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JPRS 84352 

19 September 1983 

USSR Report 


No. 16 




_ —- - —— 

Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. 

“* . 




ria 2220] 

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JPRS 84352 

19 September 1983 


No. 16 


New Food Industry Developments Outlined 
(EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 28, Jul 83) eeeeseeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeneee l 

Soviet Science Coordination Council Holds 39th Session 
OBSHCHESTVENNYYE NAUKI, No 2, 1983) *e*eeoeeeeeneeneeeeneaeneneeeneneeneneneeeee’. 6 

Marchuk on Tasks Facing Inventors, Innovators 
(GC. Marchuk; TRUD, 25 May 83) eeeeveeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeewveeaeeeaeeeee ll 

Analysis of Published Work Essential for Planning of Scientific Research 
(Ss, Kara-Mur7za; PRAVDA, 6 May 83) *eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeenee 16 

Scientific, Technical Progress Must Be Accelerated 
(Editorial; PRAVDA, 28 May 83) *eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeeaeeaeeee 20 

New System of Incentives for Scientific Personnel Analyzed 
(A. Osipenko; PROMYSHLENNOST' BELORUSSII, No 3, Mar 83) ....... 23 

Needed Improvements in VUZ Research Discussed 
(S, Vermeyenko, A. Golovachev; PROMYSHLENNOST' BELORUSSI, 
No 3, Mar 83) eevee eeewveeeeeaeeeev eee eee e eevee ee ee eee eee eee eeaeeaneeee 28 

Scientific-Technical Information Used To Coordinate S&T Programs 
(M, Muminov, GC. Vaynshteyn; EKONOMIKA I ZHIZN', No 2, Feb 83) . 32 

Ways To Speed Up Practical Application of Research Results Discussed 
(I. Sigov; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, No 5, May 83) ...ceceeeseeees 36 

Improvements in Dissemination of Production Experience Proposed 
(A. Gorelykh; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, No 5, May 83) ....-eeeeees 42 

Cost Accounting and Organizational Structure of Production 
Units Discussed 
(V. Tarasov; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, No 5, May 83) ...ceeeeseees 48 

, -a- [III - USSR - 2lo S&T] 

Unified Scientific-Technical Policy Discussed 
(Yu. Simonov; EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, No 5, May 83) ..sseeeeeees 

Azerbaijan People's Control Conference on Academy of Sciences Work 
(A. Eberlin; BAKINSKIY RABOCHIY, 24 Apr 83) ...ccccccccccvevcees 

Economic, Technical Development and Future of Special 
Electrometallurgy Reviewed 
(B. Paton, B,. Medovar; IZVESTIYA, 27 May 83) ..ccccceecseeeeces 

Principles, Ideas, Goals of Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear 
Physics Examined 
(B. Konovalov; IZVESTIYA, various dates) ...cccscccccscsvvceees 

Belorussian Physicists Honored for Dynamic Holography Work 
(A. Afanas'yev, A. Ubranovich; PROMYSHLENNOST’ BELORUSSII, 
No 3, Mar 83) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eee eeeveeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaeaeeeee 

Rebane Discusses Work of Estonian Academy of Sciences 
(K. Rebane Interview; SOVETSKAYA ESTONIYA, 17 Apr 83) ......6..- 







Moscow EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA in Russian No 28, Jul 83 p 2 

(Survey prepared by the Board of the Agroindustrial Complex of the State Committee 
for Science and Technology of the USSR: "New Developments in the Food Industry” ] 

\Text] The 26th party congress set for the food industry branches--an important 
part of the agroindustrial complex--the task of improving the quality and the 
assortment and increasing the output of food products enriched with protein, vi- 
tamins and other wholesome ingredients. Outstripping development is planned for 
the production of baby foods and dietetic products. We need to considerably in- 
crease the thoroughness of the processing, improve the use of agricultural raw 
materials and extensively introduce the aseptic method of canning fruits and veg- 
etables and the use of chilling facilities for the processing and storage of 
agricultural products. 

All of these matters are reflected in the special, comprehensive scientific and 
technical program: "Development of the Production of Biologically High-Grade Food 
Products Through Complete Utilization and Reduced Losses of Raw Materials.” 

implementation of the measures outlined in the program will bring about an in- 
crease in the production of high-quality food products, better utilization of the 
traditional raw materials and the obtainment of additional sources of food pro- 
tein. This will contribute to the establishment of a wholesome diet, which will 
help to prevent many ailments, first and foremost, obesity. It is planned to 
conserve the work of 350,000 people by increasing labor productivity in the main 
branches of the food industry by 1985, and to increase food commodity stocks by 

a total of around 3 billion rubles worth in 1985 and as much as 4.5 billion rub- 
les worth in 1990, 

Reneficial to Health 

(he measures specified in the program focus on the total utilization of raw ma- 
terials for the production of biologically high-grade food products. At the pre- 
sent time only 40 percent of the skimmed milk and buttermilk and approximately 
one fourth of the whey are being used in food products. This is significantly 
less than in many other countries. 

The program calls for the continuation of projects underway and for the creation 
of new types of food products, new technological processes and equipment for the 

production and utilization of vegetable and animal proteins, including cross- 
linked proteins. This will make it possible to increase supplies of meat pro- 
ducts by 1 million tons between 1981 and 1985 and to increase the industrial 
processing of skimmed milk, buttermilk and whey to 36 million tons in 1985, 
Work is now being performed in this area by the Special Problems Laboratory 
ot the Moscow Technological Institute of the Meat and Dairy Industry and by the 
Elementoorganic Compounds Institute, 

The stress is on replacing the missing amino acids tryptophan, lysine and meth- 
ionine. This is being done by adding soy flour, milk and curds, as well as to- 
mato paste, carrot juice and other fruit and vegetable additives, to the food 

More and more attention has been devoted in the world in recent years to research 
and practical work in the area of deriving proteins from nontraditional vegetable 
matter as a functional additive to impart certain desirable qualities to food 

Work is being performed on this problem by organizations of the USSR Ministry of 
Public Health, the USSR Ministry of the Food Industry, the USSR Ministry of the 
Meat and Dairy Industry and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences under a special- 
purpose, comprehensive program, in cooperation with the other CEMA nations. The 
first batch of plant protein has been obtained for the enrichment of food pro- 

luct Se 

[he baked goods industry has developed varieties of bread with deodorized soy 
flour and lecithin. Bread and flour products are being created with milk-protein 
concentrates for children. The Nutrition Institute of the USSR Academy of Medi- 
cal Sciences has worked out the technology and the recipes for new macarori pro- 
ducts enriched with powdered eggs in combination with powered milk, as well as 
products including powdered eggs and low-fat curds. Work has been started on the 
development of protein-free vermicelli from cornstarch with the addition of the 
calcium and phosphorous salts required by children. 

Technologies and recipes containing milk and soy protein, developed through re- 
search conducted under the program, are being introduced in the confectionery 
iudusiry. This will make it possible to balance their amino acid content within 
specific ranges and to enhance their nutritional value. New types of confection- 
ery items contain an average of 4 to 18.5 percent of protein additives for en- 
richment, which increases the protein content by the same percentage and reduces 
the amount of carbohydrates correspondingly. 

More than 4,000 tons of whey concentrates and 1.3 million tons of natural whey 
were used in those branches in 1982. This made it possible to turn out an addi- 
tional 14 million tons of bread and other baked goods and 80,000 tons of confec- 
tionery items. The use of these materials made it possible to replace part of 
the sugar, the wheat flour and the powdered and condensed milk, and simultaneously 
to enhance the nutritional value of the products by enriching them with proteins, 
minerals, lactose and glucose. 

The program calls for expanding the research and for mastering the industrial 
production of nutritionally balanced products for healthy and ill children, which 
will make it possible to improve their nutrition, whether they are being fed at 
home or at child-care facilities, It is planned by 1985 to increase the output 
of powdered milk mixtures--motier's milk replacements--to 9,500 tons and the pro- 
duction of liquid and paste products with a milk base to 100,000 tons, the pro- 
duction of canned homogenized meat products to 50 million standard cans and the 
output of canned fruits and vegetables to 900 million standard cans, 

Preserving Without Losses 

Freezing is considered to be one of the most progressive means in use for the 
prolonged storage of all types of foodstuffs, and with complete justification. 
This process retains to the greatest degree the basic quality indices--both or- 
ganoleptic (appearance, taste, odor, color and consistency) and nutritional (con- 
tent of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and biologically active sub- 

[he output of quick-frozen pioducts is to be increased to 540,000 tons by 1985, 
A total of 55 sets of equipment will be developed for these purposes, their 
series production will be mastered and they w‘!l be delivered to industry. 

Scientific research institutes of the USSR Mi.istry of the Meat and Dairy Indus- 
try, the USSR Ministry of the Fruit and Vegetable Industry, the USSR Ministry of 
the Fish Industry and the USSR Ministry of Trade have prepared standard techni- 
cal documentation for more than 230 types of quick-frozen, ready-to-eat dishes 
and semi-prepared products of fruits and vegetables, meats, dairy products, fish 
and combinations of ingredients. This assortment is fully adequate to meet the 
demands of industry and the general consumer. 

the general use of quick-frozen, semi-prepared and ready-to-eat dishes will make 
it possible to reduce losses of agricultural products by 10-20 percent and to 

cut water and energy consumption by 20-40 percent, compared with the present sys- 
tem for storing products and preparing food in public catering and in the home. 

It is advisable to consume fruits, vegetables and berries evenly throughout the 
vear. It should be noted that the canning process using modern, scientifically 
based technology and corresponding equipment makes it possible to retain the in- 
itial nutritional and biologically active substance of fruits and vegetables to 

a greater degree and significantly longer than when they are stored fresh for 
long periods of time. This is especially true of the aseptic canning method with 
its brief exposure of the product to heat and good storage conditions, which keep 
out light aud oxygen. This method is considerably more economical than the 

[In 1985-1986, with the participation of the CEMA nations, we will master the 
series production of complete sets of equipment for the aseptic canning and pre- 
serving of liquid and pureed food products in tanks with capacities of 100 and 
300 cubic meters, in special railcar and truck tanks, and complete sets of equip- 
ment for transporting, receiving and storing these at the sites of their consump- 
tion, as well as automatic equipment for packaging these products in small quan- 
tities for the consumer. Under the program an experimental shop for the aseptic 

canning of liquid and pureed semi-prepared products with a capacity of 18,000 
tons ts to be created in the Moldavian SSR in 1985, and an experimental shop is 
to be built in Murmansk for the receiving, continued storage and processing of 
quick-frozen and aseptically canned semi-prepared food products and their pack- 
aging in small quantities for the consumer, with a capacity of up to 30,000 tons 
per year, 

[he Raw Materials Must be Completely Processed 

lhe program devotes a great deal of attention to the complete utilization of the 
agricultural products. A number of assignments focus on this. Among other 
things, the Grigoriopol Agroindustrial Association and the Slavyansk Canning 
Plant have been given the assignment of setting up and mastering an experimental 
industrial facility for the complete processing of apples for juice and sauce, 
which will make it possible to reduce the portion of by-products used for indus- 
trial and feed purposes to 8-10 percent. Experimental production lines are to be 
placed into operation there by the end of this year. 

fhe Tiraspol Agroindustrial Association of the Moldavian SSR's Ministry of the 
Fruit and Vegetable Industry, VNIIKOP[All-Union Scientific Research Institute of 
the Canning and Dehydrated Vegetables Industry], "Giproplodoovoshchprom" and 
"Penzkhimmash" are to set up an experimental industrial facility for the total 
processing of apples for juice and pressed residue for the production of pectin, 
using continuous-action equipment with an output of 7 tons per hour. 

We are continuing to actively introduce progressive technological processes for 
preparing items for public catering with industrial methods. The Ministry of 
Machine Building for the Light and Food Industry and Household Appliances is mas- 
tering the production of sets of equipment for producing, packaging, storing, 
transporting and selling these products, using various types of standardized con- 

The restructuring of public catering for operating with this technology will pro- 
duce a significant social and economic effect, which will be reflected in improve- 
ment of the quality and the assortment of the dishes end a reduction in the amount 
of time spent on meals. 

In accordance with assignments specified in the program, automated systems are 
being adopted more and more extensively for controlling the technological pro- 
cesses in the sugar and the meat and dairy industries, in trade and public cater- 
ing. A number of the assignments focus on the development, the creation and in- 
troduction of technological processes and equipment, instruments and means of 
automation and mechanization for the food industry branches. 

A further increase in the production of sugar and other sweet substances depends 
upon the improvement of the technology for storing the sugar beets. New biolog- 
ically active compounds and technical means are being used for this purpose. 
They make it possible to increase the amount of time the beets can be stored and 
cut sugar losses in the beets. 

r Maximum Effect 

The total cost estimate for the program for the period 1981-1985 is 56.3 million 
rubles, including 27,2 million rubles for scienti‘ic research. Around 86 million 
rubl s will have to be invested in the development of production capacities des- 
ignated tor working out the new technologies and pertecting the new equipment. 
\ll of these expenses should be returned 100-fold, The annual economic effect 
from the planned application ct measures covered by the program will be around 
630 million rubles in 1985 und more than a billion rubles in 1990, 

fhe maximum effect should be achieved in all the areas of application. Unfor- 
tunately, there are still bottlenecks along with the successes achieved in the 
program's fulfillment. 

[he work of obtaining and utilizing protein from oil-bearing crops is advancing 
very slowly. In order to accelerate this work the USSR Ministry of the Food In- 
dustry (deputy minister V. Chebyshev is presently in charge of these matters) 
must step up the search for methods of obtaining insulated proteins and preserv- 
ing their qualities in the purification process, and find additional methods us- 
ing little energy and involving no drainage for purifying and concentrating the 
food proteins from oil-seed meal, We need to accelerate the development of the 
range of aromatization means, 

(fhe USSR Ministry of Machine Building for the Light and Food Industry and House- 
hold Appliances (V. Kopylov, deputy minister) and the USSR Ministry of the Meat 
ind Dairy Industry (Yu. Sokolov, deputy minister) have dragged out the develop- 
ment, the manufacture and testing of a set of equipment for producing sterilized 
liquid and paste products with a milk base, with a capacity of 15 tons per shift. 

The expanded production of quick-frozen, ready-to-eat meat dishes, semi-prepared 
milk products, fruits, vegetables, berries and mixed vegetables is being held up 
considerably by the lack of specialized production equipment, especially quick- 
freezing equipment, 

the State Committee of the USSR for Science and Technology supported a request 
the USSR Ministry of the Fruit and Vegetable Industry and allocated it the 
funds to conduct additional scientific research in the area of making total use 
of fruits and vegetables. The ministry's plans, however, did not specify limits 
for the planning work, the provision of the lines being created with technologi- 
cal and general plant equipment, cable items and materials for creating the ex- 

perimental production facility and for turning out products with the new techno- 

The Zhdanovtyazhmash Production Association (I. Nagayevakiy, general director) 
ind the Ministry of Heavy and Transport Machine Building (Ye. Matveyev, deputy 

inister) arbitrarily altered the assignment for the creation of tank cars for 
hauling aseptically canned semi-prepared food items, failing to make it possible 
to haul pureed and paste products in them. As a result, it will be necessary to 
develop and master the production of two types of tanks instead of one. 

All of these failings should be subjected to principled criticism in the minis- 
tries mentioned. The assignments contained in the program should be finished on 
time to produce the maximum national economic effect. 

CSO: 1827/264 


Russian Vol 3, No 2, 1983 pp 165-167 

[Article by Raymo Pullats "The 39th Session of the Council to Coordinate the 
Scientific Activities of the Union Republics’ Academies of Science s"/ 

[Text/ The 39th session of the Council to Coordinate the Scientific Activities 
of the Union Republics’ Academies of Sciences was held in Tallinn on June 8-10 
1982. Our country's leading scientists, headed by the president of the 

USSR Academy of Sciences, A.P. Aleksandrov, who has been named Hero of 
Socialist Labor three times, gathered to participate in the session. In 
addition to A.P. Aleksandrov, those arriving for the session included: 
Academicians V.A. Kotel'nikov and P.N. Fedoseyev, who are vice presidents 

of the USSR Academy of Sciences, and Academicians V.A. Ambartsumyan, 

S.V. Vonsovskiy, I.A. Glebov, N.M. Zhavoronkov, B.E. Paton, M.A. Styrikovich, 
B.S. Sokolov, N.P. Fedorenko and N.M. Emanuel’, who are members of the 
Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. I.A. Rozanov, CPSU Central 
Committee sectorchief, took part in the work of the 39th session of 

the Coordinating Council, as did presidents, vice presidents and 

chief scientific secretaries from the presidiums of the union republics’ 
academies of sciences, and from the scientific centers and branches of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences. 

On 7 June K.G. Vayno, member of the CPSU Central Committee and first secretary 
of the Estonian Communist Party Central Committee, received the president 

of the USSR Academy of Sciences, A.P. Aleksandrov, and the distinguished 
scientists from the USSR and ESSR Academies of Sciences who accompanied him. 
Participating in the conversation were Comrades I.G. Kebin, V.I. Klauson, 

A.I. Kudryavtsev, V.A. Kyao,R.E. Ristlaan, A.F. Ryuytel', A.B. I. Upsi, 

M.A. Pedak, Estonian Communist Party Central Committee department chief A.J.Aben, 
ESR Academy of Sciences president K.K. Rebane and others. On this same 

day our guests became acquainted with an exhibition of books which was opened 
at the ESSR Academy of Sciences’ Scientific Library. At a reception held 

that evening at the ESSR Academy of Sciences Presidium K.K. Rebane, 

president of the ESSR Academy of Sciences and corresponding member of 

the USSR Academy of Sciences, presented ESSR Academy of Sciences commemorative 
medals to the prominent figures of Soviet science, 

[ne session opened on & June. The presidium included well-known scientific, 
party and state figures. The opening remarks were made by Academician 

A.P. Aleksandrov, president of the USSR Academy of Sciences and chairman of 

tne Coordinating Council. He noted that at the present time problems of 

power engineering must be the focus of basic research and that Estonian 
clentists are making a large contribution to the resolution of these problems. 

K.G. Vayno, first secretary of the Estonian Communist Party (CPE) Central 

Committee, welcomed the guests on behalf of the CPE Central Committee, 

the presidium of tne republic's Supreme Soviet and its Council of Ministers 

and said tnat the meeting of scientific leaders from all the fraternal republic 

in the capital of Soviet Estonia in the 60th anniversary year of the multi- 

national Homeland was a vivid example of the practical implementation of 

the Leninist national policy. The science of Soviet Estonia is developing 

within the context of numerous fruitful contacts, especially contacts with 

tne USSR Academy of Sciences. K.G. Vayno went on to emphasized that the 

May Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee presented science with urgent tasks. 
ence of the question is how to link science and production more closely. 

;oal-orlented program research provides the way for science to develop. ine 

proframs established at the ESSR Academy of Sciences are concentrating success- 

fully the forces of scientists to introduce effective methods for extracting 

ind processing shale in order to supply the country's Northwest with electric 

power, liquid fuel and chemical products; to utilize rationally Estonian 

phosphorites, which are a source of fertility and one of the means for 

the fulfillment of the Food Program; to develop new biologically active 

compounds for use in medicine, agriculture, etc. and to establish up-to-date 

rapid-functioning automatic equipment and microprocessor systems for the 

1utomation of production processes. K.G. Vayno took particular note in his 

speech of the generous and fruitful assistance which the USSR Academy of 

Sclences and the Council to Coordinate the Scientific Activities of the 

Union Republics has given to the ESSR Academy of Sciences over a period of 

many years. Having noted the general successes of our scientific institutions, 

K.G. Vayno went on to talk about several concrete problems as well. He 

expressed the hope that the scientists will take measures to resolve these 

problems, and he wished the 39th session success in its work. 

The ess 

Academician M.A. Styrikovich presented a paper "On the Tasks of the Republic 
Academies of Sciences, the Scientific Centers and the Branches of the USSR 
Academy of Sciences on the Development of Research in the Area of USSR Fuel and 
Energy Complexes and on Energy-Saving Technology." He took note of 
significant changes in the development of worldwide power engineering and 
economics in general, which are characterized by a sharp increase in oil 
prices, the growing economic benefit to be derived from replacing 

liquid fuel with various energy resources and the implementation of an 

energy conservation policy. The speaker reacted positively to the work 

of scientists from tne ESSR Academy-of Sciences and certain other scientific 
icademies to optimize the fuel and energy complex. However, the coordination 
of research in the area of the fuel and energy complex and energy-saving 
technologies has a number of inadequacies and requires further improvements 
in its forms and methods. 

The Coordinating Council made a decision to recommend the following to the 
union republics' academies of sciencess 1) implement scientific-research 

and exper’ mental-design work in the area of the fuel and energy complex and 
energy-saving technologies; 2) develop republic and regional comprehensive pro- 
grams and methods for long-range prognostication in the development of the 
fuel and energy complex with consideration for regional features and the 
availability of mineral raw materials and energy resources. 

K.K. Redane, president of the ESSR Academy of Sciences, presented a report 
which he nad written in collaboration with I.P. Epik entitled "The Prceblem 
of the Comprehensive Utilization of Oil Shales (Using the Estonian SSR as 
an Example)." He noted that it is essential to have scientific and 
technical preparation for the establishment of a major new branch of the 
economy--the production of liquid fuels made from oil shales, bituminous 
sand and coal. 

Academician P.N. Fedosyev, vice president of the USSR Acadeny of Sciences 
reported to those assembled on preparations being made by institutions of 

the USSR Academy of Scientes and the scientific academies in the union republics 
for the implementation of measures devoted to the 60th anniversary of the 
formation of the USSR. 

Academician N.P. Fedorenko, secretary of the Economics Division of the USSR 
Academy of Sciences, talked about the achievements and inadequacies in 

the coordination of the country's economic research. It was noted that 

the ESSR Academy of Sciences has increused its work on the utilization of the 
republic’s scientific potential in resolving economic problems. N.S. Pshirkov, 
deputy chairman of the Coordinating Council, presented a report on the ful- 
fillment of the decisions made by the Council's 38th session. 

