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JPRS 76464 
24 September 1980 

Worldwide Report 

No. 129 

JPRS publications eontein iafermation primar’! from foreian 
hewepapers, periodicals and bi vke, but alee from news agency 
tranemicsions end broadcasts. Materiale from foreign-language 
sources are translated, those from ng! ieh~ sources 
are traneeribed of reprinted, with the origina! phrasing and 
other Charaeterletion retained. 

Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets 
{) ave supplied by JPRE, Processing indicators such as (Text) 
or [Rxeerpt! in fivret line of each item, or following 
last line of @ brief, indicate how the original informet 
processed, Where no processing leator te given, the 
mation wae summarized or extracted. 

lon wae 
infor - 

terated are 

item originate with the 
given by source. 

The contents of thie publicestion in ao way represent the poli- 
eles, views or atticudes of the 0.5. 

JPRS publications ay be ordered froe the Mationsl Technica! 
information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161. In order~- 
ing, it le recommended that the JPRS qumber, title, date and 
author, if applicable, of publication be cited. 

JPR 76484 

24 September 1980 


Law oF THe SEA 
No. 129 


Russian Vishing Fleet Te Vee New Zealand hepair Base 
(THe PRESS, 6 Aue 40) SESS ORR RRR ee eee eee 

New land Bare Joint-Venture Ships from Fishing Lone 
(THe PRESS, 15 Aug 80) SPREE RRR RRR RRR eee eee 


Officiale ixplain NeWaste Disposal Plan at Guam Meeting 

Japanese Explanation 
Nuclear Dumping Plane Protested 

indonesian Pishermen Intrude in Australian Waters 
(Norman Aiebett; THE WEST AUSTRALIAN, 4 Aug 80) ...... 

Koreans Seek Better Fishing Rights from New Zealand 
(Te EVENT NC Post, * Ave 80) eeeree eee eee eeeeeeee eee eee 

Low “qu.é Prices in Japan Affect Wew Zealand Fishing Quotas 
(Te Wh 7EALARD HERALD, i9 Aug 80) eeeeeereeeeeeree eee 

Stepe To tase Tension Between indian-Sri Lankan Fishermen 
(T™. Hin, i Jul #0) sere ereereeeeeeeeeer ee eeeeeeeeeeee 

jJapan~Auetraliea Nuclear Waste 
Auetralia Scores Japan 
Australia Approves Japan's Dumping Plan 
ROK, Japan Operations Agreement 


-a- [Iti ~ WH 136) 


Vishermen heported fearful of lefeign Poachers 
(THe NTATLOMAR, 5 hut 40) CPS ERR eee eee ee eee 

Voreign trawlers’ intrusion: Fishermen on Strike 
(PATRIOT, 2 Jue 80) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeteereeeeeeeeeee 

Trawler Overl.shing Reportedly Reducing Cateh 
(Gautee 4,6, Vohra, THE TIMES OF LNDIA, 

5 Jul 60) CRORE ERROR ORR ORO eee eee 

Nuclear Waste lo be Oumped in Pacific im Reinforeed Drum 
(KYODO, 5 Sep 80) sereeereeree eee eevee eaeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 
Bill Imcreases Penalties for Marine Pollution 
(THE WEW ZEALAND HERALD, WO Jul 80) coc ccccccwcceces 
Legal Blocks Hold Up Hunt Company's Offshore 011 Search 
(Mike Field; THE EVENING POST, 19 Aug BO) cacusecces 
Exclusive Economic Zones impact Fishing in South China Sea 
(Bruce Renton; BUSINESS TIMES, 9 Jul BO) 
Territorial Sea Limit 
‘CLARIN' Discusses Law of the Sea Conference Implications 
(Editorial; CLARIN, 5 Aug 80) See eee eee eee eee 
Decree Issued Regulating Foreign Vessels’ Operations 
(APP, 31 Aug 80) DORR RRR RRR RRR REE E EERE Eee eee eee oe 

Policy on 200-Mile Zone 







Colu@fiet btfeeses Need fo Pretect Sea iftefeste 
(Naftedio leaeee, MATUTIMD, 27 Ave ao) ef#eeeeeeeeer 1 

Correction if bea Law i) 

Recognition of 350=Mile Continental Shel! sought 
(Montevideo Radio | 1 Lepeetador Network, 
14 Aue 80) Seeeeeereseeeeeeeereeeereeeeeeee ee ee eeeree Me 

French, Spanish, Korean Vessele Seized 
(weer AFRICA, 8 Sep 80) eeeeeeeeeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 5 



Guinea-Guinea Bissau Territorial Water Dispute Discussed 
(WEST AFRICA, 8 Sep 60) eeeeeeeeeeeeee ere ee eeeeeeer 6 

Future of Fishing Industry Studied 
(Sophie Chegaray; FRATERNITE-MATIN, 

28, 29, 0, 1 Jul-1 Aug 80) See eee eee 7 
Fisheries Department Pails To se Development funds 
Seychelles Looks Seawards for 4 New Paradise 
(Peyton Johneon; THE HERALD, 9 Sep BO) «2. ccccecus 60 
Fisheries Research in Territorial Waters 
(MATION, 20 Aug 80) eee e ee ee eee eee eee eee eee eee ee 6? 

EC Fish Policies 
Paeroes’ Fin Whale tan 




Christehureh THE PRESS in English 6 Aug 80 p } 


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Chrietehureh THE PRESS in English 15 Aug 40 p 2 



Japanese Explanation 

OW140419 Tokyo KYODO in English 0403 GMT 14 Aug 80 

(Text) Agana, Guar, 14 aug (KYO )=<Japanese of flelale explained 4 Japanese plan te diseard 
low-level radiosetive waste in the South Pacific to leaders of South Pacific countries at 
their twomday summit meeting opening here Thureday. The summit meeting opened at Hilten 
Hotel here in the morning to diseuse Japan's nuclear waste dumping plan in the South Pacific 
area with 1] leaders attending. Prior to the meeting*s opening, several anti-nuclear 
demonstrators with placards gathered in front of the hotel to protest the Japanese plan amid 
mounting opposition in the South Pacific nations, 

In hie opening speeoh, dovernor Paul MeDonaid Calvo of Guam weleomed tie Japanese government ai 
mission headed by Hiroshi Goto, deputy chief of the Atomic tnergy Safety Bureau of the 
Seience and Technology Agency, but he expressed firm opposition to the Japanese pian, 

Goto and another agency official exploined Japan*s basic policy for peaceful utilization of 
atomic energy, the nuclear waste deumping plan and ite safety, Japan plans to discard about 
10,000 drume of low-level radiosetive waste from nuclear power plants in the sea about 900 
kilometers north of the northern Marianas starting in the autumn of next year, Pollowing 
the test dumping, Japan plane to carry out fulleseale dumping of several thousands of drume 
of muclear waste the followirg year. furopean countries have been dumping low-level 
fuclear wastes in the Atiantte for more than 10 years, 

The Japanese officiais stressed the Japanese plan involves no danger of poliution to people 
ana the efwirotmment Wille saying Japan would carry out the plan in conformity with standards 
by the International Atomic Mmergy Agency (TARA). 

In the meeting for Thursday afternoon, the South Pacific leaders and the Japanese Government 
mission will hold 4 question«and-answer session concerning the Japanese plan, 

Nuclear Dumping Plane Protesated 

UWi51i255 Tekye KYODO in Pnglieh 1722 GMT 15 Aue 80 

(Text) Agana, Guam, 15 aug (KYODO) =eaders of south facific Matlom Friday adopted 
@ resolution calling for suspenmion of the Japanese Government's ,ien to discard iow - 
lewel radioactive waste in She South Pecific., hey adopted the resolution signed by 
nine leaders at thelr cwmmll meeting closing ite two-day session here Pridey evening. 
The resolution 6414 the jouth fecifie mation: would grope for aii possible legal 
measures 60 frustrate the Japanese pian. 

Tre resolution did not Upiy beyootting of flehery negotiations between the South 
Pacific mation: and Japan of whieh Japan was most im fear, he resolution stressed 
in the preamble that the South Pacific area depends on flehery industry and | our ise 
and criticised the Japanese plan for poe ing seriow: and continmml threats to biologic 
ami economic preservation of flehery resources in the fecific. The resolution called 
on Japan to suspend the ; len witll teehmiosl safety Oo tne plan le proved so that 
marine resources should not be damaged by the dumping of tmucilear waste, 

The resolution aise called for suspension of 4 Japand4).5. joint plan te study possi-«- 
bilities of bullding 4 weed <«mclear fuel storage base in the South facific. The 
resolution 414 not oall for wroomditional suspenmion of the Japanese plan a6 4 resul' 
of Japan's maneuvering efforts behind the soenes during ‘the summit meet ing. 

Wiroshi Goto, 4 Science and Technology Agency officiel who headed the Japanese mise ion 
to explain the Japanese plan at the summit meeting, told reporters Japan would attach 
importanmoe to the resolution leaving room for study for safe securement of the muclear 
waste Gumping ;lan. 

cSo: 5200 



Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 4 Aug 80 p 10 
[Article by Norman Aisbett: “Tllegal-fishing Problem Grows" | 

[Text] A fragile little sailing-boat glides on a high tide towards a 
desolate island not far from the Kimberley coast. 

Before long it ie out of sight, skillfully moored amid the camouflage of 
mangrove trees at the water's edge. 

Tiny, wiry figures on board the craft ensure that the disappearance is 
complete, covering the decks with leaves and tying foliage to the mast. 

Unnoticed, another Indonesian fishing party has made an illegal landing 
on Australian soil. 

There is unlikely to be any further sign of activity till the tide's 
recession leaves the boat high and dry. Then the dusky fishermen wil! 
leave cover and move expertly about the island's exposed reef platform, 
using primitive dugout canoes at times to skirt the shallows when neces- 

They are in search of trochus shell--the lure of their long and risky 
haul down into Australian territorial waters. 

The shell has been heavily fished in traditional Indonesian fishing 
grounds but is still available in relatively big quantities in the 
King Sound region of WA. 

It is the core of an escalating problem costing the Australian Government 
millions of dollars a year to counter. 

It is also indirectly contributing to another serious situation. 

The little ocean travellers are also certain to have wreaked further 
destruction to bird Life on Australian-owned islands between Indonesia 
and the WA coast. Sea birds with their eggs, along with fish, are the 
prime sources of food on t ,ese voyages. 


According to the chief inmapector of the WA Department of Fisheries and 
Wildlife, Mr Neil MeLaughian, the Indonesian cratt are the main reason 
for immense expenditure on aerial surveillance (up to $7 million a year) 
of the coast and the use of naval patrol vessels based at Darwin for 
fisheries-inepection duties, 

Further evidence of the cost is the charter by the Commonwealth Depart ~ 
ment of Health of the fishing boat Axion for surveillance work in the 
Buccaneer and Bomparte archipelagos. What started in April as a short- 
term charter costing $850 a day has been extended to October because of 
Indonesian fishing activity in the area, 

This expense comes on top of regular fisheries patrols around the network 
of coastal islands. The patrols have worked extensively in recent years 
te warn the Indonesians that they are courting arrest and prosecution. 

Two Indonesian skippers who wept like children after having their craft 
confiscated by a Koolan Island court on Thursday have learnt that the 
threats were not made lightly. 

Five Warnings 
One of the skippers had been warned five times previously. 

Fisheries and quarantine officials now think that word of the court action, 
which has virtually left the impoverished fishermen and their families 
without a source of income, will filter back through the Indonesian 

Mr McLaughlan said there was no problem off the WA coast about seven years 
ago. Till then the only known intruders had been the occasional apologe- 
tic village fishing party ewept off course by wind or currents. 

But from about 1973 Indonesian fishermen had begun to intentionally find 
their way to the fertile WA waters. They now constituted what was con- 
sidered a commercially-oriented invasion. It was at its peak in the early 
part of the year and about August. 

Mr McLaughlan said that 62 sightings of Indonesian craft were made in 
Australian waters off WA in one seven-week period this year--equal to all 
the sightings for 1973. 

