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Daily Report— 



Daily Report 
Sub-Saharan Africa 

FBIS-AVR-92-242 CONTENTS 16 December 1992 

NOTICE TO READERS: An * indicates material not disseminated in electronic form. 

Campaigning Ends Midnight 15 Dec /Djibouti R@diO] ..................ccccccessesssssesseseeseeeeeeeeereneeeceeenseeeeees l 
Refugee Repatriation From Kenya To Begin /Addis Ababa RadiO]  .............c.ccescssseeeeeeeeeeeeeseeeeerenes | 
Police Have ‘Shoot to Kill’ Order in Uasin Gishu /N@irobi TV]  .........ccccccccsessesseeeeeeeeeeeeeeneeeeeeeneenees | 
I a celts ve | 
I el niallliiniarlanle at 
EE nee 2 
Candidate Alleges Guerrillas in Forest /N@irobi TV] ...........c..cccccccsseesssecesseesessesseeeeeeseesnereeseneeeseeensenee 2 
FORD-Kenya ‘Would Not Accept’ Moi Return /Na@irobi TV] .0.........ccccccccscsseseeseeeeseeeseeeeeseeeeseenneenens 3 
Ali Mahdi Reaffirms Commitment to Foreign Troops /Voice of the Somali Republic] ................. 3 
een Denn GD CT CEES, O00 TEI... «oss ncnneneneuneneensusensnenesesssecsuscnneneuscosnqnscenssnecseceese 3 
CT CEE” $= SUD oicssissss12sssscsssssssnsnneeetenenneeneientinerninnnennenatinnnnnntt 3 
CCI I insincere nen teeeateetnieeeeennnmnatenentnnnnaeentaen 4 
French Commander Says Somalis Not Being Disarmed /Paris International] 4 
Museveni Fetes Visiting Burundian President /Kammpala Radio] ...........ccccccccccccsscesseeeeeeereeeeeseeeeseenees 5 
Burundi President Speaks on Democracy [Kampala Radio] ............ccccccccsccssssesesseseeeseeeeeeneeseeenseneenees 5 
DP-ANC in Dispute Over Meeting Disruption Johannesburg TV] ..............cccccssesssseseeseeesseeeeseeeeseeeseenseeee 6 
DP Accuses ANC of ‘Hypocrisy and Racism’ /SAPA]  ..........ccscsccssccsssscssssssssesesecsssssssssssscsecessessesssceesesenses 6 
ey CY CEG PCED CED WR UL METI oscsccssccscssansnneentenquecegreqenseqeoceneseseqeucnenqneqeesenseccqeensess 6 
Patriotic Front Supports APLA Judicial Inquiry /Johannesburg Stereo]  .........cccccccccssssccsseseeeesseeeeesseeeeneeees 7 
Penni “Ee Beect’ Tenens APLA Gar Attaees FEAF... cccccccccsccccsseseccsccescccesscccseccsscccsecseseccssccensocecescsesesessooseeees 7 
Patriotic Front on Multiparty Talks, Time Scales /Johannesburg Radio]  ...........c..ccc0cceeeee mannan 8 
Clinton Cabinet Appointments ‘Insensitive’ /BUSINESS DAY 15 D@c]  .......ccccccsccssssesseesceeeeeereeeeeeeseeeneennes 8 
Safair Denies Leasing Russian Aircraft /Johannesburg International]  .............ccccccccscesseseeeeeseeeeereeesseerseesees 9 
ANC Military Wing Training Abroad Detailed /BEELD 14 De@c] ..........cccccccccccccsssessesseeseeeeeeseeeneeeeeseeeenenens 10 
RSA Urged To Return KaNgwane to Swaziland /Mbabane Radio]  ..............ccccccsssssseeseeseeseeeneeeeeeeneneeneers 10 
Union Against Seven-Day Week for Mineworkers /Johannesburg RAdi0]  ..........c.cccccccseseeeeseessreereenseeneeees 10 
15 December Review of Current Events, Issues /THE STAR 15 Dec, @10.]  ...ccccccccccccssecsccseseeeeeeeseeeeeoceeneens 11 
16 December Review of Current Events, Issues /THE STAR 16 Dec, @10.]  ...cccccccccccccsccssceesseeeeeeereeeereeeenens 11 
Se PCIE CII TUTE sccccsesnrssrenrennssensneneenetentecnseuseneensenqquevecsqnenequesnerenqnuenennenenensenteins 12 
UNITA Points for Ending ‘Spectre of War’ /Voice of the Black Cockerel] ......ccccccccccccceccceeseeeeseeseees 13 
Radio: UNITA Troops Still in Uige, Negage /Luanda Radio] .............ccccccccssssesseseeseeeeseeeeeeseeeeeceneees 14 
UNITA Radio Reports MPLA Troop Movements in Lunda Norte /Voice of the Black Cockerel] . 14 
Government, UNITA Meet in Cuando Cubango /Voice of the Black Cockerel] .........c.cccccccccceeeeees 14 
UNITA, MPLA Hold ‘Cordial’ Meet in Luena /Voice of the Black Cockerel] .........ccccccccccceceeeeseeeees 15 
UNITA Said Deploying Troops in Cuanza Sul (Luanda Radio] ...........ccccccccecsccseseeseceeeeeeeereeceseeeneees 15 
UNITA Agrees To Withdraw From Zaire Province /LUa@nda Radi]  ..........ccccccscsseeseseerseereeereenees 15 

‘Tense’ Situation in Cunene Province Reported (/Voice of the Black Cockerel] .........cccccccccccccseeseeeees 15 


16 December 1992 2 Sub-Saharan Africa 
UNITA Warns of FAPLA ‘Terrorism’ in Andulo /Voice of the Black Cockerel)  ...............c.0000+000+- 15 
Situation Reportedly Returns to Normal in Bie /Luanda Radio] ...................csscessesseseeseeeneeeereneeees 16 
OAU Urges UNITA To Abandon Armed Struggle /Urtata Radio] ...............cccsccssesesesseeeeeeeeeeeeeeees 16 
Sao Tomean Official on Failure To Meet Savimbi /Luamda@ TV] ............2.cccccssecsseseseseseseeeceeeeneeneees 16 
Clinton Expected To Recognize MPLA /THE WEEKLY MAIL 17-17 Dec] ..........c.ccscsceeeeeeeeeeoeeeees 17 
Envoy to UN Conveys ‘Indignation’ to RSA Envoy /Luanda Radio] ...............cccssesseseeseeeeseneeeseees 17 
Government, UNITA Meet in Cuando Cubango /Luanda Radio]... .............ccsccsesesseeeeseeseeereeneeees 18 
Newspaper Names Cabinet Officials /Johannsesburg O SECULO 7 Dec] 20.......ccccccscesseoseeeeeeeeneeereees 18 
I 19 
UNITA Says Government Training Riot Police /Voice of the Black Cockerel] ............c.ccc0cccc0e000000 19 
Commentary: UNITA Needs To Act in Good Faith /Luamda TV] ...........cccccccesscesseeeeseseeeseeeenneeneees 19 
Radio: MPLA Kills Portuguese Citizen in Gabela /Voice of the Black Cockerel] ............:c000++00++ 20 
Huambo Government Says 150 Peovie Missing /Luanda Radio) 20 

Masire Advises Caution For Somalia Bound Troops /Gaborone Radio]  ..............c..sseseeeeeeereeeenes 20 

Chissano Presents Annual Report To Assembly (Maputo R@dio] .0..............ccccccesceeseesseseeseeeeereeeeeenens 20 

Renamo Communique on Dhlakama Visit to Zimbabwe /Voz da RenaQmMo]  ..........c.cccccsecseeeeeeeeeeeees 21 

Renamo Accuses Government of Accord Violations /Voz d@ Rem@mMo]  ............ccccccsssseseeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeees 22 

CSC Meets in Maputo, Discusses Mine Removal /Maputo Radio] ................ccccccesseseesesseseeeseneeeeeeees 22 

RE EERIE EER Co eee 23 

I» nl ealialiln 23 
SC RET ETE Een TNeTD eee 23 


State of Economy Report /THE GHANAIAN CHRONICLE 7-13 Dec] .......cccccccccsceesseseeseeseeeeveneeeeeee 24 

Government Protests Airspace Violation by Senegal [AFP] ..........ccccccccccecceeeeeesenneseeseeesenseneeeeneneenenes 26 
Ivory Coast : 

Prime Minister Receives PRC Official (Abidjan Radio]  .........c.cscccsssessesseeceeeeseeeesecssesesneseeneeneeenseeenens 27 

ULIMO Official Warns Citizens To Leave Gharnga /London International]  .........cccceeereeeeeees 27 

Premier on Neutrality in Traore ‘Murder’ Trial /Bamako Raid] ...........0ccccccccecessessesererseesesneeenseenees 28 

About 10,000 Tuaregs in North Said Threatened by Famine /London International) .................... 28 

New Bills Create Electoral Wards [Niamey RAO]  .........00ccccscecssssssersssressecessccnssesssessecserseeesesssessoesees 28 

Babangida Says Foundation Laid for Democracy /Lagos Radio] .................. quedememuiemenaennn 29 

Paper Reacts to U.S. Abduction of Drug Suspect /Lagos International] ...........ccccccccesseseeseereeenseeeens 29 

Opposition Leader on Strike, Political Crisis /London International] ............cccccccccecesseseeseeeseeeeeeees 29 

16 December 1992 


Campaigning Ends Midnight 15 Dec 
EA1612064792 Djibouti Radio Djibouti in Somali 1700 
GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] In connection with the forthcoming multi-party 
elections due to be held on 18 December, the election 
campaigns which have been going on in the country will 
come to an end at midnight tonight. In this regard the 
minister of interior, posts, and telecommunications, Mr. 
Ahmed Boulaleh Barreh, issued a statement today saying 
that all election rules have been compiled and made 
ready in order to facilitate the holding of smooth, fair, 
and free elections. The minister's statement follows: 

[Begin Ahmed recording] In the name of God, the most 
compassionate, the most merciful. Peace and the bless- 
ings of God be upon you. At midnight tonight the 
election campaign will come to an end. Therefore, | 
hereby inform the Popular Rally for Progress and the 
Party for Reviving Democracy that they must end their 
campaigns before the deadline. I wish to add that a full 
communique will be issued by the government regarding 
the end of the campaign before the deadline, which 
would have been tomorrow. Remember, the campaigns 
ends tonight. God bless you. [end recording] 

Other reports on the elections say the mayor of Djibouti 
has chaired a meeting attended by all chairmen of 
district polling stations at which all technical issues 
regarding the forthcoming elections due to take place on 
18 December were discussed. 

Meanwhile, the first foreign election observers arrived in 
the country today. A group of six French officials, 
headed by a lawyer, have arrived. More foreign 
observers from organizations such as the Arab League, 
the OAU, and others are due soon. The duties of these 
foreign election observers will be to ensure that the 
elections are held in a fair and free manner. These will be 
the country’s first multiparty elections. 


Refugee Repatriation From Kenya To Begin 

EA1512202592 Addis Ababa Voice »f Ethiopia Network 
in Amharic 0930 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Excerpt] One of the UN Office of the High Commis- 
sioner for Refugees [UNHCR] branch offices reports 
that the week-long repatriation of about 80,000 Ethio- 
pian refugees from Kenya is to begin. According to 
(Marawan Korin), (?spokesman) for the UNHCR in 
Ethiopia, the organization has a plan to repatriate 500 
[as heard] refugees from Kenya to Ethiopia every day. 
The majority of these refugees, who are from southern 
Ethiopia, escaped to Kenya when the Ethiopian People’s 
Revolutionary Democratic Front captured Addis Ababa 
in May 1991. [passage omitted] 



Police Have ‘Shoot to Kill’ Order in Uasin Gishu 

EA1512203492 Nairobi KTN Television in English 1800 
GMT 15 Dec 92 

{Text} Police Commissioner Philip Kilonzo today issued 
a shoot-to-kill order on anyone caught burning houses as 
tension continues to prevail in Uasin Gishu District 
where unconfirmed reports indicate that 14 people may 
have died after renewed inter-ethnic clashes in the last 
three days. 

Kilonzo led a high-powered delegation of administration 
officials who visited Burnt Forest where eight people 
were confirmed killed over the weekend after clashes 
between members of the Kalenjin and Kikuyu commu- 
nities. Rift Valley provincial commissioner, Yusuf Haji, 
assured area residents that security would be stepped up 
in the region. Fifty-four suspects have so far been 
arrested in connection with the clashes. 

Other reports say non-Kalenjins living in the area are 
vacating their homes in groups, and hundreds are 
already camped at St. Patrick's Iten Catholic Mission. 
Others are reported heading for Nakuru District. 

Reaction to Uasin Gishu Violence 

KANU Candidates Comment 

EA1512195092 Nairobi KTN Television in English 1000 
GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] Renewed inter-ethnic clashes that left eight people 
dead in Uasin Gishu have generated mixed reactions from 
various quarters. Two KANU [Kenya African National 
Union] nominees in the district have blamed opposition 
party members for the clashes, while opposition party 
members say yesterday's incident was the beginning of 
organized clashes in the Rift Valley Province. 

Eldoret North and Eldoret East KANU nominees, 
William Saina and Joe! Barmasai, last night in a jointly 
signed statement accused the opposition of continually 
capitalizing on the misery that faced the citizens during 
the clashes. While condemning the latest spate of vio- 
lence in Eldoret, the two parliamentary aspirants said 
they blamed the cowardly hands of some members of the 
Opposition in the recent killing of eight people in the 
Burnt Forest area. They said they had taken note of a call 
by the FORD [Forum for the Restoration of Democ- 
racy}-Kenya first vice chairman, Paul Muite, to his 
supporters to take up arms and fight fellow Kenyans. 
Saina and Barmasai appealed to the Democratic Party 
[DP] of Kenya and FORD-Asili to desist from Uasin 
Gishu and not to use it as a springboard for Kikuyu 
support in Rift Valley. 

The statement follows two similar statements last night 
issued by the government and the ruling party, KANU, 


laying the eruption of clashes in several parts of Rift 
Valley at the opposition parties’ doorstep. 

{[KTN carries further reaction at 1600 GMT: “Arch- 
bishop Manasses Kuria, head of the Church of the 
Province. of Kenya, today said that steps to put the 
violence to an end were unsatisfactory and expressed 
concern that the violence may interfere with elections on 
the 29th. And the National Council of Churches of 
Kenya, NCCK, has requested the government to act 
swiftly in bringing an end to the clashes reportedly at 
Burnt Forest and Eldoret. In a press release, the secretary 
general, Samuc! Kobia, said the church was apprehen- 
sive about elections being conducted freely and fairly if 
the clashes escalated. He also called upon Kenyans to 
refrain from being used to unleash violence. 

(“The DP secretary general, John Keen, in a separate 
statement, blamed the renewed clashes on inciting state- 
ments by certain leaders in the Rift Valley. Keen said the 
leaders had warned of dire consequences on those who 
did not support KANU in the Rift Valley. 

[““And, separately, a group claiming to speak for Kalen- 
jins in Nairobi said they saw the renewed clashes as a 
plot against the community by the opposition parties.”’] 

FORD-Asili Candidates Comment 

EA1512200792 Nairobi KNA in English 1630 GMT 15 
Dec 92 

{Text} Eldoret, 15 Dec (KNA)}—Two parliamentary can- 
didates in Uasin Gishu District have denied that oppo- 
sition parties in the district were responsible for the 
renewed clashes which have hit parts of the area. Julius 
Kiiru Chomba and Joseph Mwangi Njuguna, who are 
Standing on FORD [Forum for the Restoration of 
Democracy]-Asili tickets in Eldoret South and Eldoret 
East respectively, denied that their party was involved in 
any violent activities in the district as alleged by other 
political aspirants, Joel Barmasai and William Morogo 

To the contrary, the two FORD-Asili candidates charged 
that the renewed violence were properly organised and 
executed by their political opponents with the support of 
a district chairman of a certain political party. They said 
the immediate former MP [member of parliament] for 
Eldoret South, Dr. Joseph Misoi, and the KANU [Kenya 
African National Union] chairman, Mr. Jackson Kibor, 
are on record as having cautioned members of some 
ethnic communities in the district not to participate in 

The two aspirants called on the alttorney-general to 
institute the necessary legal action against all leaders who 
preached violence irrespective of their positions in 

Saina and Barmasai were reported on KBC radio this 
morning as having blamed the renewed clashes on oppo- 
sition parties in the district. But in their joint statement, 

16 December 1 792 

Chomba and Njuguna stressed that the opposition had 
nothing to gain from instigation of violence. 

They expressed the fear that unless the clashes were 
halted and the victims resettled immediately, there 
would be no free and fair elections in Uasin Gishu 
District. They said what was happening amounted to 
election rigging in advance and appealed to the interna- 
tional observers to take whatever was happening seri- 
ously and move out of Nairobi to see for themselves how 
some 25,000 voters have been displaced in Uasin Gishu 
during the renewed clashes. 

The two aspirants also appealed to the Electoral Com- 
mission chairman, Justice Chesoni, to make arrange- 
ments so that the clash victims can [be] issued with fresh 
identity and voters cards as whatever they had was 
destroyed by fire. The two candidates appealed to donor 
agencies, the Red Cross and individuals to assist the 
clash victims who are now camping in churches and at 
the local police station in Burnt Forest area with dona- 
tions in either cash or kind. They said the donations can 
be channelled through the Catholic, PCEA [Presbyterian 
Church of East Africa] and the CPK [Church of the 
Province of Kenya] Churches in the area. 

