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BOSTON 
PUBLIC 
tlBl^RY 


1969 


HANDBOOK 


WOMEN 
WORKERS 


WOMEN'S  BUREAU 


Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Ad nimfsf  ratio 
UNITED  STATES  DEP 


AN   ACT  TO    ESTABLISH    IN   THE    DEPARTMENT    OF    LABOR   A 
BUREAU    TO    BE    KNOWN    AS 

THE  WOMEN'S  BUREAU 

Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representor 
tives  of  the  United  States  of  America  in  Congress  as- 
sembled, That  there  shall  be  established  in  the  Depart- 
ment of  Labor  a  bureau  to  be  known  as  the  Women's 
Bureau. 

Sec.  2.  That  the  said  bureau  shall  be  in  charge  of  a  di- 
rector, a  woman,  to  be  appointed  by  the  President,  by  and 
with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate,  who  shall 
receive  an  annual  compensation  of  $5,000.^  It  shall  be  the 
duty  of  said  bureau  to  formulate  standards  and  policies 
which  shall  promote  the  welfare  of  wage-earning  women, 
improve  their  working  conditions,  increase  their  effici- 
ency, and  advance  their  opportunities  for  profitable  em- 
ployment. The  said  bureau  shall  have  authority  to  investi- 
gate and  report  to  the  said  department  upon  all  matters 
pertaining  to  the  welfare  of  women  in  industry.  The 
director  of  said  bureau  may  from  time  to  time  publish 
the  results  of  these  investigations  in  such  a  manner  and 
to  such  extent  as  the  Secretary  of  Labor  may  prescribe. 

Sec,  3.  That  there  shall  be  in  said  bureau  an  assistant 
director,  to  be  appointed  by  the  Secretary  of  Labor,  who 
shall  receive  an  annual  compensation  of  $3,500  ^  and  shall 
perform  such  duties  as  shall  be  prescribed  by  the  director 
and  approved  by  the  Secretary  of  Labor. 

Sec.  4.  That  there  is  hereby  authorized  to  be  employed 
by  said  bureau  a  chief  clerk  and  such  special  agents, 
assistants,  clerks,  and  other  employees  at  such  rates  of 
compensation  and  in  such  numbers  as  Congress  may  from 
time  to  time  provide  by  appropriations. 

Sec.  5.  That  the  Secretary  of  Labor  is  hereby  directed 
to  furnish  sufficient  quarters,  office  furniture,  and  equip- 
ment for  the  work  of  this  bureau. 

Sec.  6.  That  this  act  shall  take  effect  and  be  in  force 
from  and  after  its  passage. 

Approved  June  5,  1920. 
Public  Law  No.  259,  66th  Congress  (H.R.  13229). 


*  Amount  increased   by   R«classification   Act  of   March   4,    1923,   as  amended   and 
supplemented. 


1969 

HANDBOOK 
on 

WOMEN 
WORKERS 

Women's  Bureau 
Bulletin  294 


UNITED  STATES  DEPARTMENT  OF  LABOR 
George  P.  Shultz,  Secretary 

Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Administration 
Arthur  A.  Fletcher,  Administrafor 

WOMEN'S  BUREAU 
Elizabeth  Duncan  Koontz,  Director 

1969 


Most  intangible,  but  by  no  means  least  telling,  of  recent 
changes  is  one  in  the  general  attitude  toward  women's 
participation  in  the  various  aspects  of  American  society. 
It  is  a  change  which  includes  the  attitudes  of  men  toward 
accepting  women  as  colleagues  and  employees,  the  atti- 
tudes of  both  toward  the  creation  of  a  society  whose  aim 
is  the  well-being  of  people — not  of  men  alone  or  of 
women  apart — a  society  of  diverse  talents  used  to  their 
fullest. 

American  Women,  1963-1968 

Report  of  the  Interdepartmental  Committee 

on  the  Status  of  Women 


United  States  Government  Printing  Office,  Washington :  1969 


For  sale  by  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.   Government  Printing  Office 
Washington,  D.C.  20402  -  Price  $1.50 


FOREWORD 

This  handbook  on  American  women  workers  is  published  peri- 
odically by  the  Women's  Bureau  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Labor. 
The  handbook  assembles  factual  information  covering  the  partici- 
pation and  characteristics  of  women  in  the  labor  force,  the  pat- 
terns of  their  employment,  their  occupations,  their  income  and 
earnings,  their  education  and  training,  and  the  Federal  and  State 
laws  affecting  the  employment  and  the  civil  and  political  status  of 
women. 

The  handbook  is  designed  as  a  ready  source  of  reference.  Part  I 
deals  with  women  in  the  labor  force;  Part  II  is  concerned  with 
the  laws  governing  women's  employment  and  status;  Part  III 
tells  about  the  Interdepartmental  Committee,  the  Citizens'  Advis- 
ory Council,  and  the  State  commissions  on  the  status  of  women; 
Part  IV  lists  organizations  of  interest  to  women ;  and  Part  V  con- 
sists of  a  selected  bibliography  on  American  women  workers. 

This  1969  edition  includes  information  that  has  become  availa- 
ble since  1965.  Knowledge  about  the  work  women  do,  the  circum- 
stances of  their  working,  and  the  direction  of  changes  in  their 
work  is  essential — if  society  is  to  make  maximum  use  of  the  po- 
tential of  women  as  a  human  resource  and  if  women  themselves 
are  to  take  advantage  of  the  greater  opportunities  now  available 
to  them. 

Elizabeth  Duncan  Koontz 
Director,  Women's  Bureau 


111 


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The  Women's  Bureau  acknowledges  with  appreciation  the 
assistance  given  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  and  the  Man- 
power Administration  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Labor;  the 
Bureau  of  the  Census  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce;  the 
National  Science  Foundation;  the  Office  of  Education,  Social  and 
Rehabilitation  Service,  and  Social  Security  Administration  of  the 
U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare;  the  Defense 
Advisory  Committee  on  Women  in  the  Services  (DACOWITS)  of 
the  U.S.  Department  of  Defense ;  and  the  U.S.  Civil  Service  Com- 
mission. 

The  Women's  Bureau  also  wishes  to  thank  the  many  private  or- 
ganizations and  individuals  without  whose  cooperation  the  infor- 
mation given  in  this  handbook  would  be  less  complete. 

The  handbook  was  prepared  under  the  general  direction  of  Isa- 
belle  S.  Streidl. 

Part  I  was  prepared  by  Mary  G.  Kramer,  Rosalind  Raskin,  and 
Jean  A.  Wells,  with  statistical  assistance  by  Grace  R.  Hipp  and 
Harriet  G.  Magruder. 

Part  II  was  prepared  by  Priscilla  B.  Bonuccelli,  Grace  C. 
Ferrill,  and  E.  Boyd  Steele,  under  the  supervision  of  Pearl  G. 
Spindler. 

Part  III  was  prepared  by  Marguerite  I.  Gilmore. 

Part  IV  was  prepared  under  the  direction  of  Lillian  Barsky. 

Part  V  was  prepared  by  Jean  K.  Boardman. 

Other  assistance  was  provided  by  Lillian  Barsky,  Laura  T. 
Danley,  Ruth  Erskine,  Ella  J.  Green,  and  Jane  M.  Newman, 
under  the  supervision  of  Eleanor  M.  Coakley. 

The  assistance  of  many  other  Bureau  staff  members  is  also 
gratefully  acknowledged. 


IV 


CONTENTS 


Page 

Acknowledgments     iii 

Foreword      iv 

PART  I— WOMEN  IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE 

Section  Page 

Highlights     3 

Chapter  1 — Women  as  Workers 

Toward  Economic  Equality  and  Opportunity 5 

X 1     Predominant  Work  Patterns  6 

Numbers  and  Trends    9 

2  Twenty-nine  Million  Women  Workers 9 

3  Nonwhite  Women  in  the  Labor  Force 10 

4  Employment  and  Unemployment  11 

5  Most  Women  Are  Homemakers   12 

6  Geographical  Distribution  of  Women  Workers 12 

7  Annual  Growth  in  Labor  Force  of  Women  and  Men,  1947-68 15 

8  Rise  in  Median  Age  of  Women  Workers 15 

Labor  Force  Participation  of  Women 17 

9  Variations  in  Labor  Force  Participation  by  Age  Group,  1940-68  _  17 

10  Rise  in  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Mature  Women 19 

11  Labor  Force  Participation  of  White  and  Nonwhite  Women 20 

12  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Women  18  to  64  Years  Old 21 

Marital  Status  of  Women  Workers 23 

13  Nearly  3  Out  of  5  Women  Workers  Are  Married 23 

14  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Women  by  Marital  Status 26 

15  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Women  by  Age  and  Marital  Status  _  27 

Family  Status  of  Women  Workers  28 

16  Types  of  Families  in  the  Population 28 

17  Unrelated  Individuals  in  the  Population 29 

18  Labor   Force    Participation   of  Women   in    Different   Types   of 

Families    29 

Employment  Status  of  Husband-Wife  and  Female-Head  Families 29 

19  Husband-Wife   Families    29 

20  Female-Head  Families 29 

Working    Wives    32 

21  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Wives  by  Income  of  Husband 32 

22  Contribution  of  Wives  to  Family  Income 34 

23  Job-Related  Expenses  of  Working  Wives 36 

24  Occupations  of  Husbands  and  Wives 37 

Working  Mothers   37 

25  Number  and  Proportion  of  Working  Mothers 37 

26  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Mothers 40 

27  Trends  in  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Mothers 40 


Section  Page 

28  Children  of  Working  Mothers   42 

29  Labor  Force  Participation  of  White  and  Nonwhite  Mothers 42 

30  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Mothers  by  Income  of  Husband 43 

31  Part-Time  and  Part- Year  Work  Patterns  of  Mothers 43 

Mothers  (husband  present)   46 

Mothers  (husband  absent) 47 

32  Child  Care  Arrangements  of  Working  Mothers 47 

Federal    and    State    tax    treatment    regarding    child    care 

expenses   61 

33  Maternity  Provisions 52 

Voluntary  plans  52 

Legislative  provisions  53 

Working  Life  of  Women 55 

34  Work  Experience  of  Women 55 

Reasons  given  for  part-year  work 56 

Changes  in  work  experience  of  women  since  1950 56 

Work  experience  by  age 57 

Work  experience  by  marital  status 58 

Work  experience  by  occupation 60 

Work  experience  of  white  and  nonwhite  women 62 

35  Employed  Women  by  Part-Time  and  Full-Time  Status 63 

Part-time    and    full-time     employment    by     selected     char- 
acteristics    66 

Interest  among  jobseekers  in  full-  or  part-time  work 66 

36  Unemployed  Women 67 

Trends  in  unemployment  rates 69 

Unemployment  by  marital  status 69 

Unemployment  by  family  status 69 

Unemployment  by  age   70 

Special  unemployment  problems  of  teenagers 72 

"Hidden"  unemployment  and  "underemployment" 73 

Unemployment  of  white  and  nonwhite  women  and  girls 73 

37  Labor  Turnover  and  Absenteeism 76 

Labor  turnover 76 

Absenteeism . 80 

38  Multiple  Jobholders  80 

39  Women  as  Members  of  Unions 82 

Womanpower  Reserve 84 

Chapter  2 — Women's  Employment  by  Occupations  and 

Industries 

Principal  Occupations  of  Women 87 

40  Type  of  Work 87 

41  Major  Occupation  Groups  89 

Occupational  differences  between  women  and  men 93 

42  Proportion  of  Workers  Who  Are  Women 94 

Detailed  Occupations  of  Women 94 

43  Women  in  Professional  Occupations 95 

44  Women  Managers,  Officials,  and  Proprietors  100 

45  Women  in  Clerical  Occupations 100 

46  Women  in  Service  Occupations 101 

vi 


Section  Page 

Occupations  by  Selected  Characteristics 102 

47  Occupations  of  Women  by  Marital  Status 102 

48  Occupations  of  Nonwhite  Women 105 

49  Occupations  of  Young  Women  107 

50  Occupations  of  Mature  Women 108 

Industry  Groups  of  Women 109 

51  Distribution  of  Women  by  Industry 109 

Changes  in  women's  employment  by  industry 109 

Women  as  a  percent  of  all  workers 109 

52  Women  as  Nonf arm  Workers 111 

Factory   workers    113 

Nonmanuf acturing  workers  115 

53  Women  on  Farms 117 

Women  in  Public  Administration 118 

54  Women  in  Federal  Civilian  Service 118 

Legislative  branch   118 

Judicial   branch    118 

Executive  branch,  general  119 

Executive  branch,  Foreign^  Service  120 

55  Women  in  the  Armed  Services 122 

56  Women  in  State  Office 125 

57  Women  Mayors 126 

Chapter  3 — Women's  Income  and  Earnings 

Factors  Affecting  Earnings  127 

Income  of  Families  and  Women 128 

58  Family  Income    128 

Income  of  husband-wife  families  129 

Income  of  female-head  families   129 

Families   living   in    poverty    130 

59  Income  of  Women  Compared  With  That  of  Men 132 

Differences  in  income  received   132 

Trends  in  income  differences 133 

Occupational  income  differences   134 

60  Income  of  Women  by  Work  Experience 134 

61  Wage  or  Salary  Income  of  White  and  Nonwhite  Women 136 

62  Income  by  Age   137 

63  Income  by   Occupation   138 

64  Income  by  Education  138 

65  Women  Receiving  Benefits  141 

-66    Women  as  Stockholders  145 

Earnings  of  Nonprofessional  Women  Workers 146 

>  67     Earnings  of  Office  Workers 146 

68  Earnings  in  Selected  Manufacturing  Industries 147 

Cotton   textiles    149 

Synthetic  textiles   150 

Women's  and  misses'  dresses 152 

69  Earnings  in  Selected  Service  Industries 153 

Hotels  and  motels   153 

Laundry  and  cleaning  services 154 

Eating  and  drinking  places   156 

vii 


Section  Page 

70  Earnings  in  Nonprofessional  Hospital  Occupations 157 

Salaries  of  Professional  Women  Workers  158 

71  Salaries  of  School  Teachers 158 

Elementary  and  secondary  school  teachers 159 

College  and  university  teachers 161 

Junior  college  teachers  162 

72  Salaries    of    Professional    and    Technical    Workers    in    Private 

Industry        162 

73  Salaries  in  Professional  Hospital  Nursing  Occupations 163 

74  Salaries    of    Professional    and    Technical    Hospital    Personnel 

(Nonnursing) 168 

75  Salaries  of  Scientists   169 

Salaries  of  Federal  Employees 171 

Salaries  of  College  Graduates 173 

-^&     Starting  Salaries  of  Recent  College  Graduates 173 

77  Salaries  of  College  Women  Seven  Years  After  Graduation 174 

Chapter  4 — Education,  Training,  and  Employment  of  Women 

Education  of  Women  in  the  Population  and  Labor  Force  177 

78  Education  of  Women  Workers  178 

79  Rise  in  Educational  Attainment    179 

School   Enrollments    180 

80  Enrollments  by  Age 180 

81  Enrollments  by  Type  of  School 183 

82  Secondary  School   Enrollments   184 

Growth      184 

Retention  rates   185 

School   dropouts 185 

Women  and  Higher  Education 186 

83  High  School  Graduates  Entering  College 186 

84  College   Enrollments    187 

Types  of  institutions  attended  by  women 187 

Freshmen    students    189 

Full-time  and  part-time  students  -. 189 

Graduate   students    190 

College  enrollment  and  marriage  190 

85  Women  Earning  Degrees  190 

Number  and  types  of  degrees 190 

Comparison  of  degrees  earned  by  women  and  men 191 

Fields  of  study  in  which  women  earned  degrees 192 

Bachelor's   degrees    193 

First  professional  degrees  195 

Master's  degrees 196 

Doctor's  degrees   196 

■~«6     Continuing  Education  Programs  for  Women   199 

87     Financial  Assistance  for  College  Students 201 

Educational  opportunity  grants  201 

National  defense  student  loans 201 

Guaranteed  loans 202 

Work-study   assistance    202 

viii 


Section  Paa« 

Cooperative  education   203 

Social  security  benefits  for  students 203 

Aid  for  special  fields  of  study  203 

Aid  to  veterans  204 

Aid  to  children  of  veterans 204 

Education  and  Employment 204 

88  Educational  Attainment  and  Labor  Force  Participation 204 

89  Educational  Attainment  and  Occupations  209 

Occupations  of  Girl  High  School  Graduates  and  School  Drop- 
outs      212 

College  Majors  and  Occupations 216 

90  Educational  Attainment  and  Unemployment 217 

91  Educational  Attainment  and  Hours  of  Work 220 

Training  Programs  for  Women  220 

92  Federally  Aided  Vocational  Education 221 

93  Training  Programs  Under  the  Department  of  Labor 225 

Training  under  the  Manpower  Development  and  Training 

Act   226 

Training    and    other    opportunities    under    the    Economic 

Opportunity    Act    229 

The  Neighborhood  Youth  Corps  229 

Adult  work  training  and  experience  programs 230 

The  Work  Incentive  Program 231 

Newest  program  directions  and  innovations 232 

The  Concentrated  Employment  Program 232 

Cooperative  programs  with  industry   233 

94  Training  and   Other  Programs   Under  the   Office   of   Economic 

Opportunity        235 

The  Job  Corps   235 

The  Domestic  Volunteer  Service  Program   (VISTA)    236 

Community  action  programs  237 

95  Apprenticeship    Training    237 

96  Vocational  Rehabilitation  of  Handicapped  Women 238 

97  Special  Program  for  Private  Household  Workers 240 

Chapter  5 — Outlook  for  Women  Workers 

Outlook  for  Women  Workers  243 

PART  II— LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT 

AND  STATUS 

Highlights     251 

Chapter  6 — Federal  Labor  Laws  for  Women 

98  The  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  of  1938 253 

99  Fair  Labor  Standards  Amendments  of  1966 254 

100  Equal  Pay  Act  of  1963  255 

101  Title  VII  of  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964 255 

Employment  by  the  Federal  Government  and  by  Federal  Contractors  _  257 

102  Executive  Order  11375    257 

103  Age  Discrimination  in  Employment  Act  of  1967 258 

ix 


Section  Page 

Chapter  7 — State  Labor  Laws  for  Women 

Minimum   Wage    261 

104  Historical  Record  of  Minimum  Wage  Legislation 262 

105  Roster  of  Minimum  Wage  Jurisdictions 265 

Overtime   Compensation    266 

106  Statutory  Requirements   266 

cl07     Wage  Order  Requirements   267 

Equal   Pay   267 

108  Historical  Record  of  Equal  Pay  Legislation 267 

109  Roster  of  Equal  Pay  States 269 

Fair  Employment  Practices    269 

110  Roster  of  Fair  Employment  Practices  States 269 

Hours  of  Work  270 

111  Maximum  Daily  and  Weekly  Hours  271 

112  Day  of  Rest 273 

113  Meal    Period    274 

114  Rest  Period 274 

115  Nightwork        275 

Other  Labor  Legislation  275 

116  Industrial   Homework    275 

117  Employment  Before  and  After  Childbirth 276 

118  Occupational  Limitations    277 

119  Seating  and  Weightlifting 278 

Seating    278 

Weightlifting  278 

Chapter  8 — Political  and  Civil  Status  of  Women 

New   Trends    281 

Political  Status  282 

120  Citizenship    282 

121  Voting  and  Public  Office 282 

Federal  elections 282 

State   elections    282 

Civil  service  positions  282 

Courts — jury  service   283 

122  Domicile     284 

Civil   Status — Family  Relations   285 

123  Marriage  285 

124  Divorce    286 

125  Parent  and  Child  287 

Unmarried  parents   287 

Inheritance  by  parents  from  children 287 

126  Family  Support 288 

Unmarried  parents 288 

Uniform  Reciprocal  Enforcement  of  Support  Act 288 

Civil  Status — Property  and  Contract  Law  289 

127  Property    289 

128  Ownership,  Control,  and   Use  of  Property   289 

Personal   earnings    289 

Real  property  owned  separately   290 

Real  and  personal  property  acquired  by  joint  efforts  after 

marriage       290 

X 


Section  Page 

Disposition    of   property   after   death    291 

129     Contracts    292 

PART  III— COMMISSIONS  ON  THE  STATUS  OF  WOMEN 

Federal       294 

State      297 

PART  IV— ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

Civic,  Religious,  and  Social  Organizations 302 

Professional  and  Business  Organizations 308 

General  Service  Organizations  of  Business  and  Professional  Women  _  319 

Educational  Organizations  321 

Political  and  Legislative  Organizations  325 

Patriotic  Organizations 326 

Farm  and  Rural  Organizations 327 

Labor  Organizations    328 

Alphabetical  List  of  Organizations  329 

PART  V— BIBLIOGRAPHY  ON  AMERICAN  WOMEN 

WORKERS 

General    334 

Commissions  on  the  Status  of  Women  335 

Counseling  and  Guidance  336 

Education  and  Training 338 

Continuing  education — programs  and  needs 340 

Job  training  and  vocational  education 341 

Family  Status  and  Responsibilities  of  Women  Workers 343 

Child  care  arrangements   343 

Working  mothers   345 

Historical    Development    346 

International    350 

Special  Groups  of  Women 351 

Mature  women    351 

Nonwhite  women    353 

Teenagers  and  youth 354 

Other  special  groups  355 

Standards  and  Legislation  Affecting  Women  357 

Civil  and  political  status  358 

Equal  pay 358 

Minimum  wage 359 

Union  Organization  359 

Volunteers 360 

Women  as  Workers  361 

Earnings  and  income 362 

Occupations  and  employment   364 

Reports  of  Conferences,  Meetings,  and  Commissions 366 

Speeches    369 

Bibliographies    370 

INDEX     373 

xi 


Tables 

Table  Page 

1  Women  in  the  Labor  Force,  Selected  Years,  1890-1968 10 

2  Employment  Status  of  Women  and  Men,  1968 11 

3  Women  in  the  Population  and  Labor  Force,  by  Age,  1940  and  1968  _  17 

4  Labor  Force   Participation   Rates   of  Women,  by  Age,   Selected 

Years,   1940-68   18 

5  Women  as  Percent  of  Civilian  Labor  Force,  by  Age  and  Color, 

1958   and   1968    22 

6  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women  18  to  64  Years  of 

Age,  Selected  Years,  1947-68      22 

7  Women  in  the  Population  and  Labor  Force,  by  Marital  Status, 

March  1940  and  1967   23 

8  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Marital  Status, 

Selected  Years,   1940-67   26 

9  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Age  and  Marital 

Status,  March  1967 27 

10  Employment  Status  of  Female  Family  Heads,  by  Employment 

Status  of  Other  Family  Members,  March  1967 30 

11  Labor  Force  Status  of  Female  Family  Heads,  by  Age,  March 

1967        31 

12  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Wives   (Husband  Present), 

by   Income   of   Husband   in    1966    and    Presence    and    Age    of 
Children,  March  1967   33 

13  Percent   Distribution    of    Married    Women    (Husband    Present) 

in  the  Labor  Force,  by  Income  of  Husband  in   1966,   March 

1967        34 

14  Percent  of  Family  Income  Accounted  for  by  Wives'  Earnings 

in  1966      35 

15  Occupation  of  Wives,  by  Occupation  of  Husbands,  March  1967  _  _         38 

16  Mothers  in  the  Population  and  Labor  Force,  by  Marital  Status 

and  by  Age  of  Children,  March  1967  39 

17  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Mothers  and  of  All  Women, 

Selected  Years,   1940-67    40 

18  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Mothers  (Husband  Present), 

by  Color  and  by  Age  of  Children,  March  1967 43 

19  Labor   Force   Participation   Rates   and    Percent   Distribution   of 

Mothers   (Husband  Present),  by  Income  of  Husband  in   1966 

and  Age  of  Children,  March   1967    45 

20  Work  Experience  in   1966  of  Mothers    (Husband   Present),  by 

Age  of  Children,  March   1967   47 

21  Full-Time  and  Part-Time  Work  Status  of  Mothers  Employed  in 

Nonagricultural  Industries,  by  Marital  Status  and  by  Age  of 
Children,  March  1967   48 

22  Child  Care  Arrangements  of  Working  Mothers  With   Children 

Under  14  Years  of  Age,  by  Age  of  Children,  February  1965  49 

23  Work  Experience  of  Women,  1950,  1960,  and  1967 57 

24  Percent  of  Women  and  Men  With  Work  Experience  in  1967,  by 

Age     58 

25  Work  Experience  of  Women  in  1967,  by  Age 59 

26  Work  Experience  of  Women  in  1967,  by  Marital  Status 60 

27  Work  Experience  of  Women  in  1967,  by  Major  Occupation  Group  61 

xii 


Table  Page 

28  Work  Experience  of  Women  in  1967,  by  Color  and  Age 64 

29  Women  at  Work  in   Nonagricultural   Industries,  by  Full-   and 

Part-Time  Status  and  Selected  Characteristics,  1968 65 

30  Unemployed  Persons  Looking  for  Full-  or  Part-Time  Work,  by 

Age,   1968   67 

31  Percent    Distribution    of    the    Unemployed    and    Unemployment 

Rates,  by  Sex  and  Reason  for  Unemployment,  1968 68 

32  Unemployment  Rates  of  Women  and  Men,  1947-68 70 

33  Unemployment  Rates  of  Women  and  Men,  by  Age,  1968 71 

34  Unemployment  Rates,  by  Sex,  Age,  and  Color,  Selected  Years, 

1959-68    75 

35  Women  With  Two  or  More  Jobs,  by  Occupation  of  Primary  ana 

Secondary   Jobs,    May    1966    81 

36  Women  Members  of  Labor  Unions,  1966 83 

37  Employment,  by  Sex  and  Type  of  Work,  1940,  1950,  and  1968  - .  88 

38  Major  Occupation  Groups  and  Selected  Occupations  of  Employed 

Women,  April  1968   90 

39  Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Girls  14  and  15  Years  of 

Age,  April  1968   91 

40  Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Women,  1940,  1950,  and 

1968      92 

41  Detailed  Occupations  in  Which  100,000  or  More  Women  Were 

Employed,  1960  96 

42  Occupations  in  Which  Women  Were  Three-fourths  or  More  of 

Total  Employed,  1960 97 

43  Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Women,  by  Marital  Status, 

March  1967 103 

44  Marital  Status  of  Employed  Women,  by  Major  Occupation  Group, 

March  1967 104 

45  Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Nonwhite  Women,  April 

1968    106 

46  Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Girls  16  to  19  Years  of 

Age,  April   1968   107 

47  Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Women  45  Years  of  Age 

and  Over,  April   1968   108 

48  Major  Industry  Groups  of  Employed  Women,   1940,  1950,  and 

1967        110 

49  Women  in  Nonagricultural  Industries,  1964  and  1968 112 

50  Women  in  Manufacturing  Industries,  1960  and  1968 114 

51  Women  in  Selected  Nonmanufacturing  Industries,  1960  and  1968  _  116 

52  Employment  Status  of  Women  Living  on  Farms,  1960  and  1967  -  118 

53  Women  in  the  Federal  Civilian  Service,  Selected  Years,  1923-67.  120 

54  Foreign  Service  Personnel,  by  Sex  and  Rank,  March  1968 121 

55  Women  on  Active  Duty  in  the  Armed  Services,  November  1967  _  -  123 

56  Median  Income  of  Families,  by  Type  of  Family,  1966 128 

57  Families  Living  in  Poverty,  1966 131 

58  Income  of  Women  and  Men,  1966 132 

59  Women's  Median  Wage  or  Salary  Income  as  Percent  of  Men's,  by 

Selected  Major  Occupation  Group,  1956-66 135 

60  Median  Income  of  Women  Workers  in  1966,  by  Work  Experience  _  136 

xiii 


Table  Page 

61  Median  Wage  or  Salary  Income  of  Year-Round  Full-Time  Work- 

ers, by  Sex  and  Color,  1939  and  1956-66 137 

62  Median  Wage  or  Salary  Income  of  Year-Round  Full-Time  Work- 

ers, by  Major  Occupation  Group  and  Sex,  1966 139 

63  Median  Income  in  1966  of  Persons,  by  Educational  Attainment, 

Sex,  and  Color   141 

64  Number   of    Women    Receiving    OASDI    Benefits    and    Average 

Monthly  Benefits  Received,  by  Color,  End  of  1966 144 

65  Average  Weekly  Earnings  of  Women  in  Selected  Office  Occupa- 

tions, 17  Metropolitan  Areas,  July  1967-June  1968 148 

66  Average  Hourly  Earnings  in  Selected  Occupations  in  the  Cotton 

Textile  Industry,  by  Sex,  United  States  and  Southeast  Region, 
September  1965   150 

67  Average  Hourly  Earnings  in  Selected  Occupations  in  the  Syn- 

thetic Textile  Industry,  by  Sex,  United  States  and  Southeast 
Region,  September  1965   151 

68  Average   Hourly   Earnings  in  the   Women's  and   Misses'   Dress 

Industry,  by  Sex,  11  Metropolitan  Areas,  March  1966 152 

69  Average  Hourly  Wages  of  Employees  in  Selected  Hotel  Occupa- 

tions, by  Region,  United  States  and  Metropolitan  Areas,  April 

1967    154 

70  Average  Hourly  Earnings  in  Laundry  and  Cleaning  Services,  by 

Sex,  Region,  and  Occupation,  April  1968   155 

71  Average  Hourly  Wages  in  Selected  Occupations  in  Eating  and 

Drinking  Places,  by  Sex  and  Region,  United  States  and  Metro- 
politan Areas,  April  1967 ,  -  -       157 

72  Average  Earnings  of  Women  Employed  Full  Time  in  Nonprofes- 

sional Hospital  Occupations,  21  Metropolitan  Areas,  July  1966  _       159 

73  Estimated  Average  Annual  Salaries  of  Elementary  and  Secondary 

School  Teachers,  by  Area,  1968-69   160 

74  Median  Annual  Salaries  of  Teaching  Staff  in  Colleges  and  Uni- 

versities, by  Sex,  1965-66  161 

75  Median  Weekly  Earnings  of  Women  in  Selected  Hospital  Nursing 

Occupations,  21  Metropolitan  Areas,  July  1966   164 

76  Women  Professional  Registered  Nurses,  by  Field  of  Employment, 

1967      165 

77  Median  Weekly  Salaries  of  Women  Industrial  Nurses,  64  Metro- 

politan Areas,  1967-68   166 

78  Median  Weekly  Earnings  of  Women  in  Selected  Nonnursing  Pro- 

fessional and  Technical  Hospital  Occupations,  21  Metropolitan 
Areas,  July  1966   168 

79  Women  Scientists,  by  Field  and  Highest  Degree,  1966 170 

80  Median  Annual  Salaries  of  Full-Time  Employed  Women  Civilian 

Scientists,  by  Field,   1966    171 

81  Average    Annual    Salaries    of    Women    Full-Time    White-Collar 

Workers   in   the   Federal   Service,   All   Areas,  by   Occupation 
Group,  October  31,  1967 172 

82  Starting  Salaries  of  Women  With  Bachelor's  Degrees,  by  Field, 

1968  and  1969    174 

83  Average  Annual  Salaries  of  1957  Women  College  Graduates,  by 

Occupation,  1957-58  and  1964 176 


Table  Page 

84  Educational  Attainment  of  the  Population  and  of  Workers,  by 

Sex,  March   1968    178 

85  School  Enrollments,  October  1966,  and  Enrollment  Rates,  October 

1950  and  1966,  by  Sex  and  Age 181 

86  School  Enrollments  and  Enrollment  Rates,  by  Color,  Age,  and 

Sex,  October  1966  182 

87  Types  of  School  Attended  by  Students  5  to  34  Years  of  Age,  by 

Sex,   October   1966    184 

88  High  School  Graduates  and  First-Time  College  EnroUees,  by  Sex, 

Selected  Years,  1950-67  187 

89  College    Enrollments,   by    Type   of   Institution   and    Enrollment 

Category,  Fall  1967  188 

90  Earned   Bachelor's  Degrees  Conferred  on  Women,  by  Selected 

Fields  of  Study,  1966-67 193 

91  Earned  First  Professional  Degrees  Conferred  on  Women,  by  Se- 

lected Fields  of  Study,  1966-67 195 

92  Earned    Master's    Degrees    Conferred    on    Women,   by    Selected 

Fields  of  Study,  1966-67  197 

93  Earned    Doctor's    Degrees    Conferred    on    Women,   by    Selected 

Fields  of  Study,  1966-67 199 

94  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Educational  At- 

tainment and  Marital  Status,  March  1968 206 

95  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Educational  At- 

tainment and  Age,  March  1968 207 

96  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Nonwhite  Women,  by  Educa- 

tional Attainment  and  Age,  March  1968 208 

97  Employment  Status  of  High  School  Graduates  Not  Enrolled  in 

College  and  School  Dropouts,  by  Sex,  Age,  and  Color,  October 

1967    210 

98  Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Women,  by  Educational 

Attainment,  March  1968  211 

99  Educational  Attainment  of  Employed  Women,  by  Major  Occupa- 

tion Group,  March  1968  214 

100  Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Girl  High  School  Grad- 

uates and  School  Dropouts,  by  Color,  October  1967 215 

101  Unemployment  Rates  of  Women,  by  Educational  Attainment  and 

Color,  March   1968   217 

102  Educational  Attainment  of  Women  in  the  Labor  Force,  by  Em- 

ployment Status  and  Color,  March  1968 219 

103  Weekly  Hours  of  Work  of  Women  Employed  in  Nonagricultural 

Industries,  by  Educational  Attainment,  March  1968 220 

104  Women  Enrolled  in  Public  Vocational  Courses,  by  Type  of  Pro- 

gram,   1966-67    223 

105  Percentage  of  Women  Enrolled  in  MDTA  Training  Programs, 

by  Selected  Characteristics,  Fiscal  Year  1968 227 

106  Percentage  of  Women  Enrolled  in  MDTA  Programs,  by  Selected 

Occupations,  Fiscal  Year  1968  228 

107  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates,  by  Sex  and  by  Age  of  Women, 

1968  and  Projected  to  1980 244 

108  Labor  Force  Participation  Rates,  by  Sex  and  Color  and  by  Age 

of  Women,  1968  and  Projected  to  1980 245 

XV 


Charts 

Chart  Page 

A     Most  Women  Are  Homemakers 12 

B     Fourteen  States  Each  Have  More  Than  a  Half  Million  Women 

Workers 14 

C     Women's  Emplojmient  Has  Increased  Faster  Than  Men's 15 

D     The  Proportion  of  Women  Workers  Over  45  Is  Rising 20 

E     Among  Adult  Women,  Nonwhite  Are  More  Likely  To  Work  Than 

Are  White  Women  21 

F     Most  Women  Who  Work  Are  Married 24 

G     The  Number  of  Married  Women  in  the  Labor  Force  Has  Grown 

Rapidly    25 

H     Mothers  Are  More  Likely  To  Work  Today  Than  Ever  Before 41 

I       A  High  Proportion  of  Nonwhite  Working  Mothers  Have  Young 

Children 44 

J      A  Smaller  Proportion  of  Mothers  With  Young  Children  Work  at 

All   Income  Levels    46 

K     About  2  Out  of  5  Women  Workers  Have  Full-Time  Year-Round 

Jobs    56 

L     Unemployment  Is  Highest  Among  Younger  Women   71 

M    Unemployment  of  Nonwhite  Workers  Continues  To  Be  High 74 

N     7  Out  of  10  Clerical  Workers  Are  Women 93 

O     A   Larger  Proportion  of   Nonwhite   Than   White   Women   Are   in 

Service  Work  105 

P     The  Earnings  Gap  Between  Women  and  Men  Is  Widening 133 

Q     Education  and  Earning  Power  Go  Together 140 

R     Most  Women  Workers  Are  at  Least  High  School  Graduates 179 

S  The  Difference  in  the  Educational  Attainment  of  White  and  Non- 
white  Workers  Is  Narrowing  180 

T     2  Out  of  5  Women  College  Graduates  Major  in  Education 192 

U     Labor  Force  Participation  Increases  With  Education 205 

V     The  Jobs  Women  Hold  Reflect  the  Education  They  Have  Had 213 


Because  of  rounding,  details  in  the  statistical  tables  do  not  neces- 
sarily add  to  the  totals.  The  word  "average"  refers  to  an  arithmetical 
mean. 

The  information  in  this  handbook  is  based  upon  the  latest  figures 
available  when  released  to  press. 


XVI 


Parti 

Women  in  the  Labor  Force 


HIGHLIGHTS 

EMPLOYMENT  IN   1968 

Number— Over  29  million  women  are  in  the  labor  force. 
This  is  42  percent  of  all  women  of  working  age. 
Women  are  37  percent  of  the  labor  force. 

Age— Half  of  the  women  workers  are  40  years  of  age  or  over. 
Almost  two-fifths  are  45  years  or  older. 

More  than  half  of  all  women  are  in  the  labor  force  in  the  fol- 
lowing age  groups:  18  and  19  years,  20  to  24  years,  and  45 
to  54  years. 

Marital  Status— Almost  3  out  of  5  women  workers  are  married  (husband 
present). 

Of  all  married  women  (husband  present)  in  the  population,  37 
percent  are  working. 

Family  Status— About  10.6  million  mothers  with  children  under  18  years 
of  age  are  working,  of  whom  4.1  million  have  children  under  6 
years. 

Working  mothers  are  38  percent  of  all  women  in  the  labor  force. 

Employment  Patterns— About  42  percent  of  all  women  workers  work 
full  time  the  year  round. 

Almost  30  percent  work  part  time  the  year  round  or  port  of  the 
year. 

Occupations— About  34  percent  of  all  employed  women  are 
clerical  workers. 

They  include  3.3  million  stenographers,  typists,  and  secretaries. 
Sixteen  percent  are  service  workers  (except  private  household). 
Fifteen  percent  are  operatives,  chiefly  in  factories. 
Almost  15  percent  are  professional  and  technical  workers.  They 
include  1,7  million  teachers. 

INCOME  IN   1966 

Median  Income  in  1966— $4,026  was  received  by  year-round  full-time 
women  workers;  $1,638,  by  all  women  with   income. 

EDUCATION    IN   1966-68 

School  and  College  Enrollment— There  were  over  26  million  girls  and 
women  between  5  and  34  years  of  age  enrolled  in  school  in  the  fall 
of  1966.  The  2.8  million  college  women  were  two-fifths  of  all  college 
students  in  the  fall  of  1967. 


Education  Completed— About  297,000  women  earned  college  degrees 
in  1966—67.  A  total  of  2.9  million  women  workers  have  a  college 
degree,  according  to  a  March  1968  study.  About  12.2  million  women 
workers  are  at  least  high  school  graduates  (no  college),  and  3.4 
million  have  some  college  education  (no  degree). 


1 


WOMEN   AS  WORKERS 

Toward   Economic   Equalify  and  Oppor+unity 

Womanpower  is  one  of  our  country's  greatest .  resources. 
Women's  skills  and  abilities  are  being  used  more  fully  and  more 
creatively  than  ever  before — in  the  home,  in  the  community,  and 
on  the  job. 

Since  1940  American  women  have  been  responsible  for  the 
major  share  in  the  growth  of  the  labor  force.  They  accounted  for 
about  65  percent  of  the  total  increase  from  1940  to  1968,  and  their 
representation  in  the  labor  force  has  risen  from  one-fourth  to  al- 
most two-fifths  of  all  workers. 

The  growing  contribution  made  by  women  to  the  economic  life 
of  the  country  has  developed  largely  as  a  result  of  many  social 
and  economic  changes  of  the  last  28  years.  Women  have  been 
freed  for  work  outside  the  home  by  scientific  and  technological 
advances  that  have  simplified  home  chores.  The  growth  of  new 
industries  in  a  dynamic  economy  and  expanded  activities  in  oth- 
ers, as  in  commerce  and  trade,  have  opened  new  doors  for  women 
in  business,  the  professions,  and  the  production  of  goods  and  serv- 
ices. 

The  increased  demand  for  women  as  workers  has  been  accom- 
panied by  broadened  opportunities  for  their  education  and  by 
girls'  and  women's  increasing  awareness  of  the  need  for  more 
training.  The  great  emphasis  in  recent  years  on  completion  of 
high  school,  on  occupational  training,  on  university  education, 
and  on  continuing  education  for  mature  women  has  encouraged 
women  to  seek  better  preparation  for  jobs.  This  has  facilitated 
their  integration  into  the  working  world. 

Women  have  made  significant  progress  in  the  last  few  years 
and  have  found  many  new  doors  opened  to  them.  Many  of  these 
gains  can  be  credited  to  the  President's  Commission  on  the  Status 
of  Women,  established  in  1961.^  The  Commission  studied  the  role 
of  women  in  American  life,  examined  their  needs,  and  evaluated 
their  potential  contribution  to  the  country's  economic,  social,  and 


*  See    Part   III    for    additional    information    on    the    President's    Commission    on    the    Status 
of  Women  and  developments  stemming  from  this  Commission. 


6  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

political  development.  The  Commission's  report,  Americcm 
Women,  contained  many  far-reaching  recommendations  that  envi- 
sioned full  partnership  for  women  in  the  affairs  of  the  Nation.  At 
the  Federal  level  the  Interdepartmental  Committee  and  the  Citi- 
zens' Advisory  Council  on  the  Status  of  Women  have  followed 
through  on  the  work  of  the  original  Commission. 

In  addition,  commissions  on  the  status  of  women  established 
in  each  of  the  50  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  Puerto  Rico, 
the  Virgin  Islands,  and  two  municipalities  have  not  only  made 
full  recognition  and  utilization  of  the  Nation's  womanpower  a 
matter  of  wide  concern  but  also  have  achieved  many  gains  for 
v/omen.  In  all  areas  greater  interest  has  been  aroused  in  the  need 
to  educate,  counsel,  and  train  women  for  their  responsibilities  as 
homemakers,  mothers,  and  workers. 

Women  are  promised  equality  and  greater  economic  opportu- 
nity under  Government  programs  that  mark  the  beginning  of  a 
new  national  effort  to  eradicate  discrimination  based  on  sex,  race, 
and  age.  The  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964  is  of  particular  interest  to 
women,  since  its  employment  provisions  prohibit  discrimination 
in  employment  on  the  basis  of  sex  as  well  as  race,  color,  religion, 
or  national  origin.  The  Equal  Pay  Act  of  1963,  which  became  ef- 
fective in  1964,  promises  better  wage  protection  for  women  by 
prohibiting  wage  discrimination  on  the  basis  of  sex.  Job  discrimi- 
nation against  either  men  or  women  workers  40  to  65  years  of  age 
is  prohibited  by  the  Age  Discrimination  in  Employment  Act  of 
1967.  This  act,  like  the  two  just  mentioned,  covers  establishments 
engaged  in  interstate  commerce.  In  addition.  Executive  orders  re- 
quire equal  employment  opportunity  regardless  of  race,  creed, 
color,  national  origin,  sex,  or  age — in  Government  employment 
and  in  employment  by  Federal  contractors  and  under  federally 
assisted  construction. 

The  Economic  Opportunity  Act  of  1964  commits  the  Nation  to 
remove  the  causes  and  consequences  of  poverty.^  The  act  affects 
women  as  it  does  men.  It  is  designed  to  help  develop  the  potential- 
ities of  the  most  severely  disadvantaged  of  our  people,  many  of 
whom  are  women.  A  society  that  aspires  toward  greatness  must 
make  use  of  every  individual's  talents  and  abilities,  and  it  must 
give  each  and  every  one  the  opportunity  to  participate  fully  in  the 
social  and  economic  life  of  the  country. 

/.    Predominant   Work  Paf ferns 

The  social,  economic,  and  cultural  factors  that  have  led  to  these 


'  Some  programs  of  this  act  are  discussed  in  sections  93  and  94. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  7 

important  milestones  have  been  at  work  for  decades  shaping  new 
patterns  for  women's  lives.  One  of  these  factors  is  greater  longev- 
ity, especially  for  v^omen.  The  baby  girl  born  in  1900  had  a  life 
expectancy  of  only  48  years,  but  the  baby  girl  born  in  1966  can 
expect  to  live,  on  the  average,  to  the  age  of  nearly  74  years.  The 
factors  that  have  extended  the  lifespan  have  reduced  the  inci- 
dence of  disease  and  have  given  v^^omen  greater  vitality  for  fuller 
enjoyment  of  their  added  years. 

Women  are  marrying  young  today — half  of  them  marry  by  age 
20.6,  and  more  marry  at  age  18  than  at  any  other  age.  About  9 
out  of  10  women  work  outside  the  home  some  time  during  their 
lives,  whether  they  marry  or  not.  But  marriage  and  the  presence 
of  children  tend  to  curtail  their  employment,  while  widowhood, 
divorce,  and  the  decrease  of  family  responsibilities  tend  to  attract 
them  back  into  the  work  force.  As  indicated  from  statistics  on 
women's  characteristics  and  from  a  special  study  on  worklife  ex- 
pectancy,^ several  major  work  patterns  are  found  to  exist  among 
women. 

For  women  who  remain  single,  the  work  pattern  is  relatively 
simple  and  bears  a  strong  resemblance  to  that  for  men.  Women  in 
this  group,  which  includes  about  one-tenth  of  all  women,  work 
most  of  their  lives.  Those  who  enter  the  labor  force  by  age  20  and 
remain  unmarried  will  probably  continue  to  work  for  about  45 
years — slightly  more  than  the  43-year  average  for  men.  These 
single  women  workers  at  the  age  of  35  can  expect,  on  the  average, 
to  be  on  the  job  another  31  years — 2.6  years  more  than  the  aver- 
age man  of  35. 

Women  who  marry,  do  not  have  children,  and  remain  married 
(about  one-tenth  of  all  married  women),  if  they  enter  the  labor 
force  by  age  20,  have  a  worklife  expectancy  of  35  years — 10  years 
less  than  single  women.  At  age  35,  these  married  women  have  an 
average  of  24  more  working  years  (about  7  years  less  than  single 
women).  Whereas  most  single  women  must  depend  on  their  own 
earnings  for  support,  women  with  husbands  are  in  a  better  posi- 
tion to  stop  work  when  they  have  minor  disabilities  or  for  other 
reasons. 

The  length  of  the  average  working  life  for  the  large  group  of 
married  women  with  children  is  more  difficult  to  estimate  because 
of  the  intermittent  nature  of  their  work  careers.  Like  other 
women,  typically  they  start  to  work  immediately  after  finishing 
high  school — generally  when  they  are  17  or  18  years  old.  After  a 
few  years,  often  they  quit  work  to  get  married  and  have  children. 


'  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration :  "Work  Life  Expectancy  and  Train- 
ing Needs  of  Women."  Manpower  Report  No.  12.  May  1967. 


8  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

Since  the  current  tendency  is  for  women  to  marry  and  have  chil- 
dren at  a  younger  age  than  formerly,  the  average  woman  has 
borne  her  last  child  at  about  age  30  and  is  in  her  midthirties 
when  all  her  children  are  in  school  and  her  family  responsibili- 
ties considerably  decreased.  Stimulated  by  such  factors  as  eco- 
nomic pressures,  lighter  housekeeping  tasks,  and  better  job  oppor- 
tunities, those  who  return  to  the  labor  force  generally  have  been 
out  for  about  8  to  10  years.  If  they  reenter  when  they  are  35 
years  of  age  and  have  no  more  children,  they  can  expect  to  aver- 
age another  24  years  of  work. 

The  expected  worklife  of  a  woman  with  children  diminishes 
with  the  more  children  she  has  and  the  later  she  has  the  last 
child.  For  example,  a  woman  marrying  at  age  20  has  a  worklife 
expectancy  of  25  years  if  she  has  just  one  child,  22  years  if  she 
has  two  children,  20  years  if  she  has  three  children,  and  17  years 
if  she  has  four  or  more  children. 

After  losing  their  husbands,  a  relatively  large  percentage  of 
widowed,  divorced,  or  separated  women  return  to  the  labor  force. 
After  age  30,  the  length  of  time  these  w^omen  can  expect  to  re- 
main in  the  work  force  is  slightly  less  than  for  single  women  but 
longer  than  for  married  women.  Women  workers  who  at  age  35 
are  widowed,  separated,  or  divorced  can  anticipate  another  28 
years  at  work — about  one-half  year  less  than  the  average  man. 

Whether  or  not  a  particular  woman  will  look  for  employment 
depends  on  various  economic,  social,  and  psychological  factors  at 
the  time  in  her  life  when  she  is  making  her  decision.  But  financial 
reasons  are  usually  the  strongest  motivation  for  most  women.  It 
can  be  assumed,  of  course,  that  economic  necessity  is  the  overrid- 
ing reason  for  employment  among  women  who  have  to  support 
themselves,  among  women  who  have  to  support  dependents  with- 
out help  of  a  husband,  among  working  mothers  of  young  children, 
and  among  wives  whose  husbands  have  inadequate  or  no  income. 

An  investigation  into  the  reasons  why  married  women  become 
part  of  the  labor  force  was  made  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statis- 
tics in  February  1964.'  This  survey  revealed  that  married 
women  constituted  about  two-thirds  of  the  1.2  million  women  18 
to  64  years  old  who  entered  into  employment  in  1963.  About  half 
of  the  married  women  gave  economic  necessity  as  their  major 
reason  for  taking  a  job.  These  wives  worked  to  supplement  inade- 
quate family  income;  to  help  pay  for  a  home,  medical  treatment, 
or  their  children's  education ;  or  to  raise  the  family's  standard  of 
living  in  general. 


*  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  59. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  9 

Financial  remuneration  is,  however,  not  the  sole  reason  why  so 
many  women  are  in  the  labor  force.  About  one-fifth  of  the  mar- 
ried women  questioned  in  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  survey 
indicated  that  their  interest  in  employment  was  social  or  psycho- 
logical in  nature,  and  almost  another  fifth  said  they  wanted  to 
earn  extra  money.  It  is  significant  that  the  more  education  a 
woman  acquires,  the  more  likely  she  is  to  seek  paid  employment, 
irrespective  of  her  financial  status.  The  educated  woman  desires 
to  contribute  her  skills  and  talents  to  the  economy  not  only  for 
the  financial  rewards,  but  even  more  to  reap  the  psychic  rewards 
that  come  from  achievement  and  recognition  and  service  to  soci- 
ety. 

Numbers  and  Trends 

2.    Tweniy-n'me  Million   Women   Workers 

About  29.2  million  women  were  in  the  labor  force  in  1968.  This 
figure  exceeds  by  about  9  million  the  wartime  employment  peak 
reached  in  July  1944  during  World  War  II,  when  there  were 
around  20  million  women  workers  16  years  of  age  and  over.  It 
compares  with  about  5  million  at  the  turn  of  the  century  and  with 
the  prewar  figure  of  slightly  less  than  14  million  in  1940  (table 
1). 

There  has  been  a  striking  advance  in  this  century  in  the  pro- 
portion of  women  in  the  work  force.  In  1900  women  were  only  18 
percent  of  all  workers ;  in  1940,  about  25  percent.  The  proportion 
reached  a  high  of  36  percent  during  World  War  II  and  then 
dropped  sharply  to  28  percent  with  the  return  of  male  veterans  to 
civilian  jobs,  before  starting  to  climb  again.  Today  37  percent  of 
all  workers  are  women. 

The  remarkable  rise  in  the  numbers  and  proportions  of  women 
in  the  labor  force  is  due  to  a  combination  of  demographic,  eco- 
nomic, and  social  developments.  Among  demographic  factors,  the 
most  important  were  the  overall  increase  in  population  and  the 
changed  ratio  of  women  to  men  in  the  population,  resulting  from 
the  greater  longevity  of  v^omen.  Economic  and  social  factors  in- 
cluded (1)  the  increasing  demand  for  labor  as  the  industrial 
structure  of  employment  shifted  job  growth  from  agriculture  to 
goods-producing  activities  to  services  and  (2)  the  resultant  trend 
toward  urban  living.  To  these  factors  were  added  more  recently 
the  widespread  use  of  laborsaving  equipment  in  the  home,  rising 
aspirations  toward  a  higher  standard  of  living  and  a  higher  level 
of  education,  and  increased  job  opportunities  for  women  in  rap- 


10  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

idly  expanding  clerical,  service,  and  sales  occupations.  Finally,  an 
evolution  in  social  attitudes  and  values  encouraged  women  to  de- 
velop their  abilities  and  talents  to  the  fullest  in  paid  work. 
Table  1. — Women  in  the  Labor  Force,  Selected  Years,  1890-1968 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

As  percent    As  percent 

of  all  of  woman 

Date  Number  workers       population 

HIGHLIGHTS  ' 

1968  (annual  average) 29,204,000  37.1  41.6 

April  1968 28,697,000  37.0  41.0 

Midsixties  (April  1965)   25,831,000  35.0  38.8 

Start  of  the  sixties  (April  1960)   22,985,000  33.3  37.4 

Midfifties   (April  1955)    __- 19,987,000  31.2  34.8 

Korean  conflict  (April  1953) 19,116,000  30.6  34.0 

Pre-Korean  conflict    (April   1950)    17,882,000  29.1  33.0 

Post- World  War  II   (April  1947)    16,150,000  27.6  30.9 

World  War  II  (April  1945)    19,290,000  36.1  38.1 

Pre- World  War  II  (March  1940)   13,783,000  25.4  28.9 

LONG-TERM  TRENDS  ^ 

1930  (April)  10,396,000  21.9  23.6 

1920  (January)  8,229,000  20.4  22.7 

1900  (June)  4,999,000  18.1  20.0 

1890  (June)  3,704,000  17.0  18.2 

*  Civilian  labor  force. 

*  Decennial  census  figures  cover  those  14  years  of  age  and  over  in  the  total  labor  force. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Employment  and  Earnings, 
May  1960,  1965,  and  1968,  and  January  1969.  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the 
Census:  Annual  Report  on  the  Labor  Force,  1940-55.  Social  Science  Research  Council: 
"Labor  Force  in  the  United  States,  1890-1960."   1948. 

Between  1900  and  1968  the  female  population  16  years  of  age 
and  over  increased  nearly  threefold.  During  the  same  period  the 
ratio  of  men  to  women  in  the  population  changed  considerably.  In 
1900  men  outnumbered  women  by  more  than  1.3  million,  but 
today  there  are  almost  5  million  more  women  than  men  of  work- 
ing age  (16  years  and  over).  The  female  labor  force  increased  al- 
most sixfold  during  this  period.  The  percentage  of  women 
workers  among  all  women  of  working  age  advanced  from  20  per- 
cent in  1900  to  29  percent  in  1940  and  to  42  percent  in  1968. 

3.    Nonwh'ite  Women  in  fhe  Labor  Force 

The  civilian  labor  force  in  1968  included  3.8  million  nonwhite 
women.  They  represented  13  percent  of  the  civilian  woman  labor 
force  and  43  percent  of  all  nonwhite  workers.  More  than  90  per- 
cent of  nonwhite  women  in  the  population  in  1960  were  Negro  ac- 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  11 

cording  to  the  decennial  Census  of  Population,  but  the  geographi- 
cal distribution  of  Negro  women  ranged  from  less  than  10  percent 
of  all  nonwhite  women  in  some  Western  States  to  almost  100  per- 
cent in  some  Southern  States.^ 

4.    Employment  and  Unemployment 

About  27.8  million  women  were  employed  in  1968,  and  an  addi- 
tional 38,000  were  in  the  Armed  Forces  (table  2). 

Unemployed  women — those  seeking  work — numbered  1.4  mil- 
lion. This  means  that  there  were  about  20  women  who  had  jobs 
for  every  woman  who  was  unemployed.  While  37  percent  of  all 
workers  were  women,  50  percent  of  all  unemployed  persons  were 
women. 

Table  2. — Employment  Status  of  Women  and  Men,  1968  ^ 

(Persons  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Women  Men 

Percent  Percent 

Employment  status  Number  distribution  Number        distribution 

Population     70,218,000  100.0  65,345,000  100.0 

In  labor  force 29,242,000  41.6  53,030,000  81.2 

Civilian  labor  force   29,204,000  41.6  49,533,000  75.8 

Employed     27,807,000  39.6  48,114,000  73.6 

Unemployed    1,397,000  2.0  1,419,000  2.2 

Armed   Forces   38,000  .1  3,497,000  5.4 

Not  in  the  labor  force 40,976,000  58.4  12,315,000  18.8 

Keeping  house   35,023,000  49.9  180,000  ^ 

In  school   3,408,000  4.9  3,492,000  5.3 

Other  =    2,544,000  3.6  8,643,000  13.2 

*  Annual  average. 

*  Includes  839,000    (1.2  percent)    women  and  1,425,000    (2.2  percent)    men  unable  to  work. 

Source:    U.S.    Department   of   Labor,    Bureau   of    Labor    Statistics:    Employment    and    Earn- 
ings, January  1969. 

The  unemployment  rate  has  been  higher  for  women  than  for 
men  in  recent  years,  and  the  gap  between  the  two  rates  has  been 
widening.  Following  the  recession  of  1960-61  and  the  high  unem- 
ployment rates  prevailing  in  1961  (7.2  percent  for  women  and  6.4 
percent  for  men),  the  rates  for  both  women  and  men  declined,  but 
the  employment  situation  did  not  improve  for  women  as  much  as 
it  did  for  men.  Women's  unemployment  remained  fairly  high  at 


'  For  detailed  information  on  Negro  women  in  the  labor  force,  see  "Negro  Women  in  the 
Population  and  in  the  Labor  Force."  Women's  Bureau,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Adminis- 
tration, U.S.  Department  of  Labor.  December  1967. 


12 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


4.8  percent  for  1968,  while  the  rate  for  men  dropped  to  2.9  per- 
cent. (For  more  details  on  women's  unemployment,  see  sec.  36.) 

5.    Most  Women  Are  Homemakers 

The  majority  of  women  continue  to  be  homemakers,  whether  or 
not  they  also  have  jobs  (chart  A).  In  1968,  41  million  women 
were  not  in  the  labor  force,  and  35  million  of  these  devoted  their 
full  time  to  housekeeping.  Almost  two-fifths  of  all  married 
women  and  many  single  women  as  well  are  both  homemakers  and 
workers.  During  an  average  workweek  in  1968,  50  percent  of  all 
women  were  keeping  house  full  time,  and  about  42  percent  were 
either  full-  or  part-time  workers.  Most  of  the  remainder  were  girls 
16  to  20  years  of  age  who  were  in  school. 


Ckart  A 


MOST  WOMEN  ARE  HOMEMAKERS 


(Women's  Status  in  the  Population  and  Labor  Force,  March  1967) 
Women  16  Years  of  Age  and  Over 
Millions 
30  20  10  0  10  20  30  40  50 

I  I  I  I  I 


In  Labor  Force 


Single  Ever-Married 


No 

Children 
Under  18 


With 
Children 
Under  18 


Not  In  the  Labor  Force 


Ever-Married 


Sir)g|i 


With  Children 
Under  18 


No  Children 
Under  18 


6  to 

Un 

6  to 

17 

der 

Under  6 ' 

17 

Only 

6 

Only 

May  also  have  older  children. 
Source   U  S   Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


6.  Geographical  DJsfrJbufion  of  Women   Workers 

Geographically,   women   in   the   labor  force   are  concentrated 
most  heavily  in  the  Middle  Atlantic  and  North  Central  States  and 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  13 

in  California  and  Texas  (chart  B).  Six  States  each  had  over  a 
million  women  in  the  labor  force  in  1960,  according  to  the  de- 
cennial Census  of  Population.  These  States,  in  descending  order  of 
the  number  of  women  workers,  were  New  York,  California,  Penn- 
sylvania, Illinois,  Ohio,  and  Texas. 

A  comparison  of  1950  and  1960  decennial  censuses  shows  a  slight 
shift  in  the  geographical  distribution  of  women  workers  from 
Northeast  and  North  Central  States  to  the  South  and  the  West.*' 
These  changes  reflect  population  migration  patterns  and,  related  to 
these,  the  movement  of  industry  into  the  South  and  the  West. 

Women's  representation  in  the  labor  force  varies  considerably 
throughout  the  country.  According  to  the  1960  census,  the  highest 
percentages  of  women  among  all  workers  were  found  in  the 
urban  District  of  Columbia  (44  percent)  and  in  New  Hampshire 
(36  percent).  The  lowest  ratios  of  women  to  all  workers  were 
found  in  North  Dakota  (27  percent)  and  Alaska  (24  percent). 
These  percentages  are  related  to  the  ratio  of  women  to  men  in  the 
population  and  to  the  existence  of  industries  that  employ  rela- 
tively large  numbers  of  women. 

The  percentage  of  women  workers  among  all  women  14  years 
of  age  and  over  in  the  population  (the  labor  force  participation 
rate)  was  between  32  and  36  percent  in  a  majority  of  the  States 
in  1960.  It  was  highest  in  the  District  of  Columbia  (52  percent), 
followed  by  Nevada  (41  percent)  and  Alaska,  Hawaii,  and  New 
Hampshire  (40  percent  each) ;  it  was  lowest  in  Kentucky  (27  per- 
cent) and  West  Virginia  (24  percent).  These  variations  in  labor 
force  participation  rates  are  related  to  the  availability  of  jobs  as 
well  as  to  family  tradition,  local  customs,  and  social  attitudes. 

Most  Negro  women  in  the  labor  force  live  in  the  South.  States 
with  the  largest  number  in  1960  were  Texas,  Georgia,  Florida, 
North  Carolina,  Alabama,  and  Louisiana.  Outside  the  South  those 
with  the  largest  number  were  New  York,  Illinois,  Pennsylvania, 
and  California.  Negro  women  constituted  more  than  90  percent 
of  all  nonwhite  women  workers  in  a  majority  of  the  States  in 
1960.  In  most  Western  States,  however,  their  representation 
among  nonwhite  women  wohkers  was  lower,  ranging  from  less 
than  1  percent  in  Hawaii  to  82  percent  in  Colorado. 

Labor  force  participation  rates  of  Negro  women  are  tradition- 
ally high.  Among  States  with  at  least  1,000  Negro  women  in  the 
population  in  1960,  the  percentage  who  were  in  the  labor  force 
was  highest  in  Alaska  (59  percent),  followed  by  Nevada  (54  per- 


•  See    "Women    Workers    in    1960 :    Geographical    EHfferences."    Bull.    284.    Women's    Bureaa, 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor.  1962. 


14 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  15 

cent)  and  the  District  of  Columbia  and  Florida  (53  percent  each). 
It  was  lowest  in  Mississippi  (34  percent),  Louisiana  and  Okla- 
homa (36  percent  each),  and  Michigan  (37  percent). 

7.  Annual  Growth  in  Labor  Force  of  Women  and  Men,  1947-68 

The  important  advances  in  employment  that  women  have  made 
since  World  War  II  are  brought  out  clearly  by  comparing  for  men 
and  women  the  average  numbers  in  the  labor  force  in  1947  and 
1968.  Such  a  comparison  shows  that  the  number  of  women  in  the 
civilian  labor  force  increased  by  75  percent  (from  16,7  to  29.2 
million),  while  the  number  of  men  rose  only  16  percent  (from 
42.7  to  49.5  million)  (chart  C).  Consequently,  in  1968  women 
were  37  percent  of  the  total  civilian  labor  force  compared  with 
only  28  percent  in  1947. 


Ckirt  C 

WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  HAS  INCREASED  FASTER  THAN  MEN'S 

m^m 

^mmam 

(Relative 

Growth  of  the  Labor 

Force 

by  Sex,  1947-68^) 

g 

Index  1947=100 

ioa'"*^^"* 

'•■'-■' 

180 

170 

— 

/ 

/ 

160 

- 

/ 

150 

- 

Womeri/^ 

140 

— 

130 

- 

^ 

120 

- 

^^^^/^ 

110 

— 

Men 

■""-■^ 

100 

^ 

1     - 

■  ^ — T — ""^ 

1 

1            1            1 

1 

1 

347 

1950 

1952       1954        1956 

1958 

1960       1962        1964 

1966 

19 

68 

^B^M^^-            Annual  averages 

'AHK 

Source 

U  S  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 

5.    Rhe  in  Median  Age  of  Women   Workers 

Since  the  turn  of  the  century  there  has  been  an  almost  contin- 
uous rise  in  the  median  (half  above/half  below)  age  of  women 


16  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

workers.  In  1900  their  median  age  was  26  years ;  in  1940,  32  years ; 
in  1945,  34  years ;  in  1950,  37  years ;  and  in  1960,  41  years.  By 
1968  it  had  dropped  slightly  to  40  years — compared  with  about  41 
years  for  men  workers. 

The  downward  influence  on  the  average  age  of  women  workers 
has  been  the  generation  of  war  and  postwar  babies  who  have  been 
entering  the  labor  force  in  the  1960's.  Their  large  numbers  gener- 
ally have  been  counterbalanced  by  the  larger  labor  force  of 
women  45  years  of  age  and  over.  As  a  result,  the  average  age  of 
women  workers  has  hovered  at  40  or  41  years  from  1960  to  1968. 

Nonwhite  women  in  the  labor  force  are  somewhat  younger 
than  white  women  workers.  In  1968  the  median  age  of  nonwhite 
women  workers  was  about  38  years. 

The  median  age  of  workers  was  influenced  not  only  by  the 
changing  age  and  sex  composition  of  the  population,  but  also  by 
such  developments  as  reforms  in  child  labor  and  school  attend- 
ance laws,  changing  social  attitudes,  and  the  manpower  demands 
of  two  World  Wars.  In  1938,  for  example,  the  Federal  Fair  Labor 
Standards  Act  established  a  minimum  age  of  16  years,  generally, 
for  employees  engaged  in  interstate  commerce  or  in  the  produc- 
tion of  goods  for  interstate  commerce. 

Nearly  all  States  have  passed  compulsory  school  attendance 
laws  establishing  a  minimum  age  at  which  pupils  are  permitted 
to  leave  school,  usually  16  years.  This  trend,  combined  with  ef- 
forts to  keep  pupils  from  dropping  out  of  school  and  to  prepare 
them  for  jobs  by  a  variety  of  training  and  counseling  programs, 
has  tended  to  delay  the  entrance  of  young  people  into  the  labor 
force. 

Prior  to  World  War  I  the  typical  woman  worker  was  young 
and  unmarried.  Traditional  social  patterns  discouraged  the  em- 
ployment of  married  women  unless  dire  economic  necessity  re- 
quired them  to  support  the  family.  Today,  in  contrast,  the  typical 
woman  worker  is  40  years  old  and  married.  She  is,  in  fact,  an  ac- 
cepted member  of  the  labor  force,  irrespective  of  her  marital  sta- 
tus or  her  age.  Two  World  Wars,  with  their  exceptional  demand 
for  production  workers,  encouraged  large  numbers  of  adult 
women  to  enter  employment  to  help  with  the  war  effort.  After 
World  War  II  the  manpower  needs  and  consumer  demands  of  an 
expanding-economy  caused  many  mature  women  to  remain  on  the 
job  and  inspired  others  to  join  them.  These  various  developments 
tended  to  raise  the  median  age  of  women  workers — and  at  an  ac- 
celerated rate  after  1940. 

A  comparison  of  the  distribution  of  the  woman  labor  force  in 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


17 


1940  and  1968  by  age  group  clearly  illustrates  the  shift  toward 
the  employment  of  more  mature  women  (table  3).  In  1940  about  2 
out  of  5  women  workers  were  35  years  of  age  or  over.  In  1968,  in 
contrast,  almost  3  out  of  5  women  in  the  labor  force  were  35 
years  or  over. 

Table  3. — Women  in  the  Population  and  Labor  Force,  by  Age, 
1940  and  1968 ' 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 


Number 


Percent 
distribution 


Age 


1968 


1940 


1968 


1940 


Percent 
increase 
1940-68 


POPULATION 

Total  69,910,000    47,769,000  100.0  100.0  46.5 

16  and  17  years 3,542,000     2,413,000  5.1  5.1  46.8 

18  and  19  years 3,446,000     2,506,000  4.9  5.2  37.5 

20  to  24  years 7,699,000     5,870,000  11.0  12.3  31.2 

25  to  34  years 11,885,000    10,760,000  17.0  22.5  10.5 

35  to  44  years 12,034,000     9,120,000  17.2  19.1  32.0 

45  to  54  years 11,682,000     7,475,000  16.7  15.6  56.3 

55  to  64  years 9,238,000     5,115,000  13.2  10.7  80.6 

65  years  and  over 10,384,000           4,510,000  14.9  9.4  130.2 

LABOR  FORCE 

Total  28,697,000    13,783,000  100.0  100.0  108.2 

16  and  17  years _  _    914,000      333,000  3.2  2.4  174.5 

18  and  19  years 1,665,000     1,070,000  5.8  7.8  55.6 

20  to  24  years 4,095,000     2,820,000  14.3  20.5  45.2 

25  to  34  years 5,089,000     3,820,000  17.7  27.7  33.2 

35  to  44  years 5,866,000     2,680,000  20.4  19.4  118.9 

45  to  54  years 6,147,000     1,830,000  21.4  13.3  235.9 

55  to  64  years 3,936,000      920,000  13.7  6.7  327.8 

65  years  and  over 986,000      310,000  3.4  2.2  218.1 

*  Data  are  for  civilian  non institutional  population  and  labor  force  in  March  1940  and  April 
1968. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Employment  and  Earnings, 

May  1968.  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census:  Current  Population  Reports, 
P-50,  Nos.  22  and  32. 


Labor  Force  Par+icipa+ion  of  Women 

9.  Variations  in  Labor  Force  Parficipation  by  Age  Group, 
1940-68 

The  labor  force  participation  rate  of  women  is  the  percent  of 
all  women  in  the  population  16  years  of  age  and  over  who  are 
working  or  seeking  vi^ork.  It  therefore  includes  the  unemployed. 


18  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

In  past  decades  the  highest  labor  force  participation  rate  of 
women  was  traditionally  among  those  20  to  24  years  old.  In  1940, 
for  example,  from  a  high  of  48  percent  for  this  age  group  the  rate 
was  successively  lower  for  each  older  group  (table  4).  By  1960, 
however,  the  proportion  of  mature  women  in  the  labor  force  ac- 
tually exceeded  the  proportion  of  young  women,  as  women  devel- 
oped a  two-phase  lifetime  working  cycle — taking  a  job  when  first 
out  of  school,  withdrawing  from  the  labor  force  for  marriage  and 
motherhood,  and  returning  to  paid  work  in  later  years  when  the 
children  are  in  school  or  on  their  own.  In  recent  years  the  per- 
centages of  those  at  work  in  the  two  groups  have  been  fairly  sim- 
ilar— with  a  slightly  higher  proportion  in  the  younger  group. 

Table  4. — Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Age, 
Selected  Years,  1940-68 ' 

Age  1968        1960        1950       1940 

Total  41.0  37.4  33.0  28.9 

16  and  17  years  25.8  23.7  25.2  13.8 

18  and  19  years 48.3  48.0  45.6  42.7 

20  to  24  years  53.2  45.4  44.6  48.0 

25  to  34  years 42.8  35.9  33.6  35.5 

35  to  44  years 48.7  44.3  38.2  29.4 

45  to  54  years 52.6  49.5  37.1  24.5 

55  to  64  years  42.6  37.4  27.6  18.0 

65  years  and  over 9.5  10.8  9.7  6.9 

*  Data  are  for  civilian  noninstitutional  population  in  March  1940  and  in  April  of  other  years. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Employment  and  Earnings, 
May  1968,  and  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  14.  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau 
of   the   Census:    Current    Population    Reports,    P-57,    No.    94,    and    P-50,    Nos.    22    and    32. 

Between  1960  and  1968  the  number  of  girls  16  to  19  years  old 
in  the  population  increased  by  about  1.8  million  as  a  result  of  the 
World  War  II  "baby  crop."  However,  in  spite  of  the  larger  num- 
ber of  young  women  and  girls  in  the  population  today,  their  labor 
force  participation  rate  increased  only  slightly  between  1950  and 
1968.  Two  factors  are  primarily  responsible:  first,  the  tendency 
for  girls  to  extend  their  training  and  schooling  before  taking  a 
job ;  second,  the  early  age  at  which  they  marry  and  have  children, 
thus  delaying  entry  into  the  labor  force  for  many  because  of  fam- 
ily responsibilities. 

The  labor  force  participation  rate  for  girls  aged  16  and  17 
years  increased  from  14  percent  in  1940  to  25  percent  in  1950  and 
then  remained  fairly  stationary  through  1968.  The  rate  for  young 
women  aged  18  and  19  years  rose  slightly,  from  46  percent  in 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  19 

1950  to  48  percent  in  1968,  but  this  was  only  about  5  percentage 
points  higher  than  the  rate  in  1940.  However,  in  the  next  two  age 
groups — 20  to  24  years  and  25  to  34  years — the  percentages  of 
women  at  work  dropped  from  1940  to  1950  before  taking  an  up- 
ward turn.  These  were  largely  the  mothers  of  the  World  War  II 
"baby  crop."  By  1968  the  labor  force  participation  rates  of  women 
in  these  two  groups  were  higher  by  5  and  7  percentage  points, 
respectively,  over  1940. 

Of  special  interest  is  the  recent  rise  in  the  labor  force  partici- 
pation of  young  adult  women  (25  to  34  years  of  age)  from  35.9 
percent  in  1960  to  42.8  percent  in  1968.  This  reflects  in  part  the 
declining  birth  rate,  which  reached  a  new  low  in  1967. 

10.    Rise  in  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Mature  Women 

The  increasing  tendency  of  women  to  return  to  the  labor  force 
after  their  family  responsibilities  have  lessened  is  illustrated  by 
the  changes  since  1940  in  the  labor  force  participation  rates  of 
mature  women.  While  the  rate  for  all  women  16  years  and  over 
increased  by  12  percentage  points  between  1940  and  1968,  and 
that  for  women  35  to  44  years  old  rose  by  19  points,  the  rate  for 
women  45  to  64  years  of  age  increased  26  points.  Among  women 
45  to  54  years  of  age,  for  example,  the  labor  force  participation 
rate  was  more  than  twice  as  great  in  1968  as  it  was  in  1940,  and 
among  women  55  to  64  it  increased  from  18  to  43  percent — a  rise 
of  almost  21/2  times  the  earlier  rate.  Even  among  women  65 
years  of  age  and  over  there  was  increased  labor  force  participation 
— ^9  percent  in  1968  compared  with  7  percent  in  1940. 

The  dramatic  increase  in  the  number  of  mature  women  in  the 
labor  force  is  illustrated  in  table  3.  In  age  group  35  to  44  years 
the  number  of  women  workers  more  than  doubled  between  1940 
and  1968.  In  age  group  45  to  54  years  their  number  more  than  tri- 
pled, and  in  age  group  55  to  64  years  their  number  increased 
more  than  fourfold.  Even  among  the  oldest  group  of  women,  65 
years  and  over,  the  number  of  women  workers  rose  more  than 
threefold  during  that  period. 

The  corresponding  increase  in  the  woman  population  between 
1940  and  1968  was  substantially  less.  The  highest  rise  was  for 
age  group  65  years  and  over. 

The  significant  extent  to  which  women  aged  45  and  over  have 
moved  into  the  labor  force  in  recent  years  is  indicated  by  chart  D. 
In  1940  such  women  were  only  22  percent  of  all  women  in  the 
labor  force,  but  by  1968  they  constituted  39  percent.  During  the 


20  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

same  period  the  proportion  of  the  under-25-year  age  group 
dropped  from  31  to  23  percent,  and  that  of  women  in  the  central 
years  (25  to  44)  dropped  from  47  to  38  percent. 


Oisft  D 

THE  PROPORTION  OF  WOMEN  WORKERS  OVER  45  IS  RISING        ^^^^^ 

(Pe 

100 
80 
60 
40 
20 
0 

cent  Distribution  of  Women  Workers,  by  Age,  1940,  1950,  and  1968^)      *^*' 
Percent                                                                                                                                       i,f,> 

- 

31 

,-'''' 

23 

23 

45 

.---'" 

38 

16-24   years 

47 

25-44  years 

39 

32 

45  years 

and  over 

22 

1940                        1950                       1968                                             |fl| 
'Data  are  for  March   1940  and  April   1950  and   1968.                                                           ^| 

1 

Source:   USD 

epartme 

nt  of   Labo 

r.  Burea 

u  of   Labor 

statistic 

s. 

11.    Labor  Force  Parficipafion  of  White  and  Nonwhife 
Women 

A  comparison  of  labor  force  participation  rates  for  white  and 
nonwhite  women  in  1968  shows  that,  except  among  teenagers,  rel- 
atively more  nonwhite  than  white  women  were  in  the  labor  force 
(chart  E).  The  difference  is  most  striking  in  age  group  25  to  34 
years,  where  57  percent  of  nonwhite  women,  but  only  41  percent 
of  white  women,  were  in  the  labor  force.  This  compares  with  an 
overall  average  labor  force  participation  rate  of  49  percent  for 
nonwhite  and  41  percent  for  white  women.  The  highest  labor 
force  participation  rates  were  in  age  group  45  to  54  years:  60  per- 
cent for  nonwhite  women  and  51  percent  for  white  women. 

Traditionally  a  much  higher  proportion  of  nonwhite  than 
white  women  are  in  the  labor  force.  The  main  reason  for  this  dif- 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


21 


f erence  is  that  economic  responsibility  for  maintaining  the  family 
often  falls  more  heavily  on  nonwhite  than  on  white  women.  In  re- 
cent years,  however,  mature  white  women  have  entered  the  labor 
force  in  such  large  numbers  that  the  difference  has  been  reduced 
slightly. 


Chtrt  ( 

AMONG  ADULT  WOMEN,  NONWHITE  ARE  MORE  LIKELY  TO  WORK  THAN  ARE  WHITE  WOMEN 

(Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Age  and  Color,  1968^) 


Percent 


58 


54 


40 


20  — 


m 


57 


41 


59  60 

52 


White 
1  Nonwh 


47 


42 


9 

12 

16-19         20-24  25-34         35-44          45-54          55-64        65  years 

years           years  years          years           years          years         and  over 

'  Annual  average. 

Source:   U  S    Department  of  Labor.   Bureau  of   Labor  Statistics- 


A  comparison  of  proportions  of  women  workers  in  the  total 
labor  force  by  age  and  by  color  for  1958  and  1968  shows  the  ris- 
ing importance  of  both  white  and  nonwhite  women  in  the  labor 
force  during  that  decade  (table  5). 

12.  Labor  Force  ParticipafJon  of  Women  18  to  64  Years  Old 

Labor  force  participation  rates  usually  are  computed  for  ages 
16  years  and  over,  the  standard  working  ages  now  used  by  the  Bu- 
reau of  the  Census.  A  more  appropriate  rate  for  women,  however, 
is  one  calculated  for  ages  18  to  64  years,  the  age  group  at  which 
employment  is  most  likely.  Girls  under  18  years  of  age,  for  ex- 
ample, preferably  should  be  in  school  or  in  training,  and  women 
over  65  should  be  free  to  retire  from  the  labor  force  and  not 
under  economic  compulsion  to  work. 


22  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

Table  5. — Women  as  Percent  of  Civilian  Labor  Force,  by  Age  and  Color, 

1958  AND  1968 ' 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

All  women  as  White  women  as     Nonwhite  women 

percent  of  all  percent  of  all  white    as  percent  of  all 

workers  workers  nonwhite  workers 

Age  1968  1958  1968  1958  1968  1958 

Total  37.1  32.7  36.3  31.9  43.2  39.5 

16  to  19  years  44.4  43.0  44.6  43.7  42.9  37.9 

16  and  17  years 40.1  37.7  40.3  38.0  38.6  34.8 

18  and  19  years 47.6  47.0  47.8  47.9  45.6  40.0 

20  to  24  years 45.5  39.9  45.3  39.9  46.6  40.0 

25  to  34  years 32.5  28.6  31.0  27.1  42.4  39.0 

35  to  44  years 35.4  32.3  34.2  31.1  44.3  42.3 

45  to  54  years 37.4  34.3  36.7  33.5  43.5  41.1 

55  to  64  years  35.9  30.2  35.5  29.7  39.9  35.2 

65  years  and  over 31.7  25.7  31.3  25.3  35.6  30.3 

*  Annual  averages. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Employment  and  Earnings, 
January  1969;  Manpower  Administration:  "Manpower  Report  of  the  President  Including  a 
Report  on  Manpower  Requirements,  Resources,  Utilization,  and  Training."  April  1968. 

Data  are  not  available  for  computing  labor  force  participation 
rates  for  all  women  18  to  64  years  of  age  prior  to  1947  nor  for 
nonM^hite  women  prior  to  1954,  but  figures  for  each  year  from 

1947  to  1968  for  all  women  show  the  steady  increase  in  women's 
entry  into  the  labor  force  during  that  period  (table  6).  In  1947, 

Table  6. — Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women  18  to  64  Years  of 
Age,  Selected  Years,  1947-68  ^ 

All  Nonwhite 

Year  women  women 

1968  48.2  56.1 

1967  47.6  56.2 

1966  46.5  55.9 

1965  44.7  55.1 

1962  43.5  53.9 

1960  42.7  53.5 

1958  41.8  53.0 

1956  41.1  51.6 

1954  . 38.6  50.7 

1952 38.3  (=) 

1950  37.2  O 

1948  35.6  C) 

1947  34,8  (=) 

'  Annual  averages. 

'  Data  not  available. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Employment  and  Earnings, 
January  1969;  Manpower  Administration:  "Manpower  Report  of  the  President  Including  a 
Report  on  Manpower  Requirements,  Resources,  Utilization,  and  Training."  April   1968. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE 


23 


35  percent  of  women  18  to  64  years  old  were  either  working  or 
seeking  work.  By  1968  this  proportion  had  risen  to  48  percent. 

Nonwhite  women  in  this  age  group  had  a  labor  force  participa- 
tion rate  one-sixth  higher  than  that  for  all  women.  Their  rate 
rose  from  51  percent  in  1954  to  56  percent  in  1968,  as  compared 
with  the  rise  from  39  percent  to  48  percent  for  all  women  in  this 
age  group. 

Marital  Status  of  Women  Workers 
73.    Nearly  3  Out  of  5  k/omen  Workers  Are  Married 

The  increasing  tendency  of  married  women  to  go  to  work  has 
been  the  most  important  factor  in  the  growth  of  the  woman  labor 
force.  Fifty-eight  percent  of  all  women  16  years  of  age  and  over 
in  the  labor  force  in  March  1967  were  married  (husband  pres- 
ent), and  21  percent  were  single  (table  7).  An  additional  6  per- 


Table  7. — Women  in  the  Population  and  Labor  Force/  by  Marital  Status, 

March  1940  and  1967 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Percent 

distribution  Percent 

increase 

Marital  status                                                            Number                  1967             1940=  1940-67 

population 
Total   69,410,000         100.0         100.0  37.3 

Single    11,664,000  16.8  27.6  ='19.5 

Married     46,191,000  66.5  59.5  53.5 

Husband  present   43,225,000  62.3  56.4  51.6 

Husband  absent   2,966,000  4.3  3.1  88.4 

Widowed     9,228,000  13.3  1     ..„q  ,„n-. 

Divorced   2,327,000  3.4  /      ^^'^  ^^'^ 

labor  force 
Total    27,545,000         100.0         100.0  99.0 

Single    5,915,000  "Kb  48.5  ='13.4 

Married    17,486,000  63.5  36.4  246.9 

Husband  present   15,908,000  57.8  30.3  278.8 

Husband  absent 1,578,000  5.7  6.1  87.9 

Widowed     2,487,000  9.0  | 

Divorced    1,657,000  6.0/  ^^'^  ^^'"^ 

*  Data  are  for  civilian  noninstitutional  population  and  labor  force. 

-  Survey  made  in   1940   also   included  data  for  girls   14   and   15   years  of  age. 
'  A  decrease  instead  of  an  increase. 

*  Not  reported  separately  in  1940. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  94.  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census :  Current  Population  Reports, 
P-50,  No.  22. 


24 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


cent  were  married  (husband  absent),  9  percent  were  widowed, 
and  6  percent  were  divorced. 

This  is  a  remarkable  change  from  1940,  when  only  30  percent  ^ 
of  all  women  workers  were  married  (husband  present)  and  48 
percent  were  single  (chart  F).  The  number  of  married  women 
(husband  present)  in  the  labor  force  increased  by  almost  12  mil- 
lion between  1940  and  1967.  This  represented  a  rise  of  279  per- 
cent, an  increase  substantially  larger  than  their  52-percent  rise  in 
the  population. 

In  contrast,  the  number  of  single  women  in  the  labor  force  de- 
clined by  almost  800,000  between  1940  and  1967,  and  the  propor- 


ChortF 


MOST  WOMEN  WHO  WORK  ARE  MARRIED 

(Percent  Distribution  of  Women  in  the  Labor  Force, 
by  Marital  Status,  Selected  Years,  1940-671) 


100 


Percent 


60  — 


40 


20  — 


15 


16 


1940 


1950 


1960 


1967 


Married, 
husband 
absent 


Widowed  or 
divorced 


Married, 
husband 
present 


Data  cover  March  of  each  year  and  are  for  women  14  years  of  age  and  over  except  1967 
which  are  for  16  and  over. 
Source    U  S.  Department  ol  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics. 
US.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census. 


'  Prior  to   1967,   reports   on   the   marital   status   of   workers   covered   persons    14    years   of   age 
and  over. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


25 


tion  of  all  women  workers  who  were  single  dropped  from  48  per- 
cent to  only  21  percent.  Higher  marriage  rates  contributed  to  this 
decline  in  the  number  of  single  women  workers.  Marriage  rates 
started  to  rise  during  World  War  II  and  reached  their  peak  dur- 
ing 1946-48.  By  1967,  about  62  percent  of  all  women  in  the  popu- 
lation 16  years  of  age  and  over  were  married  and  living  with 
their  husbands  compared  with  56  percent  in  1940.  Currently  at 
least  9  out  of  10  girls  can  expect  to  marry. 


Clort  6 


30 


THE  NUMBER  OF  MARRIED  WOMEN  IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  HAS  GROWN  RAPIDLY 

(Women  in  the  Labor  Force,  by  Marital  Status, 
Selected  Years,  1940-671) 

Millions 


1967 


Data  cover    March  of  each  year  and  are  for  women  14  years  of  age  and  over  except  1967 
which  are  for  16  and  over. 


^  Includes  widowed,  divorced,  or  separated. 


Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics^ 
U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census. 


26  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

The  other  group  of  women  in  the  labor  force — ^those  widowed, 
divorced,  or  separated  from  their  husbands  for  other  reasons,  in- 
cluding those  whose  husbands  are  in  the  Armed  Forces — remained 
at  the  same  proportion  (approximately  one-fifth)  during  the  pe- 
riod 1940-67.  In  actual  numbers,  however,  they  almost  doubled 
(chart  G). 

14.    Labor  Force  Parf'icJpafion  of  Women  by  Marifal  Sfatus 

As  indicated  previously,  the  most  significant  change  between 
1940  and  1967  in  labor  force  participation  rates  of  women  oc- 
curred among  married  women  (husband  present)  (table  8).  In 
1940,  15  percent  of  these  women  were  workers ;  by  1967  this  pro- 
portion had  more  than  doubled — to  37  percent.  As  might  be  ex- 
pected, this  rate  was  still  much  lower  than  that  of  single  girls, 
married  women  not  living  with  husbands,  or  divorced  women,  al- 
though married  women  outnumbered  the  other  categories  com- 
bined. 

In  contrast  to  the  steady  rise  in  the  labor  force  participation  rate 
of  married  women,  that  of  single  women  increased  slightly  from 
48  percent  in  1940  to  51  percent  in  1950,  and  then  dropped  to  44 
percent  in  1960,  and  further  down  to  41  percent  for  each  year 
from  1963  through  1966.  With  the  change  in  survey  coverage  (a 
minimum  of  16  years  of  age  rather  than  14  years)  effective  in 
1967,  the  percentage  of  single  women  who  were  working  was  re- 
ported to  be  51  percent.  This  statistical  jump  was  expected  since 
the  earlier  percentages  had  been  lowered  by  the  large  numbers  of 
single  girls  14  and  15  years  of  age  still  in  school. 

Table  8. — Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Marital  Status, 
Selected  Years,  1940-67 ' 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 
Marital  status  1967  1960=  1950'  1940* 

Total     39.7  34.8  31.4  27.4 

Single     50.7  44.1  50.5  48.1 

Married   37.8  31.7  24.8  16.7 

Husband  present 36.8  30.5  23.8  14.7 

Husband  absent 53.2  51.8  47.4  53.4 

Widowed    27.0  29.8  1  ,  „. «  ,  „« « 

p..  ,  n-i  o  rri  a    f  36.0  '32.0 

Divorced    71.2  71.6  J 

^  Data  are  for  March  of  each  year. 

'  Surveys  made  prior  to  1967  also  included  data  for  girls   14  and   15  years  of  age. 

'  Not  reported  separately  in  1940  and   1950. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
Nos.  94  and  13.  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census :  Current  Population 
Reports,  P-50,  Nos.  29  and  22. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  27 

Women  in  other  marital  status  groups  characteristically  have 
high  labor  force  participation  rates.  More  than  half  (53  percent) 
of  the  3  million  married  women  (not  widows  or  divorcees)  whose 
husbands  were  absent  from  home  were  workers  in  1967.  This 
group  included  about  172,000  women  whose  husbands  were  in  the 
Armed  Forces,  but  consisted  largely  of  those  whose  husbands 
were  absent  for  such  reasons  as  employment  away  from  home,  res- 
idence in  an  institution,  separation  by  choice,  or  desertion. 

Of  the  9.2  million  widowed  women  in  the  population  in  1967,  27 
percent  were  in  the  labor  force;  of  the  2.3  million  divorced 
women,  71  percent.  The  labor  force  participation  of  these  two 
groups  combined  had  increased  slightly  since  1940.  However,  a 
much  smaller  percentage  of  widows  than  of  divorcees  were 
workers,  mainly  because  widows  represent  an  older  age  group. 

15.    Labor  Force  Parf'idpafion  of  Women  by  Age  and  Marital 
Sfafus 

When  labor  force  participation  rates  of  single  and  married 
women  (husband  present)  are  analyzed  according  to  age,  it  is  evi- 
dent that  the  probability  of  a  woman's  working  is  influenced 
more  by  marital  status  than  by  age.  Differences  in  participation 
are  particularly  noticeable  among  women  25  to  29  years  old,  the 
age  group  in  which  married  women  are  most  likely  to  have  young 
children  who  need  their  care  (table  9).  In  this  age  group  84  per- 
cent of  single  women,  but  only  34  percent  of  married  women  liv- 

Table  9. — Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Age  and 
Marital  Status,  March  1967 

( Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Marital  status 

Married 
(husband 
Age  Single  present)  Other' 

Total  50.7  36.8  39.4 

16  to  19  years 37.2  31.5  41.1 

20  to  24  years 70.3  41.1  60.9 

25  to  29  years 84.1  34.1  59.7 

30  to  34  years 73.6  35.8  64.9 

35  to  44  years 74.5  42.7  68.9 

45  to  54  years 72.2  44.9  69.1 

55  to  64  years 63.2  33.5  53.5 

65  to  69  years 32.4  10.6  20.9 

70  years  and  over 10.4  3.0  5.9 

*  Widowed,  divorced,  or  separated. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  94. 


28  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

ing  with  their  husbands,  worked  in  1967.  In  the  age  group  30  to 
34  years,  the  difference  was  still  pronounced — 74  percent  of  sin- 
gle women,  but  only  36  percent  of  married  women  (husband  pres- 
ent) ,  were  in  the  labor  force. 

The  peak  in  labor  force  participation  of  single  women  (84  per- 
cent) was  in  the  age  group  25  to  29  years;  the  peak  of  married 
women  with  husband  present  (45  percent)  was  in  the  age  group 
45  to  54  years. 

For  each  age  group,  starting  with  20  to  24  years,  the  highest 
rate  of  participation  in  the  labor  force  was  among  single  women 
and  the  lowest  rate  was  among  married  women  living  with  their 
husbands.  The  percentage  of  widowed,  separated,  and  divorced 
women  in  the  labor  force  fluctuated,  with  a  high  of  69  percent  for 
those  between  the  ages  of  35  and  54  years. 

Family  Status  of  Women  Workers 

16.    Types  of  Families  in  the  Population 

There  were  almost  49  million  families  in  the  United  States  in 
March  1967,  with  the  42.6  million  husband-wife  families  forming 
87  percent  of  the  total.^  Eleven  percent  of  the  families  had  a 
woman  as  the  head,  and  the  remaining  2  percent  were  headed  by 
a  man  without  a  wife. 

Husband-wife  families  usually  are  larger  than  those  headed  by 
a  woman  or  by  a  man  without  a  wife.  In  March  1967  there  were 
four  or  more  members  in  nearly  half  of  the  husband-wife  fam- 
ilies, but  in  less  than  one-third  of  the  families  headed  by  a  woman 
and  one-fifth  of  those  headed  by  a  man  without  a  wife  present. 

Nearly  three-fifths  of  all  husband-wife  families  had  one  or 
more  own  children  under  18  years  of  age,  about  one-tenth  had  at 
least  one  additional  family  member  18  years  of  age  or  over,  and 
three-tenths  had  no  children  under  18  years  of  age  and  no  other 
family  member  18  years  of  age  or  over.  In  the  latter  group  were 
many  older  couples  whose  children  were  grown  and  no  longer  liv- 
ing with  them  and  many  childless  young  couples. 

Families  headed  by  a  woman  had  a  somewhat  different  compo- 
sition. Of  the  5.2  million  such  families  in  1967,  almost  half  con- 
sisted of  two  members,  almost  one-fourth  consisted  of  three  mem- 
bers, and  the  remainder  consisted  of  four  or  more  members. 
Nearly  half  of  the  women  were  widows,  and  almost  two-fifths 
were  separated  or  divorced. 


*  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,   Bureau  of  the  Census :   Current  Population  Reports.   P-20, 
No.  173. 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  29 

Half  of  the  women  had  no  own  children  under  18  years  of  age, 
but  18  percent  had  one  own  child  and  32  percent  had  two  or  more 
own  children.  Moreover,  almost  one-tenth  of  the  women  family 
heads  had  children  under  18  years  living  with  them  who  were  re- 
lated to  them  but  were  not  their  own.  About  37  percent  of  those 
with  own  children  had  children  under  6  years  of  age.  Twenty-two 
percent  of  all  women  family  heads  were  nonwhite;  they  num- 
bered 1.1  million. 

17.  Unrelated  Individuals  in  the  Population 

In  addition  to  these  family  groups  of  related  individuals,  there 
were  about  7.9  million  women  and  4.7  million  men  classified  as 
"unrelated  individuals,"  who  were  not  living  with  relatives. 
About  6.6  million  of  these  women  had  their  own  homes  or  apart- 
ments and  were  living  independently  as  "primary  individuals." 
As  a  group,  these  were  older  women  (median  age  65  years),  and 
most  were  widows.  The  other  1.3  million  women  in  this  classifica- 
tion, most  of  whom  were  in  their  thirties  and  single,  were  mainly 
roomers,  boarders,  hotel  guests,  and  resident  employees. 

18.  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Women  in  Different  Types 

of  Families 

Labor  force  participation  rates  of  women  vary  among  the  dif- 
ferent types  of  families.  Obviously,  women  who  do  not  have  hus- 
bands are  more  likely  to  work  than  are  those  with  husbands. 
More  than  half  of  the  women  family  heads  were  in  the  labor 
force  in  1967,  in  contrast  to  only  37  percent  of  the  wives  living 
with  their  husbands. 

Employment  Status  of  Husband-Wife 
and  Female-Head   Families 

19.  Husband-Wife  Families 

In  37  million  husband-wife  families  the  husbands  were  in  the 
labor  force  in  March  1967.  In  50  percent  of  these  families  another 
member  of  the  family  also  was  in  the  labor  force.  About  755,000 
of  the  husbands  were  unemployed  (an  unemployment  rate  of  2 
percent).  About  5.5  million  husbands  in  husband-wife  families 
were  not  in  the  labor  force. 

20.  Female-Head  Families 

More  than  50  percent  of  the  women  who  had  families  but  no 
husbands  in  March  1967  were  in  the  labor  force  (table  10).  In  44 


30 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


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WOMEN  IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  31 

percent  of  the  2.7  million  families  whose  women  heads  were 
workers,  another  member  of  the  family  group  also  was  in  the 
labor  force.  However,  1.5  million  female  family  heads  were  the 
sole  breadwinners  for  their  families  and  121,000  were  unem- 
ployed. Their  unemployment  rate  of  4.5  percent  was  considerably 
higher  than  that  for  husbands  in  husband-wife  families.  The  re- 
maining 2.4  million  female  family  heads  were  not  in  the  labor 
force. 

An  analysis  of  the  labor  force  status  of  female  family  heads  by 
age  reveals  that  in  March  1967  the  labor  force  participation  rate 
was  highest  for  those  45  to  54  years  old  (71  percent)  (table  11). 
These  women  accounted  for  only  29  percent  of  all  female  family 
heads  in  the  labor  force  and  22  percent  of  all  female  family  heads 
in  the  population.  In  the  next  younger  age  group  (35  to  44  years 
old),  nearly  68  percent  of  the  women  were  workers;  in  the  next 
higher  age  group  (55  to  64  years  old),  57  percent. 

Table  11. — Labor  Force  Status  of  Female  Family  Heads,  by  Age, 

March  1967 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Percent  distribution 

Number  Percent 

Popula-         Labor  in  labor 

Agre  Population  Labor  force  tion  force  force 

Total  5,166,000    2,717,000    100.0    100.0     52.6 

16  to  24  years 244,000  128,000  4.7  4.7  52.5 

25  to  34  years 808,000  494,000  15.6  18.2  61.1 

35  to  44  years 1,086,000  733,000  21.0  27.0  67.5 

45  to  54  years 1,116,000  792,000  21.6  29.1  71.0 

55  to  64  years 789,000  450,000  15.3  16.6  57.0 

65  years  and  over 1,123,000  120,000  21.7  4.4  10.7 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor.  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  94. 

Although  the  youngest  age  group  (16  to  24  years  old)  was  nu- 
merically almost  the  smallest  and  represented  only  5  percent  of 
all  female  family  heads  in  the  population  and  also  in  the  labor 
force,  nearly  53  percent  were  in  the  labor  force.  At  the  other  ex- 
treme, women  65  years  of  age  and  over  represented  the  largest 
group  of  female  family  heads  in  the  population,  but  only  11  per- 
cent were  in  the  labor  force. 

Significantly,  families  headed  by  women  were  the  most  econom- 
ically deprived — in  1967  almost  one-third  of  such  families  lived  in 
poverty,  according  to  the  poverty  index  developed  by  the  U.S.  So- 


32  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

cial  Security  Administration.  They  were  also  the  most  persis- 
tently poor — it  is  estimated  that  between  1959  and  1966  the  num- 
ber of  poor  nonfarm  households  headed  by  women  increased  2 
percent.^ 

Working  Wives 

The  growing  tendency  for  married  women  to  go  into  paid  work 
is  reflected  in  the  number  and  proportion  of  working  couples  in 
the  Nation. 

Of  the  15.9  million  wives  (husband  present)  in  the  labor  force 
in  March  1967,  about  14.8  million  had  husbands  who  were  also  in 
the  labor  force.  These  working  couples  represented  34  percent  of 
all  couples  in  the  population.  They  had  increased  by  6.8  million 
since  1950,  when  there  were  8  million  working  couples — 22  per- 
cent of  all  married  couples.  Before  World  War  II  their  number 
and  proportion  were  still  smaller:  in  1940  working  couples  num- 
bered 3  million — only  11  percent  of  all  couples. 

In  18.4  million  husband-wife  families  the  husbands  were  the 
only  earners  in  March  1967.  In  3.7  million  such  families  the  wives 
were  not  in  the  labor  force,  but  other  family  members  as  well  as 
the  husbands  were  working.  The  labor  force  also  included  over  a 
million  working  wives  whose  husbands  were  not  in  the  labor 
force,  mainly  because  they  were  retired  or  disabled.  In  over  half  a 
million  families  neither  the  husbands  nor  the  wives  worked,  but 
other  family  members  did,  and  in  3.8  million  families  no  one 
worked. 


21.    Labor  Force  Parficlpafion  of  Wives  by  Income  of  Husband 

The  percentage  of  wives  in  the  labor  force  in  March  1967  was 
highest  where  the  husbands*  incomes  were  between  $5,000  and 
$7,000  (43  percent)  (table  12).  The  next  highest  was  where  the 
husbands'  incomes  were  between  $3,000  and  $5,000  (41  percent). 

When  the  husbands'  incomes  were  at  the  poverty  level,  the 
labor  force  participation  rate  of  wives  varied  from  27  percent 
where  the  husbands'  incomes  were  between  $1,000  and  $2,000  to 
37  percent  where  they  were  under  $1,000.  When  the  husbands'  in- 
comes were  just  under  the  poverty  line — $2,000  to  $3,000 — 33 
percent  of  the  wives  were  in  the  labor  force. 

At  the  upper  end  of  the  income  scale,  only  29  percent  of  the 


'  Economic  Report  of  the  President.    February  1968. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  33 

wives  whose  husbands'  incomes  were  $10,000  or  more  were  in  the 
labor  force. 

The  labor  force  participation  rates  of  wives,  therefore,  are 
highest  where  the  husbands'  incomes  do  not  represent  poverty 
levels,  but  rather  the  lower  range  of  middle-income  levels.  The 
rate  then  declines  as  the  husbands'  incomes  reach  higher  levels. 

Table  12. — Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Wives  (Husband  Present), 
BY  Income  of  Husband  in  1966  and  Presence  and  Age  of  Children, 
March  1967 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Presence  and  age  of  children 

No  children  Children  Children 

Income  of  husband  Total  under  18  6-17  only  under  6' 

Total    36.8  38.9  45.0  26.5 

Under  $1,000   37.4  34.3  52.3  35.3 

$1,000  to  $1,999 27.0  23.6  45.9  31.4 

$2,000  to  $2,999 33.0  29.2  50.8  31.3 

$3,000  to  $4,999 41.4  41.0  52.0  34.4 

$5,000  to  $6,999   42.6  48.0  49.9  31.6 

$7,000  to  $9,999 37.9  46.6  46.9  21.9 

$10,000   and   over    28.8  36.6  32.9  15.7 

*  Also  may  have  older  children. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report 

No,  94. 

When  a  wife  decides  whether  or  not  to  seek  paid  employment, 
the  presence  of  young  children  in  the  family  seems  a  more  impor- 
tant consideration  than  her  husband's  income.  (For  details  on 
working  mothers,  see  sees.  25-33.)  Among  married  women 
(husband  present)  the  labor  force  participation  rate  in  March 
1967  varied  from  27  percent  for  those  who  had  preschool  children 
to  45  percent  for  those  with  school-age  children  only.  On  the 
other  hand,  wives  (husband  present)  who  had  no  children  under 
18  years  of  age  had  a  relatively  low  labor  force  participation  rate 
of  39  percent.  This  is  explained  by  the  fact  that  this  group  in- 
cludes many  older  women  who  are  retired  or  unable  to  work. 

A  percent  distribution  of  all  working  wives  shows  that  in 
March  1967  almost  two-thirds  had  husbands  whose  incomes  were 
$5,000  or  more  (table  13).  More  working  wives  (about  27  per- 
cent) were  found  where  the  husbands'  incomes  were  between 
$5,000  and  $7,000  than  at  any  other  income  level.  At  the  ex- 
tremes, 16  percent  of  working  wives  had  husbands  whose  incomes 
were  below  $3,000 ;  14  percent,  $10,000  or  more. 


34  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

22.    Confnbution  of  Wives  /o  Family  Income 

A  special  study  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  throws  light 
on  the  contribution  made  to  family  income  by  married  women 
who  worked  some  time  during  1967."  These  statistics  include 
women  who  worked  full  time  the  year  round  and  also  those  who 
worked  part  time  and  part  of  the  year. 

Table  13. — Percent  Distribution  of  Married  Women  (Husband  Present) 
IN  the  Labor  Force,  by  Income  of  Husband  in  1966,  March  1967 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Wives  in  the 
Income  of  husband  labor  force 

Number   15,908,000 

Percent    100.0 

Under  $1,000   4.2 

$1,000  to  $1,999 5.2 

$2,000  to  $2,999 6.5 

$3,000  to  $4,999 18.6 

$5,000  to  $6,999 26.8 

$7,000  to  $9,999 24.9 

$10,000  and  over 13.9 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  94. 

They  show  that  wives'  earnings  generally  constituted  a  smaller 
proportion  of  family  income  in  low-income  families  than  in 
higher  income  families  (table  14).  For  example,  in  almost  three- 
fifths  of  the  families  with  incomes  below  $2,000,  but  in  only  about 
one-fifth  of  the  families  with  incomes  between  $10,000  and 
$15,000,  the  wives'  earnings  accounted  for  less  than  10  percent  of 
family  income. 

In  families  with  incomes  below  $2,000,  nearly  half  of  the  work- 
ing wives  contributed  less  than  5  percent  to  family  income.  In  the 
income  class  $2,000  to  $3,000,  almost  two-fifths  of  the  wives  who 
worked  contributed  less  than  5  percent.  In  more  than  one-fifth  of 
the  families  in  this  income  class,  the  wives'  earnings  accounted 
for  10  to  30  percent  of  family  income. 

In  higher  income  brackets  wives  generally  contributed  a 
greater  share  to  family  income.  Wives'  earnings  accounted  for  30 
percent  or  more  of  the  income  in  almost  half  of  the  families  with 
incomes  between  $10,000  and  $15,000.  They  accounted  for  20  per- 
cent or  more  in  almost  three-fifths  of  the  families  with  incomes  of 
$15,000  or  more. 

••  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  94. 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


35 


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36  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

The  median  family  income  was  highest  ($10,332)  in  families 
where  wives'  earnings  accounted  for  30  to  40  percent  of  family 
income.  It  was  lowest  ($4,566)  in  families  where  wives  obviously 
were  the  principal  earners,  accounting  for  75  percent  or  more  of 
family  income. 

23.    Job-Related  Expenses  of  Working   Wives 

Working  wives,  and  particularly  working  mothers,  have  many 
expenses  related  to  their  working  that  reduce  the  income  availa- 
ble to  them  from  their  earnings.  The  principal  costs  involved  are 
for  clothing  and  personal  care,  food,  transportation,  child  care 
and  household  help  arrangements,  and  taxes.  Studies  reveal  that 
these  work-related  expenses  may  absorb  between  one-fourth  and 
one-half  of  a  wife's  earnings. ^^  If  she  has  children,  her  expenses 
vary  according  to  their  number  and  ages. 

Working  wives  tend  to  spend  more  for  clothing,  beauty  care, 
and  other  personal  grooming  needs  than  nonworking  wives  do. 
They  may  spend  more  for  food  because  they  tend  to  buy  more  of 
the  time-saving  "convenience  foods"  and  to  eat  more  meals  in 
public  eating  places.  They  have  transportation  expenses  to  and 
from  work.  Working  mothers,  in  addition,  may  have  considerable 
expenses  for  day  care  for  their  children.  This  may  involve  private 
or  public  day  care  centers  or  babysitters.  Working  wives  and 
mothers  often  pay  for  household  help,  such  as  maids  or  cleaning 
women,  and  they  may  increase  their  expenses  by  sending  their 
household  laundry  to  commercial  establishments. 

There  are  other  job-related  expenses,  such  as  purchased 
lunches,  required  uniforms,  dues  for  professional  organizations  or 
union  membership,  professional  publications,  or  even  continued 
education — depending  on  the  requirements  of  the  job.  Federal  and 
State  income  taxes  and  social  security  taxes  must  be  paid.  In  addi- 
tion, the  earnings  of  the  wife  often  place  total  family  income  in  a 
higher  income  tax  bracket. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  are  benefits  from  working  outside  the 
home,  in  addition  to  the  obvious  one  of  increased  family  income. 
A  few  are  tangible;  most  are  intangible  but  personally  signifi- 
cant. Among  the  measurable  benefits  may  be  employee  pension 
plans,  health  insurance  benefits,  paid  sick  leave  and  vacations. 


"  "The  Working  Wife  and  Her  Family's  Economic  Position."  In  Monthly  Labor  Review. 
Bureau  of  Labol-  Statistics,  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  April  1962.  and  "Marital  and 
Family  Characteristics  of  Workers."  Ibid.,  January  1962.  Ann  H.  Candle,  "Financial  and 
Management  Practices  of  Employed  and  Nonemployed  Wives."  In  Journal  of  Home  Eco- 
nomics, December  1964.  See  also  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  40,  Bureau  of  Labor 
Statistics,  U.S.  Department  of  Labor. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  37 

profit-sharing  plans,  and  discount  privileges,  as  well  as  social  se- 
curity benefits  and  retirement  income  above  those  the  nonworking 
wife  can  count  on.  Often  the  intangible  benefits  are  equally  or 
more  important  to  the  working  wife.  These  include  the  opportu- 
nity to  widen  her  horizons  and  the  benefit  of  being  able  to  develop 
new  skills  and  discover  new  aptitudes.  Many  working  wives  feel 
that  they  become  more  effective  members  of  their  own  families 
and  contribute  more  to  their  community  and  to  society  in  general 
by  combining  paid  employment  with  homemaking. 

