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COOKING TIPS 

Use small-size burners or units whenever you can. 

Bring foods quickly to boil . . . reduce heat 
when boiling begins. 

Light gas burner or turn on electric unit when you 
are ready for it, not before . . . have pan in place. 
Be sure you've turned the right switch knob. 

Don't be a Peeping Tom . . . lift the lid only 
when you need to. 

When cooking most vegetables and many other 
foods use only enough water to prevent burning . . . 
a quarter inch will usually do. 

Use low heat whenever possible. Use direct 
heat instead of double boiler where practical. 

Use double or triple pans over one burner or 
unit. 

Use pans with straight sides, flat bottoms, tight 
covers, of size to fit the burner or unit. 

Plan baking so one heating of oven does several 
jobs . . . bake more than one thing at a time. 

Use a time and temperature chart in baking . ; * 
it saves opening oven door and wasting fuel. 

Use as much stored heat as you can, to warm 
over and crisp up food. 

Open oven door for few minutes after baking is 
done and heat turned off, to dry oven thoroughly. 

• 

Prepared by 

BUREAU OF HOME ECONOMICS 

Agricultural Research Administration 
U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Issued jointly with 

OFFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATION 

Washington, D. C. 

October 1942 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C. 

0. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 16 31189~1 



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The iron, steel, chromium, nickel, and aluminum 
went into ranges and other household equipment 
now produce tanks, suns, engines ... to win the 
So . . . it's up to you to make what you have las 



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Too high electric voltage causes overheating 
of units and shortens their life. When a new 
range is installed, or if your old range is cooking 
slowly or overheating, have a serviceman check 
all these things. 

Save the Surface 

The porcelain enamel surface of your range 
that protects the steel beneath is a kind of 
glass. Though hard, it will break with sudden 
changes of heat and cold, or hard blows. Once 
it is chipped, the damage can't be undone. 

If the enamel does chip, touch up damaged 
spots carefully with paint recommended by 
your range dealer. It may look patchy but 
it's better than exposed places that invite rust. 
Guard against scratches . . . don't drag pans 
or anything rough across your enamel range 
top. 

Avoid sudden temperature changes . . . the 
chief dangers are wiping up spills on the hot 
range with a cold, damp cloth . . . spilling 
cold liquids on the hot range . . . setting cold, 
wet things on the warm surface. 



wrung from warm water. 

If yours is one of the newer ranges the top 
may be finished with a more acid-resistant 
enamel than that used on the older models. 
However, acid foods or liquids spilled on the 
range top may cause dark spots or destroy the 
surface glaze, if not wiped up immediately. 
Once gone, the gloss can never be restored, 
and it's harder to keep the enamel clean. 

Keep All Parts Clean 

The main parts of a stove to be cared for are 
the outside surface and trim, the gas burners or 
electric units, and the oven. There are other 
special parts that vary with the make of the 
stove. Keeping all parts clean is half the 
battle of getting the best use of your range and 
making it last. 

Much the same methods are used for clean- 
ing inside and outside surfaces, oven racks, 
broilers, and drip pans. 

If grease spatters on the surface of the 
stove, broiler, or oven, wipe it off while still 
warm with a soft paper or cloth. 



keep it in order 



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By better care ana use you can extend the life of your 
range ... cut down on gas or electricity. You can 
avoid waste of food by scorching or overcooking. 
Remember, every saving helps in the fight for Victory. 




cleaner like whiting. Use only a little; rub 
gently. If spots still don't come off oven racks, 
broilers, and drip pans try rubbing lightly with 
a fine steel wool, grade 00. Wash, rinse with 
a damp cloth, and wipe dry. 

Never use a coarse, gritty scouring 
powder on any enameled part of a stove. It 
is liable to destroy the surface glaze. 

Keep metal trim bright with a little 
cleaning day by day. Wash with soap and 
water, and polish with a dry cloth. Nickel 
and chromium are soft metals. Use only fine 
metal polish such as silver polish on them. 

Gas burners and electric units require a 
particular kind of care described under special 
pointers for the two types of ranges. 

Be Gentle With Hinges and Doors 

Don't slam doors, bang covers, or otherwise 
treat your range roughly, or you can't expect 
hinges, latches, and doors to hold up. Don't 
lean heavily or put any heavy weight on a door. 
Oven doors must fit tightly for even baking 
and to keep heat from escaping. 



with a soft wire brush. 

If the oven burner can be removed, take it 
out and clean it as you do the top burners. 
If not, wash off and dry. It's a good idea 
to check the portholes with a piece of wire once 
or twice a year. When an old oven burner 
becomes badly clogged, it will require a service- 
man to bore out the holes. 

Take Good Care of the Oven 

The oven is not out in the open to catch 
your eye and command attention, so give it 
special care. Leave the oven door open 2 or 
3 minutes after lighting the burner, to let 
moisture that forms when the gas burns escape. 
If you close the door at once moisture may con- 
dense on the cool surfaces and rust any non- 
rustproof part. 

