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JPRS 77575 
12 March 1981 

Worldwide Report 


No. 142 



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JPRS 77575 

12 March 1981 
No. 142 
USSR Wante Original New Zealand Fishing Quota Reatored 
(THE NEW ZEALAND HERALD, 90 Jam BL). ccc ccc cece eee e een wwwwnnes l 
New Zealanders Rap Japanese Fisheries Research Team 
(THE PRESS, 27 Jan Gh)ccsscscssccccccsescessesesesececesesssees 3 

Taiwanese Boats in Squid Netting Test in New Zealand ‘aters 
BD TGR Thc cccccccccccccccccccccccccceccceccece TITTTTTiTiiy 4 

New Zealand Condittons 
Beginning of Experiment 
Initial Catches Poor 

Thai Fishermen Claim To Be Victims of Vietnamese Pirates 

(BAN MUANG, 30 Jam Bl). cccccccceeeseeeeeeeeeessesesesessesseess 6 
Malacca Strait Pollution Contro) Signed 

(THE WORKING PEOPLE'S DAILY, 14 Peb www wwnues 8 
ROC Wants Fishing Accord With Philippines 

CEA, 9 TR Th pe cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccececcececccccees 9 



Prawn Fishing 10 

-a- [IIl - WW = 136] 


Squid Fishing Season Opens, Excellent Catches Reported 

(THE PRESS, 19 Jan TTT TiTiT seepeeeeee 
Covernment Study Reveals Richest, Poorest Fishing Waters 
(THE PRESS, 20 Jan — ———— seeeee sereepeeeeeee 


Chile, Peru, Beuador Condemn Sea Limit Viol :tione 

(EFE, 24 Jan PPnesceeooeceeeeeseees cease ceececceceeoeeseet ee 
Cuban Ships Warned on 200-Mile Limit 
Editorial Sees Soviet Designs on Mar De Chile 
(Editorial; EL MERCURIO, 27 Jam B1).....655. TYTTTTITITITTTy e086 
UN Discussions of Ocean Nodules Controversy Noted 
(Jose Bodes Gomez; PRISMA LATINOAMERICANO, Nov 80). .....6cc005s 
Editorial Views Locaribe, Stresses LOS Cooperation 
(Editorial; GUYANA CHRONICLE, 8 Jan 81)... ...ccccccwcecwnees TTT 
Suriname Fishing 
Editorial Comments on ‘Law of the Sea’ 
(Editorial; THE SUNDAY GLEANER, 11 Jam B81)... . ccc ccc ccc nwnwnnee 

Seventy-two Vessels Apply for Fishing Rights 
(NATION, 12 Feb Bl)... cc ccccceeeweeeeeesseeeee occcccccccces 














leeland “aroes Fishing Accord 



Newspaper Analyzes Resulte of LOS Conference 

(Rudolf Dolzer; FPRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 5 Feb 81).....ceeeeeees 

Fishing Industry Suffers From Lack of Quota Agreement 


(DER SPIEGEL, 2 Feb Bl) icc cccccceec cece eeeeeeeeeeeeneeeeeneeees 

Aegan Continental Shelf 






Auckland THE NEW ZEALAND HERALD in English 30 Jan 81 p 1 

[Text] The Soviet Union wants its fishing quota restored 
to the pre-Afghanistan embargo level and is optimistic that 
the New Zealand Government may agree. 

But the director of the fisheries management division of the Ministry of Agri- 
culture and Fisheries, Mr Brian Cunningham, said the total allowable catch for 
all species of fin fish next year would probably be not too different from the 
current season. 

The Government cut the Russian quota by about half to 32,500 tonnes after the 
United States called for trade embargoes on Russia in protest at the invasion of 

The ministry will discuss the foreign fin-fish quotas soon to set the quotas for 
the 1981-82 season, which begins at the end of March. 

Under Quota 

Yesterday, the Soviet Union's fisheries liaison officer, Mr Oleg Bakurin, said 
Russia's first wish was for the old quota to be restored. 

Russian fishing boats working under the licensed quota system this season have 
been unable to take their full allocation. 

Mr Bakurin said only about half of the quota (about 15,000 tonnes) would be taken 
because the fishing area allocated to its boats was a poor one. 

Shortly after the Russian quota was slashed, the ministry also pulled out of a 
research project using several Russian trawlers. 

Mr Bakurin said Russia was willing and ready to resume the project because his 
country was anxious to restore all bilateral relationships. But ministry 
sources suggest that Russia's chances of getting its old quota back are remote. 

One official said the ministry wants to go through a period of consolidation for 
all foreign fishing. 

it han already asked foreign joint=venture companies to make voluntary cute 
to their catches, 

Japan will be happy if it can rete 'n ite 79,500-tonme quota next season, accord- 
ing to ite fisheries Liaison officer, Mr Takafumi Nobukuni. 

Voluntary Cut 

[t ie unlikely to take ite full allocation this year because of difficulties 
in maintaining catches in the southernmost and most rugged zone. 

South Korea voluntarily cut its fishing effort this year for financial reasons 
and is expected to take only a small part of ite 25,500-tonne allocation. 

It has plans to step up ite fin-fishing a Little next season. 

CSO: 5200 



Christchurch THE PRESS in English 27 Jan 81 p 5 


PA Well agtor 

The Governments fish. 
mt polcy @® caunng Da 
losses of export eamings 
from savuid, according to 
the Fieh Exporters’ Asso 

Tie assuciwlions pres: 
dent, Mr KR. Hartison, said 
the poles favoured for 
eon Th eased squid vescels 
wer te export-earning 
jonmt-venture Boats 

Jont-venture fishermen 
were aleo concerned about 
the Government's decision 
to allow a Japanese fish 

erves research team ty 
work om New Zealand 
waters this summer, he 

Mr Harreon, who 6 
also charmman of the gs 
venture committee of the 

afood Processors and 

there was concern 
that Japan wanted a big 
err fiohing quota in return 
for the research 

He called for much 
more Government spend. 
ma on fisheries research 
so that joint-venture com. 
pemies had enourh infor 
mation on which to base 
toeir “wery expensive” in. 

