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JPRS 83752 

23 June 1983 

Worldwide Report 

No. 402 



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JPRS 83752 

23 June 1983 


No. 402 



Arguments for, Against Tasmanian Dam Hold Sportlight 
(Various sources, various do~718) ... cece ccccccccceeeeens 

New Archeological Finds 

Overestimate of Power Needs, by Peter Ellingsen 
New Federal Legislation, by Patrick Walters 
Policy in Victoria 

Comment From Perth, Editorial 

Conservation Group Calls Victoria ‘Pollution Haven' 
(Carol Sides; THE ACE, 25 Apr 83) *eeenveensteenereenrteeneeneeneneeeneneee 4 

Queensland Urged To Hold Inquiry on Forest Preservation 
(THE COURIER-MAIL, 26 Apr 83) *eeeeeneneeneeneteneneeneneeneneneeeneeee 5 


Tougher Penalties Against Straits Polluters 
( THE STRAITS TIMES, 8 May 83) eeeeeeneeneneeneneneeneeeeeneneeeee 6 


Erosion Control Measures Discussed 
(Shui Xuan; SICHUAN RIBAO, 17 Mar 83) eenernereneenreeenreeneteeeeteee#ee 7 

Sichuan CPC Committee Deputy Secretary Speaks on Afforestation 
(SICHUAN RIBAO, 4 Feb 83) ee epeeeeeeeneeneeneneneneneeeneneneeneneeeee 9 

Sichuan Province Notice on Afforestation Work 
(SICHUAN RIBAO, 4 Feb 83) ee @eenwe7nseneee3nseeen8s3siee#eenreentenreneseeee#ee#ee#e 12 


Party Organ Expresses Concern for Environmental Protection 

(Editorial; RABOTNICHESKO DELO, 3 May 83) .....eeeeeeeeees 



Water Pollution Problems Analyzed: Recommendations Made 
(EL TIEMPO, 10 May 83) e*eeeeveeeeeeeeeneneeneneneeneeeeeneeeneeeeee 


Parish Urged To Take Strict Measures To Save ‘Blue Hole’ 
(THE SUNDAY GLEANER, 15 May 83) e*eeneneieneeeneneneeeeeneneneeneneeeeee 


PEMEX Compensates Peasants for Oil Exploration Damages 
(Rene Delgado; UNOMASUNO, 27 Apr 83) ....ccecccccecccesecs 


Rains Damage Agriculture, Housing, 0il Industry in North 
(EL COMERCIO, 24 May 83) e*eeeneeeeeeeeneeeeneneneeeeeeeeeeeeeenee 


Tobago Beach Pollution 



Environmental Study Shows India Becoming Wasteland 
(Editorial; THE HINDU, ll May 83) eeeeneeneneeeneneneeeneeneneeneneeee 


Denuding Forests for Firewood Decried 
(Kunda Dixit; THE RISING NEPAL, 20 May 83) ....ceceseseees 










Drought Aid 


Agricultural Scientists’ Views of Drought Reported 
(Mark Schacter; DAILY DISPATCH, 18 May 83) .......eeeeeees 

Joint Famine Relief Action Planned 
CUR CUTIE, 20 We GP obo oe ohn 65 86h 4 04s nseeessaess 

Desalination Plants ‘Economically Viable,’ Says Expert 
(Elizabeth Rouse; SUNDAY TIMES, 22 May 83) ......eeeeeeees 

Natal Poewer Cut 
Drought Aid 


Mberengwa District Residents Receive Drought Relief 
( THE HERALD, 19 May 83) *eneneeneneeeneeneeeeneeneneeneeneneeneneeeneeeee 

Plan To Move 270,000 Cattle Hit by Drought Under Way 
(THE CHRONICLE, 14 May 83) ee @e#eeeeeenenreeenteeeneeeeeneneeeneneeeeee 

Plans To Save Cattle 
Drought Threatens Tin Output 
Cattle Salvage Plan 


Soviet Support of Global Environmental Monitoring 
(Mikhail Fokin; NEW TIMES, May 83) e*eeenveeeneenrteeeneeeeneeeeeee 

Protecting Leningrad From Baltic Sea Flooding 
(V. Zakhar'ko; IZVESTIYA, 10 Apr 83) ....cccccccccccccceees 

Tsunami Hite Unforewarned Maritime Kray 
(V. Sungorkin; SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA, 5 Jun 83) .....seeeeees 

Severe Weather Causes Damage to Crops, Homes 
(Domestic Television Service, 8 Jun 83) ....ceccceeecccces 

Mudslide in Tajikistan 
Rain, Hail in Azerbaijan 

= ¢ @ 










Georgian Vineyards, Corn Hit 
(Moscow Domestic Television Service, 7 Jun 83) .......... 

USSR, RSFSR Conservation Conferences 
(Various sources, various dates) ........... seeaee jeuneee 

Residential Construction Norms Reviewed 
Protecting Resources of the Far North 

Research on Ecological Problems of Aral Sea 
(B. Samoylenko; KAZAKHSTANSKAYA PRAVDA, 1 Apr 83) ..... <— 
Party Official on RSFSR Plans for Protection of Natural Resources 

(L. B. Yermin; SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA, 18 Feb 83) ............ 

Belorussian Nature Conservation Measures Outlined 
(N. A. Dubovets Interview; SEL'SKAYA GAZETA, 12 May 83) 

Quick Response Air Quality Analysis Service Established in Moscow 
(Yu. Bersenev; MOSKOVSKAYA PRAVDA, 22 May 83) ......seeee. 

Industrial Air Pollution Problems 
(Various sources, various dates) ......... erriver Tre ee 

Atmospheric Monitoring in Latvia 
Dirty Air of Ekibastuz, by A. Rumyantsev 
Krasnouralsk Industriel Exhaust, by A. Usol'tsev 

Air Pollution Control in Uzbek SSR Discussed 
(K. Alimdzhanov, L. Tuline; EKONOMIKA I ZHIZN', Feb 83) .. 

Pollution Commentary Elicits Response 
(SEL'SKAYA ZHIZN', various dates) e*eeenerneeeneneneneeeneeeeeeeeeee 

Shrinking River Causes Concern, by P. Pavlov 
Corrective Action Offered 

Volcano Eruption in Kamchatka 

Huge Losses in 1978-1982 From Forest Fires 
(I RATHIMERINI, 28 May 83) ..ccccccccccccccccccccccccces ee 

Mercury Content of Atmosphere Increasing in Sweden 
(NY TEKNIK, 21 Apr 83) *eeneneeneeneeneneeneeneneeneeneneeeneeeneneeeee#ee#ee 

Drawback of Coal, by Hans Werner 
Children Suffer, by Hans Werner 
Atmosphere in Imbalance, by Christer Larsson 













‘anderra THE AUSTRALIAN in English 20 Apr 83 p l 


Melbourne THE AGE in English 20 Apr 

New Archeological Finds 

OPPONENTS of the Frank- 
Ln dam project received an 
important boost yesterday 
when it was announced that 

in the Franklin River Valley in 

The site. ut a cave, contains 
stone tools dating back to the 
Ice Age. and would be flooded 
if the Gordon-below-Pranklin 
Dam was buult. 

The Minister for Home Af- 
fairs and Enviroument, Mr 

had been occupied by humans 
more than 20.500 years ago. at 
the peak of the last Ice Age. 

Overestimate of 

‘Article by Peter Ellingsen] 



2.7 per cent predicted by the HEC 
os construction of the 


New Federal Legislation 
Sydney THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD in English 21 Apr 83 p 3 
fAvticle by Patrick Walters] 

{Excerpts} CANBERRA. — The Federal =the corporations power, and the 
Government will expand today § power of the Commonwealth to 
the number of ways it can stop Take laws for the people of any 
the Gordon-below-Franklin dam ‘** _ 
when it introduces into the The bill will significantly bolster 
House of Representatives the ‘Pe Commonwealth's chances of 
World Heritage Properties Coo 9 umming ts High Court battle with 
servation Bill. semanmia over the dam. 

In addition to the express 

Unhke the World Heritage regu- ee under the Constitution, the 

lauons gazetted by the Com ull 1s also expected to rely on the 

noawealth last moath which re- Commonwealth's “navonal implied 

lied solely on the external affairs  POWer™ to do ail things appropriate 
power, the new bill will rely on at for a natioral government. 

jeast four Federal Government The Government decided vester- 
powers under Section 51 of the day to switch the introduction of fa 
Consucution. the bul from the Senate to the 
They are the external affairs House of Representatives ‘to pre- 
oower, trade and commerce power, vent the use of ihe gag by Opposi- 
uon senators. 

Policy in Victoria 

Melbourne THE AGE in English 22 Apr 83 p 6 

national and international con- that 

cern and that the Govermment wath Federal regulations 

hed an obligation to mtervens m@ Me Cain said he did not expect 
the case. the case to develop into a fight 
Mr Cain ecknowledged thet between the Labor and non-Labor 
State mgihts were an issue, bat 80s States. 

Comment from Perth 
Perth THE WEST AUSTRALIAN in English 23 Apr 83 p 6 

Text] aS SPECIAL writer Hugh Schmitt has else. The High Court will not be 
made clear in his series of articles, the attempting to adjudicate on the beauty 
Gordon-below-Franklin dam argument of the Tasmanian wilderness, the State's 
has wecome confused because of the level of employment or the amount of 
entanglement of four big issues: State electricity it will require by the turn of 
rights, conservation, jobs and Tasmania's the century. It will rule solely on the 
power needs. validity of the Federal Government's 

attempt to stop the dam by use of its 

The State rights issue. perhaps ¢rterna) affairs powers under Section 51 
inevitably. has now overtaken everything 4 the Constitution. 

There can be no doubting the 
importance of the court's decision to the 
rest of Australia. The federal system will 
cease to have any relevance if Canberra's 
power extends to the point where State 
Goverrments are no longer in charge 
of their destinies in areas which have 

traditionally been their preserve. 

Tasmania's rights in the matter make 
a compelling argument for construction 
of the dam to go ahead because it is 
beyond argument that the majority of 
Tasmanians want the dam built. And it 
is they who must five qith the 
consequences of the decision — as people 
directly involved, 
subscribers to some laudable, but 
unrealistic, principle. 

There is a strong jobs argument in 
favour of damming the river. In a time 
of high unemployment—and Tasmania's 
jobiess rate is the highest of all the 
States—no job-creating proposal should 
be lightly discarited. 

But short-term economic reasons are 
not enough in themselves. Ultimately a 
decision on whether or not to build a 

not as remote’ 

dam hinges on whether its construction 
would involve the destruction of a 
priceless heritage. Avid conservationists 
by their very nature. tend to see the 
loss of any part of the natura! heritage 
as tco high a price to pay for 
development. No matter how weil- 
intentioned that view may be, it 
represents a closing of the eyes to the 
realities of the Gordon-below-Franklin. 
The Tasmanian Government, surely the 
body which knows best, says Tasmania 
needs the power which the dam would 
generate. So does the Tasmanian 
Opposition. And though the area to be 
destroyed is undeniably beautiful, and 
contains areas of scientific and 
archaeological importance, it is only a 
tiny fraction of the tota) wilderness area 
that would remain (and be made mere 
accessible to those wishing to see it) if 
the dam was built. 

It seetns, the outcome of the High 
Court case notwithstanding, that the 
case in favour of construction is more 
convincing than that mounted the 
— The dam should go 


ish 25 Apr 83 p 3 




rol Sides 


HE AGE in Eng 



\Article by 



mg plan as soon as >> 

In hi : uli , 

% i ifs 7 *} a i PEER 
Hh ys cat i el aeeenseetiar eit li 


He Gage rt ots o j aS a BL 
‘oe mil nf ath ie pa : i 

building the woul scouring ard 


ai fap 
LE Pale ian He Ht ie 

li a it paises, sltpeke i i Ak Lig 

Atith: cate 
eer it iia a Et lit 

“hitler Erte 


coming a pollution baveo in 
Austra ian 
Foundation, announced 

mS een Come, 


3risbane THE COURIER-MAIL in English 26 Apr 83 p 16 


THE Australian Conservation Foundation has asked the 
Premier, Mr Bjelke-Petersen, to order an inquiry into 
ways of preserving Queensiand’s remaining rainforests 
and, at the same time, of providing alternative jobs for 

timber workers. 

The foundation's rainforest on-ord.- 
nator, Mr Dawid Allworth, said in 
Brisbane that Mr Byelke- Petersen had 
deen way off beam when he said 
recently that environmentalists had 
“\ytthe sympathy with the people they 
put out of a 0d" 

“We wrote to the Premier to tell 
humm he was quite wrong,” be said. “We 
don | want to see anyone without a job 
because of conservation measures. 

“Indeed. if the Queensiand Govern- 
ment took conservation seriously, 
there would be more, rather than few- 
er. forestry jobs availabie.” 

Re-forestation and anti-eroson 
projects to repair the enormous dam- 
age Gone to the land in the last century 
by poorly planned logging and land 
clearances Could employ Many umes 
more workers than were now engaged 
in feilong rainforests and 
rarnforest umbers, Mr Allworth sas. 

There was also growing evidence 
that ramforests preserved as aatvional 
parks could generate more jobs and 
come from toursm and recreation ac- 
trvrtees om the long term than 
and mulling could provide im the 


Mr Allworth said the Queensland 
Government appeared to care less 
about timber workers than it pro- 

“For example, timber production 
from Crown lands in North Queens- 
land will fall by about 40 percent when 
logging in the Windsor Tablelands 
rainforest, north of Cairns, is finished 
in about four yrurs.” Mr Allworth 

“What will ha to the timber 
workers there’ t jobs will they 
have when the last log comes out” 

“We asked the Forestry Minister, 
Mr Glasson, about thes and he said the 
| w@ustry had not spelt owt any plan to 
the government in thus regard, sor had 
the ment sought one.” 

r Allworth said this seemed to 
suggest (he government had little 
knowledge of the employ ment implica- 
vens of rainforest " 

In the meantime, the fine Windsor 
Tableland rainforesi had been sernous- 

and one of Queensland's 

t finest wilderness arcas greatly 




Malaysia is taking steps 
to toughen penalties 
against those who pollute 

Deputy Transport 
Mimster Datuk Abu Has 

crack dows on vessels 
that pollute the Straits. 

Speaking at the L2th 

1974 Safety of Life at Sea 
Convention and the Con- 
vention of the Prevention 
of Marine Pollution, his 

m.nistry would be empow- 
ered to take action 
against offending vessels 
He added that although 
there were surveillance 
patrols in the Straits, the 
penalties for pollution 
were an inadequate deter- 

Singapore THE STRAITS TIMES in English 8 May 83 p 6 

rent. The mazimuai fine 
on an offerder is 
000 or two years’ jai\ 
Descri the pollution 
im the — as severe. 
the minister said ships 
<n | disctar sew- 
age a oily t into 
the waters 
Last year, there were © 
cases where payment was 
collected for the cleaning 

million tonnes of «i) would 
pollute the sea each year 

Datuk Abu Hassan also 
said the traffic separation 
scheme for the Straits of 
Malacca and Singapore. 
introduced in May 1%. 
was not a guarantee 
against maritime acci- 
dents in areas of difficult 

The twoday meeting 
was attended by delegates 
* wn Indonesia, Malaysia 

| Singapore. — AFP 


Chengdu SICHUAN RIBAO in Chinese 17 Mar 83 p 2 

{Article by Shui Xuan [3055 1357]: “Afforestation of Reservoir 
Irrigation Ditches to Control Erosion") 

( Text] Water conservancy project management units everywhere in 
Sichuan Province have made full use of the superior conditions 
provided by water and soil resources and all kinds of water 
conservancy facilities. They have devoted much attention tc the 
planting of trees for afforestation, to the planting of mulberry 
and the growing of tea and fruits. Incomplete statistics from 
departments concerned show a somewhat more than 130,000 mu area 
Suitable for the planting of trees and afforestation located 
around the provinces more than 12,000 reservoirs and islets in 
lakes. Following several years of effort, most such places have 
now been afforested. Various kinds of trees have also been 
planted along more than half the more than 40,000 kilometers of 
irrigation ditches. In order to do a good job of afforestation, 
water conservancy project management units everywhere have assid- 
uousSly carried out a policy of benefits to whomever plants and 
tends the trees, and have instituted contract responsibility 
systems. Some water conservancy project management units have 
also signed agreements with nearby communes and brigades for 
joint afforestation, with a division of benefits and joint man- 


Practice has shown that the growing of trees for afforestation, 
and development of fruit trees on bald mountains and barren 
slopes, on both sides of irrigation ditches, and around reser- 
yvoirs near water conservancy projects not only can control ero- 
sion and reduce the silting of reservoirs for a lengthening of 
the life of water conservancy projects, but alsc creates wealth 
and increases cash earnings for society and plays a definite role 
in bringing about self-sufficiency in management and support 


Recently, water conservancy departments everywhere have been 
crganizing project management units to continue attention to 

afforestation work. Not long ago employees in the Provincial 
Hydroelectric Department's subordinate units went to the Dengfeng 
irrigation ditch in the Jiangyan irrigation region to plant trees 
and afforest the irrigation ditecn. 


CS0:5000/ 4152 




Chengdu SICHUAN RIBAO in Chinese 4 Feb 83 p 1 

(Article: "A Good Job of Voluntary Tree Planting and Affores- 
tation Requires Carrying Out Seven Tasks. Yang Zejiang 

‘2799 2419 3068) Makes Proposals at Provincial Conference on 
Voluntary Tree Planting by the Whole People") 

'Text}] At the recently held provincial conference on voecluntary 
tree planting by the whole people, Provincial CPC Committee 
Deputy Secretary Yang Zejiang put forward the need to carry out 
seven tasks in order to do a good job of voluntary tree planting 

and afforestation. 

1. Carry out the task of understanding. Use of movies, televi- 
Sion, broadcasts, publications, middle and primary s<c« ool educi- 
tion and such diverse forms of publicity to spreau knowledge 
about tree planting so that everyone understands the significance 
of voluntary tree planting, the task to be done, has knowledge, 
and consciously carries out the country's strategic policies. 

2. Carry out the task of planning and designing. Making of plans 
and drawing of designs for park afforestation systems as part of 
plans for every city and town. Each county, township, and vii- 
lage should use zoning for agriculture and forestry as a basis 
for the planning of voluntary tree planting tasks, and after the 
masses have approved, implementation should be done. Cities and 
towns should stimulate rural villages, and Shijiazhuang City 
snould stimulate all other cities. In places like Qinhuangdao and 
Cnengade cities in Hebei that are open to the outside world, an 
even better job should be done. The province should plan several 
natural preserves and forested parks. 

