Skip to main content

Full text of "Corrections to Langdon's "Sumerian Liturgical Texts""

See other formats


Early Journal Content on JSTOR, Free to Anyone in the World 

This article is one of nearly 500,000 scholarly works digitized and made freely available to everyone in 
the world by JSTOR. 

Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other 
writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the 
mid-seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. 

We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this 
resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non-commercial 

Read more about Early Journal Content at 
journal-content . 

JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people 
discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching 
platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit 
organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please 

(ffritical Hotess 


These corrections of Langdon's "Sumerian Liturgical Texts" {Publica- 
tions of the University of Pennsylvania Museum, Vol. X, No. 2) are the result 
of a collation of his texts with the originals in the Museum, undertaken in 
connection with a study of the material made by the Assyrian seminar of 
the Graduate School. The importance of the texts justifies, I venture to 
think, the effort involved to secure a correct text, which is obviously essential 
for the interpretation of the material. 

It is in the hope of making a contribution to the study of Sumerian, our 
knowledge of which is still imperfect, that I herewith place the result of 
my work at the disposal of scholars. 

ito, L H:>ftLj $ &*•!.'/* .-##W; m., &■#$$'; **..<. *'>!&#> 

Tea;£ JVo. 1, Obverse Column II 
Correct the numbering of the lines by placing figure 5 two lines above. 
L. 2. Several signs might be missing before ma-gan(ki). For sign 
DILMUN cf. my copy. LI. 2-4 are not necessarily continuations of 11. 1-3. 
L. 7. (End) Instead of mi read ok. 


234 The American Journal of Semitic Languages 

L. 8. After second sign add ra: kur-k&r-ra-ra.* 1 

L. 17. Last signs: zag-sal. 

L. 18. Erase dividing line; the whole tablet is ruled. 

L. 19. Read: bar-bar-ge-ne. 

L. 23. First two signs: KAL-KAL. Betewen the DU and NE add ub. 

Text 1, Obverse Column HI 
L. 1. Sign marked sic! is ELTEG (Br. 4445). 
L. 3. Instead of ligir the text has AGA (Br. 6945). 


L. 5. Second sign is a perfect GA. Last clear sign is SAL. 

L. 6. Instead of GAM read probably nu. 

L. 8. First sign is nun. 

L. 9. After an-ki-a add PA* 

L. 20. After mu-ra add AN.* 

L. 23. Signs read gal-gal and marked sic! are gis-ds gis-ds. 

Text 1 , Reverse Column I 


LI. 2-6. Sign GA marked sic! is perfectly written. 

L. 8. First sign en. Before ga read AB-azag-ga. 

L. 9. A-ab-ba mu-un-gar( ?) AB azag-ga, etc. 

L. 10. Ab-zu (dingir) usum-x(Bi. 11208)-a-g>ar lu, etc. 

L. 11. Before GAN read MUL. 

L. 12. Before DU-BI read -ga-nim-e. After DU-BI read MUL. 

L. 13. Read se-ga-dm(—A-AN) me-ldm-bi. 

L. 14. Before sag add dingir-gal-gal-e-ne ?. 

L. 18. Fourth sign clearly li. 

L. 19. First sign is nun. 

L. 20. First two signs: ma§-n. 

Text 1 , Reverse Column II 
L. 4. Last signs: nam-mi-in-duf. 
L. 6. Signs marked sic! are sa written over erasure. 
L. 10. After this one more line is missing. 
L. 15. Same as above. 
L. 17. Complete (dingir) en4il-ld. 

Text 2 
L. 17. After this add line 17a: (dingir) a-ru-ru DI mu-na-du, etc. 
L. 29. Instead of the sign KESDA read i-lu. 
L. 40. Fifth sign is ah* 

1 1 have marked with an asterisk those corrections to the copies which seem to have 
Langdon's approval, since they have been followed in his transUterations. The accents 
used to distinguish the different signs are the same as those employed by F. Delitzsch in 

his Sumerisches Glossar and Sumerische Grammalik. 

Cbitical Notes 235 

Text S 1 
Obverse, 1. 9. Instead of ga read hd. 

Text 3, Reverse 
L. 4. Instead of mi, sign is probably UL. 
L. 8. Sign marked sic! is IB* The upper wedge is the dividing line. 

