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JPRS 77360 
9 February 1061 

Worldwide Report 


No. 288 


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7PRe 77380 
9 Pebruary 198) 

No. 288 



PPA Director Attecks Environmental Extremiete 

Young Liberale Adopt Pro-Bevirangentaliat Positions 
(Serah Chester; THE a, 6 Jan —D — 1 

City Council Rapped for Policies on Parke, Creeks 
(mE COURLER-MAIL, 15 Dec  PPPPTTITTIITTTririririririrrirrrririre 5 

Firet Steps Taken to Clean Up Pollution of Sydney teaches 
(mF SYONFY MORNING HERALD, 17 Dec GP occcccccecoceceeeoeoeceees 7 

Queensland Areas Included in National Heritage Liet 
(we. COURTER-MAIL, BU GRO Gi cccccccccceeeccccccccceceeeeccceces 9 

Coastal Bushland in South Marked for National Park 
(mF WEST AUSTRALLAN, l te TP eoceeceeeecceeeceeeeeeees eee eeee 10 

fnvironmental Impact on Hunter Valley Mining Noted 
(Joseph Glascott; THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 29 Nov, 2 tee @).. UV 

Conse rvetiuniet's Warning 
Govern@ent Ban 

Coal Mining Will Strain Hunter Valley Reeources 
(THE SYUNTY MOMNING HERALD, 20 Dec BD)... ccccccce —RXX —RXX 15 

Hunter Valley Sepiter Termed Yo Environmental Threat 
(Peter Terry; THE FINANCIAL AUSTRALIAN, 8 Dee BD)... cccccccccues lj 

— @& [Itt = Ww = 139) 

Problem Beset Vlanned Alooa Smelter in Port land 
(THE GCOURTER-MAIL, 25 Nov, 11 Dee @; THE AG, variouw 


Aboriginal Clate 

Cont inued Resletance, by Paul Robinson 
Proposed Law Refore, by Paul Robinson 
Arteste, Melbourne Protest 

Impact Report GQhanges, by Rod Usher 
Fluoride Bmissicns, by Peter Roberts 

Planned Smeltere in Weet Stir Environment aliate 
(Steve Harvey; THE AUSTRALLAN, 2 Jan Te ccccccceccccececeecece 

Smelter May Hare Plante, Livestock But Not People 
( HE WEST AUSTRALIAN, i Dec Bp cccccccccccccccceeeeeeeseeeeece 

Pressure Grows on NSW To Open Up Sand Mining 
(Peter Terry; THE FINANCIAL AUSTRALIAN, 18 Dec BD) ccc ccuceeeee 

Sand Mining on Fraser leland Banned ‘Por all Tim’ 
(Veri®us sources, Wariows Gates). ccc cc e ewww eee eweeeeee 

Prime Minieter's Statement, by Wallace Brown 

Opposing View 
Mining Industry Retort, by Dee Keegan 

Pastoraliete Query Actions of Miners, Bulldozers 
(Deirdre Pord; THE WEST AUSTRALIAN, is Dec GP ccocccoceececcece 

Goneervationiete Oppose Coal Mining Under Park land 
(Joseph Glascott; THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 15 Dec @)....... 

Coal-to-O1l Plante Would Bring Wideepread Pollut ton 
(Peter Robe rts; THE AG, 4 Dec GP ccoccecccooccces sere seer ee 

Support for Logging of Washpool Goachwood Igites Row 
(Catherine Harper; THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 24 Dec @0)...... 

Clash Over Prankiin, Gordan River Dam Intensifies 
(Variow eovuroces, verious GOCOB) 6 ccc cece cn weeecuee see se eee 

Rivel Plane, by Peter Dwyer 

Editorial Opinion 

legislative Deadlock, by Andrew Tilt 
Constitutional leeuwes, by Peter Dvyer 
National Namifications, by Peter Dwyer 

Darling Range Development Causes Environmental Goncem 
(™E AUS TRALLAR, 28 Wov TPocceoeccceces sere ereeereeeeeeeeee ser 





Irrigation Licenses Threaten Murray-Darling Rivers 

( Ve men Graham; THE AUSTRALIAN, 2 Jan TP ccccecececececeececeee 

Rupert Ware Land May Be Devoid of Trees in 100 Years 

(Andrew Stone; THE SYDNEY MOMVING HERLAD, 6 Wee BO)... ccc eccens 

Thousands of Hectares in North Ruined by Salt Water 


Industry Report Calle for National Poreet Body 



Cammavon Environmental Group 
Sydney Parkland 

Threat to Canefielde 
Barrier Reef Park 

Murray River Cleanup 

Sewage Crackdown 
Inlet Sand 
Hunter Valley Smeiter 
Wellington Salt Level 
World Heritage Sites 
Barrier Reef Study 

Toxic Waste Dump in Tunnel Suggested 

(souT™H GILNA MORN ING POST, 13 Ja GE) cccccccccccccocccccccecces 

Vater Pollution Control Problem Assessed 



Environm@ental Pollution 







Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 29 Nov 80 » 30 

[Text) Extremist conservationists and developers have 
been criticieed by the Environmental Protection Authority. 

The director, Mr Colin Porter, said in the EPA's 1979-80 report that the battle 
between the two extreme views confused the issues. They did not assist the 
cause of sensible developments or sensible conservation. 

He said that some concerned conservationiats took 4 hard line on development, 
seeing it as the “thin end of the wedge,” and found fault in every proposal. 

On the other hand, some people supported development virtually regardless of en- 
vironmental cost and discounted legitimate concern as being trivial and unimpor- 
tant in the continuous quest for growth. 

Mr Porter said that the EPA tried for a balanced approach in the long-term inter- 
este of the community and was attacked by both sides. 


The EPA report, which wae tabled in State Parliament yesterday, cited expediency 
ae the main enemy of conservation. It had to be fought if the best of the envi- 
ronment wae to be preserved. 

A good case could be made for each individual project, but it had to be considered 
ae part of the overall picture. 

“an environment is rarely destroyed or a conservation reserve lost in one fell 
gwoop: more often it ia due to a slow process of attrition,” he said. 

“Each incremental loss of degradation, may be minor in itself, but cumulatively 
the losses add up to an unacceptable sacrifice.” 

Mr Porter gave some examples: The excision of a small piece of a national park 
for mining or agriculture; the first subdivision in a scenic rural landscape 
that set the pattern for more; the polluting discharge, which is insigificant 
by iteelf but taken with othere, destroyed the ecosystem; and the freeway along 
the river foreshore. 


"The financial advantages may often be seen to outweigh the environmental 
damage or loss, particularly ae they are often hard to quantify,” he said, 

"Yet, no one apart from a few extremists, would be prepared to accept open 
slather for mining, to have all our rivere fringed with freeways, or to see 
our foreste whittled away,” he said. 

During the year, the EPA completed the environmental review of the North- 
West Shelf natural gas proposal by Woodside Petroleum Development Pty Led. 

Mr Porter said that Australia's biggest resource development had some environ- 
mental problems, but they should be managed without difficulty provided that 
the developers exercised care and sympathy for the local environment. 

The report was the first review of what the company proposed in terms of work- 
force and location and was seized on by the Dampier and Karratha communities. 

They are disturbed about the impact on their services and facilities and the 
lack of educational, health and recreational facilities. 

CSO: 5000 


Melbourne THE AGE in English 6 Jan 81 p 4 
[Article by Sarah Chester: ‘Save the Franklin, Say the Young uiberale"| 

{Text} Hobart--The Young Liberals national conference yesterday condemned the 
Tasmanian Parliamentary Liberal Party for supporting the State Hydro Electric 
Commiesion's planned Gordon and Franklin Rivers power scheme. 

The conference overwhelmingly passed a resolution calling for the declaration 
of the Franklin River area as a “wild river’ national park. 

The Federal vice-president, Mr Saul Eslake, said that the Tasmnian Liberals 
were sadly out of touch on the need to preserve the South West Wilderness of 

He said four out of five lasmenians between 18 and 25 opposed flooding of the 
Franklin. He said that a further three out of five Tasmanians under 35, and 
90 per cent of Tasmanian students, opposed the flooding. It evoked a great 
deal of feeling among people throughout Australia, he said. 

A resolution moved by the New South Wales branch said the Gordon River should 
not be dammed below the junction with the Franklin River, and that the Gordon 
River should not be dammed above the junction with the Franklin River, before 
an independent professional feasibility study. 

The resolution said the study should exhaust all alternative means of meeting 
Tasmania's energy neede for the foreseeable future. It also said the Franklin 
River should be declared a wild river national park. 

Mr Eslake eaid that the Hydro Electric Commission had overestimated Tasmania's 
power needa in the past. It was time to determine the econcmic feasibility of 
other power echemes such as coal from the Fingal Valley and a cable under Bass 
Strait to transfer power from Victoria. 

He said the South West Wilderness attracted $16 million each year from tourism. 

The conference amopted a resolution from the Victorian and South Australian 
branches urging the Federal Government to declare the entire Barrier Reef 
area a marine park and to ban any ofl drilling. 

Mr Eelake said all Australians should be concerned about the future of the reef. 

The vice-president of the Victorian branch, Miss Louise Asher, who moved the 
motion, said the Fraser Government had said there was to be no drilling on the 
reef, but not enough had been done to protect it. 

Mies Asher said that only 2.4 per cent of the reef had been declared a marine 
park and that the Queensland Government would be a stumbling o)ock to declaring 
other areas. 

She said that one Queensland Minister had remarked that ‘oil is protein, fish 
can eat it.” 

CSO: 5000 



Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 15 Dec 80 p 3 


(Text!) The Queensland Conservation Council has organised a meeting tonight 
#ith the aim of influencing the Brisbane City Council to change its policies 

m urban creeks and parks. 

QCC co-ordinator, Ms Liz Bourne, said she did not think the counci! realised 
the cepth of communicy feeling on the issues. 

A lot of people are upset that the council is just going in with bulldozers 
and turning cree:s into concrete drains,’ she said. 

“One group that lived near Mimosa Creek by Garden City Shopping Centre took 
the council to court and won over this. 

"Another group concerned about Bulimba Creek has proved there are alternatives 
to concreting creeks and dredging them out. 

"Through the Australian Littoral Society they have planted about 800 trees 
provided by the council along the banks of the river. 

"The trees are helping to restore the banks and so revitalise the creeks.” 

She sald the Sir John Chandler Park Association, which had successfully fought 
the Long Pocket Golf course issue, wanted to get theese various. groups together 
as they realised their case wae not an isolated issue. It was Brisbane-wide. 

Me Bourne said the OCC was continually being contacted about parkland being 
rutned by either counct] rubbish dumps or spraying operatiors. 

