Skip to main content

Full text of "Girl Scouting and the Physically Handicapped"

See other formats

\J<0 U y -r> a. / 0 f f/ief * /0 —■ 

Girl Scouting and 

the Physically Handicapped 

^ 4 /j4, 4 

# f / 1 4 r 

i. y# / 


In England, one day in 1909, a 
handful of wistful-eyed girls stood out¬ 
side an iron gate enviously watching a 
Boy Scout troop pitch their tents and 
build fires. It was this small group of 
girls that formed the nucleus for a 
world - wide movement 
which now has more than 
a million members in some 
forty odd countries, the 
various Girl Scout organi¬ 
zations. In the United 
States, the credit for intro¬ 
ducing Girl Scouting be¬ 
longs to Juliette Low, and 
since the early days of the 
movement in this country 
it has grown very rapidly. 

For the year 1937, the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of 
the founding of the Girl Scouts of 
America, the membership of the or¬ 
ganization was about 400,000. Of 
course this number does not include 
the thousands of Brownies, members 
of the junior organization for girls be¬ 
tween seven and ten years of age. 

For eighteen years the Girl Scout 
organization of Great Britain has tak¬ 
en the lead in Scouting for the physi¬ 
cally handicapped, and it was in Lou¬ 
don that the first international train¬ 
ing course for leaders of handicapped 
Scouts was held last spring. 

The First International Train- 

• Bernice Bingman, B. P. E., is physio¬ 
therapist and instructor at the Michigan State 
Normal College, Ypsilanti. She is a graduate 
of the Sydsvenska Gymnastik Institute of 
Lund, Sweden, besides having studied in sever¬ 
al American colleges and universities. 

ing Course. This London convention 
of leaders of handicapped Girl Scouts 
was attended by thirty-seven delegates 
from thirteen countries all of whom 
took the training course. The sessions 
were held from March 27 to April 3, 
1936 at Bedford College 
amid the beautiful land¬ 
scaping of Regents Park. 
The course was intended for 
the training of leaders of 
troops for , the deaf, the 
blind, the crippled, and the 
mentally deficient, and in¬ 
volved information con¬ 
cerning the methods used 
in England and a general 
exchange of experiences 
and ideas. There were i 
lectures, demonstrations, 
and visits to Scout troops. The dele¬ 
gates made a strong impression on ob¬ 
servers, since they represented a var¬ 
iety of languages, customs, and tradi¬ 
tions. Yet they were earnestly con¬ 
cerned with a common problem. These 

delegates from Australia, Belgium, 
Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, 
Great Britain, Netherlands, Norway, 
Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the 
United States 1 could not have been 

1 The delegates from the United States were 
Mrs. Burlingham, a vice-president of the Girl 
Scouts of America and in charge of the work 
for the physically handicapped; Miss B. Tom¬ 
linson of National Headquartfery", Mrs. S. 
Bushman, a council member from Indianapolis; 
and four Girl Scout Leaders: Mrs. A. Platt 
from Perkins Institution fbr the 31ind; Miss 
Clara Hamel of the Rochester Scnool f(v 'lie 
Deaf; Miss Mary Aim Sullivan; of a 
cardiac troop of the Home of the Good 
Samaritan, Boston; and the author. 

Bernice Ringman 




more united in spirit if they had ail 
been of one nationality. 

By way of reporting the convention to 
teachers and others interested in the 
education of handicapped children, the 
following paragraphs supply a sum¬ 
mary of some of the units in the train¬ 
ing course, together with a comparison 
of practices in England and the United 

Progress and Achievements in 
Scouting for the Handicapped- From 
the discussions and reports at the 
conference, it appeared that England 
and the United States are outstanding 
for their accomplishment in Scouting 
for handicapped girls. The Nether¬ 
lands has attempted to do some work, 
in which her policies and plans have 
been patterned after those of England ; 
and other Continental countries are 
either beginning or planning such pro¬ 

The most noteworthy achievements 
in the programs developed in England 
and in the United States have been the 
intelligent adaptation of the Scout pro¬ 
gram so as to meet the needs of many 
different types of physically handicap¬ 
ped girls, and the enlistment of large 
numbers of children in groups that 
have been able to take advantage of 
such a program. During the past eigh¬ 
teen years, 646 companies and packs 
for physically handicapped have been 
organized in England. In the United 
States during the past eight years, 134 
troops and packs have been organized. 
While the programs are still being 
modeled and perfected, many more 
troops might be organized where handi¬ 
capped girls may profit by such ex¬ 

