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There is an Oriental adage to the effect that a man can never 
have but one mother. He may have more than one wife ; his 
children may die and be succeeded by others ; his friends may 
forsake him, but it is rarely impossible to replace them; riches 
may vanish, but the world is wide, and they may be accumulated 
a second time ; health may be lost or impaired, but while life 
endures the most hopeless invalid seldom despairs of its rees- 
tablishment. But by no possibility can a good mother's devo- 
tion and love and self-sacrificing, and anticipation and yearn- 
ing, and heart pains and sobs and sorrows, and sighings and 
anxieties, and pleadings and admiration, and encouragement 
and sustaining sympathy, and pride and honor, and hope and 
patience and prayers ever be entirely exhibited by another, 
howsoever fond and consecrated. So it is that Oriental 
young men are, and have been from the earliest times, re- 
markably devoted to their mothers, unless they have been 
monsters in human shape, or those who have wanted a 
mother's early training and care. But even many of the 
very worst that have made history awful have kept one re- 
deeming quality — their treatment of their mothers. 

It is one of the chief delights of the study of some of the 
great characters of Christianity to see what a debt of gratitude 
they owed for their mothers' care and love, how largely 
their future was the result of the instruction and training given 
them in youth, and how the good impulses then imbibed en- 
abled them to follow the right, to know it whenever encoun- 
tered throughout their lives. Nomea, Monica, and Anthusa, 
noble, unselfish mothers, are three women whose names rank 
with those of all ages for distinguished training of their young 
sons, who afterwards were to shine among their fellows by rea- 
son of some one virtue, or more than one, received from their 
mothers. And how true this is of three sons of these good 
women : Gregory, Augustine, and John ! 

482 The Seivanee Review. 

The third of those wonderful men was born in Antioch, 347 
A.D. His father was a military officer who had won distinc- 
tion, and his mother was the devoted Anthusa, who is a noble 
example among the Christian women of antiquity. It is said 
that her consistency and devotion made her a favorite even with 
the heathen, and the great pagan rhetorician, afterwards the 
teacher of her son, exclaimed: "Ah, what wonderful women 
there are among the Christians !" John's father died not long 
after the birth of his son, without having, so far as is known, 
embraced Christianity. So the education of this pagan soldier's 
son fell upon the mother, who found herself a widow at twenty 
and whose life thenceforth was to be given to the nurture of the 
son and the worshipful memory of the father. To the former 
she taught her own Christian conceptions and planted in his 
soul the germs of piety which later flowered and brought forth 
fruit abundantly for himself and the whole Church. He be- 
came confirmed in the belief of his mother's admonitions and 
Bible teachings, so that he was secure against the seductions 
of heathenism. 

John's literary and scholastic training was received from Li- 
banius, the great Sophist of the Greeks, perhaps the greatest 
then living. His school at Antioch flourished, the renowned 
teacher having spent a number of years at Athens in the ardent 
hope of finding all the learning he required. He was greatly 
interested in his young pupil John, the son of the soldier, and 
his admiration for his talents and abilities was so great, we may 
readily believe, that the wily pedagogue sought to offset the 
mother's precepts, and to use "his utmost arts and exhibit all 
that was most captivating in Grecian philosophy and poetry 
to enthrall the imagination of his promising pupil." Libanius, 
in one of his epistles, rejoices at John's success. It was the 
hope and plan of Libanius to establish the young scholar in the 
school as his assistant and successor, in the maintenance of the 
doctrines and the defense of paganism. The old Sophist, we 
are told, when about to die, on being asked whom he wished for 
his successor, is said to have sadly replied : "John, if only the 
Christians had not carried him away." 

Although he became a rhetorician, and chose the profession 

John of Antioch, Saint Chrysostom. 483 

of the law and was thoroughly successful (and in Antioch, the 
pleasure-loving city of wealth and commercial importance, suc- 
cess in legal practice meant much to a young man of learning 
and ability), the impulses of John were all toward the cultiva- 
tion of divine things, and the sources of inspiration he found in 
the sacred writings of the Christianity of his mother. He de- 
voted himself for three years to instruction by Bishop Meletius, 
received baptism at his hands, and was named by him a reader 
in the Church. 

