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Shylock and Barabas, though generally regarded as 
types of the same race, as representatives of the same faith, 
are in truth very different beings, and the worlds in which 
they move lie very far apart. In all English literature there 
is perhaps no character less human and more repulsive than 
Barabas, while Shylock is thoroughly human and quite wor- 
thy of our sympathy. The one is a devil in the guise of 
man, the other a man with just enough of the devil in him to 
make him appear terrible. In the rage of Shylock we hear 
the cry of anguish coming from the depth of a human soul; 
the mutterings of Barabas are to us as unintelligible as the 
snarling of a wild beast. Barabas is absurd and unreal; 
Shylock is plausible and tangible. The few points of re- 
semblance between them are only of an accidental nature. 
Both are labeled with the name Jew, both are rich, and both 
are outraged by their neighbors. Each is forsaken by his 
own child, each seeks to revenge the wrong done him, and 
each falls in the end a victim to his own stratagems. But 
here all comparisons end. Between the souls of these two 
beings there is not the slightest affinity. 

Barabas is the greatest egoist in literature. "Ego mihi- 
met sum semper -proximus " is his watchword in life (J., I., 
i., 193). ' He loves no one but himself. Though he associ- 
ates with the Jews of Malta, and takes interest in the affairs 
of their community (J., I., i., 108, 117-137, 148, 149), still, 
when they come to him for advice, he deceives them with 
fair words (J., I., ii., 161-164), sends them away under the 
impression that he will protect them (J., I., i., 176-179), 

1 In the preparation of this essay A. H. Bullen's edition of Marlowe's 
works (Boston, 1895) ar >d tne Cambridge Shakespeare (London and New 
York, 1894) were used. J. is an abbreviation for "The Jew of Malta;" M., 
for "The Merchant of Venice;" and the numbers indicate act, scene, and 
verse, respectively. 

338 The Sewanee Review. 

but, in the end, looks only to his own affairs (J., I., i., 181- 
194). He has " no charge, nor many children, but one sole 
daughter," Abigail, whom he pretends to love as much as 
Agamemnon loved Iphigenia (J., I.,i., 139-141). Affected 
by her father's misfortune, she is ready to run to the Senate 
House, there to reprehend all the officers of the state, and 
rend their hearts till they redress the wrong done to her 
aged Barabas (J., I., ii., 228-235). Though scarce four- 
teen (ibid., 374), there is nothing she will not attempt for 
him (ibid., 274-276). And yet, merely to revenge himself 
on the Governor of Malta, Barabas causes the death of the 
unoffending Don Mathias (J., III., iii., 47), on whose life 
depended the happiness of his only daughter, his devoted 
Abigail (ibid., 52). 

In his slave, Ithamore, Barabas finds a reliable accom- 
plice. " My trusty servant " he calls him, " my second self" 
(J., III., iv., 15). Between them the same relation is estab- 
lished that held Fagin and Sikes together: Barabas plans, 
and Ithamore executes (J., II., iii., 373). But even this 
faithful accomplice is deceived by him. " Be true and se- 
cret," says Barabas to his slave, " thou shalt want no gold " 
(ibid., 219), and yet he keeps him in rags (J., IV., iv., 42- 
45). Anxious to have Ithamore carry out his plans, Bara- 
bas promises him all sorts of compensations. He tells him 
that he regards him no longer as a servant, but as a friend, 
that he will adopt him on the spot as his heir. All will be his 
when he is dead, and while he lives he allows him to use 
one-half, spend as much as himself (J., III., iv., 91, 118, 
119). " My purse, my coffer, and myself is thine ! " (ibid., 
91-93), he assures him. Nay, Barabas pretends even to be 
willing to deliver the keys to him (ibid., 46). But all this is 
sheer cunning. Ithamore remains the same poor, shabby 
slave that he was, and he is never "richer than in hope" 
(ibid., 52, 53). 

From egotism there is but one step to misanthropy, and 
we are not shocked in the least to hear Barabas brutally ex- 
claim: " For as I live, perish may all the world " (J., V., 
v., 2)! 

