society,  State,  which  comprise  the  secular  In- 
stitution, to  which  must  be  added  the  religious 
and  the  educative  Institution  (see  our  Social 
Institutions  Introduction,  et passim). 

3.  The  Universal  Institutional  Sentiment. — 
There  always  has  been  and  still  is  a  Sentiment 
which  aspires  for  and  even  seeks  to  actualize  the 
Universal  Institution.  If  we  go  far  back,  per- 
haps the  Family  would  show  itself  the  one  pri- 
mordial Institution,  the  original  institutional 
germ     out    of    which   other    Institutions    have 


evolved.  In  Asia  we  have  the  Theocracy  which 
united  the  two  Institutions,  political  and  relig- 
ious  very  closely,  making  them  two  sides  of  one 
Whole.  On  the  other  hand  in  developed  Greece 
the  political  Institution  was  of  paramount  in- 
terest, and  the  same  may  be  said  of  Borne.  But 
the  Middle  Ages  had  the  tendency  to  invert  the 
institutional  situation,  and  to  put  the  Church 
over  the  State.  In  the  modern  world  the  State 
has  the  stress  over  the  Church,  and  Civilization 
seems  to  advance  mainly  on  political  lines.  In 
the  latest  form  of  government,  that  of  the  United 
States,  the  religious  Institution  is  entirely  sepa- 
rated from  the  political,  and  is  left  to  take  care 
of  itself  in  its  own  way. 

The  result  is  we  see  reversions  to  Asiatic 
forms,  in  which  both  secular  and  religious 
authority  is  again  united  in  one  Institution  and 
even  in  one  person  (Mormonism,  Salvation 
Army,  Dowicism,  etc.).  Some  of  tliese  phases 
have  even  collided  with  existent  political  author- 
ity in  the  prosecution  of  their  plans.  But  all 
strive  to  restore  and  represent  that  unity  of 
Institutions  which  began  man's  institutional 
existence . 

Will  there  be  an  institutional  Federal  Union? 
That  lies  far  in  the  future,  beyond  even  the 
union  of  Reliorions —  and  the  latter  is  not  vet  bv 
any  means  a  fact.     Still  such  a  Sentiment  exists 


and  at  times  manifests  itself.     Here,  however, 
its  existence  can  only  bo  indicated. 

In  the  preceding  account  the  reader  will 
observe  that  I  have  not  so  much  been  engaged  in 
the  act  of  Willing  as  in  thinking  about  it  and 
setting  forth  its  order  and  meaning.  What  is 
that  which  arranges  and  defines  the  foregoing 
Practical  Sentiment?  Not  itself  certainly;  the 
Willis  not  self-ordering  and  self-defining;  in  it 
the  Ego  does  not  turn  back  upon  itself  and  con- 
template its  own  working.  The  Will  goes  forth, 
moves  out  of  itself,  acts ;  properly  in  itself  it  is 
not  the  self-returning  stage  of  the  Ego.  Thus  I 
have  been  employing  throughout  this  whole  ex- 
position of  Will  the  Intellect,  the  self-seeing 
and  self-knowino:  activitv  of  the  Ego.  I  cannot 
understand  Practical  Sentiment  without  resorting 
to  my  Theoretic  faculty. 

Moreover  this  self-knowledge  is  likewise  at  first 
in  the  form  of  Feeling.  The  All  as  Ego  must 
be  self-knowing,  and  it  imparts  this  trait  to  its 
child,  the  individual  Ego.  Hence  there  rises  the 
Feeling  of  Knowledge  as  the  necessary  comple- 
ment of  the  Feeling  of  Freedom.  In  fact  the 
Will,  taken  by  Itself  with  its  movement  persist- 
ently outward,  would  nullify  the  Ego;  the  Will 
alone  would  in  its  doinsj  become  self-undoinor. 
Experience  has  told  us  in  many  ways  that  Free- 
dom in  its  excess  is  not  only  destructive  but  sclf- 
destructive.     This  goes  back  to  the  very  nature 




of  the  Will,  when  it  is  separated  from  Intellect. 
Psychologically  I  must  $ee  that  it  is  but  a  part, 
the  second  stage  of  the  total  Ego,  and  that  it 
demands  the  completion  of  itself  in  the  third  stage, 
which  makes  it  truly  whole  even  as  a  part. 

Accordingly  we  have  reached  an  original,  ele- 
mental Feeling  of  Knowledge,  of  the  Ego  as 
self -returning,  which  is  in  its  turn  to  be  ordered 
and  made  the  source  of  a  new  kind  of  Absolute 



We  are  now  to  consider  the  third  and  last 
stage  of  Absolute  Feeling,  or  of  Sentiment, 
which  is  called  Theoretic,  since  it  both  leads 
to  and  springs  from  Intellect  {Tlieoria^  vision, 
contemplation,  intellection).  Already  we  have 
treated  of  Feeling  and  Will  as  the  ground  of 
Absolute  Feeling,  under  the  heads  of  Religious 
and  Practical  Sentiments.  The  All-Ego  which 
has  the  process  of  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect  is 
imparted  to  the  human  Ego  in  Consciousness, 
which  thus  has  the  same  process  of  Feeling,  Will, 
and  Intellect  for  its  own,  but  is  implicit,  poten- 
tial, or  as  an  ideal  end  which  it  always  feels  and 
seeks  to  make  real.  This  primordial  Feeling  of 
the  All-Ego   in  the  individual  Ego  is  the   sub- 


364  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTS. 

strate  or  protoplasmic  material  out  of  which 
grows  Absolute  Feeling  in  its  three  forms.  The 
first  Feeling  of  the  All-Ego,  my  creator,  in  me 
is  my  Consciousness,  which  we  have  already  con- 
sidered as  elemental  (p.  132).  Now  it  is  this 
original,  elemental  Feeling  common  to  all  Egos 
which  the  Genius  proceeds  to  form,  and  it  is  these 
new  forms  of  the  All-Ego  which  call  forth  prop- 
erly Absolute  Feeling,  or  the  Feeling  of  the 
Absolute,  in  the  Finite  Ego.  At  present  we  are 
to  set  forth  this  Absolute  Feeling  from  the  side 
of  Intellect. 

If  in  Will  I  feel  the  Universe  to  be  free  and 
self-determined,  this  being  stamped  upon  me  in 
my  creation :  in  Intellect  I  feci  the  Universe  to 
be  knowing,  yea,  self-knowing,  this  also  being 
stamped  upon  me  in  my  creation.  As  I  must  be 
free  within,  so  I  must  know  within,  like  the 
Universe  which  created  me  after  its  own  pattern, 

The  Universe  must  not  only  be  seeing  but  be 
self-seeing,  as  there  is  nothing  outside  of  it  to 
see  or  to  be  seen.  All  knowledge  or  Intellect  is 
a  kind  of  seeing  and  ultimately  a  self-seeing,  a 
seeing  of  the  Self  in  everything,  which  is  indeed 
a  product  of  the  innermost  Self.  In  the  highest 
sense  I  must  be  Self-knowing,  not  only  subject- 
ively but  objectively ;  as  long  as  I  know  merely 
the  outside,  and  not  the  Self  in  the  outside,  mv 
knowing  is  inadequate  and  finite. 


Accordingly  Man,  as  created  by  the  All-know- 
ing One,  must  feel  that  he  too  can  know;  you 
can  know  the  All,  though  this  be  but  a  Feeling. 
It  is,  however,  that  primordial  Feeling  of  knowl- 
edge in  Intellect,  which  correlates  with  the  Feel- 
ing of  God  in  Religion,  and  with  the  Feeling  of 
Freedom  in  Will. 

Out  of  this  primordial  Feeling  of  Knowledge 
common  to  all  Egos  as  conscious,  the  Genius 
rises  up  and  forms  anew  for  the  knowing  Self 
the  creative  All-Ego  and  its  process.  He  is  to 
formulate  and  to  organize  the  All-knowing  All, 
the  self -knowing  Universe,  the  All-Ego  for  the 
finite,  human,  recipient  mass  of  Egos,  to  the 
end  that  they  too  may  participate  in  divine 
knowledge,  may  know  the  ordered  Absolute. 
Already  every  recipient  Ego  has  the  Feeling  of 
such  knowledge,  but  not  the  knowledge  formed, 
expressed,  organized.  This  is,  or  has  been  in 
the  World's  History,  the  work  of  the  Genius, 
the  divinely  gifted  man  with  his  powers  of  re- 
creating the  All. 