In most gas ovens the bottom can be re- 
moved. Take it out and clean it as you do the 
racks, with this exception: If it is made of two 
pieces of metal with a sheet of insulation 
between, don't put it in water or let water run 
into the insulation — wipe with a damp cloth. 



without waste 






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MAKE YOUR RANGE LAST LONGER 






Chech the Installation 

Whether your Btove is new or an old familiar, 




To Keep Burners At Their Best 



i them. Beware of toothpicks; they : 



r head. Rinse t 






: proper voltage. 



oltage results in slow cooking. 



owly or overheating, have a 



The porcelain enamel surface of yi 
;lass. Though hard, it will break wit 
t is chipped, the damage can't be l 



finished with a : 



Keep All Parts Clean 

The main parts of a stove 



vith a cloth wrung out of warm, soapy water. 


Clean the pilot-light porthole with a 


"or stubborn spots use a finely powdered 


carefully inserted. Clean the top-bun 


leaner like whiting. Use only a little; rub 


with a soft wire brush. 


erttly. If spots still don't come off oven racks, 


If the oven burner can be remove 






fine steel wool, grade 00. Wash, rinse with 


If not, wash off and dry. It's a g 


damp cloth, and wipe dry. 


to check the portholes with a piece of 




or twice a year. When an old ove 


owder on any enameled part of a stove. It 


becomes badly clogged, it will require 


s liable to destroy the surface glaze. 


man to bore out the holes. 


Keep metal trim bright with a little 




leaning day by day. Wa3h with soap and 


Take Good Care of the Oven 


vater, and polish with a dry cloth. Nickel 





1 polish such as silver polish c 



special care. Leave the c 



Guard against scratches . 



Be Gentle With Hinges and Doors 

treat your range roughly, or you can't expect 
hinges, latches, and doors to hold up. Don't 
lean heavily or put any heavy weight on a door. 
Oven doors must fit tightly for even baking 



Take it out and c 



; insulation— wipe v 



i 



i 



If one burner serves both broiler and oven 
compartments, it's better to take out the 
broiler pan when the oven is in use, and not 
subject it to long, intensive heat. 

When lighting the oven with a match don't 
drop the match into the lighter tube. An 
accumulation soon clogs the tube, and you may- 
need a serviceman to clean it out. 

If you are not getting satisfactory baking 
results, call the utility company. 

Remember! Keep the oven clean. 

SPECIAL POINTERS . . . 
ELECTRIC RANGES 

Watch Those Heating Wires 

The most vital parts of your electric range 
are the wires that furnish the heat. The wires 
of open units are easily damaged at any time 
with sharp objects. Be especially careful not 
to touch them with any metal object when the 
current is on. A short circuit • • . electric 
shock . . . blown fuse . . . burnt-out coil . . . 
any or all of these may result. 

Four things, all beginning with S, are es- 
pecially harmful to the wires of an open unit 
. . . salt, soda, soap, sugar. Be careful to 
keep them off the coils; there's danger of burn- 
ing out the wires. 

One point of caution in using any unit is, 
"Don't overheat." Repeated overheating may 
damage the wires so they will have to be re- 
placed in time. To prevent overheating, use 
pans that fit the unit and make good contact 
with the unit surface . . . turn the switch from 
its highest heat to a lower heat as soon as food 
starts to cook. 



To Keep Units Clean 

When food spills over on the surface units 
let it char. When the unit is cool, brush off 
particles with a nonmetallic-bristle brush. 
If needed, enclosed units may then be washed off. 



Keep the pans beneath the surface units clean. 
Lift them out if they can be removed and wash 
them like any cooking utensil. If you can't 
take them out, wipe them with a damp cloth. 
Keep the drip trays beneath clean . . . wash 
them every day if possible. They not only 
become more difficult to clean if left for a long 
time, but spilled foods may harm the finish 
and even cause some drip trays to rust. 

To clean the oven units take them out. Put 
them in a dry place where no water will get on 
them. Wipe off dust or charred food with a 
brush. If the metal plate used above the bot- 
tom units to distribute heat is separate from 
the unit, wash it. If it is attached to the unit, 
brush off any food and then clean as you would 
the oven lining. 



Caution With the Cooker 

To avoid damage to the insulated cooker unit 
and utensil, never turn on the heat under the 
empty utensil, and be sure the pan never boils 
dry. Some cookers have insulated lids which 
should not be placed in water. Consult your 
instruction book for special directions. 



Trouble Shooting 

If none of the range units heat, check the 
range circuit fuse. Before attempting to locate 
the trouble, always shut off current to the range. 
If any one unit fails to heat, check the range 
wiring; there may be a loose or broken connec- 
tion. If oven units fail to heat, be sure units 
are pushed tightly into their outlets at the 
back of the oven. See that the time control, 
if you have one, is set correctly. 

If you don't get good baking results have 
your utility company check the oven temper- 
atures and make any necessary adjustment. 
Whenever trouble is beyond your control, call 
in the serviceman.