* N M 1 1 ** V * ' 

The English Plan: The Exten¬ 
sion Branch. In England the physi¬ 
cally 'fyaucSlicapped from the first were 

in a group by themselves, called the 
Extension Branch, rather than included 
in the regular Guide or Scout program. 
This Extension Branch is composed of 
five divisions: the crippled, the deaf, 
the blind, the mentally deficient, and 
the Post Guide. The leaders use, as a 
supplement to the regular Scout man¬ 
ual, an Extension Book which offers to 
a child suggestions for alternatives 
when she cannot pass the regular Guide 
test. Thus the handicapped are en¬ 
abled to earn appropriate rewards in 
spite of their handicaps. This method 
emphasizes the effort of the child and 
improvement of her own standard of 

The girls are divided into three 
groups according to their ages: the 
Brownies from eight to eleven years, 
the Guides from twelve to sixteen, and 
the Rangers over sixteen. The pro¬ 
grams for these groups vary in diffi¬ 
culty to meet the needs at different 
ages and for varying abilities, but the 
fundamental goals of character-build¬ 
ing, intelligence, handicrafts, and 
health are stressed in all the programs. 
Much emphasis is placed on the spirit¬ 
ual values of Scouting. 

The English are unusually success¬ 
ful in adapting their program for the 
severely crippled girl who is unable to 
meet the regular rank and badge re¬ 
quirements. For one thing, they sup¬ 
ply alternatives for the crippled girl 
who is unable to cover a mile (Scout’s 
pace) in twelve minutes, thirty seconds, 
error allowed each way; or has done 
walks of at least three miles. Accord¬ 
ing to the Extension Book she may 
substitute breathing exercises. An¬ 
other alternative is supplied for the 
first aid test where the Guide must 
show how to treat simple cuts, burns, 
and fainting and how to stop bleeding 



(with pad and bandage on the wound 
only) and choking; apply large arm 
sling and bandage a sprained ankle. 
Here, the crippled child may tell some¬ 
one else how to carry out the treat¬ 
ment. In this case, while the actual 
performance of the test is omitted, 
the Guide would be able in an emer¬ 
gency to direct someone else. Knot 
tying is another test for which an al¬ 
ternative is provided. Here, the sub¬ 
stitute requirement is satisfied if the 
necessary knots are tied with the help 
of someone else, or if the names and 
uses are known and someone else di¬ 
rected how to tie them. 

In the five divisional groups for the 
handicapped, it appeared that only the 
deaf were not given alternative tests. 
Because of the limited vocabulary of 
most deaf children, however, it is 
necessary to dramatize abstract ideas. 
Conversation is carried on by sign lan¬ 
guage, manual alphabet, or lip reading, 
the latter being encouraged. 

Although the program for the blind 
allows the use of alternative tests, 
there is a growing tendency to modify 
the regular tests rather than to sub¬ 
stitute special tests. This modification 
enables the blind girl to follow the 
same program as the normal, which is 
a source of satisfaction to her. An ex¬ 
ample of ingenious modification is pro¬ 
vided in the method used to teach the 
blind the Morse Code. By using long 
beads to represent dashes and short 
beads to represent dots, the children 
are taught the code and are then able 
to send messages by sewing these beads 
on a card with needle and thread. 
Simple messages can be sent by placing 
macaroni and beans on the table to 
represent dashes and dots. 

Another example of a modification is 
the method used to teach the blind girls 


the flags of all countries. Since these 
children cannot see or visualize colors, 
different kinds of materials are used to 
represent different colors. Thus, red 
is a cotton material, blue is velvet, 
white is silk, and so on. These various 
materials are sewed together into the 
design of some national flag, and by 
running their hands over the finished 
products, the girls are able to distin¬ 
guish the different flags. Similarly, a 
nature scene can be interpreted by us¬ 
ing cellophane to represent water, 
feathers for birds, and thread and yarn 
for flowers and trees. 

Since blind girls are especially adept 
at doing folk dances, the English Ex¬ 
tension. Branch allows them to sub¬ 
stitute this skill for swimming; thus to 
“know six country dances or perform 
six physical exercises and know their 
uses” may be substituted for “be able 
to swim fifty yards.” 