The following took part in discussions: Academiciars of the USSR Academy 

of Sciences B.Ye. Paton, I.A. Glebov, N.M. Emanuel’ and S.V. Vonsovskiy; ' 
corresponding members of the USSR Academy of Sciences G.I. Gorbunov and 

A.A. Zhuchenko, Academician of the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences 

I.I. Lukinov, Academician of the Uzbek SSR Academy of Sciences E.Yu. Yusupov, 

Academician of the Lithuanian SSR Academy of Sciences K.A. Meshkauskas, 

corresponding member of the Estonian SSR Academy of Sciences M.L. Bronshteyn, 

Professor A.A. Ots of Tallin Polytechnical Institute and V.P. Leyin, general 

director of the Slantsekhim Production Association. 

In summing up the results of the session, the Council adopted a decision 

aimed at further development in the coordination of Soviet science and 

at increases in its creative potential. On 9 June the conference participants 
visited Tartu. They were received by I.Kh. Toome, first secretary of the 
Tartu Gorkom of the CPE Central Committee, and N.A. Preyman, chairman of 

the gorispolkom. The guests viewed the town hall. 

President of the USSR Academy of Sciences A.P. Aleksandrov, Vice President 
V.A. Kotel'nikov and other guests visited the ESSR Academy of Sciences’ 
Institute of Physics. They learned about the work of the sectors devoted 
to laser spectroscopy, instrument building, the physics of semiconductors, 

ind the physics of tonic crystals, as well as the group on laser equipment. 
Officials of the USSR Academy of Sciences have rated the work of the 
physicists highly. 

Some of the conference participants, including the eminent astrophysicists 
Academician V.A. Ambartsumyan and corresponding member of tine USSR Academy 

of Sclences Ye.K. Kharadze, took great interest in learning about the 

Institute of Astrophysics and Atmospheric Physics of the ESSR Academy of Sciences. 
The guests visited the sectors on physics of the atmosphere and space 

studies, and they viewed the 1.5-meter telescope. A working meeting with 

their Estonian colleagues was held. 

Academician A.P. Aleksandrov, president of the USSK Academy of Sciences, 
Academician P.N. Fedoseyev, vice president, R.E. Ristlaan, secretary of 
the CPE Central Committee, and I.Kh. Toome, first secretary of the Tartu 
yorkom of the CPE, met with the collective of Tartu Sate University. 
Academician A.P. Aleksandrov and Academician P.N. Fedoseyev presented 
papers. The guests familiarized themselves with the collections of the 
Tartu State University Scientific Library. 

On 10 June the eminent scientists from the USSR Academy of Sciences met 

with working people from Tallinn enterprises and employees of its scientific 
institutions. At the Insvitute of Geology Academician B.S. Sokolov presented 

a report "On Certain Tasks of Science in the Area of Stratigraphy." Academician 
M.A. Styrikovich held a meeting with the collective of Estonian Naval Steamship 
Company; the subject of his report was "Problems of World Energy and 

the World Puel Market.” Academician N.P. Fedorenko, held a conversation 
with the collective of the ESSR Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Economics. 
Academician I.A. Glebov spoke at the Vol'ta Plant, and Academician 

V.A. Kotel’nikov spoke at the Punane RET [not further identified/. 

Academician A.P. Aleksandrov, chairman of the Council and president of the 
USSR Academy of SGclences, and K.G. Vayno, first secretary of the CPE Central 
Committee, and others visited the exhibition "From Science to the Economy” 
which was opened in the main pavilion of the ESSR Exhibition of Economic 
Achievements. On the same day a visit was made to the Research-Demonstration 
Fishing Kolkhoz imeni S.M. Kirov was made by Academician A.P. Aleksandrov, 
president of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Academicians V.A. Kotel ‘nikov 

ind P.N. Fedoseyev, who are vice presidents of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 
[.A. Rozanov, CPSU Central Committee sector head, and other guests accompanied 
by K.u. Vayno, first secretary of the CPE Central Committee, V.A. Kyao, 
secretary of the CPE Central Committee, and K.xt. Rebane, president of the 
ESSR Academy of Sciences. 

On the evening of 10 June the participants in the 39th session of the 
Coordinating Council visited the town hall and heard a concert of ancient 
music. They were received by Kh.V. Lumi, first deputy chairman of the 
Tallinn Gorispolkom. 

The work of the 39th session of the Council to Coordinate the Scientific 
Activities of the Union Republics’ Academies of Sciences was completed suc- 

successfully. The results were summarized, and in accordance with the 
decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress, future directions were outlined 

for the development of Soviet science, and especially for research 

in the area of the USSR fuel and energy complex and energy-saving 
technologies. The session acquires particular meaning as a result of 
being held in the 60th anniversary year of the formation of the USSR, when 
our entire country is looking back at the road which has been traveled 

and is setting out new tasks which must be completed in the near as well 
as the distant future. 

COPYRIGHT: Kirjastus "Perioodika", ENSV TA Toimetised. Uhiskonnateadused, 

CSOs 1814/131 

Moscow TRUD in Russian 25 May 83 p 2 

[Article by G. Marchuk, deputy cha‘rman of the USSR Council of Ministers and 
chairman of the State Committee for Science and Technology [GKNT]: "Created, 
Tested, Introduced"] 

[Text] There is one firm rule: equipping with leading technology ensures a 

high level in the development of the national economy, and consequently in 
raising the rate of growth of the national income. There is a more capacious 
definition for leading technology, for everything new and possessing the 
essential difference of solving a task technically. This definition consists 

of one word--invention, and we refer to creators of inventions as inventors. 
Today, when the Sixth All-Union Congress of the All-Union Society of Inventors 
and Innovators [VOIR] opens in Moscow, it is appropriate as never before to 
mention the great contribution being made by our inventors and rationalizers 

so that ail sectors of the national economy would move faster to advanced positions 
of science and technology, so that the use of manual labor would be reduced, 
that all resources would be used rationally and that quality of production would 

During the 10th Five-Year Plan, 378,000 inventions and nearly 23 million 
rationalization proposals were worked out. The economic effect from their 
introduction amounted to more than R29 million--this is 1.5-fold more than in 
the preceding five-year plan. During the first 2 years of the current five-year 
plan, 7,000 new kinds of industrial products were mastered and their production 
was undertaken. 

At the same time, and this of course will be described by delegates to the 
congress, the contribution by inventors and rationalizers to the de.elopment of 
scientific and technical progress could have been much greater. Suffice it 

to cite, for example, such a figure. So far only about 30 percent of all 
inventions made in a year are introduced into national economy. In this 
connection it would be expedient to dwell on some key problems in solving which 
our innovators could participate more actively. 

Retooling of the national economy and converting it to an intensive path of 
development, place new responsible tasks before machine building. It is no 

mere chance that I am talking precisely about machine building. It must ensure 
conditions for rapid renewing of industrial equipment in all sectors of production 


and for substantial economizing of metal, fuel and energy, sharply reducing the 
use of manual and hard labor and improving the quality and expanding the variety 
of consumer goods. 

These problems are not new. They were already discussed more than once. Much 

has been done to change the situation. At the same time, much more has to be 

done to accelerate scientific and technical progress. It is very important that 
inventors and rationalizers actively participate in this work. Skilled direction 
of the creative forces of innovators toward solving key problem may yield a great 
effect. Shops, sectors and introduction brigades operating on a voluntary service 
basis and creative laboratories are called upon to make a substantial additional 
contribution to solving the tasks in renewing our technical park and in intesi- 
fying production. 

What specific priority tasks are facing innovators? We must raise efficiency 
in creation, production and utilization of machine building production. The 
entire chain is mean by this--from scientific research and developments to 
ensuring normal exploitation of machines and equipment. 

Let us note certain negative tendencies here, which are of an objective charac- 
ter and are connected with the transition from extensive to intensive method of 
housekeeping. Specifically, the proportions in renewing the fixed production 
capital of the national economy and, above all, of the indust’v have been 
somewhat violated. At many machine building enterprises, especially of the 
Ministry of Heavy and Transport Machine Building [Mintyazhmash] and the Ministry 
of Power Machine Building [Minenergomash], a considerable quantity of heavy 

and special-design metalworking equipment has been in use for more than 30 years. 
At the same time, the basic part of amortization deductions is used not for 
renewing the fixed production capital but for capital repairs. As a result, 
several million people are currently engaged in capital repairs in industry 

Moreover, it must be stressed that the system of decentralized repairs which 
has formed in the country is conducted with serious deviations from the plant 
processing methods and already does not meet contemporary demands for the 
quality of repairs and expenditure of materials, diverts extensive labor resources 
and is not profitable for the national economy. It has been calculated that 
during the service life of an equipment unit, the expenditures for its capital 
repairs exceed its initial cost more than 1.5-fold, and the safe life of 
repaired equipment does not exceed one half of the safe life of new equipment. 
For example, after capital repairs of an internal combustion engine, the 
expenditure of oil increases 1.5-2 fold and the expenditure of fuel by 5-10 
percent. At the same time, more than 40 percent of rolled stock, which is 
planned for the production of new products, is used annually in repairs of 
motor vehicles and tractors. 

Hence follows the conclusion that the line outlined by by 26th CPSU Congress 
toward modernization of industrial enterprises and renewing fixed capital is 
a key direction in the development of scientific and technical progress today. 


Thus, first of all, the question is about speediest reequipping of our technical 
park and reducing the periods for developing and introducing new technology. 
Unfortunately, {it must be noted, that there are still many unsolved problems 

Here are only two specific examples. A discovery--a nondeterioration effect 
during fricion, a so-called selective transfer--was registered more than 15 

years ago. The question is about principally new kinds of lubricants. On the 
basis of this discovery more than 100 technical solutions were developed which 
were recognized as inventions. The new lubricants make it possible to increase 
the service life of machine friction units fivefold, lessen their weight and size 
and reduce the expenditure of lubricants twofold. However, the Ministry of the 
Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Industry [Minneftekhimprom] did not adopt 
energetic measures aimed at mass introduction of the new method, which held out 

a billion ruble saving. 

Another extremely valuable work--a gamut of new highly productive automatic 
continuous operation broaching machine tools for machining components of 
intricate shape. The development is protected by 26 patents. The inventions 
are patented in leading capitalist countries. One such machine tool replaces 
an automatic line of several milling and broaching machines. Its compactness 
and hizh degree of automation make multimachine servicing possible. The first 
experimental and industrial batch of these machine tools was produced as early 
is 1976. In operation they made it possible to increase labor productivity 
5-9 fold. However, despite corresponding directive decisions, the Ministry of 
the Machine Tool and Tool Building Industry (Minstankoprom] has been unable to 
master their mass series production. 

At the same time, the equipment which is in series production has suffered 
mumerous shortcomings in some instances. In basic indexes: specific metal 

and energy content, productivity, reliability and durability--many of our 
machines are still lagging behind foreign analogs. This leads to considerable 
Losses of material, fuel, energy and labor resources in the national economy. 
"This ts why it is so important today," stresses CPSU Central Committee General 
Secretary Yu. V. Andropov in an article carried in the journal KOMMUNIST, "to 
accelerate in every possible way the rate of scientific and technical progress 
and to use its achievements more actively, first of all, at those sectors where 
labor expenditures are especially great." 

The USSR State Committee for Science and Techiology together with the USSR 
Gosplan, the USSR Gossnab and the USSR State Committee for Standards [Gosstandard] 
and with participation of interested ministries and departments conducted an 
appraisal of the technical level of machines and equipment during the 1979-80 
period. As a result of inspecting nearly 20,000 denominations of machine 
building production, it was established that nearly one-third of it must be 
modernized or removed from production and replaced with more improved output. 

The basic causes reducing the technical level of machine building production 

are usually unsatisfactory provision of production with modern industrial equip- 
ment and long periods in designing and mastering new goods in production as well 
as limited use in designs of progressive kinds of metal products and high-strenth 

Many types of machines, such as road-building machines, have lower unit power 
compared with the best foreign analogs, and consequently lower productivity and 
lesser engine life. An important problem is the output of equipment especially 
adapted to the north and for southern regions of the country. 

Agricultural machine building requires special attention. A special resolution 
of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers was recently 
adopt J on this question. It is necessary to devote maxinum attention to this 
most important sector. Here is a simple example. Let us take a tractor for 
instance. A good machine increases our national] wealth, and the other way round, 
a poor machine reduces our economy's efficiency. Hundreds of thousands if not 
millions of such machines are produced. Therefore, poor technical solutions 

in mass produced agricultural machines is one of the most lagging positions in 
the field of struggle for efficiency of new equipment. 

Many types of domestically produced instruments yield to the best foreign models 
in precision, automation of measuring processes and processing their results 
and in equipping with additional servicing devices. 

At the same time, our country's scientists and engineers have developed a large 
number of first-rate instruments and equipment, which are based on original 

ideas. But these instruments are available in single specimens, and their 

series production has not been organized. Here the decision is left to the 
Ministry of Instruments Making, Automation Equipment and Control System [Minpribor]. 

Far from all problems have been listed here in whose solution the country's 
inventors and rationalizers could actively participate. Of course, the basic 
work must be conducted by technical services of sectors and enterprises. But 
much can also be done by innovators. Leading technical solutions, directed 
search in eliminating the weakest spots and participation in eliminating unpro- 
ductive manual labor. This work, by this I do not mean ideas by the process 

of introducing innovations itself, is not simple. Therefore, industrial 
_xecutives, trade union committees and councils of the All-Union Society of 
Inventors and Innovators are called upon to render concrete, businesslike 
assistance to innovators. There is no doubt that members of the All-Union 
Society of Inventors and Innovators will continue making a worthy contribution 
to further development of scientific and technical progress, to solving tasks 
advanced by the 26th CPSU Congress. 

Figures and Facts 

One hundred three thousand primary organizations of the All-Union Society of 
Inventors and Innovators unite nearly 13 million people in their ranks. 

Sixty percent of rationalizers and inventors are workers. 
Twenty-five thousand public design bureaus, nearly 10,000 public patent bureaus 

and 11,500 councils of innovators are operating in the country under the 
supervision of organizations of the All-Union Society of Inventors and Innovators. 


Nine hundred thousand innovators studied in 1982 itn various schools of young 
rationalizer and universities of technical creativity. 

Fifty-four thousand rubles in savings were given on an average to the country 
by every invention that was introduced and nearly R2,000 by every rationalization 


| end 

Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 6 May 83 p 3 

[Article by S. Kara-Murza, senior scientific associate at the USSR Academy 
of Sciences Institute of History of Natural Sciences and Engin ering: "What 
Will Be Topical Tomorrow? The Scientific Potential Must Be Used Effectively"] 

[Text] Insuring the development of a solid front of scientific research in 
the country does not at all mean the simple, even distribution of efforts 

in all directions. Of course, the first thing is to concentrate them on the 
most important sectors but at the same time maintain at least small cells 

of research in other directions. Science is dynamic, and tomorrow, problems 
that yesterday still seemed to hold little promise can move to the fore. By 
having the germ of scientific potential it is possible to develop it rapidly 
to a productive state. Here is a textbook example of this. In 1936 the 
Leningrad Physicotechnical Institute was criticized because it was conducting 
work on nuc.ear physics that "held no practical promise." The atomic problem 
had for several years been growing both for foreign and for Soviet science. 
It would not be possible to solve it quickly if the country did not have at 
its disposal highly qualified scientists of the appropriate disciplines. 

But how is it possible to catch that moment when what yesterday seemed 
unimportant becomes urgent? Given the present scales of the scientific quest 
and the ra°es at which "priorities" change, the intuition and experience of 
specialists are no longer adequate for clarifying today's position at the 
leading edge of science and its comparison with research being conducted here 
in the country. A constant inflow of information useful for planning is 
essential. The foundation for this is being laid by the work of Soviet 
philosophers and epistemologists. In principle, the necessary technical 
facilities have also been developed for analyzing the enormous amounts of 
scientific information published by researchers worldwide. 

Soviet and U.S. information specialists have developed methods for detecting 
within the mass of pub]. hed work in the world the "clusters" of most important 
work that give direction to and define the nature of research in specific 
fields of knowledge. Machine analysis of the worldwide mass of published 

work (about 4 million articles each year) makes it possible to compile a "map" 
of the fields and directions in present-day science. It reflects not the 
subjective opinion of experts (who for many reasons do not always notice new 
directions just being born) but the actual status of reseurch efforts. 


[f today we analyze these maps for previous decades it must with regret be 
stated that at that time some of the ripe and major directions were not noticed 
in good time or assessed by some of our experts. Thus, the radioimmunoassay 
method served as the basis for a whole range of research fields being rapidly 
developed during the Seventies. It opened up extensive opportunities f + 

the diagnosis (including before the appearance of symptoms) of many di cases 
and endocrine disorders. 

Radioimmunoassay was developed 20 years ago but it is only in recent years, 
after its developer received a Nobel Prize, that the method began to be used 
extensively in research and practical work in our country. And it is scarcely 
possible to make reference to objective conditions, namely the lack of instruments 
and reagents. The main components for assimilating the method here were 
available: the "Radiopreparat” test production facility at the Uzbek SSR 
Academy of Sciences Institute of Nuclear Physics organized in just one year 
the procuction of a standard set of materials for determination of the insulin 
level in the diagnosis of diabetes. Evidently the main reason was that the 
scientific establishments failed to evaluate in good time the promising nature 
of the method and the scientific directions built on its basis and were not 
the "stormy petrels" for the planning organs and the corresponding production 

New methods like this often become the "embryos" of entire scientific directions. 
Lack of attention to their assimilation is not only a lagging at a given time 

on a given sector of research and the lowering of scientists’ labor productivity. 
[t is also a brake on the development of a progressive direction in the production 
cell of scientific potential. 

The need has repeatedly been noted for the accelerated development of the 
technical base of our science. There is no doubt that the lack of up-to- 

date instruments lowers research efficiency everywhere. But is it merely 

a matter of shortages? For even if there are major delays, sometimes methods 

are still developed that do not require complicate< equipment. Sharp differences 
in the utilization of new equipment are observed between individual detachments 
of researchers that have about the same opportunities for acquiring instruments. 
Finally, the intensity with which up-to-date instruments are used is frequently 
not great. 

Thus, for all their importance, shortages of instruments cannot hide the fact 
that the introduction of new "research techn>dlogy" is determined by a whole 
set of factors that remain unaltered even when the provision of material- 
technical backup is generous. Technological advances that take the scientific 
and technical revolution into the sphere of research set qualitatively new 
problems for the management of science. The variety of methods used grows 

and their interdisciplinary "transfer" accelerates. 

Under these conditions the habit of traditional methods of observing the 
progress of "scientific techniwues" hampers foresight about the scales of 

their use and the value of new methods. The losses from this are especially 
obvious when a scientific method not only engenders a whole range of directions 
in research and alters the appearance of whole fields of science, but is also 


transferred without further development into practice (as occurred with the 
radioimmunoassay technique). It is not easy to notice in good time and 
correctly assess a method that has only just appeared. As with recognizing 
the growing direction of research, the complexity stems from the very nature 
of the way in which new concepts in science are perceived. What is needed 
is an “early warning" service, a special kind of patrol. Without this it 

is difficult to use the advantages of the planned system in the important 
matter of renewing the methodological and technical equipment for research. 

The methods for analyzing scientific information developed by scientific 
epistemology are helping in tracing the dynamics in the spread of new methods 
in world science even in their earliest stages, and to detect which of them 
possess the greatest potential. Who should conduct this kind of analysis? 

The scientific establishments, of course, primarily the academic establishments. 
But in my opinion these duties cannot be fully decentralized because the system 
of institutes is built according to fields of knowledge, while methods often 
"fall" somewhere between them. Within the system of science management it 

is necessary to have a subdivision responsible for the analysis and prediction 
of the methodological facilities for science and an interdisciplinary base 

for coordinating this work. 

[t seems that the time has definitely come to discuss the question of setting 
up, say, within the USSR Academy of Sciences or the State Committee for Science 
and Technology, a cell to coordinate the preparation of analytical information. 
[If it is combined with the methods used to compile the "maps of science” we 
shall obtain an instrument for "taking inventory" of the research being 
conducted in the country and comparing it with the status of world science. 

By altering the scale of the map and increasing the resolution of information 
analysis we shall see the actual picture of the state of affairs in the 
individual fields of knowledge in graphic form, namely the clusters of key 
work. Having then compared this with work published in Soviet publications 
of the appropriate discipline, it will be possible to judge in which fields 
our scientists are the leaders and in which, perhaps, they are lagging. Both 
kinds of collectives exist in science in any country; the picture is dynamic. 
For rational planning it is useful to know the actual position of all our 
laboratories and not only the acknowledged leaders. 

If it 1s applied to individual laboratories or to entire scientific research 
institutes, this kind of analysis would be an efficient "diagnostic" tool. 

It will show that in given fields of knowledge we not only have cases of 
lagging behind world science, but also in general that research is not being 
conducted in important directions. Thus, criticism of the work of the 
Scientific Research Institute of Potato Growing has already appeared in the 
press: it has developed varieties that are not as good as varieties that have 
been around for a long time. In fact, developing a new variety of a plant 
which has already been cultivated for hundreds of years is possible only by 
relying on the achievements of plant physiology, botany, virology, genetics 
and a number of other disciplines. But if we take the block of work published 
by the staff of the Scientific Research Institute of Potato Growing, then 

it can be seen that they have not been making use of the information from 


these disciplines and have lost their cognitive links with many sectors not 
only in world but also in Soviet fundamental science. 

Use of the "map of sctence" and regular assessment of the leading research 

in the country requires from those working in science management a certain 
osychological readjustment and the assimilation of unusual concepts and skills. 
Obviously the use of results from empirical scientific epistemology as an 
element in the management process will also be new. In essence it is a matter 
t introducing new methods in the practice of 1esearch management practice. 

In any sphere the assimilation of something new is a complicated process. 

In this regard, the sphere of science is no exception. But difficulties can 

be overcome. Delay in resolving these problems will be much more costly. 

CSO: 1814/152 


Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 May 83 p l 
[Editorial: "Scientists for the Five-Year Plan"] 

[Text] The intensification of social production is the main source for the 
economy's dynamic growth. At the CPSU Central Committee November (1982) 
Plenum comrade Yu.V. Andropov noted that "... reserves must be sought in the 
acceleration of scientific and technical progress and the extensive and rapid 
introduction of the achievements of science and technology and leading 
experience in production." Our party is orienting the collectives of 
scientists on doing everything necessary, in cooperation with the producers, 
to organically combine the achievements of the scientific and technical 
revolution with the advantages of the socialist economic system. 