Text 4, Obverse 

L. 1. Sign between uru and ba (omitted in the transliteration) is IM. 

L. 2. The name of the god is (dingir)nu-mit&-da. Erase extra wedge 
on sign kur. 

L. 3. The sign between nam and at is ra. Erase extra wedge on sign 
G&ME. Last sign (A) has been erased by the scribe. Line reads: nitalam-a- 
ni (dingir)nam-ra-at geme-sag-ga ir-, etc. 

L. 5. Erase sign NI, which is not on tablet. 

L. 8. Third sign is BI, not GA. Instead of nag read ku. 

L. 11. Change vb into te* 

L. 12. Third sign is very probably vb. 

L. 15. Fifth sign not NIGIN, but AB. Instead of A-E read A-KAL. 

L. 16. Change into (dingir)nin-in-si-in-na* Instead of sag-kalam-ma- 
ge read ama-kalam-ma-ge. Last two signs (KA-BI) are very probably 

Text 4, Reverse 

L. 1. Complete text from transliteration. Repeat twice the last sign.* 

L. 4. Last sign is clearly tim. 

L. 5. Instead of Mr gvrti-um read fir Mr-ra-ge. Gutium is never 
mentioned in this tablet (cf. below). 

L. 6. First sign not gu: might be se or numeral XL. Third sign 
mostly destroyed: URU?? The signs 'sa-ba are very uncertain. The 
sign after bal is destroyed: probably not bal. 

L. 16. Instead of lum read MUR (Br. 11190). Instead of ba-ba-dib 
read sa-ba ?-ge. 

Text 5, Obverse 

L. 2. First two signs: KA-AB. 

L. 3. Between KA and NI one sign is either destroyed or has been 

L. 5. Read -dam instead of nin. This and the following two lines are 
incomplete at the end. 

L. 8. Instead of ki-a read ki-lu (cf. copy). 

L. 12. For first sign cf . copy. Second sign is glr. 

L. 14. Last sign is Se. 

L. 16. Sign marked sic! is DUL-DU, = e* .* 

1 Tablet belongs to the Cassite Period. 

236 The Ameeican Journal of Semitic Languages 

L. 17. Instead of word erasure place sign dim. 
L. 18. Complete third sign into BAD. 

Text 5, Reverse 

L. 6. After IM-GAL read nam. 

L. 12. After this add 1. 12a: ur-sag-mu-ne igi^mu RI-RI-U-ne* 

L. 18. Instead of S-gal read kd-gal. Probably same correction in fol- 
lowing line. 

L. 21. Before DU read HI (cf. copy). 

L. 22. Erase the two wedges marked sic! They belong to the line 

L. 24. The sign before zabar is BE. 

Text 6, Obverse Column II 
L. 1. Nothing missing between te and ur* 
L. 7. Erase sign between na and zu.* Latter sign might be III. 
L. 18. Instead of sal-la very probably lul-la. 
L. 26. The sign after e is probably su (cf. copy). 
L. 27. One or two signs missing at the beginning of the line. The sign 
read edin is URU+GU (Br. 931). 
L. 28. Instead of ab read tab gis. 
L. 29. Sign su is uncertain (cf. copy). 


L. 33. Instead of IM read UG. The text clearly distinguishes these 
two signs. 

L. 34. Same as above. Add ma before nigin* 

L. 39. Instead of IM read UG. 

Text 6, Obverse Column HI 
L. 4. Last sign not sil (cf. copy). 
L. 6. Last sign is ra instead of ge. 

L. 7. Instead of IM read UG. 

L. 8. Instead of kalug read e. Extra wedge belongs to line above. 
L. 9. For first two signs cf. copy. Erase interrogation mark. 
L. 10. Add last sign la* 

L. 12. Instead of IM read UG. 

L. 14. First sign probably lugal. Instead of gid read sud (Br. 7594). 
L. 20. Erase tum-ma. Instead of turn, a small ub, added later by the 
scribe. The ma might be da (cf. copy). 

