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JPRS 81745 

10 September 1982 

Worldwide Report 


No. 368 


JPRS 81745 

10 September 1982 



No. 368 




Proposed Staff Cuts in NSW Environmental Body Assessed 
(Joseph Glascott; THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD, 17 Jul 82) ..... l 

Federal Government To Retain Control of Air Pollution Station 
(Jane Ford; THE AUSTRALIAN, 19 Jul 82) ....... cece cece eccees 3 

WA Environmental Impact Study Program Costs Millions 
(THE WEST AUSTRALIAN, 12 Jul 82) .....ccccccccccccccesesceses 4 

Growth of New Industry, by Janet Wainwright 
Power of EPA 

State Pays Growers for Destroying Apple Trees 

(Michael Zekulich; THE WEST AUSTRALIAN, 17 Jul 82)........... 6 
Du Pont Ammonium Nitrate Plant Meets Resistance 

(Ian Bushnell; THE COURIER-MAIL, 13 Jul 82) ... ccc ccc eceeeee 7 
NSW Antipollution Laws Raise 0il Company Objections 

(THE AUSTRALIAN, 5 Jul 82) ... cc cccccscccccscsccccseseseceses 4 

Environmental Watchdog Group 10 

Alp Dam Position 10 

Volcanic Ash Dispersal 11 

EPA Shift in Victoria 1] 

Reforestation Program 11 

-~a- (III - WW - 139] 


Improvements in Lobster Harvest Since 1978 Noted 
CHAR FT PESCA, Amr 62) .cccowctcceevsscccccccccseesecese. 12 


Afforestation Project Progressing 14 


Shashe Dam To Supply Water to Francistown 

(Solomon Lotshe; DAILY NEWS, 15 Jul 82) ........c cee eeees 15 
Drought Relief Projects Approved 

(Tarcisius Modongo; DAILY NEWS, 15 Jul 82) ............05. 16 

Ditlharapeng Water Shortage 17 

Makaleng Hit by Thirst 17 

Bobirwa Drought Relief 18 


Forest Development Gains Momentum in Tigrai 

(THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD, 19 Aug 82) .......cccceccceveccenrs 19 
Seven Million Tree Seedlings 20 
Clouds ‘Milked' 21 
Desert Encroachment Causes Migration 22 


Northern Transvaal Ravaged by Drought 
(Pamela Kleinot; THE STAR, 4 Aug 82) ......ceeeeeeeceeceees 23 

- b-=- 

Fears of Ruin as Drought Grips Natal Reported 
(Tim Clarke; THE CITIZEN, 17 Aug 82) ............cccceees 25 


Water Imported From Neighboring Countries 

(Donny Nxumalo; THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 10 Aug 82)....... 26 
WFP Aid To Drought-Striken Families Reported 
(James Dlamini; THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 9 Aug 82)........ 27 
Pollution Study in Homs 
(Rasim al-Wa'ri; AL-THAWRAH, 17 Jul 82)...........eeee00- 29 
Minister Reassures People on Drought 
CTE SUNDAY MAIL, 22 Ang G2) 2. cocccvevcccsccvcccssccess 32 
Government To Establish Village Water Supply Centers 
(THE MERALD, 4 Aug 82) 20 ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccces 34 
Squatters Flock to Chinamhora Water Project 
CTHE WERALD, 7 Ang 82) nccccccccccccccccccccccccccccscces 35 
Pakistani Aid for Drought-Stricken Communal Lands Reported 
CT WRRALD, 16 Bite G2) 666506006 06006505066504060000080 36 2 
Shumba Irrigation Scheme, Power Systems Reported 
(THE WPRALD, 7 Aug G2) 2 cosccccccccccccccccssccccccccese 37 
Drought Disaster Averted iB 
Drought Aid 38 

Find of Illegally-Dumped Chemicals Off Turku Causes Concern 
(HELSINGIN SANOMAT, 25 Jul 82) 2. ccccccccccccccccesceeees 39 

Search for More Barrels, by Harri Nykanen 
Hazardous Waste Disposal Problem in Many Areas, 
by Sauli Korpimo 

EDF To Study Power Plant Impact on Environment 
CLE BATIN, © Am 2) ccccccccccsccescvessccccosscescecss 49 


Scientists Charge Pollution Data Altered 
CRLEVIMEROTVPIA., Z Jal G2) ccccscevccccesesccssccedewses 51 

Commentary on Pollution Causes 
(Editorial; ELEVTHEROS KOSMOS, 24 Jun 82)........seee0e. 53 


Sydney THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in English 17 Jul 82 p 3 

[Article by Joseph Glascott ] 

- ,. 
l ,@xct } 

Cuts in staff in the envir- 
onment protection division 
of the Environment and 
Pianning Mepartment could 
delay assessment of envir- 
onmenta! impact statements 
for major coal and industrial 

projects, conservation groups 
claimed yesterday. 

The groups fear that the cuts 
will weaken the effectiveness of 
the division a5 a protection agency. 

The cats were announced by the 
director of the department, Mr R. 
B. Smyth, m souce to all salf oo 

He said the Government task 
force committee (the Stevens com- 
mittee) recently had imposed a staff 
limit of 495 for the department. 

As far as be could learn, all 

these cnts would be made. The en- 
vironment protection division and 
the research and services division 
would be the man areas affected 

Both would be subject to review 
with their functions and workloads 
being rationalised. 

The rewrew was likcly to lead to 
e spill of most, of mot all, of the 
positions in those two divisions. 

As far as possible the staff re- 
@uction would be achieved by 
natural wastage and adjustment to 
the structures of the divisons 

Bat not all the reduction could 
be achieved by thi means and 
gaff occupying surplus positions 

would be redeployed througn we 
processes set up by the Public Ser- 
vce Board. 

The senior vice-president of the 
National Trust. Mr Clive Lucas, 
said the proposed chamres a the 
division Was an outrageous deci- 

“If the Minister, Mr Bedford, 
has aporoved of this he is not 
@cting on good advice. The Wraa 
Government has so far been seen 
by many «as an enlightened 
Governamem on conservation.” 

The deputy director of the Total 
Environment Centre. Mr Jeff 
Angel, sad: “We object to any 
dmminution of staff and resources 
whrrh could lead to a reduction in 
env ‘onment impact assessment, 
and publx review of pocennialty 
damaging proyects. 

“The environment protection di- 
veion has been one of the most 
effective protection agencies in the 

Peter Prineas, said he was “mast 
concerned by this proposal.” 

“The environment protection di- 
vision was not earmarked for cost 
cutting by the task force com- 
mittee, yet the director has taken a 
upon hanself to extend the exercie 
to a vital area af Government 

Mr Sowth sad yesterday the 
functions and effecurveness of the 
divimon would not be reduced by 
the rationalisation. All areas im the 
department would have prorata 
stafl reductions. 



59000 /7561 

He said the environment pro 
tecDon division was one of the big- 
gest divimons wo the department, 
and assessment work was “rather 

The division also services the 
Hert Council and the NSW 



Canberra THE AUSTRALIAN in English 

[Article by Jane Ford] 

[Text ] 

THE Federal Government 
will disregard a Razor Gang 
recommendation affecting 
Australia’s international sci- 
entific standing — a plan to 
contract out the work of 
an important air pollution 
rnonitoring station. 

This follows months of lob- 
bying by scientists as well as 
strong criticism from a Senate 
inquiry. All maintained it was 
inappropriate for the work of 
the station, at Cape Grim, 
Tasmania, to be handed over 
to private enterprise. 

Now only basic operating 
work will be contracted out, 
leaving research and develop- 
ment, or about 70 per cent of 
the station's work, in the 
hands of the CSIRO and the 
Department of Science and 

The $1 million station, 
officially opened in December, 
is part of a global network of 
stations monitoring air poilu- 
tion, set up with the support of 
the United States. 

The aim is to keep a long- 
term watch on rising levels of 
pollutants such as fluorocarb- 
uns, carbon dioxide and oxides 
of nitrogen and sulphur 

At present there are five 
Stations — at the South Pole. 
Samoa. Hawaii. Alaska and 
Cape Gnm — all controlled by 
government agencies. 

Two more are being devel- 
oped in Japan and Ascension 
Island and three others are 
planned in the US, Canada 
and West Germany. These will 
also be under government 

Scientists from the CSTRO's 

CSO: 5000/7561 

19 Jul 82 p 2 

Division of Atmospheric Phys- 
ics. who have been closely in- 
volved in the development of 
the Cape Grim station, were 
concerned that if it passed to 
private enterprise the exten- 
sive monitoring would be 
Gowngraded to check only 
carbon dioxide, the research 
work dropped and the facility 
turned into a mere Gata gath- 
ering point. 

Expressions of interest in 
operating the station were cal- 
led for at the end of last year. 
However, the Government 
agreed to reverse the decision 
after pressure from the 
CSIRO, the Department of 
Science and Technology. 


The Senate committee's in- 
quiry revealed that no money 
would be saved by the move. 
there were no technical 
advantages and the number 
of departmental staff would 
be cut by only four. 

Last financial year the oper- 
ational cost of the station was 

ernment will have to pay the 
contractor enough to allow for 
some profit. 

Dr Graeme Pearman. of the 
CSIRO, said he believed the 

continue at Cape Grim. 

The station had already 
shown significant results, in- 
cluding evidence that the 
levels of methane and methy! 
cloroform, an industrial clean- 
ing agent, were rising. 



Growth of New Industry 

Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 12 Jul 82 p 23 

[Article by Janet Wainwright] 

(Text ] 

INCREASING €@nviron-- 
mental awareness tk. 
WA has wned a 
major growth indus 
worth millions of 


En vironmental review 
and management pro 
grammes for relatively 
small subdivisions to 
major developments, 
each costing hundreds 
of thousands of dol- 
lars, are being com- 
plied by town planners. 

There seems to be an 
obvious need to 
streamline the system, 
which is costly and fre 

quently duplicates in, 

The acting Minister 
for Conservation and 
the Environment Mr 
Masters, says that it is 
still a relatively new. 
area but -the rt. 

and the Environment 
is collating informa. 
and putting this 

into a computer sys 

He said he belleved 
that the proliferation 
of consultants would 
also sort itself out as 
the “fly-dy-nights” in 
the new Industry 
dropped out. 

He could see no alter. 
native to the develo 

ers appointing their 
own contultants and 
Producing their own 
reports, though these 
could be suspect. 

The . department did 


not hav¢é the resources 
to do the environmenr- 
tal planning studies 
and he could mot envis- 
age a system where 
the Government § ap- 
pointed consultants 
and charged the devel- 
One consultant com 

ny alone, Scott and 
urphy, has grown 
from one person to a 
staff of 3 in.12 years. , 

In common with 
other consultants, a 
also draw from a 
of specialists in other 
scientific aeas. 

the impact of mining 

and industry on WA's 
environment, it is now 
quite common for de. 

velopers to be called 
on to do environmental 

The ultimate cost of 
these studies, whether 
they be for housing, 
roads or rubbish sites, 
is’ borne by the public, 
either through in- 
creased land costs or 
rates and taxes. 

Many of the reports 
are treated with suspi- 
cion by the conserva. 
tionists they se in- 
tended to placate be 
cause they are paid for 
by the developers. 


Both the Department 
of Conservation and 
the Environment and 
the consulMants agree 


Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 12 Jul 82 

[Text } 


that the system is far 
from perfect, but say 
that it ts the best avail 
able and is preferable 
to the planning that 
existed befare environ. 
Mental awareness. 

Thi: environmental 
process is so powerful 
that kh cuts across al! 
town planning laws. 

The Mandurah area is 
a prime example of du 

recently for 
three different canal 
projects, two in Man- 
Qurah and another in 
the neighbouring shire 
of Murray. 

A study for the Par. 
rvs Esnlanede Halis 
Head proposal is esti- 
mated to have cost 
$300,000 so far. with no 
guarantee that the 
land will even be re 

The principal consul. 
tants are Feilman 
Planning Consultants, 
who are also the pro 

Maine, of the Univer. 
sity of WA, with Pro 
fessor Des O'Connor, 

5000 / 7560 

Power of 


ject planners 

Reports for the John 
Holland project, on the 
opposite side of the 
coast road to the Par- 
rys development, and 
4 further report for a 
canal development at 
Yunderup were both 
made by Russel] Tay- 
lor and William Bur- 

These reports are es- 
timated to have cost 
$200,000 each. 


