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10 OCTOBER 1986 

Sub-Saharan Africa Report 


10 OCTOBER 1986 



Shipping Line Expands 
OAU, ECA Map Improvement Efforts 


UNITA Outlines Peace Offer to MPLA, Calls for Negotiations 
(THE STAR, 1 Sep 86; SUNDAY TIMES, 7 Sep 86) ........ coe 

Santos Government Denies Contact 
Talks Reportedly Held in Europe, England, 
by Stephan Terblanche 

Civil War Spills Over Into Neighboring Countries 
(THE STAR, 9 Sep 86) eeoeeveeveeveeeeeeeeeeeeoe ee eeee eeovoeveeeee 

Lack of Transportation for Butane Gas in Huambo 
(JORNAL DE ANGOLA, 2 Aug 86) eeeevevee e@eeevevevevev eee eeeoeveeveee 

Agricultural Development Stations Benefit Lucala 
(Feleciano Pacheco; JORNAL DE ANGOLA, 6 Aug 86) ......... 

Intra-Party Divisions on Economic Development Projects Noted 
(Carlos da Matta; SEMANARIO, 14 Aug 86) ......ccceccecees , 

Chipenda Defects From UNITA 
Government Opposes Savimbi Book 
Minister Investigates Petroleum Distribution 
New Construction Directorate 



Mengistu on Constitution, Resettlement, Insurgents 
ot Sees Be Ge WEE. o6s6 caveceebeneseecs Geees coccece ° 

Bahr Dar Airport Opens 


Kaolin Deposit Found 


New Anti-Communist Alliance Between Regional Rebel Groups 
(THE INDIAN OCEAN NEWSLETTER, 30 Aug 86) ...... eccnccccce 

New Cooperative Supervisory Commission Created in Gaza 
(Bento Niquice; NOTICIAS, 5 Aug 86) .......... TTTTTTL LL 

Technicians Attend Professional Training Center 
See, OS Oe WP 8 6.660660506604000080468006085 ceseeses 

Beira's Rice Marketing Campaign Encounters Obstacles 

State Administration Course Ends 

Corumana Dam Works Continues 
Soviet Journalist Donation 


Attitude of National Party Criticized 
(Editorial; DIE REPUBLIKEIN, 28 Jul 86) .............. eee 

SWAPO Reportedly Engaged in Purge of Own Ranks 
(DIE REPUBLIKEIN, 29 Jul 86) ......ceeeeeees eceesececcese 

Differences Between DTA, SWAPO Objectives Viewed 
(Editorial; DIE REPUBLIKEIN, 29 Jul 86) ....c.cwceccceees ‘ 


Problems Exacerbated by Flight of Capital, Near East Politics 
(AFRICA CONFIDENTIAL, 20 Aug 86) ...... coves TETTTTTLETy 


National Corporations Offered for Sale to French Businesses 
(Vincent Nouzille; L'USINE NOUVELLE, various dates) ..... 
















Qadhdhafi, Sankara Visit, Statements Described 
(THE CITIZEN, 12 Sep 86) eeese#es *e*eeeeensee*eesee7e5nreeeensee@ee7ese##e#8e?e# 

Bishop Kivengere Protests Qadhdhafi Remarks 
[ Sne) oe Se Me Sineeeeeeest éeeueebbeeebeeeene 

Rwanda Asks Naturalized Citizenship for Refugees 
(FOCUS, 29 Aug 86) eeeeoeeeeeeeneteeeeeeeeeeeeeeee eeeeoeee4#eee#e#es? 

Human Rights Inquiry Commission Formed 
(AFRICAN DEFENCE JOURNAL, Aug 86) .....ccccccccccccccces 

Obote's Paramilitary ‘Special Force’ Disbanded 
(NEW VISION, 29 Aug 86; THE TELECAST, 4 Sep 86) ........ 

Folice Issued New Uniforms, by Sam Obbo 
Guns, Normal Duties Restored to Police 

Village Technology Center To Be Established 
(Betty Balirwa; NEW VISION, 5 Sep 86) ........e... TeTTh 

Description of Bazi Market Near Sudan, Zaire Borders 
(THE THLRCAST, §& Sp GSS) scccesvcsssscccsssssesseseseses 

Police Force To Be Increased 

Starvation on Increase 
UNITA Blamed for Trouble in Chavuma 

Countermeasures To Sanctions Suggested, Advocated 
(DIE AFRIKANER, 6 Aug 86; DIE VADERLAND, 7 Aug 86) ..... 

Specific Proposals Made 
Implications for Neighbors 

Bureau of Information Chief on Role of Organization 
(Shirley Pressly; WEEKEND POST, 6 Sep 86) ....-eeeeeeees 

Decentralization Viewed as Possible Solution to RSA Problems 
(Piet Muller; BEELD, 6 Aug 86) ....ccccccccccccccccccceess 

















Possible Merger of KP, HNP Disputed 
(Hendrik Coetzee, Theuns van der Westhuizen; BEELD, 
5 Aug 86) eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee 

Nomination of 'Far-Left' NP Candidate Criticized 
(DIE AFRIKANER, 6 Aug 86) ......ceeceeceees Sint bebo Fs os 

Afrikaner-Volkswag Criticized for Politicking 
CG. Ue GEE Gaceueseueeedcebebeeeeaunbeneees 

Student Politics Criticized 
NP Congress Urged 
Black Education Improvement Advised 


ANC Officials Statements on ‘March Toward Freedom' 
(Johnny Makatini; Addis Ababa Radio Freedom in English 
CD Dee ees oS See PP 60554665 4505504500050% vette 

Reporters Give Profile of Newly-Elected PAC President 
(Howard Barrell, Sefako Nyaka; THE WEEKLY MAIL, 

12-18 Sep 86) eeeeveees eeseevevoeeveenee e080 eeoeeeveeeveee e880 eeeese 
Transkei Launches Investigation Into Misappropriated Funds 

(Graham Ferreira; THE SUNDAY STAR, 7 Sep 86) ....... eee 
New ‘Freedom School' Gives Classes to Sowetan Children 

(Carrie Curzon; THE SUNDAY STAR, 7 Sep 86) ....... peves 

Kwazulu Seeks Free Port 


Conflict Follows Discovery of AIDS Virus Among Foreign Miners 
(Various sources, various dates) ....cesccccccceees seeee 

Health Officials Pressing for Repatriation, by 

Stephan Terblanche 
Malawians Comprise Bulk of Virus Carriers, 

by Claire Pickard-Camgridge, Max Du Preez 
Crisis Situation Said Not To Exist, by Joe Openshaw 
Government in Row With Chamber of Mines, by Sheryl Raine 
NUM Reaction to Government Statement 

Mixed Reactions to Government Plan for Greater Johannesburg 
(James Clarke; THE STAR, 5 Sep 86) ........eee- errr Tr “a 

Correspondent Reviews Achievements of Tricameral Parliament 
(Dirk van Zyl; WEEKEND POST, 6 Sep 86) ......eeeeeeeeee 
















Slabbert Criticizes Latest Session of Parliament 
(Frederik van Zyl Slabbert; BUSINESS DAY, 12 Sep 86) ..... 

PFP Claims More Support Than Polls Indicate 

(John MacLennan; THE SUNDAY STAR, 7 Sep 86) .......eeeeee. 
Impoverished Whites Receiving ‘Massive’ Aid From Right Wing 

(Hannes de Wet, Andre du Toit; THE STAR, 2 Sep 86) ....... 
Whites Urged To Acknowledge African Identity 

(THE STAR, 11 Sep 86) eeeeenseeensvrmeeeeeeeseeeeeneeeneneeeneee eeeeee#2ee 
Asian Students in White Schools To Need Special Permission 

(Kitt Katzin; THE SUNDAY STAR, 7 Sep 86) ..... TeETTTTTT TT 
Indian Teachers’ College To Be Open to Blacks 

(Khalil Aniff; POST NATAL, 10-13 Sep 86) .......eeeee0% saae 
Professor Welcomes New Approach To Teaching History 

(Hermann Giliomee; BUSINESS DAY, 12 Sep 86) ........ » ease 
Good Prospects for Indian Business in Orange Free State 

(Bobby Harrypersadh; POST NATAL, 10-13 Sep 86) ........... 
Rapidly Changing Face of Nation's Labor Movement Described 

(Moira Levy; THE WEEKLY MAIL, 12-18 Sep 86) eeeeeeee eeeree 
Experts Optimistic About Solving Black Housing Crisis 

(David Jackson; SUNDAY TIMES, 7 Sep 86) ....ececeeeeces see 
Expert Assesses Housing Backlog Situation 

(Tobie de Vos; THE STAR, 9 Sep 86) ....cseeeceeves o6eeeees 

Refugee Flood to Durban Doubles 

Australian Business Links Play Role in Dealing With Sanctions 
(Nic van Oudtshoorn, Cas St Leger; SUNDAY TIMES, 7 Sep 86) 

Chamber of Mines: Sanctions on Coal To Drive Up Price 
(THE SUNDAY STAR, 7 Sep 86) ....ccecssceces soe6be0+eeeones 

SATS: Export Shipments Outstripping Imports 
(David Furlonger; BUSINESS DAY, 5 Sep 86) ...... rerrrrry . 

Soaring Gold Prices May Herald Rise in Standard of Living 
(John Spira; THE SUNDAY STAR, 7 Sep 86) ....eeeeeeeecveees 

Drop in Foreign Tourists Leaves Thousands Jobless 
(THE STAR, 11 Sep 86) eeeee#e#es @eeeeoeeeoeeeseeee#es eeeeoeeeseeee8se ee0e5485+veves? 


















Researchers Say Half of Black Population Jobless 
(Phillip van Niekerk; THE WEEKLY MAIL, 12-18 Sep 86) .... 

Cape Town Workers Offer Scant Response To Skilled Job Offers 
(Derek Tommey; THE WEEKEND ARGUS, 6 Sep 86) - 

Economist Urges Tax Reduction for Growth, Lowered Inflation 
(Azar Jammine; THE WEEKEND ARGUS, 6 Sep 86) .......e6- “os 

Social Upheaval Predicted as Drought Continues in Transvaal 
(Tue STAR, 1 Sep GS) .cccccce peeedesebeeseveeseeerenecees 

Rumors of New Platinum Mining Complex in Bophuthatswana 
(THE CITIZEN, 2 Sep 86) ........ Se eeeoessees ocecee ececces 


Giant Water Project Aims to Double Vaal River System Supply 
(Jaap Boekkooi; THE STAR, 9 Sep 86) .....cccccccvcccceees : 

Sasol Profit Statement Analyzed, 'Nice Looking Results’ Seen 
(Robin Friedland; BUSINESS DAY, 5 Sep 86) ......ceeeeeees 

Drop in Johannesburg Building Plans 












SHIPPING LINE EXPANDS--The first wholly African-owned shipping line in East 
Africa, Allied Oil Supplies has brought in second ship and is set to branch out 
into the lucrative business of shipping and importing oil by the end of the 
year, According to the company's general manager in Mombasa, Peter Mbendo, 
this new venture will guarantee them the annexation of 60% of the market 
served by foreign oil firms. Allied Oil was established last year and has 
earned Kenya foreign exchange in excess of 30m shillings. No profit levels 
have, however, been released, The company serves the eastern Africa states 

of Seychelles, Tanzania, Somalia and the Comoros. The new ship was launched 
on July 10th and will supplement the Sofia, launched a year ago. The new ship 
will have a capacity of 6,000 tons of cargo. [Text] [Paris AFRICA DEFENSE 
JOURNAL in English Aug 86 p 27] /9274 

OAU, ECA MAP IMPROVEMENT EFFORTS--On 9 May, Cartography Year in Africa was of- 
ficially proclaimed by the Organization for African Unity and the Economic Com- 
mission for Africa (ECA), within the framework of a program that aims at the 
establishment of more precise maps that will make a better contribution to de- 
velopment efforts. Messrs Ide Oumarou, OAU secretary general, and Adebayo 
Adedeji, ECA executive secretary, stated on this occasion that 23 percent of 
the total surface area of the African continent had been accurately mapped at 
present. In a joint communique the two officials stated that ''the lack of pre- 
cise and well-documented information is one of the factors which for years have 
slowed down the economic development of a continent endowed with abundant natu- 
ral resources." In the course of this cartography year, the OAU and the ECA, 
with the help of international organizations, hope to be able to make use of 
various techniques, including teledetection and aerial reconnaissance, so that 
the map of Africa may be complete by the end of the century. [Text] [Paris 
AFRIQUE-DEFENSE in French Jul 86 p 28] 8117 



Santos Government Denies Contact 

Johannesburg THE STAR in English 1 Sep 86 p ll 

[Text ] 

JAMBA (Angola) — The Unita 
leader, Dr Jonas Savimbi, out- 
lined a peace offer to Angola’s 
Marxist rulers yesterday, call- 
ing for negotiations on with- 
drawal of all foreign troops 
and a national unity govern- 
ment leading to elections. 

“War is not good business. 
Our people want to go home 
and plough, go to their villages 
and cows,” Dr Savimbi said in 
an interview after the news 
conference announcement at 
his headquarters. 

He said the “platform for 
peace” was developed at a six- 
day congress of the Union for 
the Total Independence of An- 
gola, which he said gathered 
two thousand delegates from 
all 16 provinces of the embat- 
tled country. 

Dr Savimbi said unofficial 
talks had been conducted in 

London and Paris with repre-' 

sentatives of President Eduar- 
do dos Santos’ government, 
which has denied any contacts. 
Both Unita and Mr dos 
Santos’ Popular Movement for 
the Liberation of Angola 
(MPLA) fought for indepen- 
dence from Portugal, but in the 
1975 civil war that followed, Dr 
Savimbi lost to the MPLA, 
which is supported by Cuban 
troops and Soviet advisers. 
South Africa has supported 
Unita in its 11-year struggle for 

a power-sharing agreement 
and the United States began 
sending aid last April. 

“United States aid is for the 
purpose of promoting a peace- 
ful solution. If peace negotia- 
tions began, we would need no 
more aid,” Dr Savimbi said. 
But the Soviets would also have 
to stop arming the other side, 
he said. 

“In 1975 while we were talk- 
ing, they were arming.” 

Dr Savimbi’s “platform for 
peace” called for: 

“An official and unequirocal 
deposition from MPLA that it 
is willing to negotiate, and we 
will start negotiations imme- 
diately ... to deal with the 

problems of total withdrawal 
of foreign troops from our 


“Then we can declare a 
ceasefire between our forces 
and MPLA forces and all na- 
tional forces will maintain the 
positions they have, leading to 
a goverment of national unity 
that will lead to peace in our 
country and finally to elections, 
so each will know the populari- 
ty it has.” 

At the news conference in 
the camouflaged military 
camp, Unita’s intelligence 
chief, Brigadier Peregrino Isi- 
dro Chindondo, displayed maps 
showing recent battles. 

There has been heavy fight- 
ing against Cuban forces from 
Munhango to Moxico on either 

side of the 1500km Benguela 
railroad that connects Angola’s 
Lobito port to the food, min- 
erals and trade of Zaire and 

“We have cut the railway 
and we have the intention of 
blowing it up completely,” Dr 
Savimbi said. “We know this 
—— untold suffering to our 
peopie. But we are suffering 
from foreign intervention and I 
do not think opening up the 
railway will relieve our situa- 

Dr Savimbi was asked to re- 
spond to a charge made by 
American black civil rights ac- 
tivist, the Rev Jesse Jackson, 
that Unita was targeting 
American oil company instal- 
lations in the Cabinda coastal 
province where 300 American 
workers are stationed. Mr 
Jackson had suggested that the 
guerrillas might someday use 
American-supplied weapons to 
kill United States citizens. 

“We are fighting in Cabinda 
but we are avoiding hitting 
those installations because we 
want to avoid hurting Ameri- 
cans,” Dr Savimbi said, adding 
that the oil companies, Gulf 
and Chevron, were encouraging 
the Cuban presence in Angola 
by employing Cuban workers. 

“But I don’t think Jesse 
Jackson knows a lot about all 
those things,” Dr Savimbi said. 
— Sapa-Associated Press. 

Talks Reportedly Held in Europe, England 

Johannesburg SUNDAY TIMES in English 7 Sep 86 p 16 

{Article by Stephan Terblanche] 

The “unofficial” meeting between 
senior MPLA officials and Unita was 

But it was not only economic pres- 
sure that led to the talks, sources say. 

Luanda is slowly beginning to recognise 

that Unita cannot be defeated at war, so 
it is considering the alternative — 
shared power. 

There are also reports of — 
dissent between the MPLA and 

According to sources, members of 
the MPLA delegation told Unita offi- 
cials that there was a growing desire in 
ee ee ona 
Soviet “advisers”, as they had virtually 
taken control of the country. 

Several clashes have occurred be- 
tween senior MPLA officials and Soviet 

and Cuban officials. These revolved 

@A decision at the MPLA’s second 
congress last year to demote pro-Mos- 
cow radicals in the party. 

@ A decision to move prepar- 
ing for another + against Unita 
in the south, to the northern oil and 
diamond fields after e attacks 
by Unita succeeded istracting 
= troops from Hy offensive. 

t between MPLA and 
Pm dong owe military coramanders 
about when and where the sev-ond offen- 
sive should be launched. 


CSO: 3400/28 


Johannesburg THE STAR in English 9 Sep 86 p 9 


The Angolan civil war is spilling 
into neighbouring countries. Unita 
rebeis are now operating on a 
small scale in Zambia’s Western 
and North Western provinces and 
there is evidence of increased 
Unita activity in Zaire. 

These developments follow las« 
month’s threat by the Unita lead- 
er Dr Jonas Savimbi to strike 
back at Zambia which, he said, 
has now given permission for its 
territory to be used for attacks 
‘against his movement. 

In the last two weeks Zambian 
officials have accused Unita 
rebels of kidnapping Zambian cit- 
izens and of launching a cam- 
paign of terror in the border 
areas of North Western province. 

On Friday Zambian sources 
also alleged that remnants of the 
Mushala gang had reappeared in 
the North Western province. 

Zambian officials say two 
women who had been abducted 
escaped last month from the in- 
surgents’ camp at Mwinilunga 

A top Zambian Government of- 
ficial in North Western Province, 
Mr Ludwig Sondashi, has banned 
any statements on the security 
situation there. He said, however, 
that the police and the army had 
been mobilised to deal with the 


CSO: 3400/28 

Last month Dr Savimbi said he 
had information that President 
Kaunda had given permission for 
Zambia to be used by Cuban and 
Angolan Government forces to at- 
tack his forces from the east. 

His accusation coincided with 
reports circulating in Europe that 
the Zambian Government had de- 
cided to allow Angola Govern- 
ment forces to be resupplied 
from Zambia. 

The Angolan Government was 
unable to resupply some of its 
garrisons because of Unita’s acti- 
vities. Arms were thus flown 
from Luanda to Lusaka and then 
taken to the government forces 
overland by truck, the reports 
Unita guerillas are said to have 
retaliated by mining roads in the 
border areas. 


In an interview at Unita head- 
quarters at Jamba in south-east 
Angola, Dr Savimbi said last 
month that for “ethnic reasons” 
Unita enjoyed great support in 
Zambia and could easily make 
life difficult for President Ken- 
neth Kaunda. 

Unita claims the support of the 
Lunda and Luval tribes which in- 
habit both sides of the border. 

A similar ethnic affinity be- 
tween Unita guerillas and tribes 
in neighbouring countries is being 


exploited by the Angolan rebels to 
infiltrate the oil-rich Cabinda en- 
clave, separated from the Ango- 
lan territory by a stretch of 
Zairean territory and which also 
borders the Congo. 

“As long as I am here that rail- 
way will never be opened,” said a 
defiant Dr Savimbi at Jamba last 
month when told that the Bengue- 
la railway could be an alternative 
rovte for the South African ports 
and railways. 

Relations between Angola and 
Zaire reached a low point when a 
group of Unita guerillas which in 
March kidnapped 182 foreign na- 
tionals from the mining town of 
Andrada fled to Zaire with their 
hostages. Despite demands by the 
Luanda government to have the 
guerillas arrested and extradited 
to Angola the Zaire government 
took no action. 

Although no details of Ameri- 
can help to Unita have been re- 
leased it is believed that it is 
from Zaire that the American are 
channeling their military aid to 
the Angolan rebels. American 
military transport planes have 
been seen at Kinshasa’s airport. 

According to reports published 
in Lisbon, 400 Stinger aati-air- 
craft missiles and 20 launchers 
for the missiles were initially 
supplied to Unita by the Ameri- 


Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in Portuguese 2 Aug 86 p 3 

[Text] The popularization of the use of butane gas is one of the goals of 
the party, and SONANGOL is expected to push for this during the 1986-1990 
period; this will require a plan of action to improve and intensify not only 
the supply system but also the distribution network. 

In order to learn more about SONANGOL's efforts in this regard, and at the 
same time about the poor supply and distribution of gas that has been the 
cause of much criticism, we contacted the SONANGOL regional delegate, Joao 

We began by asking Joao Cangombe what sector of SONANGOL is responsible for 
the planning and distribution for gas. "We have a gas management group that 
is subdivided into two sectors: commercial, and operations, which is under 
my direct control. Our main task is that of packaging and distribution. The 
distribution is done to our so called direct customers, defined as those who 
use large quantities of gas, and who because of this have their own installa- 
tions for storing gas, and those who use large numbers of industrial size 
55kg bottles. Hospitals, hotel chains, barracks, homes, pavty schools, and 
others. The rest we distr. vUute through a retail network that we operate, 

and a small amount goes to us directly for industrial and domestic use." 

"Our major problem is transportation, since 65 percent of the gas we receive 
from Benguela has to be shipped to Huambo. Bie gets 25 percent, and the rest 
goes to the K. Kubango province. The distribution varies. We are limited in 
terms of transportation. We have at present three 14-ton trucks. Each can 
transport 1050 12kg bottles, which means that our capacity for each trip is 
about 40 tons, or 80 tons per month. However, our loading facility is a 
local resource, granted to us only on a provisional basis by the provincial 

The SONANGOL delegate emphasized that management has made great efforts to 
resolve the lack of gas in the region. An extra heavy duty truck has been 
ordered, and should arrive in a few days. But this is not the main problem; 
what really affects the supply of gas is the small number of trips per month 
that are made. "We need to ship 150 tons a month in order to resolve our 
supply problem, but we only make two trips a month when that number should be 

SONANGOL has 10 retailers in the home territory, where the population consumes 
50 percent of supplies, while 40 percent goes to direct customers. 

Joao Congombe said that there are retailers in all of the province's munici- 
palities. "Only in Ukuma do we work through a concessionaire, who gets his 
supplies from Benguela; all other retailers are our responsibility, and they 
received 7/00 bottles in the past 6 months, which is not much, but is all we 
can manage." 

We asked what was the best way to go about obtaining a storage bottle, since 
we understand that supplies of such bottles have been suspended. 

“We had to do that in order to fight the trend in which certain people invent 
a thousand and one reasons why they should have more than three bottles in 
their home, with some having as many as five, while others have none." 

He also warned that all those who are using industrial size 55kg bottles in 
their homes are taking a risk, since such bottles require special installa- 
tion procedures; such individuals should exchange the large bottles for the 

domestic 12kg size. 

Supply and distribution delivers to EDINBA 90 percent of SONANGOL's stove 
production, leaving only 10 percent for the workers. On this matter the 
delegate said, "All of the types of gas appliances, from stoves and burners 
to gas lamps, that we receive go only t:o the workers. It is not SONANGOL who 
should be selling to the public, but Internal Commerce. We received 600 
burners and they have already been distributed to the workers." 

The other side of the problem is that of repairs of gas burners. In Huambo 
there is a repair center at SONANGOL that does all kinds of repairs. 
"We have a stove repair center which gives high quality service," said Joao 
Congombe. "I would say that this center is one of the best equipped in the 
country in terms of both quantity of parts and quality of service." 

CSO: 3442/302 


Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in Portuguese 6 Aug 86 p 3 

[Article by Feleciano Pacheco: "The Contribution of the EDA's in the Develop- 
ment of the Lucala Municipality] 

[Excerpts] Agricultural Development Station (ADS) are state companies with 
local responsibilities, reporting to the Ministry of Agriculture, and created 
for the support and development of the rural sector, particularly their as- 
sociations and cooperatives. 

The definition of the ADS as a structure for intervention is contained in the 
Global Emergency Plan, and it is on the basis of this plan that they are set 
up in the field. Lucala, a highly agricultural area, produces not only coffee, 
but also corn, beans, manioc, yams, and other staples. Coreias 1 and 2 and 
Pamba contain many hectares dedicated to the cultivation of these products on 
a large scale, and, along with horticultural locations there, they constitute 
the agricultural complex of Lucala. 

The municipality is economically important to the province, and, since the 
management structures which existed previously under the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture were not responsive to the global needs of the sector, and the local 
agricultural company created many bottlenecks, the ADS for Lucala was estab- 
lished on 11 August 1985. The ADS has a broad responsibility for meeting 
production needs of the farmers and has made an important contribution to the 
resolution of problems of bringing goods to the market and the supply of food- 
stuffs and farm equipment to the farmers. 

The director of the Lucala ADS, Jose Mouzinho, told us, “The Lucala ADS deals 
with 28 Farmers Associations involving 2,500 people." He said that the 
greater part of the cultivated land in the area is subject to attack by plant 
viruses, and that much of the land is contaminated. He also said, "The 1120 
tons of production forecast for this area may be reduced because of irregular 
rainfall in the region and the lack of utilization of fertilizers. The role 
of the ADS is to offer services that will improve the situation. 

The only ADS services paid for by the farmers are those of mechanization and 
the bringing of goods to market. The ADS chief said, "During the 1985/86 
production year, about 70 tons of seeds were distributed here, with 60 of them 
for those farmers in the association, and 10 for isolated and small producers. 

We also distributed some 3,000 farm implements such as hoes, rakes, and cut- 
ters. The farmers received 13 tons of fertilizer for application at 14 demon- 
stration fields for various products." 

The Lucala ADS has about 30 people, including farm hands and rural consultants 
(whose salaries have not been paid since last October), and it also runs eight 
small agricultural producers who concentrate on flower production for the 
parks in the municipality. 

The station has five trucks, three of them heavy, and 15 tractors, which con- 
stitute the means by which the station helps the associations and transports 
their products. The lack of parts, spares, and tires, as well as a lack of 
farming equipment such as boots and gloves for protection against chemicals 
for the field workers are major problems. The ADS received 15.5 tons of food 
from the state, and shipped 7 tons of goods to market. 

CSO: 3442/302 


Lisbon SEMANARIO in Portuguese 14 Aug 86 p 26 
[Article by Carlos da Matta] 

[Text] The conclusion drawn by many observers following the 2nd MPLA-PT 
Congress that the party's internal conflicts would stop seems to be less and 
less true. The departure of some of the "traditional" leaders and their 
allies--who made up a group claiming exclusive ownership rights over the strug- 
gle for liberation and who, as other MPLA-PT leaders, shifted back and forth 
between leftist and rightist stands--was not enough to unify the group in 

Besides various examples observed in recent months in the central or provincial 
party organs, we are now seeing a race for offices of "deputy" in the People's 
Assembly and provincial assemblies, and it is aiready clear that these same 
"traditional politicians" and light-skinned party members (either coincident- 
ally or not) are the target of criticism and attacks tending to alienate them 
from these organs. Accusations of attempted government take-over have even 
been circulating. 

This, however, is not the entire picture, and there are even frequent clashes 
among the president's supporters, which explain the constant delays in complet- 
ing the ministerial reorganization. There are also notorious conflicts with 
regard to some large economic projects, such as the cement factory. 

Cimangola's Losses 

Cimangola--the successor of Secil do Ultramar, where the Portuguese capital 
was nationalized--is a joint Angolan-Danish economic venture headed by Central 
Committee member Joao Garcia (who uses the "nom de guerre" of Castelo Branco). 
He is linked with Roberto de Almeida of the Politburo, in charge of ideology 
and regarded as the leader of Marxism mixed with "negroism" (the ideology of 
former Haitian dictator F. Duvalier, which better describes this trend in the 
MPLA-P:: than Senghor's "negritude”"). 

As for the current leadership, the enterprise has accumulated incalculable 
losses and is constantly having technical breakdowns, preventing it from pro- 
viding even minimum supplies to the domestic market and causing a huge black 

market in cement. Despite this, they decided to build a costly special pier... 
for exports. This project was the responsibility of the Danish shareholder; it 
has been completed and, obviously, has yet to be used, causing sarcastic smiles 
among Luandans. 

Moreover, despite the fact that existing furnaces are underused, the management 
intends to build a fourth furnace, through the same shareholder. Pedro Van- 
Dunen ("Loy"), a state minister very close to the president, argued that the 
partners should be diversified and that this project should be given to a firm 
from another country. 

Mr Joao Garcia reacted by totally rejecting the idea, to the point of even 
challenging "Loy," an apparently powerful official who, however, has come under 
sharp criticism for signing the Kapanda dam contract. 

Denmark is present in Angola through Danida as well, which finances and sup- 
ports some projects, and through the capital and management of Secil maritima, 
whose government representative is Mr Garcia himself. A virtual example of 
"vyodka-coca cola".... 

The finance minister drew up a report on the situation at Cimangola, which is 
living from one bank loan to the next, and the President of the Republic is 
expected to make a decision, but various aspects of this case show clearly how 
the national economy is conducted and the limits of power, even at the highest 

Aversion to War 

Meanwhile the war goes on and, despite the fact that we are already into 
August, when a large part of the vegetation dies off and rivers dry up, it is 
UNITA that is maintaining the initiative in various provinces. As for the 
problem of FAPLA detractors and deserters, their numbers can no longer be 
hidden, and even the JORNAL DE ANGOLA publishes a large number of arrest 

This shows the increasing aversion to the war and people are losing their fear 
of saying so. For instance, an Angolan living in Luanda did not hesitate to 
sign and send to "Jeune Afrique"--legally sold in Angola--a letter launching 
"a strong appeal to President Jose Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas 
Savimbi."" The Angolan people are fed up with the political, economic, social 
and cultural situation in the country. The author of the letter, Domingos 
Anderson, also appealed to African presidents (the letter was written prior to 
the OAU summit and was published in that magazine's issue 1335) to step up 
"efforts to stop the destruction of innocent lives and property which, with 
time, brings us to despair." 

Just a short time ago a letter of this sort was simply unthinkable, and it 
shows the progress made by the peace movement, at least at a grass-roots level. 

CSO: 3442/292 



CHIPENDA DEFECTS FROM UNITA--Do you know whom I saw passing by? Daniel 
Chipenda. Although he greeted me, once I recognized him, I looked the other 
way and did not speak to him. Isn't he now on best terms with the MPLA, going 
around in a Luanda embassy car in Lisbon and all? He is living in high 
style.... I have been told that after attending his mother's funeral in 
Lobito, he returned to Angola again, was received there by Jose Eduardo dos 
Santos, and gave himself up to the interests of Luanda, the MPLA, the Cubans 
and Moscow. He received some benefits in return: he was made a sort of 
"itinerant ambassador" in the employ of the Russians who are convinced that 
they govern in Angola. And so the poor fellow is going around, as an errand 
boy, knocking on doors everywhere to convince the fools that the MPLA people 
are men of means and that we should drop Savimbi and UNITA. What a blow! 
What is good is that virtually nobody is parrying the blow. What is funny is 
that it seems that Chipenda still has the status of a "political exilee"! If 
this is so, just as he was unable formerly to do politics against Luanda, now 
he cannot do any politicking in favor of Luanda! Or isn't this the case, 
gentlemen of the government? But this affair of Chipenda's "shift" is not so 
surprising for him if you recall that he used to be a soccer player and that 
this is still the season of transfers and "bonuses." [Text] [Article by 
Bernarda A. Seca] [Lisbon O DIABO in Portuguese 12 Aug 86 p 6} 9805/12859 

GOVERNMENT OPPOSES SAVIMBI BOOK--Perhaps a meeting between Eduardo dos Santos 
and Jonas Savimbi, that would open the way for a negotiated settlement to the 
Angola problem and a reconciliation for the people of that young country, is 
not as far off as many people seem to think. Ten years of war have already 
more than proven that such a long, bloody conflict will never find a solution 
based on weapons and hate. Despite the obviousness of this fact, it seems 
that many people still do not understand this, and the Angolan Embassy in 
Lisbon certainly does not. This is evident from the pressure exerted by the 
embassy to prevent publication of Savimbi's book, "Por un futuro melhor" 
["Towards a Better Future"], recently published by Nova Nordica. All it was 
able to do, however, was to transfer at the last minute the place where the 
book was to be introduced. The Sheraton, threatened with losing the business 
of the crews of the Angolan and Mozambican airlines, cancelled its commitment 
to host the session for presenting the book the night before. It was held at 
Novotel instead, and was attended by over 200 guests. Fortunately, in Portugal 
today nobody can prohibit publication of a book by Savimbi, or Eduardo dos 
Santos, or anyone, and any efforts in that direction would be fruitless, if 
they did not bear the seeds of radicalization and thus a rupture of peace with 
more days of suffering and death. "Por un futuro melhor" was initially pub- 
lished in 10,000 copies, which have been distributed to bookstores throughout 
the country, and will also be published in English, French and Spanish. [Text] 
[Lisbon 0 TEMPO in Portuguese 8 Aug 86 p 32] 9805/12859 


petroleum has been in Benguela since the day before yesterday in meetings with 
the local authorities to analyze the problem of distribution of petroleum 

and its derivatives in the central zone and in the south. Desiderio Costa 
said on arrival that rational and efficient distribution of oil and its 
products throughout the country vas of great concern to the party and the 
government, emphasizing that "oil is one of the main supports of our economic 
and social development." At Benguela's 17 September Airport the vice-minister 
of petroleum was welcomed by the assistant commissar for production of the 
province, Alexandrino Silva, and others responsible for provincial production. 
During his stay in Benguela, Desiderio Costa will visit the SONANGOL instal- 
lations, as well as other sectors connected with petroleum, and will meet with 
provincial management personnel. [Excerpt] [Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in 
Portuguese 6 Aug 86 p 3] 12857/12859 

NEW CONSTRUCTION DIRECTORATE—A Defense and Security Council decree signed by 
the president of the republic, Comrade Jose Eduardo dos Santos, has created a 
Provincial Directorate of Construction and Housing as part of the Luanda-Norte 
Provincial Commisariat. The Council of Defense and Security issued Decree 
13/86 because of problems in housing construction in that province that have 
been the subject of much discussion. The decree makes the new directorate 
responsible for the management, orientation, and control throughout the 
province for all economic and social activities in the construction and hous- 
ing sector. The creation of the directorate does away with the Provincial 
Delegation of Housing and the Engineering Nucleus of Luanda-Norte, and all of 
the personnel, installations, equipment, and materials of those two entities 
will become part of the new directorate according to the decree. The creation 
of the directorate in Luanda-Norte complies with the State Local Entities Law 
which governs the establishment of provincial directorates in response to con- 
ditions prevailing in the province, and when circumstances justify this organ- 
izational form for the management, orientation, and control of economic and 
social activities. [Text] [Luanda JORNAL DE ANGOLA in Portuguese 2 Aug 86 

p 1} 12857/12859 

CSO: 3442/302 



Kampala NEW VISION in English 29 Aug 86 p 4 

{Text ] 

ted an interview by 
Mengisu Haile Mariam. Following are excerpts from 


Q: In June this year you sub- 
mitted for public discussion a 
drat constitution. How have 
the people received this 

A: The constitution is meant to 
offer a legal guarantee for the 
enjoyment of the rights and 
gains which the people through 
their struggle have achieved. 
The constitutional Drafting 
Commission had the represen- 
tation of all the major sectors 
of society. 

