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JPRS 82958 

28 February 1983 

China Report 

No. 250 



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JPRS 82958 

28 February 1983 


No, 250 




Year-End Rural Income Distributions Reviewed 
(NONGCUN GONGZUO TONGXUN, 5 Nov 82)...... cece ccccccccccess 1 

State Council Promulgates Plant Quarantine Regulations 
CREMMA, 12 Fam G3). ccccccccccccccccssccccccccccescccccoce 6 

Responsibility System Seen as Embodiment of Unity of 

(Lin Zili; WENHUI BAO, 29 Oct 82).......cccccccecccccceces 7 

Pearl River Delta Commodity Grain Base Prospects Explored 
(Wu Youwen; NONGYE BUJU YU QUHUA, Mar 82)............0.. 19 


Cropping Problems in Building Huaibei Grain Base Examined 
(Gao Benhua; NONGYE BUJU YU QUHUA, Mar 82)..........200. 28 

Crop Pattems Matched to Climate in Hexi Corridor 

(Zheng Baoxi, Quan Dengqing; NONGYE BUJU YU QUHUA, 
Mar 2) .ccccccccccccccccccccccccccccsccccccccecscccccece 40 


Xuzhou Prefecture ‘'ackles Problems in Buying, Selling 
(XINHUA RIBAO, 26 Oct 82)... ccc ceccceccccccccccccescees 46 

-a- [III - CC - 82] 


Nantong Prefecture Focuses on Prevention of Cotton Diseases 
(XINHUA RIBAO, 28 Oct 2) e*eestereee*es#see#s#seer#ee#e#ee eeere 48 


Nation's First Agricultural'Science Research Center Established 
(WENHUI BAO, 16 Oct 82)......... TOUTE riTrrrrerrry secceee 50 


Four Proposals To Speed Up Soybean Production Viewed 
(DAZHONG RIBAO, 17 Cet 82)....ccccccccccccccccccccees occcce DD 


Better Financial Management of Contract Househalds Required 
(Zhang Xieyu; NONGYE JINGJI WENTI, 23 Oct 82)...........2-. 57 



TURANG XUEBAO [ACTA PEDOLOGICA SINICA], No 4, Nov 82..........4.. 71 



20 Jun — FFP PTET PTET T ETT PTETUTrreesererersreeseurreersereesrirrreere 




Chinese No 11, 5 Nov 82 pp 32-33 

{Article by National Agricultural Collective Economic Adminis- 
tration Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and 
Fishery: "Conscientiously and Carefully Carry Out Year-end Income 
Distribution Work" ] 

[Text] Right now the broad masses of rural cadres and people are 
Studying and carrying into effect the spirit of the 12th Party 
Central Committee to usher ina new work situation. This is 
extremely beneficial for performance of year-end distributions 
work. This year, thanks to the establishment in rural villages 
throughout the country of various forms of production responsib- 
ility systems, particularly the predomination of responsibility 
systems in which complete responsibility for tasks is assigned 
individual households, the enthusiasm of the masses has been 
Stirred. Despite fairly serious disasters in some places, the 
country's agriculture as a whole has made substantial increases 
in both output and earnings. This hrs laid a fine material 
foundation for carrying out the work of distributing earnings. 
This year's distribution work faces multiple forms of respon- 
Sibility systems, diverse ways of calculating compensation, 
multiple accounting systems, varied contracts, and different 
provisions for rewards and penalties. This requires that we 
proceed from realities and be particularly careful in doing the 
work. Additionally, in some newly instituted responsibility 
systems in which full responsibility for work completion is 
assignedto individual households, and in newly separated 
production teams, the amount of work involved in distributing 
earnings will be greater this year because financial systems and 
distributions have yet to be completed or perfected, and 
workpoints, property, debts, and credits have not yet been well 
sorted out. All jurisdictions should take full account of these 
new circumstances, strengthen leadership, gain full under- 
Standing of policies, and handle properly the interests of the 
country, collectives, and individuals. This relates to the larger 
issues of further consolidation and perfection of agricultural 

production responsibility systems, to the bringing into full play 
of peasant enthusiasm for socialism, and to work initiative among 

all rural villages next year. 

Verification of output, earnings and expenditures is a prerequis- 
ite to year-end income distribution. Commune and brigade cadres 
must get over their fear of difficulties, eliminate obstacles, 
and adhere to the principle of seeking truth in facts in a real 
Shouldering of responsibilities. Production teams practicing the 
assignment of full responsibility for task completion to individ- 
ual households should use onthespnot checking ofotput, cen- 
trally administered harvesting, weighing of threshed grain house- 
hold by household, and figuring on the basis of representative 
Samplings to arrive at output, earnings, and expenditure figures. 
They must distinguish collective output, earnings, and expendi- 
tures from the output, earnings, and expenditures of individual 
commune member farming. The collective's output, earnings, and 
expenditures are to include the products, earnings, and expendi- 
tures resulting from the growing of cash crops on land that the 
collective contracted out to commune members. Yields in excess of 
contracted amounts, and resulting additional earnings are not to 
be left out. Figuring of the price of commune member grain 
rations should be done on the basis of State Council Office 
document No 57 (82) titled, "Notice on Instructions Pertaining to 
Settlement in Terms of Centralized Procurement List Prices of 
Rural Commune and Brigade Distributed Grain." Except for indi- 
vidual provinces and regions in which the local situation re- 
quires maintenance of the status quo for the time being, "begin- 
ning this year, the price of grain distributed by collectives as 
well as of all grain withheld by collectives is to be settled on 
the basis of prevailing state centralized procurement list 


The honoring of contract agreements is a key link in good distri- 
bution of income. At the time of yearend income distribution, 
both parties are to abide by and live up to the contract agree- 
ments signed between production teams and contracting units 
(households, individual workers, or teams). All rewards must be 
issued, and all penalties levied in order to gain popular confi- 
dence. In cases in which contract provisions are not completely 
fair, experiences should be summarized and the following year 
awaited to make changes. When insurmountable natural disasters 
occur as a result of which a majority of commune members are 
unable to fulfill their contracted production tasks, following 
verification of the disaster situation by departments concerned, 
realities should serve as a point of departure for revision of 
contract production quotas and a readjustment of tasks in accor- 
dance with national policy provisions. Amendment of contracts 
should be done in accordance with party policies, so that house- 

nolds (individual workers, or teams) tnat actively fougnt the 
disasters with an investment of labor and funds will be assured a 
residue of output and their expenditures compensated, and so that 
nousenolds (individual workers, or teams) that did not actively 
fignt disasters will be penalized. This way of doing things will 
nelp to stir future enthusiasm among the masses to fight against 
disasters and reap bumper harvests. In all cases in which human 
action has resulted in reduced yields, settlement is to be done 
on the basis of the original contracts no matter the size of 
reduced yield. If, after painstaking ideological education, "hard 
to deal with households" and "cunning households" persist in not 
honoring contract agreements, they should be severely dealt with 
on a case by case basis. Production teams may take back from 
them a portion or all of the fields for which they are respons- 
ible and, where circumstarzes are serious and an odious situa- 
tion has been created, matters should be handled in accordance 
With law. Where contract provisions as originally set are not 
clear or precise, leading to disputes, cadres should meaiate at 
once. After yearend distribution work has cvummenced, communes 
and brigades should organize forces to help Some production teams 
clear up tag ends of Summer contracts so that contracts will be 
fully honored for the year as a whole. 

Accurate handling of the interests of the country, the collective 
and individuals is a principle of distribution work that must be 
respected. In production teams practicing full assignment of 
responsibility for task completion to individual households, the 
contracting households must strictly carry out provisions of 
agreements. They must promptly turn over grain, cotton, and oil 
to the state in fulfillment of quotas, and turn over withholdings 
to collectives to achieve a genuine, "tendering to the country, 
Withholding of sufficient by the collective, everything remaining 
being one's own." In planning use of collective withholdings, 

generally a certain amount of accumulation funds should be used 
for agricultural capital construction and for development of 
agricultural sideline production under central administration of 
the collective. Production teams practicing centralized farming 
and centralized distribution should, first of all, pay agricultu- 
ral taxes as policies provide, and should fulfill state procure- 
ment, assirned procurement, and excess procurement quotas for 
agricultural products. Where conditions permit, production teams 
Shouldstrive to make a greater contribution to the country. The 
amount of collective withholdings should be realistic. All 
production teams with increased output increased earnings are to 
insure that commune member income is higher than in previous 
years. No matter the form of responsibility system practiced, all 
loans are to be repaid the state. Production teams practicing 
assignment of sole responsibility for task completion to individ- 
ual households may not "blow away" loans owing the state simply 

because of readjustments in production relationships. Monies 
received from commune members for the turnover to them of draft 
animals and farm implements, as well as depreciation fees on 
collectively owned property turned over to commune members for 
longterm use should be deposited with accumulation funds and 
depreciation funds.Production expenses advanced by collectives are 
to be repaid in full by commune members (individual workers, or 
teams); such funds may not be apportioned or diverted to cther 
used. In cases where improper methods have ben "sed to divide up 
State relief funds, collective accumulations, éad various kinds 
of loans, education through criticism is to be done and matters 
resolutely r ‘ted. In some places today, problems have come 
about in whict "both ends are full and the middle is empty," 
collective withholdings being a difficult problem. In most cases 
this 18 a problem related to poor performance. Some commune 
members have *he right idea when they say, "Never m d the large 
withholdings; worry about having no where to turn, or "because 
Withholdings were used properly in the past; today not a cent is 
owed." Consequently, in the course of yearend distributions of 
income, accounts should be figured accurately and an accounting 
published, and explanations should be given the masses as to just 
how collective withholdings were used during the previous several 
years. In this way the masses will have a genuine appreciation 
of the necessity for withholdings, and that they are related to 
their personal welfare, thereby actively fulfilling their task 
of turning over withholdings to the collective. 

Proper arrangements are to be made to pay for labor by production 
brigade and production team cadres and personnel in all trades. 
Following institution of multiple forms of production responsi- 
bility systems, the principle to be used in handling problems of 
subsidies and bonuses to production team cadres should be arousal 
of the enthusiasm of both cadres and the masses alike and 
increasing cadre unity. Where cadre personal responsibility 
Systems have been established and subsidization methods put into 
practice, methods already agreed upon should generally be 
honored. In cases in which subsidies and bonuses have been set 
too high,imposing too much of a burden for commune members, equit- 
able readjustments should be made through mass discussion and 
consultation with cadres. Where no clear provisions have been 
made, discussions should be conducted at once to make them. Com- 
pensation to teachers in civilianoperated schools and for "bare- 
foot doctors" should be decided fairly on the basis of policies. 
Payment and tonuses to persons engaged in farming, forestry, 
animal husbandry, sideline occupations, and the fishing industry 
should, insofar as possible, be generally equal, differences 
recognized, and more paid for more work. 

Party and government policies relating to special care to 

disabled servicemen, and to family members of revolutionary 
martyrs and servicemen are to be implemented. No matter the form 
of production responsibility system, special treatment is to be 
accorded to the families of martyrs and servicemen, and to the 
households enjoying the five guarantees [childless and infirm old 
persons who are guaranteed food, clothing, medical care, housing, 
and burial expenses by the people's communes]. This 18S a 
concrete embodiment of the superiority of the socialist 

system. It 18 also a new practice among China's peasantry that 
must be adnered to. When problems appear, they should be solved 


In conjunction with yearend distributions, all jurisdictions 
should conscientiously check on the situation in implementation 
of Central Committee Document No 55 (79), and State Council 
Document No 162 (81). They should place great emphasis on the 
recovery from commune members of overpayments, and particularly 
on the recovery of sums owing by other units in an effort to 
recover more. When due dates have passed and no repayment made, 
they should proceed in accordance with State Ccuncil Document No 
162 (81) to obtain repayment at stipulated interest rates to 
compensate the production team's losses. This work must be 
carried out under the personal direction of CPC committees and 
governments at all levels, cadres taking the lead in getting 

repayments. - 

This year's year-end jncome distribution work has wide ramifica- 
tions, is very much related to policies, and entails much work. 
It is hoped that leaders at all levels, particularly county and 
commune ieaders and vocational departments in charge, will 
genuinely intensify investigation and study, will Summarize ex- 
periences, and will give tailored guidance. They should devote 
Strict attention to the training of perscnnel,and 
to checking workpoint, property, and cash accounts in prv.paration 
for income distribution. They should use yearend distribution 
for a conscientious summarization and survey of the year's work, 
for further improvement in agricultural production responsibility 
Systems, and to set the stage for achieving a bumper harvest in 

agriculture next year. 




OW141211 Beijing XINHUA Domestic Service in Chinese 0721 GMT 11 Jan 83 

[Text] Beijing, 11 Jan (XINHUA)--In an effort to prevent the spread of 
dangerous diseases, insects and weeds harmful to plants and to ensure 
safety in agricultural and forest production, the State Council promulgated 

the “Plant Quarantine Regulations” on 3 January and asked all provincial, 
municipal and regional people's governments and ministries, commissions 

and departments under the State Council to observe and enforce it. 

The 20-article regulations contain provisions on the objects of quarantine, 
quarantine institutions, the designation of quarantine and protection areas, 
the quarantine of transported plants and plant products and actions to be 
taken against violations of the quarantine regulations. 

The regulations say: Any kind of disease, insect or weeds occurring in a 
locality that is highly dangerous and can spread through plants and plant 
products should be the object of plant quarantine. A local area with 

plants under quarantine should be designated as a quarantine area to pre- 
vent the removal of quarantire objects from that area. When the quarantine 

area is large or when there are several areas under quarantine, areas where 
disease, insects or weeds have not occurred should be designated as protec- 
tion areas to prevent: the introduction of quarantine objects into those 

In its provisions concerning the quarantine of transported plants and plant 

products, the regulations emphatically stipulate: All kinds of seeas, 
nursery stock and other propagation materials must be quarantined before 

their transportation, regardless of whether they are on the list of quaran- 
tine plants and plant products or where they are to be transported. 

The regulations stipulate: Seeds, nursery stock and other propagation 
materials that are introduced from abroad and may have hidden diseases or 
insects should be planted in isolation on a trial basis. They may be taken 
to other areas for planting after it is proven that they do not carry any 
dangerous disease or insects. 

The regulations say: People who violate these regulations should be criti- 
cized and educated or given administrative discipline. People who cause 
losses as a result of their violations should be asked to compensate for 
the losses in consideration of the specific circumstances. People who 
violate the criminal code should be subjected to criminal proceedings. 

CSO; 5400/4125 


Shanghai WENHUI BAO in Chinese 29 Oct 82 p 3 

(Article by Lin Zili [2651 1311 0500]: "New Forms in China's 
Rural Socialist Cooperative Economy" 

[Text] Editor's Note: This is a fine article 
that explains the rural economic responsibility 
System. Though somewhat long, it makes good 
reading. The writer did a lot of investigation 
and research, and linked theory to practice in 
analyzing the existing and developing objective 
basis in China for agricultural contract respon- 
Sibility systems linked to output. The article 
points out that in the socialization of 
“agriculture there is no set offixed models, and 
that the contract responsibility systems linked 
to output that the broad masses of peasants in 
China have created through practice since the 
Third Plenary Session are new forms of a social- 
list agricultural cooperative economy that have 
demonstrated immense vitality in real life. We 
particularly commend this article to the reader- 


The hammering into shape by experience of contract responsibility 
Systems linked to output has brought them gradually to maturity, 
and put them on the path of steady development to make them a new 
form in the country's rural socialist cooperative economy of 
collective ownership. Their huge success has written an impor- 
tant chapter for the victory of the line of the Third Plenary 
Session of the 1lith Party Central Committee. In his report to 
the i2th Party Congress, Comrade Hu Yaobang reaffirmed and 
explained them in the following way: "The establishment in rural 
villages during the past several years of multiple forms of pro- 
duction responsibility systems has further emancipated 

productivity, and this must be maintained for a long period of 
time. They may be gradually improved only on the basis of a 
Summarization of the practical experiences of the masses. They 
may not be changed rashly in contravention of the desires of the 

masses, much léss can there be any backtracking." 

Tne significance of explicitly noting tnat there can be no back- 
tracking 1s extraordinarily important. This is because right up 
until the present time some people's doubts about the future 
prospects for contracting linked to output have not been 
completely eliminated. As a result of their former perceptions 
and conceptions, a substantial number of comrades nave continued 
to feel that though contracting linked to output was necessary; 
Still, it could be only a stopgap measure. They regaraed it as a 
scheme that could not likely long endure much less be linked to 
the path of socialist agriculture. Consequently the backtracking 
issue had yet to be completely resolved in fact. 

Further solution of this matter requires clarification of the 
historical necessity for contracting linked to output in the 
flourishing development of China's rural villages, and its 
essential nature as a new form in China's socialist agricultural 

cooperative economy. 

Need to Understand Two Major Characteristics of China's Agricul- 

The rise and rapid development of the contract responsibdility 
System linked to output has been by no means accidental. One 
might say that it was inevitable. The basis for its existence and 
development is contained in the realities and the history of Chi- 
nese society. It differs from those rules and methods that rely 
on a definite structural form and are brought in from outside. It 
has grown out of the practice of 800 million peasants, and it has 
been summoned forth by the destiny of China's people. 

Agricultural cooperativization transformed the individual economy 
of China's farflung rural villages into a socialist collective 
economy. This was of great historical signi‘icance. Following 
cooperativization, China's collective economy used the collective 
rural village system to a fairly large extent, principally in the 
following ways: (1) collective labor, and (2) "workdays," i.e., 
the workpoint system. Right after establishment of the collec- 
tive economy,it was very natural to use such a system in view of 
the lack of experience. But with time, in the minds of the 
people it seemed to become a fixed model for sociulist agricul- 
ture. Subsequently, though various readjustments were made, no 
fundamental changes took place at all in the collective labor 
and the workdays systems. The merits and demerits, acvantages and 
disadvantages of the practice of such a specific economic form in 
other countries will not be evaluated here. However, it certainly 
did not fit in with China's circumstances, and it was not suited 
to China's agricultural situation. 

Tne key to analysis of China's agricultural situation lies in 
understanding its two important characteristics. Let us first 
look at its first important characteristic. Over a fairly wide 
region, including certain areas in Some provinces or even in 
numerous provinces such as in Guizhou Province or in Chuxian Pre- 
fecture in Anhui Province, which we recently surveyed, generally 
Speaking there has been, first of all, very little socialization 
of production tools and equipment. Mostly plow oxen and hand 
tools are relied upon. In a Small number of places having mech- 
anized equipment, the equipment is mostly small in size (as,for 
example, hand tractors), and usually it is not part of a coherent 
system, being useable only in certain operations. Furthermore, 
the basic structure of all rural villages , including 
transportation and communications, is even weaker. The way in 
Which roads, bridges, transportation vehicles, electric power 
grids, and communications are built and equipped is rather back- 
ward, and far from forming a transportation and conduction 
System that extends everywhere. Secondly, division of labor is 
very much undeveloped,and this is of significance on two levels. 
First is a single kind of economy, mostly the farming industry, 
with other things such as the breeding industry or the animal 
husbandry industry being substantially household sideline occu- 

pations. In few cases have they spun off to become a separate 
form of production. Next, within the farming industry, the entire 
agricultural process has been little divided up into various 
production stages or vocational links for which individual 

producers are specifically responsibile. For example, in 
breeding, plowing, sowing, harvesting, and plant protection, 
links which could become specialized in view of progress that has 
been made with tools and techniques, specialization is rarely 
seen. Third, producers lack cultural and scientific knowledge, 
and organization and management skills. [Illiteracy is still con- 
Siderable among the peasants, and scientific illiteracy is even 
greater. New style peasants with an understanding of how to use 
advanced agricultural machinery and other production elements, 
and mastery of scientific farming and growing methods are in the 
minority. In planning production and organizing personnel, 
cadres frequently only "guess" on the basis of their experience. 
In culturally backward places, sometimes it is hard to find 

people qualified even to do the minimum amount of production 
planning or figuring of costs. Fourth, agriculture is 
characterized by the need for workers to care for whatever is 
being grown throughout the entire production process, care 
measures being adjusted on the basis of growth, reproduction, and 
natural conditions. In China, this is particularly the case. 
Since land is scant relative to population in most places, since 
cultivated land is limited and soil quality poor, and since the 
2nvironment is nasty in many cases, farming has to be done in- 
tensivelyin China, and every effort made to increase yields per 

unit of area. Thus, the care that laborers must give the object 
of their labors, as well as the independent decisions they must 
make on the basis of different circumstances, 1s of even greater 
Significance in China than elsewhere. 