She hoped concerned citizens as well as the 10 or 12 recently-formed community 
environmental groups would attend tonight's meeting at the BCC environment cen- 
tre tn Ann Street at /:30, 

‘he meeting was expected to form a committee to lobby the council on these 

it wee likely to discuss topics like the intrusions on public parkland by such 
vroupe as Meale on Wheels and the Girl Guides. In South Srisbane, a gravel 
| even taken over part of a public park. 

"The demands on these public areas are increasing," Me Bourne waid, “As fuel 
prices get higher poople will be looking to more local suburban locations for 
a lot of their recreation. 

"They will be a lot poorer without them." 

The meeting would also consider alternatives to the council's flood mitigation 
achemes. It was anxious to ensure Oxley Creek was not headed for the same fate 
ae kedron Brook. 

"You'd think the council would have learnt something from te 1974 flood and 
developed a long-term land use plan,” Ms Bourne said. 

"Inetead of turning the creeks into concrete drain pipes they could prevent 
people building in flood-prone areas and use those areas as pa kland. 

“Then rather than destroy the natural habitats for wildlife they would create 
corridors for the wildlife to move through.” 

CSO: 5000 



yor (HE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in ‘teh 17 Dee 80 pl 

[Text] The State Government is calling tenders today 
for the first work on a sewerage disposal system that 
could end the pollution of Sydney beaches by brown 
ateina, obnoxious froth and grease by the late 1980s. 

‘ubmarine sewers, runniag up to 3.5 km to sea from the existing treatment 
lant {1! take advantage of coastal currents to disperse the effluent before 
hack to shore. 

‘he Premter, Mr Wran, last night described the tenders, for exploratory drilling 
miv, ae (‘a major advance towards the construction of deenpvater submarine out 
falle at North Head, Bondi and Malabar.” 

He would not commit himself to a timetable for starting or fin ishing the major 
n the outfalls which are expected to cost at Least $100 million at today’ 

Mut if the project goes ahead as fast as Water Board engineers hope, it could 
iniahed by he late 19806. 

‘tr Wran said the exploratory drilling would provide rock cores from beneath thy 
ee ed tc guide the Sydney Water Board in fixing the precise routes for the 

ders, which the board was calling in Australia and vuvereeas, would close 
ruary 17 with a view to @ prompt start on the work. 

ing to Water Board officials, more than 900 mill on litres a day of 
esewnge, treated to varying degrees, is poured into the "acific from plants 
» che metropolitan coastline. 

ag the three mator plants at %ondi, North Head and Malabar, there are 
sile at Warriewood in the north and Cronulla in tle south. 

nd Warrtewood are considered minor problems besid> conditions around 

7 vf 

The exieting plants have been unable to stay within strict lim’ts on bacterial 
content set by the State Pollution Control Commission, althoug. the board says 
ite effivent has “generally” conformed to then, 

The problem of beach effluent has become the most offensive during industria! 
(rouble at the pumping stations, when raw sewage has been discharged, and during 
adverse comb‘natione of currente and on shore winds. 

The worst aspect of sewage pollution for Sydneysiders has ben grease, from 
both human and industrial sources, which escapes the treatrent process. 

it gete between joggers’ toes at dawn, sticks to the bodies of sunbakerse and 
causes thousands of board ridere to wear wet suite even during the late summer, 
When @ea temperatures are high. 

The Maroubra and Malabar areas have been consistently the worst affected by 
pollution, The nearby Malabar outlet discharges almost half rhe efflvent pro- 
duced by Sydney's three million people and ite industries. 

The Water Board, which regards the tunnels as the only practicable solution to 
beach and Harbour sewage pollution, has already selected tentative routes based 
on sonar, sei@mic and magnetic etudies. 

The board te considering tunnele about three metres in dianeter. Construction 
would start with either vertical shafts or sloping adite (entr: nce tunnels) 
sunk in the coastal cliffe at the existing treatment and discharge stations 

at North Head, Bindi and Malabar. 

Then the outfall tunnele would be cut by “moles” similar to the machine used 
to build sections of the Fastern Suburbs Railway. 

Diffueer ehafte at the sea end of the tunrele would diecharpe the sewage into 
the ocean at between 45 and 75 metres beneath the surface. 

Mr Wren said, “The fact that our prized bathing beaches can at times be effected 
by eewage effivent ia just not tolerable in our society. 

CSD 5000 


Srlehbane THE COURLTER-MAIL in English 27 Nov 80 p 17 

[Text] Mosc of Moreton Island and the Mount Etna lime- 
atone caves of central Queensland have been included on 

the Auetralian Heritage Commission's national estate 

A commteston spokesman said yesterday the commission had made .te decisions, but 
had not yet advertieed them officially. 

He eaid the whole of Moreton Island, excluding four townehis areas, had been 
registered. The townshipe were Bulwer, Cowan Cowan, Tangalcoma and Kooringal. 

The Australian Speleological Federation vice-president, Mr Glenn Pure, said 
yesterday the listing of the 46 bat-populated caves at Mount Etna was 4 victory 
in the battle against limestone mining. 

“Mr Pure eaid the listing followed evaluation by a panel of ind»pendent experts 
and obfectiona rateed by the Queensland Premier's Department to the listing 
were found to be not applicable or inconclusive by the experts “ 

Yesterday Mr Pure handed the Deputy Premier, Dr Edwards, a letter asking him 
for Liberal Party views about the Mount Etna protection issue. 

r 'dwarde eaid the government had not been informed officially of the Australian 
feritage Commiesion's decision. He was not prepared to comment until he had 

eeen foll detatie of the claseification. 

The ot»ber new Heritage Commission listings in Queensland are 4 email area on 
trible ‘aland; Cooloola estate forest and national park; Coaletuun Lakes; north- 
weet of Gympie; Buatard Bay near Miriam Vale; Corio Bay and Shoalwater Bay; the 
Conway Ranges near Procerpine; Lake Buchanan, 100 km south-weat of Charters 

‘owe re. tftdal wetlands nerr Cairne; an area between Daintree and Cooktown; and 
nore setern part of Cape York. 


Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 1 Dec 60 p 10 

[Text] The government hae consolidated and set aside 149 square kilometres of 
coastel bushland as an A-clase reserve for the proposed south-oast national 

The Minieter for Lands, Mr Wordeworth, yesterday announced the formal garetta! 
and vesting of crown land in the National Parke Authority. 

We said that the reserve consiste. of several big parcele of land. 

it atretched over about 58 kilometres of coast from north of the Connelly River 
to south of the Meerup River. 

The extensive Walpole-Nornalup national park already formed part of the proposed 
south-coaet national park. 

Mr Wordeworth ea.d that another three A-clase reserves totalling 17 eq km next 
to the newly vested parkland were expected to be ready to be considered for 
consolidation in the next session of Parliament, together with any other land 
that might become available efter the current review of lease-nold land in the 

The new land, identified as Reserve No 16996, had been namer the D'Entrecastreaux 
national park section of the proposed south-coast national park. 

Thie section, which aleo included Reserves No 26628, 28478 and 28479, totalled 
166 og in. 


Vesting of the new 49 oq km in the south-coast national park honoured 4 govern- 
ment undertaking that 4 significant area of land would be set rside for the pur- 
pose before Christmas. 

Mr Masters said that the proposed south-coast national park was part of 4 com- 
prehensive system of national parks and nature reserves being established 

throughout WA. 

see ’ 4nd torme and ec oaeveter 

‘tenaeive ~«@ pe for ac 1e@ntirt 3 
pie Of WA the oppertuntit t et 

2 rla@ina, heritage 


Conservationiet's Warning 

Sydney THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in English 29 Now 80 p 4 

[Article by Joseph Glascott: “Coal Mine Moonscape Warning in .he Hunter’) 

[Text) Vast areie of the Hunter Valley would become polluted moonecapes if 
planned coal mining went ahead, the conservationiet, Mr Milo Lunphy, said yee- 

Mr Dunphy, the director of the Total Environment Centre, said he State Govern- 
ment had approved 22 new coal mines, including huge etrip @ines, in the valley. 

Development coste of the new mines were estimated by the G.vernment @ $1, 200 

The proposed mines, north-eset end south-weet of Muswell-brook would leave 
the town “an telend among open-cut coal excavations,” he said. 

“The huge proposed exploitetion of coal from the Hunter Valiey is another big 
problem of the valley's indvetrialisation, apart from the pletned sluminiue 
emelters, he said, 

"Most of thie coal will be exported. 

“The Covernmment, by ite rush to exploit the coal reserves of the State, ts 
ignoring the fact that coal te the State's mafor power resource. 

“The Government should be following ⸗ policy of coal conservation rather than 
one of saxtmum exploitation.” 

Mr Dunphy said that Dr B. J. Rigby, of the CSRO, had estimated in surveys that 
at the present rete of exploitation, Auetralia’s coal reserves would be depleted 
within 75 yea: 

Geverrment Ban 
Sydney THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD tn English 2 Dee 80 p } 
[Article by Joseph Glascott: ‘“Gevt Serape Plane for Hunter Valley Coalmine’| 

[Text] Conservationists won an important first round in the ‘taht against 
infuetriailieation of the Hunter Valley yesterday when the State Government 
de tded net to go ahead with 4 large open-cut coalmine at Eraring. 

Objections from the Environment and Planning Department for ed the NSW Elec 
trictty Commission to withdraw ite proposal for the mine which would have 
aerved tte huge new Traring Power Station protect. 

he Minteter for Planning and Environment, Mr Bedford, said yenterday the with- 
‘rawe! followed an assesement of the commiaesion's environmenta! impact etate 
ent for the protect by officers of hie department. 

If the protect had gone ahead the mine would have caused ‘significant environ 
mental degradation’ to the Cooranbong-Lake Macquarie area, he said. 

fut Mr Bedford refused to release hie department's report although he said hy 


woul oneider requests for ite release and take advice 

“r Sedford, at a preas conference, sought to play down hi« department's role in 
the Electricity Commission decteion, apparently to avoid conflict between 
Government departmente. 

However, the Env’ ronment ad Planning Department's objections to the Fraring 
protect could set a precedent for other proposed developmenta in the Hunter 


A public exhibition of the Electricity Commission mine proposa. attracted more 
than 130 private submissions and more than 1,000 representatiors. 

iy one submieston, that of the Flectricity Commission, supported the project 
‘t+ Sed'ord eaid hie Jepartment's sasesament objected to the proposed mine on 
the grounda of noise, duet, water pollution and blasting effecre on the sur- 

cing area 

he huge open-cut gine wae proposed between Cooranbong and Toronto, west of 
‘ke Macquarie. 

would have supplied coal to the $1,000 million power station of four 660 
epewett unite now under construction and due for partial completion in 198}-*4 

Mr Sedford eald that the proposed sine would be completely out of character 
the local environment. 