Mr Burrell says that 
if information had 
been pooled when en- 
vironmenta] studies 
first began there 
would now be a consid- 
erable amount of infor- 
mation to draw on. 

The department has a 
list of 2 consultants 
which it will give to a 

The consultants are 
those willing to go on 
to a list or who have 
done studies for the de- 

mendations of a re 
and virtually re 
lien on a gentiemans 
agreement with the 
develcper or a vigh 
lant local authority. 




[Text } 

THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 17 Jul 82 p 7? 


b v 

Michael Zekxulich] 

MORE than 63.559 ap 
trees have been 

The fruit rs 
were paid $416419 
the Commonwealt 
and State Govern 
ments to pull out the 

About #09 more 
tes are expected to 
come out— with a 
£20000 payout-— this 
financial year 
Some of the tres are 
old, but many are in 
prime producing condi 
The pulling out of the 
trees is part of an in- 
adustry rationalising 
scheme aimed at cut 
ting back profuction to 
vce experts to un 
econormc markets— 
like Britain and Eur 
Se far, @ growers 
have pulled out trees 
which represent about 
©. per cent of the 
State's orchard. 
The oreduction§ in 
volved would be more 
than 2WA000 boxes of 
Some frultgrowers 
have received as much 
as 3.00 with pe 
ments varying trom 

ee Oe 
— ! trees 
were in the Manjimup, 
Donnybrook and 
Bridgetown areas 


a. oe at first,” 

; © ho Dell Agostino 
. 7 - 

He said some good or 
chards were now being 
pulled out. 

“The onl 
markets t were 
economic last season 
were in South East 

“I believe we have 
seen the end of the tra 
ditional European area 


for WA apples.” 
The Minister for Pri 
Industry, Mr 



Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 13 Jul 82 p 23 

[Article by Ian Bushnell] 


~ Du Pont or not Du 
Pont — that is the ques- 
tion for Toowoomba. 

= Last Dece suber, Toowoomba was 
ehosen by Du Pont (Australia) Ltd 
—,a part of the giant US based Du 
Pont Corporation — as the site of a 
$@ million ammonium nitrate plant 
which would supply industrial! explo- 
sives to the central Queensland coal- 

- "When the company applied to the 
City Council to have its 33 ha site in 
the-city’s expanding r orth-west sub- 
urts rezoned from rural to 10xious 
madustry, only six objections were 

~ It was a slow fuse. 

-Jeowoomba these days is covered 
ip-ati-Du Pont graffiti, motor v-hi- 
ctes bumper stickers declaring 
“Don't Du Pont Toowoomba,” and 
the daily news columns are ful) of 
cdgims and counter-ciaims about the 

salety of the proposed plant in what 

hes. become a classic debate of the 

epvigonment versus progress. 
-Cantral to this debate has been the 
wert of the Citizens for Clean Air 
organisation which has proved itself 
t6+de a highly efficient and well 
fetided campaigner against Du Pont. 
~ Dw Pont says no more than it has 
ta, preferring to maintain re-assur- 
line, emphasising its “proud” 
record and the benefits it will 
bring to the 70,000 strong communi- 
ty, while it and the City Council 
await the findings of the envirou- 
meatal] impact study. 
to Du Pont project co- 
ordinator Albert E. Dunklee, the 
plant will employ 90 people, pay an 
aanua) wages bill of $2 million and 

spend $1 million a year on goods and 

The plant would begin production 
in 1985 and manufacture 200 tonnes 
of ammonium nitrate a day to truck 
west through Dalby to central 

The ammonium nitrate prills or 
granules would need further treat- 
ment there before being explosive. 

In May, ICI Australie Ltd and 
Consolidated Fertilizers Ltd an- 
nounced plans to build a $100 mil- 
lion explosives plant at Gibson Is- 
land in Brisbane to meet the demand 
in eastern Australia to 1990 and be- 

Toowoomba meets all the require- 
ments for such a plant. 

It has natural the raw materi- 
al of the manufacturing process, 
from the Roma-Brisbane pipeline 

which is in the immediate vicinity of 
the site, an adequate water and pow- 
er supply, a road and rail network, a 
well developed infrastructure and 
proximity to the market place. 

However, it is the location of the 
Du Pont site which worries 
Toowoomba residents and environ- 

In a letter to the Toowoomba 
Tourism and Development board, 
Du Pont project manager R.E. 
Brakewell listed what gaseous emis- 
sions there would be from the plant 
— water vapour, hydrogea, carbon 
dioxide, and small quantities of ni- 
trogen oxides, as well as a small 
amount of fallout dust from the prill- 
ing tower. 

The site, although adjacent to a 
tannery and the Wetalla sewage 
works, is only six kilometres from 



the city centre and close to new resi- 
dential areas and Baillie Henderson 

The Citizens for Ciean Air fear 
that gas emissions, some of them 
they claim to be cancer causing, and 
dust fallout will foul Toowoomba's 
air and turn the Garden City — it 
holds a Carnival of Flowers every 
year — into the “Noxious City.” 

Spokesman Arne Pedersen says 
70 to 80 percent of all Toowoomba 
residents would be living within a ra- 
dius of the plant's chimneys. 

Du Pont has promised to comply 
with all the requirements of the 
Clean Air Act but, according to the 
Citizens for Clean Air, it offers no 

CCA president Don Graham told 
a City Council meeting that in the 19 
years since the Act was passed there 
had been only four prosecutions and 
a total of only $200 in fines imposed 
after appeals. 

The Du Pont issuc cuts across par- 
ty political lines. 

One Liberal Party branch, after 
lengthy debate, sent a protest motion 
agzinst any re-zoning of land close to 
residential area; for noxious indus- 


try to the City Council, the Premier, 
Deputy Premier and the Local Gov- 
ernment Minister. 

The local National Party has 
— that the plant not be allowed 
in proposed area inside the cit 
boundaries. . 

ALP candidate for Toowoomba 
North, Alderman Peter Wood, like 
all Council members, is officially 
waiting to see the EIS before passing 
judgement, but it would be electorai 

The site is also in a mountain val- 
ley which runs through the middle of 
the city and is prone to fogs. 

_Mr Graham says fog, mixed with 

The CCA critised the environ- 
mental impact study guidelines pre- 
pared by the Department of Com- 
mercial and Industrial Development 
for omitting reference to fog, the risk 
of explosion and the hazards posed 
to human health. 

At a cost of $3000, it has ordered 
its own EIS to be carried out by the 
School of Environmental! Studies at 
Griffith University. 

It should be ready by the end of 
the month. 



[Text ] 


USTRALIAN in English 5 Jul 

OIL companies claim that 
new clean-air laws in NSW 
will cost the industry up to $20 
mullion in increased operating 
expemses and could have 4 
substantial effect on the its 
future in the State. 

NSW refiners have been 
fighting the State Govern- 
ment over the low petra@>pric- 
ing leveis and strict regulatory 
standards imposed on che 

One of the main operators in 
NSW, Total, reveaied this year 
that it lost money on petrol i% 
sold in the State. 

The company's expansion 
plans Jor NSW have been 
shelved indefinitely, while Ca!- 
tex has protested against the 
Government's pricing policies 
and Ampoi has described the 
dehavior of the NSW Govern- 

ment as “outrageous inter- 
ference with the democratic 

The cost of compliance with 
the new regulations. which are 
expected to reduce the hvydro- 
carbon fumes that form 7 to 8 
per cent of the air pollution 
above Sydney, has been caicu- 
lated at between $18 and $20 


increase in operaiung 

costs is expected to be passed 
to the public in the price of 
petroieum products 

The laws, to be introduced 
over the next three years. re- 
Guire petrol storage and hand- 

facilities within three 

82 p 2 


zones covering Sydney, New- 
castle and Wollongong to be 
modified to prevent vapor 
ieaking into the atmosphere 

Similar laws are now being 
considered for Victoria. 

The NSW regulations call 
for all new road tanker filling 
terminalis and main storage 
tanks to be fitted with vapor 
emission control equipment. 
and for existing storage tanks 
to be fitted with similar facil- 
ities by 1984. 

Smaller storage tanks in 
Sydney will also be covered by 
the new laws from 1985 on- 
wards, while emission control 
systems will be required at all 
main Stages in the transport- 
ation of fuel from refineries to 
individual service stations. 

The requirement that all ser- 
vice stations should have new 
petrol pump nozzles with an 
automatic cut-off valve — or 
face a penaity of up to $5000 — 
is likely to raise an outcry 
among service station owners. 

Many of the oi companies 
have already begun the 
switch-over to the new Stan- 
dards. with Caitex embarking 
on @ $3 million conversion pro- 

The most sophisticated 
vapor recovery system yet ins- 
talled, at a cost of $300.000. isa 
unit at the Silverwater ter- 
minal in Sydnev's western 
suburbs that prevents ail leak- 
age of fumes. 




ENVIRONMENTAL WATCHDOG GROUP--Queensland lawyers have formed a new environmental 
watchdog group, the Queensland Environmental Law Association. It is the third 
such association of lawyers to be formed in Australia in the last three years. 
The other groups are in New South Wales and Victoria. Chairman of the Queens- 
land group, which has formed a committee to draw up a constitution and articles 
of association, is Brisbane solicitor Mr Stephen Keim. The Queensland Conserva- 
tion Council chairman, Mr Jason Reynolds, of Brisbane, said yesterday that the 
new association would assist conservation groups to protect areas of Queensland, 
such as Moreton and Fraser Islands. (Brisbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 7 Jul 
82 p 12] 

ALP DAM POSITION--Conservationist groups yesterday praised the Labor confer- 
ence's decision to oppose the flooding of the Franklin River in south-west 
Tasmania. Against the strong opposition of its Tasmanian delegates, the con- 
ference voted to oppose the construction of any dam on the Franklin or Gordon 
rivers. The result was described as magnificent by the director of the Tasman- 
ian Wilderness Society, Dr Bob Brown. it was a challenge to the Fraser Govern- 
ment to intervene in Tasmauia to stop bulldozers being sent into the wilderness 
this spring, he said. The Australian Conservation Foundation said it was heart- 
ening that a political party accepted the need for the Federal Government to 
save an area of world heritage importance which was listed on the National 
Estate Register. The successful motion, moved by the Opposition Leader, in the 
Senate, Senator Button, also committed a Labor Government to help the Tasmanian 
Government expand its tourist potential. Tasmania would also be helped to find 
ways to diversify its electricity generation. Senator Button's predecessor as 
Senate Labor Leader, Mr Ken Wriedt, failed in his attempt to have the conference 
approve the dam scheme. Mr Wriedt, now Leader of the Opposition in the Tasmani- 
an Parliament, urged the conference to recognise that Tasmanians had approved 
the scheme in a referendum. Labor's spokesman on the environment, Mr West, 
failed by one vote to have the conference support a public inquiry into the 
scheme. [Melbourne THE AGE in English 9 Jul 82 p 17] 


VOLCANIC ASH DISPERSAL--ANOTHER cloud of volcanic ash is dispersing off the 
sorth-west coast of WA after an eruption of Mount Galunggung, south of Jakarta, 
on Thursday night. The Bureau of Metrorology said that the eruption at about 
8pm was followed by a smaller one at about midnight. The volcanic activity 

was shown on satellite photographs. The ash cloud from an earlier eruption 
that disabled a Singapore Airlines jumbo jet could not longer be seen on the 
photographs a bureau spokesman said. Staff were puzzled about the origin of 
the present cloud, which appeared to come from a point a few kilometres east 

of Mount Galunggung. "We are not too sure, but it could be a different volcano 
--or maybe it has a double crater," the spokesman said. The regional director 
of the Aviation Department, Mr E Keil, said that aircraft were being diverted 
around the ash clouds. “We think we have the matter under control,” he said. 
The bureau would continue to monitor the clouds and advise the department of 
their position and density. [Text] [Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 

17 Jul 82 p 7] 

EPA SHIFT IN VICTORIA--Control of the Environment Protection Authority may 

be transferred from the Ministry of Conservation to the Department of Planning. 
Dr Gerard Vaughan, a member of the Caucus Conservation Committee, said yester- 
day the move was one of the options being considered by the Ministry of Con- 
servation review team. Speaking a a meeting of the Clean Air Society, Dr 
Vaughan said the review team had queried whether the EPA rightly belonged with 
a Ministry whose main function was "the control of Crown lands." He said the 
Department of Planning seemed more appropriate, given the EPA's responsibility 
tor environmental management and planning. The Minister for Conservation and 
Planning, Evan Walker, was unavailable for comment, but his senior adviser, 

Dr Michael Henry, denied there were definite plans to shift control of the 

EPA to the Department of Planning. "We are simply looking at a general review 
of the Ministry," he said. [Melbourne THE AGE in Eng!ish 14 Jul 82 p 22] 
REFORESTATION PROGRAM--MORE than 11,000 trees wil be planted on $*’ate Energy 
Commission properties in the next year. About 10,000 of the trees will be 
plavted on a former grazing property near Collie, one of three properties ac- 
qui ed by the SEC as part of a reforestation prcegramme in the Wellington Dam 
cat. hment area. About /0,000 trees have been planted on the properties to 
help stabilise soil and reduce the salinity of run-off water into the dam. 
Other major plantings proposed by the SEC include 500 trees and shrubs at the 
Muja power station, 350 trees at Kwinana power station and 100 trees at the 
Bunbury station. |Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 15 Jul 82 p 14] 

CSO: 5000/7560 



Havana MAR Y PESCA in Spanish Apr 82 p 25 

[Text] Lobster is harvested in Cuba on the four large insular shelfs which 
surround the island. The importance of each of these is shown in the map be- 
low. Most of the lobster production is located to the south (almest 80 percent), 
especially in Batabano Gulf. 