Considerable preparations 
had to be done in order to pro- 
vide and to create favourable 
condition for the people to have 
a full scale and uninhabited 

First of all, we printed two 
million copies of the draft con- 
stitution for distribution. The 
Draft constitution was printed 
in fifteen Ethiopian 
languages - that covers more 
than 90 percent of the people. 

We set up 25000 fora on 
which the people could discuss 
freely. We assembled a large 
number of revolutionary cadre 
and gave them the appropriate 
orientation to lead the 

Numerous and enriching 
suggestions were put forth by 
the masses. The Ethiopia 
citizens over the age of eigh- 
te. In their entirety par- 

ticipated in these discussions. 

The discussions were con- 
ducted openly in public and 
those who had the opportuni- 
ty to see this by themselves 
naturally can bear witness to 
what has been done. 

Of course, there is no point 
in going into details here as to 
what the people have said and 
what questions have been rais- 

_ed but the comments have 

been given and the idea is to 
collect all the comments and 
integrate them where relevant 
into the draft constitution. 
When the constitution takes its 
final and definitive shape it will 
again be submitted to the peo- 
ple for their decision. 

Are the general masses really com- 
petent enough to comprehend a docu- 
ment as complex and make sugges- 
tions for its tmprovement? 

I did not want to comment 
as to what the reaction of the 
people had been towards the 
proposed constitution burt [ 
thought that it was better to see 
what the future would be. The 
impression we have been able 
to gather from these discusions 
is that our people are highly 
mobilised and politically ad- 
vanced. It has given to us a 
clear indication as to the level 
of political consciousness and 
the extent of the political 
culture Ethiopians have attain- 



ed in the last twelve years. 

Western countries and the 
Western press have been very critical 
of the way your government handl- 
ed the drought crisis and the subse- 
quent settlement and villagtsation 
programmes. How do you defend 

Jour policies? 

Our party took immediate 
action to face the disaster that 
hit the country. One thing 
which contributed to the effec- 
tiveness of our activity was the 
existence of the organisation of 
Ethiopian People, a relief agen- 
cy, which actually tried to pro- 
vide reliet ar.d rehabilitation to 
the affected. Through this 
agents and also the various 
state and party organs the first 
effort was made. 

This effort actually consisted 
of identifying clearly the extent 
of the calamity, of the type and 
the nature of problem. It was 
large scale devastation which 
we had to suffer in Ethiopia. 
The primary task was evident- 
ly to make the Ethiopian peo- 
pie and the world at large 

aware of the situation. 

First of all we had to 
mobilise the local 
resources - manpower and 
material, plus the external 
resources in the form of 
assistance and then grading 
this in a two phase pro- 
gramme - long term and 
short term programme. 

The short term programme 
consisted essentially of relict 
supplies and this is where 
foreign agencies mainly <on- 
centrated their invaluable 

Frankly speaking, there are 
countries that did nothing on 
their own in the face of drought 
disaster. These countries were 
massively assisted by the 
Western countries to get over 
the drought disaster. As a 
result of this support, none of 
these countries has given a 
serious and a critical look at 
this problem and how to deal 

_ with it may it re - occur. 

Of course there is no desire 
on the part of the western 
countries and to see any 
African country solve its pro- 
hlems with is own resources 
and by its own decisions and 
capability. They expect us to 
face all these calamities quite 
— and whenever they 

ppen again, to stretch out 
our hands and beg again. 

Such action we feel has its 
own moral and political conse- 
quencies. Our ability to cope 
with these problems emanates 
from our revolutionary 
organisation and from our 
revolutionary preparedness. 
Under MacNamara, the World 
Bank had suggested to African coun- 
tnes the destrability of moving the 
scattered populations to areas which 
were better endowed by nature and 
to concentrate them in accessible 
arcas where amenities (water, health 
care, education) could be made 
available to them. But your 
uillagization programme aimed at 
providing essential welfare to the 
peasants seems to be opposed by the 
same circles. Why is that the case? 

They don’t have a positive 
attitude towards the Socialist 
revolution that is going on in 
our country. and the 
reconstruction effort that is be- 
ing made in this country. On 
the whole, they have no good 
disposition toward us. 

Obviously, they don’t want 
us to pursue objectives of social 
construction and development, 
rather what they wish for us is 
to get down in military ac- 
tivities and social - economic 

The Ethiopian people 
demonstrated their 
resourcefulness and they talk- 
ed this problem over with ef- 
fectiveness. Especially when 
they come with a long term for- 
mula which will definitely do 
away with this drought and 
natural calamity. 

We have formulated policies 
of correct population distribu- 
tion in the country. 


Our enemies know that this 
would in the long run con- 
tribute to the strengthening of 
the revolution. 

Naturally, they are very ap- 
prehensive of such develop- 
ment and they don't want to 
see it succeed. This is clearly 
reflected in the journalistic 
endevours of the bogus press 
and in the antics of the exter- 
nal enemies of the revolution 
and the remnants of the local 
middle classes. 

But we will not change our 
methods. The effort we have 
made have already began to 
pay off as evidenced by the fact 
that the very peopie who have 
been the objects of this pro- 
gramme have become the 
beneficiaries of these 

It ts sard that your re - settlement 

eramme has been harsh and your 
officials have in some instances tm- 
posed forced re — settlement. Was 
this necessary? 

The most outstanding thing 
which has surprised us most 1s 
that given the fact that the 
world we see now - the 
technological advancement, 
the civilisation and 
culture - are the results of 
population movements trom 
one part of the world to the 
other. I don't understand why 
the phenomenon on our coun- ° 
try, whereby people were 
re - allocated from one part of 
the country to the other should 
figure as something strange, 

while Australia and The 

United States are the products 
of popular people’s migration 
and provide good examples in 
human history. 

Our situation is however a 
simpler and slightly different. 
It is a movement of people of 
our country from 9one part of 
their country to the other, from 
one village to the other. [f we 

. had to leave these people the 

wav they were and didn't re - 
allocate them elsewhere, 
could there have been any 
country or donor resourcetul 
enough to permanently pro- 
vide tood and feed these peo- 
ple indetinitely without 
themselves being involved in 
any productive activitv? 

In mest cases this assistance 
was not forthcoming and if we 
lett them there, evidently they 
would ail have perished. 

Our enemies understood the 
correctness and the eminent 
human motuvauon tiherent in 

this project that goes beyond 
solving the immediate pro- 
blem. They are apprehensive 
of the strength Ethiopia will 
derive from this project. They 
are nervous about the ex- 
emplary nature of this project 
and the possibility that other 
African countries may emulate 

You have had a crisis of national 
integration, of keeping the country 
together as one national entity. 
Enitrea threatening to break away, 
and ali was not well in other parts 
of the north. Would you say that this 
situation ts under control? 

When we launched the 
revolution imperialism did not 
want to see is interests under- 
mined in the Horn of Africa 
and it did not want to see 
anything which would appear, 

in the long run, to be jeopar - 
dising its influence. At the 
same time, it was not in its ir- 
terest to see the counter revolu- 
tionary forces against the 
Ethiopian revolution budge or 
‘conceed defeat. 

Handsome offers were given 
by our enemies to the local 
reactionaries the feudal 
elements, counter revolu- 
tionary elements and anarchist 
groups all made a joint effort 
against the revolution at that 
time. : 

The enemy made good use 
of this and they fanned, narrow 
nationalists feelings and 
chauvanism. They fanned. 
religious sentiments and fann- 
ed the physicological feelings of 
the people and they lined up all 
these groups of _ reac- 
tionaries - the real class 
enemies of the revolution. 

It was tantamount to a full 
scale civil war in Ethiopia 
which was unrealised by the 
world. Actually it was che 
struggle against these forces, 
that really constituted the 
shouldering of the civil war in 

This serious internal situa- 
non of turmoil actuaily en- 

CSO: 3400/24 


couraged external torces 
(Somalia) to take advantage of 
the situation and launch an 
aggression on Ethiopia with 
the view tc realise their 
long - cherished objectives. 

Since the overthrow of the monarcy 
in Ethiopia what do you see as the 
most significant land marks of this 
historical period? 

On the whole the lives of the 
people of Ethiopia, both in the 
urban and rural areas at that 
time were entirely at the mer- 
cy of the emperor, the 
aristocrats and the nobility. It 
was a life of total oppression 
and suppression. 

The main achievements of 
the revolution was to complete- 
ly do away with the situation 
of injustice that prevailed in the 
country. We are at the 
tbreshold of completely con- 
solidating the power of the state 
and also the formation ot the 
Peoples Democratic Republic 
of Ethiopia (PRE). 

What aspects of the Ethiopian 
revolution do you consider to have 
been the most challenging, for you 
and for your colleagues in the 

The most challenging task 
was to free our country which 
had been tor centuries under 
monarchial rule. Next to the 
overthrow of the feudal order, 
one step which has been taken 
by the revoiution was the na- 
tionalisation of the land. 

The land reform programme 
has been introducec to hand 
over the land io che real 
owners - the people. This 
was indeed the rock bottom on 
which our national democratic 
rights revolution rested, on 
which people enjoved their 
democratic rights. 

Inevitably this has aroused 
the anger of the tew who stood 
to lose land. The tormer land 
owners were disgruntled and 
they set out to challenge the 



BAHR DAR AIRPORT OPENS--The first modern international airport to be built by 
Ethiopian professionals situated at Bahr Dar (capital of Gojam region, western 
Ethiopia) was opened by Mengistu Haile Mariam on June 18th. An Ethiopian Air- 
lines Boeing-727 landed at Bahr Dar town carrying the Secretary General of the 
WPE Central Committee, PMAC Chairman and C-in-C of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, 
Mengistu Haile Marian. It is thought that this international airport will con- 
tribute to the social and economic development of the whole country and will 
promote tourism in Bahr Dar town, which is highly valued by visitors for its 
historical past and its beauty, its ancient monasteries and its location near the 
source of the great Blue Nile river. The airport will also play a major part 

in the development of Gojam and Cendar regions by transporting their industrial 
products. In a speech, the Deputy Minister of Construction and Communications, 
Aseged Wolde Amanuel, explained that the airport has a runway which is 3,120 m 
long and is 60 m wide. He added that it has so far cost 46.8 million birr. 
[Paris AFRICA DEFENSE JOURNAL in English Aug 86 p 27] 




KAOLIN DEPOSIT FOUND--Kaolin, an important industrial substance in the manu- 
facture of cement has been discovered in substantial quantities at Ahamansu 
in the Jasikan District of the Volta Region. Traces of the substance have 
therefore attracted technical experts at the CIMAO cement project in the 
Republic of Togo to the site, This was disclosed by Nana Odumgya Amponsah 
II, Omanhene of Ahamansu Traditional Area, Later during an insp»ction tour 
of the site our reporter was shown a whitish substance lining tne surface 
of the soil in the area, He therefore fetched a sample of the substance for 
onward scientific testing. At the Geological Survey Department in Accra, Mr 
G. 0, Kesse the Director confirmed positively that the substance was Kaolin. 
The substance is also found in large deposits at Cape Coast and Saltpond thus 
forming the raw material base for the Saltpond Ceramic Works. [Excerpts] 
{By Tim Dzamboe] [Accra PEOPLE'S DAILY GRAPHIC in English 4 Sep 86 p 1] 

CSO: 3400/3a 



Paris THE INDIAN OCEAN NEWSLETTER in English 30 Aug 86 p 2 

[Text } 

Claims that the rebel Mozambique Resistance Movement, Renamo, is being 
given substantial militery aid by South African sources, and that the 
African National Congress is again using Mozambique as a base for attacks 
on South Africa are threatening what is left of the Nkomati accord, 
signed by the two countries two years ago. 

The latest upsets have occurred as a _new alliance is being created 
between the southern African rebel movements = Renamo in Mozambique, 

the openly South-African backed UNITA in Angola, and the ZANU group of 
the exiled Reverend Ndabiningi Sithole in Zimbabwe. 

Though the forces comprising this "anti-Communist" association are 
scattered over a considerable area, and ZANU is not highly regarded, the 
alliance has the potential for raising the level of armed conflict in the 
region. The alliance has close links with America. It is reported to have 
been inspired by the right-wing U.S. Heritage Foundation to take a role 
fighting Communism in southern Africa. The Foundation has links with the 
White House and President Ronald Reagan, although the U.S. administration 
denies any involvement in the alliance. The United States is involved 
with UNITA and is supplying it with arms. 

The reports of South African aid for Renamo, which are denied by 

Pretoria, come from Maputo and Lisbon, and 

are backed by Western 
intelligence sources. A Mozambican information official said his 
government had proof of renewed flights *rom South Africa to landing 

strips in the Mozambican bush, where "tons" of arms and ammunition had 
been handed to Renamo in the last three weeks. South Africa is also 
accused of using border camps containing Mozambican refugees as 
recruiting centres for Renamo. 

There are conflicting views in South Africa about the source of the 
Renamo supplies. The deputy minister of foreign affairs, Ron Miller, 
claims that there is no need for South African supplies, as Renamo has 
sufficient stocks of its own and obtains equipment from 
Portuquese-speaking ex-Mozambicans and from the Middle East. Sources 

close to the South African military, however, claim that Renamo gets arms 

and other supplies by plundering Mogambican military supply columns. 

The recent escalation of the Mozambican civil war is linked with 
sanctions moves against South Africa. Renamo has been focussing on the 


Beira corridor providing road, rail and fuel pipeline links between 
Zambia and Zimbabwe and the harbour of Beira. The strategic corridor 
would be vital if Pretoria, hit by sanctions, should squeeze their import 
and export routes via South Africa. Indeed, the frontline states have 
been working for several months on plans to tackle such a scenario. 

Mr. Miller maintains that the accord is operating at the same level as 
before, despite the disbanding of the joint security commission by 
Mozambique's President Samora Machel, ANC's presence in Maputo ana the 
fact that the agreement had realised only part of its potential. 

I.0.N.- South Africa also dentes involvement in the southern Africa 
alliance, but the country's military, closely connected with UNITA and 
Renamo, would need little urging to become embroiled in an 

anti-Communist "holy war,” and it would not be the first time that the 

Pentagon would give covert encouragement to such an adventure. There 
have been at least five Renamo attacks on the oil pipeline in the last 
month, and attacks on the road and ratl links are becoming more 
Srequent. There have been frequent clashes between Renano rebels and 
Zimbabwean and Mozambican government troops in the area. The last time 
the accord came under pressure was when Mozambican yovernment forces 
overran the main Renamo base at Gorongoza and discovered the so-called 
"Vaz diaries" -- the reports of assistants to Renamo leader Afonso 
Dlakhama. These claimed that the South African military had continued 
to contact Renamo after the signing of the accord. Recently, Joaquim 
Vaz was seen in Renano's office at Durban, which opened last June. 

, /9274 
CSO: 3400/14 



Maputo NOTICIAS in Portuguese 5 Aug 86 p 2 

[Article by Bento Niquice] 

[Text] A new structure to supervise the operations of cooperative trade was 
set up a few days ago in the city of Xai-Xai, capital of Gaza Province. Called 
the Consumer Cooperatives Commission, the new agency will replace the inter- 
cooperatives. Until its official opening scheduled for next September, new 
commissions to promote this Socialist-type trade have been created. 

This decision was announced at a meeting organized by the Xai-Xai Party Com- 
mittee Secretary for the Economy, Ernesto Jaime Maluleque, which was also 
attended by several heads of cooperative trade in the province, among other 

Also participating were the presidents of the 12 consumer cooperatives in Xai- 
Xai and representatives of Democratic Organizations of the People and Profes- 
sional Partners, banks and the Provincial Agriculture Directorate. Secretar- 
ies of communal districts in the city of Xai-Xai were also invited. 

Anselmo Sitoe, head of the Cooperative Trade Department in the Provincial 
Trade Directorate, explained on the occasion that the new structure in Xai-Xai 
was the first step of a project that would soon be extended to cover all the 
districts in Gaza, to adjust this type of trade to a new stage in its develop- 


"We set up inter-cooperatives as a first step in structuring cooperative trade 
in our province," Anselmo Sitoe said, adding that the consumer cooperatives 
had now reached a stage in their development where a new structure was needed 

to handle the growing trade. 

Work Commissions Created 

At the same meeting it was decided to set up commissions of liquidation and 
establishment, which will handle all the preliminary work until the inter- 
cooperatives are completely phased out, probably by the end of next September. 

It was also announced that these commissions will work together to establish 
the "Conference of Commissioners," the highest organ of the new structure. 
These commissions were also charged with setting up the Cooperative Council 
and Management and Control Commissions, as executive organs for the new direc- 
ting structure. 

Besides working jointly, the new commissions will also perform some separate 
tasks. The Establishment Commission is in charge of hancling all organiza- 
tional matters related to setting up the new structure, and will conduct an 
exhaustive survey of the work performed by the inter-cooperatives since their 
creation in 1980. 

The Liquidation Commission in turn, which began operations the day after it 
was created, will inventory and liquidate all the financial and material as- 
sets of the former inter-cooperative commission and decide what to do with 
the remaining assets at the end of the survey. 

The move to set up a new structure to direct cooperative trade in Gaza Pro- 
vince is regarded as an important step, particularly in light of the fact that 
at recent meetings, the Gaza government has discussed the need to give prior- 
ity to supplying consumer cooperatives with essential commodities. 

One of the main activities to be developed by the new structure is to train 
officers to manage the consumer cooperatives, and it is felt that this will 
alleviate the financial crisis affecting several of the consumer cooperatives, 
since part of the crisis is attributed to poor management resulting from a 
shortage of staff with experience in this area. 

cso: 3442/290 


Maputo NOTICIAS in Portuguese 5 Aug 86 p 2 

[Text] Beginning 18 July two courses for draftsmen and mechanics, and indus- 
trial designers, fitters and electricians have been held at the Professional 
Training Center on Avenida Angola in Maputo to train skilled workers. A source 
told our reporter that the Center's administration hoped to put to good use 
the technical knowledge of the workers now in training, who were marginalized 
by the colonial system, and make them dynamic, active technicians serving our 

Training technicians for the various sectors of the national economy has al- 
ways been one of the major concerns of the Party and government structures. 
They have joined efforts and, despite current difficulties, are sponsoring 
technical and professional courses on a national level for the main purpose 
of imparting the technical know-how needed by Mozambican workers so that they 
can do their jobs better and improve production. 

Because it was not in line with their interests, Portuguese colonialists never 
made it possible for the large masses of Mozambican workers to improve the 
practical knowledge they acquired by receiving scientific training or educa- 
tion in the various professional branches of the economy. 

Up to the defeat of Portuguese colonialism, there was a capitalist system in 
Mozambique that just took advantage of cheap labor, although a short time be- 
fore the Portuguese were forced out, they tried to cover up this fact by quick- 
ly organizing small professional training courses which, however, did not 
serve the country's true interests. 

How the Center Started 

Based on the principle that without skilled and politically trained workers, 

it is impossible to conduct successfully the difficult struggle to rebuild the 
country and construct a Socialist society, in 1979 the production councils 
that were formed after independence began contacts with the Syndical Institute 
for Cooperation with Developing Countries of the Italian Confederation of Work- 
ers (ISCOS), that culminated in the reorganization of the Professional Training 
Center of the State Secretariat of Light Industry and Food. 


"This Center is the result of a cooperative agreement signed between the 
Mozambican Workers Organization [OTM] and the Italian Syndicates to train 
Mozambican workers," Juliao Jonas, director of the Professional Training Cen- 
ter, told us. 

According to what he said, this new Center is part of the second phase of 
cooperation between the OTM and ISCOS. The first phase, completed in 1983, 
involved installation of a full set of equipment for courses in welding and 
electricity at the Professional Training Center of the State Secretariat for 
Light Industry and Food. 

The Center's director explained: "After the equipment for the welding and 
electrician courses was installed, the Mozambicans felt a need to expand the 
SEILA Center, and the Italian Syndicates assisted us by providing all the 
equipment that made this new Center possible." 

According to information given to us, this new Professional Training Center 
has everything necessary to operate effectively as a modern training center. 

"This Center has up-to-date equipment capable of providing advanced and solid 
training to Mozambican workers. The training given through the courses will 

be truly professional, because we have the necessary equipment at our disposal," 
one of the technicians who teaches at the Center told our reporter. 

Teaching Staff 

The new Professional Training Center on Avenida de Angola currently has 34 
students, 19 of whom are attending the course for electricians and industrial 
fitters, with the rest training to be draftsmen, mechanics and industrial de- 

Five instructors teach both courses. Four are Italian technicians who teach 
specialities, including technology, physics, design, applied mechanics, office 
practices, electrical measures, schematic design, electrotechnology and math- 
ematics. The single Mozambican instructor teaches only subjects that are 
part of general education, namely Portuguese, history and geography. 

"We are also concerned with providing a solid education for our students be- 
cause, at the end of the courses, we will select some of the best to assure 
continuity and take over the work of the Italian technicians when they return 
to their country," Director Juliao Jonas said. He added that they expect to 
attain the objective of selecting several of the best students to later serve 
as monitors, since the Center has the means to do this. 

Meanwhile, while talking to one of the Italian instructors, our reporter 
learned that all the Italian teachers are prepared to do everything they can 
to ensure that the Professional Training Center will contribute effectively 
to developing technicians in Mozambique. 

CSO: 3442/290 



Maputo NOTICIAS in Portuguese 5 Aug 86 p 2 

[Text] The 1986-87 agricultural marketing campaign begun in the city of Biera 
last 3 June may be jeopardized if priority is not given to providing trading 
incentives, agencies involved in the campaign informed our reporter. Up to 
now, only 30 tons of rice and 400 kilos of maize have been sold. 

Rodrigues Amadeu of AGRICOM enterprise said that "this situation is really 
unfortunate, since producers around Beira have harvested large quantities of 
rice, and AGRICOM is not going to be able to market it all." 

What will happen to the surplus? Some of the producers are trying to trade the 
rice with certain cooperatives and private stores in exchange for articles 
these establishments have, such as soap, sugar, and enamel cups, dishes and 

However, because these establishments do not have enough of these articles, 
the farmers are channeling their products, and specifically rice, through the 
black market, according to reports by some citizens contacted by our reporters. 

According to these same sources, many farmers who are unable to find a legal 
market for their surplus for the reasons already given, or because the goods 
available for barter do not interest them since they already obtained them 

last year, sell the rice unhulled for 1,500 meticals per 20-liter container. 

Hulling Factory Intervenes 

This year, however, the rice factory will help market the rice after it is 
processed. This production unit located in the Manga area outside the city 
of Beira was unable to hull the marketed rice last year for financial reasons. 
"At present, the factory has financing to enable it to operate effectively 
and purchase the rice directly from those marketing it,'’ Rodrigues Amadeu in- 
dicated. According to him, the 70 tons of rice sold last year, which are 
stored at the Supply Enterprise in Beira, are already at the factory to be 
hulled, and part of it has already been distributed to consumer cooperatives. 

CSO: 3442/290 




STATE ADMINISTRATION COURSE ENDS--The second course to train officials for 
future administrative posts as presidents of community executive councils and 
district directors for support and control was recently completed at the Pro- 
vincial State Administration School in Agostinho Neto Communal Settlement in 
Inhambane. The course, which lasted 45 days, had 32 participants who were 
instructed on the Party's role in leading the government and society, the ori- 
gin of the State, the defense of Socialist legality, and operations of the 
State's directive organs including agriculture and fisheries, as well as an- 
cillary subjects related to collecting government revenue and operations of 
labor unions in Mozambique. Addressing the participants, Inhambane Provincial 
Governor Jose Pascoal Zandamela spoke of the importance of training officials 
for the State apparatus, to work for the national economy. Jose Pascoal Zan- 
damela also said that the best standard for truth lies in practice, or in 
other words knowledge acquired in the course will be valuable only if it is 
put to use at a grass-roots level. In order for the Provincial State Admin- 
istration School to be self-sufficient in food, the Inhambane governor de- 
fended the need for involvement in productive activities, on both barren land 
and farmed plots. To support the second general elections, the participants 
in the course contributed over 3,500 meticals. [Text] [Maputo NOTICIAS in 
Portuguese 5 Aug 86 p 2] 9805 

CORUMANA DAM WORKS CONTINUES--An operation to temporarily divert the bed of 
the Sabie River in Moamba district, Maputo Province, began last 2 July. Ac- 
cording to Altenor Pereira, director of the Water Works Management Unit, the 
purpose of the operation is to build an earthen dam in order to continue work 
on the project to build Corumana Dam throughout the rainy season, which is 
drawing near. The bypass consists of two deep discharge channels built in 
the rocky slope of the right bank of the Sabie River, shaped like a horseshoe 
in cross-section and measuring 7.5 meters in diameter at the circular base. 
According to the director of the Water Works Management Unit, with the two 
channels operating, 1,200 cubic meters per second can be drained off. "Before 
the next rainy season, the dam will be completed up to a point that will per- 
mit work on building the Corumana Dam to continue in perfect safety," Altenor 
Pereira explained. The Corumana Dam is being built in the Sabie River, the 
main tributary of the Nkomati River, about 140 kilometers from the city of 
Maputo. This project is primarily designed to regularize the flow of the 
Sabie for use either in irrigating land immediately downstream from the dam 


in the Sabie valley or in increasing the flow for irrigating land in the mid- 
dle and lower Nkomati during the dry season. The Corumana Dam will also 

make it possible to reduce considerably the flood points in that river, down- 
stream from the dam. [Text] [Maputo NOTICIAS in Portuguese 17 Jul 86 p 1] 

SOVIET JOURNALIST DONATION--On Wednesday morning the Union of Soviet Journal- 
ists offered to its Mozambican counterpart five typewriters and an equal 
number of copy machiens during a ceremony held at the facilities of the Na- 
tional Organization of Journalists (ONJ) in the capital. The donation, pre- 
sented by the representative of the Union of Soviet Journalists to the 2nd 
ONJ Conference, was accepted by Botelho Moniz, provincial director of informa- 
tion in Sofala and DIARIO DE MOZAMBIQUE. In a message read out yesterday 
afternoon by the representative of the Union of Soviet Journalists to the 2nd 
Conference of the National Organization of Journalists, the Soviet organiza- 
tion of information professionals stated its willingness to support our coun- 
try in training journalists. The photograph shows the UJS representative 
presenting the typewriters and copy machines to the ONJ, with Botelho Moniz 
at the right accepting the donation. [Text] [Maputo NOTICIAS in Portuguese 
17 Jul 86 p 1] 9805 

CSO: 3442/290 




Windhoek DIE REPUBLIKEIN in Afrikaans 28 Jul 86 p 4 
[Editorial: "No Funny Games"] 

[Text] The reaction of the Southwest NP (through its newspaper under new 
editorship] to the DTA executive committee's resolution to stand by its 
Okahandja declaration of earlier this year is simply dumbfounding. Is it 
wrong for a political organization to stand by a previous resolution? Mr 
Kosie Pretorius is the very man who quotes the resolutions of congress, 
executive and emergency committees to show how his party does not deviate from 
previous resolutions! (But we must admit: Mr Pretorius does not quote 
resolutions on Southwest as a fifth province of South Africa and on 
territorial apartheid. That resolution has simply evaporated; it's only the 
useful ones that count). No "honorable talking partners" would want to force 
any "population group" into an arrangement where it did not want to be; that 
is what the little Nationalist newspaper writes. But then his party has 
indeed taken part in a swindle from the start of the VPK on; for parties 
assembled there, not .population groups. And, moreover, Swanu and Swapo-D did 
not want to hear anything about "group rights." The Southwest NP must also 
have known that, shouldn't it have? (But the Southwest NP sits and smiles at 
those two parties. It's just friendliness and smiles; just smiles all the way 
when the "liberalist," Dirk Mudge, and his "liberal" associates in the DIA 
state the cause of population groups and do not want to accede to the 
arbitrary change of constitutions by people who do not have any support. And 
the NP men can smile! Just see how it looks in the National Assembly. "They 
stink to please" [tr's quotes; in English in original]. But the new editor of 
DIE SUIDWESTER will not know that. No, his men fight, they "stipulate." Oh, 
they perform miracles). 

The DIA would no longer like to conduct negotiations within the framework of 
the Government of National Unity. It would {like to] create an atmosphere 
outside the government. Wha* then is the Southwest NP dealing with when it 
enters into talks with Mr Werner Neef? What is it dealing with when it 
issues a statement on behalf of the "Conference of Representative Authorities, 
when there was only an opposition member present from Kavango, and only an 
independent member from Caprivi and no member from the DIA Representative 
Authorities? Was it dealing within the "framework of the Government of 
National Unity?" Something is going crazy; really crazy. 


Would the DTA now like to return to resolution 435? The Nationalist 
newspaper asks this by implication. May we ask: Have the RSA, the USA and 
the Western powers then totally rejected Resolution 435? The newspaper asks 
in its childlike simplicity: Does the DTA now want to negotiate with the 
govermment of the RSA, which, in turn, "has categorically undertaken" not to 
negotiate with separate parties? May we ask: Is nobody talking with Peter 
Kalangula? Is nobody talking with Mr Garoeb? Were there no talks on the Cape 
Verde Islands? Does the DIA reject the Cape Verde Agreement? DIE SUIDWESTER 
wants to know. May we ask: Was not the essence of the "Cape Agreement" that 
the transitional government would take over the national government and draft 
a constitution for the country in the shortest possible time? 

If the "Cape Agreement" should be tantamount to the amendment of AG 8 and the 
preservation of R101, then the DTA definitely does not plan to stick to that 
"agreement." The DIA has from the beginning gone up in the government with 
the supposition that all would realize that there is no time to waste. The 
DIA does not see any chance for a "gepoer-poer" [conference?]. It has gone 
out of its way to give others the chance to make a contribution. They won't 
play their own funny little game on the back of the DTA. That's what it's 
about, over and done with. 




Windhoek DIE REPUBLIKEIN in Afrikaans 29 Jul 86 pp 1,5 
[Article by Chief Editorial Staff: "Terrorists Want to Murder Own People") 

[Text] Swapo is engaging in an intensive purging process in its own ranks in 
order to counteract disloyalty, and violent action against some of its 
internal leaders is also being planned. Plans to intensify violence outside 
the operational area in SWA/Namibia are being delayed at this stage only 
because the Swapo leaders, and especially PLAN (the military wing of Swapo) 
are afraid of leaks in the organization. This, as well as other information 
from Swapo's inside circles, came into DIE REPUBLIKEIN's possession yesterday. 

The names of Mr Danny Tjongarero and members of the so-called Elders' 
Committee appear on the list of "puppets" who cannot be trusted and who must 
be eliminated. The purging process in Swapo has already led to dozens of 
people landing in punitive camps in Angola and Zambia. According to 
information, the Swapo leadership body is now satisfied that Swapo's external 
wings have been "purged." However, there is still great concern in Swapo 
about the leaks within Swapo's internal wings. The activation of a "purged" 
internal wing and greater cooperation between PLAN and Swapo-internal also 
form part of that organization's latest offensive. 

According to the information, Swapo members have also been instructed to 
infiltrate all organizations in SWA/Namibia. According to the sources, an 
organization like NANSCO (Namibia National Students Organization) is still 
regarded as hostile-minded and must also be infiltrated. Intensified violence 
in the central and southern parts of SWA/Namibia also forms part of the new 
offensive, as well as the political activation of the masses. The 
perpetration of sabotage and other violence has been delayed up to now because 
the Swapo leaders fear leaks among Swapo-internal. 




Windhoek DIE REPUBLIKEIN in Afrikaans 29 Jul 86 p 4 
(Editorial: "No, Niko!"] 

A difference of approach between Swapo and the DTA stood in glaring contrast 
when Niko Bessinger appeared before a Swapo hearing in Katutura on Sunday as 
co-secretary of foreign affairs. Bessinger says: The price of freedom can be 
high and freedom sometimes demands sacrifices of extremes. People must 
remember that they will not necessarily taste freedom themselves, but everyone 
has a duty to concern themselves with deliverance for their children. 

First, the price of freedom. 

This is a rather hollow cry coming from Bessinger. The “price" and the 
"sacrifices" that he calls for point most clearly to the armed struggle which 
Swapo is conducting in the north. But he himself sits as a professional man 
in the safety that the security forces offer him in Windhoek. It's easy to 
ask another man for his life when one's own is not jeopardized. But he asks 
for this "price" and these "sacrifices" against the background of a lost 
struggle. The intensity of Swapo's military onslaught has diminished in the 
presence of their losses. They are losing the warm, not winning it. That is 
precisely [why Swapo] has made it assume the form of a hit-and-run war where 
ordinary civilians are the target. In short, the people who should be 
"liberated" are being shot dead. 

In contrast, the DIA position is that this "freedom" is available and that it 
can be attained along a peaceful route. But South Africa will truly not grant- 
it while anarchist forces with Russian AK 47's are prowling around the bush 
and shooting peace-loving people to death. That blocks freedom, does not 
offer it. That is the very basis of the outward movement which the Alliance 
has always advocated. That is what made the Alliance share in the Lusaka 
deliberation, but there it and other parties within the Multiparty Conference 
found Swapo to be an extremely unwilling talking partner--doesn't want to 
talk, but shoot. This conviction that independence can be extricated in a 
negotiation policy also forms the basis of decisions at the past Executive 
Commitee Meeting of the DTA. And if the DTA cannot get the assistance of 
other parties in this connection, it is willing to undertake the trip to 
independence and freedom alone. That is exactly what is included in the talk 


which is sought with the secretary general of the UNO, [as well as what is 
included in] the contact which must be renewed with the Western Contact Group 
and newly contemplated direct liaison with South Africa. The circle in which 
not only the internal parties, but also Swapo, move must be broken; for, 
although the armed fighting in the north has now lasted for 20 years, a — 
takeover lies further in the distance than when it was started. | 

Secondly, Bessinger says people will perhaps not pluck the fruits of their 
sacrifices in their lifetime, but then their children can reap the harvest. 
The DTA differs with this in essence. Continually postponing a solution is 
nothing more than participating in the game of delay, for which SWA/Namibia 
has already acquired international notoriety. The DIA wants to move out NOW, 
undo the red tape around the diplomatic packages of the past and unravel the 
Gordian knot. When Swapo held a meeting under its own banner for the first 
time in five years, we thought that it would eventually have more than 
violence to offer the people of SWA/Namiba. It didn't. Will Swapo thus be 
able to take people amiss if they now spit it out of their mouths like 
lukewarm water? 



London AFRICA CONFIDENTIAL in English 20 Aug 86 p 7 

[Text] President Joseph Momoh is trying to convince the 
public that he can act independently of those of ex- 
President Siaka Stevens’s associates who still retain 
influence. Some of them are unpopular. Momoh is 
also facing formidable economic problems. Some 
leading businessmen, finding both the economic and 
political climate unfavourable, appear to be turning 
their attention away from Sierra Leone. Other com- 
panies are moving into the resulting commercial 
vacuum. Changing commercial alliances inevitably 
have political implications. 

