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It is sort of natural to think of a method as 
reliable because it is old. 

As a matter of fact a method that has been 
reliable for years, under modern conditions, 
may have ceased to be so. 

And there are plenty of new methods that 
are reliable even though they have not age to 
commend them. 

Methods that have nothing but their age to 
commend them should be discarded. 

Methods that have reliability as vi^ell as age 
should be discarded if better methods can be 
found to take their place. 

You do not adhere to the old way just be- 
cause it is old, but because you are afraid of 
the new way. 

Isn't that true? 

I don't care how satisfactory the old way 
may be; if there is a better way, don't stop 
until you have made that your way. 

— Frank Farrington 


A Popular Model 

As Efficient in Peace Time as in War Time 

Vest Pocket Autographic Kodak vSpecial, 

with Kodak Anastigniat Lens, /. 7.7. $15.00 


An aid == 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vo4. 4 

JANUARY, 1919 

No. 12 




How do Aou treat the child ctistomer? 

AMien a small l)«)y or girl comes into the 
store do you wait uijoii them in their proper 
turn, or do yon jnst let them stand around 
until everyone else has been waited upon? 

Remember this: the child ma}" be making 
his or her first visit to a store alone; it is trtily 
an event, and one the child will always re- 
member — and first impressions are deep. 

Any little extra attention you may pay will 
always be remembered — and if you slight the 
child. — well, youngsters grow to be men and 
women before you realize it. and form the 
real customers for yoiu" store. 

Make that first impression a good one. 




The Outlook 

On every side we hear "The War 
is over." but everyone knows that 
that does not mean an immediate 
return to pre-war conditions. Short- 
age of materials for the manufac- 
tures and pursuits of Peace are of 
so serious a nature, that some time 
must elapse before conditions are 
again what we carne to regard as 

It has been a matter of great re- 
gret, as well as serious loss, to us 
that so many of the instruments we 
listed were unprocurable. We are 
now bending every effort to accumu- 
lating stock, and are fairly confident 
that by the latter part of next 
Spring conditions will have im- 
proved so far that we shall be able 
to fill orders with something more 
like our former promptness. 

No salesman can possibly retain 
his interest and ambition if he is 
unable to complete, by delivery of 
the goods, the sales he has worked 
up and made, and we are doing 
everything in human power to rem- 
edy this discouraging condition, 
which did aft'ect our line to a greater 
extent than we liked. 

Fortunate, indeed, it has been 
that the cheaper forms of cameras 
remained on the market, for they 
have enabled you to supply the de- 
mand, and they are very creditable 
film consumers. 

This shortage of goods has cre- 
ated a condition which has, in a 
sense, reversed the attitude of buyer 
and seller. Formerly the buyer in- 
timated his needs and it was neces- 
sary for the seller to quote chapter 
and verse and give reasons why he 
offered the particular article to the 
prospective purchaser. Recently, 
however, a buyer, of absolute neces- 
.sities at least, has had to take what 
he could get and be thankful if he 
could make it answer his purpose. 

All this has not been conducive 
to the practice of good salesman- 
ship and those men who used to 
figure on selling a "Special" at least 
once a week, have been severely 
handicapped in their eft'orts. This 
condition is going to be changed. 
The "Specials," with their high 
speed lenses and fast working shut- 
ters, arc coming back, not to men- 
tion all the other equipments of 
Kodak Anastigmat and R. R. Lenses 
which have been so hard to get. 
Graflex Cameras, too, which depend 
on high speed lenses, will again be 
available, and it will be a case of 
selling the goods best suited to the 
customers' needs, rather than- just 
what you happen to have in stock. 

Then, again, there is the attitude 
of the bu\Tlng public. To win the 
War they have been satisfied to ac- 
cept inferior goods. With the 
gradual disappearance of this sub- 
missive acquiescence, there will be a 
demand for the higher quality of 
merchandise which the War made 
us dispense with and, as desire is 
usually heightened by an inability 
to gratify it, there is every prospect 
of good business in the near future. 

Keep It Up 

Don't forget to continue to fea- 
ture pictures for the soldiers in \\'in- 
dow and store displays as well as 
advertisements. Alost of the boys 
are still "Somewhere in France." 
Some of them are "Somewhere in 
Germany," but wherever they are 
the letter from home is ahvays eag- 
erly looked for and there is a double 
satisfaction if it contains pictures 
of the home folks. 

It is going to be some time yet 
before they all come back and you 
can do your bit still to make life a 
little brighter for them by remind- 
ing people at home that pictures are 
as mucli in demand as ever. 



Now, of all times, is the time to 
prepare for coming business. Those 
of you who have not long been en- 
gaged at the business, should study 
the articles on the Primary Page 
and in "How to Make Good Pic- 
tures"; get a thorough grounding 
on the principles and at the same 
time familiarize yourselves with the 
instruments and apparatus listed in 
the different catalogues ; learn their 
special uses and advantages, so that 
questions can be answered intelli- 

What, think you, are the feelings 
of a man who, when making a pur- 
chase, discovers he knows more 
about the article than the salesman ? 
Whatever his thoughts may be, it 
is pretty certain that he will not go 
back to that store when he requires 
any information, when for instance 
he wants to know if a certain thing 
will answer his purpose. It will be 
the intelligent salesman who sup- 
plies his needs to whom he will turn 
in future. 

We know of no other business 
which presents to the salesman such 
a big opportunity to give the custo- 
mer one hundred per cent, service. 
A store where this is appreciated 
and acted upon will be the one to 
forge ahead of its competitors. 

Knowledge brings confidence and 
confidence brings results. 

Cut Out the Waste 

\\ hen you receive a package of 
booklets from a manufacturer just 
take one home and read it. Think 
of the time, energy and money ex- 
pended in its production. Think of 
this bunch of books as a little ad- 
vertising appropriation for local ad- 
vertising. Do this and you won't 
waste such valuable material. — 6't'//- 
iiig Helps. 

Sell It 

Every negative should bear the 
date upon which it was made. 

\\hen you are explaining a 
Kodak to a customer don't just 
show them the Autographic Fea- 
ture, but sell them the Autographic 

The Autographic Feature is not 
just a talking point, not an added 
superficial convenience to aid in 
making sales, but a real, big vital 
improvement and addition to the 
Kodak system of picture taking. 

Every negative should bear the 
date upon which it was made, and 
the time to date it is at the time it is 
made, not depending upon some fu- 
ture time, which usually does not 

The Autographic Feature and 
Autographic Film provide a simple, 
sure means for recording with pho- 
tographic permanence on the mar- 
gin of the film the date or other 
necessary memoranda. 

Explain the Autographic Fea- 
ture, sell it to the customer ; don't 
just show it. 

The important thing in selling 
merchandise is to get the customer 
to learn about and want the mer- 
chandise. The salesman's business 
is to assist the customer in every 
way in gaining this knowledge and 
desire. The salesman's personality 
as well as the store surroundings 
should serve as a frame to set off 
the fine points of the picture, in this 
case the merchandise proposition. 
Drawing attention away from the 
merchandise to what the salesman 
is wearing or to any special manner- 
ism is exactly the same as drawing 
the attention away from the picture 
to its frame. 


J salesman 


WAS a cub salesman just getting 

ready for my first trial trip on 
the road, and to start me right off I 
was making a trip to a few of the 
nearby towns under the guidance of 
an old experienced man. 

"The day was just about as dis- 
agreeable as the weather sharks 
ever turn out ; the walks a glare of 
ice with a good sleet storm in prog- 

"As we shuffled along our pre- 
carious way my companion was giv- 
ing me a few pointers regarding the 
man we were on our way to see ; 
he was of a decidedly uncertain 
temper, and woe betide the sales- 
man who tackled him in one of his 
bad tempered moments. 

"As we approached our destina- 
tion, around the corner came a man 
just in front of us — 'that's our 
man,' said my companion. 

"We hastened to catch up with 
him, and just as we were even with 
him down he went 'ker-flop' in the 
slush. Instantly my companion fol- 
lowed suit ; the two fallen ones 
looked at each other for a moment, 
and then began to laugh, and I was 
introduced as I helped them both to 
struggle to their feet. 

"At the hotel that evening, when 
we were talking over the happen- 
ings of the day, my mentor quietly 
said, 'Son, I did that fall on pur- 
pose this morning.' I gazed at him 
in inarticulate astonishment — 'you 
— you did,' T exclaimed. 


"'Why sure," he said; 'we were 
out to sell that man goods, and if 
we had just merely witnessed his 
tumble without anything happening 
to us he would have been in a fine 
mood for business. 

" 'You know the old adage, son ; 
"misery loves company" — well I 
just took advantage of that, and so 
he just had to laugh at me because 
I looked so ridiculous sitting there 
in the slush, which afforded me the 
equal opportunity to laugh, and so 
the situation was saved.' 

"I don't think that I ever made a 
call upon that dealer again without 
his referring to that duet tumble 
with a laugh, so that one act of re- 
sourcefulness was far reaching. 

"Resourcefulness on the part of 
the salesman is a great asset, and 
has bridged over many a ticklish 

"Equal in value with resourceful- 
ness is tact — the ability to say and 
do the right thing at the right time. 

"I presume there are a good 
many other definitions of the word 
but mine will do as well as any. 

"There are, however, times when 
both resourcefulness and tact fail ; 
it is hard to average one hundred 
per cent. 

"I remember once selling an am- 
ateur a plate camera, the catalog de- 
scri])tion of which included a swing- 
ing back. Through some error in 
the stock room a model without the 
swine back was delivered. A few 


days later, as Air. Amateur was get- 
ting acquainted witli his camera, he 
discovered that it was minus the 
swing back. Into the store he came 
in a towering, unreasonable rage, 
declared he had been swindled and 
demanded his money back. Noth- 
ing could convince him than an un- 
intentional error had been made, 
and so I made him a cheerful re- 
fund and called the incident closed. 

''Such occurrences leave a sting, 
though, and I have often wondered 
what I could have done to have ef- 
fected a more satisfactory adjust- 

"Anyhow it taught me to be 
mighty particular thereafter to see 
that the right goods were delivered. 

"There used to be a tale going 
the rounds of a store which em- 
ployed an official 'goat.' Whenever 
a customer made an unreasonable 
complaint it was always traced back 
to this official 'goat." 

"He would be called before the 
customer, given a good verbal 
trouncing, and discharged on the 
spot. The wrath of the customer 
would thus be appeased and the 
'goat' would then await his next 

"The story is, of course, a bit far 
fetched, but many of us at times 
could have used such a personage 
to good advantage. 

"I may have told the following 
bit of advice before, but it will bear 
repeating : 

"The manager of a large store 
where I was employed was unusu- 
ally successful in adjusting com- 
plaints and disputes. He told me 
that whenever a customer started a 
complaint, and particularly when it 
was a woman, to allow him or her 
to talk until they were all out of 
breath ; then, he said, you get your 
innings, and with a big advantage, 
because they can't come back at you 
until you get going strong." 

Act Quickly 

\\'hen a customer looks into a 
show case, or at a counter display, 
it is the time for the wideawake 
salesman to act quickly. He should 
not wait for the customer to desig- 
nate any article ; he should follow 
the former's eye and without re- 
quest remove from the case or rack 
not merely the article in which he 
appears to be interested, but sev- 
eral articles of the same nature and 
permit the prospect not only to see 
them at closer range, but urge him 
to handle or feel them if the sense 
of touch is likely to sharpen desire, 
as very frequently is the case. 

"Looking into the show case" is 
a very human disposition, particu- 
larly when waiting for change to be 
made, and as it signifies at least 
smouldering or suddenly awakened 
interest in something which the cus- 
tomer has not purchased, or did not 
come to purchase, the importance 
of quick and spontaneous action on 
the part of salesmen is self-evident. 
It often leads to wholly unexpected 

Be Cheerful 

A man with a light heart lives 
longer than a fellow with a grouch, 
therefore it pays to be pleasant. 
Then, again, the dividends come to 
the sunny-dispositioned individual 
while he is still on earth. 

Men who are morbid are almost 
always sick somewhere. 

Cheerfulness is evidence of good 
health and a sound heart. 

Cheerfulness is catching. It is 
the surest method of getting hu- 
mans to work together successfully. 
— Silciif Portlier. 


Stopping The Passerby 

Did you ever take a walk through 
the business section of your town 
on a pleasant afternoon and observe 
how many people were looking at 
the various store window displays? 

If you will take the trouble to do 
this you will obtain some interesting 
data. You will find that the great 
majority of the people on the street 
are on some particular errand and 
pay no attention whatsoever to the 
store windows. 

Store windows containing dis- 
plays of necessities such as cloth- 
ing, millinery and food products 
seem to command the most atten- 
tion, and from women who are 
shopping for their households. 

Occasionally you will find a 
■crowd around some window which 
usually contains a display foreign 
to the merchandise carried by the 
store, such as a display of war rel- 
ics or something else of momentary 
interest, but rarely do you find any 
of the crowd entering the store to 
purchase, because the display has 
no selling value. 

Windows with price cards, or 
cards explanatory of the goods will 
arrest the attention of passersby 
more than those without, and will 
cause more people to enter the store 
to purchase. 

Price cards help the window to 
sell goods because but few of us are 
so wealthy as not to care what the 
■goods will cost, and most people will 
not enter the store to inquire the 
cost of some article on display be- 
cause they are afraid it will be 
• liigher than they are willing to pay. 

Pictures have great attention-at- 
tracting value to people of all ages 
and both sexes, and where the pic- 
tures key in with the goods on sale, 
they are big factors in inducing 
people to enter the store. 


Unless your store is catering to 
that small class to whom price 
means nothing, the price card is im- 

Now there are good price cards 
and bad price cards. A card may 
be artistic yet hard to read ; it may 
be lettered well and still confuse the 
eye because too many colors, or 
colors not in harmony have been 

Red is the dominant color in eye- 
arresting value, and for this very 
reason it should be used sparingly, 
employing it only to bring out an 
important feature or the price. 

The lettering on a display card 
should be simple ; freak designs and 
intricate initial letters should be 
avoided. A line composed of both 
capitals and small letters is easier to 
read than one entirely printed in 
capitals, because the eye is accus- 
tomed to reading words and sen- 
tences so printed. 

Avoid the use of very condensed 
letters, and do not run the words 
and sentences too close together, 
and do not try to put too much on 
the card because people will not at- 
tempt to solve puzzles, and will pass 
over a card they cannot read at a 

A window display with a selling 
argument has it all over the general 
display ; if you doubt it make a can- 
vass of the window displays in your 
own town and note the results. 

You never can tell. Many a man 
is all right in his way, but his way is 
all wronsf. 

The only money you never can 
lose is what you invest in improv- 
ing your own mind. 


The star Salesman 

You can have practically any- 
thing that is right for you to have 
if you concentrate on having it and 
strive for it accordingly; in other 
words, you measure }'our own suc- 

Promotions in the selling end of 
the business go to those who sell the 
most ; in every selling organization 
there is always a star salesman, and 
he is not always the one with the 
most years of experience behind 

It is a mighty pleasant thing to 
know that you are the star sales- 
man of your organization. If you 
are the star of your selling force 
you know that you did not arrive 
by merely wishing to be at the top. 

Now don't yawn and shrug your 
shoulders — "hang sermons anyway" 
— this isn't going to be a sermon 
but simply an effort to get you to 
thinking along the right lines to- 
ward bettering yourself in a mate- 
rial way. 

You can increase the amount of 
your sales if you go at it in a syste- 
matic way. The way is so obvious 
that it seems almost ' a waste of 
space to set it down, still many peo- 
ple lack of success because they do 
not do the obvious thing. 

The first step towards increasing 
your sales is to acquire a thorough 
knowledge of the goods you are 
selling; with full knowledge comes 
confidence, and confidence is a state 
of mind that can be passed on from 
salesman to customer. 

Certain otherwise good salesmen 
are timid about showing the higher 
priced goods — there is a market for 
such goods, otherwise they would 
not be manufactured. 

A hundred dollars may seem like 
a large sum to you, and only a trifle 
to the customer. The customer will 

al'wa3's feel flattered when you show 
him the expensive goods whether he 
can afiford them or not, so why 
should you worry? 

A high percentage of customers 
can be sold one or more additional 
items other than the one in mind 
when they entered the store. 

Study the sale of related items; 
if the customer asks for a dozen 
\>lox he might be interested in a 
Alaskit Printing Frame, or vice 

Of course when the store is 
crowded with customers awaiting 
attention you may have to serve the 
customer with only the goods re- 
quested, and then pass on to the 
next customer, but there are many, 
many quieter hours when you will 
have ample time to suggest, show 
and sell other goods. 

A systematic attempt to sell addi- 
tional items will show up surpris- 
ingly high on your sales sheet, and 
there is no surer way to the heart of 
the Boss than through a long sales 

"Kodakery" for February 

"The Delivery of Jerusalem" (il- 

"When the Snow Comes" (illus- 
trated J. 

''Photographic Cameras" (illus- 

"The Structure of the Developed 
Image" by Dr. Mees (illustrated). 

"Pictures from Home." 

"On the Negative." 

The big thing confronting you is 
not where you are, but in which 
direction you are moving. 



Ten Minutes 
with the Boss 

'Q AMMY, I overheard a rather in- 
l3 teresting conversation between 
some of the boys in the store the 
other day. One of them remarked 
that almost everything we carried 
in stock was advertised in the mag- 
azines, or newspapers, and that he 
thought the store would make more 
money if we carried unadvertised 
goods, because the cost of all this 
advertising would be saved. 

"It is queer, Sam. how very few 
people stop to analyze any proposi- 
tion, and jump, half-primed, to an 
absolutely erroneous conclusion. 

"Jimmy was right in that it costs 
money to advertise, but he was 
wrong in deducing that it added to 
the cost of the goods. 

"Suppose we fellows here were 
running a factory ; let us say a 
rather small one employing about 
one hundred people. In addition to 
our manufacturing force we would 
have to employ a bookkeeper, one 
or more salesmen, a shipping clerk, 
and a few minor office employes. 

"Our products are good ; we sell 
them locally, and to such outsiders 
as our salesmen are able to reach, 
but we are very, very far from 
being known to people in all parts 
of the countrv. so our output is 

"When we come to study the 
proposition we find that our oft'ice. 
selling and shipping force could 
handle a great many more orders 


than we now have without addi- 
tional cost. 

"We find that in our manufactur- 
ing end we could produce very 
many more goods than we do with- 
out the cost advancing in propor- 

"^^'e would have to employ more 
men, and buy more material, but 
our manufacturing cost would be 
smaller, because buying in larger 
quantities we could secure more ad- 
vantageous prices, and we could in 
many cases put in special machin- 
ery to manufacture in quantities, 
the cost of which would be prohib- 
itive for small quantity production. 
In other words, Sam, the overhead 
or fixed expenses would not in- 
crease in proportion to our increase 
in output. 

"The problem with us then is, 
Sammy, to increase the number of 
users of our goods. 

"To cover the country thorough- 
ly we find that we would have to 
put out a very large selling force, 
and even then we would miss hun- 
dreds of thousands of prospective 

"There is only one way, Sam, to 
reach all the people we wish to 
reach, and that is by advertising in 
publications that are sold through- 
out the country. 

"I see you are waiting to ask me 
a question, Sam. and so I am going 
to beat you to it. You are going 
to ask me if I thought the people 


would believe what we had to say 
in our advertisements, and my an- 
sw-er is 'yes.' 

"Xo manufacturer can afford to 
tell other than the strict truth re- 
garding his product if he wishes to 
remain in business, letting alone his 
desire to increase it. 

"Further than this the great ma- 
jority of reputable publications — 
the only ones worth while to ad- 
vertise in — scrutinize very carefully 
all advertising submitted to them, 
rejecting all that is not straightfor- 
ward and honest. 

"Many of the publications guar- 
antee all advertising in their pages, 
and this alone does much in estab- 
lishing the readers' confidence. 

"The manufatturer wdio puts his 
name or trade mark on his product 
has faith and pride ; he is only too 
eager to keep up or improve his 
standard of quality — and the pub- 
lic know it. 

"So, Sam, that brings us back to 
the reason as to why we carry most- 
ly advertised goods of knowai qual- 
ity and reputation — and the reason 
is, Sam, they are the easiest to sell. 

"With the advertised goods the 
customer comes in predisposed in 
their favor ; very often he knows 
just the style or model he wants, 
and has the price ready in his hand. 

"With unadvertised goods the 
customer has to be shown — he is 
from ]\Iissouri all the way through, 
and it takes anywhere from twice to 
ten times as long to sell him — if you 
succeed in selling him at all. 

"Xet profits are made from quick 
and frequent turn-overs — not long 
discounts. Sam. 

"Give me, every time, Sam, the 
goods of known quality and price — 
the goods the consumer knows 
come from a manufacturer willing 
to back up the reputation of his 

products to the limit — nationally 
advertised goods. 

"The successful manufacturer, 
Sam, figures the amount he expends 
in advertising, not as an expense, 
but as an investment, because it is 
the only means by which he can 
lower his cost and increase his out- 

If I Wanted To Take The 
Measure of a Man — 

"I would give him an order and 
see what he does with it. He may 
stand around a minute and screw 
his heel through the carpet. That 
means imbecility. He may come 
back and say he does not under- 
stand. That means inattention. Or 
he may come back and say that he 
did not find ]\lr. Smith at his desk 
and he does not know what to do. 
That means lack of initiative ; he 
depends on other people's brains. 
Or he may not come back at all, but 
leave you to look him up and see 
what he has done with it. That 
means thoughtlessness, indifference 
— a mere machine. Or he may be 
gone a good while and come back 
and tell you about the superhuman 
obstacles he had to overcome. That 
means self-conceit. Or he may take 
your order without a word, walk 
rapidly out of the room, and pres- 
ently return, report the order filled, 
say nothing, and move on. That 
means full measure — five feet ten, 
chest expansion six, big biceps, 
brain box above the ears." — B. L. 

The fellow who watches the clock 
is likely to remain one of the 



The Primary Page 

for-^ie Beginner 
Behind tlie Counter 

FILMS and plates may be suc- 
cessfnlly developed by either one 
of two methods; by tray develop- 
ment in the dark room, or by tank 

By either method the chemical 
process is the same, and the results 
should be the same, but with the am- 
ateur in particular the tank method 
will produce a much higher percent- 
age of good results. 

The Kodak Film Tank, the 
Brownie Developing Box, the Pre- 
mo Film Pack Tank, the Eastman 
Plate Tank, and the deep tanks used 
by most finishing departments are 
all the same in principle, ditTering 
only in construction to meet the 
physical differences between roll 
film, film pack film and dry plates. 

It will not be necessary to afford 
any extended description of these 
various devices, except perhaps to 
state that the Brownie IDeveloping 
Box is a simplification of the Kodak- 
Film Tank, made possible by the 
short length of the Brownie Film 
which it accommodates. 

Get this firmly fixed in your 
mind : Developing Tanks were not 
designed simply as a convenience, 
and they will, when properly used, 
produce a very much higher per- 
centage of good results than the 
open tray dark-room method. 

The natural question is "Why?" 
Before giving you the theory of 
tank development let us first com- 
pare it with tray development, and 
see what advantages it affords over 


tray devtlcpment as regards conve- 
nience and protection against acci- 

During tray development the wet 
and slippery films and plates must 
be handled more or less, and the 
operator is handicapped by the weak 
illumination of the dark-room lamp. 

Accidents will happen even to the 
highly expert, and so it comes that 
scratches and finger marks some- 
times are in evidence on tray devel- 
oped films and plates. 

Again no dark-room lamp is ab- 
solutely safe, and prolonged expo- 
sure to its illumination will produce 

All such accidents are avoided in 
tank development, because the film 
is not handled during development, 
and neither is it subjected to pro- 
longed exposure to light of any de- 
gree of actinity. 

^^'ith the Kodak Film Tank and 
the Brownie Developing Box the 
entire operation can be performed 
in full daylight, as the film is not 
unrolled until after it is placed in 
the tank. 

The other tanks only demand the 
use of the dark-room during the 
placing of the plates or film in the 
tank, development being carried out 
in absolute darkness. 

The time and temperature meth- 
od : employing a developer of known 
strength, for a definite period of 
time, and at a certain temperature, 
is the foundation of the tank system 
of development. 


Snap shots, time exposures, in 
fact, exposures .of any duration 
within the wide Hmits of latitude of 
the modern films and dry plates 
may all be successfully developed at 
the same time. 

The comparatively weak solution 
employed is best for under-expo- 
sures, and with the length of time 
taken for development, will fully 
develop normal and excess expo- 

There will naturally be some dif- 
ference in density, but none what- 
ever in gradation or printing qual- 

Tank development is by far the 
simplest and best for the inexperi- 
enced, and that it serves the expert 
equally well is best evidenced by its 
wide use professionally. 

Advertising Errors 

In the endeavor to be of service 
in as many ways as possible to those 
who sell our products, we employ 
the services of a clipping bureau 
which sends us clippings of Kodak 
dealers" advertisements in their local 

Taken as a whole, this advertis- 
ing averages up very well, and we 
find a good many making use of the 
sample advertisements from , the 
Kodak Trade Circular. It is evi- 
dent in some cases, however, that 
the whole proposition is left up to 
the newspaper, and that proofs of 
the advertisement are not read be- 
fore being printed in the paper. 

In quite a few cases we have 
found the wrong cut being used ; 
for instance, some special model of 
the Kodak line will be described and 
illustrated with a Premo or Brownie 

One very common error is the 
running of the cut of the \'est 

Pocket Kodak upside down, the 
compositor evidently taking the leg 
of the Kodak for a "sight" of some 

Again we find the word "Kodak" 
spelled "Kodac," or "Kodack," and 
we have even seen a reference to 

the "Eastern" Kodak Company. 

We occasionally see "Brownie 
Kodaks" and "Premo Kodaks'' 
mentioned ; this of course is wrong, 
as the only cameras manufactured 
entitled to be called "Kodakb" are 
those catalogued by us under that 

The greatest mistake, however, is 
in advertising Eastman Kodaks in- 
stead of just Kodaks, because this 
conveys the inference that there are 
Kodaks other than those manufac- 
tured by the Kodak Companies. 

The use of the word "Eastman" 
as a qualifying adjective gives the 
distinct impression that there are 
other Kodaks, which of course is 
not the case, and it is to the decided 
advantage of your store to have 
the public under>tand the facts. 
"Kodak" is our common-law and 
registered trade mark. 

Wq originated this trade name ; 
other manufacturers cannot use it 
on their goods. 

We spend many thousands of 
dollars every year in making this 
point clear, and it is to your store's 
advantage also, in impressing the 

It is good business to incorporate 
the phrase. "If it isn't an Eastman 
it isn't a Kodak," in your advertis- 
ing, because that gives the truth. 

If you have charge of the adver- 
tising for your store, won't you 
please, for our nuitual benefit, be 
careful regarding these important 
points ? 




"Salesmanship is the Science of 
Self-Development." This is the de- 
finition of the editor of Salesiiian- 
sliif'. For there is no field of human 
endeavor to-day which offers finer 
opportunities for a man to use to 
the limit every ounce of capacity he 
possesses than that of salesmanship. 

If I were asked what one quality 
is absolutely essential in the charac- 
ter of the salesman, I should reply 
without fear of contradiction : Hon- 
esty. Complete honesty in business 
involves, if you are a salesman, a 
three-fold relationship: 

First: Honesty to one's employer. 

Second : Honesty to one's custo- 

Third : Honesty to one's self. 

If you are an employer, the rela- 
tionship is still three-fold, including 
honesty to your clerks, to your cus- 
tomer and to yourself. There are 
two kinds or degrees of honesty, 
and the type of man is determined 
by the kind of honesty he possesses. 
The first kind we may call a Legal 
Honesty. The man who possesses 
it will never take a penny that does 
not belong to him. His money 
transactions will be true to the last 
cent. He will never find himself in 
conflict with the law. This sort of 
honesty carefully observes the letter 
of the law, rendering unto Caesar 
the things which are Caesar's — and 
not a nickel more ! 

This class includes the perfectly 
honest clock-watching salesman. He 
gives to his employer just what he 
has bargained to give. His custo- 
mer can make no complaint because 
he is sure he is being honestly dealt 
with. And to be honest with em- 
ployer and with customer is wholly 
desirable and admirable. 

But there is another sort of hon- 
esty even more desirable and ad- 


mirable. A very ancient writer once 
said : "The letter of the law killeth, 
but the spirit giveth life." This sec- 
ond kind of honesty may be termed 
the spiritual. Not satisfied with 
rendering unto employer or custo- 
mer exactly his dues, the spiritually 
honest person recognizes that his 
highest duty is to be honest with 

x\ man's employer might never 
discover how much shirking had 
been done, or how far short the 
actual accomplishment has fallen 
below what was possible. Or the 
customer might never discover small 
deceptions. But an honest man can 
not escape himself, be he salesman 
or proprietor. And unless he is 
w^illing to cast up accounts with 
himself — to face the issues of his 
conduct fairly and squarely, to look 
himself straight in the eye and de- 
mand, "Have you done the best you 
could to-day for the man you hope 
•to become?" he is not truly an 
honest man. For no matter whether 
we happen to be employed or em- 
ployer, as salesmen we are working 
first, last and always for self -devel- 
opment. And this is the real mean- 
ing of salesmanship." 

Yes we k7tow you 

are busy — 


Fill out the 


Subscription Blanks 


Side Talk 

We are all "touchy." so to speak, 
over remarks of which we hear but 
a part. So we must be particularly 
careful when customers are around 
not to voice any remarks in sotfo 
voce which can be so easily miscon- 
strued. How often you hear your 
friends voice their sentiments re- 
garding some salesperson whom 
they have met in their shopping 
tour, and how often the expression, 
"It will be a long time before I go 
into that department again," is 
flaunted. In many cases it is some 
little innocent facial expression or 
side-remark that has touched the 
sensitiveness of the customer. 

In one of the yard goods sections 
while a salesman was cutting some 
samples for a customer another 
salesman asked him, "\\'hat's doing 
to-day?" and the reply was, "All I 
have been doing is cutting samples." 
The customer overheard this, and. 
saying that she would not cause any 
one any unnecessary trouble, flew 
out of the store quite insulted. She 
does not hesitate to tell of the inci- 
dent to her friends. 

Another woman was going up in 
an elevator at the close of one par- 
ticularly busy day. She was quite 
stout and, like most stout women, 
was quite sensitive about it. When 
the top floor was reached, the oper- 
ator spoke to the elevator man who 
happened to have his car alongside. 
"Some heavy freight to-day, Jack." 
That was enough for the stout lady. 
The store has had a black eye in her 
opinion ever since. 

A man came into the store and 
purchased a suit of clothes. He was 
no Adonis, and he evidently knew 
it. There were alterations needed, 
and the salesman, who was a close 
friend of the fitter, not the custo- 
mer, called out in a spirit of jolly- 
ing, "Joe, come over here and give 
this man one of those elegant Beau 

Crummel fits of yours." The cus- 
tomer thinks to this day that he. 
noted a glint in the salesman's eye 
which meant he was the butt of a 
joke about his appearance, and 
never again for him in that depart- 

Another incident was of a woman 
who had the salesperson showing 
about all the goods he had at his 
command. With the counter heaped 
high the salesperson spoke across 
the aisle to a fellow-worker, "I'm 
moving to-day." The customer, who 
was high on our charge list, never 
forgot that and has shunned that 
particular section since then. 

The best plan for the house and 
for yourself is to attend strictly to 
business in a gentlemanly or wom- 
anly way ; for the sfde talk gets you 
nothing, only into trouble, and keep- 
ing your mind on your work cer- 
tainly does only good. — Store Top.- 

Window Trimming Helps 

Dirty windows will ruin the effect 
of the most elaborate display. If 
you let your windows go dirty, peo- 
ple will think you are equally care- 
less z^'ifli your stock. 

Cloudy days are ideal for clean- 
ing windows. \\'indows washed 
when the sun is shining are apt to 
be streaky. The water dries so 

Linen leaves lint, so use cotton. 
Tissue paper is still better, as it 
leaves a higher polish. Cloths 
should not be used a second time 
unless first washed thoroughly in 

Warm water diluted with ammo- 
nia cleans and polishes beautifully. 
Simplicity in window display means 
strength. Don't overload the dis- 
play. People stop but a moment or 
two. A simple display is quickly 
grasped. Anything that detracts 
from the goods should be avoided. 



"Anything Else To-day?" 

Commenting on the negative 
value of the stock query, "Anything 
else to-day?" the Philadelphia Re- 
tail Public Ledger tells how the pro- 
prietor of a men's furnishing goods 
store found a remedy. 

Now, the first thing in the morn- 
ing every clerk in his store gathers 
at a little meeting which decides 
what article is to be pushed during 
the day. As a general rule it is 
some accessory of dress, not very 
expensive, but usually in consider- 
able demand. One day it will be 
garters, on another day belts or sus- 
penders will be the item selected, 
while a special design of cravat or 
handkerchief will be chosen for an- 
other day's business. 

Under this plan, when a customer 
has purchased or looked at the arti- 
cle he had in mind upon entering the 
store, the clerk does not have to ask 
a general question, but can say, 
"May I show you these garters (or 
belts or cravats ) ? I think you would 
like them." 

A record is kept of the different 
articles pushed during the week, 
and of the total number of sales 
made by each clerk — both general 
sales and sales of the selected goods. 
The clerk who sells the largest num- 
ber of the "special items" during 
any one week receives a small cash 
prize and the proprietor is authority 
for the statement that this plan has 
resulted in an extremely large per- 
centage of "suggestion sales." 

"In fact," says the proprietor, "it 
has worked so well in my store that 
I don't see why it couldn't be tried 
in every retail establishment. The 
very fact that clerks themselves 
select the items to be pushed each 
day gives them an interest in the 
plan, and the stimulus of competi- 
tion is afforded by their eagerness 
to capture the prize each week." 

Good Will 

It was Christmas morning. In the 
wee small hour.^ before the rest of 
the family had awakened to the 
realization that Christmas had come, 
he crept slowly downstairs and 
peered into the front room to see if 
the sled that he had wanted so badly 
had arrived. It was there, just the 
sled that he had wanted, even to the 
color. Quietly he crept back to bed 
and lay there thinking of the crisp 
snow which covered the hills. 

Breakfast was an ordeal. It is 
hard to understand why one must 
eat when one has a new sled. But 
even disagreeable things must end, 
and finally he was ready to begin 
his day's sport when he discovered 
that the sled had no rope. From 
attic to cellar he searched without 
success until his eye finally rested 
on the family clothesline hanging in 
its accustomed place. The next 
week the clothesline was found to 
be too short. A\^hy, oh why, had not 
the dealer furnished a rope. 

Now the editor is buying sleds 
for his youngsters and still the deal- 
ers forget to furnish ropes. They 
are neglecting an opportunity to 
^secure the good will of the young- 
sters and through them the patron- 
age of the parents. The few feet 
of rope necessary for a sled is of 
small importance to a dealer but 
vital to the youngster. Why not 
cement the friendship which the 
purchase of a sled always begins by 
furnishing a rope ? It will pay well 
before the year has passed. 

As the writer was dictating, his 
friend at the next desk remarked, 
"If you haven't bought your sled, 
I'll tell you where to get it. I bought 
one for my boy and they put a rope 
on it. I buy all my hardware there 
now. They are up-to-date !" 

The moral of this little story is 

The man that tries 
to mend his ways 
generally finds that a 
lot o^Hdie parts are 







worker, in \CKatever post 
of responsibility, to study Kis 
•work. Analyze it, puzzle over 
it, try to improve its metKods 
and its results. Every boss 
is looking for help from the 
worker w'ho can devise a newer, 
better way of performing an 
old task. 

— Frank A. Fall. 


Available with Single Lens 

2C Autographic Kodak Jr., with Meniscus Achro- 
matic Lens $15.50 

THE kod ak: salesman 

= An aid =^= 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol. 5 FEBRUARY, 1919 No. 1 


AMiat do you read? 

If you only read the sporting page in the 
newspapers, and now and then a little light fiction 
you are missing a lot. 

From a business standpoint you should read 
the photographic journals careftilly, including the 
advertisements; b}" so doing you will keep your- 
self posted on what is doing and on what is new 
in your business world. 

Good fiction is all right as it stimulates the 
imagination, but be sure it is good. If you don't 
know Shakespeare. Dickens, ]\Iark Twain, and 
Mctor Hugo, you have deprived yourself of many 
pleasant hours. 

Read good books and plenty of them : include 
in your literary menu some of the solid, substan- 
tial reading as well, so as to balance your mental 

Good literature will do much to broaden your 
vision and to make vour life worth while. 

O =o 


The Value of Persistence 

It is pcrsistoit advertising that 
establishes a reputation, a prestige 
or a name. A certain large soap 
firm discontinued their advertising 
for a year and it is said to have 
cost them the profits of two years' 
business to catch up. Many firms 
throughout this war have been un- 
able to supply their regular peace- 
time goods, owing to war contracts ; 
but have they stopped their adver- 
tising ? Certainly not ; on the con- 
trary many have increased their ap- 

By continually keeping the names 
of their goods before the buying 
public, day in and day out, year in 
and year out, they are sure of sales 
when their goods are again avail- 
able. The memory of the people, 
as a body, is short and it is the 
province of advertising not to let 
them forget. 

What has all this to do with sell- 
ing Kodaks ? Just this — many stores 
nowadays are almost departmental 
in their scope and with such a pro- 
fusion of lines, some things are go- 
ing to be featured more than others 
— get a larger share of window ad- 
vertising space and be oftener 
placed in that case in front of the 
door, which everybody sees. You 
can't play fast and loose in the 
photographic game any more than 
in any other if you hope to be a con- 
sistent winner. 

\\'e admit that the use of the 
Kodak during the winter months 
does not yet equal its use during 
the summer, but if Kodaks are 
hidden from view in the quieter 
period, business will surely suffer 
during the summer months. 

Impress it on everyone's mind 
that you do sell Kodaks, by making 
frequent window displays, and when 
Mr. Smith finally makes up his 


mind to invest in some kind of a 
camera, he will not need to think 
twice where to go and purchase it. 
Sporadic window displays of cer- 
tain lines may make many extra 
sales, but it is the steady hammering 
of repeated displays that brings the 
kind of business which appreciably 
lengthens the colunui of "Net Pro- 

Illegible Subscriptions 

Rather more frequently than 
should happen we receive tiie 
Kodak cr\ subscription blanks so 
illegibly filled out that it is impossi- 
ble to decipher them and enter the 
subscriptions on our li>t. 

In some instances the fiUed-in 
blank has the appearance of having 
been slipped into the salesman's 
sales book, where it has come in 
contact with the carbon sheet. 

The carbon naturally rubs more 
or less, and so practically blots out 
the writing in pencil underneath, 
making it impossible for us to de- 
cipher it. 

Again, we will have the name and 
street address, but no town or pro- 
vince. In such cases we have to 
check through our long dealers' list 
to find the town and province, and 
even then we cannot be sure, be- 
cause the camera purchaser may be 
a non-resident of the town where 
the sale was made. 

For our mutual benefit please be 

Other things being equal, the man 
sells the most who asks the most 
people to buy, most frequently and 
most persuasively. It certainly pays 
to ask. 


In Winter Time 

Right after the hoHday season the 
successful merchant gives a satisfied 
yawn and settles down to hibernate 
for a month or so — yes he does — 
not ! 

\\'hat is the use of advertising 
Kodaks in the early months of the 
year. Avhen almost every other per- 
son had one given to him for Christ 
mas, and the weather is disagree- 
able and folks don't go out of doors 
any more than they have to? 

Oh, hum ! My, isn't business dull ? 

^^'ell, business ought to be dull 
for the man who thinks that \va}-, 
but fortunately his class is in the 

Supposing the Boss suggests that 
you plan a few newspaper adver- 
tisements ; you naturally are keenly 
anxious to have them produce re- 
sults, so let's see. 

\\'e sold a whole lot of Kodaks 
and other cameras for Christmas, 
and the other dealers in town must 
have done almost as well, so maybe 
the town is temporarily pretty well 
fed up. 

That Smith girl came in yester- 
day about some little thing she 
didn't understand about her new 
Kodak — fixed her up in a jifify and 
I'll bet she will spend a lot of money 
with us, and that man that came in 
this morning to learn how to make 
\'eIox prints — told him how, gave 
him a copy of the Velox Book, and 
sold him a gross of paper and a 
Kodak Amateur Printer. 

\Vhy, say, writing these adver- 
tisements is easy — I'll just tell all 
those new Kodak owners that our 
store is the place to come for infor- 
mation so that they'll get started 

Maybe we won't sell many cam- 
eras but Oh, you sundries. 

Sell Simplicity to the 

A\'hen you are attempting the sale 
of a camera to a woman avoid tech- 
nicalities as much as possible ; on 
the other hand, show her, and im- 
press upon her how very simple the 
whole process of picture making is 
the Kodak way. 

Here is a story vouched for bv a 
correspondent : 

A woman came into a store and 
said to the clerk, "I want a camera 
but I don't know anything about 

The clerk b'egan piling Kodaks on 
the counter, talking the while like 
an animated catalogue. 

"This one," he rattled ofif, "has 
double combination lens R.R., focal 
length 63/4 inches, ball bearing shut- 
ter, two tripod sockets, brilliant re- 
versible finder and automatic focus- 
ing lock." 

The lady would interrupt now 
and then plaintively with "Yes, yes 
— I really don't know a thing about 

And still he went on with, "Xow 
this one is equipped with a Bausch 
& Lomb Kodak Anastigmat, f.6.3, 
Lens, Optimo Shutter, operated by 
cable or finger release, with speeds 
from one second to one three-hun- 
dredth of a second, rising front, col- 
lapsible reversible finder, focusing 
scale. Range Finder, and rack and 
pinion for focusing." 

And she, poor woman, thought 
that "Range Finders" had something 
to do with stoves. 

And so her bewilderment grew. 

As it was, she said finally, "Oh. 
dear, I'm afraid I could never take 
pictures," excused herself and went 
out, her mind in a maze of shutters, 
releases, finders and focal lengths. 

Xot only was the sale lost then 
but forever. She kiiows now that 
she could never use a camera. 


Aid the Beginner 

With the passing of the hohday 
season commences the activities of 
thousands of new devotees to ama- 
teur photography. 

To see that these beginners be- 
come enthusiastic and expert is a 
part of your duty, not only to them 
but to yourself and your store, be- 
cause the enthusiastic customer is 
the one who comes back for more. 

It is usually not at all difficult to 
pick out the beginner, and if you 
are not sure a few tactfully put 
queries will determine his or her 

To many even the simplest me- 
chanical device seems complicated 
and hard to understand, while many 
others will only hurriedly skim 
through the pages of the Manual. 

The results are that many really 
ludicrous mistakes are made with a 
consequent enthusiasm - dampening 
eft'ect on the makers. 

So when a customer comes in for 
a developing or printing order 
where the results have not come up 
to par it will be mighty good busi- 
ness to fully explain the workings 
of the camera so as to obviate fu- 
ture similar errors. 

It is almost impossible to insert a 
roll of film in a Kodak or Brownie 
so that the film will face the wrong 
way, yet it has been done : some- 
times the novice will attempt to pass 
the film under the guide rolls, even 
going so far as to cut oft' some of 
the paper on each side in the en- 
deavor. Usually in such cases the 
novice will blame the camera as de- 
fective as he can not induce the film 
to reel properly. 

Many beginners neglect to study 
the instructions regarding the oper- 
ation of the shutter, and will spoil 
snap shot exposures, because they 
think they must press the release 

twice, once to open, and again to 
close the shutter. 

They also confuse the diaphragm 
opening markings with the shutter 
speed markings, and diaphragm 
down to the smallest opening, think- 
ing they are producing a higher 
shutter speed. 

Again they fail to remember, or 
never have learned anything about 
the diaphragms, and so if the dia- 
phragm lever is accidentally moved 
over to the smallest aperture they 
go merrily on and so hopelessly 
under-expose most of their at- 

The greatest mistake of the be- 
ginner consists in the attempting of 
snap shots indoors, as it is very dif- 
ficult for him to realize that a very 
high percentage of the light is ab- 
sorbed by even the finest plate glass. 

A'ery many people are slow in 
comprehending anything learned 
from an instruction book, but will 
understand instantly if the various 
operations are performed for them. 

Be on the lookout for the be- 
ginner, and put him on the right 
path — and see to it that he receives 

Give It a Headline 

An authority on window trim- 
ming spoke truly when he re- 
marked : "Remember that 'all dis- 
play' is no display; your windo\\' is 
an advertisement — therefore give it 
a headline." 

If your eye happens to rest on the 
advertisement of John Smith where- 
in he announces that he carries a 
full line of groceries, hard and soft 
coal, kindling, and wall paper, it 
makes practically no impression 
upon your mind. But if John Smith 
should happen to advertise "Ripe 


Peaches that just melt in the 
mouth," and you, being rather par- 
tial to that particular fruit, as most 
of us are, would mentally feel one 
of said peaches doing the melting 
act and you would be quite apt to 
drop into Smith's and invest. 

It is just the same way with a 
window display; you have got to do 
more than have it tell the people 
that you carry a certain line of 
goods — you have got to make them 
want something you have for sale — 
otherwise your display is away be- 
low par in effectiveness. 

Give the people a good reason for 
taking pictures, and you have start- 
ed a train of thought that will lead 
to sales, and sales are what you are 

In your display avoid a confusion 
of ideas ; make your display suggest 
one good reason ; this reason may 
not appeal to all, but what of that, 
because in your next effort you can 
make a different appeal. 

You have the advantage over 
most other lines because all people 
are interested in pictures ; they will 
stop to look at a picture or a display 
of pictures, where they would pass 
by a display of diamonds and pearls. 

The simple display will get its 
message over the quickest. It is 
better to have but one good picture 
in your window than a dozen indif- 
ferent ones. 

If you use a number of pictures 
see that they key in with each other. 

If you want to carry the idea, 
"Send pictures from home to the 
boys still over there," have your dis- 
play consist of such pictures — 
mother and father seated in the liv- 
ing room, or a jolly group on the 
front steps, and the like. 

Just landscapes which tie up to 
no particular home, no matter how 
artistic they might be, would not 
key in with this display. On the 

other hand, if the head thought in 
your display were *'A11 out-doors in- 
vites your Kodak," a display of 
good landscapes would harmonize 

If it is vacation time, and your 
headline is "Take a Kodak with 
you," or "A vacation is no vacation 
without a Kodak," have your pic- 
tures tell a vacation story — golf pic- 
tures, sailing or canoeing, picnic 
parties, or camping scenes — they 
will fit the thought and sell goods. 

Give your window display a head- 

Combined Card and Fixture 

A very novel eft'ect can be ob- 
tained by making the window card 
both a show card and a display fix- 
ture. This is done, according to a 
writer in Signs of the Times, by 
fastening a small shelf made of 
(iuarter-inch wood supported by a 
wooden bracket underneath to your 
show card. A mat card is preferred 
and should be mounted on a straw 
or corrugated board. The shelf can 
be painted any color to match the 
card and colors contained on same. 
The purpose of this small shelf is to 
display a piece of the merchandise 
being advertised by the card. This 
is specially good for small articles. 

The shelf should be made very 
light and not bulky, which would 
ruin the appearance of the card. 
The place where the shelf is to be 
placed on the card should be planned 
with the laying out of the design of 
the card. The shelf should be 
tacked from behind. This scheme 
has been used with success and has 
proven very attractive. It can also 
be worked nicely on a panelized 


/ Salesman 


KX( )\\ the assistant manager of 

a big liotel. You know the sort 
of a job any assistant manager has ; 
he is stipposed to do all the things 
the manager doesn't want to do. 

"It seems to me that an assistant 
hotel manager is supposed to at- 
tempt the highly difficult feat of 
being all things to all men, which, if 
you have never tried it, is some job 
I assure you. 

"My assistant manager friend 
seems to get along pretty well 
though, and one day 1 asked him 
if he had any particular rule for his 
guidance, and he laughed and re- 
plied. 'Yes, to try to please all of 
the people all of the time.' 

"In a hotel every one with a 
grievance, real or fancied, insists 
on 'seeing the manager,' but the 
manager by means of some uncanny 
sixth sense scents trouble on the 
way, wraps himself in his magic 
cloak and becomes invisible, leaving 
the assistant manager to hold the 

" ']\Iy room is too dark, or too 
light, too high up, too low down, too 
small, too large ; I don't like the 
wall paper ; the porter didn't call for 
•my trimk ; the valet sent me up 
:someone else's suit. W'hat's the 
^matter with your dining room ser- 
^ace?' and so ad infinituni. 

^'He encounters the gentlemanly 
souse, the boisterous one, the 
stranger who insists on having his 
personal check cashed, the dead 
beat, the sneak thief, crooked wait- 


ers and bell Ijoys — and occasionally 
a regular human being who is en- 
tirely satisfied with everything. 

"Yet with all this to contend with 
he is smiling and urbane to every 
patron. I have seen him abused by 
a noisy inebriate, and smile — and I 
have seen him order the same party 
ejected and smile — this time any- 
how I knew he meant it. 

"His job, or the biggest part of 
it, is to make every patron feel com- 
fortable and secure, and to feel that 
the hotel is truly a home, if but a 
temporary one. • 

"Any salesman can learn a lot 
from a man with a job like his; he 
is the sales manager for the hotel — 
he is more than that — he is the head 
salesman, whose business it is to sell 
the hotel and its services to its pa- 
trons so that they will come again 
and pass the good word along to 
their friends. 

"Any business house is largely at 
the mercy of such of its employes 
as come in direct contact with its 

"A store may handle only the 
highest grade goods, and have the 
best of locations, and a finely ap- 
pointed store, yet if the employes 
do not make the public feel that the 
])articular store is a good place at 
which to trade, that store can not 

"Some employes figure the wrong 
way : they think to themselves, 'This 
store don't belong to me, so whv 


should I concern myself beyond try- 
ing to get by from day to day ?" 

"Let us admit that a whole lot of 
employes do just get by, and per- 
haps hang on to their job for a 
good long time, but they don't get 
much of any other place. 

"In the morning they slide into 
the little old well worn rut, and 
slide out again when the whistle 
blows ; they are not altogether in- 
efficient but they never get out of 
the rut they have placed themselves 
in, because they started by thinking 
the wrong way. 

"My friend, the hotel man, began 
as a waiter, but he had intelligence 
enough to know that there was 
something better ahead if he worked 
for it. He became a dining room 
captain ; later on he was made head 

"A big hotel was opened in a 
nearby city, and he was offered the 
position of steward. It was easy to 
climb once he had jumped from 
the bottom rung. 

"I don't care whether you work 
in a store where you and the boss 
are the whole staff, or if you are one 
of a thousand or so of employes ; 
if you work for that store just as if 
you owned it you are going to get 
ahead — you just can not help it. 

"Your big job may not be with 
your present employer but you can 
always fit yourself for the big job 
wherever you are. 

"You will find some people deep 
in a rut and they will tell you that 
they never did have any luck and 
that they haven't any 'pull' — Rot ! 
The man who depends upon 'pull' 
usually has to be pushed. 

"If you want to get ahead, grab 
hold of the rope of opportunity and 
do the pulling yourself." 


I once had an interesting conver- 
sation with a very successful sales- 
man of dress goods. He told me 
one of the big reasons for his suc- 
cess was the attitude he took toward 
the materials he had to sell. When- 
ever he was given a new allotment 
of goods to dispose of he always 
would hie himself to some quiet cor- 
ner with a sample of the new ma- 
terial and endeavor to concentrate 
his attention in a favorable bent 
upon the goods. At first, he de- 
clared, the tendency would be to 
think what awful, unattractive stuff 
it was. Such a thought, however, 
would get short shrift. It was his 
duty to sell that material and in 
order to sell it properly he had to 
believe in it. Accordingly he would 
examine it carefully, painstakingly 
so, in fact, and look for good points 
only. In other words, he would de- 
liberately try to build up a favorable 
attitude toward it. "Pretty soon," 
he asserted. "I'd begin to think the 
stuff wasn't so bad after all and 
finally after studying it an hour or 
more I'd actually believe that it was 
just about as fine a piece of goods 
as I had ever seen. Then I could go 
out and sell it." 

Attitude is everything in practi- 
cally every undertaking we make. 
If one builds up a favorable attitude 
toward his job and makes himself 
think that it is important and very 
necessary and that he should en- 
thuse over every phase of it he will 
easily make a success of it. 

It isn't ever}- man who can reap 
his reward without cutting his 

You can buy a machine to do 
your adding for you, but not your 



The Woman Customer 

In selling amateur photographic 
supplies the woman customer is fre- 
c^uently encountered, so the best 
way to sell her so as to make her a 
friend of the house and the sales- 
man is well worth consideration. 

Frank E. Fehlman discusses this 
subject in a highly interesting and 
instructive manner. He remarks : 

"It has only been recently that the 
psychologist and the keen student of 
human nature have found out that 
women are more generally interest- 
ed in people, while men are more 
generally interested in things. 