Adoption of cooperative labors methods tomeet the situation 
described above is not enough. Both grassroots level cadres 
and the masses of commune members know very well that individual 
family use of plow oxen and medium and small farm implements is 
required for decentralized, independent use, and that if it is 
insisted that these things be concentrated "in a large pile," 
that easily leads to poor feeding of animals or care of equipment 
for a decline in results obtained from using them. It results, 
as well, in a certain amount of inconvenience and waste. Inasmuch 
as division of labor is not very well developed, the need to 
establish cooperation on a foundation of division of labor is 
also very si ~ht, If one is determined to practice cooperative 
labor, it wii. have to be only simple cooperation. Though 
classical writers have spoken of simple cooperation also being 
superior in some ways to working independently, they are talking 
about specific circumstances. Such circumstances also exist in 
China's agricultural production. By rush harvesting and rush 
planting, individual households can finish tasks on time with 
some difficulty. However, generally all that is necessary is a 
temporary mutual exchange of labor to solve problems; year-round 
Simple cooperation is not required under most circumstances. Sim- 
ple cooperation is different in nature than cooperation on a 
foundation of division of labor.It has existed for a long time in 
history, and it has not demonstrated any new productivity, nor 
does it a modern production method. This kind of cooperation 
concentrates peasants every day and provides no means whereby 
independent action can be taken on the basis of either the work 
that is being done or changes in the weather. All power of 
decision is frequently in the hands of a small number of cadres. 
When cadre organization and management skills are everywhere not 
high or even very low, it is hard to avoid "misguided direction," 
and "much thrashing around." 

However, to come to the conclusion that China's rural villages 
must practice an individual economy is completely wrong. That is 
because the aforementioned circumstances represent only one 
major character of China's agriculture. There is also another 
major character, and that is as follows: 

First, China's agriculture is a macrocosmic backdrop to the 
entire large national economic system. In urban industry, modern 
equipment already exists on a fairly large scale and in 
Substantial amounts; both scientific techniques and organization 
tion and management have reached a certain level; and cooperation 


on the basis of a division of labor is a socialized form of 
production. It must depend on agriculture for the supply of 
large quantities of grain and many raw materials, and it must 
establish close economic links with agriculture. This means that 
the state must exercise conscious and planned control not only 
over industry, but over agricultural production as well. Such 
close economic links and conscious control of production is, how- 
ever, very difficult without the coordination of workers and 
cooperative economic organization. 

Second, placement of the development of productivity in a fairly 
low stage is figured from the total situation. This is not to re- 
fute the facts given below. After 30 years of construction, 
China's rural villages possess some advanced production 
techniques as well aS some persons skilled in techniques and 
management. Of course, they are not evenly distributed, and in 
places where levels are ordinary or backward, frequently they are 
somewhat scant to non-existent. However, in prosperous areas, it 
they are fairly easy to find. An example is on the Chiang Jiang- 
Han Jiang Plain in Hubei Province, which we recently surveyed. 
There the rural drainage and irrigation system is complete and 
large farm machines are also fairly numerous; the division of 
labor has developed to a certain degree, and outside of the 
farming industry,the breeding industry and some handicraft indus- 
tries are operated not only as household Sideline occupations 
but also gradually becoming independent industries in their 

own right. Within the farming industry, among production links 
Such as water management, breeding, machine plowing and sowing, 
and plant protection, a trend toward specialization has also 
begun to appear. The spread of cultural knowledge and grassroots 
cadre administration and management skills have also reached a 
certain level. Thus, it has been necessary for collectives to 
institute centralized organization of cooperation on the basis of 
the specialization and division of labor in various production 
links. In addition, some cadres have been readied to undertake 

these functions. 

Third, not only does China's agriculture rely on intensive 
farming and flexible measures for dealing with situations, but 
China's geographic position, its climate, and the history of its 
development going back thousands of years have resulted in 
China's agriculture being an irrigated agriculture over a consid- 
erable area. In many areas water conservancy is the life blood 
in the fight against frequently occurring drought, waterlogging, 
hail, wind, and insect pest disasters, and is crucial to the 
prevention of insect pets and diseases. This has meant a sub- 
stantial job of farmland water conservancy capital construction 
for man-made improvement of production conditions, and it has 
required centralization in the use of certain production elements 


for daily production, and centralized planning for certain pro- 
duction links, as for example the use of water and plant protec- 
tion for which there is no alternative but centralization. The 
centralization of water use requires, in turn, centralized plan- 
ning of crop varieties to be planted, and so on. 

In a nutshell, the two major characteristics of China's agricul- 
turehave led to objective requirements of two kinds. One has 
been decentralized and independent work by individual peasant 
households, and the other has ben state and collective control 
and coordination of the production process. The division of 
fields for individual farming and taking the road of an indivi- 
dual economy leads nowhere, of course. However, the rejection of 
decentralized, individual work, and sole use of concentration 
and centralization methods likewise does not fit in with China's 


A form of distribution corresponding to the concentration of 
labor is the workday and the workpoint system. Many years of 
practice have shown this system to produce poor results. No matter 
the kind of workpoints, "fixed workpoints," "a set amount of work 
points to be arrived at through evaluation of work done," "fixed 

workpoint quotas," or "Dazhai workpoints," none have worked very 
successfully. Fundamentally workdays or workpoints are for the 
purpose of evening out the work people do of different kinds, of 
different quality, and of different degrees of complexity and 
familiarity, turning it ito a sort of abstract work that can be 
mutually compared, i.e., an abstraction that not only includes 
different kinds and different quality of work, but that also 
includes work under different material production conditions, 

with the use of an ideal thing that can express it quantitative- 
ly, namely money. The reason money is able to serve as a yard- 
stick of value is that it is a valuable thing in itself, just as 

a yardstick is able to measure length because it possesses length 
itself. But workdays or workpoints can measure only the length 
of work time; they cannot express the actual amount of work 
provided, and they are particularly unable to express work qual- 
ity. Since they have never been able to function as yardsticks 
but have served only as "chips,"for comparative measurements of 
work, some other method is necessary. For a long period of time, 
the comparative measurement of work of different kinds and 
different quality in agriculture has been done in various ways. 
For example, one way has been to to measure the amount of work a 
laborer can do (including conversion of quality to quantity) on 
the basis of his determined work capacity. Generally speaking, 
work capacity is figured on the basis of competence to do a 

certain kind of work. However, inasmuch as China's agriculture 
today consists principally of farming with very little division 
of labor, virtually every laborer can do every kind of farm work. 


Since few kinds of work are specialized, figuring a person's work 
capacity has ben simplified in terms of physical strength. It has 
even been Simplified in terms of male workers, female workers, 
fully ablebodied workers, and semi-ablebodied workers. The way 
of arriving at "fixed workpoints" in many places has been the so- 
called "10 for men, eight for women, and seven for girls," or some 
Similar method. Furthermore, work capacity is not the same thing 
as the actual amount of work done; as a result many places 
practiced "a set amount of workpoints to be arrived at through 
evaluation of work done." However, practice has shown that 
"evaluation" is difficult to do. Evaluation of work to record 
workpoints often produced all sorts of conflicts, and numerous 
people even felt fed up with this method. Yet another method wus 
was to set an average quota of workpoints for each kind of work, 
the actual amount of work being judged according to whether the 
work wasS completed, or completed under or in excess of quota. 
However, since China's agriculture today is substantially hand 
labor, and particularly since work conditions in agriculture are 
complex and ever changing in nature, equitable formulation of set 
quotas is difficult. For example, whether one plows the same 
land with a strong ox or a weak ox makes a great deal of 
difference. Using the same ox to plow different pieces of land, 
or plowing the same land after it has rained or when it is dry 
also makes a great deal of difference. So in formulating fixed 
workpoint quotas, there were numerous and endless 
considerations, which made the task extremely exasperating and 
complex. The peasants could not easily understand it, and since 
it is difficvlt to inspect farm work quality, even when workpoint 
Quotas are equitable, the "fixed quota workpoints" system did 
not readily produce good results. Furthermore, since workpoints 
or workdays were only chips, when a peasant worked all he knew was 
how many workpoints he had; he did not know the actual value of 
the workpoints. As a result, when final settlement was made at 
the end of the year, any waste that had taken place in 
production, or excess amounts taken away by some cadres would be 
deducted from the value of a workday. This seriously impaired 
peasant enthusiasm for production and caused a lack of internal 
dynamism within China's agricultural production for a long period 

of time. 

As regards concentration to carry out cooperative labor, as was 
Said in the foregoing, under present circumstances, most cooper- 
ation in China's rural villages today is simple cooperation. 
According to Marxist theory, independent working, simple 

cooperation, and cooperative division of labor, etc are all forms 
of labor. Simple cooperation has existed for a long time his- 
toricaly, and is not a characteristic of socialist social labor 
forms, nor can it take the place of socialist production rela- 
tionships. Similarly, workpoints and workdays as a tool for 


measurement cannot take the place of socialist distribution 
forms; at least they are not a sole method for realization of 
distribution according to work. Consequently, to use a system of 
concentration of labor and workdays as a fixed model in socialist 
agriculture is a very great mistake. 

The Nuclear "Contracting" in the Contract System Linked to Output 
is a Composite of Decentralization and Centralization 

Socialist production relationships do not exist in a fixed mould. 
The system of concentration of labor and of workdays have been 
shown in practice to be unsuited to China's agricultural circum- 
Stances; thus new forms must be created to take their place. 
A responsibility systems in which contracting is linked to output 
is a new form in the socialist agricultural cooperative economy 

that has been created in practice by the broad masses of pea- 
Sants. This form happily meets both requirements for 
decentralized independent labor, and centralized state and col- 
lective control over the production process, i.e., as is 

frequently said, it is both "decentralized" and "centralized." 
"Contracting," which is the nucleus of the contracting system 
linked to output, is a composite of decentralization and central- 
ization; it links both decentralization and centralization very 


"Decentralization" includes individual worker or household contr- 
acting of the farming of land. Ingeneral plow oxen and farm 
implements are turned over to individuals for their use, and day- 
to-day production tasks are carried out in a decentralized way, 
etc. This is the aspect of the contract system linked to output 
that is most readily observable, and it is also the one that 
differs most widely from the former collective economic model. 
As a result of the practice of "decentralization," the former set 
rules of concentrated labor were smashed, and along with them the 
specified conditions of "much thrashing around," and "misguided 
direction" they engendered also disappeared. Peasants could plan 
their day-to-day production as their numbers, their skills, and 
their customary practice dictated; they could independently take 
action to meet changing circumstances; and they could free them- 
selves from apprehensions about things that required expenditure 
of much effort from which results were hard to see, and devote 
themselves to working with great enthusiasm. A single "decen- 
tralization loosened the peasants' hands and feet that had 
formerly been bound too tightly, and gave vigorous impetus to the 
enlivening and development of the rural economy. 

A "centralization" corresponding to the "decentralization" is also 

an inseparable part of the contracting system linked to output. 
Though frequently not as noticeable as the "decentralization," its 


actual existence and role it exercises are objective and lively, 
and also very much measurable. Generally speaking, "central- 
ization" has two implications. Control over the production 
process is the first major implication of centralization; every- 
thing contracted has to to be centralized in this way. In accor- 
dance with state purchase quotas and various needs of collec- 
tives, when cooperative economic organizations sign agreements 
With contracting peasant households, the contractor must produce 
a stipulated farm product to satisfy the terms of the agreement. 
In so doing, each individual working peasant's decentralized 
production process comes under collective control in fact, and 
thereby is controlled by state plan. The centralized use of 
certain production elements, or centralized arrangements for 
certain production links is the second major implication of 
centralization. There is a popular term about large scale 
assignment of resposibilities being "centralized in several 
ways," the several ways of centralization referring to this 
implication of centralization. Inasmuch as any large scale as- 
Signment of responsibilities will be centralized, or else it will 
not be large scale assignment of responsibilities, several 
centralizations are piled on top of the large scale 
assignment of responsibilities. The purpose of this is to empha- 
Size that in addition to growing certain things in certain 
amounts, with withholdings and sales to the state all being 
regulated by contract agreements and restricted by the interests 
of the collective and the state, in the use of certain production 
elements and in arrangements about certain production links the 
collective exercises a greater function. Examples are centralized 
machine plowing, machine sowing, drainage and irrigation, propa- 
gation of seedlings, disease and insect pest prevention and 
control, and the breeding of new varieties, etc., centralized 
organization of investment when required, conducting agricultural 
capital construction, and coordination of the expansion of repro- 

duction links. 

In essence, even if only the first layer of centralization 
existed, the system would be different in character from the 
division of the fields for independent working. With institution 
of the second layer of centralization, the substantive economic 
position and function of the cooperative economic organization 
is doubtlessly even more apparent. Though decentralization of 
labor and independent working gives somewhat of a free hand; 
nevertheless, by adhering to centralization in this regard, 
control will not be lost over the economic activities of the 
masses of contracting peasant households, and implementation of 
both state and collective economic plans may be assured. 


Linking of the Calculation of Compensation to Output Is a Mani- 
festation in the Form of Distribution of the Unity of Decentrali- 

Zation and Centralization 

The unity of "decentralization" and "centralization" in the form 
of distributions is in the linking of the calculation of compen- 
Sation to output. Contracting is the premise on which the 
linkage to output is founded; without contracting, there can be 
no linkage to output. This is very clear. Without the decentra- 
lized use of material production conditions and working indepen- 
dently, it would be impossible to determine who produced the 
most products and who produced the least, and linking compensa- 
tion to output could not be done. At the same time, contracting 
must be linked to output. Without a link to output, there could 
be no contracting. This is also very clear. If material produc- 
tion conditions were used in a decentralized way and work done 
independently with output not being used as a basis for figuring 
compensation, but everyone continuing to eat out of a large 
common pot instead, contracting would have no real meaning. 
Therefore, the linking of the figuring of compensation to output 
is a necessary accompaniment to the contracting system to take 
the place of the workday system. 

The writer believes that the "linking of compensation to output" 
is a figu-ing of compensation on the basis of "standard output." 
Standard output is, in reality, the average amount of labor that 
must be expended to farm a contracted mu of land in a cooperative 
economy. Inasmuch as everybody is equal within a collectively 
owned cooperative economy in the quantity and quality of land 
they contract to farm under the contract system, , and since the 
amount of funds invested in the land is also largely equal, the 
effects of the land and of funds on output may be ruled out, and 
thus labor (which naturally includes administration) becomes the 
sole factor deciding output. Those this is not completely 
accurate inasmuch as the investment fund factor cannot actually 
be completely ruled out; nevertheless, in a collective economic 
Organization that extends credit and helps the poor, the amount 
of funds invested ( the amounts individually possessed) by each 
contractor, and particularly the amounts invested in a contract 
economy (the individual’ y operated economy outside the contract 
economy excluded) generilly corespond to the contracted acreage 
and are equal. Standard output differs from both workdays and 
workpoints. It is an objective vardstick in and of itself. It 
uses neither "evaluation" nor does it require labor quotas. All 
that is necessary is for contractors to compare their actual 
outputs with standard outputs Supposing two contracting 
households each contract for 10 mu of land of equal quality, and 
labor on it equally, namely for 500 man-days, but their actual 
output differs, the one being more than the standard output and 


the other being less than the standard output. This shows that 
the first one worked and managed better while the second one put 
in somewhat less effort. In addition to obtaining standard work 
compensation for standard output (minus collective withholdings 
and state agricultural taxes), the first one would also receive 
compensation for production in excess of the standard, i.e., 
excess labor compensation. The second one would not only not 
receive excess labor compensation, but would also nc: get 
compensation for standard labor. Each of the contractors 
compared his actual output with the standard output. Conversely, 
in terms of the cooperative economic organization, this meant use 
of a centrally formulated standard output for each contracted 
piece of land, and a centralized measuring of the work of each 
contractor as a basis for determining the contract income of each 
contractor. Therefore, a look at the situation shows that when 
large scale contracting of responsibilities is used as the model 
for directly relating calculation of compensation to outpu., that 
means that each peasant household will individually get the 
products from the land whose farming it contracted, and that 
after "completely satisfying state requirements and collective 
withholdings, all the remainder is its own" It appears that cen- 
tralized collective distribution does not exist. However, this 
Situation contains within it a standard output centrally 
formulated by the cooperative organization, and it also judges 
the amount of labors done by each contractor, which is centra- 
lized distribution in essence. This shows that any supposition 
that large scale contracting of responsibilities as a model for 
directly relating the calculation of compensation to output has 
eliminated centralized collective distributions, and that there 
is only "decentralization" but no "centralization" does not 
accord with the facts. The principle of the unity of "decentra- 
lization" and "centralization" permeates the entire production 
and distribution process in the cooperative economy of linking 

Output to contracting. 

To be sure, aS was said in the foregoing, the linking of output 
to calculation of compensation is founded on the equality of the 
land contracted for farming and the use of funds on it, but this 
equality is not absolute. Specifically, the effect of funds inves- 
ted on actual output and earnings cannot be discounted. 

Therefore the contract earnings of each contractor contains a 
little something that is not the result of his labors, which is 
the material production situation factor. However, in modern 
socialist practice, distribution according to labor cannot be 
pure and precise. Its realization cannot be total and complete, 
but only approximate. This is true of the wage system in the 
State farm economy, and the linking of compensation to output in 
the collectively owned cooperative economy must also be this 

way. It may be stated with certainty,however, that as compared 


~ith the system of distribution according to workpoints and 
workdays, calculation of compensation according to standard 
output is much closer to distribution according to work, 

Completion of the great cooperativization of agriculture lies 
more than 20 years in the future. During the same not incon- 
Siderable period of time in the past, China's socialist agri- 
culture went through many twists and turns, finally entering the 
new stage of an agricultural socialist cooperative economy domi- 
nated by contracting linked to output. Much may be said about 
the substance, characteristics, and the different methods used 

in the contract system linked to output. It is truly also an 
extremely rich and moving economic experience requiring analysis 
and portrayal from all sides and at all levels. However, when 
all is said and done, the heart and soul of the contracting 
System linked to output is the unity of decentralization and 
centralization. Perhaps when looked at in a gross way this is 
nothing remarkable; but it is just this sort of new form that 

has never been "known" before and that has struck deep roots in 
China's farflung rural villages that has splendidly undergone the 
hammering and cleansing of practice to become mature day by day. 
Naturally, its linking to specific times, methods, and measures 
cannot yet be considered complete. However, as a general basic 
principle, its significance is great and far reaching. It has 
played an irreplaceable role in bringing about a new situation in 
the rural economy in recent years. One may be confident that 
with the development and expansion of this aforestated situation, 
the new situation in China's cooperative economy of socialist 
collective ownership will show itself more and more and gain 

further recognition by history. 





