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Vol. VI, No, 12.] Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. [New York, Dec, 1875, 

§ 66. Epiphegus Virginiana, Bart., Var. Havana, Austin. — 
Differs as follows: Plant smaller, more slender, of a very pale 
almost pure white color throughout (very slightly tinged with 
yellow) becoming yellowish brown in herbarium; bracts a little 
longer and narrower, particularly the pair at the base of the calyx ; 
pedicels longer (sometimes -£ inch or more long) ; calyx smaller and 
of a thinner texture, the teeth not keeled nor so broadly nerved ; 
corolla more numerously and finely nerved, of a much thinner 
and more lax texture, the upper lip about 5 nerved, its apex much 
more vaulted and less broadly (until flattened out, indistinctly) 
notched, longer than the lower lip, teeth of the lower lip about one 
half as long and less complicate-keeled ; stamens in pairs, barely 
didynamous, more exserted ; stigma a little smaller; pod smaller; 
seeds a trifle narrower ; the undeveloped corollas of the lower fertile 
flowers are much more narrowly conic; and it flowers two or three 
weeks earlier.— On the roots of the Beech, on the east side of High 
Peak, Catskill Mountains, Sept. 9th, 1875, about a hundred plants, 
more or less. On a three day's tramp we saw not a single plant of 
the typical form. Rau and Austin. 

Editorial. — Mr. Austin is inclined to think his plant even 
more distinct than a mere variety. On the other hand, it appears 
to us merely a difference of form due mainly to premature and 
feebler development. We have found Epiphegus with the unopened 
flowers as early as the 19th of August and as far north as Hamilton 
Co., N. Y., and. still more advanced in Morris Co., N. J., Sept. 1st. 
These earlier growths seem to us intermediate between Mr. 
Austin's and the common form. 

Mr. Austin in his note speaks of an occasional malformation of 
the stamens, and we have found similar cases among our early 
flowering specimens. As the upper flowers seem to have lost their 
usefulness to the plant, we might expect them to show irregulari- 
ties as a sign of degeneration, and, moreover, as the species itself 
seems to be entirely self-fertilizing, it is in accordance with theory 
that it should at length produce feebler forms, such as the present 
subject. The noting these forms affords valuable material for 
testing the theory. There are a number of our native plants which 
produce flowers of two sorts, the more showy of which are for the 
most part sterile, but particularly adapted to keep the vigor of the 
race by an occasional intercrossing. The study of these plants 
and a comparison of the various degrees to which the disuse has 
extended would be an interesting contribution to science. 

Most plants have several modes of propagating themselves, 
two or more kinds of flowers, buds, rhizomes, etc., of which usually 
only one or two are used. But, if the reproductive energy is re- 
stricted in one direction, we generally find it expending itself in 
another. Thus a plant that spreads freely by its roots is sparing 
in blossoms, but may often be thrown into bloom by hindering the 
growth of the roots. Epiphegus seems to present an extreme case. 
While the pollen of the closed (cleistogamic) flowers is extraordi- 
narily precocious and effective, there seem to be almost insuperable 
difficulties in the way of the fertilization of the open flowers. We 


have, indeed, found the capsule of one (an early flowering speci- 
men ?) considerably enlarged and the flower falling off, but suspect 
that the fertilization was effected, before the flower was fully 
opened, by an accidental conjunction of the anther and stigma. 
And yet as the stamens are didynamous and the stigma at first 
protruding in advance of them and afterwards reflexed, the 
original plan would appear to be trimorphic. We hope to get 
further insight into this subject. 

§ 67. The cold of last winter — I have, during the past sum- 
mer, made observations on the effects of the severity of the last 
winter on the trees and shrubs of the region between the Hudson 
and the Sound, as far as the Connecticut line. I have travelled in 
five different directions in distances ranging from seven to twelve 
miles. The Locust (Robinia Pseudacacia, L.) has suffered greatly. 
I have not seen any trees that are uninjured ; some are entirely dead, 
others with dead tops. Even in groves containing more than a 
thousand trees every one is injured. I have also travelled along 
the shore of Long Island, immediately opposite, but did not notice 
a tree that had suffered. The foliage of our apple-trees has been 
small and of a pale sickly green, and fruit has been wanting. Two 
large specimens of Hibiscus Syriacus in my own inclosure, over 
twenty feet high and more than thirty years old, have died, and 
many smaller specimens in adjacent grounds were greatly injured 
or totally killed. Several varieties of Rhododendron which had 
heretofore been considered handy were destroyed. But the Coni- 
ferous Evergreens, so far as I have observed, have escaped injury. 
White Plains. O. R. Willis. 

§ 68. Omphalaria pulvinata, Nyl. — I send a specimen of this 
plant, recently gathered by me from the rocks at this place, and which 
Prof. Tuckerman writes me is new to the flora of North America. 
Pouo-hkeepsie, Dec. VJth. W. R. Gekatcd. 

§ 69. Fissidens hyalinus, Wils. & Hook. — Dr. H. C. Beardslee, 
Painesville, Ohio, sends a specimen of this plant, one of the most 
rare and local of our Western Mosses, and writes: "The original 
locality near Cincinnati, where it was first discovered by the late 
Mr. T. G. Lea, is lost, and I am informed by Mr. Lesquereux that 
mine is the only locality now known." 

§ 70. Agaricus (Trieholoma) Peckli, Howe, n. sp. — Pileus con- 
vex or expanded, viscid when moist, the separable pellicle when 
dry breaking up into small scales or areas, tawny red ; flesh 
white ; lamelte narrow, close, sometimes branched, white; stem 
equal or slightly thickened at base, squamulose, white at the top, 
elsewhere colored like the pileus ; odor farinaceous. Gregarious, 
2 — 4 in. high, pileus 2 — 3 in. broad, stem 4 — 6 lines in diameter. 

Ground in woods, Sandlake, N. Y., August. Young specimens 
sometimes have the top of the stem and the margin of the pileus 
adorned with drops of moisture of a reddish color. 

Yonkers, N. Y. E. C. Howe. 

§ 71. Western Plants.— I give you herewith some notes made on 
my trip from New York to Peoria and back via Mackinaw, De- 
troit, and the Great Western Railway of Canada, Buffalo, etc.' — I