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JPRS 74432 
23 October 1979 

USSR Report 


No. 898 



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USSR REPORT: RESOURCES, No. 898 23 October 1979 
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JPRS 74432 
23 October 1979 

No. 898 


Merits of Charvakskaya GES Enumerated 
(A. Sadykov, V. Skrebnev; PRAVDA, 1 Sep 79) eeeeeeeeveeee 1 

Alternate Energy Sources Reviewed 
(M. Bakirov; VYSHKA, 12 Sep 79) eeeeeeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 3 

Progress on Nichnekamskaya GES 
(A. Kirillov; KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 20 Aug 79) eeeeeeeveaeeeaeee 6 

Work on Rovenskaya AES Proceeds Smoothly 
(I. Pashchuk; RABOCHAYA GAZETA, 28 Aug 79) ceccccoccceces 9 

Electrical Equipment Minister on Next Five-Year Plan 

antonov on Electric Equipment Industry 
(A. Antonov; IZVESTIYA, 20 Sep 79) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 17 

Benefits and Problems of Dmestr River GES 
(Ss. a TRUD, 15 Sep 79) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaee 23 

Antonov on llth Five-Year Plan 
(A. K. Antonov; EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, Sep 79) eeeeeeeee 25 

CEMA Cooperation in the Field of nergy 
(V. Begishev; PRAVDA UKRAINY, 15 Aug 79) eeeeeeeeseeeeeee 27 

Tuvinskaya ASSR Electrification 
Transmission-Line Tower Construction 
Nizhnekamskaya GES 
Power Lines in Dagestan 


-a- [III - USSR - 37] 

CONTENTS (Continued) 

Surgutskaya GRES 

Maryyskaya GRES 
Installation of Raovenskaya Reactor 


Gas Regions, Producing and Predicted, Rated by Network 


Advanced Extraction Equipment Lacking at Uzen' Oilfield 
(V. Timonin; PRAVDA, 18 Sep 79) eeeeeeeeveeev ee ee ee eee 




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Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 1 Sep 79 p 3 

{Article by Academician A. Sadykov, president of the Uzbek SSR 
Acacemy of Sciences and V. Skrebnev, chairman - the Uzbek SSR 
Gosetroy: “In the Mountain Spurs of Tien Shan” 

.Text. The Charvakskaya GES, conceived and built as a unique 
hydrotechnical installation, is playing a great role in the 
solution of a number of our entire republic's important economic 
protlems. The commissioning of this highly efficient hydrotech- 
nical installation opens the means for improving the supply of 
water to 460,000 hectares of irrigated land and for bringing 
150,000 hectares of new land under irrigation. The seasonal 
reculation of the river Chirchik's flow and the creation of a 
two-billion cubic meter reservoir as part of a hydraulic develop- 
ment for improving irrigation conditions has provided, particu- 
larly during the previous run of low-water years, a surplus of 
more than 230,000 tons of cotton wool during those years and has 
increased the productivity of other crops in Tashkentskaya Oblast. 

At its refulated output of 600,000 kilowatts, the GES in one year 
senerates two billion kilowatt-hours of electric power, the 

cost of which is five to six times less than the cost 

such large-scale thermal electric stations as the Tashkent 

and Syrdar’ in stations, which operate on fuel oil. 

Operational practice has proven the high efficiency of the Char- 
vakskaya complex. 6y 1978 all capital investments in the con- 
struction of the GES had been completely recouped. 

The Charvakskaya G&S reflects the latest achievements of the 
scientific-technical thought of Soviet hydroelectric power spe- 
cialists. This hydraulic development in the Tien Shan mountain 
spurs is one of the examples of construction art. 

The hydraulic development's dam, 168 meters high wit!l a crest 
approximately a kilometer long, is in an area of geologically 
complex mountain formations having force-eight seismic activity. 
In world-wide hydroenergetics it is the first dam to be built 
uSing local materials. The derarture from classical concrete 
construction has made possible the total elimination of expendi- 
tures for an entire complex of concrete plants and sifting ma- 
chines, and has permitted the acquisition of the corresponding 
equipment. The dam turned out to be 35 to 40 percent less expen- 
Sive and its construction time was cut by three years. A complex 
of desig, scientific and experimental operations (ircluding 
those done on a specially constructed test range) has made pos- 
sible the selection of the optimal methods of preparation and 
tampins of loamy soil and rocky material, ensuring the dam's 
solidity and water-tightmess. 

The e“rectiveness of capital investments rose significantly thanks 
to “ne early engagement of the GES‘s urits at reducec pressures 
while the dam was still under construction. The SZS output was 
subsequently stepped up to its desigmed power. 

The hydraulic development’s structures were outfitted with a 
great many pieces of specially designed equipment, the creation 
of which is of greet scientific and technical value. 

The results of complex experiments carried out in the summer of 
197% when the reservoir was filled and all of tne GES's struc- 
tures anc equipment were brought up to design pressures, regula- 
tions and parameters have once again affirmed the hizh quality 
of construction and installation work and the reliability of the 
scientific-technical decisions adopted. 

n efficiency and complexity, reliability and durability, and 
the modern level of technical progress and aestheticc--that’'s 
wnat characterizes this hydraulic development. 

In November of 1977 Comrade L.I. Brezhnev, general secretary of 


the CPSU Central Committee and chairman of the Presidium of the 
'SSR Supreme Soviet, warmly congratulated all the participants 
in the development’s construction, noting their selfless labor. 
The creation and assimilation of the Charvakskiy hydraulic 

ievelopment hus on its merits been nominated to competition for 

tne USSR State Prize. 


730: 1622 


Baku VYSHKA in Russian 12 Sep 79 p 2 

Article by M. Bakirov, manager of the radiation research sec- 
tor of the Azerbaijan SSR Academy of Sciences and doctor of 
physical and mathematical sciences: “The Treasures of Radiant 
Enerry™ | 

[Text] The goal that’s been set before our specialists is the 
extraction and utilization of so-called natural ener:;y in the 
economy. The situation taking shape in world energetics affirms 
the importance of the course that has been taken. I'm sure that 
solar and wind energy have a great future. What's been said here 
pertains especially to our republic, where the nighest possible 
number of sumny and windy days are recorded in the course of the 
year. One of the advantages of these types of energy is that 
they don’t pollute the environment. You will agree that this is 
a factor of no little importance. Thus, experiments in our sec- 
tor have already been conducted on several makes of automobiles 
that run on a new hydrogen fuel, obtained throuch the use of ener- 
ey from the sun and wind. Hydrogen gives away nothing to raso- 
line, and instead of the harmful exhaust gases, ordinary water 

is released. True, the cost of the new fuel is high for the time 
beinrs, but it will, without a doubt, fall in the future. Ina 
word, the prospects are enticing. Today in our sector, wind- 
powered electric and photoelectric hydrogen installations have 
already been developed which allow the extraction of hydroren 

by the electrolysis of water. We've also constructed a solar 
electrotechnical installation for implementing a thermochemical 
process of obtaining acetylene; its main subassemblies have been 
manufactured and installed. 

jle’ve completed’ the installation <f an applied solar ener 
plant for obtaining a fuel mixture through the eel ariel 
decomposition of water. The plant's principle of operation is 
also based on the use of solar rays. Under the influence of 
heat from the latter, ordinary water, at the moment it passes 

through a special transformer, is broken down and converted into 
a fuel mixture. 

We scientis:s have beer. highly excited about a recen~ resolution 
of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers 
"On the Improvement of Planning and the Strenrthenine of the Eco- 
nomic Machinery’s Influence on the Rise in Production Efficiency 
and the Quality of Work”. In it, once again, the role of the 
achievements of science and technology in increasing the efficien- 
cy of the entire economic system is emphasized, and attention is 
devoted to the accelerated realization of scientific-technical 
discoveries and developments that are directed at increasing the 
rate of growth of efficient public labor and the quality of pro- 
duction. The successful realization of these tasks to no small 
degree depends also upon the efficiency of our labor. 

On the other hand, the resolution makes it incumbent upon the 
ministries, departmente and businesses to render more active 
assistance to science. You know how it goes sometimes. You con- 
fer with the productior workers, you convince them o* the advan- 
tages of this same solar energy installation or, let's say, of 
hydrogen fuel. You get the feeling that the person you're talk- 
ing to interprets what you've said as fantasy: he becomes wary, 
Dlays it safe, indicates some higher authority. Hell say that 
permissic mn will have to come from above. The new resolution of 
the CFSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers 
aims to make the executives arm themselves more boldly with the 
achievements of scientific-technical progress, and to see the 
prospects for developing our sector and direct their efforts to- 
wari attaining the ultimate results. 

At this present stage, not only the individual scientist but even 
a scientific colllective is unable to effectively solve more or 
less large-scale scientific problems acting alone. Our sector 
of radiation research maintains close ties with many scientific 
in titutions within the republic and in the country. Thus, under 
the Academy of Sciences’ system our sector coordinates the work 
sroblems of semiconductor physics and hydrogen energetics with 
institutes of physics, chemical processes and sp.ce research into 
natural resources. 

“orether with the Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Acad- 

emy of Sclences we are conducting research into the radiation de- 

composition of water with the aim of obtaining hydroven. The 
laboratory of ferroelectric materials maintains communications 

witn a number of scientific research establishments in foreign 
suitries concerning the study of problems of the structure of 
tielectric and electric properties of ferroelectric materials 

wid their practical utilization. 

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h.oscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA in Russian 20 Aug 79 p 2 

Article by A. Kirillov, doctor of technical sciences: “The 
Pourth in Cascade” 

Text. It was recently reported in our paper thei the first of 
the hizhnekamskaya GES's generating units | been brought into 
service. Adopting prorressive methods cf cc tion, hydro- 


electric technicians ‘installed it tn four monthe. 