Mr Harrison sud for. 

eign censed squid boals 
did not have to comply 


wih Miniwtry of Trane 
port surveys or Minwtry 
— yojoone regulat 
They could transier their 
cat. es into carrying 
boats af sea, unlike joint 
venture boats which had 
to return to port. 

Ths effect was to nake 
‘quid fishing by foreign. 
hoensea vessels more al- 
tractive than by joint-ven 

tre Yer mnt ventures 
would give New Zealand 
experince in developing 

the resource. and would 
eer good export money 
All New Zealand got from 
foreign-licensed veasels 
was the fee 


tT fe iti 



, Jan 14 (PA)--Experimental syuid fishing using nets rather than jig- 


zZ : 
- : 

, : 

5 5s iti 7 2 2% ; F tye 7 
aS = & 2 53 s * 7 
ar vn bic Vaya 
ea ee a 
ES 3 3 4% te ri 
» &- « if it & g 
. isd 4 + . a: if Bu 
2 & HE pelt uf = J iy ion 
A J 48% 
tail = 5. gsebeg a9 ii 
53— rey Fe eon si 
gC li Liat tis 
* s 23¢ ae 
— Fy, ili Poi Beh 9 
A He a BO et 4H a 
2 § & i * S$ Ese 2 is 

Initial Catches Poor 

Auckland THE NEW ZEALAND HERALD in English 29 Jan 81 p 8 

[Tex t 7 



Taiwanese net- 
ting for squid, using 
nels up to 21 8 


the South Island about two 
weeks ago in a scheme to 
see if this method is more ef- 
fective than squid . 

The director of 

Four Approved 

gauge the effectiveness 



ithe system a longer trial was 
apa wes given ter 
four netters to come 
to New this squid 
season, have 








7 i 












Bangkok BAN MUANG in “hai 30 Jan 81 pp l, 2 
LArticle: "Fishermen Appeal to RTN"] 

_ Text] 1t has been disclosed that Vietnam regularly sends pirates to 
rob fishing bouts in Thai waters in the area of Pak Phanang District 
and nearby provinces in order to seize the boats and take the fish 
for food, Appeals have been made to the government to orderthe Navy 
to send some ships to patrol ,the area] and protect the fishermen, 
It has been revealed that Pak Phanang 1S a weakpoint that Vietnam 
can invade since it takes only 24 hours for boats to reach here. 

Mx Phongsak ButScaranuwong, the president of the Pak Phanang 

municipal council, and Mr suphot Klasukhon, a member of the Fishing 
Cooperative in Pak Phanang District, Nakhon Sithammarat Province, 
talked with reporters at parliament yesterday morning (29 January). 
They disclosed that, at present, it appears that pirates, who are 
thought to be Vietnamese soldiers, are using modern boats and 

weapons to regularly rob Thai fishing boats. It has reached the point 
where the fishermen are afraid to go out to fish. This has been going 
on since the end of December, Fishermen who pass near Ka Island in 
Pak Phanang Disitrict are reqularly robbed. To date, more than 10 
fishing boats have been robbed. This includes boats from Pattani, 
Lonckhla and Nakhon Sithammarat. Concerning the actions of these 
Vietnamese pirates, after robbing the fishermen, they seize the boats 
and take the fish too for food. As for the fishermen, in some cases, 
all the men aboard the fishing boat have been killed. In other cases, 
the fishermen have been set adrift in the sea. For example, in the 
case of the boats Named the "Phun Phon" and the "T. Laksana," 12 
fishermen were Killed and only one survived. The value of the goods 
stolen is not known, gach boat was valued at almost 1 million baht 
but this does not include the value of the fish and other items, 

Mr Phongsak also stated that, concerning the Vietnamese who are 
involved in this, it is certain that they are Vietnamese soldiers 
because they use weapons that are used on the battlefields, It is 
thought that they are engaging in such activities for three reasons: 
1. They are doing this in order to see how well we patrol our 
territorial waters. 2. They want to terrorize the Thai people. 

3. They want to seize food from Thailand and use it to feed their 
troops who are disculised as civilians or as Vietnamese refugees, 

However, Mr Phongsak stated that each time Vietnamese pirates rob 
Thai fishermen, it is very easy for them to encer the area without 
any of our officials concerned being aware of it. They can come and 
go freely each time. This is different from the situation in Malaysia, 
Malaysia has very tough nalLional defense measures. Neither Vietnamese 
refugees nor anyone else can get in. If they enter MalaySia, they are 
immediately forced to leave. Strangers who slip in are immediately 
discovered and intercepted. As for us, Vietnamese refugees enter the 
country and live here for a long time before we find out, It is only 
when we see larje numbers of them walking on the beach that we find 
out! Our defense measures are very weak and it is very distressing 

if somethine happens. In particular, the important thing is that the 
coast of Pak Phananc and the ceast of Vietnam are only 24 hours 

away by boat. It is expected that during this coming March and April, 
large numbers of Vietnamese r-fugees will enter Thailand since, during 
this period, there are no storms, the winds are gentle and travelling 
by boat is very convenient. 

Concerning defense measures, Mr Somphong stated that he would 1ike to 
propose that the qovernment quickly implement defense measures and 
put a stop to this. In particular, the Navy should send more ships to 
patrol the Gulf of Thailand; otherwise, larger and larger numbers of 
Vietnamese refucees will flow into Thailand, If they are allowed to 
enter Thailand and are not forced out or intercepted, this will 

later create problems for the government, which will have to 

solve the problens later. Concerning the government boats in Pak 
Phanang vistrict, at present, there is only one marine police boat 
but even it cannot be used because the government has not budgeted 
money to buy gasoline for it. As for the Vietnamese refugees in Pak 
Phanang, there were 120 people here and just recently more than 60 
more refugees urrived, 

CSO: 5200 



Rangoon THE WORKING PEOPLE'S DALLY in English 14 Feb 61 p 6 



— 1M: 

ane ha —* 

Moy (hit: 
tel pill eis 

i ha 

[Text } 






OWO31451 Taipei CNA in English 1350 GMT 3 Mar 41 

[Text] Taipei, 3 Mar (CNA)=<The Republic of China wante to take the initiative to 

negotiate with the Philippines on the overlapping water areas between the economic sones 
of the two neighboring countries, Economics Minteter Chang Kwang-ehih eaid Tuesday. 