L. 21. Instead of IM read UG. 

L. 22. Instead of fees read GAR. 

L. 25. Instead of IM read UG. 

L. 27. For second sign cf. copy. Last signs: gu?-ub?-SAL-A. 

Cbitical Notes 237 

L. 29. Instead of IM read UG. 
L. 30. Instead of n'( f) read DAR. 

L. 35. Instead of IM read UG. 

L. 37. Read TU for SAR. 

L. 38. Second sign is the sessigi of Kt (cf. copy). 

L. 41. Third sign probably geme. 

L. 42. Restore: SAL-U§-[DAM]-A-NI. Last signs: m'n (dingir) 

Text 6, Reverse Column I 

L. 8. First sign clearly su. 

L. 11. Some signs are probably missing between ga and AN. 

L. 12. Instead of KESDA (sic!) read uj. 

L. 14. Instead of IM read UG. 
L. 15. After es, traces of the sign IM. 
L. 17. Last signs: ds-Mr-ra nif-bar-ri. 
LI. 19-20.. (End) Instead of BI read GA. 
L. 21. Before mu-un-til-la-ni a sign is missing; traces of nu. 
L. 22. Instead of NE read BIL. For last sign cf . copy. 
L. 26. First signs: nin-TUR-TUR. 
L. 27. First signs: lugal-mu. After si read £r(=A-5/). 
L. 31. Sign before &r is fti. 
L. 32. Instead of NE read tu{ = ZA +L7) . 

L. 33. Erase interrogation mark after AN* The sign la in e-du-la is 
the sign 'so. with a gloss written underneath (cf . copy) . 

L. 36. Instead of IM read UG. 

L. 38. First signs: sd-E-A. 

L. 40. Add ni-ib after sign mi: mi-ni-ib-ni-wi-e.* 

Text 6, Reverse Column II 

L. 1. Line begins: [lugal]-lar-mu im-baf -til-la .... 

L. 2. Line begins: .... nam-tar-ra ud-III- 

L. 6 sagf-ga mu-su(=KU) ba^&g-gi. 

L. 7 bdrt-muus{ = t:-G&ME ) Br. 5515). 

L. 10. Last sign is za over erasure. 

L. 12. The sign after dingir-ds is the sessig of DU. 


L. 14. Instead of IM read UG (cf. copy for last signs). 

L. 15. Instead of gis-uz cf. copy. Instead of sag read na-KAL. 

L. 16. The first sign is dim instead of ba. For last signs cf . copy. 

L. 21. First signs: da-ad. 

L. 25. Read: .... -bi nu-mu-til-la-mu. 

L. 25. Second sign is lit,. 

238 The American Journal of Semitic Languages 

L. 28. For the first three signs cf. copy. Probably double GAM 
(Br. 1213). 

L. 29. First signs: . . . . mu Ir-ra. 
L. 30. For third sign cf. copy. 

L. 31. Instead of IM read UG. 
L. 38. Instead of gis read ma. 

Text 7 
No. 7 is a Dublin tablet, and therefore not accessible to me. 

Text 8, Column I 
L. 2. Second sign is zu. Fifth and eighth signs lu instead of lugal. 
The sixth is probably pad (Br. 9409). 

L. 3. Instead of UD probably AZAG. 

L. 5. Sign transliterated x is probably ur. 

L. 10. Numeral VIII is in vertical, not horizontal, wedges. 

Text 8, Obverse Column II 

L. 1. Instead of laUlal read sal-sal. 

L. 3. Second sign not ram, probably lid (cf. copy). Instead of GAL- 
KU read ku (=KA+GAR). 

L. 4. Read hi instead of di. USLANU (Br. 3046) instead of nun. 
L. 5. Erase first sign: wedges belong to sign in line above. 

Text 8, Reverse Column II 

L. 9. First sign is GA. Third is UD. 

L. 10. The first sign, instead of te, is either numeral XL or sign se. 

Text 9, Obverse Column I 
L. 1. Read nu-e. 

L. 2. The first sign is probably zag. 
L. 17. Fourth sign is ama. 
L. 18. Sign after o is lugal. 

Text 9, Obverse Column II 
L. 6. Instead of gis-dtir cf. copy: agaf. It is the same sign as rev. 
col. 1, 1. 6, first. 

L. 8. After the sign su add md* 

L. 10. Instead of ma-an-gar read ma-gar-gar. 

L. 20. Instead of da-mag read d-ma§. 

L. 21. Complete sign KA (cf. copy). 

L. 23. Last sign not lag. Probably #(=UD-DU). 

L. 24. Instead of zi-da read zi-ul. Instead of lam read DUN. 

L. 25. Read SeS-E instead of SES-GE. Last sign is probably ga. 

L. 2. 

but DUN. 