Candidate Alleges Guerrillas in Forest 

EA1612065192 Nairobi KTN Television in English 1000 
GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] The FORD [Forum for the Restoration of Democ- 
racy}-Asili nominee in Molo, Njenga Mungai, has alleged 
that bands of guerrillas are busy constructing structures 
and tents in various forests in the Rift Valley Province 
and especially in Nakuru District. He also claims that the 
alleged guerrillas are stealing livestock from the area 
residents to be used as food when the guerrillas mount 
guerrilla warfare in Kenya soon after the next elections. 
Mungai was speaking to KTN yesterday after addressing 
an international press conference at Chester House. 

[Begin Mungai recording] | am appealing to KANU 
[Kenya African National Union] government to be real- 
istic that the responsibility of every Kenyan’s security is 
still in the hands of KANU party and its government 
until after the general elections where the people's ver- 
dict shall decide our next (?decision) at the ballot box. 
Can the government tell what structures of temporary 
shelters and tents, especially in Ndoinet Forest are being 
used for and by whom? Because these structures are 
there and people started to feel suspicious that these 
Structures are being used by the terrorists. [end 

[Nairobi KNA in English at 1200 GMT on 15 December 
carries the following: “A parliamentary candidate for 
Molo constituency, Mr. Joseph Kebenei, has refuted 
rumours that there were Kalenjin warriors in the forest 
ready to attack Kikuyu residents in Molo. 

[Talking to the press in Nakuru today, Mr. Kebenei, 
who is vying for the Molo seat on a KANU ticket, blasted 

16 December 1992 

a certain politician whom he said was going round Molo, 
Njoro, and Holo spreading rumours that the warriors 
would strike any time. He said the rumours have forced 
most residents to flee from their homes in fear of being 
invaded. Mr. Kebenei warned the residents against such 
politicians who he said were out to cause despondency 
during the elections. 

(“He said the rumours were unfounded and were aimed 
at disrupting peace that prevailed in Molo and especially 
after the ethnic clashes. The candidate appealed to all the 
aspirants to stop inciting the voters against each other. 
He commended Molo residents for maintaining peace 
and unity asking them to elect a leader capable of 
maintaining this unity.”’} 

FORD-Kenya ‘Would Not Accept’ Moi Return 

EA1512204492 Nairobi KTN Television in English 1800 
GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] Paul Kibugi Muite repeated his threat to the 
nation today that if President Moi and KANU [Kenya 
African National Union] were returned to power in the 
forthcoming general elections on 29 December, Kenya 
would become another Somalia. In an open letter to 
President Moi, a copy of which was made available to 
KTN, Muite, who is FORD [Forum for the Restoration 
of Democracy]- Kenya's first vice chairman, said 
FORD-Kenya would not accept President Moi and 
KANU to be returned to power because he and KANU 
were responsible for all the problems afflicting this 

Earlier this week, Muite threatened that, should Presi- 
dent Moi and KANU win this month’s elections, FORD- 
Kenya would start a civil war in this country. Muite’s 
utterances have since attracted widespread condemna- 
tion from several Kenyans across the country. 


Ali Mahdi Reaffirms Commitment to Foreign 

EA1512191692 Mogadishu Voice of the Somali 
Republic in Somali 1400 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] The interim president of Somalia, Mr. Ali Mahdi 
Mohamed, has met at his office some officials from the 
Somali Salvation Democratic Front, Somali Patriotic 
Movement, and United Somali Front. Speaking at the 
ceremony, President Ali Mahdi briefed the officials 
about his recent meeting with his main rival, General 
Aidid, adding that their meeting was cordial and that 
they both signed a seven-point peace agreement directed 
at ending the differences which have been dragging on 
for a year between the rival factions of the United Somali 
Congress [USC]. The president further said that tech- 
nical committees had been named to study existing 
problems in the country with the emphasis on ironing 
out differences between the USC factions. 


The president said it was essential that the people of this 
country realize where their interests lay. President 
Mahdi said Somalis must settle their differences in their 
national interest. We must make sacrifices in order to 
restore brotherly love, said the president. He said that 
national unity and Somali patriotism had been dealt a 
serious blow and it was therefore the duty of all of us to 
work hard io mend what had been damaged. He said that 
a bleeding wound has to be nursed carefully if you want 
it to heal. 

Speaking about the foreign troops which have come into 
the country, the president said the interim government 
had always called for the arrival of foreign troops in 
Somalia to safeguard food aid donated by the interna- 
tional community. Therefore, every Somali is duty 
bound to give support to the foreign troops in achieving 
their objectives. 

In conclusion, President Mahdi said that on | January, a 
meeting will be held in Addis Ababa to prepare the 
ground for a national reconciliation conference. The UN 
chief is expected to attend the conference, said Mr. 
Mahdi. He called on the movements to work hard to find 
a lasting and acceptable solution to the crisis in Somalia. 

The representatives of the various movements who met 
the president hailed him for having struck a peace deal 
with his major rival, Gen. Aidid, and assured him of 
their unswerving support, while wishing the Somali 
people speedy peace and the realization of much-needed 
national unity. The movements lastly called on the 
interim president to continue tirelessly with his peace 

Latest Developments on Relief Efforts 16 Dec 

Legionnaires Leave ‘Kilometer 4° 
AB1512184292 Paris AFP in English 1830 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Excerpts] Mogadishu, Dec 15 (AFP) - French foreign 
legionnaires were Tuesday [15 December] ordered to 
leave the Kilometre 4 crossroads in Mogadishu, where 
two violent incidents involving Somalis have stoked 
tensions, a French military officer said. 

Colonel Jean-Pierre Perouge said the troops did not have 
instructions sufficient to guarantee their own safety in 
the event of trouble. 

In an interview for state-owned France 2 television, the 
main warlord in Mogadishu and southern Somalia, Gen- 
eral Mohamed Farah Aidid, said he wanted “these men 
(the legionnaires) replaced by French regular troops.” 

Aidid said he had ,yut the request to the special French 
envoy named to Somalia by President Francois Mitter- 
rand, Michel de Bonnecorse, the ambassador to Nairobi. 

A Somali woman accused of sleeping with French for- 
eign legionnaires was stripped naked and beaten by a 


mob Monday at the site outside the hotel where hun- 
dreds of foreign journalists are staying. 

The daily Oxa Ogaal Tuesday iccatified the woman as 
Leila Hassan Sedik and said she had “confessed to 
spending Sunday night with the legionnaires.” 

The paper added that militiamen of Aidid’s United 
Somali Congress (USC) were interrogating the woman, 
who was Monday reported not to have been badly hurt in 
the attack, filmed by the world’s press. 

Perouge denied the accusations against her. 

“An enquiry has been carried out and these charges are 
materially impossible,” he told AFP. 

Military sources earlier said the legionnaires had simply 
sought to protect the woman by driving her away from a 
hostile crowd which then caught up with her. 

That incident followed the deaths of two Somalis last 
week at the same place when their truck smashed 
through a roadblock set up by legionnaires who opened 
fire. [passage omitted] 

“The legionnaires were the first to arrive here and they 
disarmed the district,” according to Mohamed Jirveh 
Hussein, owner of the K4 hotel, named for its location. 
“Many youths who had been fighting until then resent 
them for it.” 

“That's why they're accused of being rude, and many 
stories are going around about their behaviour in Dji- 
bouti,”” Mohamed Jirveh added. “But I must say that 
I've seen nothing to justify this opinion and they've 
always been very polite to me.” [passage omitted] 

Troops Arrive in Baidoa 
AB1612080092 Paris AFP in English 0518 GMT 16 Dec 92 

{By Francois-Xavier Harispe] 

[Text] Baidoa, Somalia, Dec 16 (AFP)}—U-.S. and French 
troops drove into the famine-stricken town of Baidoa 
shortly after dawn Wednesday [16 December] meeting 
no resistance from the gunmen who have terrorised this 
bush town for months. No shots have been heard since 
daybreak in Baidoa and the “technicals”, the four-wheel 
drive vehicles equipped with machine-guns and can- 
nons, had all disappeared. Those Somalis who own guns 
have hidden them. 

Once in Baidoa, the convoy took the road to the airport 
avoiding the main street which goes right through the 
town. A big American flag flew from one of the front 
vehicles while smaller tricolour flags fluttered from the 
French troop carriers. 

U.S. jet fighters overflew Baidoa in the hours before the 
convoy arrived. The low-altitude flights, at intervals of 
about four minutes, began around 3:30 a.m. (0130 GMT). 

FBIS-4 FR-92-242 
16 December 1992 

Since 04:00 A.M. three helicopter gunships, two Hueys and 
a Cobra, have been circling over Baidoa which is nearly 300 
kilometers (180 miles) north west of Mogadishu. 

The convoy of about 530 U.S. Marines and 130 French 
legionnaires aboard 70 lorries set off overnight from the 
Bali Dogle Air Base about 100 kilometers (60 miles) west 
of the Somali capital. 

U.S. special envoy Robert Oakley earlier warned local 
leaders to keep gunmen off the streets and away from the 
airport. Almost everyone is armed here. 

Aid agencies have complained of an upsurge in attacks 
by armed looters since the foreign forces landed in 
Mogadishu last Wednesday [9 December] to protect 
food for the country’s starving millions. Relief efforts 
have been virtually halted by gunmen wo have plun- 
dered up to 80 percent of food aid sent here. According 
to U.N. officials in Mogadishu, up to 1,000 Somalis ar- 
Starving to death daily in a famine caused by nearly two 
years of factional fighting and anarchy. Somalia has been 
without a government, police force, telecommunications 
or electricity since the bloody overthrow of dictator 
Mohamed Siad Barre in January 1991. 

French Commander Says Somalis Not Being 

LD1612113092 Paris Radio France International in 
French 0630 GMT 16 Dec 92 

[Text] Ford will now be following the soldiers to Baidoa. 
The distrioution of food will be the soldier's primary 
objective. Christophe Boisbouvier asked Colonel [Ber- 
trand] Bourgain who commands the French legionnaires, 
the troops who have been sent into this region, whether 
the American and French troops are going to try to 
disarm the Somali militias in Baidoa and the sur- 
rounding region: 

{Begin recording} [Bourgain] Not at all. 

[Boisbouvier] And yet this is one of the United Nation's 
objectives which has been supported by the French 

[Bourgain} For the moment we are carrying out the 
orders given to us by the Americans, as the govern- 
ment—our political leaders, those who sent us here— 
have told us. 

[Boisbouvier] So, for the present you are allowing armed 
men to circulate in town. 

[Bourgain] That is correct. This is very clear. 
[Boisbouvier] Without controlling them? 

[Bourgain] Without any controls on armed men. Every- 
body is armed here. 

[Boisbouvier] Do you personally understand this sort of 

16 December 1992 

[Bourgain] Yes, because if we disarm [the militias] we 
are not supplying the people. We have to show that we 
are strong enough so that they are not tempted to harass 
us. This is what we are doing. This is what justifies this 
massive deployment and allows us to proceed with 
supplies to the people. This is our mission. [end 


Museveni Fetes Visiting Burundian President 

EA1512121192 Kampala Radio Uganda Network in 
English 0700 GMT 5 Dec 92 

{Excerpt} President Yoweri Museveni has hailed the 
cordial relations existing between Uganda and Burundi 
which, he said, signifies that time has come for Africans 
to emphasize the bonds that unite rather than divide 
them. Speaking at a state dinner which was hosted in 
honor of the visiting Burundi head of state, Major Pierre 
Buyoya, at Sheraton Hotel in Kampala last night, Pres- 
ident Museveni said that specific areas of cooperation in 
trade, transport, and culture have been identified 
between Uganda and Burundi and what must be done 
now is to consolidate this cooperation. 

Mr. Museveni noted that economic development of the 
eastern African subregion in particular and that of Africa 
in general is the responsibility of the African govern- 
ments and populations. He said any outside input should 
be only complementary to these efforts. He said that 
consolidation of these efforts and cooperation, especially 
through the PTA [Preferential Trade Area] and the OAU 
should be aimed at facilitating the unification of the 
continent. Mr. Museveni emphasized thai since the 
economies of the two countries are still hampered by low 
levels of industrialization and production of the same 
raw materials which lead to unfavorable international 
terms of trade, it’s crucial to come together to rationalize 
production and development of materials and human 
resources. He said that these will keep the continent in 
step with other nations of the world. 

He said that the NRM [National Resistance Movement} 
is committed to democratic government and, since it 
took office in 1986, it has striven to create the environ- 
ment in which democracy can thrive. On this note, he 
said, there is a desire to harness the bonds of cooperation 


between the two countries in a bid to face the challenges 
as well as hoping this last decade of the 20th century. 
[sentence as heard] 

President Buyoya, on his part, said that Burundi appre- 
Ciates the positive strides that have already been taken 
by the NRM government which have ushered in a period 
of peace and stability in Uganda. He said that the 
Republic of Burundi has the same interests and has 
followed up this initiative by prioritizing on policies that 
facilitate democratization in the context of the national 
and international aspirations. He noted that Burundi 
and Uganda are both partners in a number of regional 
and continental organizations and his government hopes 
to consolidate these initiatives through economic coop- 
eration as people of both countries work together to 
achieve pusitive aspirations. [passage omitted] 

Burundi President Speaks on Democracy 
EA1512204792 Kampala Radio Uganda Network in 
English 1700 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Excerpt] President Pierre Buyoya of Burundi has called for 
greater unity among African people in order to achieve the 
democratic process. Addressing members of the African 
diplomatic corps in Uganda, President Buyoya said Afri- 
cans must find appropriate solutions to African problems 
using appropriate means within the African context. He 
said, without unity, the democratic process which is 
sweeping the conti..ent cannot be realized. 

The Burundi leader said the democratic process in Africa 
is sometimes difficult and contradictory because the 
African people are not mature enough to understand 
democracy. He said it is because of this that instability, 
insecurity, ethnic conflicts, and divisionism are created. 
He said only greater unity can reverse this difficult 
situation. He appealed for regional and sub-regional 
cooperation amongst African countries, adding that no 
country can go it alone. 

He said Burundi is putting the first priority to national 
unity and reconciliation by creating a new society with 
freedom and justice for all. He said its charter on unity 
gives guidelines on creating unity in every sector of life 
as a lasting solution to the civil strife caused by ethnic 
conflicts. President Buyoya said his country is democra- 
lizing institutions. [passage omitted] 


DP-ANC in Dispute Over Meeting Disruption 
MB1612074592 Johannesburg SABC TV 1 Network in 
English 1800 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] The Democratic Party [DP] and the ANC 
[African National Congress] are locked in dispute over 
the disruption of a DP meeting in Khayelitsha in Cape 
Town last night. 

Chairs were hurled at speakers and several people were 
assaulted. The DP says a regional executive member of 
the ANC was involved and at no time did she attempt to 
end the violence. Not so, says the western Cape ANC 

[Begin recording] [Western Cape ANC Chairman Allan 
Boesak] Since earlier today another organization, APLA 
{[Azanian People’s Liberation Army], has claimed 
responsibility for what happened there last night. Obvi- 
ously the ANC condemns any such action wherever it 
happens because we firmly believe that there should be 
free political activity anywhere in the country, whether it 
is in Cape Town or in Bloemfontein or in Ulundi. 

[Western Cape DP Chairman Jasper Walsh] There were 
senior ANC members present. Not a single person lifted 
a finger to try and stop what happened tonight. Last 
night, in fact, some of them were involved and clearly 
were leading the process so we must accept that they 
were part of a [pauses] that it was a pre-planned exercise 
and they were part of that planning. 

[Boesak] In a country like ours where the wounds of 
apartheid have not only not healed, but are still being 
inflicted on people, there will be some quite clear reac- 
tions from the community to certain people who come 
there and then that was the case with Mr. de Klerk’s visit 
to Mitchell's Plain, it was the case last night with the DP 
and I suspect we will continue to have that for a little 
while into the future. 

[Walsh] We operate among South Africa's people. We 
will go back to Khayelitsha. We have a branch estab- 
lished there. The meeting last night was called by our 
members in that area and we will go back early in the 
new year. [end recording] 

DP Accuses ANC of ‘Hypocrisy and Racism’ 

MB1612115692 Johannesburg SAPA in English 1127 
GMT 16 Dec 92 

[Text] Cape Town Dec 16 SAPA—Democratic Party 
[DP] reaction to the disruption of a meeting in 
Khayelitsha outside Cape Town on Monday [1/4 
December] nigh continued on Wednesday with an MP 
[Member of Parliament] accusing the African National 
Congress [ANC] of hypocrisy and racism. 

The DPs Ken Andrew was reacting on Wednesday to 
ANC statements first blaming the Pan-Africanist Con- 
gress [PAC] for the disruption, then apologising to the 

16 December 1992 

PAC and saying political organisations had the right to 
propagate their own policies. 

ANC regional chairman Dr Allan Boesak said however 
the DP had been “outrageous in its insensitivity” when it 
claimed not to have been involved in violence. 

Mr Andrew on Wednesday alleged ANC office bearers 
and supporters had broken up the meeting, during which 
chairs were reportedly hurled at two DP MPs. 

Although Dr Boesak had said the DP had the right to 
speak, he “immediately gave reasons why the DP should 
not hold meetings in Khayelitsha”. 

Mr Andrew said a Ms Nomatyala Hangana,. who had been at 
the meeting, “has the gall to make the racist suggestion that 
the DP should ‘first settle the white areas’.” 

“Perhaps she is sorry the improper political interference 
act was repealed so that political parties are not required 
by law to be racially exclusive.” 

Dr Boesak said Ms Hangana attended the meeting to try 
and ensure order after hearing rumours the gathering 
would be disrupted. 