‘'Thte wae clearly demonstrated by the extent of the opposition to the proposal.” 

‘We sald the Environment and Planning Department had suggested that the Elec- 
‘ricitty Commission should consider alternative coal resources " 

‘he deciteton on Eraring te expected to have an important bearing on considera~ 
tion of future applications for coal mines, power stations and aluminium emelit- 
ere in the Hunter Valley. 

Me Bedford eaid the number of submissions opposing the fraring mine wae not the 
moat important factor. 

“My department's responsibility ie to ensue [as published! tha’ proposed devel- 
pmhente do not create environmental problems beyond control,” he said. 

“Induetrial projects cannot be built without some disturbance but it must be 
kept to «4 minimum.” 

Asked about requests by conservationists for a regional study of the proposed 
Hunter Valley smelter and associated developments Mr Bedford seid hie depart- 
ment considered the overall effect with each individual project. 

cso: $000 




Sydney THE SYDNE” MORNING HERALD in English 20 Dec 80 p 5 

[Text] A confidential report by the Department of Planning and Environment has 
forecast that the population of the Singleton, Muswellbrook ani Scone local 
government areas could jump from 33,000 to 57,000 by 1986. 

The report is aimed at identifying areas needing facilities for the expanding 
population reeulting from the coal-mining boom in the Upper Hunter. 

It saye that ae 4 rewult of coal mining and electricity generation, 6,500 jobs 
will be created in the upper Hunter--3,500 in coal mining, 550 at the Baya- 
water Power Station and 2,550 in ancilliary industries. 

Theee figures applied to permanent increases in the work force and excluded 
construction workers. 

The report suggests that 90 per cent of the additional workforce will choose 
to live in the Singleton Muewellbrook-Scone area. 

Singleton and Muewellbrook would be moet affected by the influx. 

Between 1980 and 1982, about 555 workers and their families would move to 
Singleton, and 325 to Muswellbrook. 

And between 1962 and 1986 thie would rise to 1,100 new workers in Singleton and 
1,350 in Muewellbrook. 

According to the report, Singleton will suffer most from the strain on its 

Water supply and sewerage would be of perticular concern. 

Singleton water supply is drawn from the Hunter River through wells and the 
report saye it ie now operating at maximum capacity supplying the 8,750 people 
connected to the eupply. 

The report says Singleton's sewerage system is in poor condition. Its present 

capacity is eaid to be 6,500 pwople, less than the present population, and it 
would cost about $2 million to bring the system up to standard. 


Muswellbrook's min problem wae identifies as a shortage of land for residen- 
tial development. [as published) 

The report saye private owners have been reluctant to sell or wubdivide their 
land and it may be necessary to resume land. 

The report recommends that the Upper Hunter councils be given their normal loan 
allocations over longer terme to overcome initial financing problems. 

The report says Singleton and Muswellbrook councils have requested shop-term 
planning assistance. 

C80: 5000 



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Aboriginal Claim 
Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 25 Nov 80 p 17 
[Text] Melbourne--A Supreme Court judge yesterday dismissed an action by two 
Aboriginal women who claimed Alcoa was interfering with tribal relics on a 
construction site at Portland in south-western Victoria. 

Mr Justice Brooking said the action had been shown to be “hopeiess.”’ 

Last week the women obtained a Supreme Court injunction which halted const ruc- 
tion at Alcoa's $400 million aluminium smelter at Portland. 

Mr Justice Brooking said yesterday the women had failed to make out a case 
under the Archaeological Preservation Act 1972. 

The women, Mrs Lorraine Sandra Onus and Mrs Christina Isobel Frankland of 
Portland, described themselves as the custodians of sacred relics and sites 
of the Gournditch-Jmara people. They claimed construction of the smelter 
would damage Aboriginal relics. 

Mr J. Dwyer, QC, for the women, told the judge they would appeal against the 
decision. He asked for a temporary injunction until the appeal was heard. Dr 
C. L. Pannam, QC, for Alcoa, opposed the application. 

Mc Justice Brooking said because of his view of the case and the evidence of 
the losses Alcoa would sustain if the injunction was granted, it would be 
wrong to grant the injunction. 

Continued Resistance 
Melbourne THE AGE in English 1 Dec 80 p 3 

[Article by Paul Robinson: "Blacks Set for War of Words on Alcoa Site’) 

[Text] Bulldoze.s are expected to 








Proposed Law Reform 
Melbourne THE AGE in English 1 Dec 80 p 1 
[Article by Paul Robinson: "“Toughen Up On Sacred Sites: Law Body”) 

[Excerpt] An Australian Law Reform Commission discussion paper has proposed 
that Government has proposed that Governments take wider powers to protect 
Aboriginal sacred sites. 

The paper, part of a commission inquiry into whether Australians should recog- 
nise Aboriginal customary law, has proposed that trespassing on or desecrating 
sacred sites and objects be made a criminal offence. 

The chairman of the commission, Mr Justice Kirby, said yesterday that the 
proposals could require the Federal and State Governments to draw up a national 
list of Aboriginal sacred sites. 

This could be difficult because tribal laws and sacred site locations were 
often secret and known only by a select group of the tribe. Mr Justice Kirby 
said this could be overcome by making the location of sites on the list confi- 

Arrests, Melbourne Protest 
Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 11 Dec 80 p 19 
[Text] Melbourne.--Six conservationists chained them- 
selves to the doors of Alcoa's Melbourne offices yester- 

day following the arrest of 16 Aboriginal protesters at 
Portland, in south-west Victoria. 

The conservationists, members of the Portland Action Group, spent two hours 
chained to the entrance of the office, on the l6th floor of the AMP building 
in Bourke Street, before deciding to leave voluntarily. Police were alerted, 
but were not called in. 

The conservationists etaged the demostration in protest at the arrest of the 
Aboriginals yesterday morning on the site of Alcoa's $350 miliion aluminium 
emelter at Portland. 

Police moved in at 9:30 a.m. to arrest the Aboriginals afte> they ignored a 
demand by company officials to leave the site. 

The Aboriginals had been camped on the site for three months in protest at the 
destruction of alleged sacred tribal sites and relice. 

Work began on thr 400-hectare site at Point Danger, five kilometres west of 
Portland, last week, despite a protest by Aboriginals and conservationiste. 7 

The Aboriginals were allowed to remain on the site with their 12 tents because : 
they were camped on a road easement which was still officially crown land. | 

But yesterday morning, Alcoa's Portland smelter project manager, Mr Clive Hilde- 
brand, arrived at the protest camp at 7 am with a letter from Portland Council 
saying the easement now was Alcoa property. 

The Aboriginals were given two hours to leave before police mowed in to make 
arrests. The arreste were made quietly and no incidents were reported. Police 
later removed _._ protesters' tents. 

The 12 men and four women were charged with trespase and relecsed on bail to | 
appear in Portland Court on January 14. | 

A spokesman for the Aboriginale said new ways of protesting against the 
emelter were being considered. 

Impact Report Changes 
Melbourne THE AGE in English 4 Dec 80 p 3 
[Article by Rod Lesher: "Alcoa Evaluation Was Rewritten") 

[Text] Alcoa this week passed the final Government test (the Foreign Invest- 
ment Review Board) on siting ite aluminium emelter at Portland. But one of the 
most important tests the company had to pass--the environmental one--may have 
been done with considerable help from the examiner, the Ministry for Conserva- 

The Ministry's assessment of the effect Alcoa's chosen site at Portland will 
have on the environment was rewritten at a late stage. The rewrite reversed 
the conclusions of an earlier assessment which said that the smelter should not 
be on the site chosen by the company. 

One environment protection group said yesterday that the assessment finally 
issued by the Ministry called into question the credibility of the environment 
effects assessment process. 


The Minister for Conservation, Mr Houghton, yesterday described suggestions 
that pressure had been exerted to have the assesement rewritten as "bilge." 
He said no political pressure had been put on him, and he had aot pressured 
anybody himself. 

The Ministry received 124 submissions on the Portland site from Government 
departments, conservation groups and individuals. Only five of them agreed 
that the smelter should be on the site proposed by Alcoa. 

Among those bodies opposed to Alcoa's choice were the environment studies 
division of the .finistry for Conservation, the National Parks Service, the 
Department of Crown Lande and Survey, the Victorian Archaeological Survey and 
the Royal Botanic Gardens and National Herbarium. 

The choice of location for the emelter was between the western site, an area 
of cleared grazing land, and the eastern site, part of a stretch of heachland 
t'at rune down to the coastline of Portland Bay (see map). The sites are 
almost equidistant from the town of Portland. 

Before it wae rewritten, the assessment by the Ministry decidec: "To protect 
the ecenic value of the coastline, to provide an open space bu.ifer between the 
smelter and the coastline, and to retain a major part of the heathland, the 
smelter should be on the western location.” 

The published conclusion was: ‘Considering all the issues concerning the two 
alternative smelter locations, the proposal (the eastern location) is believed 
to be preferable because of the importance that must be attached to air emissions 
and their effects on the town of Portland, and should be acopted. It should be 
recognised, however, that the proposal will severely affect the viability of 

the heathland area.” 

The original draft said: "As far as can be determined, there is no substantial 
difference between the two emelier locations fromthe point of view of the disper- 
sion of air emisrions and the anticipated effect on Portland.” 

There {se aleo evidence that the summary and conclusions were watered down be- 
fore publication. On air emissions, the original conclusion was: “The health 
authorities have advised that human health would not be affected by emissions 
from the plant. However, the predicted emission levels for fluoride give rise 
for concern because of their potential effect on vegetation, particularly in 
view of the emelter's close proximity to the town.” 

In the published report, the first sentence remains the sare, but then reads: 
“However, the predicted emission levels of fluoride are such that there could 
be an effect on vegetation. No effect on animals grazing affected vegetation 
ie anticipated." 

In another alteration, the words "the heathland area" were changed to “some 
foreshore vegetation.’ The heathland has been a particularly sensitive iss:e 
in the arguments over the smelter. Some of the animals there are rare and at 
least one flower, Mellblom's spider orchid, is unique to the heathland. 


Both the Minietry fer Conservation aul Aleos say that the decision on the eastern 
or heathland site was based on information that air emissions over the town of 
Portiand would be greater from the western site, The deputy director of con- 
servation at the Minietry, Mr Grahame Swarts eaid he though the in-showed that 
prevaliing winde would be more likely to carry fluoride emiasions toward the 
town from the weetern cide, [ee published) 

Asked about the original etatement that there wae “no substantial difference” 
between the two elites for air emissions, Mr Swarts said the thought the infor- 
mation on wind sovements had “come in quite late.” 