Intellect,  though  in  a  process  with  Feeling 
and  Will,  has  its  own  inner  process  or  Psychosis, 
and  this  too  is  derived  from  the  All-Ego  (Pam- 
psychosis).  Intellect  takes  three  main  forms. 
Sense-perception,  Representation,  and  Thought. 
A  theoretic  relation  as  distinct  from  the  practi- 
cal is  indicated  by  all  three ;  they  are  ways  of 
seeing  the  object,    or  better,  of   knowing  it,  of 


366  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTK. 

making  it  a  part  of  my  own  Ego.  When,  how- 
ever, this  object  is  the  Universe  as  Ego,  or  the 
All-knowing  All,  which  has  created  my  Intellect, 
I  roach  out  to  know  the  source  of  my  knowing 
and  manifest  my  primordial  Feeling  for  knowl- 
edge. I  seek  to  know  not  only  myself  but  the 
All-Self  in  All.  Such  is,  then,  my  deepest  as- 
piration for  knowledge,  stirring  within  me  not 
simply  to  know  something  but  to  know  the  cre- 
ative source  of  my  knowing,  the  Universe  as 
knowledge,  the  All-knowing  All. 

Intellect,  then,  our  theoretic  faculty,  will 
know  or  see  (in  the  wide  sense)  the  All-knowing 
All  in  three  wiiys,  or  under  three  forms  of  itself, 
Sense-perception,  Representation,  and  Thought. 
I,  receiving  this  All  by  observation  or  knowledge, 
may  sense  it,  may  image  it,  or  may  think  it. 
Moreover,  the  All-knowing  All,  or  self-knowing 
Universe  comes  to  me  already  formed  for  and 
appealing  to  my  Senses,  my  Imagination,  or  my 
Thought.  As  before  stated,  it  comes  prepared 
by  the  Genius,  and  rouses  my  Absolute  Feeling 
as  Theoretic  Sentiment,  w^hich  is  not  simply  the 
Feeling  of  the  ordered  Absolute,  but  of  the 
ordered  Absolute  as  seen  and  known.  Thus  the 
primordial,  elemental,  immediate  Feeling  of 
knowledge  rises  to  an  Absolute  Feeling,  here  the 
Feeling  of  the  Absolute  all-knowing  (omniscient) 
as  organized. 

Such    an  organization  or  formulation  of   the 


all-knowing  All  for  the  recipient  Ego  may  be 
called  Art  in  its  most  extended  Sense.  Hence 
we  shall  have  Sense-Arts  ( Present  ative), 
Image-Arts  (Representative),  and  Thought-Arts 
(Noetic,  Alethic).  Such  is  the  side  of  the  recip- 
ient Ego.  And  yet  we  must  remember  that  the 
All-Ego  is  likewise  Intellect  and  has  Sense-Per- 
ception, Representation,  and  Thought.  Hence 
we  may  deem  the  All-knowing  All  to  manifest 
himself  as  All-sensing  All,  All-representing  All, 
All-thinking  All.  Thus  the  Sense-Arts  seek  to 
bring  to  man's  senses  the  All-sensing  (seeing) 
All  (Aesthetic);  the  Image  Arts  seek  to  bring 
to  man's  imagination  the  All-representing  All 
(Poetic) ;  the  Thought- Arts  seek  to  bring  to 
man's  thinking  the  All-thinking  All  (Philo- 

In  Theoretic  Sentiment,  we  shall  again  see  the 
following  stages: — 

(X.)  The  Process  of  it  in  general ; 
(II.)  Theoretic  Sentiment  particularized; 

(III.)  The  same  universalized. 

We  may  here  state  that  the  content  of  the 
present  sphere  (Theoretic  Sentiment)  we  have 
more  fully  set  forth  in  another  work.  Hence 
we  shall  only  make  a  brief  recapitulation,  though 
the  field  is  vast  and  important,  embracing  Art, 
Poetry,  and  Philosophy.  In  the  case  before  us, 
however,  we  can  simply  touch  upon  the  Senti- 
ment which  is  roused  by  these  subjects  and  or- 


868  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTS. 

ganize  it  into  a  system  which  corresponds  to  the 
divisions  employed  in  the  work  referred  to  (see 
Social  Listitulions^  Chapter  Third  of  the  Edu- 
cative Institution,  pp.  521-615,  embracing  the 
Sense-Arts,  the  Image-Arts,  and  the  Thought- 

I.  The  Process  op  Theoretic  Sentiment. — 
There  is  the  primordial  Feeling  of  the  All-Ego, 
which  we  found  in  Consciousness  already  as  self- 
knowing.     This  Feeling  is  common  to  all  Egos, 

'  and  upon  its  presence  in  man  Art  relies  for 
power.  Now  it  is  this  All-Ego  or  the  Universe  as 
Self  which  is  to  be  ordered  and  thus  made  newly 
existent  in  the  world.     Thus  we  may  say,  in  gen- 

,eral,  that  God  has  to  be  re-made  in  order  to  be 
an  object  of  Theoretic  Sentiment.  The  general 
process  of  the  latter  is  as  follows. 

1 .  The  Theoretic  Genius.  —  Such  is  the  general 
name  of  the  creative  man  in  the  present  sphere, 
he  who  is  able  to  reproduce  the  process  of  the 
universal  Self  in  some  theoretic  form  —  sensu- 
ous, imaginative,  philosophic.  Examples  are  the 
Painter,  the  Poet,  the  Thinker.  The  Theoretic 
Genius  projects  into  a  new  reality  the  form  of 
the  divinely  creative  Ego,  which  he  feels  along 
with  the  mjiss  of  men.  But  such  a  Feeling  works 
in  him  genetically,  that  is,  as  Genius,  driving 
him  to  organize  what  he  feels  in  forms  that  all 
may  appropriate,  and  thereby  share  in  the 


2.  The  Theoretic  Order,  —  So  we  may  name 
what  is  organized  in  the  present  sphere,  which 
thus  is  lifted  out  of  its  uncertain  subjective  state 
into  an  actual  existent  object  perpetually  working 
in  the  world.  Our  knowledge  of  the  Universal 
or  of  the  Universe  as  Ego  is  in  this  way  made 
definite,  formulated,  is  endowed  with  reality, 
which  in  turn  becomes  the  prolific  source  of 
manifold  Feelings  now  truly  absolute,  as  in  Art, 
Poetry,  and  Science. 

3.  The  RecipierUs,  —  These  are  the  great  end 
of  the  present  sphere,  the  people  who  are  to  be 
elevated  into  participating  in  the  knowledge  of 
the  All-Ego  through  the  work  of  the  Genius. 
Art,  Poetry,  Science  are  to  impart  their  treas- 
ures to  every  man  that  he  too  may  feel  and  see 
God.  Some  may  reach  Him  through  His  actual 
presence  as  in  Sculpture ;  others  prefer  to  grasp 
Him  through  the  inner  image  called  up  by  the 
poet ;  still  others  attain  Him  through  imageless 

The  Ego  has  also  a  Gift,  that  of  Evolution 
whereby  it  must  always  be  rising  out  of  its 
limits,  be  limit-transcending.  Thus  the  Gift  of 
Genius  has  its  corresponding  Gift  to  work  upon 
in  every  Ego. 

n.  Theoretic  Sentiment  Particularized. — 
In  giving  the  preceding  account  of  the  general 
Process  of  Absolute  Sentiment,  we  have  been 
compelled    repeatedly  to  allude  to  its  particular 



forms.  The  Genius  is  also  particularized,  be  is 
specially  sculptor,  or  painter,  or  poet,  or  philoso- 
pher. He  has  power  usually  over  only  one  kind 
of  form,  he  sets  forth  the  Universe  through 
color,  or  sound,  or  perchance  through  abstract 
speech,  each  of  which  forms,  however,  becomes 
anew  source  of  Feeling  of  the  absolute  kind. 

1.  Aesthetic.  —  The  Fine  Arts  proper,  or  the 
Sense-Arts,  stimulate  the  activity  of  Absolute 
Feeling  which  is  called  aesthetic,  since  it  comes 
directly  through  the  Senses.  The  Genius  as 
artist  projects  the  process  of  the  All-Ego  into 
forms  which  are  taken  up  through  Sense-percep- 
tion, specially  through  Sight  and  Hearing. 

Aesthetic  Sentiment  is  still  further  divided 
according  to  the  Arts  which  maybe  its  source,  or 
according  to  the  Presentative  Arts.  These  are  the 
Somatic  Arts,  Architecture,  and  Music,  each  of 
which  in  its  own  way  brings  home  to  the  Feeling 
of  the  recipient  the  divinely  creative  Self,  and 
thereby  stirs  in  him  the  aesthetic  Sentiment. 
(For  further  elaboration  of  these  Arts,  see  our 
Social  Institutions^  pp.  547-577.) 

Art  particularly  represents  the  form  of  the 
All-sensing  All  to  the  senses  of  the  recipient. 
Through  the  form  of  Zeus  you  see  the  All-seeing 
All,  without  the  finite  eye,  however,  which  is 
simply  indicated.  Artistic  objects  are  finite,  but 
they  stimulate,  not  merely  external  sensuous 
vision,  but  the  vision  of  the  All,  else  they  are 


not  artistic.  In  Telesthesis  the  Ego  could  see 
and  feel  at  a  distance,  through  the  medium  of 
the  Over-Self ;  but  the  All-Self  becomes  visible 
in  Art,  for  instance  in  a  statue  of  the  God. 