The tendency of businessmen to leave Sierra Leone 
is especially true of the important Lebanese commun- 
ity. Sierra Leone’s best-known businessman, the 
Afro-Lebanese Jamil Said Mohammed, is giving up 
his interests in the Government Gold and Diamond 
Office and the National Diamond Mining Company. 
He also appears to be having second thoughts about 
planned projects, such as the joint-venture rice sch- 
eme with the Chinese company Agricon, which has 
not yet commenced operation. It was due to start in 
1986 (AC Vol. 26. No. 23). 

Jamil is also reported to have been the subject of 
an extraordinary speech in parliament. In late July, 
James Musa Gendemeh, the member of parliamen: 
for Kenema north-east, publicly called on the govern- 
ment to investigate Jamil’s business activities. Until 
recently such a public attack on a man of Jamil’s 
standing would have been unthinkable. 

Perhaps partly in response to the flight of 
Lebanese and Afro-Lebanese capital and business 
acumen, the government has embarked on a number 
of rapidiy-conceived commercial deals to keep the 
economy afloat. In one case, the BRN company of 
Fort Worth, Texas, contracted to supply Sierra 
Leone with a cargo of Nigerian crude oil at $18 a 
barrel, at a time when the world oil price was falling. 
It is notable that the University of Sierra Leone is 
acting as agent. In fact, the university’s constitution 
forbids such a practice. Evidently the strength of 


academic representation in government has enabled 
the financially hard-pressed university to explore 
unconventional means of funding. 

One of the relative newcomers to Sierra Leone 
which thinks that the country’s long-term future is 
rosy is LIJAT. This company, which is based in 
Frankfurt, has assumed a prominent position in 
Freetown business ircles. Its interests include trans- 
port, low-cost projects, agriculture and civil 
engineering. Its biggest planned project is the con- 
struction of an cight-kilometre bridge across the 
estuary from Lung: to Freetown at the remarkably 
low cost of $17-20 million. 

LIAT is run mainly by Jewish Russian emigrés 
who, understandabis, have connections with Israel. 
The company’s managing director, the able and 
politically astute Shaptai Kalmanovitch, has gained 
the confidence of leading figures in Sierra Leone, 
including Momoh. LIAT’s Freetown representative 
is Bill Davidson, an American of Russian-Jewish 
extraction. LIAT has established an efficient com- 
mercial reputation elsewhere in developing countries, 
such as in the South African ‘homeland’ of Bophu- 

It is not yet clear whether LIAT’s presence has 
precise political implications. However, since LIAT 
does appear to have good connections in Israel, the 
sensitive issue of re-establishing formal relations with 
the Israeli state might be raised in due course. For 
example, it was noticeable that Ruth Dayan, the 
wife of the late Israeli military hero General Moshe 
Dayan, attended Momoh’s presidential inaugura- 
tion. At the time, this did not seem significant, for 
Nabih Berri, the leader of the powerful Shi’ite Anal 
militia in Beirut, was also present. 

The connection between Lebanon and Sierra 



Leone results of course from the presence of a well- 
established Lebanese or Afro-Lebanese community 
in the country. While some Sierra Leone-based busi- 
nessmen, such as Tony Yazbeck (AC Vol. 25, No. 
24), are said to sympathise with the Christian Phal- 
ange in Lebanon, others are rather in favour of rival 
factions in that unhappy country. Jamil for example 
is said to have contributed funds regularly to Amal. 
Nabih Berri was actually born in Sierra Leone. 
To complicate matters, Yasser Arafat’s Palestine 
Liberation Organization (PLO) has recently re-estab- 
lished a representative office in Freetown following 
a meeting he had with Momoh. 

In late July, minister of state Daramy Rogers was 
obliged to jump to safety from the window of his 
house when shots were fired into the room. The 
victim has made no suggestion that this was a politi- 
cally-motivated attack. President Momoh alleged at 
a press conference that security guards of Jamil Said 
Mohammed were involved in the shooting incident. 
Two people of Middie Eastern origin have been 
expelled from Sierra Leone. 

Though we have no information to suggest that 
LIAT’s interests are connected to those of the Israeli 
government, the latter is certainly keen to develop 
bilateral links with Sierra Leone, partly no doubt to 
gain a better understanding of the relations between 
Sierra Leone and Beirut. In the longer term, the 
Israelis, mindful of the commercial and political 
benefits of diplomatic relations, might offer 
Momoh’s government security assistance, perhaps in 
the form of an Israeli-trained and managed presiden- 
tial guard. In neighbouring Liberia, the Israelis pro- 
vide a wide range of security requirements, including 
regular briefings by Mossad, the Israeli secret service 
(AC Vol. 27, No. 8). The politics of the Middle East 
have spilled into Sierra Leone. 

Paris L'USINE NOUVELLE in French 24, 31 Jul, 7 Aug 86 pp 43-45 

[Article by Vincent Nouzille] 

[Text} It was a curious scene last 27 May, around a green table in the huge 
Assembly Hall of the Togolese People, right in the heart of Lome. The Togo- 
lese minister of national corporations, Koffi Djondo, surrounded by a constel- 
lation of his colleagues, sat facing a French delegation of business leaders 
led by Rene Lapautre, the president of the ACP [African, Caribbean and Pacific 
countries associated with the EEC] committee of the National Council of French 
Employers (CNPF). 

"We wish to convert to the private sector some of the many national corpora- 

tions that have not been successful. Come visit them. We are ready to sell 

them to you. Everything is open," explained Koffi Djondo, proud of his frank 
revelation of these basic facts, yet basically prudent withal. The questions 
of the French businessmen, partly diplomatic and partly based on self-interest, 
then began to burst forth. Each "dossier'’ opened up a "parley" which would 
then be pursued in a private meeting. 

On paper, and if you listen to the speakers, the denationalization process is 
moving ahead in Togo. Here, as in other French-speaking African nations, the 
winds of economic liberalism are beginning to blow. Efforts at "African-style” 
industrialization under state control have floundered. The public corporations 
have very often come to grief. At times they are oversupplied with sophisti- 
cated materiel that is poorly adapted or in a state of disrepair; they are of- 
ten frustrated by the lack of outlets, capital, management and competent per- 
sonnel; and they are always fettered by the administrative bureaucracy and by 
corruption--if they are not accumulating all of these handicaps at once, while 
still continuing to encumber the national budget. 

To supply a little life-giving oxygen, the chief international financial back- 
ers, with the IMF and the World Bank at their head, advise those nations that 
suffer from an anemic economy today to play the game of going private, of mov- 
ing toward the private sector, both to energize the life-force of small and 
medium-sized industries on the long term and to stanch the hemorrhage of the 
public subsidies to the public sector on the short term. 

"Four or five years from now, the privatized corporations must be making a pro- 
fit. The state must no longer be financing them,'' stresses the Togolese minis- 
ter in charge of restructuring the public sector of this tiny country of 3 mil- 
lion inhabitants now in the process of economic recovery. A difficult task in- 
deed, even in Togo where pragmatism has always been the rule. 

The state, in fact, has been managing 33 joint corporations. The denationali- 
zation or the release of capital to private investors, both foreign and domes- 
tic, involves a total of 24 enterprises. Four have already been turned over, 
under the form of rental-managership contracts, "an intermediary arrangement 
preceding acquisition pure and simple, which the foreign partners seem to pre- 
fer,'' according to one observer. That is the case with the SNS (steel works), 
taken over at the end of 1984 by the American group, Ibcon, and renamed the 
Togolese Iron Metallurgy Corporation. All the industrial installations are not 
being used by the American tenant, who is manufacturing concrete reinforcement 
rods and commercializing scrap iron. Since 1984 the French group, Gemag, for 
its part, has been managing Sotexma (agricultural equipment storehouse), but 
the experiment does not seem conclusive at the present time. In August 1985 
the Shell Oil Company, under a rental-managership arrangement, resumed control 
of the STH (refinery and warehouse), a gleaming, unexploited behemoth. Only 
the activity of keeping up the supply of refined products is currently a going 
concern. Finally the Danish group, Emidan, took over Soprolait (dairy) which 
was renamed Fan Milk. 

These beginnings appear timid in the eyes of the Togolese, who e t substan- 
tial returns from them in the form of jobs and value added canes | 

"The agreement signed with Emidan provides for a minimum of two years to right 
the Soprolait ship. We do not believe in miracles. But it is clear that the 
nation needs technical and financial guarantees for the fresh starts being made 
by these corporations and requires the partners not to give us the impression 
of having swindled the Togolese by underpricing the rentals or acquisitions," 
specifies Koffi Djondo. 

Eight other corporations are currently the object of cautious negotiations with 
foreign investors. Thus the two French groups, Schaeffer Textiles and Texunion, 
are interested in the Togotex plant and in the ITT printing establishment. 

Certain Korean and American groups have also entered the lists. "The location 
of Lome is regionally important for the textile market," explains Francois Vri- 
nat, the president-director general of Schaeffer, which is already managing a 
number of industrial units in Ivory Coast, Benin, Niger and Congo. 'We had 
been talking about ITT for several years. With the inauguration of its program 
of converting units to the private sector, the Togolese government wishes to 
turn over Togotex and ITT together. The new negotiation is in progress. We 
are relatively confident." 

In the present case, the dossier includes a number of facets. First of all, 
certain factory installations are obsolete. The Togotex plant never really 
"converted."" The evaluation of these corporations cannot therefore result sim- 
ply from a strictly accountable audit. All the more so because the state puts 
forward the creativity of Togolese workers and considers itself ready to facili- 


tate the authorization of reconstruction credits for the textile sector, even 
once it has become private. Next the market study seems to indicate a risky 
situation, given the fact that Togo dances so much to the tune of its unpredic- 
table neighbor, Nigeria. Because of a particularly favorable rate of exchange 
with the naira (the Nigerian currency unit), Nigerian textile products are cur- 
rently inundating Togo and the neighboring countries. The profitability of a 
Togolese plant oriented toward exports remains difficult to assess and predict, 
therefore. Has not one Gabonese textile plant just gone under, while two others 
are carrying on with great difficulty in Mali and Congo? Finally, the negotia- 
tion is political, since one of the “privatizable" units is located in the home 
country of the Togolese president, Eyadema. So.... 

Thus both the aboveboard and the undercover operations of each national corpo- 
ration put up on the auction block become the object of official audits and 
off-the-record discussions. 

The French Company for the Development of Textile Fibers (CFDT), already pres- 
ent in Sotoco (cotton), is looking closely into a possible takeover of Ioto 
(cotton oil and palm oil). Lyonnaise Navigation, through its subsidiary, PFG, 
is interested in Sotoma (marble works), as are some Norwegians. Also up for 
sale in the first stage of the process are ITP (plastics), Sodeto (detergents), 
Sototoles (galvanized iron), Sotcon (ready-made clothing) and Otodi (records). 

Approximately another ten corporations will become private at a second stage. 
Koff£i Djondo does not want to rush anything. 'We have received many offers. 
Certain ones came from French business firms. But aside from the intentions 
displayed, the good climate of relations between France and Togo and our desire 
to unburden ourselves completely of the management of these corporations, we do 
not want to make any more mistakes. Privatization must be more than a word for 
Togo." The stakes go far beyond the vulnerable borders of this "peaceful Afri- 
can Switzerland," for, as one international banker stationed in Lome remarked: 
"If it doesn't work in Togo, where can it work?" 

CSO: 3419/300 



Kampala THE CITIZEN in English 12 Sep 86 pp 1, 4, 5 
[Article: Gaddafi: An Asset or Liability?"] 

[Text] Time stood still as most Ugandans looked on in awe as over half a 
dozen planes descended on Entebbe International Airport and strange faced 
chaps took strategic positions completely ignoring the presence of NRA troops 
who were made to look like an extremely bad handwork of a toy made by an ex- 
tremely careless child, 

"Death to the Americans’, thundered the strange faced fellows and amidst this 
refrain Colonel Muammar El. Gadhafi descended from his plane to be greeted 
by the Ugandan leader Yoweri Museveni. 

The visit of the colonel and the other super son of Africa Capt Thomas 
Sankara was to continue showing this mysterious aura as long as it lasted or 
even before it ever began. 

Ugandans first heard urmours of these visits when they say "workers of the 
Kampala City Council holsting strange along the capital's roads and streets. 
Speculations continued tliroughout as to what was about to happen but later 
radio Uganda broke the news: Thomas Sankara and Muammar Gadhafi were coming 
to Uganda, Mostly out [of] curiousity people gathered in small groups if only 
to cast a glimpse on the sons of Africa said to be the most revolutionary. 
Meanwhile NRA soldiers and members of the police were lining up the entire 
vista from Parliament buildings in Kampala to the tarmac of the airport run- 
ways at Entebbe. 

In the evening during a press conference President Yoweri Museveni confirmed 
that the two leaders were indeed coming. The same evening Thomas Sankara 
arrived but without the colonel. 

In his initial meeting with the press Sankara praised himself, Jerry Rawling 
of Ghana, Muammar Gadhafi of Libya and Yoweri Museveni of Uganda as the 
revolutionary leaders who had defeated imperialism in Africa. Many African 
leaders before them, he said, had succumbed to external pressures and indeed 
danced to the tune of imperialism. The Burkina Faso leader did not seem to 
have been impressed by the revolutionalism of such past leaders like Kwame 


Nkrumah, ben bella, Gamel Nasser, Patric Lumumba; and of existing leaders 
like Keuneth Kaunda, Samora Mackel, Mengitsu Marriame, Santos, Babangida and 
Julius Nyerere (formerly of Tanzania). 

On Saturday, Col Gadhafi flew in with an estimated 500 cheerers and 

security men, The cheerers immediately burst into chorus calling upon death 
to strike the Americans down. To many Ugandans the relevance of the re- 
frain was not clear: was it addressed to the Ugandan leaders for their known 
ties with the USA or was it a routine Libyan refrain and part of their propa- 
yanda machinery against imperialist USA? 

“Later the Colonel while speaking said that the political situation in Libya, 
Lburkina Faso and Uganda was nearing an ideal. He said such a situation is 
carried at first by destroying monarchism which he described as the auto- 
cratic despotic regimes that exploit citizens, The next stage is to destroy 
republicanism which is founded ‘on self-aggrandisement' and to establish rules 
based on people's council as the repository of people's power. This, he said, 
is true democracy. 

On later occasion Col Gadhafi characteristically lit his torch of Islamic 
fundamentalism by calling upon moslems to raise and spread Islam throughout 
the world, He said it is a duty of all moslems through various means and- 
ways to take Islam to all corners of the world. In this respect he vigorously 
attacked the USA because he said it was its aim to eliminate Islam. 

On his cooperation with Idi Amin he told the astounded Ugandans that he had 
given him support only in his initial state. He did this because he thought 
Amin was a revolutionary leader especially because he had thrown Israelis out 
of the country, 

Later the colonel's entourage spent quite a bit of imperialist dollars pur-. 
chasing goods manufactured in imperialist countries from Kampala shops. At 
the end of the day these seemed to have been the major highlights of the visit 
for nothing like a joint communique was issued. In fact some Ugandans still 
wonder at what the visit was all about for short of showing the colonels 
'revolutionarism' which Ugandans still remember very well there was only one 
other point of vital importance. 

In one of his speeches Gadhafi called upon the Ugandan authorities to close 
down both the British and American Embassies in Kampala. No comment on the 
issue was made by the Ugandan authorities and when everything is said and 
done the wisdom of such uw comment would have been ill advised especially if 
prompted by the colonel, 

CSO: 3400/23 



Kampala THE TELECAST in English 15 Sep 86 pp 1, 10 

[Text] The Bishop of Kigezi, the Rt Reverend Festo Kivengere has strongly re- 
acted to the remarks made by the Libyan Head of State, Col Gaddafi, when he 
made a state visit to Uganda last week. 

Bishop Kivengere argues that Col Gaddafi should not have used Uganda as a 
platform to attack other countries. He further says that Gaddafi should not 
have used the occasion to try to convert non-Muslims to Islam. Below is 
Bishop Kivengere's press release in full. 

As a citizen of Uganda, I don't agree with any Head of State to use the 
privilege we give him or her, to attack other Heads of Government using our 
country as a platform. For instance I don't approve of any Head of 

State calling other Heads of 
State names away from his own 
country because it would 
jeopardize the relationship 
between that country and the 
ones he attacks. One country’s 

political enemies are not 
necessarily enemies to other 
countrics. Uganda’s __ political 
enemies) are not necessarily 

Secondly, I do not believe it 
is an acceptable  internation:! 
policy for one leader of one 
country to accuse other countries 
from the country he is visiting. 
We expect that the visiting Head 
of State will respect our independ- 
ence and therefore will not take 
it upon himself to be our spokes- 

In the same way we expect 
a visiting Head of State to respect 

the institutions of the country 
he is visiting. And here I speak 
as a Christian leader in Uganda. 
I was very much disturbed to hear 
remarks our friend from Libya 
made to the Muslim leaders in 

Instead of encouraging the 
Muslim community to contribute 
positively to the construction of 
Uganda, he encouraged them to 
convert the non-Muslim Lo 
Islam, which is the normal 
attitude: of any religious preacher 
in any place, but not the duty 
of a Head of State who came 
not as a Moslem preacher to 

And what makes it more 
serious to me is that he made 
the same statement publicity when 

he visited Amin. I would not have 
expected him to make the same 
attack on Christianity under the 

present government. I am sure 
when our President visited Libya 
recently, if he had attempted 
to make the same statement in 
Libya, Muslims perhaps would 
have stoned him to death and 
they would have been right to 
react like that because that would 
not have been his duty. 

The remarks against Christian- 
ity in. Uganda in particular and 
in Africa in general consisted 
of such words asj the Church in 
Africa is colonising, Christianity 
is not the Afncan faith and 
Chnistians are colonialists. To me 
these remarks are either very 
provocative or very hostile in 
their aim and I believe the latter 
is what they were aiming at. 

If Christianity is identified 
with colonialism because mission- 
aries who brought it came from 
European countries from which 
colonialists came, that to me is 
an exaggerated interpretation of 
history and very debatable indeed. 

Now if we turn history on to 
Islam which is supposed to be 
African faith, then we have to 
admit that the missionaries who 
brought Islam in Africa came 
with the Koran in one hand and 
a chain for binding slaves in the 
other. Islam cannot deny the 


CSO: 3400/21 

fact that its missionaries were 
involved in slave trade. 

However, if we dwell on digging 
up the bones of bad things in 
history the possibility of living 

in this world together will be nil. 9. 

We in Uganda had our religous 
wars in the last century, we do 
not want any .more of those 
wars here. In fact we have had 
too many wars because of bad 
politics and now live together in, 

I sec Moslems in my Church 
listening to the message of God's 
love. And when I am asked by 
Moslems to address them I do 
not hesitate to do so. This does 
not mean that I want them all 
converted when I speak to them; 
but when they are convinced 
that it is God’s message and they 
convert; they are free to use 
their choice without pressure. 

For instance, if a christian 
becomes a Muslim we _ respect 
his decision and we do not follow 
him to kill him, for to us Christ- 
ians, killing a person because of 
his conviction is completely 
opposite to our faith. In fact 
any killing for us Christians is 
a curse and we do not believe it. 

1. In concluding this statement, 
I am challenging the govern- 


.I challenge 

ment to come out with a 
statement On where they 
stand with regards to what 

President Gaddafi suid. 

I challenge our friends of the 
Muslim community to come 
out with a statement whether 
they support what President 
Gaddafi said about Chnistian- 
ity in Uganda. 

the Christian 
community in Uganda to 
come out with a statement 
whether they stand with 
what President Gaddafi said 
about us. The challenges to 
slave trade in Africa as well 
as colonialism have come 
predominantly if not wholly 
from Christian leaders. The 

,good current example is the 

Archbishop of Cape Town 
Desmond Tutu. Anyone 
who has read and heard him 
speak cannot entertain the 
idea that the church is a 
coloniser in Africa at least 

not today. 


Kampala FOCUS in English 29 Aug 86 ppl, 8 

[Text] The RKwandese government has at last spoken out on the Rwandese refugees 
issue by appealing to the Uganda government to naturalise Rwandese refugees in 
Uganda saying that Rwanda is incapable of guaranteeing additional population, 

Rwanda also made the same appeal to the international community wherever 
Rwandese refugees are to naturalise and integrate Rwandese refugees living 

It however warned armed Rwandese refugees who would like to return home by 
force of arms. 

"With regard to the return of refugees by force, with arms, which would 
threaten the peace, security, unity and national harmony, the people of Rwanda 
would not tolerate that, values which have been achievea through great ef- 
forts be jeopardised'"’, the Rwandese government has warned. [as published] 

This is contained in a statement made by the Rwandese ruling central commit- 
tee of the National Revolutionary Movement for Development (and presented to 
the Uganda government by the Rwandese Embassy in Kampala with regard to its 
position on the problem of Rwandese refugees). 

It categorically pointed out that under the present conditions, Rwanda is 
absolutely incapable of quaranting [as published] not even food security to 
an additional population resulting from a massive repatriation of Rwandese 
refugees, Yet the absence of food security causes all sorts of other in- 

"eno reasonable person can ignore the constraint of population pressure 
that Rwanda faces within her borders or the consequent lack of arable land, 
neither the absence of natural resources which can generate jobs, nor her 
difficulties in providing education and medical facilities to her children", 
it added. 

the Rwandese government revealed that through its policy of good neighbouri- 
ness, it has always appealed for international solidarity by way of integra- 
tion and naturalisation of those refugees in the local population. It thus 
called on international organisations such as the United Nations High 


Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) to propose this option to those countries con- 
cerned, and also convince the concerned Rwandese people on the "Logic and 
correctness of this stand", 

On its part the Rwandese government pledged to "always grant those Rwandese 
refugees settled, naturalised or not, facilities to come and visit their 
relatives and compatriots as long as their entry and stay in Rwanda is done 
according to international conventions Law and regulations of the Republic and 
do not carry seeds of insecurity", 

kwanda also promised to continue examining with good will the requests for 
individual, free and voluntary repatriation in light of the conventions of 
which it is a signatory and the regulations in force in Rwanda. 

The regulations stipulated among others are that a refugee who may be con- 
sidered for repatriation is one who has never taken arms against the Republic 
of Rwanda. 

Others are that he has never participated in subversive activities against the 
interests of the Republic of Rwanda, This is in addition to showing that he 
is able to cater for his subsistance needs and self-realization when repatri- 

"Having, said this, despite that the country is small, overpopulated and among 
the list developed countries of the world, Rwanda will always offer asylum in 
the framework of the conventions she signed.... However, once the conditions 
for their return to the countries of origin will be set, Rwanda will respect 
their individually expressed will to return to their motherland the MRND 
statement said, 

It declared that there has never been an exodus of an ethnic group from 
t‘yanda and that the majority of the people of Rwanda; hutu, tutsi, twa 
wished for, made and supported the moral revolution of 1973, 

"Beyond the cheap talk on the history of Rwanda which reduces it wrongly to 
either the history of a dynasty or to the ethnic quarrels between the hutu and 
the tutsi, and without denying that tlese issues marked it, it is fitting to 
recall that this country has always been covetted. With a fertile soil, a 
rich forest and a very good vegetation, kwanda suited the farmer. the cattle 
keeper ana the hunger, But our ancesters were not able to ensure an equit- 
able distribution of resources", the hwandese government elaborated. 

The Kwandese Embassy in Uganda has already distributed the MKND document to the 
Uganda Ministry of Foreign Affairs, all diplomatic and consular missions and 
international organisations accredited to Uganda, among others. 

CSO: 3400/23 



Paris AFRICAN DEFENCE JOURNAL in English Aug 86 p 25 

[Text ] 

The Minister of 
Justice and Attorney General, Joseph 
Nyamihanga Muilenga, has appointed 
a five-man commission of inquiry to 
look into all aspects of violation of 
human rights, breaches of the rule of 
law and excessive abuses of power 
committed against the people of 
Uganda by the regimes and govern- 
ments duriug the seriod from October 
Mh, 1962 to January 25th, 1986. 

The commission will also probe into 
the activities of the regime’s servants, 
agents or agencies and look into poss- 
ible ways of preventing the recurrence 
of violation of human rights, breaches 
of the rule of law and excessive abuses 
of power in the country. 

They will especially inquire into: (a) 
The causes and circumstances sur- 
rounding the mass murders and all 
acts or omussions resulting in arbitrary 
deprivation of human life committed 
in various parts of Uganda ; (b) the 
causes and circumstances surrounding 
the numerous arbitrary arrests, conse- 
quent detentions without tnal, arbit- 
rary imprisonment and abuse of 

of detention and restriction 
under the Public Order and Security 
Act of 1967 ; (c) the denial of any per- 
son of a fair and public trial before an 
independent and impartial court cs- 
tablished by law ; (d) the subjection of 
any person to torture and cruel, inhu- 
man and degrading treatment ; (e) the 

CSO: 3400/22 


manner in which the law enforcement 
agents and the state secunty agencies 
executed their functions, the extent to 
which their practices and procedures 
employed in the execution of such 
functions may have violated the 
human nghts of any person and the 
extent to which the state security 
agencies may have interfered with the 
functioning of law enforcement agen- 
cies ; (f) the causes and circumstances 
surrounding the massive displacement 
of persons and exciusion of people, in- 
cluding Ugandan citizens, from 
Uganda and the consequent disap- 
pearance and presumed death of some 
of them; (g) the subjection of any 
person to discriminatory treatment by 
virtue of race, tribe, place of ongin, 
political opinion, creed or sex by any 
person acting under any recent law or 
in the performance of the functions of 
any public office or public authority ; 
(h) the denial to any person of any 
other fundamental freedoms and 
rights described under Chapter Three 
of the Constitution of Uganda or the 
unlawful interference with the enjoy- 
ment of any person in Uganda of the 
said freedoms and rights ; (i) the pro- 
tection by act or omission of any per- 
son that perpetrated any of the afore- 
said things from due process of law ; 
(j) any other matter connected with or 
incidental to the matters aforesaid 
which the commission may wish (to 
examine and recommend. 



Police Issued New Uniforms 
Kampala NEW VISION in English 29 Aug 86 p l 

[Article by Sam Obbo] 

[Excerpt] The Special Force has been disbanded, highly placed sources at the 
police headquarters in Kampala have disclosed. 

The government has at last decided that the Special Force which virtually 
ceased to exist since January this year, be disbanded forthwith. 

The force which was set up in 1981 as a para-military force for former Presi- 
dent Milton Obote was to check and counter any apparent threats from the 
former Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA). And this was evidenced by 
fatal exchanges of gunfire between the two forces on the first day the Special 
Force paraded in their new uniforms in Kampala. More than five Special Force 
men were killed then. 

The force which was generally characterised by brutality towards civilians 
was later used by Obote to fight the National Resistance Army (NRA), the 
Uganda Freedom Army (UFM/UFA) and the Federal Democratic Army (FEDEMU/FDA), 
which were waging a guerrilla war to topple hin. 

The estimated 1,500-man force has been disbanded after a screening exercise 
instituted by the National Resistance Movement (NRM) government early this year. 
The exercise included the police force. 

Some of the special force soldiers deserted soon after the July 1986 coup that 
deposed Apolo Milton Obote from power. 

Subsequently, the Uganda Police Force uniform has been changed from blue to 
frawn (colour between yellow and khaki). The new uniforms which have been 
manufactured and imported from England, are to be worn with effect from Monday, 
September 1, 1986. All policemen in and around Kampala with the exception of 
policewomen who have not yet received theirs will be required to be dressed in 
the new uniforms. 

"Police-women and upcountry policemen who may not receive their new uniforms in 
time due to transport delays between the United Kingdom and their stations (up- 
country stations and un its) may be excused for the meantime," said a police 


Guns, Normal Duties Restored to Police 

Kampala THE TELECAST in English 4 Sep 86 pp l, 8 

[Excerpt] All the Uganda,Police Force duties which have hitherto been handled 
by the NRA were yesterday handed back to the police. 

According to Mr Masembe, the Public Relations Officer in the police force the 
police has now been allowed to repossess guns and carry out their normal 
duties which had been taken over by the only force to guard government 
installations, escorting Ministers and other duties with the exception of 
investigations in several cases, where they need assistance due to lack of 

On Monday the police force received a new uniform replacing the old one which 
had been issued three years ago. 

Asked why the police force had earlier on been relieved of its duties, Mr 
Masembe said that the NRA had every reason to act so since there were many 
bad elements in the police force. Now that the screening exercise in the 
force has been completed, with over 2,000 policemen axed, the remainder has 
been allowed to resume their duties, 

CSO: 3400/022 



Kampala NEW VISION in English 5 Sep 36 p 3 
[Article by Betty Balirwa] 

[Text] A National centre to coordinate rural development activities in the 
country will soon be established, 

The centre was inaugurated last Friday after a one week workshop on Inte- 
grated Rural Development at Mukono District Farm Institute. 

Participants from various ministries did not say when the centre would be 
established but recommended and resolved that the Integrated Rural Develop- 
ment Centre (IRDC) will run its activities through an inter-ministerial and 
inter-agency committee under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister. 

Participants said lack of political will and commitment had resulted in the 
abandonment of growth-oriented programmes in Uganda. They noted that due to 
undirected efforts and competition between relevant agencies, there has been 
duplication of efforts and wasteful use of resources. 

It was against this background that participants recommended to government 
that an autonomous body be immediately established to streamline the country's 
“participatory approach to rural development". 

They identified village technology as one of the basic service project approach 
to uplifting rural welfare standards. 

At the closing of the workshop last Friday, the Minister of Agriculture and 
Forestry Mr Rob ert Kitariko challenged leaders to implement growth-oriented 
programmes from grassroots. 

He said there was need to increase research on the village technologies that 
will benefit the small or peasant farmer. 

The aim of research should not only be to increase production crops or animals 
per unit area, but also to ensure an economic return on investments of small 
farmers...who seldom adopt input or output technologies. 



All our efforts shall be directed to fighting poverty, ignorance disease and 
hunger in this nation, 

To promote local initiative in the field of agriculture and improve on rural 
technologies, simple devices have already been set up at Mukono District Farm 
Institute, The officer in charge of this village technology, Mr P. Etyang 
said in a report he presented at the workshop that the ministry of Agriculture 
will launch a training programme to educate the rural people on how to make 
and use these devices. 

The new methods include making and maintaining locally, threshers winners, 
mudbrick silos, cement stove silos and to improve on the traditional-granner- 
ies to make them rodent and moisture proof. They will also be taught to 
make solar driers and fuel fired driers for food storage. 

Mr Etyanga said the above approach was a means to reduce the present heavy 
losses of food grains at the post harvest stage, which arose from poor proces- 
sing techniques and inadequate storage facilities. 

Poor storage methods have led to serious rodent, fungal, pollution and insect 
destruc- [paragraph not completed], 

Another yet cheaper method is the common storage giant baskets used as gran- 
neries, common in eastern and northern Uganda. These have been found with a 
lot of potential in the making of roof basket tanks. 

Farmers are also to be educated on how to use and make simple yravel-charcoal 
filters which they will use to remove suspended matter and colour from water 
yet reduce bacterial contamination. 

The ministry of Agricuiture is also working out the use of longer lasting struc- 
ture for rural housing. 

CSO: 3400/22 



Kampala THE TELECAST in English 4 Sep 3&6 pp 3, 4 

[Text] The market at Bazi, just across the Sudanese border from Zaire, is a 
sprawling, ramshackle affair, 

The stalls are built from wood and reeds, and old sacks have been sewn to- 
gether to provide awnings, At the entrance, seated on the up-ended beer- 
crates, a group of young men in Western tee-shirts and flared trousers sit 
with their bundles of Zairean banknotes. The quivalen of $2,500 is sitting 
out in the open, while the young men laugh and joke with the market crowds 
as they jostle past. 

A mile up the road, by the weishing scales and the two new push-bikes, sit 
the Arabs. They lounge outside their dukas, or shops, on rush-mats, sipping 
tiny cups of coffee. The dukas themselves are full to bursting with the same 
commodity. You can buy a 100 kz sack of coffee for 700 pounds L560 at the 
official rate, but most purchasers prefer to drive down with a pickup full of 
new bicycles from Juha or Yei. At present, a bike is worth 120 kg of coffee 

A Time When... 

One of the traders, called Hassan, explains: "There was a time when business 
was really good. Ugandan soldiers and traders used to bring lorry-loads from 
the South, There was even a new road built through West Nile to Kaya to make 
the journey easier. Coffee prices were high then--you could exchange a truck- 
load of coffee for a brand-new truck. For less than two tonnes, you drove 
home in a Toyota Scout." 

Kaya, some eight miles Southeast of Bazi, lie at the point where Sudan, Zaire 
and Uganda join. By 1979, the town had a population of less than 300. But 
then when Ugandan leader Idi Amin was deposed, many of his troops fled with 
their new weapons from their home district of West Nile, to the sanctuary of 
Kaya District in Sudan. There are now 11,000 Ugandans settled around Keya, 
Many of them sympathisers or members of the Uganda National Rescue Front 
whose guerrillas still dominate the northern section of West Nile. Both 
Amin's ex-soldiers and the UNLA were in the habit of selling their guns in 
the Kaya-Bazi area, The purchasers included Arab hunters, Nilotic cattle- 
raiders, and guerrillas from the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) or John 


Ugandan Supplies 

Illicit business is still thriving on the Zairear side of Bazi. Jerry cans of 
petrol, which is in short supply in both Sudan and Zaire, are on sale at every 
shop, having been purchased by the drumload from the Kaya. There is a hefty 
cover-charge for transport up the steep hill that separates the two towns. 

There are also Sportsman cigarettes, which have travelled from Kenya through 
Uganda (and sometimes Rwanda) to Zaire and Sudan. Other items on sale 
include paraffin, smart Western dresses, packets of tea (mainly from Uganda), 
sugar soap, vegetables, flour, bundles of second-hand clothes and crates of 
Skol lager (from Zaire). In the opposite direction from Sudan go motorbikes, 
pickups. bicycles, bales of cloth, radios, fish and cooking oil. 

All this illicit trade takes place with the connivance, or active participa- 
tion, of the Zairean border officials. 

Most of jit is conducted by Uganda girls and women, who prefer commerce to 
digging in the refugee settlements and who encounter resistance from the 
Zairean militia and police than do their male counterparts, who are fre~ 
quently imprisoned as suspected guerrillas. Mahy of the girls raise their 
original capital by selling themselves in Zaire's hotels and bars, though 

it would appear that once they have sufficient money, they abandon prostitu- 
tion to concentrate on business. 

On the black market at Kaya and Bazi, $10 fetches 90 or 2,000 Zaires, or 
40.000 Uganda shillings. 

Maka is 21 and has been doing runs to Zaire every few weeks for the last four 
years. She is one of the old-timers in a gang of 28, whose ages ranze from 
14 to 38. They exchange business information and gossip and travel together 
in small groups to where the best bargains can be had. 