“hy has this fact attracted attention? First of all, it is be- 
cause the construction of the Nizhnexamskaya GES completes the 
reation of a hydroelectric complex on the Kama. The first node 
in th ascade is located near Perm’, the second rises close to 
ity of Chaykovskiy, and the third is alonsside the city of 
tkinesk. Alonrside the new center of automobile construction 

n tr ‘ity of Naberezhnyye Chelny the fourth step of the cascade, 
th izhnekamexaya SES, has begun supplying current. One more 
ter Ass been taken toward completinsc the tasks of the 10th PFive- 
Year ilan, the prorrams of which envisioned brincine the produc- 
Of fF electrical power up to 1.34 to 1.3% billion kilowatt-hours 
immy of two million soviet electrical workers steadfastly re- 
ives the tasks set before the rarty and the ,overnnment. n 
fccember of last year, for example, the unique hydroa;r;regate 
at ti sayaro-Shushernsxaya GES, which has a power output of 
9,000 ¥ilowatt-nours, was the first to provide industrial cur- 
inead of schedule. A160 put into service were the larre- 
rle hydroelectric a ‘ervates at the Nurekskaya, Irticurskaya and 
ya .*3Ses. The production of electrical ererry in our coun- 
in the last year reached 1.20 billion kilowatt-hours, which, 
th 1975, constitutes a 15.7 percent increase. In 

mparison wi 
irst half of the present year 621 billion kilowatt-hours of 
trical enerry have been produced. 


The technical level of electrical power engineering has iilso been 
raised and the economic indicators of the economic activity of 
energy systems and electrical power stations have been improved. 
Thus, the unit expenditure of fuel per kilowatt-hour has decreas- 
ed by more than eight grams, which will ensure a savings of 15 
million tons of conventional fuel within the limits of our sec- 
tor. The efficiency of fuel utilizaion achieved is in keeping 
with the goals of the Five-Year Plan. 

The Nizhnekamskaya GES will also make its contribution in the 
struggle for economy and for improving the production of elec- 
trical energy. The combined output of its 16 power units will 
total 1.25 million kilowatts. The GES will produce 2.7 billion 
kilowatt-hours of electrical energy per year, which will permit 

a yearly savings of 1.2 million tons of conventional fuel and 
will free the 5,200 persons whose labor would be required to pro- 
duce the same amount of electrical energy at a thermal station. 

In 1979 power engineers and power station builders have been as- 
Signed strenuous goals concerning the rates of growth of effi- 
cient labor, decreases in the unit costs for the production of 
electrical energy, industrial goods, construction and installa- 
tion works and other planning indicators. Along with the machine 
builders, they are also confronted with achieving an improvement 
in the technical-economic characteristics of the equipment. How- 
ever, there is a good example of such work in the field already. 
This was the reconstruction not long ago of the hydrogenerators 
at the Bratskaya GES, as a result of which the output of the elec- 
tric station increased by 400,000 kilowatts. 

In the course of building projects and operating and maintaining 
equipment, any possible reduction in that portion of work ac- 
complished by low-productive manual labor is also of great sig- 
nificance. Incidentally, this requirement was considered in a 
practical manner during the construction of the Nizhnekamskaya 
GES. In its units new technical solutions were employed which 
Significantly accelerated the speed of construction, allowed a 
reduction of labor expenditures and permitted an increase in the 
work quality. 

For example, during the installation of the GES building, such 
designs were used for the floodgate slots as would make possible 
the achievement of higher precision and exclude the labor-consum- 
ing concrete-mold work which was unavoidable with the previous 
method. Exhaust tubes of complex geometric form are cast in con- 
crete, uSing standard prefabricated elements, which sharply re- 
duce* labor consumption and the time needed for this work. The 
installation of the equipment make wide use of reinforced ele- 
ments, etc. 

The acceleraticn of scientific-technical progress in electric 
power production and an increase in the qualitative indicatcrs 

of economic activity are inseparably linked with the further im- 
provement of the work of scientific-research and desig organi- 
zations. In our sector special significance is attached to the 
strengthening of close ties between these organizations and pro- 
duction, and the concentration of attention on the main trends in 
technical progress. Today the collectives of the electric power 
stations, businesses, construction, installation and maintenance 
organizations, and the scientific-research and desig institutes 
of the USSR Minergo direct their efforts to the solution of these 
and other tasks. 


Kiev RABOCHAYA GAZETA in Russian 28 Aug 79 p 1 

LArticle by RABOCHAYA GAZETA correspondent I. Pashchuk: “The 
Closer to the Finish..." ] 

[Text] In the office of V.B. Sukhonosenko, party committee sec- 
retary for a key republic Komsomol construction project, is a 
network schedule of the construction and installation work at 
the Rovenskaya AES. 

“In one year,” he ran the pointer along a rising line, “the face 
of the construction platform has changed so much as to be un- 
recognizable: new parts of the building complex have sprung up 
which now are already fitted out with equipment. The construc- 
tion and installation plan, according to the chief general con- 
tractor, is committed to completion by Power Specialists’ Day. 

In addition, we will bring it in at 400,000 rubles under bud- 

At the construction site they speak highly of "“Yuzhteploenergo- 
montazh", a harmonious collective in the installation sector. 

It completed 130 percent of the plan for the second quarter, and 
108 percent of the plan for the first half of the year. The 
thermal equipment fitters installed more than one hundred pieces 
of equipment, erected re gr taco systems and a deaerator for 
the first turbine, laid 640 tons of piping, completely enclosed 
the high and low-pressure cylinders, and installed the generator 
stator. Now they are successfully carrying out work on the num- 
ber-two turbine: ahead of schedule they are installing the tech- 
nical equipment, the pipelines and the junctions on the main 
circular contour in the reactor compartment. 

"It's easy to work with such people," says E.T. Shevchenko, chief 
engineer at the Kharkov turbine plant, who is supervising the 
installation of the turbines. “We'll manage it within the speci- 
fied time." 

Such an attitude is commendable. However, ever. the related en- 
terprises end suppliers must maintain the rapid pace. You know 
thet delays in providing equipment still occur, and that it hap- 
pens at building sites still under construction, which slows 
down the installation. The Pecherskoe administration, for ex- 
ample, held up the delivery of oil-pipeline flanges, equipment 
needed for oil coolers. 

In order to install the turbine pipelines it's necessary to 

nut together multileveled horizontal and vertical systems of 
scaffolding, but not out of just anything. The construction ad- 
ministration of an atomic power plant can't get by without sup- 
Dlies of wood materials, and the lack of wood has already begun 
to slow up the installation crews. 

dater cooling tower number one is being built alons the draft 

fan pipe. This unit is not ordinary in purpose or in dimen- 
Sions. The water cooling tower rises 150 meters overhead--almost 
twice as high as those in operation today. The unit will cool 
100,000 cubic meters of water per hour, water necessary for the 
operation of the first power unit. 

"We're sticking to the set pace," says Z.G. Gamrixeli, chief en- 
Sineer for construction management. “Every two days we raise 
the collar one and a half meters, and we've gone up a total of 
104 meters." 

The work of the “Energovysotspetsstroy” high-steel men is re- 
sponsible. They work essentially on wooden boards alone, along 
both sides of which is empty space. The thickness of the cool- 
ing tower is only 210 mm, which means that it's necessary to 
fasten the metal casing with absolute precision so that sagging 
doesn't occur. Examples of this selfless labor are provided by 
fitters V. Leventsev and 0. Sukhonov, crane operators L. Ryabov 
and A. Pagoda and cement truck drivers 0. Zhuvak, S. Leus and 

The fitters busy in the reactor compartment do not lag behind 

their neighbors. The work is organized into three shifts. The 
ace is brisk. 

"We're installing the internal structural frames for the cover- 
ing," says }..T. Tkachenko, team leader for the "“Yuzhenergomon- 
tazh" section. "They deliver materials in accordance with the 
orders without delays. There's almost no loss of work time." 

But things aren't like this at all the construction sites. The 

pace has slackened on the construction of the unified auxiliary 

“We're 50 or 60 workers short of the number we'd need to stay 
on schedule,” said V.G. Paseka, head of construction manage- 
ment sector number three. “Deliveries of necessary equipment, 
sucn as oxygen cylinders, is frequently hampered...” 

Those in arrears to the atomic power plant builders are: the 
Svetlovodskiy, Dneprodzerzhinskiy and Pridneprovskiy reinforced 
concrete products plants, the Kiev plant for experimental con- 
struction, the Kukharovskiy boiler equipment plant aid the Bag- 
leyskiy auxiliary doiler equipment and pipeline plant. For the 
first half of the year they are in arrears 1,929 cubic meters of 
reinforced concrete and 1,786 tons of metal structural material. 

In spite of the temporary difficulties, the builders are working 
at full output. This guarantees that by the end of the year the 
Plant will put out its first kilowatt-hours of electric power. 




(Article by A. Antonov, minister of the USSR Electrical Equipment In- 
dustry: “New Technology - The Way to Economy” | 

Text] For a number of years now a distinctly elaborated system 
of economizing material resources has been in effect in the elec- 
trotechnical industry. It has absorbed several trends. These 
are: the mastery and dissemination of new forms of production 
with reduced material consumption, the introduction of progres- 
sive technological processes, the perfection of methcds of estab- 
lishing norms and the storage and stock-taking of everything 
which must go into production. The final goal is that all growth 
in the volume of production output is ensured without drawings 
substantially upon basic materials - rolled metal, to begin with. 