2.  Poetic.  —  With  the  inner  Image  Poetic  Sen- 
timent properly  deals,  hence  it  is  stirred  also  by 
the  Image- Arts,  which  in  general  are  known  as 
Literature.  The  word  spoken  and  written  now 
becomes  the  vehicle  of  rousing  the  Feeling  which 
springs  from  the  All  organized.  This  organiza- 
tion can  be  far  more  perfectly  represented  in 
speech  than  by  the  foregoing  Sense-Arts.  Hence 
the  mightest  and  most  influential  expression  of 
the  ordered  Absolute  is  in  the  Great  Books,  the 
Bibles  of  the  World,  both  sacred  and  secular. 
To  be  sure  Poetic  Sentiment  is  exceedingly  varied, 
it  may  be  roused  by  the  little  lyric  as  well  as  by 
the  great  epic  or  drama. 

The  word  spoken  and  written,  when  truly 
poetic,  becomes  the  bearer  of  the  Pampsychosis 
to  the  Ego,  stirring  the  latter  to  take  up  and 
assimilate  the  former.  The  Mythus,  Folk-lore, 
even  the  Novel  have  this  function  in  various 

3.  Alethic,  —  The  Universe  as  Ego  now  seeks  a 
new  expression,  not  in  the  forms  of  Sense,  nor  of 
the  Image,  but  of  Thought.  What  is  universal 
drives  forward  to  utter  itself  in  aformcorrespond- 
mg  to  its  character,  namely  universal.  Speech 
becomes,    therefore,   abstract,   being  abstracted 

•  B^^i^MM 


372  FEELING  —  AB80L  UTS. 

from  its  sensuous  and  imaginative  determinations. 
Such  an  utterance  is  universal,  that  is,  true; 
Truth  is  not  only  universal,  but  must  be  told 
universally,  must  be  put  into  an  universal  form. 
Here,  then,  rises  a  new  art  with  its  peculiar  ex- 
pression and  its  peculiar  Sentiment,  which  we 
may  call  alethic  (from  Truth)  or  noetic  (from 

Alethic  Art  splits  up  into  three  main  divisions, 
those  of  Natural  Science,  History,  and  Philoso- 
phy. These  have  been  and  still  are  the  great, 
trainers  of  man  in  the  pursuit  of  Truth  as  such 
in  the  form  of  abstract  Thought.  Hence  m  the 
present  sphere  we  note  the  following  subordinate 
Sentiments,  each  of  which  springs  from  and  goes 
toward  the  Absolute  ordered.  There  is  first  the 
Scientific  Sentiment  {ov  Feeling)  whose  object  or 
content  is  tlio  Truth  of  Nature  as  expressed  in 
the  categories  of  Natural  Science.  Second  comes 
the  Historic  Sentiment^  which  has  as  its  source 
the  Truth  under! viuoj  human  deeds  and  events 
Third  is  the  Philosophic  Sentitnent^  for  Pliiloso- 
phy,  or  the  Universe  of  Thought  organized  as 
Thought,  begets  a  strong  Sentiment  in  its  de- 
votees, as  time  has  shown  and  still  shows.  Thus 
the  Absolute  as  such,  through  its  own  congruent 
philosophical  form,  has  stirred  the  Feeling  of 
the  Absolute.  That  is.  Absolute  Feeling  or 
Sentiment  has  attained  the  Feeling  of  the  Abso- 
lute in  the  hitter's  own  native  shape. 


Alethic  Sentiment  has  thus  had  as  its  content 
Science,  History,  and  Philosophy,  which  are  the 
ordering  of  Nature,  Man  (in  action)  and  God 
(or  the  Absolute).  These  three  stages — Nature, 
Man,  and  God  —  form  the  complete  process  of 
the  Universe  as  the  Grand  Totality  which  we 
have  often  called  the  Parapsychosis,  which  is 
also  to  have  its  Feeling  or  Sentiment,  distinct 
from  any  hitherto  set  forth. 

But  now  appears  the  limitation  of  the  present 
sphere.  The  Thought-form  of  the  All-Ego  is 
declared  to  be  universal.  And  yet  it  shows 
itself  as  particular  over  against  the  Image-form 
and  the  Sense-form.  Thus  the  Alethic  Senti- 
ment comes  to  feel  that  it  is  not  universal,  and 
yet  must  make  itself  such,  in  order  to  be  ade- 
quate to  its  content,  the  All-Ego. 

III.  Theoretic  Sentiment  Universalized. — 
Philosophy  or  the  Pure  Thought  of  the  Universe 
has  unfolded  the  process  of  Nature,  Man,  and 
the  Absolute  (or  God),  and  therein  given  the 
organized  content  of  Alethic  Sentiment.  But 
Thought  finds  itself  to  be  only  one  stage  of  the 
greater  cycle  of  Intellect,  which  embraces  also 
Sense-perception  and  Representation.  Hence 
Theoretic  Sentiment  must  rise  beyond  the  nar- 
rower sphere  of  Alethic  Sentiment,  or  the  Senti- 
ment of  Philosophy,  into  the  complete  movement 
of  the  Intellect,  and  therein  start  to  become 
psychical,  having  the  triple  process  of  the  Intel- 


lect  explicitly  for  its  content.  Here  begins, 
then,  the  Feeling,  not  of  Philosophy,  but  of 
Psychology,  and  a  new  order  of  Sentiment 

1.  The  Sentiment  of  the  Pampsychosis  —  its 
Rise.  —  The  Feeling  of  the  All-Ego  ordered  as 
psychical  has  now  dawned,  this  psychical  order 
manifesting  itself  in  the  theoretic  sphere  of  the 
Intellect.  But  even  Intellect  finds  itself  limited ; 
the  theoretic  sphere  has  its  bounds  in  the  Practi- 
cal and  the  Beligious.  In  other  words  Intellect 
shows  itself  but  a  part  of  a  greater  process  which 
includes  Will  and  Feeling  in  order  to  be  com- 
plete psychically.  Thus  even  Intellect  is  not 
universal,  but  has  to  make  itself  such  by  taking 
up  into  itself  its  two  correlative  stages.  M}'^  In- 
tellect in  order  to  know  itself  as  truly  universal, 
must  go  back  and  see  itself  united  in  one  pro- 
cess with  Will  and  Feeling.  Thus  it  has  univer- 
salized itself  by  making  itself  psychological, 
formulating  the  Ego  as  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intel- 

This  is  what  we  call  the  Psychosis  in  its  simple 
concrete  form,  the  naked  movement  of  the  Ego 
as  such.  But  this  is  not  the  end ;  the  psychical 
process  is  not  merely  mine,  or  individual ;  if  it 
be  universal  it  must  be  the  process  of  the  Uni- 
verse. Not  merely  that  of  all  Egos,  but  that  of 
the  All  itself;  it  cannot  be  simply  subjective, 
but  must    be    objective  too,    universal.     Thus 


rises  before  us  an  All-Ego  often  noted  hitherto, 
with  its  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  which  we 
may  more  specially  consider  as  All-feeling  All, 
All-willing  All,  All-knowing  All.  This  is  dis- 
tinctively the  Parapsychosis. 

Moreover  it  has  its  primordial  Feeling  in  the 
individual  Ego  correlative  with  the  primordial 
Feeling  of  Religion,  of  Freedom,  and  of  Knowl- 
edge. But  the  new  Feeling  is  that  of  the  process 
of  them  all,  of  the  Parapsychosis  itself. 

2.  The  Sentiment  of  the  Pampsychosis  organ- 
ized.—  The  original  Feeling  of  the  triune  process 
of  the  Universe  as  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect  is 
next  to  be  put  into  order,  that  is,  into  its  own 
pampsychical  order.  This  is  the  work  of  the 
Genius,  the  creative  spirit  who  rises  out  of  the 
comraon  Feeling  (here  pampsychical),  and  estab- 
lishes his  system,  doing  something  similar  to 
what  the  Genius  did  also  in  Religion,  Institu- 
tions, Art,  and  Philosophy.  Such  new  ordering 
of  the  All-Ego  psychically  through  and  through 
gives  rise  to  the  new  science — psychology. 
The  Feeling  of  the  Absolute  organized  is  finally 
to  come  to  the  individual,  not  through  Feeling, 
Will,  and  Intellect  singly  ordered  (as  hitherto), 
but  in  their  complete  psychical  round.  This  in 
turn  calls  forth  the  pampsychical  Sentiment 
proper,  alethic  in  a  new  sense,  the  Feeling  of 
the  truth  of  Psychology. 

The   present   Sentiraent,  therefore,    demands 

876  PEELING  —  AB80L  UTE. 

that  the  Universe  be  ordered  not  as  an  abstract 
idea  (as  in  Philosophy),  not  simply  as  an  image 
(as  in  Poetry),  not  simply  as  a  sensuous  object 
(as  in  Art),  but  as  all  three  and  their  process. 
And  this  is  not  enough :  the  present  Sentiment 
demands  that  the  Universe  be  ordered  not  sim- 
ply as  Intellect  (All-knowing  All,  omniscience), 
not  simply  as  Will  (All-willing  All,  omnipotence), 
not  simply  as  Feeling  (All-feeling  All,  omni- 
sentience),  but  as  all  three  and  their  process.    . 