3. Carry cut the task of building a tree planting corps and 
responsibility systems. This should be the responsibility of 
party and government leaders in all units supported by full-tine 
and part-time voluntary afforestation cadres. The role of groups, 
all departments, old cadres, labor models, workers, peasants, 
youths, and weapon should be brought into play. Workers, peas- 

ants, businessmen students and soldiers, and all trades and 
industries should give attention to afforestation at the grass 
roots of tneir own organizations. Everyone shculd be responsible 
for a divisior of labor, and a system of contracting for plan- 
ting, insuring survival, and caring for trees with rewards and 
penalties should be instituted, with contracting of courtyards 
(at plants, official organizations, schools, and dormitories), 
contracting of streets, contracting of flower gardens, contrac- 
ting of reads, contracting of stretches of woodlands, contracting 
of mountain tops, contracting of mountain ravines, and contrac- 
ting of sand-threatened areas. If plantings die, replanting 
should be done; all who do not volunteer without cause should 
nave to pay an afforestation fee; and those who cause damage 
should be punished. Should any unit be unable to complete its 
affcrestation duties, the person-in-charge should be punished. 
Fines should be used for afforestation and not diverted to other 


u. Carry out scientific and technical tasks. The right trees for 
the right places are necessary in selecting the kinds of forests 
and trees. Distinctions should be made in kinds of trees planted 
in cities and countryside, and afforestation and beautification 
should be done differently and in accordance with the individual 
characteristics of streets, family courtyards, industrial plants, 
scenic areas, places of historic interest, and areas threatened 
by windblown sand. Distinctions should be made between places in 
which buildings are small and those in which buildings are multi- 
storied for vertical beautification. The layout of shrubs, 
bushes, flowers and grass should also be rational, and trees and 
grasses should be used that help eliminate pollution, deaden 
noise, and beautify the environment. Overall arrangements should 
also be made for the different needs of rural hamlets, roa‘s, 
Streams, dikes, ditches, sandy wastes, and alkaline wastelands. 
In all cases there should be contracting of planting, contracting 
of survival rates, and contracting of regular tending and growth. 

5S. Carry out the task of growing saplings. Within a period of 1 
or 2 years, sufficient seedlings of good quality should be avail- 
able. A variety of trees should also be available. Each city 
should have a flowers and trees company, and specialized house- 
holds and specialized villages should be developed for the propa- 
gation of saplings, flowers, and grasses, and the developmert of 
their own "Tong family garden." Each unit might also sign pur- 
chase and marketing contracts with suburban rural villages for 
the propagation of seedlings to advance self-sufficiency in sap- 
lings and commodity production of flowers and trees. 

6. Carry out the task of leadership. It is necessary to "always 
be ready, to afforest in three seasons, to tend all year round, 


evaluate and issue bonuses during fall and winter, and to take 
nold of tne task and not let go." Forestry work stations may be 


formea from among graduates of forestry colleges and middle 
scnools, or they may be organized by communes from among educated 
personnel who have an enthusiasm for and a familiarity with 
forestry, their pay coming from commune enterprises or forestry 
fines. All cities, counties, and large and small units shouid 

train mainstay cadres rotationally. All county agricultura 
tecnnical middle schools should set up forestry classes. 

In the felling of trees, examination and approval procedures must 
be strictly carried out. In cities, parks bureaus must give 


Carry out expense tasks. In addition to what has already beer 
rovided, it 1s recommended that each county and township provide 
fforestation funds themselves. Rural villages may apportion a 
certain afforestation fee to be paid by each household for the 
collective use of preduction brigades or communes. All unit i 

ies and towns are to strive in every way to assure voluntary 
.f trees. Over a period of 2 or 3 years starting from 

Ww wT 

Ss ¢ 

1982, with some afforestation and some preparations for affores- 
tation, the carrying out of preliminary kinds of work, perse- 

vering for several years in the same ways as has been done with 
rural contract responsibility systems, and doing aS painstaking a 
jod as has been done in family planning, it will certainly be 
possible to assure that voluntary afforestation will become bet- 
ter and more solidly done with each passing year, and that it 
Will be stuck to. 






Chengdu SICHUAN RIBAO in Chinese 4 Feb 83 p 1 

fArticle: "Sichuan Provincial People's Government Netice On 
Organization and Leadership of This Spring's Voluntary Tree Plan- 
ting and Afforestation Work. (Not Published Elsewhere), 1 Febru- 

ary 1983") 

‘Text) The following notice has been prepared for the purpose of 
joing a geed job in Sichuan Province's voluntary tree planting 

and afforestation work this spriig. 

1. The planting of trees for afforestation is a strategic task 
for the country. It not only vigorously develops forestry, but 
also meets needs for the tripling the annual gross output value 
of industry and agriculture. It also has a bearing on the great 
issue of the prosperity and happiness of the Chinese race. A 
solid job that produces results must be done. Though all juris- 
dictions have done yeoman work in this regard; nevertheless, the 
overcutting of forests for a long period of time has resulted in 
increasing deterioration of the ecological environment. In rural 
villages especially, this poses hidden perils for environmental 
protection and the building of production. We must have 2 clear 
conception of this. Solution to this problem requires both that 
decisive action be taken and the unhealthy tendency toward reck- 
less cutting and denudation halted decisively, and that there be 
no relaxation in tree planting for afforestation to revive and 
expand forest resources. Only in this way is it possible effec- 
tively to preserve the natural ecological balance, tec eliminate 
hidien perils, and to advance greater development of the naticnai 
economy. Now the fine, opportune moment is at hand for spring 
tree planting and afforestation. Government at all levels sheuld 
take a firm grip on planning, and direct all naticnalities in 
cities and countryside to act quickly in active afforestation te 
make new efforts toward improvement of the provinces's landscape. 

2. The launching of a voluntary tree planting campaign by the 
whole people is a major link in the advancement of the great 
cause of afforestation of the motherland. In this year's velun- 



ry tree planting in Sichuan Province, the call frem mrage 

Deng Kiacping shceculd be heeded for “better year by year, mere 
lid ly year by year." Considerable progress sheculd be made 
tne basis of tne summarization of last year's experiences. Th 
umber cf people engaged in voluntary tree planting threcughcut 
the province should be greater than 70 percent cf tne citizer 
espensibie fer undertaking volunteer tree planting tasxs. In 
tne province's 13 cities, they should number mere than 8&0 per- 
ent. In rural counties, they should number mcre than 69 per- 
ent. Figured in terms of the number of citizens in the prevince 
aS a wnele who snould undertake voluntary planting cf trees, each 
person should plant more than four trees. This includes four, 

ve, or more trees in rural villages, and more than three trees 

ities. Tne survival rate for trees planted in the four 
sides [beside streams, roads, villages, and hcuses]f, and 
forested tracts (figured in terms of standard trees) snecula 
*ter than 85 percent. 



rganicing leadership of voluntary tree planting, ali levels 

government sheuld proceed from realities and adopt flexible 
d diverse methods so that a large number of people participat 
vOluntary tree planting labor. In addition to making efferts 

cemplete afforestation tasks in their own areas, city and tcwr 
ficial ecrganizations, industrial plants and mines, and armed 
rees units should organize to go to designated sites in nearby 

iral villages to contract sole responsibility for task comple- 

cn fer a limited period of time. Production teams in rural 
llages sheuld be responsible for planning and carrying cut 
luntary tree planting tasks. First they should affcrest the 
feur besides,"and areas around reservoirs, and then they shceuld 
ifferest i a planned way bald mountains suitable for the growing 
forests tnat belong to the state and collectives. 



Diligent implementation of forestry policies and reguiaticns 
the Central Committee and the Previncial CPC Committee. All 
ld meuntains, barren slopes, and swatches of land beside fieids 
at are contractable to commune members for afforestation sneuld 
contracted te them. In the course of building forestry bases, 

is necessary te consclidate the good management of existing 

“ommune and brigade forest farms, while at the same time enccur- 


ing specialized contracting, specialized household ccecntracting, 

and contracting by households in partnership. In places net well 



rved by transportation, or where population 18S Sparse relative 
land, hneusehcld-run forest farms and fcecrest farms run by 
useholds in partnership can be developed. They can sign agree- 

ments with collectives for the contract afforestation cof barren 
mountains . Where privately retained mountains have already been 
appertioned to cemmune members, afforestation should be done 


thin a jimited period of time. Commune members should be en- 


iragead to make small wooded groves in front cf and benina tneir 

es, cn privately retained mountains, on private plots, ana at 
pla jesignated by production teams. Areas along betn sides of 
raiircads, Nignways, streams, and ditches, and reservcir areas 

are tne afforestation responsibility of individual departments in 
snarge. Each of them should plan for completion cf their affcres- 
tation witnin a fixed period of time. 

Efferts to increase results of afforestaticn. All affcresta- 

, should meet requirements of high survival rates, rapid 
growtn, and marked benefits. In the process of organizing spring- 
time voluntary tree planting and afforestation, all jurisdictions 

must emphasize quality, emphasize effectiveness, emphasize 
science, and do a genuinely solid job. Systems of respcensibility 
naving rewards and penalties should be set up that include the 
"four fixeds, and the four contracts. There shculd be fixed 

fixed tasks, fixed quality, and fixed responsibilities, 

l as the centracting of planting, the contracting cf care, 




the contracting cf survival, and the contracting of matur» fer- 
»Sts. Outstanding units and individuals who have fulfilled their 
futies well snould be given commendations and rewards. Units or 

individuals whe do not engage in voluntary tree planting fer ne 
valid reason, and those who do not fulfill afforestaticn plans 
well or whe have low effectiveness should be criticized and 

indectrinated or fined, and responsibility placed on their unit 


5. Determined efforts in the propagation of seedlings. All 
jurisdictions must make sure to gradually implement and assure 
completicn of seedling growing plans handed down this year. They 
"ust sclve the problem of space for the growing of seedlings as 
part of their overall annual plan seedling growing tasks. State- 
owned and commune and brigade forest farms and nurseries should 
de everything pessible to enlarge the seedling grcwing area and 
make the mest of the model role of mainstay cadres. All govern- 
ment organizations and units in cities and towns should use 
vacant land to operate small seedling nurseries themselves. Ru- 
ral villages should encourage specialized households te contract 
tne raising of seedlings. Forestry departments should provide 
Support through supply of seeds and technical advice in the 
raising of seedlings. Communes and brigades should help special- 
1zed households link up with units using the seedlings, cr else 
contract the marketing of seedlings. It is recommended that free 
marketing be permitted for commodity seedlings that have been 


6. The key to a geod job in voluntary spring tree planting and 
afforestation lies in the strengthening of leadership. Pecples 
gcvernments at all levels should treat this matter as a major one 


Ca c¢ , 
ferestry wi 

the pecple. They should regard 

me sericyu attenticn that they regard grain producticn, 
"e, ang planned parenthood, placing these fecur task: f 
ticr f equal importance and devoting genuine attention 
them. Tne erganization and work of affcerestaticn committe 
7 evels needs strengthening. Leading comrades should tr 
ime teoleyments and take the lead in planting trees. 
irther improve workstyles, take hold cf crucial tas 
ind previde a fecus fer voluntary tree planting and all ferr 
fforestation. Prefectures and counties that have yet te deter- 

fecus should quickly set one and devote diligent atte: 

L, thereby beth achieving results as well aS gaining experi- 
neces, playing a model role, and giving impetus to work cve 
_ j i’ ; 



Sofia RABOTNICHESKO DELO in Bulgarian 3 May 83 p l 
(Editorial: "For a Flourishing and Beautiful Earth" ] 

(Text) The evolution of human civilization is inextricably linked to the 
use of the natural resources and riches of our environment. The Marxist- 
Leninist theory of interaction between society and nature defines it as a 
two-stage process: on the ome hand, a rational, comprehensive exploitation, 
and on the other, preservation and restoration of the environment. fIhis 
requirement is also part of the Party's program for the building of a 
developed socialist society. Protecting the environment is a government 
policy which can also be implemented through a mass, nationwide movement. 

At the high forum of the Twelfth Party Congress, Comrade Todor Zhivkoc clearly 
Stressed that we should strengthen our efforts to protect the environment, 
which is a common and immutable vital wealth for the people. Because there 
are still some ministries and administrations which have polluting enterprises 
in different places that do not comply with their obligations in the best 
possible way. 

It has been known for years that building municipal purification stations 
has greatly lagged behind. Of the planned 72 million leva for the first two 
years of the 5-Year Plan, only 3% million leva have been spent, that is, 
about 63 percent. 

The main offender--the Hudrostroy State Economic Trust--continue to repeat 
old errors, transferring construction brigades to other termbound con- 
struction projects, not providing the necessary construction and assembly 
staff and mechanization. In addition, the equip ent delivered gradually 
Wears out, the schemes and methods for purificat*on are obsolete even before 
they are yut into operation, All of this is going on right now, when the 
call for saving water is today's task. We should keep in mind that the water 
balance in our country is based on the prerequisite that all the waste 
water will be biologically purified in the near future. Lately there has 
been concern and some complaints about bad management of forests in water- 
shed zones (Gabrovo, Samokov); the felling of special purpose forests has 
been allowed. 


There is a serious problem in the continuous decrease in tillabie ianc a 

weil, he question ot erosion is also important and distressing. 2 
ertain number oft regions there is evidence of reduced humus anc - 
physical qualities of the soil as a result of irrigation with impure water, 
>t smoke trom industrial enterprises, Here and there, non-scienti':: 

and conventional usage of artificial fertilizers sometimes continues. 

is incorrect to think, however, that the weaknesses allowed in preserving 
nature result mostly from the aftereffects of scientific and technical 
progress. As a matter of fact, they are caused to a great extent by poor 
management oft this process. Whereas, a correct, scientific solution of 

the ecological problems has led to the purification of air in many polluted 
regions of tre country. The electrofilters of the First Komsomol Thermo- 
electric Power Plant were put into operation, as well as the new system 

for producing sulphuric acid from waste gases at the G. Damyanov copper 
smeiter and refinery in the city of Srednogorie, etc. Thus, the percentage 
‘tf captured noxious gases and substances of the total amount of emissions 
in the air reached about 77 percent. There was also a 46 percent increase 
ta the percentage of purified water. 

(there are already visible successes in terms of the Bulgarian Communist 
Party's delineation of its general direction in environmental protection 
ictivity--implementation of waste-free and low-waste technologies in the 
economy. An exact “picture” of their condition over the entire territory 

of the country was made, and this created preconditions for their accelerated 
introduction in practice. 

There is a constantly increasing s@nse of responsibility in many of the 
managerial cadres, which lately have been putting more and more efforts 
into protecting nature. Our country has extered a new stage of develop- 
ment, at which the increasing potential of tie socialist economic system 
allows for a decisive change in environmental proteftion activity on a 
qualitatively new basis. That is why, in accordance with the guidelines 
of the Party and the government policies in this respect, the main goal in 
using natural resources and the riches of our country should be striving 
to prevent pollution of the water, the air, and the soil, on the basis of 
a consistent application of the economic and socio-ecological approach 
and of the most recent technical achievements. 

In this respect, government policies in our country are being carried out 
under the direction of the Party, trade union, and Komsomol organizations, 
with the active cooperation and participation of the national movement 

for protection of nature sponsored by the Fatherland Front. In this way, 
young and old can give their contribution to the noble cause. The signing 
of the minutes for collaboration between the National Committee for the Pro- 
tection of Nature and the Union of Bulgarian Journalists this year is a new 
moment in the struggle to protect the vitality and reproduction of nature, 
to make itsprotection a behavioral norm. Thus, with the joint efforts of 
all, of the entire population, we will succeed in preserving our country's 
nature and in transforming it into a nourishing mother for future generations, 

CSO: 5000/3014 



San Salvador EL TIEMPO in Spanish 10 May 83 p 7 

[Text] ‘Safe drinking water is provided to only 90 percent of the urban . 
population and 30 percent of the rural population. 

rXisting systems tor treating sewage serve only 30 percent of the population. 
There are no systems to treat sewage from the cities and from industry. 

The Aceltwate River is contaminated, and its system for purifying itsel! 

has been overcome by the burden of sewage. The contaminated area reaches 

to within a few xilometers of Lake Cerron Grande. 

About 80 percent of the water consumed in the cities returns to the river: 
in contaminated torn. 

In the Central American countries a person consumes, on the average, 200 
liters of water per day, while in Europe the consumption is 80 Liters 
he designed Lite of sewage systems is 25 years. 

El Salvador existing standards for the disposal of water used by incus- 

try are not respected, and this industrial waste water is destroying ti 
capacity of the rivers to purify themselves, due to its PH facid-alkalin« 
balance/, its termperature, content of solids, oxygen, and chemical ele- 
nent hese additives to river water destroy the fish and aquat ix 
bacteria Food, shellfish, and flora also contaminate drinking witer 

ind produ enzymatic reactions. 

lt is expected that the population will double in the next 20 years. 

The San Salvador aquiter is diminishing in size with each passing day ! 
some 20,000 cul meters, and its level is going down by 1 meter er year 


years the highway networx has expanded If: 4. : eter 
, ; eters, and there has been no concern . t j r " T 

™ the aquifers. 

tor tuman and industrial consumpt 

‘ ed t produce electricity, although it | ft consu 
563 percent of the available water is draw ir ‘ iver 
isin f El Salvador 56,682,000 cubic meter wrt « 
ear. \bout 11,816,000,000 cubic meters are di arged int< 
‘ ugh rivers on the surface, and 183,000,000 cubic mete: r 
the sea through gbterrarecs channels. About 5,9/2, ), VUUL cub ik 
er through to the aquifers in the country, and 38,711, , 000 
return to the atmosphere through evaporat i 
*, there were 207 wells in use for drinking water, 87 for irrigation, 
trial uses, and 270 other wells abandoned from which 149 hm? 
ATs > feo per e’a;r. 
on ki > of water were drawn from the wells for Nnsumpt ion purposé 
ings preduced 439 ha of wter, but only 70 hm? of water from 
. »t Té used. 
alte mn the Year 2000 
Je irrigated area was 34,371 hectares, and it is expected that in 
p i total area of 245,941 hectares will be irrigated, of which 
53,089 tares will be planted in pasture crops; 69,606 hectares in rice; 
2. ectares in beans; 63,355 hectares in corn; 25,792 hectares in 
‘ ; 31,060 hectares in sugarcaxe; 25,925 hectares in sorghum; 13,839 
tar in cotton; and the rest will be planted in peanuts, sesame seed, 
ezetables, plantains, watermelons, bananas, chili peppers, itrus truit, 
fie! 1] ‘ . and OKRTA. 
March the maximum demand for water used for irrigation purpose will be 
.62 meters per second. 
ting industry is producing contaminants equivalent | A ion 
tillion people. Coffee and agar are the crops which contaminate the 
ost, producing contaminants equal to a population of 3.8 million peoples 
There are 315 industrial plants which are contaminating the rivers, o! 
i 2ll are related to coffee production and 1] are migar tactoris 
Diluting industrial wastes to a safe level requires 845 cubic meters of water 
per ‘cond, while municipal wastes require 257 cubic meter of water per 
The flow of ail of the rivers amounts to 952.3 cubic meters per second dur- 

ing the rainy, season and 117 cubic meters per second during the dry seasor 



nmironting El Salvador, 
the contaminatior 
er necessary to dilute industria] 

the waste 


iweravated because most 

urban wastes to 

Oo purify the water 
invesfments and 

conc er rex 
authorities terd to 
ind place value only on what 

ical, enzymat ic 
has discovered. 
ntaminants produced 
| monocellular protein. 