Mr Andrew said Mr Boesak was hypocritical in warning 
the DP “of the deep hostility towards political parties 
operating within the tricameral parliamentary system 
while the ANC itself is happy to have tricameral MPS, 
including two who are on Dr Boesak’s own ANC regional 

The MP said the ANC would be judged in the end by 
“the actions of its members and supporters—and by the 
disc’ dinary steps taken by its office-bearers against 
th .e who violate democratic principles as happened in 
Khayeli?sha on Monday night”. 

PAC Urges UN To Chair New Talks Forum 

MB1512150992 Johannesburg SAPA in English 1429 
GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] Johannesburg Dec 15 SAPA—The Pan Africanist 
Congress [PAC] on Tuesday [15 December] called on 
United Nations Secretary-Genera!l Dr. Butrus Butrus- 
Ghali to send a high-powered delegation to South Africa 
to convene and chair a new negotiations forum. 

PAC Secretary for Political Affairs Jaki Seroke said Dr. 
Butrus-Ghali should also increase the UN observer mis- 
sion’s mandate in South Africa to enable monitors to 
take measures to prevent violence. 

Mr. Seroke was reacting to UNOMSA [United Nations 
Observer Mission in South Africa] head Angela King’s 
statement that they could not accept the PAC’s invitation to 
visit areas in the Transkei where APLA [Azanian People’s 
Liberation Army] bases are alleged to exist because they are 
in South Africa to observe and not investigate. 

16 December 1992 

“There is little sense in the UN presence if they are 
merely going to compile statistics of deaths through 
violence,” Mr. Seroke said. 

He also reiterated the PAC would not allow the Gold- 
stone Commission to investigate the PAC or its armed 
wing, as they were not involved in “sectarian violence”. 

“Legitimate armed struggle is not subject to scrutiny. It 
is a matter for complete transfer of political power and 
the land to the African people,” Mr. Seroke said. 

Patriotic Front Supports APLA Judicial Inquiry 

MB1512175892 Johannesburg Afrikaans Stereo Radio 
Network in Afrikaans 1400 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] The Patriotic Front has expressed its support for 
Transkei’s announcement that it is to order a judicial 
inquiry into the activities of private armies and the 
South African Defense Force [SADF], and in particular 
the Azanian People’s Libe wion Army's [APLA] bases. 

Representatives of the Patrivtic Front met in Johannes- 
burg under the chairmanship of ANC [African National 
Congress] leader Nelson Mandela to give feedback on 
the recent bilateral talks with the government and on the 
recent Frontline States conference in Harare. In a joint 
Statement, they said that any action by the government 
to ignore the request will be unacceptable. They also said 
they view Law and Order Minister Hernus Kriel’s recent 
remarks on cross border attacks on certain targets in the 
Transkei as unjustified. 

Hani ‘In Effect’ Slams APLA for Attacks 

MB1512143192 Johannesburg SAPA in English 1321 
GMT 15 Dec 92 

[By Raphael Banda} 

[Text] Johannesburg Dec 15 SAPA—South African 
Communist Party [SACP] Chief Chris Hani on Tuesday 
[15 December] came out clearly in favour of a negotiated 
settlement to the country’s political problems and in 
effect slammed the Pan Africanist Congress’ [PAC] mil- 
itary wing for staging attacks against white civilians. 

But he warned that any military attack by South Africa 
against military-ruled Transkei to root out APLA [Aza- 
nian People’s Liberation Army] fighters would endanger 
the fragile peace process. 

“We do not believe that this is the time to be waging a 
war when the general feeling in this country is that we 
must quickly negotiate for a democratic dispensation,” 
Mr. Hani told SAPA in an interview. 

Mr. Hani spoke after he attended a meeting of members 
G. the Patriotic Front who engaged the government in 
talks for a new political order within the Convention of 
a Democratic South Africa (Codesa). 


“It 1s regrettable that some organisations continue with 
military operations when they themselves are involved 
iM negotiations with the government,” the SACP secre- 
tary-general said. 

“I respect the right of each and every organisation to adopt 
its own strategies. (But) I think the killing of civilians, blacks 
or white, should be condemned by all of us.” 

The PAC military wing, the Azanian People’s Liberation 
Army, claimed responsibility for the attack on a wine- 
tasting party at King William's Town last month which 
triggered a fresh row with the government. Four people 
died and a week later a restaurant in Queenstown was 
bombed, killing one person. 

Last week Law and Order Minister Hernus Kriel warned 
the government -ould lawnch cross-border raids into 
Zimbabwe and Transkei in pursuit of the alleged 

Zimbabwe has said it has no bases for APLA militants and 
Transkei has said it is prepared to join an investigation into 
allegations of APLA’s existence in the homeland. 

“We are negotiating in this country and we cannot accept 
the situation where we can go back to the methods that 
were used before the unbanning of the organisations. 

“You can imagine the effects of cross-border raids on the 
whole process of negotiations and the attempts to end 
violence in this country.” Mr. Hani said in reference to the 
threat by Mr. Kriel of cross-border military incursions. 

African Nationai Congress [ANC] President Nelson 
Mandela chaired the patriotic front meeting on Tuesday, 
which agreed the political crisis in the country should be 
speedily resolved through multiparty talks and that the 
Codesa forum should be revived. 

“The meeting was of the view thai it is now more than 
ever urgent that the political crisis in our country be 
resolved speedily through multilateral negotiations in 
Codesa,” ANC Deputy Secretar y- General Jacob Zuma 
told a news conference, reading a joint statement. 

“The meeting agreed that multilateral negotiations in 
Codesa should resume speedily. To this end Codesa 
should be restructured to allow for other parties to join 
in this forum and to ensure that it functions efficiently 
and with a greater degree of openness to the public”. 

The PAC, which has shunned Codesa but was an archi- 
tect of the Patriotic Front [PF], did not attend the talks. 

ANC spokeswoman Gill Marcus said the meeting was for 
PF members that took pari in stalled Codesa talks. 


x REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA 16 December 1992 

Participants at the talks on Tuesday agreed that there 
should be a “firm and clear agreement” with regard to 
tume-frames for a!) ohases of the transition to a demo- 
cratic order. 

“In particular, the meeting resolved that elections which 
establish the constituent assembly and an interim gov- 
ernment be held by no later than the end of 1993." Mr. 
Zuma said. 

‘The meeting was convinced that this time-scale is 
achievable and that it would give direction and certainty 
to the process”. 

The government has proposed elections for an interim 
government should be held in early 1994. 

Battles for political supremacy have killed more than 
6.000 people since President F.W. de Kierk unbanned 
the ANC and other political organisations in 1990, 
setting the couftry on a search for a peaceful co- 
existence among the race groups. 

Patriotic Front on Multiparty Talks, Time Scales 

MB1512182892 Johannesburg Racio South Africa 
Network in English 1600 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Excerpts] The Patriotic Front has expressed its support 
for Transkei’s announcement that it’s to order a judicial 
inquiry into the activities of private armies and the 
South African Defense Force, and in particular allega- 
wons about APLA [Azanian People’s Liberation Army] 
bases. [passage omitted] 

The Patriotic Front parties repeated that multiparty 
negctiations through Codesa [Convention for a Demo- 
cratic South Africa] should be resumed as soon as 
possible, and that Codesa should be reconstructed so 
that other parties could join the negotiation forum. 

The parties also agreed it was necessary there should be 
clear agreement on time scales for all transitional phases 
to democracy. There should especially be agreement that 
the election of a constituent assembly and an interim 
government should be held no later than 1993. The 
Patriotic Front parties also reassociated themselves with 
agreements reached so far at Codesa. 

Our political news staff reports that neither the PAC 
[Pan-Africanist Congress} nor AZAPO [Azanian Peo- 
ple’s Organization] attended the meeting. 

Meanwhile, the Secretary General of the South African 
Communist Party Chris Hani says that although he 
respects the rights of each organization to adopt its own 
strategies, he thinks the killing of civilians—black or 
white—should be condemned. However, Mr. Hani told 
SAPA in an interview that any military attack by South 
Africa against military-ruled Transkei to root out APLA 
fighters would endanger the fragile peace process. 

Clinton Cabinet Appointments ‘Insensitive’ 
MB1512135392 Johannesburg BUSINESS DAY in 
tneglish 15 Dec 92 7 4 

[Article by Simon Barber in Washington: “Clinton's 
“Mirror Image’ of the U.S. is a Warped Vision™} 

[Text] In reporting President-elect Bill Clinton's cabinet 
appointments last week the U.S. media concenirated as 
much on the race and sex of the nominees as on their 
qualifications. Clinton, having promised that his team 
would “reflect America,” a country that contains people 
of both sexes and many races, staged his announcements 
in such a way as to encourage this emphasis in coverage. 

On Thursday [10 December], he unveiied his top eco- 
nomic picks—Senator Lloyd Bentsen for Treasury, Con- 
gressman Leon Panetta for budget direcior, Will Streeter 
(and generous campaign contributor) Barry Rubin for 
the new post of National Economic Council chairman. 
Ail white males Oops. Something had to be done, and it 
was. Clinton took the unurual step of also announcing 
their deputies. Panetta’s wa; to be Alice Rivlin, formerly 
of the Congressional Budge’ Office. 

On Friday. Clinton did more ts aione. The health and 
human services department, the Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency and the Council of Economic Advisers were 
all given to women. The altuudinally disadvantaged also 
got a look im as the diminutive Harvard intellectual 
Robert Reich. a friend of Clinton's, was tossed [to] the 
labour department. 

That night. the pundits were confidently predicting that 
the next round of nominations wouid go to “persons of 
colour.” On Saturday, Clinton duly tapped Democratic 
Party chairman Ron Brown, who is black, as secretary of 
commerce. Word was spread that Hispanic Henry Cis- 
neros, former mayor of San Antonio, Texas, would be 
given housing and urban development. 

Clinton thinks he is being “sensitive” and is contriving 
to have the world applaud. In truth, he is being quite the 
opposite, though few will say so for fear of being branded 
“insensitive.” By announcing that he wants an adminis- 
tration that “reflects America” in terms of characteris- 
tics its people are bovn with, he is saying that his basis for 
selection is not so much the content of character or 
accomplishment as externals, and is thus axiomatically 
degrading all h:: appointments. 

Blacks, above ail, are being obliged to continue living under 
the stigma of suspicion that their elevation is due solely to 
the white man’s condescension. The suspicion is accentu- 
ated by the fact that administration jobs that really matter— 
Treasury, state and defence—will all, as usual, end up in 
white male hands now that Gen Colin Powell, chairman of 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff and a man of unsurpassed calibre. 
has dropped from the running for state. 

The pharisaic “sensitivity” of Clinton and so many 
others, and what it implies about the real state of race 

16 December 1992 

relations im this country, goes some way to explaining the 
current resurrection of Malcolm X. Spike Lee's newly 
released biopic and the Hollywood megahype that pre- 
ceded it are not the only reasons “X" T-shirts, caps and 
other paraphernalia are selling like hot cakes all over the 

Malcolm X's insight, lost in the hysteria provoked by the 
violence of his rhetoric and his murder in 1965, was this: 
equal rights, integration, a ~ 2! ve action, hiring 
quotas, all the demands o: «x ‘:: ‘tional civil rights 
movement, would not s:.« bieck Americans from 
second class citizenship “arginaiisation and being 
beaten by Los Angeles p ‘Ticers~-indeed, they 
would keep them there—wiunout one extra, critical, 
ingredient. Dignity. 

Malcolm X had no time for Martin Luther King and his 
followers because he believed they were letting the white 
establishment off the hook by allowing the victim- 
oppressor relationship to continue. Therein. he said, lay 
the hypocrisy of the civil rights era: “You pretend that 
you're my brother, and I pretend that I really believe you 
believe I'm your brother.” 

Who, after all, was granting and extending the previously 
denied rights and agreeing to <alegrate his schools, 
factories and public places? Tne white man. And who 
was meekly doing the Sorgiving for generations of bru- 
tality in return foi access to the plantation house? The 
black man. who thus allowed himself to remain an 
object, if no longer of neglect and outright cruelty, then 
of compassion and its corollary, condescension. 

Partisaiis Of King, and of the Christian tradition, would say 
there is dignity in forgiveness and turning the other cheek. 

Malcolm X, who converted to Islam while serving a 
nine-year sentence for robbery that changed his life, 
disagreed. “The blue- eyed devil” must first be made to 
respect, otherwise he would remain at heart a contemp- 
tuous alms-giver. 

Hence the language of hate and violence. “If we have a 
funeral in Harlem, make sure they have one do wntown, 
too,” he would say. Dangerous talk, but largely meta- 
phorical, designed to send a simple message to whites. As 
the black writer Shelby Steele, author of The Content of 
Character, recently summed it up: “We are human 
enough to want to kill you for what you have done to us. 
How does it feel to have people you have never paid 
much attention to want to kill you?” 

The message was aimed at blacks as well, telling them 
they should be as prepared to fight and die for their 
freedoms as whites were. Steele again: “Many times 
(Malcolm) told his audiences that whites would not be 
ready to respect them unless they used ‘any means 
necessary’ to seize freedom. For a minority outnum- 
bered 10 to one this was not rational. But it was a point 
that needed to be made in the name of dignity. It was 
something that many blacks needed to feel about them- 
selves, that there was a line no one could cross.” 


Dignity, Malcoim X knew, was not something that couidt 
simply be granted from outside. It also had to come from 

He adamantly believed that to obtain the uncondition2; 
respect of whites, black: would have to begin by 
respecting themselves. 

His childhood was rough, though not in the way por- 
trayed in the film. His father was a womaniser who 
moved from job to job and was often violent with his 
children. After the old man’s death, the boy was taken 
from his mother dy a state welfare agency. He spent his 
early adult lie as a street hustler with a taste for white 
women and cocaine. Then came jail and transformation. 

Fired up by the teachings of Black Muslim leader Elijah 
Muhammad, the man who emerged was a burning 
ascetic, convinced that inner dignity could come only 
from total self-mastery, and he was scrupulou: in his 
adherence to the Koran’s strictures against drugs. 
alcohol, t¢bacco, adultery and extra-marital sex—a puri- 
tanism Spike Lee explicitly contrasts in the film to 
King’s less than monkish behaviour. His thoughts on 
family values, women and homosexuality were decidedly 
incorrect by present standards. He lived humbly, 
brezking with the Black Muslims as much over their 
misuse of funds as over their leader's serial infidelities. 

With self-mastery, self-help to the point of separatism. 
Maicolm X was an unabashed black nationalist. Blacks, 
he insisted, woul’ never be accorded full equality unless 
they were respected, and respected themselves, for what 
they were, what they knew—in prison he became a 
voracious reader—and what they had achieved. He 
therefore sneered at government programmes, including 
passage of the 1964 Civils Rights Act, secing them as a 
white con trick to keep the black man in his place, servile 
to the ministrations of white liberals. 

“A hungry man will dislike you if you refuse to give him 
help,” he once said. “He will hate you if you promise help 
and give him a cheque that bounces.” Since the “60s, the 
U.S. has signed many cheques, and most of them have 
bounced. Malcolm X would say this was because they were 
never written in the right currency: dignity. Clinton's per- 
formance this past week is just another case in point. 

Satair Denies Leasing Russian Aircraft 

MBI512175992 Johannesburg Channel Africa Radio in 
English 1100 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] The South African cargo carricr, Safair, hes 
strongly denied allegations by the Zimbabwean Govern- 
ment that it intends leasing Russian aircraft for military 
purposes. This follows a protest made by Zimbabwean 
Foreign Affairs Minister Nathan Shamuyarira over an 
aircraft agreement signed between Safair and a Russian 
company, which he maintains is breaching the United 
Nations arms embargo against South Africa. 


Reacting to the allegations, a Safair spokesman categor- 
ically denied any links with the South African Govern- 
ment. He said although an aviation agreement had been 
signed, it was purely on a commercial basis and no deals 
have yet been finalized to bring Russian aircraft into the 

ANC Military Wing Training Abroad Detaile? 
MB1612110392 Johannesburg BEELD in Afrikaans 
14 Dec 92 p 1 

{Report by Johan van Wyk and Gallie van Rensburg: 
“10,000 MKs Being Trained—Conventional Warfare 
Being Learned in Uganda, Tanzania’’] 

{Text} More than 10,000 members of Umkhonto we 
Sizwe [Spear of the Nation—MK], the ANC’s [African 
National Congress] military wing, among them a number 
of white recruits, are at present being trained in conven- 
tional warfare at bases in Uganda and Tanzania. 

According to informed sources, some of them are being 
trained for MiG-15 fighter planes at Nakasangola Camp 
in Uganda by instructors from Libya and Ethiopia. The 
camp accomodates about !,000 MK members. 

In the other camps courses are believed to provide 
artillery, tank, infantry, anti-aircraft, radar, engineering, 
and missile training. The instructors are said to consist 
of MK members from Uganda, Tanzania, North Korea, 
and even Eastern Europe. 

At the same time non-commissioned officer, as well as 
officer, courses up to the levels of captain and major are 
being offered at several camps such as that as Jinja in 
Bomba, Uganda. 

The cream of MK cadres who have passed the courses in 
the two African countries are then sent to Nigeria and 
India for senior officer courses. These courses are appar- 
ently as good as similar courses offered in the South 
Affrican Defense Force [SADF. 

According to military strategists, this training in conven- 
tional warfare is aimed at raising MK’s standards to 
match those of the SADF should MK be integrated in 
future. This theory was confirmed by MK Chief of Staff 
Siphiwe Nvanda in the latest issue of the ANC magazine, 
MAYIBUYE. He told the magazine that he sees MK as 
one of the building blocks of a future defense force in a 
democratic South Africa. 