Soviet science possesses great creative potential. Its basis is the fundamental 
research that defines the propsects and basically new pathways of scientific 

and technical progress and opens up broad horizons in the study of nature 

and society. The possibilities for such research are growing. The "Astron" 
astrophysics observatory has been added to the "Salyut-7" orbital laboratory. 
The sector scientific research and design organizations are making a substantial 
contribution to the development of progressive technological processes and 
materials, and models of machines and instruments. Powerful scientific- 
production associations and technological centers are appearing that are 

capable of handling the entire cycle from the birth of a scientific idea to 

its practical embodiment. 

Our scientists are increasing their contribution to accelerating the rates 

of scientific ard technical progress. Last year alone, 3,500 models of new 
types of machines, equipment, apparatus and instruments and means of automation 
were developed. In the first 2 years of the current five-year plan the use 

in the national economy of proposals from inventors and rationalizers netted 
R13.9 billion cf savings. And in the third, core year of the present five- 
year plan the scientists have set themselves high targets. They are participating 
actively in the implementation of the USSR Food Program and helping to make 

our economy more economic. For example, the scientific collectives of Moscow 
have pledged themselves to obtain R2.7 billion from the marketing of research 
results. Together with the producers, scientists in Leningrad have taken 

it upon themselves to developed and start up the production ahead of schedule 


of 500 new articles; in the Ukraine they have pledged to save the labor of 
£00,000 people in the national economy, 

One of the most cructal sectors of the quest is implementation of the state 
sctentific and technical programs for the five-year plan. To cope with them 

in good time and in full measure means to insure by 1985 about R16 billion 

of savings together with millions of tons of ferrous metals and tens of 
millions of tons of fuel in conventional units, and to make about 3 million 
people redundant for other work. The course of the realization of the programs 
is constantly held in view by the party and soviet organs, the minstries and 
administrations, and the leaders of the scientific and design establishments 
and enterprises and their party organizations. It is important to strive 

for a situation in which they are fulfilled at a high level, in accordance 

with precise schedules. It is this kind of approach that culminated in success 
during the construction of the 750-kilovolt power transmission line connecting 
the Chernobyl nuclear power station with Vinnitsa; it was commissioned one 

year ahead of schedule. During the first quarter of this year the enterprises 
and organizations of 21 ministries and administrations have coped with their 
program tasks. 

However, the implementation of tasks is not going as it should everywhere. 
During the first 2 years of the five-year plan only 82 of the 127 programs 
providing for test installations and major industrial projects were handed 
over for exploitation, and in the USSR Ministry of Agriculture and the USSR 
Gossnab, not one of the 10 projects was ready on time. This year, the Ministry 
of the Petroleum Industry has failed to fulfill 6 out of 15, and the USSR 
Ministry of the Fish Industry and the USSR Ministry of Chemical and Petroleum 
Machine Building have each failed to fulfill five. The quarterly plan for 

the introduction of new equipment has been substantially underfulfilled by 

the USSR Ministry of Power and Electrification, the USSR Ministry of Petroleum 
Refining and Petrochemical Industry and a number of other sectors. 

What is the reason for these failures? According to figures from the USSR 
State Committee for Science and Technology, in more than 40 percent of cases 
they are the result of untimely and inadequate supplies of material and 
financial resources and production capacities and limits on capital investments 
and contract work. One disruption in five is explained by delays in the 
formulation by ministries and administrations of the tasks for the executor 
organizations or by the fact that tasks have not even been included in the 

During the llth Five-Year Plan, in accordance with the programs about 1,000 
projects have to be commissioned. The ministries and administrations 
participating in the realization of these tasks must without delay outline 
and implement effective measures to insure their fulfillment in full measure 
and exactly on schedule. 

Acceleration in the rates of scientific and technical progress depends primarily 
on the successes of scientific research and planning and design establishments 
and their well-organized joint work with the enterprises. Day after day the 
sclentific collectives and the communist scientists must concern themselves 


with the maximum possible utilization of each person's potential. Up to now, 
far from everything needed is being done for this. Trivial work is often 
included in thematic plans. A considerable proportion of the sector institutes 
ire enyaved primarily in insignificant improvementsin equipment already being 
produced, and insufficient attention is being given to the development 271f 
ideas promising radical changes in a given technical field. According to 
iclentists' figures, the proportion of research themes in the machine building 
institutes has dropped to one-third over the past 10 years. The institutes 
are not always able to withstand the "storm of economic contracts" and so 

a numbe. of them are overwhelmed by a flow of insignificant orders. The 
ministries and administrations and the party committees must strengthen 
leadership in the scientific research and planning and design organizations 
and enhance the responsibility of their leaders for the topicality of themes, 
the scientific-economic level of work and the fulfillment of plans and tasks. 

Soctalist competition is a reliable lever of party influence over the 
acceleration of technical progress. It should be organized in such a way 
that scientific potential is used to the full and the creative initiative 

of sclentific personnel stimulated, Fulfilling the decisions of the 26th 
CPSU Congress, scientists are reinforcing their ties with production and they 
are filled with a resolve to achieve new accomplishments for the honor of 
Soviet science and the good of the motherland. 

CSO: 1814/149 

Minsk PROMYSHLENNOST’ BELORUSSII in Russian No 3, Mar 83 pp 30-32 

[Article by A. Osipenko, chief of the Planning-Production Department of the 
Head Technological Bureau for Specialized Planning and Design of the 
Soyuzfermmash All-Union Production Association: "They Have Earned But 

Not Received"/ 

[Text] The decree of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR 
Council of Ministers concerning improvements in the economic 
mechanism stipulated a number of measures to further accelerate 
scientific and technical progress and to expand the output of 
nighly effective production. These measures included trans- 
ferring scientific-research, design, planning-design and 
technological organizations to a new system for stimulating 

the development, production and application of new equipment. 

The goal of the new system is to establish a direct relation 
between the size of the economic incentive fund created at 
scientific-technical organizations or at enterprises and the 
amount of economic benefit obtained by the economy from the 
utilization of the scientific and technical innovations. 

Machine building for animal husbandry and fodder production was one of the 
first sectors to shift to the new system of incentives. During this process 
the following task was set: substantially reduce the "research, development, 
initial production" cycle and increase the output of highly effective 
equipment by increasing the material interest of employees at scientific- 
technical organizations and enterprises in the end results of their labor. 

What has the first experiment in the use of this system shown? It turns out 
that, contrary to expectations, the ecmomic incentive funds at scientific- 
technical organizations have grown insignificantly, and at certain scientific- 
research institutes and design bureais which operate on an independent 
balance, they have even shrunk. 

The allotments which organizations receive from profits formed at enterprises 
is a result of actual reductions in production costs following the introduction 
of new equipment have amounted to only 8.6 percent of the total amount of the 

funds, while allotments from supplementary profits, actually obtained by 
enterprises through incentive increases in wholesale prises for new, highly- 
effective output and for products with the State Quality Seal amounted 

to 23.2 percent. And, after all, it was stipulated that these would be 

the main sources of fund formation. At the same time allotments arising 
from means included in the estimated cost of scientific-research and 
experimental-design work which were intended to be supplementary sources 
amounted to the followings 12.2 percent from guaranteed economic effect, 
23.8 percent from work without economic effect, 12 percent as a form of an 
idvance on results from work on the formulation of items for production, 

4.6 percent from orders placed by enterprises and organizations of other 
ministries, 9.4 percent from the centralized bonus fund of the ministry and 
6.2 percent from other sources. 

Thus, the proportion of basic sources amounts to a total of 31.8 percent. 
But why did it come out this way? In order to answer this question it is 
essential to examine the entire process by which the economic incentive 
funds are formed. 

Let us begin with the fact that as of today the sector uses the new system 
for planning the scientific-research, experimental-design and technological 
work (using customer orders) at only the two first links in the chain 
"research, development, initial production.” This means that the 
introduction of the new equipment into mass production is taking place 
essentially in the old way, that is slowly. And this is why 

allotments of the necessary size are not being made to the economic incentive 
funds of the scientific-research organizations. 

[ will cite one such example. In 1979 the Head Technological Bureau for Spe- 
clalized Planning and Design of the Soyuzfermmash All-Union Production Associa- 
tion (HTBSPD) developed a design and followed the established procedure in ma- 
King a decision regarding the production arrangement for an attachment 

to carry pulverized fodder (PIM-40) on the base of the mass-produced 

organic fertilizer spreader (PRT-10). The rural workers have particular need 
for this attachement when the fodder is being harvested. Utilization of this 
ittacnment was expected to yield quite a high economic effect. According 

to calculations, this was supposed to amount to #8 rubles per unit. 

However, in 1979 the necessary capacities to produce the attachments did 
not exist. For this reason production of the first 100 PIM-40 units was 
entrusted to the HTBSPD, which has its own experimental production unit, and 
to the Bobruysksel'mash Plant. The wholesale price was set at 970 rubles. 
An incentive increase in the amount of 45 rubles was established for 
effectiveness; it was to be in effect for one year. In accordance with 

the established protocol, 20 rubles of this increase went into the HTBSFD 
economic incentive fund. A simple calculation shows that the above-plan 
profits which the manufacturing plant received from the sale of the PIM-40 
resulted in an allotment to the design-technological bureau of a total 

of 2,000 rubles (mass production of the attachment began only last year when 
the + ioe during which the incentive increase was in effect had already 


One mare typical example. The sector has developed this procedures after new 
equipment is developed, it is included in the plan for the assimilation of 

new industrial products, the so-called first industrial series which (depending 
on the complexity of the product's design and its tecnnological effectiveness) 
does not exceed 10-20 units. They are manufactured at an experimental production 
unit of the organizations which developed them or at the experimental shops 

of mass-production plants. Experience shows that mass production of these 
{tems begins a year or two and sometimes even longer after the production 
of the first industrial batch. As a result, this note appears in the 
reports: "production of the new machine has been started," although in fact 

it 1s being produced in inconsequential numbers. 

At the same time the existing system for the determination of prices stipulates 
that if the appropriate organs approve a decision regarding the formulation of 
an item for production, then a permanent wholesale price must be approved 

as well, regardless of the number of the pieces of equipment which are being 
produced. However, an increase for effectiveness may be established for a 
period of one year, or for two years if the item is particularly complex. 

It is not difficult to guess that a majority of enterprise and association 
officials are reluctant to shift their production capacities to the manufacture 
of new products, especially when there is demand for the mass-production. 

And this 1s not surprisings after all, the output of new equipment does not 
become firmly established with a position on the products list. In this 
way the large-scale production of the equipment is, as a rule, delayed. And 
the economic incentive funds to stimulate researchers and developers are set 

up so that they are directly dependent on the quantity d equipment produced. 
Nor should it be forgotten in this regard that at the present time the main 
indicator for judging the work of institutes and design bureaus of industrial 
ministries is the economic benefit derived from the introduction of the new equip- 
ment, and it it practically impossible to obtain this benefit in the necessary 
amounts. And even in those cases where the enterprise has already introduced 

a new design, it is not interested in sharing the amount put into the bonus 
fund with the design organizations, or in determining their share of the 

benefit derived from the measure which has been introduced. And it is for 
precisely this reason that arguments arise between the manufacturer and the 
designer; these disputes frequently go to departmental arbitration for 

The regulation regarding the procedure for the formation of economic incentive 
funds at scientific and technical organizations also stipulates the issuing 

of an advance, which is determined by taking into account the size of the 
expected effect for new or up-dated machines which, it has been decided, will 
be put into production. In accordance with industry instructions, the 

amount of the advance is included in the estimated cost of the final stage 

of the design process. The proportion of these allotments in the designers’ 
‘neentive funds usually varies from 10 to 17 percent, and sometimes it is even 
more significant. 

For example, in 1982 the total for the advances which our bureau received 
for projects being completed amounted to about 70,000 rubles of the total 
amount of planned incomings for the material incentive funds. This total must 


be taken into account during the final calculation of the size of the 
payments made into the bureau's economic incentive fund from the above- 

plan profits, which are obtained by enterprises when they produce items with 
the incentive increase for effectiveness. As a result, the designers find 
themselves in an extremely difficult position because the output of a small 
number of new items in tne form of first industrial series does not always 
provide for sufficient payments to make up for the advance. However, in this 
case the enterprise does not bear the economic costs; the targets for 
fund-formation indicators were fulfilled. 

A similar picture is also observed with the formation of incentive funds 

on the basis of payments from profits, which are obtained from reductions in 
production costs as a result of the introdution of new equipment and technology. 
Again, it is only the enterprises which prove to be in the winner's position. 

As 1s well known, projects which provide for a reduction in production costs 
and the corresponding payments to the fund of the scientific and technical 
organization are aimed mainly at improvements in technological processes 

and at the reduction of material- or labor-intensity. Usually these projects 
are fulfilled on the basis of economic contracts, which are concluded 
according to a planned procedure or at the initiative of enterprises. In 
this regard, the financing of expenditures to fulfill them is, in a majority 
of cases, provided from a single fund for the development of science and 
technology of the industrial ministry. This is why enterprises, 

when they conclude agreements, try to impose upon the party carrying out 

the work (a scientific or technical organization) the stipulation that 

the source of payments to the incentive funds should be means which are 
included in the estimated cost for carrying out the project instead of 
profits which will be obtained by this enterprise from the introduction 

of designs into production. This approach is not in the interests of the 
scientific and technical organizations because the amount of the payments is 
limited in this case. 

It should also be said that when economic contracts are concluded between 
enterprises and scientific-technical organizations, the technical and economic 
documentation for designs is provided at an extremely low level, and in 

some cases it is not provided at all. This means that it is impossible 

to determine in advance the expected effectiveness of work of a given 

type and, consequently, the size of the payments for one of the main sources. 
Nor is it possible to determine in advance the proportions of the payments 
for the incentive funds for the enterprise and the organization. And it is 
precisely these amounts and introduction deadlines for innovations which must 
be stipulated in the contract between the body placing the order (the enter- 
prise) and the body carrying it out (the scientific-technical organization). 

In practice, calculating the effectiveness derived from designs which have 
been introduced is done only on the basis of actual data. And the payments 
are also determined using the size of the obtained effect as the basis, but 
only for the payments which go into the enterprises’ fund. Even in those 
cases where the size of the payments for the first source are calculated 

in advance and written into contracts, the producers frequently do not inform 


tne scientific-tecnnical organization about the time periods for the actual 
introduction of the designs and their effectiveness; they refuse to 
transfer to the organization its share of these means. 

All of the above speaks to the need for improvements in the system to 

stimulate work on new equipment. What specifically should be done first? 

In the first place, if a decision has been made to put into production 
up-dated or new models of equipment, which are more effective than those 
1lready being mass produced, and an enterprise delays in producing then, 

it is essential to strengthen the economic sanctions for the output of 

the old products. In this case it is advisable to establish a strictly 

fixed percentage discount to be taken not from the obtained profit but from 
tne wholesale price of the obsolete item regardless of its actual 

[In the second place, those enterprises which determine the acceleration of 
scientific and technical progress in the national economy, should include 

as one of the basic fund-formation indicators (along with the growth of 
labor productivity, the proportion of output in the highest quality category, 
reduction of production costs, etc.) a target for the introduction of new 
equipment with an indicatior of time periods, volumes and planned effect 

to be derived from their introduction. 

In the third place, it is essential to define by either a legislative or direc- 
tive procedure the responsibility of enterprises for the correctness of 

their accounts with scientific and technical organizations in terms of the 
sources and amounts of the payments going into their economic incentive 

funds, as well as responsibility for scientific-research or planning and 

design work which has been fulfilled and applied. In this way the system 

for the formation of economic incentives to promote the creation, assimilation 
and introduction of new equipment will receive legal norms. 

COPYRIGHT: "“Promyshlennost' Belorussii”, 1983 

3H 3 
CSOs 1814/121 


Minsk PROMYSHLENNOST' BELORUSSII in Russian No 3, Mar 83 pp 60-61 

[article by S. Vermeyenko, junior scientific associate and A. Golovachev, 
chief of the Scientific-Research Problem Laboratory for the Scientific 
Organization of Labor of the Belorussian State Economic Institute imeni 
V.V. Kuybyshevs: "A Squeaky Mechanism"/ 

[text/ During the Tenth Five-Year Plan the effectiveness 
of scientific research in the BSSR Ministry of Higher Edu- 
cation grew more than 1.6-fold, but the absolute magnitude 
of the effect obtained continues to remain small. The 
completion periods for scientific research are frequently 
extended (sometimes without good reason), and the results 
often do not reach the stage of practical implementation. 

Today we continue the conversation about raising the effec- 
tiveness of VUZ science. 

Here is a curious fact: hardly a single project carried out on the basis 
of an economic contract (of the many thousands carried out in the republic's 
VUZ's) has been completed ahead of schedule. The explanation is quite simple: 
the existing system of incentives cannot compensate for the losses of 

wages which the researchers incur if contract work is completed ahead of 
schedule. And so they do not hurry. 

The bonus for “contract subjects” has become virtually a guaranteed wage 
supplement. For example, nearly all the people who carried out projects 

at the Belorussian Polytechnical Institute (BPI) in 1980 received bonuses. 
And what were the results of their work? This, as they say, is a secondary 
matter. Frequently there is a period of 5-6 years between the start 

of an investigation on a contract subject and the application of the results. 
It is not surprising that during this time the "scientific product” becomes 

Here is another example. The staff members in a number of departments at 

the same BPI have quite a few patents for various technical solutions in 

the area of machine tool manufacturing. However, these solutions have not yet 
found practical application. 


Thus, the planning of contract research carried out at VUZ's, while it 
touches on only the actual research process, leaves aside the main problem 

of obtaining the final result, which should, according to the logic of things, 
determine the size of the remuneration. 

Contracts regarding scientific-technical cooperation (CSTC) are the most 

common form of a link with production within the BSSR Ministry of Higher 
Education. In accordance with the CSTC's, the labor of the people working 

on the projects is not rewarded during the research process. In addition, 

both sides have the right to abrogate the contract at any moment, without 
risking material sanctions. The lack of material interest on the part of the 
people carrying out the work (and sometimes on the part of the people placing 
the order for the work) results from the poor material-technical provision 

for the research and the lack of effective monitaring of its progress. The 
contracts do not always stipulate measures for the introduction of the research 
results: out of thelarge number of CSTC's, one can count with ease the number of 
results which have actually been applied. 

Nonetheless, within just the five-year period the number of contracts concluded 
by certain VUZ's in the republic has increased 2- or 3-fold. What is happening 
is that in many case a CSTC is functioning as a stage in the research, a stage 
which precedes the conclusion of an economic contract. Within the BSSR 

Ministry of Higher Education system it is the economic contract which has 
become the most common. For example, during the last 10 years the volume 

of economic contract scientific-research work in the republic's VUZ's grew by 
more than 4.7-fold and by the end of the five-year period it had reached 

37.4% percent of the ministry's total scientific research. The volume of 
resources which have been used is growing as a result of an increase 

in the number of contracts which have been concluded (40 percent) as well as 

a result of an increase in the volme of financing for individual projects 

(60 percent). 

The mechanism for eting research on contract subjects needs further improve- 
ment. This concerns first of all the methods for selecting subject matter, 
facilities, optimal amounts of work and time periods for the conduct of 

the research. Despite the fact that during the 10th Five-Year Plan the 

number of economic contract projects carried out on the most important 

subjects, increased nearly 3.5-fold, the proportion of these projects 

amounts to less than half of the total number. In short, the majority of 
investigations resolve only specific, individual problems. As a rule, 

these projects are short-term, characterized by small volumes, and their 

results do not find application beyond the enterprises ordering the work. 

The results are much greater when the research is carried out within the 
framework of an academic-scientific-production association (ASPA). 

The Belorussian Technological Institute imeni S.M. Kirov, for example, 

has accumulated substantial experience in this kind of work. Here the 
effectiveness of expenditures for research carried out within the framework 
of an ASPA were 4-fold higher at the end of the last five-year plan than 
the ministry average. Let us compare another indicator. For the BSSR 


Ministry of Higher Education as a whole inventions are utilized only from every 
second economic agreement, any topic investigated within the framework of 
in ASPA gives rise to one or two patent applications. 

[In recent years a comparatively new form of interaction between VUZ science 

ind production has grown more and more common: the agreement to transfer 
sclentific-technical achievements to other enterprises and organizations. 

This agreement usually stipulates that assistance will be given in making use 

of the borrowed experience. The economic effectiveness of one ruble spent 

in this case is higher than with a traditional economic contract. Unfortunately, 
at present the agreements to transfer scientific-technical achievements are 

"not wnat count” in research by VUZ scientists--their effect does not 

reach even three percent of the total volume of scientific-research work. 

In short, the mechanism which guides the interaction between VUZ science 
and production is squeaky and need further improvements. Here three 

basic directions can be seen: an increased role for the republic's Ministry 
of Higher Education to play in directing science; an increased role for 

the scilentific-resarch sectors of VUZ's and improvements in the methods for 
stimulating scientific research and the application of the results. 

The first way presumes the establishment of a self-financing scientific 
issoclation (probably on the basis of the administration of science and the 
idministration of cost-accounting enterprises and organizations of the BSSK 
Ministry of Higher Education), endowed with the right to conclude contracts 
to conduct scientific research. For experience one does not need to go 
far--the USSR Ministry of Higher Education has already established this kind 
of association. What can this give to the republic's VUZ scientists? 

[In the first place, they will receive the opportunity to choose as their 
"customers" (and consequently, the objects of investigation) major enterprises, 
organizations and sectors of the industry, which, in turn, will make it possible 
to work on timely subject matter which has significance for a given sector 

is well as related sectors. There will also be opportunities to carry out 
comprehensive investigations planned for 5-10 years. Under these conditions wider 
ise can be made of goal-oriented program methods of planning. In addition, 

basic research carried out by the VUZ will be related to the essential needs 

of production collectives. 

[In the second place, it will be easer to establish centralized funds for 
scientific research, scientific and technical development, material incentives, 
socio-cultural measures and housing construction in a cost-accounting scientific 
association. This will make it possible to carry out goal-oriented financing 

of comprehensive programs, to improve their material and technical basis 

ind to sisnificantly increase the effectiveness of incentives. 