L. 5. 


L. 9. 

L. 20. 

L. 1. 

L. 4. 

Critical Notes 239 

Text 9, Reverse Column I 
Sign ga is doubtful, probably hi. Sign marked sic! is not lam 

Sign marked sic! is an erasure. Erase sign me and read {je-en- 

Sign in in gi-in-na has been erased by the scribe. 
Second sign is a. 

Text 9, Reverse Column II 
Change second sign mu into IM. 

Read: sag-ga-bi §e-im- 

LI. 6-7. Erase dividing line. 
L. 18. Erase sign between ir and gu. 

L. 21. The two signs after t-Mvr are to be united and form the sign 
sibir (Br. 8847) (cf. copy). 

Text 10, Obverse 
L. 2. Seventh sign is not dim, but ni written over an erasure. 
L. 6. Instead of nin-kaskala read sign glr (cf. copy). 

Text 10, Reverse 
L. 2. Gis-gi-gal is right. Correct sign gi. 

Text 11, Obverse 

L. 1. First VSLANV (Br. 3046). Erase gunification at the left (!!). 
Between first and second sign insert me* Usumgal is perfectly written. 
Cf. note 4 on page 152. 

L. 2. Instead of ti-dul-la read igi-fiul-la (Br. 10881). 

L. 3. Sign after la-la is ba instead of na. 

L. 3. Instead of an ukkin read (dingir)ninni. Under the sign ka is 
written in small character the sign e. The last sign is TIG instead of am. 

L. 9. Last signs: US-US-DAM. 

L. 11. Last sign is la. 

L. 12. Instead of KA +NE read KA+LI. 

Text 11, Reverse 
L. 1. Instead of da-gdl read d-gdl. 
L. 6. Same as above. 

LI. 6-7. Add sign NE at the end of the line. 
L. 1 1. Instead of KA+NE read KA +LI. 
L. 16. Erase sign i at the beginning of the line. Same as above. 
Left edge. For the fourth sign cf. copy. 

Text 12, Obverse 
The obverse is in two columns.* Col. I, last line, read ta instead of du. 
All lines in Col. II are incomplete at the end. 

240 The American Journal of Semitic Languages 

Text 13, Obverse 

LI. 1, 2, 3, and rev. 11. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 14: In every instance the 
last sign is ta instead of ab. 

Text 13, Reverse 

LI. 2 and 5. Fifth sign is il* 
L. 4. Instead of su very probably al. 
L. 10. Correct sign li.* 

L. 11. First part of the line is written over erasure: probably si instead 
of ge. 

Text 14, Obverse 

L. 2. The first sign is ama, not the seSsig of TUN. 

L. 3. Erase. last wedge marked sic!. It is the end of the dividing line. 

L. 4. After nin-gal the first sign following the determinative for deity 
is probably DUN, not TUD or NIN. 

L. 5. Instead of bur read GAR. Following sign might be gu. 

L. 7. What is read se-KU is one sign. Probably sar. 

L. 8. Last sign, instead of mu, probably zi. 

L. 12. Last sign, instead of la, probably ra. 

L. 14. Last sign, instead of gu, is geltin, the same as the third sign in 1. 7. 

L. 15. Fifth sign: instead of am read gL 

L. 23. Instead of dim-gal read usumgal. 

L. 26. The fourth sign is ku instead of DAR (cf . copy) . 

L. 30. The sign ni in mu-ni-tar is very uncertain. Erase the dividing 
line here and after 1. 33. The whole tablet is lined. 

Text 14, Reverse 

L. 5. Instead of X (MA+GUNU)-ki read KA-SU miwie-gdl. 

L. 7. Instead of TUM read the common sign IB. After the sign mu 
the line is written over erasure: mu-ni ?-dagal. 

L. 8. Instead of zid read nam: igi-nam-til-la. 

L. 9. Correct sign after mu-ni into IB. Rest of the sign is an erasure. 

L. 10. Instead of kalag read sign UN. 

L. 13. Instead of kas-e read sim. 

L. 14. Instead of sign gH, cf . copy. 

L. 20. Instead of buranun(l) the first three signs read: kisal-majj-ga. 
The sign in has been erased by the scribe. 

L. 23. Instead of "sibir read d. 

L. 26. The first sign is & instead of dag. 

L. 27. After the heavy line add 1. 27a: sa-gar-. . (Only one sign is 

Critical Notes 241 

Text 15 1 
L. 22. Erase sign lal and lil-dm. 