Apart ‘rom the more radical conservation groupe, some of the Government depart - 
mente which made eubmiasions to the Mintetry on the Portland assesement clearly 
have reservations about the decision taking process. The summary of the Crown 
Lands Department submission saye: “The statement appeare to have proceeded fro# 
the desire to justify an apparent prior decision to construct the emelter on the 
eastern site rather than effectively examining 411 the proposals to reach 4 
logical decision on the appropriate location.” 

The director of the Australian Conservation Poundation, Dr Jef! Mosley, eaid 
vesterday: “lt ie clear that the vical decieione--to have » emelter at Portiand, 
to have 4 tranemiesion line, to supply the power--were taken before the environ- 
ment etudies were mede. It should be the other way around.” 

Mr Philip Sutton, of the Environment Action Centre, which is supporting the prese- 
ent occupation of the emelter eite by Aborigines, said the real intent of the 
aseecament hed boven revereed. There wae no dowbt that the emelter should not 

be there, he eatd, 

Fluoride Pmiseions 
Melbourne THE AGE im English 6 Dec 60 p 3 
[Article by Peter Roberte: “Area Fluoride Count Will Be High: Study") 

| Text Fluoride emiestons proposed by Alcoes Australia for ite Portland Sme!- 
ter are 40 per cent higher then those allowed in the United Stctes. 

Thie te « finding of « State Government study of pollution control technology 
betne emploved at US aluminium emelitere. 

The etudy, by Mr Peter Ramesay, a senior air quality officer with the Environ- 
ment Protection Authority, recommends that Alcos be required to use the best 
pollution technology available. Mr Ramsay recommends that the EPA should 
licenwe Alcoa to allow the diecharge of one kilogramme of fluoride for every 
tonne of aluminium it produces (1.0 kg/tonne). Alcoa's design for Portland 
allows for the releare of 1.36 ke/tonne. 

By comparteon, the Tomago group hase plans for a new smelter in the Hunter 
Valley which will release 0.76 kg/tonne-just over half that planned for 
Portlend. ‘Sweltere in the United States are operating with emissions as low 
ae 0.52 ke/tonne. 


Fluoride, inthe form of gases and solids, builds up in the leaves of plants 
causing them to wither and die, Livestock which eat affected »lante can 
develop bone lesions and lameness. 

Alcos aime to control fluoride emissions by ‘scrubbing’ gases drawn from the 
pote where alur‘nium ia emelted. Alcoa has developed a highly efficient 
syetem which reduces potiine emissions to only 0.27 ke/tone. But the company 
hae not proposed controlling fluoride emissions from two other sources at its 
Portland emeiter. These are emissions from the emelter's roof vente (0.84 
kg/tonne) and from the production of the amelting electrodes (0.27 kg/tonne). 

Mr Rameay recommends that electrode production be limited to 0.05 kg/tonne. 
All new emeltere in the US have been required to meet thie standard since 1976. 

“Technology ie available to limit fluoride emissions from the Alcoa Portland 
emelter to 1.0 ky/tonne,” Mr Rameay eaid in hie report. He said thie standard 
would allow for the occasional release of emiesions up to 1.25 ke/tonne. 

“If the preferred method of control ia# included in the firet stage of the emel- 
ter, damage to vegetation should be confined to areas close to the emelter,” 
Mr Rameay said. “Thie approach should ensure that the bene!icial uses of the 
receiving environment beyond an adequate buffer zone are maintained.” 

The EPA hae not yet met to consider Mr Ramsay's report. However, yesterday the 
Australian Conservation Foundation called for even stricte: cortrole than those 
proposed by Mr Rameay. ACF spokesman Mr Doug Hill said that A.coa should match 
the 0.76 limit being proposed by Tomago for the Hunter Valley. He eaid a higher 
limit would mean the establishment of 4 pollution haven for Alcoa. “The best 
technology should be used,” Mr Hill eaid. “If Tomago can do it, we should re- 
quire Alcoa to do the same.” 

An Alcos epokeseman said yesterday that the company wae at least 4 year away 
from applying for an FPA licence for the Portland emelter. ‘Whatever standard 
the FPA sete, we vill meet,” he sald. 

The spokesman firet aaid that Alcoa would have no trouble in meeting « standard 

of one kilogramme. However, he later telephoned back and said there could 
be probleme in getting below thie level. 

cso: $000 




Canberra TWE AUSTRALIAN in English 2 Jan 81 p ) 

[Article by Steve Harvey | 

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Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English | Dec 80 p 9 

{Text) Livestock and native plante could be threatened 
by pollution from a South-West aluminium emelter, says 4 
State Government report. 

The report wee prepared jointly by the Department of Conservation and Environ- 
ment, the Department of Health and Medical Services and the Department of Agri- 

it rejecte euggestionse that people or pasture production will be seriously 
affected by the melter pollution. 

The report, consieting of preliminary notes on fluoride and a'uminium emeltere, 
eeid that in aeodern emelter plante the pollution riske were reduced by the vee 
of modern technology. 

Though aluminium companies could not eliminate fluoride from their smelters, the 
researchere had found that the companies usually bought sensitive areas near 
emeltere ae « buffer sone. The size of the buffer sone could only be set after 
the companies had produced detailed feasibility etudies. 

“In the vicinity of « smelter, fluoride levele in the air are not normally 
hesardous to humn health but can be damaging to vegetation or grazing animls,” 
the report eeid. 

“Pluoride ie an essential element for animal growth and production.” The 

researchere found that under normal grazing conditions fluoride toxicity was 
oot a problem. They said that gaseous fluoride in the atmorphere was 4 prob- 
lem only if enimale were exposed to high concentrations for extended periods. 

Continued high levele of high inteke could lead to fluorosis. 
The symptoms of skeletal fluoroete were firet apparent ae lameness or stiff - 

ness and then ee skelete!) fractures. Feed intake, growth and production were 
reduced, but @ilk quality wee not eignificantly affected. 



The report eaid that cattle and sheep were more susceptible than other farm 

Humane could get filvorosie, with mottling and irregular growth of teeth, dense 
bones, arthritie and eventual kidney damage. 

Plente were up t) 1000 times more sensitive than humane to fluoride, but 
fluoride should only affect pastures near an aluminium emelte). 

The report warned of high eummer-autumn concentrations of fluoride in annual 
pestures ueed in dry-land farming. 

The researchere said they would need much more information to define « emelter's 
area of impact. 

The notes were to provide some understanding of emelter operations and the 
complexities of fluoride in the environment, with emphasis on te effect on 

The notes were not intended as 4 comprehensive review. 

C80: $000 



Canberra THE FINANCIAL AUSTRALIAN in English 18 Dec 80 p 2 
[Article by Peter Terry) 

[Text] Rising world prices have so increased the value of mineral sande that 
deposite “frozen” by NSW Government controle are now estimated to be worth $282.5 

The figure, gore than twice as high as when the bane were introduced three 
years ago, wae released yesterday when the industry launched a concerted attack 
to have the decision reversed. 

The campaign is being launched just as other mining interests have begun putting 
pressure on the Federal Government to change ite decision bann‘ng mineral sande 
development on Fraser Island. 

And, ae on Fraser Island, the “frozen” NSW deposite are 41) found on sites pro- 
claimed as national parks. 

In 1977, the NSW Government told sand miners they had until 1962 to complete 
their mining operations in national parke. 

The time limit effectively froze 45 per cent of the resources from development. 
Yesterday the executive director of the Mineral Sands Producers Association, 
Mr K. Horler, said the MSPA was now seeking urgent talks with ‘he NSW Govern- 
ment to warn that unless the restrictions are lifted “several hundred jobs will 
be put in jeopardy.” 

"Unless the Government changes ite attitude the industry is doomed in this 
State," Mr Horler said. 

"The arguments for mining on Fraser Island are exactly the same as for mining 
in the national ;arke," Mr Horler eaid. 

“And ae soon as it is politically convenient we will be back. 

"The arguments against mining on Fraser Island are even less strong than those 
againet mining in the national parks. 


"Praser leland ie not the tropical paradise ite made out to be at all. There 
ie nothing epecial about it to the untrained eye, 

“Ae far ae the WOW national parke are concerned, our operations will only 
cause what geologiete call: ‘temporary eurface dieturbances.' 

"At most the disturbances will only last for three years. We are 4 responsible 
induetry. We can be relied upon to rehabilitate the area after mining is 

completed,” he said. 

"The trouble ie we have «4 etubborn Priae Minieter on the one hand and 4 eoctal~ 
fet Premier on the other.” 

Mr Horler estimates that unless clearance ie given to open up the “frozen” areas 
in NSW, workere will be layed off within 12 monthe. 

C80: 4000 




Prime Minister's Statement 
Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 2 Dec 80 p 2 
[Article by Wallace Brown) 

[Text] Canberra.--The Prime Minister, Mr Fraser, tas 
declared that Fraser Island will be preserved from 
eand-mining for 411 time. 

He eaid thie in hie weekly electorate broadcast--which outlined his Govern- 
ment's role in the preservation of Australia's heritage. 

Mr Fraser gave as other examples; a commitment to protect the jreat Barrier 
Reef, proclamation of Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory, the 
banning of whaling in Australian waters, and assistance in establishment of 
the World Wildlife Fund in Australia. 

The phrase “for all time” in relation to Fraser Island was used deliberately 
by Mr Praser, and hie statement pute him in direct conflict with the Queens- 
land Government which hae been urging him to review the position, and change 
hie etand. 

Mining leases and permite are controlled by state governments. 

But in 1976 the Fraser Government effectively put a stop to mining on Fraser 
by useing ite control over exports to ban all exports of beach sands metals 
from the island. 

The companies involved, Murphyores Ltd (of Australia) and the parent company 
Dillingham Murphyores (of the United States) have repeatedly sought more than 
the $4 million compensation offered by the Federal Governmert. 

Murphyores Ltd managing director, Mr W. Murphy, said last night he hoped Mr 
Fraser had not meant 4 total ban of 411 mining on the island. 

"In reality he ie not in @ position to say this,” Mr Murphy said. 

"Our Fraser Leland leases are State Government-controlled documents which would 
allow us to resume the mining and stockpiling of ilmenite tomorrow--if we 
wanted to.” 

Mr Murphy eaid that under the terme of the current lease his company could 
aleo sell 20 percent of what it minded [as published|<--for domestic purposes. 

He said he felt negotiations with the Federal Government seeking to lift the 
export gaining ban were “proceeding in Murphyores favor.” 

Opposing View 
Canberra THE FINANCIAL AUSTRALIAN in English 4 Dec 80 p 2 












Mining Industry Retort 
Canberra THE AUSTRALIAN in English 15 Dec 80 p 1 
[Article by Des Keegan) 
[Excerpt] The mining industry will intensify ite fight againet the ban on 
Fraser Island sand-mining because it claims the Government was badly advised 

on the tesue. 