But John wanted more service, more devotion, and under 
the inspiration of a zealous friend determined to enter one of 
the monasteries in the remote part of Syria; and the voice of 
the great Christian orator was like not to have been heard, 
being doomed by him to silence, or to exhaust itself in prayers 
and ejaculations audible only to his God and himself. But the 
devoted mother again saved the Church this great loss. Dean 
Milman relates the exceeding beauty and touching character 
of her pleading with her son : 

"As soon as she learned his determination to retire to a dis- 
tant region, she took him by the hand, she led him to her cham- 
ber, she made him sit by her on the bed in which she had borne 
him, and burst out into tears and into language more sad than 
tears. She spoke of the cares and troubles of widowhood; 
grievous as they had been, she had ever one consolation — the 
gazing on his face and beholding in him the image of his depart- 
ed father. Before he could speak he had thus been her comfort 
and joy. She reminded him of the fidelity with which she had 
administered the paternal property. 'Think not,' she said, 
'that I would reproach you with these things. I have but one 
favor to entreat — make me not a second time a widow ; awaken 
not again my slumbering sorrows. Wait at least for my death ; 
perhaps I shall depart before long. When you have laid me in 
the earth, and reunited my bones to those of your father, then 
travel wherever thou wilt, even beyond the sea ; but as long as 
I live endure to dwell in my house, and offend not God by af- 
flicting your mother, who is at least blameless toward thee.' " 
("History of Christianity," Vol. 3, p. 124.) 

It is not strange that the young man could not resist, and he 

484 The Sewanee Review. 

abided with his mother till her death. In all his early years as 
Christian convert and theological student, his impulse seems to 
have been for self-discipline and practice of self-denial in some 
way that would be positive and known, and while acceding to 
his mother's entreaty to comfort and cheer her lonely life by 
his presence, we are told that he virtually turned his own home 
into a monastery. He secluded himself, and practiced the most 
rigid asceticism. He ate and slept little, and devoted much 
time to prayer. He maintained an almost unbroken silence, to 
prevent a relapse into the habit of censure or involuntary slan- 
der. (Dr. Schaff, p. 17.) His former legal associations were 
abandoned, and he was considered by those who had known 
him as unsociable and morose. ( Ibid. ) Two of his fellow-pu- 
pils joined him in his ascetic life, both of whom afterwards be- 
came very eminent in the councils of the Church. It was a con- 
stant grief and trial to John that these companions did not 
appear to him to preserve a rigid enough maintenance of their 
self-imposed vows. One of them, Theodore, afterwards Bishop 
of Mopsuestia, was weak enough to dwell much upon his at- 
tachment to a well-known young lady, and seriously contem- 
plated abandoning his austere life and uniting himself in mar- 
riage with her. His resolution was a blow to John, who was 
moved by the incident to prepare his earliest known treatise, 
"An Exhortation to Theodore," in which, says Dr. Schaff, he 
employed all his oratorical arts of sad sympathy, tender en- 
treaty, and bitter reproach and terrible warning to reclaim his 
friend to what he thought the surest and safest way to Heaven. 
"To sin," he wrote, "is human, but to persist in sin is devilish; 
to fall is not ruinous to the soul, but to remain upon the ground 
is." The plea had the desired effect. Faith and monasticism 
were one and the same thing to John, and failure in devotion 
and adherence to the latter was apostasy from the former. 