24.    Occupations  of  Husbands  and  Wives 

A  comparison  of  the  occupations  held  by  husbands  and  wives  in 
March  1967  indicated  that  just  over  one-fifth  of  working  couples 
pursued  similar  lines  of  work. 

The  highest  correlation  between  the  husband's  and  the  wife's 
jobs  existed  among  clerical  workers  (45.1  percent) ;  however,  it 
was  apparent  that  within  this  major  occupation  group  many  hus- 
bands and  wives  did  not  do  the  same  work  (table  15).  Two-fifths 
(40  percent)  of  the  wives  of  professional  and  technical  workers 
were  in  the  same  major  occupation  group  as  their  husbands. 
Correlation  between  farm  jobs  was  also  relatively  high  (34.8  per- 
cent)— not  surprising  since  most  farm  wives  have  few  job  oppor- 
tunities other  than  farm  work. 

More  than  one-third  of  the  wives  of  service  workers  had  serv- 
ice jobs,  and  approximately  three-tenths  of  the  wives  of  opera- 
tives, about  one-tenth  of  the  wives  in  managerial  positions,  and 
one-ninth  of  those  in  sales  work  had  husbands  in  the  same  occu- 
pations. 


Working  Mothers^^ 

25.    Number  and  Proportion  oi  Working  Mothers 

Working  mothers  with  children  under  18  years  of  age  num- 
bered 10.6  million  in  March  1967  (table  16).  They  represented  38 
percent  of  all  such  mothers  in  the  population  and  38  percent  of 
all  women  workers.  Nonwhite  working  mothers  with  children  of 
these  ages  totaled  1.5  million  or  15  percent  of  all  working 
mothers. 

Working  mothers  as  a  group  are  not  as  young  as  might  be  ex- 


"  The   term   "working   mothers,"    as   used   in    this   publication,    refers   to   workers   who   have 
children  under  18  years  of  age,  unless  otherwise  designated. 


38 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


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WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE 


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40  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

pected.  Their  median  age  in  March   1967  was  37  years — only 
about  3  years  less  than  the  median  age  for  all  women  workers. 

26.  Labor  Force  Parfici potior}  of  Mothers 

The  presence  or  absence  of  a  husband  has  a  strong  influence  on 
a  mother's  decision  to  work.  Thus  in  March  1967  the  proportion 
of  mothers  in  the  labor  force  whose  husbands  were  present  was 
only  35  percent  compared  with  64  percent  for  other  mothers. 

There  were  8.8  million  working  mothers  with  husband  present 
in  1967,  which  represented  83  percent  of  all  working  mothers.  Of 
these  mothers,  more  than  3  out  of  10  (35.3  percent)  were  in  the 
labor  force.  In  contrast,  of  the  mothers  not  living  with  their  hus- 
bands— the  widowed,  divorced,  separated,  or  deserted,  who  were 
rearing  children  in  fatherless  homes — more  than  6  out  of  10  (64 
percent)  were  in  the  labor  force.  These  mothers  have,  of  course,  a 
compelling  need  for  earnings:  probably  half  of  them  are  rearing 
children  in  poverty.^^ 

27.  Trends  in  Labor  Force  Participation  of  Mothers 

Between  1940  and  1967  the  labor  force  participation  rate  of 
mothers  increased  about  two  times  more  than  did  the  labor  force 
participation  rate  of  all  women  (table  17).  In  1940  only  9  percent 
of  all  mothers  with  children  under  18  years  of  age  worked  outside 

Table  17. — Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Mothers  and  of  All 
Women,"  Selected  Years,  1940-67 

Year  Mothers^  All  women' 

1967 38.2  41.1 

1966 35.8  38.9 

1964 34,5  37.4 

1962 32.9  36.6 

1960   30.4  36.7 

1958 29.5  36.0 

1956 27.5  35.9 

1954 25.6  33.7 

1952 23.8  33.8 

1950 21.6  33.1 

1948  -_.  20.2  31.9 

1946 18.2  31.2 

1940 8.6  28.2 

^  Includes  women  16  years  of  age  and  over  in  1967  but  14  years  and  over  in  earlier  years. 
2  Data  are  for  March  of  each  year  except  1946,  1948,  1952,  and  1954  when  they  are  for  April. 
'  Annual  averages. 

Source:   U.S.  Department  of   Labor,   Bureau  of   Labor   Statistics:   U.S.   Department  of   Com- 
merce, Bureau  of  the  Census. 

"  U.S.    Department    of    Health,    Education,    and    Welfare,    Social    Security    Administration : 
"The  Shape  of  Poverty  in  1966."  In  Social  Security  Bulletin,  March  1968. 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  41 

the  home,  but  by  1967  this  proportion  had  increased  to  38  per- 
cent. The  corresponding  rise  in  the  proportion  of  all  women  in  the 
labor  force  was  much  smaller— from  28  percent  in  1940  to  41  per- 
cent in  1967. 

Since  1948  the  percentage  of  mothers  who  work  has  steadily 
increased  about  1  percentage  point  a  year   (chart  H).  Between 


ChiH  H 


MOTHERS  ARE  MORE  LIKELY  TO  WORK  TODAY  THAN  EVER  BEFORE 

(Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Mothers,  by  Age  of  Children, 
Selected  Years,  1948-67 M 


c 

10 

Percent 
20 

30 

40 

50 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1967 

49 

29 

1964 

46 

25 

1960 

43 

20 

1956 

40 

18 

35 

1 

With 
children 
6  to  17 
years  only 

1952 

16 

1948 

31 

13 

c 

fl/ith 

hildren   ^ 
nder  6 

'    Data  cover  March  of  each  year  except  for  April  1948  and   1952   and  are  for  women 

14  years  of  age  and  over  except  1967  which  are  for   16  and  over. 
^    May  also  have  older  children 

Source:    U  S    Department  of  Labor,   Bureau  of   Labor  Statistics; 
US    Department  of  Commerce.  Bureau  of  the  Census. 


1948    and    1960    the    participation    rate    rose    more    slowly    for 
mothers  with  children  under  6  years  of  age  than  for  those  with 


42  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

children  6  to  17  years  only.  However,  since  1960  the  rate  for 
mothers  of  young  children  increased  much  faster  than  for  other 
mothers,  so  that  by  1967,  49  percent  of  the  mothers  with  children 
6  to  17  years  only  and  29  percent  of  those  with  young  children 
were  in  the  labor  force. 

28.  Children  of  Working  Mothers 

Working  mothers  with  husband  present  had  nearly  20  million 
children  under  18  years  of  age  in  1967,  with  about  5  million  of 
them  under  6  years  old. 

Because  more  mothers  tend  to  be  in  paid  work  if  their  children 
are  of  school  age  and  if  there  is  no  father  in  the  home,  the  high- 
est labor  force  participation  rate  in  March  1967  was  among  those 
not  living  with  their  husbands  and  with  school-age  children  only 
(table  16).  The  lowest  rate,  on  the  other  hand,  was  among 
mothers  with  husband  present  and  with  children  under  3  years  of 
age. 

In  families  in  which  the  fathers  were  at  home  and  all  the  chil- 
dren were  over  6  years  old,  45  percent  of  the  mothers  worked.  In 
families  in  which  the  fathers  were  at  home  and  there  were  chil- 
dren 3  to  5  years  old,  32  percent  of  the  mothers  worked;  and 
when  there  were  still  younger  children,  only  23  percent  of  the 
mothers  worked. 

In  fatherless  homes,  on  the  other  hand,  much  higher  propor- 
tions of  mothers  worked,  reflecting  their  greater  financial  need — 
75  percent  of  the  mothers  with  school-age  children  only  and  59 
percent  of  the  mothers  with  children  3  to  5  years  old  were  in  the 
labor  force.  Even  where  they  had  children  under  3  years  of  age, 
44  percent  of  these  mothers  worked. 

29.  Labor  Force  Parficipation  of  Whife  and  Nonwhite  Mothers 

A  comparison  of  the  labor  force  participation  of  nonwhite  with 
white  mothers  (husband  present)  shows  that  proportionately 
more  nonwhite  mothers  are  in  the  labor  force.  About  55  percent 
of  nonwhite  mothers  of  children  6  to  17  years  old  were  in  paid 
work  in  March  1967  compared  with  44  percent  of  white  mothers 
with  children  these  ages  (table  18),  Among  mothers  with  chil- 
dren under  6  years  of  age,  42  percent  of  the  nonwhite  mothers, 
but  only  25  percent  of  the  white  mothers,  were  in  the  labor  force. 

A  percent  distribution  of  nonwhite  and  white  working  mothers 
(husband  present)  by  age  of  children  shows  that  relatively  more 
nonwhite  had  children  under  3  years  old  and  relatively  more 
white  had  older  children  (chart  I). 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  43 

Table    18. — Labor    Force    Participation    Rates    of    Mothers    (Husband 
Present),  by  Color  and  by  Age  of  Children,  March  1967 

(Mothers  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Nonwhite  as 
Mothers  in  the  labor  force      percent  of 

all  working 

Age  of  children  Nonwhite  White         mothers 

NUMBER 

Total     1,053,000         7,697,000  12.0 

percent 

Children  6  to  17  years  only 55.2                  44.2  9.3 

Children  under  6  years  ^ 42.1                  24.8  16.1 

None   under   3   years    51.8                  29.6  16.2 

Some  under  3  years 36.5                  21.7  16.3 

^  Also  may  have  older  children. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  94. 

30.    Labor  Force  Participafion  of  Mothers  by  Income  of 
Husband 

When  the  labor  force  participation  rates  of  mothers  (husband 
present)  are  correlated  with  the  income  received  by  their  hus- 
bands, it  is  apparent  that  mothers  work  primarily  because  of 
economic  need.  Among  mothers  with  husband  present,  the  largest 
proportion  (44  percent)  was  in  the  labor  force  in  March  1967 
when  the  husbands'  incomes  were  below  $1,000  a  year  (table  19). 
As  the  husbands'  incomes  increase,  the  percentage  of  mothers  in 
the  labor  force  generally  declines. 

Irrespective  of  her  husband's  income,  a  mother  with  younger 
children  is  obviously  less  willing  or  able  to  work  than  one  with 
older  children.  At  all  income  levels  of  husbands,  a  smaller  propor- 
tion of  mothers  worked  in  March  1967  if  their  children  were  not 
yet  in  school  (chart  J). 

For  example,  as  is  apparent  from  table  19,  almost  40  percent  of 
the  mothers  worked  when  their  husbands'  incomes  were  between 
$2,000  and  $3,000,  but  this  proportion  rose  to  51  percent  for  those 
with  school-age  children  only,  and  it  dropped  to  31  percent  for 
those  with  children  under  6  years  of  age.  Similarly,  in  families 
where  the  husbands'  incomes  were  between  $5,000  and  $7,000,  39 
percent  of  all  the  mothers  were  in  the  labor  force,  but  only  32 
percent  worked  if  they  had  preschool  children.  At  yet  higher  in- 
come levels  (between  $7,000  and  $10,000),  34  percent  of  the 
mothers  were  in  the  labor  force,  but  only  22  percent  worked  when 
they  had  young  children. 

31.    Part-Time  and  Part-Year  Work  Patterns  of  Mothers 

Mothers  are  likely  to  work  part  time  (less  than  35  hours  a 


44 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


HIGH  PROPORTION  OF  NONWHITE  WORKING  MOTHERS  HAVE  YOUNG  CHILDREN 


ll 


(Percent  Distribution  of  Mothers  (Husband  Present)  in  the  Labor  Force, 
by  Color  and  Age  of  Children,  March   1967) 


100 


Percent 


80  — 


40  — 


47 


24 


29 


62 


17 


21 


mm 


With  children  6  to  17  years  only 


With  children  3  to  5  years 
(none  under  3)' 


Nonwhite 


'lll'rt-fii'lt^H 

White 


May  also  have  older  children. 
Source    US    Department  of   Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


With  children  under  3  years 


week)  or  part  of  the  year  (less  than  50  weeks  of  the  year)  or 
both.  Mothers  with  husband  present  and  very  young  children 
(under  3  years),  in  particular,  tend  to  prefer  part-time  and  part- 
year  work.  Many  mothers  who  can  work  only  part  time  must 
make  a  special  effort  to  find  a  job  with  a  work  schedule  flexible 
enough  to  combine  work  outside  the  home  with  care  of  their  chil- 
dren. 

Many  mothers  who  work  full  time  (35  hours  a  week  or  more) 
work  only  part  of  the  year.  They  may  take  full-time  seasonal  jobs 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


45 


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46 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


Uort  J 

A  SMALLER  PROPORTION  OF  MOTHERS  WITH  YOUNG  CHILDREN  WORK  AT  ALL  INCOME  LEVELS 

(Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Motiiers,  by  Income 

of  Husband  in  1966 

and  Age  of  Children,  March  1967) 

60 

Percent 

52                              51 
1 — ' 

52 

1 — 1  With  children 
1 1  6  to  17  only 

50 

46 

47 

— IWith  children 
1 1  under  6' 

40 

— 

30 

— 

35 

31 

31 

34 

32 

22 

33 

20 

— 

16 

10 

— 

Under         $1,000         $2,000        $3,000          $5,000 

$7,000         $10,000 

$1. 

DOO 

t 
1,< 

0 

399 

t 
2. 

0 

999 

t 
4.? 

0 

)99 

t 
6. 

0 

399 

t 
9,' 

0 

)99 

and 

over 

^  May  also  have  older  children. 

Source    US    Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


during  periods  of  peak  business,  such  as  are  available  in  retail 
trade  during  the  Christmas  season,  in  laundries  during  the  sum- 
mer, or  in  canneries  and  other  food  processing  plants  during  the 
harvest  season.  Mothers  who  are  teachers  may  work  only  part  of 
the  year,  and  so  may  mothers  in  the  hotel  and  resort  business. 
(For  other  information  on  part-time  and  part-year  work  of 
women,  see  sees.  34  and  35.) 

Mothers  (husband  present). — Among  mothers  with  husband 
present  and  school-age  children  only,  65  percent  worked  full  time 
in  1966,  but  only  39  percent  worked  full  time  the  year  round 
(table  20).  Twelve  percent  of  the  mothers  who  worked  full  time 
were  on  the  job  from  1  to  26  weeks  only. 

Mothers  (husband  present)  who  had  preschool  children  were 
even  less  inclined  to  work  full  time  or  the  year  round.  Sixty-two 
percent  of  the  mothers  with  3-  to  5-year-old  children  and  none 
younger  worked  full  time,  but  only  31  percent  worked  full  time 
the  year  round  and  19  percent  worked  from  1  to  26  weeks. 

A  higher  proportion  of  mothers  with  children  under  3  years 
was  on  full-time  schedules  than  of  mothers  who  had  school-age 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  47 

Table  20.— Work  Experience  in   1966  of  Mothers    (Husband  Present), 
BY  Age  of  Children,  March  1967 

(Mothers  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Mothers  with  children — 

3-5  years 
6-17  (none  Under 

Work  experience  years  only  under  3)^  3  years ' 

Percent  with  work  experience ^  -.  53.9  42.6  39.0 

PERCENT    distribution 

Total  100.0  100.0  100.0 

Full  time" 64.7  62.0  66.6 

50  to  52  weeks 39.0  30.6  16.3 

27  to  49  weeks 13.6  12.4  17.6 

1  to  26  weeks 12.2  19.0  32.7 

Part  time  * 35.3  38.0  33.4 

27  weeks  or  more   21.7  19.5  12.5 

1  to  26  weeks 13.6  18.5  20.8 

1  Also  may  have  older  children. 

*  Data  are  for  civilian  noninstitutional  population. 
3  Worked  35  hours  or  more  a  week. 

*  Worked  less  than  35  hours  a  week. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:   Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  94. 

children  only  or  children  3  to  5  years  old  but  none  younger.  Six- 
ty-seven percent  of  the  mothers  with  children  under  3  years 
worked  full  time,  but  only  16  percent  worked  full  time  the  year 
round  and  33  percent  worked  from  1  to  26  weeks. 

The  proportion  of  mothers  (husband  present)  who  worked  part 
time  was  highest  (38  percent)  for  those  who  had  children  3  to  5 
years  old  but  none  younger  and  lowest  (33  percent)  for  those  who 
had  children  under  3. 

Mothers  {husband  absent). — Typically,  a  mother  who  is  raising 
children  without  the  help  of  a  husband  is  more  likely  to  work  full 
time  than  is  the  mother  whose  husband  is  at  home.  Economic 
necessity  is  obviously  the  main  reason  for  the  mother's  work 
pattern. 

Eighty-one  percent  of  all  mothers  (husband  absent)  who  were 
employed  in  nonagricultural  industries  in  March  1967  were  on 
full-time  schedules  (table  21). 

32.    Child  Care  Arrangements  of  Working  Mothers 

The  arrangements  working  mothers  make  for  thie  care  of  their 
children  are  of  vital  importance  to  the  welfare  of  their  families 


48 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


Table  21. — Full-Time  and  Part-Time  Work  Status  of  Mothers  Employed 

IN    NONAGRICULTURAL    INDUSTRIES,    BY    MARITAL    STATUS    AND    BY    AgE    OF 

Children,  March  1967 

(Mothers  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Percent  distribution 

Number 
Marital  status  and  (in  Full  Part 

age  of  children  thousands)  Total  time^  tim^ 

Mothers  with  children  under  18  years  9,751  100.0  72.2  27.8 

Married  (husband  present)   8,078  100.0  70.5  29.5 

Other  women  ever  married  ^ 1,673  100.0  80.6  19.4 

Mothers  with  children  6  to  17  only 6,019  100.0  72.4  27.6 

Married    (husband  present)    4,935  100.0  70.7  29.3 

Other  women  ever  married^ 1,084  100.0  80.2  19.8 

Mothers   with   children    3   to   5   years 

(none  under  3)*  1,774  100.0  73.7  26.3 

Married  (husband  present) 1,462  100.0  71.4  28.6 

Other  women  ever  married'   312  100.0  83.7  16.3 

Mothers  with  children  under  3  years  ^  _        1,958  100.0  70.5  29.5 

Married  (husband  present)    1,681  100.0  69.1  30.9 

Other  women  ever  married ' 277  100.0  79.1  20.9 

1  Worked  35  hours  or  more  a  week. 
^  Worked  less  than  35  hours  a  week. 
'  Widowed,  divorced,  or  separated. 
*  Also  may  have  older  children. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  94. 

and  to  the  interests  of  their  communities.  To  obtain  current  in- 
formation, the  Children's  Bureau  of  the  U.S.  Department  of 
Health,  Education,  and  Welfare  and  the  Women's  Bureau  of  the 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor  cosponsored  a  national  survey  of  child 
care  arrangements  of  working  mothers. ^^  The  survey  was  limited 
to  women  who  worked  27  weeks  or  more  in  1964,  either  full  or 
part  time,  and  who  had  at  least  one  child  under  14  years  of  age 
living  at  home.  It  was  conducted  by  the  Bureau  of  the  Census  in 
February  1965. 

According  to  the  latest  findings,  the  6.1  million  mothers  cov- 
ered by  the  survey  had  12.3  million  children  under  14  years  of 
age,  of  whom  3.8  million  were  under  6  years.  While  their  mothers 
were  at  work,  46  percent  of  the  children  were  cared  for  in  their 
own  homes,  with  15  percent  looked  after  by  their  fathers,  21  per- 
cent by  other  relatives,  and  9  percent  by  maids,  housekeepers,  or 
babysitters  (table  22). 

"  This  survey   was   partially  supported   under  the   research    program   of   the   Manpower   Ad- 
ministration, U.S.  Department  of  Labor. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE 


49 


An  additional  16  percent  of  the  children  were  cared  for  outside 
their  own  homes,  about  half  by  relatives.  Thirteen  percent  of  the 
children  were  looked  after  by  their  own  mothers  while  they 
worked,  and  15  percent  had  mothers  who  worked  only  during 
school  hours.  Eight  percent  of  the  children  were  expected  to  care 
for  themselves,  while  only  2  percent  of  the  surveyed  children 
were  in  group  care,  such  as  in  day  care  centers,  nursery  schools, 
and  after-school  centers. 

These  findings,  as  did  those  of  a  survey  undertaken  by  the  Chil- 
dren's Bureau  in  1958,  emphasize  the  urgent  need  for  additional 
day  care  facilities.  Licensed  public  and  private  day  care  facilities 
available  in  1967  could  provide  for  about  half  a  million  children. 
This  represented,  unfortunately,  only  a  small  percentage  of  the 

Table    22. — Child    Care    Arrangements    of    Working    Mothers  ^    With 
Children  Under  14  Years  of  Age,  by  Age  of  Children,  February  1965 

(Percent  distribution) 

Age  of  children 

Under  6  6  to  11  12  and  13 

Type  of  arrangement  Total  years  years  years 

Number    (in  thousands)    __        12,287  3,794  6,091  2,401 

Percent 100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0 

Care  in  child's  own  home  by —  45.5  47.1  46.9  38.1 

Father 14.9  14.4  15.4  14.3 

Other  relative 21.2  17.5  23.2  20.9 

Under  16  years   4.6  2.1  6.1  4.7 

16  years  and  over 16.6  15.3  17.1  16.2 

Nonrelative  who  only  looked 

after  children   4.7  8.4  3.8  1.2 

Nonrelative  who  usually  did 

additional  household  chores.  4.7  6.9  4.4  1.7 

Care  in  someone  else's  home  by —  15.7  30.7  11.0  4.8 

Relative    7.8  14.9  5.2  3.3 

Nonrelative    8.0  15.8  5.8  1.5 

Other  arrangements   38.8  22.1  42.1  57.0 

Care  in  group  care  center 2.2  5.6  .6  .4 

Child  looked  after  self 8.1  .5  8.0  20.7 

Mother     looked     after     child 

while  working 13.0  15.0  12.5  11.1 

Mother   worked    only    during 

child's  school  hours 15.0  .8  20.5  24.2 

Other .5  .3  .6  .7 

'  Refers  to  mothers  who  worked  either  full  or  part  time  for   27   weeks  or  more  in    1964. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Social  and  Rehabilitation 
Service,  Children's  Bureau,  and  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Ad- 
ministration, Women's  Bureau :  "Child  Care  Arrangements  of  Working  Mothers  in  the 
United  States."  Children's  Bureau  Pub.  461-1968. 


50  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

children  who  needed  day  care  services.  Public  and  voluntary 
agencies,  however,  are  working  actively  to  close  the  gap. 

Several  legislative  enactments  in  recent  years  have  helped  to 
increase  the  availability  of  day  care  facilities.  A  major  advance 
was  made  possible  by  the  child  welfare  provisions  of  the  1962 
Public  Welfare  Amendments  to  the  Social  Security  Act,  which 
authorized  Federal  grants-in-aid  to  State  ^^  public  welfare  agen- 
cies for  day  care  services.  To  qualify  for  Federal  aid,  a  State  must 
have  an  approved  child  welfare  services  plan  that  requires, 
among  other  things,  that  day  care  will  be  provided  only  in  facili- 
ties (including  private  homes)  which  are  licensed  by  the  State  or 
meet  the  standards  of  the  State  licensing  authority  and  give 
priority  to  children  from  low-income  homes. 

Since  the  adoption  of  these  amendments,  the  States  have  been 
moving  to  provide  adequate  day  care  services  for  children  who 
need  them.  For  the  year  ending  June  1968,  more  than  half  the 
States  budgeted  State  or  local  funds  for  day  care  services,  while 
all  but  five  States  budgeted  some  public  funds  (Federal,  State,  or 
local). 

Under  the  1967  amendments  to  the  Social  Security  Act,  the 
Work  Incentive  Program  (WIN),  which  was  established  for  recip- 
ients of  aid  to  families  with  dependent  children  (AFDC),  re- 
quires necessary  child  care  services  for  children  of  those  engaged 
in  training  or  employment  under  the  program. 

Financial  assistance  for  day  care  programs  is  also  available 
under  the  Economic  Opportunity  Act  of  1964.  Headstart,  the  best 
known  of  the  programs,  was  first  administered  by  the  Office  of 
Economic  Opportunity  but  recently  was  transferred  to  the  De- 
partment of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare.  It  enables  many 
young  children  in  low-income  families  to  have  full-year  full-day 
care,  and  other  children  to  have  part-day  or  summer  care.  In  ad- 
dition, special  day  care  programs  are  provided  for  children  of 
migrants. 

Day  care  is  authorized  by  the  Economic  Opportunity  Act  also 
as  one  of  the  supportive  services  provided  in  the  Concentrated 
Employment  Program  (CEP),  a  work  training  program  adminis- 
tered by  the  Department  of  Labor  for  unemployed  and  low-in- 
come individuals. 

Under  a  Presidential  directive  of  April  1968,  a  Federal  Panel 
on  Early  Childhood,  comprised  of  representatives  from  nine 
agencies,  was  established  to  coordinate  all  early  childhood  pro- 
grams financed  by  Federal  funds.  On  September  23,   1968,  the 

"  Includes  territorial   jurisdictions  and  the  District   of  Columbia. 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  51 

Panel  issued  "Interagency  Day  Care  Requirements,"  setting  forth 
minimum  standards  which  must  be  met  by  day  care  programs  re- 
ceiving funds  from  the  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and 
Welfare ;  the  Department  of  Labor ;  or  the  Office  of  Economic  Op- 
portunity. The  Panel  also  launched  in  1968  a  new  program  called 
Community  Coordinated  Child  Care  (4-C  program).  To  be  orga- 
nized by  one  designated  group  in  each  locality,  such  as  a  commu- 
nity action  agency  or  a  local  welfare  department,  the  4-C  program 
seeks  to  expand  and  improve  day  care  services  through  more 
effective  communitywide  planning,  continuity  of  operation,  effici- 
ent use  of  local  resources,  lower  administrative  costs,  and  better 
utilization  of  Federal  funds. 

Federal  and  State  tax  treatTnent  regarding  child  care  expenses. — 
Since  its  adoption  in  1913,  the  Federal  income  tax  law  has  made 
an  allowance  for  the  circumstances  of  the  individual  taxpayer 
through  personal  exemptions.  In  the  Revenue  Act  of  1954  a  deduc- 
tion was  allowed  for  child  care  expenses  incurred  by  working 
women  and  widowers  ^*'  if  such  child  care  enabled  them  to  be  gain- 
fully employed.  Under  that  act  an  allowance  of  up  to  $600  was 
permitted  for  care  of  a  child  under  12  years  of  age  or  a  dependent 
physically  or  mentally  incapable  of  caring  for  himself.  Widows, 
widowers,  and  separated  and  divorced  persons  could  deduct  the 
full  amount  regardless  of  income.  However,  a  married  woman 
claiming  the  deduction  was  required  to  file  a  joint  return  with  her 
husband,  and  if  the  combined  adjusted  gross  income  exceeded 
$4,500  the  deduction  was  reduced  $1  for  each  $1  above  that 
amount.  These  restrictions  regarding  the  working  wife  did  not 
apply  if  her  husband  was  incapable  of  self-support  because  of 
mental  or  physical  disability. 

A  1963  amendment  provided  for  allowing  the  deduction  for 
child  care  expenses  to  a  deserted  wife  who  could  not  locate  her 
husband. 

The  Revenue  Act  of  1964  raised  the  maximum  deduction  for 
child  care,  the  income  limitation,  and  the  age  of  children  covered. 
Deductions  of  $600  for  one  child  or  $900  for  two  or  more  children 
may  be  taken  when  the  total  income  of  a  working  wife  and  her 
husband  is  less  than  $6,000  a  year.  Above  that  figure,  the  amount 
of  deduction  is  reduced  $1  for  each  $1  of  income.  As  a  result,  a 
deduction  cannot  be  claimed  by  one-child  families  with  total  ad- 
justed gross  income  of  more  than  $6,600  or  by  families  with  two 
or  more  children  with  more  than  $6,900.  The  act  allows  a  married 


1'  The  term  "widower"  includes  divorced  and  legally  separated  men. 


52  WOMEN    AS    WORKERS 

man  to  deduct  the  cost  of  child  care  if  his  wife  is  in  an  institution 
for  at  least  90  consecutive  days  or  for  a  shorter  period  if  termi- 
nated by  her  death.  A  married  man  whose  wife  is  at  home  but  un- 
able to  care  for  herself  is  eligible  for  the  deduction,  subject  to  the 
$6,000  income  limitation  applicable  to  married  women.  The  act 
also  raised  the  age  of  children  covered  by  the  deduction  to  include 
those  under  13  years. 

In  addition  to  Federal  laws  governing  deductions  for  child  care 
expenses,  a  number  of  States  permit  employed  taxpayers  to  take 
such  deductions  from  State  income  taxes.  Some  of  the  State  laws 
are  identical  with  the  Federal  law;  others  have  variations  as  to 
who  can  claim  the  deduction,  the  amount  of  the  deduction,  the  age 
limit  of  children  for  whose  care  the  deduction  can  be  claimed,  and 
the  income  limitation  of  taxpayers  eligible  to  claim  the  deduction. 

33.    Maternity  Provisions 

Large  numbers  of  women  workers  in  this  country  are  eligible 
to  receive  maternity  benefits.  The  three  major  types  of  maternity 
benefits  are:  maternity  leave  with  provisions  for  job  security, 
cash  payments  to  compensate  for  loss  of  wages,  and  allowances 
for  medical  care  and  services.  Such  benefits  are  provided  primar- 
ily through  voluntary  plans  and  less  frequently  by  legislative 
action. 

Voluntary  plans. — Voluntary  health  plans  include  those  nego- 
tiated between  unions  and  management,  those  offered  by  com- 
mercial insurance  companies,  those  operated  by  associations  of 
hospitals  or  physicians,  and  those  operated  cooperatively  by 
groups. 

In  1966  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  summarized  100  selected 
health  and  insurance  plans  ^^  negotiated  between  unions  and 
management.  All  but  a  few  had  maternity  medical  allowances  for 
women  employees.  In  addition,  about  half  provided  cash  benefits 
for  a  specified  number  of  weeks.  Job  security  and  paid  sick  leave 
as  such  v^ere  not  covered  in  the  study.  There  were  wide  variations 
in  allowances  for  maternity  hospitalization  and  for  surgical  and 
medical  care;  for  example,  the  surgical  allowance  in  many  con- 
tracts ranged  from  $50  to  $150.  Many  plans  provided  compensa- 
tion for  the  full  cost  of  specified  services  in  addition  to  hospital 
room  and  board  allowances.  Others  established  a  flat  maternity 
allowance,    covering   both   hospitalization   and   surgical   benefits. 


"  U.S.    Department   of    Labor,    Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics :    "Di:-rest    of    100    Selected    Health 
and   Insurance   Plans    Under   Collective    Bargaining,    Early    1966."    Bull.    1502.    September    1966. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  53 

In  approximately  three-fourths  of  these  plans  the  company  paid 
the  full  costs  of  maternity  benefits  for  its  employees.  Under  the 
remaining  plans,  the  employer  and  employee  shared  the  costs  of 
the  employee's  benefits. 

Legislative  provisioTis. — Several  Federal  and  State  laws  ex- 
tend some  maternity  protection  to  limited  numbers  of  women 
workers. 

The  only  Federal  law  that  specifically  listed  maternity  benefits 
as  such  covered  women  employees  in  the  railroad  industry.  How- 
ever, that  law  was  amended  in  1968  to  delete  the  provision  for 
maternity  weekly  cash  benefits,  although  the  right  of  women  to 
use  their  regular  sick  benefits  during  absences  for  pregnancy  or 
childbirth  was  retained. 

Women  employees  in  Federal  service  do  not  receive  maternity 
leave  as  such,  but  Federal  law  (5  U.S.C.  6301-6311)  does  make 
paid  sick  leave  available  to  them,  and  a  Civil  Service  Commission 
regulation  permits  sick  leave  to  be  used  as  maternity  leave.  As 
is  the  case  for  all  illness,  Federal  employees  receive  full  pay 
during  their  sick-leave  days.  Those  days  are  limited  in  number 
each  year  but  may  be  accumulated.  Women  granted  maternity 
leave  have  job  security  and  may  return  to  the  jobs  they  held 
before  taking  leave. 

In  addition,  under  Federal  law  (5  U.S.C.  8901-8913),  Govern- 
ment employees  may  elect  to  participate  in  one  of  several  health 
insurance  plans  that  include  payments  toward  maternity  medical 
care  for  women  employees.  Both  the  Federal  Government  and  the 
participating  employees  share  the  cost  of  these  benefits.  As  a 
fairly  new  development,  the  Federal  Government,  through  its  In- 
terdepartmental Committee  on  the  Status  of  Women,  is  exploring 
the  idea  of  seeking  Congressional  approval  of  paid  maternity 
leave  in  addition  to  paid  sick  leave. 

Women  members  of  the  Armed  Forces,  who  are  separated  from 
military  service  because  of  pregnancy,  are  eligible  for  maternity 
care  in  a  military  hospital  or  facility.  They  are  provided  with 
prenatal,  hospital,  and  postnatal  care. 

Women  employed  by  Federal  contractors  and  subcontractors 
and  by  federally  assisted  construction  contractors  and  subcon- 
tractors are  covered  by  Executive  Order  11375  (see  sec.  102), 
which  in  effect  extends  antidiscrimination  programs  of  Govern- 
ment contractors  to  include  discrimination  based  on  sex.  The 
equal  employment  opportunity  program  developed  by  the  Depart- 
ment of  Labor's  Office  of  Federal  Contract  Compliance  (OFCC)  is 
implemented  by  Federal  contracting  agencies,  with  emphasis  on 


54  WOMEN    AS    WORKERS 

affirmative  action  and  preaward  compliance  review.  As  maternity- 
leave  protection  is  an  integral  part  of  the  program,  guidelines 
being  prepared  for  women's  employment  include  a  provision  re- 
lating to  maternity  leave. 

Women  employees  in  private  industry  are  affected  by  maternity 
leave  rulings  of  the  Equal  Employment  Opportunity  Commission 
(EEOC),  which  administers  title  VII  of  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of 
1964  (see  sec.  101).  One  ruling  requires  employers  to  grant  recall 
rights  to  women  after  childbirth,  just  as  recall  rights  are  given  to 
men  after  a  sustained  illness  or  convalescence.  A  second  ruling 
maintains  that  "a  leave  of  absence  should  be  granted  for  preg- 
nancy whether  or  not  it  is  granted  for  illness."  Another  ruling 
declares  that  health  plans  which  grant  maternity  benefits  to 
wives  of  men  employees  must  include  women  employees  as  well. 
However,  the  EEOC  has  ruled  that  it  is  not  a  violation  of  title 
VII  to  provide  paid  sick  leave  but  unpaid  maternity  leave,  and 
that  an  employer  has  the  right  to  decide  at  what  point  during  a 
woman's  pregnancy  her  employment  may  be  suspended. 

Cash  benefits  for  maternity  leave  are  provided  to  women 
workers  under  the  laws  of  New  Jersey,  Rhode  Island,  and  Puerto 
Rico.  Six  other  States  and  Puerto  Rico  prohibit  employment  for 
specified  periods  before  and/or  after  childbirth,  but  of  these  only 
Puerto  Rico  requires  women  to  have  reemployment  rights  or  re- 
ceive compensatory  payments  (see  sec.  117).  Under  State  unem- 
ployment insurance  laws,  women  in  37  States  and  the  District  of 
Columbia  are  disqualified  from  collecting  unemployment  insur- 
ance during  a  specified  period  before  and/or  after  childbirth, ^^ 
regardless  of  the  reason  for  their  unemployment  (which  might 
have  been  a  layoff). 

Many  State  and  local  governments  allow  their  women  em- 
ployees to  use  sick  leave  as  maternity  leave,  and  some  also  provide 
insured  medical  care.  In  1962,  14  States  and  Puerto  Rico  offered 
health  benefit  programs  with  maternity  provisions  to  employees  of 
these  jurisdictions  who  wished  to  participate.^*'  In  two  of  these — 
New  York  and  Massachusetts — local  governments  were  allowed  to 
participate  voluntarily  in  the  program.  Under  all  these  programs 
the  employers  and  enrolled  employees  both  contributed  to  their 
cost.  A  few  of  the  plans  were  designed  to  cover  the  entire  cost  of 
combined   hospital   and   physician's   charges   for   a   confinement. 


"  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Employment  Security :  "Comparison  of  State  Un- 
employment Insurance  Laws."    Bull.   U--14L    1966. 

i»  U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Public  Health  Service:  "State  Em- 
ployees' Health  Benefit  Programs."  Health  Economics  Scries  No.  2,  December  1963,  and 
"Maternity   Care    Utilization   and    Financing."    Health    Economics    Series    No.    4.    January    1964. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  55 

Variations  in  provisions  ranged  from  separate  allowances  speci- 
fied for  hospital  charges  and  physician's  fees  to  a  lump  sum  al- 
lowance for  both  types  of  expenses. 

Working   Life  of  Women 

34.    Work  Experience  of  Women 

The  number  of  women  and  men  in  the  labor  force  is  obtained 
by  a  regular  monthly  survey  of  the  population.^"  A  similar  sur- 
vey, conducted  once  a  year,  yields  the  number  of  women  and  men 
who  worked  at  some  time  during  the  previous  year. 

The  number  of  persons  who  work  some  time  during  the  course 
of  a  year  is  naturally  greater  than  the  average  number  in  the 
labor  force  at  any  one  period  in  time  during  that  year.  In  1967, 
35.8  million  women  16  years  of  age  and  over  had  some  work  expe- 
rience,^^  but  the  average  number  in  the  labor  force  was  28.4  million 
— a  difference  of  7.4  million. 

Many  women  cannot  work  full  time  (35  hours  or  more  a  week) 
the  year  round  (50  to  52  weeks)  because  of  home  responsibilities, 
school  attendance,  or  other  reasons.  In  addition,  there  are 
women  who  would  like  to  work  throughout  the  year  but  are  una- 
ble to  find  this  type  of  job  because  of  lack  of  skills  or  education  or 
because  such  jobs  are  not  available  in  the  community  in  which 
they  live.  As  a  result,  women  are  more  likely  than  men  are  to 
work  part  time  or  part  year.  Only  42  percent  of  the  women  who 
worked  at  some  time  in  1967  were  employed  full  time  the  year 
round  (chart  K).  In  contrast,  70  percent  of  all  men  with  work 
experience  in  1967  were  full-time  year-round  workers.  Twenty- 
eight  percent  of  the  women  with  work  experience  worked  full 
time  for  part  of  the  year.  The  remaining  29  percent  of  the  women 
had  part-time  jobs.  By  comparison,  only  11  percent  of  the  men 
with  work  experience  in  1967  held  part-time  jobs. 

The  percentage  of  women  working  part  time  increases  as  the 
number  of  weeks  worked  declines.  Thus  in  1967,  less  than  one- 
fifth  of  the  women  who  worked  50  to  52  weeks  and  less  than  one- 
third  of  those  who  worked  from  27  to  49  weeks  were  employed 
part  time,  but  almost  one-half  of  those  who  worked  half  a  year  or 
less  had  part-time  jobs. 


^^  The  survey  is  conducted  for  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  by  the  Bureau  of  the  Census 
through  its  current  population  survey.  It  consists  of  interviewing  a  scientifically  selected 
sample  of  about  50,000  households,  designed  to  represent  the  civilian  noninstitutional  popula- 
tion  16  years  of  age  and  over. 

^*  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  107. 


56 


WOMEN    AS   WORKERS 


Clwt  ( 


ABOUT  2  OUT  OF  5  WOMEN  WORKERS  HAVE  FULL-TIME  YEAR-ROUND  JOBS 


(Work  Experience  of  Women,  by  Full-Time  and  Part-Time  Status 
and  Weeks  Worked,  1967) 


Percent 


45 
40  — 
35  — 
30  — 
25  — 
20  — 
15  — 
10  — 

5  — 

0 


42 


13 


10 


1  Full-time 

(35  hours 

Part  time 
(less  than 
35   hniirO 

16 

13 

50-52 
weeks 

Year-Round 


27-49 
weeks 


1-26 
weeks 


Part-Year 


Source;   U.S    Department  of   Labor,  Bureau  of    Labor  Statistics 


Reasons  given  for  part-year  work. — The  major  reasons  given 
by  women  and  men  for  working  only  part  of  the  year  in  1967  dif- 
fered considerably.  More  than  half  of  the  women  stated  that  tak- 
ing care  of  their  household  was  the  principal  reason;  another  21 
percent  said  attendance  at  school  limited  their  work.  Only  12  per- 
cent claimed  unemployment  as  the  reason  for  working  less  than  a 
full  year.  In  contrast,  30  percent  of  the  men  16  years  of  age  or 
over  mentioned  unemployment  as  the  major  reason  for  part-year 
work,  and  one-third  of  the  men  reported  school  attendance  as  the 
principal  factor. 

Changes  in  work  experience  of  women  since  1950. — The  number 
of  women  with  work  experience  rose  12.4  million  from  1950  to 
1967  (table  23).  The  number  who  worked  part  time  rose  4.3 
million.  This  increase  of  70  percent  was  considerably  greater 
than  the  increase  of  47  percent  registered  by  women  full-time 
workers.  Most  of  the  increase  in  part-time  workers,  however, 
came  between  1950  and  1960.  From  1960  to  1967  the  number  of 
women  part-time  workers  increased  by  only  6  percent  compared 
with  an  increase  of  22  percent  among  full-time  workers. 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  57 

Another  change  in  the  composition  of  the  group  of  women  with 
work  experience  was  that  a  somewhat  larger  proportion  worked  a 
full  year  in  1967  (52  percent)  than  in  1950  (45  percent).  This 
was  due  mainly  to  a  relatively  large  increase  in  the  number  of 
women  who  worked  full  time  for  50  to  52  weeks. 


Table  23. — Work  Experience  of  Women,  1950,  1960,  and  1967 ' 

Number  (in  thousands)  Percent  distribution 

Work  experience  1967  1960  1950  1967  1960  1950 

Total    35,787     30,585     23,350     100.0     100.0     100.0 

Year  round : 

50  to  52  weeks: 

Full   time='    15,084     11,299       8,592       42.1       36.9       36.8 

Part  time"   3,545       3,060       1,916         9.9       10.0         8.2 

Part  year : 

27  to  49  weeks: 

Full   time''    4,651       4,479       4,171       13.0       14.6       17.9 

Part  time"   2,228       2,023       1,210         6.2         6.6         5.1 

1  to  26  weeks: 

Full   time''    5,516       4,899       4,377       15.4       16.0       18.7 

Part  time"   4,763       4,825       3,088       13.3       15.8       13.2 

*  Includes  women  16  years  of  age  and  over  in  1967  but  14  years  and  over  in  1950  and  1960. 
^  Worked  35  hours  or  more  a  week. 
'  Worked  less  than  35  hours  a  week. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor :  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics,  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  107  ;  Manpower  Administration,  "Manpower  Report  of  the  President  Including  a  Report 
on   Manpower  Requirements,   Resources,   Utilization,   and   Training."    April    1968. 

Work  experience  by  age. — As  might  be  expected,  women  be- 
tween 18  and  64  years  of  age  are  more  likely  to  work  some  time 
during  the  year  than  are  younger  girls  or  older  women.  In  1967 
almost  three-fourths  of  all  women  18  to  24  years  of  age,  about 
three-fifths  of  those  45  to  54,  and  more  than  half  of  those  25  to  44 
had  work  experience  (table  24).  In  contrast,  slightly  less  than 
half  of  the  girls  16  and  17  years  old  and  the  women  55  to  64,  and 
only  one-seventh  of  the  women  65  and  over  had  worked  some 
time  during  that  year. 

At  all  age  levels  a  larger  proportion  of  men  than  of  women  had 
work  experience  in  1967.  For  men  the  percentage  was  highest 
among  those  25  to  54  years  of  age  (96  or  98  percent)  and  lowest 
among  those  65  years  of  age  and  over  (35  percent). 

In  the  principal  working  age  group  (18  to  64  years),  the  pro- 
portion of  all  women  who  worked  some  time  during  1967  was  58 
percent  as  compared  with  94  percent  for  men. 


58  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

Table  24. — Percent  of  Women  and  Men  With  Work  Experience  in  1967, 

BY  Age 

(Persons  16  years  of  age  and  over) 
Age  Women  Men 

Total 51.3  85.1 

16  and  17  years 47.8  65.5 

18  and  19  years 72.0  87.1 

20  to  24  years  71.0  90.2 

25  to  34  years  53.7  98.1 

35  to  44  years  56.8  97.9 

45  to  54  years 59.6  96.1 

55  to  64  years  49.9  88.5 

65  years  and  over  13.9  34.9 

18  to  64  years 58.5  94.4 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:   Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  107. 

Women  45  to  64  years  of  age  are  the  most  likely  to  work  full 
time  the  year  round.  About  55  percent  of  the  women  in  this  age 
group  were  full-time  year-round  workers  in  1967  (table  25).  In 
contrast,  only  10  percent  of  girls  16  to  19  years  of  age  were  on 
full-time  schedules  throughout  the  year. 

Teenage  girls  and  women  65  years  of  age  and  over  who  work 
are  the  most  likely  to  work  primarily  at  part-time  jobs.  Among 
those  with  work  experience,  just  over  half  of  the  girls  16  to  19 
years  of  age  and  of  the  women  65  years  of  age  and  over  were 
part-time  workers  in  1967.  In  fact,  about  1  out  of  3  of  the  teenage 
girls  worked  at  part-time  jobs  for  26  weeks  or  less.  On  the  other 
hand,  less  than  1  out  of  5  women  20  to  24  years  of  age  worked  pri- 
marily at  part-time  jobs. 

Work  experience  by  marital  status. — About  60  percent  of  the 
35.8  million  women  with  work  experience  in  1967  were  married 
women  living  with  their  husbands  (table  26).  Another  23  percent 
were  single,  and  the  remaining  17  percent  were  widowed,  di- 
vorced, or  living  apart  from  their  husbands. 

Single  women  were  the  most  likely  to  have  worked  at  some  time 
in  1967.  Sixty-nine  percent  of  them  compared  with  46  percent  of 
the  widowed,  divorced,  or  separated  women  and  48  percent  of  the 
married  women  (husband  present)  had  had  work  experience. 

Women  who  are  widowed,  divorced,  or  with  husbands  absent  are 
more  likely  to  work  full  time  the  year  round  than  are  single 
women  or  married  women  living  with  their  husbands.  In  1967,  52 
percent  of  the  former  group  of  women  were  full-time  year-round 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


59 


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60  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

workers  compared  with  37  percent  of  the  single  women  and  41 
percent  of  the  married  women  (husband  present).  Conversely, 
widowed,  divorced,  or  separated  women  are  less  likely  to  work  on 
part-time  jobs.  Thus  only  23  percent  of  these  women  worked  less 
than  35  hours  a  vi^eek  in  1967  compared  with  34  percent  of  the 
single  women  and  30  percent  of  the  married  women  (husband 
present). 

Table   26. — Work    Experience   of   Women    in    1967,   by    Marital    Status 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Marital  status 

Married 
(husband 
Worl<  experience  Total  Single  present)  Other^ 

Number 35,787,000        8,209,000      21,326,000        6,252,000 

Percent    with   work 

experience  =^ 51.3  68.5  48.3  45.9 

PERCENT    DISTRIBUTION 

Total    100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0 

Worked  at  full-time  jobs:  ^ 

50  to  52  weeks   42.1  36.7  41.3  52.3 

27  to  49  weeks 13.0  9.6  14.2  13.4 

1  to  26  weeks   15.4  19.7  14.9  11.5 

Worked  at  part-time  jobs '_  29.4  34.0  29.6  22.8 

*  Widowed,  divorced,  or  separated. 

^  Data  are  for  civilian  noninstitutional  population. 

'  Worked  35  hours  or  more  a  week. 

''  Worked  less  than  35  hours  a  week. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :   Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  107. 

Work  experience  by  occupation. — Certain  occupations  require 
continuity  of  performance  and  seldom  are  connected  with  seasonal 
activities.  Women  employed  in  these  occupations  are  therefore 
usually  full-time  year-round  workers.  For  example,  in  1967  at 
least  half  of  the  women  employed  in  four  major  occupation 
groups — nonfarm  managers,  officials,  and  proprietors  (64  per- 
cent), craftsmen  (54  percent),  and  clerical  workers  and  profes- 
sional workers  (both  51  percent) — were  on  the  job  50  to  52  weeks 
for  35  hours  a  week  or  more  (table  27) . 

Other  jobs  provide  employment  opportunities  for  part-time 
work  at  peak  periods  during  the  day  or  certain  days  during  the 
week.  This  is  typical  of  farm  work,  private  household  work,  and 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


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62  WOMEN    AS    WORKERS 

sales  work.  For  example,  in  1967  at  least  half  of  the  women  with 
work  experience  in  four  major  occupation  groups — private  house- 
hold workers,  farm  laborers  and  foremen,  farmers  and  farm 
managers,  and  sales  workers — worked  less  than  35  hours  a  week. 
In  fact,  among  private  household  workers  and  farm  laborers  and 
foremen,  almost  two-thirds  worked  part  time. 

Information  on  part-year  or  part-time  employment  of  women 
by  detailed  occupations  is  available  only  from  the  decennial  cen- 
sus.^^  Even  though  the  data  collected  concerning  work  experience 
in  1959  are  not  current,  they  provide  some  indication  of  the  de- 
tailed occupations  in  which  part-time  or  part-year  employment 
frequently  occurs. 

The  decennial  data  show  that  some  occupations  are  typically 
both  part  year  and  part  time.  For  example,  women  giving  dancing 
and  music  lessons  or  teaching  in  special  schools  such  as  kindergar- 
tens, nursery  schools,  adult  education  centers,  and  driver-training 
schools,  often  work  only  a  few  hours  a  day  or  in  the  evening  and 
usually  work  only  part  of  the  year.  Moreover,  women  working  as 
demonstrators  and  door-to-door  salesmen  usually  work  less  than 
a  full  week  and  often  work  seasonally. 

In  other  occupations  part-year  work  is  prevalent.  Two-thirds 
or  more  of  the  women  working  in  1959  as  elementary  and  second- 
ary school  teachers ;  operatives  in  canning  and  preserving  of 
fruits,  vegetables,  and  seafood;  counter  and  fountain  workers; 
and  waitresses,  among  others,  were  employed  less  than  50  weeks  a 
year.  Most  schools  operate  on  a  9-month  schedule,  and  canneries 
and  packing  plants  employ  most  of  their  operatives  only  for  the 
harvesting  season.  Moreover,  work  in  eating  and  drinking  places 
and  in  hotels  and  motels  is  often  seasonal. 

Finally,  there  are  some  detailed  occupations  in  which  women 
usually  work  less  than  35  hours  a  week.  These  include  attendant 
and  assistant  in  libraries,  babysitter,  laundress,  and  charwoman 
and  cleaner.  More  than  half  of  all  attendants  and  assistants  in  li- 
braries worked  less  than  35  hours  a  week  in  1959.  Women  in  this 
occupation  work  at  peak  periods — after  school  hours  and  in  the 
evening — or  as  replacements  for  full-time  workers  in  libraries 
open  6  days  a  week.  Two-thirds  of  the  babysitters  worked  less 
than  35  hours  a  week  in  1959,  and  half  worked  less  than  15  hours 
a  week.  Much  of  the  work  done  by  charwomen  and  cleaners  is  per- 
formed after  office  hours  and  does  not  require  an  8-hour  day. 

Work   experience   of  white   and  noyiwhite   women. — A   larger 


"  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,    Bureau  of  the  Census :    "U.S.   Census  of   Population :    1960. 
Occupational   Characteristics,   PC (2) — 7 A." 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  63 

proportion  of  nonwhite  than  of  white  women  seek  and  hold  jobs. 
In  1967,  59  and  50  percent,  respectively,  had  work  experience 
(table  28).  In  addition,  nonwhite  women  are  more  likely  to  work 
part  year.  To  some  extent  this  is  due  to  the  difficulty  they  experi- 
ence in  finding  full-time  year-round  work.  Of  the  women  who 
worked  in  1967,  32  percent  of  nonwhite  women  worked  at  full- 
time  jobs  on  part-year  schedules  compared  with  28  percent  of 
white  women.  Conversely,  relatively  more  white  women  than  non- 
white  women  were  on  the  job  full  time  the  year  round  (42  and  40 
percent,  respectively). 

There  were  also  variations  in  the  work  experience  of  white  and 
nonwhite  women  workers  by  age  group.  Among  women  25  years 
of  age  and  over,  relatively  more  nonwhite  women  than  white 
women  worked  at  some  time  in  1967.  The  proportions  were  fairly 
similar  among  women  20  to  24  years  of  age,  but  among  teenagers 
relatively  fewer  nonwhite  than  white  girls  had  some  work  experi- 
ence. In  every  age  group  except  those  25  through  44  years,  a  larger 
proportion  of  white  women  than  nonwhite  women  were  full-time 
year-round  workers.  Relatively  more  nonwhite  women  than  white 
women  held  part-time  jobs  in  the  group  45  years  of  age  and  over. 

35.    Employed  Women  by  Part-Time  and  Full-Time  Sfafus 

The  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  publishes  another  series  of  fig- 
ures (both  monthly  and  annual  averages)  on  part-time  and  full- 
time  employment  of  women  and  men  based  on  the  current  house- 
hold survey.  These  figures  differ  from  those  shown  under  work  ex- 
perience, since  they  relate  solely  to  nonagricultural  employment. 
Moreover,  only  persons  working  on  part-time  and  full-time  sched- 
ules at  the  time  of  the  monthly  survey  are  counted.  Persons  who 
worked  less  than  35  hours  a  week  because  of  bad  weather,  in- 
dustrial dispute,  vacation,  illness,  holiday,  or  other  noneconomic 
reasons  are  included  with  those  on  full-time  schedules  who 
worked  35  hours  or  more  a  week.  Persons  on  part-time  schedules 
are  primarily  those  who  worked  part  time  for  economic  reasons 
(slack  work,  material  shortages,  repairs  to  plant  or  equipment, 
start  or  termination  of  job  during  the  week,  and  inability  to 
find  full-time  work)  and  those  who  usually  work  part  time  for 
other  reasons  (also  called  voluntary  part  time). 

Seventy-four  percent  of  the  25,412,000  women  employed  in  non- 
agricultural  industries  in  1968  were  on  full-time  schedules  (table 
29).  About  23  percent  were  employed  part  time  by  choice,  and  the 
remainder  worked  part  time  involuntarily.  In  contrast,  92  percent 


64 


WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


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66  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

of  the  men  were  on  full-time  schedules,  and  only  6  percent 
worked  part  time  voluntarily. 

Part-time  and  full-time  employment  by  selected  characteris- 
tics.— Full-time  employment  is  characteristic  of  most  women  18 
to  64  years  of  age.  In  1968  about  77  percent  of  all  women  in  this 
broad  age  group  were  on  full-time  schedules.  Full-time  work  was 
most  prevalent  (82  percent)  among  women  20  to  24  years  of  age. 
On  the  other  hand,  girls  under  18  years  of  age  and  women  65 
years  of  age  and  over  are  the  most  likely  to  seek  part-time  work 
— 74  percent  of  girls  under  18  years  of  age  and  46  percent  of 
women  65  years  of  age  and  over  worked  part  time  by  choice  in 
1968. 

Women  who  are  widowed,  divorced,  or  separated  from  their 
husbands  are  the  most  likely  to  work  full  time — 79  percent  were 
on  full-time  schedules  in  1968,  and  only  16  percent  worked  part 
time  voluntarily.  On  the  other  hand,  24  percent  of  the  single 
women  worked  part  time  by  choice.  It  must  be  remembered,  how- 
ever, that  this  group  includes  most  of  the  more  than  662,000  girls 
under  18  years  of  age  who  worked  part  time  voluntarily. 

About  the  same  proportion  of  nonwhite  and  white  women 
worked  on  full-time  schedules  in  1968 — 73  percent  compared  with 
74  percent.  However,  7  percent  of  the  nonwhite  women  and  only  3 
percent  of  the  white  women  worked  part  time  for  economic  rea- 
sons. As  a  result,  the  proportion  of  white  women  who  worked 
part  time  by  choice  (23  percent)  was  slightly  higher  than  the 
proportion  of  nonwhite  women  (19  percent). 

Interest  among  jobseekers  in  full-  or  part-time  work. — Women 
and  teenagers  are  more  inclined  to  seek  part-time  work  than  are 
men  20  years  of  age  and  over.  Of  the  1,397,000  women  looking  for 
work  in  1968,  27  percent  sought  part-time  jobs  (table  30).  The 
percentage  looking  for  part-time  work  was  almost  twice  as  high 
for  girls  16  to  21  years  of  age  (34  percent)  as  for  women  22  to  24 
years  of  age  (18  percent).  But  the  proportion  of  unemployed 
looking  for  part-time  work  was  highest  among  teenage  boys  (47 
percent) .  This  was  in  contrast  to  only  10  percent  among  men  20 
years  of  age  and  over. 

Eighty-six  percent  of  all  girls  16  to  21  years  of  age  who  were 
both  attending  school  and  looking  for  work  in  1968  looked  for 
part-time  jobs.  Many  unemployed  women  55  years  of  age  and  over 
also  preferred  part-time  work  (32  percent).  On  the  other  hand, 
only  22  percent  of  unemployed  women  25  to  54  years  of  age 
sought  part-time  work. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  67 

Table  30. — Unemployed  Persons  Looking  for  Full-  or  Part-Time  Work, 

BY  Age,  1968 ' 

(Persons  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Looking  for 
Looking  for  Looking  for  part-time  work 

full-time  work  part-time  work        as  a  percent  of 

unemployed 

Age  Number         Percent  Number     Percent     in  each  group 

UNEMPLOYED   PERSONS 

Total     2,138,000     100.0         679,000     100.0  24.1 

Men     1,124,000       52.6         296,000       43.6  20.8 

Women    1,014,000       47.4         383,000       56.4  27.4 

UNEMPLOYED   WOMEN,   BY   AGE 

Total 1,014,000     100.0         383,000     100.0  27.4 

16  to  21  years  379,000  37.4  193,000  50.4  33.7 

Major  activities: 

Attending  school  19,000  1.9  121,000  31.6  86.4 

All  other 360,000  35.5  72,000  18.8  16.7 

22  to  24  years   102,000  10.1  22,000  5.7  17.7 

25  to  54  years 455,000  44.9  132,000  34.5  22.5 

55  years  and  over 78,000  7.7  36,000  9.4  31.6 

1  Annual  average. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Employment  and  Earn- 
ings, January  1969. 

Another  measure  of  unemployment  in  relation  to  part-time  and 
full-time  work  comes  from  data"  relating  to  the  part-time  and 
the  full-time  labor  force.  These  data  show  that  unemployment  is 
generally  higher  among  part-time  workers  than  among  full-time 
workers. 

The  unemployment  rate  for  adult  women  (20  years  of  age  and 
over)  working  part  time  in  1968  was  4  percent.  The  unemploy- 
ment rate  among  adult  men  on  part-time  jobs  was  even  higher — 
4.9  percent.  On  the  other  hand,  adult  men  who  were  full-time 
workers  had  a  much  lower  unemployment  rate  (2  percent)  than 
did  adult  women  on  full-time  jobs  (3.7  percent).  Unlike  other 
workers,  teenagers  who  were  part-time  workers  had  a  lower  un- 
employment rate  (12.3  percent)  than  those  who  worked  full  time 
(13  percent). 

36.    Unemployed  Women 

Unemployed  women — those  in  the  labor  force  but  not  able  to 
find  work — averaged  1.4  million  in  1968.  The  unemployment  rate 
for  women  16  years  of  age  and  over  was  4.8  percent.  This  was 


"  U.S.    Department    of    Labor,    Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics :    Employment    and    Earnings, 
January  1969. 


68  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

substantially  higher  than  the  2.9  percent  unemployment  rate 
among  men.  Women  not  only  have  a  higher  unemployment  rate 
than  men,  but  the  gap  has  been  widening  in  recent  years. 

One  of  the  reasons  for  women's  continued  high  unemployment 
rate  is  that  they  move  in  and  out  of  the  labor  force  more  fre- 
quently than  men  do.  A  recently  instituted  analysis  of  reasons 
why  unemployed  persons  are  looking  for  work  showed  that  in 
1968  the  percentage  of  unemployed  women  20  years  of  age  and 
over  who  were  labor  force  reentrants  (43  percent)  was  double 
that  of  men  (21  percent)  (table  31).  On  the  other  hand,  only  35 
percent  of  the  unemployed  women  but  60  percent  of  the  unem- 
ployed men  had  lost  their  last  jobs  involuntarily. 

Table  31. — Percent  Distribution  of  the  Unemployed  and  Unemployment 
Rates,  by  Sex  and  Reason  for  Unemployment,  1968 ' 

(Persons  20  years  of  age  and  over) 
Reason  for  unemployment  Women  Men 

PERCENT  distribution 

Total  unemployed: 

Number    985,000  993,000 

Percent     100.0  100.0 

Lost  last  job 34.7  60.4 

Left  last  job 17.0  16.8 

Reentered  labor  force   j'_. .:.  42.9  20.7 

Never  worked  before 5.6  2.2 

UNEMPLOYMENT  RATE 

Total  unemployment  rate  3.8  2.2 

Job-loser  rate 1.3  1.3 

Job-leaver  rate .    .6  .4 

Reentrant  rate 1.6  .4 

New  entrant  rate  .2  (*) 

*  Annual  average. 

'  Not  reported  where  base  is  less  than  60,000. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:   Employment  and  Earnings, 
January  1969. 

Unemployment  associated  with  reentry  into  the  labor  force  is 
much  less  responsive  to  improved  economic  conditions  than  unem- 
ployment due  to  job  loss.  Between  June  1964  and  December  1968, 
the  unemployment  rates  of  women  20  years  of  age  and  over  de- 
clined quite  sharply — from  2.2  to  1.1  percent — for  job  losers,  but 
only  slightly — ^from  1.6  to  1.3  percent — for  women  reentrants." 

**  U.S.   Department  of  Labor,   Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :   Special   Labor   Force   Report  No. 
78  and  Employment  and  Earnings,  January  1969. 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  69 

During  the  same  period,  unemployment  among  men  20  years  of 
age  and  over  also  dropped  markedly — from  2.3  to  1.1  percent — 
for  job  losers,  but  only  slightly — from  0.6  to  0.5  percent — for  the 
reentrants. 

Because  many  more  women  than  men  seek  reentry  into  the 
labor  force,  women's  total  rate  of  unemployment  declined  less 
(from  5.2  to  3  percent)  than  men's  (from  3.6  to  1.9  percent)  over 
the  4-year  period. 

The  higher  unemployment  rate  among  women  is  also  the  result 
of  the  more  restrictive  hiring  practices  that  affect  women, 
whether  they  are  low-skilled  workers  with  only  limited  education 
or  highly  skilled  professionals  with  much  education.  Unemploy- 
ment is  a  problem  for  women  in  almost  all  occupations  and  at  all 
ages,  but  for  some  groups  it  is  a  far  more  serious  problem  than  it 
is  for  others.  For  girls  and  women  who  are  members  of  families 
living  in  poverty  or  for  those  who  must  support  themselves  and 
ethers,  unemployment  is  as  tragic  as  it  is  for  male  heads  of  fam- 
ilies. 

Trends  in  unemployment  rates. — Beginning  with  1948,  women's 
unemployment  rates  generally  have  been  higher  than  those  of  men, 
except  in  1958  when  both  sexes  had  the  same  rate — a  high  of  6.8 
percent,  reflecting  the  1957-58  recession  (table  32).  During  the 
next  recession  in  1961,  the  unemployment  rate  of  men  reached 
6.4  percent,  which  was  slightly  below  the  1958  rate.  In  contrast, 
women's  unemployment  rate  rose  to  7.2  percent  in  1958.  From 
then  on,  almost  continuously  unemployment  has  declined  less  for 
women  than  for  men.  As  a  result,  the  greatest  gaps  between  men's 
and  women's  unemployment  rates  during  the  1947-68  period  oc- 
curred in  the  most  recent  years:  2.1  percentage  points  in  1967 
and  1.9  percentage  points  in  1968. 

Unemployment  by  marital  status. — From  the  standpoint  of 
marital  status,  the  highest  rate  of  unemployment  exists  among 
single  women.  More  than  one-third  of  the  single  women  workers 
are  teenagers,  and  many  are  entering  the  labor  force  for  the  first 
time.  In  March  1967,  the  date  of  the  latest  labor  force  survey  by 
marital  status,-'^  5.9  percent  of  the  single  women  workers  were 
unemployed.  The  rates  were  4.5  percent  for  married  women  (hus- 
band present)  and  4.4  percent  for  the  group  of  widowed,  di- 
vorced, or  separated  women. 

Unemployment  by  family  status. — The  unemployment  rate 
was  4.6  percent  in  March  1967  among  the  women  in  the  labor 


25  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:   Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  94. 


70  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

force  who  were  heads  of  families.^''  This  was  slightly  higher  than 
the  rate  for  wives  (4.5  percent)  and  considerably  higher  than  for 
men  family  heads  (2.1  percent).  Since  only  about  a  third  of  the 
women  family  heads  who  were  unemployed  had  another  family 
earner,  their  joblessness  could  be  expected  to  cause  real  hardship 
for  their  families. 

Table  32. — Unemployment  Rates  of  Women  and  Men,  1947-68 ' 

(Persons  16  years  of  age  and  over) 
Year  Women  Men 

1968  4.8  2.9 

1967  5.2  3.1 

1966  4.8  3.2 

1965  5.5  4.0 

1964  6.2  4.6 

1963  6.5  5.2 

1962  6.2  5.2 

1961  7.2  6.4 

I960  5.9  5.4 

1959  5.9  5.3 

1958  6.8  6.8 

1957  4.7  4.1 

1956  4.8  3.8 

1955 4.9  4.2 

1954  6.0  5.3 

1953  3.3  2.8 

1952  __-- 3.6  2.8 

1951  4.4  2.8 

1950  5.7  5.1 

1949  6.0  5.9 

1948  4.1  3.6 

1947 3.7  4.0 

*  Annual  averages. 

Note. — Data  for  years  prior  to  1960  are  not  strictly  comparable  with  later  data,  since  they 
exclude  Alaska  and  Hawaii  and  because  of  the  introduction  of  decennial  censuses  into  the 
estimating  procedure  in  1953  and  1962. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Employment  and  Earnings, 
January  1969. 

Unemployment  by  age. — By  age  group  the  highest  unemploy- 
ment rate  for  women  in  1968  occurred  among  those  16  to  19  years 
old  (chart  L).  The  rates  then  progressively  declined  for  each  age 
group,  with  the  lowest  rate  prevailing  for  women  55  to  64  years 
of  age  (table  33).  Although  teenagers'  unemployment  was  the 
highest,  it  was  generally  of  short  duration.  Few  girls  were  unem- 
ployed longer  than  4  weeks,  but  some  might  have  had  several  pe- 

^  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  "Unemployment  in  the  American 
Family."  In  Monthly  Labor  Review,  October  1968. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  71 


riods  of  unemployment  in  the  year.  Older  women's  unemploy- 
ment, in  contrast,  was  of  longer  duration;  and  the  older  the 
.women  were,  the  longer  they  had  to  search  for  a  job. 


a*t  I 


UNEMPLOYMENT  IS  HIGHEST  AMONG  YOUNGER  WOMEN 

(Unemployment  Rates  of  Women,  by  Age,  1947-68^) 


vmm?mamv^ 


16  to  19  Years 


-— ''  ^^^V-'/^^  '^  ~  ^,  „! 


65  Years  and  Over 
"  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I  I 

1947  1950      1952      1954      1956       1958      1960      1962       1964      1966      1968 


'  Annual  averages. 


Source    U  S    Department  ot  Labor.  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


Table  33. — Unemployment  Rates  of  Women  and  Men,  by  Age,  1968  ^ 

(Persons  16  years  of  age  and  over) 


Age 


Women 


Men 


Total  

16  to  19  years  

16  and  17  years 
18  and  19  years  _ 

20  to  24  years  

25  to  34  years 

35  to  44  years  

45  to  54  years  

55  to  64  years  

65  years  and  over 


4.8 

14.0 

15.9 

12.9 

6.7 

4.7 

3.4 

2.4 

2.2 

2.7 


2.9 
11.6 
13.9 
9.7 
5.1 
1.9 
1.6 
1.6 
1.9 
2.9 


*  Annual  average. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:   Employment  and  Earnings, 
January   1969. 

In  the  youngest  age  group — 16  and  17  years  old — 179,000  girls 
on  the  average  were  looking  for  jobs  in  1968.  This  was  an  unem- 


72  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

ployment  rate  of  15.9  percent  compared  with  13.9  percent  for 
boys  of  the  same  age. 

Most  of  these  young  girls  were  seeking  their  first  job,  usually  a 
part-time  job  to  fit  in  with  school  attendance.  In  1968  only  about 
32  percent  of  girls  of  this  age  had  jobs,  and  many  of  these  girls 
were  babysitters.  Whether  school  dropouts  or  not,  their  limited 
schooling  and  their  lack  of  skills  and  experience  made  it  difficult 
for  them  to  find  regular  employment. 

This  problem  is  almost  as  great  for  18-  and  19-year-old  girls, 
although  their  educational  and  skill  level  is  higher.  Girls  in  this 
age  group  have  the  second  highest  unemployment  rate  among 
women  of  all  ages — 12.9  percent  in  1968,  when  233,000  of  these 
girls  were  looking  for  jobs.  (The  unemployment  rate  for  boys  in 
this  age  group  was  9,7  percent.)  There  were  significant  differ- 
ences, however,  in  the  percentages  in  the  labor  force  among  the 
16-  and  17-year-old  girls  and  among  those  aged  18  and  19  years. 
Because  school  attendance  laws  keep  many  of  the  16-  and  17- 
year-old  girls  out  of  the  labor  force,  their  labor  force  participation 
rate  was  not  more  than  31.7  percent  in  1968.  On  the  other  hand, 
girls  18  and  19  years  old  had  a  labor  force  participation  rate  of 
about  52.4  percent. 

The  unemployment  rate  of  young  women  in  the  20-  to  24-year- 
old  group  was  6.7  percent  in  1968,  when  285,000  of  them  were  un- 
employed. This  compares  with  5.1  percent  for  young  men  these 
ages.  In  the  last  6  years  unemployment  rates  have  been  higher 
for  women  than  for  men  in  this  age  group.  In  every  year  from 
1947  to  1961  (except  for  1951),  women  in  their  early  twenties 
had  relatively  less  unemployment  than  young  men  had. 

During  the  past  two  decades  unemployment  rates  have  been 
consistently  higher  for  women  than  for  men  in  the  25-  to  44-year 
age  bracket.  However,  at  ages  45  to  54,  when  women's  participa- 
tion in  the  labor  force  has  become  increasingly  high,  their  unem- 
ployment rates  were  not  much  higher  than  men's  until  1963, 
when  relatively  many  more  women  than  men  were  unable  to  locate 
a  job.  Women  55  years  of  age  and  older  have  about  the  same  unem- 
ployment rates  as  men  in  this  age  group. 

Special  unemployment  problems  of  teenagers. — Among  the 
572,000  girls  16  to  21  years  old  who  were  unemployed  in  1968,  1 
out  of  3  was  looking  for  part-time  work  (table  30).  This  was  a 
greater  proportion  than  the  more  than  1  out  of  4  of  all  unem- 
ployed women  16  years  of  age  and  over  and  1  out  of  5  of  all  un- 
employed men  who  were  seeking  part-time  employment  in  that 
year.  Teenage  girls,  of  course,  seek  part-time  work  mainly  to  fit 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  73 

in  with  school  attendance.  The  unemployed  girls  in  this  age  group 
who  were  looking  for  part-time  work  constituted  almost  9  out  of 
10  among  the  students  as  compared  with  1  out  of  6  among  those 
not  attending  school. 

Teenage  girls  may  encounter  difficulties  when  looking  not  only 
for  part-time  jobs  but  also  for  their  first  steady  jobs,  which  in 
some  instances  may  prove  to  be  more  transitory  than  steady. 
Thus  data  for  1968  show  that  among  16-  to  19-year-old  unem- 
ployed youth,  39  percent  had  never  worked  before.-^  Among  those 
who  had  worked,  about  1  out  of  4  had  lost  their  jobs  through  cir- 
cumstances beyond  their  control,  such  as  slack  work,  no  more 
work  available,  or  the  firm  had  moved  or  gone  out  of  business.  In 
this  group  of  former  workers,  less  than  1  out  of  5  had  left  their 
jobs  voluntarily,  and  more  than  1  out  of  2  were  reentering  the 
labor  force,  probably  after  a  period  of  school  attendance. 

"Hidden"  unemployment  and  "underemployment" . — In  addition 
to  reported  unemployment,  there  is  also  concealed  unemployment 
in  all  age  groups,  but  especially  among  older  workers.  Those  no 
longer  seeking  work  are  considered  outside  the  labor  force  statis- 
tically and  not  counted  among  the  unemployed.  Since  no  account  is 
taken  of  the  many  who  have  given  up  jobhunting  because  it  seemed 
hopeless,  unemployment  rates  of  older  women  especially  may  be 
deceptively  low.  Of  the  263,000  women  45  years  of  age  and  over 
who  were  reported  to  be  unemployed  in  1968,  about  8  percent  had 
been  looking  for  work  for  6  months  or  longer.  Many  more  thous- 
ands may  have  given  up  looking. 

The  "hidden"  unemployed  among  women  are  probably  the  least 
employable  in  terms  of  education,  skills,  industry  attachment,  or 
job  vacancies  in  their  communities.  Yet  unemployment  could  bear 
particularly  hard  on  them.  And  it  must  be  remembered  that  in 
many  rural  and  generally  depressed  areas  of  this  country,  job  op- 
portunities may  not  exist. 

There  are  still  other  women  who  have  jobs  but  do  not  work  as 
many  hours  or  weeks  as  they  would  like.  They  are  the  "underem- 
ployed"— those  who  work  part  time  or  part  year,  but  would  pre- 
fer full-time  year-round  steady  jobs  if  they  could  find  them. 
These,  too,  arc  disadvantaged  in  terms  of  employment. 

UnemployTnent  of  white  and  nonwhite  women  and  girls. — Both 
white  and  nonwhite  women  generally  have  higher  unemployment 
than  their  male  counterparts  (chart  M).  In  1961,  however,  non- 
white  men  workers  had  the  highest  unemployment  rate  (12.8  per- 


^' U.S.     Department    of     Labor,     Bureau    of     Labor     Statistics;     Employment    and     Earnings, 
January   1969. 


74  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 


Ckarl  M 


UNEMPLOYMENT  OF  NONWHITE  WORKERS  CONTINUES  TO  BE  HIGH 

(  Unemployment  Rates  of  Workers,  by  Color  and  Sex,  1961  and  1968^) 


D 


11.8 


White 
ilNonwhite 


10  — 


5  — 


6.5 


0 


4.3 

8.3 

1 
5.7 

2.8 

5.6 


2.6 


1961  1968 

Women 


1961 


Men 


1968 


Annual  averages. 
Source:  U  S    Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


cent)  ;  by  1968  their  rate  was  down  to  5.6  percent.  But  the  im- 
proved employment  situation  affected  nonwhite  women  workers 
less  favorably.  Their  unemployment  rate  dropped  less  sharply — 
from  11.8  percent  to  8.3  percent — during  the  7-year  period. 

Compared  with  the  unemployment  rates  of  white  women,  those 
of  nonwhite  women  present  special  aspects  of  severity  and  hard- 
ship (table  34).  Not  only  are  the  unemployment  rates  of  non- 
white  teenage  girls  and  women  considerably  higher  than  those  of 
white  at  each  age  group  (except  women  65  years  and  over  in 
1968),  but  also  unemployment  is  typically  of  longer  duration. 
While  the  labor  force  participation  rate  of  nonwhite  teenage  girls 
(35  percent)  in  1968  was  lower  than  that  of  white  girls  (43  per- 
cent), their  unemployment  rate  was  more  than  twice  that  of 
white  girls — 28.8  percent  of  nonwhite  girls  16  to  19  years  old 
were  looking  for  work  compared  with  12.1  percent  of  white  girls. 
The  difference  was  even  larger  in  the  age  group  16  and  17  years 
old — 33.7  percent  of  nonwhite  girls  and  13.9  percent  of  white 
girls  were  unemployed. 

Nonwhite  girls  in  the  age  group  16  to  21  years  who  dropped 
out  before  completing  high  school  constituted  41  percent  of  those 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


75 


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76  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

not  enrolled  in  college  in  October  1967. ^^  Those  who  drop  out  gen- 
erally experience  severe  unemployment.  Their  unemployment  rate 
in  October  1967  was  30.1  percent.  This  is  understandable  because 
high  school  dropouts  are  least  qualified  for  the  jobs  of  today's 
complex  society.  It  is  to  be  expected,  therefore,  that  nonwhite 
girls  who  were  high  school  graduates  had  a  relatively  lower  un- 
employment rate — 21.6  percent.  However,  their  unemployment 
was  still  far  above  average  for  all  women  (5.6  percent)  for  that 
month,  assumedly  because  many  had  difficulty  in  obtaining  the 
white-collar  and  other  jobs  to  which  they  aspire  and  for  which 
they  may  have  been  trained  in  high  school.  (Unemployment  rates 
by  educational  attainment  are  discussed  in  chapter  4.) 

37.    Labor  Turnover  and  Absenteeism 

Labor  turnover. — Labor  turnover  rates  are  influenced  more 
by  the  skill  level  of  the  job,  the  age  of  the  worker,  the  worker's 
record  of  job  stability,  and  the  worker's  length  of  service  with 
the  employer  than  by  the  sex  of  the  worker. ^^  Comparisons  of  the 
absenteeism  and  labor  turnover  rates  of  men  and  women,  there- 
fore, need  to  be  related  to  those  in  comparable  jobs  and  circum- 
stances if  they  are  to  be  truly  meaningful. 

Of  course,  the  worklife  pattern  of  women — with  many  working 
for  a  few  years  after  finishing  school,  leaving  the  labor  force  for 
marriage  and  childrearing,  and  returning  to  the  labor  force  after 
their  children  are  grown  or  reach  school  age — does  increase  the 
labor  turnover  rates  for  women.  However,  it  is  also  true  that 
men's  rates  are  raised  by  their  tendency  to  move  from  one  job  to 
another  somewhat  more  often  than  women. ^" 

Because  comparative  turnover  rates  of  men  and  women  are 
difficult  to  obtain,  available  statistics  which  combine  data  for 
different  groups  of  workers  have  some  value — as  long  as  their 
limitations  are  recognized. 

An  analysis  of  labor  turnover  rates  for  factory  workers  during 
1968  revealed  an  average  quit  rate  of  26  per  1,000  women  em- 
ployees as  against  22  per  1,000  men  employees.  These  data  are  of 
special  interest  not  only  because  the  rate  was  just  slightly  higher 
for  women  than  men  but  also  because  comparison  of  these  results 
with  those  of  an  earlier  study  showed  that  factory  women  had 


^*  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  100. 
^  U.S.   Department  of   Labor,  Wape  and   Labor   Standards   Administration,   Women's   Bureau  : 
"Pacts  About  Women's  Absenteeism  and  Labor  Turnover."  August  1969. 

^"  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  35. 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  77 

become  less  inclined  to  quit  their  jobs  than  they  formerly  were.^^ 
This  is  probably  because  the  proportion  of  older  women  workers 
has  increased  and  women  are  more  interested  in  continuous  em- 
ployment. 

A  U.S.  Civil  Service  Commission  study  of  relative  voluntary 
separation  (turnover)  rates  of  w^omen  and  men  full-time  career 
employees  in  the  Federal  Government  during  the  period  Decem- 
ber 16,  1962,  to  February  2,  1963,  showed  that  on  an  overall  basis 
the  separation  rate  for  w^omen  v^as  about  2i/^  times  greater  than 
that  for  men.^-  The  higher  rate  for  women  is  explained  in  part  by 
the  many  women  in  the  Federal  civil  service  who  (1)  are  under 
25  years  of  age,  (2)  are  in  lower  grade  clerical  jobs  (particularly 
in  the  occupations  of  stenographer  and  typist,  which  have  the 
highest  turnover  rates),  and  (3)  have  few  years  of  Federal  serv- 
ice. These  groups  have  higher  turnover  rates  than  others  re- 
gardless of  sex.  When  the  data  for  women  and  men  are  compared 
by  age  group,  by  broad  occupation  group,  and  by  length  of  serv- 
ice, the  differences  in  their  relative  turnover  rates  decrease. 

A  study  of  occupational  mobility  of  individuals  18  years  of  age 
and  over  showed  that  in  1966  men  changed  occupations  more  fre- 
quently than  women. ^^  Ten  percent  of  the  men  but  only  7  percent 
of  the  women  employed  in  January  1966  were  working  in  an  oc- 
cupation different  from  the  one  they  had  held  in  January  1965. 
(This  study  may  understate  the  mobility  of  the  labor  force,  and 
especially  of  women,  since  it  excluded  those  who  left  their  jobs 
and  were  not  employed  in  January  1966.) 

Although  occupation-changing  was  highest  among  young 
workers  regardless  of  sex,  the  turnover  rate  was  somewhat  less 
for  girls  than  for  boys.  Almost  1  out  of  3  boys  18  and  19  years  of 
age  and  more  than  1  out  of  4  young  men  20  to  24  years  of  age 
who  worked  in  January  1966  changed  occupations  at  least  once 
during  the  previous  year.  More  than  1  out  of  4  girls  18  and  19 
years  old  and  about  1  out  of  7  young  women  20  to  24  years  of  age 
changed  occupations  during  the  year.  Many  such  young  people 
shop  for  jobs  as  they  start  their  work  careers.  Others  are  laid  off 
because  they  lack  the  skills  to  command  steady  jobs  or  the  senior- 
ity to  protect  them  against  involuntary  separation. 

Among  women,  occupational  mobility  rates  varied  little  with 


"U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  "Labor  Turnover  of  Women 
Factory    Workers,    1950-55."    In    Monthly    Labor    Review,    August    1955. 

.12  President's  Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women :  Report  of  the  Committee  on  Federal 
Employment,   Appendix   F.    October    1963. 

"  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.    84. 


78  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

marital  status  or  color.  However,  women's  occupation-changing 
had  an  inverse  relationship  with  their  length  of  time  on  the  job. 
Of  those  with  1  year  or  less  of  service,  36  percent  made  an  occu- 
pational change;  of  those  w^ith  over  10  years'  service,  less  than  1 
percent  made  a  change.  By  educational  level,  occupational 
changes  occurred  least  frequently  among  women  who  had  grad- 
uated from  college  and  those  who  had  8  years  of  schooling  or  less. 
The  former  group  presumably  remained  in  the  occupation  for 
which  they  had  trained ;  the  latter  group  probably  included  many 
older  women,  who  often  found  it  difficult  to  locate  new  jobs. 

By  major  occupation  group  the  1965  rate  of  job-changing  for 
women  was  highest  among  craftsmen,  foremen,  and  kindred 
workers — a  category  which  includes  relatively  few  women.  The 
next  highest  rates  for  women  were  among  clerical  workers,  sales 
workers,  and  service  workers  (except  private  household).  These 
three  groups  cover  almost  three-fifths  of  all  employed  women. 
Among  men  occupation-changing  was  most  frequent  for  nonfarm 
laborers,  followed  in  descending  order  by  clerical  workers,  opera- 
tives, service  workers,  and  craftsmen  and  foremen.  Among  pro- 
fessional and  technical  workers  the  occupation-changing  rate  was 
low  for  both  women  and  men  workers.  Only  3  percent  of  the 
women  and  6  percent  of  the  men  reported  a  profession  different 
from  the  one  held  a  year  earlier. 

Another  measure  of  job  stability  is  job  tenure.  A  special  study, 
exploring  the  length  of  time  that  workers  had  been  employed  con- 
tinuously on  the  job  each  held  in  January  1966,  showed  that  on  the 
average  women  had  spent  2.8  years  on  the  current  job  as  com- 
pared with  5.2  years  for  men.^*  Job  tenure  increased  with  age,  but 
somewhat  less  for  women  than  for  men.  In  general,  both  women 
and  men  workers  under  25  years  of  age  had  averaged  1  year  or 
less  on  the  current  job.  Among  workers  25  to  44  years  old,  women 
had  been  with  the  same  employer  about  3  years  on  the  average 
compared  with  5  years  for  men.  Among  those  45  years  old  and 
over,  the  average  job  tenure  for  women  was  about  7  years — still 
considerably  less  than  the  13  years  for  men. 

By  marital  status  it  was  found  that  single  women  had  about 
the  same  job  tenure  as  did  men  in  the  same  age  groups.  After 
about  age  45,  single  women  tend  to  stay  even  longer  with  the  same 
employer  than  men  do.  However,  relatively  few  women  remain 
single,  and  the  job  pattern  of  married  women  dominates  the  over- 
all employment  pattern  for  women.  The  average  tenure  in  Janu- 
ary 1966  for  married  women  (3.1  years)  was  twice  as  high  as  for 


"  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special   Labor  Force  Report  No.  77. 


WOMEN  IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  . 

single  women  (1.6  years).  The  difference  reflects  the  greater  pro- 
portion of  married  women  in  age  groups  (35  years  and  over)  with 
longer  job  tenure  and  the  overwhelming  percentage  of  single 
women  in  the  youngest  age  groups,  where  job  tenure  is  very  low. 
The  average  time  on  the  current  job  was  also  much  longer  for 
full-time  women  workers  (3.3  years)  than  for  part-time  women 
workers  (1.7  years). 

The  average  job  tenure  was  exactly  the  same  for  nonwhite  and 
white  women.  Also  about  the  same  proportion  (20  percent)  of 
nonwhite  and  of  white  women  had  held  their  current  job  for  10 
years  or  more.  A  greater  proportion  of  nonwhite  women  than 
white  women  are  in  service  occupations  where  work  is  less  steady 
than  in  the  clerical  occupations  where  white  women  are  concen- 
trated. This  might  be  expected  to  result  in  a  shorter  average  job 
tenure  for  nonwhite  women,  but  this  factor  is  offset  by  the  more 
continuous  association  of  nonwhite  women  with  the  labor  force 
because  of  economic  need,  as  reflected  in  their  higher  labor  force 
participation  rates. 

A  comparison  of  job  tenure  in  January  1966  by  major  industry 
group  showed  that  women  workers  in  communications  and  public 
utilities  had  been  with  the  same  employer  the  longest  on  the  aver- 
age (4.6  years).  The  shortest  average  job  tenure  for  women 
(about  2  years)  was  among  those  employed  in  wholesale  and  re- 
tail trade.  Women  factory  workers  had  an  average  of  3.8  years  of 
continuous  job  attachment.  Among  them,  workers  in  the  textile 
mill  and  the  chemical  products  manufacturing  industries  had  the 
longest  average  job  tenures  (5.2  and  4.9  years,  respectively).  On 
the  other  hand,  women  employed  in  the  printing  and  publishing 
industry  had  one  of  the  shortest  average  job  tenures  for  women 
in  the  manufacturing  industries  (3  years). 

By  occupation  the  study  indicated  that  women  who  had  the 
greatest  job  stability  were  in  occupations  that  require  the  most 
training  or  experience  or  that  provide  the  least  opportunity  to 
make  a  move.  Among  the  latter,  for  example,  were  women  farm 
laborers  and  foremen,  who  had  the  next-to-highest  average  num- 
ber of  years  (11.6)  with  the  same  employer.  Many  were  unpaid 
workers  on  family  farms,  and  more  than  two-fifths  had  spent 
more  than  15  years  on  the  current  job.  The  total  number  was,  of 
course,  small.  Also,  characteristically,  they  were  an  older  group. 
Equally  small  was  the  number  of  women  farmers  and  farm  man- 
agers, although  they  had  the  longest  average  tenure  (21.6  years). 
Many  of  these  were,  of  course,  self-employed ;  and  they  were  also 
an  older  group.  Women  employed  as  managers,  officials,  and  pro- 


80  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

prietors,  another  older  group,  averaged  6.5  years  on  their  current 
job.  Women  craftsmen  had  spent  an  average  of  6.4  years  on  the 
job;  operatives  and  kindred  workers,  3.4  years. 

Professional  and  technical  workers,  of  whom  3  out  of  5  had 
spent  5  years  or  less  with  the  same  employer,  had  a  relatively  low 
average  job  tenure  of  3.5  years,  partly  because  they  were  a  some- 
what younger  group  and  partly  because  they  had  more  opportuni- 
ties for  job  changes.  Clerical  workers,  also  a  younger  group,  aver- 
aged 2.7  years  on  the  current  job;  service  workers,  including  pri- 
vate household  workers,  less  than  2  years.  Service  jobs  are  likely 
to  be  part  time  and  part  year  in  nature.  It  is  not  surprising, 
therefore,  that  more  than  7  out  of  10  women  in  private  household 
and  other  service  jobs  had  spent  5  years  or  less  on  the  current 
job. 

Absenteeism. — Like  labor  turnover,  absenteeism  is  an  important 
factor  in  determining  labor  costs.  On  the  average  women  lose 
more  workdays  because  of  acute  conditions  than  men  do,  but  the 
reverse  is  true  for  chronic  conditions  such  as  heart  trouble,  arth- 
ritis, rheumatism,  and  orthopedic  impairment.  According  to  a 
recent  study,  employed  persons  17  years  of  age  and  over  lost  an 
average  of  3.1  days  during  the  period  July  1966  to  June  1967 
because  of  acute  conditions  (3.3  for  women  and  3  for  men).^^ 

When  both  types  of  conditions  were  counted,  the  worktime  lost 
by  persons  17  years  of  age  and  over  because  of  illness  or  injury 
averaged  5.3  days  for  women  and  5.4  days  for  men  over  the  same 
period. 

38.    Multiple  Jobholders 

More  than  half  a  million  women  (576,000),  or  about  2  percent 
of  all  employed  women,  held  more  than  one  wage  or  salary  job  in 
May  1966  (table  35).  The  highest  incidence  of  "moonlighting" 
(2.9  percent)  was  in  age  groups  14  to  17  years  and  25  to  34 
years.  In  the  latter  age  group  men  also  show  the  highest  propor- 
tion of  multiple  jobholding.  These  are  typically  the  years  in 
which  financial  obligations  are  heavy.  Among  women  the  lowest 
proportions  of  multiple  jobholders  were  in  age  groups  20  to  24 
years  (1.5  percent)  and  18  and  19  years  (1.6  percent).  Women 
are  much  less  likely  to  hold  more  than  one  job  than  are  men. 
More  than  3  million  men,  or  6.4  percent,  were  multiple  jobholders 
in  May  1966. 


'"U.S.   Department  of   Health,    Education,    and    Welfare:    Vital    and    Health    Statistics,   Series 
10,    No.    43. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


81 


On  their  second  job  women  averaged  9  hours  a  week  compared 
with  14  hours  for  men.  On  the  primary  job  women  moonlighters 
were  mainly  clerical,  professional  and  technical,  or  service 
workers  (except  private  household).  Most  dual  jobholders 
worked  in  a  different  industry  or  occupation  on  their  secondary 
jobs. 

The  question  is  often  raised  whether  moonlighters  are  depriv- 
ing the  unemployed  of  job  opportunities.  The  May  1966  analysis 
indicates  that  this  is  not  so.  Comparatively  few  unemployed  per- 
sons could  or  would  take  the  secondary  jobs  held  by  dual  jobhold- 
ers. Most  of  these  jobs  are  part  time,  and  many  require  special 
qualifications  or  skills. 


Table  35. — Women  With  Two  or  More  Jobs,  by  Occupation  of  Primary 
AND  Secondary  Jobs,  May  1966 

(Women  14  years  of  age  and  over) 

Number  of  Percent  distribution 

women  As  percent  of    

Occupation                                               with  2  or  total  women  Primary     Secondary 

group  '                                                    more  jobs  employed  job  job 

All  occupations   576,000  2.2  100.0  100.0 

Professional,  technical,  kindred 

workers    123,000  3.5  21.4  18.4 

Medical,  other  health  workers  -__     18,000  2.1  bJ  2A 

Teachers  (except  college)   57,000  3.8  9.9  3.6 

Other  professional,  technical, 

kindred  workers    48,000  4.1  8.3  12.3 

Managers,  officials,  proprietors 

(except  farm)    24,000  2.1  4.2  7.3 

Clerical,  kindred  workers   171,000  2.1  29.7  22.2 

Sales  workers    30,000  1.7  5.2  10.2 

Retail  trade   21,000  1;3  3J6  8^ 

Other  sales  workers 9,000  3.8  1.6  1.9 

Craftsmen,  foremen,  kindred 

workers    11,000  4.7  1.9  .7 

Operatives,  kindred  workers   38,000  .9  6.6  2.8 

Nonfarm  laborers  4,000  3.1  .7             

Private  household  workers   23,000  1.1  4.0  12.3 

Service  workers  (except 

private    household)     111,000  2.7  19.3  19.6 

Waitresses,  cooks,  bartenders 47,000  3.3  8^  9^ 

Other  service  workers   _  _        . 64,000  2.4  11.1  10.4 

Farmers,  farm  managers   3,000  2.2  .5  4.3 

Farm  laborers,  foremen   38,000  6.2  6.6  2.1 

*  Occupation   of  primary  job. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:   Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  90. 


82  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

39.    Women  as  Members  of  Unions 

An  estimated  3,689,000  ^'^  women  were  members  of  national  and 
international  labor  unions  in  the  United  States  in  1966."  This 
was  an  increase  of  about  276,000  since  1964.  Almost  1  out  of  5 
union  members  in  1966  was  a  woman. 

About  1  out  of  7  women  in  the  Nation's  labor  force,  but  1  out  of 
4  men  workers,  belonged  to  a  union.  The  relatively  low  propor- 
tion of  women  who  are  union  members  reflects  to  some  extent  the 
nature  of  women's  emplojnnent  and  the  industries  in  which  they 
work.  Women  who  expect  to  remain  in  the  labor  force  only  a  few 
years  or  who  are  part-time  or  part-year  workers  may  feel  less  in- 
clined to  join  a  union  than  do  men  who  expect  to  work  during 
most  of  their  lives.  Moreover,  the  largest  number  of  women  in  the 
labor  force  are  clerical  and  service  workers  and  thus  are  in  indus- 
tries in  which  union  organization  is  less  extensive  than  among 
the  blue-collar  workers  of  manufacturing  industries. 

Among  190  unions  participating  in  the  1966  survey,  140  indi- 
cated that  they  had  women  members.  The  highest  membership  fig- 
ures for  women  were  reported  by  unions  which  have  collective 
bargaining  contracts  in  industries  that  normally  employ  large 
numbers  of  women  (table  36).  About  18  percent  of  all  women 
members,  for  example,  were  in  two  unions  in  the  apparel  industry 
(International  Ladies'  Garment  Workers'  Union  and  Amalga- 
mated Clothing  Workers  of  America) .  Other  unions  that  reported 
a  sizable  female  membership  were  the  International  Brotherhood 
of  Electrical  Workers,  the  Retail  Clerks  International  Association, 
and  the  Hotel  and  Restaurant  Employees  and  Bartenders  Interna- 
tional Union. 

In  addition,  there  were  relatively  large  numbers  of  women 
members  in  several  big  industrial  and  transportation  unions,  al- 
though women  represented  only  a  small  portion  of  their  total 
membership.  This  group  of  unions  included  automobile  and  ma- 
chinery manufacturing. 

There  are  no  unions  exclusively  for  women.  In  four  unions 
women  constituted  at  least  80  percent  of  the  membership,  and 
their  combined  total  in  these  unions  reached  412,000  in  1966.  In 
107  unions  women's  membership  ranged  from  none  to  less  than 
10  percent.  On  the  other  hand,  women  formed  at  least  half  of  the 
membership  in  26  unions,  which  in  turn  accounted  for  more  than 
two-fifths  of  women's  union  membership. 


^  May   include   a   few   members   living  outside   the   United    States. 

"  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,   Bureau  of   Labor  Statistics :    "Directory  of  National   and  Inter- 
national Labor  Unions  in  the  United  States,  1967."  Bull.  1596.  1968. 


WOMEN   IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  83 

Table  36. — Women  Members  of  Labor  Unions/  1966 

Approximate 
number  of 

Union  women 

American  Federation  of  Labor  and  Congress  of  Industrial 
Organizations : 

International  Ladies'  Garment  Workers'  Union 364,131 

Amalgamated  Clothing  Workers  of  America 286,500 

International  Brotherhood  of  Electrical  Workers 262,500 

Retail  Clerks  International  Association  250,157 

Hotel  and  Restaurant  Employees  and  Bartenders 

International    Union    202,488 

Communications  Workers  of  America 176,614 

International  Union,  United  Automobile,  Aerospace  and 

Agricultural  Implement  Workers  of  America 168,324 

International  Union  of  Electrical,  Radio  and  Machine 

Workers    112,000 

Building  Service  Employees'  International  Union 97,580 

International  Association  of  Machinists  and  Aerospace 

Workers    83,616 

Textile  Workers  Union  of  America 72,800 

United  Federation  of  Postal  Clerks    57,258 

Brotherhood  of  Railway,  Airline  and  Steamship  Clerks, 

Freight  Handlers,  Express  and  Station  Employes 54,000 

American  Federation  of  Government  Employees 50,000 

Office  and  Professional  Employees  International  Union 49,000 

Amalgamated  Meat  Cutters  and  Butcher  Workmen  of  North 

America    45,898 

International  Brotherhood  of  Bookbinders   -  37,056 

United  Packinghouse,  Food  and  Allied  Workers 28,350 

United  Shoe  Workers  of  America  27,030 

Retail,  Wholesale  and  Department  Store  Union C) 

American  Federation  of  Teachers C) 

United  Rubber,  Cork,  Linoleum  and  Plastic  Workers  of 

America    (') 

United  Steelworkers  of  America (*) 

Unaffiliated : 

Alliance  of  Independent  Telephone  Unions 56,250 

United  Electrical,  Radio  and  Machine  Workers  of  America     _  -  41,750 
International  Union  of  District  50,  United  Mine  Workers 

of   America    . 27,840 

International  Brotherhood  of  Teamsters,  Chauffeurs, 

Warehousemen  and  Helpers  of  America (') 

*  Unions   reporting   25,000  or  more  women   members. 

*  Data   not  reported,   but  number   of  women   believed   to  be  significant. 

Source:    U.S.    Department   of    Labor,    Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics:    "Directory    of    National 
and  International   Labor  Unions  in  the  United  States,   1967."   Bull.    1596.    1968. 

In  terms  of  affiliation,  it  is  estimated  that  88  percent  of  the 
women  members  belonged  to  the  AFL-CIO  and  12  percent  be- 
longed to  unaffiliated  unions  in  1966. 


84  WOMEN   AS   WORKERS 

Womanpower  Reserve 

Women  16  years  of  age  and  over  who  are  not  in  the  labor  force 
make  up  a  womanpower  reserve — a  potential  source  of  additional 
workers  who  might  be  needed  in  an  expanding  economy  or  in 
time  of  national  emergency.  Some  of  these  are  highly  educated, 
and  many  have  received  on-the-job  training  during  previous  work 
experience. 

Women  not  in  the  labor  force  averaged  41  million  in  1968  and 
were  more  than  three-fourths  of  all  persons  who  did  not  work  or 
look  for  work.  A  majority  of  women  not  in  the  labor  force  in 
1968  were  not  working  because  of  home  responsibilities.  Other 
women,  more  than  half  of  whom  were  at  least  70  years  of  age, 
were  unable  to  work,  presumably  because  of  illness  or  disability. 
Another  group,  most  of  whom  were  teenagers,  were  attending 
school. 

The  average  number  of  women  not  in  the  labor  force  during 
1968  and  their  reasons  for  nonparticipation  were  as  follows : 

Women  not  in  the  labor  force 


Number  Percent 


Total    40,976,000  100 


Keeping  house   35,023,000  86 

Going  to  school 3,408,000  8 

Unable  to  work   839,000  2 

Other  reasons 1,705,000  4 


A  more  practical  estimate  of  the  supply  of  women  actually 
available  for  increasing  the  Nation's  work  force  would  exclude 
teenagers  and  young  adults  who  are  attending  school,  mothers  of 
young  children,  and  elderly  women  who  may  not  be  able  to  work 
because  of  illness  or  disability.  Even  if  these  groups  are  excluded, 
the  number  of  women  in  the  labor  reserve  exceeds  that  of  men — 
making  women  the  largest  single  source  for  labor  force  expan- 
sion. 

Interest  in  learning  more  about  the  reasons  for  nonparticipa- 
tion in  the  labor  force  stimulated  a  special  survey  of  persons  who 
said  they  wanted  a  job  although  not  looking  for  work.^^  When 
surveyed  in  September  1966,  about  8  percent  of  the  43.7  million 
women  not  in  the  labor  force  at  that  time  said  they  would  like  to 


U.S  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :   Special   Labor  Force  Report  No.  86. 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  85 

have  a  regular  full-time  or  part-time  job.  Their  main  reason  for 
not  seeking  work,  as  stated  by  about  3  out  of  10  of  the  women, 
was  "family  responsibilities."  Four  other  important  reasons,  each 
given  by  more  than  1  out  of  10  women,  were  "ill  health  or  physi- 
cal disability,"  "in  school,"  "believed  it  would  be  impossible  to 
find  work,"  and  "inability  to  arrange  child  care." 

The  majority  of  women  who  indicated  they  were  unable  to  ar- 
range child  care  were  between  25  and  55  years  of  age.  Presuma- 
bly they  would  be  available  for  work  if  this  specific  problem  were 
solved.  Of  those  who  believed  it  impossible  to  find  work,  however, 
many  were  also  either  in  ill  health,  in  school,  or  tied  down  with 
family  responsibilities.  Therefore,  many  actually  were  not  readily 
available  for  work. 

In  September  1966  men  constituted  about  one-fourth  of  all  per- 
sons who  were  neither  working  nor  looking  for  work.  The  men's 
reasons  for  nonparticipation  were  quite  different  in  order  of  im- 
portance from  those  of  women.  Of  the  men  who  said  they  wanted 
a  job  although  not  looking  for  work,  more  than  two-fifths  listed 
"in  school"  and  three-tenths,  "ill  health  or  physical  disability." 


WOMEN'S   EMPLOYMENT   BY  OCCUPATIONS 
AND   INDUSTRIES 

Principal  Occupations  of  Women 

The  considerable  rise  in  women's  employment  in  recent  years 
has  been  accompanied  by  an  increase  in  the  number  and  variety 
of  women's  occupational  opportunities.  The  expansion  of  services 
to  individuals  and  to  communities  opened  up  new  opportunities  in 
the  health  and  allied  medical  fields,  in  public  and  private  social 
services,  in  research  and  educational  services,  in  personal  serv- 
ices, and  in  data  processing  and  computer  programing.  The  auto- 
mation of  processes  in  factories,  stores,  and  other  businesses  has 
expanded  the  need  for  technical  and  clerical  personnel.  The  grow- 
ing complexity  of  business  and  industry  has  strengthened  the  de- 
mand for  technical  and  professional  specialists.  As  a  result,  the 
number  of  women  in  new  fields  of  employment  is  expanding  de- 
spite the  fact  that  women  are  still  concentrated  in  relatively  few 
occupations.  And  the  trend  toward  expansion  is  expected  to  con- 
tinue as  more  girls  become  aware  of  the  variety  of  career  choices 
open  to  them  and  seek  the  required  education  or  training. 

Occupations  of  persons  in  the  labor  force  may  be  classified  ac- 
cording to  the  type  of  work  performed  or  by  broad  occupation 
categories.  Both  are  significant  in  any  discussion  of  the  current 
employment  of  women  and  the  shifts  in  women's  working  pat- 
terns. 

40.    Type  of  Work 

The  wide  disparity  between  the  concentration  of  women  and 
men  workers  by  type  of  work  has  contributed  to  the  difference  in 
the  rate  of  growth  of  their  employment,  in  the  relative  number 
working  part  time  or  part  year,  and  in  their  earnings.  Of  the  27.9 
million  women  14  years  of  age  and  over  employed  in  April  1968, 
almost  three-fifths  were  employed  in  white-collar  jobs  (table  37). 
Almost  one-fourth  were  in  service  work.  The  remainder  were  di- 

87 


88  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 

vided  about  8  to  1  between  blue-collar  work  and  farm  work.  In 
contrast,  almost  one-half  of  the  men  were  employed  in  blue-collar 
work,  and  two-fifths  were  in  white-collar  jobs.  The  remainder 
were  about  equally  divided  between  farm  work  and  service  work. 
The  fact  that  women  are  highly  concentrated  in  white-collar 
and  service  work — the  fastest  growing  types  of  work  in  recent 
decades — accounts  in  part  for  the  substantial  rise  in  the  number 
and  proportion  of  women  in  the  labor  force,  whereas  men's  em- 
ployment has  not  kept  pace  with  the  growth  in  the  adult  male 
population  since  1950.  At  the  same  time  the  employment  of  a  rel- 
atively large  segment  of  all  women  workers  in  service  work  and 
certain  kinds  of  white-collar  work — jobs  that  often  are  part  time 
or  part  year — accounts  to  some  extent  for  the  fact  that  women 
are  more  likely  than  men  to  work  less  than  a  full  week  or  less 
than  a  full  year.  Similarly,  the  difference  between  the  average 
earnings  of  men  and  women  is  affected  by  the  greater  concentra- 
tion of  women  (23  percent)  than  men  (7  percent)  in  service  jobs 
which  are  typically  low  paid. 

Table  37.— Employment,  by  Sex  and  Type  of  Work,  1940,  1950,  and  1968 ' 

(Persons  14  years  of  age  and  over) 

Number  (in  thousands)  Percent  distribution 


Type  of  work  1968  1950  1940  1968  1950  1940 

WOMEN 

Total     27,896         17,176         11,920         100.0         100.0         100.0 

White-collar  work  . .  16,415  8,858  5,380  58.8  51.6  45.1 

Blue-collar  work   _  4,563  3,464  2,400  16.4  20.2  20.1 

Service  work    6,361  3,939  3,450  22.8  22.9  28.9 

Farm  work 555  916  690  2.0  5.3  5.8 

MEN 

Total     48,351         41,492         34,180         100.0         100.0         100.0 

White-collar  work     .  19,256  13,522  9,710  39.8  32.6  28.4 

Blue-collar  work     .  22,661  19,108  14,390  46.9  46.1  42.1 

Service  work    3,323  2,757  2,160  6.9  6.6  6.3 

Farm  work 3,111  6,104  7,920  6.4  14.7  23.2 

'  Data  are  for  April  of  each  year. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Employment  and  Earnings, 
May  1968  and  May  1960,  and  Monthly  Labor  Review,  August  1947.  U.S.  Department  of  Com- 
merce,  Bureau  of  the  Census:    Current  Population   Reports,   P-57,   No.   94. 

The  proportion  of  all  women  workers  engaged  in  white-collar 
work  was  larger  in  1968  than  in  1940 — having  reached  more  than 
one-half  by  1950.  On  the  other  hand,  over  the  28-year  period  the 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  89 

proportion  engaged  in  blue-collar  work  declined  from  20  to  16 
percent;  in  service  work,  from  29  to  23  percent;  and  in  farm 
work,  from  6  to  2  percent.  Among  men,  the  biggest  changes  were 
an  increase  in  the  proportion  engaged  in  white-collar  work  and  a 
tremendous  drop  in  both  the  number  and  the  proportion  in  farm 
work. 

41.    Major  Occupaf'ion  Groups 

The  occupations  of  persons  in  the  labor  force  are  divided  into 
11  broad  categories  in  monthly  figures  collected  by  the  Bureau  of 
the  Census  and  published  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics.  More 
employed  v^^omen  16  years  of  age  and  over  (34  percent)  were  in 
clerical  v^^ork  in  April  1968  than  in  any  other  major  occupation 
group  (table  38).  The  next  largest  group  was  service  workers 
(except  private  household),  followed  by  operatives.  Professional 
workers  were  the  fourth  largest  group,  with  sales,  private  house- 
hold, and  managerial  v^^orkers  following  in  that  order.  A  total  of 
less  than  4  percent  v^^ere  farm  workers,  craftsmen,  or  nonfarm  la- 
borers. 

Beginning  in  January  1967,  the  regular  employment  data  pub- 
lished by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  have  included  persons  16 
years  of  age  and  over,  whereas  prior  data  included  persons  14 
years  of  age  and  over.  This  change  reflects  the  fact  that  virtually 
all  14-  and  15-year-old  boys  and  girls  have  been  enrolled  in  school 
in  recent  years  and  that  those  who  do  work  are  usually  only 
part-time  or  part-year  workers.  Selected  data  on  14-  and  15-year- 
old  workers  are  published  in  separate  tabulations. 

As  might  be  expected,  the  occupational  distribution  of  young 
girls  is  very  different  from  that  of  older  women.  Almost  three- 
fourths  of  the  14-  and  15-year-old  girls  employed  in  April  1968 
were  in  private  household  jobs,  most  of  them  as  babysitters 
(table  39).  When  figures  for  this  age  group  are  included  with 
those  of  older  women  workers  for  the  purpose  of  making  compar- 
isons with  earlier  years,  the  proportion  of  women  in  private 
household  work  is  about  one  percentage  point  higher  and  the  pro- 
portions in  clerical,  professional,  and  operative  positions  are  less 
than  half  a  percentage  point  lower  than  when  only  women  16 
years  of  age  and  over  are  counted. 