Ihe development of the lobster harvest from 1959 to 1980, which has varied, is 
shown in the graph. Since 1965, when over 9,000 metric tons per year were 
caught, the harvest of this specie has fluctuated often, with sudden drops 
every third or fourth year and showing levels of less than 8,800 metric tons 

in 1967, 1970, 1973 and 1977, and especially following years with high harvests, 
as in 1969 and 1976. 

Beginning in 1978 this situation has changed completely and the harvests have 
been kept at stable levels and above 10,000 metric tons per year. This of 
course was determined from the application of a fishing administration policy, 
particularly with regard to a more strict compliance with the minimum legal 
size and an increase in the closed season as well as the complete watch over 
this period. All of this has contributed in making the yearly weight increase 
of the harvestable population be estimated at around 700 metric tons. 

[Photos on following page | 


lemportan srelatwa fen por ental de las Adtereont j mnpresas langostrras 
(‘datos de 1976 1980) 

ss a Cc | 
— ao 
ee ee ee = 7 
~ » . 
7 . | 

~ /\ 

j } 
/ | 
| | 

Comportanvento de las capturas de langosta en «i periodo 1959-1980 


|. Map--Relative importance (percent) of the various zones and lobster enter- 
prises. (information from 1976-1980) 


Graph--Behavior of the lobster harvest over the 1959-1980 period. 
T™ = metric tons 
Media = average 
Especiec = specie 

CSO: 3010/2244 




forestation project is well underway with 5,500 hectares planted including 
forests and grass farms, said Mohammed Rida Soorouri, head of the municipali- 
ty's agriculture section. This, the Balnona project, was started in 1961 and 
will encompass some 23,000 hectares when finished. The project's grass farms 
which were featured in a television program here this week, produce needed 

hay for animal fodder, while conserving the soil. Another large project the 
section is involved with, is planting forests and grasslands in and around 

the new airport. In the airport's runway area alone, 48 hectares of grass 

are being planted. This area, like many others in the city, is fed dy auto- 
matic computerised sprinklers. Research is also being carried out by the sec- 
tion, said Soorouri. Finding suitable varieties of fruits and vegetables in- 
cluding oranges, bananas and coconuts for area farms is the aim of the present 
research. Last year, mini-farms of one and a half of two hectares each were 
distrbitued to local farmers in Beda Zayed, Zatra, Sela and Al Khatam. Each 
of these includes palm trees and irrigation facilities at present. The next 
phase in the scheme is to plant and cultivate vegetables between the trees 

for maximum utilisation of water and land. [Text] [Abu Dhabi EMIRATES NEWS 

in English 4 Aug 82 p 3] 

CSO: 5000/4716 



Gaborone DAILY NEWS in English 15 Jul 82 p 1 

[Article by Solomon Lotshe] 

[Text ] 


WATER FROM the Shashe Dam 
may start flowing to Francrstown 
next month to assure the people 
of the town of a constant water 
supply A ew water supply 
system from the dam is expectec 
to be complete in August 

The new system includes 2 
water pipeline from the dam to 
Francistown and a big new 
reservoir burlt on one of the wills 
nthe town The water supply 
system of the town has also 
been rehabilitated 

The news were told to the 
Francistown residents by the 
Minister of Mineral Resources 
and Water Affairs. Or Gaositwe 
Chiepe this week She was 
addressing ‘meetings in the town 
at Tati-Siding and Matsiloje 

She told the people that the 
government took over water 
supply trom the town council 
because it was running al a loss 
very inadequate and unreliable 

Dr Crepe explained that her 
Ministry tookover water supply 
through the Water Utilitres 

The Minister also pornted out 

5000 / 5800 

that the water tariffs on the town 
were raised because a tot of 
rehabilitation on the water supply 
system was necessary 

The cap tal cost was very high 
and the government had to 
borrow money from the World 
Bank to finance the project, Or 
Crepe said 

She explanned that people were 
paying more for water in 
Francistown than in Gaborone 
because peopte in Gaborone 
were near to thew water source 
in Francistown people pey 60 
thebe per kilo-litre and in 
Gaborone 46 thebe per kilo-litre 

According to the Minister, the 
rehabilitation, water pipeline from 
Shashe Dam and new water 
works capital expenditure was 
very twgh 

Dr Crepe said that government 
had Dull water supply in 
Francistown to a capacity of 
12 000 kilo-ltres while the current 
demand was 4 000 kilo-litres 

She explained that the capacity 
of the rehabilitated and 
reinforced supply was 12 000 
kilo-litres to meet with the 
demand of the future develop 
ment programmes of the town 


he railway headquarters 
abatiow. indusines and many 
others that might come to the 

Dr Crepe pointed out that the 
government did not want to limit 
the water supply to the present 
Gemand of 4 000 kilo litres and 
then im two years time raise 
another loan 

She added that unless some- 
thing went wrong the 12 000 kilo 
wires would carry the people to 
1995 but before that there must 
be work on the future require- 
ments beyond 1995 

The Minister also briefed the 
people on the future development 
of Francistown. She said that the 
development consists of two big 
projects - the abattoir and the 
railway headquarters which she 
$a:d would bring some change 
mn the town 

Dr Chiepe also hoped that in 
the near future the government 
might at long last do something 
about the Sua Pan project. She 
said the development of the 
project, though not in 
Francistown, would have an 
impact inthe development of the 


Gaborone DAILY NEWS in English 15 Jul 82 p 2 

[Article by Tarcisius Modongo] 

[Text ] 


5000 / 5800 

THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT Development Committee has approved 
Labour intensive drought relief projects submitted to it by the 
Drought Retief committee of the Southern District 
A total of P20 000 has been set aside for the drougnt relief projects 
Accorfing to the Kanye-based Development Officer, Mr PG 
Tumedi, the Village Development Committee had in turn submitted 
proposals for the projects to the interministerial committee 

Both the drought relief 
committee and the Village 
Development Committee have 
identified thew projects which 
vary trom dam construction to 
road Durlding 

In Kanye, there are plans to 
move the air strip from its present 
place because it is a hazard to 
villagers since the village has 
grown on all sides 

Two sites have already been 
identified for the new a “irip 
and the VOC is now awaiiing 
approval from the Department 
of Civ Aviation 

Another project to be 
undertaken in Kanye is the 
fencing of the Kanye dam 

At Kutuku, @ remote area 
settlement between Mabutsane 
and Khakhea in Western 
Ngwaketse, the remote area 
Gweliers are clearing and 
debushing an arable plot to be 
used communally 

This project will help two ways. 
by aiding the villagers towards 
diversification and also serve as 
a temporary source of income in 
this drought which has resulted 


in the scarcity of wild fruits and 
the migration of wild animals 

Mr Tumedi mentioned that 
although western Ngwaketse is 
generally regarded as arably 
Suitable the probability of 
narzards although minimal were 
about the same at Kutuku as in 
other places in the area whose 
residents have been practising 
arable farming 

In other areas residents of 
Molopo have decided to clear 
the veld for the Phitshane- 
Molopo-Mabule road and at 
Leporung in the same area the 
cammunity has proposed to dig 
and buildadan The dam willbe 
of a great importance to livestock 
The source of water has been 
Molopo river but due to the 
construction of Disaneng Dam 
in South Africa it has become 
unreliable because the fiow is no 
longer perrenial 

At Tshidilamolomo a vegetable 
garden has started while Mabule 
residents are planning to erect a 
shelter at the kgotia, build « 
kitchen and a cre. :e in the 




DITLHARAPENG WATER SHORTAGE--A SERIOUS water shortage has aborted plans to 
build a community centre at Ditlharapeng village in the Southern District. 
Other development projects have also been halted. The Headteacher of the 
area's Tawana Primary School, Mr Mmolawa, told BOPA that the drilling machine 
had broken down and the owner had returned to South Africa after making very 
little progress. He said, it as doubtful that he would ever come back but 

the local Village Development Committee had paid P500 as deposit. However 

Mr Mmolawa said there was hope that help would come from the USA. Already 

he said, the American Embassy in Gaborone had donated a water engine and the 
new borehole equipment. The Headteacher also said the American Emoassy had 
contributed to the construction of a health centre at Ditlharapeng. The South- 
ern District Council had planned to erect a reservoir at the cost of P4 000. 
When BOPA reporters visited Ditlharapeng recently, about 2 000 residents were 
drawing and drinking water from the small drying dam. Domestic animals were 
also sharing the water. Mr Mmolawa also spoke about the feeding scheme at 
Tawana, where the store-rooms were stacked with bags of sorghum. But the ser- 
ious water shortage in the village was causing problems. He also said parents 
had been prepared to pound the sorghum for the school children as was requested 
by the government. [Text] [Gaborone DAILY NEWS in English 4 Aug 82 p 2] 

MAKALENG HIT BY THIRST--A WATER problem has hit Makaleng residents in the North 
East District, following the drying up of a water well point in the Shashe 
River which is the main source of water. They drying up of the wel in the 
river is due to lack of rainfall this year. Makaleng people are reported to 

be almost a month without water. The North East District Council is in the 
meantime providing residents with water through water-bowzers three to four 
times a day. The water is being drawn from a borehole at Botalaote village 
about 12 kilometres away. Each family is rationed to two buckets per day. 

The clinic and the school are supplied with 2000 gallons each per day. The 
Council Secretary, Mrs N. Thothe has said in the meantime, the council was 
intending to re-equip the old borehole within the village, although the water 
was salty. She said the water from that borehole would mainly be used for 
cooking, washing and building while tranported water would be for drinking 
purposes. Mrs Thothe further said more villagers in the North-East were likely 
to face similar problems. She further said the Council started supplying to 
schools at Matenge, Malabagwena, Masakwane, Gare and Letsholathebe villages. 
She said each school was being provided with three drums of water once a week 
per school. The Council Secretary further said the counci! has appealed to 


the Ministry of Mineral Resourcs to assist. She is also appealing to all 
North-East Villagers to be patient because the council was working hard to put 
the situation under control. Mrs Thothe further said the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture has ailocated F15 000 to the council to purchase water bags. [Text] 
[Gaborone DAILY NEWS in English 3 Aug 82 p 1} 

BOBIRWA DROUGHT RELIEF--THE DROUGHT-RELIEF programme is reported to be imple- 
mented well in the worst drought-hit Bobirwa area, according to the Drought 
Relief Co-ordinator in the area, Mr Howard Chilume. Already, 100 tonnes of 
sorghum has been sent to six schools and another 100 tonnes has been dist ribu- 
ted to remote dwellers in the district, he said. Addressing the drought relief 
sub-committee in the council offices in Bobonong last week, Mr Chilume said 
there was another 100 tonnes waiting to be distributed to the various schools 
in the area. He explained that the sorghum was sent to only six schools because 
in other schools there was still stocks of some food (analiti). Mr Chilume 
said more cooking pots had been ordered but that they had not yet arrived. 