Three hundred Indonesian fishing boats had been boarded off WA and hun- 
dreds more sighted. 

He said that the Indonesians posed a serious threat to the Bardi Abori- 
ginal people at One Arm Point in King Sound. About 300 of these people 
operated a emall fleet of 25 craft to work the islands in the mouth of 
the sound for trochus shell. 

The trochus shel! which brings $1100 a4 tonne in Australia tor the bardia, 
beckons the Indonesians, whe have reduced stocks of the shellfish to an 
unviable level at the Ashmore and Scott reef ateas between Australia and 

There have been conflicts, Recently, an Indonesian party went ashore at 
Sunday Island, off One Arm Point, to grab trochus shell left bagged on 
the beach by Aborigines. 

The Indonesians were chased out to sea by the Bardi people, some of whom 
got close enough to throw 4 piece of iron through the sail of the raid- 
ing craft, 

The landings by Indonesians are seen as a major danger by quarantine 
authorities. The authorities fear three disease threats in part icular-- 
foot and mouth disease, which could cause crippling damage to the north 
weat cattle industry, rabies and Wr stle disease, which is a threat to 
the poultry industry. 


Indonesians sometimes carry live poultry on their boats ae pets or as a 
source of food. 

Mr McLaughlan, is alarmed by the other aspect of the Indonesian problem, 
the slaughter of island bird life. 

"When they go on to an island they often smash every egg in sight,” he 
said. “The idea is that when they come back the next day, any eggs lying 
around then will have to be fresh and therefore edible. 

“Sometimes Chey don't use the emashing method. They collect up all the 
eggs and stack them in heaps. 

"It is common for them to break the wings of very young birds. 

"The young birds are fed for a time by the mature birds, so they are 
likely to be alive if and when the fishermen pies by the island again. 
It is then just a matter of rounding up the asimed birds for food.” 

Mr McLaughlan said that soe species of bird life, unique to certain 
island groups were probably under threat of extinction through these 

The Indonesian problem is complicated by 4 memorandum of understanding 
signed by Australian and Indonesian officials in 1974 as a result of the 
emerging situation. 

The memorandum allows Indonesian fishermen to continue their activity 
around some distant shoals and islands in Australian waters. 

A tenague of water extending south from timer is available te them tor 
fishing but lending fights afe fet ineluded, 

There afe fo Fights south of the designated islands of shoals in this 
afea. Virtually, it @eane that ne ladenesian craft should ever come 
vithin about 130 be of the Kimberley coast, 

Rul they de and there have been many warnings, 

The Pieheries Department even went to the trouble of aerial dropping 
special plastic hueve containing eps showing allowable areas and messages 
in indonesian, warning of severe action for breaches, The buoys fitted 
with etfeamers to attract attention, were dropped alongside the craft, 

indonesiane in hundreds of «raft boarded by fisheries inspectors have 
been handed the mape and instructions, 




nh Faelieh & Aue 80 p 





see “fie 

\uekland THE SEW /FALAND HERALD in Paglieh 19 Aue 80 p 16 

[Report by HERALD mati ne reporteg] 

fFexy/ The Pinistry of Agriculture and Pieheries faces probleme in est ab- 

shine ite fereian squid allepations this week beoauser of depressed squid 
prices and an apparently saturated marbet in Japan, 





Madras THE HINDU in Paglieh 1 Jul 80 p 13 
Rameewaram, june WO, 


Fishermen of the Rameewaram on Saturday appealed to Mr Thomas Abraham, 
indian High Commissioner in Sri Lanka to help evolve 4 mutual agreement 
between the two Governments eo that Indian and Sri Lankan fishermen 
could carry out their activities in peace, 

Such an agreement was necessary because of the restricted fishing area now 
available for indian fishermen, especially after the handing over of the 
“Katcha Theevu' to Sri Lanka, they eaid, 

Mr Abraham, while pointing out that the fishing rights of the countries 
had clearly been demarcated, however, said the Government wae aware of 

their problems. He would take up the matter with the Poreigen Ministers 
of the two countries. 

Mr Abraham later told newemen that the 
ment by the Sri Lankan navy. They had 
last when the Sri Lankan navy had seiged 64 Indian fishing boats. Of then 
6) boate were returned but one boat sank due to “negligence on the part 

of the Sri Lankan navy” while tugging the boat to one of their porte. 

The Fishermen's Association here led by Mr P. Arulanandam Pernando and 
Mr Alankaram told the High Commissioner that they were faced with short - 
age of fishing bede in their own area which has been curtailed following 
the handling over of ‘Katcha Theewu" to Sri Lanka. If no steps had taken 
to help them, 25,000 fishermen would have to starve. [as published) 

fishermen had complained of harase- 
told him of an incident in March 

To the complaint that Indian fishermen were “stealing” the nylon sete 
of Sri Lankan fishermen, the association said, they had no use for nylon 
fishing nete because their method of fishing wae different. But some- 
times, Sri Lankan nylon nete were damaged accidentally by Indian boats. 
However, they were promptly handed back to the owners, they added. 


They complained of acts of ‘piracy’ by the Sri Lankan navy the result of 
which wae financial lose up te Ra W lakhe, 

The Colleeter of Kamnad district Mr V, Madhavan Naif, whe alone with the 
Superintendent of Police Mr &. G. Dinamani, received the High Commissioner 
at the Kameshwaram port, [ae published) 

The of fice=bearere of the association told newemen that diesel rationing 
introduced in the past two weeks had added to theif probleme, They said 
each boat on an average needed 150 litres diesel a day but had diesel only 
to last 10 fishing daye in 4 month, They were thus forced either keep 
their boate idle or purchase diesel at double the price, 

C80; 4220 



JAPAN=AUSTRALIA NUCLEAR WASTE~-Japanese and Australian officials had talke 
in Canberra today on Tokyo's plane to dump nuclear waste in the Pacific 
next year. From Canberra (Graham Dobell): [Begin recording) Japan 
plans to conduct a trial dumping of up to 10,000 (lcement~cased) drums 
containing low-level nuclear waste. The four Japanese officials are 
Visiting Canberra as part of a tour throughout the Pacific trying to 
assure nations the operation would pose no dangers. At the talks at the 
Foreign Affaire Department in Canberra, Australia neither opposed nor 
endorsed the Japanese plan. The foreign affairs spokesman said Australia 
had expressed opposition to the Pacific region becoming a site for indis- 
crtiminate and uncontrolled disposal of nuclear waste. Dumping should 
take place only with the strictest safety measures. He said officials 
had pointed to the deep concern felt by South Pacific states and called 
on the Japanese to take note of this. The Japanese replied that the 

trial would be supervised under the OPCD's stringent surveillance mecha- 
hiem for dumping of radioactive waste. It will aleo meet the provisions 
of the convention on marine pollution. [end recording) (Text) [(OW191419 
Melbourne Overseas Service in English 0710 GMT 19 Aug 80) 

AUSTRALIA SCORES JAPAN--Canberra, 9 Sep (AFP)--Australia should publicly 
condemn Japan, as it did France, for dumping nuclear waste in the Pacific 
Ocean, according to the Federal Labor spokesman for urban and regional 
affaire, Mr Tom Uren. Mr Uren said the Japanese Government's decision 

to go ahead with the dumping of nuclear waste north of the Mariana Islands, 
“emacks of a colonialist attitude towards the governments and people of 
Pacific island nations.” He said that just as Australia played a leading 
role in opposing French nuclear tests in the Pacific, it should be in 

the forefront of moves to prevent the Pacific once more becoming 4 dumping 
ground. “Sadly the Fraser government is more interested in trying to 
make the quick uranium dollar than in representing the interests of the 
Pacific region and its people,” he said. If a Labor government wins 
office in the federal elections to be held later this year, Tom Uren would 
probably become the minister in charge of nuclear energy. [Text] 

[OW090 306 Hong Kong AFP in English 0240 G@rT 9 Sep 80) 


accused the government of betraying the interests of the people of 

the Pacific by approving nuclear waste dumping by Japan. The opposition 
spokesman of minerals and energy, Mr Keating, said the government had 
abandoned all concern for the environment and rejected worldwide 

respect «ened during ite stand againet the French nuclear weapons 
testing in the Pacific. Australia has given conditional approval to a 
Japanese plan to dump nuclear waste in the north Pacific, The 

Australian Government approval is conditional on the dumping complying 
with the etrictest safety measures and relevant international agreements, 
[Text |] [0W101307 Melbourne Overseas Service in English 1130 GMT 10 Sep 40) 

Korean Foreign Ministry official said today both South Korea and Japan 
have satisfactorily settled their bilateral dispute over Korean fishing 
in waters off Japan's northernmost island of Hokkaido, one of the most 
sticky issues between the two neighboring countries since 1977. The offi- 
cial eaid an accord calling for @utual restriction by the two nations of 
their fishing operations in each other's waters, namely, Japan's Hokkaido 
and Korea's Cheju Island, which will put an end to the long-standing 
dispute, will be put into writing at the eighth meeting of working-level 
fishery officials the two governments to be held in Seoul September 17 and 
18, Fishery chiefe of the two govermments will then meet to confirm the 
written accord in the form of 4 memorandum during their meeting here on 
September 19 and 20, the official added, The projected agreement reportedly 
calle for the reduction of the qumber of Korean Alaska pollack fishing 
vessels operating off Hokkaido from the present 19 to 16 to 15 in exchange 
for Tokyo's assent to confine ite fishermen's operations off Cheju to 
January through March each year with 70 fishing vessels. [Text) 

(SK150125 Seoul HAPTONG in English 0102 GMT 15 Sep 60) 

CSO: $200 



Calcutta THE STATESMAN in English 5 Jul 80 p 7 

[Text] Tuticorin, July 4.--Alongside the southern breakwaters of the 
new harbour here is anchored “Yung Shin--32," 4 120<ft Taiwanese trawler 
valued at Re 1 crore, guarded by armed police. it is 4 trophy won by 
1.N.S8. Shakti of the Southern Naval Command, in an encounter with a 

fleet of foreign trawlers in the high seas off the Gulf of Mannar in the 
early hours of Monday. The l8-member crew of “Yung Shin" hae been handed 
over to the civil authorities here. 

Equipped with all modern facilities such as radio-telephone and fish 
finder, the trawler had a 70-tonne cold storage capacity. Food stored 
in the vessel were sufficient to feed its 18-member crew for six months. 
Mr C. S. Venkateswaran, Deputy Director of Fisheries, said here today 
that eight tonnes of the letherinuse variety of fish, valued at about Re 
70,000, was removed from the trawler. 

For the fishermen of the Gulf of Mannar coast in Tirunelveli district of 
Tamil Nadu setting sail to catch fish is like going to war. It is not 
that they are afraid of the rough seas or the strange creatures of the 
ocean. What they dread most is poaching by foreign trawlers whose crew 
often rough them up and seize their nets together with their valuable 
catch. At times they even sink the boats of local fishermen. 

When a group of fishermen set out from Manappad village, south of here, 

on June 24, one could discern the fear writ on the faces of their women- 
folk and children. The men came beck the following morning not only 
empty-handed but with their costly nylon nets torn to bits by the intrud- 
ere. The matter was reported to the Fisheries Department and the District 
Collector who in turn contacted the coast guard station at Mandapan. 

The coast guards entrusted to patrol the eastern sea coast extending 

from Kanyakumari to Calcutta is woefully ill-equipped for the task. it 
has at ite disposal just two boats and both are now under repair. 


The piight of the Manappad fishermen was brought to the attention of 
Captain Kk, PF, Gopal hao, naval officer-in=-charge, Port St. George, 
Madras, whe tried to seek the help of the Tuticorin Port Trust to make 
available some vessel which could be pressed into service to intercept 
the intruding trawlers, [as published) But none was available, 

Eventually the naval headquarters in Delhi were alerted, it authorized 
the Southern Command, based in Cochin, to deal with the problem. The 
flag officer commanding-in=chief deapatched INS Shakti on Sunday. Tt 
reached the Gulf of Mannar on Monday. 