In considering a work of this kind and a mother's inspiring 
it, the times and conditions of life which surrounded the young 
ecclesiastics must be borne in mind. To have the consecration 
of the secluded life of the ascetic, and enter the world by mar- 
riage was undoubtedly thought by John to be at the peril of 

John of Antioch, Saint Chrysostom. 485 

his companion's Christian character. It meant sharing in the 
activities arid exposure to the temptations of social life in An- 
tioch, with its partial preservation of heathen festivals, games, 
exhibitions, and practices, diviners, augurs, magicians, enchant- 
ers, the priests of Cybele, festivals of Adonis, and the wor- 
ship of the Syrian symbol of universal deity, the sun, of which 
the city was the chief seat; it meant being surrounded by the 
"profligate of every age and by prostitutes, with their wanton- 
ness and shameless language." No wonder the young devotee 
was moved to write strongly. The example of one like Theo- 
dore would be followed by others of weakening faith, and John 
undoubtedly felt that every advance of heathendom must be 
resisted, every one of its blows warded off, and consequently 
used the most powerful weapons for offense and defense of 
which he was possessed, a ready pen and awe-inspiring, ab- 
sorbing language. The result was he preserved to the Church 
a powerful bishop and one of the first of biblical scholars. And 
in this, too, was not the unconscious force of his mother's teach- 
ing and example portrayed, and did not John do for others 
what his mother had done for him? and is not this the chief est 
way in which children honor their parents and repay their 
good offices ? 

But the young Antiochene lost his mother and he was left 
alone, free to cherish his purpose of a monastic life and devo- 
tion to his conception of "the true philosophy." Now about 
this time occurred a singular episode in his life and one which 
developed a weak spot in his character, which has subjected 
him to unfavorable criticism. Vacancies were occurring in 
the Syrian bishoprics, from frequent dispositions growing out 
of the controversies between orthodoxy and Arianism, and in- 
terposition of court influence. John and Basil, though not yet 
thirty years of age, attracted attention of clergy and people 
as suitable candidates for the episcopal office. John shrank 
from the responsibilities and vicissitudes of the high dignity. 
Doubtless he believed himself not sufficiently tried and expe- 
rienced to undertake such a charge, and his subsequent course 
would warrant this opinion. He apparently consented to act 
in concert with Basil, but he secluded himself when the moment 

486 The Sewanee Review. 

came ; and Basil, being assured that John had accepted the elec- 
tion to one of the vacant sees, was induced to withdraw his 
objections, and did the like in regard to another, and reluctant- 
ly submitted to the election. 

Basil indeed found himself a bishop, but also found the 
treachery of his friend had been used to his prejudice, and 
though we are told that he upbraided John for his conduct, 
John regarded the matter simply as a "pious fraud" and be- 
lieved and endeavored to strengthen the belief that the end jus- 
tified the means. His justification took the form of six books — 
"On the Priesthood." While the ruse was successful and has 
been excused by many on account of the life of the consecrated 
father, it has never been forgotten. John cited many instances 
of a similar deceit, notably Abraham, Jacob, and David, and 
the apostle Paul's conduct in circumcising Timothy for the 
sake of the Jews (Acts xvi. 3), and in observing the ceremo- 
nial law in Jerusalem for the same reason (Acts xxi. 26). 

Not long ago, in conversation, a gentleman of distinction, a 
man of great learning, refinement, and culture, made the shock- 
ing assertion that "anything is right in war and politics, if it 
only succeeds!" Perhaps John's Oriental nature and con- 
science which had witnessed the same thing done about him 
every day had hardened him to the belief that success alone 
is the proper test of action. And after all, is it not the fear of 
exposure by failure which is the basis for much of the honesty 
and virtue in which humankind glorifies itself? The trusted 
official who embezzles, speculates, and succeeds is admired 
by some for smartness, who if he had failed would be loudest 
in his denunciation. The following is an instance in which a 
modern vestry was guilty of conduct of this kind. A proposi- 
tion was on foot to secure the liquidation of the debt of the 
Church. A wealthy gentleman offered after a certain amount 
was secured to donate the balance necessary to pay the debt. 
The vestry borrowed the money, reported that the sum was se- 
cured, and the gentleman, influenced by the belief, paid his 
subscription. There is very little that is new in human nature, 
after all. Some of the old fathers in their writings sought 
to teach that the crucifixion was the result of a mere cheat, and 

John of Antioch, Saint Chrysostom. 487 

that the devil lost the fallen race by being deceived into the 
belief that the Saviour was a mere man. 