He appealed to residents of the area to loan pots to PTAs until their orders 
had come. According to Mr Chilume, stamping in schools where sorghum had been 
sent had already started. He said people were coming forward to register for 
Stamping. The drought relief co-ordinator reported that at Tsetsejwe the res- 
idents had already started to mould bricks for the construction of teachers 
quarters under the drought relief scheme. In Moletemane they had started road 
clearing. In both villages, however, residents have been advised to stop their 
projects until the ;rojects were approved by the Ministry of Local Government 
and Lands. Mr Chilume also said although the drought relief programme was 
progressing well in Bobirwa they had transport problems. He said they had 

no vehicles to distribute food to various villages in the area. [Text] [Gaborone 
DALLY NEWS in English 6 Jul 82 p 2] 

CSO: 5000/5800 



Addis Ababa THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD in English 19 Aug 82 p 1 

[Text] MAKELE (ENA)--Over 17 million tree-seedlings have been planted in Ti- 
grai region in the current Ethiopian year starting last September through the 
area office of the Forest and Wildlife Conservation and Development Authority. 
and the regional peasants’ association. 

Disclosing this, Comrade Gebre-Medhin Adera, the regional forest developr..nt 
expert, said that the seedlings were produced in 23 government and four peas- 
ants’ association forest nurseries. Some 12 million of the seedlings were 
produced in plastic bags. 

Comrade Gebre-Medhin pointed out that the area office of the Authoriy is cur- 

renly engaged in setting up model forest nurseries in suitable peasants’ asso- 
ciation localities and is rendering material and technical assistance to help 

peasants of the region to cover their areas with greenery. More efforts will 

be made in this line in future, he said. 

Educationla briefings ts help the peasants comprehend the importance of forest, 
and take active participation in forest conservaion and development are given 
by the area office of the Authority, Comrade Gebre-Medhin stated. He pointed 
out that a total of 500 peasants in the region have beentrained in the current 
Ethiopian year alone to serve as forest conservation and development agents. 

The regional forestry expert further stated that terraces have been built over 
3,302 hectares by the government and peasant associations and noted that owing 
to the combined work of afforestation and terracing, a number of localities 

in the region have been covered with forests. This, he said, has immensely 
saved the soil in the area from heing eroded by wind and rain besides creating 
conditions for salubrious climate. 

As a result of the over 84 million forest seedlings planted in the region since 
the Revolution through the concerted effort of the government and the masses, 
an encouraging influx of wlidlife to their original habitat is also being wit- 
nessed, Comrade Gebre-Medhin pointed out. 

cso: 9000/5810 




SEVEN MILLION TREE SEEDLINGS--Nearly 7.5 million tree seedlings were planted 

in the seven provinces of Gojjam region as part of the overall national en- 
deavour to reclaim the once rich forest resources of the country. The local 
offices of the Forestry and Wildlife Conservacion and Development Authority 

had organized an afforestation campaign in which people over 14 years old plan- 
ted five tree seealings each. A meeting was held recently between extension 
farm workers and other pertinent authorities to discuss the post-plantation 
programme and the care to be given to sprouting trees. Ina similar venture, 
over 72,000 hectares of land in Charcher-Adal-Gara-Guracha province, Hararghe 
region, were covered with tree seedlings during a recent afforestation campaign 
organized by the afforestatioa development office. Sueprvisors were assigned 
to Awash, Miesso, Mille and Hirna towns to guard the young trees planted both 
in high and lowlands, according to the local office. Feeder roads were also 
constructed to get easy access to the demarcated areas while the regional of- 
fice of the Authority was given specific information regarding the protection 
of incense trees in a locality called Kassie Heja. The Muktar hilis in Cher- 
cher-Adal-Gara-Guracha province are reputed for rare wildlife. [Text] [Addis 
Abuba THE ETHIOPIAN HERALD in English 20 Aug 82 p 6] 

CSO: 5000/5810 




CLOUDS ‘MILKED'--Windhoek--Clouds scudding above the parched South West 
African land my soon be "milked" on a regular basis. The SWA Minister's 
Council has accepted recommendations that a weather specialist be appointed 
to examine the feasibility of instituting a permanent cloud-seeding programme, 
A test project carried out in March and April this year showed the milking 
of clouds seemed possible in the territory, the council was told. Large 
areas of the territory, regularly plagued by drought, are experiencing one 
of the worst drought cycles in history. The report before the council said 
the chances of successful rainfall modification were small during drought 
periods, but would reach maximum effectiveness in years of normal and high 
rainfall. "“Cloud-sceding is not an answer to a drought situation during 
the drought but should rather be undertaken on a continuous basis if under- 
taken at all," the report said, The technology should not be viewed as a 
water supply scheme in itself. "At best it can be regarded as a supplement 
to existing sources of supply." The annual cost of a rainfall modification 
programme to be conducted yearly over a period of four to five months was 
estimated at R330 000 at current values. An initial capital outlay of 

R225 000 would be required, The report recommended a consultant be contracted 
to establish how much additional water the technology could produce and 
whether the benefit warranted the cost.--Sapa [Text [Johannesburg THE 
CITIZEN in English 20 Aug 82 p 10] 

cSO: 5000/5802 



DESZRT ENCROACHMENT CAUSES MIGRATION--IT has been disclosed that desert en- 
croachment in parts of Borno State has forced thousands of people in the state 
to migrate to neighbouring states of the federation. This was disclosed in 
the House of Representatives by a member representing Matchina Constituency 

of the state, Alhaji Bukar Mele. Alhaji Bukar, who was moving a motion to 
this effect, stated that the situation had also forced schools in the state 

to close down indefinitely. According to him, the desert encroachment coupled 
with the sand dunes had overtaken the area, making farming very difficult. 

He said that the encroachment was hampering food transportation from other 
states, adding that the access roads were now inaccessible. The House, there- 
fore, directs its committee on agriculture and natural resources to investigate 
the situation and recommend remedies within four weeks after the motion had 
received overwhelming support from members. [Text] [Kaduan NEW NIGERIAN in 
Enlgish 8 Jul 82 p 16] 

CSO: 5000/5795 



Johannesburg THE STAR in English 4 Aug 82 p l 

[Article by Pamela Kleinot: "Dry Veld Spells Death"] 

[Text] Drought has ravaged huge areas of the Northem Transvaal, aggravating 
the huager problem and foreshadowing death through disease for thousands of 

Every year an estimated 50 000 children in South Africa's rural areas die 
from malnutrition and malnutrition-related diseases, But this year it is 

likely the death rate will rise, 

The devastation of drought--empty rivers, no harvest--adds to the toll 
taken by diseases bred of poverty, overcrowding and malnutrition. 

During a week-long survey of drought-stricken areas The Star found: 

--There is an acute shortage of water, even for drinking in some areas as 
rivers and streams have dried up. 

--Crops have failed, including maize which is the staple dict of millions, 
--There is little grazing left, 

"There's an undeclared famine in Gazankulu," a senior health official told 
The Star, 

Lebowa's Secretary for Health, Dr Machupe Mphahlele said the extent of 
malnutrition in his area was frightening. He estimated 100 000 children in 
Lebowa were ma lnourished, 

Lebowa and Gazankulu are fragmented homelands which share borders and straddle 
most of the Northern Transvaal, Both are mostly thorny, rocky wastelands 

but each has a corner of the wilderness area of Tzaneen with its lush, green 
meadows e 


the cecent polio cpidemic which has killed at least 28 children and paralysed 
253 others to date, has focused attention on the northeastern Transvaal, 

The Star has established: 

--Polio is a mere drop in the ocean of disease that ravages children daily 
in these rural areas, Gastro-enteritis is the biggest killer of black 
children--followed by respiratory infections, malnutrition and measles, At 
a hospital in Gazankulu 50 patients were being treated for typhoid. Doctors 
said this number was not unusual, Tuberculosis and whooping cough are also 

--People live in overcrowded and unhygienic conditions, For most the bush 
is their toilet and contaminated rivers their water source, 

--People are poor because there are simply too few job opportunities. A 
family of six often has to live on R40 a month--or less--and depend on 
migrant workers for this cash, There are few men left at home, 

--Local food production is low because of land shortage, There is also 
insufficient water to grow crops. People are forced to buy food at local 
stores at considerably higher prices than in urban areas, 

--Health services are inadequately funded, poorly equipped and understaffed, 
They are inaccesible to many people who lack transport facilities. Sick 
people may have to walk 15 km to a clinic. Hospitals are overcrowded with 
patients sharing beds and sleeping on the floor, 

Lebowa has requested drought relief from the South African Government, 
reports The Star's Farming Correspondent, 

A spokesman from the Department of Co-operation and Development yesterday 
confirmed it had been asked for financial aid for drilling boreholes, He 
added the matter was receiving priority attention but no decision had yet 
been taken, 

cso: 500/5808 



Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 17 Aug 82 p 12 

[Article by Tim Clarke] 

drought in northern. 
Natal and the Mid 
lands of the provin- 
ce is reaching criti- 
cal proportions. 
Farmers in both 
areas claim they ar« 

facing ruin. 

Cattle and maize 
farmers in northern 
Nata) have been badly 
hit by the prolonged 
drought as have maize 
and vegetable farmers 
in the Midlands belt. 

The chairman of the 
Dundee Farmers’ Asso- 
Cation, Mr Glynne Bur- 
rant, said yesterday the 
situation for both dairy 
and maize farmers in 
northern Natal was 
reaching a “critical 
stage”. Most dairy 
farmers had culled the- 
ir herds in autumn this 
year in expectation of 
the bed period. 

He said that despite 
this culling, there was 
hardly any winter fod- 
der left. Farmers faced 
disaster unless heavy 
rains fell soon. 

The situation of 
maize farmers in the 
area was equally bad. 
Because of poor re 
turns from the present 
maize crop it was esti- 
mated that only 20 per- 


cent of the farmers in 
the area would be able 
to repay their loans 
from the Land Bank 
used to finance their 
present crops. 
According to farmers 
interviewed, the situa- 
tion is extremely se 
rious. One told The Citi- 
zen yesterday that the 
maize crop would only 
be about 30000 tons 
this year because of the 
lack of rain. This was 
half last year’s crop. 
Many vegetable 
farmers interviewed by 
The Citizen said their 
crops were a total 
write-off. A farmer in 

the Howick district said 
many of his neighbours 
had quit and had moved 
to Durban or Pieter- 
maritzburg to find 
work. He said the crip- 
pling heat had been 
devastating and thou- 
sands of hectares of 
vegetabies were ruined. 

He made the gloomy 
forecast that even if 
rains fell now it would 
be too late to save the 





Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND in English 10 Aug 82 pp l, 15 

[Article by Donny Nxumalo] 

(Text ] 

will continue to 
buy water from 
neighbouring cou- 
ntries if the pre- 
sent water short- 
age in border 
areas continues. 

This was stated by 
the Minister of Works 

Power and Comm-- 

unications, Dr. Victor 
Leibrandt, yesterday. 
Lomahasha still imports 
water from Mozambique 
and Lavumisa imports 
water from South Africa. 

Swaziland has an agreement | 
with the two neighbouring , 
states to supply these areas + 

with clean water 

In a separate wterview, 
the director of the Water 
and Sewerage Board, Mr. 
Christopher Mavuso, said 
borcholes thal wen 
installed in the two towns 
did not generate enough 
water to supply the 

The water shortages in 
these areas have been in 

existence for a number of 
years. Water from the two 

countries are supplied by 
tankers. The government of 
the two countries send bills 

to the Swaziland Water 

Board who pay for the 

The communities in the 
two towns pay the water 
board in normal rates. The 
board distributes water to 
the communities by trucks. 

Mr. Mavuso _ stated, 
however that when 
Mozambique is struck by 
droughts, it breaks the 

‘agreement and fails to 

supply water because it has 
greater need at home. Mr. 
Mavuso disclosed that at 
one time, the water board 
had to send water tanks by 
trucks all the way from 
Manzini to lLomahasha 
because Mozambique had 
halted supplies. 

Mr. Mavuso said, 
however that if was not 
economically viable to build 
a water system in 
Lomahasha and Lavumisa. 