"Of course there is no hard and 
fast line to be drawn between sell- 
ing to men and selling to women, 
but in general a man will give more 
attention to the merchandise while 
the woman will give more attention 
to the personality of the salesman. 
That is just as true when a man is 
buying of a man and a woman of a 
woman as it is when customer and 
salesperson are of opposite sex. De- 
partment stores and other stores 
selling largely to women know that 
salespeople of attractive personal- 
ity are absolutely necessary to the 
success of the business. A sales- 
woman who inspires dislike or dis- 
trust shows very poor results in any 
line of goods she may attempt to 

"Now suppose you are selling a 
ham. In the table below you will 
find the points the man customer is 
probably thinking of and the pwDints 
that a woman customer is probablv 
thinking of. 

"The man thinks — 

"What will this ham weigh ? 

"Is it high grade meat? 

"Is it in perfect condition? 

"Is the price right ? 

"How many meals will it make? 

"It is highly probable that he 
never thinks about the salesperson 


at all. On the other hand let us sup- 
pose a woman is buying the ham. 
Her mental operations are some- 
thing like this. The woman thinks — 

"Is this salesman sincere? 

"Does he know anything about 
meat ? 

"Is he cleanly and tidy? 

"Does he remember me as a for- 
mer customer ? 

"May I safely rely upon his ad- 
vice ? 

"The man's training and business 
life compel him to be interested in 
things — in shoes, or soap, or sugar, 
or structural iron, or rubber, or 
drugs, or automobiles. Whatever 
his occupation he is compelled to be 
to some degree a student of com- 
modities. While he can be led on 
by an intelligent salesman, he likes 
to think that he is above the average 
when it comes to deciding on the 
actual merits of goods and material. 

"The woman buyer is primarily 
interested in the character of the 
salesperson. Of course she is going 
to use a good deal of her own natu- 
ral talent and experience when it 
comes to selecting merchandise, but 
in the main she would rather accept 
the word of the salesman than her 
own judgment, provided he passes 
the mental tests which she uncon- 
sciously subjects him to as she 
makes her purchase. 

"Women will go out of their way 
times without number to have the 
same person sell them or serve 
them. They like to have the same 
hair-dresser, the same manicure, the 
same nurse, the same doctor, time 
after time. 

"Even for any ordinary small 
purchase — and this is well worth 
knowing — they will wait in a store 
until the salesman they are used to 
seeing is at leisure to serve them. 
Men will not do this or they will do 
it verv rarelv. 


"Hundreds of tests have been 
made in the last few years to find 
out whether men or women differ 
in their mental processes. The only- 
difference that science has been able 
to establish clearly is this one just 
discussed — that women are interest- 
ed chiefly in people while men are 
interested chiefly in things. 

"The salesman in a store where 
the great majority of customers are 
women, must make up his mind to 
the fact that his personality is under 
the closest scrutiny. He must be 
careful of his appearance, his man- 
ners, his speech. He must show a 
respectful interest in his customers' 
aft'airs. A market man in a certain 
large town, whose brother is the 
leading doctor, has a practical mon- 
opoly of the good trade. His en- 
vious competitors say that this is 
not on account of his merchandise, 
or his prices, or his good store ser- 
vice, but because he finds out who is 
sick in his customers' families and 
never forgets to inquire for them. 

"One thing is certain : when a 
young man in business can get two 
dozen women to allude to him reg- 
ularly as 'that nice young man at 
Blanks,' he has made a long stride 
toward that success of personality 
which is invaluable in selling to 
women customers." 

Dummy Film Packs 

For the purpose of aiding dealers 
and their salesmen in demonstrat- 
ing the advantages of the Premo 
Film Pack System, we have been 
supplying, upon request, duinmy 
film packs in the 2^4 >^ 3,^4 size. 

These dummy film packs do not 
contain film, a sheet of thin paper 
taking the place of the film, and 

their sole use is to shcAv the manner 
of loading and operating. 

Across the face of the carton of 
these demonstration film packs is 
stamped " For Demonstration 
Only," and pasted across the back 
of the carton is a label, "This Pack 
does not contain Film. Use for 
demonstration only." 

In spite of these warning mark- 
ings the dummy film packs have 
been known to have been placed in 
stock through inadvertence, and 
sold to customers. 

Please exercise caution that this 
does not happen in your store. 

The March "Kodakery" 

Every amateur can read with 
profit the many useful and instruc- 
tive articles in the Alarch issue of 

'"Spotting Negatives and Prints." 
is a thoroughly practical article 
which will do much to improve the 
quality of tlie amateur's work if the 
advice is followed. 

"Cold Developers" is really a 
short discourse on the correct tem- 
perature for developing solutions — 
an important topic in all seasons. 

"The Technically Perfect Nega- 
tive" forms Chapter N of Dr. Alees' 
most interesting series on "The 
Fundamentals of Photography." 

Snow scenes are of rare beauty 
when correctly photographed : 
"Printing for the Foreground Tones 
of Snow Scenes" will be found most 

"Detail in Pictures of Snow 
Scenes" explains how those uninter- 
esting foregrounds of white snow, 
which so often characterize the ama- 
teur's work in winter time, may be 



Ten Minutes 
with the Boss 

" ¥L'ST before inventory time. Sam, 
J I always get out the last pre- 
ceding inventory and go over it 
carefully, and the column headed 
"Xet Profit" receives my thoughtful 

"Business has been mighty good. 
Sam. and I hope to see the amount 
in the 'Xet Profit" column of our 
next inventory show a healthy in- 
crease, but no matter how great an 
increase is shown I am always won- 
dering if we couldn't have made it 

''Even with a highly systematized 
business there are boimd to be leaks 
that could have been avoided, and I 
am always looking for ways to plug 
them up. 

"One great source of loss in 
many stores, Sam, is forgotten 
charges, and even with our modern 
system, Sam, I venture to say that 
we suffer from this cause to some 

"I happened to pick up a book, 
Sammy, with the title '\Miere Have 
My Profits Gone?" and I found it 
mighty interesting though a bit dis- 
concerting reading. 

"Speaking of forgotten charges, 
the author remarks that a forgotten 
charge is a six time loss. The cost 
of the goods is lost; the profit that 
should have been made on the sale 
is lost ; the time taken to make the 
same is lost, which time could have 
been spent profitably in other work. 
The labor of handling the goods. 


that is. while making the sale, is 
lost; the development of careless- 
ness, which develops disloyalty, 
which develops questionable prac- 
tices, which develops actual thiev- 
ing, is a loss — a serious loss. Then 
there is the loss from tracing the 

"Thus the forgotten charge, or 
the forgotten record, is a greater 
loss than if the goods were de- 
stroyed by fire, for you carry fire 
insurance and you will be reim- 
bursed for a fire loss. 

"Xow. Sam, both of us may feel 
pretty sure that we never neglect 
to record a charge item, and that the 
rest of the boys are equally careful, 
but there is a story of a merchant 
that felt the same way as we do, 
Sam. and was sure his loss from 
forgotten charges didn"t amount to 

"To prove his contention he called 
a meeting of his salespeople and 
told them that he would put twenty- 
five cents into a jack-pot every time 
one clerk saw another forget to 
charge or record a sale. Xobody 
was to say anything about what he 
saw each day. Every night each 
clerk would write out exactly what 
he had seen that day. seal it in an 
envelope and hand it in to the pro- 
prietor. At the end of the week the 
clerk who had forgotten the least 
number of times was to take three- 
fourths of the money in the jack- 
pot; the remaining one-fourth was 


to go to the clerk who had the next 
best record. 

"The end of the story is that the 
proprietor was so startled and 
alarmed at the end of the first week 
that he changed his entire system. 

"Profits also vanish from stock 
depreciation ; a certain amount of 
depreciation is of course inevitable 
through accident, but more through 

"I know we are all careful here. 
Sam, In the way we store our break- 
able goods, and also in storing sen- 
sitized goods ; just the same, Sam. 
it will be well to caution any new 
help we may employ to always, 
when placing goods in stock, put the 
newest emulsions back of those al- 
ready on the shelves, so that the 
older goods will be sold first and so 
reduce to the minimum our stock of 
out-dated film and papers. 

"I remember a good many years 
ago. Sam. when I was a whole lot 
greener than I am now. we moved 
into a new store. I was naturally 
highly impatient to get in and so 
could hardly wait for the paint to 

'■\\'e had a big storage closet for 
our papers, so in they went and it 
all went bad because of the fumes 
from the paint and varnish, which 
had not had time to evaporate. 

"Another time we had a lot of 
plates stored in the basement. The 
cases were stored right on the floor 
because the basement was bone-dry. 
but one night a water pipe burst and 
flooded the cellar an inch or so in 
depth, just enough to thoroughy 
soak through the bottom of the 

"You don't notice any plate cases 
stored right on the basement floor 
here do you. Sam? 

"If you give a very small mouse 
the opportunity he can soon gnaw 
a mighty big hole in a cheese. Sam- 

my, and the only way to prevent 
nicks in our profits is to exercise 
eternal vigilance in preventing the 
preventable losses. 

"Talk this over with the boys, 
Sam. so that when we look over the 
next inventory figures the net profit 
column will show the highest possi- 
ble increase." 

Even though you may have read 
Mark Twain's "Sermon to Sales- 
men" it will do you no harm to read 
it again. 

"The pastor was the most elo- 
quent orator I ever listened to," 
said ^lark. "He painted the be- 
nighted condition of the heathen so 
clearly that my deepest compassion 
was aroused and T resolved to break 
a life-long habit and contribute a 
dollar to teach the Gospel. As the 
speaker proceeded I decided to give 
five dollars and then ten. Finally I 
knew it would be my duty to give 
all the cash I had with me — S20. 
The pleadings of the orator wrought 
upon me still further and I decided 
to borrow $20 from my friend in 
the next pew and give that also. 

"That was the time to take up the 

"However, the speaker proceeded 
and I gradually lost interest and 
dropped ofif into a sweet slumber. 
When the usher woke me up by 
prodding me in the ribs with the 
collection plate, I not only refused 
to contribute, but am ashamed to 
state I stole 15c. from the plate." 


Xoah was six hundred years old 
before he learned to build the ark. 
Don't lose your grip. 



The Primary Page 

for^ie Beginner 
BehinQ the GDunter 

THIS is one of the most import- 
ant times of the year — the other 
important times are the other eleven 
months — to thoroughly post your- 
self on all the photographic sun- 
dries carried in stock. 

Every Christmas gift of a Kodak 
or Brownie starts a new enthusiast 
eager to learn — and to spend — but 
without knowledge of the many 
helpful accessories to be had. 

Always bear in mind that while 
you are accustomed to seeing these 
things on display they are absolutely 
new, and of absorbing interest to 
the beginner if you will but show 
and explain them. 

To explain and sell sundries you 
must know them — not merely the 
name, but just how and where they 
can be used to advantage by the 

It hardly seems necessary to 
enumerate the various sundries or 
to afford any detailed explanation 
of them, because you have only to 
study your catalogs for this infor- 

It may, however, be of some ad- 
vantage to cite a few instances as to 
how to best bring some particular 
accessory to the attention of the 

There are two good occasions for 
introducing an accessory: one is 
when going over a developing and 
printing order, as you can then get 
a line not only as to how the custo- 
mer is progressing, but also the 


class of 'work he is seemingly most 
interested in. 

If you note that he has so^me 
landscape negatives which lack de- 
tail in the shadows, or has been at- 
tempting a bit of home portraiture 
you will be safe in assuming that he 
would be interested in a tripod for 
use in making "Time" exposures. 

Home portraiture would lead nat- 
urally to the use of the Kodak Por- 
trait Attachment. One salesman 
when showing the Kodak portrait 
Attachment accidentally — on pur- 
pose — always gets hold of a color 
filter first, then noting his seeming 
mistake he allows the filter to re- 
main on the counter while he 
reaches for a Portrait Attachment. 
After he has sold the Portrait At- 
tachment, the customer will nine 
times out Oif ten have noticed that 
the color filter is yellow, and ask 
why the difference, and what the 
filter is for, so in very many in- 
stances he makes a sale of both 

If upon suggesting a tripod the 
customer says he is supplied, he 
has paved the way to your showing 
him the Universal Tripod Head, the 
Universal Clamp and the Kodapod. 

If he is a Vest Pocket Kodak de- 
votee you will always be safe in 
showing the Vest Pocket Kodak 
Tripod Adapter and one of the 
Kodak Metal Tripods. 

If he has some prints of groups, 
and you note he is not included, he 


will be mighty apt to be interested 
in the Kodak Self Timer. 

When you note flashlight pictures 
in his order — ^}-ou can usually tell 
them by the shadows of some of 
the objects — you can show him the 
Flash Sheet Holder. 

If he has some extra nice land- 
scape pictures, praise them up a bit 
and inquire if he has ever attempt- 
ed to color them ; if not, here is 
your opening to show the Velox 
Transparent Water Color Outfit. 

You can always show the East- 
man Film Negative Albums when 
delivering a developing order, and 
if he pulls a bunch of loose prints 
from his pocket to show you, he has 
opened the way for a possible album 

Every specific item asked for by 
the customer should call to your 
mind some related item ; do not be 
afraid to tactfully suggest them 
even if you are sometimes turned 

In the great majority of cases 
the customer will appreciate your 
interest in him and will be glad to 
examine the article 3'ou propose. 

Never say "Anything else to- 
day," because the customer will al- 
most automatically say "No" ; but 
suggest something that fits in with 
what he has called for, and you 
have him attracted instead of re- 

The other good opportunity for 
introducing sundries is when tlie 
customer is waiting for his pack- 
age or change. 

W'^atch him; usually his eye will 
be attracted by something in one of 
the display cases — follow his glance 
and then silently reach for the arti- 
cle and place it in his hands. 

When you have done this you 
have his attention centered on the 
article ; allow him to examine it at 
close range and then wait for his 

query, which is sure to come — then 
is your opportunity. 

But first post yourself thoroughly 
on all the sundries and their rela- 
tion to the other things in stock so 
you can instantly call them to mind. 

When you have done this you are 
well on the way to graduation from 
the primary class. 

Letters That Sell 

There is an art in writing letters, 
and particularly in writing business 

Naturally a business letter should 
be strictly business, unless the re- 
cipient be well known to the writer, 
when a more personal or intimate 
tone may be employed. 

If you have never seen the man 
from whom you receive a letter, or 
do not know personally anyone con- 
nected with the firm with whom you 
may have correspondence, you are 
sure to judge the individual or firm 
by the letters you receive from 

In letters designed to retain the 
trade of a customer or to make a 
new one, the successful correspon- 
dent manages in some way to get a 
friendly tone so that the reader will 
feel that the house is really interest- 
ed in him, and will give him good 
service as well as good goods. 

In The Mailhag, a publication de- 
voted to the art of business getting 
by mail, recently appeared a story, 
and a true one — demonstrating the 
selling power of the right sort of a 

A man owning a home in a good 
neighborhood found that the house 
next door was for sale, and so he 
was naturally somewhat anxious 
that it be purchased by a desirable 
person, so it occurred to him to 



write a letter to soine of his friends, 
and some other desirable prospects. 
This is the letter he wrote: 

The house next door to mine in Lake- 
wood is for sale. I am in hopes it will be 
purchased by some real citizen who will 
make a good neighbor. It occurred to 
me that you or some one of your friends 
might be interested and that I may be 
the means of doing you a good turn as 
well as myself, to say nothing of Dr. W. 
H. Kinnicut, who owns the place. 

Dr. Kinnicut had the house built for 
himself and lived in it until he moved to 
Shaker Heights on account of some in- 
terests there. It is an eight-room frame 
house (9 coimting the third floor, which 
is finished) with a comfortable porch, at 
1579 Wyandotte Avenue, just far enough 
from both the Detroit Avenue and Mad- 
ison Avenue car lines, but handy to each. 

On the lot 50x100, are five large trees, 
three of which are magnificent oaks, af- 
fording a delightful place. Song birds 
are plentiful. 

Then, too, my better seven-eighths and 
myself have actually been accused of 
being good neighbors and we admit it. 
The kind that won't hesitate to borrow 
your tools, eggs and sugar so that you 
may feel perfectly free to do the same. 
When Dr. Kinnicut moved away I had to 
buy a Stilson wrench, and I notice he 
now has a new lawn mower. I've just 
bought a new grindstone ! 

I don't drive a Ford and ne\'er drive 
over town or come back light. Am hav- 
ing the Bus painted (the wheels white). 
It will cany my family of three and one 
of four. 

Mrs. Boughlon and I play bridge. Pin- 
ochle, Five-Hundred, Cribbage. Pedro, 
Pitch and Mumblety Peg. 

I don't know what the doctor wants 
for the place. I know it is worth $6,000, 
and believe it can be bought for consid- 
erably less. He doesn't know I am send- 
ing you this letter; he's so modest he 
might object. 

If interested, vou can get him at Main 
5680, or me at Main 4482. 

Sincerely yours. 

Frank M. Boughton 

The house next door was sold. 
It was sold the minute those letters 
were delivered to their recipients. 

Why? Because Mr. Boughton is 
a salesman ? Partly ! Because he 
sent some letters to his friends ? 


Partly. Mostly, however, because 
he did not try to sell a house so 
much as he tried to sell the Bough- 
tons as neighbors. When he did 
that all material considerations 
withdrew to the background and the 
one thing that remained, that got 
home, that kindled interest, was 
simply the very humaneness of the 
appeal. Virtually the message was : 
"Pm a good neighbor and I want a 
good neighbor." And wdio could 
resist that whimsical description of 
those neighborly qualities? 

The Upper Part 

In laying out your window dis- 
play don't forget that the top of the 
window is important. Many win- 
dow decorators give most of their 
attention to the lower portion of the 
window, which is cjuickest seen by 
the passerby, forgetting that the 
man on the outer edge of the side- 
w'alk may have his attention at- 
tracted by the upper part of the 
window quicker than by the lower 
part, particularly if the sidewalk is 
crowded, so that the lower part will 
be more or less hidden from his 

Furthermore, to neglect the up- 
per portion of the window means 
that when the display as a whole is 
viewed, the upper portion will look 
unfinished and the whole window 
have an air of incompleteness. Fin- 
ish off the upper part of your win- 
dow as carefully as the lower and 
don't forget to have one or two 
striking features there that can be 
seen from a distance. — Tobacco. 


Is our Registered 
and common-law 
I'rade-Mark and 
cannot be right- 
fully applied 
except to goods of 
our manufacture. 

If it isut lUi Kastmau^it 
isfft d Kodak 





MARCH. 1919 



THE secret of success is not a secret. Nor is it some- 
thing new. Nor is it something hard to secure. To 
become more successful, become more efficient. Do 
the little things better. So work that you will require less 
supervision. The least supervision is needed by the person 
who makes the fewest mistakes. 

Do what you can do and what you should do for the 
institution for which you are working, and do it in the 
right way, and the size of your income will take care of 
itself. Let your aim ever be to better the work you are 
doing. But remember always that you cannot better the 
work you are doing without bettering yourself. 

The thoughts that you think, the words that you spealt, 
and the deeds you perform are making you either better 
or worse. Realize with Henley that you are the master 
of your fate and the captain of your soul. You can be 
what you will to be. Forget yourself in rendering service 
to others. As an employee, strive to make yourself of 
greater value to your employer. 

Look upon yourself as a manufacturer. Think of your- 
self as being in a business for yourself. Regard yourself 
as a maker and seller of service and ever bend your 
thought and your energies toward the improvement of 
your product. The wise manufacturer never injures his 
machinery wilfully. Your body, your mind, your soul 
serve as your plant. 

Eat and drink only that which will nourish your body, 
entertain only those thoughts that will enrich your mind, 
and if you feed your body with the best physical food and 
your mind with the best mental food, you will build up a 
Service Factory that will find its products in constant 

The world is hungry for Quality Service. It wants 
to pay for it. It is paying for all it can get. The market is 
not crowded. 

There is a chance for you right now. 

There is a chance for you right where you are. 

The time to start is NOW. 

To Make Business for Your Finishing Department 

(See Page 4) 

THE kodak: salesman 

^ An aid == 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol. 5 MARCH, 1919 No. 2 


The Boss has a pretty easy time of it. 

If he wants to come down half an hour late 
in the morning, or take two hours for lunch, or 
put on his hat and kave the store any time he 
wants to, he can. 

If he doesn't want to wait upon a customer, 
he doesn't have to, and he can spend all the time 
he wants to in listening to the traveling men — 

AMiile you are expected to get down on time, 
back from lunch on time, and be on the job all 
the time, but when you quit at night you are 
through for the day — 

But the Boss is never through; in spite of 
himself he carries his job with him clear around 
the clock. 

He is responsible not only for his own acts, 
but for every act of the store organization; he 
is responsible to you, for you, and to the cus- 

AMien you get to be the Boss you will some- 
lime sigh for the easy days when you had some- 
one to boss vou. 

o n 


House the Homeless 

The latest print census shows 
that one hundred and eighteen mil- 
hon four hundred and twenty-seven 
thousand and some odd amateur 
photographs are seeking a perma- 
nent home. 

Notwithstanding that a good many 
of these pictures are "speaking" Hke- 
nesses they are unable to voice their 
wishes, or to put in a want ad., and 
so express their discontent by hiding 
in library table drawers, or crumbl- 
ing to bits in the pockets of their 

Now a good print (and every 
priiut is a good print to its maker) 
deserves better treatment than this, 
and as your success is in a large 
measure dependent upon them, it is 
up to you in assisting them to find 
comfortable quarters. 

Ri^ht in your stock is a highly 
satisfactory assortment of print 
homes ; homes for large or small 
print families, and large or small 
prints, and to suit purses of varied 
depths, and all with modern im- 

When you think of all these 
homeless pri'nts just stop and ask 
yourself this question : "Am I really 
selling albums or do I just allow an 
occasional customer to htiy one?" 

Every delivery of an order of 
prints afifords an opportunity to 
show albums. Here is one little 
method that has sold a good many: 
Select from the order four good 
prints ; take an album of suitable 
size from stock, and arrange the 
prints on one of its pages, and then 
casually remark : "They look pretty 
well, don't they?" or, "How do 
you like this arrangement?" 

If you start by asking the custo- 
mer if he is interested in albums he 
will usually and automatically say 
"No," because such is the working 
of the average human mind, but by 

following the above, or some simi- 
lar method, he i^ bound to evince 
some interest. 

Often he will suggest a different 
arrangement of prints on the page, 
or pull additional prints from his 
pocket to see how they would look 
— anyhow you have him started 
towards a sale. 

Follow up this idea and watch 
voiir sales sheet lengfthen. 

Feature Your Finishing 

You do amateur finishing and 
turn out first quality work — sure 
you do, so why not emphasize the 
fact by means of your display win- 

You can put a card in your wi'n- 
dow, and others in your store an- 
nouncing the fact that you do de- 
veloping, printing and enlarging, 
and such cards will, without doubt, 
bring you business. But where you 
make your entire display feature 
your finishing department you im- 
press the public with the fact that 
your finishing department must be 
quite an important part of your 
business — and this thought is nat- 
urally followed by one to the effect 
that if this department is a big part 
of your business it must be because 
of the excellence of your work. 

On page 2 we offer a suggestion 
for such a display. This display is 
adapted to either a small or large 
window. Tf a very large window 
is at your disposal this display can 
be used as the center piece, but 
when you use it that way do not 
crowd it ; leave plenty of room on 
each side of it, and place nothing 
of any prominence in front of it. or 
you will lose the effect. 


So They May Know 

Coiticident with the beginning of 
the war private building operations 
fell off to a very great degree, be- 
cause practically all available ma- 
terial and men were needed for war 

A young man owning a lumber 
mill, whose principal output had 
been sash, doors and interior trim 
for dwellings, obtained sufficient 
war contracts to keep his mill run- 
ning to full capacity, but he was 
naturally concerned as to condi- 
tions following the end of the war. 

Everything pointed to heavy 
building operati'ons after the war, 
and he naturally wanted to get his 
full share. 

He figured this way : People have 
learned to save, and have saved 
money through high wages, and in- 
vestment in Mctory Bonds and 
War Savings Stamps, and a whole 
lot of thJs money is going to be in- 
vested in homes, or in additions to 
and other improvements on homes 
already constructed. 

He said during the war I am 
going to pay a whole lot of atten- 
tion to the wants of the small con- 
sumers, to afford them a service 
they did not expect. Ha man calls 
up and says he wants just a couple 
of boards I am going to see that he 
gets them, or if he wants to know 
how much lumber it will take to 
build a chicken or a dog-house, and 
how to build it we are going to give 
him the ilifcrmation. I have a spe- 
cially trained girl to answer the 
phone, and she is some business get- 
ter ; if she can not give the informa- 
tion oft' hand she will obtain the 
customer's number and call him 
back at the earliest possible moment. 

After the war some of these peo- 
ple are going to use a whole lot of 
m\' goods, and if T have treated 

them well they are pretty sure to 
remember i't. 

He was running a small card in 
the daily papers, the usual thing: 
"The Blank Lumber Company, — 
Sash, Doors, and Trim, 114 Blank 
Street, Phone Main 444." 

It was suggested to him that he 
use in some of his ads. some of his 
own phraseology — "If you need a 
couple of boards or a few feet of 
two by fours call up Phone Main 
-144, — The Blank Lumber Com- 

A series of such advertisements 
was prepared and run with excellent 
results. They were a success be- 
cause the wording was dift"erent 
from the stereotyped formal tone, 
because the company offered an un- 
usual and real service, and because 
ihe promises implied in the adver- 
tising were faithfully carried out. 

There would seem to be possibil- 
ities in this sort of advertisng for 
the dealer in photographic supplies. 

He can be of real service to the 
amateur in many ways, and it would 
seem to be good business to occa- 
sionally call attention to the willing- 
r.ess of the store to aft'ord it. 

^lany people are diffident ; they 
hesitate to bring their small troubles 
or wants to the store because they 
imagine the store will not care to 
bother with them, which is bad for 
both the customer and the store. 

The custoiner who knows that he 
is welcome to every service the 
store can give, and who makes in- 
telligent use of intelligent service 
becomes that best of all advertisers 
— the satisfied customer. 

Man}- a luan who can hear Pleas- 
ure whisper a mile away can't hear 
Duty "when it shouts in his ear 
through a megaphone. 



/ Salesman 

WHEN I was a young chap of 
nineteen or twenty, a life in- 
surance man camped on my trail in 
the endeavor to sell me a twenty- 
year policy. 

"He put rows of figures down on 
a pad, and hurled statistics at me 
until the whole scheme seemed just 
as simple to me as untangling a dish 
of spaghetti. 

""\\'hen you are twenty, twenty' 
years seems a most tremendously 
loag while, so I couldn't by any 
stretch of my imagination visualize 
my condition at so advanced an age, 
or appreciate the value of a paid-up 
policy as a means of prevention 
from becoming an object of charity. 
He didn't get my name on the 
dotted line. 

"A little later another agent 
tackled me, but he went at it in a 
different way. He didn't talk pro- 
tection in my declining years from 
over the hills to the poor house : in 
fact, he turned the proposition 
squarely around. 

"Here was I a young man just 
entering business life with quite a 
possibility within a few years of 
wishing to engage in business for 
myself. Xow every cent I put into 
life insurance was an investment. 
After my policy had run a certain 
length of time I could, in case of 
necessity, borrow from the company 
a certain percentage of the value of 
my policy, and still have the insur- 
ance protection. 

"He said that if T engaged in 


business for myself and wanted 
some accommodation from the 
bank, the fact that I had been wise 
enough to invest in a policy with a 
good company would do much to 
put me on a good footing with the 

"All the way through he talked 
ro me in terms that I could under- 
stand ; he talked investment instead 
of protection, and did not place the 
reward so far in the future as to be 
beyond my comprehension. 

"He sold me because he talked to 
me from my side of the fence. 

"That is one of the big, open 
secrets of success in selling ; the 
ability to visualize your proposition 
from the standpoint of the custo- 
mer rather than from your own. 

"I was in a barber shop the other 
day getting fixed up a bit, and along 
towards the closing of the ceremo- 
nies the barber suggested applying 
some brand of dope to my dome. 
Xow the upper section of my cra- 
nial structure has just about as 
much hair upon it as a meadow in 
Xorthern France has grass, so I 
grinned at the barber and asked 
him if it would make my hair grow. 

"I didn't get the expected answ^er. 
He looked me square in the eye and 
said. 'Xo sir. it will not,' and then 
he proceeded to explain that the 
scalp of one whose curly locks had 
gone hence needed a little oiling up 
occasionally, and he painted such a 
word picture of how good I would 


feel afterwards that he increased 
my check by fifty cents. 

"I have a friend in the piano 
business, and he tells me that he 
but rarely talks piano in making a 
sale. He talks music, of its delights 
and refining influence in the home, 
so that when he has sold the custo- 
mer on that the selection of the in- 
strument is but incidental. 

"Just the same he is not so fool- 
ish as to have but this one selling 
argument, which would but little 
apply where the prospective custo- 
mer was an accomplished musician. 
In such a case he would naturally 
talk tone and action, and quite pos- 
sibly style, because the customer 
had already been sold as to the 
value of music. 

"There are three essentials in sell- 
ing: Full knowledge of the goods 
and their uses, a knowledge of hu- 
man nature, and enthusiasm. 

"Another thing — the good sales- 
man is never a grouch nor a pessi- 
mist ; he really likes other human 
beings, and because of this liking he 
finds it easy to put himself in their 
place, and easy to sell them, because 
they subconsciously know he is 
there to serve them to the best of 
his ability. 

"If you find that you are not a 
good 'closer,' that you have been 
losing mere sales than you should. 
I believe you will find the reason 
somewhere among the points I have 
just been discussing. 

"Do you know the goods, and 
their uses, thoroughly? 

"Have you the ability to view 
things from the customer's stand- 

"Are you interested in people ? 

"Have you enthusiasm?" 

No fellow is so sharp that some 
other person doesn't occasionally sit 
on him. 

"Kodakery" for April 

The April number of Kodakery 
should heavily increase the sale of 
flashlight goods, as the average am- 
ateur will find it mighty hard to 
risist making Silhouettes after 
reading up on the subject in that 

Sepia Pictures by re-development 
tells just what quality of print will 
produce the best result and also the 
"why" and "how." 

There are a ri'ght, and several 
decidedly wrong ways to clean a 
lens. "Cleaning Lenses" tells the 
right way. 

Dr. Alees' most instructive series 
continues in this issue. 

"Photographing Spri'ng Foliage" 
and a timely article on development 
are also included in this number. 

Window Promises 

There are few things more inter- 
esting than shop windows and theit 
relation to the shops behind them, 
savs a writer in the Youth's Com- 
panion. But in every city and every 
town there are shops by the hun- 
dreds, the windows of which are so 
overcrowded that the passerby re- 
ceives no clear impression of any- 
thing except confusion. There are 
old-time conservative shops whose 
windows are sober, yet interesting: 
there are shops that aim at the start- 
ling, or the curious, or the original : 
there are shops the windows of 
which promise a variety of quality 
that the stock inside does hot have. 
The conservative shops that carry a 
good stock, but that take small 
pains to display it in their windows, 
may keep their old customers, but 
they do not make new ones. Win- 
dow promises must be kept. 


Ten Minutes 
with the Boss 

"O AM, I wonder how many of the 
i3 boys here ever give a thought 
to our competitors and their stores. 

"By that I mean why do their 
customers trade with them instead 
of with us. We can't expect to do 
all the business in our line, but we 
are always hoping and planning to 
do more, and so are our competi- 

"The natural growth of the town 
and the persistency with which the 
Kodak line is advertised has of 
course a great deal to do with the 
increase our business has shown 
from year to year. 

"But just the same I am never 
satisfied ; when I am satisfied, Sam, 
I am going to go out of business, 
because then there won't be any fun 
in it. 

"Some customers trade with a 
particular store because of its con- 
venience, while others will go a con- 
siderable distance out of the way, 
and pass other stores handling the 
same line to do their trading. 

"Trading with some particular 
store becomes a habit with most of 
us, and so for this reason we are 
able to retain a high percentage of 
our regular trade. 

"Now and again we lose a regu- 
lar customer, for some one of a 
dozen reasons, and when I note that 
a customer has transferred his busi- 
ness to a competitor I make it a 
personal matter to find out why. 

"Out in my section of the town 


is a little neighborhood store that I 
found would be a convenient place 
to patronize, but the proprietor and 
his wife who assisted him seemed 
endowed with perpetual ingrowing 
grouches ; they were both exceed- 
ingly taciturn, and a smile seemed 
a physical impossibility. 

"Now I wanted to trade at that 
store because it was mighty con- 
venient, but I didn't like the feel- 
ing of depression that always fol- 
lowed a visit. So from purely sel- 
fish motives I started a method of 
intensive cultivation to see if I 
couldn't raise an occasional smile. 
And do you know, Sammy, the 
smiles were there, and not so very 
deep down either, and so now when 
I go in I am usually met with a 
chuckle or a broad grin, and we get 
along famously. 

"The best part of it is that they 
have learned to smile at and with 
their other customers as well, which 
is good for business. 

"Temperament in people is as 
varied as the sands of the sea, but 
the law of averages holds just the 
same, as the great majority are in- 
fluenced l)v precisely the same 

"W'e all like a cheerful, well-kept 
and well stocked store. We all like 
cheerful and efficient salespeople — 
and we all like a square deal. 

"All these 1 think our customers 
find here, and they must find them 
\\\ our competitors' stores as welU 


or else we would get all the busi- 

"Business is business, and so the 
successful merchant and the pro- 
gressive salesman must watch and 
closely study the methods of his 
competitors. And this study must 
be made with an open friendly 

"Sammy, a feeling of jealousy or 
of enmity towards a competitor is 
only an indication of weakness. If 
he is beating you to it, it is because 
he has better methods and is a bet- 
ter planner and organizer than you 
are, so it is up to you to study the 
means by which he is succeeding, 
and then go him one better. 

"Business is a school, Sammy, 
with a never-ending course; just 
the minute you think that you know 
all there is to be learned about your 
business you are on the skids headed 
for the discard. 

"The progressive business man 
finds that he has to keep himself in- 
formed, and you wHl find in practi- 
cally every public library a growing 
section devoted to books on busi- 
ness topics, and the librarian will 
tell you that that section is well pat- 
ronized. The salesman who does 
not post himself as to every possible 
use to which his goods may be put, 
and the 'how' and 'why' of the things 
he sells is making a big mistake. 

"The salesman in our line, Sam, 
should read regularly and thor- 
oughly all the photographic jour- 
nals he can get hold of. 

"I know you and the rest of the 
boys here do this because we keep 
them all on file, and their appear- 
ance shows that they have been 

"The salesman who studies every- 
thing that pertains to his business — 
the goods, the customer, and the 
competitor — is the one who gets 
somewhere, Sammv." 

Moving Objects 

The first attempts at photograph- 
ing moving objects are very often 
followed by disappointing results. 
This is largely due to lack of knowl- 
edge of the conditions affecting this 
interesting work. When a moving 
object is within the field of a lens, a 
reduced image of the subject pro- 
jected by the lens moves with rela- 
tive rapidity across the plane of 
focus, where the film or plate is 
located. With no thought of the 
factors governing the result, a posi- 
tion is taken close to the moving ob- 
ject, which rushes past the camera 
at a high rate of speed, and if any 
thing at all appears upon the nega- 
tive when it is developed, the re- 
corded image is liable to be nothing 
but a blur. The reason for such 
failure is that the speed of the shut- 
ter on the camera used was not suf- 
ficiently fast to arrest the motion of 
the image projected by the lens as 
it passed across the film or plate. 
There are four factors which have 
a direct effect upon the result, and 
must be included in the computa- 
tion of the correct exposure for ar- 
resting movement of the image. 

1. Focal length of lens used. 

2. Distance of object from the 

3. Speed of the object per hour. 

4. Direction of the movement. 
\\'ith a working knowledge of 

these four factors, it is a simple 
matter to arrive at the shutter speed 
necessary to exactly arrest the mo- 
tion of the projected image as it 
passes across the recording plane. 
The focal length of the lens, and 
the distance of the object from the 
camera, determine the sice of the 
i^nage projected upon the film or 
plate. The speed of the object per 
hour, and the direction of the move- 
ment, regulate the rapidity with 
which the image of the subject 



moves across the film or plate. 
Every fraction of an inch increase 
in the focal length of the lens and 
every foot closer approach to the 
moving object, results in a relative 
increase in the sfze of the image, 
and the rapidity of its movement 
across the focal plane. With the 
camera in the same position, the 
image projected by a lens having a 
focal length of IVz inches will be 
considerably larger than the image 
projected by a lens having a focal 
length of 4^ inches. The same 
holds true with lenses of other focal 
lengths. The distance of the object 
from the camera is a very important 
factor in its relation to size of image 
and its relative movement. The 
shutter speed required to obtain a 
sharp negative image of a moving 
object, 100 feet from the camera, 
must be doubled if the distance is 
reduced to 50 feet, and again 
doubled at a distance of 25 feet. 
Approaching or receding from the 
subject with a lens of any focal 
length, will result in relative en- 
largcmcni or reduction in the size 
of the image. Increased size of 
image, produced by a lens of great 
focal length, or by closer approach 
to the subject, requires a relative in- 
crease in shutter speed, if the move- 
ment of the image is to be arrested 
in the negative ; inversely, the 
smaller and less rapidly moving 
image of the same subject, project- 
ed by a lens of shorter focal length, 
or by operating the camera at a 
greater distance from the subject, 
can be stopped with a comparative- 
ly low shutter speed. 

The direction of the movement is 
an equally important factor and 
should be clearly understood. When 
the subject is moving rapidly at 
right angles to the camera, the im- 
age of the subject will pass with rel- 
ative rapidity across the film or 


plate, and the shutter speed neces- 
sary to arrest the motion of the 
image secured with a given focal 
length of lens, speed of subject and 
distance from camera, can be cal- 
culated and used as a basis for other 
conditions. If the picture of the 
same subject is made from a point 
of view midway between a right 
angle and a head-on, or receding 
movement, the shutter speed re- 
quired for movement directly across 
the camera may be reduced one- 
fhird ; and if the subject moves di- 
recth' toward or away from the 
camera, the shutter speed may be 
reduced tico-tJiirds. 

The speed at which the subject 
is moving — 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 or more 
miles per hour — must be estimated 
with reasonable certainty. The aver- 
age pedestrian moves at the rate of 
about three or four miles per hour ; 
average street traffic is about ten 
miles per hour ; the average rate of 
speed of autos in the street, and 
boat races, is about 15 or 20 miles 
per hour ; racing horses and passen- 
ger trains, 30 miles per hour ; 
trains, 60 miles per hour ; aeroplanes 
and racing autos, 120 miles per hour. 
The following rule and examples 
will serve to illustrate the manner 
of applying the four factors enu- 
merated, when computing shutter 
speeds necessary to obtain a clearly 
defined negative image of moving 
subjects. Multiply the speed at 
which the subject is moving, in 
yards per hour, by the focal length 
of lens used, and divide by distance 
of subject from the camera, in 
inches. For example: the subject is 
moving at a speed estimated to be 
20 miles per hour — 35,200 yards — 
per hour, at a distance of 50 feet 
— 600 inches — from the camera, at 
right angles to the camera, which is 
assumed to be a No. 3A Special 
Kodak equi]:)ped with the Kodak 


Anastigmat. /.6.3, lens, having a 
focal length of about 6^ inches, 
and a shutter with variable speeds 
from one second to 1/300 of a sec- 
ond. 35,200 ( vards ) x 6M inches 
(lens = 237,600 -^ 600 (inches) 
^ required exposure — 1/396 part 
of a second. -It is obvious that the 
highest shutter speed available with 
the camera used — 1/300 of a sec- 
ond — is not fast enough to produce 
an unblurred record of the subject 
under the conditions given, but the 
difTiculty can be overcome in three 
ways — by carrying the camera 
straight back to a point 75 feet from 
the subject, or by taking a position 
50 feet from the subject, midway 
between a right angle and a head- 
on movement. In either of these 
positions, successful negatives can 
be secured with a one-third reduc- 
tion in shutter speed- — 1/264 of a 
second, and as such a shutter speed 
is not shown on the camera shutter, 
1/300 second exposure should be 
used. In case the two positions 
given are, for some reason, imprac- 
ticable, or the light conditions sug- 
gest the use of a lower shutter speed 
in order to obtain better illumination 
of the image, an exposure of 1/198 
sccord will prove equally effective 
at a distance of 100 feet, directly in 
front of the oncoming subject. If 
the shutter speed used is limited to 
1 100 of a second, as with the 
Kodak B. B. Shutter, fitted to 
the X^o. 3A Autographic Kodak, the 
distance from an object moving 20 
miles per hour, directly across t\\& 
camera, must be increased to 200 
feet, or, the picture must be made 
from a distance of not less than 75 
feet — as the subject moves directly 
toward or away from the camera. 

With lenses of very short focal 
length — 3 and 3^ inches — such as 
are fitted to the Vest Pocket Kodak, 
IVemo Xo. 12. and Xo. Graphic 

Cameras, it is easily possible to ob- 
tain successful pictures of very rap- 
idly moving objects with compara- 
tively low shutter speeds. The im- 
age projected by a 3-inch lens, of a 
subject moving 50 miles per hour, 
at right angles to the camera, and 
at a distance of fifty feet, can be 
stopped with 1/440 part of a sec- 
ond exposure. If the distance be- 
tween the camera and subject is in- 
creased to 100 feet, an exposure of 
1/220 second will be sufficient. 
Should it be impracticable to oper- 
ate the camera at a greater distance 
than 50 feet from the subject, or at 
an angle of 45 degrees, by reason of 
the location of the subject, or limi- 
tation in shutter speed, the picture 
can be made from a position direct- 
ly in front of the subject, approach- 
ing at a speed of 50 miles per hour, 
with an exposure of 1/150 of a sec- 
ond. The action pictures most com- 
monly made by amateurs range 
from the three or four miles per 
hour movement of pedestrians to 
ten miles per hour of vehicles in city 
streets. The average distance of 
such objects is from 2? to 50 feet, 
and the direction of movement is 
usually less than right angles to the 
camera, and successful pictures of 
such objects attend the use of ex- 
posures ranging between 1/50 and 
1/100 of a second with average 
Kodaks. The lens stop used is de- 
pendent upon the prevailing light 
conditions, and the shutter speed re- 
quired. If the pictures are made on 
a dull, cloudy day, the largest lens 
aperture should be used in order to 
obtain the highest possible illumina- 
tion of the image. For the same 
reason the largest lens aperture 
should be used on bright days with 
the highest shutter speeds. N^ormal 
shutter speeds and stop /.8 will 
produce well timed negatives with 
favorable light conditions. 



The shutters provided with aver- 
age cameras are too limited in speed 
to meet the variable conditions pre- 
sented by subjects moving with ex- 
treme yafridity, or in close proxim- 
itv to the camera, often requiring 
1/1000 or 1/1500 of a second ex- 
posure. This shutter speed rec[uire- 
ment is fully provided for in the 
Grafiex Camera, especially designed 
for high speed photography. The 
Graflex Focal Plane Shutter is built 
into the body of the camera, and 
operates as closely as possible to the 
surface of the plate or film when in 
position for exposure. The curtain 
consists of a long curtain with a 
number of fixed apertures, varying 
from full size of the exposing aper- 
ture to y?, of an inch. The speed of 
the exposure is regulated by the 
width of the curtain aperture and 
the tension on the curtain and the 
various combinations of curtain 
apertures and tension numbers, af- 
fording a range in speed from time 
exposures to 1/1500 of a second. 
To obtain a sharp negative record 
of a moving object, it is necessary 
that the aperture in the curtain pass 
across the exposing aperture with 
greater rapidity than the image of 
the moving subject. Consulting the 
Graflex Exposure Tables for Speed 
Work, we find that with a Graflex 
equipped with a 6^/<-inch lens, a 
shutter speed of 1/1000 of a second 
wi.ll be required, recording the 
movement of a power boat travel- 
ing 30 miles per hour, 25 feet from 
the camera, or a motor car at 60 
miles per hour at a distance of 50 
feet from the camera — both sub- 
jects moving at right angles to the 
camera. We also learn that a sharp 
record can be made of any object 
moving directly toward or away 
from the camera at the very high 
speed of 120 miles per hour, with 
an exposure of 1/825 of a second, 
from a distance of 50 feet. 


New Interest 

The man who gets into a rut and 
stays there, and who for years will 
plod along in the same job, and who 
is generally bewailing his lot, will, 
upon investigation, be found to in- 
variably follow the paths of least 
resistance and let well enough alone. 
When through with the day's work 
one is tired and naturally wants rest 
and recreation, but a few minutes 
can be spared to thinking over the 
work of the day and trying to de- 
termine where mistakes have been 
made and where conditions could 
have been bettered. If this is done 
a new interest will be awakened the 
next morning and we will set about 
to correct our errors and put into 
efifect such ideas as we think will be 
for the improvement of the work in 
hand, and thereby aid in bringing 
our efficiency up to the standard. 

Among a group of skaters was a 
boy so small and so evidently a be- 
ginner that his frequent mishaps 
awakened the pity of a tender- 
hearted, if not wise, spectator. 
"Why, sonny, you are getting all 
bumped up," she said. 'T would 
not stay on the ice and keep falling 
down so; I'd just come off and 
watch the others." The tears of 
the last downfall were still rolling 
over the rosy cheeks, but the child 
looked from his advisor to the shin- 
ing: steel on his feet and answered : 
"I didn't get some new skates to 
give up with ; I got 'em to learn 
•how with." 


The Primary Page 

for -file Beginner 
Behind the Counter 

TEiE customer comes in and re- 
marks : "I want to try some 
flashlight pictures, — how do you 
make them ?" 

If you didn't happen to know why 
of course you would have to say so, 
and refer them to "How to Make 
Good Pictures" for the information. 

But somehow customers like to 
deal with salesmen who can give 
them the information they are look- 
ing for right off the bat. 

There are two different light pro- 
ducing mediums for the purpose : 
magnesium powder and Eastman 
Flash Sheets. 

As magnesium is not much used 
by the amateur a paragraph or so 
will give you all the information 
you need. Magnesium differs from 
the other light producing mediums 
in that it will not readily ignite in 
bulk, and the small particles of the 
metal must be blown through a 
flame to produce results. 

This entails a special lamp for the 
purpose, which has a reservoir for 
storing the magnesium, and is pro- 
vided with a tube and mouthpiece 
for blowing the powder into the 

Lamps for use with magnesium 
are what are termed "storage" 
lamps, on account of the closed con- 
tainer for powder. And by the 
same token magnesium is the only 
light producing chemical which can 
be safely used in a storage lamp. 

The action of magnesium is 

slower than the flash compounds, 
and so for that reason is but little 
used by the amateur. For all ama- 
teur purposes the Eastman Flash 
Sheets serve admirably. Without 
Cjuestion the simplest method for 
making flashlight pictures is by 
means of the Flash Sheets and the 
Flash Sheet Holder, as described in 
the Kodak Catalogue. 

You will note that the Flash 
Sheets are made in three dift'erent 
sizes for use according to the 
amount of illumination desired. 
For single figures, or groups of 
three or four, where the light can be 
placed comparatively close to the 
subjects the Nos. 1 and 2 will serve. 
For groups of from five to eight the 
No. 3 size is best. For larger groups 
and for pictures where the light has 
to travel some distance two or three 
of No. 3 size should be employed on 
account of their greater power. 

In using any form of flash illumi- 
nant certain precautions should al- 
ways be observed. First, never use 
any flash compound in a lamp of 
the storage type ; storage lamps are 
for use with magnesium only. Sec- 
ond, as the flame produced by any 
flash medium extends over a consid- 
erable area, exercise care that the 
light be so placed that it can not 
come in contact with any easily ig- 
nited furnishing, such as lace cur- 
tains or other light draperies. Third, 
when using Eastman Flash Sheets 
never superimpose one sheet over 



another, or so that one sheet over- 
laps the other, as the energy devel- 
oped in consuming one sheet" might 
blow the other sheet from the 

Aside from its employment in the 
regular way the flashlight can be 
used as an adjunct to daylight, and 
is often very useful in illuminating 
a dark corner when photographing 

It will not be necessary here to 
give any instructions regarding spe- 
cific uses of the flashlight, as that is 
very thoroughly covered in our 
book, "How to Make Good Pic- 
tures," and the booklet "Bv Flash- 

As at this season of the year you 
are quite apt to have a good many 
inquiries regarding flashlight work, 
we would suggest that if you are 
not familiar with this work that you 
borrow copies of these two books 
from stock and study up on the 

The Real Test 

The salesman is learning to an- 
alyze himself and his job; he is con- 
stantly seeking out his own weak 
points so that he may strengthen 
them, and eager to learn of the 
most approved selling methods, so 
that he m.ay make them his own. 

The merchant himself is also giv- 
ing more heed to his sales force and 
the individual qualities of each 
member. In this connection the ed- 
itor of The Western Druggist says: 
"Merchants arc awakening to the 
fact that a man can not be judged 
alone by the number of sales he 
closes. They realize that the real 
test lies in the number of sales that 
the man loses. 


"A salesman might easily have a 
good sales showing and yet have 
lost many more than enough to pay 
a generous salary for a man who 
would prove capable of closing a 
good percentage of those that show 
on the loss side of the record. 

"Merchants do not judge sales- 
men by volume of business alone ; 
they judge a man's business by its 

"Merchants are looking for men 
who have judgment, men who real- 
ize that it is as much an evidence 
of incompetency to sell a customer 
a five dollar article when that cus- 
tomer can afl^ord only a two dollar 
one, as it is to sell a two dollar one 
when a competent man could have 
sold one for five dollars. 

"There are rare occasions when 
the salesman realizes that he is deal- 
ing with a customer whom he 
knows will not buy. In cases of 
this kind the high grade man finds 
it a splendid opportunity to do fine 
. work for his house. 

"He will so handle the customer 
that he will go away with the feel- 
ing that he has received royal at- 
tention ; the warmth of the courtesy 
bestowed upon him will never die 
out, and he will often proclaim the 
splendid qualities of the house 
more generously than he would if 
he had made his purchase there. 

"High grade men keep in mind as 
a central thought when waiting on 
customers, the slogan 'This man has 
friends' — and in so doing they 
never go far astray. 

(Just read the foregoing para- 
graph over again so that it will sink 

"Experience builds up the man 
who is made of the right kind of 
material, making him of real value 
to his house. 

"He can safely be trusted with 
hard sales ; the kind of deals that 


require, even with the best of 
gocds. tact, persuasion, logic, alert- 
ness, force and perseverance bal- 
anced by judgment to bring a deal 
to a successful conclusion in favor 
of his house. These qualifications 
have not been chosen haphazard, 
but have been chosen advisedly, and 
placed in the order of their relative 

''A salesman having these quali- 
fications is not afraid to have the 
test applied to either set of figures 
— sales closed or sales lost. 

"Alertness is a qualification upon 
which special stress should be laid. 
It is a qualification of the utmost 
importance. Alertness is the anti- 
thesis of conceit ; as conceit stulti- 
fies the best qualities in selling, 
a:lertness brings out the best that 
the man has in himself. 

"A salesman is in danger of be- 
coming conceited usually only after 
he has attained a position of fair 
success. Conceit is based on ability, 
but always upon arrested ability. 

"As soon as a salesman gives way 
to conceit a good measure of his 
usefulness dies with the birth of it. 
Conceited men are never fully alive 
to the situation when a sale is at 
stake. They are too sure of them- 
selves : they are filled with over- 
confidence, or a better term per- 
haps would be unfounded confi- 
dence. A man must always feel in 
handling a sale that his competitor 
is alive, keen, alert and has brains. 
Keeping this in mind every sense 
and every ounce of brain power 
that he himself has will be alive and 
active to assist him in the successful 
consummation of the sale. 

"Possibly it has been noted that 
some qualifications considered es- 
sential have been omitted entirely 
— enthusiasm, honesty and knowl- 
edge of goods, for instance. These 
have been omitted intentionallv. 

"Enthusiasm is the child of the 
aforementioned qualities. A man 
can not have them and not be en- 

"Honesty is absolutely essential 
in the make-up of a high grade 
man. but it is of value only in con- 
junction with other qualities. Many 
men ^re absolutely honest, but be- 
cause they lack in other qualities, 
that must go with it to make it val- 
uable, are dismal failures. 

"A man is far better fitted for 
success if he knows men well than 
is he if he knows his goods inti- 
mately and does not know men. 

"Men seeking to make the best 
of themselves, even though this be 
true, will hasten to improve every 
opportunity to gain a close knowl- 
edge of their goods, for they realize 
that knowing one's goods is no 
small asset. Amazement is often 
expressed because men reach a cer- 
tain degree of success and then stop 
growing. They reach the 'know it 
air or conceited state. Like all 
small-minded men they can not 
stand success ; they fail to grasp the 
facts that a live man never over- 

Crepe Paper 

As crepe paper is frequently used 
in the forming of backgrounds, and 
in decorating for seasonal or spe- 
cial displays, a few hints given by 
the Dennison ^Manufacturing Co. 
regarding its use may come in 
handy : 

Before starting to decorate have 
all working materials handy — scis- 
sors, hammer, tacks, pins and wire. 