As already suggested, John, after his mother's death, for- 
sook his old associations and went to the solitude of the moun- 
tains south of Antioch, and remained six years in theological 
study, meditation, and prayer. It seems as if this life was to 
him a spiritual and moral tonic. It gave him power to know 
himself and govern himself, so that he might be able to keep 
himself unspotted from the world. When exposed again to the 
temptations and seductions of city life, he would be so com- 
pletely the master of himself that he could resist and overcome 
them and learn to denounce evil wherever it existed. He was 
a great believer in the monastic system of the proper sort ; not 
a vain, idle existence in useless contemplation, but he believed 
in the apostolic exhortation to labor and do good. 

Much of his time was occupied in the preparation of books on 
monasticism and celibacy. The emperor Valens, becoming 
envious, or jealous, or alarmed, or perhaps all combined, at 
the large number of young men who took up the life, and hence 
avoided their duties to the state, civil and military, issued an 
edict against these "followers of idleness," as they were termed. 
Parents clamored against this neglect of filial duty and appealed 
to the imperial authority to come to their aid. Hence the de- 
cree of Valens. John came forward as a zealous champion in 
his three books against the opponents of the monastic life. 
With youthful vehemence, flavored by Oriental rhetoric, he 
threatened misery in this life and all the pains of hell against 
the unnatural fathers who would force their sons to expose 
themselves to the guilt and danger of the world and forbid 
them to enter into the earthly society of angels, for so he called 
the monasteries of Antioch. 

But there came a day when even John could no longer abide 
in the cells and huts of the monks, in his goat's-hair garments, 
rising before sunrise, singing and praying, reading and writing 
and performing manual labor, with no food save bread and 
water, except in case of sickness, sleeping on straw couches free 
from care and anxiety. Six years of this severe regimen told 
upon his health so that in 380 or 381 he returned to Antioch 

q8S The Sewanee Review. 

with an impaired digestion, a shattered nervous system, with 
a tendency to headaches. Still he did not remit his labors. He 
was immediately ordained a deacon by his old friend and pre- 
ceptor, Meletius, and about five years later, by the successor of 
this godly bishop, Flavianus, he was made a presbyter. And 
now began the work to which the remainder of his life was, as 
he believed, to be devoted — that of preacher to the voluptuous 
populace of the effeminate city of Antioch. And he did not 
long remain simply a good preacher ; he became a popular fa- 
vorite. His listeners seemed to delight in being told of their 
sins, which he never spared but in unmeasured terms rebuked. 
The prevailing vices he thundered against from the pulpit, warn- 
ing his hearers by appeals to their consciences rather than their 
intellects. And the Antiochenes listened if they did not heed. 
Gibbon, with his wonderful descriptive powers, says that 
"among them fashion was the only law, pleasure the only pur- 
suit, and splendor of dress and furniture was the only distinc- 
tion. The arts of luxury were honored, the serious and manly 
virtues were ridiculed, and the contempt for female modesty 
and reverent age announced the universal corruption of the cap- 
ital of the East." When to these tastes and habits is added the 
fact that heresy and schism were rife in the Church, and rival 
parties contended for the ascendency, it is a marvel that a plain, 
practical, severe preacher became the idol, and in the midst of 
all their pleasures and vices the people could not but listen to the 
commanding voice of the inspired orator, who told them that if 
the precepts of the gospel were to be compared with the actual 
practices of society the inferences would be that Christian men 
were not the disciples but the enemies of Christ. 

A comprehensive notion of John's manner and method is 
given by Dr. Schaff : "John preached Sunday after Sunday, 
and during Lent sometimes twice or oftener during the week, 
even five days in succession, on the duties and responsibilities 
of Christians, and fearlessly attacked the immorality of the 
city. ... He exemplified his preaching by a pure and blame- 
less life, and soon ... won the love of the whole congrega- 
tion. Whenever he preached the church was crowded. He 
had to warn his hearers against pickpockets, who found an in- 

John of Antioch, Saint Chrysostom. 489 

viting harvest in these dense audiences." And though many of 
his hearers, after listening to his invectives against the theater 
and chariot races, would run to the circus to witness and in- 
dulge their fondness for these sports, there came a day when 
they flocked to the church, and gathered about their devoted 
preacher, who now became their consoler and comforter. 