MK is a guerrilla army which is transforming itself into 
a conventional army. Officers are being trained so that 
MK “can make an impression,” he says. The officer 
training being provided is for the army, the air force, and 
the navy, and includes non-commissioned officers, 
junior, and senior officers. 

According to reliable sources, the ANC has continued its 
aggressive recuitment campaign in the second half of this 
vear. More than 1,100 recruits have been flown to 

16 December 1992 

Uganda and Tanzania since July, at a cost of about 
170,000 rands per chartered flight for 150 recruits. 

This has brought the number of ANC members being 
trained there to more than 10,000 (about 7,000 in 
Uganda and 4,000 in Tanzania), and many more are 
being recruited in South Africa daily, ‘t is reported. 

According to information in BEELD’s possession, there 
are at least 15 bases in Uganda and Tanzania where MK 
members are taken through courses from ordinary 
schooling up to advanced weapons and officer courses. 
The Ugandan and Tanzanian defense forces are report- 
edly closely involved in the training of MK members, 
and they share several bases. The two countries also 
provide much logistical assistance. The Uganda defense 
force, for example, is totally resposible for the ANC’s 
logistics in that country. 

It is also reported that the Organization of African 
Unity’s Liberation Committee provides large sums of 
money to the ANC for training. According to BEELD’s 
sources, Libya and North Korea are the most important 
donors of weapons. 

RSA Urged To Return KaNgwane to Swaziland 

MB1512204992 Mbabane Radio Swaziland Network in 
English 1600 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] Pro-unification Swazis in the kaNgwane home- 
land have called on the South African Government to 
return the homeland to the greater Swaziland because it 
was illegally taken. During a meeting of Insika yaMswati 
Party [Mswati’s Pillar Party] held at Enhlazatshe 
Crossing, the Swazis resolved to hold a big meeting next 
year to discuss the border adjustment issue. They 
resolved that th.v don’t want to abandon Swazi culture 
and custom. 

During the meeting the Swazis, all members of Insika 
yaMswati, discussed that the United Nations gave 
money to the kaNgwane homeland authorities for use in 
the homeland to fight drought, but that money is not 
properly used, and Inyandza [United Party] is claiming 
that the money came from their pockets. It was resolved 
that in 1988 Inyandza Party misled the members of the 
Insika Party and are intending to do it again next year 
during the elections in the homeland. 

Union Against Seven-Day Week for Mineworkers 

MB1612080492 Johannesburg Radio South Africa 
Network in English 0500 GMT 16 Dec 92 

[Text] The National Union of Mine Workers [NUM], 
has warned the government that it’s heading for confron- 
tation if it allows mines to switch to a seven-day opera- 
tion. The organization said in a statement that such a 
step should involve negotiations with unions. It said that 
mine experts agreed that South African mine workers 

16 December 1992 

spent too much time underground, namely up to 50 
hours a week, compared with less than 35 hours in other 
major mining countries. It added that safety and health 
could be compromised if supervision standards were not 
maintained over weekends. 

The mines want to change to a seven-day working week 
in an attempt to save jobs in the troubled mining 

15 December Review of Current Events, Issues 

[Editorial Report] 

Holomisa-Buthelezi ‘Slanging Match’—The “slanging 
match” between Transkei leader Bantu Holomisa and 
Mangosuthu Buthelezi of the Inkatha Freedom Party “is 
a classic case of the pot calling the kettle black,” says a 
page 16 editorial in Johannesburg THE STAR in English 
on 15 December. Neither man has “advanced the 
national debate one iota.” “Their sniping at each other— 
from the bunkers of their personal fiefdoms—typifies 
much of what has passed for politics in South Africa 
during the past year. Matters must improve next year. 
The catharsis of 1992 may have been necessary, but 
there is no need for the nation to put up with gratuitous 
belligerence forever.” 


Law, Order Minister ‘Beating the War Drums’— 
Referring to Law and Order Minister Hernus Kriel’s 
threats of military action against Transkei and Zim- 
babwe, Johannesburg CITY PRESS in English on 13 
December says: “For SA to be beating the war drums at 
a time when the subcontinent needs peace more than 
anything else is unacceptable and unjustifiable. Is it 
more than a coincidence that Kriel’s threats against 
Zimbabwe come at a time when that country has been 
making claims that SA has violated its airspace several 
times in recent weeks?” CITY PRESS suggests that “‘to 
preserve his own image, F.W. de Klerk must rein in 
hawks like Kriel who are spoiling for unnecessary con- 

16 December Review of Current Events, Issues 

[Editorial Report] 

PAC Must Impose Talks/War Decision on APLA— 
Johannesburg THE STAR in English on 16 December in 
a page 8 editorial remarks that the Pan-Africanist Con- 
gress’, PAC, Johnson Mlambo let it be known in an 
interview with the paper that he ‘“‘was relieved of his 
APLA [Azanian People’s Liberation Army] post” of 
commander-in-chief in April, “and that there is no 
commander-in-chief at this point. Most convenient 


that—and unpleasantly reminiscent of certain Govern- 
ment ministers who desert portfolios just before major 
scandals are exposed.” Reading “between the lines” of 
Johnson's remarks “it appears that the PAC leadership 
believes APLA is responsible for the new campaign, but 
knows very little about it.” “We believe most South 
Africans are tired of the PAC’s artless sophistry. The 
organisation’s leaders must decide whether they want to 
negotiate, or fight. And they must impose their decision 
on APLA, their bloodthirsty creation.” 


NP More Urgent About Negotiations—Cape Town 
SOUTH in English for 5-9 December says in its page 6 
editorial that the National Party leaders, “with their 
timetable for elections, they’re saying to the generals: 
Clean up, quick, the journey is now underway—and we 
don’t want dirty hands upon arrival. At long last, it 
appears that the Nats have realised they can no longer 
keep on delaying. The longer they’re in the ring, the more 
bloodied they become. And a new ref called Bill Clinton 
will soon be doing the counting.” 


White-Only Conscription Unjust—Johannesburg 
TRANSVALER in Afrikaans on 10 December points out 
in a page 8 editorial that “a reduced foreign threat and 
the shortage of funds has made a scaling-down of the 
South African Defense Force [SADF] inevitable. Unfor- 
tunately the domestic situation is so explosive that well 
trained and disciplined security forces are still necessary 
to stop the war between factions from becoming a 
full-blown civil war. Already the police have to spend so 
much time on unrest prevention that crime prevention is 
being scaled down. Without the support of the SADF 
their task would be impossible. Therefore the steps 
announced by the SADF to make it more flexible are to 
be welcomed. Young volunteers of all races will be given 
the opportunity to do voluntary military service for a 
period of 2 to 10 years.” “This is hopefully the first step 
in the phasing out of the present unjust system which 
makes it compulsory only for whites to serve in the 
defense force.” 

Criticism of Private, Civil Service Fraud—A page 8 
editorial in Johannesburg TRANSVALER in Afrikaans 
on 11 December says: “Recently the government has 
come under harsh criticism—and justly so—for fraud, 
corruption, and other irregularities in the civil service. 
The time has come, however, for similarly harsh criti- 
cism for malpractices within the private sector.” The 
Office of Serious Economic Offenses is investigating 
fraud cases involving amounts of “about 350 billion 
rand—-an amount equal to the annual gross domestic 
product. Fortunately there are signs that the business 
sector is itself giving urgent attention to this issue. The 
Institute of Directors has already set up a task force to try 
to prevent such activities.” “Everyone, from the highest 


to the lowest, must be involved to prevent South Africa, 
which is already sinking in several areas, from becoming 
a gangster land.” 

Farmers’ Debt Cannot Be Written Off—A second edito- 
rial on the same page notes the “sympathy” for the 
farmers, who have been hit by one of the worst and 
longest droughts in memory. Estimates show “up to 
5,000 farmers will lose their farms and means of living. 
The downturn in their industry has far-reaching effects. 
It has 7» almost disastrous influence on the whole South 
Africa economy and job provision. Nevertheless, the 
government cannot but refuse to write off farmers’ debt 
of about 1.200 million rand owed to the state. Farming is 
not the only sector of the economy which has been hard 
hit. The disturbing number of liquidations of companies 
and closed corporations are testimony to this. It would 
therefore be unfair to only write off the farmers’ debt, 
especially as for a number of years now the industry has 
been heavily subsidized.” 


Holomisa’s Destabilizing Politics—Johannesburg 
BEELD in Afrikaans on 14 December views in a page 14 
editorial that “The TBVC [Transkei, Bophuthatswana, 
Venda, Ciskei] states are one of the problems which will 
have to be addressed in a future constitutional dispen- 
sation. At present they represent a mixture of stubborn- 
ness and despotism which will certainly not facilitate 

16 December 1992 

their reincorporation.” Transkei’s General Bantu Holo- 
misa “is a case in point. His actions make it clear that on 
the one hand these leaders want to be totally indepen- 
dent, while on the other hand they claim the right to 
interfere in South Africa's affairs. Gen. Holomisa com- 
plains loudly because the finger is pointing at his country 
as a purported patron of APLA, the PAC military wing.” 
Gen. Holomisa should “rather concentrate on finding 
out what is happening in his own country and not cause 
problems in the broader negotiation process which 
includes national states and homelands. His ANC 
{African National Congress] allies should call him, the 
PAC, and APLA to their senses, because they are playing 
with fire with their present challenging, destabilizing 
brand of politics.” 

Correction: BEELD on Rationalization Plan 

The following correction pertains to the item headlined 
“More on Rationalization Program,” published in the 15 
December Sub Saharan Africa DAILY REPORT, page 19 

Page 19, column two, paragraph nine, only sentence 
please make read: “...units of the part-time [deeltydse] 
forces, 29 units of the full-time [voltydse] forces, and 3 
commandos...”, supplying vernacular. 

16 December 1992 


UNITA Points for Ending ‘Spectre of War’ 

MB1512132592 (Clandestine) Voice of the Resistance of 
the Black Cockerel in Portuguese to Southern and 
Central Africa 1200 GMT 15 Dec 92 

{Station commentary: “It Is Wrong and Unacceptable 
To Distort the Peace Accords”] 

[Text] No one has the right to distort the peace accords, 
thereby endangering all the basic agreements signed in 
Bicesse on 31 May 1991. The issues of the cease-fire; the 
formation of the Angolan Armed Forces [FAA] with the 
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 
[UNITA] and the government enjoying 50 percent parity 
each; and the holding of free, fair, and honest elections 
are of highest importance, and are even the pillars of the 
entire Angolan peace process. 

The signatories, the observer countries—notably the 
United States—and the United Nations have the duty to 
ensure that the spirit and letter of the accords are 
complied with. What we are witnessing now are major 
distortions and systematic violations of what was agreed 
on in Bicesse, all with the aim of securing advantages 
that will ensure hegemony within the country. Through 
the chief of General Staff of its forces, the government 
has committed serious violations of the entire peace 
process. The United States and the United Nations must 
not endorse this paramount fact. Any weakness or emo- 
tional behavior could encourage aggression and lead to 
disastrous consequences in the country. The situation 
must be corrected and peace must be preserved. 

UNITA is fully committed to immediate peace throughout 
Angolan territory. That is why the cities of Uige and Negage 
have been handed over to the government so it can restore 
its administration there. That was a very harsh measure, if 
one takes into account the situation in the country. In view 
of the fact that conditions have been restored for UNITA 
and the government to resume talks, both sides must meet 
as soon as possible, so that the agenda drawn up at the 
Namibe meeting can be concluded and peace made more 
secure. The much vaunted peace accords must be complied 
with. That meeting must be held under the auspices of the 
United Nations. 

It is necessary that the government stop attacking 
UNITA committees and massacring UNITA officials, 
with the mere intention of putting an end to popular 
(?support) for UNITA, thereby (favoring) the Popular 
Movement for the Liberation of Angola [MPLA] candi- 
date in the second round of presidential elections. The 
United Nations must organize, verify, and control the 
upcoming elections, while keeping the cease-fire alive 
through the intervention of UN forces. 

These are eleven points that will lead to peace: 

1. Reaffirming the importance of the peace accords; 


2. Returning to the joint mechanisms that have been 
established for supervising the implementation of the 
peace accords. The Angolan Government, UNITA, the 
U.S., Russian, and Portuguese governments, and the 
United Nations are all part of those mechanisms. Such 
mechanisms include: 

A) The Joint Political and Military Commission 

B) The Joint Verification and Control Commission 

3. With Uige and Negage returned to state administra- 
tion. direct talks must resume in line with the decisions 
made in Namibe; 

4. A broad UN-supervised cease-fire must be established 
by reviving those joint mechanisms; 

5. Assuring the release of all prisoners, including the 
UNITA officers, militants, and sympathizers that the 
government detained in Luanda, and who are being kept 
in so-called protective custody; 

6. Working with the United Nations so the UN forces 
can intervene in Angola for peace. Those forces will have 
the following specific mission: 

A) Verifying the implementation of the cease-fire accord; 

B) Assuring the safety of the UNiTA peace negotiators, 
and UNITA officials participating in the Angolan Par- 
liament and Government; 

C) Helping form the Angolan Army; 

D) Helping with t.:¢ formation of a unified police force 
that will be based on parity of forces; 

E) Safeguarding the lives and safety of those citizens 
supporting opposition parties; 

F) Organizing and supervising the second round of 
presidential elections, as well as defining the status of 
and security mechanism for President Dr. Jonas Mal- 
heiro Savimbi, the UNITA candidate; 

G) Allowing UNITA to rebuild its Political Commission 
and to develop its negotiation framework; 

8. [number as heard] The United Nations must assure 
the safety of UNITA’s people in Luanda, once they have 
been released and assure the safety of those officials who 
will go to Luanda to participate in Parliament and the 
government of national unity; 

9. Assuring that the participation of political parties in a 
government of national unity will be in accordance with 
the political support they enjoy, as demonstrated 
through the electoral process and agreed on after consul- 
tations. This would help strengthen the process of 
national reconciliation; 

10. Making it abundantly clear that the United States 
and the United Nations will stand against any attempt to 


establish a government by means of force, or to stay in 
power by means of eliminating political opposition; 

11. Making it clear that only a government of Angola will 
be recognized by the international community, as long as 
it arises from the outcome of the electoral process 
defined in the accords, including the second round of 
presidential elections. 

UNITA is ready to end the specter of war in the lives of 
Angolan people. UNITA is willing to cooperate with the 
MPLA for real reconciliation among the Angolan people. 
That is a prerequisite for progress in this country. All our 
efforts shall be for the couse of the fatherland. UNITA is 
a permanent and essential factor in the existence of 
multiparty democracy. 

Long live democracy! 

Long live national reconciliation! 

Radio: UNITA Troops Still in Uige, Negage 

MB1612065292 Luanda Radio Nacional Network in 
Portuguese 0600 GMT 16 Dec 92 

[Text] The UN Angola Verification Mission-2 [Unavem- 
2] has promised it will verify and control the movement 
of National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 
[UNITA] troops back to their confinement points in the 
cities of Uige and Negage. 

The Angolan Government is still waiting for Unavem-2 
to confirm that UNITA soldiers have withdrawn from 
those two cities. The Armed Forces for the Liberation of 
Angola forces are still occupying Uige and Negage at this 
time, and have not yet taken any positive steps toward 
evacuating those two urban centers. 

Meanwhile, General Edward Onimna, head of the 
Unavem-2 team to Angola, left Luanda yesterday for his 
country. Gen. Unima was in our country for 14 months. 
He will be replaced by Chris Garba, another Nigerian 
general, at a date to be announced. Gen. Onimna left 
Angola expressing the hope that a solution will be found 
to the current crisis. 

UNITA Radio Reports MPLA Troop Movements 
in Lunda Norte 

MB1512210092 (Clandestine) Voice of Resistance of the 
Black Cockerel in Portuguese to Southern and Central 
Africa 1900 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Excerpt] The Jose Eduardo dos Santos government is 
still bent on war in order to destabilize our young 
democracy. Reports from Dundo District, Lunda Norte 
Province, say that since 14 December the Popular Move- 
ment for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party [MPLA] 
has been moving armored cars, T-55 tanks, BMP-21 
rocket launchers, BMP-1i armored cars, and other vehi- 
cles into the city of Dundo. The war equipment is being 

16 December 1992 

withdrawn from the former People’s Armed Forces for 
the Liberation of Angola [FAPLA] assembly point in 
Lucapa District. 

In addition to that, an Antonov and a Casa, flying from 
Luanda between 12 and 14 December, airlifted FAPLA 
troops wearing the uniforms of the Angolan Armed 
Forces. [passage omitted] 

MiG and SU-25 bombers of the People’s Air Force of 
Angola yesterday overflew the city of Namibe. Reports 
say that the aircraft, which flew at low altitude, created 
panic among the residents. Dangerous raids [preceding 
word in English] have been carried out by combat 
aircraft flying from the Namibe Air Force Base in a 
northerly direction. 