\\'ork for effect — do not putter 
over details. Get the general deco- 



ration finished. Then, if time per- 
mits, give fine touches. 

If the decoration is ever to come 
down, have pity on the remover and 
drive the tacks in only half way. 
They will hold perfectly well. 

Wire is better than string for at- 
taching decorations and for holding 
things together. Two twists hold 
when a string slips in tying. 

To cut a fold of crepe paper into 
strips, slip the paper part way out 
of the packet, measure ofit' the de- 
sired width, mark across the fold 
with the scissors and cut. 

Crepe paper almost always is 
stretched a little before using. This 
should be done by two people, one 
at either end of the paper. First, 
double the end over once or twice, 
or better still, roll it over a ruler or 
stick so that it will not tear, and 
then pull steadily until it is suffi- 
ciently stretched. 

Ruffled or fluted edges can be 
done evenly and easily without re- 
moving the paper entirely from the 
packet. Pull all edges together 
back and forth between the thumbs 
and forefingers, thus producing a 
rippled effect. 

In covering a background in plain 
effect, fold over the top edge of the 
paper once or twice ; then tack, lap- 
ping the second piece three-fourths 
of an inch, and so on. When the 
top is finished stretch crepe down 
smoothly and tack at the bottom. 
Hang the dull side out, for Denni- 
son Crepe will hug tightly that way, 
as it tends to roll in. If the height 
to be covered necessitates tight 
stretching, tack through little paste- 
board squares or pasteboard strips 
so that tacks will not pull through 
the paper. 

Tubing is often placed instead of 
a plain background. Cut the fold 
into 10 or 5 inch strips, fold the end 
into thirds and tack at the top. Fold 


the lower end into thirds also; 
stretch, forming into a tube and 
tack at bottom. Tack tubes close 
together solidly or in groups. 

In mounting crepe designs, cut 
around the figure or flower roughly. 
Cover a piece of mat stock with 
paste. Then lay the design on and 
press it. When dry, the cutting out 
of crepe and mat stock is accom- 
plished in one operation. Cover the 
reverse also, as this will prevent 
cut-out from curling. 

Gummed cloth tape (or Eastman 
Double Coated ?^Iounting Tape) 
used in a strip or cut up into little 
tabs is very useful for holding mat 
stock forms together for costume 
making and in many other ways. 


IVhat is meant by D. O. P. and P. 
O. P. papers f 

D. O. P. stands for developing- 
out papers, such as Velox. 

P. O. P. stands for printing-out 
papers, such as Solio. 

Can the No. 4 IV. & W. Safelight 
he used for developing Orthochro- 
matic Plates? 

No. For use with plates of ordi- 
nary sensitiveness only. The No. 3 
green Safelight can be used with 
red-sensitive plates but it affords 
faint illumination which, however, 
seems quite strong as the eyes be- 
come accustomed to it. 

Just to remind y OH — 



Subscrtpiton Blanks 

i I ever u^e e.tiijreiaiiiiia la 
E!Jiiyei':iiitI*jii v/itii 'jr in jl 
itiUer muilid direct io u 

lT3r-iiijpIoy if iie v/e/ e your 
^uijt u: IX iriendiy iuncii^oii. 




Kodak Auto Mask Printing 

Exceptionally convenient when 
undesirable portions of the neg- 
ative are to be masked off or 
several sizes to be printed. 

Price, $1.25 


Kodak Serial Printing Frame No. 2 

Facilitates handling V. P. K. negatives and adjusting 
them to the mask. 

Price, $0.65 

Kodak Self Timer 

Takes the operator's place while he or 
she gets into the picture and makes the 
group complete. 

Price, $1.50 



APRIL. 1919 




The Ever Popular lA Size 

lA Autographic Kodak Jr. 

lA Autographic Kodak Jr.. with Men- 
iscus Achromatic Lens, fixed focus. .. .$14.50 

Do., focusing- model, with scale 14-50 

Do., Avith Rapid Rectilinear Lens 16.75 

Available now. 


— An aid =^= 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol. 5 APRIL, 1919 No. 3 

m -u 


Have we been missing the point of con- 

At the top of this page appears, "An aid 
to the man behind the counter." The 
Kodak Salesman was planned, and every 
issue has been built to help the salesman 
become a better salesman, and we have 
tried to have its salesman readers feel that 
it is their publication. 

We receive many letters inspired b}' 
various things appearing in these pages, 
but the majority of such letters come from 
store proprietors or managers. 

Now we welcome every one of these 
letters — but we would like to receive more 
from the salesmen. 

We want to get YOUR view-point; we 
want to hear of your selling experiences, 
and the problems 3^ou have met and 
solved — or failed to solve. 

Let us get together for the benefit of all. 


The Importance of the 
Show Window 

The success of many a store has 
been built upon the excellence of 
its window displays, but excel- 
lence in a window display must 
embrace not only harmony but a 
selling idea as well. 

Commenting- on the value of the 
display window, a writer in the 
Bdisoii Sales Builder says: "Well 
constructed and attractively trim- 
med windows are one of the 
greatest assets a store can have. 
They bring the goods directly be- 
fore the eye of the passerb}', and 
with the proper show cards be- 
come forceful, silent salesmen. 

"The great trouble with the ap- 
pearance of so many show win- 
dows lies in their lack of 
uniformity and in the lack of har- 
mony in the various items dis- 
played. No system is used, no 
plans are followed, no definite 
aim is worked for or achieved. Is 
it any wonder such windows fail 
in their efifect and are barren of 
results ? 

"Every really successful win- 
dow must have an idea back of it. 
In nine cases out of ten it should 
be a selling idea, an idea which 
presents the goods at some angle 
which will rouse the desire of the 
passerby. The tenth case is when 
goods are displayed at openings, 
wherein the decorative idea may 
take precedence over the selling one. 

"It is, of course, essential that 
the decorator have adequate 
equipment to carry out his idea. 
Many stores fail in this — they 
endeavor to let antiquated and 
crude display forms take the 
place of proper equipment. 

"The proper tools must be at 
hand if distinctive and successful 
results are to be obtained. Having 
to do with makeshifts for fixtures 
is perhaps the greatest disadvan- 
tage that many display men have 

to contend with ; but merchants 
are every day becoming more 
appreciative of the good results 
to be obtained by attractive and 
frequently changed displays. 

"An outlay made for fixtures, 
mirrors, display figures, etc.. is as 
much a legitimate expenditure 
as though it were made for show 
cases and other store necessities. 

"It seems next to impossible to 
convince some people that a 
stocky or packed window is not 
the best and most practical win- 
dow. Many merchants, in their 
fear that their window will be too 
pretty and will attract only by the 
general efTect, go to the other ex- 
treme and dress the window in 
such an unsightly manner that 
the passing eye is attracted 
neither by general efifect nor any- 
thing else. 

"It seems as though the fact 
had been demonstrated often 
enough that quantity in a window 
is not what counts for sales. Show 
quality, not quantity — not neces- 
sarily fine goods, but put the ap- 
pearance of quality in whatever 
you do show. In other words, 
give proper space and individu- 
ality to each piece, then the eye 
is attracted to something in par- 
ticular and not to everything as a 

"To make a pretty window, and 
at the same time show the goods 
efifectually. constitutes a large 
part of window dressing. The 
window that sells the merchan- 
dise is what the wideawake mer- 
chant desires. Careful study, close 
observation, a retentive memory, 
and an abundance of patience and 
perseverance are indispensable 
qualities to become an adept at 
window dressing. 

"Every display man is the 
editor of his window. Each day 
l:»rings forth something new for 
the public to pass opinion upon. 
Your window should be instruc- 


tive, attractive, and. above all. 
should please. I favor low window 
dressing rather than piling the 
articles up to the top. The win- 
dows should be neatly draped at 
the back and goods placed on the 
level of the eye. In that position 
the quality of the goods can he 
both seen and appreciated. 

"The well-dressed show window 
not only confers a benefit upon its 
possessor, but has a distinct and 
appreciable efifect in elevating the 
taste and tone of the entire com- 

The window display sugges- 
tions offered from time to time in 
"The Kodak Salesman" have had 
alwa3''S a selling suggestion for a 
basis; all have been simple and 
easy to construct, and planned for 
installation in even the smallest 

How Advertising" Helps the 

P. S. Florea. secretary-manager. 
Associated Advertising Clubs of the 
World, in discussing "How Adver- 
tising Helps the Public." says : 

"Who pays for advertising? 
That is often asked, though to 
those of experience in the profes- 
sion of advertising the answer is 
plain and simple. It pays for it- 
self by eliminating the other 
costs that would be greater than 
the cost of advertising if it were 
not used. 

"Entering into the price of 
every article we buy are two 
chief elements of cost — the cost 
of making it and the cost of get- 
ting it from the maker to us. 

"These costs, of course, must 
be covered in the gross profit 
which the manufacturer or the 
jobber allows himself, to cover 
his costs and provide whatever 
net ])rofit he expects to make. 

"If a salesman, through any in- 
fluence, can sell more goods in a 

given time (and at a given travel- 
ing expense), it is plain that "the 
cost of his services will be pro- 
portionately smaller, for this cost 
will be divided into a greater vol- 
ume of sales, in dollars and cents. 

"Exactly, that is one of the im- 
portant things which follows ad- 
vertising. The advertising manu- 
facturer, even after he pays his 
salesmen better, is able to sell his 
goods at a less expense for trav- 

Speaking on this same line. 
Arthur Capper, the farm ]Ki])cr 
publisher, states : 

"That the Associated Advertis- 
ing Clubs of the A\'orld should 
feel it necessary to take as the 
keynote of its annual convention. 
'Advertising Lowers the Cost of 
Distribution' is evidence that the 
public in general, and perhaps ad- 
vertising men themselves, have 
not fully understood the real 
function of advertising. As a 
matter of fact, we are beginning 
only now to make advertising 
coincide A\"ith the tendencies of 
present-day business. 

"We ourselves must learn and 
make the general public under- 
stand that the primary function 
of advertising is not to enable the 
advertiser to sell goods, but to show 
the consumer how to buy goods. 

"Advertising is not. or should not 
be. merely the servant of 100.000 
advertisers ; it must also be the ser- 
vant of 100.000.000 consumers. 

"Its purpose is to show the 
farmer, for example, why he 
should buy improved machinery, 
what sj^ecific make of machinery 
is best adapted to his particular 
purpose and where and how he 
can find the thing he needs. It is 
to show the housewife what, 
where and how to buy household 
supplies. It is to inform the 
business man about equipn.ient, 
methods and svstems." 


/ Salesman 

AWHILE ago 1 was in a store 
waiting for the buyer, mean- 
while chatting with one of the 
salesmen. He asked me what was 
the difference between selling 
goods on the road and selling 
goods behind the counter. 

"I told him that there wasn't 
any difference except that selling 
goods behind the counter was 
much easier. 

"He seemed very much sur- 
prised at my answer. 'Why.' he 
said, 'you come breezing in here. 
— everybody gives you the glad 
hand and you always leave with a 
big fat order; pretty soft for you." 
"I had to admit that this was so 
in so far as his particular store 
was concerned, and in a good 
many other stores of my regular 

"He didn't know, however, that 
I had had to call on his Boss for 
a good two years before I ever 
sold him a dollar's worth. 

"With the old established cus- 
tomers, where the buyer has full 
confidence in the salesman and 
the house he represents, the 
wholesale salesman does in most 
instances have it comparatively 

"But when you tackle a new 
buyer you very frequently see the 
reverse side of the medal, and in 
every case you will always fi.nd 
the buyer on the defensive. 

"The retail salesman has this 
advantage : the customer enters 
the store always to some extent 
influenced in favor towards the 


goods on sale, or else he would 
not have come in. 

"The retail salesman does not 
have to spar for an opening; he 
does not have to wonder whether 
or not he will be allowed to show 
his goods ; he does not have to 
employ any strategy to get his 
goods before the customer, and he 
finds the customer in a receptive 
insteadof a defensive frame of mind. 

"In addition, he is 'playing on 
the home grounds.' where everv- 
thing is familiar and he can be 
entirely at ease. 

"In very man}- instances yovi 
will find that the traveling sales- 
man has had experience in retail 
selling, and that quite a few of 
them go back behind a counter 
with a sigh of relief. 'Thank good- 
ness I don't have to catch that 
5.40 a.m. at the junction any 
more, and I can slee]:) in the same 
good old bed every night — 
Whoopsee !' 

"I have been both on the road 
and behind the counter, and have 
traveled from coast to coast, and 
so far as I am concerned, the jobs 
are about 'fifty-fifty.' 

"The big thing consists in get- 
ting all there is out of your job. . 

"Some modern philosopher has 
remarked that 'life is just one 
darn thing after another.' and if 
}ou will ])ut accept this as a basic 
fact and take things as they come, 
and make the most of the good 
things, and the least of the bad 
things, vou Avill get along fairlv 


"Did you ever stop to think 
that the way you handle the hard 
or disagreeable customer is the 
real test of your salesmanship? 

"When I started on my first 
road trip I was given a route 
sheet and a list of customiers. The 
salesman who had heretofore 
made that territory went over the 
list of customers with me, and put 
a check mark against the names 
of the hard propositions — and, 
believe me, some of them were 
tough nuts — bluffers and strong 
tempered ones — and they certain- 
ly made life interesting for me. 
It was one of the best experi- 
ences I ever had devising ways 
and means to get in right with 
them, and in most cases I finally 

"I tell you I felt mighty good 
whenever I succeeded in selling a 
tough customer — far better than 
I did at the end of some of my 
easy days with a fat bunch of 
orders. Anybody can take orders 
but it takes a strategist to sell goods. 
"In selling from behind the 
counter you will come in contact 
with the grouch, the foolish- 
minded, the shopper, the bargain 
hunter, and various other depart- 
ures from the normal customer. 

"Now you can let such people 
get on your nerves and so be- 
come a candidate for a nice little 
padded cell with a piece of string 
and some spools to play with — or 
you can say to yourself, here is 
where I have a good time in pit- 
ting mv superior intelligence 
against theirs — I'll make them 
like me and sell them. 

"When you come to think it 
over you will see that there really 
wouldn't be much use for sales- 
men if all the customers were 
good humored, and knew just 
what they wanted. 

"If you want to sharpen a steel 
knife vou rub the edge with 

something harder — wits are 
sharpened the same way." 

"Kodakery" for May 

You will enjoy the first article 
and its illustrations. All of us 
have been pretty well "fed up" on 
war pictures, but this story and 
the pictures are different. 

There is quite a deal of misun- 
derstanding of the surface of 
Velox and its relation to contrast. 
"The Surface of the Printing 
Paper" will help clear some of it up. 

"Enlarging from Vest Pocket 
Kodak Negatives" — here is a 
good selling story. Watch out for 
customers enquiring about the Vest 
Pocket Kodak Enlarging Camera. 

"How Distance Affects the 
Strength of Light" — an aid to 
successful i)rinting. 

"Printing Methods" — this is 
Chapter 12 of the very interesting 
series by Dr. Mees. 

All the way through you will 
find information in the Alay 

Why He Lost a Customer 

I happened to see it in the win- 
dow. I needed it. I had the 
money in my pocket to buy it. I 
Avalked into the store, writes- 
George ]\I. Rittlemeyer. I saw a: 
man leaning against a counter. I 
sized him up as being the proprie- 
tor. He had a grouchy look on 
his face. He didn't think it 
worth while to say "good morn- 
ing." He asked me what I 
wanted. I told him. He waited 
on me like it hurt him. I got all 
out of patience. At last he found 
tlie thing I wanted. He wrapped 
it u|) and handed it to me. I paid 
him for it. He tcjok m\- money. 
He didn't even say "I thank you." 
He didn't even invite me to call 
again. T walked out feeling hurt. 
I ha\en't been back since. 


Using Small Space 

It is much easier to write an ad- 
vertisement to fill a large space 
than it is to fill a small one. 

Are You 
Sending the Boy 

in France 
Kodak Pictures 

of Home? 

The boj'S Mjint tlicin; 
llic ofTifcrs want you 
to send tiicin; they 
brhig a clicci' that 
nothing clsC docs. 



Illustrating the Use of a Standard 

The user of large space can de- 
pend upon its size to attract at- 
tention, while the small adver- 
tisement must ])resent some 
distinctive feature to prevent its 
becoming buried. 

The continuous advertiser — and 
all advertising must be continu- 
ous to produce results — wmII be 
wise in selecting and maintaining 
a certain definite style to give it 
an individuality. 

This individuality may be at- 
tained in a number of different 
ways. If you will glance through 
the files of some of the metropoli- 


tan dailies }ou will note that all 
of the stores using large space fol- 
low always a certain style ; some 
even going so far as to have a 
special style of type cast for their 
sole use, and where illustrations 
are employed they follow a cer- 
tain style so that in many cases 
the reader accustomed to the 
daily reading of these papers 
could tell the name of the store 
even if it did not appear in the 

You Couldn't Bury This One 

This same individuality can be 
attained by the small advertiser 
in almost any town or city, in a 
variety of ways. Perhaps one of 
the simplest ways is to select a 
border of dignified design with 
which to surround your adver- 
tisement, and to always make use 
of it. 


"Great Caesar s ghost! 

"A party to-night and no 
dress clothes." 

Wake up, old man, you 
forget the idea to-day is to 
give you what you want 
when you want it. 

Four stores at your ser- 

Evening suits ready-to- 
wear to-night. 

We make to fit, not to 

Fine clothes at half the 
fine tailor's fee 

Silk hats, dress over- 
coats, patent leathers, 
canes^ dress shirts — every- 
thing for evening wear. 

Rogers Peet Company 

Broadway Broadway 

at 1 3th St. "Four at 34th St. 


Broadway Comers" Fifth Ave. 

at Warren at 4rst St, 


Expert Photographers 


Long experience and excel- 
lent equipment has taught us 
how to do this work better, 


If you live out of the city. It 
will receive the same pains- 
taking care, 

Kodak Catalogues Mailed. 





Learn Your Kodak's Powers 

By Seeing Our Enlarging 

This is an excellent time for having this work done. 
Many do not understand how excellent a large picture 
can be got from a small film. Ask to see some of our 

The H. Lieber Co. 

24 West 
Wash. St. 


Excellent Use of Small Space 

The readers become accustomed 
to seeing this border and to asso- 
ciating your store with it. 

Two border designs of tliis na- 
ture are illustrated herewith. The 
small advertisement is much more 
effective when it confines itself to 
but one selling idea : the adver- 
tisements of The H. Lieber Com- 
pany and The ^Memphis Photo 
Supply Company are good ex- 

The advertisements s h o w n 

herewitli have l)een reproduced 
from nt'wspaper clippings, and so 
naturall}- lose somewhat in print- 
ing fjuality thereby, but will ade- 
quately serve to bring out the 
features mentioned above. 

Avoid freak types and illustra- 
tions, and avoid crowding your 
space ; say what you have to say 
in the fewest possible words. 

If you have another message 
let }"our next ach'ertisement tell 
its storv. 

''At Your Dealer y 

— Read tKe stor}? on the back co\)er 



Ten Minutes 
with the Boss 

'OAM, I happened to notice the 
O other day when one of the 
boys was deHvering a developing 
and printing order, that he simply 
took the package from the file, an- 
nounced the amount due, and hand- 
ed the package to the customer. 

"Now, Sam. I don't believe that 
that is the right way to deliver a 
finishing order except in cases 
when the store is crowded and 
ever}body is rushed. 

"In every case. Sam, where time 
permits, the package should be 
opened and the work inspected 
with the customer. If the results 
are not up to standard it affords 
the salesman the opportunity to 
set the customer right, and so 
often we find that it is just some 
minor error that is holding the 
amateur back. 

"Put the I)eginner right and 
)(ni make a friend and increase 
his enthusiasm. 

"When you come across an im- 
usually good lot of exposures and 
prints your praise of them will be 
sweet music in the ears of the 
customer, and will immediateh' 
pave the way to the suggesting of 
enlargements, and the sale of 
other goods. 

"Here is another thing you may 
have observed me do when \\\\\i- 
ing on a customer. Sammy: if he 
has his camera with him I man- 
age in some manner to get Iiold 
of it. and when the opportunity 
offers I look to see if the lens is 
clean, or if it seems to be in need 
of any repairs. 

"If the lens is dirty. I ask to be 
permitted to clean it up. telling 
the customer how important the 
matter is. and. also, the right way 
to clean a lens. 

"If the leather covering seems a 
bit rusty, and if I have the time I 
ask to be allowed to give it the 
'once over' with a dose of Kodak- 
Leather Dressing, and liand it 
back, no charge. 

"Here is another reason : sup- 
pose the customer has a Box 
Brownie ; I remark on the im- 
mense number of Brownies in 
use. and what wonderful little in- 
struments they are for the price, 
and then suggest that probably 
some day he will be wanting a 
better camera, and then show him 
a 2C Junior or a 3-A Kodak. 

"And, again. Sam, suppose I 
find the customer with a 3-A Spe- 
cial : I tell hiin what a fine instru- 
ment he has. and then ask him if 
he has ever taken a peek through 
the hood of a Graflex ; whether he 
answers 'Yes' or 'No' I put a 
Graflex in front of him, and I 
have eventually sold several Gra- 
fiex cameras that I have intro- 
duced in iust that wa}'. 

"Sam. the good salesman makes 
his opportunities, and then makes 
the most of them. 

'A\'hen going over a printing 
(irck-r with a customer. Sam. you 
JTave him in n highly rece])tive 
mood, because you are discussing 
something which be himself has 
created ; his mind is centered on 
amateur picture making, and he 



will keenly listen to anything you 
may have to say which will help 
him to make still better pictures. 

"In addition to this you get a 
line on the sort of work he is in- 
terested in most, and in seven 
cases out of ten you can suggest and 
sell him something he really needs. 

"Sam, you hear a lot of talk 
these days about store service, 
and are told that service is just as 
essential to the success of a store 
as are the right goods, location 
and personnel. 

"And this is all true, Sam, pro- 
vided the service afforded is real 
service, and given in such a man- 
ner as to impress the customer 
that it is real service. 

"A customer may come in and 
ask you a number of questions 
which you answer cheerfully and 
intelligently, but he has had to 
ask you before you could answer. 

"On the other hand, Sam, if the 
salesman by either of the two 
methods I have mentioned starts 
the ball rolling himself, and volun- 
teers information or service, the 
customer feels that here is a store 
mighty pleasant to do business with. 

"The whole matter is really 
very simple, Sammy ; the sales- 
man has only to ])ut himself in 
the position of the customer, and 
figure out what would please or 
impress if he were the customer 
instead of the salesman. 

"The real salesman, Sam, 
studies the natural methods of ap- 
proach, and whenever possible 
anticipates the needs of the cus- 

A man's success sometimes 
merely means that the world has 
take;i him at his own valuation. 

How One Salesman Used 
His Brains 

Tom Lowry, the late traction 
magnate of ^Milwaukee, had been 
solicited by all the best insurance 
salesmen in the country, but had 
never taken out a policy. He took 
pride in turning them down 
sharply. AMienever a general 
agent took on a new man he sent 
him over to see Lowry as a sort 
of a courage test. If he lived 
through the ordeal and came out 
with any confidence in his ability, 
the general agent knew he would 
do, says Forbes Magacine. 

Now, Lowry would bet on an}'- 
thing that contained anv element 
of chance. At a ball game he 
would bet that out of the next five 
men up. three would fly out ; in a 
hotel lobby he would bet that out 
of the next twenty men to come 
in. five Avould have whiskers. 

One day a new solicitor called 
at Lowry's office, and sent in his 
personal card, giving only his 
name. Back it came, with the re- 
quest for the man's l)usiness. The 
insurance agent said he wanted to 
make a bet. He was instantly ad- 

"Air. Lowrv," he began right 
off. "I want to wager $100,000 to 
$1,800 that you will die within 
the next year." 

"You're on !" said Lowry. 

"All right." replied the agent, 
"just sign this." And he passed 
over an insurance application 
blank that had been previously 
made out! 

Lowry signed it. Time of sale, 
three minutes. 

Every man is the architect of 
his own fortune, but even then he 
can't get the sun in every room. 


\\'hen }ou think that you are 
about 50 per cent, better than 
everyone else, you are going to 
lead a mightv lonelv life. 


The PrlmargPage 

for-fhe Beginner 
Behind the Counter 

THE novice comes in with a 
bunch of negatives made 
with his Kodak or Brownie cam- 
era, and complains that his pic- 
tures are not sharp. 

He is positive that he has 
studied his Manual carefully and 
has performed every operation 
"according to Hoyle," and so the 
camera must be at fault. 

With our method of severe and 
relentless inspection it is prac- 
tically impossible for a camera to 
leave our factory in an imperfect 
condition, and so, barring accidents 
after it has left us. you must look 
elsewhere for the non-sharp cause. 

Following back we will find one 
of the three following causes to 
be the root of the trouble : 

He failed to hold the camera stiW ; 

The subject was moving too 
quickly ; 

The camera was incorrectly fo- 
cused (if the model is of the fo- 
cusing type). 

A'ery many people fail to pay 
sufficient attention to holding the 
camera still. 

At the moment of exposure the 
mind should be concentrated on 
this point. 

The camera should be held 
firmly, and great care be taken 
not to jerk the camera when re- 
leasing the shutter. This should 
be practised with the camera un- 
loaded until one becomes accus- 
tomed to the action. 

The camera should be partly 
supported by the fingers of the 

hand used to release the shutter. 
Explain to the customer that it is 
not possible to hold a camera still 
at arm's length, nor immediately 
after running or walking fast. 

If any exposure longer than 
1 25 of a second is required the 
camera should be placed on a tri- 
pod, or some equally firm support. 

.Some beginners hurriedly skim 
through the ^Manual, and then 
when making an instantaneous 
exposure, press the release twice, 
thinking that it must be pressed 
once to open the shutter, and 
again to close it ; this results in a 
fine blur or a double image. 

Xot so many pictures are 
spoiled by the movement of the 
subject so long as the camera is 
not used for photographing rap- 
idly moving objects. Figures in 
the distance will be sharp, with 
an exposure of 1/25 second, but 
for children playing near at hand, 
in bright sunlight, the shutter 
should be set at 1 100 second. 

Right here we would suggest 
that after reading this column 
you re-read the article. "Gloving 
Objects." which appeared in the 
March issue. 

The chief cause of unsharp pic- 
tures is inaccurate focusing. Xow 
read the following carefully : 

Fixed focus cameras, such as 
the box type Brownie and Premo 
cameras, are focused on the near- 
est point to the camera which will 
still enal^le the extreme distance 
to appear sharp in the picture. In 



this way ol)jects in the middle 
distance are perfectly sharp, and 
even near objects are sharp, pro- 
vided that they are not too near. 

The following table of the 
nearest object which is sharp with 
these fixed focus cameras will be 
found useful : 

Vest Pocket Kodak 9 feet 

No. Brownie 9 

No. 1 " 11 

No. 2 " 131/ " 

No. 2- A and No. 3 

Brownie 15 " 

With a focusing camera the 
user must judge the distance from 
the camera to the object desired 
to be in sharp focus, and adjust 
the scale for that distance. He 
Avill then find that objects some- 
what nearer, and, also, objects a 
good deal further awa}', are also 
in focus, and that the smaller the 
stop employed the greater the 
distance each side of the point 
focused upon will l)e in focus. 

Supposing the customer asks 
you why not use a small stop all 
the time, and so avoid all diffi- 
culty as to focusing. The reason 
against this is that the small stop 
Avould allow less light to pass 
through the lens in a given period, 
and so in most cases would en- 
tail making "Time" exposures in- 
stead of snap shots to avoid 

Besides that there are many 
pictures wherein we do' not want 
everything in the picture in sharp 
focus. Take a portrait, for in- 
stance ; we want the figure itself 
sharp, but we prefer to have the 
background out of focus so as to 
centre the interest on the figure. 

The stops best for average pur- 
poses are : 

U. S. 16 (/. 16) for landscapes, 

U. S. 8 (/. 11) for groups, 

U. S. 4 (/. 8) for portraits. 

The rule is to use no stop 
smaller than No. 16 for snap 


shots ( 1/25 second exposure) 
across a landscape. If this rule is 
ignored under-exposure will usu- 
allv be the result. 

Finish What You Begin 

The above phrase will be recog- 
nized as one which we have 
been using recently in a combina- 
tion advertisement of the Kodak 
Film Tank and Kodak Amateur 
Printer, but our intention now is 
to direct it to the clerk or depart- 
ment handling the developing 
and printing orders. 

Photographicall}", we agree, the 
work is finished when the films 
have been developed and prints 
made from them, but — what 
about those loose prints the cus- 
tomer takes away in an envelope? 
Scattered loosely in a drawer, 
handled ])y all the family and 
many friends, they are going to 
become the worse for wear, and 
some of them lost entirely. The 
remedy is — sell Albums. AVith the 
new lines recently added, there is 
sure to be one to suit anyone's purse. 

A\'hen the customer cannot be 
sold on the Album proposition 
there is still another line of at- 
tack open — Kodak Snapshot 
Frames. There are usually one 
or two prints on every roll which 
the Kodak devotee thinks more 
highly of than the others. The 
alert salesman will notice which 
these are, and by slipping one of 
them into a Kodak Snapshot 
Frame and asking the customer 
how he likes it, many an extra 
sale will be made. If a similar 
policy is adopted with enlarge- 
ments, but very few 5x7, 6J/ x 
Sy2 and 8 x 10 sizes will leave 
your store unframed. 

Develop the film, make the 
print and then sell the wherewithal 
to protect the print — Finish what 
vou begin. 


A Substantial Film Clip 

When a strip of wet film is sus- 
pended by means of a narrow 
clip or peg placed in the centre of 
one end, it will, during the pro- 
cess of drying, inevitablv curl in- 
ward somewhat. The surest way 
to avoid it is to use a wide clip 
which will extend the full width 
of the film. This need has been 
nicely met by the Xo. 2 Kodak 
Jr. Film Clip, which possesses 
wide jaws, coupled with a bull- 
dog grip. The amateur who uses 
the Kodak Film Tank needs them 
when drying film, while those 
who insist on working by the 
dark-room method will find them 
the very thing for holding the 
film throughout developing, fix- 
ing, washing and drying. 

Just right, too, for the develop- 
ing and finishing department. 

The price of the Xo. 2 Kodak 
Junior Film Clip is 40c. each. 

Grades and Surfaces of 

X'elox is divided into five differ- 
ent grades or surfaces and three 
degrees of contrast, called "Con- 
trast," "Regular" and "Special." 
The surface should be chosen to 
harmonize with the subject of the 
])icture and the contrast to suit 
the strength of the negative. 
"Contrast" and "Regular" de- 
velop (juickly and are adapted to 
thin negatives lacking in strength, 
while "Special" is for use with 
strong negatives with good con- 
trast and densitv. 

Your Competitors 

"Compete with your possibili- 
ties — not with your neighbors." 

This Avas the advice given by a 
manufacturer to one of his mer- 
chant customers, and it is mighty 
sound advice for every salesman 
as well. 

Your sales sheet foots up about 
as well as that of any other sales- 
man in your store or your depart- 
ment ; your salary compares fav- 
orably with most of the other 
men in your neighborhood, and 
with those with whom you asso- 
ciate, so you should be satisfied. 

Self-satisfaction is a great 
thing — for the other fellow. 

The self-satisfied man can be 
compared to a man wearing 
spectacles fitted with mirrors in- 
stead of lenses — he can only see 
backwards, and not so very far 
back at that. 

Compete zi'ith your possibilities. 

Get this thought into your 
mind so that it will stay there 
and govern your actions. 

There never yet lived a man 
who could not have accomplished 
more : those who have accom- 
plished most have been those who 
sought out and made the most of 
every possibility ; those who gave 
no heed to the accomplishments 
of their associates except to en- 
deavor to excel them. 

You will never find out how 
much you can do unless you seek 
out every possibility. 

\Yhen you discover a possibil- 
itv get after it — turn it into a 
jirobabilitv. and then into accom- 

"Compete with your possil:)ili- 
ties — not with vour neighbors." 



An Obvious Moral 

Supposing you had been con- 
sidering the purchase of a talking 
machine, and had dropped into a 
store where such machines were 
to be had. 

Quite possibly you -were not 
very well posted on the various 
makes, so that they all seemed 
equal in value to you. 

You listen to a few records, and 
receive some explanations as to 
the operation of the machine, and 
finally decide that you will visit 
another store and see what they 
have to offer before you decide 

The machines in the second 
store are very similar in appear- 
ance, and the records sound just 
about the same, and the prices 
are about equal. Tn this store 
the clerk in explaining the ma- 
chine points out a little device 
that will automatically repeat the 
record, and makes casual men- 
tion of the fact (we don't know 
whether there is any such device 
or not. l)ut that is immaterial in- 
sofar as this story is concerned). 

You are still a bit undecided 
because no strong emphasis has 
been placed on any exclusive 
feature of either machine. But 
supposing the salesman had 
called vour attention to beauty of 
design, the clearness of the re- 
production, and other talking 
points common in a measure to all 
makes, and then had said: "Xow 
I want to show you something to 
be found on no other talking ma- 
chine — it is an absolutely exclu- 
sive patented feature of the 


Then if he proceeded to explain 
to you the device for automatic- 
ally repeating a record, and how 
much this would add to the plea- 
sure of dance music, or in the 
rendering of some selection of 
which you were particularly fond. 


and then told you that the ma- 
chine \\ith this (le\"ice cost no 
mcjre than other machines with- 
out it A"oii would l)e |)retty apt to 
decide on that machine because 
you were sold on this exclusive 

The moral to this little tale is 
so obvious that a\ e are not even 
going to print it. 

You Be the Boss 

"The men who accomi)lish 
most are those whose mental atti- 
tude is one of constant personal 
criticism." says the editor of 
SalcsDUDisliip. "We must be able 
the next morning to call a halt on 
the looseness of yesterday, per- 
mitting no procrastination. Xever 
give anyone a chance to say, 'one 
side, please.' If they once pass, 
your opportunity is lessened. 
Those who analyze themselves 
find their weaknesses, eliminate 
them, strive to strengthen their 
better qualities and enlarge their 
oi)portunities for usefulness are 
the ones who \\\\\ l)ag the game 
long before the other fellow is 
even on the trail. 

"All this does not mean, how- 
ever, that you should 'work your- 
self to death.' 'All work and no 
play makes Jack a dull boy.' 
There are times to work and times 
to rest, and the man who gets the 
most out of life is the one who 
knows hozc to work and how and 
when to play. 

"There is a certain class of 
salesmen who think they are so 
l)usy that they never get a chance 
to take a vacation. They tell this 
to everyone, 'I never get a chance 
to get away : haven't had a vaca- 
tion in six years, etc' This is not. 
however, always due to the fact 
that he is so busy. The fact is he 
has got into a rut. He doesn't get 
far enough away from his work 
to get the right viewpoint. 

'At your dealer ^s' means You 

iQiMi^W ^Ml > 

When a Kodak is pur- 
chased at 3^our store and 
you see to it that the 
I subscription blank for 
\ Kodaker\' is properly 
\ filled in and sent to 
\ Toronto, every time that 
ustomer sees this phrase, 
t your dealer'' s^'' which 
appears in every adver- 
tisement in Kodakery, as 
far as he is concerned, 
''At your dealer s'' means 


Serial Printing Frame No. 2 

for use with Vest Pocket size 

Permits a complete strip of eight negatives 
or less to be handled without cutting apart — 
a decided convenience which facilitates adjust- 
ment of the mask. 

The 61m strip slides easily through the 
frame from exposure to exposure. 


Kodak Serial Pnnting Frame No. '2. fir 

V.P.K- and No. o Brownie negatives $.1 '.; 



Kodakery holds the in- 
terest of your custom5l*s^ 
in picture-making; it in- 
forms them of new camera models and reminds 
them of the various Kodak helps and conveniences 
iha.tyou sell. 

''At your dealer's'' is not just a phrase — it is the 

connecting link between our advertising and your 


We publish Kodakery, to be sure, but when its 

readers want something Kodakery suggests they 

think — not "Canadian Kodak Co., Limited" but 

"'At your dealer's." 

You can 7 afford not to get tl^e 
name on the dotted line 



MAY, 1919 

Opportunity may knock 

at your door only once, but 






Simple But with a Selling Punch 

See Paf>e 7 


= An aid =^= 
to the man 
behind the counter 

'(A. 5 MAY, 1919 No. 4 


It was a successful store: The man- 
ager chatting with a customer who was 
waiting for a package, remarked, "We 
have a fine lot of salespeople here." 

The manager went on his way and 
presenth^ the salesman came with the 
package, and he remarked, ''Don't you 
think Mr. Blank is fine? He's the nicest 
man in town to work for." 

Perhaps those remarks account in a 
measure for the success of that store. 




/ Salesman 


y father wanted me to study 

I had the makings of a good physi- 
cian, while my grandmother, not 
knowing me as well as my imme- 
diate ancestors, felt that I would be 
called to the ministry. 

"AH three guessed wrong, and 
so after a number of adventures, 
including a barn storming tour 
with a tent show (which eventu- 
ally left me stranded). I became 
what was known in those days as 
a 'drummer.' 

"Fortunately for me in my ca- 
reer as a traveling salesman, I got 
off to a good start, thanks to the 
advice of an old-timer on the road. 

"He got me off in a corner and 
said: 'Son, the day of the "drum- 
mer" is past ; don't start out with 
the idea that a loud vest, a red 
necktie, and a stock of the latest 
stories will he all you will need to 
get you b}-. You are going out to 
represent an old established house 
with a first-class line of goods, so 
don't ever forget that wherever you 
are, you are the personal represen- 
tative of the house, and that the 
customers you meet will measure 
up the house and its goods in a large 
measure by the way you stack up. 

" 'Remember that the store pro- 
prietor, or whoever does the buy- 
ing, is a busy man — or ought to 
be — and that you will make a 
much greater hit with him if you 
stick strictly to business. 

" 'That doesn't mean, son, that 

you must always wear an under- 
taker face, because you will find 
a smile is a big asset, but get 
through with business first ; then 
if your customer evinces a desire 
for a little friendly chatter, oblige 

"In my journeyings I naturally 
came in contact with all sorts of 
buyers, the brisk, snappy kind, and 
some that appeared to have all the 
time in the world at their disposal, 
but I found that, practically with- 
out exception, they appreciated the 
fact that I wanted to talk business 

"And when you come to think it 
over, business first is a pretty good 
plan, whether you are selling goods 
on the road or from behind the 

"When all is said and done, it is 
the sales that count, isn't it ? And 
you can't make sales without talk- 
ing — and thinking — business. 

"It follows naturally that to talk 
business you must know business, 
at least insofar as it applies to 
your particular line. 

"You know how it is yourself 
when you visit a store and a sales- 
man steps briskly toward you. His 
very manner and attitude create in 
your mind a feeling of confidence, 
and confidence must be established 
before a sale can be made. 

"You feel sure that he can reply 
to any inquiry with a direct an- 

"Dr>n't von hate to have anv 


salesperson say to you. 'I fhitik tliat 
it will do so and so,' or 'I guess 
so and so.' You want to know 
whether it will or will not. don't 
you ? 

"Well, it is just the same when 
anyone comes in to you : if vou 
have trained yourself to think busi- 
ness first, you will naturally have 
put yourself in position to do busi- 
ness by studying your line so that 
you can give a direct answer to any 
question regarding the goods. 

"Another thing the man on the 
road soon learns to regard as an 
asset is ability to keep his temper. 
You see, if you and your customer 
lose your tempers, you both go 
whirling around and around just 
like an engine whose governor has 
broken, with imiminent danger of 
a smash. If temper must be lost, 
let the other fellow do it. because 
then you have the big advantage : 
no one in a rage can either reason 
or act clearly. 

"It always takes two to start a 
quarrel, and so if you don't join 
in. wh}- there 'just can't be no 

"There used to be a man in my 
territory who took particular de- 
light in roaring at and trying to 
bulldoze every salesman who called 
upon him. If he succeeded in driv- 
ing the salesman out. he would sit 
in his chair and laugh until his sides 

"Fortunately for me. I had been 
tipped oflf as to this man's little 
pleasantry, and so when he roared 
I roared back, and didn't budge an 

"Pretty soon I saw a twinkle in 
his eye, and then he let out a chuckle 
and we proceeded to do l)usiness. 

"I never dared tell him. how- 
ever, that I had had advance in- 
formation on him. but it did help 
me in lots of other cases." 

A Practical Test 

In the February Kodak Sales- 
man' we had a little story on "Let- 
ters That Sell" wherein we told how 
a man sold a house because he wrote 
a human, man to man letter, to a 
number of prospects. 

The wife of one of our technical 
engineers needed the services of a 
laundress, and had been told that 
they were just about as hard to find 
as feathers on a snake. 

Her husband had read our little 
story, and he proceeded to put its 
moral to the test. He wrote an ad- 
vertisement for insertion in the 
Sunday paper, wherein he stated 
his wife's need for a laundress ; also, 
that their laundry was dry, light 
and airy ; that they had all the mod- 
ern appliances, electric irons and the 
like, and that they weren't a bit 
fussy, and that the laundress would 
be treated as a regular human being. 

They had twelve responses be- 
fore the day was over. 

It pays to advertise when you do 
it right. 


Say what vou will about the Ten 
Commandments, you nuist always 
come back to the pleasant fact that 
there are only ten of them. 

Don't dodge responsibility. On 
your attitude to responsibility may 
depend your success or failure. 

A tremendous amount of time 
and energy is wasted by some 
people, in trying to dodge respon- 
>^il)ility to their ultimate disad- 

It is responsibility that gives 
men the opportunity to be great, 
and creates both character and 


A Minute with the Ad Man 

Supposing you were thinking of 
building a home ; about one of the 
first things you would do would be 
to take a walk around the town and 
look over the homes already built 
and make mental notes of their good 
and bad features. 

You would also probably pur- 
chase from your newsdealer some 
of the magazines devoted to home 
building, and study them carefully. 
and then eventually you would con- 
sult an architect, because you would 
realize the necessity for his experi- 
ence and judgment. 

The necessity for some news- 
paper advertising comes to you. 
You know^ how to sell goods over 
the counter, but you are inexperi- 
enced in the science and technique 
of advertising. 

So why not employ the sanie 
plan you would pursue in regard 
to the building of a home ? Secure 
a week's file of the local news- 
papers, and study the advertise- 
ments carefully. 

Note particularly those which 
most quickly arrested your atten- 
tion, and compare them with the 
others to find out w^hy. Then 
select those whose selling argu- 
ments appealed to you most, and 
those whose arrangement of type 
and space seemed the best bal- 

Look through some of the month- 
ly magazines and study the adver- 
tisements in them for the same rea- 

When a man spends anywhere 
from one thousand to ten thou- 
sand dollars for a page advertise- 
ment in one issue of a magazine, 
you may rest assured that he has 
spent a good deal of time and 
thought on its every word and 


You will find your time very well 
spent in this study and investiga- 
tion. You will have learned a lot 
as to how the experienced, trained 
advertiser does it. 

Then go to the advertising de- 
partment of the newspaper or pa- 
pers you feel that you would like 
to use, and you will find their advice 
and service to you in preparing your 
advertisements given willingly and 
without charge. 

We will be very glad to criticize 
any of your advertising in the effort 
to improve it; if you need cuts for 
illustration, select them from our 
cut sheet and we will forward them 

**Kodakery" for June 

We hope that you read each issue 
of Kodak ery carefully. If you do 
not, you are missing much in the 
way of useful information, to say 
nothing of entertainment. 

The June issue will afford some 
excellent selling points for the 
Kodak Self Timer and the Koda- 
pod, the Autographic Feature, and 
the Panoram Kodak. 

Whatever you do, study care- 
fully the article by Dr. Mees on 
"The Choice of the Printing Paper." 
It will not only help you with your 
own pictures, but also will be of 
great aid in serving your customers. 

If you put yourself first you'll 
fail, but if you put your job first 
you'll succeed. 

No kind of success can ever 
come to the man who inflates 
himself at the expense of his job. 


The Right Idea 

In many stores the man in 
charge of the window displays is 
called the "window decorator" or 
''window trimmer" ; that he is so 
titled may lead him away from the 
fact that the chief mission of tlie 
display window is to sell goods. 

A display window that is merely 
trimmed or decorated, no matter 
if it is highly artistic and pleasing 
to the eye, fails of its mission if it 
does not induce people to enter the 

Ver\- man}- articles now in gen- 
eral daily use were first classed as 
luxuries ; it does not, however, take 
long to remove an article from the 
luxury to the necessity class. 

Have you ever stopped to think 
that happiness is a necessity just 
as vital to right living as food and 
raiment ? 

In selling Kodaks and amateur 
photographic supplies get away 
from the idea that you are selling 
luxuries. You are not ; you are 
selling necessities. 

The little Kodak pictures have 
brought and are bringing happiness 
into hundreds of thousands of 
homes. Ask any mother if she 
would for any sum part with the 
little Kodak pictures of her chil- 
dren ; on many a staid business 
man's desk you will find a Kodak 
picture or pictures of Mother and 
the kiddies. 

On many an office, library or 
den wall you will find framed 
Kodak enlargements permanently 
visualizing and renewing some hap- 
py incident of the past. 

Are these things not very much 
worth while in the economy of life? 
You know the}' are. 

So why not make your window 
display sell this happiness? In 
every recreation Kodak finds a part. 

It knows no season — anywhere and 
everywhere it finds a place. 

On page 2 you will find a hap- 
piness selling suggestion — "A Sign 
of Spring."' 

]\Iake your windows cash in on 
the happiness idea. 

Stay Away from Arguments 

Stay away from arguments, for 
arguments between salesman and 
customer are invariably business 
killers, at least so far as the seller 
is concerned. 

The customer nnist be accorded 
every courtesy, if the clerk or pro- 
prietor expects to do business with 
him. Friction will sometimes oc- 
cur, but no matter what the cause, 
rough-shod methods should not be 
used by the seller. 

A sarcastic tongue in a salesman 
may be likened to a two-edged 
sword that cuts deeply in many di- 
rections — it kills customers, slashes 
profits and eventuall}- cuts his own 

A smiling face and affable man- 
ner will win the day and make 
friends. This may be said to be the 
secret of the success of the man be- 
hind the counter whether he be pro- 
prietor or clerk. Avoid arguments. 

Cheer Up! 

The less you have, the more there 
is to get. 
Go to it! 

There will soon be small place in 
the business world for either the 
ignorant man or the man who 
knows onlv the rule of thumb. 



ill\\M'\r.,Hiiiwi>i' - 




Improving the Print 

It is a well-known fact that the 
eye is readily attracted by color ; 
an advertisement, for instance, be 
it ever so well executed in black 
and white, will have a far greater 
appeal if color is judiciously used. 
These ideas are not new but we 
wish to emphasize the fact that far 
too few amateurs avail themselves 
of the simple and inexpensive 
\ elox Water Color Stamps for im- 
j)roviig their pictures. An excel- 
lent time to introduce the books of 
Stamps or complete outfits, is when 
handing out developing and print- 
ing orders. 

The Price 

Velox Transparent Water Color 
Stamps, complete booklet, 12 
colors $ .35 

Separate Color Leaves, each 03 

Set of 3 Special Brushes, per set. .50 

Mixing Palette 30 

Velox Transparent Water Color 

Stamp Outfit, including Book. 

3 Brushes and Palette 85 

To content with results ob- 
tained is the first sign of business 


Profit-how many kinds 
are there? 

The dictionary says that "profit" 
is synonymous with"gain,'" "advan- 
tage" and "benefit." 

It ih, certain that if the expenses 
of a business deal equal the differ- 
ence between cost and selling price, 
there can be no gain, no advantage 
and no benefit — in other words the 
profit will be nil. Notwithstanding 
this self-evident fact, we are con- 
stantly confronted with the term 
"gross profit," and too many busi- 
ness men deceive themselves in re- 
gard to their true financial standing, 
bringing in such an item in their 
business statement. They compute 
as profit that which was not profit. 

There is no other sort of profit 
and never can be but "net." 

Net profit is the sum which re- 
mains after deducting the cost of 
the goods plus all the charges and 
expense incident to selling and de- 
livering the goods to the customer — 
yes and whatever it may cost on top 
of that to collect the account from 
the customer. 

"Gross profits" were no doubt 
invented by accountants to enable 
them to gloss over the shortcom- 
ings of managers ; something they 
could ofi^er the shareholders instead 
of the real thing — net profits. 


Profitable Attachments 

While a number of small sun- 
dries are available to make picture 
taking a greater pleasure, quite a 
large percentage are conveniences 
(none the less profitable, of course) 
and designed to make Kodakery 
live up to its slogan of "Photog- 
raphy with the bother left out." 

There is, however, a little group 
of attachments which, if not indis- 
pensable, are at least necessary if 
the best work is to be done under 
certain conditions. These attacli- 
ments are Kodak Portrait Attach- 
ment, Kodak Color Filter and Ko- 
dak Sky Filter. 

The Kodak Portrait Attachment 
functions, in effect, by shortening 
the focal length of the lens with 
which it is used. When taking por- 
traits or other ''close ups" with a 
camera like the Xo. 9 Premo. for 
example, the lens must be racked 
out to a greater distance from the 
film or plate than it would be for 
subjects at a normal distance. 
Folding Pocket Cameras would no 
longer be pocket cameras if they 
possessed movements and exten- 
sions like the Xo. 9 Premo, hence 
the Portrait Attachment which en- 
ables close-up work to be done with 
cameras having limited bellows ca- 

The Kodak Color Filter consists 
of a yellow stained gelatine film 
cemented between glasses and its 
action is to modify the light rays 
entering the lens so that green and 
yellow may be given time to register 
on the film before the blues, which 
are much more active, have acted 
too much. 

Strange as it may seem, the most 
active rays photographically are in- 
visible and are known as "ultra- 
violet." \'iolet and blue are also 
very actinic, more so than other 
visible color.-,. If allowed free play 

these three kinds of light rays will 
have far too much action on the 
film in comparison with orange and 
vellow. Eastman Film being ortho- 
chromatic, is sensitive to these two 
last colors, so the Kodak Color 
Filter is used to cut cut the ultra- 
violet entirely and greatly subdue 
the violet and blue. By this means 
clouds are retained in the negative 
and greens and yellows are rendered 
with greater fidelity than would be 
the case without the filter. 

The Kodak Sky Filter is similar 
to the Color Filter but the upper 
half only is stained. It acts in the 
same manner as the Color Filter but 
as the lower part of the picture is 
unscreened, there will be no modi- 
fication in the rendering of colors 
appearing in it. Only twice the 
normal exposure is required while 
the Kodak Color Filter needs ten 
times the normal exposure under 
u^ual conditions. 

To start the customer 
right is of the utmost 

To keep the ctistomer 
on the right road is equal- 
1}^ important. 


is designed for this pur- 

Get the name on the 
dotted line. 


K O D A K E R Y 

The onl}' way to keep prints properh" — safe 
against loss or injury — is between the pages 
of an album. 

The Balmoral Album 

with black leather covers and made in the 
loose leaf style is as practical in use as it is 
handsome in appearance. 


A, 5;^ X 7, 50 black leaves ...--- $2.50 

B, 7 X 10, 50 black leaves ------- 3.50 

Package 12 extra leaves, A $0.18; B, $0.25 



At your dealer's 



About an Advertisement 
and Something Else. 

On the opposite page is repro- 
duced page 32 from "Kodak- 
ery" for May. Please note "at your 
dealer's" in the lower left hand 
corner. Of course this appears in 
all Kodakery ads., but we want to 
sleep o'nights and not have our 
conscience troubling us because we 
shaded the truth a little in making 
that statement. We need that sleep I 
Anyway when you get them in stock 
you won't have them very long. 

Seventy-five or eighty per cent, of 
the people who own cameras keep 
their prints in any old place ; scat- 
tered here and there, they find it 
hard or impossible to bring them 
to light to show their friends. An 
Album will solve their trouble and 
a very large percentage only need 
to have this viewpoint put up to 
them for you to make the sale. 
Every owner of a camera who 
makes any pictures at all is a latent 
purchaser of an Album. Do not 
forget to sell Dry Alounting Tissue 
as well, as this will preventt all 
cockling of the album leaf. The 
Kodakery Ad. illustrated shows and 
lists the Balmoral but in addition 
there are the Westminster and 
Glendale, both built along the same 
lines as the Balmoral. The West- 
minster has a leatherette cover 
and the Glendale a cloth cover. 
The prices of these two Albums 
are given below. 

A B 

5^x7 7x10 
The Westminster Album. .$1.50 $2.00 

The Glendale Album 1.25 1.75 

Extra leaves per package 

of 12 18 .25 

Kodakery I 

Ever since we first started Ko- 
dakery its circulation has been 
steadily mounting up until now the 
numher of copies distributed month- 
ly is far beyond our most sanguine 
expectations at the time the maga- 
zine was first printed. 