ZONING] in Chinese Mar 82 

{Article by Wu Youwen (0702 6735 2429], Geography Department, 
South China Teachers Training College: "Exploration of the Builc- 
ing of a Pearl River Delta Commodity Grain Base (Excerpts)"] 

{Text] 1. Bases and Criteria For Building Commodity Grain Bases 

By so-called "commodity grain bases" is meant grain producing 
areas with large output and a high commodity rate that are able 
to provide concentrated and large amounts of commodity grain. 
Such places have outstanding conditions for development of 
grain production, and are usually able to use their productivity 
more equitably to increase the country's economic strength. By 
increasing their labor productivity rate, it is possible to 
produce relatively large amounts of grain with a relatively 
Small social expenditure,the better to satisfy the national econ- 

omy's grain needs. 
1. Basis For Distribution of Commodity Grain Bases 

Commodity grain bases are a specialized form of production that 
meet the requirements of the laws of planned proportional develJop- 
ment of the national economy, that grow out of the possibilities 
an area's natural and economic conditions offer, and that develop 
from a deepening of the social division of labor and commodity 
relationships. They exert a profound and p:ogressive influence 

on the development of agricultural production. The principal 
bases for the building of commodity grain bases are as follows: 

(1) A linking of national economic development requirements with 
specific conditions in an area and its foundation for production. 
National economic development requirements include both national 
and local requirements. This is one aspect. However, it order to 
determine ability to satisfy these requirements, it is necessary 
to take a look at just what the specific situation in an area 

is. Only when an area's specific conditions and foundation for 
production permits is it possible to carry out effectively an 


equitable division of work in the labor field to build a grain 
production base of a certain size. 

(2) Quantity of commodity grain must be linked to the consistency 
With which grain is produced. Generally speaking, how much 
commodity grain is produced is related directly to the consis- 
tency with which the base produces, and has a very great effect 
on development prospects. One can also see additionally that in 
the selection of a base consistent output will be an important 
factor in gauging whether to build. So-called consistent output 
includes the existing basis plus the amount of increase resulting 
from the process of development. This is to say, it will be 
determined both by people's ability to use and control natural 
conditions and by the level of intensivity. Thus, intensification 
of farmland capital construction, steady improvement and perfec- 
tion of production conditions, rational reform of the farming 
System, practice of scientific farming, and fully effecti:e ex- 
ploitation of the land's potential, thereby steadily increasing 
the level of production, are all important ways and means of 
increasing the consistency of production. 

2. Criteria tor Commodity Base Counties 

we believe the following several criteria should be considered in 
the selection of commodity base counties: 

(1) Fairly high commodity grain rate. Size of commodity rate is 
both an important indicator of the degree of specialization ana 
an important criterion in whether a place should be selected as a 
commodity grain base. This is because the higher the commodity 
rate the greater the contribution to the country. This is the 
fundamental goal in the selection and construction of commodity 
grain bases. However, under present circumstances in which the 
levels of grain production are not high and the amount of grain 
produced per capita of agricultural population is not great, just 
what should a county's regular annual commodity rate be in order 
for it to be selected? A look at the actual situation in the 
Pearl River Delta shows it should be more than 20 percent in 
order to be selected as a "base county." 

(2) Fairly large amount of commodity grain. The amount of 
commodity grain that a "base county” provides annually is like- 
wise an indicator for judging the size of its coctribution to 

® Regular annual commodity grain rate = Difference between 
state procurement and sales (amount of state procurement - 
amount sold back to villages)/gross output of grain. 


tne country. A look at the situatdion in the Pearl River Delta 
shows that when each base county is able regularly to provide 
more than 70 million jin of commodity grain annually, it is 
Suitable. However, this criterion is variously influenced by the 
cultivated land area in each county and the size of population, 
so it may be used only for reference. 

(3) Fairly high average amount of grain per capita of agricul- 
tural population. The average amount of grain produced per 
capita of rural population both reflects the plentifulness of 
grain in a base county as well as the labor productivity rate. It 
is a direct factor in determining size of the commodity rate. 
when the amount of grain per capita of agricultural population is 
small, there is no use to even talk about providing commodity 
grain, of course. Thus, a certain average amount of grain per 
capita must be provided in addition to the amount consumed (for 
food, for seeds,for livestock feed, and for reserves) before 
commodity grain can be provided. In terms of current levels of 
production, an average of more than 1,000 jin per capita of agri- 
cultural population per year is necessary. 

(4) Fairly large wetland area and area sown to paddy rice, and 
fairly large amounts of wasteland suitable for agriculture or sea 
Spits that can be reclaimed for agriculture within a short period 
of time. In base counties, the wetland area should be about 80 
percent of the total cultivated area, and the area sown to paddy 
rice shculd be about 70 percent of the total area sown to grain. 
In addition, the soil's potential should be fairly great. Given 
the present state of land resources, in base counties the cul- 
tivated land area should about 1.5 mu per capita of agricultural 
population, or else the amount of wasteland that can be reclaimed 
for agriculture (including the amount reclaimed from bodies of 
water) should be substantial so that the amount of cultivated 
land will amount to more than 1.5 mu per capita within a short 

period of time. 

On the basis of these criteria, though no individual county 
completely meets requirements, it is necessary to proceed from 
the requirement that base counties provide continuous tracts of 
land insofar as possible, and consideration should be given to 
making them a part of a “commodity grain base." 

2. Analysis of the Pearl River Delta Commodity Base 

1. Conditions For Building a Pearl River Delta Commodity Grain 

Administratively the Pearl River Delta encompasses 27 counties 
(or districts), and municipalities covering an area of somewhat 


more than 360,000 square kilometers.” At the end of 1977, its 
population totaled 14 million (not including municipal Guangzhou), 
more than 11 million of which was farming population. The 
Gelta’s cultivated land amounted to 33.3 percent of tne total for 
the province as a whole. Its wetland area was 30.5 percent of the 
province's total. In 1977. grain yields averaged 1,030 jin per 
mu; grain output accounted for 33.5 percent of the province's 
total; and state grain procurement here amounted to 48.5 percent 
of procurement in the province as a whole. The commodity rate 
Was 37 percent, an average of more than 300 jin of commodity 
grain per capita of agricultural population. 

Tne Pearl River Delta also has a great potential for development 
of cash crops, silkworm mulberry fruits, aquatic products, and 
livestock. In addition it faces the Seuth China Sea and is close 
to Hong Kong and Macao, outstanding conditions for the develop- 
ment of foreign trade and tourism. In 1977, it accounted for 60 
percent of the province's sugarbeet output, 93 percent of the 
provinces mulberry cocoon output, 30.8 percent of the province's 
aquatic products output, 70 percent of the province's fruit out- 
put, and 45 percent of the province's; gross value of agricultu- 
ral sideline product exports. Additionally, the delta's industry 
and water transportation is well developed; gross output value of 
its industry is two-thirds the provincial total; and it stands 
first in the province in inland river shipping, its annual volume 
of goods shippea by water being 72 percent of the total for the 
province as a whole. Therefore, the Pearl River Delta is not only 
@major commodity base for agricultural sideline products such 

as grain, sugar, silk, fruit, aquatic products, and livestock 
products, it is simultaneously also an important industrial, 
shipping, and foreign trade base within the province. 

The Pearl River Delta possesses outstanding natural conditions 
and socio-economic conditions for the building of a commodity 

grain base. 

The Pearl River Delta is one of the largest plains in China's 
southern sub-tropics. It has a wealth of products, a flat and 
low-lying terrain, a crisscrossing of rivers, and has islands 

® Of the 27 counties (or districts) and municipalities, the 
suburbs of Guangzhou, Huangpu District and Huizhou City, Zhaoqing 
City, Foshan City, Jiangmen City, Zhuhai City, and Shunde County 
are not suitable as "commodity grain base counties." They may 
only be grouped together in accordance with the requirement for 
continuous tracts. Actually only 19 counties can be "commodity 
grain base counties." 


and hills here and there. The entire plain tilts slightly in the 
direction of flow of its rivers. After the main arteries of the 
East, West, and North rivers flow into the delta, they branch 
more and more as they head toward the lower reaches. The major 
arteries divide, combine, and intertwine like a network, pre- 
senting a panorama of a marshy land of rivers and lakes. The 
cultivated land is concentrated in continuous strips; the soil 

is fertile and its effective fertility high; and most of the soil 
is deep, soft, friable, and rich. The silty fields that have been 
reclaimed from bodies of water are particularly so. This is the 
area in which the consistently high yield farmland area is great- 
est, and cropping most concentrated. In addition, because of the 
huge amounts of water and silt brought down from the upper 
reaches of the West, North, and East rivers, silting occurs very 
rapidly at all exits into the sea, and spits emerge from the 
water. The delta is steadily extended seaward. At Honggqili and 
Jiaomen, where rivers enter the sea, the land is extended 100 
meters atimually. At Denglongsha in Modaomer, it is extended 150 
to 170 meters per year. Such copious silting is a major source 
of silt for the sandy field areas. It has been estimated that 42 
percent of all the province's sea shallows have been reclaimed 
from the sea within recent times, and these are major growing 
areas for rice and various tropical cash crops in the province. 

Since the Pearl River Delta lies to the south of the Tropic of 
Cancer, is located at a low latitude, faces the sea, receives 
powerful radiation from the sun, and has abundant heat, its 
Summers are long and its winters short; its growing season is 
long; the number of its frosty days are extremely few and its 
frost-free period is long; its rainfall is copious, and crops get 
all the moisture they need. Here the sun shines between 1,900 
and 2,200 hours each year, and annual solar radiation totals 120 
- 130 kilocalories per square centimeter. This is the region of 
Guangdong Province with greatest sunshine and strongest radia- 
tion. Annual temperatures average 21-23 degrees centigrade, and 
July and August are the hottest months (temperatures during July 
averaging more than 28°C). Between December and February it is 
chilly, but temperatures are still above 10°C (in January, tempe- 
ratures average from 13°C in the north to 15°C in the south), and 
crops can grow the year round. Cumulative tempera-tures from days 
when the average temperature is greater than 10 C are 7458 - 7589 
C, and last for 310-360 days. The safe growing period for paddy 
rice is 220 = 250 days, and the growing season for sugarcane is 
300 - 340 days. The weather favors growth of crops that like 
high temperatures such as paddy rice, Sugarcane, silkworm mulber- 
ry, jute, and sub-tropical fruits. Therefore, the long farm crop 
growing season makes it the crown among the country's three 
deltas. However, during winter and spring when cold waves strike 
it may be sharply chilly for a short period of time, and this 


poses a threat to winter growing sweet potatoes, to the early 
rice crop, and to sugarbeets, sub-tropical fruit trees, and fish 
fry. Because of the influence of warm, moist ocean air masses, 
annual rainfall is abundant, averaging 1,600 - 2,000 millimeters 
per year, and areas along the seacoast or on the windward slopes 
of hills may get more than 2,000 millimeters. Since the flow of 
air masses differs from season to season, the distribution of the 
rainfall is uneven, 80 percent of the total for the year falling 
between April and September. Most of this is in the form of 
torrential rains of great intensity, and should a tidal wave 
ecccur, a flood and waterlogging disaster frequently ensues. By 
contrast, during the spring months rainfall is secant and may 
vary greatly in amount; drought disasters may occur. As a re- 
Sult, much effort has been spent on construction of farmland 
water conservancy projects, which have been an important action 
promoting the development of agriculture in the delta. 

In the Pearl River Delta, labor resources, farming skills, the 
level of mechanization, and economic links between cities and 
countryside are superior. First comes the abundant labor 
resources and the high level of farming skills. The Pearl River 
Delta has a huge population distributed densely, averaging more 
than 380 people per square kilometer. On plains areas in the 
delta, the average is almost 1,000 per square kilometer. The 
peasants have high farming skills and abundant experience in 
production. Second is the fairly high level of agricultural 
mechanization. The Pearl River Delta's agriculture is the most 
highly mechanized in the entire province. Back in the 1960's, it 
expanded a large electric power grid and build electric drainage 
Stations. Next it added a large number of new type tractors of 
various kinds, dredges, axial-flow pumps, threshing machines, and 
processing equipment, the area's agricultural mechanization 
thereby reaching a fairly high level. Third is the close econ- 
Omic relations between cities and countryside, and the develop- 
ment of agricultural product processing industries. The Pearl 
River Delta is crowded with cities and towns, and the economy is 
prosperous. Development of agriculture is much affected by Hong 
Kong and Macao. There is much specialization in the growing of 
farm crops and many commodity crops are produced. Since small 
cities, towns, and markets are widely distributed throughout the 
area, the farflung rural villages are close to farm machines, 
chemical fertilizers, pesticides and technical assistance in 
cities and towns, and they can sell farm products in the markets. 
In addition, the development of farm product processing 
industries and foreign trade has helped development of commodity 



2. Regional Types of Commodity Grain Bases in the Pearl River 

Tne structure of agriculture in the Pearl River Delta is fairly 
complex and regional distinctions apparent. Looked at in terms 
of requirements for grain production, the delta may be divided 
into three distinct types as follows: 

(1) The high rice yield type of delta silt fields reclaimed from 
bodies of water. This type is located in the counties in the 
delta area from Sanshui to Shilong to Yaimen. The fields rec- 
laimed from the water are crisscrossed by rivers. Cities and 
towns crowd the land; the population is large; the workforce is 
copious; water and fertilizer is abundant; the farmland area that 
produces consistently high yields is large; and yields per unit 
of area are high. The broad alluvial plain around Dongguan, 
Shiqi, Xinhui and close to Guangzhou, in particular, is a major 
rice producing area. T*is area accounts for more than 40 percent 
of all grain grown in the Pearl River Delta, and about 50 percent 
of the commodity grain. Its commodity grain rate is about 40 
percent, an average of 400 jin per capita of commodity grain. It 
is this area of Guangdong Province that has historically supplied 

the most commodity grain. 

(2) The type in which early crops predominate in areas along the 
lower reaches of the rivers. This type is located in the lower 
reaches of the East River and its estuary called the Xizhijiang 
Basin, and at the point of confluence of the West, the North, 
and the Sui rivers. Here the terrain is low-lying; the low- 
lying land holds much water; there are numerous drowned fields; 
labor is short; farming is done crudely; yields are inconsistent; 
early crops predominate, and the land utilization rate is low. 
However, much wasteland is suitable for agriculture, and the 
potential for increased yields is great. This area's total grain 
output and commodity grain output both amount to about 20 percent 
of the delta's total. It has a 30 percent commodity grain rate, 
an average of about 300 jin per capita of commodity grain being 
provided. It is the area in the province with the greatest 

future potential for supplying commodity grain. 

(3) The double ric2 crop type in the valley plain along the 
rivers. This includes the two large tracts of the Tan River 
Valley and Liuqi River, and the Zeng River Plain. The Tan River 
basin is famed as an overseas Chinese village whose levels of 
agricultural production are low and conditions fairly poor. 
Because the Liuqi River and the Zeng River Plain are close by 
Guangzhou, and their production conditions relatively good, it's 
agriculture is that of a distant suburb. Grain output from this 
region amounts to about 30 percent of the Pearl River Delta 

total, and it provides more than 20 percent of the commodity 
grain produced in the delta, the commodity grain it provides 
amounting to more than 300 jin per capita. Because of its 
proximity to Hong Kong and Macao, and because it is an overseas 
Chinese village, it has a high level of grain consumption and 
large needs. Historically it has been a major grain producing 
area in the province. 

3- Further Intensification of the Building of a Pearl River 
Delta Commodity Grain Base 

The Pearl River Delta, which has historically been a major com- 
modity grain producing area of Guangdong Province, is also a 

major commodity grain base for the country as a whole. As a 

result of 30 years of building since Liberation, a fairly good 
foundation has been layed fcr development of agricultural pro- 
duction. Nevertheless, the basic conditions of agricultural 
prodouction today are still a long way from meeting needs for a 
high production commodity grain base. For further development of 
grain production, attention must be devoted to the following major 


(1) Further attention to farmland capital construction centering 
around water control. The major problem in the Pearl River Delta 
today is the great threat that flood and waterlogging disasters 
pose, and the principal obstacle is a high water table. Conse- 
quently, the crux of farmland capital construction lies in 
effecting a permanent cure for flooding and waterlogging disas- 
ters through lowering of the water table. Specifically, this 
means solution to the problems of impounding water in the upper 
reaches, and bringing the river under full control in its mid- 
reaches at Dalianwei and Koumen. Right now, most important is 
Widening at Lianwei and dredging of the drainage and irrigation 
System, increasing electrical pumping drainage capacity, and 
lowering the water table to meet requirements for high yields. 

(2) Rapid upgrading of the level of scientific farming centering 
around a restructuring of the farming system. Practice has shown 
that a rational farming system makes full use of light energy 
during all four seasons, uses the entire year's photosynthesis 
potential, increases the land utilization rate and increases the 
multiple cropping index, and employs crop rotation, intercrop- 
ping, and interplanting to extend the farming season and to avoid 
damaging weather. The prevailing farming system in the Pearl 
River Delta is one of three crops a year in which principally 
rice is grown during spring, summer, and autumn (March-November), 
and mostly dryland crops are grown during winter (December-Feb- 
ruary). This farming system has to continue to develop in order 
to make the most of potential for increased yields, and to 


increase outputs for the year as a whole. Moreover, active use of 
Summer's light and heat to develop the growing of intermediate 
rice is also an important way in which to increase yields. The 
positioning between winter and summer of intermediate, early, and 
late rice crops iS a way to use the photosynthesis potential of 
this time. Though photosynthesis potential is small in winter, 
thermophilic crops can overwinter, and high yields may be 
obtained from potatoes and wheat. 

(3) A build up of fertilizer, principally the use of barnyard 
manure. First, hog raising must be emphasized. Second, large 
scale growing of green manure should be done. Finally, large 
Quantities of mud fertilizer should be used. The Pearl River 
Delta has plentiful mud fertilizer resources. Use of dredges to 
blow the mud up to the fields would both raise the height of the 
Silt fields while lowering the water table, and would also 
improve the soil and increase its yields. 

(4) Rapid increase in the level of farm mechanization. The 
first requirement is genuine solution to the problem of pro- 
ducing and supplying spare parts to repair existing farm 
machines. The second requirement is increase in mechanized 
equipment. The third requirement is manufacture of farming 
boats. Farm boats are an extremely important piece of equipment 
for production and for use in daily life in the delta. They are 
needed to get mud, for transportation, to ship grain, to get to 
work, to fight floods, and to make rescues. Effect measures to 
build farm *oats is a pricrity matter of the moment for produc- 

tion in the delta. 


CSO: 4007/62 




ZONING) in Chinese Mar 82 pp 188-193 

{Article by Gao Benhua [7559 2609 5478], Geography Department, 
Anhui Teacher Training College: "Problems With Crop Mix and Crop 
Patterns at Huaibei Commodity Grain Base in Anhui Province"] 

(Text) A rational crop mix and and rational crop patterns are 
problems that must be considered first in the building of the 
Huaibei Commodity Grain Base. This problem relates to the quan- 
tity and quality of commodity grain provided the country; it 
relates to concurrent concern for the country's economic con- 
Struction and the needs of the broad masses of people for produ- 
ction and daily life; it relates to the all-around and correct 
carrying into effect of a program for "taking grain as the key 
link, comprehensive development, adaptation of general methods to 
specific situations, and proper concentration;" it relates to 
full and rational use of land resources and realization of a 
rational regional division of labor in agricultural production; 
and it relates to the linking of soil use and soil nurture, so 
that the soil will become more fertile the more it is farmed and 
so that continued all-around balanced increases in yields from 
agricultural production will be assured. Therefore, building of 
the Huaibei Commodity Grain Base requires, first of all, the 
determination of a rational mix between major commodity grain 
crops and all other kinds of crops to be provided the country, 
and determination of the proportional area to be planted to 
various farm crops, a rational crop rotation system, as well as 
the spacing of crops and zoning of the crop growing area. 

