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230 The American Journal of Semitic Languages 

beautiful plates we first find the delicate sculptures of the tomb-chapel of 
"Pa-aten-m-heb," who was a royal craftsman, a fact which probably accounts 
for the high character of the reliefs which fill his chapel walls. No museum 
in Europe possesses a tomb-chapel of the Empire which compares with this 
Leyden treasure in beauty. On Plate VII Dr. Boeser gives us the remarkable 
figure of the harper singing the banquet song with its burden of "Eat, drink 
and be merry for tomorrow we die." The noble head of the harper in its 
powerful individuality is one of the finest things surviving from ancient 
art. The excellence of this plate is such that this hitherto almost unnoticed 
chef-d'oeuvre of oriental art can now be studied by everyone, almost as well as 
from the original itself. In general art value the fragments from the walls 
of Haremhab's tomb (Plates XXI-XXV) deserve as a whole even a higher 
place. Dr. Boeser has wisely secured also a cast of the Vienna fragment and 
inserted it among the Leyden fragments in its proper place which I assigned 
to it thirteen years ago. 

It would be impossible to discuss the wealth of sculpture from the best 
period of Egyptian art, which these thirty-eight plates, the first instalment 
of the Empire, offer. The editorial apparatus furnished by Dr. Boeser 
maintains the high level of excellence displayed in the earlier sections of 
this monumental work, which places all students of art, archaeology, and 
history under a great debt. 

James Henry Breasted 


This third volume of Moeller's admirable work covers the period of 
declining Egyptian civilization from the middle of the tenth century B.C. 
to the third century a.d., roughly a thousand years, at the end of which both 
hieratic and demotic began to be slowly displaced by Coptic. It thus con- 
cludes the presentation of the materials for a paleographical survey of some 
three thousand three hundred years. Moeller demonstrates the gradual 
crystallization of the old "book-hand" after the beginning of this last 
millennium of the development, until it became a purely artificial hand as 
dead as hieroglyphic itself. The correlative development, viz., the growth 
of a still more rapid cursive to become after the eighth century b.c. the 
familiar demotic of the Hellenistic and Roman age, does not fall within the 
scope of Moeller's work as a study of hieratic paleography. We congratulate 
Dr. Moeller on the accuracy and care which these seventy-two laborious 
plates exhibit, as well as on the successful completion of this monumental 
enterprise, for which Egyptology owes him a great debt of gratitude. In a 
fourth volume Dr. Moeller purposes to discuss the great survey of materials 

■ Hieeatische Palaeographie. Dritter Band. Von der zweiundzwanzigsten 
Dynastie bis zum dritten Jahrhundert nach Christo. Mit elf Tafeln Schriftproben. 
Von Georg Moeller. Leipzig: J. O. Hinrichs'sche Buchhandlung, 1912. 

Book Notices 231 

presented in these three volumes. It is much to be hoped that he may also 

add our only lacking chapter in the history of Egyptian cursive writing, 

namely, a volume on demotic, an undertaking on which I am told he is now 


James Henry Breasted 


Another volume of texts 1 by Professor Clay completes the Murashu 
archives dated in the reign of Darius II, with the exception of a number in 
the possession of private individuals (Preface, p. 7). A cursory reading 
of the texts revealed few which differ in content from those published in 
Vols. IX and X. The chief value of these documents, therefore, is to be 
found in the personal names which they contain, from which we are able to 
trace in some small degree the movements of the Indo-European and 
Hebrew-Aramean peoples in this period. Professor Clay acknowledges 
in his preface the help of Professor Torrey and Dr. Louis H. Gray in the 
identification of Persian names, and that of Professor Ranke, who was able 
to identify several Egyptian names. A number of Aramaic indorsements 
have been added to the list already published in the Harper memorial 
volumes. This addition to the documents from the time of Darius II 
should offer an inducement to someone to make a thorough study of the 
economic and social conditions of this period of history. 


Now that the date of the First Dynasty of Babylon seems to be fixed 
astronomically at 2225-1926 B.C. (see Kugler, Sternkunde, etc., II, 2, Heft 1), 
the gap between the end of that dynasty and the reign of Burna-Buriash again 
stretches over more than half a millennium. The documents from, or 
referring to, this obscure period are so few in number that scholars are ever 
on the lookout for any ray of light that may be shed upon it. It was hoped 
that the publication of more of the Nippur tablets might throw some light — 
indirect, to be sure, from the nature of the documents — upon the reigns pre- 
ceding that of Burna-Buriash. But the new volume 2 of texts from the 
Cassite period, although rich in philological material, contains little 
of historical importance. Professor Clay was able to point to "several 
additional minor gains for the understanding of the chronology of the Cassite 

1 Business Documents of Murashu Sons of Nippur Dated in the Reign of 
Darius II. By Albert T. Clay. Vol. II, No. 1, of "Publications of the Babylonian 
Section, the Museum," University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1912. 54 pp., 123 

2 Documents from the Temple Archives of Nippur Dated in the Reions of 
Cassite Rulers. By Albert T. Clay. Vol. II, No. 2, of "Publications of the Baby- 
lonian Section, the Museum," University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1912. Pages 
numbered 63-92, 72 plates.