[t would be logical to establish this relationship: if the results obtained 
(parameters, characteristics) are worse than those defined by the plan 

target, then the size of the incentive payment is reduced, and if they are 
better, the bonus is increased. It would then be simpler to develop a 

range of bonuses, which takes into account not only the effect obtained but also 
the time period for the application of the research results. 


Finally, the time has come to increase the effectiveness of the scientific 
research sectors at VUZ's. At present this subdivision has become essentially 
in office, which 1s concerned only with c'rrent questions, and at the best 
combines the scientific plans of individual departments into a single list. 

At the same time such questions as the study of scientific directions and the 
potential of various departments remain on the aside, as do questions such as 
the pre-planning development of subjects, goal-oriented program planning, the 
scientifically grounded evaluation of research work and the development of 
effective methods for applying results to the national economy. 

COPYRIGHT: "Promyshlennost' Belorussii", 1983 

CSO; 1814/121 


Tashkent EKONOMIKA I ZHIZN' in Russian No 2, Feb 83 pp 29-31 

[Article by M. Muminov, director of UzNIINTI (Uzbek SSR Gosplan Scientific- 
Technical Information and Technical-Economic Research Institute), and G. 
Vaynshteyn, laboratory chief: "The Accompaniment of Scientific-Technical Pro- 

[Text] The progress of science and technology and introduction of their 
achievements into the national economy is one of the important factors of our 
country's economic and social development. As a rule, the chief tasks for 
accelerating the rates of scientific-technical progress bear an intersectorial 
and interregional character. A problem that can be cited as an example is the 
creation and assimilation of highly productive engineering processes and 
equipment for the production of metal powders, powder alloys of refractory 
compounds and, on their basis, new materials, coatings and articles needed in 
practically all sectors of the national economy. The very same can be said of 
the creation and use of effective chemical and biological means for protecting 
plants and animals against pests, diseases and weeds which are safe for man 
and the environment. The creation and broad use in the national economy of 
semiconductor power technology is an example of a solution to an intersecto- 
rial problem. 

fhe resolution of intersectorial and interregional problems required certain 
transformations in existing forms of planning, management and organization 
stemming from the CPSU Central Committee and USSR Council of Ministers Decree 
"On an Improvement in Planning and Reinforcement of the Action of the Economic 
Mechanism on an Improvement of Production Effectiveness and Work Quality." 
There was expanded application of the system program method, the result of 
which was the development and inclusion in plans of the llth Five-Year Plan of 
41 special-purpose comprehensive scientific-technical programs and 129 pro- 
grams to resolve very important scientific-technical problems, with the basic 
return from them envisaged in the following five-year plan. These programs 
contain an entire set of measures needed for achieving the end goals: scien- 
tific research, development and planning work, the manufacture and testing of 
experimental models, and construction of experimental industrial units and 
industrial installations with subsequent development of production and crea- 
tion of additional capacities. Concrete assignments, dates and estimated cost 
of the work were projected. Responsible ministries and coperforming minis- 
tries were envisaged. The assignments indicated sources of financing and end 


results expressed in a general indicator--annual economic effect based on 
1985 or 1990. And so the backbone of a program of scientific-technical prog- 
ress was created for the first time in our country and supported with all 
material-technical resources in a state five-year plan. 

ft 1s not without interest to note that scientific-technical programs envisage 
the creation of over 4,000 models of new equipment and engineering processes, 
of which some 60 percent is planned for output already in this five-year plan. 
The annual economic effect from realization of the planned program in 1985 
should comprise some 16.5 billion rubles. 

These programs are very elaborate and of great scope. They tie together the 
spheres of activity of many union ministries and departments, the USSR Academy 
ot Sciences, republic academies, and unifon-republic and republic ministries 
and departments. 

For this reason the disruption of even one small assignment may lead to dis- 
ruption of the program as a whole. To keep this from occurring there has to 
be a mechanism for management and supervision over the organization of work 
under the programs. The USSR TsSU [Central Statistical Administration] 
periodically informs the USSR Council of Ministers, the USSR State Committee 
for Science and Technology and USSR Gosplan about the status of fulfillment of 
stages and assignments of scientific-technical programs. Councils under the 
leading ministries, headed by the ministers, their deputies and very prominent 
scientists, coordinate work under separate programs, ensure observation over 
the technical level of innovations being created, and exercise coordination 
among performing organizations. All this is the so-called mechanism of verti- 
cal tracking of the fulfillment of program stages and assignments. But the 
territorial separation of performing organizations requires creation of a 
"horizontal"-regional tracking. To this end the USSR State Committee for 
Science and Technology decided to use the far-flung system of scientific- 
technical information. 

The Uzbek SSR Gosplan Scientific-Technical Information and Technical-Economic 
Research Institute (UzNIINTI) was given responsibility for accompanying-- 
tracking--realization of the comprehensive special-purpose programs and pro- 
grams for resolving the most important scientific-technical problems by per- 
forming organizations located on the territory of the Uzbek SSR. There are 
over 100 such organizations. Program tracking, i.e., monitoring the fulfill- 
ment of stages and assignments on time, is carried on in close coordination 
with party, management and planning entities of the republic. This makes it 
possible, where necessary, to include other organizations in program fulfill- 
ment so as to make fuller use of the entire scientific-technical potential. 

UzNITINTL began the tracking and priority information support to scientific- 
technical programs last year. Responsible departments were determined, a card 
file of performing organizations was developed and dates for checking the 
realization of various programs were projected. 

We checked over 50 organizations carrying out scientific-technical programs on 
republic territory and identified those which had not begun fulfilling the 


assignments of scientific-technical programs which had been made their respon- 
sibility. Reasons for a lag were uncovered and measures were suggested for 
remedying them. There basically were three reasons: Assignments were not pro- 
vided to individual organizations of a ministry and department on time; some 
pertorming organizations did not receive the entire programs, but only the 
designation of a project, which gives no idea about the place of the assign- 
ment in the overall plan of program fulfillment or ties with other projects; 

a lack ot financing, cadres or material-technical resources. In the first two 
instances UZNIINTIL specialists helped clarify all matters and in the third 
instance, in conformity with recommendations of USSR Gosplan and the USSR GKNT 
[State Committee for Science and Technology], the organizations which had not 
begun realization of scientific-technical program assignments were told to 
think about redistributing financing and scientific personnel and reorienting 
them to study those problems at which the scientific-technical programs were 

One ot UZzNLINTI's most important tasks is the priority, primary, information 
support to comprehensive special-purpose programs and programs for resolving 
sctentific-technical programs being realized on the territory of the Uzbek 

To this end UzNIINTI departments began studying the information needs of 
collectives executing the programs and compiling a special card file on this 
basis. Based on the information needs identified, the institute's sectorial 
departments drew up a comprehensive long-range plan for preparation and publi- 
cation of survey information designed for the period 1981-1985. During the 
tive-year plan it was planned to prepare over 150 analytical surveys on the 
topics of scientific-technical programs. Some 30 such surveys were published 
in 1982 and over 30 are to be published this year. They systematized and 
scientifically generalized information about the status and development trends 
ot appropriate fields of science and technology. In analyzing this informa- 
tion the survey authors suggest their own forecasts for development of a given 
field. This survey-analytical information is intended chiefly for the heads 
of various management levels as well as leading engineering-technical workers 
ot industrial enterprises and organizations. 

The subject matter of scientific-technical programs is included in the list of 
topics on which information service of republic party, management and planning 
entities is carried on in the system of selective information distribution 
(IRI), which is one of the most effective forms of information support. In 
this mode UzNIINT1 specialists analyze, select and send subscribers of IRI the 
title and brief abstract of materials coming to the institute's information 
reference fund. Subscribers to the IRI system can if necessary request the 
primary source after familiarizing themselves with the current awareness noti- 

Our institute set up priority library services for topics of scientific- 
technical programs. Exhibits are held of new arrivals connected with these 
topics. The corresponding literature is presented first of all. A note "for 
information support of scientific-technical programs" is made on the order 
blanks for this purpose. If the requested materials are lacking in the 


institute's information reference fund, UZNIINTI will request them from other 
libraries of the unified republic information reference fund or in all-union 
sector!al entities of scientific-technical information. 

Prioritizing is provided in satisfying one-time requests for subject matter of 
sctentific-technical programs. In the "question-answer" mode extracted infor- 
mation is provided of a factographic future (technical characteristics of 
articles, technical descriptions, technical-economic indicators and so on) and 
an address nature (addresses of enterprises or organizations, location of 
normative-technical documents and so on), as well as copies of primary and 
secondary documents (catalogues, articles, information sheets, specifications 
and so on). 

We also can provide qualified assistance in obtaining patent information and 
conducting patent research at the facility of the republic patent documenta- 
tion fund. Organizations which are executing programs are provided with pri- 
mary operational access to the current world flow of patent documentation on 
the basis of data of the International Center for Patent Documentation. Each 
week organizations which conclude an agreement with UZNIINTI are provided with 
bibliographic information obtained from this center about published patent 
documents (applications, inventor's certificates, patents) and then if neces- 
sary, with copies of primary patent documents. 

UzNIINTI takes an active part in arranging scientific-technical conferences, 
seminars, interplant schools of foremost experience and thematic exhibits, and 
in preparing radio and television broadcasts and announcements for publication 
in the press. 

The tracking and broad information support of scientific-technical programs 
today is one of the leading directions in UzNIINTI's work. We hope that our 
work will help those who take a direct part in realizing these programs 

to cope successfully with the tasks assigned them. 

COPYRIGHT: "Ekonomika i zhizn'", 1982 

CSO: 1814/129 


Moscow EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI in Russian No 5, May 83 pp 25-29 

[article by I. Sigov, professor and doctor of economic sciences, Leningrad: 
"The Content of and Ways to Accelerate the Practical Application of Scientific 

[Text/ As was noted at the 26th CPSU Congress, the conditions under which 

the country's economy will develop in the 80's require ever more persistently 
the acceleration of scientific and technical progress. In this regard, a 

most acute and decisive issue today involves the practical applicatior. of 
cclentific discoveries and inventions. In theoretical studies and in practical 
work ever increasing amounts of attention are being devoted to the problem 

of applying results. However it is still viewed mainly with regard to 
implementation within the material production sphere of the achievements 

of technical and natural sciences. At the same time the vask of 

putting into practice the results obtained from research in the social 
sciences, and especially in economics, is becoming no less important. 
"Science," the CPSU Central Committee Report to the 26th party congress 
emphasized, “must be a ‘disturber of the peace,’ by showing which sectors 
have given in to stagnation and delays and where the present level of 
knowledge makes it possible to move ahead faster and more successfully. 
Consideration should be given to the question of how this work can be turned 
into an integral part of the management mechanism."1 This situation has 

a direct relation to the economic sciences, which are called upon to provide 
the methodological basis for improvements in the economic mechanism of society. 
At the same time the scientific-research institutes themselves, and especially 
those which are part of the system of the USSR State Committees (Gosplan, 
Gosstroy, Gossnab, Goskomtrud and others) act with ever greater frequency 

as direct units in the system for the management of society's economic 

and social development, unitswhich are engaged in the preparation of 

initial materials for the adoption of management decisions. 

The urgency of this problem requires in-depth theoretical treatment of 
the questions concerning the essence, spheres, forms and evaluations of the 
practical application of the achievements of economic sciences, as well 
the determination of concrete ways to accelerate this process. 

essence of practical application {in italics/. The concept of the practical 

ipplication of sclentific achievements has not yet received comprehensive 

treatment in our literature. Usually we understand the expression "introducing 
t is meaning the practical realization of scientific results. In 
is reward, however, 1t is not always clear what kind of practice and exactly 

wnicn scientific results are the subject of discussion because science has 

various functions in society. The function of science cannot be reduced to just 

the effect on material production, to participation in the creation of new 

equipment and technological processes. At the same time the importance of 

this function under conditions of ever greater transformation of production 

Into an area for the technological application of science must not be minimized. 


In evaluating the role of science and its place in society at the present 

tage 1t 1s essential to keep in mind at the very least three aspects: 1) the 
production of material benefits and services; 2) the sphere of education, which 
provides for the development of the individual as a person and as the main 
producing force; 3) the sphere of management of various processes in the 
functioning and development of society. Finally, we must not fail to see the 
role of scientific knowledge in the development of science itself as one of 

tne spheres in the production of spiritual benefits. 

fescription of the place of science in society, and a delineation of its 
‘tions into “external” (aimed at production, education, management) and 

nternal" (aimed at the development of science itself) makes it possible to 

‘larify the relations between the concepts of "science" and "practice," as 

well as the role of practical application as the implementation of scientific 
results in practice (beyond the boundaries of science) and in science itself. 

‘he progress of society is characterized by the growing influence of science on 
ill spheres of public life, including the development of material production. 
The division of scientific labor itself is frequently viewed as a stage in 
the strengthening of the links between science and production, as are the 
relatively clear differentiation between "pure" (fundamental) and applied re- 
search and the singling out from the latter of specific types of activities-- 
planning and experimental design work--and of new types of scientific organiza- 
tions--planning and planning-technological institutes, design bureaus, experi- 
ntal enterprises, etc. From this the conclusions is drawn that at the 

present time we view with increasing clarity the outline of the processes, 
dnicn can be characterized as the firther qualitative development and intensifi- 

| of the scientific division of labor--the introduction of the results 
f scientific research into social practice.“ With this formulation of the 
luestion, application (or "introduction") is viewed essentially as a definite 
tage in the division of labor--the development of a special "application" 
"introductory") sphere. It is not difficult to note that in this case 

f “application” (or “introduction") is limited only by utilization 

iclentific achievements in the sphere of material production. In addition, 

lose sight of the fact that application can take place and 
loes take place at all stages of scientific research, and not only at 
Staze, when there is the question of implementing results at 

the production unit. The characterization of application (introduction) 
niy a special sphere of scientific activity, which is 

located at the junction between scientific-technical innovations and their 
industrial assimilation, can lead to a restrictive interpretation of the 
concept of application (introduction), especially with regard to the area of 

tne soctal sclences. 

[lo provide a more comprehensive description of the essence of the practical 
introduction of scientific achievements it is fruitful to consider this 

process as a definite area in the relations between the producers of scientific 
output in all of its forms and its consumers in all spheres of human activity. 
[In this regard there arise problems of the particular organization and 
regulation of relations between producers and consumers of scientific 

output, the establishment of their rights and obligations and the determination 
of forms for the participation and interest of both sides in the practical 
ipplication of scientific output. 

With regard to scientific-research organizations of a technical type the 
problem is already at the stage of practical resolution: at the present time 
they are being shifted to a cost-accounting system for the organization of 
work to create, develop and introduce new equipment on the basis of orders 
(contracts). This system creates conditions for the bilateral accounting 

ind monitoring of the application of projects which have been carried out. 
With regard to scientific research in the area of the social sciences, 

ind especially economics, the question of establishing a system for 

the practical application of the results is acquiring ever greater timeliness. 

The spheres and forms of application fin italics/ A more successful organiza- 
tion of work to implement the achievements of economic sciences in practice 
requires a clear demarcation of the spheres _and forms for their application. 
Under the spheres of application /in italics/ it is possible to include: 
1) selence itself as a sphere of spiritual activity whose development 
presupposes more and more new data which expand people's ideas about 
the world which surrounds them; b) the sphere of education and indoctrination 
which requires systematic, continuous training and the updating of educational 
surricula and programs, academic-methodological materials, which generalize 
tne selentific knowledge and experience accumulated in various areas; c) 
the sphere of management, in which ever greater use is made of the materials 
nd recommendations which are prepared by scholars in the social sciences 
ind which represent the results of scientific investigations; d) the production 
phere, in which use may be found for the results not only of natural and 
technical sciences, but also results from the social sciences (for example, 
the formulation of a social order for the development of scientific-technnical 
rosress in the direction of changes in the content as well as the conditions 
f people's labor, daily life and leisure). 


Along with the spheres of application one should differentiate the forms for 
the application of scientific research results in the area of the economic 
sciences. It seems to us that these can include: a) scientific publications 
wnich contain new theses and conclusions in the respective areas of the 
-clences; 6) the publication of textbooks and other academic materials; c) 
participation in the preparation of various types of management decisions 
(decrees by directive organs, methodological recommendations for the 

fevelopment of the country and the regions, as well as normative documents, 
etc.); @) the implementation of specific projects in the area of production, 

labor and management organization for various production nuclei of the 
national economy. 

Evaluation of application fin italics/. The evaluation of the practical 

ipplication of achievements in the economic sciences has great theoretical 
ind practical significance with regard to their various spheres and forms. 
The question consists primarily of who can and should carry out this kind: 


of evaluation. It is obvious that there cannot be just one single answer. 

[he evaluation of newly published scientific results constitutesone of the 

most current problems. The very fact that scientific research results have 
been published by no means provides evidence that these results are new 

ind significant. In this regard care in selecting those scientific works which 
ire published becomes of ever greater significance. At the same time it is 
essential to create a system to review them, a system which includes a 
mandatory expert evaluation of the content and significance of new 

sclentific results, and which is similar to the one currently used to 

judge doctoral and candidate dissertations. 

Textbooks and other educational aids, as well as the development of educati-nal 

Curricula and programs,constitute a most important form for putting scientific 
itput into practice. In our opinion, objectivity in the evaluation of this 

form of application can be significantly increased by introducing a system 

of competitions for all educational literature which is planned for publication. 

The task of evaluating the practical application of the achievements of economic 
cclences in the sphere of managing society's development is extremely complex. 

In this sphere application is frequently evaluated on the basis of scientific 
reports and notes about reports which are sent to party, soviet, trade union 

ind economic organs; these reports and notes, as a rule, are for the purpose 

of improving various aspects of the life of society. However, these materials 
frquently are so general and at the same time so one-sided in nature that 

they cannot be used directly as the specific content of any management decisivons. 
Not the least cause of this situation is the lack of direct contacts between 

the producers and consumers of scientific output, the poor participation by 

the consumers in the placing of an order, or the preparation and discussion 
f materials of this kind. 

The evaluation of application in this sphere which is carried out on the basis 
f the degree to which the proposals contained in the report notes are 
implemented through various management decisions is more objective. 
in this connection it is worth paying attention to the formulation 
f the question concerning the quality of the management decisions themselves, 

the final criteria for which are the practical results achieved on the 
basis of those decisions. 

Finally, careful study has not been given to the issue of evaluating the 
results of secientific-economic investigations directly in the production 
sphere. In this case the discussion concerns to a significant degree the 


realization of the potential of the economic sciences with regard to 

selentific and technical progress; it also concerns their role in the 
letermination of the "order" placed by society for the development of 
sclentific-tecnhnical progress and in the socio-economic appraisal of 

the scilentific-technical innovations which are being developed, from 

the viewpoint of their economic effectiveness, as well as from the viewpoint of 
tneir influence on the content and conditions of labor, daily life, leisure, 
the environment, etc. 

Ways to accelerate the practical application of the achievements of the 

economic sclences fin italics/. Acceleration of the application (introduction) 
process depends on a number of factors, especially on the quality of the 
research itself, and on the degree to which it is "ready" for introduction 

into practice. And in turn, the quality of research depends largely on the 
level of its organization. 

At present it is becoming more and more obvious that the quality of research 
which is being conducted and the opportunity of bringing it to practical 
application in the sphere of management and production depends largely on 
providing 4 comprehensive investigation of the object or phenomenon umer 
Study. For example, an investigation of the socio-economic development of 
the country's major cities, which is being conducted by the USSR Academy of 
Sciences Institute of Social and Economic Problems, very quickly showed that 
it was necessary to include specialists of the most diverse kinds: economists, 
philosophers, demographers, geographers, historians, and others. 

Tne All-Union Scientific Conference on "The Socialist City as an Object 

of Research and Management," which was held in Leningrad in October 1981, 
adopted recommendations which emphasized the importance of ensuring an 
inter-disciplinary comprehensive approach to research on cities, as well as 
increasing the practical orientation of these studies toward 
improvements in the management of city development. And in turn, it is 
difficult when working to ensure that studies are comprehensive in nature 

to overestimate the significance of the following: coordinated plans, 
attempts to improve the quality of the work involved in the studies, 

a clear determination of the rights and obligations of the basic personnel 
performing the work and their co-workers, and consolidatior of the role of 
head organizations in evaluating the fulfillment of plan targets by 
organizations which are working along with them. 

For improving the quality of research there is no less significance in the 
establishment of a system to supply these studies with all types of social- 
economic information, including statistical, sociological, scientific- 
bibliographic and documentary information. Moreover, in raising research 
effectiveness decisive significance is to be found in the creation of a 
statistical data base for carrying out problem-oriented investigations, 

as well as in the establishment of a system for obtaining these data from central 
and local statistical organs, as well as a procedure for storing and utilizing 
this information. 

The establishment of extended direct connections between the developers 
of scientific output and its consumers has great significance for the 



.cceleration of the application process. An example of this can be seen in the 

Joint work by the USSR Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Social-Economic 
Problems and the Main Architectural Planning Administration of the Leningrad 
Gorispolkom in the application of mathematical metnods and computers 

to the practice of city planning for the development of Leningrad. The 

work Nas been carried out over a period of many years, and its methods 

ire being improved constantly on the basis of an analysis of actual 

A definite inadequacy in the existing system for the application of results 
from studies in the economic sciences lies in the fact that the application 
work usually ends when one particular organization receives an appropriate 
act or when there is an evaluation of the potential effect to be derived 
from the possible application at all organizations of the same type. In 
tnis regard it is advisable to develop an information system about projects 
which have actually been carried out and about the organizations where the 
project results have been applied in order to make wider use of results ob- 
tained throughout the country. 

Tne fundamental resolution of the problem of accelerating the practical 
application of achievements in economic sciences may require a significant 
restructuring of the existing system for planning scientific research and 
the compilation of coordinated plans, as well as the early establishment 

f the rights and obligations of the people responsible for carrying out the 
work, as well as those working with them, and the organizations placing 

tne orders for the work. In order to achieve a resolution of this kind it 
is also essential to increase the material and moral incentives for those 
participating in scientific activities for the purpose of increasing 

their interest in the final results of those activities. 


1. "“Materialy XXVI s"yezda KPSS" [Materials of the 26th CPSU Congress/, 
Moscow, 1981, p 43. 