Such  we  may  deem  the  Pampsychosis  or- 
ganized psychically  in  its  primal  stages.  This 
triple  impress  is  what  is  stamped  upon  every 
created  thing  by  the  creative  All-Ego  which 
thus  imparts  itself  in  manifold  grades  from 
lowest  to  highest. 

3.  Sentiment  of  the  Pampsychosis —  the  Re- 
cipient. —  In  the  other  fields  of  Absolute  Feeling 
we  have  had  to  speak  of  the  many  recipient 
Egos,  the  mass,  the  people,  who  are  to  receive 
and  appropriate,  and  then  feel  the  ordering  of 
the  creative  man,^the  Genius,  the  special  favor- 
ite of  the  Universe,  being  endowed  with  its 
universal  genetic  power. 

Nothing  would  seem,  therefore,  to  be  more 
absolute,  more  autocratic  than  Genius,  being  the 
only  born  ruler  of  men,  associating  them  by  his 
Divine  Gift.  The  recipient  mass  of  Egos  is  to 
accept  directly  at  first  his  message,  his  organiza- 
tion; in  Asia  the  Genius  is  deemed  the  God  Him- 


self  or  next  to  the  God  as  Prophet,  Revealer. 
In  Europe  the  Genius  is  essentially  aristocratic, 
divinely  gifted  by  birth,  yet  human  and  appeal- 
ing to  humanity ;  he  is  Genius  through  the  Grace 
of  God.  But  this  Divine  Right  of  Genius  is 
likewise  to  be  transformed  in  the  Occident,  along 
with  other  Divine  Rights;  not  lost  or  thrown 
away  by  any  means,  but  renewed  and  recon- 

The  Recipient  Ego  is  undoubtedly  to  receive 
and  to  assimilate  still  what  the  Genius  creatively 
orders  in  every  field ;  but  it  must  also  be  made 
a  part  of  the  process.  I  am  to  recreate  what 
creates  me,  and  am  myself  to  become  a  stage  in 
such  creation.  I,  the  Recipient,  am  not  to  bo 
left  out  of  my  own  supreme  process,  I  am  to  be 
explicitly  present.  The  Genius  is  to  make  me, 
in  his  formulation  of  the  All-Ego,  a  sharer,  a  co- 
worker in  creating  the  Universe,  without  whom 
indeed  it  could  not  be  completely  created.  Thus 
I  am  not  only  to  reproduce  the  Pampsychosis 
within,  but  am  to  include  myself  in  such  repro- 
duction. My  Sentiment  becomes  pampsychical 
when  I,  as  Recipient  Ego,  feel  the  process  of  the 
All,  and  feel  myself  to  be  a  necessary  inherent 
element  of  that  process.  Herein  the  worth  of 
the  individual  has  dawned. 

Such  is  or  may  be  the  gift  of  the  Genius  to  the 
Recipient  Ego.  But  the  latter  is  to  advance  one 
step  higher:  he  iS  himself  to   become   Genius. 

878  FEELING  —  AS80L  UTE. 

That  is,  the  Genius  is  finally  to  impart  himself, 
his  creativity,  to  every  Ego  of  the  mass,  who  is 
to  receive  not  so  much  the  product  of  Grenius,  as 
the  very  Genius  itself.  We  say  that  it  is  the 
ultimate  function  of  Genius  (as  far  as  we  can  at 
present  sec )  to  make  each  Ego  what  it  is ;  it 
must  endow  every  man  with  itself,  namely 
Genius.  The  Many  are  not  merely  to  partici- 
pate, but  to  create. 

It  is  evident  that  the  Recipient  Ego  in  this  last 
stage  of  the  Pampsychosis,  has  returned  to  the 
Genius  and  taken  him  up  into  itself,  becoming 
the  total  process  of  the  All-Ego  within  itself, 
establishing  its  own  order  in  the  full  freedom  of 
the  spirit.  Every  Ego  has  some  such  Sentiment 
or  perchance  Pre-Sentiment  of  the  Pampsychosis 
fulfilled  or  to  be  fulfilled. 

The  outcome  of  the  total  movement  of  Feel- 
ing is,  therefore,  the  pampsychical  Sentiment. 
The  Ego  feels  not  only  the  creative  power  of  the 
Universe,  but  that  it  can  and  must  recreate  this 
creative  power  which  indeed  creates  it.  And  not 
only  feel  and  will  and  think  this  power,  but  also 
formulate  it  and  impart  it  to  others ;  therein  the 
Ego  brings  forth  the  new  science.  Psychology, 
the  science  of  itself  and  of  the  Self  as  All.  In 
Psychology  every  man  is  to  be  at  last  his  own 
Genius,  and  make  his  own  Universe  as  psychical, 
including  himself  as  a  creative  part  thereof. 

0B8EBVATI0N8.  379 

Observations  on  Absolute  Feeling.  The  reader 
is  not  to  forget  that  the  words  practical  and 
theoretical  are  here  employed  in  a  wider  sense 
than  in  ordinary  usage.  The  practical  man  is 
commonly  understood  to  mean  him  who  is  ready 
and  skillful  in  adapting  means  to  ends,  quick  to 
act  in  emergencies.  Here  it  pertains  to  the  Will 
in  its  whole  sphere,  Will  being  the  practical 
activity  of  man.  On  the  other  hand  theoretical 
activity  in  the  present  connection  means  that  of 
the  Intellect  as  a  whole,  though  in  common 
speech  it  often  means  some  scheme  or  thought 
which  is  impractical,  that  is,  cannot  be  realized, 
and  hence  of  small  account.  The  two  words 
are,  therefore,  the  adjectives  of  Will  and  Intel- 
lect —  a  usage  derived  from  Greek  Philosophy 
and  well  known  in  modern  philosophical 

1.  It  is  perhaps  easier  to  grasp  practical  Feel- 
ing or  the  primal  Feeling  of  Freedom,  which  we 
may  observe  in  the  lowest  animal,  than  either 
religious  or  theoretic  Feeling.  To  this  fact 
more  than  to  any  other  we  may  ascribe  the 
prevalence  of  the  doctrine  which  asserts  the 
primacy  of  the  Will,  or  of  practical  Feeling. 
That  there  is  no  such  primacy  of  Will  as  agaiust 
Feeling  and  Intellect,  or  any  similar  primacy  of 
Feeling  or  of  Intellect  in  themselves,  we 
have  elsewhere  tried  to  show.  (See  Prolegom- 
ena.)    The  true  primacy  is  that  of  the  process 

r^ -rf^wH^^kM^Mihrfta 

S80  FEELINQ  —  AB80L  UTE. 

itself  which  includes  all  three  —  Feeling,  Will, 
Intellect.  And  yet  there  is  a  priority  of  order 
in  this  process,  which  priority  belongs  to  Feel- 
ing, as  is  manifest  in  the  formula  just  given. 
This  order  is  also  what  determines  the  succes- 
sive stages  of  Absolute  Feeling  as  above  set 
forth — religious,  practical,  and  theoretical. 

We  can,  then,  without  much  difficulty,  iden- 
tify in  ourselves  the  Feeling  of  Freedom  (prac- 
tical); with  a  somewhat  greater  effort  we  can 
find  within  us  the  Feeling  of  Knowledge 
(theoretic) ;  we  are  certainly  aware  we  can  do 
and  can  know.  But  in  religious  Feeling  some- 
thing harder  to  understand  appears :  there  may 
be  a  Feeling  of  Feeling,  the  Ego  feels  that  it 
feels  (not  simply  feels  that  it  wills  and  knows  ). 
Can  we  discover  in  our  emotional  experience  any- 
thing that  corresponds  to  such  a  statement?  An 
inner  condition  of  mine  is  when  I  feel  myself 
feelinor  God.  There  is  this  self-reference  in  the 
feeling  Ego  which  does  not  rise  to  self-knowing 
(see  preceding  pp.  58,  65).  So  the  Ego,  the  in- 
dividual, feels  itself  feeling  the  All-Ego  or  God. 
Moreover  the  latter  is  felt  in  its  process.  I  may 
say,  therefore,  that  I  feel  myself  feeling  God's 
Feeling  (or  Presence),  God's  Will  (to  which  I 
yield),  and  God's  Knowing  (which  too  I  must 
know  in  a  measure). 

2.  These   subjective  states  which  we  call  re- 
ligious   Feelings   ramify   endlessly  and  become 


very  subtle  and  intricate.  Still  they  in  their 
ifianifold  labyrinths  reach  back  to  the  simple 
Feeling  of  the  all-creative  Self,  the  first  God- 
consciousness,  the  primal  Feeling  of  Religion. 
N«w  this  primal  Feeling  is  the  raw  material  out 
of  which  is  organized  Absolute  Feeling  in  all  its 
forms.  It  is  the  plastic  substance  which  the 
Genius  works  in  and  organizes,  as  has  been  re- 
peatedly set  forth  in  the  preceding  exposition. 