Seeing it wae 4 large ship, the foreign trawlers took shelter in shallow 
waters, four to five miles off the Tamil Nadu coast. A helicopter was 
dispatched to establish the identity of the intruding vessels, After 
making sure of their foreign origin INS Shakti fired a few shots to bring 
the trawlers out in the open sea, 

Two of the trawlers sped in the north-easterly direction towards Sri 
Lanka waters and two others moved ewiftly southwaras while the fifth 
one, caught in between, was intercepted by the naval vessel and seized. 
it had on board about 15 tonnes of fish. 


The trawler was flying a tricolour closely resembling our national flag, 
apparently to hoodwink the authorities. Except for its captain who knew 
a emattering of English the rest of the crew spoke only Chinese. The 
trawler was part of a Taiwanese fishing fleet. 

According to information gathered from the captain, Taiwan has about 
3,500 fishing trawlers. It takes them about 15 daye to reach Indian 
watere where they remain for two to three months at 4 stretch. Their 
daily catch is transferred to a “mother ship” which keeps off the terri- 
torial waters. The sother ship is not only equipped to refuel the trawl - 
ere and replenish their victual but aleo has a mini canning plant. 

Attack on Indian fishermen by foreigners has been 4 recurring problem 
both in the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Straits. in the Straits the 
offenders are mostiy from Sri Lanka. 

Only last week the fishermen of Rameswaram appealed to Mr Thomas Abraham, 
Indian High Commissioner to Sri Lanka, to help evolve a scheme whereby 
fishermen of the two countries could carry on their vocations in peace. 
They pointed out that in one month alone, the Sri Lanka Navy had seized 
64 of their boats. 

Mr P. Arulanandam Fernando, secretary of the Rameswaram Verkottu Fisher- 
men's Association, said about 700 mechanized boats were fished in the 


Valk Straite mainly for prawn, Much in demand in foreign Markets, hach 
boat ie manned by 61x of seven men whe set out in the afternoon and begin 
deep-sea fishing after sun-set, They return home by dawn, 

Lach boat catches 10 to 15 ke of prawn. A kile of prawn fetches about 

Re 80. Mr Fernando said Sri Lanka navy men suddenly appear on the scene, 
order the fishermen to follow them, and once they are within Sri Lanka 
waters, board the vessels and loot their catch, 

The fishermen told Mr Abraham that they were faced with shortage of 
fishing beds in their area. The shortage followed the handing over of 
Katcha Theevu to Sri Lanka. They were prepared to lease the waters 
around Katcha Theevu from the Sri Lanka Government. If no steps were 
taken, about 25,000 fishermen in Rameswaram would not be able to earn 
their livelihood, 

One of the salutary effecta of Monday's naval operation ia the disappear-~ 
ance of Taiwanese trawlers from the Gulf of Mannar where fishermen have 
been able to venture out into the sea without fear of losing their catch 
and gear. 

c80: 5200 



New Delhi PATRIOT in Pnglish 29 Jun 80 p 4 

|Text|) Madras, June 28, Fishermen of the coastal district of Tirunelveli 
in Tamilnadu have refused to go co the sea for fishing in protest against 
the intrusion of foreign travellera into Indian waters, 

Taiwanese vessels understood to have entered the sea, 15 kme from Tuti- 
ecorin and destroyed nylon nets worth about a lakh laid by the local 

Official sources admit foreign trawlers operating in Indian waters in the 
Gulf of Mannar and off Punnakayal and Tuticorin and claim they have 
called for intense patrolling by the coast guards. 

The Tamilnadu Country Boat Fishermen's Association has in telegrams to 
Prime Minister and State Chief Minister to take immediate action to pre- 
vent such intrusions. 

Anti-Price Rise 

The Tamilnadu unite of the CPI and CPM are launching a State-wide anti- 
price rise campaign from Sunday. 

Public meetings are to be held throughout the state to mobilise the people 
against the burdens {mposed on the common man by the Central budget, 
according to Mr K. T. Raju, member of State secretariat and railwaymen's 

The joint campaign which opens tomorrow marke another important stage in 
the unity in struggle that is fast developing between two Communist parties 
in Tamilnadu. 

The joint campaign plans were worked out at a meeting of the leaders of 
the CPI and CPM in Madras. Among those who took part in the discussions 
were P Manickam, K T Raju and Nallakannu from CPI and 4 Balasubramaniun, 
Sankaraiaha, Nallasivam from the CP¥. 

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OWO050423 Tokyo KYODO in English 0353 GMT 5 Sep 80 

(Text ] Tokye,5 Sep (KY )==Japan plans to dump low-level radioactive waste matte: in 
the Pacific in Jrum cans after they are solidified in cement, Science and Technolog 
Agency officials said Priday, They were commenting on press reports from Wev York which 
said @ professor at the University of California's Sante Crur campus has found through 
his studies that similar drum cane dumped in waters off San Prancises by the U.S, have 
leaked radioactivity. The officials noted that under the methods used by the U,8,, the 
waste matters were not completely sclidified and 4 considerable amount ef radioactive 
elements were contained per drum can, 

Uniike the U,5, formula, they #214 Japan plans to solidify the waste matters in cement 
and dump the drum cans containing them in 6,000 qneter-deep waters some 900 kilometers 
southeast of Tokyo Bay. The Japanese plan, however, is being strongly opposed by 
autnorities and residents of Sout! Pacific islands, 

Ichire Wakeagawa, director general of the agency, #414 Thursday that Japan vanted to 
start carrying out the plan in the autwan of 198) and that further efforts will be 
made to secure the understanding of the residents of Micronesian islands and Japanese 
fishermen, The agency as well as the Muclear Safety Commission have concluded that 
even if the drum cans break before reaching the sea bottom and leak the radioactive 
elements, effects on human beings through fish will be of an extent which can be 
disregarded, Based on teste conducted on iand, they do not believe the dram cans will 

CSO: 5200 


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TERRITORIAL SUA LIMI I= <Singapore will exereise ite right to extend ite 
territorial sea limit up to 4 @aximum of 12 nautical @iler in the light 

of international developments. it will aleo establish an exclusive 
economic sone, ifn 4 statement today the Foreign Ministry said since 1876 
Singapore had adhered to the concept of 4@ J-nautical mile territorial sea, 
in certain areas Singapore can extend ite territorial sea beyond |} nautical 
miles and can also claim an exclusive economic sone. The ministry said 
the precise coordinates of any extensions of the territorial sea and the 
establishment of any exclusive economic sone will be announced at an 
appropriate time, Should such extensions and the establishment of an 
exclusive economic sone overlap with claims of neighbouring countries, 
Singapore will negotiate with these countries with 4 view to arriving at 
an agreed delimitation in accordance with international lav. [Text] 
(BK151507 Singapore Domestic Service in English 1130 @m 15 Sep 60) 

C80; 43200 

Buenoe Aires CLARIN in Spanish 5 Aug 80 p 10 
[Editertial; “The New Law of the Sea) 

[Text ) The UN Conference of the Law of the Sea is once again meeting in 
Geneva. Since 197), the conference has been attempting to draw up 4 treaty 
which will cover 411 aspecte of the subject in a unified way, including 
classical aepects of the topic, immewations in the developing technology 
and an updated look at etrategic problems. 

The lengthy perioge of time devoted to ite deliberations by the conference 
are attributable not only to ite extensive and important agenda but also to 
the criterion that the new Law of the Sea be the product of the consensus 
of the organized international community. To thie end, instead of votes, 
the conference resorts to continuing negotiation of differences in emall 

groups of expert delegates. 

The subject which produced the greatest confrontations--e0 much eo that at 
one point it threatened to compromise the results of the conference--was 

the deep seabeds and the economic exploitation of the minerals which they 
contain. The highly industrialized countries have developed the technologies 
required to reach great depths and to vacuum up the “nodules,” which are 
spherical clusters of setals, many of which are of strategic importance. 
Similarly, induetrial processes to separate the metals have been developed, 
ae @ preliminary step to the utilisation of that new and important source 

of raw materials. 

The conflict arises precisely out of the fact that the sea, beyond the limits 
of national sovereignties, is considered by the United Nations to be the 
common heritage of mankind. This arrived at through extension 
of the prior concept of the open sea, which was applicable to navigation. 
The fect is that in our time the oceans 
nications and trade routes. Nations ere 
are broadening their jurisdiction over areas 
shore and over the biological and gineral resources to be found in their 
wetere and submerged continental shelves. 011 from the seabed is being 


extracted, ae in the case of the North Sea, through the association of several 
countries, The United States hae authorized ite companies to legally engage 
in mining in the deep seabedse, a unilateral decision which is considered 
provisional until a universal etaendard ie substituted for it. And futuro= 
logists are beginning to talk about “floating cities,” with thought being 
given to the development of the platforms used for the extraction of of] in 
order to accommodate town dwellers cut off from land (like dissident 
@ivorities), who will perhape make claim to an area on the high sea on the 
basie of their aquatic settlement. 

However, it is not necessary to give such free rein to the flighte of our 
imagination in order to point out the expectations being generated by the 
oceans and the emerging tendency to appropriate thes, Because of this, the 
Geneva Conference has an unquestioned importance, particularly for countries 
with an extended coastline such ae our own, @ country, moreover, which since 
the 1940's has been a pioneer in the definition of an updated Law of the 

The subject of the seabede is aleo significant because on the basis thereof 
claims are being prepared by nations which have 4 right to share in the 
resources of those seabeds and by others which, in addition, have the sodern 
technologies to exploit them. And the subject lends iteelf to the creation 
of a new and powerful international authority which would be responsible for 
administering and harmonizing the rights of nations and companies in the 
exploitation of ocean sinerale. 

The equitable resolution of these points would be 4 substantial contribution 
to the equilibrium of the new world which already can be discerned on the 


PAOL2109 Parie AFP in Spanish 1549 GMT 31 Aug 80 

[Text) Quito, 3) Aug (AFPP)--The Ecuadorean Government has banned industrial 
fishing by vessels with foreign {lage within a 60-nautical mile area both 
around the mainland and the islands. 

in order to safeguard the rational exploitation and conservation of the 
fishing resources availabe in Ecuador's territorial waters, the govern- 
ment has issued an executive decree setting several norms on fishing by 
foreign vessels. 

According to the document, foreign ships shall pay the following fees 
to operate in Ecuador's territorial waters: 

--§2,000 for a fishing license valid for one calendar year. 

~-$160 per net registered ton for a fishing permit valid for one trip 
pursuant to the bylaws of the law on fishing and fisheries development. 

--No licenses or permits will be given foreign vessels of over 600 tons 
of net registered hold. 

~-Industrial fishing is banned for foreign vessels within a 60-nautical 
mile area starting from the base lines used to measure the width of the 
territorial sea for both the mainland and the islands. 

Foreign vessels operating through rental contracts and/or in association 
with fishing firms established in the country through authorizations 
granted pursuant to the law on fishing and fisheries development shall be 
exempt from these regulations. 



POLICY ON 200-MILE ZONE=-The Mexican Fisheries Department has announced 
that Mexico will uphold its policy of absolute sovereignty over the rights 
that it has in its 200=-mile exclusive economic sone for the exploration, 
exploitation and conservation of ite natural marine resources. It aleo 
announced that once foreign ships have accepted these regulations, the 
government will continue to collect fees and [a percentage) of the catch 
for fishing permite to commercially exploit certain species of (marine 
life) in our territorial waters. The fishing department stated that 
once these ships comply with the requirements established by presiden- 
tial decree, the causes of the so-called tuna war between Mexico and 

the United States--as recently described by certain international news 
agencies--will disappear. [Text] [PA191455 Mexico City International 
Service in Spanish 0300 GMT 19 Aug 80) 

CSO: 5200 

PA300407 Panama City MATUTINO in Spanish 27 Aug 80 p 4A 
[Article by Harmodio lcasa: “Panama Paces the Sea” | 

[Text] In December 1979, Rolando Anguizola published a study which 
indicated that Panama needed to define the principles of ite maritime, 
port and fishing policies. On inetructione of President Aristides Royo, 
Anguizola organized a national conference to analyze the problem and 
issue recommendations to establish those policies. 