Just what is the result? This is what the analysis shows: in the 
2° Five-Year Plan specific quotas for the expenditure of rol- 
led ferrous metals in the sector were reduced by 21.6 percent; in 
the current Plan, they will decrease by another 16.2 percent, but 
even with this, for each single percent in growth of the consump- 
tion of rolled metal there will be an increase in production 1.3 
times greater than that in the 9th Five-Year Plan. From 1975 
to 1979 the output volume of electrotechnical products has grown 
by more than a quarter, while the consumption of rolled ferrous 
metals has grown only by nine percent, copper by three percent 
and lead by five. As early as the beginning of the 10th Five- 
Year Plan workers in the sector saved 252,000 tons of steel and 
20,009 tons of copper, lead, etc. A great deal of other mater- 
ials, fuel and electrical energy was saved. 

In the next, the iith Five-Year Plan, conserved metal will 
acquire even greater significance in the fulfilment of State 
plans. In comparison with the 10th Five-Year Plan, our sec- 
tor will almost have to double the production output for each 
percent increase in the consumption of rolled ferrous metals in 


the years 1981-1985. Their unit cost is planned to decrease 
another 26.5 percent. This is one of our basic, knotty prob- 
lems, toward the solution of which efforts are being directed 
all aiong the line of “science-technology-production". 

The major portion of the savings can be achieved thanks to the 
creation and mastery of new products that demand less material. 
For this a system of measures has been worked out: there has been 
introduced, for example, an ecoromic stimulation of scientific 
research and experimental design work, organized according to 

its real effectiveness; the procedure for conducting the exami- 
nation of material consumption indicators has been reculated in 
all technical jobs, without exception; a system of dynamic cost 
analysis is being introduced which allows the most economical 
desim and technological solutions, etc., to be brought to light. 

Let us consider another thing: in many cases a reduction in the 
weight of power machinery doesn't result in an ultimate eco- 
nomic effect. Everything has a scientifically founded limit. 
dhern we've reached it, we cause an unavoidabie reduction in its 
characteristics, the coefficient of useful power and other para- 
meters of the product. On the other hand, for example, such 
products as switching equipment for high-voeltare electrical power 
lines, which are material-consumptive for industry, present the 
consumer with great savings in material and maintenance expendi- 
tures. Consequently, scientific, planning and design organiza- 
tions are enterprises which, in their activities, are obligated 
to orient themselves toward the ultimate economic result, which 
goes beyond the limits of the sector. This is why under the 
heading of “economy” we include the increased reliability and du- 
rability of the product, as well as the creation of specialized 
desims adapted to specific conditions of operation. Asynchro- 
nous motors in special agricultural equipment will serve as an 
example, for they endure extremely severe conditions of operation 
under the high moisture and dustiness of the environment. 

One of our important trends is the incorporation (in desigms and 
technology) of essentially new solutions. ‘io such work can be 
attributed the research that's connected with the use of elec- 
tronic methods in self-contained electrotechnical installations, 
the creation of equipment for plasma and electron beam tech- 
nolorsry, etc. Significant results can be expected from measures 
taken to introduce low-waste technology into production. 

Particularly efficient have been standardized articles of mass 
Nnroduction. For example, the creation of a standardized series 
of asynchronous motors has made it possible not only to sig- 
nificantly raise their technical level but also to improve the 
product list: the number of rarely-used modifications has been 


sharply curtailed and universal desigms with increased range 

of application have been mastered. As a result, the introduc- 
tion of a technically advanced series has brougsht a simificant 
Savines of metal and other materials: at practically the same 
level of rolled metal consumption the output of motors in the 
past 4-5 years has been increased 1.4 times. 

Such work is now being conducted today on all types of massive 
electrical equipmert. 

The savings of material (to a significant degree) depends upon 
our customers. Thus, questions about the correct use of electri- 
cal equipment also come to the fore. Violations of established 
norms and the incorrect selection of products for some conditions 
or others unavoidably leads to the premature wear of tne equip- 
ment, incomplete utilization of its problemsolving cepacity and, 
consequently, to the appearance of artificially overestimated de- 
MAN . 

Towerad the goal of a more stringent system of material savings 
our Ministry consicers it expedient to establish a procedure in 
which the consumer of electrical equipment must coordinate the 
Selection with the developers or other competent representatives 
and organizations of the electrotechnical industry. The time has 
come also for a review of a number of GOSTs (State standards) on 
requirements for the operation of electrical equipmer.t. The 
euarantee of concord between State interests in the area of mate- 
rial savings and the interests of each of the consumers of our 
products is being borne in mind. Such concord can only be achiev- 
ed on the basis of a painstaking analysis of the conditions under 
which our equipment will be used. This work is already being con- 
ducted, and its scope will be broadened. What we're talking about 
sere, in the final analysis, is the creation of an integral and 
*le» ible system of direct two-way communication between producers 
and consumers of electrotechnical equipment. 

Today, approaching the end of the i0th Five-Year Plan, we are 
ever. now drafting plans for the next period. In addition, we 

irre devoting great attention to the formation of a work program 
linked with the careful use of materials. Because of it we are 
oeing suided by the index of economy as if it was one of the basic 
indicators that determine the efficiency of our sector of indus- 
try. The leading organizations have already expressed their con- 
siderations, and they are now being brought together into a com- 
nosite from which the tasks for all subunits in the years 1981-85 
vill be determined. 

In order to accelerate the introduction of new products which 
“uarantee a sigificant reduction in the expenditure of material 
in ovr sector itself and for the consumer, economic methods will 
be employed wnich have been defined in the resolutior of the CPSU 
Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers “On the Im- 
provement of Planning and the Strengthening of the Economic Ma- 
chinery’s Influence on the Rise of Production Efficiency and the 
Quality of Work". However, in our opinion, the maximal effect 
(meaning the savines of material) car be ensured only when the 
methods of computing the evaluating indicators which character. e 
the savines of materials acl ieved in the sector are clarified and 
revised in a corresponding tanner. The working instructions of 
the Ceatral Statistical Directorate do not take into account 
those savings from the iniroduction of new technolory with re- 
duced unit material consumption, increased period of service, im- 
proved working conditions, etc. 

The min'st ry has many times addressed the USSR Central Statistical Administra- 
tion and the USSR Gosplan with proposals to improve them, however’, the question 
is vet to be decided, and an important part of a practicably 
attainable effect (thanks to the introduction of new technolory) 
remains “beyond the bounds of accountability”. 

Approximately one-half of the total volume of savinzs is sup- 
posed to be attained thanks to the application of new materials, 
the substitution of those raw materials in short supply, and 
also because of the transition to progressive techno Logical pro- 
cesses. Here it must be said that the problem of deiivering suca 
materials for the electrotechnical industry has yet to be decid- 
ed. Jt is for these materials that we have an acute requirement. 
Until now the sectors were alloted limited funds for substitutes 
and cast plastic, the application of which would allow fora 
sharp reduction in the expenditure of rolled ferrous metals. We 
also receive an insufficient volume of electrotechnical-grade 
steel of high quality. Why, the lack of proper materials holds 
up even the introduction of prosressive technological processes. 
Because the ferrous and nonferrous enterprises do not deliver 
high-precision perforated shaped stock or powdered iron or cop- 
per, we are unable to save tens of thousands of tons of rolled 
ferrous and nonferrous metals. Rolled metal of dimensions which 
differ ereatly from those which were ordered still find their 
way into the sector's enterprises. This leads to sreat losses. 
In 1978 these losses made up about 15,000 tons. This is only 
that portion of the loss that can be expressed in numbers with 
sufficient certainty. 

Isn‘t it true that we have the accumulated experience of an ef- 
ficient collaboration of specialists in various sectors? This 

is, however, only one example. A new class of electr« technical- 
vrade steel and the new technology to produce co) d-rclled unal- 
loyed isctropic steel with high magnetic properties have been de- 
veloped ty engineers of the ferrous metallurgy and electrotech- 
nical industry. Its application instead of that of hot-rolled 
sheet steel in the manufacture of mass-produced foods in only 
three years of the Five-Year Plan permitted a savings of about 

70 tons of rolled steel. At the same time, heavy manual labor 
was eliminated. In accordance with the provisions of the rece;.i 
resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of 
Ministers our ministry will actively participate in collaboration 
with sector affiliates in complex prorrams for th< creation of 
essentially new materials and replacement products for the elec- 
trotechnical industry. The system of combined intersector over- 
all programs has already proven its effectiveness. Aimed at 

Saving materials, it will undoubtedly produce even weightier re- 


)oscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 20 Sep 79 p 2 

Article by A. Antonov, minister of the USSR electric equip- 
ment industry: “The ‘Small-Scale’ Electric Equipment Industry” |] 

\Text] I wish to begin with a fact that relates to the history 
of our erergsy productions along with the GOELRC 

plan, the de legates to the 8th All-Russia Congress of 

Soviets were handed a list on which were schematically arranred 
the major directions for electrification. One of the arrows 
pointed to Living quarters. 

The creation and assimilation of home appliances is an integral 
part of the party's multifaceted social program, directed at 
imrrovineg the individual's way of life and standard of livin:. 
\ substantial contribution to the solution to this tas is pro- 
vided by the electrical equipment industry. Our appliances, 
which have solidly entered people’s day-to-day lives--washins;s 
machines, vaccuum cleaners, fans, irons, lamnos and many other 

items--have been called upon to make housewor* easier and to 
bates the level of comfort in the home. Today the selection of 
items from the so-called small-scale electrical equipment in- 
ductry exceeds 15C0 items. Approximately one-third of the nation- 
al outnut of domestic equipment goes to enterprises within the 

Recently, the electrical equipment industry has mastered the 
production of and introduced into the market such modern products 
necessary for the home as automatic washing machines, home air 
conditioners, portable vaccuum cleaners, various items for person- 
al hysiene and self-service appliances. These are products of 
very complex technology. Their creation and assimilation re- 
quires the same arsenal of resources that larre-scale electro- 
technology demands. Qualified cadres of researchers and develop- 
ers are needed, and it is necessary to fit enterprises with 


the latest technological equinment and to introduce noderm 
methods of organizing production. t is precisely for this 
creation of technology for the home that leadirg scientific 
research and experimental desig orzcanizations in the sector 
and 300 enterprises have been enlisted. 