The most important point about 
this distribution is that every copy 
goes to someone who owns a camera. 
There are no "dead-heads." Of 
course some of its recipients may 
not appreciate its monthly visits, but 
on how many occasions has not its 
timely arrival re-kindled the inter- 
est of the Kodaker whose enthus- 
iasm had died down because of a 
spoilt roll or some little difficulty 
which had disheartened him? 

Provided you do your share and 
"get the name on the dotted line," 
for a year at least your customer 
will not be allowed to forget that 
he or she owns a camera. The 
articles in Kodakery are educative 
and instructive but still are always 
written from the amateur's view- 
point. The pictures too are nearly 
always the work of amateurs and 
those intimate little pictures of home 
life, i^'ordlessly but iwiie the less 
co)ii'i^iciiigIy. urge the reader to 
go and do likewise. 

Do not leave it to the customer to 
send in the application form, but 
make it a point to fill in the blank 
at the time the sale is made. In- 
cidentally, will not the customer 
appreciate this little attention on 
his or her behalf when you explain? 
Help us to make the circulation 
of Kodakery one hundred per cent. 
Do not let one purchaser of a Ko- 
dak, Brownie, Premo or Graflex 
leave the store until you have "got 
the name on the dotted line." 



Ten minutes 
with the Boss 

SAAI. you seemed rather sur- 
prised because I did not hire 
that nice looking chap who appHed 
for a position the other day. 

"I'll admit, Sam, that he was 
neat and of good appearance, but I 
discovered during my conversation 
with him that he had worked in 
four different places, all some dis- 
tance ai)art. during the last twelve 

"Now this may be his metliod for 
'seeing Canada first,' Samm}-, but 
I didn't care to have him do it at 
my expense. 

"I don't care how good a man is, 
Sam, he never becomes worth the 
salary he is paid until from three to 
six months have elapsed on the job. 

"No two businesses, even in the 
same line, are conducted in the same 
manner ; every store and every store 
manager has a diliferent way of do- 
ing things, and it takes any new 
employee cpiite some time to be- 
come a smoothlv adjusted and 
running- part of the business 

"Consequently, Sammy, I am not 
at all interested in what I call the 

".\ great many employers, Sam, 
overlook the fact that they have a 
definite investment in every em- 
ployee upon which they must make 
a profit, so if I feel that a man is 
apt to leave me before I can even 
break clean on mv investment, I 
don't want him. 


"That brings up another thought, 
Sam, and that is. how many em- 
ployes realize that the store must 
make a profit upon their perform- 
ances, just as well as upon the 
goods that are sold. In other words, 
Sam, an employee must earn a cer- 
tain amount more than he is paid to 
be a profitable investment for his 

"The employer ventures his good 
hard money, as w^ell as his time and 
experience. The employee ventures 
only his time and services, so the 
employer, taking by far the greater 
risk, is justly entitled to this per- 
centage in his favor. 

"It is but seldom, Sam, that the 
efficient employee is underpaid ; it 
may be true, Sam, that he is capable 
of a bigger and better job, which 
eventually he is pretty sure to land. 

"There is always a point, Sam, 
where an employee is receiving the 
maximum salary for the job he 
holds, and so if his store can not 
just at the moment afford him a 
bigger opportunity he should con- 
tent himself with what he is re- 

"Ever}' business, Sam, has what 
is called 'overhead' expense, which 
means the expense of doing busi- 
ness, — ^rent, heat, light, wages and 
all other fixed charges which must 
be paid regardless of business con- 

"Now a certain definite per cent. 
of this overhead expense must be 


charged to wages, and any increase 
in this percentage must come from 
increased sales. 

"So many salespeople. Sam, do 
not realize that a good part of their 
success lies right in their own 
hands ; so many think that all they 
should do is to be on hand during 
working hours, hand out the goods 
the customer asks for. and let it go 
at that. 

"Every salesman. Sammy, can 
w-ith very little effort increase his 
sales, and when the Boss notes 
from his inspection of the sales 
sheets that a particular salesman 
shows a consistent and steady in- 
crease he is pretty apt to think. 'I 
mustn't let that chap get away froin 
me,' — and the logical way to keep 
him wall be to slip a little more in 
the pay envelope. 

"Just because the Boss may not 
be on the floor all the time, and is 
away from the store quite a bit, 
some folks may think that he does 
not know what is going on, and so 
feel secure in doing just as little as 

"They don't fool anyone but 
themselves, Sam. because they for- 
get that the Boss docs see the sales 
sHps. and the other store records, 
and tliat he studies them most care- 

"Every person on the pay roll. 
Sam, from the porters and errand 
boys on up to and including the 
Boss, can and should play an im- 
portant part in the success of the 

"Customers are influenced by so 
many things aside from the actual 
merchandise. There is one big 
store I Hke to go into just because 
the colored door man has such an 
expansive and welcoming smile, and 
there is a certain telegraph messen- 
ger boy I am going to ask to come 
and work for us because he always 
comes in with a grin and says 

"Thank ynu' when I sign the slip. 

"The success of any store, Sam, 
is largely in the hands of the em- 
ployees, and if they all would only 
realize this, and know and feel that 
the success of the store, and their 
own success were interlocked, no 
one would have an}- cause for com- 


"Costly unbeliefs in modern busi- 
ness methods keep many dealers 

"Good advertising is the Hfe of 
the modern store — a necessary as- 

"One of the commonest mistakes 
dealers make is to be satisfied with 
a 60 or 80 per cent, advertising effi- 
ciency. This 'letting well enough 
alone' often results in a competi- 
tor's hitting on the idea you might 
have had, and undermining your 
sales. To get back the ground you 
have lost costs a hundred times as 
much as the original expenditure 
would have been. 

"It is necessary for you to be on 
the constant lookout for new and 
stronger advertising. 

"Ideas are the hfe and breath of 
advertising, for advertising in its 
best sense is the persuading of peo- 
ple to do what is for their own good 
— a thing they somehow hate to do 
— and ideas start the impulse. 

"A selling plan without an attrac- 
tive, winning advertising idea, isn't 
a selling plan, because it can't 
breathe. It needs an advertising 
idea to put into it the essential mag- 
netism that will not only win a 
hearing in the brain of men and 
women, but will also appeal to their 
ambitions and emotions." — Xotional 
Drug Clerk. 



The Primary Page 

for -file Beginner 
Behind tlie Counter 

f X this department we have dis- 
cussed the selling of Kodaks and 
the various articles that go to make 
up the Kodak line, and this seems 
not an inopportune time to have a 
little chat regarding the beginner in 
salesmanship himself. 

Anyone in the possession of his 
normal faculties can become a good 
salesman if he studies himself, his 
goods, and the fundamentals of sell- 

If you are just beginning in the 
selling game it won't do a bit of 
harm if you get off in a quiet corner 
and give yourself the "once over." 

It is possible that you have had 
but little experience in dealing with 
the public, and in consecjuence you 
are diffident or perhaps actually 

If this is the case just take a good 
square look at yourself and you will 
find that you average up with the 
majority, and that you possess no 
physical or mental peculiarities that 
make you stand out from your fel- 
lows in a ridiculous sense. 

This being so, you may rest as- 
sured that the average customer 
will be far more interested in the 
goods you have to sell, and in the 
service the store may have to offer, 
than in yourself. 

But no matter how diffident you 
are, if you are neat in appearance, 
obliging, and know your goods, the 
customer will be c[uite apt to re- 
member you favorably, and to seek 
you out when he or she next visits 


the store, all <:)f which will do much 
to overcome any natural diffidence 
on your part as time goes on. 

With a line as varied as the 
Kodak line it is quite possible that 
in the beginning you will be asked 
questions which you can not answer 
with certainty. 

If you do not know, say so, but 
find out immediately from someone 
else in the store the correct answer. 

It is the biggest possible mistake 
to try and bluff anything through ; 
if you give a wrong answer you may 
put the customer to a loss of money, 
material and time, and if this hap- 
pens it's good-bye customer, so far 
as you and your store are con- 

Never make a promise that you 
are not absolutely sure can be ful- 
filled — and when you do make a 
promise remember it — follow it up 
and make sure it is lived up to. 

Almost every town has its quota 
of amateurs who have a slight 
knowledge of scientific terms, which 
they delight to air, and they are also 
fond of asking hypothetical ques- 
tions, the answers to which they 
have looked up in some text book 
before they come in and spring 
them on you in the effort to discon- 
cert you. 

There will also be found the 
"Kidder" who mayhap will try to 
have a little fun with you ; knowing 
that manv chemicals have two or 
more names he may ask you for 
'"Sodium Thiosulphate" when he 


means '"Hypo." or refer to "Sodium 
Chloride" which is another name 
for common table salt. or. possibly, 
if he can pronounce it. to "trihy- 
droxybenzine" when he means 

So you see you can avoid all this 
by honestly confessing your ignor- 
ance when you do not know. 

When opportimity otters, have a 
chat with the people in the finishing 
department, or with some expert 
amateur customer, so that you may 
learn to distinguish the different 
sorts of negatives, how to improve 
them, and the correct grade of paper 
for printing. 

Xext to knowing your stock and 
its selling points is the thorough 
knowledge of negatives and prints. 
Knowing good negatives and prints 
when you see them, and knowing 
how faults are produced and how to 
remedy them puts you in position to 
be of tremendous help to your ama- 
teur customers. 

The fact that you can and will 
put the beginner on the right road. 
and keep him there, will be a big 
factor in boosting your sales, not 
only because you keep the customer 
interested and enthused, but addi- 
tionally, because you will have num- 
berless opportunities to introduce 
and sell the various sundries. 

]\Iake it a point to read the vari- 
ous photographic magazines. They 
will keep you posted. They all con- 
tain many articles of practical value 
to you. 

Study the illustrations ; the ma- 
jority of them are selected because 
of their artistic excellence, and the 
magazines running a print criticism 
department will be found particu- 
larly valuable because the pictures 
are analyzed, and their good and 
bad points made plain. 

Just Supposing 

You have carefully and thor- 
oughly explained the Autographic 
Feature to a customer, and tried 
to impress upon him the great 
importance of dating every nega- 

Xow just supposing this argu- 
ment, strong as it is, fails to im- 
press him. You still have another 
one, and that is one of economy. 

The Autographic Feature af- 
fords a double service ; it not only 
gives a valuable record, but in ad- 
dition, it protects the user from 
the danger of making two expos- 
ures on the one film. 

Before the advent of the Auto- 
graphic Feature, the camera would 
not tell us whether the film had 
been reeled to the next number 
after is was exposed, and so when 
the user was in doubt, but took a 
chance on the film not being ex- 
posed, he sometimes made two ex- 
posures on one film, or if he reeled 
the film on to the next lumiber to 
avoid the chance of making a double 
exposure, he sometimes found an 
tmexposed section in the roll after 

Xow by forming the habit of 
autographing the film immedi- 
ately after it is exposed, he need 
take no chances on either double 
exposures or blanks. All he has 
to do is to look in the autographic 
slot; if he finds^ an autographic 
record, he wall know the film was 
exposed, and if no record, that the 
film was not exposed. 

And when you add to this that 
all this convenience and protec- 
tion cost no more than to be with- 
out it, vour sale is clinched. 

Did you ever notice that the fel- 
low who is always in a hurry is 
usually late? 



The Art of Approaching A 

A short time ago a pupil from one 
of the high schools made a test of 
thirty salespersons in a certain 
store, on their manner of approach- 
ing customers. In each instance 
she lingered at a counter, looking at 
some particular merchandise, or 
wandered about the department 
looking at table and reel displays. 
The report showed that twenty-two 
out of the thirty salespersons who 
approached her said, "Something 
for you ?" Three asked, "Do you 
wish to be waited upon?" One said 
"Can I show you something?" Two 
said, "Good morning." Two out of 
the thirty greeted her by calling at- 
tention to some particular feature 
of the merchandise at which she 
was looking. 

Did you ever stop to consider 
your method of approach ? ^\'h^■ 
should a salesman approach a cus- 
tomer with a direct question? His 
knowledge of the stock opens the 
way to introduce his merchandise 
to the customer who is showing 
some evidence of interest therein. 
A direct question, similar to those 
asked, puts him in a position of a 
reply — "No, thank you," or "I am 
only looking." Why invite a reply 
that places him on the defensive? 
If he does so he places himself at a 
disadvantage, and helps to block his 
way to any further intelligent effort 
to introduce his goods. 

There can be no fixed rule or 
method of approach to interest cus- 
tomers. Each instance must be 
governed by the existing conditions. 
Your "attention" to the customer 
on approach may be sufficient assur- 
ance that you are at her serv^ice — a 
smile or other courtesy, or a step 
forward may be further evidence 
of your readiness. The salesman 
who is alert and knows the goods 


and interests himself to study hu- 
man nature can readily grasp the 
opportunity to call attention to 
some feature of an article that may 
interest the customer if the desire is 
to scrz'c rather than to sell. No 
salesman would ever sacrifice his 
knowledge of salesmanship by ap- 
proaching the customer and asking 
her to buy. Using the greeting. 
"Can I show you something?" rath- 
er indicates that you will do so if 
the customer wishes to purchase, 
therefore the customer mav reason- 
ably feel (iJinoycd. 

There is much that is desirable in 
any article of your stock that you 
know and the customer does not 
know. The fineness of texture, the 
grade of finish, the beauty of de- 
sign, the durability and usefulness 
of the goods, are all introductory 
features that will interest the pur- 
chaser without indicating that you 
are asking them to buy and surely 
will gain favor rather than give of- 

Study the art of approaching a 
customer. — The Byoadii^'ay JVorld. 

"^lake it easy for each other. 
For the persons you work with day 
by day and year by year, make it as 
easy as possible for them to do their 
parts to the best of their abilities. 
A harsh word, an ill-considered re- 
tort, a sudden flare of temper will 
throw both parties 'off their stride' 
for a lesser or greater period of 
time, aft'ecting their best efficiency 
for that length of time and occa- 
sionally exciting a feeling of unrest 
which may affect the organization 
as a whole." 

These Are More Than 

Mere Conveniences: 

Kodak Safelight Lamp 

Gives a soft, even and safe light, can be 
fitted with an\' desired Safehght, making it 
suitable for use with \'elox, Lantern Plates, 
Kodak Film, etc. 

Price with any specified- Safelight, not 
including electric bulb, - - - $4.00 

Eastman Film Negative Album not only makes each 
negative easy of access, but protects from injury. 

Price from $1.00 to ^1-75 according to .size. 


Brownie Safelight Lamp 

The complete Lamp is attached direct to any 
electric light socket. Any series of Safelight can 
be furnished. 

The price, including one Safelight, but not includ- 
ing electric bulb. - - - $i-75 





JUNE. 1919 

The man who will 
do as much to-day as 
he is going to do 

tomorrow, will get 
things done. 


DON'T be afraid of thinking too much. 
You can't. "The more the mind 
does," said William James, "the 
more it can do." 

A great Doctor — Dr. Boris Sidis — recently 
said: "In all my practice as a physician deal- 
ing with nervous and mental diseases, I can 
say without hesitation that I have not met a 
single case of nervous or mental trouble 
caused by too much thinking or over study. 
What produces mental trouble is worry — 
emotional excitement — lack of interest in 
one's work." 

So, don't be afraid. Think. Study. Plan. 
Train your mental powers. You cannot 
overwork the brain as long as you allow it 
time to recuperate. 

It is worry that destroys the brain — 
worry and fear and bad feelings and mental 

— Marketing. 

^ -^ 

o — 


^ 4» 

3 = 


= An aid ^= 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vo4. 5 JUNE, 1919 No. 5 



The salesman who gets ahead, studies- 

Other people, 
The goods he sells, 
The store organization. 
Trade Journals, 

Are YOU getting ahead? 



Don't Take It for Granted 

You know, but how many of 
your customers know, of the many 
little — and big — helps to better pic- 
tures your stock of sundries con- 

The salesman is so apt to take it 
for granted that the customer is as 
familiar with the stock as he is, and 
that if he is in need of any particu- 
lar article he will ask for it, forget- 
ting entirely that hundreds of new 
recruits are being added daily to the 
Kodak army. 

So, now that the outdoor days 
are again with us. let us make a 
brief review of some of the more 
important sundries and their selling 

Kodak Portrait Attachment 

Every amateur can afford, and 
should possess, a Kodak Portrait 
Attachment. Its name, "Portrait 
Attachment," though possibly the 
best that could have been selected, 
is in a way not suft"iciently compre- 
hensive. Not only by its use can 
the amateur produce large head and 
shoulder portraits, but, also, be- 
cause it permits working very close 
to the subject it is ideal for the pic- 
turing of wild flowers and all other 
small objects, affording a much 
larger image than would be other- 
wise produced. 

Xo dift'iculty whatsoever can be 
experienced in its use, as it does 
not alter the duration of exposure, 
and it is attached by simply slip- 
ping it on over the hood of the reg- 
ular lens ; full directions for focus- 
ing accompany each Attachment. 

You will be able to sell a lot of 
Kodak Color Screens and Sky Fil- 
ters if you will but show and ex- 
plain them. 

]\rany amateurs have the idea 
that they are intended only for spe- 
cial work, when as a matter of fact 
their use will greatly improve the 
quality of almost all landscape sub- 
jects, and all siibjects including the 
weaker recording colors. 

The yellow color of the Kodak 
Color Screen holds back the strong 
blue and violet rays of light, and 
thus allows the weaker recording 
colors red. yellow and green, time 
to record. 

The Kodak Sky Filter will equal- 
ize the great dift'erence in light 
strength between the sky and fore- 
ground in landscape photography, 
and will retain the clouds in the sky, 
thus adding much to the pictorial 
quality of the landscape. 

The Kodak Color Screen and Sky 
Filters are attached in the same 
manner as the Portrait Attach- 

Xow there are metal tripods — and 
metal tripods, but the Kodak Metal 
Tripod is just the best the market 
aft"ords ; not only is it specially well 
constructed throughout, but should 
accident happen, its construction is 
such that a section can easily be re- 
moved for repairs, or for the plac- 
ing of a new part. 

Kodak Metal Tripod 



Kodak Self Tinier 

There are many more sundries 
we could describe did space permit, 
but we will continue in the next 

There are many occasions where- 
in the amateur desires to travel with 
the least amount of luggage, and 
when even a small tripod would be 
a burden. Here is where the Koda- 
pod comes in ; it can be fastened to 
a tree or fence, or any similar ob- 
ject. Its strong jaws liold the wood 
like a vise : the Kodak may be used 
with it in either a horizontal or 
vertical position. When not in use 
it is easily carried in the ordinary 

A high percentage of the pic- 
tures in the collection of the aver- 
age amateur consists of groups of 
his friends — and you will usually 
find Mr. Amateur missing, because 
he had to take the picture, and 
could not include himself, much to 
his secret annoyance. 

Show the Kodak Self Timer to 
Mr. Amateur, and show him how 
with its use he can include himself 
in any picture he takes, and you 
will have him reaching for his pock- 

Tt will automatically release the 
shutter after an interval of from 
one-half second to three minutes, 
according to adjustment. 

It can be used on any camera fit- 
ted with a cable release, but can 
not be used with a rubber bulb re- 

"Kodakery" for July 

That the various numbers of 
KoDAKERV are not assembled from 
photographic lore gathered and se- 
lected hap-hazard is well evidenced 
by the July issue. The two stories 
on photographing the robin family, 
and on picturing wild flowers are 
both timely and instructive and will 
make every Kodaker want to get 
out into the woods and fields. 

The highly instructive series by 
Dr. Mees continues in this issue. 


The time has passed when it was 
possible for a man to master the de- 
tails and theory of a business by 
merely doing his duty faithfully 
from day to day. No longer is it 
possible for a man to rise to the top 
in commerce or industry without 
bringing to the task a determination 
to employ his leisure time in the 
acquisition of special knowledge 
along the lines of his business. 

Don't get downhearted because 
you happen to make a mistake. 
Every time a smart man makes a 
mistake he learns something. 






i»3*fcB''-<i'! ' 

THfe , 

Kodak mS^ 


Center Panel of Display Shown on Page 2 

The Selling Power of 

The mission of the modern dis- 
play window is to sell goods, and 
you can not sell goods without giv- 
ing the prospect some good reason 
for parting with his money. 

The big mission of the Kodak is 
to afford the amateur a simple 

means for storing up pleasure and 
happiness through the medium of 
pictures, made by himself, of the 
people and things that have inter- 
ested him. 

We are firm believers in the use 
of pictures in window displays. 

A picture will arrest attention in 
a window cjuicker than anything 


else, except an object in motion, 
and a picture will often have greater 
selling power than an animated dis- 
play, particularly when animation is 
only introduced to arrest attention. 

Through the courtesy of Mr. W. 
F. Kollecker we are enabled to re- 
produce one of his attractive win- 
dow displays. 

Air. Kollecker believes in the sell- 
ing power of pictures, and his whole 
display is subordinated to them. 

Apparatus is shown but the pic- 
tures dominate the display. The 
screen is eight feet long, and can be 
folded for storage when not in use. 
The side wings are made as mats, 
so new enlargements of local inter- 
est can be inserted as desired. 

From the Customer's Side 

After an examination of a large 
number of Kodak dealers' news- 
paper advertisements, we are forced 
to believe that a good many of the 
dealers are not getting full returns 
from the space they are using. 

Too many of the advertisements 
are written from the dealer's side 
of the counter : "Largest stock in 
the city." "Our finishing depart- 
ment does the finest work." "Our 
stock is complete in every detail." 
We this and we that, our this and 
our that — all this usually passes 
over the head of the reader, be- 
cause he is not a bit interested in 
the dealer, but is interested only in 
what the dealer, or what the dealer 
has to sell, can do for him. 

At this season of the year, and 
continuing on through the summer, 
particular attention should be given 

to the making of new Kodakers, 
and to the inducing of those who 
have, for some reason or another, 
laid their cameras away, to take up 
the recreation again. 

Make the majority of your ad- 
vertisements tell some one of the 
innumerable reasons why the reader 
would enjoy the taking of pictures ; 
talk to him from his side of the 

The advertisement designed to 
create new business will not only 
help in adding the beginners to 
your list, but will serve equally in 
informing those who are already 
Kodakers that you handle Kodaks 
and supplies. 

We by no means wish to have it 
inferred that it is not good policy 
to advertise your finishing depart- 
ment and the excellence of your 
service, or to occasionally advertise 
some specific model, but in the main 
you will find it will pay best to de- 
vote the major portion of your 
newspaper advertising to telling of 
the pleasures to be derived from 
picture taking. 

In the larger cities when the use 
of large space is prohibitive, you 
may possibly have to confine your 
advertising to a simple announce- 
ment, but whether you can use large 
space or small space yo.i will find 
that steady, persistent advertising 
will pay, but bear in mind that when 
3'ou can use sufficient space talk 
from the customer's side of the 

"AI\- boy," said the successful 
merchant, "never let your capital 
lie idle. Remember that money 
talks, but it doesn't talk in its sleep." 
— Boston Post. 


Kodak Film in the Making 

Without film the photographic in- 
dustry would be a sorry pigmy be- 
side the widely ramified industry 
that it is to-day and well can we 
say that photographic film, both for 
still and motion-picture work, as 
developed and made in the great 
Kodak Park Works, has helped 
enormously to place photography 
on the high plane that it stands to- 
day. In fact, it was due largely to 
]\Ir. Eastman's efiforts, begun way 
back in -the late eighties, that the 
film camera and the movies were 
made possible. First the film had a 
backing of paper and the develop- 
ment of this type of film and the so- 
called "Stripping film" (the emul- 
sion of which was so made that 
when placed in water it could be 
removed from the paper backing, 
dried and then transferred to a 
transparent backing of gelatine) 

made the first Kodak with the 
famed slogan, "You press the but- 
ton, we do the rest," a possibility. 

Film with a paper backing was 
only temporary, however, for the 
great desideratum was film with a 
transparent base or support. After 
months of application, the Kodak 
engineers brought out film with cel- 
lulose as a base and then the great 
series of developments that came as 
a result of the production of Kodak 
transparent flexible photographic 
film in ever increasing quantities 
which revolutionized the entire pho- 
tographic industry. 

The advent of Eastman film 
proved a particular boon to motion 
pictures ; in fact, Eastman film made 
the complete commercial success of 
the motion-picture camera possible. 
A\'ith the continually growing pop- 
ularity of motion pictures the de- 
mand for Kodak film mounted 
hisfher and higher and one might 

Cotton-nitratinsi Centrifugal and Man Handling Container Filled with 
Pure White Crystals of Silver Nitrate 


Cotton Which Is Used To Make the Transparent Backing of Film 
Is Washed in Large Tanks 

almost think that the men who hold 
the destinies of the huge Kodak 
plants in their hands were often 
hard put to keep up with this rapid- 
ly increasing demand. But they 
kept their ears close to the ground 
and tried to sense what the future 
requirements would be. Quality in 
those early days, as now. was of 
paramount consideration ; but the 
Company went further and made 
elaborate preparations for the fu- 
ture, consequently, as the demand 
for film stock grew, the Company 
was always ready with the goods 
and prepared to make shipments 
promptly, without a hitch. 

It takes a great deal of time and 
incidentally a great deal of money 
to prepare for the manufacture of 
photographic film of high average 
quality in the large quantities neces- 

sary for present-day production, or 
for that matter, to prepare for such 
great increases in production as 
have been necessary in the past. 
And to keep ahead of the demand 
and always be ready for big busi- 
ness as the Kodak Company has 
done requires vision and pluck — 
the vision to anticipate every de- 
mand and the pluck to spend mil- 
lions of dollars as a tell for pre- 

The story about the making of 
Kodak film is one of continuous in- 
terest, ^lany diversified products 
enter its manufacture. Who, for in- 
stance, outside those in the "know" 
would think that bales and bales of 
cotton are required for the making 
of the thin transparent backing on 
which the light sensitive picture- 
making coating is spread, or who 



Where Bars of Silver Are Dissolved To Form Silver Nitrate 

again would imagine for one in- 
stant that some two tons of silver 
bullion are used each week in the 
Kodak Park plant for making the 
sensitive coating? Two tons of sil- 
ver a week ! Think of it ! Close on 
to four million troy ounces a year ; 
almost as much as the total output 
of the white metal from Arizona, 
one of the leading silver-producing 
states ! When the sixteen-to-one 
idea fell into the discard way back 
in 1896, everybody said that the sil- 
ver industry had absolutely and ir- 
revocably passed to the bow- 
wows ; but the many photographers 
throughout the world, together with 
the movies, have helped bring it 
back with a mighty thud. Besides 
the silver and cotton, there are the 
various acids for treating these pro- 
ducts, thousands of tons of which 


are required. Then come the or- 
ganic solvents, including alcohol 
and other liquids, for converting the 
nitrated cotton into a honey-like 
fluid from which the thin film is 
made, and lastly the gelatine and 
chemical compounds for making the 
sensitive coating. 

For the convenience of analyzing 
the various steps taken in the man- 
ufacture of Kodak film four gen- 
eral processes may be considered as 
follows: (1) chemical preparation 
of raw materials such as the cotton 
and silver already mentioned, (2) 
spreading of the support or cellu- 
lose backing for the sensitive coat- 
ing, which is called the emulsion in 
thin layers on the surfaces of huge 
wheels, (3) spreading of the sensi- 
tive emulsion in a thin layer on the 
support and (4) sHtting of large 


film rolls into stock sizes, inspection 
and packing for shipment. 

Of course, in making anything 
that requires such a high degree of 
quality and refinement as photo- 
graphic film, every process must be 
conducted in the cleanest of sur- 
roundings. High average quality 
and uniformity are other important 
requisites in photographic film ; they 
-mean that a photographer can get 
the same kind of good results at one 
time with one piece of film that he 
can with another piece from dif- 
ferent stock at another time, provid- 
ing in both cases the conditions of 
exposure are the same. ^Moreover 
to get a high-average quality film in 
the large quantities necessary for 
present day production requires the 
greatest care in the selection of 
raw materials and repeated tests and 
examinations — and rejections. Then 
again the manufacture of a product 
in large batches is far different 
from that in small lots — it requires 
complete reorganization of the plant 
— and it is here that the genius for 
organization and conduct of big 
things that has exemplified every- 
thing done in the Kodak way is so 

The campaign for an absolutely 
pure product commences with the 
treatment and selection of raw ma- 
terials and is particularly rigid in 
connection with cotton. After being 
carefully cleansed and prepared to 
make it soluble, the cotton is passed 
through a huge drying machine in 
order to remove the moisture which 
it contains under ordinary atmos- 
pheric conditions. Special machines, 
called nitrating centrifugals, are 
used to mix the cotton with the 
acids used in nitrating. These acids 
act upon the cotton in such a way 
that it may later be dissolved into 
honey-like "dope"' and subsequent- 
ly formed into a transparent sheet 

or film backing. After being treated 
with acids, the cotton when washed 
and dried is called nitrated cotton. 
A nitrating machine is shown, in one 
of the accompanying illustrations, 
with cover raised, and consists of a 
large-sized perforated basket which 
rotates in a vat. A mixture of nitric 
acid and sulphuric acid is poured 
into the vat until the cotton is com- 
pletely immersed. Operators pro- 
tected by rubber gloves and goggles 
so as not to be burned by splashing 
acid douse the cotton with paddles, 
as shown. The sulphuric acid is 
used to dilute the nitric acid and to 
absorb any moisture present in the 

After a short immersion the acid 
is drained off from the cotton and 
then the basket is rotated at a high 
speed to throw out through the per- 
forations as much of the acid as 
possible. The treated cotton is next 
removed to tanks of water where it 
gets its first washing. After being 
rinsed in the above-mentioned tanks 
the cotton is again passed into cen- 
trifugals where water is played on 
it and then conveyed to other water 
tanks where is it thoroughly washed 
to remove all traces of acid. The 
excess of water is now removed and 
the cotton is then ready to be taken 
into solution by organic solvents. 
When dissolved the cotton is 
changed to a thick viscous fluid re- 
sembling honey which, in Kodak 
parlance, is called "dope." 

The dope is passed through an 
elaborate system of filters and final- 
ly spread in thin layers on highly 
polished wheels which form parts 
of immense machines several storey's 
high, weighing approximately 150 
tons. When dried it becomes the 
familiar transparent backing on 
which the sensitive material is coat- 
ed. In designing these huge ma- 
chines for spreading the dope, the 



engineering talent of tlie Kodak 
Company registered a triumph of 
which every one in the concern can 
well be proud. In spite of the mam- 
moth size of the machines, the ac- 
curacy is such that in a roll of film 
as it comes from the machine 3^ 
feet wide by 2.000 feet long the 
variation in tliickness is not more 
than one-quarter of a thousandth 
of an inch from end to end. Two 
thicknesses of support are made, 
one being about .003 inch thick for 
ordinary N. C. or Kodak film and 
the other .005 inch thick for mo- 
tion-picture film. 

The silver, which is used in such 
great quantities to make the sensi- 
tive emulsion, is the purest that can 
be obtained. The proverbial slo- 
gan, "99.9 per cent, pure," is only 
enough to begin with in this case. 
The silver comes in bars weighing 
about 500 troy ounces. Each bar of 
silver is placed in a large porcelain 
crock as shown in one of the accom- 
panying illustrations, containing di- 
lute nitric acid. Silver nitrate is 
formed in solution which in the next 
step is evaporated to the point of 
crystallization. In viewing the many 
crocks with their wealth of contents, 
as shown in the illustration, one is 
dangerously liable to let his imagi- 
nation go rife. Think of all the 
treasures literally going into "soak !" 
— the precious solution of silver ni- 
trate is poured into evaporating 
dishes which are placed on steam 
tables where the solution is heated 
to facilitate evaporation. After a 
certain amount of the silver nitrate 
has been crystallized, the crystals 
and liquid remaining, which is called 
mother Hquor, are poured ofif into 
draining dishes which allow the 
mother liquor to drain off. Here 
again we get that everlasting search 
for purity which is so necessary for 
high-c[uality photographic material. 
The silver nitrate crystals are next 


redissolved and recrystallized until 
all impurities are removed — a pro- 
cess which virtually reduces itself 
into a chase after that one-tenth per 
cent, of foreign matter in the bul- 
lion silver in order to have in the 
final run a straight "100 per cent, 
pure" product. The pure white sil- 
ver nitrate crystals are now placed 
in porcelain draining baskets, as 
shown herewith, where as much of 
the liquid as possible is drained off. 
The crystals are next placed in 
shallow glass trays and allowed to 
dry at first on open racks and then 
in drying closets. They are finally 
placed in covered jars and stored 
until needed. 

\\'e now come to that mysterious 
something the light-sensitive emul- 
sion on which when coated on the 
cellulose backing the invisible or 
latent image is impressed, and 
through suitable chemical develop- 
ment brought out as a negative. To 
make a sensitive emulsion a silver 
nitrate solution is mixed with a so- 
lution of potassium bromide and 
gelatine dissolved in hot water, thus 
forming insoluble silver bromide in 
the solution, which is the compound 
that is sensitive to light. The warm 
solution of gelatine containing the 
silver bromide is coated on the 
nitro-cellulose backing already de- 
scribed. The gelatine solution with 
the silver compound in it is called 
an emulsion because of the way in 
which the silver bromide remains 
suspended in the gelatine. After 
the emulsion has been applied the 
film is handled only in dark rooms 
which are kept at a constant tem- 
perature and humidity. Of course, 
the need of handling the huge quan- 
titles of sensitive film and operating 
numerous machines in dark rooms 
increases the difficulty of manufac- 
ture and greatly adds to the care 
and vigilance that must always be 
exercised to secure a high quality 


Motion Picture Film Shipping Room 

product. The large rolls of sensi- 
tized film are now packed in long 
tin cans and stored in a special room 
until the slitting and inspection de- 
partments are ready for them. 

The film is inspected very care- 
fully and then slit into various 
lengths and widths for motion-pic- 
ture purposes and to fit the different 
types of Kodaks and Brownies and 
other kinds of cameras turned out 
by the Kodak Compan}-. A con- 
tinual search for defects is main- 
tained so that only a high-grade 
product may leave the plant. In- 
spections and tests figure in practi- 
cally every process. Besides repeat- 

ed chemical tests of raw materials, 
emulsions, etc., strips are taken 
from every large roll of film and 
subjected to numerous tests. The 
entire surface of every roll before 
being cut up is also closely exam- 
ined by special inspectors. With 
all this vigilance one can rest as- 
sured that the possibilit}- of any- 
thing but high-grade, high-average 
quality film is very remote, and it is 
largely due to such vigilance car- 
ried out so thoroughly in all the 
Kodak plants that Kodak products 
are in such great demand in all 
quarters of the globe. 

Start the neiu Kodakers off right: 

Fill out the ^^ Kodakery^'' subscription blanks. 



The Primary Page 

for-fhe Beginner 
Behind the Counter 

IN all probability you can make up 
a correct developing solution and 
properly develop a roll of film or a 
batch of plates, but do you know 
the constituents of your developing 
solution and their purpose? 

Knowing the action of a develop- 
ing solution may not help you par- 
ticularly in selling an Autographic 
Kodak, but it will most surely come 
in handy some time in helping some 
of your customers to secure better 
results, so here goes : 

The chemical process of develop- 
ment consists in the removal of the 
bromine from the silver bromide in 
the emulsion of your film or plate 
so as to leave the grains of silver 

Now there are a number of chem- 
icals which will remove bromine 
from silver bromide in this way, 
but in order to act as a developer, 
the chemical chosen must have the 
power of turning the exposed silver 
bromide into metallic silver, but one 
whidi will not act on exposed 
silver bromide, because if the de- 
veloper acted upon the unexposed, 
as well as on the exposed grains you 
would get no image at all ; the whole 
film would turn dark in the solution, 
just the same as if it had been 
fogged by exposure to white light. 

There are but a limited number 
of chemicals which have the power 
of distinguishing between exposed 
and unexposed grains of silver bro- 
mide, so you see there are really 


only a few substances suitable for 
use as developers. 

The best known, and most com- 
monly used chemicals for this pur- 
pose are pyrogallol, or "pyro," as it 
is commonly called ; Hydrochinon 
and Elon, all of which are chem- 
ically related to aniline, which is 
used as the base of coal tar dyes. 

As a matter of fact, Hydrochi- 
non and Elon are made by the same 
methods as those used for making 

Pyro is, however, more easily 
made by distilling gallic acid, which 
is produced by fermenting gall nuts. 

Supposing we made a solution of 
pyro and put an exposed film into 
it; we would get no developing ac- 
tion because pyro by itself has no 
developing action (this is equally 
true of the other developing 
agents). So in order to induce 
action we have to add a certain 
amount of an alkali to the solution. 

Practically any alkali will do the 
trick, but the most convenient one 
to use is carbonate of soda. 

So now if we take a solution of 
pyro and add some carbonate of 
soda to it, it will develop the ex- 
posed films, but unfortunately a so- 
lution of pyro, carbonate of soda 
and water will not keep, because 
very shortly after it is exposed to 
the air it will darken and lose its 

To make the developing solution 
keep we must add a certain amount 
of sulphite of soda, because it ab- 


sorbs the oxygen from the air and 
so prevents the solution from be- 
coming inactive. 

It sometimes happens that the de- 
veloper will prove difficult to han- 
dle because it fogs the film. This is 
because it has a tendency to de- 
velop the unexposed silver bromide 
as well as the exposed silver bro- 
mide, so we add a small amount of 
bromide of potassium to act as a 

As might be expected, these de- 
veloping agents work differently. 
We make up two developing solu- 
tions, one with Hydrochinon, and 
one with Elon. 

In the Elon developer the image 
will appear very quickly, and will 
appear all over the film at the same 
time, — the shadows at the same 
time as the highlights. 

With Hydrochinon the image will 
appear more slowly, and the high- 
lights first, so by the time the 
shadow portions begin to show up 
on the surface of the film the high- 
lights will have acquired consider- 
able density. 

If development is stopped as soon 
as the whole image appears in the 
Elon developer the image will be 
very thin and gray all over, while 
with the Hydrochinon there will be 
a good deal of density in the high- 

So it is for these reasons that the 
two agents, Elon and Hydrochinon, 
are frequently combined, as the Hy- 
drochinon affords density, and the 
Elon detail, and so together thev 
afford a well balanced developer. 

Pyro is about the ideal developer 
for negative making, but due to the 
fact that it changes rapidly during 
development to a yellow color 
(some of which remains in the sil- 
ver of the image), it is not used for 
developing-out papers, as Elon and 
Hydrochinon, not turning yellow, 
serve the purpose better. 

Have the Brightest Store on 
Your Street 

Your store should be the bright- 
est one on the street — that's one 
mighty good way to advertise. The 
way to do it is to keep your zvin- 
doics the cleanest. 

Let one person clean them at all 
times. Alake it his own job. Hold 
him responsible, says Michigan 

The inside of the windows should 
be washed with tepid water applied 
by means of a chamois skin, using 
no soap or powder of any kind. 
Dry with a chamois and polish with 
cheesecloth. The outside requires 
diff'erent treatment, however. It 
should be cleaned with the follow- 
ing mixture : 

One ounce pulverized whiting. 
One ounce grain alcohol. 
One ounce Hquid ammonia. 
One pint water. 

Apply witli a soft cloth, after 
having sprayed the windows to re- 
move the surface dirt. When this 
preparation is allowed to dry, and 
is then rubbed off with a polishing 
motion, the surface of the window 
will be extremely brilliant, and will 
remain so far longer than when 
washed in the ordinary way. 

If the window has become badly 
scratched, a filler should be applied, 
consisting of an ounce of white wax 
dissolved in a pint of pure tur- 
pentine. This fills the cracks or 
scratches and prevents dirt lodging 
in them. 

A show window thus treated will 
appear much brighter in the day 
time than a window washed in the 
usual way, while if properly illumi- 
nated at night it Zi'ill stand out 
prominently among the ordinary 
show windows along your street. 



The Lost Customer 

■*I once lost a customer but as 
good luck would have it, I learned 
the reason sometime afterward. I 
had shown this customer a number 
of reels and he selected one worth 
S4.50 and handed me a $5 bill ; and 
it was the handling of the bill that 
led me into the error which lost the 
house a customer. Before going to 
the cash register and malting change 
I swept up all the reels that were 
lying on top of the- showcase and 
put them inside. When I handed 
him his change I thought his man- 
ner had undergone a change but as 
he said nothing, I was none the 

"What I had done came out later 
when by chance he met my em- 
ployer and informed him that one 
of his salesmen had treated him like 
a sneak thief and put everything out 
of his reach before making change. 

"Of course, I had not even 
dreamed that I had given offense or 
done anything wrong, and to be told 
that such a construction had been 
placed on my wholly thoughtless 
action was a bitter pill to swallow, 
but the swallowing of it did me 
good. I never forgot it." — Sport- 
ing Goods Sales Journal. 

A negative worth 
takiJtg IS worth 
dating: — 

Sell the 



His Reasons 

A storekeeper injected some hu- 
mor as well as logic into his reply 
when giving the five best reasons 
why he handled and made a spe- 
cialty of well-advertised lines of 

1. "The fellow making the article 
believes it good and spends his 
money advertising, proving it. 

2. "The fellow reading the ad- 
vertisement thinks the article must 
be good, or money wottld not be 
spent telling people about it. 

3. "If these two fellows think the 
article is good, they lose no time 
kicking up a rumpus if I fail to get 
it on my shelves. 

4. "And when I get it on my 
shelves, these two fellows get it off 

5. "And I am going to allow 
these two fello^vs to keep working 
for me. That's why I sell well- 
advertised goods." 

Another storekeeper gave the fol- 
lowing five reasons for displaying 
and pushing the well-known and 
well-advertised lines : "First, the de- 
mand for same ; second, quick turn- 
over, which means more profit ; 
third, no dead stock ; fourth, satis- 
fied customer ; fifth, more business." 
— The Popular Storekeeper. 

Your bank-book ought to stand at 
the head of the list of books that 
have most influenced you. It makes 
pleasant reading, and the interest 
increases on every page. 

What a man is, depends largely 
upon what he does when he has 
nothing to do. 

The first and last years of your 
life do not amount to much. If you 
are going to make good, you'll have 
to do it now. 


A pleased custoi 
may not talk much; 
but a dissatisfied 
customer always talks 
too much. 




When a Kodak is purchased 
at your store and you see to 
it that the subscription blank 
ifor Kodakerij is properly filled 
in and sent to Toronto, every 
ime that customer sees this 

pVase, "At your dealer's, " 

wn^h appears in every advertise- 
menNn Kodakery, as far as he is 

concerriad "At your dealer's" 

means youiv 

Kodakery holds Vihe interest of 
your customers inx,,gicture- 
making ; it informs them o 
camera models and reminds them of the various Kodak helps and 
conveniences that yoU sell. 

"At your dealer's'' is not just a phrase — it is the connecting link 
between our advertising and your store. 

We publish Kodakerij, to be sure, but when its readers want some- 
thing Kodakery suggests they think— not "Canadian Kodak Co., 

Limited," but "At your dealer's." 

The Kodak Portrait Attachment 

slips on over the regular lens equipment and 
enables you to bring your Kodak within 
arm's length of the subject to be photo- 
graphed. The result is a large image direct. 

The name indicates that it is of particular 
value in making impromptu portraits. 

Price, fifty cents 
CANADTlf^ KODAK CO., I^imitkh 


k A ( yiyur dude. 

You can't afford not to get the 
name on the dotted line 



JULY, 1919 




It is very hard at times to keep from 
showing vexation at the manner displayed 
by a customer. 

It is sometimes discouraging to have him 
dispute your statements; especially when 
you know that you are in the right. 

But no matter how impolite your customer 
may act — no matter how disagreeable his 
manner may be — don't show him that his 
actions are working upon your nerves. 

Let him bring up his objections and then 
skilfully overcome them in such a manner 
that he is unconsciously brought to see your 
point of view. 

Don't argue with him. The rules of debate 
do not apply in business. 

The loss of your temper will invariably 
mean the loss of a sale. 

While self-control enables one to use 
courtesy and tact — two very important fac- 
tors in bringing about a sale. 

—The Salt Seller 

30 K O D A Iv E K Y 

Frame your Pictures 

There are at least a dozen of your negatives 
which will make contact prints that are worth 
framing, for while the}- are diminutive, they are 
none the less real pictures. Your dealer can 
furnish all ready for the placing of the prints 

Kodak Snapshot Frames 

to take contact prints of all the popular ama- 
teur sizes from \>st Pocket up to full Post 
Card dimensions (3>^x53f). He can also 
furnish frames ready for the placing of enlarged 
pictures of 5 x 7, 6^ xSVa and 8 x 10 sizes. 

The frames are made of good wood, in a 
Brownish Mission finish, suitable for sepia as 
well as black and white prints. The}^ come 
with glass, backing mat, and hangers — truly 


Keproduction of advertisement in June KODAKEHY. 

THE kodak: salesman 

An aid =^= 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol. 5 

JULY, 1919 

No. 6 


Extreme Accuracy the Outstanding Feature 

Alter 2 trip through the Kodak 
Lens Factory not even a superfi- 
cial knowledge of photography is 
necessary to convince the layman of 
the importance the lens plays as 
part of a camera equipment. The 
painstaking care with which the raw 
material is examined and selected 
or rejected is the first item that 
jolts the imagination in inspecting 
this very interesting plant. Then, 
as one passes from process to pro- 
cess and inspection to inspection 
and the many reasons and where- 
fores are clearly set forth, the jolts 
come thick and fast and with them 
there suddenly dawns the light of 
u n d e r s t a n d i n g — what at first 
thought appears only as a bit of pol- 
ished glass with a bulge or perhaps 
a depression on either or both sides 
takes form in the mind's eye as a 
very intricate piece of work by 
means of which clear-cut images, 
which one desires to record, can be 

In the production of an accurate 
lens numerous difificulties present 
themselves even after the proper 
raw material has been selected. \'a- 
rious errors of definition or aberra- 
tions, as they are called, have to 
be corrected and only absolutely 
smooth or unscratched and im- 

chipped surfaces are permissible. 
With the anastigmat lens the great- 
est perfection in design and work- 
manship has. of course, been at- 
tained. To make allowance for 
errors of definition such as spheri- 
cal and chromatic aberration and 
astigmatism and produce a flat field 
various devices have been employed. 
A so-called positive lens, for in- 
stance, is combined with a negative 
lens to correct spherical aberration. 
Then, again, lenses of dififerent 
kinds of glass are cemented to- 
gether to eliminate other defects. 

The proper kind of glass for each 
batch of lenses is selected by a com- 
puter who by means of trigonom- 
etry calculates the path of the rays 
and decides on the curvature for 
each type of lens to correct and 
eliminate the aberrations as com- 
pletely as possible. The glass comes 
in slabs, about an inch thick, eight 
inches long by eight inches wide, 
which are first cut into thin squares 
by means of diamond-tipped rotary 
saws and then ground into rough 
discs. These discs are now attached 
by means of black pitch to a device 
called a blocking body which is of 
a convex or concave curvature, de- 
pending on the type of surface de- 
sired, and then are readv for the 



Pressed Discs for Making Lenses 

first or rough grinding. This is ac- 
complished with a shell having a 
curvature approximating that deter- 
mined beforehand by the computer 
for the finished lenses. Coarse 
emery powder is used for grinding 
the glass. 

The rough grinding is done with 
a motor-driven machine which ro- 
tates the shell, the blocking body 
being attached to a special arm 
which holds the body in place. After 
the first or rough grinding each lens 
is examined for chips or other de- 
fects. Each flat-backed lens is now 
reduced to the proper thickness 
with a milling machine and tlien is 
subjected to three other grinding 
operations with diiTerent grades of 
emery. In the fine grinding opera- 

tions the greatest care is taken to 
bring the lens down to exact dimen- 
sions, the accuracy being deter- 
mined to within two or three hun- 
dredths of a millimeter, a millimeter 
being only about four one-hun- 
dredths of an inch. 

After grinding, the lenses are 
taken to a polishing machine, where 
they are placed in contact with a 
special shell faced with rouge. As 
the polishing proceeds, the lenses 
are frecjuently examined with a 
magnifying glass to see that they 
are retaining their required form. 
The proper curvature can be deter- 
mined by observing certain inter- 
ference rings, as they are called, 
formed by the interference of light. 
The number of rinsfs varies accord- 

Slabs of Optical Glass 


Motor Driven Machine for Rough Grinding 


Centering Lenses 


Engraving Cell 

Testing Surface Accuracy 

ing to variation in the curvature of 
the lens. By means of this test an 
accuracy frequently greater than 
one-fifty-thousandths of an inch 
can be obtained. 

The finished lenses are now care- 
fully examined and if no defects are 
discovered are removed from the 
blocking body, cleansed and placed 
in racks. A very thorough inspec- 
tion is next made, each lens being 
examined with a magnifying glass 

and a special hooded lamp for 
scratches, uneven polishing, chips, 
striae, et cetera. 

Up to this point the greatest at- 
tention is paid to the polishing and 
grinding operations, but not much 
thought is given to whether the lens 
will fit in its mount or not. Each 
lens is now placed in a special lathe 
where after the lens has been prop- 
erly centered by observing an image 
reflected in it, its edge is carefully 

Fine Grinding 


Setting Lens in Cell 

Mounting in Shutters 

ground. A very accurate gauge is 
employed to determine the diame- 
ter, the accuracy of which is also 
well within two or three hundredths 
of a millimeter. Another inspection 
is now made and finally the com- 
pleted lenses are carefully wrapped 
in tissue paper and stored in stock 
vaults until needed for mounting. 

The mounts, which are of metal, 
must be made with the greatest ac- 
curacy, since the distance between 
lenses where more than one is util- 
ized, as is especially the case with 
anastigmat and rapid rectilinear 

lenses, is scarcely of less importance 
than the curves of the lenses them- 
selves. These mounts are japanned 
and each is marked with a serial 
number by which it can afterward 
be traced. The lenses are placed in 
back or front mounts as the case 
may be, each then being played over 
a blast of air to remove every ves- 
tige of dust and dirt. They are 
finally assembled with the shutters 
and given a last thorough inspection 
on a special testing bench. Here 
the mountings are carefully exam- 
ined and tests made to determine 

Polishing l.enses 


whether the lenses have tlie correct 
focal length, whether the images 
which they make are sharp or not 
and whether the images run out of 
true or are decentred in any way. 

With this last inspection one's 
tour through the Kodak Lens Fac- 
tory naturally comes to an end. The 
fact that only the best of material is 
utilized and is selected according 
to rigid specifications and formulae, 
that every dimension is carried to 
less than a thousandth of an inch 
and that infinite care and patience is 
employed in every manufacturing 

process and every one of the many 
inspecting operations at once stanaps 
each lens turned out by this plant as 
something extremely precise. One 
must ungrudgingly bestow his meed 
of gratitude to the careful workmen 
in such a plant without whose prod- 
uct high grade and accurate pic- 
tures would be an impossibility. It 
is this same careful selection of 
men and material ; this same ultra- 
accuracy that has made possible the 
Kodak Anastigmat lenses, and has 
built and maintained for them a 
reputation second to none. 

Getting Ready for the First Grinding 

"Kodakery" for August 

Do you read Kodakery ? 

If you do not read each issue thoroughly and thoughtfully you 
are missing a heap big lot of selling information. 

Don't miss the August issue; we don't know as it is any better 
than the preceding issues, but it is fully up to the standard — and 
the standard is high. 

You will find Dr. Mees' article on "The Nature of Color" of 
particular interest. 

Incidentally, don't forget to fill out the Kodakery subscription 
blank for each amateur camera sale. 


/ Salesman 

'f ¥ fHEX I was a small boy one of 
VV t'le men on my uncle's farm 
said that I ought to learn to swim, 
in which idea I fully concurred, so 
he took me down to the river, put 
me on his shoulders, and waded out 
up to his neck. 

"Balancing me for a moment he 
phouled 'sink or swim," and then 
tossed me in. I managed after a 
fashion to reach the shore breath- 
less a::d with considerable of the 
river in my department of the in- 
terior, but I had arrived there b}' 
my own efforts, and I was still alive, 
so thereafter swimming for me was 
an accomplished fact. 

"I have always been grateful to 
that farm hand, because having to 
graduate from the 'school of hard 
knocks' that early lesson in self- 
confidence was always a big help. 

"I recall another incident of my 
small boyhood days : I was trudg- 
ing along a country road when 
along came a doctor I knew, in his 
buggy. 'Want a ride in. Sonny?' 
he inquired. I said 'Yes, sir.' After 
I was seated beside him he said. 
'Son. if you had said, 'I don't care,' 
or hadn't answered promptly, you 
would still be walking.' And so I 
learned from him the advantage of 
giving a decisive answer. 