The event was held in May with the participation of officials, businessmen 
and workers. Experts in thie field view the practical results of the 
conference, which have been published in a pamphlet that includes all the 
relevant documents, as the firet ecientific effort to discover the causes 
of our maritime, port and fishing problems. The conference issued 
realistic and accurate recommendations that can give Panama clear ideas 

on policies to protect and develop ite maritime interests. 

The conference's document also includes varnings on important matters 
related with the protection of the environment. We are stressing this 
today because we have already seen the urgent need to follow the recom 
mendations of immediately establishing "...with the participation of all 
sectors directly involved, the plan to prevent damages to the aquatic 
ecosystem with epecific contingency programs in cases of serious pollution 
caused by the spill of petroleum, chemical substances, radioactive 
elements and so forth.” (Conference, recommendation 5). 

It is evident that the conference produced material on existing problems 
as wel as issued solutions, which, in aany cases, only require that a 
higher authority iseve orders and demand that they be implemented. The 
conference's documents include recommendations for well-grounded and 
realistic general policies. 

That is why I believe the executive branch should tamediately order the 
chiefs of the public institutions directly involved in this field to 


promote the implementation of the recommendations on specific subjects 
and those which in the medium and long term will enable the Panamanian 
people to obtain the maximum benefit from their seas, porte and fishing. 

Someone should also take responsibility for the future of the Marine 
Academy which regardless of all difficulties, without an operations 

budget and without any other help but the charity of friends, continues 
to graduate naval officers with great academic training. That inetitution 
deserves a better fate. 

cso: 5200 



CORRECTION IN SEA LAW==President Dr Aristides Royo informed the nation a 
few weeks ago that his administration would strongly protest to the U.S. 
Government for including the former Panama Canal zone in a law recently 
approved by President Carter as being within U.S. territorial waters. 
Panama's protest was not long in coming. As is public knowledge it was 
both clear and severe and it pointed out the need to urgently correct 

that situation because Panama felt that its sovereignty and the letter 

of the Torrijos-Carter treaty had been violated. Meanwhile public opinion 
groups took action, particularly in the papers, to voice support for the 
Panamanian Government's attitude in demanding a correction. An official 
reply has now been received from Washington. Both the White House and 
the State Department have accepted the Panamanian proposals as appropriate, 
announcing that what in Washington has been called "an unintentional 
error” will soon be corrected. ([Editorial: “Timely Correction" |] 
[Excerpt] [PA012156 Panama City LA REPUBLICA in Spanish 28 Aug 80 p 4A] 

cso: 5200 



PY141999 Montevideo "adio El Espectador Network in Spanish 1600 GMT 14 Aug Bo 

(Text) Uruguay is trying to obtain recogiition for its sovereigty over 350 alles of 
continental shelf. hile statement had been meade to this radio station by the under secre- 
tary for foreig: relations who will travel to Geneva today. 

In Jeneva he will head the Uruguayan delegation to the Law of the Sea Conference. Uruguay, 
which like other countries has sovereigity over 200 alles of sea, will now seek recogii- 
tion for its sovereigty over 550 miles of contimente) shelf. 

Under Secretary /ulio Cesar Lupinacet indicated that this is going to be one of the main 
issues at the Geneva meeting. 

(Begin Lupinace! recording) It has been said, and it is correct, that a8 long as the con- 
tinental shelf maintains its geological continuity beyond the 200 miles off the coast and 
up to the maximum of 550 miles, the states ghould be able to have sovereign so- 
cess to ite resources. 

Uruguay is one of the marginal [marginalista) states, that is to say that is has a broad 
continental shelf which goes beyond 200 miles. This means that the furisdictional waters 
extend to 200 miles from shore, but underneath, the seabed and subsoil geologically con- 
tinue for approximately 600 miles. This can be scientifically established if necessary, 
and what Uruguay is negotiating Sor is sovereign rigite to explore and exploit the 
living and mineral resources of this area. 

(Question) Uruguay wants rights over the subsoil’ 

{answer ) Of course; why not? Uruguay is one of the so-called marginal countries and has 
been negotiating together with Argentine, Australia, Wew Zealand, Canada, the UK, Norway, 
Ireland and the United Stetes, with whom we have coordinated joint positions aimed at 
seeking recomiition of the sovereig: rigits which the coas*a] states have over the na- 
tural extension of their territory under the ses. The sea floor and its subsoil are 
geological extensions of the continent: It belongs to our country and we will exercise 
our sovereig right to exploit its resources. [end recording) 

CSO: 5200 


London WEST AFRICA in English 8 Sep 80 p 1730 

(Text) Nine foreign vessels have been seized by the Mauritanian author- 
ities. Six are French, two Spanish and one is Korean. They are accused 
of fishing illegally in Mauritanian territvrial waters, These consist of 
a 70-mile official territorial waters and 130 miles which form the 
Exclusive Economic Zone, 

The six French boats are based in Dakar, The majority of the 95 crew 
members are Senegalese and are still in Nouadhibou where the boats are 
being kept. The six owners of the boats are under house arrest in Nouak- 
chott where legal proceedings are currently underway. The crew members 
have remained aboard their boats awaiting repatriation. 

It .6 suggested that the nine boats are not affected by the most recent 
measures announced by the Mauritanian Government which permits the 
administration to confiscate any vessel found fishing illegally in 
Mauritanian territorial waters. Previously the law required that any 
confiscation would have to follow a court order. This is now no longer 

The new legislation has no retractive power and the nine vessels were 
seized before the publication of the law, 

At present no vessel is authorised to fish in Mauritanian territorial 
watere unless it is based in Mauritania, Fishing licenses have not been 
issued for two years because the government took exception to the excessive 
exploitation of its waters by foreign companies which never landed or 
reported their catch to the local authorities. 

The new laws are very much in keeping with the PAO policy of helping in 
the installation of joint venture companies which will bring together the 
fishing processing sectors of the industry. 

After iron, fishing is considered Mauritania's next major revenue earner. 

CSO: 5200 




Wewndon VERT AFRICA in tnglieh § fep 80 p L688 

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Abidjan PRATHRNITR-MATIN in Prenoh 26, 29, 30, 31 Jul, 1 Aue 80 

Pive~-part series Sophie Chegaray: “What Ie the Puture of the Ivorian 
iehine 2453. 

[ae Jui 80, pp 19-20) 

[Text] With ite $00 Kilometers of coastline, Ivory Coast 
would appear to be « privileged country from a marine 
resources viewpoint. From the etandpoint of the moet 
elementary of all marine exploitetions, however, things 
are going badly: The ‘s leading trawling vessel 
operator, Shipownere , has recentiy 
filed @ statement of bahkruptcy, and the operetore 
are pessimistic about their futures. 

Gn the other hand, fieh ie the leading source of animal 
protein in the Ivorian population's diet. Fiehing, more- 
over, provides employment directly or indirectly to 
60,000 workers. 

A maritime country the Ivory Cosest certainly is, with ite wide sea frontier 
extending over a distance of $00 Kilametere and representing one-fourth of 
ite totel boundaries. 

Since the léch and 17th centuries, the scocounte of the great navigatore have 
evoked Genes of strapping young men, inhabitants of the coast, for whor 
the Goean and ite violent surf presented no obstecie whatever to fishing. 
But for excellent foot-fishing in Ivory Coest, it was lees than necessary 
to mane the fifticult rousing of the sand bei, because the lagoon wee 
, Offering ite vast expanse of cale water sbounding in fish, Por the 
~ Bane Aho — > hp —. has always represented one 
of theic main staples. 


And as trade and communications developed, the taste for thie nutritious 
food epread throughout the country. 

Per Capita Consumption: 24 Kilos 

The iverian has HOw become 4 Great Consumer of Tish: In 1979, national 
consumption totaled 165,000 tone, of 24 kilos per person per year. By com- 
parieon, in Prance, 4 country with @ high cate of Fish consumption, the 
annual per Capita fate ie 17? kilos per inhabitant. 

why the ivorians’ taste for Fish? Simply the feet that Ivory Coast hee 
only very recently begun to take an interest in developing 4 livestock 
industry. te meat, until just @ few years ago, came mainly from the 
Sahel, 86 that the country found iteelf directly affected by Sahelian 
droughts. The result wae thet the consumption of fish inereased consider - 
ably, actually to the point of replacing meat from the Sahel. 

Over the past } of 4 years 4 major effort in aid has been provided to 
develop ite livestock industry, especially poultry. But chicken in the 
average household food basket represents a luxury a8 compared with fish 
(1,200 france per kilo against 300 france for fish). Thus, annual meat 
consumption remains only half a8 much as fish consumption, even though 
it is inereasing from year to year (fish consumption, which was 26 kilos 
in 1976, i now 24 kilos). 

Fish thus continues to be part of the basic nutrition of the Ivorian. Ite 
function ie indispensable at the more disadvantaged levels of the popule- 

While it may seem contradictory in view of Ivory Coast's long marine coast- 
line, it cemaine a disadvantaged country from the standpoint of fishing. 
The fect is thet ite continental shelf, that is, the netural exten- 
sion of the continent into the ooean, and ite privileged fishing ground, is 
extremely slender, varying in width from 11 to 20 nautical miles out from 
the shore, whereas Senegal's continental shelf extends out 50 miles, 
Mauritenia’s 7° miles, Republic of Guinea's 110 miles, and South Africa's 
190 miles. 

But even worse is the fact that the watere in thie region are naturally 
poor. This is owing to the weak upwellings, those upwerd flows of cold 
water that bring up matter rich in nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and other 
sources of productivity. 

Por, these mineral salte nourish the plankton which in turn nourishes the 
fish, thie being the cycle of marine life. Mow then, in countries like 
Mauritania and South Africa, upwellings continue throughout the 12 monthe 
of the year; in Senegal they last throughout at least 10 months. Unfor- 
tunately for Ivory Coast, however, they occur only during 4 of the 12 

monthe iJuly, August, Geteber, November), 60 that the sea there is, gener~ 
ally speaking, poor in animal and vegetable plankton and, a8 4 consequence, 
poor in fish, 

Added to this are ecological phenomena with whieh man is totally unable to 
cope. Por example, Sinee 1972, the round sardine (sardinella autita) has 
almost entirely disappeared from ivorian-Ghanaian waters: compared with 
catches totaling 10,000 tone annually before 1972, the sardine fishermen 
how farely attain more than 4 total of 1,000-2,000 tons a year. te this 
phenomenon owing to overemploitation of these waters? It is «4 plausible 
hypothesie which it has not yet been possible, however, to demonstrate. 

Poot Fishing watere 

The herring (eardinelia eba) hae survived and constitutes today the essen- 
tial cateh of the sardine fishermen, 

While the round sardine was disappearing, another animal species began to 
proliferate: the balistidae, better known as “leather fish,” which the 
fishermen reject at sea for reasons that are clearly expressed by their 


We note, however, that the Ghanaians, stronger-jawed no doubt, consume the 
balistidae all the same. 

In any Case, the phenomenon shows how fragile and capricious nature can be: 
the aquatic ecosystem proceeds from an admirable balance between the fauna 
and the flora, in which each species survives and reproduces despite the 
aggressions of the other epecies. But this balance can be totally 
the hand of man: As long as fishing remains an art, it effects no 
modifications on the ecosystem, but as soon as the operation becomes indus~- 
trialiszed and systematized it can cause absolute upsets and lead to the 
depopulation, perhaps irreversible, of ocean waters. 


A Fragile Balance 

The fishing effort that a continental shelf can support is 4 oa tion 
that can and must be precisely arrived at. According to the CRO | Goeano- 
graphic Research Center], this effort for Ivorian waters comes to 10,000 of 
15,000 tone of sardines and 5,000 tone of trawlable fish per year. It is 
evident, therefore, that the Ivorian waters have been (at least in the 
past) overexploited and that their current poverty is the direct conse- 

quence of this. 