CSO: 3400/23 




POLICE FORCE TO BE INCREASED--Uganda is likely to build up its police force 
from the estimated 9,000 to between 23,000-28,000 police personnel in search 
of efficient services which are supposed to be offered by the police force 
such as maintaining law and order. This was revealed by the top officials of 
the Ministry of Internal Affairs during a press conference held at the Minis- 
try headquarters in Kampala on Monday this week. [Text] [Kampala WEEKLY 
TOPIC in English 27 Aug 86 p 6] /9274 

CSO: 3400/21 




STARVATION ON INCREASE--Lusaka--Malnutrition among children in Zambia was on 
the increase and becoming a major health problem, a Zambian official has said. 
Dr Lumbwe Chiwele, assistant director for medical services, said 70 percent 
of child deaths in Zambia were caused by malnutrition. [Text] [Johannesburg 
THE STAR in English 10 Sep 86 p 1] /9274 

UNITA BLAMED FOR TROUBLE IN CHAVUMA--Lusaka--Zambia has accused Angolan refu- 
gees of being involved in activities against Zambia. Mr Ludwig Sondashi, of 

UNIP's Central Committee, said the activities of some of the Angolan refugees 
in the Chavuma area were "very dirty". The area has been the scene of land- 

mine blasts and abduction of vi-lagers. Zambian authorities have blamed the 

Angolan rebel group Unita. [Text] [Johannesburg THE STAR in English 10 Sep 

86 p 1] /9274 

CSO: 3400/13 




Specific Proposals Made 
Pretoria DIE AFRIKANER in Afrikaans 6 Aug 86 p 1 
[Article: "Sanctions -- Hit Back!"}] 

[Text] South Africa should hit back hard if sanctions are imposed against it. 
That is what DIE AFRIKANER's authoriative Financial and Economic Committee 
declares. The committee, which has made a thorough study of the sanction 
question, says that the proper counteractions by South Africa would have 
painful consequences for the United States and European market countries if 
they impose sanctions against South Africa. The committee made detailed 
comments on the sanction proposals which are soon going to be considered by 
the American Congress, and suggested counteractions. 

--All bank accounts of the South African government, its officials and state 
corporations should be frozen. Although this measure would hurt South Africa, 
the response to it should be to freeze all non-private American assets in the 
RSA, irrespective of what purpose they would be used for. Such a 
counteraction should thus also include political and semipolitical funds. All 
debts to the USA ought to also be deferred for an indefinite time. 

--Powers to President Reagan to sell American gold supplies in order to force 
down the price of gold and in that way bring the South African economy to its 
knees. - The American government is experiencing a big deficit in its balance 
of payments and may consider such an action in order to lessen this deficit. 
South Africa's response to this ought to be to repatriate all foreign workers, 
which would strikingly demonstrate how dependent the whole subcontinent 
actually is on South Africa and job opportunties here. Another countermeasure 
that ought to be taken here is the transfer of all American investments in 
South Africa to the government. Unemployment could be fought in this way. 
European and other banks would certainly make make use of the opportunity to 
buy gold, the committee predicts. The Americans would ultimately only punish 
themselves by such an action. 

-—-The suspension of the South African Airline's landing rights in the USA. The 
response to this is an embargo on selected imports from the USA, breaking away 
from the dollar as a means of payment and severing financial ties with 


-—A ban on investments in South Africa. No action is needed against this. The 
existing American investments ought to be diminished in addition. New 
investments ought least of all be promoted. 

-—-A ban on the import of South African steel, cement and uranium. The obvious 
cour*eraction in this case is a ban on the export of strategic minerals to the 
USA. Such a ban should also be coupled with the instituting of a quota on 
supplying other countries, so that strategic minerals do not reach the USA by 
a roundabout way. Such a ban should preferably be instituted for a long 
period, say a decade. 

-—-The denial of visas. An appropriate counteraction in this connection would 
probably be a ban on travel of longer than a short period (for example, three 
weeks) of South Africans to the United States. This would also immediately 
put an end to the continual visit to the United States for "studies" and 
"training," which is nothing other than politically inspired. 

The committee states that the international flow of goods through 
international and bilateral agreements is regulated. These agreements are 
forced on the world mainly by the Americans, with a view to furthering their 
own interests. The agreements would be broken by the United States and EEC 
countries if they tum to sanctions against South Africa. South Africa would 
in turn then be free to take suitable countermeasures. 

Implications for Neighbors 

Johannesburg DIE VADERLAND in Afrikaans 7 Aug 86 p 6 
(Article: "Revenge Will Be of No Use"} 

[Text] Many South Africans' reaction to the sanctions campaign is probably 
that we should now hit back; close our borders to the neighboring countries, 
hold back our minerals from the West and in general answer sanctions with 
countersanctions. This is a human reaction, and those who think like that are 
also the very ones who are loyal South Africans to the marrow of their bones. 
However, it is dangerous to allow emotional reaction to dominate in times of 
crisis. And there is no doubt that we are in a crisis situation. That is why 
sober composure and level-headed analysis are needed to get the wagon across 
the ford. 

Minister Pik Botha said South Africa is not planning retaliation, but the 
country's interests must be protected. We do concur in that government 
decision. The question is what South Africa could attain through retaliation. 
They would not persuade the sanction countries to have other opinions. An 
article elsewhere shows that America has already committed itself to help our 
black neighboring countries against the effect of sanctions. Such help will 
increase, from other quarters also, as the need heightens. As a matter of 
fact, it is probable that those countries would use sanctions as an excuse to 
get aid against damage which is not even sanction damage. The Jonathan 
government has already used the formula. The Western economies are too strong 
to be seriously damaged even by a South African mineral boycott. It would 
drive them to other sources and other alternatives. As a whole, it would 
aggravate the aggression against South Africa, make the raging urge to destroy 
us more relentless. 


It is more in South Africa's interest to harvest as much as we can while 
something can be harvested, in spite of sanctions. That is also the way to 
steer clear of sanctions. Protecting South Africa, however, also means that 
the specific interests of South Africans must get priority. It will therefore 
be necessary that certain things are done which hurt our neighboring countries 
and their people, but then out of consideration of our own peoples' interest 
and not [out of revenge] [translator's note: part of text missing in 
original]. Thus, a South African, black, white or Colored, is entitled to 
preference over an alien regarding available emoluments. Therefore, it is not 
revenge, but self-protection, if South Africa sends back workers from other 
countries and closes our borders so that more South Africans can earn their 
livelihood. The outside world cannot expect to make a quarter of a million 
people in the farming business unemployed by sanctions and for the business to 
still have to allocate some of the remaining jobs to citizens of countries 
that are carrying on sanctions against us. Even the Bible teaches you must 
love your neighbor as yourself, not at the expense of yourself. 

CSO: 3401/179 



Port Elizabeth WEEKEND POST in English 6 Sep 86 p 1l 

[Article by Shirley Pressly] 

[Text ] 

THE Bureau for Informa- 
tion’s Port Elizabeth office 
chief, Mr Carel van der 
Westhuizen, and his staff of 
20 are determined to 
spread “a message of hope, 
co-operation and peace” in 
the Eastern Cape. 

Interviewed at a time 
when the bureau is being 
widely criticised for its 
R1l,5-miilion “‘song for 
peace” project, Mr Van der 
Westhuizen said’his job was 
“to act as public relations 
officers for the Govern- 

It also included “bringing 
the Government to the 
people and promoting the 
concept that the Govern- 
ment is working for the 

Mr Van der Westhuizen, 
who was transferred to the 
bureau from the Depart- 
ment of Foreign Affairs in 
September last year, took 
up his post in PE in May. 

Asked how he viewed his 
job. Mr Van der Westhuizen 
said: “I find it most exciting 
because the main task of 
the bureau is to promote 
better inter-group relations 
and to improve communi- 
cations between the State 
and its citizens. 

“My office is also com- 
mitted to counteract forces 
of division, violence, pessi- 
mism and hatred,”’ he said. 


CSO: 3400/12 

“It is my intention to help 
create in the Eastern Cape 
an atmosphere among the 
people in which the princi- 
ple ‘Let South Africa speak’ 
can flourish. 

“We shall also act as a 
catalyst of a message of 
hope, co-operation and 
peace among all people in 
this region.” 

The bureau’s function, he 
feels strongly, is dealing 
with people. He wants to 
get away from seeing any 
community as a grey mass. 

“We want to personalise 
Government to the people 
of every community,” he 

His staff complement for 
the Eastern Cape bureau 
has been fixed at 33 but 
only 21 of the positions have 
been filled so far. 

Asked how the bureau 
was going to get itself 
across to the people, Mr 
Van der Westhuizen re- 
plied: “We are going to use 
any means of communica- 
tion available to us, be it 
commerical advertising, 
the media, projects such as 
‘Let South Africa Sing’ or 
whatever,” he said. 

The main sections into 
which the bureau is divided 
are: liaison, media, guest 
section (hosting foreign 
‘isitors), and planning. 

The liaison section's 
:nain task is to further con- 


tact with all people in the 
Eastern Cape, to promote 
and create forums where 
people from different com- 
munities can contact one 
another via lectures. semi- 
nars and forums. 

A long-term goal is to 
open an information centre 
attached to the bureau's 
office where anyone can 
get information on any 
Government activity. 

Mr Van der Westhuizen 
said the power base of de- 
mocracy in South Africa 
had broadened to include 
many communities and the 
Government was working 
towards including black 
South Africans. It was vital 
that contact at grassroots 
level be made with all 
members of the commu- 

It was unfortunate that 
some newspapers inter- 
preted the presentation of 
the facts without sensation 
by the information arm of 
the Government — the 
bureau — as censorship. 

Mr Van der Westhuizen 
said one thing he had 
noticed in the Eastern Cape 
was the similarity between 
Afrikaners and Xhosa 

Both were proud and also 
hardnekkia (stubborn) but 
this in fact made for a lot ot 
common ground hetween 


the two and should be used 
as a basis for unification 
and not division. 

“The Eastern Cape is 
special. It has its special 
problems. Instead of find- 
ing division we should find 
common ground,” he said. 

Asked about contact with 
the African communities. 
Mr Van der Westhuizen re- 
plied: “We are making con- 
tact and we would like to 
broaden the contact. I can 
sense that they want to 
speak and want to be lis- 
tened to but they still have 
that raw fear. 

“Our black communities 
have been intimidated for 
such a long period that the 
psychological effect is still 
being experienced,” he 

One aspect which wes 
common ground with iil 
people was the aspiration 
of parents to improve their 
children’s future. He would 
like to see concerned 
youths and their parents 
get together in a forum. 

“We are concentrating on 
the silent majority o1 South 
Africans in the astern 
Cape. We know they are the 
majority. The radicals, e1- 
ther to the left ur to the 
right, are of secundary in- 
terest hecause we believe 
they are in the minority. 
said Mr Van der ‘Vest- 


Pretoria BEELD in Afrikaans 6 Aug 86 p 8 

[Article by Piet Muller: "Westminster's Ghost -- Is There an Alternative to 
Decentralization?" ] 

[Text] South Africa has survived several international campaigns against it 
since the 1960's. It is to be hoped that it will also be able to counter the 
current sanction campaign with its inherent economic power. Yet one must 
assume that sanctions will exert a serious inhibitory influence on the economy 
for a long time. In fact, there are signs that at least certain people in the 
foremost sanction countries are already beginning to realize that they have 
created a dilemma which is going to yet cause them as well as South Africa a 
lot of trouble: how does one undo sanctions after one has once instituted 
them? There is little that a white-dominated government can do in the future 
to get sanctions lifted, simply because countries will not be able to lift 
their sanctions without losing prestige or exposing themselves to emotional 
extortion. If one looks back at a quarter of a century of international 
rancor against South Africa, one notes how the emotions against the country 
have each time flared up just a little bit higher than the time before. At 
present this has gone beyond everything preceding it, and South Africa will be 
realistic if it asks itself what international punitive measures will be 
contemplated next time. Military intervention perhaps? 

Strong Public Pressure 

However one looks at it, South Africa is involved in a race against time. On 
the one hand, there are the blazing expectations of the international 
community and. on the other hand, the growing pressure for full political 
rights by the country's black residents. Add to that the growing desire of 
white voters for finding a solution which can satisfy everyone, and one sees 
that there is really reason to tackle the constitutional problems with speed 
and meaning. There is actually already such a strong public pressure for an 
acceptable solution that one must seriously wonder what is preventing such a 
solution. One of the biggest stumbling blocks is of course the country's 
Westminster heritage. The government has several times already stated in 
public that we will have to move away from the Westminster system before a 
solution is possible. But old traditions die hard. The current tricameral 
system is actually just the Westminster system in disguised form. The big 


problem that the Westminster system causes in a heterogeneous society is that 
the largest group always tries to get the central power in its hands and can 
make life bitterly uncomfortab!e for smaller groups. The constitution of 1983 
did not eliminate this problem; therefore, blacks cannot become involved in 
central political decisionmaking by way of a fourth chamber. There are 
already numerically so many blacks, and their population growth is so high, 
that the other three chambers would plainly have been handed over to the 
fourth chamber. The tricameral parliament is thus not the final answer; at 
most a new turning point on the way to the answer. 

The government is indeed solidly on the right path with the other leg of its 
constitutional reforms; namely, devolution of power to lower government 
bodies. Where there have been successful constitutional solutions to 
multiracial problems in the world, it has almost always been based on 
decentralization. In a country like Switzerland there is hardly even talk of 
a central government, and even the presidential post is held by someone else 
every few months. This sort of solution has remarkably many adherents in 
South Africa: from Dr Piet Koornhof, who was the first to introduce the term 
"canton system" into political talk, to Mr Leon (Vryemark) Louw as the very 
latest convert. There is almost no political party which cannot be reconciled 
to the idea of decentralization. This makes one again wonder why devolution 
and decentralization of power are being implementned with so little enthusiasm 
in South Africa. What devolution there has been so far has been accompanied 
by a dangerous amount of centralized supervision and control. 

Totally Inconceivable 

The same holds true of regional solutions. It has already been said often 
that South Africa is too large and its problems too complex for one umbrella 
solution. It is indeed clear that a person in the Western Cape will be able 
to find a different solution on a regional level than, for example, in the PWV 
area. Yet there is a clear lack of enthusiasm among our constitution drafters 
for this approach, as is evidenced by the government's lukewarm attitude about 
the Natal indaba. Can it be that it is again the ghost of Westminster 
standing in the way? Have we gotten so used to the central government using 
its authority to ban local affairs such as dog races in Transvaal or Sunday 
movies in Natal that a government without the authority to interfere in local 
affairs is totally inconceivable to us? 

One can realize that decentralized government must look like a complete 
abdication of authority to a generation of politicians and officials who grew 
up with the Westminster system. Yet, the very fact that South Africa has a 
state president with extraordinary powers makes it possible to have the 
transition from centralized to decentralized government proceed smoothly and 
without shock. Do we have another choice? 




Pretoria BEEID in Afrikaans 5 Aug 86 p 4 

[Article by Hendrik Coetzee and Theuns van der Westhuizen, political editorial 
staff: "KP Says a New 'Unification Party' Is Coming--HNP Says 'We Are Not 


[Text] Cape Town--While the Conservative Party [KP] spoke yesterday of the 
possible establishment of a new "unification party" between itself and the 
Herstigte Nasionale Party [HNP], the HNP said there is no question of that at 
this stage. Enmity between leading figures of those two parties and 
differences of principle over the two parties' policy directions concerning 
the Indians, the language question, a state deliberation [body], Mr John 
Vorster and the Afrikaner-Weerstandsbeweging [Resistance Movement] are 
obviously still the biggest stumbling blocks in the way of closer cooperation 
between those part parties. 

Mr Frank le Roux, MP for Brakpan and executive committee member of the KP, 
told BEELD upon inquiry last night the two parties are moving toward a merger 
to create a united rightist front "as a viable alternative." In contrast, Mr 
Jaap Marais, leader of the HNP, said there is no question at this stage that 
the KP and HNP may merge. Mr Marais said cooperation is indeed possible, but 
not merger. The differences of principle, about which the HNP holds a strong 
view, have to be ironed out first. "As far as we are concerned, there has 
never yet been any doubt that we must cooperate as far as possible so that a 
spirit of mutual trust can be created, but merger has never yet been an 
alternative. If there are KP members who talk of merger, they are definitely 
not doing it on behalf of the HNP." 

Mr Le Roux said the "unification of the KP and HNP is an important priority." 
The KP and HNP must now get together to iron out any differences that still 
exist. Talks are going on between those parties at the highest level. The 
KP's position is that a "unification congress" should be held as soon as the 
differences have been ironed out, "and, if it is necessary, even establish a 
new party and the category of things as we now can agree on." Mr Le Roux said. 
To the question whether this means that a new party with a new name and 
constitution will be founded, he said: "Let us just keep to the word 
unification. These are all things that lie in the future. The nucleus of our 
position is that we fight the NP as one political party. About the possible 

bridging of existing differences of principle between the two parties, Mr Le 
Roux said he did not want to anticipate that. These are matters that 
definitely "will receive attention, and we entertain the highest expectations 
that differences which exist will be ironed out." 

--In reaction to a report that the SABC has decided to give coverage only to 
ministers and party leaders in the Klip River by-election, Mr Marais said the 
SABC cannot act as if the ruling party's speakers are of greater interest than 
those of the opposing party. The HNP has just as great a chance to win the 
by-election as the NP. An election speech deals only with the support of a 
candidate, and a minister thus cannot have more news value than another 
speaker. The HNP candidate, Mr Chris Wolmarans, is right when he says SABC TV 
is discriminating against the HNP, Mr Marais said. 




Pretoria DIE AFRIKANER in Afrikaans 6 Aug 86 pp 1, 13 
(Article: "NP Nominates Far-Leftist in Klip River") 

[Text] The NP has nominated a far-leftist, Mr Jaco Maree, as its candidate in 
the Klip River constituency. Mr Maree, nominated in the place of Mr Thys 
Wessels, who suddenly died, has for several years served on the editorial 
advisory committee of an extremely left-oriented magazine, DIE SUID-AFRIKAAN. 
Other persons who are involved in the publication are the controversial 
writer, Professor Andre Brink, Professor Johan Degenaar of the University of 
Stellenbosch, Professor Jakes Gerwel of the University of the Western Cape, 
Professor Andre du Toit, also of the University of Stellenbosch, Professor 
Francis Wilson of the University of Cape Town, and Professor Tjaart van der 
Walt, rector of Potchefstroom University. The editor is Professor Herman 
Giliomee of the University of Cape Town. Those involved in the publication's 
political viewpoints vary from leftist to far-leftist. Professor Brink has 
for years been known for his anti-white statements, while Professor Wilson is 
involved in the End Conscription Campaign, an organization that endeavors to 
abolish compulsory military service. Professor Du Toit is a vehement opponent 
of all forms of separation among races, as also appears in his books, 
including Die Sonde van die Vaders [The Sin of the Fathers]. 

DIE SUID-AFRIKAAN's appearance two years ago was attended with great 
controversy in the light of the publication's far-leftist strain. In 
particular, a little poem in the first edition gave rise to wide public 
aversion. It read: [in English] "If I pour petrol/ on a white child's face/ 
and give flames/ the taste of his flesh/ it won't be a new thing/ I wonder how 
I will feel/ when his eyes go pop/ and when my nostrils sip the smell/ of his 
flesh/ and his scream touches my heart/ I wonder if I will be able to 
Ssleep...." A well-known Pretoria architect and former member of the 
Publication Board, Mr Johan de Ridder, lodged a complaint at the Publication 
Board at that time. In giving his reasons, Mr De Ridder characterized the 
poem as "sadistic." It also speaks of undisguised hatred of the white man, he 
claimed. Professor Van der Walt later stated that he had "serious 
reservations" about the content of the publication. He said that if a 
solution were not found, he would reconsider his position as under-chairman of 
the editorial advisory committee. However, Professor Van der Walt never 
publicly dissociated himself from the publication. 

CSO: 3401/180 




Cape Town DIE BURGER in Afrikaans 9 Aug 86 p 8 

[Letter to the Editor: "The Volkswag's 'Fig Leaf' Has Fallen Off"] 
[Text] Grower from the Western Cape writes: 

Professor Carel Boshoff has from the beginning loftily claimed that his baby, 
the Afrikaner-Volkswag, is a cultural body and not a political one, in spite 
of the fact that the founding assembly of the Volkswag looked more like an 
emotional political party rally than a cultural gathering. They reacted 
furiously whenever they were accused of politicking. And now? Now the fig 
leaf of "culture" has fallen off, and the Volkswag stands stripped naked of 
all pretense, for at its recent congress Prof Boshoff talked of a plan "to get 
control of town councils and other local bodies." He also further said that 
"All Afrikaners who agree with the volkstaat [ethnic state] concept should now 
join forces" and that "quick and effective" action must be taken if 
opportunities arise to get control over local bodies. 


Professor Alkmar Swart said at the same congress that he "can announce with 
pride that the Volkswag has gotten control of several school committees." He 
said that the members must be alert like watchdogs to liberal tendencies in 
the educational system and that they must start planning for Boer national 
education for "when one day we rule over our own volkstaat." So, from the 
horse's mouth! If that is not politics, what then is politics? What is going 
on here is a shameless politicizing of local bodies by the Volkswag, which in 
turn is nothing other than a masked political arm of the far-rightists, but in 
particular of the KP. 


Volkswag members are quick to say that the FAK [Federation of Afrikaner 
Cultural Associations] is nor longer able nor enthusiastic enough to take care 
of the Afrikaner's cultural interests. If by that they mean that the FAK is 
not willing to take over control in locai bodies, they are entirely correct, 
for the FAK has never yet been guilty of such a thing, and will also never do 
it, because that is not its duty. It is a genuine, pure cultural body which 


deals with the Afrikaner's culture and leaves politics to the politicians. 
(Strangely enough, the FAK was wholly acceptable to the Volkswag when the 
latter petitioned for affiliation with the FAK. The FAK was also still wholly 
acceptable to them when Professor Boshoff still had a seat on the FAK's 
executive committee. When the Volkswag's petition for affiliation did not 
succeed and its attack ,or rather attempt to take over, on the FAK's executive 
committee was not successful, then just as suddenly the FAK was no longer good 
enough to handle the Afrikaner's cultural affairs! But that just 
incidentally. ) 

This self-acknowledged action of the Volkswag is nothing other than the 
permeation of politics to local committees and boards. It is potentially 
self-destructive for the Afrikaner. For the sake of fancied political 
benefit, far rightists are willing to weaken and paralyze the Afrikaner in all 
spheres of life by fomenting and spreading discord, strife and bitterness. It 
is urgently necessary for people who have Afrikaner cultural promotion at 
heart to see to it that there is effective resistance to this politically 
inspired obsession for taking over and politicizing extra-political spheres of 

CSO: 3401/179 



STUDENT POLITICS CRITICIZED--It seems inevitable that tough party politics is 

for the first time going to be a factor in the student council election of the 
University of Pretoria. As a matter of fact, there are indications that a 
Struggle between rightists and verligtes Lmoderates] is going to be the most 
important factor in the course of the election, the primary goal of which is 
to appoint leaders for the largest student community in the country. The 
recent course of the ASB LAfrikaner Students' Union] congress proved that the 
day is past when student politics can revolve around purely student affairs. 
As a matter of fact, as is the case in any sphere of South African society 
today, political discord is also felt on our university campuses. This 
principle of a politically active student community cannot be faulted. The 
fact is that South Africa allows its young people to vote starting from their 
eighteenth year, so that it is only logical that political groups will also 
exist on the campuses and that in elections preference will be given to 
candidates who hold certain political views, while their role in the 
advancement of student interests is no longer of decisive importance. What 
DIE TRANSVALER is against is where student politics is carried on in such a 
manner that the academic activities are disrupted, even leading to 
rebelliousness, as just recently happened at the University of the 
Witwatersrand. New tensions are being created at the UP [University of 
Pretoria] with the rightwing Afrikaner Students’ Front, which was just banned 
from operating on campus. Nevertheless, we trust that the political 
differences at that university will be handled in an intelligent manner, so 
that it will not be necessary to hang one's head in shame later on. (Text J 
LPretoria DIE TRANSVALER in Afrikaans 1 Aug 86 p 12] 13084 

NP CONGRESS URGED--If there is a suspicion since the announcement of the 

state of emergency that a moratorium on reform has entered the picture, then 
recent events concerning sanction actions will only strengthen that suspicion. 
This reference is specifically to political reform, for there are numerous 
examples of elimination of socio-economic discrimination, such as, among other 
things, salary parity for the teaching profession and also the nealth 
services. The latter, however important, is unfortunately only one half of 
the reform that can be called spectacular or visible reform. We are still 
wrestling with political rights which meet the requirements of democracy, and 


it is about that we are standing in the center of world opinion. It cannot be 
disputed that a sort of stalemate position has been reached. The expectations 
which were aroused with the announcement at the start of the year about’ the 
Statutory Council have not materialized into reality. The situation of unrest 
had a lot to do with that, for it is precisely the aim of the ANC and its 
henchmen to make reform fail, because the democratic formula does not suit 
them. Nevertheless, it remains necessary for the impasse to be ended--for a 
breakthrough to occur that will awaken new expectations. The government must 
play an important role in that. The question is whether the NP's Federal 
Congress next week, along with the rest of the parliamentary shift, can bring 
a turnabout--a turnabout which will foster the common man's peace of mind and 
will generate business’ confidence. LText] LPretoria DIE TRANSVALER in 

Afrikaans 4 Aug 86 p 16] 13084 

BLACK EDUCATION IMPROVEMENT ADVISED--We often lose sight of how great the 
cnaiienge is which awaits the country and its black people. Dr Gerrit Viljoen 
touched on that yesterday when he pointed out that South Africa's population 
will possibly be 78 percent black in scarcely 30 years. By that time there 
Will simply no longer be enough Whites to provide all the services which now 
assure that the wheels keep rolling smoothly. Hence the big task ahead: from 
now on education will have to be provided for 5U,UUU new black students’ each 
year; 060U new schools must be built every year, 1,50U teachers found, and 6U 
experienced people must be made available as heads of those schools. If that 
does not happen, even the government may by that time be partly in the hands 
of people who are not all equal to their task, and millions of untrained 
persons will be without work. Dr Viljoen has already said the Verwoerdian 
dream of an educational system which permanently Keeps blacks in a subordinate 
position is impracticable. It is of the utmost importance that black 
education be depoliticized and improved. Good disposition and more money are 
needed for that. As regards that, talk of sanctions was a blessing in 
disguise. Foreign companies which on the one hand want to soothe their 
consciences and on the other satisfy their stockholders (or their country's 
politicians) are making large sums available for student scholarships and 
better training facilities. The quicker the handicap is overcome in the field 
of black education, the better. [Text] LPretoria BEELD in Afrikaans 6 Aug 806 
p 8} 13084 

CSO: 3401/179 



EA061932 Addis Ababa Radio Freedom in English to South Africa 1930 GMT 
5 Sep 86 

[Commentary with recorded statements by Johnny Makatini, head of the ANC 
International Department; Joe Slovo, chief of staff of the Umkhonto We 
Sizwe; Mac Maharaj, ANC Executive Committee member; and (Chris Kandit 
Ilevani), a commissar of Umkhonto We Sizwe; date and place not given] 

[Text] Compatriots, the events in Soweto these days have proved [word 
indistinct] that we can no longer be stopped in our march towards freedom. 
We have finally managed to make our country ungovernable. Botha can no 
longer govern us with his laws and decrees. [sentence indistinct] Our 
main task now is to move from ungovernability to the seizure of power. How 
do we do that? In our program tonight we present to you several members 

of the National Executive Committee of the ANC discussing the way forward 
to victory. Firstly, our head of the International Affairs Department, Com- 
rade Johnny Makatini, noted that our determination to fight on and reject 
all Botha's constitutional maneuvers and reforms has won us international 

[Begin Makatini recording] Firstly, to tell my people that by the [words 
indistinct] that is all the South African patriots of all races, particularly 
the black people, and the @nd of that stage [words indistinct] African people, 
the so-called colored people and people of Asian origin [words indistinct] 
have won our struggle international respect and admiration. It is ina 

way a challenge to the international community to move from rhetoric to action, 
because, I mean, there are few examples in the history of mankind where 

[words indistinct] oppressed women and oppressed people is given some half a 
loaf and say no: Keep your stale bread, keep your poisoned bread. We do 

not just want the whole loaf, we now want the whole bakery. This is what 

the people have said [words indistinct] having the immediate effect of con- 
solidating these alliances and putting our people on the road for the revolu- 
tion. That is now inevitable, if not imminent. 

Now, as to the message I am giving to (?the people) [words indistinct] re- 
mains desperate. We have reached the end of the (?tarmac). The struggle is 


about to take off in earnest. [Words indistinct] and one to guide us all 
the time is that a people united can never be defeated and therefore, do not 
listen to those who preach tribal politics, racial politics among those 

that aim at dividing us. 

This is the correct [words indistinct] the regime. This is what frightens 

the allies of the regime [passage indistinct] we are dealing with a regime 
that is obstinate, that is fascist, and it will impose [passage indistinct] 
But our task now is to make that constitution unworkable, the apartheid system 
unworkable. And already you have done that. We have just heard of the news 
of how you defied and [words indistinct] our people defied the laws outlawing 
--the decree outlawing--the funerals. You have outlawed--I mean you have 
unbanned the [word indistinct]--you have made it a living instrument in fact, 
a continuing (?one). 

When you meet (?the) family, some [words indistinct] some of us are going to 
be arrested, some of us are going to be injured, some of us are going to even 
be killed, and those of us who escape those hardships must redouble their 
efforts to ensure that those who shall have died will not have died in vain. 
(?The patience) of Nelson Mandela [words indistinct] at any moment. He is 
going to know how to use [words indistinct]. Now is the time [words indi- 
stinct]. There will come a time when instead of (?praying) [words indistinct] 
the ambition of everybody to get a weapon that he can hide somewhere to that 
when the time comes instead of throwing stones he can be throwing a hand 
grenade instead of [passage indistinct] We are not observers in this revolu- 
tion. We are all participants. [End recording] 

Comrade Joe Slovo who isthe COS of Umkhonto we Sizwe took this situation and 
assessed the level of armed struggle, which is very vital at the present 
stage of the struggle. 

[Begin Slovo re:crding] The [word indistinct] of the [word indistinct] 
which is developing at the moment amongst the people is a situation which 
demands an escalation of armed activities whose intensity must be increased. 
The blows against the enemy tuust happen more than they have in the past and 
it is important in particular for enemy personnel to feel the sting of 
Umkhonto we Sizwe. We have not had in the past and have never hidden the 
fact [word indistinct] is the unfolding of peoples war in South Africa. It 
is the only way. There is no way for the African oppressed or indeed for 
the black [word indistinct] generally te bring about any meaningful trans- 
formation without the revolutionary overthrow of this racist regime. (?7I 
mean) the end will only be achieved by a combination of mass political strug- 
gle [words indistinct] uprising together with the unfolding of peoples war, 
and peoples war means involving the people in armed struggle. 

That is our objective and this is what we must be working for more and more. 
And in contemplating this objective and assessing its possibilities we 

must be [words indistinct] that the youth remain ready to give their lives 
for liberation and that is the starting point for peoples war, where the 


mood of anger, the mood of frustration, the mood of confidence reaches a 
point where the youth develop a [words indistinct] and are ready to go out to 
face the enemy and that is what is happening in South Africa today. 

And our task as a liberation movement the one to which we are devoting our- 
selves is to harness that mood into a mass organized assault on the enemy 
forces and his installations and to make that assault more widespread than 
it is at the moment. And this task, let me say, is not merely the task of the 
leadership factor of ANC or the command factor of Umkhonto we Sizwe. It is 
the task of all of you who are listening to this broadcast. You must your- 
selves to out amongst your friends, among those who attack. Organize to- 
gether for the purpose of creating levels which will begin to have the 
capacity to act against the enemy not just in street [word indistinct], but 
in {words indistinct] assaults against the policeman who walks in the 
streets, against the police station which is there to send out the armored 
cars and armed soldiers and police to shoot down the children, against the 
enemy installations. It is something which you can do. It is something 
which you can do under the general leadership and banner of the ANC and its 
armed wing, Unkhonto we Sizwe. [End recording] 

Comrade Joe Slovo continued and assessed the impact our determination to 
defeat the enemy has had on the international community. 

[Begin Slovo recording] Everywhere throughout the world you have roused the 
admiration and the support of democrats, of people who are dedicated to help 
you with the ending of the racist regime. And everywhere there is a feeling 
based on what you have actually done with your courage and your heroism. 
There is a feeling that the racist enemy can be crushed. And you have shown 
once again and you are continuing to show even as I speak that the struggle 
for liberation is moving towards its inevitable victory. And if my message 
could be summed up in one sentence, it would be this: The enemy and his 
collaborators must be given no rest. Amandla. [End recording] 

Comrade Mac Maharaj, on his part, stressed the need for us to be tempered in 
struggle ande be vigilant at all times. He stressed the point that we are 
nearing the end of the road. 

[Begin Mahara recording] He must be tempered in our (?leadership). As 
people with the responsibility of leading our revolution, we must be very 
tempered. We are in a ruthless struggle. We are faced with a ruthless and 
brutal enemy with immense resources and tremendous backing from the imperial- 
ist community. The imperialist community is afraid of lifting the lid slightly 
in case the whole lid is blown off. So [words indistinct] the events un- 
folding in our country, the maturity, the defiance of our masses, the 

spirit of revolt sweeping through every corner of our country is an extremely 
heartening development. It is a development that makes the blood in all 

our veins race, because the long-cherished dream of freedom is drawing near 
at a tremendously rapid pace. No one can predict how quickly that situation 
will blow up out of proportion; out of proportion from the point of view of 


the enemy so that he will be totally incapable of even maintaining any 
facade of control over the developments. I think there is in that sense a 
tremendous excitement in all our blood. 

But in the midst of battle it is necessary for us as leaders, for our move- 
ment, the ANC, to allow for every eventuality and plan for every eventual- 
ity, because what is at stake, comrades, is victory. So, in our planning 

we must go to take advantage of every positive development. Every element 
that makes the hegemony, the cohesion of the ruling class crack must be 
exploited. Every element that brings the unity of our people in action 

must be taken a step further. We must press on with more determination at 
every momant that the enemy hesitates. But in pressing on, we must also open 
our eyes to every trick that the enemy will be pulling out of his bag to sur- 
vive. [words indistinct] correctly launched within the strategy of our 
movement, a strategy of protracted peoples war in which partial and general 
uprisings of the people will play a vital role. 

That rule that (?holds) practically is unfolding. The masses are showing 
how important the instrument of mass uprising is, how powerful. What I am 
saying, comrades, is with all the excitement in my veins, with all the 
visions that dreams is now near. [as heard] I can be seen. We can feel 
it. We can say even more truly, like our Chief Luthuli said, Freedom in 
our lifetime. We see that coming and we are working for it day and night. 