"Like most small boys in small 
towns, I got into, or was intrigued 
into, the usual number of fights ; I 
could always lick Johnnie Sullivan, 
who was quite a bit larger than 
mvself, but Willie McGraw. the 

runt of the neighborhood, had 
trimmed all of us. This puzzled me 
because I knew I was full}- as 
strong as Willie, and quite a bit 
taller. I found the answer in rather 
an unexpected manner. Willie and 
I were having just a friendly scuft'le 
one day, when quite by accident, 
and wholly unintentionally. I landed 
a mighty wallop on Willie's nose. 

■■\\ illie let out a wail of surprise 
and anguish, and started for home 
and mother as fast as he could go. 
The secret of Willie's success as a 
gladiator had lain in the fact that 
he always got in the first punch, and 
so when he for tlie first time was the 
recipient of number one it took all 
t/.e fight out of him. 

"It is queer how these boyhood 
experiences and impressions stick 
to us through life. 

"One of the boys in the neigh- 
borhood was the proud possessor 
of a billy goat, whose principal rec- 
reation in life, when he was not 
consuming things ordinarily inedi- 
ble, was to lie in wait around a con- 
venient corner, or behind a bush, 
and butt some unsuspecting young- 
ster flat. 

"So a few years later when I at- 
tempted a job as reporter for the 
local paper, the advice of the editor 
to always look up and down and all 
around me whenever I went out of 
doors, was entirely superfluous. 

"In the same school I attended 
was a large overgrown colored girl, 
and some of the older bovs. when 


they met her on the street, would, as 
is the manner of their kind, taunt- 
ingly yell 'charcoal' after her. 

"One day the spirit of emulation 
being strong within me, and deem- 
ing myself at a safe distance, I at- 
tempted this same bit of airy persi- 
flage ; alas, in just about three long 
leaps she had me, and she bumped 
my head against a tree until I saw 
more stars than necessary to fill the 
Big Dipper, and so I learned an- 
other little lesson that has stood me 
in good stead. 

"Father owned a horse, and it 
was a part of my duties to feed, 
water and bed him (the horse") 
down. Amongst other eccentrici- 
ties this horse had acquired the 
playful habit of attempting to 
squeeze against the wall any person 
entering his stall. As the horse 
weighed about a thousand pounds, 
and me less than a hundred, I was 
at such times not what would be 
called a 'preferred risk.' 

"So I conceived the idea of tak- 
ing in Avith me next time, a thin 
board neatly studded with long 
sharp tacks. The horse leaned but 
did not linger ; he gave a shocked 
and surprised shudder, and moved 
over, and exclaimed in horse lan- 
guage, 'Thou too Brutus,' and thus 
was stimulated within me the fac- 
ulty of resourcefulness. 

"Mother made good cookies, and 
I was fond of them ; in fact, I 
might say I had a passion for them, 
so much so that mother experienced 
difificulty in maintaining any visible 
supply, and so had to resort to 
places of concealment, most of 
which I promptly proceeded to dis- 
cover ; finally mother had a bright 
idea — she put the next batch in a 
shiny tin pail, and hung the pail in 
plain sight, where they remained 
undiscovered. The joke was too 
good to keep, so finally mother had 
to tell me. From this I deduced 


that it was not always safe to de- 
pend upon precedents. 

"Along about this time someone 
told me that it was impossible to 
crush an egg by holding it between- 
the palms of the hands and apply- 
ing pressure. I tried the experi- 
ment ; not wishing, in case of suc- 
cess, to destroy a perfectly good 
egg, I selected one from a deserted 
nest. Upon applying pressure as 
directed, I found that I had been 
misinformed. Thus I learned that 
gratifying idle curiosity was more 
than a waste of time. 

"These few incidents from the 
da}'S of my boyhood may seem to 
you to have no bearing upon serious 
things, but they have just the same, 
because they all teach the advant- 
age of profiting from past experi- 
ences, even if they have been the 
experiences of another." 

Baltimore, Md. 
"Kodakcry is, in my opinion, a 
very wonderful help to all who are 
amateurs in photography, and I 
take great pleasure in renewing my 

North Plainfield, N. J. 
"Enclosed is my subscription to 
Kodakcry, which will make my 
tliird year. Am very much pleased 
with it." 

Providence, R. I. 
"I will certainly be a subscriber to 
Kodakcry for the rest of my days." 

Hutchinson, Kan. 
"I have been reading Kodakcry 
for several years and it has taught; 
me much." 


Current Advertising 

W'e have the reputation of being 
conservative — and we are conserv- 
ative. Before we adopt anything 
new it is subjected to merciless and 
thorough criticism, investigation 
and test; it must be right and serve 
some useful purpose well. 

Three hundred thousand dollars 
cash was paid for the patents cover- 
ing the Autographic Feature, and 
more additional dollars have been 
paid out than you could pile in an 
army truck in advertising the Auto- 
graphic Feature. 

Three hundred thousand dollars 
would not have been paid by the 
Kodak Company for a mere talking 
point — no, not three cents : we have 
no use for talking points, unless 
they are backed up by real merit. 

We believe — we know that the 
Autographic Feature successfully 
fills a big need — makes amateur pic- 
ture making very much more worth 
while, and we want you as a sales- 
man to thoroughly sell yourself on 
the Autographic Feature, so you in 
turn can sell it to your customers. 

Several magazines with the widest 
circulation are carrying full page 
advertisements featuring the Auto- 
graphic idea. They appear just at 
the time when most people are 
thinking vacation. Kodak, and are 
in a most receptive mood. 

Hook up this publicity with your 
window displays, ar.d with your 
newspaper advertising, and when 
the customer comes in to talk Kodak 
sell him on the Autographic Fea- 

The date on any negative, no mat- 
ter how seemingly imimportant the 
negative is at the time, is always 
word"! while. 

The Autographic Feature is an 
exclusive Eastman feature — there 

is no extra charge for Autographic 

Cash in on the Autographic Fea- 

"The Best We Have" 

We know from experience that it 
pays to talk and show the high 
priced goods — pays in dollars and 
cents, and here is a concrete exam- 
ple : 

Zimmerman Bros, have a very at- 
tractive store, with ample display 
window space, and they consistently 
go after the customer who wants the 
best the market affords. 

On page 12 we show a reproduc- 
tion of one of their recent window 
displays, and you will note that the 
display contains but one camera, yet 
it sold the goods. 

Commenting on this display they 
say : "It sold several high priced 
Kodaks, and that Avas our idea in 
making the display." 

This display, because it was un- 
usual in idea and in arrangement, 
attracted a great deal of attention, 
and it sold the goods because it 
carried the idea of quality. 

As is evidenced by the price given 
for the Kodak, this display was 
made before the recent advance in 
camera prices went into effect. 

Don't let anything scare you out 
of showing the high priced goods ; 
there are more customers than you 
suspect in your town for the best the 
market affords. 



^ u 








Selling Sundries 

Every amateur who has owned a 
Kodak for any length of time has 
an accumulation of negatives which 
frequently puzzles him when it 
comes to the question of storage. 

Negative Albums 

He tries putting them in envel- 
opes, between the leaves of a book, 
or plants them in a drawer in the 
library table, and usually has a hor- 
rific time to locate any particular 
one when occasion arises. 

The sale of Film Negative Al- 
bums could be increased four-fold 
if you would only show them when 
delivering a print order or when 
selling a roll of film, as these are 
logical times to introduce them. 
Supposing the amateur is already 
using them, he will need another 
one sooner or later and you might 
just as ^vell have credit for the sale. 

More amateurs than you may 
possibly imagine like to develop 

Auto-Mask Printing Frame 

their vacation negatives while away 
and send post card prints to their 
friends, so when the amateur asks 

for five or six rolls of film you will 
be pretty safe in assuming that he 
has vacation in mind, so why not 
show him the Kodak Auto-AIask. 
the ^laskit or the Serial Printing 
Frame ; you might sell him one and 

The Optipod 

a goodly supply of post cards, de- 
veloper and fixing solution. 

You can, no matter how timid you 
are, safely show any amateur custo- 
mer the new Optipod, as it certainly 
fills the proverbial 1. f. w., and as a 
dollar coaxer is not to be excelled. 

Keep your thoughts on the vari- 
ous sundries ; there is an opportu- 
nity to introduce one or more of 
them to every customer, and it 
doesn't cost any more to sell two or 
three items than it does to sell only 
what the customer asks for. 

P.S. — That I. f. w above means 
"long felt want." 


Hollybrook, N. S. W., 


"I have received the copies of 

Kodakcry, for which I thank you 

very much, as I have obtained much 

valuable information." 



The Primary Page 

for-fhe Beginner 
Behind the Counter 


XCE in a while a customer will 
come in with some prints that 
are more or less stained, and be in- 
clined to place the blame upon the 
paper or the chemicals used rather 
than upon himself. 

The operations necessary to pro- 
duce a Velox print are so very sim- 
ple that the amateur is sometimes 
inclined to slight the few important 
instructions, and so fall short of 
best results. 

Now to avoid stains on \''elox, or 
any other developing-out paper, it 
is absolutely necessary that the 
prints be rinsed in water immediate- 
ly after they are removed from the 
developer. Next they should im- 
mediately be completely immersed, 
face up, in the fixing bath, and kept 
moving under the surface of the 
bath during the first few moments 
they are in the bath. 

Unless these three extremely sim- 
ple, yet vitally important, things are 
done the prints will be most apt to 
be stained during the process. 

Here are the reasons : the devel- 
oper is an alkaline solution ; the fix- 
ing bath is an acid. Since acid neu- 
tralizes alkali, one of the functions 
of the acid in the fixing bath is to 
quickly stop the action of the de- 

The prints must be rinsed in 
water immediately after they are 
developed so that the process of de- 
velopment will be checked, and most 
of the developer washed from both 
surfaces of the paper. If this is not 


done the excess of developer that is 
on the front and back of the paper 
will be carried into the fixing bath, 
with the result that the constant ad- 
dition of alkali that each print car- 
ries into the bath will gradually neu- 
tralize the acid, and so after many 
unrinsed prints are put in the bath 
it will be transformed from an acid 
to an alkaline solution. 

An alkaline fixing bath should 
never be used for fixing developing- 
out paper prints, because it can not 
quickly stop the action of the devel- 
oper, and if a print is placed in an 
alkaline bath it may grow darker 
during the earlier stages of fixing. 

Unless the prints are completely 
immersed in the fixing bath imme- 
diately after they are developed and 
rinsed, the portions of the prints 
that remain exposed to the air 
above the surface of the bath will 
discolor, and unless they are placed 
face up in the bath, air-bells, which 
can not be seen when the prints are 
face down, are apt to remain on the 
face of the prints. Now the fixing 
bath can not act where air-bells are 
present, and the developer that re- 
mains in the emulsion under the 
bubbles will stain the print. 

Prints must be kept moving un- 
der the surface of the fixing bath 
for a few moments after they are 
placed in it, so that the bath may 
uniformly penetrate the emulsion 
and stop the action of the developer, 
some of which is, at this stage of 
fixinsf, under the surface of the 


emulsion. If this is not done the 
developer that is in the emulsion 
will locally darken or stain the print. 

Sometimes you will be shown a 
bunch of prints which show signs 
of deterioration all over. This is 
usually the result of imperfect fix- 
ing, and insufficient washing. 

To be permanent the finished 
print must be entirely free of the 
Hypo contained in the fixing bath. 

Using running water where the 
prints can be kept constantly mov- 
ing from one-half to one hour, ac- 
cording to the number of prints, 
will be sufficient. 

Prints do not wash if piled in a 
bunch in the tray, and the water 
simply runs in at one end and out 
at the other. 

If the amateur wants to know 
how he can be absolutely sure his 
prints are free from Hypo, tell him 
to employ the following simple test, 
which is the one we always employ 
in our Finishing Department here : 

Permanganate of Potash... 8 grains 

Caustic Soda 7 grains 

Water (distilled) 8 ounces 

This solution should be made up 
fresh at least once a month. Fill a 
glass with pure water and add three 
or four drops of the above solution. 

Take a couple of prints from the 
wash water and allow the water 
from the prints to drip into the 

If Hypo is present the violet color 
of the solution will change to a 
slight greenish tint in from five to 
seven minutes. In such case return 
the prints to the wash water until 
similar tests show that the Hypo 
has been removed. 

The Four Types of 

'T spent fifteen years behind the 
counter and rubbed elbows with so 
many of them that I believe I can 
rightly claim to 'know salesmen.' 

"Ours is a large establishment 
with many departments and the 
number of ships I have seen 'pass 
in the night" would make a very nu- 
merous fleet. Salesmen have come 
and salesmen have gone — mostly 
have they gone. The new face be- 
hind the counter is a common sight. 

'"Having learned to know them so 
intimately and so well, I have about 
reached the conclusion that while 
the number is capable of enlarge- 
ment, salesmen generally are made 
up of four types — the working 
salesman, the selling salesman, the 
silent salesman and the bluft"er. 

"The working salesman, in nine- 
ty-nine cases out of a hundred, 
comes around looking for a position 
better than the one he holds. He is 
never out of work. We had one of 
this type call five years ago and he 
is still on the job. He is not a bril- 
liant salesman, nor are his sales 
ever noticeably large, but he pos- 
sesses a world of patience, and w^ins 
over the crankiest customer. He 
never has to keep a person waiting 
until he gets down some stock that 
is not on his shelves, for it is always 
there, neat and orderly. Although 
he is far from being a hustler, he is 
looked upon by the boss as a good 
old reliable, making enough sales to 
pay his salary, and a bit over, and is 
liked by the customers. 

''The selling salesman usually 
comes in reply to an advertisement 
for a salesman, and from the day 
he enters the store his idea is to out- 
sell his fellow workers, which he 
does. He is smartness itself. He 
meets the customer at the door, es- 



corts him to the counter, and in a 
few minutes time the counter is 
heaped up with goods and the sales- 
man himself has had to rush up- 
stairs for something the customer 
wants -to look at that is not on the 
shelves. He makes a lot of sales, 
and is noticed by the manager for 
so doing, but he never has time to 
look after his stock ; when the cus- 
tomer leaves he simply puts back 
the goods any way at all. and waits 
for the next one. 

" 'Give me a mixture of the work- 
ing salesman and the selling sales- 
man in equal parts and then I shall 
have a man after my own heart,' 
says the boss. As it is, the two 
types work together very nicely. 

"The silent salesman is not fit to 
rank as a salesman at all. He is not 
as useful as a valuable piece of 
stone furniture. He is usually a 
clerk who is given a job at a low 
salary and a chance to make good, 
which he never does. He stands 
behind the counter gazing into space 
and fails to see the customer until 
spoken to, and even then rarely 
speaks. 'Yes' or 'No' is his limit, 
or, more often, 'We are out of 
stock.' He knows nothing about the 
goods he is selling and it is a very 
lenient customer who does not lose 
patience with him. and go over to 
the 'working' or 'selling" salesman 
to get waited on. Many customers 
prefer to walk out. How this 'silent' 
man exists is a mystery, but he is 
found in almost every store, but like 
his friend the 'blufifer,' he is a roll- 
ing stone and gathers no moss. 

"The bluffing salesman is another 
make-believe. He never lasts long. 
We have had a few of them. Their 
self-reliant manner impresses the 
boss, and he gives them a trial — but 
they all have the same weakness — 
not being sure of their statements 
they make mistakes and try to bluff 


them out. In consequence, the cus- 
tomer has no faith in them or the 
goods they are selling. 

"We had one of this type apply 
for a job. He told the manager he 
could sell anything from a pin to an 
elephant, that he was a real sales- 
man, not an order-taker, etc. He 
was hired, and at once he started to 
show the whole bunch of salesmen 
how to sell. He soon came a crop- 
per. An old angler came in to buy 
some flies, and when Mr. Bluffer 
took him over to the tackle show- 
case the fun commenced. 

Taking a fly in his hand he held 
it up to the light, pointed out the 
beautiful colors, stated the fly was 
fashioned after a famous insect 
found on the Polly Womp Islands, 
then laid out a dozen or two on the 
top of the showcase, matched up the 
colors until they toned like the trim- 
mings on a lady's hat, and, turning 
to the customer, ejaculated : 'There 
you are, sir ; those go together fine.' 

"The angler gasped, and, turning 
to the 'working' clerk, said : 'Make 
me up a cast ; I'm going to Wild Cat 
Lake and want the flies to fish with, 
not to wear on my necktie.' After 
a few similar experiences the bluff- 
er 'resigned' to go to other spheres. 

"There are salesmen with other 
characteristics but I think it will be 
found that most of them are merely 
shadings of these four general 
types. Most of them never take 
their jobs seriously and never seek 
to improve themselves. They seem 
to think they are hired not to sell 
goods but merely to stand behind 
counters and hand out what the cus- 
tomer asks for. They couldn't de- 
fine the difference between a clerk 
and a salesman if their lives de- 
pended on it, and how so many of 
them are able to 'get away with it' 
is one of the wonders of the world." 
— Sporting Goods Sales Journal. 

if_^uu iluxi't Viliii J a 

ftit it. 




AUGUST. 1919 


4i uiiUi 



'>TpHE vocabulary of the man 
A who is a failure usually con- 
sists of the one word 'if.' The 
man who wins is not the one who 
vacillates, but the one who takes 
a definite stand, who says 'yes' or 
'no' as the occasion demands. He 
acquires a reputation for imme- 
diate decision, which is not to be 
despised in this age of rapid 
thinking and quick achieve- 

Executive Building, Kodak Heights. 

Fro})i i p Alojt. 

The lay-out of the roadways and lawns is well 
shown in the above. The rectangle of lighter color 
in the immediate foreground is the new bowling 
green, which is expected to be ready by the end 
of this month. 


An aid =^= 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol, 5 

AUGUST, 1919 

No. 7 


A Single Important Phase of the Kodak Companies' 
Extensive War Time Effort 

The Kodak Companies figured 
prominently in the industrial mobi- 
lization that followed the outbreak 
of the world war and because of 
highly trained personnel and 
elaborate manufacturing equipment 
were asked to make such widely di- 
versified products as a special fire- 
proof varnish for aeroplane wings, 
aeroplane machine-gun sights, trench 
periscopes, special tripods for En- 
gineering corps and eye-pieces for 
gas masks. The Kodak Research 
Laboratory, moreover, did import- 
ant work in the art of camouflage 
and in aerial photographic experi- 
ments. But it is in the development 
of special aviation cameras that the 
Kodak Companies have particularly 
excelled and it is the purpose of this 
article to dwell especially upon this 
feature of their war endeavor. 

The Aero Cameras produced by 
the Kodak Companies may be di- 
vided into two groups, one including 
several types of hand-held cameras 
for oblique pictures and the other 
those attached to the fuselage of the 
aeroplanes for vertical pictures used 
in photographic mapping. To these 
may be added an ingenious gun 
camera, which may be mounted on 
a Lewis Machine Gun in place of 

the ammunition magazine and which 
gives the fighting airman the neces- 
sary target practice, obtainable in no 
other way, exposures being made on 
a motion picture film instead of 
firing actual bullets. 

When the United States entered 
the war, experts from the Eastman 
Kodak Company were called into 
consultation with the U.S. Military 
and Xaval Authorities at Washing- 
ton and Langley Field, and with the 
assistance of our own, British and 
Allied trained photographic men. 
plans were laid for the construction 
of new aerial cameras embody- 
ing all the latest requirements in 
large quantities commensurate with 
the enormous aeroplane construc- 
tion program promulgated at the 
time by the L^.S. Litensive experi- 
ments and field trials to determine 
the exact types of material best 
adapted for the purpose were im- 
mediately in order. A large part 
of the Kodak technical staff, and a 
good part of the manufacturing 
space of several of its plants was at 
once devoted to the development of 
the new war equipment. In spite 
of the obstacles caused by shortages 
in materials and the many new 
problems encountered, great sue- 


cess was speedily realized in the 
design and construction of service- 
able Aero Cameras for the various 
purposes desired. 

Realizing the critical nature of 
the situation the lens designers of 
the Kodak Company were at work 
early on the design of Aerial Lenses 
for high-speed operation, while 
representatives in Europe looked 
into the glass situation. Excellent 
co-operation was obtained from the 
Geophysical Laboratory at Wash- 
ington, and from several prominent 
American manufacturers of glass, 
and as a result within the short 
period of twelve months, a new 
industry for making optical glass in 
quantities to satisfy the enormous 
military demands was created. 
Moreover, in the development and 
perfection of the Hawkeye Aerial 
Lens, the engineers of the Hawkeye 
Works of the Eastman Kodak Com- 
pany attained one of the big tri- 
umphs of the war. 

In the design of the Hawkeye 
Aerial Lens, small covering power 
but highest definition and speed 
were required. The first Hawkeye 
Aerial Lens was of 10-inch focal 
length designed to work at /. 4.5 
and to cover a 4-inch by 5-inch plate, 
and proved very successful. Hawk- 
eye Lenses of other focal lengths, of 
which the 48-inch lens is particu- 
larly worthy of mention, were sub- 
sequently produced. These lenses, 
although produced under the stress 
of war conditions, represent the 

very best in the way of optical per- 

The 48-inch Hawkeye Lens works 
at /. 8.8 with a plate 18 centimeters 
by 24 centimeters in size and is be- 
lieved to be the first one of its size 
and type designed especially for 
aerial work. It is, in fact, the long- 
range "gun" of the aerial photogra- 
pher's battery. With this wonder- 
ful lens it is possible to get photo- 
graphs from the highest altitudes 
showing objects on the earth with 
almost microscopic detail. The lens 
is mounted in a special camera five 
feet long, which is fitted into the 

Owing to the persistence of the 
anti-aircraft guns, or Archies, as 
they are slangily called, photographs 
in the war zone must usually be 
taken at heights of 10,000 feet or 
more. For photographic mapping 
and operation at these heights, the 
Eastman Model C-2 and Model K-1 
Aero Cameras are particularly 
worthy of mention, the one being 
designed for use with plates and 
the other, the K-1, which is entirely 
automatic in action, for use with 

Model B-1 

The C-2 plate Aero Camera is 
hand operated and mounted in the 
floor or on the outside of a one or 
two passenger aircraft. It is of 
aluminum construction throughout. 


Model C-2 

Two metal magazines with a capa- 
city of 24 plates 4 by 5 inches in 
size are provided, the plates being 
fed by gravity to the recording 
plane. Exposures are made by a 
slight pull of the forefinger upon 
the shutter release lever. Shutter 
speeds range from 1/120 to 1/435 
second. This camera is fitted with 
a Hawkeye Aerial Lens with an 
equivalent focus of 8^ inches and 
fixed aperture of /. 4.5 in adjust- 
able standard mount. The total 
weight of the camera, including lens 
and two magazines, is 21 pounds. 
Flying at definite altitudes so that 
the negatives procured are made to 
scale, it is easily possible to fit prints 
or enlargements together with re- 
markable accuracy to produce pho- 
tographic maps or mosaics of long 
strips or wide areas of territory. 

The K-1 film Aero Camera is 
one of the most ingenious cameras 
ever produced. It is entirely auto- 
matic in action, being operated by a 
special wind motor. ^^lounted in 

his single-seater plane, the pilot need 
only start the operation of the wind 
motor by means of a lever and then 
one or more exposures within the 
limitations of the roll of film may 
be made at will. The roll of film is 
9y2 inches wide by 75 feet long, 
sufificient for 100 exposures. The 
Hawkeye Aerial Lens is of 20 inch 
focus, /. 6, and is provided with an 
adjustable device for carrying com- 
pensating filters directly in front of 
the lens. In the development of a 
film aerial camera of this type the 
vibration of the machine presented 
an obstacle that seemed almost in- 
surmountable. The scheme of hold- 
ing the film firmly in the recording 
plane by constant vacuum suction 
produced by a A^nturi tube finally 
solved the problem. The time be- 
tween exposures can be regulated 
by a damper control mechanism for 
the wind motor. When the wind 
motor is started, exposures are 
made at predetermined fixed inter- 
vals to suit the photographic re- 


Model K-l 

quirements. Flying at a height of 
10,000 feet, an area approximately 
two square miles in size can be 
photographed with the K-l Camera 
at each exposure. 

In spite of the fact that most of 
the routine photographic work in 
the war zones is done at high alti- 
tudes there are times nevertheless 
when lower flying is done and for 
this purpose a light-weight, easily 
operated hand-held camera is de- 
sired. For the purpose the Kodak 
Company has developed the Alodel 
A-1 for use with plates and the 
Model B-1 for use with film. The 
shutter release is so located as to 
be easily operated by the observer's 
right thumb. As a protection 
against exposures of the lens to fog, 
mist or dirt, use is made of a safety 
shutter in front of the lens. A direct 

vision tubular finder having inter- 
secting vertical and horizontal wires 
provides proper sighting facilities. 
Both cameras are fitted with 10-inch 
Hawkeye Aerial Lenses and Focal 
Plane Shutters. With the B-1 Cam- 
era daylight loading also can be ac- 

Looking toward the peace time 
development of aviation, these 
hand-held cameras. Models A-1 and 
B-1, make a strong appeal to the 
civilian aviator. Today photography 
occupies a large place in the affairs 
of every one of us, and these two 
cameras broaden the scope of photo- 
graphy so as to include the realm of 
air. The C-2 and K-l mapping 
cameras will also be available for 
making peace-time photographic 
maps in place of ordinary survey 
maps and for photographic progress 
and valuation reports. 


A Kodak Vacation Suggestion (See Page 8) 


Try This One 

There are a goodly number of 
store and window display men who 
receive large salaries. Why? Be- 
cause they have a natural aptitude 
for such work and because they 
have made a careful study of their 
work and so can produce results. 

It is true that the smaller estab- 
lishments can not afford to main- 
tain a decorating department and to 
employ a man exclusively for such 
work, but nevertheless many of 
such stores do install, right along, 
good selling displays. 

If you happen to be the man in 
your store who has the windows in 
charge, do not be discouraged be- 
cause you have not a large stock of 
display fixtures to draw from ; 
rather you should be encouraged 
because you can confine yourself to 
the simpler effects — and the simpler 
effects get over to the passerby the 

Unless the display is for a patri- 
otic or some similar extra occasion, 
its primary mission is to sell goods, 
and you should never lose sight of 
this fact. 

The highest percentage of brain 
impressions are received through 
the eye, but this does not mean that 
all you have to do is to arrest atten- 
tion ; though this is the first step. 

A riot of colors, or an incongru- 
ous association of objects, or an ob- 
ject or objects in motion, will arrest 
.attention, but will serve no further 

Observe the people passing your 
store ; most of them move along at 
a good pace, and are more or less 
preoccupied; they must perforce 
glance occasionally to the right or 
left to avoid collision or mis-step, 
and it is usually on such occasions 
only that you can hope to have their 
eyes rest on your window. 


Supposing you do succeed in at- 
tracting their eyes, and your dis- 
play fails to record any other im- 
pression on their brain than that of 
beauty, or of something foreign to 
your goods. 

When they pass on — and in such 
cases all they do is pass on — your 
display has failed in its mission. 

The mission of the display win- 
dow is to sell goods, so if when you 
have arrested attention your display 
creates an impression of usefulness 
or pleasure as associated with your 
goods, you stand a fair chance of 
having the onlooker enter your 
store then, or at a later date. 

On page 7 we afford a display 
selHng suggestion ; it is exceedingly 
simple — designedly so, and can be 
easily installed in even a very small 

The display is simple, and dift'er- 
ent enough from the conventional 
to arrest attention and arouse inter- 

Try it out — we believe it will sell 

Large, As Well 

In our July i>sue we told with 
what skill and accuracy the Kodak 
Anastigmat lenses are made. The 
picture shown on page 9 will give 
something of an idea of the manu- 
facturing capacity of the plant. A 
large addition has recently been 
necessary, and as we have finally 
caught up with our back orders for 
cameras equipped with the Kodak 
x\nastigmat lens /. 7 .7 , the Anastig- 
mat business is again coming into 
its own. 












Ten -minutes 
with the Boss 

'QAAI. did you ever stop to think 
i3 that about one of the biggest 
assets a store can have is the conti- 
dence of its customers? 

"There are two grocery stores 
out in mv neighborhood, and the 
other morning I heard my wife try- 
ing to get one of them on the phone ; 
she made several attempts but 
found each time that the 'line was 
busy,' so I inquired why she did not 
call up the other store. She repHed : 
'If I give them a phone order I 
always get the worst of it, while the 
store I have been trying to get will 
be even more particular than if I 
went there in person.' 

"The store to which you can tele- 
phone, or send a child, and be abso- 
lutely sure of good service and a 
square deal is the one that gets the 
business in the long run. 

"You have only to think back 
just a few years. Sam. to recall how 
a great many merchants made ex- 
travagant claims in their advertising 
— 'Thirty-five dollar suits for ten 
sixty-seven." and the like. 

"Only the most gullible took 
these advertisements at their full 
value, and the store's advertising 
lost much of its drawing power in 
consequence, because the people 
did not believe it, and all advertis- 
ing was more or less discounted. 

"In the last few years, Sam, con- 
fidence in advertising has grown an 


enormous per cent, because both the 
manufacturer and the dealer have 
found that it pays them far better 
to be conservative in their state- 
ments, and to underestimate rather 
than to over-estimate values or 

"As an example, Sam, of how the 
absolute truth will sell goods let me 
tell you a little sto/y, which I hap- 
pened to read in Associated Adver- 

"It concerns a well-known depart- 
ment store proprietor noted for his 
bluntness of speech and his peppery 
temper, who walked into the office of 
his advertising manager one day to 
give orders regarding an advertise- 
ment in the next morning's dailies. 

"The advertising manager was ill, 
and his new assistant, a yotmg college 
man, was doing his best to keep things 

" 'Young man,' said the merchant, '1 
want you to stir up some interest in 
the waterproof garment department. 
The fact is, we have a lot of rotten 
raincoats we've got to get rid of. They 
are shop-worn, and some of them are 
cracked, and we'll sell them for little 
or nothing. Now we've got to get the 
people here to buy 'em. There are 
some good ones in the lot, but if we 
can't sell 'em we might as well dump 
'em in the river.' 

"The young man assured 'the boss'" 
he knew exactly how to do it. 

"The next morning when the merch- 
ant opened his paper to read his 
store's advertisement for that day, he 
came pretty near having a fit, for on 
the page opposite the editorials was^ 
the raincoat advertisement, away 
across the page in bold, black-faced, 
type, and it read this way: 


" "To tell the truth, we have a lot of 
rotten raincoats we've got to get rid 
of. They are shopworn, and some of 
them are cracked, and we will sell 
them for little or nothing.' 

"Down went his fist on the table, 
rattling the dishes and spilling the 
cofifee.. He read on: 

" 'There are some good ones in the 
lot, but if we can't sell them, we might 
as well dump them into the river.' 

"Without waiting to eat breakfast, 
he jammed his hat close to his ears 
and started off down town an hour 
ahead of his usual time, to discharge 
the youth who had written the adver- 
tisement. Red in the face, he headed 
straight for the advertising manager's 
office. His partner met him on the 
way and asked: 

" 'Do you know about the raincoats?' 

"'Do I know? Yes! I'm on my 
way to kick that fool out of the store.' 

" 'Then 3'ou don't know,' said his 
partner. 'There was the biggest crowd 
in the raincoat department we ever 
had. Every garment was sold out 
thirty minutes after we opened this 
morning. That ad was a wonder. 
Seemed to please the people by its 
absolute frankness.' 

"The merchant paused, and then 
turned his steps toward his office. He 
sent for the advertising man. 

" 'Young man,' he said, 'how did it 
happen that j'ou used my exact words 
in that advertisement this morning?' 

" 'You told the truth so simply and 
directly that I couldn't improve on 
your way of saying it,' was the 

" 'Well,' said the merchant, 'but you 
were right and I was wrong. You may 
run the advertising department your 
own way from now on.' " 

**Kodakery" for September 

One of the first things the be- 
ginner attempts is portraiture, as 
you well know from the numerous 
questions hurled at you. 

The September Kodakery has a 
very clear story on just how to 
secure good results in home por- 
traiture, and you can read it with 
profit to yourself and your cus- 

Dr. Alees has the happy faculty 
of telling scientific facts in an un- 
derstandable way, and you will find 
his story on Orthochromatic Pho- 
tography most helpful and interest- 

Hot weather troubles come to 
even the experienced, but the story 
"In Hot Weather" tells how to do 
away with most of them. 

We are a bit proud of the part 
our organization had during the 
war relative to aviation and photog- 
raphy ; the story on "Teaching Avi- 
ators To Shoot by Photography" 
tells why. 

Our August Advertising 

We have often been asked, "Why 
do you keep on advertising when 
your goods are so well known and 
so universally obtainable ?" 

The question answers itself — our 
goods are so well known and so 
universally obtainable because of 
our advertising — and high quality. 

People who ask this question 
overlook the fact that people forget 
very quickly; that the business 
grave-yard is full of "has-beens" 
who ceased advertising because it 
was deemed of no further use. 

And what about the little chil- 
dren who so rapidly grow to be 
men and women ; must they learn of 
our products through legend, and 
will they use them just because 
father and mother and grandpa and 
grandma did? 

They will not — advertising must 
keep pace — a pace ahead of the 
times and people and be continuous 
to succeed. 

That is the answer. 



J ^ Salesman 

*| DOX'T exactly recall whether it 
1 was William Shakespeare, Daniel 
or Noah Webster who first stated 
as a fact that one could catch more 
flies with sugar than with vinegar — 
meaning it pays to smile. 

"This season I have been living 
in a lakeside cottage a bit oft" the 
beaten track of city delivery wag- 
ons, and so I am forced to weekly 
pack up my linen and lug it to town 
for refreshing. 

"I pass several laundries on the 
way to the office ; in fact. I go a bit 
past it to leave my bundle. 

"I don't know, neither do I care, 
whether the laundry where I leave 
my package is the best in town or 
not (it's pretty good any way), but 
I do appreciate the smile which 
greets me on each visit. 

"The receiving clerk, or whatever 
may be her oft'icial title, is homely. 
fat and has passed the forty mark 
by some laps, but if smiles and 
good nature are conducive to long- 
evity, she will be still on the job 
fifty years from now. 

"She has a smile and a good 
word for everyone going and com- 
ing, and is, without question, a busi- 
ness getter because of it. 

"A smile can be useful in a lot of 
different ways. 

"Suppose you see the boss come 
in some morning minus his usual 
cheerful manner, due, perhaps, to 
the fact that his new car failed to 
arrive in time for him to use it 
over Sunday, or for any one of a 
dozen other reasons. 


"You know from experience that 
the first one to go up against him 
will receive the explosion, after 
which the skies will again be all 

"If you happen to be 'it.' just ap- 
pear before him and smile. No 
matter if he does call you down for 
something real or imaginary — just 
smile and agree with him. 

"He will not want you to smile or 
to agree with him — such is human 
nature, but after you have depart- 
ed, still smiling, he'll say to himself. 
'Drat that fellow.' and then with 
half a chuckle he'll feel your smile 
working in on him. and he'll think 
it's a nice day after all. 

"I have sold many a bill of goods, 
with a smile, to men who thought 
that they could not — or should not 
— smile, and I have usually found a 
way to make them smile before I 

"Think over the number of trav- 
eling salesmen who visit your store : 
they all smile, every one of them, 
because they know it helps both 
them and their business. 

"Even traveling men have their 
troubles, and most of them can 
keep on smiling even when they feel 
pretty blue inside. 

"Supposing a traveling salesman 
with a grouch met a customer with 
a grouch — there wouldn't be much 
business done, and the chances are 
that the day would be spoiled for 
both of them, and the traveling man 
knows this. 


"Supposing, again, little IMrs. 
Housewife has left a roll of film 
for finishing. She is tremendously 
anxious 'as to results because it 
contains pictures of her kiddie's 
birthday party. 

"Through some error on her 
part, the pictures are not all they 
should be, and in her disappoint- 
'- :nt she lets her temper get away 
from her and blames it all on your 
finishing department and you. 

"Now if you lost your temper it's 
a hundred dollars to a plugged 
nickel that you would lose a cus- 
tomer and she would lose a good 
deal of future happiness in picture 

"If, on the other hand, you were 
patient with her and let her talk 
herself all out of breath, and ex- 
pressed your sincere regret at her 
lack of success — and smiled — you 
would stand a pretty good chance 
of showing her just how to suc- 
ceed next time and she would leave 
your store thinking that you were 
just about the nicest salesman in 

"The next time you feel a grouch 
starting over you or completely en- 
veloping you, just step in front of 
the nearest mirror and take a look 
at yourself — and I defy you to 
keep from smiling; the first spasm 
will probably be a bit sheepish but 
keep it up and you will end in a 
hearty roar. 

"I know, because I've tried it." 

Edmonton, Alta. 
"T certainly do enjoy Kodakcvy. 
I read every copy, and the pictures 
are so interesting." 

Hahfax, N.S. 
"I never would have known how 
to take the inclosed views if your 
dandy little magazine {Kodak cry) 
hadn't just arrived." 

Don't Hold 'Em 

\\'e have on several occasions re- 
ceived letters reading something 
like this : "When I bought my 
Kodak the dealer told me I would 
have the Kodakcry magazine sent 
to me for a year, and it has not 

We would check up the name on 
our Hsts and fail to find it. which 
was a bit puzzling. 

We found the answer the other 
day; a big bunch of Kodakery sub- 
scriptions came on from a dealer, 
some dated way back in March, 
and on through April, ^lay and 

Those held-up subscriptions 
should have been working for that 
dealer from the earliest possible 

So, please don't hold the sub- 
scriptions until you have a bunch of 
them ; send them in the very day 
you fill them out because Kodakery 
IS a truly wonderful thing in keeping 
the beginner enthused. 

What Stops You? 

It takes more than a pin on the 
railroad track to stop a locomotive. 

But if the pin could stop the 
engine, a wise engine crew would 
remove the pin from the track and 
then go on. 

These two sentences suggest an 
excellent test of caliber, whether it 
be of an engine and crew, a boy on 
a bicycle, or a man and his job. 

You'll know something about the 
caliber of a man if you know what 
stops him. You'll know him a Uttle 
more if you know whether or not 
he has insisted on the obstruction 
being put out of the way. 

Take yourself, for instance. 

Uliat stops youf 



The Primary Page 

for-fhe Beginner 
Behind the Counter 

To the average beginner the lens 
of the camera is just a bit of 
glass, and so when selecting a cam- 
era they fail to see why one lens 
equipment should sell for so much 
more than another. We explained 
this problem some time ago, but as 
this question is always arising, it 
will do no harm to go over it again. 

As you know, Kodak, Premo 
and Brownie Cameras are listed 
with several different kinds of 
lenses, the smaller cameras being 
listed with either Meniscus. Menis- 
cus Achromatic, Rapid Rectilinear 
or Anastigmat Lenses. The larger 
instruments have either Rapid Rec- 
tilinear or Anastigmat Lenses, while 
the Special Kodaks and Graflex 
Cameras are equipped only with 
Anastigmat Lenses. 

The Box Brownies are equipped 
with Meniscus or Meniscus Achro- 
matic Lenses, and with the Folding 
Brownies there is a choice between 
Meniscus Achromatic and Rapid 
Rectilinear Lenses. 

The simplest lenses which can be 
used are made from a single piece 
of glass, the form being a crescent 
shape which affords the best defini- 
tion ; hence the name Meniscus. 

A Meniscus Lens can be readily 
used only in a fixed focus camera 
where the maker of the camera has 
put it in the correct position for 
forming a sharp image on the film. 

Now, if such a lens were used in 
a focusing camera, no matter how 


carefully you focused the image on 
the ground glass, provided the cam- 
era was so equipped, your negatives 
would not be sharp, unless the dif- 
ference between the focusing point 
of the visual rays by which we 
focus, and the chemical rays which 
affect the film, was provided for. 

Let us make this a bit clearer : A 
non-achromatic lens, of which the 
Meniscus is a type, bends the rays 
of light of different colors to dif- 
ferent extents, so that the yellow 
(called visual) rays which our eyes 
see when focusing do not come to a 
focus at the same point as the blue 
r called actinic) rays which affect 
the film because the blue rays are 
bent more than the yellow ones. 

It was discovered a good many 
years ago that by combining two 
different kinds of glass in a lens, 
the blue rays and the yellow rays 
could be made to come to a focus at 
the same point. Such lenses were 
called Achromatic. 

The best shape for an achromatic 
lens is the meniscus, so lenses of 
this type are called Meniscus Achro- 

Owing to their construction these 
lenses produce a slight curvature of 
the edges of the picture. This does 
not matter in landscape work or 
portraiture, but if subjects contain- 
ing straight marginal lines are pho- 
tographed with such a lens, their 
outer lines would appear slightly 


To overcome this the lens makers 
put two achromatics together with 
the stop between them, and so the 
curvature of one lens is neutralized 
by the other. 

Such a lens is called a Rapid 
Rectilinear — Rectilinear because it 
gives straight line images, and 
Rapid because, having a focal length 
half that of cither of the component 
achromatics. with a stop of the same 
diameter, it passes four times as 
much light and requires only one- 
quarter of the exposure. 

Xow we come to the Anastigmat 
Lenses : About thirty years ago it 
became possible to produce optical 
glass from which lenses could be 
made which would give flat field 
images with the blue and yellow 
rays at the same focus. 

By the use of these new glasses, 
the manufacturers have been able 
to make lenses that give sharp im- 
ages on a flat field to the very edge 
of the picture : and so. therefore, 
these lenses are called "Anastig- 
mats," but this better defining 
power can, however, only be ob- 
tained by the most careful and 
skilled work in making the lens, 
such as found in the Kodak lens 

Anastigmat Lenses can be used 
with larger stops than any of the 
other lenses, so that if an xA^chro- 
matic working at /. 16 requires 1 /5 
second exposure (for a certain sul)- 
ject), a Rapid Rectilinear working 
at /. 8 will require 1/20 second ex- 
posure, and an Anastigmat work- 
ing at /. 6.3 will require 1/32 sec- 
ond exposure. 

The Kodak Anastigmat Lenses 
are designed especially for the size 
of the camera for which they are 
listed, and are corrected to cover 
only that particular size ; the result 
being that they give the utmost in 
efficiency for the specific purpose 
for which they were designed, and 

they can be made and sold at a 
lower price than the lenses which 
have to serve two purposes. 

For Kodak use you can not get 
better lenses than the Kodak Anas- 
tigmats at any price. 

Photographing the Display 

Li an article on the photograph- 
ing of window displays in a recent 
issue of The Sfiimtlotor, the writer 
remarks : "Alany wmdow display 
photographs are sent in to The 
Stimulator by its readers. Most of 
these displays are excellent, but un- 
fortunately the photographs of 
some of the best displays are too 
poor to show up well in a cut, so 
many readers will doubtless appre- 
ciate a few hints that will conduce 
to better picture making." 

As his advice is thoroughly prac- 
tical, and as we have had much the 
same experience, we give you here 
his directions for successful pic- 
tures : 

"Take the picture at night. 

"Have all store lights (except 
those in window) put out. 

"Replace temporarily all small 
lamps used in the top of your win- 
dow by larger lamps ; that is, re- 
place 25 watt or 50 watt lamps by 
7S watt and 100 watt lamps. Mazda 
'C lamps give a whiter light, and 
therefore produce a much stronger 
eft'ect on the photographic plate 
than do Mazda 'B' lamps. 

"Never use flash-light. 

"Give plenty of exposure and de- 
velop for non-halation. 

"Use Eastman Portrait Film if 

"If reflections from street lights 
appear in the window glass, arrange 
to have such lights put out or 
shielded while the picture is taken. 



"Always print on glossy paper if 
the picture is to be submitted for 
cut purposes. 

"See that the camera is set soHd- 
ly and is level. 

"Have camera in front of center 
of window. 

"See that no glare from the 
lamps in the window enters the lens 
of the camera. Glaring lights cause 
large rings called 'ghosts' by pho- 

"Do not focus the camera on the 
front or back of the window, but 
half way between. 

"The camera should be stopped 
down to at least 32. If there is a 
great deal of light in the window, it 
will be better to use even a smaller 
stop. The effect of this is a sharp- 
er, clearer picture. It must be re- 
membered, however, that the small- 
er the stop used the longer the time 
allowed for exposure must be. For 
an average show-window display 
the exposure should be not less than 
fifteen minutes, and in many cases 
a half to three-quarters of an hour 
will be required." 

Guelph, Ont. 
"I certainly enjoy Kodakcry. It's 
all O.K." 

Richmond. Que. 
"Kodakcry has been a wonderful 
help to me." 

The Man with the Coon- 
Skin Cap 

An efficiency engineer of national 
reputation had been engaged by one 
of the large railway systems, and 
had just completed an inspection of 
one of its division repair shops and 
was returning to headquarters. 


At best he was careless in his at- 
tire, and on the present occasion he 
was garbed in an old suit of cordii- 
roys ; a flannel shirt and a four 
days' growth of beard. 

He had just seated himself in the 
Pullman when up came the conduc- 
tor with, "Here you, the day coach 
up forward for yours." 

You can imagine the painful em- 
barrassment of the conductor when 
the about-to-be-ejected passenger 
pulled his annual pass on him from 
a bunch of about a dozen others. 

You can't always judge by ap- 

The "Stewart Lever" tells of a 
man wearing a coon-skin cap who 
entered the very luxurious sales- 
room of a dealer handling a high- 
priced car. 

Fortunately for the floor sales- 
man, he had just one manner for all 
occasions. He welcomed the man 
as though he were clad in the height 
of fashion, and seemed privileged to 
show the car to him. 

If later he proved to be only a 
curiosity seeker he wouldn't be out 
anything but a little time. If he 
proved to be a sure enough buyer 
he would be on the safe side. But 
he was safe ; in less than an hour 
he had sold the man a car for him- 
self for which he paid cash in full 
from a pocket in his home spun 
suit, and he had given an order for 
two more cars for his two brothers 
for which cash would be sent in ad- 
vance as soon as he had advised his 
brothers of his selection. 

Courtesy pays — even to a man in 
a coon-skin cap. 

C. E. F. 
"I don't think I could get along 
without Kodakerv." 

li^ii^r hunt uriiund iuf 

.^^Uiiiz^ EiUaniiiaa V/liii 

Huiitf^ uientitdtiiivijrid* 


T^HE men who have 
achieved success are 
the men who have worked, 
rread, thought more than was 
absohitel}' necessary, who 
have not been content with 
knowledge sufficient for the 
present need, but who ha^'e 
souglit additional know! 
edge, and stored it away for 
the emergency reserve. It is 
tlie superfluous labor tliat 
equips a man for everytliing 
liiat counts most in life. 

n—- — ^ 








jaiCLUulkeii — il3 ijilei- 

uieii Jill J it3 cu2l'Jiiier2. 

5 TICK! 



Keep a Kodak Story of t tie Children 

In every da}' of their young lives are events of almost 
dramatic interest : The painted gallop across the porch on the 
hobby horse ; the adventure with the puppy in the garden ; 
sister's new frock and brother's tricycle ; that important morn- 
ing when with stout hearts they first trudge off to school — such 
pictures, preserving forever the childhood days, mean a world 
of comfort to mother's heart — yes, and to father's too. 

And just a few years afterward: "That's you, Polly, when 
you were — let me see. Oh yes. the film says it was August eight, 
nineteen nineteen, your fourth birthday. And Junior w^as five." 

Every picture worth taking is worth at least a date if not a 
title. It's all very simple with an Autographic Kodak, as 
simple as pressing the button. And Autographic film costs no 
more than the other kind. 



A// Dealers. 

One of the recent magazine advertisements (reduced) — See page IG 

THE kodak: salesman 

An aid =^= 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol. 5 


No. 8 

Easy Money 

"I would like to look at a cam- 
era, something for all-around 

The salesman gave a quick ap- 
praising glance; he saw before him 
a well groomed, vigorous man 
somewhere in the thirties. 

"Well, I guess we can fill that 
bill," smilingly said the salesman, 
and turning to the display case he 
selected a Graflex and placed it 
before the customer. 

"Looks sort of bulky and heavy 
to me," said the customer. 

"It only weighs six pounds," re- 
sponded the salesman, "and I don't 
think you will mind a bit more bulk 
or weight when I show you what 
the Graflex can do." 

Opening the hood, tlie salesman 
stepped out from behind the count- 
er to a spot where the light was 
good, and then quickly focused the 

"Now, sir, if you will just look 
down into this hood." 

The customer complied. After a 
few moments the salesman attempt- 
ed to take the instrument to further 
demonstrate its workings. 

"Hold on a minute," said the cus- 
tomer. "Say, this is great. Why 
the finder image is as big as the 
picture, and it's right side up." 

"Yes," replied the salesman, "that 
is one of the big advantages of the 
Graflex and, furthermore, vou can 

see the full image right up to the 
instant of exposure, which is a tre- 
mendous advantage in composing 
your picture and in securing just 
the right action or expression. 

"Now let me stand a little in 
front of you ; put your hand on 
this knob and rack the lens in and 
out and you will see that it re- 
quires but an instant to bring an 
object at any distance into focus. 
so you never have to guess as to 
whether \our picture is in focus or 

"W'e have been using the lens at 
its full aperture, and if you will 
look down into the hood again you 
will see that while my image is 
((uite sharp, the other objects in 
front and in back of me are out of 

"Now, you look into the hood 
while I slowly decrease the size of 
the stop opening, and see how, by 
so doing, you can bring objects in 
the other planes into focus. 

"Of course, though, the more 
you diaphragm the lens down, the 
longer the exposure, because less 
light is admitted in a given period. 

"Pretty large lens, isn't it. for ^' 
size of the picture," remarked the 

"Yes, the higli speed lenses, 
working at a larger aperture, are 
the only ones to use on the Graflex 
so as to take advantage of the full 
speed of the shutter when occasion 


■■\\ itli this lens, it is i^ossible to 
take pictures of children indoors, 
and you know youngsters don't sit 
still very long, but of course even 
with this fast lens, the light condi- 
tions have to be favorable. 

"Here are some Graflex pictures 
taken in the rain by one of our cus- 
tomers, and you can see the rain 
drops dripping from the umbrella."' 

"Just glance over tliis album of 
Graflex pictures. Here is a good 
one of a tarpon leaping, and here 
are some pretty good ones of base- 
ball and motor races; and if you 
want to catch the fleeting expres- 
sions and poses of . a bunch of 
youngsters, there is nothing to com- 
pare with the Graflex." 

The customer was, by now, pretty 
well enthused, and he demanded an 
explanation of the further work- 
ings of the Graflex. 

"You would have a hard time 
getting away without my explain- 
ing the rest of it."' responded the 
salesman, "because I'm a Graflex 

"I have shown you the method 
of focusing, so now I want to ex- 
plain the workings and principles 
of the very unusual shutter of the 

"The Graflex Shutter is what is 
called the 'focal plane" type because 
it operates immediately in front of 
the focal plane of the film or plate. 
It consists of a curtain of long 
opaque rubber coated cloth and 
operates by means of two rollers, 
the speed being governed by an ad- 
justable tension spring. 

"'Now I will wind up the shutter 
to its smallest aperture and then re- 
lease it. As I release it you will 
note that this curtain has five dif- 
ferent apertures ; the first }i of an 
inch, the next 4^. M. 1^ inches, 
and the last the full size of the pic- 

"Ry means of these various 
openings and the adjustable tension 
springs, a great range in exposures 
is provided, ranging with this par- 
ticular instrument, from 1/1000 of 
a second to 'time" exposures of any 

"Before I explain just how vary- 
ing exposures are obtained, I want 
to tell you a little more about this 
particular type of shutter in gen- 

"First of all the Graflex type of 
shutter is one hundred per cent, 
efl^icient. The apertures in the cur- 
tain, being the full width of the 
plate or film, allow every ray of 
light passing through the aperture 
of the lens to reach the surface of 
the film, no matter whether it 
comes through the centre or the 
extreme edge of the lens. 

"X'ow, while many of the 'be- 
tween-the-lens' type are highly efifi- 
cient, they can not have the effi- 
ciency of the Graflex shutter be- 
cause of their construction. 

"\\'ith such shutters the opening 
begins witli a pin-hole and grad- 
ually increases until the whole 
aperture is attained and closes with 
a reverse action, so you see that 
certain marginal rays of light are 
interfered with, and a certain 
amount of illumination lost.'" 

"That certainly is interesting." 
said the customer. "Xow show me 
how to work the rest of it." 

"There are just five operations 
necessary when making an expo- 
sure with the Graflex. 

"First, set the mirror; second, 
adjust the shutter to the desired 
opening and tension ; third, focus 
the subject; fourth, release the 
shutter; and. fifth, turn the film to 
the next number, or reverse the 
plate holder so as to bring an un- 
exposed plate into position. 

■'These operations soon become 
entirely mechanical and are per- 


furnifd with un more tliought or 
effort than when you reach into 
your pocket for a pencil. 

"I told you as to the range of ex- 
posures. These are obtained by 
using a larger or smaller curtain 
opening, and a higher or lower 
spring tension, there being twenty- 
four automatic exposures, as you 
will see by this exposure plate at- 
tached to the camera here. 