This process avoics 


this procedure 

erms by about 6 

biogas and other 

nt of biogas systems 


aquifers and redu © 

7) Oppose controlling cyclones in the Caribbean, because 30 percent of 
the rainfall which we receive is from storms which accompany the cyclones. 
If cyclones are controlled, we will have a reduction in rainfall, which is 
so vital a resource. 

8) End direct and indirect subsidies so that users will pay the whole cost 
of cheap water and thus avoid waste. Investments in water resources should 
be paid for in U.S. dollars from the free market, as is the case with 
imported fuels. 

9) The poor should receive low interest loans to supply themselves with 
water and install biogas systems to eliminate excreted fecal material. 

10) Establish large cities away from San Salvador, in order to reduce the 
rate of growth of this city and avoid the need for costly construction of 
water-related public works for bringing water from great distances. 

1) | Le disponiniiided y eses eaperados dei agua son jos 
uguien tes ca mibenes do motres cubicus por Mo 

TR | tT Toy" —“T3Y 
by tind | eatonaiin| Meteg.| Demanoa 1980 TANTES |DEMANDA 2. 
2) CUENCA DISPO- by 2 __ é 
—_— ° fs . rep .jRI RU Uso 
-—— - —_— ——-—— -- oe —— —_— 
A RIO LEMPA 14.266 | 18.2466} 599 237 119 | 101 | 2.8 | 2.1] 518] 57 | 663] 12 
B Riu PAZ 938 929 45 | - ? wl 21 19] - 96} 12 
C LA BARRA 368 659 20 3] - ll - al $s] - 4 140] 39 
D SONSONATE 766 675 42 16{ 1 | 213 2 3] 32] 2 
& LA LIBEKTAD 360 1.149 20 6] - 13 Lt .2} 12] - 
F JIBOA/LA PAZ 898 1.554 $1 2331 54 2 4) 43]°3 
G USULUTAN 617 968 32 10] - ~ 1 2) 1867 1 
H KIO GRANDE 1.161 2.352 63 24} 1 51 3 51 491 2] 517] 48 
i JUCUAMAN 298 504 19 71 - 6 1 21 14] - | 1001 % 
J GUASCORAN 1.332 3.047 62 8i - 1 1 37} 15] -]| 16) 46 
rot a L 7 47.778 344122 | 467 | 4. 4,5 17261 65 [3.132] 22 
oe ee ee 

(1) Availability and Expected Uses of Water Are As Follows in millions 
of Cubic Meters Per Year. 

(2) River Basin 

(3) Available Water in Cubic Meters 

(4) Area in Square Kilometers 

(5) Maximum Flow in Cubic Meters Per Second 

(6) Demand in 1980 

(Key continued on following page) 

(7) Human 

(8) Industrial 

(9) Irrigation 

(10) Population in 2000 
(11) Urban 
(12) Rural 
(13) Demand in 2000 
(14) Human 

(15) Industrial 

(16) Irrigation 

(17) Percent of Total Use 

CS: 5000/2031 



Kingston THE SUNDAY GLEANER in English 15 May 83 p 1 

[Text } 

"Following recent féports-oF trees Being. cut” peace, tranquility anil scenic beauty of Blue Hole are to~ 
down in the vicinity of Blue Hole in the San San C cecciseed Gar da Meuatie of Seales aad vital, 
ared of Portland, the Office of the Prime Minister, very effort must be made to see. that the environment ° 

Commission, has wntten:so the Secretary of the - 
Portland Parish Council, requesting thas the Tree Se the Beach or 
P i " i ’ own , 

reservation Order of 1976, which applies 10° Blue Authonty "nd Welfare, P Mynustry 

Soon there would be no Blue Hole.’ of 1976, prohibits the curting down, topping, lopping or 

the area, 

Over the years there have been repeated applica- * consent of the Parish Council. The Parish Council has 
nons from developers and individuals to create sub- also i | 
divisions, to construct cottages, to operate a private — proposals for the area 
member's club, to erect a yachting marina, to imtroduce of 
water skung, etc. Such developments have been resisted 
by organizations and people who recogmize that if the. 


cso: 5000/7578 


Mexico City UNOMASUNO in Spanish 27 Apr 83 p 2 
/Article by Rene Delgado/ 

/Text/ The federal government acknowledged yesterday that oil exploration 
activities in the state of Tabasco "has caused destruction of lands and crops," 
besides damaging the ecology, and as a result, it decided to start a program, 
whose initial investment will reach 1,012,400,000 pesos, which will include 
indemnity payment to peasants in Comalcalco, Huimanguillo, Cardenas and Paraiso, 
sites where property, wealth and cultivation were affected. 

The Secretariat of Govermment showed a document in which it is recognized and 

sets forth that the federal government will sign a coordination agreement with 

the government of Tabasco through which "a program using federal funds will be 

put into effect compensating peasants affected by exploration and oil exploitation 
and for repairing damage sustained by local townships, as well as restoring the 

ecological balance." 

In the document mentioned, it is shown that President Miguel de la Madrid 
officially recognized the damage done by the oil industry in a large area of 
Tabasco, which includes the townships of Comalcalco, Huimanguillo, Cardenas and 
Paraiso, and to start a program of economic and social development that would 
include the construction of schools, potable water access, drains, roads and 
bridges and an adjunct program of compensation "to all peasants who were hurt" 

by oil activities. 

"“PEMEX has carried out activities on several ejidos and small privately owned 
lands," the document stated and added that damage has been made to farm lands, 
private property and cattle caused by industrial waste which has harmed the 


"In particular, Mexican Petroleum admits," the text con‘irms, "that development 
of petroleum activities-—-exploration, exploitation, processing and refining--has 
indeed caused damage to lands and crops as a consequence of industrial wastes 
and, moreover, has destroyed the ecology on said properties and urban areas." 

Thus, after having made an inspection, a program has been announced under the 
name "Concerning Socio-Economic Development in Areas Affected by Oil Activities 


in the State of Tabasco" and in which the Secretariats of Programing and Budger, 
Agriculture and Hydraulic Resources, Communications and Transport, Urban Develop- 
ment and Ecology, as well as Mexican Petroleum and the Federal Commission on 
Electricity, will participate. Organizations which would coordinate jobs with 
the government of Tabasco in developing a program that wil] benefit 5,000 

peasant families. 

As a macter of fact, the program will take effect today in a ceremony to be 
held in Villahermosa, Tabasco. 




Lima EL COMERCIO in Spanish 24 May 83 p Al2 

[Text] The catastrophic rains in the northern region of Peru, the heaviest and 
longest ever registered in the country's history -- there is still no sign of 
any letup -- have been the cause of five months of devastation and material 
losses calculated at over 800 billion sols. 

Not only has the inclement weather sown destruction in the north of Peru, but 
the destructive effects have reached as far as the central zone, where towns 
such as Matucana, Santa Eulalia, Chosica, Moron and others, cannot recover 

from the damage. : 

Between January and March, a series of floods washed out the central istecat | 
burying many buses and other vehicles in mud and water and causing the deaths 
of dozens of persons. The supply of food to Lima was interrupted by slides. 

In the north, when the rainfall began at the end of last year, it was seen as 
one of the etfects of the persistent El Nino phenomenon off the Peruvian 
coast, but no one foresaw the extent or the magnitude of the damage that 
would result, especially in the now decimated departments of Piura and Tumbes. 

Agriculture and Highway System 

Although agriculture (with over 50 billion sols in losses) and the road system 
(for whose reconstruction over 150 billion sols will be needed) are the areas 
most affected in both departments, nature has not spared housing, schools, 
health centers or sewer systems and has paralyzed a high percentage of ali 

productive activities. 

Hundreds of kilometers of roads and highways have been destroyed, along with 
some 50 bridges in the north. For example, the Pan American North, one of the 
main trunk roads from the interior of the country connecting the coastal de- 
partments from Lima tc Tumbes and running through Ancash, La Libertad, Lamba- 
yeque and Piura, has been washed out in several areas, which floodwaters have 

turned into vast lakes. 

Thousands of families have lost their homes and belongings and are still suf- 
fering the effects of the torrential rainfall, which, accompanied by lightning, 
continues to fall daily on the already heavily hit northern cities. 


: | 

Oil Industry 

Tumbes, one of the departments hardest hit by the natural disaster, has suf- 
fered the effects of 20 hurricanes that have lifted the roofs off of homes 
and other buildings. The ports of Paita and Talara have been the victims of 
tidal waves which paralyzed the fishing industry for days. 

The oil industry, which in ‘alara has one of the main centers, has been ser- 
iously affected, with losses of some 100 billion sols by the end of April. 
Water has flooded oil fields and facilities, paralyzing the production of many 
wells and forcing suspension of drilling at other sites. It has damaged a 
complex system of oil and gas pipelines. 

The rest of the country's cultural heritage has also been weakened and damaged 
by the natural disaster. Chan Chan in La Libertad, for example, the largest 
adobe city in the world, is now threatened by potential collapse if its walls 
are flooded and eroded. 

Work is already moving ahead of recovery, although the rainfail has not yet 
ceased, making the task that much more difficult. There is also the danger of 
epidemics and diseases, mainly affecting children, in all areas hit. 

Hurricane Winds 

Between the hours of three and five yesterday morning, hurricane winds hit 
Tumbes, causing the people to evacuate the area in haste. The cathedral bells 

tolled to warn the population. 

Fortunately, there were no casualties or losses of homes, hard hit by the tor- 
rential rain that began in October of last year. 

So far this year, rainfall has totaled 2,800 millimeters. The river has con- 
stantly risen and changed its course, leaving cultivated areas as islands, 
tearing out irrigation systems and washing out rvuads, seriously affecting 
coastal areas, where the lobster industry is suffering losses in the millions. 

Floods have also destroyed 50,000 stands of forest, wiping out the enormous 
efforts of experts. 

CSO: 5000/2032 




ful in the Caribbean, if not the world but they are rapidly becoming a unus- 
able. Pollution of the beaches is fast becoming a reality in many parts of 
Tobago. This observation was made by Tobago County Medical Officer of Heaith, 
Dr. Marjorie Nicholls, who has launched a campaign against pollution. She is 
seeking the assistance of all citizens. “Pollution,” she says, “means making 
dirty. We are responsible for making our beaches dirty. The sea is not a 
place for disposal of garbage," she stressed. She said that seabathing may be 
a thing of the past in a few years "if we do not take steps now to protect our 
beaches." Dr. Nicholls pointed out that in some parts of the world the 
beaches have become unusuable through pollution [Port-of-Spain TRINIDAD 

GUARDIAN in English 13 May 83 p 6] 

CSO: 5000/7579 



Madras THE HINDU in English 11 May 83 p 8 

| Editorial} 

‘- y 
Text | 



ndustrial plant consumes 
water a day from the Son depri 
downstream of 



QF > 



pushed down to the detriment of farmers, and 
large tracts of land around underground mines 
are rendered barren of vegetation. Forest lands 
are denuded systematically, thanks to the 
largescaie illicit felling by contractors in cob 
iusion with corrupt officials. while villagers are 
denied access to forests for collecting even the 
taller twigs. 

These features of the environment 
that a study group presents of Shahdol — a 
north-eastern istrict of Madhya Pradesh 
abounding in forest and mineral wealth — are 
not untypica! of the state of the environment 
the country. which has been laid bare in many 



its disturbing facets in a by the Centre for 
Science and Environment — a non-official and 
independent effort The message that indie is 
rapidly becoming a ‘vast wasteland’, with an 
environmental crisis engulfing it runs through 
the reports sections relating to land, people. 
water. atmosphere. health and habitat Among 

seases: | 
Kali hyde oroect (Karnataka) have led to 

severe soil erosion and loss of topsoil, making 
the area a desert unfit for cultivation: 60 per cent 
of Caicutta’s residents suffer from respiratory di- 
seeses related to air pollution: and 70 per cent 
of the rural lation is without access to safe 
water supply. list is long. 

The environment cannot be reduced to the 
sum total of air. water. forests and wildlife. It has 
quantitative and qualitative sides that say a 
about the material life. the science. 
and the level of development of a 
| as its attitude towards the 
S basically related to the pat- 

use. sO that environmerial 
becomes an exercise in the allocaticy 
management of resources so as tO improve 
well-being of those engaged in production, 
prevent the harmful byproducts of indus*<rialisa- 
tion and conserve natura! wealth. This involves 
resolution of conflicts not only between man 
nature but also between man and man. that 
the clashes between one section of the 
ion and another, each with a common 
identifiable interest From the Shahcol 
example, the research group (whose effort was 
the Department of Science arc 
Technology of the Government of India) estab.i- 
the inter-linkages among conflicts and 
traces them to the central issue of contro! of 
resources. The team presents an abstract 
framework for planning the environment (which 
it calls a demand mode! because a!! corflicts 
are seen to stem from demands made by cf- 
ferent sections) and also formuiates oro 
grammes based on tt for resolving tne two 
categories of conflicts. 
What the study emphasises 



s ‘Yet a 

conservation strategy “as necessarily ‘o be 
multi-disciplinary in character. recognising tne 
interconnections between employmert. health 
education, food. agriculture and so on — areas 

ments. Governnental 

rc attack 
s ‘aunched on ecosystems. No doubt. official . 
Socuments contain references to the ‘ecological ° 

palance’ and the © 
“ature . 2 rarity in the past 

DOA. : | 
mental Planning (NCEP) and several expert 
naneis and task forces. Some specie! lews have 
been wade too, such as the one on the prever- 
son of water and air pollution. 


All these may be weicome | 

they oxate a forwardélooking tun 
tumung in reel terms. however, 

at best. of minor * not per.preral value. One 
reason is that emwronment consciousness nas 
not permeated the bureaucracy anc Ne political 
leadership at ai! levels. The DOE and the NCEP 
are looked upon as NO More than agencres Nand- 
ing Out guidelines that Nave |e relevance to 
the objectives of the development process. Ths 
iS primarily because they fwve not been in- 
vested with the type of authonty they need to 
play the role expected. Also. as ported out in 
the ‘State of India’s Environment 1982 (the 
voluntary effort referred to earlier), the Centre 
has yet to evolve an “explicit national enviror 
ment policy which is more then just a set of 
isolated programmes carried out by 2 few 
isolated government agencies’. What is equaily 
important. the official bodies must open out to, 
and interact with, scientists and voluntary 
organisations so that a programme for the 

that relies on the participation of the peopie. 


Kathmandu THE RISING NEPAL in English 20 May 83 p 3 

[Article by Kunda Dixit] 

[Text } 

The countdown has begun. The hills 
surrounding the Kathmandu Valley are 
now well on their way towards ecological 
collapse. Forests on the valley rim are at 
this moment undergoing accelerated 
plunder to meet the increasing energy 
demands of the capital city. In the 
absence of effective conservation 
measures, the free-for-all has resulted in 
entire hillsides losing their forest cover in 
the past ten years. It is important to 
understand that the trees are notbeing 
cut to meet rural firewood needs, but are 

being fed into the furnaceofKathmandu’'s 

urban energy requirements. KUNDA 
DIXIT reports. 

High on the slopes of 
Chandragiri on the Valley's 
southwest rim, a rhododen- 
dron tree in full bloom was 
being hacked down. It took 
a relay of three axe-men one 
hour to fell it. The final 
swing of the axe, and the 
trunk creaked, the crimson 
flowers quivered, and the 
tree finally toppled onto the 
slope with a sigh. 

Punya Ram comes 
from a settlement near 
Panga at the bottom of the 
hill, and this is his 
livelihood. He and his 
colleagues climb up to the 
receding forest about three 
times a week to take down 
loads of firewood. This hé 
sells at about Rs 25 per load 
to firewood dealers in the 
Kalimati Bazar. 



Looks l:ke rain, we 
better hurry up,” says Punya 
Ram turning to his [riends 
who are busy dismembcring 
the rhododendron tree. The 
red flowers lie scattered on 
the grassy slope making it al! 
look, like fishermen carving 
up a bleeding whaie on tbe 

Soon, the dokos are [ull 
of flesh-coloured slices of 
firewood. Punya Ram 
heaves his doko up on his 
back and adjusts his head 
strap. He will come 
tomorrow to finish off what 
is left of the tree, and for 
today he has carned his 
evening meal. My talk with 
Punya Ram was not an 
interview in the strict sense 
of the word. If it was, | 

would have certainly have 
asked him if he realised the 
“full environmental impact” 
of his action or if he knew 
that it was against the law to 
chop down trees. The thin 
grey line between good and 
bad, between what is jegal 
and what is not, can be a bit 
hazy when a person is 
willing to slog four hours up 
&@ mountain everyday, cut a 

large trec, and carry thirty 
kilos of firewood back down 
the mountain to make his 

Punya Ram looked to 
be about forty, which would 
have meant that he was a 
professional axe-man 
during the days when the 
forests came down to the 
Champadev: Pass. Even ten 
years ago, the pass had 
cnough jungic cover to make 
the chmb a pleasant hike 
through a rerdant forest. 
Today, « w a barren ridge 
that doesn't even have grass 
cover due to the frequent 
bush fires that sweep the 

A woman from Cho- 
bhar is on the mdge now 
filing a jute sack with 
charcoal trom the burnt out 
tree-trunks. Scavenging in 
the ashes of a once lush 
hillside, she, too, looks up at 
the gathering clouds. 

Charcoal w the other 
hot stem that selis well at the 
Kalimati Bazar. A sack full 
goes for anything up to 
thirty rupees and is a lot 
lighter to carry. “lt w the 
cow-herds,”’ says the 
woman, looking up to show 
a face blackened with ash. 
“They set fire to the bushes 
50 that the green shoots will 
sprout after the rains.” 

It if a strange 
comadence that this hill is 
called “Bhasmeshwar™ 
(Lord of the Ashes) by the 
local people —— since the 
whole hillside is charred by 
windswept fires tha: are 
usually lit this time of the 
year. One such inferno, 
started at the bottom of the 
hill rises in a black swath 
three thousand feet up to the 

CSO: 5000/4714 

summit of Bhasmeshwar. 
Other little dots can be seen 
on this slope stuffing 
charcoal into sacks. 

There @ an ominous 
thund+;, as dark clounds 
Oaly a torsa, remains of the 
rhododendron tree as large 
drops of rain begin to fall. 

dron trees that still stand 

We turn our heads 
down and beg the descent 
to Kathmandu. 