Women's  employment  has  expanded  in  nearly  all  of  the  major 
occupation  groups  since  1940.  The  greatest  growth  has  been  in 
the  number  of  clerical  workers — from  2.5  million  women  14  years 
of  age  and  over  in  1940  to  9.3  million  in  1968,  more  than  a  three- 


90        women's  employment  by  occupations  and  industries 

Table  38. — Major  Occupation  Groups  and  Selected  Occupations  of 
Employed  Women,  April  1968 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Number  As  percent 

Major  occupation  group  (in  Percent  of  total 

or  selected  occupation  thousands)         distribution        employed 

Total    27,495  100.0  36.6 

Professional,  technical  workers  ^   4,016  14.6  38.6 

Medical,  other  health  workers 1,006  3.7  61.6 

Teachers   (except  college)    1,668  6.1  70.9 

Managers,  officials,  proprietors 

(except    farm)'     1,202  4.4  15.7 

Salaried    821  3.0  15.1 

Self-employed     (retail    trade)     236  .9  22.7 

Clerical  workers' 9,274  33.7  72.7 

Stenographers,  typists,  secretaries 3,322  12.1  98.8 

Sales  workers'   1,883  6.8  41.2 

Retail   trade    1,678  6.1  60.8 

Craftsmen,   foremen    311  1.1  3.2 

Operatives'    4,125  15.0  30.0 

Durable  goods  manufacturing   1,304  4.7  27.6 

Nondurable  goods  manufacturing 2,042  7.4  54.2 

Nonfarm  laborers    116  .4  3.4 

Private  household  workers 1,728  6.3  98.1 

Service  workers  (except  private 

household)'    4,300  15.6  57.4 

Waitresses,   cooks,   bartenders    1,565  5.7  75.1 

Farmers,  farm  managers 82  .3  4.1 

Farm  laborers,  foremen   457  1.7  29.8 

Paid  workers 100  .4  10.3 

Unpaid  family  workers   358  1.3  64.3 

'  Includes  women  in  occupations  not  shown  separately  in  this  category. 

Source :   U.S.   Department  of   Labor,   Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :    Employment   and   Earnings, 
May  1968. 

fold  increase  (table  40).  The  clerical  workers  of  1968,  however, 
differ  in  many  respects  from  the  clerical  workers  of  1940.  The  ap- 
plication of  technological  developments  to  many  clerical  jobs  has 
raised  the  level  of  skill  required  and  the  educational  training 
needed.  Opportunities  for  unskilled  workers  have  narrowed,  and 
there  is  an  increasing  demand  for  workers  with  the  broad  educa- 
tion and  training  that  allow  for  flexibility. 

The  number  of  women  service  workers  (except  private  house- 
hold) also  has  more  than  tripled  since  1940.  Included  among  the 
reasons  for  this  tremendous  growth  are  the  increase  in  the  popu- 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  91 

Table  39. — Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Girls  14  and  15 
Years  of  Age,  April  1968 

Percent 
Major  occupation  group  Number  distribution 

Total     401,000  100.0 

Professional,  technical  workers 6,000  1.5 

Managers,  officials,  proprietors 

(except    farm)     1,000  .2 

Clerical  workers   15,000  3.7 

Sales  workers 18,000  4.5 

Craftsmen,  foremen   

Operatives 5,000  1.2 

Nonfarm  laborers  7,000  1.7 

Private   household  workers    293,000  73.1 

Service  workers  (except  private  household)    .  -  41,000  10.2 

Farmers,  farm  managers 

Farm  laborers,  foremen 15,000  3.7 

Source:  U.S.    Department   of    Labor,    Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics:    Employment   and    Earn- 
ings, May  1968. 

lation,  especially  among  older  people  who  require  more  medical 
care  and  other  services,  and  the  building  of  many  new  restau- 
rants, hotels,  and  motels,  with  the  accompanying  need  for  maids, 
waitresses,  cooks,  kitchen  workers,  and  other  service  personnel. 
Sixteen  percent  of  all  women  workers  were  engaged  in  a  service 
occupation  (except  private  household)  in  April  1968  as  compared 
with  13  percent  in  1950  and  11  percent  in  1940. 

About  4.1  million  women  worked  as  operatives,  and  4  million 
were  professional  and  technical  workers  in  April  1968.  But  the 
rate  of  growth  in  these  two  major  occupation  groups  since  1940, 
and  especially  since  1950,  differed  greatly.  The  number  of  women 
professional  workers  more  than  doubled  over  the  18-year  period, 
illustrating  the  rising  demand  for  workers  with  higher  educa- 
tional achievement  or  specialized  skills.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
number  of  women  operatives  increased  by  only  28  percent.  Thus 
this  occupation  declined  in  relative  importance  for  women — ^from 
19  percent  of  all  women  workers  in  1950  to  15  percent  in  1968. 

The  relative  importance  for  women  of  several  other  major  oc- 
cupation groups  has  declined  since  1940.  Although  the  number  of 
women  employed  as  private  household  workers  increased  between 
1950  and  1968  after  dropping  between  1940  and  1950,  they  repre- 
sented only  7  percent  of  all  women  workers  in  1968  as  compared 
with  18  percent  in  1940.  The  percentage  of  women  employed  as 
sales  workers  dropped  to  slightly  below  7  percent  in  1968,  after 
having  increased  from  7  to  9  percent  between  1940  and  1950.  The 


92 


women's  employment  by  occupations  and  industries 


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WOMEN  IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


93 


number  as  well  as  the  proportion  of  women  employed  in  farming 
occupations  decreased  between  1940  and  1968. 

Occupational  differences  between  women  and  men. — The  major 
occupation  groups  in  which  women  16  years  of  age  and  over  are 
concentrated  differ  from  those  of  men  (chart  N).  In  contrast  to 


Ckarlll 


7  OUT  OF  10  CLERICAL  WORKERS  ARE  WOMEN 


(Major  Occupation  Group  of  Employed  Women  and  Men,  April  1968) 


10 


8 

6              4 

Millions 
2              0             2             4 

6 

8 

1 

1               1 
Women 

1                              1              1 

M 

Clerical  Workers 

en 

1 

1 

1 

1                               1 

Serv 

c 

ce  Wotkers  (except  private  household) 
1                           1 

Operatives 

c 

1 

1 

c 

Man 

Professionai   Technical  Workers 

1 

1 

Sales  Workers 

1                 1                        1 

Private  Household  Workers 
1               II 

agers,  Otiiciais.  Proprietors  (except  farm) 

1        1 

Farm  Laborers,  Foremen 

m    1 

Craftsmen,  Foremen 

— 

_l 

^ 

1 

Nonfarm|Laborers 

1                             1 

Farmers,  Farm  Managers 

Source    U  S    Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


10 


the  predominance  of  clerical  workers  among  women,  40  percent 
of  all  men  employed  in  April  1968  were  either  craftsmen  or  oper- 
atives, with  an  almost  equal  number  in  each  group.  The  next  larg- 
est number  of  employed  men  were  nonfarm  managers,  officials,  or 
proprietors — almost  1  out  of  7  men  was  in  the  managerial  group 
as  compared  with  1  out  of  25  women.  Many  more  men  than 
women  were  employed  as  nonfarm  laborers  and  farm  workers.  On 
the  other  hand,  almost  twice  as  many  women  as  men  had  jobs  as 
service  workers  either  inside  or  outside  the  home.  A  slightly 
larger  proportion  of  women  than  men  were  sales  workers,  al- 
though the  number  of  men  sales  workers  exceeded  that  of  women. 


94        women's  employment  by  occupations  and  industries 

42.    Proportion  of  Workers  Who  Are   Women 

The  diversity  in  the  employment  of  men  and  women  is  also  il- 
lustrated by  the  varying  proportions  women  are  of  all  workers  in 
the  different  major  occupation  groups.  As  might  be  expected, 
women  14  years  of  age  and  over  accounted  for  nearly  all  (98  per- 
cent) of  the  private  household  workers  in  1968  (table  40).  They 
also  predominated  among  clerical  workers — holding  73  percent  of 
these  jobs.  In  only  one  other  major  occupation  group — service 
workers  (except  private  household) — did  women  make  up  more 
than  half  (57  percent)  of  all  workers.  However,  the  proportions 
that  women  were  of  all  professional  and  technical  workers  (39 
percent)  and  sales  workers  (40  percent)  slightly  exceeded  the  av- 
erage for  all  occupations  (37  percent).  At  the  other  end  of  the 
scale,  women  held  relatively  few  of  the  jobs  as  craftsmen,  non- 
farm  laborers,  and  farmers  and  farm  managers. 

The  rise  in  women's  representation  among  all  workers  from  26 
percent  in  1940  to  37  percent  in  1968  was  not  spread  equally 
among  the  major  occupation  groups.  A  large  gain  occurred  among 
clerical  workers — from  53  to  73  percent.  Above-average  advances 
were  also  made  among  service  workers  (except  private  house- 
hold) and  among  sales  workers.  On  the  other  hand,  there  was  a 
significant  decline  in  the  proportion  that  women  were  of  all  pro- 
fessional and  technical  workers — from  45  percent  to  39  percent. 
This  was  the  only  major  occupation  group  in  which  women's  rep- 
resentation was  less  in  1968  than  in  1940.  Although  the  number 
of  women  employed  in  professional  and  technical  occupations  rose 
sharply  over  the  28-year  period,  the  decline  in  the  proportion  of 
women  resulted  from  the  much  more  rapid  pace  at  which  men 
moved  into  these  occupations.  Even  in  the  teaching  profession, 
where  women  have  traditionally  been  a  large  majority,  the  pro- 
portion of  men  has  increased  slightly  in  recent  years.  Moreover, 
many  of  the  new  professional  positions  that  have  opened  up  since 
1940  have  been  in  science  and  engineering — fields  in  which  women 
constitute  only  a  small  minority. 

Detailed   Occupations  of  Women 

The  principal  source  of  information  on  the  detailed  occupations 
of  employed  persons  is  the  decennial  census.  Although  data  col- 
lected in  the  1960  census  can  be  supplemented  for  selected  occupa- 
tions or  groups  of  occupations  by  more  recent  employment  figures 
published  monthly  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics,  or  by  recent 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  95 

estimates  of  employment  in  individual  occupations,  an  overall 
consideration  of  all  detailed  occupations  must  be  based  on  census 
figures. 

In  1960,  as  in  previous  census  years,  women  were  concentrated 
in  a  relatively  small  number  of  occupations.  Nearly  one-fourth  of 
all  employed  women  14  years  of  age  and  over  were  secretaries, 
sales  women  in  retail  trade,  general  private  household  workers,  or 
teachers  in  elementary  schools.  In  each  of  the  top  three  of  these 
occupations  more  than  a  million  v^^omen  were  employed.  About 
one-third  of  all  working  women  were  in  seven  occupations — the 
four  listed  previously  and  bookkeeper,  waitress,  and  professional 
nurse.  In  fact,  nearly  two-thirds  of  the  21.2  million  women  em- 
ployed in  1960  were  in  36  individual  occupations,  each  of  which 
engaged  100,000  or  more  women  (table  41).  About  two-fifths  of 
these  occupations  were  white  collar,  one-fourth  were  manual,  and 
the  remainder  were  service.  The  list  included  four  professional 
occupations — teacher  in  elementary  schools,  teacher  in  secondary 
schools,  professional  nurse,  and  musician  and  music  teacher. 

The  number  of  occupations  in  which  100,000  or  more  women 
were  employed  had  increased  since  1950,  when  there  were  only 
29.  The  seven  occupations  added  during  the  decade  were  babysit- 
ter, charwoman  and  cleaner,  counter  and  fountain  worker,  file 
clerk,  housekeeper  and  stewardess  (except  private  household), 
musician  and  music  teacher,  and  receptionist.  Nearly  all  of  these 
jobs  were  for  clerical  workers  or  for  service  workers  (except  pri- 
vate household) — the  two  major  occupation  groups  in  which  the 
number  of  employed  women  had  increased  the  most  since  1950. 

Another  measure  of  the  major  occupations  of  women  is  an  ex- 
amination of  those  in  which  women  are  three-fourths  or  more 
of  all  workers.  In  more  than  half  of  the  36  occupations  in  which 
100,000  or  more  women  were  employed  in  1960,  at  least  3  out  of  4 
workers  were  women;  in  at  least  one-third,  9  out  of  10  were 
women.  Table  42  shows  the  detailed  occupations  in  which  75  per- 
cent or  more  of  all  workers  were  women  in  1960. 

43.    ^/omen  in   Professional  Occupafions 

There  were  4  million  women — 1  out  of  7  employed  women — in 
professional  and  technical  occupations  in  April  1968.  About  2.2 
million  more  women  were  engaged  in  professional  or  technical 
work  in  1968  than  in  1950,  and  almost  2.5  million  more  than  in 
1940.  (The  1968  figures  are  for  women  16  years  of  age  and  over, 
but  since  14-  and  15-year-olds  in  professional  and  technical  work 


96 


WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 


Table  41. — Detailed  Occupations  in  Which  100,000  or  More 
Women  Were  Employed,  1960 

(Women  14  years  of  age  and  over) 


Occupation 


Number 


As  percent  of 
total  employed 


Secretaries    

Sales  women  (retail  trade)    

Private  household  workers  ( n.e.c. )   

Teachers   (elementary  school)    

Bookkeepers    

Waitresses    

Nurses    (professional)     

Sewers  and  stitchers  (mfg.)    

Typists    

Cashiers    

Cooks  (except  private  household)   

Telephone  operators 

Babysitters   

Attendants  (hospitals  and  other  institutions)    - 

Laundry  and  drycleaning  operatives 

Assemblers    

Operatives  (apparel  and  accessories  ) 

Hairdressers  and  cosmetologists 

Packers  and  wrappers  (n.e.c.)   

Stenographers    

Teachers  (secondary  school)    

Office  machine  operators 

Checkers,  examiners,  and  inspectors  (mfg.)   

Practical  nurses 

Kitchen  workers  (n.e.c.)   (except  private 

household)     

Chambermaids  and  maids  (except  private 

household )     

Housekeepers   (private  household)    

Operatives  (electrical  machinery,  equipment, 

and    supplies)     

Receptionists     

Charwomen  and  cleaners 

Housekeepers  and  stewardesses  (except  private 

household)     

Dressmakers  and  seamstresses  (except  factory) 

Counter  and  fountain  workers   

File   clerks    

Musicians  and  music  teachers 

Operatives  (yarn,  thread,  and  fabric  mills) 


1,423,352 

97 

1,397,364 

54 

1,162,683 

96 

860,413 

86 

764,054 

84 

714,827 

87 

567,884 

98 

534,258 

94 

496,735 

95 

367,954 

78 

361,772 

64 

341,797 

96 

319,735 

98 

288,268 

74 

277,398 

72 

270,769 

44 

270,619 

75 

267,050 

89 

262,935 

60 

258,554 

96 

243,452 

47 

227,849 

74 

215,066 

45 

197,115 

96 

179,796 


59 


162,433 

98 

143,290 

99 

138,001 

48 

131,142 

98 

122,728 

68 

117,693 

81 

115,252 

97 

112,547 

71 

112,323 

86 

109,638 

57 

103,399 

44 

Source :   U.S.   Department  of  Commerce,   Bureau  of  the  Census :    "U.S.   Census  of   Population ; 
1960.  Detailed  Characteristics,   U.S.   Summary,   PC(1)— ID."   1963. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  97 

Table  42. — Occupations  in  Which  Women  Were  Three-fourths  or  More  op 

Total  Employed,  1960 

Occupations   with   100,000   or  more   women  Occupations   with   less    than    100,000   women 

WOMEN  WERE  90  PERCENT  OR  MORE  OF  TOTAL  EMPLOYED 

Housekeepers  (private  household)  Nurses  (student) 

Nurses  (professional)  Laundresses  (private  household) 

Receptionists  Attendants  (physicians'  and  dentists' 

Babysitters  offices) 

Chambermaids  and  maids  (except  Dietitians  and  nutritionists 

private  household)  Demonstrators 

Secretaries  Milliners 

Dressmakers  and  seamstresses 

(except  factory) 
Private  household  workers  (n.e.c.) 
Telephone  operators 
Stenographers 
Practical  nurses 
Typists 
Sewers  and  stitchers  (mfg.) 

WOMEN  WERE  80  TO  89  PERCENT  OF  TOTAL  EMPLOYED 

Hairdressers  and  cosmetologists  Boarding  and  lodging  house  keepers 

Waitresses  Librarians 

Teachers  (elementary  school) 
File  clerks 
Bookkeepers 

Housekeepers  and  stewardesses 
(except  private  household) 

WOMEN  WERE  7  5  TO  79  PERCENT  OF  TOTAL  EMPLOYED 

Cashiers  Spinners  (textile) 

Operatives  (apparel  and  accessories)      Dancers  and  dancing  teachers 

Attendants  and  assistants  (library) 
Operatives  (knitting  mills) 
Midwives 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,   Bureau  of  the  Census :   "U.S.  Census  of  Population : 
1960.    Detailed  Characteristics,  U.S.  Summary,  PC(1)— ID."    1963. 

numbered  only  6,000  in  April  1968,  comparisons  with  census  data 
for  earlier  years  (based  on  14  and  over)  are  not  affected.) 

The  sharp  rise  in  the  number  of  women  professional  workers, 
especially  since  1950,  may  be  attributed  to  a  variety  of  social  and 
economic  developments.  The  tremendous  need  for  better  educated 
workers,  as  well  as  the  sizable  increase  in  the  population,  stimu- 
lated the  expansion  of  educational  systems  and  facilities.  The  con- 
tinuing concern  for  the  health  of  all,  and  especially  of  older  peo- 
ple as  the  lifespan  increases,  resulted  in  enlarged  medical  facili- 


98  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 

ties  and  expanded  health  programs.  The  growth  of  business  and 
industrial  firms  and  of  government  operations  increased  the  need 
not  only  for  accountants  and  personnel  workers  but  also  for 
mathematicians  and  other  professional  and  technical  workers  in 
the  field  of  data  processing. 

Teaching  continues  to  be  the  most  popular  profession  among 
women.  The  1.7  million  women  noncollege  teachers  in  April  1968 
equaled  42  percent  of  all  professional  women  (table  38).  This 
number  of  women  teachers  (considerably  above  the  1.2  million  re- 
corded in  the  1960  census  and  double  the  839,000  reported  in 
1950)  gives  some  indication  of  the  rapid  expansion  of  our  educa- 
tional systems.  Seven  out  of  10  of  the  women  teachers  employed 
at  the  time  of  the  1960  census  were  in  elementary  education;  2 
out  of  10  taught  in  secondary  schools. 

The  number  of  women  teaching  in  junior  high  and  high  schools 
has  not  increased  as  rapidly  as  has  the  number  of  men.  There  has 
been  a  concerted  and  fairly  successful  effort  to  attract  more  men 
into  these  jobs.  As  a  result,  women  were  less  than  half  of  all  sec- 
ondary school  teachers  in  1960,  after  being  in  the  majority  in 
1950. 

There  has  also  been  a  decline  in  the  proportion  of  women 
among  teachers  at  the  college  and  university  level.  Only  22  per- 
cent of  the  faculty  and  other  professional  staff  in  institutions  of 
higher  education  were  women  in  1964  (the  most  recent  date  for 
which  comparable  figures  are  available).  This  is  a  considerably 
smaller  proportion  than  they  were  in  1940  (28  percent),  1930  (27 
percent),  or  1920  (26  percent),  and  only  slightly  above  their  pro- 
portion in  1910  (20  percent). 

A  special  survey  of  public  school  teachers  in  1965-66  disclosed 
that  although  men  were  in  the  majority  in  secondary  schools, 
about  70  percent  of  all  teachers  were  women. ^  Almost  two-thirds 
of  the  women  teachers  were  married,  about  one-tenth  were 
widowed  or  divorced,  and  the  rest  were  single.  The  median  age  of 
women  teachers  was  40  years.  Women  teachers,  on  the  whole,  were 
somewhat  older  and  had  less  education  than  their  male  counter- 
parts. About  10  percent  of  all  women  teachers,  but  only  2  percent 
of  the  men,  had  not  earned  a  bachelor's  degree.  Furthermore,  only 
18  percent  of  the  women  teachers,  compared  with  35  percent  of 
the  men,  had  obtained  a  master's  or  other  advanced  degree.  Half 
of  all  the  teachers  in  the  sample  had  taught  less  than  10  years. 


*  National     Education     Association:     "The     American     Public     School     Teacher,      1965-66." 
Research  Report  1967-R  4.  1967. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  99 

Another  large  group  of  professional  women  are  employed  as 
medical  and  other  health  workers  (the  only  other  category  of 
professional  workers  for  whom  employment  figures  are  reported 
regularly  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics).  In  April  1968  they 
numbered  1,006,000  and  were  one-fourth  of  all  women  pro- 
fessional workers.  The  largest  single  occupation  in  this  group  is 
that  of  professional  nurse ;  almost  568,000  women  were  employed 
as  professional  nurses  at  the  time  of  the  1960  decennial  census, 
and  estimates  placed  the  figure  at  about  659,000  in  1968.  Another 
important  occupation  in  this  group  is  medical  or  dental  techni- 
cian. More  than  86,000  women  worked  as  technicians  in  labora- 
tories, hospitals,  clinics,  and  physicians'  or  dentists'  offices  in 
1960 — twice  as  many  as  in  1950.  Other  women  medical  and  health 
workers  employed  in  1960  were  student  nurses  (56,540),  dieti- 
tians and  nutritionists  (24,237),  therapists  (19,752),  and  physi- 
cians and  surgeons  (15,513).  Since  1960  the  number  of  women 
physicians  has  grown  to  about  20,000. 

Although  the  number  of  women  physicians  has  increased  about 
26  percent  since  1960,  women's  representation  among  all  physi- 
cians has  remained  unchanged  during  the  period  at  about  7  per- 
cent. On  the  other  hand,  there  have  been  slow  but  steady  in- 
creases since  1955  in  both  the  numbers  and  proportions  of  women 
enrolled  in  and  graduating  from  U.S.  medical  schools.  In  1967 
women  constituted  8.3  percent  of  students  enrolled  in  U.S  medical 
schools  (as  compared  with  5,4  percent  in  1955)  and  7.5  percent  of 
medical  school  graduates  (as  compared  with  4.9  percent  in  1955). 

Women  also  hold  a  wide  variety  of  professional  jobs  outside  the 
teaching  and  health  fields.  Although  women  still  represented  only 
one-fifth  of  professional  and  technical  workers  in  these  fields  in 
1968,  their  share  of  such  positions  had  increased  slightly  since 
1960.  In  1960  relatively  large  numbers  of  women  were  musicians 
and  music  teachers,  accountants  and  auditors,  social  and  welfare 
workers,  librarians,  and  editors  and  reporters.  The  growing  di- 
versity of  women's  employment  in  professional  positions  is  illus- 
trated by  the  fact  that  in  at  least  seven  additional  occupations  the 
number  of  employed  women  doubled  or  more  than  doubled  be- 
tween 1950  and  1960:  industrial  engineer,  mathematician,  aero- 
nautical engineer,  personnel  and  labor  relations  worker,  public  re- 
lations worker  and  publicity  writer,  recreation  and  group  worker, 
and  sports  instructor  and  official.  Recent  estimates  indicate  that 
the  rapid  expansion  previously  noted  among  women  mathema- 
ticians and  public  relations  workers  has  continued  since  1960.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  total  number  of  women  engineers  and  scientists 


100        women's  employment  by  occupations  and  industries 

did  not  rise  significantly  between  1950  and  1960 ;  and  women  hold 
only  a  small  proportion  of  the  positions  as  engineers,  technicians 
(other  than  medical  and  dental),  and  scientists,  despite  the  nu- 
merous job  openings  created  by  the  tremendous  interest  in  re- 
search and  development. 

44.  Women  Managers,  Officials,  and  Propriefors 

About  1.2  million  women  were  employed  as  managers,  officials, 
and  proprietors  in  April  1968,  This  group  of  women  workers  had 
almost  tripled  since  1940,  with  most  of  the  increase  occuring 
prior  to  1950.  However,  this  is  a  relatively  small  occupation 
group  for  women ;  they  are  still  outnumbered  by  men  about  6  to  1. 

More  than  two-thirds  of  the  women  employed  in  this  major  oc- 
cupation group  in  1968  were  salaried  workers.  (In  contrast,  at 
the  time  of  the  1950  census  only  about  half  of  the  women  manag- 
ers and  proprietors  were  salaried  workers.)  Many  small  individu- 
ally owned  enterprises  have  been  replaced  in  recent  years  by  su- 
permarkets, large  discount  houses,  and  branch  operations  of  large 
companies,  thus  limiting  opportunities  for  the  individual  proprie- 
tor. 

In  1968,  as  in  1960,  about  two-thirds  of  the  self-employed 
women  were  proprietors  in  retail  trade.  The  1960  census  shows 
that  these  women  were  operating  mainly  eating  and  drinking 
places,  food  and  dairy  product  stores,  and  apparel  and  accessories 
stores.  Another  large  group  operated  establishments  offering 
personal  services.  Many  of  the  salaried  managers  were  likewise 
in  retail  trade  and  personal  services  in  1960 ;  others  worked  as 
buyers  and  department  heads  in  stores,  officials  in  public  adminis- 
tration, managers  and  superintendents  in  buildings,  and  postmas- 
ters. The  employment  of  both  women  and  men  managers  and  pro- 
prietors has  been  expanding  rapidly  in  the  fields  of  banking  and 
other  finance,  insurance  and  real  estate,  and  business  services. 

45.  Women  in  Clerical  Occupations 

Of  the  nearly  9.3  million  women  employed  in  April  1968  as 
clerical  workers — the  largest  occupation  group  for  women — 3.3 
million,  or  more  than  one-third,  were  stenographers,  typists,  or 
secretaries.  (This  was  considerably  above  the  number  employed 
in  these  occupations  at  the  time  of  the  1960  census  (2.2  million) 
and  the  1950  census  (1.5  million).)  The  growth  of  business  and 
industry,  of  all  kinds  of  services,  and  of  government  operations  has 
brought  a  rising  demand  for  workers  in  these  occupations  to 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  101 

handle  correspondence,  interoffice  communications,  and  other 
forms  of  paperwork.  On  the  other  hand,  the  number  of  women 
employed  to  handle  communication  other  than  by  mail  remained 
almost  unchanged  between  1950  and  1960.  Thus  there  were  about 
342,000  women  telephone  operators  at  the  time  of  both  the  1950 
and  1960  censuses,  although  the  number  almost  doubled  between 
1940  and  1950.  The  installation  of  automatic  dialing  equipment 
permitted  the  telephone  industry  to  expand  its  services  without 
increasing  the  number  of  operators.  Since  1960,  the  number  of 
telephone  operators  has  increased  slightly  as  more  businesses 
needed  switchboard  operators  for  private  branch  exchanges 
(PBX). 

Another  large  group  of  women  clerical  workers  are  bookkeep- 
ers. The  number  of  women  bookkeepers  increased  by  more  than 
200,000  between  1950  and  1960— to  a  total  of  764,054.  (Recent  es- 
timates indicate  that  this  rate  of  growth  has  continued  since 
1960.)  These  additional  bookkeepers  were  employed  mainly  in  re- 
tail trade,  professional  and  related  services,  and  finance,  insur- 
ance, and  real  estate.  The  rapid  expansion  of  these  industries  also 
brought  about  increases  in  women's  employment  as  cashiers,  bank 
tellers,  bill  and  account  collectors,  and  insurance  adjusters,  exam- 
iners, and  investigators.  The  rise  in  women's  employment  as  bank 
tellers  was  particularly  striking — more  than  a  threefold  increase 
between  1950  and  1960.  (There  has  been  a  less  rapid  but  substan- 
tial increase  since  1960.)  In  fact,  women's  employment  in  this  oc- 
cupation increased  more  rapidly  than  did  men's ;  and  as  a  result,  7 
out  of  10  bank  tellers  in  1960  (and  in  1967)  were  women  com- 
pared with  less  than  5  out  of  10  in  1950.  Other  clerical  occupa- 
tions in  which  women's  employment  doubled  or  more  than  dou- 
bled between  1950  and  1960  were  library  attendant  and  assistant, 
payroll  and  timekeeping  clerk,  receptionist,  stock  clerk  and  store- 
keeper, and  ticket,  station,  and  express  agent.^ 


46.    Women  in  Service  Occupations 

The  second  largest  group  of  employed  women  (4.3  million)  in 
April  1968  were  service  workers  (except  private  household). 
More  than  1  out  of  3  of  these  were  waitresses,  cooks,  and  barten- 
ders. (The  1.6  million  women  working  in  these  occupations  in 
1968  exceeded  the  1.1  million  similarly  employed  at  the  time  of 
the  1960  census  and  the  800,000  in  1950.  About  2  out  of  3  of  the 


^  For   further   information    on    clerical    occupations,    see    "Clerical    Occupations    for    Women- 
Today  and  Tomorrow."  Bull.  289.  Women's  Bureau,  U.S.  Department  of  Labor.  1964. 


102  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 

women  in  these  occupations  in  1960  were  waitresses.)  Many  more 
workers  have  been  needed  to  prepare  and  serve  food  in  new  and 
expanding  restaurants  and  other  eating  and  drinking  places  as 
personal  incomes  rise  and  as  more  women  work  outside  the  home. 
Most  of  these  jobs  have  been  filled  by  women,  since  employment 
is  often  part  time  or  part  year. 

Many  women  are  also  employed  as  kitchen  workers  and  counter 
and  fountain  workers  in  restaurants  and  eating  and  drinking 
places.  In  1960  these  women  workers,  added  to  waitresses,  cooks, 
and  bartenders,  constituted  about  half  of  the  2.8  million  women 
service  workers. 

Two  other  large  groups  of  women  service  workers  at  the  time 
of  the  1960  census  were  in  the  health  field — attendants  in  hospi- 
tals and  other  institutions  (288,268)  and  practical  nurses 
(197,115).  The  construction  and  expansion  of  hospitals,  nursing 
homes,  mental  institutions,  and  other  health  facilities  brought  an 
increasing  demand  for  workers  in  these  occupations.  Here  again, 
most  of  the  new  openings  have  been  filled  by  women.  As  a  result, 
the  number  of  attendants  in  hospitals  and  other  institutions  had 
more  than  doubled  since  1950,  and  the  number  of  women  practi- 
cal nurses  increased  by  one-half,  (Recent  estimates  indicate  that 
employment  of  women  as  practical  nurses  has  been  increasing  at 
about  the  same  rate.) 

Outside  of  occupations  related  to  health  and  food,  the  largest 
group  for  women  service  workers  is  that  of  hairdresser  and  cos- 
metologist. It  is  estimated  that  more  than  400,000  women  were 
employed  in  this  occupation  in  1967 — a  substantial  increase  from 
the  1950  and  1960  figures  of  about  190,000  and  270,000,  respec- 
tively. Other  large  groups  of  women  were  employed  in  1960  in 
housekeeping  services  as  chambermaids  and  maids  or  house- 
keepers and  stewardesses,  and  in  building  and  custodial  services 
as  charwomen  and  cleaners  or  janitors  and  sextons. 

Occupations   by  Selected   Characteristics 

47.    Occupations  of  Women  by  Marital  Status 

The  occupations  of  women  vary  to  some  extent  with  their  mari- 
tal status.  More  women  16  years  of  age  and  over  were  employed 
in  clerical  work  than  in  any  other  major  occupation  group  in 
March  1967,  whether  they  were  single,  married  (husband  pres- 
ent), or  with  other  marital  status  (table  43),  But  the  concentra- 
tion of  women  in  this  occupation  group  differed  according  to  their 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  103 

marital  status.  Thus  a  larger  proportion  of  all  single  women  (43 
percent)  than  of  either  married  women  (32  percent)  or  women 
with  other  marital  status  (26  percent)  were  clerical  workers. 
There  are  several  reasons  for  the  larger  proportion  of  single 
women  in  clerical  jobs.  Many  of  these  women  are  under  25  years 
of  age  and  completed  their  education  with  high  school.  Thus  they 
often  hold  low-paying  entry  jobs  that  require  little  training  or  ex- 
perience. Moreover,  many  single  girls  prefer  clerical  work  be- 
cause it  is  usually  full  time  the  year  round. 

Table  43. — Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Women,  by 
Marital  Status,  March  1967 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Marital  status 

Married 
(husband 
Major  occupation  group  Total  Single  present)  Other^ 

Number    26,226,000     5,566,000     15,189,000     5,471,000 

Percent 100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0 

Professional,  technical 

workers    14.1  17.0  14.6  9.8 

Managers,  officials, 

proprietors   (except  farm)    .  4.2  1.9  4.7  5.3 

Clerical  workers    32.9  42.5  32.1  25.6 

Sales  workers    7.1  5.5  .7.9  6.5 

Operatives 15.7  9.2  17.6  16.8 

Private  household  workers 7.0  9.4  4.3  12.1 

Service  workers  (except 

private  household)    15.9  12.6  15.2  21.2 

Other''    3.1  1.9  3.6  2.7 

*  Widowed,  divorced,  or  separated. 

^  Includes  craftsmen,  farm  workers,  and  nonfarm  laborers. 

Source:  U.S.    Department    of    Labor,     Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics:    Special     Labor    Force 
Report  No.  94. 

Another  large  proportion  of  the  single  women  (17  percent) 
were  employed  in  March  1967  in  professional  and  technical  oc- 
cupations. Unmarried  women  who  recently  have  completed  college 
or  graduate  work  often  qualify  for  these  positions  more  easily  than 
do  older  married  women  workers  who  lack  continuity  in  job  ex- 
perience. However,  more  married  women  are  beginning  to  qualify 
for  and  to  obtain  professional  positions,  especially  in  fields  where 
shortages  exist.  In  March  1967,  15  percent  of  all  married  women 
workers  were  in  professional  and  technical  occupations. 

Two  other  major  occupation  groups — operatives  and  service 
workers  (except  private  household) — each  accounted  for  about 
one-sixth  of  all  married  women  workers.  Many  operative  occupa- 


104  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 

tions  pay  relatively  well  and  at  the  same  time  require  little  or  no 
previous  work  experience.  Moreover,  married  women  who  prefer 
part-time  work  or  work  conveniently  located  near  their  homes 
often  find  such  opportunities  in  service  occupations. 

Among  women  who  were  widowed,  divorced,  or  with  husband 
absent,  the  largest  group  after  clerical  workers  were  in  service 
work  outside  the  home  (21  percent).  Many  of  these  were  older 
women  who  did  not  have  the  skills  and  training  required  in  other 
types  of  jobs  or  who,  because  of  financial  need,  had  to  take  what- 
ever jobs  were  available.  In  addition,  large  groups  of  women  with 
"other"  marital  status  were  operatives  (17  percent)  and  private 
household  workers  (12  percent). 

Just  as  married  women  (husband  present)  constituted  well 
over  one-half  of  all  women  workers  in  March  1967,  they  were 
also  well  over  one-half  of  the  workers  in  each  of  the  major  occu- 
pation groups,  with  the  exception  of  private  household  workers 
(table  44).  In  this  group  they  were  a  little  over  one-third  of  the 
total.  Especially  high  proportions  of  married  women  workers 
were  in  three  major  occupation  groups :  operatives,  sales  workers, 
and  managers,  officials,  and  proprietors.  Many  married  women 
prefer  part-time  employment  and  thus  take  sales  jobs.  Others 
work  as  salaried  managers,  especially  in  retail  outlets,  or  as  self- 
employed  proprietors  in  their  own  or  a  family  business. 

Table  44. — Marital  Status  of  Employed  Women,  by 
Major  Occupation  Group,  March  1967 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Percent  distribution  by  marital  status 

Married 
(husband 
Major  occupation  group  Number  Total  Single      present)       Other^ 

Total     26,226,000       100.0         21.2         57.9         20.9 

Professional,  technical 

workers    3,698,000  100.0  25.6  59.9  14.5 

Managers,  officials, 

proprietors    (except   farm)     _  1,101,000  100.0  9.5  64,3  26.1 

Clerical    workers     8,628,000  100.0  27.4,  56.4  16.2 

Sales   workers    1,862,000  100.0  16.4  64.4  19.1 

Operatives     4,117,000  100.0  12.5  65.1  22.4 

Private  household  workers 1,836,000  100.0  28.5  35.5  36.0 

Service  workers  (except 

private    household)     4,170,000  100.0  16.8  55.4  27.8 

Other  ^      813,000  100.0  13.2  68.3  18.5 

^  Widowed,  divorced,  or  separated. 

^  Includes  craftsmen,  farm  workers,  and  nonfarm  laborers. 

Source:  U.S.    Department    of    Labor,     Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics:     Special     Labor    Force 
Report  No.  94. 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


105 


48.    Occupations  of  Nonwhife  Women^ 

Of  the  28.7  million  women  in  the  civilian  labor  force  in  April 
1968,  3.7  million  were  nonwhite.  They  represented  49  percent  of 
all  nonwhite  women  16  years  of  age  or  over  in  the  population. 
About  1  out  of  14  nonwhite  women  in  the  labor  force  was  unem- 
ployed, as  compared  with  1  out  of  25  white  women.  Nonwhite 
women  were  somewhat  more  likely  than  white  women  to  work  at 
part-time  or  part-year  jobs. 

These  characteristics  of  nonwhite  women  workers  are  interre- 
lated with  the  types  of  jobs  they  hold.  Whereas  more  than  3  out 
of  5  white  women  workers  were  engaged  in  white-collar  work  in 
April  1968,  almost  half  of  the  nonwhite  women  were  in  service 
work  where  intermittent  or  part-time  work  is  common  (chart  0) . 
On  the  other  hand,  approximately  the  same  proportions  of  both 
white  and  nonwhite  women  were  employed  in  blue-collar  work  or 
farm  work  in  April  1968. 


Chart  0 


A  LARGER  PROPORTION  OF  NONWHITE  THAN  WHITE  WOMEN  ARE  IN  SERVICE  WORK 


(Employed  Women,  by  Color  and  Type  of  Work,  April  1968) 


NONWHITE  WOMEN 

WHITE  WOMEN 

Farm  Workers  2%-^^,^^ 

^^^^^ 

^^^Farm  Workers  27 

/Blue-Collar  \ 

^\ 

/    Blue-Collar  \ 

Service     \ 

/       Workers     I 
/            18%        \ 

Service 

/        Workers     \ 
/~--\  16%        \ 

Workers         \ 
18%    ^^A 

Workers 

'•v—                               1 

\         White-Collar 
\           Workers 
\            31% 

49%              1 

\                       White-Collar                      / 
\                        Workers                      / 
\                          64%                       / 

3,43 

9.000 

24,05 

6,000 

Source:  US.  Department  of  Labor.  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


'  For  further  information  on  the  occupations  of  nonwhite  women  workers,  see  "Negro 
Women  in  the  Population  and  in  the  Labor  Force."  Women's  Bureau,  Wage  and  Labor 
Standards  Administration,  U.S.  Department  of  Labor.  1967. 


106 


women's  employment  by  occupations  and  industries 


Since  nonwhite  women  constituted  only  about  1  out  of  8  women 
workers  in  April  1968,  they  were  a  small  proportion  of  all  em- 
ployed women  in  most  major  occupation  groups.  However,  almost 
half  of  the  private  household  workers  and  about  1  out  of  5  service 
workers  (except  private  household)  were  nonwhite. 

Nonwhite  women  are  concentrated  in  certain  major  occupation 
groups  as  they  are  in  certain  types  of  work.  Thus  about  one- 
fourth  of  all  employed  nonwhite  women  were  private  household 
workers  in  April  1968  (table  45).  Approximately  another  one- 
fourth  were  service  workers  outside  the  home.  The  third  largest 
occupation  group  for  employed  nonwhite  women  was  clerical 
workers  (17  percent),  followed  by  operatives  (also  17  percent). 


Table  45. — Major  Occupation   Groups  of   Employed  Nonwhite  Women, 

April  1968 

(Women  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

As  percent 
of  total 
Percent  employed 

Major  occupation  group  Number  distribution  women 

Total     3,439,000  100.0  12.5 

Professional,  technical  workers 351,000  10.2  8.7 

Managers,  officials,  proprietors 

(except    farm)     52,000  1.5  4.3 

Clerical  workers    598,000  17.4  6.4 

Sales  workers 72,000  2.1  3.8 

Craftsmen,    foremen    28,000  .8  9.0 

Operatives     581,000  16.9  14.0 

Nonfarm  laborers  17,000  .5  14.7 

Private  household  workers 839,000  24.4  48.6 

Service  workers  (except 

private    household)     832,000  24.2  19.3 

Farmers,  farm  managers   7,000  .2  8.5 

Farm  laborers,  foremen 65,000  1.9  14.2 

Source:   U.S.   Department  of   Labor.   Bureau  .of  Labor  Statistics:    Employment   and   Earnings, 
May  1968. 

But  nonwhite  women's  employment  was  much  more  diversi- 
fied in  1968  than  in  1940,  when  three-fifths  of  all  employed  non- 
white  women  were  private  household  workers.  World  War  II  stim- 
ulated their  entry  into  many  new  kinds  of  jobs — particularly  cler- 
ical, sales,  professional,  and  service  outside  the  home.  This  diversi- 
fication has  proceeded  at  a  more  rapid  rate  in  the  last  5  years.  As  a 
result,  about  20  percent  of  all  employed  nonwhite  women  were  in 
clerical  or  sales  work  in  1968  compared  with  12  percent  in  1963,  6 
percent  in  1950,  and  2  percent  in  1940.  Similarly,  10  percent  of 
employed  nonwhite  women  were  in  professional  and  technical  oc- 


WOMEN   IN    THE  LABOR  FORCE 


107 


cupations  in  1968  compared  with  7  percent  in  1963,  6  percent  in 
1950,  and  4  percent  in  1940." 


49.    Occupafions  of  Young   Women 

There  were  2.3  million  girls  16  to  19  years  of  age  employed  in 
April  1968  (table  46).  More  than  2  out  of  5  (42  percent)  of  these 
young  workers  were  in  the  clerical  field.  The  next  largest  group 
were  service  workers  outside  the  home  (21  percent)  and  private 
household  workers  (13  percent).  In  only  two  other  major  occupa- 
tion groups — sales  workers  and  operatives — were  there  a  con- 
siderable number  in  this  age  group. 

Table  46. — Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Girls  16  to  19  Years 

OF  Age,  April  1968 


As  percent 

of  total 

Percent 

employed 

Major  occupation  group 

Number 

distribution 

women 

Total    2,280,000  100.0  8.3 

Professional,  technical  workers   70,000  3.1  1.7 

Managers,    officials,    proprietors    (ex- 
cept farm)     4,000  .2  .3 

Clerical   workers    953,000  41.8  10.3 

Sales  workers   230,000  10.1  12.2 

Craftsmen,   foremen    10,000  .4  3.2 

Operatives    203,000  8.9  4.9 

Nonfarm  laborers    12,000  .5  10.3 

Private  household  workers    287,000  12.6  16.6 

Service  workers  (except  private  house- 
hold)      472,000  20.7  11.0 

Farmers,  farm  managers 

Farm  laborers,  foremen 39,000  1.7  8.5 

Source:  U.S.    Department   of    Labor,    Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics:    Employment    and    Earn- 
ings, May  1968. 

Another  measure  of  the  types  of  jobs  held  by  teenage  girls  is 
their  representation  among  all  employed  women  in  the  various 
major  occupation  groups.  Thus,  although  girls  16  to  19  years  of 
age  accounted  for  only  8  percent  of  all  employed  women  in  April 
1968,  they  were  17  percent  of  private  household  workers,  12  per- 
cent of  sales  workers,  and  11  percent  of  service  workers  outside 
the  home.  On  the  other  hand,  they  were  only  a  very  small  propor- 
tion of  managers  and  of  professional  and  technical  workers. 


*  Data  for  1940  and  1950  (from  the  decennial  censuses)  and  for  1963  are  for  persons 
14  years  of  age  and  over,  while  1968  figures  are  for  persons  16  years  of  age  and  over  and 
are  not  strictly  comparable. 


108 


women's  employment  by  occupations  and  industries 


50.    Occupations  of  Mature   Women 

There  were  about  10.8  million  women  45  years  of  age  and  over 
at  work  in  April  1968  (table  47).  Of  these,  about  2.8  million,  or 
26  percent,  were  in  clerical  occupations.  These  occupations  are 
■not  as  popular  for  mature  women  as  they  are  for  all  women 
workers  generally.  The  next  two  largest  occupation  groups  for 
mature  women  in  April  1968  were  service  workers  employed  out- 
side the  home  (16  percent)  and  operatives  (15  percent).  An  addi- 
tional 14  percent  were  in  professional  and  technical  occupations. 
In  this  occupation  group,  mature  women  held  proportionately 
about  as  many  positions  as  did  women  of  all  ages — a  clear  indica- 
tion of  the  rising  demand  for  workers  with  higher  educational 
achievement  irrespective  of  their  age.  Sizable  numbers  of  mature 
women  were  also  employed  as  private  household  workers,  sales 
workers,  and  nonfarm  managers,  officials,  and  proprietors. 


Table  47. — Major  Occupation  Groups  of  Employed  Women  45  Years  of 
Age  and  Over,  April  1968 


As  percent 

of  total 

Percent 

employed 

Major  occupation  group 

Number 

distribution 

women 

Total   10,778,000 

Professional,  technical  workers   1,503,000 

Managers,    officials,    proprietors    (ex- 
cept farm)     719,000 

Clerical    workers    2,835,000 

Sales  workers 909,000 

Craftsmen,   foremen    133,000 

Operatives    1,644,000 

Nonfarm  laborers    42,000 

Private  household  workers   929,000 

Service  workers  (except  private  house- 
hold)      1,773,000 

Farmers,  farm  managers    . .  66,000 

Farm  laborers,  foremen  .  _ .    228,000 

Source :   U.S.  Department  of  Labor.  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics. 


100.0 

39.2 

13.9 

37.4 

6.7 

59.8 

26.3 

30.6 

8.4 

48.3 

1.2 

42.8 

15.3 

39.9 

.4 

36.2 

8.6 

53.8 

16.5 

41.2 

.6 

80.5 

2.1 

49.9 

Additional  information  on  the  types  of  jobs  held  by  mature 
women  may  be  obtained  by  comparing  the  number  of  women  45 
years  of  age  and  over  with  the  total  number  of  employed  women 
in  each  major  occupation  group.  Thus,  although  mature  women 
constituted  only  39  percent  of  all  employed  women  in  April  1968, 
they  were  80  percent  of  the  extremely  small  group  of  women  em- 
ployed as  farmers  and  farm  managers.  Mature  women  were  60 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  109 

percent  of  all  women  employed  as  nonfarm  managers,  officials, 
and  proprietors,  and  nearly  half  of  the  sales  workers  and  of  the 
small  number  of  women  employed  as  farm  laborers  and  foremen. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  representation  of  mature  women  was  low- 
est among  clerical  workers  (31  percent) . 

Industry  Groups  of  Women 

51.    Disfribufion   of   V\^omen   by  Indusfry 

About  98  percent  of  all  employed  women  14  years  of  age  and 
over  were  working  in  nonagricultural  industries  in  1967,  and 
about  three-fifths  of  these  were  engaged  in  the  distribution  of 
goods  and  services  (table  48).  Among  the  11.2  million  women 
providing  services,  6.8  million  were  employed  in  professional  and 
related  services,  such  as  schools,  hospitals,  other  medical  and 
health  facilities,  and  welfare  or  religious  agencies.  About  3.7  mil- 
lion women  provided  personal  services  either  in  private  house- 
holds or  in  establishments  such  as  hotels,  laundries  or  dryclean- 
ers,  and  beauty  shops.  The  remainder,  about  three-quarters  of 
a  million  women,  were  engaged  in  business  and  repair  services  or 
recreation  and  entertainment  services.  Of  the  women  engaged  in 
the  distribution  of  goods,  4.9  million  were  employed  in  retail 
trade  and  more  than  half  a  million  were  in  wholesale  trade. 

Another  5.4  million,  or  20  percent  of  all  employed  women,  were 
employed  in  manufacturing  industries.  In  only  two  other  indus- 
tries— finance,  insurance,  and  real  estate  and  public  administra- 
tion— were  as  many  as  1  million  women  employed. 

Changes  in  women's  employment  by  industry. — Proportion- 
ately more  women  were  employed  in  1967  than  in  1940  in  con- 
struction; transportation,  communication,  and  other  public  utili- 
ties ;  wholesale  trade ;  retail  trade ;  finance,  insurance,  and  real  es- 
tate ;  and  public  administration  as  these  industries  expanded  with 
the  growing  economy.  On  the  other  hand,  smaller  proportions  of 
all  employed  women  were  in  agriculture,  manufacturing,  and  serv- 
ice industries.  The  proportion  of  all  employed  women  in  manu- 
facturing declined  from  1950  to  1967,  after  a  slight  increase  in 
the  preceding  decade.  Within  the  services  industry  group,  the 
proportion  of  women  employed  in  professional  and  related  serv- 
ices rose  significantly — from  17  to  26  percent — in  the  period  1940 
to  1967,  while  the  percentage  in  personal  services  dropped  even 
more  sharply — from  26  to  14  percent. 

Women  as  a  percent  of  all  workers. — Only  in  the  services  in- 


110 


women's  employment  by  occupations  and  industries 


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WOMEN   IN    THE  LABOR   FORCE  111 

dustry  group  were  women  more  than  half  (60  percent)  of  all 
workers  in  1967.  Within  this  industry  group  women  held  62  per- 
cent of  all  jobs  in  professional  and  related  services  and  75  percent 
in  personal  services  but  only  30  percent  in  entertainment  and  rec- 
reation services  and  27  percent  in  business  and  repair  services. 
Women  were  also  well  represented  among  all  workers  both  in  re- 
tail trade  and  in  finance,  insurance,  and  real  estate.  In  fact,  in 
these  two  industry  groups  the  proportion  of  all  workers  who  were 
women  rose  sharply  between  1940  and  1967 — ^from  31  to  43  per- 
cent in  retail  trade  and  from  33  to  48  percent  in  finance,  insur- 
ance, and  real  estate. 

52.    Women  as  Nonfarm   Workers 

Women's  employment  in  detailed  nonagricultural  industries  is 
tabulated  quarterly  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics.  The  figures 
for  women  on  payrolls  of  manufacturing  industries  have  been  is- 
sued since  October  1940  (with  a  few  breaks  in  continuity).  Those 
for  women  on  payrolls  of  nonmanufacturing  industries  date  only 
from  1964,  except  for  selected  industries  for  which  data  have 
been  available  since  1960.  A  recent  expansion  in  data  collection 
makes  available  estimates  of  women  employees  for  386  industries, 
with  totals  for  all  eight  major  industry  divisions.  The  major  in- 
dustry divisions  include  two  (government  and  contract  construc- 
tion) for  which  data  prior  to  1964  are  not  available  and  two  (serv- 
ices and  transportation,  communication,  and  other  public  utili- 
ties) for  which  only  selected  data  were  previously  available.  Be- 
cause these  figures  are  based  on  payroll  data,  they  differ  some- 
what from  the  Bureau  of  the  Census  figures  as  shown  in  table 
48.^ 

In  April  1968  the  estimated  total  number  of  women  on  the  pay- 
rolls of  nonagricultural  industries  was  24.3  million,  an  increase 
of  25  percent  over  the  April  1964  figure  (table  49).  More  than  5 
million  women  were  employed  in  each  of  four  major  industry  di- 
visions: services  (5.5  million),  wholesale  and  retail  trade  (5.4 
million),  manufacturing  (5.4  million),  and  government  (5.3  mil- 
lion). Large  numbers  of  women  were  also  employed  in  finance,  in- 
surance, and  real  estate  (1.7  million)  and  in  transportation,  com- 
munication, and  other  public  utilities  (850,000). 


'  The  two  surveys  cover  different  time  periods  ;  the  Bureau  of  the  Census  survey  includes 
the  aelf-employed,  private  household  workers,  and  unpaid  family  workers  ;  and  the  Bureau  of 
Labor  Statistics  figures  may  include  some  duplication  in  the  case  of  persons  employed  by 
more  than  one  firm. 


112 


WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 


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WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  113 

Women  on  government  payrolls  included  3.6  million  in  local 
government,  of  whom  3  out  of  4  were  in  education.  Of  the  1  mil- 
lion women  employed  by  State  governments,  2  out  of  5  were  in  ed- 
ucation. Comparatively  few  women  were  employed  in  contract 
construction,  the  other  industry  not  previously  reported.  A  ma- 
jority of  these  women  were  employed  by  special  trade  contractors 
in  such  fields  as  electrical  work  and  plumbing,  heating,  and  air 
conditioning. 

The  most  rapid  expansion  in  women's  employment  since  April 
1964  has  occurred  in  local  and  State  government  (43  and  41  per- 
cent, respectively).  Large  increases  have  also  taken  place  in  the 
number  of  women  employed  in  Federal  Government  (33  percent) 
and  in  services  (26  percent).  Women  now  constitute  more  than 
half  of  all  employees  in  services,  local  government,  and  finance, 
insurance,  and  real  estate.  On  the  other  hand,  only  1  out  of  20  em- 
ployees in  construction  is  a  woman. 

Factory  workers. — The  5.4  million  women  working  in  manu- 
facturing industries  in  April  1968  constituted  about  one-fifth  of 
all  employed  women  and  more  than  one-fourth  of  all  manufactur- 
ing employees  (table  50).  Some  of  these  women  worked  in  factory 
offices;  others  were  production  workers.  The  relative  importance 
of  these  two  groups  varies  considerably  from  industry  to  indus- 
try. In  many  of  the  heavy  manufacturing  industries,  less  than 
half  of  the  women  employees  had  production  jobs  in  1960.  In  other 
lighter  manufacturing  industries,  such  as  apparel  and  some  tex- 
tile mills,  as  many  as  four-fifths  of  the  women  were  production 
workers. 

Manufacturing  industries  are  divided  into  those  producing  du- 
rable goods  and  those  producing  nondurable  goods.  Women  are 
more  likely  to  be  employed  in  nondurable  goods  than  in  durable 
goods.  Thus  57  percent  of  all  women  in  manufacturing  in  April 
1968  were  employed  in  plants  producing  "soft"  goods.  Neverthe- 
less, this  concentration  was  not  as  great  as  it  had  been  in  1950 
(67  percent)  or  in  1960  (61  percent). 

Of  the  women  working  in  industries  in  the  nondurable  division, 
more  than  one-third  were  in  apparel  and  related  products.  Two 
other  large  employers  of  women  were  textile  mill  products  and 
food  and  kindred  products.  The  overall  number  of  women  em- 
ployed in  the  manufacture  of  nondurable  goods  increased  16  per- 
cent from  1960  to  1968,  but  the  number  of  women  workers  in- 
creased by  less  than  10  percent  in  textile  mill  products,  leather 
and  leather  products,  and  food  and  kindred  products  and  actually 
decreased  in  tobacco  manufactures  and  petroleum  refining  and  re- 


114 


WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 


Table  50. — Women  in  Manufacturing  Industries,  1960  and  1968 ' 

Percent  As  percent  of 

Number  distribution  total  employed  Percent 

in  '  increase 

Industry                                            1968  1968  1960  1968  1960  1960-68 

Total    5,356,000  100.0  100.0  27.5  25.7  23.5 

NONDURABLE   GOODS 

Subtotal     3,074,000  57.4  61.1  38.4  36.6  16.0 

Apparel  and  related  products   _   1,123,100  21.0  22.1  80.1  78.6  17.0 

Textile  mill  products 441,100  8.2  9.4  45.2  43.4  8.5 

Food  and  kindred  products     ._      415,800  7.8  9.1  25.8  23.1  5.1 
Printing,  publishing,  allied  in- 
dustries         327,000  6.1  5.9  30.9  28.0  28.8 

Chemicals,  allied  products 204,300  3.8  3.5  20.0  18.2  34.1 

Leather,  leather  products 197,800  3.7  4.3  56.0  51.8  6.9 

Rubber,    miscellaneous    plastic 

products     170,100  3.2  2.5  31.1  28.3  58.4 

Paper,   allied   products    147,200  2.7  3.0  21.4  21.7  13.2 

Tobacco  manufactures 30,900  .6  1.0  43.1  50.1  =  26.3 

Petroleum  refining  and  related 

products    16,500  .3  .4  9.0  8.2  '5.2 

DURABLE    GOODS 

Subtotal     2,282,000  42.6  38.9  19.8  17.6  35.3 

Electrical  equipment,  supplies.  _       756,700  14.1  12.2  39.0  36.3  42.5 

Machinery  (except  electrical)    -       284,500  5.3  4.6  14.5  13.1  42.9 

Fabricated  metal  products 241,700  4.5  4.4  17.7  16.6  27.6 

Transportation  equipment 221,900  4.1  4.1  10.9  11.0  25.9 

Instruments,  related  products          157,800  2.9  2.8  35.4  33.5  31.8 

Furniture,  fixtures 103,800  1.9  1.5  22.4  17.1  56.6 

Stone,  clay,  glass  products 101,200  1.9  2.1  15.9  15.3  9.4 

Primary   metal   industries    87,800  1.6  1.8  6.6  5.9  15.4 

Ordnance,   accessories    .         86,400  1.6  .9  25.7  19.0  111.2 

Lumber,  wood  products  (except 

furniture)   57,700  1.1  1.0  9.8  7.0  32.3 

Miscellaneous      manufacturing 

industries    182,600  3.4  3.5  43.5  39.4  19.9 

'  Data  are  for  April  of  each  year. 
'  A  decrease  instead  of  an  increase. 

Source :   U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :   Employment  and  Earnings, 

July   and    August    1968,    and    "Employment    and    Earnings    Statistics    for    the  United    States, 
1909-67."  Bull.  1312-5.  October  1967. 


lated  industries.  Since  1960  the  automation  of  plant  processes 
begun  in  the  1950's  has  continued  in  most  of  these  industries,  re- 
sulting in  a  fairly  stable  or  a  dwindling  demand  for  production 
workers  despite  increases  in  production. 

Women's  employment  in  plants  producing  durable  goods  in- 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  115 

creased  35  percent  from  1960  to  1968.  One-third  of  all  women  em- 
ployed in  durable  goods  manufacturing  in  April  1968  were  in  the 
electrical  equipment  and  supplies  industry.  This  includes  firms 
manufacturing  radio  and  television  sets,  telephones,  electric 
lamps,  electric  measuring  instruments,  and  household  appliances. 

Women  constituted  almost  two-fifths  of  all  workers  in  nondura- 
ble goods  industries  but  only  about  one-fifth  of  the  workers  in  du- 
rable goods  industries.  The  highest  representations  of  women  in 
the  nondurable  goods  group  were  in  apparel  and  related  products 
(80  percent)  and  leather  and  leather  products  (56  percent).  In 
the  durable  goods  group  the  two  industries  having  the  highest 
proportions  of  women  workers  were  electrical  equipment  and  sup- 
plies (39  percent)  and  instruments  and  related  products  (35  per- 
cent). 

Nonmanufacturing  workers. — The  70  nonmanufacturing  indus- 
tries for  which  payroll  data  have  been  available  since  1960  in- 
clude all  divisions  in  retail  trade,  wholesale  trade,  and  finance,  in- 
surance, and  real  estate.  Of  the  4.6  million  women  employed  in  re- 
tail trade  in  April  1968,  1.4  million  were  working  in  general  mer- 
chandise stores  and  almost  1.3  million  in  eating  and  drinking 
places  (table  51).  Only  799,000  women  were  in  wholesale  trade. 
An  additional  1.7  million  women  were  employed  in  finance,  insur- 
ance, and  real  estate,  mainly  in  banks  and  in  certain  insurance 
companies. 

Growth  in  women's  employment  since  1960  has  amounted  to  26 
percent  both  in  retail  trade  and  in  finance,  insurance,  and  real  es- 
tate. Particularly  noteworthy  were  the  increases  in  women's  em- 
ployment in  eating  and  drinking  places  (42  percent)  and  in  bank- 
ing (38  percent).  A  striking  77  percent  increase  occurred  in  the 
security  dealers  and  exchanges  industry,  but  the  total  number  of 
women  employed  was  still  relatively  small. 

Among  service  industries,  large  numbers  of  women  were  em- 
ployed in  April  1968  in  hospitals  (1,326,500),  in  educational  serv- 
ices (508,200),  and  in  laundries  and  cleaning  and  dyeing  plants 
(361,300).  A  few  service  industries  not  surveyed  in  1960  also  had 
large  concentrations  of  women  employees  in  1968.  These  include 
medical  and  health  services  other  than  hospitals  (757,000)  and 
miscellaneous  business  services  other  than  credit  and  advertising 
(358,200). 

Women's  employment  in  hospitals  increased  by  60  percent  from 
1960  to  1968  and  in  college  and  university  educational  services  by 
two-thirds,  but  in  laundries  and  cleaning  and  dyeing  plants  it 
rose  only  slightly. 


116 


WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 


Table  51. — Women  in  Selected  Nonmanufacturing  Industries, 

1960  AND  1968' 

As  percent  of 

Number  total  employed  Percent 

in  increase 

Industry  1968  1968  1960  1960-68 

Retail  trade 4,596,000  44.6  43.3  26.2 

General  merchandise  stores  1,401,900  69.0  72.3  24.8 

Eating,    drinking   places    1,266,500  55.9  54.4  42.0 

Food  stores   557,500  34.2  33.2  24.0 

Apparel,   accessories   464,500  65.3  65.0  5.1 

Furniture,    fixtures     127,500  29.5  28.8  10.5 

Other  retail  stores 778,300  24.0  22.2  25.5 

Finance,  insurance,  real  estate   1,676,000  50.6  50.2  26.2 

Banking    555,700  62.2  61.0  37.5 

Insurance  carriers 483,500  49.9  50.0  17.1 

Real   estate    204,000  34.6  36.5  8.1 

Credit  agencies   (except  banks)    . .  188,700  54.5  54.4  34.3 

Insurance  agents,  brokers,  services  _  144,400  57.0  57.2  30.0 

Security  dealers,  exchanges 61,100  34.1  30.5  77.1 

Other  finance,  insurance,  real  es- 
tate      38,500  49.6  46.5  7.2 

Wholesale  trade   799,000  22.2  22.5  19.6 

Mining    35,000  5.6  5.0  '2.8 

Services    (miscellaneous)  : 

Hospitals    1,326,500  81.3  81.0  60.1 

Laundries,    cleaning    and    dyeing 

plants    361,300  66.1  65.2  5.6 

Hotels,  tourist  courts,  motels 311,900  49.5  49.7  31.8 

Educational  services   508,200  47.0  43.8  52.3 

Colleges,  universities 259,300  40.5  35.2  66.6 

Elementary,  secondary  schools  210,200  58.6  61.2  29.5 

Educational  services  (n.e.c.)    .  38,700  46.8  29.0  144.9 

Legal  services  127,500  63.9  67.8  31.3 

Motion   pictures    67,400  34.3  35.4  1.2 

Credit  reporting,  collection 51,600  72.1  71.6  36.1 

Advertising    49,200  42.4  33.6  33.7 

Engineering,  architectural  services.  40,700  14.3  14.3  50.7 
Transportation,  communication,  other 
public  utilities: 

Communication    490,800  49.9  51.4  14.0 

Electric,  gas,  sanitary  services   -.  98,100  15.1  15.2  5.5 

Trucking,     warehousing     89,700  8.7  8.6  23.0 

Transportation  by  air    80,700  24.7  21.9  93.5 

'  Data  are  for  April  of  each  year. 

^  A  decrease  instead  of  an  increase. 

Source:   U.S.   Department  of   Labor,   Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:    Employment   and   Earnings, 

July  and  August  1968,  and  "Employment  and  Earnings  Statistics  for  the  United  States,  1909- 
67."  Bull.  1312-5.  October  1967. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  117 

The  communication  industry  was  the  only  one  in  the  transpor- 
tation and  public  utilities  group  that  had  more  than  100,000 
women  workers.  In  April  1968,  490,800  women  were  working  in 
this  industry — an  increase  of  14  percent  over  the  number  em- 
ployed in  1960,  The  great  majority  of  these  women  were  tele- 
phone workers. 

Women  generally  constitute  a  higher  proportion  of  all  em- 
ployees in  nonmanufacturing  than  in  manufacturing  industries. 
In  April  1968  women  held  81  percent  of  the  jobs  in  hospitals,  72 
percent  in  credit  reporting  and  collection  agencies,  69  percent  in 
general  merchandise  stores,  66  percent  in  laundries  and  cleaning 
and  dyeing  plants,  and  65  percent  in  apparel  and  accessories 
stores.  On  the  other  hand,  women  were  only  a  small  proportion  of 
all  workers  in  mining  (6  percent)  and  in  trucking  and  warehous- 
ing (9  percent). 

53.    Women  on  Farms 

About  3.8  million  women — only  5  percent  of  the  women  14 
years  of  age  and  over  in  the  United  States — were  estimated  to  be 
living  on  farms  in  the  year  centered  on  April  1967  (table  52). 
This  was  1.3  million  less  than  in  April  1960  (monthly  figure),  the 
earliest  date  for  which  a  comparable  figure  is  available. 

The  number  of  farm  women  in  the  labor  force,  however,  has 
decreased  only  slightly  since  1960,  as  a  larger  proportion  of  all 
farm  women  were  employed  or  seeking  work  in  1967  than  in  1960 
— 36  percent  compared  with  30  percent.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
labor  force  participation  rate  of  men  living  on  farms  declined 
from  85  percent  in  1960  to  81  percent  in  1967. 

About  38  percent  of  the  1.3  million  employed  women  residing 
on  farms  in  1967  were  working  in  agriculture;  a  majority  of  these 
were  unpaid  family  workers.  Another  245,000  women  who  were 
employed  in  agriculture  in  1967  were  not  farm  residents.  There  is 
an  increasing  tendency  for  agricultural  workers  to  live  away 
from  the  farm  and  to  commute  to  work.  In  fact,  nonfarm  resi- 
dents constituted  33  percent  of  the  women  employed  in  agricul- 
ture in  1967  compared  with  22  percent  in  April  1960. 

More  recent  figures  show  there  were  628,000  women  14  years 
of  age  and  over  working  in  agriculture  in  April  1968.^  Of  these, 
82,000  were  farmers  and  farm  managers  and  472,000  were  farm 
laborers  and  foremen.  The  remainder  were  performing  a  variety 
of  clerical,  sales,  or  service  operations  for  agricultural  firms.  One 


*  U.S.   Department  of   Labor,   Bureau   of   Labor   Statistics :    Employment  and   Earnings,   May 
1968. 


118  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 

Table  52. — Employment  Status  of  Women  Living  on  Farms, 
1960  AND  1967^ 

(Women  14  years  of  age  and  over) 

Percent 
Number  distribution 


Employment  status  1967  1960  1967  1960 

Total     3,798,000  5,076,000  100.0  100.0 

In  labor  force 1,384,000  1,523,000  36.4  30.0 

Employed 1,336,000  1,449,000  35.2  28.5 

Agriculture     503,000  637,000  13.2  12.5 

Nonagriculture 833,000  812,000  21.9  16.0 

Unemployed    48,000  74,000  1.3  1.5 

Not  in  labor  force 2,414,000  3,553,000  63.6  70.0 

*  Data  are  for  April  1960  and  April-centered  annual  averages  in  1967. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census:   Current  Population   Reports, 
P-27,  No.  39. 

distinguishing  characteristic  of  these  agricultural  workers  was 
that  they  tended  to  be  older  than  workers  in  nonagricultural  in- 
dustries. More  than  half  of  the  women  employed  in  farm  work 
in  April  1968  were  45  years  of  age  or  over,  and  6  percent  were 
65  years  of  age  or  over. 

The  April  figures  are  fairly  low  for  agricultural  employment, 
as  the  peak  months  of  farm  activity  are  June  and  July.  During 
1968  women's  agricultural  employment  reached  a  maximum  of 
999,000  in  June."  Fluctuations  in  farm  employment  are  much 
greater  than  in  nonagricultural  employment  and  are  one  of  the 
primary  reasons  for  the  seasonal  pattern  of  the  labor  force  as  a 
whole. 


Women   in   Public  Adnninistra+ion 

54.    Women  in  Federal  Civ'ilian  Service 

Legislative  branch. — In  the  legislative  branch  of  the  Federal 
Government,  one  woman  was  in  the  Senate  and  10  women  were  in 
the  House  of  Representatives  in  the  91st  Congress. 

Judicial  branch. — Women  occupied  the  following  Federal 
judgeships  by  Presidential  appointment  as  of  early  1969:  dis- 
trict courts,  five;  Court  of  Customs,  one;  Tax  Court,  two.  In  addi- 
tion, three  women  were  serving  in  District  of  Columbia  courts  by 
Presidential  appointment. 

Ubid.  July  1968. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  119 

Executive  branch,  general.^ — The  highest  ranking  women  in  the 
executive  branch  of  the  Federal  service,  including  the  Foreign 
Service,  in  mid-1969  were  in  the  following  positions:  Assistant 
Secretary  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare  for  Community 
and  Field  Services;  Administrator,  Bureau  of  Security  and 
Consular  Affairs,  Department  of  State;  Special  Assistant  to  the 
President  for  Consumer  Affairs;  Ambassador  to  Norway;  Am- 
bassador to  Nepal;  Ambassador  to  Barbados;  Chairman,  Inter- 
state Commerce  Commission ;  Delegate  to  United  Nations  Human 
Rights  Commission;  Delegate  to  United  Nations  Social  Commis- 
sion of  the  Economic  and  Social  Council;  Administrator,  Social 
and  Rehabilitation  Service,  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and 
Welfare;  Commissioner,  Federal  Trade  Commission;  Commis- 
sioner, Tariff  Commission ;  Commissioner,  Equal  Employment  Op- 
portunity Commission;  Member,  Indian  Claims  Commission; 
Assistant  Administrator  for  Personnel,  Veterans  Administration ; 
Associate  Director  for  Policy  and  Research,  United  States  Infor- 
mation Agency;  Member,  Executive  Committee,  United  Nations 
Educational,  Scientific,  and  Cultural  Organization;  Deputy  As- 
sistant Secretary  of  State  for  Public  Affairs;  Deputy  Assistant 
Secretary  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare  for  Population  and 
Family  Planning;  Deputy  Director,  Office  of  Civil  Defense,  De- 
partment of  the  Army;  Director  of  the  Mint,  Department  of  the 
Treasury;  Director,  Office  of  Territories,  Department  of  the 
Interior;  Director,  Women's  Bureau,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards 
Administration,  Department  of  Labor;  Assistant  Commissioner, 
Office  of  Research  and  Statistics,  Social  Security  Administration, 
Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare;  Assistant  Com- 
missioner of  Education,  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and 
Welfare ;  Assistant  Commissioner  for  Educational  Statistics,  Office 
of  Education,  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare. 

In  June  1967  an  estimated  849,000  women  were  working  for 
the  Federal  Government  (table  53).  This  number  was  considera- 
bly above  the  173,000  employed  in  1939  but  short  of  the  World 
War  II  peak  of  1,111,000. 

Of  the  659,403  women  who  were  employed  full  time  in  October 
1967  in  white-collar  positions,  more  than  7  out  of  10  were  GS  5  or 
the  equivalent  or  less.^  The  majority  were  employed  as  clerks, 
typists,  secretaries,  or  stenographers.  Only  2  percent  of  all 
women  were  in  grades  GS  12  and  above  as  compared  with  21  per- 
cent of  men. 


"  See   section    121    for    discussion    of    policy    on    women    in    the    Federal    civil    service. 
*  U.S.    Civil    Service    Commission,    Bureau    of    Management    Services:    "Study    of    Employment 
of  Women  in  the  Federal  Government,  1967."  June  1968. 


120 


WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 


Table   53. — Women   in   the  Federal   Civilian   Service,    Selected   Years, 

1923-67  ^ 


As  percent 
of  total 
Year  Number  ^  employees 

1967    849,421  30 

1964    601,358  25 

1961    560,593  25 

1958    533,001  24 

1956    533,318  24 

1954    521,945  24 

1952  (Korean  conflict)   601,215  25 

1950    410,327  23 

1947  (return   of  war   veterans)    444,194  24 

1944   (World  War  II  peak)    1,110,545  37 

1939    172,733  19 

1923    81,486  16 

>  Data    are    for    June    of    each    year    except    1944     (July)     and    1956,    1958,     1961,    and     1964 
(December) . 

*  Refers   to   civilian   employees   in   continental   United   States   except   for   1967    when   refers   to 
all  U.S.  citizen  civilian  employees. 

Source :   U.S.  Civil  Service  Commission. 

There  were  164  women  in  grades  GS  16  through  18  or  equiva- 
lent in  full-time  positions.  The  State  Department  (including  AID 
and  Peace  Corps)  had  49  women  in  these  grades;  Health,  Educa- 
tion, and  Welfare,  47 ;  Veterans  Administration,  9 ;  Labor,  8 ;  and 
the  U.S.  Information  Agency,  6.  A  number  of  agencies  had  no 
women  in  these  grades. 

Increasing  numbers  of  young  women  are  taking  the  Federal 
Service  Entrance  Examination  and  being  appointed  to  profes- 
sional positions  at  the  entrance  level.  The  percentage  of  women 
appointed  to  such  positions  nearly  doubled  between  1963  and  1967 
— rising  from  18  to  35  percent.  The  actual  number  of  women  ap- 
pointed, however,  nearly  tripled  during  this  period.  In  addition, 
women  accounted  for  29  percent  of  those  selected  as  management 
interns  in  1967,  as  compared  with  only  14  percent  in  1965. 

Executive  branch,  Foreign  Service. — In  the  international  field 
women  have  held  positions  of  high  rank.  As  far  back  as  1964  the 
United  States  has  been  represented  on  the  Trusteeship  Council  by 
a  woman  holding  the  rank  of  ambassador.  Women  have  repre- 
sented the  United  States  regularly  as  alternate  delegates  to  the 
U.N.  General  Assembly,  and  have  served  on  delegations  to  the 
UNESCO  General  Conference,  UNICEF,  the  Organization  of 
American  States,  and  other  bodies.  (In  1968  a  U.S.  delegate  was 
the  first  woman  elected  to  the  Executive  Board  of  UNESCO.)  In 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE 


121 


1969  women  served  as  representatives  of  the  United  States  on  the 
Social  Commission,  the  Status  of  Women  Commission,  and  the 
Human  Rights  Commission,  and  women  served  in  various  capaci- 
ties in  the  U.S.  Permanent  Mission  to  the  United  Nations.  The 
United  States  is  a  member  of  the  Inter- American  Commission  of 
Women,  and  a  woman  has  represented  the  United  States  in  the 
Inter-American  Children's  Institute.  In  addition,  U.S.  delegations 
to  international  conferences  usually  include  women  among  their 
advisers  and  in  other  technical  capacities. 

A  total  of  3,061  women  were  in  the  Foreign  Service  of  the 
United  States  in  1968  (table  54).  They  equaled  28  percent  of  all 
Foreign  Service  employees.  The  Ambassadors  to  Denmark,  Nor- 
way, and  Nepal  were  the  only  women  among  103  chiefs  of  mis- 
sion. Other  Foreign  Service  officers  included  355  women,  less 
than  one-tenth  of  the  total.  Most  of  the  women  in  this  group  were 
consular  officers  and  political  officers  in  embassies  and  legations. 

About  half  of  the  staff  positions  in  the  Foreign  Service  were 
held  by  women.  They  were  employed  in  a  variety  of  specialized 
occupations,  including  clerk,  stenographer,  typist,  and  secretary, 
as  well  as  assistant  attache,  liaison  officer,  fiscal  oflScer,  consular 
attache,  administrative  assistant,  librarian,  and  political  and  re- 
search analyst. 

Table  54. — Foreign  Service  Personnel,  by  Sex  and  Rank,  March   1968 


Women  Men 

Percent  Percent 

Rank  Total           Number  distribution  Number  distribution 

Total  10,769        3,061  100.0  7,708         100.0 

Foreign  Service  Officers :  ^ 

Chief  of  Mission   103               3  .1  100             1.3 

Career  Ambassador, 

Career  Minister,  and 

Class  1   416               5  .2  411             5.3 

Class  2  and  3 1,674             79  2.6  1,595           20.7 

Class  4  and  5   1,721           156  5.1  1,565           20.3 

Class  6  to  8 1,204           115  3.8  1,089           14.1 

Foreign  Service  Staff: 

Class  1  and  2   400             48  1.6  352             4.6 

Class  3  to  5 1,361           553  18.1  808           10.5 

Class  6  to  8 3,156        1,544  50.4  1,612           20.9 

Class  9  and  10   722           558  18.2  164             2.1 

Consular    agent    11         11               -1 

Unclassified    1         1              (*) 

^Includes  1,615  Foreign  Service  Reserve  Officers    (162  women). 

^  Less  than  0.05  percent. 

Source:   U.S.    Department    of    State:  Summary    of    Employment,    March    31,    1968. 


122  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 

A  study  by  the  President's  Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women 
showed  less  discrepancy  in  promotion  rates  of  men  and  women  in 
the  Foreign  Service  than  in  the  civil  service  generally/"  The 
turnover  among  women  Foreign  Service  officers  is  quite  high  be- 
cause of  the  difficulty  of  combining  marriage  and  a  career  that  re- 
quires frequent  changes  in  assignments. 

55.    Women  in  the  Armed  Services 

Women  in  the  armed  services  of  the  United  States,  who  are  an 
integral  part  of  our  Armed  Forces,  have  been  given  permanent 
status  by  act  of  Congress  and  serve  on  active  duty  as  commis- 
sioned officers  and  in  enlisted  grades.  They  are  on  an  interchange- 
able (noncombatant)  basis  with  their  male  counterparts  and 
provide  a  well-trained  nucleus  that  could  be  expanded  rapidly  in 
the  event  of  mobilization.  While  on  active  duty,  both  officers  and 
enlisted  women  receive  medical  and  dental  care,  annual  vacations, 
educational  and  training  opportunities,  and  social  security  protec- 
tion. 

Women  officers  serve  in  the  grades  of  second  lieutenant  to  colo- 
nel in  the  Army,  Marine  Corps,  and  Air  Force,  and  from  ensign 
to  captain  in  the  Navy.  However,  effective  November  8,  1967, 
Public  Law  90-130  amended  previous  laws  and  removed  certain 
restrictions  on  the  promotional  opportunities  and  career  tenure  of 
women  officers  serving  on  active  duty  in  the  Armed  Forces. 

Programs  for  women  in  the  armed  services  are  divided  into  two 
broad  categories — medical  and  line.  Requirements  for  medical 
personnel  are  based  on  professional  needs. 

At  the  end  of  November  1967  there  were  35,598  women  on  ac- 
tive duty  in  the  armed  services  (table  55).  They  included  2,516 
officers  and  23,667  enlisted  personnel  serving  in  the  "line"  com- 
ponents and  9,415  officers  serving  in  the  medical  professions. 

Women's  peak  participation  in  the  Armed  Forces  was  reached 
in  May  1945,  when  a  total  of  266,184  women  were  in  the  four  mil- 
itary services.  Of  these,  183,484  were  enlisted  women,  67,507 
were  nurses  and  other  medical  personnel,  and  15,193  were 
nonmedical  officers.  In  addition,  there  were  about  10,000  enlisted 
women  and  1,000  women  officers  in  the  Coast  Guard  Women's  Re- 
serve (SPARS).  In  peacetime  SPARS  are  under  the  Transporta- 
tion Department. 

The  direct  commission  program  is  the  major  source  of  officers. 


*"  President's    Commission    on    the    Status    of    Women :    Report    of    the    Committee    on    Federal 
Employment.  October  1963. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


123 


Table    55. — Women  on  Active  Duty  in  the  Armed  Services, 
November  1967 

Officers 

Medical  Enlisted 

Branch  of  service  Total  Line  Nurses       specialists        personnel 

Total     35,598  2,516         8,701  714  23,667 

Army    14,871  924  3,005  436  10,506 

Navy     8,190  550  2,352  88  5,200 

Marine  Corps 2,557  233  C)  (^)  2,324 

Air  Force 9,980  809  3,344  190  5,637 

*  Medical  needs  supported  by  Navy. 

Source:  U.S.    Department    of    Defense,    Defense    Advisory    Committee    on    Women    in    the 
Services. 


With  few  exceptions  a  bachelor's  or  higher  degree  from  an  ac- 
credited college  or  university  is  required  for  a  direct  commission 
as  a  second  lieutenant  or  ensign.  Most  newly  appointed  officers  re- 
ceive military  orientation  and  other  training.  At  the  end  of  their 
training  period,  they  are  assigned  to  a  specialization,  determined 
by  the  needs  of  the  service  and  the  education  and  background  of 
the  officers. 

Enlisted  women  must  have  a  high  school  diploma  or  its  equiva- 
lent. Highly  qualified  enlisted  women  or  noncommissioned  officers 
may  qualify  for  officer  candidate  programs  conducted  by  each  of 
the  four  services.  Upon  successful  completion  of  these  programs, 
they  are  commissioned  as  officers  in  their  respective  services. 

Initial  tours  of  duty  for  officers  in  the  Women's  Army  Corps 
(WAC)  are  for  2  years.  Enlistments  are  for  periods  of  from  2  to 
6  years.  Women  in  the  Navy  (WAVES)  are  obligated  for  a  min- 
imum of  2  years  if  they  are  officers  and  3  years  if  enlisted. 
Women  in  the  Air  Force  (WAF)  have  a  minimum  service  period 
of  4  years  for  both  officers  and  enlisted  personnel,  while  the 
Women  Marine  officers  have  a  duty  obligation  of  3  years  and  the 
enlisted  women  from  3  to  4  years.  The  minimum  age  at  enlist- 
ment, as  well  as  the  length  of  enlistment  period,  varies  not  only 
from  service  to  service  but  also  between  officers  and  enlisted  per- 
sonnel. 

Of  all  women  officers  on  active  duty  at  the  end  of  November 
1967,  79  percent  were  in  the  health  professions.  They  were  as- 
signed to  work  within  the  medical  areas  of  the  Forces — Nurse 
Corps,  Medical  Specialist  Corps,  Medical  Service  Corps,  and  Med- 
ical Corps,  Nurses  alone  accounted  for  over  73  percent  of  all 
women  officers.  Dietitians,  physical  therapists,  occupational  ther- 
apists, and  doctors,  as  well  as  others  in  allied  medical  scientific 


124  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT   BY   OCCUPATIONS   AND   INDUSTRIES 

fields,  accounted  for  the  additional  officers  in  the  military  medical 
services. 

The  remaining  21  percent  of  the  women  officers  were  nonmedi- 
cal or  "line"  officers.  They  performed  a  wide  variety  of  duties, 
ranging  from  staff  positions  at  departmental  level  to  unit  com- 
manders in  the  field.  These  women  were  employed  as  logisticians 
and  operations  officers,  information  experts,  finance  and  disburs- 
ing officers,  personnel  managers,  scientists,  and  lawyers. 

Most  enlisted  women  are  in  military  positions  that  are  closely 
related  to  women's  occupations  in  civilian  life.  Of  all  enlisted 
women  on  active  duty  at  the  end  of  1967,  about  one-fourth  were 
assigned  to  clerical  and  administrative  positions  such  as  clerk- 
typist,  administrator,  payroll  clerk,  personnel  supervisor,  and 
keypunch  operator.  An  additional  one-fourth  of  the  enlisted 
women  were  medical  technicians,  that  is,  X-ray  technicians,  dental 
technicians,  laboratory  technicians,  and  medical  corpsmen.  Other 
enlisted  women  are  in  occupations  that  also  have  direct  civilian 
counterparts,  such  as  meteorologist,  draftsman,  photographer, 
data  programer,  air  traffic  controller,  lithographer,  electronic 
technician,  and  cook.  However,  many  other  enlisted  women  are  em- 
ployed in  work  that  has  no  direct  counterpart  in  civilian  life.  Ex- 
amples of  these  are  image  interpreter,  intelligence  specialist,  and 
cryptographer. 

The  military  services  maintain  an  educational  program  ranging 
from  indoctrination  courses  for  newly  enlisted  personnel  to  post- 
graduate degree  courses  at  universities  throughout  the  country. 
Many  of  these  courses  are  aimed  at  training  enlisted  women  to 
gain  a  skill  either  on  the  job  or  in  one  of  the  schools  operated  by 
each  of  the  services.  Selected  personnel  also  may  enroll  in  civilian 
colleges  in  degree-completion  programs  for  the  purpose  of  acquir- 
ing a  bachelor's  or  higher  degree.  Officers  selected  on  a  "best 
qualified"  basis  are  trained  at  civilian  institutions  at  both  the  un- 
dergraduate and  graduate  levels. 

Postgraduate  education  is  available  to  women  officers  in  the 
professional  fields  to  which  they  have  been  assigned.  In  addition, 
off-duty  college  courses  for  credit  toward  a  degree  are  conducted 
by  civilian  universities  at  most  military  installations  for  the  bene- 
fit of  military  personnel.  Tuition  assistance  is  available. 

Medical  programs  offer  financial  assistance  from  the  Armed 
Forces  to  students  in  certain  medical  areas  who  will  agree  to 
serve  in  their  specialties  in  the  Armed  Forces  in  return  for  such 
aid.  The  active  duty  required  varies  according  to  the  amount  of 
aid  rendered. 


WOMEN  IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  125 

The  Veterans  Administration  estimates  that  at  the  end  of  De- 
cember 1967  there  were  approximately  497,000  women  veterans, 
about  2  percent  of  all  war  veterans.  Of  the  414,000  women  veter- 
ans in  1965,  22,000  were  veterans  from  World  War  I;  317,000, 
from  World  War  II ;  and  75,000,  from  the  Korean  conflict.  In  ad- 
dition, there  were  400  nurses  from  the  Spanish-American 
War.  No  recent  information  is  available  on  the  number  of  women 
veterans  receiving  compensation  or  pensions.  Women  and  men 
veterans  are  entitled  to  the  same  benefits,  such  as  life  insurance 
coverage,  reemployment  rights,  and  educational  benefits.  Qualified 
women  may  also  apply  for  Reserve  service.  Women  reservists,  de- 
pending upon  their  Reserve  status,  participate  in  weekly  drills 
and  summer  training  with  their  units.  They  may  be  called  to  ac- 
tive duty  in  the  event  of  a  national  emergency,  the  same  as  men 
reservists. 

56.    Women  in  Sfafe  Office 

From  370  in  1965,  the  number  of  women  in  State  legislatures 
declined  to  318  in  1967 — 45  in  upper  houses,  270  in  lower  houses, 
and  three  in  Nebraska's  unicameral  legislature.  There  was  at 
least  one  woman  in  the  lower  house  of  every  State  in  1967. 
Women  held  seats  in  the  upper  house  of  30  States.  In  New  Hamp- 
shire 15  percent  of  the  400  seats  in  the  house  of  representatives 
were  held  by  women;  in  Arizona  15  percent  of  60  seats  in  the 
lower  house  were  held  by  women.  Vermont  and  Nevada,  with  13 
percent,  were  the  only  other  States  in  which  more  than  10  per- 
cent of  the  seats  in  the  lower  house  were  held  by  women.  About 
17  percent  of  the  members  of  the  Delaware  Senate  were  women; 
in  Connecticut  and  Maryland  women  accounted  for  11  and  9  per- 
cent, respectively,  of  the  members  of  the  upper  house.  In  Texas, 
Kansas,  South  Carolina,  and  Alabama,  women  were  less  than  1 
percent  of  the  members  of  the  lower  house.  In  New  York  and  Cal- 
ifornia no  women  served  in  the  senate,  and  only  five  out  of  150 
seats  in  the  house  of  representatives  in  New  York  and  three  out 
of  80  seats  in  the  lower  house  in  California  were  held  by  women. 

In  1967  women  in  19  States  had  achieved  statewide  elective  po- 
sitions other  than  in  the  legislature.  One  woman  was  elected  Gov- 
ernor of  her  State.  Ten  women  were  elected  to  State  boards  of  ed- 
ucation, and  seven  each  were  elected  secretary  of  state  and  trea- 
surer. Others  served  as  auditor,  superintendent  of  public  instruc- 
tion, supreme  court  justice,  registrar  of  State  land  office,  and  su- 
preme court  clerk.  In  Colorado  five  of  a  total  of  23  statewide  elec- 


126        women's  employment  by  occupations  and  industries 

tive  posts  were  held  by  women ;  in  Alabama,  four  of  18 ;  in  Wyo- 
ming, four  of  nine;  in  Arizona,  three  of  18;  in  Utah,  three  of  19; 
and  in  Delaware,  two  of  six. 

57.    Women  Mayors 

In  1966  a  total  of  100  women  were  serving  as  mayors  in  30 
States  compared  with  112  in  32  States  in  1964/^  States  report- 
ing women  mayors  in  1966  but  not  in  1964  were  Michigan,  Mis- 
souri, New  Hampshire,  Utah,  and  Wyoming.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  following  States  had  women  mayors  in  1964  but  not  in  1966 : 
Alaska,  Hawaii,  Louisiana,  Massachusetts,  Oregon,  Pennsylvania, 
and  Virginia.  In  1966  California  and  Iowa  each  had  eight  women 
mayors;  Georgia,  Illinois,  and  Kansas,  six;  and  Oklahoma  and 
Kentucky,  five. 

Another  survey  in  1967  showed  women  mayors  in  two  States 
not  previously  listed — Delaware  and  South  Carolina.^-  There 
were  also  five  women  mayors  in  Puerto  Rico  in  1967. 

Several  of  the  20  States  that  reported  no  women  mayors  in 
1966  listed  many  women  holding  important  elective  and  appoint- 
ive offices. 


'*  Survey  made  by  the  Montana  Municipal  League,  Shelby,  Montana. 
^  Montana  Municipal  League,  Shelby,  Montana. 


WOMEN'S   INCOME  AND   EARNINGS 


Income  and  earnings,  both  strongly  influenced  by  length  and 
type  of  work  experience,  are  two  measures  of  women's  economic 
status. 

Income  statistics,  as  reported  by  the  Bureau  of  the  Census,  U.S. 
Department  of  Commerce,  include  income  from  all  sources — not 
only  wages,  salaries,  earnings  from  self-employment,  rents,  and 
returns  from  investment  such  as  dividends  and  interest,  but  also 
income  from  insurance  policies,  pensions,  old-age  and  survivors 
insurance  benefits,  and  aid  to  families  with  dependent  children,  as 
well  as  other  forms  of  public  assistance. 

Factors  Affecting  Earnings 

Payroll  earnings,  the  major  source  of  income  reported  by 
women,  are  compensation  received  in  such  forms  as  wages,  sala- 
ries, piece  rate  payments,  and  cash  bonuses.  These  earnings  vary 
widely  among  individuals  since  they  are  influenced  by  such  fac- 
tors as  type  of  job,  skill  requirements  of  the  job,  character  of  the 
employing  industry,  geographical  location  of  the  plant  or  office, 
size  of  the  company,  and  extent  of  unionization.^ 

Women  tend  to  receive  lower  income  and  earnings  than  men, 
mainly  because  of  differences  in  types  of  jobs  held,  job  training, 
and  continuity  of  work  experience.  Large  numbers  of  women 
work  in  traditionally  low-paying  occupations  and  low-wage  indus- 
tries. 

A  significant  difference  between  women  workers  and  men 
workers  is  the  intermittent  nature  of  women's  lifetime  work  pat- 
tern. Nearly  all  women  workers  interrupt  their  employment  at 
some  time  for  marriage  and  for  bearing  and  rearing  children. 
When  they  return  to  the  labor  force,  many  can  work  only  part 
time  or  part  of  the  year  because  of  continued  home  responsibili- 


'  Information  on  wages  and  salaries  paid  by  employers  for  a  specific  job  may  be  obtained 
from  local  public  employment  service  offices.  There  are  more  than  2,000  of  these  offices  in 
the  Nation. 

127 


128 


women's  income  and  earnings 


ties.  Thus — whether  clerical  workers,  operatives,  or  professional 
workers — they  will  have  lost  ground  in  terms  of  job  seniority  and 
work  experience  to  qualify  for  promotion  at  the  same  rate  as 
men. 


Income  of  Families  and  Women 

58.    Family  Income 

The  48.9  million  families  in  the  Nation  had  a  median  income  of 
$7,436  in  1966  (table  56).  About  14  percent  had  incomes  of  less 
than  $3,000,  sometimes  defined  as  the  poverty  level,  and  46  per- 
cent received  less  than  $7,000,  considered  a  level  of  "modest  ade- 
quacy." About  37  percent  received  $9,000  or  more.  An  income  of 
$9,191  in  1966  dollars  was  considered  necessary  for  an  urban 
family  of  four  to  enjoy  a  moderate  standard  of  living  according  to 
the  new  City  Worker's  Family  Budget.^ 

The  median  income  of  families  has  been  rising  steadily.  In  1966 
it  was  about  $1,200  above  the  median  income  received  5  years  pre- 
viously and  more  than  $1,700  above  that  received  10  years  pre- 
viously, even  when  expressed  in  terms  of  constant  purchasing 
power  which  takes  into  account  changing  prices. 

Table  56. — Median  Income  of  Families,  by  Type  of  Family,  1966 

Median  income  of 
All  families  families  headed 

by  year-round 

Percent  Median  full-time 

Type  of  family  Number  distribution        income  worker 

Total     48,922,000         100.0         $7,436  $8,693 

Male  head   43,750,000  89.4  7,803  8,845 

Married  (wife  present)   _  42,553,000  87.0  7,838  8,861 
Wife   in   paid   labor 

force    15,005,000  30.7  9,246  10,071 

Wife    not    in    paid 

labor  force 27,548,000  56.3  7,128  8,168 

Other  marital  status   ._  1,197,000  2.4  6,432  7,973 

Female  head 5,172,000  10.6  4,010  5,614 

Source :   U.S.  Department  of  Ck)mmerce,   Bureau   of   the   Census :   Current   Population  Reports, 
P-60,  No.  53. 

One  factor  in  the  rise  in  family  income  is  the  increase  in  the 
proportion  of  families  who  have  income  from  both  earnings  and 
other  sources.  The  proportion  of  families  with  income  from  mul- 

^  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  "City  Worker's  Family  Budget, 
Autumn  1966."  Bull.  1570-1.  1967. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE  129 

tiple  sources  increased  from  only  23  percent  in  1951  to  49  percent 
in  1966.  Such  families  had  a  median  income  in  1966  of  $8,600, 
which  was  approximately  $1,300  more  than  that  for  families  with 
income  from  earnings  only.  Only  a  small  proportion  of  families  (2 
percent  in  1966)  depend  solely  on  self -employment  income. 

An  increase  in  the  proportion  of  families  with  more  than  one 
wage  earner  also  has  tended  to  raise  family  income.  In  1951  only 
39  percent  of  all  families  had  two  or  more  earners,  while  55  per- 
cent had  one  earner  and  6  percent  had  no  earner.  By  comparison 
in  1966,  50  percent  had  two  or  more  earners  (13  percent  had  at 
least  three),  42  percent  had  one  earner,  and  8  percent  had  none. 
The  proportion  of  working  wives  among  the  husband-wife  fam- 
ilies with  income  increased  sharply — from  23  percent  in  1951  to 
35  percent  in  1966. 

Increased  occupational  skills  of  the  labor  force  have  also  con- 
tributed to  the  rise  in  family  income.  The  proportion  of  family 
heads  employed  as  professional  or  technical  workers  rose  from  8 
percent  in  March  1952  to  14  percent  in  March  1967.  The  median 
income  in  1966  of  families  headed  by  a  worker  in  this  category 
was  approximately  32  percent  higher  than  the  median  income  of 
all  families  with  an  employed  head. 

hicome  of  hushand-wife  families. — Median  income  in  1966  for 
all  the  42.6  million  husband-wife  families  was  $7,838.  For  the  15 
million  families  in  which  the  wife  was  a  paid  worker,  the  median 
income  was  $9,246.  This  was  30  percent  higher  than  the  median 
income  of  $7,128  for  families  in  which  the  wife  was  not  in  the 
paid  labor  force.  Seventy-one  percent  of  the  families  with  work- 
ing wives  had  incomes  of  $7,000  or  more  compared  with  51  per- 
cent of  those  with  wives  not  in  the  labor  force.  (See  sec.  22  for 
working  wives'  contribution  to  family  income.)  An  undetermined, 
although  small,  percentage  of  husband-wife  families  had  some  in- 
come from  the  earnings  of  other  family  members.  In  a  very  small 
percentage  of  husband-wife  families,  the  husband  was  not  work- 
ing. 

Income  of  female-head  families. — More  than  one-tenth  of  all 
families  were  headed  by  a  woman  in  1966.  Their  median  income 
was  only  $4,010.  Families  in  which  the  woman  head  was  a  year- 
round  full-time  worker  did  better — their  median  income  was 
$5,614.  However,  this  was  still  substantially  below  the  $8,168  me- 
dian income  of  male-head  families  in  which  the  head  worked  year 
round  full  time  but  the  wife  was  not  in  the  paid  labor  force.  In 
only  30  percent  of  the  families  headed  by  a  woman  was  the  fam- 
ily head  a  full-time  breadwinner  compared  with  72  percent  of  the 


130        women's  income  and  earnings 

male-head  families.  Only  22  percent  of  the  families  with  a  female 
head  had  incomes  of  $7,000  or  more.  Detailed  data  from  the  1960 
census  indicate  that  female-head  families  depend  to  a  larger  ex- 
tent than  do  husband-wife  families  on  income  from  other  family 
members.  (For  other  characteristics  of  female-head  families,  see 
sec.  20.) 

Families  living  in  poverty. — Despite  the  continuing  rise  in  fam- 
ily income,  6.1  million  families  were  living  in  poverty  in  1966 
(table  57).  In  1959  poor  families  had  numbered  8.3  million. 

Of  those  families  who  were  poor  in  1966,  1.8  million  were 
headed  by  a  woman.  Although  families  headed  by  a  woman  con- 
stituted only  11  percent  of  all  families,  they  accounted  for  30  per- 
cent of  all  poor  families.  The  proportion  of  all  poor  nonwhite 
families  that  were  headed  by  a  woman  was  even  greater — 41  per- 
cent. 

The  likelihood  of  poverty  is  greater  among  families  headed  by 
a  woman  than  among  husband-wife  families.  The  likelihood  is 
even  greater  if  the  families  headed  by  a  woman  are  nonwhite.  In 
1966,  8  percent  of  the  white  and  27  percent  of  the  nonwhite  hus- 
band-wife families  were  poor.  But  28  percent  of  the  white  and  60 
percent  of  the  nonwhite  families  headed  by  a  woman  lived  in  pov- 
erty. 

Poverty  is  less  frequent  among  both  white  and  nonwhite  hus- 
band-wife families  if  the  wife  is  in  the  paid  labor  force.  About  3 
percent  of  the  white  husband-wife  families  were  poor  in  1966  if 
the  wife  was  in  the  paid  labor  force;  11  percent,  if  she  was  not. 
The  comparable  percentages  for  nonwhite  husband-wife  families 
were  19  and  34  percent,  respectively. 

About  24.8  million  of  the  29.7  million  poor  persons  m  1966 
were  family  members.  They  included  12.5  million  children  under 
18  years  of  age — 7.5  million  white  and  5  million  nonwhite.  About 
1  out  of  3  children  in  both  white  and  nonwhite  poor  families  were 
under  6  years  of  age. 


Children  under  18  years  living 

in  poverty 

in  1966 

Number  (in  thousands) 

As  % 
child 
Total 

>ercent  of  all 
ren  under  18 

Type  of  family 

Total 

White 

Nonwhite 

White     Nonwhite 

Total    

Male  head 

Female   head    

12,540 
8,117 

4,423 

7,526 
5,280 
2,246 

5,014 
2,837 

2,177 

18.0 
13.0 
61.0 

12.6               49.2 

9.6            oo.z 
50.2            78.4 

Nonwhite  children  were  nearly  four  times  as  likely  as  white 
children  to  be  poor  in  1966.  Forty-nine  percent  of  all  nonwhite 
children  were  members  of  poor  families  as  compared  with  13  per- 
cent of  all  white  children.  The  incidence  of  poverty  among  chil- 
dren was  highest  (78  percent)  in  nonwhite  families  headed  by  a 
woman. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


131 


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132 


women's  income  and  earnings 


59.    Income  of  Women   Compared  With  That  of  Men 

Differences  in  income  received. — During  1966,  61  percent  of  the 
women  14  years  of  age  and  over  in  the  population  and  92  percent 
of  the  men  received  some  income  of  their  own  (table  58),  The  me- 
dian income  received  by  women,  however,  was  substantially  below 
that  received  by  men.  The  median  income  of  the  44.1  million 
women  who  had  income  of  their  own  was  $1,638,  or  less  than 
one-third  the  $5,306  median  received  by  the  60.1  million  men  with 
income.  The  median  wage  or  salary  income  of  women  was  $2,149; 
that  of  men,  $5,693.  The  difference  in  the  income  of  year-round 
full-time  workers  was  not  as  great,  but  was  still  substantial. 
Women  year-round  full-time  workers  had  a  median  wage  or  sal- 
ary income  of  $3,973 ;  men,  $6,848. 

Table  58. — Income  of  Women  and  Men,  1966 

(Persons  14  years  of  age  and  over) 


Total 
money  income 


Wage  or  salary 
income 


Women 


Men 


Women 


Men 


TOTAL    INCOME   RECIPIENTS 

Number     (in     thousands)      44,067  60,088         31,455         48,125 

Percent  of   population    61.0  92.0  43.6  73.7 

Median  income $1,638  $5,306         $2,149         $5,693 

Percent  distribution 
Total   100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0 

Under   $1,000    35.9  12.9  32.7  13.7 

$1,000  to  $1,999   19.4  10.1  15.1  6.6 

$2,000  to  $2,999   12.6  8.2  13.5  6.2 

$3,000  to  $3,999   11.6  7.9  14.0  7.5 

$4,000  to  $4,999   8.2  7.8  10.1  8.5 

$5,000  and  over   12.5  53.1  14.7  57.5 

YEAR-ROUND    FULL-TIME   WORKERS 

Percent  of  total  income  recipients  30.0  60.2  40.5  67.2 

Median  income   $4,026  $6,955         $3,973         $6,848 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census:   Current  Population   Reports. 
P-60,  No.  53. 

A  comparison  of  the  percentage  of  women  and  men  at  various 
income  levels  further  illustrates  the  striking  differences  between 
the  total  money  income  of  women  and  men.  For  example,  in 
1966,  36  percent  of  the  women  with  income  but  only  13  percent 
of  the  men  had  less  than  $1,000;  and  55  percent  of  the  women  but 
only  23  percent  of  the  men  had  less  than  $2,000.  At  the  upper  end 
of  the  income  scale,  only  13  percent  of  the  women  but  53  percent 
of  the  men  had  $5,000  or  more. 


WOMEN    IN    THE   LABOR  FORCE 


133 


Trends  in  income  differences. — It  is  not  unexpected  that  women 
receive  a  smaller  average  annual  income  than  do  men  when  total 
wage  or  salary  incomes  are  compared,  since  a  much  smaller  pro- 
portion of  women  than  men  work  full  time  the  year  round.  In 
1966,  for  instance,  only  41  percent  of  the  women  but  67  percent  of 
the  men  were  full-time  year-round  workers.  (For  a  discussion  of 
women's  part-time  and  part-year  work  patterns,  see  sees.  31,  34, 
and  35.) 

However,  a  comparison  of  median  wage  or  salary  incomes  of 
full-time  year-round  women  and  men  workers  reveals  not  only 
that  the  incomes  of  women  are  considerably  less  than  those  of 
men  but  also  that  the  gap  has  widened  in  recent  years  (chart  P). 
In  1956,  for  example,  among  full-time  year-round  wage  or  salary 
workers,  women's  median  income  of  $2,827  was  63  percent  of  the 


Cl«rl  f 

THE  EARNINGS  GAP  BETWEEN  WOMEN  AND  MEN  IS  WIDENING 

(Median  Wage  or  Salary  Income  of  YearRound  Full-Time  Workers,  by  Sex,  1956-66) 

$7,500 

Wage  or  Salary  Income 

$6,500 

Men   ^ — -"^ 

$5,500 

^ 

$4,500 

--^'^"^ 

$3,500 

Women         ^ — — 

$2,500 

,^                                                                                                          -^ 

0 
19 

III            1           1           1           1           1           1 

56        1957       1958       1959        1960       1961        1962       1963      1964       1965       19 

66 

Source:  US.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census 


134        women's  income  and  earnings 

$4,466  received  by  men.  Women's  median  wage  or  salary  income 
rose  to  $3,973  in  1966,  while  men's  rose  to  $6,848.  Both  sexes  had 
significant  increases  in  income,  but  because  women's  income  in- 
creased at  a  slower  rate  their  median  income  in  1966  was  only  58 
percent  of  that  of  men. 

Occupational  income  differences. — A  comparison  of  wage  or  sal- 
ary income  of  full-time  year-round  women  workers  in  selected 
occupation  groups  with  that  of  men  shows  that  women's  relative 
income  position  deteriorated  in  most  occupations  during  the  pe- 
riod 1956  to  1966  (table  59). 

The  median  wage  or  salary  income  of  women  clerical  workers 
dropped  from  72  percent  of  that  of  men  in  1956  to  67  percent  in 
1966;  that  of  women  operatives,  from  62  percent  in  1956  to  56 
percent  in  1966,  after  reaching  a  peak  of  63  percent  in  1959 ;  and 
that  of  women  sales  workers,  from  a  peak  of  45  percent  in  1957 
to  41  percent  in  1966,  although  this  was  higher  than  in  1961  and 
1963  (39  percent).  Income  of  women  managers,  officials,  and  pro- 
prietors also  declined  in  relation  to  that  of  men — from  a  high  of 
64  percent  in  1957  to  54  percent  in  1966,  although  this  repre- 
sented a  slight  increase  over  the  low  of  52  percent  in  1965. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  wage  or  salary  income  of  professional 
and  technical  women  workers  as  a  percent  of  men's  was  higher  in 
1966  (65  percent)  than  in  1956  (62  percent),  after  reaching  a 
peak  of  68  percent  in  1961  and  1965.  Women  service  workers  not 
in  private  households  were  in  about  the  same  position  relative  to 
men  in  1956  and  1966.  Their  wage  of  salary  income  was  55  per- 
cent of  men's  in  both  years,  after  reaching  a  peak  of  59  percent  in 
1960. 


60.    Income  of  Women  by  Work  Experience 

Although  not  affecting  the  comparison  of  full-time  year-round 
earnings  for  men  and  women,  women's  part-time  and  part-year 
employment  accounts  in  part  for  the  differences  in  median  income 
between  men  and  women.  This  type  of  work  pattern  necessarily 
reduces  average  annual  earnings  substantially.  During  1966,  for 
instance,  22.7  million  women  employed  in  full-time  jobs  had  a  me- 
dian income  of  $3,160  (table  60).  In  contrast,  the  median  income 
of  the  8.9  million  women  with  part-time  jobs  amounted  to  only 
$827.  There  is  also  a  wide  income  differential  between  women 
who  work  full  time  the  year  round  and  those  who  work  part  time 
the  year  round.  Thus  in  1966  the  median  income  of  the  13.2  mil- 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


135 


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136        women's  income  and  earnings 

lion  women  in  the  former  group  was  $4,026,  while  that  of  the  2.7 
million  who  worked  part  time  the  year  round  was  only  $1,504. 


Table  60. — Median  Income  of  Women  Workers  in  1966,  by 
Work  Experience 

(Women  14  years  of  age  and  over) 

Women  with  full-time  Women  with  part-time 

jobs  ^  jobs  2 

Median  Median 

Work  experience  Number '  income  Number '  income 

Total     22,657,000  $3,160  8,943,000  $    827 

50  to  52  weeks ..  13,225,000  4,026  2,710,000  1,504 

40  to  49  weeks 2,362,000  3,042  935,000  1,286 

27  to  39  weeks 2,205,000  2,243  1,150,000  996 

14  to  26  weeks 2,336,000  1,335  1,701,000  605 

13  weeks  or  less 2,529,000  497  2,447,000  372 

'  Worked  35  hours  or  more  a  week. 
^  Worked  less  than  35  hours  a  week. 
'  Refers  to  women  with  income  and  includes  members  of  the  Armed  Forces. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,   Bureau  of  the  Census :   Current  Population   Reports, 
P-60,  No.  53. 

61.   Wage  or  Salary  Income  of  White  and  N on  white 
Women 

The  median  wage  or  salary  income  of  nonwhite  women  who 
worked  full  time  year  round  in  1966  was  $2,949  (table  61).  This 
was  about  three-fourths  (71  percent)  of  the  median  income  of 
white  women,  and  an  improvement  over  past  years.  The  gap  in  in- 
come between  the  white  and  nonwhite  groups  had  narrowed  more 
significantly  for  women  than  for  men  during  the  27  years  since 
1939,  when  nonwhite  women  received  less  than  two-fifths  (38 
percent)  as  much  as  white  women.  In  contrast,  the  gap  for  men 
narrowed  by  only  18  percentage  points.  The  median  income  of 
nonwhite  men  who  worked  year  round  full  time  was  63  percent  of 
white  men's  in  1966 ;  it  was  45  percent  in  1939. 