1. Basic Conditions and Increased Yield Potential From Building 
of the Huaibei Commodity Base 

The land area of the Huaibei region of Anhui Province is approxi- 
mately 38,300 square kilometers, most of which is plains accoun- 
ting for more than 95 percent of the land area. This provides 
extraordinarily favorable conditions for complete mechanization 
and large scale farming on continuous tracts, and for a rational 


layout of agricultural production patterns. However, a part of 
the Huaibei Plain is not at all flat, so the situation is "mostly 
flat, but slightly not flat," which affects cultivation and 


The Huaibei Plain has a temperate zone monsoon climate in which 
winters are fairly cold and dry with little rainfall. By 
co.itrast, summers are hot with much rainfall. Precipitation 
averages 750-900 millimeters annually, and the average annual 
temperature is 14-15°C. Less than 15 days have a daily average 
temperature of less than 0° C. Crops rarely suffer from freeze 
damage, and crops such as wheat can generally safely overwinter. 
This area north of the Huai has 200-220 frost-free days each 
year, and the sun shines about 2,200-2,500 hours, or between 50 
and 60 percent of the time, which is more than elsewhere in the 
province. Cumulative annual temperature for days on which the 
daily average temperature is above 10 C is 4,500-4,900 C in the 
Huaibei area. Clearly, heat and sunshine conditions in the Huai- 
bel area are relatively favorable for agriculture, and two crops 
a year may be grown. A single problem is the slightly inadequate 
amount of rainfall, but the amount of precipitation varies 
greatly from one year to another and its distribution from month 
to month is also very uneven causing frequent drought and water- 

logging disasters. 

The Huaibei area has numerous kinds of soils. Most important is 
black gritty soil, which covers half of the total Huaibei area, 
and is distributed principally on the Hejian Plain. Second is 
sandy silt soil (including sandy soil, puddly soil, and mixed 
clay and sand), which is found over about one-third of the Huai- 
bei area and is distributed principally in northern Huaibei and 
along both banks of rivers in recent Yellow River flood plain 
alluvial areas. Other soils include yellow slope soil, yellow 
belozem, and paddy soil, which are distributed mainly on terraces 
(hills) along the Huai River. Additionally saline-alkaline soil 
is found in scattered patches in northern Huaibei and in lowlands 
in the central part of the Hejian Plain. In most places in 
Huaibei the soil is fairly thick, but much of the black gritty 
soil contains a layer of gravel, which rules out deep plowing or 
deep turning of the soil. Except for the mixed clay and sandy 
soil, and the puddly soil, most of the Huaibei soil is not very 
fertile; its organic and nitrate content is relatively low, its 
Structure poor, its plowability fair, the period when it can be 
plowed short, and its ability to retain fertilizer and water 
weak. The black gritty soil is the low yield soil that covers the 

largest area. 

Despite the less than ample sources of water for irrigation in 
the Huaibei area, neither surface water nor ground water have 


-een fully used or developed. It has been preliminarily estima- 
ted that more than 8 billion cubic meters of surface water and 
ground water is available for use in the Huaibei region, and that 
a farmland area of about 20 million mu could be irrigated. Since 
Liberation, large scale farmland water conservancy construction 
has been done in the Huaibei region for good resvlts. The former 
Situation of "large disasters from large rainfalls, small disas- 
ters from small rainfalls, and drought disasters from no 
rainfall," has been turned around. 

The cultivated area of Huaibei amounts to about 33 million mu. 
This is 60 percent of the region's total area, or close to half 
the province's total cultivated area. Cultivated land amounts to 
2.2 mu per capita of farming population, slightly more than 1/2 
mu more than the average for the province as a whole. On the 
broad Hejian Plain in the middle of the Huaibei region, popula- 
tion is small relative to available land, the amount of culti- 
vated land averaging more than 3 mu per capita. In the vast 
region north of the Wo River and south of the Xinbian River, as 
well as in the low-lying areas along the Huai Lake, population is 
Scant relative to land and, in many communes and brigades there 
is no less than 4 or 5 mu of cultivated land per capita, and as 
much as 7 or 8 mu, or sometimes more than 10 mu. Much of the 
cultivated land here is not used to the full; farming is not 
intensive, and mostly a single crop per year (wheat followed by 

a sunning of plowed fields) is grown from which yields per unit 
of area are low. The area in Huaibei that lies fallow throughout 
Winter is very large, at least 13 million mu at the present time. 
An additional more than 5.5 million mu is plowed land being 
allowed to sun. The multiple cropping index is not large. In 
1977, the multiple cropping index was only 152 percent, between 
20 and 30 percent less than during the period of the first 5-year 
Plan. In the Huaibei region there are wide wasteland areas that 
could be used such as earth embankments along canals and rivers, 
abandoned ditches, low-lying land near lakes and rivers, saline- 
alkaline land, odd bits and pieces of land, and worn hill slopes. 
Farm departments estimate the amount at more than 1 million mu. 
It has been estimated that the actual cultivated land area in 
Huaibei is greater by 10 to 15 percent than reported statistics 
(33 million mu). The foregoing shows clearly that liand use 
potential is very great for the building of a commodity grain 

base in the Huaibei region. 

Farm crop yields per unit of area are fairly low today in 
Huaibei, and the potential for increase is very great. In 1977, 
grain crop yields averaged 230-odd jin per mu in terms of area 
sown, which was 100 jin lower than the average for the province 
as a whole. In terms of area cultivated, grain crops yields were 
only 360-odd jin per mu, almost 200 jin lower than the average 


for the province as a whole. [Area sown being greater than area 
cultivated as a result of multiple cropping.] Cotton yields 
averaged only 34 jin per mu, 16 jin lower than the provincial 
average. Consequently, it will be necessary to increase both 
grain yields per unit of area and labor productivity rates if 
the area is to provide the country with greater amounts of commo- 
dity grain and gradually come to play a role as a base. 

2. Rational Mix and Distribution of Farm Crops 

In view of the need to develop the national economy and raise the 
local people's standard of living in order to assure that good 
variety, high quality commodity grain will be provided the coun- 
try in large amounts; in view of the need for correct implemen- 
tation of the program of "taking grain as the key link, compre- 
hensive development, adaptation of general methods to specific 
Situations, and proper concentration," and carrying out of the 
principle of a rational regional division of labor in agricultu- 
ral production; in view of the principal conditions of local 
growth in Huaibei region farm production , and the production 
Situation and potential for increase of major farm crops; in view 
of the history and current state of farm production in Huaibei, 
and the representative experiences of some communes and brigades 
there; and in view of rough analysis of requirements and 
capabilities for fully rational use of land resources, institu- 
tion of a scientific rotational farming system that combines use 
and nurture of the soil, and expansion of the multiple cropping 
System, the following should be done about a rational crop mix 
and rational crop patterns in the Huaibei region: Wheat should 
be the principal crop grown, and the corn growing area should be 
expanded through gradual reduction in the ratio of the presently 
overly large sweet potato growing area, and through adaptation of 
general methods to local situations for the growing in some areas 
of grain crops such as paddy rice. The growing of cash crops 
Should be revived and developed principally soybeans, but also 
cotton, sesame, and flue-cured tobacco. A two crop per year or 
three crops every two years system should be gradually put in 
place in which winter wheat followed by soybeans predominates. 
Winter wheat can be rotated with green manure, peas, and rape. 
Soybeans and corn, sweet potatoes, sesame, flue-cured tobacco, 
and ambari hemp can be rotated or intercropped. Spring cotton 
may be rotated with spring gaoliang, spring sweet potatoes, and 
spring corn, with green manure either grown as the previous crop 
or interplanted with the crops in the same season to achieve a 
combination of soil use and soil nurture. In laying out crop 
patterns, concentration should be done area by area as explained 


Huaibei area wheat production holds and extraordinarily important 


position in the province. Huaibei is the province's major wheat 
producing @erea, accounting for two-thirds of both tne province's 
growing area and output. Wheat is also the most important grain 
crop in the Huaibei region. Formerly it annually occupied more 
than 60 percent of the region's cultivated land area, and more 
than 50 percent of the area sown to grain crops. The year's 
wheat production had major effect on agricultural production for 
the year as a whole. According to sayings, "when the summer crop 
augments the autumn crop, there is a bumper harvest for the year 
as a whole; but when the autumn crop augments the summer crop, 
hopes are not great," and "One wheat crop makes up for all the 

plowing, sowing, and harvesting.” 

From June to September it rains a great deal in Huaibei, and 
waterlogging disasters are common, particularly in low-lying 
land. Most of the wheat is harvested in early June, so it escapes 
the summer waterlogging; thus, the summer wheat is more likely to 
escape disasters than autumn grains. Wheat has always been the 
main crop around which all others were planned in the Huaibei 
farming system, and it has been the leading crop in either a 
System of three crops every 2 years or 2 crops every year in 
Huaibei. More planting of wheat in Huaibei could reduce the 
amount of ground allowed to lie fallow during winter, could help 
increase the multiple cropping index, and could set the stage for 
fully rational use of land resources. 

Ever since 1958, however, the area planted to wheat in Huccbei 
has steadily decreased. In 1977, the Huaibei wheat growing area 
Was 10 million mu less than in 1957, accounting for only 51 
percent of the cultivated land area and 46 percent of the total 
area sown to grain crops. Therefore, building of the Huaibei 
Commodity Grain Base will require expansion of the wheat growing 
area until it gradually comes to occupy more than 65 percent of 
cultivated land and the wheat growing area is about 1.3 mu per 
capita of farm population. Today, wheat yields per unit of area 
are very low in Huaibei averaging only 120-odd jin per mu. Total 
wheat output amounts to only 26.3 percent of total grain output. 
Therefore, while expanding the wheat growing area, it is neces- 
Sary also to raise wheat yields per unit of area quickly. Follo- 
Wing several years efforts, wheat yields in Huaibei should gra- 
dually increase to more than 500 jin per mu or even to about 800 
jin per mu, wheat thereby accounting for between 50 and 60 per- 
cent of total grain output. (Xiaozhangzhuang Production Team in 
Xiegiao Commune, Yingshang County, which is located in the back 
gritty soil region, grew wheat on a 240 mu area in 1977, or 75 
percent of its cultivated land, from which it harvested an ave- 
rage 804 jin per mu or 1,251 jin per capita of which 450 jin per 
Capita was commodity grain. There are quite a few such 
representative production teams in Huaibei). 


Sweet potatoes hold second position in area sown to grain crops 
in Huaibei, and they hold first place in output since the area's 
output of sweet potatoes is much greater than wheat. In 1977, the 
Sweet potato growing area was 27 percent of the total area sown to 
grain crops, an 84 percent increase since the period immediately 
following Liberation (the spring sweet potato area amounting to 
56.7 percent of the 84 percent total). Sweet potato output 
accounted for 47.3 percent of total grain output, which is 
clearly somewhat too much. At the present time, sweet potatoes 
are not only the main grain in the farflung rural villages of 
Huaibei, but are also the major commodity grain provided the 


Though sweet potatoes are a high yield crop, but they are the 
cause of low yields of other crops. Sweet potatoes deplete the 
Soil. When sweet potatoes precede wheat, wheat yields will be 
only slightly more than 100 jin per mu, 50 percent less than when 
soybeans precede wheat. If repeatediy grown on the same land 
vear after year with little fertilization, soil fertility will 
drop sharply; wheat yields will become lower and lower; wheat 
yields will be unable to rise; and thus more high yield sweet 
potatoes will have to be grown This will mean a reduction in 

the area available for the growing of wheat and difficulties in 
raising wheat yields per unit of area. Thus a vicious circle 
Will be formed. In addition, sweet potatoes are a late crop. 
Spring-sown sweet potatoes are usually harvested in mid-October, 
and summer-sown sweet potatoes cannot be harvested until late 
October or early November. In the Huaibei region, however, whet 
should be sown in early October, so by waiting until after the 
Sweet potatoes have ben harvested, the time for planting wheat is 
already late, and sometimes it cannot be planted. Portions 
Planted produce reduced yields. As a result of the increased 
growing of sweet potatoes, wheat, soybeans and other spring sown 
grain crops have been elbowed aside. As a result the amount of 
land allowed to lie fallow during winter hes steadily increased; 
it is difficult to arrange a proper crop se‘(juence, and in many 
years spring-sown sweet potatoes are again planted. Thus, the 
area of one crop per year has increased, and the multiply cropped 
area has decreased. This has thrown into confusion the tradi- 
tional rather rational farming system in which gaoliang,wheat, 
and soybeans were rotated ina three crops every 2 years system, 
or wheat and soybeans were rotated in atwo crops each yeir 
System. Furthermore, sweet potato yields per unit of area show 
evidence of steady decline. This has been a major reason why for 
the past 20 years a steady reduction has taken place in the wheat 
and soybean growing area of the Huaibei region; yields per unit 
of area have been difficult to increase; long efforts have not 
raised wheat yields; the area sown to high yield crops such as 
corn has not expanded rapidly; the crop mix and crop patterns 


have not been entirely rational; gross output of grain fluctuates 
Without moving ahead; the fundamental change has taken place in 
Huaibei's low yields; and the people's standard of living has not 


Therefore, in order to build the Huaibei Commodity Grain Base, 
this irrational mix of overly large sweet potato growing area in 
proportion to a rather small wheat and soybean growing area will 
have to be changed. In view of factors such as the low soil fer- 
tility in Huaibei, in current planning, mostly crops that foster 
soil fertility should be planted and a transition made to green 
manure to make soil nurture paramount in a combination of use anc 
nurture. Pulse crops such as green manure, peas, and soybeans, 
plus rape should be widely planted (they provide not only green 
manure, but also cake residue fertilizer as well), and once soil 
fertility has been increased, wheat yields per unit of area can 
be raised quickly and the wheat growing area increased, with a 
gradual reduction in the ratio of the sweet potato to wheat mix. 
Inasmuch as sweet potatoes currently provide yields that are 
consistently higher than other grain crops, plus the importance 
of sweet potato stems and leaves as fodder for hogs, cattle, and 
rabbits, the sweet potato growing area should not be reduced too 
much too quickly. While taking effective action to increase 
Sweet potato yields per unit of area, efforts should be made over 
a period of 3 to 5 years to reduce gradually the sweet potato 
growing area from its present 30 percent to 15 percent of the 
cultivated land (about 5 million mu). In this way, an annual 
reduction in sweet potatoes averaging about 10 mu per production 

team could be achieved. 

Corn is a high yield crop, and a major grain and livestock fodder 
crop. Its stems make a fine fuel, or they may be returned to the 
fields for fertilizer. In most part of the Huaibei region, the 
Climate and soil are suited to corn growing. Corn has a fairly 
Short growing season, superior varieties requiring only about 100 
days. In Huaibei, it may be sown in both spring and summer, and 
may be consecutively cropped with wheat in a system of two crops 
per year. Corn is a high stalk crop that may be intercropped (or 
interplanted) with soybeans, sesame, peanuts, and sweet potatoes 
for remarkably increased outputs. So long as certain water and 
fertilizer conditions are met, a rather good harvest can be had 
in Huaibei. Yields are usually 500-600 jin per mu or as much as 
about 800 jin per mu. Following Liberation the area sown to corn 
in Huaibei has increased more than six fold; nevertheless, its 
ratio to grain crops as a whole is not large. In 1977, the area 
sown to corn was only 9 percent of the total area sown to grain 
(with spring-sown corn accounting for 80 percent of the total), 
and output was only 10 percent of total grain output. By 
improving water and fertilizer conditions, Huaibei will be able 

to expand its corn growing area to about 15 percent of tne total 
area sown to grain, and it can grow mostly summer-sown corn, ina 
System of two crops per year, one of wheat and one of corn. 
Summer-sown corn can planted on 20 percent of the land from which 
wheat has been harvested. For the short term, some of spring- 
sown corn growing area may be retained for the growing of corn, 
wheat, and soybeans (or some other summer-sown crop) in a system 

of three crops every 2 years. 

Tnough rice has ben grown in the Huaibei region for a fairly 

long time, particularly along the Huai River, up until Liberation 
very little was grown. Generally it was " plant rice when there 
is rain, and plant dryland grain crops when there is no water." 
There was no large area over which paddy rice was grown fairly 
consistently. Though some development of rice culture occurred 
following Liberation during the First 5-year Plan, still the area 
was not large. In 1957, the paddy rice area was 1.4 million mu, 
only 3.2 percent of the cultivated area that year. In 1959 when 
Huaibeil promoted "rice reform," though the growing area reached 
2-9 million mu, yields were very low, nor did rice planting 
become ingrained. By 1961, the rice growing area declined to 
only 200,000 mu. After 1970, as a result of the compulsion and 
misguided direction of the "gang of four," their agents, and 
their gangster cadres in Anhui Province, the rice growing area 
expanded year after year reaching 1.8 million mu, or about 5.5 
percent of the cultivated land, in 1977. Because of the large 
amounts of manpower used, yields averaged only about 400 jin per 
mu. In view of water and fertilizer conditions in Huaibei, 
particularly the lack of sources of water ‘or irrigation, the 
rice growing area could not be expanded. There was a great 
difference between volume of precipitation and volume of water 
needed to irrigate ricefields in Huaibei. Furthermore, most of 
the soil in Huaibei, particularly the vertically fractured black 
gritty soil areas, is very porous. A rice field that is irrigated 
Will drain completely dry overnight In addition, looked at in 
terms of regional division of labor for agricultural production 
in the province, the Huaibei region should be a dryland crop area 
in which wheat is dominant, so there is no need to transform 
Grylands to wetlands. In future, only where prevailing 
conditions favor it, where water is abundant, and where soil 
porosity is fairly slight in areas along the Huai should general 
methods be adapted to local situations for appropriate develop- 
ment of rice culture. In some saline-alkaline stretches in the 
north where ground water is abundant, some rice may be grown in 
combination with removal of soil salinity and alkalinity. Along 
the Huai River, wheat and rice, or rape and rice, or green manure 
and rice may be rotationally cropped. 

During the period of the First 5-year Plan, the gaoliang growing 


area in Huaibei was very large occupying about § to 10 million 
mu,or about 20 percent of the total cultivated land area, each 
year. Subsequently, as a result of expansion of spring-sown crops 
Such aS spring sweet potatoes, the goaliang area declined 
greatly. In 1977, it was only 1.4 millicn mu or 4.4 percent of the 
total cultivated land area. Consideration should be given gao- 
liang's drought tolerance during its seedling stage and its 
tolerance of waterlogging later on, its indispensability in 
Huaibei today for building houses and making various things 
needed in daily life, its use as a principal raw material for 
making the famed "Gujing™ liquor of Huaibei, and the enrichment 
of the soil that gaoliang provides as reflectei in the saying 
that "wheat grown after a goaliang crop is like that obtained 
after having had an invited guest in one's home" [who produced 
additional nightsoil). In future, along with efforts to increase 
gaoliang yields per unit of area in Huaibei, the gaoliang growing 
area should also be revived to about 10 percent of the total 
cultivated area, 1.e., ta about 3 million mu. and a three crop 
System of gaoliang, wheat, and soybeans may be reinstituted. 

Soybeans are one of the three major crops of the Huaibei region 
after wheat and sweet potatoes. They are a major dual use crop 
that provide both grain and oil. Soybean cake residues are an 
important livestock feed and fertilizer, and soybeans are a major 
non-staple food raw material in the areas farflung cities and 
countryside. Consequently, in addition to their use as a grain, 
soybeans are also called a "five materials crop” in Huaibei. 