The year 387 was to be a memorable one to the citizens of 
Antioch. The great Emperor Theodosius needed money, and 
had his need heralded through the empire. The great cities 
were to contribute their share, Antioch among the rest. But 
the prospect of taxation for the glory of the distant Emperor 
meant possible interruption for many of the delights of the 
people. It meant less expenditure at the games, the circus, the 
baths, fewer fine clothes, more modest feasts, and in short it 
meant retrenchment everywhere. The better classes grumbled 
and complained, and their discontent spread to the poor, the 
lawless, and the whole company of irresponsibles, to whom 
grumbling and discontent meant nothing ; these latter, as is usu- 
al in all times and places, soon formed a mob bent on riotous 
proceedings, and acts of violence began which multiplied till 
destruction grew apace. At last the mob, emboldened by non- 
resistance, gained the great Judgment Hall, and attacked the 
statues of the Emperor, his deceased wife, and their two 
sons, pulling them down and treating them with great indig- 
nity, breaking them in pieces and scattering the fragments. 

But the reckoning came, and the wrath of the Emperor was 
sure. It was believed he would destroy the city. The gay and 
busy capital lost its holiday manner, and despair seized upon 
its citizens. Wild beasts, the flames, the sword did the bloody 
work of execution upon the confessedly guilty. Scourging and 
torture were employed to compel confessions. Time-serving 
spies made accusations, 'and the innocent were made to suffer as 
well as the guilty. Horror-stricken and dismayed with anxiety 
during the period of several months, they turned to the Church 
and their preacher, who now reminded them of their sins and 
their speedy punishment. The season of darkness was made 
the occasion by John of assuaging the fears, consoling the 
sorrowing, enforcing serious thoughts upon the dissolute. 

490 The Sewanee Review. 

Women of the highest rank, brought up with the utmost deli- 
cacy and accustomed to every luxury, were seen crowding 
around the gates, or in the outer Judgment Hall, unattended, 
repelled by the rude soldiery, but still clinging to the doors or, 
prostrate on the ground, listening to the clash of the scourges, 
the shrieks of the tortured victims, and the shouts of the execu- 
tioners; one minute supposing they recognized the familiar 
voices of fathers, husbands, or brothers ; or trembling lest those 
undergoing torture should denounce their relatives and friends. 
The preacher thundered these agonies in the ears of his congre- 
gations, and proclaimed the judgment day with its terrors and 
greater agony, thus turning the anxiety and horror to a reli- 
gious advantage. He preached in season and out of season, day 
after day and at unaccustomed hours, to throngs of the misera- 
ble populace who crowded the churches. It is said the whole 
city became a church. And he warned his hearers with the 
words: "The clemency of the Emperor may forgive their 
guilt, but the Christians ought to be superior to the fear of 
death; they cannot be secure by pardon in this world, but 
they may be secure of immortality in the world to come." 
And when at last the announcement came that the Emperor 
forgave the city at the intercession of the aged Flavius, the 
preacher urged the people to "share their joy in abundance 
of good works and by thanking God not only that he had 
freed them from the recent calamity, but that he had per- 
mitted it to occur." 

Thus John lived his unselfish and devoted life among the peo- 
ple of Antioch, preaching to them, giving away the rewards of 
his office to hospitals, to charity, and other good works. He be- 
came more and more endeared to them, and nothing would 
seem to have been more fitting, and mutually agreeable, than 
the relations of pastor and people. 

But there came about a change in affairs that worked for the 
good of the great presbyter to all outward thinking, but per- 
haps his life had been longer and his declining years happier if 
the change had never taken place. Three exalted personages 
with evil natures were now to become connected with the fate of 
John, and secure a lasting record in history by that connection: 

John of Antioch, Saint Chrysostom. 491 

one for urging and securing his preferment, two for their 
cruel hatred and persecution and opposition to him — two men 
and one woman — Eutropius, the eunuch-minister of the Emper- 
or Arcadius, Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria, and Eudoxia, 
the semibarbarian beauty who shared the Emperor's throne. 