L. 24. Sign marked sic! is RI written over erasure. After that read: 

L. 26. Erase sign me. After en insert two more signs: gis f-e ?. 
L. 27. Read: .... -ama usumgal-an-na .... 
L. 28 kalam-a-ra 

Text 16, Obverse Column I 
L. 3. The sign after UN is ma Qcalam-ma). The following is not ab 
but URU+UD(Br. 909). 

L. 20. Instead of mi read si. 

Text 16, Reverse 
Change order of columns. Col. I becomes Col. II and vice versa. 
Col. 1, 1. 7, read ki-bal-a al-tar-. .... 
L. 15. Last sign is nam. 
L. 16. Last sign is lal. 
L. 20. First sign is en. 
L. 23. First sign is DUN. 

L..31. After sign al and before gis read three signs: LUL-A-AN. 
L. 32. Second sign is ra. Follows ulumgal-A-AN . 
L. 33. Sign marked sic! and following are to be read: {gis)al-la-dm 

Text 16, Reverse Column II 

L. 7. One more line missing between 11. 7 and 10. 

L. 16. Third sign is lugal. Last is e. 

L. 22. Add sign LAL and read: (dingir)en-lil-ld. 

Left edge. Line is entirely wrong. • Cf . copy and read Ud-u-bi LX-kam. 

Text 17, Column I 
L. 5. Read an-na instead of en-na. 

Text 17, Column II 
L. 6. First sign is sa. 
L. 7. Same as above. Next sign azag. 

Text 18, Obverse 
L. 10. Add A after BAL. 
L. 13. Last sign is tim. 
L. 31. Read fro instead of ga. 

Text 18, Reverse 
L. 33. After ba-sa-ri add : u salam. 
1 A late copy of an old tablet. 

242 The American Journal of Semitic Languages 

Text 19, Obverse 

L. 2. Third sign is the sessig of DU, same as in 1. 5, fourth sign. 

L. 9. Instead of {dingir)eiv-ki read en-na, without determinative. 

L. 10. Sign before li-ni is e instead of KAL. 

L. 12. Read ba instead of sar. 

L. 13. Second sign is Mr. 

L. 14. Sign between dim and ba is gar. 

L. 16. Sign between ta and gdl is nir. 

L. 17. (End) Sign after si is probably ra instead of md. 

L. 17. Instead of RU read § A. 

L. 18. Instead of A read E. 

Text 19, Reverse 

L. 1. Sign KAK probably lit. 

L. 4. Fifth sign is mag. 

L. 5. Instead of double DUMU-DM8&KU (Br. 4139) read sar-dim. 
Sign after sag is j/a«. 

L. 7. First sign: urudu. 

L. 9. Last sign is ID instead of DA. 

L. 10. Sign after nun-bi is ZU. After AN is iCf/ instead of ma. 

LI. 11-18. Leave twice as much space for the break. 

L. 14. Instead of DIM read US. Sign following is probably lii. 

L. 18. Read: mi-ni-in-gar-ri-ell ell -dm ni-sag-lag. 

L. 19. Read: kd- . . . -gu mag'-bi ba?-sub bdd-da?-bi ba-gul. 

L. 20. Second sign is gir. 

L. 22. First two signs: mumgal. Last four signs: il-U-la-bi. Rest 

L. 23. Instead of sir-ri read tom-w§. 

L. 24. Beginning: ki-KU-azag. End: Sl-im-bi ba-fiul. 

L. 25. Last sign gul. 

L. 27. After sign AN: na-slg(=IGI+GUNU)-ga. 

Text 20, Obverse 

L. 1. First sign probably A. 

L. 2. Second sign §6. 

L. 3. Fourth and fifth signs: Um. 

L. 6. After zagin read ib instead of lAh. 

L. 9. After ga and before AB add ZU. 

Text 20, Reverse 

L. 1. Read la instead of M. 

L. 13. Sign after LUL has been erased by the scribe. 

Critical Notes 243 

Text 21, Obverse Column I 
L. 4. Second sign probably kam instead of gu. After na only one sign: 

L. 9. Second and third signs: lu§-ba. 

L. 10. Sign before LID is sib. Last sign is tu(ku). 

L. 11. Instead of §ar read in. Next two signs are gar-gar. 

L. 12. Instead of IM-SAR read nam. Rest uncertain. 

L. 16. (End) Instead of ur read lu. For last sign cf . copy. 

L. 18. After §i-gdl4a the next three signs are dingir-ri-e-ne. 

L. 19. Third from last is dagal. 

L. 22. Last sign is ZU. 

Text 21, Obverse Column II 
L. 3. Last sign very probably IB. 
L. 7. Sign marked sic! is probably ak. 
L. 9. Second sign kam. Sixth sign e. 
L. 10. Instead of DI read ZU. 
L. 12. Correct first sign as per copy. 
L. 14. Fourth sign : read si instead of sii. 
L. 16. Fourth sign is dagal. 
L. 17. Last two signs are te-te. 