In a lecture on the work being done 
with the mentally deficient Guide, Dr. 
D. Turner 1 pointed out that of the 
three groups of mentally defectives— 
morons, imbeciles, and idiots—the last 
two groups are too largely defective to 
take advantage of Guiding, but that 
the morons may well profit by such 
training. The morons, of course, merge 
imperceptibly into the less subnormal 
group, reaching an ultimate mental de¬ 
velopment of between eight to twelve 
years. This type has the highest in¬ 
telligence quotient commonly met with 
in institutions for the feebleminded, 
Dr. Turner explained, and the type of 
Guide one would find in such an insti¬ 
tution Avould be defective in intellect or 
temperament or in both. He concluded 
by saying that Guiding is a form of 
treatment and the success of the troop 

1 Medical Superintendent of the Royal Eastern 
Counties Institution, Colchester, England. 



or company depends entirely on the 
personality of the guider or leader. 

The mentally deficient Guide, like 
the other types we have discussed, may 
also use alternatives when she is un¬ 
able to pass the regular tests. Thus, 
instead of “signal the alphabet in 
Morse Code (both reading and send¬ 
ing) ” she may substitute “keep a small 
plot of ground for two months, and 
weed a garden path. Know the prin¬ 
ciple tools for gardening and their 
uses; and be able to recognize six 
plants and six vegetables when they 
are growing.” 

Realizing that a great number of all 
types of handicapped children are con¬ 
fined in homes and hospitals making it 
impossible for them to attend regular 
troop or company meetings, the Eng¬ 
lish, in 1921, organized another di¬ 
vision to their Extension Branch called 
the Post Guides. These Post Guides 
are grouped together in troops with a 
leader in charge and lieutenant assist¬ 
ing. Instead of holding weekly meet¬ 
ings, a company letter is compiled by 
the captain, who circulates it among 
the children at regular intervals of a 
fortnight or month, each girl keeping 
the letter two or three clays. 

The letters displayed were very in¬ 
teresting. They resembled pages from 
a scrap book, and included captain’s 
letters, stories, pictures, competitive 
games among the patrols of the troop, 
badge articles, woodcraft, post box, 
puzzles, and a few humorous cartoons 
and pictures. Through this letter the 
Post Guides are able to plan holidays 
and to meet several times a year. In 
connection with the Post Guide it may 
be of interest to know that the Exten¬ 
sion Branch maintains a Handicraft 
Depot. “It is a channel through which 
members of the Extension Branch are 

given an opportunity to earn money by 
their own efforts. Any disabled Guide 
or Ranger may send her work to be 
sold. The majority of those who use 
the Depot are Post Guides and Rangers 
who need help to bring them in touch 
with people who will buy their work.” 

The handicapped Scouts may earn 
efficiency badges for passing certain 
special tests. In addition to those 
earned by normal Guides, they may 
earn the gardener’s badge for bed-rid¬ 
den Guides, the language badge for 
the deaf which is meant to stimulate 
growth in the use of vocabulary, and 
also the badge of fortitude which is of¬ 
fered for endurance under suffering. 

Probably the most outstanding of the 
Guide program for the Extension 
Branch is the excellent camping facili¬ 
ties offered to all of the five divisions. 
During 1935 there were fifty special 
camps in use. Generally girls of the 
same handicap attend the same camp. 

Miss Jean Robinson, herself blind, 
originated the idea of camps for the 
blind Guides. Speaking before the con¬ 
ference, Miss Robinson told of the won¬ 
ders and joys that nature held for the 
blind. She explained that the camp 
site should be carefully chosen so that 
the blind may appreciate the ripple of 
a brook, the exhilarating fragrance of 
the pines, the hum of insects, and the 
trill of birds. Nature holds no fears 
for the blind, for here are no doors to 
slam or automobiles to dodge. The 
camp offers an abundance of physical 
and mental relaxation. Miss Robinson 
urges that camp sites for the blind be 
level and those places that are not 
level be roped off. Also, ropes with 
knots in them should be used as guide 
lines to the various tents. 

The English leaders explained that 
camping for the crippled entails much 




preparation, extra help, and necessary 
equipment such as wheel chairs, walk¬ 
ers, and toilet facilities close at hand. 
With the provision of such facilities, 
although it entails added expense, the 
opportunity for crippled children out 
of doors becomes valuable both educa¬ 
tionally and spiritually. In fact the 
English have made it possible for every 
type of handicapped child to experience 
camp days including the Post Guides 
on movable beds and in casts. 

Camping for the deaf and the men¬ 
tally defectives is carried on in much 
the same way as it is for normal 
Guides. Attention is given to those 
which their handicaps prevent. 