But I say that in a cause of a people who have been enslaved for so long by 
such a powerful enemy, we must at all times yield our claim to our birth- 
right and we must be prepared to fight this enemy to the death, at whatever 
cost and however long. I believe, however, comrades, that time is shorten- 
ing. That the protracted war strategy does not remain protracted for every. 
At some time, a point in time, a protracted war comes to an end, to victory. 
But the elements for that, the elements for that victory are now coming to- 
gether in our country. Mass action, unity of our people, Umkhonto we Sizwe's 
ability demonstrated and now no longer denied by anybody--Nkomati or no 
Nkomati--that Umkhonto is rooted among our people; that the ANC underground 
is rooted amongst our people, that our people are no longer watching the 
activities of the ANC and Umkhonto like spectators at a sports match, foot- 
ball match, who cheer the team but themselves sit still relaxing in the 
stadium seats; that in fact our people have left the stadium seats and gone 
into the football pitch. They are active participants now and cannot be re- 
moved from the (?pitch). These elements all have to be built upon and it is 
the job of all the advanced cadres steeled in facing the enemy bullets, 
steeled in battles to come in a disciplined way into the political formation 
of the ANC, in a disciplined way into the army formation of Umkhonto we Sizwe. 
And at the same time, never to leave their roots amongst the masses, because 
that is our (?creed). So I believe, comrades, we are nearing. Events are 
moving at a rapid pace. I think that victory is in sight, but how long 

(2it will take), no one can tell. [End recording] 

Finally, Comrade (Chris Kandit Ilevani), a commissar of Umkhonto we Sizwe, 
says that although it is clear that no force on earth can ever stop us now, 
we still have to prepare ourselves for the tough times ahead. He says we 
must prepare for a long winter. 


[Begin (Ilevani) recording] We are still going to fight (?probably) for a 
very long time. And thus it [words indistinct] a properly organized 

army prepares itself for any eventuality, prepares itself for a long cold 
winter in its campaign. But our people must be prepared to fight under any 
conditions, they must expect a ruthless and determined enemy to (?track) 
them, that the spirit of sacrifice should be the key word, that our people, 
in fact, must arm themselves. 

In the call issued by our movement, a lot of attention is paid to this ques- 
tion of people arming themselves. There are arms everywhere in that country. 
The white community is a militarized community. Every shopkeeper, every 
dealer, every farmer has got weapons in his house. The people must grab 
those weapons and use them against the enemy. Every weapon is important in 
dealing with that regime. So, the workers, the peasants, the agricultural 
workers, the students, women, and everybody else must see himself as a sol- 
dier of Umkhonto we Sizwe, as a member of the ANC, and must equip himself 
with the instruments of destroying that regime, which I think I could empha- 
size, is the importance of unity, unity in action. [as heard] The people 
must not allow wedges to be driven between them. They must not allow them- 
selves to be pushed, to be diverted from concentrating on the enemy. They 
must help those who have not yet understood the proper definition of the 
enemy to understand that definition. People must (?know) that unity and 
that unity must also be achieved in (?constant roles). It must be a unity 
that is a product of a disciplined struggle against the enemy. 

The working class must remember that it is a vital and decisive force in our 
revolution. They must build the unity of that working class, the unity of 
the TU movement. They must act together in cohesion. They must move out as 
the [words indistinct] to challenge that regime, to challenge the state of 
emergency, to challenge the right of that regime to rule our people. They 
must know now that time has gone, where TU's could afford the luxury of 
concentrating only on economic issues, because the defects of our working 
class, the ills and the poverty and unemployment, will only be solved when 
the workers have got power in their hands and can be voted for and vote for 
a government of their own choice. [End recording] 

CSO: 3400/568 




Johannesburg THE WEEKLY MAIL in English 12-18 Sep 86 p 8 

[Article by Howard Barrell and Sefako Nyaka] 

[Text ] 

ZEPH MOTHOPENG will attend no 
international conferences, shake no 
prime ministers’ hands, make no 
major speeches, tread no red carpets, 
hear no acclaim. 

Zephania “Uncle” Mothopeng was 
last month clected president of the 
banned Pan Africanist Congress. But 
it may be a while before he arrives to 
take up his post. 

For Zcph Mothopeng is currently 
serving his third spell in a South 
African prison, this time for 15 ycars. 

He was found guilty on charges 
under the Terrorism Act at the 
marathon Bethal trial in 1979. 
Sentencing him, Justice J Curlewis 
said Mothopeng had acted “to sow the 
seeds of anarchy and revolution which 
had led to the 1976 riots”. 

Born in 1913 at the north-eastem 
Transvaal township of Daggakraal, 
near Amesfort, Mothopeng taught at 
Orlando High School for 17 years. He 
left to teach in Lesotho in 1956 
because of his opposition to Bantu 
education. | 

He returned in 1958 and joined 
Robert Sobukwe and others who were 
disenchanted with the African 
National Congress. They founded the 
PAC in early 1959. 

In 1960 Mothopeng, who holds a 
Bachelor of Arts degree, was arrested 
for his part in the PAC anti-pass 
campaign and sentenced to two years 
imprisonment. At the time of his 
arrest he was about to write his legal 


Shortly after his release, he was 
arrested and detained under the 90- 
day law. 

He was later charged with carrying 
on the activities of the Lanned PAC 
and was sentenced to three years 

In May 1976, he was released and 
banished to Witzieshoek where he 
occupied a 4m by 3m corrugated iron 
shed. While there, the then 
Department of Bantu Administration 
and Development offered Uncle Zeph 
a labourer’s job at 65 cents a day. 

The department also offered to 
assist his wife, Urbania Mothopeng, 
and her children with arrangements to 
stay in Witzieshoek. 

Both offers were turned down and 
six months later Mothopeng was back 
at his Meadowlands home, where he 
was placed under stringent banning 
orders that virtually confined him to 
the house. 

In 1970, when his daughter Sheila 

announced her engagement to Ionian 
Choir cellist Mike Masote at a 

gathering, Mothopeng was forced to 
leave the house. He stood shivering in 
the cold outside while Security Police 

He was given special permission to 
attend his daughter’s wedding the 
following year. 

Mothopeng was again arrested in 
1976 and, after nearly three years in 
prison, he was convicted. He received 
two 15-year sentences. 

The 74-year-old is only the second 
person to hold the post of PAC 

president. The other was PAC 
founder Robert Sobukwe, who died of 
cancer in 1978, nine years after his 
release from Robben Island. 

Potlako Leballo, who led the PAC to 
disastrous infighting and decline in 
Sobukwe’s absence before being 
deposed and later expelled in 1979, 
was only chairman of the PAC. 
Leballo died earlier this year. 

The PAC has recently sought to 
promote the case of the ageing 
Mothopeng and to present him in 
international fora as the PAC’s 

PAC chairman of one year, Johnson 
Mlambo, also a former Robben Island 
prisoner, stays on as chairman of the 
central committee under Mothopeng’s 
largely titular presidency. Mlambo 
succeeded John Pokela, PAC 
chairman who died in Harare last 

Mothopeng’s image and the 
leadership of Mlambo will be 
important contributions to the PAC’s 
attempts to buy time in order to try to 
regain some of the vast amount of 
ground it has lost over the past decade. 

But the seal test remains the PAC’s 
ability and will to engage the South 
African state politically and militarily 
— two areas in which its prospects do 
not look good. 

There have already been isolated 
military clashes involving PAC 
cadres. And under Mlambo’s 
leadership the PAC has mounted a 
renewed diplomatic offensive. 

Part of the campaign has been to 
allege a conspiracy between the South 
African government, the ANC and 
journalists to ignore the PAC and its 

But, asked at a press conference at 

CSO: 3400/18 


the Non-Aligned Movement summit 
in Harare last week to list recent PAC 
military and other actions inside South 
Africa, Mlambo said he would not. 
Instead, he referred journalists to 
Statements by South African 
government officials that the PAC was 
active and to a trial in the Cape. 

According to Frontline state 
sources, PAC officials have also 
claimed responsibility, in private, to 
foreign government officials for 
attacks which, according to 
overwhelming evidence available in 
neighbouring states, were in fact 
carned out by the ANC. 

The PAC diplomatic offensive has 
also seen at least one sharp about-tum 
in the past five years. From a position 
of strong support for Iraq in 1982, the 
Organisation has now swung around to 
backing [ran in the Gulf war. 

According to usually reliable 
sources, the PAC currently has a total 
of some 400 guerrillas. This is about 
four percent of the ANC total of about 
10 000 guerrillas and is as many as, 
according to sources, the ANC 
currently has operating inside the 

Mlambo has impressed some 
foreign officials and even those 
sometimes termed his “rivals”. 

The PAC’s current diplomatic push 
has been an attempt to secure for itself 
all those privileges to which it might 
formally be entitled as a “liberation 
movement” accredited by the 
Organisation of African Unity. 
Among the things it is seeking to 
correct is the refusal by Angola, 
Mozambique and Zambia to allow it 
an official presence on their soil. 
These three countries currently allo= 
only an ANC official presence. 



Johannesburg THE SUNDAY STAR in English 7 Sep 86 p 4 

{Article by Graham Ferreira] 

[Text ] 

A high-level investigation 
ito alleged misuse and 
misappropriation of huge 
sums of money in the 
Transkei Department of 
Works and Energies has 
been ordered by the Trans- 
kei Auditor-General, Mr 
Jyana Maquebela. 

The former head of Dur- 
ban’s Commercial Branch, Mr 
John Trickey, has been ap- 
pointed to head the investiga- 

It follows months of ru- 
mours and complaints about 
regularities which some in- 
rormed sources believe involve 
hundreds of millions of rands. . 

A source in the Transkei Gov- 

_ @mmment said the investigation in- 

volved “people at a high level in 
Heth the Transkei and South Afri- 

The Department of Works and 
Energies was responsible for one 
of! the projects which will come 
under close scrutiny — the 




R20 million white elephant hous- 
ing estate built by Jalc Holdings 
with foreign capital. 

Recently Durban’s Sunday Trib- 
une reported that the housing 
project at Isibeleni, just outside of 
Queenstown, was undertaken by 
Jalec on behalf of the Transkei 
Government “with approval at 
the highest level”. 

Of the 330 houses built two 
years ago, 300 are still unoccu- 
pied, and questions are being 
asked about how the project was 
given the green light in the first 
place and how valuable foreign 
capital was used in this manner. 

Recently a South African build- 
ing firm declared itself bankrupt 
after it had already received 
R10 million from the Transkei 
Government on winning a tender 
for a massive housing project. 

In another case, a company was 
awarded a tender and was paid 
up-front money. Soon afterwards 

it declared itself bankrupt. 

Leading members of that com- 
pany then formed a new company 
under another name and won the 
tender again. 

Chief Justice van Heerden’s ju- 
dicial inquiry into the Department 
of Commerce and Industries is in 
the throes of winding up its busi- 
ness and finishing its report. 

A commission source said the 
newly-appointed inquiry into the 
Department of Works and Ener- 
gies would “really rock the boat”. 

“It was while we were looking 
at the Department of Commerce 
and Industries that the can of 
worms in Works and Energies 
began to open up. One thing led to 
another,” he said. 

“The problem is that while all 
this money is being thrown 
around, the South African taxpay- 
er ultimately has to foot the bill.” 

A source close to the Transkei 
Government believes that the 
Transkei is being used by South 
African businessmen to “launder” 
money from South Africa to over- 
seas countries. 


Johannesburg THE SUNDAY STAR in English 7 Sep 86 p 12 

{Article by Carrie Curzon] 


MOST Soweto kids want to learn 

and these are no different: the Free- 
dom School where they are being 
taught has expanded so fast that 
lessons are sometimes given on the 

‘The school — the only one of its” 

kind on the Reef — opened in Feb- 
ruary and already has 100 eager 
pupils, thirsty for knowledge. 

“The optimum number is really 
45,” sighed the teacher responsible 
for it all, Mrs Lucie Pursell. 

“But it is hard to turn them 
away. They are so keen to learn 
and they demand high standards. 
They don’t want inferior teachers. 
They know when someone is good 
or bad. They are highly critical and 
kick up a fuss if you are late for 

Schooling for these youngsters 
whose parents cannot afford pri- 
vate education, means a disused 
warehouse for a classroom, a 
maths lesson on the stairs, a foot- 
ball game in the streets. a science 
experiment in jam tins. 

It also means remembering to 
hide schoolbooks for fear of repri- 
sals trom ar.gry comrades. For this 
reason, the school keeps a low pro- 
file and The Sunday Star has 
agreed not to identify it. 

“Beg, steal and borrow is the 
motto here.’ Mrs Pursell said. “We 
live from dav to day. We have ex- 
panded. but we will soon have no- 
where to go.” 

Mrs Pursell’s gravest problem is 
the building in Roodepoort she has 
used tree of charge is to be !et. She 
said: ‘We are desperate tor prem- 
ises. We have to move out by the 

CSO: 3400/18 

end of the year. We are already 
having to cover R10000 of unpaid 

Those parents who can — and 
only about 40percent do — pay 
R145 a month to cover tuition and 

Fortunately the South African In- 
stitute of Management. deciding 
this “black initiative project” was 
worthy of their support. has taken 
up their cause. 

Despite daunting problems the 
Freedom School is a happy place of 

“We are desperately short of 
basic equipment and lots of the kids 
have no textbooks at all. But they 
are very keen to learn and always 
help to clean up on Friday after- 
noons,” Mrs Pursell said. 

The happy smiling faces of her 
keen young students — those who 
managed to get out of Soweto on 
yet another day of funerals — sup- 
port her views. 

“It’s just not true they are a 
bunch of hooligans,” she said. “I 
think 80 percent of the township 
kids really want to learn. 

“We have very few discipline 
problems — surprising when you 
realise Soweto is riddled with drink, 
sex and drugs.” 

It depresses Mrs Pursell that her 
conscientious charges face so many 
handicaps in their education. 

She said:“We have no facilities 
for sport for example — sich a nec- 
essary part of school life. They 
have to play soccer in the road, and 
the other day the ball hit a SADF 
car and the guy got out and pulled a 
gun on one of my pupils”. 

And she points out another stu- 


dious lass who was brutally raped 
in Hillbrow a couple of weeks ago. 

“They daren’t take their school- 
books back to Soweto; they are al- 
ways having their cases pinched.” 

“Their stock phrase is ‘the situa- 
tion is tense’, which covers a multi- 
tude of things. , 

“We have to improvise with 
everything. We do science experi- 
ments in jam tins and manage to 
teach anatomy without a skeleton. 
When the school is flush with 
money I go out and buy a whole lot 
of equipment.” 

The venture started when Mrs 
Pursell was asked by a parent to 
give private tuition to a couple of 
children. “I am black,” the female 
caller warned. “No problem, we'll 
start on Monday,” promised the 
courageous Johannesburg teacher. 

The two became 12, and when the 
number grew to 20 it was suggested 
Mrs Pursell open her own school. 

A mother of three, Mrs Pursell 
works fulltime at the Freedom 
School, helped by nine teachers who 
work on a shift basis for R10 an 

Apart from teaching, she keeps 
the books, does the administration, 
pays the salaries and provides 
lunch for her students. She also pro- 
vides a home for two of her pupils 
and hopes to find accommodation 
for others in the northern suburbs. 

School is Monday to Friday 8am 
to 4 pm tor these diligent pupils and 
the only holidays they have had 
since February were the Scweto 
boveott davs. “Then the kids are in 
danger of their lives, Mrs Pursell 



KWAZULU SEEKS FREE PORT-—Durban—The debate over the possibility of estab- 
lishing a free port or export processing zone to serve the KwaZulu region has 
been boosted by a White Paper on Development Policy tabled in its Legisla- 
tive Assembly recently. The White Paper, explained in detail in the latest 
KwaZulu Finance and Investment Co.poration magazine, The Developer, points out 
that the first step towards a free port (in either Durban or Richards Bay) 
will be for the KwaZulu Government to improve channels of communication 

with central government to allow KwaZulu more input to macro-economic policy- 
making. The call for a free port comes in a section of the White Paper 

which deplores the fact that monetary, fiscal and economies policies have made 
little or no impact on regional growth in the past. The KwaZulu government, 
it says must now exercise its right as a regional authority to influence 
macro-economic policy. This influence should be used to: --Reduce fluctua- 
tions in economic activity to a minimum, making it easier for the private 
sector to plan future growth. --Encourage a pattern of economic development 
suitable for the needs of a wider South Africa. [Text] [Johannesburg THE 
SUNDAY STAR in English 7 Sep 86 p 8] /9274 

CSO: 3400/18 



Health Officials Pressing for Repatriation 
Johannesburg SUNDAY TIMES in English 24 Aug 86 p 14 

[Article by Stephan Terblanche] 

[Text ] HEALTH officials are press- 
ing for the repatriation of 

of migrant work- 

ers and illegal immigrants 

whom, they say, are carrying 
infectious diseases into South 
Africa and placing a huge 
burden on State medical ser- 


They argue that if neigh- 
bouring states impose eco- 
nomic sanctions on South 
Africa, the Government will 
have every justification for 
sending foreign workers 

In support of this view, of- 
ficials have assembled evi- 
dence that contagious 
diseases such as AIDS, mal- 
aria and cholera are being 

carried hy people from 

neighbouring states where 

reventative health services 
ve all but collapsed. 

The health threat comes at 
a time when the Manpower 
Minister, Mr Pietie du Ples- 
sis, has warned that foreign- 
ers would be repatriated to 
give job preference to South 
Africans if sanctions were in- 

In 1985 it was found that 46 
percent of traced malaria 
cases in the Barberton dis- 
trict came from Mozam- 

Malawians Comprise Bulk of Virus Carriers 

Johannesburg BUSINESS DAY in English 29 Aug 386 pp l, 3 

[Article by Claire Pickard-Cambridge and Max Du Preez] 


nouncement of likely 
steps to repatriate 
Aids virus carriers 
conflicts sharply with 
a Chamber of Mines 
plan to retain them. 
National Health and 
Population Develop- 
ment Minister Willie 
van Niekerk said yesterday the Depart- 
ments of Foreign Affairs, Mineral and 

Energy Affairs and Health, together with 
the Chamber of Mines, were giving “ur- 
gent attention to suitable steps to repa- 
triate these identified workers”. 

Chamber of Mines industrial relations 
adviser Johann Liebenberg said. howev- 
er, the industry had chosen the compas- 
sionate route of keeping on 130 affected 

He stressed that there were no proven 
cases of Aids in mining. 

Preliminary findings from tests on 
27 000 workers indicated that the identi- 

fiec workers, mostly Malawians, were 
simply carriers of a virus which may 
cause aids, the human immunodeficiency 
virus (HIV). 

Liebenberg said he hoped government 
would not make it difficult for the cham- 
ber to retain affected employees who 
were being counselled about the disease. 

It was not known how many HIV carri- 
ers would eventually get Aids. 

If the chamber did not support affect- 
ed workers it would be letting employees 

Findings of a survey to establish the 
prevalence of the HIV virus in mining 
indicate that the presence of thousands 
of workers in single-sex hostels has not 
contributed to the spread of the disease. 

The survey was done by the chamber 
and the SA Institute of Medical Re- 
search. It showed that the prevalence of 
HIV in mining was comparable to low- 
risk areas internationally, excluding em- 

loyees from one high-risk country, 

Results indicated that 4% of the Mala- 
wian workers — who also comprise the 
bulk of the identified carriers — had 
been exposed to the virus. 

Chamber spokesmen said the higher 
prevalence of the virus among Malawian 
employees appeared to indicate it had 

been contracted in the workers’ country ° 
of origin. : tt 
Casual contact with an infected person | 
could not spread the virus and the cham- 
ber had concluded repatriation of infect- 
ed miners was unlikely to have a signifi- 
- ower on the spread of ‘he disease 
in SA. 
we the Chamber has suggested 
QC No known HIV carriers should be en- 
gaged for work and that new recruits 
rom Aids-prevalent areas be screened 
before being sijzned on; 
C) Patients suifering from sexually- 
transmitted diseases — a high risk group 
— should be tested routinely; 
C Aids carriers should be clinicall as- 
sessed and counselled and those fit to 
work will not be discharged; 
O Services of clinically well HIV carri- 
ers who return home between contracts 
will not be terminated; 
QO) Only when HIV- or AIDS-infected em- 
ployees were clinically unfit for work 
should their services be terminated and 
they would then be repatriated on medi- 
cal grounds. 
Liebenberg said the only effective way 
to combat the spread of the virus was 
through major educational programmes 
on sexually-transmitted diseases. 

Crisis Situation Said Not to Exist 

Johannesburg THE STAR in English 29 Aug 86 p 1 

[Article by Joe Openshaw] 

[Text ] 

The mining industry will take a 
humane and compassionate 
stance and cont..ue to employ 
the 130 mineworkers found to be 
infected with the AIDS virus, Mr 
Johann Liebenberg, the industri- 
al relations adviser to the 
Chamber of Mines, said in 
Johannesburg last night. 

He was addressing a Press 
conference at which details of a 
Chamber of Mines survey to es- 
tablish the prevalence of human 
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 
— the virus which can cause 
AIDS ~— among all races in the 
South African mining industry. 

The survey was conducted 
with the co-operation of the In- 
stitute for Medical Research 
and the Department of Health. 

Mr Liebenberg said the 
Chamber would embark on a 

major education and counselling 
programme to teach infected 

miners how to live with the in- 
fection and how to prevent 
themselves falling prey to the 
freqeuntly fatal opportunistic 
diseases to which HIV-positive 
people are extremely vulner- 

“This is not a crisis situation,” 
stressed Mr Liebenberg, who 
made the results of the survey 
— in which the blood of 26525 
miners were tested and 130 
miners found to be infected with 
the AIDS or HIV, virus — avail- 
able for publication. “There is 
not one proven case of AIDS on 
the mines.” 

Mr Liebenberg said homosex- 
uality in the single-sex mine 
hostels has not contributed to 
the spread of the disease. 

The Chamber says the spread 
of the virus will be controlled. 

No known carriers of the 
AIDS virus will be engaged for 
work on the mines and new re- 
cruits from AIDS-prevalent 
areas will be screened. 

All miners suffering from 
sexually transmitted diseases — 
a high risk group — will be test- 
ed routinely. 

Employees who are AIDS car- 
riers will be clinically assessed 
and those fit to work will not be 
discharged or repatriated. 

Clinically well AIDS virus-in- 
fected workers who return home 
between contracts will not have 
their disease used as a pretext 
for terminating their contracts. 

Government in Row With Chamber of Mines 

Johannesburg THE STAR in English 29 Aug 86 p 13 

[Article by Sheryl Raine] 

[Text ] 

The Chamber of Mines and 
the Government are at log- 
gerheads over what to do 
about the 130 mine em-, 
ployees known to have been 
infected by the AIDS virus. 

The Minister of Health, Dr 
Willie van Niekerk said yester- 
day that his Department and 
the Departments of Foreign Af- 
fairs and Mineral and Energy 
Affairs together with the 
Chamber are giving urgent at- 
tention to “suitable steps to re- 
patriate the identified work- 

In addition, workers from 
foreign countries entering the 
country will be subjected to 
compulsory tests for AIDS. 

The Chamber agreed that 
new recruits from foreign 
countries coming to work on 
South African mines should be 
screened for AIDS and prevent- 
ed from working here if blood 
tests prove positive. 

However, Chamber spokes- 
men said at a press conference 
yesterday they believed no car- 
rier of the virus presently 
working in South Africa should 
be repatriated until such time 
as he is clinically unfit to ren- 
der service. 

Asked whether there is an ul- 
terior motive behind the Gov- 
ernment’s desire to repatriate 
foreign AIDS carriers to re- 
duce the number of foreigners 
employed in South Africa, Mr 
Johann Liebenberg, industrial 
relations adviser to the Cham- 
ber said: ‘We don’t think the 
Goverment would want to use 

this opportunity as a subter- 
fuge for repatriating foreign 

So far none of the 130 car- 
riers identified in the biggest 
survey of the virus ever done in 
Africa, have the disease. The 
Chamber has emphasized there 
is no AIDS scare. 

The Chamber believes it 
would be inhumane to victim- 
ise the 130 carriers or to ostra- 
cise foreign workers who come 
from Malawi. The survey 
showed the prevalence of the 
AIDS virus among Malawians 
to be higher than in other 

There are about 20 000 Mala- 
wian mineworkers employed 
on the mines. Central Africa 
has been a known high-risk 
area for AIDS for several 

The Chamber spelle? out a 
policy of mass education and 
counselling for AIDS carriers 
and mine employees in gener- 

And it seems the Chamber 
has the majority of mining 
unions on its side in taking this 
sympathetic stand. _ 

All of the black and white 
unions involved in the industry 
have been consulted and 
briefed on the results of the 
survey and future Chamber po- 

“The National Union of 
Mineworkers would not like to 
see infected workers repatriat- 
ed,” said Mr Liebenberg. “We 

Network Debates Fate of Mineworkers With AIDS 

also met the Council of Mining 
Unions, which represents eight 
unions, and the comments we 
got from them indicated they 
definitely do not wish to see 
carriers repatriated.” 

Mr Robbie Botha of the Mine 
Surface Officials Association 
said his organisation welcomed 
the Chambers’ education pro- 
gramme and was impressed 
with the employers’ initiative. 

“We do not feel workers 
should be repatriated if they 
are just carriers. If one extend- 
ed the investigation beyond the 
mining industry one would find 
many AIDS carriers. There is 
nothing one can do about them. 
We should not be harsh abcut 
this. Intimate contact is needed 
to transmit the virus. 

“We believe the Chamber’s 
programme is a good one be- 
cause it aims to keep the syn- 
drome above board and will 
not drive it underground.” 

However, Dr Marius Bar- 
nard, the PF'P’s health spokes- 
man supported the repatriation 
of AIDS carriers. 

He said: “AIDS is a most se- 
rious disease and I would ex- 
pect the health authorities to 
take every opportunity to mini- 
mise the risk in South Africa. If 
there is any suspicion of non- 
South Africans wivh this trans- 
ferable disease it is totally 
acceptable health practice to 
send them back to where they 
came from. It is also important 
to screen people coming into 
the country.” 

AIDS, the sexually transmitted killer disease which has been disco- 
vered among 130 South African mineworkers, was a topic of dis- 
cussion during the SABC television programme Network last night. 

“We are faced with two choices,” said Mr J Liebenberg, an indus- 
trial relations advisor. ‘We can either repatriate the affected 
workers or we can carry on employing them. 



~-“} think we should adopt a compassionate view. To repatriate the | 
workers would be to drive the disease underground. 

“We need to look after the affected workers. We need to give 
them counsel on the subject,” he said. 

Dr George Watermeyer, Deputy General of Health, said the gov- 
ernment was worried about the health of the economy. 

“We have to try and keep the ‘at risk’ numbers as low as possi- 
ble,” he said, but added, towards the end of the programme, that 
the government was willing to enter into negotiation. 

The government had “not made up its mind” whether or not to 
repatriate the workers, Dr Watermeyer said. 

“African AIDS seems to be different to the strain found in other 
parts of the globe. Before making a final decision, we need to 
discuss the matter fully with all parties concerned.” 

Mr Liebenberg accepted Dr Watermeyer’s offer regarding fur- 
ther talks. 

Mr Jack Metz, representing the South African Institute for Medi- 
cal Research, said that as many as 10 percent of South African men 
might be carriers of the virus. 

He said stricter medical control of sexual habits was needed. 

“Through education and counselling, we might be able to estab- 
lish a sort of control over the disease,” he said. 

The panel discussion was chaired by regular Network presenter 
Mr John Dishop. 

NUM Reaction to Government Statement 
Johannesburg THE STAR in English 30 Aug 86 p l 

[Text] The National Union of Mine Workers (NUM) has reacted to a Government 
statement made yesterday threatening to repatriate all foreign workers found 
to be carriers of the HIV virus--which may lead to the development of AIDS. 

The union says single sex hostels must be done away with as they lend them- 

selves prey to such diseases, 

CSO; 3400/20 




Johannesburg THE STAR in English 5 Sep 86 p ll 

[Article by James Clarke] 

[Text ] 

The Government has decided 
what to do with rebellious 
Greater Johannesburg — 
freeze it. 

Apart from proposing to 
curb Johannesburg’s develop- 
ment, it seeks to control entre- 
preneurial and residential 
growth throughout Central Wit- 
watersrand. It feels the area 
is heading towards ‘‘conges- 
tion” and growth must be re- 
directed to the Rustenburg- 
Pretoria-Middelburg axis. 

In a 250-page report issued 
last month, “The Central Wit- 
watersrand Draft Guide Plan”, 
the Government recommends 
rigid, immutable zoning regu- 
lations. If the region ever gets 
regional government, its char- 
acter will have already deen 
indelibly drawn by the Govern- 

The report states that “it can 
be expected that the Central 
Witwatersrand will become 
less important within the 
broader national context... and 
that provision will have to be 
made for channelling new work 
opportunities to other favour- 
ably situated areas”. 

Other recomendations in- 

@ Because the committee 
found “‘there is not enough 
land” to expand townships to 
accommodate even the natural 
growth of the present black 
population, more and more 

blacks will have to move out. 
@ No more industrial expan- 
sion will be allowed in Johan- 
@ In the rest of the region, if a 
small industry becomes too 
successful it will be induced to 
move out. 
@ “No large-scale provision of 
industrial work opportunities is 
envisaged” in the interests of 
“the prevention of over-concen- 
@ All future development on 
the Central Witwatersrand 
must confoim to the Govern- 
ment’s national development 
strategy of decentralisation. 
Another aspect is that the 

Transvaal Administrator — 
nowadays a Government ap- 
pointee beyond the reach of 
voters — will remain Johan- 
nesburg’s boss of planning. 

For instance, SATS will be 
able to develop its extensive 
properties as it sees fit, Escom 
will be able to design power 
lines and the province will be 
able to build highways “if, in 
the opinion of the Administa- 
tor’, the developments are 
compatible with the Govern- 
ment’s intentions. 

The public has less than a 
month to object to the docu- 
ment. Once passed, it becomes 
binding on Government and pri 
vate enterprise. 



Planning critic Mr Conrad 
Berge commented: “The Gov- 
ernment planners are fired by 
two basic beliefs — that physi- 
cal planning can vindicate the 
Governinent’s social policies 
and that good planning works 
from the top down.” 

The plan follows four years 
of meetings between bureau- 
crats and, towards the end, 
black township representa- 

The 2000sqkm area of the 
Central Witwatersrand accom 
modates half the Rand’s popu- 
lation and 18 percent of South 
Africa’s population. 

The Central Witwatersrand 
produces 18 percent of the 
Gross Geographic Product 
(GGP) and 27 percent of its ter- 
tiary output (finance, commu- 
nication, etc). But, says the doc- 
ument, its role is declining be- 
cause of “spontaneous decon- 
centration (and because of) the 
influence of Government mea- 
sures to restrict industrial 
growth in the Central Wit- 

The draft guide plan has 
been greeted with mixed emo- 
tions by planners. Many are 

To me it reads like a Russian 
five-year plan. 

In parts it appears to be a 
vague bluenrint of how the 
Government intends to control 

market forces and natural 
growth trends. If its sugges- 
tions are ratified, it could mean 
the economic sacrifice of the 
very region which largely fin- 
anced 20th-century South Afri- 
The report claims, again re 
peatedly, that Johannesburg 
must be saved from becoming 
“congested”. Yet the report’s 
population projections reveal 
that the metropolis would, by 
the end of the century, still be 
one of the world’s least dense- 
ly-populated urban regions. 

New York City has treble 
this region’s population in half 
the space. Greater London has 
nearly treble in 25 percent less 

The report expects the pop- 
ulation of the region to reach 
3733250 by the year 2000. 
Some demographers will argue 
it is already nearly that. The 
report concedes “the aforemen- 
tioned estimates are regarded 
as conservative in some quar- 


According to the report, 
Johannesburg — target for 
most of the more stringent con- 
trols — provides 66 percent of 
the job opportunities in the 
Central Witwatersrand area. 

It sees the future role of the 
Central Witwatersrand as 
being a multi-nodal commer- 
cia! (tertiary) region, but which 
will, nevertheless, have to find 
jobs for just over 1 million new 
workers between now and 2000. 

But it adds: “No large scale 
provision of industrial work op- 
portunities is envisaged.” 

Among the “objectives” list- 

ed in the guide plan are: 
@ “The relative levelling off of 
growth (as regards both popu- 
lation and employment) in the 
area in order to bring about a 
more even national distribution 
pattern, but without detracting 
from the key role played by the 
Central Witwatersrand in a na- 
tional and regional context.” 

@ ‘The elimination of over- 
population and congestion, and 
the effective combatting of pol- 

@ ‘The creation of sufficient 
work opportunities ... within 

the framework of national de- 
velopment policy.”. 

The aim is to divert growth 
to the Rustenburg-Pretoria- 
Middelburg axis. Other areas 
to be favoured are Brits, Ross- 
lyn and Bronkhorstspruit. 

The report says the Govcrn- 
ment would allow the Central 
Witwatersrand to create “light 
industries and service indus- 
tries on the borders of the 
larger black townships’. The 
idea, it says, is to broaden the 
economic base of these towns 
and provide work within easy 
distance of black residents. 

Although the report advo- 
cates greater residential densi- 
ties and more strategic public 
transport, it states that “care 
must be taken’ not to allow 
public transport systems to 
“increase the load on various 
core areas, thereby hampering 
the de-concentration process’. 

Despite the region’s wealth 
being taken away from it, the 
Government accepts that the 
region “will continue to grow 
and provision will have to be 
made for the controlled crea- 
tion of employment opportuni- 
ties in this area”. 

It says that in channelling 
growth away from the region it 
is “important to take into ac- 
count the investment alteady 
made in respect of infrastruc- 
ture in this area, and in partic- 
ular in the Johannesburg city 


It sees “second order cores’ 
(as opposed to the “first order 
core” of Johannesburg’s CBD) 
becoming established in, name- 
ly, Liefde-en-Vrede and Rand- 

The report identifies three 
axes of development in the re- 

@ The mining belt. 

@ A belt which follows the rail- 
way from Pretoria through 
Tembisa, Kempton Park, Ger- 
miston, Alberton, Tokoza and 

@A development axis from 


Pretoria through Midrand, 
Sandton, the northern suburbs 
of Johannesburg, the city cen- 
tre, and then south-westwards 
via Soweto, Diepmeadow, Dob- 
sonville and Eldorado Park to 
Lenasia and Ennerdale. 

It wants future development 
confined to these belts and “de- 
liberate development of suit- 
abie points on these axes in 
order to also put the black resi- 
dential areas within easy reach 
of centres of activities. 

On the question of industrial 
growth it says: “there is no real 
need to make additional indus- 
trial land available” — except 
“limited areas ... for light and 
service industries in, and adja- 
cent to, Dobsonville, Diepmea- 
dow and Soweto, Tokoza, Kat- 
lehong, Lenasia and innerdale 
to provide for the local needs 
of the various communities. 


On black residential expan- 
sion it says: “Although the 
growth rate of the black popu- 
lation of the area is expected to 
level off in future, it will be 
necessary to make available 
additional land for township 
development in order to ac- 
commodate the forseeable 
black population increase.” 

Within the guide plan area 
itself there is, however, little 
space available for this pur- 
pose. It proposes a large town- 
ship in the northeast, already 
dubbed ‘‘Norweto”’. 