Shylock and Barabas: A Study in Character. 339 

Shylock, on the other hand, if not generous, is at least not 
mean. The honor of his people is as dear to him as his 
own, and to hear his nation scorned is as painful to him as 
to have his bargains thwarted or his friends cooled (M., I., 
iii., 43; III., i. 48). He loves his daughter even after she 
deceived him. And although in the first moments of excite- 
ment and anger he wishes his daughter were dead at his foot, 
and the jewels in her ears, hearsed at his foot and the ducats 
in her coffin (M., III., i., 76, 77), still, after his wrath has 
subsided, he sorrows for her, and pities her lot as a Chris- 
tian's wife (M., IV., i., 290-293). Even Launcelot, his 
servant, who believes every Jew damned (M., III., v., 5), 
says that if he were to be ruled by his conscience, he would 
stay by the Jew his master (M., II., ii., 19, 20). His state- 
ment to Bassanio that the Jew had done him wrong (ibid., 
120, 121) is on the face of it a fiction, invented on the spur 
of the moment to excuse himself for leaving the service of 
Shylock. Launcelot's real reason for entering the service 
of Bassanio was to get "rare new liveries" (ibid., 100). 
And Bassanio himself, though he dislikes Shylock, doubts, 
nevertheless, if there is any preferment in leaving Shylock's 
services for his own (ibid., 133-135). 

Barabas is a miser, "who smiles to see how full his bags 
are crammed " (J., Prologue, 31). He loves gold even for 
its glitter. The mere idea of possession fills his heart with 
delight and exultation. He sings over his money bags as the 
lark does over her young (J., II., i., 59-62). Gliding about 
the place where his treasures are hidden, he exclaims: 

"For whilst I live, here lives my soul's sole hope, 
And when I die, here shall my spirit walk." 

(J., II., i., 29, 30.) 

His ways of living, as described by Ithamore, are typical of 
the miser. " He lives upon pickled grasshoppers and mush- 
rooms " (J., IV., vi., 64, 65). "He never put on a clean 
shirt since he was circumcised " (ibid., 68, 69). " The hat 
he wears, Judas left under the elder when he hanged him- 
self " (ibid., 71, 72). And as to his treasured wealth, " he 
hides and buries it up, as partridges do their eggs, under the 

340 The Sewanee Review. 

earth" (ibid., 64, 65). This description, it is true, is some- 
what exaggerated, and in one instance positively false. An 
egoist like Barabas would scarcely forego his personal com- 
forts, and we do in fact find that Ithamore rather relished the 
food he got in the house of Barabas (J., III., iv., 49, 50, 89, 
90, 106, 107). We also find that the house of Barabas was 
as great and fair as the governor's (J., II., iii., 13, 14). We 
might, therefore, believe Barabas when he says that the 
governor does not feed so well as he (J., IV., vi., 66-70), 
yet there is no doubt that he is a miser. His own tongue 
betrays him. He must have a servant, he says, " that is 
sickly and but for sparing victuals " (J., II., iii., 125, 126). 
And this servant he cheats of his clothes — nay, robs him of 
his wages (J., III., iv., 115). His whole life is ruled by the 
single desire of heaping up infinite riches. The accumula- 
tion of wealth is his only happiness in life (J., II., i., 44). 
It is true that in pleading with the authorities of Malta he 
speaks of his wealth as the comfort of his age and the hope 
of his children (J., I., i., 150). In reality, however, he re- 
gards his riches more as a means of frightening his enemies 
than as a means of comfort (J., II., i., 47, 48). And if he 
does not grieve over small losses (J., II., iii., 246-248), it is 
because " things past recovery are hardly cured with excla- 
mations " (J., I., ii., 236, 237). In short, he is, as he him- 
self says, " a covetous wretch, that would for lucre's sake 
have sold his soul " (J., IV., i., 56, 57). 

Shylock cannot be charged with niggardliness. He is 
frugal, thrift}^, but not miserly. He does not fret over his 
money bags, nor does he hide his treasures in secret places. 
His daughter, Jessica, has free access to his ducats and his 
diamonds (M., II., vi., 33, 49, 50). He trusts the keys to 
her (M., II., v., 12), and she is as free with his money (M., 
II., iii., 4) as if she were sole mistress of the house, with no 
one to bring her to account for her spendings. Sometimes 
he even leaves the house in charge of his servant (M., I., 
iii., 170, 171). He does not waste his money on " rare new 
liveries" for his servants, but he does not lead them in rags, 
either. His habits, it is true, are of a sober kind (M., II., 

Shylock and Barabas: A Study in Character. 341 

v., 35), and his domestic life is rather monotonous (M., II., 
iii., 3), but this is not due to parsimony. It springs from re- 
ligious scruples. He regards his wealth not only as a means 
whereby to live, but also as a sign of his thriftiness, and it is 
as such that he holds it dear. He is not engrossed in merely 
accumulating wealth. His religion plays an important part 
in his life as well. The synagogue is his second home (M., 
III., L, 112, 113). 