A confidential report prepared for industry leaders describes the ban as ‘the 
greatest single blow to the mining industry in ite entire history." 

It claime the Prime Minister, Mr Fraser, was misled by the Hooey Inquiry on 
Fraser Island and badly advised by his department. 

Mining industry leaders say the sand-mining ban was a cynical trade-off to win 
a deal on uranium mining. 

The result had been to gravely impair the mining industry's faith in government 

The report says the mining industry believes there is sufficient doubt over 
the information on which the Government's decision was made to justify a re- 
view of the case. 

It also stresses that trail bikes and tourists are ‘wreaking havoc" from one 
end of the igland to the other. 

cs80: $000 



Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN (NEWS OF THE NORTH) in English 18 Dec 80 p 15 
[Article by Deirdre Ford: "Pastorialists Question Jones") 
[Text] The Minister for Mines, Mr Jones, was quizzed by 
Meekatharra pastoralists about compensation for the pas- 
toral industry under the new Mining Act when he visited 
the town earlier this month. 

Mr Jones was asked about the new Act's provisions relating to damage of land 
and stock by mining companies, metal detector tourists and bulldozers. 

It was up to the pastoralists, he said, to report any destruction so that steps 
to enforce compensation could be made. 

"This is of no use where metal detector and bulldozer operators are concerned,” 
said Mr Rod O'Connor of Anneas Station. 

"These fly-by-night characters move top soil on alluvial patches and big 
trenches without any regard for conservation,’ he said. 

"They leave areas thet will never regenerate and are dangerous to motor bikes 
used on the stations.” 

Gates were often left open, and windmills turned off or wrecked, which resulted 
in heavy stock losses. 

"All we can say about the bulldozers is that we will investigate complaints,” 
Mr Jones replied. 

"The metal detector fellow is doing his job and is finding gold. The high price 
of gold has brought prosperity to the Murchison and with it some problems.” 

Mr Jones said the Department of Mines was concerned about the problems but it 
wae difficult or impossible to police the activities of metal detector users. 

He said it would secome law under the new Act that 411 damage on leases caused 

by mining activities must be compensated but it was difficult to take action 
because not everybody was caught. 


Mining companies were now required to let the pastoraliate know when explora- 
tion or other mining activities would be carried out on leases. 

Thies permit to enter had to be prominently displayed at the homestead if the 
owners were not available and a copy sent by registered mail. 

All people engaged in mining should have a copy of the Mining Act and should 
be aware of their obligations to pastoralists, Mr Jones said. 

There were too many regulations to fit on the back of a Miners Right--« sugges- 
tion frequently offered by pastoralists. 

Under the new Mining Act, pastoralists would get compensation for any damage 
caused by mining to improvements to properties. There were related provisions 
protecting well and windmill sites. 

Mr Jones eaid provisions would be imposed to protect pastoralists where large 
scale productive mining developments were likely to occur. 

An additional section of the new Act allowed for a specific compensation agree- 
ment between the two parties or if necessary via a warden, in instances where 
deprivation, damage, or any severance of land occurred. 

The Government had asked his department about what additional compensation and 
protection could be given to pastoralists where interference and disturbance to 
leases took place. 

The owners of Tarmoola Station, near Leonora had solved the problem by selling 
out to the mining company, Murchison-Eyre MLA Mr Peter Coyne, told the meeting. 

The property had been cut in two by the Teutonic Bore development in the middle, 
in effect creating two stations. 

It wae sold for $500,000--a massive profit over the original price of $45,000. 

CSO: $000 



Sydney THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in English 15 Dec 80 p 3 

{Article by Joseph Glascott: "Angry Reaction to Plan for Coal Mining Under 
Parke" | 

[Text] A State Government proposal to permit coal mining under national parks 
elicited angry protest from conservationists yesterday. 

The director of the Total Environment Centre, Mr Milo Dunphy, said that if the 
proposal were implemented it would be the worst blow ever dealt national parks 
in NSW. 

The Wran Government's conservation standards would fall to the level of those 
of Queensland's Premier, Mr Bijelke-Petersen, who was willing to mine the Great 
Barrier Reef, and those of the Tasmanian Government, which wanted to destroy 
the last great temperate wilderness in the Pacific region, Nr Dunphy said. 

"The proposal would destroy the Wran Government's previously deserved reputa- 
tion for conservation," he said. 

"The Government would be abandoning the internationally accepted definition 
and concept of national parks. 

"A decision to mine under national parks, together with the Government's failure 
to stop the destruction of the last rainforests, is likely to unite and politi- 
cise the conservation movement as never before.” 

He said there was no need to consider mining under parks for the next 50 to 80 
years because of the large coal reserves outside park reservations. 

Mr Dunphy wae commenting on a State Government policy statement released yester- 
day which put forward the proposal. 

Other conservaticnists said ground subsidence around tunnels, the construction 
of mine heads, ventilation shafts and access roads, and the pollution of streams 
would all seriously damage parks. 

However, the Government's statement said mining policies had been developed to 
avoid damage and conflict with park usage. 


The Minieter for Planning and Environment, Mr Bedford, said the statement was 
prepared by the National Parke and Wildlife Service and the Duopartment of 
Mineral Resources, 

It wae the basis for resolving "a major land-use conflict which has arisen in 
NSW: that of dedication of land for purposes of nature conservation versus the 
perceived need to explore and extract the coal resources which lie beneath 
that land," he said. 

It was prepared after an agreement between the former Minister for Planning and 
Environment, Mr Landa, and the Minister for Mineral Resources and Development, 

Mr Mulock in April last year, during Government negotiations for the establish. 
ment of the Wollemi National Park in the Colo wilderness west of Sydney. 

The statement said it was planned that the mining agreement should apply to 
Wollemi Park and to other national parks proposed on April 19 last year. 

Under the policy, mining could be permitted in 13 existing varks and reserves-- 
including Royal, Ku-ring-gai and Blue Mountains and proposed reserves in the 
Sydney geological basin. 

The statement presented a system whereby new national parks could be established 
in the Sydney basin without necessarily excluding underground coalmines. 

About 900,000 hectares were reserved in national parks or proposed parks in the 
Sydney basin, with estimated coal reserves of more than 37,000 million tonnes. 

The statement said four categories of mining areas were proposed for parks: 
Special protection areas where no egurface disturbance would be allowed. Mea- 
sures would be taken to prevent subsidence. In certain cases mining would be 


Restricted areas where some existing tracks could be temporarily retained for 
exploration. Ventilation shafts would be permitted under strict control. 

Protection areas which would be buffer zones to restricted areas but some tempo- 
rary surface works and permanent facilities would be permitted. 

Mine service zones which would be relatively small areas where head works and 
transport services would be permitted. 

[The statement said implementation of the policy would require changes to the 
National Parks and Wildlife Act, the Mining Act and the Coal Mining Act. 

CSO: 5000 


Melbourne THE AGE in English 4 Dee 80 p 15 
[Article by Peter Roberte: “Five Groups Consider Coal Conversion Plante" | 

(Text) Five different groupe are now investigating the feasibility of setting 
up brown coal-to-o1l conversion plante in Victoria. 

While no group hae been prepared to commit itself to spending the $3000 million 
that will ultimately be needed to bring 4 plant on line, th’s seeme only a 
matter of time. 

Investigations have already shown that Victoria's brown coal ise chemically suit- 
able for processing into liquid petroleum products. In fact, the joint investi- 
gation by the West German and Avetralian State and Federal Government e--known 
ae the Imheusen etudy--found that brown coal from the Latrobe Valley would yield 
4 higher proportion of petrol then black coale. 

Synthetic crude ofl from brown coal produces petrol and diesel fuele in a two 
to one ratio; bleck coale from New South Wales and Queensland can manage only 
4 ratio 1.2 te one. 

Victoria's agreement with the Weet German Rheinbraum company emphasices the 
vorldwide interest in Victoria's brown coal. The other studies which eleo ain 
at full-ecale of] preduction ere being undertaken by the Japanese Kominic and 
Miteul groupe and Australia's Moonee O11 which ie working fointly with Arco 
of the United States. 

Moonee, which hopes to develop the Gelliondale coal deposit in South Gippsland, 
is the only group investigating deposits outeide the Latrobe Valley. Environ- 
mente] constreinte will probably limit development to two protects in the valley, 
according to Mr Devid Evans, « reader in the Centre for Environmental Studies 

at Melbourne University. 

A eingle conversion ple t producing 100,000 berrele of ofl «+ day--one seventh 
of Auetralie'’s neede--would use 45 million tonnes of coal 4 year. The State 
Electricity Commission now powers Victoria with 31 million tonnes of coal 4 year. 

Mr tvane, whe dij a plict etudy for the State Government on the environmental 
effects of a coal~to~-oll industry, predicts that the Latrobe Valley can cope 
with only two conversion plante. Air pollution, the drain on the Latrobe 
River for water supplies and the physical effecte of mining would prevent 
more plante. 

"The whole area would be transformed from an essentially agricultural and 

pastoral area to one that ie dominated by holes in the grovnd, overburden 
dumpe and industrial plante.” 

C80: 5000 




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Sydney THE SYDNEY MOMNING HERALD in English 24 Dec 

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Rival Plane 
Canberra THE AUSTRALIAN in Englieh 11 Dec 80 p 9 
[Article by Peter Dwyer: “New Clash Looms on Dam Plane") 

[Text) Tasmania's two Houses of Parliament are on a collision course again, 
only two weeks after a confrontation over the State Budget was settled. 

The Legislative Council--the upper house--will today receive a select commit- 
tee report expected to recommend against the Government's bill for che State's 
next hydro-electric scheme. 

Tf the council accepts the committee recommendation, it would again be exercia- 
ing its power to reject a Government bil). 

This could force an election or a referendum--both so far rejected by the Pre- 
mier, Mr Lowe--or compel the Government to keep putting ite bill forward until 
it te accepted. 

The Legislative Assembly, Tasmania's lower house, hae passed a bill providing 
for a hydro-electric dam on the Gordon River above its junction with the Olge 

But the select committee is expected to recommend creating a national park on the 
upper Franklin River and flooding the Franklin and lower Gordon rivers area. 

Thie would rekindle « bitter two-year debate which led to a Tasmanian Govern- 
ment for the firet time opposing a recommendation of the Hydro-Electric Com- 

The commission recommended the Franklin-Lower Gordon scheme. 

"Strong Feeling” 

Conservationists yesterday warned that they were ready to continue the fight 
to eave the Franklin. 

They said they had succeeded on the iesue once, and would be prepared to take 
it before the people of Australia if the Legislative Counci! backed the Hydro- 
Flectric Commission plan. 