But  let  us  take  up  our  "  raw  material  "  again 
and  see  it  unfolding,  as  it  is  expressed  in  the 
formula:  I  feel  myself  feeling  God  or  the  All- 
Ego.  -Here,  then,  are  two  Egos,  each  neces- 
sarily with  its  process  of  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Intellect.  That  is,  my  individual  Ego  on  the 
one  side  with  its  threefold  nature  is  stirred  to 
its  primordial  Feeling  by  the  universal  Ego  which 
also  has  a  threefold  nature  on  the  other  side. 
Then  the  statement  will  run  more  fully:  I  (as 
Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect)  feel  myself  feeling 
God  (as  Feeling,  Will  and  Intellect). 

Still  more  fully  the  foregoing  statement  may 
be  developed  into  the  following  propositions: — 

(a)  I  feel  primordially  the  All-Ego  (God)  as 
Feeling  stimulating  my  Feeling.  The  raw  mate- 
rial (Feeling  of  God)  of  Religion  organized. 

(6)  I  feel  primordially  the  All-Ego  as  Will 
stimulating  my  Will.  The  raw  material  (Feel- 
ing of  Freedom)  of  the  moral  and  institutional 


882  FEELING  —  AB30L  UTE. 

(c)  I  feel  primordially  the  All- Ego  as  Intel- 
lect  stimulating  my  Intellect.  The  raw  material 
(Feeling  of  Knowledge)  of  the  artistic,  poetic 
and  philosophic  realms. 

The  common  element  emphasized  in  these 
propositions  is  the  All-Ego,  which  we  call  also 
conscious  in  the  wide  sense  of  the  word, 
the  original  protoplasm  of  all  mind.  The  proto- 
plasmic Ego  is  Consciousness. 

3.  Now  this  primordial  unorganized  Feeling  of 
the  All-Ego  in  the  individual  Ego  must  next  be 
organized  in  objective  forms,  around  which  and 
through  which  new  Feeling  arises.  This  new 
Feeling  is  that  of  the  Absolute  or  of  the  All-Ego 
realized,  objectified,  formulated  —  the  sphere  of 
Absolute  Feeling  or  Sentiment.  The  three  kinds 
of  Sentiment  we  may  recapitulate  once  more,  and 
add  some  points. 

(a)  The  Sentiment  of  God  as  distinct  from 
the  primordial  Feeling  of  Him.  The  two  may 
become  antagonistic. 

(b)  The  Sentiment  of  Freedom  as  distinct 
from  the  primordial  Feeling  of  it.  The  two 
may  become  antagonistic. 

(c)  The  Sentiment  of  Knowledge  as  distinct 
from  the  primordial  Feeling  of  it.  The  two  may 
become  antagonistic. 

In  this  tabular  form  we  seek  to  bring  out  the 
fact  that  the  original,  elemental,  primordial 
Feeling  of  God,  of  Freedom,  and  of  Knowledge 

JH**  ■- 

0B8EBVATI0NS.  388 

may  become  hostile,  in  fact  is  sure  to  become 
hostile  to  the  organized  Feeling  or  Sentiment  of 
the  same  three  —  God,  Freedom,  Knowledge, 
though  this  second  as  Sentiment  has  its  source  in 
that  first  as  Feeling. 

Let  us  illustrate.  There  is  always  an  attempt 
to  go  back  out  of  organized  Religion  to  that 
original,  spontaneous  well-head  of  Feeling  which 
is  often  called  emotional  Religion.  And  let  it  be 
added  there  is  a  continual  need  of  it,  of  this  re- 
turn out  of  formal  established  Religion  to  its 
primordial  protoplasmic  Feeling  whence  it 
sprang,  for  it  is  not  created  once  for  all  but 
should  be  perpetually  re-created.  When,  how- 
ever, the  two  get  to  fighting  each  other  (as  we 
see  often  in  Revivals),  it  is  a  combat  bet  ween  par- 
ent and  child.  The  same  struggle  we  observe 
between  Freedom  organized  in  institutions  and 
the  elemental  Freedom  of  the  Ego,  which  in  its 
wrath  has  been  often  seen  in  history  to  turn 
against  and  destroy  the  institutional  world, 
which  is  its  own  product  and  guarantee.  But  just 
now  the  strongest  example  is  the  feud  between 
knowledge  organized  and  knowledge  sponta- 
neously expressing  itself  in  the  way  of  immediate 
experience.  Even  in  the  seats  of  learning  where, 
one  might  think,  organized  knowledge  ought  to 
be  at  home  and  be  transmitted  to  the  future,  it 
is  very  often  disparaged  and  ridiculed  with  many 
pretentious   airs   of   superiority.     And  yet  the 


original  elemental  Feeling  of  Knowledge  should 
be  kept  alive  and  at  work,  as  the  creative  energy 
antecedent  to  all  organized  science  and  indis- 
pensable to  the  same.  The  point  is,  however, 
not  to  set  the  two  against  each  other,  but  to 
unite  them  together  in  a  common  process  of 
which  both  are  necessary  stages.  And  what  is 
true  in  this  last  case  is  true  in  the  other  cases. 
The  two  kinds  of  Religion,  the  two  kinds  of 
Freedom  and  the  two  kinds  of  Knowledge  ex- 
pressing themselves  respectively  in  two  kinds  of 
Feeling,  are  not  to  remain  in  their  dualism,  but 
are  to  be  reconciled  in  the  triune  movement  of 
the  Psychosis. 

4.  It  is  an  old  idea  that  Fear  is  the  source  of 
Religion,  though  we  find  this  same  idea  in  some 
recent  books  on  Psychology  written  by  preachers 
of  the  Gospel.  Timor  fecit  Deos^  said  the 
ancient  Epicurean.  Rather  it  is  the  God  that 
produces  the  Fear  than  the  Fear  that  produces 
the  God.  For  the  God-consciousness  must  be 
primordial,  existent  before  there  can  be  any 
terror  of  Him.  You  must  first  feel  God  ere  you 
can  feel  any  Fear  of  Him.  An  animal  may  fear 
the  storm,  but  this  calls  up  in  it  no  God  to  be 
afraid  of  and  to  be  appeased  with  offerings. 
The  Feeling  of  God  must,  therefore,  pre-exist, 
and  set  to  work  all  kinds  of  God-making  and  of 
reliojious  oro^aiiization.  The  same  is  true  of 
Herbert   Spencer's  famous  source    of   religion, 


the  worship  of  ancestors.  This  worship  cannot 
appear  till  the  aforesaid  Feeling  of  God,  which 
is  born  in  and  with  Consciousness  itself,  renders 
such  worship  possible.  All  other  so-called 
causes  of  Religion  pre-suppose  this  primordial 

5.  The  conflict  in  the  conception  of  God  (that 
between  His  Transcendence  and  His  Immanence, 
p.  326),  has  always  given  and  is  still  giving 
much  trouble  to  Theology  and  even  to  Philoso- 
phy. Among  the  philosophers  who  have  grap- 
pled with  it,  the  most  famous  is  Kant,  who,  in 
his  Second  Book  of  the  Transcendental  Dialectic 
of  the  Critirjue  of  Pave  Reason^  develops  what 
he  deems  the  contradiction  in  the  idea  of  God. 
Without  going  into  details,  we  may  say  that 
Kant's  whole  argument  rests  upon  two  meanings 
which  he  unconsciously  puts  into  the  conception 
of  God,  who,  therefore,  is  laden  from  the  start 
with  two  opposite  predications.  On  the  one 
hand  God  as  creator  of  the  World  and  Man  is 
transcendent,  being  separate  from  both ;  on  the 
other  hand  God  as  the  All,  the  Universe  (  Omni- 
tudo  realita(Ls),  is  within  it,  immanent.  Thus 
Kant  pre-supposes  a  Double  God,  whose  contra- 
diction he  has  no  great  difficulty  in  finding.  (In 
lilce  manner  he  presupposes  a  Double  World  in 
his  Antinomies,  and  even  a  Double  Ego  in  his 
Paralogisms. )    Kant's  negative  conclusion  is  that 



the  conception  of  God  contradicts  itself,  and 
hence  is  delusive. 

And  yet  both  these  ideas.  Transcendence  and 
Immanence,  have  made  themselves  tremendous! v 
valid  in  the  history  of  man's  spiritual  nature.  Still 
further,  every  thinking  person,  who  occupies  his 
mind  with  these  ideas,  gives  validity  to  both. 
Properly  both  belong  to  the  individual  Ego  seek- 
ing to  grasp  and  formulate  the  Universe.  Still 
they  are  not  to  be  held  in  opposition  to  each 
other,  but  are  to  be  seen  as  parts  or  stages  of  the 
one  All-Ego  (the  Pampsychosis),  whose  third 
part  or  stage  is  the  Return  out  of  the  AYorld 
throuojh  Man  back  to  God.  Thus  we  behold  the 
triple  form  of  God,  World,  and  Man  linked  to- 
gether into  the  one  process  of  the  Universe. 