The  gap  between  the  income  of  nonwhite  and  v^hite  women 
workers  is  explained  largely  by  the  greater  occupational  concen- 
tration of  nonwhite  women  in  low-wage  and  low-skill  jobs  and 
their  geographical  concentration  in  Southern  States,  where  in- 
comes are  lower  than  in  other  regions  of  the  country.  Some  prog- 
ress has  been  made,  hovi^ever,  in  raising  the  educational  and  skill 
levels  of  nonwhite  girls  and  in  Opening  up  employment  opportuni- 
ties to  them. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


137 


Table  61.— Median  Wage  or  Salary  Income  of  Year-Round  Full-Time 
Workers,  by  Sex  and  Color,  1939  and  1956-66 

(Persons  14  years  of  age  and  over) 


Median  wage  or 
salary  income 


Year 


White 


Nonwhite 


Nonwhite 

income  as 

percent  of 

white  income 


WOMEN 

1966  $4,152  $2,949       71.0 

1965  3,991  2,816       70.6 

1964  3,859  2,674       69.3 

1963  3,723  2,368       63.6 

1962  3,601  2,278       63.3 

1961  3,480  2,325       66.8 

1960  3,410  2,372       69.6 

1959  3,306  2,196       66.4 

1958  3,225  1,988       61.6 

1957  3,107  1,866       60.1 

1956  2,958  1,637       55.3 

1939  863  327       37.9 

men 

1966 $7,164  $4,528       63.2 

1965  6,704  4,277       63.8 

1964  6,497  4,285       66.0 

1963  6,277  4,104       65.4 

1962  6,025  3,799       63.1 

1961  5,880  3,883       66.0 

1960  5,662  3,789       66.9 

1959  5,456  3,339       61.2 

1958  5,186  3,368       64.9 

1957  4,950  3,137       63.4 

1956  4,710  2,912       61.8 

1939  1,419  639       45.0 

Source:   U.S.   Department  of  Commerce,   Bureau   of   the   Census:    Current  Population   Reports, 
P-60,  Nos.  53,  51,  47,  43,  41,  39,  37,  35,  33,  30,  and  27. 

Nonwhite  women  are  also  in  an  unfavorable  income  position 
relative  to  nonwhite  men.  Among  full-time  year-round  workers, 
the  1966  median  wage  or  salary  income  of  nonwhite  women  was 
only  65  percent  of  that  of  nonwhite  men.  This  was,  however, 

slightly  better  than  the  proportion  (58  percent)  that  the  median 
wage  or  salary  income  of  all  women  was  of  that  of  all  men. 


62.    Income  by  Age 

When  women's  income  is  analyzed  in  terms  of  the  ages  of  the 
women  involved,  important  differences  are  found  in  the  propor- 
tions who  receive  income  as  well  as  in  the  amount  received. 


138        women's  income  and  earnings 

In  1966  the  age  group  with  the  greatest  proportion  receiving 
income  (83  percent)  was  that  of  women  65  years  and  over.^  This 
proportion,  which  increased  sharply  during  the  1950's  and  early 
1960^8,  reflects  the  rising  number  of  women  who  receive  social  se- 
curity benefits  and  private  or  public  pensions.  The  next  highest 
proportion  (70  percent)  was  among  young  women  20  to  24  years 
of  age.  Among  women  25  to  64  years  of  age,  the  proportions  re- 
ceiving income  in  1966  ranged  from  54  to  64  percent.  Only  46  per- 
cent of  girls  14  to  19  years  of  age  received  some  income. 

In  amount,  the  median  income  of  v^^omen  rose  sharply  from 
$423  for  girls  14  to  19  years  old  to  $2,126  for  the  young  adult 
group  20  to  24  years  old.  Among  women  25  to  54  years  of  age,  it 
increased  only  moderately,  to  a  peak  of  $2,758  for  those  45  to  54 
years  old;  then  it  dropped  to  $2,214  for  women  55  to  64  years  old, 
and  finally  to  $1,085  for  women  65  years  and  over.  Men's  peak  in- 
come ($7,305)  was  received  by  those  35  to  44  years  old. 

63.  Income  by  Occupation 

The  wage  or  salary  income  of  women  and  men  is  obviously  in- 
fluenced by  the  type  of  job  they  hold.  Occupations  that  require 
greater  skills  and  more  knowledge  naturally  pay  better  than 
those  that  involve  only  routine  duties.  Among  women  who  were 
year-round  full-time  workers  in  1966,  the  highest  medians  were 
paid  to  professional  and  technical  workers  ($5,826)  and  nonfarm 
managers,  officials,  and  proprietors  ($4,919)  (table  62).  In  the 
clerical  field,  where  nearly  1  out  of  3  women  workers  was  em- 
ployed, the  median  was  still  relatively  high  ($4,316).  On  the 
other  hand,  women  working  as  operatives  earned  only  about 
three-fifths  as  much  as  women  professional  workers,  and  women 
sales  and  service  workers  outside  the  home  earned  about  half  as 
much  as  the  most  skilled  group  of  women.  At  the  low  end  of  the 
wage  or  salary  income  scale,  women  private  household  workers 
averaged  only  $1,297  even  when  they  worked  full  time  the  year 
round. 

64.  Income  by  Education 

There  is  a  definite  correlation  between  educational  accom- 
plishment and  income  among  both  women  and  men :  those  with 
the  least  schooling  have  the  lowest  incomes,  and  those  with  the 
most  formal  education  have  the  highest.   The  pattern  shown  pre- 


'  U.S.   Department  of   Commerce,    Bureau   of   the   Census :    Current   Population   Reports,    P-60, 
No.  53. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  139 

viously,  however,  when  the  income  and  earnings  of  women  and 
men  were  compared  is  repeated  here:  at  all  levels  of  educational 
attainment  the  median  income  received  by  women  is  substantially 
below  the  median  income  of  men. 

Table  62. — Median  Wage  or  Salary  Income  of  Year-Round  Full-Time 
Workers,  by  Major  Occupation  Group  and  Sex,  1966 

(Persons  14  years  of  age  and  over) 
Major  occupation  group  Women  Men 

Professional,  technical  workers  $5,826  $8,945 

Managers,  officials,  proprietors  (except  farm)    4,919  9,103 

Clerical  workers   4,316  6,487 

Sales  workers 3,103  7,569 

Craftsmen,  foremen 4,345  7,197 

Operatives 3,416  6,112 

Nonfarm  laborers  C)  4,946 

Private  household  workers   1,297  C) 

Service  workers   (except  private  household)    2,815  5,078 

Farmers,   farm    managers    O  1,229 

Farm  laborers,  foremen   O  2,489 

^  Median  not  shown  where  base  is  less  than  75,000. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,   Bureau  of  the  Census :   Current  Population  Reports, 
P-60,  No.  53. 

Among  the  34  million  women  25  years  of  age  and  over  who  re- 
ceived some  money  income  in  1966,  those  with  5  years  of  college 
or  more  had  the  highest  median  income  ($6,114)  (chart  Q). 
Women  who  had  completed  4  years  of  college  had  only  68  percent 
($4,165)  of  the  median  income  of  those  with  first  professional  de- 
grees or  at  least  a  year  of  graduate  study,  and  women  high  school 
graduates  had  only  64  percent  ($2,673)  of  the  median  income  of 
those  who  had  completed  4  years  of  college.  Women  with  8  years 
of  schooling  had  only  53  percent  ($1,404)  of  the  median  income 
of  high  school  graduates. 

A  comparison  of  the  median  income  received  by  women  and 
men  with  equal  amounts  of  schooling  shows  that  generally  the 
more  education  women  have  the  more  nearly  their  income  ap- 
proaches that  of  men.  Thus  among  women  and  men  who  had  com- 
pleted only  8  years  of  school,  women's  median  income  in  1966  was 
only  31  percent  of  men's ;  among  those  with  4  years  of  high  school 
but  no  college,  women's  median  income  was  39  percent  of  men's ; 
and  among  those  who  had  completed  4  years  of  college,  women's 
median  income  was  43  percent  of  men's.  The  income  of  women  with 
5  years  of  college  or  more  came  closest  (61  percent)  to  that  of 
men. 


140 


women's  income  and  earnings 


i 

J|b^^HH|  education  and  earning  power  60  TOGETHER 

(Median  Income  in  1966  of  Women,  by  Years  of  School  Completed,  March  1967) 

Women  25  Years  of  Age  and  Over 

$7000 

Median  Income 

Elementary  School          High  School                       College 

6000 

—                                  1 

$6,114 

5000 

— 

■1 

!                        $4,165 

4,000 

— 

3,000 

- 

$ 

2,67 

3 

$ 

2,82 

7 

2,000 

— 

$1,913 

1,000 

$ 

1,00 

$ 
9 

1,40 

4 

0 

Less  than  8  years           1-3  years   4  years           1-3  years    4  years     5  years 
8  years'                                                                                              or  more 

'  Includes  women  reporting  no  school  years  completed 

source:  U 

S    D 

epart 

Tien 

of  Cc 

mme 

rce. 

3urea 

u  of 

the  Ce 

nsus 

The  one  exception  to  the  general  rule  was  that  women  with  less 
than  8  years  of  schooling  received  a  higher  proportion  of  men's  in- 
come (36  percent)  than  did  those  who  had  completed  8  years. 
This  may  be  accounted  for  in  part  by  the  fact  that  many  women 
who  have  not  finished  elementary  school  are  65  years  of  age  and 
over  and  are  probably  receiving  social  security  benefits.  (See  sec. 
65  for  women  receiving  OASDI  benefits.)  Of  the  women  with 
less  than  8  years  of  education  at  the  time  of  the  1960  decennial 
census,  more  than  2  out  of  5  of  those  25  years  of  age  and  over 
who  had  income  were  at  least  65  years  old. 

A  comparison  of  the  income  of  women  and  men  by  educational 
attainment  and  color  shows  that  in  1966  nonwhite  women  re- 
ceived less  than  white  women,  nonwhite  men,  and  white  men  at 
each  educational  level,  with  one  exception:  among  those  with 
some  college,  the  median  income  of  nonwhite  women  was  higher 
than  that  of  white  women — $3,964  as  compared  with  $3,519  (table 
63).  This  is  probably  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  nonwhite 
women  who  have  attended  college  have  a  stronger  attachment  to 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  141 

the  labor  force  than  do  white  women  with  this  much  education.* 
The  gap  between  the  incomes  of  nonwhite  women  and  men  was 
less  than  that  between  white  women  and  men.  But  irrespective  of 
color,  the  gap  narrowed  as  the  number  of  years  of  school  com- 
pleted increased.  Thus  among  nonwhites  with  an  elementary  school 
education  or  less,  the  median  income  in  1966  of  women  was 
only  38  percent  of  that  of  men ;  among  those  with  a  high  school 
education  (no  college),  48  percent;  and  among  those  with  some 
college  education,  67  percent.  The  comparable  percentages  for 
white  women  in  relation  to  white  men  were  33,  38,  and  39,  re- 
spectively. 

Table  63. — Median  Income  in  1966  of  Persons,  by  Educational 
Attainment,  Sex,  and  Color 

(Persons  25  years  of  age  and  over) 

Women  Men 

Educational  attainment  Total  White     Nonwhite      Total  White   Nonwhite 

Total     $1,926     $1,988     $1,561     $6,128     $6,390     $3,665 

Elementary  school  1,190       1,236  993       3,488       3,731       2,632 

Less  than  8  years 1,009       1,055  932       2,784       2,945       2,376 

8  years 1,404       1,416       1,303       4,518       4,611       3,681 

High    school    2,368      2,421       2,057       6,576       6,736       4,725 

1  to  3  years 1,913       1,960       1,698       5,982       6,189       4,278 

4   years    2,673       2,700       2,475       6,924       7,068       5,188 

College    3,569  3,519  3,964  8,779  9,023  5,928 

1  to  3  years 2,827  C)  C)  7,709  C)  C) 

4  years 4,165  C)  C)  9,728  C)  O 

5  years  or  more   6,114  C)  C)  10,041  C)  O 

*  Not  available. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census:   Current  Population  Reports, 
P-60,  No.  53. 

65.    Women  Receiving  Benefits 

Women  are  paid  benefits  under  the  Railroad  Retirement  Act, 
civil  service  retirement  system.  State  and  local  government  retire- 
ment systems,  the  uniformed  services  retirement  system,  and 
workmen's  compensation.  Some  women  also  receive  benefits  under 
unemployment  insurance,  State  disability  laws,  public  assistance, 
private  retirement  systems,  and  other  programs.  However,  by  far 
the  most  widespread  protection  for  women  is  the  benefits  paid 

■•  U.S.    Department   of   Health,    Education,    and    Welfare,    Public    Health    Service :    "Graduates 
of  Predominantly  Negro  Colleges.  Class  of  1964."  Pub.  1571.  1967. 


142        women's  income  and  earnings 

under  Federal  old-age,  survivors,  disability,  and  health  insurance. 
Some  v^^omen  receive  retirement  income  from  more  than  one 
source,  and  some  receive  some  employment  income  as  well  as  re- 
tirement benefits.  For  many,  however,  social  security  benefits  are 
the  chief  source  of  income  they  can  count  on. 

The  Social  Security  Act  of  1935,  as  amended,  provides  for  par- 
tial replacement  of  income  lost  when  emploj'^ment  is  cut  off  be- 
cause of  age,  disability,  or  death.  The  social  security  program  is 
financed  through  a  tax  on  workers  and  their  employers  and  on 
self-employed  persons,  and  is  administered  by  the  Federal  Gov- 
ernment. A  series  of  amendments  to  the  original  act  have  ex- 
tended its  coverage,  increased  benefit  amounts,  expanded  the 
classes  of  dependents  who  qualify  as  beneficiaries,  protected  the 
benefit  rights  of  certain  workers  who  suffer  long  term  disability, 
and  added  health  insurance  (medicare)  benefits.  Disabled  insured 
workers  whose  disability  is  expected  to  last  for  at  least  12  months 
are  eligible  for  benefits  for  themselves  and  their  families,  begin- 
ning with  the  seventh  month  of  their  disability. 

Under  the  1965  amendments,  workers  or  widows  who  attained 
age  72  before  1969  and  who  had  earnings  credits  for  more  than 
one-half  year  of  covered  work  but  less  than  that  normally  re- 
quired to  qualify  for  a  benefit  were  considered  as  transitionally 
insured  and  were  given  a  special  minimum  benefit,  which  was  less 
than  the  statutory  minimum  for  regular  workers.  The  1966 
amendments  provided  similar  special  benefits  for  workers  with 
less  or  no  past  earnings  under  social  security,  but  reduced  this 
benefit  by  the  amount  of  pensions,  retirement  benefits,  or  annui- 
ties received  from  any  other  government  system.  In  addition,  the 
special  payment  is  suspended  for  any  month  for  which  the  benefi- 
ciary gets  payments  under  a  federally  aided  public  assistance  pro- 
gram. 

The  1967  amendments  to  the  Social  Security  Act  provided  for 
an  across-the-board  increase  in  cash  benefits  of  at  least  13  percent 
beginning  February  1968  and  an  increase  in  the  minimum  pri- 
mary insurance  amount  from  $44  to  $55.  The  average  monthly 
benefit  paid  to  all  retired  workers  (with  or  without  dependents) 
already  on  the  rolls  was  increased  from  $86  to  $98.  Monthly  bene- 
fits range  from  the  new  minimum  of  $55  to  a  maximum  of  $156 
for  workers  with  highest  taxable  earnings  who  began  to  draw 
benefits  at  age  65.  The  increase  from  $6,600  to  $7,800  (effective 
January  1,  1968)  in  the  amount  of  annual  earnings  that  is  taxa- 
ble and  that  can  be  used  in  the  benefit  computation  results  in  an 
ultimate  maximum  monthly  benefit  of  $218,  based  on  average 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  143 

monthly  earnings  of  $650.  The  special  payments  to  people  aged  72 
and  older  were  raised  from  $35  to  $40  a  month  for  one  person 
(including  widows)  and  from  $52.50  to  $60  a  month  for  a  couple. 

Eligibility  for  benefits  was  extended  for  disabled  survivors,  dis- 
abled workers,  dependents  of  women  workers,  servicemen,  and 
others.  New  benefits  under  medicare  were  also  added.  While  so- 
cial security  benefits  were  liberalized  under  the  1967  law,  revised 
welfare  amendments  placed  new  restrictions  on  aid  to  families 
with  dependent  children,  including  a  requirement  that  welfare  re- 
cipients, with  certain  exceptions,  take  jobs  or  work  training.  This 
work  requirement  applies  only  where  adequate  day  care  facilities 
are  available.  (For  further  information  on  the  Work  Incentive 
Program,  see  sec.  93.) 

Under  the  1967  amendments  the  amount  that  retired  workers 
under  age  72  can  earn  in  covered  employment  without  a  decrease 
in  benefits  was  raised  from  $1,500  to  $1,680.  Beginning  with  age 
72  current  earnings  do  not  affect  benefits. 

Women  may  benefit  from  the  Social  Security  Act  in  their  own 
right  as  workers,  or  they  may  benefit  as  aged  wives  of  retired  or 
disabled  workers,  as  widows,  disabled  daughters,  or  dependent 
mothers  of  insured  workers,  or  as  young  wives  or  widows,  if  they 
have  children  of  insured  workers  in  their  care.  Certain  divorced 
women  also  are  eligible  for  benefits,  as  are  certain  students  be- 
tween the  ages  of  18  and  22. 

A  woman  worker  qualifies  for  retirement  benefits  if  she  is  fully 
insured.  How  long  she  must  work  to  be  fully  insured  depends  on 
when  she  was  born — the  older  she  is,  the  less  time  she  needs  to 
have  worked  under  social  security.  The  minimum  requirement  is 
three-fourths  of  a  year  of  work  under  social  security  for  a 
woman  born  before  1895.  A  woman  born  in  1929  or  later  needs  a 
total  of  10  years'  work  under  social  security  to  qualify  for  retire- 
ment benefits.  The  period  over  which  her  average  earnings  are 
computed  can  begin  in  1937  or  1951,  depending  upon  which  re- 
sults in  a  higher  benefit. 

About  11.4  million  women  received  benefits  under  the  old-age, 
survivors,  and  disability  insurance  programs  of  the  Social  Secur- 
ity Administration  in  1966  (table  64).  Women  accounted  for  60 
percent  of  the  adults  who  received  some  type  of  benefit. 

The  4.6  million  women  beneficiaries  who  were  retired  workers 
62  years  of  age  and  over  received  average  monthly  benefits  of 
$70.79.  Another  2.6  million  beneficiaries  who  were  widows  62 
years  and  over  without  children  received  average  monthly  bene- 
fits of  $74.11.  The  third  largest  group  of  beneficiaries  were  wives 


144 


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WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  145 

of  retirees  62  years  and  over  without  dependent  children;  they 
numbered  2.5  million  and  received  average  benefits  of  $44.60, 

In  1966,  288,930  disabled  v^omen  v^orkers  v^ere  receiving  aver- 
age monthly  benefits  of  $85.46.  In  addition,  about  219,000  v^^ives 
of  disabled  v^^orkers  were  receiving  benefits.  About  85  percent  of 
these  beneficiaries  were  mothers ;  their  monthly  benefits  averaged 
$34.06. 

Nonwhite  women  were  7  percent  of  all  women  beneficiaries  and 
numbered  835,281.  Their  average  monthly  benefits  ranged  from 
$17.46  to  $70.11. 

As  a  result  of  the  1956  amendment  to  the  Social  Security  Act 
that  lowered  the  retirement  age  for  women  from  65  to  62  years, 
there  has  been  an  increase  in  the  number  of  women  applying  for 
benefit^,  even  though  early  retirement  means  permanently  re- 
duced benefits.  By  the  close  of  1966,  50  percent  of  the  women  who 
were  drawing  benefits  as  retired  workers  had  taken  an  actuar- 
ially reduced  benefit.  Of  the  women  drawing  benefits  as  dependent 
wives  of  retired  workers  at  the  end  of  1966,  the  proportion  with 
actuarially  reduced  benefits  was  57  percent. 

As  of  January  1,  1967,  98.3  million  of  the  125.0  million 
workers  then  living  were  insured  for  retirement  and/or  survivor 
benefits.  Of  these,  40  million  (41  percent)  were  women. 

A  recent  study  of  minimum  social  security  retirement  benefits 
showed  that  among  those  whose  earnings  qualified  them  only  for 
minimum  benefits,  almost  two-thirds  were  women. ^  About  three- 
fourths  of  the  women  who  were  entitled  to  the  minimum  benefit 
were  receiving  benefits  actuarially  reduced  below  the  minimum 
because  they  claimed  benefits  before  age  65.  Almost  one-fourth  of 
the  recipients  of  minimum  benefits  were  also  getting  public  assist- 
ance payments. 

66.     Women  as  Stockholders 

Women's  participation  in  stockownership  is  another  indicator 
of  their  economic  status.  The  more  than  12  million  women  esti- 
mated to  have  one  or  more  shares  of  stock  in  publicly  owned  cor- 
porations in  1966  represented  51  percent  of  individual  sharehold- 
ers. 

According  to  a  study  made  in  1965,  about  1  out  of  6  women  and 
men  in  the  adult  population  (21  years  of  age  and  over)  was  a 
shareowner."  Sixteen  percent  of  all  adult  women  were  shareown- 

'  U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Social  Security  Administration:  Social 
Security  Bulletin,  March  1967. 

'  New  York  Stock  Exchange :  "Shareownership — U.S.A. :  1965  Census  of  Shareowners." 
June  1965. 


146        women's  income  and  earnings 

ers  compared  with  17  percent  of  adult  men.  Women  constituted  33 
percent  of  the  total  stockholders  of  record  reported  by  public  cor- 
porations. The  number  of  shares  owned  individually  by  women 
stockholders  equaled  18  percent  of  the  total  as  compared  with  24 
percent  owned  individually  by  men.  The  remaining"  58  percent 
were  held  or  owned  by  institutions,  brokers  and  dealers,  persons 
with  joint  accounts,  nominees  (who  hold  shares  for  others),  and 
foreign  owners.  The  estimated  market  value  of  the  stock  regis- 
tered in  women's  names  was  18  percent  of  the  total  compared 
with  20  percent  for  stock  registered  in  men's  names. 

The  likelihood  of  shareownership  increases  with  the  amount  of 
formal  education.  In  1965  only  1  out  of  18  adults  with  3  years  of 
high  school  or  less  was  a  shareowner.  In  contrast,  1  out  of  7  adult 
high  school  graduates  and  3  out  of  5  adult  college  graduates  were 
shareowners.  Among  women  shareowners  1  out  of  4  had  grad- 
uated from  college. 

The  highest  incidence  by  occupation  of  shareownership  in  1965 
occurred  among  people  employed  in  professional  and  technical  oc- 
cupations— in  this  group  almost  2  out  of  5  were  shareowners. 
Among  those  employed  as  managers,  officials,  and  proprietors, 
nearly  1  out  of  3  owned  shares ;  among  those  in  clerical  and  sales 
work,  about  1  out  of  5. 

The  largest  single  group  of  shareowners  in  1965  were  women 
not  in  the  labor  force ;  that  is,  housewives,  retired  women,  widows, 
and  other  women  living  alone.  The  nearly  6.4  million  such  women 
who  were  shareowners  accounted  for  about  35  percent  of  the  total 
number  of  individual  shareowners  and  about  17  percent  of  the 
women  not  in  the  labor  force. 

Among  adults  who  became  shareowners  for  the  first  time  be- 
tween 1962  and  1965,  about  52  percent  were  women.  Twenty-nine 
percent  of  all  the  new  shareowners  were  women  not  in  the  labor 
force. 


Earnings  of  Nonprofessional  Women  Workers 

€1 .    Earnings  of  Office   Workers 

The  main  source  of  salary  information  for  women  engaged  in 
clerical  work  is  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics'  community  wage 
surveys  conducted  regularly  in  85  important  centers  of  business 
and  industry.  These  reports  show  average  earnings  for  major  office 
occupations  and  the  number  of  workers  in  specified  salary  group- 
ings. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  147 

Among  women  clerical  workers  surveyed  in  14  office  jobs  in  17 
selected  standard  metropolitan  statistical  areas  during  the  fiscal 
year  July  1967  to  June  1968,  secretaries  received  the  highest  sal- 
aries in  most  areas.  Their  average  weekly  earnings  ranged  from 
$95  in  Memphis  to  $127  in  Los  Angeles-Long  Beach  (table  65). 
Average  earnings  of  class  A  accounting  clerks,  which  exceeded 
those  of  secretaries  in  Kansas  City,  Memphis,  and  Portland,  Ore- 
gon, ranged  from  $98  a  week  in  Dallas  to  $120.50  in  San  Francis- 
co-Oakland. Senior  stenographers'  weekly  salaries  averaged  a  low 
of  $93  in  Minneapolis-St.  Paul  and  a  high  of  $113  in  Los  An- 
geles-Long Beach.  Office  girls  were  among  the  lowest  paid  clerical 
workers  studied,  with  weekly  salaries  ranging  from  $66  in  Dallas 
and  Minneapolis-St.  Paul  to  $84  in  San  Francisco-Oakland.  The 
widest  spreads  in  average  weekly  earnings,  in  addition  to  secre- 
taries, were  among  Comptometer  operators — from  a  low  of  $77.50 
in  Birmingham  and  Memphis  to  a  high  of  $111.50  in  San  Francis- 
co-Oakland— and  payroll  clerks — from  a  low  of  $87.50  in  Mem- 
phis to  a  high  of  $118.50  in  San  Francisco-Oakland. 

Although  men  represent  less  than  3  out  of  10  of  all  clerical 
workers,  their  average  earnings  are  usually  higher  than  those 
of  women  clerical  workers.  This  does  not  mean  that  women  are 
paid  less  than  men  for  equal  work.  Industries  and  establishments 
differ  in  pay  level  and  job  staffing.  Moreover,  there  may  be  differ- 
ences among  employees  in  specific  duties  performed  and  length  of 
service. 

Men's  average  weekly  earnings  were  substantially  higher  than 
those  of  women  among  class  A  and  class  B  accounting  clerks  and 
payroll  clerks  in  all  17  selected  metropolitan  areas.  The  weekly 
salary  differential  between  the  earnings  of  women  and  men  ranged 
from  $11  to  $37  for  class  A  accounting  clerks,  from  $8  to  $30.50 
for  class  B  accounting  clerks,  and  from  $7  to  $30.50  for  payroll 
clerks. 

In  most  cities  office  boys  received  higher  salaries  than  office 
girls.  The  greatest  salary  differential  was  in  Seattle-Everett, 
where  office  girls  earned  $73  a  week  and  office  boys  $87.50.  How- 
ever, in  San  Francisco-Oakland  office  girls  averaged  $3.50  a  week 
more  than  office  boys. 

68.    Earnings  in  Selected  Manufacturing  Industries 

Detailed  information  on  a  nationwide  basis  and/or  on  an  area 
basis  is  available  with  respect  to  women's  earnings  in  selected 
manufacturing  and  service  industries  periodically  surveyed  by 


148 


women's  income  and  earnings 


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WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  149 

the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics.  Area-centered  wage  surveys 
rather  than  industrywide  surveys  sometimes  are  conducted  in 
manufacturing  industries  that  are  highly  concentrated  in  a  few 
areas  of  the  country. 

Cotton  textiles. — The  largest  of  the  textile  industries,  cotton 
textiles,  in  September  1965  employed  82,836  women,  who  consti- 
tuted 38  percent  of  all  workers  in  that  industry  (table  66).  A 
comparison  with  the  wage  survey  conducted  in  May  1963  indi- 
cates that  the  proportion  of  women  employed  had  not  changed, 
despite  an  overall  decrease  in  employment  in  the  cotton  textile  in- 
dustry. Since  94  percent  of  the  workers  were  located  in  the 
Southeast,  women's  average  hourly  earnings  in  the  Nation  ($1.67) 
in  September  1965  were  the  same  as  in  the  Southeast.  The  2,670 
women  workers  located  in  New  England  averaged  $1.73  in  hourly 
earnings. 

Numerically,  the  major  jobs  held  in  this  industry  by  women 
were  those  of  ring-frame  spinner,  yarn  winder,  weaver,  and  bat- 
tery hand.  Almost  all  of  the  ring-frame  spinners,  yarn  winders, 
and  battery  hands  were  women.  Their  average  hourly  earnings 
were  about  the  same  as  those  of  men,  except  in  the  case  of  women 
battery  hands  whose  average  hourly  earnings  ($1.56)  were 
slightly  higher  than  those  of  men  in  this  occupation  ($1.48). 
Slightly  more  than  half  (52  percent)  of  the  weavers  were  women 
in  1965.  Their  proportion  had  risen  from  49  percent  in  1963, 
even  though  there  was  a  decrease  in  the  total  number  of  weavers 
employed  in  the  industry.  Weavers  were  the  highest  paid  workers 
— women  weavers  averaged  $1.99  (men  $2.02)  nationwide  and 
$1.99  (men  $2.01)  in  the  Southeast. 

Differences  in  average  pay  levels  between  women  and  men  re- 
sult partly  from  variations  in  the  sex  composition  of  the  work 
force  in  plants  and  in  jobs  with  different  pay  levels.  Almost 
three-fifths  (59  percent)  of  the  women,  for  example,  were  em- 
ployed in  four  occupations  (battery  hand,  cloth  inspector,  spin- 
ner, and  winder)  that  require  less  skill  than  the  jobs  typically 
held  by  men  (card  grinder,  loom  fixer,  and  maintenance  machin- 
ist). Although  men  and  women  were  employed  in  about  equal 
numbers  as  weavers,  they  were  to  some  extent  tending  the  opera- 
tion of  different  types  of  looms.  Men  accounted  for  three-fourths 
of  the  Jacquard  loom  weavers  (the  highest  paid  of  the  weavers 
— $2.19  for  men,  $2.09  for  women),  whereas  nearly  three-fifths 
(58  percent)  of  the  plain  loom  weavers  (the  lowest  paid  weavers 
— $1.98  for  men,  $1.97  for  women)  were  women. 

Between  1963  and  1965,  women  made  inroads  into  several  of 


150 


women's  income  and  earnings 


Table  66. — Average  Hourly  Earnings'  in  Selected  Occupations  in  the 

Cotton    Textile    Industry,    by    Sex,    United  States    and    Southeast 
Region,  September  1965 

Women  as  Average  hourly 

Number  percent  of  earnings 

total             

Occupation                             Women             Men  employed  Women      Men 

United  States 82,836     136,641  37.7  $1.67     $1.78 

Battery  hands 9,261            463  95.2  1.56       1.48 

Electricians,  maintenance .  _            687  _  _  _  _       2.21 

Grinders,  card __         1,746  __  __       2.03 

Inspectors,  cloth,  machine 4,570            831  84.6  1.62       1.69 

Loom  fixers   ._       10,331  _.  _.       2.27 

Machinists,   maintenance    .  _         1,160  . .  _       2.18 

Spinners,   ring-frame    18,776            186  99.0  (-)          {") 

Warper  tenders   1,081            714  60.2  1.69       1.74 

Weavers   9,833         9,242  51.5  1.99       2.02 

Winders,  yarn 16,602            200  98.8  1.63       1.74 

Southeast    77,704     128,342  37.7  1.67       1.78 

Battery  hands 8,710            440  95.2  1.56       1.48 

Electricians,  maintenance _  _            655  _  _  _  _       2.21 

Grinders,   card    _.         1,672  __  __       2.03 

Inspectors,    cloth,   machine    __       4,291            736  85.4  1.63       1.69 

Loom  fixers   _ .         9,672  . .  _ .       2.27 

Machinists,   maintenance    _ ,         1,106  . .  _ .       2.19 

Spinners,  ring-frame (')              C)  C)  C)          (=) 

Warper  tenders    968            676  58.9  1.71       1.72 

Weavers    9,141         8,634  51.4  1.99       2.01 

Winders,  yarn 15,457            160  99.0  1.63       1.72 

*  Excludes  premium   pay  for  overtime  and   for   work   on   weekends,   holidays,    and   late   shifts. 
^  Not  available. 

Source :  U.S.   Department  of   Labor,   Bureau   of   Labor   Statistics :    "Industry  Wage   Survey — 
Cotton  Textiles,  September  1965."  Bull.   1506.  July  1966. 


the  predominantly  masculine  occupations  in  the  cotton  textile  in- 
dustry, such  as  card  tender,  slasher  tender,  slubber  tender, 
comber  tender,  and  twister  tender.  However,  no  women  were  em- 
ployed in  either  1963  or  1965  in  plant  maintenance  work,  as  loom 
fixers,  machinists,  and  electricians — the  highest  paid  occupations 
in  the  industry. 

Synthetic  textiles. — The  40,571  women  employed  by  plants  en- 
gaged in  the  manufacture  of  synthetic  textiles  in  September  1965 
were  40  percent  of  all  workers  in  this  industry  as  compared  with 
39  percent  in  May  1963.  In  1965  women  averaged  $1.63  an  hour 
(men  $1.82)  (table  67).  Seventy  percent  of  the  women  in  this  in- 
dustry were  located  in  the  Southeast.   Their  main  occupations 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


151 


were  yarn  winder  and  ring-frame  spinner,  and  they  constituted 
almost  all  of  the  workers  in  these  occupations.  Women  also  held  a 
large  proportion  of  the  machine  cloth  inspector  and  battery  hand 
jobs.  Women's  hourly  earnings  were  either  a  little  lower  than  or 
the  same  as  men's  with  two  exceptions :  average  hourly  earnings 
of  women  battery  hands  in  the  Nation  were  $1.54  as  compared 
with  $1.53  for  men;  of  women  yarn  winders  in  the  Southeast, 
$1.61  as  compared  with  $1.60  for  men.  One  of  the  highest  paid  oc- 
cupations was  weaver.  Women  weavers  in  the  Nation  averaged 
$2.06  (men  $2.13). 

Table  67. — Average  Hourly  Earnings  ^  in  Selected  Occupations  in 
THE  Synthetic  Textile  Industry,  by  Sex,  United  States  and  Southeast 
Regio*^,  September  1965 

Women  as  Average  hourly 

Number                  percent  of  earnings 

total  

Occupation                                Women              Men            employed  Women       Men 

United   States 40,571       59,782  40.4  $1.63     $1.82 

Battery  hands 1,885  480  79.7  1.54  1.53 

Electricians,   maintenance    -  -  252  - .  _  -  2.18 

Inspectors,  cloth,  machine   _..  2,722  543  83.4  1.60  1.71 

Loom  fixers   --  5,240  -.  --  2.39 

Machinists,   maintenance -  _  348  _  _  _  -  2.21 

Spinners,  ring-frame 4,399  435  91.0  1.67  1.73 

Twister  tenders,  ring-frame.  _  2,659  1,242  68.2  1.56  1.65 

Weavers    2,925  6,349  31.5  2.06  2.13 

Winders,  yarn 12,263  287  97.7  1.60  1.60 

Southeast   28,300  45,679  38.3  1.62  1.78 

Battery  hands 1,446  220  86.8  1.54  1.54 

Electricians,  maintenance _  _  203  2.14 

Inspectors,  cloth,  machine   _._  1,862  374  83.3  1.60  1.71 

Loom  fixers   - .  3,433  -  -  -  -  2.36 

Machinists,   maintenance    302  _  _  -  -  2.18 

Spinners,    ring-frame    3,769  363  91.2  1.66  1.73 

Twister  tenders,  ring-frame   .  1,366  1,090  55.6  1.58  1.66 

Weavers    1,641  4,162  28.3  2.04  2.09 

Winders,  yarn 8,622  107  98.8  1.61  1.60 

*  Excludes   premium   pay  for  overtime   and   for  work  on   weekends,   holidays,    and   late   shifts. 
Source:   U.S.   Department   of    Labor,    Bureau   of    Labor    Statistics:    "Industry   Wage    Survey- 
Synthetic  Textiles,  September  1965."  Bull.  1509.  June  1966. 


The  difference  in  the  average  earnings  of  women  and  men  in 
this  industry  varied  among  the  regions.  It  amounted  to  16  cents 
in  the  Southeast,  25  cents  in  New  England,  and  36  cents  in  the 
Middle  Atlantic  Region.  Differences  in  average  pay  levels  between 
women  and  men  are  partly  the  result  of  the  distribution  of  plant 


152 


women's  income  and  earnings 


employees  by  sex  and  among  jobs  with  divergent  pay  levels.  Dif- 
ferences in  averages  in  the  same  job  and  area  may  reflect  minor 
differences  in  duties.  Women  tend  to  be  concentrated  in  the  less 
skilled  and  lower  paying  occupations  with  the  exception  of  weav- 
ers. However,  fewer  women  than  men  are  Jacquard  loom  or  box 
loom  weavers,  who  are  the  most  highly  paid  weavers.  The  propor- 
tion of  women  box  loom  weavers  declined  between  1963  and  1965 
from  34  to  23  percent.  At  the  same  time  the  percentage  of  women 
Jacquard  loom  weavers  rose  from  22  to  24  percent.  Among  the 
best  paid  workers  in  the  synthetic  textile  industry  are  those  in 
plant  maintenance,  as  loom  fixers,  electricians,  and  machinists.  In 
1965  all  of  these  workers  were  men. 

Women's  and  misses'  dresses. — Wage  data  were  collected  in 
March  1966  from  plants  manufacturing  women's  and  misses' 
dresses  in  11  metropolitan  areas.  About  56  percent  of  the  nearly 
89,000  production  workers  (both  sexes)  covered  in  the  wage  sur- 
vey were  in  New  York  City.  Women  production  workers  in  New 
York  numbered  36,817  and  received  the  highest  average  hourly 
earnings  for  women — $2.46 ;  more  than  two-fifths  were  paid  $2.50 
or  more  an  hour  (table  68).  They  received  their  lowest  hourly 
earnings  in  Dallas  ($1.60).  The  proportion  of  women  paid  less 
than  $1.40  an  hour  was  38  percent  in  Dallas — a  much  larger  per- 
centage than  in  any  of  the  other  centers  surveyed. 

Table    68. — Average    Hourly    Earnings  ^   in    the    Women's    and    Misses' 
Dress  Industry,  by  Sex,  11  Metropolitan  Areas,  March  1966 


Percent  of  women 

Number  of            Average  hourly  receiving — 

women  earnings  

production Under        $2.50 

Metropolitan  area                                workers           Women             Men  $1.40     and  over 

Boston      1,582         $2.05         $3.44  8.1         21.4 

Chicago     1,761           1.94           2.86  7.6         13.3 

Dallas              2,509           1.60           1.88  38.0           3.0 

Fall  River-New  Bedford 5,951           1.97           2.16  3.6         15.4 

Los  Angeles-Long  Beach  and 
Anaheim-Santa  Ana- 
Garden    Grove     5,208           2.07           2.84  11.5         21.7 

Newark-Jersey   City    3,575           2.30           3.01  6.4         32.6 

New    York    City    36,817           2.46           3.50  3.0         42.8 

Paterson-Clifton-Passaic     1,600           2.30           4.19  2.6         32.2 

Philadelphia     3,878           2.08           2.70  4.5         21.3 

St.   Louis    1,757           2.00           2.64  3.3         14.2 

Wilkes-Barre-Hazelton    7,139           1.88           2.01  4.6         11.4 

*  Excludes   premium   pay  for  overtime  and   for   work   on    weekends,    holidays,    and   late   shifts. 

Source:   U.S.    Department   of   Labor,    Bureau   of    Labor    Statistics:    "Industry   Wage    Survey — 
Women's  and  Misses'  Dresses,  March  196G."  Bull.  1538.  December  1966. 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  153 

In  all  areas  women  dominated  the  work  force,  but  the  ratio  of 
women  to  men  varied  substantially.  Women  outnumbered  men  by 
at  least  10  to  1  in  Fall  River-New  Bedford,  Newark-Jersey  City, 
and  St.  Louis,  whereas  the  ratios  in  Boston  and  New  York  were 
about  5  to  1  and  3  to  1,  respectively. 

Women  had  lower  average  earnings  than  men  in  all  centers 
surveyed.  The  difference  was  smallest  in  Wilkes-Barre-Hazelton 
(women  $1.88,  men  $2.01)  and  greatest  in  Paterson-Clifton- 
Passaic  (women  $2.30,  men  $4.19).  Women's  lower  average  earn- 
ings reflect  the  employment  of  numerous  women  in  the  lower  paid 
jobs  of  examiner,  thread  trimmer,  and  work  distributor.  Virtu- 
ally all  thread  trimmers  are  women,  and  they  are  the  lowest  paid 
workers  in  most  areas.  More  than  nine-tenths  of  the  sewing 
machiile  operators  in  each  area  were  women.  Women  were  also 
predominant  in  all  of  the  other  occupations  except  cutter  and 
marker  in  each  area  and  presser  in  a  few  areas.  Hand  pressers 
and  cutters  and  markers  are  the  most  highly  paid  workers  in  the 
industry,  and  most  of  these  workers  are  men.  Despite  the  predom- 
inance of  women  workers  in  dress  manufacturing,  few  women 
have  become  cutters;  and  those  who  have  become  pressers  earn 
lower  wages  than  do  men  pressers. 

The  earnings  variations  among  the  areas  partly  reflect  differ- 
ences in  market  influences  and  manufacturing  processes.  In  New 
York,  for  example,  the  single  hand  tailor  system  of  sewing  is  pre- 
dominant, while  in  Dallas,  which  had  the  lowest  average  earn- 
ings, the  section  system  is  predominant.  In  all  areas  but  one,  av- 
erage hourly  earnings  were  higher  for  single  hand  sewing  mach- 
ine operators  than  for  section  system  operators.  The  difference 
ranged  from  19  to  43  cents  an  hour. 

69.    Earnings  in  Selected  Service  Industries 

Wage  surveys  were  made  in  1966  and  1967  in  three  major  serv- 
ice industries  employing  large  numbers  of  women:  hotels  and 
motels,  laundries  and  cleaning  services,  and  eating  and  drinking 
places.  In  contrast  to  the  geographical  concentration  of  the  manu- 
facturing industries  discussed  previously,  service  industries  are 
located  in  almost  every  city  and  town.  Generally  occupational  av- 
erages were  highest  in  Pacific  Coast  States  and  lowest  in  South- 
ern States. 

Hotels  and  motels. — The  wage  survey  of  employees  in  selected 
hotel  occupations  throughout  the  Nation  indicated  that  the  larg- 
est numbers  of  women  were  employed  as  chambermaids  and  wait- 


154 


women's  income  and  earnings 


resses.  Virtually  all  chambermaids  were  women.  Their  average 
hourly  wages  were  slightly  higher  in  metropolitan  areas  than  in 
the  country  as  a  whole.  In  metropolitan  areas  wages  ranged  from 
$1.04  an  hour  in  the  South  to  $1.56  in  the  Northeast;  in  all  areas 
they  ranged  from  $1.00  in  the  South  to  $1.51  in  the  Northeast 
(table  69). 

Table  69. — Average  Hourly  Wages  ^  of  Employees  in  Selected  Hotel  ^ 
Occupations,  by  Region,  United  States  and  Metropolitan  Areas,  April 
1967 

Chambermaids  Waitresses  Waiters 

Average  Average  Average 

hourly  hourly  hourly 

Region  Number  wages        Number         wages         Number         wages 

United  States  . .       101,363       $1.25       47,536       $0.95       13,363       $0.98 

Northeast    22,817  1.51  11,750  .94  4,515  .97 

South    36,197  1.00  13,994  .70  4,211  .77 

North    Central     21,597  1.23  11,411  .94  2,102  .95 

West     20,752  1.45  10,381  1.31  2,535  1.39 

Metropolitan 

areas    73,026         1.31       30,534  .98       11,065         1.03 

Northeast    17,943  1.56  6,276  .92  3,671  1.02 

South    23,356  1.04  8,652  .68  3,223  .80 

North    Central     .. 15,302  1.25  6,930  .94  1,847  .98 

West     \ 16,425  1.49  8,676  1.36  2,324  1.41 

^  Excludes  tips  and  the  value  of  free  meals,  room,  and  uniforms,  as  well  as  premium  pay 
for  overtime  and  work  on  weekends,  holidays,  and  late  shifts.  Includes  service  charges  added 
to  customers'  bills  and  distributed  to  employees  by  employers. 

-  Refers  to  year-round  hotels,  tourist  courts,  and  motels. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  "Industry  Wage  Survey — 
Hotels  and  Motels,  April  1967."  Bull.  1587.  April  1968. 


Waitresses  outnumbered  waiters  by  more  than  3  to  1.  For  the 
country  as  a  whole,  average  hourly  wages  of  women  in  this  occu- 
pation were  lower  than  those  of  men  by  3  cents.  The  differential 
was  greater  in  metropolitan  areas,  ranging  from  4  cents  in  the 
North  Central  Region  to  12  cents  in  the  South.  In  metropolitan 
areas  the  average  hourly  wages  of  waitresses  ranged  from  68 
cents  in  the  South  to  $1.36  in  the  West;  of  waiters,  from  80  cents 
in  the  South  to  $1.41  in  the  West. 

Laundry  and  cleaning  services. — Women,  who  constituted 
slightly  more  than  three-fourths  of  the  nonsupervisory  inside 
plant  workers  covered  by  a  survey  of  this  industry  in  April  1968, 
received  average  hourly  earnings  of  $1,56  compared  vv^ith  $2.04 
for  men  (table  70).  Regionally  the  difference  in  average  earnings 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


155 


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156        women's  income  and  earnings 

ranged  from  31  cents  in  the  South  to  53  cents  in  the  North  Cen- 
tral Region.  Differences  in  average  pay  levels  for  women  and  men 
may  be  the  result  of  several  factors,  including  variation  in  the 
distribution  of  the  sexes  among  establishments  and  among  jobs 
with  divergent  pay  levels. 

Women  predominated  in  most  nonsupervisory  occupations  in 
laundry  and  drycleaning  establishments.  They  were  at  least  9  out 
of  10  of  all  assemblers,  retail  receiving  clerks,  machine  flatwork 
finishers,  hand  pressers  (drycleaning),  machine  shirt  pressers, 
and  machine  wearing  apparel  pressers  (laundry). 

Highest  hourly  earnings  for  women  in  this  industry  were  re- 
ceived by  hand  pressers  (drycleaning),  $1.86,  followed  by  ma- 
chine pressers  (drycleaning),  $1.80.  Hourly  earnings  were  con- 
siderably less  for  tumbler  operators,  $1.39;  machine  flatwork 
finishers,  $1.43;  and  retail  receiving  clerks,  $1.44.  Differentials 
between  the  average  hourly  earnings  of  women  and  men  ranged 
from  7  cents  for  retail  receiving  clerks  to  61  cents  for  machine 
pressers  (drycleaning). 

Eating  and  drinking  -places. — A  wage  survey  of  eating  and 
drinking  places  in  April  1967  indicated  that  in  the  establishments 
surveyed  more  women  were  employed  as  waitresses  than  in  all 
other  occupations  combined.  The  average  hourly  wages  nation- 
wide of  waitresses,  who  outnumbered  waiters  by  almost  9  to  1, 
were  13  cents  less  than  those  of  men  (table  71).  The  wage  gap  in 
metropolitan  areas  was  15  cents.  The  lowest  paid  waitresses  in 
metropolitan  areas  were  in  the  South  (76  cents  an  hour)  ;  the 
highest,  in  the  West  ($1.36  an  hour). 

About  37,500,  or  1  out  of  4,  dishwashers  in  the  Nation  were 
women.  Their  average  hourly  wages  were  considerably  less  than 
those  of  men  in  the  occupation  and  ranged  in  metropolitan  areas 
from  83  cents  in  the  South  to  $1.33  in  the  West.  Comparable 
wages  for  men  ranged  from  $1.03  in  the  South  to  $1.51  in  the 
Northeast  and  West. 

About  14,000  women  were  employed  as  bartenders.  They  consti- 
tuted 15  percent  of  all  workers  in  this  occupation.  Women  had  av- 
erage hourly  wages  of  $1.66  (men  $2.12)  in  all  areas  and  $1.69 
(men  $2.15)  in  metropolitan  areas.  Lowest  average  hourly  wages 
received  by  women  bartenders  in  metropolitan  areas  were  in  the 
South  ($1.60) ;  highest,  in  the  Northeast  and  West  ($1.76).  Men's 
average  hourly  wages  in  metropolitan  areas  exceeded  those  of 
women  by  64  cents  in  the  North  Central  Region  and  67  cents  in 
the  West. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE 


157 


Table  71. — Average  Hourly  Wages  '  in  Selected  Occupations  in  Eating 
AND  Drinking  Places,  by  Sex  and  Region,  United  States  and  Metro- 
politan Areas,  April  1967 

Waiters  or 

Bartenders                  waitresses  Dishwashers 

Average                        Average  Average 

hourly                           hourly  hourly 

Resrion                              Number     wages       Number       wages  Number      wages 

WOMEN 

United   States    14,038     $1.66     509,444     $1.01  37,523     $1.00 

Northeast    3,047       1.74     137,875       1.03  3,764       1.26 

South   2,651       1.59     124,265         .77  14,652         .79 

North  Central   5,459       1.62     160,138         .99  15,374       1.07 

West 2,881       1.71       87,166       1.33  3,733       1.32 

Metropolitan  areas-.       11,543       1.69     371,714       1.03  19,939       1.09 

Northeast    2,842       1.76     112,643       1.03  2,884       1.27 

South   2,418       1.60       77,880         .76  8,166         .83 

North  Central   4,084       1.66     109,226       1.01  6,589       1.25 

West 2,199       1.76       71,965       1.36  2,300       1.33 

MEN 

United   States    78,884       2.12       57,861       1.14  105,344       1.32 

Northeast    35,172       1.97       25,091       1.23  32,426       1.49 

South   7,600       1.83       14,640         .81  24,023         .99 

North  Central   19,947       2.22       12,785       1.24  24,982       1.23 

West 16,165       2.46         5,345       1.36  23,913       1.49 

Metropolitan  areas   .       67,888       2.15       51,194       1.18  87,911       1.36 

Northeast    29,739       2.00       24,871       1.23  28,902       1.51 

South   6,919       1.84       10,735         .82  17,586       1.03 

North  Central   16,458       2.30       10,272       1.27  20,665       1.24 

West 14,772       2.43         5,316       1.36  20,758       1.51 

*  Excludes  tips  and  the  value  of  free  meals,  room,  and  uniforms,  as  well  as  premium  pay 
for  overtime  and  work  on  weekends,  holidays,  and  late  shifts.  Includes  service  charges  added 
to  customers'  bills  and  distributed  to  employees  by  employers. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  "Industry  Wage  Survey — 
Eating  and  Drinking  Places,  April  1967."  Bull.  1588.  April  1968. 


70.    Earnings  in  Nonprofessional  Hospital  Occupations 

A  July  1966  survey  of  earnings  and  employment  conditions  of 
selected  hospital  personnel  covered  all  private  and  State  and  local 
government  hospitals  throughout  the  Nation.  The  occupations  for 
which  wage  information  v^as  obtained  included  both  professional 
and  nonprofessional  staff.  Salaries  received  by  professional  hospi- 
tal personnel  are  discussed  in  sees.  73  and  74, 

Among  the  nearly  1.8  million  nonsupervisory  employees  cov- 
ered by  the  survey,  more  than  1.5  million  were  employed  full 
time.  About  two-thirds  of  the  nonsupervisory  employees  were  in 
nongovernment  hospitals.   Part-time  work  was  more  prevalent 


158        women's  income  and  earnings 

among  employees  in  private  than  in  State  and  local  hospitals  and 
among  general  duty  nurses  than  those  in  other  occupations. 

Of  the  women  nonprofessional  full-time  employees  other  than 
clerical  studied  in  the  survey,  the  largest  number  (244,078)  were 
nurses'  aides.  Other  occupations  in  which  large  numbers  of 
women  were  employed  were  practical  nurse  (121,528)  ;  psychia- 
tric aide  (74,717) ;  kitchen  helper  (72,223) ;  and  maid  (77,170). 

The  average  earnings  of  nonsupervisory  employees  in  State  and 
local  hospitals  were  higher  than  those  in  private  hospitals,  except 
in  the  South  where  they  were  about  the  same.  Table  72  shows  the 
average  weekly  earnings  of  women  nurses'  aides  and  licensed 
practical  nurses  and  average  hourly  earnings  in  three  occupations 
in  nongovernment  hospitals  in  21  selected  metropolitan  areas. 
Highest  average  weekly  earnings  were  reported  for  licensed  prac- 
tical nurses — ranging  from  $64  in  Atlanta  to  $90  in  Detroit. 
Nurses'  aides  had  average  weekly  earnings  ranging  from  $49  in 
Dallas  to  $82  in  San  Francisco-Oakland. 

Women  employed  as  flatwork  finishers  (machine),  kitchen 
helpers,  and  maids — occupations  requiring  relatively  few  skills 
— were  among  the  lowest  paid  in  nongovernment  hospitals.  In  the 
21  selected  areas,  the  lowest  hourly  earnings  in  these  three  occu- 
pations were  in  Atlanta;  the  highest,  in  San  Francisco-Oakland. 

Salaries  of  Professional  Women  Workers 

Salary  studies  are  not  available  for  women  in  all  types  of  pro- 
fessional work,  but  some  salary  surveys  have  been  made  by  pro- 
fessional associations  for  their  own  membership  or  by  research 
organizations,  college  alumnae  associations,  or  women's  organiza- 
tions. Among  salary  studies  periodically  available  are  those  made 
for  school  teachers  and  registered  nurses. 

71.    Salaries  of  School  Teachers 

More  than  two-fifths  of  the  4  million  women  employed  in  pro- 
fessional and  technical  occupations  in  April  1968  were  school 
teachers  other  than  in  colleges  and  universities.  These  1.7  million 
women  represented  71  percent  of  all  noncollege  teachers.  In  ele- 
mentary schools  about  85  percent  of  the  teachers  were  women ;  in 
secondary  schools,  46  percent. 

Teachers'  salaries  reported  by  the  National  Education  Associa- 
tion are  not  shown  separately  for  men  and  women.  Nevertheless, 
they  are  considered  representative  of  women's  salaries  because  of 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR   FORCE 


159 


Table  72. — Average  Earnings'  of  Women  Employed  Full  Time  in 
Nonprofessional  Hospital'  Occupations,  21  Metropolitan  Areas,  July 
1966 


Average  Average 

weekly  earnings  hourly  earnings 

Licensed  Finishers, 

Nurses'  practical  flatwork  Kitchen 

Metropolitan  area  aides  nurses  (machine)  helpers  Maids 

Atlanta   $50.50  $64.00  $1.03  $1.03  $1.00 

Baltimore     56.50  73.50  1.39  1.38  1.29 

Boston     63.50  82.50  1.55  1.49  1.51 

Buffalo    59.50  75.50  1.61  1.58  1.58 

Chicago     61.00  82.50  1.46  1.46  1.46 

Cincinnati     55.50  79.50  1.31  1.36  1.39 

Cleveland    58.50  77.00  1.43  1.38  1.45 

Dallas     49.00  66.00  1.28  1.08  1.18 

Denver    61.00  75.00              1.29  1.26 

Detroit    62.00  90.00  1.58  1.46  1.50 

Los  Angeles-Long  Beach  _  69.00  85.00  1.69  1.55  1.55 

Memphis 50.50  65.50  1.10  1.12  1.13 

Miami    53.50  69.50  1.25  1.23  1.26 

Minneapolis-St.  Paul 72.00  76.50  1.89  1.81  1.80 

New   York   City   69.00  89.00  1.81  1.76  1.80 

Philadelphia     54.50  68.00  1.36  1.30  1.39 

Portland    (Oreg.)     69.50  78.50  1.77  1.74  1.76 

St.   Louis    55.50  73.00  1.38  1.33  1.37 

San  Francisco-Oakland  82.00  88.00  2.03  1.93  1.98 

Seattle-Everett    68.00  77.50  1.76  1.68  1.71 

Washington    (D.C.)     57.50  74.50  1.38  1.38  1.39 

'  Excludes  premium  pay  for  overtime  and  for  work  on  weekends,  holidays,  and  late  shifts, 
as  well  as  value  of  room,  board,  or  other  perquisites.  Weekly  earnings  are  rounded  to  the 
nearest  half  dollar. 

^  Covers  only  nongovernment  hospitals. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:  "Industry  Wage  Survey- 
Hospitals,  July  1966."  Bull.  1553.  July  1967. 

the  sizable  proportion  of  women  teachers  and  because  salary  dif- 
ferentials based  on  sex  have  largely  been  eliminated.  In  some  in- 
stances, however,  men  teachers  may  receive  higher  salaries  be- 
cause of  the  subjects  they  teach,  their  longer  tenure,  or  their 
greater  educational  achievement. 

Although  differentials  between  levels  of  the  school  system  ex- 
isted in  the  past,  most  school  districts  now  have  a  single  salary 
schedule,  based  on  education  and  experience,  for  all  teachers  in 
their  area.  Some,  however,  pay  higher  salaries  to  teachers  of  vo- 
cational education,  physical  education,  and  other  special  courses. 

Elementary  and  secondary  school  teachers. — Salaries  of  class- 
room teachers  (both  sexes)  were  estimated  by  the  National  Edu- 
cation  Association   to   average   $7,908    during   the    school    year 


160 


women's  income  and  earnings 


1968-69,  with  elementary  school  teachers  receiving  $7,676  and 
secondary  teachers  receiving  $8,160.  By  comparison,  the  average 
salaries  of  classroom  teachers  in  1967-68  were :  total,  $7,423 ;  ele- 
mentary schools,  $7,208;  and  secondary  schools,  $7,692.  Thus 
both  elementary  and  secondary  school  teachers  earned  about  6 
percent  more  in  1968-69  than  in  1967-68. 

Detailed  information  on  the  number  of  women  classroom  teach- 
ers and  the  average  salaries  paid  to  all  classroom  teachers  is 
available  by  selected  geographical  areas  for  the  school  year 
1968-69.  Women  classroom  teachers  numbered  1.3  million  and 
represented  68  percent  of  all  classroom  teachers  in  the  Nation, 
but  their  proportion  varied  from  62  percent  of  all  teachers  in  the 
Far  West  to  78  percent  in  Hawaii  (table  73).  The  average  annual 
salary  of  classroom  teachers  in  the  contiguous  United  States 
ranged  from  $6,802  in  the  Southeast  to  $9,165  in  the  Far  West.  In 
Alaska  it  was  $10,427 ;  in  Hawaii,  $8,100. 

Table    73. — Estimated   Average    Annual    Salaries    of    Elementary    and 
Secondary  School  Teachers,  by  Area,  1968-69 

Percent  of  all 
Average     classroom  teachers 
Women  annual  receiving — 

salary     

As  percent        (men  and     Under     $8,500  and 
Area  Number  of  total  women)        $6,500  over 

50  States  and  D.C.  -  _  1,305,481         68.1         $7,908      28.0         31.1 

New  England   70,426  65.7  7,941  27.0  35.3 

Mideast  (including  D.C.)   __  253,444  66.9  8,595  17.1  44.6 

Southeast     317,630  76.4  6,802  48.5  8.1 

Great  Lakes 245,887  65.1  8,543  17.6  40.6 

Plains    114,781  67.4  7,281  33.7  15.0 

Southwest     116,661  68.5  6,824  37.1  11.9 

Rocky  Mountains 35,081  63.5  6,983  41.9  9.1 

Far  West 143,800  61.7  9,165  12.4  62.5 

Alaska     2,138  65.4  10,427  ..  85.3 

Hawaii    5,633  77.9  8,100  28.0  39.8 

Source:  National  Education  Association:  "Estimates  of  School  Statistics,  1968-69."  Research 
Report  1968-R  16.   (Copyright  1968  by  the  National  Education  Association.  All  rights  reserved.) 


Twenty-eight  percent  of  all  classroom  teachers  received  less 
than  $6,500  in  1968-69,  with  the  highest  proportion  in  this  cate- 
gory in  the  Southeast  (49  percent).  In  contrast,  31>  percent  of  the 
teachers  received  a  salary  of  $8,500  or  more,  with  the  highest 
proportion  for  the  contiguous  United  States  in  the  Far  West  (63 
percent)  and  for  the  noncontiguous  United  States  in  Alaska  (85 
percent). 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  161 

Minimum  and  maximum  salaries  of  teachers  differ  considerably 
among  the  various  school  systems.  A  survey  of  minimum  and 
maximum  salaries  of  teachers  employed  for  the  school  year 
1968-69  in  systems  w^ith  enrollment  of  at  least  6,000  pupils 
showed  that  median  salaries  of  beginning  teachers  with  a  bache- 
lor's degree  were  $6,300  (enrollment  of  100,000  or  more  pupils), 
and  $6,000  (enrollment  of  less  than  100,000).^  The  median  mini- 
mum salaries  of  teachers  with  a  master's  degree  were  $7,000  (en- 
rollment of  100,000  or  more),  $6,448  (enrollment  of  50,000  to 
99,999),  $6,600  (enrollment  of  12,000  to  49,999),  $6,550  (enroll- 
ment of  6,000  to  11,999),  $6,480  (enrollment  of  3,000  to  5,999), 
and  $6,426  (enrollment  of  1,200  to  2,999). 

The  1968-69  maximum  salaries  paid  in  recognition  of  experi- 
ence to  teachers  with  a  bachelor's  degree  were  about  38  to  63  per- 
cent above  minimum  salaries.  For  teachers  with  a  master's  de- 
gree, the  maximum  salaries  exceeded  the  minimums  by  50  to  59 
percent.  The  medians  of  the  maximum  salaries  received  by  non- 
college  teachers  with  the  highest  level  of  preparation  ranged 
from  $11,000  to  $12,366. 

College  and  university  teachers. — Women  represented  18  per- 
cent of  the  faculties  in  colleges  and  universities  and  numbered 
26,734  in  1965-66  (table  74).  The  median  annual  salary  received 
by  women  college  teachers  for  9  months  of  full-time  teaching  was 
$7,732;  the  range  was  from  $6,454  for  instructors  to  $11,649  for 
professors.  Differences  in  medians  from  one  major  teaching  level 
to  the  next  were  at  least  $1,400. 

Table  74. — Median  Annual  Salaries  of  Teaching  Staff  in  Colleges  and 
Universities,  by  Sex,  1965-66 

Median  annual 
Number  salary 

Teaching  staff  Women  Men  Women  Men 

Total    26,734         118,641         $  7,732         $  9,275 

Professors  3,149  32,873  11,649  12,768 

Associate    professors     5,148  28,892  9,322  10,064 

Assistant    professors     8,983  37,232  7,870  8,446 

Instructors    9,454  19,644  6,454  6,864 

Source:  National  Education  Association:  "Salaries  in  Higher  Education,  1965-66."  Research 
Report  1966-R  2.   (Copyright  1966  by  the  National  Education  Association.  All  rights  reserved.) 

Women  teachers  received  a  higher  median  salary  ($8,195)   in 
public  universities  with  enrollment  of  10,000  and  over  than  in 


'  National  Education  Association :  "Salary  Schedules  for  Teachers,  1968-69."  Research  Report 
1968-R  13.  1968. 


162        women's  income  and  earnings 

any  other  type  of  institution  of  higher  learning.  Those  in  State 
colleges  received  the  next  highest  median  salary  ($8,113),  and 
those  in  small  private  colleges  v^^ith  enrollment  of  less  than  500  had 
the  lowest  ($6,265). 

Salaries  for  administrative  positions  in  colleges  and  universi- 
ties are  not  reported  by  sex.  Among  32  positions  listed  for  admin- 
istrative officers,  deans  of  women  received  the  second  lowest  me- 
dian salary  ($10,289)  for  a  full  12  months  in  1967-68.«  Also  low 
were  the  median  salaries  of  directors  of  student  financial  aid 
($9,424),  registrars  ($10,366),  deans  or  directors  of  student 
placement  ($10,606),  and  directors  of  public  relations  ($10,823). 
Among  deans  of  professional  and  graduate  schools  were  deans  of 
home  economics  ($18,417)  and  of  nursing  ($16,550) — ^two  posts 
usually  held  by  women. 

Junior  college  teachers. — The  5,717  women  teachers  employed 
by  public  junior  colleges  in  1965-66  had  a  median  salary  of 
$7,830;  the  1,100  women  teachers  in  private  junior  colleges, 
$6,114.^  With  salaries  computed  on  the  basis  of  9  months'  serv- 
ice, women's  medians  were  lower  than  men's  by  $575  in  public 
junior  colleges  and  by  $550  in  private  junior  colleges. 

72.    Salaries  of  Professional  and  Technical  Workers  in 
Private  Industry 

A  survey  of  salaries  paid  by  private  industry  in  June  1968  to 
selected  professional,  administrative,  technical,  and  clerical  per- 
sonnel indicated  that  although  women  accounted  for  approxi- 
mately one-half  of  the  total  employment  in  the  occupations  stud- 
ied, they  were  employed  largely  in  clerical  positions." 

Women  were  a  relatively  small  proportion  of  the  total  em- 
ployed in  professional  and  technical  occupations.  They  accounted 
for  almost  one-fourth  of  the  draftsmen-tracers  but  less  than  one- 
twentieth  of  the  three  draftsmen  levels  combined.  Women  were 
about  one-fifth  of  the  engineering  technicians  at  level  I  but  less 
than  one-twentieth  of  such  technicians  at  levels  II  through  V 
combined.  The  median  annual  salaries  for  these  technical  occupa- 
tions ranged  from  $4,811  for  draftsmen-tracers  and  $5,496  for  en- 
gineering technicians  I  to  $8,998  for  draftsmen  III  and  $9,648  for 
engineering  technicians  V. 


*  National  Education  Association :  "Salaries  in  Higher  Education,  1967-68."  Research  Report 
1968-R  7.    1968. 

"  National  Education  Association :  "Salaries  in  Higher  Education,  1965-66."  Research  Report 
1966-R  2.    1966. 

>"  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  "National  Survey  of  Professional, 
Administrative,    Technical,    and   Clerical    Pay,    June    1968."    Bull.    1617.    January    1969. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  163 

In  the  professional  and  administrative  occupations,  women 
were  reported  employed  mainly  in  the  first  few  levels.  They  ac- 
counted for  at  least  10  but  less  than  25  percent  of  the  accountants 
I,  job  analysts  II,  chemists  I  and  II,  buyers  I,  and  managers  of 
office  services  I.  The  median  annual  salaries  for  these  occupations 
ranged  from  $7,296  for  buyers  I  to  $9,192  for  managers  of  office 
services  I. 

73.    Salaries  in  Professional  Hospital  Nursing  Occupations 

Hospital  occupations  cover  a  wide  range  of  skills  and  functions. 
Full-time  registered  professional  nurses  and  other  professional 
and  technical  employees  accounted  for  one-sixth  of  hospital  per- 
sonnel in  July  1966. 

Table  75  shows  the  median  weekly  earnings  of  women  in  five 
nursing  occupations  in  nongovernment  hospitals  in  21  metropoli- 
tan areas  in  July  1966,  Highest  median  earnings  were  received  by 
directors  of  nursing.  In  most  of  the  areas,  supervisors  of  nursing 
received  the  second  highest  median  earnings,  followed  by  nursing 
instructors,  head  nurses,  and  general  duty  nurses.  In  the  16  met- 
ropolitan areas  in  which  the  earnings  of  directors  of  nursing 
were  reported,  the  highest  weekly  salary  was  in  Washington, 
D.C.  ($204.50)  ;  the  lowest,  in  Dallas  ($121.00).  In  those  areas  for 
which  the  median  earnings  of  supervisors  were  reported.  New 
York  had  the  highest;  Atlanta,  the  lowest.  For  nursing  instruc- 
tors and  head  nurses,  highest  earnings  were  reported  in  San 
Francisco-Oakland;  lowest,  in  Atlanta.  Earnings  generally  were 
higher  in  State  and  local  government  hospitals  than  in  private 
hospitals.  Also  they  were  higher  in  large  cities  than  in  small  ones 
and  in  the  West  than  in  other  regions.  Earnings  were  lowest  in  the 
South — general  duty  nurses  in  the  South  received  22  percent  less 
weekly,  on  the  average,  than  those  in  the  West, 

Hospital  nurses  worked  40  hours  a  week  in  most  areas  sur- 
veyed. For  work  after  40  hours,  they  usually  received  either  com- 
pensatory time  off  or  straight-time  pay.  Nurses  on  late  shifts  gen- 
erally were  paid  a  shift  differential. 

During  the  latter  half  of  1966,  nurses  gained  very  sizable  in- 
creases in  salaries.  These  are  not  reflected  in  table  75.  However,  a 
spot  check  by  the  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  indicated  that  in- 
creases were  granted  by  a  majority  of  the  hospitals  in  11  of  the 
21  areas.  In  addition,  a  limited  study  of  salary  ranges  in  non-Fed- 
eral short  term  general  hospitals  conducted  in  April  1967  pro- 


164 


women's  income  and  earnings 


Table  75. — Median   Weekly  Earnings  '  of  Women  in  Selected  Hospital  ^ 
Nursing  Occupations,  21  Metropolitan  Areas,  July  1966 


Metropolitan  area 


Directors      Supervisors  General 

of  of  Head  duty  Nursing 

nursing  nursing  nurses  nurses         instructors 


Atlanta     

Baltimore     

Boston    

Buffalo    

Chicago    

Cincinnati    

Cleveland    

Dallas   

Denver    

Detroit    

Los  Angeles- 
Long    Beach    

Memphis 

Miami    

Minneapolis-St.    Paul 

New  York  City 

Philadelphia     

Portland   ( Oreg. )    

St.   Louis    

San  Francisco-Oakland 

Seattle-Everett    

Washington   (D.C.)      __ 


$138.50 
163.50 


168.50 

154.50 
121.00 
138.50 
167.50 

164.00 

162.00 
161.50 

173.00 
156.50 
160.50 
202.00 
179.00 
204.50 


$107.50 
133.00 
130.00 
133.50 
137.50 
135.00 
139.00 
121.00 
125.50 
148.00 

133.00 


115.00 
127.00 
150.50 
123.50 
119.00 
126.50 
150.00 
135.00 
131.00 


$102.00 
115.00 
120.50 
114.50 
122.50 
117.00 
124.00 
107.50 
115.00 
130.50 

123.50 
105.00 
105.00 
116.50 
132.50 
105.00 
114.00 
110.50 
135.00 
126.00 
116.00 


?  91.00 
98.50 
102.50 
103.00 
110.00 
100.00 
107.00 
104.00 
97.00 
118.50 

110.50 

97.00 

95.00 

102.00 

119.00 

92.00 

104.00 

99.00 

117.00 

108.50 

97.00 


$101.50 
127.50 
128.00 
125.50 
132.00 
118.00 
128.00 
110.00 
123.00 
144.00 

132.50 
107.50 


117.00 

125.50 
122.50 
111.00 
154.50 

124.00 


*  Excludes   extra    pay   for   work   on    late   shifts,    as    well    as   value    of    room,    board,    or    other 
perquisites.  Earnings  are  rounded  to  the  nearest  half  dollar. 
^  Covers  only  nongovernment  hospitals. 

Source:  U.S.   Department  of   Labor,   Bureau  of   Labor   Statistics:    "Industry   Wage   Survey — 
Hospitals,  July  1966."  Bull.  1553.  June  1967. 

vided  further  evidence  of  rising  salary  levels  for  nurses."  In- 
creases in  starting  salaries  in  the  103  hospitals  that  were  in- 
cluded in  the  study  ranged  from  2  percent  to  27  percent,  with 
about  one-fourth  of  the  hospitals  reporting  at  least  a  20-percent 
increase.  The  median  increase  was  about  13  percent. 

An  estimated  63  percent  of  all  the  registered  nurses  employed 
in  the  United  States  in  1967  were  working  in  hospitals  or  similar 
institutions  (table  76).  About  19  percent  were  private  duty  or 
office  nurses.  The  remainder  were  public  health,  school,  or  in- 
dustrial nurses  or  were  working  in  schools  of  nursing  or  nursing 
homes.  One  percent  of  nurses  were  men. 

Private  duty  nurses  are  self-employed,  and  their  compensation 
is  individually  determined.  However,  standard  fees  for  private 
duty  nurses  for  a  basic  8-hour  day  have  been  established  by  State 


"American  Nurses'  Association:  "Facts  About  Nursing."  1967  edition. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE 


165 


Table  76. — Women  Professional  Registered  Nurses,  by  Field  of 
Employment,  1967 


Percent 
Field  of  employment  Number  distribution 

Total    640,000  100.0 

Hospital  or  other  institution 400,000  62.5 

Private  duty,  office,   other    124,000  19.4 

Public  health    (including  school)    41,500  6.5 

Nursing   education    24,000  3.8 

Occupational  health   19,500  3.0 

Nursing  homes    31,000  4.8 

Source:  American  Nurses'  Association:   "Facts  About  Nursing."   1968  edition. 

nurses'  associations.  As  of  January  1968,  these  ranged  from  $20 
in  Utah  to  $38  in  Connecticut.^^  From  December  1957  to  December 
1967  the  number  of  registered  nurses  listed  with  registries  de- 
creased by  nearly  38  percent,  and  calls  to  registries  decreased  by 
36  percent.  One  factor  in  the  decline  in  the  employment  of  private 
duty  nurses  may  be  the  growth  of  intensive  care  units  in  hospi- 
tals. 

Office  nurses  had  an  annual  median  salary  of  $4,500  for  full- 
time  work  when  surveyed  in  1964.^^  The  lowest  median  salary 
was  in  the  Southeast  ($3,900),  and  the  highest  was  in  Pacific 
Coast  States  ($4,980).  About  43  percent  of  the  office  nurses  regu- 
larly worked  40  hours  a  week;  37  percent,  between  30  and  40 
hours;  and  12  percent,  more  than  40  hours.  For  8  percent  there 
was  no  report  of  hours  worked. 

Local  public  health  nurses  in  staff  nurse  positions  received  me- 
dian annual  salaries  of  $6,460  in  official  agencies  and  $6,281  in 
nonofficial  agencies,  as  of  April  1,  1967,"  Comparable  salaries  for 
local  public  health  supervising  nurses  were  $8,094  in  official  agen- 
cies and  $7,886  in  nonofficial  agencies.  By  region,  salaries  were 
highest  in  the  West  and  lowest  in  the  South.  These  1967  salaries 
reflect  increases  received  by  nurses  during  the  latter  half  of  1966. 

School  nurses  employed  in  public  schools  for  the  school  year 
1966-67  received  average  salaries  of  $7,297  (enrollment  of  25,000 
or  more),  $6,820  (enrollment  of  3,000  to  24,999),  and  $6,005  (en- 
rollment of  300  to  2,999). 15  The  median  salary  in  April  1967  for 
staff  nurses  in  schools  was  $7,046.^^ 

^  American  Nurses'  Association :   "Facts  About  Nursing."   1968  edition. 

''American  Nurses'  Association:  "Facts  About  Nursing."  1966  edition. 

"National  League  for  Nursing:  "Salaries  Paid  by  Public  Health  Nursing  Services — 1967." 
In  Nursing  Outlook,  December  1967. 

''  National  Education  Association :  "Twenty-third  Biennial  Salary  Survey  of  Public  School 
Professional  Personnel,  1966-67  ;  National  Data."  Research  Report  1967-R  11.  1967. 

"  See  footnote  12. 


166        women's  income  and  earnings 

Nurse  educators  employed  on  a  full-time  basis  in  December 
1965  received  a  median  annual  salary  of  $6,600.^^  Median  salaries 
were  $6,240  for  teachers  in  professional  hospital  nursing  schools 
and  $7,500  for  teachers  in  collegiate  schools. 

Industrial  nurses'  salaries  vary  considerably  among  metropoli- 
tan areas.  Between  July  1967  and  June  1968  women  industrial 
nurses  received  median  weekly  salaries  ranging  from  $98  in  Scran- 
ton  to  $145.50  in  Beaumont-Port  Arthur  (table  77).  This  would 
mean  a  range  of  $5,096  to  $7,566  for  a  full  year  (52  weeks)  of 
work. 

Nurses  employed  in  nongovernment  nursing  homes  and  re- 
lated facilities  received  average  hourly  earnings  of  $3.04  in  April 
1968.^«  This  compares  with  $2.90  in  October  1967  and  $2.28  in 
1965.^^ 

Table    77. — Median    Weekly    Salaries  ^    of    Women    Industrial  Nurses, 
64  Metropolitan  Areas,  1967-68 

Median 

weekly 

Metropolitan  area  salary 

Akron      $138.50 

Albany-Schenectady-Troy     127.50 

Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton 121.50 

Atlanta  128.00 

Baltimore   126.00 

Beaumont-Port    Arthur    145.50 

Birmingham     117.50 

Boston 124.50 

Buffalo    128.00 

Canton    124.00 

Charleston    130.00 

Chattanooga    , 118.00 

Chicago     130.50 

Cincinnati    127.50 

Cleveland    125.50 

Columbus    . . 114.50 

Dallas . . . 122.00 

Davenport- Rock  Island-Moline   122.50 

Dayton    141.00 

Denver    123.50 

Des  Moines    . 127.00 

Detroit    i 143.00 

See  footnote  at  end  of  table. 


'^  American  Nurses'  Association :   "Facts  About  Nursing."   1967   edition. 

*"  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Hour  and  Public  Contracts  Divisions:  "Nursing 
Homes  and  Related  Facilities — A  Study  of  the  Economic  Effects  of  the  $1.15  Minimum  Wage 
Under  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act."  Submitted  to  the  Congress,  1969. 

"  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  "Industry  Wage  Survey — Nursing 
Homes  and  Related  Facilities,   April   1965."    Bull.    1492.   April   1966. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  167 

Table  77. — Median  Weekly  Salaries  '  of  Women  Industrial 
Nurses,  64  Metropolitan  Areas,  1967-68 — Continued 

Median 

weekly 

Metropolitan  area  salary 

Fort  Worth   $131.50 

Greenville     99.00 

Houston    132.00 

Indianapolis    132.00 

Kansas   City   127.50 

Lawrence-Haverhill   123.50 

Los  Angeles-Long  Beach   143.00 

Louisville    123.00 

Memphis     114.00 

Miami    119.50 

Milwaukee    127.00 

Minneapolis-St.  Paul - 128.50 

Muskegon-Muskegon    Heights    123.50 

Newark  and  Jersey  City 127.00 

New  Haven  126.00 

New  Orleans 124.50 

New  York   134,00 

Paterson-Clifton-Passaic     126.00 

Philadelphia    120.00 

Phoenix     128.00 

Pittsburgh    122.00 

Portland    (Maine)    100.50 

Portland   (Oreg.-Wash.)    126.50 

Providence-Pawtucket 113.50 

Richmond 120.00 

Rockford     114.00 

St.  Louis 129.50 

San   Bernardino-Riverside-Ontario    129.50 

San   Diego   137.00 

San   Francisco-Oakland    139.00 

San  Jose 140.50 

Savannah   117.50 

Scranton     98.00 

Seattle-Everett   127.00 

South  Bend   122.00 

Toledo     130.50 

Trenton     127.50 

Washington    (D.C.-Md.-Va.)    117.50 

Waterbury   117.50 

Wichita     123.00 

Worcester     119.50 

Youngstown-Warren    125.00 

'  straight-time  earnings. 

Source:    U.S.    Department   of    Labor,    Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics:    "Occupational  Eaimings 
and  Wage  Trends,  1967-68."  Summary  Releases,  Nos.  1-3. 


168        women's  income  and  earnings 

14.    Salaries  of  Professional  and  Technical  Hospital  Personnel 
(Nonnursing) 

Among  women  employed  in  private  hospitals  in  professional  oc- 
cupations other  than  nursing,  medical  social  workers  generally 
were  the  highest  paid  in  1966  (table  78).  Their  lowest  reported 
median  weekly  salary  was  in  Boston  ($120) ;  their  highest,  in  San 
Francisco-Oakland  ($165).  Medical  record  librarians  were  paid 
more  than  dietitians  in  some  areas  and  less  in  others.  Their  low- 
est median  weekly  salary  was  in  Dallas  ($92.50),  and  their  high- 
est was  in  Boston  ($135.50).  The  median  weekly  salary  of  dieti- 
tians ranged  from  a  low  of  $105.50  in  Denver  to  a  high  of  $128  in 

Table  78. — Median  Weekly  Earnings  ^  of  Women  in  Selected  Nonnursing 
Professional  and  Technical  Hospital"  Occupations,  21  Metropolitan 
Areas,  July  1966 

Medical  Medical  Physical 

Metropolitan  record  social  Medical         thera-  X-ray 

area  Dietitians      librarians        workers    technologists      pists       technicians 

Atlanta    


Boston    115.00 

Buffalo   108.50 

Chicago    124.00 

Cincinnati    _.._ 112.00 

Cleveland     120.50 

Dallas     109.50 

Denver   105.50 

Detroit   127.00 

Los  Angeles-Long 

Beach   119.00 

Memphis    

Miami     119.50 

Minneapolis-St. 

Paul    106.00 

New  York  City 118.50 

Philadelphia    106.00 

Portland  (Oreg.) 122.50 

St.  Louis   111.00 

San  Francisco- 
Oakland   128.00 

Seattle-Everett     108.00 

Washington  (D.C.)  106.00 


;ioi.50 

$105.00 

$  88.00 

100.00 

$149.50 

109.50 

86.00 

135.50 

120.00 

100.00 
106.50 

$105.00 

85.00 
89.00 

121.00 

154.00 

111.00 

123.50 

101.00 

129.00 

115.00 

90.00 

125.00 

132.50 

106.00 

120.00 

89.50 

92.50 

98.00 

89.00 

123.50 

104.00 

108.00 

80.50 

132.50 

146.50 

119.00 

127.00 

104.50 

132.50 

164.50 

138.50 

133.00 

105.50 
82.00 

112.00 

96.50 



86.50 

117.50 

112.00 

115.50 

84.00 

149.50 

111.50 

112.00 

115.00 

122.00 

93.00 
113.00 

119.00 

77.00 
101.50 

108.50 

108.50 

101.50 

88.50 

114.50 

165.00 

141.00 

129.50 

113.00 

125.00 

110.50 

99.00 

104.00 

107.50 

86.50 

*  Excludes  extra   pay   for   work   on   late  shifts,    as   well    as   value   of    room,    board,    or   other 
perquisites.   Earnings  are  rounded  to  the  nearest  half  dollar. 
^Covers  only  nongovernment  hospitals. 

Source:   U.S.   Department  of   Labor,   Bureau  ot    Labor   Statistics:    "Industry   Wage   Survey — 
Hospitals,  July  1966."  Bull.  1553.  June  1967. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  169 

San  Francisco-Oakland.  Medical  technologists  received  their  low- 
est median  weekly  salary  in  Philadelphia  ($93)  and  their  highest 
in  San  Francisco-Oakland  ($141). 

Physical  therapists  generally  received  higher  earnings  than  did 
medical  technologists.  Therapists  had  their  lowest  median  weekly 
salary  in  St.  Louis  ($101.50)  and  their  highest  in  Los  Angeles- 
Long  Beach  ($133).  X-ray  technicians  were  the  lowest  paid  of 
any  of  these  occupations — their  median  salary  ranged  from  $77  a 
week  in  Philadelphia  to  $113  a  week  in  San  Francisco-Oakland. 

75.    Salaries  of  Scienfisfs 

A  report  on  the  economic  and  professional  characteristics  of 
approximately  205,000  full-time  employed  civilian  U.S.  scientists 
listed  on  the  National  Science  Foundation's  National  Register  of 
Scientific  and  Technical  Personnel  in  1966  gives  information  on 
the  salaries  of  women  scientists  by  major  scientific  field. 

Women  scientists  were  8  percent  of  all  registered  scientists  and 
numbered  20,164  (table  79).  Three-fourths  of  the  women  scien- 
tists were  in  four  major  fields:  chemistry  (25  percent),  psychol- 
ogy (21  percent),  biological  sciences  (17  percent),  and  mathemat- 
ics (12  percent) .  Subfields  in  which  the  greatest  numbers  of  women 
were  found  were  clinical  psychology,  biochemistry,  organic  chemis- 
try, analytical  chemistry,  numerical  methods  and  computation,  and 
microbiology.  Educational  attainment  of  women  scientists  was 
high:  33  percent  had  a  doctorate,  2  percent  had  a  professional 
medical  degree,  38  percent  had  a  master's  degree,  and  26  percent 
had  a  bachelor's  degree.  Fewer  than  1  percent  reported  less  than 
a  bachelor's  degree. 

The  greatest  number  of  women  Ph.  D.'s  was  among  psycholo- 
gists and  biological  scientists.  Women  with  a  master's  degree 
were  primarily  psychologists,  mathematicians,  chemists,  or  bio- 
logical scientists.  Women  scientists  with  only  a  bachelor's  degree 
were  mainly  chemists. 

The  median  annual  salary  of  all  scientists  (both  sexes)  on  the 
register  was  $12,000  (table  80).  Bachelor's  and  master's  degree 
holders  reported  median  salaries  of  $11,000  and  $10,700,  respec- 
tively, while  holders  of  doctorates  reported  a  median  salary  of 
$13,200.  The  median  annual  salary  of  women  scientists  was 
$9,000. 

Among  women  scientists,  the  highest  median  salaries  were  re- 
ceived by  statisticians  ($10,500)  and  economists  ($10,300),  fol- 
lowed by  psychologists   ($10,000) ;  sociologists,  anthropologists. 


170 


women's  income  and  earnings 


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WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


171 


Table  80. — Median  Annual  Salaries  of  Full-Time  Employed  Women 
Civilian  Scientists,  by  Field,  1966 

Women 

Median  annual 

Median  salary  of 

Percent  annual         all  scientists 

Field  Number  distribution  salary         (both  sexes) 

All  fields   20,164  100.0  $  9,000  $12,000 

Chemistry    4,995  24.8  8,100  12,000 

Earth  sciences   654  3.2  9,000  11,400 

Meteorology    129  .6  9,600  11,700 

Physics     981  4.9  9,000  12,500 

Mathematics   2,395  11.9  9,100  12,000 

Agricultural  sciences 50  .2  8,500  10,000 

Biological    sciences    3,347  16.6  9,200  12,000 

Psychology    4,233  21.0  10,000  11,500 

Statistics   307  1.5  10,500  12,800 

Economics   571  2.8  10,300  13,100 

Sociology   581  2.9  9,600  11,300 

Anthropology    '_...  171  .8  9,600  11,500 

Linguistics    267  1.3  8,600  10,000 

Other    1,483  7.4  8,200  12,000 

Source:   National  Science  Foundation:   "American  Science  Manpower,   1966."  December  1967. 

and  meteorologists  ($9,600  each) ;  biological  scientists  ($9,200) ; 
mathematicians  ($9,100)  ;  and  physicists  and  earth  scientists 
($9,000  each).  Median  salaries  of  women  scientists  were  from 
$1,400  to  $3,900  a  year  less  than  the  median  salaries  of  all  scien- 
tists in  their  respective  fields. 


Salaries  of  Federal  Employees 

As  of  October  31,  1967,  the  659,403  women  white-collar 
workers  in  the  Federal  service  had  an  average  annual  salary  of 
$6,403  as  compared  with  $9,154  for  men  (table  81).  Women  were 
34  percent  of  all  full-time  white-collar  workers.  Salaries  ranged 
from  $3,776  for  grade  1  jobs  to  $27,055  for  grade  18  jobs — as  de- 
termined under  the  Classification  Act  of  1949,  as  amended.  Effec- 
tive July  13,  1969,  salaries  were  increased  so  that  they  ranged 
from  $3,889  for  grade  1  to  $33,495  for  grade  18. 

Differences  between  the  grades  and  salaries  of  women  and  men 
arise  not  only  from  differences  in  types  of  jobs  held,  but  also 
from  differences  in  length  of  service.  In  June  1967  the  average 
length  of  service  of  Federal  employees  was  9  years  for  women  but 
14.1  years  for  men.  About  46  percent  of  the  women  but  only  22 
percent  of  the  men  had  less  than  5  years  of  service,  while  64  per- 
cent of  the  women  and  39  percent  of  the  men  had  less  than  10 


172 


women's  income  and  earnings 


years  of  service.  A  survey  of  full-time  civilian  employment  indi- 
cated that  total  employment  of  v^omen  in  higher  level  positions 
(general  schedule  grades  12  or  the  equivalent  and  above)  in- 
creased by  12  percent  between  October  31,  1966,  and  October  31, 
1967.'° 

Table  81. — Average  Annual  Salaries  of  Women  Full-Time  White-Collar 
Workers  in  the  Federal  Service,  All  Areas/  by  Occupation  Group, 
October  31,  1967 


Average 
annual 

Occupation  group  Number  salary 

Total    659,403  $6,403 

General   administrative,   clerical,   and   office 

services    333,776  5,828 

Postal     80,828  6,495 

Accounting  and  budget 52,913  6,704 

Medical,  hospital,  dental  and  public  health  . .  50,532  7,186 

Supply 40,150  6,361 

Legal  and  kindred   20,182  7,016 

Personnel  management  and  industrial 

relations    19,957  7,150 

Social  science,  psychology,  and  welfare 8,934  9,683 

Education    8,914  7,341 

Mathematics  and  statistics 7,607  7,558 

Business  and  industry 6,467  8,823 

Information   and   arts    6,036  8,286 

Transportation    5,982  6,695 

Library  and   archives    5,045  8,073 

Physical    sciences    4,182  8,712 

Biological   sciences   2,636  8,106 

Engineering  and  architecture 1,895  7,981 

Investigation    803  8,109 

Commodity  quality  control,   inspection,  and 

grading   529  7,870 

Equipment,  facilities,  and  service   310  8,545 

Copyright,  patent,  and  trademark 117  10,753 

Veterinary  medical  science 24  11,169 

Miscellaneous   occupations    1,584  6,924 

Note.  Preliminary  data 

'  Worldwide. 

Source :  U.S.  Civil  Service  Commission,  Bureau  of  Manpower  Information  Systems 
tions  of  Federal  White-Collar  Workers,  October  31.  1967."  SM-56-7. 


As  percent 
of  total 
employed 


34.1 

73.1 
14.2 
46.8 
52.5 
48.9 
45.2 

53.8 

26.9 

36.7 

48.7 

12.1 

30.1 

18.3 

65.4 

9.8 

6.3 

1.3 

2.3 

2.5 
1.6 
6.5 
1.0 
4.0 


"Occupa- 


The  largest  group  of  women  full-time  white-collar  workers  in 
the  Federal  service  in  October  1967  numbered  333,776  and  were 
employed  in  general  administrative,  clerical,  and  office  services. 


'"  U.S.    Civil    Service   Commission,    Bureau    of    Manpower   Information    Systems : 
of  Federal  WTiite-Collar  Workers,  October  31,  1967."  SM-56-7. 


'Occupations 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  173 

Their  average  annual  salary  was  $5,828.  Women  postal  em- 
ployees, who  numbered  80,828,  were  the  second  largest  group  and 
had  an  average  annual  salary  of  $6,495.  The  third  largest  group 
of  women  were  in  accounting  and  budget  work,  where  52,913 
were  employed  at  an  average  annual  salary  of  $6,704.  The  highest 
average  salaries  paid  to  women  employed  in  the  Federal  service 
were  in  veterinary  medical  science  ($11,169)  ;  copyright,  patent, 
and  trademark  ($10,753);  and  social  science,  psychology,  and 
welfare  ($9,683).  There  were  only  24  women  veterinarians  and 
only  117  women  employed  in  copyright,  patent,  and  trademark. 
However,  women  in  social  science,  psychology,  and  welfare  num- 
bered 8,934  and  represented  27  percent  of  total  employment  in 
these  fields. 


Salaries  of  College  Graduates 

76.    Starting  Salaries  of  Recent  College  Graduates 

The  jobs  and  salaries  expected  to  be  offered  by  208  companies 
to  June  1969  college  graduates  were  reported  in  a  survey  con- 
ducted in  November  1968  by  the  Northwestern  University  Place- 
ment Center.  Almost  all  of  the  companies  that  responded  to  the 
university's  inquiry  made  regular  visits  to  selected  campuses  and 
actively  sought  college  and  university  graduates.  All  but  a  few 
were  large-  or  medium-sized  corporations.  They  were  located  in 
21  States  representing  all  major  regions  of  the  country  and  a 
wide  variety  of  business  interests. 

Since  the  companies  that  recruit  at  colleges  seek  outstanding 
senior  students,  graduates  recruited  on  campus  usually  are  of- 
fered higher  beginning  salaries  than  graduates  who  apply  to  a 
company's  employment  office  after  leaving  college.  The  North- 
western survey  indicated  that  although  40  percent  of  all  college 
students  today  are  women,  many  companies  do  not  regularly  re- 
cruit college  women  through  campus  interviews.  For  those 
women  who  do  receive  job  offers  at  college,  however,  starting  sal- 
aries have  been  rising  at  a  slightly  faster  rate  than  those  for 
men.  Nevertheless,  the  spread  between  the  offers  made  to  men 
and  women  with  the  same  college  majors  is  still  substantial. 

Reports  from  132  companies  indicated  that  these  companies 
hired  a  total  of  1,871  college  women  in  1968  and  that  they 
planned  to  hire  a  total  of  2,251  college  women  from  1969  graduat- 
ing classes,  an  increase  of  20  percent.  Most  of  the  companies 


174        women's  income  and  earnings 

reported  that  they  would  hire  more  college  women  if  they  were 
available,  especially  in  such  fields  as  engineering,  data  processing, 
accounting,  and  mathematics. 

Starting  salaries  offered  by  the  132  companies  to  women  sched- 
uled to  receive  bachelor's  degrees  in  1969  averaged  about  $648  a 
month  in  contrast  to  the  $609  offered  in  1968.  Women  graduates 
to  be  employed  in  most  scientific  and  engineering  fields  received 
the  most  generous  job  offers  (table  82).  For  example,  the  pro- 
posed monthly  salaries  of  women  engineers  averaged  $806;  gen- 
eral scientists,  $750;  chemists,  $711;  and  mathematicians  and 
statisticians,  $707.  The  average  monthly  salaries  offered  to 
women  in  other  fields  ranged  from  $485  for  secretaries  to  $692 
for  accountants.  Increases  in  average  salaries  offered  in  1969  as 
compared  with  1968  ranged  from  $20  a  month  for  economists  to 
$64  a  month  for  engineers. 

Table  82. — Starting  Salaries  of  Women  With  Bachelor's  Degrees, 
BY  Field,  1968  and  1969 

Average  monthly- 
Number  starting  salary 

of  Increase 

Field  companies  1969  1968  1968-69 

Mathematics,   statistics    40  $707  $648  $59 

Data  processing,  computer  program- 
ing       47  671  620  51 

General    business    34  592  570  22 

Accounting    37  692  643  49 

Liberal   arts    17  575  522  53 

Chemistry    15  711  690  21 

Engineering    20  806  742  64 

Marketing,  retailing 14  601  571  30 

Home  economics 22  588  555  33 

Science    (field  not  stated)    10  750  708  42 

Secretary     7  485  455  30 

Economics,  finance   4  602  582  20 

Source:    Endicott,  Frank   S.,   Dr.:   "Trends   in   Employment   of  College   and  University   Grad- 
uates in  Business  and  Industry."  Northwestern  University.   1969. 

n .    Salaries  of  College   Women   Seven   Years  After 
Graduation 

A  resurvey  of  women  college  graduates  of  the  class  of  1957  was 
conducted  by  the  Women's  Bureau  in  1964.  Those  surveyed  were 
generally  the  same  June  1957  graduates  who  participated  in  an 
earher  survey  made  in  the  winter  of  1957-58  by  the  Women's  Bu- 
reau and  the  National  Vocational  Guidance  Association. 

About  half  (49  percent)   of  the  women  graduates  were  em- 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  175 

ployed  7  years  after  graduation.  Of  those  employed  in  1964,  9  out 
of  10  were  in  professional  positions — a  slightly  larger  proportion 
than  7  years  earlier  (8  out  of  10).  The  increase  probably  was  due 
to  the  improved  job  status  in  1964  of  some  of  the  graduates,  in- 
cluding those  who  had  been  graduate  assistants,  and  to  the  rela- 
tively greater  tendency  of  those  with  professional  jobs  to  remain 
in  the  labor  force. 

Salaries  of  the  June  1957  women  graduates  were,  on  the  aver- 
age, almost  60  percent  higher  in  1964  than  in  1957-58.  The  aver- 
age annual  salary  of  the  graduates  was  $5,947  in  1964  as  com- 
pared with  $3,739  in  1957-58  (table  83). 

The  highest  average  salaries  earned  in  1964  by  the  June  1957 
women  graduates  were  received  by  those  employed  as  chemists, 
mathematicians,  or  statisticians  ($8,039),  followed  by  managers 
or  officials  ($7,466)  and  professional  workers  in  schools,  exclud- 
ing teachers  ($6,744).  Teachers,  with  an  average  salary  of 
$5,890,  earned  slightly  less  than  the  average  for  the  total  group 
of  survey  graduates,  although  they  constituted  62  percent  of 
those  employed.  Lowest  average  earnings  were  reported  by  secre- 
taries and  stenographers  ($4,527),  miscellaneous  clerical  workers 
($4,813),  and  librarians  ($5,658). 

Fully  20  percent  of  the  employed  graduates  earned  $7,000  or 
over  in  1964;  only  5  percent  earned  less  than  $4,000.  The  gradu- 
ates' earnings  were  generally  highest  in  the  West  ($6,358)  and 
Northeast  ($6,266)  and  lowest  in  the  South  ($5,215). 

The  positive  influence  of  advanced  education  on  salary  levels 
was  corroborated  by  the  $6,409  average  salary  of  graduates  with 
a  master's  degree  and  the  $5,800  average  of  those  with  a  bacca- 
laureate only.  The  earnings  of  the  few  survey  graduates  with  a 
doctorate  were  not  reported  because  most  were  resident  physi- 
cians in  hospitals  and  had  typically  low  earnings. 

In  terms  of  their  undergraduate  major,  graduates  with  the 
highest  average  salaries  in  1964  were  those  who  had  majored  in 
mathematics  ($7,517),  chemistry  ($6,535),  or  psychology 
($6,393).  The  large  group  of  graduates  with  an  education  major 
averaged  $5,877,  slightly  below  the  average  for  the  total  group. 
Lowest  average  salaries  were  received  by  graduates  with  a  major 
in  music  ($5,566)  or  business  and  commerce  ($5,568). 


176 


women's  income  and  earnings 


Table  83. — Average  Annual  Salaries  of  1957  Women  College 
Graduates,  by  Occupation,  1957-58  and  1964 


1964  1957-58 

Average  Average 

annual  annual 

Occupation  group  Number  salary  Number  salary 

Graduates  represented'  32,571  $5,947  63,945  $3,739 

Chemists,  mathematicians, 

statisticians     569  8,039 

Chemists    __  __  569  4,847 

Mathematicians,    statisticians    ^  _  _  _  _  627  4,675 

Clerical  workers    (miscellaneous)    __  1,010  4,813 

Advertising,  editorial  assistants  .  _  _  _  _  764  3,278 

Bookkeepers,  accounting  clerks  _ .  ._  ._  544  3,407 

Library  assistants _  _  .  _  329  3,097 

Personnel  assistants _.  ..  447  3,676 

Typists   ..  __  449  3,104 

Other  clerical  workers __  _.  2,049  3,247 

Dietitians,  home  economists 527  6,110 

Dietitians __  _^  401  3,576 

Home  economists _  _  _  808  4,040 

Editors,  copywriters,  reporters 585  6,274  542  3,397 

Librarians   646  5,658 

Managers,    officials    511  7,466 

Nurses    1,930  6,078  4,302  3,875 

Professional  workers  (miscellan- 
eous)   1,775  6,557 

Religious  workers ..  __  370  3,167 

Other  professional   workers    -.  _.  2,125  3,862 

Research  workers    310  6,388  626  3,971 

School  workers    (miscellaneous)    674  6,744 

Secretaries,   stenographers    1,410  4,527  4,089  3,295 

Social,  welfare,  recreation  workers  _  1,230  6,137 

Recreation  workers _  „  _  _  543  3,655 

Social,  welfare  workers _ .  _  1,266  3,792 

Teachers     20,140  5,890  39,320  3,799 

Kindergarten    728  6,060  IT 

Elementary   school 11,243  5,843  25,549  3,858 

Junior  high   school    2,682  5,837  4,613  3,785 

Senior  high  school 3,856  5,852  8,290  3,658 

Other    1,631  6,313  868  3,475 

Technicians    (biological)    732  5,843  1,586  3,854 

Therapists   316  6,214  701  3,947 

>  Excludes   part-time   workers   and   those    employed    outside    the    United    States    in  1964.    In- 
cludes  a   few   graduates   who    had   an   occupation    not   listed. 

Source:    U.S.    Department   of    Labor,    Wage   and    Labor    Standards    Administration,  Women's 

Bureau :    "College    Women    Seven    Years    After  Graduation  ;    Resurvey    of    Women    Graduates- 
Class  of  1957."   Bull.  292.  1966. 


EDUCATION,  TRAINING,  AND 
EMPLOYMENT   OF  WOMEN 

The  continuing  growth  of  our  economy  depends  in  large  meas- 
ure on  the  amount  of  trained  manpower  or  womanpower  availa- 
ble. Recent  changes  in  technology  demand  better  trained  and  edu- 
cated workers.  Few  employment  opportunities  are  open  to  the  il- 
literate or  to  those  with  a  limited  number  of  years  of  formal  edu- 
cation. The  amount  and  type  of  education  or  training  a  woman 
has  received  affect  not  only  the  likelihood  of  her  being  employed 
but  also  the  type  of  job  she  may  hold  and  the  regularity  of  her 
employment.  Thus  any  discussion  of  women  workers  would  be  in- 
complete without  some  recognition  of  the  vocational  benefits  that 
accompany  the  social  and  cultural  values  of  education. 

Education  of  Women  in  the  Population 

and   Labor  Force^ 

In  March  1968  women  18  years  of  age  and  over  in  the  labor 
force  had  slightly  more  schooling  on  the  average  than  did  all 
women  of  this  age  group  in  the  population — a  median  of  12.4 
years  for  workers  and  a  median  of  12.2  years  for  the  population 
(table  84).  Almost  11  percent  of  the  women  in  the  labor  force  had 
completed  4  years  of  college  or  more  compared  with  only  8  per- 
cent of  the  woman  population.  Forty-four  percent  of  the  women 
in  the  work  force  had  completed  their  education  with  high  school 
graduation  compared  with  38  percent  of  the  women  in  the  popula- 
tion. At  the  lower  end  of  the  educational  scale,  only  16  percent  of 
the  women  workers  had  an  eighth  grade  education  or  less  com- 
pared with  24  percent  of  the  women  in  the  population.  And 
women  with  less  than  5  years  of  schooling  were  less  than  half  as 
prevalent  in  the  labor  force  as  in  the  population.  Among  men 
there  is  less  difference  between  the  educational  attainment  of 


*  See   also    "Trends    in    Educational    Attainment    of    Women."    Women's    Bureau,    Wage    and 
Labor  Standards  Administration,   U.S.   Department  of   Labor,   October   1969. 

177 


178 


EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 


those  in  the  labor  force  and  those  in  the  population,  since  most 
men  in  the  population  are  also  in  the  labor  force. 

Table  84. — Educatonal  Attainment  of  the  Population  and  of  Workers, 

BY  Sex,  March  1968 

(Persons  18  years  of  age  and  over) 

Population  Labor  force 

Years  of  school  

completed  Women  Men  Women  Men 

Number  (in  thousands)    66,288         57,989         27,846         47,255 

Percent   100.0  100.0  100.0  100.0 

Elementary  school: 

Less  than  5  years'   4.4  5.5  1.8  3.4 

5  to  7  years 8.1  8.9  5.4  7.4 

8    years    11.8  12.5  8.7  11.2 

High  school: 

1  to  3  years   18.6  17.9  17.6  18.6 

4    years    38.2  30.6  43.7  33.8 

College : 

1  to  3  years   11.3  12.4  12.3  12.2 

4  years    5.7  6.9  7.4  7.7 

5  years   or  more    1.9  5.3  3.1  5.9 

Median  years  of  school 

completed     12.2  12.2  12.4  12.3 

*  Includes  persons  reporting  no  school  years  completed. 

Source :    U.S.    Department    of    Labor,    Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics :     Special    Labor    Force 
Report  No.   103. 


75.    Educaf'ion  of  Women   Workers 

More  than  18.5  million,  or  67  percent,  of  the  women  18  years  of 
age  and  over  in  the  labor  force  in  March  1968  had  at  least  a  high 
school  education  (chart  R).  Of  these,  2.9  million  were  college 
graduates,  including  868,000  who  had  had  5  years  of  college  or 
more.  More  than  3.4  million  had  completed  1  to  3  years  of  college. 
More  than  2  million  women  workers  had  not  finished  elementary 
school,  and  100,000  of  these  had  not  attended  school  at  all. 

In  March  1968  nonwhite  women  workers  had  completed  a  me- 
dian of  11.7  years  of  schooling  compared  with  12.4  years  for 
white  women  workers  (chart  S).  The  difference  in  the  amount  of 
education  completed  by  nonwhite  and  white  women  not  in  the 
labor  force — 9.4  and  12.1  years,  respectively — was  greater.  How- 
ever, the  median  educational  attainment  of  nonwhite  women 
workers  was  a  year  more  than  that  of  their  male  counterparts. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  179 


Chart  R 

MOST  WOMEN  WORKERS  ARE  AT  LEAST  HIGH  SCHOOL  GRADUATES 

(Number  of  Women  Workers,  by  Years  of  School  Completed,  March  1968) 

Women  18  Years  of  Age  and  Over 

14 

Vlillions 

Elementary  School 

High  School 

College 

r  -          12 

10 

8 

— 

2.2 

6 

— 

4.9 

4 

— 

3.4 

2 

0 

—                    1.5 

.5 
□ 

2.4 

2.1 

.9 

n 

Less  than          5-7      8  years              1-3      4  years               1-3       4  years      5  years 
5  years'      years                             years                              years                      or  more 

'includes  women  reporting  no  school  years  completed. 

Source    US    Department   of 

Lab 

or,  B 

reau 

of 

Labor 

Sta 

tistic; 

79.    Rise  in  Educational  Atfainmenf 


Educational  attainment  of  the  population  as  a  whole  and  of 
those  working  or  seeking  work  has  increased  over  the  past  few 
years.  Between  October  1952  and  March  1968,  the  median  years 
of  school  completed  by  all  women  18  years  of  age  and  over  rose 
1.2  years;  by  women  workers,  0.4  years.  Men  made  even  better 
progress  over  the  period.  The  median  years  of  school  completed 
by  all  men  18  years  of  age  and  over  rose  2.1  years;  by  those  in  the 
labor  force,  1.9  years. 

Nonwhite  workers  made  better  progress  in  educational  attain- 
ment between  October  1952  and  March  1968  than  did  white 
workers.  The  median  years  of  school  completed  by  nonwhite 
women  workers  rose  3.6  years  compared  with  only  0.3  years  for 
white  women  workers.  The  contrast  in  the  rise  in  years  of  school 
completed  by  nonwhite  and  white  men  workers — 3.5  and  1.5 
years,  respectively — was  not  as  sharp. 


180  EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF  WOMEN 


Omt  S 


THE  DIFFERENCE  IN  THE  EDUCATIONAL  AHAINMENT  OF  WHITE 
AND  NONWHITE  WORKERS  IS  NARROWING 

(Median  Years  of  School  Completed  by  Workers,  by  Sex  and  Color, 
October  1952  and  March  1968) 

Persons  18  Years  of  Age  and  Over 


October 
1952 


March 
1968 


October 
1952 


I'l 

Years 

'il^H 

12 

- 

12. 

1 — 1 

L 

11 

11 

1          Nonwhite 
7                     White 

10.8 

— 1 

2.1 

\ 
10. 

7 

10 

— 

8 

- 

8.1 

7.2 

6 

- 

4 

- 

2 

- 

n 

March 
1968 


Women 


Men 


Source    US    Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


School  Enrollments 

The  rise  in  educational  attainment  was  given  special  impetus 
by  the  increasing  demand  for  workers  in  occupations  that  require 
a  higher  level  of  skill  and  training.  It  is  therefore  significant  to 
consider  the  number  of  persons  enrolled  in  and  graduating  from 
school  at  the  various  levels. 


50.    Enrollments  by  Age 

There  were  26.3  million  girls  and  women  between  5  and  34 
years  of  age  enrolled  in  school  in  the  fall  of  1966  (table  85).  This 
was  11.9  million  more  than  in  the  fall  of  1950.  Even  more  signifi- 
cant was  the  rise — from  41  percent  in  1950  to  56  percent  in  1966 
— in  the  proportion  of  the  female  population  5  to  34  years  of  age 
who  were  attending  school. 