More than the two battalions of Eduardo dos Santos 
government's reserve army in Cunene Province have 
been deployed in the former South-West African Peo- 
ple’s Organization [SWAPO] base at (Gungana). The 
units are led by Major (Nasuca), and their mission is to 
act as a cover for SWAPO troops entering Angola from 
Namibia. The two battalions, using civilian vehicles, are 
carrying long-range artillery pieces. [passage omitted] 

Government, UNITA Meet in Cuando Cubango 

MB1412154592 (Clandestine) Voice of Resistance of the 
Black Cockerel in Portuguese to Southern and Central 
Africa 1200 GMT 14 Dec 92 

[Text] Over the weekend in Menongue, Cuando 
Cubango Province, officials from the National Union for 
the Total Independence of Angola [UNITA] and the 
government held a meeting to reduce the atmosphere of 
mutual distrust prevailing in the province. The signato- 
ries to the Bicesse Accords met to discuss a number of 
issues, including the maintenance of an atmosphere of 
peace in Cuando Cubango Province, particularly in the 
city of Menongue, and the free movement of people and 
goods along the roads linking Menongue to Huambo and 
Bie Provinces. 

The meeting took place in a frank and cordial atmo- 
sphere, with the parties agreeing that they should not 
resort to war to resolve their problems. The head of the 
UNITA delegation to the meeting, General Breke, took 
the opportunity to protest against the government's 
distribution of weapons to the people, the increasing 
crime wave on the outskirts of the city of Menongue 
carried out by the riot police, the recruiting of demobi- 
lized soldiers, and the creation of the Angolan Armed 
Forces without the participation of the Armed Forces for 
the Liberation of Angola as provided for in the Bicesse 

The parties proposed that a meeting between UNITA 
and the government be attended by the UN Angola 
Verification Mission-2 and Menongue Diocese Bishop 
Don Queiroz Alves, with the same purpose of avoiding 
the resumption of war in Cuando Cubango Province, 
particularly at this period when the general political and 

16 December 1992 

military situation in the country favors the resumption 
of dialogue between the government and UNITA. 

UNITA, MPLA Hold ‘Cordial’ Meet in Luena 

MB1212145392 (Clandestine) Voice of Resistance of the 
Black Cockerel in Portuguese to Southern and Central 
Africa 1200 GMT 12 Dec 92 

[Text] Delegations of the National Union for the Total 
Independence of Angola [UNITA], the Popular Move- 
ment for the Liberation of Angola [MPLA] met in the 
city of Luena, Moxico Province, on 11 December. The 
meeting was attended by the Joint Verification and 
Control Commission [CMVF] and the UN Angola Ver- 
ification Mission [Unavem]-2. The agenda of the 
meeting included the movement of people and goods on 
the Luena-Saurimo road and security in the city of 
Luena, particularly at the airport. 

Our Luena correspondent reports that the meeting was held 
in a cordial atmosphere. The participants agreed to remove 
the control posts erected by the riot police, thus permitting 
the free movement of people and goods. A commission, 
involving the CMVF and Unavem-2, has been established 
in order to deal with abnormal situations. 

Regarding security at the airport and in the city in 
general, the two sides agreed that it should be the 
responsibility of the National Police. Weapons, 
including armored vehicles deployed in Luena, will be 
monitored weekly. 

UNITA Said Deploying Troops in Cuanza Sul 

MB1412140192 Luanda Radio Nacional Network in 
Portuguese 1200 GMT 14 Dec 92 

{Excerpt! The political and military situation in Cuanza 
Su! Province has been described as calm. Police Super- 
intendent Antonio Baptista Vaz says that there have 
been daily movements by troops of the Armed Forces for 
the Liberation of Angola [FALA]. 

[Begin Vaz recording] The National Union for the Total 
Independence of Angola [UNITA] has been deploying its 
military personnel and equipment in the Uacu Cungo 
District. UNITA’s aims have not been clarified yet. 
UNITA has deployed a further 200 armed troops in 
Catofe Commune and in [words indistinct]. UNITA has 
also been deploying more troops in Ebo in order to create 
panic and confusion among the residents. 

Government administration has been withdrawn from 
Sumbe District. Large numbers of enemy troops from 
Canjala have been deployed in that district. Their aim 
has not yet been revealed. 

Arms caches, including weapons which are not part of 
the equipment used to defend UNITA officials and 
installations, have been found. Long-range weapons 


have been found and they do not conform with what had 
been agreed upon in the Joint Political and Military 

Why does UNITA need those weapons if we want peace 
in terms of the peace accords? UNITA intends to carry 
out a number of actions in Cuanza Sul Province, 
including the annihilation of the residents, particularly 
party members and officials. [end recording] 

In Huila Province’s Hoque District, UNITA is still 
engaged in a manhunt campaign. FALA troops have 
banned the residents from listening to Radio Nacional 
de Angola. They have also abducted and raped young 
girls from (Quiamba) settlement. [passage omitted] 

UNITA Agrees To Withdraw From Zaire 

MB1312073492 Luanda Radio Nacional Network in 
Portuguese 1900 GMT 12 Dec 92 

[Text] The government and the National Union for the 
Total Independence of Angola [UNITA] have agreed to 
reinstate government authority in the Districts of Sumba 
and Soyo and other locations of Zaire Province held by 
Jonas Savimbi's organization. At a meeting in Soyo, the 
two sides agreed to create conditions for the free move- 
ment of people and goods. The meeting also agreed on 
the demilitarization of both sides. UNITA agreed to 
return (?buildings) and the government guaranteed that 
it would release UNITA representatives detained during 
the clashes in Soyo, security conditions permitting. 

‘Tense’ Situation in Cunene Province Reported 

MB1612081392 (Clandestine) Voice of Resistance of the 
Black Cockerel in Portuguese to Southern and Central 
Africa 0500 GMT 16 Dec 92 

[Text] Cunene Province is experiencing a very tense 
military situation. The governmental forces are carrying 
out dangerous military maneuvers in that province. A 
reliable source reports a powerful heavy artillery position 
has been set up in Ondjiva and Xangongo by the Riot 
Police, adding all weapons are pointing at the homes of 
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 
{UNITA] militants. 

The heavy war materiel includes T-62 tanks and BMP-1 
armored cars. Those vehicles are moving in the streets of 
the city [as heard] and creating panic among the people. 

UNITA Warns of FAPLA ‘Terrorism’ in Andulo 

MB1212150692 (Clandestine) Voice of Res: tance of the 
Black Cockerel in Portuguese to Southern and Central 
Africa 1200 GMT 12 Dec 92 

{Text} Andulo District, Bie Province, will be exposed to 
a dangerous situation over the next few days. There have 
been large- scale movements by People’s Armed Forces 
for the Liberation of Angola [FAPLA] and riot police 
personnel equipped with war materiel. Those units 


intend to carry Out terrorist activities against Andulo 
residents. A reliable source says that large quantities of 
lethal weapons, including long-range guns and [words 
indistinct] have been sent from the city of Bie to that 

Situation Reportedly Returns to Normal in Bie 

MB1112174792 Luanda Radio Nacional Network in 
Portuguese 1200 GMT 11 Dec 92 

[Passages within quotation marks recorded] 

[Text] The political and military situation has returned 
to normal in the city of Kuito, Bie Province, but there 
are rumors that the National Union for the Total Inde- 
pendence of Angola [UNITA] is carrying out a manhunt 
on the outskirts of the city. The police and UNITA have 
already exchanged prisoners but have not yet exchanged 
weapons seized during weekend clashes. As a result of 
this situation, the people do not feel safe [words indis- 
tinct] to work. Bie Provincial Police Commander Joao 
Cipriano spoke about the situation. He began by refer- 
ring to the exchange of prisoners: 

[Cipriano] “On the day we issued a communique on the 
prevailing situation in Bie Province, we carried out an 
exchange of prisoners [words indistinct] and on the 
government side, we received three of our comrades, 
including a seargent. So far, we have no information 
regarding other prisoners. The police are ready to carry 
Out investigation at the level of the pilot committees, our 
prisons, and so on, to know the identity of the people 
involved and thus be able to carry out a mutual exchange 
of prisoners.” 

The Bie provincial police commander said once it has 
evidence, the police will severely punish UNITA ele- 
ments who hunt people down. He also said the police will 
only return weapons seized from UNITA if this organi- 
zation hands over police weapons. 

[Cipriano] “We received the information and we are 
Carrying Out work in this direction. We are equally 
carrying out the work of a subcommission established by 
us. We are visiting wards in order to calm the people 
because the information we have is that some UNITA 
sympathizers are moving about under the cover of the 
Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola. They are 
dressed in civilian clothes but armed [words indistinct] 
to give an adequate response. 

“Regarding weapons, during the Camacupa incident, a 
police landrover was seized by UNITA with a large 
quantity of weapons. We shall, therefore, have to nego- 
tiate. UNITA weapons will only be returned by the 
police when it returns our weapons, the landrover, and 
the (motorcycle) now in Catabola.” 

16 December 1992 

OAU Urges UNITA To Abandon Armed Struggle 

MB1212135992 Umtata Capital Radio in English 1100 
GMT 12 Dec 92 

[Text] The secretary general of the OAU says UNITA 
{National Union for the Total Independence of Angola] 
should abandon its armed struggle in Angola. Secretary 
General of the Organization of African Unity Salim 
Ahmed Salim has been interviewed by a Luanda-based 


He describes as unacceptable statements by UNITA 
leaders that the movement's military commanders are 
acting on their own in their attacks on government 
troops. Salim says a high-level delegation which includes 
himself, Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe, and 
Cape Verdian President Antonio Mascarenhas will soon 
be visiting Angola to help resolve the crisis. 

Sao Tomean Official on Failure To Meet Savimbi 

\1B1612102492 Luanda TPA Television Network in 
Portuguese 1930 GMT 16 Dec 92 

[Interview with Sao Tomean Foreign Minister Albertino 
Braganca by unidentified People’s Television of Angola 
reporter in Luanda on 15 December—first two para- 
graphs are studio introduction; passages within quota- 
tion marks recorded] 

[Text] Angolan Prime Minister Marcolino Moco today 
granted a 30-minute audience to Sao Tomean Foreign 
Minister Albertino Braganca, who has come to our 
country in his capacity as coordinator of the five Luso- 
phone African countries, and his mission is to help 
Angolans reach political understanding. Braganca deliv- 
ered a message to Marcolino Moco from Norberto Costa 
Alegre, his Sao Tomean counterpart. 

At the end of the meeting, the People’s Television of 
Angola approached Albertino Braganca, who disclosed 
he had already been in contact with several political 
parties, but will not be meeting the leader of National 
Union for the Total Independence of Angola [UNITA], 
or his representatives. 

[Braganca] “In principle, we will meet with all Angolan 
parties represented in the Angolan capital. Our mission 
ends on 17 December. We have much to do, and this 
morning we have already met the leader of the Angolan 
Democratic Forum. Our agenda includes contacts with 
other political forces represented in the Angolan capital. 

[Reporter] “Thus, the possibility of a meeting with Jonas 
Savimbi must be excluded? 

jE raganca] “UNITA is not represented in the Angolan 

16 December 1992 

Clinton Expected To Recognize MPLA 

MB1112164292 Johannesburg THE WEEKLY MAIL 
in English 11-17 Dec 92 p 8 

{Report by Arthur Gavshon: “Savimbi in the cold as 
Clinton plans US policy somersault”’] 

[Text] The United States State Department expects 
president-elect Bill Clinton to recognise, and establish 
relations with, Angola’s MPLA [Popular Movement for 
the Liberation of Angola] government soon after taking 
office next month. 

This would mark the failure of a major American foreign 
policy bid to back UNITA [National Union for the Total 
Independence of Angola] leader Jonas Savimbi’s thrust 
for power launched when Angola became independent in 
1975—a venture that has cost hundreds of millions of 
dollars and thousands of lives. 

In a related development, U.S., British and United 
Nations authorities have quietly been investigating the 
origins and organisers of a widely-reported South Africa 
airlift of supplies into territory controlled by Savimbi's 
rebels. Specifically they have been trying to establish if 
the operation has Pretoria’s backing or whether “rogue” 
elements within the South African Defence Force have 
teamed up with entrepreneurs and mercenaries. 

“We're inclined to accept official South African dis- 
avowals of involvement,” one British Foreign Office 
source said. Then he added: “There are lots of interests 
in Angola with diamonds to pay people off for services 
being rendered.” 

The emerging shift in Washington's attitude toward one 
of Africa’s most strategic Atlantic seaboard states was 
reported by a U.S. State Department specialist in 
African affairs who keeps in regular contact with the 
Clinton transition team now based in Little Rock, 

In a telephonic interview the informant said: “Recogni- 
tion of the government of President Jose dos Santos has 
been on the cards since the MPLA won the September 
multiparty elections with nearly 58 percent of the vote— 
a vote pronounced by international observers to have 
been fairly conducted. Even a Bush administration 
would have to acknowledge this and also the fact that 
Savimbi has been 99 percent of the problem plaguing 
Angola still.” 

The “Savimbi problem” to which the U.S. State Depart- 
ment official referred has been creating military as well 
as diplomatic mayhem. 

UNITA forces have been advancing in several provinces 
taking previously MPLA-held towns; their escalating 
offensive has been denounced publicly by the U.S. State 
Department as a breach of the 1991 Bicesse peace pact 
and of their promises to abide by a ceasefire. 


On the diplomatic front South Africa has again been 
sucked into the situation. The coincidence in timing 
between UNITA’s offensive and the privatised or state- 
blessed South African airlift has attracted international 
attention and suspicion. Besides Angola itself, Zim- 
babwe, Botswana and Namibia have all accused South 
Africa not only of penetrating their air space but also of 
resupplying Savimbi’s forces—charges Pretoria has 
denied. There have been unconfirmed reports from 
Harare claiming that the SADF’s [South African Defense 
Force] Buffalo (32) Battalion, made up largely of Ango- 
lans, has been sent into UNITA territory by elements in 
charge of the SADF’s special forces. 

Against this overall background the failed role assumed 
by Foreign Minister Pik Botha in Angola’s renewed strife 
has come under international scrutiny and has yielded 
some ironic comments. 

Botha told the SUNDAY STAR in a question-and-answer 
interview—reprinted verbatim in the LONDON FINAN- 
CIAL TIMES as an advertisement paid for by the South 
African government—that: “Governments both in Europe 
and Africa asked South Africa to act as a facilitator in the 
Angola peace process. | believe this [is] indicative of an 
acceptance of the positive role that we have played and can 
play in Africa generally and in the southern region of the 
continent specifically. We regard it as a privilege to be able 
to do so.” 

A senior political authority in London, noting that the 
British government is incumbent president of the Euro- 
pean Community, said in answer to a question: “We did 
not ask for South Africa’s help in Angola. 

In Harare, Zimbabwean government officials claimed 
Pretoria had advised Savimbi that he has until January 
20—the day Clinton is due to be inaugurated as presi- 
dent—to win power, or at least a big chunk of it, in 
Angola; otherwise he could be effectively sidelined by 
the new administration's formal recognition of the Dos 
Santos government. 

In Luanda, according to the Department of Foreign 
Affairs in Pretoria, elements of the Angolan government 
have been “deliberately blackmailing” South Africa. 
That was cited as one reason why Pretoria has pulled its 
diplomatic mission out of the country. 

And in Washington one veteran Africanist in Clinton's 
transition team observed drily: “Perhaps when the South 
Africans were being asked to facilitate the Angolan peace 
process they were being asked politely to keep out of the 
way and not interfere.’ That informant declined to be 

Envoy to UN Conveys ‘Indignation’ to RSA Envoy 
MB1112140092 Luanda Radio Nacional Network in 
Portuguese 1200 GMT 11 Dec 92 

[Text] Afonso van Dunem Mbinda, the Angolan ambas- 
sador to the United Nations, met his South African 


counterpart at the UN headquarters in New York yes- 
terday. He conveyed the Angolan Government's indig- 
nation about continued South African aid to the 
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 
{[UNITA]. Mbinda said that if South Africa is interested 
in a climate of peace for southern Africa, it should 
assume a clear stance regarding the reconciliation pro- 
cesses in this region. In reply, the South African ambas- 
sador denied any South African involvement or military 
aid to UNITA. 

Government, UNITA Meet in Cuando Cubango 

MB1112135292 Luanda Radio Nacional Network in 
Portuguese 1200 GMT 11 December 92 

[Text] In Cuando Cubango Province yesterday, the gov- 
ernment and the National Union for the Total Indepen- 
dence of Angola [UNITA] examined ways to dismantle 
UNITA control points along the roads linking the city of 
Menongue to Huambo and Huila Provinces. The 
meeting, which is part of regular sessions between the 
government and UNITA in the province, also discussed 
the movement of goods and people in different districts 
of Cuando Cubango. 

Huila Provincial Governor Domingos Hungo “SKS” 
denied reports that the government is preparing an 
attack on UNITA in the Province [words indistinct] to 
Huambo where the government and UNITA yesterday 
decided to establish a joint political commission which 
must work with the military commission to reestablish 
State administration in the province. The government 
and UNITA will also work together to resolve the 
problem of the occupation of houses by UNITA. 

The meeting examined in depth [words indistinct] situ- 
ation in the province, particularly political, military, and 
economic issues. On economic issues, [words indistinct] 
looting of warehouses and shops during the clashes of 29 
and 30 November in Huambo Province. 