A Visit to Queen Mary's Hos¬ 
pital. AVe visited several hospitals and 
institutions during our short stay 
and were able to observe the different 
types of handicapped Scouts in their 
work. Since Scouting for the crippled 
girl was my special interest, Queen 
Mary’s Hospital will be the only one 

Situated in Carshalton, a suburb of 
London, the hospital is enclosed in a 
galaxy of tall towering trees, low 
hanging hushes, and winding paths 
with its broad expansive main build¬ 
ing in front of many rows of cot¬ 
tages. Within its confines were many 
troops of varied physical abilities. 
But no matter how difficult their 
handicaps, one was conscious of a great 
deal of enthusiasm and activity. In 
one troop we visited, half of the mem- 
• bers were lying in a horizontal posi¬ 
tion either in traction or in huge body 
casts, with the few that were able to 
walk wearing abduction splints and 
casts. AVhile there we saw a girl lying 
flat on her back raise the flag by using 
a specially constructed flag pole stand¬ 
ing about thirty-six inches high. An¬ 

other girl lying in a huge body cast, 
but having good use of her arms and 
hands, was able to pass the fire build¬ 
ing test by using an asbestos mat and 
a tin tray. Although it was impossible 
for her to collect the wood she did ar¬ 
range and prepare the wood using but 
one match to start the fire. There were 
many activities in progress including 
handwork, sending of messages in 
Morse Code, and nature projects. Every 
girl wore a uniform. Where it was im¬ 
possible for her to slip it on overhead, 
the uniforms were opened down the 
back and fastened with ties. Everyone 
was occupied and seemed cheerful and 


Scouting for the Handicapped in 
the United States. AVhile England 
has her Extension Branch, the United 
States in contrast offers the same pro¬ 
gram and awards to all Girl Scouts, 
normal and exceptional. The tests are 
not identical to those in England; how¬ 
ever, the ranks—tenderfoot, second, 
and first class—are the same. After 
completion of the second class require¬ 
ment, the Scout may work for any of 
the fifty-two merit bandges. The 
United States does not have a program 
that parallels with the English Ranger. 
The feeling seems to be that if the girl 
wishes to continue Scout work she does 
so in the capacity of a lieutenant. 

The handicapped girls that are in¬ 
cluded in Scouting are the crippled, 
cardiopathic, deaf, blind, and Home 
Scouts. Instead of offering alterna¬ 
tives, the United States is working on 
“a program so inclusive, flexible, and 
rich with opportunity for choice that 
it provides for every type of girl— 
blind, crippled, deaf, and under privi¬ 
leged, city or country bred.” It is this 
program that they feel will answer the 
plea of the handicapped Scouts; that 




is, to do the same things that normal 
girls do, to have the same challenge 
and the same representation in the 

The problem of dealing with the 
crippled child offers obstacles because 
of the many individual physical dif¬ 
ferences among them as compared with 
the homogeneous difficulties of the 
blind and the deaf. Among the crip¬ 
pled, limitations vary from the slight 
involvement of one hand or foot to that 
of the entire body. There may be per¬ 
haps also a speech defect. In some in¬ 
stances the girl is confined to her bed 
hardly able to move. Within this 
range we find that many girls have no 
difficulty in carrying on all the activi¬ 
ties of the present regular Girl Scout 

When a crippled girl cannot pass a 
test she may upon consultation with 
National Headquarters get some sug¬ 
gestions for modifications and different 
approaches to the test. Leaders are 
constantly encouraged to experiment 
in handling the program. Thus a crip¬ 
pled girl can profit by the wide and 
flexible range of activities where she 
herself may choose rather than having 
a definite set requirement. 

In the United States as in England, 
the deaf girl can pass any of the regu¬ 
lar tests. There are no Brownie packs 
for the deaf in this country at the 
present time. 

As the new program is yet in the ex¬ 
perimental stage, our present set-up 
has only three approved alternatives; 
these refer to the partially sighted and 
the blind groups. They are as follows: 

1. Some other handiwork than 
sewing to meet the second class 
sewing requirement for the girl 
whose oculist forbids the use of 
her eyes for sewing. 

2. Some first aid knowledge and 
skill for the blind girl other than 
taking out a splinter. 

3. Ability on the part of the blind 
girl to use an eye cup rather than 
attempt to remove a speck from 
the eye. This last is the procedure 
approved by many authorities in 
every case of a speck in the eye. 

