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582 General Notes. [September, 

west of the 105 th degree of west longitude, and south of the 40th 

parallel. In the Botanical Gazette for July, Mary C. Reynolds 

notices at length certain Floridian ferns. E. T. Smith notices a 
new form of Trillium grandiflorum from Michigan. A writer 
over the initials C. R. B. calls attention to the neglected botany 

of West Virginia. Fritz Muller questions, in Nature, whether 

many of the varieties of bananas have not been produced by bud- 
variation. In the Mittheilnngen of the Natural History Society 

of Bern, Herr Frankhauser contributes a paper on the most 
important conditions of shape in the leaf of phanerogamic plants, 
and a second one on the principal laws of growth in Floridea^, 

and Dr. Pertz notices some luminous bacteria. In an important 

memoir on the ovule of plants, Prof. Warming discusses the early 
development of the leaf or " ovular mamelon," the genesis of the 
nucleus and the formation of the integuments of the mamelon. 
According to a reviewer in Nature he demonstrates that the 
theory of Brogniart as to the morphological significance of the 
ovule is the true and solely admissible one, and he reasons very 
conclusively against the views of Bronn, Eichler and Strasburger, 
who would regard the ovule as a bud, while in reality, as he says, 

" the ovule is the homologue of a sporangium." Mr. L. Les- 

quereux contributes an article on Cordaites bearing fruit (with a 
plate) to the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 


Does the Fox Snake "Mimic" the Rattlesnake? — On 
May 24th a fact came under my observation which until then 
was unknown to me ; it may, however, not be new to other 
readers of the Naturalist. 

While examining an exposure of lower magnesian limestone 
in the glen at the junction mill, my attention was called to a large 
spotted snake lying upon the stump of a fallen tree, where it was 
stretched at full length basking in the sun over the stream. Be- 
fore I could reach the spot the snake had apparently suspected 
danger and had retreated to a clump of grass near the foot of a 
tree where, by diligent search, it was at last discovered. Desiring 
to obtain the specimen alive, if possible, I placed my foot upon 
the body of the snake near the middle, when, to my surprise, 
there followed a buzzing sound that caused me to spring back- 
ward, thinking I had encountered a rattlesnake. 

A blow from a stick disabled the snake but did not stop the 
buzzing sound, which was repeated several times, and the motion 
of the tail was distinctly observed by myself and my friend, Mr. 
F. F. Watson. The terminal inch and a half of the tail alone 
participated in the vibration, and was thrown rapidly from side to 

'The departments of Ornithology and Mammalogy are conducted by Dr. Elliott 
Coues, U. S. A. 

1879.] Zoology. 583 

side over an arc of about three-fourths of an inch, moving so 
rapidly as to appear like a dull fan-like glimmer. In every 
instance observed the tail was raised but little above the horizon- 
tal, and the buzzing sound was continuous through a few seconds 

Is 'this to be called an example of " mimicry " ? May it be 
said that far back in the past some sagacious ancestor witnessing 
that act of intimidation on the part of the rattlesnake, and 
observing how successful it was, resolved to adopt the practice 
itself; and thus, through inheritance, the practice became en- 
grafted upon this species ? If so, that ancestor, it would seem, 
must have possessed a keenness of perception, an accuracy of 
judgment and a depth of reasoning human-like in a high degree, 
and far above what is usually recognized among the members of 
its class. 

If the fact under consideration is not an example of" mimicry," 
may it be said that some ancestor in one of its battles accidentally 
moved its tail from side to side so rapidly as to produce a strange 
buzzing sound that frightened its antagonist away ; that that 
snake possessed the sagacity to connect the flight of its enemy 
and the buzzing sound with the rapid motions of its tail ; and 
that by continued repetition of this feat in subsequent battles, 
there were wrought structural and mental changes sufficiently 
fixed to be inherited ? 

If all this be granted, and it is very unsatisfactory reasoning to 
me, we have possibly a clew to the beginning of differentiation in 
the tail of the rattlesnake. 