“Only a part of the needs for 
township development for 
black people can be met (by 
these proposals) because there 
is not yet sufficient suitable 
land available in the guide plan 
area to accommodate the 
needs of the expected natural 
increase in the black popula 

“The guide plan committee 
is theretore of the opinion . 
(that) provision for township 
development for black people 
should be made outside the 
boundaries of the guide plan 


ey yore 















Elendetonten | 
Ep 4 ooser » 

wenn ee:/ 

Svtertontern | 


OD anvorerver / 



Port Elizabeth WEEKEND POST in English 6 Sep 86 p 10 

[Article by Dirk van Zyl] 

[Text ] 

CAPE TOWN — With the 
tricameral Parliament 
having reached its second 
anniversary this week, the 
question must be asked: 
has it been a worthwhile 

The answer cannot be 
an unqualified yes or no. 

On the plus side, from 
the point of view of those 
accepting that a non-ra- 
cial democracy is the only 
guarantee for peace in 
South Africa, it could be 
argued that at least some 
people of colour have been 
brought into Parliament. 
This, it could be argued, 
represents some move- 
ment in the desired direc- 

The interaction between 
the coloureds and Indians 
and white MPs — and here 
one thinks particularly of 
Afrikaner Nationalists of 

various persuasions — has . 

without doubt broken 
down some of the tradi- 
tional racial prejudices, 
and opened lines of com- 

This is generally ac- 
knowledged by MPs of all 
parties as having been a 
particularly positive as- 
pect of the joint standing 
committees, where con- 
sensus is sought on pro- 
posed legislation. 

It could be argued fur- 

ther that since the inaugu- 
ration of the tricameral 
Parliament a number of 
racial laws have been 

These include the Mixed 
Marriages Act, Section 16 
of the Immorality Act, the 
Prohibition of Political In- 
terference Act and, of 
course, the pass laws. 

On the other hand the 
new constitution, with its 
tricamerai Parliament 
and executive State Presi- 
dent, has failed to come to 
terms with the central 
issue of broadening de- 
mocracy — accommodat- 
ing the political aspira- 
tions of the majority of 
South Africans. 

This flaw was obvious 
from the start, and led to 
the founding of the United 
Democratic Front to fight 
the plan outside Parlia- 
ment. Opposition groups 
also stressed this failing in 
the 1983 referendum, but 
the majority of white vot- 
ers went along with the 
scheme, believing it would 
be the start of better 
things to come. 

As Parliament ad- 
journed its 1986 session 
yesterday, progress to- 
wards overcoming the sys- 
tem’s major fault re- 
mained woefully lacking. 

Indeed, the warning of 



Dr Frederik van Zyl 
Slabbert, former Leader 
of the Opposition, during 
the referendum campaign 
that the new constitution 
would lead to escalating 
violence has, tragically, 
been borne out. The Gov- 
ernment, although it 
claims to be engaged in 
“extended negotiations” 
with black leaders, has not 
even been able to persuade 
moderate organisations 
and individuals like Chief 
Mangosuthu Buthelezi, the 
National African Feder- 
ated Chambers of Com- 
merce (Nafcoc) and the 
Urban Councils Associ- 
ation of South Africa 
(Ucasa) to agree to partici- 
pate in its mooted 
National Statutory Coun- 

Their demand is 
straightforward: there can 
be no participation in the 
council, which the Govern- 
ment says is a vehicle for 
bringing blacks into Gov- 
ernment at the highest 
level, until Nelson 
Mandela is released and 
the African National Con- 
gress is unbanned. 

It seems the Govern- 
ment has painted itself 
into a corner by convinc- 
ing its followers that the 
ANC is beyond the pale. 

Any informed observer 



knows that until negotia- 
tions start between the 
country’s two biggest na- 
tionalist movements — the 
Nationalist Government 
and the ANC — the pros- 
pects of breaking the poli- 
tical deadlock will remain 
almost nil. 

Here it is worth recall- 
ing the words of Dr 
Slabbert in his resignation 
speech in the House of As- 
sembly in February: 

“I am afraid that this 
Government — I do not 
say this in an acrimonious 
sense — does not under- 
stand the principles of ne- 
gotiation, or, if they do, 
they do not abide by them. 

“The dismantling of 
apartheid has nothing to 
do with negotiation. It is 
simply the first step to- 
wards negotiation. Apart- 
heid is not up for negotia- 
tion. It has to go 
completely. What is up for 
negotiation is its alterna- 

The Government has 
not yet grasped the nettle. 
This is illustrated only too 
well by the “own affairs” 
and “general affairs” ar- 
rangement underpinning 
the current system of gov- 

The Opposition accused 
the Government this week 
of itself undermining the 
standing of the tricameral 
Parliament by bringing 
the whole parliamentary 
machinery back into 
operation for a three-week 
resumed session at an esti- 
mated cost of R20 million, 
to discuss largely minor 

And the way it got two 
controversial security 
Bills passed by the Presi- 
dent’s Council in June 
after two of the Houses 
had rejected them did not 
help the system’s credibil- 
ity, either. 

For the Labour Party, 
particularly, this proce- 
dure has created major 
problems about whether 
to continue participating 
in the tricameral Parlia- 



The LP has said it will 
seriously consider its posi- 
tion at its national con- 
gress in Port Elizabeth in 
January, after it had ini- 
tially said such a review 
would take place in 1989 — 
five years after the institu- 
tion of the new constitu- 

The party and others 
holding similar views are 
increasingly frustrated at 
apartheid cornerstones 
like the Group Areas Act 
and the Population Regis- 
tration Act (race classifi- 
cation) remaining intact. 

And the continuing 
existence of these laws is, 
of course, a fundamental 
cause of the Government's 
reform programme failin 
to grip the imagination o 
the majority of South Afri- 
cans — especially blacks 
— and, indeed, of the 

People subjected to the 
provisions of a law which 
confines them to living in 
impoverished townships 
and denies them access to 
facilities enjoyed by their 
more affluent countrymen 
can hardly be blamed for 
being unenthusiastic about 

On a functional level, 
the tricameral Parlia- 
ment has shown itself to be 
cumbersome, with its in- 
herent triplication of de- 
bates and other activities. 

There will be an im- 
provement on this score, 
at least, when a recom- 
mendation of the joint 
standing committee on 
Rules and Orders for joint 
debates on certain issues 
is implemented in the new 
chamber due for comple- 
tion in the second half of 
next year. 

These joint debates will 
probably start only in 1988. 

Perhaps the new debat- 
ing chamber will help 
open the way for the coun- 
try to address its funda- 
mental problem more ef- 
fectively, but the question 
is: does South Africa have 
that kind of time left? 


Johannesburg BUSINESS DAY in English 12 Sep 86 p 6 

[Article by Frederik van Zyl Slabbert] 

[Text } 

TOWARDS the end of the latest 
session of Parliament the whole 
process seemed to seize up like a 
car whose pistons refused to pump 
anymore. And that after we were 
given to expect that this extra ses- 
sion was going to be a “crucial 
one,” with government tabling 
critical Bills about the constitu- 
tional future of tiie country. 

Earlier on in tite year there was 

tion that the sp&cial feder- 
congress of the National Party 
would clear the decks for govern- 
ment to use this extra session of 
Parliament to put us all into a new 
gearshift towards the future. 

Instead, government came to 
Parliament with precious little to 
say and nothing to offer, and ail 
opposition parties agreed the situ- 
ation was a farce and refused to 
give their co-operation. 

The deadlock was resolved by 
government agreeing to a special 
debate on the killings in Soweto 
and then closing shop. That was it. 


The constitutional paradox 
which has always been part of Par- 
liament in SA is now fully matured 
and cannot be resolved by hoping 
for a miracle to emanate from the 
ritual of parliamentary procedure 

It is this: the enduring legend of 
parliamentary government is that 
it is representative government, 

reflecting the will of those gov- 
erned and calling to account those 
who exercise this mandate. 

| The social conditions under 
which this has to take place must 
| allow for freedom of organisation, 
‘movement and speech and the 
rules of the game must allow for 
fair competition between the con- 
ae parties vying for the sup- 
port of the electorate. 

The paradox in SA is that those 
representatives in Parliament 
spend a great deal of time making 
laws and allocating resources that 
vitally affect the lives of the vast 
majority of ple who did not, 
9 not and cannot elect them to 

O it. 

How to resolve this paradox? 
Obviously by extending constitu- 
tional government. But how to do 

This is where the rub lies and 
that is where, I fear, the reason is 
to be found for Parliament uncere- 
moniously spluttering to a stand- 

The man who has the formal job 
of resolving the paradox is, of 
course, Minister of Constitutional 
Development Chris Heunis. 

The manner in which he appar- 
ently chooses to resolve this para- 
dox, as well as the circumstances 
in which he has to do so, make it 
impossible for him and his govern- 
ment to be successful. 

To understate the point, I think it 
is highly unlikely that constitution- 
al government in SA can be suc- 


cessfully extended if the social cir- 
cumstances which have to make 
this possible are absent or deliber- 
ately undermined. 

Consider the following: since 
1984 we have a a whose 
sovereignity, to sa e least, is 
ambiguous, if not diffuse. 

Most of us rightfully — 
that final authority rests with an 
executive President who governs 
with a security establishment and 
where both are not subject to ac- 
countable Feng proce- 
dures for all their actions. 

Major political organisations 
who cannot be represented in Par- 
liament are banned and their lead- 
ership detained or in prison, and 
those who would wish to demon- 
strate their support for them or for 
their organisations outside of Par- 
liament do not have freedom of 
organisation, movement or speech 
and government has passed secur- 
ity laws giving itself the discretion 
to maintain or impose these condi- 
tions as it sees fit. 


Against this background enters 
Chris Heunis, determined to re- 
spect democratic procedures, pro- 
mote negotiations and to seek con- 

But, he says, those who wish to 
enjoy the benefit of having consti- 
tutional government extended to 
them must accept that they can 



only do so within the involuntary 
context of a predefined racial 
group — i.e., as a legally classified 
coloured, Asian, black and white, 

-and, furthermore, must cl- 

“pate only within those racial con- 
stitutional structures which 
Heunis and his government have 

Once they are prepared to do so, 
they are free to negotiate about 
their constitutional niche in 
society. The latest offering is 
called a National Statutory Coun- 
cil, with the State President him- 
self as Chairman, no less. 

The Bill that was going to give 
legislative content to this constitu- 
tional gem was what the extra ses- 
sion of Parliament was called for. 

But Heunis did not table the Bill, 
because those who were supposed 
to devate it did not represent those 
who were going to be affected by 
it, could not care less and were 
definitely not interested in the 
manner in which Heunis and his 
government were interested in ex- 
tending constitutional govern- 

Government is determined to 
resolve the paradox of Parliament 
by compounding it. Instead of ex- 
tending constitutional government 
by creating circumstances in 
which consent can be demon- 
strated, they are deliberately mak- 
ing the manifestation of consent 

ey insist that they want to talk 
to “real leaders,” but will not allow 
“real leaders” to lead. The more 
they arrest, detain and ban the 
more they demand that people 
come forward and talk. 

Because they have destroyed 
consent, they perforce have to rely 
on coercion and co-option. And 

those who are pre to be co- 
opted under conditions of coercion 
are as useless for successfully ex- 
tending constitutional government 
as =. = have to decide for 
people they do not represent. 

t is why the pistons of Par- 
liament have sei 


Parliamentary government, 
when functioning properly, re- 
flects the social conditions of 
society in which such a govern- 
ment is possible. 

To demand that Parliament be 
Parliament in social circum- 
stances which contradict the very 
nature of Parliament is the same 
as comforting oneself with self-de- 

But to furthermore insist that 
such a Parliament under such cir- 
cumstances can be an effective in- 
strument to extend constitutional 
government is to make of self-de- 
lusion an incurable pathology. 


Johannesburg THE SUNDAY STAR in English 7 Sep 86 p 4 

[Article by John MacLennan] 



The Progressive Federal Party says that 40 percent of whites support 

the party but only 20 percent are prepared to vote for it during elections. 

This is because people see the party a3 being overly critical, and they don't 
know what its alternatives are. 

Women, especially, are so put off by news of violence and unrest that they 
are unwilling to read newspapers--the party's main avenue of presenting its 

views to the public. 

These and other 
conclusions have 

trom a PFP analysis of 
various independent sur- 
veys and form the basis 
of the party’s first com- 
plete and long-term 
strategy aimed at taking 

The struggling 
Progressive Party 
worked initially at secur- 
ing Mrs Helen Suzman’s 
platform in Parliament. 

It did this successfully 
and then went for its next 
target — to become the 
official Opposition. 

It achieved this and is 
now polishing up its 
strategy for the next logi- 
cal task ... becoming the 

The main reason for 
the lack of support from 
women is that events of 
the past 18 months have 
made them uncertain and 
most concerned with per- 
sonal security. 


They are also loath to 
read newspapers because 
of the daily diet of death 
and destruction. They 
therefore miss out on the 
PFP’s alternatives for a 
new tomorrow. 

The party estimates 

that fewer than 
50 percent of 
women read news- 
papers regularly, 

They do watch TV, but 
the party does not re- 
ceive adequate opportu- 
nity to air its views 
through this medium. 

Other features pin- 
pointed in the analysis in- 
clude the fact that the 
Government is paralysed 
because it has a comple- 
tely “incoherent” power- 

On a question such as 
whether hospitals should 
be open to all races, the 
PFP is able to depend on 
an unequivocal “yes” of 
87 percent. 



The NP supporters, by 
contrast, registered 
46 percent “yes”, 32 per- 
cent “no” and 22 percent 
“don’t know”. 

The same divisive pat- 
tern is seen among NP 
supporters on other 
issues and leads the 
PFP’s Mr Ken Andrew — 
chairman of the party's 
federal council — to re- 
mark that the NP is in 
“dead trouble” because, 
on almost any issue, it 
is unable to speak with a 
clear voice. 

The NP, he says, has 
been able to be 

‘all things to all 
people, but under 

pressure it will 

face major splits. 

“The Government is 
making an enormous 
mess by any yardstick 
and we have a marvel- 
lous chance of picking up 


aisenchanted voters who 
supported the NP before. 

“We don’t have to 
change people's attitudes. 
We merely have to get 
people who share our at- 
titudes to support us. 

“For the first time in 
10 years the PFP really 
has a strategy and knows 
where it is xoing. 

“At the same time we 
have the management 
people, we have more 
money and we have the 


to 55 seats in the House 
of Assembly. 

This will make it a real 
contender for power in 
the eyes of the so-called 
New Nats who are said to 
number some 35. 

With the help of these 
dissidents — either as 
members of the PFP or 
in coalition — the PFP 
could take power. 



Johannesburg THE STAR in English 2 Sep 86 p l 

[Article by Hannes de Wet and Andre du Toit] 

{Text } 

The Government is providing food aid to an average 
of 95000 people a month in a massive fight against 
poverty among people of all population groups. 

And the AWB has launched its own mercy mission 
to aid needy white children, especially Afrikaners. 

The Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk is involved 
in similar relief efforts. 

Dr Colin Cameron, co-ordinator of the Emergency 
Feeding Scheme of the Department of National 
Health and Population Development, said: 

“In July, we helped 17000 families — which 
amounted to 95 000 people. This is a fair reflection of 
the monthly average.” 

Mr Eugene TerreBlanche, leader of the AWB, 
claimed yesterday his movement was the main force 
behind aid to destitute white families. The primary 
goal of the AWB initiative was to provide relief 
to Afrikaner children — although other white chil- 
dren also qualified. 

The scheme includes help to people in the drought- 
stricken areas of the Western Transvaal. 

R35 000 SET ASIDE 

At Groot Marico, the manager of the local farmers’ 
co-operative, Mr Jaap Coetzee, said farmers from 
Groot Marico up to Lichtenburg were sending food to 
the Witwatersrand. 

The assistant-secretary of the Corminiccion for So- 
cial Services of the NGK, Mrs JH Mollet, said that 
in the first three months this year, R35 000 was bud- 
geted for food to the needy 

‘A total of 2.000 people older than 10 years and a 
thousand under the age of 10 were provided with 
food.” she said 

cso: 3400/15 


The general secretary of the AWB, Mr Willem Oli- 
vier, said: “During the past few months, there has 
been a definite increase in poverty in the Transvaal 
and Free State — and the indications are that the 
Situation will get worse.” 

According to him, the aid included clothes 

Calling on other organisations and institutions to 
help. Mr TerreBlanche told The Star: “We cannot 
keep on looking after the country’s children alone.” 

He also made a plea to the Government to intro- 
duce a levy on gold and platinum exports. 


“Due to the current exchange rate, South African 
gold and platinum are achieving unrealistic prices. 
The result is that mining houses are making a fortune 
while more and more people are getting poorer,” he 

“A levy on every ounce of gold sold will mean 
billions of rands that could be used to create job op- 
portunities,’ Mr TerreBlanche said. 

According to a survey conducted by The Star on 
the Witwatersrand and the Transvaal platteland, 
farmers were donating produce on a regular basis. 

“I'm getting 40 dozen eggs a week from Benoni, 
milk from Heilbron and vegetables from Marble 
Hall,” said Mrs Swannie Swanepoel. who runs a daily 
soup kitchen for children in Mayfair, Fordsburg, Cot- 
tesloe and Jan Hofmeyer. 

She said she was feeding 300 children and a number 
of adults every day. 

In the Zeerust district. one of the worst-hit drought 
areas in Transvaal, AWB members are involved in 
running soup kitchens. 

The Conservative Party is also said to be planning 


Johannesburg THE STAR in English 11 Sep 86 p 19 

{Text ] 



Failure by white South Africans 
to accept and understand their 
African identity could put them 
in danger of becoming aliens in 
their own land. 

This warning was sounded by 
Mr Neil van Heerden, the depu- 
ty director-general of foreign af- 
fairs, in an address at Pretoria 

White South Africans often 
gave dubious acknowledgment to 
their African identity, said Mr 
van Heerden. 

He said he did not wish to 
deny the European and West- 
ern heritage of white civilisa- 
tion in Scuth Africa. 

“But if it separates us from 
the indisputable realities of the 
world in which we live in Afri- 
ca then we run the danger of 
becoming aliens in our own 

Mr van Heerden asked wheth- 
er South Africans should not do 
More to make their acceptance 
of their African identity com- 

“We have indeed becume one 
with our physical environment, 
but what of our human environ- 

Was not the unrest in the coun- 
try due partly io the incomplete- 
ness of the whites’ identification 
with this environment? 


Their best opportunity for sur- 
vival and therefore their biggest 
challenge lay in achieving the 

greatest possible harmony across 
community boundaries so a dis- 
pensation could be created that 
would be accepted by the major- 
ity, he said. 

While protecting and extend- 
ing their own vaiues whites must 
also know and respect the values 
of the different black communi- 

He asked whether whites read 
black newspapers and maga- 
zines, visited black residential 
areas, asked themselves how 
blacks spent their holidays or 
thought about whether they 
would get pensions in their old 

“Rather than becoming fixed 
in negztive stereotypes of each 
other — which often amount to 
nothing less than naked racism 
— we must search for that which 
we have in common.” 

Mr van Heerden called for 
whites to abandon racism not 
because the outside world de- 
manded it but because this was 
an investment in the future. 

Whites, he said, must appre- 
ciate the blacks’ yearning for po- 
litical participation. 

With its own house based on 
strong foundaticas, South Afri- 
ca would be in a position suc- 
cessfully to carry out its regional 
responsibilities in the subconti- 
nent, he said. 

“And for this very reason it 

is important that our African 
identification be complete”. 



Johannesburg THE SUNDAY STAR in English 7 Sep 86 pp l, 2 
[Article by Kitt Katzin] 

[Text] In an astonishing move that has sent shock waves through the educa- 
tion profession, the Government has decided that hundreds of Chinese and a 
smaller number of Japanese children will in future need special permission to 
enroll at white State schools in South Africa. 

The decision by the Department of Education and Culture reimposes a ruling made 
several years ago and will be strictly enforced by the provincial departments 
of education. 

It appears from a directive by the Transvaal Education Department (TED) ob- 
tained by The Sunday Star, that all Chinese and Japanese pupils will as from 
w be compelled to apply in writing to be admitted to Government schools. 

The bombsheli disclosure comes in the wake of Foreign Minister Mr Pik Botha's 
diplomatic shuffle to the Far East te woo the Japanese government and others, 
and to persuade them to hold off on sanctions against South Africa. 

In terms of the new directive which relates to the Transvaal, the Director of 
Education will have sole discretion in approving or rejecting admission appli- 
cations from Chinese and Japanese pupils. 

The ruling, however, has been extended to all provinces, and applied to en- 
rollment at both primary and high schools. 

It also applies to Chinese and Japanese pupils already attending Government 
primary schools who are due, with thousands of fellow-SA pupils, to enter 
provincial high schools. 

They. too, will have to apply to the Director of Education for admission 
through the principals of the schools concerned. 

Pupils already posted to high schools will not be affected and will write 


Several hundred Chinese and a growing number of Japanese have attended Govern- 
ment schools in Johannesburg and other centres for many years 

without applying to any provin- 
cial education department. 
However, in terms of the la- 
teat directive — a clear reversal 
of policy going back to the 1970s 
when permission for Asians to 
attend State schools had to be 
aought — the Government has 
confirmed fears that it is serious 
about its hardline education pol- 


It has left no doubt, say in- 
formed sources, that it intends 
to apply school apartheid in its 
strictest and broadest sense. 

Yet, this aside, and apart 
from the blow it will have to 
the credibility of the Govern- 
ment's reform iniatives, top 
educationists expressed aston- 
ishment at the political hypocri- 
Sy surrounding the timing and 
motive of the ruling. 

How, they aak, can the Gov- 
ernment discriminate againat 
Chinese and Japanese at the 
very time Mr Pik Botha pleads 
with Japan, on the one hand, net 
to impose sanctions, and coercas 
Taiwan, on the other, to /a- 
crease trade with SA? 

And compounding the anora- 
ly is the fact that the Japanrse 
and Chinese schools in Johan- 
neaburg are situated in white 
residential suburba. | 

The Chinese School — Itself a 
Government achool and run by 
the TED — ia in Bramley Park, 
Sandton, and the Japanese 
School, funded by the Japanese: 
Government and run privately, 
is in Emmarentia. 

The new TED ruling waa In 
cluded in a confidential direct- 
ive — the newest “Manual on 
General School Organisation”. 
dated April 10, 1986. 

Under a sub-heading, Admis- 
sion of Chinese and Japanese 
pupils to provincial schools, it 

csO: 3400/5 

has this to aay: 

(1) “Only the Director of 
Eduction may approve the ad- 
mission of Japanese and Chinese 
pupils to provincial schools. 

2) “Applications to admit 
these pupils should he directed 
through the principal of the 
school concerned to the Director 
for his decision.” 

In subsequent briefings to 
principals, TED inspectors have 
made it clear that the ruling is 
to be strictly enforced and that 
it applies to all Chinese and Jap- 
anese pupils, including those 
graduating from Go ernment 
primary schoola to high schools. 

The Sunday Star asked Mr 
Piet Clase, the Minister of Edu- 
cation and Culture (white edu- 
cation) in the House of Assem- 
bly, to comment. 

In response, Mr JDV Terb- 
lanche, chief executive director 
of the Department of Education 
and Culture, issued a brief state- 
ment in which he confirmed the 
ruling had been made. 

It said: “This arrangement 
has been standard procedure for 
some time and has proved no 
restriction to the admission of 
pupils concerned.” 

Asked if \t applied to all prov- 
inces, Mr Terblanche said it did, 
and to primary schools as well, 
but that no problems had been 

He would not say why, if 
there had been no problems, it 
had been necessary to reimpose 
the restriction. 

He was told his statement 
was inadequate, but flatly re- 
fused to discuss it further or say 
if the ruling would be strictly 

“I have given you my com- 
ment and I have nothing to 
add,” he said. 

Dr P H Bredenkamp, Director 
of the TED, said that since The 
Sunday Star had made inquiries 
at a higher levei, he had no 

Meanwhile, opposition to the 


measure is growing and educa- 
tionists are demanding that it be 

Several headmasters in the 
Transvaal are known to be vit- 
terly unhappy, but say they are 
unable to comment. 

Yesterday, PFP Education 
spokesman Mr Horace van 
Rensburg said he was appalled 
to hear of the decision, and 
warned that it would lead to 
deep resentment among all 
communities and damage SA's 
image abroad. 

Informed sources say tliat it 
is clear that the ruling is aimed 
at reinforcing separate educa- 
tion in the narrowest sense, even 
if it means removing Chinese 
aand Japanese pupils, let alone 
Asians or coloureds, from so- 
called white schools. 

The Sunday Star was told that 
for the past few years, Chinese 
and Japanese pupils coming 
through Government primary 
schools had no problem entering 
high schools. 

The most frightening aspect 
of all, said one source, was that 
the fate of these pupils would 
now lie in the hands of one per- 
son, the provincial Director of 

Inquiries show that, in the 
case of the Transvaal, several 
hundred Chinese pupils are en- 
rolled at Government schools. 

In the case of Japanese 
pupils, some are at Blairgowrie 
and Ermmarentia Primary 
Shools, and at least two high 
schools. A few are at private 



Durban POST NATAL in English 10-13 Sep 86 p l 

[Article by Khalil Aniff] 

[Text ] 

BLACK matriculants 
will in future be able 
to enrol for a teach- 
er-training course at 
Springfield College of 

The decision to open 
Springfield to blacks 
was confirmed yester- 
day by Mr Amichand 
Rajbansi, chairman of 
the Ministers’ Council, 
who said discussions 
had already been held 
between the Indian 
Minister of Education, 
Mr Kassie Ramduth, 
and KwaZulu’s Educa- 
tion Minister, Dr 
Oscar Dhlomo. 

Further discussions 
are due to be held 

Neither Dr Dhlomo 
nor ‘tis education sec- 
retary, Mr John Zimu, 
was available for 

Tke move to mix at. 
Springfield follows the 
opening of Indian 
schools to black pupils. 
Many have already en- 
rolled at Indian 
schools but the exact 
number could not be 
obtained yesterday. 

Mr Rajbansi said his 


CSO: 3400/15 

Council’s decision had § 
been conveyed to the 

KwaZulu Government. 

He said when black 
teachers qualified they 
would return to take 
up posts at their 

“There is a great | 

shortage of properly 
qualified teachers in 
black schools and this 
will help alleviate 
their teaching prob- 
lems,” he said. 

Black teachers will 
not, however, be al- 
lowed to teach at In- 
dian schools because 
of prohibitions under 
the Education Act. 

Mr Rajbansi said it 
would be a good idea 
for blacks to teach in 
Indian schools and 
vice versa, but Educa- 
tion Act regulations 
would not allow this 

“Inter-relations be- 
tween Indians and 
blacks must not be 
confined only ic the 
classrooms — they 
must extend beyond 
and spread on to the 
sportsfields and other 
facets of life. 


“I believe there 
must be a form of 

artnership between . 

ndian and black 
schools,” Mr Rajbansi 

Mr Pat Samuels, 
president of the 
Teachers’ Association 
of South Africa, wel- 
comed the new devel- 
opment but regarded 
it as “tokenism”’. 

“There is no need 
for the College to be 
open to blacks only. It 
must be open to all 
South Africans,” he 
said, adding that TASA 
believed education 
should be a general 

Mr Samuels said 
33 000 blacks matricu- 
lated last year com- 
pared with 6000 In- 
dians, but the majority 
of them did not pursue 
careers because they 
did not have the op- 
portunity to do so. 

“The quota system 
for admission should 
not apply and trainee 
teachers should be ac- 
cepted on merit. 

“It goes without say- 


ing that black schools 
need qualified teach- 
ers more than anyone 
else. They have the 
_potential but lack 

Mr Samuels said he 
believed blacks would 
be as good as any 
other teachers provid- 
ed they had the facili- 
ties and opportunities. 

“Colleges such as 
Edgewood, Spring- 
field, Laudium, and 
the various universi- 
ties must open their 
doors and encourage 
more teacher-training 
at such institutions.” 

_ Meanwhile, TASA 
‘resolved at its national 
council meeting in 
Durban at the week- 
end to call on the Gov- 
ernment to open all 
tertiary institutions, 
including colleges of 
education, to all South 

It rejected the pro- 
posed multi-million 
rand teacher training 
college at Cato Manor, 
dismissing it as an In- 
dians-only college. 


Johannesburg BUSINESS DAY in English 12 Sep 86 p 6 


{Article by Hermann Giliomee, professor of politics at the University of Cape 



HE ALARMING fiasco of 
the recent short session of 
Parliament confirms the 
impression that govern- 

ment has fallen far behind in its 
attempt to give some institution- 
al form to.the turbulent proces- 
ses of change in our society. 

To discern the changing con- 
tours of SA one increasingly has to 
look to new developments in areas 
such as capital-labour relations, 
the educational system and the 
extra-parliamentary movement. 

A significant indicator of social 
change in any society is what may 
superficially appear to be a rather 
mundane matter — the syllabuses 
for school history. 

After more than 10 years of the 
same syllabus, all government 
schools in SA are in the process of 
introducing new history syllabuses 
for Standards 5 to 10. New sylla- 
buses for Standards 5 to 8 are being 
introduced this year, the new Stan- 
dard 9 syllabus next year and the 
one for Matric in 1987. 

The new syllabuses were final- 
ised in 1983 by the Joint Matricula- 
tion Board, on which all the univer- 
sities and the head of state’s 
education departments are repre- 

Since Afrikaner nationalists 
control the political system they 
have a decisive say in the histori- 
” truths selected for posterity in 


T. historian Leonard Thomp- 
son notes in his new study — “The 
Political beng | of Apartheid” 
(Yale University ) — that the 
textbooks strongly reflected the 
two dominant themes of Afrikaner 
nationalist ideology. 

Tie first theme is the Afrikaner 
liberation from British (or South 
African English) domination in the 
political, economic and cultural 

Accordingly, the text books have 
given prominence not only to the 
Afrikaner Wars of Independence 
and the Great Trek but also to 
obscure events such as the rebel- 
lions at Graaff Reinet and Slag- 
tersnek in 1795 and 1815 respec- 

The second theme is the racist 
theme — the idea that the Euro 
ans are superior and that the dif- 
ferent races are incompatible. In 
the last two decades this has been 
supplanted by an updated variant: 
SA is comprised of “separate na- 
tions” with profoundly different 

Even the more sophisticated 
versions tell a story in which 
whites make the history and main- 
tain their identity, while the other 
groups merely respond or make 
their own separate ethnic histories 
in a very minor key. 

In a study analysing the current 
secondary school textbooks (which 


are now due to be replaced), a Pot- 
chefstroom graduate, Johanna du 
Preez, found that ee A were rid- 

died with what she calls 12 master 

H.. list starts with the following 

C Legitimate authority is not ques- 

OC Whites are superior, blacks are 

O The Airikaner has a special rela- 
tionship with God; and 

O SA rightfully belangs to the Afri- 

It is little wonder that children 
in all the black groups have in 
recent years angrily rejected the 
“official” version of history, up to 
the point of burning text books. 

Not surprisingly, “People’s His- 
tory” is a key subject included in 
the general demand for an alterna- 
tive “People’s Education”. 

The black, coloured and Indian 
education authorities have warned 
unofficially that any textbooks 
which contain a hint of racism, or 
even unacceptable terminology, 
will be rejected. 

B ut even in white schools the 
“official” school history has come 
to be seen as unproductive or even 

In English-medium schools the 
brighter children are turning away 
in great numbers from a history 
which they consider as having 
little relevance to the kind of 
future they will face. 

In Afrikaans schools a similar 
trend is evident, but here there is 
also another concern. Studies have 

shown that the —— of Afri- 
kaner youth for 3 tical participa- 
tion — and in history plays a 
vital par‘ — is producing a culture 
of extreme political isolation. 

In 1985, studies by RAU scholars 
Hennie Kotze and Susan Kotze con- 
cluded that Afrikaner youth have a 
“pre-occupation with internal tri- 
vialities at the expense of develop- 
ing a consciousness of the issues 
pertaining to SA at large”. 

Lawrence Schlemmer showed 
that the Afrikaner youth did not 
attribute the black uprising of 1976 
to real grievances but rather to 
artificial causes or the role of agi- 

It is on this kind of political iso- 
lation and incomprehersion that 
the Conservative Party and other 

ies of the far Right can cap- 
italise when new unrest flares up. 

At the recent Free State 
Congress, Piet Clase, Minister of 
Education and Culture, expressed 
concern about the lack of “political 
literacy” among white pupils. 

A ccordingly, he has launched an 
investigation into the possibility of 
introducing political science as a 
subject or sub-division at school. 
is kind of thinking would 
never have occured if history at 
school had served its on! edu- 
cational function — namely, to 
prepare the youth for participation 
in the life of their society. It is 
against this background that the 
new syllabuses are being intro- 
While the syllabuses for higher 
school standards are still preoccu- 

[paragraph ends 
The themes of “reaction” and 

“extra-parliamentary activity,” 
with reference to the National 

CSO: 3400/16 


Convention and to government’s 
racial policies after 1948, are in- 
cluded for the first time. 

The introduction of the theme of 
“extra-parliamentary” activity 
implicitly contradicts the old no- 
tion of single, legitimate authority. 

This 0 the way for a proper 
declan of the history of the 
African National Congress since 
1922 and of the dynamics of our 
politics beyond the activities of the 
white political parties. 

In the new syllabuses there is 
also. a welcome new emphasis on 
economic history, which will en- 
able history teachers to introduce 
two key actors to their pupils — 
namely, the business and black 
workers class. 

It can teach through history a 
lesson ye egy = 4! 
learning y — that ry 
not only being made by the politi- 
cally tte but perhaps even 
more importantly by the poor and 
the underprivileged. 

T. great American educat 

ist John Dewey had a point wn 
he said that economic history is 
more democratic than political 

Whites still consider themselves 
as the core of the South African 
nation. This is still barely conceiv- 
able today, when there are about 
five-million whites to more than 
30-million blacks. 

But black numbers are projec- 
ted to rise to 50-million by the year 
2000 and 80-million by the year 
2020. Some genuinely multi-racial 
centre will have to be found if our 
society is not to disintegrate like 
that of Lebanon. 

To build such a multi-racial cen- 
tre it is crucially important to 
teach the youth a history which 
will prepare them for a quite dif- 
ferent future. The new syllabuses 
provides openings for enterprising 
teachers and textbook publishers 
to embark on such a venture. 


Durban POST NATAL in English 10-13 Sep 86 p l 

[Article by Bobby Harrypersadh] 

{Text ] 


INDIAN business near 
Bloemfontein is set to 
boom as industrialists 
prepare to move into the 
country’s most conserva- 
tive white stronghold. 

And accommodation in. 
the white rightwing city - 

appears to be the least of 
the probiems. | 

Helping to assist busi- 

nessmen making their 
move and setting up their 
companies is Verulam in- 
dustrialist Mr Iqbal Ma- 
hamed, who is Natal 
manager of the South 
African Development 
Trust Corporation. 

Job opportunities for 
thousands of workers will 
be provided when the 
factories are established 
in Botshabelo, which has 
been earmaiked as a 
QwaQwa border town 
near Bloemfontein. 

One factory is almost 
ready for production, an- 
other two are concluding 

arrangements to make . 

the move and 16 more in- 
dustrial applications are 
being processed. 

Massive decentralisa- 
tion benefits are luring 
many companies over- 
burdened with high over- 
heads and labour costs to 
the Free State. 