Soybeans add fertility to the soil. Much growing of soybeans 
nurtures soil fertility, and yields are high when wheat follows a 
soybean crop. The growing of soybeans to nurture the land and 

a two crop system of soybeans and wheat have been traditional 
farming practices in Huaibei. When soybeans are planted early, 
they may be harvested in late September for no interference with 
the planting of wheat. The soybean growing area in Huaibei had 
been very large at one time. In 1952, a 12.87 million mu area was 
sown, which amounted to 57 percent of the total area sown that 
year to grain and soybeans, and 50 percent of the area sown that 
year to wheat. Historically Fuyang Prefectire annually trans- 
ported about 400 million jin of soybeans for sale in Guangdong, 
Guangxi, Fujian, and Shanghai. After 1958, the soybean growing 
area began to shrink, amounting in 1977 to only slightly more 
than 7 million mu, or 16 percent of the total area sown to grain 
and soybeans, and 4O percent of the area on which wheat had been 
grown. Huaibei's soybean production also occupied an important 
position for the province as a whole. In 1977 its area sown to 
soybeans and its total output of soybeans amounted to 80.5 and 
71.5 percent respectively of the totals for the province. In view 
of the role of soybean farming in Huaibei's crop rotation system, 


as well as the important position of soybeans in Huaibei's agri- 
cultural production and in the province aS a whole, Huaibei must 
actively revive and develop soybean production and take the path 
of one crop of wheat and one crop of soybeans. This is the 
principal direction of attack in the Huaibei region's future 
development of agriculture. The area sown to soybeans in Huaibei 
can go aS high as about 10 million mu or between 40 and 50 
percent of the area planted to wheat so that soybeans wil stand 
second to wheat in Huaibei's crop mix, and so that Huaibei will 
become the greatest commodity soybean production base in the 


Except for rice, the growing of which is concentrated in areas 
along the Huai River, production patterns for grain and soybean 
crops in most parts of the Huaibei region should be principally 
wheat and soybeans with corn, sweet potatoes, and gaoliang being 
secondary in the practice of a system of two crops per year or 
three crops every 2 years. Each county or commune should adapt 
general methods to local situations to designate crop rotation 
areas and practice regional specialization in agricultural pro- 


Aside from the aforementioned crops, the Huaibei region also 
grows cash crops such as cotton, sesame, peanuts, flue-cured 
tobacco, and ambari hemp, all of which are suited to Huaibei and 
all of which have a fairly good production foundation, occupying 
a fairly important position in the province as a whole. (See 
table below for 1977 statistics) 

Cotton Sesame Peanuts Flue-cured  Ambari 

Tobacco Hemp 
Proportion of Provincial 43.5% 66.8% 33.9% 60.5% 69.1% 
Area Sown 
Proportion of Provincial 29.4% 57.5% 23.2% 61.5% 62.1% 


Therefore, Simultaneous with the building of a commodity grain 
base in the Huaibei region, production basis to supply the prov- 
ince with cotton, sesame, peanuts, flue-cured tobacco and ambari 
hemp can also be built. Their sown area may be Suitably enlarged 
and their total output further increased so that they occupy a 
certain proportion of the farm product mix in Huaibei. The 

cotton growing area may be increased from its present 6.6 

percent to between 8 and 10 percent of cultivated land for about 5 
percent of the total area sown to farm crops. The area sown to 


sesame, peanuts, flue-cured tobacco, and ambari hemp may be 
increased from the present 0.7 to 1 percent to 1 to 1.5 percent 
of the total area sown to farm crops. These crops should be 
Suitably concentrated in their regional distribution ina re- 
adjustment of the present irrational situation of scattered 
distribution. Counties having the best conditions and where a 
certain foundation already exists for their growing may be 
selected, and they can be grown in concentrations on continuous 
tracts in individual areas so that they will become specially 
designated specialized areas for the growing of cash crops. 
Cotton can be concentrated in the old cotton growing areas of the 
north in Xiao and Tangshan counties, at Linquan and Taihe 
counties iu the west, and in the new cotton growing areas of Su 
and Lingbi counties to the north of the Xinbian River in the 
east. Sesame may be concentrated in the west in Linquan, Jieshou 
and Taihe counties, and in the northern part of Su County in the 
east. Peanut growing may be concentrated largely along the Huai 
in Yingshang and Fengtai counties, and along the shores of the 
lower reaches of the Ying River, as well as along the shores of 
the Wu He in the east and and the lower reaches of the Tuo River 
in Guzhen County. Flue-cured tobacco may be concentrated in the 
existing high yield areas where a good foundation for its cul- 
tivation already exists in Bo County and in some communes in 
Guzhen and Huaiyuan counties in the south. Ambari hemp may be 
concentrated along the Huai River in Funan, Yingshan, and Huai- 

yuan counties. 

To summarize the foregoing, crop distribution in the Huaibei 
region may be divided into the following three zones (or belts). 
The area north of the Xinbian River and most of Bo County, as 
well as parts of Taihe and Linquan can be the wheat, soybeans, 
cotton, flue-cured tobacco, and sesame growing area. The region 
along the Huai River in the south may be the wheat, soybeans, 
paddy rice, peanuts, flue-cured tobacco growing area. The vast 
area in the central region may be the main grain crop area for 
the growing of wheat, soybeans, corn, and sweet potatoes as a 
base within the Huaibei Commodity Grain Base. 

Sketch Map Showing Farm Crop Areas in Huaibei Region of Anhui 
I Wheat, Soybean, Cotton, Flue-cured Tobacco, and Sesame Area 
II Wheat, Soybean, Corn, and Sweet Potato Grain Crop Area 

III Wheat, Soybean, Rice, Peanut, Flue-cured Tobacco, and Ambari 
Hemp Area 


CSO: 4007/63 




ZONING] in Chinese Mar 82 pp 205-207 

{Article by Zheng Baoxi [6774 1405 0823], Geography Department, 
Gansu Teacher Training College, and Quan Dengging [0356 4098 
1987], Institute of Agricultural Science, Former Zhangye Prefec- 
ture: "Effects on Crop Patterns of Atmospheric Temperature and 
Irrigation in the Hexi Corridor (Ganhan District) of Gansu 

Province (Excerpts)"] 

{Text] The Hexi Corridor is located in the northwestern part of 
Gansu Province and has been a pass into central Asia ever since 
Han and Tang tiues. During the long process of historical devel- 
opment, this area has produced not only highly cultured and 

artistic people such as the Mogaoku, but has also developed 
irrigated agriculture on a fairly large scale. The broad masses 
of working people accumulated rich experiences in the restructu- 
ring and use of nature, and rational distribution of agricultur- 

al production. Our past experience in surveying and studying the 
air temperature and use of water for irrigation in the Hexi 
Corridor demonstrated the effects of this crop distribution in 
the hope of achieving rational crop patterns to increase agri- 

cultural production. 

1. Effects of Altitude Above Sea Level and Air Temperature on 
Crop Patterns ‘ 

Farm crops make certain demands on their external living environ- 
ment. In the external living environment for farm crops in this 
region, air temperature has a major impact on the area distri- 
bution of crops. The farming area of the Hexi Corridor extends 
from Dajing (in Gulang County) in the eastern Wuxiao Range in the 
east to Nanhu at Dunhuang in the west, the straight line distan- 
ce from east to west being 900 kilometers. It extends from the 
foot of the Qilian Mountains in the south northward to Zhongqu in 
Mingin County and Tiancang in Jinta County, the width north to 
south being about 180 kilometers. Since this is the area in 
which the Mongolia-Xinjiang High Plateau meets the Qinghai-Tibe- 


tan High Plateau, the elevation above sea level 1s ratner high 
(ranging from 1,000 to 2,600 meters, a difference of 1,690 me- 
ters). As elevation above sea level varies, the vertical distri- 
bution of air temperature becomes quite marked. The higher the 
elevation above sea level, the lower the temperature and the 
Shorter the frost-free period. The lower the elevation above sea 
level, the longer the frost-free period. As elevation above sea 
level and air temperature change, crop patterns vary markedly. 
They may be divided into the following three general regions: 

(1) The 1,800 - 2,600 meter area. This includes Dajing and 
Sishuil in Gulang County, Gucheng and Xigong in Wuwei County, 
Weiqi in Snandan County, and the region to the south of Sanbao in 
Minle County, as well as the areas along the mountain of Xinba in 
Gaotai County, and Tunsheng and Jinfosi in Jiuquan County. in 
this area the elevation above sea level is fairly nigh and air 
temperatures fairly low. Annual cumulative temperature when the 
average daily temperature is above 10°C is about 2,000 degrees 
and the the frost and freeze free period is 120 days per year. 
Crop varieties re currently rather few, and mostly only summer 
crops are grown including wheat, highland barley, peas, rape, and 
linseed. Because of the short frost-free period, the principal 
autumn crop is potatoes; broom corn millet and corn often fail 

to ripen well. 

(2) The 1,400 - 1,800 meter area. This includes Wuwei, Hexibao, 
Shandan, Zhangye, Linze, and Jiuquan counties, and Yumen Town. 
The cumulative annual temperature when the average daily temper- 
ature is above 10°C is about 3,000 degrees, and 130 to 160 days 
are free of frost and freezing annually. Within this region, 
Substantial numbers of both summer and autumn crops are grown. 
Summer crops consist principally of wheat, broad beans, rape, 
linseed, and hemp. Autumn crops consist principally of corn, 
millet, and potatoes. In some years autumn grown millet and 
broom corn millet do not ripen very well. 

(3) The area below 1,400 meters. This includes Dunhuang and 
the area running from Anxi County to Sihu, Jinta and Mingin 
counties, Huanaizi in Yumen County, and the area along the Hei 
River in Linze and Gaotai counties. Elevation above sea level is 
fairly low in this area, and air temperatures fairiy high. 
Cumulative temperature for days on which the average daily tem- 
perature is above 10 C is about 3,500 degrees, and 100-odd days 
are frost and freeze free annually. In addition to the wheat, 
broad beans, and linseed grown aS Summer crops, and the corn, 
millet, broom corn millet and gaoliang grown in autumn in the 
aforementioned areas, cotton can also be grown here. Along the 
Hei River, paady rice is also grown. This area has a fairly long 
period that is free from frost and freezing, and multiple 


March the following year, and increases strikingly during April 
and May. Between June and September the flow increases rapidly. 
Thereafter, and until November, it falls sharply again. April 
and May, and October and November are periods of normal flow, and 
June to September are times of flood. The difference in flow 
between the period of normal flow and flood time is very great. 
For example, at the Zhamashike Hydrology Station in the Hei River 
System, the volume of flow between July and September is vir- 
tually five times greater than during April and May or October 
and November. Through long term involvement in agricultural pro- 
duction, the working people have accumulated valuable experiences 
about the right combination of summer and autumn crops for sen- 
Sible use of water to meet the dynamic needs of farmlands. 
Summer fields are sown mostly during mid to late March (winter 
wheat having been sown during mid to late September), and har- 
vested during mid to late July. Autumn crops are sown mostly 
between mid-April and early May, their harvest beginning in late 
September. The time of sowing of both summer and autumn crops 
varies by more than 30 days, and the time of harvest varies by 
more than 60 days. The period when summer crop irrigation 
(including summer soaking); and autumn crop irrigation is 
occurring simultaneously is largely from May to September. This 
is the state at which the volume of flow in the rivers is 
greatest. When flow is small prior to May, mostly the fields to 
be harvested in summer are irrigated; when flow decreases after 
September, late stage irrigation of summer crops and winter 
irrigation of other fields is done. This shows that by linking 
the summer and autumn crop fields in a sensible way on the basis 
of the annual volume water in each area, and by planning the 
area to be planted to summer and autumn crops is of great sig- 
nificance for the area's rational use of water, and for consis- 
tently high yields of grain crops and other crops. If summer and 
autumn fields are planted in proper proportions, no water 
shortage will be created. If the summer crop area is too large 
(and in some places summer crops account for 90 percent of the 
total area sown), and the fall crop area is too small, that will 
inevitably mean that the summer crops will not fit in with a 
Situation of small volume of flow before May, and thus it will 
not be possible to irrigate promptly and the periods of 
rotational irrigation will be delayed. This will mean that full 
use will not be made of the waters that come in the autumn. Of 
course, if the proportion of autumn crops is too large and the 
proportion of summer crops too small, serious damage will also be 
done. In building farmlands that produce consistently high 
yields in the Hexi Corridor, a major problem in arriving at 
rational crop patterns is a rational combination of summer and 
autumn crops that fits in with seasonal changes in the volume of 

flow in rivers. 


cropping may be done following harvest of summer crops. 

Tne foregoing facts show that an understanding of the air 
temperature conditions in each area and study of their effect on 
crop distribution holds major significance for rational arrange- 
ment of crop patterns and consistently high yields from farming. 

2. Effects of Irrigation on Crop Patterns 

In most parts of the Hexi Corridor, a portion of the area along 
the mountains excepted, annual precipitation ranges from 40 to 
200 millimeters. Natural precipitation does not suffice crops 
needs for normal growth, and irrigation is extremely important 
for development of farming. Without irrigaticn, there would be 
no farming industry. The rivers that rise in the Qilian 
Mountains are the principal source of irrigation water for this 
region. The amount of flow in each river and the seasonalness of 
flow has great bearing on crop patterns. 

Most of the Hexi Corridor is a tilted plain running from the base 
of the mountains on which the land is basically flat but not 
completely continuous. The Hei Mountains and the Dahuang 
Mountains (or Yanzhi Mountains) divide the corridor into several 
segments to form three separate inland plains and three corres- 
ponding inland wrter systems, namely the Shiyang River water 
System (on the Wuwei and Minle plains), the Hei River water 
System (on the Zhangye and Jiuquan plains), and the Shule water 
System (on the Anxi and Dunhuang plains). These three water 
Systems all rise in the Qilian Mountains, and the rivers depend 
on melting and rainfall in the mountain region for their replen- 
ishment. The upper reaches of streams are high and precipitous 
gorges, and after they flow out of the mountain region, some 
streams suddenly disappear underground. In flood and alluvial 
plains areas, some of them emerge to the surface to form groups 
of springs, which converge to form creeks, which flow into 
rivers. Surface water and ground water form a totality and 
constitute a source of irrigation for the farmlands of this area. 
The total volume of flow of rivers in this region is about 7 
billion cubic meters (the volume of runoff through mountain 
passes); however, by no means full use is made of this amount 

at present. Most of it drains away to become ground water; 

thus, the lining of riverbeds with stones and use of ground water 
are of major significance in assuring water for farmlands and for 
expansion of the irrigated area and the size of the crop growing 
area. In the succeeding section, discussion will be devoted to 
the effects on crop patterns of seasonal changes in the volume of 

flow in rivers. 

The flow of rivers in this area depends on melting and precip-~- 
itation in the Qilian Mountains. Flow is least from December to 


On the basis of the foregoing heat and water conditions in each 
part of the Hexi Corridor, plus taking into account current local 
technical and economic conditions, the following generalizations 
may be made about rational crop patterns for each area: 

(1) Areas along the mountains more than 1,800 meters above sea 
level: Fairly high and cold with a short growing season. Under 
present technical conditions, it is not yet possible to assure 
consistent yields from crops in autumn-harvested fields (only 
potatoes grow well). On the other hand, wheat, highland barley, 
broad beans, and rape produce fairly consistent yields in summer 
harvested fields. Thus a higher ratio of summer crops is 
rational. However, for summer crops to account for more than 90 
percent of the total crops grown is also irrational, because this 
Will mean that some wheat fields cannot be watered. Moreover, 
there will be too much continuous cropping as a result of which 
Wild oats will run rampant; a labor shortage will result; and 
this will lead to a fall in yields. Practice has demonstrated 
that a rational combination of crops for this area is as follows: 
Wheat occupying about 66 percent of the total area sown, with 
broad beans aS a summer crop and potatoes as an autumn crop 
accounting for about 34 percent of the area sown in the rota- 
tional cropping of wheat - wheat - potatoes, and broad beans for 
consistently high yield economic results. 

(2) Areas at an elevation of from 1,400 to 1,800 above sea level 
where the growing season is fairly long. Here, not only can 
Summer crops be grown with assurance, but autumn crops such as 
corn and millet may also be planted (though they will not mature 
in some years). On the basis of conditions, summer crops should 
predominate in this area, because yields from summer crops are 
fairly consistent. However, in some areas summer crops have 
formed 80 percent of the total, which is too large a ratio. It 
does not fit in with the volume of water coming down the rivers, 
and consequently crops cannot be watered on time. Furthermore, 
the continuous cropping of wheat has impaired rational crop 
rotation, with the result that soil fertility cannot be revived 
or increased. Experience with rational use of this area's 
conditions shows a fairly good proportion between summer and 

autumn crops to be 7:3 or 6:4. 

(3) Areas below 1,400 meters below sea level. In this area the 
growing season is longer than in the other two, and temperature 
conditions for the growing of both summer and autumn crops are 
fairly good. The varieties of crops grown is also greater than 
in the other two areas. In addition to wheat, miscellaneous 
Summer grains, corn, broom corn millet, millet, linseed, and 
melons, cotton may also be grown here, and in some places paddy 
rice may be grown. In places having fairly good conditions, the 


area sown to autumn crops may be proportionately increased. in 
general, the proportion of summer to autumn crops should be 6:4 
or 5:5. This proportion not only helps rational use of water, 
but also helps in revival of soil fertility. 

8) — AUR SRR) 
9) .--- BPRAR CSAS) 

Chart Showing Curves For Changes in Volume of River Flow and 
Times of Summer and Autumn Crop Irrigation in the Hexi Corridor 

1) ({Illegible] 

2) Summer Crop Irrigation 
3)Summer Soaking 

4) Autumn Crop Irrigation 

5) Autumn and Winter Irrigation 

6) January-December 
7) =-<<- Hei River Water System (Zhamashike Hydrology Station) 

8) —eeeShule River Water System (Changmabao Hydrology Station) 
9) «-+--Shiyang River Water System (Sigouju Hydrology Station) 




Nanjing XINHUA RIBAO in Chinese 26 Oct 82 p 1 

[Text] Starting out with the idea of supporting industrial and agricultural 
production and improving the lives of the people Xuzhou Prefecture has 
adopted effective measures to conscientiously resolve the problem of “diffi- 

culties in buying and selling." 

In July and August, a large number of commercial workers at the prefectural 
and county levels went out to undertake practical investigation and, from 
first-hand materials, discerned the following new conditions and problems in 
this year’s purchasing of agricultural sideline products and in the supply of 
industrial products: 1) Purchasing volume has increased by a large margin. 
Compared with last year, the amount of grain procured, purchased above-quota 
by the state and by negotiation in the entire prefecture showed an increase 
of almost 100 million jin; purchases of ginned cotton, oil and live hogs in- 
creased by 150,000 dan, 24 million jin, and 180,000 head respectively. 

2) The business of settling accounts in procurement was difficult. Follow- 
ing the implementation of the system of responsibility for tasks until com- 
pletion, the selling of mroe than 90 per nt of the ginned cotton and more 
than 60 percent of grains and oil in the prefecture changed from the original 
approach of making the team deliver and settle accounts to making the house- 
hold deliver and settle accounts; thereby increasing the business volume 
several times, and even several tens of times. 3) The reserves of oil and 
pork increased. At the end of August, the reserves of oil and pork in the 
entire prefecture increased by 1.9 times and 38 percent respectively compared 
with the same period the year earlier. 4) The purchasing power of the pea- 
sants greatly increased. According to the estimates, the purchasing power for 
the prefecture this year has increased by about 12 percent compared with that 
of the last year. In addition, the selectiveness of purchase also increased. 
The above-described situation has enabled the prefectural and county ieader- 
ship to clearly understand that adopting positive measures which enable the 
peasants to sell the products they can sell and to buy the items that are 
available is not only an economic question, but also a political question. 

It is not only an unshirkable responsibility for the commerce and the supply 
and marketing departments, but also an important piece of work for every level 

of the leadership. 

Next, the prefecture conscientiously implemented four concrete measures for 
resolving "difficulties in buying and selling”: 1) Increase the number of 


purchasing and selling locations. The prefecture established a total of 26 
cotton, grain and oil purchasing stations, and increased the number of pur- 
chasing personnel by more than 2,000. Apart from establishing an additional 
159 sales departments for selling industrial products and 77 selling-distrib- 
uting shops, the prefecture also added a number of brigade-operated, self- 
managed stores and individual merchant households. 2) Undertake training in 
business techniques. The commerce, the supply and marketing and other depart- 
ments in the prefecture have trained to date more than 1,700 vocational back- 
bone personnel, thereby greatly increasing work efficiency and the quality and 
volume of the business. According to spot checks on 16 cotton purchasirg sta- 
tions, the accuracy in the grade of commodities reached 98.5 percent. 