The eunuch Eutropius, hated by all except the sycophants of 
that day, feared even by these, for reasons of his own, suggest- 
ed John the Presbyter of Antioch to the Emperor as the most 
suitable candidate for the vacant see of Constantinople. His 
chief motive for the suggestion was hatred of Theophilus, who 
aspired either to fill the pontiff's chair himself, or else to name 
the occupant. Eutropius's wish was law with the weak Emper- 
or, and John was named. During a visit to distant parts of 
the empire, Eutropius had been attracted by the fame of the 
Presbyter of Antioch, and, as Festus, King Agrippa, and Felix 
had listened to Paul, he had heard John's preaching and knew 
nothing could be said against the fitness of the nominee. So it 
was that John succeeded the feeble Nectarius, successor to the 
great Gregory, and was consecrated February 26, 398, his ene- 
my and rival, Theophilus, performing the ceremony, by the Em- 
peror's command again at the suggestion of Eutropius. It had 
been thought necessary to kidnap John at Antioch and secretly 
convey him overland eight hundred miles to Constantinople, 
without informing him of the reason for the action or giving 
him time for preparation. The reasons were fear of resist- 
ance of the Antiochenes, or of John's refusal, or both. 

John's career as preacher, begun at Antioch, was continued at 
Constantinople, and his influence and fame grew daily. His 
eloquence gained him admiration, and his pastoral care the love 
of the people. The vice and corruption against which his ful- 
minations had been hurled in Antioch were but venial when 
compared with the same things in Constantinople. The great 
orator began to preach against the sins of the people generally, 
class after class ; then he rebuked the licentiousness of the cler- 
gy, and forbade much that they had been allowed hitherto ; then 
through the officials, courtiers, the great nobles, the grand 
dames of the city, the ladies of the court in ever-narrowing cir- 
cles, till he reached the center and rebuked the Empress herself. 

492 The Sewanee Review. 

who grew jealous of his influence with the Emperor, and an- 
gered at his severity against sin and vice. She became his open 
enemy, and resolved upon his downfall. 

There were not wanting willing instruments to aid her in 
accomplishing her end, and she soon set about her project. Un- 
fortunately John had drawn upon himself the hatred of many of 
the clergy, whom he deprived of their privileges because of the 
impropriety of their conduct, and unfortunately also he became 
involved in a controversy with Theophilus of Alexandria on 
account of hospitality extended to some banished monks, in 
the course of which Theophilus remonstrated indignantly 
against protecting heretics and interfering in the affairs of an- 
other diocese. Theophilus immediately set out for Constanti- 
nople and found the situation of affairs and, aided by the Em- 
press and disaffected clergy, charges were preferred against 
John. At a packed Council in a suburb of Constantinople he 
was declared guilty of immorality and treason, upon false and 
trivial charges. The Empress was aggrieved because it was al- 
leged John had likened her to Jezebel, an insult which was of 
itself treasonable. The sentence of this so-called Synod of the 
Oak was degradation and life banishment. John, not wishing 
to cause shedding of blood, nor to seem to defy the imperial 
authority, yielded quietly and was conveyed tq an interior vil- 
la on the Bithynian shore of the Bosporus. 

When it became known that he was gone, the people clamored 
for his return. They had had no voice in his trial, no hand in 
his disposition. An earthquake shock that night especially vio- 
lent near the imperial palace aroused the city and terrified the 
superstitious and guilty Empress to urge a request for the revo- 
cation of the decree of banishment. In two days more the edict 
of recall was issued, and John returned, gladly welcomed by the 
people. We are told that he was met by the whole population 
— men, women, and children, all who could bore torches — and 
hymns were chanted before him as he proceeded to the great 
church. His enemies fled on all sides, and soon after Theophi- 
lus, on the demand of a free Council, left in the dead of night, 
and embarked for Alexandria. The triumph of John looked 