6.  We  may  say  another  word  about  the  Pam- 
psychosis, which  has  so  often  risen  up  in  the 
background  of  our  thought  and  encompassed  the 
whole  of  it,  being  the  great  Totality  or  the  All 
itself.  We  have  seen  it  determining  the  supreme 
forms  of  our  three  kinds  of  Sentiment,  religiours, 
practical,  theoretic.  It  reveals  itself  as  the  ulti- 
mate source  of  our  Feeling  of  God,  of  Freedom, 
and  of  Knowledge.  It  may  be  said  that  the  three 
basic  forms  of  the  Eiro  —  Feeling,  Will,  and 
Intellect  —  seek  to  attain  the  Pamps\'chosis  and 
to  manifest  it,  each  of  them  doing  this  separately 
and  in  its  own  wny. 

But  the  true  pampsychical   Sentiment  is  not 


reached  except  through  the  organization  of  these 
three  forms  —  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect  —  into 
one  process  through  Psychology.  It  is,  there- 
fore, supremely  the  psychological  Sentiment,  as 
distinct  from  the  philosophic,  aesthetic,  or  re- 
ligious Sentiments,  each  of  which  is  limited  to 
the  one  form  of  the  Ego.  In  Religion  we  gave 
to  the  process  of  the  Norm  —  God,  Nature,  and 
Man  —  the  name  of  Pampsychosis  or  the  All- 
Ego,  which,  however,  must  be  further  unfolded, 
since  this  All-Ego  is  likewise  the  total  process 
of  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  in  each  stage  and 
in  the  whole  of  the  Norm. 

Psychology  is  in  its  deepest  sense  the  science 
of  the  Pampsychosis,  the  Self  divine,  human, 
and  even  physical.  The  old  Norm  —  God,  Na- 
ture, Man — is  quite  abstract  and  internally 
separated,  till  it  be  psychically  united  both  in  its 
parts  and  in  its  totality  through  the  triune  act  of 
Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  which  form  the  pro- 
cess of  the  All-Ego  and  constitute  the  theme  of 
Psychology.  The  Universe  itself  is  primarily 
psychical ;  but  when  it  gets  truly  organized  into 
a  science,  then  it  is  psychological. 

The  highest  attainment  in  the  entire  realm  of 
Feeling,  the  culmination  and  transfiguration  of 
the  emotional  man,  is  the  pampsychical  Senti- 
ment. This  not  only  feels  the  triune  process  of 
the  Universe  organized,  and  makes  itself  har 
monious  with  the  same,  but  rises  to  feelingr  itself 

388  FEEL  ING  —  AB80L  UTB. 

creative  of  that  process  which  created  it  and  im- 
parted to  it  the  supreme  gift  of  creativit}'.  Such 
is  the  felt  return  of  the  individual  or  recipient 
Ego  into  unity  with  the  All-Ego,  in  whose  creative 
power  every  man  and  not  simply  the  Genius,  is 
ultimately  destined  to  share.  Even  now  we  all 
may  feel  or  rather  fore-feel  such  a  consumma- 
tion  aproaching  from  afar.  Thereby  we  may  be 
said  to  participate  in  the  pampsychical  Senti- 

7.  When  the  Pampsychosis  puts  its  creative 
stamp  upon  the  Ego,  we  have  Consciousness, 
which  seems  to  bo  at  the  present  time  the  great 
problem  exercif?ing  psychologists.  In  the  pre- 
ceding exposition  of  Feeling  as  a  whole,  we 
have  had  a  good  deal  to  do  with  it,  in  various 
relations  and  even  under  various  names.  We 
have  called  it  the  All-feeling  Ego  (third  stage  of 
Elemental  Feeling)  when  it  is  taken  as  origi- 
nating from  the  All ;  more  commonly  we  name 
it  the  Psychosis  when  we  grasp  it  as  the  move- 
ment of  the  Ego  in  and  of  itself,  as  having  a 
volitional  element;  also  it  is  the  protoplasmic 
Ego  in  its  primordial  process.  Consciousness 
suggests  all  these  meanings,  and  more:  it  hints 
the  intellectual  element  in  Feeling,  the  self-ref- 
erence which  becomes  self-cognition,  or  self- 
knowing,  for  Feeling  must  have  also  an  intel- 
lectual element  lurking  in  its  process.  Strictly 
Consciousness   is  not  Self-consciousness,    which 


has  within  itself  a  secoud  separation  and  return ; 
this  is  Consciousness  dividing  within  and  getting 
conscious  of  itself,  or  the  Ego  conscio  us  of  being 
conscious  as  distinct  from  the  non-Ego. 

It  must  be  confessed  that  Consciousness  is  not 
an  easy  term  to  handle.  In  its  wide  usage  it 
embraces  the  two  extremes,  the  Unconscious  and 
the  Self-conscious,  as  well  as  its  own  narrower 
meaning.     Here  is  a  brief  table  of  it :  — 

_,        .  f  ( 1 )  the  Unconscious 

Consciousness       )/o\AUi-»        •        /         -ix 

<  (2)  the  Conscious  (special) 

^°  ^*         (  (3)  the  Self-conscious. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  these  three  or  rather 
four  meanings  have  a  tendency  to  run  together 
and  to  produce  confusion.  We  probably  have 
not  escaped  the  trouble  which  lies  deep :  so  let 
the  reader  be  warned.  But  to  avoid  in  part  at 
least,  the  ambiguities  of  the  word  we  have  used 
the  compounds  suh-consclons  and  supra-conscipits, 
and  even pi^e-coiiscious  (see  the  section  on  All- 
Feeling).  Still  underneath  all  these  variations 
there  lies  the  one  fact:  the  process  of  the  All- 
Ego  in  the  individual  Ego,  which  thus  may  be 
regarded  as  in  a  perpetual  round  of  self-creation 
within  itself.  It  is  a  Whole  which  is  continuously 
self-dividing  and  self-returning,  all  of  which 
takes  phice  through  its  own  inner  self -activity. 
This  self-activity  taken  by  itself  we  may  consider 
as  the  element  of  Will  in  Consciousness,  which 
has  also  the  element  of  Intellect  in  its  Self-cog- 


nition.  For  the  All-Ego  must  know  itself,  since 
there  is  nothing  outside  of  it  to  know  or  to  be 
known,  and  this  trait  of  self -knowing  it  imparts 
to  the  individual  Ego,  more  particularly  in  the 
form  of  Intellect.  But  the  All-Ego  has  no  non- 
Ego  strictly.  Nature  being  really  a  part  of  its 
total  process :  whereas  the  individual  Ego  has  the 
non-Ego  as  its  stimulus  to  knowledge  and  self- 
knowledge.  Thus  Consciousness  has,  more  or 
less  implicitly,  Feeling,  Will,  and  Intellect,  which 
constitute  the  imprint  upon  it  of  the  All-Ego 

8.  But  with  this  last  statement  a  new  and 
deeper  difficulty  begins  to  raise  its  head,  if  it  has 
not  already  made  itself  felt  in  the  inquiring 
mind.  Consciousness  is  represented  as  God- 
made,  yet  it  is  also  evolved  out  of  antecedent 
stages.  Which  is,  then,  its  true  source,  from 
above  or  from  below?  It  seems  to  come  from 
opposite  directions,  having  not  only  an  evolution 
but  also  a  devolution,  an  ascent  as  well  as  a 
descent.  Must  it  arise  in  one  way  or  the  other, 
or  are  both  ways  possible,  indeed  necessary? 

When  Evolution  mounting  upward  from  Na- 
ture reaches  Consciousness,  there  appears  a  vast 
gap  in  the  succession,  nay  a  direct  wheeling  about 
and  inversion  of  the  scientific  order.  Very  puz- 
zled is  the  scientist  when  he  comes  to  this  jump- 
ing-off  place.  We  may  take  the  illustrious  Du 
Bois-Reymond  as   an  example.     Says   he:   *'A 

OB  SEE  VA  TI0N8.  89 1 

bridge  canuot  be  built  into  the  realm  of  Con- 
sciousness "  out  of  the  realm  of  Nature  through 
any  manipulation  of  the  molecules  of  the  brain. 
And  yet  the  Ego  does  make  the  passage.  But 
how  the  thing  is  done,  ignoramus  et  ignorabinus. 
Thus  Consciousness  is  the  eternal  **  world-rid- 
dle." Even  the  first  act  of  Sensation  can  never 
be  scientifically  explained,  still  less  can  Con- 
sciousness, since  it  is  the  explicit  turning  around 
and  contradiction  of  Nature's  measured  and 
measurable  movement  in  Space  and  Time. 