2. See L.S. Glyazer, "Science and Production: Stages in the Formation of 

No l ] ° 1979, PP 24=-27 . 
COPYRIGHT: Ilzdatel'stvo "Vysshaya shkola", "Ekonomicheskiye nauki", 1983 
eer 4 

[S03 1814/123 


Moscow EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI in Russian No 5, May 83 pp 29-32 

[article by A. Gorelykh, docent and candidate of economic sciences, Ternopol's: 
"Advanced Production Experience and Scientific-Technical Information"/ 

[Text/ The opportunity for the practical repetition of the best experience 
is one of the most important principles in the organization of socialist 
competition put forward by V.I. Lenin. The discovery of the best 

work methods represents an important stage in the achievement of the goal 

of socialist competition--the general advancement of the economy and 

the comprehensive development of the individual. According to V.I. Lenin's 
ideas, when the results of socialist competition are summed up, the best 
collectives and individual workers are determined, and as a rule, they are 
the ones who have the most advanced experience of production. This experience 
becomes aVillable to all those who compete, and it enables them toraise them- 
selves to the level of the best within a period of time. Because this process 
is continuous, it ensures constant progress in production. According to 

some estimates, utilization of the best experience requires only one-fifth 

to one-seventh of the expendi fure for labor in comparison with independent 
development of the same work.” But there is not only the matter here of 

the economic effect but also the social effect, which is obtained when 

the newest achivements in the improvement of working conditions, in the 
upgrading of skills and the development of employee initiatives are 

The state system of scientific and technical information has a very important 
role to play in disseminating the best experience. IN the Ukrainian SSR 
alone the annual economic effect derived from the introduction of advanced 
production experience is at the present time, according to available 
calculations, approaching 1.3 billion rubles; this factor results in a 
1.2-1.4 percent increase in labor productivity ina year, i.e., this factor ac- 
counts for approximately 20 percent of the increase in labor productivity.¢ 
However, the existing situation with regard to the dissemination of 

the best experience can by no means be considered satisfactory: there 

are great unutilized reserves; the work is poorly set up at many enterprises 
and associations. Asa result, socialist competition does not come to its 
logical end: a significant portion of the best experience is not utilized. 


Che USSR is the first country in the world to provide scientific and technical 
ampoenaepe through a single state system (SSSTI), which has developed at 
‘cclally rapid rate in the past decade. No capitalist country has a 
tional system for scientific and technical information. The SSSTI includes 
:ll-Union and 86 central sector organs of information, it has nearly 400 
milonal organs, and 15,000 scientific-technical information organs at 
‘rprises, organizations and other institutions. The establishment and 
further development of this system has been advisable and essential. The 
onstantly increasing flow of scientific and technical information results 
in the growth of expenditures for this information throughout the world. 
statistics confirm that the number of scientific publications in the world is 
doubling every 5-8 years, and the number of scientific and technical journals 
is doubling every 15 years; the amount of time whic) a specialist needs to 
review information about all the new developments in his own field of knowledge 
ls now approaching one-third to one-half of the working day. In the opinion 
of Academician A.I. Berg, "in relation tothe national income, the volyme of 
information must increase by a factor of two and even more rapidly."~ This 
means that for a two percent increase in the national income it is essential 
to ensure an initial increase in information amounting to a minimum of four 
percent. It can be assumed that approximately the same ratio is maintained 

if; © 

between the growth of economic effectiveness from the application of the 
best experience and the scientific-technical information which provides for 

hi rowth. Further, the information materials must meet the following 
requirements: they must be reliable, brief, complete, new, clear, timely, 
iseful, communicatively effective and purposeful. 

“he SSSTI which has been created in the USSR has attained some well-known 
ichlevements in the work to meet these requirements, as in all of its activities. 
But there are also many inadequacies here. The main ones, which were discovered 
an analysis of the work of the central sectorial, territorial and primary 
; of scientific and technical information, are these: there are frequent 
felays in getting information to the consumer, or the information is received in 
incomplete form ar ti: excessively large amounts; there are frequent instances 
of work duplication by various scientific-technical information organs which 
io not fork in a well-coordinated manner; many scientific-technical information 
reans are not good at discovering, studying or publicizing the experience 
f{ the best. enterprises, outstanding workers or production innovators. 
For example, at the production association of the Ternopol' Combine Plant 
iment 26th CPSU Congress (TCP), where scientific-technical information 
work is carried out on a relatively high level, the plant was successful 
in selecting for its own needs only 73 units of information materials 
(informational letters and lists, express information etc.) out of 5,074 
inits which were received during 1981. Almost 93 percent of the information 
turned out to be either not relevant to the association or not new or 
merely a duplication of something else. In this case there is frequent work 
luplication by the L'vov Scientific Technical Information Center and the 
ctor center for scientific-technical information of the Central Scientific 
Hesearch Institute of Information and Technical-Economic Research on 

'ractor and Agricultural Machine Building (TsNIITEI traktorse'mash). 


As for the discovery and dissemination of the best experience, let us take as 
in example the Ukrgazprom All-Union Industrial Association, one of the 

best associations of the USSR Gas Industry with regard to the utilization 
level for the best production experience, scientific-technical informati on 
projects, efficiency improvement and inventions. According to data from the 
1W80 investigation which we conducted, the people here made use of 3,869 
efficiency proposals and 90 inventions; however, the technical community 

was informed of only 43 of these, about those which had been reported in 

the industry's collection entitled "ThePetroleum and Gas Industry" and 

in informational leaflets for the exchange of information throughout the 
industry. In addition, 22 inventions were described in the annual collection 
of the best efficiency proposals of the all-Union Production Associations 
which are distributed mainly within a demrtment. Articles (113) published in 
information publications and presented at exhibition displays (30) duplicate 
to a sienificant degree the above mentioned best efficiency proposals and 
inventions. Moreover, some structural subdivisions of the All-Union Production 
Association did not send any information at all about outstanding experience 
to selentific-technical information centers. Thus, in the final analysis it 
turns out that according to our investigation, only about two-three percent 
of the technical innovations which are the objects of outstanding experience 
have information published about them. It is understandable that this leads 
to a repetition of the work put into solving these problems. 

Of course, it is necessary to take into account the fact that not all of the 
technical innovations are objects of outstanding experience with broad 
significance; some of them are effective only under the specific conditions 
of a given enterprise or shop. Nonetheless, the proportion of objects of 
the best experience is quite high. A selective analysis established that 
they amount to 85-90 percent (in terms of annual economic effect) of the 
efficiency suggestions, but only six percent of inventions. (As a rule, 
the majority of inventions are utilized in scientific and planning work. ) 

There are several reasons for the emergence of the above-mentioned inadequacies 
in the work of the scientific-technical information system. 

Firstly, the number and skills of scientific-technical information employees 
ire inadequate, especially in the primary units of the system (at enterprises 
ui associations), and this makes it physically impossible to provide in 
sufficient measure for the "ascending flow" of information, as well as to 
refine according to requirements of purpose and time the information of 

the "descending flow." At enterprises and associations the scientific- 
information system operates mainly on a volunteer basis. 

At the Ukrgazprom Association, for example, 0.06 percent of the industrial- 
production personnel are concerned with scientific-technical information 

is part of their duties, and fewer than 0.01 percent do not do other work as 
well. Of course, under these conditions one cannot talk about any kind of 
specializatim according to types of activity. In accordance with the recommen- 
dations of the USSR State Committee on Science and Technclogy,~ the number of 
information employees at industrial enterprises should comprise 1-2 percent 

of the total number of engineering-technical workers, i.e., in the Ukrgazprom 
Association they should number approximately four times more than at present. 


In addition, the existing staff of scientific-tecnnical information employees 
does not possess specialized training to work in the area of information 
science and the organization of information activities; consequently they 
cannot carry out these activities in a qualified manner. Plans for training 
and upgrading the qualifications of scientific-technical information personnel 
through the Institute for Upgrading the Qualifications of Information Workers 
(IPKIR) are not fulfilled as a rule. In the association under consideration 
by us only one engineer was trained by the MIPKIR in the entire 

Tenth Five-Year Plan. Attracting the technical community to work in the 

area of scientific-technical information in place of staff employees does 

not provide the necessary effect. 

In addition to adequate staffing provisions, the scientific-technical informatim 
service needs technical means, especially up-to-date duplicating equipment 

and special materials. Scientific-technical libraries with staff employees 

are also necessary; many enterprises and associations do not have these at — 
present. At the present time opportunities for the scientific-technical information 
service of enterprises are extremely limited, as a result of which outside 

requests for technical documentation on advanced experience are far trom 
satisfactorily fulfilled, and frequently they go unanswered. 

Secondly, another reason for the imperfect operation of the information services 
is to be found in the lack of generally accepted regulation or a legal 
foundation for resolving questions concerning the collection and dissemination 
of information about innovations,their production application (what kind of 
information to collect, where to send it, in wnat form, by when and who has 

the responsibility for it), the determination of economic effectiveness and 
material incentives, 1.e., regulations or procedures similar to those which 
exist in the efficiency and invention service. ‘It is thought that the time 

has come for similar regulations in the area of scientific and technical 
information: local systems for material incentives, which have been established 
at certain enterprises and which have resulted in a significant upswing in 

the work of searching for and applying innovative practices, confirm the 
soundness of this judgement. 

For example, the above mentioned TCP Production Association has had in operation 
since 1975 re ny dagen whicn were developed by analogy wa Sh those operating 

itiative in the utilization - the best experience, “borrowed from the 
lentific-technical information materials. Bonuses are given for investizating 
nd sontribu uting to the production application of innovations. The total amount 
f tne reward depends on the annual economic effectiveness obtained from 

-he introduction of the innovations and is calculated in the following amounts. 
arly Savings, in rubles Reward 

p to 100 10 

From 100 to 500 2% +15 

From 500 to 1,000 2 % +20 

From 1,000 to 3,000 2% +25 

From 3,000 to 5,000 2% +3 

Adove 5,000 150 

For tne introduction of measures which do not yield savings, but which provide 
some other kind of positive effect (an improvement in working conditions, 

afety equipment, etc.), a reward in the amount of 10 rubles has been established. 
ln addition to the general scale, the regulations contain a scale for the 
{istribution of a reward (in percentage terms) among the employees of various 
ops or departments, 1f their work was joint. The reward is paid from the pro- 
juction cost savings and from means stipulated by the estimate of expenditures 
for sclentific-technical information. The introduction of the regulations 

nas contributed in significant measure to the upswing in the work to utilize 

the best experience. In 1981 a total of 1,252 rubles was paid out in rewards. 

Mhdodly, (here Jo no guarantee that information which comes into the scientific 
technical information system and which finds a consumer will, however, be 
introduced into production. Many enterprises, even some machine building 
enterprises, do not have an experimental base, specialized workshops or 
sectors where models or prototypes based on efficiency suggestions taken 

from the scientific-technical information could be made, and consequently it 
is difficult for these enterprises to manufacture new products. Thus 

the final stage in the utilization of the best experience sometimes becomes 
the most complex. For example, at the Krivoy Rog Kommunist Mining Equipment 
Plant 24 innovations selected by the scientific-technical information service 
with regard to the plant's needs, were not included in the 1981 plan by 

. single subdivision of the plant, because it has no experimental base, nor 
ire there any incentives which would make other subdivisions undertake this 

All three of the above-named reasons for the inadequacies in the scientific- 
technical information work have a common origin. The problems of disseminating 
the best experience have much in common with the general problems of scientific- 
technical progress and result, as Academician V. Trapeznikov notes, from an 
inderestimation of the value of newtechnology and an incorrect determination 

of its place in the general "scale of values."6 

The structure and organization of theSSSTlareconstantly being improved. The 
links between individual units of the system are being improved, and attempts 
ire being made to overcome the departmental separation of sector organs of 
‘lentific-technical information, which is the main cause of duplication in 
informational work. Particular hopes are being placed on automated scientific- 
technical information systems, which started to be established in the 70's and 
wnich now number more than 50 in the USSR. The mechanization of information 
search and processing on the basis of the computer is one of the main ways 
to reduce the demand for information workers, and to speed up the dissemination 
f information, as well as improve its quality. The volume of services and 
tne number of subscribers for selective disseminatinn of information is 
increasing, and this also increases significantly the quality of the 
information services for collective and individual consumers. 

lt should be emphasized that the problems touched upon in this article can be 
fully resolved only with a comprehensive approach to the utilization of 

tne best production experience. For example, it is hardly advisable to 
increase the number of employees in the scientific-technical information 

service, without taking measures to increase the capital-labor ratio of the 
service. And in turn, improving and strengthening the scientific-technical 
information service will yield only an insignificant effect, if the 
technical innovations borrowed from scientific-technical inrormation are not 
produced by anyone in any place. The ministries and agencies must show 
concern for that problem in particular. 

It ts essential to note as well that the problems of disseminating the best 

production experience have arisen as a result of the structure and practice 

of economic management which has developed, and as a result of the 

developmental and economic features of the USSR. Hence many of these problems 

are inter-sectorial, and they appear in one degree or another at every . 
enterprise and at every organization. 


See, for example, V.N. Goncharov, “The Economic Effectiveness of the 

Best Production Experience at Industrial Enterprises" in the collection 
ti povyshenitya effecktivnosti vnedreniya peredovogo proizvodstvennogo 

opyta v narodnom khozyaystve USSR v svete resheniy XXV s"yezda KPSS" 

fiays to Increase the Effectiveness of the Application of the Best 

Production Experience in the Ukrainian SSR in the Light of the 25th 

CPSU Congress/, Voroshilovgrad, 1978, vyp 2, p 47. 


2. See B.N. Serednenko, "Rasprostraneniye peredovogo opyta na predpriyatiyax 
USSR" [Dissemination of the Best Experience at Ukrainian SSR Enterprises/ 
Kiev, 1977, pp 17-18. 

3. Cited according to 0O.I. Bobkov and Ye.Ye. Sokolov, "Izucheniye i vnedreniye 
peredovogo proizvodstvennogo opyta” [The Study and Application of the 
Best Production Experience/, Moscow, 1975, p 48. 

4, See B.N.Serednenko, "Ukaz. soch.” pp 11-12. 

5. Sees "Tipovyye polozheniya ob organakh nachno-tekhnicheskoy informatsii” 
"Standard Regulations Concerning the Organs of Scientific-Technical 
Information,” Moscow, 1978. 

6. See: V. Trapeznikov. "Incentives for Progress," PRAVDA, 20 March 1980. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Vysshaya shkola", "Ekonomicheskiye nauki", 1983 


CSO: 1814/123 


Moscow EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI in Russian No 5, May 83 pp 32-36 

/article by V. Tarasov, deputy director of an auto-assembly plant for 
economic questions, city of Zainsk, Tatar ASSR: "The Organizational Structure 
and the Cost Accounting of the Primary Production Unit"/ 

[Text/ At the present time, when the country is being shifted to an intensive 
path of development, it is especially important to determine the principles 
for the construction of effective organizational forms for the management of 
production. When working to achieve this task there are, in our view, two 
basic elements in the economic mechanism of the primary production units which 
must be used as a foundation: the organizational structure and the internal 
system of cost accounting. The question of finding the best management 
forms comes forward, in our viewpoint, as a question primarily of the 

relation and interdependence of the two named elements in the process of 
functioning by the economic mechanism. 

And how does the problem under consideration look in practice? If, for example, 
responsibility for the observance of planned expenditures for production output 
is put upon the production unit, this requires the establishment of the 
appropriate organizational conditions: services capable of exerting an 
influence on the level of the respective elements of expenses must be 
introduced into that unit. On the other hand, it is obvious that if all 
functions for the management and servicing of production are carried out 

in a centralized manner--at the level of the enterprise 's management 
apparatus--the unit cannot be given complete responsibility for the 

state of the cost-accounting economic indicators of its operation. In this 
case, which is more correct--to "tune" the economic management to the 
organizational forms or vice versa? This or a similar question arises 

in one form or another at all evels of management in the national economy, and 
it arise most acutely in the primary production unit. Hence we draw the 
conclusion that the problem of the relations between the organizational 
structure and the internal cost-accounting is the most important one for 

the establishment of effective management. The resolution of this problem is 
possible only on a firm, politico-economic basis, i.e., on the basis of 

study devoted to the relations among people in the process of material production. 


Where to begin? The answer is indisputable: with the interaction between 
workers as participants in certain labor processes, i.e. with the very 

lowest stratum of relations, | the stratum which develops in the process of 
producing material goods. Here there are processes of direct, technological 
interaction among people taking place; they manage the means of labor and 
thus, specifically, form the processes of the concentration, specialization, 
combination and cooperation in production. The relations which we are now 
talking about can be called technical.2 Their influence on the organizational 
structure of production units can be traced without difficulty. For example, 
at enterprises which are being built today, the equipment being installed 

ls; so complex that it can be repaired and serviced only at a centralized 
repair shop. Its sectors must be specialized according to types of 

equipment (specialized installation, aerial push conveyors) or by systems 
(electronic, electric, hydraulic, and ahaa) | It is obvious that by themselves 
technical relations in the primary production unit, if they are isolated 

from the entire system of relations as a scientific abstraction, virtually 

do not depend on relations of property in the — of production. This was 
shown convincingly by N. Mal'tsev, in particular. 

Let us continue. As an analysis of the existing structure for the management 
apparatus of domestic and foreign enterprises shows, they are dependent on 

i completely defined set ofactivities for the management of production, 

1 set which must be carried out to ensure the production process, regardless 
of the form of property. Here we are dealing with those types of management 
ictivities, which can be included under the technology of management (technical 
preparation of production, the operational management of production, material- 
technical supply, the selection and training of personnel, etc.). It seems 

to us that K. Marx was proceeding from the existence of this kind of function 
when he wrote that "any directly public or joint labor, which is carried 

out on a comparatively large scale, needs management to a greater or lesser 
degree." And there is reason to cite in this connection the following, 

more definite pronouncement by K. Marx: "As the labor of a capitalist 
(the labor of management--V.T.) is determined by the process of production 

not only because this process is capitalistic, consequently this labor 
itself does not disappear with capital; inasmuch as it is not limited to 

such a function as the exploitations of someone else's labor, consequently 

it ls determined by a form of labor such as public labor, by the combination 
ind the cooperation of many for the achievement of a common result; 

this labor is as completely independent of capital as this form itself is 
independent of it once it has thrown off the capitalist shell."5 There are 
no grounds for thinking that this labor, which does not disappear with capital 
ind is completely independent of it for some reason ceases to exist under 
socialism. And if managerial labor is retained, then, it is natural that 
those relations which develop within it also exist. 

The forms of rule, as K. Marx noted, depend on the forms of production.© 

To the degree that management relations which depend directly on the 

legree of technical improvements in production and the opportunities 

which follow from this for the cooperation and combination of labor are 
Singled out from the entire system of relations existing in production 

ind abstracted, it is correct to talk about a special group of relations which 
irise among people in the process of material production. These relations 

can be called organizational relations or relations of "pure" management. 


As an analysis of the functioning of the primary production units snows, the 
tecnnical and organizational relations are closely related; moreover, the 
former serve as the basis for the latter; they determine their essence and 
nature. In this regard we will cite one example. In the sphere of technical 
relations, public labor expenditures are increasing significantly; they 

take the form of fixed capital as a result of the fact that parts for 
machines and equipment are becoming substantially more complex and much 
nigher quality materials are used to manufacture them. These changes inevitably 
are reflected in the relations of the production organization sphere; they 
require the centralization of functions for scientific-technical development 
work and the establishment of a single fund for the development of production. 

The close interconnection of these two groups of relations between the partici- 
pants of public production (including, of course, socialist production) make it 
possible, as we understand it, to consider them in an overall manner under 

the heading of organizational-technical relations. As a separate subsystem 
they possess two distinguishing features. On the one hand, they are larger 
than any others and depend on the technological interaction of the elements 

of production forces, and on the other hand, they are comparatively few or do 
not depend at all on relations of property in the means of production, i.e., 

on the socio-economic relations, which are a special subject of political- 
economic study. 

At the same time there is no doubt that the latter group of relations exerts 

1 definite influence both on the technical structure of production and to 

1 greater degree on its organization. In this regard we will point out that 
the primary production unit is the site of management activities which are 
common to both capitalism and socialism, but it is also the site of management 
ictivities which are characteristic only of capitalist enterprises (for 
example, efforts to maximize the intensification of labor and the organization 
of advertising) or only of socialist enterprises (for example, the organization 
of socialist competition). In this way, the singling out of the complex of 
organizational-technical relations does not mean any downgrading of the role 
of socio-economic relations; tne discussion conerns only intelligent considera- 
tion for both. 

it seems that a realistic, practical study by political economy of that 

‘ircle of relations which is its subject requires continuous dependence 

on the discovery of processes and trends in the development of organizational- 
technical relations. Otherwise it is impossible to reflect that content of 
wnich production relations are a form, i.e., the process of the forward 
development and interaction of the elements of production forces. 

In an analogous manner, it is clear that a division should be made within the 
relations of economic management which, in the primary production unit, find 
expression in the systems for the organization and remuneration of workers’ 
labor, as well as systems for the planning and monitoring of cost-accounting 
indicators, material labor incentives, etc. Let us take note, for example, 

of the brigade forms of labor organization and the development of the bonus- 
time payment system for the remuneration of workers; at the present time 
these are becoming more and more common. These are chanzes of a socio-economic 

nature. But they do not take place of their own accord; they are produced 
primarily by the increasing compleaity and "conveyorization” of the tools 

f labor, and by the increasing specialization of production at enterprises 
witch apply modern technology to the manufacturing of goods. 

if we try to generalize what has been said above, there emerges the 

following model for the inter-relations which develop in the primary 
production unit among the elements of the production forces. The “lowest” 
jtratum is the technological interaction of employees and the tools of 

labor, and the next stratum lies in the processes of specialization, con=- 
fentration, cooperation and the combination processes of production. Somewhat 
"nigner" {s management, which in any case must exist to provide for the 
production process. 

it woes without saying that when constructing this model of the hierarchy 
of relations we do not have in mind emphasizing only one-sided (from the 
top down) influence of the respective strata on each other. Because they 
interact in a manner similar to the relation between form and content, 
the upper strata inevitably exert a reverse influence on the lower strata. 
However, continuing our analogy, top-priority attention should be directed 
toward the fact that form always remains secondary to content, and with 
regard to the process of public production the latter always form the 
productive forces of society./ 

[n the licht of what has been set out above it seems possible to reveal 

the general theoretical basis for the organizational structure and internal 
‘t accounting, their relationship and interaction in the process by which 

the economic mechanism of the primary production links functions. 