"You can also make 'time' ex- 
posures of any duration by using 
the full aperture of the curtain, and 
employing the mirror as a means of 
admitting and shutting off the light, 
in this manner." (Demonstrates 
the making of a "time" exposure). 

''The curtain apertures generally 
used are the ^, -54 and Ij/j with 
the No. 4 tension, which afford ex- 
posures of 1/23, 1/73 and 1/160 of 
a second respectively. 

"These exposures, according to 
light conditions and nature of the 
subject, wall be the proper ones for 
fully seventy-five per cent, of the 
pictures made out-of-doors, and the 
1/75 second will be used more than 
any other. 

"This is sufficientlv fast for 
street scenes and general views. 

"You see the 1/75 second expo- 
sure may be taken as a sort of a 
standard and the aperture of the 
lens increased or decreased accord- 
ing to light conditions." 

"Why not use the largest lens 
cpenir.g and high speed of shutter 
all the time?" inquired the custo- 

"Your large aperture lens and 
high speed shutter may be com- 
pared to a high powered automo- 
bile ; you usually want to jog along 
at a comfortable speed, but you like 
to know the reserve power is there 
when you need it. 

"It is always advisable to use the 
smaller dia])hragm and the lower 
shutter speeds because the smaller 

the diaphragm in the lens, the 
greater the definition and depth of 

"^'onr len> will be last enough at 
full opening to make a fully timed 
negative of a street scene in 1/160 
of a second, but you will obtain a 
luucli more satisfactory negative 
with stop f. 16 and 1/75 second ex- 

"Use the full opening of the lens 
only when making portraits, or for 
very rapidly moving objects where 
to arrest motion you must employ 
the highest shutter speed, or w^hen 
the light conditions are extremely 

"AA'ell," said the customer, "with 
all the advantages of the Graflex 
the extra weight and bulk doesn't 
count. How much?" 

"One hundred and fort\-four 
dollars for this model, and you 
ought to have a carrying case to 
protect such a valuable instrument, 
and at least half a dozen rolls of 
film; one fifty-seven, forty alto- 

"Thank you. shall I send it out 
for you ?'' 

"Xo. sir. I'll take it with me. be- 
cause I'm going to start liaving a 
good time right now." 

"I'll be in in a day or so to let 
you know how I am making out." 

"Fine, and I'll be glad to see 

Selling a Graflex is just as easy — 
often easier than selling a Brownie 
— when vou know how. 


"A real salesman is one part talk 
and nine parts judgment; and he 
uses the nine parts of judgment to 
tell when to use the one part of 
talk." — Team Work. 


Film Packs in Centimeter 

As you occasionally have calls 
for Premo Film Packs in centi- 
meter sizes we give herewith the 
numbers and sizes of such as we 
supply : 






in inches 

in c/tn 



41^ X 6 












8 X 10^ 



3 xSK 

7/2 X uy2 



3^ X sy2 

8 xl4 



4 x5 

10 X ny-, 



X / 

13 xl8 



9 xl2 



Wa X 53^ 

10 xlS 


Change in Listing of Por- 
trait Attachments 

A change is being made in the 
f. 7.7 lens mounts for the Nos. lA 
ahd 3 Autographic Kodaks neces- 
sitating a change in the sizes of the 
Portrait Attachments and Filters 
for these cameras. 

All of our listings, including the 
new Price List, give the size to be 
used on these two cameras as No. 
6, but instead, the change referred 
to will require the use of the Xo. 13 
Portrait Attachments and Filters. 

This change will be made in the 
^lanuals and wherever it is incor- 
rectly listed, as soon as possible, 
but in the meantime please correct 
vour Portrait Attachment card. 

The Display Window 

This month may not mark the 
high peak of the vacation season, 
but the displav window can still 
best talk "Take a Kodak With 

Bear this in mind, however, that 
the dealers in the thousand and one 
other things that may interest the 
vacationist, are also making a 
strong bid for patronage through 
the medium of their windows. 

So, if for no other reason, keep 
your display simple, because with 
all this competition you can not 
hope to pound more than one idea 
home at a time. 

^^^e are not alone in believing in 
the simple display ; for instance, 
here is the opinion of an expert 
merchandise manager in the In- 
land Store Keeper: 

"One of the absolutely funda- 
mental ideas in window display, 
particularly when the work is 
being done by a person who is not 
an expert, is simplicity. 

"Far more windows are spoiled 
through containing too much mer- 
chandise than are spoiled by con- 
taining too little. 

"One very good means for 
achieving simplicity is always to 
confine any particular di-splay to 
one line of goods, or to one idea. 

"Xo window display ought to be 
called upon to express more than 
one idea, and when an effort to go 
beyond this is made, the whole 
effect is likelv to be weakened." 

Read the September "Kodak- 
cry — tills Ti'/// lielp yon to re- 
member to fill ont the "Kodak- 
ery" subscription blanks. 


Standing the Gaff 

\\'hen I first started out on the 
road I used to call on an old chap 
in one of the larger cities of Iowa. . 
who. I confess, got my goat the 
very first time I saw him and he 
kept it for a whole year. He was 
a big, gruflt-looking chap, and as 
gruff as he looked. He was 55 or 
60 years old and never combed his 
hair. On my first trip to the town 
I called upon him. He was in his 
office when I went in. reading the 
morning newspaper. I offered my 
card, but he didn't take it. 

"Read it to me." he said, with- 
out looking up from his newspaper. 

I didn't get him the first time, 
and then he blurted out : "If you 
can't read it — spell it." 
• Then I tumbled that he had ref- 
erence to my card. I told him I 
was traveling for Smith. Johnson 
& Company, and I was going to 
say something more, but I didn't, 
for he frightened me out of my 
shoes and I shook so I almost 
dropped my new grip. 

"Don't want anything to do with 
such a firm." he thundered. He 
said a lot of other things which I 
failed to hear, for he was roaring 
like a he-lion and I was beating it 
for the front door feeling like a 
youth who has come in contact with 
papa's boot at about 11 o'clock at 
night, when the girl should have 
been in bed. 

The next time I made the town 
T had gained a little surer footing, 
and determined to call on this old 
coot again. On this occasion he 
seemed to be expecting me, for he 
sat in his office with a hand on each 
knee and was looking at me over 
his glasses. 

"Don't want a thing," he fairly 
bawled at me as I approached the 
door. I assured him that T had 
some new stuff', or. rather, I tried 

to assure him, but before I had half 
a dozen words out of my mouth he 
got up out of his chair and told me 
to beat it. I did. 

He was a puzzle to me. but a few 
days after that I met a salesman 
for another house who gave me the 
secret. "He is just having fun with 
you." this salesman assured me. 
"After you get out of hearing he 
laughs until his sides shake. Give 
him as good as he sends. He likes 
it." Well, the next time I called 
the gruff one was out and I decided 
to wait. Half an hour later he 
came in. passed right by me with- 
out saying "how d'y" or anything 
else. I followed him to the oft'ice. 
He shut the door when I wasn't 
more than three feet away. I 
promptly opened it and walked into 
the august presence of the gruff 

"A\ hatinell do yoti want ?'' he de- 
manded, thundering and roaring 
and sputtering and pawing like a 
mad bull. I roared right back at 
him : told him I had been calling 
on him for more than a year ; that 
I was bound and determined that 
he should stand hitched while I 
talked to him about my line of 

"Shoot.'' he- said, as he sank into 
a chair and handed me the blackest, 
strongest cigar I ever tackled. Well, 
the ice was broken. He cussed me 
and I cussed him — and sold him 
goods. — Old Timer, in Sporting 
Goods Dealer. 

The man whom everybody likes 
usually likes everybody — and does 
it first. 

You may have the ability to start, 
but you're a failure if you can't 

Handle the small problems well 
and some day you'll be able to 
handle the large ones. 


/ Salesman 


ILL run-' a men's clothing 

"Hill is. of course, an abbrevia- 
tion for William, and he has a last 
name, but everyone calls him Bill 
(except possibly his parents), be- 
cause he is that sort of a fellow. 

'■'Bill used to work in another 
store, and he made friends because 
he was not a counterfeit Bill. Tt 
never was too much trouble for Bill 
to show every suit on the racks, 
and he smiled even if you came in 
within a minute of closing time. 

"It is quite possible that there 
were times when Bill was anxious 
to get away from the store prompt- 
ly, and that there ^vere some days 
vvlien Bill did not feel up to par, 
but his customers never knew it. 

"Now Bill had a more or less 
secret ambition ; he wanted to have 
a store of his own. 

'Xots of his friends had sug- 
gested it, but Bill's capital was a 
bit attenuated ; he did not know 
many of the wholesalers personally, 
and his acquaintance with banker> 
was limited to the Savings Bank 
where he kept his modest account. 

"One day Bill happened to be 
waiting on a rough and ready sort 
of a chap who, as Bill handed him 
his change, remarked, '\Miy don't 
you open a store of your own?' 

"Bill told him, and' the man said, 
'You come and see me a week from 
today," and gave him his address. 

"At the appointed hour Bill saw 
his man. The man said. 'Bill. I 


liked }-ou last week when ^•ou wait- 
ed upon me, and now I like you a 
whole lot more because I find most 
everybody else likes you. and that 
your record is clean. You go back 
and tell \()ur folk< that vou are 
going to quit, and Fll see that you 
get off to a good start on ^•our own 

■'And that was the way Bill 
started — in just a little place not 
much more than a hole in the wall. 

"The combination of knowing 
what the people wanted and Bill's 
personality, made the place a suc- 
cess — and it's quite some estab- 
lishment tii-da\'. 

"Xow this isn't a story of a phe- 
nomenal success. Bill didn't estab- 
lish a chain of stores across the 
continent before he was twenty- 
three years, six months and a half 
old. nor do T suppose he is likely 
to, but somehow I just had to tell 
how Bill got along, because I like 
Bill, and the likable Bills most 
usually do get along. 

"All this came to mind because T 
just left Bill's store a little while 
before 1 started to write this. 

"I wanted a new tie. and Bill 
happened to wait upon me ; I made 
a selection and Bill wanted to know 
if I were going to wear it myself. 
I responded with 'yep,' or 'um 
humph.' and Bill said. 'I don't want 
you to wear that one. because with 
your tanned-up face it will make 
vou look like an Indian on the war- 


■'Xow I believe Hill cculd say 
that to a perfect stranger and get 
away with it. Iiecause Bill has a 
wa\' (if convincing folks that he 
knows his business and is there to 
give service. 

'*^^"e fellows who know I Jill de- 
pend upon his ad\-ice, and I am 
quite sure that if r>ill were to 
recommend short sleeved and low 
necked shirts as the correct thing 
with full dress, that a goodly bunch 
of us would accept it as Gospel, 
and I am equally sure that Bill will 
never proffer an}- such advice, so 
von can see Ik^w inuch confidence 
I have in Bill. 

"There isn't much plot nor any 
thrills in particular to this story : 
it does not need any. as it is just a 
telling of how moderate success 
came to a man because he early 
recognized the fundamentals of 
good salesmanship. 

"There cire other stores larger 
than P)iirs. there are other stores 
giving equally good service, though 
no better I am sure, but I like Bill's 
store because I like Bill and because 
he trains his sales force to work 
along his own lines. 

"I suppose this story should end 
up by some experience with a store 
the direct opposite of Bill's to point 
a moral as it were, but personally I 
don't know of any such. 

"All of us have had an unpleas- 
ant experience here and there, but 
never, i am sure, has it been be- 
cause of the business policy of the 

"Merchants have learned that it 
takes more than the right goods and 
location to make a success of a store 
and that the people who come in 
direct — or indirect — contact with 
the customer j)lay a most important 

"l)ill had his early training under 
an intelligent boss, and being intelli- 

gent himself, he profited by what 
he learned. 

"My experience in traveling over 
the country shows that the average 
store proprietor or manager is keen- 
ly alive to the value of good nature 
and good service, so maybe you 
can profit, as did Bill, by studying 
and following the methods of your 


To win success we have to work 
for it. Xo prize worth having can 
be obtained without an eft'ort. ^^lake 
no effort and we get nothing. To 
condemn ourselves for life to a 
small salary, there's one infallible 
recipe — spend all our nights and 
Sur.days in pursuit of idle pleasure, 
instead of helpful study. Fine 
clothes, a beatttiful home, money in 
the bank — comfort, independence, 
freedom from worry — are all the 
fruit of eft'ort. ]^Iake the eft"ort and 
we can have all. Stand still — do 
r.othing. poke arotmd, waiting for 
somebody to hand us something be- 
cause they like our face, and it's a 
lemon we'll get — -nary an orange. 
JJlicat grcncs on li'hcat hushes, not 
on rag zvced trees. 

Dig. my friend, dig — it pays. 

— Drug Topics. 

S])eaking of the "sleeping sick- 
ness." I know a lot of nice fellows 
who are suff'ering from this malady, 
l)ut the funny thing about it is, that 
thev onlv have the symptoms be- 
tween 8.30 A. M. and 5 p. M. 


Why It Pays 

S. Roland Hall, in Direct Advcr- 
iising, ?ays : "There are several 
false notions about advertising. The 
most common one probably is the 
idea that manufacturers advertise 
largely for the purpose of creating 
a little hot air about themselves and 
just tack on the cost of the adver- 
tising to the price of their goods. 
Consequently, retail dealers are 
often heard to say : 'T'd rather you 
would cut out all the advertising 
and give me a better profit.' This 
notion is helped along considerably 
by salesmen representing non-ad- 
vertised lines or brands who drop 
around and say : 'We don't adver- 
tise and so we can make you a price 
lower than that of the advertised 
brands.' Without realizing it, the 
man who offers to make a low price 
on his product because it isn't ad- 
vertised, is paying a great compli- 
ment to the power of advertising. 

"Now. the truth is that well- 
planned advertising does not in- 
crease the cost to the user or con- 
sumer, nor does it lower the deal- 
er's profits. It simply broadens the 
market for the product and broad- 
ening the market means lowering 
the costs, instead of swelling them 
— means a more rapid turnover of 
the dealer's capital. If advertising 
is not well planned, if it is mere 
noise, the cost of it simply comes 
out of the manufacturer's capital, 
and he — not the public — stands the 
bill. It is not productive, the public 
does not buy and obviously pays 
none of the cost. 

"There are many products that 
can be sold at a reasonable price 
only when made known to the public 
generally and a large sale has been 
built up. If Henry Ford sold only 
one-tenth of the machines he does 
sell, he could not sell them at the 
price he oilers them today. Spread- 


ing information about a meritorious 
product means spreading the sales. 
and spreading the sales lowers both 
the manufacturing cost and the sell- 
ing cost, that is, imless one concern 
controls the output of all goods in 
that certain class, and that is very 

"Another false notion about ad- 
vertising is one for which some 
manufacturers are responsible. This 
second false notion is the idea that 
advertising immediately causes a 
long procession of new buyers to 
flock into the dealer's door. Dealers 
who have been persuaded to put in 
large stocks of goods on the argu- 
ment that their doors would be bat- 
tered down by delegations of new 
buyers have sufifered disappoint- 
ment and perhaps have lost the faith 
in advertising that tliey should pos- 
sess. This conception of advertis- 
ing is as erroneous as the one previ- 
ously mentioned. 

"The object of real advertising is 
to make the people who can use the 
product familiar with its name and 
merits. All of us prefer to buy 
goods that we are familiar with. 
Possibly there are plenty of manu- 
facturers able to make wagons as 
good as Studebaker's and shirts 
equal to the ^Manhattan brand, but 
the public prefers the familiar 
brands that they feel they know. 
You may be able to persuade buyers 
that something else is just as good 
but when you try it you have your 
work cut out for you, and here and 
there a suspicion will be left that 
the unknown article wasn't quite as 
good after all. 

"Some years ago, when the Gil- 
lette safety razor was the only arti- 
cle of its kind that was thoroughly 
known, a large concern that wanted 
to give a safety razor as a premium 
to people who were rendering it 
some service, asked a hardware store 
for prices on a new safety razor 


that had some striking features. The 
prospective buyer had thought of 
the Gillete razor but concluded that 
it had been sold and used as a pre- 
mium so extensively that it had lost 
its strongest appeal. 

" 'Why don't you buy the Gil- 
lette ?' was the first question of the 
hardware man. On being told wh}^ 
the Gillette had been dropped from 
consideration he said : 'Would you 
be interested in my views? All 
right. Well, then, I make as much 
on one of these razors as on the 
other, so it makes no difference 
which one I sell. But when a man 
comes in here for a good safety 
razor, he knows what the Gillette is 
as soon as you mention it. He re- 
gards it as a standard article, and 
its value is already fixed in his 
mind. We don't as a rule, have to do 
any selling of the Gillette. It's just 
an exchange of a $5 bill for a safety 
razor. But whenever we put the 
other razor forward, we find that, 
though it is a good article, it isn't 
known. We always have to sell it, 
have to take our time to explain it, 
to prove that it really and truly is 
as good as a Gillette, and tlien some 
people don't believe us. Finally, 
the demand for the Gillette is such 
that we buy a gross at a time ; we 
buy the other outfit in lots of six at 
a time. Does tliat mean anything 
to you ?' 

"It did mean something — meant 
that the buyer chose the Gillette 
razor for his premium ; he didn't 
want something that he had to ex- 
plain, something whose value he had 
to prove. 

"This little razor story illustrates 
the power of good advertising. 
Good advertising will bring you 
some new customers, but don't ex- 
pect people generally to lay down 
everything and rush to your place 
of business as soon as they read an 
advertisement. Very likely all that 

will happen will Ije that they will 
read enough of the advertisement 
or notice enough of the illustration 
to get a favorable impression of the 
article and to be influenced to pre- 
fer it and to buy it at your place of 
business when they are again in 
need. The impression will be there 
even when the advertisement has 
been forgotten ; people daily buy 
well-advertised goods without being 
conscious of any advertisement. 

"The gist of the whole matter is 
that people prefer the goods whose 
names and merits are familiar. A 
busy dealer hasn't time nor is it his 
business, to make known the names 
and merits of all the many products 
he handles. If this burden is thrown 
on him his labor is greatly in- 
creased. He can't make as many 
sales; he can't turn his ca])ital 

"The manufacturcy of iioii-adz'cr- 
tised goods is lucky indeed to gel a 
good dealer to take on this big bur- 
den of making the product known 
to the community, for it requires 
time, zcork and patience. 

"Good advertising will always 
bring some new customers. lUit 
usually its greatest value is thai; it 
paves the way for the dealer's work, 
by making the consumer familiar 
with the product and making him 
willing to receive it without ques- 

"Advertising standardizes goods 
in the public mind. It makes turn- 
overs instead of left-overs." 

Not — "Anything else today?" 
— but — "Here is something 
I think ivill interest you." 



Ten -minutes 
witK the Boss 

SA^rAr\'. that mailing list you 
have ju>t c()mi)iled for me 
ought to bring us in (|uite a bit of 
business, provided we send out the 
right sort of a letter with the book- 

"I have been looking over copies 
of the letters we have sent out in 
past seasons, and while they have 
brought us a fair amount of busi- 
ness. I am sure we could have done 
a whole lot better with letters of a 
different sort. 

"It seems to me. Sammy, that we 
have been saying too much about 
ourselves ; in other words, we have 
been getting oiT on the wrong foot. 

"\Mien we are writing to people 
who already own Kodaks, we can. 
perhaps, tell of our very complete 
stock, and up-to-the-minute facili- 
ties for developing. |)rinting and 
enlarging; but when we are writing 
to interest people in picture making, 
it seems to me. Sammy, that we 
should begin with that story and 
tell about ourselves afterward. 

"As dififerent people are inter- 
ested in as many different things. 
Sammy, it is impossible to write a 
letter that will exactly fit each in- 
dividual case, and so make the 
strongest possible appeal. 

"So what we must do. Sam, to 
hit the target the oftenest, is to de- 
cide upon the topic which will ap- 
peal to the greatest possible num- 

"Fortunately for us. Sam. prac- 


ticc'lh everyone who can see. likes, 
and is interested in pictures. Psy- 
chologists tell us that about eighty 
per cent, of our brain impressions 
are recorded through the medium 
of the eyes. 

"Most people are especially fond 
of the things they have themselves 
created, and take a great interest in 
the things thev do best, or especial- 
ly well. 

"Add to this. Sammy, the fact 
that Kodakery keys in with and 
harmonizes with every other form 
of recreation, and we would seem 
to have a pretty good start and 
argument with pictures for a topic : 
so. let us see what we can do, 
Sammy, in the gentle art of writing 
a selling letter. 

"Mere is one I put together last 
evening : 
"Dear Sir; 

"It is pretty safe to assume that you 
enjoy pictures of the things that you 
are interested in. Anyway, we are 
going- to assume it because we like 
pictures of the things that we are 
interested in. 

"Would you not like to make pic- 
tures of j'our special recreation, golf, 
tennis, boating, motoring, horses, 
flowers, and possibly best of all, a 
growing lively j^oungster or so? 

"You can make good pictures of any 
or all of these things with no trouble 
and \ery little experience. 

"Picture making the Kodak way has 
1ieen simplified, and re-simplihed, so 
that now even a child can take good 

"Expensive? Xot a bit when you 
consider the lasting pleastire of the 


'"Enclosed is a copy of the Kodak 
condensed catalogue. We hope you 
will find it interesting and that it will 
pave the waj- to a visit to our store. 

"We will be mighty glad to see you 
and to show you just how simple and 
easy it is to make pictures b}' tlie 
Kodak system. 

"Yours truly." 

"I don't pretend to >a}\ Sam, 
tliat this letter i> anywhere near 
one himdred per cent., Ijut it does, at 
least, get away from the usual ster- 
eotyped form letter and it does talk 
from the customer's side of the 

"I could have gone into more de- 
tails, Sam. but I don't believe most 
folks like to receive or read long 
business letters — I know I don't, so 
I am leaving a good part of the pre- 
liminary interest to the condensed 

"All T want to do is to get them 
into the store — then the rest will be 

"At the time these letters go out, 
Sam. 1 want you to put in a win- 
dow display with a good variety of 
pictures in it. so that the people 
who have received this letter will 
be prompted to remember it and 
come in — sort of a mental follow- 

"I am going to check up the re- 
tm-ns of this letter as closely as I 
can. Sam, and see if I really do 
know anything about writing a sell- 
ing letter." 

Sparrow Men 

"-My train sluwed down, gave a 
last whitT, peculiar to some trains, 
and stopped as usual by a barn- 
yard. Outside it was cold a;:d 
blustery, and glancing out of mv 
smoking car window I saw some- 
thing that started a train of 
thoughts that are perhap-; wortli 
while passing along. 

"1 ^aw two sparrows, one of 
wliich was perched upon a slice of 
liread. which is not at all unusual, 
even in these days of high cost of 
living. The sparrow who perched 
himself upon this sHce of bread 
]3ecked away at it and left the other 
little sparrow, who was trying hard 
to get a mouthful to satisfy his 
hunger, look out for himself. 

"The slice of bread was much 
too large for two sparrows, and 
plenty for a dozen had they been 
there, and I began comparing the 
two sparrows to some men. 

"I have known men to think of 
their job just as these two sparrows 
did with the shce of bread. 

"Thev did not want anyone to 
come near to get a bite : to do any 
part of the work. They were not 
willing to co-operate with anyone 
else. They were not willing to let 
anyone share any part of the good 
things that just for the moment 
seemed to be theirs. 

"Along came a man without any 
intention of disturbing conditions, 
but the little sparrow who had 
perched himself upon the slice of 
bread was the first one to get scared 
ar.d fly away. 

"(3ften this is the case with men. 
Along comes ]\Ir. Boss, finds out 
conditions, tries to improve them 
and make them right for the good 
of his organization and the fellow 
who thinks he owns the whole slice 
is the first one to suffer. 

"Working together with those 
willing to take part in the good 
things of life, showing some one 
else about our work so that it may 
be continued uninterrupted to the 
best advantage of the employer and 
all concerned, is after all the best 
way to get along and win success." 
— .-1 cor II Xczcs. 



The Primary Page 

for-fhe Beginner 
BehinQ the Counter 

OXE thing- to bear in mind is 
that while all developers are 
employed for the purpose of pro- 
ducing an image either negative or 
positive, that developers are not 
just developers, because some are 
suited to one process and not to 

So when a customer asks for 
"some developer," always inquire 
for what purpose it is to be used, as 
there are developing powders and 
developing solutions put up for use 
with films and plates, and for use 
solely with papers. 

Again, there are developing pow- 
ders put up especially for use with 
the Kodak, Premo and Eastman 
Plate Developing Tanks, and which 
should not be supplied for tray de- 
velopment, nor for use with devel- 
oping-out papers. 

Pyro Developer is one of the 
very best for films and plates, but 
entirely unsuited for use with 
papers ; on the other hand, ^'elox 
N. A. Developer is splendid for use 
with A^elox paper, but worthless for 
use with films or plates. 

But supposing the customer de- 
mands a developer which can be 
used for both films and papers. 

The standard developer for 
prints is Elon-Hydrochinon, com- 
monly called Elon-Hydro, but 
neither Elon-Hydro nor Metol- 
Hydro (known as M. Q.), are con- 
sidered as satisfactory as some 
other developers, Pyro, for in- 
stance, for films and plates. 

An exhaustive series of tests 


was made to find a developer that 
would yield prints equal in quality 
to those developed with Elon- 
Hydro, and also produce negatives 
that would have a better printing 
quality than had yet been obtained 
from any developer that was cap- 
able of producing high grade prints. 

These tests showed that the East- 
man Special Developer would pro- 
duce these results. No difference 
can be detected in prints developed 
with Elon-Hydro and those devel- 
oped with Eastman Special Devel- 

Best results are obtained at a 
temperature of 70 degrees, but 
when the temperature is lowered to 
60 degrees, the Eastman Special 
Developer is least liable to stain the 
prints. (Lowering the tempera- 
ture 10 degrees naturally prolongs 
the development). 

Persons whose fingers are irri- 
tated by Elon-Hydro rarely experi- 
ence this inconvenience when using 
Eastman Special Developer, which 
also does not stain the finger nails. 

Negatives of the same subject 
developed by the tray method, some 
with Pyro and some with Eastman 
Special, may be compared, and it 
will be found that while the Pyro 
developed negatives have slightly 
the best printing quality, those de- 
veloped with Eastman Special will 
have a printing quality superior to 
any to be obtained with any other 
developer which is also suitable for 
use with paper. 

Eastman Special Developer 


>hould not, however, be recom- 
mended for tank development, be- 
cause tank development is based on 
the action of Pyro. Sell only Tank 
Powders for use in the tank. 

Eastman Special Developer 
can be used for the development of 
negatives, lantern slides, Velox 
Bromide and other papers. 

The solution used for developing 
film should not, however, be after- 
w^ards used for developing prints. 

Read over the labels on the vari- 
ous developer packages in stock so 
you can intelligently supply the cus- 
tomer the one suited to his needs. 

The Coupling-up Idea 

We sec most easily those things 
i^'liicJi -zee happen to be thinkiuq 
about of zc'hich we hai'e had previ- 
ous experience — hut we see with 
difficulty those tilings of zvliich zve 
have had no previous experience. 

A\'alter Dill Scott in his Theory 
of Advertising lays down the above 
well known psychological truth and 

Most mercliants believe in the 
value of show windows and the 
use of the window as a selling force 
is growing, but too many merchants 
overlook the force of this most im- 
portant law. 

When rlie merchant decides to 
change his wiiulow. too many times 
he just puis something into it. He 
looks upon his window as a sort of 
exposition medium only. 

In using the window in this way 
the merchant overlooks an import- 
ant law and fact in psychology — 
7C'(? see zi'ith difficulty those things 
of zvhich Tcr Jiazr had no prez'ioiis 

The overlooking of this law tells 
why windows so many times fail 
to attract the attention they de- 

To make windows most effective 
it is highly important that prospec- 
tive customers are made to think 
about the goods through ink adver- 
tising. Then with a good display 
of the advertised goods in the win- 
dow, results can be made doubly 

It is also one of the fundamental 
laws in advertising that the atten- 
tion value of our advertising de- 
pends on the number of times it 
comes before our readers, or on 

These two laws as laid down by 
Professor Scott tell why the mer- 
chants who make their windows re- 
flect the advertising of the mer- 
chandising which the manufacturer 
is doing for them are getting the 
unusual results. 

These laws explain why the mer- 
chant should couple up his adver- 
tising with that of the manufac- 
turer and why in addition he should 
reflect his advertising in his win- 
dow displays and still further why 
he should see that the display of 
the goods in the store couples up 
with the advertising and the win- 
dow display. 

In coupling up in this way the 
merchant is advertising liis goods. 
liis store, and creating favorable at- 
tention, for his business which be- 
comes his own valuable asset. 
Coupling up doubles the force of 
his own advertising, moves more 
goods for him. and rolls higher th.e 

Coupling up is scientific sales 
effort — it is based on two important 
laws of psychology — the merchant 
will find it to his advantage and 
profit to use the coupling up idea 
because it is fundamentally right. — 
.Merchants Maqa.'^ine. 



Real store Service 

The real loyal, coiiscieiitioiis 
service of employes rendered their 
employer's customers is a priceless 
thing — its value is beyond the meas- 
ure of dollars. 

Such service cannot merely be 
bought. The employer has to in- 
still a desire for it into the minds of 
his salespeople. First, they have to 
like and respect him. By daily pre- 
cept and example he must win that 
respect ; dav bv dav he must demon- 
strate what REAL STORE SER- 
\ ICE IS — how it brings its own 
rewards through self-respect and 
self-appreciation of xvork done well 
— in addition to what the pav en- 
velope brings. 

If you could know the inside his- 
tory of some business houses, you 
would know why real store service 
is priceless — how it has built up 
great businesses which had very lit- 
tle money to start on. Also how the 
lack of real store service has driven 
merchants who did have ample cap- 
ital, into second place — if not clear 
out of business. 
Dozens of Angles to Real Store Service 

Real store service is thus defined 
by the Druggists' Circular: Service 
means greeting the customer with a 
pleasant "Good morning," "Good 
afternoon," or "Good evening," 
when she enters the store ; answer- 
ing the telephone promptly and 
properly ; announcing to the custo- 
mer, who for any reason cannot be 
waited upon at once, that she has 
been noticed and will be served at 
the earliest possible moment ; plac- 
ing change in the customer's hand 
and allowing her to dispose of it 
satisfactorily before handing her 
the package that she has purchased ; 
thanking her for her custom ; invit- 
ing her to come in again ; and all 
the other acts of courtesy that dis- 
tinguish the zi'eU-managed store 


from the poorly managed one. But 
service means more than this. 
Service Also Means Suitable Stock. 
Well Displayed 

Service means having a well-as- 
sorted stock of saleable merchandise 
— attractive, adequate, well-assorted 
stocks of merchandise, which should 
be reasotiably priced, plainly marked 
and zcell displayed. Stock should 
be on hand when called for and 
every member of the sales force 
should know enough about the vari- 
ous items to talk intelligently c on- 
ce mi ng them. 

Service also means properly dis- 
playing the products handled. That 
means attractive show case and 
window displays. To that end ade- 
quate display fixtures are needed 
and they pay for themselves by 
selling goods. Finally, salespeople 
should be coached in n'hat to say, 
i^'hc^.i to say it — and when to say 
nothing." — Team Work. 


Magazine Advertising 

To the average parents the most 
important things in the world are 
their children ; anything and every- 
thing connected with their welfare 
is of importance — and a pictorial 
record of their growth is one of 
the essentials. 

In thousands and thousands of 
homes the Kodak plays an import- 
ant part because it not only affords 
a means of keeping a pictorial rec- 
ord of the family, but also because 
it enters into every other recrea- 

"Keep a Kodak Story of the 
Children" is a strong appeal to 
every mother's and father's heart, 
and this is being featured in the 
magazines. A reduced copy of one 
of these advertisements is shown on 
Page 2. 

iillilll^dtiiiut It. 








No amount of ability, energy, 
strength or initiative can offset the 
absence of honesty. 

This is a fundamental — no em- 
ployer wants a man whom he can- 
not fully trust. 

The question of honesty goes 
deeper than a mere question of 
money. That is, of course, essen- 
tial, but I refer to loyalty, and de- 
votion to duty, fair dealing, truth- 
fulness, willingness to acknowledge 

The boss wants the man he can 
rely on ; the man who will carry out 
his orders as given ; the man who 
will stick until the job is finished: 
the man who, when asked for im- 
portant details, is certain to give tlie 
absolute facts. 

The man who is honest with the 
boss is honest with himself. He 
who cheats his boss, either of time 
or money, is himself the greater 

Character is a matter of growth. 
What you do and say to-day deter- 
mine what you will be to-morrow. 
The shifty, unreliable man of to- 
day is preparing under his feet a 
quicksand which will in time engulf 
him.— a; C. R. Xc:,-s. 

The Kodak Album. 

There's joy in every page of the school 
girl's Kodak book. 

There's a hint of good times in every tiny print 
and between its covers is the pictured story of happy 
years and enduring friendships — a story that means fun 
in the making, and afterward the still greater joy of living 
over again those happy, care-free days. 



A magazine advertisement (reduced)— See page 9 


An aid == 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol. 5 

OCTOBER, 1919 

No. 9 

In October 

They tell a story of a man who 
lost a mule ; neither he nor any of 
his hands could locate the animal, 
so the loss, with a reward for re- 
covery, was advertised in the local 

To the surprise of everyone, the 
day after the paper was issued, the 
town simpleton appeared leading 
the lost mule. 

Upon being asked how he hap- 
pened to locate the mule after 
everyone else had failed, he re- 
plied: "Well, I just sat down and 
thought what I would do and where 
I would go if I were a derned mule, 
and I did, and there he was." 

Now, this little tale has a bearing 
on window displays ; not, however, 
by any means implying that the in- 
stalling of such displays should be 
delegated to the town simpleton, but 
rather that the display man should, 
before he plans a display, put him- 
self in the place of the people he 
desires to interest. 

While it is true that practically 
every person able to see is interested 
in pictures, and so can be interested 
in picture taking in general, there 
are certain times and seasons when 
special window displays will par- 
ticularly appeal. 

In October most persons have 
returned from their vacations with 
pictures galore, so why not install 
an album display showing albums 
with a page or two of attractively 
arranged vacation pictures? 

A window of enlargements from 
vacation negatives showing both 
contact prints and enlargements 
will, if artistically installed, bring 
good results. Also a window show- 
ing the Brownie Enlarging Cameras 
and the Kodak Amateur Printer 
will be timely and of real interest 
to the returned Kodaker vacationist. 

Everv season is a Kodak season, 
it is true, but try these special 
displays and see them bring busi- 

How to keep the beginne?' interested and 
enthusiastic — 

Fill out the '^Kodakery'^ subscription blank 


/ Salesman 

THE other day I remembered that 
I needed a pair of rubber-soled 
shoes, just the ordinary sort com- 
monly called 'sneaks,' so I dropped 
into one of our prominent shoe 
emporiums. The store was not 
crowded, and several of the sales- 
men seemed to be disengaged, yet it 
was c|uite some time before one of 
them could find time to wait upon 
me. Finally one of them strolled 
my way and I announced my wants. 
'What size do you wear ?' he in- 
quired. 'I don't know,' I responded, 
at the same time presenting one of 
my pedal extremities to view. He 
gave a glance and a grunt and 
disappeared. Presently he appeared 
with a pair of high shoes and, with- 
out further ado, proceeded to start 
wrapping them up. 'Those for me?' 
I inquired. 'Yep,' he replied : 
'those'll fit you all right.' 'But I 
don't want high shoes," I countered, 
which elicited another grunt, or 
more nearly a snarl, -and another 
disappearance. He came back with 
a pair of low ones and proceeded to 
wrap them up without giving me an 
opportunity to look at them. He 
accepted my money without thanks, 
took my address for delivery, and 
passed out of my life. 

"A\'hen I tried the shoes on thev 
were at least two sizes too large, 
and I had to stuff the toes with 
paper, because I wanted to wear 
them at once. A few days later I 
received a form letter from the 
store, stating tliat my ]iatronage was 

appreciated and that the proprietor 
wanted to be sure that my purchase 
was satisfactory, and, if not, to 
'make good.' 

"Xow, I happen to know the pro- 
prietor of this store, and I know 
that his letter meant exactly what 
it said and that he is trying his 
'double durndest' to give satisfac- 
tion and to make his customers 
want to come again. H he knew 
how I felt about this transaction, he 
would say that I was no friend of 
his if I didn't make a kick to him. 
But I am like most people, reason- 
ably busy, and haven't time to 
bother with it, and also have a dis- 
inclination against prolonging dis- 
agreeable incidents. So I ask you : 
Will I be apt to patronize that store 
again, even if I do like the proprie- 
tor? Xow, when you come to think 
of it, isn't it too bad to have a 
store's success handicapped in this 
manner, and the earnest efforts of 
the store to please nullified ? Per- 
haps I struck this particular clerk 
on one of his 'off' days — we all 
have 'em — and perhaps he is ordi- 
narily cheerful and obliging, but my 
interest in that store, except to avoid 
it, is gone. Ten to one this clerk 
wouldn't even recall my being in 
the store, if I should complain, and 
he might even be quite surprised 
that I felt that T had cause for dis- 
satisfaction, and be sincere in his 
conviction, because most of the time 
he is a regular fellow. But, you 
see, T don't know this, so I simply 


don't complain, and the store has 
lost a customer. Quite probably 
this clerk, if he knew how I felt, 
would mentally kick himself, be- 
cause I don't believe that he would 
intentionally, or otherwise, do any- 
thing to injure the store's, or his 
own, success. 

'There are a good many lessons 
to be learned in the University of 
Salesmanship, and one of the most 
important is to be sure the cus- 
tomer leaves with a pleasant im- 
pression. Just as this is one of the 
most important- it is also, and like- 
wise, one of the hardest lessons in 
the whole course. A\> are so apt to 
see onlv our vide of the case : when 
we feel a bit seedy or have just fin- 
ished with a grouchy or unreason- 
able customer, and so it is mighty 
hard to be pleasant to the next one 
to follow, yet we must do it. 

"I well recall an old boss of mine 
in a dry goods store. Whenever 
anything went wrong, he would go 
out into the carpet room and sav- 
agelv kick a remnant roll across 
the room: sometimes two kicks 
were necessary. Then he would re- 
turn all serene to the main floor. 
Once we put a l:)room handle in the 
roll he usually assaulted, and he 
emerged limping, but smiling — 
which, believe me, was some char- 
acter test. He had a saving sense 
of humor which helped him over 
many a rough spot, and this same 
sense will help you a lot if you will 
but cultivate it. 

''Xever overlook the fact that the 
customer is studying you as well as 
the goods \ou have to sell. His, or 
her. study of you may be subcon- 
scious, but it is going on just the 
same. You may have an Al ex- 
terior, but if your mental interior 
is gloomy and forbidding, you are 
not going to get b\- in the selling 

Seasonable Goods 

Just as much real enthusiasm is 
usiially exhibited by the Kodakhig 
fraternity in printing and finishing 
pictures made during the summer 
as in the actual taking. Even those 
who are not so "energetic." shall 
we say?, and have the finisher do 
their developing and printing, usual- 
ly have quite a pile of prints when 
the vacation season is over, which 
they try to arrange in an album or 

All such people are prospective 
purchasers of the numerous sun- 
dries carried by the Kodak dealer, 
but unless a simple thing like an 
album is required they seldom 
trouble to ask for them — indeed 
many do not know that such goods 
are available. 

\\'e will suppose Friend Amateur 
has got as far as the negative stage. 
He 'figures it up — one from each 
makes eighty-seven prints! and he 
knows he wants at least four from 
several negatives and six and eight 
from a number of others. Visualiz- 
ing the process of printing with an 
ordinary printing frame, he can be 
excused for thinking he has a lot of 
work ahead. But, here is the oppor- 
tunity to tell him about the Kodak 
Amateur Printer. He may come in 
and ask about it, but he will be 
much more likely to, if the Printer 
is prominently displayed in show- 
case or window. 

Suppose he does not care to in- 
vest in quite so much, there is the 
Auto-Mask Printing Frame, which 
will simjilify printing quite appre- 

All the way through, down to 
Kodak Dry ^Mounting Tissue for 
mounting the prints in an album, 
vou have little aids for the amateur 
in stock and you owe it to yourself 
and to your store to let the people 
know }ou have them. 


Works the Same with 

"Every pen seller wants to in- 
crease his sales," says the "Pen 
Prophet." "One of our dealers has 
written how he accomplished this, 
not by selling more pens, but by sell- 
ing higher priced pens. His plan is 
absolutely practical, and we are go- 
ing to quote his explanation of the 
method employed for the benefit of 
all our readers. 

" 'One day I was discussing some 
changes in the layout of our Sta- 
tionery Department when an elderly 
and well-dressed lady approached 
one of the clerks, stating that she 
would like to purchase a pen to send 
overseas. Clerk Xo. 1. without a 
moment's hesitation, produced a 
tray of pens, at the same time say- 
ing: "This is a very satisfactory 
pen." The customer then asked the 
clerk to pick out a pen that she con- 
sidered would be suitable for a 
young man, as she did not know 
much about pens herself. The clerk 
replied by saying she was sure a 
medium point would be satisfactory. 
A\'ithout any more questions the 
customer said she would take one. 
and the clerk selected a pen and 
handed it to her. stating that the 
price was $2.50. which the cus- 
tomer paid and went away appar- 
ently satisfied. Up to this time no 
price had been mentioned. 

" 'Clerk Xo. 2 was standing be- 
side me waiting for our discussion 
to continue, and I asked her if she 
had noticed anything wrong with 
the way in which clerk X"©. 1 had 
handled her customer, and she re- 
plied she had not. assuming that be- 
cause a pen had been sold and the 
customer appeared satisfied, there 
was nothing more to be desired. I 
also asked clerk Xo. 1 if she 
thought she had done justice to the 

customer as well as to herself in 
selling the pen, and she said "Yes." 

"'I then stated that, according to 
my observation, the customer might 
have purchased a larger and more 
expensive pen if she had been told 
that the larger pens held more ink 
and that it would not be necessary 
to fill as often, as the customer's 
appearance and demeanor conveyed 
the impression that price was a sec- 
ondary consideration. Both clerks 
then saw the strength of this argu- 
ment, and it was decided that in 
future they would always produce 
as a preliminary introduction the $4 
pen, as I explained that in my ex- 
perience as a sales clerk it was 
always easier to come down in 
prices than go up. \\'e then looked 
u]) (lur pen sales for the previous 
two months and decided we would 
see in the next two months how 
much we could increase our average 
pen sale under this new method. 
The little lesson has proved worth 
while, as every sale made has aver- 
aged 95 cents per pen more than 
formerly." " 

This rule holds just as good in 
selling Kodaks as in selling foimtain 
pens. Size up your customer ; don't 
allow a customer to depart with a 
Brownie or Junior when a Special 
could have been sold. 

If a customer has a grouch, let 
him unburden his soul, and keep 
silent until the eruption is over with. 
Let him find fault. Let him cuss. 
But let him get it out of his system, 
advises the manager of a big manu- 
facturing establishment. 

Then diplomatically show him 
you appreciate his viewpoint fully. 
In two minutes he will be a sympa- 
thetic friend instead of an enemy. 


A Question Answered 

Commenting on successful selling, 
"The \*oice of the Victor," a pub- 
lication issued by the \'ictor Talk- 
ing Machine Co., queries : '"Does 
a man need to know music in the 
\'ictor business?" In answering 
this question, the "\'oice" remarks: 
"Knowing music, the way you need 
to know it in the Mctor business, 
does not mean being able to sing or 
plav an instrument. Such knowl- 
edge is often of value, as any prac- 
tical knowledge of music must be. 
Much more useful than ability to 
play an instrument is knozi.'ledge of 
zi'hat that instrument or any other 
instrument can do." In the same 
way he needs to know musical his- 
tory and something at least of musi- 
cal structure. If is the sort of 
knowledge for i^'lticJi the customer 
wnconscioitsly looks to tlie sales- 

This same argument applies ex- 
actly to the seller of Kodaks and all 
amateur photographic supplies. You 
need not be a master of photo- 
graphic art or to have had your pic- 
torial masterpieces exhibited at all 
the leading photograpliic salons, but 
you must know what the various 
Kodaks and other things photo- 
graphic will do. because ''if Is tJic 
sort of knozi'Iedge for 7^.•hich flic 
custo>ner unconsciously looks to tin- 
salesman." And if you. or someone 
in your store, cannot afford this 
knowledge, the customer is going to 
go where it is to be had. He may. 
even if you have not this knowledge, 
buy his first instrument from you. 
because the catalogue or other ad- 
vertising has sold him. even down 
to a specific model and the price, 
but when he comes back to you for 
supplies or information and fi kIs 
you lacking in knowledge, you have 
lost him. You don't have to be told 
that the selling of the instrument 

but marks the beginning of your 
store's relation with the customer. 
The profit on the first sale is noth- 
ing when compared with the profits 
on his subsequent purchases, if he 
is kept interested and enthused. 

The average beginner will make 
mistakes, and per contra, his first 
roll may contain some astonishingly 
good negatives. You must have the 
knowledge to correct his errors, and 
also to know when he has been suc- 
cessful, and so accord him praise 

The acquiring of this knowledge 
is so easy. Use a Kodak yourself — 
learn to use it intelligently, and 
master every process down to the 
finished ])rint — then you'll be the 
salesman who knows, to the decided 
advantage of everyone concerned. 

The store was crowded and as a 
clerk finished with a customer he 
approached another with : "Hello, 
I'.illl What can I do for you?" 
Like a shot there came from an 
elderly gentleman: "Here, young 
fellow. I was in ahead of thi-^ man. 
and I'm in a hurry, too." 

That's a mistake many young 
clerks make. They play favorites 
instead of letting each customer 
await his or her turn. It's decid- 
edlv unfair to make way for an ac- 
quaintance just because you happen 
to be friends, and allow a stranger 
to wait. I't may not always call 
forth a complaint or criticism, as it 
did in the case we have in mind, 
but chances are the victim will re- 
member the incident, and it will be 
"never again" for you or the store 
vou are working in. 


Sales Ready to Make 

How to make a growing photo- 
graphic business forge ahead more 
quickly ? Kow to make a stationary 
business grow ? How to make a 
decHning business pick up ? One 
safe and sure method of accompHsh- 
ing these highly desirable objects is 
to boost Enlarging Cameras and 

''Reasons why" appeal to most 
every one more strongly than do 
mere words of wisdom, so we invite 
vour careful consideration of the 
following reasons why you should 
bend your efforts to Enlarging and 
Enlargements as business builders. 

Large pictures make a stronger 
appeal than small ones to the aver- 
age human. A miniature will arouse 
the feeling of a true artist, but most 
people would take more kindly to a 
sizeable picture — a miniature holds 
so much in such little space that one 
can't always appreciate its merit. 
Just so it is with contact print-. 
Thev hold so much in such a small 
area of paper that often their most 
pleasing features are lost in the 
crowd. There's nothing like En- 
larging to show the merits of a 

You have only to observe the 
visitors to an exhibit of enlarged 
pictures Hke that illustrated on the 
back cover of this booklet to appre- 
ciate how strong is the appeal of 
Enlargements to the average person. 
To many of them must have come 
the thought of the fine pictures some 
of their own negatives would yield. 
Really the demand for large pic- 
tures is ready-made and requires 
but little stimulation on your part. 

Your personal interest as a Prac- 
titioner of Salesmanship is roused 
by the opportunity aft'orded to make 
profitable sales through apt and ac- 
ceptable suggestions, and remember 


always that your possibilities are 
unlimited, inasmuch as this is an 
ever new and inexhaustible field, 
and neglect thereof in the past 
makes you now all the more certain 
of conspicuous success. 

The enthusiasm of the Kodaker 
is maintained by enlargements and 
the volume of sales kept up during 
a period when out-door exposures 
are not made in the same abundance 
as thev were during vacation time. 
Xot only that, but a permanent 
lousiness in Enlarging shoidd ensue 
in consequence of the realization of 
the amateur that herein lies a means 
of a better appreciation of the pic- 
torial merits of his own exposures 
and that, properly framed, they are 
far more suitable for wall decora- 
tion in the home than the commer- 
cial pictures of nondescript type 
now so much in evidence. 

An excellent way to put the sub- 
ject before your customer is to 
show an enlargement made with a 
Brownie Enlarging Camera mount- 
ed up with a contact print from the 
same negative. This is sure to 
arouse interest and should provide 
the necessary opening. 

These cameras, in fact, reduce 
enlarging to its simplest ix)ssible 
elements and a negative can be en- 
la''ged to 2 diameters (e.g.. 4x5 t(^ 
8 X 10 ) with no noticeable loss of 
definition, because the Brownie 
Enlarging Cameras are accuratelv 
adjusted to focus at the factory. 

When a Kodaker has two cam- 
eras, one to make negatives and the 
other to make enlargements, it 
doesn't need a lively imagination to 
realize that there is going to be extra 
business done. It might be described 
as intensive develojiment of the 
people who already patronize your 
store, but it's just as eft'ective in 
achieving results, without the de- 


Bill Seeks Information 

"Sit down. Bill, and try one of 
these/" said the Ad Man. pulling 
open the upper right hand drawer 
of his desk and taking out a box of 
good ones. 

"Now. what's on your mind?" 
"A whole lot, Tom," said Bill. "The 
Boss came to me this morning and 
allowed as how he was tarnation 
busy and asked me in an otThand 
sort of way to 'get up some news- 
paper ads." Xow, Tom, what I 
don"t know about writing ads would 
make some volume, so I thought I 
would drop in on you for a bit of 

"You are rated a pretty good 
salesman. Bill, so you shouldn"t 
have any difficulty in writing a good 
advertisement. Did you ever stop 
to think. Bill, that advertising was 
selling by the printed word instead 
of by the spoken one? That is 
really all there is to it, so your ad- 
vertisement, must, to be a success, 
get the people into the store in a 
favorable frame of mind, if not 
actually convinced to the point of 

"You want to sell Kodaks. ]^)ill. 
so it seems to me that if I were you 
I would tell the people, in my ad- 
vertisement, how much pleasure 
they could have with a Kodak. I 
own one of 'em myself, and I 
couldn"t. even if I used a whole 
page in the paper, tell all of the 
ways to have fun with a Kodak. So 
yoti see. Bill, you have plenty of 
material for a whole series of 

■"Maybe you had in mind an ad 
stating that Jones & Co. had the 
biggest stock of Kodaks in tDwii 
and did the best finishing. Well. 
that sort of an ad. Bill, is all right 
if you only wish to advertise the 
fact that vour store handles Kodaks 

and does amateur finishing, but it 
won"t make any iiezc Kodakers, and 
those are the chaps to get after. 

"It seems to me. Bill, that you can 
find some pretty good suggestions 
in the ads the Kodak Company is 
running in the magazines. 

"Xow. supposing you have your 
ads all written, and they all have 
pretty good selling arguments, you 
will have still another point to 
cover, and that is the way in which 
they are displayed in type. 

"You can"t just have an ad set up 
any old way and expect it to do 
business for you, any more than vou 
can put a fine stock of goods in a 
tumble-down shack on a back street 
and expect the people to find you 
and come in to buy. The lay-out. 
as the printer folks call it. is just as 
important as the words you use ; 
your "copy" must be set in a type 
that is easy to read and so arranged 
as to stand out from the other mat- 
ter on the page, in order to arrest 

"Remember, Bill, that most folks 
read the newspaper in a hurry and 
so they won't stop to read a long 
advertisement, and if it isn't made 
to stand out in -ome manner, the 
most of them will never see it at 

"Another important thing to al- 
ways remember. Bill, is that people 
are not half so much interested in 
your store as they are in what your 
store can do for them, so you will 
find that it always pays to talk from 
the customer"s side of the fence. 

"As to the arrangement of your 
ads. study the ones in the news- 
papers that attract your attention, 
and then pattern after them. You 
l)robably won"t guess right everv 
tiiue. Bill, but bring in your ads 
after the printer has set them up 
and given you a "proof," and I'll go 
over them with vou."' 



Ten ininutes 
with ihe Boss 

I hap- 

1^ pened to be down in the stock- 
room, and over in the far corner I 
heard a bit of excited conversation, 
so I peeked around a pile of cases 
and discovered two of the boys just 
about ready to pull oiT a Willard- 
Dempsey stunt. 

"Now, Sammy, while I am natu- 
rally averse to having exhibitions of 
the manly art staged on the store's 
time, I did not interfere because I 
wanted to find out what the row 
was about. 

"I't developed that in this partic- 
ular instance there wasn't a 'woman 
in the case,' the advice of a distin- 
guished French philosopher to the 
contrary notwithstanding, and that 
the ill-feeling was all with the 
younger of the two men. 

"He claimed that the older chap 
wasn't giving him a square deal ; 
that he took his customers away 
from him, and traded upon his 
stand-in with you and me, Sam. 