Although Taipel and Manila maintain no formal diplomatic relations, there should be an 
agreement to settle all disagreements regarding fishing righte on the overlapping water 
areas, Chang pointed out, when anewering an interpellation at the Legislative Yuan, 
Chang said the Republic of China ie planning to send representatives to the Philippines 
to sort out matters in dispute, including the release of over 40 Taiwan fiehing boats 
detained by the Philippine authorities recently. The Republic of China te seeking 4 
fishery cooperation project with the Philippines for @utual benefite, Chang said, 
adding that initial negotiations are underway. 

Chang's remarke came one day after a statement by the Economice Ministry calling on 
fishermen to refrain from operating in the vicinity of the Baten Islands, north of the 
Phillipines, to avoid disputes. The statement aleo warned fishermen not to approach 
the “undefined” areas covered by the economic sones declared by the two countries. 

CSO: 5200 


PRAWN FISHING--Canberra.--The Federal Government would spend up to $100,000 on 
exploratory trawling in deep water off southeastern Australian for royal red 
prawne, The Federal Primary Industry Minister, Mr Nixon, said yesterday, the 
operation would be carried out in April and May off the coast between Robe, South 
Auetralia, and Strahan, Taemania. [Text] [Br‘ebane THE COURLER-MAIL in English 
13 Jan 81 p 3) 

cso: 5200 




81 p l2 

Christehureh THE PRESS in English 19 Jan 


es nae ae 

ie it Ht i — 


iia i itt 





Christehureh THE PRESS in English 20 Jan 81 p 7 
[Text] New 




CSO: 5200 




PA252309 Madrid EFE in Spanieh 2234 GMT 24 Jan 6) 

[Text] Cali, Colombia, 24 Jan (EFE)=-The foreign ministers of Chile, Peru, Beuador and 
Colombia today .ondemned the vielations to the )00—mile sea limite that each of their 
countries has set. 

In 4 so-called Declaration of Cali, Ministers Rene Rojas Gaidames, Alfonso Barrera, Javier 
Arias and Diego Uribe, of Lite, Bewador, Peru and Colombia, respectively, rejected 
coercive measures imposed on the southern Pacific states in opposition to the OAS Charter 
and in international law. 

The ministers noted with pleasure that the objectives and principles established in the 
“Declaration of Santiago” in 1952 have served as basis for a policy aimed at the 
decolonization of the seas and at 4 restructuring of the law of the sea to establish an 
equitable and just juridical order that gives special consideration to the interests of 

the developing countries. The ministers agreed to continue working in a coordinated fashion 
to safeguard and consolidate their achievements. 

The ministers note. that an international organization should protect, ae 4 common patrimony 
of mankind, the sea and ocean beds outside legal national limite to prevent the exploitation 
of resources from having adverse effefte on the economy and revenues of the developing coun- 
tries that export the products of this exploitation. 

The ministers flatiy rejected wnilateral efforts to exploit seabeds and their subsoil, 
Which quest aot be appropriated by any state or any person and over Which no state or person 
can have any right. 

The ministers noted that the international authority that would administer the sea and ocean 
beds gust not be the subject of control, or be subjected to the interests of a emall group of 
povere, but must be authentically democratic and @ust adequately represent the interests of 
the Third World countries. 

Regarding the discussions presently taking place at the Third UN Conference on the Law of 
the Seca, the foreign ministers believe that their governments should jointly analyze the 
convention project [as received) to coordinate, as @uch as possible, the position of their 
countries on thie project, 48 well ae to initiate suitable actions for the final convention. 

The South Pacific countries admitted efficient means gust be established to struggle against 
the contamination of the seas and agreed that they must increase their scientific research 
efforts. They aleo noted they are working on an understanding among their countries to 
contribute to the preservation and best utilisation of tuna, 4 resource at the free and 
sovereign disposal of the riparian countries. 


The minieters reiterated their political support for the permanent committee of the 
South Pacific and noted the suitability of strengthening it and making it more effective, 
™ the basis of its present geographic ephere, it must continue to effectively unite ite 

members countries, as well as the appropriate regional organization for the defense of sea 

The ministers made the office of the secretary general responsible for studying the challenges 
resulting from the new situation and for presenting at a special meeting suggestions on how 
to guarantee the required strengthening and effectiveness. 

Finally, the foreign ministers agreed to meet periodically to strengthen the system and to 
coordinate the cea policies of their respective countries. 

cso: 5200 




CUBAN SHIPS WARNED ON 200-MILE LIMIT--Santiago, Chile, 23 Jan (AFP)<<It has been 
reported here that the Chilean Navy today warned that the Cuban fishing ships 
sighted yesterday near Chilean territorial waters run the risk of being captured 
and being assessed fines if they violate the 200-mile limit. Vice Adm Raul Lopez 
Silva, commander in chief of the navy and deputy member of the government junta, 
stressed that the navy keeps a very close watch over the maritime heritage of 
the nation, the integrity and wealth of which must be defended under any circum- 
stances. The admiral said that the Cuban ships, detected 230 miles from Mocha 
Island at 39 degrees south latitude, were outside Chilean territorial waters, 
which they have not yet violated. [Excerpt] [PY241514 Paris AFP in Spanish 
0310 GMT 24 Jan 81) 

CSO: 5200 



Santiago EL MERCURIO in Spanish 27 Jan 81 p A-3 
{[Editorial: "The Mar de Chile and the USSR") 

(Text) The meeting in Cali, Colombia of the Permanent Commission for the Southern 
Pacific culminated in a declaration that besides reaffirming the policy of defend- 
ing the 200 miles of territorial waters, calls for adopting a series of measures 
to protect the wealth of fish life in the member countries, including the 
establishment of a joint naval force. 

The uneasiness shown by the delegates from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile 
started with the great powers’ growing interest in increasing their presence in 
the Southern Pacific, which usually results in non-selective fishing that is harm- 
ful to marine fauna. 