[t ts obvious that from the positions of production management science the 
ical relations in the primary production units find expression in 
links and relations which determine the producti.n structure. “he latter 
reflects the division of labor in the actual production process . in this 
way tt characterizes the activities (labor) of the workers at ‘ enterprise. 
for the organizational relations, they are manifested, in p. cicular, 
in the structure of the management apparatus. Thus, the organizational 
tructure of the primary production unit reflects objectively the resulting 
inity of the complex of technical and organizational relations, which 
ilways exists under conditions of dominance by any given relations of 
property in the means of production and which depends on these relations. 
ne organizational structure is an element of the economic mechanism which 
be developed relatively independently. 

ne situation {ts more complex with cost accounting. We shall look first 
' the viewrocints wich exist today in the economic literature with regard 
the essence of cost accounting, both as an economic category in general 
ind as cost accounting within a production unitin particular. Given all 
the diversity of views on this problem, it is possible, we think, to define 
juite clearly three fundamental positions. According to the first of these, 
ed relations constitute the essential basis of cost accounting as a 
pecific category of the communist method of production. The essence of the 

ond position is that sommodi ty-money relations lie at the basis of 


t accounting as a phenomena: specifically characteristics of socialism alone. 
Adnerents of the third position think that planned relations and comnmodity- 
money relations in their conflicting interdependence lie at the base of 
‘ost ice yunting 7 

ae consider the third of these position: ; to be the most well grounded. 
Without going deeply into the essence of this special question (that is not 
purpose of the present article) we shall limit outselves to the following. 
in the first of these positions cost accounting relations are essentially 
reduced to planned relations, and cost accounting is reduced to a method 

bor comducting an oconomic untt in a planned manner. If we ome in terms of 
form, then nere the same economic phenomenon is described by various 

terms ( “planned” and “cost accounting"); as for content, it completely 

negates tne objective nature of the existence--at a definite stage in the 

levelopment of a socialist economy--of commodity-money relations. It 

‘ \ 
eems that there is no need to prove the practical (as well as the theoretical) 
rroundlessness of this negation. The ithors who adhere to the second of these 

sitions relate cost accounting wie | to the cost categories. In the first 
place, with this approach, a socialist economy is described essentially as 

market economy; in the second place, it is accepted that tne effect of cost 
iccounting as an economic method is limited only to a phase of socialism (but 
tnis {dea seems far from axiomatic) in the third place, and this is the main 

point, it is fundamentally incorrect to emphasize the dominant role of commo odity- 

relations, and even more so if the discussion conerns the stage of 
leveloped socialisn. 

These weaknesses in the two viewpoints, we think, confirm even further the 
rrectness in this question of those scholars who think that the 
neept of cost accounting reflects the entire complex of economic r-lations 
in a communist, public-economic structure the basis of which is provided by 
planned relations given the existence of commodity-money relations over some 
nistorical period. It is understood that at various dages in the development 
if our economy the influence and significance of these two dialectically 

pposite basic elements of production relations have been and will be different. 

in the lignt of what has been said above, the following conclusion can be 
irawns the internal cost accounting of the primary production uni 

in economic method of management, which is based on a synthesis of the 
teveloped relations of a planned nature and substantially weakened commodity- 


ney relations, and as a system it possesses its own special features. 
The weakress of commodity-money relations here jis determined objectively 
oy the high — of collectivized production. Further, the higher the 
level of specialization, concentration and cooperation in basic production, 

he higher the degree of centralization in the management and auxiliary 
functions and thus the stronger the influence of the planned relations 

ind vice versa. An analysis shows that, in the first place, the intra- 
production unit cost accounting ia-with regard to the organizational 
structure--the dependent element of the economic mechanism, which must 

be “tuned” to it in a definite manner. In the second place, it is possible 
to utilize the experience of foreign enterprises when constructing it. 


fn general, the internal organizational-economic mechanism of the primary 
production units is developing according to the following extended system. 
(ne increasing complexity of the tools and objects of labor and improvement 
in their qualitative characteristics determine the development of the 
processes of specialization, concentration and cooperation in production, 
ind this, in turn, leads to changes in the organizational structure. And this 
ls an objective process, which should be taken into account in theory and 

in practice. 


|. K. Marx assumed the correctness of the structural articulation of this 
‘ystem of relations. See K. Marx, F. Engels, "Soch." [dorks/, 2d edition, 
Vol 46, Part 1, p 46. 

2. In the literature these relations are also given other names; however, 
this {ts not a matter of terminology. It is important that the very 
existence of these relations is generally recognized. The debate centers 
on whether they should be the object of the study of socialism's political 
economy or note For this see, for example, N. Chormanov, "The Subject 
£ Political Economy: the Gnos iological Aspect," EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI, 
No 2, 1980. 

j. See N. Mal'tsev, "An Analysis of the Collectivization of Labor and Production,” 

4. K, Marx,and F. Engels, "Soch.,"” 2d edition, Vol 23, p #2. 
Ss. K. Marx and F. Engels, "Soch.," 2d edition, Vol 25, Part 1, pp 425-426. 
6, see K. Marx and F. Engels, "Soch.," 2d edition, Vol 46, Part 1, p 24. 

7’. In the analysis of relations cited here the author has used to a 
ignificant measures the ideas and concepts of the apparatus which 
were developed by L.I. Abalkin. See, for example, L.I. Abalkin, "Dialektika 
sotsialisticheskoy ekonomiki" [Pialectics of the Socialist Economy/, Moscow, 

4. A persuasive example is to be found in the experience of the Volga Automo- 
bile Plant. In the system of management, production and labor which 
yperates effectively here the experience of the largest capitalist 
‘ar-building firms is taken into account fully. 

/, V.N. Tel’nov substantiated this viewpoint earlier and more accurately than 
others. As long ago as 1966 he wrote: "Under socialism, planned and 
‘ommodity-money relations represent a single (contradictory) whole. 

While penetrating each other, they are modified into the category of 
"cost accounting" (khozraschet), forming its substance" (V.N. Tel'nov, 
"The Bases of Economic Theory and the Practice of Cost Accounting,” 
Saratov, 1966, p 106. This position was confirmed by this author in 

the article "A Systematic Approach to the Study of Cost Accounting, 
7 | Ph OY EKONOMI KI 9 No 12 , 1 179 6 

lO.See N.Ya. Petrakov, "Khozyastvennaya reforma: plan i ekonomicneskaya 
toyatel'nost'" [Economic Reform: The Plan and Economic Independence/, 
Moscow, 1971, pp 25-293 _D.V. Valovyy and G.Ye. Lapshina, "Sotsialism i 
tovarnyye otnoshentya” [Socialism and Commodity Relations/, Mosocw, 1972, 
329; A.M. Rumyantsev, "O kategoriyakh i zakonakh politicheskoy ekonomii 
kommunisticheskoy formatsii” /Concerning the Categories and Laws of the 


Political Economy of the Communis Structure/, Moscow, 1976, p 276. 

COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Vysshaya shkola", "Ekonomicheskiye nauki", 1983 

Og 1514/1123 

Moscow EKONOMICHESKIYE NAUKI in Russian No 5, May 83 pp 88-90 

[article by Yu. Simonov, docent and candidate of economic sciences, Rostov-na 
Donus _"Concerning a Unified Scientific-Technical Policy for the Socialist 


[Text/ [In the process of the transition to a primarily intensive type of 
socialist reproduction, there is put forward the urgent task of increasing 

the effectiveness of management of scientific-technical progress, which 

serves as the material basis for intensification. "We have at our disposal, " 
noted Comrade Yu.V. Andropov, in a speech at the November (1982) plenum of the 
CPSU Central Committee, "great reserves in the national economy... We 

must look for these reserves in the acceleration of scientific-technical 
progress, and in the broad and rapid production application of the achievements 
ff sclence, technology and the best experience."1 

The socialist state acts as a unified economic center, and in particular 

4s a united scitentific-technical center, one of whose most important 
functions is to develop and implement a unified scientific-technical 

policy. In the developed socialist society this policy serves as an ever 
more important component of economic policy, and at the same time it exerts a 
srowing influence on all state policy. This is because the opportunities 

for achieving a complex of economic, social and defense goals which face our 
,oclety are determined to a significant degree by the state of science and 


The problems of a unified scientific-technical policy are attracting the 
‘oncentrated attention of specialists. However, up to the present many of 
these problems have not yet received a simple solution. The concept of a 
"unified scientific-technical policy” at times is interpreted to mean that 
everything can be reduced to the enumeration of the basic directions in the 
jevelopment of science and technology. In a number of cases the discussion 
‘oncerns only a unified technical policy.“ An orientation towards a single 
technical policy rather than towards a scientific-technical policy 
reduces the management of scientific-technical progress mainly to the 
management of the development and introduction of new technology. 

A unified scilentific-technical policy represents the concentrated expression 

f the activities of the socialist state; its purpose is to provide for the 
effective utilization of the material and personal factors of production which 
ire concentrated in the sphere of science and technology in order to resolve 
tne tasks facing society. A unified scientific-technical policy is closely 
linked to other aspects afthe socialist state's economic policy (investment, 
wrarilan, export policy, etc.). The USSR Food Program, which was approved 

by the May (1982) plenum of the CPSU Central Committee for the period up 

to 1990, in particular, aims at establishing a close link hetween agrarian 
policy and a unified scientific-technical policy. The implementation of the 
Food Program presupposes that agriculture will be re-equipped in the 50's 

in comparison with the 70's. Sharp increases have been specified for the 
production of all types of agricultural equipment, along with improvements in 
its quality. There is evidence of the exceptional urgency of this task 

in the fact that in 1950 only 1.5 percent of the new output of the Ministry 
of Agricultural Machine Building had the Seal of Quality, at a time when 

the figure was 25.8 percent for all the machine building ministries. 

There is a close connection between a unified scientific-technical policy 

ind the export policy of the socialist state. The export policy, as is 

well known, is more successful when the goods put onto the external market 

ire more able to compete, and this, in turn, depends on scientific-tecnnical 
policy and its implementation. In connection with foreign economic 

ictivities by the socialist state, a unified licensing policy is especially 
worthy of attention; such a policy is designed to ensure constant patent se- 
‘urity and the patentability of items which have been developed, as well 

is timely patenting of inventions abroad and the sale of technical innovations. 

The basis of a unified scientific-technical policy should lie with a scientifi- 
‘ally grounded strategy, which presumes the development of a theoretical 
‘oncept and doctrine, which would reflect the coordinated opinion of the 
leading scientific organizations, as well as the organs responsible for 

the management of scientific-technical progress with regard to the 

basic directions in the development of science and technology and their 
resource provisions for the coming 15-20 years. This model for development 
must take into account the need to resolve the main future socio-economic 
task--the establishment of the material-technical base of communism. 

In the working out of the concepts of scientific-tecnnical development a 
number of aspects should be taken consideration: the degree to whic 

tne development of science and technology are in line with the aim of 
forming the basic features for the material-technical foundation of communism; 
,ow the work of realizing these directions is backed up with resources, 

ind particularly with raw materials; the degree to which the development of 

i mational science and technology makes it possible to utilize the advantages 
f the international division and cooperation of labor; the degree to which 
tne balanced development of science and technology in our country and in other 
socialist countries creates the conditions for stable economic growth 

throughout the worldwide socialist economy; and the possible socio-economic 
ind ecological consequences of further development of the scientific- 

technical revolution. 

The goal ortentation of a unified scientific-technical policy reflects both 
its main goal, which is the creation of a new production-technological 
ipparatus, and the need to resolve more concrete tasks with reference 

to their temporal, territorial and sectorial aspects. From this there 
i_ises the need to establish a certain coordination among the goals 

wnicn face all of science and technology, as well as their individual 
branches in the current, middle- and long-range time frame. 

[n ourview, when working out ideas for the development of science and 
technology, the starting point should be the opportunities presented by 
unforeseen situations (a worsening or improvement of the general international 
situation, the unfavorable influence of natural disasters), which bring with 
them tne need for changes in the volumes of planned investments and their 
location. For this reasons ideas for the development of science and technology 
must come with several alternative versions, which take into account various 
combinations of conditions which influence their implementation. A particular 
role in tne development of this conception should be given to an evaluation 

of the resources, in particular to the raw material resources. This kind of 
evaluatinn is possible on the basis of predictions with regard to individual 
types of raw materials, taking into account those changes which will take 
place in their production and utilization, as well as on the basis of the 
formulation of a comprehensive prognosis, which reflects the possible state of 
the raw material sources in our country and throughout the world. For 

example, when solving fuel and energy problems under president-day conditions 
the need for an orientation toward significantly broader utilization of 

coal is revealed. 

The elaboration of a profoundly substantiated conception for the development 
of science and technology requires the joining together of the efforts of sci- 
entists of various disciplines, especially of those specializing in the 

area of economics and the science of knowledge. Success in this work depends 
largely on how well informed the people are who are engaged in it. The 
necessary information must include facts about the existing conceptions 

for the development of science and technology, especially in the highly 
ieveloped industrial countries of the world, as well as materials of 
meetings, symposia and conferences at which the prospects for the develop- 
ment of science and technology are discussed. 

When working out a unified scientific-technical policy one should be guided by 
‘ertain principles. An attempt to define these principles has been made in 
‘ertain works. For example, V.V. Kosolapov includes among them: being common 
to all the people, having a class nature and goal orientation, putting 

. priority on socio-political goals and tasks, looking to the long-range 
future, possessing a comprehensive, program oriented, optimal nature, 

juality of being constant, predictable, possessing historical continuity, 

in integrated natures an international outlook, humanity and combining 

theory and practice. While agreeing with this author, we suggest that it is 
essential to point out one more extremely important principle, the principle 
of “sclentificness.” The implementation of this principle requires clarifi- 
cation of the specific effects of the objective laws in the area of science 




ind technology. There are still many unresolved questions here. For example, 
if we turn to the effect of the law of planned development, it cm be noted 
that the specific features of planning in science and its individual branches 
(academic, VUZ and sector science) have not been completely clarified; nor 
nave the system of proportions in the development of science and technology 
or tne methods to optimize it been defined. Although no-one doubts the 
obvious fact that the law of steady growth in labor productivity operates 

in the sphere of science and technology, there are no reliable metnods for 
determining the productivity and intensity of scientists’ and engineers’ 
labor. There is much which is not clear in the effect of the law of distri- 
bution according to labor; in particular, it is not clear whether the 
current system for the remuneration of those who work in the area of 
sclence and technology meets the objective requirements of this law. 

The tmplementation of a unified scientific-technical policy is possible 

ifa set of various methods (economic, social, organizational, technical 
legal) are used by the socialist state and its organs to influence the labor 
collectives, which develop and apply the new technology. Here mention 
should be made first of the economic methods, which encompass a broad range 
of effects in the area of planning, economic stimulation and the financing 
of sclentific-technical progress. The 12 July 1979 decree of the CPSU 
Central Committee and the USSR Council of Ministers sets out a number of 
new measures to increase the role of the plan for scientific-technical 
levelopment as an important component of the national economic plan, 

ind to strengthen the connection between the results of scientific-technical 
progress and the general results of the activities of enterprises and asso- 

Further improvements in the system for planning scientific-technical progress 
require the development of a number of methodological documents such as 

those which set out methods for long-term prognostication in science and 
technology and methods for the development of comprehensive scientific- 
technical programs. It is essential that the achievements of scientific- 
technical progress be used as the basis for continuous renewal of the system of 
long-term norms in the area of production and the consumption of material, 
labor and financial resources; it is also essential to take into account and 
‘onstantly adapt data from prognoses, and to increase the coordination of 

work in the area of predicting and determining scientific organizations, 

which would answer for the compilation of intra-sector and inter-sector 
prognoses. The p..n for science and technology (at all of its levels) must be 
organizally linked to the material balances and the targets for production. 

The implementation of the Comprehensive Program of Scientific-Technical Progress 
for 20 years requires changes in the subject matter planning of research and de- 
velopment. In the first place, it is advisable to define more precisely the 
ubject matter plans of scientific organizations, taking into account 

those tasks which are established in the Comprehensive Program of Scientific- 
Technical Progress, as well as to stipulate the development of resource-saving 
technology, which provides for ever greater savings of human labor and 

increased effectiveness of fixed production capital. In the 

econd place, it is essential to increase the significance of subjects 

which are oriented toward the resolution of fundamentally important problems 
tnat set the rate and quality of economic growth for an extended yp -riod of 
time. In this regard, it 1s necessary to increase the responsibility of 

the organs which formulate the plans of scientific-technical progress and 
monitor thelr fulfillment. "If we want to truly advance the work of introducing 
new equipment and new labor methods, it is necessary," emphasized Comrade 

Yu.V¥. Andropov, “for the central economic organs, the Academy of Sciences, the 
State Committee on Science and Technology, as well as the ministries not 

simply to propagandize them but to dsicover and eliminate specific difficulties 
which hinder scientific-technical progress. wt 

Utilization of the complex of social methods for the implementation of a 
inified scientific-technical policy should contribute to ensuring that 

tne scientist's labor has high social status and that there is continuous 
reproduction of the structure of the sclentific-technical intelligentsia 
(on the basis of age characteristics, occupations and specialties), which 
meets to the highest degree the requirements for the development of society. 

Organizational methods include the determination of unified general principles 
in the selection and distribution of personnel, in the organization of labor 
ind sclentific institutions, and in the construction of organs for the manage- 
ment of science and technology. 

The policy of intensifying scientific research gives rise to the need to 
implement a series of technical measures in the area of accelerated develop- 
ment of scientific instrument building, the experimental design basis of 
C4 ific-research institutes and planning and design organizations. It is 
ial to increase the appropriations made by the ministries for the 
establisnment of experimental design production units. The construction of 
facilities should be included among the most important projects. A 
‘ystem must be implemented for strict monitoring over the targeted utilization 
of the output of experimental production units. In our opinion, a long-term 
(15-20 year) program should be worked out for the development of the material- 
technical base of the research and design sphere; The State Committee on 
Science i Technology of the USSR Council of Ministers, USSR Gosstroy and 
the USSR Academy of Scineces should be entrusted with the work of compiling 
ich a program in conjunction with the machine building ministries, which must 
participate on a mandatory basis. ] 

,en I 


’ sent 

The implementation of a unified scientific-technical policy gives rise to the 
need to work out a system for the legal regulation of scientific-technical 
progress, which must encompass the planning, material incentives and financing 
for the development of science and technology, as well as measures to 

protect nature from the harmful consequences of man‘s intrusion upon it. 

in the implementation of scientific-technical policy depends largely 
coordinating the activities of inter-sector management organs, and sector 
ministries and agencies, which have at their disposal great opportunities 
to use financial, material, and labor resources. With the shift to the 
roal-oriented progran method in the management of research and design, 
the State Committee on Science and Technology and the State Committee on 

Inventions and Discoveries of the USSR Council of Minis stershavea growing 

role to play. In our opinion, the State Committee on Discoveries and 
[Inventions should be granted the right to impose upon guilty officials adminis- 
trative warnings and fines for delaying the introduction of recommended 
inventions: and on its part there must be stricter monitoring over the 
statistical reporting by enterprises with regard to inventions and 

efficiency improvement (Form 4-Science-Technology), to ensure that information 
received from enterprises yields a fuller picture of the state of the 
collectives’ creative technical work. 

The development and implementation of a unified scientific-technical policy 
should nelp to make our economic mechanism react more flexibly to everything 
new which contributes to scientific-technical progress, and it must help 
sclentific achievements to become embodied in public production more 


1. "Materialy Plenuma Tsentral'nogo Komiteta KPSS" [Materials of the 
Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee/, 22 November 1982, Moscow, 1982, p 10. 

2. See G. Anisimov, "Unityof State Technical Policy,’ VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No 
3, p tii: S. Kheynman,"Technical Policy and the Development of the 
Tools of Labor,” VOPROSY EKONOMIKI, No 6, 1975. It is true that in another 
iurticle devoted to this problem S. Kheynman already talks about a unified 
sclentific-technical policy (See S. Kheynman, "Economic Problems of 
Seientific-Technical Policy,” PLANOVOYE KHOZYAYSTVO, No 9, 1979). 

$s Sees V.V. Kosolapov, "Nauchno-tekhnicheskaya politika obshchestva razvitogo 

sotsialisma” [The Scientific-Technical Policy of the Society of Developed 
Soctalism/, Kiev, 1979, p 51. 

+. "“Materialy Plenuma Tsentral'nogo Komiteta KPSS" 22 November 22 1982 p 10. 


: Izdatel’stvo "Vysshaya shkola", "Ekono..icheskiye nauki", 1983 

he 4 
SO: 1814/123 

Baku BAKINSKIY RABOCHIY in Russtan 24 Apr 83 p 2 
(Report by A. Eberlin: "In the Interests of Big Science"] 

'Text} <A large detachment of people's controllers is working within the 
system ot the Azerbaijan SSR Academy of Sciences. More than 1,400 patrol 
members combined into 80 groups and 100 people's control posts are numbered 
in its selentific establishments and design and production subdivisions. 
Headed by the general academy head group of people's control, the patrol 
members are making their contribution to the resolution of tasks set by the 
party and government for the republic's main scientific center. 

The patrol members have many useful matters to their credit, but there are 

still serious shortcomings in their work. This was the subject of a principled 
ind exacting discussion at a conference of representatives of academy collectives 
it which an account was presented by the head group of people's control. The 
report was delivered by its deputy chairman N. Samedov, a section chief at 

the scientific-production association for space research. 

[t was noted that the patrol members of the academy have been striving to 
influence fulfillment of plans for scientific research and test and design 

work and the accelerated introduction of the results of scientific developments 
into the national economy, and have exercised control over observance of labor, 
planning and financial discipline and the use of material resources, laboratory 
ind technical equipment, and working time in the establishments and enterprises. 
Systematic checks on these these matters have been conducted by the head group 
and the local groups, and the results of these checks have been examined at 
yroup meetings and been subjected to the judgement of the collectives. The 
most important proposals of the people's controllers have been discussed by 

the party committee and the academy presidium, and the necessary steps taken. 