"When this came out, Sammy, I 
was glad I had not interfered, be- 
cause here was sure some 'inside in- 
formation,' or perhaps I should say 
'misinformation,' because I know, 
Sammy, that the only way to stand 
in with us is to deliver the goods. 

"The older man tried to explain 
to the youngster that he was en- 
tirely wrong in his surmise, but it 
was some time before he could calm 


him down sufficiently to listen to 

"I can tell by your smile, Sam, 
that you know who the belligerents 
were and the 'casus belli,' so to 
speak, so I will not have to go into 
any unnecessary details. 

"I could hardly blame the older 
chap when, after vainly trying for 
about ten minutes to get the young- 
ster to calm down, he exclaimed : 
'Well, if I can't get you to listen any 
other way, I am going to choke you 
into it.' Then the absurdity of the 
situation struck him, and he 
laughed. 'Come over and sit down 
here a minute and let me put you 
straight,' he said. 

"Then I felt the cruel war was 
over, Sam, and that the Dove of 
Peace had a good grip on the well 
known olive branch, but I lingered 
to hear the finish and to witness the 
signing of the peace terms — and I'm 
glad I did. 

"He said : 'Now, look here, son, 
you have got altogether the wrong 
slant on things. Now that you 
have calmed down, can you find any 
earthly, or otherwise, reason for my 
not wanting to give you a square 
deal and boost your game?' 

"The youngster was silent ; then 
he continued, and, beheve me, Sam, 
he is some talker. 

"He said : 'The first thing you 
nmst understand is that it is my job 


and your job to sell goods, and to 
make friends for the store, and you 
must admit that my experience in 
both these things is far greater than 

" 'So, don't you see, youngster, 
that if I correct you or take a cus- 
tomer from you when you are not 
handling him or her right. I am only 
doing my duty by the store? 

" 'I have been here a good many 
years, long enough to feel reason- 
ably sure that my job is safe, so 
jealousy could not possibly enter 
into the case. 

" 'I know just how you feel, be- 
cause I had just such a blow-up a 
good many years ago, and the man 
I attempted to quarrel with was just 
as patient with me as I have tried 
to be with you. 

" 'I'm your friend. Come on ; 
let's shake hands. There, that's 
fine !' 

"Sammy. I'm going to give him 
a little more in his envelope next 
Saturday for the diplomatic way in 
which he handled that youngster, 
for now I will have an additional 
booster instead of a malcontent. 

"If he had cuffed the youngster's 
ears, or simply ignored him, in 
which he perhaps would have been 
justified, he would have shown him- 
self a small-calibre man, and the 
small-calibre man never gets far 
unless he is shooting down hill. 

''I have known quite a few big 
men, Sam, and the bigger they are 
the more tolerant they are of the 
youngsters coming along beliind 

"The man wlio is afraid tliat 
some other man will get his job 
away from him is pretty apt to have 
his fears realized, Sam, and the man 
big enough to hold his job is so busy 
trying to make his job bigger that 
he hasn't any time left in which to 
be afraid. 

"The man big enough for his job, 
Sam, is mighty glad to see young- 
sters come into the organization, 
because the faster and better he 
breaks them in. the more time he 
has for still bigger things." 


Be Human 

"The art of salesmanship begins 
in the mind. Think success, think 
confidence, think a thousand dol- 
lars. Why think fifty cents ? These 
thoughts in your brain will ooze out 
of your face. You will radiate 
these qualities. The greatest factor 
in selling is personality. And per- 
sonality is made by thoughts. 

Avoid personal intimacies. Let 
me talk about myself and look in- 
terested while I am expanding. But 
don't speak of yourself any more 
tiian you can help. Take^ an axe 
and chop the pronoun 'T" out of 
your vocabulary. What do you 
"care ? Jolly the buyer along. 

Finally, be as human as possible. 
You are not a catalogue nor a 
printed circular. You draw wages 
because vou are supposed to be a 
human being. Be it! Don't be 
huffy, sensitive, impatient, dicta- 
torial, indifferent, egotistical or 
mechanical. Be a good fellow. Be 
the kind of man people like to have 
around. — The Salt Seller. 


Some men can do nearly every- 
thing almost as well as the man who 
can do something well. 



The Primary Page 

for -file Beginner 
Behind the Counter 

SUPPOSING a customer wants 
to know why he should invest 
in a developing tank when good re- 
sults can be obtained by the tray 
dark-room method ; what can you 
tell him in addition to the fact that 
the tank affords greater conven- 
ience ? 

The convenience of the tank is 
due to the fact that it is simple, and 
in addition the results are certain, 
because they depend solely on 
conditions which can be con- 

On the other hand, tray develop- 
ment is not so simple, and the re- 
sults are not so certain, because 
they' are influenced by conditions 
not so readily controlled. Tray de- 
velopment demands a room which, 
when not illuminated by the dark- 
room lamp, is totally dark. 

If any light other than that com- 
ing from a safe dark-room lamp 
strikes the surface of the negatives 
while they are being handled any 
time before fixing, they will be 

Now, even a slightly fogged neg- 
ative cannot yield as good a print 
as one free from fog, and a badly 
fogged negative is hopeless. 

With tray development, to be sure 
of obtaining correctly developed 
negatives, it is necessary to always 
use the same kind of developer ; to 
always have tlie developer at the 
same temperature ; to use a dark- 
room light that is always of the 
same brilliancy, and to be able to 


accurately judge just when to stop 

In the tank development of roll 
film no dark-room is necessary ; and 
with the Premo Film Pack Tank 
and the Eastman Plate Tank the 
dark-room is needed only for load- 
ing into the tank for development. 

As to simplicity : When the 
Eastman Film Tank Developer 
Powders are used in the Kodak 
Film Tank, there are but two fac- 
tors to consider — the temperature 
of the developer and the length of 
time to develop. 

Any amateur, experienced or in- 
experienced, can keep these two 
factors constant, and so if he will 
but follow the simple instructions 
for the use of the tank, he will ob- 
tain correctly developed negatives 
ever}- time. 

After you have convinced the 
customer that the tank method is 
the best, and have made the sale, it 
may be well to start him off with 
a bit of information regarding the 
developing powders for use with 
the tank. 

The tank developer powders are 
put up in wrappers, each containing 
two packages of chemicals. These 
chemicals are pyro, sulphite of soda 
and carbonate of soda. The pyro is 
in the thin package and the sulphite 
and carbonate are in the thick one. 

The order in which the chemicals 
are dissolved is important ; the sul- 
phite and carbonate should be dis- 
solved first, and thev should be 


\vholI_\- dissolved before the pyro is 

If the pyro is dissolved first and 
the sulphate and carbonate then 
added, the undissolved carbonate 
would come in contact with the 
l)yro and turn the solution brown. 
A pyro developer should be almost 
colorless until after it is used. If 
it is brown when the exposed film 
is placed in it. the negatives will be 
deeply stained, and so be very slow 

A slight stain, however, in only 
those parts of the negative which 
contain reduced silver is not objec- 
tionable ; as a matter of fact, such 
a stain often improves printing 
quality, but a deep stain is a decided 
detriment for the reason before 

A slight stain in the image only 
has a selective action which adds 
snap and brilliancy to the prints, 
but the deep stain which colors the 
gelatine as well as the silver has no 
selective action. It does no good, 
and only makes the negative a slow 

A deep stain will never be found 
in negatives developed with the 
Kodak Tank or Premo Tank Pow- 
ders or Eastman Plate Tank Pow- 
ders if the following instructions 
are followed, and these instruc- 
tions are furnished with everv 

Have the films ready for develop- 
ment before mixing the developer. 

Dissolve every particle of the sul- 
phite and carbonate before adding 
the pyro. 

Do not allow the prepared de- 
veloper to stand exposed to the air. 
but use it as soon as it is mixed. 

Lock the cover on the tank as 
soon as the films are placed in it. 
so that no air can enter the tank 
during development. 

A\'asli the films in tlirce cliang^es 

of water between developing and 

Allow the films to remain in the 
fixing bath a few minutes, longer 
than it takes to remove the last 
trace of the creamy color. This is 
necessary for removing an invisible 
salt that is formed during the first 
stage of the fixing process, and 
which, if not removed, would in 
time ruin the negatives. 

Xo other developer has ever pro- 
duced negatives excelling in print- 
ing quality a pyro developed nega- 
tive. \\'hile a pyro developer should 
always be thrown away after it has 
once been used, it is. nevertheless, 
the most economical developer 

'Tf there is anything that makes 
me fidgety." said a friend of ours, 
"it is to have a clerk that is waiting 
on me keep running back and forth 
to consult someone else in order to 
get information about prices or 

That clerk is being paid to sell 
goods. It"> up to him to know 
everything regarding those goods 
that the public can reasonably ex- 
pect him to know. If he knows his 
line, the customer acquires immedi- 
ate confidence in him, and his sell- 
ing ability is greatly increased. And 
confidence between customer and 
seller, you know, is one of the most 
important underlying principles of 
any successful sale. Know your 
goods is old advice, but it is always 
good advice. Know every detail of 
manufacture or construction that 
can possibly interest the customer. 



Through the Glass 

The displaying of merchandise in 
the proper way is now recognized 
as the most important advertising 
sales-producing medium in the 
world of merchandising; it matters 
not what the article may be, the 
watchword is — display it, declared 
L. A. Rogers in an address deliv- 
ered at the recent national conven- 
tion of display men, which is the 
modernized descriptive for "win- 
d(3w trimmers." 

For, he adds, there is none so 
potent a producer of direct results, 
none so sure a profit-maker to the 
intelligent merchant, as the show 

The swift march of progress has 
compelled merchants to have their 
wares exhibited in a way that will 
attract attention and also lead to 
their sale. 

Attractive window displays tend 
toward a general betterment of 
merchandising : they increase pres- 
tige and build up good will. 

To persons who are influenced in 
making their purchases "through 
the glass" the show window is a 
great silent salesman. Often it sells 
more goods than a force of well- 
trained clerks ; it attracts and draws 
within the store thousands of pass- 
ersby who would otherwise not 
think of buying; it reminds a great 
buying public of its needs and keeps 
shoppers informed on styles and 
prices. The attractive displaying of 
merchandise is the least expensive 
of all efifective advertising. 

The merchant regards his show 
window as his brass band, his press 
agent, and he knows that in order 
for them to "stick out" above those 
of his competitors it is a question 
of "know how," and not a question 
of guesswork. 

A higher degree of efificiency on 


the part of the display man is, 
therefore, a safe and sane founda- 
tion of the future of any business, 
whether it be large or small. 

The show window is the mer- 
chant's point of contact with the 
general public. He gets closer than 
that only to his actual customers ; 
the tips of his fingers are held out 
to the readers of his newspaper ad- 
vertising, but in the show window 
he gets an actual point of contact 
through which he is able to empha- 
size himself and his store to any- 
body who will stop and look. 

The show window reflects the 
policy and the personality of a 
business. The combined efforts of 
newspaper advertising and show 
window displays are the "eyes of 
the store.*' 

Human traits are read from hu- 
man features ; so are store charac- 
ters read from store advertising 
and window displays. The expres- 
sion put into these most important 
elements of publicity is a fair guide 
to the quality of the organization 
behind it. Eft'ective. high-class ad- 
vertising goes hand in hand with 
high-class window displays, just as 
"hand bill" advertising and "fire 
sale" show windows are locked arm 
in arm in the game of retail mer- 

It is as useless for a displayman 
to attempt high-class displays for a 
store that caters to a cheap class of 
trade as it is useless to try and make 
a race horse out of a jackass. 

An expressionless face fails to 
attract — it is the unwritten law of 
Xature. Just so with careless, ill- 
arranged, monotonous advertising 
and window displays. Both are 
fatal to a business. 

The "eyes of the store" appeal to 
everybody who passes them and 
gets a "grip" immediately upon the 
man or woman who is interested in 


tlie merchandise shown. Attractive 
displays make a good impression 
upon the customer and they are a 
decided aid in the actual selling of 
merchandise. The position of the 
display man, therefore, is unique, 
and his influence is emphatic. 

Attractive displays do not hap- 
pen, but are impressions in material 
form of careful and well-directed 
thought that are based on a funda- 
mental principle as important as the 
wording of a business letter. 

If merchandise be worthy of such 
thought, time and labor in arrang- 
ing window displays, it should be 
worthy of mention in the newspaper 
advertising, and this good business 
opportunity should never be over- 
looked by the merchant. 

A well composed ad, carefully 
arranged, and a tastefully dressed 
show window, like a well-groomed 
man, reflect the presence of refine- 

It has been said that a store can 
rise no higher than the character of 
its publicity. 

The ad man has evolved into a 
sales manager, not only describing 
goods, but planning campaigns to 
make goods more saleable. 

The display man has quickh- 
taken rank beside him, and together 
they are marching onward to their 
next conquest. The most valuable 
men in a retail establishment to-day 
are the advertising man and the dis- 
play man. They are the employers' 
secretary of war and secretary of 
state, although some merchants are 
still sticking to the old ways of do- 
ing business and seemingly fail to 
see or adopt certain methods which 
others are employing with marked 

It is a fact that attractive window 
displays have become a necessity. It 
is a means of advertising merchan- 
dise and is worthv of the careful 

consideration of any merchant who 
would be up with the times. 

The reason that the merchant 
pays for a large and handsome 
store frontage is for the amount of 
window space he obtains. He 
knows that the inclination to buy 
merchandise is formed in the mind, 
and not in the pocketbook. He 
knows that his show windows are 
the "eyes of his store," and he 
knows that he must keep those 
"eyes" bright, snappy and full of 
expression in order to obtain his 
share, or possibly a little more, of 
the business. 

The "eyes" that peer into the 
show window are the same eyes that 
scan the advertising in the daily 
papers: the proper use of successful 
printed advertising will build up 
trade faster and keep it longer than 
any other one means. 

But, mind you, mere words will 
not picture to anyone the goods so 
that they stand out in the mind as 
they stand out right before your 
eyes when properly displayed in the 
show window. 

If you combine beauty with your 
window scenes, you will show that 
your employer appreciates the taste 
for the beautiful in others: show a 
pleasurable side to your displays as 
well as a selling side. 

Beauty is to the eye what music is 
to the ear — softening. Soften the 
appearance of selfish designs on the 
customer by displaying your mer- 
chandise with pleasing surround- 
ings. — Sporting Goods Journal. 

It isn't so bad to take things as 
they come, if you only know what 
to do with them. 



The Facets on the Diamond 
of Salesmanship 

Diamonds in the rough are valued 
at about $7.50 to $20 a carat at 
Kimberley, South Africa. Cut and 
poHshed, they bring hundreds of 
dollars a carat. The facets brought 
the change. 

But — the facets took away from 
the quantity of the gem. They 
actually made it lighter. What they 
gave in return, and with interest 
compounded many time s- was 
beauty. They gave symmetry — 
brought out the dazzling effects of 
the light refracted from the depths. 

Salesmanship also has its facets. 
Men who are untrained are scarcelv 
worth their keep. Experience of 
one kind and another cuts a facet 
here and there. Determination cuts 
another facet — with the fine pre- 
cision of the diamond-cutter. In- 
itiative cuts another ; while pluck. 
study, even temper, health, thought, 
planning, etc., cut so many of these 
geometrically perfect surfaces, the 
polished jewel of salesmanship, 
priceless in actual value, is pro- 

P>ut these facets are never cut at 
one time, nor always in the same 
way. Rubbing against other "dia- 
monds-in-the-rough" fand polished 
ones as well), wears down the 
rough places. 

The salesman succeeds liest who 
keeps his facets visible. The less 
he displays the uncut, unpolished 
side, the more his brilliancy shows. 
This is not deception, but art. 
Every salesman knows that the gem 
without the setting is less attractive. 
And the setting of the diamond of 
salesmanship is usually found in 
the conditions surrounding a sale, 
as well as the honest arguments 

There are Regent, Koli-I-Xoor 

and Cullinan salesmen — and there 
are also Brazilian and Barrios 
salesmen. But the best in sales- 
manship is the kind that has been 
in the lapidary shop of experience 
and effort, because it has the most 
facets, and brings the greatest mar- 
ket price. It is the Salesmanship 
Diamond of the First Water. — 
Globc-lVcnuckc Doings. 



The way that salesman handled 
the complaining customer showed 
why he was making the money he 
was being paid. He was a real 
salesman, not merely a clerk. The 
customer came in witli two com- 
plaints. One seemed fair and just, 
the other apparently unjustified 
and upon which it was hard to see 
how an adjustment could be ex- 

The salesman took tlie "fair kick" 
first, the one on which he felt he 
could make an adjustment. Then, 
after he had smilingly shown her 
how anxious the store was to make 
errors good, he had a much easier 
time to explain why the second 
request could not be granted. 

Suppose he had taken the second 
complaint first. The chances are he 
would still be trying to adjust that 
one. for he would have antagonized 
his customer right from the start, 
and the latter would never really 
have been satisfied with any adjust- 
ment he would have made on either 
of the two complaints. 


THIS is not the time to falter. The war 
has heen won. Canada played a glorious 
part in overthrowing Germany's scheme of 
world-conqnest. Her lads in Khaki who came 
througli hcll-tire — some unscathed, others 
maimed for life — are now home and have re- 
sinned their duties as citizens. 

These thoughts should quicken your sense 
of dutv. The Canadians won imperishable 
fame on tlie battle-helds of France and Flan- 
ders. Let it not be said that Canadians failed 
to shoulder their responsibilities in finishing 
the job. Let a chapter be added to the war 
story telling tliat Canadians were as united in 
the Reconstruction Period as they were in 
battle, that they oversubscribed the 1919 

The Kodak Booth at the Toronto Exhibition 

A few minutes spent at this stand would have tired every reader 
of The Kodak Salesman with the determination to give his customers 
the opportunity of acquiring the large pictures they want so much from 
their small negatives. It is no exaggeration to say that every visitor 
felt the appeal of the simple subjects thrown up to larger dimensions. 
Their interest proved that, and their questions also showed how much 
you can do to free Enlarging from the atmosphere of difficulty and 
expense that seems to cloud it. Read the article "Sales Ready to Make"" 
on page eight — the}- are worth while. 







uy iiiiiijiy u.ciitiiu and 
lujty !>e kit by a iiiiyle 



— IVarde's ll'ords 

THE kodak: salesman 

An aid =^= 
to the man 
behind the counter 



No. 10 

How Is Your Chin? 

There is a clever little story in a 
recent issue of a well known week- 
ly of enormous circulation, which 
tells of a well appearing young 
man who never, somehow, could 
hold on to a job for any length of 

The tale begins with one of his 
periodical "firings."' 

The Boss called him into his 
office and told him that he was too 
good for the job that he was hold- 
ing down, and from past experi- 
ences he could not be trusted with 
the responsibilities of a bigger job, 
so he was going to be let out. 

The Boss, possibly because he 
was interested in new methods, and 
perhaps because he was a bit inter- 
ested in the young man, suggested 
that they call on a character analy- 
sis expert and have the young man 
learn what she thought of him. 

She told him a few pleasant 
things regarding himself and also 
a lot of disagreeable things that he 
was forced to admit were true. 

She told him that his chin was 
just a trifle too receding and that 
th'' wav he held his head — a bit 

down — did not indicate a man who 
would stick to a thing and see it 

Along about here in the story the 
usual girl appears, and the young 
man is most anxious to make good 
to please her. 

So he asks the character analyst 
"how about it," if he holds his head 
up and sticks out his chin : if it will 
help him in overcoming his weak- 

She told him that possibly it 
would — and according to the story 
it does, and all ends happily. 

Xow this is no endorsement for 
any particular system of character 
analysis, and it does not pretend to 
point out the royal road to success 
— but — just try sticking out your 
chin and holding vour head up. and 
see if it doesn't stiffen your moral 

It certainlv will make you ap- 
pear more determined, and as most 
people judge by appearances, so 
they believe, and so if other people 
think you are a person with deter- 
mination, they will soon convince 
vou of the same thing. 


Send i?i the Kodakery subsciiption blanks 
the day you fill them out. 



He was the best bicycle sales- 
man in the store : in fact, he sold 
the majority of ah the wheels sold, 
and he sold them to many seem- 
ingly impossible prospects. 

He did it because he was a "bicy 
cle bug." says Mr. P. H. Butler in 
the Sporting Goods Joiinial. He 
handled the machines in the same 
wav a book-ldver handles his favor- 
ite volumes ; bic}cles were his hob- 
by and he just couldn't help talking 
them to everyone who came in. 

One day the Boss sent for him 
and told him that without question 
he was the best bicycle salesman 
in town. l)ut that his sales on other 
goods were exceeded by even the 
greenest clerks in the store. 

This set him thinking, and so he 
got to studying the other goods in 
the store most attentively. He 
didn't wax enthusiastic over every- 
thing the store carried, but he did 
become a "bug" on a number of 
things outside of bicycles, and his 
sales and value to the store in- 
creased accordingly. 

It may be possible that you are a 
"bug;" that you are interested, say. 
in the Graflex above everything 
else, and just can not bear to talk 
to a customer who wants to see 
something else. 

Quite possibly you are an enthu- 
siastic amateur yourself, with a 
hobby for portraiture, so that you 
can scarcely suppress a yawn when 
a customer expects you to enthuse 
over some fine landscapes he has 

Xow it is perfectly all right for 
you to be a Graflex "bug," because 
an enthusiastic Graflex salesman is 
an asset to any photographic store, 
and it is also perfectly all right for 
you to be a specialist or an enthu- 
siast regarding some other particu- 
lar phase of photograph}- — but for 

your own sake don't confine your- 
self to one "bug:" add to your col- 
lection so that no matter what the 
customer is interested in, you can 
show — and feel — a real interest. 

Don't lose your enthusiasm for 
your original and pet "bug," but 
take a kindly and considerate in- 
terest in "its sisters, its cousins, 
and its aunts." 


Have You Read 'Em? 

Ill spite of the fact that finishing 
departments are flourishing, we 
find the average amateur of a de- 
cidedly inquiring turn of mind and 
eager for authentic information 
concerning all phases of his favorite 

So, in addition to publishing 
Kodakery. and our standard ama- 
teur text book, "How to Make 
Good Pictures," with which, of 
course, you are familiar, we have 
recently issued the following book- 
lets : "About Lenses," "Element- 
ary Photographic Chemistry," and 
"Lantern Slides." These three 
booklets are free on application. 

"The Photography of Colored 
( Jbjects" is a bit more elaborate and 
expensive to produce, so we make a 
charge of fifty cents (50c.) for it. 
It describes in language anyone can 
understand, the 'why and how" of 
orthochromatic and panchromatic 

Tell your customers of these 
booklets, and study them yourself 
— you can't know too much about 
vour own game. 


An Open Road 

We will now turn to page 29 and 
sing. — There now, you see what 
comes of having two thoughts in 
mind at the same time. Just as we 
were preparing to write this little 
screed one of the fellows leaned 
up against our desk and chatted 
about our old singing-class days, 
so when we opened up the Kodak 
Catalogue we commenced writing 
as above. What we really had in 
mind was a bit of a chat on sun- 
dries, and to commence by asking 
you how many Brownie Tripod 
Adapters you had sold, the same 
being illustrated on page 29. 

You haven't sold any? — Well, 
now, that is too bad, when it is so 
easy and when the sale of this little 
accessory leads directly to the sale 
of other sundries. Lots and lots 
of box Brownie users bring them 
in to you to have the exposed spool 
removed and a new one put in. and 
so when this happens with the 
owner of a Xo. 2 or 2A Brownie, 
why don't you ask them if they 
ever make "time" exposures, and 
then show them how. by means of 
this little adapter, their cameras 
may be used with a tripod. They 
are going to be interested, and you 
stand a good chance of selling 
them both the adapter and a tripod 
— may be not right then but the 
next time they come in. This is 
one way to make your sales slip 

Xow let's turn to page 37: This 
will be in the same key, but an 
octave higher. Kodak owners, as 
well as Brownie owners, bring in 
their cameras to be unloaded and 
loaded, and such being the case, 
when you discover that the Kodak 
is not equipped with the Auto- 
graphic feature w1,VaL'-r>'^cit a good 
time to explai." and cou Autogra- 
phic Back carprettv clear to their 

instrument so they can enjoy all its 
advantages? By so doing it is quite 
possible to add from S2.50 to S4.25 
to the sales slip. 

Xext, skipping a few pages, let'.- 
stop at page 45. 

The customer requests a gross of 
3^4 X 55^ Special \'elvet Velox, an 
ounce of Elon and an ounce of 
Hydrochinon. and a pound each of 
carbonate and sulphite. "Ah Ha I 
Watson, what do you make of 
this ?" exclaims Sherlock Kodak 
Holmes — "he does his own print- 

"I believe you are right," re- 
sponds Watson, admiringly. This 
being the case, what's the matter 
with showing him the Kodak Ama- 
teur Printer. Ten to one he'll agree 
with you that it beats the regular 
printing frame all hollow, and he 
might have the necessary seven 
fifty right along with him, and this 
extra seven fifty will stay right in 
his pocket if you don't do some- 
thing to coax it out. 

And that will be all for this 
month, but we are going to keep 
suggesting to you right along, here- 
after, how easy it is to sell sun- 
dries if you will only follow up all 
the leads open to you. 

Why a Limit ? 

Have you placed a limit on your 
ambition ? Have you decided you 
will be satisfied when you get so 
much business, or when you get a 
certain salary ? AMiy fit any such 
limit ? The man who puts a limit 
on his ambition will usually be sat- 
isfied before he reaches that limit. 
He will think, "Well, this is near 
enough. I guess I'll let it go at that." 
Cut out the limit and go as far as 
\'ou can. 


Gleaned from a Girl 

I had been doing business for 
several years with a concern tliat 
employs a number of correspon- 
dents, and had been particular!) 
struck with the intelligence and 
courtesy employed by one corre- 
spondent in answering my letters. 

Happening to be in this com- 
pany's office one day, 1 asked the 
manager what sort of a chap F. ]\1. 
Smith was. this being the name 
signed by the correspondent, and 
said I would like to meet him. 

The manager smiled and pushed 
a button, and presently in came a 
decidedly attractive young woman. 

Turning to me. he said. "This is 
F. M. Smitli. Aliss v^mitli. meet 
Mr. Blank." 

\\'ith the preconceived idea in 
my mind that "F. M. Smith" must 
be a man. T was natural!}- taken 
back for a moment, but soon ral- 
lied sufificiently to engage her in 

I told her tliat I !iad wanted to 
meet F. ]\r. Smith because I liked 
the way F. ]\I. Smith answered my 

I asked her if she followed any 
definite plan or method in answer- 
ing letters, and she nodded a de- 
cided affirmative. 

She said, "I make it a point to 
read every letter carefully before 
commencing dictation. T separate 
the letters into two piles; the first 
containing those I can answer witli- 
out having to look up anything. In 
the other pile I place those demand- 
ing investigation or furtlier infor- 
mation before answering.' 

I make a note of every questio'.i 
in tlie letter and make sure these 
are answered fully, first. 

Where an immediate and definite 
answer to any question i:^ not pos- 
sible. T refer to t!ie question, re- 


gret that it can not b-e answered in 
full, and promise to answer it at 
the earliest moment. 

My stenographer makes a note 
of all such instances, and hands 
me a list of all such when she 
brings me the letters to sign. 

By so doing, these unanswered 
questions are kept before me. and 
so I can answer them at the earliest 
moment without the customer !iav- 
ing to write again regarding it. 

This makes the customer feel sat- 
isfied that the house is truly inter- 
ested in him, and paves the way for 
an easier adjustment of any conten- 
tions that may arise in t!ie future. 

^^'it!^ me complaints are a serious 
matter, and I try to look at them 
from the customers" viewpoint, 
never, liowever. overlooking the 
fact that I am here to protect the 
interests of tlie liouse. 

\\'hen we are at fault I admit it 
promptly, and apologize, and do 
my best to remedy what is wrong. 
I don't believe in dodging the issue. 

Even wdien the complaint is not 
justifiable, I frequently settle it the 
customer's way. when the amount 
involved is not too great, because 1 
know that while the amount at 
stake must be charged as a mer- 
chandise loss, it can be credited to 
the good-will account of the house. 
and the good-will of tlie customer 
counts for a lot. 

I try to handle m\- c<^rrespon- 
dence in such a wa_\' as to make tlie 
customer feel that our organiza- 
tion is composed of real human 
l>eings — friendly ones — and that we 
truly have their interests at heart." 

It seems to me that F. M. Smith 
has the ri^ht idea. \\'hat do vou 
think ^ 


Use It 

First class in salesmanship stand 

What makes for success .■' 


How is confidence acquired? 

Through knowledge. 

Xow if tlie class will move for- 
ward close to the platform and he 
seated, we will proceed with the 
morning's lesson. 

The man behind the counter who 
does not possess a full and com- 
plete knowledge of his line has no 
right to class himself as a sales- 
man, because he is always fearing 
that someone will sometime ask 
him a question that he cannot an- 
swer, and so he does not possess 
that first essential — Confidence. 

Xow this is not going to be a 
long drawn out dissertation on the 
"be good and you'll be happy" stuflf. 
but just to lead up to the fact that 
you are overlooking a big sure bet 
if you fail to read and study the 
various photographic magazines 
and books so easily to be obtained. 

Let us assume that you can an- 
swer most of the ordinary ques- 
tions propounded right off the bat, 
and can successfully demonstrate 
and sell any instrument or bit of 
equipment in stock, but suppose a 
customer comes in some day. and 
wants to know how photographs 
are printed on the dial or on the 
inside of a watch case. Well, why 
should he, or she. expect you to 
know the answer ? You are not a 
professional photographer — but. if 
you had been reading the photo- 
graphic magazines you would re- 
call that somewhere you had read 
how this was done, and so you 
could tell your customer : "\Vhy 
that is done by what is called the 
carbon process," and could prob- 
ably afford a pretty clear idea of 

just how it was done from mem- 
ory. Or, someone else asks : "Just 
what is this "gum printing process' 
I am hearing about?" And you 
having read in some one of the 
journals how gum prints were 
made, could tell him. Your store 
doesn't stock carbon printing ma- 
terials, and why should you know 
anything about gum prints, or be 
expected to answer all the fool 
c[uestions propounded. Well, may- 
be you shouldn't be expected to. 
but if you can answer them, or at 
least put the customer on the right 
track, you have then and there es- 
tablished in the mind of the custo- 
mer a feeling of confidence in you. 
"Yes, sir. that man sure knows his 
business — there isn't any question 
vou can ask him that he can't an- 
swer." You have become an asset 
to him. and he is quite apt to brag 
about his acquaintance with you to 
his friends, who will in turn come 
to vou for information, and for the 
things they need in your line. 

Don't overlook this mine of in- 
formation at your hand. lu-t 
through this reading your mind will 
automatically store up information 
for you ; things that you don't 
really know that you know until 
the question is asked, and you will 
be astonished as to how your mem- 
ory will respond. 

This is a good tip — u^e it. 

Class dismissed. 


A man's value in the world is es- 
timated and paid for according to 
the ability he uses, not what he may 


/ Salesman 


K one Saturday afternoon not long 
ago and as I left the bouse my wife 
gave me a list of things to pur- 
chase at one of the little stores in 
the village. 

"I stopped into one of the stores 
thinking to leave the list and call 
for the goods on my way back. 

"Among other sundry bad habits 
T have acquired, or had thrust upon 
me, is the one of smoking ciga- 
rettes, so I inquired for my favor- 
ite brand. ( Less expensive than 
the one 'found in all the best 
clubs.' ) 

"In response to my query, the 
haughty lady behind the counter 
replied, "Haven't got 'em,' and T 
could feel the frost congealiug my 
very soul ; in fact, I was so dazed 
that I walked out with the long list 
my wife gave me, and entered an- 
other store a block down the street. 

^'I hesitated, fearing another 
frost would prove fatal, but finally 
-summoned up courage enough to 
ask for a package of 'destroyers.' 
'Sure, we got 'em, big sellers, too,' 
and across the counter came the 
package accompanied by an expan- 
sive smile. 

"I left the list my wife gave me 
with the owner of the smile. 

"The other Saturday afternoon 
there happened to be some young- 
sters visiting mine, so I took the 
whole bunch over to a near-by 
amusement park to spend a few 
nickels and dimes on the merry-go- 


round and the other incidental ju- 
venile diversions. 

"As we reached the ticket win- 
dow the man at the turnstile 
grinned and shouted, 'All good- 
looking kids in free to-day, this 
way in,' and motioned to my as- 
sorted bunch. 

"Well, that tickled the young- 
sters and made me feel sort of good 
inside, so we got oiif to a good start 
and squandered nickels and dimes 
with reckless abandon. 

"Possibly I am over-susceptible 
to a smile (my wife says I am — 
Init be that as it may ) but I know 
I am speedily and permanently in- 
fluenced by a grouch, one a])plica- 
tion being sufficient. 

"I own a bull pup that can smile 
from the tip of his abbreviated tail 
down to the end of his wrinkled 
nose ; he is sure one friendly pup, 
and this ability to show hi>^ appre- 
ciation of life in general stood him 
in good stead not long ago. 

"Man-made laws have decreed 
that he wear a muzzle w'liich ])re- 
vents him from following his avd- 
cation of collecting bones and bury- 
ing them in the flower bed, so one 
day he managed to slip out without 
it and ran into the net of the dog 

"Even in adversity he smiled, 
though a bit trembly, and licked the 
dog catcher's hand. The dog 
catcher, having, I suspect, a sneak- 
ing fondness for bull pups, brought 
him to our back door and said. 


'This pup is too good to go with 
the rough-necks I got in the wagon. 
Don't let him get out again without 
his muzzle," and went on his way. 
So it seems to me that if a smile can 
soften even the heart of a dog catch- 
er that smiles must be worth while. 

"Smiles are a tangible asset. 
When I am making out a route 
sheet for a trip you will not always 
find me stopping at the newest or 
the finest hotel in a town, not be- 
cause I don't like creature com- 
forts, but because I like to go where 
I am sure of a smile. 

"And don't you ever think but 
what the traveling man's customers 
who greet him in a friendly manner 
don't get the best of it ; they do 
every time, because it is just human 

"Supposing I have picked up a 
good idea from somewhere along 
the line : something different in a 
window or store display, or a good 
selling stunt, am I going to pass 
this good stuff on to the man who 
is surly with me ? X"ot so you 
could notice it. 

"And when you are behind the 
covmter don't you want to do twice 
as much for the customer who ap- 
proaches you with a smile? Sure 
you do. 

''Maybe you have just finished 
with some congenital crab and feel 
like going out into the garden and 
eating all the fuzzy worms you can 
find and then up comes some fellow^ 
with a smile. Can you hold your 
peeve? Xo sir. The corners of 
your mouth automatically begin to 
turn up, the sun comes out from 
behind the cloud, and darned if it 
isn't a pretty good world to live in. 

"And when this chap with the 
smile comes in again sometime 
aren't you just going to break your 
neck to wait upon him ? 
. "Sure vou are." 

From Window to Register 

Practically all the vacationists 
have returned and have printed up 
their summer acquisition of nega- 

In every such collection there will 
be some unusually good nega- 
tives, or some which, from asso- 
ciation, particularly appeal to their 

Why not cash in on all such neg- 
atives ? It would astonish you to 
learn how many amateurs do not 
know that enlarged pictures can be 
made from their negatives, or if 
they do know it, think that enlarg- 
ing is an intricate and costly pro- 

Here is a good plan : Select from 
your own, or your customers' neg- 
atives, say, twenty good ones of 
diversified subjects, and make from 
each one a contact print and an en- 

If you wish to use a customer's 
negative, ask his permission first^ — - 
you'll get it alright enough, because 
he will feel flattered by the sug- 

Mount the enlargements nicel}-. 
and print the contact prints with 
even white borders, and then put 
in a window display similar to the 
one shown on page 2. (This win- 
dow through the courtesy of the 
Standard Photo Supply Com- 
pany. ) 

Have similar enlargements and 
contact prints on display inside the 
store, and show and talk enlarge- 
ments to every customer ; then 
watch the enlarging department get 
busy and the size of your sales 
slips increase. You'll find a direct 
connection from your display to the 
cash register. 


Ten -minutes 
witt tlie Boss 

SAM, if yuu were the boss here, 
what changes would you make ? 

"I don't expect you to answer 
this right off the reel, but the 
thoitght came into my mind as I 
was thinking about an old boss of 
mine when I was just a youngster. 

"About once a month he used to 
get us all together and ask us the 
question I just asked you, and 
everyone of us felt free to have 
our say, down to and including me. 

"The store room was very long 
and the cash desk was at the ex- 
treme far end, so one day when I 
was asked the usual question I sug- 
gested moving the cash desk to the 
middle of the store to save time and 

"The boss laughed and said, 
'Well, haven't we been a lot of 
chumps not to think of that be- 
fore ?' 

"My suggestion immediately 
paved the way for another from 
one of the older salesmen. 

"He suggested moving the silk 
thread stock to the end of the store 
when the cash desk was moved so 
the clerks would have good day- 
light for matching colors. 

"The boss laughed again because 
this was also one of the obvious 
things to do that somehow no one 
had ever thought of before. 

"The idea is. Sam, that I believe 
in making every employee feel that 
lie really counts for something in 
the organization, and you would 


be surprised at the good ideas and 
suggestions that I receive from the 
most unexpected sources. 

"If you make the employee feel, 
Sam, that the boss believes he is a 
real factor in the business, he im- 
mediately begins to develop re- 
sourcefulness, and studies how to 
meet and cope with unexpected sit- 
uations and conditions. 

"You may have heard the story, 
Sam. about the farmer who went 
into a hardware store to purchase 
a cowbell. He wanted one that 
could be heard from Dan to Ber- 
sheba and the clerk was having a 
hard time to satisfy his wants. He 
was frantically trying out bell after 
bell, hoping to find one suft'iciently 

"An older salesman, sensing the 
predicament of the younger one, 
took a hand. 

" 'Looking for a loud bell ?" 'Yes." 
said the customer. 'They used to 
use loud ones,' remarked the older 
salesman, 'but the real noisy ones 
aren't sold much any more. You 
see, there is a reason for that which 
possibly has not occurred to you.' 

" 'When a cow has on a loud bell 
and you hear it, she may be a mile 
or so off, and you don't know just 
where she is. ijut when she has on 
a low, soft toned bell, when you 
hear her you have the satisfaction 
of knowing she is right close by and 
easy to find. Had \'ou ever thought 
of that?' 


"W'lien the farmer liad finally 
gone with a tiny bell about the size 
of a watch charm, the salesman 
wiped his fevered brow and said, 
'Gosh, but I was scared toward the 
last for fear I would have to line 
one with feathers for him." 

"A little far-fetched, perhaps, 
Sam. but it scores one for resource- 

"T remember the first regular job 
I had, Sam, in an old fashioned 
country dry-goods store. You know 
the sort of a job, two fifty per 
week, and to do everything that no 
one else wanted to do. witli the 
hours from A. M. to P. ^l. 

"When the boss hired me he said. 
'I am going to put you in charge 
of our delivery service. — said serv- 
ice consisting of me and a push 
cart. — but just because of that con- 
versation I took my job most seri- 
ously and I know the store got bet- 
ter service from me on account 
of it. 

"My job. Sam. was a pretty soft 
o"e. All I had to do was to get on 
the job a bit early ; sweep the 
floor; dust the fixtures; fill the 
lamps ; wash the windows : run 
errands ; deliver packages ; open 
packing cases ; build the fire in the 
big stove ; see that it was supplied 
with fuel, and once, when the boss' 
new wife gave a party. T acted as 
door boy. and then helped with the 
dishes after the party. 

"It was really, Sam. a case of 
'nothing to do 'til to-morrow' with 
me. but being kept busy kept me 
from being unhappy, and I look 
back upon that job as one of the 
happiest experiences of my life. 

"I tell you. Sam. it was a proud 
time for me when, on one Imsv Sat- 
urday, the boss permitted me to go 
behind the counter and 'wait upon 
trade' — now b'gosh. I was a regu- 
lar salesman. 

"Just because the boss had made 
me feel that I was really a part of 
the store ; made me feel that I must 
give every customer the best service 
I knew how, and I know I kept the 
floor and windows cleaner, because 
dirt would never do in our store. 

"When you get employees to 
thinking and saying 'oitr' in connec- 
tion with the store. Sam. you have 
gone a long ways in building up a 
winning organization." 

Read the December 

Every salesman of pliotographic 
supplies can profit b)' a careful 
reading of the December issue of 

Every article in this number 
deals directly with some problem 
regarding which the amateur comes 
to the salesman for advice. 

The leading article, while de- 
scriptive, ofifers an excellent sell- 
ing argument for the Autographic 

Then follow articles on "Sharp 
and Unsharp Pictures." "Improv- 
ing the Print by Masking," "flak- 
ing Autographic Records at Xight." 
"When the Atmosphere Is Hazy," 
"The Lens Stop." ''Same Stop 
Value. Same Exposure." and ''Ten- 
tative Development." 

Have the courage of your convic- 
tions but don't "fight" everyone you 

Xow and then it's a good plan to 
look back and see the direction we 
are traveling. 



The Primary Page 

for -file Beginner 
Behind the Counter 

1AM going to try printing some 
of my negatives myself," re- 
marks JNIr. Amateur to you. So he 
purchases the necessary material 
and then proceeds to ask you a 
numher of questions which you an- 
swer, at the same time presenting 
him with a copy of the A-'elox Book. 

Along with the other questions, 
he asks you how far from the 
printing light should the printing 
frame be held. For all practical 
purposes this query is answered in 
the Velox Book, but a little more 
detailed information than is to be 
had in so compact a booklet as the 
Velox Book may not come amiss. 

When Hght emanates from a sin- 
gle point, its strength at any dis- 
tance from its source varies as the 
square of the distance. 

We may consider a single light 
source, such as the ordinary elec- 
tric bulb, as a point source of light, 
and when we use a single lamp for 
making prints from a negative we 
find that, should the exposure need- 
ed for obtaining a correctly ex- 
posed print be 10 seconds when the 
printing frame is placed 10 inches 
from the light, at 30 inches, which 
is 3 times as far as 10 inches, the 
exposure required will be 3 x 3, or 
9 times as long as at 10 inches, or 
90 seconds. If placed at 15 inches, 
or XYi times 10 inches, the expo- 
sure will be 1>4 X 1>^, or 2M times 
the need for 10 inches, which is 
22^ seconds. 

On the other hand, if the frame 


is placed 3 inches from the light — 
this being ^ of 10 inches — the ex- 
posure will be ^ X 3^, or ^ the 
exposure at 10 inches, or 2^ sec- 

As stated in the A'elox Book, ex- 
perience has proved that a suffi- 
ciently uniform illumination of the 
negatives, which will avoid over- 
printing the center before the 
edges of the negatives are correct- 
ly printed, can be obtained by 
placing the negative not closer than 
the length of its diagonal from the 
printing light. 

If the length of time it takes to 
print at this distance has been de- 
termined, and if at this distance 
the printing proceeds too rapidly or 
too slowly, the length of time to 
print at any other distance from 
the light can be quickly calculated 
by the foregoing rule. 

As a result of your information 
Mr. Amateur comes in later with 
some pretty good looking prints, 
but is a bit puzzled regarding some 
black and some white spots which 
adorn ( ? ) his prints, and wants 
to know what caused them and how 
to get rid of them. 

These spots, as you may sur- 
mise, are due to carelessness, and 
are caused by dust, except the large 
white spots which are caused by air 
bubbles forming on the surface of 
the paper during development. This 
is due to carelessness. ( See \'elox 

Dust on film or plate during de- 


velopment will produce transparent 
spots on the negative which will 
naturally show as black spots on the 
print; while dust on the negative 
or on the printing paper during 
printing will produce white spots 
on the print. 

Keep the inside of the camera 
and all apparatus used in develop- 
ing and printing, including your 
work-room, free from dust, and 
vou will not be troubled with these 
dust spots. 

The only remedy for spots is to 
"spot" them out. 

As it is much easier to remove 
a wliite spot from a print than a 
black one. the best thing to do is to 
spot out or fill up the transparent 
spots in the negative. If this is 
carefully and skilfully done, the 
defect will be entirely done awa}- 

T^he best medium for sjiotting is 
a package of Eastman Spotting 
Colors applied with a small, fine 
pointed, spotting brush. 

The brush should be moistened 
and a very small amount of the 
pigment taken up, and care must 
be taken that the color matches the 
tone surrounding the spot on the 

If too little pigment is used, it 
will print too dark, and so still 
show on the print: if too much 
color is used the spot will print 

The best way to spot a negative 
is to place it on a sheet of ground 
glass held in such a position so that 
the light will pass through it : then 
vou can see exactly what you are 

It is better to use ton little than 
too much color, as you can build u]i 
the tone to match. 

Spotting the print is a nu;ch 
simpler matter. Take up a bi> of 
the pigment on the top of the 

moistened brush, test it for tone on 
a sheet of white paper, then care- 
fullv touch the spot with the point 
of the brush. If the color applied 
is too dark, it can be removed with 
a small tuft of cotton, and a Hghter 
tone applied. 

A Xo. 3 brush will be found 
suitable for most of the work, but 
for very small spots, use a Xo. 2. 

Eastman Spotting Colors consist 
of black, blue, sepia and white pig- 
ments. \\'hite is used for remov- 
ing spots from very Hght surround- 
ings ; sepia for spotting sepia prints 
and for blending with black for 
matching very dark sepia or warm 
black tones, while the blue, when 
blended with black, will give a blue- 
black tone. 

Related Items 



Film Tanks. 


Portrait Attachments. 

Carrying Cases, 

X'egative .Mliums. 


Printing Frames. 

Color Filters, 

X'egative Racks, 


"How To :Make Good Pictures." 



]\Iaskit Printing Frame, 

Auto-mask Printing Frame, 


Drv Mounting Tissue. 

Kodak Amateur Printer. 

Brownie Enlarging Cameras, 

Blotter Books, 

"How To :\Iake Good Pictures." 



If I Were the Youngest 
Member of the Force 

III educational publications, such 
as tlie Kodak Salesman, we feel 
that sermons are a bit out of place, 
and that "uplift" matter should be 
administered in homoeopathic doses. 

Occasionally, however, we come 
across something so trnh- worth- 
while that we just have to print it. 

Xo one needs advice and en- 
couragement more than the be- 
ginner in the selling game, and so 
we are very glad, through the cour- 
tesy of Mr. A. Bridges, and the 
Bank of Jonesboro. Jonesboro. Ark., 
to reprint his counsel to "the young- 
est member of the force." which 
won the first prize in The Arkan- 
sas Banker's Prize Article Contest. 

"Being in a reminiscent mood the 
other day it just occurred to me 
that some of the experiences I had 
passed through might be helpful, if 
not interesting, to some fellow- 
worker toiling up the lower rungs 
of the ladder. So these experiences, 
both real and imaginary, are dedi- 
cated to the }-(iungest member of 
the family in an earnest desire to 
smooth over some of the rough 
places, but if by chance, some few 
words may be applicable to an3-one 
other than the youngest member of 
the family, remember they are not 
limited to him alone. 

"In the first place. I would not. 
on beginning my business career, go 
around with a chip on my .shoulder, 
looking for someone to knock it off. 
for. rest assured, there's some fel- 
low looking for that particular chip, 
and he's not going to waste anv 
time in taking a whack at it. 

"I would not stop to ask whether 
or not the job assigned to me was a 
menial one — one beneath the dig- 
nity of even a beginner, but rather 
would I dignify even the most 
menial task by performing it well. 


and then ask no better reward than 
my own satisfaction in knowing 
that it was a duty well performed. 

"I would not question the au- 
thority of anyone requesting any 
service of me, provided the request 
was not made in a manner intended 
to convey the idea of the superior- 
ity of the one making the request. 
I would assume, until experience 
taught me otherwise, that every 
other member of the force was my 
sincere friend and helper, and if I 
found that one or more of them 
failed to measure up to that stand- 
ard. I would not waste any sighs 
on them, but rather mete out to 
them the pity they deserve for their 
narrow-mindedness, and keep right 
on 'sawing wood.' Serene and 
calm in the knowledge that I was 
doing my duties well, and keeping 
my eye on the man higher up. T 
would carefully plan my every 
action to fit and prepare me for 
that place higher up which is sure 
to come to the deserving. 

"I would not expect too much 
either in -alar}-, favors or promo- 
tion. Xo beginner will find the 
world on a greased skid, with a 
hand-spike placed readv for him to 
grasp, the very first day he is on 
the job. Such things don't happen 
in real life, even though they may 
sometimes be so depicted in reel 
life. I would ever remember that 
the choicest apples are in topmost 
branches and the delicious flavor of 
our Southern muscadine is only 
brought out by the frosts of winter. 
So would I remember that only by 
tenacious and never-ending effort, 
and in spite of hard knocks and 
chilling reverses, hewing ever to the 
line, could I expect to reach my goal. 

■'And I would not forget those 
little things that everyone else 
leaves undone. Those things so 
simple that anyone can do them. 


and that from their very sinijihcity 
are so often overlooked. There is 
always a sort of dumping ground 
for unfinished tasks, and right there 
is the chance to make one's self in- 
vakiable to a business, for this ac- 
cumulation of rubbish would soon 
block the progress of the best laia 
plans of the men higher up. 

"I would remember that accu- 
racy in every detail of my work is 
of paramount importance, and that 
speed acquired at any sacrifice of 
accuracy is a waste of time — not 
only my own time, but the time of 
others who may have to correct my 
errors. I would remember that an 
error made in a momentary relaxa- 
tion of vigilance on my part may 
be found only after hours of tedious 

"I would consider any wanton. 
wilful waste of time as a theft of 
just as much money as that partic- 
ular period of time was worth, 
based on the amount of salary paid 
to me and to the other fellow, for 
invariably a waste of time by one 
employee interferes with the work 
of at least one other employee. 

"I would get the habit of saying 
■\\'e,' with a capital W, when speak- 
ing of the business, and of feeling 
that '^^'E," from the top of my 
head to the soles of my feet. I 
would feel that if I made a mis- 
take, it was not I alone that would 
be injured, but the business, of 
which I am part and parcel, even 
though my name does not yet ap- 
pear on the list of stockholders. 

"I would study to get the custo- 
mer's viewpoint, and keep ever be- 
fore me that good old maxim. 'The 
Customer is Always Right.' for if 
a customer is worth having, he is 
certainly worth a little judicious ca- 
tering to his individual peculiarities. 

"I would remember the pulling 
power of a smile and a cheery 

word, and a look that says louder 
than any words could say it, "I'm 
in love with my job, I've got my 
eye on the man higher up and I'm 
going to push him on and up and 
out of that place just as fast as 
brains and pluck and energy can 
do it.' 

"Last, but not least, when I had. 
by long and tedious effort, reached 
the place higher up I would reach 
out a helping hand to the other fel- 
lows in line and cheer them on, for 
there's nothing helps half so much 
as knowing that someone who has 
been over the same rough places 
you are now traversing, feels an in- 
terest in you and stands ready to 
lend a helping hand." 

Why More Quality Goods 
Are Not Sold 

"We can sell three times as many 
low-priced goods with less talk and 
in the same time that it would re- 
quire to sell one high-priced arti- 
cle." is a popular form of self- 
delusion. The joke contained in 
this time-worn assertion is that it is 
rare that the men who utter it have 
three customers in line waiting to 
buy the cheap goods. 

As a result, they are continuall}- 
losing not only the larger profits 
that come from the sale of the 
higher grade goods, but are uncon- 
sciously repelling, or, at any rate, 
doing nothing to attract the better 
class of purchasers. 

If he does not harbor the delu- 
sion previously remarked, the dealer 
salves his conscience with the no- 
tion. "Xobody in this town will pay 
such prices." which frequently falls 
from his tongue when high-grade, 
high-priced goods are presented to 

Traveling salesmen have heard 
and hear it so often that it has be- 



come almost a stock ])hrase and 
constitutes one of the hardest ob- 
stacles they are called on to sur- 

There is small excuse for either 
dealer or salesman who. without 
trying, makes himself believe that 
he cannot sell quality goods, and 
their failure so to do is chargeable 
almost wholly to their mental in- 
clinations. For it is certain that no 
one man can sell anything that is 
not asked for unless he not only 
makes up his mind to sell it but 
tries to sell it intelligently and per- 

How empty is the old familiar 
excuse was recently aptly illustrat- 
ed by the experience of a well- 
known gun salesman. 

"When I showed this dealer our 
new $90 gun," he said, "he abso- 
lutely refused to become interested. 
'Nobody in this town will pay $90 
for any gun,' he declared, and noth- 
ing I said served to convince him 
to the contrary. 

"I talked long and earnestly, but 
to no avail, and finally as a last re- 
sort, I asked him if there were not 
at least a few gun cranks in the 
city. After considerable thought, 
he named a half dozen, and, at my 
suggestion, he 'phoned each of them 
telling them that I was in town 
with a new gun which might in- 
terest them. 