This  increase,  however,  was  not  spread  evenly  among  the  vari- 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


181 


ous  age  groups.  Nearly  all  girls  of  elementary  school  age — 6  to  13 
years — were  enrolled  in  school  in  both  years.  In  contrast,  a  con- 
siderably higher  proportion  of  5-year-old  girls  and  of  girls  and 
women  14  to  34  years  of  age  were  enrolled  in  school  in  1966  than 
in  1950.  Among  girls  of  the  usual  high  school  age — 14  to  17  years 
— the  proportion  attending  school  rose  from  82  to  93  percent.  The 
proportion  of  girls  18  and  19  years  of  age  enrolled  in  school  in- 
creased by  more  than  half,  but  the  proportion  for  women  20  to  34 
years  of  age  increased  almost  fourfold. 

Table  85. — School^  Enrollments,  October  1966,  and  Enrollment  Rates, 
October  1950  and  1966,  by  Sex  and  Age 

(Persons  5  to  34  years  of  age) 

Number  of  students  Female  students      Male  students 

enrolled  in  1966  as  percent  of         as  percent  of 

population              population 

Girls  and  Boys  and 

Age                                        women                        men  1966         1950          1966          1950 

Total     26,337,000       28,733,000       56.1       41.0       64.1       47.5 

5  years    1,539,000         1,548,000       74.1       51.9       71.5       51.6 

6  years    1,998,000         2,071,000       97.6       97.9       97.7       96.1 

7  to  13  years 13,756,000  14,139,000  99.5  98.7  99.2  98.7 

14  to  17  years  6,523,000  6,770,000  92.9  82.2  94.4  84.3 

18  and  19  years  1,335,000  1,841,000  37.7  24.3  57.8  35.2 

20  and  21  years  602,000  931,000  20.9^4  ,  41.4  L..„ 

22  to  24  years  278,000  736,000  6.6  J  ^-^  21.3  J  ^^'^ 

25  to  29  years  214,000  506,000  3.6  .4    9.6  5.9 

30  to  34  years  92,000  191,000  1.7  .4    3.8  1.5 

*  Includes   schools   in   regular  school   system ;   that   is,    public,    parochial,   and    private   schools 
offering  a   diploma   or   a   degree. 
'  Not  reported  separately  in   1950. 

Source :   U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,   Bureau  of  the  Census :   Current  Population  Reports, 
P-20,   No.  167. 


Relatively  fewer  females  5  to  34  years  of  age  than  males  of  this 
age  group  were  attending  school  in  both  1950  and  1966.  There 
was  little  difference  in  the  proportions  of  the  population  enrolled 
in  school  at  ages  5  through  17.  But  there  was  a  wide  disparity 
among  those  18  years  of  age  and  over.  In  1966  among  18-  and  19- 
year-olds,  about  3  out  of  5  boys  were  enrolled  in  school  as  com- 
pared with  only  2  out  of  5  girls.  Similarly,  among  those  20  and  21 
years  old,  41  percent  of  the  men  were  attending  school  as  com- 
pared with  21  percent  of  the  women.  Among  those  22  to  24  years 
old,  the  proportion  of  men  attending  school  (21  percent)  was 
three  times  that  of  women  (7  percent) ;  while  among  those  25  to 
34  years  old,  men  were  more  than  twice  as  likely  as  women  to  be 
enrolled  in  school. 


182 


EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 


There  was  also  a  divergence  in  the  proportions  of  white  and 
nonwhite  girls  14  years  of  age  and  over  who  were  attending 
school.  In  1966  nearly  all  girls  under  14  years  of  age,  both  white 
and  nonwhite,  were  enrolled  in  school  (table  86).  Among  those  14 
to  17  years  old,  a  slightly  higher  proportion  of  white  than  non- 
white  girls  were  enrolled  in  school — 93  and  90  percent,  respec- 
tively. The  gap  was  wider  among  those  of  college  age.  Thirty-nine 
percent  of  white  girls  18  and  19  years  of  age  were  attending 
school  as  compared  with  32  percent  of  nonwhite  girls  of  these 
ages.  And  among  women  20  and  21  years  of  age,  white  women 
were  almost  twice  as  likely  as  nonwhite  women  to  be  enrolled  in 
school — 22  and  12  percent,  respectively. 


Table  86. 


-School'  Enrollments  and  Enrollment  Rates,  by  Color,  Age, 
AND  Sex,  October  1966 

(Persons  5  to  34  years  of  age) 


Age 


Girls  and  women 


Number 


As  percent 

of 
population 


Boys  and  men 

As  percent 
of 
Number     population 


WHITE 

Total     22,698,000  55.9  25,017,000  64.1 

5  years 1,322,000  75.5  1,328,000  72.4 

6  years 1,688,000  97.5  1,768,000  97.8 

7  to  13  years 11,758,000  99.5  12,155,000  99.2 

14  to  17  years  5,650,000  93.3  5,887,000  94.7 

18  and  19  years  1,196,000  38.6  1,649,000  59.0 

20  and  21  years 560,000  22.3  881,000  44.9 

22  to  24  years  245,000  6.6  701,000  23.0 

25  to  29  years  190,000  3.9  480,000  10.3 

30  to  34  years  80,000  1.7  168,000  3.8 

NONWHITE 

Total  3,639,000  57.4  3,716,000  63.8 

5  years       217,000  66.2  220,000  66.5 

6  years 310,000  98.4  303,000  96.8 

7  to  13  years  1,998,000  99.5  1,984,000  99.2 

14  to  17  years  873,000  90.3  883,000  92.9 

18  and  19  years  139,000  31.9  192,000  49.1 

20  and  21  years   _  42,000  11.6  50,000  17.4 

22  to  24  years  33,000  6.5  35,000  8.6 

25  to  29  years  15,000  2.1  26,000  4.4 

30  to  34  years  12,000  1.7  23,000  4.2 

*  Includes   schools    in    regular   school    system  ;    that   is,    public,    parochial,    and    private  schools 
offering   a   diploma    or   a   degree. 

Source :     U.S.     Department     of     Commerce,     Bureau     of  the     Census :     Current     Population 
Reports.   P-20,  No.   167. 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  183 

Among  girls  14  to  17  years  of  age,  the  gap  in  the  relative  num- 
ber of  white  and  nonwhite  girls  in  school  was  considerably  nar- 
rower in  1966  than  it  had  been  in  1950,  when  84  percent  of  white 
as  compared  with  72  percent  of  nonwhite  girls  were  enrolled  in 
school.  Among  18-  and  19-year-olds,  however,  nonwhite  girls  had 
lost  the  favorable  position  they  had  in  1950,  when  only  24  percent 
of  white  but  26  percent  of  nonwhite  girls  were  enrolled  in  school. 

Another  interesting  comparison  is  between  the  school  enroll- 
ment of  nonwhite  girls  and  boys.  Nearly  all  nonwhite  youngsters 
6  to  13  years  of  age  were  enrolled  in  school  in  1966.  But  among 
those  14  years  of  age  and  over,  nonwhite  boys  were  more  likely 
than  nonwhite  girls  to  attend  school.  The  difference  was  most 
marked  among  those  over  18  years  of  age.  In  1966  nearly  half  (49 
percent)  of  nonwhite  boys  18  and  19  years  old  were  enrolled  in 
school  as  compared  with  less  than  a  third  (32  percent)  of  non- 
white  girls.  Among  nonwhites  20  to  34  years  of  age,  the  propor- 
tions attending  school  were  7  percent  for  men  and  4  percent  for 
women. 

81.    Enrollments  by  Type  of  School 

Of  the  26.3  million  girls  and  women  enrolled  in  the  fall  of 
1966,  17.4  million  (66  percent)  were  in  elementary  school  or  kin- 
dergarten, 6.6  million  (25  percent)  were  in  high  school,  and  the 
remaining  2.3  million  (9  percent)  were  attending  colleges,  univer- 
sities, or  professional  schools  (table  87).  The  numbers  of  female 
and  male  students  were  about  the  same  at  the  elementary  and  sec- 
ondary school  levels.  But  more  than  half  again  as  many  men  as 
women  were  attending  college. 

These  students  were  enrolled  in  schools  in  the  regular  school 
system;  that  is,  any  type  of  graded  public,  private,  or  parochial 
school  offering  courses  leading  to  an  elementary  or  high  school  di- 
ploma, or  to  a  college,  university,  or  professional  degree.  Students 
taking  vocational  courses  for  credit  at  any  of  these  schools  also 
are  included. 

An  additional  634,000  girls  and  women  (626,000  boys  and  men) 
5  to  34  years  of  age  were  enrolled  in  special  schools  outside  the 
regular  school  system.  Most  of  these  schools  offer  occupationally 
oriented  courses  not  leading  to  a  diploma  or  a  degree.  Among  oth- 
ers, they  include  trade  schools,  business  colleges,  schools  of  nurs- 
ing, schools  of  beauty  culture,  and  technical  schools.  About 
530,000,  or  84  percent,  of  the  girls  and  women  enrolled  in  these 
schools  in  the  fall  of  1966  were  18  years  of  age  or  over.  The  com- 
parable percentage  for  men  was  79. 


184  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Table  87. — Types  of  School  ^  Attended  by  Students  5  to  34  Years  of  Age, 

BY  Sex,  October  1966 

Female  students  Male  students 

Percent  Percent 

Type  of  school  Number  distribution  Number     distribution 

Total     26,337,000         100.0         28,733,000         100.0 

Elementary  school  or 

kindergarten     17,425,000  66.2  18,197,000  63.3 

High     school     6,574,000  25.0  6,791,000  23.6 

College   2,337,000  8.9  3,749,000  13.0 

*  Includes  schools   in   regular  school   system ;   that   is,   public,   parochial,   and   private   schools 
oflFering  a  diploma  or  a   degree. 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,   Bureau  of  the  Census :   Current  Population  Reports, 
P-20,    No.    167. 


82.  Secondary  School  Enrollments 

Growth. — The  number  of  young  people  enrolling  in  and  grad- 
uating from  high  school  is  rising  steadily.  While  part  of  this  is 
due  to  the  increase  in  the  number  of  young  people  in  the  popula- 
tion, part  is  also  due  to  certain  social  and  economic  factors.  Most 
States  have  passed  compulsory  school  attendance  laws  establish- 
ing a  minimum  school-leaving  age — usually  16.  The  passage  of 
child  labor  laws  at  both  the  State  and  Federal  levels  has  raised 
the  minimum  age  at  which  young  people  can  be  employed,  thus 
influencing  them  to  stay  in  school.  Moreover,  more  young  people 
are  able  to  stay  in  school  because  of  the  rise  in  personal  and  fam- 
ily income.  And  young  people  are  increasingly  aware  of  the  neces- 
sity of  securing  at  least  a  high  school  diploma  in  order  to  qualify 
for  most  jobs.  Many  of  the  jobs  requiring  little  or  no  training 
that  formerly  offered  beginning  employment  for  young  men  and 
women  have  disappeared. 

As  recently  as  the  school  year  1949-50,  only  77  out  of  100  per- 
sons 14  to  17  years  of  age  were  enrolled  in  high  school.-  In 
1966-67  this  ratio  had  grown  to  94  out  of  100.  A  similar  growth 
occurred  among  high  school  graduates.  In  1950  only  59  per  100 
persons  17  years  of  age  graduated  from  high  school,  but  by  1967 
this  ratio  had  increased  to  75  per  100. 

There  were  2,679,000  persons  who  graduated  from  high  school 
in  1967.  This  was  754,000  more  than  the  number  who  graduated 
in  1962  but  only  7,000  more  than  had  graduated  in  1966.  The 
number  of  young  people  in  the  population  of  high  school  graduat- 


^  U.S.    Department    of    Health,    Education,    and    Welfare,    Office    of    Education :     "Digest    of 
Educational  Statistics,  1968."  OE>-10024-68. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  185 

ing  age  remained  fairly  constant  from  1966  to  1967,  following  a 
very  substantial  increase  from  1962  to  1966.  Girls  have  consist- 
ently outnumbered  boys  among  high  school  graduates.  However, 
the  difference  has  narrowed,  and  currently  the  number  of  girls 
graduating  from  high  school  is  only  slightly  more  than  the  num- 
ber of  boys— 1,348,000  and  1,331,000,  respectively,  in  1967. 

Retention  rates. — The  increased  holding  power  of  the  schools 
has  been  measured  on  the  basis  of  retention  rates.  Of  those 
youngsters  v^^ho  entered  the  fifth  grade  in  the  fall  of  1942,  81  per- 
cent enrolled  in  the  ninth  grade  in  1946  and  51  percent  graduated 
from  high  school  in  June  1950.^  The  picture  has  brightened  con- 
siderably since  then.  Of  those  boys  and  girls  who  entered  the  fifth 
grade  in  1959,  97  percent  enrolled  in  the  ninth  grade  in  1963  and 
72  percent  graduated  from  high  school  in  June  1967.  Moreover, 
40  percent  of  those  who  started  fifth  grade  in  1959  enrolled  in 
college  in  the  fall  of  1967.  First-time  college  enrollees  in  the  fall 
of  1950  had  amounted  to  only  21  percent  of  those  who  had  entered 
fifth  grade  in  1942. 

School  dropouts. — Despite  this  substantial  progress,  large  num- 
bers of  both  girls  and  boys  still  leave  school  before  earning  a 
high  school  diploma.  In  October  1967,  1.6  million  of  the  5  million 
girls  16  to  21  years  of  age  who  were  not  in  school  had  dropped 
out  before  completing  high  school.^  Dropping  out  of  school  was 
much  more  prevalent  among  nonwhite  girls  than  among  white 
girls — 41  percent  of  the  nonwhite  but  only  30  percent  of  the 
white  girls  not  in  school  had  not  graduated  from  high  school. 
Among  boys  of  this  age  group  who  were  not  in  school,  58  percent 
of  the  nonwhites  and  39  percent  of  the  whites  had  dropped  out  be- 
fore graduating  from  high  school. 

In  a  1963  survey  of  out-of-school  youth  aged  16  to  21  years, 
marriage  or  pregnancy  was  given  as  the  principal  reason  for 
leaving  school  by  about  2  out  of  5  girls  who  had  dropped  out  of 
elementary  or  high  school  and  almost  1  out  of  4  girls  who  had 
dropped  out  of  college.-^'  The  second  most  important  reason  for 
leaving  school  at  the  elementary  or  high  school  level  was  lack  f 
interest  in  school.  Economic  reasons  were  cited  by  about  1  out  of 
8  of  both  elementary  or  high  school  and  college  girls.  Among  boys 
16  to  21  years,  economic  reasons  were  most  often  cited  by  drop- 
outs at  all  school  levels,  but  lack  of  interest  in  school  was  of  al- 
most equal  importance  in  the  case  of  elementary  and  high  school 
dropouts. 


'  Ibid. 

*  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  100. 

'  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  :   Special   Labor  Force  Report  No.  46. 


186  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Women  and   Higher  Education 

Each  year  more  and  more  women  enroll  in  and  graduate  from 
institutions  of  higher  education.  However,  women  still  lag  behind 
men  in  pursuing  their  education  beyond  the  secondary  school 
level,  especially  in  the  area  of  advanced  degrees. 

83.    High  School  Graduates  Entering  College 

Nearly  716,000  women  and  more  than  936,000  men  enrolled  in 
college  for  the  first  time  in  October  1967  (table  88).  These  en- 
rollments represented  increases  of  7  percent  for  women  and  5 
percent  for  men  over  those  of  October  1966.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  numbers  of  girls  and  boys  graduating  from  high  school  were 
virtually  unchanged  from  June  1966  to  June  1967. 

From  1950  to  1965  first-time  college  enrollments  of  women  in 
degree-credit  programs  more  than  tripled,  while  the  number  of 
girls  graduating  from  high  school  little  more  than  doubled.  First- 
time  college  enrollments  of  men  also  increased  proportionately 
more  than  high  school  graduations  during  the  15-year  period. 

These  differences  represent  in  part  a  rise  in  the  proportions  of 
young  men  and  women  who  go  on  to  college  directly  from  high 
school.  They  also  represent  a  substantial  increase  in  the  number 
of  men  and  women  who  enter  college  after  being  out  of  school  for 
a  year  or  more. 

Of  all  women  students  14  to  34  years  of  age  enrolled  in  the 
first  year  of  college  in  October  1966,  30  percent  had  graduated 
from  high  school  before  1966  and  9  percent  had  graduated  in 
1961  or  earlier.'^^  Among  men  first-year  students,  34  percent  had 
graduated  before  1966  and  15  percent  in  1961  or  earlier.  Among 
students  enrolled  in  2-year  colleges,  the  figures  were  even  more 
striking — 43  percent  of  the  men  and  36  percent  of  the  women 
first-year  students  had  graduated  before  1966,  and  21  percent  of 
the  men  and  11  percent  of  the  women  had  graduated  in  1961 
or  earlier. 

Some  of  these  older  students  undoubtedly  were  men  who  had 
been  in  military  service  or  women  who  had  been  busy  with  family 
responsibilities  during  the  intervening  years.  And  some  may  have 
been  workers  who  found  the  need  of  further  education  in  order  to 
advance  in  their  careers. 


'"  U.S.    Department    of    Ckimmerce,    Bureau    of    the    Census :     Current    Population    Reports, 
P-20.  No.  183. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


187 


Table  88. — High  School  Graduates  and  First-Time  College 
Enrollees,  by  Sex,  Selected  Years,  1950-67 

(Persons  of  all  ages) 

Women  Men 

First-time  First-time 

High  school  college  High  school  college 

Year  graduates  enrollees  graduates  enrollees 

1967 '  1,348,000  =715,911  ^  1,331,000  '  936,406 

1966 1,346,000  =670,648  1,326,000  =894,916 

1965 1,337,000  618,332  1,305,000  834,594 

1964 1,169,000  528,340  1,121,000  706,466 

1962 984,000  436,627  941,000  601,993 

1960 966,000  387,049  898,000  542,774 

1958 780,400  312,450  725,500  468,625 

1956 735,300  277,064  679,500  446,114 

1954 663,600  244,573  612,500  386,549 

1952 627,300  213,206  569,200  323,673 

1950 629,000  197,103  570,700  319,733 

*  Preliminary  data. 

-  Data  for  first-time  students  for  1966  and  1967  are  not  strictly  comparable  with  data  for 
prior  years,  which  include  only  first-time  students  in  programs  chiefly  creditable  toward  a 
bachelor's   degree. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Office  of  Education:  "Digest 
of  Educational  Statistics,  1968."  OE-10024-68  and  "Opening  Fall  Enrollment,  Higher  Educa- 
tion, 1960,  1963,  and  1967."  OE-54007-60,  54003-63,  and  54003-67. 


84.    College  Enrollments 

There  were  2,805,130  women  enrolled  in  institutions  of  higher 
education  in  the  fall  of  1967  (table  89).  The  number  of  women 
enrollees  was  10  percent  higher  than  in  1966  and  53  percent 
higher  than  in  1963  (the  earliest  date  for  which  comparable  fig- 
ures were  obtained  by  the  Office  of  Education).  Between  1963  and 
1967  the  number  of  women  18  to  21  years  of  age  in  the  population 
increased  by  22  percent.  Women  accounted  for  40  percent  of  all 
students  in  colleges  and  universities  in  1967  as  compared  with  38 
percent  in  1963. 

Types  of  institutions  attended  by  ivomen. — There  were 
2,204,316  women  enrolled  in  4-year  institutions  in  the  fall  of 
1967.  Of  these,  952,531,  or  43  percent,  were  enrolled  in  universi- 
ties (institutions  which  have  professional  schools,  offer  advanced 
degrees  as  well  as  bachelor's  degrees,  and  stress  graduate  instruc- 
tion). Women  enrolled  in  all  other  4-year  institutions  numbered 
1,251,785. 

More  than  one-fifth  of  women  college  students  were  enrolled  in 
2-year  institutions  in  the  fall  of  1967.  A  significant  feature  in  the 
growth  of  higher  education  in  recent  years  has  been  the  rapid  ex- 


188  EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

pansion  in  the  number  of  students  enrolled  in  2-year  institutions. 
In  1967  the  total  number  of  junior  college  enrollees  was  79  per- 
cent greater  than  in  1963.  Women  enrollees  in  2-year  colleges  in- 
creased by  92  percent  during  this  period,  as  compared  with  a  46- 
percent  increase  in  women  enrollees  at  4-year  institutions. 

Table  89. — College  Enrollments,'  by  Type  of  Institution  and  Enrollment 

Category,  Fall  1967 

Women 


As  per- 
Percent        cent  of 
Total  Number     distribution       total 


TYPE  OF  INSTITUTION 

Total     6,963,687  2,805,130  100.0  40.3 

4-year   institutions    5,445,608  2,204,316  78.6  40.5 

Universities    2,609,097  952,531  34.0  36.4 

All  other  institutions 2,826,511  1,251,785  44.6  44.3 

2-year   institutions    1,518,079  600,814  21.4  39.6 

4-year   institutions    5,445,608  2,204,316  100.0 

Public 3,475,660  1,452,995  65.9  41.8 

Private     1,969,948  751,321  34.1  38.1 

2-year   institutions    1,518,079  600,814  100.0 

Public 1,374,670  536,135  89.2  39.0 

Private     143,409  64,679  10.8  45.1 

ENROLLMENT  CATEGORY 

Total     6,963,687  2,805,130  100.0  40.3 

Resident    students     6,670,416  2,660,973  94.9  39.9 

Undergraduate     5,770,451  2,394,115  85.3  41.5 

Graduate     899,965  266,858  9.5  29.7 

Extension  students   293,271  144,157  5.1  49.2 

*  Includes    students    enrolled    in     degree-credit    programs     and     those    enrolled    in     programs 
not  chiefly  creditable  toward  a  degree. 

Source:   U.S.  Department  of  Health,   Education,   and  Welfare,   Office  of   Education:    "Opening 
Fall    Enrollment.    Higher   Education,    1967."    OE-54003-67. 

Two-year  institutions  include  junior  colleges,  technical  insti- 
tutes, and  semiprofessional  schools  that  offer  programs  extending 
at  least  2  years  but  less  than  4  years  beyond  high  school.  These 
institutions  do  not  grant  bachelor's  degrees.  Junior  colleges  (in- 
cluding the  2-year  branches  of  public  universities)  offer  programs 
creditable  toward  a  bachelor's  degree  by  transfer  to  a  4-year  insti- 
tution. In  addition,  many  junior  colleges  offer  terminal  programs 
either  in  liberal  arts  or  in  technical-vocational  fields.  Technical, 
vocational,  and  semiprofessional  programs  are  not  generally  cred- 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE  189 

itable  toward  a  baccalaureate  degree,  but  usually  lead  to  an 
associate  degree  or  similar  certificate. 

The  growth  in  junior  colleges  can  be  attributed  in  part  to  the 
increasing  enrollment  pressures  on  all  institutions  of  higher  edu- 
cation. But  2-year  colleges  also  have  a  distinct  purpose  and  role  of 
their  own.  Community  colleges  bring  higher  education  within  fi- 
nancial and  commuting  reach  of  many  students  who  might  not 
otherwise  be  able  to  attend  college.  Two-year  colleges  also  serve 
students  who  seek  courses  beyond  the  high  school  level  which  will 
prepare  them  for  immediate  employment.  In  addition,  they  fre- 
quently offer  educational  facilities  to  adults  who  wish  to  improve 
or  refresh  their  skills,  develop  new  interests,  or  expand  their  gen- 
eral education. 

About  70  percent  of  all  women  enrolled  in  institutions  of 
higher  education  in  the  fall  of  1967  attended  publicly  sponsored 
colleges  and  universities.  The  remainder  were  in  privately  con- 
trolled schools.  Women  enrolled  in  2-year  institutions  were  more 
likely  than  those  enrolled  in  4-year  institutions  to  be  attending 
publicly  sponsored  schools — 89  and  66  percent,  respectively. 

Freshmen  students. — More  than  2.3  million,  or  one-third,  of  all 
students  enrolled  in  institutions  of  higher  education  in  the  fall  of 
1967  were  freshmen.*^  Women  students  totaled  989,963,  or  43  per- 
cent of  the  freshman  class.  Of  these,  715,911  women  were  first- 
time  enrollees — students  who  had  never  previously  been  enrolled 
at  any  institution  of  higher  education.  The  remaining  274,052 
women  had  previously  taken  college  courses  but  had  not  earned 
enough  credits  to  be  classified  as  sophomores.  There  was  no  signif- 
icant difference  between  the  proportions  of  men  and  women 
freshmen  students  who  were  first-time  enrollees.  The  proportion 
of  first-time  enrollees  among  freshmen  women  was  slightly  lower 
in  2-year  institutions  than  in  4-year  institutions — 64  and  78  per- 
cent, respectively. 

Full-time  and  -part-time  students. — Thirty-three  percent  of  the 
women  enrolled  in  institutions  of  higher  education  in  the  fall  of 
1 967  were  resident  students  attending  school  only  part  time  or  ex- 
tension students.  A  slightly  smaller  proportion  of  men  (29  per- 
cent) were  on  part-time  schedules.  There  was  considerable  differ- 
ence in  part-time  or  extension  enrollment  of  women  between  the 
2-  and  4-year  institutions — 50  and  28  percent,  respectively.  Many 
married  women  with  family  responsibilities  attend  community 
junior  colleges  on  a  part-time  schedule. 


'  U.S.   Department  of   Health,    Education,    and    Welfare,    Office   of    Education :    "Opening    Fall 
Enrollment.  Higher  Education,   1967."  OE-54003-67. 


190  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,  AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Graduate  students. — Graduate  students  accounted  for  13  per- 
cent of  the  6,670,416  resident  students  enrolled  in  the  fall  of  1967 
and  numbered  899,965.  Of  these,  266,858,  or  30  percent,  were 
women.  Thus  about  1  out  of  every  10  women  and  almost  1  out  of 
every  6  men  resident  students  were  studying  at  the  postbaccalau- 
reate  level.  The  proportion  of  part-time  students  at  the  graduate 
level  was  50  percent  as  compared  with  24  percent  at  the  under- 
graduate level.  Data  on  the  part-time  status  of  graduate  resident 
students  are  not  available  by  sex. 

College  enrollment  and  marriage. — In  October  1966  about 
340,000,  or  15  percent,  of  the  women  college  students  under  35 
years  of  age  were  married  (husband  present)."  This  compares 
with  147,000  married  women  students,  or  13  percent,  in  1959. 
However,  most  of  these  married  women  students  were  22  years  of 
age  and  over — 75  percent  in  1966  and  79  percent  in  1959  (the 
earliest  date  for  which  comparable  figures  are  available). 

Married  women  students  are  more  likely  to  be  enrolled  in  col- 
lege on  a  part-time  than  a  full-time  basis.  Thus  60  percent  were 
attending  school  only  part  time  in  1966.  A  larger  proportion  of 
married  women  students  22  years  of  age  and  over  (72  percent) 
than  of  those  younger  (26  percent)  were  enrolled  part  time. 

The  percentage  of  men  college  students  who  are  married  is  sig- 
nificantly higher  than  that  of  women.  In  October  1966,  24  percent 
of  all  men  under  35  years  of  age  who  were  enrolled  in  college 
were  married  (wife  present).  Married  men  students,  like  married 
women  students,  are  likely  to  be  relatively  older  and  to  attend 
school  part  time.  Eighty-six  percent  of  the  married  men  students 
in  October  1966  were  22  years  of  age  and  over,  and  about  three- 
fifths  of  these  men  were  attending  school  part  time.  Only  one- 
fifth  of  those  under  22  years  of  age  were  part-time  students. 

85.    Women  Earning  Degrees 

The  number  of  degrees  earned  by  women  has  risen  significantly 
in  recent  years  and  reached  a  record  high  of  296,732  in  the  school 
year  1966-67.  This  was  an  increase  of  more  than  22,500  over  the 
number  earned  in  1965-66  and  more  than  132,750  over  the  number 
conferred  by  institutions  of  higher  education  in  1959-60.  It  was 
a  more  than  threefold  increase  over  the  number  earned  in  1939- 
40. 

Number  and  types  of  degrees. — Women's  degrees  in  1967  in- 
cluded 238,133  bachelor's  degrees  (80.3  percent),  1,429  first  pro- 

'  U.S.    Department    of    Commerce,     Bureau    of    the    Census :     Current    Population    Reports, 
P-20,   No.   167. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  191 

fessional  degrees  (0.5  percent),  54,713  master's  degrees  (18.4 
percent),  and  2,457  doctor's  degrees  (0.8  percent). 

Because  of  changes  in  definitions  by  the  Office  of  Education,  it 
is  not  possible  to  compare  1966  or  1967  data  on  bachelor's,  first 
professional,  or  master's  degrees  with  data  for  prior  years.  As 
previously  defined,  bachelor's  degrees  were  those  which  required 
4  but  less  than  5  years  of  college  education.  In  1966  bachelor's 
degrees  were  redefined  to  include  those  requiring  4  or  5  years  of 
college.  First  professional  degrees  (first  reported  separately  from 
bachelor's  degrees  in  1961)  previously  included  professional 
degrees  requiring  5  years  or  more  of  higher  education.  In  1966 
they  were  redefined  to  include  only  professional  degrees  requiring 
6  years  or  more  of  higher  education.*  In  addition,  certain  degrees, 
such  as  master  of  library  science  and  master  of  social  work,  which 
were  classified  as  first  professional  degrees  from  1961  to  1965, 
were  reclassified  as  master's  degrees  in  1966. 

Comparison  of  degrees  earned  by  women  and  men. — In  1967 
women  earned  about  the  same  proportion  (38  percent)  of  all 
degrees  conferred  as  in  1965.  The  proportions  of  all  conferred  de- 
grees earned  by  women  at  three  degree  levels  in  selected  years 
from  1900  to  1967  follow: 

Percent  earned  by  women  in — 


Degree  level  1967  1966  1965  1960  1950         19S0  1900 

Total    38.4  38.4  38.5  34.2  24.4  39.5  18.9 

Bachelor's  or  first 

professional    M0.3  U0.4  40.7  35.3  23.9  39.9  19.1 

Master's    '34.7  '33.8  32.1  31.6  29.2  40.4  19.1 

Doctor's    11.9  11.6  10.8  10.5  9.7  15.4  6.0 

*  Data  not  comparable  with  prior  years.  See  text  explanation. 

Since  data  for  1966  and  1967  are  not  comparable  with  those  for 
previous  years  at  the  first  and  second  degree  levels,  comparisons  at 
these  levels  will  be  made  between  1965  and  previous  years.  In  1965 
women  earned  about  41  percent  of  bachelor's  and  first  profes- 
sional degrees  as  compared  with  35  percent  in  1960.  Back  at  the 
turn  of  the  century,  women  earned  only  19  percent  of  all  bache- 
lor's and  first  professional  degrees.  This  proportion  rose  to  40 
percent  in  1930,  and  reached  a  peak  of  41  percent  in  1940.  Fol- 
lowing World  War  II  the  percent  dropped  to  a  low  of  24  in  1950, 
when  the  college  graduating  classes  included  large  numbers  of  re- 
turning veterans. 

Although  the  number  of  women  taking  advanced  degrees  has 

*  First  professional  degrees  now   include  such  degrees  as  M.D.,   D.D.S.,   LL.B.,   and  B.D. 


192 


EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 


increased,  women  earn  only  a  small  proportion  of  all  advanced  de- 
grees conferred.  Thus  in  1965  women  earned  32  percent  of  all 
master's  or  second-level  degrees.  This  was  considerably  below  the 
peak  of  40  percent  registered  in  1930.  However,  it  was  above  the  19 
percent  they  earned  in  1900  and  a  more  recent  low  of  29  percent 
they  earned  in  1950, 

Women  earned  a  higher  proportion  of  all  doctor's  degrees  in 
1967  than  in  1965 — 12  percent  as  compared  with  11  percent.  This 
was  almost  twice  as  high  a  proportion  as  they  earned  in  1900  but 
still  below  the  15  percent  they  earned  in  1930.  The  number  of 
doctor's  degrees  earned  by  women  increased  from  23  in  1900  to 
353  in  1930  and  to  2,457  in  1967. 

Fields  of  study  in  which  women  earned  degrees. — Since  more 
and  more  women  are  enrolling  in  and  graduating  from  institutions 
of  higher  education,  it  is  of  interest  to  examine  the  fields  of  study 
in  which  they  earn  degrees.  Although  women  earn  degrees  in  a 
broad  and  varied  range  of  subjects,  most  of  the  degrees  received 
by  women  are  concentrated  in  a  relatively  limited  number  of 
fields  of  study.  The  field  of  education  alone  accounted  for  38 
percent  of  bachelor's  degrees  earned  by  women  in  1967  (chart  T). 


Chwl  T 


2  OUT  OF  5  WOMEN  COLLEGE  GRADUATES  MAJOR  IN  EDUCATION 


(Bachelor's  Degrees  Conferred  on  Women,  by  Field  of  Study,  1966-67) 


238,133 


Source.  US,  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Office  of  Education. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE 


193 


Education  also  accounted  for  51  percent  of  master's  and  29  percent 
of  doctor's  degrees  earned  by  women  in  1967 — not  surprising 
since  teaching  is  the  largest  single  professional  occupation  for 
women.  The  humanities  and  the  arts  were  the  next  most  popular 
disciplines,  accounting  for  24  percent  of  bachelor's,  18  percent 
of  master's,  and  21  percent  of  doctor's  degrees. 

Bachelor's  degrees. — Within  the  leading  fields  of  education 
and  the  humanities,  the  most  popular  single  subjects  in  which 
women  earned  bachelor's  degrees  in  1967  were  elementary  educa- 
tion (58,016  degrees),  English  and  journalism  (29,206),  fine 
and  applied  arts  (12,569),  and  foreign  languages  and  literature 
(12,184)  (table  90) .  Many  women  also  earned  degrees  in  the  social 
sciences,  especially  history  (11,064)  and  sociology  (10,588)  ;  in 
psychology  (7,806)  ;  and  in  basic  and  applied  sciences,  especially 
nursing  (8,252),  biological  sciences  (8,047),  and  mathematical 
subjects  (7,310). 

Table  90. — Earned  Bachelor's  Degrees  *  Conferred  on  Women,  by  Selected 
Fields  of  Study,  1966-67 

Women 


Field  of  study  Total 

Total    562,369 

Education    120,874 

Art  education 3,928 

Business  and  commercial 

education  6,315 

Early  childhood,  nursery, 

and  kindergarten 

education   4,023 

Education  of  exceptional 

children  and  the 

handicapped    1,999 

Elementary  education 64,595 

Home  economics  education  _  _  4,582 

Music  education 5,593 

Physical  education 13,473 

Secondary  education 2,852 

Speech  and  hearing 

education   2,378 

Other    11,136 

Humanities  and  the  arts 98,368 

English,  journalism    45,949 

Fine  and  applied  arts 21,553 

See  footnote  at  end  of  table. 


Number 


As  per- 
cent of  all 
Percent   bachelor's 
distri-        degrees 
bution      conferred 


238,133 

90,562 

2,829 


4,523 


3,992 


100.0 


42.3 
74.9 
1.2     72.0 


38.0 


1.9 


1.7 


71.6 


99.2 


1,698 

.7 

84.9 

58,016 

24.4 

89.8 

4,567 

1.9 

99.7 

3,203 

1.3 

57.3 

4,946 

2.1 

36.7 

1,532 

.6 

53.7 

2,004 

.8 

84.3 

3,252 

1.4 

29.2 

56,883 

23.9 

57.8 

29,206 

12.3 

63.6 

12,569 

5.3 

58.3 

194 


EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 


Table  90. — Earned  Bachelor's  Degrees  '  Conferred  on  Women,  by  Selected 
Fields  of  Study,  1966-67 — Continued 

Women 

As  per- 
cent of  all 
Percent   bachelor's 

distri-  degrees 

Field  of  study                                         Total                  Number  bution  conferred 

Foreign  languages, 

literature  17,025             12,184  5.1  71.6 

Religion,  philosophy 9,509              2,134  .9  22.4 

Other    4,332                 790  .3  18.2 

Psychology    19,496              7,806  3.3  40.0 

Social  sciences   106,919            37,656  15.8  35.2 

Social  sciences  104,756            37,219  15.6  35.5 

Anthropology    1,825                 971  .4  53.2 

Economics   13,058              1,331  .6  10.2 

History 31,793             11,064  4.6  34.8 

Political  science, 

government 17,733              3,920  1.6  22.1 

Social  sciences 

(general)   14,744               6,487  2.7  44.0 

Social  work,  adminis- 
tration, welfare 1,881               1,462  .6  77.7 

Sociology   17,751             10,588  4.4  59.6 

Other    5,971               1,396  .6  23.4 

Geography     2,163                  437  .2  20.2 

Basic  and  applied  sciences 130,974            31,301  13.1  23.9 

Biological    sciences    28,950               8,047  3.4  27.8 

Health   professions    16,123             12,437  5.2  77.1 

Medical  technology 2,261              2,019  .8  89.3 

Nursing,  public  health 

nursing    8,334              8,252  3.5  99.0 

Therapy  (occupational 

and  physical)    1,306               1,180  .5  90.4 

Other  health  professions  .--             4,222                  986  .4  23.4 

Mathematical  subjects 21,308              7,310  3.1  34.3 

Physical  sciences 17,794               2,402  1.0  13.5 

Other    46,799              1,105  .5  2.4 

Other  professional  fields 85,738             13,925  5.8  16.2 

Business  and  commerce 69,687               5,992  2.5  8.6 

Home  economics 6,335               6,166  2.6  97.3 

Library  sciente   701                 647  .3  92.3 

Other    9,015               1,120  .5  12.4 

*  Includes  degrees  requiring  4  or  5  years  of  education. 

Source:   U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,   Office  of  Education:    "Earned 
Degrees,   1966-67."  OE;-54013-67. 


Another  indication  of  the  popularity  of  certain  subjects  among 
women  is  the  proportion  of  all  degrees  in  them  earned  by  women. 


WOMEN  IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  195 

In  1967  almost  all  bachelor's  degrees  in  home  economics  education ; 
early  childhood,  nursery,  and  kindergarten  education;  nursing; 
and  home  economics  were  conferred  on  women.  Women  also  earned 
9  out  of  10  bachelor's  degrees  in  library  science,  occupational  and 
physical  therapy,  elementary  education,  and  medical  technology; 
8  out  of  10  in  education  of  exceptional  children  and  the  handi- 
capped and  in  speech  and  hearing  education;  7  out  of  10  in 
social  work,  art  education,  business  and  commercial  education, 
and  foreign  languages  and  literature ;  and  6  out  of  10  in  English 
and  journalism  and  in  sociology.  On  the  other  hand,  women  earned 
only  1  out  of  10  bachelor's  degrees  in  economics  and  less  than  1 
out  of  10  in  business  and  commerce. 

First  professional  degrees. — Because  of  the  change  in  defini- 
tion (see  Number  and  types  of  degrees,  above),  data  on  first 
professional  degrees  earned  in  1966  and  1967  are  not  comparable 
with  1965  data,  except  for  a  few  specific  degrees.  In  1967  women 
earned  1,429  first  professional  degrees  (table  91).  Of  these,  1,144 
were  in  the  fields  of  medicine  and  law  (M.D.,  J.D.,  or  LL.B.) — 

Table  91, — Earned  First  Professional  Degrees  '  Conferred  on  Women,  by 
Selected  Fields  op  Study,  1966-67 

Women 

As  percent  of  all 
first  profes- 
Percent         sional  degrees 
Field  of  study  Total  Number        distribution         conferred 

Total    32,493  1,429  100.0  4.4 

Humanities  and  the  arts 4,228  124  8?7  2.9 

Religion  and  philosophy  _  _  _  4,079  109  7^6  2.7 

Other    149  15  1.0  10.1 

Basic  and  applied  sciences 13,399  734  51.4  5.5 

Health  professions    13,330  730  51.1  5.5 

Medicine  (M.D.  only)   _  7,767  574  40.2  7.4 

Pharmacy    202  41  2.9  20.3 

Veterinary  medicine 

(D.V.M.   only)    942  52  3.6  5.5 

Other  health 

professions    4,419  63  4.4  1.4 

Other    69  4  .3  5.8 

Other  professional  fields' 14,866  571  40.0  3.8 

Law    14,846  570  39.9  3.8 

1  Includes  degrees  requiring  at  least  6  years  of  education. 

'  Includes  persons  earning  degrees  in  fields  not  shown  separately. 

Source:   U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Office  of  Education:   "Earned 
Degrees,  1966-67."  OE-54013-67. 


196  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

an  increase  of  12  percent  over  the  number  earned  by  women  in 
these  two  fields  in  1966  (medicine,  516;  law,  508)  and  31  percent 
over  the  number  earned  in  1965. 

Only  4.4  percent  of  all  first  professional  degrees  conferred  in 
1967  were  earned  by  women.  A  slightly  larger  share  of  such 
degrees  was  earned  by  women  in  certain  health  professions — 
pharmacy  (20  percent),  medicine  (7  percent),  and  veterinary 
medicine  (6  percent)  ;  but  women's  share  of  degrees  in  other 
health  professions,  including  dentistry  and  certain  medical  special- 
ties, was  only  1  percent.  Women  earned  only  4  percent  of  all 
law  degrees. 

Master's  degrees. — Master's  degrees  earned  by  women  in 
1967  were  more  concentrated  in  the  field  of  education  than  were 
bachelor's  degrees — 51  and  38  percent,  respectively.  Women  who 
have  majored  in  another  field  of  study  at  the  undergraduate  level 
often  obtain  their  master's  degree  in  education  in  order  to  qualify 
for  teaching  positions  in  secondary  schools  or  to  qualify  for  higher 
rates  of  pay.  There  was  less  interest  in  1967  at  the  master's  level 
than  at  the  undergraduate  level  in  the  humanities  (18  percent 
compared  with  24  percent),  in  social  sciences  (11  and  16  percent), 
and  in  the  basic  and  applied  sciences  (9  and  13  percent). 

The  most  popular  individual  subjects  for  women  at  the  master's 
degree  level,  as  at  the  undergraduate  level,  were  elementary  edu- 
cation (8,055)  and  English  and  journalism  (4,170)  ;  but  many 
women  earned  master's  degrees  in  library  science  (3,567) ,  counsel- 
ing and  guidance  (3,276),  social  work  (2,533),  fine  and  applied 
arts  (2,476),  and  foreign  languages  and  literature  (2,379)  (table 
92). 

Even  though  women  earned  only  35  percent  of  all  master's 
degrees  conferred  in  1967,  they  still  predominated  in  the  same 
individual  educational  subjects  as  at  the  undergraduate  level  and 
in  nursing  and  home  economics.  They  also  earned  79  percent  of 
the  degrees  in  library  science  and  60  percent  of  the  degrees  in 
social  work.  However,  they  earned  only  9  and  10  percent  of  the 
degrees  in  economics  and  in  physical  sciences,  respectively;  less 
than  3  percent  of  the  degrees  in  business  and  commerce;  and  2 
percent  in  other  basic  and  applied  sciences  (which  includes  en- 
gineering) . 

Doctor's  degrees. — The  specialization  by  women  in  the  field 
of  education  is  markedly  reduced  at  the  doctorate  level.  Of  all 
doctor's  degrees  earned  by  women  in  1967,  29  percent  were  in  the 
field  of  education,  as  compared  with  25  percent  in  basic  and 
applied  sciences  and  21  percent  in  the  humanities  and  the  arts 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


197 


Table  92. — Earned  Master's  Degrees  Conferred  on  Women,  by  Selected 
Fields  of  Study,  1966-67 


Women 


Field  of  study 


Total 


Number 

Percent 
distribution 

As  percent 

of  all 

master's 

degrees 

conferred 

54,713 

100.0 

34.7 

27,918 

51.0 

50.0 

404 

707 

3,276 

699 

.7 

1.3 
6.0 
1.3 

56.0 

57.8 
46.8 
62.6 

Total    157,892 

Education    55,861 

Art  education 721 

Business  and  commercial 

education  1,224 

Counseling,  guidance   7,001 

Curriculum  and  instruction  _  _  1,117 
Early  childhood,  nursery,  and 

kindergarten  education 395 

Educational  administration, 

supervision,  or  finance 7,230 

Educational  psychology 634 

Education  of  exceptional  chil- 
dren and  the  handicapped  _  -  2,295 

Elementary  education    10,040 

Home  economics  education  _  _  509 

Music  education 1,509 

Physical  education   3,052 

Secondary   education    4,305 

Speech  and  hearing 

education  887 

Other    14,942 

Humanities  and  the  arts 22,051 

English,  journalism    7,984 

Fine  and  applied  arts 5,812 

Foreign  languages, 

literature     4,255 

Religion,  philosophy 2,876 

Other    1,124 

Psychology    3,138 

Social  sciences  19,173 

Social  sciences   18,710 

Anthropology    357 

Area  and  regional 

studies    419 

Economics   1,778 

History    4,621 

Political  science, 

government   1,775 

Social  sciences 

(general) 1,688 


389 


.7 


98.5 


1,602 

2.9 

22.2 

280 

.5 

44.2 

1,584 

2.9 

69.0 

8,055 

14.7 

80.2 

504 

.9 

99.0 

578 

1.1 

38.3 

852 

1.6 

27.9 

1,809 

3.3 

42.0 

675 

1.2 

76.1 

6,504 

11.9 

43.5 

9,836 

18.0 

44.6 

4,170 

7.6 

52.2 

2,476 

4.5 

42.6 

2,379 

4.3 

55.9 

600 

1.1 

20.9 

211 

.4 

18.8 

1,062 

1.9 

33.8 

5,851 

10.7 

30.5 

5,784 

10.6 

30.9 

117 

.2 

32.8 

125 

.2 

29.8 

168 

.3 

9.4 

1,317 

2.4 

28.5 

387 

.7 

21.8 

462 

.8 

27.4 

198 


EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 


Table  92. — Earned  Master's  Degrees  Conferred  on  Women,  by  Selected 
Fields  of  Study,  1966-67 — Continued 

Women 

As  percent 
of  all 
master's 
Percent  degrees 

Field  of  study  Total  Number       distribution       conferred 

Social  work,  administra- 
tion, welfare 4,220  2,533  4.6  60.0 

Sociology   1,193  356  .7  29.8 

Other    2,659  319  .6  12.0 

Geography 463  67  .1  14.5 

Basic  and  applied  sciences 35,950  5,121  9.4  14.2 

Biological  sciences 5,003  1,282  2^  25.6 

Health   professions    3,455  1,663  3.0  48.1 

Nursing,  public  health 

nursing     1,145  1,120  2.0  97.8 

Public  health    865  294  .5  34.0 

Other  health 

professions    1,445  249  .5  17.2 

Mathematical  subjects   5,284  1,284  2.3  24.3 

Physical  sciences   5,412  553  1.0  10.2 

Other    16,796  339  .6  2.0 

Other  professional  fields   21,719  4,925  9.0  22.7 

Business  and  commerce 14,894  406  .7  2.7 

Home   economics    850  804  1.5  94.6 

Library  science    4,489  3,567  6.5  79.5 

Other    1,486  148  .3  10.0 

Source:   U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,   Office  of  Education:   "Earned 
Degrees,   1966-67."  OE-54013-67 

(table  93).  In  the  latter  two  fields  the  largest  single  subjects  were 
biological  sciences  and  English  and  journalism.  Psychology  ac- 
counted for  less  than  10  percent  of  doctor's  degrees  earned  by 
women ;  social  sciences,  13  percent. 

Although  women  earned  only  12  percent  of  all  doctor's  degrees 
conferred  in  1967,  their  share  in  certain  fields  was  considerably 
larger — 20  percent  in  education  and  in  the  humanities  and  the 
arts  and  19  percent  in  psychology.  On  the  other  hand,  half  of 
all  doctoral  degrees  conferred  in  1967  were  in  the  basic  and  applied 
sciences,  where  women's  share  was  only  6  percent. 

In  several  individual  subjects  women's  share  of  doctoral  de- 
grees was  substantially  higher  in  1967  than  in  1956  (the  earliest 
date  for  which  comparable  figures  are  available  by  field  of  study). 
For  example,  increases  were  from  20  to  28  percent  in  foreign 
languages  and  literature,  from  15  to  23  percent  in  English  and 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  199 

journalism,  and  from  14  to  19  percent  in  psychology.  Women's 
share  of  doctoral  degrees  in  biological  sciences  rose  only  mod- 
erately from  11  percent  in  1956  to  15  percent  in  1967,  but  the 
actual  number  of  degrees  earned  by  women  in  this  field  increased 
by  almost  one-half  in  just  2  years,  from  1965  to  1967. 

Table  93. — Earned  Doctor's  Degrees  Conferred  on  Women,  by  Selected 
Fields  of  Study,  1966-67 

Women 

As  percent  of 
all  doctor's 
Percent  degrees 

Field  of  study  Total  Number       distribution     conferred 

Total     20,621  2,457  100.0  11.9 

Education    3,529  722  29.4  20.5 

Humanities  and  the  arts 2,543  511  20.8  20.1 

English  and  journalism    871  203  SJ  23.3 

Fine  and  applied  arts 504  93  3.8  18.5 

Foreign  languages,  literature  .  -  578  163  6.6  28.2 

Other    590  52  2.1  8.8 

Psychology    1,231  232  9.4  18.8 

Social  sciences   2,586  310  12.6  12.0 

Basic  and  applied  sciences 10,096  605  24.6  6.0 

Biological  sciences 2,256  342  13.9  15.2 

Mathematical  subjects   832  59  2.4  7.1 

Physical  sciences 3,462  162  6.6  4.7 

Other    3,546  42  1.7  1.2 

Other  professional  fields  636  77  3.1  12.1 

Source:   U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,   OfSce  of  Education:    "Earned 
Degrees,    1966-67."    OE-54013-67. 

86.    Continuing  Education  Programs  for  Women 

Many  mature  women  wish  to  return  to  school  after  their  fam- 
ily responsibilities  lessen,  in  order  to  prepare  themselves  for 
entry  or  reentry  into  the  world  of  work  or  for  a  serious  volunteer 
commitment.  Some  of  these  women  seek  to  start  or  continue  a  col- 
lege education  which  had  been  precluded  or  interrupted  by  mar- 
riage and  family.  For  others  the  passage  of  years  and  volunteer 
or  family  experiences  have  brought  changing  occupational  inter- 
ests. Others  want  to  update  and  refresh  their  knowledge  or  to 
work  toward  advanced  degrees  in  their  previous  professional 
fields. 

Educational  institutions  are  paying  increasing  attention  to  the 


200  EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

special  needs  of  these  mature  women.  Programs  and  practices  de- 
signed for  students  in  their  late  teens  or  early  twenties  have 
proved  inadequate  or  frustrating  in  many  ways  to  women  in  their 
thirties  or  over.  Many  of  these  older  women  are  married  and  have 
family  responsibilities ;  many  have  been  out  of  school  for  10  or  20 
years.  They  need  less  rigid  interpretation  of  entrance  require- 
ments, such  as  substituting  equivalency  tests  for  credits  earned 
too  long  ago  to  be  considered  eligible.  They  need  flexible  schedul- 
ing, often  on  a  part-time  basis  and  at  hours  convenient  for  those 
with  young  children  at  home.  They  need  special  counseling  serv- 
ices on  both  educational  and  occupational  opportunities.  They 
may  also  need  financial  aid,  now  seldom  available  to  those  on 
part-time  schedules.  Finally,  they  need  changes  in  course  mate- 
rial and  teaching  methods  designed  for  young  people  and  fre- 
quently inappropriate  for  mature  women  with  broader  back- 
grounds of  life  experience,  probably  including  periods  of  employ- 
ment or  volunteer  work. 

Continuing  education  programs  to  meet  these  needs  have  been 
developed  by  colleges  and  universities,  2-year  community  colleges, 
and  a  few  public  secondary  school  systems.  The  programs  vary 
with  each  institution,  but  certain  general  features  characterize 
various  types  of  programs.^ 

One  approach  has  been  the  establishment  of  a  center  for  the 
continuing  education  of  women  within  the  college  or  university  in 
order  to  make  the  regular  resources  of  the  institution  more 
efficiently  and  effectively  useful  to  adult  women.  Individual  coun- 
seling, information,  and  referral  services  may  be  provided  on 
both  educational  and  employment  opportunities.  Job  placement 
services,  nursery  facilities,  and  scholarship  aid  also  may  be  in- 
cluded. 

A  general  orientation  workshop  or  course  has  been  another 
type  of  response  to  the  special  needs  of  mature  women.  Such  ori- 
entation courses  usually  offer  a  comprehensive  survey  of  current 
information  on  career,  educational,  and  volunteer  opportunities. 
Counseling  and  guidance  on  both  a  group  and  an  individual  basis, 
aptitude  testing,  and  placement  assistance  are  often  included. 

Another  approach  has  been  the  establishment  of  special  pro- 
grams for  adult  women  to  pursue  either  undergraduate  or  gradu- 
ate education  on  a  part-time  basis.  Such  programs  may  include 
pre-admission  counseling  and  refresher  courses. 


'  For  more'  detailed  information  on  continuinp:  education  proKrams  and  services,  see 
"Continuing  Education  Programs  and  Services  for  Women."  Pamphlet  10.  Women's  Bureau, 
Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Administration,   U.S.  Department  of  Labor.   1968. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  201 

Special  degree  programs  that  go  beyond  the  usual  part-time  ar- 
rangements in  meeting  the  flexible  time  needs  of  mature  women 
also  have  been  developed.  Such  programs  may  combine  short 
term  residence  requirements  or  special  summer  seminars  with 
provision  for  independent  or  correspondence  study.  Other  fea- 
tures sometimes  included  are  credit  for  life  experience,  taped  lec- 
tures, and  programed  learning. 

87.    Financial  Assistance  for  College  Sfudenfs 

As  more  and  more  high  school  graduates  seek  education  beyond 
the  secondary  level  and  as  college  costs  continue  to  rise,  financial 
aid  has  become  an  increasingly  important  problem  to  college  stu- 
dents. Institutions  of  higher  education  and  many  private  groups 
and  organizations  have  long  offered  financial  assistance  to  able 
students.  To  help  meet  society's  need  for  educated  men  and 
women  and  trained  manpower,  Congress  has,  in  recent  years,  au- 
thorized a  number  of  federally  assisted  aid  programs  in  the  form 
of  grants,  loans,  and  employment  opportunities.  These  programs 
are  available  to  students  seeking  postsecondary  training  at  partic- 
ipating colleges,  universities,  and  vocational,  business,  or  techni- 
cal schools.  Students  who  want  details  about  any  of  these  pro- 
grams should  inquire  at  the  school  to  which  they  are  applying  or 
in  which  they  are  enrolled. 

Educational  opportunity  grants. — These  grants  are  available  to 
undergraduate  students  with  exceptional  financial  need.  To  be  eli- 
gible, students  must  be  enrolled  or  accepted  for  enrollment  on  a 
full-time  basis. 

Grants  are  made  to  eligible  students  for  each  of  4  years  of  un- 
dergraduate study,  in  amounts  ranging  from  $200  to  $1,000  an  ac- 
ademic year.  Institutions  of  higher  education  participating  in  the 
program  select  the  recipients  and  determine  the  amount  each  stu- 
dent needs,  in  accordance  with  criteria  established  by  the  Oflice 
of  Education.  Matching  awards,  in  amounts  at  least  equal  to  the 
Federal  grants,  must  be  provided  to  grant  recipients  by  the  partic- 
ipating institutions  or  by  other  sources — so  that  the  students  re- 
ceive packages  of  financial  assistance  designed  for  individual 
needs  and  circumstances. 

NatioTial  defense  student  loans. — Students  who  have  been  ac- 
cepted for  enrollment  or  are  already  in  attendance  on  at  least  a 
half-time  basis  at  participating  colleges,  universities,  or  voca- 
tional, business,  or  technical  schools  and  who  need  financial  help 
for  educational  expenses  are  eligible  for  these  long  term,  low-in- 
terest loans. 


202  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Undergraduate  students  may  borrow  up  to  $1,000  each  aca- 
demic year,  to  a  total  of  $4,000.  Graduate  students  may  borrow  as 
much  as  $2,500  a  year,  to  a  maximum  of  $10,000.  The  repayment 
period  and  the  interest  (3  percent  a  year)  do  not  begin  until  9 
months  after  students  end  their  studies.  Repayment  of  principal 
may  be  extended  over  a  10-year  period.  Repayment  may  be  de- 
ferred up  to  a  total  of  3  years  while  borrowers  are  serving  in  the 
Armed  Forces,  with  the  Peace  Corps,  or  as  Volunteers  in  Service 
to  America  (VISTA). 

If  borrowers  become  full-time  teachers  in  public  or  other  non- 
profit elementary  or  secondary  schools  or  in  institutions  of  higher 
education,  up  to  50  percent  of  the  loans  may  be  forgiven  at  the 
rate  of  10  percent  for  each  year  of  teaching  service.  Student  bor- 
rowers who  teach  handicapped  children  or  who  choose  to  teach  in 
specifically  designated  schools  located  in  primarily  low  income 
areas  may  cancel  the  full  amount  of  their  loans  at  the  rate  of  15 
percent  a  year. 

Guaranteed  loans. — Students  enrolled  or  accepted  for  enroll- 
ment in  approved  colleges,  universities,  or  vocational,  technical, 
trade,  or  business  schools  may  obtain  low-cost  insured  loans  from 
private  commercial  lenders.  Such  lenders  may  be  banks,  credit 
unions,  savings  and  loan  associations,  insurance  companies,  or 
colleges  that  elect  to  become  lenders  under  the  program.  A  State 
agency  or  private  nonprofit  agency  or,  in  some  cases,  the  Federal 
Government  guarantees  the  loans.  The  Federal  Government  pays 
a  portion  of  the  interest  on  behalf  of  eligible  students.  Depending 
upon  the  State  program,  students  apply  directly  to  a  bank  or 
other  lending  agency,  to  the  college,  or  to  the  State  loan  guaran- 
tee agency. 

Under  this  program  students  may  borrow  as  much  as  $1,500  a 
year,  to  a  maximum  of  $7,500.  In  most  States  half-time  students 
are  eligible,  although  some  States  require  full-time  enrollment. 
The  maximum  interest  rate  on  these  loans  is  7  percent  a  year. 
However,  for  students  with  adjusted  family  incomes  of  under 
$15,000  a  year,  the  Federal  Government  pays  the  entire  interest 
charge  while  the  students  are  in  school  and  until  the  beginning  of 
the  repayment  period. 

The  repayment  period  does  not  begin  until  9  to  12  months  after 
students  have  completed  their  education  or  have  left  school.  Re- 
payment may  be  deferred  while  the  students  serve  in  the  Peace 
Corps,  in  VISTA,  or  in  the  Armed  Forces. 

Work-study  assistance. — This  is  a  program  of  part-time  em- 
ployment for  students  who  need  a  job  to  help  to  pay  for  education 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  203 

expenses.  To  be  eligible,  students  must  be  enrolled  and  be  in  good 
standing  or  be  accepted  for  enrollment  on  a  full-time  basis  at  par- 
ticipating colleges  or  universities  or  in  postsecondary  programs 
in  vocational  schools.  The  students*  eligibility  depends  upon  finan- 
cial need,  v^^ith  preference  given  to  applicants  from  low-income 
families. 

The  w^ork  may  be  for  the  schools  themselves  or  for  public  or 
private  nonprofit  organizations  contracting  with  the  institutions. 
The  Federal  Government  reimburses  participating  institutions 
for  80  percent  of  the  students*  wages.  The  participating  institu- 
tions select  the  students  to  be  employed,  determine  the  jobs  to  be 
performed,  handle  the  payroll,  and  administer  the  program. 

Students  may  work  an  average  of  15  hours  weekly  while  at- 
tending classes  and  up  to  40  hours  a  week  during  vacations  or 
other  periods  when  classes  are  not  in  session.  In  general,  the 
basic  pay  rate  is  at  least  the  current  minimum  wage ;  salaries  of 
up  to  $3.50  an  hour  may  be  paid  for  highly  specialized  work. 

Cooperative  education. — A  new  form  of  student  educational  as- 
sistance was  provided  by  the  Higher  Education  Act  of  1968, 
which  authorized  Federal  grants  to  colleges  to  help  them  estab- 
lish programs  of  alternate  full-time  academic  study  and  full-time 
public  or  private  employment.  The  aim  of  the  cooperative  educa- 
tion program  is  twofold:  to  offer  students  the  opportunity  to  earn 
needed  funds  through  periods  of  full-time  work,  and  to  give  them 
work  experience  related  to  their  academic  or  occupational  objec- 
tives. 

Social  security  benefits  for  students. — Sons  and  daughters  of 
retired  or  deceased  workers  are  eligible  for  social  security  bene- 
fits up  to  age  22  if  they  are  unmarried,  full-time  students.  To 
be  eligible,  the  student  must  be  enrolled  in  an  accredited  school 
for  a  course  of  study  which  will  take  at  least  3  months  and  must 
carry  a  subject  load  sufficient  to  complete  the  course  in  the  time 
normally  required  by  a  day  student.  Payment  of  these  benefits  is 
not  automatic.  Students  who  believe  they  are  eligible  and  who  are 
not  receiving  these  benefits  should  inquire  at  a  local  social  se- 
curity office. 

Aid  for  special  fields  of  study. — A  number  of  federally  assisted 
fellowships  and  scholarship  programs  are  available  to  students  in 
certain  specialized  fields  of  study.  These  include  teaching,  counsel- 
ing and  guidance,  library  work,  nursing  and  other  health  fields, 
social  work,  and  vocational  rehabilitation.  Information  on  the 
types  of  programs  offered  may  be  obtained  from  the  U.S.  Depart- 
ment of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare. 


204  EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Aid  to  veterans. — Benefits  for  additional  training  or  education 
are  available  to  men  and  women  who  have  served  in  the  Armed 
Forces  since  January  31,  1955.  Eligible  veterans  are  those  who 
have  served  181  days  on  active  duty  or  less  than  181  days  if  duty 
was  terminated  because  of  service-connected  disability. 

Benefits  are  paid  on  the  basis  of  1  month  of  benefits  for  post- 
secondary-school  education  for  each  month  of  active  duty  to  a 
maximum  of  36  months.  Benefits  may  also  be  paid  for  high  school 
education,  and  these  benefits  are  not  counted  against  the  period 
for  which  benefits  may  be  paid  for  schooling  above  the  secondary 
level.  The  amount  of  benefits  varies  with  the  number  of  depend- 
ents and  whether  the  schooling  is  on  a  full-time  or  a  part-time 
basis. 

Training  or  education  may  be  taken  in  approved  courses  at 
high  schools,  public  or  private  colleges,  or  vocational,  business,  or 
correspondence  schools.  Further  information  may  be  obtained 
from  school  veterans'  counselors  or  from  the  nearest  oflfice  of  the 
Veterans  Administration. 

Aid  to  children  of  veterans. — Educational  benefits  are  provided 
for  children  of  veterans  who  died  or  were  permanently  and  to- 
tally disabled  as  a  result  of  service  in  the  Armed  Forces.  Gener- 
ally, students  who  are  at  least  18  years  of  age  (or  high  school 
graduates)  but  not  more  than  25  years  of  age  are  eligible. 

Benefits  may  be  paid  for  a  maximum  36  months  or  the  equiva- 
lent of  36  months  for  students  enrolled  part  time.  The  monthly 
payment  for  full-time  training  or  education  is  $130. 

Education  or  training  may  be  taken  in  approved  colleges,  voca- 
tional or  business  schools,  or  other  educational  institutions.  Fur- 
ther information  may  be  obtained  from  school  veterans'  counse- 
lors or  from  the  nearest  office  of  the  Veterans  Administration. 

Education  and   Employment 

88.  Educational  Atfainmenf  and  Labor  Force  Partic'ipafion 

There  is  a  direct  relationship  between  the  educational  attain- 
ment of  women  and  their  labor  force  participation.  The  more  edu- 
cation a  woman  has  received,  the  greater  the  likelihood  that  she 
will  be  engaged  in  paid  employment.  A  high  school  diploma  is  a 
prerequisite  for  many  jobs  today,  and  there  is  an  increasing  de- 
mand for  workers  with  education  above  the  high  school  level.  A 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


205 


shortage  of  personnel  with  the  necessary  technical  and  profes- 
sional training  to  fill  the  complex  requirements  of  many  positions 
in  this  era  of  technological  change  is  acute  and  is  expected  to  con- 
tinue. Moreover,  women  who  have  completed  4  years  of  college  or 
more  are  motivated  to  seek  employment  outside  the  home  because 
of  the  higher  earnings  available  to  them  and  because  of  a  desire 
to  use  the  skills  they  have  acquired  through  higher  education. 

In  March  1968,  71  percent  of  the  women  18  years  of  age  and 
over  who  had  completed  5  years  of  college  or  more  and  54  percent 
of  those  who  had  earned  a  bachelor's  degree  only  were  in  the 
labor  force  (chart  U).  The  percentage  dropped  to  48  percent 
among  those  v^^ho  were  high  school  graduates  and  to  31  percent 
among  those  who  did  not  go  beyond  the  eighth  grade.  The 
chances  of  being  employed  were  even  slimmer  for  women  who 
had  less  than  5  years  of  formal  education. 


Ckarl  U 


LABOR  FORCE  PARTICIPATION  INCREASES  WITH  EDUCATION 


(Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Years  of  School  Completed,-.? 

March  1968) 
Women  18  Years  of  Age  and  Over 
Percent 


80 

Elementary  School 

High  School                      College 

70.8 

70 

— 

i 
i 

60 

- 

54> 

50 
40 

_ 

396 

/ 

18.] 
■ 

15. E 

30 

— 

28.2 

30  5 

20 

— 

l.L 

10 
n 

— 

_ 

Less  than          5-7        8  years                  1-3        4  years 

1-3 

4  years     5  years 

5  years  '        years                                  years 

years 

or  more 

'  Includes  women  reporting  no  school  years  completed. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics 


The  relationship  between  educational  attainment  and  labor 
force  participation  is  almost  as  strong  among  married  women 
(husband  present)  as  it  is  among  single  v^^omen  and  women  who 
are  widov^^ed,  divorced,  or  separated.  Thus  the  highest  labor  force 


206  EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

participation  rate  among  women  in  each  marital  group  in  March 
1968  was  for  those  with  4  years  of  college  or  more,  and  the  lowest 
rate  was  among  women  with  less  than  8  years  of  schooling  (table 
94). 

Table  94. — Labor  Force  Participation  Rates  of  Women,  by  Educational 
Attainment  and  Marital  Status,  March  1968 

(Women  18  years  of  age  and  over) 

Marital  status 

Married 
Years  of  school  (husband 

completed  Total  Single  present)         Other  * 

Total     42.0  62.3  38.4  40.6 

Elementary  school : 

Less  than  8  years  = 24.4  36.2  25.1  21.6 

8  years 30.8  48.5  30.9  27.8 

High  school: 

1   to  3   years    39.6  46.6  37.0  44.3 

4  years 48.1  72.6  41.5  58.0 

College : 

1   to   3   years    _  _  _    45.5  54.4  39.7  54.9 

4  years  or  more 58.4  81.8  51.3  61.4 

*  Widowed,  divorced,  or  separated. 

^  Includes  women  reporting  no  school  years  completed. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,   Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics:   Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.   103. 

The  pattern  of  greater  labor  force  participation  among  women 
with  higher  educational  attainment  generally  held  true  when  the 
figures  were  broken  down  by  age  groups,  except  among  those  18 
to  24  years  of  age  (table  95).  Since  few  women  com.plete  college 
before  they  are  20  years  of  age,  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  high- 
est labor  force  participation  rate  for  girls  18  and  19  years  old  was 
at  the  high  school  level.  Similarly,  relatively  few  women  20  to  24 
years  of  age  have  earned  advanced  degrees,  and  so  in  this  age 
group  those  with  4  years  of  college  were  the  most  likely  to  be  in 
the  labor  force.  Extremely  high  rates  of  labor  force  participation 
were  shown  for  those  with  5  years  of  college  or  more  in  the  age 
groups  45  to  54  years  (86  percent)  and  55  to  64  years  (76  per- 
cent). On  the  other  hand,  only  in  the  age  groups  35  to  44  years 
and  45  to  54  years  were  as  many  as  41  percent  of  the  women 
with  less  than  8  years  of  schooling  in  the  labor  force. 

Among  nonwhite  women  labor  force  participation  in  March 
1968  was  higher  with  each  higher  level  of  educational  attainment 
for  every  age  group,  except  for  those  18  and  19  and  those  20  to  24 
years  of  age  with  1  year  of  college  or  more  (table  96).  Many  of 
these  young  women  probably  were  still  in  school.  Lowest  labor 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


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WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  209 

force  participation  rates  for  women  of  the  usual  working  ages 
(18  to  64  years)  were  found  among  women  20  to  24  years  of  age 
with  8  years  or  less  of  schooling  (34  percent)  and  among  18-  and 
19-year-olds  with  1  to  3  years  of  high  school  education  (36  per- 
cent). More  than  7  out  of  10  of  all  nonwhite  women  25  to  54  years 
of  age  with  some  college  education  were  in  the  labor  force. 

Among  girls  16  to  21  years  of  age  who  were  not  enrolled  in 
school,  the  difference  in  the  labor  force  participation  rates  in  Oc- 
tober 1967  of  high  school  graduates  (70  percent)  and  school  drop- 
outs (39  percent)  reflected  primarily  the  fact  that  many  of  the 
dropouts  left  school  to  marry  and  have  families  (table  97).  How- 
ever, the  lower  labor  force  participation  rates  for  dropouts  than 
for  high  school  graduates  also  held  true  among  boys  of  this  age 
group  not  enrolled  in  school,  indicating  that  lack  of  schooling 
probably  contributed  to  the  nonparticipation  of  both  boy  and  girl 
dropouts. 

89.  Educational  Affainment  and  Occupations 

The  amount  of  education  a  woman  has  completed  determines  to 
a  great  extent  the  type  of  job  she  can  obtain.  Thus  in  March  1968 
about  half  the  employed  women  18  years  of  age  and  over  who  had 
attended  college  were  in  professional  and  technical  occupations 
(table  98).  On  the  other  hand,  more  than  three-fourths  of  those 
who  had  attended  elementary  school  only  were  operatives  or  serv- 
ice workers  either  inside  or  outside  the  home. 

Among  women  who  had  attended  college,  there  was  a  consider- 
able variation  in  occupational  distribution  according  to  the  num- 
ber of  years  of  school  completed.  For  example,  91  percent  of  the 
women  with  5  years  of  college  or  more  were  in  professional  and 
technical  occupations,  and  another  3  percent  were  nonfarm  man- 
agers, officials,  and  proprietors.  In  contrast,  only  30  percent  of 
the  women  who  had  completed  only  1  to  3  years  of  college  were  in 
professional  and  technical  or  nonfarm  managerial  occupations. 

Among  women  who  had  completed  high  school  but  had  not 
gone  on  to  college,  about  half  (51  percent)  were  clerical  workers, 
and  11  percent  were  in  professional  and  technical  or  managerial 
occupations.  Many  of  the  remainder  were  service  workers  outside 
the  home  (13  percent)  or  operatives  (12  percent).  On  the  other 
hand,  only  a  small  proportion  (20  percent)  of  the  women  who 
had  attended  but  not  completed  high  school  were  clerical 
workers.  Such  dropouts  were  mainly  operatives  (28  percent)  or 
service  workers  outside  the  home  (26  percent). 


210 


EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 


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WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


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212  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Women  who  had  not  gone  beyond  the  elementary  grades  were 
particularly  disadvantaged  occupationally.  Among  those  who  had 
completed  only  8  years  of  school,  only  11  percent  were  in  cleri- 
cal occupations,  with  the  largest  proportions  working  as  opera- 
tives (32  percent),  service  workers  outside  the  home  (26  per- 
cent), or  private  household  workers  (15  percent).  And  the  most 
disadvantaged  of  all  were  those  with  less  than  5  years  of  schooling. 
More  than  half  of  these  women  were  service  workers,  either  in 
private  households  (36  percent)  or  outside  the  home  (18  per- 
cent). More  than  a  third  (35  percent)  were  operatives. 

The  close  relationship  between  education  and  occupation  is  also 
evident  from  an  analysis  of  the  amount  of  education  received  by 
women  employed  in  each  of  the  major  occupation  groups  (chart 
V).  Of  the  4  million  women  employed  in  professional  and  techni- 
cal occupations  in  March  1968,  79  percent  had  attended  college 
and  58  percent  had  graduated  (table  99).  Of  the  9.1  million  cleri- 
cal workers,  about  21  percent  had  some  college  training,  and  an 
additional  75  percent  had  attended  high  school  (66  percent  had 
graduated).  Among  the  1.2  million  women  employed  as  nonfarm 
managers,  officials,  and  proprietors,  there  was  considerably  more 
diversity  in  educational  attainment.  In  this  major  occupation 
group,  24  percent  had  attended  college,  an  additional  64  percent 
had  attended  high  school  (47  percent  had  graduated),  and  12 
percent  had  8  years  or  less  of  schooling.  Among  the  4.2  million 
women  operatives,  however,  only  3  percent  had  some  college,  an 
additional  64  percent  had  attended  high  school  (33  percent  had 
graduated),  and  34  percent  had  8  years  or  less  of  education. 
Finally,  among  women  employed  as  private  household  workers, 
less  than  half  had  more  than  8  years  of  schooling. 

Occupations  of  girl  high  school  graduates  and  school  dropouts. — 
Girls  who  complete  high  school  enjoy  occupational  advantages  as 
compared  with  those  who  drop  out  of  school.  Of  the  2.1  million  em- 
ployed girls  16  to  21  years  of  age  who  had  graduated  from  high 
school  but  were  not  enrolled  in  college  in  October  1967,  61  percent 
were  in  clerical  jobs  and  another  7  percent  were  professional  or 
technical  workers  (table  100).  Twelve  percent  were  operatives, 
11  percent  were  service  workers  outside  the  home,  and  2  percent 
were  private  household  workers.  In  contrast,  among  the  almost 
half  million  employed  girls  16  to  21  years  of  age  who  had 
dropped  out  of  school,  33  percent  were  operatives,  27  percent 
were  service  workers  outside  the  home,  and  12  percent  were  pri- 
vate household  workers.  Only  13  percent  were  clerical  workers. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


213 


Chort  V 


THE  JOBS  WOMEN  HOLD  REFLECT  THE  EDUCATION  THEY  HAVE  HAD 


f^"'       (Number  of  Employed  Women,  by  Selected  Major  Occupation  Group 


and  Years  of  School  Completed,  March  1968 
0 


Millions  of  women  18  years  of  age  and  over 

2  4  6  8  10 


Includes  officials  and  proprietors  (except  farm). 
^  Includes  women  reporting  no  school  years  completed. 

Source:  U.S    Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics. 


Clerical  Workers 

Operatives 

Service  Workers 

(except  private 

household) 

Professional  and 
Technical  Workers 

Sales  Workers 

Private  Household 
Workers 

Nonfarm  Managers' 

1                 1                 1                 1 

1 

1 

1 

I 

WM   ^  ys3rs  or  less 
1^9   of  scfiooling^ 

Ito  4  years 
.i^iO   of  high  school 

1        1   1  year  or  more 

1 

] 

1 

I , ,    J   of  college 

Nonwhite  girls,  whether  graduates  or  dropouts,  were  disadvan- 
taged occupationally  as  compared  with  white  girls.  Worst  off 
were  the  nonwhite  dropouts — 54  percent  were  service  workers  ei- 
ther inside  or  outside  the  home,  and  9  percent  were  farm  laborers 
or  foremen.  Twenty-four  percent  were  operatives,  and  only  8  per- 
cent were  in  clerical  jobs.  (See  sec.  48  for  additional  discus- 
sion of  occupations  of  nonwhite  women.) 


214 


EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 


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WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE 


215 


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216  EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

College  majors  and  occupations. — A  survey  of  occupational 
training-  of  workers  showed  that  in  April  1963  women  college 
graduates  were  more  likely  to  be  working  in  occupations  related  to 
their  major  fields  of  study  than  were  women  with  3  years  of  col- 
lege— 82  percent  and  66  percent,  respectively."  The  proportion  of 
women  with  4  years  or  more  of  college  who  were  utilizing  their 
college  majors  in  their  current  work  was  higher  in  some  fields 
than  in  others.  More  than  90  percent  of  the  women  graduates  who 
had  majored  in  education  and  the  health  sciences  were  using  their 
college  training  in  their  jobs,  as  were  88  percent  of  the  women 
graduates  who  majored  in  business.  However,  among  women 
graduates  with  majors  in  the  social  sciences  and  the  humanities, 
only  76  percent  and  69  percent,  respectively,  were  using  their  aca- 
demic training.  Nongraduates  with  3  years  of  college  who  had 
majored  in  health  sciences  were  more  likely  to  be  using  their  ma- 
jors (93  percent)  than  were  those  who  had  majored  in  education 
(65  percent). 

According  to  a  special  study  of  graduates  of  predominantly 
Negro  colleges,  Negro  college  women  have  a  stronger  work  orien- 
tation than  white  college  women.®  When  compared  with  other 
college  women  who  graduated  in  1964,  Negro  women  were  more 
than  twice  as  likely  (40  percent)  as  southern  white  women  (19 
percent)  and  all  other  women  (14  percent)  to  say  that  they  real- 
istically expected  to  combine  marriage,  childrearing,  and  gainful 
employment. 

The  study  showed  a  remarkable  similarity  between  the  general 
fields  of  academic  preparation  chosen  by  Negro  and  white  college 
women.  Negro  women  were  somewhat  more  likely  than  white 
women  to  have  majored  in  fields  where  the  correlation  between  oc- 
cupations and  college  major  is  strongest,  as  shown  in  the  1963 
training  study  discussed  above  in  this  section.  Thus  64  percent 
of  women  students  at  predominantly  Negro  colleges  majored  in 
elementary  or  secondary  education  or  other  educational  fields,  as 
compared  with  53  percent  of  southern  white  women  and  50  per- 
cent of  all  other  women.  Moreover,  Negro  women  were  twice  as 
likely  as  other  women  college  students  to  major  in  business  fields 
— 4  and  2  percent,  respectively.  On  the  other  hand,  only  6  percent 
of  Negro  women  majored  in  the  humanities,  where  the  weakest 
correlation  had  been  reported,  as  compared  with  20  and  19  per- 
cent, respectively,  of  southern  white  and  all  other  women. 


^  U.S.    Department    of    Labor,    Manpower  Administration :     "Formal     Occupational    Training 

of  Adult   Workers."    Manpower   Automation  Research    Monograph    No.    2.    1964. 

*  U.S.    Department   of    Health,    Education,  and    Welfare,    Public    Health    Service:    "Graduates 

of   Predominantly    Negro    Colleges,    Class    of  1964."    Pub.    1571.    1967. 


WOMEN  IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


217 


Career  fields  actually  entered  by  1964  graduates  immediately 
after  graduation  did  not  differ  substantially  for  Negro  and  white 
women.  The  same  proportion  of  Negro  and  southern  white  women 
graduates  (55  percent)  and  only  a  slightly  higher  proportion  of 
other  women  graduates  (59  percent)  entered  the  teaching  field. 
Negro  college  women,  however,  were  twice  as  likely  as  white 
women  to  find  employment  in  the  field  of  social  work — 10  percent 
as  compared  with  5  and  4  percent,  respectively,  of  southern  white 
and  other  women.  As  might  be  expected  from  their  major  field 
preparation,  a  smaller  proportion  of  Negro  (8  percent)  than 
southern  white  (15  percent)  or  other  women  (11  percent)  entered 
the  humanities  fields, 

90.    Educational  Affainmenf  and  Unemployment 

There  is  a  fairly  close  correlation  between  limited  education 
and  unemployment.  (For  further  information  on  unemployed 
women,  see  sec.  36.)  Women  who  have  not  graduated  from 
high  school  generally  experience  more  unemployment  than  do 
those  with  more  formal  education.  In  March  1968  women  18  years 
of  age  and  over  with  only  8  years  of  schooling  had  an  unemploy- 
ment rate  of  5.1  percent  (table  101).  Those  who  had  completed 
high  school  but  had  not  attended  college  had  an  unemployment 
rate  of  3.8  percent.  Women  with  a  college  education  run  the  least 
risk  of  unemployment — unemployment  rates  in  March  1968  were 
2.3  percent  for  women  who  had  attended  college  for  1  year  or 
more  and  1.6  percent  for  those  who  had  graduated. 


Table  101. — Unemployment  Rates  of  Women,  by  Educational 
Attainment  and  Color,  March  1968 

(Women  18  years  of  age  and  over) 

Years  of  school 

completed  Total  White  Nonwhite 

Total    4.2  3.7  7.5 

Elementary  school : 

Less  than  8  years*  6.1  6.5  5.3 

8  years   ._      ...J 5.1  4.2  10.6 

High  school: 

1  to  3  years 6.6  5.8  10.3 

4  years   3.8  3.4  8.0 

College : 

1  year  or  more       2.3  2.3  3.0 

'  Includes   women   reporting   no   school    years   completed. 

Source :    U.S.    Department   of    Labor,    Bureau   of    Labor    Statistics :    Special    Labor    Force    Re- 
port No.   103. 


218  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Unemployment  is  higher  among  nonwhite  women  than  among 
white  women  at  almost  all  educational  levels.  However,  the  corre- 
lation between  limited  education  and  unemployment  is  not  as  clear 
for  nonwhite  women.  Among  all  nonwhite  women  18  years  of  age 
and  over  in  the  labor  force  in  March  1968,  those  with  8  years  of 
education  or  less  had  a  lower  unemployment  rate  (7.2  percent) 
than  did  those  who  had  completed  high  school  (8  percent).  This 
may  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  nonwhite  women  who  have 
completed  high  school  may  not  be  satisfied  to  work  at  semiskilled 
and  unskilled  occupations  and  have  difficulty  in  finding  and  qual- 
ifying for  more  desirable  work.  For  nonwhite  women  who  had 
some  college  education,  however,  the  risk  of  unemployment  was 
much  lower — their  unemployment  rate  was  only  3  percent  in 
March  1968. 

The  effect  of  limited  educational  attainment  was  more  clearly 
indicated  by  the  unemployment  rates  in  October  1967  among  girls 
16  to  21  years  of  age  not  enrolled  in  school.  High  school  dropouts 
were  much  more  likely  to  be  unemployed  than  were  graduates — 
19  and  11  percent,  respectively  (table  97).  Among  nonwhite  girls 
the  unemployment  rate  for  dropouts  was  a  startling  30  percent  as 
compared  with  22  percent  for  high  school  graduates. 

Another  measure  of  the  relationship  between  education  and  un- 
employment is  a  comparison  of  the  years  of  school  completed  by 
employed  and  unemployed  women  in  the  labor  force.  One-fifth  of 
the  women  18  years  of  age  and  over  who  were  unemployed  in 
March  1968  had  an  eighth  grade  education  or  less  (table  102).  In 
contrast,  about  one-sixth  of  the  employed  women  had  so  little 
schooling.  Moreover,  almost  half  of  the  unemployed  but  only 
about  a  third  of  the  employed  women  had  not  completed  high 
school.  At  the  upper  end  of  the  education  scale,  1  out  of  8  of  the 
unemployed  but  nearly  1  out  of  4  of  the  employed,  had  attended 
college  for  1  year  or  more. 

Among  nonwhite  women  a  slightly  larger  proportion  of  the  em- 
ployed (29  percent)  than  of  the  unemployed  (27  percent)  had  an 
eighth  grade  education  or  less,  and  the  proportions  of  employed 
and  unemployed  women  who  were  high  school  graduates  did  not 
differ  greatly — 32  and  34  percent,  respectively.  The  advantage  of 
some  college  education  was,  however,  reflected  in  the  employment 
figures :  the  proportion  of  the  employed  who  attended  college  for  1 
year  or  more  substantially  exceeded  that  of  the  unemployed  with 
this  much  education — 16  and  6  percent,  respectively. 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


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EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 


91.    Educational  Affainmenf  and  Hours  of  Work 

Women  with  a  limited  amount  of  formal  education  are  more 
likely  to  be  employed  part  time  than  are  highly  educated  women. 
Many  of  the  occupational  opportunities  available  to  women  with 
little  schooling  are  in  private  household  or  other  service  work — 
typically  part-time  jobs.  Among  women  employed  in  nonagricul- 
tural  industries  in  March  1968  the  likelihood  of  working  less 
than  35  hours  a  week  generally  diminished  with  each  higher  level 
of  school  attainment  (table  103).  Of  all  employed  women  with 
less  than  8  years  of  schooling,  35  percent  worked  part  time.  The 
comparable  percentages  for  employed  women  with  a  high  school 
education  but  no  college  and  those  with  4  years  of  college  educa- 
tion or  more  were  26  and  22  percent,  respectively. 

Table  103. — Weekly  Hours  of  Work  of  Women  Employed  in 

NON AGRICULTURAL  INDUSTRIES,  BY  EDUCATIONAL  ATTAINMENT,  MARCH  1968 
(Women  18  years  of  age  and  over) 

Percent  distribution 

Years  of  school  35  hours    1  to  34 

completed  Number  Total  or  more     hours 

Total    26,165,000  100.0  71.1  28.9 

Elementary  school : 

Less  than  8  years  ^ 1,821,000  100.0  65.1  34.9 

8  years   _... 2,194,000  100.0  68.0  32.0 

High  school: 

1  to  3  years 4,472,000  100.0  66.6  33.4 

4  years   11,524,000  100.0  73.7  26.3 

College : 

1  to  3  years   3,288,000  100.0  67.6  32.4 

4  years  or  more  2,866,000  100.0  77.9  22.1 

*  Includes  women  reporting  no  school  years  completed. 

Source:    U.S.    Department    of    Labor,    Bureau    of    Labor    Statistics:     Special    Labor    Force 
Report  No.  103. 


Training   Programs  for  Women 

Opportunities  to  obtain  the  occupational  and  other  preemploy- 
ment  training  necessary  to  prepare  for  gainful  employment  are 
available  to  women  and  girls  through  a  variety  of  federally  as- 
sisted vocational  education  and  training  programs.  These  pro- 
grams are  designed  to  reach,  among  others,  mature  women 
workers,  many  with  family  responsibilities,  who  are  entering  or 
reentering  the  labor  force  or  who  have  been  displaced  from  pre- 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  221 

vious  employment ;  younger  women  about  to  enter  the  labor  force, 
who  need  skill  development  to  compete  successfully  in  an  econ- 
omy of  advancing  skill  demands;  and  undereducated  women  and 
women  with  other  limitations  stemming  from  deprived  back- 
grounds, who  need  special  assistance  and  training  to  enable  them 
to  advance  their  economic  status  by  qualifying  for  regular  em- 
ployment at  higher  skill  levels. 

92.    Federally  Aided  Vocational  Education 

Vocational  education  through  cooperative  Federal-State-local 
programs  is  the  oldest  federally  aided  training  program — ini- 
tiated half  a  century  ago  under  the  Smith-Hughes  Act  of  1917 
and  gradually  extended  under  subsequent  acts.  The  Vocational 
Education  Act  of  1963  provided  for  extensive  broadening,  enlarg- 
ing, and  improving  of  vocational  programs  to  permit  vocational 
education  to  react  with  more  sensitivity  both  to  the  demands  of 
the  economy  and  to  the  needs  of  various  segments  of  the  popula- 
tion. The  act  provided  more  flexibility  for  training  in  previously 
authorized  occupation  groups  and  authorized  vocational  training 
in  business  and  office  occupations  not  covered  by  the  previous 
laws.  With  these  changes  federally  aided  vocational  training  ex- 
cluded no  occupations  except  those  generally  considered  profes- 
sional or  requiring  a  baccalaureate  or  higher  degree. 

Despite  substantial  progress  in  vocational  education  made 
under  the  1963  act,  further  changes  were  needed  to  adapt  the  sys- 
tem to  new  conditions.  Thus  vocational  education  amendments 
of  1968  placed  major  emphasis  on  expansion  and  improvement  in 
programs  for  both  youth  and  adults  with  physical,  academic,  or 
socioeconomic  handicaps  that  prevent  them  from  succeeding  in 
the  rregular  vocational  education  programs.  The  amendments  also 
stressed  the  need  for  greater  expansion  of  programs  at  postsec- 
ondary  levels  to  meet  demands  of  the  highly  technical  and  spe- 
cialized modern  economy  and,  in  addition,  new  programs  for  the 
handicapped. 

The  1968  amendments  provided  greatly  increased  resources  for 
vocational  education  programs  and  for  supportive  services  in  the 
form  of  research,  experimental,  and  demonstration  projects;  cur- 
riculum development;  training  of  personnel;  studies  and  projec- 
tions of  manpower  needs;  and  national  and  State  advisory  coun- 
cils on  vocational  education. 

Vocational  education  under  present  legislation  is  designed  to 
prepare  all  groups  in  the  community  for  their  place  in  the  world 
of  work.  This  includes  high  school  students,  high  school  gradu- 


222  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

ates  or  dropouts  who  are  free  to  study  full  time  in  preparing  for 
a  job,  and  persons  who  have  already  entered  the  labor  force, 
whether  employed,  unemployed,  or  underemployed,  who  may  need 
training  or  retraining.  Persons  already  receiving  training  allow- 
ances under  other  Federal  training  programs,  however,  are  not 
eligible  for  vocational  education  courses. 

Recent  legislation  has  also  expanded  provision  for  work  experi- 
ence programs  for  vocational  students.  The  two  main  types  of 
work  experience  programs  are  work-study  programs  and  coopera- 
tive education.  Under  the  work-study  programs  Federal  funds  are 
available  to  permit  needy  full-time  vocational  education  students 
15  to  20  years  of  age  to  stay  in  school  and  to  be  paid  for  part-time 
work  at  school  or  some  other  public  agency.  (See  also  Work- 
study  assistance  in  sec.  87.) 

Cooperative  education,  the  other  main  type  of  work  experience 
program,  has  long  been  prevalent  in  trade  and  industrial  educa- 
tion and  in  distributive  education.  In  cooperative  education, 
courses  are  arranged  to  allow  alternate  periods  of  work  and  class 
attendance.  On-the-job  training  provided  by  employers  in  accord- 
ance with  such  an  arrangement  must  be  under  public  supervision 
to  assure  that  actual  vocational  training  is  provided.  The  advan- 
tages of  this  type  of  training  were  recognized  by  Congress,  which 
in  the  1968  act  authorized  Federal  funds  for  its  expansion  in 
order  to  provide  students  with  "meaningful  work  experience"  and 
to  "create  interaction  between  educators  and  employers"  on  their 
common  needs  and  problems. 

A  distinction  between  work-study  programs  and  cooperative  ed- 
ucation is  that  the  former  serve  primarily  to  offer  financial  aid 
while  the  latter  is  a  planned  part  of  an  educational  program. 
Only  in  the  cooperative  program  is  the  work  supervised  by  the  ed- 
ucational staff  responsible  for  the  student's  vocational  training. 
Both  types  of  program,  however,  have  great  value  in  affording 
students  the  opportunity  to  prepare  for  employment  through  ac- 
tual work  experience  as  well  as  formal  educational  training. 

Enrollments  of  students  in  vocational  courses  increased  by  54 
percent  from  1964  to  1967;  enrollments  of  women  students  in- 
creased by  almost  66  percent.  More  than  3.8  million  women  and 
girls  were  enrolled  in  public  vocational  courses  in  the  1966-67 
school  year  (table  104).  Of  these,  about  61  percent  were  enrolled 
in  regular  secondary  school  programs,  32  percent  were  in  adult 
extension  courses,  and  6  percent  were  in  post-secondary-school 
programs.  In  addition,  about  35,000  disadvantaged  women  and 


WOMEN    IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


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224  EDUCATION,    TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT    OF    WOMEN 

girls,  or  about  1  percent  of  the  total  enrollment,  were  enrolled  in 
special  needs  programs. 

Women  accounted  for  54  percent  of  the  total  enrollment  in 
public  vocational  courses  in  1966-67,  but  they  accounted  for  vir- 
tually all  the  enrollment  in  home  economics  and  health  occupa- 
tions courses  and  more  than  three-fourths  in  office  occupations 
training. 

More  than  2.1  million,  or  55  percent,  of  the  women  receiving 
federally  aided  vocational  training  in  1967  were  enrolled  in  home 
economics  classes.  Home  economics  enrollment  amounted  to  64 
percent  of  women's  enrollments  in  special  needs  programs,  60 
percent  in  secondary  schools,  54  percent  in  adult  extension 
courses,  and  1  percent  in  post-secondary-school  programs. 

While  home  economics  courses  formerly  were  designed  primar- 
ily to  improve  the  quality  of  home  and  family  life,  the  Vocational 
Education  Act  of  1963  provided  for  additional  courses  directed 
toward  gainful  employment.  In  1967  about  57,000  women  were  en- 
rolled in  job-oriented  home  economics  courses.  About  32,000  of 
these  women  were  in  adult  extension  courses,  18,000  were  full- 
time  students  in  secondary  schools,  4,000  were  in  special  needs 
programs,  and  2,700  were  in  post-secondary-school  courses.  These 
women  gained  knowledge  and  skills  in  such  home  economics  sub- 
jects as  food  and  clothing  management,  production,  and  services; 
child  care  and  guidance ;  home  furnishing  and  equipment  services ; 
and  home  and  institutional  management. 

Although  federally  aided  vocational  training  in  office  occupa- 
tions had  not  been  authorized  prior  to  the  1964-65  school  year, 
more  than  1.2  million  girls  and  women,  or  32  percent  of  women 
vocational  students,  were  taking  such  training  in  1967.  The  pro- 
portion of  women  training  for  office  occupations  in  secondary 
school  vocational  courses  was  33  percent;  in  adult  extension 
courses,  25  percent;  and  in  special  needs  programs,  10  percent. 
Among  post-secondary-school  students,  however,  almost  129,000, 
or  60  percent,  were  training  for  office  occupations.  The  training 
includes  such  subjects  as  accounting  and  computing,  data  process- 
ing, filing  and  general  clerical  work,  stenography,  secretarial 
skills,  typing,  operation  of  office  machines,  personnel,  and  office 
management. 

The  214,000  women  participating  in  the  distributive  education 
program  during  the  1966-67  school  year  represented  45  percent  of 
all  enrollees  in  this  field.  These  women  were  studying  such  sub- 
jects as  salesmanship,  buying,  pricing,  advertising  and  display, 
fashion,  and  business  organization.  Although  less  than  6  percent 


WOMEN   IN   THE   LABOR  FORCE  225 

of  all  women  vocational  students  were  in  distributive  education, 
131,000  women,  or  11  percent  of  those  in  adult  extension  courses, 
were  training  for  this  field. 

Courses  in  trades  and  industry  accounted  for  nearly  156,000 
women  in  1967,  or  11  percent  of  all  vocational  education  enrollees 
in  this  field.  About  79,000,  or  more  than  half  of  these  women, 
were  in  adult  extension  courses,  but  almost  54,000  were  regular 
secondary  school  students.  The  most  commonly  offered  courses  in 
this  area  are  beauty  culture,  power  machine  operation,  and  con- 
sumer foods. 

Enrollees  in  health  occupations  courses  included  109,000 
women  in  1967,  almost  tripling  the  enrollment  of  women  in  1956. 
This  growth  reflects  both  the  stimulus  of  Federal  funds  and  the 
increasing  demands  for  hospital  and  other  personnel  required  to 
supplement  the  services  of  professional  nurses.  Programs  of  study 
in  the  health  occupations  supportive  to  the  professions  of  nurs- 
ing, medicine,  and  dentistry  include  practical  nursing,  certified 
laboratory  assisting,  and  dental  assisting.  These  programs  are 
carried  out  in  cooperation  with  hospitals  and  other  health  agen- 
cies. Most  of  the  women  vocational  students  studying  health  occu- 
pations were  either  in  post-secondary-school  programs  (51,000) 
or  in  adult  extension  courses  (41,000).  Despite  the  great  demand 
for  health  workers,  only  3  percent  of  all  women  vocational  stu- 
dents were  studying  health  occupations.  Among  post-secondary- 
school  students,  however,  24  percent  were  training  in  health  occu- 
pations. 

Women  enrolled  in  technical  education  courses  numbered  about 
23,000  and  accounted  for  less  than  1  percent  of  all  women  voca- 
tional students.  Most  women  studying  technical  subjects  were  in 
adult  extension  or  post-secondary-school  programs.  Electrical  and 
electronics  technology,  drafting  and  design,  and  data  processing 
were  some  of  the  courses  offered  in  this  field.  Men  outnumbered 
women  in  technical  courses  by  11  to  1. 

93.    Training  Programs  Under  fhe  Deparfment  of  Labor 

As  part  of  the  overall  national  effort  to  reduce  and  eventually 
eliminate  poverty,  the  Department  of  Labor  is  directly  and  exten- 
sively involved  in  a  variety  of  manpower  development  and  train- 
ing programs.  Since  1965  the  emphasis  in  these  programs  has 
been  on  reaching  disadvantaged  persons  and  providing  them  with 
training,  augmented  by  the  many  supportive  services  needed  to 
overcome  their  disadvantaged  status  in  qualifying  for  employ- 
ment. 


226  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Training  under  the  Manpower  Development  and  Training  Act. — 
The  Manpower  Development  and  Training  Act  (MDTA)  of 
1962  has  been  adapted  to  socioeconomic  changes  and  shifting  na- 
tional manpower  needs  and  challenges.  Originally  enacted  to  pro- 
vide a  diversified  nationwide  training  program  for  the  unemployed 
and  underemployed,  it  has  been  expanded  to  provide  more  tools 
and  incentives  to  draw  increasing  numbers  of  disadvantaged  per- 
sons into  training.  The  earliest  amendments  in  1963  launched  a 
greatly  expanded  youth  program  to  focus  on  disadvantaged 
youth,  and  began  the  process  of  liberalizing  training  allowance 
provisions.  Succeeding  amendments  in  1965  and  1966  supplied 
greater  training  incentives  through  expanded  provision  for  in- 
come maintenance,  a  crucial  concern  to  the  disadvantaged. 

At  the  same  time  administrative  measures  have  been  focused 
increasingly  on  improving"  related  remedial  training  services, 
such  as  counseling  and  testing  programs  and  social  services,  and 
on  coordinating  training  resources  with  other  antipoverty  and 
manpower  development  programs  to  maximize  the  effectiveness  of 
the  act.  By  1966  the  MDTA  had  become  an  important  part  of  the 
national  war  on  poverty.  Plans  initiated  since  that  date  set  a  goal 
of  devoting  about  two-thirds  of  the  MDTA  training  effort  to  serv- 
ing the  manpower  needs  of  disadvantaged  persons;  the  other 
third  continued  to  be  designated  for  one  of  the  act's  original  ob- 
jectives— training  to  meet  skill  and  occupational  shortages. 

As  of  the  end  of  June  1968  nearly  400,000  women  and  girls  (3 
out  of  every  8  trainees)  had  been  enrolled  in  MDTA  training  since 
the  act's  inception — 300,000  of  them  in  institutional  vocational 
training  courses  and  100,000  in  on-the-job  training  (OJT).  The 
proportion  of  women  enrollees  has  shown  a  steady  advance  in 
both  programs.  During  fiscal  year  1968  an  estimated  62,000 
women  were  enrolled  in  the  institutional  training  program,  and 
40,000  were  in  the  OJT  program — accounting  for  45  percent 
and  32  percent,  respectively,  of  the  year's  total  trainee  roster 
(table  105). 

The  characteristics  of  the  1968  MDTA  enrollees  indicate  that 
the  programs  are  reaching  women  of  disadvantaged  status.  In  the 
institutional  program,  for  example,  50  percent  of  the  women 
trainees  were  heads  of  families,  39  percent  had  three  or  more  de- 
pendents, and  17  percent  were  public  assistance  recipients.  Al- 
most half  (49  percent)  were  dropouts  who  had  not  completed 
high  school,  and  53  percent  were  nonwhite.  Women  of  all  ages 
were  represented :  36  percent  were  under  22  years  of  age,  34  per- 
cent were  between  22  and  34,  17  percent  were  between  35  and  44, 
and  the  remainder  were  45  and  over. 


WOMEN    IN   THE   LABOR   FORCE 


227 


Table  105. — Percentage  of  Women  Enrolled  in  MDTA  Training 
Programs,  by  Selected  Characteristics,  Fiscal  Year  1968 


Type  of  training 


Characteristics 

Number    

Percent    

Age: 

Under  19  years   

19  to  21  years   

22  to  34  years  

35  to  44  years  

45  years  and  over  

Education : 

Less  than  8  years   

8  years  _  _      

9  to  11  years  

12   years    

Over  12  years   

Head  of  family 

Three  or  more  dependents     _ 

Public  assistance  recipients 

Nonwhite 


Institutional 

On-the-job 

62,000 

40,000 

100 

100 

13 

10 

23 

22 

34 

39 

17 

17 

13 

12 

6 

5 

7 

8 

36 

36 

42 

45 

9 

6 

50 

35 

39 

34 

17 

8 

53 

47 

Source :  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration. 


The  OJT  program  has  been  slower  in  absorbing  women  train- 
ees and  particularly  women  in  disadvantaged  categories  (stem- 
ming in  part  from  the  participation  in  the  trainee  selection  proc- 
ess by  employer  sponsors  with  their  preference  for  the  better 
qualified  trainees).  But  steady  progress  is  being  made  toward 
broadening  these  highly  desirable  training  opportunities  for  all 
women.  During  fiscal  year  1968  the  proportion  of  women  in  this 
program  advanced  to  about  one-third,  from  an  initial  proportion 
of  about  one-fifth.  In  this  program,  too,  49  percent  of  the  women 
trainees  had  less  than  a  high  school  education.  Forty-seven  per- 
cent were  nonwhite,  and  32  percent  were  under  age  22.  But,  as 
compared  with  the  institutional  program,  a  higher  proportion  (39 
percent)  were  between  22  and  34  years  of  age.  Moreover,  a  smaller 
proportion  had  family  responsibilities — 35  percent  were  heads  of 
families  and  34  percent  reported  at  least  three  dependents.  And 
only  8  percent  were  public  assistance  recipients. 

A  wide  variety  of  occupational  training  is  being  offered  to 
women  in  MDTA  programs.  But  the  greatest  proportion  are  being 
trained  in  occupations  traditionally  held  by  women.  In  the  insti- 


228  EDUCATION.    TRAINING,    AND   EMPLOYMENT    OF   WOMEN 

tutional  program  about  9  out  of  10  of  the  women  enrolled  during 
fiscal  year  1968  were  trained  in  professional  or  semiprofessional 
and  technical  occupations,  clerical  and  sales  work,  and  services 
(table  106).  The  greatest  concentration  was  found  in  the  gi'owing 
health  field — in  refresher  training  for  professional  nurse  and  in 
training  for  licensed  practical  nurse  and  a  variety  of  other  health 

Table  106. — Percentage  of  Women  Enrolled  in  MDTA  Programs,  by 
Selected  Occltations,  Fiscal  Year  1968 

Type  of  training 
Occupation  Institutional  On-the-job 

Number    . 62,000  40,000 

Percent    100  100 

Professional,  technical,  and  managerial^   27  4 

Professional  nurse  (refresher)    g"  ~ 

Occupations  in  medicine  and  health  ^ ^^5 

Clerical   and   sales  ^    ^^  2^5 

Computing  and  account  recording  (n.e.c.)    ..  9"                        4 

Stenographer    9 

Stenographer-typist  and  related   14 

Service^ 23                        32 

Attendants,  home  and  first  aid 19 

Attendants,  hospital  and  related' 13 

Chefs  and  cooks  (large  hotels 

and  restaurants)   3 

Waitress  and  related   4 

Farming,  fishing,  forestry   (*)                      (*) 

Processing^     . (*)                          6 

Mixing  and  blending  (chemicals, 

plastics,  etc.)    3 

Machine  trades    2                        12 

Bench   work '    5                        22 

Electronic  components  assembly  and  repair  -  4 

Structural  work 2  7 

All  other  occupations  {*)  2 

*  Includes  women  being  trained  in  occupations  not  shown  separately. 

-  Includes    licensed    practical    nurse,    surgical    technician,    inhalation    therapist,    medical    lab- 
oratory technician,  and  dentist's  assistant. 

'  Includes    nurses'    aide,    ward    attendant,    psychiatric    aide,    and    tray-line    worker. 

*  Less  than  1  percent. 

Sotirce:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration. 

services  occupations.  The  second  largest  concentration  was  in 
office-clerical  occupations.  The  pattern  is  generally  the  same  for 
the  OJT  program,  but  with  a  different  "mix."  A  greater  propor- 
tion of  women  trainees  in  this  program  have  been  trained  in  in- 
dustrial occupations  for  which  OJT  is  used  more  extensively.  Nev- 
ertheless, about  half  of  the  women  enrolled  during  fiscal  year 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  229 

1968  were  in  professional  and  technical,  clerical,  sales,  and  serv- 
ice occupations.  Within  these  groups  the  largest  concentration  of 
women  was  in  health-related  services  occupations. 

Training  and  other  opportunities  under  the  Economic  Opportv^ 
nity  Act. — Operating  under  delegation  from  the  Office  of 
Economic  Opportunity,  the  Department  of  Labor  administers  a 
number  of  work  training  programs  authorized  under  the  Eco- 
nomic Opportunity  Act  (EOA)  of  1964,  as  amended.  These  include 
the  Neighborhood  Youth  Corps  (NYC)  and  a  complex  of  adult 
work  training  and  experience  programs.  More  recently  the  De- 
partment was  also  assigned  responsibility  for  administering  the 
Work  Incentive  Program  (WIN)  authorized  by  new  amendments 
to  the  Social  Security  Act  in  furtherance  of  one  of  the  objectives 
of  the  EOA — to  move  people  off  welfare  rolls  and  into  productive 
employment.  All  of  these  programs  serve  the  needs  of  impover- 
ished women  and  young  girls  as  they  aid  the  poverty  population 
at  large ;  some  are  of  especial  importance  in  their  capacity  to  serve 
the  needs  of  women  workers  in  poverty  status. 

The  Neighborhood  Youth  Corps. — This  exclusively  yoxxih 
program  offers  work  training  to  those  under  age  22  who  are 
members  of  impoverished  families.  For  in-school  youth  it  pro- 
vides part-time  and  summer  work  which  enables  many  potential 
dropouts  to  stay  in  school.  For  those  who  have  dropped  out  or 
completed  school  but  have  no  job-ready  skills,  it  provides  training 
to  increase  their  employability. 

As  of  the  end  of  fiscal  year  1968,  nearly  1.6  million  youth  had 
been  the  beneficiaries  of  this  program  since  its  inception  in  Janu- 
ary 1965.  About  one-third  of  these  opportunities  were  provided 
during  fiscal  year  1968,  as  the  program  gained  momentum. 

Work  projects  for  these  youth  are  sponsored  by  both  private 
and  public  organizations  in  local  communities.  Projects  are  de- 
signed to  provide  socially  useful  services  for  the  community 
which  would  not  be  available  without  Federal  financial  assist- 
ance. Sponsors  have  included  community  action  agencies,  public 
schools,  conservation  groups,  forestry  and  rural  development 
agencies,  libraries,  hospitals,  Indian  tribes,  and  various  local  and 
State  agencies.  Enrollees  have  provided  a  wide  variety  of  needed 
services,  as  aides  in  libraries,  schools,  cafeterias,  museums  and 
art  galleries,  public  housing  projects,  hospitals,  parks,  old-age 
and  nursing  homes,  and  the  like. 

The  in-school  program  is  aimed  primarily  at  potential  school 
dropouts,  bringing  to  these  youth  the  financial  assistance  and 
work  experience  needed  to  motivate  them  to  remain  in  school. 


230  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

The  out-of-school  program — as  the  name  implies — serves  impov- 
erished youth  who  are  generally  dropouts  with  no  prospects  of  re- 
suming their  schooling.  Both  programs  provide  counseling,  reme- 
dial education,  and  a  variety  of  other  supportive  services  to  make 
schoolroom  education  more  meaningful  or  to  fill  gaps  in  job  readi- 
ness. Job  referral  and  placement  services  are  also  part  of  the  pro- 
grams. Young  girls  have  shared  almost  equally  with  male  youth 
in  NYC  training ;  they  have  constituted  about  45  percent  of  both 
in-school  and  out-of-school  enrollees. 

Adult  work  training  and  experience  programs. — Amend- 
ments to  the  EOA  in  1966  created  programs  for  the  assistance  of 
chronically  unemployed  and  poverty-stricken  adults.  Three  such 
programs  were  initiated  during  fiscal  year  1967 : 

Operation  Mainstream  established  projects  for  improvement 
and  rehabilitation  of  the  physical  environment  and  community 
facilities,  such  as  improvement  of  parks,  forests,  and  wildlife 
areas,  roadside  beautification,  water  and  air  pollution  control 
measures ;  and  provision  of  centers  to  furnish  social  services  for 
the  poor.  This  program  has  brought  jobs  and  training  opportuni- 
ties to  both  rural  and  urban  poor  people  with  a  history  of  chronic 
unemployment.  The  nature  of  the  work  performed  on  most  proj- 
ects provides  only  minimal  opportunities  for  women.  As  a  conse- 
quence, most  of  the  participants  have  been  men,  with  a  considera- 
ble proportion  of  these  opportunities  opened  to  the  particularly 
disadvantaged  older  men.  From  its  beginning  in  March  1967 
through  June  1968,  training  opportunities  for  almost  24,000  per- 
sons were  authorized  under  this  program. 