DROUGHT AID--WINDHOEK--The Admjinistrator-General of SWA/Namibia, Dr Willie van 
Niekerk, has announced in Windhoek that drought aid to farmers totalling k49,6 
miliion wili be made available in the next financial year. Dr van Niekerk 
said R3}/7-million of this amount would be for direct drought relief. The de- 
teriorating situation among farmers could cause a general economic collapse in 
the rural areas unless “drastic relief measures" were continued. Karakul 
farmers would receive R3-million in drought aid, while R9 million would be 
made available for the export of meat to countries other than South Africa. 
Windhoek City Council at its meeting this week announced the basic water meter 
tariff for consumers would increase from July 1 by up to nearly 200 percent, 
and the tariff per kilolitre would rise from 38 cents to 53 cents. The in- 
creases were brought about by higher prices for water supplied to municipali- 
ties by the Government. The new Government tariff was 33 cents a kilolitre, 
an in crease of 10 cents. The water tariffs have elicited sharp criticism 
from consumers. In an editorial yesterday, the Republikein described the 
higher tariffs as "a slap in the face" which Windhoek's public did not de- 
serve. [Text] [Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 28 May 83 p 13) 

CSO: 5000/1964 



cast London DAILY DISPATCH in English 18 May 83 p 21 

(Article by Mark Schacter) 


as signs of academic 
heartiessness — that the 
same drought that is 
causing an “alarming 

rete’ of stock death in 
Ciskei may also be « 
biessing_ as far as the 
long term prospects of 
the veid are concerned 

“One of the most se 
riows factors limiting 
livestock raising in sub 
sistence areas such as 
Ciskei is the problem of 
overstecki said Mr. 
Winston of the 
agriculture faculty's De- 
partment of Pasture Sci- 

“Se the one bright star 

of the drought,” Mr Trol- 
lope said, “is that stock 
losses wil] reduce press- 
wre on the veld and 
allow it to make a signifi- 
cant recovery.” 

Overstocked for de- 
cades, the Ciskeian veld 
is ‘ennially in such 

condition that even 
the current drought has 
had relatively little 
effect on it 

“The veld is so de- 
graded that it could 
hardly have become 
more degraded. Mr 
Trollope said. 

Even so, in the excep 
tionally dry weather of 
the last two or three 
years, the veld has gone 
from bed to worse 

“Some areas of Ciskei 
— around Keiskamma- 
hoek and Peddie. for ex- 
ample — already look 
like a desert.” Mr Tro. 
lope said. 

“If there is oo rain, the 
existing hi rate of 
stock loss the severe 
defoliation of the veld 
will continue.” 

But even with adequ 
ate rainfall. it would 
take DB to BW years of 
proper stocking and 
proper grazing manage 
ment to restore the Cis 
keian veid to good condi. 
tion. . 

Proper stocking and 
management of the veid. 
aims often negiected in 
Ciskei, were now more 




possible to achieve than. 
ever before, Mr Trollope 
said, because of recent 
research into the “car-. 
rying capacity” of the- 
sweetveld of the Eastern 
Cape. 4 
“Carrying capacity”, 
expressed in hectares. 
per animal unit, is a me- 
asure of the veld's abil- 
Lo support grazing anim-' 
als for a sustained. 

“Up until recently 
carrying capacity has: 
been one of the most dif-. 
ficult things for the far-, 
mer to estimate,* Mr} 
Trollope said. But now, 
by using a statistical 
model developed by re- 
search at the Dohne 
agricultural station, it 
appeared that carrying 
capacity could be esti- 
ity to support grazing 
animals for a sustained 

To arrive al an esti: 
mate for any particular 
piece of veld, the veld is 
first analysed for its 
botanical composition, 
sandis then given a score 
jiranging from 0 to 100 
per cent) accordingly. - 

ite score is entered 

_ into an equation, which. 

yields a figure for car-. 
rying capacity. “; 

ideally. farmers will 
balance their “stocking 
rate’ — the rate at which 
they put animals out to 
graze — with the car- 
rying capacity of their 

“But in Ciskei, stock- 
ing rates are generally 
far in excess of carrying 
capacity Therefore, we, 
end up with overstock- 
ing.” Mr Trollope said. 

Mr Trollope said he 
believed that the system 
of communal land te- 
gure in Ciskei was a ma- 
jor cause of overstock- 
ing. When grazing was 
held in commesa. indi- 
vua!l farmers had little 
motivation to ‘remove 
stock : 

‘If you reduce your 
stocking rate. someone 
elise wull just move more 
livestock im” 

Another factor, Mr 
Trollope said, was the 
production costs in- 
volved in livestock rais- 
ing In Ciskei they were 


minimal because the 
government covered the 
farmer's expenses for 
iwtems such as watering 
points, fencing. and dip- 

“In commercial farm- 
ing, the most important 
factor congrolling stock- 
ing rates ia the ability to 

’ make a profit, so stock- 

ing rates depend on pro- 
duction costs.” 

Farmers whose costs 
were heavily subsidised 
would, by contrast, be 
less interested in main- 
taining a profitable 
stocking rate, and would 
tend to overstock 

“We must allow econo- 
mic forces to set stocking 
rates,” Mr Trollope said. 

Mr Trollope Suggested 
several ways in which 
this this might be done- 

@ Have farmers contri- 
bute directly to the cost 
of livestock production. 

@ Introduce a tax on 
livestock ownership. but 
give rebates for efficient 
beef production. 

@ Allow the buying and 
selling of grazing rights. 
This would result in a 
‘“*natural selection’ 
among livestock far- 
mers, allowing the best 
to expand and prosper. 
A tax would be attached 
to the grazing rights. but. 
again, rebates would be 
given for efficient pro- 

Mr Trollope said he 
believed it would take a 

‘long time to change the 

habits of Ciskeian far- 
mers — to encourage 
them to farm more effi- 
ciently and adopt 
methods that wouig not 
damage the veld 

But this, he said. “was 
the challenge for the 
agricultural extension 

Meantime. a vast. if 
only short term. im- 
provement in the state of 
the veld could be 
brought about by some 
thing beyond the contro! 
ef any farmer — a 
change in the weather 

“If we were to get 75 
mm of soft. soaking rain 
now.” Mr Trollope said. 
“you wouldnt recognise 
the veld in the spring.” 






Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 20 May 83 p 12 

Tae i TAH HH fi 
it MT ipeet ra i ee 
Hite TMEHHE thin ull real iit 
Ht it ey see 
vast THE: Hi; Bing i pit nal 

Text } 










z SUNDAY TIMES in English 22 May 83 p 3 

Rouse | 




saus 3 

iis Hn 

A Ue A it i 

it il Ra 

=33 LETT bry thee 

Tet fete “tit Hil iene Mei 
'g ay e s 

: Pe i up 2 He 



Speed of beilding a 
ee ee ee ea 
a large plant cas 
structed ia six to eight 

mooths — is a vital factor in 



i 1 
a ratte 



re uk =} 

ii [a at |b 

iit Hi 


sail =58 





NATAL POWER CUT--ANOTHER power station has been closed down because of the 
growing water crisis. An Escom spokesman said the Umgeni power station near 
New Germany in Natal stopped generating electricity yesterday. Earlier, the 
power station closed five of its six generating sets. It is the second power 
station in Natal to be closed because of the water situation--the first was 
the Ngagane power station in Northern Natal. The spokesman said a further cut 
back in electricity production at the Camden power station in the Eastern 
Transvaal was also likely soon. The station is now operating on three of 
eight generating sets. [Text] [Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 20 May 83 
p 3] 

DROUGHT AILD--MAFEKENG--Bophuthatswana has implimented a R42 million drought 
relief programme aimed at preserving nearly half-a-million head of livestock, 
and financially securing 90 000 farmers. The programme went into operation on 
May 18, according to President Lucas Mangope. Areas hardest hit by the 
drought are the extreme western districts of Tlhaping-Tlharo and Ganyesa where 
the drought relief plan includes a major water reticulation scheme. The Min- 
inster of Defence, Brigadier H F P Riekert will be in charge of the drought 
assistance project, and representatives from the departments of agriculture, 
works and education will help in the scheme. The Agricultural Development 
Corporation of Bophuthatewana (Agricor) will prepare maize residue from the 
Ditsobotla maize district which will be sent to the stricken areas. This is 
expected to cost close on R2,5 million and will feed nearly 26 000 head of 
livestock. A temporary feedlot is to be erected and activated at Taung at a 
total cost of R1,3 million. Fodder and licks, subsidised by the Government, 
will be made available to farmers in western Bophuthatswana. About 1 500 tons 
of groundnut hay has already been purchased to feed nearly 2 000 cattie in 
Thaba'Nchu. R25 million of the R42 million will be distributed in the form of 
loans to private farmers. [Text] [Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 28 May 

83 p 5; 

CSO: 5000/194 




Harare THE HERALD in English 19 May 83 p ll 

[Text } 

ES il i Pa ib inenia I setae Ef 
: bi fat net ii i 
if taki i Aletta Hit 
eria a 338 Lange SREEERay faae a) bt Hh 
i iH HT Hat rk ia th jin aa 
TR ae i chat } 




Bit PL 


ut f 
self aan 


gf UE 





¢ ‘e]8) j 





Bulawayo THE CHRONICLE in English 14 May 83 pl 

[Text } 


A MASSIVE operation 
is under way to more 
270 0 cows and calves 
in droaght-stricken areas 
to where there is craaime. 
it was reported in Bala- 
wavo vesterday. 

The operstion i* being 
undertaken jointly by the 
Cold Sterage Commission 
ang the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture. The cattle are ro be 
moved to “lashoeraland 

As part of a national 
cperittion to salvige§ the 
cattle — in Mata 
deleiand Masvingo 
from the grip of drought, 
the CSC is also to 
ter another SAN NNN catrie 
pef-re une next rainy 


The Prime Minister, Cde 
Mugabe, announced last 
month that the Govern- 
ment was studying how 
cattle would be moved from 
oe to Mashonaland 


Speaking at Chibi oa 
a tour had parts = 
Masvin ° «assess 
offerts ry rhe drought, Cde 
Mugabe said everything pos 
sible had to be done to 
save the cattle. 

Meanwhile, the Minister 
of Agriculture, Sen Denis 
Norman will fly over 
Masvingo on Monday im & 
mission (o assess the 
effects of drought. 


ment estimates 19 885 
cattle are now grazing on 
the limited pastures in 
Dit: -Chipise. 

Beitbridge has received 4 
meagre 4265mm of rain 
fall since October last year. 

third of the national herd 




PLANS TO SAVE CATTLE--BULAWAYO--THE Cold Storage Commission plans to save half 
the cattle in drought-ravaged provinces of Matabeleland and Masvingo by the 
end of the winter, spending $1 million a week buying them and transporting 
them to CSC feedlots and ranches, the CSC general manager, Mr Eddie Cross said 
here, yesterday. Mr Cross was speaking in an interview on his return from a 
three-day tour of Masvingo, during which he and the Minister of Agriculture, 
Senator Denis Norman assessed the severity of the drought in the province. Mr 
Cross said 6 500 head of cattle were being moved each week to Mashonaland and 
the west of Matabeleland South and by the end of winter 270 000 head will have 
been bought and moved. A further 230 000 cattle from the drought-stricken 
areas would be slaughtered, making a total of half a million or 50 percent of 
all cattle in the two provinces. From the communal lands the CSC was buying 

3 500 head a week and from the commercial lands 3 000 head were being bought. 
The CSC was expecting de-stocking in the communal lands to be between 70 and 
100 percent with some areas left without any cattle at all by the end of the 
winter. (Text) [Harare THE HERALD in English 20 May 83 p 1) 

DROUGHT THREATENS TIN OUTPUT-~-ANOTHER important mine in Zimbabwe, the Kamativi 
tin mining complex on the Gwai River near Hwange, is suffering from lack of 
water. Its problems are similar to those now being experienced by the Dorowa 
phosphate mine which has had to cut production following the lack of water in 
the Sabi River, as reported in The Gazette last month. The Kamativi tin mine 
also needs to draw a large quantity of water from the Gwai River in order to 
process the tin ore in slurry form. However, as the Gwai River has dried up 
during the present drought the mine is having to depend on a large pool, or 
dam, which at present holds just sufficient water to enable production to 
continue. "But, like everyone else in the country we are worried that water 
supplies may run out before the next rains," said a spokesman for the Kama- 
tivi mine this week. He said that the mine is continuing to operate normally 
at present. But water is being rationed throughout the Kamativi mining town 
complex which officially houses about 7 000 people including families of the 
mine workers. "We are running at our normal production level of about 1 000 
tonnes a month and trying to conserve water as much as possible in the town- 
ship,” said the spokesman. “We estimate that there should be enough water in 
the river pool to last until August to September. by chen we may have to 
think again unless we get sufficient rain to start the river flowing again.” 
The Kamativi mine produces about 12 000 tonnes of tin a year, a valuable ex- 
port in terms of foreign currency at present tin prices ruling abroad. [Text] 
[Harare THE FINANCIAL GAZETTE in English 13 May 83 p 1} 


CATTLE SALVAGE PLAN--HARARE--The Zimbabwe Cold Storage Commission plans to 
save half the cattle in drought-ravaged provinces of Matabeleland and Masvingo 
by the end of the winter, spending some Rl, l-m buying them and transporting 
them to CSC feedlots and ranches, the commission's general manager, Mr Eddie 
Cross, said in an interview in Harare yesterday. Mr Cross was speaking-on his 
return from a three-day tour of Masvingo, during which he and the Minister of 
Agriculture, Senator Denis Norman, assessed the severity of the drought in the 
province. Mr Cross said 6 500 head of cattle were being moved each week to 
Mashonaland and the west of Matabeleland South, and by the end of winter 2/70- 
000 head would have been bought and moved. A further 230 000 cattle from the 
drought-stricken areas would be slaughtered, making a total of half a million, 
or 50 per cent of all cattle in the two provinces. The CSC was expecting de- 
stocking in the communal lands to be between 70 and 100 per cent with some 
areas left without any cattle at all by the end of the winter. [Text] 

| Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 21 May 83 p 13] 

CSO: 5000/190 



Moscow NEW TIMES in English No 20, May 83 pp 22-24 

[Article by Mikhail Kokin] 


To Study and Foresee 

In 1980 the Soviet Union adopted 
new laws on protection of the at- 
mosphere and the protection and 
utilization of the animal kingdom 
We have 136 state preserves and 
hunting reservations, seven national 
parks and 4,000 protected natural 
sites such as caves, waterfalls and 
geysers. In 1981 a Commission of the 
Presidium of the USSR. Council 
of Ministers for Environment Pro. 
tection and Rational Utilization of 
Natural Resources was established. 
In the llth five-year-plan period 
seven nationwide scientific and 
technical programmes for nature 
protection are being carried out. 
Some ® billion rubles will be 
allocated for the protection of the 

The results are already making 
themselves felt. In the first two 
years of the current five-year-plan 
period the release of sewage into 
surface water decreased by almost 
two cubic kilometres and the ejec- 
tion of noxious admixtures into the 
atmosphere, by one million tons 

World experience shows that the 
utilization of natural resources is, on 
the whole, extensive in character 
The losses of minerals in the process 
of extraction, processing and utiliza- 
tion In the majority of industrially 
developed countries reach one third 
and sometimes even more of the 
overall volume involved in produc- 
tion. The organization of ecological- 
ly safe, wasteless or, to begin with, 
low-waste industries would make it 


possible to stop the depletion of 
natural resources and the dangerous 
pollution of the environment. 

In the llth five-year plan prov!i- 
sion is made for supplying industry 
with water primarily through water 
recycling and re-use systems. The 
volume of recycled and re-used 
water in industry will amount to 
715 per cent. The USSR. State 
Planning Committee has endorsed a 
programme for the comprehensive 
development of the principal types 
of mineral resources § envisaging 
measures to improve the extraction 
and utilization of minerals. 

We also have a nationwide re- 
search and development programme 
for devising new production proces- 
ses ensuring maximum _ utilization 
and decontamination of industrial 
waste and household garbage. It will! 
make it possible to increase by 1985 
the share of the utilization of slag of 
the nonferrous metals industry to 
21 per cent of their total amount, 
that of phosphogypsum to 20 per 
cent, and that of the ash and slag 
waste of thermal power stations to 
95 per cent. The economic returns 
from the implementation of the pro- 
gramme are estimated at an eventual 
250 million rubles. 

Considerable experience has been 
accumulated by Soviet specialists in 
studying the dynamiics of the natural 
environment (monitoring). We have 
an effective countrywide system of 
monitoring the level of environment 
pollution. It embraces more than 
450 cities, about 1,900 rivers and 


lakes. al! tnlend seas and those 
washing our frontiers, as well as the 
soi! and forests of regions where 
chemicals are used. The service has 
automated control systems, itinerary 
laboratories for ascertaining the 
quality of the atmosphere and sur- 
face bodies of water, and other 
research equipment for studying the 

Obviously, the effectiveness of en- 
vironmental protection depends 
first and foremost on national ef- 
forts, on the activity of the popula- 
tion at large, on the political will of 
the leaders of every state. But this 
problem cannot be solved by the ef- 
forts of any one country, however 
large The protection of the environ- 
ment calls for the joint efforts of 
ell mankind 

In recent years the Soviet Union 
has advanced a number of proposals 
aimed at developing lerge-scale in- 
ternational co-operation in this field. 

Integrated Monitoring 

Soviet scientists believe that today 
there are sufficient scientific and 
methodological prerequisites for es- 
tablishing a global system of in- 
tegrated monitoring of the environ- 
ment and the ecological consequenc- 
es of its pollution More, the need 
for such @ programme has become 
iunperative, for without comprehen- 
sive information it is difficult to 
take effective measures to protect 
the environment 

Not long ago the Soviet Union pro- 
pose’ in UNEP (U.N. Environment 
Programme) that at the first stage 
approximately 50 integrated ecolog!- 
cal monitoring stations be set up 
This system is to include the already 
existing stations of the World 
Metcorological Organization for 
monitoring the pollution of the 
atmosphere, whose observation and 
research programmes ere to be ex- 
tend d It ts also possible to use 
sorne stations In biosphere reserves, 
which begen to be set up tn 1970 
within the framework of the 
UNESCO Programme “Man and the 
Biosphere” The Soviet Union has 
proposed holding in our countzty the 
First International Congress on 
Biosphere Reserves With the ap- 
proval of UNESCO and UNEP, the 
congress will be held in Minsk in 


October 1963 Specialists from dif- 
ferent countries will sum up the 
results of ten years of the develop 
ment of biosphere reserves, ex 
change experience and work out 
recommendations for the further 
development of protected areas in 
the world 

A European monitoring sub- 
system could become an important 
link in the future network of sta- 
tions Its establishment is provided 
for in the Conventio: on Long- 
Range Transboundary Air Pollution 
which was sdopted in 1979 at the 
High-Level Meeting on the Protec- 
tion of the Environment in Europe 
and which entered into force in 
March this year. Operating in ac- 
cordance with the convention § are 
the East European (in Moscow) and 
West European (in Oslo) meteorolog- 
ical centres processing information 
coming from most European coun- 

A system of contro! over changes 
taking place in the seas and oceans 
should become a part of ecvlozical 
monitoring This is essential for un- 
derstanding the interaction between 
the oceans and the atmosphere and 
for studying the impact of environ- 
mental pollution on the ecosystems 
of the World Ocean 

The questions discussed at tlhe 
High-Level Meeting included that of 
developing low and non-waste in- 
dustries A special declaration 
adopted on the initiative of the 
USSR. envisages co-operation of 
the European countries, the United 
States and Canada in the develop- 
ment of such industries. In order to 
activize co-operation, last February 
the 1) SSR. proposed in the UN 
Economic Commission for Europe 
that an international seminar on 
low-waste technology be held The 
proposa) was approved unanimously 
The seminar will be held in Moscow 
next year. 