Development manager 
for the Bloemfontein City 
Council, Mr Neils Booy- 


sen, said: “Indians will be 

welcomed here, as has al- 
ready been done in the 
town itself. Representa- 
tives of at least three In- 
dian firms are staying in 
hotels or rented homes. 

“Eventually when the 
Group Areas Act is 
scrapped, they will be 
able to buy homes here. 

“No matter what peo- 
ple may say, the Bloem- 
fontein City Council's of- 
ficial decision is that In- 
dians may stay any- 

“Asian industrialists — 
from Taiwan — have 


been staying in Bloem- 
fontein for some time 

Mr Booysen said many 
Indians found it conve- 
nient to stay at Thaba 
Neau which is cluse. to 
the industrial area. 

Mr Mahomed, who was 
among the first industri- 
alists to set up a factory 
in Isithebe near Eshowe, 
said he had been respon- 
sible for assisting Indian 
firms — such as Lockhats 
who were provisionally 
liquidated in Durban 
some months ago — to 
move into Botshabelo. 

The Paruk family, who 
also have clothing fac- 
tories in Durban, may 
also be moving to the 


Mr Mahomed said: “I 
have been going to the 
Free State fairly regular- 
ly in the course of my 
work for the past three 
years, and in my experi- 
ence, the people there 
have been friendly and 




Johannesburg THE WEEKLY MAIL in English 12-18 Sep 86 p 4 

[Article by Moira Levy] 


RECENT shifts and disaffiliations by 
a number of local trade unions are 
changing the face of the South African 
labour movement. 

Major realignments are already 
taking place, with the steady decline of 
the former labour giant, the Trade 
Union Council of South Africa 
(Tucsa), and the proposed merger 
next month of the Azanian 
Confederation of Trade Unions 
(Azactu) and the Council of. Unions of 
South Africa (Cusa). 

The planned new federation has 
publicly claimed it will have the 
support of 500 000 members, the 
equivalent of the largest existing 
federation in the country, the 
Congress of South African Trade 
Unions (Cosatu). 

However, labour researchers at the 
University of Cape Town have 
estimated that together Cusa and 
Azactu combined have more like 
250 000 members. Last year Cusa 

lost its largest affiliate, the 100 000-— 

strong National Union of 
Mineworkers, to Cosatu. 

The proposed new body is expected 
to endorse a policy of nonracialism, 
together with black trade union 
leadership. The proposed new 
federation has gone on record as 
Saying it does not see itself as an 
alternative to Cosatu. Relations 
between the two labour giants will 
“remain sound”, according to Azactu 
co-ordinator P Nefolovhodwe. 

It seems likely the new federation, 
like Cosatu, will blur the divide 


ottween political and factory floor 
issues. “We have never seen a 
difference between life in the factories 
and life in the ghettoes,” 
Nefolovhodwe said. 

Tucsa’s reluctance to tackle political 
issues publicly has lost it significant 
support in recent years. The growing 
politicisation of South African trade 
unionism has, according to acting 

Tucsa president Robbie Botha, had 

some part to play in the federation’s 
steady decline. 

The largest trade union federation 
in the country until Cosatu was 
launched in December 1985, Tucsa 
has experienced a serious decline in 
recent years. Membership has more 
than halved since its heyday in 1983 
when Tucsa had 57 affiliated unions 
representing a total of 478 420 
workers. In the past year, eight trade 
unions have withdrawn from Tucsa; 
in August, its membership had 
dropped to about 275 000. 

The subject of the federation’s 
decline in membership and support 
was expected to be discussed at an 
emergency meeting of Tucsa’s 
national executive, scheduled this 
week to plan policy after the 
cancellation of Tucsa’s annual 

According to Botha, the conference 
was cancelled at the last minute 
because affiliate unions could not 
afford to send full delegations, but 
observers believe the move is 
indicative of the federation’s growing 
financial and organisational 

Tucsa is losing members from both 
ends of the political spectrum. 
Rightwing unions have disaffiliated 
because they fear the federation is nc 
longer protecting white collar 
workers.. Other unions are 
disenchanted with what they see as the 
federation’s failure to state its oppo- 
sition to government policy clearly. 

Botha is indignant about cnticism of 

Tucsa’s multiracial, as opposed tc- 
nonracial, policy. “Some say we are : 

not fighting the policy of apartheid. 
Others say we are ineffective, 

notwithstanding all that Tucsa has. 

done over the past few years for 
labour, both nationally and 

To some extent, he agrees Tucsa’s 

declining fortunes are the product of 

growing politicisation in the labour 
movement and impatience with the 
federation’s commitment to factory 
floor issues. 

“There is growing polarisation in 
the political sphere between the 
extreme Right and the extreme Left. I 
have heard whisperings of black 
unionists who feel Tucsa is controlled 
by whites, although I don’t know how 
they can say that. They do participate 
in elections once a year.” 

Botha believes Tucsa will weather 
the crisis. “We have survived many 
crises in the past. Tucsa is intent on 
surviving. We will pick up the pieces 
where they fall.” 

CSO: 3400/16 


‘In the latest blow, the more than 
50 000-strong Garment Workers 
Union of the Western Province 
(GWUWP) announced that at its 
general meeting this weekend it would 
almost certainly vote to withdraw 
from Tucsa. 

General secretary Cedric Peterson 
said the question of GWUWP 
disaffiliation has been on the cards 
since May. The decision was 
temporarily shelved to give acting 
secretary Fred Roux a chance to 
revive the federation. Roux’s 
unexplained and sudden resignation 
after only two months “reopened the 
discussion’’, Petersen said. 

Blaming Tucsa’s decline on lack of 
leadership, Petersen praised the 
efforts of acting office bearers, Botha 
and Ruth Imrie. “Hats off to them, 
they have done a miracle keeping the 
pieces together — but the federation 
needs permanent staff in leadership 
positions,” he said. 

Like most of the unions that have 
left Tucsa, the GWUWP will not join 
another federation. “The workers we 
represent live on the poverty line. I 
think we need to look at the immediate 
problems that affect them. It is far 
more valuable and relevant to work 
with local community organisations at 
grassroots level instead of sitting 
around a confederation table debating 
national issues.” 


Johannesburg SUNDAY TIMES in English 7 Sep 86 p 12 

[Article by David Jackson] 

[Text ] 

OUTH Africa’s criti- 
cal backlog in black 
housing could be 

ted within 10 
to 15 — boosted by 


i Fil 

trating developers. 
Across the country, excit- 

ing and innovative housing 
for blacks are roll- 

evelopments which give 
blacks as well as whites the 
option of buying on leasehold 
or freehold. 

A. the country’s building 
industry, now suffering one 
of its worst slumps, is itching 
to get moving on home build- 
ing — which in turn would 
provide a stimulus to the eco- 
nomy by providing jobs for a 
host of allied tradesmen. 
Experts this week gave 
warm but qualified approval 

Authoritative estimates 

t the present backlog in 
Black housing (including 
coloureds and Indians) at 
anything between 530 000 
and 575 000 homes. 

And one forecast of the re- 
quirement by the turn of the 
century is such that even if 
the country develops 100 000 
houses a year for blacks, only 
about 50 percent of the need 
will be-met by the year 2000. 

In some townships, an 
average of 16 people or more 
are living in a single home — 
with up to 42 people in a sin- 
gle two-bedroomed house in 
some extreme cases. 

Some say that even if the 
Government’s R750-million 
was immediately poured into 
a crash housing drive, it 
would reduce the backlog 
only by about five to 10 per- 

But hopes are pinned on a 
snowballing effect which — 
with schemes such as the 
“self-help” housing projects 
being initiated by the Urban 
Foundation — could see the 
housing shortage drastically 
reduced within a decade. 

Says Mr I W Robinson, 
managing director of the gi- 
ant LTA construction com- 
pany: “Money is not the real 
problem ... we are short of 


can then take that land, build 
houses and sell them quickly. 
“We have to wait a long 
time to get a return on our 
investment, whereas if we 
get the serviced land we can 
start selling houses within 
four or five months of actual- 
ly starting work — and start 
generating a cash flow.” 

A...... to Mr Robinson, 
there is already a backlog of 
homes for blacks who have 
the means to buy them — 
basic bricks and mortar, two- 
bedroomed houses, in the 
R20 000 to R60 000 range. 
“As a rule the black man 
requires space. This is a big 
incentive and ‘whether the 
finishing is a bit rough is not 
really the main concern. We 



dards of housing. We are at- 
tempting to provide First 
World accommodation in a 
Third World environment at 
the moment. 

“We have to provide a 
house which is first of all af- 
fordable, and secondly in an 
area where the black man 
wants to live. 

“He wants to live where he . 

doesn’t have to travel about 
three hours to get to work in 
the morning. 

“The environment is also 
very important ... we don't 
want to see Sowetos spring- 
ing . + over the place. This 

planning. So one 

Mr Robinson says that in 
theory the backlog could be 
cleared within 10 years. 

One of the keys to low-cost 
housing could lie with the 
“self-help” schemes. 

Mr Matthew Nell, general 

avoided with careful | 


manager of the Family Hous- . 

ing Association — a housing 

tween R350 and R400 a. 

utility company established 
by the Urban Foundation in 
the Transvaal — explains 
that these schemes, which 
link individual owner-build- 
ers with building society 
finance, have approved 
building plans, bulk-pur- 
chased materials available 
to them on-site, plus a level 
of technical supervision and 
advice available during con- 

The owner-builders then 
take ey for organ- 
ising the building them- 
selves. Thev find their own 
local contractor and employ 
him on a labour-only basis to 
produce the goods. 

Says Mr Nell: “Our lowest- 
= house is going with a 

uilding society bond at 
about R10 000 at the moment. 
We are able to get down to 
household incomes of be- 

“This means between 50 
and 60 percent of families on 
the Rand can afford houses 
with this type of self-help, as- 
suming they are employed.” 

This type of housing can be 


produced within four ‘to six 
months by the owner-builder. 

Such schemes are being 
run in Katlehong and Tho- 
koza (formerly Natalspruit), 
and by the end of the year 
100 to 125 houses a month 
will be coming off the pro- 
duction line. 

There are similar schemes 
in the Eastern and Western 
tu Bloemfontein and Dur- 


In a second version of the 
“self-help” scheme, people 
are given access to a ser- 
vi site where they take 
occupation, erect a tempo- 
rary structure and over a 
period ranging from three to 
eight years provide them- 
selves with a house. 

This means they don’t have 

to find the finance for the 
whole product all at once. 
- But, warns Mr Nell: “The 
allocation of funds is only one 
of the elements which have to 
be dealt with. 

“It’s critical to resolve the 
land supply question, to stim- 
ulate the local home-building 
industry, and to tackle the 
whole red tape issue — such 
as the administrative re- 
quirements in order to regis- 
ter ownership on each indi- 

“On the credit side. housing 
is now receiving a level of 
priority which increases our 
optimism that these factors 
will be addressed.” 

D. Llewellyn Lewis, presi- 
dent of the Institute of Hous- 
ing, also believes the black- 
housing backlog could be 
eliminated within 10-15 years 
if the tempo of expenditure is 
maintained and there is an 
increased Government allo- 
cation for black housing. 

“I think the Government is 
in earnest, because it wants 
to create employment and 
stimulate the economy. 

“The package could be a 
major engine for growth and 
I'm optimistic, particularly 
because the private sector is 
becoming involved in various 
innovative and creative ways 
on the financing side. 

“The constraining issues 
are land and f‘nance. Techni- 
cally, we can solve our prob- 
lems ... there is nobody in 
the world who can teach us 
anything about housing.” 


Johannesburg THE STAR in English 9 Sep 86 p 12 


[Article by Dr Tobie de Vos, chief econcmist of the Building Services Division, 
National Building Research Institute at the CSIR] 


The population of the 
Republic of South Africa is 
expected to increase from 
20 million in 1985 to about 
34 million by the year 2000 
when a projected 83 per- 
cent will be living in the 
urban areas compared 
with 66 percent at present. 

The white group presently has 
a housing surplus of about 37 000 
units. This does not necessarily 
mean all households are without 

Financial hardship, overcrowding 
and the occupation of inadequate 
homes is often found. The fact that 
vacant units are not restricted to 
the relatively expensive category 
indicates that affordability 
problems are also experienced by 

Although statistical analysis 
indicates a shortage of 52000 
housing units for the coloured 
population, information obtained 
from a number of local areas seems 
to indicate the present shortage 
may be as high as 100 000 units. 

The Indian population has a 
shortage of about 44000 housing 

The main housing problem facing 
South Africa concerns the black 

population. This is not only because 
of the size of this population, but 
because previous government 
policies restricted the building of 
homes, and imposed influx control 
and group areas legislation. 

Generate demand 

While the present backlog for 
blacks amounts to more than 500 000 
units, the relaxation of influx 
control, together with the natural 
population increase, will generate a 
demand for an additional 1,3 million 
homes by 1990. 

An estimated 2,7 million homes 
will have to be providea before the 
year 2000 if every household is to 
occupy a separate dwelling by then. 

About 3,2 million homes in all 
need to be provided in the urban 
area of the RSA before 2000. This is 
more than 200000 on average per 

The ability to provide low cost 
housing units depends, among other 
things, on the cost of the dwellings, 
the ability of households to afford 
them, the availability and cost of 
the land, labour and the funds 
available for subsidisation. 

Unit cost 

The cost of providing a low-cost 
housing unit in 1986 is R20 000 


including land and services.(A 
low-cost house is defined as a 
55 sqm to 69sqm home containing 
three living rooms, a kitchen and 
bathroom with no cupboards and 
only basic storage space in the 
kitchen. Ceilings are provided and 
the floor finishes are relatively 
maintenance free. Electricity. hot 
and cold water and waterborne 
sewerage are included.) 

The ability of households to 
afford accommodation can be 
evaluated, inter alia, in terms of 
their disposable income for housing. 

This disposable income is 
considered to be that portion of 
household income available for 
housing after transport costs of the 
breadwinners have been paid as 
well as the items necessary to 
maintain a minimum standard of 
health and decency. 

The Institute of Planning 
Research at the University of Port 
Elizabeth has found the Household 
Subsistence Levels (HSL) for blacks, 
Indians and coloureds to be R345, 
R401 and R368 a month respectively 
in 1985. 

As similar studies have not been 
undertaken for whites, it will be 
assumed the HSL for Whites is the 
same as for Indians. 

Current and projected urban housing requirements: 1985-2000 

Population Housing Stock Housing requirements 
group 1985 1985 1990 1995 2000 
Whites* Requirements |1 299 000 1 262 000 | 1 332 000)1 430 000)1 517 000 
Cum. shortage +(37 000) 33 000} 132 000} 218 000 
Coloureds*| Requirements 394 000 446 000 487 000} 538 000) 586 000 
Cum. shortage 52 000 94 000} 144 000} 192 000 
Asians* Requirements 141 000 185 000 200 000} 218 000} 234 000 
Cum. shortage 44 000 60 000 77 000 93 000 
Blacks** |Requirements 466 000 1 004 000 | 2 299 000)2 724 000/3 161 000 
Cum. shortage 538 000 | 1 833 000/2 258 000/2 695 000 
+ Surplus 

* RSA and National States, excluding TBVC countries 
** RSA, excluding the National States and the TBVC countries 


According to the 1985 All Media 
and Products survey (AMPS) the 
average declared monthly income 
for households in South Africa 
(including the TBVC countries and 
Namibia) ranged from R352 for 
blacks to more than R2 000 for 

In terms of this analysis, only 
2,4 percent of white households are 
financially unable to make any 
contributions towards their housing. 
The corresponding figures for 
coloured, Indians and blacks are 
31,l percent, 8,2 percent and 
26,4 percent. 

About nine percent of all white 
households need assistance to 
acquire a low-cost dwelling. More 
than half the coloureds, 30 percent 
of the Indians and no less than 
84 percent of the blacks cannot 
afford a low-cost dwelling with 
some form of subsidy. 

The one-third interest rate State 
subsidy which first-time home- 
owners receive allows 94 percent of 
all white households to acquire 


low-cost dwellings whereas the civil 
service subsidy allows 96 percent to 
do so. 

The corresponding percentages 
for coloureds are about 53 and 61, 
for Indians 78 and 85 and for blacks 

24 and 33. 

Loan funds 

According to tables reflecting 
loan funds required for subsidised 
low-cost housing, it can be 
calculated that at least R8 000 
million is needed to eradicate the 
1995 backlog. This is 11 times the 
R720 million the Government has 
made available. 

If the housing backlog is to be 
met by 1990 at the standard 
suggested and assuming prices, 
costs, interest rates and house- 
hola incomes remain constant, 
the astronomical amount of 
R27 000 million will be required in 
the form of loanable funds on which 
no interest or capital redemption 
payments can be made initially 

Too many households in South 
Africa have become accustomed to 
either the State or their employers 

largely subsiding their 
accommodation. This has created a 
dependancy syndrome which has 
detrimentally affected the natural 
growth of the housing market. 

Informal sector 

About 70 percent of white 
households receive some form 
of housing subsidy while a 
considerably larger proportion of 
other population groups enjoy this 

The involvement of each 
household in the provision of its 
housing is probabiy the most 
significant way to reduce the need 
for low-cost housing finance. The 
encouragement and development of 
the informal economic sector, 

specially in the erection and 
maintenance of dwellings, is of 
particular importance. 

For such a system to be 
successful, building standards 
appropriate to the technologies 
employed and to the associated 
financial constraints will have to be 
actively encouraged and approved. 

The role of the State in the 
provision and financing of housing 
in South Africa has often been 
underestimated. It is not generally 
known the State has in recent years 
been responsible fur the direct 
financing of more than one-third of 
all housing constructed in South 

Plots available 

As far as coloured, Indian and 
blacks are concerned, the Govern- 
ment has been investing about 
R350 million per annum to provide 
about 23000 homes a year. Despite 
this, the housing backlog has 
increased steadily. This state of 
affairs led to the adoption of a new 
housing policy at the beginning of 
1983 in terms of which active 
support of the public sector is 

In an attempt to use available 
funds to the best advantage, the 
Government now gives priority to 
the provision of serviced building 

These plots are made available 
to all persons who can, either from 

CSO: 3400/3 


their own financial resources or 
with the assistance of their 
employers or financial institutions, 
accept responsibility for the 
construction of their own homes. 
For the group earning: 
@ Up to R150 per month, the local 
authority is responsible for 
providing a serviced site and 
dwelling utilising State funds. 
@ R150 to R450 per month, the local 
authority provide: only a serviced 
stand utilising State funds. The 
property owner is eligible to receive 
financial assistance for building 
materials up to a maximum of 
R4 000. 
@ R450 to R800 a month, the local 
authority is required to provide a 
serviced site only, utilising State 
@ R801 and above, the housing needs 
must be met by the private sector. 

New strategy 

pa had 

The campaign launched by the 
government in 1983 to sell 500 000 
housing units at very reasonable 
prices is indicative of an endeavour 
to promote home-ownership. 

Although this new housing 
Strategy of the Government is 
laudable, it has not yet met with the 
success expected. This is mainly 
attributable to delays in finalising 
surveying and township establish- 
ment procedures, as well as to 
pressure not to purchase homes 
brought to bear on tenants by 
Opposing political groups. Recent 
evidence seems to indicate sales are 
now picking up. 

Loss offset 

It is impossible to promote 
large-scale provision of low-cost 
housing in South Africa without 
some form of subsidy and incentive. 
Effective incentives will offset 
any potential loss of revenue or 
expenditure of funds, whereas 
subsidies imply the reallocation of 

Subsidies should ideally relate to 
the ability to pay. They should be 
granted only in cases of proven 
need to achieve viable objectives. If 
correctly applied. sbsidies can 
make a significant coniribution to 
the financing of low-cost housing. 



REFUGEE FLOOD TO DURBAN DOUBLES--Durban--About 100 stowaways, mostly from 
Tanzania, have landed in Durban since January--twice the number for the same 
period last year, They say they are fleeing from hunger and lack of work. 

The number of stowaways who make their way to South Africa has increased 
dramatically over the years, said Captain G, D. Stobbs, of P and I Associates. 
He said the Tanzanians were so desperate to get out that one report claimed 

a group of them had hidden in a ship's bilges for two days before they were 
discovered. "Whenever there was a search on board, the stowaways would dive 
into the water in the bilges, using a tube to breath," said Captain Stobbs. 
Some of the stowaways—mostly in their 20s--had malaria, leprosy and sleeping 
sickness, he said. If they had the necessary identification and travel docu- 
ments, they were eventually sent back home, "If not, they are put back on the 
ship they arrived in."' He added that the repatriation of stowaways cost ship 
owners and insurers thousands of rands. [Text] [Johannesburg THE STARK in 
English 11 Sep 86 p 13] /9274 

CSO: 3400/3 



Johannesburg SUNDAY TIMES in English 7 Sep 86 p 9 
[Article by Nic van Oudtshoorn and Cas St Leger] 

[Text ] 

AUSTRALIAN Prime Minister Bob 
Hawke’s first sanctians against 
South Africa are already being 
busted — by a Labour Party state 


The federal government has been seri- 
ously embarrassed by revelations in Aus- 

tralia this week that the state 
ment in Victoria has business li 


South Africa through the Aussie-based 
engineering company, Comeng. 

The Labour state govern- 
ment is involved in a joint 
R285-million deal with Co- 
meng Holdings, which owns 
nearly half of South Africa’s 
biggest rolling stock manu- 
facturer, Union Carriage and 
Wagon Company, through its 
holding company, Australia 
National Industries. 

Although official Labour 
Party policy forbids any gov- 
ernment assistance to com- 
panies trading with South 
Africa, the Victorian state 
government and Comeng 
have signed the R285-million 
agreement to join forces in 
manufacturing and selling 
trams to Hong Kong. 

An embarrassed Victorian 
Transport Minister, Mr Tom 
Roner, admitted the deal this 


The revelations have 
caused red faces in the Victo- 
rian and federal govern- 
ments and have angered 
many members of the La- 
bour Party, particularly the 
leftwing and ysnti-apartheid 



The Rev Dick Woottun, an 
anti-apartheid group leader 
in the powerful United 
Church, said he was stunned 
by the news of the deal. 

“This sort of business link 
is providing direct assistance 
to the South African Govern- 
ment’s. war machine,” he 

At the Labour Party’s 
national conference in July, 
at which Mr Hawke pushed 
for sanctions against South 
Africa, it was decided that to 
fight apartheid there should 
be a “withdrawal of govern- 
ment assistance from: Aus- 
tralian companies maintain- 
ing trading links with South 

Yet despite this, the Victo- 
rian government, through the 
Meibourne Metropolitan 
Transit Authcrity, joined 
forces with Comeng and 
jointly signed the multi-mil- 
lion dollar agreement in 
August to construct a 34 km 

tram system for Hong Kong. 

Comeng, Australia’s 
largest rail equipment manu- 
facturer, is far from being a 
mere passive shareholder in 
South Africa’s Union Car- 
riage and Wagon. 

Its holding company, ANI, 
owns 42 percent of Union 
Carriage and regularly sends 
engineers from Australia to 
South Africa to assist in de- 
sign and to provide other 
technical expertise. 


In announcing the joint 
Hong Kong deal, Transport 
Minister Mr Roper made ne 
mention of Comeng’s exten- 
sive links with South Africa. 

Comeng refused this week 
to disclose any details of its 
South African operations, be- 
yond confirming the 42 per- 
cent shareholding. 

However, Comeng annual 
reports have shown an annu- 


al profit for some years of the 
equivalant of more than 
plage from the 
operation of Union Carriage 
and Wagon. 

Union Carriage’s assistant 
managing director, Mr Her- 
man Hu:nan, said the com- 
pany was set up in South 
Africa by Comeng in 1958. 

Comeng had tendered for a 
contract, indicating it would 
construct a factory if it was 
awarded the contract. 

On receiving the successful 
tender, Union Carriage’s Ni- 
gel factory was built. 

The South African com- 
ow had no links with the 

ong Kong tram deal, Mr 
Human said. 

He said Comeng’s 42 per- 
cent South African share- 
holding was taken over by its 
holding company, ANI — 
with Australian directors [fr 
N R Jones and D H Gray on 
Union’s board — but the con- 
trolling holding was in local 

Anglo American and Gen- 
cor have a joint 47 percent 
stake in Union Carriage — an 
unlisted 7 — through 
Mainstraat Beleggings in 
which Anglo has a 30 percent 
interest and Gencor 50 per- 


In the stockbroking world, 
informed sources say that 
should the Australian con- 
nection be forced to sell its 
South African shares, Anglo 
would be likely to pick them 
up owing to the strategic na- 
ture of Union Carriage as an 



Johannesburg THE SUNDAY STAR (Finance) in English 7 Sep 86 pp l, 3 

[Text ] 

THE South African coal 
industry has issued a 

warning to the | 

world of the conse- 
quences of imposing uni- 
lateral bans on the coun- 
try’s coal exports. 

The Chamber of 
Mines of SA, the umbrel- 
la organisation repre- 
senting the majority of 
South Africa’s massive 
mining industry, claims 
that if coal sanctions do 
“bite” they will force up 
the international price of 
coal dramatically. 

In its most recent 
newsle<ter (released yes- 
terday), the Chamber 
points out that last year 
South Africa provided 
the world markets with 
41 million tonnes of 
steam coal — mainly 
used for powering elec- 
tricity stations — and 
nearly 3,8 million tonnes 
of anthracite, with a 
combined value of 
R3 100 million. 

These volumes make 
South Africa the fourth- 
largest coal exporter 
with more than 12,6 per- 
cent of the total world 
export market and more 
than 30 percent of the 
market for sea-borne 

Yet little over a dec- 
ade ago South Africa 
provided less than one 

percent of international 


The industry’s phe- 
nomenal growth, says 
the Chamber, was in re- 
sponse to urgent de- 

tively low production 
costs and az enviabie 
reputation for reliability. 

“Such is South Africa’s 
i as an inter- 
national supplier of 
steam coal that the im- 
position of sanctions 
would almost certainly 
be accompanied by a 
rapid increase in price 
on world markets. 

“This is because the 
South African industry is 
a cost leader with the 
ability to supply coal at 
cif prices far lower than 
all major competitors. 
The effect of even par- 
tial disruption of sup- 
plies of low cost South 
African coal to interna- 
tional markets needs lit- 
tle elaboration,” main- 
tains the Chamber. 

The Chamber report 
follows its ominous 
statement late last 
month, backed by statis- 
tics from the Transvaal 
Coal Owners Assocition 
(TCOA) that the initial 
effects of the mounting 

international sanctions 
campaign againt South 
Africa were beginning to 
impact severely on the 
coal mining industry. 

As a result, and in an- 
ticipation of further 
saactions coming into 
force, the collieries in 
South Africa said they 
had begun planning a 
massive retrenchment 
programme, which, if 

on the livelihoods of 
more than 200000 men, 
women and children — 
most of them black. 

The Chamber added 
last month that as a re- 
sult of the sanctions im- 
posed to date, South 
African coal exports this 
year had already fallen 
17 percent on 1985 levels 
and there was a strong 
chance that this down- 
ward trend could accel- 

Coal, after gold, is the 
second-biggest earner of 
foreign exchange for 
South Africa, ahead of 
its much-vaunted dia- 
mond and piatinum ex- 
ports. Last year coal 
earned the country more 
than R3000 million in 
export sales. Only gold 
exports, which totalled 
R15 500 million, earned 
more for the country. 



Many of South Afri- 
ca’s minerals — among 
them gold, platinum, 
platinum group metals, 
vanadium, chrome and 
manganese — are to a 
large extent “sanction 
proof” because South 
Africa is either the only 
or a major world suppli- 
In contrast, South 
Africa’s coal exports 

face a world supply 

overhang ‘and conse- 

quentially depressed | 

prices. - 

Another negative fac-. 
tor is that because of the.. 

large volumes of coal 
being exported, it has 
been extremely difficult 
to disguise their source 
and thus much easier for 
anti-South African or- 
ganisations to monitor. 
According to the 

Chamber newsletter, . 

98 882 people are em- 

ployed by South Africa’s 

coal mines, including 
85 749 blacks. An estimt- 
ed 17150 black workers 
are migrants from out- 
side the country’s bor- 

The Chamber claims 
that should sanctions be 
‘applied against coal ex- 
ports, the inevitable. job 
losses would affect black 
workers most. 

Another point raised 
is that black migrant 
coal workers send large 
sums of money and 
benefits in kind to their 
homelands, many of 
which — especially Le- 
sotho and Mozambique 
— are heavily dependent 
on remittances as a 

source of much-needed 
foreign exchange. 

“Indeed, identifiable 
remittances from all 
mineworkers in South 
Africa to Lesotho were 
estimated to be equal to 
some 60 percent of that 
country’s gross domestic 
product in 1984.” 

Continuing its almost 
Dante-like portrait of a . 
post-sanctions South 
African coal industry, . 
the Chamber comments: 
“The effects of sanctious 
would not be limited to 
coal mine employees. In 
1984 coal mines pur- 
chased goods and ser- 
vices from other sectors 
of the economy to the - 
value of some R1 600 

“Sanctions, thus, could 

well affect the livelihood 
of thousands of workers 
in coal-dependent indus- 
tries and their depen- 
_ The livelihood of 
workers in industrialised 
western countries could . 
also be affected, since 
coal mining in South 
Africa is capital inten- 
sive -and a purchaser of 
sophisticated equipment, 
much of which is made 

“The phenomenal 
growth experienced by 
the South African coal 
mining industry is ex- 
pected to continue, with 
exports in the region of 
80 million tonnes fore- 
cast for the year 2000. 

“Sanctions now could 
thus affect the job pros- 
pects of many black 
South Africans, 





Johannesburg BUSINESS DAY in English 5 Sep 86 p 2 

[Article by David Furlonger] 




EXPORT shipments through SA’s 
main harbours are running at up to 
nine times the level of imports. 

Figures from SA Transport Services 
show exports in July totalled 7,2-million 
a compared with imports of 970 000 

Although official figures for other 
months this year include trans-shipment 
of local cargoes from one port to an- 
other, they show clearly the extent to 

which imports are lagging. 

Trans-shipment is so small — of the 
tetal 8,38-million tons handled by har- 
bours in July, only 175000 tons were 
trans-shipped — that total figures give a 

clear picture of import-export levels. 

In April, harbours imported 872 000 
tons, compared with exports of 6,8-mil- 
lion; in May, the figures were 926 000 and 
8,i-million, and in June 856 000 and 5,8- 
million tons. 

Seaborne mineral imports in July, ex- 
cluding trans-shipment, totalled 194 000 
tons, of which nearly half — 94 000 tons 
— are listed under “other mineral pro- 



| ] OURBAN 2:2 m 
Cees SALDANHA BAY 0,829 m 
(PORT ELIZABETH 0,606 m \ 

Jor TOWN 0.353 m 

(east LONDON 0,326 m 

§ Mosse BAY 5 238 Tons 

ducts” as classified information. 

Of the 1,5-million tons of minerals 

exports, 1,3-million tons are classified. 

er major imports included fruit, 
vegetable and grain products (160 000 
tons); chemicals, plastics and rubber 
(190 000); and vehicles, aircraft and 
spares (89 000). 

Leading exports, in tonnage terms, 
included fruit, vegetable and grain pro- 
ducts (581 000); timber and pee pro- 
ducts (597 000); and base metals (617 000). 



Johannesburg THE SUNDAY STAR in English 7 Sep 86 pp l, 2 

{Article by John Spira] 


SOARING gold and platinum prices will 
soon put more money into the pocket of 
the man in the street. 

The past three wéeks of booming precious 
metal prices is therefore good news for con- 
sumers reeling from the effects of the three- 
year economic recession and the sky-high in- 
flation rate. 

Economists are elated with calculations which re- 
veal that the frenzied buying of gold and platinum in 
world markets translates into a whopping annualised 
$2000 million in additional South African foreign ex- 
change earnings compared with prices of three weeks 

The figure is equivalent to almost the total amount of for- 
eign debt repayable by South Africa until mid-1987. 

This is the good news that could ulti- 
mately spill over into meaningful stan- 
dard of living improvements for all 
South Africans. 

Already the additional money flowing 
into the country in the wake of the pre- 
cious metals boom has exerted down- 
ward pressure on interest rates — which 
means (immediately) cheaper over- 
drafts and (eventually) reduced pay- 
ments on hire purchase contracts and 
mortgage bonds. 

And Mr Jimmy McKenzie, Barclays 
Bank's senior general manager, believes 
‘hat scupe exists for further interest 
rate reductions. 

He points out that Barclavs has just 
reduced the interest rate it charges on 
home loans and suggests that ‘!ere :s 
now irresistible pressure on the building 
societies to follow suit. 


Booming precious metal prices mean 
massive profits for the country’s mines 
— a factor which, in turn, translates 
into considerably increased tax receipts 
for the Government. 

And although tax relief for individuals 
will have to await next year’s Budget, 
should the gold price maintain its up- 

a prospect. 

The heightened level of 
economic activity which 
is bound to be generated 
by South Africa’s im- 
proved cash flow should 
also create more jobs in 
due course. 

But perhaps the most 
positive impact is psy- 
chological. In spite of the 
growing intensity of 
sanctions pressures and 
the legacy of a crippling 
recession, the business 
sector — and, indeed, 
John Citizen — is begin- 
ning to take a brighter 
view of the future. 

Most encouraging is 
that the Reserve Bank 
has allowed the rand to 
move up in unison with 
buoyant gold and plati- 
num prices. 

Economists point out 
that during the 1976-80 
gold boom — when the 
gold price rocketed from 
$100 to $850 — the rand 
was not allowed to rise 
by more than 16 percent. 

The resultant massive 
rise in rand gold prices 


triggered off a tremendous credit explosion, 
which enabled the economy to grow at 
8 percent for a single year but resulted in 
inflation, recession, ve Interest rates, un- 
employment and social unrest In the follow- 
ing five years. 

As economist Dr Azar Jammine notes: 
“This time round, !f the rand !s allowed to 
appreciate !n line with gold, the initial im- 
pact on economic growth might be some- 
what muted. 

“But in the longer term, it will result in 
less growth in the money supply, less infla- 
tion, lower interest rates, more confidence 
and higher growth — all, hopefully, loading 
to a reduction in unrest. 

“Ironically, the need to repay high levels 
of foreign debt is imposing a financial disci- 

line on the authorities which did not ex- 
st in 1980 and which can therefore be seen 
in a healthy light.” 

Boosting confidence, too, was Friday's re- 



duction in the bank rate, a move that 
rompted the country’s major banks to {fol- 
ow sult on their prime | g rates. 

Mr McKenzie says Barclays is a 
an aggressive interest policy and will not 
hesitate to drop its rates if conditions 
prompt such a move, pointing out that every 
decline in interest rates puts more money 
into the pocket of the man in the street. 

He draws attention, too, to the 15 percent 
benchmark rate that !s currently levied for 
purpeses of perks tax. 

He ts convinced that this rate, established 
when the prime rate was a high 20 percent, 
is bound to come down in line with the: 
general pattern of interest rates, in the pro- 
cess — again boosting take-home pay. 

In addition, a reduction in the 18 percent 
perks tax benchmark would provide a 
much-needed fillip for the motor and build- 
ing industries. 