Much more remains to be done in order to make the outward 
appearance, ease of operation and durable consumer cualities 
of electric appliances answer the demands of the Soviet people. 

In the Orancn much attention is being devoted to perfecting an 
over-all system of quality control. All products of home tech- 
nology are subject to certification. The dissemination of the 
system of certification and quality control for home appliances 
has served as a stimulus for raising their level of technolovy: 
only three years aso the mark of quality was registered on 2 
percent of the total production output of such items and today 
this indicator has reached 42 percent, which corresponds to the 
level set for the end of the fiveeyear plan. 

In no way detracting from the significance of certification as 
an imvortant stimulus in raising the quality of our products, it 
is necessary tc note along with this that it only fixes their 
technolorical level achieved at some particular stage. As we 

are frequently convinced, however, a well-conceived design cannot 
oe realized for quite a number of reasons: either we don’t have 
some secessary materials, or the corresponding technology has not 
been mastered, or production has not been prepared, etc. More- 
over, *he quality of the article can be lost if it is not used 
nder the conditions for which it was desiged. We have put be- 
fore ourselves this task: to create such a system of measures 

2s will ensure cne high quality of the product put in by the 
lanner or the desimer, both in the production nvrocess and at 
sta-es of the product's “life”, right up to the time it be- 
comes obsolete. 

4 special role in the development of such a system belongs to 
»ver-all standardization, which will determine the mutually 
linked demands of desig, production technolocy, materials, 
methods of sellin, ready-made goods, furms of technical service; 
in other words, overall star.dardization will establish the task 
not only for developers of equipment for the home but also for 
the oroducers, suppliers of raw materials, and also for trade 

Sr anizations and consumers. Over-all standards in the sector 
‘eveloped for products of lighting engineering, light sources, 
electric heating elements, fruit juice makers and other forms of 
‘ome technolosy as a matter of fact are long-term programs for 
ievelonpin; the production of these fcrouns of wares. At the same 
time, the quality standards of the products themselves, as well 

as that cf the wiring, parts and materials used in them will be 

lonz with the increase ir the prosperity of the Soviet people, 
he demand grows for electrical engineerinz products in the home. 
f we say, for example, that ten years ago the annua’ unit ;ro- 

uction of incandescent lamps and galvanic cells numbered in the 
millions, then today the yearly demand for them exceeds one bil- 
lion units, which, naturally, requires a powerful, hichly indus- 
trialized production base. It is precisely for this reason that 
the technical refitti-s of the shops, the moderniz-tion and re- 
habilitation and the creation of modern, specializec plants have 
seen established as the basis for executing the urrent plans and 
social oblizations chosen by the sector for the 10th Five-Year 

Amon, the hichly industrialized plants which produce small-scale 
2lectrical equipment one could name the 3akinsxiy hone air con- 
ditionins plant; snecialized shops for the production of wash- 
in- machines at the Riza electrical machine constriction nlant; 
shoos for the production of fans at the Yaroslavsiy electric 
machine construction plant; and a number of lishtinre equintment 
iInions--"Svetotekhnika” in Saransk, “Vatra” in Tirasool and 

4 broad proscram for the introduction of new preduction capaci- 
ties has beer worked out. 

Qurin, the course of the present Five-Year Plan, reconstruction 
nas besun on electric light plants in Saransz, Ufa, Tomsk and 
ol tava. In L’vov, a large-scale electric light plant is being 

cuilt, desismed to produce 320 million lamps per year. fProduc- 
tior at the Tletskiy battery and “Prozhextornye '!;1i" plants, 
at the “Akkumulyator” plant in Kursk and the “Sirius” plant in 
laypedsk is expanding. With the engarement of these and other 
production capacities, the norulation's demand for incandescent 
lamps and salvanic batteries will be satisfied. 

The broadest strata of the po»mlation employs home appliances. 
For examole, a lathe unit with preset control is operated by a 
specialist who's vone throuch the correspondin> trainin, but 
often a man who hasn't the necessary skill to operate equipment 
mie t deal with a washine machine. At the same tire, a modern 
washines machine, such as the “Zvrika-Avtomat”, is a complicated 
desim in which electrical rower equipment interacte with an 

electronic mechanism. Nevertheless, its oneration is easily 
nmeerstood by anyone, since it’s started with only the nush of 
2 button. On the whole, one of the vceneral trends in the in- 

“rovement of si! mall-scale electrical equipment is the introduc- 
tion of automated mechanisms. 

The operating conditior.s for modern home appliances are also 
highly specific. Nore and more ofte.: they dictate their de- 
mands to the enineeri:nc and technical facilities of livin; 
quacters, the floor plans and the electrical outlets. That 
sam automatic washing machine, for example, must be stationary 
when connected to drains and water pipes; the use of an air con- 
ditioner is provided for with changes in the window openiny: s. 

One may continue with a number of such examples in which the 
feasibility anc of utilizing home appliances gfocs be- 
yond the Limits of the producer’s competency. de are convinced 
that the inodern scone of the application of technolo, y in the 
home vresents us with the problem of over-all plannins for the 
home of t)« future. In this work the opinions of architects, 
puildcers, icttrical enrineers and the creators of home applian- 
ces should oe strictly coordinated and arrued out. Cnly then 
will it be pnossible to achieve truly comfortable conditions for 
aman in his house. 

New demands for home appliances are now cropping up with respect 
to the product's outward appearance. That which is intended for 
man’s everyday life should be beautiful and comfortable. Attach- 

ing “reat simmificance to the artistic form of of domestic pro- 
ducts, we are » Degenneme to develop, aloir with cpecialists of 
he L@'in{g tific Research Institute ry Teshnical 

e 3. an over-all artistic desig program. whicn has as its 

eoal | a aetermination of the principles of artistic design in home 
appl lances and their embodiment in base-line models. de hope 
that tre realizati-n of the program will also permi: us to in- 
fluence to a certain derree the forming of consumer tuste. 

And, finally, a very it.portant distinruishine feature of small- 
seale electrical engineering ic the difficulty in identifyins 
the true needs of the population for this product or that. Cne 
may detesmine with this or that degree of accuracy the extent 
of the demand for items such as washing machines, vaccuum clean- 
ers, irons, ete., but it is very difficult to do this with brand- 
new ~roducts. No one today can determine for sure what the de- 
mand for dishwashers or clothes dryers will be in the coming 
years. Such cuestions are cropping up more and more before the 
producers of ‘ome appliances, and the answers to these greatly 
letermine the rationality of selection policies. 

r this manner, summing up all the specific problems in small- 
seale electrical essineerine, we gee that, in order for electri- 

ali home appliances to be durable, comfortable, reliable and 
eafe in opersntion and in order for them to be really efficient 
“lners of man, tho efforts of one sector are not crnoush. The 

corresponding materials, technical equipment for the rooms and 
w. objective and accurate evaluation of the neople's demand for 

appliances in the home are needed. In other words, shat's re- 
quired is a coordination of plans and more practice in the de- 
velopment of production of goods for the population. 

The resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Coun- 
cil of Ministers, "On the Imvrovement of Plannig and the 
Strenzthening of the Economic Machinery's Influence on the In- 
crease of the Efficiency of Production and the Quality of ‘Jork," 
is also oriented toward an over-all interlinked solution to the 
technical, economic and social tasks and toward overcoming a 
narrow, bureaucratic approach to this matter. Only a coordi- 
nation of efforts, agreements and mutual aid in the actions of 
various ministeries can help in solving the broad circle of 
problems. that are connected with the creation and assimilation of 
hichly efficient equipment for the home. 

Here is one such problem. In recent years there has been a sharn 
rise in the demand for table and standard lamps. The production 
of these lamps is increasing rather rapidly but it still hasn‘t 
manased to satisfy the population's demand. This is, first of 
all, due to a shortfall in the production of plastic-film and 
Lishtinz-engineerins materials at enterprises in the chemical, 
lishntins and paper industries. No small contribution to in- 
creasing the output of lamps for the home could have been made by 
local industry. At the enterprises of local industry they can 
exrediently orpanize the production of parts from ceramics, 
norcelain, wood and other decorative materials and sup»nly them 

to the electrical engineering industry by way of cooperatives. 

Our cooneration with commerce requires improvement, also. In- 
dustry, in fact, is oriented toward satisfyins the demands of 
commerce but, unfortunately, they do not always reflect the true 
dimensions of the demand. This, incidentally, serves as one of 
the reasons for interruptions in the lamp trade. As it turned 
out, a reat many lamps intended for the retail market went to 
Satisfy the needs of industry, communal domestic households and 
transportation. It is thought that the work bersun by the USS 
wintorgs (Ministry of Trade) along with the industrial ministries 
on the creation of an over-all system of studying and predicting 
the demand for domestic-use soods will help to eliminate the mis- 
calculations that have been made. The snecialized comnany stores 
of Minelektrotekhprom (Ministry of the Electrical Equipment In- 
dustry) in various cities in the country should become a freat 
heln in the practical study of the demand for home appliances. 

It seems necessary to master the economic mechanism that closely 
links the material incentives of the workers in commerce with 
that of the producers of goods for the home. 

Now a few words on component parts. Many industrial ministries 
which produce complex domestic equinment run up against great 
difficulties when obtaining products from cooperatives which 
often determine both the operational reliability and the func- 
tional potential of this or that device. There's a certain re- 
Sistance shown not only by plants in cooneratirs sectors but 
also by enterprises within the jurisdiction of the Minelektro- 
tekhprom, since component parts are not counted by it as consum- 
er ;oods. 