On the other hand, they are no longer being overexploited today, in thet 
the large fishing vessels are going out to more distant waters to fish. 
Worked only by emall boats, the Ivorian continental shelf fishing effort 
today does not exceed 5,000 tone of trawlable fish and 10,000 tons of 

Particularly devastating 18 c@ean=bottom trawling, Consisting of 4 system= 
atic seraping of the bottom of the continental shelf with the trawinet, 
thus actually destroying the aquatic environment and hence the reproductive 
process. This teehnique, long veed by the loeal shipowners, ie fortunately 
tending to be abandoned in favor of deep trawling (in whieh the trawinet 
merely shims the bottom) and midwater trawling (at depths substantially 
below the surface but substantially above the bottom). 

The Directorate of Marine and Lagoon Pishing is tending strongly to favor 
the latter two techniques. The change is being brought about easily, since 
ocean=bottom trawling has beoome rather unprofitable. 

The Fishing Port: Improvement and Bupansion Plane 

The creation of the fishing port is relatively recent in that it dates back 
only to 196), 

The fact is that when the port of Abidjan was opened in 1950, fishing in 
Ivory Coast was still being done on @ mere artisanal scale. Carried on by 
fishermen in pirogues aiong the coast or in the lagoon, it did not justify 
apecial installations or equipment. 

The first fishing port was placed in service in 1955 with a dock 150 meters 
long and an auction shed. 

Work on the present fishing port started in 1961 and was completed in 196). 
it was only from then on that industriel fishing was able to get under way. 

Today, the fishing port consiste of 1,050 meters of docks equipped with 
water, electricity and a gasoil fueling station. It includes 6,400 square 
meters of space for sorting and grading and actioning of catch, a8 well as 
45,000 equare meters of operations buildings equipped with telephone and 
telex services. 

Hed a number of fishing fleet operators not discontinued their activities, 
the fishing port would now be too email. But the situation is such that 
for the moment it suffices. 

ite installations and equipment, however, are rather timeworn. This is why 
the Port Authority has decided to renovate the lighting and electric power 
installations of the docks. The euction room will aleo be rehabiliteted. 
These projects are in progress. In any event, in case of recovery of the 
fishing industry, the present installations could be enlarged thanks to « 
glassed-in landing stage and refueling station built on as an extension of 
the tuna dock. 

Lastly, @ second fishing port is being planned as part of the Locodjro 
port expansion project. 

Fishing Righte Agreements: With Whom? 

in view of the ineufficieney of ite own Continental shelf, what can Ivory 
Coast do to meet ite needs in fresh fish? 

ite only possibility is to seek the fish it needs in foreign waters by way 
of negotiated fishing tights. But thie requires that ite “brother coun- 
tries” agree to the sharing involved, 

Deep sea fish exist in abundance, for the reasons cited above, in the 
southern intertropical sone at the level of the Congo, Angola and Namibia, 
a6 well a8 above the 10th parallel north, that is, off of Sierra Leone, the 
two Guineas, Senegal, Mauritania and the former Spanish Gahara; the Guif 
of Guinea is on the whole very poor. 

Until now, the only real agreement the government has been able to nego- 
tiate has been with Senegal: “Senegal is 1,100 nautical miles away,” Mr 
Roger, @ shipowner, explains. “1,100 nautical miles is for the big vessels; 
the fuel cost is too high for the Little ones.” 

Guinea-Conakry has aleo issued a few fishing Licenses recently to Ivorian 
operators. But Guinea, like Senegal, is also too far away for the smaller 
vessels, the more 80 Since these fishing licenses represent a heavy expense 
to the operators. 

"We continue talking of agreements with Guinea as the magic answer,” Mr 
Roger says further. “True, 20 years ago, off the coast of Guinea, we used 
to get wonderful catches. But are fish still plentiful in those waters? 
Very recently, we obtained fishing permits from Conakry, but our catches 
there have been very disappointing.” 

Guinea, Like Angola, has granted a fishing monopoly in its waters to the 
Russian, Cuban, Bulgarian, Romanian, Polish and other vessels. Bquipped 
with enormous factory ships, the Russians, not to mention the others, are 
carrying on intensive fishing operations there, providing another example 
of overexploitation leading to the impoverishment of fishing resources. 

Meanwhile, the Ivory Coast's trawler and sardine fishing industry is dying. 
The scarcity of fish is one reason. But other economic phenomena are conm- 
bining with these ecological problems to render the situation highly 

[29 Jui 80, p 16) 

Sewn! Trawler and sardine fishing is in trouble. The 
ing local shipowner, Lucas, after having operated for 
25 years in ivory Coast, filed a bankruptcy statement in 


March, and the Fishing Vessel Shipowners Association 
states that 50 percent of ite members are in 4 very 
Giffieult situation: further decommissionings are 
moreover continuing. 

The scearcity of fishing resources in Ivorian waters and 
the difficulties being experienced by Ivorian shipowners 
in Obtaining fishing licenses in nearby watere are con- 
tributing to the situation, But these are not new 
factors. What has been as sudden, however, a6 it is 
crushing, is the diesel oil] price inerease... 

Diesel oi] represents a very significant portion ~~ around 30 percent — of 
the industrial fishing activities budget. For Ivorian operatorée, no econo- 
mies are possible in this respect, since the fish must be gone after wher- 
ever it can be found. 

The price of diesel oil has risen steeply within a period of 1 year: from 
30.50 france per liter in January 1979 to 40.85 franes in April, to 64 
francs in October, to 72.25 frances in January 1980: 4 successive increases 
totaling 110 percent in 1 year. For the industrial fishing sector, this 
cost jump had the formidable effect of a sledge hammer biow. 

No More Subsidy 

What is more, it was during this price upsweep that the government decided 
to discontinue the fuel subsidy it had been granting to the various produc- 
tive sectors. Started in 1974, this fvel subsidy of 6.15 france per liter 
was very appreciable, in that until Pebruary 1979 it had represented a 

30 percent reduction in the cost of fuel for fishing vessel operations. 
Thus when this subsidy was discontinued, the fishing fleet owners and 
operators were subjected to a fuel cost increase not of 110 percent but of 
137 percent in the apace of 1 year. 

Why did the government decide to halt this subsidization? Because in the 
government's view, it was merely a subterfuge that camouflaged actual 
prices. Productive enterprises must price realistically. 

It will be recalled that in October 1979 the eect [Ivory Coast Electric 
Power Company | subjected its customers to a rate in crease of 20 percent 
on the electricity they consumed: the fuel price increase was thus passed 
on to the consumers. 

Collapsing Prices 
At that point, the price of fish should have gone up by an amount propor- 

tional to the cost increases being borne by fishing fleet operators. 
Instead, fish prices remained virtually stationary (they increased only 10 


percent)=-not because the producers wanted it 80, but simply because, for 
some time now, they have found themselves competing desperately against 
imported fish, 

Fiehed by the big Russian, Bulgarian of Polish factory ships off the Afri- 
Can Coasts, frozen fish have invaded the Ivorian market at prices defying 
ail competition. For, these national fleets from the Bast do not operate 
aceording to the same profit and loss criteria as private fleets: For them, 
the acquisition of foreign currency is the paramount reason for the sale 
of the fish; the fact ia that they always demand payment in dollars. 

But is the acquisition of hard currency the sole objective being pursued by 
those fleets? At 50 of 60 france per kilo, the price of this imported fish 
is a “dumping” price; in other words, a price capable of collapsing the 

Paced by the enormous rise in fuel cost, the Ivorian operators, with a base 
price of 100 france per kilo, cannot compete unless their catches are big. 
How then are they to cope with this frozen fish competition? 

We should point out that Ivory Coast aleo buys large quantities of frozen 
fish from Senegal. But this fish, even though it is considerably cheaper 
than fresh fish, is far from reaching the dumping prices of fish “from the 
Bast.” It is virtually considered local fish, since it pays no custome 
import duties. 

A Social Problem 

What is likely to be the outcome of this foreign competition? By destroy- 
ing prices, the massive injection of imported fish is endangering the local 
fishing industry. The question is: Once having driven the latter into 
bankruptcy and remained master of the market, will imported fish remain at 
such @ low price? It is wnlikely: The Bast is as thoroughly femiliar as 
the West with the law of supply and demand! 

But there is a still more serious danger: Suppose Ivory Coast were to find 
itself being supplied with fish exclusively by the Soviet bloc, and that 
all of a sudden the latter decided to abandon the Ivorian market. What 
then? The population would find itself suddenly deprived of animal 
proteins at affordable prices: The disadvantaged social strata would be 
the first to suffer from it. 

While it may seem a bit exaggerated to speak of a destabilizing threat at 
this point, there is in any case the cisk of becoming dependent on foreign 
sources for food--a risk that the country cannot permit itself to incur. 

Be that as it may, Ivory Coast is paying a high price for its imported fish 
in the outpour of herd currency involved. In 1979, these imports totaled 
9 billion CPA france--a sum that was fortunately attenuated to some extent 
by exports of canned tuna (6 billion CPA france in 1979). 


The problem is serious, for the fact ia that the collapse of the market is 
alceady in progress: The cold storage warehouses are filled to the point 
of bursting with frogen fish and the foreign factory ships are compelled 
to wait up to 10 days at times at the dock to unload a8 soon a8 space 
becomes available in the warehouses to be filled up again. 

And when the Ivorian trawlers and sardine boats return to port they find it 
hard to sell their catch: Preah fish, at four times the price of frozen 
fieh, has to be highly prised indeed to sell! Por the middlemen, the 
difference is quite substantial, and they prefer to deal in frozen fish, 
which brings them greater profits. 

Moreover, fresh fish cannot stand to wait in this climate: If not sold as 
soon a8 unloaded, it begine to go stale. The operators are then compelled 
to dispose of it at ridiculous prices to the REAL Company, which converts 
it to fish meal. 

Fresh Fish: How Fresh? 

What indeed is the quality of the fish brought in by the trawlers after 18 
or 20 days at sea? 

It appears that this fish, despite the fact that it has not even been 

Cleaned, nevertheless preserves an acceptable market quality. “This is 

Owing to the fact that the biological process of fish are adapted to the 

temperatures of the environment in which they live. Those of the cold sea 

species are adapted to temperatures between +2° C and +6° C. The physiolo- 

gigs of the warm sea species are adapted to temperatures between +25° C and 

“Freezing or refrigeration of the trawler holds keeps their ambient temper- 
ature at between 0° C and +2° C. The difference is very slight for cold 
water fish but very substantial for tropical species (23°-25° at least). 
The bacterial flora, the enzymes and the chemical processes of deteriora- 
tion are thus hindered and the start of their action considerably slowed 

"But what is certain is that the lack of cleanliness of the wooden auction 
crates, which are never disinfected, and the excessive time the fish stays 
on the aution floor (from 1800 to 0700 hours the next morning) at a temper- 
ature of 40° C, are harmful to its quality of freshness.” The foregoing is 
quoted from a study carried out in 1979 by the Technical Consultations 
Office of the SCET [Central Company for Territorial Equipment | Internation- 
al on the auction operation of the Abidjan fishing port. 

In Prance, public health rules and regulations stipulate that fish may not 
remain in a refrigerated hold more than 10 days to preserve its marketable 
degree of freshness. 

The only way to avoid ftewartming the fish, the study points out, would be to 
"“tranefer it immediately upon unloading it into an aif G@ Wditioned building 
kept at +10° C, where all sorting and auctioning operations would be car 
ried out.” 

Currently, sanitary control of fish after it is unloaded is exercised by 
the Directorate of Marine and Lagoon Pishing. When fish is “doubtful” it 
is dipped in methylene blue and in this way marked as being unfit for 
human consumption. 

This, however, does not prevent the frequent appearance of “blue' fish in 
the marketplaces... 