Newspaper Names Cabinet Officials 

MB1412122292 Johannesburg O SECULO in 
Portuguese 7 Dec 92 p 26 

[Unattributed report: “Government Composition”} 

[Excerpts] The first government of the Second Republic 
of Angola led by Marcolino Moco will have 21 ministries 
and seven secretariats of state, with the National Union 
for the Total Independence of Angola [UNITA] holding 
the culture portfolio. [passage omitted] 


Prime Minister Marcolino Jose Carlos Moco 

Defense Pedro Maria Tonha “Pedale™ 
(from previous government) 

Deputy General Pedro Sebastiao 

Deputy To be designated by UNITA 


Public Administration, Unem- 
ployment and Social Welfare 




Youth and Sport 
Transport and Communications 


16 December 1992 

General Andre Pitra “Petroff” 
Fernando da Piedade Dias dos 
Santos “Nando” (from previous 

Salomao Jose Neto (“Xirimbibi") 
Venancio de Moura (former 

Jorge Chicotti ( Demo- 
cratic Forum [FDA], UNITA dis- 

Joao Bernardo Miranda (from 
previous government) 

Paulo Chipilica (FDA, UNITA 

Manuel Miguel Costa Aragao 
Antonio Paulo Cassoma (from 
previous government) 

Pereira Joao Baptista 

Albino Fara Assis (former 
National Angolan Fuel Company 
vice chairman) 

Desiderio da Graca Verissimo 
Costa (from previous 

Joao Manuel Bernardo (former 
Malange Province governor) 
Artur da Silva Julio 

Martinho Sanches Epalanca 
(former deputy health minister) 
Francisco Carlos Mendes (Angola 
National Liberation Front) 
Maria de Fatima Monteiro 
Jardim (from previous govern- 

Jo2o Manuel Caolo (Social Reno- 
vated Party) 

Antonio Domingos Pitra Costa 
Neto (former adviser) 

Eduardo Severino Morais 
Isalino Manuel Mendes (without 
@ past in politics) 

Jose Duque 

Isaac Francisco Maria Anjos 
(from previous government) 

To be appointed by UNITA 
Jose Amaro Tati (from previous 

Justino Jose Fernandes (former 
industry minister) 

Jose da Rocha Sardinha Castro 
(from previous government) 

Andre Luis Brandao (from pre- 
vious government) 

Amadeu Cesario Santos Neves 
(Democratic Renewal Party 

16 December 1992 


Culture (ministry for the first 
time ever 


Geology and Mines (fcrmer state 


Social Communication (former 
Information Ministry) 


State Secretanats: 

Women's Promotion and Devel- 




Energy and Water 
Council of Ministers 

Chief of General Staff of 
Angolan Armed Forces 


Deputy ministers in the Presi- 
dency of the Republic 

Governor of the National Bank 
of Angola [BNA] 

Deputy BNA Governor 

Licinio Tavares Ribeiro (from UNITA Occupies Oil Areas 
Groviens goverument MB1212093892 Luanda TPA Television Network in 
Emanuel Moreira Carneiro Portuguese 1930 GMT 11 Dec 92 
(former minister of planning) 
; : :; [Excerpt] The National Angolan Fuel Company 
Paulino Matista Molele (without We 
a past in politics) [Sonangol] Aeronautics Division has suffered losses esti- 
Norberto F — mated at 400 million new kwanzas over the last two 
(former Lunda Norte Province months. That is because National Union for the Total 
governor) Independence of Angola [UNITA] occupied the areas of 
To be appointed by UNITA Capanda and Lujamba, where the Aeronautics Division 
operated. The company carries contracted personnel to 
Matungo [es published) and from oil drilling areas. Lately, it has expanded its 
Mateus Morais Brito Junior services and started carrying workers in the diamond 
(without a past in politics) and energy sectors. Its activity has been reduced by some 
Gilberto Gomes Mamede 60 percent, because the areas in which it operates—with 
Tc be appointed by UNITA the exception ah Soyo—are now under UNITA’s control. 
To be appointed by UNITA ipnceage conctted 
Adelino Peito (former state secre.  UNITA Says Government Training Riot Police 
tary for culture) MB1112174592 (Clandestine) Voice of Resistance of the 
Jose Domingos Dias Black Cockerel in Portuguese to Southern and Central 
Africa 1200 GMT 11 Dec 92 
Beles Chingsage [Text] Officials belonging to the Popular Movement for 
Jose Patricio (ambassador to the the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party [MPLA-PT] in 

Organization of African States in 
Pedro Hendrick Vaal Neto 

Joana Lima Ramos Baptista 
(from previous government) 
Johni Pinoc 

Manuel David Mendes (Angola 
Youth, Worker, and Peasant Alli- 
ance Party) 

Gilberto Buta Lutukuta 

Miguel Correia (former deputy 
labor minister) 

Joao Moreira Pinto Saraiva 
Carlos Maria Feijo [as published] 

Joao Baptista de Matos (replaces 
Franca “Ndalu”) 

Two to be appointed by UNITA 
Second Lieutenant Pedro Neto 
Admiral Gaspar Santos Rufino 

Jose Leitao da Costa ¢ Silva 
(Civilian affairs) 

Osvaido Jesus Serra van Dunem 
(Military affairs) 

Sebastiao Passos Lavrador 

Generoso Hermenegildo de 

Huambo Province have been cited as training a People’s 
Armed Forces for the Liberation of Angola [FAPLA] 
contingent, numbering one battalion [words indistinct] 
the Angolan People’s Police, and recruiting youths in 
order to reinforce the riot police which already has more 
than 6,000 men. 

Other confirmed reports reveal the arrival of another 
force in Huambo coming from Luanda [words indistinct] 
believed to be riot police. The men dressed in civilian 
clothes have been going from ward to ward with specific 
missions, within the framework of the government's vast 
strategy to destabilize the National Union for the Total 
Independence of Angola [UNITA]. 

Apart from these warmongering preparations, the 
MPLA-PT government in the province held a meeting 
with foreigners living there on Monday [7 December] 
afternoon, calling for their urgent evacuation to their 
countries. The MPLA-PT government said [words indis- 
tinct) of a war with tragic consequences [words indis- 
iinct}. UNITA continues, however, to favor dialogue. 

Commentary: UNITA Needs To Act in Good 

MB1112085292 Luanda TPA Television Network in 
Portuguese 1930 GMT 10 Dec 92 

[Station commentary] 

[Text] The Angolan Government has publicly expressed 
its desire to resume talks with the National Union for the 
Total Independence of Angola [UNITA] to try and find 
solutions to the serious political and military problems 
facing the country. To that end, UNITA’s first step 
should be to show a willingness to engage in talks by 


adopting clear measures that will go beyond the waves of 
formally stated good intentions reaching us from the city 
of Huambo. Such stated willingness to engage in dia- 
logue will gain consistency if UNITA effectively and 
honestly withdraws from the cities of Uige and Negage, 
and also if it honors the various clauses in the Bicesse 

At the new government's swearing in ceremony last 
week, Angolan President Engineer Jose Eduardo dos 
Santos made sufficiently clear what steps must be taken 
with immediate effect for a just solution to the situation 
of war that was caused by UNITA. Though it is true that 
Jonas Savimbi’s organization has already announced its 
willingness to participate in the government, and in 
Parliament—which were two of the conditions set by the 
Angolan head of state a week ago—it is nonetheless true 
that UNITA has not yet complied with three other 
essential points: 

The stabilization of Angola. 

1. The return of UNITA soldiers to their confinement 
points. They must be fully disarmed under international 

2. The withdrawal [as heard] of their places in the 
Angolan Armed Forces; 

3. UNITA must unambiguously accept its electoral 

For as long as these premises remain ignored, all possi- 
bility of a real solution to the current crisis will amount 
to nothing other than an inconsistent and naive illusion. 
It is not possible for trust to exist when one of the parties 
uses dialogue as a means to gain time in order to secure 
military advantages on the ground. 

Truthful dialogue is the only sort of dialogue that inter- 
ests Angolan people from Cabinda Province to Cunene 
Province, but that will only be possible when there is 
good faith and, above all, when pacifying speeches are 
matched by practical actions on the ground. 

Radio: MPLA Kills Portuguese Citizen in Gabela 

MB1112065292 (Clandestine) Voice of Resistance of the 
Black Cockerel in Portuguese to Southern and Central 
Africa 0500 GMT 11 Dec 92 

[Text] Jose Eduardo dos Santos’ organization, the Pop- 
ular Movement for the Liberation of Angola-Labor Party 
{[MPLA-PT], is determined to kill all Angolan citizens 
who do not speak Kimbundu. Mr. Ribeiro, a Portuguese 
national who was the manager of the Duarte e Martins 
enterprise in Gabela, Cuanza Sul Province, and a Mr. 
Rufino were victims of that tribal genocide. 

In Calulo, the Riot Police cold-bloodedly murdered Raul 
Francisco, a traditional leader. In Conda, Augusto 
Bastos (Limbi), a tradit‘onal ruler of great influence, and 
Teresa Clemente, t'* chairman of the local Lima 

{League of Angolai. Women] committee, were killed. 

16 December 1992 

Meanwhile, manhunt operations against National Union 
for the Total Independence of Angola [UNITA] sympa- 
thizers continue unabated. A well placed source in 
(?Conda) has told the Voice of the Resistance of the 
Black Cockerel the Riot Police have been involved in a 
widespread campaign of setting alight UNITA sympa- 
thizers’ homes over the last few days. 

Huambo Government Says 150 People Missing 

MB1112072092 Luanda Radio Nacional Network in 
Portuguese 0600 GMT 11 Dec 92 

[Text] In the city of Huambo, at least 150 people are 
believed missing since the holding of the September 
elections. This was disclosed in a document issued by 
Huambo Provincial Government, which does not, how- 
ever, explain the circumstances that led to the disappear- 
ance of those persons. It only refers to the feelings of 
consternation and revolt experienced by the relatives of 
those missing. Most of those people disappeared 
between the day the election results were announced, 
and the start of clashes between the Angolan Police and 
the National Union for the Total Independence of 
Angola forces. 


Masire Advises Caution For Somalia Bound 

MB1512200792 Gaborone Radio Botswana Network in 
English 1910 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] The president, Sir Ketumile Masire, has appealed 
for discipline among the BDF [Botswana Defence Force] 
troops who will be part of the international force serving 
in Somalia. President Masire was addressing the troops 
this evening at Sir Seretse Khama Barracks in Mogodit- 
shane. The troops are leaving tomorrow. 

The president said in keeping with its beliefs in democ- 
racy and rights, and in keeping with obligations of the 
United Nations, Botswana has accepted a request to 
participate in the relief operation together with other 
members of the United Nations. President Masire 
advised the troops to use this opportunity to gain expe- 
rience in such important, rare missions. He warned the 
troops that Somalia is volatile and full of risks and 
warned them to exercise more caution. 


Chissano Presents Annual Report To Assembly 

MB1612111092 Maputo Radio Mozambique Network 
in Portuguese 1030 GMT 16 Dec 92 

[Report from Maputo’s Hall of the Congress by Radio 
Mozambique reporter Gabriel Mussavel] 

[Text] President Joaquim Chissano today presented to 
the Assembly of the Republic his annual report on the 

16 December 1992 

situation in the country. Chissano began by noting that, 
during the first special Assembly of the Republic session, 
between the end of September and the beginning of 
October, he had briefed the Assembly on the steps that 
had been taken up to the signing of the General Peace 

He added that, since then, he has promulgated and 
ordered the publication of the law approving the General 
Peace Accord, which came into force on 15 October. 
Chissano then turned to the issue of UN participation in 
the Mozambican peace process, and noted that a token 
25-man contingent had arrived in the country, along 
with Aldo Ajello, interim representative of the UN 
secretary general. Chissano said that, with the arrival of 
the latter, it was possible to create the commissions 
prescribed by the accord. 

With regard to the commissions, Chissano said that, after 
the Mozambique National Resistance [Renamo] had 
rejected Zimbabwe's participation in the Cease-Fire Com- 
mission, the Renamo leader had reconsidered his stand, and 
finally accepted that country’s participation. Chissano 
noted that Zimbabwe and Kenya will integrate the aforesaid 
commission in the wake of that decision. The Mozambican 
Government had initially proposed that both countries 
participate in the Cease-Fire Commission. 

At another point in his speech, the Mozambican head of 
state said that he is happy to report calm throughout the 
country, following Cease-Fire Commission and the 
Supervision and Control Commission [CSC] discussions 
concerning reported violations. He added that all 
fighting has ceased on the ground. He also disclosed that 
Renamo Leader Afonso Dhiakama had undertaken not 
to allow Renamo forces to carry out acts of violence, or 
attacks, in terms of the General Peace Accord. President 
Chissano stressed the governmental forces have received 
orders to avoid all offensive moves, and to work toward 
making peace more secure. The Mozambican head of 
State said this was a mutual undertaking, and he added 
there was commitment to the implementation of the 
General Peace Accord. He said this means peace will be 
safeguarded and made more solid. 

Chissano regretted the fact that movement is not yet 
possible in every part of the country, because mines have 
not been removed from all areas, and because Renamo 
regards some areas as being under its control. He 
announced mine removal operations are to begin soon, 
so humanitarian aid can reach people in need in all areas 
of Mozambican territory. 

Renamo Communique on Dhiakama Visit to 

MB1512171992 (Clandestine) Voz da Renamo in 
Portuguese 1600 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] The follow. .. 1s a communique from the Office of 
the President of the Mozambique National Resistance 


{[Renamo] regarding the visit made by President Afonso 
Dhlakama to Zimbabwe from the 9th to 12th of 

The Renamo delegation included Renamo Secretary 
General Vicente Ululu, Agriculture Minister Paris Baza, 
Josefate Muhlanga, Renamo ambassador accredited to 
Kenya, (Albino Mazuze), member of the Renamo 
embassy in Kenya, and two security officers assigned to 

President Dhiakama visited Zimbabwe within the 
framework of Renamo’s regional policy and in the spirit 
of reconciliation with all neighboring countries which 
assisted the Mozambique Liberation Front [Frelimo] in 
the war against Renamo. President Dhlakama discussed 
a number of issues with President Robert Mugabe, 

The question of Zimbabwean troops still on the Mozam- 
bican territory. This issue was widely debated. There was 
a great deal of confusion created by Mr. Aldo Ajello, the 
UN secretary general's special representative, who had 
requested the continued presence of Zimbabwean troops 
on the Beira and Limpopo Corridors, but later denied 
that, stating that Frelimo, Renamo, and Zimbabwe had 
misunderstood the situation. In view of that, President 
Dhiakama realized that it was pointless to force Zim- 
babwe to withdraw its troops from Mozambique before 
the arrival of the UN troops to monitor the peace accord. 
What matters is not only the withdrawal of Zimbabwe 
troops, but the fulfillment of the peace accord itself. In 
fact, the withdrawal of the Zimbabwean troops should be 
verified by the United Nations. So, once UN forces 
arrive in Mozambique, Zimbabwean troops will imme- 
diately abandon the country, returning to Zimbabwe. 

Also discussed at the meeting were the delays in the 
implementation of every aspect of the peace process. The 
United Nations has not yet sent forces to supervise the 
peace accord. The Renamo and Frelimo armies have not 
yet been confined to assembly points, and the armed 
groups have not yet been disarmed. The date for the 
elections has, therefore, been delayed. President 
Dhiakama urged President Robert Mugabe to impress 
on the United Nations the urgency of sending troops to 

President Mugabe agreed to comply with the request, 
and on the following day he appealed to the United 
Nations to rapidly send forces to Mozambique as soon as 
possible. The appeal was made at a summit of the 
Frontline heads of state held on 11 December. 

Presidents Dhlakama and Magabe stated their desire to 
forget the past and agreed to promote friendly relations in 
line with Renamo’s policy, whereby a lasting reconciliation 
and the socioeconomic development of southern Africa are 
only possible if one forgets and forgives. President 
Dhilakama urged President Robert Mugabe to support 
democracy in Mozambique by acting impartially. 


President Dhiakama stated that when Renamo wins the 
Mozambican elections, it would maintain good relations 
with the Government of Zimbabwe and the Zimba- 
bwean people. Likewise, he said if Renamo loses the 
elections it will accept the vinning party and be in 

For his part, President Mugabe said he would do his best 
in order to support democracy and see to it that free, fair, 
and democratic elections are held in Mozambique. He 
added that Zimbabwe will recognize Renamo, Frelimo, 
or any other party that might win the elections. 

President Dhlakama alsc informed President Mugabe 
that Renamo agrees that Zimbabwe shuuld take part in 
one of the commissions that monitor the accord. Zim- 
babwe and Kenya will have to be part of the Cease-Fire 
Commission [CCF] because the two countries had not 
been integrated into the CCF. 

President Dhlakama discussed with President Mugabe 
the return of Mozambican refugees. It was agreed that 
the refugees should return in order to take part in the 
upcoming elections. President Dhlakama thanked the 
Zimbabwe Government for the assistance rendered to 
the Mozambican refugees. President Dhlakama added 
that the Government of Zimbabwe could continue 
assisting the Mozambican people who have been suf- 
fering from famine and disease. 

The visit to Zimbabwe went well and was very suc- 

Renamo Accuses Government of Accord Violations 

MB1I512205792 (Clandestine) Voz da Renamo in 
Portuguese 1600 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] The Mozambique Liberation Front [Frelimo] is 
violating the peace accord. More than 2,000 Frelimo 
soldiers and 3,000 elements of the People’s National 
Security Service [SNASP] have been integrated into the 
People’s Police. Frelimo has been carrying out that plan 
since the signing of the peace accord. 

The accord does not foresee the transfer of army and 
security personnel to the People’s Police. During the 
negotiations, Frelimo was opposed to Renamo [Mozam- 
bique National Resistance] elements joining the police 
force, alleging that the unit should be nonpartisan. 
Renamo, however, wanted some of its members in the 
police force in order to see to it that it actec impartially. 
Although this issue had deadlocked the talks, the 
Renamo president, understanding the problems 
afflicting Frelimo, withdrew his demand to include 
Renamo members in the police force. 