However, it is not only an interest in obtaining a larger supply of products from 
the sea that leads some of these powers tokeep their small fleets opposite our 
coast. Chile has discovered a disturbing political and military tendency in the 
operations of Soviet ships and those of other Communist nations that are stationed 
facing the territorial waters limit. 

Last summer a Soviet ship settled in Mar de Drake which is an essentiel passage 
uniting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. A Soviet ship was apparently assigned 
to scientific research, but it turned out to be provided with advanced electronic 
equipment for interceptir or destroying direct or satellite communications and 
for carrying out other more complex and undetermined tasks in the information 

In the Soviet naval strategy to control and dominate the sea lanes, special 
importance is given to the Mar de Chile. Already, during the Popular Unity 
government, Soviet ships were operating on our coast in noticeable numbers under 
the pretext of researching fishin, but they were really interested in searching 
for suitable areas for submarine operations. 

In its zealous surveillance of our coastline, the National Navy has discovered 
the presence, sinch March 1979, of 106 boats from the Soviet orbit, which are 
partly fishing and partly scientific ships, in the vicinity of the 200 mile limit. 
Some of them are genuine floating factories with a large storage capacity. They 


perform drag fishing, averaging 30 tone each time, without any selectivity 
regarding the species caught. 

Right now 19 Cuban boasts are operating opposite off Concepcion, They have not 
crossed the 200 mile limit, but their operations have already been discovered and 
the Navy is carefully following their movements in order to seize them in case 
they violate Chilean territorial waters. 

Since they are beyond our economic zone and territorial waters, the Cuban boats 
are completely free to operate, but thie activity ca: have harmful repercussions 
on our fish resources. Otherwise, as acting Command. in Chief of the Navy, Vice 
Admiral Raul Lopez Silva pointed out, it is always possible that the Cuban boats 
are carrying out spying missions. 

The aforementioned demonstrates the need to strengthen protectic.. of the Chilean 
fishing potential and of the still undetermined wealth that lies at the ocean 
bottom off our coast, for which purpose the country must have enough resources 

The agreements adopted on this subject by the Permanent Commission for the 
Southern Pacific are strengthened by the full agreement on proposals among the 
commission's four member countries, now including Colombia, thus reaffirming the 
joining of interests and pointe of view on defending the weath of the sea. 

CSO: 5200 



Havana PRISMA LATINOAMERICANO in Spanish Nov 80 p 58 
[Article by Jose Bodes Gomez] 

[Text] A little over a century ago scientists discovered polymetallic nodules on the 
ocean floor, but it will be a few years before this wealth can be utilized by mankind, 

For a long time the search for those submerged minerals was impossible because of 
lack of technical resources, Later, methods to extract the nodules were invented, 
but that operation was too costly to attract investors. 

Finally, in the closing years of this 20th century, the technical and commercial 
conditions necessary to awaken interest in mineral exploration on the ocean floor 
have been achieved. 

The question now is whether this new production will be used for the benefit of 
mankind in its entirety or for only an infinitesimal part thereof--namely, the 
transnational corporations, 

According to preliminary calculations, entirely feasible to implement, there are on 
the ocean floor reserves of copper, manganese cobalt, nickel and other valuable 
metals which in some cases surpass the quantiiies which have been discovered on land. 
This means that as new exploration methods are perfected, even greater deposits will 

Only 10 years ago the United Nations agreed to consider the ocean resources as the 
patrimony of all mankind, and shortly thereafter, the Third Conference on the Law 
of the Sea got under way in Caracas. 

The work of this conference went much further than was foreseen, and each year ends 
with the frustration of not having been the decisive year in which a new maritime 
agreement was obtained. However, it must be said that 1980 will end with less 
bitterness than previous years, since the debates on the sea have made important 
advances in the last few months. 

For the first time the industrialized countries and the developing nations have 
come to an agreement regarding the manner of voting in the future council of the 
International Maritime Authority. A policy has also been designed with a view to 
limiting production from the ocean floor, to alleviate its negative effect on land 


For the countries which produce nickel, copper and other metals which are also 
found on the ocean floor, this limitation does not satisfy their demands made in 
previous sessions, but the agreement reached doubtless represents a more positive 
formula than what had initially been proposed to the Conference, In addition, 
there is still the possibility that compensatory clauses for countries affected by 
the new competition will be approved, Some experts believe that in the first 
stages of exploitation the minerals extracted from the ocean floor will be barely 
one-fourth of what is produced on land, 

As for nickel, one of the formulas proposed is that mining companies may only 
extract an amount equivalent to three-fifths of the market increase, the other two- 
fifths being reserved for the traditional producers. 

With respect to other metals found in the ocean nodules, such as copper, cobalt and 
manganese, their activity will depend on what develops with nickel, so that mining 
investment will not lean disproportionately in favor of some metals, while ignoring 
the extraction of others, 

Recognition by the international community that there must be an authority, accepted 
by all the states, which regulates the exploitation of the oceans, means a great 
step forward for other sectors of world economic life. The idea was resisted at 
first by the developed capitalist countries, which opposed any type of control so 
that the transnational firms might have complete freedom in this new venture. 

The discussions in the Conference of the Sea have been long and difficult, due to 
the diversity of interests it is attempting to conciliate. In the first place, 
ocean mining must not become one more factor of disadvantage for the underdeveloped 
countries, much less depress the prices of those metals on which a good part of the 
economy of those nations depends. 

The industrialized capitalist countries, in turn, have tried to press for an agree- 
ment which would be so broad and flexible that its clauses would not involve any 
sort of compromise. At the same time, the governments of the United States and the 
Federal Republic of Germany have arjproved domestic legislation authorizing their 
own firms to begin sounding and exploitation of ocean resources, while the inter- 
national convention has not yet been approved. Measures of this kind are a flagrant 
violation of the agreements made in the United Nations itself. 

Among the questions pending solution is the thorny problem of the European Economic 
Community, which wants to be admitted as a bloc. Actually the behavior of this 
nine-nation economic group, as we saw in the case of sugar and other basic products, 
has had very negative effects on the interests of the underdeveloped countries, and 
this causes its current ambitions to be viewed with well-founded suspicion by most 
of the states participating in the conference. 