Progen Fish As a Backup 

To rescue the local fishing industry means tak.og steps in regard to 
imported fish: This, after all, is the principle of protectionism that 
Ivory Coast currently applies in many other sectors. 

It is of course out of the question to stop all imports, since domestic 
production cannot satisfy the national demand. But imported fish must be 
considered a backup, and as such severely conditioned: This will require 
Close coordination between the Ministry of Animal Production and the Minis- 
try of Commerce. The Directorate of Marine and Lagoon Fishing is there to 
provide the needed fishing statistics: It is based specifically on these 
Statistics that the needed imports could be quantified. Supply and demand 
would thus be brought into balance, and prices, as 4 result, stabilized. 

Halt the Sinking 

In 1978, there were 25 trawlers; today, there are no more than 17 in opera- 
tion and the shipowners do not hide the fact of their uneasiness: “If our 
creditors were to become demanding,” they say, “half of us would be forced 
to discontinue operations.” The most recent reports indicate that nine 
more vessels have been decommissioned. 

In supplying 40,000 tons of fish a year (19,152 tons of sardines and 16,656 
tons of trawlable fish in 1979), the trawler and sardine fishing industry 
fulfills an economic role that cannot be neglected: In fact, it covers one- 
third of our national needs of this food staple, provides a livelihood to 
2,000 seamen, and directly or indicectly generates more than 60,000 jobs. 

Ivory Coast is not the only country to be experiencing hard times in this 
sector of production. Most of the Buropean countries characterized by a 
fishing tradition are being compelled to aid their shipowners: In Prance, 
in Great Britain, in Spain, public subsidies (fuel allowances, investment 
assistance, etc...) are being granted to the fishing industry to keep them 
in operation. 

It is a matter of 4 political choice. 


(Text) The fishing industry is having @ difficult time 
of it. The leading local shipowners, the Lucas Company 
files bankruptcy proceedings last month, and the Fishing 
Shipowners Association states that 50 percent of its 
member owners and operatore are in financial trouble. 

The paucity of fish in Ivorian waters and the problems 
the shipowners and operators are having in getting fishing 
licenses in waters close enough to Ivory Coast are at the 
base of their difficulties. But other factors have 
exacerbated the situation: the upward soom of diesel oil 
prices--137 percent in 1 year--and the competition from 
frozen fish imports from the Bastern European countries, 
which are seriously endangering the Ivorian trawler and 
sardine fishing industry. 

Although Ivory Coast is a disadvantaged country as regards its continental 
shelf fishing resources, it enjoys on the other hand a privileged position 
in regard to deep-sea fishing. This is again the result of ecological 
phenomena: Tuna is in fact a migratory fish that lives in the high seas and 
migrates seasonally within a sone extending from Senegal (the region of 
Principe Island, Annobon, etc...) to the Guinea Dome (out from Conakry). 

Ivory Coast therefore finds iteelf in a rather central position with respect 
to this zone of action. 

This favorable position is reflected especially in the Abidjan port's 
traffic: “Besides the Ivorian tuna fleet,” explains Dr Luc Koffi, head of 
the Directorate of Ocean and Lagoon Pishing, “the port of Abidjan harbors 
the French tuna fleet during most of the year. Since 1974, Abidjan has 
tended to supplant Dakar in this respect: In 1978, the Franco-Ivorian fleet 
unloaded 61 percent of their catches at Abidjan versus 16 percent at Dakar.” 

Africa's Leading Tuna Port 

Almost 500 tuna ships a year of all registries--Chinese, American, Panama- 
nian, Senegalese, but mostly Moroccan and Spanish--transit the Ivory Coast, 
making of Abidjan Africa's leading tuna traffic port. Added to these tuna 
fishing vessels are the refrigerator ships that come to load frozen tuna 
that has been warehoused by SOGIP ion unknown] (storage capacity at 
=-20°C is 12,000 tons) and by SOGEF [ expansion unknown], a smaller company 
(1,500 tons at -20° c). 

A rather recent Ivory Coast activity, tuna fishing has grown in just a few 
years: In 1976, the local fleet consisted of 5 ships; today it totale 6, 
and within 2 months it will total 10 ships. 


Just three shipowner enterprises share this sector of activity: 

=~-BIPAR [expansion unknown |, in whieh the state is the majority shareholder, 
owne five modern tuna fishing vessels, of which the two smallest are 
Curtently up for sale, and has ordered a tuna supership, 70 meters long and 
equipped with a heliport, which is scheduled for delivery within 1 of 2 

--8MLG [expansion — owns two tuna ships and is momentarily awaiting 
delivery of a third one, 70 meters long. 

--Oceanic Armament owns only one ship, but a large one (72 meters long), 
which seems to be the most viable anewer since the larger catches it 
accommodates help to offset the higher fuel costs, fuel comprising nearly 
30 percent of the shipowner's costes. 

With modern fleets and a rather substantial investment plan (a 70-meter 
tuna ship costs between 1.5 and 2 billion CPA francs), the tuna fishing 
industry seems to be reasonably prospering. 

“Nevertheless,” says Dr Luc Koffi, “it too is experiencing difficulties 
Owing to the fuel cost increase. Confronted by French and Spanish shipown- 
ers that are subsidized by their respective governments, the Ivorian 
shipowners find it hard to compete. 

“This is why we are currently studying ways and means of helping our ship- 
owners to hold their own.” 

By agreement, the price of tuna is reviewed twice a year and account taken 
of the cost increases borne by the shipowners. Their total production is 
bought by SOVETCO [expansion unknown ], a French cooperative, of which the 
Ivorian tuna shipowners and operators are members. 

A World of Secrets 

Tuna fishing is by no means artisanal. It is carried on today by quite 
sophisticated fishing methods: Banks (let us not forget that tuna is a 
migratory fish) are detected by radar and fishing is done with seining 
ships 30 to 70 meters long and equipped with encircling seine nets often 
2 kilometers long and several hundred meters high. 

Through the use of such equipment, catches can | al--sometimes as 
much as 500 tons of fish in a single casting of u.« . However, 10 to 
15 tons per casting is more usual. 

Tuna fishing is a world of silence...among the men: Each shipowner has his 
favorite fishing spots and his own charts of the ocean bottom, which he 
keeps secret to himself. Thanks to the improved navigational equipment 
with which modern tuna fishing vessels are provided, fertile sites can be 
accurately pinpointed and returned to each year at the proper time. 


A Substantial Contribution 

The unloadings and transhipments effected by the international tuna fleet 
play an important part in the activity of the port of Abidjan: These tuna 
ships use the port's refrigeration facilities, take on supplies of food and 
diesel fuel, have repairs made in the docks and local naval shops, besides 
paying harbor, merchandise and other taxes, 

According to De Lue Koffi, these expenditures come to at least 3 million 
frances CPA per ship per call. At the rate of 10 port calls per ship, the 
number of ships regularly using the port of Abidjan being some 400, some 
12 billion frances CPA are brought into the Ivorian public coffers annually 
by the Abidjan tuna port. 

Aside from this contribution of exchange, the presence of these tuna ships 
provides direct «employment for over 300 dockers who are assigned full time 
to servicing the tuna. Local ii...etries linked to the tuna fishing activ- 
ity employ around 2,000 additional persons. 

Contribution in Hard Currency 

SOVETCO markets frozen tuna internationally and supplies the two local 
tinning plants. 

Of the 80,000 tons of tuna that transit Ivory Coast, around 30,000 tons are 
processed on the spot and exported. Canned tuna provides the country with 
an appreciable amount of hard currencies (6 billion in 1979), offsetting 
most of its frozen fish imports: 

--Installed and operating since 1962, scopI [expansion unknown], formed by 
the French group Saupiquet et Graciet, has a capacity of 150 tons a day, 
enabling it to process 22,000 tons of fish a year. A major investment 
effort undertaken during 19786 and 1979 resulted in a 50 percent increase 

of its capacity. 

--Peche et Froid de Cote d'Ivoire, a subsidiary of the company of the same 
name nastalled at Boulogne-sur-mer (France), is of very recent origin, 
having been inaugurated in 1976. With a capacity of 75 tons a day, it can 
process 6,000 tons of fish a year. 

Thus, with a total capacity of 30,000 tons a year, Ivory Coast occupies the 
world's second place, after Japan, as an exporter of canned tuna. We must 
point out that additional canning plants are in the planning stage, attest- 
ing the good health of this industrial sector. 

Basic Food Problem Remains 

The tuna fishing industry is thus a cather prosperous sector within a 
fishing industry environment that is in trouble on the whole and that Ivory 
Coast has every interest in protecting, indeed developing, through incisive 

Nevertheless, the tuna fishing industry is situated on the margin of the 

general Ivorian fishing industry problem, in that it is oriented toward the 
export market. It cannot therefore resolve the problems of self-sufficien- 
cy in food that would be posed our trawling and sardine fishing industries 


The two sectors (tuna fishing and trawlable fishing) put on the same foot- 
ing, and under no conditions can the tuna industry ever be considered a 
possible substitute for the fresh fish industry that must supply our 
national food needs. 

{31 Jul 80, PP 10-11] 

[Text] Opposite the natural poverty of the Ivorian 
continental shelf in fishing resources, opposite the 
difficulties being encountered by its fishing industry 
by way of rising fuel prices, Ivory Coast must devote 
itself to finding new solutions to ite fish supply 

The country is endowed with an exceptional potentiality 
@onsisting of ite vast bodies of lagoonal waters, cover- 
ing some 150,000 hectares on the whole, in which aqui- 
cultural methods have been tested and which are capable 
of being put into production. 

Fishing in inland waters is an activity as old as the Ivorian soil itself. 
The Ebrie, Aby, Tagba, Aghien and other lagoons are bodies of calm waters 
abounding in fish, which the lagoonal populations have always exploited, 
at least by means of very rudimentary methods. Certain of these lagoons, 
however, are now showing signs of overexploitation leading to an impover- 
ishment in terms of their fish and crustacean resources. 

Despite the current diminution of their stocks, these bodies of lLagoonal 
waters can very easily be exploited in a rational manner through agqui- 

Ivory Coast's 150,000 hectares of lagoons offer a number of natural 
Characteristics that lend themselves perfectly to aquiculture: these expan- 
ses of water are actually very calm generally; tie prevailing winds from 


the Southwest sector ate barely able to faise @ slight Choppiness, the more 
eo inasmuch a6 they are generally net very wide (eneept for the Aby lagoon, 
none of them emoeeds 4 kilometers in width at any point), Their beds, 
Consisting of send and the fremaine of shelis, are not very deep, making it 
quite easy to @onstivet vast enclosures, And lastiy, the hydrologic 
Conditions of these lagoons are known and stable: Aside from the lagoons 
subject to inflows of fresh water (from fivers) or Of sea water (like the 
Bbtie lagoon around Abidjan), the legoonal waters show virtually fo season- 
ai vatiations, 

To faise fish by intensive aquicultural methods requires le. ge quantities 
of hutfitional resources, without which aquiculture would be prohibitive 
from the profitability standpoint, 

it 60 happens that in ivory Coast the residues of agroindustrial processes 
are poorly of not at ail exploited: for instance, cottonseed cake, palm-nut 
Cate, co@onut cake, Sugar Cane molasses, banana sorting waste; more than 

100,000 tons of feed could be recovered from these agroindustrial residues. 

Around Abidjan, many factories have been set up in the past few years to 
produce animal feed: IVOGRAIN (61PRA) in Yopougon, DOMAR in Abadjin Route, 
in Bey and in Abobo-Route, are establishments capable of producing feeds 
of all tinds according to desired formulas. 

Aquicuiture fish can also be fed directly with these industrially made 
products, at least those fieh having 4 high market walue. Here we have an 
economic argument in favor of developing aquiculture in ivory Coast. 

"Minister's Fish” Piret 

Por years, the CRO [Oceanographic Research Center) has been working on the 
biology of a highly prized fish that would lend itself to aquicuiture as 
well, namely, the jawfieh. The CROs research efforts have been centered 

on its reproduction (indvoed laying of eggs, artificial reproduction), the 
determinant factor in this method of breeding. 