Shylock is a man that abides by the law, and is conscious 
of his integrity. "What judgment shall I dread," he ex- 
claims, " doing no wrong" (M., IV., i., 89)? He does not 
seem to think that it is wicked to crave for vengeance. If 
it is, he reasons, then the whole world is steeped in crime. 
Shall a Christian take revenge of a Jew who wrongs him, 
and shall a Jew not be allowed to deal with the Christian in 
the same manner (M., III., i., 56-61 ) ? In his whole career, 
he thinks, there is nothing for which he might be blamed. 
If he thrived on interest, it was not his fault. Just as it was 
right for Jacob, when Laban withheld from him any other 
compensation, to contrive that the sheep should " fall party- 
colored lambs," so might he also be justified in thriving on 
interest when his Christian neighbors have shut all other av- 
enues of commerce before him (M., I., iii., 66-91). 

Among all his enemies, not one knows to tell anything of 
him which might prejudice us against his uprightness, not 
one can throw the least suspicion on his character. Anto- 
nio, his bitterest enemy, charges him with "envy," "fury," 
"tyranny," and "rage" (M., IV., i., 10-13), but not with 
violating the law. Bassanio calls him "unfeeling man" 
(ibid., 63); Gratiano, "harsh Jew, of wolvish, bloody, 
starved, and ravenous desires" (ibid., 123, 128). Salerio 
describes him as "keen and greedy to confound a man" 
(M., III., ii., 278). It is only in his absence that the Duke 
of Venice speaks of him as " a stony adversary, an inhuman 
wretch, incapable of pity, void and empty of any dram of 
mercy" (M., IV., i., 4-6), but in his presence he declares 
that the world thinks, and he himself believes, that Shylock 
" but leads the fashion of malice " (ibid., 17, 18). Among 

342 The Sewanee Review. 

all these bitter enemies, no one impugns his honesty, no one 
doubts his integrity, no one disputes his right to his acquired 

Barabas, on the other hand, is a confirmed criminal, and 
is himself aware of the extent and awfulness of his villainy 
(J., V., v., 51, 52). Nay, he even prides himself on it, and 
boasts of his murders as of some great achievements. No 
sooner has he learned the name of his newly bought slave 
than he reveals to him his own past life, in all its heinous- 
ness. In a calm tone, as if telling of charitable deeds, he 
relates to him the most atrocious crimes of his life. He 
"kills sick people groaning under walls," he says; some- 
times he poisons wells. In his youth he used his medical 
skill to enrich the priests with burials. After that, in the 
capacity of an engineer, he " slew friend and enemy" with 
his stratagems. Then he became a usurer, and filled the 
jails with bankrupts, made some one mad every moon, and 
occasionally caused some one to hang himself for grief (J., 
II., iii., 177-202). That a man of so cunning and suspicious 
a nature should so frankly unbosom himself to a stranger 
does at first appear strange and inexplicable. But the his- 
tory of famous criminals has proven that it is the propensity 
of him who sheds human blood to seek the friendship and 
intimacy of his fellow-man, even at the risk of discovery. 
Besides, there must have been something in the appearance 
of Ithamore to assure Barabas that he had no reason to fear. 
And the end bears this out very well. For Ithamore soon 
learns to admire his master. " Why, was there ever such 
villain}'," he exclaims, "so neatly plotted and so well per- 
formed" (J., III., iii., 1, 2)? And Barabas, likewise, being 
confirmed in his opinion that his slave was his compeer, says : 
" Make count of me as of thy fellow; we are villains both " 
(J., II., iii., 216, 217)! 