Much interest was aroused among 
the commission members also by the 
Soviet proposal that a long-term en. 
vironmental protection strategy for 
the European countries be worked 
out for the period up to the year 
2000 and beyond it. In submitting 
its proposal, the Soviet Union pro- 
ceeded from the fact that many 
countries have already accumulated 
experience in elaborating long-term 

plans and forecasts in the sphere of 
environments! protection In our 
country, for instance, questions 
ef environmental protection con- 
stitute a special section in the 
Guidelines for the Economic and 
Social Development of the US SR 
for 1981-85 and for the Period 
Ending in 1980 They are also includ- 
ed in the comprehensive programme 
of scientif and technical progress 
for the period up to the year 2005 
which ts being drafted now. The 
countries of the socialist community 
have also defined the Guidel.nes 
for the Co-operation of the CMEA 
Countries in the Sphere of Protec- 
tion and Improvement of the En- 
vironment for the Period Ending tn 
the Year 2000 

Kermove the Main Threat 

Teo be sure, the efforts of scientists, 
the public and governments to pro- 
tect the human habitat will be 
sested tf the main danger to life on 
° planet—the arms bulld-up and 
primarily nuclear arms bulld-up—ts 
mot eliminated. Al! the more 60 

the reduction of military bud- 
gets would release vast means for 

the implementation of the most 
hurnene task facing mankind—con 
s ition of nature 

Every year $650 billion is spent 
for military purposes, and this at e 

tin when 15 billion people are 
=t ! proper medical care, almost 
3 t.ilon have no access to pure water, 
a ' wn tion half of them children 
dic every year from hunger and 
i trition 

iS remarch projects have 

vm that military production pol- 

lutes the environn ar 

the civilian tors of the 
Go It Involves Sa rule, We us f 
fissionable materials, heavy meals. 
and chemicals. In the United States, 

for instance, 60 per cent of a!) toxic 
Lquid waste is ejected by the muni 
tions industry 

On the initiative of the Soviet 
Union, the 35th and 36th sessions of 
the UN. General Assembly adopted 
resolutions on the Historical Rerpan- 
sibility of States for the Preservation 
of Nature for Present and Future 
Generations In order to gam a 
Geeper understanding of the inter- 
connection between the environment 
and the arms race and the impact of 
certain weapons on the Diosphere 
and climate, the Soviet Union pro 
posed including a special section on 
The Arms Race and the Environ- 
mem in the UN. environment prx 
gramme for 1984-89 worked out by 

The initiatives of the Soviet Union 
and other countries of the socialist 
community have played an importent 
role in securing the adoption by the 
7th General Assembly of the World 
Charter for Nature, which places or 
all states « responsibility for ‘the 
preservation of our planet and its 
riches The liith session of the 
UNEP Governing Council is meeting 
in Nairobi over May i)-24 The 
Soviet Union trusts that it will 
sdopt new important decisions in 

defence of Nature 

Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 10 Apr 83 p 3 

‘Article by V. Zakhar'ko, special IZVESTIYA correspondent: "Leningrad is 
Protected from Flooding" } 

‘Text}] Judging from many years of data, now, in the springtime, as well as in 
the summer, it is not expected that Leningrad will be threatened by the 
natural elements. Usually large floods attack the city in the fall and winter 
season, when the Baltic Sea is located in the zone of the most powerful cyclones 

coming from regions of the Atlantic. 

Last year alone, onslaughts of high water disrupted normal living conditions 
in the city five times and caused considerable material damage. It is likely 
that this situation will be repeated more than once, but now the number of 
floods will not be infinite because the time is drawing nearer when Leningrad 
will have a reliable shield against the elements. 

Large collectives of planners and builders and dozens of industrial enterprises 
are more and more active in developing work to fulfill the decrees of the 

CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers "On the Construction 
of Structures t° Protect Leningrad from Flooding". Covering a distance of 
25.4 km, the complex of these structures will dam up the Gulf of Finland when 
the waters rise sharply and will protect the mouth of the Neva from destructive 
waves. Included in the complex will be stone and earthen dams, locks to let 
water and vessels through, and a highway for motor vehicles that will becore 
an integral part of the ring highway around the city. 

Two and a half years ago the first stone was thrown into the gulf with the 
inscription, "We will protect Leningrad from flooding!" Since that time, at 
several starting sites, including Kotlin Island where legendary Kronstadt 

stands, hundreds and thousands of meters of stone foundations for dams are 

laid along the swampy bottom of the gulf. Day and night dump trucks, excavators, 
bulldozers and mechanical road rollers meet each other. A total of over 11 
million tons of stone and road metal, more than 52 million tons of sand and sand- 
gravel foundations and a huge mass of concrete and reinfcrced concrete will 

be used in building the structures and in various auxiliary projects. 

The unique complex was named an All-Union Outstanding Komsomol -Youth 
tion Project. Its problems and concerns will be at the center of attention 
Many planning and scientific re- 

of the Leningrad city party organization. 

search institutes have been drawn into resolving complex problems tied to the 

preservation and protection of the hydrological and biological systems 

Gulf of Finland, the Neva and Lake Ladoga. 

The state has allocated a great deal of funds for the erection ot 
By creating normal living conditions 
Leningrad residents, the complex of protective structures will preserve the 
immense material, cultural and historical valuables of the city. 

and this investment is justified. 

Shown in the illustration is 
the plan for the protective 


ese = 

~ ome 
jXtons htadt — 



PMO60930 Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 5 Jun 83 First Edition p l 

[Own correspondent V. Sungorkin Report: "Tsunami: An Unexpected Blow") 

[Summary] Maritime Kray -- "...An earthquake which occurred on the shores of Japan 
has caused great misfortunes there. At the same time it gave rise to tsunami waves, 
several hundred kilometers long, which rushed toward the mainland with the speed of 

a jet aircraft. These waves are treacherous! They arise in the ocean during earth- 
quakes and underwater eruptions and have an enormous destructive force. Out at sea 
they do not present any danger, they are simply not noticeable. The destructive waves 
inspire terror on the shores and in shallow water.... 

"Only precision instruments can register them and sound the alarm. Such a tsunami 
warning system exists on the Soviet Pacific coast. But it had been thought that 
tsunamis present no threat to the Maritime Kray, and moreover they had not occurred 
there in living memory. By a very rare coincidence of circumstances, the tsunami 
surged from the Japanese islands toward the Maritime Kray." 

The director of the Valentin Fish Factory got the first indication of what was to 
come when he was told around 1500 that water was rushing out of the bay. Immediately 
all ships were ordered out to sea. Three minutes later the water surged back into 

the bay. A senior mate was washed overboard, a seiner ran aground, and another seiner 
and a tug were washed eshore. The waves kept battering the bay until evening. In 
Vladivostok the "MS Ilich" was ripped from its anchor. But the Kamenskiy Fish Factory 
in the north of Maritime Kray took the heaviest toll. The moorings there are not 

in a bay but on the banks of a river near the estuary. When the water rushed out, 

it caused mooring cables to snap. One ship collided with a coal scow, another was 

washed up on a sandbank. 

"Staffs were set up in the kray immediately to deal with the natural disaster and they 
promptly organized the elimination of its consequences. I telephoned the affected 
enterprises. Life has returned to normal everywhere and all shops are producing. 

"Ie is difficult to blame the meteorologists who did not issue an advance warning 
of the trouble for, I repeat: Up to now it was thought that the shores of Maritime 
Kray were safe from such @ calamity. Specialists are now studying what has happened, 
and questioning the eyewitnesses to this rare phenomenon (in some settlements they 
claim that the water receded from the shore by 100-150 meters and then rushed up 

200 meters inland in the flattest spots). The height of the waves is described as 
being up to 8 meters. Experts in natural disasters are comparing, clarifying and 
analyzing all these accounts (which may at times be exaggerated) and drawing 

conclusions for the future." 

CSO: 5000/135 



Mudslide in Tajikistan 


LDOS1752 Moscow Domestic Television Service in Russian 13006 SMT 8 Jun 83 

(From the Vremya newscast] 

[Text] In the Kuybyshev Rayon of the Tajik SSR, a mud avalanche has afflicted settled 
areas and washed away houses, causing damage to agricultural crops. Now, looking at 

the absolutely calm flow of the Yavansu, it is difficult to imagine that today, just 

a few hours ago, its waters had such destructive power. Swollen with precipitation 

four times the norm for 10 days for Yavan Rayon where the torrent began, the Yavansu 
spilled over its banks, washed away a dam, and deposited tons of silt and clay on the 
on the nearby farmsteads of the Moskva kolkhoz and the 25th Party Congress sovkhoz. Eve 
che old inhabitants of the rayon cannot recall anything like it. 

In one night, the mud destroyed houses and damaged more than 300 hectares of cotton 

and about 150 hectares of feed land. However, the calamity did not take people unaware: 
A rayon headquarters to combat the elements was organized efficiently, equipment was 
brought out, and in just 2 hours the break in the dam was eliminated. (video shows 
men, machinery rebuilding river banks] The people suffering from the floods received 
emergency help -- all inhabitants of the villages came out to help to remove things 
from the destroyed houses, to give refuge to the women and children. Families who 
suffered from the floods are now housed in the rural club, kindergarten premises, and 

in specially brought-in tents. [video shows destruction; damage done to houses, ‘ields; 
rescue operations] 

The rayon headquarters is doing everything it can to provide pecp!] 
with permanent housing. The Tajik cottongrowers have accumulated great ex> 
in cultivating their crops in the most difficult weather conditions. Thus, 
the working people of the villages of Kuybyshev Rayon, despite the caprices o 
Dlan to hand over to the homeland 45,000 tons of cotton. 


Rain, Hail in Azerbaijan 
1D082344 Moscow Domestic Television Service in Russian 1700 CMT 8 Jun 83 

(From the Vremya newscast |} 

‘Text| Heavy torrential rain and hail storms have occurred in the western parts of 
Azerbaijan. Great losses have been inflicted on the republic's farms. [video shows 
damaged crops, piles of large hail] As the clouds rushed low over the fields, they 
rained down hailstones that reached the size of an egg. The soil was covered in 
places with a layer of ice up to 5 cms thick. Roads were washed away and many 
residential and farm buildings were ruined. [video shows damaged roads, buildings] 
Vineyard plantations, graincrops, vegetables and feeds have been damaged over an 
area of almost 5,000 hectares. Operational headquarters have been set up to repair 
the damages of this natural calamity and rehabilitation work is being carried out. 
The growers are putting the grapevines back on to their trellises and are restoring 
flattened crops. [video shows rescue operations] Scientists and workers of establish- 
ments and enterprises in nearby towns have come to the aid of the rural inhabitants. 

CSO: 5V00 | 



> - 




LDO/ 1509 Moscow Domestic Television Service in Russian 1300 CMI lun 83 

| j iW the Vrenmva newscast 

(Text) Torrentially heavy rain and hail have fallen in northern regions of Georgia. I 
Kaxhetiya, June is the month when the vine begins to strengthen. The vine leaves are 
turned toward the hot sun which fills the still-green clusters of grapes with juice. 
Yesterday, ome could hardly have imagined that the cloud which crept up from behind the 
somborskiy ridge would do so much damage: 200,000 hectares of land, given over not only 
to unique varieties of grapes but also to orchards, graincrops and perennial crops, wer: 


ruined ‘sokrusheny] by the rain in 20 minutes. 

A storm front tens of kilometers wide flung first hail then torrents of water upon the 
ground. The corn was almost man-high. In a day or two it would have been possible to 

begin the apricot harvest. It is hard to believe that the biggest artery of an irriga- 
tion system ran through here, lined with concrete slabs. j[screen shows shots of damagec 

vineyards, corm fields, fruit trees and irrigation canals) 

the greatest losses are in the vineyards. This autumn they will provide no Manavi, 
hatsitoli, Sarakych or Khaley [wines]. But the injured vines are also urgentiy in 

d of helo 

Party and administrative organizations have mobilized people to deal with the conse- 

quences of the weather. 




Residential Construction Norms Reviewed 

Moscow SEL'SKAYA ZHIZN' in Russian 13 May 83 p 2 

/Tex.7 The reguler meeting of the USSR Council of Ministers Presidium Commission 
on environmental protection and rational use of natural resources was held |? May. 

The commission examined measures adopted by Gosgrazhdanstroy concerning nature pro- 
tection during drafting of standard documents concerning residential construction, 
general plans of towns and rural settlements and drafts of detsiled planning and 

building up of residential regions. 

Gosgrazhdanstroy was commissioned to accelerate review of obsolete standard docu- 
ments with consideration of the achievments of science, technology and advanced 
know-how concerning nature protection and also to intensify the checking of im- 
plementation of general plens for towns end rural settlements and realization of 
environmental protection measures provided in them. 

A.K. Mel'nichenko, Minister of the Medical Industry, reported to the meeting on 

the work of the Ministry of the Medical Industry concerning introduction into pro- 
duction of low-waste and, wherever possible, waste-free technol]ogical processes and 
reduction of harmful emissions into the atmosphere by subordinate enterprises. 

The commission promised the Minister of the Medical Industry that emergency steps 
would be taken to eliminate deficiencies. 

The problem of increasing protection for and reproduction of wild animals and 
plants listed in the USSR Red Book was discusssd. The recently adopted USSR 
Council of Ministers decree "The USSR Red Book" is extremely important in regard 
to this matter. 

The USSR Ministry of Agriculture, the USSR Ministry of the Fishing Industry, the 
USSR State Forestry Management, the USSR Academy of Sciences and Councils of Mini- 
sters of union republics were charged to implement measures to protect rare snimals 
and plants of the country and to complete, quickly, tasks assigned by this decree. 


Protecting Resources of the Far horth 
Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian | May 63 

/Text/7 A draft of a complex program for improving the maintenance and rational use 
of nature on newly developed territories in regions of the Far North was considered 
at a meeting of the RSFSR Council of Ministers Presidium Commission on environ- 
mental protection and rational use of natural resources. Commission members, re- 
presentatives of different ministries emphasized during discussions, that extreme 
caution must be taken in dealing with the vulnerable nature of these places. ‘he 
program sets tasks for protecting the atmosphere, waters and land, forests and 
animal world and establishes amounts of capital investments for implementing these 
measures. Specific recommendations were made to industry concerning the necessity 
to shift to the new waste-free technology of production, especially in Norilsk, 

and concerning the need for review of the lumber raw materia] bese, the use of 
hardwoods and concerning the prohibition of superfellings in lumbering operations. 

The program provides for elimination of hazardous industrial emissions into 
reservoirs, for the shift of the timber exploitation area to the south, for an 
increase of the number of nature preserves by organizing sanctuaries and reserva- 
tions and many other measures. It was proposed that Gosplan RSFSR, the Ministry 
of Reclamation and Water Economy, the Ministry of Foreatry and the FSFSR Counci. 
of Ministers Main Administration of Hunting consider the measures proposed by the 
complex program in the development of of drafts of annus) plans for protecting 
nature and providing for rational use of natural resources and of plans for the 
l2th Five-Year Plen and subsequent Five-Year plans. 

CSO: 5000/11 

Alma-Ata KAZAKHSTANSKAYA PRAVDA in Russien 1 Apr 83 p i 

/Irticle entitled "The Aral Tekes an Examination" by B. Samoylenko, Head of the 
Department of the Council on the Study of the Productive Forces of the KaSSR 

Academy of Sc iences7 

Text7 Scientific and technical progress gives man the capacity to effect nature 
greatly. This sometimes produces very unfortunate after-effects. The fate of 

the Aral see is a clear example of this. The Aral sea level hes dropped signifi- 
cantly as the result of intense opening up of new irrigated ereas and the increased 
use of the waters of the Am Derya end Syr Darya rivers. The naturs] potential of 
the Aral sea region has deteriorated greatly. 

This ‘s especially noticeable in the Kare-Kalpak ASSR and in Kzyl-Orda oblast in 
Katakhsten. In recent years the Aral sea shoreline has receded by 10 to 20 kilo- 
meters and, in some places, by 60 kilometers. Animal husbandry and hunting have 
deteriorated; hay meadows end pastures died off and reeds overgrew then. The water 
became more brackish end natural fish spawning grounds became scarcer. Some island 
fish factories and individual fish farms had to be eliminsted because of the great 
reduction in catches. Industry in the coastal regions and shipping have suffered 
considerable damage. Some people have been forced to change professions while 
others are migrating from their homes. Therefore, the Aral problem has become 

8 social problem emal in importance to the economic problem concerning it. 

however, the ecological aspects of the drying up of the Aral sea present the great- 
est problem. With the reduction of its water erea, it will, in the future, stop 
ameliorating the climate of the neighboring ereas, especially in summer. The frost- 
free period is being shortened end there is a possibility of earlier esutum and 
later spring frosts. With the retreet of the shoreline, the selt settling on the 
bottom dries up quickly end is carried by the wind to the surrounding fields and 
even to rather distent areas. We must emphasize especially that these changes will 
occur near the northern boundery of the cotton growing erea where climatic con- 
ditions ere questionable even without this complication. 

The prospect of the complete disappearance of the Aral sea is tenable from the 
point of view of those investigators who assume that the Are] may be sacrificed to 
the needs of irrigated egriculture. Actually, the national profits derived from 
irrigeting lands with waters from the Syr Derya and the Am-Derya sre many times 


.r than profits derived from fishing and shipping. -<owever. 

natura. and econor consequences of the complete disappesrance of tn° ar 
be determined fuliy. We mst elso consider the mora. responsi0d: ity of ows 
veneration for the preservation of this unique nstural region. 

Therefore scientists of Kezakhstan, Uzbekistan, the RSFSR snd other repubi-cs of 
the country sre working to lessen or eliminate the harmful effects é 
»ccurring in the Areal sea region. These scientists are seeking optimum revu.s*ion 
of the water balance of the reservoir and prevention of the desert ion of tn 

Aral 3e@ region. 