New  Careers  is  a  program  that  offers  extensive  opportunities 
for  women.  Open  to  adults  at  least  22  years  of  age  who  come  from 
families  with  incomes  below  the  poverty  line,  it  is  aimed  at  estab- 
lishing, on  a  permanent  basis,  new  and  necessary  community  serv- 
ice jobs  that  will  open  up  career  avenues  and  at  the  same  time 
relieve  critical  national  shortages  of  professional  personnel  in 
such  fields  as  health,  education,  and  public  welfare  services.  The 
program  is  a  pioneering  effort  along  the  lines  of  restructuring 
professional  occupations — in  both  public  and  private  agencies — to 
extract  tasks  requiring  less  than  professional  training  and  to  pre- 
pare trainees  to  work  as  aides  to  professional  workers.  "Career 
ladders,"  or  possibilities  for  advancement  to  more  responsible 
jobs  through  structured  channels  of  promotion,  are  implicit  in 
the  project  designs. 

Currently,  New  Careers  projects  are  training  practical  nurses, 
patrolmen,  social  work  assistants,  teachers'  aides,  and  many  other 


WOMEN   IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  231 

preprofessional  workers.  During  fiscal  year  1968,  more  than  63 
percent  of  all  New  Careers  participants  were  women. 

Special  Impact,  the  third  of  the  newer  adult  work  training  pro- 
grams, has  established  projects  in  as  yet  a  small  number  of  urban 
neighborhoods  with  great  concentrations  of  poverty-stricken  resi- 
dents. These  projects  are  aimed  at  improving  employment  pros- 
pects of  the  residents  and  the  overall  social  and  physical  environ- 
ment of  the  neighborhoods.  They  provide  work  experience  and 
training  to  the  neighborhood  residents  in  such  activities  as  home 
renovation,  improvement  of  health  facilities,  development  of  rec- 
reational facilities,  and  expansion  of  community  social  and  eco- 
nomic programs.  It  is  anticipated  that  these  projects  will  serve  as 
catalysts  in  improving  urban  slum-like  areas  while  providing 
training  that  leads  to  employment,  since  another  objective  is  to 
enlist  the  cooperation  of  private  business  in  an  effort  to  provide 
new  opportunities  for  rehabilitation  of  the  neighborhood  and  its 
residents. 

Participation  is  open  to  chronically  unemployed  and  impover- 
ished persons  at  least  16  years  of  age.  Projects  are  linked  to  other 
related  programs — Federal,  State,  and  local — as  part  of  an  over- 
all comprehensive  manpower  effort  to  provide  a  spectrum  of  serv- 
ices to  develop  the  employability  of  hardcore  unemployed  in  im- 
poverished population  pockets. 

The  Work  Incentive  Program. — Under  WIN  welfare  recipi- 
ents are  given  occupational  training  and  supportive  services  to 
prepare  them  for  jobs  that  will  remove  them  from  welfare  rolls. 
The  entire  matrix  of  Federal,  State,  and  local  agencies  is  used  by 
the  Department  to  deliver  the  needed  manpower  services.  Local 
welfare  and  other  agencies  refer  clients  to  the  program,  and  State 
employment  service  agencies  provide  placement  and  related  serv- 
ices for  those  ready  and  able  to  work.  Those  needing  work  expe- 
rience and  training  and  supportive  services,  such  as  basic  and 
remedial  education,  are  moved  into  the  most  suitable  of  the  man- 
power development  and  training  programs  already  described: 
MDTA  institutional  or  on-the-job  training,  or  one  of  the  several 
youth  and  adult  work  experience  programs  authorized  under  the 
EOA.  Placement  in  a  job  follows  at  any  time  that  the  client  is 
judged  ready  by  the  local  manpower  agency.  Those  found  unsuit- 
able for  training  or  jobs  in  the  regular  economy  may  move  into 
special  work  projects  developed  through  agreements  between  the 
Department  of  Labor  and  public  agencies  or  private  nonprofit  or- 
ganizations. 

The  cooperation  of  private  industry,   subsidized  by   Federal 


232  EDUCATION,   IHAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

funds,  is  encouraged  to  provide  on-the-job  training  opportunities 
under  this  program.  Participants  are  permitted  to  augment  their 
welfare  grants  to  some  extent  by  trainee  earnings  or  allowances 
as  an  incentive  to  enter  the  WIN  program.  Day  care  centers  are 
being  established  to  enable  welfare  mothers  to  participate  as  ex- 
tensively as  possible. 

Those  eligible  for  this  program  are  members  of  households  re- 
ceiving aid  to  families  with  dependent  children,  who  are  over  16 
years  of  age  and  not  in  school  full  time.  It  is  estimated  that  about 
three-quarters  of  a  million  welfare  recipients  can  be  assisted  by 
this  program  by  the  end  of  fiscal  year  1972.  A  sizable  proportion 
are  expected  to  be  women  who  heavily  weight  the  Nation's  wel- 
fare rolls. 

Newest  'program  directions  and  innovations. — As  the  focus  of 
the  manpower  development  program  was  turned  to  the  hardest 
core  of  the  disadvantaged,  the  concept  of  human  resources 
development  evolved.  It  represented  a  departure  in  the  admin- 
istration of  the  Federal-State  employment  service  to  enable 
the  system  to  respond  effectively  to  the  manpower  challenge  pre- 
sented by  the  disadvantaged  unemployed  or  underemployed  and 
those  traditionally  looked  upon  as  unemployable.  Launched  during 
the  summer  of  1966,  the  human  resources  program  introduced  the 
technique  of  reaching  out  on  an  individual  basis  to  the  most  dis- 
advantaged— those  who  do  not  themselves  come  forward  for  man- 
power services — and  bringing  to  them  training  and  related  serv- 
ices to  improve  their  employability,  with  the  ultimate  objective 
of  placement  in  jobs.  The  program  began  in  Chicago,  with  the 
employment  service,  community  action  agencies,  and  public  wel- 
fare agencies  participating,  joined  by  the  business  and  industrial 
community  cooperating  to  provide  training  and  job  opportunities. 
Individuals  in  the  target  population  were  identified  and  contacted 
by  neighborhood  workers  employed  by  the  welfare  agency.  Em- 
ployment service  staff  outstationed  in  neighborhood  centers  pro- 
vided interviewing,  counseling,  and  testing  services,  followed  by 
referral  to  training  or  jobs,  plus  a  program  of  job  development 
among  responsive  employers. 

This  new  person-to-person  approach,  providing  a  comprehen- 
sive array  of  manpower  services  tailored  to  the  needs  of  the  indi- 
vidual, paved  the  way  for  development  of  other  manpower  pro- 
grams of  similar  purpose. 

The  Concentrated  Employment  Program. — CEP  was  one  of 
the  early  outgrowths  of  the  human  resources  development  con- 
cept. It  launched  a  concentrated  attack  on  unemployment  and  sub- 


WOMEN   IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  233 

employment  in  slum  areas  of  selected  large  cities  and  in  certain 
rural  areas  with  severe  manpower  problems.  It  utilizes  the  same 
technique  of  outreach  to  contact  and  recruit  residents  of  the  des- 
ignated target  area  who  are  most  in  need  of  manpower  services 
and  jobs,  and  provides  a  delivery  system  for  bringing  them  con- 
centrated individualized  assistance  under  one  coordinated  agency 
sponsor.  This  program  has  been  very  effective  in  reaching  impov- 
erished women,  who  accounted  for  more  than  half  of  all  those 
reached  by  late  September  1968. 

Each  local  CEP  combines  under  single  sponsorship,  frequently 
the  local  community  action  agency,  all  of  the  available  manpower 
services  necessary  to  help  persons  move  from  dependency  and 
unemployability  to  self-sufficiency  by  providing  effective  coordina- 
tion between  various  manpower  programs.  It  utilizes  all  the 
training  and  work  experience  programs  heretofore  described  as 
provided  under  the  MDTA  and  EOA,  but  it  is  funded  as  well  as 
sponsored  through  this  single  source  by  allocation  of  funds  al- 
ready authorized  for  those  programs. 

The  CEP  provides  an  array  of  services:  initial  general  work 
orientation  conducted  by  counselors  and  coaches  working  with  en- 
rollees  on  an  individual  basis,  followed  by  appropriate  occupa- 
tional or  work  training,  further  education,  or  placement  in  jobs. 
Supportive  services  are  provided,  as  needed,  throughout  the  CEP 
experience  to  enable  enrollees  to  move  into  productive  employ- 
ment. Followup  functions  and  guidance  are  provided  after  the  en- 
rollee  has  been  placed  in  a  job.  Maximum  involvement  of  the  pri- 
vate sector  of  the  community  is  sought  by  reaching  out  to  busi- 
ness and  industry  as  well  as  labor  unions  to  line  up  job  opportuni- 
ties that  were  previously  closed  to  the  hardcore  jobless. 

By  late  1968,  76  CEP's  were  operational,  of  which  13  were  lo- 
cated in  rural  areas. 

Cooperative  programs  with  inditstry. — As  manpower  develop- 
ment programs  have  meshed  with  the  antipoverty  effort,  the 
greater  involvement  of  private  industry  has  become  another  pro- 
gram focus.  The  success  of  early  experimental  and  demonstration 
projects  led  to  a  major  thrust  to  enlist  the  cooperation  of  private 
business  to  absorb  into  regular  jobs,  through  specially  structured 
training,  those  among  the  disadvantaged  who  previously  were  not 
considered  for  employment  opportunities.  The  following  two  pro- 
grams have  been  established  to  implement  this  drive : 

Opportunities  Industrialization  Centers  (OIC)  are  an  out- 
growth of  an  early  experiment  in  Philadelphia  which  tailored 
training  to  employer  specifications  in  order  to  prepare  disadvan- 


234  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

taged  persons,  largely  youth,  for  available  jobs.  The  success  of 
this  experiment,  based  on  the  concepts  of  partnership  with  busi- 
ness and  trainee  self-help  in  personal  improvement,  has  led  to 
establishment  of  similar  programs  on  a  nationwide  basis  funded 
by  grants  from  the  Departments  of  Labor  and  Health,  Educa- 
tion, and  Welfare  and  the  Office  of  Economic  Opportunity.  Fed- 
eral funds  are  being  augmented  by  a  drive  for  contributions  from 
private  industry  and  community  sources. 

OIC's  conduct  training  for  the  disadvantaged  in  courses  devel- 
oped in  cooperation  with  prospective  employers,  with  whom  en- 
lightened entrance  requirements  have  been  worked  out.  Program 
directors  work  in  close  cooperation  with  the  business  community, 
with  advisory  committees  of  businessmen,  and  with  such  organi- 
zations as  boards  of  trade  to  develop  job  prospects  and  specifically 
designed  training  programs.  Other  program  aspects,  such  as 
scholarship  funds  and  funds  for  personal  emergencies,  enable 
trainees  to  overcome  hurdles  which  might  otherwise  block  com- 
pletion of  training  and  movement  into  jobs.  The  early  results  of 
this  program  have  shown  a  gratifyingly  high  rate  of  posttraining 
placement  in  training-related  jobs. 

Joh  Opportunities  in  the  Business  Sector  (JOBS)  is  an  emer- 
gent program  which  crystallizes  the  new  thrust  toward  involve- 
ment of  private  industry  in  the  effort  to  cope  with  hardcore  un- 
employment. It  is  built  upon  the  principle  of  subsidizing  industry 
for  the  extra  costs  entailed  in  the  intensive  training  required  to 
provide  the  disadvantaged  with  social  and  personal  employment 
services.  It  constitutes  an  expanded  effort — JOBS  programs  are 
planned  to  cover  50  of  the  Nation's  largest  cities — to  stimulate 
private  industry  to  employ  and  train  the  hardcore  unemployed. 

The  JOBS  program  is  essentially  an  elaboration  of  MDTA  on- 
the-job  training  and  of  recent  small-scale  test  contracts  which 
provided  funds  for  the  more  intensive  training  and  supportive 
services  required  to  make  it  feasible  for  employers  to  hire  and 
train  the  hardcore  unemployed.  Leadership  in  promoting  this  pro- 
gram has  been  taken  by  the  recently  formed  National  Alliance  of 
Businessmen,  which  is  composed  of  prominent  and  committed  in- 
dustry leaders.  Under  the  program  the  Department  of  Labor  can 
contract  to  reimburse  employers  for  the  extra  costs  of  the  added 
training  needed  by  the  target  population  groups. 


WOMEN   IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  235 

94.    Training  and  Ofher  Programs  Under  the  Office  of 
Economic   Opportunity 

Other  programs  of  special  interest  to  women  which  were  estab- 
lished under  the  act  to  combat  poverty  are  the  Job  Corps,  VISTA, 
and  community  action  programs. 

The  Job  Corps. — The  Job  Corps,  administered  formerly  by  the 
OfRce  of  Economic  Opportunity,  is  a  program  for  young  people 
14  through  21  years  of  age  who  are  out  of  school  and  out  of  work 
and  who  lack  the  education  and  skills  necessary  to  obtain  jobs. 
Some  high  school  graduates  may  be  enrolled  in  exceptional  cases. 
The  Job  Corps  offers  them  a  change  of  environment  in  residential 
centers  and  a  total  learning  experience  tailored  to  develop  new 
habits  and  attitudes.  At  the  residential  centers  of  the  Women's 
Job  Corps,  deprived  girls  are  prepared  to  become  skillful 
workers,  homemakers,  and  responsible  citizens.  The  centers  offer 
basic  education  in  reading,  writing,  speaking  skills,  and  arithme- 
tic; training  in  job  skills  for  which  there  is  a  demand;  education 
in  home  and  family  life;  participation  in  the  arts  to  develop  self- 
expression  and  motivation ;  recreation  and  training  in  physical  fit- 
ness ;  and  counseling,  guidance,  and  health  services. 

In  December  1968,  19  Job  Corps  residential  centers  for  women 
and  one  special  center  were  providing  educational  and  job  train- 
ing in  such  areas  as  secretarial,  business,  and  clerical  skills;  data 
processing ;  retail  sales ;  food  preparation  and  service ;  health  and 
paramedical  services;  cosmetology;  child  care;  fabric  arts  and 
dress  designing;  graphic  arts  skills;  driver  education;  and  in- 
dustrial electronics. 

Each  young  w^oman  in  the  Job  Corps  receives  a  monthly  living 
allowance  of  $35  to  $50  in  addition  to  room  and  board,  medical 
and  dental  care,  and  work  clothing.  An  allowance  of  $50  for  each 
month  of  satisfactory  service  is  paid  her  at  the  end  of  her  service 
if  she  has  remained  in  the  program  at  least  90  days.  Of  this 
amount,  she  may  allocate  to  her  family  up  to  $25  a  month,  which 
is  matched  by  the  Job  Corps. 

Women  who  have  completed  their  training  period  in  regular 
Job  Corps  residential  centers  but  are  not  yet  ready  for  entrance 
into  the  competitive  working  world  may  be  assigned  to 
JC/YWCA  extension  residential  centers.  In  December  1968  the  26 
such  centers  operated  by  the  Young  Women's  Christian  Associa- 
tion were  offering  about  400  young  women  an  opportunity  for  su- 
pervised work  experience  assignments  while  continuing  to  receive 
Job  Corps  benefits  and  services.  Their  work  experiences  are  full- 


236  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

time,  regular  job  assignments  designed  to  increase  their  skills  to 
employability  level  of  competence.  In  addition,  they  receive  coun- 
seling and  guidance  in  personal  and  social  development  and  sup- 
plemental education  M^here  needed. 

In  December  1968  about  10,000  v^^omen  were  enrolled  in  the  Job 
Corps,  in  residential  and  extension  centers.  Women  amounted  to 
28  percent  of  total  enrollees.  The  1967  amendments  to  the  Eco- 
nomic Opportunity  Act  required  that  a  25-percent  enrollment  of 
women  be  achieved  in  fiscal  year  1968  and  a  50-percent  enroll- 
ment as  soon  as  practicable. 

The  Domestic  Volunteer  Service  Program  (VISTA). — A  do- 
mestic version  of  the  Peace  Corps,  VISTA  offers  Americans  the 
opportunity  to  join  the  war  on  poverty  at  home  by  working  on  a 
volunteer  basis  with  the  disadvantaged.  The  program,  formerly 
called  Volunteers  in  Service  to  America,  was  renamed  to  reflect 
the  broader  scope  provided  by  the  Economic  Opportunity  Amend- 
ments of  1967  for  the  conduct  of  programs  on  a  full-time  or  part- 
time  basis  or  for  shorter  periods  of  time  than  the  1-year  service 
period  previously  authorized.  The  volunteers,  whether  full-time 
or  part-time,  are  trained  for  the  job  and  location  to  which  they 
are  assigned.  In  October  1968,  45  percent  of  the  almost  5,000  full- 
time  volunteers  serving  in  the  field  or  in  training  for  VISTA  proj- 
ects were  women. 

Full-time  volunteers  help  teach,  train,  and  counsel  impover- 
ished Americans  in  rural  and  urban  community  action  programs, 
migrant  worker  communities,  Indian  reservations,  hospitals, 
schools,  and  institutions  for  the  mentally  ill  or  mentally  retarded. 
Their  assignments  may  be  in  any  of  the  50  States,  the  District  of 
Columbia,  Puerto  Rico,  the  Virgin  Islands,  American  Samoa,  or 
the  Trust  Territory  of  the  Pacific  Islands.  These  volunteers  re- 
ceive a  monthly  living  allowance  and  are  reimbursed  for  medical 
and  dental  expenses  during  service.  In  addition,  they  receive  a 
readjustment  allowance  of  $50  for  each  month  of  satisfactory 
service,  to  be  paid  upon  completion  of  service. 

The  auxiliary  and  special  volunteer  programs  authorized  by  the 
amended  act  include  local  community  service  volunteer  programs, 
programs  specially  designed  for  the  elderly  (both  as  volunteers 
and  as  beneficiaries),  demonstration  projects  with  the  Teacher 
Corps  to  assist  in  the  rehabilitation  of  youthful  criminal  offenders, 
and  special  programs  designed  to  stimulate  and  to  initiate  im- 
proved methods  of  providing  volunteer  services  and  to  encourage 
wider  volunteer  participation.  Volunteers  in  these  special  pro- 
grams receive  no  stipend  or  living  allowance,  but  they  do  get  such 


WOMEN   IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  237 

other  support  as  is  required  by  the  special  circumstances  of  the 
project. 

Community  action  programs. — Under  title  II  of  the  EOA, 
urban  and  rural  communities  (including  Indian  reservations) 
may  receive  Federal  assistance  for  programs  developed  by  them 
to  meet  local  poverty  problems.  The  Federal  Government  can 
provide  up  to  80  percent  of  the  cost  of  the  programs  (or  100  per- 
cent in  the  case  of  the  very  poorest  communities).  To  be  eligible 
to  receive  Federal  assistance,  a  community  must  mobilize  its  own 
resources,  develop  a  program  that  gives  promise  of  eliminating 
poverty,  and  enlist  the  poor  themselves  in  developing  and  carry- 
ing it  out. 

Programs  may  be  in  such  areas  as  employment  information  and 
counseling,  job  training  and  development,  health,  remedial  educa- 
tion, housing,  and  home  management.  These  programs  are  gener- 
ally carried  out  by  a  "community  action  agency,"  which  may  be  a 
State  or  political  subdivision,  a  combination  of  such  subdivisions, 
or  a  public  or  private  nonprofit  agency  designated  by  such  a  gov- 
ernment entity.  Special  programs  to  meet  problems  common  to  a 
number  of  communities,  which  are  also  funded  through  the  com- 
munity action  provisions  of  the  EOA,  include  Headstart  and  Fol- 
low Through,  Upward  Bound,  Neighborhood  Health  Centers, 
Family  Planning,  Migrant  Programs,  Legal  Services,  and  Serv- 
ices to  Older  Persons. 

95.    Apprenf'icesbip  Training 

Apprenticeship  is  one  of  the  oldest  systems  of  occupational 
training  on  the  job  for  young  adults.  Apprentices  develop  skills 
as  employed  workers  through  practical  experience  and  formal  in- 
struction on  the  job.  At  the  conclusion  of  their  terms  of  training 
— typically  4  years — they  are  certificated  as  full-fledged  journey- 
men in  their  trades.  Apprenticeship  programs  are  directed  by  in- 
dustry, usually  through  cooperative  programs  established  by  em- 
ployers and  labor  organizations.  They  are  closely  related  to  the 
manpower  needs  of  employers,  who  train  for  existing  or  prospec- 
tive job  vacancies. 

The  Bureau  of  Apprenticeship  and  Training  in  the  Manpower 
Administration  of  the  Department  of  Labor  and  the  cooperating 
State  apprenticeship  agencies,  operating  through  a  network  of 
field  offices  throughout  the  Nation,  encourage  the  extension  of  ap- 
prenticeship programs  and  approve  standards  for  training.  Fed- 
eral- and  State-approved  programs  cover  about  370  occupations. 


238  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

Although  women  demonstrated  competence  in  many  industrial 
skills  in  a  wide  range  of  occupations  during  World  Wars  I  and  II, 
only  a  minimal  proportion  (less  than  1  percent)  of  the  estimated 
278,000  registered  apprentices  in  training  at  the  beginning  of 
1968  were  women.  In  mid-1968  women  were  being  or  had  been 
trained  as  apprentices  in  47  skilled  occupations.  These  included 
such  traditional  apprenticeships  for  women  as  cosmetologist, 
dressmaker,  fabric  cutter,  tailor,  fur  finisher,  bookbinder,  and 
dental  technician.  But  some  women  have  also  been  trained  as  ap- 
prentices in  such  occupations  as  clock  and  watch  repairman,  elec- 
tronic technician,  engraver,  optical  mechanic,  precision  lens 
grinder,  machinist,  plumber,  draftsman,  electrical  equipment  re- 
pairer, electronic  subassembly  repairer,  and  compositor. 

In  view  of  the  increasing  needs  of  the  economy  for  highly 
trained  and  skilled  workers,  the  Bureau  of  Apprenticeship  and 
Training  and  the  Women's  Bureau  of  the  Labor  Department  are 
jointly  exploring  opportunities  for  more  women  in  apprentice- 
ships. A  goal  of  this  joint  effort  is  to  delineate  ongoing  and  new 
apprenticeship  programs  in  growing  or  emerging  occupations  and 
industries  where  women  can  be  trained  and  employed. 

96.    Vocational  Rehabilifafion  of  Handicapped  Women 

Through  the  State-Federal  program  of  vocational  rehabilita- 
tion, which  began  in  1920  and  which  has  been  progressively  ex- 
panded, State  agencies  provide  a  wide  range  of  services  to  the 
handicapped.  All  the  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  Guam, 
Puerto  Rico,  and  the  Virgin  Islands  have  vocational  rehabilita- 
tion programs.  Of  the  more  than  200,000  handicapped  people  who 
were  rehabilitated  into  employment  through  these  programs  in 
fiscal  year  1968,  an  estimated  94,000,  or  45  percent,  were  women. 

Eligibility  for  vocational  rehabilitation  services  is  based  on  a 
finding  of  physical  or  mental  disability  the  existence  of  which  is  a 
substantial  handicap  to  employment  and  on  a  reasonable  expecta- 
tion that  the  services  may  enable  the  individual  to  engage  in  a 
gainful  occupation.  In  most  cases  the  criterion  of  rehabilitation  is 
successful  accomplishment  in  paid  employment,  verified  by  indi- 
vidual followup.  In  some  cases  it  is  the  ability  to  perform  the  im- 
portant v^^ork  of  homemaking;  thus,  an  eligible  woman  may  be 
provided  rehabilitation  services  so  that  she  can  be  the  homemaker 
for  her  own  family. 

The  basic  State-Federal  program  focuses  on  the  individual  dis- 
abled person — his  abilities  and  aptitudes,  his  interests,  and  his 


WOMEN   IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  239 

needs.  Rehabilitation  involves  the  special  skills  of  a  variety  of 
professions  collaborating  to  solve  the  complex  problems  often 
presented  by  severely  handicapped  persons. 

Basic  services  include:  1)  comprehensive  evaluation,  including 
medical  study  and  diagnosis;  2)  medical,  surgical,  and  hospital 
care,  and  related  therapy  to  remove  or  reduce  disability;  3) 
prosthetic  and  orthotic  devices;  4)  counseling  and  guidance  serv- 
ices; 5)  training  services;  6)  services  in  comprehensive  or  spe- 
cialized rehabilitation  facilities,  including  adjustment  centers;  7) 
maintenance  and  transportation  as  appropriate  during  rehabilita- 
tion; 8)  tools,  equipment,  and  licenses  for  v^^ork  on  a  job  or  in  es- 
tablishing a  small  business;  9)  initial  stock  and  supplies  as  well 
as  management  services  and  supervision  for  small  businesses,  in- 
cluding the  acquisition  of  vending  stands  by  the  State  agency; 
10)  reader  services  for  the  blind  and  interpreter  services  for  the 
deaf;  11)  recruitment  and  training  services  to  provide  new  ca- 
reers for  handicapped  people  in  the  field  of  rehabilitation  and 
other  public  service  areas;  12)  the  construction  or  establishment 
of  rehabilitation  facilities;  13)  the  provision  of  facilities  and  serv- 
ices which  promise  to  contribute  to  a  group  of  handicapped  peo- 
ple, but  which  do  not  relate  directly  to  the  rehabilitation  plan  of 
any  one  individual;  14)  services  to  families  of  handicapped  people 
when  such  services  will  contribute  substantially  to  the  rehabilita- 
tion of  the  handicapped  client;  15)  other  goods  and  services  nec- 
essary to  render  a  handicapped  person  employable;  and  16)  place- 
ment services,  including  followup  services,  to  assist  handicapped 
individuals  to  maintain  their  employment. 

In  addition  to  the  basic  State-Federal  services,  the  Federal  pro- 
gram of  vocational  rehabilitation  includes  a  variety  of  related 
provisions  to  strengthen,  increase,  and  improve  public  and  non- 
profit resources  and  services  for  rehabilitation  of  the  handi- 
capped. These  include,  for  example,  grants  for  research  and  dem- 
onstration projects  for  training  of  personnel,  for  construction  and 
improvement  of  rehabilitation  facilities,  and  for  projects  to  ex- 
pand rehabilitation  services. 

The  Federal  share  of  funds  to  support  the  basic  State  agency 
services  changed  from  75  to  80  percent  beginning  July  1,  1969. 
The  Federal  agency  administering  vocational  rehabilitation  serv- 
ices is  the  Rehabilitation  Services  Administration  in  the  Social 
and  Rehabilitation  Service,  Department  of  Health,  Education, 
and  Welfare. 

Many  handicapped  workers  trained  under  vocational  rehabili- 
tation programs  receive  supplemental  training  under  the  Man- 


240  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,   AND   EMPLOYMENT   OF   WOMEN 

power  Development  and  Training  Act.  Handicapped  trainees 
(both  sexes)  enrolled  in  MDTA  institutional  projects  represented 
10  percent  of  the  150,000  institutional  MDTA  trainees  in  1967, 
but  the  proportion  of  handicapped  female  trainees  was  small — 
only  5  percent  compared  with  14  percent  for  handicapped  men. 

91 .    Special  Program  for  Private  Household  Workers 

The  Women's  Bureau  has  been  deeply  concerned  with  the  need 
to  improve  the  social  and  economic  status  of  private  household 
workers.  Present  efforts  to  improve  employment  conditions  in  this 
occupation  are  intended  to  help  not  only  those  currently  employed 
and  their  employers,  but  also  many  unemployed  women  and 
prospective  employers.  At  the  same  time  that  many  household  po- 
sitions cannot  be  filled  because  of  the  lack  of  qualified  applicants, 
there  are  many  unskilled  unemployed  women  who  could  be 
trained  for  this  occupation,  and  there  are  other  women  and  girls 
who  might  enter  the  occupation  if  it  had  more  dignity. 

The  Women's  Bureau  sponsored  consultations  on  household  em- 
ployment in  June  1964  and  in  February  1965,  at  which  represent- 
atives of  interested  national  organizations  considered  what  was 
needed  to  improve  working  conditions  and  standards  as  well  as 
worker  qualifications  and  performance.  As  a  result  of  these  con- 
sultations, the  National  Committee  on  Household  Employment 
was  formed  to  combine  and  coordinate  the  efforts  of  national  or- 
ganizations interested  in  upgrading  the  field  of  household  employ- 
ment and  to  assist  them  in  working  with  related  government  pro- 
grams. The  committee  now  includes  22  private  organizations.  The 
Women's  Bureau  continues  to  offer  technical  assistance  in  these 
endeavors. 

The  committee  is  demonstrating  that  this  occupation  can  be  re- 
constituted and  the  industry  restructured.  The  committee  has  de- 
veloped a  recommended  code  of  standards  for  household  em- 
ployees and  employers.  It  has  supported  a  participant-observer 
study  of  New  York  City  household  employees  under  the  sponsor- 
ship of  New  York  University  and  the  National  Council  of  Negro 
Women.  It  has  also  participated  in  the  development  of  pilot  train- 
ing projects  to  upgrade  employment  standards  and  opportunities. 
The  first  demonstration  project  was  in  Washington,  D.C.  In 
March  1968  demonstration  projects  in  seven  cities  were  funded  by 
the  Department  of  Labor.  Each  of  the  projects  is  sponsored  by  a 
different  organization  and  emphasizes  a  different  approach  to  the 
upgrading  of  household  employment,  such  as  formal  training  and 


WOMEN   IN  THE  LABOR  FORCE  241 

work  experience  programs;  private  businesses  and  cooperative 
organizations  to  provide  household  services ;  recruitment,  counsel- 
ing, job  development,  and  placement  aid;  postplacement  counsel- 
ing and  support ;  and  the  development,  promotion,  and  institution 
of  work  standards.  The  National  Committee  on  Household  Em- 
ployment provides  technical  supervision,  monitors  the  projects, 
and  acts  as  liaison  between  government  and  the  projects. 

Women  private  household  workers  are  employed  as  general 
household  workers,  housekeepers,  maids,  cleaning  women,  laun- 
dresses, and  babysitters.  The  1.7  million  women  private  house- 
hold workers  in  1967  constituted  98  percent  of  all  workers  in  the 
occupation. 

Wages  in  this  occupation  are  extremely  low.  In  1966  women 
private  household  workers  who  worked  full  time  the  year  round 
(slightly  more  than  one-fifth  of  those  employed)  had  median 
earnings  of  only  $1,297.  Their  median  total  cash  income,  which 
included  wage  and  self -employment  income  as  well  as  all  forms  of 
social  insurance  and  public  assistance  payments,  was  only  $1,441. 
About  6  out  of  10  of  all  women  private  household  workers  had 
total  cash  incomes  under  $1,000;  just  over  1  out  of  10  had  as 
much  as  $2,000  total  cash  income. 

The  low  annual  wages  of  women  private  household  workers  re- 
flect not  only  their  low  rates  of  pay  but  also  the  intermittent 
character  of  their  employment.  In  1967,  62  percent  of  women  pri- 
vate household  workers  16  years  of  age  and  over  worked  part 
time  (less  than  35  hours  a  week).  Only  26  percent  of  all  women 
workers  16  years  of  age  and  over  worked  part  time  in  1967.  More- 
over, more  than  4  out  of  10  women  private  household  workers, 
but  only  3  out  of  10  of  all  women  workers,  worked  26  weeks  or 
less  during  1966. 

Full-time  private  household  workers  tend  to  work  longer 
hours  than  other  employed  women  do.  In  1967,  37  percent  of  the 
private  household  workers  on  full-time  schedules  worked  41 
hours  a  week  or  more,  as  compared  with  only  22  percent  of  all 
full-time  women  workers  employed  in  nonfarm  occupations. 

A  high  proportion  of  women  private  household  workers  (an  es- 
timated 12  percent  in  1966)  are  heads  of  families.  For  these 
women,  low  pay  and  long  hours  are  particularly  severe  hardships. 

Private  household  workers,  as  a  group,  are  disadvantaged  edu- 
cationally. The  median  number  of  years  of  school  completed  by 
women  private  household  workers  in  March  1967  was  8.9,  as  com- 
pared with  a  median  of  12,4  years  completed  by  all  women 
workers.    The    1960    census    disclosed    other    characteristics    of 


242  EDUCATION,   TRAINING,  AND  EMPLOYMENT   OF  WOMEN 

women  private  household  workers  (excluding  babysitters)  : 
their  median  age  (46  years)  was  about  6  years  more  than  that  of 
all  women  in  the  labor  force;  65  percent  were  nonwhite;  more 
(54  percent)  lived  in  the  South  than  elsewhere;  about  74  percent 
lived  in  urban  areas;  and  only  11  percent  were  "live-in"  workers. 
In  addition  to  being  disadvantaged  economically,  private  house- 
hold workers  are  deprived  legislatively.  While  an  employer  is  re- 
quired to  remit  the  social  security  tax  for  a  household  employee 
who  earns  a  minimum  of  $50  in  a  calendar  quarter,  this  occupa- 
tion is  not  covered  by  the  Federal  minimum  wage  and  hour  law. 
Moreover,  these  workers  are  generally  excluded  from  other  forms 
of  protective  legislation  from  which  most  workers  benefit,  such  as 
State  wage  and  hour  laws,  unemployment  compensation,  and 
workmen's  compensation. 


OUTLOOK   FOR  WOMEN   WORKERS* 

The  demand  for  women  workers  will  depend  upon  the  Nation's 
economy  and  decisions  regarding  national  objectives.  Full  utiliza- 
tion of  all  our  human  resources,  whether  manpower  or  woman- 
power,  is  essential  if  we  are  to  achieve  anticipated  goals  in  the 
decades  ahead. 

With  the  population  projected  at  207  million  in  1970  and  243 
million  in  1980,  the  Department  of  Labor  anticipates  a  work 
force  of  85  milHon  in  1970  and  about  100  million  in  1980  to  produce 
needed  goods  and  services.  The  number  of  women  workers  is  ex- 
pected to  increase  faster  than  that  of  men  workers  in  the  years 
ahead,  as  it  has  over  the  past  several  decades.  (See  sec.  7  for 
discussion  of  labor  force  growth.)  It  is  estimated  that  between 
1968  and  1980  the  number  of  women  workers  will  rise  by  23  per- 
cent; the  number  of  men  workers,  by  21  percent.  Population  in- 
creases will  account  for  a  large  proportion  of  the  total  labor  force 
growth.  Other  factors  will  be  the  rising  labor  force  participation 
of  young  adult  women,  if  the  recent  trend  continues,  and  the  re- 
turn of  mature  women  to  the  labor  force. 

In  1968,  41.6  percent  of  all  women  16  years  of  age  and  over 
were  in  the  labor  force  (table  107).  This  percentage  is  expected  to 
increase  to  41.9  percent  in  1980,  while  the  corresponding  rate  for 
men  will  be  virtually  unchanged  between  1968  and  1980.  The  rate 
for  women  in  the  main  working  ages  (18  to  64  years)  is  expected 
to  rise  from  48.2  percent  in  1968  to  49  percent  in  1980.  In  the 
light  of  past  trends,  these  projections  are  considered  conserva- 
tive. 


*Proiections  for  1970,  1975,  and  1980  on  population  and  labor  force  are  for  persons  IC 
years  of  age  and  over  and  assume  an  unemployment  rate  of  about  4  percent,  a  continuation 
of  recent  trends  in  economic  and  social  patterns  in  our  society  and  of  scientific  and  tech- 
nological advances,  and  an  absence  of  disasters.  Projections  for  1975  on  employment  in  major 
occupation  groups  are  for  persons  16  years  of  age  and  over  and  assume  an  unemployment 
rate  of  3  percent.  These  data  are  from  the  "Manpower  Report  of  the  President  Including  a 
Report  on  Manpower  Requirements,  Resources,  Utilization,  and  Training."  U.S.  Department  of 
Labor.  January  1969. 

Unless  attributed  to  special  studies,  1975  projections  of  manpower  requirements  for  detailed 
occupations  are  for  persons  14  years  of  age  and  over  and  assume  an  unemployment  rate  of  3 
percent.  These  data  are  from  "America's  Industrial  and  Occupational  Manpower  Requirements, 
1964-75."    Bureau  of   Labor  Statistics,   U.S.   Department  of   Labor.   January   1,    1966. 

243 


244  OUTLOOK   FOR   WOMEN    WORKERS 

Table  107. — Labor  Force  Participation  Rates,  by  Sex  and  by  Age  of 
Women,  1968  and  Projected  to  1980  * 

(Persons  16  years  of  age  and  over) 

Projected  to — ■ 
Sex  and  age  1968       1970       1975       1980 

Total     60.7  59.7  60.0  60.4 

Men    81.2  80.3  80.1  80.3 

Women     41.6  40.5  41.3  41.9 

16  to  19  years  42.0  39.4  39.6  40.0 

20  to  24  years 54.6  50.3  51.5  52.6 

25  to  34  years  42.6  38.6  39.3  40.3 

35  to  44  years  48.9  47.5  40.0  50.0 

45  to  54  years 52.3  55.3  57.6  59.5 

55  to  64  years 42.4  43.8  45.7  47.3 

55  to  59  years 47.9  51.5  54.2  56.2 

60  to  64  years 36.1  34.8  36.2  37.3 

65  years  and  over   9.6  9.8  9.8  9.9 

65  to  69  years   17.0  17.4  17.4  17.4 

70  years  and  over 5.8  5.9  6.0  6.1 

18  to  64  years 48.2     47.2     48.2     49.0 

*  Annual  averages,  including  Armed  Forces. 

Source:  U.S.  Department  of  Labor:  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics,  Employment  and  Earnings, 
January  1969 ;  Manpower  Administration,  "Manpower  Report  of  the  President  Including  a 
Report  on   Manpower  Requirements,   Resources,    Utilization,   and  Training."    January   1969. 

The  1968  labor  force  participation  rates  of  girls  16  to  19  years 
of  age  and  of  young  women  20  to  24  years  of  age  exceeded  the 
rates  projected  for  1970  through  1980.  Projections  indicate  that 
much  larger  proportions  of  mature  women  will  be  working  in  1975 
and  1980  than  in  1968.  The  rate  for  women  in  the  45-  to  54-year- 
old  group,  which  was  52.3  percent  in  1968,  is  projected  at  59.5 
percent  in  1980 ;  and  the  rate  for  those  55  to  59  years  old,  which 
was  47.9  percent  in  1968,  is  projected  at  56.2  percent  in  1980. 

Labor  force  participation  rates  by  color  show  that  a  larger  pro- 
portion of  nonwhite  women  16  years  of  age  and  over  were  in  the 
labor  force  in  1968  (49.3  percent)  than  is  estimated  for  1970  (48 
percent),  1975  (47.9  percent),  or  1980  (47.5  percent)  (table  108). 
The  1968  labor  force  participation  rate  of  nonwhite  girls  16  to  19 
years  of  age  exceeded  that  projected  for  1970  but  was  below  that 
estimated  for  1975  and  1980.  Only  among  nonwhite  women  45  to 
64  years  of  age  was  labor  force  participation  in  1968  below  that 
projected  for  1970,  1975,  and  1980.  The  labor  force  participation 
rate  of  nonwhite  men  at  78.8  percent  in  1968  was  almost  the  same 
as  that  estimated  for  1970  through  1980. 

What  jobs  will  be  available  for  women  workers?  Growth  in 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE 


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246  OUTLOOK   FOR   WOMEN   WORKERS 

the  economy  is,  of  course,  never  even.  Industries  have  different 
growth  rates:  some  will  expand,  others  will  show  little  change, 
and  still  others  will  decline  as  new  industries  develop.  Moreover, 
growth  rates  are  affected  by  priorities  assigned  by  Federal  and 
State  Governments  to  the  various  goals  to  improve  American  life. 
Some  of  these  decisions  already  have  been  made  by  newly  enacted 
social  legislation,  such  as  the  1967  Social  Security  Amendments 
which  increased  the  need  for  health  and  welfare  workers.  Other 
priorities  in  education,  health,  housing,  transportation,  and  urban 
development — to  name  just  a  few — have  not  yet  been  established. 
These  will  affect  significantly  the  occupational  structure  within 
industries  and  the  demand  for  workers  with  specific  skills  and  ed- 
ucational attainment.^ 

The  Nation's  manpower  requirements  in  1975  will  be  influenced 
by  the  following  projected  changes  in  industrial  composition.  Gov- 
ernment and  services  will  increase  in  relation  to  total  employ- 
ment, as  will  construction  and  trade.  The  proportion  of  all 
workers  in  finance,  insurance,  and  real  estate  will  be  unchanged. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  relative  importance  of  manufacturing  and 
of  transportation  and  public  utilities  will  decline  slightly,  and  the 
proportions  of  all  workers  in  agriculture  and  in  mining  will  con- 
tinue long  term  declines. 

The  occupational  structure  of  the  work  force  will  continue  to 
change,  reflecting  both  technological  developments  and  the  differ- 
ent growth  rates  of  industries.  White-collar  workers  and  service 
workers  will  be  relatively  more  important;  blue-collar  workers 
and  farm  workers  will  decline  as  proportions  of  total  employ- 
ment. 

The  largest  growth  rate  will  be  among  professional  and  techni- 
cal workers.  Included  in  the  estimated  12.9  million  such  workers 
in  1975  will  be  the  following: 

Teachers    (all   levels) 2,700,000 

Engineers     - 1,500,000 

Engineering   and   science  technicians    1,000,000 

Professional   nurses 830,000 

Accountants    565,000 

Draftsmen     375,000 

Physicians 305,000 

Chemists                    _    200,000 

A  study  shows  that  the  supply  of  chemists,  physicists,  life  sci- 
entists, and  mathematicians  needed  in  1975  will  be  double  that 


'  For  employment  opportunities  in  specific  occupations,  see  "Occupational  Outlook  Hand- 
book," 1968-69  edition.  Bull.  1550,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics,  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  and 
publications   of   the    Women's    Bureau    listed    in    the    bibliography   of   this    handbook. 


WOMEN   IN   THE  LABOR  FORCE  247 

available  in  1967  in  order  "to  maintain  high  levels  of  economic 
activity  and  technological  advance,  increasingly  complex  efforts 
in  research  and  development,  a  strong  national  defense  and  our 
space  programs."^  The  number  of  employed  engineers  needed 
will  increase  by  two-thirds. 

A  special  study  on  the  health  industry  indicates  that  between 
1966  and  1975  the  demand  for  physicians  will  increase  by  about 
one-third;  for  dentists,  by  more  than  one-fourth;  and  for  both 
professional  nurses  and  medical  X-ray  technicians,  by  nearly 
two-fifths.^  The  demand  for  occupational  therapists,  physical 
therapists,  and  medical  technologists  is  expected  to  rise  at  an 
even  greater  rate.  Many  of  these  jobs  will  be  filled  by  women. 

A  study  on  staflfing  American  colleges  and  universities  projects 
an  increase  between  1963  and  1969  of  42  percent  in  the  full-time 
staff  of  institutions  of  higher  education."  This  should  open  up 
more  opportunities  for  women  teachers  at  the  college  level.  But 
women  may  have  more  competition  from  men  for  jobs  as  elemen- 
tary and  secondary  school  teachers,  if  past  trends  continue. 

Employment  requirements  for  clerical  and  kindred  workers  in 
1975  are  estimated  at  14.8  million.  This  would  be  about  one-sixth 
more  than  the  number  employed  in  1968.  Despite  increased  auto- 
mation, the  demand  for  clerical  workers  will  rise  as  the  size  and 
complexity  of  modern  business  organizations  increase  and  as 
functions  formerly  performed  by  sales  personnel  are  transferred 
to  clerical  workers.  Demand  will  be  high  for  stenographers,  typ- 
ists, and  secretaries  and  for  office  machine  operators,  particularly 
those  associated  with  computer  operations.  Most  of  these  jobs 
will  be  filled  by  women. 

Sales  workers  are  estimated  at  5.6  million  in  1975.  This  would 
be  one-eighth  more  than  were  employed  in  1968.  Employment 
prospects  will  be  good  for  real  estate  agents,  insurance  salesmen, 
and  retail  sales  clerks.  Many  of  the  opportunities  for  retail  sales 
clerks  will  be  part  time  at  peak  periods  of  the  day  or  at  peak  pe- 
riods of  the  year  as  stores  in  metropolitan  or  suburban  areas  ex- 
tend their  hours  of  operation.  These  jobs  should  prove  attractive 
to  women. 

In  the  blue-collar  field,  the  most  rapid  increase  in  requirements 
by  1975  will  be  for  craftsmen — an  occupation  group  with  rela- 
tively few  women.  The  demand  for  operatives  will  increase  more 

'  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration :  "The  Job  Market  for  Engineers, 
Scientists,  Technicians."   January   1968. 

'  U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics :  "Health  Manpower,  1966-75 :  A 
Study  of  Requirements  and  Supply."  Report  No.  323.  June  1967. 

■•U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Office  of  Education:  "Staffing  Ameri- 
can Ck>lleges  and  Universities."  OE-53028-67. 


248  OUTLOOK   FOR   WOMEN    WORKERS 

slowly,  and  the  demand  for  nonfarm  laborers  will  be  unchanged. 

Requirements  for  service  workers  in  1975  are  estimated  at  12 
million,  or  one-eighth  more  than  in  1968.  Little  of  this  increase 
will  be  among  workers  employed  in  private  homes.  The  greatest 
demand  will  be  for  health  service  workers  such  as  practical 
nurses,  hospital  attendants,  and  nurses'  aides;  restaurant 
workers  such  as  cooks  and  waitresses;  beauty  operators;  janitors, 
caretakers,  and  building  cleaners ;  and  protective  service  workers 
such  as  policemen  and  firemen.  A  majority  of  these  service  jobs 
are  held  by  women. 

All  of  the  foregoing  estimates  indicate  a  continued  strong  de- 
mand for  workers  with  high  levels  of  education,  skill,  and  train- 
ing. Conversely,  job  opportunities  for  those  with  little  schooling 
and  training  will  continue  to  decrease. 

These  factors,  together  with  the  increasing  competition  of  men 
in  traditional  women's  fields,  indicate  that  women  must  take  ad- 
vantage of  all  the  education  and  training  available  to  them  and 
develop  their  talents  and  abilities  to  the  fullest  extent  possible.  In 
this  era  of  rising  demand  for  more  skilled  workers  and  of  acceler- 
ated automation,  women  must  be  adaptable  and  flexible  in  their 
attitudes — willing  to  learn  and  willing  to  make  necessary 
changes.  They  must  be  alert  to  new  job  opportunities  and  to  new 
training  programs.  Only  if  they  are  fully  prepared  by  education, 
training,  and  the  willingness  to  learn  anew,  will  they  be  ready  for 
the  challenges  and  demands  of  tomorrow's  society. 


Part  II 

Laws  Governing  Women's 
Employment  and  Status 


HIGHLIGHTS 

Minimum  wage— 36  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico 
have  minimum  wage  laws  in  operation  that  apply  to  women;  of 
these,  31  apply  also  to  men.  An  additional  3  States  have  mini- 
mum wage  laws  applicable  to  women,  but  the  laws  are  not 
currently  in  operation. 

On  February  1,  1967,  8.5  million  new  workers  were  brought 
under  the  Federal  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  for  the  first  time. 
Most  workers  covered  under  the  law's  minimum  wage  and  over- 
time pay  provisions  now  must  be  paid  at  least  $1.60  an  hour. 

Equal  pay— 31  States  have  equal  pay  laws;  5  States  and  the  District  of 
Columbia  which  have  no  equal  pay  laws  have  fair  employment 
practices  laws  that  prohibit  discrimination  in  rate  of  pay  or 
compensation   based  on  sex.   (D.C.   has  a    police  regulation.) 

The  Federal  Equal  Pay  Act  of  1963  prohibits  employers  from 
discriminating  in  the  payment  of  wages  on  the  basis  of  sex. 

Sex  discrimination— 15  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  prohibit  dis- 
crimination in  private  employment  based  on  sex. 

Since  July  2,  1968,  employers  and  unions  with  at  least  25 
employees  or  members  are  covered  under  title  VII  of  the  Civil 
Rights  Act  of  1964— the  Federal  law  prohibiting  discrimination  in 
private  employment  based  on  sex  as  well  as  race,  color,  religion, 
and  national  origin. 

Executive  Order  11375,  amending  Executive  Order  11246, 
explicitly  prohibits  discrimination  on  the  basis  of  sex  in  Federal 
employment  and  by  Federal  contractors. 

Hours  of  work— 41  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  regulate  daily 
and/or  weekly  working  hours  for  women  in  one  or  more  in- 
dustries; 25  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  set  maximum 
hours  of  8  a  day,  or  48  or  less  a  week,  or  both. 

Nightwork— 18  States  and  Puerto  Rico  prohibit  and/or  regulate  the  em- 
ployment of  adult  women  in  specified  industries  or  occupations 
at  night. 

Industrial  homework— 19  States  and  Puerto  Rico  have  industrial  home- 
work laws  or  regulations. 

Employment  before  and  after  childbirth— 6  States  and  Puerto  Rico  pro- 
hibit the  employment  of  women  immediately  before  and/or  after 
childbirth. 

Occupational  limitations— 26  States  prohibit  the  employment  of  adult 
women   in   specified   occupations  or   industries  or   under  certain 

251 


working  conditions  considered  hazordous  or  injurious  to  health. 

Age  discrimination— Effective  on  June  12,  1968,  discrimination  in  em- 
ployment against  persons  40  to  65  years  old  by  employers,  em- 
ployment agencies,  and  labor  unions  is  prohibited  by  Federal 
law. 

Jury  duty— All  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico  permit 
women  to  serve  on  all  juries.  Women  are  eligible  for  Federal 
jury  service  in  all  jurisdictions  by  virtue  of  the  1957  Federal  Civil 
Rights  Act. 

Marriage  laws— 46  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  require  a  pre- 
marital health  examination  for  both  applicants  for  a  marriage 
license. 

Married  women's  rights— All  States  recognize  a  married  woman's  legal 
capacity  to  contract  her  personal  services  outside  the  home. 
Married  women  generally  have  control  of  their  own  earnings; 
however,  in  4  of  the  8  community  property  States,  the  wife's 
earnings  are  under  the  complete  control  of  the  husband. 


252 


FEDERAL   LABOR   LAWS 
FOR  WOMEN 

as  of  January  1,  1969 

Not  since  the  passage  of  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  of  1938 
has  there  been  major  Federal  legislation  as  significant  to  working 
women  as  certain  enactments  in  recent  years;  namely,  the 
Equal  Pay  Act  of  1963,  title  VII  of  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964, 
the  1966  amendments  to  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act,  and  the 
Age  Discrimination  in  Employment  Act  of  1967.  Also  of  great  im- 
portance is  the  1967  Executive  order  prohibiting  sex  discrimina- 
tion in  employment.  This  chapter  presents  a  brief  description  of 
each  of  these  major  Federal  laws  and  the  Executive  order,  with 
emphasis  on  the  aspects  of  the  laws  that  pertain  to  women 
workers. 

98.    The  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  of  1938 

June  25,  1968,  marked  the  30th  anniversary  of  the  signing  of 
the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  (FLSA)  into  law.  Known  as  the 
Federal  wage  and  hour  law,  it  was  the  first  Federal  law  to  estab- 
lish a  floor  for  wages  paid  to  persons  engaged  in  interstate  com- 
merce or  the  production  of  goods  for  commerce,  as  defined  in  the 
law,  and  to  encourage  a  shorter  workweek  by  requiring  premium 
pay  for  work  beyond  a  specified  number  of  hours.  The  FLSA  has 
made  possible  the  raising  of  minimum  wage  rates  for  those  in  the 
lowest  paid  occupations  and/or  industries. 

The  original  act  in  1938  established  a  25-cent-an-hour  mini- 
mum wage  for  covered  employment  and  provided  for  a  gradual 
increase  to  a  40-cent  minimum  after  7  years.  The  law  has  been 
amended  from  time  to  time  to  increase  the  required  minimum  rate 
and  to  extend  coverage  to  new  groups  of  employees.  The  most  re- 
cent amendments  were  passed  in  1966. 

The  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  does  not  limit  the  number  of 
hours  that  an  employee  may  work,  but  it  does  require  premium 
pay  of  li/i  times  the  employee's  regular  rate  after  specified  hours 
of  work.  When  enacted  in  1938,  the  act  required  payment  of  1^/^ 

253 


254  FEDERAL   LABOR   LAWS    FOR   WOMEN 

times  the  regular  rate  after  44  hours  a  week  for  the  first  year, 
after  42  hours  in  the  second  year,  and  after  40  hours  thereafter. 

99.    Fair  Labor  Standards  Amendmenfs  of  1966 

At  the  present  time,  most  workers  covered  by  the  law's  mini- 
mum wage  and  overtime  pay  provisions  must  be  paid  at  least 
$1.60  an  hour,  and  IV2  times  their  regular  rate  of  pay  for  all 
hours  worked  over  40  in  the  workweek.  Among  those  to  whom 
these  provisions  apply  are :  employees  in  manufacturing,  process- 
ing, and  distributing  establishments;  in  the  telephone,  telegraph, 
radio,  television,  and  transportation  industries;  those  who  handle 
goods  moving  in  interstate  commerce;  those  who  regularly  use 
the  mails,  telephone,  or  telegraph  for  interstate  communication; 
and  those  who  regularly  travel  across  State  lines  while  working. 

The  1966  amendments  extended  the  act's  minimum  wage  pro- 
tection to  more  than  10  million  additional  workers.  Those  covered 
for  the  first  time  included  employees  of  large  hotels,  motels,  and 
restaurants;  hospitals,  nursing  homes,  or  schools;  and  those  em- 
ployed in  laundering,  cleaning,  or  repairing  clothing  or  fabrics. 
Effective  February  1,  1969,  these  employees  must  be  paid  at  least 
$1.30  an  hour,  and  overtime  pay  after  40  hours.  The  hourly  mini- 
mum for  these  employees  will  increase  15  cents  a  year,  until  it 
reaches  $1.60  an  hour  on  February  1,  1971. 

Some  farm  workers  were  also  newly  covered  by  minimum  wage 
provisions,  and,  effective  February  1,  1969,  they  must  be  paid  at 
least  $1.30  an  hour.  Farm  workers,  however,  are  exempt  from  the 
overtime  pay  requirements.  Also  exempt  from  these  requirements 
are  employees  of  hotels,  motels,  or  restaurants  and  certain  other 
employees  serving  food  or  beverages. 

Special  overtime  provisions  require  employees  of  nursing 
homes,  rest  homes,  and  bowling  alleys  to  be  paid  overtime  after 
48  hours  in  a  workweek,  while  hospitals  are  permitted  to  compute 
overtime  pay  on  the  basis  of  a  14-day  period. 

Nearly  4  out  of  5  nonsupervisory  workers  in  private  employ- 
ment are  now  benefiting  under  the  act. 

Not  covered  under  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  are  executive, 
administrative,  and  professional  employees  (including  teachers) ; 
outside  salesmen ;  employees  of  small  or  local  retail  or  service  es- 
tablishments;  most  farm  workers;  and  employees  of  certain  sea- 
sonal amusement  or  recreational  establishments.  In  addition,  pri- 
vate household  workers  are  not  entitled  to  benefits  under  the  act. 

The  law  is  administered  and  enforced  by  the  Wage  and  Hour 
and  Public  Contracts  Divisions  of  the  U.S.  Department  of  Labor, 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  255 

which  has  regional  and  field  offices  throughout  the  United  States. 
Information  obtained  from  employers  and  employees  is  treated 
confidentially. 

It  is  a  violation  of  the  law  to  discharge  an  employee  for  filing  a 
complaint  or  participating  in  a  proceeding  under  the  law.  The  law 
provides  methods  for  recovering  unpaid  minimum  and/or  over- 
time wages.  Willful  violations  may  be  prosecuted  criminally  and 
the  violator  fined  up  to  $10,000.  A  second  conviction  for  such  a 
violation  may  result  in  imprisonment. 

A  2-year  statute  of  limitations  applies  to  the  recovery  of  back 
wages,  except  that  in  the  case  of  willful  violations,  there  is  a  3- 
year  limitation. 

100.    Equal  Pay  Act  of  1963 

The  Federal  Equal  Pay  Act  was  signed  June  10,  1963,  as  an 
amendment  to  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act.  This  law  applies  to 
all  employees  who  are  entitled  to  the  benefits  of  the  minimum 
wage  provisions  of  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act,  and  prohibits 
employers  from  discriminating  on  the  basis  of  sex  in  the  payment 
of  wages  for  equal  work  on  jobs  requiring  equal  skill,  effort,  and 
responsibility  and  which  are  performed  under  similar  working 
conditions.  The  equal  pay  amendment  has  been  in  effect  generally 
since  June  11,  1964,  with  deferment  in  the  case  of  certain  collec- 
tive bargaining  agreements  until  June  11,  1965. 

The  law  does  not  prohibit  wage  differentials  based  on  a  senior- 
ity system,  a  merit  system,  a  system  measuring  earnings  by  quan- 
tity or  quality  of  production,  or  any  other  factor  other  than  sex. 
It  does  prohibit  an  employer  from  reducing  the  wage  rate  of  any 
employee  in  order  to  comply  with  the  provisions  of  the  act.  Also, 
it  prohibits  labor  organizations  from  causing  or  attempting  to 
cause  an  employer  to  discriminate  against  an  employee  in  viola- 
tion of  the  equal  pay  provisions. 

The  Wage  and  Hour  and  Public  Contracts  Divisions  of  the  De- 
partment of  Labor  administers  and  enforces  the  equal  pay  law. 
(See  sec.  99  for  enforcement  information.) 

101.  Tifle  VII  of  the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964 

A  milestone  in  the  progress  of  equal  employment  opportunity 
for  women  was  reached  with  the  passage  of  title  VII  of  the  Civil 
Rights  Act  of  1964.  Effective  July  2,  1965,  title  VII  of  that  act 
prohibits  discrimination  in  private  employment  based  on  sex  as 
well  as  on  race,  color,  religion,  and  national  origin  in  industries 


256  FEDERAL    LABOR   LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 

affecting  commerce.  The  law  also  applies  to  labor  organizations 
and  to  employment  agencies,  including  the  Federal-State  employ- 
ment service  system.  Since  July  2,  1968,  employers  and  unions 
with  at  least  25  employees  or  members,  respectively,  have  been 
covered. 

The  law  makes  unlawful  specified  acts  by  employers,  public  and 
private  employment  agencies,  labor  organizations,  and  joint  la- 
bor-management committees. 

Unlawful  employment  practices  include : 

•  For  an  employer  to  fail  or  refuse  to  hire,  to  discharge,  or 
otherwise  to  discriminate  against  an  individual  because  of 
race,  color,  religion,  sex,  or  national  origin,  with  respect  to 
compensation,  terms,  conditions,  or  privileges  of  employ- 
ment; or  to  limit,  segregate,  or  classify  his  employees  in  any 
way  which  deprives  them  of  employment  opportunities. 

•  For  a  union  to  exclude  or  expel  from  membership,  limit, 
segregate,  or  classify  its  membership ;  fail  or  refuse  to  refer 
for  employment  any  individual  on  any  of  the  prohibited 
grounds;  or  to  cause  or  attempt  to  cause  an  employer  to 
discriminate. 

•  For  an  ern/ploymeyit  agency  to  fail  or  refuse  to  refer  for 
employment  any  individual  on  any  of  the  prohibited  grounds. 

•  For  any  of  the  above  to  print,  publish,  or  cause  to  be 
printed  advertisements  regarding  employment  indicating  any 
preference,  classification,  or  discrimination  on  any  of  the 
prohibited  grounds. 

•  For  an  employer,  labor  union,  or  joint  labor-manage- 
ment committee  to  discriminate  on  any  of  the  prohibited 
grounds  in  apprenticeship  or  other  training  or  retraining,  in- 
cluding on-the-job  training  programs. 

The  exception  to  the  above  prohibitions  is  when  sex  is  a 
bona  fide  occupational  qualification  reasonably  necessary  to 
the  normal  operation  of  the  particular  business. 

Among  those  not  covered  are  local.  State,  and  Federal  agencies, 
government-owned  corporations,  Indian  tribes,  and  religious  or 
educational  institutions  where  the  employee  performs  work  con- 
nected with  the  institution's  religious  or  educational  activities. 

Title  VII  is  administered  by  the  Equal  Employment  Opportu- 
nity Commission.  The  Commission  has  the  responsibility  of  inves- 
tigating complaints  of  discrimination  and  of  attempting  to  resolve 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  257 

any  discrimination  found  by  means  of  conference,  conciliation, 
and  persuasion.  A  person  who  believes  that  he  or  she  is  a  victim 
of  discrimination  may  file  a  complaint  with  the  Commission. 

The  Commission  has  no  independent  enforcement  power.  If  it  is 
unable  to  settle  a  complaint,  it  notifies  the  aggrieved  employee 
who,  on  his  own,  may  bring  an  action  in  U.S.  district  court  under 
title  VII. 

In  addition,  individual  Commissioners  may  initiate  complaints 
if  they  receive  information  which  indicates  that  the  law  has  been 
violated;  and  where  there  is  a  pattern  or  practice  of  discrimina- 
tion, rather  than  a  single  instance,  the  U.S.  Attorney  General 
may  undertake  action  in  the  U.S.  district  court. 

Before  any  action  may  be  taken  under  title  VII,  however,  op- 
portunity must  be  given  State  fair  employment  practices  agencies 
to  resolve  the  complaint  under  State  fair  employment  practices 
legislation  within  certain  time  limits.  At  present,  with  respect  to 
complaints  of  sex  discrimination,  the  Equal  Employment  Oppor- 
tunity Commission  defers  to  12  States — Connecticut,  Hawaii, 
Maryland,  Massachusetts,  Michigan,  Missouri,  Nebraska,  Nevada, 
New  York,  Utah,  Wisconsin,  and  Wyoming — and  the  District  of 
Columbia.  In  Alaska  it  defers  only  in  charges  alleging  wage  dis- 
crimination based  on  sex;  in  Colorado,  where  sex  discrimination 
in  apprenticeship  and  other  training  programs  is  alleged.  In  all  of 
these  jurisdictions,  a  complainant  must  seek  relief  from  the  State 
agency  before  filing  a  complaint  with  the  Commission, 


Employment  by  the  Federal   Government 
and   by  Federal  Contractors 

102.    Executive  Order   11375 

On  October  13,  1967,  Executive  Order  11375  was  signed,  which 
amended  Executive  Order  11246  of  September  24,  1965,  to  ex- 
plicitly prohibit  discrimination  on  the  basis  of  sex  in  Federal  em- 
ployment, employment  by  Federal  contractors  and  subcontractors, 
and  employment  on  federally  assisted  construction.  The  provi- 
sions concerning  Federal  employment  became  effective  November 
12,  1967 ;  the  remaining  provisions,  October  14,  1968. 

Executive  Order  11375  in  effect  superseded  the  Presidential 
directive  of  July  1962,  which  instructed  Federal  agencies  to  make 
all  selections  for  appointments,  advancement,  and  training  in  the 


258  FEDERAL    LABOR    LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 

Federal  service  without  regard  to  sex,  except  in  unusual  circum- 
stances found  justified  by  the  Civil  Service  Commission. 

The  Civil  Service  Commission  administers  Executive  Order 
11375*  with  respect  to  complaints  of  discrimination  based  on  sex 
made  by  Federal  employees. 

The  Office  of  Federal  Contract  Compliance  in  the  U.S.  Depart- 
ment of  Labor  administers  the  provisions  prohibiting  discrimina- 
tion in  employment  by  Federal  contractors  and  subcontractors 
and  under  federally  assisted  construction  contracts. 

103.    Age  Discrimination  in  Employment  Act  of  1967 

The  Age  Discrimination  in  Employment  Act  of  1967,  signed 
December  15,  1967,  became  effective  June  12,  1968.  The  law  pro- 
hibits discrimination  in  employment  against  persons  40  to  65 
years  old  by  employers,  employment  agencies,  and  labor  unions. 

The  age  discrimination  law  now  applies  to  employers  of  25  or 
more  persons  in  an  industry  affecting  interstate  commerce,  em- 
ployment agencies  serving  such  employers,  and  labor  organiza- 
tions with  25  or  more  members  in  an  industry  affecting  interstate 
commerce.  The  law  protects  not  only  employed  persons,  but  also 
persons  applying  for  or  seeking  employment.  Exceptions  are 
made  for  situations  where  age  is  a  bona  fide  occupational  qualifi- 
cation reasonably  necessary  to  the  normal  operations  of  a  particu- 
lar business.  More  specifically: 

It  is  against  the  law 

•  For  an  employer: 
— to  fail  or  refuse  to  hire,  or  to  discharge,  or  otherwise  dis- 
criminate against  any  individual  as  to  compensation,  terms, 
conditions,  or  privileges  of  employment  because  of  age ; 
— to  limit,  segregate,  or  classify  his  employees  so  as  to  de- 
prive a  person  of  employment  opportunities,  or  adversely  af- 
fect the  individual's  status  as  an  employee  because  of  age ; 
— to  reduce  the  wage  rate  of  any  employee  in  order  to  comply 
with  the  act. 

•For  an  employment  agency: 
— to  fail  or  refuse  to  refer  for  employment,  or  otherwise  dis- 
criminate against,  any  individual  because  of  age,  or  to  clas- 
sify or  refer  anyone  for  employment  on  the  basis  of  age. 

•For  a  labor  organization: 
— to  discriminate  against  anyone  because  of  age  by  excluding 
or  expelling  any  individual  from  membership,  or  by  limiting, 

♦Federal    employment    provisions    were    superseded    and    strengthened    by     Executive    Order 
11478  issued  August  8,  1969, 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  259 

segregating,  or  classifying  its  membership  on  the  basis  of 
age,  or  by  other  means; 

— to  fail  or  refuse  to  refer  anyone  for  employment  so  as  to 
result  in  a  deprivation  or  limitation  of  employment  opportu- 
nities or  otherwise  adversely  affect  the  individual's  status  as 
an  employee  because  of  age ; 

— to  cause  or  attempt  to  cause  an  employer  to  discriminate 
against  any  individual  because  of  age. 

•For   employers,   employment  agencies,   or   labor  organiza- 
tions: 

— ^to  discriminate  against  a  person  for  opposing  a  practice 
made  unlawful  by  the  act,  or  for  making  a  charge,  assisting, 
or  participating  in  any  investigation,  proceeding,  or  litiga- 
tion under  it; 

— to  use  printed  or  published  notices  or  advertisements  indi- 
cating any  preference,  limitation,  specification,  or  discrimi- 
nation based  on  age. 

The  prohibitions  against  discrimination  because  of  age  do 
not  apply: 

— where  age  is  a  bona  fide  occupational  qualification  reasona- 
bly necessary  to  the  normal  operations  of  the  particular  busi- 
ness; 

— where  the  differentiation  is  based  on  reasonable  factors 
other  than  age ; 

— where  the  discharge  or  discipline  of  an  individual  is  for 
good  cause; 

— where  the  differentiation  is  caused  by  observing  the  terms 
of  a  bona  fide  seniority  system  or  any  bona  fide  employee  ben- 
efit plan.  This  applies  to  new  and  existing  employee  benefit 
plans,  and  to  the  establishment  and  maintenance  of  such 
plans.  However,  no  employee  benefit  plan  shall  excuse  the 
failure  to  hire  any  individual. 

The  Secretary  of  Labor  is  responsible  for  administering  and 
enforcing  the  act.  He  may  secure  injunctions  to  enforce  employ- 
ment rights  under  the  new  law.  Any  aggrieved  person  may  bring  a 
civil  action  for  legal  or  equitable  relief,  including  unpaid  mini- 
mum wages  and  overtime  pay.  However,  this  right  terminates  if 
the  Secretary  commences  an  action  to  enforce  that  individual's 
right.  Before  bringing  a  suit,  an  employee  must  notify  the  Secre- 
tary of  Labor  of  his  intent  and  allow  the  Secretary  60  days 
within  which  to  secure  voluntary  compliance  with  the  law.  This 
notice  must  be  filed  within  180  days  of  the  alleged  unlawful  act. 


260  FEDERAL   LABOR   LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 

Where  an  employee  pursues  the  remedies  available  under  a  State 
age  discrimination  law,  the  notice  time  to  the  Secretary  of  Labor 
is  extended  to  300  days  of  the  alleged  violation  or  within  30  days 
after  receipt  of  notice  of  termination  of  the  State  proceedings, 
whichever  is  earlier. 

Before  an  employee  can  bring  a  Federal  court  suit  in  an  age 
discrimination  practice  also  prohibited  by  State  law,  the  State 
agency  must  be  allowed  60  days  within  which  to  adjust  the  dis- 
pute. The  60  days  are  extended  to  120  days  when  a  State's  age 
discrimination  law  is  in  its  first  year  of  operation. 

A  Federal  court  suit  must  be  started  within  2  years  after  the 
cause  of  action  accrued,  except  for  willful  violations,  in  which 
case  a  3-year  statute  of  limitations  applies.  Criminal  penalties  of 
a  fine  of  not  more  than  $500  or  imprisonment  for  not  more  than  1 
year  may  be  imposed  for  interference  with  the  duties  of  the  Secre- 
tary under  the  law. 

The  Wage  and  Hour  and  Public  Contracts  Divisions  of  the  U.S. 
Department  of  Labor  administers  the  act. 


STATE   LABOR   LAWS   FOR  WOMEN 

as  of  January  1,  1969 

During  a  century  of  development,  the  field  of  labor  legislation 
for  women  has  seen  a  tremendous  increase  in  the  number  of  laws 
and  a  notable  improvement  in  the  standards  established.  Today 
each  of  the  50  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico 
have  laws  relating  to  the  employment  of  women.  The  principal 
subjects  of  regulation  are:  (1)  minimum  wage;  (2)  overtime 
compensation;  (3)  equal  pay;  (4)  fair  employment  practices;  (5) 
hours  of  work,  including  maximum  daily  and  weekly  hours,  day 
of  rest,  meal  and  rest  periods,  and  nightwork;  (6)  industrial 
homework;  (7)  employment  before  and  after  childbirth ;  (8)  occu- 
pational limitations;  and  (9)  other  standards,  such  as  seating 
provisions  and  weightlifting  limitations. 

Although  legislation  in  one  or  more  of  these  fields  has  been 
enacted  in  all  of  the  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto 
Rico,  the  standards  established  vary  widely.  In  some  jurisdictions 
different  standards  apply  to  different  occupations  or  industries. 
Laws  relating  to  minors  are  mentioned  here  only  if  they  apply 
also  to  women. 

Minimum  Wage 

A  total  of  36  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico 
have  minimum  wage  laws  with  minimum  wage  rates  currently  in 
effect.  These  laws  apply  to  men  as  well  as  women  in  29  States,  the 
District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico.  In  7  States  the  minimum 
wage  laws  apply  only  to  women  or  to  women  and  minors.  An  ad- 
ditional 3  States  have  minimum  wage  laws,  applicable  to  females 
and/or  minors,  which  are  not  in  operation. 

In  general  these  laws  are  applicable  to  all  industries  and  occu- 
pations except  domestic  service  and  agriculture,  which  are  specif- 
ically exempt  in  most  States. 

The  laws  of  9  States — Arkansas,  California,  Colorado,  Michi- 
gan, New  Jersey,  North  Dakota,  Utah,  Washington,  and  Wiscon- 

261 


262  STATE    LABOR   LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 

sin — either  set  statutory  minimum  wage  rates  or  permit  a  wage 
board  to  set  minimum  rates  for  both  domestic  service  and  agricul- 
tural workers.  In  Wisconsin  wage  orders  cover  both  groups.  The 
Michigan  statutory  rate  applies  to  agricultural  employees  (except 
certain  employees  engaged  in  harvesting  on  a  piecework  basis) 
and  domestic  service  workers,  but  is  limited  to  employers  of  4  or 
more.  The  Arkansas  law  is  limited  to  employers  of  5  or  more  and 
applies  to  agricultural  workers,  with  some  exceptions,  whose  em- 
ployer used  more  than  500  man-days  of  agricultural  labor  in  any 
4  months  of  the  preceding  year.  The  New  Jersey  statutory  rate 
applies  to  agricultural  workers  and  excludes  domestic  service 
workers,  but  the  law  permits  them  to  be  covered  by  a  wage  order. 
California  has  a  wage  order  applicable  to  agricultural  workers, 
but  has  none  for  domestic  service  workers.  The  remaining  4 
States — Colorado,  North  Dakota,  Utah,  and  Washington — have  no 
wage  orders  that  apply  to  domestic  service  or  agricultural 
workers. 

The  laws  of  7  jurisdictions — the  District  of  Columbia,  Hawaii, 
Massachusetts,  New  Mexico,  Oregon,  Puerto  Rico,  and  West 
Virginia — cover  either  domestic  service  or  agricultural  workers, 
but  not  both.  West  Virginia  does  not  exclude  domestic  service 
workers  as  a  group,  but  coverage  is  limited  to  employers  of  6  or 
more.  Some  or  all  agricultural  workers  are  covered  under  the 
minimum  wage  law  or  orders  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  Hawaii, 
Massachusetts,  New  Mexico,  Oregon,  and  Puerto  Rico. 

Since  the  Federal  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  (FLSA)  of  1938, 
as  amended,  establishes  a  minimum  hourly  rate  for  both  men  and 
women  engaged  in  or  producing  goods  for  interstate  commerce 
and  for  employees  of  most  large  retail  firms  and  other  specified 
establishments,  as  well  as  some  workers  in  agriculture,  the  bene- 
fits of  State  minimum  wage  legislation  apply  chiefly  to  workers  in 
local  trade  and  service  industries. 

104.    H'lsforical  Record  of  Minimum   Wage  Legislafion 

The  history  of  minimum  wage  legislation  began  in  1912  with 
the  passage  of  a  minimum  wage  law  in  Massachusetts.  At  that 
time  minimum  wage  legislation  was  designed  for  the  protection 
of  women  and  minors,  and  did  much  to  raise  their  extremely  low 
wages  in  manufacturing  (now  covered  by  the  FLSA)  and  in  trade 
and  service  industries.  Between  1912  and  1923  laws  were  enacted 
in  15  States,^  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico. 


*  One  of  these   laws   was  repealed   in   1919    (Nebraska);   another,   in   1921    (Texas). 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  263 

Legislative  progress  was  interrupted  by  the  1923  decision  of 
the  U.S.  Supreme  Court  declaring  the  District  of  Columbia  law 
unconstitutional,  and  no  new  minimum  wage  laws  were  passed 
during  the  next  10  years. 

The  depression  years  of  the  1930's  brought  a  revival  of  interest 
in  minimum  wage  legislation,  and  13  additional  States  and 
Alaska  enacted  laws. 

In  1937  the  U.S.  Supreme  Court  upheld  the  constitutionality  of 
the  minimum  wage  law  in  the  State  of  Washington,  expressly 
reversing  its  prior  decision  on  the  District  of  Columbia  minimum 
wage  law. 

In  1941  Hawaii  enacted  a  minimum  wage  law,  bringing  to  30 
the  number  of  jurisdictions  with  such  legislation. 

From  1941  through  1954  no  State  enacted  a  minimum  wage 
law.  However,  there  was  a  considerable  amount  of  legislative  ac- 
tivity in  the  States  which  already  had  minimum  wage  legislation 
on  their  statute  books.  In  some  States  the  laws  were  amended  to 
extend  coverage  to  men ;  in  others,  to  establish  or  increase  a  stat- 
utory rate ;  and  in  still  others,  to  strengthen  the  procedural  provi- 
sions. 

In  the  period  1955-66  the  following  actions  occurred: 

10  States — Delav^are,  Idaho,  Indiana,  Maryland,  Michigan, 
New  Mexico,  North  Carolina,  Vermont,  West  Virginia,  and  Wyo- 
ming— enacted  minimum  wage  laws  for  the  first  time,  making  a 
total  of  40  jurisdictions  with  such  laws. 

7  States — Maine,  New  Jersey,  New  York,  Oklahoma,  Pennsyl- 
vania, Rhode  Island,  and  Washington — and  the  District  of  Colum- 
bia with  wage  board  laws  enacted  statutory  rate  laws,  retaining, 
with  the  exception  of  Maine  and  Oklahoma,  the  wage  board  pro- 
vision. The  enactments  in  5  States — Maine,  New  Jersey,  Okla- 
homa, Pennsylvania,  and  Washington — and  the  District  of  Col- 
umbia also  extended  coverage  to  men. 

4  States — Kentucky,  Nevada,  North  Dakota,  and  South  Dakota 
— amended  their  laws  to  extend  coverage  to  men. 

16  States — Alaska,  Connecticut,  Hawaii,  Idaho,  Maine,  Massa- 
chusetts, Nevada,  New  Hampshire,  New  Mexico,  New  York, 
North  Carolina,  Rhode  Island,  South  Dakota,  Vermont,  Washing- 
ton, and  Wyoming — amended  their  laws  one  or  more  times  to  in- 
crease the  statutory  rates. 

2  States — Massachusetts  and  New  Jersey — and  the  District  of 
Columbia  amended  their  premium  pay  requirements.  Massachu- 
setts amended  its  minimum  wage  law  to  require  the  payment  of 
not  less  than  II/2   times  an  employee's  regular   rate  for  hours 


264  STATE    LABOR   LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 

worked  in  excess  of  40  a  week,  exempting  a  number  of  occupa- 
tions and  industries  from  the  overtime  provision.  In  New  Jersey 
and  the  District  of  Columbia  new  statutory  rate  laws  were  en- 
acted which  included  overtime  pay  requirements  covering  most 
workers. 

Other  amendments  in  a  number  of  jurisdictions  affected  cover- 
age of  the  minimum  wage  laws,  clarified  specific  provisions,  or 
otherwise  strengthened  the  laws. 

In  1967: 

1  State — Nebraska — enacted  a  minimum  wage  law  for  the  first 
time,  bringing  to  41  the  total  number  of  jurisdictions  having  such 
laws.  This  law  establishes  a  statutory  rate  applicable  to  men, 
women,  and  minors,  and  is  limited  to  employers  of  4  or  more. 

1  State — Oregon — with  a  wage  board  law  applicable  to  women 
and  minors  enacted  a  statutory  rate  law  applicable  to  men  and 
women  18  years  and  over. 

1  State — New  Hampshire — made  its  wage  board  provisions  ap- 
plicable to  men. 

1  State — Maryland — extended  coverage  by  eliminating  the  ex- 
emption for  employers  of  less  than  7. 

12  States — Connecticut,  Delaware,  Idaho,  Indiana,  Maine,  Mary- 
land, New  Hampshire,  New  Mexico,  Rhode  Island,  Vermont, 
Washington,  and  Wyoming — amended  their  laws  to  increase  their 
statutory  rates. 

2  States — New  Mexico  and  Massachusetts — extended  coverage 
to  some  or  all  agricultural  workers. 

2  States — California  and  Wisconsin — with  wage  board  laws  re- 
vised wage  orders,  setting  a  single  rate  for  all  occupations  and  in- 
dustries. 

1  State — Michigan — amended  its  minimum  wage  regulations  to 
decrease  allowable  deductions  and  strengthen  enforcement. 

In  1968: 

1  State — Arkansas — with  a  statutory  rate  law  applicable  to  fe- 
males enacted  a  new  law  establishing  a  statutory  rate  applicable 
to  men,  women,  and  minors,  effective  January  1,  1969. 

1  State — Delaware — amended  its  law  to  set  a  minimum  rate  for 
employees  receiving  gratuities. 

1  State-:— Pennsylvania — amended  its  law  to  increase  the  statu- 
tory rate  and  to  require  overtime  pay. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS 


265 


705.    Roster  of  Minimum   Wage  Jurisdicfions 

The  41  jurisdictions  with  minimum  wage  legislation*  are: 


Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District  of   Columbia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois " 

Indiana 

Kansas ' 

Kentucky 


Louisiana " 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New  Hampshire 

New  Jersey 

New  Mexico 

New  York 

North  Carolina 

North  Dakota 


Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Puerto  Rico 

Rhode  Island 

South  Dakota 

Utah 

Vermont 

Washington 

West  Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 


Eight  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico  have 
laws  that  set  a  statutory  rate  and  also  provide  for  the  establish- 
ment of  occupation  or  industry  rates  based  on  recommendations  of 
wage  boards.  (Only  those  jurisdictions  which  can  set  rates  higher 
than  the  statutory  minimum  or  expand  coverage  are  shown 
below.)  Nineteen  States  have  statutory  rate  laws  only;  that  is, 
the  rate  is  set  by  the  legislature.  Twelve  States  (including  3  with 
no  minimum  wage  rates  currently  in  effect)  have  laws  that  set  no 
fixed  rate  but  provide  for  minimum  rates  to  be  established  on  an 
occupation  or  industry  basis  by  wage  board  action. 

The  following  list  shows,  for  the  41  jurisdictions,  the  type  of 
law  and  employee  covered : 


1.  Statutory  rate  and  wage  board  law  for: 


Men,  women,  and  minors 

Connecticut 

New  Jersey  ^ 

District  of  Columbia 

New  York 

Massachusetts 

Pennsylvania 

New  Hampshire 

Puerto  Rico 

2.  Statutory  rate  law  only  for: 

Men,  women,  and  minors 

Alaska 

Maryland 

Arkansas 

Nebraska 

Delaware 

Nevada 

Hawaii 

New  Mexico 

Idaho 

North  Carolina 

Maine 

(16  to  65  years) 

Rhode  Island 

Washington  ^ 


*  Since    this     publication    was    prepared,    Texas     enacted 
February    1,    1970,    covering   men,    women,    and   minors. 
^  No  minimum  rates  in  eflfect. 
'  Wage  orders  applicable  to  women  and  minors  only. 


South  Dakota 

(14  years  and  over) 
Vermont 
West  Virginia 


a     minimum     wage    law,     effective 


266     STATE  LABOR  LAWS  FOR  WOMEN 

Men  and  women 

Indiana  (18  years  and  over)  Oregon  (18  years  and  over) 

Michigan  (18  to  65  years)  Wyoming  (18  years  and  over) 

Oklahoma  (18  to  65  years) 

3.    Wage  board  law  only  for: 

Men,  women,  and  m.inors 

Kentucky  North  Dakota 

Women  and  minors 

Arizona  Illinois  *  Ohio 

California  Kansas  ^  Utah 

Colorado  Minnesota  Wisconsin 

Females 
Louisiana  * 

Overtime  Compensation 

Sixteen  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico  have 
laws  or  regulations — usually  part  of  the  minimum  wage  program 
— that  provide  for  overtime  compensation.  These  generally  re- 
quire the  payment  of  premium  rates  for  hours  worked  in  excess 
of  a  daily  and/or  weekly  standard.  Premium  pay  requirements 
are  both  a  deterrent  to  excessive  hours  of  work  and  an  impetus  to 
the  equitable  distribution  of  work. 

106.  Sfafufory  Requirements 

Statutes  of  10  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  require  the 
payment  of  IVz  times  the  regular  rate  of  pay  after  a  specified 
number  of  daily  and/or  weekly  hours.  Generally  these  statutes  are 
applicable  to  men,  women,  and  minors.  The  following  list  of  juris- 
dictions with  statutory  overtime  rates  shows  the  hours  after 
which  premium  pay  is  required: 


Alaska  

Connecticut 

District  of  Columbia   

Hawaii  

Idaho '    

Maine     

Massachusetts    

New    Jersey     

Pennsylvania 

Vei-mont     .        _    

West  Virginia 

*  No  minimum  rates  in  effect. 

'  The   premium   pay   requirement   is   separate  from    the   minimum    wage   program    and    is   ap- 
plicable  to    women   only. 


Daily 

Weekly 

standard 

standard 

8 

40 

42; 

40 

(7/1/69) 

40 

40 

8 

48 

48 

40 

40 

42; 

40 

(2/1/69) 

-- 

48 
48 

LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  267 

107.   Wage  Order  Requirements 

Wage  orders  issued  as  part  of  the  minimum  wage  program  in  6 
States  and  Puerto  Rico  require  the  payment  of  premium  rates  for 
overtime.  Generally  the  orders  provide  for  payment  of  II/2  times, 
or  double,  either  the  minimum  rate  or  the  regular  rate  of  pay  for 
hours  in  excess  of  a  daily  and/or  weekly  standard.  The  follovdng 
list  of  jurisdictions  with  wage  orders  that  require  overtime  rates 
(for  men,  women,  and  minors  unless  otherwise  indicated)  shows 
the  premium  rate  established  and  the  hours  after  which  the  pre- 
mium is  payable.  Most  of  the  jurisdictions  have  issued  a  number 
of  wage  orders  with  varying  standards  for  different  occupations. 
The  one  shown  is  the  highest  standard  of  general  application. 


Rate 

California  *  1 V2  times  the  regular  rate 

Double  the  regular  rate 

Colorado '  1 V^  times  the  regular  rate 

Kentucky  '  1 V2  times  the  minimum  rate 

New  York  1 V2  times  basic  minimum  rate 

Oregon*  11/2  times  the  minimum  rate 

Rhode  Island  1  ^^  times  the  minimum  rate 

Puerto  Rico  Double  the  regular  rate 

Equal  Pay 

Thirty-one  States  have  equal  pay  laws  applicable  to  private  em- 
ployment that  prohibit  discrimination  in  rate  of  pay  based  on  sex. 
They  establish  the  principle  of  payment  of  a  wage  rate  based  on 
the  job  and  not  on  the  sex  of  the  worker.  Five  States  with  no 
equal  pay  law  have  fair  employment  practices  laws  and  the  Dis- 
trict of  Columbia,  a  regulation,  that  prohibit  discrimination  in 
rate  of  pay  or  compensation  based  on  sex. 

108.    Historical  Record  of  Equal  Pay  Legislation 

Public  attention  was  first  sharply  focused  on  equal  pay  for 
women  during  World  War  I  when  large  numbers  of  women  were 
employed  in  war  industries  on  the  same  jobs  as  men,  and  the  Na- 
tional War  Labor  Board  enforced  the  policy  of  "no  wage  discrimi- 
nation against  women  on  the  grounds  of  sex."  In  1919,  2  States — 


Daily 

Weekly 

standard 

standard 

8 

40 

12 ;  8  on  7th  day 

8 

40 

44 

_.- 

40 

8 

40 

45 

®  Applicable  to  women  and  minors  only.  In  California  minors  under  18  are  limited  to  8 
hours  a  day,  6  days  a  week. 

'  Since  the  issuance  of  wage  orders  applicable  to  women  and  minors  only,  statutory  coverage 
of  the  wage  board  program  has  been  extended  to  men. 


268  STATE    LABOR    LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 

Michigan  and  Montana — enacted  equal  pay  legislation.  For  nearly 
25  years  these  were  the  only  States  with  such  laws. 

Progress  in  the  equal  pay  field  was  made  during  World  War  II 
when  again  large  numbers  of  women  entered  the  labor  force, 
many  of  them  in  jobs  previously  held  by  men.  Government  agen- 
cies, employers,  unions,  organizations,  and  the  general  public 
were  concerned  with  the  removal  of  wage  differentials  as  a  means 
of  furthering  the  war  effort. 

During  the  period  1943-45  equal  pay  laws  were  enacted  in  4 
States — Illinois,  Massachusetts,  New  York,  and  Washington. 

In  the  next  4  years  6  States — California,  Connecticut,  Maine, 
New  Hampshire,  Pennsylvania,  and  Rhode  Island — and  Alaska 
passed  equal  pay  laws. 

New  Jersey  enacted  an  equal  pay  law  in  1952.  Arkansas,  Colo- 
rado, and  Oregon  passed  such  legislation  in  1955. 

In  1957  California  amended  its  equal  pay  law  to  strengthen  ex- 
isting legislation,  and  Nebraska  adopted  a  resolution  endorsing 
the  policy  of  equal  pay  for  equal  work  without  discrimination 
based  on  sex  and  urging  the  adoption  of  this  policy  by  all  em- 
ployers in  the  State.  Hawaii,  Ohio,  and  Wyoming  passed  equal 
pay  laws  in  1959. 

In  1961  Wisconsin  amended  its  fair  employment  practices  act 
to  prohibit  discrimination  because  of  sex  and  to  provide  that  a 
differential  in  pay  between  employees,  when  based  in  good  faith 
on  any  factor  other  than  sex,  is  not  prohibited. 

In  1962  Arizona  passed  an  equal  pay  law,  and  Michigan  amend- 
ed its  law  (which  previously  covered  only  manufacture  or  pro- 
duction of  any  article)  to  extend  coverage  to  any  employer  of 
labor  employing  both  males  and  females. 

During  1963  Missouri  enacted  an  equal  pay  law,  and  Vermont 
passed  a  fair  employment  practices  law  which  also  prohibits  dis- 
crimination in  rates  of  pay  by  reason  of  sex. 

Also  in  1963  the  Federal  Equal  Pay  Act  was  passed  as  an 
amendment  to  the  Fair  Labor  Standards  Act. 

In  1965,  3  States — North  Dakota,  Oklahoma,  and  West  Vir- 
ginia— enacted  equal  pay  laws,  and  3  States  with  no  equal  pay 
law — Maryland,  Nebraska,  and  Utah — passed  fair  employment 
practices  laws  which  prohibit  discrimination  in  compensation 
based  on  sex.  Amendments  in  California,  Maine,  New  York,  and 
Rhode  Island  strengthened  existing  equal  pay  laws. 

In  1966,  4  States — Georgia,  Kentucky,  Maryland,  and  South 
Dakota — enacted  equal  pay  laws.  Massachusetts  enacted  a  law 
that  provides  equal  pay  for  certain  civil  service  employees. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  269 

In  1967,  2  States — Indiana  and  Nebraska — enacted  equal  pay 
laws.  Indiana  included  its  equal  pay  provision  as  part  of  the 
amendments  to  its  minimum  wage  law. 


109.    Roster  of  Equal  Pay  States' 

The  31  States  with  equal  pay  laws*  are: 


Alaska 

Maine 

Ohio 

Arizona 

Maryland 

Oklahoma 

Arkansas 

Massachusetts 

Oregon 

California 

Michigan 

Pennsylvania 

Colorado 

Missouri 

Rhode  Island 

Connecticut 

Montana 

South  Dakota 

Georgia 

Nebraska 

Washington 

Hawaii 

New  Hampshire 

West  Virginia 

Illinois 

New  Jersey 

Wyoming 

Indiana " 

New  York 

Kentucky 

North  Dakota 

Equal  pay  laws  in  Colorado,  Georgia,  Indiana,  Kentucky,  Mary- 
land, Montana,  Nebraska,  North  Dakota,  Oklahoma,  Pennsylvania, 
and  Washington  are  applicable  to  public  as  well  as  private  employ- 
ment. (A  Massachusetts  law  contains  an  elective  equal  pay  pro- 
vision, applicable  to  employees  of  cities  or  towns  who  are  in  the 
classified  civil  service;  and  a  Texas  law  requires  equal  pay  for 
women  in  private  employment.)  In  21  States  the  laws  apply  to 
most  types  of  privates  employment.  In  general  those  States  speci- 
fying exemptions  exclude  agricultural  labor  and  domestic  service. 
The  Illinois  law  applies  only  to  manufacturing. 

Fair  Employment  Practices 

110.    Roster  of  Fair  Employment  Practices  States 

Thirty-seven  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico 
have  fair  employment  practices  laws,  but  only  15  of  the  States 
and  the  District  of  Columbia  include  a  prohibition  against  dis- 
crimination in  employment  based  on  sex.  Prior  to  the  enactment 
of  title  VII  of  the  Federal  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964,  the  laws  of 


'Since  this  publication  was  prepared,  4  States — Florida,  Idaho,  Minnesota,  and  Nevada — 
enacted  equal  pay  laws. 

'  Fair  employment  practices  acts  in  5  States  with  no  equal  pay  law — Idaho,  Nevada,  Utah, 
Vermont,  and  Wisconsin — prohibit  discrimination  in  rate  of  pay  or  compensation  based  on  sex. 
In  the  District  of  Columbia,  there  is  a  regulation  prohibiting  discrimination  based  on  sex. 

*  Indiana   included  an   equal   pay   provision    in    its    amendments    to   the   minimum    wage   law. 


270 


STATE   LABOR   LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 


only  2  states — Hawaii  and  Wisconsin — prohibited  sex  discrimina- 
tion in  employment. 

The  39  jurisdictions  with  fair  employment  practices  laws  are: 


5/16/69) 


Alaska 

Kentucky- 

New  York 

Arizona 

Maine 

Ohio 

California 

Maryland 

Oklahoma  (eff, 

Colorado 

Massachusetts 

Oregon 

Connecticut 

Michigan 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Minnesota 

Puerto  Rico 

District  of  Columbia 

Missouri 

Rhode  Island 

Hawaii 

Montana 

Utah 

Idaho 

Nebraska 

Vermont 

Illinois 

Nevada 

Washington 

Indiana 

New  Hampshire 

West  Virginia 

Iowa 

New  Jersey- 

Wisconsin 

Kansas 

New  Mexico 

Wyoming 

The  16  jurisdictions  whose  fair  employment  practices  laws  pro- 
hibit discrimination  in  employment  based  on  sex*  are: 


Arizona 

Connecticut 

District  of  Columbia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Maryland 


Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New  York 


Oklahoma   (eff.  5/16/69) 

Utah 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 


In  2  additional  States — Alaska  and  Vermont — the  fair  employ- 
ment practices  law  prohibits  discrimination  based  on  sex,  in 
wages  only.  In  a  third  State — Colorado — the  law  prohibits  dis- 
crimination based  on  sex  only  in  apprenticeship,  on-the-job  train- 
ing, or  other  occupational  instruction,  training,  or  retraining  pro- 
grams. 

Hours  of  Work 


The  first  enforceable  law  regulating  the  hours  of  employment 
of  women  became  effective  in  Massachusetts  in  1879.  Today  46 
States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico  have  estab- 
lished standards  governing  at  least  one  aspect  of  women's  hours 
of  employment;  that  is,  maximum  daily  or  weekly  hours,  day  of 
rest,  meal  and  rest  periods,  and  nightwork.  Some  of  these  stand- 
ards have  been  established  by  statute;  others,  by  minimum  wage 
or  industrial  welfare  order. 


*Since  this  publication  was  prepared,  6  States — Alaska,  Colorado,  Minnesota,  New  Mexico, 
Oregon,  and  Pennsylvania — enacted  laws  prohibiting  discrimination  in  employment  based  on 
sex. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS 


271 


111.    Maximum  Daily  and  Weekly  Hours 

Forty-one  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  regulate  the 
number  of  daily  and/or  weekly  hours  of  employment  for  women 
in  one  or  more  industries.  These  limitations  have  been  established 
either  by  statute  or  by  order.  Nine  States — Alabama,  Alaska,  Del- 
aware, Florida,  Hawaii,  Idaho,  Indiana,  Iowa,  and  West  Virginia 
— and  Puerto  Rico  do  not  have  such  laws ;  however,  laws  or  wage 
orders  in  5  of  these  jurisdictions — Alaska,  Hawaii,  Idaho,  Puerto 
Rico,  and  West  Virginia — require  the  payment  of  premium  rates 
for  time  worked  over  specified  hours. 

Hours  standards  for  3  of  the  41  States — Georgia,  Montana,  and 
South  Carolina — are  applicable  to  both  men  and  women.  In  addi- 
tion there  are  3  States — New  Mexico,  North  Carolina,  and  Wash- 
ington— which  cover  men  and  women  in  some  industries  and 
women  only  in  others. 

The  standard  setting  the  fewest  maximum  hours  which  may  be 
worked,  in  one  or  more  industries,  is  shown  for  each  of  the  41 
States  and  the  District  of  Columbia. 


Maximum  hours 

Maximum  hours 

Daily 

Weekly 

Daily 

Weekly 

Arizona 

8 

48 

New  Hampshire  _ 

10 

48 

Arkansas 

8 

C") 

New  Jersey 

10 

54 

California    

8 

48 

New  Mexico 

8 

48 

Colorado     

8 

New  York 

8 

48 

Connecticut 

8 

48 

North  Carolina 

9 

48 

District  of 

North  Dakota  _ . . 

81/2 

48 

Columbia   

8 

48 

Ohio    

8 

48 

Georgia  

10 

60 

Oklahoma    

9 

54 

Illinois 

8 

48 

Oregon  " 

8 

40 

Kansas "    . 

8 

48 

Pennsylvania 

__       10 

48 

Kentucky 

..       10 

60 

Rhode  Island 

9 

48 

Louisiana 

8 

48 

South  Carolina  . . 

8 

40 

Maine  

9 

50 

South  Dakota 

10 

54 

Maryland 

10 

60 

Tennessee 

10 

50 

Massachusetts 

9 

48 

Texas    

9 

54 

Michigan    

9 

54 

Utah 

8 

48 

Minnesota    

54 

Vermont 

9 

50 

Mississippi ^ 

10 

60 

Virginia 

9 

48 

Missouri     

9 

54 

Washington  - 

8 

48 

Montana 

8 

48 

Wisconsin    

9 

50 

Nebraska   

9 

54 

Wyoming  ^-    

8 

48 

Nevada  

8 

48 

'"'  A  6-day  week  limitation  provides,  in  effect,  foi*  48-hour  workweek. 

'"  Maximum    hours    standards    set    by    Labor    Qjmmissioner    under    minimum    wage    program. 
^  If  the  8  hours   of   work  are  spread  over  more  than    12   hours   in   a   day,   time   and   one-half 
must  be  paid  for  each  of  the  8  hours  worked  after  the  12-hour  period. 


272  STATE    LABOR   LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 

As  the  table  shows,  in  one  or  more  industries : 

2  States  have  a  maximum  of  8  hours  a  day,  40  hours  a  week. 

23  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  have  set  maximum 
hours  of  8  a  day,  48  a  week,  or  both. 

8  States  have  a  maximum  9-hour  day,  50-  or  54-hour  week. 
(This  includes  Michigan  with  an  average  9-hour,  maximum 
10-hour,  day.) 

Minnesota  has  no  daily  hours  limitation  in  its  statute,  but  limits 
weekly  hours  to  54. 

7  States  have  a  maximum  10-hour  day,  50-  to  60-hour  week. 

However,  many  of  these  hours  laws  contain  exemptions  or  ex- 
ceptions from  their  limitations.  For  example: 

Work  is  permitted  in  excess  of  the  maximum  hours  limitations 
for  at  least  some  employees  in  16  States  if  they  receive  over- 
time compensation :  Arizona,  Arkansas,  California,  Colorado, 
Kansas,  Nevada,  New  Mexico,  North  Carolina,  Oklahoma, 
Oregon,  Rhode  Island,  South  Carolina,  Texas,  Virginia,  Wis- 
consin, and  Wyoming. 

4  States — North  Carolina,  Oregon,  South  Carolina,  and  Vir- 
ginia— exempt  workers  who  are  paid  in  accordance  with  the 
overtime  requirements  of,  or  who  are  subject  to,  the  FLSA, 
the  Federal  minimum  wage  and  hour  law  of  most  general 
application.  Arizona  exempts  employers  operating  in  compli- 
ance with  the  FLSA,  provided  11/2  times  the  regular  rate  is 
paid  for  hours  over  8  a  day.  California  permits  airline  and 
railroad  personnel  and  women  protected  by  the  FLSA,  with 
some  industry  exceptions,  to  work  up  to  10  hours  a  day  and 
58  hours  a  week  if  they  are  paid  V/2  times  their  regular  rate 
for  hours  over  8  a  day  and  40  a  week.  Kansas  exempts  most 
firms  meeting  the  wage,  overtime,  and  recordkeeping  require- 
ments of  the  FLSA  or  comparable  standards  set  by  collective 
bargaining  agreements.  New  Mexico  exempts  employees  in 
interstate  commerce  whose  hours  are  regulated  by  acts  of 
Congress. 

1  State — Maryland — exempts  employment  subject  to  a  bona 
fide  collective  bargaining  agreement. 

State  agencies  in  Arkansas,  Kansas,  Massachusetts,  Michigan, 
Minnesota,  Oregon,  Pennsylvania,  and  Wisconsin  have  broad 
authority  to  permit  work  in  excess  of  the  maximum  hours 
limitations  on  a  case-by-case  basis ;  to  vary  hours  restrictions 
by  industry  or  occupation;  or  to  regulate  hours  by  requiring 
premium  pay  for  overtime;  Premium  pay  for  overtime  work 
is  required  by  law  or  order  regulating  hours  in  Arkansas, 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S   EMPLOYMENT  AND   STATUS  273 

Kansas,  Oregon,  and  Wisconsin.  The  minimum  wage  laws  or 

orders  of  Massachusetts,  Oregon,  and  Pennsylvania  require 

premium  pay  for  overtime  work  (see  sees.  106  and  107). 
28  more  States  have  specific  exceptions  to  the  hours  restrictions 

for  emergencies,  seasonal  peaks,  national  defense,  and  other 

reasons. 
Some  or  all  women  employed  in  executive,  administrative,  and 

professional  positions  are  exempt  from  hours  laws  limitations 

in  26  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia. 
Since  1963,  16  States — Arizona,  California,  Colorado,  Illinois, 
Kansas,  Maryland,  Massachusetts,  Michigan,  Missouri,  Nebraska, 
New  York,  North  Carolina,  Oregon,  Pennsylvania,  Virginia,  and 
Washington — and  the  District  of  Columbia  have  modified  their 
maximum  hours  laws  or  orders  one  or  more  times  to  permit  work 
beyond  the  limits  established  by  the  maximum  hours  laws  under 
regulated  conditions,  to  exempt  additional  groups  of  workers 
from  hours  restrictions,  or  to  establish  administrative  procedures 
for  varying  hours  limitations.  One  State — Delaware — eliminated 
hours  restrictions  altogether. 

In  Michigan  the  State  Occupational  Safety  Standards  Commis- 
sion has  promulgated  a  standard  which  removes  the  limitations 
on  women's  daily  and  weekly  hours  of  work,  effective  February 
15,  1969,  subject  to  modification  by  the  State  legislature.* 

112,    Day  of  Rest 

Twenty  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico  have 
established  a  6-day  maximum  workweek  for  women  employed  in 
some  or  all  industries.  In  8  of  these  jurisdictions — California, 
Connecticut,  Illinois,  Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire,  New  York, 
Puerto  Rico,  and  Wisconsin — this  standard  is  applicable  to  both 
men  and  women.  Jurisdictions  that  provide  for  a  6-day  maximum 
workweek  are: 

Arizona  Massachusetts  Oregon 

Arkansas  Nevada  Pennsylvania 

California  New  Hampshire  Puerto  Rico 

Connecticut  New  Jersey  Utah 

District  of  Columbia  New  York  Washington 

Illinois  North  Carolina  Wisconsin 

Kansas  North  Dakota 

Louisiana  Ohio 

Of  the  remaining  30  States,  20  have  laws  that  prohibit  specified 
employment  or  activities  on  Sunday: 

*Since    preparation    of    this    publication,    a    court    case    brought    about    reinstatement    of    the 
limitations. 


274 


STATE   LABOR   LAWS    FOR    WOMEN 


Alabama 

Maryland 

South  Dakota 

Florida 

Mississippi 

Tennessee 

Georgia 

Missouri 

Texas 

Idaho 

New  Mexico 

Vermont 

Indiana 

Oklahoma 

Virginia 

Kentucky- 

Rhode  Island 

West  Virginia 

Maine 

South  Carolina 

113.    Meal  Period 

Twenty-three  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico 
provide  that  meal  periods,  varying  from  20  minutes  to  1  hour  in 
duration,  must  be  allowed  women  employed  in  some  or  all  indus- 
tries. In  3  States — Indiana,  Nebraska,  and  New  York — these 
provisions  apply  to  men  as  well  as  women.  The  length  of  the  meal 
period  is  provided  by  statute,  order,  or  regulation  in  25  jurisdic- 
tions: 


Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

District  of  Columbia 

Indiana 

Kansas 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 


Massachusetts 
Nebraska 
Nevada 
New  Mexico 
New  York 
North  Carolina 
North  Dakota 
Ohio 
Oregon 


Pennsylvania 
Puerto  Rico 
Rhode  Island 
Utah 

Washington 
West  Virginia 
Wisconsin 


Combining  rest  period  and  meal  period  provisions,  Kentucky 
requires  that  before  and  after  the  regularly  scheduled  lunch  pe- 
riod (duration  not  specified)  rest  periods  shall  be  granted  fe- 
males; and  in  Wyoming  females  employed  in  specified  establish- 
ments who  are  required  to  be  on  their  feet  continuously  must 
have  two  paid  rest  periods,  one  before  and  one  after  the  lunch 
hour. 


114.    Rest  Period 

Twelve  States  and  Puerto  Rico"  have  provided  for  specific  rest 
periods  (as  distinct  from  a  meal  period)  for  women  workers.  The 
statutes  in  Alaska,  Kentucky,  Nevada,  and  Wyoming  cover  a 
variety  of  industries  (in  Alaska  and  Wyoming,  applicable  only  to 
women  standing  continuously)  ;  laws  in  New  York  and  Pennsyl- 
vania apply  to  elevator  operators  not  provided  with  seating  facili- 
ties. Rest  periods  in  one  or  more  industries  are  required  by  wage 


Rest  period  provision  in  Puerto  Rico  applies  also  to  men. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  275 

orders  in  Arizona,  California,  Colorado,  Oregon,  Puerto  Rico, 
Utah,  and  Washington.  Most  of  the  provisions  are  for  a  10-minute 
rest  period  within  each  half  day  of  work. 

In  addition,  in  Arkansas  manufacturing  establishments  operat- 
ing on  a  24-hour  schedule  may,  when  necessary,  be  exempt  from 
the  meal  period  provision  if  females  are  granted  10  minutes  for 
each  of  two  paid  rest  periods  and  provision  is  made  for  them  to 
eat  at  their  work;  and  the  North  Dakota  Manufacturing  Order 
prohibits  the  employment  of  women  for  more  than  2  hours  with- 
out a  rest  period  (duration  not  specified). 

115.    Nighfwork 

In  18  States  and  Puerto  Rico  nightwork  for  adult  women  is 
prohibited  and/or  regulated  in  certain  industries  or  occupations. 

Nine  States  and  Puerto  Rico  prohibit  nightwork  for  adult 
women  in  certain  occupations  or  industries  or  under  specified  con- 
ditions : 

Connecticut  New  Jersey  Puerto  Rico 

Kansas  New  York  Washington 

Massachusetts  North  Dakota 

Nebraska  Ohio 

In  North  Dakota  and  Washington  the  prohibition  applies  only 
to  elevator  operators ;  in  Ohio,  only  to  taxicab  drivers. 

In  9  other  States,  as  well  as  in  several  of  the  jurisdictions  that 
prohibit  nightwork  in  specified  industries  or  occupations,  the  em- 
ployment of  adult  women  at  night  is  regulated  either  by  maxi- 
mum hour  provisions  or  by  specified  standards  of  working  condi- 
tions. For  example,  in  1  State  women  and  minors  are  limited  to  8 
hours  a  night. 


California 

New  Mexico 

Rhode  Island 

Illinois 

Oregon 

Utah 

New  Hampshire 

Pennsylvania 

Wisconsin 

Arizona  and  the  District  of  Columbia  prohibit  the  employment 
of  females  under  21  years  of  age  in  night  messenger  service;  the 
Arizona  law  is  applicable  also  to  males  under  21. 

Other  Labor  Legislation 
116.    Indusfrial  Homework 

Nineteen  States  and  Puerto  Rico  have  industrial  homework 
laws  or  regulations: 


276  STATE   LABOR   LAWS    FOR   WOMEN 

California  Michigan  Puerto  Rico 

Connecticut  Missouri  Rhode  Island 

Hawaii  New  Jersey  Tennessee 

Illinois  New  York  Texas 

Indiana  Ohio  West  Virginia 

Maryland  Oregon  Wisconsin 

Massachusetts  Pennsylvania 

These  regulations  apply  to  all  persons,  except  in  Oregon,  where 
the  provisions  apply  to  women  and  minors  only. 

In  addition,  the  Alaska  and  Washington  minimum  wage  and 
hour  laws  authorize  the  issuance  of  rules  and  regulations  restrict- 
ing or  prohibiting  industrial  homework  where  necessary  to  safe- 
guard minimum  wage  rates  prescribed  in  the  laws. 

117.    Employment  Before  and  After  Childbirth 

Six  States  and  Puerto  Rico  prohibit  the  employment  of  women 
in  one  or  more  industries  or  occupations  immediately  before 
and/or  after  childbirth.  These  standards  are  established  by  stat- 
ute or  by  minimum  wage  or  welfare  orders.  Women  may  not  be 
employed  in — 

Connecticut    4  weeks  before  and  4  weeks  after  childbirth 

Massachusetts   _  _  4  weeks  before  and  4  weeks  after  childbirth 

Missouri   3  weeks  before  and  3  weeks  after  childbirth 

New  York   4  weeks  after  childbirth 

Puerto  Rico 4  weeks  before  and  4  weeks  after  childbirth 

Vermont 2  weeks  before  and  4  weeks  after  childbirth 

Washington  "      _  4  months  before  and  6  weeks  after  childbirth 

In  addition  to  prohibiting  employment,  Puerto  Rico  requires 
the  employer  to  pay  the  working  mother  one-half  of  her  regular 
wage  or  salary  during  an  8-week  period  and  provides  for  job  se- 
curity during  the  required  absence. 