John of Antioch, Saint Chrysostom. 493 

For a few months there appeared cordial reconciliation be- 
tween pontiff and empress, and they vied with each other in 
protestations of regard. But John could not long brook the evil 
life surging about him, and began his onslaught afresh on all 
evil livers and evil doers. Eudoxia, after time had removed the 
traces of her fright and penitence, chafed at the thought of the 
pontiff's triumph, and was constantly inflamed by ill-disposed 
persons who misrepresented and applied personally the bold and 
indignant language of John. At length matters culminated in 
September, 403. The Empress had long had the desire to be 
crowned with the title Augusta, and receive like homage from 
the people on this account as was accorded the Emperor. The 
latter reluctantly consented, and a silver statue of Eudoxia was 
erected on a porphyry column in the public forum, before the 
Church of St. Sophia. The dedication of this image was at- 
tended with much revelry of an unseemly character. While 
the statue was being poised upon the pedestal, buffoons and 
women of the street burned incense at its base and circled 
around it in boisterous and lascivious dances (Grosvenor, 
"Constantinople," p. 497). The worship in the Great Church 
Was interrupted, and John denounced the interruption and its 
cause, in his indignation using language which was construed 
as personally insulting to the Empress. 

She immediately sought redress at the Emperor's hands, and 
the bitter struggle commenced once more and was continued 
till Easter of 404. The Emperor's edict suspended John, but 
he refused to yield, and he was finally condemned by a second 
Council for contumacy in resisting the former decree, and for 
a breach of ecclesiastical laws in resuming his authority while 
under condemnation of the Council. 

On Good Friday, A.D. 404, the soldiers penetrated the 
Church of St. Sophia, and many acts of violence were commit- 
ted. After vainly resisting, John withdrew and yielded to the 
imperial officers. Again he was conveyed to the Asiatic shore. 
Upon his departure flames broke out in the Cathedral and com- 
municated to the Senate House, both of which were destroyed. 
John and his friends were accused of this act, but the real au- 
thor was never discovered. 

494 The Sewanee Revievj. 

Again exile for life was the prelate's sentence, but he was not 
allowed to choose the place, and he was hurried across country 
to Cucusus, a little town in the mountainous district of Arme- 
nia. But his zeal and influence did not abate even under these 
adverse conditions. It has been said that the Eastern Church 
was almost wholly governed from his solitary cell. He was vis- 
ited by persons of rank in disguise, and consulted by bishops and 
Church dignitaries throughout the East. This was too much 
for the enemies of the exile to endure, and orders were given 
for his removal still farther to Pityus, a town on the Euxine, 
even a more savage place on the verge of the empire. Thither 
he was hurriedly dragged, with no permission to obtain com- 
forts or relief for his wasted body. The cortege reached the 
town of Comana, and the old man could go no farther. White 
robes were brought the dying patriarch, and he lay down in a 
little chapel after receiving the holy eucharist, and with diffi- 
culty repeating a prayer, sank back, saying, "Glory be to God 
for all things !" and fell asleep. 

Thus died John, the son of the Roman soldier, the pupil of 
Libanius, the promising young lawyer, the catechumen, the 
recluse, the deacon and presbyter of Antioch, the patriarch of 
Constantinople — John Chrysostom, John with mouth of gold. 

It were too long to tell more of his persecution or of the rea- 
sons for it; of his vast labors and his lasting influence. His 
writings alone make a fair ecclesiastical library — homilies, ser- 
mons, epistles, and commentary. 

And is he forgotten ? 

Let the millions of faithful make answer who reverently 

Almighty God, who hast given us grace at this time with 
one accord to make our common supplications unto thee; 
and dost promise that when two or three are gathered together 
in Thy name Thou wilt grant their requests: Fulfill now, O 
Lord, the desires and petitions of Thy servants, as may be 
most expedient for them; granting us in this world knowl- 
edge of Thy truth, and in the world to come life everlasting. 

James Maynard. 

Knoxville, Tennessee.