» Oram +, an 

The most complete historical account about the Aral sea is found in |.5. Serg's 
book "The Aral Sea", published in 1906 in the form of an account of the Turkests 
jepartment of the Russian Geographical Society. Studying Arabian and Aniva sources, 

L.S. Berg concluded thet, up until end in the beginning of the i3th century, tne 

Am Derys flowed into the Aral sea but, later, the waters of this river { owed 

through the Serskemysh depression slong the ancient Uzboy dry river bed into the 
aspisn ses. The sree of the Aral sea was much smaller at that time. in the 

second half of the l6th century, the water flow along the Uzboy dry river bec 
stopped and the Am Darve again begen to flow into the Ara! ses. 

Me leve. of the Aral sea fluctuated ewen after tnis. In low-water periods, it 
fe.l to three meters and, in high-water periods, excess water even flowed through 
the Sarakemysn depression into the Cespien see. Thus, for example, zrest drops 
were noted in the 1520s and the 1860s. After 16890, they were not observed agein 
for S. years. The rapid reduction of the level of the Aral sea beginning in 19%] 
‘an be attributed to both economic and natural causes. With the rapid development 
of irrigation, the waters of mountein rivers began to be "used up” even before 

they were discharged into the Syr Derya. Part of the Am Darye fiow is diverted 
‘mto teh irrigsetion zone of the Kera-Kum and the Am-Bukhara cana’s. The run-off 
waters from the fields do not flow into the Aral ses but are discharzed into 
Sarakemysh hollow arcmenistan) and Arnasay depression (Uzbekistan). 

Urying up of the Arai sea aiso changes the ground waters regime. In some regions 

arounc the Arai ses, they stop and peter out end, in others, they do not reach tt} 
retreatim, sea and are evaporated completely. 
According t ,entific predictions, the erea of the sea wil] decrease two-fo. 
and ite volume will decrease three-fold by the year 2000. It will seperste ini 
two bodies: water consisting of a small sea of nearly ¥% cubic kilometers and : 
Large ces wit ro.ume of 270 cubic kilometers. The large seas will have twe 
parts, @ Geep-water western pert end e shallow-water eastern part. They will be 
nec Sy 8 narrow strait between Vogroshdeniye island and Kulanda peninsu, 
sma.i sea wv pe separated in the region of Kokeral island and Serg stre 

Sts be. .eve thet, in order to retain the importance of the forming reser- ‘n tne fishing economy, the mouth of the Syr Darya mist be moved > little 
to the north of the eastern cape in Berg strait in order for it to flow int ‘ 
Small Ara ruger to store the riwer drainage and the irrivation crs 

waters irom t! ezeiinsk massif, a dam must be built in Berg strait. =n eri: 

reconstruction of the weter erea will make it possible to creste favorabie con- 
ditions for breeding fish which ere resistant to salt. 

Another fisn industry reservoir may be created if you take pert of Adzhibaey bay and 
feed the Amu Derya discharge into it by means of a discharge rgeuisting instella- 
tion . The water surpluses will be diverted into the western deep-water pert of 

the ses. 

The discheree regulating instelletions will make it possible to freshen the water 
.n the reservoirs since the water newly flowing into them will be fresher than the 
jischarged water. Thus the present-day Aral will be transformed into two slightly 
saline reservoirs, the biological productivity of which, considering the heat 
resources, may be extremely high. These measures are being worked out at the USSR 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Geography and the USSR Academy of Sciences In- 
stitute of Water Problems, the KeSSR Acedemy of Sciences, the USSR Ministry of 
Water Conservancy and design institutes of the country. 

in order to prevent desertification of the Aral region, it is necessary to divert 
pert of the drainage of Siberian rivers to this area. This will replenish water 
deficits in this zone and will make it possible to irrigate new lends since, in 

the ancient and modern delte of the Syr Derya, millions of hecteres of land ere 
suitable for cultivating rice, melons and fodders. Irrigation interceptor ditch 
networks are needed in the Am Derysa and Syr Darya delta. They will make it possi- 
ble to create lerge irrigeted tracts, hay mesdows and pastures, to restore delta 
lakes and "dried up" river channels and to organize restricted areas and preserves 
or protection and preservation of the plant and animal world. 

sonsidering the fact thet the escape of salts from the dried up parts of the Aral 
sea presents @ serious problem, measures ere being taken to retain them. In the 
first 3 to 5 years after retreat of the sea, luxuriant development of salt-wort 
appears on the dried surface of the bottom and this then changes to desert vege- 
tation. Considereble ereas of the drying out bottom may have no vegetation. In 
these ereas, sendhills form and bits of earth end selt sre carried sway. Now 
there are promising methods for fixing the afforestating the drifting sands. They 
ore used extensively on the bere bottom ereas. Pastures will appear where the 
lesert vegetation now grows. Howewer, considering the fact that these pastures 
will include some scarcely edible plants, especially salt-wort, the effectiveness 
of these measures will be low. After reclaiming the lend of the dried up zone, 
tney might be used to cultivate cotton, rice and other crops. Measures to anchor 
the drained bottom must be started as soon as possible. 

Aezakhstan and Usbekisten scientists of different specialties ere involved in the 
fate of the Aral sea and the saree adjecent to it. Therefore, in comp)isnce with e 
proposa. of # commission on problems of the Aral sea of the KeSSR Academy of Sci- 
ences, it was decided to create in the Eestern Aral Region, @ special station with 
a network of fixed institutions including those in Karakelpak ASSR for the complex 
study of processes of desertification and for development of measures of control of 
.t and for checking the effectiveness of the neasures conducted. 

- . 

CSO: 5000/1114 



Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA in Russian 18 Feb 83, p 1 

First of all one should note that the protection of nature in Russia has its 

The RSFSR has more than 90 percent of the water and timber 

he co 

own peculiarities. 

res Tce 

well as 

extremely large territorial production complexes such as the 
the wé ete r 

by L. B. Yermin, first deputy chairman of the RSFSR Co 
5 ‘In Cooperation With Nature", 

Text] The Commission of the Presidium of the RSFSR C 



ot Ministers for Environmental Protection and Efficient 

The editorial staff asked the chairman of the commissi 
the first deputy chairman of the RSFSR Council of Mini 

ot the protection of nature in the RSFSR. 

s and 75 percent of the hydraulic energy resources of ¢ 
most of the mineral supplies. The republic is continui 

Siberian, the Kansk-Achinsk, the Sayansk and the So 

he construction of the BAM predetermined the economic assimila 
territory of about 1.5 million square kilometers. The increase 
productive forces in the regions of Siberia and the Far Nort 

severe c 


f the R 


of ecological problems, for the nature of these regions, 

limate, has a limited capability of self-restoration. 
SFSR there are also other natural and climatic zones wi 

inique natural complexes as Lakes Baykai, Ladoga and Onega! 


y constant attention end concern. 

‘the commission was formed in order to further improve state con 
mental protection and efficient utilization of nature, and is c 

nNroVvi ls 

the part 

systematic control of the course of the fulfillment of 
y and government regarding these issues as well as the 

» unified scientific and technical policy regarding the protect 


ilazation of Natural Resources began its work last year 


Lev Borisovich Yermin, to discuss its work and the main areas 



d de ve 
h cre 
bec a 




imp | 


l re: 



iCilizat: »f land and its minerals, water resources, the atmo 
inimal and vegetable kingdoms as well as reproduction of natura 
mprovement of > environment. It should be reece euph 
sions regarding questions within its compete e 

t ifillment by all ministries and departments of the RSFSR, 



-] , 



, * 

th al 
ot the vegetable and animal world. And such bodies o! 

- +“ 

: ri ry 



} 4 



: autonomous republics, the ispolkoms of the local soviets of 
‘'s deputies, and also organizations, enterprises and institutions, 
less of their departmental jurisdiction. 

ts meetings the commission considers the large problems of transtorming 
ature, the practice of applying environmental protection legislation, the 
Servance -* ecological requirements when designing territorial production 
mplexes, constructing, renovating and operating industrial, agricultural 
and other enterprises, land reclamation and hydraulic engineering structures, 
ind many other issues. As you can see, the range of problems that are solved 
is f ly broad 
st amportant task is protection of the water and air basins from pollution 
sith industrial wastes. During the past five-year plan and the beginning of 
the current one, construction of water purification installations has proceeded 
re rapidly and in considerably lurger volumes than previously--those that 

ive | it anto operation can handle 37.4 million cubic meters a day, and 
the water recycling systems can handle 57.8 million cubic meters. Along with 

ther measures, this has made it pessible to considerably reduce the discharge 
f unpurified waters and to improve the quality of water in the Volga, Oka, 
he Upper and Middle Ob’ and other rivers. During 1976-1982 installations 

re constructed for removing harmful substances from discharged gases and 
lecontaminating them. These have a capacity of 135.9 million cubic meters an 

our. We are beginning to assimilate reduced-waste and waste free technological 
processes that make it possible not only to avoid pollution of the environment, 
but also to utilize secondary resources and byproducts more fully. 

in agriculture and forestry they have begun to apply more extensively soil 
protection measures and biological methods of fighting against pests and 
liseases of plantings and perrenial plantations. Among the positive results 
ne must include the fact that in the RSFSR as a whole we have eliminated the 
isparity between felling end restoration of the forest. As for the animal 
ingdom, the number of individual industrial kinds of animals has also increased. 
than 10 years have passed since the day the CPSU Central Committee and the 
‘SR Council of Ministers adopted the decree on measures for preventing pollu- 
tion of the basins of the two largest rivers of Russia--the Volga and the Ural, 
nd during that time a good deal has been done. More than 500 water protection 
facilities have been put into operation at industrial enterprises as well as 
more than 30 complexes of purifying installations with biological purification 
{ wastewaters. But there is still a good deal to do. The capital investments 
that are allotted are still not being fully assimilated and the construction 
f these facilities is proceeding slowly in Kineshma, Murom, Pavlov, Tambov, 
‘“ngels and several other cities. 

The commission has also taken over permanent control of the fulfillment of the 
jJecree of the RSFSR Council of Ministers for strengthening the protection o 
small rivers. SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA hase repeatedly discussed its problems in its 
articles and it is gratifying that the public is actively participating in 

solving them. The results of the work that has been done are in evidence 


svash A°SR alone in 1982 through the effort g 
i water management and forestry organizations, 41 
js and other bodies of water, the 
mplexes and tarms they planted 16 
174 dams, constructed 12,500 mesh and 


tasci . . oe r 
mtaung meadows on 6,500 hectares of eroded s es and carr 

er anti-erosion measures 

averinskiy end Shmarovskiy rural soviets of Vor 
Siasts have come out wath @ good initiative for bringit 
tection zones of small rivers This initiative was 

SSIYA on 13 April 1982 and found broad support in Altay 
lensk, Orel, Chelyabinsk, Kemerovo and a numbe 
- ; 

v Oblast alone last year about 2 million man-days were s 
sll ravers, ravines, zullies and other natura 

ress, and it is appreciable, but it would be ¢t ear 
situation. Far from all enterprises, departments or 
ftultalling the established norms and there are frequent v 
tal protection legislation, so that there are still + 
at the center of the commission's attent 
luters ot the rivers and other bodies of water are enter 
istry of the Timber, Pulp and Paper, and Wood Processi: 
the Chemical Industry and Ministry of Ferrous Metallurg 
her ministries and departments 
anger, and a great one, of polluting bodies of water w 
srail animal husbandry complexes, tarms and poultry tarns 
anic fertilizer, these wastes should go onto the fields an 
sre ite a few cases of pollution of the rivers and 
rzanic tertilizers, the commission has mede it | 
: f Agriculture, the RSFSR Ministry of Water Managem 
ry t Public Health, in conjunction with the yunciis 
is republics, krayiepolkoms and oblispolkoms, to ins 
technology tor removing manure at iarge mpiexes ani’ 
issires tor efticient utilization anure and manur: 
» valuable orgenic fertilize: 
| a go jeal to be done for protecting the air bas 
wort la as earmarxed consideratior f questions re; 
lation of the aig besin in the cities of Murmansk Obla 
md thers 
stur 1) about the condition of agricultural ianed 
S ected to water and wind erosior im mar reg 

ravines is causing hernm ¢t imming 

‘£ : 1.8 neevted ¢ the tarmers Its workers sometimes i 

that avi been able t ise the land temporarily, thev should ther return 
Cc ¢ the lkhozes and sovkhozes and, of course, not with useless ravines 
Zapin, ines, but restored to fertility This is now the pictur 
ipate the increased volumes of recultCivation of damaged land here 
i] a great ditterence between areas that have been worked and those that 
ive been restored Many enterprises do not fulfil! the plans for recultivation 
r exar in ome of the decisions of the commission it is noted that under 
the lOth Five-Year Plan enterprises and organizations of the RSFSR Ministry of 
Jaye jamaged about 48,000 hectares and has recultivated only 39,900, 


nm has led to @ considerable increase in the area of damaged land 

course there are also more than a tew pusitive examples. if one is to speak 
ibout gent utilization of natural resources and its advantage for the 
ational « nomy, it 18 appropriate to speak of the Zaton experimental denon- 

ti tumber enterprise in Gorky Oblast, whose practice was recently approved 

“7 iassion 

is enterprise, in addition to successfully carrying out the basic tasks for 
pervati , restoration and utilization of timber resources, devotes a great 
, yttention to increasing the productivity of hunting land, propagating 
animals, developing beekeeping and subsidiary farming, planting berry crops 
ind also procuring mushrooms and medicinal plants and utilizing the feec 
resources of the forest Such compiehensive activity in running a Ddusiness 
roduces guod results. The gross cutput of products per unit of forest area 
is increased almost 4-fold since 1975. As for the products of animal husbandry, 
ild animal raising, beekeeping end subsidiary utilization of timber, during 
time it has increased 22-fold and in 1982 amounted to 3,393 rubles per 

nectares of forest land. This is a 14-fold increase as compared to the 
timber enterprises of Corky Oblast. 

: _ > 

As e can see, our forests have great potential possibilities and, with the 
roper arrangement of the matter can and should become a source of various 

is of products for the national economy, including for fulfulling the Food 

SKAYA ROSSIYA has raised the question of preserving the natural complex 
umarsvava Luka, a large bend in the Volga near Kuybdyshev This is @ 

rite place for mass recreation of the workers. On its territory are the 
Zhigulev mountains, a number of historical monuments, natural sights, 

ind one of the oldest preserves of the RSFSR is located here. But also in this 
region are enterprises for extracting and producing construction materials which 
ire extremely necessary to the natural economy and which are used not only in 
iybyshev Oblast, but aleo for the most important construction sites outside 
f it fe do not have the right to forget about these resources for the time 
The questa of preserving the natural complex of Samarskaya Luka has also been 
nsidered the commission. In order to utilize its wealth efficiently, it 

i to create anational satural park on a large part of its territory 
ind to conduct measures here which increase its role as a preserve and for 


> y 



prises tor prod 

park it 1s int 

harmful influence 

zg many problems and will have a positive effect on all work 


ics, krays and oblasts of the RSFSR. 
1ons locally will make it possible to take a more profound approach 



ultivation of already worked sections will be continued at a!! 
‘asures will be taken to improve the quality of this work. 

r , 

ull return from ut 
tly reinforced by the initiative of the public and the partic 
One of the letters which arrived 


adest segment of people. 



ucing construction materials which are 

ended to implement additional measures tf 

on the environment. Their extraction 


processing of wastes irom mining will 

of such natural complexes is given constant attention 

similar commis 

sions have been created in a number of autonomous 
It seems that the creation 

yn of natural resources. 

by t > 
‘ ae 

n general about work for protecting natural resources, on 


is possible if the actions of state agenci 




& iat 

shou] ) 







a a Wi 

t‘abolotnikov from the city of Cheboksary is indicative in this respect: 

5 | 

xnow, 5S June is World Environmental Protection Day. 
ike this day a unionwide Sunday workday! 

a a 

J ’ i ; 


go out on that day to do harvesting, planting and other w 
in the forests and on the fields-- everywher 

the parks, 


leserves attention and support. 

to the beautiful nature of our homeland. 

oY ‘“™, 
3 r si eau 

I Suzggest 
So that everyone, 







-onclusion I should Like to say that the interests of the national economy 
ind extensive implementation of measures for the protection of natur 
‘nt of ecology work throughout the country's economy, fundamental and 
esearch in order to accomplish this, the development and in LO! 
i-waste and waste-free technologies, the training of p 
ecialities, and the education of the people in the spirit ot 

Minsk SEL'SKAYA GAZETA in Russian 12 May 83 

[Interview with Belorussian SSR State Committee for Conservation of Natural 
Resources Deputy Chairman N. A. Dubovets by V. Levin; date and place of inter- 
view not given: “The House We Live In"] 

[Text] Scientists assert that each year about 100 billion 
tons of ore and construction materials are extracted from the 
subsoil in the whole world, 7 million tons of fuel are burned, 
and that the combustion products contaminate the atmosphere. 
Modern industry discharges over 200 million tons of various 
hydrocarbons, about 146 million tons of sulfur dioxide and 53 
million tons of oxides into the atmosphere. 

In the last half century the concentration of carbon monoxide 
in the air we breathe increased by 10-12 percent, while the 
concentration of solid particles increased by 12 percent in 
just the last 10 years. 

These are alarming figures. How can we live in such a world? 

It is impossible and unwise to halt technical progress. 

We must protect the house in which we live--this is a truth 

that can elicit no doubt. But while in socialist countries 
nature conservation has been elevated to the rank of state 
policy, the peoples of capitalist states, in which the monopolies 
are concerned only with profits, areespecially concerned 

with this problem. By decision of the United Nations, 5 June 

of each year is commemorated as World Environmental Protection 


The progress of nature conservation efforts in the republic 
was the topic of an interview conducted with the deputy 
chairman of the Belorussion SSR State Committee for 
Conservation of Natural Resources, N. A. Dubovets, by a 
BELTA correspondent. 


gestion} AS we know, Nixolay Azarovich, our country pl 
billion rubles of state capital investments to nature co 
rent five-year plan. What is this money being spent for? 