3) Improve purchasing methods. In the purchasing of grain, cotton and oil, 
the prefecture commonly adopted the methods of making preliminary contracts, 
setting specific times, and rotating its purchases. By further improving 
accounting methods, comune members selling cotton only have to stand in line 
twice to sell rather than five times as before. Crowding and spending the 
night at purchasing stations no longer take place. 4) Organize to deliver 
goods to the countryside, and launch purchasing at individuai houses. Accord- 
ing to statistics, in the months of July and August, the riefecture organized 
more than 10,000 persons to send goods to the countrysice. At the same time 
it also held 106 county fairs and village fairs to disp ay and sell commodity 
products. The amount of goods sold came tomore than 3.56 million yuan. Many 
purchasing stations also organized their force to go to individual households 

to make purchases. 

Owing to the leadership's giving it serious attention and to effective measures, 
the question of the peasants’ “difficulties in buying and selling” in the pre- 
fecture has taken a turn for the better. By 20 October, the prefecture had pur- 
chased more than 485,000 dan of ginned cotton, which is a 58 percent increase 
over the same period last year. The rapidly-improving Feng County and Fei 
County have already overfulfilled their quota in purchasing ginned cotton for 

the entire year. 

CSO: 4007/51 




Nanjing XINHUA RIBAO in Chinese 28 Oct 82 p 2 

[Text] “To actively cure the fusarium wilt and verticillium wilt of cotton is 
not only related to the flourishing or decline, the existence or disappearance 
of Nantong’s cotton regions; but it is also related to whether or not we will 
be able to make contributions in realizing the great goals established by the 
12th party congress. All levels of cadres and the masses of commune members 
must give serious attention to this!" This was the urgent requirement raised 
not long ago by the Nantong Prefecture Committee and Administrative Office for 
the entire prefecture. By means of extensive and penetrating discussions, com- 
prehensive preventative measures were formulated to "protect the disease-free 
regions, control the regions where disease is not serious, transform the regions 
which are seriously affected, eliminate the scattered and individual cases, and 
try within 2 or 3 years to bring fusarium wilt and verticillium wilt of cotton 
under control.” These measures are known to every household. A mass movement 
to tend and protect agricultural land which is carrying disease is just now 

developing throughout the prefecture. 

The cotton fields of Nantong Prefecture make up almost 5 percent of the entire 
country’s cotton acreage. The cotton output several years ago was consistently 
almost 10 percent of the total output for the country, which made it one of the 
country's high cotton output regions. However, for 2 or 3 years, cotton output 
has not risen. Why was that? After the investigation by the prefecture's 
leading organizations, the serious situation was clearly seen: the area that 
was afflicted by cotton fusarium wilt this year has reached 27.1 million mu, 
which is an increase of 8.7 times over 1974. Of these, more than 1.35 million 
mu have serious plant disease. This year, the actual area was 150,000 mu after 
discounting the loss of harvest and the dead seedlings, which is 5 percent of 
the entire prefecture's cotton fields. Cotton fields that are afflicted by the 
disease generally have a reduced output of 20 or 30 percent and at most 60 per- 
cent. Calculating reduced output at 20 percent, the entire prefecture suffered 
a loss of 400,000 or 500,000 dan of cotton. Although areas that were afflicted 
by the verticillium wilt of cotton were not as great as those afflicted by 
fusarium wilt, the speed at which it spread greatly exceeded that of fusarium 
wilt. A survey in 1979 showed that the prefecture had only over 800 mu of dis- 
ease-afflicted cotton fields. This year it has 106,052 mu, an increase of 206 
fold within 3 years. The development of verticillium wilt is slower than that 
of fusarium wilt because clear symptoms appear only during the blooming period. 

By this time there is no way to rescue the disease-stricken cotton; a reduced 
output and harvest loss become a foregone conclusion. Verticillium wilt is 
not only a devastating disease for cotton, but also the fierce enemy of many 
other crops. In vies of the above, the prefecture's leadership, apart from 
urgently mobilizing the broad cadres and commune members to discuss comprehen- 
sive measures for prevention, also specially invited experts to make a special 
report to all levels of cadres, so as to develop confidence and determination 
to overcome the damage from verticillium and fusarium wilt. Thereupcn, the 
entire prefecture adopted the following vigorous measures: 

--Tightly seal off the regions and epidemic points where verticillium wilt 
exists. Assign people to pick cotton; burn all cotton stalks and fallen leaves, 
and administer pesticides to the disease-stricken soil. Concerned departments 
should all independently purchase, process, store, and transport fusarium wilt 
and verticillium wilt cotton. They are to employ high-temperature treatment 

of the disease-stricken cotton oil and, apart from using them as industrial 

raw materials, destroy on the spot the disease-afflicted cotton seeds, cotton 
cake, and fragments. As regards peanuts, hot peppers and eggplants that were 
afflicted by verticillium wilt, they must be strictly controlled so that they 
don't spread to the disease-free areas. 

--Strictly select and reserve nonafflicted fields, cultivating them as seed- 
ling beds to grow next spring's cotton. Adopt measures to guard against soil 
already contaminated and bacteria-carrying objects from entering into non- 
afflicted areas. Every county and commune must have rules stipulating that 
seeds cannot be exchanged with the disease-afflicted areas. All those who 
violate these rules will be investigated and affixed the economic responsibil- 
ity. For brigades whose cotton fields are stricken severely, cotton seedlings 
must not be retained. The seed company of each county will make a uniform 

adjustment in supplying seeds. 

--Rotate crops rationally so as to reduce the amount of bacteria in the soil. 
In enacting regulations governing autumn ploughing, two counties changed their 
old custom of intercropping grain and cotton and instead, implemented rotation- 
al cropping of pure grain and pure cotton. The cadres and commune members of 
other counties also adjusted their stubble fields, so as to insure that one- 
third of the cotton fields next year will be planted with rice or dry land 
grain; this will reduce repeated cropping in the same field. These disease- 
and pest-reducing measures have already been carried out by individuals, house- 
holds and on parts of fields. 

cso: 4007/51 




Shanghai WENHUI BAO in Chinese 16 Oct 82 p 2 

[Text] Traveling west from Xian for about 2 hours by train along the Longhai 
line, one reaches the town of Yangling in Wugong County, Shaanxi Province. 
China's first agricultural science research center--the Wugong Agricultural 
Science Research Center--is located here. 

Tradition has it that Wugong was the fiefdom in which Hou Ji, agricultural min- 
ister to Yao and Shun--the forefathers of the Chinese people--taught farming to 
the people. Now this area has row upon row of higher education institutions and 
agricultural science research units. The Northwest Agricultural Science Insti- 
tute, which has a history of 50 years, is located on the highest place north 

of the town. Located on the east and west of the town are various higher- 
learning institutions such as the Shaanxi Provincial Agriculture and Forestry 
Science Institute, the Northwest Soil and Water Conservation Research Institute, 
the Northwest Plant Research Institute, the Northwest Water Conservancy Science 
Research Institute, the Northwest Forestry Academy, the Shaanxi Provincial 
Forestry Science Research Institute, the Shaanxi Provincial Agriculture and 
Forestry School, the Shaanxi Provincial Water Conservancy School, as well as 

the Wugong Agriculture Science Research Center Coordination Committee, which 
has as its priority the coordination of the division of labor, cooperation in 
work actions and the joint tackling of key problems. 

In schools and science research units, there are more than 20 specialties in 
new technical applications, such as soil and fertilizer, water and soil con- 
servation, crops and improved varieties, agricultural meteorology, agricultural 
machinery, plant classification, biological heredity, ecology and physiology, 
plant protection, agricultural economy, farmland and water conservancy, water 
conservancy projects, animal husbandry veterinarian, forestry, fruit trees, 
vegetables, and silkworms and mulberry plants. They have more than 2,590 
scientific and technical personnel. Of these, there are over 160 teachers, 
research personnel, and high-level engineers. There are more than 2,000 mu 

of experimental bases, more than 1 million volum2s of scientific and technical 
books, and more than 150 scientific research instruments worth more than 10,000 
yuan. For many years, these scientific research teaching units have achieved 
more than 600 positive results in scientific research and educated 20,000 high- 
and middle-level scientific and technical personnel. They have made a contri- 
bution in developing our country’s agriculture, and they have been hailed as a 
"scientific and technical general staff department directing agricultural pro- 



At the beginning of last year, China's first agricultural science assembly 
hall, with a total area of more than 9,000 square meters, was established 
here. It is a place specifically for agricultural science and technical 
workers to engage in scholarly exchanges. Several agricultural science con- 
ferences have already been held here with the participation of well-known 
Chinese and foreign scholars. 

The scientific and technical personne] of the Wugong Agricultural Science Re- 
search Center rely upon the fertile soil of 800 li of the Qin River, abundant 
library materials, and modernized instruments and facilities to engage constant- 
ly in scientific research which bring ample results. During the visit, the 
responsible comrades of the Science Research Center's Coordination Committee 
introduced us to several encouraging examples. Professor Zhou Rao [0719 7437], 
a famous entomologist of the Northwest Agricultural Science Institute, has 
engaged in research on insects for several decades, and achieved outstanding 
OMY], which enjoys both a domestic and international reputation. This journal 
has invited 20 world-reknowned scholars on insect classification to serve as 

a news editing committee. This journal exclusively publishes papers, short 
reports, and scholarly discussions on insect classification, which include new 
viewpoints and accomplishments on taxonomic principles, systems, techniques and 
methods, etc. Professor Zhou Rao is nowmore than 70 years of age, but still 
rushes about on the front line of scientific research and teaching. Research 
worker Li Zhensheng [2621 2182 5116], of the Northwest Plant Research Insti- 
tute, an All-China Model Laborer and one of the 12 Advanced Red Flag model 
workers of Shaanxi Province, has for several years continually engaged in 
research on distant hybridization. His success in the experimentation in 

the hybridization of wheat and perennial long-spike oat grass not only made a 
great contribution in theory, but also in cultivating the improved high-yielding, 
lodging- and disease-resistant varieties of Xiao Yan No 4 and No 5. This experi- 
ment in hybridization led to large-area increases in wheat yield, with outputs 
exceeding 1,000 per mu. ...According to the preliminary statistics of concerned 
departments, just the one variety of improved wheat developed by the experts of 
the Science Research Center and popularized and planted in the winter wheat 
regions of such provinces as Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Gansu and Shanxi alone 
allowed for more than 100 million and 3,000 square mu, with an increased grain 

output of approximately 10 billion jin. 

By using methods such as holding classes for the communes and brigades, con- 
vening discussion meetings, signing contracts to demonstrate how to multiply 
improved varieties, going into the fields to give on-the-spot guidance, invit- 
ing peasant technicians to be their assistants, the scientific and technical 
personnel here teach science and technology and help the masses solve produc- 
tion problems. Professor Zhao Hongzhang [6392 3163 3864] of Northwest Agricul- 
tural Science Institute, a well-known specialist on wheat breeding, and Xu Bao- 
shan [6079 1405 6365], party branch secretary of the Xiajiagu Brigade of the 
Yangling Commune, Wugong County, and a national farm labor model, stand as 
beacons for scientific experiments in agriculture. The contract signed by 

them to demonstrate how to multiply the improved varieties works as follows: 
Zhao Hongzhang gave Xu Baoshan all kinds of improved varieties of wheat to 
breed and popularize, and making them responsible for technical guidance; 


Xu Baoshan arranged for the labor force and the land, and supplied experi- 
mental materials for Zhao Hongzhang. The heartsof the specialist and the 
labor model are united in achieving the same goal. In February of this year, 
when the wheat started to turn green, there was a big snowstorm in the central 
Shaanxi plain. Zhao Hongzhang immediately went to Xiajaigu, along with Xu 
Raoshan, to inspect the growth of the spring seedlings. They decided right 
away to harrow the fields to hold the moisture in the soil. They would then 
apply top-dressing so that the second and third layers of seedlings could take 
advantage of the moisture. When the wheat entered the milk period and began 
to become yellow and mature, Zhao Hongzhang again would make trips to Xiajaigu 
where, along with commune members, he formulated concrete measures to prevent 
damage by disease and insects. This year, of the 920 mu of wheat produced by 
the Xiajiagu Brigade, the average per mu yield reached 800 jin, making it the 
highest level in history. Whenever the Xiajiagu commune members speak of bump- 
er harvests, they all say that they want to record the meritorious service of 

Zhao Hongshang. 

cso: 4007/51 




Jinan DAZHONG RIBAO in Chinese 17 Oct 82 p l 

[Text] Shandong Province originally had been one of the important soybean 
producing regions of the nation. After liberation, the annual acreage 
always was above 30 million mu to produce about 3 billion jin of soybean a 
year. After 1958, due to a preference for grains, soybean acreage dropped 
steadily. In 1980, the soybean acreage went back to 10.42 million mu and 
total production rose to 1.68 billion jin, but the serious contradiction 
between supply and demand has not been alleviated. Restoration and develop- 
ment of the province's soybean production have, therefore, become very 

urgent tasks. 

With respect to methods of restoring and developing soybean production in 
the province quickly in order to satisfy the needs of the nation and the 
people, Zhao Jingrong [6392 4842 2837], senior agricultural specialist, 
chief of the Soybean Research Office, Institute of Crops, Shandong Provin- 
cial Academy of Agricultural Sciences believed that problems of the follow- 
ing four aspects should be earnestly resolved. 

(1) The role of soybeans in the national economy and its function in 
ecological balance should be correctly understood. Soybeans are a nutrient 
crop, used both as protein and oil. They contain about 40 percent protein, 
5 times that of rice, 4 times that of corn, 2.5 times that of wheat, and 
higher than that of pork as well. Their oil content is about 20 percent. 
Soybean oil amounts to one-third of the total production of vegetable oils 
in the world forming an important solution to mankind's problem of edible 
oil supplies. Soybeans also have extensive uses in light industry, food 
industry, and the pharmaceutical industry, in more than 400 types of 
products. At the same time, soybeans are symbiotic with root nodule bac- 
teria capable of fixing free nitrogen from the air. According to tests, 
the nitrogen fixed by each mu of soybean per year is the equivalent of 35 
to 65 jin of standard ammonium sulfate. Its residual stems and leaves in 
the soil can also improve the soil physical-chemical properties to nurture 
soil fertility. Soybeans have, therefore, an important function either in 
improving the food structure of the people, or in providing raw materials 
for industries, or in maintaining soil nitrogen balance through partici- 

pating in crop rotation. 


(2) The link between grains and beans should be correctly organized to 
practice a reasonable layout. At present, with regard to the crop order- 
ing of grains and beans in the province, two tendencies deserve attention: 
One is that some high-yield regions blindly expand grains at the expense 
of beans and cause the ratio of soybeans to become smaller and smaller in 
the crop rotation systems. The soil nitrogen balance is thus severely 
destroyed. Even with annual applications of large quantities of chemical 
fertilizer, a high yield cannot be sustained. Production cost is thus much 
higher resulting in decreased economic benefit. Second is the fact that 
some low-yielding regions blindly expand beans at the expense of grains. 
Soybeans are being repeatedly planted, over and over. Although field 
management measures are applied, the yield remains unimproved. Experi- 
ments have proved that if soybeans are continuously planted for 3 years, 
there will be a yield reduction of 27 to 60 percent. The grain-bean ratio 
should, therefore, be harmonious if all types of crops are to have evenly 
increasing yields. According to the current condition of soil fertility 
and agricultural production level of the province, in regions of a per mu 
yield cf wheat of about 500 jin, the acreage of bean crops should be the 
equivalent of 30 to 50 percent of the wheat acreage. With this type of 
arrangement, the soil nitrogen balance may be maintained and the crop rota- 
tion of beans and grains may also be reasonably practiced. 

Soybean is a crop of high regional requirements. Based upon the natural 
characteristics of Shandong and the growth characteristics of soybean, the 
province may be divided into the following 3 regions of commercial soybean 
production: The first is the region along Huanghe in the southwestern part 
of the province, mainly Heze, Cao County, Chengwu, Dan County, Juye, 
Huicheng, Juancheng, Dongming, Liangshan, etc. Here the annual rainfall 

is 600-800 mm; the annual mean temperature is 13-14°C. The frostfree 
period is long, there are 2,400 to 2,600 daylight hours making it the 

the warmest region in the province. The habit of basin-irrigation of the 
region has caused the soil to be highly fertile and also contents of such 
trace elements as calcium, magnesium, manganese, etc., to be relatively 
high. The region is very suitable for the growth of soybeans, with a 

great potential for yield increase. It should be the province's major base 
for commercial soybeans. The se-ond is the northwest part of the province 
including mainly Wudian, Zhanhua, Lijin, Kenli, Guangyao, and Huimin, etc. 
This is a vast region, sparsely populated, with adequate conditions for 
establishing a [soybean] base. If basin-irrigation is adopted, the soil 
nitrogen and potassium content may rise to more than 3 times the original 
while the phosphorus content may be increased 5 to 20-fold. Although the 
soil is relatively fertile, its texture is very poor. At present, due to 
saline and alkaline damage, soybean acreage cannot be stabilized. In the 
future, with control and treatment of saline and alkaline lands, the region 
will develop into the province's major base of commercial soybean produc- 
tion. The third is the four lake region of the south which may be further 
divided into three small districts according to the cropping system. One 
is the soybean cropping district to the west, including Jiaxiang, Jinxiang, 
the northwestern part of Jining, and the southwestern part of Wenshang. 
This is an important soybean producing district and is also the region of 
the highest rate of commercial grade soybean. The second is the central 


district with a corn and soybean intercropping system, centered in the 
plain of Yanzhou to include Qufou, the western plain of Zheng County, and 
the northern part of Jining, etc. The third is the region of soybean 
cropping on rice paddy embankments, distributed chiefly in the lowland 
areas along the lakes of Yutai, Jining, Jinxiang, Jiaxiang, and part of 
Weishan, a district of rice production. Generally, 30-40 jin of soybean 
may be harvested from each mu of paddy embankment, sometimes as much as 
50 jin/mu. If it is managed well, each year an increase of 25 to 40 million 
jin of soybean may be harvested from this district alone. 

(3) Advanced technology should be extended to improve unit yield. At 
present, the "six-change and one-insistence" method must be implemented. 
That is to say changing low-yielding poor species to high-yielding superior 
species, changing the method of broadcasting in stubbles, to plowing and 
turning stubbles [before seeding], changing late seeding to early seeding, 
changing natural density to thinning seedlings to a determined density, 
changing no fertilizer application to increased application of phosphorus 
fertilizer and supplementing nitrogen according to the appearance of the 
seedlings, and changing dry seeding and dry management to irrigation in 
stages; and insisting upon prevention and control of diseases and pests. 
Moreover, attention must be given to improve the basic conditions for the 
growth and development of soybeans. Soybean crops in Shandong are 80-90 
percent summer soybean and generally stubbles are not removed and the field 
is not plowed for seeding soybeans; neither basic fertilizer or seeding 
fertilizer is applied. Under this cropping condition, not only is the soil 
fertility poor, but the soil texture is also very hard, with poor water 
retention and drainage capability and poor ventilation producing many 
unfavorable factors for the growth and development of soybeans. Practices 
here and abroad have proved that one of the important conditions for high- 
yielding soybeans is a high content of organic matter in the soil. The 
soils of Shandong's soybean producing regions generally have an organic 
matter content of 0.8 to 0.9 percent, not above 1.2 in the high organic 
content areas. There are 3 measures to change this thin and poor soil 
structure condition: (1) Increasing the application of farm fertilizer in 
large quantities; (2) turning over wheat stubbles into the soil; (3) inter- 
cropping green manure in wheatfields. In addition, the method of deep hoe- 
ing in trenches between mounds of soybean during the seedling stage is an 
obviously effective method of improving soil ventilation; on the average 

a yield increase of 8 percent may be obtained with this method. 