In their capacity for hatred, as in other traits of character, 
Shylock and Barabas differ very much from one another. 
Shylock hates only a particular class of people, and his ha- 
tred is tempered with reason and human feeling. Barabas 
breathes hatred against the whole world, and his hatred is 

Shylock and Barabas: A Study in Character. 343 

wild and savage in its cruelty. Shylock dislikes Bassanio, 
because his " thrifty " mind cannot tolerate one that squan- 
ders his " borrowed purse." And he hates Antonio for rea- 
sons that are even less objectionable. Antonio has stained 
him with shame (M., I., iii., 134) and injured him in a thou- 
sand different ways, thwarted his bargains, and scorned his 
nation, and all for the use of that which is his own (ibid., 
108). Barabas, on the other hand, though harmed by no 
one, cares not if the enemy conquer and kill all his fellow- 
citizens if only he, his daughter, and his wealth be spared 
(J., I., i., 156, 157). 

Shylock, if he cannot forget, can nevertheless endure an 
injury. He has an infinite amount of patience. After all 
the harm that Antonio has done him, he only bears a grudge 
against him. Fie makes no effort to revenge himself. He 
suffers insults with a "patient shrug," and soothes his vexed 
spirit with the hope that, if he can catch him once on the 
hip, he will "feed fat the ancient grudge " (M., I., iii., 41, 
42). But he does not resort to wicked and unlawful means. 
He does not plot mischief. And it is an illusion, under 
which even artists like Sir Henry Irving labor, to suppose 
that Shylock had planned his revenge on Antonio from the 
moment that he asked him to go to the notary and sign for 
him his single bond. 1 Shylock, first of all, is too simple a 
nature for that. He is cautious, prudent, at times even 
skeptical (M., II., v., 12, 13, 16, 17, 36), but he is not cun- 
ning. If he were, he would not have refused Bassanio's in- 
vitation so rudely, at the moment when they were about to 
close a bargain (M., I., iii., 29-33). If he had any cunning 
in him, he would not have told the friends of Antonio that 
he was bent upon having the due and forfeit of his bond 
(M., III., i., 37-46). He would not have asked Tubal to 
"bespeak" an officer a fortnight before the bond expired 
(ibid., 108, 109); he would rather have preferred secrecy, 
and concealed his intentions from Antonio, so as not to give 
him a chance to escape at the last moment. 

: It so appears from Sir Henry Irving's impersonation of Shylock on the 
stage, and is clearly stated in his edition of the play, note 101. 

344 The Sewanee Review. 

But apart from this, we can hardly understand how Shy- 
lock could count on revenge at that far-off date. Did not 
Antonio say, in the presence of Shylock, that a month be- 
fore the bond expired he expected the return of nine times 
the value of the bond (M., I., hi., 151-154)? And was it 
impossible for Antonio to get a loan in time of need? Was 
it not by mere accident that everything turned against Anto- 
nio? How, then, could Shylock count on revenge, when 
everything depended on chance? 

It is difficult to say, with any degree of certainty, what 
Shylock's intention was at first. He might, perhaps, have 
desired to put Antonio under a great obligation, so as not to 
be molested by him in the future. But it is very clear that, 
later on, Shylock wanted to rid the Venetian market of An- 
tonio. He wanted to frighten him and drive him out of 
Venice. "For, were he out of Venice," says Shylock to 
his friend, " I can make what merchandise I will " (M., III., 
i., no, in). Only at the last moment, when he fails in 
this, and Antonio remains in Venice in spite of his dreadful 
threats, hoping that Shylock would relent in the end and 
yield to the intercession of the Duke and the magnificoes, 
only when it appears to him that Antonio and his friends 
were trying to make a " soft and dull-eyed fool " of him, only 
then does his sense of revenge grow keen and fierce and in- 

But we are perhaps wrong in designating Shylock's course 
of action as inhuman, since Antonio himself calls it only 
'•rigorous" (M., IV., i., 8), and Portia, in the capacity of 
lawyer, considers it to be of a " strange nature, . . . yet 
in such rule that the Venetian law cannot impugn" him for 
it (ibid., 172-174). We must not expect Shylock to be 
ahead of his time. We cannot demand that he be more hu- 
man than his fellow-citizens. As soon as we yield to the 
poet's fancy, and allow ourselves to be transported by him 
into a strange age, when so virtuous a father as Portia's (M., 
I., ii., 24) hands his daughter over to the caprice of for- 
tune, and so good and kind a gentleman as Antonio (M., 
II., viii., 35) spits upon and spurns his fellow-citizen for no 

.Shylock and Bar abas: A Study in Character. 345 

-reason but that he differs from him in faith, and the highest 
authorities of the state consider it legal to pledge one's flesh, 
nay, one's life, for a loan of money; 1 as soon as we grant 
this to be the normal state of society, we have no right to 
judge the actions of the characters by the standard of morali- 
ty of our own time. In the Venice of Shakespeare Shylock 
is quite human. 