Answer] It 1s being used to build water treatment and dust and gas tra; 

tacilities, to introduce low-waste and wasteless processes into production, 
t reserve, restore and reproduce the animal and plant world and to Support 

fner nature conservation measures. 

he x onsibility of nature conservation has acquired the nature of a consti- 
tutional requirement in the USSR. Our republic has adopted a number of laws cn 

vir nental protection, on the use of land, water and timber resource: 
or nservation of the animal and plant world. 
Ma! technical activities and industrialization of industrial and agricultural 
production have now risen to unprecedented levels. Som time ago, one of 
Turgenev's heroes asserted that nature is not a shrine but a workshop, and 
within ait, Man 1S a worker. This was at the dawn of industrialization. vn 
we must interpret 1t as a shrine as well, mankind's future will devend on this 
1 maf wa 
tio! The number of petrochemical, metalworking and power productior . 
145 risen dramatically and new cities have appeared in Belorussia 12 
What is being done to protect the biosphere? 
Answer] Let me begin with an example. Minsk, one of the country’s largest 
ndustrial centers, was recognized the winner among the republic's obiasts and 
pital in the republic socialist competition on nature conservation anc 

‘f natural resources on the basis of the results for 12682. Sizable 

tments were assimilated for these purposes in the city, the 

1tal vests 
mmissioning waste treatment plants was fulfilled, the planned cuotas fox 
r icang output capacities to trap and decontaminate toxic substances dis- 
arged into the atmosphere were surpassed by almost a factor of three, con- 
aumption of recycled water in production processes was greater than planned, 
ind work was done to control city noise. 
er ire some figures for the work in 1982: Development of “Schemes for Sibi 
f Protected Natural Territories of the Belorussian SSR" was completeca 
aprroved by the government. More than 100 places in which rare species o: 
plants grow and 147 animal habitats were placed under protection. Thairty-twe 
recerves of local significance were created. 
nor ictive effort «s being made to use wasteless and low-waste water ipply 
stems and production processes; this effort is being conducted in Novopolot 
liyorsk, Mozyr, Gomel and other cities. A young forest has been ; lanted over 
ignificant areas. Recreational green belts have been established around 12< 
ities Their total area exceeds a million hectares. 
Sccupy about 900,000 hectares. Scenic, hydrologic, lake, crant 
intung preserves have been created. There are four refuges and huntu: 
rv ind 59 state refuges on Belorussian territory. About 200 natur2 > 
“ been proclaimed as monuments and placed under state protectio: 


tion) We would assume that the republic's scientists are also making their 
tion to mature conservation measures. 

Answer ~wite s». The Belorussian SSR Academy of Sciences, the sector 
schentaftic research institutes and various VUZ departments are working on the 
problems associated with sensible use and protection of soil, the plant and 
animal world, air and water. A forecast of possible changes in the biosphere 
resulting from development of national economic sectors extending to 1990 has 
been drawn up. The republic government instituted the Belorussian SSR Red 
Book. It is the main scientific document serving as the basis for developing 
practical measures aimed at protecting rare and disappearing species of fauna 
and tiora. The book contains 80 species of animals and 85 species of plants 
placed under special protection. 
uestion] What sort of people are interested in nature conservation activities? 
Answer] We rely primarily on the active members of the Belorussian Nature 
-onservation Society, which has a membership of over 3 million. It conducts 
troad publicity in which prominent specialists and scientists, thousands of 
teachers, workers of scientific research institutes and VUZes, and lecturers 

f the “Znaniye™ Society participate. There are 100 peoples universities, 
hools and clubs for amateur naturalists. They have been created in all 
cities and rayon centers. Nature may be preserved for us and our progeny only 
through the joint efforts of all peoples and countries. 

The mutual relationship between people and the environment and preservation of 
he biosphere are now among the most important problems. Belorussia is making 
its contribution to the activities of international organizations in this area, 
and it is a member of the Executive Council of the United Nations Environmental 
Program (UNEP). Bilateral meetings are being held with countries of the 

socialist fraternity. 

Nature is the house in which man lives. And the sort of house it will be 
will depend on each country, region and oblast, and on each of us. This is 
why world society is commemorating World Environmental Protection Day. 

week, evening and morning discussions on specific topics will be held in 
Belorussia, aS will scientific-practical conferences discussing the problems 

»9§ nature conservation. Film festivals, exhibitions and quizzes will be 
conducted in the parks and squares. Scientists will discuss the problems they 

are working on with colleagues from different countries. 

CSO: 5000/1121 


Moscow MOSKOVSKAYA PRAVDA in Russian 22 May 83 p 2 
Article by TASS correspondent Yu. Bersenev: “Good Health to You, City!”") 

[Text] The mobile “Atmospheric Monitoring” laboratory 
can be called out at any time of the day to determine whc 
is guilty of excessively fouling Moscow's air basin. This 
operational service is now being created under the Central 
High-Altitude Hydrometeorological Observatory in Ostankin. 

mur destination was Kapotnya Microdistrict No 5, the residents of which had 
submitted a complaint of atmospheric contamination. As I gazed at the biocks 

€ recently erected buildings rushing by, I thought to myself that ecoiogists 
io have their hands full in maintaining dependable control over the cleanlines: 

ff the air basin of the capital: It has gotten so big. It is no wonder that 
pie say there is nothing like Moscow, having in mind not only its enormous 
territory, its population of 8 million and its concentration of major enter- 
rises, but also the topography of the city, with its “seven hills.” This 
makes the successes of nature conservation all the more impressive. Ther 
is no harm in once again recalling that in recent yeais, the concentration of 

just, soot and sulfur dioxide in Moscow's air was reduced significantly. 

~~ @ 

nature protection efforts are distinguished by an especially large scale a: 
ntegration in the present five-year plan. And althouch the center of yravity 
is naturally shifting to the industrial enterprises, inasmuch as their activities 
do the most to pollute the environment, nonetheless the search for ways to im- 
prove the entire monitoring system has been expanded to the maximum. 

af V?\ 

in thas way that the idea of creating a new service was born- 
i on the medical emergency system but functionally much more complex 
ler ideal conditions, when everyone is aware of the discharge norms an 
veryone complies with them, it is very difficult to establish a disturber of 
the “peace of the atmosphere” among many enterprises standing side by side 
sume for example that an enterprise is behind in introducing progressiv 
techy ty and must therefore rely on rush work to catch up, on occasion it 
may violate the standards and discharge, on the sly, more pollutant nto the 
: phere than permissible. In such cases the residents of nearby bi 
writs r teiephone: It is impossible to breathe, they say, or "we can't e' 

vpen the wingows!"” To collar the “hooligari*-that was the objective of our 

Jur “UAZ" mace its way to the top of the hill and stopped at its very edce. 

tar below we could see the bend in the Moskva River and the ring road, the 
heat and electric power station next to it, and beyond that a plant. Having 
taken air umples at the stacks of these enterprises, having interviewed local 
residents twice, and having gathered data on the air temperature and humidity 
and the wind speed and direction, the chief of the expeditionary party gave 

the command to return home. Now we had to wait for the results of the 
inalysis before the picture would become clear. 

Acquainting myself with the materials of inspections conducted in response 

to such complaints from the laborers, I discovered many interesting examples. 
Thus an response to a letter written by Citizen S. Melenchuk, who resides in 
House No 4 on Danilovskaya Naberezhnaya, the TsVGMO [Central High-Altitude 
Hydrometeorological Observatory) conducted additional surveys of the micro- 
district on the nights of 11-12 March and 14-15 March. 

Effticiency--this is the primary criterion by which the effectiveness of the 
new service's work should be measured, and because everyone understands this, 
they are making an effort to raise it. 

Yes, we do face many problems in this area," said Candidate of Technical 
Sciences A. Kurkovskiy, director of the TsVGMO's Moscow Center for Study and 
Control of Environmental Pollution. “Some of them can be solved by our own 
efforts, and we do so. The first thing we did was to develop a system making 
it possible for specialists of different profiles to make a Ciagnosis faster 
and, most importantly, more accurately by joint effort. After all, verification 
of a complaint requires integrated action, beginning with an immediate visit 
by an expeditionary party, if one is necessary, and ending with analysis of 
progress in fulfilling atmospheric protection measures by enterprises causing 

"An example typical in this respect is what happened in response to a request 
of the public and of DEZ-17 [not further identified], Frunzenskiy Rayon, to 
inspect the work of the “Izolyator” Plant. The TsVGMO had already recommended 
measures for reducing the level of air pollution to this enterprise. But a 
new complaint was registered, and thus a second inspection was carried out. 
But we did not limit ourselves to jugt the inspection alone; we also acquainted 
ourselves in detail with the production process at “Izolyator” and with the 
progress reports on and plans for protecting the air basin. We devoted 
special attention to introducing dust and gas removing devices in light of the 
corresponding resolutions of the Bureau of the Moscow City CPSU Committee and 
the Executive Committee of the Moscow City Soviet on environmental protection. 
In particular we considered the fact that the sector organization next highest 
in authority had planned a further decrease of discharges of production by- 
products at the enterprise this year. 

"An inspection office recently created under the TsVGMO will make it possible 
to achieve greater efficiency. Strict control is now being established over 

~* | > — + 

being amplemented to fulfall ur recommendations, a 
supplying our expeditionary parties with improved mobi. labors at 
r depends upon us. The responsability now lies with the enterpriss t 
; ture them and the scientific organizations that plan them. we 
utfatted with aparatus for quick analysis of air sampl: Sapabl 
: .; data on a larger number of components. Other difficultis 1} 

Jhopang and introducing the mathematical methods of determining 
primarily in relation to large industrial zones 
ae models stimulating regulation of air quality that account for ti 
industrial enterprises, we need a meteorological stati 
r tactors must be considered as well. 


inn requires creation of a special computer center and furthe: npr 
\utomated systems for monitoring the environment.” 

results came in while I was still there. They showed that in ter! 
¢ in aungredients of atmospheric pollution--dust, sulfur dioxide an r be 
xa ne of the maximally permissible concentrations were exceeded at * 
« test. But at the same time, considering the complaints fr 
i the unfavorable meteorological conditions, the TsVGMO submitt 
re fataon to check the work of the waste treatment equipment of TE’ lO ec, 
w Petroleum Refinery and a number of other enterprises . ited near 

the most significant air poliuters requires extenSive resear 
rated research was conducted last year by decision of the Moscow 
’ it as continuing this year. 

> '. | " 4 . 

itive hand of the ecologists is constantly on the pulse 

1 dependable quarantee that Moscow's air will become ncrea 


Atmospheric Monitoring in Latvia 

Riga SOVETSKAYA LATVIA in Russian 14 May 83 p 4 

(Text ] LATINFORMA, 14 May--The Republic State Inspectorate for the Protection 
of the Atmosphere, having entered upon its duties, will consider every case 
of serious air pollution as an emergency. It has already conducted the first 
control inspections of projects in the national economy. The new service, 
which has been given broad authority, has been called upon not only to expose 
but also to prevent dangerous dumping of pollutants into the atmosphere. Not 
one plan for construction or reconstruction of an enterprise will be confirmed 
without first being approved by the inspectorate. 

V. A. Lerkh, deputy director of the Republic Administration of Hydrometeorology 
and Control of the Natural Environment, says, "The primary purpose of this 
service is to keep watch over the statutes on protection of the atmosphere. 
Organizational activities are also included in its responsibilities. Latvia 

is the first among the Union republics to implement a complex program for 

the protection of nature and rational utilization of natural resources. A 
great deal can be done here by atmosphere patrols, supported by local Councils 
of People's Deputies, health inspection workers, the State Committee for 
Standards, the State Motor Vehicle Inspectorate and other departments. And 
one must also mention the strong resources found in the Republic Society for 
the Protection of Nature and Monuments, which includes over 370,000 activists." 

We have a broad network of observation points for the evaluation of air quality. 
There are 17 stationary automatic laboratories, in addition to mobile ones. 
They collect information which forms the basis for conducting long-tern, 
practical measures. For example, the fact that some wastes become toxic under 
conditions of fog or drizzle is taken into account. In order to eliminate 
concentrations of these substances under such conditions, plants receive 
special notification of the possible danger. 

Control over the “respiration” of industry dictates stiff requirements. 
Maximum acceptable waste levels are now being established for each enterprise 
in Riga. A volume summarizing these standards is being prepared. Before the 
end of the llth Five-Year Plan, over 200 smoke-producing boiler houses will 
be eliminated in Latvia, and they will be replaced by a centralized heat 


supply system. During this same period, new installations will be put into 
operation that are able to clean a total of 8 million cubic meters of air per 
hour. Systematic work has also been started to deal with motor vehicle 
transport. All efforts are being directed at reducing the content of harmful 
substances in the exhaust. 

The measures that are being taken are providing tangible results. The level 
of air pollution in the republic has been arrested at the 1975 level. Sut 
this is certainly not the end. The task that lies before us is to achieve 
further significant improvement in air quality. 

Dirty Air of Ekibastuz 
Alma-Ata KAZAKHSTANSKAYA PRAVDA in Russian 4 Mar 83 p 4 

Article by A. Rumyantsev, foreman at the "Ekibastuzshakhtostroy" | Ekibastuz 


Mine Construction] Combine, Pavlodar Oblast: "Smoke Around Smoke". 

Text) Some 10 to 15 years ago, smokestacks were thought to provide evidence 
of industrial might. The more smokestacks it had, the more powerful the plant 
was thought to be. Today the smokestack is no longer an object of pride, but 
unfortunately it often remains the symbol of a plant, factory, or electric 
power station. This is not a positive symbol. The problem of protecting 

air quality in cities has become so serious, that someone described it humor- 
ously in this way: either people do something to reduce the amount of smoke 
in the air, or the smoke will do something to reduce the amount of people 

on earth. 
The joke contains a fair amount of what is the sad truth. 

Our Pavlodar-Ekibastuz industrial region is developing rapidly and this is 
accompanied by a growing number of smokestacks. A thermal and electric power 
station and a State regional electric power station are now operating in 
Ekibastuz, but with time another three will be added. If the air over the 
city is often polluted now, the problem will be aggravated in the future 

if serious measures are not taken. 


Local newspapers write about this problem, sometimes quite criticaily. 
follow the publications closely. But the matter is being improved extremely 
slowly. The treatment installations at both the electric power stations 
operate with great irregularity. In particular, the scrubbers and electro- 
filters at the State regional electric power station break down often and 
a considerable amount of time is spent on their repair. There is often a 

lack of accurate data on the degree to which an enterprise is polluting the 
air. Meanwhile, a special group has been formed for the protection of nature. 
When you look into the condition of air treatment at the thermal and electric 

power plant and the State regional electric power station (using information 
from the press and elsewhere), you often see figures indicating the operating 
efficiency of the installations, such as 93 percent, 98.5 percent...These are 

quite impressive figures, but the air is not getting any cleaner. This appears 
to be just conversation--smoke around smoke. 

[t seems to me that the time has come to improve the air in Ekibastuz and 

‘ther cities in the oblast, and to take concrete, immediate measures. Specif- 
ically, this issue should be discussed at the regular session of the oblast 
Council of People's Deputies. Further, once our network of power enterprises 
expands, it will be necessary to conduct scientific research on industrial 
sanitation and improving the air in the cities. After all, today at the 
operating thermal and electric power plant, 1500 tons of coal are burned every- 
day and hundreds of tons of ash are released into the air, along with no 

small amount of gases. This “burden” on the air will grow. Finally, permanent, 
centralized control must be established to monitor the exploitation of exist- 
ing treatment installations at electric power plants as well as the installa- 
tion of new equipmert. This is something for the oblast Committee of People's 
Control, the regional gas treatment inspectorate and the oblast sanitation 

and epidemiology station to work on. 

At the 25th Congress of the Communist Party of Kazakhstan, it was indicated 
directly that is is necessary " intensify sharply the campaign against 
air pollution in industrial centers.” 

in my opinion, it is time to make a decisive move toward a practical solution 
for this problem in Ekibastuz as well. 

Krasnouralsk Industrial Exhaust 
Moscow SOVETSKAYA ROSSTIYA in Russian 7 May 83 p 2 

Article by A. Usol'tsev, special SOVETSKAYA ROSSIYA correspondent in Novo- 
sibirsk-Krasnouralsk: "Smoke Screen"] 

Text] The rorning sun was hanging low over Krasnouralsk. It seemed to be 
hopelessly stuck in the fence of smokestacks of the copper-smelting combine 
and tangled in the smoky train's silvery web, so that it would never rise 
to its zenith. 

"So, you're checking out our smoke, are you?", the old yardman asked me. 
"We've got enough of the stuff here." 

"Yes, the combine puts out a lot of smoke." 
"Sure, it's got to put out smoke. We've got a well-known business here, 

smelting copper." The old man stroked his beard with his broad palm and un- 
hurriedly lit a cigarette. 

‘We even used to have a special saying here: ‘Kushayka laughs and Levinka 

cries; Levinka laughs and Kushayka cries.' That means that whichever direction 
the wind blows, people will be sneezing in that village. That was when every- 
thing went straight out the smokestacks. But now, unlike the past, the plant 

- . > > 

» a lot less damage. They say that they are trapping 
u cid, that means that they're putting out fertilizers. 
t that the bad stuff can be turned into something useful.” 

we to Krasnouralsk to find out, in the words of the old yardman, hc 
t pad stuff is turned into something useful.” I wanted to see how 
levelopment of scientists from the Catalysis Institute of the lberian 
artment of the USSR Academy of Sciences was being put to use here. 
nti.ts’ proposed innovation is called an industrial reactor for 
ltur dioxide under nonstationary conditions. In other words, 


it has been installed and put into operation here in Krasnourals? 
trapping the gaseous wastes of the copper-smelting combine that 
itate Kushayka, then Levinka, and obtain from them valuable raw 
r Justry and agriculture. 

eard about this efficient method at the House of Scholar 

x, where a scientific meeting of the Siberian Department c 
of Sciences was being held. Onto the podium walked a short, ,; 
Aan Wearing the star of a Hero of Socialist Labor on his lape! 

Varrving Out Catalytic Processes under Nonstationary Conditions t! 
ademician Boreskov's presentation,” announced the chair 
imit that I did not think that the talk would interest someon 
ot a specialist in the area of chemical reactions. I had had the o 
to hear about the new development of the scientists at the Catal] 
titute already, but I did not know the essence of it. But Georgiy 
tantinovich Boreskov was saying that the application of the method pro 
"y the scientists makes it possible to increase significantly the e! 
, an industrial enterprise, raise productivity, reduce expenditu 
ww materials and power, and obtain other substantial benefit 1 
*ke simply and convincingly. The silence that had falle: 
t ill was disturbed only by the whirring of the projector that wa: 
‘hen the director of the Catalysis Institute finished his tai 
irst into applause. In an auditorium like this, this type of res; 
lox yt ur very often. 


lays later i met with Yu. Sh. Matros, Academician G. K. Bore 
issistant, coauthor of this development, and doctor of te 
‘uriy Shayevich had just returned from France, full of 
gs and discussions with foreign cpecialists. There is mer 
the West in the ideas of the Siberian chemists. industrial 
‘2 large sums of money to turn metallurgical gases int 
these in turn also give rise to a utilization prob! 
' developed by the scientists at the Catalysis Institute capt 
of every industrialist because’ of its advantages. J 
Cases are utilized completely, with no wastes, and ar 
‘ble products. The new contact apparatus for obtainin; 
times easier and cheaper than the traditional devic« 
it s needed to carry out the proce: f oxidizin, 
was required previously. On the contrary, it has 

plus heat from the reactor, to obtain steam for dom 


walked around the combine with Vladimir Yakovlevich Kunitskiy, chief of 

the sulfuric acid shop. The new apparatus is his creation. After all, the 
ientist." idea would have remained just an idea if the plant's specialists 
had mot brought it to life in metal. The design of the experimental reactor 

was calculated by workers in the planning and design department and the as- 
emblies were manufacturadin the machine shops. True, there was a snag with 
the valve. for switching the movement of the gas mixture our domestic 
industry does not produce valves like this. But the Krasnouralsk craftsmen 
manufactured some. 

