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JPRS 75451 
7 April 1980 

Sub-Saharan Africa Report 

No. 2231 



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JPRS 75451 

7 April 


No. 2231 



Guinean Minister Views Ties With Morocco 
(Abdoulaye Toure Interview; LE MATIN, 17 Mar BO) sees 

Pope May Visit Zimbabwe on African Tour 
(THE SUNDAY MAIL, 16 Mar 80) ccccsccccccccvcccseccesss 

Pasy Transit to Swaziland by Mozambican Youth, SNASP 
(Ar iindc Lopes; TEMPO, 3 Feb 80) eee een eee eee eee 

Equatorial Guinea Refugees Leave Gabon 
BADEA Loans 
Zambia Accepts Rhodesian Passports 


Dos Santos Exhorts Peasants To Increase Production 
(Jose Eduardo dos Santos; JORNAL DE ANGOIA, 

eT Feb RO) seer epeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeereeeeeeeeeee ee © 

UNITA Tactics in Border Area Described 
(Jan van Ree; THE HERALD, 14 Mar 80) ccccccccccccsececs 

Diamang Figures Show Production Drop 
( WEST AFRICA, 1O Mar RO) seer eeeeeeereeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 


Delegation to JCP Congress 
Diamond Receipts Up 

°*¢@e [III - NE & A ~ 



~~} ~) 





CONTENTS (Continued) 

National Assembly Approves 1980 Budget 
( vo? DI POVO, 15 Feb 80) eee eer eee eee eee eee eee ee ee 

Sal FIR Again Operational 
Cooperation With Spain Viewed 

No Political Solution to Pactional Problems Bmerging 
(LE MONDE, 13 Feb 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 
High Tension in Ndjamena 
A Devastated City, by Philippe Decraene 
Results of French-Congolese Joint Commission Session 
(Pierre Nze}3 ETUMBA, 23 Feb 80) eee eee eee ee eeee 
Minister Discusses Gulf Countries, Tour, Islamic Meeting 
(Moumin Bahdon Farah Interview; LE REVEIL DE 
DJIBOUTI, 7 Feb 80) eee e eee eeee eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 
Gains Since Rural Land Nationalization, AEPA Cited 
(Editorial; THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD, 4 Mar BO) seceves 
Kenaf Pianting To Be Encouraged 
(THE ETHICPIAN HERALD, 9 Mar 80) eee eee eee eee eee 
Contraband Textiles 

Financial Problems Said Main Obstacle to National 
Deve lopment 

(Genevieve Sigisbert; EUROPE OUTREMER, Sep 79) ... 

Problems Affecting Fruit Froduction Detailed 
(Ray Autra; AFRICA, Feb 80) oe Pee eee eee eee eee ee 









CONTENTS (Cont inued) Pag 
Premier Sun, Banda Hold Talks in Blantyre 
(CNA, 18 Mar 80) seer ee eee eee eee eee e eee eee eee eee eee 4) 
Rhodesian Attacks Seconded by Domestic Saboteurs 
(Bditorial; TEMPO, 3 Feb 80) COPE eee eee eee 4e 
Koranic Retaliation Law Judged Too Severe 
(TEMPO, 3 Feb 80) see eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee ee eeeeee 4S 
People's Stores Reportedly Closed to Military 
(TEMPO, 3 Feb 80) *eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 7 
SWAPO Delegate to WPC Says Prisoners Are Tortured 
(THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD, 5 Mar 80) .ssscsscseseceeees Le 
Terrorists Murder of Ovambo 50 
Sappers Killed 50 
Civilians Die From Landmine 50 
Budget Figures 51 
Lutherans Against Government Regulations 51 
Khomasdal Autonomy Shelved 51 
President Visits Future Intensive Stock-Raising Site 
(LE SAHEL, l Feb’ 80) eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeee 52 
Djermakoye Reports on Deve! opment Company to AFN 
(LE SAHEL, 30-31 Jan 80 ) eee eee eee eee ee ee eee eee ee ee 54 
Independence Day Set for April 17 
( THE HERALD, 15 Mar 80) serene eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 56 
Mugabe Unveils Priorities 

( THE HERALD, 14 Mar 80) eeeereeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 58 

CONTENTS (Continued) Pare 

Robert. Mugabe--A Blographic Profl lk: 
( ZEMEDELSKO ZNAME , 16 Mar 40) eeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeee HO 

Lvovpo Analyzes Election Victory 
(THE SUNDAY MAIL, 16 Mar 80) cecccccccccccccccccece 62 

Hamutyinel Recounts Days With Robert Mugabe 
(M. A. Hamutyineij THE HERALD, 15 Mar 80) cecceceee 64 

New Information Minister Shamuyarira Profiled 
( THE HERALD, 13 Mar 80) seeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 66 

Shamuyarira on Crucial Issues Facing Whites 
(THE HERALD, 15 Mar 80) eee eepeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 67 

New Youth Minister Nhongo Profiled 
(Heather Silk; THE HERALD , 13 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeee 69 

Future of Losing Parties in Doubt 
(THE HERALD, le Mar 80) eee eee eee eee eee eee eee eee eee 71 

Election Results Sparks Moving Queries 
(THE HERALD, 12 Mar 80) cccccccccccccscccccccsecees 72 

Cartoon Depicts Difficulty in Selecting President 
( THE HERALD, L5 Mar 80) *eenereeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 73 

Rev Cunaan Banana Expected To Be New President 
(THE SUNDAY MAIL, 16 Mar SO) ccecccccccccccvccccces Th 

Rural War Damage Estimated at $75 Million 
( THE HERALD, 13 Mar HO) eee eee eee eee eee ee eee eee 76 

PM: Sense of Security All Important 
( THE HERALD, 13 Mar #0) *eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 78 

Nkomo Urges ‘Renegade’ PF Men To Report 
(Francis Malongwa; THE HERALD, 13 Mar 80) ..cececes 80 

Editorial Comment, Opinion Published 
(Editorials; THE HERALD, various dates) ...cccosccces 81 

New Cabinet 
Police Reserves 
Develorpnent Plans 
Woman in Cabinet 
Independence Date 

CONTENTS (Continued) 

Crowds Throng ZANU (PF) Party Office 
(THE HERs hn, L3 Mer 40) POR O RE PEP PPP Pee eee eee ee 2 

Major Overhaul of ZRBC Expected 
(THE SUNDAY MAIL, 16 Mar 80) eseeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

Bulle: I Am Not Leaving Country 
( THE SUNDAY MAIL, L6 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

Mozambique Asked To Return UANC Supporters 
(THE HERALD, 12 Mar 80) cecccccccccccccccesevececs 

Little Movement Yet as PVs Open 
(THE HERALD, 14 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

Committee on Forces Has Second Meeting 
(THE HERALD, 15 Mar 80) eee eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

Dutch Aid Pledge Reported 
( THE HERALD, 13 Mar 80) eeeeveeeeeveeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

Ian Smith Quietly Leaves Office 
(THE HERALD, 13 Mar 80) scecccccccccccccccsccesses 

Lady Soames Addresses ZIPRA Troops 
(THE HERALD , 14 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

Curfews in Bu wayo To End 
(THE H ALD, 15 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

Chinese Overtures, Wishes Reported 
( THE HERALD, 15 Mar 80) e*eeeeeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

ICRC Surveys Reveal Widespread Suffering 
(THE SUNDAY MAIL, 16 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

ICRC Delegation Prepares To Leave 
(THE HERALD, 13 Mar 80) eeeeveeneeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

University Enrollment Increase Expected 
(THE SUNDAY MATL, 16 Mar GO) .eccccccccccccccccces 

Students Left Out of Phase One Call-Ups 
(THE HERALD, 15 Mar 80) eeeeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

No Cal.i-Up of Men Over Fifty Planned 
(THE HERALD, 12 Mar 80) eseeeeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

- C-}- 


'e\ 4) 










CONTENTS (Continued) Pape 

Claims of Phantom Army Just 'Hogwash' Says Spokesman 
[Se GED. 18 Gap UO) cccccccececcccecececeeces 103 

Major Security Force Command Changes Reported 
(THE HERALD, 14 Mar 40) e*eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 104 

Abundance of Capital Predicted 
(THE HERALD-BUSINESS HERALD, 13 Mar 80) wesceeees 106 

Agriculture Minister States Priority 
(Various sources, various dates) cecscccecscccccece 108 

Land Resett lement 
Cartoon View 

Reportage on Maize Incentive Bonus Scheme 
(THE HERALD, 14, L5 Mar 80) sree eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 110 

Early Delivery Encouraged 
Further Details 

Fuel-Saving Device Patented by Salisbury Man 
( THE HERALD, 14 Mar 80) eeneeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeneeeeeee 113 

Airlines Fear AZR Fare Monopoly 
(THE HERALD, 12 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeenenee 115 

Union Carbide To Build Technical College 
(THE HERALD, 15 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeene 117 

Resumption of Cattle Sales in TTL's Reported 
(THE SUNDAY MAIL, 16 Mar 80) ceccccccccsccccccees 118 

Que Que Awards Water Contracts 
(THE HERALD-BUSINESS HERALD, 13 Mar 40) weccccees 120 

Raii Electrification Project Opens for Bids 
(THE HERALD-BUSINESS HERALD, 13 Mar 80) ..ceceeee 121 

African Farmers To Press for Farm Ownership 
(Cynthia Brodie; THE HERALD, 14 Mar 80) ..ccceees 122 

New Menager: 'Tilcor Set To Meet Challenge’ 
( THE HERALD, 12 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 124 


CONTENTS (Continued) Page 

More Armed Clashes 125 
Success of Revaluation 125 
Protected Villages Opened 126 
New Identity Cards 126 
CFU Meeting 126 
Missing Persons Probe 126 
ZANU Plea 127 
More Refugee Transit Camps 127 
France 'Ready for Official Ties' 127 
Stockthefts at Selukwe 128 
Mrs Chitepo Returns 128 
White Immigration 128 
Job Change Policies 128 
Chihota Fined 129 
Police Camp Deaths 129 
Incidents of Intimidation 129 
Censorship Ban Lifted 129 
Datsun Assembly Survey 129 
Maize Industry 130 

"LE MONDE' Views Background to Cancelation of Giscard 
Senegal Visit 
(Pierre Biarnes; LE MONDE, 16-17 Mar 80) .cecesseee 131 

Economic Difficulties Jeopordize Senegalization of Capital 
(Joel Decupper}3 AFRICA, Feb 80 eeeeeeeeseseeeesese 133 

Minister Responds to 'ANDE SOPI' Attacks 
(Djibril Sene; LE SOLEIL, 23-2) Feb 80) ..cceeceess 136 

PDS Convention Held in Dakar 
(LE SOLEIL, 2 3225 Feb 80 ) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeees 138 


Overpopulation Predicted, Family Planning Urged 
(NATION, 5 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee” 140 

Children Grow Food To Help Self-Sufficiency Drive 
(NATION, 1h Mar 80) eeeereeeeeeeeeeeeeeeseeeeeee eens 141 

Experimental Maize Cultivation Project Proves Successful 
(NATION, 13 Mar 80) eeeeeeaceeeeeeeeeeeeeee er eeeeaeeeaee 143 

CONTENTS (Continued) 

Cinnamon To Become Key Export 
(NATION, 6 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeaeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaeee 

Success of Fall Employment Scheme Reported 
(NATION, 11 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaeaeeeeeee 

Agriculture Minister Optimistic About Regional Cooperation 
(NATION, 8 Mar 80) eeeeeeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee 

Oil Exploration Effort Described 
(NATION, 10 Mar 80) eeeeeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeveeeeeeeeaeee 

Electricity Consumption 
Defense Minister Returns 
Airport Road Repairs 
SWA Delegation 

Prime Minister Botha Calls for Support of NP Policy 
(Editorial; DIE BURGER, 18 Mar 80) cecccccccccvesecs 

Homeland Leaders Criticize Botha Policy 
(Lawrence Mayekiso; THE CITIZEN, 17, 18 Mar 80) .... 

Qua-Qua Leader Mopeli's Statement 
Statement by Lebowa Leader 

Botha Clarifies 'State Conference' Reference 
( THE CITIZEN, 17; 19 Mar 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

'DIE BURGER' Interview 
Botha on 12 Points 
Hendrickse Comment 

Colored Persons Council Bill Debated 
( THE CITIZEN, 19 Mar 80) eeeeeoee ee ee eeeeeeeeeeeeeneee 

Viljoen Addresses Opening of Lebowa Assembly 
( THE CITIZEN, 18 Mar 80) eeeeoeeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeneaeene 

Former President Vorster's Speech Criticized 
(Editorial; DIE BURGER, 14 Mar 80) eeereeeseseeeeses 

Call for Moderate Leaders To Help Avoid Another Rhodesia 
(Editorial; DIE BURGER, 18 Mar 80) .cccccccccccccces 














CONTENTS (Continued) 

Oppenheimer Reviews AECI Prospects 
(Don Wilkinson; THE CITIZEN, 18 Mar 80) weeccoeeces 

Racial Friction on Railways 
Economic Grow. Factors 

Assocom on In Control 
Eyadema Speaks on Mercenaries' Plot, Economic Situation 
(Gnassingbe Byadema Interview; EUROPE 
OUTREMER, Sep 79) eeeeeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeneee8 
Industries Handed Over t ita amily 
Steel Industry Reactivation 
Mobutu Claims Zairians United Around His Leadership 
(Etienne Ugelix; LE SOIR, 12 Mar 80) cecccccccecees 

Businessmen Flogged 
Zambian Police Shoot Strikers 
Stand Down 







_ a 



LD240947 Casablanca LE MATIN in French 17 Mar 80 pp 1, 5 LD 

Interview with Guinean Foreign Minister Abdoulaye Toure by Mustapha Sehimi: 
"His Majesty the King Is a Great Militant of Africa"; date and place not 

[Text] Before his departure, Guinean Foreign Minister Abdouleve Toure, who 
participated in the Jerusalem committee's work, was kind enougn to reply 
to some of our questions. 

LE MATIN: Minister, what conclusions have you drawn from the Jerusalem 
committee's recent deliberations in Marrakesh? 

Abdoulaye Toure: The Jerusalem committee has done some very useful work. 
All Muslim states belonging to this committee participated ‘n this work 
at the highest level. 

LE MATIN: Can the adopted resolution be described as realistic? 

Abdoulaye Toure: Yes, the resolution is realistic but this does not mean 
that it is devoid of content. The principles which presided over the 
creation of the Jerusalem committee 1 year ago have been reaffirmed. 
However, there is more to this resolution than mere slogans. It represents 
a strategy which we have determined and it falls within the framework of 

a responsible political process. 

LE MATIN: How would you describe the existing bilateral relations between 
our two countries? 

Abdoulaye Toure: We attach great importance to our bilateral relations. 
Morocco and Guinea are both founder members of the OAU. And I can tell 
you that without the January 1961 Casablanca Charter there would be no OAU. 
Our two countries are bound together by ties of militancy for Africa. 

These are no recent ties; they are historical and have always operated 

in favor of peace, freedom and progress in Africa. 

Our two countries complement each other. Morocco has achieved a certain 
level of development, especially in the agricultural sphere. And Guinea 
can usefully benefit from Morocco's experience in the sp.eres of irriga- 
tion, agricultural technology and development techniques. 

There are great opportunities in the cultural sphere--dozens of Guinean 
atudentsa attend Moroccan universities, which are of international standard, 

Furthermore, as far as the economic and industrial sectors are concerned, 
we plan to create mixed economy companies with a view to developing trade 
exchanges between the two countries. 

LE MATIN: What are your views on the threats of destabilization hanging 
over Africa? 

Abdoulaye Toure: Campaigns and threats aimed at destebilization have been 
launched from all directions. This is a result of the fact that at least 
some people believe that regimes in Africa are unstable. The desire to 
destabilize Africa is connected with expansionist policies reminiscent of 
the “gunboat policy” pursued in the 19th century and at the beginning 

of this century. 

Certain African states have been used as bases and springboards for campaigns 

eimed at destabilizing some other states. This is blameworthy. Increased 
wareness among our peoples is the only answer to this. 

ese threats of destabilization can also be countered through increased 
»peration and more frequent consultations among African countries. And, 
jeally, we must strengthen the OAU and make it serious-minded and 
eepoms ible and jointly seek to create a continental organization at the 
‘ce of che higher interests of the African peoples. 


Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 1 

[Text] The Pope might visit Zimbabwe during his African tour this year, 
the Roman Catholic apostolic delegate to Southern Africa, the Most Rev. 

Edward Cassidy, said here last week. "A visit to this country cannot be 
ruled out this year," Archbishop Cassidy said during his brief visit to 

Bulawayo. "Obviously he will receive a large number of invitations and 

won't be able to accept them all, on this tour anyway. 

"So he will be looking for special reasons to visit. Last year the (Roman 
Catholic) Church in this country celebrated its centenary. Because of 
the situation the celebrations were a little low-key. This is the sort of 
thing that will influence Pope John Paul in his choice of countries. 

“And, of course, the end of a war is something well worth celebrating." 
The archbishop is in the country until Independence. 

"The Holy See would like to see a close relationship and there would be 
no problems on our side if the Government wanted to establish diplomatic 
relations. Most countries in Africa do have such ties with us. 

"In fact the only ones I can think of that don't are South Africa, Angola 
and Mozambique. 

"There is « great deal in common between the social teaching of the church 
anc the manifesto issued by the Government before the elections. 

"The new Constitution has a clause for the freedom of conscience and reli- 
gion, which is all any church would ask for." 

Archbishop Cassidy said he would meet local Raman Catholic bishops. 
"The bishops here will have to establish their priorities and then we will 

see what we can do to help. There is a lot of work to be done, with the 
refugee problems and so much has been destroyed in the rural areas." 

CSO: 44620 


Maputo TEMPO in Portuguese No 486, 3 Feb 80 pp 22-26 
(Article by Arlindo Lopes: "A Dangerous Adventure") 

\Excerpts] Artur Henrique Carlos and Titos Jose Nuvunga are two young men who 
fled to Swaziland last year. They are 16 and 15 years old respectively and 
studied, prior to their departure, at the secondary schools Josina Machel 

and Matola. 

“| was in the seventh grade and I was repeating. One day, two friends spoke 
to me about fleeing abroad.... It was an adventure for me," he toid us 
several days ago in Maputo. 

This is about two cases, quite similar to those of other young people be- 
tween the ages of 13 and 17, who left the country illegally in 1979. 

‘What made you leave the country illegally"? we began questioning young 

"It was a pure adventure for me. I wanted an adventure--to go and see, 
suite simply. When I left, I was counting on the hospitality of one of my 
aunts who lives in Mbabane. I hoped to do various things that my friends 
told me about, make friends or see different things, since I had lived 17 
vears in Maputo and never left. I expected to encounter very different 
things, which our country did not have...! 

in Swaziland, I went fromone place to another, and did nothing. I spent 
2 1/2 months trying to study, but without documentation, it is difficult," 
he told us. 

As a result, he took to the road again and returned home. It did not end 
vere. He went to Swaziland and returned seven times, and on the eighth, 
was detained by SNASP [National People's Security Service], as he himself 
told us: 

"In all, coming and going, I made 14 trips. When I came from Swaziland the 
last time, in October, I expected to return again. As on the other occasions, 
I had no problem, I saw no obstacle at the border and I thought it would 
always be that way. However, I was in Maputo a week and had many friends.... 
Many people began to talk, thie came to SNASP's attention and I was detained." 

Fathers Who Do Not Know the Children 

In the interviews we had with some people on the flight of young people to 
Swaziland, we detected negative behavior characterizing the actions of some 
fathers and education officials. What should be their role, for example, 
when children disappear for some time and return with a dubious explanation? 

When this absence is prolonged or he wears a new suit home, it is normal for 
fathers to ask where he was or who bought him the new clothes he brought 
with him. 

Parents can either conceal or act as accomplices about the negative attitudes 
of the very young. We spoke with people who were detained because they did 
not turn in sons, nephews or cousins who, like Artur Carlos, left illegally 
for Swaziland and returned secretly, as if it were the most natural thing 

in the world. 

Every Citizen Must Make Denunciations 

Leaving national territory without authorization is a crime, according to an 
article of criminal law, against the security of the people and the people's 
state. It is the duty of every citizen to turn in those individuals doing 

The illegal departure of minors for other countries could result in conse- 
quences other than those we mention. In certain neighboring countries, 
agents of imperialism corrupt and recruit Mozambique youth to make them com- 
mit serious crimes against their own and neighboring countries. In short, 
betray their country. Now, it is known that in Swaziland, agents infil- 
trated by the Special Branch (secret police of the illegal Rhodesian Govern- 
ment) frequently work under the cover of the so-called "Free Africa" to 

try to recruit Mozambicans. This is the story of Titos Nuvunga: 

"An individual who said he belonged to "Free Africa" contacted me about 
going to khodesia for training and returning to Mozambique to perform cer- 
tain services, such as: determining the bus stops and other places fre- 
quented by the people, the authorities and the FPLM [Popular Forces for the 
Liberation of Mozambique). This individual told me: ‘You see the lies 

in our country and we need shirts; if you work with us, we are going to 
liberate the country and install a new government.’ But my answer was no, 
because I did not oppose Mozambique politics or the government, but fled 
Mozambique because I had personal problems." 


Artur Carlos confirmed thie kind of enticement and stressed that such agents 
"had authorized exits at the South African and Rhodesian borders, and they 
went from one side to the other." 

A Dangerous Adventure 

According to Artur, there are many Mozambicans in Swaziland. "Many of them 
are there legally; that ie, with the authorization of the Swaziland Govern- 
ment. They arrive there and, to be admitted, arrange things and say: ‘We 

are fleeing because we do not wish to go into the army’ and other such things. 
Thus, they are considered political refugees, receive United Nations assis- 
tance and a bishop gives them money. 

Even the Swazi at times ask, ‘You are independent, why flee'? Many can not 
answer. Then, they do nothing but drink, go to nightclubs and waste the 
money given to them." 

These are bad habits--lack of discipline, laziness, lack of responsibility 
and lack of patriotism which the revolution is combating, since they are 
contrary to the new man that we wish to create. This is what a SNASP offi- 
cial said when presenting the people to be interviewed, "the people of 
Mozambique themselves are going to create the happiness of the Mozambique 

On the subject of these fugitives, we ©’ nct forget that in the revolution- 
ary process like ours, the struggle between old and new ideas is acute. The 
internal struggle of classes and the pressure of imperialism against the 
advance of socialism creates situations like those we have just described. 

CSO: 44601 



and sixty Equatorial Guinean refugees left Libreville (Gabon) on Monday for 
Malabo (Equatorial Guinea) aboard the boat Acadio Man Ela, After the change 
of regime in Equatorial Guinea the almost 60,000 Equatorial Guinean refugees 
residing in Gabon were invited either to return freely to their country or 
to etay. Since then, the return to the motherland has been done on indi- 
vidual basis across the frontiers and more often by road. According to the 
Malabo Embassy in Libreville, about 3,000 people have already registered at 
the chancellery to return voluntarily to their country. For Mr Michel 
Dupiogat, representative of the UN High Commission for Refugees, the re- 
patriation of refugees to their countries of origin always constitutes the 
best solution as much in the humanitarian as in the social and economic 
aspects. The Gabonese Government on its part, has confirmed that a Gabonese 
boat, the Mayumba, could run between Libreville and Malabo as soon as the 
need arises, The repatriation exercise iv financed by the UN High Commis- 
sion for Refugees. [Text] [AB181400 Paris AFP in French 0919 GMT 18 Mar 80 
AB } 

BADEA LOANS--The Arab Bank for African Economic Development [BADEA] is to 
grant loans to Botswana, Mozambique and the Seychelles. The decision was 
taken by the Administrative Council of the bank at the end of its 16th 
session held on 1 and 2 March in Khartoum, With these new operations, 

the total commitments of the bank in Africa come to 350.13 million and 
571.874 million taking into account the assistance given in the form of 
emergency aid. The Administrative Council of the bank has decided to grant 
a loan of 1.20 million dollars to the Seychelles republic for the financing 
of the electrification project of Preslin Island, The loan, (34 percent 
of the total cost) is payable in 12 years including a grace period of 2 
years and carries an annual interest of 5 percent. [Kinshasa AZAP in French 
1425 GMT 18 Mar 80 AB) 

ZAMBIA ACCEPTS RHODESIAN PASSPORTS--Zambia yesterday finally agreed to 
accept Rhodesian passports and travel documents. The move follows per- 
sistent pressure on Lusaka by the Governor, Lord Soames. The Governor's 
chief spokesman, Mr Nicholas Fenn, said the decision would take effect 
immediately. “Rhodesian passport holders will be treated in the same way 
as other Commonwealth passport holders," he said. "Visas will not be nec- 
essary." Zambia has withheld recognition of Rhodesian passports since the 
Governor arrived and the start of the ceasefire. Rhodesians were charged 


100 kwacha [tor temporary entry permits. S5ritish passport noiders were 

only charged 2,25 kwacha. There were fears that the Zambians might seize 
Rhodesian passports at the border. Yesterday's decision comes as rela- 

tions between Zambia and Rhodesia rapidly improve. There was an exchange 
of prisoners at the Chirundu border post last we.k and the Lusaka Govern- 
ment has demobilized its reserve force, which was called up at the height 
of the war. [Text] [Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 1] 

CSO: 4420 


Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in Portuguese 27 Feb 80 pp 1,3 

[Speech by President Jose Eduardo dos Santos at the Cahombo Farm in Malanje 
Province; date not given] 

{Excerpts} During the meeting held with farmworkers at the 
Cahombo Farm in Malanje Province at the end of the day of 
voluntary labor marking the official start of the National 
Corn Harvesting Campaign, comrade Jose Eduardo dos Santos, 
chairman of the MPLA-Labor Party and president of the Peo- 
ple's Republic of Angola, delivered the following extempo- 
raneous speech. 

Comrade members of the Political Bureau and Central Committee of the MPLA- 
Labor Party; 

Comrade members of the Party Provincial Committee; 

Comrade provincial commissioner; 

Comrade workers of the Cahombo unit; 

Comrade workers in agriculture; 

Comrade guests; 

Dear comrade pioneers; 

Dear friends and compatriots; 

It is with great satisfaction that we are here today in Malanje Province and, 

at this moment, in this production unit to talk and converse for a few moments 
with officials of this enterprise and with the workers in agriculture. 

It was not by chance that the comrade minister of agriculture chose this unit 
for today's visit by a delegation from the party and government. We all know 

that there is a shortage of corn for feeding our population, an not only of 
corn. We all know also that before our independence, in the colonial period, 
corn production in Angola was sufficient for our needs and that there were 
even surpluses--that is, there was corn left over--that we exported to other 
countries. The process of struggling for our independence was a difficult 
one which, in its final phase, saw moments of great hardship--moments of 
quite hard and difficult struggle against those who were trying to take away 
from the Angolan people the gains they had achieved following a long and hard 
war of national independence, 

Thus it was that we inherited an extremely difficult situation. With few 
cadres, with the marketing channels destroyed, and with the firms abandoned, 
paralyzed, and in some cases destroyed. Well, obviously, in order to assert 
ourselves as a people and a nation, we had to build a sovereign and independ- 
ent state from those ruins; we had to defend our gains because our enemies 
even beyonce. our frontiers, were continuing to attack us in every way. 

Our financial capacity--our economic capacity--was reduced or diminished to 

a large extent. In the first years of independence, we were no longer export- 
ing as much petroleum, as many diamonds, or as much coffee as we had during 
the colonial period. In other words, we were no longer collecting as much 
foreign exchange--as much money in foreign currency--as we did during the 
colonial period. And that fact obviously prevented us from being able to 
solve all of the nation's problems rapidly and immediately. We have worked-- 
obviously within the limits of the country's possibilities then and now--at 
solving the problems, and obviously we have paid greater attention to those 
sectors that were most disorganized--those that were most completely destroyed. 
And we are thinking of the transportation sector: in 1975-1976 there were 
practically no buses in Angola, and there were no taxis. There were also 
practically no automobiles, even for leaders. In 1976-1977, even in the capi- 
tal, our stores were empty--almost completely empty. And we have continued 
to make an effort, we have continued to import tractors, we have continued 

to import clothing, and we have continued to import food. Obviously, there 
was not enough of everything, and there is still not enough of everything, 

for everyone. And the situation we are experiencing is reflected in the fol- 
lowing: to import everything we need--food, clothing, shoes, medicines, and 
ineans of transportation--we must have money. And that money must be foreign 
money because we must buy those products from other countries. We cannot pay 
for them in kwanzas. Well, we can ask other countries to lend us money; that 
is one way. And we have done so. But we cannot follow that path only--the 
path of asking other countries to lend us money, because obviously we put 

our country in debt by doing so, and then we lose our independence. 

Therefore, comrades, we have made a great effort in the area of diamonds and 
petroleum, You are reminded that just after our independence, petroleum was 
no longer being produced in Cabinda. The Americans practically stopped work- 
ang in Cabinda. They even did not want to deliver the airplanes--the Boeing 
-37's--that we had bought at the time. The diamond firm was practically 
»araiyzed; many technicians who were Portuguese fled. 


And so we have made a great effort. We have reviewed the contracts and agree- 
ments signed by the colonialists with the Americans concerning petroleum and 
with other foreigners in connection with diamonds. We have found ways to 
keep those important firms operating. And since they are operating today, 
they are generating foreign exchange. But they are operating as partnerships: 
that is, a portion of the capital--the money--used to operate those firms is 
provided by Angola. Another portion comes from foreign countries and Western 
countries. This means that not all of the revenue--not all of the money 
earned by selling petroleum and diamonds--reverts to the People's Republic of 
Angola alone. We must share it in proportion to the amount of money we have 
in the firm, 

On the other hand, while those firms are operating and generating foreign ex- 
change, another important sector that also provides us with foreign exchange 
is the coffee sector. And you comrades in agriculture know very well what 
difficulties we have experienced in recovering production levels in that sec- 
tor. We have had great difficulties, and our production has declined from 
year to year. In 1977-1978 we produced only 35,000 tons, and in 1979 we pro- 
duced 20,000 tons, while in 1974 production totaled about 200,000 tons. 

So, comrades, those are difficulties that our country is experiencing and 
that we must resolve--all of us, we the Angolan people. And that is why we 
sometimes have these situations in which there are not enough supplies or not 
enough clothing for everyone. And so we must all think together about this: 
what are the best ways for us to solve all those problems? 

On the one hand, in order for us to buy clothing, shoes, food, medicine, 
transportation, and machinery and develop our economy, we need foreign ex- 
change. On the other hand, in order for us to have foreign money, we also 
need to produce at least petroleum, diamonds, coffee, quartz, and other things 
that we can sell abroad--sisal and so on. 

That is why, comrades, and as our late comrade, President Dr Agostinho Neto, 
said right here in Malanje, our economic situation is not an easy one. 

In the midst of our difficulties, obviously, we must find the remedy for our 
problems. That is why we have been saying that the best solution for taking 
care of our problems is in fact for each one, in his workplace, to produce-- 
to produce constantly more and better. In other words, to work. 

That is why, as I said at the beginning, we did not come here by chance. We 
need corn. The People's Republic of Angola now imports corn: corn that could 
be produced here in Angola. We import about 200,000 tons of corn. That rep- 
resents foreign exchange--in other words, foreign money that we could be 
using to buy clothing, medicine, and shoes. But no, we are going to buy corn: 
corn that we could be producing in our own country! 

Well, a great effort has already been made, and I congratulate you comrades 
in agriculture, you officials, and you workers, because you are in fact 


contributing in an effective manner to our solution of the Angolan people's 

This year's corn production is probably already greater than last year's; 
large areas have already been prepared and cultivated. We will definitely 
have to harvest all the corm produced. nd in that we will definitely have 
to put forth every effort. In other wor s, the government, the party, and 
officials at all levels must make every «ifort to give the workers the 
necessary support so that the corn can in fact be harvested, 

I want to express one hope, however, and that is that we will not in fact 
lose the corn that is already mature. We will have to make every effort to 
harvest all the corn, net only in Malanje Province but also in all the other 

Sometimes we are faced with situations of indiscipline at various levels--~- 
among the rank-and-file workers, among intermediate cadres, or among offi- 
cials. The party's directives are not always respected, the government's 
decisions are not always implemented, and those who do not implement them 
are not always punished, 

We imported more than 9,000 vehicles of various kinds in 1978-1979. And we 
can say without exaggeration that at this moment more than half of them-- 
that is, about 4,000 units--are not operational. They are at a standstill. 