There can be but little doubt but that the specimen under con- 
sideration is the fox snake, Colztber vulpinus, although I have at 
hand only the abbreviated description found in Jordan's " Manual 
of Vertebrate Animals." — F. H. King, River Falls, Wis., May 26, 

Breeding of Land-locked Salmon. — Land-locked salmon, in 
the Schoodic waters (Maine) are occasionally found filled with ripe 
spawn in the spring. This seems a curious circumstance in fish 
which normally spawn in the autumn months, and perhaps may 
be considered a case of retarded development. In our own 
experience we have never seen melt in the male fish at this out- 
of-season, and it would seem as if it but needed the concurrence 
of retardation in the two sexes, and their coming together, in 
order to change the breeding habits of the species. What is 
curious, if a general fact, the instinct of propagation in these 
untimely fish seems inferior to that instinct which governs their 
habits of life. Normally, during the breeding season, these sal- 
mon seek the rapid streams, but these spring fish, filled with 
spawn, are found in the waters of the lake along with others of 
their species. In order to give directness to this statement we 
would state that, for one instance, on June 2d we took from the 

584 General Notes. [September, 

lake a large healthy fish which extruded into the boat apparently 
healthy eggs as large as peas, and more were afterwards forced 
out in abundance by gentle pressure. In the young fry from last 
year's hatching, the yolk sac was scarcely absorbed at this time. — 
E. Lewis Sturtevant, M. D., S. Framingham, Mass. 

Notes on American Crustacea. — Having recently been study- 
ing the Crustaceans belonging to Union College, kindly loaned 
me by Prof. H. E. Webster, I have thought best to place on 
record some of the more noticeable features of the collections. 
I hope, however, at an early day to publish a more extended 
notice. Enough specimens were found to show the identity of 
Otlionia anisodon with 0. acidiata (Gibbes) Stm. A new species 
of Actcza (A. spiniferd) occurred from Plantation Key, Fla. This 
species closely resembles A. hirsntissima (Ruppell) Dana, from 
the Indian ocean and the Red sea, and differs from all other 
American species in the character of the antero-lateral teeth, 
which closely resembles those of A. hirsntissima. Prof. Webster 
collected specimens of Panopens of the two forms described as 
sayi and texanus, but I can find no constant character to separate 
them ; the coloration of the hand and presence or absence of the 
sub-hepatic tubercle certainly are not sufficient characters. A 
comparison of the young of Hepatus decorus with H. tubercidatus 
Saussure, as suggested by Stimpson, reveals the fact that the two 
species are distinct. A new species of Lithadia (L. lacnnosd), 
allied to L. cariosa, was found at Sarasota bay, Florida. It differs, 
however, from that species in the ornamentation of the carapace, 
which is covered with circular depressions like those on a lady's 
thimble. Among the Anomura were specimens from North 
Carolina and Florida of the curious Euceramus prcelongus Stm., 
which resembles a Hippa in form, but is allied by its structure to 
the porcelain crabs. A new species of Pisosoma (P. glabra) comes 
from Key West. It differs from P. ri'isei in the simple not bimar- 
ginate front. Poly onyx macrochelis and Lepidops venusta were 
found at Fort Macon, N. C, adding two species to the fauna of 
that locality in addition to those mentioned in my list (Proceed- 
ings Philadelphia Academy, 1878, pp. 316-330). Among the 
Macrura the most noticeable was a species of Ogyris (0. alphce- 
rostris) from Northampton county, Virginia (Eastern shore, 
Atlantic side.) This species differs from the only other known 
one, 0. orientalis, in having a rostrum like that of Alphceus heter- 
ochelis, and the absence of a dorsal carina on the carapace. The 
eyes are slender and elongate, strikingly like those of Hippa. A 
peculiar interest attaches to this and certain other genera of 
Crustacea [Tozeuma, Urocaris, Rhynchocyclus and Limulus) from 
the fact that the known species inhabit the eastern coasts of the 
two continents, while the western shores have no representatives 
of these genera. A similar fact in geographical distribution has 
been noticed in the flora. Specimens of Alphceus minus, from 

1879.] Zoology. 585 

Florida, were the largest I have ever seen, one measuring forty- 
five millemetres in length. — J. S. Kingsley. 