(4) Scientific research on soybeans should be strengthened to advance 
science and technology and hence, soybean production. At present, combined 
with the reality of the province, the following 3 tasks should be earnestly 
attended to: (1) Research on selection and breeding of early ripening 
superior soybeans should be accelerated. Attention should also be given 

to breeding intermediate-ripening varieties suitable for intercropping 
with wheat. Its properties should be mainly the unlimited pod formation 
type soybean with broad adaptability; the stalk should be 80-90 cm in 
height. The desired varieties should have strong stems, numerous pods and 
many beans per pod; the leaves should be medium to small in size and the 
photosynthesis efficiency should be high. As to quality of beans, they 


should be mainly the high protein type, with a protein content above 40 
percent, and at the same time a high oil content should also be considered 
(with an oil content above 21 percent). (2) While large acreage high yield 
experiences are continuously summarized, the principle of small area high 
yield should be studied to investigate further high and stable yielding 
soybeans on the bases of ecological, physiological, biochemical, and 
hereditary principles to find new approaches to large acreage large-scale 
yield increase. (3) Researches on prevention and control of soybean dis- 
eases and pests should be continuously strengthened. 

CSO: 4007/53 




in Chinese No 10, 23 Oct 82 pp 16-20 

Article by Zhang Xieyu [1728 6200 5940],Rural Work Department, 
Jinzhong Prefecture CPC Committee, Shanxi Province: "Discussion 
of "Contracting of Sole Responsibility for Task Completion to 
Individual Households and Financial Management" ] 

[Excerpt } In the process of summarizing and improving agricultu- 
ral production responsibility systems, fiscal management in the 
contracting of sole responsibility for task completion to indi- 
vidual households is a topic that merits particular study and 
serious attention. Here only the necessity for fiscal management 
following the contracting of sole responsibility for task com- 
pletion will be taken up, and some not fully developed thoughts 
provided for reference on several key work areas that should be 
taken in hand, as well as on the problem of building a financial 
corps following contracting of sole responsibility for task com- 


Necessity For Strengthening Fiscal Management Following Contract- 
ing of Sole Responsibility for Task Completion 

1. After the responsibility system of contracting sole responsi- 
bility for task completion was instituted, some people supposed 
that "now that sole responsibility for task completion has been 
contracted, there is no need for financial work; every family 
will act as its own accountant, and there will be no need for 
ledgers." However, the existing objective reality is quite the 
reverse. Following contracting of sole responsibility for task 
completion, financial problems are more conspicuous, work more 
complicated, and management more necessary than ever. 

1. Practice of responsibility systems in which sole responsibil- 
ity for task completion is contracted to individual households 


has meant a fundamental change from centralized administration 
and centralized responsibility for profits and losses to house- 
hold by household administration and individual household respon- 
Sibility for profits and losses. The form of administration 

and management has undergone real change. However, this is 
certainly not the division of fields for individual farming; it 
remains a collective economy in which production teams are still 
the central accounting units. Therefore, the general function of 
financial management has not disappeared as a result of the 
contracting of sole responsibility for task completion to indi- 
vidual households. In units practicing the contracting of tasks 
to individual households, the central goal of production remains 
obtaining better economic effectiveness, and the state of a 
unit's economic effectiveness becomes an imponderable problem when 
divorced from financial accounting. Never mind financial 
resources; material resources too are nothing more than wealth in 
material form. As regards the production relationships that 
people form, whatever the form of ownership or distribution, 

or whatever the position and role of people in production, ulti- 
mately they are reflected in financial relationships. For exam- 
ple, no matter whether exchange is selling or buying; no matter 
whether consumption is consumption for production or consumption 
in daily life; no matter whether distribution is distribution 
among the country, the collective, and individuals or distribu- 
tion of consumer goods to individual workers, the economic final 
accountings, the receipts and expenditures, and the economic 
transactions are all a part of financial activity. It may be seen 
that following the contracting of sole task responsibility to 
individual households, the basic production links in the repro- 
duction process are inseparable from financial management. All 
one has to do is think back a little to the process of promoting 
responsibility systems of large scale assignment of responsibili- 
ties when there were instances in which no accountants were around 
or people were not familiar with accounting work, and the delays 
that resulted in building such a responsibility system, and one 
can understand the importance of financial management and how it 
has to be vigorously strengthened. 

2. The necessity for financial management in the responsibility 
system of contracting sole responsibility for tasks to households 
is also fairly distinct from the methods of this responsibility 
system and from other forms of responsibility systems. It 

contains various new characteristics necessitating correspond- 
ingly new understanding and new methods in financial management 
work. One might say that in the process of establishing and 
improving the large scale assignment of task responsibility system, 
it is in financial management that the amount of work is greater 

and the difficulties more numerous. 


First of all, in quite a few units practicing large scale assign- 
ment of responsibilities, inherited problems in financi3l manage- 
ment exist in varying degrees. The very reason why some units 
want large scale assignment of responsibilities is that their 
collective economies have not worked well, and they nave become 
"three dependent" production teams that have been unable to 
solve even the problems of food and clothing for commune mem- 
bers. In these units, a vital problem is poor financial manage- 
ment, and serious extravagance and waste. The question is wheth- 
er or not the financial problems that have come about in these 
units can be vanquished with one stroke following the practice of 
large scale assignment of responsibilities. They cannot be. 
Problems such as accumulation funds running in the red, commune 
members owing money to collectives, collectives owing money to 
the state, excessive wear and tear on fixed assets, and differen- 
ces between ledgers and actualities will continue to be problems. 
Changes in the form of responsibility systems does not mean that 
"inherited problems" will naturally become resolved. 

Second, in the process of organizing assignment of responsibil- 
ities, some units that practice large scale assignment of respon- 
Sibilities have accumulated a varying number of new problems. In 
putting into effect responsibility systems wherein sole respon- 
Sibility is assigned to individual households, the financial 
management problems that have to be taken care of, it is feared, 
are somewhat more numerous and somewhat more complex than in 
other forms of responsibility systems. Some collective fixed 
assets that had heretofore been collectively owned and collec- 
tively managed became managed by households following the con- 
tracting of responsibilities, and some others will become owned by 
households. With management being delegated downward, how will 
depreciation fees be withheld? When property becomes owned by 
households, how can its cost be recovered. How can the collec- 
tives' existing debts be paid off? Snould they be deferred or 
amortized? Should overpayments by collectives to commune members 
that are debts in arrears be wiped off the books? How should this 
be done? In cases where the collective's public accumulation 
funds are in the red, should they be replenished? How should 
they be replenished. If there is some surplus, should it be 
used? How should it be used? After assignment of large scale 
responsibilities, should the account books that had formerly been 
set up continue to be used? Should those not used be changed? 
How should they be changed? Should the files of accounts of 
former collective centralized dealings be established? How? 
Should financial systems be drawn up? How should they be drawn 
up? How should accounting in the large scale assignment of 
responsibilities be set up? How should compensation be set? 

How should personal responsibility systems be established. Some 
units have started to solve problems of these kinds. But mostly 


because of the short time and insufficient experience, in most 
units not only do less than satisfactory situations universally 
exist, but some of them have not been touched at all. In addition, 
in the course of changes in the forms of responsibility systems, 
in some individual units, collectively owned property has been 
auctioned off, damaged, dispersed, destroyed, or lost, bringing 
about new chaos in the financial work of these units. 

Third, following establishment of responsibility systems of large 
Scale assignment of responsibilities and the signing of con- 
tracts, there are many problems in the field of financial manage- 
ment requiring further study and solution. For example, in 
principle commune members are themselves responsible for their 
own living expenses, but what is to be done if some commune 
members have insufficient funds? If the collective advances them 
funds, will they be required to make repayment later on, and how 
will they repay? Earnings situations have to be reported to 
higher authority, but what about the portion "remaining that 
belongs to commune members?" Is that to be figured in too? What 
about the portion that commune members "guarantee the state?" How 
is it to be paid and hows is it to be figured? How much should 
"the sufficient amount to be left to collectives" be? How is it 
to be used? In addition to labor under contract, collectives 
also have some labor that is centrally administered. How should 
this labor be recorded; how is it to participate in distribu- 
tions? All these problems are problems that cannot be avoided 

in the production process following large scale contacting of 
responsibilities. Financial management must be a part of the 
solution to these problems. Unless managed in the proper way, it 
Will not be possible to say that production responsibility sys- 
tems of large scale contracting of responsibilities have been 


To summarize the foregoing, financial management following large 
scale contracting of responsibilities will not only continue its 
general function, but will have to meet special requirements. Any 
Slighting or neglect of financial management following large 
scale assignment of responsibilities for task completion will 
seriously impair the perfection of this form of responsibility 
System itself, and this should be fully taken into account and 

clearly understood. 

Several Problems of Financial Management in Units Where Sole 
Responsibility For Task Completion Has Been Contracted to House- 


Following contracting of sole responsibility for task completion 
to individual households, there are a very large number of prob- 


lems of fiscal management that require handling. Fight now it 
is necessary to devote particular attention to the following 
tnree fairly prominent problems. 

After the contracting of sole responsibility for task completion 
in rural production to individual households, obvious changes 
occurred in the management and methods of using fixed assets. 
Apart from some large farm machines, vehicles, water conservancy 
facilities, and collectively owned forests that lend themselves 
to centralization and which continued to be centrally managed and 
used by collectives, a portion of fixed assets such as plow oxen 
and medium size and small farm implements were contracted out to 
individual households permanently for their care and use 
(depreciation fees being withheld), or else a price was assigned 
such items and they were simply turned over to individual house- 
holds (and money recovered for them). As time went on, tne 
financial affairs of these units took on the following character- 
istics and circumstances: First, because of changes in the use 
rights (or ownership rights) of fixed assets, a yours and mine 
Situation came about. Second, the "capital" or "value" of fixed 
assets fluctuated. Third, a greatly increased fluidity of 
contacts occurred in economic relationships between collectives 
and commune members. Under these circumstances, care of fixed 
assets became particularly necessary in the contracting of sole 
responsibility for task completion to individual households. As 
work kept pace, collective property was able to consolidate, and 
the productive capacity already formed was able to continue to 
play its role to attain the goal of using everything to the full. 
Otherwise, it would have been a case of "chaos" resulting from 
changes, chaos leading to destruction, with the emergence of the 
following situation for a weakening of the collective economy: 
The property that should play a role would be removed from use or 
cast aside and not used. Property that should maintain its value 
would be auctioned off at will or sold at inflated prices. 
Depreciation fees and the money value of property that should be 
collected would not be recovered, increasing commune members 


1. Protection and Management of Collectively Owned Fixed Assets. 

For this reason, following institution of the contracting of sole 
responsibility for task completion, concepts of protection, con- 
Ssolidation, and development of collectively owned property must 
be firmly established in the management of fixed assets, and full 
attention given the following points in actual work: 1) A 
thorough one-time inventorying of collectively own property and 
food. Use of questioning and examination, checking and sorting, 
verification of amounts, and making clear the amount of wealth so 
that ledgers and the actual situation are in agreement. When 
problems arise, the party's programs and policies should be 


honored, Situations distinguished, and correct handling given 
them. 2) For collectively owned property the principle should be 
followed of centralizing whatever should be centralized and decen- 
tralizing whatever snould be decentralized so that everything is 
used to the full extent with the goal of promoting production, 
individualdecisions being made as to what should be centralized 
and what should be decentralized. Neither overcentralizaion nor 
overdecentralization are desirable. But neither centralizing nor 
dGecentralizing, but simply taking property out of service is even 
worse. 3) For anything assigned permanently to households for 
care and use, a fixed depreciation fee should be collected. 

For things not released to households, a depreciation fee should 
be regularly retrieved. Neither depreciation fees nor assignment 
of a money value to things should be set too low, and repayment 
dates should not be overly long. For all monies recovered, the 
principle of "specialized household savings" should be adhered 
to. All money collected should be made a part of accumulation 
funds, and when depreciation funds are collected, they should be 
deposited in depreciation funds. Under certain conditions the 
foregoing funds may be deposited in special credit cooperative 
accounts to assure that such funds are not used for any other 

2. Inventorying and Repayment of Collective Credits and Debts. 
In carrying on production, production teams often enter into 
various economic relationships internally or externally. Unless 
regular, periodic settling of accounts is done in these relation- 
ships, obligations will form. 

Obligations may be classified as credits or debts. So-called 
credits are sums one has the right to collect, and are commonly 
termed funds outstanding, and include funds owed by state entre- 
prenural units, by commune-run enterprises and other collective 
units and overpayments to commune members owed to production 
teams. By so-called debts is meant the production team's 
obligations or funds that must be repaid. These are commonly 
termed funds owing. They include loans due for repayment to the 
State (or to credit cooperatives) by production teams, deposits, 
and fees for electricity and water, as well as funds owing other 
collective units or as distributions to commune members within 
the production team. Up until the time of large scale 
contracting of responsibilities, when everything was done in the 
name of the collective, there was a general feeling of "no 

worry if debts are numerous." After institution of large scale 
contracting, both credits and debts have had to be cleared up. 

First comes analysis of obligations. Apart from some funds owed 
other units for grain and funds owed commune members in a small 
number of units, most of the collective obligations of units 

practicing large scale contracting of responsibilities are loans 
from the state that have come due for repayment. After institution 
of responsibility systems of large scale assignment of respon- 
Sibdbilities, since payment of agricultural production expenses 
became the concern of commune members in contracting households, 
ana loans of a production nature were no longer the responsib- 
ility of collectives, it is expected that the trend will be 

toward no increase. 

Tne problems of arrears in repayment of loans due tne state and 
payable by the collective will not increase greatly. But a 
conspicuous problem staring this responsibility system in the 
face is what is to be done about debts already "owing?" Not 
repayins them will not do, yet quick solution cannot be found. 
Commune members would not agree to their apportionment among 
commune member accounts. To ignore them would be unreasonable, 
first of all; there can be no reneging on payment. Secondly, 
this would not be realistic because the annual interest is 
itself no small burden. Therefore active measures must be taken 
and every effort made to repay them gradually. Experiences 
everywhere show that following the large scale assignment of 
responsibilities, repayment of loans took the following forms: 
1) Once commune member living standards have improved and their 
income has increased, by proper limitation of consumption and 
malting extravagance, that portion of income derived from the 
collectives centralized operations should be used to repay part 
of debts. 2) Loans for equipment that are due or overdue should 
be repaid year by year out of accumulation funds withheld from 
payments by commune member households. 3) When debts owing and 
credits outstanding are "triangular" relationships and inter- 
twined, attention should be given to clearing credits (mostly 
funds owed by commune members to the collective). In a majority 
of units, commune member debts to collectives for overpayment of 
funds frequently are about the same amount as debts that 
collectives owe the state, so if credits were cleared up, debts 

could also be repaid. 

Seconda is further analysis of credits. In units practicing 

large scale assignment of responsibilities, there will be some 
cases in which outside units owe funds, but not too many. Their 
credits outstanding are made up largely of commune member arrears 
in debts owing collectives as a result of overpayments. After 
large scale assignment of responsibilities, generally there has 
been no further distributions of consumer goods to commune 
members (all that remains is their own), so the trend will be 
toward no increase in new arrears in repayment of overpayments 
for the most part. However, if commune members are unable to pay 
their portion of grain to the amount set in agreements, and if 
commune members are unable to pay on time the depreciation fees 


and use fees for property for which they have contracted, there 
is a good possibility of a new situation of "commune members 
Owing the collective” developing. Therefore, solution to the 
problem of money owing units practicing large scale assignment of 
responsibilities will be manifested simultaneously in both the 
clearinr up of old overpayments that are owing 2nd guarding 
against new debts incurred in payment of funds. Following large 
scale assignment of responsibilities, all jurisdictions have 

come up with some workable means of solving this unsolved prob- 
lem of arrears as follows: 1) In cases where commune members 

have difficulty in repaying in full money owing collectives, 
discussions are held and a repayment plan worked out on the basis 
of ability to repay. An agreement is signed and repayment is 
made over the years until the debt is cleared up. 2) Where 
official position was misused or other improper practices employ- 
ed to obtain advances from the collective, the unrepaid 

funds used to build houses, add on rcoms or purchase bicycles, 
sewing machines, and wristwatches, the funds must be repaid 
Within a certain time. For all money not repaid, production 

teams may levy interest to be paid at the same rate that credit 
cooperatives charge for loans to commune members for living 
expenses. In cases where childless households or households 
enjoying the five guarantees [childless and infirm old persons 
who are guaranteed food, clothing, medical care, housing, and 
burial expenses by the people's commune] are genuinely unable to 
make repayment, if commune members agree, debts may be cleared 

by using public welfare funds. 4) Surplus funds resulting from 
payments of obligations, wages owing production team cadres and 
teachers in civilian operated schools, and wages for persons 
employed in commune and brigade operated enterprises that are 
turned over to production teams are to ove made a part of commune 
member settlements of accounts. When such funds are owed commune 
members who owe money to the collective, they should be used to 
offset a portion of the debts owed. 5) Collectives may give 
priority to commune member households that have a surplus of 
labor and where conditions permit in the contracting of cash crop 
fields or industrial sideline occupations , deducting loan 
payments from carnings received as a result of the contracting. 

3. Bookkeeping Following Large Scale Assignment of Responsibilit- 
ies. Bookkeeping is a major function of accounting work and 
includes the posting of accounts, the balancing of accounts, and 
the preparation of reports and forms. After institution of the 
responsibility system of large scale assignment of responsibilit- 
ies, the former situation of all activities being centrally 
handled by production teams as accounting units was changed. Did 
this mean that bookkeeping work had become simplified, was no 
longer important, or could be done or not as one wished. Not at 
all. In fact, the content and methods of bookkeeping work only 

changed in order to meet the needs of the responsibility system 
of contracting sole responsibility for task completion to 
individual households; this positively did not mean tnat 
bookkeeping work nad been eliminated. 

It cannot be denied that with the large scale assignment of 
responsibilities, some accounting work was reduced or curtailed 
as compared with other forms of responsibility systems. A look 
at distribution shows that following assignment of sole respon- 
Sibilities to individual households, the change from the former 
centralized verification of receipts and expenditures and from 
tne former centralized distribution of consumer gods on the basis 
of workpoints to distribution on the basis of contract agreements 
Simplified the verification of receipts and expenditures, the 
recording of workpoints, advance distributions of goods, and 
distribution of earnings in the former system of bookkeeping. A 
look at the scope of accounting shows that following contracting 
of sole responsibility for task completion, all production 
expenses aS well as all sales of individual portions of products 
became the concern of the contracting households, and production 
team were concerned only with apportioning expenses for which the 
collective was responsible (such as electric bills), plus loaning 
and supplying to contracting households the production funds and 
basic materials such as seeds, chemical fertilizer, and pesti- 
cides. This greatly reduced the accounting procedures for keeping 
track of individual production receipts and expenditures in the 
production process. A look at management of property shows that 
following assignment of responsibility for work task completion 
to individual households, specific methods were used for 
contracting medium and small size assets used in production to 
individual households, and for large assets, specific specialized 
contracting of management was done. This greatly reduced 
bookkeeping procedures for accounting personnel in keeping track 
of the maintenance and repair of all property, movement of 
materials into and out of warehouses, and fees for the feeding 
and care of draft animals. However, at the same time certain 
work increased. Following assignment of responsibility for work 
task completion to individual households and distribution 
according to signed agreements, accounting work entailed 
collection and collation of economic data from past years to 
provide a basis for formulating agreements. As a result computa- 
tion work of all kinds greatly increased. Following assignment of 
task completion to individual households, provisions had to be 
made to supply from portions surrendered by contracting house- 
holds the wherewithal for cadres, school teachers in locally 
operated schools, barefoot doctors, the families of martyrs and 
military personnel, the households receiving the five guarantees, 
those injured in line of official duties, collective welfare 
activities, workers who farmed land for the families of service- 


men and martyrs, and other centrally administered workers. In 
order to make equitable apportionment, accountants nad to make 
accurate calculations, set apportionment standards, assign fig- 
res to individual households, and carry out distribution at the 
end of the year. After assignment of task completion to individ- 
ual households, since not all the production of the collective 
economy was centrally accounted for, and since the portion going 
to commune members could not be just left out without being 
figured in, accounting personnel had to do statistical work on 
production by commune member contracting households. In short, 

following assignment of responsibility for task completion to 
individual households, there was both an increase and a decrease 

in bookkeeping work. 