And that is not all. Sometimes large quantities of food products spoil--food 
products that the government imports to minimize the people's problems. 

As I was saying just now, comrades, sometimes the products we import to mini- 
mize the people's problems are allowed to spoil through the carelessness and 
negligence of a few officials. We know that there is a shortage of bread in 
almost all the provinces; there is a shortage of wheat flour. But 1,800 tons 
of wheat or a little more have spoiled through the negligence of officials! 
This is just to illustrate the fact that in our own midst we sometimes have 
individuals who act against our revolution and who are not interested in 
solving the people's problems but rather just the opposite. And against 

chem we must apply the revolutionary democratic dictatorship, because they 
are behaving as enemies of the people. This means that at all levels we must 
be vigilant and continue to impose discipline through enforcement of the law. 
This is very important because otherwise, a part of the people, government, 
and party will be working to solve the few difficult and pressing problems 
that we have, while others, working under cover, will continue to oppose, 
thwart, and hinder the thorough development of the revolutionary process that 
will enable us to satisfy in the future the needs that we all have. 

i am not going to go on at length; these are problems that you see and feel 

overy day, but at times we are somewhat liberalist. We do not act when it is 
necessary. We let things go. And such behavior is not correct. 


At all levels--among the workers, among rank-and-file workers, among officials, 
among intermediate cadres, among party leaders, and among government leaders~-- 
we will have to enforce compliance with the rules and enforce discipline. 

If we do not, it will be difficult for us to organize a strong country~-~-a 
country that is truly independent. 

In conclusion, I want to express the hope to all of you workers in agricul- 
ture that you will in fact continue the spirit of competition and emulation 
among the various units. At our level, we feel that we must continue to 
provide agriculture with sizable support. Agriculture is the basis of our 
economic-social development; that is how our party defines it. And every 
government and every party must turn its chief attention to the problems of 
agriculture. Our peasants have been working. It is they who have the most 
difficulties and they who currently benefit the least from the fruits of our 

Long live agriculture. 

Comrades, we are in the year of the First Party Congress and in the year of 
the establishment of the People's Assembly. Party members especially and 

all the people in general cannot lose sight of these important tasks which 
our party and our people must fulfill. 

If we organize our People's Assembly, we will in fact have an organization 
which will help us immensely in controlling government and state activity and 
which will always advise officials at the opportune moment so that they can 
find the best solutions to the people's problems. 

The most important thing is to solve the people's problems! 

This is 1980: year of the First Special Party Congress and of the establish- 
ment of the People's Assembly. 

Long live proletarian internationalism! 
Long live the MPLA-Labor Party! 

Long live people's government! 

The struggle continues! 

For people's government. 

Victory is certain! 

cSO: 4401 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 10 

[Article by Jan van Ree] 

[Text ] 

THE seesaw war in 
southern Angola be- 
tween UNITA and 
MPLA Government 
soldiers has been given 
a new dimension by the 
proposed demilitarised 
zone along the South 
West. African border 
with Angola. : 

Several South West 
African and South Afri- 
can officials and politi- 
Clans have warned that 
UNITA wil} have to be 
reckoned wit!. 2 the talks 
on the DMZ, and the 
leader of the resistance 
movement, Dr Jonas 
Savimbi, has already said 
that without his organ- 
isation the DMZ will never 
become a reality. * 

He has sent messages 
to this effect to the South 
African Prime Minister, 
Mr P. W. Botha, and the 
Secretary-General of the 
United Nations,Dr Kurt 

UNITA ciatms to have | 
substantial influence mych 
further tnto Angola than 
the southern border area 
and this is substantiated 
by thety oroven ability to. . 
keep the RBenguela : 
way inoperative 

Along the South West 
African bovder UNITA is 
active mostly in the east, 
where for the past few 

are the three mane 
fowne ot Cuangar, Calais 

and Dirico have been won 
and lost several times by 
each side. 

three towns have Become 

comes when the local 

ple are told by 

UNITA to leave the area. 

The MPLA, when it takes 

a town, lets the people 

move in around it on 

smaliholdings. Once these 

ple to leave they 

| a U A is going to 

start its softening-up pro- 


This consists of harass- 
ment of patrols — several 

trols out of Calais ~and 
Cuangar have been at- 
by UNITA forces 

d the ast two 
a. — also lob- 
bing the odd mortar bomb 
into the towns themselves. 



This makes the MPLA . 
soldiers nervous and rifle 
fire can often he heard 
coming from Calais dur- 
ing the night. 

The harassment usually 
starts just before the first 
rains,’ Then er ~ 
ground is thoroughly 
soaked and aircraft can 
no | r land on the 
earth landing strips 
UNITA goeg over to its 
main offensive. 

MPLA morale sinks be- 
cause of a lack of food 
pane being cu. off. After a 

ttle usually only 
a few days UNITA oc- 
cupies the town. 

e soldiers who die in 

iat “he Havango River 

- and if the crocodiles do 

not get them first a police 
Kivango has ‘the. gery 

task of fishing hm | 
of the river. 

UNITA allows the local 
population to move inta 
the town with them but 
after a while the troops 
move out back into the 

bush and e remain. 
When the returns 
in full force du the 

dry season the flee 
and the 44 ~ are 

once again occupied 
MPLA. " by 

This ja the way tne war 
| in southern has 
been seesawing for seve- 
ral yeats and sources be- 
lieve that UNITA would 
without doubt be «4 
headache to any feree 
whien wished to occupy 
the border aréa. 

UNITA is the oldest 
resistence movement in 
the area and over the 
years hag become more 
effective due tw ex- 
perience and more 40- 
phisticated weapons. They 
alao ve the traditional 
support ‘ot the local pop- 
ulation in the area. 

If UNTTA were to start 
a full-scale, do-or-die of- 
fensive to stop the estab- 
lishment of a DMZ they 
would create serioug prob- 
lems for South est 
Africa. . 

CSO: 4420 


The ey = in the far 
north of th -+y and 
the actual area 
with Angola, is —_ 2 
experiencing a food short- 
age and the Kavango 
authorities have been for- 
ced to usk for ald. 

Mr Aloys Hashpirai, the 
Kavango Minister of 
Interior, told me om a 
recemt visit to the area 
that there was » we little 
food on our side of the 

“If we suddenly get an 
influx of thousand 
refugees it would mean 
big Pro proMeme,” he said. 

it has to p_ the 
for the majority 
of are of the same 

“The Kavango River 
Was never our rea) border 
— this lies about 80 km 
into Angola,” he said, “It 
warn only when the white 
man oame that the river 
was made the border, 
Most of the people in 
Angola speak our lang- 
wage and have friends and 
relatives in the Kavango.” 



London WEST AFRICA in English 10 Mar 80 p 448 

[Text } 

its Output to | 4m. carats this year. 

performance in 1979 have not yet 

independence, the company was 

CSO: 4420 


ite was mainly due to 
exodus of trained personnel, a 
increase in 



DELEGATION TO JCP CONGRESS--With a view to participating in the work of the 
15th Congress of the Japan Communist Party [JCP], which began yesterday in 
Atami, a party delegation left Luanda on Monday for that Asian country. It 
was headed by comrade Antonio Lengue, director of the Department of External 
Relations of the MPLA-Labor Party Central Committee. It should be pointed 
out, however, that the main issue before the congress will be that of trying 
to find the most effective means of forming a united front among Japanese 
progressive forces and ways in which that country can contribute to interna- 
tional development on the basis of three principles: denunciation of the 
Japanese-American security treaty, a policy serving the interests of the 
workers, and energetic opposition to the return to militarism. [Text] 
[Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in Portuguese 27 Feb 80 p 2) 11798 

DIAMOND RECEIPTS UP--Thanks to an almost 1l2-percent rise in international 
diamond prices, revenues from national production of that type of precious 
stone rose by about $3.5 million in September and October alone. That in- 
formation was supplied to our newspaper by the Angola Diamond Company, which 
quoted a figure of $3,534,990 15 as the increase in receipts during the 
period in question and said it was due to fluctuations at the Central Diamond 
Exchange in London. As is known, the People's Republic of Angola is an im- 
portant diamond exporter, but for the past 2 years the government has been 
making a tremendous effort to bring about a recovery of production levels in 
a sector of activity that was obviously among those most affected by the 
flight of technicians after independence. It should be noted that the rise 
in diamond prices is all the more important to our country's economy in that 
along with petroleum and coffee, that product constitutes one of the most im- 
portant sources of foreign exchange. [Text] [Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in 
Portuguese 27 Feb 80 p 2) 11798 

CSO: 4401 


Praia VOZ DI POVO in Portuguese 13 Feb 80 p 2 

(Excerpts) The work of the Eighth Session of the People's National Assembly 
[ANP) was devoted to a persistent analysis of government and party activity 
and of the country's problems, and it ended with a decision as to the purpose 
and allocation of the 3,292,786,728 escudos that will be used to administer 
the operation of the state, undertake infrastructure projects, and carry out 
projects in the areas of agriculture, industry, and the social advancement 
of our inhabitants. 

The General State Budget for 1980 includes an investment program of 2.41 bil- 
lion escudos and provides 862,786,728 escudos for operating the country's 
administrative apparatus. Practically all of it is already financed, with 
the major portion being guaranteed, as has now become the custom, through in- 
ternational cooperation (61 percent), the National Development Fund (10 per- 
cent), and nontied bilateral aid (Swedish cooperation, for example). Only 
10 percent remains to be guaranteed, all of it in the investment progran. 

The secretary of state for cooperation and planning, whose task it was to 
present the investment program, emphasized that while there had been justifi- 
cation during a certain period--while a suitable administrative and economic 
apparatus was being set up--for investments that were necessarily less pro- 
grammed because they had to deal with emergency situations, such a policy 
cannot continue any longer without jeopardizing achievements that will soon 
be required by development. 

A certain degree of continuity will have to be tolerated, however, with re- 
spect to labor-intensive projects, which in recent years have employed about 
30,000 persons, or an estimated one-third of the active population and one- 
half of the inherited unemployment. According to comrade Jose Brito, the 
building of infrastructure will soon require an increase of about 4 billion 
escudos .n investments, since 40 percent of the current investments are 
being absorbed by equipment. 

cSO: 4401 



SAL FIR AGAIN OPERATIONAL--After a long and difficult path followed by Cape 
Verdian authorities with support from the diplomacy of friendly countries-- 
namely Portugal, Spain, and Brazil--and international organizations such as 
the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization), the Sal Ocean FIR 
(Flight Information Region) became officially operational again on Thursday 
morning, the 2lst. It will serve about 8,000 large aircraft annually. Be- 
ginning at 1200 hours on the 2lst of this month, Cape Verde resumed adminis- 
tration of its Ocean FIR with centralized control at the Amilcar Cabral In- 
ternational Airport (on Sal Island). In the opinion of experts, that region 
occupies an excellent geographic position and will again be playing a basic 
‘ole in the equilibrium and safety of the heavy air traffic at that inter- 
section linking Africa and Europe with North and South America. [Excerpts) 
(Praia “OZ DI POVO in Portuguese 23 Feb 80 pp 1,8) 11798 

COOPERATION WITH SPAIN VIEWED—-The joint commission on Spanish-Cape Verdian 
cooperation will meet for the first time in the city of Praia in late May. 

A Spanish technical mission, including an individual from the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs, will come to our country beforehand, in order to arrange 
future bilateral cooperation activities. Cape Verde has quite similar prob- 
lems in the areas of agriculture, desertification, fishing and development 
of the refrigeration industry to those of the Canary Islands. [Text] 

[Praia VOZ DI POVO in Portuguese 4-11 Feb 80 p 8) 9479 

cso: 44601 


High Tension in Ndjamena 
Paris LE MONDE in French 13 Feb 80 p 1 

[Text] Exactly 1 year after the battle of Ndjamena, no political solution 
is emerging in Chad. The application of the agreement reached in Lagos in 
August 1979 by 11 political-military factions is running into serious 
difficulties; and high tension prevails in the capital, where students have 
gone on strike to protest against "the indifference and irresponsibility" 
of the authorities with respect to their problems. 

In Paris, this situation is judged “extraordinarily dangerous," according to 
a statement made last week by Robert Galley. “There are more than 30,000 
men under arms in Chad, while the economy of the country is barely in a 
position to support severa) [word illegible] of gendarmes," said the 
minister of cooperation notably to the English-speakiag press, after which 
he added, “Every effort made by France is aimed at putting together the 
conditions of a rapid demilitarization of this country so that economic 
life and life, period, can take off again." 

In an effort to establish a timetable for the withdrawal of French troops, 
Rene Journiac traveled to Ndjamena last week before he was killed in an 
airplane accident in Cameroon. 

A Devastated City 
Paris LE MONDE in French 13 Feb 80 pp 1, 3 

[Article by Philippe Decraene: "A Country in the Grip of Factions. 1. The 
Power of the Kalashnikovs"™] 

[Text] Ndjamena--Three short bursts of automatic weapon fire followed by 

a much longer fourth burst disturb the calm of the tropical night. A long 
series of tracer bullets passes over the curtain of palm trees which encloses 
the garden and loses itself beyond the villa's roof. A nightjar quickens 

its flight, and the bullfrogs have momentarily interrupted their concert. 

On the terrace where four Europeans are assembled, only the travelers give 
signs of anxiety. The expatriates remain calm. For several months now, 

such incidents no longer surprise them. 


Accidental firings, short, armed confrontations, at times summary executions, 
are now part of the daily reality of the capital of Chad, Africans are 

dying without anyone's knowing under what conditions. Miraculously preserved 
to this day~--except for errant bullets--the European community, which had 
lamented four deaths during the bloody events of February and March 1979, 

has to accommodate itself to this atmosphere of civil war. 

The expatriates who have remained on site (500 to 600 instead of the 

3,600 who lived here before February 1979) accept this ordeal as calmly 

as possible. However, the recent attack on one of them, a Jesuit priest, 
who was stabbed by a Chadian ,* has caused a serious malaise in the ranks 

of the small colony where everyone knows everyone else, and a certain amount 
of solidarity is shown. 

The daily shutdowns of electricity and water, supply problems and the dis- 
organization of the schools contribute to the creation of a climate of 
pessimism against which those who refused to be evacuated to Librevilte 
and Douala last year by the airlift organized by the French army are 
fighting more or less successfully. 

Many civilians ace making common cause and attempting to lift faltering morale. 
Communications with France are uncertain. The earth station installed near 
Radio-Chad only functioned a few hours. Its installation cost 750 million CFA 
(African Financial Community] francs (1 CFA franc = 0.02 French francs); and, 
on the very day the installations were completed, they were ravaged during 

the fighting in February 1979. 

Closed since that time, the university reopened its doors on 15 January. 
Since many advisers refused to return to Ndjamena or had not yet succeeded 
in regularizing their administrative situation, it is often educated persons 
from the private sector who, for the time being, are kind enough to give 
some of the courses. In particular, this is the case with a local repre- 
sentative of an airline company and the wife of the only press correspondent 
installed in a permanent way in the capital. 

Most Chadians from the southern part of the country have left Ndjamena to 
return to their villages. Some of them are living in Europe or in neighbor- 
ing African states, particularly in Cameroon and the Central African Empire. 
Those who have remained feel that their safety is threatened by the pre- 
dominant presence in the city of Northern Armed Forces (FAN), whose chief is 
the former prime minister, Hissene Habre. 

A Spectacle of Desolation 

Districts in the central-eastern part of Ndjamena, formerly inhabited by 
Saras, have been totally abandoned and all the concessions looted. The 
insides of houses are “cleaned out" just like the carcasses of animals 
which have been picked at by birds of prey. Roof slates, door frames and 
windows have been carried off. Weeds are growing in the yards of which 
stray dogs and cats have taken possession. A profound silence reigns after 
nightfall, except in certain sectors where people from the north have begun 
to move in, as well as combatants in search of bivouacs. 


Some of the "southerners" have chosen to install themselves on the other 
side of the Chari, on the Cameroonian bank, in the small town of Kousseri, 
and cross the river twice a day. For this segment of the population, as 
for the expatriates themselves, their presence in Ndjamena is linked 
directly with the remaining French troops. Many of the "northerners" are 
also in favor of their remaining, as is explained to us by a young Chadian 
journalist, who is quite representative of the new generation: "The 
feeling of hostility which prevailed as recently as 18 months ago with 
regard to the French soldiers has disappeared. They have, in fact, caused 
the loca] situation to be less unstable. Even the leaders of the 11 
factions” represented in the Transitional National Union Government (GUNT) 
accept their remaining on site, when they speak about this in private. 
However, since they signed the Lagos agreements, under the dual pressure 
of Nigeria and Ligya, and since these agreements provide for evacuation, 
they do not wish to second-guess themselves publicly..." 

Installed on the Ndjamena air base, the "French troops in Chad" now barely 
total 1,200 men. Relieved every 4 months, we are told by the general of 
Tonquedec, commander of the FFT [French Forces in Chad] and responsible for 
“operation Tacaud," "a triple mission of civilian aid, psychological and 
moral protection and deterrence." The French troops, who have four Jaguars 
which are parked here permanently, one Breguet-Atlantic, 10 Puma helicopters 
and three Transalls, and whose last military mission goes back to 

December 1978 in Abeche, provide many services. They supply Chad with 
kerosene, including kerosene for aircraft of the Air Afrique Company--and 
Libyan airplanes on stopover--transport pilgrims to Mecca and give medical 
treatment to wounded Chadian civilians and military personnel. 

At present, troops of the 17th Engineers Parachute Regiment (RGP) are re- 
pairing some of the major roads of Ndjamena. On former Georges-Pompidou 
Avenue, which has been renamed Avenue of the Grand Army because the Northern 
Armed Forces met their adversaries there with mortar and recoilless cannon 
fire which caused considerable damage, two Caterpillar tractors driven by 
engineer soldiers move about to the amusement of the children of the district. 
At the ferry, which was restored to operating condition by the French army, 
other soldiers from the 17th RGP have just transported a 65-ton generator 
recently arrived from Douala and destined for the capital's electric power 

In the event of resumption of fighting between the armed factions, which are 
disputing control over the capital and thus wish to seize power, the French 
army would attempt to separate the belligerents. However, for now, small 
clashes continue to take place here and there. There is fighting; and on 
occasion there is killing over a sack of millet, a woman or a moped. At 
dusk the capital assumes the pace of a dead city. The only things breaking 
the silence of the night are the barking of dogs and bursts of automatic 
weapon fire. When the latter tend to be repeated at a rate considered 
dangerous, many Africans use dugout canoes and cross the Chari River to 
seek refuge in Cameroon, while some expatriates gather in Farcha, in the 
immediate area of the air base. 

Ndjamena's general appearance is that of a gigantic public dump, since trash 
removal services no longer are operating. Looted villas and public buildings 
ripped open by cannon and machine gun fire bear witness to the violence of 
the fighting. The Kadhdhafi clinic, a gift from Libya, was riddled by 

shall fire and made inoperative even before it was opened. The doors of 

the prison are wide open; one is able to freely enter rooms which are empty 
of prisoners and guards. In the absence of any other large, modern building 
still intact, the Council of Ministers holds its meetings in the Chamber of 
Agriculture, while, curiously, work is being done to expand the National 

Without financial means and lacking medicines, the Central Hospital is a 
veritable old people's home which offers a spectacle of desolation. The 
sick who were unable to arrange a transfer to the military base hospital 
seem to be waiting for the end there with resignation. 

No one believes any longer in the demilitarization which was to have been 
completed "at noon on 5 February.” Three other similar projects in March, 
June and November had also come to a sudden end. At the approach of the 
anniversary of a tragic event or simply at each return of the full moon, 
which is favorable for night confrontations, the battle psychosis takes 

hold of the minds of men. 

"More than ever, power is in the hands of the Kalashnikovs," we are told with 
bitterness by Dr Abba Siddick, one of the “founding fathers" of the Chadian 
National Liberation Front (FROLINAT). Minister of higher education and 

a representative within the Transitional National Union Govermment of the 
original FROLINAT, this brilliant surgeon who was trained in Fronce, by the 
force of his personality, professional competence and his qualities of 
tribute and diplomat, dominates his colleagues within the cabinet who repre- 
sent the country's 10 other political factions. He was removed from the 
Ministry of Foreign Affairs when the government was set up in November 1979 
in favor of his rival, Acyl Ahmat, head of the first Democratic Revolutionary 
Army-Council; however, he did perform worthily in this position. 

For Dr Siddick, "Neither the departure of the French troops nor the recovery 
of the southern part of Chad which was annexed by Libya are at present 
absolute priorities.... What is urgent is the restoration of the state's 
authority..." He notes, "Everyone is in agreement on the demilitarization 
of Ndjamena; however, the city is still filled with undisciplined combatants, 
while the National Chadian Army does not exist. There is a general lack of 
money. The ministers, like most of the government officials, have not been 
paid for many long months.... The people have lost the habit of work. The 
administration is now operating only partially. Although they are aware of 
their inability to impose a military solution, the leaders of the 11 GUNT 
factions have not given up confronting one another with weapons in hand..." 

As a matter of fact, there is no longer a Chadian state. Like feudal barons 
carving out fiefs without a worry about having the churls massacred by their 
armed men, the "combatants," each for himself, are trying to win out over 
their rivals. In parallel with the GUNT, within which the 11 factions are 
officially represented, there are in fact two veritable "phantom cabinets" 


installed, one in Ndjamena around Hissene Habre and the other in the south 
in Moundou around Colonel Kamougue. Territorial unity was shredded when in 
the south, which is practically inaccessible to foreign travelers who do 
not have several weeks at their disposal, "committees" were set up which 
took control of the region. Only the Transalls of “operation Tacaud" are 
preventing total Balkanization. 

Even in Ndjamena, at least five distinct "armies" send out patrols into the 
streets of a city which theoretically should be demilitarized: the 
combatants of the Northern Armed Forces (FAN) of Hisse Habre; those of the 
First People's Army of the FROLINAT of Mahamat Abba Seid, minister of state 
responsible for the interior, considered one of the most solid supports of 
Libyan policy and the People's Armed Forces (FAP) of Goukouni Oueddei, 
president of the GUNT and chief of state, these two groups having merged 
recently; combatants of the Chadian Armed Forces (FAT), under the orders 

of Colonel Kamougue, vice president of the GUNT and principal “southern" 
leader; the French troops in Chad of “operation Tacaud"; the Congolese 
military forces, the first units of the 3,000-man neutral African force 
which is to be installed under the aegis of the Organization of African 
Unity. These "armies" do not include the men of the "military police," 

a common force recently set up, or the “irregulars" operating on their own. 

Mme Claustre's Ransom 

Although the "neutral force” theoretically has the mission of replacing all 
the "combatants" present in Ndjamena and the French troops, nothing seems 
to indicate that this objective can be attained in the near future. Almost 
everywhere in the city, every side is reinforcing its positions. Every 
crossroads, every strategic point is occupied. On the boulevard which 
encircles the capital, individual riflemen are posted in every shaded spot. 
Abundant and often very modern materiel--grenade launchers, bazookas, 
mortars, heavy machine guns, coilless cannons, rocket launchers of Soviet, 
Libyan or French origin--has made the city a veritable arsenal. Without 
being openly hostile to demilitarization, none of the leaders we met is 
really in favor of it. Not Colonel Kamougue who, receiving us in the 
entrenched camp which is his Villa Mobutu residence, emphasized that his 
presence in the GUNT, "Bears witness to a permanent desire for dialog 
between the south and the north." Not President Goukouni Oueddei, a 
traditional leader more than a statesman in the modern sense of the term, 

a personage of equivocation and chicanery. Not Hissene Habre, who has the 
largest and most disciplined armed forces whose popularity is at the 
highest level perhaps because he refused to use Mme Claustre's 1]1-billion 
centime ransom for his own benefit, using it instead to pay his troops. 

These men have at least two points in common: a certain amount of bitterness 
with regard to France and an unshakeable desire to seize power exclusively 

on behalf of their supporters. All three cannot find words harsh enough 

for the French Government. Each accuses it of favoring his rivals instead 

of maintaining an attitude of strict neutrality. What is more, each of them — 


is ¢t 
of a 

rying to neutralize his rivals, while continuing an interminable dialog 
ed by reconciliations and ephemeral alliances and punctuated by threats 
rmed attacks. In the meantime, Chad is experiencing economic and 

ncial disorder without precedent in the brief history of its two decades 

of independence. 



article: Economic Chaos 

He is the fourth Jesuit in the last several years to be attached under 
similar circumstances, one of whom died as the result of his wounds. 

The 11 factions represented in the GUNT are the FROLINAT-First Volcan 
Army, whose chief is Abdoulaye Adam Dana; the National Democratic 

Union of Dr Fatcho Balam; the FROLINAT-First People's Army of Mahamat 
Abba Seid; the First Democratic Revolutionary Army-Council of Acyl Ahmat; 
the original FROLINAT of Dr Abba Siddick; the FROLINAT-Western Armed 
Forces (FAO) of Moussa Medela; the basic FROLINAT of Hadjaro Senoussi; 
the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Chad (MPLT) of Aboubakar 

Abdel Rahmane, and, in particular, the People's Armed Forces (FAP) of 
Goukouni Oueddei, the Northern Armed Forces (FAN) of Hissene Habre and 
the Chadian Armed Forces (FAT) of Colonel Kamougue. 




Brazzaville ETUMBA in French 23 Feb 80 pp 3, 7 

[21 February press conference of Pierre Nze, member of the Political Bureau 
of the Central Committee of the Congolese Labor Party (PCT), in charge of 
foreign relations, and minister of foreign affairs and cooperation; place 
not given] 

[Excerpt] Results of the French-Congolese joint commission; 34th 
session of the Foreign Affairs Cabinet in Addis Ababa; 
the Congo's evaluation of the situation in Afghanistan: 
These are events concerning which a great deal of ink 
has been expended and about which national opinion needs 
to be correctly informed. The press conference held on 
Thursday, 21 February 1980, by Comrade Pierre Nze, mem- 
ber of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of 
the PCT in charge of foreign relations and minister of 
foreign affairs and cooperation, is rich in information, 
information that will undoubtedly put an end to the most 
diverse rumors that have circulated among the public. 

The following is the substance of that press conference. 
French-Congolese Joint Commission 

In the interviews which they have granted to French newsmen, the French min- 
ister of cooperation and the Congolese minister of foreign affairs and 
cooperation drew the main conclusions. We would state frankly that the 
meetings of the joint commission proceeded smoothly. Consequently, results 
have been very good compared with previous years. 

In fact, we have noted that France is increasingly willing to cooperate in 
many areas with the Congo, while respecting the Congo's political options. 

Insofar as our political options are respected, insofar as our desire for 
cooperation also means respect for the Congo's interest and insofar as 
there is willingness to cooperate on an equal footing: This is entirely 


in keeping with the party's political line adopted at the Third Special 

lf our options are respected, it is totally normaly for us to establish 
cordial relations with a country that cooperates with us in the climate 
we want, 

As for the concrete results of the French-Congolese joint commission and 
the spirit that prevailed (respecting the Congo and understanding that the 
latter has interests to safeguard), they were in complete accordance with 
the guidelines of our party and the resolutions set forth by our Third 
Special Congress. 

it is for these reasons that we believe that our cooperation with France, 
which itself wishes to establish the same type of relations with the Congo, 
can be warm and free of suspicion. 

However, we cannot be specific about the Congo's debt. We shall simply 
state that not long ago, President Sassou-Nguesso went to France on a work- 
ing visit, a visit that was semi-official and in the course of which he 
was received with all the honors due to his rank and with the greatest 
respect for our country. On that occasion, high-level talks were held 
between the presidents of France and the Congo. 

We were successful in making France understand the financial and economic 
situation of the Congo and in gaining France's acceptance of the main 
guidelines that will govern cooperation with that country. 

Naturally, it was never a question of gifts being made to the Congo, nor 
was there any question of the sollicitation of gifts by the Congo. It was 
a matter of cooperating on an equal footing. Nothing was therefore offered 
to the Congo. 

Nevertheless, we did ask for new terms of cooperation between our two 
countries and we believe that in general, our high officials (the Congolese 
and French presidents) came to an agreement on that orientation, one that 
‘onsists of asking France to make its technical and financial capabilities 
available to the Congo so that the latter may achieve development, by 
relying on its own resources. 

while a certain number of promises were made during the trip, we must admit 
that most of them were kept, particularly in the area of new loans for the 
purpose of enabling the Congo to invest in other fields. We believe that 
France took that view. The loans are not gifts, but rather, must be paid 
back. However, they may perhaps be spread out in time or even postponed 
for some time, which will enable the Congo to get on its feet economically 
before facing repayment of the debt. 


In this connection, negotiations were conducted within an entirely friendly 
atmosphere, In this phase of negotiations that are well underway, we cannot 
speak of any failure. 

We have already had such negotiations with many other countries, including 
Switzerland, the Soviet Union, and so on. In the case of friendly countries, 
we may go so far as to ask that they forget our debt. Naturally, these 
countries may yield on certain poiats, just as they may refuse in the case 

of others. 

Finally, when the negotiations are completed, a document wili be signed 
by the Congo and France. 

CSO: 4400 


Djibouti LE REVEIL DE DJIBOUTI in French 7 Feb 80 p 3 

{Interview with Moumin Bahdon Farah, minister of foreign affairs and coopera- 
tion: "Djibouti's Position Is Similar to That of the Majority of the 
Countries Participating in the Islamic Conference"--date and place not given] 

[Text] At the end of the trip which took him to various Gulf countries ana 
following his participation in the Islamic Conference which was held in 
Islamabad, the minister of foreign affairs and cooperation, Moumin Bahdon 
Farah, held a press conference Sunday morning attended by the RTD [Radio- 
Television Djibouti] and LE REVEIL. 

Here are the minister's answers to the questions asked by our newspaper: 

/Question/ What was the purpose of this trip, and what lessons may be 
drawn from it? 

/Answer/ This trip to the sister countries of the Gulf region falls 
within the framework of the policy of strengthening bilateral relations 
with these countries, particularly in the economic and political sectors. 

[Question] What were the principal topics you discussed during this trip 
with those you visited? 

[Answer] Our discussions with high officials of these countries dealt with 
important questions of the day, such as the dangerous situation in the Horn 
of Africa and the Red Sea. We were in agreement on all these points. 

[Question] You also participated in the Islamic Conference in Islamabad: 
what was its purpose; and what, in your opinion, was its principal result? 

[Answer] As you know, an extraordinary conference of Islamic countries 
has just been held in Islamabad to examine the dangerous situation created 
in Afghanistan by Soviet armed intervention. The conference vigorously 
condemned this Soviet military aggression against the Moslem Afghan people 
and demanded the immediate and unconditional withdrawal of Soviet troops 
from Afghanistan. The conference called this Soviet military aggression 

a flagrant violation of the principles of independence and national] 


[Question] Can you review for us the main pointe of the resolutions adopted 
by the conference and the position of Djibouti on these various resolutions? 

|Anawer) The conference decided to suspend Afghanistan's participation in 
the Islamic Conference Organization, and invited the member states to abstain 
from recognizi:g the illegal Afghanistan regime, 

The conference also invited member states not to participate in the Moscow 
Olympic Games in July 1980, 

The position of the Republic of Djibouti with respect to the problems brought 
up is similar to that of the overwhelming majority of the countries partici- 
pating in the conference. 

As regards Iran, the conference voiced its vital interest in the sovereignty, 
territorial integrity and independence of the Islamic Republic of Iran. It 
expressed its sincere wish to see the Islamic Republic of Iran and the 

Unite’ States of America resolve the problems still existing between them 

by peaceful means, and in the meantime stated its firm opposition to any 
threat or resort to force. 

With respect to the Middle East, the conference issued an appeal to all 
Islamic states to reaffirm their solidarity with the PLO, the sole legitimate 
representative of the Palestinian people, in their fight against the Zionist 

the conference also condemned normalization of relations between Egypt and 
the Zionist state and asked the Islamic countries to consider boycotting the 
Egyptian regime, politically, economically and culturally. 

As for the Horn of Africa region and the Red Sea, the conference denounced 
the presence of foreign forces. The conference also expressed its firm 
opposition to any foreign force's exploiting the situation created in 
Afghanistan, in any form whatever, to install military bases in this region. 