It's necessary for the State planning bodies to establish a sys- 
tem under which the organization of the production of component 
parts for domestic trade would be profitable for the enterprises, 
which would then be stimulated themselves in a corresponding 
manner. In our opinion, in some cases the assignment to produce 
component parts could be basic and even natural for those enter- 
prises. For example, for a plant such as “Miasselektroapparat” 
(expansion unkrowr), which provides the vaccuum motors for prac- 
tically every manufacturer of vaccuum cleaners in the country, 
this production could be considered as primary in resard to the 
output of consumer ,oods. In similar situations the potential 
broadens for solvins questions of integrating component units 
and individual parts, obtaining the maximal effect from the or- 
-anizvation of specialized production, and lowerin:s the unit cost 
of the product. 

The resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Coun- 
cil of Yinisters ruts at our disposal new controls for imoroving 
the entire economic mechanism of the socialist economy and for 
betterin~ the efficiency of social production in the name of in- 
creased »%rosperity for Soviet people. It's important to use 
tnese potentials sensibdly with maximum efficiency. 

‘3C: 1522 


Moscow TRUD in Russian 15 Sep 79 p 4 
(Commentary by S. Frokopchuk: “Water and Energy” ] 

(\Text] On the Dnestr, construction has begun of a unique complete 
hydraulic development which differs from other similar designs in 
that it allows for the immediate solution of four economic tasks. 

The beast, you'll have to admit, was somewhat sinister. The 
crirding of the huge ice floes, as they rose up on their legs and 
were driven by heavy spring floods, seemed to carry for hundreds 
of versts. The bluish-grey blocks, resting one upon the other, 
clambered up on the sently sloping banks. The Dnestr seemed to 
get mad. 

Is it this way often? 
Add it up, every five years... 

There was worry and alarm written on the face of V.A. Yaremchuk, 
secretary of the Kamenets-Podol‘skiy party raykom: there's trouble 
ahead if extraordinary measures are not undertaken. Why, it's 
here, and not only here, that they know the power anc the insid- 
iousness of this river's spring floods. The damage that it in- 
flicts is estimated in the millions of rubles. That's the way it 

And here I am azair on the Dnestr. It's autumn. The weather's 
warm. The Dnestr's now gentle and quiet beyond recognition. 

Prom a height, the panorama of the Dnestrovskiy complete hydraulic 
development is literally spread before your eyes. 

The construction project is unique. Its unusualness is concealed 
in its very name-a complete hydraulic development. In the first 
place, the electric energy produced at the hydroelectric station 
will be indispensible for the Ukraine's southern electrosystem 


during peak hours. In the second place, the three-b.llion cubic 
met2r reservoir will supply water to a number of oblasts and 
wil! irrigate 470,900 hectares of presently poor soi in the 
Ukraine and Moldavia. Finally, the hydraulic system will bring 
to a minimum the damages to hundreds of villages and cities 
caused by the wayward river. Mogilev-Podol'skiy, by the way, 
was flooded this springs by waters of the Dnestr. During high 
water, the flow will be “doled out” by the SES‘s dam. It will 
rusn throuzh six tunnels to the turbines and also through twelve 
special apertures in the body of the dam. 

However, this isn*t the only unique thing about the hydraulic 
development. Twenty kilometers downstream from the G&S, the 
builders are confronted with building a so-called “little sea"- 
a buffer reservoir. There one more electric power station will 
rise-a hydraulic accumulator. At nicht, on holidays and on off- 
days, when there's not a requirement for a great amount of elec- 
trical enerzy, the station's turbines, working like »umps, will 
traisfer water from the lower level to the higher level, as if 
aceumulatins it for future work. During peak load hours when 
electrical enersy is needed, the water will rush in the usual 
direction-down with the river's flow, where it will bezin to turn 
the turbines. 

™ut this is in the future. Now, the first unit of the GES‘s hy- 
draslic development should begin producing current as early as 
the end of 1980. 

Unfortunately, the fulfillment of these tasks is under a threat 

of work stoppage. Tne rate of laying concrete is being held up 

by tne deliveries of cement and rolled metal. These materials, 

so necessary for the construction, are being delivered in quan- 

tities smaller than are required. There's a constant arrhythmia 
moth in the livins quarters and in social services construction. 
‘he project requires more appreciable aid on the part of oblast 

yrcanizations and the USSR Ministry of Imergetics and Electrifi- 


Moscow EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA in Russian No 38, Sep 79 p 2 

‘Article by A.K. Antonov, minister of the electrical equipment 
industry: "The Electrical Equipment Industry" ] 

Text] In the review "The Electrical Equipment Industry” (weekly No. 
31) an objective economic analysis was given of the work in the 
sector on the further improvement of the efficiency of production, 
and the execution of the annual and Five-Year Plans. As was only 
fair, the shortcomings were noted along with the positive results. 

The Board of the Minelectrotekhprom has committed leaders of man- 
agement and unions to mobilize with scientific research institutes 
and conduct an over-all inquiry into those enterprises which have 
systematically not carried out their tasks and to draft a system 
of measures to undo the “bottlenecks” and to eliminate the causes 
of interference in stable and efficient work. In connection with 
the lag in fulfilling the plan for deliveries of electrical equip- 
ment for diesel locomotives, and also the breakdown of individual 
turtbosenerators manufactured by the “Zletrotyazhmash” plant in 
Kharkov, measures for rendering aid to the plant have been review- 
ed and approved by the board. Control over the execution of these 
measures has been established 

The ministry has analyzed the causes of the inefficient utiliza- 
tion existing in the power sector. The further increase in the 
work shift coefficient of equipment and the mechanization of in- 
dustrial processes is being held up by shortfalls in a number of 
specialized techrological processes. A program for the creation 
of an industrial production base for the manufacture of special- 
ized technological equipment is now being realized for the suc- 
cessful solution to this question. Its output will te earmarked 
for an independent subsector which will be given the responsibil- 
ity for the technical refitting of the corresponding processes in 
all enterprises. An intensive development of the production of 
such equipment is foreseen. For the 11th Five-Year-Plan, its 


production will increase two-fold. This will soon make possible 
a sharp reduction in the amount of manual labor as well as free 
labor resources to increase the work shift coefficient of the 
equipment and accelerate the mastery of new projects. 

Additional measures have been adopted for acceleratins the mas- 
tery of new technolosy for the production of lisht bulbs at the 
L*vov electric light plant, which will make possible an increase 
in the assembly-line load. At the Lurinets agricultural electric 
motor plant, additional foundry capacity will be brought about 
this year. This will guarantee a balance in the technolosical 
redistribution in the production of electric motors. 

"or 1980-1985 full plans for the economy of resources have been 
developed and approved. They include measures for the creation 
of products of simplified design, the introduction of low-waste 
technolosical processes, a broadening in the applicavzion of ad- 
vanced rolled metal and substitute profiles and the improvement 
of organization in storage, transport, and standardization of 
materials. An important position is set aside for measures to 
step up the output of products with increased work capacity, 
which will decrease the demand for such types of equinvment by 
consumers in the sector. This will make it possible to substan- 

tiatly raise the utilization coefficient of rolled ferrous and 
nonferrous metals. 

In the review, the shortcomings connected with the delay in set- 
tin., up an installation for economical cutting of electrotechni- 
-al-srade steel at the Yaroslav electrical machine construction 

Dlant have been imposed upon the guilty parties. At the present 
time, a network schedule has been drawn up and approved for com- 
missioning the installation in October of 1979. 

hi drafting the plan for 1980, the remarks made in the review 
were taken into consideration and the necessary resolutions were 
adopted, which permit increasing the level of economic activity 
and acceleratine the irtroduction and assimilation of new cana- 
eities. The realization of measures that demand a greater period 
of time for execution will be put into the draft of the plan for 

iy de 


Kiev PRAVDA UKRAINY 15 Aug 79 p 3 

{Article by V. Begishev, political observer for the APN: “nergy 
Resources of Vember-Nations of the CEMA") 

_Text] The well-known tension in the fuel-enerzy balance that 
has arisen in recent years in a number of European member-na- 
tions of the CEMA is no secret, but this doesn't »rovide any 
reason for discussing the development of some sort of “crisis” 
Situation. There's no doubt that energy is becoming more expen- 
Sive, and to a simificant degree this has brought about recent 
measures adopted by the majority of countries in the region to 
resulate retail prices. However, there is every reason to sup- 
pose that it is a question of steps that are temporary in nature, 
and that in the not too distant future the problem will be solved 
and solved fundamentally. 

we note, first of all, that lately in the West (especially in the 
reports of the CIA, then later picked up by mass media) there is 
a propagandistic version of how the energy resources of the so- 
cialist world are beinz depleted. This is disprove. by the 
facts. Not only is the output of energy-producings raw materials 
‘rowing (for example, the output of oil and refined products 

rose by three percent in our country for the first six months of 
this year, and natural gas output rose by nine percent more than 
it did for the same period last year) but the geological base of 
the fuel-extractive industry is constantly expanding. In the 
same way, 147 oil and gas deposits were discovered in the Euro- 
pean member-nations of the CEMA in only 1966-1975. These are 

not large-scale denosits but as a whole they create an appre- 
ciable reserve. In the Soviet Union in only the last year, 44 
such deposits were discovered. This came about even though some 
of the prosnective territories and wetlands (Western Siberia, for 
example, or the northern and eastern continental shelves) have as 
yet been little studied. Geologists also have (to their credit) 
accounted for such relatively recent “gifts” as the coal basins 


of Lyublin (40 billion tons) in Poland; Slani in Czechoslovakia; 
Tataban'i in Hungary and many others. However, of course one 
can’t count on this “picsry bank” being etermally refilled. In 
addition, the extraction of traditional energy resources is 
rettings more and more expensive. How is the problem to be 

The first solution lies in the broad developmer.t of atomic ener- 
zy. In combination with a number of other scientifically found- 
ed trends, it comprises the essence of a lons-term special pvro- 
gram of collaboration among member-nations of the CEMA in the 
area of energy, fuels and raw materials. The plan was approved 
at last year’s 32nd session of the CEMA. 