Miss Katherine Maxfield 1 has de¬ 
vised many unique methods of adjust¬ 
ing the Scout program for the blind. 
By using whistles as signals, she de¬ 
vised a system whereby the blind could 
pass swimming and diving tests. Then 
to make it possible for them to pass the 
first aid test, she had all the articles in 
the first aid kit labeled with a braille 
inscription on adhesive tape. She 
taught them how to read a compass, 
make and follow maps, build fires, pass 
their requirements for a cook’s badge, 
learn bird calls by listening to victrola 
records and construct bird houses and 
feeding platforms. Stars and their 
relative positions to other constellations 
are sewed on large paper with yarn, 
after someone else lias placed the pat 
tern on the material, the blind are able 
to cut out and sew their own uni¬ 
forms. The work of Miss Maxfield is 
an example of what can be done with 
a little ingenuity and experimentation. 
Probably the outstanding achievements 
in Scouting for the blind and the parti¬ 
ally sighted are the braille handbook 
and the handbook of large type print¬ 

Post Guiding, or Home Scouts as we * 
call them in this country, is a recent 
innovation. YVhile still in its infancy, 
some interesting work is being done on 
a small scale. 

1 Director, Arthur Sunshine Home and Nursery 
School for the Blind. Formerly Director of 
Personnel and Research at Perkins Institution. 




The United States does not include 
the mentally deficient girl in the Scout 
program. While special schools and in¬ 
stitutions may use the program, the 
girls are not registered at National 
Headquarters and do not use the 
badges and awards. 

Our camping schedule does not as 
yet compare favorably with that of 
England but the movement is growing, 
for with each year more camps are be¬ 
ing sponsored for the various groups 
of physically handicapped Scouts. 

Scouting in Special Education 
(lasses. The school has a real 
obligation in helping the child ad¬ 
just herself mentally, physically, and 
socially. At present, with recreational 
facilities sadly neglected and inade¬ 
quate and the children in special classes 
segregated in a separate room or build¬ 
ing, this obligation of the school can¬ 
not be fulfilled. It is possible for a 
Girl Scout troop to fill this apparent 

The Scout troop at the Michigan 
State Normal College, in the Special 
Education Department, is made up of 
girls from the sight-saving class, the 
oral-deaf class, the orthopedic room, 
and (with special permission from Na¬ 
tional Headquarters) the girls from 
the subnormal room. True, this may 
seem to be a too heterogeneous group, 
but it is comparatively small and with 
the exception of an occasional prob¬ 
lem, each youngster has some ad¬ 
vantage physically or mentally. It is 
far better to have them in a mixed 
group than to deprive them of the con¬ 
tacts and experiences they are receiv¬ 
ing. Then, too, when these girls are 
able to attend the regular school, they 
may continue with Scout work. This 
alone may help them to find themselves 
more rapidly because of having some j 

thing in common with their new com¬ 

The troop participates in the same 
things that one would expect from the 
normal Girl Scouts. Some of the acti¬ 
vities are: to act in the capacity of a 
service club in school functions, attend 
city-wide function such as the Court of 
Awards, tree planting, nature contests, 
parties, and also sell cookies—a custom 
which is observed nationally. The 
money raised is generally used toward 
a camp fund. The girls are constantly 
made to feel that they are serving the 
community and that they are part of 
a world-wide movement. 

Last summer these girls had the 
thrilling experience of going to a Scout 
camp with the other Scouts in town. 
Here extra facilities were provided for 
when necessary and the camp schedule 
so arranged that each girl might profit 
by the experience to the best of her 
ability. For example, if hikes were im¬ 
possible, fishing was substituted. 
Though the children were divided into 
groups for the different activities there 
were many general gatherings such as 
colors, meals, singing, programs, and 
camp fires. Everyone was expected to 
perform capers such as dishwashing, 
sweeping, napkin folding, and so forth. 

In addition to such recreational ac¬ 
tivities there are therapeutic aspects 
of Scouting. The physiotherapist is 
always seeking ways to encourage the 
patient and create incentives for her. 
Scouting may serve as an incentive and 
through this medium one is also de¬ 
veloping muscles and coordination of 
movements. Many interesting ex¬ 
amples could be cited Avhere remark¬ 
able progress has been made. The 
Scout activities were correlated with 
the regular muscle training and exer- 
(Continued on Page 92) 



Remedial Reading as it Pertains 
to the Atypical Child 


here are several reasons for the 
increased interest in remedial reading 
and the apparent increase in number 
of poor readers in schools today. 