(Question) The conference, in fact, condemned the foreign presence in the 
region of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea: what is Djibouti's position 
on this point? 

[Answer] The Islamic Conference reiterated its opposition to the foreign 
presence in the region of the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea. As for 
Djibouti, it also expressed its opposition to foreign influences in the 
region and called upon the countries of the region to jointly cooperate to 
protect the region from the dangers of the covetousness of the great powers. 

The Red Sea, this international waterway, must be a region of peace in the 
serv -e of mankind and international peace. 

[Question] Finally, since this region is one of international tense ons at 
oresent, is the situation of our country of such nature as to perm.t it 
in the future to play some role in the search for peace? 


[Anewer] The Republic of Djibouti already represents a land of meetings 
and interchanges, and hopes to become a land of prosperity in this region, 
thanks to the role conferred upon it by ite strategic position. 

In this context, the Republic of Djibouti, in consideration of its regional 
importance, can work to bring about the requisite rapprochement between 
the countries of the region so that peace will be reestablished. 


Addis Ababa THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD in English 4 Mar 80 p 2 
[Editorial: "“Momentous Gaines for Rural Masses") 

[Text}) Today marks the fifth anniversary of the enactment of the proclama- 
tion providing for the nationalization of all rural lands in Ethiopia-~« 
radical measure that ended once and for all the centuries-old lLandlord- 
tenant relationship. 

Prior to the promulgation of this historic legislation, most of the land 
in the country was owned by a handful of feudal lords and their families 
who mercilessly sucked the blood of the peasant masses making up the bulk 
of the Ethiopian population. The proclamation automatically brought an 
end to old practices of oppression and exploitation and placed the land in 
the hands of its rightful owner--the peasantry. The proclamation was of 
great significance, not only because it has liberated the peasant masses 
from a life of misery and servitude but also because it has opened the way 
for a happy life based on equality, freedom and fraternity. 

The proclamation has set the basis on which peasants across the country can 
work closely together by organizing themselves into peasants' associations, 
that are now effectively functioning from the district to the regional 
level throughout the country. At the same time the proclamation has laid 
down favourable conditions for raising farm output and released the produc- 
tive forces of the rural economy through the complete eradication of the 
feudal system. 

The historic proclamation lays the groundwork for the expansion of indus- 
try and the growth of the economy by encouraging the active participation 
of the peasantry in the national market. The abolishing of the feudal sys- 
tem has set free the human labor idly confined within it. All this plays 
a vital role in transforming Ethiopia's rural economy. 

As ninety percent of the Ethiopian population earns its livelihood from 
agriculture which forms the backbone of the nation's economy it is not 


difficult to imagine the positive contributions accruing from thie his- 
toric legislation. The concentration of large portions of rural lands in 
the hands of a few privileged landlords and their class collaborators had 
been the reason for the life of abject poverty and humility led by the 
groad peasant masses. 

Ethiopian peasants have organized themselves into peasants’ associations 

on @ nation-wide scale which process has liberated the peasantry socially, 
economically and politically. The establishment of the All-Ethiopia 
Peasants’ Association (AEPA) is a positive outcome of this same process. 
The creation of AEPA has effectively contributed towards intensifying 

the on-going popular revolution by bringing together the gigantic potential 
of the peasant masses. Through proper politicization, organization and 
arming, it has been possible to convert the peasant masses into a mighty 
force ably defending the unity and territorial sovereignty and integrity 

of the Motherland and the precious gains of the revolution. 

Today there are more than 7.5 million active members registered with 
peasants’ associations operating throughout the country. At present 
peasants’ associations in different parts of the country are consolidating 
theic gains by organizing themselves into peasants' producers’ cooperatives. 
The producers’ cooperatives which are of intermediate and advanced forms, 
are now in the process of being set up in various parts of the country. 
This is indeed another important milestone in the Ethiopian peasant move- 
ment, Although it would take a long time, peasants’ associations in the 
country should strive towards this goal to draw maximum benefit from their 
labour for themselves as well as for the nation. 

The production cadres sent out to different parts of the country are busy 
acquainting peasants about it and it is hoped that the transition from 

the simplest to the advanced form of cooperatives will help speed up the 
nation's economic reconstruction. 

CSO: 4420 



Addis Ababa THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD in English 9 Mar 80 p 5 

[Text] The planting of the fibre-yielding plant known as “kenaf" is to be 
undertaken on a normal scale by three state farms on the basis of a decision 
adopted recently. 

According to information released by the National Fibre Works Corporation 
(NFWC), the decision to grow kenaf locally has been taken as genuine 

steps to combat the acute shortage of fibre in the world market and the 
ever-increasing prices. Three state farms located at Upper Awash, Middle 
Awash and Arba Mintch, have been selected to cultivate jointly 600 hectares 
of kenaf, each farm handling 200 hectares. The green light for the exten- 
sive cultivation of kenaf in Ethiopia was given on the basis of the success- 
ful results obtained from field experiments conducted since 1970 E.C. 

The NFWC, which operates three factories, two at Akaki, nearby Addis Ababa 
and the third at Asmara, annually uses 12,409 tons of raw materials, out of 
which kenaf accounts for the lion's share. Some 11,045 tons or around 90 
percent of the raw materials required by the factories are imported. The 
imports will cost the nation between 9 to 10 million Birr annually. Sisal 
and “enset" fibre that make up for 10 percent of the raw materials are 
acquired locally. Besides Thailand, which is the main exporter, kenaf is 
also imported from Bangladesh and India. 

As pointed out by corporation sources, experimentation schemes for growing 
kenaf had been carried out on a total of 96 hectares of land at Arba Mintch, 
Abadir farm, Gewane, Melka Werer, Tendaho and several others. An evalua- 
tion made of the various experiments last year had approved the results as 
very “encouraging.” The average size of plots used for the experimentation 
purposes were about 10 hectares. The kenaf got from the experimental plots 
had been used as seeds and as materials in the factories. 

The kenaf fibre to be got from the three farms by the end of the year will 
be used by the factories thus setting the initial phase of production 
using locally grown kenaf. A spokesman for the corporation feels that 
this will open up the prospects for cultivating the plant on a large- 
scale in future, thereby making the country self-sufficient in raw material 
supply and save the valuable foreign currency spent on imports. 


The spokesman admitted however, that it will take a long time before the 
country could attain the stage of self-sufficiency in the area of kenaf 
fibre. The three factories run by the corporation have a combined annual 
output of about 14 to 15 million bags. The construction of a fourth plant 

is under the planning stage. A total of 3,826 workers including adminis- 
trative staff are now serving in the three factories. 

CSO: 4420 



CONTRABAND TEXTILES--Harar--Members of the Dergo Lubo peasants’ association 
in Deder district Wobera province Hararghe region intercepted contraband 
textiles worth 3,821 Birr and handed it over to the provincial office of 
the Ministry of Finance, it was reported. The peasants were in their 
regular patrol duty to track down possible contraband movement from the 
Baroda to Saro-Watcha town. [Text] [Addis Ababa THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD 

in English 13 Mar 80 p 6] 

CSO: 4420 


Paris EUROPE OUTREMER in French No 596, Sep 79 p 26 
[Article by Genevieve Sigisbert: "Financial Problems") 

(Text! The major difficulty now faced by Guinean development is financial. 
From 1976 to 1978 (provisional figures), public sector receipts were 
probably 7.187 billion, 10.05 billion and 7.262 billion sylis. Total 
expenditures were respectively 10.198 billion, 8.447 billion and 7.816 
billion sylis, with successive balances of -3.011 billion, #+1.603 billion 
and -554 million sylis. It should be noted, however, that 1977 could be 
considered an exceptional year, owing to the fact that a special import 
program made it possible to clear large surpluses on the marketing of 
these commodities. 

A large surplus of total receipts over current expenditures can be noted, 
which was probably 42 percent in 1978. Im these receipts there can be 

seen the major role of the state enterprises, which probably constituted 

43 percent in 1978 (provisional figures); without these the current opera- 
tional balance would show a deficit. Under the expenditure heading, while 
current expenditures again increased moderately, in 1977 by scarcely 1 
percent, in 1978 by 9 percent, investment expenditures decreased appreciably, 
from 62 percent in 1976 to 54 percent in 1977 and to 46 percent in 1978, 
this being due in part to the reduction in foreign financing. 

The domestic financial situation improved from 1976 to 1978, thanks to the 
growth in bauxite production, to a rigorous control of expenditures, to 

a certain putting in order of the state companies and to a severe restric- 
tion on credit. 

But Guinea suffers from a continuing shortage of foreign currency, and the 
balance of payments remains extremely critical. The growth in exports is 
insufficient to compensate for the increase in the foreign debt service. 
At the end of 1978, arrears were already estimated at 4 billion sylis for 
a total indebtedness of 20.5 billion sylis. In the face of currency 
collections which offer a certain stability, foreign currency expenditures 
continue to grow. This situation is, on the one hand, linked to the world 


economic crisis: Guinea's oil bill has grown so burdensome that it represents 
$50 to $60 million per year, one-third of the foreign currency receipts; 

this is evidently due to the rise in the price of crude, but also to the 
recent growth in the number of automobiles on the road, for trade liberali- 
zation has favored imports as a whole. The food shortage also makes necessary 
the purchase of provisions which are paid for in cash. Lastly, the syli's 
weak purchasing power promotes smuggling and worsens its exchange quotation. 

This indebtedness is normal for a country with a very rich potential, but 

is rather unfavorable in the general context of its current economy. Let 
the development start off, as is visibly wished by Guinea, by means of such 
large projects--bauxite, aluminum oxide, aluminum, iron, dams, a trans-Guinean 
railway, a port, etc.--or as the financiers are more readily inclined to do, 
let it begin with several smaller scale projects. Guinea needs foreign 
financial cooperation, under "soft" conditions, and it must stabilize its 
tinancial situation in order to secure these new loans. How? Failing the 
attachment of the syli to a monetary zone, which does not appear politically 
permissible, the only solution lies in debt renegotiation with the principal 
partners. Guinea has already done this with the socialist countries, whose 
basic concerns are moreover not of a financial nature. It now remains to be 
done with the strong-currency Western countries. 

After duly improving its ideological image, if Guinea puts its finances in 
order, it should find the joint capital which is indispensable for its 
economic development. 

FOREIGN TRADE 1976-1978 

Guinea's principal partners 
(in percentages) 

Exports: 1976 1977 1978 
Germany, Federal Republic of 10.5 7.2 5.7 
Canada 12.1 12.7 8.0 
Spain 4.4 5.0 6.2 
United States 25.6 19.9 25.1 
France 21.0 17.0 16.5 
USSR 8.5 11.0 17.1 

Se lgium 2.5 3.9 5.3 
China 4.9 8.7 7.7 
United States 15.5 8.8 13.5 
France 23.3 31.0 40.0 
Netherlands 0.7 2.0 5.3 
United Kingdom 5.3 5.3 5.3 
USSR 6.3 11.2 9.6 

Source: Guinea 

cso: 4400 


Dakar AFRICA in French Feb 80 p 26 

[Article by Ray Autra: "Guinean Bananas and Pineapples Will Not Be in 
Dakar Tomorrow") 

[Text] In our issue No 108 of February 1979, it was written, "We will soon 
eat Guinean bananas and pineapples in Dakar." 

That is not so. It will not be tomorrow. 

Because banana production, which had reached the record figure of 100,000 tons 
in 1956, is scarcely 5,000 tons at present, and a banana costs 50 CFA francs 
in Guinea as against 25 CFA francs in Senegal... 

Is it not rather the opposite that is likely to happen, that is, the impor- 
tation by Sekou Toure's country of Senegalese bananas, since for that matter, 
the Casamance region production--nearly 10,000 tons-- in full expansion will 
henceforth double that of Guinea. 

And Guinea is far from getting on its feet again. 
An Industrial Crop 

We must not forget that bananas are an industrial crop which calls for much 
attention and has many cequirements. 

Under the colonial regime, as it happened, there was at Kindia (in Guinea) 
a body, the Institute of Colonial Fruits and Citruses (IFAC), specializing 
for the whole of the French overseas territories in research on bananas and 
citrus fruits (pineapple, grapefruit, shaddocks, mandarins, sour limes, 

And when a planter wanted to set up a plantation, the IFAC took soil samples 
and made analyses so as to recommend the chemical fertilizers that were 
lacking. The plantations were then watched over, and the institute had 
developed the insecticides and fungicides that protected the banana trees 


against parasites and disease, or brought the disease under control. A 
team of high-level acitentific and technical researchers worked there: 
agricultural engineers, pedologists, entomologists, chemists, the institute 
having laboratories and a library rich in scientific works. 

Now with the scientistse--French--having departed, there is nothing left of 
the laboratories and the library, while the institute is directed by an 
agricultural instructor at the Primary and Elementary Studies Certificate 

Bananas - Not for Another 10 Years 

We understand, consequently, the reasons for the slump in banana and citrus 
fruit production, knowing that in the absence of qualified technical and 
scientific staff, a shortage of fertilizer, insecticide and fungicide has 
furthermore been noted. 

To stimulate production, we must therefore begin by reconstructing the 

library and the scientific laboratory equipment, find specialized staff and 
resume the soil and environmental studies, because in the meantime, the 

soil has become damaged through ill-considered tree-cuttings and brush fires. 
Lastly, we must provide for a smooth replenishment of fertilizer, insecti- 
cides and fungicides. To implement this would require at least 6 years, 

and perhaps after 10 years of desperately hard, continuous work, we will 

be able to hope for increased production. Let us point out in passing that 
while Guinea was producing 100,000 tons of bananas, the Ivory Coast was 

just reaching half of that, and that today, Ivorian production is 300,000 tons. 

The Country of Fruits...on Stamps 

As to pineapples, their production is entrusted to a Libyan company 
SAGUILDIA [expansion unknown] which turns into juice and slices, for export 
purposes, all the fruit harvested, so much so that fruit, juice and slices 
are exceedingly rare commodities in Guinea, the indigenous producers 
encountering the same difficulties as for bananas, and having practically 
abandoned this crop. 

Thus, the appearance on the Senegalese market of Guinean bananas and pine- 
apples will not take place tomorrow. 

Sometimes dealers offer bananas, pineapples, mangoes and other fruits, saying 
that they come from Guinea. But do not trust this false advertising, which 
only aims to attract that clientele which still naively believes that Guinea 
is the country of delicious fruits...As we saw on the stamps. 

cso: 4400 



OW181501 Taipei CNA in English 1330 GMT 18 Mar 80 OW 

[Excerpts] Blantyre, 18 Mar (CNA)--The Republic of China and Malawi will 
further expand their economic and technical cooperation to strengthen 
the relations between the two countries. 

With the signing of the extension of a Sino-Malawian agreement of tech- 
nical cooperation Wednesday, the Republic of China may send more economic 
and agricultural experts to this country to help resolve its economic 
problems resulting from increasing oil price and transportation diffi- 

It is learned that the Republic of China had already given Malawi a 
credit of $5 million to purchase fertilizer from Taiwan. This credit 
may be increased and also diversified for Malawi to make better us* of 
the loan to meet its economic development needs. 

A Chinese agricultural team in Malawi is already one of the biggest 
among those stationed in Africa. It is assisting Malawi in producing 
rice, vegetables, and in constructing irrigation schemes. 

As a result of this agricultural and technical service, Malawi has become 
(?self-sufficient) in food production, and it can even export rice to 
neighboring countries such as Tanzania and Zambia. In the economic and 
trade fields, the Republic of China may also increase its purchase of 
tobacco, cotton and other agricultural raw materials from Malawi. 

Diplomatic observers here said that President Banda is appreciative of 

Premier Sun's visit and also the economic and technical cooperation 
extended by the Republic of China to Malawi. 

CSO: 4420 



Maputo TEMPO in Portuguese No 486, 3 Feb 80 pp 16-17 
[Editorial by A.M.: "The Merchants of War"] 

[Text] I traveled around the entire country with eyes glued on Zimbabwe, 
thinking of Smith's irresponsibility, the maneuvers of a cabal of Zimbabwean 
nationalist leaders, the compromises these leaders made, the guerrilla war 
of the people's forces, the attacks of the Rhodesian troops and mercenaries, 
the deaths of defenseless peoples and the sacrifices that the wary in Zim- 
babwe imposes on our people who work tirelessly to strengthen our defensive 

At the borders, our soldiers lived in a state of permanent vigilance. In 
the city, the nervousness, the so-called stress, grew. 

At the same time, all kinds of incompetent individuals in all sectors 
calmly generated its incompetence. They zealously fulfilled their sched- 
ules whose coordinates are the two daily arrivals and departures from the 
division, being very punctual about the departures. 

Indeed, I traveled around the country to meditate on that unjust, colonial- 
ist, imperialist war. 

At the same time, all kinds of bureaucrats in all sectors took sensual plea- 
sure in tons of paper delaying the dispatch while goods spoiled on the docks 
and in the warehouses. 

When a new structure was created to servethe people's power, this new struc- 
ture was corrupted by the well-kept memories of the colonial bureaucracy 
which had good servants in many old-guard officials surprised by something 
called revolution which demanded an end to bureaucracy. 

When the Rhodesian troops bombed, massacred, stole, destroyed our economy, 
our roads, our farms, our stores, our schools, our medical stations, all 


kinds of saboteurs in all sectors delighted in completing this destruct! 
undermining from within the structures of the state apparatus, while smiling 
ever more broadly as the lines grew longer, as the people murmured. 

I visited the party and the state concerned with fighting the difficulties, 
taking this or that measure to engage in and win all the battles occurring at 
that historic moment. Careless of all order in all sectors, they took de- 
light in thwarting the decisions made, dedicating themselves religiously to 
complicating the simple and making the clearest directive mysterious. 

We can call this caste the merchants of war. There is a group in every war 
which utilizes it to grow rich. In every war, there are shortages of goods. 
Thus, smuggling begins and schemers emerge. All wars mobilize a great human 
and material effort, diverting attention from the vital, priority sectors. 
The opportunist, the calculating individual emerges. Using this situation 
as a cover, he grows rich, smiles and rubs his hands. War is a business for 

All wars require outpostswithin hostile territory. They must have a recon- 
naissance front, a front for sabotage and diversion. All kinds of agents, 
the conscious and the oblivious, happily served the Rhodesian enemy who at- 
tacked us. They committed acts of sabotage, schemed, were negligent and set 
themselves up in towers of incompetence. 

However, the Rhodesian aggression, at least military aggression, has ended. 
They already had weapons, at the same time, they were alerted about any 
external situation by obtaining internal enemies. It could almost be said 
that it was only hard to know where to begin. 

the president of FRELIMO took the initiative and visited various key sectors. 
Here, then, the cat showed its tail. The people were jubilant. What hap- 
pened? At the least, let us say that it was proved that negligence and in- 
competence were two words which not only rhyme, but are similar in substance 
and in the consequences. It was seen how economic ruin occurs in many coun- 
tries of the world. 

[tc is the sum of small and large incompetence, small and large negligence, 
small and large bureaucracies, small and large irresponsibility. The result 
is a great sabotage which can even endanger the people's conquests. In the 
midst of so many things, it becomes difficult to know what is only a speck 
and what is a flaw. It is natural to wonder what is the result of the 
transformation of the structures and what is the result of deliberate 

When we begin a battle," said President Samora Machel to the Beira meeting, 
"we look to certain victory." 

At this moment, this makes the internal enemy tremble. Naturally, new 
atrategies are being drawn up, explanations and apologies, even the tradi- 
tional “mea culpas," are being prepared. In any event, no one in Mozam- 
bique knowe better how to say: Long live the victory of the people of 

Finally, we can actually see one of the most serious problems threatening 
each and every revolution: the assault on its structures by those who, 
using the cloak of the revolution, wish purely and simply, to substitute the 
Old, deposed oligarchies. The internal enemy infiltrates himself and, from 
within, attempts to undermine the structures, hinder the machinery of power 
and provoke the people's dissatisfaction. Understanding the ultimate ob- 
jec ives of this maneuver does not require much political perceptivity. The 
people's power is to be corroded, torpedoed. 

What did the people say on seeing the exhibit of products displayed at the 
fair-exhibit in Maputo: "Who is responsible"? 

CSO: 4401 




Maputo TEMPO in Portuguese No 486, 3 Feb 80 p 58 

[Letter to Editor: "Thieves, Those Undesirables"] 

[Text] I request that my letter be published in the periodical TEMPO. 

I am going to examine a problem affecting the entire country. It is the 
problem of thieves. Everyone knows that there are many thieves in the cities 
and small towns. Our party and government have not yet discovered an ef- 
fective way to deter the malignant, very undesirable action of thieves. To 
speak of thieves is to speak of criminals and barbarians. 

A specific example: in Mueda (Cabo Delgado) there was a robbery in day- 
light which shocked local authorities. Two thieves pretending to be provin- 
cial officials opened the post office safe in the presence of that organi- 
zation's officials, and stole more than 1 million contos. 

Now we see how many individuals have been harmed by these thieves. 

l could cite many other cases, in addition to this one. No one in the 
whole country can re-educate these undesirables. 

I suggest that instead of sending all professional criminals to jail, they 
be taken to a hospital where one of their lower limbs would be amputated, 
and two crutches would be provided. 

This is the only way to reform a thief. Thus, all the thieves who incurred 
these sanctions would become a good Mozambique citizens. 

Inacio Jamul Passari 
Cabo Delgado 
Mocimboa da Praia 

Editor's note: The biblical and Koranic law of “an eye for an eye, a tooth 
for a tooth" is not applied inthe People's Republic of Mozambique. This 
law, also called the law of retaliation, is extremely primitive in terms of 
applying justice. 

A society which would act in this way (and they exist today) becomes, in our 
eyes, more criminal than the criminal. Thieves are not born thieves or be- 
come that way through illness. A thief, like all other types of marginal 
individuals, is the product of society and we inherited him from the colonial 
society. Re-education, applied by the party and the state, has proved to be 
the most effective, humane way. However, it seems that this reader with 
sadistic tendencies has not noticed these measures. 

CSO: 4401 



Maputo TEMPO in Portuguese No 486,3 Feb 80 p 60 
[Letter to Editor] 

[Text] On 20 December 1979, I went to the people's store located in the Zona 
Verde near Sonefe. This store sold oil, potatoes, flour and fish. I went 
in and asked the lady at the counter how many kilos of potatoes could be 
purchased; she told me 2 kilograms and 1 liter of oil, but that soldiers 
could not make purchases. I asked why. The lady told me, "Speak with that 
man in charge." I went to him and told him I wanted 2 kilograms of potatoes 
and 1 liter of oil. The reply was the following: "The management of the 
people's stores directed that no soldier could buy the following products: 
oil, sugar, flour, potatoes, soap, toilet soap and onions because they have 
military canteens." I asked about the order or law which regulated this, 
and he told me that it had not yet been published but that it had been dis- 
cussed at a meeting with the management. “If the comrade wished, he could 
contact the management." 

{ told him he was negligent. The management of the people's stores would 
not publish such a thing, because we only have a military canteen, our num- 
bers are great and we lack other things. The man in charge said,"Send a 
requisition to the management of the people's stores, requisitioning what 
you need at your canteen.” 

My perception of all this comes from this official's remarks. When he meets 
with the employees of that store, he confuses what the management said. 

What is a people's store? Whom does it serve? Is a soldier not one of the 
people? Let us suppose I lived far from a military canteen. Must I go 
hungry because I am not allowed to buy at a people's store? 

| urge the management to make the head of the people's store of the Zona 
Verde understand and make it very clear to him about this matter. 

Paulo Chatokota, FPLM [Popular Front for the Liberation of Mozambique] 
soldier, Maputo 


cso: 4401 47 


Addis Ababa THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD in English 5 Mar 80 p 6 

[Excerpts] The Human Rights Commission of the World Peace Council yester- 
day morning heard heart-rending testimony of physical and mental torture in 
Namibia from Comrade Nghidimondjila Shoombe of the South West Africa People's 
Organization (SWAPO). 

The SWAPO representative, Comrade Nghidimondjila Shoombe, revealed that the 
racist South African authorities are turning Namibia into a vast military 
training centre and concentration camp as well. He said 60 thousand 
hectares of Namibian territory embracing nine giant farms will soon be 
turned into one of the largest military training centres on the African 
continent, quite clearly indicating that the Pretoria regime is determined 
to consolidate its hold on Namibia in flagrant violation of UN resolutions 
to the contrary. 

Comrade Shoombe related the harrowing experiences of a SWAPO colleague who 
underwent blood—curdling torture and humiliation while serving in the pri- 
son dungeons of the authorities in Namibia. The victim, a 29 year old 
militant who was arrested during a police swoop of his locality in May 
1979, was viciously kicked, beaten and subjected to electric shocks and 
forced to undergo numerous forms of psychological torture in an unsuccess- 
ful attempt to have him reveal the identity and whereabouts of SWAPO 
activists and sympathisers in the vicinity. 

At one point, Comrade Shoombe said, the victim was blindfolded, tied around 
the chest with two ropes and dumped into a trench. The racist police 

doing the interrogation fired pistol shots in the vicinity and later 
produced two bullet-riddled corpses and warned him: “You will end up the 
same way unless you comply." The next day the Namibian patriot was taken 
to another torture chamber where the brutal police pushed a broom up his 
rectum. He bled through the mouth, nose as well as the rectum and was 
denied food and water for five consecutive days and continuously subjected 
to other forms of torture and degradation before he made his final escape. 


The SWAPO representative appealed to the Commission, the WPC and the inter- 
national community, especially the progressive world, for financial aid 

for dependent families of those who are still in prison in Namibia or 

South Africa. He also appealed to international lawyers to visit some of 

the prisons and concentration camps in Namibia and see how people are being 
treated there. He also appealed to the Commission to expose the atro- 
cities of the South African regime against political prisoners and detainees, 
who, he demanded should be accorded the status of prisoners of war in con- 
formity with the Geneva Convention. 

Comrade Shoombe assured Commission members nonetheless that "death or life, 
Namibians are determined to free their country." 

CSO: 4420 




TERRORISTS MURDER OF OVAMBO--Windhoek: Terrorists murdered an Owambo 
businessman and set his shop and car on fire on Friday, the Owambo 
Government announced at Ondangwa, northern SWA. A spokesman said Mr 

David Sheehama, a member of the Ombalantu Tribal Council was shot with 

an AK~-47 automatic rifle before dawn. His wife and child were wounded. 

Mrs Sheehama was being treated at the State Hospital at Oshakati. The 
child's wounds were not serious. Security forces were following the tracks 
of the terrorists, he added. Mr Sheehama's shop and car were set on fire 
once before, last year.--SAPA. [Text] [Windhoek THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER 
in English 19 Mar 80 p 4] 

SAPPERS KILLED--Pretoria: Defence Headquarters here yesterday confirmed 
the death of three South African army engineers in an explosion on Friday 
while they were trying to lift a SWAPO landmine in the SWA operational area. 
The men who died were Sergeant Deon van der Vyver, 21, of Van Riebeeckstad, 
near Welkom, Sapper Willem Johannes Prinsloo, 22, of Odendaalsrus and 

Lance Corporal Anthonie Oberholzer, 22, of Port Alfred. The three men 
will be buried with full military honours. Sergeant Van der Vyver was 

to have become engaged to Miss Estelle Prinsloo of Welkom on his return from 
border duty. He leaves his parents, Mr and Mrs J.H. van der Vyver, his 
three siters, Hilda, 24, Jessie, 18 and Alta, 16, a half-brother and two 
step-brothers. He will be buried from the NG church in Virginia on Thurs- 
day. Sapper Prinsloo, a Welkom boilermaker, leaves his parents, Mr and 

Mrs W. Prinsloo, his sister Hanlie, 20, and brothers Martiens, 16 and 
Fransie, 12. He will be buried from the NG church in Odendaalsrus, but 

no date has been set yet.--SAPA. [Text] [Windhoek THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER 
in English 12 Mar 80 p 1] 

CIVILIANS DIE FROM LANDMINE--Eight Black civilians died instantly in Owambo 
on Monday when the vehicle in which they were traveling detonated a land- 
mine laid by SWAPO terrorists, an official of the Owambo Government said at 
Oshakati. Two other passengers in the van were injured and were being 
treated at the State Hospital at Oshakati, the spokesman said. The inci- 
dent occurred at about 3.30 pm on Monday, 25 km north of Oshakati on the 
ground road to Oshikango near the Angolan border. The victims were the 
only passengers in the van, the spokesman said. There were no further 
details.--SAPA [Text] [Windhoek THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER in English 

12 Mar 80 p 1} 


BUDGET FIGURES--The Department of Posts and Telecommunications is to in- 
crease its capital expenditure by 19,3 percent to R355,/ m. Revenue is 
expected to increase by 19,4 percent estimated to total R 1,09 b, R177 m 
up on last year. No tariff increases were announced. [Text] [Windhoek 
THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER in English 19 Mar 80 p 3) 

LUTHERANS AGAINST GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS--The number of missionaries serving 
in the Evangelical Ovambokavango Lutheran Church in SWA has more than halved 
from 112 ten years ago to 54 at present. In a Press release the executive 
committee of ELOC protests against the restrictions imposed on the church 
by the authorities. Recently two Finnish missionaries were told to leave 
the country and towards the end of last year five were refused entry. The 
authors of the document hit out at an alleged policy by the Government in 
which the church's need for expatriate staff is hampered. The names of 

the missionaries who were refused entry visas are Miss Seija Nurmiranta, a 
newly appointed pharmacist, Miss Toini Juvonen, a returning nursing sister, 
Miss Salme Manningen, a returning youth worker, and Rev and Mrs Tervonen, 

a returning pastor. [David Pieters) [Text] [Windhoek THE WINDHOEK ADVER- 
TISER in English 19 Mar 80 p 4] 

KHOMASDAL AUTONOMY SHELVED--A request for the installation of an independent 
municipality of Khomasdal has been temporarily shelved by the Advisory Com- 
mittee of the elected Colored Council of Khomasdal. The Council had directed 
an appeal to this effect to the AG Dr Gerrit Viljoen. The decision to post- 
pone the request was taken in the light of the envisaged new municipal legis- 
lation for SWA. The decision to request the AG for an independent munici- 
pality for Khomasdal was taken last year in November at the tenth session 

of the Council. Subsequently, however, a Commission of Inquiry into a 
future dispensation for local managements was appointed by the AG on Jan- 
uary 23 this year. The Commission, under the Chairmanship of Mr A C 

Arnold, Windhoek's Town Clerk, is at present considering various requests 

to a effect. [Text] [Windhoek THE WINDHOEK ADVERTISER in English 13 Mar 
80 p 4 


Niamey LE SAHEL in French 1 Feb 80 p 4 
{[Article: "A Fodder Farm in June in Tiaguirire"] 

[Text] Yesterday morning President Seyni Kountche visited the hydro- 
agricultural installation in Tiaguirire where fodder cultivation will 
begin next June and which is destined to sustain the effort to initiate 
intensive stock-raising in Niger. 

This installation--the first of its kind in our country--covers an area 

of 350 hectares, protected by a dam, of which 250 hectares of exploitable 
land will be used for the cultivation of "bourgous," [translation unknown] 
a very nourishing plant for animals. 

Costing in the neighborhood of 1,500 billion francs CFA, the objective of 
the Tiaguirire installation, which became a reality in 1978 and is almost 
completed at this time, is to promote intensive animal and industrial pro- 

To insure the proper management of the installation, the people responsi- 
ble for rural development--foremen--opted to initiate a cooperative frame- 
work on the installation level with a view to the regional population's 
participation in this project. 

Thus, each peasant in this framework will have at his disposal about 1 
hectare of land where he will have to take care of eight head of cattle. 
The credits necessary for the purchase of these animals will be furnished 
by CNCA [National Agricultural Credit Bank]. 

The minister of rural development, Brah Mahamane, who accompanied the 
chief of state, furnished us with these particulars and specified that 
250 families will be involved in this project. 

It is anticipated that 2,000 head of cattle will leave Tiaguirire every 

6 months for the slaughterhouse (namely 4,000 yearly), and on this point 
he specified that the success of the total project rests on the 


restructuring of SONERAN [National Company for Animal Resources}. At the 
present time this company is represented in Niamey only, which inevitably 

Limits its activities. 

The Tiaguirire installation is in fact one of the links in the national 
policy in regard to animal resources, which begins in the pastoral zone 
where extensive cattle-raising originates and extends to the ranches 
where semi-extensive stock-raising is practiced, for which it consti- 
tutes a safety valve. 