At Grand-Lahow, 4 very reliable and profitable technique for fattening jaw- 
fish, on the other hand, has been developed by 
jawfich, in thie instance, are bought from the 

around 60 gtame each, placed in enclosures and fed a balanced 
formula. In @ of 10 months, these fish weigh each 

on the fish stands in markets (at 1,500 france per kilo fresh, and 3,000 
france per tilo emoted). Let us not pt 
Gish that i¢ siways on the menu for any Ivor 
called the “minister's fish.” 


At Jacqueville, with financing from the Ministry of Animal Production, a 
stocking Station was build in 1978. Jawfish eggs collected from the lagoon 
are incubated at the station and the fry are fed until they reach a sige 
at which they can be released into the enclosure. 

Thus, the faising of jawlish shows signs of promising results, provided, 
of Course, it becomes possible to exploit indveed reproduction methods 
that have yet to be perfeeted, barely opening the doors to industrial 

Tilapia Basily Raised 

The lagoon Carp (tilapia) is another fish on whieh Ivory Coast is placing 
great hopes a6 regards aquiculture, It is moreover a fish that is being 
easily faised in ponds throughout Africa, and whose feeding and reproduec- 
tion are well known techniques, 

it shows great tolerance to salinity, and a marketable sized fish can be 
obtained in 6 months of intensive raising. 

Binoe 1976, tests have been conducted on raising of carp in floating cages. 
The first trials effected at Mopoyem (near Dabou), then at Bingerville, 
gave satisfactory results: Simple cages can be built at a cost of about 
40,000-60,000 frances by inexperienced persone. The cost of proper feeding 
is also reasonable: to produce 1 kilo of carp requires 120 france of feed. 

Sold on the local market at 600 francs per kilo, lagoon carp appears to 
have a promising future. 

First Stage: Artisanal Aquicuiture 

As a first step, the government would like to develop artisanal aquiculiture 
among the lagoonal populations. This would actually be an incentive to 
Village youths to stay in their own localities, by enabling them to earn 
appreciable incomes, at the same time that it restored to villages a self- 
sufficiency in food that had been compromised by impoverishment of the 

The governmental program, which would have been launched this year if 
budgetary restrictions had not intervened, will consist of training youths 
in artisanal aquiculture, helping them set up their own operation, and 
providing them with specialized technical help. 

This popularization effort, which will be conducted by the Aquiculture 
Service of the Directorate of Marine and Lagoon Fishing, will center on 

the technique of floating cages and on tilapia, since the induced reproduc- 
tion techniques have been perfected for this species; the aquiculturers 
will, of course, handle the fattening process, while the reproduction 
remains in the hands of specialized centers. 

The raising of jawfish, which is more of a problem, will be only gradually 
extended to selected favorable sites. 


The aquiculturers will in all eases be en@ouraged to form cooperatives to 
facilitate financing, operations, and the marketing of their products, 

industrial Parme for Higher Produetion Levels 

The development of artisanal aquiculture will not impede the development of 
industrial aquicultural farms capable of supplying larger town and city 

The first such farm has already been built, in 1979, at Bapo (sub-prefecture 
of Jacqueville) by British Petroleum Parme on a purely private investment 
basis. Its objective is to produce, within } years from now, 500 tons a 
year of tilapia (lagoon carp) on 4 total investment of 200 million frances 
CPA, tte current production is 150 tons; thie will be doubled next year. 

Unoertainties 8till Abound 

it would be tempting to say: "Let us forge ahead with aquicuiture, with an 
intensive development of this economic form of animal production.” 

But the fact is that this potential is still clouded by many uncertainties. 
it is at the stage of production of the fry that much has yet to be done in 
the way of research and development before large-scale aquiculture can be 
seriously considered. in this regard, it appears that the research effort 
is loosely dispersed, with the CRO, under the Ministry of Scientific 
Research, in one corner of the arena, and the Ministry of Animal Production 
creating its own research structures in another. 

This is unfortunate. What is needed is an effectively coordinated effort, 
the more 60 since the research that has been done so far has failed in every 
way to attain any objective: for example, nothing is known yet of the patho- 
logy of the tilapia or of the jawfish, although it appeare quite certain 
that an animal conoentration inevitably involving mass phenomena will some 

day of other pose pathological probleme. 

There is also the problem of pollution which can cause enormous losses in 
aquiculture operations. This pollution could as easily come from Abidjan 
(ueban pollution) as from farming activities (insecticides); it could even 
come from unlawful fishing methods (some fishermen catch fish by poisoning 

Before undertaking a large-scale aquicultural action, it appears necessary, 
therefore, that all up and down the line there be general coordination and 
that the natural environment be thoroughly mastered. The catastrophe that 
occurred last yeat in the Ebrie legoon, inexuplicably causing the death of 
@ major portion of the fish populating that lagoon, is @ pointed example 
of the fragility of the lagoonal ecosysten, 


Offefing a8 4t deee aden able and pethaps ianenhe potentialities, muieul 
ture Should thus be Viewed, [fom the heat-term® Standpoint, a8 @ Comp Lement 
of marine fishing, Ae things now Stand, however, it Cannot at all be 
thought of a8 «a Substitute for the latter, Tt would therefore be folly 
to Gay: “Why save marine fishing when we have aquieulture?” 

Diversification of tesourees is, a8 ivory Coast knows, the best economic 
safeguard: Aquiculture a8 a complement of marine fishing, yes; a6 a 
Substitute, nol 

The Lagoons: A Highly Productive Bnvitonmental Resource That Must fe 

Very little is known a8 yet about the lagoons, those unique and highly 
productive environments situates at the junctions between sea waters and 
fresh waters, As an cxample of their productivity, 10,000 tons of fish and 
Ctustaceans ate taken cach yeat from the Bbrie Lagoon alone, 

Owing to the intensification of fishing activity and, above ali, to the use 
of modern equipment=-more efficient and at times even murderous of the 
young=-it became indispensable to consider a more rational exploitation of 
their stocks, 

At the Ivorian government's request, a study of the Bbrie lagoon fisheries 
was therefore undertaken in 1974 and a data gathering network was put into 
operation to study the dynamic of the species being exploited. 

ivory Coast is especially well provided with lagoonal brackish environments, 
in that its lagoons extend for 300 kilometers along ite coast and cover an 
area of the order of 1,200 square kilometers. They are environments chatac- 
terized by complex ecosystems subject to the conjugate influences of inland 
and marine waters: They are in fact products at one and the same time of the 
coastal of Sudanese river systems and of the size and natural or artificial 
Otigins of the Links between these systems and the oceanic environment. 

These tropical brackish environments are extremely important to 4 number of 
human activities: communications, trade, fishing, tourism. Yet, they had 
never until recently been the object of systematic and extensive studies, 
even though it was these self-same activities that had brought about the 
concentrations of population along the coast, a gradual urbanization, and 
by way of consequence, various effects upon the environment. This evolution 
is especially characteristic of and strikingly clear in the case of the 
Pbtie lagoon, which was provided with an artificial outlet to the sea, the 
Vridi canal, and around which the Abicjan agglomeration developed rapidly. 
it therefore became necessary to bridge the knowledge gap, and this was the 
reason for instituting an Ebrie Lagoon research program in 1973, which was 
intensified in succeeding years to the point where in 1979 it represented 
more than half the research activity of Abidjan’s CRO. 


The Thieat of Pollution 

The ivoty Coast's lagoonal environments, and especially that of the Bbrie 
lagoon, are the volleeting places of pollutants from agricultural (fertili: 
gera, insecticides), industrial and domestic sources, the magnitude of 
which is inereasing from year to yeat at an alarming rate. The effeet of 
these pollutants is clearly a threat to the ecological balance of the 
lagoons and to their productivity. It has therefore become a matter of 
urgeney to Study the effects of these pollutants and to institute remedivs 
if necessary. 

The CRO has thus been charged with cartying out basic research on lagoon 
ecology in all sectors, whether of not they are subject to pollution, with 
assessing the effecte of any pollution on the various aspects of organic 
production, and with recommending the corrective steps to be taken, The 
research is being carried by a mixed team of oceanographers and hydrobiole- 
gists, with the collaboration of geologists and sociologists. Por example, 
its socioeconomic aspect began with a monoygraphic study of a villaye to 
identify the various social factors that enter into the fishing domain. it 
involved a Comparison of fishing activities with agricultural activities 

in this ceaspect, a8 well as an analysis of the use of modern devices as 
compared with traditional methods, and their respective consequences. 
Extended to several villages and representative settlements, this study 
was able to identify a certain antagonistic Situation among artisanal, 
collective and individual fishing activities, and a competitive situation 
between farming and fishing activities. In sum, this study enabled a 
delineation of fishing zones, to the extent possible, as a function of the 
methods in use therein, and a clearer insight into the social role of 
fishing in village life. 

[i Aug 80, p 15) 

‘Dext) Why oceanography? What are the reasons that impel 
humanity to know and understand the oceans? To these ques- 
tions, an obvious answer: the oceans cover 71 percent of our 
planet and they constitute, by virtue of that simple fact, 

@ colossal reservoir of resources of all kinds: food, 
minerals, energy. The oceans ate moreover 4 necessary means 
of communication and their influence on climates is pre- 
ponderant (a thermal reservoir). 

A colossal reservoir, yes, but not an unlimited one. Con- 
sequentiy, it is important to know its stocks and the 
mechanisms that govern the creation of those stocks to be 
able to manage them rationally. 

The fational development of Fishing, a better knowledy: 

Of lagocns and «€ean bottoms, prospeetion, feseareh and 
development of aquatic substances of medicinal interest: 
Projects such as these, carried out by the ORBTOM [Over- 
seas Geientific and Teehnical Researeh Office (rance) 

and its Specialised division, the CkO [Oceanographic 
Nesgeatch Center }, ate Contributing to the eeonomic deve lop- 
ment of developing nations, by providing them the knowledge 
they need for a fational exploitation of the vast resources 
concealed by the oceans, tivere and lagoons. 

ivory Coast is fortunate in having a CRO base of ite own, 
With Senegal, it is one of the rare Aftican countries to 
have its own oceanographic research facilities. The 
Abidjan CRO, with ite 30 researchers, is one of the largest 
OBTOM subsidiaries, 

The tropical ocean is chatacterized by @ permanent homogeneous, ware sut- 
face layer; this is our planet's heat reservoir, the regulator of our 

Thies layer is separated from the cold subjacent layer, which is tich in 
minerale that are indispensable to the process of photosynthesis, by 
the thermocline, which constitutes a substantial barrier against the 
passage of these minerals into the sunlighted surface area and thus limits 
the production of living matter. The tropical ocean is generally poor. 

Winds, the coastal structure, the rotetion of the earth, can all perturb 
this stratification, destroy the thermocline and allow cold sineral~-tich 
water to tise to the surface: These are “upwellings,” which modify the 
thermal exchanges between ocean and atmosphere and increase considerably 
the production of living matter that is exploitable from a fishing 


Upwellings are the true pastures of the tropical ocean. 

The well known coastal upwellings are traditional fishing grounds (Peru, 
Mauritania, etc...). 

Pquatorial upwellings are of special interest, in that, neither well known 
nor intensively exploited, they can furnish abundant resources for the 
future, They cover, in the three oceans, an enormous geographical area, 
almost always more than 200 miles from the shores, hence accessible to 


The study of these upwellings is therefore extremely important for the 
fishing industry in Guif of Guinea. 


in 1978 and 1979, an important project named CIPALA “Citeulat iO afd 
Prodvetion at the Pquator in the Atlantic, wat undertaken in this foyatd by 
the Peeneh ecientifie tesearel establishment with 40 freseatehe rs From thy 
URS TOM, the Abidjan CRO, the CNRS National Center ‘or Beientifie Research 
(France), the CNEXO | National Center for Exploitation of the Oceans 
(France), the Preneh Museum of Natural History, and the University of Went 
Neitteiny, Under thie projeet of international interest, Abidjan served 
as the base for the fout oGeanvgtaphic Ships and the tesearchers. 