1. Teachers are feeling greater re¬ 
sponsibility for the welfare of each 
child. And this has made 

them more sensitive to 
the deficiencies in read¬ 
ing along with other 
school subjects. 

2. New standards of 
promotion have been 
adopted in some schools 
which make it possible at 
times to promote pupils 
who are deficient in one 
or more subjects. As a 
result, poor habits of 
reading often become 
more conspicuous than if the/pupil 
had been retained in the p/evious 

3. The enrichment of the y6ourse of 
study has made it nee/ssary for 
pupils to engage in many/more forms 
and applications of heading than 
were formerly required. Hence many 
deficiencies are exhibited today 
which were not reyealed formerly. 

4. Many school > systems have at¬ 
tempted recently to reorganize both 
the content and methods employed 
in teaching reading. As usually 

• Gladys L. Pottee, M. A., is assistant 
chief of the Division of Elementary Educa¬ 
tion and Rural Schools, California State De¬ 
partment of Education, Sacramento. The ac¬ 
companying article was read before the De¬ 
partment of Special Education of the National 
Education Association, at Portland, Oregon, 
July 1, 1936. 


happens during a period of transi¬ 
tion, certain phases ovthe subject 
are neglected or not emphasized ef¬ 

5. The early studies of remedial 
reading cases stimulated broader in¬ 
terest in diagnosis and 
remedial instruction with 
the result that many 
valuable studies have 
been made and reported 
for the benefit of teach¬ 
ers during recent years. 
In the traditional pro¬ 
gram slow pupils were sup¬ 
posed to differ in will 
power or disposition, rather 
than in the ability to learn. 
A relatively marked inca¬ 
pacity for literacy charac¬ 
terizes about twenty-five per cent of 
our elementary school children. Some 
are iforever incapable of attaining any 
effective control over words and num¬ 
bers ; sWe will attain literacy only to 
a limited degree; but there are vast 
numbers o£ children who can attain a 
degree of literacy that will make life 
easier and happier if the methods used 
by the teacheV meet their needs and 

Gates tells us that if is a remark¬ 
able achievement toNteach any child of 
less than 65 I. Q. to read new material 
unassisted. 1 

Those who have made a study of 
remedial reading- are frank to state 

ys L. Potter 

1 Arthur J. Gates. Interest and Ability in 
Heading. New York: the Macmillan Company, 
1930, p. 14. 




varied in scope. Condensed, the re¬ 
sults were along the following lines: 

1. Reading: Continual practice in 
reading resulted from following charts, 
lists of directions to observe in build¬ 
ing the post office, the short stories 
and poems about mail service, and de¬ 
scriptions of post office activities writ¬ 
ten upon the black board. 

2. Written Language: The thank- 
you letter to the branch post office 
where we saw mail routine, the writing 
of notes to relatives and small friends 
and to each other in the classroom gave 
increased skill in expression as well as 
a better idea of proper letter forms. 

3. Spoken Language: General class¬ 
room discussions prompted clearer ex¬ 
pression of ideas, originality of 
thought, and interest in participation. 

4. Arithmetic : Skills in making 
change, in buying stamps, and money 
orders, and in measuring and weighing 
were developed. 

5. Manual Arts : Ingenuity and 
initiative were stimulated in building 
the post office and in making equip¬ 
ment, mail boxes, stamps, etc. 

6. Fine Arts: The younger children 
drew pictures of the simpler activities 
involved in the post office project, for 
example, how we visited the neighbor¬ 
hood post office; how Mary mailed a 
letter in the corner postbox; how Billy 
wrote a note inviting his cousin in In¬ 
diana to come and visit him; and how 
we built our own post office. These 
drawings were collected in a big book 
which we called our Record, the Story 
of Our Post Office. 

7. Social Studies : History and Geo¬ 
graphy were also taught by drawings. 
Some of the older children drew pic¬ 
tures showing adventures and incidents 

connected with the early mails—com¬ 
paring the way mail was carried years 
ago, in men’s hats, by pony express, 
and by stagecoach, with modern trans¬ 
portation in airplanes, in trucks, and 
by fast trains. Others made pictures, 
coloring them with crayons, showing 
how letters are carried in different 
countries, for example, by skis in 
Switzerland, and by dogsled in Alaska. 
To dramatize these pictures we pasted 
them together as film, unrolling them 
in our home-made movie machine. 

8. Domestic Art : A complete post¬ 
man ’s uniform was made. 

9. Spelling: We wrote a post of¬ 
fice dictionary, adding new words to 
our vocabularies, and learning how to 
spell them. 