CSO: 4400 


Niamey LE SAHEL in French 30-31 Jan 80 p 2 
[Article: "Development Company: Major Djermakoye Reports to the AFN"] 

[Text] The president of the national commission responsible for the 
establishment of the development company, Major Moumouni Djermakoye 
Adamou made a report yesterday in the CELTHO [expansion unknown] lecture 
hall on the development company, in the presence of Riba Dan Madam, direc- 
tor of youth and cultural animation, and the members of the national com- 
mittee of the AFN [Nigerian Women's Association]. 

Before explaining the purpose of the development company Djermakoye drew 
the attention of the audience to the principal Nigerian objectives, 
namely, a rate of 2.7 to 3 percent in demographic growth, and to the fact 
that the population should include 50 or 60 percent of the young, and 90 
percent of the rural population. Djermakoye continued, “our duty is to 
be able to ensure a happy future for the young." 

The president of the national commission responsible for the establish- 
ment of the development company then spoke at length on the position of 
the rural population. Dermakoye stated that at the present time a 
minority comprised of the elite of the country reflects and makes deci- 
sions for the rest of the country. "The base must have its say," he con- 
tinued, but it should not wish to impose its political policies on the 
Nigerian people. However, it should be up to the people to reflect and 
consider what is best for all, and that is the object of the national 

Speaking of the composition of this commission Djermakoye underlined that 
"no one was forgotten, all classes of society and associations in our 
country are represented." 

After the translation of the report into the national languages, the 
women said a few words, especially regarding rural women's representa- 
tion in the development company. 

"Everyone knows that in general women are in the background when deci- 
sions are made in the villages" declared one of the participants. 

To the above Djermakoye replied that there will be a solution if the AFN 
will institute adequate structures. 

the national committee of the AFN met yesterday morning and discussed the 
general problems of the association, namely, finances, establishment of a 
newspaper, relations between departmental offices and its new structures. 

CSO: 4400 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p l 

[Text ] 


RHODESIA will become the independent Republic of 
Zimbabwe at midnight on April 17. The Queen will be 
represented at the ceremony by Prince Charles, the heir to 

the throne. 

Qenemnden Go tems Onn, © Gah for the 
Governor said Lord Soames had agreed to the request of Mr 
Robert Mugabe to continue to exercise his responsibilities over 

Rhodesia until mid- 
night on April 17. 
Mr Mugabe, who 

was officially con- 
firmed as Prime 
Minister in a Govern- 
ment Gazette notice 
yesterday, will assume 
his full powers as the 
Union Jack is lowered 

for the last time. 

“The Republic of Zim- 
babwe will become inde- 
pendent at that time. 
Friday April 18 will be 
Independence Day,” said 
the Governor’s spokesman. 
Last night a source said 
Independence Day would 
probably be declared a 
public holiday. 

‘ne date was chosen as 
a compromise between the 
Prime Minister’s request 
for a longer British pre- 
sence and the Governor's 
intention not to overstay, 
said the source. 

Ministers of the new 
Government would im the 
meantime be working with 
their departments to plan 
Government strategy ‘and 
prepare to implement its 


Although Lord Soames 
would continue his 
lative and execu 

until Inde 

ay, he would consult the 
Prime Minister before 
taking political decisions, 
the source said. 


it was aiso expected 
that heads of Government 

ernment House for the 
Governor’s action. 

anthem would ably be 
introduced at - 
dence. This would be con- 
sidered by the » 

the Secretary to the Cabi- 
net, Mr George Smith. 
The committee was also 

looking into the guest last 
which wep == a, 
“lo an tinguished’. 
Ohamreens believe that 
a the leaders to be 
inv) will be the Presi- 
dents of the frontline 

The committee will start 
meeting next week. 

Mr Smith said yeaterday 
that Mr Mugabe had been 
asked to put forward the 
names of Ministers and 
party officials to sit on 
the committee, and had 
received a Hat of the cele- 
brations it would organise. 

Rhodesia wil) become 
independent as a member 
of the Commonwealth, and 
Britain is to send its High 
Commissioner to Salisbury 
before Independence Day. 


Lord Soames will leaye 
Zimbabwe on hee day of 
indepenten nce 
Charles is Docetea te re- 
main, to the cdun- 
try. The Prince's itiner- 
ary will be worked out 
by the independence com- 

The Governor leaves 
Salisbury for London to- 
morrow for meetings 
with the British Prime 
Minister. Mrs Thatcher, 
the Foreign Secretary, 
Lord Carrington, and the 
Minister of Overseas De- 
velopment, Mr Neil Mar- 

Our source said: “Lord 
Soames will be discussing 
with his Cabinet col- 
leagues a number of ways 
in which we may be able 
to help (Zimbabwe). 

“We have made clear 
our wish to do all that 
we can to help Zimbabwe 
both now and after inde- 
pendence and to sustain 
its imdependent life in 
peace, prosperity and re- 

CSO: 4420 


A team of two or three 
British officials would 
come to Salisbury econ 
to assess the country’s 
needs fol a re- 
quest by Mr Mugabe for 
assistance ip the civil 

On Thursday — three 
senior policemen would 
arrive to review Police 
training and a re- 

with the Minister of 
Home Affairs, Mr Joshua 
Nkomo, said the British 

The source said there 
was no special significance 
attached to April 18. The 
date had amply been 
agreed by both the Gov- 
ernor and the Prime 
Minister at a meeting on 
Thureday night. 

Tana reports that Lord 
Soames told reporters ves- 
terday morning: “We had 
to balance not turning 
him (Mr Mugabe) down. 
So we tried meet him 
and stay for another five 

‘The Governor added 
that Mr Mugabe's Minis- 
ters “would have liked 
some shoulder to lean on". 
He belfeved April 18 would 
be a good compromise. 


The extension of his 
stay could “move him (Mr 

Reviewin his three 
months in Lord 
Soames said: “I think 
that fortune has smiled 
on us, when we think of 
the fears we had for the 

the barrel of gun” 

re praised the work of 
the 1300-man Common- 
wealth Monitoring Force, 
the remnants whom 
are helping train former 


‘It showk thet the 
British Army oan atill be 
used to do all kind of 
arenge things and do it 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 1 

[Text | 

THE Prime Minister, 
Mr Mugabe, yesterday 
unveiled his Govern- 

ment's programme of 
action, the priorities 
of which are the 
acquisition of land to 
resettle refugees and 
the establishment of 

of the new Government, 
expected to assume power 
in the middle of next 
month, vould @rat be in 
the Ministry of Lands. 
Resettlement and Rural 
Development, headed by 
Dr Sdney Sekeramayt 
“Here we must proceed 
with speed to acquire 
land for the resettiement 
of many @isplaced persons 
—refugees within and 
without the country. 

will also carry out the 
omy of co-opera- 

ew and collectives 

Saying hia Government 
would not be a new gov- 
ernment tf it did not 
bring about change, the 
Prime Minister emphe- 
sised the change would 
have to be balanced with 
the need to retain skills 
in the country 

There was plenty of 
unused and wu -utilised 
land which could be 
acquired “immediately” 
for resettiement, he said. 

Another area ear- 
marked for early action 
by the Government & 
education. where steps 
are to be taken to reopen 
schools closed during the 

Hospitals end clinics 
affected by the war would 
aleo he reopened 

“Immediate asestistance™ 
had been promised by the 
United States. Sweden, 
the Netherlands. Britain 
and all) the countries in 
the European Economic 
Community to help the 
Government carry out its 
land, health and educa- 

tion programmes, he said 
Another |! task 

tive system to replace the 
different local government 
systems for biackg and 


Housing, Mr Hddison 
Zvobgo. ' The r-- 
has been transferred to 

the Police (law 
can GD oad Ge ca 
tration of marriages. 
births and deaths. District 
administration has been 
removed from his port- 

One other function of 




Then there will a link 
between that system and 
the courts s0 
that from the 
lowest court under the 

very serious programmer 
© restructuring the dis 

trict ad@ministre ve sya 
tom We waat « uniform 
local aG@ministrative aye 
tem to prevail in the 

The Prime Minister said 
the Public Service needed 
restr cluring. And he in- 
formation, tedio and tele 
vision «section § —_ quired 
real overnha. ie 

The Minister of the 
Pubiie Bervtee Mr Richard 
Hove would examine the 
present setup with « 
view (9 gaining an insight 
nto (he workings of every 

ie would ele study 
the position of Africans 
with a view to heir pro- 
motion and advancement. 

‘ . , 

Experts from the Br't- 
tish Goaating 
tion woukd come & 
desta to aasiat in over- 
hauling the tnformation 
and broadcasting agencies. 
There would be train 
achemesn at home a 

Mr Mugabe confirmed 
that eenior civil servants 
hed comp ained about the 
creation of ‘one or two 

The civil servants feit 
‘were waa need for a sep- 
arate Ministry of Roads 
and Road Trafic They 
aiso queried the creation 
of the Ministry of Posts 
and Telecommunications 
» the grounds that. as 
an sutoromous statutory 
authority. it had so Gov- 
ernment department 

The Prime Minister said 
the Government was 

dering wh thar , 

‘t road trate eouid oot 
” 4 nh posts and 

But I muet a@mit that 
-@ do not understaed the 
logic of separating roads 
aod road traffic from the 

ther aspects of trapsport 
the ra'lways and the 
ir system | should 
maine thal both aspects 
shoud he under transport 
nd power.” he said. 

W elcome 

Mr Mugabe said he had 
not | =6yet) =«—6received 
jedges of aid from the 

em bloc, but Ue 
would be welcome if 

Hie Government wae 

repared to raise 
loans for the development 
of the country from any 

Regarding the national 
debt, he sald ihe position 

sidered carefully before 
obligation wee accepted. 

“Where they got arme 
as aries io kind. we would 
find it extremely difficult 

Rail route 

Accepting the obliga- 
ton to repay cash loans 
inherited from previous 
Governments, the Prime 
Minister added: “I under- 

that. . all loans 
Uney got rh) from 
South Africa, were in 
He sald he wanted to 
see the rail route to Beira 
oo 2 
le. that 
Zaire and bia were 

® solide 
rity with SWAPO, the 

be influenced by financial 
conetderations, although 
tt wes hie Governments 
desire to estabiteh diplo- 
matic miesions in every 

anther § = cansideration 
would be how much Zim. 
hatwe could gain from 

o up @ Mission in 
> *2 country But 


Sofia ZEMEDELSKO ZNAME in Bulgarian 16 Mar 1980 p 4 

[Text] After the great victory of the Patriotic Front in the first parlia- 
mentary elections, in Rhodesia's modern history, held this week, Robert 
Mugabe, chairman of the African National Alliance of Zimbabwe (ZANU) Party, 
formed the first government of the independent state. The government co 
sists of 24 ministers; Mugabe, in addition to his position as prime minister, 
is also in charge of the Ministry of Defense. The cabinet includes also 
members of the other party which has joined the Patriotic Front, namely, 
Alliance of the African People of Zimbabwe (ZAPU) whose leader Joshua Nkomo 
will be the minister of Internal Affairs, as well as two representatives of 
the white population. 

Robert Gabriel Mugabe was born in 1925 in @ poor peasant family in the smail 
Village of Kutame, situated not too far away from Salisbury. Mugabe studied 
in missionary schools; later on he entered the "Fort Hare" University, for 
blacks only, in the Republic of South Africa. Here, while colliding with 
the inhumane racist laws and customs, the young man got his first political 
baptism. Here he got acquainted for the first time with some Marxist work:. 
After completing his education in 1951, Mugabe taught in various schools i: 
Ghana, Zambia, and from 1954 in Rhodesia too. He has degrees in Law and 
Government; he is known as a teetotaller--he does not smoke and drink, and 
he likes music. 

Robert Mugabe became politically active at the end of the 50's. At first 

he was a secretary in charge of the press in the National-Democratic Party 
of Joshua Nkomo (now Alliance of the African People of Zimbabwe), and later 
on, in August 1963, he founded the party of the African National Alliance of 
Zimbabwe (ZANU) and became its chairman. He was persecuted by the authori- 
ties and he spent many years in racist jails. 

The merger of the ZANU and ZAPU parties, in October 1976, into the Patriotic 
Front of Zimbabwe marked a new stage in the struggle of the native Africa: 
population against the racist regime of lan Smith. Robert Mugabe, one oi 
the Patriotic Front leaders, became very active in expanding the partisan 
struggle in the country. He said the following in connection with this 


Lruge@ie: ‘he truth of our weapons is the truth of our cause, and the 
truth of our cause is the truth of our weapons.” At the same time Mugabe 
Also visited « number of other countries where he explained the aims and 
tasks of the patriotic forces in Rhodesia, 

‘act summer he visited Bulgaria too and he was received by comrade Todor 
‘hivkev. At this meeting Mugave gave 4 high appraisal for the disinterested 
aid and support by the Bulgarian Communist Party and the People's Republic 

f Bulgaria to the people of Zimbabwe and other peoples in the African South 
in thetr struggle against the forces of racism and imperialism. 

hilo gtatemente to the press the new prime minister of Zimbabwe pointed 
out that after so many years of war, the main attention of the government 
will be directed toward the problems of the socio-economic development of 
‘he country. He emphasized that the entire people of Zimbabwe, especially 
population in rural areas, must participate in the determination of 
their fate, that the people must become the landlord of its country and its 
tural riches. The collective forms of land tillage and the creation of 
fario ‘committees with administrative functions will contribute to this 

e mn the countryside. in the international arena the government will 
follow a policy of positive neutrality and mutually advantageous cooperation 
ull nmtries. 
[Ss expected that the cabinet headed by Robert Mugabe will begin to carry 
i+ its functions immediately after the official proclamation of Zimbabwe's 
pendence @t midnight on April 17 

Signed: V. As. 


Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 6 

[Text } 

tt WAS not purely a desire for pexoo that 
persuaded the black clectorate te sete “en 

masse” for ZANE CPR) 

in the election, said 

the party's director of elections, Me Eddison 

Zvobgo, last week. 

Contrary to the popular 
view that Africans were 
now sick and tired of the 
war and were for peace. 
Mr Zvobgo mid = the 
ZANU (PF) assessment 
was that people were 
prepared to start Aghting 
again if they did not get 
what they wanted 

“It is not really peace 
that people wanted. It ts 
freedom Although wr 
want peace we love free- 
dom more. The people 
were determined to get 
genuine African freedom 
and that is why = they 
voted for us Once they 
are truly free, there is no 
need for them to go to 

One of Bishop Muzo- 
rewa's mistakes was to 
emphasise the need for 
peace rather than genuine 
freedom, adding that be- 
fore the advent of the war 
im the aixties, the 
had heen very t 
but had opted for armed 
conflict inatead 

Propaganda broadcasts 
heamed each evening on 
Radio Mozambique were 
instrumental tp instilling 

local biack population. 
who tuned in to hear the 
progress of the “liberation 

Coupled with that were 
the Wally “punmgwes” — all 
night political meetings — 
at which tribespeople 

roughout the country 

re grilled into sup. 
porting the st as 
the only means throueh 
which genuine freedom 
aod majority rule could be 

“Every cadre wae 
tuught to demonstrate te 
the people that they were 
oppressed-—by looking at 
the structure of the 
present government, the 
Public Service, the armed 
forces and the su 
laws prevailing im the 



‘The ‘povo’ were also 
taught that the enemy 
they faced was not the 
white mun but the system 
which denied them gen- 
uine freedom. And with 
the p! orevolutionary 
songs and slogans on 
Radio Mozambique we 

hieved h 
breakthrouph. he =_ 

The Lancaster House 
Conference, he sald. saw 
the start of the party's 
election campaign. 

“The hard stand we 
took right through the 
conference showed we 
meant business. We ex- 
posed that it was the 
whites and not Bishop 
Muzorewa who were run- 
ning the country.” 

Later the gained 
more sympathy m the 
black voters, who saw it 
being discriminated 
against by Lord Soamer’s 



ite tioverhnor played 
ihtan coat ote Tih hi nak ng 
things dutreull tor ua @ 
rhe home toon Mogae 
TL Pivers oousstion 
wis being levelled ogalnat 
us There was on attempt 
io beamireh our image by 
homhnog churches and 
holding us responsible for 
every breach of the 
eonwetire The masses saw 
through oll thie” 

Mi Zvoturo anid that Dee 
cause of the «truggie-tn 
exile poople were Gk- 
tremely curious to see 
wheat ort’ of leaders 
ZANU (PF) had, 

‘Thie partly explains 
the huge turnout and en-« 
thuginam of the campaign 
rallies we held in the 
mujor centres of the coume- 

sekea why ZANU (PR) 
fared badly in the Matae 
heleland Matrict Mr 
Zvolwo who is uleo the 
Minist: of Loca! Coverne 
ment eod Housing, a 
the party had pot ha 
enough time to be “asa 
thorough" as it had beep 
throughout the reat of the 

He conceded, however, 
that Mr Nkomo’'s Patriotic 
Front was better organ- 
ised ip that area und that 
moat of the party's atal- 
warts, including Mr 
Nkomo himself, came 
from that region. 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 4 

.and a Leader 

“Tough Days of the Past.. 

[Article by M. A. Hamutyinei: 

called Mugabe") 

[Text |} 

lit te a at | 
fae had rt a ie nif 
Hall Licegaii*ais 
i ie 
amen ae 
3 ABE He HH mt 

— a eee ee 

qitesecse yy th ahd. 
STH ATT rat # i ie 
stiivasi i! ri ‘ig ates 

#233 53 bie 3 i sa , . 
age ae sre) i Hl i a 


tal re bt Bed 

a, an Fiat o2fast AL side [ss #3 
Ba Higa il Hate fail He 

i eae an Te ee San 
E awn ben iy | i at + Pall bay EEE Ma hs 
He ily iE athe ae ar ith 
“silat ee i i bh sf ten Bhi dt 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 2 

1 iext | 

THE Ministry of In- 
formation and Tour- 
ism will be the limeh- 
pion, between the 
Goverement and the 
people, the new 
Minister of Informa 
tion and Tourtam, Dr 
Nathan Shamuyarira, 
seid yesterday. 

He said he was not yet 
able to de ail petictes he 
would adopt as Minister, 
nor the nature of the 
changes be would like to 

He said: “There will be 
changes, Uke everything 
else. We want to project 
the image of the new Zim- 
babwe and to refiect the 
new era of independence 
and freedom and we would 
want the Information De- 
partment te reflect this.” 

He added: “Tt wih b 
2 partnership between the 
Government and the people 
to deve this country 
and the inistry of In- 
formation wil! be the 
linchpia ip the partner- 

Ur Shamuyarira is the 
ZANU (PF) admipistra- 

tive secretary 

Marrieg with a daughter, 
he wae born in the Mon- 
dore TTL to September 
1930 and did his primary 
education at the Waddi- 
love Trainip Institute 
near Marandellas. 

His secondary education 
was done by correspon- 
dence and he returned to 
Waddilove for teacher 
(ralping and taught at 
Tegwar! Secondary 
School and : Domboshawa 
scheoi for two years. 


He later worked as a 
journalist for six years 
ami was editor of Salis- 
bury’s Daily News before 
it was benned in 1962. 

He went om to the then 
University College of Rho- 
desia and Nynaalend to 
lecture im education but 
on the banning of the 
party im 1964, he left for 
Britain to study politics 
and eoonomics at the Ldn- 
dow Bahoul of Promo: ies 


This was followed 
by a doctorate 

in political 
scienee at Princeton Uni- 
versity in America and 4 
riod of teaching at the 
niversity of Dar es 
Salaam from 1968 to 1976, 
In 1977 he left teaching 
to work full time tor the 
party as administrative 
secretary in Maputo, a 
position he still holds. 

@ Dr Shamuyartra will 
speak at the lunch-time 
meeting of the National 
Affairs Association in 
Salisbury tomorrow. His 
subject will be: The be- 
ginning of a new era in 

The weekly public meet- 
ings are in the ican 
Cathedral Hall, Baker 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 5 

(Text | 

BRIDGING the social and eeonomie gaps, and deciding upon 
their ideals in a future Zimbabwe, are the two most fundamental 
and crucial questions facing the white population today, Dr 
Nathan Shamuyarira, Mimister of Information and Tourism, said 


In his first public appearance since joining the ZANU (PF) Govern. 
ment earlier this week, Dr Shamuyarira told a packed mesting of the 
National Affairs Association: “We want to establish a non-racial society 
here, = society in which ali the people living in Zimbabwe will be 

genuinely free and in- 

“We do not want any rac- 
ism of any kind and tacee 
who practice racism will 
find themselves in con- 
frontation with the Gov- 

“The key to the future 
‘tes In freedem of oppor- 
tunity for everyone, not 
necessarily by  scali 
down the Europeans, 
by scaling up the Africans 
so that they can be equal 
to thelr EBurepean counter- 
parts’ he sald. 

‘The one thing that is 
overriding which also sur- 
prises and imtrigges me 
about the white com- 
munity of this country is 
how superfictal their ob- 
servations and their 

of the 
aituation are 

my view, rea! funda. 
menta) pabilesophy a 
— the white popula- 

here. There has also 

never been am abjective 
analysis of the goals they 
seek and the kind of 

suppose it goes back 
cova months or severa) 

acelety for Tes tn 
toa in 
the 1960e the wea 
nationalists, Afri- 
can nationalists. . 
a oe 
sophy was to 8 
between the 

about. It wae earrie@ ever 
by the Whitehead Gevern- 
ment and the administra- 
tion at the time inte the 
Rhodesian scene.” 

“But co-operation be- 
tween the whites and the 
elite was accepted, so they 
bullt up the big bogey 

t the nationalists.” 
Dr Shamuyarira's 
optnien tke situation has 
changed. The “bogey” ls 

, nationalism in 
the ~~. community’s 
eyes, it la communiam or 


“I don't think aX of 
the pagators of ideas 
in white society have rea@ 
marxism sertousiy, if at 
all IT thin. if they have 
read it a | don't under- 
stand it, but they are sti) 

pared to believe tn the 
Re about marxists. 

n't think anyone 
until two weeks ago, an 
one tn white society, rea 
understood what ra 

stood for. 

views head never 
bece presemted accurately 
in the n rs or on 

Dr Shamuyarira said 

verified or authenticated. 
Rirmours are sent to lower 
morale, not to raise it. 
“And | must say I am 
very disappointed te the 


CSO: 4420 

“And how anyone could 
ever have thought that 
would work in the preseat 
syatem, how anyene could 
have thought they eould 
oppress the black pepula- 

petually for 

and could ht eeinat 
apslaat the whole of Ai 
beaten,” he sald. 

serve in an A 
majority governmest.” 
owever, Dr Sham e 

pride thamselvea an being 

any fundamental analyeis 
of where you are going 
and where you are coming 
from, Thig surprises me.” 

Moving on to discuss 

hamuyarira maintained 
that the Dlecks and whites 
were separated by a 
on both fronts. “” 

* Altho we live to- 
gether work together, 
and now Africans are 
allowed to have houses 
and homes im the former 
European suburbs, and 
hotels amd restaurants are 
open to everybody, there 
is still @ gap, @ wide gap 
at a social level between 
whites and Diacks. 

“You csn live ther 
cheek by jowl, yet 
you don’t communieate. 

“In the past the Euro- 
pean always had s house 
with African domestic 
servants, and yet they 
never communicated. And 
now they may be neigh- 
bours there is still no 
effective communication 

“You gee it m the 
streets, you see it every- 


But the more pressing 
problem for the Govern- 
ment, said Dr Shamuya- 
rire, was the economic 

on erhe Europeans here still 
own the major means of 
production, y own the 
wy S Gems. = 
own a property thai 
we see here (in Salis- 

“In the 19608 we tried 
very hard to get the Gov- 
ernment to accept a Biil 
of te which was in- 

in our view, to 

@efend the Africans 
racial discrimina 

against P 
tion. We tried to get the 

Finally, they (the Govern- 
meant) put hefere us a Bil! 
of Righta which had no 
teeth. But the Bill of 
Rights in the way we con- 
ceived it’ undertook to 
protect Africans against 

“Now that a black Gov- 
ernment has come into 

power there is a very 
strong Bill of Rights. 

“But the whites stil) 
own the major means of 


Finally he threw out a 
challenge, juat to the 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p l 
‘Article by Heather Silk] 

'Text | 

A FORMER guerilla 
commander and politi- 
cal ecommissar, 25- 
vear-old Teurai Ropa 
Nhongo has capped 
her career by becom- 
ing Rhodesia’s first 
woman Cabinet Minis- 
ier—-and almost cer 

tainly the youngest. 

The wife of the ZANLA 
commander has another 
fret to her credit — she 
will head the first Minis- 
try of Youth, Sport and 

Mrs Nhongo has ditfi- 
culty im expressing her 
eaction to her appoint- 

| wasn't expecting it,” 
re sald veaterday. “When 
| Was chosen as aA par- 
flamentary candidate I 
thought even if I was to 

included im the «H-v- 
ernment, | would be just 
in ordinory MP, not given 
such @ responsible post.” 
However. the youthful 
Mrs Nhoneo ta not new 
to leaderehip 


“l have been a leader 
since | was 18. I think 
the only difference is that 
! am now nominated to 
the highest peak . the 
excitement is being in- 
volved in a new depart- 

Joyce Mugari, as she 
was born, came from the 
Mount Darwin area. Her 
secondary schooling was 
at the Howard stitute, 
where she completed 
Form Il. 

“Then ji left for the 
struggle,” she said. “I 

joined some of the boys 

in the area and fought for 
three months.” 

She took on her chi- 
murenga name, urai 
Ropa, which means Spill 
Blood. She has retained 
the name because that is 
how most people know 

During the three 
months from December 
1973 until February, the 
young guerilla was io 
three contacts with Rho- 
desian security forces. 

She admits to “a 
frightened at first. “ 
was the first time I heard 
guns, the first time I 
saw a helicopter im an 
actual fight. But as time 
went on, I got used to 

It was the rainy season 
and conditions were bad. 

“We slept under the 
trees. Sometimes we'd 
lose a shoe and you know 
what happens to feet in 
water. e skin becomes 
very thin and it was very 


She left Rhodesia on 
March 38, the only girl 
in a group of eight, and 
started to walk to Zam- 
bia. A severe dose of 
malaria brought her to a 
brief halt at Chifombo 
hase in northern Mozam- 
bique and she finally ar- 
rived io Zambia on April 

After three months of 
training in light infantry 
in Lusaka, Teurai Ropa 
was appointed a medical 
assistant on the general 
staff. She was later ap- 
pointed a political in- 

In early 1970 she re- 
turned to Mozambique 
and, as a political commis- 
sar, Was made second ipa 
command of a camp. 

With the arrival of Mr 
Mugabe in Mozambique 
later that year sij.e was 
selected as the leader of 
a small group to meet him 
at Vila Pery. 

A camp was created at 
Chimoto and Teurai Ropa 
hecame ita commander. 
The camp grew to become 
the largest in the terrt- 
tory and Rex Nhongo, of 
the guerilla High Com- 
mand, arrived and was 
appointed military com- 
mander—the most senior 

The future Mrs Nhongo 

CSO: 4420 

—aene was married to the 
ZANLA commander in 
September 1977 at Chimolo 
—Wwas moved around the 
country. In early 1977 she 
waa elected on to the 
central committee and in 
September became a mem- 
ber of the national execu- 

Mrs Nhongo's duties 

took her to many coun- 
tries. In 1977 she went to 
Peking for a month, “It 
was very nice, but you 
know home is home,” she 

The following year she 
went to Albania ahd later 
to Rumania and Yugo- 

Mrs Nhongo has two 
children, Priscilla Kum- 
biral Runmgano (2) and 
Mildred Chipo, \zho is six 

“Rungano means an ad- 
venture story,” Mrs Nho- 
ngo said “and with this 
girl it was an adventure. 
She was born two 
after being in a battle.” 

Chimoio was under at- 
tack from July 30 until 
August 1 in 1978 and 
although Mrs Nhongo was 
not fighting herself, she 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 4 

‘Text] There are mixed feelings among political parties that failed to 

get seats in the election on whether they should continue to exist or 

(hey are Mr James Chikerema's ZDP; ZANU led by the Rev. Ndabaningi Sithole; 
the UNFP of Senator Chief Kayisa Ndiweni; Mr Peter Mandaza's NFZ; the 
National Democratic Union of Mr Henry Chihota and the United People's 
Association of Matabeleland, led by Dr Frank Bertrand. 

‘ir Chikerema said yesterday that consultations on his party's future were 
continuing, but no definite decision had been taken. 

‘We are looking into the matter--meeting and talking to all our members 
at branch and provincial level to see how they feel," he said. 

Sut Mr Mandaza said his national executive, at a meeting yesterday, had 

resolved to strengthen the party's structure in preparation for the next 

He added: “As a democratic institution, we also resolved to cooperate fully 
vith the elected government, but will, within the framework of the Con- 
‘itution and the limits protecting democracy, offer constructive criticism." 

No comment was available from the NDU and UPAM yesterday. 
ir Sithole and Senator Chief Ndiweni have expressed confidence that they 

vill continue to lead their parties in the new era, and offer their full 
support to Mr Mugabe's Government. 


ilisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 380 p | 
| lext 
THE day the election whe Gi @ Would only only take suitcases with 
resulte were announced. iesve in April or May. thern. 
the switenboard operators A keeman for an- A esman for an- 
of some furniture removal other sald he could other said although 
firms tp Saltebdury alw tell what the it wat « bit early to tei! 
answered hundreds of he of @ newspaper whether there was an in- 
calls. were each day. without crease people a 
Mr Brian Saunders, the reading it the esuatry there 
manager of one lf Ure news was riart- been a definite inerease ip 
wale) 6(huo@reds of , the telephones rtar- the sumber of taquiries. 
peagte Gate Tageies inst w ring “There has been 80 
week about the aost of Last Tyvestay De seid leaving.” he said 
moving furniture out of there had been many In- t le not often © get 
Rhodesia quirtes as te the coset xy. and come 
However he sal that of furniture removal, fut the next day and 
of every 100 people who it was fair to say that say =e SF go. Tt takes 
imqu it wee itkely most mquiries would sot some ¢ 

at about 20 would actu- 
aly move 
of all the for. 

malities: to be dealt with 

matertaiise into 4efinite 
Once people 
st Row much 

fourd out 
it cost 

before furniture could +e remove furniture from aay t chev .e in 
removed. those people one country to another. the past two of three 
they tended to e@i) up and = =s years 

I tole iv\ 


) in English 15 Mar 50 p 4 

“AND now for the Presidency .. . that's got to be the final peace.” 



Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 1 

| Text ] 

A BULAWAY© Methodist minister, the Kev. Canaan Banana, 
will be the first President of the new Zimbabwe, according to 
political sources Lere yesterday. 

The sources said Mr Banana (44) would be nominated by 

ZANU (PF), for whom he was « candidate in Matabeleland North 
in the election. He was secand on the party's list for the province 

but was not elected. 

Asked last = night 

ahout the prospects of 
his becoming  Preal- 
dent, Mr Banana said: 
“No comment.” 

Mr TDeapapea became a 
leader to the pationalist 
struggle in 1970 when he 
took tbe office of deputy 
resident in the African 
ationa) Council the body 
formed to oppose = the 
Smith -Home . 

In an interview at his 

wold home last aight 
he said he had joimed the 
ANC aa part of it ZANU 
element and hed sed 
the conversion tne 

party, the predecessor of 
the UANC 

in 1973 Mr tanana 
whose passport had been 
confiacated, walked acroas 
the border to Botewana 
and went to Washington 
DC where he studied at 
the Wesley Theological 
Seminary and graduated 
with a masters degree w 

On his return to this 
country ip 1975 he was de- 
tained for the first time 

The next year he was 
released so that he could 
join’ =Bishop Muzorewas 
delegation at the Geneva 

While in Geneva “he 
tried, unsucceasfully. 0 

persuade the bishep to 
unite with ZANU under 
Mr Robert Mugabe When 
it was certain that he 
could = not succeed = he 
joined ZANU (PF) 
“Murorewa seemed to be 
moving close to Smith. 
The iiberation forces un- 
der ZANU were sacrificing 
their lives *o achieve true 
independer ce and my con- 

“Bo I went back to my 

true home to support the 
revolution ” 

Soon after hia returm he 
was detained again, first 
at Gatooma and then ip 
1978 was moved to Wha 


LF 2 


Mr Banana has writen 
over) = papers " tne 
j hem of rere 

urces of oppression «and 
hae helped to develop 
a then ‘ hat Aefnes the 
point when vielenee le fuse 

The election for the 
residency ‘AnDot take 
place uptil the Senate has 

en chosen All members 
of the Mourne *’ Ae i 
smcl the Sen te te to 

—tJ-h -: 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 1 

[Text] The cost of rebuilding the war-ravaged tribal trust lands had been 
conservatively estimated at $75 million. But plans to replace or repair 
the damaged schools, clinics, dip tanks, boreholes, dams and roads through- 
out the country have already been prepared. 