The Belostoma piscivorus. — Having some stickle-backs in a 
jar of water I was surprised at finding one or two of them dead, 
though hardy. Soon afterwards, however, I saw a large water- 
bug (Belostoma) seize one of these fish, pierce it with its strong 
beak, and apparently suck the fish's blood. — Henry Turner, Ith- 
aca, N. Y. 

Early Stages of the Oyster. — Certain of the early stages of 
the oyster have been studied in Europe, but a complete history is 
much needed. Prof. W. K. Brooks is now engaged on this sub- 
ject at Crisfield, Maryland, where he has established the Summer 
Zoological Laboratory of the Johns Hopkins University in con- 
nection with the U. S. Fish Commission. He had succeeded 
May 20th in artificially fertilizing the eggs, ascertaining that the 
process of segmentation occupied two hours, and that in six 
hours free-swimming ciliated embryos are produced. 

The Maiod Crabs. 1 — Mr. Miers has given in this paper a 
revision of the families, sub-families and genera of this interesting 
group of Crustacea. The genera enumerated number 106, and 
are placed in four families, Inachidse, Maiidae, Periceridae and 
Parthenopidae, founded on characters derived from the orbits and 
antennae. The families as given by Dana in the Crustacea of the 
U. S. Exploring Expedition, were shown several years ago to be 
faulty, and in the present state of our knowledge of this group, 
the arrangement proposed is generally good, and will prove indis- 
pensable to the student. The pages of the Naturalist are not 
the place for an extended examination of this system of classifi- 
cation, but it may not be out of place to notice a few of the 
points, errors and omissions of the paper. The generic name 
Podonema is preoccupied (as Podinema) in the Reptilia, and I 
would here propose the name Coryrhynchus in allusion to the 
hood-shaped rostrum ; it includes three species from Florida, 
riisei, hypoglypha and lamelligera. The genus Oncinopus DeHaan, 
for which Dana established a separate group, is assigned to the 
neighborhood of Irachus. The placing of Chorinus and Macro- 
cheira in the same section hardly seems proper, nor does the 
separation of Schizophrys and Cyclax from the neighborhood of 
Mithrax and Mithraculus. The placing of Libinia and Cceloce- 
rus in different families is, we think, hardly right. A character 
separating Mithrax and Mithrachulus which is not noticed in this 
paper is that in Mithrax the anterior margin of the meral joint of 
the external maxilliped is notched for the reception of the suc- 
ceeding joints, while in Mithraculus it is entire. The generic 

1 On the Classification of the Maiod Crustacea. By Edward J. MlERS. (Jour- 
nal of the Linnaean Society of London— Zoology. Vol. xiv, 1S79.) Pages 634-673, 
pis. XII and xm. 

5 86 General Notes. [September, 

name Microrhyncus is preoccupied, and Alphonse Milne Edwards 
has proposed in its stead the name Neorhyncus. 

The Rocky Mountain Locust in New Mexico. — During a 
recent trip to New Mexico to investigate the southern limits of 
the distribution of Caloptenns spretus, I was enabled to ascertain 
a number of new facts regarding the extreme southern limits of 
this species. According to Ex-governor W. F. Amy, of Santa 
Fe, small swarms of destructive locusts, supposed to be this spe- 
cies, have appeared at a point 140 miles south of Santa Fe. 
Heretofore the U. S. Entomological Commission had been unable 
to trace it south of Taos, N. M., where it was known to have 
been destructive in 1877. From Ex-governor Amy and several 
Mexicans and Pueblo Indians we obtained the following facts, 
which are of general interest. In 1868 the counties of Valentia 
and Bernalillo were troubled by locusts. They probably, came 
from the north-west as they do generally, and without doubt 
breed in the eastern portions of Arizona lying west of Valentia 
county, N. M. In 1865 they were seen near Santa Fe, and the 
wheat crop of the Pueblo Indians of Pojuaque was totally 
destroyed by locusts which came from the north-west. In 1868 
the same Pueblo was visited late in the season. In 1871 Santa 
Fe, and in 1874 Santa Fe and Rio Ariba counties, including 
several Pueblo Indian towns, were invaded. In 1873 Colfax county 
was visited, and a few appeared the next year. In 1877 Santa 
Fe and Taos counties were invaded. The swarms at Santa Fe 
came from the west or south-west, in July, and passed up into 
Rio Ariba and Taos counties, crossing into Costilla county, Col- 
orado. From these facts it seems that the northern half of New 
Mexico, and probably Northern Arizona, are occasionally subject 
to invasions of locusts from Southern Colorado ; but the flights 
are sporadic and local, and occur after the wheat crop has been 
mostly harvested. Whether on account of droughts or locusts, 
or from both causes, the Pueblo Indians have, like the Egyptians 
of old, been in the habit of laying up stores of wheat and corn 
two and three years in advance. — A. S. Packard, Jr. 