Now, it is quite clear that Frelimo is transferring army 
and security personnel to the police force, thereby 
strengthening it as a Frelimo tool. The People’s Police 
consist of Frelimo members and army and the security 
service members who still owe allegiance to Frelimo. 
Frelimo’s policies are further strengthened whenever a 

16 December 1992 

Frelimo army soldier or a SNASP element join the police 
force. While Frelimo claims that it is trimming down its 
grip on every sector of society, the People’s Police will in 
fact operate as a Frelimo extension, torturing, intimi- 
dating, and even (deceiving) Mozambicans during the 

It does not make sense that a SNASP member, who has 
killed several people, should join the police force in 
order to uphold law and order. Such a member will never 
be a [words indistinct], but will instead continue to act as 
a SNASP agent, adopting the same cruel attitude toward 
the Mozambican people. 

President Dhiakama has described such a behavior by 
President Chissano as typical of an irresponsible and 
confused person. It does not make sense that Joaquim 
Chissano, after having cried on President Dhiakama’s 
shoulders and in the process gaining the Renamo leader's 
sympathy, should then adopt such an attitude. 

The peace process could be endangered if Renamo pays 
back in kind. Because President Dhlakama is a person 
concerned with the suffering of the Mozambican people. 
he will do his best to thwart Frelimo’s ploys. He will urge 
the international community, through the United 
Nations, to force Frelimo to abandon its ploys. 

CSC Meets in Maputo, Discusses Mine Removal 

MB1612054692 Maputo Radio Mozambique Network 
in Portuguese 0800 GMT 16 Dec 92 

[Text] The Supervision and Control Commission [CSC]. 
which 1s responsible for supervising the implementation 
of the Mozambique General Peace Accord, has been 
meeting in Maputo over the last two days under the 
chairmanship of Aldo Ajello, special representative of 
the UN secretary general to our country. The meeting 
has been examining issues connected with removing 
mines from Mozambican roads. 

The government team to the meeting is led by Labor 
Minister Teodato Hunguana. The Mozambique 
National Resistance [Renamo] team is led by Renamo 
Foreign Affairs Secretary Jose de Castro. Armando Gue- 
buza and Rau! Domingos, the heads of the two teams, 
are both attending the Rome donor conference to help 
Mozambique with its national reconstruction program. 

Radio Mozambique has learned that Afonso Dhlakama 
has reached an agreement with the International Com- 
m‘ttee of the Red Cross, ICRC, concerning removing 
mines from seven routes permitting access to areas under 
Renamo’s control. The ICRC has contracted a British 

enterprise for this purpose. 

Speaking to Radio Mozambique, Renamo Foreign Affairs 
Secretary Jose de Casiro said he had been astonished to 
receive a call to attend a CSC meeting. Jose de Castro said 
his organization fails to see the need to have the matter 
discussed within the CSC, because it was something 

16 December 1992 

between his movement and the ICRC within the framework 
of humanitarian aid distribution operations. 

A source in the government team to the CSC has told 
Radio Mozambique that the Mozambican authorities 
are in agreement with mine removal operations in those 
areas, as long as such operations are conducted in the 
presence of Renamo, government, and UN officials. 
That source added that the authorities are not insensitive 
to the problems of people in need of aid, but they believe 
the mine removal process must be conducted at the level 
of the CSC, which is responsible for overseeing the 
implementation of that process. 

Radio Mozambique has also learned that the govern- 
ment has already presented a nationwide mine removal 
plan, while Renamo has not done so yet. 

Assembly Session Approves Draft Laws 

On New Police Force 

MB1512143392 Maputo Radio Mozambique Network 
in Portuguese 1030 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Report from Maputo’s Hall of the Congress by Radio 
Mozambique reporter Gabriel Mussavel] 


[Excerpt] The draft law creating the Republic of Mozam- 
bique’s Police was finally approved by the Assembly of 
the Republic this morning. Its abbreviation will be PRM. 
It will a public organization and a paramilitary force 
serving the Interior Ministry. The PRM will be led by a 
general commander, who wil! be assisted by a deputy 
general commander. The approval of that draft law was 
the first point on the agenda of this fifth Assembly of the 
Republic session. [passage omitted] 

On Presidential Rights 
MB1I512175392 Maputo Radio Mozambique Network 
in Portuguese 1400 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Excerpts] In Maputo this afternoon, the deputies to the 
Assembly of the Republic approved the draft laws on the 
Rights and Benefits of the President of the Republic, and 
on the Establishment, Managemient, and Running of 
Telecommunications Infrastructures and Services. [pas- 
Sage omitted] 

This afternoon, the deputies began debating the Draft 
Law on Gambling. The debate has, meanwhile, been 
adjourned to enable the Council of Ministers to make an 
in-depth assessment of the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of the Law on Gambling. Most of the deputies who 
addressed this morning's session opposed the approval 
of that law. 



State of Economy Report 

in English 7-13 Dec 92 pp 6, 7 

[Report on the state of the economy by Kwesi Botchwey, 
secretary for finance] 

[Text] The high optimism held by donors for the future 
of the Ghanaian economy is reflected in the expectation 
that real gross domestic product of the country will grow 
at an average annual rate of 5.5 percent during 1992- 
1994, and that real domestic product, when adjusted for 
changes in the terms of trade, will grow at an even faster 
rate of 5.7 percent per annum in those three years. More 
importantly, from the stand-point of the standard of 
living, the real domestic product per capita (adjusted for 
changes in the terms of trade) is forecasted to grow by 
three percent in 1992, three percent in 1993 and 3.4 
percent in 1994. 

To achieve such a high growth rate, the country will have 
to appropriate about 18.9 percent of its gross domestic 
product to gross capital formation during the three years, 
compared to 12.7 percent recorded for the 1989-1991 
period. Both the private and public sectors are expected 
to increase their proportions to GDP set aside for 
investment. During the next three years, public invest- 
ment is projected to constitute nine percent of the GDP 
up by 1.2 percentage points, while the private sector is 
expected to increase its investment from 8.2 percent of 
GDP to 10 percent annually on the average. Saving- 
GDP ratio is expected to average 12.9 percent, with 
government savings-GDP ratio increasing from 2.8 in 
1989-1994, and private savings-GDP ratio increasing 
from 6.1 percent to 8.7 percent. 

Investment is projected to exceed savings during the next 
three years to an extent that the excess investment as a 
proportion of the GDP will be greater than the average 
for the last three years. In 1991, this excess was seven 
percent of the GDP, compared to projected six percent 
average for the next three years. It follows, therefore, that 
the country will have to run current account deficits at 
six percent of real GDP annually during 1992-1994. 

The high optimism with which donor agencies hold the 
future of the Ghanaian economy is further indicated by 
the fact that high growth rates are expected to be 
achieved at lower and decreasing rate of inflation, and 
declining debt service ratio. Inflation, is expected to fall 
below 10 percent during the next three years. Indeed, it 
is projected that the rate of inflation will run at eight 
percent in 1992, and five in the remaining two years of 
‘he three- year period. The implication is that either tight 
control will be put on the money supply, which may 
therefore tighten liquidity, or the supply of goods and 
services will increase fast enough to offset any increases 
in liquidity in the system. In this regard, the confidence 

laced in agriculture (and hence the weather), domestic 
‘production of manufactured goods and services and the 

16 December 1992 

ability of the export sector and foreign grant to generate 
sufficient foreign exchange to finance increased imports 
is quite high. Regarding debt service, the average fore- 
cast for the 1992-1994 period of $305 million is well 
below the average of $404.2 million during 1989- 1991. 

Future of Government Finance 

Both government revenue and expenditure are projected 
to grow at an increasing rate in the next three years. The 
ratio of government revenue to GDP is expected to 
increase from 13.7 percent during 1989-1991 to 15 
percent during 1992-1994. This projection is not all that 
optimistic, considering that the preliminary data for 
1991 puts this ratio at 15 percent. The same can be said 
for government expenditure which is projected to con- 
stitute 19.8 percent of GDP during the next three years, 
a level which was attained in 1991. Nevertheless, 
assuming that grant will be flowing in at an even faster 
rate, the overall budgetary deficit is expected to be 
surplus, although at a decreasing proportion to the GDP. 

Prospects for Export and Imports 

Conservative rates of growth have been projected for 
traditional exports, and therefore nontraditional exports 
and nonfactor incomes are expected to grow fast enough 
to fill in the slot, in order for total exports to grow at a 
respectable rate of 5.9 percent during 1990-1995. The 
basis for these projections is the diversification policy 
which is expected to enable nontraditional exports to 
grow at an average rate of 8.8 percent during the five- 
year period. 

On the other hand, whereas import volumes have lagged 
behind the economy during the past decade, they are 
expected to grow in line with the economy in the next 
decade. In absolute terms, therefore, the balance of 
payments deficit for each year of the next three years is 
projected to be above the average for the last three years. 
It is, however, expected to fall every year, and except for 
1992, the economy will do better than the estimated 
$441.9 million recorded for 1991. 

Projections of imports and export earnings (especially of 
the latter) are conditioned upon the assumption that the 
country’s terms of trade will improve by 10 percent 
during 1992-1994. However, to the extent that by 194 [as 
published] the country’s terms of trade would still be 
worse than the average for 1989-1991, the balance of 
payments can improve further only through increases in 
the volume of exports. In any case, the projected annual 
balance of payments deficit for the next three years is 
greater than that for the last three years, it would, 
however, constitute 5.9 percent of the annual real 
domestic product, compared to 7.1 percent recorded for 
the last three years. 

These are indeed optimistic predictions. Whereas one 
does not want to sound pessimistic, it must be pointed 
out that the realization of these further growth rates in 
key economic indicators will depend on the continuation 
of the economic reforms which have so far succeeded in 

16 December 1992 

turning the economy around and putting it on a firm 
basis for accelerated growth. It is not likely that any 
future government of the country can afford to discon- 
tinue the reform programmes or change their direction 
and content drastically. A future civilian government 
will be in a position to create more job opportunities, 
and distribute incomes more widely and, by so doing, 
translate the growth into sustained development for the 
benefit of all Ghanaians. 

Debt Service 

The forecast for debt and debt-servicing is made difficult 
by the fact that data on debt and debt-servicing in 1991 
is not available to us. Total debt service, i.e., amortiza- 
tion and interest payments is expected to decrease from 
$206 million in 1990 to $187 million in 1993. Ghana is 
also expected to be in a stronger position to make these 
payments, owing to strong growth projected for exports 
of goods and non-factor services from $948 million in 
1990 to $1,326 million in 1993. Hence the debt service 
ratio is expected to continue its decline during the 
1991-1993 period. 

The Future of Agriculture 

Agriculture is expected to maintain its dominant role in 
the Ghanaian economy in the foreseeable future, in spite 
of the fact that it has already lost its first position in 
contribution to the GDP to the services sector. Its 
foreign exchange ez ‘ning capacity has been enhanced by 
the advent of non-traditional agricultural exports. The 
agricultural sector, will also continue to enjoy the largest 
proportion of the economically active population in the 
short to medium term. The medium term agricultural 
development programme (MTADP), an agenda for sus- 
tained agricultural growth and development, 1991-2000, 
is Overly optimistic about the future of agriculture. In the 
programme, the sector is expected to achieve a double 
digit growth rate per annum during the period. 

The planned high growth rate is yet to be achieved in any 
country in the world. The strategy to achieve the high 
growth rate is partly through (a) privatization of supply 
and distribution of agriculture inputs and services, (b) 
liberalization of the domestic markets for farm products, 
particularly removing input and output price controls, 
and (c) putting in place the relevant infrastructural 
requirements, for example, feeder roads to facilitate the 
movement of inputs to and output from the major 
agricultural production areas. The policy to privatize 
input supply and distribute is aimed at increasing avail- 
ability at the farm gate. However, the private sector has 
shown sluggishness in these activities. 

In the meantime, as part of the structural adjustment 
programme, subsidies on input prices have been 
removed since 1990. This action, in the short run, is 
likely to produce a negative effect in the use of the inputs 
which were previously subsidized, particularly, fertilizer 
which was sold sometimes at much less than 40 percent 
of cost price. Not only is private profitability endangered 


but also the problem of providing credit to the small- 
scale farmers who dominate the agricultural production 
scene continues to be elusive. The performance of the 
123 rural banks set up primarily to cater for the financial 
needs of rural entrepreneurs of whom farmers feature 
prominently has not been encouraging. Consequently, 
more than 50 percent of them are likely to be closed 
down in early 1993. Currently, the commercial banks’ 
interest rate for borrowing to finance agricultural enter- 
prises is among the highest in the country as the sector 
activities have been placed in the high risk category. 

The import liberalization policy implemented as part of 
the structural adjustment programme has resulted in 
importation of several food products which have a 
competitive edge over local production. A study recently 
completed by the Ministry of Agriculture indicates that 
the production of many agricultural products is highly 
competitive at the farm gate but it gets lost in the 
marketing process. Transportation cost alone for some 
products is estimated to account for about 70 percent of 
the marketing margin. Improving the efficiency and the 
effectiveness of the local marketing systems will be 
crucial in improving the competitive edge of local pro- 
duction over imports. 

Given the dependence of agriculture on the vagaries of 
the weather and the uncertainties in the world price of 
cocoa, the sector’s key foreign exchange earner, our own 
assessment is that agriculture will not be able to increase 
its role in the economy in the future. As has been the case 
in the past, growth in the agricultural sector is expected 
to lag behind the rest of the economy. The issue, of 
course, is not whether agriculture can increase its share 
in basic macroeconomic aggregates, but rather whether 
the policies which have been implemented so far and are 
yet to be implemented will be able to increase agricul- 
tural production so that the sector is not too much of a 
drag on economic growth. The answer to this question 
lies in the future of agriculture, which is more uncertain 
than that of any other sectors of the Ghanaian economy. 

Industrial Prospects 

The industrial sector will continue to be the most 
dynamic sector of the Ghanaian economy. Two sectors 
hold the key to the future of industrial development of 
the country, namely, mining and manufacturing. These 
sectors are expected to grow rapidly if the industrial 
sector is to recover fully its historical role in the 1970s. 
Also, assuming that the agricultural sector will not grow 
faster than its average for 1987-1990, then industry 
remains the only directly productive sector to fill in the 
slot. The 1992 Budget Statement contains measures 
which, hopefully, when implemented, would relieve the 
manufacturing sector and permit it to grow at a faster 
rate than it has performed in the past. It is also expected 
that the financial programme put in place in 1991 would 
create improved macroeconomic environment which 
would in turn generate incentives of new investment. 
Although these incentives would benefit all investment 
activities, the industrial sector, and in particular, the 


manufacturing sector, has the greatest potential for 
attracting the investment which would be forthcoming as 
a result of the improved incentives. 

The incentive packages proposed in the budget state- 
ment, which were aimed at building upon the impetus 
created by the 1991 measures, seek to: 

a. relieve financial indebtedness in the corporate sector, 

b. identify the nature and causes of corporate distress 
with a view to providing a more reliable guide for 
designing relief to specific companies, and 

Cc. promote new investment in natural resources and 
labour- intensive industries. 

By the middle of 1992, a study on the level of protection 
to be given to Ghanaian manufacturing industries had 
been completed while interim arrangements had been 
made to provide support to distressed but potentially 
viable enterprises in both public and private sectors. 
Also, during the year, a corporate restructuring company 
- the First Finance Company Limited (FFCL) - began to 
provide not only venture capital but also managerial and 
technical assistance to essentially viable enterprises. To 
remove unfair competition from imports created by the 
trade liberalization policy, measures were put in place 
during 1992 to select enterprises which deserve to be 
assisted with relief measure within the framework of the 
liberalization policy and international obligations. 
Finally, the establishment of new enterprises is expected 
to be more vigorously promoted by the newly established 
special unit in the Ghana Investment Centre, The unit 
will provide investment advisory services such as guid- 
ance on existing incentives and assistance in identifying 
investment and financial support. Although all existing 
and potential investors will benefit from these services, 
special effort will be directed at indigenous small and 
medium-scale entrepreneurs. 

Although minerais are exhaustible and therefore subject not 
only to diminishing returns but also eventual depletion, two 
considerations provide a certain degree of optimism for the 
very near future. First, the institutional framework for 
marketing of diamonds, which has in the past depressed the 
produce price of diamonds and therefore output and export 
earnings has been reformed with the abolition of the 
monopoly of the Precious Metals Board. Secondly, new gold 
mines have been opened in the country and hence the future 
of gold production is good. 

In the light of the increased potential of the mining 
sector to increase its contribution to both the GDP and 
export earnings, and the measures already put in place to 
promote the manufacturing sector, the future of the 
industrial sector looks good. 

The Future for Services 

The services sector will continue to grow faster than the 
three sectors of the economy. The macroeconomic and 

16 December 1992 

structural adjustment programmes have provided con- 
ducive environment for rapid growth of transportation, 
commerce, banking, insurance, tourism, and other ser- 
vices, expecially in the private sector. 

Although it is the policy of the government to reduce its 
role in the economy and pass on to the private sector the 
role of being the pivot of the development process, 
several considerations suggest that government services 
will continue to grow. Government expenditures are 
therefore expected to increase in the provision of health 
services, education, community services and in environ- 
mental control. 

Yet, the share of government services will in the future 
decline, and this means private services will have to increase 
at a faster rate in order for the services sector to increase its 
share in the economy. It is in this sector that the private 
sector's response is expected to be greatest, especially activ- 
ities which also fall within the informal sector. 