A decision on how the reconstruction is to be financed is expected to be 
among the first policy decisions of the new Government. 

The cost has been assessed from reports prepared by each of the 55 dis 
trict commissioners covering the country on what is required to restore 
facilities to their pre-war levels. 

The deputy secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs, Mr Lionel Leach, 
said: "Every tribal trust land in the country has been affected to some 
extent, and we face a massive task. 

"But at least we have an up-to-date assessment of what is required, we 
have already started training the men who can lead some of the recon- 
struction and we can make a start as soon as the money is available." 

The main drive is expected to get underway in the new financial year which 
starts on July 1, and officials expect to have “broken the back" of th 
problem within two years. 

An indication of the scale of damage is given by the following facts: 

At the end of January more than 1 500 primary schools and 89 secondary 
had closed. 

More than 1 COO of the | 500 dip tanks throughout the country had been 

\imost all of the 250 councils providing much of the baste administratton 
in the rural areas have come under the management of the district com 
Missioners to ensure that at least the structure is kept intact. 

lhe Atrican nattonal herd of three million head of cattle had been cut by 
one million by theft, slaughter and disease brought about mainly by the 

lestruction of dip tanks. 

meverels iit 

in addition, commercial agriculture in the rural areas has been severel 

iit and subsistence agriculture Is at “rock bottom" this season. 

but there are developments on the positive side. 

‘With the help of the Veterinary Department we have already held our first 
hole es in some of the southern areas of the country," said Mr Leach. 

‘Demand was good and prices were excellent.” 

linistry is already training "general purpose" workers who can help 
restore facilities in the rural areas by repairing pumps and engines. 

ith S250 000 trom Government rehabilitation funds the Ministry is putting 
ithe 1) women home economics demonstrators into the field. 

is wes 3} started work and another 90 are undergoing re-training. They 
i!l assist the 160 women advisers already in the fie’ 

hile it will take some time to get all the rural cou. ils operating 
authorities have taken over responsibility for many 

100] ind clinics which are reopening. 
‘trict commissioners have assessed the needs of each area by consulting 
fficials of ether branches of government such as water development, health, 

i it) ima iyi if ulture in their own areas. 

eve this is given us a fairly accurate picture of what needs to be 
‘ id Mi tc’ cal h 
irt from fina e, the hortage ot sxills will be a iimiting factor on 
even nf 

,try's development resources are in good shape and with 

‘tion from everyone our progress will be rapid.” 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p ] 

[Text | 

THE Prime Minister, Mr 
Robert Mugabe, has «ald 
the people of Rhodesia 
would be able to see for 
themselves that his Gov- 
erament meant business. 

"We do not want to 
maintain the status quo.” 
he said in an interview 
with the London-hased 
monthly news magazine 
Africa which will be pub- 
lished next week. “Tt is 
the e«tatuae quo that we 
fought against and we 
muat be seen to be over- 
throwing it.” 

Mr Mugabe e@ald. how- 
ever. that his moat imme- 
dinte objective was to 
foster among all people a 
sense of security 

There was a erent feel- 
ing of tneecurty nerved.- 
ine in the country at the 
moment, Re said He put 
thie down to the war and 
“nartiv, bhecausee of the 
hardshine created during 
those dave when they (the 
people) lived under con- 
tant harasament. oo ciur- 
fewe mertial law and on 
inceeeenant «tate of emer- 
geney “Ve must lift this 
hurden on the neonle and 
get therm free Our neonle 
have heen unfree and our 
task te to «et them free” 


Once that is done, said 
Mr Mugabe his Govern- 
ment'’s attention will turn 
to the people's needs: 
thetr stomachs, their well- 
being. their medical and 
welfare needs. 

“We will proceed, with 
immediate speed, to bring 
lund to as many peasants 
as possible We are coing 
o implement a resettie- 
ment programme and in- 
troduce co-operatives and 
collective farming. 

“We will try tw per- 
suade, rather than coerce, 
the people into co-opera- 
tives: in fact we will 
introduce the co-operative 
system with the returning 
refugees, some of whom 
have heen farming col- 
lectively in Moz: mbhique, 
to demonstrate that the 
aystern works Fortunately 
thie will be feasible as 
we have been approached 
by various countries with 
offers of help.” he said 


Mr Mueahe said his ad- 
ministration would = take 
steps “Immediately to 
abolish rectal discrimina- 
tion tn the oublie service 

“It may not be ex 

emp stipulated but 
who select people 

have tended to emphasise 
the phenomenon white 
management in the public 
service. That has to go 
— we will — in a 
system of quick promo- 
tion. Similarly in the 
armed forces we would 
like to see our men 
rapidly rise to the level 
of commanders, «0 there 
has to be an acceptance 
in the system that black 
people cap hecome senior 
soldiers. The whites muat 
alyo be prepared to work 
under black people where 
promotion has occurred. 
There has got to be that 
acceptance otherwise we 
will not have brought 
about significant change,” 
he said 

The Prime Minister suid 
his administration intends 
reconstructing the educa- 
tienal sywterh as well as 
the secial and weifare 

“We will not c the 
educational wa as 
such, we will accept it for 
now. but the schools must 
be reconstituted immect - 
ately practically all of 
them,” said Mr Mugahe 

Mr Mugabe said = his 
Governr ent would be 
Sympathetic towurds anv 
movement that fights to 
overthrow aparthe 
South Afric. 7s 

“Apartheid remains ob- 
noxious to us, and cer- 
tainly we will be sympa- 
thetic with any move. 
heont that ghts to over. 
throw apartheid) We will 
not be able to asaiat 
milllarily, however,” he 


He added that his ad- 
ministration would = “up- 
hold the right of the 
people of South Africa to 
establish a democratic 
system ip their country”. 

He said his Government 
would play an active part 
at international forums 
like the United Nations 
and the Organisation for 
African Unity and would 
spare no efforts in obtain- 

“the objective of liber- 
ation” in South Africa 
and S.W.A./Namibia. 

Mr Mugabe said that 
apart from a political 
and diplomatic role, he 
could not see Rhodesia 
organising war against 
South Afriea. “It Is not 
our responsibility to do 
so," he sid. 

“We have just emerged 
from seven years of 
armed conflict, and we do 
not want to be fighting 
another war against 
South Africa.” 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 1 

[Article by Francis Md longwa ] 

[Text ! 


THE Minister of Home Affairs, Mr Joshua Nkomo, who is 
also responsible for law and order, yesterday called on all 
renegade ZIPRA and ZANLA forces still outside assembly 
points to report there immediately or face drastic action. 
And he warned “youngsters who may not be aware of their 
actions” that any criminal acts. such as assaults and abuse of rival 
party members or the burning down of their homes and property, 

Mr Nkomo said in an 
interview that it was vital 
everyone in the country 
joined hands in the crea- 
tion of peace and the 
maintenance of law and 
order if Zimbabwe's inde- 
pendence was to be com 

The Patriotic Front lea- 
der said: “What is impor- 
tant now is that all the 
people, especially those 
who have heen engaged in 
the war, ZIPRA and 
ZANLA, who may still be 
among the people, must 
move away quickly to the 
assembly points. 

“They either to the 
Police or join their com- 
rades tm th * embly 
Ateas. This ts vital be- 
cause it will assist in the 
re-establishment of law 
and order, which i@ an 
indispensible element in 
the consolidation of our 
hard-won indenendence 

CSO: 64620 

“We need tnat peace, 
and I call upon everyone 
to subscribe to this prin- 
ciple so that there may be 
tranquillity in Zimbabwe.” 


Appealing to all parties 
that contested the recent 
general election to forget 
their past differences, Mr 
Nkomo said: 

“Whatever their views 
micht have been during 
the election campaign 
period, these must not be 
projected to the post-elec- 
tion time, particularly 
now when we are trying 
to form a Government 
and to consolidate our in- 

Mr Nkomo’s Home 
Affairs portfolio has been 
enlarged to include re- 
sponsibility for law and 

would be dealt with 
most severely. 

He said he would be in 
charge of most aspects of 
the Police force, except 
State security which 
would be under the direct 
control of the Prime 

In answer to a question, 
he said it was not impor- 
tant or relevant how 
many Cabinet seats his 
party had got because 
“the vital thing now is to 
effect the complete con- 
solidation” of Zimbabwe's 
inde pendence. 

“This is what we fought 
for and have achieved,” he 
said. “The consolidation of 
our independence is as 
vital to us as it is to our 
counterparts of ZANU 
(PF). We cannot minimise 


New Cabinet 

Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 5 



"Coalition Cabinet" ] 

ALMOST to a man, Mr Mugabe's Ministers and Deputy Ministers 
lack any form of perliamentary experience. The great majority, 
therefore, will have the daunting task of learning the procedure 
and their responsibilities from scratch. 

But the same applies to the recently elected MPs, and in 
effect the situation will presumably be little different from that 
of other countries on the attainment of majority rule. 

The fact that most of the new Ministers are strangers does, 
however, make it difficult, if not impossible, to assess the strength 
of the Cabinet. Some familiar names are included, but at this 
stage they are well known in the context of nationalism rather 
than administration. 

One can only presume that with his large majority, Mr 
Mugabe has been able to appoint people of skills and talents. 
And he has gone a long way towards retaining the confidence of 
the Europeans by including two whites in his Cabinet (although 
he has chosen vo Asians or Coloureds). 

Initially, it is the inclusion of Mr David Smith and Mr 
Denis Norman that will arouse the greatest interest. Once a 
coalition involving Europeans was mentioned, Mr Smith became 
an obvious front-runner, if only because of the attitude he 
adopted at Lancaster House. But however experienced and well 
liked, he remains a member of the Rhodesian Front, something 
that might cause eyebrows to be raised in other paris of Africa. 

There is no such problem where Mr Norman is concerned. 
He has the respect of the farming community, has hitherto played 
no active part in politics, ad by taking over the vitally important 
agricultural portfolio will, it is to be hoped, still many of the 
fears that have been expressed about large-scale land expropria- 

Mr Nkomo and his Patriotic Front have not emerged badly 
from the deal, either. Mr Nkomo may not have won everything 
he hoped for, but it was only to be expected that the key 
Ministries would f 1] to members of ZANU (PF), In the circum- 
stances, therefore, Mr Mugabe's “compromise” Cabinet should 
meet with widespread approval. 


Police Reserves 

Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 5 


| Text | 

"Shifting Target" ] 

THE POLICE have taken the first step towards winding down 
the war effort by announcing that over-50s in the Field Reserve 
will not be called up after April 21. Presumably the Army will 
follow suit. 

The Police move is welcome and has come none too soon, 
for many of the men in this age group have a vital role to play 
in trade and industry. 

_ But there are surely many under-50s in the various branches 

“of the security forer~ whose call-up could also be ended. There 

are, for instance. | far too many people being called up for 
non-essential duties. (his must stop. 

If this country is to develop and prosper, the weight of our 
effort must be shifted from bush contacts to businese contacts. 
The sooner it is dene the better. é‘ 

Development Plans 

Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 6 

| Text | 

"Right Emphasis" ] 

STUDY of the portfolios in the new Cabinet shows a marked 
emphasis on development. And rightly so, because there is much 
to be done and some new directions to be taken. 

There is manpower, planning and development; lands, 
resettlement and rural development; natural resources and water 
development; and each has a separate Minister. 

There is alse a Minisicy of Economic Planning and Develop- 
ment to be headed by a Minister who is believed to he Dr 
Chidzero, a planning and development specialist with the U.N. 

It would seem feasible to make him co-ordinator of 
Ministries with similar functions, to avoid overlapping and lead 
in due course perhaps to the phasing out of the work done by 
some of them. 

The tuture ftaunections of the Ministry of Home Affairs will 
be of interest, lt is taking on part of the Police portfolio, Does 
this mean that itn work with what might be called civilians will 
decrease? And how will ite functiona compare with those of the 
Ministry of Lands, Resettlement and Rural Development? 

A comparison between the responsibilities shared by the 
22 Ministers in the amew Cabinet with the 19 of the old shows 
that several are unchanged, some are new, and in many cases 
subsidiary portfolios have been transferred from one Minister to 

There is nothing unusual about this. But how the Civil 
Service will have to be reorganised to cope with the changes 
remains to be seeh, Some Secretaries will presumably find them- 
selves in new Ministries, and some top positions may have to be 

Because much load will be placed on senior civil servants 

to get the changes onder way, the aim must be to disrupt their 
work as little as possible. 

Woman in Cabinet 

Lisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 6 
(Editorial: “A Double First"] 
ext | 

VRS TECRAL ROPA NHONGO has achieved a double first in 
polities in this country, She is not only the first Minister of 
Sport: she is the first woman Cabinet Minister. 

It is an interesting combination, and her performance will 
be closely watched far beyond sporting circles. 

As yet there is no indication of how broad Mrs Nhongo’s 
brief will be. But since her portfolio also includes Youth and 
Recreation she will obviously have an important part to play in 
the lives of young Zimbabweans. 

Her youth—she is only 25—plus the fact that she is herself 
a mother should be an asset here. 

Yet Mrs Nhongo’s appointment could create controversy, for 
while many other countries now have Sports Ministers it is 
doubtful if many women can be found among them. 

Virs Nhongo may in fact be in for a tough time. Some 
difficult sports decisions will have to be ‘taken soon, particularly 
in celation to our links with South Africa. 

But at least she will not have to take full responsibility for 
these: they will be matters for the Cabinet, There are times 
when it would be foolish for a woman to press for the last word, 

Independence Date 
Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 4 
[Editorial: "Look Ahead") 

| Text | 

NOW that a date has been seit for the birth of the State of 
Zimbabwe, the efforts of all must be conceatrated on the future. 

April 18 will be observed as Independence Day and there 
will be celebrations and rejoicing throughout the country. 

But it would be foolish to pretend that among the popula 
tion there will not be those with a twinge ef sadness and regret 
at the passing of the old era. Let us acknowledge that fact. But 
let everyone accept that it must not be allowed to influence the 
need for all who make their homes in Zimbabwe to play their 
pert in making the nation great. 

There ie much to be done in the five weeks remaining 
before Prince Charles presides over the traditional flag ceremony 
at midnight on April 17. 

There are the preparations to be made for the big day 
and an enormous amount of detailed work to be undertaken 
in the reorganisation of ministries and responsibilities in the 
ranks of the civil service. 

But it is during this period too that people should adjust 
to the fact that changes are on the way. This ts the time to look 
forward and to adopt a positive approach to the new era. 

CSO: 4420 

THE t 


lephone never BLOps 

ringing at the ZGANU 
(PR) headquarters in 
Munten Rod, Salisbury 
insics th: hour-stoteyv 
booidiag there ts Bon-sloy 

activity, u crush af people 

i a hubbub of voices 
(>) tside. regardless of the 
t ‘ 1 day, Line! is 

The eight-line) switch- 
board must be the busiest 
in the city meant pow as 

the pa@ily gears up Pron 

belDbR in Chis political 
wWiiderness to fielding Lhe 
new romen 

t ix not easy t 

t an official there Vost- 

tors are Searched 
oes with mietal detee 
young aid ind 
ing your man } 
straightforward Mattel 
The demunds upon 
party workers are va 
often comp.ex, and 
lenting. The 

t rs by 

pressure i 

in English 


13 May 




DCOPpie OULSIU eaom tets 

ip) beltonres late ‘lern On 

Why are they there’? 

hhey go to report, to 

t nforiustion. to minke 
pelillions, lo ask tor belo 

ind advice, to look for 

jol ind to buy party T- 

And some seem lo go 
Just to be in the presence 

ot the new power in the 
land. They tund rhuut 
ehatliine or looKing up at 
the building windows 

piustered with posters of 
Mr Robert Mueuhbe—from 
acrhos the treet 

‘Most of them are itive 
paliyp reporting 
pack on thelr iCtivities,” 


explained a party spokes- 

The wcond largest 
number are those who 

come fo check on 
who have not 
th: ountry Many come 
hoping for tnrorm:tion 
About vetting hs. Others 

returned to 

Troryy ry I 

And sore nuk ‘ they 
report for 

nave io 


~ il 



Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 1 

[Text } 

THE GOVERNMENT is believed to have called 
fot the resignations of three prceutives of the 
Zimbabwe Rhodesian Broadcasting Corporation, 
including the Director-4zeneral, Mr Jimmy Neill. 

This follows reports that all members of the ZRBC 
Board of Governors have either already submitted their 

ee oo oe 

A statement expected 
erday on the ZREC 

‘¢ from the sew Minte- 
tw of information and 
T uriem Dr Nathan 
S .amuyarira ‘did not 

lt & anlikely it will 
now te made ore to 

Mr Dave Gilbey, and “he 
had of the combined 
radio and television sews 

department. Mr Tom 

CSO: 4644620 

Mre Lin Mehmel, Mre & 
Beott Mr T. Neube, MrG& 


From tomorrow the gap 
will be filled with a local 
pews bulletin. The BRAC 
news may be carried at 
this time tater 

December 1s. hore. for 

implementation at an ap- 
propriate time after the 

election 90 matter which 
party won. 

“The Roard considers 
that the time is sow ap- 


Salisbury THE SUNDAY MALL in English 16 Mar 80 p 2 

[Text]! The former Minister of Commerce and Industry, Mr Ernest Bulle, 
yesvcerday firmly scotched rumors that he was leaving Rhodesia and said he 
would launch a business consultancy to boost exports and attract invest- 
ment into the country. 

‘Mr Bulle, speaking from his home in Highlands, Salisbury, said: 

"| aecep. the result of the election. I am confident about the future of 
the country and | am prepared to serve the Government in any way possible." 

‘“r Bulle said he had foun. offices and a small staff in Salisbury for his 
business concerned with import, expert, finance and investment. 

He was looking particularly at international markets. "In the Ministry 
of Finance, and Commerce and Industry, I made many contacts which I believe 
can be invaluable to the future of the country.” 

He leaves soon tor a business trip to Britain and Europe. In view of the 
Government's stated policy of non-alignment, he will also explore markets 
in Rumania, Czechoslovakia and Russia. 

‘ir Bulle said: "I shall be reporting that the situation here is conducive 
.o investment and | shall encourage businesses to put their money here." 

“r Bulle, senior vice-president of the UANC who lost his seat in the 
eleetion, said he had heard a rumor that he had left to live in Switzerland 
and another that he had left to lecture in South Africa. 


' don't know where these rumors came from, said Mr Bulle. "They are 

CSO: 6470 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 4 

{Text] Authorities in Mozambique have found about 100 UANC supporters who 
have been held in that country since before the election and have asked (tor 
them to be repatriated to Rhodesia through refugee channels. 

\ Government House spokesman said yesterday that the whereabouts of the 
people had been reported to the British Embassy in Maputo and that they 
would be repatriated to this country when the refugee programme got under 
way again. 

Although there has been no official confirmation of the identities of 
the detainees, it is understood they may have been held in a remote part 
of the Tete Province of Mozambique. 

On February 2? the former Minister of Law and Order and of the Public 
Services, Mr Francis Zindoga, claimed “several hundred" Rhodesians were 
being held at "Mafudzi" in rugged country near Lake Malawi. 

Mr Zindoga accused ZANU (PF) and the president of Mozambique, Mr Samora 
Machel, of being responsible. 

A spokesman for ZANU (PF) denied the allegations at the time and said that 
with the release of the party dissidents and two Europeans abducted during 
the war, there were no more detainees in Mozambique. 

Late last month a British source in Salisbury confirmed that efforts were 
being made to free about 100 UANC supporters being detained in Mozambique. 

CSO: 46420 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 5 

itTexat}] Although protected villages were officially thrown open on Wednes- 
day, restrictions on many of them were lifted up to three weeks ago, the 
deputy secretary (security) of the Ministry of Home Affairs, Mr Geoffrey 
lenson, said in Salisbury yesterday. 

At a preas conference Mr Henson said a total of about 150 PVs were affected, 
with a population of about 300 000, although this was a rough estimate only. 

ospite curfew and entry and exit restrictions being removed, however, 
there had been little movement out of most of the villages sc far, he 

The reasons were that rains continued in some parts of the country, making 
thatching grass scarce and that there was still a degree of fear of armed 
elements outside the PVs. 

le added that individuals were also reluctant to make the first move but 
that once a number of people left more would follow. 

‘Mr Henson said the Prime Minister, Mr Mugabe “had made it clear he would 
1ot like to see a disorderly rush" out of the PVs as he had hopes of money 
ing provided for resettlement. 

“ature policy on the development of former protected villages as local 
centres would therefore depend on available finances, Mr Henson said, 

although in a number of cases, PVs had already been built at community 
centres and were sources of local development. 

Guards would remain at a small number of PVs in sensitive areas where 
there were still "dissident elements" operating, Mr Henson said. 

‘he areas involved took in about 20 percent of the total of PVs and were 
concentrated in the Victoria Province and to a lesser extent in Manicaland, 
he said. 
CSO: 646420 




Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 1 

{Text | 

i ri 





st 4 

el Ci 
rial i 





Sa.isbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 3 

| Text } 

Road, Hi 

was ay. 1971 
January ; r 
w sald his 

“What form this (aid) 
ll) take depends on bi- 
iateral negotiations be- 
tween our two countries 

ino particulac where such 

CSO: 4420 


sf #4 


5 3 


_-* Mr Wessels 
eaid —— 
wished to express 

great lation for the 

line specifically the im- 
t and constructive 

roll of the British Govern- 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 7 

[Text ] 

aL em ft 

petal ui 

sEag fAggagaagtayyes vagy gtgdstyy 
papa ie et be et 
es attra rl : 5 a 
nl nie init it ii hls 

Taber ee if 



sa Se ae) 35 Heelan 3 ret 





Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 1 

[Text } 

and oa 
mie valeeTleleas i 




i é i lait rer Robe 

i ing ui! ft 
sf fit 

jie Sart. be! 

2 iat 

Fs Er 
ia ‘fii TEA 

fe tty Hud a: 

~ it a fail gay al 





Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 5 

[Text ] 
ALL remaining curfews in Bulawayo are to be | 
lifted from 6 a.m. on Moaday, Assistant Com- 
missioner Fred Punter 
“There wee a iot or 
rails dering the on 
during the cur- 
few, but there was a spin- 
ae S 
men were 
from. a om. 
“The , whieh will 
be kept for the immedi- 
ate future. will assist in 
seeing thet these elements 
@o not return.” he said. 
“There will be no Police 
qheck points by day or 
aight, although patrols 
will continue at the site. 
but on a lower scale.” 
ssid Assistant Commis- 
sioner Punter 
Me satd the curfew at 
the storage depot had 
been “very effective”. Due 
to ite tiem, | Was a 
high area, but the 
a wel served its pur- 
pose preven an 
attack or soy 8 the 
CSO: 4420 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 5 

[Text } 

CHINA ts moving swiftly 
to build up @ strong poal- 
tion in Rhodesia. 

The official Xinhua 
News Agency and the 
party newenaper, the 
People's a had rep- 
resentatives Salisbury 
as Mr Mugabe war ap- 
oointeéd Premier. Up 
now the Chinese media 
nad been getting ita re- 
ports fram correspondents 
filing from Zambia and 

On March 8 Chinese 
Chalrman Hua Guo Feag 
sent a message of Got 
gratulations to Mr Mu- 
gabe expressing China's 
“pleasure” at his election 
victory. Mr Mugabe has 
long been seen as pro- 
Chinese. of th » 

The text. e mease 
and also of an interview 
that the Premier gave to 
the three Chinese journal- 
ists — Xia Ze and Ying 
@ian of the agency and 
Li Hone of the newspaper 
-- indteates that Peking 
wants the Mugabe Gov- 
ernment to remain inde- 
pendent of the Soviet 
Union end promote apity 

new succeases tn the noble 
cause of building an inde 
pendent and prosperous 

Cso: : J 


In stilted Chinese code 
language this means that 
Peking thinks Mr Mueabe 
should put independence 
before people's pros- 

The eame theme was 
emphaateed by the use of 
quotationa fram Mr Mu- 
gabe im ap interview run 
bv Xinhua. “The ultimate 
goal les tp the neonle 
heine the mastery of thetr 
own @eatinv.” the Premier 
wns quoted ne telling the 
Ohinere mnewamen 

Mr Muahe anid Soiia- 
bury world he non- 
aligned and neutral. This 
is an intriguing qualifica- 
tlan, stemming perheods 
frora cloud 

the under 
which Boviet. 
—s ohairm has 
pl the nop-aligned 
mo seems 

Premier's selection 
white an 4 major | tan 
also Mr et = a A 
Are ot with South 

China waate ane = 
independent Zimbabwe to 
arbit because ° 
thet further 

black Afr} 
te the future 

Ing South 
the security 
sea routes. 


of the & 


tt Ml | 

routes ea vital for the 
continued strength and 
stability of Weatern 

he wanted to deve 
china, Peking eles wente 
na. wan 
good linke wit “Ermbabwe 
.. . @B@ the eeaner the 


Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 5 

[Text] Surveys conducted by the International Committee of the Red Cross 
late last year in 12 villages showed malnutrition in between 13 percent 
and 41 percent of the children tested. 

The figures were contained in a report, Nutritional Survey in Rhodesia, 
released on Friday in Salisbury by the ICRC. The survey was made to assess 
the effectiveness of the Red Cross supplementary feeding programme in the 
rural areas. 

"It would not be fair to say it represents the overall situation in the 
country. This could be the case, but there are many important differences 
in each region that affected the results and make it difficult to make a 
general statement,” Mr Rene Kosirnik, head of the ICRC delegation here 

Main Factors 

The survey dealt with 10 protected villages in Centenary, Darwin, Chiping-, 
Nuanetsi and Beitbridge districts and two villages in the Tonka areas of 
Kariba and Binga districts. 

All of the areas were hard hit by the war. The effect of the war and of 
the two-year long drought, were the main factors affecting malnutrition, 
the survey states. 

Each village was visited twice. Participation in the testing by children 
was voluntary, no attempt being made to reach every child in the vicinity. 
In one instance the only children tested were 60 who went to meet the Red 
Cross aircraft at the airstrip. 

In most cases, however, the sampling was large enough to be considered 
Statistically meaningful, officials said. 

Malnutrition was gauged by measuring arm circumference in children aged 
from one to five years and measuring arm circumference in relation to 
height in children from six to nine years old. 



When children are malnourished, the survey states, the muscles waste and 
the arm circumference, which is almost the same for children from one to 
five years, decreases. 

For older children the normal arm circumference varies more with age, but 
can be correlated to height. 

Children who were shorter than the minimum height for normal children with 
their arm circumference were considered malnourished. 

During the first visits, in September and October, 1 470 children were 
measured. During the second visits, between November and January, 1 932 
children were measured. 

The highest percentages of malnourished children were in the Batonka 
villages of Chunga, Binga District, and Nengande, Kariba District--in 
excess of 30 percent on both visits. 

"The Batonka have been badly affected by the drought and they have not 
been able to fish," the survey states. 

The lowest incidence of malnutrition was recorded in the Chibuwe and 
Checheche PVs of Chipinga (12 to 17 percent) and in Shabwe PV in Beitbridge 
(13 to 17 percent). The other seven PVs were all between 20 and 30 percent. 

"For all of the places surveyed it has been reported on the first visit in 
September-October that there was some food in the store houses of the 
families. At the time of the second visit in November-January it was found 
that the stock was finished," the survey states. 

Prices for a 20 kg bag of mealie meal varied from $2,32 in Shabwe PV 
to $3,50 in Checheche PV. 

After the first series of visits the ICRC reevaluated its supplementary 
feeding programme, which up to then had relied mainly on dried skimmed milk. 

New Food 

For normal growth, children needed food with both protein, fats and 
carbohydrates, the latter two being used for energy. The skimmed milk, 
while high in protein, had almost no carbohydrates or fat. In addition, 
if the milk was not mixed properly it could cause diarrhea, the survey 

Consequently, the ICRC began using Mahewu, a powdered drink that was made 
of maize and sorghum. 


There were fluctuations in levels of malnutrition between the two visits, 
but in light of the different numbers of children tested (in one case 59 
were tested the first time, 141 the second) the differences were not con- 
sidered statistically significant. 

Overall, the malnutrition level stayed fairly constant, the survey states. 

One exception was Dotito 9A PV in Darwin, where it increased from 25 to 

30 percent. The ICRC supplementary feeding programme had been discontinued 
for a time. The increase could therefore indicate the velue of the 
programme, the survey states. 

CSO: 4420 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 7 

[Text ] 

THE International Com- 
mittee of the Red Cross 
delegation in Rhodesia is 
— to leave now 
that a war eltuation no 
longer exists 

Speaking !n Salisbury, 
yesterday the delegation 
head, Mr'‘iene Kosirnik, 
confirmed that “we are 
now busy plans 
to leave the country 

The main role of the 
International Committee 
of the Red Cross was to 
intervene in times of war. 

‘Now the war is over 
and we are prepa to 
pull out, but this will 
time and no date has been 
set for our final de- 

CSO: 4420 

Mr Kosirnik returned to 
Salisbury earlier this 
week after visiting his 
Geneva headquarters, 
where, he said, the “tra- 
Gitional decision to with- 
draw had been taken”. 

The delegation employs 

a staff of 30 administra- 
tive and medical person’ el 
séconded from overseas 
and 220 local people. 

Rural clinics which had 
been operated by the 
ICRC were likely to be 
administered by Govern- 
ment services in future. 

“There are many posst- 
bilities concerning the 
future of some of our 
activities which I think 
will be taken over by 


ane sUrU rst estap- 
lished a presence in Rhod- 
desia t years ago. 

In 1977 the operation 
was activated to embrave 
the lsation’s tradi- 
tional fields — protection, 
maintaining a war watch, 
upholdin humanitarian 
law, g for } 
medical work affordin 
relief to war victimae 
& tracing agency for 


tad feign 
separated by the war 



in English 16 Mar 80 p 1 



nape if i et 
ee wet 

€2 258 He ‘i HAE eb GEES 
5 i fon it Het of i ii. He 

‘ 2, all fi? wn ea 
ti (ie i i pet sat! iy 

a i sine ai 
24: : 2 ‘ii : : 
pa ae shige: a et 
ite Ee 2 2th: ame 






Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 1 

lText | 

ion i 


, wen 
He ai 

iy Haj bat 

iat mae i 

ad | 


ee tye i thie" mala pibseit $11] 
ey ea 
24,7 itis i if fi 

area a sit i opts pe, 
25 id sliee hes ny blhen 



Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 1 

|Text] The BSA Police do not intend to call up men over 50 in the Field 
Reserve after April 21, a Police Reserve headquarters statement said yes- 

However, reservists in the over-50 category who have received call-up 
papers for a commitment starting before and running beyond that date will 
be required to fulfill their commitment “unless specifically instructed 
otherwise," the statement said. 

Instructions had already been issued saying that no one in that age group 
would be deployed outside his home area after April 1 unless he had 
volunteered for such a duty. 

However, the statement reminded those affected that they remained members 
of the Police Reserve “with a laid down commitment as long as the rele- 
vant legislation remains in force." 

The statement added, however, that it was not yet considered advisable 
to extend the same intention to members of the Police Special Reserve. 

They would be required to perform four hours' duty a week in their own 
residential areas--unless they volunteered otherwise-~-as a maximum. 

But members of all branches of the Police Reserve were advised that levels 
of deployment would receive “close attention," with a view to reducing 
demands “to levels compatible with the security situation." 

An Army spokesman said yesterday that the over-50s in the territorial army 
generally went over to the police. Those who remained had mostly been 
doing technical, professional or skilled jobs voluntarily "for years" and 
that very few had joined the Army once they had passed 50 years of age. 