Different, however, is the case of Barabas. For his ac- 
tions we can find no excuse. There is nothing in his sur- 
roundings to palliate his crimes. They all originate from 
his own wicked nature. Unlike Shylock, he does not allow 
a grudge of his to grow "ancient." Though deprived of 
but a small part of his fortune (J., I., ii., 226), he seeks for 
immediate revenge. His cunning knows no bounds. His 
whole life is one long chain of treacherous schemes. All 
who come in contact with him are made his dupes. Even 
his best friends are victims of his deceit. His brethren in 
faith, his partner in crimes — nay, his own child — all alike pay 
the penalty for having once enjoyed his confidence. His 
brethren are misled by him (J., I., i., 143-194), his daugh- 
ter is poisoned through him, and his slave would have been 
killed by him, even if he had remained faithful (J., III., iv., 
116). Barabas only waited for the moment when he should 
no longer have any use for him. 

Barabas's flattery outflatters Satan's, and his art of ingra- 
tiating himself into the good wishes of everybody, not ex- 
cepting his enemies, is remarkable. Though he uses every 
one that comes in his way as an instrument of his pleasure, 
he plays the part of benefactor. He asks his daughter to 
regain his hidden treasures, not for his sake, but for her 
own (J., I., ii., 297). He entreats Ithamore to carry out his 
murderous schemes against his daughter, not because he 
fears discovery, as is really the case, but because he is anx- 
ious to make Ithamore his sole heir, now that his daughter 

J The legality of the bond is emphasized over and over again in the fol- 
lowing twenty passages in the " Meixhant of Venice:" II., viii., 8; III., i., 
37-46; ii., 280, 285; iii., 8, 26; IV., i., 9-10, 39, 83, 89, 100-103,142, 172-174, 193, 
19S-200, 201, 226-228, 242-244, 294-295, 297-298. 

346 The Sewanee Review. 

has turned Christian (J., III., iv., 61-64; ^ •■> *•» I 8' I 9)- 
He can fawn like a spaniel when he pleases. When he grins 
he bites, yet are his looks as innocent and harmless as a 
lamb's. "I learned in Florence," he says, "how to kiss 
my hand, heave up my shoulders when they call me dog, and 
duck as low as any barefoot friar" (J., II., iii., 20-25). His 
cruel heart knows no feeling of friendship, and he cares not 
if his friend perish along with his enemy, as long as his en- 
emy perish (ibid., 192). He has no scruples of any kind. 
Remorse never troubles his heart. Even at the gates of 
death he gasps out hatred and vengeance against the world, 
instead of regret and repentance (J., V., v., 81-93). 

If anything reveals character, it is one's attitude toward 
inferiors and dependents. And in this respect Shjdock and 
Barabas are great contrasts. Barabas lacks all dignity. 
He dines with his slave (J., III., iv., 50), and jokes at his 
slave (J., II., iii., 113-119), and allows his slave to joke at 
him (J., III., iv., 59, 60). He makes a bosom friend of 
Ithamore, calls him by all kinds of endearing names — his 
friend, his "second self." He even permits him to lay 
hands on Abigail (J., II., iii., 366, 367). But, on the other 
hand, he always keeps him under watch, trusts him with 
nothing save poisGn or a letter of challenge, and is extreme- 
ly frightened when Ithamore leaves his service (J., IV., v., 
42-67). With Shylock it is just the contrary. He would 
disdain to shake hands with his servant. He possesses too 
much pride and self-respect to permit Launcelot to take lib- 
erties with him, and is wroth when the latter allows himself 
to call Jessica by name without being bidden (M., II., v., 
7), or to talk to her in privacy (M., II., iii., 8, 9; II., v., 
43). Still, he often leaves the house in guard of Launcelot 
(M., I., iii., 170, 171), employs him in his business (M., 
II., v., 46), 1 and, when parting with his services, has a kind 
word for him (ibid., 45 : " The patch is kind enough"), and 
even speaks well of him to his new master (M., II., ii., 132— 