Coming  back  to  Evolution,  we  see  that  the 
self-creative  All  has  created  an  Ego  which  is 
likewise  self-creative,  and  is  a  stage  in  the  total 
process  of  that  self-creative  All.  Such  a  created 
Ego  is  a  necessity  of  the  Universe,  which  other- 
wise would  not  be  itself,  not  having  reproduced 
its  own  very  creativity  which  is  truly  its  essence. 
Still  this  creative  Ego  is  not  the  Universe,  not 
the  All-process  in  its  round  as  creating^  but  is 
ci^eatedy  separated,  externalized  in  the  world,  and 
hence  moves  through  its  own  external  stages 
towards  its  source,  the  All-Ego.  So  the  indi- 
vidual Ego  through  its  very  creation  as  creative, 
must  evolve,  must  bo  perpetually  transcending 
limits;  it  is  created  as  creating  and  so  must  be 
incessantly  evolvino:.  Behind  Evolution  there  is 
an  Evolution  of  Evolution;  Evolution  is  itself 
created  evolving. 

Possibly  it  may  be  more  simple  and  easy  if  we 


Bay  that  the  descent  from  above  and  the  ascent 
from  below  are  but  two  stages  of  a  circular  move- 
ment which  goes  forth  aiitl  then  conies  back. 
Conaciousness  as  evolving  from  previous  lower 
forma  is  the  pivot  of  the  return  out  of  Nature 
which  is  successive  and  evolutionary  through 
Miiu  back  to  the  creative  All-Ego  from  which  it 
(Consciousness)  sprang.  Thus  we  behold  the 
cycle  of  God,  Nature,  and  Man  as  the  completed 
process  of  both  ascent  and  descent,  of  evolution 
and  devolution.  From  this  view-point  our  two 
directions — which  gave  us  our  first  trouble  — 
Consciousness  coming  from  aliovo  and  also  from 
below  —  are  seen  to  be  two  phases  of  one  pro- 
cess, two  segments  of  one  cirele.  They  through 
their  inner  opposition  force  us  to  rise  to  the  con- 
ception of  the  total  process  of  the  Universe 
(Pampsychosis)  in  order  to  behold  them  as 
members  of  one  harmonious  Whole. 

Nor  must  we  forget  that  Consciousness  con- 
tains internally  or  ideiilly  the  process  of  the 
Universe,  whereby  it  becomes  truly  a  stage  or 
meniher  of  the  Universe.  Such  is  the  fact  which 
will  be  repeated  in  the  remotest  raniifieaticms  of 
the  realm  of  Consciousness:  each  of  its  activ- 
ities, however  small,  has  the  total  process  of  it 
through  which  this  minutest  conscious  activity 
bears  the  impress  of  the  All-conscious  One,  and 
is  connected  thereby  witli  Universe.  Moreover, 
such  a  connection  is  to  bo  explicitly  set  forth  lu 


the  science  of  Psychology,  through  the  interlink- 
ing of  the  Psychosis,  which  joins  together  the 
widest  sweeps  as  well  as  the  smallest  acts  of 

9.  The  view  of  Genius  which  has  been  set 
forth  in  the  foregoing  pages  (pp.  129,  298,  etc.) 
is  on  all  essential  points  quite  the  contrary  to 
that  of  a  well-known  alienist  and  psychiatrist. 
Prof .  Cesarc  Lombroso,  of  Turin,  Italy,  whose 
books  have  gone  over  the  world  and  produced 
numerous  admiring  disciples.  Particularly  his 
work  on  The  Man  of  Genius  has  found  a*  con- 
siderable  echo  among  civilized  peoples,  specially 
appealing  to  those  who  seem  to  be  in  a  state  of 
protest  against  civilization. 

As  a  sort  of  prelude  we  may  take  one  sen- 
tence out  of  many  similar  ones:  '*The  great 
progressive  movements  of  nations,  in  politics  and 
religion,  have  often  been  brought  about  or  at 
least  determined  by  insane  or  half-insane  persons  " 
{The  Man  of  Genius,  C.  4,  Eng.  Trans.).  We 
have  italicized  the  word  offen  in  the  preceding 
citation,  in  order  to  indicate  a  characteristic  of 
Lombroso's  writing.  He  is  a  circumspect  man, 
and  has  the  habit  of  modifying  by  some  little 
word  his  universal  propositions  even  when  he 
intends  them  to  leave  the  impression  of  being 
universal.  So  he  really  expects  his  reader  to  for- 
get that  small  intruder  offen,  which  pops  up 
briefly  its  unwelcome  head,  in  the  above  sentence. 

894  FBELINQ  —  AB80L  UTB. 

In  this  way  the  reader  will  have  often  to  take 
some  measure  of  Lombroso  himself  measuring 

There  are  two  pre-eminent  religious  heroes  of 
Europe,  Luther  and  Christ.  Both  of  them,  ac- 
cording to  Lombroso,  were  insane  or  were  de- 
cidedly tinged  with  insanity.  The  one  was  the 
founder  of  the  Reformation,  the  other  was  the 
founder  of  Christianity  itself.  Both  show  the 
symptoms  of  a  common  disease  called  megalo- 
mania^  or  the  delusion  of  being  great  men. 
Veritably  a  mighty  delusion  on  their  part  as  time 
has  shown.  One  reader  at  least  begins  to  think 
to  himj^elf  on  hearing  this  diagnosis:  What  is 
the  matter  with  Prof.  Lombroso?  Has  he  not  a 
touch  of  megalomania  in  delivering  such  a  judg- 
ment garnished  though  it  be  with  various  scien- 
tific proofs  so-called? 

Concerning  Christ  the  opinion  of  Renan,  that 
good  Christian,  is  cited.  *'  The  title  of  the 
son  of  David,  the  first  which  Jesus  Christ 
accepted,  was  a  fraud"  which,  even  if  innocent, 
indicated  insane  delusion.  A  much  deeper 
phase  of  insanity  was  that  he  deemed  himself 
the  son  of  God,  and  finally  to  be  God.  For 
this  sort  of  madness,  found  to-day  in  many  in- 
sane asylums,  a  special  name  has  been  invented, 
Theonicinia  or  God-madness.  •*  His  Father  had 
given  him  all  power;  nature  obeyed  him;  he 
could  forgive  sins;   he  was  superior  to  David, 


Abraham,  and  all  the  prophets — a  greater  than 
Jonah  is  here."  Surely  a  case  of  an  acute  form 
of  megalomania,  rising  to  Theomania — such 
must  be  the  scientific  inference.  (Op.  cit.y 
p.  45.) 

But  this  is  not  all.  Christ  manifests  an- 
other symptom  of  insanity,  to  which  Lombroso 
gives  the  technical  name  of  emotional  anaesthesia 
(p.  63).  Genius  shows  an  abnormal  indifference 
to  all  the  tender  relations  of  life,  to  parents, 
children,  wife,  benefactor.  Says  the  author: 
**I  have  noted  among  all  (Geniuses)  a  strange 
apathy  for  everything  which  does  not  concern 
them;  as  though  plunged  in  the  hypnotic  condi- 
tion, they  did  not  perceive  the  troubles  of  others 
or  even  the  most  pressing  needs  of  those  who 
were  dearest  to  them;"  though  at  times  they 
might  get  tender,  this  tenderness  was  soon  burnt 
out,  like  a  lit  straw.  Whereat  Lombroso  gives 
a  list  of  such  people  among  whom  is  Christ.  For 
listen  to  some  of  the  latter's  brutal  menaces :  I 
bring  not  peace  but  a  sword ;  I  come  to  produce 
division  between  father  and  son,  mother  and 
daughter;  my  disciple  is  to  hate  his  parents  and 
family,  etc.  (p.  63).  Such  is  the  Prince  of 
Peace,  originator  of  Christian  civilization,  a  man 
clearly  afflicted  with  emotional  ansesthesia,  liter- 
ally a  feeling  which  does  not  feel.  Is  it  not  to 
be  mferred  that  all  Europe,  idealizing  and  wor- 


shiping  such  a  madman,  is  insane  and  has  been  80 
for  quite  two  thousand  years  at  least? 