CSO: 4420 




Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 7 

| Text | 

Hes uieul setalah ay 
il ih Eel el 

ree ne hin 
sig ean ett 

itis! ind 
ty i i Leith nn 








Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 1 

hints #0 far on what 
General Walle may re- 
commend, but wi the 
running down of the war 

the va units 

) eh gg 
cluded elements of the 

[Text | 
THE «tracture of the high command of the Thus the Police pre- 
security forces is to be changed, the Prime pear phe — wR 
Minister, Mr Mugabe, said yesterday. Operations a 
He told « Press conference that the od ca, aa 
Commander of Combined Operations, Lieut- Law and Order, but this 
General Peter Walls, bad asked him for per- ie -t 
mission to do this, Mr Mugabe said General the Police comes under 
Walls would recomme:! + plan for considera- re Ss = 
yet received it. At the Press confer- 
Mr Mugabe said that DROPPED ence, Mr Mugahe declinw-d 
the Pohee were in he de The Ministry of Com. te go into hin reasons for 
) ate MO ey end wend + State Security ~~ 
cnme wader the Misistry ilet of Ministries ‘and “State security has al- 
oy — Ag 
leader, Mr Nkomo. ony. 4 were separate from the Police 
Under the old system, Mugabe has taken Se ene ee Gh wth 
the overall conduct of the over the DeSence port- On the 
security forces in the war folio. ZANLA a "= of 
came under the Ministry Before the creation of } ag ZIPRA 
of Combined Operations, the Ministry of Combined forces, Mr the security 
which was formed Operations and the ap- a sad 
March 1977. gotatment of General to see 
There have been no alls oo the military 



er j a 
en Ah 

nite ; 

fill I 




Ly ey one male 5 : 
[ i eit a } 


yell ith fy id 





Salisbury THE HERALD-BUSINESS HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 1 

[Text ] 
DEVELOPMENT capi- The disadvantages of the consumer price 
index rose by 18 percent. 
tal should be plentiful — Ff hes A 4 The cost of some mate- 
for sound business cases, for our are rials, machinery and spare 
propositions now the poner 4 ways, business- dustries rose even higher 
coun is back to men cap also now buy on 
iry ¥ com conene. 
normal sanye the i ; out the 
chairman of RAL Ministry of Commerce and 
Holdings, Mr Gerry - a 
Carey-Smith, clariy well to getting our 
He warns that the main Sie the Crmmon homer 
restriction op progress is, Reviewing the 
eS] b awe all ton tn. year he ave most 
of economy, , of the economy recoverea 
power shortage. Retail trade increased in 
“However both — the real terms for the first 
Government and many in- time since 1975 and there 
dustriea have a. - ab ae 
time been concentra civil engineering 
on ee a a the construction 
rogrammer depression. 
that these and “ 
ary measures will al- oo Te levele §=in 
leviate this position rene 7 oe 
“It t clear from the for four years. Although 
tnterest the the progress in most of 
many visitors we have had these sectors was modest, 
that gives it wag made in the face of 
polities! climate pro- the highest inflation rate 
aspects for the future are yet seem im this country 

exciting " 


~ 16 ) | ww a 
e" + $v 
@ 105 | = ™ 105 = 
> 8 f-- moeee oeen = >= —-. | 
e TTITITTET ETI tTI IT - iTititeniit 
I —— p= cya £16 ~ t 
® 130 — 19 
: a) & 
i on or r 
> 100 : « =_——4 “4 
- a — *0 
1978 1979 1978 1979 

HOW various sectors 
have performed since 
July 1978 on an index 
basis. All the achieve- 

ments were against a 

much higher inflation 

CSO: 4420 



Land Resettlement 

Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 7 

[Text } 

ald a jpn 

iW zl 

at 4 43} 

| fi 
ts sii Gr ie 
ag i sy fe it tee? wei 
i el ft hal itt ci 
iene Mest P| sl lia! i 
Piet $35 4 mt de ‘if Ht #37 
i He 
al rb! i ‘i feu 

Cartoon View 
Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 16 

[Text } 

“FIVE hundred outstanding complainte—and they're all from mel” —__ 

CSO: 4420 



4y 481 i seat 

* at Li itl al nip i 
1328 Uf, lletntetil valle 
pi ql ui Ee 
a gibecalal at 
. He ce i dp a i 
; a: 2858 
Pt fi is tl tl 
eee iit i bea | 
Ee HAnG eth tical 
3S Bag yal be tt i 

Further Details 

Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 3 

[Text] The Secretary for Agriculture, Mr Edward Osborn, yesterday expanded 

on his Ministry's new incentive bonus scheme for early maize deliveries 
during the next two months. 

Asked if the bonus of up to $10 a tonne would be passed on to the con- 

sumer, Mr Osborn said: "No, it is more likely to be absorbed by the 

The Ministry announced yesterday that following two consecutive years of 
mid-season drought conditions, plus the dramatic increase in domestic 
consumption recently, grain stocks held by the Grain Marketing Board will 

fall to a low level during April and May, before the high maize delivery 
period in Rhodesia. 

As a precautionary measure, the GMB would accept an increase in the maize 
moisture content up to and including May 16 from 12,5 percent to 15 percent. 

Coupled with this would be the bonus for early deliveries to the GMB. This 
would be $10 a tonne during the period April 1 to 30 inclusive, and $5 a 
tonne for deliveries between May 1 and 31 inclusive. 

Mr Osborn confirmed that the bonus would be financed by the taxpayer. 
Explaining the present maize price structure, the secretary said the 

previous Minister, Mr William Irvine, had announced a package of incentives 
last August to encourage further maize production. 


In effect the interim price still applying for maize until the prescribed 
price is gazetted next June will be the preplanting price of $75 a tonne. 

Added to this is a $5 bonus on maize grown by farmers who had increased 
their maize growing area by 15 percent beyond a minimum of 50 ha, bringing 
the price to $80 a tonne. 

Mr Osborn said strong representations had been made to the Ministry for 
$80 to be paid on all maize deliveries, "but this is not possible as the 
bonus of $5 is in the nature of a ccrtractual arrangement to be paid over 
and above whatever price is finally prescribed." 

This meant that if a maize grower qualif’ed for the $5 bonus, and depending 
on his delivery time during the next month, he could receive a maximum of 
$90 a tonne for his grain. 

Drought Relief 

Mr Osborn said that in the event of drought conditions being judged by 
the Government to be sufficiently widespread, "drought relief will be 
provided by it on the basis of reimbursement of maize production costs in 
isolation from other farm activities." 

But further discussions were needed within Government before any agree- 
ment or announcement on drought relief could be made. He added that the 
maize supply position for the year would be tight but nevertheless satis- 

It had been estimated that deliveries would reach 800 000 tonnes this 
marketing year which should be more than sufficient to meet the inflated 
demands of domestic consumers who last year took 640 000 tonnes. 

CSO: 4420 




Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 6 

| Text } 
BUR AN tig ciaim ie that the When the engine is id- 
A SALIS Y MAN, unit will show an im- ling air Km # go 
Mr Geoff Dixon of provement in fuel con- through the meths But 
Athlone, has patented sumption of up to 25 per- when the engine is under 
, cent, as he has shown load and requires more 
a fuel-saving device over the months in the air, it is drawn through 
which he hopes will Peugeot, but the saving the meths, into the filter 
will d on the way cover where it mixes with” 
eventually go into com- the car le driven. one fresh air, and then both 
\ o through the filter itself 
mercial production and me. X fitted the unit te eS: os gh a 
sell for $10 retail. their cars have reported they meet the petrol va- 
The principle of his de- smoother running but pour. 
vice is and similar they have not yet had critical —— = 
to others that it im- es heme af te Beem the at are the 
proves combustion of the The basis of Mr ‘s of tu used to 
air-fuel mixture im the prineiple is the use of Carry the ted air, 
carburettor by tnoreasing me ted spirits, which and the extent to which 
the oxygee content. con about 36 percent fresh air ip blocked off 
His Peugeot 304 has oxygen, to improve ¢ar- from the filter. 
neen — ba - the —_ a+ = Mr Dixon eatares A 
since last an simplest form has these t 
says consumption has im- unit om hig Peugeot con- Peugeot but stilt needa to 
proved from 28 miles to a of a glass jar with a make adjustments to the 
unit (not exactly a gal- sealed , Containing a Wolseley. 
lon) to [5 — this is a 25 few of meths. Ap The unit uses about one 
percent improvement. iniet tube draws air utre of meths to 18 Htres 
Thig car has a Solex car- through the meths, and an of 
burettor. outlet tube tak-s the Dixon has patented 
But the figures for a methe vapour to a hole the principle, meths 
second car, a Wolseley drilled im the atr filter or any other in this 
1500 with an SU carb., are cover. country and Sough Africa, 
from 28 m.p.u. to 32 ~ 8 The air intake in ene there is = intertm 
14 percent improvement. the filter per- on world-wide use 
te thinks the discrep- tially blocked ok in which has to be formally 
ancy is due mainly to dif- this case with an old patented by the end of Oc- 
ferences in the dimensions handkerchief — to contro) tober. 
of the unit fixed to each the amourt of fresh air Mr Dixon said he has 
car, end possibly to the entering the filter. sent details to the In- 
different types of car- dustrial ry Cor- 
burettor. But he believes po in , and 
it will work with apy car- IDC hag sent them to 
burettor, and aleo in @fése) Pretoria for testing. It 
engines. hoped to get the results 
by the end of the month, 


ie que ath 

ie ae 





Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 3 

{Text | 

as ee 
sate ips fe nie 33* aH pe 

it pees a Pei ee ef | 
ee reel Hiotdh it At bh ile ; 
ails? i ESE ptt i Me ey 

ii | Silt ineel 

: af iis 
sin2fayi#l, pans if : at 




He nN i 

<puegetasit 2H} 






oe v di 508% eT . rreatas GF! 73232 
i: Ht i res Hl i 
bit eh nie ‘iu a x f 

ty ha a 

companies in 

r lc 


ih . th i tly Lj 
ile a si hae i. 

$900 000 

Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 5 

[Text } 

Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 2 

[Text] A group of men stood near the cattle sale pen at Mayodobo, laughing 
and talking among themselves as the last of the beasts were driven in. 

Hundreds of others--owners and prospective buyers, family and friends-- 
milled about. A hubbub of conversation and movement gave a festive air 
that overcame an early morning threat of rain. 

Some of them had walked all the previous day from remote parts of the 
Sansukwe Tribal Trust Land on the Botswana border, to be there, but no 
one seemed to be tired. 

But that was not surprising. Cattle sales are social events as much as 
they are business. Men of means parade their wealth. Families come to- 

This is all the more true now, after several years of war, during which 
sales were rare or non-existent in some areas. 

When Dale Curtis, District Commissioner of Bulalimangwe District, planned 
sales for last week at Mayodobo, Brunapeg and Linda he could only guess 
at the response. 

He estimated 200 cattle would be brought to Mayodobo, but 250 were there 

on Tuesday. The next day at Brunapeg, 25 km to the north, 100 were expected 
and 232 showed up. In all 592 cattle were put on the scales at the three 
sales and 580 were sold for $66 887. 

All of that money went directly into the tribesmen's pockets. A 7,5 per- 
cent levy was paid by the buyers. 

"Some of these people were quite surprised at the prices they were getting. 
They are quite a bit higher than they were several years back when some 

of these people last brought in their cattle, and on top of that the 10 
percent African Development Fund levy has been dropped," one Home Affairs 
official said. 


The buyers, some of whom came hundreds of kilometres, were in a bullish 
mood, often paying up to $20 above the minimum bid made by the Cold 
Storage Commission. 

The average price per head was $115, as against $59 in 1974, the last 
year in which TTL cattle sales were widespread. So far this year 10 058 
cattle have been sold at a countrywide average of $86 a head. 

"We expect to be back to normal by the end of the year if things continue 
to go as they are now,” said Mr Colin Roberts, director of Marketing and 
Co-operatives at the Ministry of Home Affairs. 

"The dual effect of the war and the breakdown in veterinary health systems 
that resulted from it have been a tremendous burden, one that has not yet 
completely lifted. But the end is in sight.” 

The sales figures tell the story. In 1974 tribespeople were paid $6,3 
million for 108 264 head. In 1979 only 21 615 head were sold, bringing in 
$1,5 million. 

An estimated million head were either stolen or lost to disease during 
the war. 

"We have just had a large sale at Beitbridge which we would not have con- 
sidered holding with the war situation as it was. In February we had the 
first sales in three years at the Chigwedziwa and Sengwe sales pens in 
Chiredzi District," Mr Roberts said. 

There are 120 sales pens in the TTLs. 

At a sale the animals are weighed and graded. A minimum price is then 
set based on grade and weight. As a matter of policy, the Cold Storage 
Commission representative bids this price for all but the inferior grades, 
thereby guaranteeing the cattle owner a sale if he wants it. 

The CSC, by far the largest purchaser at any sale, sometimes bids on 
inferior cattle as well, Mr Roberts said. 

The set prices range from $22 for a "runty" 135 kg inferior grade to $295 
for a 750 kg top grade animal. 

"You don't find many 750 kg beasts in the TTLs, but occasionally we get 
some pretty big ones," Mr Roberts said. 

CSO: 44620 




Salisbury THE HERALD-BUSINESS HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 1 

[Text ] 





Ty 1 
up iB 

a as 

dedi Sit 
ae a 

me il Mi 

He i ci 






Salisbury THE HERALD-BUSINESS HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 1 

[Text } 

ae ieee es ip nh 
veny OL TE 
5% it it ‘if re he iM = 
af Malt able “ii reel 
us ae aii md ie. add SEELSSes 
-t2 meh: if 4 ret gated 
sri tater ht tid 
21 Hue viele geet di mal 5 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 12 
[Article by Cynthia Brodie: "The Idle Farms") 
| Text ] 

AFRICAN farmers are to ask Mr Mugabe's in- 

coming Government to grant them 1 000 
commercial farma from lend at present lying 

idle on which they can eettle on a one man, one —— = om 2 
farm basis by next summer, says the President eh with +. = 
of the Zimbabwe National Farmers’ Union. Mr the present atructures 
Gary Magadzire. food production et eal ae 
Mr Megeteire, who & Mr Magadzire said Mr labour market. 
chief apokesman for the Mugabe's at the OPPORTUNITIES 
biack agricultural com- polls had ra the ex- 
munity, said in an inter- tions of all African “However, he is full 
view it was got the in- a. 2 aware of the hopes of the 
tention of members of his and his party, on winning. — a m_, will 
Union to ask for land and said: rad Cop te ay ~ 
presently being utilised by “We have been filled joyed in formerly white 
white: with great joy and satis- farming areas. 
= Rn were 4.5 mil- - is ality os Oe “Our aspiration is to 
either unoccupied or not communit and the African farmers in what 
being fully utilised, from nat arties. . . my were formeriy white 
which the 1 000 Union wal cuppert the y~ phyh 7 Be 
He came out strongl hilt... we look forward as our white coup- 
against absentee land. to the future with great terparts, but nobody has 
lords, and said: “We in- confidence believing we - i s, want a 
tend recommending to the are gutag to Sie atin of Svatiabie to us ty the im 
neoming Government in developmen pros- 
no uncertain terms that perity im rural areas.” coming Government. 
absentee landlords give up He continued: “We have “We have $000 farmers 
— 4 ha Fd been to see Mr Mugabe SS Ss 2 
realised that land many times. We know Areas (where 
is MY ee Ay . what is at the back of his farmers own their proper- 
— a on one onan mind. He acknowledges ties) hy Soar an 
as a whole.” the present agricultural drew up pris oA in 1978 — 




they ave the cream of our 
farming community, 

"Also, we hove 1000 
farmers in the TTha 
iwady to take over the 
furmea left by the purchase 
area tarmers 

Me Magadzire said 
there were about 10000 
farmers living in the 
Purchase Areas right 
now, and his Union pro- 
posed this number be in- 
creased to 20 000 

Asked about financing 
for the above schemes, he 
suid: “We are looking at a 
financial institution to be 
set up by the incoming 
Government specifically 
for land = re-distribution 
and re-setliement — as a 
matter of urgency. People 
must be settled before we 
go into the next summer 

cropping seafon.” 
In recent monthe, Mr 
Magadrire's Union has 

run into difficulties with 
the Agricultural Finance 
Corporation on the 
uestion of loans for rural 
armersa wanting to buy 
large f.cma, With few ex- 
ions, the AFC hase 
_— to grant financial 


Mr Magadzire who ownr 
two farms being main! 
interested in ranching a 
eotton, said: “The AFC 
has no mandate to —_— 
its present method 
lendng. which should be 
commensurate with the 
changing circumstances in 
the country. 

“It aske for a 40 per- 
cent deposit on the total 
cost of the farm. Moat of 
the forma members of the 
Union want to buy are 
averaging $100 000. If one 
is going to insist on that 
40 percent, it will take 
many years before you 
have Africans going into 
the commercial areas" 

He endorsed irrigation 
achemes like Chisumbanje 
where 200 people have 
heen settied on small 
plots, and 
taught to 
ductively He 
Chisumbanje could 
eventually absorb 45000 
farmers from the TTLa«. 

Rince hia election last 
week, Mr Mugabe hina 
given the atamp of ap- 
proval to the co-operative 
or collective ayvatem of 

Mr Magadsire said: 
"Thin ta 

aysiem of 
African is by nature a 
ence our extended family 
syetem. In my opinion, all 
the Prime Minister is try- 
ing to impress upon us is 
the meed to see that the 
kraaihend ssyatem ia 
extended by 
peop more closely in 
heir day-to-day farming 
problems. (Le. On 00- 
operatives or collectives), 


“We already have the 
savings club aystem in 
thie country, whereby 
rural farmers club to- 
gether to learn how to 
grow crops, buy in bulk, 
and market their 
So the Prime rs 
concept will probably fit 
in with what we already 

have, or will compare 


There seems to be some 

to whether tive” 

farming an it will be will 
tised in Zimbabwe, 
the same an “ 
tive” farming, or 1 the 
two systema will be dia- 
similar, but complemen- 

However, Mr Magadzire 
anid Mr Mugabe was 
aware of the present 
systems prevailing in the 
country — commercial 
farming, farming, 
and small-holder schemes 
such as Chisumbanje — 
and he did not intend to 
destroy them. 

He said: “As far as con- 
fidence, trust, and mutual 
understanding are con- 
cerned, there can be no 
question but that the in- 
coming Government will 
more than satisfactorily 
fulfil these, but it is ex- 
pecting too much to he- 
lieve it will not do any- 
thing to show change.” 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 7 

[Text] High priority will be given to agricultural development by the 
new Government and the Tribal Trust Land Development Corporation--Tilcor-- 
is ready to meet that challenge, says the newly appointed general manager, 
Mr Robbie Mupawose. 

In an interview in Salisbury yesterday, Mr Mupawose, the first African to 
hold the post, said once the incoming Government had defined its agricul- 
tural policy, "we will be able to modify or adapt our own to theirs, 
providing we get backing." 

Tilcor already operates estates which are basically State-run farms as 
well as peasant farming settlement schemes. 

"We have been operating these for some time but they are not ideal. The 
units are too small for sufficient crop rotation which results in a poor 
economic return for the people, making them subsistence farmers and this 
is not satisfactory," Mr Mupawose said. 

On the question of collective farming as had been introduced in Tanzania 
and other African countries following a socialist policy, he said this 
would require investigation “but we do not see it as an obstruction to 
agricultural development." 

Born in Mondoro and educated at Goromonzi Secondary School, Mr Mupawose (44) 
obtained his BSc degree in Lesotho and his Master's degree in agronomy at 
the University of California. 

He spent a year at the University of Maryland. 

CSO: 4420 




MORE ARMED CLASHES--Three women and a man have been murdered by armed 
dissidents in the past week, Combined Operations reported in 4 communique 
yesterday. The full test of the communique said: "Combined Operations 
Headquarters reports that, during the past four days, security forces have 
had 10 contacts with armed groups. During the same period, 244 dissidents 
have submitted to, or have been captured by, security forces operating 
jointly with ZANLA or ZIPRA officials. "In the Gokwe Tribal Trust Land, 
security forces have located the bodies of three women who were murdered 
within the past seven days. They had been shot and their throats were 
cut. "In the Chinamora Tribal Trust Land, a man was abducted by an armed 
group on Monday. On Wednesday, two men were taken from their homes in 
the Kunzwi Tribal Trust Land, and yesterday a man was abducted from his 
home in the Chitowa Purchase Land. "On Monday, in the Samenani Purchase 
Land, a man was taken from a bus by two armed dissidents and shot dead." 
[Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 1] 

SUCCESS OF REVALUATION--This week's revaluation of the dollar has caused 
bankers and financial analysts to take a cheerier look at the economic 
picture. All agree that it was the best possible move. The main reason 
was to dispose of the cross-rates gap. This was in danger of becoming so 
wide that exporters could have made a tidy pile by quickly switching 
between our currency, rand and American dollars. But behind this was the 
need to take an anti-inflationary stand. The Reserve Bank considered both 
other options available--devaluing against the rand or partly devaluing and 
partly revaluing against all other currencies. The reason for not doing 
either of these was because they would help inflation to some extent and 
because of our future trading pattern. Although dependent in the short 
term on mainly South African goods the country will more and more come to 
trade with countries outside Africa and it is to these countries that the 
monetary authorities are looking. Said an investment analyst this week: 
"Imported inflation is the biggest cause of our rising prices." Some 
people have stili suffered from the revaluation. Those who signed export 
contracts before the move and those selling forward are the main losers, 
particularly firms selling commodities. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD 

in English 13 Mar 80 p 1] 


PROTECTED VILLAGES OPENED--All protected villages in Rhodesia have been 
opened and there will no longer be any restriction on inhabitants, except 
in areas where a curfew still applies, ea spokesman for the Ministry of Home 
Affairs said yesterday. Although the gates of the villages will not be 
closed, the fences will not be dismantled, and the spokesman said the 
"Protection forces" would remain in position for the time being because 

of the presence of armed dissidents. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in 
English 13 Mar 80 p 1] 

NEW IDENTITY CARDS-~A new Zimbabwe identity card has been designed and will 
be issued soon, Mr George Baverstock, production controller of the National 
Registration Bureau, announced yesterday. But he stressed that the old 
Rhodesian cards would still be valid. He said the Zimbabwe cards were 
printed to "suit the new government and the new country." Mr Baverstock 
predicted the "bulk" of registrations would be completed in three years. 

A million people have registered since the scheme was launched two-and-a- 
half years ago--and the number is swelling by up to 40 000 a month. He 
said thousands of identity cards were awaiting collection at Magaba Shopping 
Centre, Salisbury and other centres throughout the country. He appealed to 
everyone who registered more than six weeks ago to collect their cards. 

The temporary pink forms issued at registration are valid for only three 
months. Mr Baverstock claimed detailed identity documents were necessary 
for the Government to plan education and health needs. He said everyone 
was required by law to register. [Text] [Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in 
English 16 Mar 80 p 4] 

CFU MEETING--It was time a Matabeleland farmer was vice-president of the 
Commercial Farmers’ Union, so that in due course he could become the 
president, Mr Geoff Jackson, president of the Matabeleland branch of the 
CFU, said yesterday. The vice-president's post will fall vacant soon if, 
as is virtually certain, Mr David Spain moves up to president, succeeding 
Mr Denis Norman, now Minister of Agriculture. A CFU council meeting to 
consider this and other matters will be held in Salisbury on April 1 and 
2. “We would very much like a Matabele to take Mr Spain's place as vice- 
president," Mr Jackson said. "It is a long time since a farmer from this 
end of the country was in line for president." The last Matabeleland 
president of the Rhodesia National Farmers’ Union, as the CFU was called, 
was the late Mr Maurice Chennells. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in 
English 15 Mar 80 p 5] 

MISSING PERSONS PROBE--The Prime Minister, Mr Mugabe, has pledged to 

look into the disappearance of nationalist and lawyer, Dr Edison Sithole, 
his secretary and other missing people. Dr Sithole, publicity secretary 

for Bishop Muzorewa's ANC, forerunner to the UANC, disappeared at the same 
time as his teenage secretary, Miss Miriam Mhlanga, outside a Salisbury 
hotel on October 16, 1975. Since then efforts backed by local and inter- 
national financial, humanitarian and political bodies to trace the pair have 
proved fruitless. In an interview at his Mount Pleasant home, Mr Mugabe 
Says we will be interested to get some evidence as to what happened to 


Dr Edison Sithole. All persons who have disappeared and have not been 
accounted for become the concern of our Government. I would want to 
believe that the previous government concerned itself with such cases. We 
can always start by the evidence which they have." Among people missing 
is the former publicity secretary for %ANU, Mr Joseph Masangomai. He and 
his wife, Viola and their children have been missing since October 1978. 
[Text] [Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 16 Mar 80 p 1] 

ZANU PLEA-=-ZANU yesterday called on the new Government to "go across 

party boundaries" in its search for qualified people to man the country's 
industries and other sectors. Mr James Dzvova, publicity secretary, said 
ZANU hoped Mr Mugabe's Government would not "simply chuck away" many 
talented people in various parties who had failed to gain seats in the 
election. "People are waiting for ZANU (PF) to remember those of their 
colleagues in ZANU and other parties to be called upon to play their roles 
in rebuilding Zimbabwe. "We would expect men such as the Rev. Ndabaningi 
Sithole (the ZANU leader), Mr James Chikerema (ZDP president) and many 
others from other parties to be called upon by the new Government to serve 
in whatever capacity. "All these people are talented men with wide exper- 
fence, and for ZANU (PF) to simply chuck them away or forget them would 
not be in keeping with the spirit of reconciliation being espoused by 

Mr Mugabe," he said. Dr Dzvova denied a report that Mr Sithole was "can- 
vassing" for a Senate seat. "It is only that our ZANU (PF) colleagues 
have won the election, and we are expecting to see real unity being forged 
between the two parties." [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 
80 p 5] 

MORE REFUGEE TRANSIT CAMPS--More transit stations are to be provided by 

the churches for returning refugees who find they have no homes or families 
left in the rural areas. Speaking in Salisbury yesterday, the secretary 

of Heads of Denominations-~-a body of church leaders and representatives 

of Christian organizations--Colonel David Ramsey of the Salvation Army, 
said that at a meeting on Monday it had been decided that an additional 

12 transit centres would be established. The Heads of Denominations 
already operate 24 in various parts of the country where returning refugees 
find shelter and food until they are able to return to their homes, or in 
which they may remain indefinitely. "The refugee repatriation exercise has 
not yet been resumed after being stopped before the election, but as soon 
as it starts moving again we estimate we shall need about 12 more centres. 
These will be especially needed in the case of aged, disabled or injured 
refugees who will be the last to be returned home." [Text] [Salisbury 

THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 4] 

FRANCE ‘READY FOR OFFICIAL TIES‘--France is ready to establish official 
relations with Rhodesia as soon as it becomes independent and to begin a 
"fruitful dialogue" with this country, the French Prime Minister, Mr Raymond 
Barre, has told Mr Robert Mugabe. The message from Paris was made avail- 
able to the Herald yesterday by the recently arrived Consul General, 



Mr Daniel Jouannea., who has set up his offices in Salisbury. Conveying 
hie “warmest congratulations" on the formation of the new Government, the 
French Premier said: "I extend my sincere good wishes to you for the 
successful completion of the difficult task facing you as leader of your 
country at a time when it is entering a crucial period of ite history. “Tl 
hope that the creation of the inatitutions of the new State, and the 
unavoidable transformations through which it will pass, will take place 

in a peaceful climate and with faith in the future." [Text] [Salisbury 
THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 5] 

STOCKTHEFTS AT SELUKWE--(attle rustling in the Selukwe district was not on 
the wane, Mr George Andeison, stocktheft valuator for the Selukwe area 
coordinating committee, said yesterday. He was commenting on the claim by 
the chairman of the Cattle Producers’ Association, Mr Jim Sinclair, that 
there had been a “vast improvement" in the situation in the Midlands since 
the election. "All is not rosy, and this must be brought to the attention 
of the authorities," Mr Anderson said. “One farmer has lost 234 cattle 
since December, most of them stolen in the past two weeks. Another has 
lost 107. "On Sunday, a farmer lost 57 but was able to get them back 
before they reached Selukwe Tribal Trust Land, adjacent to the farming 
area. “Once they get into the tribal trust land, there is no means of 
recovering them." He said in the past year, farmers had lost about 4 000 
cattle. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 4} 

MRS CHITEPO RETURNS--After 17 years in exile Mrs Victoria Chitepo returned 
home yesterday as Deputy Minister of Education and Culture--and a new life 
: in Zimbabwe. She arrived in Salisbury on a charter flight from Maputo 

with her daughter Thokolize (18). Asked how she felt to be back, she said: 
"I'm dazed, speechless, but very happy to be back home after so long.” She 
is the widow of Mr Herbert Chitepo, former national chairman of ZANU, who 
died when his car was blown up in the drive of his home in Lusaka in 1975. 
[Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 14 Mar 80 p 1] 

WHITE IMMIGRATION--More whites migrated to Rhodesia in January than in any 
month since May 1978, according to official statistics published yester- 
day. But at the same time more whites left the country than since June 
last year, Iana reports. The statistics show 1 040 whites left Rhodesia 
permanently in January, while 403 came in, leaving a net loss of 637. This 
compares with a net loss of 1 073 in January 1979. [Text] [Salisbury THE 
HERALD in English 13 Mar 80 p 1) 

JOB CHANGE POLICIES--Commerce and Industry should take the lead in promoting 
better job opportunities, conditions, merit advancement and decision-making 
rights for Africans, rather than wait for Government action, the African 
Sales Representatives’ Association says. In a statement, the secretary, 

Mr Flavian Chinamo (above), said the 350-member association welcomed senti- 
ments expressed by leaders of commerce and industry on the need for a change 
of attitudes but “until now no meaningful change has ever come about." 
Political and ecnomic considerations, and not merit had determined the 
promotion of Africans, Mr Chinamo said. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in 
English 13 Mar 80 p 7] 


CHLHOTA FINED--An election candidate and leader of the National Democratic 
Union, Henry Chihota, was found guilty on three counts of fraud by Mr Leighton 
Gale at Salisbury Magistrates’ Court yesterday. He was sentenced to four 
months’ jail on each of the first two charges, all conditionally suspended 
for five years, and fined $150 on the third. On the first count Chihota 

was alleged to have defrauded Mr Basil James of $600 in March 1977 by giving 
him a poste-dated cheque that he knew would not be honored. On the second 
count Chihota wae said to have defrauded Mr Lucas van Vuuren of $700 in the 
same month. On May 23 last year Chihota was alleged to have issued a 
cheque for $234,01 to T and D Motors, the company which had carried out 
repairs to his motor car, also knowing it would not be honored. Chihota 
pleaded not guilty to the charges. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 
13 Mar 80 p 2) 

POLLCE CAMP DEATHS=-Fourteen people died at Chipinga Police camp on Monday 
morning, Police believe as a result of eating contaminated food. A Salis- 
bury Police spokesman said yesterday that eight men, three women, two 12- 
year old boys and an 18-month old girl had died. "It is believed the cause 
was contaminated food, but a full-scale investigation is being carried out,” 
he said. He could not give names until next of kin had been informed and 

he did not know in what capacity the 14 were at the camp. He said the men 
were not policemen. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 12 Mar 80 p 7) 

(NCIDENTS OF INTIMIDATION--Two incidents of intimidation by ZANU (PF) 
supporters against those of the UANC were reported by Salisbury Police 
Yesterday. On Thursday night a group of ZANU (PF) supporters entered a 
number of houses in Glen Norah occupied by members of UANC. The occupants 
were intimidated and the houses searched for UANC T-shirts. Earlier that 
evening a woman UANC supporter was assaulted by two ZANU (PF) supporters, 
who were also looking for UANC T-shirts, a Police spokesman said. [Text] 
[Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 5) 

CENSORSHIP BAN LIFTED--Restrictions on six publications have been lifted 

by the Board of Censors, according to yesterday's Government Gazette. 