In spite of all this, the negotiations appear to be approaching their culmination, 
and just the fact that the conference has succeeded in regulating the activities of 
the transnational firms in this area will be a victory for the socialist countries 
and the so-called Third World. 

CSO: 3010 



Georgetown GUYANA CHRONICLE in English 8 Jan 81 p 6 
|Editorial: "The Promise From the Sea") 

[Text] Guyana's membership of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's 
Association for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions [IOCARIBE] is proof of govern- 
ment's awareness of the rich marine harvests the ocean can yield and of its 
determination to gather in that harvest for the benefit of the nation. 

However, no country, developing or developed, can assay this stupendous task 
alone. The involvement of oceanographers, marine biologists and geologists, 
technicians and researchers is necessary for the resources of the earth's oceans 
and seas are boundless; fish shrimp and fossil fuel are but fringe benefits, 
according to scientific opinion founded on proof. 

Realising this, nations have come together for united and peaceful endeavours 
aimed at plumbing the depths of the sea for development of its potential, espe- 
cially in the area of food. We say ‘peaceful endeavours’ for not unexpectedly, 
tensions had arisen between countries as regards territorial boundaries and in- 
fringement of rights, among other crucial issues. United Nations conferences on 
the Law of the Sea, for years the forum for heated debate, have at last reached 
agreement on a number of these issues and ushered in a new Ocean Regime. The 
role which IOCARIBE will play in this regime was a priority topic at a recent 
meeting in Cacun, Mexico for it is a role of commitment and responsibility for 
Guyana and other developing countries. Underlying this role, is the ultimate 
intention of enhancing the marine science capabilities of developing member states 

Reports from the Mexico meeting which was in its third session, disclosed that 
the delegates stressed the importance of developing regional programmes on ocean 
dynamics and recommended projects in the field of [word illegible] biology and 
living resovrces, in support of fishing and related industries. The meeting 
paid special attention to marine pollution, geology and information exchange, 
among other matters. 

Guyana and other member countries will benefit from training programmes for 
scientific and technical personnel and will participate in an action plan 


involving the Caribbean, an environmental programme sponsored by the UN and 
the Economic Commission for Latin America, 

These insights furnish an idea of the work envisaged by the IOCARIBE. They 
tell of united efforts in a sphere of development that is vitally important to 

this hard-pressed nation as it is to the other, eighteen member-countries for 
those efforts hold promise of bountiful harvests. 

CSO: 5200 




SURINAME FISHING--Over 32 Guyanese fishermen have received licences from the 
Suriname Government to operate in the Corentyne in 1981. The licences were 
recently renewed in Nickerie. According to Comrade Kumar, secretary to the 
Upper Corentyne Fishermen Co-operative Society, several fishermen have not 

yet been granted licences. Meanwhile the 15 Guyanese fishermen who were 
arrested last month when Suriname police seized four of their fishing vessels 
are due to appear in a Suriname court on January 19. GNA [Text] [Georgetown 
GUYANA CHRONICLE in English 9 Jan 61 p 11) 

CSO: $200 



Kingeton THE SUNDAY GLEANER in English 11 Jan 81 p 8 
[Editorial: “The Law of the Sea") 

[Text] What is the latest on the “Law of the Sea”? In 1970 when the United 
Nations declared that the “oceans are the common heritage of mankind," this 
set the stage for development of the Law of the Sea Treaty which began in 1979. 

Since that time over 160 nations have been meeting regularly to hammer out the 
details of an acceptable treaty, which is designed to control the exploitation 
of the sea's resources. Oil, gas and metallic substances particularly “ocean 
nodules" and sunken treasures are some of the major areas of intent. 

Dr Rattray and Mr Robinson of the Attorney General's Department have been 
Jamaica's major advocates at the international discussions. 

Jamaica has much to gain or lose from the outcome of the treaty insofar as the 
control of its territorial waters is concerned. It is high time that Jamaica's 
interest is consolidated and the public be assure’ that Jamaica's position has 
been adequately taken care of even at this time. 

cso: 5200 



Victoria NATION in English 12 Feb 61 pp 1, 2 


SEVENTY: TWO foreign fish 

ing boats, meo'uding two from 
the Soviet Union, have applied 
io fish in Seychelles exclusive 

The acting Chief Fusheries 
Offer, Mr. Aubrey Harris, 


sirict’y on accordance with the 
fisheries decree of 1979," Mr 
Harris said. adding that each 
vessel was required to pay a 
lence fee of R. SO for each 
gross = registered §=ton per 
month “In general. the licen- 
wed \cwe's now operating in 
Seychelles pay between 
R. 20,000 and R. 250,000 per 

Seyeheliow = ollicm's have 
been geployed to monitor the 
activiues of cach fishing veasel 
to ensure that fishing opera 
tions are carried out im the 
letter and spirit of the 1979 
decree on firhing operations 
by foreigners 

Mr. Harris said as a result 
of the Law of the Sea Confe 
rence, the resources within 
the EEZ which “we cannot 
ourselves adequately exp'oit” 
have been made available to 
interested parties to fish with 
the necessary payment of a 

The fisheries officer said 
only lareer tuna were involved 
in the foreign fishing exercise. 
which goes by season. 

He explained that October 
to May was the season most 
preferred by foreign fishing 
boats because more tuna were 
avaiable in Seychellois waters. 

The Soviets have appled 
and paid for a provisional one 
month fishing facility They 
are expected to renew their 

license for the average period 
of three months. 