"One of the essential reasons foe Studying the ceean,” explains Mr 
Hetbiand, ORBTOM tesearcher, “is food, Bvety year, man takes from the 
oceans 60 to 70 million tons of food for his own consumption and that of 
his animals, This is an impressive figure, but its impressiveness shrinks 
when compared, for example, with the world production of rice (350 million 
tons in 19786) and of wheat (350 million tons), totaling 700 million tons 
between them, wherefore it becumes only one-tenth of the world's cereal 

This figure has increased continually since the beginning of man's fishing 
activities, and since what we are dealing with is 4 harvesting situation, 
the exploitation of a renewable natural resource, we should manage it ae 
wisely a8 possible, 80 a8 not to deplete the stock just when the demo- 
gtaphic explosion is rendering fishing more and more necessary. 

Pot this reason, it is necessary to know a8 exactly a6 possible the quanti- 
ties of the different species being caught each year. But this information 
alone is not sufficient. It sust also be known where and when they were 
Caught. “Measurements taken on sufficiently representetive, that is, 
sufficiently large, samplings, and dissections performed to determine, for 
example, the states of maturity of the ovaries, provide data for determin- 
ing the periods of reproduction. Examination of the scales enables 
determination of the age of fish. 

"Collection of the larvae provides information on laying sites. 

“Measurement and interpretation of all these parameters, constituting the 
biology of fish, are necessary to understand the evolution of stocks in 
space and time. fSased on these data, and knowing the fishing effort being 
deployed, in terme of number of vessels, of nets, and of the various types 
of fishing gear being used, planning sodels can be constructed and rules 
and regulations established to protect stocks as effectively as possible.” 

Abidjan At the Center of This Research 

Such studies have been carried out at the CRO over the pest 15 years or so 
on all the species being fished here. They have been especially intensive 
on tuna, which represents 4 significant sector, in terms of tonnage and 

value, of the fish being unloaded in the port of Abidjan. An international 


COMMISSION With headquattets in Madtid centralizes all the fesults fue the 
tropical Atlantic and recommends the guidelines for the deawing up of a set 
of regulations: for example, it i8 illegal to take tuna Of less than 2 years 
of age, Seaning those thet have not yet reproduced, Unfortunately, the 
regulations are tately tespeeted, particularly where the Cishing is done 

in international waters belonging to everyone, 

Food Chain 

“Although the biology of fish i6 essential to good nanagement of stocks, it 
alone is not sufficient. Fish are at the end of a complex food chain. 
Knowledge of o@eanic food chains is one of the major biological oceano- 
Gtaphic problems.” 

On land, ®an Consumes animale that are for the most part herbivores. Man is 
therefore a first-order carnivore. In the ocean, plants are nonexistent; 
those which could be equivalent to plants, the algae of different colors 
that grow On focky coasts, represent an infinitesimal production, and they 
are not (or not very much) consumed, 

“All vegetal production is in the form of billions of tiny cells that float 
freely in the water and are callet phytoplanktons (phytos = plant, plankton = 
floating). The phytoplanktons are consumed by herbivores, which are most 
generally tiny organisms less than a few millimeters long, called zooplank- 
tons (200 * animal). These herbivores are in turn consumed by the first- 
order carnivores, which may be fish or other zooplanktons. The latter 
rooplanktons are consumed by second-order carnivorous fish. 

Thus, san is most often a second- of third-order carnivore. The most 
important fact of these food chains is the low yield obtained when going 
from one echelon to another. It is of the order of 10 percent. For exan- 
ple, 1 kilo of tuna, a second-order carnivore, will have consumed 10 kilos 
of first-order carnivorous fish, which will in turn have consumed 100 kilos 
of herbivorous zooplanktons, which will have grazed 1,000 kilos of phyto- 
pianktons. Consequentiy, 1 «ilo of tuna costs the ocean 1 ton of phyto- 
Planktons. Do these very low yields prevent the species positioned at the 
end of the chain from becoming very abundant?” 

Por Rational Pxploitation: How Mitigate This Problem? 

There is 4 way to exploit some of the species situated near the lower ond 
of the food chain: for example, the herbivorous zooplanktons. Although the 
zooplanktons are present in extremely vast quantities, they are distributed 
in a very diffuse manner throughout the ocean, and collecting them requires 
faltration of considerable volumes of water, making this type of exploita- 
tion prohibitive; the more so, since the market value of zooplankton could 
not be very high, in that it is @ product that must be transformed into a 
powder of a butter. 


Another way to compensate fur the very poot yield t the fatutal Matine 
Loud ehaihe i8 aquicuitutfe, Tor vertain especies (trout, MuseelB, ete...), 
it 18 @ Very ancient practive, but it i8 only ie ently that aguicultute har 
hecome the object Of a Major Scientific tesearenh effort, The main problem 
iG that of reproduction, It i6 very difficult in most Cases to induce 
emploiteble marine species to teproduce if a Controlled environment, 

One of the objectives of aquiculture is therefore to control the laying of 
eggs and to raise the young tty only to @ Bite large enough to enable it to 
cope with the hazards of a natural environment. This type of study is being 
Cattied out on the jawfioh at the Abidjan CRO, Another objective of aqui- 
Culture can be the fattening of the young to a marketable size. Feed must 
be manufactured for this purpose, to achieve optimum growth at minimum 
operating cost. An effort of this kind ha been carried out, still on jaw- 
fish, at Grand=Lahou and at Dabou. A pro of exploitation of jawfisah 
culture by Gmall enterprises is about to | Ger way, financed in part by 
the Central Bank for Economic Cooperation. 

CSO: 9200 


Nairobi DAILY MATION in English 


HOPPERS of the Prehertes 
lepartment of the Mimetry of 
Favironment and Nature! 
Hew orem have heen tlanted fer 
the delay in implementing 
dec ehopenent primate 
Fovirenment and Naturel 
Heeources Minster Andree 

financial alle atrne were apent 


/} Aug Wp 4 





ut honed annwallty 




athe ater try 
_—— 2 

‘si youl | | is 


Salisbury THE HERALD in English 9 Sep 80 p 4 

lArticie by Peyton Johneon ! 

| Text | 

THE physical «plendoua 
ol the group of 100 
islands strung owt eeros> 
610000 square = kilo 
metres of the Indian 

Ower the coral feefs the 
witerm are @ Clear vou 
on srt out differing 
ehools a6@ individus! fieh 
unlit your eye tires of 

thelr hanging 

the islands pr. 
simity to the tor, the 
— ⸗— and 

are few. 
1 einer 1074 
the changed 

Mahe with &8 prroent 
froatio aed La Digue The 
tote! teed sree i & 
chimpy 273 square kilo. 

Tureen — far the 

a uit 
i bir 

: . 
pe ge Pies ‘ter 
83 eye “Tourtem is. 
and will contiews t bt, 
the main sector of the 
ond hardly be 
othe rwiee 22 Tee 








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* Ee 

J iil 
it j 


fi : Pat 

luce : 

bah , 





Victoria NATION in En, eh 20 Aug 80 p 2 

[Texy/ The French research vessel, the Coriolis, is presently in Seychelles 
on 4 six-week programme of research which will evaluate stocks of fish in 
Seychelles waters and is a followup of a similar research cruise made by 
the Coriolis in waters around Mahe, the Amirantes and the outer islands in 
Oetober 1979. Observers from the Fisheries Division will accompany the 
vessel and will participate fully in all research activities. 

Of total length 37.5 metres and gross tonnage 460 tonnes, Coriolis has two 
recently renovated laboratories fitted with latest sophisticated acoustic 
equipment including an echointegrator and computer. The vessel can under- 
take various methods of fishing. Fishing gear on board includes a ‘biukiami' 
which is a Japanese-designed Liftnet, a pelagic trawl which fishes in mid- 
water, 4 bottom or demersal trawl, and also a deep-water lobster trawl. 

A team of scientists from the research institute ORSTOM and headed by Mon- 
sieur E. Marchal, joined the veesel in Seychelles and will carry out the 
program in two phases. 

Phase 1 

The first involves an acoustic estimation of the pelagic, especially the 
baitfish resources of the Mahe and Amirantes plateaux. Acoustic fish 
research is a modern method of fish estimation which is undergoing rapid 
development. in brief terms, various echosounders are used to detect fish 
in the path of the vessel. These directions are sorted and analysed by an 
echo integrator and computer euch that the actual quantity of fish passing 
beneath the vessel can be estimated. Sample trawl hawls are made on 
important detections and information is obtained on actual species present. 

The acoustic techniques gives a good indication of quantities of various 
pelagic and bait fishes present and is especially relevant in areas where 
fishing is at an early stage of development and information is not avail- 
able from other more direct sources. 


The research vessel will be closely allied to SOGET and information on 
baitfish concentrations will be passed immediately to a tuna boat for 

This phase of the programme laste only 17 days as the equipment has to be 
diemantled and flown to identical survey being undertaken on the West 
African coast. 

Phase 2 

The second phase involves an investigation of the demersel fish etocks on 
the Plateau. The survey differs from other previous ones in that the 
investigation will be more broadly maseed and involves a study of the sea 
bottom and ite effect upon fish stocks. 

Certain fishes are closely associated with the topography of the seabed 
and also other marine fauna such as invertebrates. The distribution of 
such fishes would be studied and the effect of disturbing their habitat 
assessed. An interesting aspect of thie research is 4 survey of deep- 
water prawn and shrimp stocks. 

Most of the trawlable areas of the Seychelles are in waters of depth 35-80 
metres and catches of crustaceae et these depths have been found to be 
negligible. However, it is suspected that an area is available on the 
east side of the Mahe Plateau of depth 600 metres. On the East African 
coast such areas have yielded commercial catches of deepwater lobsters 

and it is hoped that similar catches can be made in our waters. 

The programme forms part of the Franco-Seychellois co-operation in the 
fishing industry. 

CSO: 5200 


BC Fit POLICING=-Denmart will probably be faced with the problem of hav- 
ing to block the adoption of @utual PC fish policies because there is 
still ne sign of 4 satiefactory solution te the problem of quetas. Ag- 
eticuitural and Pieheries Minister Poul Daleager earlier made it clear 
that Deomark, in any case, would fot hesitate to use strong measures if 
other countries with large fishing interests would not agree to 4 reason- 
able attangement which would aleo be acceptable to the Danish government . 
A meeting of fisheries sinistere will open in Luxembourg on Monday, which 
Which will be the Beginning of a long series of negotiatione=--but there 
is fo @OvVeEment with respect to positions. On the contrary, it looks like 
the Sperling case--despite last week's BC court decision--wiil again be- 
come 4 Danich/Britieh issue, which could make it difficult to find a solu- 
tion to the fishing quotas. O& commission experts are now in the process 
of determining fishing quotas for 1980. The commission feele that based 
on biologists’ warning of declining fieh stocks it will be necessary to 
drastically reduce the aaxiwum quotas, not least with respect to Gadus 
callarias, Guduse poutassou, pollack and mackerel. Biologists warn that 
the North Sea cod quota should only be about 200,000 tone, compared to 
240-260 ,000 tons last year. Denmark's position is that last year's quote 
should be maintained. [Text| [Copenhagen BERLINCSEKE TIDENDE in Danish 
i? Jul Dp 10) 

FABROLS' FIN WHALE BAN--The Faeroese government has informed Danish autho- 
rities there will be no fin whaling in Paeroese waters this season. The 
reason for the ban is that « Paeroese whaler illegally hunted fin whales 
for three years. The International Whaling Commission, of which Denmart 
is 4 @eaber, has issued 4 sero fin whale quota in the area of the Paeroes 
and Western Worway the last five years. [Text] (Copenhagen SERLINOSEE 
TIDENDE in Danish 17 Jul 8 p i) 

c$0: 3200 


/ ( [i /9