“it is always a problem 
when you don’t have your 
own water supply, but it is 
much cheaper to import 
it,”’ he said. ““One has got 
to consider the planning 
and financing and whether 
or not the funds are 
availabie,"" Dr. Leibrandt 


Water shortages reached 
crisis propotions in the 
Siteki area in 1980, but Dr 
Leibrandt said the repairing 
of the Lugongoiweni dam 
has alleviated the situation 
**Ht a continuing problem, 
and people should use jess 
water «while we plan for a 
more lasting solution We 
should economise while we 
Suild for the future. Sitek: 
is certainly one of our 
priorities,’ he said 

Dr. Leibrandt said his 
minisiry has completed a 
number of water schemes 
throughout the couniry 

**At least 50 schemes have 
been completed and half the 
population is already 
getting clean water 
supplies,’ he said 

He said seven boreholes 
have already been 
completed in the Shiselwen: 
district supplying 10,000 
people He said another 
scheme run by UNICEF is 
presently working on a El 
million water supply project 
in Nhiangano 

He said rural water 
projects are being 
conducted by British and 
Canadian aid 


Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND in English 9 Aug 82 p l 
[Article by James Dlamini] 

[Text] THE WORLD FOOD Programme is to send emergency food aid worth E1l.5 
million to families in Swaziland's drought striken areas. 

The food is expected to feed more than 83,500 persons for a period of three 

The acting representative of the World Food Programme in Swaziland, Mr. Charles 
Cohen said 3,000 tons of white maize will be purchased in Zimbabwe out of World 
Food Programme funds to be delivered to Swaziland shortly, possibly in October. 

“*This food aid grant 
will also include 300 
tons of pulses (dried 
beans, peas for mak- 
ing soup) and 150 tons 
of edible oil,”’ a state- 
ment said. 

Swaziland’s request was 
approved on August 5 by 
the Director General of the 
Food and Agriculture 
Organisation, Mr. Edward 


The pulses will come 
from Holland and the edi- 
ble oil is to bought from the 
Unned States. Mr Cohen 
and the Minister for 
Agriculture, Mr. AK 
Hiophe are scheduled to 
meet sometime this week 
for an exchange of letters 'o 
formalise the agreement 

“When the letter of 
understanding has been 
signed it will bx sent to FAO 
headquariers in Rome,” 
Mr. Cohen said in an inter. 

The letters will briefly set 
out the role the FAO and 
the Government will be ex- 
pected to play. The food 
will be delivered to the 
Ministry of Agriculture and 
Co-operatives which will ve 
responsible for distributing 
it among the affected 

An emergency food 
distmbution committee will 
be established jointly by the 
FAO office in Swaziland 
and the Minister of 
Agriculture and Co. 

‘“*We will plan the 
logistics of moving the food 
from warehouses in Mat- 
sapa to the districts. We will 
also determine where and 
how much food as been 
disinbuted.” “Mr Cohen 

Food to the Rura! 
Development Areas «ii! be 
distributed by RDA's pro- 
gramme managers. Outside 
the RDAs, food will be 

distributed through the 
Distinct C * of- 
fices and semor agricultural 
extension officers, and co- 
operative officers 


Asked wha! measures 
would be taken to ensure 
that and food would act be 
explosied of sold at the ex- 
pense of the starving 
farmbes as has happened 
elsewhere in Africa, Mr 
Cohen said 

“| will bke to emphases 
that once food reacties 
Swaziland, « will be the 
property of the Govern. 
ment. it will be the Govern 
ment’s duty to see that it is 
distributed propery and to 
the mght people. However, 
we will have a very com 
prehensive accounting 
system. by which, af a 
glance we wil! be able to tell 
if food has gone astray and 
at what pom.” 

"The Ministry of 
Agriculture and Co 
operatives gave us accurate 
details when submitting the 
request, that uw the reason 
why there was no time 
wasted to have the request 
approved,” Mr. Cohen ad- 

“We did not have to go 
back to the ministry to seek 
more information. We have 
a tome lima, We are striving 
to have the food here by 
October, because the situa 
pon © expected to be 
critical from October to 
March ext year.” Mr 
Cohen said 

The most highly affected 
area by the drought is the 
Shise! wen district 

Here «6 the break down 
of the drought areas and 
people aflfecied 

Shiselwens district 
4) “#O people. Prggs Peak 
wub-district 20 040 people 
Manzim district i” oO 
Lubombo 4 81D neon 


Damascus AL-THAWRAH in Arabic 1/7 Jul 82 pp 5, 10 

[Article by Rasim al-Wa'ri: "Solutions and Proposals to Deal with Environ- 
mental Pollution Danger in Homs"] 

[Text] Students of the production camp in Homs recently carried out an 
environmental pollution study, established by the Research Society, by con- 
ducting a comprehensive survey and integrated study concerning the truth about 
industrial establishments that contribute to environmental pollution, as well 
as the al-‘Asi River basin. 

Based on this, these efforts were aimed at the security and health of the 
population of Homs Province. In support of those effort and their success, 
we are publishing the following study about environmental pollution in the 
Province and the future dangers. The study also raises some solutions and 
proposals to ward off air pollution in Homs Province. 

Homs Amidst the Gases of Factories and the Refinery 

The city of Homs is located in the center of the country. It is considered a 
connecting link between north, south, east and west. It has a population of 
about 1 million. Homs is one of the largest provinces in the country. The 
city of Homs is the third largest in population after the capital, Damascus, 
and Aleppo. The al-‘Asi River runs through it and forms a large lake west 

of the city, known as Lake Qantinah. Several important industries are concen- 
trated around the city, including an oil refinery, cement and electrical works, 
as well as other factories that emit large quantities of gases and poisonous 
wastes. These substances pollute the atmosphere and rivers, which results 
in damage to the population's life, especially in the new residential areas 
on the roads to Damascus, Mafraq, and Tudmur and the western and southern 

The relatively damp climate, along with wind direction and speed, plays an 
important role in gaseous concentrations in the city's atmosphere, since the 
concentrations are lowered when wind speed increases, and the concentrations 
of pollutants increase when wind speed drops. This is especially true when 
the wind speed drops over the city at 10 o'clock at night until morning, 
throughout most of the year. 


Basic Atmosphere Pollutants 
The study enumerated pollution sources with the following elements: 

Coal oxide and dioxide 
Sulphur dioxide 
Nitrogen dioxide 
Hydrogen sulphate 
Ammonia gas 

wi & WN 
> Fs * ® © 

Pollutants Emitted From the Nitrogen Fertilizer Plant 

Three nitrogen fertilizer plants--al-Calnitro, the ammonia urea plant and the 
Tarbil super phosphate--discharge large quantities of gases, resulting in air 
pollution. The amount of sulphur dioxide gas emitted from the Babcock boilers 
is estimated at 1476 square meters per hour, resulting from the burning of 
fuels containing approximately 1.5 percent sulphur, in addition to discharging 
nitrogen oxide and coal oxide and dioxide gases. 

About 925 cubic meters per hour of sulphur oxide gases are discharged from 

the ammonia urea boiler’s smokestacks, in addition to undetermined quantities 
of gases derived from the burning of crude naptha. The treating of parts of 
ammonia urea results in the amount of 180 cubic meters, while the al-Calnitro 
factory discharges 2,000 cubic meters per day. The clouds of ammonia nitrates, 
spewed forth from the towers of al-Calnitro are also considered a chief source 
of pollution of the Qatinah area, which is close by the company, as well as 

the industrial facilities neighboring the lake. 

Pollutants Emitted by the Qatinah Electrical Works 

The Homs air pollution study reported that the use of 500 tons of fuel per day, 
containing 5 percent sulphur, whose burning gives off 12,250 cubic meters of 
sulphur oxide gas per day, results in increased air pollution, in addition to 
undetermined amounts of coal oxide, dioxide and nitrogen gases. 

Pollutants from the Oil Refinery 

The burning of 600 to 700 tons of fuel per day in the heating process results 
in 12,250 cubic meters of sulphur oxide gases, in addition to hydrogen sulphide. 
nitrogen oxide and petroleum gases, being discharged from the smokestacks of 
the carbonization department. 

The discharge of sulphuric gases increases to 24,500 cubic meters per day when 
the work of the unit producing sulphur stops, due to its burning. 

The production of 180 tons of butane gas, and its bottling, results in the 
leakage of approximately 1 ton per day, noting that the surplus is put to 
the torch. 

Pollution Produced by the Oil Paints Company 
As a result of burning 5 tons of fuel, 60 cubic meters of various sulphur oxide 

gases are emitted into the atmosphere, in addition to combusion gases and 
coal dust. 


Solutions and Proposals to Ward Off Air Pollution in Homs 

The s idy reached the following solutions and proposals to ward off the 
danger of air pollution in Homs: 

1. Fuel is the chief source of pollution in Homs, in view of its containing 
a percentage of sulphur of up to 5.2 percent, which leads to the discharge of 
sulphur oxide. This is a high percentage of sulphur, and large quantities of 
it settles in fuel, despite the work of the unit producing sulphur in the 
hydrogen separators and the Mirox units, as a result of the complete burning 
of the hydrogen sulphide gas, from which is derived the free sulphur. The 
study emphasizes that the percentage of sulphur in fuel must be reduced 
through the use of Arabian crude oil, which is noted for the reduced concen- 
trations in its composition, and the establishing of hydrogen units to 
extract the sulphur in crude oil, so as to ensure the reduction of sulphur 

to the minimum extent possible. 

2. It is impossible to determine the percentage of air pollution through the 
gases discharged from the sources of pollution, and to use measurements con- 
ducted through a time period to determine the extent of pollution and the 
extent of health damage to the population, in view of the changing weather 
conditions during the day and during the months of the year, since concen- 
trations of pollutants increase and decrease in accordance with those atmos- 
pheric conditions. Therefore, not less than six fixed centers, with measuring 

positions at differing distances, must be used to conduct measurements through- 

out the year. Tables of internationally permitted levels of gases must be 

used, and a specialized medical authority must be taske! with establishing 
medical inspection and permanent supervision over the population, in order to 
estimate the health damage that pollution causes, and its various effects 

on mankind. 


CSO: 5000/4715 




Harare THE SUNDAY MAIL in English 22 Aug 82 pp 1, 3 

[Text] NOBODY will die to the Cold Storage Come 
fronf the drought un- - ~4 2: on epen whee 
lese there is a we Tr no anewer. We 

could give people 
breakdown in com- for their cattle, but we 
munications, says the are not able to give them 
areas nearly every Gay and 
sources and Develop- wy — 
ment, Cde Cephas state of affairs as (ar as 
Masi cattle are concerned, 
pe- “Ia Matabeleland at 
my ainistsy ene Oe present they are surviv- 
Ministry of Local Gov- ing oo tree leaves, but 
ernment and Towns Pilan- how long can they do 
selves to ensure that no Asked why people ware 
one dies,” he said ip as hanging on to thelr ani- 
eee are communycating nes Go sues on 
they were worried about 
with district administra- bow they would plough 
tors. and provincial water when the rains eatne and 
engineers are kept ia- whether the cost of cat- 
a tle would imcrease so that 
- they would be unable to 
Of course, drought re afford to buy more if they 
lief takes er over sold now 
: “On my last trip I saw 
The tig worry wes them using cattle to cart 
about cattle curvi in water in some.areas where 
the lives of nearly three 30 iam round trip to get 
a < oe water in drums. 7 catue 
“There is 0 in are still useful. 

A few people were get 
eth Fe ggg gt ting far less for their cat- 
= —s wy tle than they would have 
ek cattle 1 dont umow, just a month ago, because 

r e t : 
because they will definitely the animals wer) deterio- 
die,” said Cade Msipa. rating yi. 
Me on bem on ing what are normally 
" Cde 

of bis regular tours of considered rejects, 
drought-stricken areas to Msipa said. ont Fu 
oy hd A aaron bee ‘isited the 
velopment show people y of 
that — Government is a — 
concern how 

Cée Msipa said posete people were coping 
agreed with him that their The ministry had in- 
cattle would die, but they creased its supplies of 
still insisted on not selling borehole drille 123 


hiwayo could protably % 

installed @ two days 
“Eventually this system 

would be upgraded to 

as it bas been Gltered by 
th sand aoc more 
hygienic than the old 
method of simply digg o¢ 

$000 /5811 


j eit. 