ICELAND=FAROES FISHING ACOCORD=-A twoeday round of ministry-level talke in 
Reykjavik, around the middle of last month, ended with the signing of an Icelandic- 
Faroese fisheries accord for 1961, But, interestingly, some press stories on the 
development failed to mention the main point of the agreement: the exact take of 
demersal (bottom) species from Icelandic waters that had been authorized for 
Faroese operators, If that was an oversight on the part of the writers, it seemed 
significant enough. Foreign catches of demersal fish from waters surrounding this 
country--a burning issue not so many years ago--had dwindled to a level that was 
indeed negligible in any historical perspective, The new quota for Faroese fisher- 
men was just 17 thousand tons--besides a reciprocal deal involving 20 thousand tons 
of blue whiting, a migratory pelagic species seen as holding out a notable promise, 
The agreement was virtually a carbon copy of last year's, and included diverse 
provisions on co-operation between the two nations. All foreign demersal catches 
from Icelandic waters in 1980 came to just some 24 thousand tons, part of which 
were tiny quotas granted to Norway and Belgium, By contrast, foreign vessels, 
especially British and West German trawlers, were reported to have taken 384 
thousand tons near this country in 1970. Iceland unilaterally extended its fish- 
eries jurisdiction to 50 nautical miles in 1972, and to 200 miles three years later, 
Both moves led to British naval interference with patrol vessels, but foreign fish- 
ing inside this country's present resources zone became minimal by late 1977, 
(Text) (Reykjavik NEWS FROM ICELAND in English Feb 81 p 1) 

CSO: 5200 



Prankfurt, Main FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE in German 5 Feb 81 p 8 
[Article by Dr Dr Rudolf Dolzer: “The High Seas To Remain Free for All Nations") 

[Text] In today's practice, moderniem in law ie mostly characterized through striv- 
ing for an improved balance of interests, through differentiation, complexity and 
blowing up of norms. For the person subject to the law it frequently results in a 
lack of visibility and loss of freedom. If proof were needed that thie is so, addi- 
tional evidence, it could be found in an almost exemplary form in the recent develop- 
ments of the international law regarding order on the seas. Traditional regulations 
dating from the time before 1945 dealt essentially with two categories: the high 
seas ard coastal waters. On the high seas practically everything was permitted, 
with respect to coastal waters the border state had exclusive rights. The planned 
new Law of the Sea Convention is to be altogether different: It is to consist of 

a treaty with 320 articles as well as 7 appendices with 107 additional regulations. 

Just 15 years ago, only a limited revision rather than a total overhaul of the 
Maritime Law was contemplated. The economic use of the bottom of the sea was to 
be put under the concept of the “joint heritage of mankind" and, consequently, re- 
moved from the grasp of technologically advanced countries. Nevertheless, when 
agreement was reached in principle, it soon became apparent that the mandate of a 
new Maritime Law Conference could not be restricted to the bottom of the sea. The 
existing order on the seas was not universally accepted anyway, and, furthermore, 
reciprocal claims to various norms regarding territory within the Law of the Sea 
could easily be used as an argument in favor of a comprehensive examination of the 
existing lav. 

Against this background, the Law of the Sea Conference began its work in 1973. A 
short time later it had already agreed in principle on the introduction of a so- 
called “exclucive economic zone" for coastal etates. Many years of sessions were 
necessary, however, before the new concepts were put into concrete formulations; 
during this time conference participants presented their requests for definitions, 
modifications and, above all, exceptions. During the process of political bartering, 
which lasted for 8 years, 427 articles--now under consideration--were negot fated 

or rather: they are the result of the bargaining (see FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG, 
12 November, page 9). What remained of the old law, at least when it comes to 
terminology, are the coastal waters and the high seas. New are categories such as, 
particularly, “economic zone" and “territory”; a separate regulation for the main- 
land socle had already become a significant factor shortly after 1945. 


The Ieeue Ie Manganese Nodules 

The —— convention will retain the provision of the old law, which is to keep 
the high seas free for all states. This applies particularly to freedom of naviga- 
tion, undisturbed flights over the ocean ae well as, within certain limite, laying 
of cables and pipes, conetruction of artificial telands and ocean research, Mili- 
tary actione are permitted as long as they do not violate especial regulations of 
the international law. Fishing ie aleo to remain free; the convention draft is 
attempting to prevent "“over-fishing" in principle, by urging states to cooperate in 
@ general manner. In this respect the new regime differe little from the old law. 
Nevertheless, there are serious differences: As far ae the locale is concerned, 
the mentioned rules apply neither to the bottom of the ocean nor to the economic 
zones which in the future will constitute « sizeable part of the earlier high seas. 

It is not altogether undisputed whether the traditional law guarantees the free use 
of the deep-sea floor; better legal arguments, however, are in favor of such tradi- 
tional freedom. In the past this question was not of great economic importance. 

At the end of the last century, the first of] depostiea were discovered on the main- 
land socle of the California coast. Today the primary deep-sea issue is manganese 
nodules, the existence of which on the ocean floor has been known for some time. 
They contain large quantities of metals that on the mainland are frequently scarce, 
expensive, and economically almost indispensable. Today's technical development 
makes it possible to recover the nodules. Two procedures have already been tested: 
One follows the principle of the vacuum cleaner and the other the manner of a scoop. 
At least five international consort ia--among them one with a 25-percent German 
participation (Metallgeselischaft, Preussag, Salzgitter)--have already started the 
exploration and mining of the nodules. 

The current draft, however, which is not expected to be changed drastically, does 
not provide measures that would permit these enterprises to do whatever they wish. 
Rather, an international maritime authority is to watch over the riches of the ocean 
floor. It is to ensure that a system is created which will put into practice the 
idea of the “joint heritage of mankind.” An application procedure has been planned, 
according to which permission may only be granted when the established conditions 
are met exactly. 

Every applicant must give a detailed description of the area where he wants to work. 
The application must also indicate the technology that is to be applied to the dif- 
ferent phases of the operation. The peculiarity of the proposed procedure is that 
the area under consideration must be divided into two halves with respect to economic 
aspects; the applicant can be given one of the two halves. According to the proposed 
law, only an enterprise created by the Law of the Sea Conference or a developing 
country may be active in the other half. To establish the technological prerequi- 
sites for the activities of the enterprise, the applicant must obligate himself when 
submitting the application to provide to that enterprise upon request the employed 
technology at fair commercial conditions; such an abligation is also to be assumed 
toward developing countries who want to utilize the ocean floor. 