So, in an overall sense, what should be included in bookkeeping 
following assignment of responsibility for task completion to 
individual households? 1) Accounting for contract household 
payments to higher authority of grain, materials, and money. 2) 
Accounting of all production team expenditures including payments 
of tax funds, accumulation funds, public welfare funds, and 
management fees. 3) Accounting for fixed assets. Aside from 
fixed assets such as large farm machinery and equipment, 
electro-mechanical equipment, and houses under centralized 
collective management, most important is accounting for the 
property assigned or sold to commune member households. 4) 
Accounting for transactions. Most important of these is 
temporary production team loans to commune members of funds to 
get production started, income from sale of products for commune 
members, funds to be paid production teams by commune members 

for the contracting of draft animals, plus production team 
overpayments of funds and production team defaulted payments of 
funds to commune members dating back to before the assignment of 
sole responsibility for task completion. 5) Accounting for down 
payments on advance purchases. Down payments made by the state 
for advance purchases of agricultural byproducts constitute a 
major means of providing support to commune member production. 
Once advance purchase down payments have been allocated, 
collectives may not make any deductions from them, but must 
distribute them to individual households in accordance with state 
procurement quotas so that commune members can invest them in 
production. Following year end settlement of accounts, the unit 
that originally prepaid them must be repaid. 6) Accounting of 
results of production teams' total activities. This means both 
an accounting of both portions tendered by commune members 
entered into formal accounts and a figuring of portions 
"remaining that belong to commune members themselves" so that 
actual results of all production team production activities will 
be completely reflected. This statistical work includes inspect- 
ion, collection, collation, and analysis. For results of 


activities carried out by contracting nouseholids and expenditures 
they have made, statistics may be compiled through general checks 
on Situations, through representative sampling, and through reg- 
ular recording, with year-end collations being made. 7) Account- 
ing for year-end final settlements and distributions. This 

means verification of all income and expenditures followed by a 
clearing of accounts on all requirements set down in written 
agreements, assuring that they are honored. Finally commune 
member transactions and other transactions should be handled. 

In order to do a good job of bookkeeping after large scale 
assignment of responsibilities, attention must be given to ground 
work in which the "three estab ishments" are most important as 

(1) Establishment of good fina:.cial files. This means setting 
up files in accordance with definite requirements for receipts, 
vouchers, bills, and invoices, setting up account books, reports 
and forms, production plans and financial plans, plans for pre- 
distributions and year-end distributions, statistical forms and 
tables, property rights certificates, and copies of contract 
agreements made with other units. Such work is particularly 
necessary in units in which large scale responsibility for task 
completion has been assigned. There should positively be no 
"balling up of past data to make a mystery of what has gone on in 
the past" because of current large scale assignment of respon- 
Sibilities to individual households. 

(2) Establishment of Complete Financial Lwedgers. There can be 
no bookkeeping without account books, failure to make entries in 
account books, or using forms and vouchers to take the place of 
account books. However, inasmuch as accounting entries and 
methods have changed since large scale assignment of responsib- 
ilities counties may restructure on the basis of current realities 
the six account books formerly centrally required by provinces. 
The following have been the several main ideas proposed for 
restructuring of account books: 1. The former “Worker Workpoint 
Register" may be changed to a "Register of Work Done for the 
Collective," or a "Register of Workpoint Balances." The former 
"Register of Advance Distribution of Goods" need be kept no 
longer. Instead a "Register of Final Settlement of Contracting" 
Should be added. 3. The former "Fixed Assets Ledger," which no 
longer fully satisfies actual requirements, should be replayed 
with a "Property Contract Management Register." The former 
"Account Book of Commune Member Transactions" is to be augmented 
this year with a column for "Agreement Quotas to be Honored," 
which will include agreement quotas, year-end readjustments, and 
actual fulfillment of quotas." In order to compile statistics on 
results of all production following large scale assignment of 


responsibilities to individual households, a "Commune Member 
Goods Receipts and Expenditures Statistical Form" and a "Commune 
Member Production Receipts and Expenditures Statistical Form" 
have been added so that income and expenditures for activities 
that cannot otherwise be included in account books may be 
recorded and collated. 

(3) Establishment and Perfection of Fiscal Systems. Some of the 
formerly promoted systems are still fundamentally applicable. 
These include the receipts and expenditures planning system, the 
System for management of various funds, the system for assigning 
personal responsibility for accounts, money, and materials, the 
property use and management system, the cash management system, 
the system for examination and approval of expenditures, the 
income distribution planning system, the accounting system, and 
the system for turnover of accounting personnel. However, there 
are some individual systems whose content requires certain 
revisions in order to fit in with the financial work situation 
following large scale assignment of responsibilities. 

Establishment of a Financial Accounting Corps In the Wake of 
Large Scale Assignment of Responsibilities to Individual House- 


Following large scale assignment of responsibilities to individ- 
ual households, the importance of financial work shows the 
urgency and necessity for establishing a financial accounting 
corps that is both red and expert. 

Because of the rapid development of responsibility systems of 
large scale assignment of responsibilities to individual 
households and their widespread existence, the financial 
accounting corps is temporarily unable, in its present 
condition, to meet the changed situation. First of all, 
ideological understanding does not meet the situation. Some 
commune members and cadres suppose that following large scale 
assignment of responsibilities, the collective will make no 
investments, there will be no recording of workpoints for labor, 
no distributionhs will be made, and there wil be no need for 
fiscal management. Some accountants suppose that accounting 
procedures will diminish; burdens will be lightened; and that 
accounting work will no longer be important. Some financial 
management personnel suppose that accountants will be busy 
farming the fields for which they have been assigned respons- 
ibility, so making entries in accounts and figuring up accounts 
Will be something they do in passing, convening network station 
activities will be difficult, and there will be no way to take 
care of financial work. Second, work does not meet the 

Situation. Because of the lopsided understanding, there is a 
neglect of financial work all the way from commune and brigade 
leaders to units directly in charge. As a result, in some county 
units, last years accounts have yet to be settled, and income 
cqistribution has not been settled in some cases. This year new 
entries have to be made in account books, and the financial 
System awaits reorganization and improvement. Third, organiz- 
ation does not meet the situation. In some units, the accounting 
corps is not completely staff; there is turnover of personnel; 
and there is a lack of vigor. Fourth professional levels do not 
meet the situation. Accountants do not understand their new 
professional duties following large scale assignment of respon- 
Sibilities to individual households. Those who are unfamiliar 
with their duties and cannot carry them out are numerous. Faced 
With this situation, the emphasis in establishment of a financial 
corps should be on four suitabilities. 

Suitable ideology requires mostly study, indoctrination, and 
personal practice in order to Know with both the heart and the 
mind the necessity and importance of strengthening financial 
management work following large scale assignment of responsib- 
ilities to individual households. 

Professional suitability means studying the profession, becoming 
familiar with the profession, and mastering new tecnniques of 
fiscal management and bookkeeping following large scale assign- 
ment of responsibilities through training and regular activities 
at network stations. Even some old accounting hands who have 
worked for many years require study. Without it, if they depend 
on old experiences, it is feared they will be unable to solve new 


Organizational suitability means a fully staffed, elite, and 
stable corps. It should be fully staffed so all accounting work 
can be done; it should be elite so accountings will not have to 
be done over several times; and it should be stable, meaning that 
accountants should not be moved around frequently. How can these 
three requirements be met? The "three completes" policy calls 
for gradual spread of accounting specialization. What does 
accounting specialization mean? It means that where formerly 
"individual production teams had accountants not specialized in 
accounting,” a change will be made whereby "small teams will not 
have accountants but production brigades (or joint teams) will, 
and accountants will be specialistsS in accounting." After 
accounting becomes specialized, accountants will generally no 
longer be responsible for contracting the farming of responsib- 
ility fields (in cases where there professional duties are not 
taxing, they may contracting farming of only a small amount of 
land). Their main duties will be to do a good job of financial 


eork for several production teams. Their income will also come 
mostly as remuneration for their accounting function. Results of 
experience have everywhere shown the following several advantages 
from the specialization of accounting to meet equirements of pro- 
duction responsibility systems, particularly responsibility 
systems of large scale assignment of responsibilities to 
individual households: 1) Because specialized accountants are 
hand picked, their professional competence is usually fairly high, 
and they have a strong sense of responsibility. 2) Because they 
have been recommended by the masses and professionally tested, 
after which they are appointed ana managed centrally by counties 
and communes, the accounting corps has relatively little turn- 
over. 3) Since specialized accounting means that several pro- 
duction teams are served by a Single accounting specialist, the 
number of accountants can be reduced, the burden on the masses 
lightened, and training expenses saved. 4) Since accounting 
Specialists devote themselves exclusively to accounting work, and 
Since a system of personal responsibility has been formulated for 
them, the quality of financial management work is imporved. 


CSO: 4007/ 36 



AUTHOR: YANG Jinlou [2799 6855 2869] 
ZHU Lianlong [2612 6647 7893] 
ZHU Jicheng [2612 3444 2052] 

ORG: All of the Institute of Soil and Fertilizer, Shanghai Academy of 
Agricultural Science 

TITLE: "Studies on the Characteristics of Moisture Retention of Main Soils in 
Shanghai Area" 

pp 331-343 

TEXT OF ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The characteristics of moisture retention of main soiis 
in the Shanghai area have been studied by the tension plate method (0-1 bars)and 
pressure membrane method (1-15 bars). Results showed that: In general, soil 
water suction was conversely correlated with soil water content. Under the low 
water suction, the soil water-holding capacity was dependent mainly on the content 
of organic matter, the adsorption of organic colloids and the influence of soil 
structure; while under the high water suction, it was closely related to the soil 
texture (i.e., the content of clay) and the molecular attractive force of specific 
surface area as well as the adsorption of organic colloids. 

{Continuation of TURANG XUEBAO No 4, Nov 82 pp 331-343] 

The soil water content was decreased with the increase of soil water suction. 
However, the evaporation intensity of soil was decreased with the decrease of 

soil water content. Soil water content, evaporation intensity and soil water 
suction were closely related to soil texture. The heavier the soil texture, the 
more small pores were formed; the higher the evaporation intensity, the faster 

the water suction rose. For the same amount of water absorbed by crops, more 
energy was consumed by crops on the clayey soil than those on sandy soil. There- 
fore, the crops on the clayey soil are liable to suffer from drought, and adequate 
irrigation is even more urgently needed for the crops on this soil. 


AUTHOR: LI Xunguan [2621 0534 1351] 
ORG: Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 
TITLE: “Chemical Forms and Content of Arsenic in Some Soils of China” 

pp 360-366 

TEXT OF ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper chemical forms and content of soil 
arsenic are discussed based on analytical data of 13 soil samples collected from 

10 provinces of China. 

Part of the procedures of fractionation of phosphorus in soil proposed by Cnang 

and Jackson (1957) was adopted in the experiment for the separation of arsenic from 
soil. Forms of arsenic separated from the soils were adsorbed-, Al-, Fe-, Ca- and 
occluded-arsenates. Analytical results showed that the contents of the five 
arsenates mentioned above in the total contents of arsenic of the soils were 

O-21.3 percent, 1.1-9.0 percent, 1.0-16.3 percent, 2.5-45.8 percent and 32.0- 

86.3 percent respectively. 

It was also revealed that chemical forms of soil arsenic and its contents seemed to 
be closely related to the geographical distribution of soil types. With the zonal 

{Continuation of TURANG XUEBAO No 4, Nov 82 pp 360-366] 

distribution of the soils in China, the occluded-arsenate was gradually decreasing, 
byt the adsorbed- and Ca-arsenates were gradually increasing from the south to the 
north and from the east to the west. 


AUTHOR: TU Yijian [3205 0001 0256) 
ZHOU Xiangun [0719 6343 5028] 

ORG: TU of the Northwestern Plateau Institute of Biology, Ciinese Academy of 
sciences; ZHOU of the Institute of Natural Resources, Sichuan Province 
TITLE: "Soil Types and Their Distribution Characteristics in Gonghe Basin of 

Qinghai Province" 

pp 375-382 

TEXT OF ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Gonghe Basin, located in Gonghe and Qinghai counties 

of the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of southern Qinghai Province, is one of the 
main areas of food and oil crops of Qinghai Province. This paper deals with the 
basic properties of the main soil types and their distribution characteristics, 

as well as their utilization and improvement methods based on research data ob- 

tained from soil surveys during 1962-1965 and 1978-1980 in this basin. 

The soils in Gonghe Basin of Qinghai Province may be divided into two sequences, 
i.e., that of alpine soils and that of steppe soils. Alpine soil was formed 
through the process of soddy-frozen-meadow or soddy-meadow. The soil in the 
sequence is characterized by young and litho-profiles with a pattern of A,-A,-C. 

(Continuation of TURANG XUEBAO No 4, Nov 82 pp 375-382] 

From top to bottom the profile may be divided into Ag, A,, AB and C horizons. The 
steppe soil was formed through the process of humus accumulation and calcification. 
The soil profile can be regarded as the pattern of A,-B-C. In the Gonghe Basin, 
there are 6 great soil groups and 14 subgroups, among which the alpine meadow 
soils and subalpine meadow soils have their respective special conditions of soil 
formation and genetic chsracteristics. However, the subalpine scrubby meadow soil 
is very different from subalpine meadow soil in the soil formation conditions, the 
soil profile pattern and the chemical-physical properties. These differences 
should be regarded as the criteria for distinguishing the soils into the categories 
of the great soil group rather than those of the subgroup. The soils of different 
great soil groups require different ways and directions of the utilization and 



AUTHOR: CAO Shenggeng [2580 0581 6342] 
JIN Guang [6855 0342] 

ORG: Both of the Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 

TITLE: “Micromorphological Diagnosis of the Fertility Characteristics of Paddy 

pp 383-395 

TEXT OF ENGLISH ABSTRACT: About 180 thin sections of various types of paddy soil 
were examined using a polarizing microscope, and the relationship between the 
micromorphological features and the fertility characteristics of soil was studied. 
Based on the data obtained, seven micromorphological features are suggested as the 
diagnostic criteria for paddy soils. 

l. Ferro-manganic concentrations, of which the following are most closely related 
to the fertility of paddy soils. 

a. Diffuse organo-ferrans. They are only found on the walls of voids and in the 
adjacent soil matrix in the cultivated horizon of highly fertile paddy soils. 

b. Rusty spots. Two kinds of rusty spots can be recognized. One is the reddish 
brown rusty spot, with hue 5YR, found in the highly fertile paddy soils. The 
other is the brown rusty spot, with hue 7.5YR-lOYR, usually present in the lowly 

{Continuation of TURANG XUEBAO No 4, Nov 82 pp 383-395] 

fertile paddy soils. In addition, the iron concentration density and the number 
of rusty spots in the cultivated horizon are also positively correlated with soil 

c. Ferric rings around plant roots. In addition to the coloration, iron concen- 
tration density and amounts, the thickness of ferric rings may also serve as an 
indication for soil fertility. 

d. Mangans. If a considerable number of mangans is found in the horizon beneath 
the plow pan in a paddy soil derived from the automorphous soil, such as red 
earth, the soil can be regarded as a lowly fertile type which has a "pluvial” 
moisture regime. 

2. Voids. Soil porosity, especially the total porosity and vugh-porosity, in the 
cultivated horizon is increased with increasing soil fertility. 

3. Flocculated and unflocculated matrix. There exists a flocculated matrix in 
the fertile paddy soils and an unflocculated matrix in the lowly fertile paddy 

4. Skeleton grains. This article shows the soils which have poor fertility 
characteristics due to an excess of sandy and silty skeleton grains. Occurrence 
of skeleton grains in these lowly fertile soils has been compared with that in 
highly fertile paddy soils. 

5. Striated orientation of clays. In some heavy clayey paddy soils, the fine 
particles remain suspended as paste over a rather long time after tillage under 
flooded conditions. Consequently, the transplanted rice seedlings cannot stand 


j\rontinuation of TURANG XUEBAO No 4, Nov 82 pp 383-395) 

Weii inh such a pasty-lixe surface soil. Under crossed polarized lazgnt, a large 
mount of striated orientation ot clays in the clayey matrix can be observed. 
9. Caroonate concentrations. In the cultivated horizon and plow pan of th: 
calci-compacted paddy soils induced by long-term over-liming or by the influence 
ot limestone materials, the presence of various concentrations may be used as 
micromorphological indications of the degree of calcification and compaction ot 
paddy soil and fertility characteristics. 

7. Pedorelicts ("raw soil” blocks). In the cultivated horizon of incipiently 
developed paddy soils derived on red earths, the “raw soil” blocks originating 

trom red earths can still be preserved. 

The micromorphological features of paddy soils as diagnostic criteria of soil 
fertility characteristics vary with soil types. However, it is possid tO 3 
one or some of the suggested micromorphological features to diagnose the fertility 
characteristics of paddy soils under the microscope. 




CSO: 4011/31 


Plant Breeding 

AUTHOK: FANG Cuinong [2455 1897 6593] 
LOU Xizhi [1236 1585 4363] 
WANG Shifen [3769 2514 5358] 
ZHU Yingguo [2612 5391 0948] 

ORG: FANG and LOU both of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; WANG 
of the Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, Zine jiang Province; 
ZHU of Wuhan University, wuchang, Hubei Province 

TITLE: “Advances in the Study of Hybrid Rice in China” 

No 5, 20 Jun 82 pp 1-9 

TEXT OF ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In recent years the growing area of hybrid rice in 
China has reached approximately 80 million mu, with the average increase in yield 
being over 50 kg per mu. Several new combinations with early maturity and 

strong disease-resistance have been extended to more than 2 million mu. The male 
sterile lines, such as D type, Zaiye, Dianrui 409, Tsunye and Aibei, have all 
formed a complete set of three lines (male sterile, maintainer restorer). The 
selection and breeding of three lines with long stigma and large anther as well 
as chemical emasculation have made progress. A whole set of cultivation tech- 
niques, including the raising of healthy short-statured seedlings and tillering 
by various methods, has been adopted extensively in hybrid rice production. 

[Continuation of ZHONGGUO NONGYE KEXUE No 5, Jun 82 pp 1-9] 

A great deal of research on the cause of development of heterosis and its fore- 
casting, on the major economical traits of hybrid rice and the rules governing 
the inheritance of disease resistance, and on the genetics, cytology and 
biochemical mechanism of the male sterile of rice has been conducted, and good 
progress has been obtained. 


AUTHOR: LIANG Zhentu [2733 2182 1381] 
ORG : Jilin Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Jilin Province 

TITLE: “Studies on the Relationship of Oil and Protein Contents and Some 
Qualitative Characteristics of Soybeans" 

No 5, 2U Jun 82 pp 48-56 

TEXT OF ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The relationship between 011 and protein contents and 
some other main qualitative characteristics of 348 soybean germplasms originating 
from northeast China were investigated to determine the indicator character- 
istics which could be used in the selection of breeding materials. Results 

Snowed that the colors of the seed, flower and pubescence could be used as 
indicator characteristics in the selection of high protein content materials, 
while in the selection of high oil content materials the color and shape of seed, 
pod color and cultivated type should be used. Based on these indicator character- 
istics, a lot of breeding materials of high oil or protein content could be ob- 
tained both in the field and the laboratory. 

CSO: 4011/32 END 


2- 7-83