Rhode  Island's  Temporary  Disability  Insurance  Act  provides 
that  women  workers  covered  by  the  act  who  are  unemployed  be- 
cause of  sickness  resulting  from  pregnancy  are  entitled  to  cash 
benefits  for  maternity  leave  for  a  14-week  period  beginning  the 
sixth  week  prior  to  the  week  of  expected  childbirth,  or  the  week 
childbirth  occurs  if  it  is  more  than  6  weeks  prior  to  the  expected 
birth. 

In  New  Jersey  the  Temporary  Disability  Benefits  Act  provides 
that  women  workers  to  whom  the  act  applies  are  entitled  to  cash 

"  Standard  established  by  minimum  wage  orders.  Some  orders  provide  that  a  special  per- 
mit may  be  granted  for  continued  employment  upon  employer's  request  and  with  doctor's 
certificate. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS 


277 


payments  for  disability  existing  during  the  4  weeks  before  and  4 
weeks  following  childbirth. 

Also,  the  Oregon  Mercantile  and  Sanitation  and  Physical  Wel- 
fare Orders  recommend  that  an  employer  should  not  employ  a 
female  at  any  work  during  the  6  weeks  preceding  and  the  4  weeks 
following  the  birth  of  her  child,  unless  recommended  by  a  licensed 
medical  authority. 

118.    Occupational  Lim'itat'ions 

Twenty-six  States  have  laws  or  regulations  that  prohibit  the 
employment  of  adult  women  in  specified  occupations  or  industries 
or  under  certain  working  conditions  which  are  considered  hazard- 
ous or  injurious  to  health  and  safety.  In  17  of  these  States  the 
prohibition  applies  to  women's  employment  in  or  about  mines. 
Clerical  or  similar  work  is  excepted  from  the  prohibition  in  ap- 
proximately half  of  these  States.  Nine  States  prohibit  women  from 
mixing,  selling,  or  dispensing  alcoholic  beverages  for  on-premises 
consumption,  and  1  State — Georgia — prohibits  their  employment 
in  retail  liquor  stores.  (In  addition,  a  Florida  statute  authorizes 
the  city  of  Tampa  to  prohibit  females  from  soliciting  customers 
to  buy  alcoholic  beverages.) 

The  following  States  have  occupational  limitations  applicable 
to— 


Establishments  serving 

Mines 

alcoholic  beverages 

Alabama 

Ohio 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Oklahoma 

California 

Arkansas 

Pennsylvania 

Connecticut 

Colorado 

Utah 

Illinois  ^ 

Illinois 

Virginia 

Indiana 

Indiana 

Washington 

Kentucky 

Maryland 

Wisconsin 

Ohio 

Missouri 

Wyoming 

Pennsylvania 

New  York 

Rhode  Island 

Eleven  States  prohibit  the  employment  of  women  in  other 
places  or  occupations,  or  under  certain  conditions : 

Arizona — In  occupations  requiring  constant  standing. 
Colorado — Working  around  coke  ovens. 

Massachusetts — Working  on  cores  more  than  2  cubic  feet  or 
60  pounds. 


"  Illinois  State  law  empowers  city  and  county  governments  to  prohibit  by  general  ordinance 
or  resolution. 


278  STATE   LABOR   LAWS    FOR   WOMEN 

Michigan — Handling  harmful  substances;  in  foundries,  ex- 
cept with  approval  of  the  Department  of  Labor. 

Minnesota — Placing  cores  in  or  out  of  ovens;  cleaning  mov- 
ing machinery. 

Missouri — Cleaning  or  working  between  moving  machinery. 

New  York — Coremaking,  or  in  connection  with  coremaking, 
in  a  room  in  which  the  oven  is  in  operation. 

Ohio — As  crossing  watchman,  section  hand,  express  driver, 
metal  molder,  bellhop,  gas-  or  electric-meter  reader;  in 
shoeshining  parlors,  bowling  alleys  as  pinsetters,  pool- 
rooms; in  delivery  service  on  motor-propelled  vehicles  of 
over  1-ton  capacity ;  in  operating  freight  or  baggage  eleva- 
tors if  the  doors  are  not  automatically  or  semi-automati- 
cally  controlled;  in  baggage  and  freight  handling,  by 
means  of  handtrucks,  trucking  and  handling  heavy  mate- 
rials of  any  kind ;  in  blast  furnaces,  smelters,  and  quarries 
except  in  offices  thereof. 

Pennsylvania — In  dangerous  or  injurious  occupations. 

Washington — As  bellhop. 

Wisconsin — In  dangerous  or  injurious  occupations. 

The  majority  of  the  States  with  occupational  limitations  for 
adult  women  also  have  prohibitory  legislation  for  persons  under 
21  years.  In  addition,  10  States  have  occupational  limitations  for 
persons  under  21  years  only.  Most  of  these  limitations  apply  to 
the  serving  of  liquor  and  to  the  driving  of  taxicabs,  schoolbuses, 
or  public  vehicles;  others  prohibit  the  employment  of  females 
under  21  years  in  jobs  demanding  constant  standing  or  as  messen- 
ger, bellhop,  or  caddy. 

119.    Seating  and  WeJghtliffing 

A  number  of  jurisdictions,  through  statutes,  minimum  wage  or- 
ders, and  other  regulations,  have  established  employment  stan- 
dards for  women  relating  to  plant  facilities  such  as  seats,  lunch- 
rooms, dressing  and  rest  rooms,  and  toilet  rooms,  and  to  weight- 
lifting.  Only  the  seating  and  weightlifting  provisions  are  in- 
cluded in  this  summary. 

Seating. — Forty-five  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  and 
Puerto  Rico  have  seating  laws  or  orders;  all  but  1 — ^the  Florida 
law — apply  exclusively  to  women.  Delaware,  Hawaii,  Illinois, 
Maryland,  and  Mississippi  have  no  seating  laws  or  orders. 

Weightlifting. — Ten  States  and  Puerto  Rico  have  statutes, 
rules,  regulations,  and/or  orders  which  specify  the  maximum 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  279 

weight  women  employees  may  lift,  carry,  or  lift  and  carry.  Fol- 
lowing are  the  standards  established  for  weightlifting  and  carry- 
ing in  the  11  jurisdictions.  Some  States  have  standards  varying 
by  occupation  or  industry  and  are,  therefore,  listed  more  than 
once. 

Any  occupation:  "excessive  weight"  in  Oregon;  30  pounds 
lifting  and  15  pounds  carrying  in  Utah ;  35  percent  of  body 
weight,  or  25  pounds  where  repetitive  lifting  in  Alaska ;  25 
in  Ohio ;  40  in  Massachusetts ;  44  in  Puerto  Rico ;  50  pounds 
lifting  and  10  pounds  carrying  up  and  down  stairways 
in  California. 

Foundries  and  corerooms:  25  pounds  in  Maryland,  Massa- 
chusetts, Minnesota,  and  New  York. 

Specified  occupations  or  industries  (by  orders) :  25  pounds  in 
California;  25  to  50  in  Oregon;  35  pounds  and  "excessive 
weight"  in  Washington. 


8 


POLITICAL   AND   CIVIL 
STATUS   OF  WOMEN 

as  of  January  1,  1969 

New  Trends 

Progress  continues  to  be  made  in  the  direction  of  revising  out- 
moded laws  and  practices  which  differentiate  between  men  and 
women  unfairly  and  unrealistically.  The  philosophy  favoring  the 
dominance  of  the  husband  in  the  marital  relation  has  generally 
been  replaced  by  the  idea  that  both  parties  have  rights  and  re- 
sponsibilities in  marriage,  and  that  while  the  wife  is  entitled  to  a 
measure  of  legal  protection  she  does  have  responsibilities. 

The  status  of  women  has  enjoyed  a  continuous  improvement 
since  the  19th  century,  when  the  first  Married  Women's  Property 
Acts  were  passed.  These  first  legal  steps  toward  releasing  a  mar- 
ried woman's  property  and  property  rights  from  her  husband's 
control  started  a  trend,  which  has  continued  over  the  years,  to 
equalize  married  women's  rights  with  those  of  married  men  in 
the  enjoyment  and  disposition  of  property.  A  married  woman's 
citizenship  no  longer  automatically  follows  that  of  her  husband 
— she  neither  gains  U.S.  citizenship  by  marriage  to  a  citizen  of 
the  United  States,  nor  loses  her  U.S.  citizenship  by  marriage  to 
an  alien.  The  adoption  of  the  19th  amendment  to  the  Constitution, 
which  gave  both  married  and  single  women  the  right  to  vote, 
marked  the  beginning  of  the  political  emancipation  of  women  and 
established  the  basis  for  them  to  participate  fully  in  the  political 
life  of  the  country. 

More  recently,  attention  has  been  given  to  eliminating  other  ar- 
tificial barriers  which  kept  many  Americans,  especially  Negro 
men  and  women,  from  the  polls.  Women  slowly  have  been  catch- 
ing up  with  men  in  terms  of  equal  eligibility  for  jury  service — an 
important  privilege  and  responsibility  of  all  citizens — by  the  en- 
actment of  laws  which  base  qualifications  for,  and  disqualifica- 
tions and  exemptions  from,  jury  service  on  factors  other  than  sex. 

Commissions  on  the  status  of  women  have  been  active  in  rec- 

281 


282  POLITICAL  AND  CIVIL  STATUS  OF  WOMEN 

ommending  and  supporting  programs  to  improve  the  civil  and  po- 
litical status  of  women.i  As  of  January  1,  1969,  almost  all  of  the 
commissions  had  made  interim  or  final  reports  on  a  wide  range  of 
subjects,  including  property  rights,  marriage  and  divorce  law, 
consortium,  homestead  law,  and  domicile  law. 

Political  Status 

720.    Citizenship 

Citizenship  in  the  United  States  is  acquired  in  the  same  way  by 
men  and  women;  that  is,  by  birth  within  the  domain,  by  birth 
abroad  of  a  parent  who  is  a  citizen,  or  by  naturalization.  Mothers 
as  well  as  fathers  confer  citizenship  on  their  minor  children. 

A  married  woman's  citizenship  does  not  automatically  follow 
that  of  her  husband.  An  alien  wife  may  become  a  citizen  whether 
or  not  her  alien  husband  desires  or  qualifies  for  that  privilege. 
When  a  woman  citizen  marries  an  alien,  she  retains  her  citizen- 
ship until  she  renounces  it  by  declaring  allegiance  to  another  gov- 
ernment. 

121.    Vofing  and  Public  Office 

Federal  elections. — Women  and  men  have  equal  rights  of  suf- 
frage in  the  election  of  Federal  Government  ofl!icials  and  on  pro- 
postals  for  change  in  the  Federal  Constitution. 

Qualifications  for  election  or  appointment  to  posts  in  the  execu- 
tive and  legislative  branches  of  the  Federal  Government  or  for 
appointment  to  the  judiciary  are  the  same  for  women  and  men. 

State  elections. — Women  and  men  have  equal  rights  of  suffrage 
in  the  election  of  State  and  local  officials  and  in  the  determination 
of  public  issues  within  the  State, 

Qualifications  for  election  to  State  and  local  government  posi- 
tions are  the  same  for  women  and  men. 

Civil  service  positions. — Positions  in  both  Federal  and  State 
civil  service  are  generally  open  to  women  who  qualify.  Through 
fair  employment  practices  laws  or  executive  policy  statements, 
some  States  prohibit  sex  discrimination  in  hiring,  promotion,  and 
training  in  public  employment. 

In  Federal  employment  a  policy  developed  as  a  result  of  the 
hiring  statute  of  1870,  which  resulted  in  sex  discrimination  in 
hiring  and  promotion,  was  reversed  on  June  4,  1962,  when  the 
Attorney  General  declared  this  practice  unjustified  and  invalid. 


*  See  Part  III  for  additional  information  on  activities  of  commissions  on  the  status  of  women. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  283 

Subsequently  a  Presidential  directive  of  July  23,  1962,  required 
Federal  agency  heads  to  fill  positions  without  reference  to  sex 
where  experience  and  physical  requirements  were  met,  and  the 
Civil  Service  Commission  issued  appropriate  rules  and  regula- 
tions to  implement  this  directive.  In  order  to  preclude  any  possi- 
bility of  reversion  to  the  previous  policy,  in  1965  Congress  re- 
pealed the  1870  law. 

In  1967  the  President  signed  Executive  Order  11375,  which 
specifically  prohibits  discrimination  on  the  basis  of  sex  in  Federal 
and  Federal  contract  employment.  This  order  was  a  direct  out- 
growth of  the  recommendations  of  the  Federal  Woman's  Award 
Study  Group  created  by  the  President  in  1966  to  examine  and 
make  suggestions  with  respect  to  careers  for  women  in  the  execu- 
tive branch.  The  Study  Group  is  composed  of  outstanding  women 
in  Federal  service  who  have  received  special  recognition  for  their 
contributions.  The  group  recommended  that  in  order  to  increase 
the  number  of  women  in  professional,  administrative,  and  techni- 
cal positions  in  the  Federal  Government,  the  Civil  Service  Com- 
mission :  develop  a  reporting  system  to  provide  necessary  data  for 
an  appraisal  of  the  position  of  women  in  the  Federal  Govern- 
ment; review  examination  and  qualification  requirements  with  a 
view  toward  providing  more  flexibility  in  examinations  and  insur- 
ing appropriate  credit  for  participation  in  community,  cultural, 
social  service,  and  professional  association  activities ;  and  develop 
a  program  to  recruit  women  for  part-time  employment. 

Courts — jury  service. — Since  the  enactment  of  the  Civil  Rights 
Act  of  1957  removing  the  disqualification  of  women  for  service  on 
Federal  juries  in  all  States,  many  States  have  equalized  laws  af- 
fecting service  on  State  grand  and  petit  juries.  The  Federal  Jury 
Selection  and  Service  Act  of  1968,  which  provides  for  selection  of 
Federal  juries  at  random  from  a  fair  cross  section  of  the  com- 
munity and  specifically  prohibits  exclusion  because  of  race,  color, 
religion,  sex,  national  origin,  or  economic  status,  implements  the 
1957  Civil  Rights  Act. 

Women  are  now  eligible  by  law  to  serve  on  State  juries  in  all 
50  States  and  on  juries  in  the  District  of  Columbia  and  Puerto 
Rico.  The  last  3  States  amended  their  laws  since  1966  to  permit 
women  to  serve.  In  White  v.  Crook  (251  F.  Supp.  401  (1966) ),  the 
Alabama  law  excluding  women  from  State  juries  was  declared 
unconstitutional  by  a  Federal  court  on  the  ground  that  the  State 
law  denied  equal  protection  to  women  in  violation  of  the  14th 
amendment.  Thereafter  the  legislature  enacted  a  law  permitting 
women  to  serve  on  State  juries. 


284  POLITICAL  AND  CIVIL  STATUS  OF  WOMEN 

In  1966  South  Carolina  voters  approved  a  constitutional 
amendment  to  permit  women  to  serve  on  State  juries.  The  amend- 
ment was  ratified  by  the  General  Assembly  in  1957.  In  1968  the 
Mississippi  legislature  amended  the  law  which  barred  women  from 
serving  on  State  juries,  so  that  women  may  now  serve  on  the  same 
basis  as  men. 

In  28  States  ^  women  serve  under  the  same  terms  and  condi- 
tions as  men,  with  the  same  qualifications,  disqualifications,  and 
exemptions.  In  22  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia,  women 
may  be  excused  on  grounds  not  available  to  men.  Of  these,  11 
States  ^  permit  a  woman  to  be  excused  solely  on  the  basis  of  her 
sex.  An  additional  10  States,^  the  District  of  Columbia,  and 
Puerto  Rico  permit  women  to  claim  an  exemption  because  of  child 
care  or  family  responsibilities.  Rhode  Island  further  provides 
that  women  shall  be  included  for  jury  service  only  when  court- 
house facilities  permit.  In  1967  Florida  and  New  Hampshire  re- 
moved their  requirement  that  women  register  before  they  may  be 
considered  for  jury  service.  Louisiana  is  now  the  only  State  with 
this  requirement. 

122.    Domicile 

A  person's  domicile  is  determined  by  the  coexistence  of  physi- 
cal presence  and  intent  to  reside  permanently  in  a  particular 
place.  Residence  is  mere  physical  presence.  The  concept  of  domi- 
cile is  important  since  many  legal  rights  and  duties  attach  to  it, 
e.g.,  the  right  to  vote  and  run  for  public  office  and  the  duty  to  pay 
taxes.  As  a  general  rule,  the  domicile  of  a  married  woman  is 
deemed,  by  operation  of  law,  to  be  that  of  her  husband.  If  the 
husband  changes  his  domicile  and  makes  reasonable  provision  for 
his  wife  at  the  new  domicile,  she  is  under  a  duty  to  follow  him, 
unless  to  do  so  would  be  a  recognized  hardship.  However,  a  mar- 
ried woman  may  establish  a  separate  domicile  when  the  interests 
of  husband  and  wife  are  hostile  and  result  in  a  separation  of  the 
parties.  In  a^ition,  an  increasing  number  of  jurisdictions  are 
permitting  a  wife  to  establish  a  separate  domicile  when  the  mari- 
tal unity  has  been  breached  and  the  parties  are  living  separately 


'  Alaska,  Arizona,  California,  Colorado,  Delaware,  Hawaii,  Idaho,  Illinois,  Indiana,  Iowa, 
Kentucky,  Maine,  Maryland,  Michigan,  Mississippi,  Montana,  Nebraska,  New  Jersey,  New 
Mexico,  North  Dakota,  Ohio,  Oregon,  Pennsylvania,  South  Dakota,  Vermont,  Washington, 
West  Virginia,  Wisconsin. 

'  Alabama,  Arkansas,  Georgia,  Kansas,  Minnesota,  Missouri,  Nevada,  New  York,  Rhode 
Island,  Tennessee,  Virginia. 

*  Connecticut,  Florida,  Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire,  North  Carolina,  Oklahoma,  South 
Carolina,  Texas,  Utah,  Wyoming. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  285 

by  mutual  consent  or  acquiescence.  In  such  cases  separate  exist- 
ence, interest,  and  rights  are  recognized. 

However,  problems  may  arise  in  this  area  of  the  law  for  the 
married  woman  whose  marriage  is  intact  but  who  for  some  good 
and  valid  reason  has  a  residence  separate  from  that  of  her  hus- 
band. In  recognition  of  the  inequities  that  may  result  from  the 
rigid  application  of  the  general  rule,  an  increasing  number  of 
States  are  permitting  a  married  woman  to  have  a  separate  domi- 
cile, either  for  all  purposes  or  for  specified  purposes.  At  present, 
5  States — Alaska,  Arkansas,  Delaware,  Hawaii,  and  Wisconsin — 
permit  a  married  woman  to  establish  a  separate  domicile  for  all 
purposes.  In  addition,  3  States  ^  permit  a  separate  domicile  for 
eligibility  to  public  office ;  2  States  ^  permit  a  separate  domicile 
for  jury  service;  3  States  ^  recognize  a  separate  domicile  for  pro- 
bate ;  and  13  States  ^  permit  a  separate  domicile  for  voting. 

Civil  Status — Family  Relations 
123.    Marriage 

State  laws  establishing  marriage  re(5uirements  generally  do  not 
make  distinctions  based  on  sex  except  in  setting  minimum  ages — 
usually  lower  for  women  than  for  men.  When  parental  consent  is 
not  required,  the  minimum  age  for  women  is  18  years  in  35  States  ^ 
and  the  District  of  Columbia;  it  is  19,  20,  or  21  in  the  remaining 
jurisdictions.  Girls  may  marry  with  parental  consent  at  the  age 
of  16  years  in  38  States  ^°  and  the  District  of  Columbia,  at  age  15 
in  5  States,^'  and  at  age  14  in  4  States.^^  The  minimum  age  in 
Washington  is  17  years ;  in  Kansas,  18  years.  In  New  Hampshire  a 
girl  who  marries  below  the  age  of  18  must  have  both  the  consent 
of  her  parents  and  that  of  the  court.  All  but  4  States  "  require  a 


'  Maine,  New  Jersey,  New  York. 

'  Maine,  New  Jersey. 

'  California,  Florida,  New  Jersey. 

*  California,  Connecticut,  Florida,  Illinois,  Indiana,  Iowa,  Maine,  Massachusetts,  Michigan, 
New  Jersey,  New  York,  North  Dakota,  Wyoming. 

'Alabama,  Alaska,  Arizona,  Arkansas,  California,  Colorado,  Delaware,  Idaho,  Illinois, 
Indiana,  Iowa,  Kansas,  Maine,  Maryland,  Massachusetts,  Michigan,  Minnesota,  Missouri, 
Montana,  Nevada,  New  Hampshire,  New  Jersey,  New  Mexico,  New  York,  North  Carolina, 
North  Dakota,  Oklahoma,  Oregon,  South  Carolina,  South  Dakota,  Texas,  Utah,  Vermont, 
Washington,    Wisconsin. 

'"  Alaska,  Arizona,  Arkansas,  California,  Colorado,  Connecticut,  Delaware,  Florida,  Georgia, 
Hawaii,  Idaho,  Illinois,  Indiana,  Iowa,  Kentucky,  Louisiana,  Maine,  Maryland,  Massachusetts, 
Michigan,  Minnesota,  Montana,  Nebraska,  Nevada,  New  Jersey,  New  Mexico,  New  York, 
North  Carolina,  Ohio,  Pennsylvania,  Rhode  Island,  South  Dakota,  Tennessee,  Vermont, 
Virginia,   West  Virginia,   Wisconsin,  Wyoming. 

"  Mississippi,   Missouri,   North    Dakota,    Oklahoma,    Oregon. 

^  Alabama,  South  Carolina,  Texas,  Utah. 

"  Maryland,   Minnesota,    Nevada,    South    Carolina. 


286  POLITICAL  AND  CIVIL  STATUS  OF  WOMEN 

premarital  health  examination  for  both  applicants  for  a  marriage 
license.  In  these  4  jurisdictions  the  health  examination  is  not  re- 
quired for  either  applicant. 

The  landmark  decision  of  the  U.S.  Supreme  Court  in  Loving 
V.  Virginia  (388  U.S.  1  (1967) )  held  Virginia's  miscegenation  law 
unconstitutional  as  a  denial  of  equal  protection  of  the  laws  and  a 
deprivation  of  due  process  of  law,  in  violation  of  the  14th  amend- 
ment to  the  Constitution.  This  decision  appears  to  have  invalidated 
laws  in  15  other  States  ^*  which  prohibit  marriage  between  persons 
of  different  races. 

124.    Divorce 

All  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  permit  divorce  on  more 
than  one  ground.  For  the  most  part  grounds  for  divorce  are  the 
same  for  husband  and  wife,  although  more  than  half  the  States 
recognize  to  the  wife  and  at  least  13  States  ^^  permit  a  man  to  seek 
divorce  to  the  wife  and  at  least  13  States  ^^  permit  a  man  to  seek 
a  divorce  on  the  basis  of  his  wife's  pregnancy  by  another  man  at 
the  time  of  their  marriage. 

Adultery  is  recognized  as  a  ground  for  divorce  in  all  States  and 
the  District  of  Columbia.  The  most  common  other  grounds  for  di- 
vorce are  desertion,  separation  for  a  specified  period,  cruelty,  al- 
coholism, impotency,  felony  conviction,  and  insanity.  Some  juris- 
dictions permit  divorce  on  the  grounds  of  drug  addiction  or  com- 
mission of  an  infamous  crime. 

Forty-eight  States  and  the  District  of  Columbia  have  laws 
which  permit  the  award  of  permanent  alimony  to  the  wife  in  the 
discretion  of  the  court  when  divorce  is  granted.  (In  North  Caro- 
lina alimony  is  limited  to  specified  circumstances.  Pennsylvania 
and  Texas  make  no  general  provisions  for  alimony  on  final  de- 
cree, although  in  Pennsylvania  the  court  is  empowered  to  decree 
alimony  for  the  support  of  either  an  insane  wife  or  an  insane 
husband.  In  addition  to  Pennsylvania,  in  at  least  6  States  ^^  with 
no  general  provision  for  alimony  to  the  husband,  the  wife  may  be 
held  liable  for  the  support  of  the  husband  in  case  of  divorce  on 
the  basis  of  his  mental  illness. 


"  Alabama,  Arkansas,  Delaware,  Florida,  Georgia,  Kentucky,  Louisiana,  Mississippi, 
Missouri,  North  Carolina,  Oklahoma,  South  Carolina,  Tennessee,  Texas,  West  Virginia. 
(Maryland  repealed  its  miscegenation  law  in  early  1967  prior  to  the  Supreme  Court's  decision.) 

"  Alabama,  Arizona,  Georgia,  Iowa,  Kentucky,  Mississippi,  Missouri,  New  Mexico,  North 
Carolina,    Oklahoma,    Tennessee,    Virginia,    Wyoming. 

'« Connecticut,    Delaware,    Kansas,    Mississippi,    Nebraska,    Wyoming. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  287 

Twelve  States  ^'  may  allow  alimony  to  either  spouse ;  in  addition, 
Massachusetts  and  New  Hampshire  allow  the  husband  a  portion 
of  the  wife's  estate  in  the  nature  of  alimony.  The  statutes  of  Colo- 
rado and  Virginia  are  broad  enough  to  apply  to  either  spouse,  but 
in  actual  practice  alimony  may  be  limited  to  the  wife  since  in  nei- 
ther State  does  there  appear  to  be  a  judicial  determination  per- 
mitting alimony  to  the  husband. 

125.    Parent  and  Child 

Under  the  common  law,  the  father  was  the  preferred  natural 
guardian  of  the  person  of  a  minor  child  and  as  such  had  the  care, 
custody,  control,  and  responsibility  for  the  education  of  the  child. 
This  rule  has  been  abrogated  by  statute  in  the  majority  of  States 
to  provide  that  the  natural  guardianship  of  a  minor  child  is 
vested  jointly  in  both  parents.  Seven  States  ^«  presently  provide 
by  statute  that  the  father  is  the  preferred  natural  guardian  of  a 
minor  child. 

State  laws  usually  provide  that  when  a  minor  becomes  the 
owner  of  a  specified  amount  of  property  a  guardian  of  the  minor's 
estate  must  be  appointed  to  manage  and  conserve  the  estate.  Six 
States  "  and  the  District  of  Columbia  specify  by  statute  that  the 
father  is  preferred  when  it  is  necessary  to  appoint  a  guardian  of 
the  estate  of  a  minor. 

If  a  marriage  is  broken  by  divorce  or  legal  separation,  gener- 
ally neither  parent  has  any  legal  advantage  over  the  other  as  to 
custody  of  a  minor  child ;  the  best  interests  of  the  child  guide  the 
court's  disposition  of  custody.  If  there  is  a  contest  between  the 
parents  regarding  custody  or  guardianship  of  a  minor  child,  at 
least  8  States  2°  provide  by  statute  that,  all  other  things  being 
equal,  the  mother  has  a  preferred  right  if  the  child  is  of  tender 
years,  and  the  father  has  a  preferred  right  if  the  child  is  of  an 
age  to  require  education  or  preparation  for  labor  or  business. 

Unmarried  parents. — An  unmarried  mother  is  considered  the 
natural  guardian  and  entitled  to  the  custody  of  her  child.  The 
father  becomes  the  natural  guardian  only  if  he  legally  acknowl- 
edges his  relationship  to  the  child  or  marries  the  mother. 

Inheritance  by  parents  from  children. — No  distinction  exists 
between  the  rights  of  the  father  and  those  of  the  mother  to  in- 


"  Alaska,  California,  Hawaii,  Illinois,  Iowa,  North  Carolina,  North  Dakota,  Ohio,  Oklahoma, 
Oregon,   Utah,   West  Virginia. 

"  Alaska,    Georgia,    Louisiana,    New    Mexico,    North    Carolina,    Oklahoma,    Texas. 

"  Alabama,    Georgia,    Louisiana,    Montana,    New    Mexico,    North   Dakota. 

^''  Arizona,  California,  Michigan,   Montana,  North  Dakota,  Oklahoma,   South  Dakota,  Utah. 


288  POLITICAL  AND  CIVIL  STATUS  OF  WOMEN 

herit  from  legitimate  children.  Most  States  allow  an  unmarried 
mother  to  inherit  from  her  child. 

126.    Family  Support 

Notwithstanding  the  legal  emancipation  of  women  and  their  in- 
creased participation  in  the  labor  force,  in  all  States  a  husband  is 
liable  for  the  support  of  his  wife.  In  most  States  a  wife  is  respon- 
sible for  the  support  of  her  husband  when  he  is  unable  to  support 
himself.  Nearly  all  States  make  both  the  mother  and  father  liable 
for  the  support  of  their  legitimate  minor  child ;  however,  the  lia- 
bility of  the  mother  is  frequently  secondary.  In  the  8  States  ^^ 
with  community  property  laws  of  ownership  between  husband 
and  wife,  the  common  estate  of  husband  and  wife  is  liable  for 
debts  for  family  support.  In  addition,  most  States  specify  that 
children  are  liable  for  the  support  of  needy  parents  under  speci- 
fied circumstances.  A  money  judgment  stemming  from  duties  of 
support  may  be  enforced  against  either  the  person  or  his  prop- 
erty. 

Unmarried  parents. — The  mother  is  primarily  liable  for  sup- 
port of  her  child  born  out  of  wedlock.  Most  States  have  legal  pro- 
cedures for  establishing  paternity.  Until  paternity  is  established 
or  voluntarily  assumed,  the  father  has  no  legal  obligation  to  sup- 
port the  child,  or  to  contribute  to  the  expenses  of  the  mother  at 
childbirth. 

Uniform  Reciprocal  Enforcement  of  Support  Act. — Uniform 
Reciprocal  Enforcement  of  Support  Acts  are  now  in  effect  in  all 
jurisdictions  of  the  United  States,  following  the  1957  law  enacted 
by  Congress  for  the  District  of  Columbia.  This  legislation  does 
not  create  new  duties  of  support,  but  provides  by  reciprocal  legis- 
lation for  enforcement  across  State  lines  of  support  duties  al- 
ready existing.  Each  State  applies  its  own  law,  but  the  act  makes 
binding  the  support  duty  regardless  of  the  presence  or  residence 
of  the  obligee.  New  judgments  may  be  obtained,  or  existing  judg- 
ments enforced  from  State  to  State  under  this  legislation. 

Enforcement  of  these  laws  by  courts  throughout  the  country 
has  lightened  the  burden  of  welfare  agencies  to  a  large  extent; 
and  the  civil  rather  than  criminal  emphasis  has  contributed  to 
the  preservation  of  the  family,  since  it  is  thus  easier  for  the 
parties  to  become  reconciled. 

One  problem,  however,  has  persisted  to  hamper  the  effective 
administration  of  these  acts:  that  of  finding  the  deserting  party 


^*  Arizona,    California,    Idaho,    Louisiana,    Nevada,    New    Mexico,    Texas.    Washington. 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  289 

responsible  for  the  support  of  his  dependents.  A  New  York  law  di- 
rects the  State  Department  of  Social  Welfare  to  establish  a  cen- 
tral registry  of  records  for  locating  deserting  parents  of  children 
who  are  receiving  or  likely  to  need  public  assistance.  The  depart- 
ment is  authorized  to  obtain  information  from  other  State  agen- 
cies (e.g.,  motor  vehicle  and  tax  records)  concerning  the  identity 
and  whereabouts  of  deserting  parents.  Many  other  States  permit 
responsible  State  agencies  to  request  and  receive  information 
from  the  records  of  all  other  State  agencies  to  assist  in  locating 
parents  who  have  deserted  their  children  or  any  other  persons 
liable  for  support  of  dependents.  Various  Federal  agencies  are  au- 
thorized to  attempt  to  locate  the  parent  responsible  for  support  in 
certain  circumstances  where  the  children  are  eligible  for  assist- 
ance under  the  aid  to  families  with  dependent  children  program. 

Civil  Status — Property  and  Contract  Law 

127.  Property 

Property  is  broadly  divided  into  two  categories — personal  and 
real  (real  estate  and  things  permanently  attached  thereto).  In 
property  management  and  control,  inheritance,  and  freedom  of 
enjoyment  of  earnings,  no  distinction  is  made  between  the  rights 
of  unmarried  women  and  unmarried  men.  However,  there  may  be 
distinctions  between  rights  of  married  and  single  women. 

There  are  two  different  property  systems  within  the  United 
States — the  community  property  system,  which  grew  out  of 
French  and  Spanish  law,  and  the  common  law  system,  which  de- 
veloped from  the  English  common  law. 

128.  Ownership,  Control,  and  Use  of  Property 

Personal  earnings. — Personal  earnings  of  married  women  are 
made  their  separate  property  by  specific  statute  in  most  of  the 
States  not  having  a  community  property  law.  Earnings  are  con- 
sidered part  of  the  community  in  the  community  property  States. 
In  4  of  these  States — Arizona,  Louisiana,  Nevada,  and  New  Mex- 
ico— the  community  property  is  managed  and  controlled  by  the 
husband,  but  the  remaining  4 — California,  Idaho,  Texas,  and 
Washington — provide  that  the  wife  may  control  her  earnings.  In 
Texas  a  provision  giving  married  women  such  right  by  vesting 
control  over  community  property  in  the  spouse  who  would  have 
control  had  the  property  not  become  part  of  the  community  be- 
came effective  January  1,  1968. 


290  POLITICAL  AND  CIVIL  STATUS  OF  WOMEN 

Real  property  owned  separately. — Although  a  married  woman 
has  the  power  to  contract  with  reference  to  her  separate  real 
property,  a  number  of  States — either  directly  or  indirectly — re- 
strict a  married  person's  right  to  convey  or  encumber  his  or  her 
separate  real  property.  In  22  States  "  and  the  District  of  Colum- 
bia, where  both  the  husband  and  wife  have  either  curtesy,  dower, 
or  a  statutory  interest  in  the  nature  of  dower  in  the  spouse's 
property,  it  is  necessary  that  either  spouse  join  in  the  conveyance 
of  the  real  estate  belonging  to  the  other  spouse  in  order  to  bar 
this  interest.  This  requirement  may  be  of  benefit  to  a  married 
woman  in  that  it  can  help  prevent  the  dissipation  of  the  assets  of 
her  spouse. 

Six  States  ^^  provide  dower  or  a  statutory  interest  in  the  nature 
of  dower  for  a  wife  without  giving  her  husband  a  similar  interest 
in  her  property,  thereby  making  it  necessary  for  the  wife  to  join 
in  her  husband's  conveyance  of  his  realty  without  subjecting  her 
real  estate  to  similar  restrictions.  Two  States — Alabama  and 
Forida — while  not  giving  a  husband  a  curtesy  or  statutory  dower 
interest  in  the  wife's  property,  specifically  require  him  to  join  in 
the  conveyance  of  his  wife's  property. 

Recent  enactments  in  this  area  include  a  1967  amendment  to 
Indiana  law  to  remove  a  provision  that  a  married  woman  could 
not  convey  her  separate  real  property  without  the  signature  of 
her  husband.  And  in  the  Texas  amendments  referred  to  earlier, 
the  marital  property  law  was  changed  to  provide,  among  other 
things,  for  elimination  of  any  inequality  caused  through  use  of 
the  terms  "husband"  and  "wife"  by  referring  to  "spouses,"  so 
that  provisions  for  the  husband  and  wife  are  identical.  Texas 
amendments  also  provided  for  joint  management  of  community 
property  by  husband  and  wife. 

Real  and  personal  property  acquired  by  joint  efforts  after  mar- 
riage.— Under  the  community  property  system,  all  property  ac- 
quired after  marriage  is  classified  as  either  separate  or  commu- 
nity property.  Separate  property  is  under  the  control  and  manage- 
ment of  the  individual  owning  it,  and  in  7  of  the  8  community 
property  States  the  husband  generally  has  control  of  the  com- 
munity property.  In  Texas  each  spouse  now  has  control  of  that 
community  property  which  he  or  she  would  have  owned  if  a  sin- 
gle person. 

"  Delaware,  Hawaii,  Illinois,  Iowa,  Kansas,  Kentucky,  Maine,  Maryland,  Minnesota, 
Nebraska,  New  Hampshire,  New  Jersey,  North  Carolina,  Ohio,  Oregon,  Pennsylvania,  Rhode 
Island,  Tennessee,  Vermont,  Virginia,  West  Virginia,  Wisconsin.  (Also  Missouri  for  all 
estates  vested   as  of   1955,   when   the  statutory' dower  law   of   1939   was  repealed.) 

2' Arkansas,  Indiana,  Michigan,  Montana,  South  Carolina,  Utah.  (In  Utah  joinder  of  a 
wife  to  bar  dower  is  necessary  only  if  the  wife  is  a  resident  of  Utah.) 


LAWS  GOVERNING  WOMEN'S  EMPLOYMENT  AND  STATUS  291 

Under  the  common  law  system,  all  property  is  owned  sepa- 
rately or  jointly  in  accordance  with  the  title  to  it,  and  control  of 
the  property  depends  upon  the  type  of  ownership  under  which  it 
is  held.  Separate  property  belongs  to  one  of  the  spouses  and  is 
under  the  exclusive  control  of  that  spouse.  Joint  property  is  that 
in  which  both  spouses  have  an  interest,  and  the  control  is  gener- 
ally shared. 

Control  of  real  estate  depends  upon  the  type  of  ownership 
under  which  it  is  held.  Under  the  old  common  law,  real  estate 
conveyed  or  devised  to  a  husband  and  wife  created  an  estate  by 
the  entireties  held  by  them  as  one  person,  with  the  husband  enti- 
tled to  all  the  rents,  profits,  and  enjoyment  thereof.  Today,  while 
the  common  law  estate  by  the  entireties  may  still  be  created  in 
the  District  of  Columbia  and  the  majority  of  the  42  common  law 
States,  it  is  also  generally  possible  for  married  persons  to  own 
real  estate  by  some  other  form  of  ownership,  under  which  each 
spouse  is  entitled  to  one-half  of  the  rents,  profits,  and  enjoyment 
of  the  property. 

Personal  property  accumulated  during  marriage  by  the  cooper- 
ative efforts  of  husband  and  wife  is  generally  under  the  control  of 
the  husband,  subject  to  certain  restrictions;  for  example,  in  many 
States  the  husband  cannot  mortgage  the  family  furniture  without 
the  wife's  consent.  The  effect  of  this  common  law  rule  may  be 
overcome  by  private  agreement  between  the  parties,  or  by  a  title 
or  record  (such  as  a  bill  of  sale)  establishing  otherwise.  It  may 
be  necessary  for  a  court  of  equity  to  decide  the  ownership. 

Disposition  of  property  after  death. — Married  women  may  dis- 
pose of  their  separate  property  by  will  as  freely  as  married  men. 
The  majority  of  States  provide  that,  in  the  absence  of  a  will,  a 
widow  or  widower  inherits  from  the  deceased  spouse  in  a  similar 
manner.  The  surviving  spouse's  share  of  the  estate  generally  de- 
pends on  whether  there  are  surviving  issue,  parents,  or  other 
next  of  kin. 

In  both  common  law  and  community  property  States,  a  surviv- 
ing husband  or  wife  generally  receives  all  of  the  property  sepa- 
rately owned  by  the  deceased  spouse  if  there  are  no  descendants ; 
one-half  or  one-third  if  there  are  descendants.  In  all  the  commu- 
nity property  States,  a  wife  receives  her  half  of  the  community 
property.  In  4  of  these  States — California,  Idaho,  Nevada,  and 
New  Mexico — she  receives  her  husband's  half ;  in  2 — Arizona  and 
Texas — she  receives  her  husband's  half  if  there  are  no  descend- 
ants; and  in  the  remaining  2 — Louisiana  and  Washington — she 
receives  his  half  if  there  are  no  descendants  or  parents.  In  the 


292  POLITICAL  AND  CIVIL  STATUS  OF  WOMEN 

common  law  States,  jointly  owned  property  is  divided  according  to 
the  title. 

129.    Confracfs 

All  States  with  a  common  law  background  recognize  a  married 
woman's  legal  capacity  to  contract  her  personal  services  in  em- 
ployment outside  her  home  and  her  entitlement  to  earnings  from 
such  work  without  the  formal  consent  of  her  husband.  In  the  8 
community  property  States  a  married  woman  may  contract  with 
respect  to  her  employment  and  earnings  from  such  employment, 
but  the  earnings  are  considered  part  of  the  community  property. 
(See  sec.  128  for  discussion  of  earnings.) 

In  most  States  a  married  woman  may  contract  with  respect  to 
her  separate  property.  However,  in  at  least  3  States — Georgia, 
Idaho,  and  Kentucky — a  married  woman  does  not  have  the  legal 
capacity  to  become  a  surety  or  a  guarantor. 

In  4  States — California,  Florida,  Nevada,  and  Pennsylvania — 
court  sanction  and,  in  some  cases,  the  husband's  consent,  is  re- 
quired for  a  wife's  legal  venture  into  an  independent  business.  In 
addition,  Massachusetts  requires  a  married  woman  or  her  hus- 
band to  file  a  certificate  with  the  city  or  town  clerk's  office  in 
order  to  prevent  the  personal  property  of  her  business  from  being 
liable  for  her  husband's  debts. 

Although  married  women  in  general  may  contract  freely  with 
third  parties,  transactions  between  husband  and  wife  are  still 
subject  to  legal  limitations  in  many  States.  In  some  States  such 
contracts  are  restricted  by  the  general  rule  that  controls  the  ac- 
tions of  persons  occupying  confidential  relations  with  each  other. 
In  some  States  such  contracts  may  be  executed  by  a  formal  writ- 
ten document,  and  in  others  no  authority  exists  to  make  such  con- 
tracts. 


Part  III 

Commissions  on  the  Status  of  Women 


COMMISSIONS   ON   THE   STATUS 
OF  WOMEN 

Federal 

The  momentum  generated  by  the  activities  of  the  President's 
Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women  was  the  force  that  resulted 
in  the  creation  of  State  commissions  on  the  status  of  women  and 
the  Interdepartmental  Committee  and  Citizens'  Advisory  Council 
on  the  Status  of  Women,  under  which  the  social,  professional,  and 
legal  interests  of  women  have  continued  to  receive  attention. 

The  President's  Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women  was  es- 
tablished by  President  John  F.  Kennedy  on  December  14,  1961. 
The  function  of  the  Commission  was  to  examine  and  recommend 
remedies  for  the  prejudices  and  outmoded  customs  which,  the 
President  said,  "act  as  barriers  to  the  full  realization  of  women's 
basic  rights  .  .  .  ."  The  Commission  and  its  seven  committees 
studied  a  wide  variety  of  problems  affecting  women's  role  in  the 
economic,  political,  and  cultural  life  of  the  Nation.  Its  recommen- 
dations were  in  its  report,  American  Women,  which  was  pre- 
sented to  the  President  on  October  11,  1963. 

Acting  immediately  on  the  recommendations  of  the  Commis- 
sion, President  Kennedy  signed  Executive  Order  11126  on  Novem- 
ber 1,  1963,  establishing  the  Interdepartmental  Committee  on  the 
Status  of  Women,  now  composed  of  six  Secretaries  of  Depart- 
ments, the  Attorney  General,  the  Chairman  of  the  Civil  Service 
Commission,  the  Chairman  of  the  Equal  Employment  Opportu- 
nity Commission,  and  the  Director  of  the  Office  of  Economic  Op- 
portunity, with  the  Secretary  of  Labor  as  chairman.  The  Execu- 
tive order  further  established  a  Citizens'  Advisory  Council,  com- 
posed of  20  private  citizens  appointed  by  the  President  for  an  in- 
determinate time. 

The  Committee  and  Council  have  sponsored  four  national  con- 
ferences of  commissions  on  the  status  of  women.  Beginning  with 
a  small  1-day  conference  attended  by  87  State  commission  mem- 
bers in  1964,  the  conferences  grew,  as  interest  in  the  status  of 
women  and  the  number  of  commissions  increased,  to  a  3-day 
meeting  in  1968,  with  more  than  400  participants.  Leaders  of  na- 
tional organizations  attended,  and  the  President,  Vice  President, 
Cabinet  officers.  Members  of  Congress,  and  leading  citizens  were 

294 


COMMISSIONS  ON  THE  STATUS   OF  WOMEN  295 

on  the  program.  The  conferences  gave  impetus  to  the  status  of 
women  movement  throughout  the  Nation. 

Four  reports  of  progress  on  the  status  of  women  have  been 
published. 

In  order  to  keep  up  with  fast-moving  events  and  to  present  ad- 
vanced proposals  to  stimulate  action  and  strengthen  the  progress 
of  w^omen,  the  Council  set  up  task  forces  on  family  law  and  pol- 
icy, health  and  v^^elfare,  labor  standards,  and  social  insurance  and 
taxes.  The  task  forces  prepared  reports  and  recommendations,  and 
the  reports  have  been  published. 

A  brief  summary  of  major  task  force  recommendations  fol- 
lows: 


Family  Law  and  Policy 

Declaring  that  marriage  is  an  economic  partnership,  the  task 
force  recommended  that  an  agency  such  as  the  Commission  on 
Uniform  State  Laws  be  urged  to  make  a  fundamental  study  of 
family  property  law  and  prepare  a  model  law  looking  toward  pro- 
tection of  a  married  woman's  rights  in  property  acquired  during 
the  marriage  in  common  law  States  and  greater  rights  in  the 
management  of  community  property  in  community  property 
States.  It  asked  that  the  recent  law  revision  in  Texas  be  brought 
to  the  attention  of  appropriate  groups  in  other  community  prop- 
erty States. 

Convinced  that  the  right  of  a  woman  to  determine  her  own  re- 
productive life  is  a  basic  human  right,  the  task  force  recom- 
mended repeal  of  laws  that  make  abortion  a  criminal  offense  and 
that  restrict  access  to  birth  control  devices  and  information. 

The  task  force  further  suggested  that  alimony  should  not  be 
used  to  redress  wrongs  and  that  criteria  for  fixing  alimony  should 
recognize  contributions  of  each  spouse  to  the  family  and  the  finan- 
cial need  of  each  spouse;  that  voluntary  separation  should  be  in- 
cluded as  grounds  for  divorce;  and  that  married  women  should 
have  the  same  rights  as  married  men  to  establish  their  own  domi- 
ciles. 

Protection  of  the  rights  of  children  was  of  basic  concern.  The 
task  force  declared  that  illegitimate  children  should  have  the 
same  legal  rights  as  the  legitimate,  that  in  divorce  cases  custody 
of  children  should  be  granted  in  accordance  with  the  best  interests 
of  the  child,  and  that  the  mother  should  not  have  to  bring  charges 
of  criminal  nonsupport  against  the  father  in  order  to  receive 
public  assistance. 


296  COMMISSIONS   ON   THE   STATUS   OF  WOMEN 

Health  and  Welfare 

The  Task  Force  on  Health  and  Welfare  prefaced  its  report 
with  this  statement:  "To  assure  for  women  the  right  of  choice 
with  respect  to  their  own  lives  and  to  planning  for  their  families, 
we  make  the  following  recommendations." 

There  are  15  of  these  recommendations,  dealing  with  the  topics 
of  increased  opportunities,  on-the-job  training,  homemaker  serv- 
ices, and  protective  services  for  children. 

The  task  force  urged  that  methods  of  family  planning  and  ac- 
cess to  them  be  readily  available,  and  that  legal  abortion  services 
be  available  under  the  same  conditions  to  all  women  regardless  of 
economic  status. 

Recognizing  that  adequate  day  care  of  children  continues  to  be 
a  need  throughout  the  country,  the  task  force  urged  community 
development  of  facilities  and  programs  "to  meet  its  needs."  It 
further  urged  that  opportunities  for  challenging  assignments  for 
volunteers  be  expanded  by  public  and  private  health,  welfare,  and 
other  service  organizations,  and  that  governmental  agencies 
make  the  necessary  effort  to  obtain  the  removal  of  any  legal  bar- 
riers to  the  use  of  needed  volunteers. 

Another  proposal  was  for  intensive  study  and  bold  experimen- 
tation as  to  the  most  feasible  methods  of  providing  basic  income 
maintenance. 

Labor  Standards 

The  task  force  recommended  that  all  nonsupervisory  workers 
be  covered  under  the  minimum  wage  provisions  of  the  Fair  Labor 
Standards  Act,  It  was  particularly  concerned  that  agricultural 
and  household  workers,  who  are  vulnerable  to  exceedingly  low 
wages  because  of  lack  of  statutory  protection,  be  covered  by  the 
act. 

The  task  force  proposed  that  overtime  be  paid  at  the  rate  of  at 
least  11/4  times  the  regular  rate  after  8  hours  a  day  and  40  hours 
a  week.  It  also  recommended  that  States  which  have  not  yet  done 
so  enact  adequate  minimum  wage  laws  and  amend  their  maximum 
hours  laws  to  permit  women  to  work  overtime  beyond  the  maxi- 
mum hours  if  this  overtime  is  compensated  at  a  rate  at  least  in 
accordance  with  the  premium  pay  provisions  of  the  Fair  Labor 
Standards  Act  and  if  the  overtime  is  agreed  to  voluntarily  by  the 
employee. 

In  States  where  there  are  prohibitions  on  nightwork  applicable 
to  women  only,  the  task  force  recommended  that  these  be  re- 


COMMISSIONS  ON   THE  STATUS   OF  WOMEN  297 

moved  for  adult  women  and  urged  the  assurance  of  adequate  po- 
lice protection,  transportation,  and  meal  facilities  for  all  workers 
employed  at  night.  It  also  recommended  that  laws  prohibiting 
women  from  being  employed  in  particular  occupations  be  repealed. 

Another  recommendation  by  the  task  force  was  that  States  re- 
peal laws  which  place  absolute  limits  on  weightlifting  and  re- 
place them  with  well-designed  safety  and  health  regulations  ade- 
quate for  the  protection  of  both  men  and  women. 

Also  recommended  were  provisions  for  reasonable  maternity 
leave,  a  review  of  laws  pertaining  to  occupational  safety  and 
health,  and  the  strengthening  of  enforcement  powers  of  Federal 
and  State  fair  employment  practices  commissions.  The  task  force 
proposed  that  all  State  fair  employment  laws  contain  provisions 
relating  to  discrimination  based  on  sex. 

Social  Insurance  and  Taxes 

Included  in  the  11  specific  recommendations  for  improving  the 
unemployment  insurance  system  as  it  relates  to  women  were  pro- 
posals concerning:  experience  rating  and  financing;  disqualifica- 
tion for  compensation  with  respect  to  pregnancy  and  to  leaving 
on  account  of  family  obligations;  and  benefits  based  on  depen- 
dents' allowances.  A  Federal-State  system  of  temporary  disability 
insurance,  tied  to  the  unemployment  insurance  system,  to  include 
maternity  benefits  was  recommended. 

Also  supported  was  legislation  to  permit  some  couples  to  com- 
bine earnings  for  purposes  of  computing  social  security  benefits. 
As  a  long-range  solution  to  the  inequities  to  which  working  wives 
are  subjected,  the  task  force  requested  the  next  Advisory  Council 
on  Social  Security  to  consider  a  "double-decker"  approach  that 
would  (1)  provide  for  meeting  the  needs  of  dependents  through  a 
socially  adequate  benefit  financed  out  of  general  revenues  and  (2) 
provide  for  supplementation  of  this  basic  benefit  by  contributory 
wage-related  benefits  for  those  who  worked  in  covered  employ- 
ment. 


State 

Even  before  American  Women  was  transmitted  to  the 
President  in  October  1963,  several  States  had  established  commis- 
sions on  the  status  of  women,  and  all  50  States  had  done  so  by 
February  1967.  In  addition,  commissions  have  been  set  up  in  the 
District  of  Columbia,  the  Virgin  Islands,  Puerto  Rico,  and  two 


298  COMMISSIONS   ON   THE  STATUS   OF   WOMEN 

municipalities.  Over  the  years,  changes  in  State  administration 
frequently  have  meant  a  slowing  down  of  commission  activities 
— sometimes  for  a  brief  period,  sometimes  longer  if  a  major  reor- 
ganization of  structure  and  personnel  was  involved.  In  only  two 
States  have  official  activities  come  to  an  end,  and  in  one  of  these 
an  active  citizens'  council  on  the  status  of  women  has  picked  up 
the  task  of  implementing  the  original  commission's  recommenda- 
tions. A  new  trend  appears  to  be  the  establishment  of  more  city 
commissions  in  order  to  focus  on  local  problems  while  working 
cooperatively  with  the  State  commissions  and  participating  in  the 
nationwide  movement. 

Most  commissions  were  created  by  action  of  State  Governors 
and  about  a  fifth  by  State  legislatures.  A  few  have  appropriations 
which  permit  a  paid  executive,  but  the  majority  have  financial  as- 
sistance to  cover  only  a  few  items,  and  therefore  rely  primarily 
on  the  voluntary  services  of  their  members.  The  Department  of 
Labor,  through  the  Women's  Bureau,  assisted  in  the  organization 
of  the  commissions  and  provides  continuing  technical  assistance 
and  staff  support.  The  commissions  have  made  substantial  contri- 
butions by  informing  women  and  inspiring  them  to  study  and  act 
on  their  problems. 

The  functions  and  target  areas  of  the  great  majority  of  State 
commissions  were  defined  by  their  Governors  or  State  legisla- 
tures. Areas  of  concern  originally  were  patterned  after  those  of 
the  President's  Commission,  focusing  on  employment,  home  and 
community,  labor  legislation,  civil  and  political  rights,  education 
and  counseling,  and  social  insurance  and  tax  law.  Some  commis- 
sions recently  have  branched  out  in  new  directions.  Several  have 
set  up  committees  on  special  problems  of  women  in  poverty.  Oth- 
ers have  developed  special  projects  to  expand  day  care  services  or 
to  upgrade  the  occupation  of  household  employment. 

Most  commissions  have  between  15  and  30  members;  and  they 
usually  draw  on  the  assistance  of  specialists,  interested  individu- 
als, and  organization  representatives  on  committees  or  task 
forces.  A  major  factor  in  the  effectiveness  of  many  commissions 
lies  in  the  fact  that  their  membership  is  broad  and  representa- 
tive. Active  participants  include  leaders  in  women's  civic  and  serv- 
ice organizations,  church  groups,  unions,  employer  associations, 
educational  institutions,  and  professional  and  vocational  organi- 
zations. Many  commissions  include  State  legislators  and  officials; 
most  include  men  and  representatives  of  minority  groups  in  their 
memberships  and  are  making  a  determined  effort  to  include  more 
members  under  30  years  of  age  and  also  those  with  low  incomes. 


COMMISSIONS  ON   THE  STATUS  OF  WOMEN  299 

Local  and  regional  conferences,  discussion  groups,  and  work- 
shops have  been  sponsored  by  State  commissions.  These  have  pro- 
vided a  forum  for  nationwide  discussion  of  major,  and  sometimes 
controversial,  issues.  They  have  reached  and  informed  many 
women — and  men — who  might  not  otherwise  have  become  in- 
volved, and  provided  avenues  for  communicating  effective  meth- 
ods for  implementation  of  their  recommendations. 

State  commissions  have  been  effective  in  their  efforts  to  secure 
passage  of  new  and  improved  labor  laws.  The  unprecedented 
gains  in  State  minimum  wage  legislation  in  the  last  5  years — six 
new  laws  and  many  strengthening  amendments — can  be  largely 
attributed  to  the  determination  of  the  commissions.  In  various 
States  they  have  successfully  campaigned  for  equal  pay  and  fair 
employment  practices  legislation.  In  others  they  have  won  the 
battle  to  secure  the  right  of  women  to  serve  on  State  court  juries 
or,  in  some  cases,  to  serve  on  the  same  basis  as  men.  By  preparing 
rosters  of  qualified  women,  they  have  stimulated  both  Federal 
and  State  agencies  to  put  women  in  positions  of  leadership,  and 
have  encouraged  women  themselves  to  seek  and  accept  more  re- 
sponsible appointive  or  elective  positions.  Women  today  are  serv- 
ing on  school  boards  and  draft  boards;  as  State  registrars  of 
motor  vehicles;  as  State  treasurers  or  commissioners  of  revenue; 
and  in  many  other  jobs,  paid  or  honorary,  that  were  once  re- 
served for  men. 

Concentrated  efforts  have  been  made  by  many  commissions  to 
increase  educational,  training,  and  guidance  opportunities  for 
women.  Guidance  and  counseling  centers  have  been  established,  a 
part-time  degree  program  has  been  initiated  at  a  State  university 
city  campus,  and  local  industry  has  been  helped  to  provide  train- 
ing programs  for  women  workers. 

Through  these  and  many  other  activities,  the  commissions  on 
the  status  of  women  have  provided  the  continuing  leadership  at 
the  local  level  which  is  so  essential  if  progress  is  to  be  made  to- 
ward the  goal  of  helping  women  to  achieve  their  full  potential  in 
a  democratic  society. 


Part  IV 

Organizations  of  Interest  to  Women 


339-458 


ORGANIZATIONS   OF   INTEREST 

TO  WOMEN 

National  organizations  for  women,  together  with  some  profes- 
sional organizations  for  both  women  and  men,  are  grouped  in  the 
following  list  according  to  fields  of  interest.  Membership  is  noted 
when  recent  figures  are  available.  (For  an  alphabetical  list  of  or- 
ganizations included,  see  pages  329-331.) 

Civic,   Religious,  and   Social  Organizations 

C/V/c 

League  of  Women  Voters  of  the  United  States,  1200  17th  Street 
NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Founded  1920.  Its  purpose  is  to 
promote  political  responsibility  through  informed  and  active 
participation  of  citizens  in  government.  Membership:  146,000 
in  more  than  1,237  local  leagues  organized  in  50  States,  the 
District  of  Columbia,  and  Puerto  Rico. 

Religious 

Church  Women  United,  475  Riverside  Drive,  New  York,  N.Y. 
10027.  Organized  1941.  It  is  a  movement  related  to  the  National 
Council  of  the  Churches  of  Christ  in  the  United  States  of 
America.  Its  purpose  is  to  unite  women  in  their  allegiance  to 
Jesus  Christ  as  divine  Lord  and  Saviour  and  to  assist  them  in 
relating  to  their  fellow  Christians  in  such  a  way  as  most  nearly 
fulfills  their  common  calling  through  the  church.  Membership: 
14  million  and  2,500  local  councils  of  churchwomen. 

Unitarian  Universalist  Women's  Federation,  25  Beacon  Street, 
Boston,  Mass.  02108,  Founded  1963.  Its  purpose  is  to  uphold 
and  extend  the  philosophy  of  liberal  religion  while  stressing 
the  unique  contribution  that  women  alone  can  make.  It  serves 
the  spiritual  and  social  needs  of  women  through  group  expres- 
sion, education,  service,  and  action.  Membership:  20,000. 

Social 

American  Women's  Voluntary  Services,  Inc.,  125  East  65th 
Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10021.  Founded  1940.  Its  purpose  is  to 
make  available  to  all  women  of  America  the  opportunity  to 

302 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  303 

work  actively  on  a  voluntary  basis  for  their  country  through 
constructive  service  to  their  community,  and  to  instruct  and 
guide  these  volunteers  toward  the  achievement  of  this  end. 
Association  of  the  Junior  Leagues  of  America,  Inc.,  The  Wal- 
dorf-Astoria, New  York,  N.Y.  10022.  Founded  1921.  Nonprofit, 
advisory  to  213  Junior  Leagues  in  the  United  States,  Canada, 
and  Mexico,  with  total  membership  of  95,000  community  volun- 
teers. Junior  League  purpose  is  to  foster  interest  among  its 
members  in  the  social,  economic,  educational,  cultural,  and  civic 
conditions  of  the  community,  and  to  make  their  volunteer  serv- 
ice efficient. 

B'nai  B'rith  Women,  1640  Rhode  Island  Avenue  NW.,  Washing- 
ton, D.C.  20036.  Founded  1897.  It  is  a  Jewish  women's  service 
organization  engaging  in  educational,  civic,  and  philanthropic 
programs.  It  provides  both  womanpower  and  financial  support 
for  projects  vital  to  the  welfare  of  the  individual,  community, 
and  country.  The  largest  part  of  its  funds  and  programing  is 
devoted  to  youth-building  activities  and  advancement  of  equal 
opportunity  and  rights  for  all.  The  organization  established 
and  maintains  a  home  for  emotionally  disturbed  children  in  Is- 
rael. In  the  United  States  it  contributes  to  the  support  of  a 
number  of  national  medical  institutions  and  a  residential  treat- 
ment center  for  children.  Membership:  135,000  in  the  United 
States  and  Canada. 

Camp  Fire  Girls,  Inc.,  65  Worth  Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10013. 
Founded  1910.  Its  purpose  is  to  perpetuate  the  spiritual  ideals 
of  the  home  and  to  stimulate  and  aid  in  the  formation  of  habits 
making  for  health  and  character.  It  seeks  to  serve  the  leisure- 
time  needs  of  all  girls  from  7  through  high  school  age,  and  em- 
phasizes the  individual  development  of  each  girl.  Its  program 
supplements  the  training  of  the  home,  church  or  synagogue, 
and  school  through  enjoyable  and  character-building  activities. 
Membership:  600,000. 

General  Federation  of  Women's  Clubs,  1734  N  Street  NW.,  Wash- 
ington, D.C.  20036.  Established  1890.  Its  objective  is  to  unite 
women's  clubs  and  like  organizations  throughout  the  world  for 
mutual  benefit  and  for  the  promotion  of  their  common  interest 
in  education,  philanthropy,  public  welfare,  moral  values,  civics, 
and  fine  arts.  Membership:  11  million  through  combined  mem- 
bership with  affiliated  groups  in  58  countries,  territories,  and 
possessions  (862,740  per  capita  paying  members). 

Girl  Scouts  of  the  United  States  of  America,  830  Third  Avenue, 


304  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

New  York,  N.Y.  10022.  Founded  1912.  Its  purpose  is  to  help 
girls  of  every  race,  creed,  national  origin,  and  background  to 
develop  as  happy,  resourceful  individuals,  willing  to  share  their 
abilities  as  citizens  in  their  homes,  communities,  country,  and 
world.  Membership:  2,968,000  girls.  Direction  and  guidance  is 
given  by  626,000  adult  volunteers,  who  are  supported  by  2,700 
employed  professional  staff  members  serving  throughout  the 
United  States  and  in  Europe  and  the  Far  East. 
Girls  Clubs  of  America,  Inc.,  133  East  62d  Street,  New  York,  N.Y. 

10021.  Founded  1945.  National  nonprofit  youth  organization. 
Its  goal  is  to  train  girls  to  be  responsible  citizens  and  home- 
makers.  The  organization  provides  daily  out-of-school  pro- 
grams in  permanent  clubhouses  for  girls  from  6  years  of  age 
through  high  school.  The  program  is  available  to  all  girls,  re- 
gardless of  race,  creed,  or  national  origin,  at  flexible  member- 
ship fees.  Membership:  85,000  girls,  130  clubs  throughout  the 
Nation  and  Canada. 

Hadassah,  The  Women's  Zionist  Organization  of  America,  Inc.,  65 
East  52d  Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10022.  Founded  1912.  Its  pur- 
pose is  to  participate  in  efforts  that  help  safeguard  the  demo- 
cratic way  of  life  here  and  that  work  toward  peace  and  security 
throughout  the  world ;  provide  basic  Jewish  education  as  back- 
ground for  intelligent  and  creative  Jewish  living  in  America 
and  help  interpret  Israel  to  the  American  people.  Through 
affiliation  with  Hadassah  in  Israel,  it  supports  medical  institu- 
tions, teaching,  research  and  public  health  networks,  and  child 
welfare  and  vocational  education  projects.  It  also  fosters  a  pro- 
gram of  Jewish  education,  encourages  participation  in  Ameri- 
can civic  affairs,  conducts  youth  activities,  and  provides  fellow- 
ships and  other  grants  for  travel  and  study  in  Israel. 

Lucy  Stone  League,  The,  38  East  57th  Street,  New  York,  N.Y. 

10022.  The  League  is  a  center  for  research  and  information  on 
the  status  of  women.  Membership:  About  100. 

National  Assembly  for  Social  Policy  and  Development,  Inc.,  The, 
345  East  46th  Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10017.  Organized  1967 
(formerly  the  National  Social  Welfare  Assembly).  It  formu- 
lates, proposes,  and  advances  national  social  policy  in  its  areas 
of  competence  by  documenting  needs  and  resources ;  presenting 
pros  and  cons  of  alternatives ;  giving  expert  technical  consulta- 
tion ;  and  communicating  need  and  aspirations  to  those  in  posi- 
tion to  bring  about  change.  Assists  organizations  in  adapting 
programs  as  needed  for  today's  problems,  develops  new  ideas 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  305 

for  programs  and  delivery  of  service,  proposes  new^  patterns  of 
service  systems,  and  provides  a  mechanism  for  organizations 
and  interests  to  v^ork  together  on  common  concerns.  Member- 
ship: 300.  (Half  are  at  large  and  half  from  recommendations 
of  the  national  organizations  affiliated  and  associated  v^ith  The 
Assembly. ) 

National  Association  of  Colored  Women's  Clubs,  Inc.,  1601  R 
Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20009.  The  organization  was 
founded  in  1896  to  prepare  women  for  complete  community 
participation  by  raising  the  standards  of  homelife  and  by  pro- 
viding better  health,  educational,  and  economic  opportunities. 
Membership :  100,000  in  42  States. 

National  Committee  on  Household  Employment,  1346  Con- 
necticut Avenue  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Founded  1965. 
Its  purpose  is  to  serve  as  a  clearinghouse  and  coordinator  for 
all  organizations  concerned  with  upgrading  the  status  of  pri- 
vate household  employment,  to  provide  leadership  in  establish- 
ing and  promoting  standards  for  private  household  work,  to 
serve  as  liaison  with  government  agencies,  and  to  stimulate  the 
development  of  additional  jobs — new  and  traditional — and 
training  opportunities  in  the  private  household  field.  Local 
counterparts  of  the  national  agencies  and  organizations  partici- 
pating in  the  National  Committee  form  committees  on  house- 
hold employment  which  enlist  the  assistance  and  services  of 
local  public  and  private  agencies  to  carry  out  its  program  and 
achieve  its  objectives.  Membership:  22  national  voluntary 
agencies  and  organizations  with  a  combined  membership  of  ap- 
proximately 25  million  men  and  women. 

National  Consumers  League,  1029  Vermont  Avenue  NW., 
Washington,  D.C.  20005.  Established  1899.  Its  purpose  is  to 
awaken  consumers'  interest  in  their  responsibility  for  condi- 
tions under  which  goods  are  made  and  distributed  and,  through 
investigation,  education,  and  legislation,  to  promote  fair  labor 
standards.  Its  legislative  program  includes  consumer  protec- 
tion, minimum  wage,  child  labor,  hours  of  work,  social  secu- 
rity, and  improvement  of  the  conditions  of  migrant  workers  in 
agriculture.  There  are  active  State  branches  in  New  Jersey  and 
Ohio,  and  individual  members  in  every  State.  (Not  restricted  to 
women.) 

National  Council  of  Catholic  Women,  1312  Massachusetts  Avenue 
NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20005.  Established  1920.  Its  purpose  is 
to  unite  existing  organizations  as  well  as  individual  Catholic 


306  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

women  in  order  that  the  federation  may  speak  and  act  as  a  unit 
when  the  good  of  church  or  country  demands  such  expression. 
Through  five  commissions  based  on  Vatican  Council  II,  it  en- 
deavors to  stimulate  interest  in  the  welfare  of  all  working  per- 
sons. Afl[iliated  with  World  Union  of  Catholic  Women's  Organi- 
zations. Membership:  10  million  women  through  more  than 
14,000  national,  State,  diocesan,  and  local  affiliated  groups.  In- 
dividual membership  program  in  the  planning  stage. 

National  Council  of  Jewish  Women,  Inc.,  1  West  47th  Street, 
New  York,  N.Y.  10036.  Established  1893.  An  educational  and 
service  organization  which  leads  and  educates  women  for  con- 
structive action  in  the  community.  Through  265  affiliated  local 
units,  it  maintains  over  1,000  community  services  to  the  aging 
and  to  children  and  youth.  A  major  emphasis  in  recent  years 
has  been  development  of  programs  to  meet  the  needs  of  disad- 
vantaged families  and  out-of-school,  out-of-work  youth.  It  also 
conducts  an  adult  education  and  social  action  program  con- 
cerned with  major  national  and  international  issues.  Its  over- 
seas program  extends  these  services  to  Jewish  communities 
abroad  by  sponsoring  studies  in  U.S.  graduate  schools  for  edu- 
cators and  social  welfare  specialists,  and  by  direct  financial  aid 
to  educational  institutions.  Membership :  100,000. 

National  Council  of  Negro  WoTnen,  Inc.,  Suite  832,  1346  Connecti- 
cut Avenue  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Organized  1935.  It 
seeks  the  cooperation  and  membership  of  all  races  and  works 
for  the  integration  of  Negroes  into  the  economic,  social,  cul- 
tural, civic,  and  political  life  of  every  community.  There  are  25 
national  organizations  and  107  local  sections  capable  of  reach- 
ing 850,000  women. 

National  Council  of  Women  of  the  United  States,  Inc.,  345  East 
46th  Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10017.  Founded  1888.  Serves  as 
information  center  and  clearinghouse  for  30  affiliated  women's 
organizations;  conducts  pilot  projects  and  sponsors  conferences 
on  national  and  international  problems  and  matters  of  concern 
to  women,  sharing  results  with  affiliated  groups;  and  provides 
exchange  of  news  and  ideas  among  the  women  of  the  free  world. 
Membership:  Approximately  4  million  (individual  and  through 
affiliates) . 

National  Jewish  Welfare  Board,  145  East  32d  Street,  New  York, 
N.Y.  10016.  Founded  1917.  It  is  the  national  association  of 
Young  Men's  and  Women's  Hebrew  Associations  and  Jewish 
Community  Centers.  It  is  also  the  recognized  Jewish  commu- 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  307 

nity  agency  for  meeting  the  religious,  welfare,  and  morale  needs 
of  Jewish  personnel  in  the  Armed  Forces  and  their  dependents, 
and  is  a  constituent  agency  of  the  United  Service  Organizations 
(USO).  The  Women's  Organizations'  Services  of  the  National 
Jewish  Welfare  Board  coordinate  the  work  of  nine  national 
Jewish  women's  organizations  united  for  services  to  hospital- 
ized veterans,  military  personnel  in  camps,  and  chaplains. 

National  Organization  for  Women  (N.O.W.),  Suite  500,  1629  K 
Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20006.  Founded  1966.  Its  pur- 
pose is  to  work  actively  for  full  equality  for  all  women  in 
America,  in  truly  equal  partnership  with  men.  N.O.W.  cam- 
paigns for  full  income  tax  deductions  for  child  care  costs  of 
working  parents,  for  a  nationwide  network  of  child  care  cen- 
ters to  enable  more  women  to  work  while  raising  a  family,  for 
greatly  expanded  job  training  programs  for  women,  and  for 
reexamination  of  marriage  and  divorce  laws  and  customs  that 
discriminate  against  women  and  men  alike.  Membership :  More 
than  1,000  men  and  women. 

National  WoTnan's  Christian  Temperam.ce  Union,  1730  Chicago 
Avenue,  Evanston,  111.  60201.  Established  1874.  Its  purpose  is 
to  unite  the  Christian  vi^omen  of  the  United  States  for  the  edu- 
cation of  the  public  to  a  standard  of  total  abstinence  from  alco- 
holic beverages  and  abolition  of  liquor  traffic,  for  youth  train- 
ing in  habits  of  total  abstinence  and  sobriety,  and  for  the  pro- 
motion of  good  citizenship,  peace,  and  the  general  welfare.  Paid 
membership:  300,000. 

Women  in  Community  Service,  Inc.  (WICS),  1730  Rhode  Island 
Avenue  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Incorporated  December 
1964  by  members  of  Church  Women  United,  National  Council 
of  Catholic  Women,  National  Council  of  Jewish  Women,  and 
National  Council  of  Negro  Women.  Its  function  is  to  frame  and 
carry  out  effective  volunteer  service  programs  against  poverty 
throughout  the  Nation.  WICS  has  processed  more  than  60,000 
young  women  interested  in  the  Job  Corps.  WICS  volunteers 
number  more  than  11,000  and  have  established  289  screening 
centers  in  50  States. 

Women's  International  League  for  Peace  and  Freedom,  adminis- 
trative headquarters  U.S.  Section:  Jane  Addams  House,  2006 
Walnut  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa.  19103;  legislative  office:  120 
Maryland  Avenue  NE.,  Washington,  D.C.  20002.  Established 
1915  in  The  Hague.  Its  purpose  is  to  work  by  nonviolent  means 
to  establish  the  political,  economic,  social,  and  psychological 


308  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

conditions  throughout  the  world  which  are  conducive  to  world 
peace.  It  seeks  the  abolition  of  all  wars  and  the  substitution  of 
methods  other  than  violence  in  the  solution  of  conflict.  It  seeks 
justice  for  all  without  distinction  as  to  sex,  race,  class,  or  creed. 

Young  Women's  Christian  Association  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  600  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York,  N.Y.  10022. 
Founded  in  the  United  States  1858.  Organized  to  advance  the 
physical,  mental,  social,  and  spiritual  well-being  of  women  and 
girls,  it  is  a  membership  movement  with  a  Christian  purpose 
open  to  persons  of  all  races  and  all  faiths.  Emphasis  is  placed 
on  both  leadership  development  and  social  action.  Afl!iliated 
with  the  World  YWCA.  Approximately  5,500  locations  in  the 
United  States. 


Professional  and   Business  Organizations 


Accountancy 


American  Society  of  Women  Accountants,  327  South  LaSalle 
Street,  Chicago,  111.  60604.  Founded  1938.  Its  purpose  is  to  offer 
technical  and  educational  programs  to  improve  the  eflficiency  of 
its  members,  to  provide  opportunity  for  exchange  of  ideas,  and 
to  encourage  many  of  its  members  to  become  certified  public  ac- 
countants. Membership :  4,050. 

American  Woman's  Society  of  Certified  Public  Accountants,  327 
South  LaSalle  Street,  Chicago,  111.  60604.  Founded  1933.  Its 
purpose  is  to  advance  the  professional  interest  of  women  certi- 
fied public  accountants  and  to  promote  a  greater  interest  among 
women  in  the  higher  attainments  of  the  accounting  profession. 
Membership:  751. 

Banking 

National  Association  of  Bank-Women  Inc.,  60  East  42d  Street, 
New  York,  N.Y.  10017.  Founded  1921.  Its  purpose  is  to  bring 
together  women  executives  engaged  in  the  profession  of  bank- 
ing for  exchange  of  ideas  and  experiences  for  mutual  benefit,  to 
promote  the  interests  of  its  members,  and  to  further  the  inter- 
ests of  all  women  in  the  banking  profession.  It  is  the  only  na- 
tional organization  of  executive  women  in  banking,  with  mem- 
bers from  national,  State,  and  savings  banks,  and  trust  compa- 
nies. Membership:  6,000. 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  309 

Consfrucfion 

National  Association  of  Women  in  Construction,  346  North 
Beachwood  Drive,  Los  Angeles,  Calif.  90004.  Organized  1953; 
received  national  charter  1955.  Objectives:  to  unite  for  their 
mutual  benefit  women  v^^ho  are  actively  engaged  in  various 
phases  of  the  construction  industry,  to  encourage  cooperation 
and  better  understanding  among  v^^omen  in  the  industry,  and  to 
promote  fellowship  and  good  will  among  members  of  the  or- 
ganization. Membership  is  open  to  all  women  who  are  employed 
in  or  who  own  businesses  in  the  construction  or  allied  fields. 
NAWIC  is  nonprofit,  nonsectarian,  and  nonpartisan;  not  affili- 
ated with  any  religious,  fraternal,  or  labor  group.  There  are 
147  chapters  in  various  cities  throughout  the  United  States. 
Membership:  More  than  5,000. 

Credit 

Credit  Women-International,  2051  Railway  Exchange  Building, 
St.  Louis,  Mo.  63101.  Founded  1930.  Its  purpose  is  to  promote 
the  common  interests  and  to  contribute  the  combined  efforts  of 
women  working  in  the  retail  credit  profession.  It  is  primarily 
an  educational  organization  emphasizing  the  need  of  continued 
education  for  women  if  they  are  to  advance  in  their  chosen  ca- 
reers; also,  it  provides  a  stimulus  for  self-improvement.  Mem- 
bership: Approximately  14,200. 

Engineering 

Society  of  Women  Engineers,  United  Engineering  Center,  345 
East  47th  Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10017.  Established  1952.  Its 
purpose  is  to  inform  young  women,  their  parents,  counselors, 
and  the  public  in  general  of  the  qualifications  and  achievements 
of  women  engineers  and  of  the  opportunities  open  to  them;  to 
assist  women  engineers  in  readying  themselves  for  a  return  to 
active  work  after  temporary  retirement;  and  to  encourage 
women  engineers  to  attain  high  levels  of  educational  and  pro- 
fessional achievement.  Membership :  950. 


Fasbi 


ion 


Fashion  Group,  Inc.,  The,  9  Rockefeller  Plaza,  New  York,  N.Y. 
10020.  Founded  1931.  It  is  a  nonprofit  association  of  women  en- 
gaged in  fashion  work,  formed  to  advance  the  principles  of  ap- 


310  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

plied  art  in  industry,  to  maintain  high  standards,  to  provide  li- 
aison among  the  many  facets  of  fashion  industries,  to  dissemi- 
nate information  on  trends  through  meetings  and  bulletins,  and 
to  encourage  new  interest  in  fashion  through  training  courses 
and  scholarships.  Membership:  4,000  members  with  28  re- 
gional groups  in  the  United  States,  plus  2  regional  groups  in 
Canada,  2  in  Australia,  and  1  group  in  Paris. 

Finance 

Federation  of  Women  Shareholders  in  American  Business,  Inc., 
527  Lexington  Avenue,  New  York,  N.Y.  10017.  Its  purpose  is 
(a)  to  educate  women  concerning  the  importance  of  using  their 
vote  as  stockholders  (including  the  goal  of  a  secret  ballot  for 
all  shareholders — especially  employee-shareholders — in  corpor- 
ate elections) ;  (b)  to  delineate  their  responsibilities  as  em- 
ployers of  management  and  labor;  and  (c)  to  provide  financial 
education  for  women  because  they  own,  although  they  do  not 
control,  70  percent  of  the  privately  owned  wealth.  It  supports 
equal  pay  for  equal  work,  equal  mandatory  retirement  age,  and 
equal  executive  training  and  opportunity  in  business;  and 
wants  women  on  boards  of  directors  of  major  corporations  and 
banks. 

Geography 

Society  of  Woman  Geographers,  The,  1619  New  Hampshire  Ave- 
nue NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20009.  Founded  1925.  Its  purpose 
is  to  form  a  medium  of  contact  between  traveled  women  en- 
gaged in  geographical  work  and  allied  arts  and  sciences,  to  fur- 
ther geograpical  work  in  all  its  branches,  to  spread  geographi- 
cal knowledge,  and  to  encourage  geographical  research.  Mem- 
bership: 400. 

Health  Services 

American  Association  of  Industrial  Nurses,  Inc.,  170  East  61st 
Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10021.  Founded  1942.  It  is  the  profes- 
sional association  of  registered  nurses  engaged  in  the  practice 
of  industrial  nursing.  Its  purpose  is  to  maintain  the  honor  and 
character  of  the  profession  among  industrial  nurses,  to  improve 
community  health  by  better  nursing  service  to  workers,  to  de- 
velop and  promote  standards  for  industrial  nurses  and  in- 
dustrial nursing  services,  and  to  stimulate  interest  in  and  pro- 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  311 

vide  a  forum  for  the  discussion  of  problems  in  the  field  of  in- 
dustrial nursing.  Membership:  5,503. 

American  Association  of  Medical  Record  Librarians,  211  East 
Chicago  Avenue,  Chicago,  111.  60611.  Founded  1928.  Its  pur- 
pose is  to  improve  the  quality  and  efficiency  of  medical  records 
in  hospitals,  clinics,  and  other  health  and  mental  institutions; 
to  establish  standards  and  criteria  of  competency;  and  to  de- 
velop and  improve  the  teaching  and  practice  of  medical  record 
science  so  that  it  may  be  of  greater  service  to  the  science  of 
medicine  and  public  health.  Membership:  6,920.  (Not  restricted 
to  women,  but  membership  is  primarily  women.) 

American  Association  of  Nurse  Anesthetists,  Suite  3010,  Pruden- 
tial Plaza,  Chicago,  111.  60601.  Founded  1931.  Its  purpose  is  to 
develop  educational  standards  and  techniques  in  the  adminis- 
tration of  anesthetics,  to  facilitate  cooperation  between  nurse 
anesthetists  and  the  medical  profession,  and  to  promote  an  edu- 
cational program  on  the  importance  of  the  proper  administra- 
tion of  anesthetics.  Membership :  13,087. 

American  Dental  Assistants  Association,  Inc.,  211  East  Chicago 
Avenue,  Chicago,  111.  60611.  Established  1924.  Its  purpose  is  to 
promote  the  education  of  the  dental  assistant,  to  improve  and 
sustain  the  vocation  of  dental  assisting,  and  to  contribute  to  the 
advancement  of  the  dental  profession  and  the  improvement  of 
public  health.  Membership:  14,000. 

American  Dental  Hygienists'  Association,  211  East  Chicago  Ave- 
nue, Chicago,  111.  60611.  Established  1923.  Its  purpose  is  to  ele- 
vate and  sustain  the  professional  character  and  education  of 
dental  hygienists;  to  promote  among  them  mutual  improve- 
ment, social  intercourse,  and  good  will;  to  inform  and  direct 
public  opinion  in  relation  to  dental  hygiene  and  the  promotion 
of  pertinent  legislation;  and  to  represent  and  safeguard  the 
common  interests  of  members  of  the  profession.  Membership: 
Approximately  6,800  active  and  3,680  student. 

American  Medical  Women's  Association,  Inc.,  1740  Broadway, 
New  York,  N.Y.  10019.  Founded  1915.  Its  purpose  is  to  further 
the  art  and  science  of  medicine;  to  promote  interests  common 
to  women  physicians  and  the  public;  to  aid  and  encourage 
premedical,  medical,  and  postgraduate  medical  students ;  to  fos- 
ter medical  relief  projects;  and  to  cooperate  with  other  organi- 
zations having  comparable  interests.  Affiliated  with  the  Medi- 
cal Women's  International  Association. 

American  Nurses'  Association,  Inc.,  10  Columbus  Circle,   New 


312  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

York,  N.Y.  10019.  Organized  1896  as  the  Nurses  Associated 
Alumnae  of  the  United  States  and  Canada.  It  is  the  professional 
association  for  registered  nurses.  Its  purposes  are  to  foster 
high  standards  of  nursing  practice,  to  promote  the  professional 
and  educational  advancement  of  nurses,  to  advance  the  eco- 
nomic and  general  v^elfare  of  nurses,  to  promote  research  to  im- 
prove the  practice  of  nursing,  and  to  support  legislation  to 
provide  all  people  with  better  nursing  care.  Affiliated  with  the 
International  Council  of  Nurses.  Membership:  170,000. 

American  Occupational  Therapy  Association,  251  Park  Avenue 
South,  New  York,  N.Y.  10010.  Founded  1917.  Its  objectives  are 
to  promote  the  use  of  occupational  therapy,  to  advance  stand- 
ards of  education  and  training  in  this  field,  to  conduct  a  na- 
tional registration  examination,  to  maintain  a  registry  of  quali- 
fied occupational  therapists,  to  promote  research,  and  to  engage 
in  other  activities  advantageous  to  the  profession  and  its  mem- 
bers. Membership:  5,900.  Registrants:  8,100.  (Not  restricted  to 
women,  but  membership  is  primarily  women.) 

American  Physical  Therapy  Association,  1740  Broadway,  New 
York,  N.Y.  10019.  Founded  1921.  The  object  of  this  organiza- 
tion is  to  foster  the  development  and  improvement  of  physical 
therapy  service  and  physical  therapy  education  through  the 
coordinated  action  of  physical  therapists,  allied  professional 
groups,  citizens,  agencies,  and  schools  so  that  the  physical  ther- 
apy needs  of  the  people  will  be  met.  Membership:  10,888.  (Ap- 
proximately 75  percent  are  women.)  In  addition,  there  are 
1,462  student  members. 

American  Public  Health  Asociation,  Inc.,  1740  Broadway,  New 
York,  N.Y.  10019.  Founded  1872.  Its  purpose  is  to  protect  and 
promote  public  and  personal  health.  It  is  a  nongovernmental 
organization  and  the  only  national  society  providing  a  common 
forum  for  the  field  of  public  health  and  a  single  voice  for  the 
physicians,  nurses,  educators,  civic  leaders,  engineers,  dentists, 
sanitarians,  laboratory  scientists,  nutritionists,  statisticians,  in- 
dustrial hygienists,  and  the  many  specialists  making  up  the 
community  health  team.  Membership:  Approximately  18,000 
individual  members  and  fellows,  52  affiliated  associations  and 
branches,  42  sustaining  members,  130  agency  members. 

American  Society  of  Medical  Technologists,  Suite  1600,  Hermann 
Professional  Building,  Houston,  Tex.  77025.  Founded  1933.  Its 
purpose  is  to  promote  higher  standards  in  clinical  laboratory 
methods  and  research,  and  to  raise  the  status  of  those  specializ- 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  313 

ing  in  medical  laboratory  technique.  Membership:  12,000.  (Not 
restricted  to  women,  but  membership  is  primarily  women.) 

American  Society  of  Radiologic  Technologists,  c/o  Genevieve  J. 
Eilert,  Executive  Secretary,  537  South  Main  Street,  Fond  du 
Lac,  Wis.  54935.  Founded  1920.  Its  purpose  is  to  promote  the 
science  and  art  of  radiography  and  to  assist  in  establishing  ap- 
proved standards  of  training  and  recognized  qualifications  for 
those  engaged  in  technical  work  in  radiological  departments. 
Membership:  14,190.  (Not  restricted  to  women,  but  member- 
ship is  about  70  percent  women.) 

American  Speech  and  Hearing  Association,  9030  Old  Georgetown 
Road,  Washington,  D.C.  20014.  Founded  1925.  Its  purposes  are 
to  encourage  basic  scientific  study  of  the  processes  of  individual 
human  speech  and  hearing,  to  promote  investigation  of  speech 
and  hearing  disorders,  and  to  foster  improvement  of  therapeu- 
tic procedures  with  such  disorders ;  to  stimulate  exchange  of  in- 
formation among  persons  thus  engaged  and  to  disseminate  such 
information.  Membership:  11,858.  (Not  restricted  to  women.) 

Association  of  American  Women  Dentists,  c/o  Dr.  Josephine  Pa- 
lancia.  President,  1527  West  Passyunk  Avenue,  Philadelphia, 
Pa.  19145.  Founded  1921.  Objectives  are  to  promote  good  fel- 
lowship and  cooperation  among  its  members  and  to  aid  in  the 
advancement  of  women  in  dentistry.  Membership:  Approxi- 
mately 300. 

National  Association  for  Practical  Nurse  Education  and  Service, 
Inc.,  535  Fifth  Avenue,  New  York,  N.Y.  10017.  Organized  1941. 
Its  major  purpose  is  to  promote  practical  nurse  education  and 
service  to  State  associations.  It  conducts  an  accrediting  pro- 
gram for  schools  of  practical  nursing;  sponsors  workshops,  in- 
stitutes, seminars,  and  summer  school  sessions ;  offers  consulta- 
tion service;  and  publishes  a  monthly  magazine,  manuals,  and 
other  educational  literature.  Membership:  31,387.  (Not  re- 
stricted to  women,  but  membership  is  primarily  women.) 

National  Federation  of  Licenced  Practical  Nurses,  Inc.,  250  West 
57th  Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10019.  Organized  1949.  Its  major 
objectives  are  to  associate  all  licensed  practical  nurses  and  to 
protect  their  welfare,  to  further  the  highest  ethical  principles, 
to  interpret  the  standards  of  licensed  practical  nursing,  and  to 
promote  the  most  effective  use  of  their  services.  Membership: 
32,000. 
National  League  for  Nursing,  10  Columbus  Circle,  New  York, 
N.Y.  10019.  Organized  1952.  Its  purpose  is  to  foster  the  devel- 


314  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

opment  of  hospital,  industrial,  public  health,  and  other  orga- 
nized nursing  services  and  of  nursing  education  through  the 
coordinated  action  of  nurses,  allied  professional  groups,  citi- 
zens, agencies,  and  schools  so  that  the  nursing  needs  of  the  peo- 
ple will  be  met.  Membership:  23,000  individuals  and  1,800 
agency  members. 

Home  Economics 

American  Dietetic  Association,  620  North  Michigan  Avenue,  Chi- 
cago, 111.  60611.  Founded  1917.  The  objective  of  this  association 
is  to  improve  the  nutrition  of  human  beings,  to  advance  the  sci- 
ence of  dietetics  and  nutrition,  and  to  promote  education  in 
these  and  allied  areas.  Membership:  19,000.  (Not  restricted  to 
v^omen,  but  membership  is  primarily  women.) 

American  Home  Economics  Association,  1600  20th  Street  NW., 
Washington,  D.C.  20009.  Established  1909.  A  national  organi- 
zation for  home  economists  in  all  areas  of  the  profession,  in- 
cluding teaching,  research,  extension,  business,  health  and  wel- 
fare, dietetics,  and  journalism.  Its  purpose  is  to  improve  the 
quality  and  standards  of  individual  and  family  life  through  ed- 
ucation, research,  cooperative  activities,  information,  and  legis- 
lation. Membership:  28,000  individual  members,  both  men  and 
women;  425  affiliated  college  chapters;  248  groups  of  home 
economists  in  homemaking. 

National  Executive  Housekeepers  Association,  Inc.,  The,  c/o  Mrs. 
Alberta  J.  Wetherholt,  Executive  Secretary,  Room  204,  Busi- 
ness and  Professional  Building,  Gallipolis,  Ohio  45631.  Incor- 
porated 1931.  Its  purpose  is  to  bring  together  the  progressive 
executive  housekeepers  of  the  country  in  an  active,  cooperative 
body;  to  encourage  educational  activities  and  high  professional 
standards;  to  encourage  a  wider  knowledge  of  administrative 
problems;  to  promote  research;  and  to  engage  in  other  activi- 
ties advantageous  to  the  profession  and  its  members.  Member- 
ship: Approximately  3,400  in  85  chapters.  (Approximately  85 
percent  are  women.) 

Insurance 

National  Association  of  Insurance  Women  (^International) ,  Suite 
202,  4828  South  Peoria,  Tulsa,  Okla.  74105.  Founded  1940.  Its 
purpose  is  to  encourage  and  foster  educational  programs  de- 
signed to  broaden  the  knowledge  of  insurance  of  its  members 


ORGANIZATIONS  OP  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  315 

and  to  cultivate  their  friendship,  loyalty,  and  service.  Member- 
ship: Approximately  14,300  in  300  affiliated  clubs. 

Women  Leaders  Round  Table,  The  National  Association  of  Life 
Underwriters,  c/o  Miss  Ethel  B.  Karene,  C.L.U.,  Union  Central 
Life  Insurance  Co.,  225  Broadway,  New  York,  N.Y.  10007. 
Founded  1936.  Its  purpose  is  to  promote  a  friendly  relationship 
among  women  underwriters  who  are  producing  a  considerable 
volume  of  business,  and  to  provide  for  an  interchange  of  ideas 
to  the  advantage  of  the  institution  of  life  insurance  and  of  the 
general  public.  Membership:  365. 

Interior  Decoration 

American  Institute  of  Interior  Designers,  730  Fifth  Avenue,  New 
York,  N.Y.  10019.  Founded  1931.  A  nonprofit  association  of  in- 
terior designers  and  decorators,  organized  to  maintain  stand- 
ards of  design  and  professional  practice.  Membership:  4,800 
in  41  chapters.  (Not  restricted  to  women.) 

Lov^ 

National  Association  of  Women  Lawyers,  American  Bar  Center, 
1155  East  60th  Street,  Chicago,  111.  60637.  Founded  1899.  Its 
purpose  is  to  promote  the  welfare  and  interests  of  women  law- 
yers, to  maintain  the  honor  and  integrity  of  the  legal  profes- 
sion, to  aid  in  the  enactment  of  legislation  for  the  common  good 
and  in  the  administration  of  justice,  and  to  undertake  actively 
whatever  is  necessary  to  promote  and  advance  the  purposes  of 
the  association.  Membership:  1,200. 

Library  Science 

American  Library  Association,  50  East  Huron  Street,  Chicago, 
111.  60611.  Founded  1876.  Its  objective  is  to  promote  library  serv- 
ice and  librarianship.  Membership:  Approximately  35,000. 
(Not  restricted  to  women,  but  personal  membership  is  predomi- 
nantly women.) 

Special  Libraries  Association,  31  East  10th  Street,  New  York, 
N.Y.  10003.  Organized  1909.  Its  purpose  is  to  promote  the  col- 
lection, organization,  and  dissemination  of  information  in  spe- 
cialized fields  and  to  improve  the  usefulness  of  special  libraries 
and  information  services.  Membership:  6,700.  (Not  restricted 
to  women.) 


316  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

Music 

National  Federation  of  Music  Clubs,  Suite  1215,  600  South  Michi- 
gan Avenue,  Chicago,  111.  60605.  Founded  1898.  Its  purpose  is 
to  bring  into  working  relations  with  one  another  music  clubs 
and  other  musical  organizations  and  individuals  directly  or  in- 
directly associated  with  musical  activity,  for  the  purpose  of  de- 
veloping and  maintaining  high  musical  standards;  to  aid  and 
encourage  musical  education;  and  to  promote  American  music 
and  American  artists  throughout  America  and  other  countries. 
Membership:  600,000.  (Not  restricted  to  women,  but  member- 
ship is  primarily  women.) 

Personnel 

American  Personnel  and  Guidance  Association,  1605  New  Hamp- 
shire Avenue  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20009.  Origin  stems  from 
1913  with  founding  of  National  Vocational  Guidance  Associa- 
tion, which  is  one  of  eight  divisions  now  constituting  APGA. 
Its  purposes  are  to  advance  the  scientific  discipline  of  personnel 
and  guidance  work;  to  conduct  and  foster  programs  of  educa- 
tion in  the  field  of  personnel  and  guidance;  and  to  promote 
sound  personnel  and  guidance  practices  in  the  interests  of  soci- 
ety. It  stimulates,  promotes,  and  conducts  programs  of  scientific 
research  and  of  education  in  the  field  of  personnel  and  guidance 
work;  publishes  scientific,  educational,  and  professional  litera- 
ture; advances  high  standards  of  professional  conduct;  and 
conducts  scientific,  educational,  and  professional  meetings  and 
conferences.  Membership:  25,000. 

International  Association  of  Personnel  Women,  Suite  925,  405 
Lexington  Avenue,  New  York,  N.Y.  10017.  Founded  1951.  Its 
objectives  are  to  encourage,  promote,  and  extend  women's  mem- 
berships in  associations  devoted  to  a  better  understanding  of 
employer-employee  relationships;  to  encourage  and  assist 
women  to  prepare  for  careers  in  the  fields  of  personnel  and  in- 
dustrial relations ;  to  stimulate  the  organization  of  local  groups 
for  study,  research,  and  exchange  of  information  and  ideas; 
and  to  promote  scientific  study  of  personnel  and  industrial  rela- 
tions work  by  collecting  and  publishing  such  information,  or- 
ganizing conferences  and  discussion  groups,  and  publishing  and 
distributing  conference  proceedings  and  other  books,  periodi- 
cals, and  reports  that  will  help  accomplish  its  purposes  and  ob- 
jectives. Membership:  1,200  including  members  in  England, 
Norway,  Canada,  and  the  Philippines. 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  317 

Radio  and  Television 

American  Women  in  Radio  and  Television,  Inc.,  75  East  55th 
Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10022.  Established  1951.  The  objec- 
tives of  this  professional  organization  of  women  working  as 
broadcasters,  executives,  and  administrators  and  in  a  creative 
capacity  in  radio,  television,  broadcast-advertising,  and  closely 
allied  fields  are  to  provide  a  medium  for  communication  and 
exchange  of  ideas;  to  encourage  cooperation  within  the  allied 
fields  of  the  industry ;  and  to  augment  the  value  of  members  to 
their  employers,  their  industry,  their  community,  and  their 
country.  Membership:  1,900. 

Railway 

National  Association  of  Railway  Business  Women,  Inc.,  Room 
714,  50  East  Broad  Street,  Columbus,  Ohio  43215.  Organized 
1918 ;  incorporated  1941.  Its  purpose  is  to  stimulate  interest  in 
the  railroad  industry;  to  foster  cooperation  and  better  under- 
standing within  the  railroad  industry  and  its  affiliates;  to 
create  good  public  relations  for  the  railroad  industry;  to  fur- 
ther the  educational,  social,  and  professional  interests  of  its 
members;  to  undertake  charitable,  benevolent,  and  social  wel- 
fare projects ;  and  to  establish,  provide,  and  operate  a  residence 
or  residences  to  be  used  as  living  quarters  for  members  after 
their  retirement.  First  residence  for  retired  members  was  es- 
tablished in  Boca  Raton,  Fla. ;  the  second  residence  was  estab- 
lished in  Green  Valley,  Ariz.  National  welfare  project  is  pro- 
viding model  electriQ  trains  to  schools  and  hospitals  for  handi- 
capped children.  Membership:  Approximately  7,000  active  in 
60  chapters  located  in  33  States.  Associate  membership  availa- 
ble. 


Real  Estate 

Women's  Council  of  the  National  Association  of  Real  Estate 
Boards,  155  East  Superior  Street,  Chicago,  111.  60611.  Estab- 
lished 1939.  Its  purpose  is  to  promote  women's  active  participa- 
tion in  local  Board  activities  and  to  present  programs  to  all 
women  realtors  within  local  and  State  groups  that  offer  an  op- 
portunity for  leadership,  education,  and  fellowship.  Member- 
ship: 5,469. 


318  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

Secretarial 

National  Association  of  Legal  Secretaries,  146  North  San  Fer- 
nando Boulevard,  Burbank,  Calif.  91502.  Founded  1950.  Its 
purposes  are  to  organize  and  charter  local  chapters  of  legal  sec- 
retaries associations  throughout  the  world;  to  carry  on  a  pro- 
gram for  further  education  of  those  engaged  in  legal  secretar- 
ial work;  to  cooperate  with  attorneys,  judges,  and  bar  associa- 
tions in  stimulating  high  professional  standards  and  ethics 
among  those  persons  engaged  as  secretaries,  stenographers, 
and  clerks  in  private  law  offices,  trust  companies,  and  various 
courts  and  agencies ;  and  to  aid  in  the  enactment  of  legislation 
for  the  public  good.  Membership:  Approximately  14,000. 

National  Secretaries  Association  {International),  1103  Grand  Av- 
enue, Kansas  City,  Mo.  64106.  Organized  1942.  Its  purpose  is  to 
elevate  the  standards  of  the  secretarial  profession  by  uniting, 
for  their  mutual  benefit  by  means  of  educational  and  profes- 
sional activities,  men  and  women  who  are  or  have  been  engaged 
in  secretarial  work.  It  established  the  Institute  for  Certifying 
Secretaries,  a  department  of  NSA;  and  sponsors  the  annual 
certifying  examination  presented  by  this  institute  the  first  Fri- 
day and  Saturday  of  May  at  universities  and  colleges  across  the 
country.  Membership:  25,000  in  580  chapters. 

Social  Service 

National  Association  of  Social  Workers,  2  Park  Avenue,  New 
York,  N.Y.  10016.  Established  1955.  Its  purpose  is  to  improve 
the  quality  of  social  work  practice,  advance  the  profession,  and 
represent  it  on  social  welfare  issues.  Membership:  46,000. 
Chapters:  170  in  all  50  States,  the  District  of  Columbia,  Puerto 
Rico,  and  Europe.  (Membership  includes  both  men  and 
women.) 

National  Committee  for  the  Day  Care  of  Children,  Inc.,  114  East 
32d  Street,  New  York,  N.Y.  10016.  Founded  1959  as  the  Inter- 
City  Committee  for  Day  Care  of  Children,  Inc. ;  name  changed 
in  1960.  Its  purposes  are  to  encourage  cooperative  effort 
throughout  the  country  toward  the  establishment  of  adequate 
day  care  services  for  children;  to  interpret  as  widely  as  possi- 
ble the  needs  of  children  for  day  care;  to  promote  good  stand- 
ards for  day  care ;  to  encourage  study  and  research  in  the  field 
of  day  care;  and  to  stimulate  the  exchange  of  information, 
ideas,  and  experiences  in  the  field  of  day  care.  Membership: 
Approximately  950,  including  61  agencies. 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  319 

National  Council  for  Homemaker  Services,  Inc.,  1740  Broadway, 
New  York,  N.Y.  10019.  Incorporated  1962.  Its  purposes  are  to 
promote  understanding  of  the  values  of  homemaker  services ;  to 
provide  a  central  source  of  information  and  a  medium  through 
which  knowledge  and  experience  can  be  pooled  and  made  avail- 
able ;  to  encourage  and  guide  communities  in  organizing  and  ex- 
tending homemaker  programs;  to  promote  development  of 
standards;  to  publish  reports  and  distribute  educational  and 
promotional  materials;  and  to  sponsor  conferences  and  semi- 
nars. Membership:  211  local  agencies,  117  individuals,  19  or- 
ganizations. 

Teaching 

See  Educational  Organizations. 

Writing 

American  Newspaper  Women's  Club,  Inc.,  1607  22d  Street  NW., 
Washington,  D.C.  20008.  Founded  1932.  Its  purpose  is  to  main- 
tain a  meeting  place  for  members,  to  promote  professional  pur- 
suits and  good  fellowship  among  the  members,  and  to  encour- 
age friendly  understanding  between  the  members  and  those 
whom  they  must  contact  in  their  profession.  Membership:  260 
professional,  105  associate  members. 

National  League  of  American  Pen  Wom,en,  Inc.,  1300  17th 
Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Founded  1897.  Its  pur- 
pose is  to  conduct  and  promote  creative  and  educational  activi- 
ties in  art,  letters,  and  music.  Membership:  5,000. 

Women's  National  Press  Club,  505  National  Press  Building, 
Washington,  D.C.  20004.  Founded  1919.  Purposes  are  to  en- 
courage higher  professional  standards  among  women  in  jour- 
nalism and  other  media  of  public  information;  to  present  out- 
standing leaders  and  foster  discussion  in  meetings  and  semi- 
nars, thereby  encouraging  dissemination  of  information  to  the 
public  on  national  and  international  affairs — economic,  educa- 
tional, scientific,  and  welfare  developments,  and  any  additional 
topics  of  current  interest.  Membership:  550. 

General  Service  Organizations  of  Business  and 

Professional  Women 

Altrv^a  International,  Inc.,  332  South  Michigan  Avenue,  Chicago, 
111.  60604.  Established  1917.  Pioneer  of  women's  service  clubs. 


320  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

It  channels  its  service  work  through  four  committees:  Interna- 
tional Relations,  Community  Services,  Vocational  Services,  and 
Altrusa  Information.  It  supports  two  major  projects  through 
voluntary  contributions  of  members:  Grants-in-Aid,  which 
awards  gift  grants  to  graduate  women  from  Asia  and  Latin 
America  for  higher  study,  and  Founders  Fund  Vocational  Aid, 
which  makes  available  through  local  Altrusa  clubs  grants  for 
women  of  all  ages  who  need  job  training,  rehabilitation,  or 
other  help  to  equip  themselves  to  find  employment  or  start  a 
business  of  their  own.  Membership:  17,941  in  552  clubs  in  13 
countries. 

National  Association  of  Negro  Bitsiness  and  Professional 
Women's  Clubs,  Inc.,  c/o  Mrs.  Margaret  L.  Belcher,  President, 
2861  Urban  Avenue,  Columbus,  Ga.  31907.  Founded  1935.  Its 
purpose  is  to  promote  and  protect  the  interests  of  Negro  busi- 
ness and  professional  women  and  create  good  fellowship  among 
them,  to  direct  their  interests  toward  united  action  for  im- 
proved social  and  civic  conditions,  to  encourage  the  training 
and  development  of  women,  and  to  inspire  and  train  young 
women  for  leadership.  Membership:  10,000. 

National  Federation  of  Business  and  Professional  Women's 
Clubs,  Inc.,  The,  2012  Massachusetts  Avenue  NW.,  Washington, 
D.C.  20006.  Established  1919.  Its  purpose  is  to  elevate  the  stand- 
ards and  promote  the  interests  of  business  and  professional 
women,  and  to  extend  opportunities  to  business  and  profes- 
sional women  through  education  along  lines  of  industrial,  sci- 
entific, and  vocational  activities.  Affiliated  with  International 
Federation  of  Business  and  Professional  Women.  Membership: 
More  than  178,000  in  approximately  3,800  clubs  in  50  States, 
the  District  of  Columbia,  Puerto  Rico,  and  the  Virgin  Islands. 

Pilot  Club  International,  244  College  Street,  Macon,  Ga.  31201. 
Organized  1921.  A  classified  service  club  for  executive  business 
and  professional  women.  Its  objectives  are  to  develop  friend- 
ship as  a  means  of  encouraging  and  promoting  international 
peace  and  cultural  relations;  to  inculcate  the  ideal  of  service  as 
the  basis  of  all  worthy  enterprises;  to  encourage  high  ethical 
standards  among  business  and  professional  women;  and  to 
promote  active  participation  in  any  movement  that  tends  to  im- 
prove the  civic,  social,  industrial,  and  commercial  welfare  of 
the  community.  Membership:  More  than  15,000  in  480  clubs  in 
the  United  States,  Canada,  England,  France,  Bermuda,  and 
Japan. 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  321 

Quota  International,  Inc.,  1145  19th  Street  NW.,  Washington, 
D.C.  20036.  Established  1919.  A  classified  civic  service  club  of 
v^^omen  executives.  Among  its  objectives  are  service  to  country 
and  community,  developing  good  fellowship  and  enduring 
friendship,  and  emphasizing  the  worth  of  useful  occupation.  It 
promotes  international  understanding  through  club  programs 
and  the  granting  of  international  fellowships.  Other  major  ac- 
tivities are  service  to  girls,  service  to  the  hearing  and  speech 
handicapped,  and  community  service.  Membership:  12,000  in 
392  clubs  in  four  countries. 

Soroptimist  Inter-national  Association,  Soroptimist  Federation  of 
the  Americas,  Inc.,  1616  Walnut  Street,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
19103.  Founded  1921.  Its  purpose  is  to  assist  in  developing  the 
highest  concept  of  patriotism  and  love  of  country;  to  promote 
the  spirit  of  service;  to  foster  high  ethical  standards  in  busi- 
ness and  professions;  to  advance  the  status  of  women;  to  de- 
velop interest  in  community,  national,  and  international  affairs ; 
and  to  recognize  the  worthiness  and  dignity  of  all  legitimate  oc- 
cupations as  affording  to  each  Soroptimist  an  opportunity  to 
serve  society.  Membership  in  International  Association :  49,000 
in  1,600  clubs  in  39  countries. 

Zonta  International,  59  East  Van  Buren  Street,  Chicago,  111. 
60605.  Established  1919.  Its  main  objectives  are  encouragement 
of  high  ethical  standards  in  business  and  professions ;  improve- 
ment of  the  legal,  political,  economic,  and  professional  status  of 
women ;  and  advancement  of  international  understanding,  good 
will,  and  peace  through  a  world  fellowship  of  executive  women. 
Membership :  19,000  in  520  clubs  in  33  countries. 

Educational  Organizations 

Adult  Education  Association  of  the  United  States  of  America, 
1225  19th  Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Founded  1951. 
Its  purpose  is  to  further  the  concept  of  education  as  a  process 
continuing  throughout  life,  by  developing  greater  unity  of  pur- 
pose in  the  adult  education  movement,  by  helping  individuals 
engaged  in  adult  education  increase  their  competence,  by  bring- 
ing agencies  of  adult  education  into  closer  relationship,  by  de- 
tecting needs  and  gaps  in  the  field  and  by  mobilizing  resources 
for  filling  them,  by  making  the  general  public  more  aware  of 
the  need  and  opportunities  for  adult  education,  by  assembling 
and  making  available  knowledge  about  adult  education,  and  by 


322  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

serving  as  a  voice  for  the  adult  education  movement.  Its  serv- 
ices include  the  publication  of  leadership  materials,  consulta- 
tion services,  conferences  and  field  services.  Membership : 
5,000.  (Not  restricted  to  women.) 
American  Association  of  University  Women,  2401  Virginia  Ave- 
nue NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20037.  Founded  1882.  Its  purpose 
is  to  enlarge  opportunities  for  college  women,  and  to  help  mem- 
bers extend  their  education  and  use  their  abilities  and  training 
in  building  better  communities  and  when  considering  national 
and  international  problems.  It  also  works  to  maintain  high 
standards  in  education  generally.  Affiliated  with  International 
Federation  of  University  Women.  Membership:  More  than 
175,000. 