The drafting of this plan was brought about by two basic factors: 
the necessity for ensuring in the future a reliable energy base 
for the developins socialist economic structure and by the de- 
Sire to overcome the negative consequences of the unfavorable 
Situation taking shape on the world fuels and raw materials mar- 
ket. Tne latter is particularly important for those European 
members of the “=A that have their own limited reserves of 

fuel and raw materials. 

The program envisions the construction of atomic electric power 
stations of approximately 37 million kilowatts total output in 
the member nations of the CMEA and also in Cube. Two more such 
Stations will also be built in the USSR especially for the deliv- 
ery of energy to its brother nations. 


The fufilment of this segment of the program will be ensured 

torouch lLaree-scale multifaceted cooperation in the production 
of the equipment. A corresponding agreement which, in the fi- 
nal analysis, would make possible the increase by more than a 


vnird of the electrical energy potential of the CEMA member- 
nations and Cuba was sigmed in Moscow at the erd of June. 

Another important direction of the program is the increase in 
syteaction and the improved utilization of solid fuels. There is 
a hupe reserve for the socialist countries of Europe, and they 
are maxing more and more of an effort to utilize it fully. Thus, 
at the last session of the CEMA Willy Stof, head of the GDR‘s 
fele-cation and chairman of the GDR Council of Ninisters, re- 
orted on the intention of the GDR to apportion appreciable funds 
for ar even broader utilization of brown coal. The economical 

“xnenditure of fuel should aid measures directed at raisins the 

effielency of equipment at the more wide-spread thernal electric 
stations and, in particular, raising the output of the power 
nits. In the USS, for example, units of 800-1,200 kilowatts 

Lest Loe? wit] de installed. 


At the same time it’s assumed that the application of oil as a 
fuel will be limited. Oil and gas must be subjected to even 
mor? intensive refining. This is done partly in the interests 
of satisfying more completely the demands of the nations of the 
socialist cooperative for engine fuels. 

The program also provides a new impetus for the further develop- 
ment of unified electroenerry systems of our brother States. 

In the future this will allow the creation of the most powerful 

internation power amalgamation in the world, extending from the 

shores of the Pacific to the center of Europe. 

The realization of the plans we've outlined will simify a fiant 
stride forward in the matter of creating a material base for 
socialism and communism. Now and in the future the socialist 
countries can build the new society, fearing not the “enerry 






TUVINSKAYA ASSR ELECTRIFICATION--The electrification of the large 
‘illages of Tuvinskaya ASSR has been completed. Nov village 
enercy production has arrived at the next stage of the work--the 
electrification of field camps, cattle- breeding farms and shep- 
herds’ outposts. Electrical power engineers of the “Sel‘electro- 
stroy”, the Tuvinskoe construction and installation administra- 
tion, are conducting work in all regions of the autonomous repub- 
lic. This year they've installed dozens of transformer substa- 
tions and laid more than 200 km of electrical transmission lines. 
Text] (Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 30 Aug 79 p 2) 9512 

meter route of the Kolymskaya LEP (electrical transmission line) 
is: the Arkagalinskaya GRES (State regional electric power sta- 
tior.)-Yarodnoe-Sinesor' e-Orotukan-Strelka-Omsukchan... Even the 
heaviest orime movers can't go everywhere throujsh the mountain 
rid-es and swamps. In socialist competition on the line the 
tears of transmission-line tower assemblers is led by V. Pono- 
marenko; the fitters by A. Zaritovskovo; and the linemen by 

A. Dudenko. Two sections of the LEP totaling 150 km remain to 
be tuilt by the end of the year. Text] |Moscow STRCITEL'NAYA 
‘AZETA in Russian @ Jul 79 p 2] 9512 

)IZM.EKAYSEAYA GES--The first of the Nizhnekamskaya SES‘s power 
anits has been put into operation. Preparations are under way 
for the installation of a second hydroturbine which the builders 
ire committed to put into operation by the end of this year. The 
Nighnekamskaya GO.LS, with a power of more than 1.20 billion kilo- 
watts, will be the third and largest station on the Volga tribu- 
Lary. Text Woscow STROITEL’NAYA GAZETA in Russian 6 Jul 79 

5" oc? 
‘ -. =. 

, 7 = 

iCdce LINSS IN DAGESTAN--The first reinforced concrete trans- 
mission ~line towers have risen along the shore of the Caspian 

se2 in the Derbent-ihachmas sector. The more than 100-kilometer- 
long electric power bridge connects the Northern Caucasas and 

Transcaucasas systems. As early as next year the power of the 
Chirkeyskaya GES will flow along the new LEP-330. low the ener- 
gy of this large-scale hydroelectric plant in the Northern Cau- 
casas (its power--one million kilowatts) is trausmitted to Ki- 
zilyurt, Croznyy, Makhachkala and Derbent along four electric 
lines. The additional flow of electric enerry was accelerated 
by the growth of new settlements and industrial and arricultural 
complexes. Besides this, the hydrotechnical structures of the 
GES have become reliable regulators of the flow of the raring 
rivers. This has permitted increasing the area under irrigation 
and has led to crop rotation on massive new tracts of land. 
‘Text ] (Woscow TRUD in Russian 5 Sep 79 pnp 1! 9512 

SURSUTSKAYA GRES—At the Surgutskaya GRES the tenth power unit, 
with an output of 210,000 kilowatts, has been put in*o indus- 
trial service. The power output of the station has reached 2.12 
billion kilowatts. The Surgutskaya GRES is the power-producing 
heart of the entire Priob‘ye oil region. It provides electrical 
power to the oil fields, refining plants, buildings and the oil 
workers’, builders’ and geologists’ cities. This GRES is the on- 
ly one in the country operating on incidental natural gas. Put- 
tins it into operation has made it possibe to enploy a simifi- 
cant portion of the fuel which had not been utilized previously. 
Puilders of the station will put one more unit of the Surgutskaya 
SRES into operation during the fourth quarter. (Text!) Woscow 
SOTSIALISTICHESKAYA INDUSTRIYA in Russian 23 Aus 79 p 1) 9512 

MARYYSKAYA GRES -- The installation of the 210,000-kilowatt tur- 
bogenerator of the fifth power unit at the Maryyskaya USSR 50th 
Anniversary GRES was accomplished a month ahead of schedule. 

witn the commissioning of this unit the output of the most power- 
ful electric power station in Turkmeniya will reach 1.05 million 
kilowatts at the end of the year. (Text) Moscow MOSKOVSKA‘TA 
PRAYDA in Russian 29 Aug 79 p J 96512 

Roveonskaya atomic power plant has arrived on the construction 
platform. The collective at the reknowned Zhdanov plant in 
Izhorskiy worked for more than a year on its manufacture. Spe- 
clalists from that enterprise, headed by chief engineer A. Koren- 
skiy have begun lowering the casing into a concrete pit. Ina 
little while the heart of this atomic plant, the reactor, will 
becin beating within the casing. iText] (Kiev RAPOCHAYA GAZETA 
in Russian 1 Aug 79 p 2 9512 

ao epno* 
jut ; > *.t. 





OBSHCHESTVENNYKH NAUK in Russian No 6, May 79 pp 36-40 

[Article by Yu. IT. Meksimov, Institute of Economics and Orranization of 
Incustrial Production, Siberian Division, USSR Academy of Sciences: "Model- 
ing: the Development of the Fuel-Energy Complex” )} 

(Text) Problems of modeling geological exploration are examined in this 
article as part of inter-industry complexes (on the example of the industry 
System that embraces geological exploration, the gas industry and the oil 
and gas construction industry). 

About SO percent of eas consumption in the USSR is in the regions of the 
Urals and the European part of the country and upwards of 50 percent of 
predicted reserves of natural gas are in Siberia. And the prime reserves 

f commercial-catecory eas are concentrated in a small number of unique 
leporits in the northern rayons of Tyumenskaya Oblast. Meanwhile in the 
Tenth Five-Year Plan the gas-yielding regions formerly supplying most rains 
\G @as recovery now are among the regions with stabilizing or even declin- 

; recovery. Shifting of the industry to unpopulated regions with challen- 
ring natural-climatic conditions meant a worsening of the main technica) and 
economic indicators of gas recovery and trunk pipeline transport. 

Vatural eas is among the mineral resources hardest to trap, so costs in geo- 
lorical exploration make up a good part of total outlays for exploratica, 
recovery, preparation and pipeline transport of natural gas. Current cut- 
‘ays for reological exploration roughly equal the capital investments for 
bulldinge up the corresponding gas recovery regions and over the long run 
“ill exceed them by 1.5=2 times. For sake of comparison ve note that the 

te in eeologcical exploration for iron-ore and coal deposits are only 
- pereent of the costs for constructing the corresponding mining enter- 
erises*. Searching and exploring for ofl and natural gas deposits takes up 

e than half of all allocations for geological exploration. 

fu. A. Sokolovakiy, “Ekonomicheskiye problemy geologorazvedochnykh rabot” 
Economic Problems in Geological Exploration], Novosibirsk, Izdatel'stvo 
“Nauka,” 1974, 114 pages 

meOlogical exploration is set aside in a separate sector of the national] 
economy. But its effectiveness must be evaluated from the standpoint of 
realizing national-economic end goals. Optimizing the country's fuel- 

energy complex makes it possible to evaluate the rational proportion of 

natural gas in the country’s fuel-energy balance. Let us look at a two- 
level system of models for optimizing the long-term plans for the develop- 
ment of an inter-industry program complex, in which the network optimiza- 
tion models sie used at different hierarchical levels: a) the lower level, 
where gas-yielding regions (including geological exploration) are examined 
a5 ‘the pianning objects and systems of trunk gas pipelines and enterprises 
in the oll and gas construction industry and b) the upper level, where the 
: > 

- ~~ f . } “Wo . _ " 77 4 ‘ ?_ . . " re . 

pianning object i ne system that embraces the Unified Ga upply System 
Val. ” + he ‘ me wey 72 legit . 2 — ee = thea -~f 7 ™ ca ~ *? een 
: Ae ‘ val Jt ->J eo POLOFICAL " re spec iti aAnG tne was huis . Si ons oie 
+ion naustry . 
| , o* * Parr ol 1 fw. tm . : - ° } A * 
: “ LOOK AL nme NevWwork < ptims Zation model of the Apper i.eVvel. AS the 

° . . ’ : > > 4 4 ~ : : . : . ’ 7 . ~ . 
t 1 Tunmction we take the condition of minimizing the total prorated costs 
’ . > " *% . : _- . j <> ve : — <Fres 4 
"Onstructing and reconstructing the object: » the Tew, fas recovery 

“~aF “~s + " : ’ * eae ~ + ° » @ * » } ef «zm 7 w ~~ 
Miia ies :* * Lt 4: Lm1S P ? - anc tr e car? yan ou c T reoi » sc a4 PAs ~ rat ion. 

mn tne network model of the upper level, the optimization variables will 

pe ne gas recovery volumes and the increment in gas reserves in the eas- 
yielding regions, as well as the values of the inter-regional eas flow 
tnroumh the functioning and the in-planning systems of fas trunk pipelines. 