Johannesburg THE STAR in English 11 Sep 86 p 8 


[Text] Cape Town—Thousands of people in the hotel and related industries 
have lost their jobs as a result of the decline in the number of foreign 


A memorandum submitted by 
the SA Tourism Board to the ec- 
onomic affairs committee of the 
President’s Council now sitting 
in Cape Town says that in “good 
years” the hotel industry pro- 
vides between 60000 and 85 000 
job opportunities. 

This figure has dropped to 
about 55 000. 

About 10 percent of the people 
employed in the industry are 

Between 40 and 50 percent of 
the employees were in the semi- 
skilled and unskilled category.In 
the non-hotel accommodation 
industry the figure was between 
60 and 70 percent. 

There are 1321 registered 
hotels in South Africa with a 
total of 91 362 beds. 

Between April 1985 and May 
this year the average occupancy 
of beds for the various grades. of 
hotels ranged from 32 percent 
(for one-star hotels) to 45 per- 
cent (for three-star hotels). 


Five-star hotels, of which 
there are 11 with a total of 5 687 

CSO: 3400/6 


of 36 

Tour operators and travel 
agents, which employ about 
5 000, have been hit. 

In a relatively undeveloped- 
field with “enormous potential 
relating to agricultural activi- 
ties, package tours are already 
being offered, such as to the 
wine, wool and crayfish route. 

The tourism industry is al- 
ready making a large contribu- 
tion to job creation in the infor- 
mal business sector. 

An even bigger contribution 
could be made in this field as 
tourists are eager to buy hand- 
made articles and art work. 

“The cultural diversity of the 
South African population lends 
itself to the development of this 
sector and we believe many job 
opportunities can bé created in 
this way, especially for un- 
skilled and semi-skilled work- 
seekers,’ the memorandum says. 

Oral evidence on job creation 
was given at the hearings by 
two directors of the SA Tourism 
Board, Mr Kobus Roux and Mr 
Johan Fourie 

beds, had an average occupancy 


Johannesburg THE WEEKLY MAIL in English 12-18 Sep 86 pp 1, 2 

[Article by Phillip van Niekerk] 

[Text] SOUTH AFRICA is facing a massive social 
disaster with between four and six million 
blacks out of work, according to estimates by 
two researchers at the University of the 

Professor Jeremy Keenan of the Department 
of Social Anthropology and Michael 
Sarakinsky, a post-graduate student, say half 
the country’s economically active blacks could 
be unemployed. 

In a “Memorandum on Unemployment”, 
they say that income levels have declined and 
poverty has increased dramatically since 1976. 

| in black households. 

The estimates could have explosive 
implications for the sanctions debate, where 
one of the main pegs of the anti-sanctions lobby 
has been the threat of black job losses. ° 

Unemployment is also often cited as one of 
the main.causes of the civil unrest which has 
burnt across South Africa for the past two 
years. 3 

Many of the jobless are locked into the 
burgeoning squatter cities on the periphery of 
the metropolitan areas. 

These include Onverwacht, Winterveld, 
Crossroads and Khayelitsha, KwaNdebele and 
the shanty towns which ring Durban and Port 

Keenan and Sarakinsky accuse the South 
African government of minimising the 
unemployment levels. 

They say the exact level of black 
unemployment is unknown because of the 
“appalling lack of reliable data’’. 

In their memorandum they dismiss as 
“ludicrous” the most recent official figure of 
black unemployment, which stood at 519 000 
in June 1986. 

The authors base their figures on the 
pioneering work into unemployment done by 
Charles Simkins at the University of Cape 
Town in 1977 and 1981. 




In 1977 Simkins estimated there were 2,3- 
million unemployed, while in 1981 he revised 
his calculations and estimated there were two 
million unemployed. 

Simkins made his calculations before the 
recession began in the early Eighties, wiping 
out jobs in many industries and leading to a 
levelling off of growth in employment. 

Keenan and Sarakinsky use the 
generally accepted estimate that 
250 000 new workers reach the job 
market every year and that 250 000 
jobs have to be found if 
unemployment is to remain static. 

The authors quote figures from the 
Central Statistical Services which 
show there was a net decrease of 
16 000 jobs in the modern sector of 
the economy between 1977 and 1985 
and a decrease of 181 000 between 
1981 and 1985. 

Thus since 1977 there has been an 

increase in unemployment of two 
million and, since 1981, an increase of : 
_ However, this excludes agriculture 
where — the authors estimate — there 
was a decline of about a quarter of a 
million job opportunities between 
1977 and 1985. 

In the independent homelands, also 
excluded from the CSS figure, the 
authors estimate that since 1977 an 
extra 1,1-million people have joined 
the unemployment scrapheap in 
Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda and 

Their estimate is based on an 
estimate of 1,8-million unemployed in 
these areas, two-thirds having become 
jobless since 1977. 

Added to Simkins’ base figures and 
the other estimates, they say, this adds 
up to an estimated overall range of 
between 4,8-million and six million. 

However, the authors say, there are 
a number of factors — such as the 
under-enumeration of the population 
— which lead them to believe the 
estimate is in fact conservative. 

Simkins — of the University of 
Cape Town’s Department of 
Economics — said yesterday he had 
given up talking of gross amounts of 
unemployed because the government’s 
Statistical information was so poor. 

“I do not intend to leap in with a new 
figure,” he said. “But if you added on 
everyone who has joined the labour 
force since 1981 to my 1981 figure, 
you would have a figure weil in excess 
of three million.” 



Cape Town THE WEEKEND ARGUS (Business) in English 6 Sep 86 p 2 

[Article by Derek Tommey] 

[Text ] 

WITH the end of the recession 
in sight companies throughout 
South Africa are looking for 
extra staff. But the response 
from Cape Town to their ad- 
vertisments so far has been 

Mrs Val Middleton, manag- 
ing director of Admark, Cape 
Town, a company which spe- 
Cialises in the p tion and 
— of job advertisements 
ox skilled staff, said today 
ther had been a steady in- 
crease in the past few months 
in the number of jobs being 

May had been a record 
month for Admark and so had 
August, with help-wanted adds 
up 30 percent on May. Septem- 
ber had opened on an incredi- 
bly busy note so this could be a 
record month too. 

However, recruiters were 
finding there was a grave 
shortage of skilled workers. 
Some placement advertise- 
ments drew as little as seven 




Mrs Middleton blamed the 
emigration of skilled workers 
and the reluctance of people to 
move from existing jobs for 
this situation. 

“There has been a horrific 
brain drain,” she said. “Every 
day people have been emigrat- 

Recently a British company 
had recruited 27 computer pro- 
grammers from South Africa. 
A large number of engineers 
and accountants had been go- 
ing to Australia and the United 

But another factor militating 
aginst the recruitment of staff 
was the unwillingness of people 
to move from their present 

People were feeling insecure 
and were most reluctant to 
take a chance and move to an- 
other job. It was not unusual 
for successful applicants to re- 
fuse at the last minute to move 
to the job offered them. 

This shortage of skilled peo- 
ple has meant that recruiters 
were having to offer a bigger 


But though there was a skills 
shortages, many good “7 
were still looking for jobs. 
Their difficulty was that they 
did not have the right skills. 

School leavers and university 
graduates, especially women, 
were also having difficulty 
finding work. Employers usual- 
ly wanted people with at least 
a year’s experience so it was 
not easy to place young people 
Straight out of school or 


Mr Michae! Lane, manager 
of the appointments division of 
PE Corporate Services, Johan- 
nesburg, confirmed there had 
been an increase in the number 
of companies seeking staff in 
the past month or so. But he 
had experienced an increase in 
the number of applications — 
though perhaps not from Cape 

A specialist in appointment 
of senior executives, Mr Lane 
said people living at the coast 

seemed far less willing to 
change — than was the case 
on the Reef. 

The financial services field 
had experienced a serious 
brain drain. The answer was to 
step up the training of blacks. 
At present South Africa had 
only seven black chartered 

He was increasingly working 

on the deveiopment of black 



Cape Town THE WEEKEND ARGUS (Business) in English 6 Sep 86 p 2 

[Article by Azar Jammine, chief economist of Econometrix, and NIC NEL, tax 


{Text } 

INTEREST in the of 
the Margo Commission of En- 
quiry into the Tax System is in- 
tense for the outcome could 
radically improve South Afri- 
cans’ living standards. 

What follows is the sub- 
stance of our original proposals 
to the Margo Commission — 
proposals which revolve 
around tax cuts and the propo- 
sition that tax cuts ~ally do 

We offer nin: convincing ar- 

nts and we have volumes 
of detailed research available 
to back them up: 

Our arguments are: 

@ The lower the rate of tax, 
the less upward pressure there 
is on prices. Low-rate, broad- 
based taxes are less inflation- 

ary than are high-rate, narrow- 

ly based taxes. 

@ The less the economy is 
taxed, the greater the amount 
left in the economy from which 

production can be generated in 

future years. Economic growth 
is thereby enhanced. This can 
result in an increasing stream 
of tax receipts generated at the 
new (lower) tax rates which 
will exceed the receipts which 
would have been obtained at 
the old (higher) tax rate. 

@ By removing the disincen- 
tives of high tax rates, cutting 
taxes enhances growth and in- 
creases fiscal revenues. Rais- 
ing growth by increasing pro- 

ductivity and profitability 
works through the economic 
system exponentially, leading 
to a spiral of growth, both cf 
the economy and of the fiscal 
revenues collected at the lower 
tax rates. 

@ The lower the company rate 
of tax relative to the individual 
rate of tax, the greater the po- 
tential for productive capital 
formation. In the interest of 
economic growth, individuals 
must be encouraged to spend 
— not save — and businesses 
to retain their capital for pro- 
ductive . A lower tax 
rate on businesses as against 
individuals achieves this. 

@ Taxation is effectively a ma- 
jor cost to businesses and this 
cost is passed on to individuals 
in the form of higher prices. 
The major determinant of em- 
ployment is a demand for 
oods and services which can 

supplied at a satisfactory 

Permanent increases in de- : 

mand are actually driven by 
factors controlled by producers 
— such as price levels, levels 
of investment and product 
variety /availability. 

These factors, in turn, are in- 
fluenced by producers’ costs — 
one of which is the level of tax- 
ation. The lower the rate of 
taxation, the lower the level of 
prices, the higher the level of 
demand and the higher the re- 
sultant levels of investment, 


employment, incomes and eco- 
nomic growth. 

@ Taxation is not only a cost to 
companies but also a cost to in- 
dividuals, because companies 
tend to pass costs on to the 
consumer. The lower his tax 
rate, the more disposable in- 
come is available to an 

@ Government spending on 
current account iends to be in- 
flationary and rarely has posi- 
tive long-term effects for the 
economy. This is because gov- 
ernment is not answerable to 
shareholders and is not moti- 
vated by profit. However, fixed 
domestic investment by gov- 
ernment must be highly benefi- 
cial to the economy. 

Direct government spending 
tends to require the mainte- 
nance of high tax rates and this 
tends to be inflationary be- 
cause it increases unit costs of 
production. Borrowing by gov- 
ernment is a squeeze of capital 
out of the private sector which 
tends to push up interest rates 
and stifle investment and eco- 
nomic growth in the long term. 

Incentives are different and 
enable the market to contrib- 
ute to the achievement of gov- 
ernment objectives, voluntari- 
ly. It is for this reason that 
spending, for example, on 
black housing would be better 
applied in the form of a tax 
concession than in direct 

@ There is a tremendous 
amount of vested interest 
among big institutions and 
business against tax and eco- 
nomic reform. Big business, 
particularly the life insurance 
companies and the mining 
houses and their representative 
hodies, carry a disproportion- 
ately low burden under the 
present system and are not im- 
mune to acting in their selfish 
sectoral interests. 

Most of our biggest corpora- 

tions pay less than 6 percent of 
their profits in tax. The com- 
bined payments of the life as- 
surance companies last year 
was only R288-million — less 
than the R355-million GST paid 
on used cars in the same 
period. ’ 
@ The corollary of all the 
above is that tax cuts really do 
promote economic growth, cre- 
ate employment, and, if cor- 
rectly introduced, reduce infla- 
tion aad increase fiscal 

On all purchases . 

This brings us to the me- 
chanics of how best to achieve 
tax cuts to the benefit of all 

Our proposals for the tax 
system hinge on a tandem sys- 
tem of a combined transaction 
tax and a flat rate tax. 

The transaction tax is a tax 
of small proportions, as re- 
gards rate, on all purchases of 
goods and services by all per- 
sons (including cc mpanies, 
trusts, businesses and individ- 
uals) in the economy. 

Where the transaction is 

CSO: 3400/19 

cleared by a bank or other fi- 
nancial institution, the tax is 
collected automatically — in 
the same way banks collect 
their charges. 

An estimate of the current 

base of this tax is R3 400-billion 
a year. A rate of 0,74 percent 
will therefore collect -bil- 

lion a year in fiscal revenues 
— two-thirds of the govern- 
ment’s current revenue 

About 80 percent of this rev- 
enue will be collected automat- 
ically by computer accounting 
through the financial institu- 
tions, reducing manual inter- 
vention and costs of collection 
to minimal proportions, com- 
pared with an ordinary tax and 
even a GST. 

A prerequisite for the deduc-. 

tion of an expense for flat rate 
tax purposes is the payment of 
the transaction tax. This can be 
ascertained easily — if a 
cheque has been drawn, the 
transaction tax has been paid. 

With developments in elec- 
tronic banking, there may 
come the day when not even 
businesses will need to lodge 
income tax returns, other than 
a statement of assets and li- 
abilities at book value. 

With the special problem in 
South Africa of large numbers 
of semiliterate and unsophisti- 
cated taxpayers, the system of 
a withholding tax at source of 
remuneration, obviating any 
need for an individual to have 
to complete a tax return at all, 
must be very attractive. 

The rates proposed are, ini- 


tially, 0,74 percent for the 
transaction tax and 9 percent 
for the flat rate tax. 

The transaction tax at this 
“high” rate is only a temporary 
tax measure, as an alternative 
to selling government assets, to 
finance the deficit in the first 
years of taxation cuts. 

The 9 percent flat rate tax is 
an optimum rate and it is fore- 
cast that it will, within about 
five years, be sufficient to col- 
lect virtually all government 
revenue requirements. 

Full amount 

This, in turn, would enable 
the transaction tax, installed 
initially at 0,74 percent, either 
to be abrogated or to be held in 
place at about a tenth of that 

At the 0,74 percent/9 percent 
rates proposed, the combina- 
tion of transaction tax and flat 
rate tax would have had the 
ability to collect revenues in 
the 1986 fiscal year of about 
R41-billion — the full amount 
of expected government expen- 
diture this year. 

We propose this tandem tax 
system as a replacement of in- 
come tax, GST, import duty 
and all other taxes, imposts 
and levies of a fiscal nature. 

As against a VAT system, 
which would cost a fortune to 
install and require at least two 
years to be put in place, the 
tandem system we propose can 
slot in with the existing sys- 
tem, virtually overnight. 

The systems we propose dc 
not require new law, merely 
deletions from existing law. 


Johannesburg THE STAR in English 1 Sep 86 p 7 

[Text ] 
The drought in the Western Transvaal-could 

not only deprive thousands of people of a. 

livelihood, but also disturb the whole social 
structure of the area with the prospect of 
thousands of black people moving to Ork- 

ney and Klerksdorp sceking jobs. 
fessor Petrie a ie of the Bu- 

reau of Manpower and Management Research 
at Potchefstroom University, said the Ork- 
ney/Klerksdorp area would have to brace itself 
for up to 1 million new black residents from 
farms in the Western Transvaal and Bophutha- 
a in years to come should the drought con- 


According to the bureau, every farm provided ac- 
commodatior, for between 20 and 30 black families. 

What caused the greatest concern, Professor 
Schutte said, was the falling water table. The whole 
of the Western Transvaal was dependent on under- 
ground water, and on many farms boreholes had al- 
ready dried up. 

Boreholes dry 

“Things cannot get worse,” said Mr Boet Pelser, 
manager of the Marico Kodperasie. “Dams such as 
the one at Kromelienboog will hold only until Novem- 
ber. I don’t know what will happen after that.” 

Mr Jaap Coetzee, the tive’s branch manag- 
er at Groot Marico, told The Star that he still had 
some cattle on the farm Schoongezicht, but on more 
than 400 ha of land he only had enough grazing for 29 
head of cattle. 

On another farm he had, Krokodildrif, also in the 
Swartruggens district, all the boreholes had dried up. 

Nothing to do 

Mr Gert Visagie and his wife Poppie of Onverwacht 
farm near Boons had the same experience. 

“We do not even have enough water to run a veg- 
etable garden and have to buy everything we need in 
town.” Mrs Visagie said. Her husband works as a 
carpenter for a businessman. 

“We still live in the farmhouse but there is nothing 


to do. You cannot carry 
on farming without 
water,” said Mrs 

who had taken up a job as 
a school ’ 

At Swartruggens the 
owner of the local hotel, 
Mrs Pam van Vuuren, 
had the same story to 
tell. “Until recently all 
our drinking water came 
from Zeerust. All the 
boreholes had dried up, 
but luckily we had a bit 
of rain that filled up the 
town’s dam.” 

But the worst-hit area 
according to co-operative 
officials could be the 
Lindleyspoort Irrigation 


Of the original 150 
farmers, there were per- 
haps not more than seven 
who could still call them- 
selves full-time farmers. 
Others remained on their 
farms but do other jobs 
to make ends meet. 

Many farmhouses have 
been abandoned and 
some farmers, desperate 
for cash, were willing to 
let farmhouses for as lit- 



tle as R60 a month. 
Co-operative officials 
are also worried about 
the social implications of 
co-ops going into the red. 
“In the past we used to 
help institutions such as 
the Suid-Afrikaanse 
Vrouefederasie and old 
people’s homes, but now 
we have to start looking 
after ourselves,” Mr Boet 
Pelser explained. 


“We are also worried 
about elderly people who 
have to leave their farms 
and seek jobs elsewhere.” 

An official of one co- 
operative said that there 
were even instances of 
wealthy farmers who 
now had to live in hovels. 

“In the Marico district 
the plight of the farmers 
is such that one debt-rid- 
den farmer even commit- 
ted suicide,” the official 

The manager of the 
Koster Kodperasie told 
The Star that many 
farms in his district had 
fetched very low prices 
during recent auctions. 

In the searing heat of the 
Western Transvaal cattle . 
graze the dust under a. 
sky so pale it is almost 
Real rain has not fallen 
here for five years —' 
after nearly 2000 days 
like this one, there are 
children who have learn- 
ed to talk but do not 
know what “rain” means. 
Water comes from the 
ground, and when the 
boreholes dry up, they 

have learnt, you buy it at | 

R2 per drum 

Some of their fathers | 
have cleared their land 

and planted crops they 
never harvested — how 
can you harvest dry 
stalks and dust? Some did 
not bother and the aloe 
and black doringboom 

“I am not an atheist, 
but how can I pray now?” 
asks a grim-faced woman 
in the bar of the Derby 
Hotel, where local farm- 
ers are discussing the 
drought and the financial 
problems of their co-op. 

_ “Things are at a turn- 
ing point — and from 
now on they'll only get 
worse,” a farmer agrees. 

“You can try as hard 
as you like, but no one 
can change it.” 

Desperation has settled 



on the district like the 
powdery dust that clings 
to everything and lies 
inch-deep on the farm- 

Like Tennessee dust- 
bowl nomads, couples 
and families hitchhike 
through the villages, set- 
tling on those that offer 
food and shelter. 

The group in the bar of 
the Derby Hotel casts 
around for someone to 

Their lives are falling 
apart and “PW Botha 
has abandoned them” — 
(this is Conservative 
Party territory). 

There is not enough 

You Camnot Harvest or Live on Dust and Dry Sticks... 

food for them — and the 
blacks “must go back to 
their homelands, or bet- 
ter still, over the border” 
(to Botswana). 

These farmers are 
among the few that have 
remained on the land. 
Many have simply locked 
their doors, sold the last 
skinny cattle and moved 
to the city or the mines. 

“They’ve gone to the 
gold fields,” an old man 
guarding the local dam 
says when asks why all 
the farms nearby are de- 

The dam is the lowest 
he has ever seen it, he 



The small towns are 
dying a slow death. In Ot- 
toshoop — subjected to a 
fruitless hunt for dia- 
monds recently — the 
single road through the 
town is bracketed or one 
end by the local school 
which closed down in 
1984, and the police sta- 
tion, where the last poli- 
ceman 7’as packing to 
move out this month. 

Only one store re- 
mains, and children treat 
the barely-used main 
road as a playground. 

In Groot Marico the 
shopkeepers survive on 
giving credit: Mr AA 
Daya estimates he is 
owed about R7 000, 
money he does not expect 
to see. 

At the store next door 
Mrs Mohamed Rajan, 
minding the second-gen- 
eration family business 
while her husband and fa- 
ther-in-law sought other 
work, told The Star her 
day’s takings were fre- 
quently as low as R8. 

Across the road the 
local borehole contractor, 
Mr Frederik van Rens- 

savs there is water 
available but no one has 
the money to drill for it. 

“It has been reaily 
slow in the past two 
years. Work is scarce.” 

He sometimes sells 
water at R2 the drum. 

His grandson Corrie 
(12) ig a Std 4-pupil at the 
Groot Marico I[.aerskool, 
where a feeding scheme 
is now run. The children 
are given sandwiches 
every day: ‘‘But the 
teacher told us the chil- 
dren do have food, they 
just forget it at home.” 


Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 2 Sep &6 p 23 

[Text ] 


RAND Mines yesterday 
refused to comment on 
persistent rumours that it 
was planning to start a 
huge platinum mining 
complex in Bophutha- 

According to certain in- 
formed sources, Rand 
Mines was issued with a 
prospecting permit re- 
cently for a period of five 
years on the farms Nooit- 
gedacht, Bospoort, Pearl, 
portion of Wonderkop, 
Leeukop, Wolvekraal 
and Kareepoort. 

The Merensky Reef 
(MR) and the U.G72 is de- 
veioped over these prop- 
erties and is expected to 
yield a grade of between 5 
and 9 grams a ton. It is 
believed that each reef 
should yield a tonnage of 
between 30000 and 
40 000 insitu tons per hec- 

According to Ecologi- 


cal Survey’s recent seis- 
mic survey in the Bush- 
veld, it was shown that 
the dip of the platinum 
reefs became flatter with 

In the past it was 
thought that the MR and 
U.G2 would be too deep 
to mine economically. 
The survey has shown 
that these reefs dip at 
shallow angles or become 
flat. If this is the case then 
the area is of much great- 
er significance than was 
previously believed. 

Informed sources point 
out that grades of the 
west platinum mines im- 
prove with depth. 
Schaapkraal, the Gold- 
fields farm apparently has 
intersected high grade va- 
lues. To the east of Leeu- 
kop, the old Pandora 
property which now be- 
longs to Rustenburg Plats 

showed values of 5,5 to 6 
grams a ton. 

It is believed that 
grades of between 6 and 9 
grams a ton are likely to 
be in existence on this 

ing lease. 

There is speculation 
too that apart from plati- 
num, Rand Mines have 
the right to exploit the 
vanadium bearing mag- 
netite beds outcropping in 
the area. 

With U.G2 being a 
chromitite seam _ with 
Rand Mines being closely 
involved in chromite min- 
ing and in the down- 
stream ferrochrome pro- 
duction at Middelburg 
Steel and Alloys, this is a 
major plus factor for the 
company’s entry into this 
field, that is, producing 
platinum and _ chrome 
from a single mine. Few 
companies can equal the 



expertise of Barlow Rand 
in this field. 

Informed sources point 
out too that Rand Mines 
has an overriding option 
over a further 8 000 ha to 
the north. This is such a 
large prospect situated in 
a well-known district for 
platinum that it is almost 
certain that a major pro- 
duction complex can be 
expected in the future. 

The rumoured negotia- 
tions of Rand Mines with 
the Wansa platinum prop- 
osition at Kennedy Vale 
is significant in its own 
right and is possibly the 
reason why the shares 
have been climbing re- 
cently. But compared 
with the Leeukop project, 
it pales into insignifi- 
cance, informed sources 



Johannesburg THE STAR in English 9 Sep 36 p 3 

[Article by Jaap Boekkooi] 

{Text ] 

The Government is considering a giant plan 
which aims to more than double the water 
supplies of the entire Vaal River system by 
piping Zambezi water 800km down south 
through a network of canals, pipes and 
| pumping stations. 

_ The existence of the project was confirmed 
today by Mr Claus Triebel, chief engineer (plan- 
ning) of the Department of Water Affairs, who 
said it was one of his department’s long-term 

The Zambezi would be tapped at its confluence 
with the Chobe River in northern Botswana, near 
Katima Mulilo and the Victoria Falls, from where 
water would flow down to southern Botswana and 
the Rand, and be lifted by: pumping stations 
across escarpments. 

The plan would produce 2 400 million cum of 
water a year, 133 percent more than the current 
annual extraction of some 1 600 million cu m from 
the greater Vaal River system which stretches 
from Standerton to its confluence with the Or- 
ange River. 

This makes the “Zambezi Plan” the country’s 
largest potential water project. It is designed to 

CSO: 3400/27 

exceed the Lesotho Highlands Scheme supply by 
200 million cu m a year. 

Details of the plan have been discussed by its 
designer, Professor Guenter Borchert, a specialist 
Africa geographer of Hamburg University, with 
planning officials of the Water Affairs Depart- 
ment. They agree that at a current cost of about 
R9 000 million the projected Zambezi water 
would be too costly for irrigation purposes and 
should, therefore, be used exclusively for dom 
estic consumption and industry. 

Official agreement 

“In broad terms we agree with Professor Bor- 
chert’s proposals. The water that would be made 
available will be equal to the present consump- 
tion in the entire Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereen- 
iging area,” Mr Triebel said. 

“But it will also require an official agreement 
between all the governments of Southern Africa, 
including Angola, Zambia, Botswana, Zimbabwe 
and Mozambique.” 

Four of these governments are already co- 
operating om the Limpopo Basin Technical Com- 
mittee with the South Aareon Department of 
Water Affairs. 




Johannesburg BUSINESS DAY in English 5 Sep 86 p 6 

[Analysis by Robin Friedland] 


ASOL HAS produced some 

nice looking results for the 

year ended June 28, 1986: 

earnings on the consolidat- 
ed income statements are up by 
14,9% to R3 638m, excluding ex- 
cise duties and levies. 

Net operating income has risen 
by a powerful 27,5% to R1 326,6m. 

ividends received (from the 
. group’s half share in Sasol 3) are 
virtually unchanged at R25,9m. 

Interest paid shows a sharp de- 
cline from R221,5m to. R164m, re- 
flecting the repayment of the 
group’s debt to the Central Energy 
Fund (CEF). The profit statement 
notes that the amount repaid was 
R1 100 approximately. 

And the 1985 balance sheets 
show that group debt at the end of 
the previous financial year was 
just short of R2000m (actually 
R1 998m). Of this sum, R479m was 
repayable within one year and was 
included with short-term loans in 
the accounts. 

The amount of loans outstand- 
ing, therefore, looks like R900m in 
round terms. 

It is apparent that the exception- 
al profits earned in 1986 were part- 
ly applied to advancing the obliga- 
tory schedule of loan repayments. 

Returning to the profit figures, 
the net operating income already 
recorded translated into income 
before taxation of R1 185,5m, an in- 
crease of 40,8%. 

Tax was a whopping R487.3m, 
leaving income after taxation of 

R700,4m after deduction of a nomi- 
nal amount for the interest of out- 
side shareholders. The tax rate 
was 41%, compared with 40,5% in 
the previous year. 

An amount of R125m was trans- 

ferred to an “equalisation reserve” 
(of course, this application has no 
influence on tax). 

a attributable to ordi- 
nary shareholders were R575,4m, 
an increase of 14,6%. But the trans- 
fer to equalisation reserve should 
really be included, in which case 
the increase in attributable earn- 
ings is 39,6%. 

The mainstay of Sasol’s business 
is the production of synthetic fuels, 
mostly at Secunda. But only Sasol 2 
(a wholly-owned subsidiary) is 
brought into the consolidated ac- 
counts. The important 50% share 
in Sasol 3 is accounted for in the in- 
come statements only by way of 

In 1985, earnings per share (ac- 
cording to the consolidated fig- 
ures) were 89,1c. But Sasol 3 made 
R435,2m in 1985. So Sasol Ltd’s at- 
tributable share on its one-half 
holding (and 562,5-million shares in 
issue) was 38,7c. So a consolidation 
of Sasol 3 would have given earn- 
ings per share of 127,8c. 

In 1986 Sasol 3 came heavily into 
tax (at a rate of 33,2%, as capital 
allowances were used up). But sig- 
nificance attaches to a drop even 


in the pretax profit at Sasol 3 — 
from R435,2m to R392,9 (9,7 7%). 

T.. drop clearly relates to an 
unfavourable combination of 
movements in the dollar oil price 
and the rand-dollar exchange rate 
— of which more will be said later 
in this analysis. 

As far as 1986 goes, consolidat- 
ing the half interest in the taxed 
profit of R262,4m of Sasol 3 (or 
23,3c for Sasol’s interest) gives a 
figure for earnings of 125,6c (a de- 
crease from the comparable figure 
of 127,8c). 

To round off the figures, the divi- 
dend of 45c showed an increase of 
15,4% from the previous year’s 39c- 
Cover remained unchanged at 2,5 
on the consolidated figures. 

Before launching any discussion 
of prospects it is important to real- 
ise that Sasol’s operations extend 
beyond synthetic fuels, although 
the preponderance of profits un- 
doubtedly derives from this area. 

The transfer pricing of the coal 
mined at the group’s mines is set so 
as to generate a modest return. 
There are considerable sales of co- 
product chemicals (such as the 
high-grade waxes produced at Sa- 
sol 1 and many other substances of 
commercial value). 

Sasol now has both fertiliser and 
explosives divisions making use of 
co-product nitrogen, resulting 
from oxygen production. 

A. Sasol, through its 52,5% in- 
terest in the Natref refinery, is in- 

volved in conventional oil refining, 


We are not allowed to know too 
much about the economics of oil 
refining, but it is generally under- 
stood that government allows the 

refineries some kind of cost-plus — 

basis for their operations. 

It is also known that Secunda’s 
large synthetic fuels production 
has backed a significant propor- 
tion of imported crude oil out of 
the SA market, leaving the refiners 
operating well below capacity (fig- 
ures of 60% to 70% are guessed 
. about). Sasol has improved the effi- 
ciencies of Natref in various ways 
described in the 1985 accounts. 

The decline in the profit before 
tax at Sasol 3 — from a pure syn- 
fuels operation — underlines the 
statement in the profit statement 
that there has been a fall in the 
rand value of petroleum products. 

This statement could well be de- 
scribed as euphemistic: the rand 
equivalent price of oil per barrel 
has actually crashed. 

If we assume a peak when Saudi 
light crude was $34 (but SA prob- 
ably paying more) and the rand 
was, say, 35c, we come up with a 
price of R75 per barrel. Now if we 
call the effective oil price $15 per 
~ or at 42,5c we get R35 per bar- 

It should be explained that the 
pricing of Sasol’s output of synthet- 
ic fuels is determined according to 
a formula (“the slate”), which is 
based on the price of petroleum 
products at four refineries — one 
at Bahrein on the Gulf and three at 

A. shift in these prices away 
from the pump price fixed by regu- 
lation produces either a deficit or 



surplus in Sasol’s books, which is 
corrected at intervals through a 
retail price adjustment. 

And the cost of any premium 
paid by SA over international 

rices does not figure in Sasol’s 
ks. But we may take the inter- 
national price in dollars as a crude 
proxy for the posted prices. 
O FORECAST FOR 1986/87: Two 
major economic parameters have 
to be estimated — the dollar oil 
price and the rand-dollar exchange 

It is very much to be doubted 
whether the current conditions of 
over-supply and locked-in produc- 
tion capacity within O mem- 
bers will change much for the 
better during the current year, de- 
spite Saudi Arabia’s desperate ef- 
forts to prop up the market. 

But US production could well 

falter under the impact of relative- | 

ly high production costs, while So- 

viet production has topped out for 

some time to come. 

S. an educated guess for oil 
prices should be in the $12 to $18 
per barrel range (but a rise to 
around $20, while not likely, is pos- 

The reinstatement of the levy 
rebate (of 35c SA per litre of syn- 
thetic production) is a strong sig- 
nal that government accepts that 
the era of super-profits derived 
from an ultra-high import parity 
price is well and truly over. 

The rebate operates, in effect, as 
a subsidy to local synthetic fuels 
and (on a wild guess at production) 
could be worth more than R200m a 
year from July 1, 1986. 

The rand is yd to rise to the 
US$0,45 to US$0,50 level, but could 
rise much more if the dollar col- 
lapsed. But a dollar collapse would 
probably reflect in higher dollar- 
denominated international oil 

We can therefore assume rough- 
ly static to moderately lower syn- 

fuel profits for 1987, taking 
account both of the rebate and of 
40% lower synfuel profits in the 

~ last four months of the year. 

Oil refining could pick up some- 
what as the level of activity in the 
SA economy rises. No further 
meaningful increases in output 
from Secunda are to be attained, 
notes the profit statement. 

Chemical sales will probably 
continue at present or better lev- 
els, taking account of a local im- 
provement. A good season for rain- 
fall could help fertilisers, while 
explosives will doubtless continue 
to advance. This, it should be not- 
ed, is a new venture. And further 
debt repayment will reduce the in- 
terest bill again. 

Trin a line through all these 
difficult extrapolations but also al- 
lowing for traditionally conserva- 
tive accounting, one might guess at 
earnings per share for 1987 at, say, 
10% above the 1986 figure. 

The market reacted positively 
to the statement, taking the share 
to 800c for a dividend yield on dis- 
tribution of 45c of 5,6% and an earn- 
ings yield on earnings inclusive of 
Sasol 3 of 125,6 of 15,7%. These 
compare with 4,7% and 10,6% for 
the industrials board as a whole (on 
August 25). 

0 CONCLUSION: Although the 
yields are above the industrial 
average, the uncertainties sur- 
rounding the current year’s profit- 
ability suggest strongly that the 
share is fairly fully valued at 800c. 
For all that, its guaranteed market 
for synthetic fuels is a buffering 

But there are likely to be much 
more rewarding buys on the indus- 
trial board as recoveries get under 
way in cyclically-geared concern. 

So Sasol is best characterised at 
this stage as a strong hold rather 
than a buy. 



DROP IN JOHANNESBURG BUILDING PLANS--Johannesburg building statistics for July 
show, that although the number of building plans submitted fell by comparison 
with July 1985, the Johannesburg City Council's Bu ag Survey branch had 
1,097 plans in the pipeline, More than half of those, 652, were awaiting 
alterations and the remaining 445 were being examined by the municipal plan- 
ners. The figures disclose that the number of building plans submitted to the 
council in July was 550 compared with 690 in July last year. The number ap- 
proved, however, rose to 473 against last year's 462. But their value fell 
from more than R58 million in July 1985 to just under R43 million this July. 
The value of buildings completed during the month also fell from R27 million 
to R20 million. [Text] [Johannesburg THE CITIZEN in English 1l Sep 86 p 11] 

CSO: 3400/27 END 




e CC