One of the most active people's control groups within the academy is the group 
it the Institute of Physics, which has been awarded a testimonial of the USSR 
Committee for People's Control. The group patrol members at the Institute 

ot Petrochemical Processes, awarded a testimonial of the repulic committee 

tor people's control, and the groups at the institutes of geology, geography, 
botany and problems of deep oil and gas deposits are carrying out persistent 


However, a whole number of groups within the academy system are acting passively 
and have a conciliatory attitude toward violations and carry out their public 
dutles only formally. To some extent these shortcomings are inherent also 

in the head people's control group, and for this reason its activity was 
subjected to searching criticism at the conference 

The basic error of the patrol members is that they are sometimes focusing 
their efforts on petty, secondary matters and neglecting the main question. 
The new makeup of the head group must radically reexamine the work and 
restructure it in light of the tasks set for science by the CPSU Central 
Committee November (1982) Plenum and the instructions contained in the 
speeches of CPSU Central Committee general secretary comrade Yu.V. Andropov. 
The recent Azerbaijan Communist Party Central Committee plenum also focused 
people's controllers on this. The party requires from the scientific 
establishments that they accelerate the rates of scientific and technical 
progress, and it is the duty of the people's controllers to promote in every 
possible way the resolution of the set task. 

In recent years a series of serious violations and abuses have been uncovered 
at some academy establishments. Instances of misappropriation of state funds 
have been found at the Institute of Cybernetics, and of violations of financial 
disciplines at the Institute of Chemistry of Additives. The republic committee 
otf people's control recently uncovered the grossest violations of planning, 
accounting and financial-management discipline at the special design bureau 

tor biological instrument building. The director N. Mekhtiyev along with 

his deputy T. Sadykhov and the chief engineer G. Yeremeyev, were dismissed 

and materials on writeups in accounts and financial abuses were passed to 

the procurator's office. 

lt is necessary to deal with this case in more detail. The leaders of the 
special design bureau, and in particular its director N. Mekhtiyev, created 

an unhealthy atmosphere and set out on the road of eyewash, writeups, and 
fraud against the state and science. The fulfillment of orders there from 
organizations of the academy itself was chronically disrupted while work on 
the side was being carried on extensively. Allegedly in the interests of 
production, a paint and varnish section was set up in the special design 
bureau where they engaged in the repair and respraying of private cars. And 
this is only a small part of the violations and abuses uncovered in the special 
design bureau. The special design bureau was checked regularly by the control 
and auditing department of the republic academy of sciences, but the checks 
were so formal and cursory that they made it possible for the smart dealers 
from science to avoid responsibility. This kind of situation raises doubts 
about the objectivity and principledness of the academy's control service. 

It was rightly stated at the conference that as a rule cases of serious 
violations and abuses in academy establishments are revealed by the higher 
party organs and the people's control organs. But the local patrol members, 
who should have been the first to raise the alarm, assume a passive and 
conciliatory attitude. This kind of situation must be decisively dealt with. 

At the conference, much attention was given to a question of paramount 
significance for many academy organizations, namely, the optimal utilization 


of equipment. It is known that the state spares no means to equip the 
sclentific establishments with unique instruments and apparatus, expecting 
that the return will be high. However, checks conducted by people's controllers 
show that in many sclentific organizations the proper concern is not being 
shown for this expensive equipment. Valuable equipment worth altogether 
hundreds of thousands of rubles has not been set up for a long time, and 
sometimes has simply been left standing in the open. True, of late, thanks 

to the efforts made by the academy leadership, the party committee and the 
people's controllers, the situation has changed somewhat and a significant 
part of equipment not used earlier has been set up, but we cannot be satisfied 
with that. People's control still has much to do to remove the question of 
attitudes toward equipment from the agenda. For this it is necessary to make 
a final end to the revelation of instances of similar mismanagement and to 
make checks effective and to be more exacting toward workers answerable for 
the storage and use of technical equipment. 

The training of scientic personnel through the postgraduate system was discussed 
with great concern at the conference. Checks conducted in particular by the 
republic committee of people's control show that the level of personnel 

training does not match the necessary requirements. The following figures 

show thls. From 1980 to 1982, of the 465 people completing their work as 
postgraduate students in various academy establishments, only 24 defended 

their dissertations at the proper time and only 87 offered defense of their 

own work. These indicators show the poor effectiveness of training for junior 
personnel and indicate that there are many serious lacunae in this present 
matter. In this connection, serious claims were laid against the head people's 
control group, which has failed to penetrate deeply the questions of postgraduate 
work and has not shown exactingness toward the postgraduates themselves and 
thelr scientific leaders. 

Those speaking at the conference, including T. Dzhafarov, deputy director 

of the Institute of Physics, E. Kadyrova, chairmwoman of the people's control 
yroup at the Institute of History, U. Alekperov, director of the Institute 

of Botany, A. Namazov, deputy secretary of the academy Komsomol committee, 

[. Mustafayev, chairman of an association local committee, E. Khalilov, 
chairman of the people's control group at the Institute of Problems of Deep 
Oil and Gas Deposits, and G, Abdullayev, academy president, analyzed the work 
of the people's controllers and touched on a number of important matters that 
require the constant attention of the new makeup of the head group of patrol 
members. It was stressed that the academy collective expects from the people's 
controllers an intensification of the struggle to strengthen discipline and 
order and the strict observance of planning and financial discipline. The 
patrol members must act decisively against manifestations of mismanagement 
and waste and give more attention to questions of personnel selection and 

Those at the conference elected a new makeup for the head group of people's 
control tor the Azerbaijan SSR Academy of Sciences. 

\zerbaijan Communist Party Central Committee secretary G.A. Gasanov spoke 
at the conference. 


CSO: 1814/149 


Moscow [IZVESTIYA in Russian 27 May 83 p 2 

[Article by academician B. Paton, Twice Hero « ‘cialist Labor, and B. 
Medovar, academician of the Ukrainian SSR Acadasu of Sciences: "Steel and 
Slag" ] 

[Text] In May 1958 the world's first electroslag smelting furnace was 
introduced at the Zaparozh'ye "Dneprospetsstal'” electrometallurgical plant 
imeni A.N. Kuz'min. It fabricated steel ingots weighing up to 0.7 tons. 

Thus began the victorious march of a completely new metallurgical technology 
that made it possible to create very rapidly here in the country an entire 
subsector for the production of metal of particularly high quality, namely 
special electrometallurgy. 

A very interesting physical phenomenon, discovered 10 years before the event 
described above at the Ukrainian SSR Academy of Sciences Institute of Electric 
Welding, forms the basis of electroslag smelting. Its essence is that when 

an electric current is passed through melted slag is becomes an efficient 

heat generator capable of melting any metal and many nonmetallic materials. 

At first the discovery was used for welding purposes, and this same electroslag 
welding had already received an award at EXPO-58 in Brussels in the same year 
that electroslag smelting was born. The welders drew attention to the fact 
that metal in an electroslag welded union is as good as the quality of a metal 
that is rolled, forged or extruded. It turned out that this amazing feature 
was the result of the refining action of the liquid slag on the melted metal 
and the special conditions of its crystallization. Having recognized what 

has now become a trivial truth, the welders suggested that the new process 

be used to obtain steel ingots of particularly high quality. 

Let us say straight off that in the sector institutes of ferrous metallurgy 
the welders’ suggestion was greeted without any special enthusiasm. Moreover, 
attempts were made to substantiate the indifference to the new process and 

the new technology on a theoretical basis. We were shown that melting a metal 
in slag necessarily leads to intolerable contamination by slag inclusions. 

The workers at the plants had a different attitutde toward the new process: 
they voted to construct new electroslag furnaces for it, and there was demand 

msumers, who immediately accepted the outstanding quality of the new 

luct. Here it must not be forgotten that in those days that were so 
litt tcult tor the new technology, it was IZVESTIYA that came to its defense; 
“eve w many people remember the article "The Electroslag Crucible.” 

er the quarter of a century that has elapsed since then the country has 
talned millions of tons of superior electroslag metal in the form of plate 
iped ro'led metal, tubes, forged pieces and, during the last decade, 

ivh quality castings. As a result it has been possible to substantially 
increase the durability and reliability of aviation jet engines, various types 
+ wer installations, heavy load-bearing mechanisms and roller bearings, 

Lr ‘ine high temperature bearings. 

it can be stated directly: many of the problems in the development of equipment 
vould be simply tmpossible to resolve without electroslag technology. This 
bjor achtlevement of Soviet science and technology has received world recognition. 
lectroslag turnaces have been built under license in Japan, the United States, 
France, Sweden, Austria and other countries. The Soviet Union is ftirmly 
naintalning its leading positions in the theoretical and practical fields 

it electroslag technology. 

ike all terrous metallurgy, the further development of electroslag smelting 
envisages production intensitication, that is, first and foremost not 
iantitative growth but further improvement in the quaiity of the metal. 
it is essential to emphasize that in rece..t years a general upswing in 
‘cchnology and equipment for stee! smelting production and the appearance 
i powerful arsenal o facilities for the so-called furnaceless pr cessing 

teel are typical, 

it we have in mind is the so-called hopper metallurgy: the steel smelting 
it is used only to obtain a kind of semifinished product which is brought 
to the required specification not in the furnace but in a hopper or special 
ntainer with its own reaction vessel. Bringing the metal up to specification 
lone with the aid of a vacuum, blowing gases across the melt, and with 
wiers and gas-and-powder mixtures. As a result of this kind of processing 
w possible to obtain any amount of high quality steel with a very 

w sultur and oxygen content and small amounts of nonmetallic inclusions 
{ harmtul impurities, which previously could be ootained only by electroslag 
melting and t ther smelting processes that make up special electrometallurgy. 
t would seem that with the development of furnaceless steel processing the 
le and significance of smelting processes in special electrometallurgy, 
| primarily electroslag smelting, would decrease. This is not so. And 
is very simply explained: modern steel making really makes it possible 
btain millions of tons of the so-called superior pure liquid steel. But 
rder t btain high quality rolled products or castings it is still 

essary to insure appropriate conditions for the solidification of the 
juid teel into the torm ot ingots or castings. 

eanwhile, the laws of crystallization for liquid metal (discovered a century 

iso by the great compatriot D.K. Chernov) are such that in the air alone even 

i hivh degree of purity in steel does not prevent the occurrence of chemical 
uid structural inhomogeneity in the ingot. But homogeneity is precisely what 
today's consumer must have, both chemical and physical. Without it it is 
{mpossible to insure the specified characteristics of an article, whether 

lt be a roller bearing or the hull of an oceangoing ship. 

One detinite advance was at one time continuous steel casting; in contrast 
to an ingot, which is poured in a cast ingot mold of large cress section, 

: continuous-cast billet is considerably more homogeneous in terms both ot 
chemical composition and structure. However, now this is not enough. 

A quarter of a céntury ago, in the period when special electrometallurgy was 
being established, it was still not possible to produce pure steel on industrial 
wcales. Electroslag smelting attracted metallurgists and machine toolmakers, 
ind later construction people using metal, and it still does today, primarily 

t its homogeneity and the stability of its properties and its good 
reproducibility melt after melt, ingot after ingot, with virtually complete 
elimination of spotllage. 


\ll these advantages of the electroslag metal are seen to an even greater 
lewree it the pure steel is resmelted, that is, the metal is subjected to 
‘urnaceless processing. This is the reason why in the foreseeable future 
resmelt processes will remain acutely necessary for the national economy. 

But no matter how good special electrometallurgy is, it is relatively expensive, 

ecause any additional conversion requires additional expenditures. On the 

wale of the national economy the saving from the replacement of metal obtained 

by regular methods compared with that from electroslag methods is extremely 

wreat. Depending on the brand and specificiation of the steel or alloy, it 

ranges trom several hundred to several thousand rubles for each ton. However, 

the total volume of output in special electrometallurgy cannot be more than 

1 tew percent of the amount of steel smelted each year in the country. It 

is thus even more important to learn how to use this truly precious metal 

more economically. 

[tc is well known that our country firmly occupies a leading place in the world 
the smelting of cast iron and steel and the production of steel rolled 

products. But it is impossible to increase unchecked the scales of metallurgical] 

production, including output from special electrometallurgy, that is to go 

ilong the road of extensive development in this very important sector of the 

itional economy. 

[he party has proclaimed a course toward the intensification of our entire 
economy, and this means in the country's ferrous metallurgy. This also applies 
ull to special electrometallurgy and hence to electroslag smelting. Now 
the main attention should be tocused on the maximum utilization of existing 

production capacities and the uncovering and extensive utilization of all 
potential opportunities in progressive technology. 

since we were the pioneers in the development and industrial assimilation 
electroslag smelting, in contrast to those who started out later on the 

road to develop electroslag technology we should be in at least as good a 
position. The tact is that at many ot our plants, the electroslag turnaces 
eration are ot an age that is quite serious for metallurgical units, 

uamely 15, 20 years and more. The time has come to seriously tackle 
reconstruction and renewal and the replacement of old and obsolete equipment 
in electroslag shops and sections. 

it has been calculated that even a relatively easy measure to implement such 

is increasing the electrical capacity of electroslag installations (replacing 
les wertul furnace transtormers with more powerful ones) can provide a 
tangible addition in the production of electroslag metal. It is possible 

uid essential to increase the output of suitable metal] through reducing losses 
in the torm ot bottom and head shearings. No major capital investments are 
required tor this. Given the desire and persistence of workers at metallurgical 
plants and support from plants in the electrotechnical and machine toolmaking 
plants, the saving derived from renewal can be quite large. 

rtunately, it must be said that we have formed a unique kind of gap, let 
i, state it frankly, a marked lack of accord, between the level of theoretical 
levelopments in the tleld of electroslag technology and the actual technical 
‘level at a number of enterprises in ferrous metallurgy and machine toolmaking. 
ler actual conditions at some plants, the quality of electroslag metal leaves 
nething to be desired. We must recall yet again the trival truth that the 
iility of resmelted metal depends directly on the purity and homogeneity 
the initial metal. Meanwhile, we often encounter cases where they see 
e resmelting process as a means of correcting the spoiled metal from main 
ivings in the producticn of metal must not be confined only to the shops 
! special metallurgy. It is possible and necessary to achieve reductions 
in the prime costs of electroslag metal at the manufacturing plants. For 
this, in particular, it is necessary to accelerate the assimilation of cheaper 
| lags that do not contain components that are either in short supply 
r expensive. Cast consumable electrodes (obtained from continuous casting 
machines) must replace rolled and ductile electrodes more boldly. The repeat 
Ise worked slags is essential. 

is possible and essential to strive for the thrifty, economically 
etficient use of metal at consumer plants. Unfortunately, as is known, for 

i number of years now the coefficient of metal use in metalworking and machine 
toolmaking has not increased; it remains at about 0.7. 

\las, this also applies to special metal from which tailings are mixed with 
ilings from regular metal. As a result, it loses its consumer qualities. 

feanwhile the latest developments in the field of electroslag technology 

itselt make it possible to utilize metalworking tailings--various kinds of 
havings and even chips--simply and and quite reliably. We have in mind 
rimaritiv efficient new processes such as electroslag chill casting and 
entritugal electroslag casting. 

Recently developed at the Institute of Electric Welding, with the support 

of the Klev party gorkom they have already been disseminated at a number ot 
machine toolmaking enterprises in the Ukrainian capital. It is hardly necessary 
to describe these technologies; today they are accessible to a wide range 

of speclalists; it remains tor us only to express the wish that the sector 
institutes tollow the example of the VPKTIstroydormash [expansion unknown | 
(located in Kiev) and seriously address the assimilation of the new processes. 

At one time the newspaper IZVESTIYA wrote a great deal about electroslag 
melting, which is now used extensively in virtually all the subsectors o! 
machine toolmaking. Today we should recall the promising applications ot 
the electroslag process such as surfacing, heating, and additional teeding 
tor ingots and castings. 

fhere is no doubt that electroslag technology will be faithfully serving the 
cause of the scientific and technical revolution and the upsurge in our 
metallurgy, macine toolmaking and industrial construction tor many years. 

Moscow IZVESTIYA in Russian 22, 23 May 83 

(Article by LZVESTLYA spectal correspondent B. Konovalov: "The Talent of a 

’ Y 
‘ rllective j 

lext | Novostbirsk--They say that talent is like a giraffe: once you see 

it you never confuse it again. There are few talented people. There are 
even tewer talented collectives. And it is important to know how these 
llectives come into being and how they live, and what helps them to remain 
ilented over many vears. 

' tirst visited the USSR Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch Institute of 
juclear Physics, which is the subject of today’s discussion, 20 years ago 
when | was preparing a reportage on a basically new direction in the development 
installations for studying the microworld--colliding-beam accelerators. 
At that time experiments « ~Idwide were conducted using the same scheme: 
‘protectiles” accelerated the accelerators to enormous velocities and the 
mbardment of fixed targets. And research on the consequences of these 
‘catastrophes" gave the physicists information on the smallest "building 
ks"' ot the physical world. But in Novosibirsk they were working on an 
wccelerator in which the "target" rushed to meet the "projectiles." When 
got to know about this accelerator, memories about the skeptical statements 
st venerable scientists from other scientific centers kept surfacing. Yes, 
they agreed, the idea was alluring. The higher the energy at collision the 
reater the information that could be obtained. But here these collisions 
would not take place because it is very difficult to make the moving "target" 
lid. The opposing particles would go right past it, like neighboring 
ilaxies, with virtually no contact with one another. And still they 
eeded in making the colliding-beam accelerator work, and physics 

periments are being conducted. 

recall that I was puzzled that this accelerator, in contrast to all the 
but vertical. I thought that this was also 
the latest word in accelerator equipment and I tried to find out about it 
‘rom the institute director, academician A.M. Budker: what are the advantages 

the vertical accelerator? 

thers, was set not horizontal! 

Andrey Mixhavylovich looked at me searchingly for a moment, and then he answered 
with a smile: "To be honest, none at all. It is simply that we began to develop 
it when our collective was still a laboratory at the Institute of Atomic Energy 
iment I.V. Kurchatov; it was very tight there and so we set the accelerator 

‘on its bottom, '” 

(his witty solution charmed me. Behind its simplicity there was a lack of 
inhibition, an ability to reject the generally accepted, to overcome what 

had been sanctified by tradition and authority. I sensed that this institute 
would easily go up, sideways or anywhere it pleased, but would boldly face 
il! dit ticulttes and not shrink from them but achieve the goals that it set. 

Now this accelerator is shown to guests as a museum piece. Over the past 

/» years tive colliding-beam accelerators have been developed in Novosibirsk. 
Iwo of them, tirst-class, fully operational installations, have set records 
in their "weight category," to use a sports term. At one time work on the 
levelopment oft colliding-beam accelerators was marked by a Lenin Prize. Now 
this direction has become the head echelon of physics as it storms the secrets 
it the microworld. Two rings, set as a pair in the shape of a figure eight, 
the tirst Novosibirsk accelerator had a total size of one meter. Now, the 
weceleration rings tor the colliding-beam accelerators are little short of 
tens ot kilometers. Experiments on colliding-beam accelerators are providing 
Agniticant new information in elementary particle physics. And throughout 
the world they honor the memory of Soviet academician Budker primarily as 

i ploneer of this direction in accelerator technology. 

search and survey research at the boundary of the unknown is often set up 

on the principle of the start of a magic fairytale: off you go somewhere into 
the unknown to bring back I don't know what.... For Budker, his principle 
lay in this methodology: do not go where everyone else is going, go your own 
way. He thought that it is essential to be the leader, the trailblazer. If 
you stick in a rut you overtake no one. But if you work on your own original 
idea, even if you do not possess great technical facilities, at some time 

‘ry other you can move away from where the stronger competitors are and obtain 
wood scientific results 

He always had plenty of brilliant ideas. But most of them were fantastic 

rr extraordinarily difficult to put into practice. And then a pure theoretician 
lecided on a very bold step; ‘irst he headed a laboratory and then an entire 
institute so as to give his ideas life. Igor Vasil'yevich Kurchatov became 

the “holy father" of the Novosibirsk Institute of Nuclear Physics, making 

the main principle of its existence the search for nonstandard ways of 

leve lopment. 

‘ur country, in thermonuclear research the Institute of Nuclear Physics 
eads in the direction of the so-called "open trap." The first of these was 

thoueghtup by Budker. Iu shape, its magnetic field resembled two bottles with 
bases. The "stoppers" for che more powerful field plugged the hot plasma 
the "throats" of this magnetic bottie. Thanks to their simplicity and 
heapness compared with other installations, these kind. of traps appeared 
laboratories throughout the world engaged in thermonuclear research and 

iyed a major role in the development of plasma physics. Now they are 
eveloping installations of more refined designs for the magnetic "stoppers" 
’ tncreasing their number. If they can etfectively contain the hot plasma 
the dense state required tor the thermonuclear reaction these installations 
he preterred over other present claimants to the role of the reactors 
the electric power stations of the tuture. They are simpler, o! better 
rlowy, and cheaper. Three ditferent installations of this type are now 
belug assembled and tested at the [Institute of Nuclear Physics. At the same 

Lime work Ls voing ahead with all dispatch on the construction of a building 

for them. Soon, the question "to be or not to be?" will be resolved in the 
thermonuclear housing: will the open traps remain only installations for 
phystes research or wlll they become the basis of thermonuclear energy on 

ur planet? 

is interesting that over the 25 years of its existence the range of subjects 
fealt with at the Institute of Nuclear Physics has not changed. As before, 
it vers the physics of elementary particles and the development of accelerators 
r experiments in this tield, thermonuclear research and applied work. The 
proportions of these mainline directions in the institute's total efforts 
have remained the same at 50, 25 and 25 percent respectively. Although, of 
uurse, the internal content of each of them has changed substantially. 

\pplied research, for example, passed on from the cradle stage long ago and 

| yringming the institute as least as much glory as its fundamental research. 

(he Institute of Nuclear Physics was one of the first in the country to develop 
lustrial charged particle accelerators for use in the national economy. 

even types of accelerator have now been developed, operating even from normal 

power supplies at 220 volts and generating powerful beams of electrons at 

‘arious energies. These accelerators have become the basis for the development 

an entire range of radiation technologies in chemistry and electrical 

eneineering and are used for dealing with insects in grain, cutting metals 

ipplying coatings to metals, and purifying sewage. 

Radiation imparts new properties to materials; it raises their strength and 

resistance to cold and heat and their durability in impact load. There have 

been occasions when the use of radiation technology has turned out to be much 
re economically effective than all development costs, when the price of 

i) accelerator has been recouped literally in only a few months. The institute 

nas already supplied the national economy and foreign countries with dozens 
iccelerators. In one industry alone--electrotechnics--14 flow lines 

ive been set up on the basis of Novosibirsk accelerators for the production 

power line and cable sheathings. The saving achieved through the startup 
hivher quality output using them has totaled more than R100 million. 