They are: Marxism in the Twentieth Century, by Roger Garaudy; No Easy 

Walk to Freedom, by Ruth First; The Panther and the Lash, by Langston 

Hughes; Christianity Through African Eyes, by S.E.M. Pheko; By Any Means 
Necessary: Speeches, Interviews and a Letter by Malcolm X, by George Breitman; 
and The Day of Chaminuka, by William Rayner. They are the latest in a 

list of publications previously designated undesirable or prohibited, which 
have been released since the arrival of the Governor, Lord Soames. [Text] 
[Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 3] 

DATSUN ASSEMBLY SURVEY--Officials of the giant Japanese car manufacturers, 
Datsun Nissan, visited Bulawayo yesterday as part of a survey into the 
feasibility of assembling the company's products in Rhodesia. The general 
manager for the African department of the company from Tokyo headquarters, 
Mr N. Uchiyama, said his officials had talked to various business people 
and the future for his business was very good. They were in Salisbury on 


Tuesday. He said: "We are looking at local contacts for our products. 

We will have to use the two existing assembly plants in Rhodesia at Umtali 
and Salisbury which will be brought up to a high level with more employment 
and other facilities." [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 13 Mar 
80 p 7) 

MAIZE INDUSTRY--The chairman of the Commercial Grain Producers’ Association, 
Mr Ted Tindle, yesterday described the early delivery bonus scheme for 
maize as “marking a sad day for the maize industry." Mr Tindle said that 
while there had been acknowledgement from the Ministry of Agriculture of 
the seriousness of the situation and that certain action had been taken, it 
was a tragedy that the warnings issued by organized agriculture and others 
in recent years about the poor viability of maize production appear to have 
been ignored. "This past policy has resulted in considerably reduced areas 
planted to maize and has been a major factor leading to the need for the 
early delivery incentive to meet shortfalls between last season's and 

this season's crop supplies," he said in a statement. Mr Tindle said the 
situation had been compounded by the drought during the 1978/79 season and 
that the effects of the 1979/80 drought in maize-growing areas would be 
felt early next year. He said the early delivery bonus was a disappointment 
when related to the much higher alternative cost of importing maize, which 
also involved the use of foreign currency. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD 
in English 15 Mar 80 p 2) 

CSO: 4420 

LD180809 Paris LE MONDE in French 16-17 Mar 80 p 2 LD 

[Dispatch by Pierre Biarnes: “The Postponement of Mr Giescard d'Estaing's 
Visit Seems To Convey a Certain Reserve Toward the Elysee's Policy") 

[Text] Dakar--The official visit to Senegal which, at the beginning of 
January, Mr Giscard d'Estaing had intended making during the first half- 
year and which the French side had officially planned for the end of March, 
has had to be postponed indefinitely at the request of the Dakar leaders, 
who had themselves sought this visit. 

The Senegalese officials apparently cited security problems in justification 
of this request for postponement when Mr Journiac, who disappeared in an 
accident in Cameroun shortly after, came to Dakar a few weeks ago to com- 
plete the program for the visit. Ziguinchor, in the south of the country, 
was then plunged into bloody riots and there were fears that the movement 
might reach Dakar, and this, moreover, caused the cancelation of the brief 
vieit to Senegal which Senate President Poher was to have made at that time. 

In fact, t enegalese authorities’ fears were unfounded and more serious 
reasons have led them to rethink this matter. 

For a long time Mr Senghor--like Mr Houphouet-Boigny, apparently--has seemed 
to believe that in his personal relations with his African counterparts the 
French head of state has too openly favored his relations with newcomers 

or with dubious personalities, to the detriment of old and sure friends of 
the former mother country. 

Apparently Mr Senghor saw a certain offhandedness in thie attitude. Clearly 
well-informed of his feelings, Mr Chirac made use of a visit to Dakar last 
month to turn the knife in the wound with a few well chosen phrases. 

Moreover, several French diplomatic initiatives have not been appreciated 
in Dakar. This was particularly the case with the asylum granted to Imam 
Khomeyni at Neauphle-le-Chateau when the Senegalese president believed-- 
and still believes--that the West, on the contrary, should have done every- 
thing to save the shah, to the point of bringing strong pressure to bear on 


the latter to make him change hie ways at the same time, This was aleo the 
case with France's sudden change of direction over Angola, since Senegal 

to thie day has etill not recognised the regime inetalled in Luanda with 
Ruesian and Cuban help. Moreover, Dakar seems to believe that in the West 
Sahara conflict Parie has shown too great a tendency to deal softly with 
Algeria, whose “hegemonist sims" in the Sahel are periodically denounced 

Finally, and perhaps most seriously, Mr Senghor seems increasingly disap- 
pointed by the former mother country's deliberate and etubborn Lack of 
interest in ite "French commonwealth" plan. 

On the one hand, France prefers to favor whatever can help private talks 
with the African countries concerned (hence the progressive institutional ia- 
tion of ite annual Franco-African summits) rather than to let itself be 
launched into a vaster organization where ite influence would be in fatal 
competition with that of Canada or Belgium, 

On the other hand, President Giscard d'Estaing wishes to develop still more 
his relations with the black continent's former British and Portuguese 

It remains, nevertheless, that apart from a certain annoyance, Dakar has 

not lost sight of the paramount importance of French aid to Senegal and 
that it does not attach too much importance to a monetary disappointment. 

C80: 4400 


Dakar AFRICA in French Feb 80 pp 67,68 
[Article by Joel Decupper: "Is the Private Sector Strangled?") 

[Text] The plan for economic and financial recovery implies that things 
are not going very well in Senegal. And this ie for a very simple reason: 
for many years more was spent than was produced. The many reasons are 
well known, if not conceded. Their effect was masked for a while due to 
the personal credit of the chief of state which enabled Senegal to receive 
an appreciable contribution in international financing. But the years of 
drought, the staggering rise in the price of oil and world-wide inflation 
revealed the weakness in Senegal's production structures. 

Courageously, the prime minister took note of the situation and drew up a 
recovery plan, which he presented to the National Assembly in a masterly 
manner. Our readers know the content. We wish to recall that his main 
objectives are a short-term financial reorganization and a new middle 
course momentum in the economy. The first is aimed at balancing public 
finances, improving net foreign assets and reducing the global volume of 
credit in the economy; the second tends to raise the rate of real growth 
of the economy from an average 2.7 percent during the 1973/79 period to 
4 percent beginning in 1982, which, taking into account the hypothesis of 
a 9 percent rise in the cost of production, corresponds to an increase of 
13.4 percent in assets per year. 

A Different Course 

For the enterprises this means that while waiting for this momentum, they 
must go through a difficult time, the more tangible effects of which will 
be a reduction in credits for the economy, 2.7 percent in 1980, which will 
also weigh heavily on the commercial sector. With the exception of the 
marginal operators who were profiting from the financial laxity, all the 
economic operators approve the recovery plan, all the more so since they 
were the first victims of the depreciation of the economic situation, and 
by the same token they can hope to be the first to benefit from its 


They are therefore ready to participate in this recovery effort by stoically 
accepting all the sacrif'ces which will be imposed on them. However, there 
are many who fear that they will not be able to take these sacrifices in 
stride due to the financial difficulties which they are already sustaining. 
A tightening of credit, which they admit is fully justified, could engender 
such difficulties for some of the enterprises that they would be forced to 
close their doors. 

In @ great many instances these financial difficulties are due to claims 
against the etate for which the enterprises cannot obtain settlement within 
the required time, 

A 15 Billion Indebtedness to the "Private" Sector 

For the principal commercial enterprises these bills reached 3.5 billions 
as of 31 December covering invoices issued on 30 September, that is for a 
period covering 90 days. More than 5 billions for industries and public 
work enterprises should be added. 

It should be noted that these 8 and a half billions concern only the enter- 
prises which are comprised in the two professional groups. A few billions 
due to the banks, (not including the BNDS [Senegal National Development 
Kank) should be added, as well as a few other billions for the total 
private sector, of which three are for a non-syndicated enterprise, 750 
millions for another one, 500 millions and 250 millions for two other,* 
which would bring the total debts of the state up to more than 15 billions. 

The Minister's Figures 

To the above the minister of finance replies that he owes only 3.5 billions. 
He is certain that the enterprises do not make a distinction, as he does, 
between the debts of the administrative services and those of the para-public 
sector. At the same time the figures which we obtained during our investi- 
gation take into consideration the supplies delivered and the work executed, 
therefore financed by the enterprises, while the minister of finance deducted 
only the debts of the state, registered under accounting and certification 
procedures. He thus ignored the markets in suspense, the deductions which 
did not go through, additional clauses which are not observed, computer 
rejections for improper charges...which, in part, explain the difference 
between his figures and those we showed. 

Whatever the origin of these debts and the reason for the payment delays, 
they are largely due to bank credit inflation. Which means that settlement 
of their accounts would lead ipso facto to a reduction in their volume, 

. me me ee 


Only SONAFOR [National Company for Drilling] did not wish to reply. It 
could be possible that the moneys owed by the state to this company are not 
the sole source of their difficulties. 


which ia one of the objectives of the recovery plan. Other positive conse- 
quences: losing its reputation as a poor disbursing agent would make it 
possible for the state to obtain more satisfactory prices. By the same 
token it could recover the confidence necessary .or the large investments 
which President Senghor had been able to obtain and which the present 
financial difficulties have altered somewhat. 


It therefore seems that this is the opportune moment for credits to be 
mobiiized at the earliest and to audit the debts of the state and of the 
para~public sector with respect to private enterprises. It is also necessary 
that the state officials who are responsible at the various settlement 
levels should perform their work more speedily and...conscientiously. 

Failing this, the tightening of credit would only lead to the strangulation 
of the enterprises, which would be followed by a succession of bankruptcies, 
with consequences on employment which can well be imagined. Already, 
numerous Senegalese enterprises are experiencing difficulties. Many yards 
are idle. Some enterprises--not the smallest ones--which ha‘ alowed the 
state to delay their payments in exchange for an increase in their overdrawn 
bank accounts now find themselves in a very delicate situation. Some 
investments have been deferred or cancelled. This points out the urgency 

of the financial reorganization measures which are needed by private enter- 
prises if one wishes particularly to infiect the trends of Senegal's economy 
and protect the conditions requisite for real economic and social development. 

The economic difficulties which Senegal is experiencing at the present time 
seriously affect the policy of Senegalization of foreign enterprise capital. 
For several years these were active with the blessing of the authorities. 
After all, it was an empty blessing, since the successive ministers of 
finance had always refused to take adequate measures to encourage nationals 
to purchase shares of these companies. Consequently, the latter were 
obliged more often than not to borrow from the banks to enable them to 
acquire the shares which more and more enterprises were offering them. 

Now, 2 years in succession--1977/78 and 1978/79--some of these enterprises 
have registered very mediocre results, which makes it very difficult for 
them to pay any dividends. In consequence, the Senegalese shareholders 
who had been borrowing find themselves in a very delicate situation and 
are trying to recuperate their outlays. 

To attract Senegalese capital the enterprises should be able to pay their 
shareholders a dividend of approximately 15 percent. Which one of these 
enterprises can do this? At the present economic juncture, practically 
none. Apparently, foreign capitalists are here to stay for a while. 

CSO: 4400 



Dakar LE SOLEIL in French 23-24 Feb 80 pp lL-2 

/Article by Minister of Rural Development Djibril Sene: "The ANDE SOPI 
Intellectual Deaf-Mutes"/ 

/Text/ Below, Djibril Sene, minister of rural development, 
responds to an article which appeared in issue No 32 of 
ANDE SOPI, titled: "Socialism in Word Only, and Failure 
of Administration." 

\NDE SOPI strongly attacked the minister of rural development, accusing him 
of failing to respond to the oral questions asked him by the deputies during 
the meeting of the National Assembly on 7 December 1979 and, as a consequence, 
said he was of “questionable quality." 

In response to the first accusation, it should be pointed out that the meeting, 
which was devoted mainly to responses, lasted more than 1 1/2 hours. The 
minister deliberately stated that he did not want to go into much detail about 
ONCAD /National Office of Cooperation and Assistance for Development/ reform, 
as the prime minister was planning to make a statement about it to the National 
Assembly on 19 December. 

It is obvious that an intellectual deaf-mute cannot appreciate oral debates. 
We are grateful, however, to ANDE SOPI for having brought to our attention the 
existence of this special class of citizen because they, too, should have the 
opportunity to follow the proceedings of the National Assembly. 

In consequence, the minister is going to take up pantomime. Of course, success 
in this endeavor is not guaranteed--it is a difficult art to master, and one 
for which he has no great talent. Poor Senegalese ministers! They are going 
to become Jacks of all trades. 

As for the "questionable quality" part, decency forbids comment. 


Neverthelons, if thin Senegalese "Pouquler=Tlaville" had been good enough to 

reveal bis identity, we could have proceeded dialectically to compare his 
qualities with ours, taking ineplration from his qualities to improve our 
own, Hut we were hopelessly condemned to failure in this attempt--absolutely 

ind totally, What lack of generosity! That is very serious coming from a 
Marxist, or in any event, from a Marxist sympathiser. Isn't Marxism's main 
objective the total development of the individual--of all his qualities-- 
through an ongoing effort to improve himself and organize his environment? 

The rest of the article is so garbled and confused that it is impossible to 
respond to it. Perhaps the old Professor Collomb, if he were still around, 
could have made sense of this frenzied amalgam of muddled and disconnected 
ideas, but no one else can, 

However, let it be said once agein (such repetition!) that ONCAD distributed 
approximately 125,000 tons of ground nut seeds in 1979, and that in no case 
does the cooperative's debt fall on the individual members. 

In regard to the figures for SOSAP /expansion unknown/, ANDE SOPI's editor 
would do well to consult the minutes of the National Assembly's 7 December 
1979 meeting. 

The strangest part of the article is the last part, where the prime minister's 
statement to the National Assembly on 19 December 1979 is mentionned, and 

then the minister of rural development is asked to answer for his colleague in 
the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs on the subjects of the franc 
zone, Senegal's balance of payments and so forth. A real mess, and not a 
pretty one. 

Descartes was wrong when he said that good sense is equally distributed among 

After reading the ANDE SOPI article, we feel compelled to say, along with 
Musset: "This boisterous gaiety, so sad and so profound, should be the 
cause of tears instead of laughter." 

Cso: 4400 



Dakar LE SOLEIL in French 23-25 Feb 80 p 2 

/Article: "Wade Proposes Democratic Alternation"/ 

(Text/ The tirst national convention of the Senegalese Democratic Party 
was held yesterday in the El Mansour theater, in Dakar. 

In his opening speech, Senegalese Democratic Party Secretary General Abdoulaye 
Wade explained the significance of the party meeting, which was called "in 
answer to the imperatives of Senegal's current political, social and economic 
situation, which it behooves us to examine." 

The national situation, Wade pointed out, has been marked by student strikes, 
and "the crisis situation has revealed the play of forces between the various 
political groupings, their plans for dealing with the current situation and 
the serious risks of violent confrontation." 

While attributing the deeper causes of the crisis to the machinations of the 
government, which “is trying to hide behind a smoke screen," Wade said that 
the Socialist Party's attitude was at the bottom of the discontent which is 
discrediting the democratic experiment, and which it claims as a victory 
over the PDS /Senegalese Democratic Party/. 

The PDS secretary general also denounced the illegal tactics of the opposition 
which, he claims, Lacking a real hold on the masses, is using to its advan- 
tuge all the demonstrations of discontent and the confrontations between the 
zovernment and the more disadvantaged segments of the population. 

Comparing Senegal to a "sick person" which "Dr PDS" is trying to cure with 
democratic alternation of power, Wade reiterated his appeal for the constitu- 
tion of a National Front. 

This front would be the result of free democratic elections, based on a 
national program accepted by all parties. Its leadership would be turned 
over to the winning party in the elections, which could be accepted alone, or 
together with other parties. 


The weneral policy resolution took up the broad outlines of Wade's opening 
speech, on the national as well as the international level. 

In reward to the international sphere, the National Council expressed its 
grave concern over the hightened tensions between the superpowers in their 
desire to gain hegemony and to destabilize the weak nations. He urged the 
Third World countries to overcome their contradictions and strengthen the 

solidarity between the people, in order to achieve harmonious development 
and Lasting peace. 

‘inally, the council begged for more horizontal cooperation in Africa, 

rather than the vertical relations with the great powers which dominate 
the world. 

CSO: 4400 



Victoria NATION in English 5 Mar 80 p 2 

[Text] People should adopt a more responsible attitude towards family 
planning or the consequences of overpopulation in Seychelles by the year 
2000 will be serious. 

Among the dangers, if the republic's population rises to 100,000 as pre- 
dicted, are an increase in malnutrition, less effective health care and 
education, overcrowded housing and greater unemployment. 

That is the message of a new booklet published by the Health Education 
Unit of the Department of Health and the Statistics Division of the De- 
partment of Finance. Titled Population Growth in the Seychelles, it shows 
that the present age distribution--40 percent of the country's people are 
under 15--forms a springboard for future growth. 

The booklet calls on people to take advantage of the family planning fa- 
cilities now available. 

“Government policy towards family planning is set out in the National 
Development Plan. There is absolutely no compulsion involved but the 
Government wants to encourage responsibility in child-bearing," says the 

"Advice and assistance are being made available through the clinics and 
an educational programme is going ahead to promote an understanding of 
the benefits of family planning." 

If a wide range of people space out their children, the predicted in- 
crease in births may never happen. 

The booklet is now available free of charge at the Statistics Office next 
to Unity House. It has been published as part of the National Family 
Health and Welfare Programme funded by the ~ e¢ Nations Fund for 
Population Activities. 

CSO: 4420 


Victoria NATION in English 14 Mar 80 pp l, 2 


GROWING your own food 
is one way of making sure 
your school meal tastes ¢s- 
pecially good, and that is 
exactly what pupils at two 
schools on Mahe and one on 
Praslin are now doing. 
Gardening has become a fa- 
miliar part of lessons in Sey- 
chelles Schools since the be- 

ginning of this term, but at 
Anse Boileau and Baie Lezza- 
re schools they are already 
old hands at the game _ with 
flourishing vegetable plots 
to prove it. And their woxk 
is a valuable contribution to 
the yovernment’s _ self-suffi- 
ciency drive, 

At Baie Lazare, where 48 


boys from 12-15 years old 
work the terraced garden, the 
next big harvest is only 15 
deys away and a fine crop 
of cucumber, beans and let- 
tuce is expected. 

At Anse Boileau, where 
about 120 boys take part, 
they are ~=—_ only just 

starting the garden up again after the last crops back in October, but 
already there are rows of yams, sweet potato and aubergine (brenzel) coming 

along well. 

Both schools cook vegetables from the gardens for the children's school 

meals and any surplus is sold to the meals centre in Victoria. 

A fifth 

of the money is kept to buy tools and seeds--the rest goes back to the 

pupils themselves. 

In this way the boys get some reward for their efforts 

and learn what is involved in the business of farming. 

The gardening instructor in charge of both projects is Mr Gonzague Brutus, 

who is understandably proud of the work done so far. 

"Some of the boys are very keen; several have told us they would like to 
make farming their career," he says. 

"We have managed to get quite a good surplus of vegetables to sell to the 

meals centre. 

benefit from the work they do." 


I think it is important that the boys get some sort of 

Mra Lise Albert, headmis:ress of Baie Lazare school, has watched the 
garden flourish since it was carved out of the hillside towards the end 
of 1978, 

“The boys have done very well and we've had a few girls too taking an 
interest in what's been going on. Lf more girls become really inter- 
ested, we'll let them join the classes," she says. 

Apart trom the hard work out in the garden, the pupils also learn the 
theory of farming--how to spray crops, how to tend pigs and cows. Once 
a week they go out on a farm visit so they can see what they are doing 
well or badly. 

A similar food growing scheme is going ahead at Grand Anse, Praslin and 
Mr Brutus hopes to have a garden going soon at Takamaka. 

CSO: 4420 


Victoria NATION in English 13 Mar 80 pp 1, 2 

[Text! Success in recent trial growth of maize has shown that it can 
become an important crop in Seychelles, thus boosting the government 
policies of self-sufficiency in food. 

Good crops at the Grand Anse experimental station and the Beau Vallon 
State Farm have proved that maize is suited to local conditions and can 
produce good yields. 

Now there are plans to grow it on a large scale on the four islands of 
Astove, Coetivy, Desroches and Farquhar. At first it will be used on 
these islands as part of the stock feeding programme but later it is 
hoped a surplus can be shipped back to Mahe. 

Cultivation of maize in Seychelles goes back at least 40 years and during 
the Second World War it was widely eaten when rice was scarce. Then it 
was allowed to die out as more and more rice and wheat were imported. 

Though agricultural experts doubt whether Seychelles will eat it in great 
quantity as a staple diet there is new hope that “corn on the cob” will 
catch on as a valuable addition to the people's diet. Recently 1,381 
cobs from the Beau Vallon farm were sold very quickly in Victoria Market, 
showing that people will buy at the right price. 

The hybrid type now being grown can, in fact, be used either as sweetcorn 
or animal feed. 

Mr Cliff Adam, Chief Research Officer based at the Grand Anse experimental 
and food production centre, explained the value of maize as a stock feed. 

“We had a good crop here and it came in very useful for feeding our cattle 
when we ran out of other food. We just put it in our chipping machine, 
stalks and all; it was very successful." 


Though maize has been grown in several places on Mahe, including a small 
amount on the state farm at Anse Aux Pins, most of it will be grown on 
the outer talands in future. Maize needa a lot of organic manure to grow 
really well and the tslanda, with their guano supplies, can provide it. 

In the past outer islands have been looking almost exclusively to coconuts 
but their value for other crops is now being realised. If the coconuts 
are planted wider apart, maize can be grown between them--it can also be 
grown between mango trees, as at Beau Vallon. 

Maize will never become the staple diet of livestock in Seychelles--for e 
sheer bulk it cannot compete with elephant grass which crops much quicker-- 
but it is a valuable source of protein. And anything that can help to 

build up the country's stocks of animals is truly valuable. 

As far as food for people to eat is concerned, the research staff at 
Grand Anse are still pinning their hopes on root crops. Successful 
trials are going ahead with different strains of sweet potato, cassava 
and yam. 

But that's another story which NATION will be following in later issues. 

CSO: 4420 


Victoria NATION in English 6 Mar 80 pp 1, 2 

[Text] Cinnamon looks set to become a key export of Seychelles once 
again. For the past five years it has declined in importance but now 
Mr Robert Dunning, a marketing consultant for the International Trade 
Centre (ITC) of Geneva, says: "I think you have a very good chance of 
increasing your exports considerably." Mr Dunning is on a ten-day visit 
to Seychelles, working with the Department of Agriculture to assess the 
potential of a revived cinnamon industry in the islands. 

In a recent study carried out by the ITC entitled "Spices: a world 
market survey," which covered 29 major markets for spices, it was shown 
that imports by these countries grew significantly during 1971-75. 

To date this trend has continued, giving the chance to producing countries 
to develop their spice industries further. 

Since 1975 local cinnamon exports have decreased from 1,100 tons to 570 
tons in 1978. 

But during a spice seminar and consultations undertaken by the ITC in 
Seychelles in 1978, participants emphasised the importance of cinnamon 
and concluded that international aid was necessary to further develop the 
industry, particularly in the areas of marketing and quality control. 

A proposal to this effect was submitted last year and finance given by 
the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to carry out an assess- 
ment of the present status of the cinnamon industry. This would include 
a look into the supply and potential, both in terms of production and 
export availability. 

This is the work being done by Mr Dunning. Talking to NATION about the 
progress of this study, he said he hoped to submit his final report by 
the end of March, noting that Seychelles already had plenty of cinnamon 
to be harvested and treated for export. 


He said local cinnamon 
was of good quality, having 
&@ good oil content which in 
turn gave out a distinct fla. 
vour although improper 
treating sometimes gave i 
an acidic taste. 

Should the results of the 













Victoria NATION in English 11 Mar 80 p 1 

HE first week of Gov- 
emment’s full employ- 
ment scheme was a_ clear 
success with 20] 
signing on for work bast Fri- 
day compared with 72 on 
the first day. 

The number of unemploy- 
ed people wanting jobs is 

that around 230 workers 
were taken on. 
This unique scheme 

first announced by President 
Rene in his 1980 Budget Ad- 
dress -- is being paid out of 
Social Security funds. 

Even more people are like- 
ly to take part next week 
with the opening of two new 
assembly points on Monday 
March 17. They will be on 
the new football field next to 
the Beau Vallon Bay Hotel, 
and at Grand Anse, at the 

junction of the La Misere 

Explaining this move, the 
project co-ordinator said 
there was quite a large labour 
force in Bel Ombre and it was 
better to employ them locally 

than bring them over to Vic 
toria. The Grand Anse as- 
sembly point should serve 
both that community and 
Port Glaud. 

So far much valuable work 
had been done by the labour 
teams. Real progress has been 
made on tidying the tip at 
La Retraite, work has begun 
on clearing sites for houses 
at La Gogue and in Victoria 
the impact of general cleaning 
and cutting of undergrowth 
can be clearly seen. 

On Revolution Avenue a 
27-inch deep storm culvert 
has been opened up and clea- 
red of 25 inches of silt. 

Further south in the Pointe 
La Rue area, which is noto- 
rious for floods, work is 
going on to clean out the 
whole system of drainage gut- 

The organisation of the full 
employment scheme is work- 
ing well so far. People are 
turning up in good time so 
that work can start 
at 7.00 a.m. and they are be- 
ing paid promptly at 12 noon 
~- R. 20 for the morning's 



The project co-ordinator 
explained that the scheme is 
intended to give a genuinely 
unemployed person 
money to support his or her 
family. It is not meant to be 
an alternative to a fulltime 
job, but as something to tide 
him or her over until he or 
she gets a regular job. 

People are reminded that 
before they can be given 
work they must have a job- 
seeker’s card to show they 

the bandstand at the 
cost housing estate ; 
Boileau, opposite the old cli- 
nic; Quatre Bornes, 
police station. 


Victoria NATION in English 8 Mar 80 pp 1, 2 

[Text] The Minister of State responsible for Agriculture, Mr Karl St Ange, 
returned on Thursday night from fact-finding missions to Mauritius, India 
and Australia, convinced that regional cooperation would act as a catalyst 
to small industries in the agricultural sector. 

Accompanied by his Principal Secretary, Mr Serge Savy, Mr St Ange first 
spent two days inspecting Mauritius’ fish canning industry. The impor- 
tance of this visit is underlined by the fact that canning will be the 
second phase of our own tuna fishing industry once the necessary steady 
supply of fish is guaranteed. 

Minister St Ange: "Regional cooperation is necessary for the benefit of 
us all." 

They then spent ten days in India closely examining the sub-continent's 
progress in the sphere of small and secondary industries and holding 
cooperation talks. 

Confining most of — their 
visit to southern India, 
which has similar climatic 
conditions to Seychelles, 
Mr. St. Ange and Mr Savy 
travelled extensively visiting 
small industries in centres 
ranging from Delhi in the 
north. to Bombay and Co 
chin on the west coast. Me 
dras on the east coast and 
Trivandrum at the southern- 
most tip. 

Much of the trip was 
snent studving India’s pro- 
gress in setting up a com 
prehensive coconut industry 
that ensures that hardly anv- 
thine goes to waste. As well 
as the orimary refined coco 
nut oil industrv, the Sey- 
chellois team also inspected 
secondary industries pro 
ducing such thines as hats. 
house and car mats and cus- 
hions out of coconut coir. 


“Alter seeing what can be 
done and mostly without re 
course to sophisticated or 
expensive equipment, we 
hope to launch very seri 
ously into the development 
of a similar coconut indus- 
trial setup in the not too dis- 
tant future,” said Minister 
St. Ange. 

As for Indian cooperation 
in this sphere the Minister 
noted that Seychelles could 
certainly benefit . from such 
help as there was still much 
room for improvement right 
from the grass roots, “We 
still have to improve our 
cultivation and production of 
coconuts” he pointed out. 

With Mr. Savy, the Mini- 
ter also looked into India’s 
experience in the produc- 
tion of fruit preserves such 
as chutneys, pickles, jams, 
tinned fruit and juices. 



“| am sure that as our 
production increases with 
more efficient cultivation 
and, in particular, the setting 
up of the Beau Vallon state 
fruit. farm, and if we master 
the preservation techniques 

which are not as complex 
us they appear we can 
achieve self sufficiency in 
quite a few agricultural pro- 
ducts”, Mr. St Ange said. 

Following the Indian tour 
Minister St. Ange was join- 
ed in Bombay by Dr. 
Maxime Ferrari, the Minis- 
er for Planning and Develop- | 
ment. While Mr. Savy re 
turned to Mahe, the two 
ministers went on to Perth, 
Australia, for the Indian 
Ocean Fisheries Commission 
(IOFC) conference, 


Victoria NATION in English 10 Mar 80 pp l, 8 

[Excerpts] The two-year-old search for oil in Seychelles waters enters 
its final stages this month with the ‘Western Beach,' an AMOCO Seychelles 
Ltd chartered seismic survey ship, now sounding the sea-bed of our conti- 
nental shelf. 

The 22-man vessel arrived in the Republic a few days ago, and her work in 
Seychelles’ waters is expected to last around three to four weeks. During 
that time she will be in touch with AMOCO headquarters on Mahe via the 

Bon Espoir telecommunications centre and call in at Port Victoria once or 

To help the seismographic ship choose the best lines in which to set off 
shots, radio beacons are set up on land. In Seychelles, one beacon is be- 
hind Sunset Hotel at Glacis, another is on Bird Island to the northwest and 
a third on Platte Island to the southwest. By keeping in contact with 
those and using a satellite, the seismic ship can find the best line and 
also keep accurately on course. 

Oil exploration in Seychelles first started in 1977 when a four-party 
group of oil companies signed a petroleum agreement with the Government 
on June 30, 1977. The group included Burmah Oil (Seychelles) Petroleum 
Company, Norcen International Limited, Hematite Petroleum (Seychelles) 
Limited and AMOCO (Seychelles) Ltd. 

Exclusive rights were granted to the group to explore for oil in 24 off- 
shore blocks with a total area of 16,440 sq kilometres. 

Seismographic surveys began soon after and by January 1978, 2,553 sq 
kilometres were completed. 

In June 1978 the first payment for oil exploration was made on behalf of 
Burmah. Mr Maurice L. Lee, a director and also manager of the exploration 
unit, said then that some anomalies in the sedimentary sections of the areas 
explored had been identified and were being investigated but it was too 
early to say whether economically recoverable oil existed. 


In November 1978, the exploration area was extended to 26 blocks (17,810 
sq. kilometres). 

In June 1979 AMOCO notified the Government that it had acquired the inter- 
ests of the other members of the group to enter the next and more devel- 
oped phase of exploration, 

In July, Mr George Trump, exploration supervisor of AMOCO and Mr Maurice 
Lee, director of Burmah made progress reports to President France Albert 
Rene and other Government officials. During the talks Mr Trump said 
AMOCO would shortly select a drilling area and the mobilizing of equip- 
ment would start. 

In January this year a warehouse ship, the Wareship Two, arrived in the 
Republic with all the technical equipment and supplies for the project. 
The engineless vessel was towed from Houston, Texas by the workboat Ramsey 
Tide and will be used as a supply b: or the drill-ship expected in the 
near future. 

The seismographic ship Western Beach followed. 

The next arrival will be that of the drill-ship, the Diamond M Dragon. 
She is now in Singapore being overhauled and taking on provisions for 
the voyage to Seychelles, which will take about 22 days. The drill-ship 
will be accompanied by another workboat, the Force Tide, and a 14-seat 

Meanwhile, with a possible oil discovery in mind, the Ministry of Educa- 
tion and Information is offering scholarships in petroleum chemistry 

and oil refinement, oil drilling and production; geology and geophysics. 
The aim is to prepare qualified Seychellois manpower for the highly tech- 
nical industry that would evolve with the discovery and exploitation of 
o{fl resources. 