American  Council  on  Education,  1785  Massachusetts  Avenue 
NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Established  1918.  Serves  as  a 
center  of  coordination  and  cooperation  in  higher  education; 
conducts  inquiries  and  investigations  into  specific  educational 
problems  and  seeks  to  enlist  appropriate  agencies  for  their  so- 
lutions. Acts  as  a  liaison  between  higher  education  and  the 
Federal  Government.  Membership:  246  educational  associa- 
tions, 1,273  institutions. 

American  Federation  of  Teachers,  AFL-CIO,  1012  14th  Street 
NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20005.  Founded  1919.  Its  objectives  are 
to  improve  working  conditions  for  teachers  and  to  obtain  better 
educational  facilities  for  children.  Membership :  140,000. 

American  Vocational  Association,  Inc.,  1025  15th  Street  NW., 
Washington,  D.C.  20005.  Founded  1925  by  a  merger  of  two  as- 
sociations which  go  back  to  1906.  Its  purpose  is  to  promote  vo- 
cational, technical,  and  practical  arts  education  and  to  improve 
the  quality  of  instruction  in  these  phases  of  education,  to  find 
the  aptitudes  and  talents  of  each  person  and  prepare  him  for 
the  vocation  in  which  he  is  best  fitted  to  earn  his  livelihood, 
and  by  so  doing  to  contribute  to  the  freedom  and  security  of 
both  the  individual  and  the  Nation.  Also,  promotes  training  of 
adult  workers  in  vocational  education  to  update  them  in  their 
occupations  and  to  train  them  for  new  ones.  Membership: 
40,000,  approximately  15,000  of  whom  are  women. 

Council  on  Social  Work  Education,  345  East  46th  Street,  New 
York,  N.Y.  10017.  Founded  1952.  Its  purposes  are  to  maintain 
and  improve  the  quality  of  social  work  education ;  to  expand  re- 
sources for  social  work  education  of  high  quality;  to  improve 
the  quality,  as  well  as  increase  the  number,  of  people  interested 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  323 

in  social  work  careers ;  to  gain  understanding  and  support  for 
social  work  education ;  and  to  learn  from  and  contribute  to  so- 
cial work  education  in  other  countries.  The  Council's  concern  is 
with  master's  degree  and  advanced  programs  in  social  work 
and  undergraduate  programs  in  social  welfare.  Membership : 
3,700  constituent  and  associate  members. 

Delta  Kappa  Gamma  Society  (International),  Post  Office  Box 
1589,  Austin,  Tex.  78767.  Founded  1929.  Its  purposes  are  to 
unite  women  educators  of  the  world  in  a  genuine  spiritual  fel- 
lowship ;  to  honor  women  who  have  given  or  who  evidence  a  po- 
tential for  distinctive  service  in  any  field  of  education;  to  ad- 
vance the  professional  interest  and  position  of  women  in  educa- 
tion; to  sponsor  and  support  desirable  educational  legislation 
and  initiate  legislation  in  the  interests  of  women  educators ;  to 
endow  scholarships  to  aid  outstanding  women  educators  in 
pursuing  graduate  study  and  to  grant  fellowships  to  women  ed- 
ucators from  other  countries ;  to  stimulate  personal  and  profes- 
sional growth  of  members  and  to  encourage  their  participation 
in  appropriate  programs  of  action;  to  inform  the  membership 
of  current  economic,  social,  political,  and  educational  issues. 
Membership:  100,000. 

International  Toastmistress  Clubs,  11301  Long  Beach  Boulevard, 
Lynwood,  Calif.  90262.  Founded  1938.  Its  purpose  is  to  orga- 
nize new  clubs  and  to  coordinate  the  work  of  all  member  clubs, 
for  improvement  of  individual  members  through  study  and 
practice  in  conversation,  speech,  group  leadership,  and  analyti- 
cal listening.  It  is  an  educational  organization  for  women  inter- 
ested in  increasing  their  ability  and  confidence.  A  program  of 
self-development  places  major  emphasis  upon  communication, 
leadership  training,  and  skill  in  organizational  techniques. 
Membership:  20,000. 

National  Association  of  College  Women,  1501  11th  Street  NW., 
Washington,  D.C.  20001.  Founded  1924.  Its  purpose  is  to  pro- 
mote closer  union  and  fellowship  among  college  women  for  con- 
structive educational  work;  to  study  educational  conditions 
with  emphasis  upon  problems  affecting  college  women ;  to  raise 
educational  standards  in  colleges  and  universities;  to  stimulate 
intellectual  attainment  among  college  women ;  and  to  arouse  in 
college  women  a  consciousness  of  their  responsibility  in  aiding 
in  the  solution  of  pertinent  problems  on  local.  State,  and  na- 
tional levels.  Membership:  2,000. 

National  Association  of  Women  Deans  and  Counselors,  a  depart- 


324  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

ment  of  the  National  Education  Association,  1201  16th  Street 
NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Established  1916.  Its  basic  pur- 
pose is  to  render  service  to  students  at  all  levels  through  com- 
petent performance  of  personnel  and  guidance  functions,  with 
particular  attention  to  the  special  needs  of  girls  and  women. 
Membership:  2,500. 

National  Congress  of  Colored  Parents  and  Teachers,  201  Ashby 
Street  NW.,  Atlanta,  Ga.  30314.  Founded  1926.  Its  purpose  is 
to  promote  the  welfare  of  children  and  youth  in  home,  school, 
church,  and  community;  to  raise  the  standards  of  homelife;  to 
secure  adequate  lav^^s  for  the  care  and  protection  of  children 
and  youth;  to  bring  into  closer  relation  the  home  and  the 
school,  that  parents  and  teachers  may  cooperate  intelligently  in 
the  training  of  the  child ;  to  develop  between  educators  and  the 
general  public  such  united  efforts  as  can  secure  for  every  child 
the  highest  advantages  in  physical,  mental,  social,  and  spiritual 
education.  Membership:  250,000.  (Not  restricted  to  women.) 

National  Congresg  of  Parents  and  Teachers,  700  North  Rush 
Street,  Chicago,  111.  60611.  Founded  1897.  Its  purpose  is  to 
promote  the  welfare  of  children  and  youth  in  home,  school, 
church,  and  community;  to  raise  the  standards  of  homelife;  to 
secure  adequate  laws  for  the  care  and  protection  of  children 
and  youth;  to  bring  into  closer  relation  the  home  and  the 
school,  that  parents  and  teachers  may  cooperate  intelligently  in 
the  training  of  the  child ;  and  to  develop  between  educators  and 
the  general  public  such  united  efforts  as  will  secure  for  every 
child  the  highest  advantages  in  physical,  mental,  social,  and 
spiritual  education.  Membership:  11,029,396.  (Not  restricted  to 
women.) 

National  Council  of  Administrative  Women  in  Education,  a  de- 
partment of  the  National  Education  Association,  1201  16th 
Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Founded  1915;  became 
NEA  affiliate  1932.  Its  purpose  is  to  contribute  to  the  advance- 
ment of  education  by  encouraging  women  in  education  to  pre- 
pare for  and  accept  the  challenge  of  administrative  or  execu- 
tive positions;  to  urge  school  systems  and  educational  agencies 
to  recognize  women's  administrative  abilities  and  to  employ 
qualified  women  as  administrators;  to  recognize  the  achieve- 
ments of  women  in  educational  administration ;  and  to  work  for 
the  general  recognition  and  utilization  of  women's  leadership 
abilities  as  a  significant  national  resource.  Membership :  1,700. 

National  Education  Association  of  the  United  States,  1201  16th 
Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Established  1857  as  the 


ORGANIZATIONS  OP  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  325 

National  Teachers  Association.  Its  purpose  is  to  elevate  the 
character  and  advance  the  interests  of  the  teaching  profession 
and  to  promote  the  cause  of  education.  Membership:  1,028,456 
individual  personal  memberships  and  approximately  1,703,316 
aflfiliated  through  State,  territorial,  and  local  groups.  (Not  re- 
stricted to  women,  but  a  majority  of  the  members  are  women.) 


Political  and   Legislative  Organizations 

Democratic  National  Committee,  Office  of  Women's  Activities, 
2600  Virginia  Avenue  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20037.  Estab- 
lished 1953,  to  replace  the  previous  Women's  Division  and 
Women's  Bureau,  dating  back  to  1916.  Its  purpose  is  to  encour- 
age more  women  to  participate  in  Democratic  political  organi- 
zations and  provide  them  with  information  and  techniques  to 
make  it  possible  for  them  to  work  as  equals  v^^ith  men  at  all  po- 
litical levels.  Functions  include  preparing  and  distributing  polit- 
ical techniques  materials,  assisting  in  building  political  organi- 
zations, and  aiding  and  encouraging  women  to  seek  both  public 
and  party  office. 

National  Federation  of  Republican  Women,  1625  I  Street  NW., 
Washington,  D.C.  20006.  Founded  1938.  The  objectives  are  to 
promote  an  informed  electorate  through  political  education,  to 
increase  the  effectiveness  of  v^^omen  in  the  cause  of  good  gov- 
ernment through  active  political  participation,  to  facilitate  co- 
operation among  women's  Republican  clubs,  to  foster  loyalty  to 
the  Republican  Party  and  to  promote  its  ideals,  to  support  ob- 
jectives and  policies  of  the  Republican  National  Committee,  and 
to  work  for  the  election  of  the  Republican  Party's  nominees. 
Membership:  500,000  women  in  50  States,  the  Commonwealth 
of  Puerto  Rico,  and  the  District  of  Columbia. 

National  Woman's  Party,  144  Constitution  Avenue  NE.,  Wash- 
ington, D.C.  20002.  Established  1913  for  suffrage  for  women 
through  the  adoption  of  the  Federal  Suffrage  Amendment; 
reorganized  in  1921  for  equal  rights  for  women  in  all  fields.  Its 
immediate  purpose  is  to  secure  the  adoption  of  the  Equal 
Rights  for  Women  Amendment  to  the  National  Constitution 
and  equal  rights  for  women  in  the  international  field.  It  is  af- 
filiated with  the  World  Woman's  Party  and  with  the  Interna- 
tional Council  of  Women. 

Republican  National  Committee,  Women's  Division,  1625  I  Street 
NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20006.  Founded  1918  to  give  women  a 


326  ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 

voice  in  the  councils  of  the  Republican  National  Committee.  Its 
basic  objectives  are  to  coordinate  the  activities  of  women  in  the 
Republican  Party  to  achieve  a  maximum  effectiveness  from 
their  efforts;  to  encourage  their  participation  in  party  work 
and  in  seeking  public  office  as  candidates ;  and  to  promote  equal 
recognition  of  women  with  men  at  all  levels  of  party  organiza- 
tion, to  develop  leadership  among  Republican  women,  and  to 
keep  women  informed  of  party  activities  and  current  issues. 
Woman's  National  Democratic  Club,  1526  New  Hampshire  Ave- 
nue NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20036.  Founded  1922.  Its  purpose 
is  to  afford  Democratic  women  an  opportunity  to  obtain  infor- 
mation about  problems  and  issues  confronting  the  country  and 
to  discuss  Democratic  ideals  and  programs,  to  do  educational 
and  community  service  work,  and  to  hear  and  meet  the  Na- 
tion's lawmakers  and  other  leaders  in  domestic  and  interna- 
tional fields.  Membership :  1,550. 

Patriotic  Organizations 

Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution,  National  Society,  1776  D 
Street  NW.,  Washington,  D.C.  20006.  Established  1890.  Objec- 
tives are  historic  preservation,  promotion  of  education,  and  pa- 
triotic endeavor.  National  Headquarters,  Washington,  D.C, 
Americana  Museum  with  28  period  rooms  and  genealogical  li- 
brary open  to  the  public  daily.  Membership:  Approximately 
186,000  in  nearly  3,000  local  chapters  throughout  the  United 
States. 

Disabled  American  Veterans  Auxiliary,  3725  Alexandria  Pike, 
Cold  Spring,  Ky.  41076.  Established  1922.  Its  purpose  is  to  up- 
hold and  maintain  the  Constitution  and  laws  of  the  United 
States,  to  advance  the  interests  and  work  for  the  betterment  of 
all  wounded,  injured,  and  disabled  veterans  and  their  families. 
Membership  is  composed  of  wives,  widows,  mothers,  daughters, 
sisters,  granddaughters,  and  grandmothers  of  disabled  veterans 
of  World  Wars  I  and  II  and  the  Korean  conflict,  and  disabled 
women  veterans.  Membership :  Approximately  35,000. 

Ladies  Auxiliary  to  the  Vetera7is  of  Foreign  Wars  of  the  United 
States,  406  West  34th  Street,  Kansas  City,  Mo.  64111.  Founded 
1914.  Its  objectives  are  fraternal,  patriotic,  and  educational. 
Major  programs  include  volunteer  work  in  Veterans  Adminis- 
tration and  other  hospitals,  and  welfare  activities  for  veterans 
and  their  dependents.  Membership:  400,000. 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  327 

United  Daughters  of  the  Confederacy,  328  North  Boulevard, 
Richmond,  Va.  23220.  Established  1894.  Its  purpose  is  histori- 
cal, benevolent,  educational,  and  social.  Membership:  Approxi- 
mately 36,000.  (Membership  restricted  to  M^omen  v^ho  are  de- 
scendants of  Confederate  veterans  of  the  War  Betvi^een  the 
States.) 


Farm  and   Rural  Organizations 

American  Farm  Bureau  Federation,  Women's  Committee,  Room 
1000,  Merchandise  Mart,  Chicago,  111.  60654.  Its  objective  is  to 
assist  in  an  active,  organized  way  in  carrying  forward  the  pro- 
gram of  the  American  Farm  Bureau  Federation;  to  promote, 
strengthen,  and  assist  the  development  of  the  business,  eco- 
nomic, social,  educational,  and  spiritual  interests  of  the  farm 
families  of  the  Nation;  and  to  develop  agriculture.  Member- 
ship: 1,703,908. 

Country  Women' ^  Council,  U.S.A.,  c/o  Mrs.  Homer  A.  Greene, 
Chairman,  Greene  Acres,  Tutwiler,  Miss.  38963.  Founded  1939. 
This  Council  is  a  coordinating  group  made  up  of  representa- 
tives of  four  national  and  some  82  regional  and  State  societies 
in  the  United  States  which  are  constituent  members  of  the  As- 
sociated Country  Women  of  the  World.  Its  purpose  is  to  effect  a 
closer  association  among  these  United  States  groups  in  carry- 
ing out  the  aims  and  programs  of  the  Associated  Country 
Women  of  the  World  in  furthering  friendship  and  understand- 
ing among  the  country  women  of  the  world,  in  improving  their 
standard  of  living,  and  in  representing  them  in  international 
councils.  Membership :  3  million. 

National  Extension  Homemakers  Council,  c/o  Mrs.  Wilmer  Smith, 
Route  1,  Wilson,  Tex.  79381.  Founded  1936.  Its  purpose  is  to 
strengthen  and  develop  adult  education  in  home  economics 
through  the  Cooperative  Extension  Service  of  the  U.S.  Depart- 
ment of  Agriculture  and  the  land-grant  colleges ;  to  provide  op- 
portunity for  homemakers  to  pool  their  judgment  for  the  im- 
provement of  home  and  community  life;  and  to  offer  a  means 
by  which  homemakers  may  promote  extension  projects  impor- 
tant in  the  protection  and  development  of  the  American  home. 
Membership :  Approximately  1  million. 

Woman's  National  Farm  and  Garden  Association,  Inc.,  c/o  Mrs. 
Nelson  B.  Sackett,  President,  860  Park  Avenue,  New  York, 
N.Y.  10021.  Founded  1914.  Its  purpose  is  to  stimulate  interest 


328  ORGANIZATIONS   OF   INTEREST  TO   WOMEN 

in  the  conservation  of  natural  resources  and  an  appreciation  of 
country  life;  to  work  for  improvement  of  rural  conditions;  to 
promote  good  relationships  between  farm  and  city  women;  to 
help  women  and  girls  through  scholarships  and  expert  advice 
to  obtain  the  best  available  training  in  agriculture,  horticul- 
ture, and  related  professions,  and  to  develop  opportunities  for 
women  so  trained ;  to  stimulate  and  make  available  to  members 
opportunities  for  the  marketing  of  farm  and  garden  products; 
and  to  cooperate  with  national  and  international  groups  of 
women  with  similar  interests.  Membership :  9,000. 

Labor  Organizations 

The  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics  of  the  U.S.   Department  of 
Labor,  in  its  "Directory  of  National  and  International  Labor  Un- 
ions in  the  United  States,  1967,"  includes  a  table  listing  of  the  un- 
ions that  report  membership  by  sex.  (See  table  36  of  this  hand- 
book for  unions  reporting  25,000  or  more  women  members.) 
American  Federation  of  Labor-Congress  of  Ind/astrial  Organiza- 
tions (AFL-CIO)  Auxiliaries,  815  16th  Street  NW.,  Washing- 
ton, D.C.  20006.  Established  December  1957  by  merger  of  the 
former  American  Federation  of  Women's  Auxiliaries  of  Labor 
and  National  C.I.O.  Auxiliaries.  Composed  of  women  from  fam- 
ilies of  men  in  a  trade  union  affiliated  with  the  AFL-CIO.  Its 
purpose  is  to  further  the  program  of  the  AFL-CIO;  to  foster 
organizing  of  the  unorganized  members  of  union  families  and 
to  educate  them  in  the  benefits  of  trade  unionism;  to  aid  in  se- 
curing better  schools  and  instructors ;  to  abolish  child  labor ;  to 
promote  legislation  which  benefits  workers  and  their  families; 
and  to  promote   social   and   cultural  activities.   Membership: 
50,000. 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  329 

Alphabetical   List  of  Organizations 

Page 

Adult  Education  Association  of  the  United  States  of  America 321 

AFL-CIO  Auxiliaries ---  328 

Altrusa  International,  Inc.  319 

American  Association  of  Industrial  Nurses,  Inc. 310 

American  Association  of  Medical  Record  Librarians 311 

American  Association  of  Nurse  Anesthetists 311 

American  Association  of  University  Women 322 

American  Council  on  Education  322 

American  Dental  Assistants  Association,  Inc.  311 

American  Dental  Hygienists'  Association 311 

American  Dietetic  Association 314 

American  Farm  Bureau  Federation,  Women's  Committee 327 

American  Federation  of  Teachers  (AFL-CIO )   322 

American  Home  Economics  Association 314 

American  Institute  of  Interior  Designers 315 

American  Library  Association 315 

American  Medical  Women's  Association,  Inc. 311 

American  Newspaper  Women's  Club,  Inc. 319 

American  Nurses'  Association,  Inc. 311 

American  Occupational  Therapy  Association 312 

American  Personnel  and  Guidance  Association 316 

American  Physical  Therapy  Association 312 

American  Public  Health  Association,  Inc. 312 

American  Society  of  Medical  Technologists 312 

American  Society  of  Radiologic  Technologists 313 

American  Society  of  Women  Accountants 308 

American  Speech  and  Hearing  Association   313 

American  Vocational  Association,  Inc.    322 

American  Woman's  Society  of  Certified  Public  Accountants 308 

American  Women  in  Radio  and  Television,  Inc.   317 

American  Women's  Voluntary   Services,  Inc.    302 

Association  of  American  Women  Dentists 313 

Association  of  the  Junior  Leagues  of  America,  Inc. 303 

B'nai  B'rith  Women 303 

Camp  Fire  Girls,  Inc.   303 

Church  Women  United   302 

Council  on  Social  Work  Education 322 

Country  Women's  Council,  U.S.A.   327 

Credit  Women-International 309 

Daughters  of  the  American  Revolution,  National  Society 326 

Delta  Kappa  Gamma  Society  ( International)    323 

Democratic  National  Committee,  Office  of  Women's  Activities 325 

Disabled  American  Veterans  Auxiliary 326 

Fashion  Group,  Inc.,  The   309 

Federation  of  Women  Shareholders  in  American  Business,  Inc. 310 

General  Federation  of  Women's  Clubs   303 

Girl  Scouts  of  the  United  States  of  America 303 


330 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN 


Inc.,  The 


Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 


Assembly  for  Social  Policy  and  Development,  Inc.,  The 
Association  for  Practical  Nurse  Education  and  Service, 


Girls  Clubs  of   America,   Inc.    

Hadassah,  The  Women's  Zionist  Organization  of  America,  Inc. 
International  Association  of  Personnel  Women 

International  Toastmistress  Clubs   

Ladies  Auxiliary  to  the  Veterans  of  Foreign  Wars  of  the  United 

States   

League  of  Women  Voters  of  the  United  States 

Lucy  Stone  League,  The 

Nationa 
Nationa 

Inc.  _ 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 

Clubs, 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 
Nationa 


Association  of  Bank- Women  Inc. 

Association   of  College  Women    

Association  of  Colored  Women's  Clubs,  Inc.   

Association  of  Insurance  Women  (International)    

Association  of  Legal  Secretaries 

Association  of  Negro  Business  and  Professional  Women's 

Inc. 

Association  of  Railway  Business  Women,  Inc. 

Association  of  Social   Workers   

Association  of  Women  Deans  and  Counselors 

Association  of  Women  in  Construction 

Association  of  Women  Lawyers   

Committee  for  the  Day  Care  of  Children,  Inc.   

Committee  on  Household  Employment 

Congress  of  Colored  Parents  and  Teachers 

Congress  of  Parents  and  Teachers 

Consumers  League 

Council  for  Homemaker  Services,  Inc.   

Council  of  Administrative   Women  in  Education   

Council  of  Catholic  Women 

Council  of  Jewish  Women,  Inc.  

Council  of  Negro  Women,  Inc.   -■ 

Council  of  Women  of  the  United  States,  Inc. 

Education  Association  of  the  United  States 

Executive  Housekeepers  Association,  Inc.,  The 

Extension  Homemakers  Council 

Federation  of  Business  and  Professional  Women's  Clubs, 


Federation  of  Licensed  Practical  Nurses,  Inc. 

Federation  of  Music  Clubs 

Federation  of  Republican  Women 

Jewish  Welfare  Board   

League  for  Nursing  

League  of  American  Pen  Women,  Inc. 

Organization  for  Women  

Secretaries  Association    (International)    

Woman's  Christian  Temperance  Union 

Woman's  Party    


Pilot  Club  International 


Page 

304 
304 
316 
323 

326 
302 
304 
304 

313 
308 
323 
305 
314 
318 

320 
317 
318 
323 
309 
315 
318 
305 
324 
324 
305 
319 
324 
305 
306 
306 
306 
324 
314 
327 

320 
313 
316 
325 
306 
313 
319 
307 
318 
307 
325 
320 


ORGANIZATIONS  OF  INTEREST  TO  WOMEN  331 

Page 

Quota  International,  Inc.    321 

Republican   National  Committee,  Women's  Division 325 

Society  of  Woman  Geographers,  The 310 

Society  of  Women   Engineers   309 

Soroptimist  International  Association,  Soroptimist  Federation  of 

the  Americas,  Inc.    321 

Special  Libraries  Association    315 

Unitarian  Universalist  Women's  Federation 302 

United  Daughters  of  the  Confederacy 327 

Woman's  National  Democratic  Club   326 

Woman's  National  Farm  and  Garden  Association,   Inc.   327 

Women  in  Community  Service,  Inc. 307 

Women  Leaders  Round  Table,  The  National  Association  of  Life 

Underwriters 315 

Women's  Council  of  the  National  Association  of  Real  Estate  Boards  -  -  317 

Women's  International  League  for  Peace  and  Freedom 307 

Women's   National    Press   Club    319 

Young  Women's  Christian  Association  of  the  United  States  of 

America   308 

Zonta  International 321 


Part  V 

Bibliography 
on 

American  Women  Workers 


339-458 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  ON 
AMERICAN   WOMEN   WORKERS 

This  bibliography  covers  principally  publications  of  current  in- 
terest concerning  women  as  workers  and  citizens.  It  was  prepared 
in  response  to  numerous  requests  for  reference  materials  pertain- 
ing to  women's  participation  in  employment  and  other  activities 
outside  the  home.  Since  it  is  based  primarily  on  materials  utilized 
in  the  course  of  research  work  and  is  not  the  result  of  a  complete 
review  of  the  literature  in  the  field,  the  bibliography  is  of  neces- 
sity limited.  It  includes  references  with  varying  conclusions  and 
opinions,  and  does  not  constitute  endorsement  of  any  single  point 
of  view. 

Wherever  possible,  the  references  have  been  classified  accord- 
ing to  their  primary  subject  matter.  Those  which  are  not  special- 
ized are  shown  under  "General." 

The  topical  sections  of  the  bibliography  are : 

General 

Commissions  on  the  Status  of  Women 

Counseling  and  Guidance 

Education  and  Training 

Family  Status  and  Responsibilities  of  Women  Workers 

Historical  Development 

International 

Special  Groups  of  Women 

Standards  and  Legislation  Affecting  Women 

Union  Organization 

Volunteers 

Women  as  Workers 

Reports  of  Conferences,  Meetings,  and  Commissions 

Speeches 

Bibliographies 

Unless  otherwise  stated,  U.S.  Government  publications  may  be 
obtained  from  the  Superintendent  of  Documents,  U.S.  Govern- 
ment Printing  Office,  Washington,  D.C.  20402,  or  are  available  at 
depository  libraries. 

GENERAL 

Bird,  Caroline.  Born  Female — The  High  Cost  of  Keeping  Women 
Down.  New  York,  N.Y.,  David  McKay  Co.,  1968. 

334 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  335 

Farber,  Seymour,  and  Roger  H.  L.  Wilson,  eds.  The  Potential  of 
Woman.  New  York,  N.Y.,  McGraw-Hill  Book  Co.,  Inc.,  1963. 

Firkel,  Eva.  Woman  in  the  Modern  World.  Notre  Dame,  Ind., 
Fides  Publishers,  1963. 

Friedan,  Betty.  The  Feminine  Mystique.  New  York,  N.Y.,  W.  W. 
Norton  &  Co.,  Inc.,  1963. 

Ginzberg,  Eli.  The  Development  of  Human  Resources.  New  York, 
N.Y.,  McGraw-Hill  Book  Co.,  Inc.,  1966. 

Goldberg,  Dorothy.  The  Creative  Woman.  New  York,  N.Y.,  David 
McKay  Co.,  1963. 

Harbison,  Frederick,  and  Charles  A.  Myers.  Education,  Man- 
power and  Economic  Growth.  New  York,  N.Y.,  McGraw-Hill 
Book  Co.,  Inc.,  1964. 

Kaufman,  Jacob  J.,  Grant  N.  Farr,  and  John  C.  Shearer.  The  De- 
velopment and  Utilization  of  Human  Resources.  A  Guide  for 
Research.  University  Park,  Pa.,  The  Pennsylvania  State 
University,  Institute  for  Research  on  Human  Resources,  1967. 

Lamson,  Peggy  L.  Few  Are  Chosen.  American  Women  in  Political 
Life  Today.  Boston,  Mass.,  Houghton  Mifflin  Co.,  1968. 

Lewis,  Edwin  C.  Developing  Woman's  Potential.  Ames,  Iowa, 
Iowa  State  University  Press,  1968. 

Roesch,  Roberta.  Women  in  Action — Their  Questions  and  Their 
Answers.  New  York,  N.Y.,  John  Day  Co.,  1967. 

The  Role  of  the  Educated  Woman.  Proceedings  of  a  symposium 
held  at  Rice  University,  January  29-30,  1963.  Sponsored  by 
Mary  Gibbs  Jones  College.  Houston,  Tex.,  Rice  University, 
1964. 

Who's  Who  of  American  Women.  5th  ed.  1968-69.  Chicago,  111., 
A.  N.  Marquis  Co.,  1968. 

Winter,  Elmer  L.  Women  at  Work :  Every  Woman's  Guide  to  Suc- 
cessful Employment.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Simon  and  Schuster, 
1967. 

The  Woman  in  America.  In  Daedalus,  Spring  1964.  Journal  of  the 
American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences. 

COMMISSIONS  ON  THE  STATUS  OF  WOMEN 

Handbook  for  State  and  City  Commissions  on  the  Status  of 
Women.  The  University  of  Wisconsin,  in  cooperation  with  the 
Women's  Bureau,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Administration, 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  1968.  (Available  from  the  Women's 
Bureau,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Administration,  U.S.  De- 
partment of  Labor,  Washington,  D.C.  20210) 


336  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

President's  Commission  on  the  Status  of  Women : 

American  Women.  The  report  of  the  Commission.  1963. 
Reports  of  Committees : 

Civil  and  Political  Rights.  1964. 
Education.  1964. 
Federal  Employment.  1963. 
Home  and  Community.  1963. 
Private  Employment.  1964. 
Protective  Labor  Legislation.  1963. 
Social  Insurance  and  Taxes.  1963. 
Report  on  Four  Consultations :  Summaries  of  consultations  held 
under  Commission  auspices  on  Private  Employment  Oppor- 
tunities,  New   Patterns   in   Volunteer   Work,    Portrayal   of 
Women  by  the  Mass  Media,  and  Problems  of  Negro  Women. 
1963. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Adminis- 
tration, Women's  Bureau : 
Interdepartmental  Committee  and  Citizens'  Advisory  Council 
on  the  Status  of  Women: 
American  Women,  1963-1968.  1968. 

Progress  Report  on  the  Status  of  Women.  First  Annual  Re- 
port, October  11,  1963  through  October  10,  1964.  1964. 
Report  on  Progress  in  1965  on  the  Status  of  Women.  Second 

Annual  Report,  December  31,  1965.  1966. 
Report  on  Progress  in  1966  on  the  Status  of  Women.  Third 

Annual  Report,  December  31,  1966.  1967. 
Reports  of  the  Task  Forces  to  the  Citizens'  Advisory  Council. 
1968: 
Family  Law  and  Policy 
Health  and  Welfare 
Labor  Standards 
Social  Insurance  and  Taxes 


COUNSELING  AND  GUIDANCE 

American  Association  of  University  Women,  Educational  Foun- 
dation: 

Continuing  Education — Focus  on  Counseling  and  Training.  In 
Women's  Education,  March  1965. 

Developing  Women's  Natural  Gifts.  In  Women's  Education, 
March  1965. 

Early  Counseling  of  Girls  Is  Important.  In  Women's  Educa- 
tion, December  1965. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  337 

Berry,  Jane,  and  others.  Counseling'  Girls  and  Women:  Aware- 
ness, Analysis,  Action.  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  The  University  of 
Missouri  at  Kansas  City  Press,  1966. 

Bird,  Caroline.  Born  Female — The  High  Cost  of  Keeping  Women 
Down.  New  York,  N.Y.,  David  McKay  Co.,  1968. 

Calvert,  Robert,  Jr.,  and  John  E.  Steele.  Planning  Your  Career. 
New  York,  N.Y.,  McGraw-Hill  Book  Co.,  Inc.,  1963. 

Dolan,  Eleanor  F.,  and  others.  Counseling  Techniques  for  Mature 
Women.  Report  of  Adult  Counselor  Training  Program.  Ameri- 
can Association  of  University  Women,  1966. 

Edwards,  Rita.  A  Suggested  Program  of  School  Guidance  To  Aid 
in  the  Optimum  Development  of  American  Girls.  Newark,  N.J., 
Newark  State  College,  1967. 

Equal  Employment  Opportunity  Commission.  Document  and  Ref- 
erence Text:  An  Index  to  Minority  Group  Employment  In- 
formation. Ann  Arbor,  Mich.,  University  of  Michigan- Wayne 
State  University,  1967. 

Harbeson,  Gladys  E.  Choice  and  Challenge  for  the  American 
Woman.  Cambridge,  Mass.,  Schenkman  Publishing  Co.,  Inc., 
1967. 

King,  Alice  Gore.  Help  Wanted:  Female — The  Young  Woman's 
Guide  to  Job-Hunting.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Charles  Scribner's 
Sons,  1968. 

Lewis,  Edwin  C.  Counselors  and  Girls.  In  Journal  of  Counseling 
Psychology,  Summer  1965. 

O'Neill,  Barbara  Powell.  Careers  for  Women  After  Marriage  and 
Children.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Macmillan  Co.,  1965. 

Russo,  Sabatino  A.,  Jr.,  and  William  Laas.  Women!  Business 
Needs  You!  A  Back-to-Business  Guide  for  Modern  Women. 
New  York,  N.Y.,  Popular  Library,  1968. 

Scofield,  Nanette  E.,  and  Betty  Klarman.  So  You  Want  To  Go 
Back  to  Work !  New  York,  N.Y.,  Random  House,  1968. 

Smith,  Margaret  Ruth.  Guidance-Personnel  Work:  Future  Tense. 
New  York,  N.Y.,  Teachers  College,  Columbia  University  Press, 
1966. 

U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration : 

Career  Guidance — Report  of  the  Subcommittee  on  Career  Guid- 
ance of  the  Committee  on  Specialized  Personnel.  1967. 
Career  Guide  for  Demand  Occupations.  1965. 
Counselor's  Handbook.  1967. 

Guide  to  Local   Occupational   Information.    (Revised   periodi- 
cally) 


338  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Adminis- 
tration, Women's  Bureau: 
Counseling  Girls  Toward  New  Perspectives.  A  report  of  the 
Middle    Atlantic    Regional    Pilot    Conference,    Philadelphia, 
Pa.,  December  2-4,  1965.  1966. 
New  Approaches  to  Counseling  Girls  in  the  1960's.  A  report  of 
the  Midwest  Regional  Pilot  Conference,  Chicago,  111.,  Febru- 
ary 26-27,  1965.  1965. 
Speech  about  job  opportunities  for  girls  before  the  Maryland 
State  Personnel  and  Guidance  Association,  Annapolis,  Md., 
May  2,  1964. 
Women  and  Girls  in  the  Labor  Market  Today  and  Tomorrow. 
Speech  before  the  National  Conference  on  Social  Welfare, 
Cleveland,  Ohio,  May  21,  1963. 
Winter,  Elmer  L.  Women  at  Work:   Every  Woman's  Guide  to 
Successful  Employment.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Simon  and  Schus- 
ter, 1967. 

EDUCATION  AND  TRAINING 

Adult  Education  Association.  Adult  Leadership.  (Monthly) 
Washington,  D.C. 

Bernard,  Jessie  S.  Academic  Women.  University  Park,  Pa.,  The 
Pennsylvania  State  University  Press,  1964. 

Bureau  of  Social  Science  Research,  Inc.  Two  Years  After  the  Col- 
lege Degree:  Work  and  Further  Study  Patterns.  Report  on  the 
1960  Survey  of  1958  College  Graduates.  Washington,  D.C, 
1963. 

Dennis,  Lawrence  E.,  ed.  Education  and  a  Woman's  Life.  Wash- 
ington, D.C,  American  Council  on  Education,  1963. 

Dolan,  Eleanor  F.  Higher  Education  for  Women :  Time  for  Reap- 
praisal. In  Higher  Education,  September  1963. 

The  Education  and  Training  of  Racial  Minorities.  Proceedings  of 
a  conference,  May  11-12,  1967.  Madison,  Wis.,  University  of 
Wisconsin,  Center  for  Studies  in  Vocational  and  Technical  Ed- 
ucation, 1968. 

Ginzberg,  Eli,  and  associates.  Life  Styles  of  Educated  Women. 
New  York,  N.Y.,  Columbia  University  Press,  1966. 

Kaufman,  Jacob  J.,  and  others.  The  Role  of  the  Secondary 
Schools  in  the  Preparation  of  Youth  for  Employment.  Univer- 
sity Park,  Pa.,  The  Pennsylvania  State  University,  Institute  for 
Research  on  Human  Resources,  1967. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  339 

Pervin,  Lawrence  A.,  Louis  E.  Reik,  <md  Willard  Dalrymple.  The 
College  Dropout  and  Utilization  of  Talent.  Princeton,  N.J., 
Princeton  University  Press,  1966. 

Pollack,  Jack  Harrison.  Girl  Dropouts:  A  Neglected  National 
Tragedy.  In  Parade,  September  26,  1965. 

Riessman,  Frank  L.,  and  Hermine  I.  Popper.  Up  From  Poverty. 
New  York,  N.Y.,  Harper  &  Row,  1968. 

Special  Issue  on  Women's  Education.  In  Saturday  Review,  May 
18,  1963. 

The  Two-Year  College  for  Women :  A  Challenge  Met.  In  the  New 
York  Times  Magazine,  March  7,  1965. 

U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census.  School  En- 
rollment :  October  1966.  Current  Population  Reports,  P-20,  No. 
167,  August  30,  1967. 

U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  National  In- 
stitutes of  Health.  Special  Report  on  Women  Graduate  Study. 
Resources  for  Medical  Research.  Report  No.  13.  June  1968. 

U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Office  of  Ed- 
ucation : 

American  Education.  (Monthly) 

Digest  of  Educational  Statistics.  (Annual) 

Earned  Degrees  Conferred.  (Annual) 

Opening  Fall  Enrollment,  Higher  Education.  (Annual) 

Projections  of  Educational  Statistics.  (Annual) 
U.S.    Department    of  Health,    Education,    and  Welfare,  Public 

Health  Service.  Graduates  of  Predominantly  Negro  Colleges, 

Class  of  1964.  Pub.  1571.  1967. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics.  Educa- 
tional  Attainment   of   Workers,    March   1968.    Special   Labor 

Force  Report  No.  103. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Adminis- 
tration, Women's  Bureau: 

College  Women  Seven  Years  After  Graduation:  Resurvey  of 
Women  Graduates— Class  of  1957.  Bull.  292.  1966. 

Fact  Sheets  on: 

Educational  Attainment  of  Nonwhite  Women.  August  1968. 
Trends  in  Educational  Attainment  of  Women.  August  1969. 

Fifteen  Years  After  College — Study  of  Alumnae  of  the  Class  of 
1945.  Bull.  283.  1962. 

Trends  in  Educational  Attainment  of  Women.  October  1969. 


340  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Continuing   Education — Programs  and   Needs 

Berry,  Jane,  and  Sandra  Epstein.  Continuing  Education  of 
Women:  Needs,  Aspirations  and  Plans.  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  The 
University  of  Missouri  at  Kansas  City  Press,  1963. 

Canadian  Department  of  Labour,  Women's  Bureau.  Job  Training 
— ^for  the  Mature  Woman  Entering  or  Re-entering  the  Labour 
Force.  Ottawa,  Canada,  1964. 

Cockburn,  Patricia.  Women  University  Graduates  in  Continuing 
Education  and  Employment.  An  exploratory  study  initiated  by 
the  Canadian  Federation  of  University  Women,  1966.  Toronto, 
Canada,  1967. 

College  Programs  for  Mature  Women.  In  Saturday  Review,  May 
18,  1963. 

Continuing  Education  for  Adults.  Syracuse,  N.Y.,  Syracuse  Uni- 
versity. (Monthly  newsletter) 

Education  and  a  Woman's  Life.  Report  of  Itasca  Conference  on 
the  Continuing  Education  of  Women.  Held  at  Itasca  State 
Park,  Itasca,  Minn.,  September  1962.  Washington,  D.C.,  Ameri- 
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Analysis  of  Coverage  and  Wage  Rates  of  State  Minimum  Wage 
Laws  and  Orders,  August  1,  1965.  Bull.  291.  1965. 

Fringe  Benefit  Provisions  From  State  Minimum  Wage  Laws 
and  Orders,  September  1,  1966.  Bull.  293.  1967. 

Role  of  the  Volunteer  Organization  in  the  Legislative  Process 
— The  Michigan  Minimum  Wage  Campaign.  October  1968. 

State  Minimum  Wage  Legislation — To  Help  All  Workers, 
Especially  the  Working  Poor.  May  1969. 

UNION  ORGANIZATION 

Taft,  Philip.  Organized  Labor  in  American  History.  New  York, 

N.Y.,  Harper  &  Row,  1964. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics: 

A  Digest  of  One  Hundred  Selected  Health  and  Insurance  Plans 
Under  Collective  Bargaining,  Winter  1961-62.  Bull.  1330. 
June  1962. 


360  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Directory  of  National  and  International  Labor  Unions  in  the 
United  States,  1967.  Bull.  1596.  1968. 

Labor  in  a  Year  of  Expansion.  In  Monthly  Labor  Review,  Jan- 
uary 1969. 

Prospects  for  White-Collar  Unionism.  In  Monthly  Labor  Re- 
view, January  1969. 

VOLUNTEERS 

American  Association  of  University  Women,  Educational  Foun- 
dation: 
The    Role    of    the    Volunteer    and    Expanding    Services.    In 

Women's  Education,  March  1967. 
Volunteer  Service  Is  Every  Girl's  Right.  In  Women's  Educa- 
tion, March  1967. 
What  Educators  Should  Know  About  Volunteers.  In  Women's 
Education,  March  1967. 
Goldman,  Freda  H.  A  Turning  To  Take  Next.  Alternative  Goals 
in  the  Education  of  Women.  Notes  and  Essays  on  Education  for 
Adults,  No.  47.  Boston,  Mass.,  Center  for  the  Study  of  Liberal 
Education  for  Adults,  1965. 
Johnson,  Guion  Griffis.  Volunteers  in  Community  Service.  Chapel 
Hill,  N.C.,  The  North  Carolina  Council  of  Women's  Organiza- 
tions, Inc.,  1967. 
National  Council  of  Catholic  Women.  On  the  Identity  of  Women's 

Organizations.  In  Word,  March  1968. 
National  Federation  of  Settlements  and  Neighborhood  Centers. 
100,000  Hours  a  Week:  Volunteers  in  Service  to  Youth  and 
Families.  New  York,  N.Y.,  1965. 
National  Study  Service.  Use  of  Volunteers  in  Public  Welfare.  Re- 
port of  a  study  made  for  the  New  York  City  Department  of 
Welfare.  New  York,  N.Y.,  1963. 
Naylor,  Harriet  H.  Volunteers  Today — Finding,  Training,  and 
Working  With  Them.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Association  Press,  1967. 
Stenzel,  Anne  K.,  and  Helen  M.  Feeney.  Volunteer  Training  and 
Development.  A  Manual  for  Community  Groups.  New  York, 
N.Y.,  Seabury  Press,  1968. 
U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Social  and 
Rehabilitation  Service,  Children's  Bureau: 
How  Volunteers  Can  Help  Disadvantaged  Children.  In  Chil- 
dren, July-August  1967. 
Volunteers  in  Institutions  for  Delinquents.  In  Children,  July- 
August  1967. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  361 

U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Welfare  Ad- 
ministration: 
Anti-Delinquency  Project  Measures — Effectiveness  of  Volun- 
teers. In  Welfare  in  Review,  March  1966. 
Opportunities  for  Volunteers  in  Public  Welfare  Departments. 
Pub.  21.  1967. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpov^er  Administration.  Americans 
Volunteer.  Manpower  Research  Monograph  No.  10.  April  1969. 

WOMEN  AS  WORKERS 

Bird,  Caroline.  Born  Female — The  High  Cost  of  Keeping  Women 

Down.  New  York,  N.Y.,  David  McKay  Co.,  1968. 
Cain,  Glen  G.  Married  Women  in  the  Labor  Force:  An  Economic 

Analysis.  Chicago,  111.,  University  of  Chicago  Press,  1966. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics: 
Educational  Attainment  of  Workers,  March  1968.  Special  Labor 

Force  Report  No.  103. 
Labor  Force  Projections  by  State,  1970  and  1980.  Special  Labor 

Force  Report  No.  74. 
Marital  and  Family  Characteristics  of  Workers,  March  1967. 

Special  Labor  Force  Report  No.  94. 
Occupational  Mobility  of  Employed  Workers.   Special  Labor 

Force  Report  No.  84. 
Reasons   for   Nonparticipation   in   the   Labor   Force.    Special 

Labor  Force  Report  No.  86. 
Women  and  the  Labor  Force.  Special  Labor  Force  Report  No. 

93. 
Work  Experience  of  the   Population   in   1967.   Special   Labor 

Force  Report  No.  107. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Adminis- 
tration, Women's  Bureau: 
Background  Facts  on  Women  Workers  in  the  United  States. 

(Revised  periodically) 
Background  Paper  on  National  Service  and  Young  Women. 

1967. 
Fact  Sheets  on: 

The  American  Family  in  Poverty.  April  1968. 

Changing  Patterns  of  Women's  Lives.  July  1969. 

Educational  Attainment  of  Nonwhite  Women.  August  1968. 

Trends  in  Educational  Attainment  of  Women.  August  1969. 

Women  in  Professional  and  Technical  Positions.  November 
1968. 


362  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Women  Private  Household  Workers.  July  1969. 
Women's  Earnings  in  Poor  Families.  January  1967. 

Facts   About   Women's   Absenteeism    and   Labor    Turnover. 
August  1969. 

Maternity  Benefit  Provisions  for  Employed  Women.  Bull.  272. 
1960. 

Negro  Women  in  the  Population  and  in  the  Labor  Force.  De- 
cember 1967. 

Part-Time  Employment  of  Women.  April  1968. 

To   Improve  the   Status   of   Private-Household   Work.   March 
1965. 

Trends  in  Educational  Attainment  of  Women.  October  1969. 

Underutilization  of  Women  Workers.  August  1967. 

Utilization  of  Women  Workers.  Reprint  from  the  1967  Man- 
power Report  of  the  President,  April  1967. 

Why  Women  Work.  May  1968. 

Women  in  Poverty — Jobs  and  the  Need  for  Jobs.  April  1968. 

Women  Telephone  Workers  and  Changing  Technology.  Bull. 
286.  1963. 

Women  Workers.  (By  State) 

"Women's  Work"— How  Much  Truth-in-Labeling?  May  1967. 

Working  Wives — Their  Contribution  to  Family  Income.  Novem- 
ber 1968. 

Earnings  and  Inconne 

American  Nurses'  Association.  Facts  About  Nursing.  A  Statisti- 
cal Summary.  1968  edition. 
Endicott,  Frank  S.  Trends  in  the  Employment  of  College  and 
University  Graduates  in  Business  and  Industry,  1969.  Evans- 
ton,  III,  Northwestern  University,  1968. 
National  Education  Association  of  the  United  States,  Research 
Division: 
Estimates    of    School    Statistics,    1968-69.    Research    Report 

1968-R  16.  1968. 
Salaries    in    Higher    Education,    1967-68.    Research    Report 

1968-R  7.  1968. 
Salary  Schedules  for  Administrative  Personnel,  1967-68.  Re- 
search Report  1968-R  2.  1968. 
Salary   Schedules   for   Principals,    1967-68.    Research   Report 

1968-R  5.  1968. 
Salary    Schedules    for    Teachers,    1968-69.    Research    Report 
1968-R  13.  1968. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  363 

New  York  Stock  Exchange: 

1967  Fact  Book.  May  1967. 

Shareownership — U.S.A.:   1965  Census  of  Shareowners.  June 
1965. 
U.S.  Civil  Service  Commission,  Bureau  of  Manpov^er  Information 

Systems.  Occupations  of  Federal  White-Collar  Workers,  Octo- 
ber 31,  1967.  Pamphlet  SM  56-7. 
U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Bureau  of  the  Census: 

Family  Income  Advances,  Poverty  Reduced  in  1967.  Current 
Population  Reports,  P-60,  No.  55,  August  5,  1968. 

Household  Income  in  1967  by  Selected  Characteristics  of  the 
Head.  Current  Population  Reports,  P-60,  No.  57,  December 
17,  1968. 

Income  in  1966  of  Families  and  Persons  in  the  United  States. 
Current  Population  Reports,  P-60,  No.  53,  December  28,  1967. 
U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Social  Se- 
curity Administration: 

Comparing  the  Financial  Position  of  the  Aged  in  Britain  and 
the  United  States.  In  Social  Security  Bulletin,  July  1968. 

Income-Loss  Protection  Against  Illness.  In  Social  Security  Bul- 
letin, January  1967. 

The  Retirement  Test:  Its  Effect  on  Older  Workers'  Earnings. 
hi  Social  Security  Bulletin,  June  1968. 

The  Shape  of  Poverty  in  1966.  In  Social   Security  Bulletin, 
March  1968. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics: 

Differences  in  Pay  Between  Men  and  Women  Workers.  In 
Monthly  Labor  Review,  December  1967. 

The  Effects  of  Employment  Redistribution  on  Earnings.  Spe- 
cial Labor  Force  Report  No.  70. 

Income  and  Levels  of  Living.  In  Monthly  Labor  Review,  March 
1968. 

Low  Earners  and  Their  Incomes.  Special  Labor  Force  Report 
No.  82. 

National  Survey  of  Professional,  Administrative,  Technical, 
and  Clerical  Pay,  June  1968.  Bull.  1617.  January  1969. 

Occupational  Earnings  and  Education.  In  Monthly  Labor  Re- 
view, April  1968. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration.  The  Influ- 
ence of  MDTA  Training  on  Earnings.  Manpower  Evaluation 

Report  No.  8,  December  1968. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Adminis- 
tration, Women's  Bureau : 


364  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Women's  Earnings  in  Poor  Families.  January  1967. 
Working  Wives — Their   Contribution  to  Family  Income.   No- 
vember 1968. 

Occupations  and   Employment 

Catalyst  in  Education.  Part-Time  Teachers  and  How  They  Work. 
A  Study  of  Five  School  Systems.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Catalyst,  De- 
cember 15,  1968. 

Cooper,  Joseph  D.  A  Woman's  Guide  to  Part-Time  Jobs.  New 
York,  N.Y.,  Dolphin  Books,  1964. 

David,  Harry  D.  Upgrading  Office  Skills.  In  Training  Directors 
Journal,  February  1965. 

King,  Alice  Gore: 

Career  Opportunities  for  Women  in  Business.  New  York,  N.Y., 

E.  P.  Dutton  &  Co.,  1963. 
Help  Wanted:   Female — The  Young  Woman's   Guide  to   Job- 
Hunting.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Charles  Scribner's  Sons,  1968. 

Kreps,  Juanita.  Automation  and  Employment.  New  York,  N.Y., 
Holt,  Rinehart,  and  Winston,  1964. 

Lambeck,  Ruth.  380  Part-Time  Jobs  for  Women.  New  York,  N.Y., 
Bell  Publishing  Co.,  1968. 

Lopate,  Carol.  Women  in  Medicine.  Baltimore,  Md.,  Johns  Hop- 
kins Press,  1968. 

Moore,  Mary  Furlong.  Career  Guide  for  Young  People.  Garden 
City,  N.Y.,  Doubleday  &  Co.,  Dolphin  Books,  1963. 

National  Commission  on  Teacher  Education  and  Professional 
Standards  (National  Education  Association)  and  Catalyst  in 
Education.  Teaching:  Opportunities  for  Women  College  Grad- 
uates. Washington,  D.C.,  1964. 

National  Education  Association  of  the  United  States,  Research 
Division: 
The  American  Public-School  Teacher,  1965-66.  Research  Re- 
port 1967-R  4,  1967. 
Economic  Status  of  the  Teaching  Profession,  1967-68.  Public 
Schools.  Colleges  and  Universities.  Research  Report 
1968-R  4,  1968. 

O'Neill,  Barbara  Powell.  Careers  for  Women  After  Marriage  and 
Children.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Macmillan  Co.,  1965. 

Russo,  Sabatino  A.,  Jr.,  and  William  Laas.  Women!  Business 
Needs  You !  A  Back-to-Business  Guide  for  Modern  Women.  New 
York,  N.Y.,  Popular  Library,  1968. 

Scobey,    Joan,    and   Lee    Parr    McGrath.    Creative   Careers   for 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  365 

Women.  A  Handbook  of  Sources  and  Ideas  for  Part-Time  Jobs. 
New  York,  N.Y.,  Essandess  Special  Editions:  A  Division  of 
Simon  and  Schuster,  1968. 

Sheppard,  Harold  L.,  and  A.  Harvey  Belitsky.  The  Job  Hunt.  Bal- 
timore, Md.,  Johns  Hopkins  Press,  1966. 

U.S.  Civil  Service  Commission: 

Federal  Civilian  Manpov^er  Statistics.  (Monthly) 

Occupations   of   Federal   White-Collar   Workers,    October   31, 

1967.  Pamphlet  SM  56-7. 
Study  of  Employment  of  Women  in  the  Federal  Government, 

1967.  MS  62-3,  June  1968. 

U.S.    Department   of    Health,    Education,    and    Welfare,    Public 
Health  Service,  National  Center  for  Health  Statistics: 
Health    Resources    Statistics,    Health    Manpovv^er,    1965.    Pub. 

1509.  1966. 
State  Licensing  of  Health  Occupations.  Pub.  1758.  October  1967. 

U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics: 

Differences  in  Pay  Betv^^een  Men  and  Women  Workers.  In 
Monthly  Labor  Review,  December  1967. 

Educational  Attainment  of  Workers.  In  Monthly  Labor  Review, 
February  1969. 

Health  Manpower  1966-75.  A  Study  of  Requirements  and  Sup- 
ply. Report  No.  323.  June  1967. 

Occupational  Outlook  Handbook,  196«-69  edition.  Bull.  1550. 

Occupational  Outlook  Quarterly. 

Sex  and  Equal  Employment  Rights.  In  Monthly  Labor  Review, 
August  1967. 

Women  and  the  Labor  Force.  In  Monthly  Labor  Review,  Febru- 
ary 1968. 

U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration: 
Health  Careers  Guidebook.  1965. 

Technology  and  Manpower  in  the  Health  Service  Industry, 
1965-75.  Manpower  Research  Bulletin  No.  14.  May  1967. 

U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Adminis- 
tration, Women's  Bureau: 
Careers  for  Women  as  Technicians.  Bull.  282.  1961. 
Careers  for  Women  in  Conservation.  Leaflet  50.  January  1969. 
Careers  for  Women  in  the  Armed  Forces. 

Clerical  Occupations  for  Women — Today  and  Tomorrow.  Bull. 
289.  1964. 
If  Only  I  Could  Get  Some  Household  Help!  Leaflet  51.  1969. 


366  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Job  Horizons  for  College  Women.  Bull.  288.  Revised  1967. 
Selected  Readings  on  Employment  and  Training  Opportunities 

in  the  Professions.  November  1966. 
Skilled  Trades  for  Girls.  Reprint  from  Occupational  Outlook 

Quarterly,  December  1967. 
Why  Not  Be: 

An  Engineer?  Leaflet  41.  1967. 

A  Mathematician?  Leaflet  45.  1968. 

A  Medical  Technologist?  Leaflet  44.  1968. 

An  Optometrist?  Leaflet  42.  1968. 

A  Personnel  Specialist?  Leaflet  48.  1968. 

A  Pharmacist?  Leaflet  43.  1968. 

A  Public  Relations  Worker?  Leaflet  46.  1968. 

A  Technical  Writer?  Leaflet  47.  1968. 
Women  Journalists  and  Today's  World.  In  the  Matrix,  April 

1965. 
Weisl,  Reyna,  Jane  Fleming,  and  Mary  Janney,  eds.  Washington 
Opportunities  for  Women.  A  Guide  to  Part-Time  Work  and 
Study  for  the  Educated  Woman.  Washington,  D.C.,  Robert  B. 
Luce,  1967. 
White,  Martha  S.,  Mary  D.  Albro,  and  Alice  B.  Skinner,  eds.  The 
Next  Step.  A  Guide  to  Part-Time  Opportunities  in  Greater  Bos- 
ton for  the  Educated  Woman.  Cambridge,  Mass.,  Radcliffe  In- 
stitute for  Independent  Study,  1964. 
Winter,  Elmer  L.  Women  at  Work :  Every  Woman's  Guide  to  Suc- 
cessful Employment.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Simon  and  Schuster, 
1967. 


REPORTS  OF  CONFERENCES.  MEETINGS.  AND 
COMMISSIONS 

The  Education  and  Training  of  Racial  Minorities.  Held  at  the 
University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wis.,  Center  for  Studies  in 
Vocational  and  Technical  Education,  May  11-12,  1967.  1968. 

Manpower  Implications  of  Automation.  Held  in  Washington, 
D.C.,  December  8-10,  1964.  Sponsored  jointly  by  the  Organiza- 
tion of  Economic  Cooperation  and  Development,  U.S.  Depart- 
ment of  Labor,  and  the  Canadian  Department  of  Labour.  1964. 

The  People  Left  Behind.  Report  of  the  President's  National  Ad- 
visory Commission  on  Rural  Poverty.  1967, 

Report  of  the  National  Advisory  Commission  on  Civil  Disorders. 
New  York,  N.Y.,  E.  P.  Dutton  &  Co.,  1968. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  367 

U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  Economic  Research  Service: 
Age  of  Transition — Rural  Youth  in  a  Changing  Society.  Hand- 
book No.  347.  1967. 
White  Americans  in  Rural  Poverty.  Agricultural  Economic  Re- 
port No.  124.  1967. 
U.S.    Department   of    Health,    Education,    and   Welfare,    Public 
Health  Service.  Manpower  for  the  Medical  Laboratory.  Proceed- 
ings of  a  Conference  of  Government  and  the  Professions.  Held  in 
Washington,  D.C.,  October  11-13, 1967.  Pub.  1833. 1968. 
U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Social  and 
Rehabilitation  Service,  Children's  Bureau: 
Day  Care.  Meeting  of  Representatives  of  State  Advisory  Com- 
mittees on  Day  Care   Services  and   State  Departments  of 
■      Public  Welfare.   Held   in  Washington,   D.C.,   March   19-20, 
1964.  Child  Welfare  Report  No.  14.  1964. 
Federal  Programs  Assisting  Children  and  Youth.  Interdepart- 
mental Committee  on  Children  and  Youth.  Revised  1968. 
U.S.   Department  of  Labor,  Manpovi^er  Administration.   Career 
Guidance.  A  Report  of  the  Subcommittee  on  Career  Guidance  of 
the  Committee  on  Specialized  Personnel.  1967. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration,  and  U.S. 
Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Welfare,  Office  of  Edu- 
cation. Counselor  Development  in  American  Society.  Confer- 
ence recommendations  from  Invitational  Conference  on  Govern- 
ment-University Relations  in  the  Professional  Preparation  and 
Employment  of  Counselors.  Held  in  Washington,  D.C.,  June 
2-3,  1965.  1966. 
U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Wage  and  Labor  Standards  Adminis- 
tration, Women's  Bureau: 
Arrowhead  Regional  Conference  on  the  Status  of  Women  in 
Northern  Minnesota.  Held  in  Duluth,  Minn.,  July  17,  1964. 
1966. 
Counseling  Girls  Toward  New  Perspectives.  Middle  Atlantic 
Regional  Pilot  Conference.  Held  in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Decem- 
ber 2-4,  1965.  1966. 
Employment  Problems  of  Women.  Connecticut  Valley  Confer- 
ence. Held  at  Mount  Holyoke  College,  South  Hadley,  Mass., 
March  16-17,  1962.  1962. 
Exploding  the  Myths.  Conference  on  Expanding  Employment 
Opportunities   for    Career   Women.    Held   in   Los    Angeles, 
Calif.,  December  3,  1966.  1967. 
Job  Horizons  for  Women  and  Girls  in  the  District  of  Columbia. 
Held  in  Washington,  D.C.,  December  6-7,  1968.  1969. 


368  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Meeting  Medical  Manpower  Needs — The  Fuller  Utilization  of 
the  Woman  Physician.  Conference  sponsored  by  the  Women's 
Bureau,  the  American  Medical  Women's  Association,  and 
the  President's  Study  Group  on  Careers  for  Women.  Held  in 
Washington,  D.C.,  January  12-13,  1968.  1968. 

New  Approaches  to  Counseling  Girls  in  the  1960's.  Midwest 
Regional  Pilot  Conference.  Held  at  the  University  of  Chi- 
cago, Chicago,  111.,  February  26-27,  1965.  1965. 

New  Horizons  for  North  Dakota  Women.  Held  in  Bismarck, 
N.  Dak.,  July  17-18, 1964. 1966. 

1968:  Time  for  Action.  Fourth  National  Conference  of  Com- 
missions on  the  Status  of  Women.  Held  in  Washington,  D.C., 
June  20-22,  1968.  1969. 

Progress  and  Prospects.  Second  National  Conference  of  Gover- 
nors' Commissions  on  the  Status  of  Women.  Held  in  Wash- 
ington, D.C.,  July  28-30,  1965.  1966. 

Roles  and  Goals :  The  Status  of  Women  in  America.  Report  of 
Northeast  Regional  Conference  of  State  Commissions.  Held 
in  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  February  29-March  2,  1968.  1968. 

Sex  Discrimination  in  Employment  Practices.  Held  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  California  at  Los  Angeles,  Los  Angeles,  Calif., 
September  19,  1968.  1969. 

Shortage  or  Surplus?  An  Assessment  of  Boston  Womanpower 
in  Industry,  Government,  and  Research.  Held  at  Boston  Uni- 
versity, Boston,  Mass.,  June  7-8,  1963.  1966. 

Statewide  Meeting  of  the  Governor's  Commission  on  the  Status 
of  Women.  Held  in  Des  Moines,  Iowa,  November  20-21,  1964. 
1967. 

The  Status  of  Household  Employment.  Held  in  Chicago,  111., 
May  20,  1967.  1968. 

Targets  for  Action.  Third  National  Conference  of  Commissions 
on  the  Status  of  Women.  Held  in  Washington,  D.C.,  June 
28-30,  1966.  1967. 

Unions  and  the  Changing  Status  of  Women  Workers.  Held  at 
Rutgers-The  State  University,  New  Brunswick,  N.J.,  Octo- 
ber 17,  1964.  1966. 

Wisconsin  Governor's  Conference  on  the  Changing  Status  of 
Women.  Held  at  the  University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wis., 
January  31-February  1,  1964.  1965. 

Woman's  Destiny — Choice  or  Chance?  Held  at  the  University 
of  Washington,  Seattle,  Wash.,  November  21-22,  1963.  1965. 

Women  in  the  Upper  Peninsula  Economy.  Held  at  Northern 
Michigan  University,  Marquette,  Mich.,  May  16,  1964.  1966. 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  369 

Women's  Changing  World.  Second  Annual  Women's  Confer- 
ence. Held  at  the  University  of  Utah,  Salt  Lake  City,  Utah, 
September  5-6,  1963. 

Working  Women  and  Day  Care  Needs.  Held  in  Washington, 

D.C.,  June  1,  1967.  1968. 


SPEECHES 

Keyserling,  Mary  Dublin: 

Child  Day  Care  Service  Needs — A  Challenge  to  the  District. 
Speech  before  the  National  Capital  Area  Child  Day  Care  As- 
sociation, Washington,  D.C.,  May  1,  1967. 

Continuing  Education  for  Women — A  Grov^^ing  Challenge. 
Speech  before  the  Twenty-second  National  Conference  on 
Higher  Education,  Chicago,  111.,  March  7,  1967. 

Day  Care  and  the  Working  Mother.  The  Magnitude  of  the 
Problem  on  a  National  Scale.  Speech  before  the  Amalga- 
mated Clothing  Workers  of  America  Conference  on  Day  Care 
and  the  Working  Mother,  Baltimore,  Md.,  June  17,  1967. 

Day  Care  in  a  Changing  Economy.  Speech  before  the  Maryland 
Committee  on  Group  Day  Care  of  Children,  Baltimore,  Md., 
May  19,  1964. 

Economic  Opportunity — A  Challenge  to  the  Community. 
Speech  before  the  National  Council  of  Jewish  Women,  Wil- 
mington Section,  Wilmington,  Del.,  November  24,  1964. 

Goals — Ways  to  Fuller  Utilization.  Speech  before  the  Confer- 
ence on  Expanding  Employment  Opportunities  for  Career 
Women,  Los  Angeles,  Calif.,  December  2,  1966. 

The  Nation's  Working  Mothers  and  the  Need  for  Day  Care. 
Address  before  the  National  Conference  on  Day  Care  Serv- 
ices, Washington,  D.C.,  May  14,  1965. 

The  Negro  Woman  in  the  United  States — New  Roles — New 
Challenges.  Speech  before  the  National  Association  of  Col- 
ored Women's  Clubs  Convention,  Oklahoma  City,  Okla.,  July 
27,  1966. 

New  Opportunities  and  New  Responsibilities  for  Women.  Con- 
vocation address  at  Sweet  Briar  College,  Sweet  Briar,  Va., 
September  17,  1964. 

Recent  Federal  Employment  Policy  Developments — New  Prog- 
ress for  Women.  Speech  before  Annual  Labor-Management 
Conference,  Northeastern  University,  Boston,  Mass.,  Febru- 
ary 5,  1966. 

Research  and  Your  Job.  Speech  before  the  National  Federation 


370  BIBLIOGRAPHY 

of  Business  and  Professional  Women's  Clubs,  Inc.,  Detroit, 
Mich.,  July  18,  1964. 

Women,  Work,  and  Poverty.  Speech  before  Conference  of 
Women  in  the  War  on  Poverty,  Washington,  D.C.,  May  8, 
1967. 

Working  Mothers  and  Their  Children — The  Urgent  Need  for 
Day  Care  Services.  Washington,  D.C.,  June  1,  1967.  In  Re- 
port of  a  Consultation  on  Working  Women  and  Day  Care 
Needs.  Held  in  Washington,  D.C.,  June  1,  1967.  1968. 

Working  Women  and  the  American  Economy.  Speech  before 
D-A-Y  Workshop — The  Homemaker  Who  Earns,  New  York, 
N.Y.,  January  31,  1967. 

Your  Talents — Let's  Not  Waste  Them.  Speech  before  a  Back- 
to-Work    Symposium   for   Women   Who   Want   To    Resume 
Their  Careers,  New  York,  N.Y.,  January  25,  1967. 
Koontz,  Elizabeth  Duncan : 

Access  to  Education  in  the  United  States.  Presented  at  the 
Twenty-second  Session  of  the  United  Nations  Commission  on 
the  Status  of  Women,  New  York,  N.Y.,  February  4,  1969. 

Household  Employment:  The  Quiet  Revolution.  Speech  before 
the  Northern  Virginia  Conference  on  Household  Employment, 
Alexandria,  Va.,  April  14,  1969. 

The  Political  Rights  of  Women.  Presented  at  the  Twenty-sec- 
ond Session  of  the  United  Nations  Commission  on  the  Status 
of  Women,  New  York,  N.Y.,  January  28,  1969. 
Peterson,  Esther.  The  Dollars  and  Cents  of  Day  Care.  Speech  at 

the  Meeting  of  Representatives  of  State  Advisory  Committees 

on  Day  Care  Services  and  State  Departments  of  Public  Welfare, 

Washington,  D.C.,  March  19-20,  1964.  In  Child  Welfare  Report 

No.  14. 1964. 


BIBLIOGRAPHIES 

Bernhard  Memorial  Library,  Richard  J.  Resources  for  the  Em- 
ployment of  Mature  Women  and/or  Their  Continuing  Educa- 
tion. A  Selected  Bibliography  and  Aids.  New  York,  N.Y.,  Fed- 
eration Employment  and  Guidance  Service,  1966. 

B'nai  B'rith  Vocational  Services,  Counselor's  Information  Serv- 
ice. Washington,  D.C.  (Quarterly) 

Business   and    Professional    Women's    Foundation,    Washington, 
D.C: 
A  Selected  Annotated  Bibliography  of  Materials  (1956-1965) 


BIBLIOGRAPHY  371 

Relating  to  Women  in  Positions  at  Managerial,  Administra- 
tive, and  Executive  Levels.  May  1966. 
A  Selected  Annotated  Bibliography.  Working  Mothers.  1968. 

College  Placement  Council,  Research  Information  Center.  A  Biblio- 
graphy of  Selected  Research  and  Statistical  Studies  Pertaining 
to  College-Trained  Manpower,  1960-66.  Bethlehem,  Pa.,  College 
Placement  Council,  1967. 

Educational  Resources  Information  Center  (ERIC).  Research  in 
Education.  U.S.  Department  of  Health,  Education,  and  Wel- 
fare, Office  of  Education.  (Monthly) 

Forrester,  Gertrude.  Occupational  Literature:  An  Annotated  Bib- 
liography. New  York,  N.Y.,  H.  W.  Wilson  Co.,  1964. 

Jones,  Anna  May.  Vocational  Orientation  Toward  a  Rewarding 
Life.  A  supplementary  source  of  references  for  coordination 
with  the  curriculum.  (For  the  teacher  and  counselor  in  the  ele- 
mentary and  secondary  schools.)  New  York,  N.Y.,  New  York 
University  Printing  Office,  1965. 

National  Vocational  Guidance  Association,  Career  Information 
Review  Service  Committee.  NVGA  Bibliography  of  Current  Oc- 
cupational Literature,  1966  edition.  Washington,  D.C.,  Ameri- 
can Personnel  and  Guidance  Association,  1966. 

Occupational  Information  Library  of  the  University  Testing  Serv- 
ice. Chapel  Hill,  N.C.,  University  of  North  Carolina,  1967. 

U.S.  Department  of  Labor,  Manpower  Administration,  Bureau  of 
Work-Training  Programs.  Counselor's  Reference  Bibliography. 
1968. 

University  of  Wisconsin,  Center  for  Studies  in  Vocational  and 
Technical  Education.  Madison,  Wis.  (Triannual  prior  to  1969; 
now  monthly) 

Subjects  covered  include  the  following: 

Apprenticeship  Legislation 

Disadvantaged   Groups  Manpower 

Guidance  Retraining 

Job  Analysis  Technological  Change 

Job  Cluster  Concept  Work  Experience 
Job  Placement 

Vocational  Advisory  Service,  Information  Bulletin.  New  York, 
N.Y.  (Issued  periodically) 

Wigney,  Trevor.  The  Education  of  Women  and  Girls  in  a  Chang- 
ing Society.  A  Selected  Bibliography  With  Annotations.  To- 
ronto, Canada,  Department  of  Educational  Research,  Univer- 
sity of  Toronto.  Educational  Research  Series  No.  36.  1965. 


INDEX 


Abortion  laws,  295,  296 

Absenteeism,  76,  80 

Accountants,   auditors,   98,   99,    163, 

174,  246 
Accounting     and     budget     workers 

(Fed.  Govt.),  172,173 
Administrative  assistants,  121 
Administrators : 
Military,  124 
School,  162 
Advertising    services    industry,    116 
Age: 

Childbearing,  8 

Children    of    working    mothers, 

42 
Compulsory    school    attendance, 

16,  184 
Discrimination,  6,  258-260 
Education,    180-183,    206-210 
Farm  workers,  118 
Income,  137-138 
Job  tenure,  78 

Labor   force,    15-17,    19-20,   22, 
31,  37,  40 

Nonwhite  women,  16,  22 
Labor    force    participation,    17- 
19,  20,  21,  27-28,  31,  72,  206- 
210,  244,  245 

Nonwhite,    20,    21,    22,    74, 
206,  208,  209 
Marriage : 

Average,  7,  8 
Legal  minimum,  285 
Mothers  (working),  37,  40 
Multiple  jobholders,  80 
Occupations,   79-80,   89,   91,   95, 

97,  104,  107-109,  242 
Part-time  and  full-time  status, 

63,  64,  65,  66 
Population,   17,   18,   19,   31,   187 
School  enrollees,  180-183 
Teachers,  98 

Training      program      enrollees, 
226-227 


Unemployment,  67,  70-76 

Nonwhite,  73-76 
Work  experience,  57-58,  59,  63, 

64 
Worklife  expectancy,  7-8 

Age  Discrimination  in  Employment 
Act  of  1967,  6,  258-260 

Agriculture,  109,  110,  117-118,  228, 
246 

Aid  for  dependent  children  (see 
Work  Incentive  Program) 

Air  transportation  industry,  116 

Ambassadors,  119,  120,  121 

American  Women  (report  of  the 
President's  Commission  on  the 
Status    of    Women),    6,    294,    297 

Anthropologists,  169,  170,  171 

Apparel  and  accessories  stores,  116, 
117 

Apparel  and  related  products  indus- 
tries, 113,  114,  115 

Apprenticeship  training,  237-238, 
256,  257 

Armed  services  (see  Federal  employ- 
ment) 

Assemblers  (laundry),  155,  156 

Attaches,  121 

Attendants : 

Home  and  first  aid,  228 
Hospitals  and  other  institutions, 
102,  228,  248 

Babysitters,  62,  89,  95,  241 

Banking  industry,  115,  116 

Bank  tellers,  101 

Bartenders,  39,  81,  90,  101-102,  156, 
157 

Battery  hands,  149,  150,  151 

Bill  and  account  collectors,  101 

Birth  rate,  18,  19 

Bookkeepers,  95,  101,  148,  176 

Business  and  repair  services,  109, 
110,  111 

Business  services  industry  (other 
than  credit  and  advertising),  115 

373 


374 


INDEX 


Buyers,  100,  163 

Cashiers,  101 

Chambermaids,  maids,  91,  102,  153- 

154,  158,  159 
Charwomen,    cleaners,    62,    95,    102 
Chemical  and  allied  products  indus- 
try, 79, 114 
Chemists,    163,    169,    170,    171,    174, 

175,  176,  246-247 
Child  care: 

Arrangements        of        working 

mothers,  47,  48-49 
Comunity  programs,  296 

Community         Coordinated 
Child  Care  (4-C),  51 
Income    tax    deductions,    51-52 
Legislative    provisions,   50,    143, 
229,  232 
Children   {see  also  Education:   Fin- 
ancial assistance) : 

Guardianship,  287,  295 
Inheritance  by  parent,  287-288 
Living  in  poverty,  130 
Support,  288-289,  295 
Working  mothers,  42 
Citizens'    Advisory    Council    on    the 

Status  of  Women,  6,  294-297 
Citizenship,  281,  282 
City  Worker's   Family  Budget,   128 
Civil  Rights  Act  of  1957,  283 
Civil    Rights    Act    of    1964,    6,    54, 

253,  255-257,  269 
Civil     service     positions     {see    also 

Federal  employment),  282-283 
Civil  status — contract  and  property 
laws    (see  Contractual   powers   of 
married  women;   Property  owner- 
ship and  control) 
Civil    status — family    relations    (see 
Children;    Divorce    laws;    Family 
support;  Marriage  laws) 
Clerical,  kindred  workers,  37,  38-39, 
92,   93,   94,   95,    100-101,   102-103, 
104,   106,   107,   108,   109,   117,   119, 
124,    134,   135,    138,   139,    146-147, 
148,   172,   173,   174,   175,  176,  209, 
211,   212,   213,   214,   215,   228-229, 
247 
Clerks,  121 

Accounting,  147,  148,  176 

File,  95,  148 

Payroll,  101,  124,  147,  148 


Retail  receiving  (laundry),  155, 
156 
College  {see  al3o  Education) : 
Degrees : 

Fields   of   study,    169,    170, 

192-199 
Numbers    and    proportions, 
190-199 
Dropouts,  185 
Enrollments : 

Freshmen,  189 

First-time,      186,      187, 
189 
Graduate  students,  190 
Married  students,  190 
Part-time,  189,  190 
Types    of    institutions,    99, 
187-189 
Utilization    of    major,    216-217 
Commissions      on      the      status      of 

women,  5-6,  281-282,  294-299 
Communication  industry  {see  Trans- 
portation,    communication,     other 
public   utilities) 
Community  action  programs  (CAP), 

237 
Community  Coordinated  Child  Care 

(4-C),  51 
Compulsory    school    attendance,    16, 

184 
Computers    and    account    recorders, 

228 
Concentrated   Employment   Program 

(CEP),  50,  232-233 
Construction  industry,  109,  110,  111, 

112,  113,246 
Continuing   education,    199-201 
Contractual      powers      of      married 

women,  292 
Controllers,  air  traffic,  124 
Cooks     (except    private    household), 
39,  81,  90,  91,   101-102,   124,  228, 
248 
Copyright,  patent,  trademark  work- 
ers (Fed.  Govt),  172,  173 
Counter   and   fountain   workers,   62, 

95,  102 
Craftsmen,   foremen,   kindred  work- 
ers, 38-39,  60,  61,  78,  80,  81,  89, 
90,   91,  92,   93,  94,   106,   107,   108, 
139,  211,  214,  215,  228,  247 


INDEX 


375 


Credit  agencies  (except  banks),  116 
Credit  reporting  and  collection  agen- 
cies, 116,  117 
Cryptographers,  124 
Data  programers,  124 
Day  care  services   {see  Child  care) 
Deans,  162 
Demonstrators,  62 
Dietitians,  99,  123,  168,  176 
Disability  benefits,  141-144,  276-277, 

297 
Disadvantaged    persons     (see    Pov- 
erty: Programs) 
Discrimination : 

Age,  6,  258-260 

Sex,  6,  53-54,  122,  253,  255-258, 
267-270,  283,  297,  299 
Dishwashers,  156,  157 
Distribution    courses,    223,    224-225 
Divorce  laws,  286-287,  295 
Divorced  women  (see  Marital  status) 
Domestic  Volunteer  Service  Program 

(VISTA),  202,  236-237 
Domicile,  284-285,  295 
Door-to-door  salesmen,  62 
Draftsmen,    draftsmen-tracers,    124, 

162,  246 
Durable   goods   manufacturing    (see 

Manufacturing) 
Earnings   (see  also  Income  and  spe- 
cific occupation  or  industry) : 
Clerical   workers,   146-147,   148, 

172-173,  174,  175,  176 
College  graduates,  173-176 
Differences  between  women  and 
men,   127,   147,   149,   150-152, 

153,  154,  155,  156,  157,  159, 
161,  162,  171,  173 

Education,  169,  171,  173-176 
Factors  affecting,  127-128,  151- 

152,  153,  171 
Federal  civilian  employees,  171- 

173 
Geographical     differences,     147, 

148,    149,   150,    151,   152,   153, 

154,  155,  156,  157,  158,  159, 
160,  163,  164,  165,  166-167, 
168-169,  175 

Hospital  occupations : 

Nonprofessiooial,      157-158, 

159 
Professional,  163-169 


Manufacturing  industries : 
Cotton  textiles,  149-150 
Synthetic  textiles,  150-152 
Women's        and        misses' 
dresses,  152-153 
Professional,  technical,  kindred 
workers,    158-169,    171,    173, 
174,  175,  176 
Scientists,    169,    171,    172,    173, 

174,  175,  176 
Service  industries : 

Eating  and  drinking  places, 

156,  157 
Hotels  and  motels,  153-154 
Laundries,  154,  156 
Teachers : 

College  and  university,  161- 

162 
Elementary   and   secondary 
school,  159-161,  175,  176 
Junior  college,  162 
Eating  and  drinking  places  industry, 

115,  116,  156-157 
Economic  Opportunity  Act  of  1964, 

6,   50,   229-231,   233,   235-237 
Economists,  169,  170,  171,  174 
Editors,  reporters,  99,  176 
Education    (see   also   College;    High 
school;  Training  programs) : 
Age,  180-183,  206-209,  210 
Compulsory    school    attendance, 

16,  184 
Continuing  education  programs, 

199-201 
Cooperative  education  programs, 

203,  222 

Distributive  education  programs, 

222,  223,  224-225 
Earnings,  169,  171,  173-176 
Enrollments : 

Rates,  99,  180-183 
Types  of  schools,  99,   183- 
185,   187-189 
Financial  assistance,   124,  201- 

204,  222 
Hours  of  work,  220 
Income,  138-141 

Labor  force,  177-180,  210,  218, 

219 
Labor        force        participation, 

9,  204-210 


376 


INDEX 


Labor  turnover,  78 
Marital  status,  206 
Military  services  education  pro- 
grams, 123,  124 
Nonwhite  women,  178,  179,  182- 
183,    185,   206,   208,   209,   210, 
213,   215,   217-218,   219 
Occupations,   98,   103,   169,   209, 

211-217,  241 
Population,    177-178,    179,    210 
Retention  rates,  185 
School   dropouts,   185,   210,   213, 

215 
Training  program  enrollees,  227 
Trends,  179,  180-181,  183,  184- 
185,    186,    187-188,    190,   191- 
192,  195-196,  198-199 
Unemployment,  74,  76,  210,  217- 
218,  219 
Educational   services   industry,   115, 

116 
Electric,  gas,  sanitary  services  indus- 
try, 116 
Electrical    equipment    and    supplies 

industry,  114,  115 
Employment   (see  also  Labor  force; 
Occupations;  Unemployment): 
Before  and  after  childbirth,  276- 
277 
Engineering    services    industry,    116 
Engineers,  99-100,  174,  246 
Aeronautical,  99 
Industrial,  99 
Entertainment  and  recreational  serv- 
ices   industry,    109,    110,    111 
Equal  employment  opportunities: 

Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964,  6,  54, 

253,  255-257,  269 
Executive  Order  11375,  53,  257- 

258,  283 
Federal  employment,  6,  53,  122, 
253,  257-258,  283 
Equal  Pay  Act  of  1963,  6,  253,  255 
Equal  pay  laws: 

Federal,  6,  253,  255 
State,  267-269,  299 
Examiners  (mfg.),  153 
Executive  Orders : 
11126,  294 
11246,  257 
11375, 53, 257-258,  283 


Fabricated  metal  products  industry, 

114 
Factory    workers,     76-77,     113-115, 

149-153 
Fair  employment  practices  laws,  257, 

269-270,  282,  297,  299 
Fair  Labor  Standards  Act  of  1938, 
16,    242,    253-255,    262,    268,    296 
Families: 

Composition,  28-29 
Income,  32,  34-36,  128-130 
Labor  force  participation,  29-31 
Living   in   poverty,   31-32,   130, 

131 
Numbers  and  types,  28-29 
Occupations,  37,  38-39 
Unemployment,  29,  30,  31,  69-70 
Family   heads,    28,   29-32,   131,   226, 
227 

Age,  31 

Income,  128,  129-130 

Labor    force    participation,    29, 

30,31 
Nonwhite,  29,  131 
Occupations,  129,  241 
Population,  31 
Unemployment,  31,  69-70 
Family  Law  and  Policy  Task  Force 

report,  295 
Family  Planning,  237 
Family  support,  288-289 
Farm  women,  117-118 
Farm  workers  (farmers,  managers; 
farm  laborers,  foremen),   37,   38- 
39,  60,  61,  62,  79,  81,  89,  90,  91, 
92,  93,  94,  105,  106,  107,  108-109, 
117-118,    139,   211,   213,   214,   215, 
228,  296 
Federal  employment : 

Civilian  service,  6,  53,  77,   113, 
118-120,  171-173,  282-283 
Foreign  Service,  120-122 
Military  service,  11,  53,  122-125 
Federal   Panel   on   Early   Childhood, 

50-51 
Federal      Woman's     Award      Study 

Group,  283 
Finance  and  disbursing  officers,  124 
Finance,  insurance,  real  estate,  100, 
101,   109,   110,   111,   112,   113,   115, 
116,  246 


INDEX 


377 


Finishers,  flatwork,  machine,  155, 
156,  159 

Fiscal  officers,  121 

Follow  Through,  237 

Food  and  kindred  products  industry, 
113,  114 

Food  stores  industry,  116 

Foreign  Service  {see  Federal  em- 
ployment) 

Furniture  and  fixtures  manufactur- 
ing industry,  114 

Furniture  and  house  furnishings 
stores  industry,  116 

General  administrative,  clerical,  of- 
fice M^orkers  (Fed.  Govt.),  172- 
173 

General  merchandise  stores  indus- 
try, 115,  116,  117 

Geographical  distribution : 

Industries,  149,  150,  151,  152,  153 
Labor  force,  12-15,  136,  242 
Nonwhite  women,  11,  13,  136 

Government  workers  (see  Federal 
employment;  Public  administra- 
tion) 

Governors'  commissions  on  the  status 
of  women  (see  Commissions  on  the 
status  of  women) 

Hairdressers,  cosmetologists,  102, 
248 

Handicapped  workers  (see  Training 
programs :  Vocational  rehabilita- 
tion) 

Heads  of  families  (see  Family 
heads) 

Headstart,  50,  237 

Health  and  Welfare  Task  Force  re- 
port, 296 

Health  occupations  training,  223, 
224,  225 

Higher  Education  Act  of  1968,  203 

High  school  (see  also  Education) : 
Dropouts,  185 
Enrollments,  183,  184 
Graduates,  184-185,  186,  187 

Home  economics  training,  223,  224, 
225 

Homemaker  services,  296 

Home  economists,  174,  176 

Homemakers,  11,  12,  84 

Hospital  occupations  (nonprofession- 
al and  professional),  99,  102,  124, 


157-158,    159,    163,    164,    165,   168, 
169,  228,  247,  248 
Hospital  services  industry,  115,  116, 

117 
Hotels  and  motels  industry,  116,  153- 

154 
Hours  of  work   (see  also  Part-time 
and    full-time    status;    Work    ex- 
perience), 220 
Nurses,  163,  165 

Private  household  workers,  241 
Hours-of-work  laws,  270-275 
Day  of  rest,  273-274 
Maximum     daily     and     weekly 

hours,  242,  271-273 
Meal  period,  274 
Nightwork,  275 
Rest  period,  274-275 
Household     workers     (see     Private 

household  workers) 
Housekeepers,   stewardesses    (except 

private  household),  95,  102 
Income  (see  also  Earnings) : 
Age,  137-138 
City   Worker's   Family   Budget, 

128 
Differences  between  women  and 
men,    127,   132-134,    135,    137, 

138,  139,  141 
Education,  138-141 
Families,  34-36,   128-130 

Heads,  128,  129-130 
Husbands'  incomes  as  fac- 
tor   in    labor    force    par- 
ticipation : 

Mothers,  43,  44 
Wives,  32-33,  34 
Working    wives'     contribu- 
bution,  34-36 
Maintenance    (basic),   296 
Nonwhite  women,  130,  136-137, 

140-141,  144,  145 
Numbers     and     proportions   of 
women,  128,  129,  130,  131,  132 
134,  136,  138,  139,  143-145 
Occupations,  129,  134,  135,  138, 

139,  147,   148,    149,    150,   151, 
241 

Social     security     benefits,     140, 

141-145 
Trends,    128-129,    133-134,    135, 

136,  137,  138 


378 


INDEX 


Work  experience,  134,  136 
Year-round    full-time    workers, 
129-130,    132,    133-134,    136, 
137,    138,   241 
Industrial  homework  laws,  275-276 
Industries  (see  also  specific  industry 
groups) : 

Geographical    distribution,    149, 

150,  151,  152,  153 
Job  tenure,  79,  171-172 
Labor  turnover,  76,  77,  122 
Major  groups,  109-111 
Numbers     and     proportions     of 

women,  109-126 
Outlook,  246 

Trends,  109,  110,  111,  112,  113- 
117,    119 
Inheritance  laws,  287-288 
Inspectors,  cloth,  machine,  150,  151 
Institutional  training,  226,  227-228, 

231,  240 
Instruments  and  related  products  in- 
dustry, 114, 115 
Insurance    {see  also  Finance,  insur- 
ance, real  estate)  : 

Adjusters,     examiners,    investi- 
gators,  101 
Agents,    brokers,     services    in- 
dustry,  116 
Carriers  industry,   116 
Interdepartmental  Committee  on  the 

Status  of  Women,   6,   294-295 
International      organizations,      119, 

120-121 
Janitors,  sextons,  102,  248 
Job  analysts,  163 
Job  Corps,  235-236 
Job    Opportunities    in    the    Business 

Sector  (JOBS),  234 
Job-related  expenses,  36 
Job  tenure,  78-80,  171-172 
Judges,  118,  125 
Junior  colleges   (see  also  Teachers), 

187-189 
Jury   Selection   and   Service   Act   of 

1918,  283 
Jury  service,  281,  283-284,  299 
Kitchen  helpers   (hospital),  158,  159 
Kitchen  workers,  91,  102 
Labor    force     (see    also    Unemploy- 
ment) : 


Age,  15-17,  19-20,  22,  31,  37, 
40,  72,  206-210,  244,  245 

Differences  between  women  and 
men,  16 

Education,  9,  177-180,  204-210, 
218,  219 

Families,  29-32 

Geographical  distribution,  12-14, 

15,  136,   242 

Marital  status,  8,  9,   16,  23-28, 

32,  39,  40,  205-206 
Mothers,  37,  39-47 
Nonparticipation,  84-85 
Nonwhite  women,  10-11,  13,  15, 

16,  20-21,  22,  23,  42,  43,  105, 
206,  209,  210,  244 

Numbers     and     proportions     of 
women,  5,  9-11,  13-15,  17,  19- 
20,   22,   23,   24-25,   29-32,   37, 
39,  40,  117,  118,  177,  178,  243 
Outlook,  243-248 
Participation  rates,  7,  10,  12,  13, 
15,    17-23,   26,   27-28,   29,   30, 
31,  32-33,  39,  40-41,  42-44,  45, 
46,  47,  117,  204-209,  210,  243- 
244,  245 
Reentry,  8,  68-69 
Trends,   5,   9-10,   13,   15-27,   32, 

40-42,    88,    117 
Wives,  32-33 
Labor  laws  for  women : 
Federal,  16,  253-260 
State,  261-279 
Labor  reserve,  84-85 
Labor  Standards  Task  Force  report, 

296-297 
Labor  turnover,  76-80,  122 
Labor  unions,  82-83 
Laborers   (see  Farm  workers;  Non- 
farm  laborers) 
Laundresses,  62,  241 
Laundry,    cleaning,    dyeing    services 
industry,   115,   116,   117,   154,   155, 
156 
Laundry  workers,  154,  155,  156 
Lawyers,  124 

Leather  and  leather  products  indus- 
try, 113,  114,  115 
Legal  Services  Program,  237 
Legislation,  Federal: 

Age  Discrimination  in  Employ- 


INDEX 


379 


ment  Act  of  1967,  6,  253,  258- 
260 
Civil  Rights  Act  of  1957,  283 
Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964,  6,  54, 

253,  255-257,  269 
Economic    Opportunity    Act    of 
1964,  6,  50,  229-231,  233,  235- 
237 
Equal  Pay  Act  of  1963,  6,  253, 

255 
Fair    Labor    Standards    Act   of 
1938,    16,    242,    253-255,    262, 
268,  296 
Higher  Education   Act  of  1968, 

203 
Manpower      Development      and 
Training    Act,    226-229,    231, 
233,  234,  239-240 
Railroad  Retirement  Act,  141 
Revenue  Act  of  1954,  51 
Revenue  Act  of  1964,  51-52 
Smith-Hughes  Act  of  1917,  221 
Social  Security  Act  of  1935,  50, 
142-145,  229,  231-232,  242,  246 
Vocational     Education     Act    of 
1963,  221,  224 
Legislators,    118,    125 
Liaison  officers,  121 
Librarians,  99,  121,  175,  176 
Library    attendants    and    assistants, 

62,  101,  176 
Life  expectancy,  7 
Linguisticians,  170,  171 
Lithographers,  124 
Logisticians,  124 
Lumber  and  wood  products   (except 

furniture)  industry,  114 
Machinery  (except  electrical)  indus- 
try, 114 
Maids    (see    Chambermaids,    maids; 

Private  household  workers) 
Managers,  officials,  proprietors,  (ex- 
cept farm),  37,  38-39,  60,  61,  79- 
80,  81,  89,  90,  91,  92,  93,  100,  103, 
104,   106,   107,   108,  109,   134,   135, 
138,   139,   163,   175,  209,  211,  212, 
213,  214,  215,  228 
Manpower  Development  and  Train- 
ing  Act,    226-229,    231,    233,    234, 
239-240 
Manufacturing,    109,    110,    111,    112, 
113-115,  117,  147,  149-153,  246 


Marital  status : 

College  students,  190 

Job  tenure,  78-79 

Labor  force,  16,  23-25,  32,  39 

Labor  force  participation,  26-28, 

39,  40,  47,  205-206 
Occupations,  98,  102-104 
Part-time  and  full-time  status, 

46-47,  65,  66 
Population,   23,   25,    27,   39 
Social      security      beneficiaries, 

143-145 
Unemployment,  69 
Work  experience,  58,  60 
Work  patterns,  7-8 
Worklife  expectancy,  7-8 
Marriage : 

Average  age,  7 
Laws,  285-286 
Rates,  25 
Married  women  (see  Marital  status) 
Maternity  benefits  and  protection: 
Employment    before    and    after 

childbirth,  54,  276-277 
Maternity  benefits,   52-55,   276- 
277,  297 
Mathematicians,    98,    99,    169,    170, 

171,  172,  174,  175,  176,  246-247 
Mature  women : 

Continuing  education  programs, 

199-201 
Income,  138 
Job  tenure,  78 
Labor  force,  17,  19-20 
Labor    force    participation,    16- 
17,  18,  19-20,  27,  28,  31,  244, 
245 
Occupations,  104,  108-109,  118 
Part-time   and  full-time   status, 

65,66 
Population,  17,  19,  31 
Unemployment,    70,    71,    72,    73, 

74,75 
Work  experience,  57,  58,  59,  63 
Mayors,  126 

Medical   and  health   services   indus- 
try (other  than  hospitals),  115 
Medical    and    other   health    workers 

(professional),  38,  81,  90 
Medical  record  librarians,  168 
Meteorologists,  124,  170,  171 
Microbiologists,  169 


380 


INDEX 


Migrant  Program,  237 
Military    service    (see    Federal    em- 
ployment) 
Minimum  wage  laws : 

Federal,   16,   242,   253-255,   262, 

296 
State,  242,  261-266,  296,  299 
Mining,  110,  112,  116,  117,  246 
Mothers  (working) : 
Age,  37,  40 
Children : 

Arrangements  for  care,  47- 

49 
Number  and  age,  42,  48 
Husbands'  incomes,  43,  45,  46 
Job-related  expenses,  36 
Marital  status,  39,  40 
Nonwhite,  37,  42-43 
Numbers    and    proportions,    37, 

39,40 
Part-time   and  full-time   status, 

43-44,  46-47 
Work  experience,  44,  46-47 
Work  patterns,  7-8 
Worklife  expectancy,  7-8 
Motion  picture  industry,  116 
Multiple  jobholders,  80-81 
Musicians,  music  teachers,  62,  95,  99, 

175 
National    Committee    on    Household 

Employment,  240-241 
Negro  workers  (see  Nonwhite  wom- 
en) 
Neighborhood  Health  Centers,  237 
Neighborhood  Youth  Corps,  229-230 
New  Careers  Program,  230-231 
Nightwork  laws,  275,  296-297 
Nondurable     goods     manufacturing 

(see  Manufacturing) 
Nonfarm  laborers,  38-39,  61,  78,  81, 
89,  90,  91,  92,  93,  94,  106,  107,  108, 
139,  211,  214,  215,  248 
Nonmanufacturing    industries     (see 

specific  industries) 
Nonwhite  women : 

Education,    178,     179,     182-183, 
185,   206,   208,   209,   210,   215, 
217-218,  219 
Family  heads,  29,  131 
Geographical     distribution,     11, 
13,  136 


Income,    130,    136-137,    140-141, 

144,  145 
Job  tenure,  79 

Labor  force,  10-11,  13,  15,   16, 
43,  105,  210,  242 
Age,  16 
Labor    force    participation,    10, 
13-15,   20-21,   22,   23,   42,   43, 
74,  105,  206,  209,  210,  244,  245 
Mothers  (working),  37,  42,  43 
Occupations,  105-107,  136,  213, 
215,  242 

Utilization  of  college  major, 
216-217 
Part-time   and  full-time   status, 

63,   65,   66,   105 
Social  security  beneficiaries,  144, 

145 
Training  program  enrollees,  227 
Types  of  work,  105 
Unemployment,  73-76,  105,  217, 

218,  219 
Work  experience,  62-63,  64 
Nurses : 

Practical,    102,    158,    159,    228, 

230,  248 
Professional,   99,   122,   123,   125, 

163-167,  228,  246 
Student,  99 
Nurses'   aides,    158,    159,   248 
Occupational    limitation    laws,    277- 

278,  297 
Occupational    mobility     (see    Labor 

turnover) 
Occupational  safety  and  health  laws, 

297 
Occupations    (see  also  specific  occu- 
pations and  occupation  groups) : 
Age,  79-80,  89,  91,  95,  97,  104, 

107-109,  242 
Diff'erences  between  women  and 

men,  93,   149-150,   152,   153 
Earnings,  147-169,  171,  172,  173, 

174,  175-176 
Education,    98,    103,     169,    209, 
211-217,  241 

Utilization  of  college  major, 
216-217 
Federal    employment,     118-124, 

172-173 
Husbands  and  wives,  37,  38-39 


INDEX 


381 


Income,  129,  134,  135,  138,  139, 

147,  148,  149,  150,  151,  241 
Job  tenure,  79-80 
Labor  turnover,  78 
Major  groups,  89-93,  94 
Marital  status,  98,  102-104 
Mature    women,    104,    108-109, 

118 
Multiple  jobholders,  81 
Nonwhite  women,  105-107,  136, 

213,  215,  216-217,  242 
Numbers     and     proportions     of 
women,  81,  89-94,  95-102,  103- 
109,   149,   150,   151,   152,   153, 
154,   155,   156,   157,    158,    160, 
161,   162,   163,   165,   169,   170, 
171,  172,  173,  241 
Outlook,  60,  62,  246-248 
Part-time  and  full-time  status, 
60,  61,  62,  102,  104,  105,  241 
Self-employed     persons,     38-39, 

90,  100,  104 

Teenagers  and  young  adults,  89, 

91,  95,  97,  103,  107,  212-213, 
215 

Trends,  89-93,  94,  95,  97,  98,  99- 

100,  101,  102,  106-107 
Types  of  work,  95 
Wives,  37,  38-39 

Work  experience,  60-62,  118,  241 
Office  girls  and  boys,  147,  148 
Office  occupations  training,  223,  224, 

228 
Office  services  managers,  163 
Office  workers  (see  Clerical  workers) 
Older  Persons,  Services  to,  237 
On-the-job   training,    222,    226,    227, 

228,  231-232,  234,  256,  296 
Operation  Mainstream  Program,  230 
Operatives,  canning  and  preserving 

of  fruit,  etc.,  62 
Operatives,  kindred  workers,  37,  38- 
39,  61,  62,  78,  80,  81,  89,  90,  91, 
92,  93,  103-104,  106,  107,  108,  134, 
135,  138,  139,  149-153,  209,  211, 
212,  213,  214,  215,  228,  247-248 
Operators : 

Bookkeeping  machine,  148 
Comptometer,  147,  148 
Keypunch,  124,  148 
Office  machine,  247 
Sewing  machine,  153 


Switchboard,  101,  148 
Tumbler,  155,  156 
Opportunities  Industrialization  Cen- 
ters (010,233-234 
Organizations  of  interest  to  women 
(see    Alphabetical    list,    pp.    329- 
331) 
Outlook : 

Industries,  246 
Labor  force,  243 

Labor  force  participation,  243- 
244,  245 

Nonwhite,  244,  245 
Occupations,  246-248 
Population,  243 
Types  of  work,  246 
Overtime  compensation  laws : 
Federal,   242,   253-255,   296 
State,  266-267,  296 
Paper  and  allied  products  industry, 

114 
Part-time  and  full-time  status   (see 
also  Work  experience) : 
Age,  63,  64,  65,  66 
Differences  between  women  and 

men,  55,  63,  66,  88 
Education,  220 
Hospitals,  157-158 
Job  tenure,  79 
Marital  status,  48,  65,  66 
Mothers  (working),  44,  46-47 
Nonwhite  women,  65,  66,  105 
Private  household  workers,  241 
Trends,  56-57 
Unemployment,  66-67 
Part-time    or    part-year    work    (see 
Part-time    and    full-time     status; 
Work  experience) 
Peace  Corps,  202 
Personal  services  industry,  109,  110, 

111 
Personnel  and  labor  relations  work- 
ers, 98,  99,  124,  163,  176 
Petroleum  refining  and  related  prod- 
ucts industry,  113-114 
Photographers,  124 
Physicians,   surgeons,   99,   123,   175, 

246,  247 
Physicists,  170,  171,  246-247 
Political  and  research  analysts,  121 
Political     status     (see     Citizenship; 
Domicile ;  Public  office ;  Voting) 


382 


INDEX 


Population : 

Age,  17,  18,  19,  31,  187 
Education,  177-178,  179,  210 
Family  status,  28 

Heads,  31 
Marital  status,  23,  25,  27,  39 
Mature  women,  17,  19,  31 
Mothers,  39 
Outlook,  243 
Trends,  10,  17,  18,  19,  23 
Unrelated  individuals,  29 
Postal  employees,  172,  173 
Postmasters,  100 
Poverty : 

Families  living  in  poverty,  31- 

32,  130,  131 
Progams       (see      also      specific 
training     programs),     6,     50, 
225-237,  298 
President's  Commission  on  the  Sta- 
tus of  Women,  5-6,  122,  294 
Pressers,  153,  155,  156 
Primary  metal  industries,  114 
Printing,      publishing,      and      allied 

products  industry,  79,  114 
Private  household  workers,  37,  38- 
39,  60,  61,  62,  80,  81,  90,  91,  92, 
93,  94,  95,  103,  104,  106,  107,  108, 
138,  139,  209,  211,  212,  213,  214, 
215,  240-242,  296 

Special  programs,  240-241,  298 
Professional  and  related  services  in- 
dustry, 109,  110,  111 
Professional,     technical,     kindred 
workers,  37,  38-39,  60,  61,  62,  78, 
80,  81,  89,  90,  91,  92,  93,  94,  95, 
96,  97,  98,  99-100,   103,   104,  106, 
107,  108,  134,  135,   138,   139,  158- 
170,    171,   172,   173,   174,    175-176, 
209,  211,  212,  213,  214,  215,  228, 
229, 246-247 
Property  ownership  and  control,  281, 

289-292,  295 
Protective  services  workers,  230,  248 
Psychiatric  aides,   158,   228 
Psychologists,  169,  170,  171,  175 
Public  administration  (see  also  Fed- 
eral    employment;      State     office; 
Mayors),  100,  109,  110,   111,   112, 
113,  118-126,  246,  299 
Public  office,  118,  125-126,  282 


Public  relations  workers,  publicity 
writers,  99,  162 

Railroad  Retirement  Act,  141 

Real  estate  (see  Finance,  insurance, 
real  estate) 

Receptionists,  95,  101 

Recreation  and  group  workers,  99 

Reentry  into  the  labor  force,  8,  68-69 

Registrars  (college),  162 

Retail  trade,  79,  81,  90,  95,  100,  101, 
109,  110,  111,  112,  115,  116,117 

Retirement   benefits,    141-145 

Revenue  Acts,  51-52 

Rubber  and  miscellaneous  plastic 
products  industry,  114 

Salaried  managers,  38-39,  90,  100, 
104 

Salaries  (see  Earnings) 

Sales  workers,  37,  38-39,  60,  61,  62, 
78,  81,  89,  90,  91,  92,  93,  94,  95, 
103,  104,  106,  107,  108,  109,  117, 
134,  135,  138,  139,  211,  213,  214, 
215,   228-229,   247 

Scientists,  99-100,  124,  169-171,  172 
Agricultural,  170,  171 
Biological,  169,  170,  171 
Earth,  170,  171 
Life,  246-247 

Seating  provisions,  278 

Secretaries  (see  Stenographers,  typ- 
ists, secretaries) 

Security  dealers  and  exchanges  in- 
dustry, 115, 116 

Self-employed  managers,  38-39,  90, 
100,  104 

Separated  women  (see  Marital  sta- 
tus) 

Services  industries,  109,  110,  111, 
112,  113,  115,  116,  117 

Service  workers  (except  private 
household),  37,  38-39,  61,  78,  79, 
80,  81,  89,  90-91,  92,  93,  94,  95, 
101-102,  103,  104,  106,  107,  108, 
117,  134,  135,  138,  139,  153-157, 
209,  211,  212,  213,  214,  215,  228- 
229,  248 

Single  women  (see  Marital  status) 

Smith-Hughes  Act  of  1917,  221 

Social  and  welfare  workers,  99,  176 

Social  Insurance  and  Taxes  Task 
Force  report,  297 

Social  science,  psychology,  and  wel- 


INDEX 


383 


fare    workers    (Fed.    Govt.),    172, 
173 
Social  Security  Act  of  1935,  50,  142, 

145,  229,  231-232,  242 
Social    Security,    Advisory    Council 

on,  297 
Social  security  benefits,  122,  138,  140, 
141-145,  297 
Students,  203 
Social  work  assistants,  230 
Social  workers,  medical,  168 
Sociologists,  169,  170,  171 
Special  Impact  Program,  231 
Spinners,  ring-frame,  149,  150-151 
Sports  instructors  and  officials,  99 
State  commissions  on  the  status  of 
women    {see   Commissions   on  the 
status  of  women) 
State  office,  125-126,  299 
Statisticians,  169,  170,  171,  174,  175, 

176 
Stenographers,    typists,    secretaries 
(see  also  Clerical  workers),  38,  77, 
90,    95,    100,    119,    121,    124,    147, 
148,  174,  175,  176,  228,  247 
Stock  clerks,  storekeepers,  101 
Stockholders,  145-146 
Stone,  clay,  glass  products  industry, 

114 
Student  financial  aid  directors,   162 
Student  placement  directors,  162 
Superintendents,  building,  100 
Teacher  Corps,  236 
Teachers,  94,  98,  158-162,  175,  176, 
246 

College   and   university,   98,   99, 

161-162,  247 
Elementary  school,  38,  62,  81,  90, 
95,  98,  158,  159-161,  176,  247 
Junior  college,  162 
Secondary  school,  38,  62,  81,  90, 
95,  98,  158,  159-161,  176,  247 
Special  schools,  62 
Teachers'  aides,  230 
Technical  training,  224,  225 
Technicians : 

Medical  and  dental,  99,  124,  168, 

169,  247 
Other,  100,  124,  162,  176,  246 
Technological  change,  5,  87,  90,  100- 

101,  114,  205,  246,  247 
Technologists,  medical,  168,  169,  247 


Teenagers  and  young  adults : 
Income,  138 
Job  tenure,  78 

Labor  force  participation,  18- 
19,  21,  27,  31,  72,  74,  206,  207, 
209,   244,   245 

Nonwhite,  21,  74,  206,  208, 
209,  244,  245 
Labor  turnover,  77,  78 
Multiple  jobholders,  80 
Occupations,  89,  91,  95,  97,  103, 

107,  212-213,  215 
Part-time  and  full-time  status, 

66 
Unemployment,    67,    70-73,    74- 

76,  218 
Work  experience,  57,  58,  63 
Telephone  workers,  101,  117,  148 
Tenders  (mfg.),  150,  151 
Textile   mill    products   industry,    79, 

113,  114 
Therapists,    99,    123,    168,    169,    176, 

247 
Ticket  agents  (station  and  express), 

101 
Tobacco  manufactures  industry,  113- 

114 
Trades   and   industry  training,   224, 

225 
Training  programs : 

Apprenticeship,     237-238,     256, 

257 
Concentrated  Employment 

(CEP),  50,  232-233 
Job  Corps,  235-236 
Job   Opportunities  in  the   Busi- 
ness Sector   (JOBS),  234 
Manpower      Development      and 
Training  Act   (MDTA),  226- 
229,  231,  233,  234,  239-240 
Neighborhood        Youth    Corps, 

229-230 
New  Careers,  230-231 
Operation  Mainstream,  230 
Opportunities     Industrialization 

Centers  (OIC),  233-234 
Special  Impact,  231 
Vocational  education    (federally 

aided),  221-225 
Vocational    rehabilitation,    238- 
240 


384 


INDEX 


Work  Incentive  (WIN),  50,  143, 
229, 231-232 
Transportation,  communication, 

other  public  utilities,  79,  109,  110, 
111,  112,  114,  116,  117,  246 
Trimmer,  thread,  153 
Trucking  and  warehousing  industry, 

116,  117 
Types  of  work : 

Blue-collar,  88-89,  95,  105,  246, 

247 
Farm,  88-89  105,  246 
Service,  87-89,  95,  105,  246 
White-collar,  87-89,  95,  105,  119, 
171,  172,  246 
Typical  woman  worker,  16 
Typists  (see  Stenographers,  typists, 

secretaries) 
Underemployment,  73 
Unemployment    (see    also    Training 
programs),   11-12,  67-76 
Age,  67,  70-73,  74-76 
Differences  between  women  and 
men,  11-12,  67,  69,  70,  71,  72 
Education,  74,  76,  209,  217-218, 

219 
Families,  29,  30,  31,  69-70 
Hidden,  73 

Labor  force  reentrants,  8,  68-69 
Marital  status,  69 
Nonwhite    women,    73-76,    105, 

217, 218-219 
Part-time   and   full-time  status, 

66-67 
Trends,  11-12,  68-69,  70,  72,  73- 
74 
Unemployment     insurance     benefits, 

297 
Uniform  State  Laws,  Commission  on, 

295 
Union  membership,  82-83 
Unpaid  family  workers,  79,  90,  117 
Unrelated  individuals,  29 
Upward  Bound,  237 
Veterans,  125 

Aid  for  education,  204 
Veterinarians  (Fed.  Govt.),  172,  173 
VISTA      (see     Domestic     Volunteer 
Service  Program) 


Vocational   education    (see   Training 

programs) 
Vocational    Education