‘ven the colliding-beam accelerators on which fundamental research is done 
ive wradually at the same time started to serve for secondary and applied 
urposes. Beams of charged particles spiraled in a magnetic field generate 

the so-called synchrotron radiation, which is truly invaluable for many 
lirection in science and technology. Depending on the energy of the 
wcelerator, this radiation can cover an enormous range of the spectrum of 
electromagnetic waves, across the infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray 


fields. And the intensity of the emission tn all these tields is 10,000 to 
100,000 times wreater than in the tradittonal sources used (except tor lasers). 

The rlossal brivhtness of the synchrotron "Lamp" is making it p isible, tor 
example, to make movies of supertast processes lasting insignificant tractions 
! a second. Thanks to this it is possible to see all the stages in the 
contraction of muscle, the fatlure of a metal under load, the tiniest details 

t the processes of smelting and crystallization, the movement of blood in 

the tiniest vessels, and much, much else. For movie tilm, synchrotron radiation 
is a unique kind of "Aladdin's lamp" which at the desire of the researcher 
nikes its possible to remove the veil trom the secrets of many phenomena. 

And tor present-day electronics, which plays an enormous role in today's 

world, it has opened up a way out of an apparent impasse. The tact is that 

the main trend in the development of electronics is microminiaturization. 

jut Lt turned out that light itself was acting as a brake on further progress 
in the process ot microminiaturization. The moment comes when, during 
illumination of the mask with which the pictures of the circuit are transferred 
to the plate of the semiconductor, the lines begin, as it were, to merge. 

their size is already comparable to the length of light waves and it rearranges 
the beam and atfects its wave characteristics. 

This means that radiation at a shorter wavelength must be used. But the X- 

ray lamps, even the best, are too weak, and so exposure time must be increased 
to several hours. The use of bright synchrotron radiation from which it is 

easy to separate out just a single X-ray beam, reduces the time needed for 
illumination to several seconds and opens up the way for X-ray lithography 

which makes it possible to "pack" electronic circuits into crystals of submicron 
ize and make instruments, radio equipment and computers much smaller. 

[t {s remarkable that while in no way interfering with the main experiments, 
it is possible to remove a whole sheaf of rays of synchrotron radiation from 
the accumulation rings of the accelerators. More than 80 very different 
scientific groups are now working on the Novosibirsk accelerators. Twelve 
them are toreign. And tor each one of these 80 groups there is a new 
irection in sctence and technology. And it is important here that not only 
ire new paths in science and technology being laid, but that representatives 
*§ the most varied fields are gaining access to the standards of the present- 
luy physics experiment and learning to use computer technology to set up 
research and process findings. 

But no matter how important applied research may be, and no matter what 
idvantages it may promise, the Institute of Nuclear Physics has not allowed 
itsel! to exceed the optimal quota from the viewpoint of the institute, namely 
ne-fourth of the total effort. The Institute of Nuclear Physics cooperates 
willinwly, passes on its developments to the sector institutes and helps to 
rvanize work on its own accelerators, but does not permit itself to be pulled 
to strongly into the storm of applied research. Right from the start it was 
ntended that with time it would become a "financial locomotive" for fundamental 
research. This time has now come. In accordance with the budget for the 
Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch, the Institute of Nuclear Physics receives 

ly one=-seventh of the amount that it spends. The other sixth-sevenths are 
ade up of cost-accounting work and special subsidtles for research important 
for the country. Each year now for many years applied work has been giving 
the institute tens of millions of rubles, and, I repeat, only one-fourth of 
its efforts is tor this. The other three-fourths go on fundamental research 

purely sclentific significance that is, as it were, work done ahead of 
time tor tuture applied directions. 

... Each accelerator or thermonuclear installation is a collective creation. 
And | deliberately do not distinguish between the creator and the first 
lirector of the institute, nor between any of the scientists, engineers and 
workers whose inspiration and labor give birth to the brilliant achievements 
ot the Novosibirsk collective. Each of them has his own name and tamily name, 
but they also have a name for the entire collective, in which they rightly 
tuke pride: the Institute of Nuclear Physics. 

|'3 May 83 p 2] 

‘fext) The collective is characterized not only by what it does, but how 
it does it. 

w Institute of Nuclear Physics designs and fabricates by its own efforts 
i!!! its own industrial and experimental installations, including even the 
largest accelerators. In essence and in structure, the Institute of Nuclear 

ics is, to use a widely term, a scientific-production association. In 
ijdition to the research laboratories, it also has design bureaus and 
experimental production facilities. 

\ll the Institute of Nuclear Physics organizers have considered that under 

ur conditions a major physics institute with no production facilities is 

like a man with one leg: it cannot move ahead confidently and quickly. But 

the production that is needed must itself be subordinate to the interests 

t sctlence and the sclentist. The academic institute is a creative organization 
and the central figure, and it is there that the creative scientist must be; 

ind the design bureaus, production facilities and technical services, and 

the entire administrative apparatus, including the director himself, must 

be subordinate to its interests. 

The institute's design section is not large: barely more than 100 people. 
But they are extremely well qualified and they design everything that the 
institute needs, trom prosaic gates to the most complicated optical instruments. 
[The section is split into ten thematic design bureaus and groups that are 
linked directly with specific laboratories. When a physicist thinks about 
instrument, he works on the design problem together with the designer. 
ln the tormation of the design documentation, the number of signatures is 
leliberatley kept to the minimum. As a rule, the shop receives only a general 
idea of what the design bureau chief wants, and all the other blueprints are 
lrawn by the author himself. But then his personal responsibility is sharply 
enhanced. The designer himself participates in assembly, and together with 
the physicist has an interest in making the article work immediately, without 
turther work on it. The work of the designer has no formal criteria. At 

the institute they think that if they are introduced a person automatically 
‘tarts to work for an indicator and may thus neglect the interests of the 

Much {s now said and written about the need of associations for research 
institutes, desiyn bureaus and plants. Indisputably, this can bring enormous 
idvantage to production. But here there is silence about the tact that what 
«tence needs is not series production, but special design bureaus and plants 
ready to handle nonstandard articles. 

‘The special feature of our test plant," says N.A. Kuznetsov, chief of 
experimental production at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, "is that we do 
not have the right to say to the physicists 'we cannot do this or that.’ This 
i, fine for the physicists but bad for us, but nothing can be done about it 
because this is what the plant is for. Therefore, we have to be masters of 
everything: making machine tools, radiotechnics, electronics, optics, in 

hort, everything required for the most complex modern physics installations. 
And we have only 2 or 3 weeks to reorganize from the production of one 
installation to another." 

it is expedient to have the plant production subordinate to the interests 

‘t selenee. For example, the plan for June will be compiled in late May. 

And this is how it always is: the plan for the following month is drawn up 

it the end of the previous month! The flexibility is accomplished through 

the production of industrial accelerators and the portfolio of orders, which 

is always full. If the institute has a need to rapidly develop a new 

‘entific’ accelerator or thermonuclear installation, then all the efforts 
design bureaus and production facilities can immediately be mobilized 

for the task. And if the scientific front is quiet for a while, then the 

plant calmly produces industrial accelerators. 

' ; 

the test plant were not part of the institute but operated using the normal 
‘ystem, then there is no doubt that it would soon start to produce only series- 
produced industrial accelerators and rid itself of nonstandard scientific 
orders using all kinds of truths and nontruths. But now it does do it. 
Moreover, 10 percent of capacity in the experimental production facilities 

is #iven over for express orders! It may seem fantastic to the staffs of 

ther sclentific establishments, but it is a fact that express orders are 
mpleted within 2 or 3 days. And if a part essential for development or 
uiducting an experiment is not complicated, it can be made within a dav. 

\ud it is done tor regular wages. The scientific council at the institute 

is established that if anyone dares to "push" his own orders for a bonus 
e will be dismissed from the institute. 


, And everyone knows that the scientific 
uncil means what it says. It plays a special role here. 

‘he Institute of Nuclear Physics has two foundations, the regular concrete 

toundation on which the walls of the institute stand, and a spiritual foundation 
that determines everything that is done within those walls. It 
‘the roundtable." 


is called 
The meetings of the scientific council are held around 

this large, black plastic table. 

) iverave the scientific councils of institutes meet about once a month. 

\t the Institute of Nuclear Physics it meets every day. Precisely at 12 

‘clock each day the members of the scientitic council seat themselves at 

he round table and with a cup of cotfee they discuss the cardinal problems 

the inatitute’s life or current atfairs. Not only representatives of the 

‘lLrector's otfice participate, but also the leaders of the party committees, 
the trade union council and the laboratories, along with the leading associates. 
n essence the "round table” ts a collective form of institute management. 
Not a single important decision is made without the council, without discussion 
in¢d debate. Sut when it its made, they carry it out from conviction, not as 

[This does not contradict the official position of the academic institutions. 
Ie i ,4id there that the scientific council meets at times established by 
the director. Right at the start of the institute's life, academician Budker 
decided that it should meet every day. He himself was the man who created 
luring the process of these dealings the brilliant ideas that were often born 
luring discussions using chalk on a blackboard. He naturally wanted this 
‘tyle also in the management of the institute. On the other hand, he considered 
that the institute was a family. And that here, all the boons and the 
litticulties, all the resources, should be shared frankly. In a good family, 
‘thine is ever done in secret. And no offense is taken if one person gets 
Hew sult today while someone else has to wait for tomorrow. And everyone 
in the tamily works to the best of his ability, but honestly. 


vurse, they try to pick talented and capable people at the Institute of 
Nuclear Research. Here they know quite well that one first-class scientist 
is worth 10 second-class scientists. But they also understand that the sum 
the talents of individuals still does not make up the collective talent. 

» make this happen it is necessary to make the entire nucleus of the scientific 

issoclate like-minded and try to get them to have common criteria and a unified 
lerstanding ot what ts good for the institute and what bad. 
Responsibility, trust and scope for creative work: this is approach to the 

issoclates at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, most of whom were very young 
when the institute was formed. And people grow up quickly in this kind of 
here. The present director, A.N. Skrinskiy, came to the institute as 
tudent on the fourth course. He became an academician at the age of 34. 
e “round table" nurtured academician S.T. Belyayev, director of the department 
yeneral and nuclear physics at the Institute of Atomic Energy imeni I1.V. 
Kurchatov, academician R.Z. Sagdeyev, who is now the director of the USSR 
idemy of Sciences Institute of Space Research, academician Yu.Ye. Nesterikhin, 
who headed the USSR Academy of Sciences Siberian Branch Institute of Automation 
Lectrometry, and many other brilliant scientists. And new talent’ has 

ikKen their place at the rounc table." 


e [ustitute ot Nuclear Physics is the largest in the Siberian Branch and 
ne of the largest within the system of the USSR Academy of Sciences. And 
here, on the one hand, the common strong features of the Institute of Atomic 
Eneryvy imeni |.V. Kurchatov, which brought the Institute of Nuclear Physics 
‘into the world,” and the Siberian Branch are most brilliantly distinguished: 

educatiuy tirst-class scientists and organically combining tundamental 

ipplied research. On the other 

hand, the Institute of Nuclear Physics is 
distinguished by the monolithic character ot 
tor a sclentitic establishment. 

vwerves as the cement for this. 

its collective, such as is amazing 
And it is precisely the "round table" that 

Academician Budker was the generator of many brilliant ides that even today 
still have a lony life ahead of them, 

He left behind a very rich scientific 
leva VY. 

But when his students and colleagues began to think about what kind 
tt a memortal they could raise on Budker's grave, one that would best express 
the main thing that he had accomplished, they selcted the "round table." A 

copy ot the round table at the institute was made in marble. One segment 
ot it was removed; this is Budker's grave. 

Within the institute you will not tind a single office that does not have 

| portrait ot Budker. Usually this portrait is of the latter period of his 
ite when, atter his heart attack, he grew a beard. The kind eyes of the 
age look out trom every portrait. And his soft smile, as if saying: well, 
ire you living all right without me. You should be. 

For the institute's inner life the "round table" has become akin to the 
iuvention ot the wheel. Of course, it was more difficult to live without 
Budker. Lt was impossible to replace him. But thanks to the "round table" 
t 8 

he iustitute managed to hold out, find strength, regroup and maintain it 
leading positions. What was formerly done in the external world by one Budker 
is now done by three, academician A.N. Skrinskiy, who took up the baton of 
lirectorship, and his two deputies for science, corresponding members of the 
USSR Academy of Sciences V.A. Sidorov and D.D. Ryutov. They do things 
ditterently, perhaps with greater expenditure of effort and energy, but they 
aati The Institute of Nuclear Physics is moving confidently ahead in the 
modern world thanks to the collective "captaincy." 

together about 100 associates of the institute participate in the 
table" meetings. But, of course, not all on the same day. 
‘radually been broken down into thematic subsections. 
in work with elementary particles meet. 
with the accelerators. Wednesday 


They have 

On Mondays those engaged 
Tuesday is the day for those working 

is the regular general institute meeting 
Thursday is the day fcr those working on thermonuclear 
ohystes, and Friday is another general institute council meeting, but now 
idministrative, with the leaders of all the technical services from the garage 

to bookkeeping, and all the laboratory chiefs, so as to resolve the problems 

that have cropped up during the week. 

' the scientific council. 

day has its own appearance at the "round table," its 
juestions, its own atmosphere. 
more sedate and restrained. 

own range of 

The thermonuclear people, for example, are 
The accelerator people are younger, and the 
ouncil is more cheerful, more unfettered. Although it must be admitted that 
humor and a good joke are valued every day. And this, better than anything 
else, generates a spirit of comradeship and brotherhood. 

whatever day it may be, at the round table at the Institute of Nuclear Physics 
you sense that you are present in a world scientific center. 

Someone is just 


ik trom a trip abroad, and reports must be presented on an international 

mierence and there must be discussion of what rival colleagues are doing; 
rod here, it is always noted that, no matter what the level of the institute, 
there is always one concern invisibly present--not to fall behind. At the 

‘titute ot Nuclear Physics they consider it important not only to work well 

but to try to be the leader in their field. Here they rightly think that 
whoever does not want to be tirst will not be; he will not even be tenth. 
leadership and work at the limits of the possible insures the institute's 
rapid development and respect in the scientific world. 

At the [Institute of Nuclear Physics they think that the institute should move 
thead like a comet, leaving beihind a trail of scientific and practical 

results. And the "head" of the comet must necessarily be leading science. 
therefore, in the institute's maturity, as in its youth, they try to travel 

by unfrequented roads. For example, they are working here on a project for 

1 colliding-beam linear accelerator using electron and positron beams. This 
wcelerator has made it possible to make a strong new breakthrough into the 
microcosm. It is a bold and daring project. Not everything in its accomplishment 
depends on the institute. And it will be a pity if history repeats itself 

with the idea of the accelerator operating with proton and antiproton beams 

which was put forward and worked out in detail in Novosibirsk but realized 

in Ceneva by CERN, where this accelerator has now provided a whole range of major 


\ll who have worked at the Institute of Nuclear Physics for 20 years are given 
the gitt ot a clock by the institute. They are different from those being 
old this year in the stores. But they all show the same thing--time. This 

is both a memory and a tireless, pulsating reminder. Times measures off what 
148 been done. And they say to everyone: hurry on to do even more. 

Minsk PROMYSHLENNOST' BELORUSSII in Russian No 3, Mar 83 pp 24-26 

[article by A. Afanas'yev and A. Ubranovich, candidates of physico-mathematical 
sciencess "New Discoveries"/ 

[Text] The Belorussian scientists B.Il. Stepanov, academician 
of the BSSR Academy of Sciences and director of the Academy's 
Institute of Physics, P, .A. Apanasevich, deputy director and 
‘orresponding member of the BSSR Academy of Sciences, A.S. Ru- 
banov, laboratory chief and doctor of physico-mathematical 
sciences, and Ye.V.Ivakin, candidate of physico-mathamatical 
sciences and senior scientific associate, were awarded the 
high title of laureates of the 1982 USSR State Prizes in the 
urea of science for the cycle of works entitled "The Physical 
Bases of Dynamic Holography and New Methods for Transforming 
the Spatial Structure of Light Beams." The success of the 
Belorussian physicists is not accidental: they have partici- 
pated actively in the formation of the new trends in laser 
physics, present-day optics and spectroscopy. 

Holography did not find immediate application in scientific research. 
Three-dimensional representations of immobile objects arouse amazement 
but they can be seen only in exhibition halls. 

the late 70's a new scientific direction--dynamic holography--was formed 
it the junction of the sciences of holography and nonlinear optics. This 
new discipline made it possible to record objects moving and changing in 
time, and it became a powerful instrument for investigating physical 
processes taking place at a rapid rate. The experimental work carried out 
at tne BSSR Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Physics contributed to 
i. significant degree to the development of this direction. 

ig whe basis of dynamic holography are nonlinear phenomena, which 
se under the influence of light emission in the environment as a 

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conian SSR Acader 
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ind triai * le a“ 

wee well, the problems of the agrarian-industrial complex were bei 

ec by Our Lentist ibout LO years ago: they were among the tirst to 
wee, A vy with the practical people, qualitatively new way { improve wort 

| ture and develory its links with industry. Lt shoul he iid that 

é mists have been participating actively in the development ot the 
ises and recommendations tor creating the ayrarian-industrial 
aeior i i new torm ot management, tirst at the rayon level ind now 
tC Cf rey ubl i level. In addition to the other problems, it 1 very import int 
thi ew system to reintorce the principles of economic accounting. There 

ine i extremely urgent and topical questions here tor the scientists to 
Ye. Anod it must be said that these are not only honorable but also 

he r t sclences is also working actively on problems such as the 
‘ t ot up-to date, saie e.ills ror dealing with agri ultur ss pe Cs 
res ing other technical and technological problems. 

‘'ractice shows that in selence there should not be any table 
AS. The research that today is considered secondary can become an 

rtant bkinline in selence. Notwithstanding, which work being done by 
lentists would you call key, the most important? 

+, it is very ditticult to evaluate new scientitic results; 
evaluation is otten made only atter some years. But in my opinion, 
t hi lived achievements in science relate to, for example, the results 

ieved by our astrophysicists on the large-scale structure of the 

ers the concept that the universe has a cellular structure. This idea 
a ‘ ! wel | cont irmed bv astronomical! observations. | would like to 
et t thi cle of work is being done here in very good cooperation with 

eoretical physicists of the USSR Academy of Sciences headed by academician 

. lovich. On the other hand, an important part of the observatior 

teria is been obtained in cooperation with astronomers in the United 
west turope. 
, levements in physics I would note the cycle of work to study the 
, tt } ; , } Thi 
rocesse tT energy converslo! in molecules and crystals. imi: 
ected with yet another cycle ot work, namely work on spectr py and 
; Bae I ne ' , on - 17 Ret i mala - A , i aawne 
ysiecai processes Li tne chioropnvil olecuie and Lt iInaiovzues. 
et ei used here by our physicists possess record accuracy and 
ible to obtain a whole series of important new data. ne 
' the brilliant application of the possibilities of modern equipment 
et tuemselt in fundamental research is provided by the work of the 
{ t rhe l i i i Blologi« il Phy sic ° They are being used to s ylve 
rtant practical problems in today's very tine chemical and biochemica 
tt signiticance also tor agriculture and the Food Program. 
beve ent by geologists ot the bases tor the comprehensive openin 
Lr era re uUrce in the Rakvere phosph rite-bearing region is urgent. 
t i iluable in this present tormulation of the problem is not only the 
er r pn phorite but also extraction taking int account the requirement 
r the mprehensive utilization ot all the mineral riches and of environmental 

New developments have been made at the Institute of Economics, in particular in 
the tleld of the etficient operation of highway transportation in the republic 
iid the optimization of mineral recovery taking into account the aggregate 

ecohomic Consequences, 
uestion ls sclence in the republic experiencing any shortage of personnel, 
md is the level ot training tor researchers itistactory? 
\nswer m the whole [ think that the personne! of our academy are our 
vreatest asset, our greatest capital. I would like to emphasize that we have 
lozel ' young people at the various institutes, even postgraduate students 

ind mior sclentific associates, who are doing simply beautiful work and 
nave tine published work in the central journals and in the foreign press. 
! I ar mfiident that they will do even more for Soviet science. 

luestion! It ts known that money is invested advantageously in science. How 

we matertal base of the ESSR Academy of Sciences now being strengthened? 
Answer | personally an not a supporter of direct deductions into science as 
whole by caleulating how many rubles of return are gained from each ruble 
invested. The emergence of science into practice and the return to society from 
hence nstitute a very complex phenomenon and only part of this return can be 
ited in rubles, and here, of course, it is absolutely essential. Perhaps, 
vever, the most valuable part cannot be expressed in rubles. But I fully 
itree that the materlal-technical base is one decisive condition for the 

Je ment ot selenece. With regard to our academy, thanks to the great help 
e republic and the USSR Academy of Sciences, and also from the State 
ttee tor Selence and Technology, our base is now much stronger than 10 
it imo, and the main thing is that the possibilities for experimentation 
wh beyond recognition. I think that today work done only at the all- 
level make sense, because this simultaneously means it is done at the 
world lence. And where this does not happen and there is no hope o! 
rrectir the situation, we do not have the moral right to continue to spend funds. 

tuestion!| What contacts with the scientific establishments in the other 

‘ternal republics and in foreign countries do you regard as especially fruitful? 

wer lt you were to ask where such links are needed today I would have 
in answering. In our country science is also strong because, say, the 
icademtles Like ours are working together with the major and leading centers 
lence and academies. Oo we say that our Institute of Physics together with 

Rk Academy ot Sciences special design bureau and the special design bureau 
ter equipment at our Institute of Cybernetics has developed a laser 
trometer, but in tact several dozens organizations throughout the country 
e actually participated, They include laboratories in Moscow, Novosibirsk, 
eningrad and other centers. These links are especially important 

ws te {ca lirect tion in tence such as molecular biology, lasers, 
tect , and computer technology. There we sense particularly what 
‘ ie \ } wi i nee lav-to-day inks with those labor it rie 

producti rvanizations that have initiated these directions in our untry.