10. Character Training: Out of 
the discussion of traits necessary in the 
postmaster and the postman came new 
ideas of the importance of punctuality, 
reliability, efficiency, co-operation, and 

When the unit was finished, we felt 
that not only had new skills been de¬ 
veloped in practical activities and in 
academic study, but the children had 
also learned something about working 
harmoniously together and co-operat¬ 
ing toward a definite objective. They 
had learned, too, to appreciate the 
work of others, they had gained self- 
confidence, and they had been given 
the opportunity to experience some of 
the joys of creating. 

Girl Scouting and the Physically 

(Continued from Page 79) 
cise program. To the girl it was 
recreation, but to a physiotherapist it 
was a treatment. Scouting could not 
in any way replace individual treat¬ 
ment, as each girl mav have a differ- 




windows provided for selling- stamps, 
mailing- letters, buying money orders, 
and registering mail. 

A building committee was chosen, 
with John—a popular boy with a flair 
for carpenter work—as chairman. This 
committee was charged with the duty 
of obtaining orange crates and other 
boxes for building materials. Another 
was to see that the structure was paint¬ 
ed, a third to make shingles for the 
roof, while still another group was ap¬ 
pointed to paint signs for doors and 

Soon everybody was busy; the room 
buzzed with activity. The bidding com¬ 
mittee had brought in two dozen boxes 
of which we could use but twelve, pre¬ 
senting the rest to pupils who said the 
wood could be used at home. These 
boxes were set up as foundation walls. 
Strips of wood which the carpenter 
teacher kindly let us have from the 
shop were nailed, sloping, from a -wall 
molding to form the roof. Sheets of 
brown wrapping paper were painted to 
represent stone walls. Shingles for the 
roof were also made of brown paper, 
cut and pasted together in layers. 

For the windows, openings were left 
in which semi-circles of pasteboard 
were set and marked Money Orders, 
Stamps, etc. We made a door for the 
entrance, over which a large sign pro¬ 
claimed that here was a “U. S. Post 


The building completed, additional 
committees were appointed to make 
stamps, paper money, envelopes, and 
other accessories. The stamps were 
made from long strips of paper cut to 
regulation size, colored with different 
crayons and labelled various prices. 
The money was made from cardboard 
in the shape of coins, ranging from one 
to fifty cents. Envelopes were small 

pieces of scratch paper folded and 

One working group made lock boxes 
from old cigar boxes, cutting a slit in 
the top and painting them black with 
white lettering on the outside so as to 
resemble as closely as possible those 
we had seen at the real post office. 

Two of the boys loaned us their 
newspaper and magazine bags, to be 
used for our postmen’s mail bags. 

Billy made our cancelling stamp, a 
square of wood a quarter of an inch 
thick, with a handle also of wood, while 
Bruce brought a discarded weighing 
machine from home. 

Outside the post office in the back 
of the room had stood our Valentine 
Box. This we decided to make into a 
street mailbox, marking it “U. S. 
Mail”, and placing it on a standard. 
On it we pasted a white placard giv¬ 
ing hours of collection. 

Selecting the Postmaster 

Our post office was now ready to be 
opened. But first we needed a post¬ 
master. We discussed the question and 
concluded that several of the more cap¬ 
able pupils should take turns at serv¬ 
ing. Our postmaster, we said, have the 
following qualifications. 

He should be polite 

He should be punctual 

He must be reliable 

He should be able to make change 

He should be able to read satisfac¬ 

He should be efficient 

He should be honest 

He should be helpful 

Academic Outcomes op the Project 

Study activities that grew out of 
this post office unit were surprisingly 




ent type of treatment; but there are 
'times when it can be a most valuable 
adjunct to treatment. 

Conclusion. It may be seen from 
this discussion that the English Scout¬ 
ing organization harmonizes with her 
educational system and traditions and 
that the work which has been accom¬ 
plished in the past eighteen years 
lias been highly commendable. The 
methods used in this country are adapt¬ 
ed to our educational system and are 
meant to supplement the work of the 

It was decided at the international 
conference that the guiding aims of 
all Scouting should be to bring the 
handicapped Girl Scout in closer touch 
with normal life, and to offer her a full 
share in Scouting activities, especially 
where she may be of service to others. 