5 ekhie 


At Dinyane, where work 
om a village water supply 
had to stup Geceuse of the 
security situations. minsis- 
try warkers were Grilling 
horenoles and Stting them 
with Pansd pumps 


could mot Gad « place to 
4A for water.” 

The chief engineer had 
gone out with a water 
a@ of who had ipdicat- 
ed iwo places 

“We will sow send «a 
érili rig i.” 


Harare THE HERALD in English 4 Aug 82 p 11 

[Text] THE Government will establish at least 50 village water supply centres 
in the rural areas, the Deputy Minister of Water Resources and Development, 
Cde Joseph Kaparadza, said yesterday. 

One such centre has recently been established at Shumba village in the Chikwaka 
communal land at a cost of about $40,000. 

Another centre would be established in September at Makosa village in Mutoko 
and would cost about $60 000, Cde Kaparadza said. 

The deputy minister was speaking at a meeting of district council chairmen, 
district administrators, councillors and senior Government officials from Ma- 
shonaland East province, at Seke Hall, south of Purare. 

"This is just the beginning of a long-term programme to supply clean water 
to the people in the rural areas." 

The centres would be established at points which would serve between 500 anc 
2 000 villagers. 

Water would be led to brick sheds. Washing basins would be installed in the 
sheds so that people could do their washing. 

"The places will be adequately protected from rainfall, wind and wild animals. 

“In other areas, where there is not enough water in the rivers and streams, 
a water trough will also be built beside the shed for cattle and other animals,’ 
Cde Kaparadza said. 

He appealed to the people to help the Government by digging trenches where 
the pipes would be laid. This would reduce the costs of the project, he said. 

"Britain and Sweden have, through their Zimcord pledges, said that they will 
give six drilling rigs each to Zimbabwe. We are therefore waiting for them 
so as to drill more boreholes quickly. 

"The demand for water, especially at rural day secondary schools an proposed 
growth points, calls for the immediate attention of the Government,” the deputy 
minister said. 

cso: 5000/5792 



Harare THE HERALD in English 7 Aug 82 p 6 

THE establishment of a 
village water supply cen- 
tre in Chinamhora c-m- 
muna! land has attrscted 
many squatters, the Goro- 
monzi district administra- 
tor, Cde Dakadzai Sithoile, 
was told this week. 

At a meeting attended 
by farmers and hea's of 
Villages at Shumba village 
on Thursday, Cde Sithole 
was told that people had 
started drifting from other 
areas to Chinamhora, at- 
tracted by the develop- 
ment taking place there. 

“There are now about 
50 ‘foreign’ families in this 
area now and if nothing is 
done as soon as possibile 
More people will come,” 
the village heads said. 

“This might cause very 
serious over - crowding, 
leaving ovr cattle without 
enough grazing land.” 

The district administra- 
tor said he would report 
the matter to the Ministry 
of Lands, Resettlement 
and Rural Development 
for action. 

The villagers demanded 
that the squatters »5e 

moved before the next 
Traine so they could have 
time to prepare for the 

Apother problem faced 

“We hear that there are 
many bus operators hold- 
ing permits to serve the 
area, but they don’t use 
this route,” the 
said Meanwhile, other 
operators wishing to come 
im are blocked by these 
people who claim to be 

&re just momopolising this 
route yet they have failed 
to serve it efficiently, 



Harare THE HERALD in English 16 Aug 82 p 3 




PAKISTANI water engineers will soon arrive in 
Zimbabwe to help ease the drought crisis, 
Pakistan’s Charge d’Affaires in Harare, Mr 

Sheira Khan, said yes- 

In an interview Mr 
Khan said his govern- 
ment had decided to give 
the issue “top priority” 
because of the threat it 
was posing in the com- 
muna! lands. 

Consultations between 
the two governments 
were now under way and 
officials from the Zimba- 
bwean Ministry of Water 
Development were 
ready in Pakistan to 
select the engineers. 

They would assist in 
Grilling . boreholes in 
drought - etricken areas 
and supplying more water 
in the communal lands. 

“We will do everything 
possible to ensure that 
this problem is solved,” 
Mr Khan said. 

The charge daffairs 
said another team from 
the Ministry of Trans- 
port was io Pakistan re- 
cruiting technicians for 
Air Zimbabwe 

He described the rela- 
tions between the two 
countries as excellent. 

adding “We have always - 

Jeit that we should try 
as much as possible to 
assist Zimbabwe ere 
we cas.” 

His government would 
e000 approach the Zi- 
mb>abwean Government to 
offer doctors to work in 
rural health centres. 


A trade agreement be- 
tween the two countries 
was also being drawn up 
as a result of talks held 
when the Prime Minister, 
Cde Mugabe, visited Pak!i- 
stan last year. 

“We pe that as soon 
as this trade agreement 
is formed trade between 

e two countries will be 
strengthened and relations 
cemented,” he said 

On the international 
scene, Mr Khan said Zi- 
mbabwe and Pakistan held 
simular views. 

He condemned South 
Africa for its continued 
attacks on Angola and 
its intransigence over Na- 

“It la our view that the 
people of Namibia are en- 
titled to their independ- 
ence and that South Af- 
rica must withdraw from 
the territory immediately. 

He hoped that the West- 
ern Contact Group would 
put pressure on South Af- 
rica to speed independence 
for the territory. 

He condemned South 
Africa for its racial pol- 
ictes adding that sooner 
or later the regime would 
be crushed and replaced 
by a majority government. 

His country would con- 
tinue to give material as- 
sistance to Swapo and 
ANC guerillas. 




Harare THE HERALD in English 7 Aug 82 p 9 

[Text ] 


SMALL Irrigation 
achemes and simple power 
systems will be started 
soon at Shumba village. 
Chinamorea communal 
land, following the estab- 
lishment of a water sup- 
ply centre, the district ad- 
ministrator, Cde Dakadzai 
Sithole, has said. 

If the projects succeed, 
Shumba could be the 
forerunner of thousands 
of other village de- 
velopment schemes in the 
communal! lands. 

Speaking in an inter- 
view on Thursday, Cde 
Sithole said his adminis- 

tration planned to 
mobilise the people to 
spearhead rural _  de- 

velopment by increasing 
vegetable and crop pro- 
duction through irrigatioo 

More __— biogas plants 
would also be established 
in the area to provide 
cheap power to the 
people's homes and thus 
improve their living staa- 

“The use of simpie tech- 
nology wil) transform the 
present structure of the 
rural villages. It is easier 
for the people to rup such 
projects and therefore 5e- 
come self-reliant in water 

and electricity,” Cde 
Sithole said. 

The Shumba village 
water supply centre 

marked the beginning of « 
long-term programme in- 
itiated by the Government 
to get niped water to the 
communal! lands. 



Speaking at a meeting 
of district administrators 
and district council chair~- 
men on Monday, the De- 

uty Minister of Water 

esources and De- 
velopment, Cde Josenh 
Kaparadza, said 53 such, 
centres would be estab- 
lished throughout the 

Work on another centre 
at Makosa village. 
Mutoko, would start w 

e urged district coun- 
cils te pinpoint arees of 
need and liaise with dis- 
trict administrators so 
that the programme suc- 

At Shumba village. 
water is drawn from a 
nearby river by a power- 
driven pump into two big 
tanks. It is then purified 
and transferred into a 

Water pipes had been 
laid from the reservoir on 
a hilltop to nine supply 
points in the village. 

“The trenches in which 
the pipes are laid. were 
dug Dy the people and this 
shows how important 

community spirit and self- 
reliance are for de- 
velopment,” Cde_ Sithole 

The $40000 8 supply 
centre marked the in- 
troduction of cheap, but 
very usefu’ technology in 
the Chinamora com- 
muna! land. 

Clean water is supplied 
to about 500 villagers. It 
is led to brick and con- 
crete sheds and about 5m 
away from the water taps 
ere washing basins where 
peopie do their washing 

Records at the nearby 
Nyaure clinic, which serves 
aout 20000 people in the 
area, show that the num- 
ber of people treated for 
water-borne diseases 

ped from about 800 to 
nearly 450 during the last 
aix months. 

The Government has 
stationed a water main- 
teaance officer at the vil- 


“The district adminis- 
trator said two biogas 
piant« and a solar energy 
pump had already been in- 
Stalled at various centres 
in the district. 

The biogas plants pro- 

videc electricity and 
power to Chinyika 
primary and secondary 

schools and to the Juru 
district service centre, on 
th: Mutoko road. 

People in the area were 
prepared to contribute 
towards the maintenance 
custs so as to catch up 
With the development 
trends im some areas in 




DROUGHT DISASTER AVERTED=--Chibi--The possible closure of two schools, Jenya 
and Denga in Chibi District, Masvingo Province due to the drought has been 
avoided by the construction of a $17 000 5 km trench to supply water to the 
area, The District Administrator, Cde Steven Chikasha said the water situa- 
tion had become so bad that the only option left had eppeared to be closing 
down the schools, "It was not only the two schools which were affected but 
the entire surrounding community was threatened," he said, But 16 villages 
with about 300 people got together and approached the Ministry of Water 
Development for help. “The community did not want to simply wait and be 
given; they concertedly made contributions and raised $1 000 which was added 
to the $16 000 provided by the ministry." He added that the money provided 
by the ministry had gone towards the buying of pipes, cement and the 
construction of two reservoirs at the schools which would also serve as 
central collection points for the surrounding communal areas, The existing 
Chombwe pipeline scheme built by the District Development Fund (DDF) to 
supply water to Chibi District Offices was constantly disrupted by the local 
people who, faced with water shortages, would cut the pipe to allow their 
animals to drink, "The community effort exercised by the local people will 
inevitably induce them into identifying with the new scheme since it is 
their product," Cde Chikasha said, "They will respect their own efforts." 
The latest extension would be connected to the existing Chombwe scheme which 
draws its water from the Tokwe river dam.--Ziana [Text] [Harare THE HERALD 
in English 14 Aug 82 p 5] 

DROUGHT AID--Bulawayo--I[t was not possible at this stage to say how many 
water engineers would come from Pakistan, the Minister of Water Resources 
and Development said yesterday, The Minister, Cde Cephas Msipa said two 
officials of his ministry, Cde Andrew Mpala and Cde Wonder Banda only left 
on a recruiting trip to Pakistan on Tuesday last week, The minister said he 
wished to repeat an earlier statement that the staff position in Matabeleland 
was pretty well depleted and needed to be brought up to a functional level, 
[fhe recruiting of Pakistani water engineers was announced at the weekend by 
that country's Charge d‘Affaires in Harare, Mr Sheira Khan, who said this 

would help ease the ravages of drought affecting nearly 3 000 000 Zimbabweans, 

(rext] (Harare THE HERALD in English 17 Aug 82 p 3] 

cso: 5000/5809 



Search For More Barrels 

Helsinki HELSINGIN SANOMAT in Finnish 25 Jul 82 p 18 

[Article by Harri Nykanen: "Search For Missing Poison" ] 

[Text] The search for barrels containing poison given to the table drawer 
manufacturer, Euro Industri, for disposal has been going on for 3 weeks. 

More than 20,000 kilos of various kinds of poisons have already been found 
and the search is still going on for 40 more barrels. During the search 
three individuals were jailed and eight were detained. Two of the detained 
have been let go. The search goes on for three other individuals in the same 
manner as the search for barrels -- without knowing where. 

The first three barrels of poison were found on Monday 28 June on the uninha- 
bited outlying rocky islets of Krakbarskar. Two of the barrels were on shore 
and the third was under water off the shore. Several holes were punctured 

in the 200-liter barrels, apparently for the purpose of sinking them. How- 
ever, according to another theory presented later the holes were made so that 
the gases forming from the chemicals would be able to escape. 

The barrels contained steel cannisters and glass bottles of various sizes. 
Some of the bottles had washed up on the shore and were broken on the rocks. 
There was a very strong odor in the vicinity and the firemen who transferred 
the poisons to the shore wore protective clothing and oxygen equipment. 

The investigation of the poison find was conducted by the Turku Central Crin- 
inal Police. It began to trace the source of the poisons by means of the 
labels on the bottles, among other things. On some of the bottle one could 
clearly read the word poison in Finnish and there were markings of labora- 
tories on several bottles. 