Percentages for Authorit tes 

In addition, there are plans that the newly created maritime authority as well as 
the developing countries are to be briefed on the use of this technology. But the 


ooligatione of the successful applicant do not end here. When he begine hie activi- 
tiles he must pay fees to the maritime authority. During the firat 10 years they 
amount to 5 percent of the value of the mined metals, after that they will be 12 
percent of the value; alternatively, payment can also be made according to an ar- 
rangement which is based on a production fee and the net profit of the enterprise. 

When it comes to the total amount of mined manganese nodules, the terrestrial pro- 
ducera of the metale have insisted on the establishment of maximum amounts of pro- 
duction, something which ie definitely in their interests. For this reason, prob- 
ably no more than 12, according to other estimates only 7 mining fields will be 
established on the ocean floor during the next 25 years. Two of them could be 
claimed by the enterprise, one by the Soviet Union, the remaining fields will prob- 
ably be divided between the existing consortia from the FRG, France, Great Britain, 
Japan and the United States. 

Finally, consortia which are considering the utilization of the ocean floor are 

also affected by the fact that 15 years after beginning production within the frame- 
work of the new system a verification conference will take place, during which the 
current rules are to be reconsidered and possibly even changed. To settle legal 
disputes that will arise in the meantime, a special procedure before a court is to 
be created and to a certain degree all states covered by the treaty will be subject 
to it. Although certain areas are beyond the jurisdiction of this court, it is 
quite remarkable that the states were able at all to agree on a legal procedure. It 
is possible that the Law of the Sea Court will have its seat in Hamburg. 

The claim that the mainland socle must rightfully be allocated to the bordering 

state was first represented by the United States in 1945, At that time, a "Truman 
Proclamation" was to guarantee that the huge oil deposits on the American coast 

would not be taken away from his own country by foreigners. During the 1950's 

the American position gradually found general recognition; because of oil and natural 
gas deposits, coastal states everywhere agreed that free access should no longer be 
in operation. The question that remained unsolved was how far the socles should 
extend seaward. During a conference in 1958 the participants agreed that the socle 
was extending into the ocean as far as exploration was possible, limited only by 

the depth of the water covering the ocean floor. 

Since then, however, technological development has progressed to an extent which 
makes this interpretation no longer tenable because of its vagueness. The current 
draft proceeds from the concept that this socle extends to a width of 200 miles 
over the coastal waters. The special characteristic of this convent ion--which can 
he explained by the political influence of the coastal states--consists of the idea 
that the mainland-socle regime will also apply to areas where, geologically, a wide 
socle does not even exist. Whether a mainland socle rightfully extends beyond the 
200-mile zone, however, depends on geological aspects; according to the current 
regulation, in individual cases a state can claim a mainland socle extending to a 
width of 500 nautical miles. Nevertheless, if the zone beyond the 200-mile limit 
is utilized, a fee will have to be paid to the maritime authority 5 years after the 
beginning of production. This fee is to benefit particularly developing countries 
and totally land-based states. 


Coastal Waters Four Times as Wide 

Until 1945 there was aleo a rule that the coastal atate had no special rights above 
the mainland socle. The logic of things, however, was that this view could not be 
upheld for very long. The close proximity to the mainland, which wae the basis for 
claims to the mainland socle, concerned the body of water as well as the socle. 
Consequently, it follows that coastal states are now claiming them aleo for then- 
selves. The fact that they succeeded in claiming an "exclusive economic zone," 
nowever, does not mean that it becomes national territory, but it contains the right 
to economic use. The territorial definition was controversial aleo in this respect. 
During the conference it was agreed to apply the 200-nautical mile formula, which 
goes pretty far in meeting the interests of cosstal states. From the economic 
viewpoint this regulation is of considerable importance because large quantities of 
fish are caught in this coastal area. The present draft, however, contains only 
inadequate rules as to what kind of fishing rights must be granted by these states 
to third countries and what criteria are to be used to define these third countries. 

There was no dispute at any time during the conference concerning the opinion that 
the coastal waters close to the mainland will remain the territory of the bordering 
state also in the future. Negotiations were concerned only with the future ex- 
pansion of this zone. Traditionally this strip had been established at 3 nautical 
miles, because it was considered essential for the defense of the mainland. Now 
the coastal waters are to become four times as wide. Nevertheless, the military 
superpowers made sure that there was an important restriction to the jurisdiction 
of coastal states. As was the case in earlier times, ships have the right to peace- 
ful passage. At the urging of the superpowers this right will be guaranteed even 
more stringently in the future; in straits that are entirely in territorial waters 
this right is to be applied, in general, also to air space and underwater crossings. 

In the North Sea, the bordering states divided the mainland socle among themselves 
as early as 1971; the German area, which was called "Duck's Beak" because of its 
peculiar shape, had to turn out relatively small (36,000 square kilometers) because 
of the geographic situation. During the decision phase of the marit ime-law negot la- 
tions, the FRG proceeded from the assumption that the fishing zones of EC members 
located on the Atlantic would be subject to the rules of the European Community, in 
other words, they would be open to free access by German fisherman. As a matter 
of fact, at the beginning of the 1970's norms were issued in Brussels for the 
establishment of a so-called EC-Ocean which support this legal position. After 
1976 the EC states jointly extended their fishing zones to 200 nautical miles and 
agreed to the so-called EC Ocean. 

After England joined the EC, the strict application of the EC law was for political 
reasons no longer tenable. The British fishing zones contain approximately 60 
percent of the existing fish in the EC Ocean. Now a rule has been found that de- 
viates from the norms of the European law to the disadvantage of the FRG. Accord- 
ingly, each member state is allotted a quota of the entire catch. OGurrent calcula- 
tions indicate that the catch quota for England will be approximately three t imes 
as high as the one for the FRG. On the other hand, when assessing the allotment 
from the German perspective it must be taken into consideration that only 9 percent 
of the fish available in the North Sea are located in German waters. 


In the Baltic Sea all bordering states have been claiming a sifhing sone of 200 
miles since 1978, Consequently, the Baltic Sea is totally divided between these 
states; because of ite geographic situation, the FRG was allotted only 3 percent. 
If the new conven’ ion should come up with obligations for cooperation among the 
atates bordering on the Baltic Sea, no new legal regime would be necessary, various 
conventions between 1973 and 1974 already fulfilled the obligations contained in 
the new agreement. 