J 35)- 

1 Shylock complains of Launcelot that he is "snail-slow in profit." lie 
must, therefore, have employed him in business. 

Shylock and Bar abas: A Study in Character. 347 

And not in their moral character alone, but in their intel- 
lectual attainments as well, in their culture and education, in 
their philosophy of life and their religious beliefs, these two 
men are most unlike each other. Shylock is a man of mod- 
erate intellectual attainments. He has great moral force, 
but his learning is scanty. His will is stupendously strong 
(M., IV., i., 235-237), but his sympathies are narrow. He 
is the type of the average Jew of the Middle Ages, with all 
his faults and merits. Persecuted by his neighbors, he with- 
draws into himself for intellectual nourishment, and ignores 
everything that is not Jewish. He recognizes no classics, 
knows nothing of mythology, and cares not for profane sci- 
ences. The Bible and the later rabbinical literature satisfy his 
mental cravings. He supports his arguments with illustrations 
taken from these sources (M., I., iii., 66-85 '■> H-> v -> 43)> an d 
his conversation is pregnant with illustrations from the same. 
(M., I., iii., 36 has reference not to Lukexviii. 10-14, but to 
the Sayings of the Fathers; ibid., I., iii., 29, 30, has refer- 
ence to Matt. viii. 32.) The pleasures of life do not appeal 
to him. The amusements of his Christian neighbors are to 
him " shallow foppery" (M., II., v., 34). His house is as 
sober as his life is chaste. Life to him is a big market 
place, where each one must strive to be thrifty. Thriftiness 
is the motif in the human drama (M., I., iii., 45, 85, 171 ; 
II., v., 46, 47, 54). He is superstitious about dreams, and 
believes that they affect our lives in some way (M., II., v., 
17, 18) ;. but otherwise his is the same healthy religious belief 
which made the Jew of the Middle Ages proof against all the 
trials of spirit and flesh. 

Barabas, on the other hand, is a highly cultivated man. 
He is a phj'sician and an engineer (J., II., iii., 184, 189), 
has traveled much and read much (ibid., 191; II., ii., 23; 
III., iv., 70). He draws on the classics as much as on the 
Bible, 2 and his acquaintance with mythology (J., II., i., 59; 
III., iv., 97-102) gives him that cosmopolitan air which 

2 J., I., i., 193; V., ii., 41-43; II., i., 12, 13. I., ii., 16 refers to Ezek. xviii. 22. 
With I., ii., 191-198 compare Job iii. 3, 5,9; vii. 3; and with I., ii., 207, Job vii. 11. 

348 The Sewanee Review. 

is rare in a Jew of the Middle Ages. Yet his conversation 
is vulgar (J., II., Hi., 51-95). He curses in a most vigorous 
way (ibid., 56; I., ii., 162-164), and his jokes are of the 
coarsest kind (J., II., iii., 116). His experience is as varied 
as his knowledge is extensive. He regards life as one heap 
of booty, of which every one must grasp as much as he can. 
He seems to believe in a first cause (J., I., ii., 164), but in 
nothing more. He affiliates himself with the Jew, and would 
in no way convert himself to Christianity (J., i., 117-121), 
but his Judaism is not worth much. The articles of faith 
which he follows are his own, and of such a nature that 
Machiavelli himself would cry out against them: 

First be thou void of these affections, 
Compassion, love, vain hope, and heartless fear, 
Be moved at nothing, see thou pity none. 

(J., II., iii., I72-I74-) 

In extremity we ought to make bar of no policy. 

(J., I., ii., 272, 273.) 

]If you get anything by wrong,] maintain it bravely by firm policy. 

(J., V., iii., 36, 37.) 
For he that liveth in authority, 
And neither gets him friends nor fills his bags, 
Lives like the ass that ^Esop speaketh of, 
That labors with the load of bread and wine, 
And leaves it off to snap on thistle tops. 

(Ibid., 39-43-) 
Man for his conscience lives in beggary. 

(J., 1., i., 122, 123.) 

Religion hides many mischiefs from suspicion. 

(J., I., ii., 281, 282.) 

It's no sin to deceive a Christian. 

(J-, II-, iii-, 3 12 -) 

In short, Barabas is a prodigy of crime, a beast in the 
shape of man, a fiction, and a lie. Shylock is a human be- 
ing, with hands, organs, dimensions, etc., as all of us are. 
He is real, and we can understand him and sympathize with 
him. Israel Davidson. 

Columbia University.