Un the third day the police requested information from the public about a 
truck that was in the area of Kemio--Kasnas the week before Midsummer Day. 
It was said the the first letter on the license pl ite of this stubby nosed 

dark vehicle was A. 

iit wurce ol th pOolsons and tte individual who sunk them were dis losed 
Saturday 3 July or 5 days atter the poisons were found. 



m yrkk arasto a 
pifton loytopaikka 

~ age? 
+. "wis 
ch et 
i dee 

a aitetty, etty 
onnet tton i) dF 

The first barrels of poison were found on the outlying 
rocky islets of Krakbarskar on 28 June. 


. Location of found poisons 

- Baltic Sea 

Locaton of alleged accident 
Ristna light! use 

|. Warehouse for storing 

2. Location of truck 

3s. Loading site of trawler 

ws OW & 

Euro Industri Inc., which has operated for 10 years in Helsinki with zero 
sales, was found to be behind the contract for sinking the barrels. In the 
spring and fall by means of telexes the firm offered to dispose of poisons 
from industrial plants which had become exasperated with several kinds of 

harzardous waste. 


The Keskuslaboratorio Company of Espoo turned out to be the first party to 
accept the offer. The firm, which operates as a joint research institute 

for the wood processing industry, gave Euro Industri approximately 2,000 li- 
ters of various kinds of poisons for disposal. Keskuslaboratorio accepted 
the offer without determining whether Euro Industri had a permit for or expe- 
rience in the disposal of toxic substances. The poisons were delivered on 

13 and 17 May. 

In its enthusiasm to transport poisons Euro Industri went beyond its actual 
area of operations. In the trade registry the firm has promised to purchase 
manufacturing licenses and place orders from Finland and abroad. 

Several individuals known to the police were found to be connected with this 
firm. The managing director was Raimo Niemela, a junk dealer from Vantaa. 

A Helsinki attorney, Matti Cederberg, who had power of attorney for the firn, 
was responsible for making contacts with the producers of poisons. 

Poisons Missing 

Keskuslaboratorio stated that Euro Industri had been given approximately 2,000 
liters of poison for destruction. It thus became clear that a full 1,000 

liters are still missing. The police estimated that Euro Industri had acquired 
poisons from other firms also. 

Also the origin of the truck used for transporting the poisons became clear 
on 3 July. The vehicle was owned -- indeed, not in his own name -- by a ship- 
master born in Turku. The police suspected that he had used the vehicle to 
transfer the poisons to the Normandie trawler owned by him. The boat was 
freqently anchored in the harbor of Bormarv between Hanko and Kemio. 

The shipmaster was well known to the police. He had several convictions a- 
gainst him for smuggling alcohol and concealing stolen goods. Now he was 
suspected of new crime -- a felony involving the illegal dumping of waste. 

Jn Sunday 4 July the police disclosed another producer of poisons which had 
turned over its products to Euro Industri. 

The Nokia Corporation's Tampere condensation plant turned over 40 barrels 
of PCB-poison, which becomes concentrated in nature, and nearly 20,000 kilos 
of used condensers, which contained PCB as an insulating material. 

Also the Fargo-make truck was found on Sunday from a wrecking yard. The truck 
had been there for nearly a week. The owner of the wrecking yard declared 
the vehicle only after he recognized it from a picture in the newspaper. 

Poison Cache Is Found 
On Monday 4 July it was reported that approximately 20,000 kilos of toxii 

waste from Nokia had been found from the cache in the outskirts otf Turku. 
lt is calculated that 7 tons of waste condensers and 246 barrels are missing. 


According to a more precise accounting of Nokia only 12 barrels contained 
a diluted PCB-solution and the remaining barrels contained C4-waste as well 
as engine oil. 

Exactly a week after the barrels were found the first arrests were made and 
the first public notices for individuals wanted by the police were issued. 

In Helsinki, Euro Industri‘’s attorney came to the police, and an individual 
suspected of involvement in the transporting of poisons did the same in Turku. 

On Tuesday 6 July four barrels of poison were found off the coast of Kemio. 
Un the same day the shipmaster, who has become a central figure in the poison 
case, announced through his lawyer, Reino Lunden, that the barrels were not 
sunk on purpose. According to him an explosion took place on the trawler 
transporting the poisons and as a result six barrels were thrown overboard 
from the damaged side of the vessel. 

According to the shipmaster the explosion took place on the Danish trawler 

on the western point of Hiidenmaa in the vicinity of the Ristna lighthouse. 
Two men were injured in the explosion caused by the mixing of chemicals. They 
were transferred to a hospital just below Stockholm. 

Une of the injured, Viljo Lindroos, escaped from the hospital and returned 
to Finland. According to the statement made by the shipmaster instructions 
for treating the man were requested from Keskuslaboratorio, which urged them 
to take the injured man to a hospital. The man did not get along well in 

a Finnish hospital either and escaped again. 

However, they succeeded in finding a private doctor for this runaway patient 
ind he was treated with saltpeter bandages. 

The shipmaster told attorney Reino Lunden that he sought evidence of the acci- 
dent and walked to the nearest police station. 

Shipmaster Un Wanted List 

Un Wednesday 7 July it was reported that the individual known as the ship- 

master is from Jarvenpaa, but his name is Jukka Ojaranta and was born in Turku. 

A public notice for the arrest of Jukka Vajaranta of Turku was issued at the 
me time. A businessman from Uusmaa was detained on the same day. 

Un the following day the police and the Coast Guard began the search for the 
approximately 40 missing barrels. The search was concentrated on the western 
side of Dragsfjard where there are several depressions at the bottom of the 


The navy loaned out its military secret, an American-made oblique echo depth 
sounding device, for the purpose of the search. The device recorded suspic- 
ious formations at the bottom of the sea. A more thorough inspection was 
left to divers. 

Un the first day of the search Interior Minister Matti Ahde (Social Democrat) 
condemned the sinking of the poisons in strong language. Also he stated that 
the poisons could not have been transported to the GDR according to a report 
issued by the Embassy of the GDR in Helsinki. According to the embassy that 
country’s law prohibit the importing of hazardous waste. 

Un that same day Interior Minister Ahde made a personal visit to the site 
where the poisons were sunk. 

The first observations of Jukka Ojaranta were made in the vicinity of Seina- 
joki and Kauhajoki on Thursday 8 July. He was driving a white Upel Record 
with the license plate number TCU395. The vehicle had been borrowed from 

a painter in Helsinki. 

Ujaranta was seen eating in a Seinajoki restaurant. When a certain customer 
recognized Ujaranta, he left immediately in the direction of Kauhajoki. En- 
route he was followed by a police car, but he managed to shake it off just 
before Kauhajoki. There was at least one other person with Ojaranta. 

Un Friday the white Opel was seen in various parts of Pohjois-Satakunta, Kar- 
via and Kankaanpaa, among other places. On Monday 12 July reports begin to 
come in trom Southern Finland already. Un Monday, however, the police de- 
tained an Uusmaa dispatcher suspected of arranging the poison shipment. 

Additional high-technology equipment was obtained for making the search in 
Dragsf jard more effective. A metal detector built by the Finnish Army was 
brought to the site. 

Un Wednesday 14 July the search for the barrels had to be halted without any 
results. The depth sounder had found rocks and chunks of earth and the metal 
detector found only abandoned anchors on the bottom of the sea. It was de- 
cided to continue the search later if local residents came up with any new 
information on search sites. 

Un Wednesday the police detained two other people. One of them was Ojaranta's 
wife. The only thing the police would say about the other individual is that 
the detained person is a male. 

In connection with the detainment of Ojaranta's wife a thorough search of 
her home was conducted. The police found, among other things, a suitcase 
containing clothes and books packed for Ojaranta. The police decided that 
VUjaranta intended to give himself up in the near future. During the search 
the police also found telexes sent from West Germany to Euro Industri as far 
as is known. 

Un Friday 17 July the police detained a mechanic from Helsinki. 
Ujaranta Makes Phone Call 

Shipmaster Jukka Ujaranta called HELSINGIN SANOMAT on Tuesday 20 July after 
having been in hiding for 2 weeks. The ehipmaster described his own role 


in the incident as "ridiculously small". According to him he had been made 
the chief villain because of an old grudge on the part of the police. 

Ujaranta stated that he was only involved in the transporting of the chemi- 
cals, and even in this primarily as an assistant. He assured us that the 
intent was to take care of the poisons “honestly” through a West German firm. 
Ujaranta stated that he had saved the telexes sent to Euro Industri by the 
German firm. As far as is known the police confiscated the telexes during 
the search of his home. 

According to his own words Ojaranta would have surrendered much sooner if 
his “innocent™" wife had not been detained. He still promised to give himself 
up if his wife is freed to take care of the children. 

Ujaranta stated that he hid for a week in the woods outside of Kauhajoki, 
very close to the spot where he and Lindroos slipped away from the police. 

The procurement of food was taken care of by Ojaranta's fellow fugitive, Vil- 
jo Lindroos. He went grocery shopping at a near-by market. According to 
Ujaranta it was Lindroos who was injured in the explosion on the Danish traw- 
ler and fled from a Swedish hespital. Lindroos suffered burns on his hands 
in the accident. 

Ujaranta also disclused the hiding place of the escape vehicle. 

Un Wednesday 21 July the police put the first two men detained in connection 
with this incident in jail. They are suspected of violating the waste treat- 
ment law. Un the following day an Uusmaa businessman detained as the third 
individual for this reason was put in jail. 

Un Saturday Managing Director Raimo Niemela of Euro Industri was detained 
and a public notice placing Viljo Lindroos on the wanted list was issued. 

Hazardous Waste Disposal Problem in Many Areas 
Helsinki HELSINGIN SANOMAT in Finnish 25 Jul 82 p 17 
[Article by Sauli Korpimo: "A Problem Shoved Into Barrels" ] 

[Text] Dangerous wastes, which cannot yet be treated in Finland, are lying 
around in industrial warehouses. Poisons thrown into the water without per- 
mission came to the surface in Dragsfjard. The environment is being pol- 
luted a thousand times over with permission. 

if the barrels containing poisons had come to the surface off the coast of 
Dragsf jard several days earlier, the Suomen Ungelmajate (Finnish Waste Treat- 
ment] Company could now be 50 million markkas richer. This, you see, is the 
amount the state reduced from the assistance granted to the company as the 
result of a proposal made by Interior Minister Matti Ahde. The decision on 
state aid to the waste treatment company was made 5 days before the barrels 

were found. 


The waste treatment company cquld have used the money since it is currently 
building a plant in Riihimaki for the disposal of toxic wastes. Currently 
in Finland it is not possible to make hazardous wastes safe. 

On the same day that the barrels of poison were found the board of directors 
of the waste treatment company was deliberating an awkward situation -- it 
was short 50 million markkas. 

Tens of thousands of people in dozens of communities have protested the con- 
struction of a waste treatment plant since they have feared pollution from 
the plant. 

The finding of poisons in Dragsfjard changed their attitude. 

Ten days after the poisons were found, Minister Ahde flew in a helicopter 
to the site where the poisons were dumped. There he observed that there is 
still much work to be done in Finland with respect to problems of environ- 
mental protection. He said there is a need for one new environmental pro- 
tection official in each province. 

The barrels of poison in Dragsfjard have more significane as a factor contri- 
buting to a change in attitudes than as a pollutor of the sea. A thousand 
times more poisons are dumped into the environment legally. This is the eas- 
iest way to get rid of them. 

But others have received permission from society to do this, not Ujaranta. 
The legal pollution of waters is considerably greater than the illegal. 

By the end of 1980 more than 300 industrial plants had permission to dump 
waste into waterways on the basis of water rights decisions or inspection 
statements made by officials. These wastes also included toxic substances, 
for example, 26,000 tons of iron, nearly 6 tons of cyanide, more than 5 tons 
of arsenic, more than 4 tons of lead, 600 kilos of cadmium, and 120 kilos 

of mercury. 

Industry has been allowed to dump 7,000 tons of nitrogen, 700 tons of phospho- 
rus, and 144 tons of oil into the waterways. 

In addition to this, the waters are further polluted by pollutants from 625 
municipal sewage plants. 

Approximately 100,000 tons of poisonous or difficult-to-dispose-of hazardous 
wastes are created annually in Finland. 

