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April, 1883.] 



lace-work in stone of the flamboyant period, and 
for the glass-painter the frames in which he will 
trace paintings of perfect finish and execution, but 
without effect at a distance and without decorative 
effect. The artists of the sixteenth century con- 
tinue ih the same path with even greater per- 
fection in drawing and material execution. But 
soon religious works become rarer as faith becomes 
less lively, and the artists begin to abandon the 
churches and to seek the service of the great, 
whose edifices they adorn. In Pinaigrier, Jean 
Cousin and Bernard Palissy 
glass-painting finds its last 
great artists. A few years 
later the art has fallen 
into complete decadence ; 
architecture has gone to 
seek inspiration at Rome 
and Athens ; the reign of 
color is over, and the few 
glass- painters who survive 
content themselves with 
painting arms and heraldic 
designs on the windows 
of the grand seigneurs. 
Then finally the belief 

rdle and in its means. It has no relation, no 
analogy with imitative painting, which is mobile 
in its nature, and which lends itself to the most 
diverse expressions of the talent and the imagina- 
tion of the artist. Between a painted window 
and a picture there is a great gulf. The picture 
is destined to be placed near the eye of the spec- 
tator, whereas the painted window is intended to 
be seen from a greater or less distance. In a 
picture the interest ought to be almost entirely 
concentrated on one point, a result which the 

He has made real glass windows, vitraux, formed 
of a multitude of fragments of colored and painted 
glass united together in a lead panel, the compart- 
ments of wljich are taken advantage of to accent- 
uate the outline, according to the traditions of the 
artist of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. His 
windows are consequently not simply pictures on 
glass ; they are an element in a whole system of 
decoration. The general effect of the theatre is 
certainly very fine, and such complete success 
the critics need not spare their praise. 

In contrast with this 
monumental glass paint- 
ing may be placed a pic- 
ture on glass in four 
compartments executed 
by Mr. Champigneutte 
for a winter garden or 
conservatory. The model 
is taken from a Japanese 
kakemono representing an 
almond tree by the side 
of a river with birds, 
fishes, etc. But this is 
simply a very beautiful 
transparent picture on 

was spread that glass-painting was a lost art. 

A fine example of the glass-work of the 
fifteenth century may be seen in the window of 
the Sybil of Samos, from the Church of St. Ouen 
at Rouen. A comparison with the work of the 
thirteenth century will show the progress made in 
the picturesque sense. As for the work of the 
sixteenth century, it differs only in transparency 
from the work of the fresco-painter and the 
painter on canvas. Drawing, modeling, perspec- 
tive, composition, color, everything is there. It is 
a perfect picture on glass, an independent, artistic 
manifestation, and not a decorative element. 

From the seventeenth century until the early 
part of the present century glass-painting remained 
practically a lost art. How it was gradually 
revived in France and England I need not relate 

From an examination of the glass-work of the 
middle ages in the twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and from a con- 
sideration of the nature and limitations of the 
materials to be disposed of, we are able to arrive 
at certain conclusions and principles by which the 
artist and the critic may be guided. We find that 
painted glass windows form a very important ele- 
ment of decoration. In principle the painted 
window ought to be firmly and frankly colored 
and without broken tones. Its coloration ought to 
produce, by the particular conditions in which it 
is established, a calm yet vigorous and brilliant 
effect, which does not fatigue the attention but 
attracts the eye gently, while not distracting it 
from the general impression it receives from the 
ensemble of the lines of the construction. 

The historical or simply ornamental window 
must be in perfect harmony with the architectural 
character of the edifice which it is destined to 
decorate. Its essential means, color, ought to be 
applied according to the conditions of style of the 
construction. Furthermore, like tapestry and all 
the systems of decorative painting which enter 
into the ornamentation of an edifice, the painted 
window demands sober execution, exclusive of light 
and shade and even of perfect modeling, which 
aims at a vigorous imitation of reality. These 
grand arts of monumental decoration are based 
upon a convention which satisfies the eye without 
the eye being bound to comprehend the reason 
why. A modern authority on the matter, Mr. 
Didron, reporter of the International Jury of the 
Exhibition of 1878, has recently confirmed this 
remark. "Mural painting," he says, "whether 
fresco or enamel mosaic, tapestry and painted 
glass, ought all to obey this law, which scarcely 
admits the resources of perspective except in very 
special cases, and all too marked tendencies to in- 
fringe this law divert decorative painting from its 
true mission." This is peculiarly true in the case 
of painted glass, by reason of the exceptional 
value given to all its constitutive elements by its 
transparency.' ^ No art is really more special in its 

artist obtains by the artifices of composition and 
of light and shade, and often by the introduction 
of large empty spaces. A piece of painted glass, 
like a piece of tapestry, requires on the contrary 
to be filled all over with the details of the compo- 
sition. Indeed, a rigorously decorative window, 
like that of the Eden Theatre, of which the upper 
fan is figured in the cut,- might be assimilated to a 

transparent Eastern carpet, just as many of the 
mediaeval windows might be compared to trans- 
parent Flemish tapestries. The principles of deco- 
ration are the same in all these cases. 

In the design and execution of his windows Mr. 
Champigneulle has carried out these principles. 

white glass, perfect in drawing and color and 
with the great disadvantage of being singularly 
fragile. This Japanese fancy is destined to form an 
amusing luminous closing for a window, whereas 
the windows of the Eden Theatre are destined 
to decorate those openings by means of a trans- 
parent material of varied tones supported by a com- 
plete system of decoration. 


Fit an k RoTinvEix, in The Plumber and Decorator. 

Flock papers require to be close edged on 
both sides, the paper being put on with very 
strong paste and the joints butted. Sometimes 
after the "flocks" are fixed and dry the paper 
will contract, and at each joining there may be 
a very fine line of white. This is the lining paper 
underneath which shows in consequence of the 
flock contracting in the drying process. In such 
a case it is only necessary to take a fitch and run 
down the places that show white with a size 
color of the same tone as the paper itself. Flock 
papers are now much used for ceilings ; in some 
cases they are afterwards painted. 

Ceilings, as a rule, require very long lengths 
of paper. There are several methods of working 
these long lengths, but to my thinking the best 
is the two handed plan, viz., the paperhanger 
and his lad work off a plank, which is supported 
by two step-ladders. After the length of paper is 
undoubled at one end, and while the lad is hold- 
ing up the other end across a short end or roll of 
paper close to the ceiling, the paperhanger fixes 
his end, and then travels with his brush along 
the length till he gets to the bottom double, this 
is then opened and fixed in the same manner. 
Then while the w r orkman is brushing out creases 
and air blisters, and trimming the ends the lad is 
busy pasting another length. If a length cuts the 
chandelier or a centre flower where it joins the 
ceiling, above ten or twelve inches it is generally 
advisable to divide the paper across and put the 
length on in two pieces. 

Marble papers for walls are' chiefly of the 
sienna class. Some of these are lined into blocks 
and others are left plain, the lines being run in 
after the paper is fixed. When a paper is lined 
great care has to be exercised to keep the lines 
of the blocks true. For this purpose a spirit-level 
is necessary to test the accuracy of the lines. It 
is a bad plan to commence in the hall or lobby 
with half a block. But few men would be fool- 
ish enough to do this. As a rule, though in 
some parts of the kingdom, paperhangers start 
at the top of a wall with a whole block, and very 
often they arrive at the floor with half a block. 
A paperhanger should work on the same principle 
as a builder. Tand" start at the bottom with a 
whole block in place of a half one.