Nevertheless, it would have been desirable if the new convention had produced an 
unequivocal ruling concerning questions dealing with the passage through Baltic Sea 
atraite. It is certain, however, that euch a clear rule will not be forthcoming. 
At the present time the treaty from 1957 still applies. But it is not quite clear 
what meaning it has in individual cases, when it comes to the passage of warships 
and merchant ships; the formulation proposed in the convention will not remove this 
uncertainty. Soviet attempts to bar NATO from the Baltic Sea were without success; 
to be sure, the Baltic Sea belongs to the category of “half-closed oceans," which, 
however, does not tie in with any legal ramifications as far as the military use of 
this ocean is concerned. 

cso: 5200 



Hanburg DER SPIEGEL in German 2 Feb 81 pp 68-69 

[Text) Long ago they should have been off Greenland, Canada or Norway to catch 
cod, rock salmon or ocean perch. Instead, German deep-sea fishermen were sitting 
in the bars of Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven and Hamburg and cursing the EEC. 

Brussels is a “crappy organization," grumbled one burly customer in the Wuelfel 
Tavern in Bremerhaven. A second agreed with him, the EEC politicians “should all 
be chased out, along with those in Bonn because they let themselves be blackmailed 
constantly by the others.” 

The fishermen's anger is understandable: because the fish experts in Brussels 
have not been able to agree on catch quotas for months, the German deep-sea fleet 
is tied up, and the sailors are worried about their wages. One complained that 
“because of those people in Brussels" his family had to manage on barely DM 1,400 
per month—that is, with the dock time pay that his company gives him for doing 
nothing. He said that he cannot get by without the expected catch premium, about 
DM 1,000 monthly: “I can forget a vacation this year." 

The sailors’ bitterness--they have been waiting on call for weeks--has reached 
the executive floors of the companies. “The mood is one of more than irritation," 
aaid Dieter Koch, head of the Hanseatic Deep Sea Fishing Company. 

Koch already had to suffer losses of several million marks at the beginning of the 
year, in the middle of the best season. Most of his ships are not fishing in the 
Atlantic, but are moored at German quays. 

Thirteen of 20 deep-sea German factory ships are presently tied up and are daily 
causing their owners--Nordsee, Hanseatic, Nordstern and Pickenpack--more than 
DM 300,000 losses. 

Unimpressed by such problems, the Eurocrats are negotiating tenaciously about 
catch quotas and the division of fishing grounds among the EEC partners. 

Great Britain and France have been quarreling since November about access to 
coastal waters. The Danes are not satisfied with the planned catch quotas, and 
the Germans feel as if they have been run over with the so-called third-country 


The FRG had long ago reached an agreement with the third country, Canada: in 
return for fishing rights off Labrador and Newfoundland, the Canadians were to 
be permitted to send cod fillets to the FRG. But Brussels blocked the Canadian 
contract. Shipowner Koch calle the EEC quarrels “absolute lunacy.” 

The industry announed last week that if Bonn did not finally get ite way in 
Brussels, the fishermen would blockade the harbors of Hamburg and Bremen. Reduced 
working hours and even the layoff of 1,200 men to begin with would be inevitable. 

On Wednesday last week the chief German negotiator, Minister for Food Joseph Ertl, 
calmed the angry industry with a small partial victory: the Danes allowed the 
Germans to take 3,000 tons of cod from the seas off eastern Greenland=--but only 
until 10 February. The wrangling about catch quotas and above all about the 
agreement with Canada continues. 

The German deep-sea fishermen feel themselves the hardest hit by the argument 
in Brussels. The Germans argue that while all the other EEC fishing industries 
could live with the present conditions, they themselves were dependent above all 
on fishing grounds off third countries’ coasts. 

Their dilemma began in 1977, when countries worldwide established the 200-mile 
zone off their coasts as protected areas for their own fishermen. Cut off from 
their traditional fishing grounds, the German fishing fleet shrank in numbers from 
year to year. 

In 1973, 84 fishing vessels were sailing under the German flag, among them 34 
factory ships which put out their nets thousands of sea miles from their home 
ports and process the catch on board. The remainder were fresh fish vessels, 
which had to sail back immediately with thei: catch. By the end of 1981, the 
German "fleet nucleus" (Koch) will consist of only 16 factory and fishing vessels. 

The Germans have the most modern deep-sea fishing fleet, thanks in part to many 
millions in subsidies. More than other EEC countries they have specialized in 
so-called long-distance fishing, in catching cod, haddock, rock salmon, ocean 
perch, halibut and whiting off remote foreign shores. 

The quota treaties with third countries, on which German deep sea fishermen are 
heavily dependent, have to be sanctioned by the EEC. The German fishermen are 
afraid that the bureaucrats in Brussels have already argued too long: after the 
end of February pack ice drives ships from the waters off Labrador and Newfound- 
land; in March at the latest the season there is over. 

At the moment a few fishing and processing ships are steaming in the Atlantic. 

But the industry cannot survive on that; the catch off Greenland (ocean perch) and 
in western British waters (mackerel) is too small. German deep-sea fishermen 

and their association already fear the worst. If the ministers of agriculture in 
Brussels do not reach agreement soon about who can catch how much and where, the 
Germans would have to scrap their ships. Association deputy chairman Koch said: 
"The fleet is in danger." 

cso: 5200 




ABGEAN CONTINENTAL SHELF--Ankara, 1 Mar (AA)--Foreign Ministry officials 
commenting on the forthcoming International Sea Law Conference in New York 
told Anadolu Ajans that Turkey would like to see the Aegean Continental Shelf 
and delineation of economic waters issues with Greece resolved by the two 
countries in an equitable way. The Aegean Sea had a special status, officials 
said, adding "there is a balance in the Aegean established by the Lausanne 
Treaty, a balance vital to both countries involved. Therefore, Turkey has 
repeatedly declared she would not allow (Greece to increase her) waters in 

the Aegean to 12 miles. [Text] [TAO11532 Ankara ANATOLIA in English 
1440 GMT 1 Mar 81) 

CSO: 5200 END 



\n ORC IG [TX |