The director of the Tasmanian Wilderness Society, Dr Bob Brown, said conserva- 
tioniate would work through the summer Parliamentary recess to try to save the 

Today ise the House of Assembly's last sitting day before the recess. 

Dr Brown said: “I don't think the councillors realise che strong feeling againet 
the Franklin flooding proposal. 

"A national and international furore would erupt if the Freuklin-lower Gordon 
plan was accepted. 

"If the select committee does recommend the way I think it will, it is making a 
wrong aesesement of the community's feeling." 

Editorial Opinion 
Melbourne THE AGE in English 17 Dec 80 p 13 
[Editorial: “The Franklin Must Be Saved") 

[Text) The beauty of the wild, scenic rivers of south-west Tasmania has become 
known to millions of Australians in recent monthe through books and photographs. 
Tt le now recognised as one of the outstanding features of Australia's heritage, 
one of those dramatic creations of nature which we should safejuard for all time. 
Yet even ae the Federal Government is considering nominating the South-West as 
one of the three Australian features to become part of the World Heritage list, 
the rivers are again under threat of being flooded to provide cheap hydro- 

Five monthe ago the Tasmanian Government decided to compromise between cheap 
electricity and preserving Australia's heritage by flooding one river, the Lower 
Gordon, while saving another, the Franklin. It was a secon¢c best solution and, 
like all compromises, satisfied no one. Now, after incessant campaigning by 
the Hydro-Electricity Commission and the Liberal Party to flood the Franklin, 
the compromise seems likely to be rejected by the State's conservative Legis- 
lative Council in favor of an HEC plan to flood both rivers. 

If eo, it would be a step backwarde into another constitutional crisis in Tasmania, 
and into an ethos which regards no environmental treasure as safe from man. The 
report by the Legislative Council's committee on the rival schemes expresses the 
hope that at least the upper part of the Franklin could be saved for future 
generations. Such a hope is probably naive. If the HEC succeeds in having the 
decision made by the elected Government overturned, it will amost certainly press 
on with ite fear campaign--warning of crippling electricity bills and no power 

for industry--until the whole of the Franklin is flooded, aud its primaeval 

gorges become another HEC lake. 

The Council should not rush into a decision which would jeopardise the compro- 
mige that the Government hae reached. In a conflict between the two Houses, the 
democratically elected seat of Government must prevail over ar Upper House 
elected on one of Australia's worst gerrymanders, The Premier, Mr Lowe, and hie 
Government should etand firm to save the Franklin. And the Federal Government, 
which represents 411 Australians, should use ite influence--and power of the 
purse--to ensure that the gorges of the Franklin are prese:ved ae a national 
park for Australians, and the world, of the future, 

Legislative Deadlock 
Melbourne THE AGZ in English 20 Dec 80 p 5 
[Article by Andrew Tilt: "Deadlock Over Flooding of Franklin Unresolved") 

[Text) Hobart.--The Tasmanian Parliament last night faced a constitutional 
deadlock over the tate of the Franklin and Lower Gordon rivere in the State's 
south-weat wilderness. 

After a week of tense debate it appears that the outcome will remain undecided 
until at least February. 

The State Labor Government has decided to save the rivers. It chose an alter-~ 
native hydroelectric scheme on the Gordon River above the Olge River. However, 
when legislation for this reached the Upper House earlier this week, 13 of the 
Chamber's 19 members indicated that they preferred a scheme proposed by the 
State's Hydro Electric Commission which would flood the Franklin and Lower 
Gordon rivers. 

This scheme was also supported by a select committee of the Upper House which 
investigated the teaeue. 

In a battle of tactics the Upper House MPs passed the legislation through the 
second reading, intending later to change the name, location and cost of the 
power echeme. However, the President of the Council, Mr C. Fenton, ruled that 
the Upper House did not have the conetitutional power to do this. 

This led to a long debate over the powers of the Council and last night it 
appeared likely that it would kill the bill, leaving the next rove to the 
Government. If State Parliament adjourns for Christmas the matter will remain 
unresolved until February. 

The Federal Minister for the ACT Mr Hodgman, who represents the electorate of 

Denison in Tasmania, yesterday said he supported the flooding of the Lower 
Gordon and Franklin rivers. 


Conatitutional lesues 
Canberra THE WEEKEND AUSTRALIAN in English 20-21 Dee 80 p 2 
[Article by Peter Dwyer: "Parliament in Turmoil Over Energy 8111 Row") 

[Text] Tasmanian Parliament was in confusion last night over the constitu- 
tional righte of ite upper house and the future of the government's contre- 
veresial energy bill. 

A majority of membere of the upper house--the Legislative Council~-opposed 
the bill but their constitutional right to amend it or introduce an alterna- 
tive was in question. 

There was « threat to the future of the president of the council, Mr Fenton, 
who said the bill could not be amended ae the council wanted. 

He faced a possible dissent motion which could force him to resign. 

Mr Fenton, recognised as one of the moat dedicated and respected members of 
Parliament, ie etrongly tipped ae the State's next governor. 

The council rose several times yesterday to seek further legal advice on ite 
constitutional position and wae still sitting late last night. 

The State's top legal brains had been approached by both the Government and 
members of the council in an attempt to determine the council's rights. The 
council does have the right to reject the bill. 

The crisis had deadlocked the Parliament for the second time in 4 month with 
the Government still determined to force its bill through and the majority of 
the councillore determined to oppose it. 

The last deadlock was over the Budget which the council eventually forced the 
Government to amend. 

Last night's crieie threatened to force further sittings of the Parliament 
during the weekend and right up to Christmas. 

National Ramifications 
Canberra THE AUSTRALIAN in English 24 Dec 80 p 2 
[Article by Peter Dwyer: ‘“Taemania Row Set To Become National Issue’) 
{Text} What ie sure to become one of the most extensive and bitter public 

debates in Tasmanian history was launched yesterday and it is almost certain 
to spread across the country. 

It involves the conflict over the State's next power development and already 
several federal »olitictans, including the leader of the Australian Democrats, 
Senator Don Chipp, are organieing toure to study the project at first hand, 

The debate will involve the Government, the Opposition, the Legislative Coun- 
cil, conservationists and a powerful lobby which supporta the itate Hydro 
Electric Commission's proposalea for the Gordon River area in the rugged south- 

The Premier, Mr Lowe, fired the first salvo in the debate yesterday with a 
defence of hie Government's controversial energy bill and rénewed criticiem of 
the Legislative Counci!'s amendments to it. 

The State Parliament is deadlocked on the itesue of what new power scheme the 
Government should develop. 

The Covernment put forward ite echeme for a dam on the Cordon River above its 
junction with the Olga, but the Legislative Council amended the Government 's 
bill in committee after accepting the principle of the bill in its second 
reading. Mr Lowe claims this was a breach of constitutional precedent. 

The Government refuses to accept the amendments or the Legislative Council's 
right to make then. 

The determined stands by both houses led to the deadlock which still exiated 
when Parliament rose for the summer recess at 2 am yesterday. 

Mr Lowe called for a full public debate on all the issues before Parliament 
site again on February 24. 

Neve loped 

Yesterday the Tasmanian Wilderness Society and the Association of Consumers of 
Flectricity, opposing groups in the debate, were preparing their strategy for 
the two-month confrontation. 

the assoctation |.as developed into one of the most powerful organisations in 
the State supporting the Hydro Electric Commission's plans for a series of 
dame in the south-west. 

It has the support of former Premiers Sir Angus Bethune (Liberal) and Mr 
Eric Rees (Labor) and the former head of the commission, Sir Allan Knight. 

The Wilderness Society has spent more than $100,000 on its campaign to save 
the eouthweet since it began in earnest two years ago. It expects to spend 
thousands sore in the next two months. 

The society has organised a campaign committee of 15 full-time and 40 part- 
time workers. 


Yeaterday Mr Lowe @- he program proposed by the Government would ensure the 
preservation of the « .ire catchment area of the Franklin River. 

He said the Government felt that the Upper House had formec ite judgments with 
“undue haste and without Jequate regard for all the considerations involved,” 

CSO; 5000 



Canberra THE AUSTRALIAN in English 28 Nov 80 p 9 

[Text] The Federal Opposition yesterday asked the Federal Government to review 
the alumina industry after a report that the health of Western Australians 
could be affected by developments in the Darling Ranges where major bauxite 
mining is under way. 

Mr Tom Uren (ALP, NSW) said the Federal Government had the right to impose 
export controle on the industry. 

He asked the Prime Minister, Mr Fraser, if he was prepared to have the matter 
raised in a national inquiry. 

Mr Fraser reeponded with a strong defence of the West Australian Government's 
record of concern for environmental matters and the health of all Western 

He eaid Mr Uren would not advance the cause of any Austral‘an by seeking mea- 
sures which would stop development. 

Mr Uren said the Australian Heritage Commission had reported that it was 
alarmed at the situation in the Darling Ranges. 

The report said: "During the course of the year, the commission visited West- 
ern Australia and was alarmed by the widespread environmental problems caused by 
development in the Darling Ranges. 

"Water production, timber production and farming are all being affected by in- 
creases in salinity and the spread of dieback."’ 

(Dieback is a tree disease which is affecting the jarrah, a type of hardwood 
unique to Western Australia.) 

"Very careful management of the jarrah forests seems to be of critical impor- 

tance if a grave environmental threat, not only to the flora and fauna, but to 
the people of south-Western Australia, is to be avoided.” 

CSO: 5000 



Canberra THE AUSTRALIAN in English 2 Jan 81 p 2 
[Article by Vernon Graham) 

[Text] The iesuing of new irrigation licences is threatening Australia's most 
valuable natural resource, the Murray-Darling river system, a senior Liberal 
senator said yesterday. 

Senator Don Jessop of South Australia called for a ban on approvals for water 
licences, particularly in NSW, until an independent inquiry had investigated 
the likely effects of additional irrigation development on the already-serious 
salinity problema in the lower Murray and Darling. 

He has urged the Minister for National Development, Senator John Carrick, to 
aek the Murray River Commission to establish the inquiry. 

South Australia, which depends on the Murray almost exclusively for its water 
supplies, has increased its efforts to stop the granting of new Murray and 
Darling river irrigation licenses in NSW. 

In the past 12 months applications for new licences to irrigate about 60,000 ha 
along the system have been lodged in NSW. Many have been opposed by the South 
Australian Government, which wants a healthy flow of water. 

The lower Murray--downstream of Swan Hill, Victoria--cuts through an area which 
was once part of the seabed, causing endemic salinity. 

Increased irrigation upstream of Swan Hil] would worsen this problem by reduc- 
ing the flow of water in lower reaches. 

Senator Jessop eaid about one million tonnes of salt annually flows down the 
Murray into South Australia, creating water salinity levels above World Health 
Organisation standards. 