According to the Suomen Ongelmajate Company, owned by the state, municipali- 
ties, and industry, 60--65 percent of the most difficult kinds of waste se- 
cretly disappears into the ground, water systems, garbage dumps, and into 
the air. Of the remaining only a portion can be treated in a relevant man- 
ner, the rest is lying around in industrial warehouses awaiting the comple- 
tion of the hazardous waste treantment plant. 


Caches ‘ 

Local government officials who supervise the treatment of waste know full 
well that things are not what they should be, but look the other way. It 

is difficult for them to take on a large company when no one is able to tell 
the company where its hazardous waste can be dumped. 

But sometimes bad luck strikes and hiding places are disclosed. Ten years 
ago 20 tons of cyanide waste from an affiliate of the Nokia Corporation, the 
Sako Company in Riihimaki, were found in a garbage dump in Hanko. 

The state-owned Neste Corporation was caught red handed in 1975 when it loaded 
arsenic waste on the huge container ship Ensker. The intent was to dump this 
waste into the Atlantic, but it was finally returned to Finland accompanied 

by a heated international row. 

Several reports have been made on the quality and amounts of hazardous wastes. 
The most recent and apparently the most detailed report is now being comple- 
ted in the Interior Ministry. It will reveal which plants are producing poi- 
sons and where they go. The ministry is keeping the report confidential. 

"Apparently, there are deficiencies in ind stry's waste treatment plans," 
stated Office Chief Matti Vehkalahti of the Interior Ministry in disclosing 
an issue generally «nown within local governments. 

Environmental Protection Professor Pekka Nuorteva knows where hazardous waste 
not included in waste treatment plans has been taken: 

"It has been taken to much smaller, unguarded dumps, for example, to locations 
similar to Tenhola. 

The “flea meter” developed at Helsinki University Environmental Protection 
Institute has indicated that there may be poisons at the Tenhola dump. 

The test conducted with water fleas is simple. At the laboratory filtered 
water from the dump is added to a dish in which water fleas are living. They 
die if poisons are introduced into the water. 

The suitability of water fleas as a barometer of pollution was tested with 
water from 20 dumps. In some they lived, in others they died. Fatal water 
came from the dumps at Iso-Huopalahti and Tenhola, among other places. 

"There is no industry producing poisons in Tenhola. The poisons were appa- 
rently brought from somewhere else. We received a clue as to the whom the 
party could be when the police stated that they observed on the roads of Ten- 
hola and Bromarv a car driven by shipmaster Jukka Ujara ta, who is suspected 
of smuggling waste," states Nuorteva. 

The poisons and their origins could be determined with certainty if the dump 
could be opened up. 


Nuorteva doubts that anyone will become readily involved in such an expensive 
venture. “Indeed, the police will need more than just dead water fleas as 
evidence in this case.” 

However, the water flea test can according to Nuorteva become an inexpensive 
and quick procedure suitable for a preliminary report. 

Professor Pekka Nuorteva, who has followed the treatment of hazardous waste 
for many years, fears that there are others in Finland besides Ojaranta who 
have disposed of hazardous waste. “General practice, however, has been that 
an industrial plant has paid a member of its own staff to dispose of a load 
of waste in a suitable place,” states Nuorteva. 

A Business 

Also Director Leo Virkkunen of the Capital City Area Cooperation Delegation 
has been concerned about the treatment of waste for a long time. He is one 
of the promoters of the waste treatment plant, an initiator of the project. 

“It was a suprise to me that such a good business could be conducted in haz- 
ardous waste," argues Virkkunen. In his opinion the waste treatment plant 
is, indeed, an urgent issue since the barrels in industrial warehouses are 
already beginning to rust -- something must be done with them soon. 

In Pekka Nuorteva's opinion industry is in a hurry to dispose of the barrels 
for another reason also: it knows that the cost of waste disposal at the 
waste treatment plant will be high. The cost of dumping them into the sea 
is much cheaper. 

"In this lies the problem. If the plant is made well, it will become expen- 
sive and treatment costs will have to be kept high. Then pressures will be 
created to find cheaper alternatives,” states Nuorteva. 

Appparently, the waste treatment plant will be made well. In any event it 
will be expensive. It will cost 265.6 million markkas or three times more 
than the estimate only a year and a half ago. 

Technical Director Matti Vattulainen explains the increase in the cost by 
an improvement in technology. "For example, the cost of the gas refinery 
is now nearly half of the cost of the furnace while it originally was only 
one-tenth. The whole combustion plant will cost 100 million markkas, of 

which the mechanical portion 1 ‘\roximately 50 million.” 

Professor Pekka Nuorteva has cized the fact that the waste treatment 
plant will be located in the center of an agricultural area near a city. He 
would consider the plant safe if it were built in a more suitable location. 

"The sources and flow of ground waters in the vicinity of the construction 
site were not sufficiently studied. This could have prevented its construc- 
ticn. The Hame Provincial Government, which will issue a permit for the treat- 
ment of hazardo s waste to the plant, will probably not be given the facts.” 


in Nuorteva‘'s opinion the hazardous waste treatment plant is necessary; these 
wastes must be made safe somewhere. 

In Nuorteva’s opinion there is also no reason to underestimate the poison 
findings off the coast of Dragsfjard: “PCB is definitely detrimental to the 
sea since there is already a sufficient amount of it in the Baltic Sea. Each 
barrel is too auch.” 

According to Nuorteva PCB is the main reason that the seal and sea eagle pop- 
ulations are no long increasing. 

“PCB has entered the sea from Nokia by means of the Kokemaki River. The con- 
tent of PCB in the livers of burbot and codfish --— and no other fish -- cau- 
ght in this vicinity is many times greater than the norms established by the 
World Health Organization.” 

In Nuorteva's opinion hypocrisy in environmental issues should be avoided 

and issues should be looked at as total entities. “When it becomes disclosed 
that a ship is dumping toxic substances into the Baltic Sea, the incident 

is severely condemned. Un the other hand, the attitude toward a pipeline 
pumping poisons into the sea from Vuorikemia is completely indifferent. Is 
it more civilized to pump poisons into the sea along a pipeline than it is 
to dump barrels of poison from the side of a ship?” 

CSU: 5000 / 2146 



Paris LE MATIN in French 4 Aug 82 p 23 
[Article: EDF Has Promised To Change Its Conduct"] 

[Text] An agreement has been signed with the Ministries 
of Environment and Energy to improve landscape protection. 

Did EDF (French Electric Company] decide to mend its ways? According to the 
agreement signed Last June with the Ministries of Environment and Energy, EDF 
is definitely committed to adopt "an exemplary behavior" and to contribute to 
the protection of environment by attempting t»> improve the integration of all 
of its structures in the natural environment, for which it did not always show 
much consideration in the past. EDF agreed to put its cards on the table. By 
organizing annual meetings with all organizations concerned to discuss its 
surveys and research. By providing broader an! more complete information 
under the new procedure of investigation as to public usefulness. Finally, 

by publishing an annual assessment of the effects which the operation of its 
production structures has on the environment. 

As far as hydroelectric works are concerned, EDF must prepare an inventory 

of potential sites before the end of the year. If a project is likely to af- 
fect a national park, no study will be started without prior consultation with 
the ministries which signed the agreement. Also, a specialized office will be 
created to undertake new research on "fish passes" and, without waiting for 
the result of this research, a priority action program will be drawn up before 
the end of the year, providing for the improvement or multiplication of the 
existing passes. 

Will EDF abide by this good behavior code? Its intentions do challenge firm'~ 
rooted habits. Wiether for nuclear power plants, power lines or hydroelectric 
work:, EDF has too often given the impression that it placed itself above the 

Barely one year ago, one of its oldest opponents, the National Association for 
the Protection of Salmonids, requested Michel Crepeau minister of Environment 
to open an investigation on the conditions under which EDF had undertaken the 
realization of certain hydroelectric dams and plants. 


[he association--which is fighting the Puylaurent dam project (Lozere depart- 
ment) now being reconsidered--charged and offered proof that EDF had pressed 
for the realization of the project in order to place the Ministry of Environ- 
ment in front of a fait accompli. In the case of Puylaurent, work had start- 
ed in December 1980, without an authorization and in spite of the unfavorable 
Opinion given by the Ministry of Environment. The same thing happened at 
Saint-Amandin (Cantal department) under the pretext of "surveys." And again 

at Ferrieres-sur-Ariege, where work started late in 1980, six months before the 
investigation was completed. Better still, in Brassac on the Tarn River, 

work was completed while the investigation was still in progress-a very slow 
progress, we must say--, while at Eygliers a structure on the Guil, a tributary 
of the Durance River, was placed in service before it had even been declared of 
public usefulness. 

"It is to be wished that the Ministry of Environment would express its opposi- 
tion to these practices (often covered up by the Ministry of Industry) which 
call its credibility, and especially that of the public investigation procedure, 
into question,” a ministry official estimated in a memorandum addressed to 
Michel Crepeau. Rather than denouncing EDF, Michel Crepeau has chosen to 

obtain from it a promise that it would not do it again... 


CSO: 5000/2157 



Athens ELEVTHEROTYPIA in Greek 2 Jul 82 p 14 

[Text] Yesterday, ten scientists who recently left PAKOE [extension not available] 
announced the formation of an idependent agency for the protection of the environment 
"free of any party connections and without any dependence on the government.” 

They once more accused the president of the center, Mr. P. Khristodoulakis that: 
"He alters by inflating the smog data resulting from the measurings when he makes them 

At a press conference held yesterday noon, scientist, Mr. Thymios Dimoulas, Mrs. 
Dimitra Elevtheratou, Mrs. Eirini Vasilaki, Mr. Nikiforos Tsaroukhos, Mrs. Eleni 
Tzitzilaki, and Mr. Faidon Khatziandoniou, with proxies from Mr. V. Giannakopoulos, 
[. Papadopoulos and N. Koskyras stated that: 

PAKOE has become an opportunistic, profit-oriented, business which under the guise 
of environmental protection would unhesitatingly cooperate with anyone in order to 
profit financially. 

[ts president, Mr. Khristodoulakis, PAKOE's only current member, manager and trea- 
surer(!), alters the extent of pollution in order to create sensationalism in public 


The scientists said that the subject of the environment today interests every citizen 
because it has become an inseparable element in his every day life. 

They added that: 

Their agency will be of public benefit and will be structured on similar model centers 

[he majority of those present at the press conference have studied at European and 
American universities and are familiar with the operation of these centers abroad. 

Democratic dialog will dominate in the agency in dealing with problems. The parti- 
cipation of the scientists is free and, during the first phase, more than 100 scientists 
of various specializations will coopearte in all of Greece. 

They reported that they have asked the responsible officials to transfer the PAKOE 
laboratories to a public service institution in order to be able to use them themselves. 

"The property of PAKOE,"” they said, “was obtained with the work of many anonymous 
individuals who were interested in the environment. It is no one's exclusive pro- 

CSO: 5000/5335 



Athens ELEVTHEROS KOSMOS in Greek 24 Jun 82 p 8 
(Editorial: “The pollution of Saronikos”] 

[Text] If all the reasons which caused in the past, and continue to cause today, 

the pollution of the Saronikos Gulf were hopeless, the solution of the problem would 
have been difficult in any case if not impossible. Because, however, as ascertained 
by the sanitary control commission, the basic reasons for pollution of the coastal 
regions of Attiki in general include the outlets of drainage conduits of wastee and 
the laying up of ves:.els, the public is demanding to know the reasons that prevent 

the elimination of these causes, certainly not hopeless, at least in the two cases 
mentioned. It is possible to stop the drainage of polluted wastes into the sea. And 
the coastal areas which are used for swimming by the inhabitants of the Athens basin 
can very well be forbidden as ships’ anchorages. Instead, then, of the recent decision 
of the authorities of the Attikis Nome to designate certain coastal areas, Varkiza, 
Neon Faliron, Pakhi, Elevsina and parts of Vouliagmeni, Kavouri, and Lagonisi among 
them, as polluted and unfit for swimming, it would make better sense if the ministries 
responsible dealt with the source of the problem. We do not believe that it would be 
very difficult for the Ministry of the Merchant Marine specifically, to prohibit 

the laying up of ships in certain areas so that they will remain free for use by 
bathers. The harried Athenians are in need of seashore swimming areas and not of 
decisions by means of which they are notified that they are condemned to remain 

in the smog-covered capital even during the summer. 

CSO: 5000/5335 END