CSO: 4420 



ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION--Electricity used in Seychelles was almost 14 per- 
cent up in 1978 on the previous year, according to the latest figures 
released by the Electricity Division. Its annual report for 1978 shows 
that the bi » sft increase was in the domestic sector, with an increase in 
sales ef 16.25 percent. The industrial and commercial sector showed a 9.85 
percent increase on 1977. The total number of consumers at the end of the 
year was 7/290 against 6626--an increase of 10 percent. The total of bills 
rendered during 1978 was R 20,532,084 compared with R 17,709,417 the pre- 
vious year. [Text] [Victoria NATION in English 13 Mar 80 p 2] 

DEFENSE MINISTER RETURNS--The Minister for Defence, Mr Ogilvy Berlouis 
returned home last night from a visit to the Middle East. Mr Berlouis 
left at the end of last month. [Text] [Victoria NATION in English 

1l Mar 80 p 1] 

AIRPORT ROAD REPAIRS--Work on repairing the airport to Victoria East Coast 
Road is now making more rapid progress with the introduction of a tarring 
machine. Purchased from Costain Civil Engineering Ltd by the government, 
the road surfacing machine works much faster than the previous hand method 
and is capable of tarring up to more than a mile a day. Unfortunately 
however, this amount of work is not yet possible due to the lack of bitu- 
minous tar needed. Tar-making machinery at the Public Work's Division's 
Road Section depot at Petit Paris, whilst producing enough bitumen for the 
hand method, apparently cannot for the moment meet the demand of the 
machine. As a result only about 170 metres of road is now being tarred 

a day. [Excerpt] [Victoria NATION in English 12 Mar 80 p 1} 

SWA DELEGATION--Two members of the three-woman delegation who left Sey- 
chelles at the end of last month to attend the Pan African Women's Organ- 
isation Conference in Libya returned to the Republic yesterday afternoon. 
They are Mrs Jessy Freminot, Assistant Secretary and Mrs Rita Savy, Trea- 
surer of the Seychelles Women's Association (SWA). The conference 
comprised of three commissions. The first dealt with political aspects 
and examined plans of action on the status of women; the second discussed 
the programme of PAWO in economic social and cultural fields for the coming 


four years; and the third one examined the body's financial position. 
The Pan African Women's Organisation was founded in July 1962 in Dar-es- 
Salaam, Tanzania. Its main aim is to regroup all women's organisations. 
the head of the delegation, Mrs Sylvette Frichot, who is the Vice- 
Chairman of SWA, has stayed on to attend to other matters of the Asso- 
ciation and will be returning next week. [Text] [Victoria NATION in 
English 14 Mar 80 p 2] 

CSO; 4420 


Capetown DIE BURGER in Afrikaans 18 Mar 80 p 6 
|Bditorial: “The National Direction" | 

pteat The agitation which has occurred recently within the National Party 
NP | with regard to policy, has probably raised questions in the minds of 
some party supporters about the direction which the party and its leaders 
have taken. During his address on national sports day in Stellenbosch, the 
prime minister gave them an unequivocal answer. 

Mr P.W. Botha told about one of his voters who wanted to know whether he 

is still following the course which the National Party members believed he 
should follow. His response was that the voter should not worry about his 
course as prime minister (and chief leader of the National Party). And then 
he added this significant sentence: "But if it is necessary to divert the 
path of this course, then I will do it." 

Just as each of the National Party prime ministez since D.F. Malan has more 
or less diverted this path according to his own perceptions and with the 
support of the party congresses, Mr Botha will also have to pave new ways 
in order to be able to comply with the demands of his time. 

Aside from the assurances which Mr Botha provided with regard to the course 
of the National Party under his leadership and his emphasis on the need for 
renewal in South Africa's movement toward the future, he once again indi- 
cated within what limits he is willing to move and to allow changes in di- 
rection. This is contained in the 12 policy positions which he spelled out 
in August of last year and for which he received the support of all the 

party congresses. 

Those who are not willing to accept this would do better to leave the 
party, because then such persons do not belong in the National Party, said 
Mr Botha. He encouraged doubters to read the 12 items one more time care- 
fully and to acquaint themselves with their contents -- only after that 
will they have to make a decision as to whether they can support him and 

his party. 


This is an implacable condition which the prime minister has stipulated. 

Let no one have any doubts about this. Because it is so important for mem- 
bers of the National Party to understand the 12 items, DIE BURGER is pu- 
blishing them again today on the next page. We are confident that the offi- 
cial party representatives will help to properly inform or instruct those 
supporters who have doubts or who have problems with it. 

SO: 4408 




Qua-Qua Leader Mopeli's Statement 
Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 17 Mar 80 p 3 
|Article by Lawrence Mayekiso| 

[Text] Chief Kenneth Mopeli, Chief Minister of Qwa-Qwa, warned yee «erday 
"It is a matter of time before Blacks take over the government of the 

He was speaking in Soweto at the commemoration ceremony of the death of 
Chief Moshesh, the founder of the Basotho nation. 

"Ll have refused independence because the whole of South Africa belongs to 
the Blacks," he said. 

Chief Mopeli was calling for Black unity and the rejection of the policies 
of the present government. 

He said Blacks should refuse to be channeled to specific sections of 
South Africa because they belonged to all of South Africa. 

Rejecting what he called the reformist policies of the present Prime 
Minister, Mr P.W. Botha, he said: ‘We do not want reforms but quite a 
change towards the normalisation of life in South Africa. 

He was speaking in Soweto at the commemoration ceremony of the death of 
Chief Moshesh, the founder of the Basotho nation. 

He is Chief Mosheshe's great-grandson. 

without uincing his words, he invited the Press and the radio to record 
his speech when he said: "I am tired of talking to people who will not 

“If they (the government) had listened to us, the 1976 riote would have 
been avoided.” 


le warned that so long as the White government of the country continued 
to diareyard advice trom tlack leaders, South Africa would eventually 
leche tor oa tloaek «nd White controntatton, 

biydop bis audience to reject the homeland polletes of the povernment, 
he appedbed te them to aim at national unity and dterenerd their tribal 
bit tt iat bone 

come of you are gotne to say | am irrelevant because | am talking from 
i homeland plattorm. Yes, | am using a homeland platform to fight apar- 

theid.” he continued, 

Chiet Mopell thinks the policies of the government are not uniform inso- 
lar as the administration of Blacks is concerned, 

le pototed out that Black elections under the community councils system 
were nontribal but tribalism was being forced upon Blacks in homeland 
falling on teaders of nonindependent homelands to reject homeland inde- 

endence, he said: 

"Thy fyoveromont oltictals) call on me every time to plead with me to 
opt independence for my homeland. 

“They tell me that under an independent Qwa-Qwa | will be President earn- 
inn Rh OOO a month and that a casino will be built in my homeland. 

ive refused independence because the whole of South Africa belongs to 
\ddressing himself to White SouthAfrica, he said: “It is a question of 
time betore Blacks take over the government of the country. 

Statement by Lebowa Leader 

hannesbur rHeE CITIZEN in English 18 Mar 80 p 7 

\rticle by Lawrence Mayekiso] 

xt A NORTHERN Transvaal consequently, should fall 
homeland leader is claiming under py a home 
a number of towns in the land,” he said. 
area as being part of his He endorsed a cal] made on 
homeland. Sunday in Soweto by Chief 
Dr Cedric Phatudi, Chief Kenneth Mopeli, Chief 
Minister of Lebowa, said Minister of Qwa - Qwa, that 
yesterday that the towns the South African Govern- 
were “islands” surrounded ment should stop White 
by his homeland domination over Blacks 
ah “aSaning” prs te gree with Chiat Mops 
the towns are [ows and. 

Bt 3 
i Hl | if 
i Ht 

i che 

! i 

bs Fatldies 

ka a 
aa iat i 



‘DIE BURGER' Interview 
Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 19 Mar 80 p 9 

[Text| Cape Town.--The state conference concept of the Prime Minister, 

Mr P.W. Botha, was no constitutional conference but a forum for consul- 

tation between states participating in a constellation of Southern Afri- 
can states. 

This was revealed in an interview with Mr Botha published in DIE BURGER 
yesterday in which the Prime Minister said he wanted to clear up an 
apparent misinterpretation of his reference to a states conference when 
he spoke in the Cape Town city hall on Saturday, March 8. 

The impression had been created that he had made a new policy announce- 
ment which would imply that urban Blacks would have a say in the consti- 
tutional future of Whites, he said. 

The Prime Minister told DIE BURGER he had said nothing new about a states 
conference in his sreech. His viewpoint remained unchanged since his 
announcements during his homelands tour last August. 

‘The fact is that a states conference will be the body within which the 
constellation of Southern African states will discuss matters of common 
interest. Each participant will be sovereignly independent and will not 
be able to dictate laws to or take decisions for another. 

“It will have nothing whatever to do with constitutional futures and 
national conventions,” Mr Botha said. 

"Blacks will have representation through their independent states, but 
Blacks living outside the national states will be able to participate 
within the framework of the states conference." 

Nuring the predecessor's time it had been announced that urban Blacks 
would get local government of a higher status than municipalities and 
‘hese could in some coordinated form participate in the states conference. 


ihe envisaged president's council with Indian and Coloured participation- 
pproved in the 1977 elections--was before the Schlebusch Constitutional 
Commtioston aml this commission's recommendations were being awaited, 

it is yenerally expected that the Schlebusch Commission is to present an 
interim report shortly. -<SAPA, 

Botha on 12 Points 

lohannmesburg THE CITIZEN in English 17 Mar 80 p 9 

.—National Part 

members who ha 


coat im. arty 
and ‘that ro 
on hatred Siverted It, and must 
Much remained a oe, he 
South Africa does not agree the 
true freedom plan.” 
“The N ust in world that weeks Integr 
remain 4 —— in politics and looks 
for South It from Marxism,” Mr 
always been « party of re Botha said. — Sape 
Hendrickse Comment 
liohannmeshburgy THE CITIZEN in English 19 Mar 80 p ] 
SS _ Lag Bay ae Mr wt was com- 
the Labour Party, men on interview 
Alan yesterday with Me Botha published 
offered the Prime Minister, yesterday in Die Burger 
Mr P W Botha, the full He said: “Sooner or later 
backing of elected Coloured all of us will have to find a 
leaders if he allowed all race common constitutional fu- 
groups to decide together on ture t Once again we 
the country's constitutional offer Botha our support 
future in towards such a 
But, he said, if Mr Botha goal. But he must 
went ahead with plans to that we are all in this 
reach separate constitution- together 
al agreements with racially Our views must be taken 
imto account. T we 


¥ t | 


shure THE CITIZEN in English 19 Mar 80 p 7 

Minister of a 

ty Developmen 
—+_ on 
Coloured leaders yes- 

t to serve on the 
new aloured Persons 

Introducing the South Af- 
rican Coloured Persons 
Council Bill in the Senate, 
lr Steyn said the Coloured 
Persons Representative 
Council was being scr 
at the insistence of 
— of its members. 

> would serve as an 
interim body until more clar- 
ity had been reached on a 
new constitutional . 
tion or until an 
could be organised for a new 
Coloured Council. 

No-one claimed that the 
new Council would be f 
satisfactory as a_ poli 
instrument, Mr Steyn said. 

It was the Government's 
earnest ——— . create a 
new constitutiona - 
tion in South Adrica otter 
suited to its particular needs. 

In the interim period, the 
CPC could help eliminate 
tee ny and ~Y * 
stra problems in - 



institution was a substitute 
for a direct say in the central! 

Sen Horak said he had 
, " that the 
Schlebusch Commission 




Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 18 Mar 80 p 7 

[Text] Seshego.--An announcement can be expected soon about a commission 
of inquiry into irregularities in the Lebowa Department of Finance and 
Economic Affairs, said the State President, Mr Marais Viljoen, yesterday. 

Opening the third session of the third Lebowa Legislative Assembly, the 
State President said: "I am told that your Legislative Assembly has 
adopted a motion requesting me to appoint a commission of inquiry into 
certain irregularities in your Department of Finance and Economic Affairs. 
l am considering the matter at present, and an announcement in this regard 
can be expected shortly.” 

The South African Government had always been prepared to contribute towards 
the welfare and development of Lebowa within the limits of the finances 
at its disposal, the State President said. 

During the past financial year additional finance assistance was provided 
for the control of malaria, foot-and-mouth disease and sheep-scab, and an 
amount of about R1,5 million was provided for the relief of drought 

"But, ' the State President said, “if the South African Government shows 
that it is earnestly trying to help you, it is only reasonble to expect 
that you will also be earnest and willing in your own efforts to contribute 
your fair share and that you wiil take positive steps to increase your own 
revenue to the extent where it can also serve as a source of funds for the 
increasing development in your country." 

The State President said he was particularly impressed by the phenomenal 
progress in education in Lebowa. 

There has been a great increase in the number of schools, pupils, teachers 
and administrative staff since 1970. Today 448 600 pupils are being taught 
by 6 600 trained teachers in the approximately 950 primary schools--almost 
double the 1970 figure. 

In 1970 there were only 38 secondary schools in Lebowa, only six of which 
had matriculation classes. 


CSO: 4420 


Capetown DIE BURGER in Afrikaans 14 Mar 80 p 12 
_Bditorial: “Mr B.J. Vorster" | 

Text | It is unfortunate that the evening before last, former President 
Vorster made a speech in Bloemfontein which could be subject to a certain 

However he may have meant it, there are passages in it which will inevitably 
ve seized upon as criticism of the current administrative policy of the 

O18 BURGER has the greatest regard for Mr Vorster. This is proven by, among 
other things, the editorial which appeared in this newspaper at the time of 
his retirement. It is precisely for this reason that we hope that the im- 
pression will be avoided that, as retired head of state, he is making com- 
ments from the sidelines about government policy. 

when a man accepts the office of national president, it is expected that he 
will give up the right to make statements about political questions -- not 
only for the period during which he holds the office, but also afterwards. 
In the South African constitutional order, no head of state or former head 
of state has ever directly or by implication involved himself with the 
policy of the government of the day. 

we do not want to comment onthe merits of the matters raised by Mr Vorster, 
except to say that different circumstances require different approaches. 

As prime minister, Mr Vorster himself adapted government policy to changed 
circumstances to such an extent that people who objected to it left the 
National Party. In those days the tradition had already been established 
that a former head of state cannot use his authority to make comments about 
controversial issues for which he is no longer responsible. 

‘ince Mr Vorster's retirement, circumstances have changed even more rapidly 
than in the days when he was prime minister. This makes even more far- 
reaching reforms vitally important, and his successor deserves the opportu- 
nity to handle this in accordance with his own convictions. 

CSO: 4406 


Capetown DIE BURGER in Afrikaans 18 Mar 80 p 6 
|Wditorial: “Prevent It; Do Not Help It Along" | 

| Text | The whites in South Africa are regularly reminded that they have a 
large responsibility to correct race relations in the country. But a simi- 
lar responsibility must certainly lie with the coloreds, especially those 
leaders who so freely and so often make speeches. 

With some of these leaders it has become fashionable to use unbridled lan- 
guage in speaking about the future. They refer so lightly to the possibili- 
ty of violence and of a bloodbath that it is sometimes hard to believe that 
they are warning against it and are not by implication encouraging it. 

People would take serious offence if a white person in a responsible posi- 
tion were to speak so easily of violence as an "alternative." And rightly 
so, because it would create a nasty psychosis in the country. Why then 
should colored leaders have a license to spout such excessive lanrfuage to 
their heart's content? 

Hspecially after what has happened in Rhodesia, there has been a tendency 
to make allusions which cannot be glossed over. To raise feelings in this 
way in the country is not only irresponsible, it is playing with fire. 

The government of Mr P.W. Botha has committed itself to peaceful reform. 
Prospects have been opened up which did not exist before and healthy intern- 
al relations are being pursued with the greatest sincerity. The government's 
aim is precisely to find a peaceful solution which would avoid the atrocity 
of an armed conflict. 

Those who love so much to see blood in the future, speak primarily out of 
ignorance. They do not realize that what happened in Rhodesia would look 
like child's play if South Africa, with its formidable military strength, 
were driven to the point of an explosion. 

South Africa is building its hope on those people who are susceptible to 
reason. If the moderates do not speak up and make sure that the radicals 


are repudlated, then the prospects are somber. And this is true for every- 
body in the country, most definitely not for the whites alone. 

What is needed in South Africa 1s leaders who will help prevent a repetition 
of the Khodesian disaster, not people who are trying in a subtle way to 
program it. 

346 3 
CSO; 4408 


lohannesburg THE CITIZEN 


[Article by Don Wilkinson] 


AECL shares shrugged off the general weakness of industrials in 
sympathy with golds yesterday, losing a minuscule 10c to 695c ahead of 



in English 18 Mar 80 p 17 

today's annual statement from chairman Harry Oppenheimer. 



Actual 1980 capita) com- 
mitments are shown at some 










RACIAL FRICTION ON RAILWAYS--Separate development was not an aim in it- 
self, but its object was to eliminate friction between races, the Minis- 
ter of Transport Affairs, Mr Chris Heunis, said in the House of Assembly 
yesterday. Replying to the third reading debate on the Railways and Har- 
bours Appropriation Bill, he said improvements created by the administra- 
tion had made it possible to remove 6 000 noticeboards in recent years. 
The Railways transported millions daily in a situation of potential racial 
friction unsurpassed anywhere in the world, yet there were no incidents. 
"The Railways are not responsible for conveyance only, but also to obviate 
friction at all times," Mr Heunis said. It would not remove any public 
notice where such removal might lead to a situation which could cause 
friction between groups. "It is the duty of every individual, group, the 
(SAR) administration and every State department to maintain and expand the 
good relations desired by the Government." The Railways had made great 
contributions towards this end and he expected the Opposition to show some 
appreciation for this rather than seize on isolated incidents and turn 
them into major issues. The Bill was read a third time. [Text] 
(Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 18 Mar 80 p 8] 

ECONOMIC GROWTH FACTORS--South Africa's gross domestic product must grow 
at an annual compound rate of at least 6 percent if unemployment is to be 
reduced to a bearable level, says Clive Menell, deputy chairman of Anglo- 
vaal. Speaking at the Long Range Planning Conference yesterday, he said: 
‘Without foreign investment, South Africa's GDP cannot grow more than 

3,75 to 4 percent a year. ‘With the present and forecasted skills avail- 
ible, the country's potential is limited to about 4 percent per annum com- 
pounded ,"’ he added. To alleviate the skilled labour problem thereby boost- 
ing growth, Mr Menell believes the private and public sector must combine 
and: lift artificial restrictions and inequalities through legislative, 
administrative and attitudinal changes by both Whites and Blacks; reduce, 
with a view to eliminating, Black/White differentials in wages, housing, 
education and health care; attract immigrants; revamp education and train- 
ing. [Text] [Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 19 Mar 80 p 21] 


ASSOCOM ON INFLUX CONTROL--The Association of Chambers of Commerce has 
come out in strong support of the Riekert Commission's recommendations 

on and findings against influx control--and is backing the "guinea pig" 
relaxation of the 72 hour influx rule in Pretoria and Bloemfontein. 
Assocom has set out its views formally in a report on the Riekert find- 
ings. The report said it was "pleased the Government has decided to in- 
vestigate the commission's recommendation on the 72 hour ruling." Asso- 
com agreed the rule "seriously disturbs race relations within the country 
and does South Africa's image overseas great harm." The restriction did 
not stop Blacks from coming into urban areas. A three-day concession 
gave no guarantee against summary arrest because it was up to the Black 
to prove his right to be in a White area. The association has also taken 
a clear stand on the question of reference books--or "passes'’--for Blacks. 
These should be identity documents only and Blacks in White areas should 
be given the ordinary book of life in their place. Blacks from Black 
states should be given passports, Assoc: . said. [Text] [Johannesburg 
THE CITIZEN in English 17 Mar 80 p 9] 

CSO: 4420 


Paris EUROPE OUTREMER in French No 596, Sep 79 pp 3-5 

[Interview with General of the Army Gnassingbe Eyadema, president of the 
Togo Republic, by Danielle Weiss; date and place not given] 

[Excerpts] We are publishing below the interview granted 
us by General Eyadema at the beginning of November, that 
is, before the special Congress of the RPT [Rally of the 
Togolese People]. It was originally supposed to be the 
lead article for out special issue: "Togo, Priority to 
Full-scale Development," but, two months later, it 
retains all its interest. 

{Question} Mr President, the trial of the mercenaries which recently took 
place at Lome was public. Do you think that if the conspiracy had succeeded, 
there might have been a civil war and an armed confrontation between the 

North and the South? 

[Answer] It is difficult to foresee the people's reaction in this case. 
When strangers, stateless persons, pushed by the taste for lucre, finance 
mercenaries to make an attempt not only on my life but on the lives of 
innocent men, women and children, the people cannot simply stand with arms 
crossed. African families have many branches. It is difficult to attack 
one without arousing the anger of the other. The victims’ families will 
react. No one can measure the backlash, as we know how things begin, but 
we never know how they will end. One musi not play with fire. 

[Question] Is the mercenary affair now over, or should we expect new 

[Answer] We do not yet have complete clarification on this subject. The 
inquiry in continuing. 

[Question] It is said that there are too many Togolese civil servants and 
that their salaries are a burden on the budget. What is your government's 
policy with regard to the civil service? 


lAnawer| toa Tego, as in most administrations in the newly independent 
Atrican states, civil service does in fact suffer from a superabundance ot 
ffictals, Thle situation artses trom the fact that since the colonization 
pertod, clvll service has been conaldered to be the sector which guaranteen 
nuttonals security of employment and assures them a decent pension. Thies 
idea, then had of public office, has scarcely changed, so that today, in 
apite of the many employment offers in the private sector, young graduates 
continue to flock to the civil service. 

Nearly 2 years ago, measures were taken, on the one hand, to reform the 
zeneral administration of Togo and, on the other, to stabilize the civil 
service's present manpower and to direct the training of young people 
toward the agricultural sector, which has our very first priority. 

mtry's “full-scale development." Could you specify the broad lines 
f this “full-scale development"? Will the “true path of Togolese develop- 

ment," which you proposed to search for and to define last 30 August, be 
haracterlized by a thorough study of a new direction: 

iQuestion| Mr President, you stress the priority which you are giving to 

[Answer] After finding solutions to the political problems facing our country 
restoring peace, harmony, stability, union and nat‘onal reconciliation, 
lave grappled with the thorny problem of our country's economic, social 

uit jevelopment, development which has planning as its substructure, 
method economic and social development, since it replaces routine by 
1 ratione| and dynamic administration of the economy, improvisation by 

onsistency in economic choices, and the scattered allocation of investments 
Large-scale actions in depth. 

ogo's new economic, social and cultural policy since the implementation of 
the first plan revolves around three principal axes: 

Securing economic independence. 

sentially what ts involved is further mobilization of the national savings 
yptimum utilization of local resources. 

so a question of ensuring the adequacy of the higher level national 
whose numbers and qualifications will be sufficient in all sectors 
the needs of our economy. In this context, technical assistance, still 

eded for the transfer of “know-how,” will respond to specific requests 
Ve ye by ise, tor specifically determined periods. 

stablishing structures for development. 

arrving t urgent actions, initiating long-term actions which will 
balance ind prepare the way for expansion. 

ists in reducing all regional and sectorai disparities. 

In addition to these three principal axes, Togo's economic policy aims at 
other special objectives, namely: 

~ weeking to balance the state budget, 

~ making che state budget a support for the plan, not just an administrative 

~ increasing and diversifying exports. 

[Question] Your constant concern is to improve the living conditions of 
the peasants, who constitute the immense majority of the population. Are 
land reform and the Green Revolution the principal machinery for this 
improvement ? 

{Answer} As agriculture is considered the priority sector in Togo's economic 
development, the authorities have not spared any efforts to shake this 
sector out of its lethargy and to modernize it. 

Let us note, finally, that since my accession, there have been successive 
wage increases and that the peasants are for the time being exempted from 

(Question} What are your relations with the present Government of Ghana? 
Has your country specifically intervened, as is said, to stop the executions 
of former leaders in that neighboring country? 

[Answer] Togo respects the sovereignty of every state and maintains good 
relations with its neighbors. 

CSO: 4400 



INDUSTRIES HANDED OVER TO MEHTA FAMILY--The minister of industry, Mr Okui, 
has offictally handed over to the Mehta family the Uganda Sugar Factory, 
UGNAC and engineering corporation, cable corporation of East Africa, 
(words indistinct]. Under an agreement signed between the two, the 
government will have a share-holding of 51 percent and Mehta 49 percent 
in those industries. Buc in order to improve the technical efficiency 

of the tive establishments, Mehta will be responsible for the management. 
The minister said that the government greatly appreciates joint ventures 
{n industry. Coming to the workers, the minister called on them to 
redouble their effort in cooperation with the new management in order to 
(?restore) profitable industrial activities. Mr (Mahindra) Mehta said 
that he and his family belong to Uganda, have grown and prospered in 
Uganda, and therefore it is their greatest pleasure to work (?within) 

and for Uganda. Mr [name indistinct] Mehta donated half a billion 
shillines for the rehabilitation of (?schools on the estate). Guests 
includec the minister of planning and economic development, Mr Antohony 
Ocaya, diplomats and high-ranking government officials. [Text] [LD181205 
Kampala Domestic Service in English 1000 GMT 18 Mar 80 LD/EA) 

STEEL INDUSTRY REACTLVATLON--The minister of industry, Mr Okui, has 
inaugurated the new board of directors of the Uganda Steel Corporation 

to its original footing and to exploit iron ore deposits in Kigezi and 
elsewhere ‘n the country. He said iron ore in Uganda is rich in over 

70 percent iron content and its exploitation would put the country's 
economy on a sound footing, especially now when copper deposits in 
Kilembe are expected to get exhausted in the near future. The minister 
added that the corporation needed reorganization. The general manager 

of the Uganda Steel Corporation, Mr (Kinkahiwa), said that it would take 
about 5 years to achieve perfect rehabilitation of the corporation and 

to recover from the past years of mismanagement. At the moment production 
is below 20 percent of the corporation's total production capacity and 
the corporation is short of security funds. Lack of raw materials due to 
insufficient foreign currency has also greatly lowered production. How- 
ever, he revealed that most subeidiary companies of the corporation have 
at least started production and given some required imput, production 
might rise to about 50 percent within a few months. The subsidiary com- 
panies of the Uganda Steel Corporation are Steel Manufacturers of East 
Africa, Uganda Metal Industry, (SAMPECO), Uganda [word indistinct], Torore 
Steelworks, East African Steel Products and Uganda (Bati) and Paramount 
Manufacturing Company. [Text] [LD191540 Kampala Domestic Service in 
English 0700 GMT 19 Mar 80 LD/EA) 

CSO: 4420 



LD211529 Bruseele LE SOIR in French 12 Mar 80 pp 1, 3 LD 

[Report by Etienne Ugelix: “In Brussels President Mobuto Wante To Meet 
With Certain Oppositionists and Invite Them To Return to Zaire") 

[Text] Om the eve of the lecture he was due to deliver from the platform 
of the Grandes Conferences Cathouques in Brussels a very relaxed and even 
rather vivacious [Zairian] President Mobutu spoke with four journalists at 
hie residence in Rhode. It was more of a rambling conversation than an 

"I have come to Brussels," he said, “to make myself understood in your 
country and to show people once and for all that Zaire is not Belgium and 
vice versa. Ours are two friendly countries which were united by coloniza- 
tion. However, Africa and Europe are different. The parameters are not 
the same, it is as simple as that. 

"It is when I arrive in Belgium or read your newspapers that I hear of 
opponents. However, even the most important opponents write to me from 
here to ask for permission to return to the country. Contact was estab- 
lished with them by my aides yesterday and I will meet with some of them 

"The country is open to all its lost sons. it is within the Popular Movement 
of the Revoiution (the only party) that the opposition must express itself 
freely, as you can see if you wish at the next congress. There is no hiearchy 
at the congress and everybody is free to speak openly." 

President Mobutu then stressed the country's unity which will not be affected 
by increasing the number of parties. "Our country has almost 27 million 
inhabitants. If you can find 1,000 who condemn the head of state I no 

longer deserve my p.sition. There are not so much as two heads of state in 
Africa who are as close to their people as I am." 

Mobutu then made a clever comparison to illustrate Zaire's unity: "If you 
imagine, for example, that the province of Liege in Shaba in my country, 


thanks to my action to support unity, an inhabitant of Liege could go to 
eastern Flanders and have a political speech applauded, That is certainly 
not the case here in Belgium,...” 

Mobutu then protested what he calle all the ridiculous things opponents 
have gaid about the Zairian regime in the past few days. "This is," he said, 
‘the way I estate my case," 

‘People are saying in particular that the food aid given to Zaire by the 
United States was misappropriated by the president's entourage. This is 
what really happened," Mobutu went on, “Every year the United States gives 
us food aid, This is put on sale in the markets. The money obtained in 
tairian currency is at Zaire's disposal. This money is not in dollars since 
all the food is sold on the spot, in the country. This money is adminis- 
tered by the general commissioner for planning and the U.S. ambassador, 

‘Last year the former general commissioner for planning had given loans to 
certain politicians for their farms and to develop their enterprises, 
especially to members of parliament. In October a parliamentary monitoring 
committee discovered that more than 3 million zaires had been given in 
credit to members of parliament. They thought that this money should be 
given to farmers or invested in other spheres. They demanded that this 
money be paid back by the Zairian state and this was done and the Americans 
issued or explanation but nobody has mentioned that...." 

President Mobutu then denied that his 4 February speech announced an increase 
in his personal power. 

"In fact," he said, "1 announced the repeal of Article 110 of the special 
powers which, in particular, authorized me to change the constitution with- 
out consulting anybody, if I so wished. 

‘As for parliamentary questions, I did not Limit them but recalled the funda- 
mental procedure in this matter, in other words that the head of state 

should be informed of their content before they are sent to the state com- 
missioner concerned. Therefore there was no question of limiting deputies’ 
freedom in this matter.” 

As for the monetary operation to change the currency, the president admitted 
that it was rather disastrous at first. He also admitted that there was a 
great deal of corruption. Some 17 agents have already been arrested for 

not placing the new currency at the banks' disposal and for reaching arrange- 
ments among themselves for concluding profitable deals. Despite all the 
criticisms the operation was a success, Mobutu thinks. In particular, for- 
tunes made illegally were lost, which was one of the essential aims of the 
»peration. The president admits that a few criticisms are justified because 
it was impossible to introduce 1.5 billion banknotes at a stroke and it was 
therefore necessary to do it step by step. 

With regard to the recovery plan the president confirmed that the IMF 
Administrative Council will meet at the end of April to give final approval 
to the recovery plan, That will launch the plan and open the World Bank's 
doors to tnvestors, 

The president thinks that the country is obtaining most support from the 
United States, In this connection he referred to the very favorable state- 
ments about Zaire made by U.S, Assistant Secretary of State Richard Morse 
in reply to criticism from some congressmen, 

Finally, in the international sphere the president said he thinks that 
Western influence has been waning in Africa since the events in Ethiopia 
and Angola. "You don't need a diagram to explain that," he added, 

He concluded on a bitter note: ''The heads of state who cooperate with 
Eastern Bloc countries have an easy time. They are not constantly being 
cricized, Presidents who cooperate with the West, however, are constantly 
slandered by the press in those countries which lend a sympathetic ear to 
all kinds of lies and slander," 

CSO: 4400 



BUSINESSMEN FLOGGED--A total of 214 Zambian businessmen were flogged last 
year for overcharging in their shops on essential commodities. This was 
disclosed in Parliament yesterday by the Minister of Commerce and Industry, 
Mr Remmy Chisupa, who also said 203 were imprisoned for exploiting the 
public. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 15 Mar 80 p 3] 

ZAMBIAN POLICE SHOOT STRIKERS-~-Zambian MPs have demanded a Government state- 
ment on the shooting by police earlier this week of workers at 4 sugar 
estate south of Lusaka who went on strike to support demands for a pay 
increase. Three people were injured when the police opened fire on the 
strikers. One man later died in hospital. The MPs demanded a full minis- 
terial statement after police Inspector-General Crispin Katukula denied 
his men had shot at the strikers. He said teargas had been used and 12 
people arrested. But on Friday Labour Minister Mr Joshua Lumina admitted 
in Parliament that the police had opened fire ind that three people had 
been wounded. MPs immediately demanded a full ministerial statement on 
the circumstances in which the strikers were shot. The shooting has 
heightened tension between the Government and workers demanding immediate 
payment of a Kl3-a-month pay increase. In recent weeks thousands of 
workers throughout the country have staged unofficial strikes demanding 
immediate payment of the increase, recommended as a ceiling in an inde- 
pendent report drawn up last year. [Text] [Salisbury THE SUNDAY MAIL in 
English 16 Mar 80 p 2] 

STAND DOWN--Zambia yesterday announced the demobilization of its reservists 
and Home Guard, called up last November when road and rail bridges were 
attacked, allegedly by Rhodesian troops. The Defense Minister, Mr Grey 
Zulu, said it would take Zambian troops three months to remove all the land- 
mines in Zambian territory. [Text] [Salisbury THE HERALD in English 

13 Mar 80 p 1] 






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