At  this  point  we  begin  to  touch  the  uncon- 
scious undercurrent  which  flows  through  Lom- 
broso's  book,  and  is  the  secret  determininor 
character  of  it  from  beginning  to  end.  It  is  a 
keen  though  indirect  critique  of  Europe  and  its 
civilization  as  embodied  and  promulgated  in  its 
greatest  men.  These  are  scientifically  examined, 
classified,  and  pronounced  madmen  by  the  expert 
alienist,  to  be  fit  only  for  the  madhouse,  each 
having  some  **  lesion  of  the  brain,"  with  a  few 
exceptions  which  seem,  however,  to  be  only 
seeming.  And  as  in  this  matter  we  have  to 
study  Dr.  Lombroso  himself,  for  certainly  he 
invites  it;  we  must  record  the  fact  that  he  is  of 
Hebrew  descent  according  to  biographical  notices 
of  him.  IIj  is  the  Oriental  settled  in  a  strange 
land  institutionally,  whoso  culture  and  language 
he  has  acquired  in  a  high  degree,  but  who  still 
feels  himself  an  alien  possibly  after  thousands  of 
years  of  ancestral  residence,  and  who  proceeds  to 
subject  the  whole  European  civilization  at  its  most 
creative  point,  namely  in  its  Great  Men,  to  a 
fiercely  destructive  and  damnatory  Last  Judg- 
ment. Thus  Lombroso  becomes  a  {)art  of  that 
marvelous  Jewish  phenomenon  which  has  caused 
and  still  causes  so  much  speculation.  Here  lot  the 
reflection  be  added  that  this  Oriental  criticism  of 
Europe  is  a  very  old  thing;  it  may  be  traced  in 



ancient  Greek  writers;  it  appears  with  emphatic 
outlines  in  Herodotus,  the  Father  of  History, 
who  gives  the  Persian  and  Egyptian  damnation  of 
Helen  and  the  Trojan  War.  In  the  Hellenistic 
period  it  could  be  heard  everywhere  in  the  Mace- 
donian and  Roman  Empires;  we  may  mark  it  in 
Philo,  the  illustrious  Jew  of  Alexandria,  and 
specially  in  the  Neo-Platonic  Philosophy  which 
was  founded  and  formulated  by  Orientals  (by 
the  Egyptians  Ammonius  Saccas  and  Plotinus), 
and  was  specially  propagated  by  Semites  (the 
Syrians  lamblichus  and  Porphyry).  Though 
Neo-Platonism  claims  to  be  a  restoration  of 
Greek  Philosophy,  a  little  study  soon  shows  it  to 
be  quite  the  opposite,  to  be  really  the  dissolution 
of  the  Greek  and  indeed  of  the  whole  European 
world.  (See  Ancient  European  Philosophy^  pp. 

Here  it  must  be  affirmed  that  Lombroso  has 
brought  to  the  surface  a  very  important  fact  m 
the  character  of  Christ,  who  was  certainly  one  of 
the  most  self-assertive  men  that  ever  lived.  The 
sacerdotal  view  puts  all  stress  upon  Christ's 
humility;  as  a  kind  of  corrective  we  may  look  at 
the  other  side  of  him,  and  contemplate  the  lofty 
declarations  of  his  divinity.  But  he  was  not  in- 
sane in  so  regarding  himself;  on  the  contrary 
that  may  be  cited  as  a  supreme  proof  of  his  sanity, 
which  all  succeeding:  historv  has  verified,  unless 
of  course  history  itself  has  gone  wholly  wrong, 

fellow  iii;i\'  think    thai     he   i-^    (Jod,    or 
i<    in  ]\\<  1)('1I\  .  :in(l    may  h:i\i'    to   he  sc 
a>yhini   lor  thr  in>ani'  on  account  oF   u 
nia.     But  such  people  do  not  found  C 
ties,  produce  Reformat  ions,  and  change 
spiritual  character  of  the  workl.     Otin 
have  to  think  all  Europe  crazy,  and  tha 
I,  am  the  sane   man.     Who  has  the   ; 
meoralomania  in  that  case? 

Certainly  the  religious  Genius,  the 
of  a  Religion,  Prophet,  Lawgiver,  Refoi 
played  a  very  important  part  in  the  dev 
of  man,  uniting  his  tribe,  his  nation,  f 
his  race  in- a  common  inner  faith  as  wel 
external  ceremonial.  It  must  be  graii 
he  is  an  exceedingly  unusual  man,  one  \\ 
some  communion  with  the  governing  pri 
the  world  not  attainable  or  intelligibl 
ordinary  run  of  people.  But  it  does  i 
us  very  far  by  calling  him  madman  or  i 
Already  we  have  tried  to  set  forth   hi? 

X  ?  -  _         -»  A 

0B8EBVATI0N8.  899 

querors,  statesmen,  as  well  as  the  poets  and  lit- 
erary men,  are  in  a  state  of  *' moral  insanity, 
that  loss  of  the  moral  sense,  common  to  all  men 
of  Genius,  whether  sane  or  insane"  (p.  337). 
Napoleon  and  Caesar  (Lombroso's  namesake) 
are  overhauled  and  shown  to  have  had  epilepsy, 
which  is  a  sign  of  insanity :  *'  the  creative  power 
of  Genius  may  be  a  form  of  degenerative  psy- 
chosis belonging  to  the  family  of  epileptic  af- 
fections "  (p.  336).  Note  the  abuse  of  our  word 
psychosis.  But  that  is  a  small  matter  compared 
to  the  statement  that  **the  creative  power  of 
Genius "  is  a  degeneration,  a  malady,  really 
insanity.  The  Genius  whom  we  see  at  every 
important  turn  of  the  World's  History 
directing  the  destiny  of  nations,  is  simply 
having  an  epileptic  fit,  the  poor  crazy  fellow! 
Socrates,  the  most  original  teacher  of  morals  of 
all  time,  was  a  degenerate,  afflicted  with  moral 

It  is  evident  that  Lombroso  has  a  keen  eye 
for  all  the  human  weaknesses,  caprices,  finite 
elements  which  are  unfailingly  bound  up  with 
Genius;  but  ho  has  no  eye  at  all  for  its  mighty 
world-historical  significance.  Let  him  study 
Julius  Caesar  as  portrayed  by  Plutarch  or,  what 
would  be  far  better,  by  Shakespeare,  who  brings 
out  in  a  very  striking  way  both  sides  of  the 
Genius  —  Caesar  the  epileptic,  the  weak  mortal 
individual,  and  also  Caesar  the  universal  man  of 


which  Loiubroao  places  so  much  sti 
his  hiiblt  of  (lopicti iig  insane  people, 
words,  hii!  trciiicuiiuiia  explosiona  of 
to  speuk  of  his  ■'  ejiiotional  aoaestl 
fested  in  his  atiiyiag  away  so  loi 
family  at  Stratford. 

The  iitsnnily.  or  ut  least  the  degeo 
literary  mid  Hrti.^lii.'  Genius,  is  a  then 
been  specially  wrought  out  in  a  book 
generation  by  Max  Nordau,  Lombro 
disciple,  often  with  a  bitterness  o 
which  defeuts  its  own  end,  even  whei 
another  bonk  Nor<l:m  distinguished  h: 
furious  altuck  on  the  "  convention 
civilized  society,  certainly  a  fruitful 
II  different  ripht-rc,  that  of  the  soci 
Order,  the  works  uf  Lassalle  and  M 
deemed  an  Oriental  criticism  of  Eur 


likely,  amid  all  its  excellences,  to  end  negatively. 
A  positive  world-critique  of  Europe  must  natur- 
ally come  from  the  other  direction,  from  the 
Occident,  which  is  an  evolution  out  of  Europe, 
as  Europe  is  an  evolution  out  of  the  Orient.  It 
is  the  next  higher  stage,  in  the  development  of 
civilization,  which  is  to  criticise  and  to  explain 
the  antecedent  stage. 

In  like  manner  the  criticism  of  Genius  should 
show  its  positive  place  and  work  in  the  supreme 
Order  of  History,  though  its  negative,  individual 
side  need  not  be  overlooked.  No  man  is  a 
hero  to  his  valet,  says  the  adage,  since  the 
valet  sees  only  wherein  the  hero  is  like  to 
or  perchance  weaker  than  other  men.  Still' 
the  hero  exists  in  spite  of  his  valet.  And 
the  Genuis  also,  we  cannot  help  believing  will 
continue  to  appear  and  to  do  his  work  in  the 
world,  without  being  shut  up  in  an  insane  asylum 
under  the  charge  of  an  expert  alienist,  who 
**  knows  better." 

10.  On  looking  back  at  the  total  movement  of 
Feeling,  the  student  can  find  illustrated  the  vari- 
ous points  which  were  set  forth  in  the  Prolegom- 
ena. He  will  note  the  working  of  the  Psychosis 
and  its  method  of  interconnecting  all  the  di- 
visions  of  the  science  with  the  entirety  of  the 
same.  And  the  hope  may  be  permitted  that  he 
will  reflect  on  the  pedagogical  trend  of  t  he  fore- 
going  way   of    considering   Psychology.     This 




book  on  the  Feeling  with  its  somewhat  extensive 
and  intricate  organization  is  intended  to  stamp 
upon  the  student  the  decided  impress  of  the 
cyclical  procedure  of  education,  which  was  sug- 
gested long  ago  by  the  old  Greeks,  though  not 
elaborated.  In  training  the  human  mind,  the 
fundamental  native  process  of  that  mind  should 
be  followed,  and  the  Psychosis  in  one  form  or 
other  should  become  the  driving  wheel  of  Ped-. 
agogy,  as  it  is  of  Psychology. 

But  now  this  realm  of  Feeling,  with  its  turning 
inward  from  without,  is  to  be  turned  outward 
from  within  —  whereat  a  wholly  new  realm  of 
the  Ego  begins  to  appear  —  that  of  Will,  the 
second  great  stage  of  psychological  science. 

^''cp  this  Catalogao  for  Reference. 

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