Hie stand has been strongly supported by the Murray Valley League for Develop- 
ment and Conservation, which claimed that the NSW Government will allow licences 
to be issued by administrative or executive decree if the appeals process be- 
comes too bogged down. 

CSO: 5000 



Sydney THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in English 6 Dec 80 p 4 

[Article by Andrew Stone] 

[Text) Australia's rural landscape could be devoid of treev within 100 years, 
the director of the Australian Conservation Foundation, Dr Geoff Mosley, warned 

He said trees were dying in all States at an alarming rate, anc urged a national 
program to coordinate tree regeneration. 

"Ae things stand at the moment with trees, we just tend to take them for 
granted,” Dr Mosley said. “They are dying or just being killed off and nothing 
is being done to replace then.” 

A Victorian study revealed that 25 per cent of the trees inone part of the 
State died in a 20-year period. 

The causes of death included disease, saline soil water and insect attack. 

Pests such as possums and exposure after logging also weakened trees and con- 
tributed to their death. 

Dr Mosley's call for tree replanting and protectico . + ; pported by the direc- 
tor of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Dr Lawrie Johnson. 

"I think it's worthwhile keeping Australia looking like Australia. A great 
deal of character is given to it by its trees," Dr Johnson said. 

"In this way we can preserve the particular nature of the landscape and of 
course, provide a habitat for insects and birds.” 

Dr Mosley proposed that as a preliminary measure, each State should earmark 
$1 million for major reconstruction projects on rural land. 

cso: 5000 




Sydney THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in English 20 Dec 80 p 16 

[Text] Darwin--When Dorothea Mackellar wrote her lines of the "stark white 
ring-barked forests, all tragic to the moon," she wrote of another time and 
another part of Australia. 

But the starkness and tragedy of thousands of hectares of paperbark tree skele- 
tons on the Northern Territory coast east of Darwin today would bring them 
back to anyone who learnt to intone My Country by Dorothea Mackellar. 

Apart from the aptness of her adjectives there is no similiarity between the 
poem and the reality of today. 

The paperbark, hardly in the tradition of the elm or oak, is more a symbol of 
neglect, nonmanagement, failed opportunities, a reflection of a continuing 
unhappy saga in and use in the north. 

Paperbarks are dying because they are being poisoned by salt-water intrusion 
from the sea. 

The saltwater got in because of the habits of the water buffalo, Bubalus buba- 
lis, introduced to Australia over 140 years ago and still ceusing havoc. 

Through ite movement, claim the experts, it has broken down natural levee 
systems along kilometres of coastline and the result is huge patches of dead 

Buffalo occur in northern Australia roughly from the Western Australia border 

to around Normanton in Queensland at the base of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Major 
concentrations extend from about the Daly River, south of Darwin, to Maningrida 
about 400 kilometres to the east. 

A Conservation Commiesion senior wildlife officer, Mr Bob Fcx, said some big 
areas of this coastal plain are a "conservation wipe-out" because of buffalo. 

To the uninitiated everything on the plains looks normal, apart from the paper- 

barks. But a guided tour with Mr Fox would be enough to convince most that the 
buffalo has and is wreaking tremendous changes. 


From a helicopter one can see neat channels across streams, billabonge and 
waterholes, and leading from high country to the plains. They are ewim chan- 
nela--a sort of wetland animal pad. 

In the wet season, floodwaters move over this country and herds of buffalo 
ewimming through the channels aggravate erosion. 

"The land ie on a one-way trip to the sea," saye Mr Fox. 

Pandanus plante dotted infrequently over the plain are dying, their roots have 
been exposed by »Duffalo and a good many are likely to be bowled over by floode 
this wet season. 

Eleewhere Mr Fox points out emall patches of native reeds and bamboo and a 

native pasture which he says hae high nutritional value and can be managed to 
provide year-round feed. 

CSO: 5000 



Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 9 Dec 80 p 33 

[Text) Canberra: Avuetralia lacks a cohesive long-term 
national forestry policy that fulfile community needs 
and safeguards environmental tesues, says 4 report re- 
leased yesterday. 

The report, on Australia's forest-product industries, said that the lack of 
such @ policy partly resulted from Australia's constitutional etructure. 

Under thie etructure moet forests were controlled by State governments. 

The Forest Producte Industries Advisory Council, which prepared the report, 
eaid it understood that there wae « plan to form a national body of represen- 
tatives of the Commonwealth and State governmente, forest-producte industries 
and forest growers. 

Such a body would be an essential step towards better coordination, it said. 

ite formation suet be accompanied by « significant reduction in the number of 
other committees and inquiries. 

10 Proposale 

The report lieted 10 recommendations that it said required urgent government 

One wae to eneure continued protection policies for the industry. 

The report called for improved tax incentives and other prastical encourage- 
ment for the Australian industry to invest in product-oriented and process- 
orlented research and development. Export incentives should be restructured 
to provide significant encouragement and to help the funding of the capital 
coste of new export-oriented projects by government-guaranteed loans, it said. 

The report called for further taxation measures, such as allowing accelerated 
depreciation of fimed assets other then land. More rapid write-off of all 
environmental-related expenditure should be allowed, it said. 

Adjustment programmes to offset unemployment in the industry was needed in the 
light of estructural changes taking place. 

Coo: 5000 $9 



CARNAVON ENVIRONMENTA!. GROUP=-A ateering committee is to be formed in Carnarvon 
to examine duet control measures and look into other environmental problems. 
The Carnarvon shire president, Mr R. Fidock, said that « similar committee had 
been set up in Knlgoorlie while he wae living there, and members had travelled 
to Broken Hill where they hed been impressed with the apectacular success of 
ite famous green belt. Some success had already been achieved in repairing 
man-made damage to the Kalgoorlie Boulder environment. Carnarvon could go on 
living with ite duet problem or take measures to reduce ‘t. He would expect a 
“dust control committee” to be able to advise the counci] on all environmental 
mattere affecting the townsite and plantation areas. It would meet perhaps 
three or four times a year and would work best if the whole community took part, 
coordinating all their efforts, giving easier access to Government departments 
and possibly attracting more Government funds for conservation work. The coun- 
cil decided to set up the committee and offer secretarial services. All rele- 
vent departments will be asked to appoint representatives to the committee, as 
well as local bocies such as service clubs, planter organizations, the chamber 
of commerce and the pastoral industry. [By Flisabeth Williams) ([Text) 

[Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN (NEWS OF THE MONTH) in English 11 Dec 80 p 3) 

SYDNEY PARKLAND~--The Federal Government finally has decided to relinquish con- 
trol of prime lend on Sydney's espectacular North Head. A 129 ha oarcel soon 
will be handed over to the NSW Government for inclusion in tune Sydney Harbour 
National Park. Earlier thie year, the Federal Government wae studying plane to 
uee the quarantine etation on the land to accommodate migrants. The final deci- 
gion on the land use was announced jointly yesterday by the Minister for Admin- 
fetrative Services, Mr Newman, and the NSW Minieter for Lands, Ar Gordon. Mr 
Newman said the Commonwealth had considered the temporary uee of the quarantine 
stetion for accommodating migrants. But when all the facts were taken into 
account the Government had decided the prime use of the area should be for the 
recreation of local residents. [By Geoff Sorby) [Text] [Canberra THE AUSTRALIAN 
in Englieh 12 Dec 80 p 2) 

THREAT TO CANEPIELDS--Up to four of Queensland's 30 sugar could be forced 
to close within the next 10 years, the Bundaberg District Canegrowers executive 
chairman, Mr E. H. Churchward, eaid in Brisbane yesterday. Mr Churchward said 
urban encroachment on cane lands and “landlocked' farms would cause the closures. 
The only way they could eurvive would be if they amalgamated with adjoining mills 
to form cooperatives, he said. Mr Churchward eaid some mills could be "in 


trouble’ within two years, Mille which could be affected included Cattle Creek 
(Mackay District), Hambledon (Cairne), Quanaba (Bundaberg), aud Goondi or Mouril- 
yan in the Inndefall area. Earlier Mr Churchward, appearing for the Fairymead 
Mili Suppliere Committee, advocated industry rationalisation for improved econo- 
mic operation before the Central Sugar Cane Prices Board's annual mill peak 
(quota) hearing, which will continue today. The hearing is combined with a 
continuation of the industry expansion inquiry which opened in July, and recom- 
mended an increase of 5 percent in assigned areas to lift sugar production by 
180,000 tonnes. [Text) [Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 16 Dec 80 p 10) 

MARRTER REEF PARK~-Adelaide-~-The Liberal Party ie increasing p-eseure on the 
Pederal Government to declare the Great Barrier Reef as a marine park. The Young 
Liberal South Australian and Victorian branches are sponsoring 4 motion pushing 
for Federal action at the national Young Liberal convention which begins in 
Hobart on January 4, The resolution is expected to be passed. The motion 
urges the government to declare the reef a marine park and recommends the pro- 
hibition of all ofl reef drilling. A supporting statement submitted with the 
motion describes the reef as “a priceless asset" and a part of the world's 
heritage. lt eaye the rieke of drilling and spillages are too great to take. 
Liberal Party support for the policy at the branch and sub-branch level has 
been steadily growing thie year. ([Text) [Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 
27 Dec 80 p 11) 

MURRAY RIVER CLEANUP--Sydney--The New South Wales Government yesterday announced 
a acheme to combat sewage pollution of the Murray River by pleasure boats. 
Deputy Premier and Minister for Public Works, Mr Ferguson, said the $350,000 
programme would involve construction of three effluent disposal stations. The 
stations would have facilities for pumping sewage from boats’ effluent tanks. 