Zoological Notes. — We take the following notes from late 
numbers of Nature : Dr. Fritz Miillcr has sent from Brazil a 
trichopterous insect belonging to the Leptoceridce, remarkable on 
account of its showing, very distinctly, branchia such as have 
lately been discovered in the imago state of this group by Dr. 

Palmen. M. Jourdain has read a paper before the French 

Academy on the respiratory apparatus of Ampullaria, a fresh- 
water mollusk. The muscles of crayfish have been studied 

from a physiological point of view by M. Richet, the muscles of 

the clam have a high degree of contractibility. M. Sorensen, 

in his studies on the apparatus of sound in various South Ameri- 
can fishes, finds that vibrations are communicated to the air of the 

1 879.] Anthropology. 587 

swimming bladder.— — The fauna of the Solomon islands has 
been discussed by Mr. E. P. Ramsay, several new birds being 
described; 120 mammals and about fifty species of insects were 
collected for the Australian Museum, of which Mr. Ramsay is 

the collector. The fossil head of a Rhinoceros ticorhinus has 

been found in Siberia in a good state of preservation. Another 

fossil mammoth has been found at Newburgh, N. Y. The 

metamorphoses of the cantharides (Lytta vesicatorid) from the 

egg has been worked out by M. Lichtenstein, of Paris. The 

body-cavity of sedentary Annelids has been studied by M. Cos- 
morici, and the anatomy of an Actinia, Ceriantlius membranacens, 

has been investigated by Von Heider. The genus Squilla is 

now know to date as far back as the London clay, and Mr. Wood- 
ward, . the discoverer of the fact, describes Necroscilla zvilsoni, a 
supposed stomapod Crustacean from the middle coal measures, 
and a fossil king crab (Limtilns) from the cretaceous formation of 

the Lebanon. Collections of birds have lately been examined 

by London ornithologists, from the Argentine Republic and the 
United States of Columbia, the latter collection comprising 3500 

specimens, representing 469 species. A collection of land 

shells, of which ten or twelve are supposed to be new, collected 
by the late Dr. W. M. Gabb, in Costa Rica, has been reported 

on by Mr. G. F. Angas. A young hippopotamus has lately 

died in captivity of trichinosis. Immense swarms of butterflies 

have been witnessed at Le Mail and in Alsace, June 8th and 
loth, and June 7th in Zurich. 


Anthropological News. — The first number of Materianx for 
1879 is one of unusual interest to the general reader. On page 
22 is a report of a discussion before the Geological Society of 
London, on the mammoth in space and time. On page 31 is 
given a series of stone implements from Japan. On page 33 M. 
Maret presents the results of diggings in the grotto of Placard, 
Charent. Figure 18 represents a cresent-shaped implement from 
the horn of the reindeer, use undetermined. We beg to suggest 
that the object is drawn upside down, and that it resembles very 
closely the bone deadeyes used on Eskimo Kyaks for running 
lines ; in other words it is the parent of our modern block for 
tackle. On page 46 we have the announcement of the meeting 
of the Congres international d'Anthropologie et d'Archeologie 
prehistorique at Lisbon, in 1880, and the programme of M. 
Daly's Course of Ethnology for 1880, at the School of Anthro- 
pology in Paris, as follows: 

1. Les sciences anthropologiques. Definitions. L'ethnologie 
et l'ethnographie. Elements statiques et dynamiques. 

Sources de l'ethnologie. Anatomie et physiologie individuelle 

1 fedited by Prof. Otis T. Mason, Columbian College, Washington, D. C. 

VOL. XIII. — NO. IX. 40