L. 19. (Beginning) IGI-mu-ta gis-gi 

L. 20. (Beginning) DUMU-DUMU-DMS£KU(Bt. 4139)-ma£. 

Text 21, Reverse 

In the copy the two columns of the original are not separated. To Col. II 
belong the last three half -lines to the left and the wedge before the sign mu in 
line eight. Much more empty space should be left at the beginning of both 

Text 21, Reverse Column I 

L. 2. One sign missing before gar. Next sign is ra. 

L. 3. Nu is the first sign. Instead of BA-AB read ZU-AB(abzu). 

L. 4. First sign probably gdn. Instead of an-ki read an-na. 

L. 5. Instead of GAL-KI-DUG-A read sa (Br. 2289). Last sign is la. 

L. 6. Instead of S-gal read nun-gal. 

L. 7. Before sag read mu-ZUR (Br. 9067). 

L. 8. First wedge belongs to Col. II. Signs muf-sag? belong to line 
above. Instead of KA-KA-SU read sag-il-la. 

L. 11. (End) After ki-dUr read me-a-ni. 

L. 14. Instead oiKU-f read di-tar-me. Erase following sign ra, which 
is not on tablet. 

L. 16. Probably: dam-sag-ga. 

LI. 20-23. Some signs missing at the end. 

L. 21. Read su-me-ra. 

244 The American Journal of Semitic Languages 

L. 22. Read da instead of lis. Two or three lines may be missing at the 
bottom of the column. 

Rev. Col. II: Two-thirds of every line is missing at the beginning. 

Text 22 
Change Obverse into Reverse and vice versa. 
Obv. 1. 4. Nothing missing after the sign sa. 

LI. 7-11. At the end of these lines some signs are probably missing. 
Rev. 1. 1. All signs are doubtful. 

Text 24, Obverse 
L. 5. Seventh sign is m( = £!+SAL, Br. 5515). Next sign $6. 

L. 8. Last two signs: wiw-na- 

L. 9. Last sign probably to. 

L. 11. Instead of to very probably al. 

Edward Chiera 
University op Pennsylvania 


For many years the problem of the relationship between the babbiri 
(SA-GAZ) of the Amarna Letters and the Hebrews (D^-QS) of the Old 
Testament writings engaged the attention of biblical scholars. We now 
know that the word fyabbiri (SA-GAZ) is not a gentilic but a class noun 
meaning "plunderer," "Bedouin," and that it was thus used as early as the 
time of the First Dynasty of Babylon. 1 

1 am inclined to believe that we have been reading too definite a mean- 
ing into another biblical expression descriptive of Israel's ancestors. I 
refer to the "Syrian ready to perish," "schweifender Aramaer" (" l XPN 
*QJ<) of Deut. 26:5. In commenting on this verse Driver 2 says: "Jacob 
is so styled, with intentional disparagement, on account of his foreign con- 
nections; his mother's home had been in Aram-Naharaim (Gen. 24:10-24), 
and he spent himself many years in the same country (Gen. 29-31) in the 
service of his mother's brother, Laban 'the Aramaean' (Gen. 25:20; 28:5 
in P; 31:20-24 in JE), whose two daughters he married." There seems to 
be unanimity of opinion in this matter on the part of scholars. I am aware 
that it is somewhat venturesome to offer another interpretation. 

On the Taylor Cylinder of Sennacherib, Col. V, 11, we are now able to 
restore a broken context. 3 According to the Assyrian king, there gathered 
around Shuzubu, the Chaldean, "the fugitive Aramaean, the runaway, the 

' Cf. my article, "On Israel's Origins," AJTh, XXII (1918), 37f. 

2 Deuteronomy (ICC), 289. 

8 Delitzsch, Assyriache LesestUcke, 5th ed.