Government Protests Airspace Violation by 

AB1612120792 Paris AFP in French 1642 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] Bissau, 15 Dec (AFP)}—On 12 and 13 December, 
Senegalese military planes violated Guinea-Bissau’s air- 
space, in the Cacheu area bordering Senegal, leading to 
an official protest by the Guinea-Bissau foreign affairs 
and cooperation minister on 14 December. In a protest 
note addressed to the Senegalese authorities, the Guinea- 
Bissau Government stated that the air attack resulted in 
two deaths, several persons injured, and material 
damage in many villages close to the Senegalese border. 

Expressing the view that the Senegalese Air Force's 
action was unjustified, the Guinea-Bissau Foreign Min- 
istry stated that Guinea-Bissau would not allow further 
violation of its airspace, maritime zone, or territory, and 
that it reserves the right to respond henceforth to any 


According to authorized sources, the Senegalese Army's 
incursions into Guinea-Bissau territory were carried out 
in response to an attack against Senegalese military 
forces in Casamance on || December which led to two 
deaths and six others wounded on the Senegalese side. 
Casamance separatists often take refuge in Guinea- 
Bissau, according to reliable sources. 

Guinea-Bissau is a guarantor of the agreement signed in 
1991 between the Senegalese Government and the 
Movement of Democratic Forces of Casamance 
{MFDC], which led to the release of 350 Casamance 
separatists. In return, MFDC, which demanded the 
withdrawal of Senegalese military forces, promised to lay 
down its arms. 

16 December 1992 

There was a clash in 1990, in Soukoudiaque, in the Sao 
Domingos area, between the Senegalese and Guinea-Bissau 
Armies, which lasted for several days. Senegal has been 
confronted, for the past 10 years, with a separatist demand 
in Casamance. Over the past few months, separatist attacks 
attributed to MFDC dissidents, have resulted in some 100 
deaths and created a climate of insecurity in this area that 
borders Guinea-Bissau. The major tourist complexes in the 
area have decided to remain closed until October 1993 
because of this insecurity. 

Ivory Coast 

Prime Minister Receives PRC Official 

AB1512062992 Abidjan Radio Cote d'Ivoire Chaine 
Nationale-Une Network in French 0700 GMT 11 Dec 92 

[Text] Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara received yes- 
terday afternoon the secretary general of the PRC State 
Commission for Science and Technology, Song (Bi Sing) 
[name as heard], who spoke to the press about his 
impressions after the audience: 

[Begin recording in Mandarin fading into French trans- 
lation] The prime minister told us that both he and the 
Government of the Ivory Coast paid particular attention 
to the economic reforms in the PRC these past years. We 
also spoke about friendly relations between the Ivory 
Coast and the PRC, bilateral cooperation in the fields of 
science and technology, and the PRC socialist market 

This time, the PRC delegation, led by me, is in your 
beautiful country, the Ivory Coast, to hold discussions 
on cooperation in the field of science and technology. Of 
course, there will be an exhibition of PRC practical 
technology. We will also hold discussions with the Min- 
istry of Scientific Research on sectors of cooperation. We 
hope to sign a cooperation protocol in the field of remote 
sensing. We will also exchange geographic information 
and discuss PRC medicine. [end recording] 


ULIMO Official Warns Citizens To Leave 

AB1512190592 London BBC World Service in English 
1705 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[From the “Focus on Africa” program] 

[Text] Reports coming out of Liberia in the last few days 
suggest that clashes between the United Liberation Move- 
ment for Democracy in Liberia [ULIMO] and Charles 
Taylor's National Patriotic Front of Liberia [NPFL] are 
spreading further from Monrovia and into Bong County. 
Yesterday on this program, we carried reports in the 
Liberian press that a string of towns including Bong Mines, 
had fallen to ULIMO after heavy shelling. 


In the past, the NPFL had accused ULIMO of being 
indeed with the Economic Community of West African 
States Cease-Fire Monitoring Group troops and even of 
fighting alongside them. Well today, ULIMO’s military 
commander, Brigadier General Roosevelt Johnson, 
called us from Freetown to comment on the latest 
military situation. On the line Robin White asked him 
what is his information was. 

[Begin recording] [Johnson] We have captured Bong 
Mines. We have been in Bong Mines now almost three to 
four days ago. We have complete control of Bong Mines. 

[White] How much fighting was there for the town? 

[Johnson] Well, there was not much serious fighting. The 
rebels are all running away from us. They know the 
ability of my gallant forces and they are all running away. 
And there was not much fighting there. In fact we had no 
casualty. It was like eating bread with butter. 

[White] When you say rebels who do you mean? 
[Johnson] Charles Taylor’s NPFL rebels. 

[White] You refer to them as rebels? 

[Johnson] Yes, they are. 

[White] What about you? What are you? 

[Johnson] We are true liberators. 

[White] Now, what are your next targets? 

[Johnson] Well Robin, for security reasons, I would not 
say exactly what my next targets would be. But obvi- 
ously, definitely, Gbarnga is (?one of them). And I am 
calling on all citizens in Gbarnga to vacate Gbarnga. We 
do not want to kill innocent people. I am also appealing 
to the rebels to lay down their arms because we definitely 
are in full control and we are going to take over Gbarnga. 

[White] How far are you away from Gbarnga? 

[Johnson] Well Robin, we are surrounding Gbarnga and for 
security reasons I cannot disclose our position presently. 

[White] How many people do you have surrounding 

[Johnson] Well, I can say that Robin for security reasons 
I cannot disclose my strength. But I have the ability there 
to take over Gbarnga. 

[White] Some people might find a little surprising, | 
mean, most people seem to think you are just a handful 
of people. 

(Johnson, laughing] Well, it is not the quantity of the 
men that you have but the ability. [end recording] 



Premier on Neutrality in Traore ‘Murder’ Trial 

AB1312165092 Bamako Radiodiffusion-Television du 
Mali Radio in French 2000 GMT 9 Dec 92 

{Statement by Prime Minister Younoussi Toure in 
Bamako on 9 December—live or recorded] 

[Text] Dear countrymen, when the government of the 
Third Republic assumed office last June, it resolved— 
with regard to outstanding issues—to reopen the murder 
trial which had been adjourned on 4 June. Beyond the 
exigencies of the law, the government’s aim was to 
respond to a need for justice which had been largely felt 
by the Malian people. 

Patiently, the presiden: of the Republic and the govern- 
ment took all the necessary steps to ensure that the trial 
is conducted in an atmosphere devoid of hate and 
passion, and in a manner that scrupulously complies 
with the procedures, rules, and regulations worthy of the 
rule of law to which the new Mali subscribes. Thus, the 
government attached the highest priority to settling 
problems relating to the compensation of victims and 
claimants of the repressions of January and March 1991, 
and reached an agreement with the Association of Vic- 
tims of Repression on 23 November. 

Before then, the state had dropped the idea of instituting 
a civil action and agreed to be cited as being liable for 
damages. At the same time, a vast enlightenment cam- 
paign was undertaken on a large scale, the objective 
being—beyond the trial itself but as a consequence 
thereof—to succeed in the task of reconciling the people 
with itself and with its Army. Structures put in place to 
organize the trial were given a mandate to submit to the 
government any proposals that could ensure the latter’s 
complete success. Despite the meagerness of its 
resources, the state spared neither its human, financial, 
or material resources to meet what could be aptly con- 
sidered as an historic challenge. 

It was against this background and in this spirit that the 
trial reopened on 26 November and has since been 
conducted with an absolutely free hand by the judiciary. 
The government has desisted and will continue to desist 
from any interference of any nature in the course of the 
trial, just as in the area of justice, generally. It is of 
utmost importance that the trial be shielded against all 
manner of political pressures. The success of the murder 
trial is an imperative, an objective to attain at all cost 
and, manifestly, a duty to the whole nation, particularly 
all democrats and all patriots. It will also be an honor for 
our country and for democratic Africa. Thank you. Long 
Live the Republic! 

16 December 1992 


About 10,000 Tuaregs in North Said Threatened 
by Famine 

AB1112125092 London BBC World Service in English 
1705 GMT 8 Dec 92 

[From the “Focus on Africa” program] 

[Text] Almost 10,000 Tuaregs in northern Niger are 
threatened by famine, according to the rebel Air and 
Azawad Liberation Front [FLAA]. The Front has linked 
the situation to continuing clashes between the Tuaregs 
and the Army in Niger following the collapse of a peace 
pact signed earlier this year. Neighboring Algeria played 
a mediating role between the two sides, and the claims of 
impending food shortages for the Tuaregs have come 
from Mohamed Krisha, the Front’s spokesman in 
southern Algeria. From Algiers, Mohamed Areskimo 
faxed this report: 

[Begin studio announcer recording] According to the 
ALGERIAN NEWS AGENCY in Tamanrasset, Mr. 
Krisha said the Niger Government had put a total 
embargo on the Tuaregs in northern Niger. He said more 
than 5,000 of them had tried to flee towards Algeria to 
escape death and famine caused, he said, by soldiers 
trying to exterminate Tuaregs. He said 17 of them had 
been found dead in the past days in the Tenere desert in 
northern Niger. 

Mr. Krisha said that since the end of August, the Niger 
Army had unleashed a vast operation intended to end 
the Tuareg rebellion, which has gone on for more than a 
year in northern Niger. He said that several hundred 
Tuaregs had been detained, though official sources 
maintained that around only 160 people suspected of 
being linked to the FLAA were in detention. It is thought 
the Army is not ready to release the detainees, and the 
FLAA rebels themselves will not set free around 50 
people, mostly soldiers, police, and gendarmes, that they 
are holding prisoner. 

Germany is threatening to suspend all next year’s aid to 
Niger, if those detained by the government are not 
released soon. Meanwhile, preparations are under way 
to organize a forum of national reconciliation, which 
would aim to find a political solution to the conflict. 
[end recording} 

New Bills Create Electoral Wards 

AB1312164192 Niamey Voix du Sahel Network in 
French 0545 GMT 9 Dec 92 

[Excerpt] The High Council of the Republic held an 
extraordinary meeting yesterday at which two draft 
ordinances were adopted. This is in fulfillment of the 
transitional institutions’ pledges to create favorable con- 
ditions for holding the upcoming popular elections in a 
climate of social peace and fairness. The first draft 
ordinance creates special electoral wards. These are 

16 December 1992 

Bilma District; Bani Bangou, Bankilare, Barmou, 
Ngourti, Tassara, Tasker and Torodi administrative 
posts. The second draft ordinance, stemming from the 
implementation of preceding texts, fixes and distributes 
parliamentary seats according to electoral wards. So, the 
National Assembly will have 83 deputies instead of 75, 
as Stipulated earlier. [passage omitted] 


Babangida Says Foundation Laid for Democracy 

AB1512102092 Lagos Radio Nigeria Network in 
English 0600 GMT 15 Dec 92 

[Text] President Ibrahim Babangida has said that 
although the political process has not been as successful 
as anticipated, it has provided a durable structure that 
will meet the peculiarities of the country. The president 
made the assertion yesterday in a message to a three-day 
seminar on military justice and democracy in Lagos. 

General Babangida contended that a solid foundation, 
upon which the political and economic structures sup- 
portive of full democratization could be built, has been 
laid. He pointed out that the ingredients of democracy 
included material condition of the people and that that is 
why the economic adjustment program was introduced. 

General Babangida’s message was delivered by the chief of 
defense staff and minister of defense, General Sanni 
Abacha. In a speech, Gen. Abacha said that the military 
justice system was attracting external academic interests. 
This, he said, was a welcome development because it would 
help the system to cope with the dynamics of the society. 

On the occasion, a former head of state, General Yakubu 
Gowon, called on the military to ensure the stability of 
the country in the interest of the durability of the 
democratic experiment. 

Paper Reacts to U.S. Abduction of Drug Suspect 

AB1312170292 Lagos Voice of Nigeria in English 1030 
GMT 13 Dec 92 

[Text] The arrogance and insult on other people’s intel- 
ligence with which Americans pursue their national 
interest in other countries are clearly exposed by 
AFRICAN CONCORD in tts cover story entitled: The 
American Drug Raid. In the story, the magazine 
describes how American drug law agents, in a com- 
mando like operation, abducted a Nigerian drug suspect 
with the tacit cooperation of the Nigerian authorities. 
AFRICAN CONCORD says the plot to get the drug 
suspect to the U.S. for trial actually started in the area 
court of Maryland, U.S.A., and later got the awesome 
support of the White House. 

The magazine reports that so far, both the Nigerian 
Police and the Nigerian Drug Law [Enforcement] 
Agency have confirmed the alleged abduction, but 


washed their hands clean of complicity with the Ameri- 
cans. AFRICAN CONCORD says the accomplice left in 
the case, therefore, is Nigeria’s Federal Ministry of 
Justice, which has argued on behalf of the Americans for 
the extradition of drug suspects to America. The maga- 
zine is worried that up till now the Nigerian Government 
is yet to make a statement on the latest alleged abduction 
of a Nigerian drug suspect. 

AFRICAN CONCORD says the logical question now is: 
Who is next on America’s hit list? Certainly, Nigerians will 
not accept to become prisoners of America in their own 
country, simply because America is losing the drug war. 


Opposition Leader on Strike, Political Crisis 

AB1512161892 London BBC World Service in English 
1705 GMT 13 Dec 92 

[From the “Focus on Africa” program hosted by Chris 

[Text] Having survived an assassination attempt in May, 
the prominent Togolese opposition leader, Gilchrist 
Olympio is very much back into the political swing. As 
the general strike in Togo ground to the end of its first 
month, the son of Togo’s first president was on a tour of 
several West African countries, including Togo’s imme- 
diate neighbors, Ghana and Benin. This weekend, he 
passed through London and came to the Focus studio. I 
asked him what people in the neighboring countries were 
saying about the situation in Togo. 

[Begin recording] [Olympio] Well, naturally the neigh- 
bors are very worried because of a possible spillover 
from Togo. As we know, nobody knows exactly what the 
outcome of the current strike is going to be, but the 
position of a lot of responsible people, officials in the 
neighboring countries, is they are extremely worried 
about the position in 1 ogo. 

[Green] Last weekend, there were great alarms in Togo, 
stories of foreign commandos coming over the border. 
What did you hear about that? 

{[Olympio] Well, we have been having mercenaries 
coming to Togo for the last 17 years. I was personally 
involved to have recruited some in 1977. There is not an 
iota of truth in all this. 

[Green] Presumably, the government in Ghana, despite 
having gone through elections, would be worried about 
the president of a neighboring country being toppled by 
popular movement. 

[Olympio}] I do not think so. I think the Ghanaians 
genuinely would like to see elections held in Togo very 
much as in Ghana. Now, they also know that we are 
dealing with an animal that is an extremely difficult one. 
It has proven to be so in the last 25 or 30 years, but as 


neighbors, I think what they really will like to see is to 
have conditions that will lead to elections. 

[Green] Do you think that there is a possible precedent for 
Togo there, that Jerry Rawlings, despite seeming unpopu- 
larity, stood and was reinstated as president? Do you think 
President Eyadema could do the same trick in Togo? 

[Olympio] First, I will not talk of a seeming unpopularity 
of Rawlings. I think he has always had solid support in 
the rural areas of the country—not just in certain partic- 
ular parts of Ghana—but from the south to the north. I 
think there has always been some opposition to him in 
the urban areas and among the intelligentsia. So, it was 
give and take, who was going to win in fair elections. 
This is not the case in Togo. I do not see exactly how the 
present president of Togo could win fair elections in 
Togo. All that we can say is if there is a runoff, it is going 
to be a runoff between two or three opposition candi- 
dates. I do not see him going even to the runoff. 

[Green] In Togo, with the general strike, is that not 
crippling Togo’s economy, making it impossible for any 
opposition takeover to have any success economically. 

[Olympio] Well, the country has been so badly managed 
in the last few years so I do not think a month's general 
strike or two months’ general strike... 

{[Green, interrupting] We could be talking about an 
indefinite strike. 

{Olympio] Well, until the current regime changes or 
makes a move towards accepting some of the basic 
claims of the opposition and these are: 

1. To make sure that there is a neutral Army that will 
make sure that elections are properly conducted. 

16 December 19°92 

2. I think everybody would like to see a situation, whereby 
firm dates for elections are fixed; enough time given for 
foreign observers to be invited to come into the country to 
observe how elections are going to be conducted. 

3. | think the opposition would like to make sure that the 
Army makes a solemn proclamation on radio and tele- 
vision that they are neutral in politics. They are there to 
protect the country not to take part in day to day running 
of the country; not to frighten the population; not to set 
people’s houses on fire; not to throw hand grenades into 
people’s shops, and so on and so forth, and I think these 
are legitimate demands, and | do not see how the 
president can get away without meeting any of those 

[Green] But he has gone through a month of general 
strike so far; there have been talks between the president 
and the prime minister but actually, it is a standoff, 
neither side can push it a stage further. Is the next stage 
not going to be that people are going to drift back to work 
simply because they cannot afford to stay out, that 
President Eyadema will starve the strikers back to work?. 

{Olympio]} Well, this does not seem to be the impression last 
Thursday [10 December] when I was in West Africa, and 
there was a general rally in the country. I think the deter- 
mination of the population is even stronger than that of 
political leaders. I think the population is quite determined 
to go on and on and on with the strike. There is a chain of 
solidarity in the country, where people are sharing out food, 
clothing. Fishermen are going to work every morning, 
bringing out sardines and little fishes frying them and 
sharing them out in all the villages, especially in an area 
where the Army was particularly vindictive, and shot a lot of 
people—a place called Kodjoviakope—and I think it will 
take a long time to persuade these people to go back to work. 
You see, one of the advantages of underdeveloped coun- 
iries, unlike highly developed countries, is that we can go 
back to subsistence economies without too much difficulty. 
{end recording] 

I7 Dec /72