The new apparatus was installed in the sulfuric acid shop where the old ap- 
paratus had served out its time. In its assembled form, it looks like a 
dwarf next to the two other reactors that use the traditional method for ob- 
taining sulfuric acid. They are three times as high and they weigh a full 
200 tons more. If you take into account the metal input needed for the arma- 
ture of the old ones, and that is not needed at all for the new one, the 
comparison certainly will not be in favor of these mastodons. 

The start-up time for the apparatus vas surprisingly short--only 48 hours. 
‘ince that time, 29 September of last year, the apparatus has been working 
non-step, steadily and reliably. It also traps weak gases without any 
heating. This allows the combine, in addition to everything else, to save 
about 2900 tons of conventional fuel and 400,000 kilowatt hours of electrical 
power per year. And even though the time period for experimental industrial 
exploitation of the miracle reactor is not over yet, the workers in the 
sulfuric acid shop are already asking the combine's management when the second 
apparatus will be installed. 

And here is where the main problems arise. Specialists are now coming from 
all parts of the country to Krasnouralsk and the Novosibirsk Akademgorodok 

to gain experience. They would like to install the innovation at ore mining 
enterprises in Armenia, the Jrals, Kazakhstan and other regions of the 
country. They all ask for the technical specifications and they expect 
constructive explanations. But an academic institute is not a planning office 
and it is not the scientists’ job to circulate the development. The indus- 
trial scientific research institutes and design bureaus still have not be- 

ome involved with the innovation. 

There is still no one to provide the new equipment. The management of the 
<rasnouralsk Copper-Smelting Combine imeni Sergo Ordzhonikidze is planning 
to install a second reactor. They are even ready to manufacture it using 
their own resources, but unfortunately the enterprise is having trouble 
‘btaining metal. "If we only had 60 tons of heavy sheet steel!", dreams 
the combine's director as he directs attention toward the Ministry of Non- 
ferrous Metallurgy. Will the Krasnouralsk workers receive help from the 
industry's headquarters? And when will the Ministry of Chemical Industry 
give its opinion on the introduction of this innovation? 

When Vladimir Yakovlevich Kunitskiy and I left the combine entrance, the day 
had reached its peak. Spring had done its work--the sun was smiling down from 

its zenith Under its bright rays, the smokestacks seemed to have grown 
smaller and the smoke seemed less noticeable. 

But when will there no longer be any smoke at all? 



. - , , » oar 0 . : . 
WOMIFA i ZHIZN in Russian N e, Fed GJ {i a~1% 
kK. Alimdzhanov, chief of the Department for Envir t 
ek SSR and L. Tulina, sr engr-economist, Department 
ipian, rbek SSR; Tasks and Problems of Air Qualit 
juality mtroi occupies a significant place within ¢t 

: entail protection problems. Air pollution from inadecu 

ring emission cleaning, as well as the unsatisfactor 
th siting of industrial enterpri ; without tab 
microclimate in the area int " mt, i irri 
sting rates of development of industry and the intr 
t rotect the atmosphere, pollution within the republic’ it 
t it must be mentioned that beginning in 1974 sp st 
ity ntrol have been introduced in Uzbekistan as st t 
r the economic and social development of the repub! 
t 9, estabiishes goais for the amoun . collected : 
itroduction of powerful scrubbers and determines th 
ent for these goals. 
th Five-Year Plan dust and ga Llector equipment wi 
re than 4 sillion cubic peters f gat er hour wa 
siic. ihe f[itting of pollution sources with devi 
sust ‘lection increase C t | ercent j 
rating scrubbers increase »b t tha VU 
ken ¢t improve the work of all servi in ¢t 1s 
network of iaboratories for the ntroi r es f 
stantly expanding. 
jblityvy orotection has been enact with the goa 
ttate @anagement system for the fulfliiment : 
A ) result of the series of measures int t 
isliation, the volume of justrial emiss 
ind Navolazot producti iat 
" x ind metallurgy. ma the Be : 

n it Tashkent power lant in 

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tion reases also because portions 



last and the Fergana valley, are characterized by frequ 

t 4 Lion, repeated temperature inversions, high summer temperatu > 
itation. In addition, the industrially developed ce : 

louse proximity and the area is inundated with motor 

1] emissions are tar trom homogeneous. There are solid 
und liquid components, in approximately similar amounts. 
dust and soot are among the solid emissions, then 
iseous harmful substances is significantly higher: su | 
n dioxide, nitric oxides, carbon monoxide, ammo ia, hvdrogen sulfide, 
duct ind so on. The collecting and decontam’:  ° » of these are fur t 

t centinual improvement of production technolopy aad scrubi 
t is been directed at the better and more thorough collection 
is t's substances, the volume of these within the total a Ant 

' substances is still slight. 

» nitric oxides, and carbon monoxide are especially aii 
carbon disulfide, lead compounds, and other metals 

is obliges us to build new or renovate and modernize tin 
cilities. However, such work is being carried extre 

tacilities of the ministries of gas, chemicals, ar 

r example, because of the absence of planning and bu 


. ‘ >» rot 

nta n, a tacility for the treatment of gaseous emissions at th r gai 
‘zer plant, which was planned for 1980, is not bein; astru | 

to attain the designed capacity for dust collectors wa yt 

for intividual scrubbers at th 

ne Navoy cement plant, 
issociation, the Almalvk mining and metallurgy combine, 
The problem of fitting scrubbers at the electron! 
only slowly being 

> Of machinery building plants is 

renovation of obsolete dust collectors at ginning plant 
sluwiy. And this is so even though these plants are, as a rule, 
1ickly populated areas. 
and processing of collected industrial waste is becomin , 
e total volume of utilization of harmful substances 
1 the republic and the value of the collected raw n 

for turther processing amounts to 6.5 million rubles 
ic viewpoint this is very valuable. 
salvage of collected harmful substances has be 
tries of farm machinery building and of the light and 

ed nonreclaimed wastes are delivered to dumping ground 


issulve and penetrate the soii and reappear in 
‘fF underground water, soils, and the air. 
uestion of maximum use of salvayved waste 1 

ion both of enterprises and scientific research or 

Among the uurces of environmental pollution, motor vehicle transportation is 
iting vrave concern, since the engine exhaust fumes, which contain a 
stantial amount of toxic and carcinogenic substances, play a dominant role 

1) the total pollution of the air basin. With the goal of abating the harmful 
itiuence of motor transportation on the atmosphere, the networks of stations 
r the diagnosis of auto and truck engines is expanding and testing depots and 
i for wine tuning and maintenance are being organized. Steps are being 
to replace gasoline with other fuels that produce less harmful emissions. 

The rleet of motor vehicles, particularly for personal use, is expanding rapidly, 

ut the necessarv equipment for regulating their emissions is inadequate. It 

is extremely difficult to plan for substantive reductions of these harmful 

In brief, the liquidation of air pollution from vehicle emissions 

ontinues to be a complicated task. Everyone who sits behind the steering wheel 
a vehicle should be made aware of this. 

What should the top priority be to significantly increase the effectiveness of 

measures for air quality control? The ministries and directors of industrial 
Ss tions and enterprises cited in this article (as well as those not cited) 
ust rapidly carry out the specified tasks and the measures derived from them; 
they must do all that is required to use reclaimed products; and, certainly, 

ey must develop and introduce low or emission free production technology in 

in accelerated manner. 

COPYRIGHT: "“Ekonomika i zhizn'", 1983 

Shrinking River Causes Concern 

Me « SEL'SKAYA ZHIZH' in Russian 20 Mar 83 p 4 
\rticle by special pensioner P. Pavlov, Tsivilskiy Rayon, Chuvash ASssR: 

ver half a century I have known the Malyy Tsivil, a riv 
inning beauty. When I have nothing to do I iike to sit on the bank with 
fishing pole, and on hot days I go swimming. But alas, the r.ver is vrowinc 
er as the years pass. While in the past one would not even think of 

roctsing it without a boat, now a chicken could ford it in many piaces. 

und's eye I can see the former river--full and wide. [nm summertime we 
ised to pring our horses here for a bath. We would wash them down, and then 
em loose to graze on the green meadow. There were many blackberries 
we wove baskets from the pliant willow branches that grew on the banks. 
Ow ¢ riverbanks are Dare. 

Wiat went wrong? Quite simply, people stopped caring for the river. I! zt 
shen just within our Tsivilskiy Rayon, the river turned the millstones of 
They were located 5-6 kilometers apart. Our grandfathers found 
© «and energy to erect dams after every spring flood, and ¢t yradually 
floodwaters in spring. Both the old and the young would come ¢< 
ene river. They brought earth and brushwood. Bridges were erected ove: 
This is why the Tsivil was always full. 

Nor 1s ther a place to live left for the fish in the 
wW water vels in winter, they suffocate without ai 
ake a look at the banks on weekends! Cars are driven ri 
up the sod cover on the slopes. ther t 
ind : ‘ lored spots of oil float on the 
achers from the city, coming here to delic 
ts along the river like barg } 
t fish and the little ones. And there is no one to rea 
ave never seen game wardens in this area. 

, . 
\ jrowing shallow also because numerous pumping installat 
, - 7; ry) > . + wc “ac . ~ , 9 ¢ 
i is not > santations, me adows and 2st ire 2 t AAS fu €-Y 
, r i r 

ver in Met All otf the farms are good at using the water for irrigation, 

but m ne Gaves a thought to the raver itself. After the need for damming the 
river to mill grain vanished, people ceased caring about erecting dams. 

There wa ne such attempt, but it was not graced with success. Fifteen years 
ago kolxnoz farmers of, as it was called then, “Zarya” Kolkhoz, Tsivilskiy 

Dejan building a reinforced concrete dam and a bridge near the town of 
Stepnoye Tugayevo with the help of Mobile Mechanized Column No 2 of “Chuvash- 
meliovodstroy”™ Trust. They worked on it for a iong time--over 10 years. They 
, idge built, and that was that. The contractor, Mobile Mechanized 
lumn No -, left the facility unfinished. And in the first spring after that, 
rts installed for the dam gates were broken up and carried away by 

iit 4 & 


It 1s saddening to look at the Tsivil today. No one cares about the river. 
Because the base of the dam had not been reinforced as required by the plan, 

water has begun eroding dirt from beneath it. The dam is now in danger of 
breaking. And meanwhile there are enterprises and organizations that have the 

b of dealing with this important problem, and taney have powerful equipment 
it their disposal, not just shovels and horses! 

Many rouSing speeches are uttered at conferences on protecting nature and on 
iplyang ats riches. But very little is being done in fact. 

Corrective Action Offered 

Moscow SEL'SKAYA ZHIZN‘' in Russian 15 May 83 p 4 

Article: "'A River Run Aground'"] 

Text] Such was the title of a critical article published on 20 March of this 
year. V. A. Agafonov, deputy chairman of the Chuvash ASSR Council of Ministers, 
informed the editor's office that the Chuvash ASSR Council of Ministers found 
tne criticism of shortcomings in protecting the Malyy Tsivil River from shoaling 
ind pollutionto be warranted, and it ordered the republic ministries of land 
reclamation and water resources, agriculture and forestry, the “Chuvashmelio- 
ratsiya” association and the Tsivilskiy Rayon Executive Committee to implement 
supplementary measures to improve the hydrologic conditions and cleanliness of 
Malyy Tsivil River and to complete construction of four dams and one retaining 

‘ructure in the river basin in tne current five-year plan. 

‘huvasn affiliates of the “Mosgiprovodkhoz" and "Volgovyatgiprozem" plannina 
titutes are preparing plans for a water conservation zone and for protec 
f the waters of the Bolshoy and Malyy Tsivil river basins. Jointly with o 

jepartments, the Chuvash ASSR ministries of land reclamation and water reso 
igriculture and forestry developed measures to restore the fullness and clea: 

of the rivers in 1983-1985, and in the period to 1990. These measures 
construction of 15 retaining structures and over 20 erosion control 

dams in the basin of the Malyy Tsivil River. Protective forest strips are being 
planted on the banks, and measures to prevent river pollution are being 




it artic “iver uf 
‘ ’ . + an 
s r tuced a wide response trom ~ 4 3% reauer ° “ 
" > > , + > - , ’ 
a“ 4} isil @ review or tnls Mali. 


VOLCANO ERUPTION IN KAMCHATKA=--Klyuchi (Kamchatka Oblast), 25 May (TASS)-- 

The eruption of Bezymyannyy Volcano began with a number of powerful explosions 


in its crater. It is being accompanied by a biowout of ash and gases up 

to 6 kms high. Groups ot scientists have arrived at the foot of the volcano 
to conduct observations. Bezymyannyy, which was considered to be an extinct 
volcano, iddenly came to lite in 1955. As a result of a catastrophic 
explosion on 30 March 1956 a new crater with a 1.5 km diameter was created. 
Since then the volcano has been one of the most active on the peninsula. 

lt is interesting that Bezymyannyy is a neighbor of the Klyuchevskoy Volcano 
shich has been erupting since March of this year. [Text] [Moscow TASS 
International Service in Russian 0840 GMT 25 May 83 LD] 





Aths | KATHIMERINI in Greek 28 May 83 p 2 
ext/ Speaking yesterday at the Attiki Nomarchial meeting on the extent 
forest fires, Deputy Minister of Agriculture Ginoglou said that during th 
975-1982 5-year period more than 600,000 stremmas of forests were destroyed 
from fires. Specifically, at yesterday's meeting representatives of pro- 
ictive sectors, unions and other advisers discussed measures against fore 
1d stressed the need to procure firefighting equipment from tt 
government organizations. 
characterized the areas annually lost to fires as ‘'very larce'' a 
j qd / 
nm 1982 (and up to October) there were 931 fires throughout the countr 
1 val uec 

ed 87,585 stremmas of forest and caused losses in forest vegetatio 
t 4,978,948 drachmas while the cost of putting out these fires last y 
hed 1.8 million drachmas. 
es vite of the losses,'' said Ginoglou, ''represents the smalie 
n t does not include the forests' contribution to the social w 
ble contribution. You should note,'"' said Ginoglou, ‘that accor: 
Ras of Calcutta University the real value of a tree 50 years 

),250 dollars or 1,373,750 drachmas and includes: the value of t . 
31,250 dollars; the value of the soil protection, 31,250 dollars; the \ 
f aN fing pollution, 62,000 dollars; tne value of water recycl in: 

the value of providing shelter to animals, 31,250 dollar 

oteins, 2,500 dollars. To the total value of 196,. > 
rdd the value of the lumber, the fruits, and leaves a 
esthetic and recreational value.'' 

re 9! council subsequently dealt with the role of 
environment to the industrial community. 



Drawback of Coal 
Stockholm NY TEKNIK in Swedish 21 Apr 83 p 4 
[Article by Hans Werner] 

[Text] Mercury from coal combusion fumes is an unsolved environmental problem. 
All other emissions can be purified with known cleaning technology. The study 
titled "Coal, Health and the Environment" states that the environmental ef- 
fects of mercury must be better analyzed. At the same time, the study indi- 
cates that the Swedish environment can tolerate increased use of coal. 

But this study was written before it was learned that the imbalance in tue 
atmosphere causes 22.5 tons of mercury to rain on Sweden in addition to the 
38 tons that originate from our own emission. See the article below [by Chris- 

ter Larsson]. 

lncreased regulation (blacklisting of mercury-contaminated lakes and diet ad- 
yising) could very well be needed to reduce the risks to an acceptable level," 
ymmments the Coal, Health and Environment Study on the environmental effects 

tT Mercury 

the year 2000, 13 million tons of coal will be used in Sweden. With nu- 
lear powerplant shutdowns, this will climb to 23.4 million tons a year. This 
is the assumption of the study, which took 3 years to complete and cost 45 
nillion kronor. 

[he study points out that sulfur emissions in Sweden have been reduced by half 

in the past decade. 

In order further to reduce the emissions, coal should first be burned in lar- 
ger plants with competent operating personnel. 

"The study has furnished us with new information on six points," says the 
study's project leader John Roden, department director at Vattenfali [state 
power authority]: 


° : ; . . . 
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4 i Lic adsile’sS iT1G built i<cda i ? 

- . 
re, r road fill. 
Ology tor long-term storage f the u 
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’ reie iseu Ate now be ing u ScUSSed DV t wOT ( 
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igdqg (nat the government is iOW Ggdi.scussin 
* . * 
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it onvironment. 
- »* + 
LNLIGE 1} ourrer®r 
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wel I 
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tet ro Times More sSuscedDCipil« . eet t 
f i rai t an adult. 
lat ; Berlin, a medical scientist at the niversit , . 
writt i report titled “Effect on Health of Mercurv Emissions in il 
, i ivy src re ane in the in ake fT nethvli me r ifv bD* Clie re Dis of 
i = ‘ 1. » 7 ‘ ° " . 14 9 7 } — 7.7. } Tir [ me 
,* i t ‘ Te i" ' ~ i i it’, si it _ Ui it? aii i pANLLATY : ’ itt 
i . ra mas in the population 
ippiemental studies must ’~ made on thi extent st f rise ind 
i rss % i i jimit its ippening if such an increase must never- 
! Nted Tr mside« red. 
. ippears on tirst reading to be a total condemnation of all 
, there must e an immediate halt to the release of over 3 tons 
ercur early bv some branches of Swedish industrv into th ground, wate! 
t ' mn a large scale can increase the amount of mercury by about 0.5 
t 4 eit. 
5 \ i } 
resea! group, which is testing methods to clean Ll, showed 
t fr at least a third of the mercury can be removed befor: irnineg. 

\ rdin, » Nils Eric Carlstvdt, maybe another half can be removed by wet ex- 

st-gas ining in large coal burning plants. 
recut mtent in fish could, in his opinion, be reduced if we were able 
icidification of the lakes. The chief problem, therefore, i 
sulf 1T 
rt from the Coal, Health and Environment Project is expected with- 
‘ : ; ’ | ; lomoanr 
ee eKs, mere, experts should pe able to otter a considered udgement 
? ’ . + es = ¥ 
th sroblems faced bv a large-scale introduction of coal into Sweden's 
Atmospnere in Imbalance 
lm NY TEKNIK in Swedish 21 Apr 83 p 5 
irister Larsson} 
‘tt The whole enormous ocean of natural mercury circulating in the atmos- 
> has reached an imblanace. The air pollution of modern societ is the 
; ; : . ‘ . } 
etermini factor. [fo keep the mercury in the atmosphere, a balance is neces- | 
sat etween the atmosphere and auto exhaust emissions, combustion fumes and 
‘ther gaseous industrial pollution. 

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