~ Bust be noted that the lack of gas reserve increments for any of the 

"ase-yleilding regions will evidence (within the framework of the probler 
‘hat carrying out geological prospecting in thir region from the 
tanadpoint of getting the end product is not effective. Wwever, in local 
estimates the actual costs in geological exploration in this region can 
prove to be at a minignam. 
Effective us r network optimization models in long-term planning is based 
iw ‘undamental and fairly recently elaborated principles--working out of 
atilevel system ' models and optimizing the development o*° industrial 
ystems. As a model of the upper level, we can select in the multilevel 
t ; Models the resource network schedule, whos: tudies will be char- 
ceri 1 t arameters in four categories: estimate of the duration for 
. then it and of the required resources corresponding to their 
‘ : tes, as well as volume f produc’ itput*. 
iderat a directed aph 3 on whose structure ! pecial con- 
t t ar ry ). his form ui be adopted in describing the system o! 
* Ler arac* er) i fi tne operatior;r 1.5 e€e ; ‘ arare ler of bas de 
> , 1.8) a ’ i fied by the matri »_ w , wi ‘h ce ‘ri be the 
re* ndet fr the prorated ts and the demand for resourc« 
.7 ry ; ut : rye , ‘é re ft ; r Les . 
’ : ; ; : _ i Ht imi) ry ; >)” ; | ane 

Let there be n operating end in-planning gas-yielding regions. We will 
call a gas-yielding rezior an operating region if a certain level of gas 
recovery vill have been already attained in it by the becinning of the 
period in question. We will define as an in-planning feis-yiel ding rerion 
ome where the gas recovery is virtually absent by the beginning of the 
period + question, but the region can begin operating during this period 
of time. 

It must be noted that under the proposed approach tc optimizing the deve- 
lopment of the industrial system including the gas industry, geological 
exploration and the oil and gas construction industry, no regions are 
singled out for geological prospecting. This work can be carried out 
either in the operating or the in-planning gas-yielding regions. And 
for each of them to be able to bezin operating during the period of 
time in question, the strategy of conducting geological prospecting in 
the period must be spelled out so that most of the capital investments 

are allocated for the increment in category c, reserves (with ascurance 

of the minimum attainable proportion of the increment in category B re- 
serves). Under this approach to modeling the industrial system we are 
locking at there is the possibility of estimating the effectiveness of 
the increment in eas reserves in each region of the country in terms of 
the end product, that is, from the standpoint of gettine the maximum 
national-economic benefit from natural gas use. 

The subset of operating gas-yielding regions n, (n. <n) is connected to 

the centers of gas consumption by the functioning system of cas trunk pipe- 
lines. Let these systems of gas pipelines, as to configuration, be speci- 
fied oy the augmented matrix of incidence A = Hla, II. During the planned 

peclod of time there may be reconstruction of the functioning network of 

fas trunk pipelines, without changing the matrix of incidence A. In addi- 
tion, when the resource network schedule is used, we must specify as the 

op imization model of the upper level also the augmented matrix of incidence 
\= la, ll. corresponding to the possible development of the system of eas 

trunk pipelines. This network can either link up the in-planning gas- 
yielding regions with some gas consumption centers or form new gas flows 
from individual eas-yielding regions. 

1. T. Maksimov, “Network models in long-term planning of the development 
f the gaz industry,” EXONOMIKA GAZOVOY PROMYSHLENNOSTI, No 11, 1975, 
op 315; ibid, “Network models in long-term planning of the development and 

the siting of eas industry objects,” in the book: “Optimizats‘ya planov raz- 
vitiya | razmeshchenlya obrabatyuvayushchikh otrasley promyshiennosti” [Op- 
timization of Plans for the Development and Siting of Processing Industries], 

Novosibirsk, Institute of Economics and Organization of Industrial Produc- 
tion, Siberian Division, USSR Academy of Sciences, 1977, pp 3-16. 

To vind the characteristics of the network schedule operations, we assume 
that we know the prorated costs as functions of the gas volumes in all the 
operating gas-yielding regions, the costs for geological exploration (the 
dependence of costs on the increment in reserves), the operating costs as 
a Tunction of the productivity for each augmented section of the function- 
ing system o. gas trunk pipelines and the prorated costs as functions of 
the gas flows for the augmented sections of the in-planning network of fas 
trunk pipelines. 

The value of Qo Fas a function of the origin of the operations (a,B) in a 

particular augmented object of the YeGS will stand for the volume of fas 
recovery in any gas-yielding region, the productivity of the augmented 
section of the functioning or projected system of gas trunk pipelines 
and the increment in gas reserves by individual gas-yielding region. 

Let us note the main constraints taken into account in the network model 
of the upper level: a) on the minimum attainable annual gathering of fas 
from the gas-yielding regions that are operating; b) on the total eas 
recovery country-wide (by years of the planning period); and «) the recur- 
rent balance ratios on the recovery volumes and the increment in gas re- 

In addition, in accordance with the augmented matrix of incidence of the 
functioning system of gas trunk pipelines A and the augmented matrix of 
incidence of the in-planning network of gas pipelines A, balance constraints 
of the equality of gas flows in each of the branch points and the endpoints 
of the functioning or in-planning augmented systems of gas trunk pipelines 
must be imposed on the variables sa being optimized. 

The complex of constraints on the resources can be described as follows: 

Sont’ py RU), OF te 7 4) 


where D(t) is the vector-diagram of the distribution of resources obtained 
by optimizing the network model of the upper level; and R(t) is the con- 
Straints on the resources specified from the allied industries. 

And resources are understood, in the broad sense of the word, to refer to 
both material and equipment, as well as labor resources. So constraints 
on the shipments of pipe and gas pumping installations as weli as on the 
capacity of enterprises and the construction base of the oil and gas con- 
struction industry can be allowed for in the complex of constraints (1). 

Let us note the need to allow for the following ratio: 

” n 
S Qin ~ Quer 
Jo es 7 (2) 

qs 4 . Gy .1 



te value of parameter & in Eq (2) must be specified on the basis of cuicu- 
lations made at the national-economic level. As Eq (2) tells us, the ratio 
of the total volumes of geological exploration and the total volumes of fas 
recovery is regulated by €. When — = 1, the multiplicity factor of the 

ar reserves at the end of the planning period is retained just as it was 

at the berinning of this period. If &<1, the rate of increment in reserves 
must outpace the recovery rate. The quantity — > 1 denotes the decrease in 
the multiplicity factor of the gas reserves by the end of this planning 
period under consideration. 

Arreement between the different stages of development ur reconstruction of 
rac-yielding regions and the corresponding systems of gas trunk pipelines 
is brought about by introducing the necessary connections when constructed 
directed craph®. Papers by Maksimov’ describe one of the possible itera- 
vive procedures of interchanging information between the upper and lower 
levels; as a result of this procedure agreement is obtained for the solu- 
tions to these levels. Information about the functions of costs for dif- 


. ee 
‘yor * 
iCcTet I 

reaS objects and for geological exploration comes to the upper level. 
fut to the models of the lower level is transmitted information about the 
listridution of the constrained resources by YeGS objects and geological 
“xXpioration, as well as intrormation about the successive apprceximation of 
‘heir optimal productivities. 

note that applying the network approaches in multilevel systems of 
s4cls of optimal long-term planning of the development of incustrial sys- 
ters allows us to investigate the correlations and properties of the deve- 

"' these systems whose study would be extremely difficult--with the 
of other optimization models--or theoretically impossible. Among the 

ivantares of the network models we must include: a) the possibility of 
relatively cimple optimization of the long-term plan on a dynamic basis, 
wich ie predetermined by the essentials of network models; b) establish- 
ment of the necessary interconnections in time between different stares of 

* installation or reconstruction of any object, as well as between tech- 
Oiorieally coordinated stages of installing individual objects; c) addi- 
‘ionul possibilities of allowing for the connections of the industrial sys- 
tem in question with allied industries of the nationa] economy by usin; 

the scheme of deliveries; and d) the virtual absence of rigorous require- 
ments on the Kind of functions for the complex of constraints and the end 
function assumed (for example, linearity, convexity and so on). 

(u. 1. Maksimov, "Network models in long-term planning of the development 
und sitine of gas industry objects"; ibid, “Agreement of network models of 
lonv-term planning of the development of the industry and enterprise (on the 
‘xruuple of the Unified Gas Supply System of the Country),"” in the book: 

tcllrovaniye vnutrennykh i vneshnikh svyazey otraslevykh sistem" [Model- 
ing Internal and External Connections of Industrial Systems!, Novosibirsk, 
[zdatel'stvo “Nauka,” 1976, pp 219-228. 