It could then be pumped into a local town's own system for disposal. [Text] 
[Melbourne THE AGE in English 30 Dec 80 p 4) 

SEWAGE CRACKDOWN--The Brisbane City Council has taken action against a flour 
company which it claims has been causing breakdowns of the Donaldeon Road sew- 
age treatment works which empties into Oxley Creek at Corinda. The counci! 
works committee chairman, Alderman St Ledger, said yesterday waste from the 
flour mill had been killing micro-organisms which broke down raw sewage. The 
flour company hae been ordered to cut by 50 percent ite industrial effluent dis- 
charged into the Donaldson road system. Alderman St Ledger said the company 
would have to install a treatment facility for its own waste. Donaldson Road 
wae expected now to run normally and Oxley Creek to improve in water quality. 
Good rein was needed to flush the creek out, Alderman St Ledger said. [Text) 
(Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 25 Nov 80 p 12) 

INLET SAND DREDGING-~Dredging operations to monitor sand movements at the mouth 
of the Peel Inlet et Mandurah will continue over the summer until about March. 
At present, the operation involves dredging sand from the western side of the 
inlet and tranepcrting it by an underwater pipe line to a land dump on the east 
side. Sy carefully monitoring the dredging operations which will take place in 
a regular pattern acrose the inlet mouth, engineers and scientists hope to gain 
an underetanding of the sand movements that have lead to seascnal blockages of 
the inlet's navigational channel. The dredging, which started last month is the 
first etage of a $110,000, two-year protect funded by the State Government that 
should evencuslly lead to a permanent solution to the sand bar problem at Mandu- 
reh. Part of the project calle for detailed measurements of sand movements 
which will be enalysed by a computer. [Text] [Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in 
English 25 Nov 80 p 23) 


MUNTER VALLEY SMELTER=-The Prime Minister, Mr Fraser, said yeaterday he would 
consider making an approach to the NSW Premier, Mr Wran, over the environmen- 
tal teevues raised concerning aluminium emelter development in the Hunter Valley. 
"It would be @ major tragedy if an industrial development wae to so pollute the 
atmosphere that the produce from the Hunter Valley wae affected,” he eatd dur- 
ing question time. He said the industrial development wae a matter for the 
State Government. But if the emelters were moved 30 to 40 kilometers there 
would be no danger to people or the vineyards in the area, Mr Fraser said. A 
NSW Labor member, Mr Charlie Jones, had asked whether Mr Fraser would consider 
setting up a House of Representatives select committee to investigate and report 
on the development projects. Mr Fraser said the Hunter Valley wine growera had 
competed againet the world's beet with their wine and had cerried Australia's 
name in the moet honourable way. ([Text! [Sydney THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in 
Engiieh 27 Nov 80 p 10) 

WELLINGTON SALT LEVEL--The salinity level in Wellington Dam hae risen signift 
cantly in recent years, according to the Public Works Department annual report. 
The report, tabled in State Parliament, said that during 1979-80 salinity 
reached 970 milligrams a litre of total dissolved solids. The World Health 
Organisation maximum permissible level is 1500mg/1. During winter the deeper 
water became colder and more saline than water near the surface. Salinity was 
controlled by ecouring the more saline water from the lower levels. Mundaring 
Weir salinity had been stable for almost 70 years. The report said that tests 
on WA water supplies found that two exceeded the WHO maximune--Cue (1900mg/1) 
and Balingup (1750mg/1). The PWD wae trying to find a better quality ground 
water for Cue. [Excerpt] [Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 28 Nov 80 p 73) 

WORLD HERITAGE SITES--Canberra--The Federal Government is considering nomine't 
ing the south-western Tasmanian wilderness for inclusion in the World Heritoce 
liet. If nominated, the wilderness would foin the Great Barrier Reef and 

Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory as Australia's proposals for in 
cluston tn the liet of the world's natural and cultural treasures. The nomines 
tione of the Reef and Kakadu are expected to be considered by the World Heritage 
Commission when it meete in Canberra late next year. ([Excerpt) [Sydney THE 
SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in English 6 Dec 80 p 11) 

BAPRIFR REFF STUDY--A Sritieh charity has offered the State Government almost 
$1 million for research work on the Great Barrier Reef. The bequest was con 
sidered yesterday by State Cabinet, which decided to set up a corporation to 
coordinate the ecientific etudy. The Meaher Charity Trust has made the money 
aveilable for research into reef biology and conservation, working from Raine 
Island. The truest made ite offer nearly two years ago, 4 move that led to 
negotiations with the National Parks and Wildlife Service. The service sug- 
gested Raine Ieland, south-east of the tip of Cape York and off Cape Grenville, 
ae en ideal bese. [Text] [Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 25 Nov 80 p 3) 

cso: 3000 




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Warsaw AURA in Polish No 11, Nov 80 p 1 
[Article: “Sewage Probleme Are Increasingly Greater" } 

[Text |) Every yeas we endeavor to describe in thie place the up-to-date state of 
the purity of surface waters, acquainting people at large with causes of the in- 
creasingly worsening situation in this field. The growing number of effluents 
being discharged into waters, with the building of sewage treatment plants not 
keeping pace with it, is causing an ever-increasing pollution of our rivers and 
lakes. Only 12.7 percent of the tested rivers (15,800 km in length) have first- 
clase purity waters, 31.7 percent second-class, and 26.3 percent third-class. The 
remaining 29.3 percent of the length of river waters do not meet the required stand 
ards. One should not endeavor to look for the causes of this unsatisfactory etate 
only in so-called objective conditions, for the managements of industrial enter- 
prises and municipal offices have a pretty guilty conscience in this respect. 

‘uring the past 7 years the trend persisted of a gradual worsening of the quality 

of waters. The extent of third-class waters increased 10 percent, also waters not 
meeting required etandarde increased 10 percent, chiefly at the expense of firat~ 
clase waters. “ne purity of stagnant waters is likewise undergcing worsening. As 
many as 289 ‘akes with a combined area of 96,720 ha (46 percent of lake waters) 
fulfill the role of a receiving water body for residential and industrial wastes. 
Untreated effluents discharged by sewage conduits into the sea exert a detrimenta! 
effect on the quality of waters in the coastal zone of the Baltic, in particular on 
the sanitary atate of seaside watering places, which recently had wide repercuestons 
in the Polish press. 

Our watere are being chiefly polluted by the industrial plants and cities, but also 
by agriculture which makes increasing use of chemical compounds (fertilizers and 
pesticides). In 1978, 4.6 million m? of sewage requiring treatment was discharged 
into waters. Only 57 percent of sewage (including 35 percent in an insufficient 
degree) were subjected to treatment. The greatest amount of wastes is discharged 
by the tron and steel industry (1] percent), chemical industry (11 percent), mining 
induatry (6 percent), forestry and woodworking industry (5 percent). 

As regarde municipal sewage, we should note a considerable increase in the number 
of our cities with severage systems. Thies has made it possible in the postwar era 
to increase the number of people making use of central sewerage systems from 

4 million to 12 million inhabitante. In 1979, 2,2 million m3 of sewage was dic- 
charged into sewerage syetems, of which, however, only half was treated. 


ihe yeara 1971-1979 were characterized by a high growth rate. The expansion of 
severage systema and municipal sewage treatment plants cost 46 billion glotys (in- 
cluding 13 billion for sewage treatment plants). This gave 8,700 km of municipal 
eeverage ayatems and 137 municipal sewage treatment plants with a total capacity 

of over 1 million m3, which constitutes a 74-percent increase compared to 1970, 
Thereby, 2.8 million additional persone benefit from sewerage facilities, and the 
amount of treated municipal sewage has increased by 660 million’. Unfortunately, 
only a half of the total amount ta sewage treated with mechanical-biological methods. 

in apite of the high growth rate of investment outlays, in recent years, as in the 
past, the pace of the conatruction of municipal sewage treatmer.t plants does not 
keep up with urbanization of the councry. In 462 cities, among others, in Warsaw, 
Lodz, Radom, Raeszow, Torun, there are no municipal sewage treatment plants at all. 
Of 438 municipal sewage treatment planta that were in operation in 1979, as many 

aw 200 did not achteve the assumed degree of the reduction of pollution, chiefly 
because of hydraulic overload of installations and excessive increase of the charge 
of pollutants. Ae before, 132 amall cities of 850,000 inhabitants have no sewe: age 

For the yeare 1976-1980, the investment plan envisaged 16.5 bil'ion zlotys for the 
conetruction of municipal sewerage treatment plants. By the end of 1979 only 7.2 
billion zlotyea had been utilized, primarily because of the lack of possibility to 
ensure the execution of inetallations being started, insufficient commitment of 

processing capacity on facilities being built, and late delivery of installations. 

The erection of ®ewage treatment plants is being done by about 60 engineering enter- 
prises of general and specialized construction. This has an adverse effect on the 
time of implementation of the investment and on the quality cf work. In 1976, of 

jl municipal sewage treatment plants 13 were put into service, the next year of the 
planned 37, 16 were put in operation, in 1978 of the planned 37, 10 were completed, 
and in 1979, of 42, only 16. 

in the industrial plants the situation is also not good. In 1978, of almost 2.5 
million m3 waste as much as 30 percent was not treated. Of the remaining 70 per- 
cent, as much as 49 percent wae treated mechanically, 13 percent chemically, and 
only 8 percent biologically. 

in the years 1971-1979, the outlays for the building of industrial effluent treat- 
ment plante amounted to 19.1 billion zlotys. This permieted us to achieve a 
‘apactty of 4 million m3/day, that is over 50 percent. 

The average annual outlays for water pollution control in the industry amounted in 
the current five-year plan period to 2.1 billion zlotys. The implementation of the 
1976-1980 plan concerning protection of waters is highly unsatisfactory. The promo- 
tlon of taske by the end of 1979 in industry amounted to 8.4 billion zlotys, that 
ie 57 percent, compared to 1.4.8 billion zlotys envisioned in the plan (without the 
share of municipal sewage treatment plants). The increase of capacity achieved in 
1976-1979 was only a little over 1 million m)/day ae a result of the completion of 
the construction of 307 industrial effluent treatment plants and constitutes only 
j8 percent of the amount envisaged in the five-year plan (2.8 million m3/day). 
Assuming a complete fulfillment of the tasks of 1980, even then the industrial-type 
minietries will not utilize 2.6 billion zlotyvs, that is, 18 percent of outlays of 
the current decade. 

C$0: 5000 56 



ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION--Law 998, Art. 45, paragr. 5 and Art 56, paragr 3, 
call for an economic-technical report on measures for prese*ving the 
environment and landscape and for minimising consequences upon the social 
environment whenever new, major industrial investments are contemplated. 
Applicants have to submit such reports to the Area Planning and Environment 
Section at the Ministry of Coordination. The lines on which such reports 
have to be compiled are currently being worked out and will appear in a 
joint decision to be issued by the Ministries of Coordination, Industry and 
Agriculture. The elaboration of such studies and preparation of resulting 
reports will not be in lieu of but additional to the report which every 
prospective industrial investor is at present called upon to submit con- 
cerning disposal of factory wastes, solid or liquid. (Editor's comment: 
The Government is pressing hard for regional development and wants new 
industrial plant away from built-up areas, except, of course, for cases 
where plant ie put up in official industrial estates. This, therefore, 
means rural districts but there is a further restriction which says that 
arable land may not be used for factories, from now on. This leaves only 
natural forest and bush land but is likewise protected by environmental 
preservation lawe For these reasons it was felt necessary to draw up a 
joint decision by the Ministries of Coordination, Industry and Agriculture 
specifying exactly what is required of prospective industrial investors. 
As usual, the rules are likely to be fairly stringent on paper, irreuvpec~ 
tive of the degree to which they are observed later). [Text] [Athens 
HELLENEWS EXPRESS in English 15 Jan 81 pp 4, 5) 

cso: 5000 END 



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