Contribution of a Speech Program to 
the Field of Mental Hygiene 

(Continued from Page 88) 

fer. Good attitudes, understanding, 
practice, and encouragement of students 
will always bring positive results. A 
teacher with a disagreeable or weak 
voice may be seriously handicapped, 
but au individual with a speech defect, 
be it even a slight lisp, should never 
receive an appointment to teach. Em¬ 
phasis on the newer type of education 
should aid and abet the cause of good 
speech and mental hygiene, and here 
the teacher must educate the parent 
and community to these newer and bet¬ 
ter ways of thinking and doing. Child 
Guidance Conferences such as are be¬ 
ing carried on in California communi¬ 
ties are of great help in bringing to¬ 
gether mental hygiene and speech 
teachers. The organization of these 

conferences was primarily to inform 
the school personnel regarding mental 

Group instruction of pupils has now 
become recognized as being very 
valuable in speech correction work. 
In the Journal of Nervous and 
Mental Diseases for October 1935, Dr. 
L. C. Marsh from Tucson, Arizona, 
gives these advantages of group treat¬ 
ment as compared with individual 

1. Providing a therapeutic compul¬ 

2. A helpful transference readily 

3. An educational and attractive set 

4. Resistance more easily overcome 

5. Enthusiasms engendered which 
are not so prominent in private 

6. Impersonality of situation makes 
the patient more amenable to 

Hygiene of the emotions, that is help¬ 
ing the child to acquire the correct 
values of the affairs of life, and prac¬ 
tice in the expression of these emotions 
are the two fundamental fields of edu¬ 
cational endeavor. With the introduc¬ 
tion of speech hygiene and training, 
there will come to the educators a com¬ 
prehension of the foundations under¬ 
lying the speech reaction and a better 
interpretation of it as an indicator of 
the individual’s adaptability to his so¬ 
cial surroundings. 1 

1 Lust paragraph is a quotation in part from 
page 6 of Blanton and Blanton, Speech 
Training for Children. New York: D. Apple- 
ton-Century Co. Inc. 




Remedial Reading at it Pertains to the 
Atypical Child 

(Continued from Page 84) 

for most of the poor readers in their 
classrooms. I believe we have been 
too ready to accept the alibi that teach¬ 
ers give, “I have tried everything.” 
Our teachers in all grades need to know 
how to teach reading and assume a full 
share of their responsibilities in the 
prevention and elimination of the poor 

Remedial reading is not a question 
of one method as superior to another. 
No one method suggested by various 
authors should, I believe, be used to 
the exclusion of all others. Every 
method, kinesthetic, phonetic, analytic, 
or any other way that will reach the 
needs of the child should be used. Good 
readers make use of all methods de¬ 
pending on the particular need. 

“Learning to read calls for co-opera¬ 

tion, power of sustained effort and 
fidelity of facts.” It is not a general 
ability but a number of rather special 
abilities. The methods used must be 
suited to the child, his problems, and 
his abilities; the teacher must be under¬ 
standing and patient; there must be 
no fear or tension; and interest must 
be aroused before growth can be as¬ 

We must not forget, however, that 
the educational goal for the mentally 
retarded child should not be reading. 
Why should the school worry a child 
into an anti-social attitude in attempt¬ 
ing to make him a good reader when 
his success in adult life will depend 
more on courteous manners, intelligent 
speech, erect carriage, and cleanliness 
than on academic achievement? But if 
he is capable of becoming literate it 
should be a happy and profitable ex¬ 
perience which will make him a better 
person iioav and always. 

FOR THE FIRST TIME the Many and Varied Types of 


Heretofore Available in Widely Scattered Places 
or Not Taught at All Are Correlated in 


There Will Be Three Periods of Two Weeks Each 
June 20-July 4-July 18, 1938 

UNIQUE—Will Be the Forum Each Friday in Which Teachers 

May Exchange Craft Ideas. 

Some of the Courses Offered Are 

Braiding and 'knotting, simple and complex weaving, soft sheet metal modeling, thin 
wood craft, bead craft, chip carving fibre craft, clay modeling, theory and design in handi¬ 
craft, loom construction, amateur photography, games and game construction, leather craft, 
marionettes, cork craft, paper craft, jewelry. 

Just your name and address to the Craft School will bring you added information. 




This is No.. 

HJ ‘'mr 





also carried in stock in the following sizes 

9 inches 7 inches inch 


9 % 




1527 10^6 inches 7^$ inches inch 

1528 11 " 8 

1529 12 "10 

1530 12 “ 9 % " 

Other sizes made to order. 




Library supplies of all kinds