The approach described in this article was used in making multivariant cal- 
‘ulations in predicting the development of the gas industry for the period 
to the year O00. An examination was made of variants of ras industry dev- 
elcpment characterized by maximum acceleration and intensification of tech- 
nical progress both in the designing, construction and operation of extra- 
capacity systems of trunk pipeline gas transport (especially for specific 
Siberian conditions), as well as in the development of unique gas deposits: 
transport of supercooled gas through large-diameter pipelines, use of fas 
pumping installations with increased per-unit capacity and reliability and 
-Oo on. 

These calculations show that the optimal productivity of a 1420 mm diameter 
gas trunk pipeline, at maximum allowable working pressure of 120 atm is 
5-50 billion m>/year. But if the temperature of the gas transported is 
cooled to -65° to -75° C, the productivity of this gas pipeline rises to 
66-74 billion m>/year. As calculations show, metal consumption can be low- 
‘red here by 28-35 percent. Gas pumping installations with a per-unit cap- 
ucity of 25,000 and 50,000 kW would be optimal for the planned flows of 
‘yumenskaya gas. Use of gas pumping installations with increased per-unit 
capacity would permit lowering the capacity of the installed stock of as 
pumping installations by 30-40 percent in the llth and 12th five-year plans. 
As analysis of the experience in designing, installing and operating fas 
industry objects shows, there are good reserves in the industry. We must 
mention that special attention was given to analyzing sources of reserves 
tnat help in reducing capital investments in the industry and in lowerins 
material consumption and the capital-to-output ratio without displacing 
heavy additional requirements on the allied industries in the national 
economy (for example, installing line sections of gas trunk pipelines that 
are telescoping by pressure, shortening the schedules for bringing gas 
trunk pipelines up to design rating and so on). 

etniled calculations were made in predicting gas recovery from the deposits 

f the Western Siberian oil and gas-bearing province. 

The bLoginning of the industrial exploitation of natural gas deposits in the 
Western Siberian oil and gas-bearing province can be conditionally regarded 
13 1965, but gas recovery in this year was slight. In 1970 it was 4.7 per- 
‘ont of the union-wide recovery, and in 1975 it climbed to 11.5 percent of 
the union-wide recovery. Siberian gas recovery in 1980 is planned at the 
level of 32-37 percent of the union-wide recovery. 

Over the long run, Siberian gas (even given the condition that the variant 
is assumed in which the gas is relatively slowly brought into national- 
economic turnover) will satisfy a considerable fraction of both the union- 
wide gas demand, and export deliveries of natural gas. So the industrial 
problems of the development and siting of the gas industry will become, 
eacn year, increasingly Siberian problems. 


COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Izvestiya Sibirskogo otdeleniya AN SSSR", 

10123 37 

CSO: 1822 


Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 18 Sep 79 p 2 

[Article by V. Timonin, General Director of Mangyshlakneft' Production Asso- 
ciation, Shevchenko: “Difficult Oi1"] 

(Text]| Oil from Mangyshlak proceeds through pipelines to the central regions 
o* the country in a continuous flow from the hot deserts. Currently new fields 
on the Buzachi Peninsula are becoming operational. Their development is indic- 
ative of the development of the Mangyshlak territorial production conplex. At 
the same time, we oilfield operators are inclined to speak more of unsolved 
problems than of our successes, And there are a number of difficulties on both 
oid and new oilfields. 

Mangyshiak oil contains high percentages of paraffin, tar and asphalt components. 
Accordingly it hardens at a temperature of +32 degrees. This property leads to 
complexities in its extraction, collection and transport. Accordingly, the oil 
corkers are taced with a good number of problems. Let me discuss a few of them. 

« development of the Uzen' field was planned by the All-Union Scientific Re- 
Search Institute of Oil and Gas. To increase output, it was planned to pump 
ot water into the reservoirs, This was logical. But the planners did not say 
vocre 150,000 cubic meters of fresh water a year would be obtained and how it 
would be heated. For we live and work in the desert, where there is not enough 
witer tor either industrial or domestic needs. The Caspian Sea and underground 
mineral waters are a realistic source. But we have been able to heat such a 
quantity of sea and mineral water and have had no commercial facility to do so, 
Tie specialists of the Mangyshlakneft' association, together with various plan- 
ing and research institutes, have been trying to solve this problem for a num- 
ot years--and without any particular success, it must be said. Various 

ws of heating installations have been developed and tested, but the pilot 
commercial stage has never been reached. There are now six types of installa- 
tions in operation on the Uzen' field, but not one of them has been put into 
weries production, since all of them suffer from inadequacies. 

jie Uzen' field has natural hot waters: there is no need to heat them, and they 
can be taken and pumped into the formations. And we are doing so, but we are 


pumping a total of only two or three thousand cubic meters. The extensive 
utilization of these waters is being delayed by the chronic shortage of under- 
ground pumping units capable of working at high temperatures. Thus we have 
nothing te heat cold water with and nothing to pump hot water with. For this 
reason, two-thirds of the mineral water is fed into the reservoir without heat- 
ing. As a result, we risk failing to reach the planned yields tor the reser- 

And this is not all. Several years after the beginning of operation of the 
oilfield, when the mineral water that had been pumped into the reservoirs 
appeared in the wells, there arose new difficulties: the precipitation of 
undissolved salts. They precipitate in the bottom-hole region of the wells, 
in the spaces in the underground equipment, and on the inner surfaces of oil- 
tield piping. There are frequent stoppages for repair, preventive maintenance 
and replacement of out-of-order equipment, leading to considerable losses of 
time and resources, and these of course decrease the yield of oil. 

In addicion to salt formation, hydrogen sulfide contamination of the reservoirs 
has begun. The hydrogen sulfide has appeared in the casing-head gas. This has 
made its utilization more difficult, since the gas refinery that has been built 
is incapable of sulfur purification. Now we have had to build a facility in 

a hurry. 

There might be no point in dwelling is such detail on the problems of Uzen" if 
they were by nature confined only to Mangyshlak. The problem is that salt de- 
position and hydrogen sulfide contamination are typical of many of the country's 
iields: the problems also afflict the oil workers of Perm', Orenburg and West 
Siberia. They show up in different ways, but they inevitably bring losses. 

When the general outline and the development plans for the oilfields are being 
drawn up, our sectorial institutes do not take into account the chemistry of 
the reservoir and the pumped-ir waters, and do not try to forecast the proces- 
ses which might develop subsequently. And academic science is remote from this 
problem. I do not wish to accuse the researchers and planners of shortsighted- 
ness. Rather, they are simply striving to make their plans less expensive. 
they do achieve economies, but during operation of the oilfields the state loses 
much more than it saves, A certain share of the blame also lies with the sec - 
torial staff: the Ministry of the Petroleum Industry. It is no secret that 

in order to speed up oil extraction, scientific studies and detailed prepara- 
tion of accompanying industries are frequently ignored. 

let us turn to the decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of 
Ministers "On Improving Planning and Strengthening the Influence of the Economic 
Mechanism on the Improvement of Production Efficiency and Work Quality." This 
document discusses the necessity of developing programs for solution of the most 
important scientific and technical problems and making comprehensive use of 
natural resources. The results of fundamental and applied research are to be 

taken into account, and the ultimate aims, the technical and economic results, 
the schedules and the stages of performance of the work are to be defined. But 
the importance of the oil industry is now so great that our sectorial problems 
must also be solved in the framework of such a program, 

We are now preparing to develop that new oilfields of Kalamkas and Karazhanbas 
on the Suzachi Peninsula. But the same story has been repeated there: there is 
oil, there is the desire to extract it, but an optimal process for extraction 
and the corresponding equipment are lacking. 

The oil from the Karazhanbas field contains much tar andis highly viscous. With 
existinz methods, not more than 10-15 percent of it can be extracted. In order 
to increase the yield, thermal treatment of the reservoir will be necessary. 
Neither this country nor foreign countries have any experience in che extensive 
use of thermal methods. Karazhanbas is the first large oilfield where their 
use is planned from the very beginning. To study thermohydrodynamic processes 
and improve the method, pilot commercial work is planned for two experimental 
fields. On one of them, the method of in-situ moist combustion will be tested. 
vat this advanced method is slow in reaching commercial scale: the equipment 
and centrol and measuring apparatus are lacking. It is true that the Ministry 
o' Chemical and Petroleum Machine Building has begun to produce special units, 
but they are of low capacity and can only fit out two or three injection wells. 

Piings are no better with the development and production of equipment for steam 
treatment of reservoirs. The main difficulty is that Mangyshlakskaya Oblast 
lacks sources of fresh water for the steam generators. Desalination installa- 
tions are required, but ro one has begun to produce them, 

| -t me vention one progressive direction in the oil extraction industry: the 
ise of chemical reagents. For example, to increase the output of reservoirs 

the Kalamkas fieid, water thickened with polymers will be used. This will 
wake it possible to raise the viscosity of the water close to that of the oil 
under reservoir conditions, which will significantly increase yields. 

should Like to stress that this is not the first time that the above-mentioned 
problems have been discussed. Three years ago, four ministries, those of 
Chemical Machinery, Power Machinery, Instrument Making, and the Chemical In- 
dustry, were assigned the development and delivery to the o/1 workers wf equip- 
ment «md apparatus for thermal treatment of reservoirs. The Ministry of the 
Chemical Industry and the Ministry of the Petroleum Industry were to increase 
their production of the necessary reagents. Since then there have been no 
isportant changes. But it should be kept in mind that the supplies of oil are 
net unlimited, and the way in which the national economy is supplied with oil 
in the future will depend on how today's problems are sclved. 

CSO: j8)? END 


15 At 74