"Of the six, two [jut in an aj)- 
pearance that evening and I actual- 
ly sold a gun to each of them, per- 
mitting these orders to be placed 
through the dealer. He. however, 
refused to buy even a sample gun, 
but despite the fact, a number of 
them were sold in that town, and 
naturally, I had liigh h(i])es when I 
next visited it. 

"Despite the unc|uestional)le and 
convincing evidence that there were 
people in his community who would 


pay $90 for guns, I could not get 
an order out of him. He declared 
that the sales of those w'hich he 
had made were due wholly to the 
enthusiasm of one of the two 
sportsmen who had purchased guns 
at the time of my original visit, and 
sad to say, tliis sportsman had 
moved to another city Therefore, 
the dealer promptly threw up his 
hands and absolutely declined to 
UTake any effort on his own ac- 
count. Can you beat it?" disgust- 
edly asked the traveling man as he 
finished the story. 

''We give the people what they 
want," is another self-sufficient 
"salve" used by this tvpe of dealer, 
and though it eases his way it does 
nothing to assist or quicken his 
climl) to the top of the commercial 
ladder. In fact, it is not until he 
fullv awakens to and is dominated 
bv the ereat truth that arousing in- 
terest and creating desire, that is, 
iiiokiiK/ f^coplc -iCiVit what he Jias 
for sale and seeking to sell it to 
them, is a very large part of his 
duty, that eitl'ier dealer or salesman 
can ol)tain a full measure from the 
possibilities that are open to them. 
Half the i:)eople who enter stores 
reallv don't know what they want. 
Tbcir ideas are vague or half- 
formed and readily can be shaped 
by the suggestions or advice of 
those with whom they are dealing. 

No one desires a cheap article if 
he can afford one of quality, and 
"Tanv perso:is who can afford it 
buy the cheap thing simoly because 
no effort is made to sell them the 
other and a far greater number of 
people of modest means can be as 
easily con^'inced that the}" are ac- 
tually savin^r money by ])aying a 
dime or a dollar more for the su- 
perior article. Tt all rests with the 
salesman. — Sf^orfiinj Goods Sales 

i.cLue aiiJiit v*t,(Ji:!e h 

di;cu:;iii to k-;^'=p it io 

The Meridian Calendar 

provides the opportunity of doing quite a bit of extra business 

during the next three or four weeks. Don't forget 

to show them to customers to whom 

finishing orders are being 








Jt3 llilLCll^i 



OO many men make the 
great mistake of waiting 
until they feel reasonably 
sure that things are perfect. 
That consumes an awful lot of time. 
All perfections must be developed 
from a start. Sometimes the poorer 
the start, the greater the perfection. 
It all depends upon the man and his 
ability to take advantage of his mis- 
takes. All perfection is the result 
of mistakes overcome. 

Show me the man who does not 
make mistakes, and I will show you 
a dead one. 

There is a wonderful amount of 
satisfaction in making a good mistake, 
and then correcting it. If you want 
to get anywhere in the business 
world, start something. 

b/) "OL 


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An aid == 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol. 5 


No. 11 

What It Amounts To 

"What does it all aninunt tu. anv- 

"What does what amount to?" 

"Why, all these words of advice, 
instruction and information relative 
to salesmanship I see in the various 

You can best answer that ques- 
tion for yourself as, in so far as 
you are concerned, it only amounts 
to what you make of it. 

Twenty or twenty-five years ago. 
when some of us were just break- 
ing into the selling game, we would 
have been most mightily apprecia- 
tive of such information and ad- 

Some of us were fortunate 
enough to come in contact with 
older salesmen who took an interest 
in the youngsters coming along, and 
who told us of our shortcomings 
and advised us how to get on the 
right track. 

All such articles are written to 
help you make the most of your- 
self, and are usually written by per- 
sons who know enough about their 
subject to be pretty well paid for it. 

Selfish motive back of it? 

To be sure there is. If you read 
such an article in one of the gen- 
eral magazines, it was written lO 
increase the sale of that magazine ; 
if you see one in a publication is- 
sued by some manufacturer, it was 
written to help you sell more goods 
of his manufacture. 

But whether the motive that 
prompted the publication of such 
articles is selfish or not. should not 
concern you at all. 

The question is. "How can you 
make the most of them for your 
own advancement?" 

If these articles are good enough 
to have been paid for by publishers 
who are not prone to spending 
money foolishly, you stand a pretty 
good chance of getting an idea now 
and then of material profit to you. 

Some men get in a rut, some 
willingly or wilfully dig their own. 
but the man who gets somewhere 
is mighty willing to profit from the 
experience of others, as well as 
from his own. 

You sell the most goods to the enthusiastic 

Fill out tJie subscription blanks 


/ Salesman 

E^'ERYBODY has something to 
sell : not always merchandise, 
but everyone with a livelihood to 
make must sell something to exist. 

"I learned a number of good 
selling lessons from a minister ; and 
a minister must, first of all, sell 
himself to his community before he 
can achieve success. 

"I had never been much of a 
church-goer, yet I attended thi.^ 
minister's church regularly as long 
as I was in his city, and I'll tell 
you why. 

"One stormy, sleety night I was 
making my way towards a down- 
town cigar store when suddenly 
down I went ker-flop into the slush. 
As was possible, though not politely 
permissible, I let out a few words 
best represented here as ' 

''Before I could arise, a strong 
arm gripped me and stood me on 
my feet, . and a hearty voice ex- 
claimed, 'Come on in and have a 
cigar and then you'll feel better.' Tr 
was the minister. 

"I received no shocked look of 
surprise or grief at my unseemly 
language, which he surely must 
have heard, nor did he refer to it 
in any way then or thereafter. 

"The following year the twenty- 
fourth of May was slated for Mon- 
dav. and on the Sunday preceding 
T happened to be passing a news 
dealer's store at just about the Sun- 
day School hour. (If I have been 
correctly informed.) 

"The news dealer carried a stock 

of fireworks, and most earnestly in- 
specting the display, was a small 

"At this juncture, along came my 
ministerial friend. 

"He noticed the youngster, with 
his nose flattened against the win- 
dow inspecting the fireworks dis- 
play, and so he strolled over and 
asked, 'Going to have a good time 
to-morrow, son?" 

" 'No, sir,' responded the kid ; 
'I haven't got any money.' 

"Reaching out his hand the Rev- 
erend handed over a half dollar. 
'Here you are son, make a lot of 
noise to-morrow,' and never a word 
as to why he was not in Sunday 
School, or other inquiry as to his 
spiritual or moral welfare. 

"After he had departed, the 
youngster turned to me and said. 
'Gee. that's the minister over to the 
big church ; he's a good gnv. ain't 

"What that minister had to sell 
was his broad knowledge of, and 
love for. humanity, and he sold 
himself to our community as no 
minister ever has before or since. 

"His auditorium was over twice 
the size of any other in the city, 
and it was packed to the doors at 
every service. 

"Now, what I learned from that 
man was not, perhaps, religion as 
religion is commonly understood, 
but I did learn that a broad spirit 
of tolerance, and appreciation of 
the viewpoint of other humans, was 
a decided asset. 


"You see, salesmanship is so 
very much more than a knowledge 
of the goods you are selling, and 
of the ordinary principles of mer- 
chandising — so very much more 
than the mere polite handing out 
of the goods the customer asks for. 

"I had not been on the road very 
long before I found this out. I 
found out that I had to study men 
and their mental reactions as much, 
or more, than I had to study cata- 
logues, price lists, or route lists — 
and I found out that I couldn't be- 
gin to understand other men until 
I had obtained a pretty good line 
on myself. 

"It did not take me very long to 
dig up a good many faults in my 
make-up. and so, to remedy them, 
I had to study as to how other men 
eliminated similar faults in them- 

"I also found out that all suc- 
cessful men were making just this 
same study of themselves and of 
other people. They did not have 
to tell me this ; I discovered it by 
the way they handled me. 

"Supposing some morning you 
are not feeling good, from either 
a mental or physical cause, and in 
comes a customer in the same con- 
dition. If you both follow your 
natural inclinations — wow ! 

"But you. having made this sort 
of thing a study, realize because 
the customer is. in a way. your 
guest, that you must not only sub 
merge your disposition, but must 
also seek some way of making the 
customer forget his. 

"Xine times out of ten the custo- 
mer will sense the effort -you are 
making and will react favorably — 
the other one time does not count 
because you can not h(i])e to obtain 
one hundred per cent. 

"And this all harks back to the 
lessons I learned from mv friend 

the minister : the spirit of tolera- 
tion ; the willingness to accept the 
viewpoint of the other fellow, at 
least temporarily. 

"Once you have learned this les- 
son you will find most of your diffi- 
culties in meeting and handling 
men, disappearing — and this is a 
big part of salesmanship." 


Concentrate on Christmas 

Somebody in your organization, 
possibly yourself, has charge of 
the newspaper advertising for the 

The time is ripe to begin plan- 
ning and preparing }-our Christmas 

^^'ith the Kodak line you are 
fortunate in having something that 
appeals to both sexes, and of al- 
most all ages, and something that 
not only affords a complete recrea- 
tion in itself, but keys in with and 
harmonizes with every other recre- 

In your holiday advertising do 
not talk complete stocks, or just 
generalities, or advertise only your 
finishing department. 

Remember that there is going to 
be a lot of money spent for Christ- 
mas gifts this year and that thous- 
ands of people with good money to 
spend — and a long list to select for 
— will be only too glad to follow a 
definite suggestion. 

Instead of running just one ad- 
vertisement, "Kodaks for Christ- 
mas," vou will find it far better to 
run a series, suggesting a Kodak 
for brother or for sister ; a Brownie 
for the youngster, and so on. 

Make each advertisement carry 
just one selling idea, and so cover 
the widest possible range. 


Copyright — International 

Queen Elizabeth at Niagara "Kodakery" for January 

From all accounts, the Royal 
Party from Belgium has been 
having a pretty good time sight- 
seeing in the States. 

The accompanying photograph 
shows Queen Elizabeth, and her 
son, Prince Leopold, photograph- 
ing Niagara Falls. 

First ofif, we were inclined to be 
a bit astonished at the antique 
model used by the Prince, but we 
presume this was but a trial effort 
as a glance at the right of the pic- 
ture shows a member of the Royal 
Party bringing a modern Kodak 
into action — a sort of Rnyal Kodak 
bearer, as it were. 

Incidentally, during the reign 
of King Edward, his family were 
most enthusiastic Kodakers, and we 
w^ere favored with many excellent 
examples of their work. 


The January issue of Kodakcry 
really should have been printed on 
extra strong paper because every 
amateur who receives a copy, and 
does his own finishing, is going to 
read and re-read it. 

Here are the titles to some of the 
articles: "How To Determine the 
Right Length of Time to Print," 
"The Length of Time a Velox 
Print Should Be Developed," "Se- 
lecting the Paper That Fits the Neg- 
ative." "The Distance the Printing 
Frame Is Placed from the Printin.^- 
Light," "Reduction," and "Formu- 
las for Reducers." 

A pretty "meaty" number — 
\.-ou'll find it interesting vourself. 


Courtesy of Judge 

Store Windows 

In Main Street, Pansyville, Where 

Land is worth About 

$40 An Acre 

111 Fifth Avenue, New "i'ork, Where 
Land Is \S'orth About 
$5U,00ri a Front Foot 

Window Selling Power 

There is no question that the 
average window display falls short 
in selling power because it presents 
so many dififerent items that the on- 
looker is not able to concentrate on 
any one. 

On the other hand, a general dis- 
play of associated items is some- 
times desirable when you wish to 
put over the idea that you have a 
very complete stock of that ])artic- 
ular line. 

It is no argument to point out 

the decidedly miscellaneous items 
found in the display windows of 
the '"Five and Ten Cent Stores" be- 
cause their selling plan is based on 
the variety of items to be had at a 
fixed price, and the highly varied 
assortment carries out this idea. 

To make your window display 
sell goods, it is far better for the 
average retailer to concentrate his 
display on one selling idea. 

The cartoon accompanying, pub- 
lished through the courtesy of 
Jitdcjc, humorously and vigorously, 
tells the storv. 

If^e ^a: ant to wake the Kodak Sales man a whole 
lot better f 07' 1920. 

You can help: l\'ll us what you wa?it — and tell 
us flow. 


Ten minutes 
with the Boss 

SAMMY, I am wondering hon- 
many of the boys in the store 
have ever given a thought as to the 
relation between cost and profit on 
any of the items they are selHng. 

"They, of course, know that all 
goods must be sold at an advance 
over the factory cost and cost of 
doing business to make a profit. 

"But the point is, have they ever 
stopped to consider that each day 
the goods remain in stock adds to 
their cost. 

"Every day there are certain 
fixed expenses that must be paid 
whether it is an 'off day' for busi- 
ness or not. and, Sam. goods can 
remain in stock long enough for 
these fixed changes to eat up all the 
profit and more. It is the turn- 
over that counts, the converting of 
the goods into money before the 
profit period has passed, and the 
re-investment of capital. 

"So, Sam, to make the maximum 
profit, or any profit at all, we, everv 
one of us, must do everything we 
can in the way of displaying, ad- 
vertising and salesmanship to move 
the goods as quickly as possible. 

"Speedy turn-overs mean better 
profits, because rapidly moving 
stocks are always clean, fresh, and 

"I'll admit, Sam, that we have 
an advantage in the Kodak line be- 
cause it is so well known through 
many years of continuous national 
advertising that all Kodak products 

are partly sold before they are 
placed in stock. 

"But, just the same, Sam, we 
want to keep everything moving as 
fast as we can, for the value of the 
invested dollar lies in how many 
times it can be re-invested eacli 

"It seems to me, Sam, that if we 
can get the boys to appreciate these 
facts that our sales should increase. 
I know it is a big temptation, Sam, 
to just hand out the goods the cus- 
tomer demands, but in so very 
many instances additional items 
can be sold if suggested or ex- 
plained to the customer. 

"You might figure, Sam, that a 
portrait attachment that has been 
in stock two years is just as good 
as one straight from the factory. It 
is, from the customer's standpoint, 
because it belongs to a class of 
goods which does not deteriorate 
with age, but not from our stand- 
point because it has been loafing on 
the job. 

"You know, Sam, that you can 
keep a horse in the stable and not 
work him, and in time he'll eat his 
head ofif. 

"Well, it's just the same way 
with goods too long in stock, 
whether they deteriorate with age 
or not. 

"I know a city salesman whose 
line comprises a great many items, 
most of which his customers are 
thoroughly familiar with. 


"He does not attempt to carry 
a full assortment of samples with 
him, as it would not be necessary. 

"He does make it a point, how- 
ever, to each week select two or 
three items and carry those sam- 
ples with him. 

"These goods may have been on 
the market for years, yet he makes 
it a point to show and push these 
particular items to every customer 
he calls on that week. 

"By so doing he not only keeps 
his customers' memories refreshed, 
but his sales surpass those of any 
other member of his organization. 

"It seems to me, Sam, that this 
might be a pretty good plan for the 
boys to try out. 

"Let them select, say, two or 
three different sundries and make 
it a point to show them to every 
customer for a week. The next 
week select different items. 

"I'll wager you a good smoke. 
Sammy, that the sales slips would 
show a good, healthv growth." 

Selling Sundries 

Well, now, what amateur would 
ever pay twenty-eight dollars for 
an enlarging outfit ? 

You don't think anything of 
showing — and selling — a customer 
a Special at around a hundred dol- 
lars, but a good many of you do 
shy at trying to sell any accessory 
or sundry that lists for more than 
a couple of dollars. 

Why. the very snappy, up-to- 
date look of the outfit will make the 
average amateur just itch to own it, 
even if he has to "save up" for it : 
and making enlargements is just 
about one of the most fascinating 
branches of amateur picture-mak- 
ing to boot. 

Don't be afraid to show the 
Kodak Enlarging Outfit ; there are 
customers for it or we would not 
market it. 

And albums ! Oh, man, how- 
many opportunities for album sales 
you overlook. 

Do you always wait for a custo- 
mer to ask for an album before 
you show one? 

Lots and lots of times you have 
just the one customer at the counter 
for an order of prints, and so you 
have plenty of time while he, or 
she, is looking over the prints, to 
place an album on the counter and 
introduce the subject. 

Supposing the customer is not in- 
terested in albums, no harm has 
been done, but then, again, he 
might be — you never can tell. 

Sometime^ — to-day is as good as 
any — just try placing a Kodak Self 
Timer in a customer's hands. Just 
place it there gently, but firmly, 
don't say anything; wait for him to 
ask what it is for. 

He'll ask you alright, and when 
you answer he'll be interested be- 
cause every amateur can find good 
use for it, and the cost will not ab- 
solutely break him. 

There are still a good many other 
things to be sold if you show them, 
and we'll suggest some more of 
them next month. 

Confidence is gained as much 
through admission of occasional 
error as through being; in the ri^ht. 

Always let the other fellow do all 
the getting excited ; thus you hold 
the advantasre. 

The more ingenuity is applied to 
the making of excuses, the poorer 
their quality is likely to be. 



The Primary Page 

for -file Beginner 
Behind the Counter 

YOUR customers may be broadly 
classified as inquisitive and non- 
inquisitive, and taken as a class we 
incline towards the inquisitive cus- 
tomer because that shows he is 
more than ordinarily interested in 
amateur photography. 

The inquisitive customer wants 
to know all sorts of things regard- 
ing picture making and so, if you 
wish to hold his trade, you must 
post yourself pretty thoroughly so 
as not to be taken by surprise. 

One thing that interests him a 
whole lot is what happens to a film 
during development, and the story 
is really an interesting one. 

An exposed film does not look 
any different to the eye than an un- 
exposed one, but the change exists 
just the same. 

So to bring out this invisible, or 
latent, image caused by exposure to 
light through the lens, we employ 
the process termed "development." 

The process consists of immers- 
ing the exposed film \w a chemical 

Now, the sensitive part of the 
film, which is called the emulsion, 
consists of a thin layer of gelatine 
in which are embedded many 
grains of sensitive silver bromide. 

Silver bromide is a chemical 
which after exposure to light can 
be attacked by the developing solu- 
tion and turned into black metallic 

When you watch a film imder- 
going development and see the 
image gradually appear, it actuallv 


seems as though the developer 
were adding something to the film 
to produce the image, but this is 
not so. 

In chemistry, the developer is 
what would be called a "reducing 
solution," and it plays the same 
part for the exposed silver bromide 
that the coke of a blast furnace 
plays for iron-ore. 

When iron-ore is smelted with 
coke in a blast furnace, the coke 
takes away the chemical substances 
which are combined with the iron 
and leaves only the metallic iron, 
and this process is called the "re- 
duction" of the ore. 

In the same way. the developer 
takes away from the silver bromide 
the bromine which is combined with 
the silver, and leaves behind the 
metallic silver. 

The grains of metallic silver 
wliicli are left in the film appear 
black because they are small and 
irregular in shape. 

We usually think of silver as a 
bright white metal, but if we take 
silver and break it up into very 
small particles, they will appear 
gray, and the grains of silver in the 
film are so spongy that they appear 
quite black. 

There are many reducing agent'- 
in chemistry but only a very limited 
number are available for use in 
photography because, while they 
must be strong enough to reduce 
exposed silver bromide under the 
proper conditions, if they are too 
strong they will be able, also, to 


reduce the silver bromide which 
has not been exposed to light. 

So, you see, we have to select 
just these few substances that will 
remove the bromide from the ex- 
posed silver bromide but will not 
afifect the unexposed grains. 

If used alone, most of the devel- 
oping substances, such as pyro and 
hydrochinon, are not strong enough 
to reduce even the exposed silver 
bromide, but thev can be made 
strong by the addition of an alkali, 
so that a developer almost always 
contains an alkali in addition to the 
developing agent itself. 

A reducing substance, such as a 
developer, has a great affinity for 
the oxygen in the air. and so when 
a developing solution is kept, the 
oxygen in the air will oxidize it and 
spoil its reducing power. 

In order to prevent this, we add 
sulphite of soda, w'hich retards the 
oxidation of the developer without 
hindering its work in reducing the 
silver bromide. 

Even with all this the developer 
may be too strong, so to restrain it^ 
activity and to keep it to its proper 
work, a little bromide of potash is 
sometimes added. 

Usually, however, tliis bromide 
is unnecessary, and is omitted. 

No bromide of potash is neces- 
sary when the films are developed 
in the tank with tank developer. 
The typical developer, therefore. 
consists of the developing agent, 
such as pyro, elon, hydrochinon. or 
a mixture of such chemicals, to- 
gether with some alkali, usually in 
the form of carbonate ; some sul- 
phite to act as a preservative, and 
perhaps some bromide to restrain 
the action of the developer, and to 
prevent chemical fog. which is the 
development of unexposed grains 
of silver bromide. 

When the exposed film is put in 

such a developing solution, the de- 
veloper penetrates into the gela- 
tine and attacks the exposed grains 
of silver bromide, turning them into 
little black grains of silver so that a 
visible image appears. 

Enough time must be given for 
the developer to do its work, but if 
the film is left in too long it will be 
over-developed ; that is to say. too 
much of the silver bromide will be 
reduced to metallic silver, and the 
negatives will appear too dense and 

When development is completed 
and enough of the silver has been 
produced, the film is put into the 
fixing bath which is a solution of 
hyposulphite of soda, or hypo, as it 
is commonly called. 

The hypo dissolves the undevel- 
oped grains of silver bromide and 
leaves only the black grains of me- 
tallic silver which form the image. 

Then, after washing and drying, 
the film is ready for printing. 


If you have installed 
an extra good win- 
dow display — Se7id 
us a photograph of it. 

Ij you have had an 
unusual selling ex- 
perience — Tell us 
about it. 




Interesting Types Found in Stores 

and Methods of Handling 

the Individuals. 

Whoever wrote this little tale for 
the Dry Goods Economist certainly 
has been on the firing line. While 
the story doesn't dwell on the sale 
of photographic supplies, it sure 
does bring to mind customers we 
have met, and points a way to the 
best handling of them all. 

"Of course, you've met Mrs. Un- 
decided Adams — that hesitating 
lady who always takes half an hour 
to decide whether she wants the 
$1.98 or the $2 quality stockings. 

" 'Dear me. I'm so slow in decid- 
ing.' ]\Irs. Undecided Adams apol- 
ogizes after she has spent a half 
hour before the counter. 'But I 
can't make up my mind which to 
choose. The $1.9(S kind is very 
nice — still the $2 ones are a little 
heavier. On the other hand I 
ought to economize — oh, dear me — 
I can't decide ! Well, suppose you 
let me have the $1.98 stockings. "' 
And then, as you proceed to make 
out the check. Mrs. Undecided 
Adams suddenly finds that she will 
take the $2 pair. And so it goes. 
You never know from one minute 
to the other when Mrs. Undecided 
Adams is going to make up her 
mind — and how soon after she'll 
break it. The best way to handle 
Mrs. Undecided Adams is to make 
up her mind for her — and then see 
that she doesn't get the chance to 
change it. When she stands before 
the counter hesitating, wavering in- 
decisively, step up and learn her 
exact needs and pin her down, so t ) 
speak, to the article that best an- 
swers her purpose. Then, after 
she has decided and her package is 
being wrapped, if you are not busy, 
distract her attention if you can, so 


that she doesn't get the chance to 
alter her decision. 

"^liss Lilly Chatter is a plump, 
garrulous person who requires re- 
sponsive handling. 'Dear, let me 
see a georgette collar and cuff set,' 
she requests sweetly. 'Something 
nice, very plain — 1 like plain things. 
I said to my friend only the other 
day: "Do you know, the best people 
wear plain clothes." I'm going to 
wear this on my last year's blue 
serge — it's perfectly good for an- 
other season's wear — no. nothing 
with lace. I said to my mother yes- 
terday: "Isn't it wonderful how 
serge wears" — This is a pretty 
sailor collar. My dress is square 
neck and I think it's a good fit — .' 
Thus Miss Chatter rambles on all 
during the sale. 

"Can the salespeople afford to re- 
main politely c[uiet? No. indeed. 
Miss Chatter likes to talk — and she 
likes to have salespeople interested 
in her and her problems, to chat 
with her as she rattles on. 

"Yes. Miss Lilly Chatter must be 
handled in an entirely different 
manner than Mrs. James Van Dig- 
nity. This lady pompously ap- 
proaches the counter and haughtily 
requests a pair of 'fine French kid 

"To Mrs. A'an Dignity, the 
counter is the dividing line between 
so-called social classes — and much 
as it may hurt — a salesperson must 
subordinate herself and her per- 
sonality and become merely an ad- 
junct to Mrs. Van Dignity's kid 
glove needs. No chatting with her. 
nothing but the conventional sale.'^ 
questions and a few 'Yes. ^Madam's" 
or 'No. Madam's.' 

"Mrs. William Doubter is one of 
the most difficult problems of the 
counter. She nurses the constant 
illusion that all stores are in busi- 
ness to cheat her — to get her money 


and give her as little value a? pos- 

"Shopping, to Mrs. Doubter, is a 
battle of wits — to see who is going 
to get the best of the bargain — she 
or the store. 

" 'Hm. Must be some reason 
why these waists are reduced," she 
sniffs. 'I suppose they're misfits or 
something' — or, 'Xinety-five cents 
a yard for this lace? Hm. I sup- 
pose it costs you people about fif- 
teen cents.' 

"Mrs. AMlliam Doubter is alwav;; 
suspicious of everything and every- 
body in the store. In waiting on 
her. a salesperson must first of all 
try and get ^Irs. Doubter's confi- 
dence — or as much as she possesses. 
Give her reasons for everything — 
why goods are reduced, why they 
are expensive, why they are cheap. 
Don't wait for her to make a mis- 
trusting remark — anticipate it bv 
giving her an explanation that will 
satisfy her. Stores that know ho-A 
to deal with customers like ]^Ir-. 
\\'illiam Doubter invariably hold 
them — because these women learn 
to trust that one store above all 

"Do you know Mrs. Fussy Hod- 
gins — that impatient lady who 
kicks, complains, and fusses all tlie 
time she is shopping? 'Isn't there 
someone to wait on me? I've been 
standing here about twenty min- 
utes?' (really about five minutes). 
'Xo. no. my dear ! I asked for pink 
ribbon — not blue.' (She had em- 
phatically requested blue). 'Good- 
ness — not that deep pink — I detest 
that color ! X'o. no. light pink — 
don't you know a light shade when 
you see it?' 

"Thus Mrs. Fussy Hodgins rant- 
and fumes continually — and makes 
out of an ordinary sale a really un- 
pleasant affair. 

"In dealing with this customer 

over the counter, a salesperson 
must first of all remain calm and 
unperturbed under the rapid fire 
of Mrs. Hodgins' criticisms and 
kicks. Don't get excited ; smile ; 
answer her good naturedly and 
above all — dotit contradict her. Xo 
matter how unreasonable she may 
be. or how inconsistent — don't 
argue. Furthermore, don't make 
too many suggestions with this cus- 
tomer. Let her make her own de- 

"!Mrs. Harold Knowitall likes to 
impress salespople with her amaz- 
ing knowledge of the store and its 
merchandise. You can't tell her 
anything. X'o, indeed. She'll pick 
up a bolt of material plainly marked 
'Real Linen' and emphatically as- 
sure vou : 'My dear, this is not real 
linen. I thi i' ''■ '- — ^ the genuine 

(lualitv whe '!>, "'"^■^>:^ 

.. ' , v'nd some tir • ., . ^ 
A splend-.. . vm the eter- 

nal good will of i^Irs. Knowitall is 
to comment admiringly on her 
knowledge of merchandise. You 
may rest assured that Mrs. Harold 
Knowitall will smile — a pleased, 
self-satisfied smile. "L see you know 
good materials when you see them.' 
It's an easy way of selling a custo- 
mer like ^lr-. Knowitall. You'll 
find that it invariabl}' works. 

"Then, of course, there's the in- 
evitable Mrs. Young Mother Wil- 
son — a jolly, rosy cheeked person 
who carries around an envelope 
full of snapshots of her three 
months' old offspring. Mrs. Young 
Mother Wilson is usually to be 
found in the Infants' Wear Section, 
and salespeople in this department 
can adopt no more profitable atti- 
tude than to appear breathlessly in- 
terested in the young Wilson prod- 
igy. How old is he? Does he 
smile? What is his name? W^hat 
color eyes has he? All during the 
sale, smile — and get Mrs. Young 



^lother Wilson to talk about her 
infant. She'll beam — and respond 
rapturously. Incidentally, that store 
will get her eternal good will — and 
she'll be glad to come back and 
favor the salespeople with further 
accounts of her young one. 

"But enough. You know them — 
these counter types. After all. cus- 
tomers can be classified and if 
you're quick enough, you'll size up 
your customer as soon as she ap- 
proaches your counter and asks 
to see certain merchandise. Once 
you've got your own little methods 
of dealing with these dififerent 
types, selling is easy — fun. It's i 
little theatre of human nature all 
by itself — if you have a sense of 

the count 

up my mir 

Ur. <ci"o« 1^ 

Every Man His Own Boss 

Crossing the ferry this morning 
Ave watched a crowd of people try 
to get through one-half of a double- 
door. There was a bad congestion 
of people till suddenly one man 
stepped out of the crowd and 
pushed open the second half of the 
doorway. In this manner he got 
out ahead himself and opened the 
way for others. 

The incident seemed typical of 
the sort of thing one is continually 
seeing in business. ]\Iany a man 
remains in a cramped place because 
of a closed door that he could open 
with a push. He only needs to be a 
little more imaginative than his fel- 
lows, to have a little more percep- 
tion of things as they are. and a 
little more initiative. 

The sales clerk who has to be on 
the job at 8 :30, and keep on till clos- 
ing time, may think we are joking 


when we tell him he is "his own 
boss." His manager, no doubt, can 
order his coming and going, and has 
the rights of hiring, firing and pro- 
motion ; yet in this the manager is 
no better off than himself, for he 
is subject to the "Big Boss,'' who 
is in turn responsible to the public 
— which is quick to "fire" any firm 
that doesn't respond to require- 

But these are superficial powers 
at best. The salesman and his man- 
ager are alike in each being ''boss" 
of himself. Each of them is free to 
go through the day's work with a 
minimum of energy, or with a max- 
imum : and in the long nm success 
will be in proportion to the amount 
of energ}^ expended. Where there 
is intense energ}', vital force, there 
will be imagination and initiative 
enough to discover closed doors and 
power to push them open. 

Consider the immigrant who ar- 
rives in this country with everv'thing 
against him. He finds himself in a 
strange land, often unable to speak 
the language, unacquainted with the 
customs, used to measuring things 
by totally different standards — an 
easy prey to sharks, who are not in- 
frequently people of his own race. 
Against this he has nothing to offer 
but his own vital energ}-, and a fine 
belief that in Canada he will be 
free to make his own way. And 
because of this he is very often suc- 

On the other hand, consider those 
who have had every advantage in 
the way of wealth and education, 
yet have failed to "make good." 
The college man who cannot make 
a living is so commonly met with 
that he has become a theme for the 
comic papers : yet there is nothing 
comic in the realitv. While every 
outside influence is brought to bear 
to make him a success, he fails be- 


cause of somethino^ lacking \vithi)i 
himself — something no college pro- 
fessor, no indulgent parent, no busi- 
ness executive can give him. Hi- 
will is weak, or the power of it scat- 
tered in too many useless directions. 
The tough little country boy, with 
nothing to commend him but his 
own "grit." and his habit of keeping 
his energies directed on the immedi- 
ate work to be done, will "beat him 
to it" every time. Yet this doesn't 
mean that ignorance is bliss, for the 
country boy will be hampered at 
every turn by his lack of knowledge. 

The French have a saying that 
every soldier carries a marshal'- 
baton in his haversack. The sales- 
man who allows the limitations of 
his present position to blind him 
to the fact that he has in him the 
power to succeed, is far less a "hun- 
dred per cent. Canadian" than the 
stranger who comes to the land with 
the pioneer spirit of our fore- 
fathers rampant within him. 

The man who is "too big for hi> 
job" has less to fear than the man 
who is too small for it — provided 
his bigness is will power and initia 
tive, not merely inflated ego. — The 
J^oicc of the Jlctor. 

You can't go far if you don't 

keep fit! 

Under no condition shijuld a man 
just put in time enough in order to 
draw wages ; for this is worse for 
the man than for the concern for 
which he is putting in the time. 

A man who merely puts in his 
time without performing service has 
a defective will, and actually work- 
ing when the work is not congenial 
is good exercise for the will — it is -i 
sure cure for a sick will. — The 
Modern Retailer. 

How To Handle the ''Kick" 

Your sales talk is not a mono- 
logue. Your prospective customer 
is going to do part of the talking. 
You must spend some time in ad- 
vance thinking about what he is 
going to say. Abraham Lincoln 
once said : "\Mien T am getting 
ready for an argument with a man 
I spend one-third of ni}- time think- 
ing about what I am going to say , 
the other two-thirds I spend think- 
ing about what HE is going to say." 
That's a pretty safe rule for sales- 
men to follow. 

It is a fairly safe bet that your 
prospect is going to make some ob- 
jections before the sale is finalh- 
closed. It is also a pretty safe ber 
that he is going to "kick" about the 
price. It is up to you to overcome 
this practically universal "kick." 
You must spend some time thinking 
about it. 

Price objections can be divided 
into three classes. First, those which 
are not ofifered by customers from 
the point of view of value, but be- 
cause the price is really higher than 
they can afford to pay. Second, 
those which are made solely for the 
purpose of argument and without 
any real sincerity. Third, those 
which are made because the cus- 
tomer really believes that the price 
is too high for the goods shown. 

Objections of the class can 
only be met by showing a cheaper 
grade of goods. All the persuasive 
sales argimients in the world are 
worthless if the prospect hasn't the 
money. You must use your own 
judgment, of course. As a rule, the 
prospect will show by his conversa- 
tion or manner whether he is really 
unable to pay for the higher priced 

It is well to remember, however, 
that when it comes to money mat- 



ters most people are very proud. 
When your prospect tells you point 
blank that he is "too poor to buy," 
you should take the statement with 
a grain of salt. If he really WAS 
too poor, he would not be likely to 
admit that fact to you. It is the 
prospect who has the money and 
CAN buy who makes most fre- 
quent use of this excuse. 

The second and third classes of 
price objections are, in reality, noth- 
ing more than excuses. They 
should be so considered. Both are 
handled in practically the same way. 
Treat an insincere objection with 
the same diplomacy and tact which 
you would bestow on one which 
was sincere. 

As a matter of sober fact, prices 
seldom are too high. The desire to 
make sales and the presence of com- 
petition in every line have a ten- 
dency to make prices too low, if 
anything. When one firm quotes a 
higher price than that ciuoted by a 
competitor on goods of apparently 
equal quality, there is usually a rea- 
son for it. No firm is going to 
knowingly give a competitor an ad- 

As far as comparative prices are 
concerned, quality goods will always 
demand quality prices. In a little 
volume on salesmanship called 
"Pete Crowther, Salesman," this 
statement is made : 

"When you buy something chea]), 
you feel good while you are paying 
for it and then feel rotten every 
time you use it. When you buy d 
really first class article, you may 
feel rotten while you are paying for 
it, but you feel good every time you 
use it." 

Here are a few suggestions which 
you may be able to use in overcom- 
ing price objections. You can 
weave some of the ideas into your 
sales talk with good efifect : 


"Saving money does not consist 
in not buying anything at all, but 
in buying that which will give- you 
the most value for the money spent. 
This is not an expense, but an in- 
vestment. Naturally, an investment 
means a little more money put in. 
Anything which saves money al- 
ways seems expensive when we first 
consider it. It isn't a question of 
whether you can afford to buy, but 
whether you can afford NOT to 
buy. It is only wealthy people who 
can afford to buy things which d-^ 
not last and do not give service." 

I cannot conclude this article 
without warning you on one point. 
Whatever else you do. DON'T say 
your price is high "on account of 
the war." Everybody knows that 
changing conditions to-day have 
raised the prices of almost every- 
thing. You can mention the chang- 
ing conditions if you want to, but 
don't mention the war. People want 
to forget it. — From "How To Be a 
Better Salesman and Earn Biqqer 

Remember this: "Repeat order^ 
come only from satisfied custom- 

Don't get down-hearted because 
you happen to make a mistake. 
Every time a smart man makes a 
mistake he learns something. 

•iut if lue Jdiiie lliiih^ 
iijippeii3 tv/ice it 

cea^e3 lo Le dii iicci- 

The Affirmative Mood 

A LWAYS put your questions to the prospect in the affir- 
l\. mative so he will just naturally answer with a 
"Yes." For example: 

"You understand this, don't you?" Answer — "Yes," 
"This is perfectJN clear to you, isn't it?" Answer — 

"That's a strong feature, isn't it?" Answer— '*Yes." 
"You like that idea, don't you?" Answer— "Yes." 
"You'd really like to have that instrument, wouldn^t 
you?" Answer "Yes." 

This is the way to get the prospect into an afl&rmative 
mood. It is the way to make it easy to say "Yes" at the 
critical moment. It is eliminating the negative from hi« 
system. Always cast your questions m a form that naturalb 
draws "Yes" for an answer. Make a hahit of doing this 
and note the result. 



JANUARY. 1920 




man who thinks 

he can't 

usually right. 

THE W ISE MAN who travels the 
highways carries a guide book or 
map in order that he may move for- 
ward to his destination with the maxi- 
mum speed. He watches the guide 
posts at the forks and cross-roads to 
avoid wandering from his course. 

There are guide books, maps and sign 
posts for the "highways of life." 

The biography of every man who was 
a real success is a guide book for the 
young man who is seeking to make 
a success of his own life. 

There are sign posts at every corner 
to keep the traveler of life's highway 
on the through paths. 

Some of these sign posts are Honesty, 
Initiative, Enthusiasm, Persever- 
ance, Industry. If these are followed 
the main highways will be reached. 
The dead-end roads arc labeled Lazi- 
ness, Do-It-Tomorrow, Dissipation, 
Late Hours. 

Hit the trail for the main roads, and 
when you are once on them, push 
ahead to your goal. 

— David Gibson 

























-c ^ 














An aid = 
to the man 
behind the counter 

Vol. 5 

JANUARY, 1920 

No. 12 

Window Display Competition 

One of the best tried and tested 
methods for increasing business is 
the instalhng of carefully planned 
window displays. 

The one hundred per cent, win- 
dow will not only arrest the atten- 
tion of the passerby, but will bring 
him into the store with his mind 
made up to purchase. 

Not all window displays can be 
made one hundred per cent., but 
they can be made to attain a much 
higher average. 

We want to help you sell more 
Kodaks and other photographic 
goods, and we believe in the dis- 
play window as an important fac- 
tor in attaining that end. So, to 
direct your attention especially to 
the value of good window displays, 
and to make your efforts worth 
w'hile, we offer a series of monthly 
awards for the best photographic 
supply window display. 

In judging the entries, we will 
favor not so much an artistic ar- 
rangement of a general display as 
we will the display containing a 
single selling idea ; though an artis- 
tic and pleasing arrangement will 
always carry weight. 

This competition to start Febru- 
ary 1, 1920. 

Each month we offer an award 
of twenty-five dollars for the best 
window display of photographic 
goods. We reserve the right to 
withhold the awards anv month 

should the entries be too poor in 
quality for reproduction herein. 


Entries for each month will be 
received up to and including the 
twentieth of the month ; entries 
reaching us after that date will be 
included with the entries for the 
next month. 

Photographs of displays must not 
be smaller than post card, but may 
be larger ; if only post card size, 
it is important that all the avail- 
able picture space should be occu- 
pied by the display itself and not 
be partly taken up by the external 
features of the store. 

The negative to be sent in a sealed 
envelope, bearing the sender's name 
and address. This envelope must 
not be attached to the print but 
must accompany it. 

Prints must be sent flat — not 
rolled or folded — ^and may be 
either mounted or unmounted. 

The name and address of the 
sender to be placed on the back of 
the print or mount. 

Prints should be addressed to 
Editor, Kodak Salesman. Canadian 
Kodak Co., Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

How To Photograph Display 

The best time to photograph a 
display window is at night, select- 
ing an hour when all street and 
sidewalk traffic is infrequent. 


If ycxi attempt to photograph the 
window during the day, the glass 
will serve as a mirror and you will 
be bothered by reflections of build- 
ings or other objects across the 

The illumination should come 
from within the window itself, and 
the lights, when possible, should be 
so arranged as not to shine directly 
toward the lens. 

As there will, even with con- 
cealed lightings, be a certain amount 
of halation from the window glass, 
if plates are used they should be 
either Seed or Royal Backed. 

Select a good, strong tripod, and 
diaphragm the lens down to at leasr 
stop 16. 

The exposure will vary, accord- 
ing to stop and illumination, from 
ten minutes up to an hour or more. 

Always aim to give a full expo- 
sure so as to afford good detail. 

People passing between the lens 
and the display will not register if 
they keep moving, but do not allow 
them to stop in front of the win- 
dow. A tactful word to those so 
inclined will avoid this. 

A close watch must, however, be 
kept on street car and automobile 
headlights, and the lens capped or 
shutter closed while they are pass- 
ing, as these lights are sufficiently 
strong to record, even when passing 
at a good speed. 

Develop for detail, avoiding too 
great density, and print on a glossy 
or semi-glossy surfaced paper. 

Moderate your claims and bolster 
up your reasons. Take the prospect 
into your confidence and you will 
get his. 

Selling Sundries 

The person who writes this occa- 
sionally uses a Kodak — yes, sir, and 
the other day he wanted to under- 
take a portrait from a certain posi- 
tion in the house and he could not 
do it, because on account of insuffic- 
ient space he could not put the tri- 
pod where he wanted it. 

So he happened to think of the 
Optipod — fastened to the end of a 
table — just the thing. 

Quite possibly some of your cus- 
tomers could use one to good ad- 
vantage under similar circum- 

This is only one of a hundred 
definitely charted places where the 
Optipod comes in handy. You might 
sell some of them if you just passed 
on the above little incident. 

When it comes to group pictures 
the chap who owned the Kodak 
usually had to be left out because 
he just could not be in two places 
at once, and he alway- had to ex- 
plain why he was not in any of the 
pictures with his friends. 

Heaps of group pictures are made 
this time of year — and at all other 
times — and this is where the Kodak 
Self Timer comes into its own — 
automatic release at intervals of 
from one-half second to three min- 
utes — a range ample for practically 
all conditions. 

Remember, though, that it can 
only be used with cameras having 
a cable release. 

It would surprise you to learn of 
how many Kodakers there are who 
liave never heard of the Eastman 
Film Negative Albums, and who 
store their negatives in all sorts 
of unhandy and easily forgotten 

Every time you deliver an order 
of prints presents an opportunity 
for the sale of one or more of these 


Kodaks and Brownies in the Making 

(From the American K. S.) 

We maintain five large plants in 
different parts of Rochester which 
to all intents and purposes may be 
classed as separate and distinct fac- 
tory units. These are the Kodak 
Park Works, Camera Works, Fol- 
mer-Century Works, Premo Works 
and Havvk-Eye Works. The Kodak 
Park Plant, which is the largest 
and employs 7.200 men and women, 
is devoted largely to the manufac- 
ture of photographic film, paper and 
plates and the various chemical 
products used in photography. The 
Camera Works is the second largest 
plant and the number of men and 
women working in it is 2,700. 
Kodaks and Brownies are the chief 
products of the Camera Works. 
Premos are made in the Premo 
Works and the Graflex and various 
types of studio and special cameras 
in the Century plant, while the 
Hawk - Eye Works (recently en- 
larged ) is engaged chiefly in the 
manufacture of lenses. It is the 
purpose here to trace the various 
processes in the manufacture of 
Kodaks and Brownies in the Cam- 
era Works. 

A fact that at once impresses it- 
self on one as he passes through 
the Camera Works and grows and 
grows on him as he continues his 
journey through the various depart- 
ments is the extensiveness or what 
one might term the wide ramifica- 
tions of the operations employed in 
the making of a high-grade camera 
such as the Kodak. The Camera 
Works is a veritable beehive and to 
keep up the enormous productions 
huge quantities of raw materials 
and an extensive manufacturing 
space are required. 

The Camera Works is illustrated 
on page 2, showing the frontage and 

the addition just completed. The 
annual consumption of raw mate- 
rials is as follows: Aluminum, 
360,000 pounds; brass, 1,500,000 
pounds ; steel, 1,800,000 pounds; 
leather, 2,500,000 square feet, and 
lumber, 1,500,000 board feet. 

First of all, in the Camera Works 
there is a special experimental de- 
partment, where inventors and ex- 
perienced designers are continually 
on the search for new wrinkles and 
new ideas. The heads of the oper- 
ating departments co-operate with 
these men wherever possible, so 
that improvements can be quickly 
and efficiently developed. Ideas for 
improving the cameras and methods 
of production are frequently ob- 
tained from the employees them- 
selves by means of an elaborate 
suggestion system. For every worth- 
while and accepted suggestion the 
employee receives a substantial 
money award, and hence every man 
and woman in the factory is en- 
couraged always to be on the look- 
out for improvements. All ideas 
from the heads of the departments 
or the employees are tried out in the 
experimental department. If fa- 
vorably passed upon, models and 
plans are made and the estimating 
department then takes hold. If the 
estimating department finds the 
new development practicable, the 
models and plans go back to the ex- 
perimental department for stand- 
ardization. Finally plans for mak- 
ing the various tools, which in some 
cases are quite an item, are sent to 
the tool room to prepare for quan- 
tity production. 

By means of the experimental de- 
partment we have been enabled to 
keep our cameras up-to-date and to 
adopt numerous refinements whicii 


Illustration No. 1 — Stamping Camera 

have added so much to the pleasure 
and facility of amateur photogra- 
phy. Moreover, by continually 
keeping on the qui z'ive for im- 
provements we have been able to 
add such important innovations to 
our folding hand cameras as the 
Autographic Feature and the range 
finder used on several types of spe- 
cial Kodaks. Many other ideas, 
which were first exhaustively tested 
in the experimental department, 
have helped to increase the lens and 
shutter efficiencies and add to the 
general compactness, beauty and 
adaptability of the various types of 
cameras turned out in the Camera 

To facilitate the handling of raw 
flat stock, sheets of steel, aluminum, 
brass, and leather are cut in sizes 
that will give the least weight and 
the minimum size requisite for effi- 
cient handling in stamping. Sev- 
eral batteries of huge punch presses 
are utilized to stamp out the vari- 
ous metallic parts. The largest bat- 
tery, consisting of 102 machines, is 


in the basement of one of the 
buildings and is employed for 
stamping the larger parts, while an- 
other of twenty-eight machines 
turns out the small parts that go to 
make the shutters. Other punch 
presses are employed for stamping 
out the leather to correct sizes. 

In Fig. 1 is shown one of the 
large punch presses for punching 
out a camera frame. For the Au- 
tographic Brownies the frames and 
the fronts and bed plates are of 
steel, while in the better and larger 
types of Kodaks they are of alum- 
inum. In order to protect the 
workmen a special guard is pro- 
vided as shown, which automatic- 
ally passes at right angles to the 
workman's arm and pushes it away 
from the die when the punch is 
placed in operation. This guard 
was devised by workmen in the 
Camera Works, who were en- 
couraged to develop their idea by 
means of our suggestion svstem. 
and received a substantial award 
for developing it. This is one of 
a number of safety devices utilized 
in the Camera Works, rnany of 
which were designed by the work- 
men themselves. 

Besides the various parts stamped 
out by the punch presses, numer- 
ous round parts, such as small 
screws, rivets, bushings, etc.. are 
turned out by automatic screw ma- 
chines (a part of a battery of 88 
machines is shown in Fig. 2). 
These machines are intricate lathes, 
each of which is ecjuipped with spe- 
cial attachments so that it can auto- 
matically thread and accurately 
turn to correct dimensions any 
part desired in large quantities. 
The raw stock, in the form of rods, 
is fed through long pipes as shown 
and turned into the numerous parts 
required with a minimum of atten- 
tion from the attendants. The nor- 


Illustration No. 2 — Batterv of Automatic Screw Machines 

nial weekly output of these screw 
lathes is a million parts, which car. 
readily be increased and is fre- 
quently increased to a million and 
a half parts. There is also a bat- 
tery of milling and drilling ma- 
chines on which the final operation < 
on the flat and round parts are per- 

All metal parts wluch are to be 
exposed on the camera are coated 
with nickel. This process is per- 
formed electrolytically, the electro- 
lytic solution being contained in 
large tanks as shown in Fig. 3 i:i 
which bars of nickel are ])laced and 
through which electric energy is 
made to pass. The various jwrts tn 
be nickeled are placed on racks a.^ 
shown, and hung in the solution a 
short time. Before being placed in 
the nickel solution, however, the 
parts are dipped in a pickling liath. 
as it is called, to remove oil and 
other foreign matter. After hein^ 
nickeled, the parts are taken to a 
specially ventilated room where 

there is a large battery of buffing 
and grinding machines and where 
they are polished with rouge and 
given a deep, highlv finished nickel 

Illustration No. 3 — Nickeling Metal 


Illustration No 4 — Spraying Japan 

Those metal parts which form 
the interior of the camera and are 
not nickeled are given a coating of 
japan. One of the latest methods 
of ja])anning is eniployed, as shown 
in Fig. 4, the japan being sprayed 
on in special hoods. This method 
is, of course, far more efficient than 
that by hand and is healthier for 
the employee. After the japan is 
sprayed on, the parts are placed in 
large ovens ( shown in Fig. 5 ) and 
baked for a certain period. 

Leather is used for covering the 
cameras, and making bellows and 
carrying cases. One of the most 
interesting" processes in the manu- 
facture of a camera is the making 
of the bellows. One of the room- 
of the bellows department is shown 
in Fig. 8. Girls are chiefly em- 
ployed in this department. 

The lining of the belloAvs is of 
rubber-coated cloth which is glued 
over a special form and to a square 
aluminum frame to brace the front 
of the bellows, and an oblong 
frame for the back. Paper stays 
or strips are next automaticall\' 
glued on by a special staying ma 
chine. The stays are for stitTening 
the bellows and locating the folds. 
One of the staying machines is 
placed directly opposite the oper- 


ator shown in Fig. 7, who is en- 
gaged in gluing the .outside leather 
covering on to the. form. As soon 
as the operator of the staying ma- 
chine finishes his operation, he 
places the form with the unfinished 
bellows on a rotating gravity table, 
as it is called, which tilts toward 
tlie operator and automatically 
keeps a form in front of the oper- 
ator at all times. After the leather 
covering is glued on the forms, the 
forms are placed in hand presses, 
two of which are shown in the illus- 
tration. As soon as the glue has 
set, the bellows are removed from 
the forms and taken to other 
benches -where the creases are put 
in by hand and pressed in a hand- 
pressing machine. The empty forms 
are placed in a chute underneath 
the table, where they slide to an 
operator who glues on the lining. 

Another department wdiere pre- 
liminary operations are performed 
is that devoted to woodworking, 
The woods used are chiefly cherry. 
white wood and beech and are em- 
]doyed to make the box Brownies 

Illustration No. 5 — Japanning Ovens 


Illustration No. 6 — Shaping Wood Parts 

and the top and bottom parts of tb.c 
Kodaks (shown on the shaping ma- 
chine. Fig. 6). The various oper- 
ations carried on in the woodwork- 
ing department consist of sawing, 
planing, shaping, etc., such as one 
would find in any wood shop. Fig. 
6 shows a man at a shaping ma- 
chine with a special form which 
enables him to shape the wooden 
top and bottom parts of a Kodak 
rapidly and accurately to size. A 
safety device at the same time pro- 
tects the operator from the cutting 
knives. On the special Kodaks 
these tops and bottoms are of 
Ilakelite composition. 

After the leather is glued on. the 
raw edges are burned with hot irons 
to harden them and thus prevent 
fraying. The frames are next 
placed in power presses in which 
decorative creases are impressed on 
the leather. 

Precision and care are re(|uirc(l 
in ever}- stage of camera manufac- 
ture, but in none of the processes 
are such infinite pains necessary or 
is it required to w^rk dnwii to >uch 
fine dimensions, as in the making 
of shutters and lenses. In regard 
to skill in manipulation of small 
parts, for instance, and the high 

degree of accuracy required, tlie 
various operations performed in 
the making of shutters can easily 
be placed on a par with those per- 
formed in the .manufacture of 
watches. The different flat parts 
for shutters are stamped out by the 
battery of twenty-eight punch 
presses and the round parts are 
made on special screw machines. In 
the assembling of the shutters nu- 
merous well-trained workmen are 
required, a special requisite being 
small fingers and a well-developed 
sense of touch. One of the shutter- 
assembling rooms is illustrated in 
Fig. 9. 

We have told in a previous issue 
the story of Kodak lens making, so 
}ou are familiar witli that import- 
ant step. 

The ke_\- b_\- means of which the 
film roll is wound is another im- 
portant part in which careful work- 
manship is required. In the as- 
sembling of the key considerable 
skill is required, the operator must 
be one who has a keen sense of 
touch, which enables her to handle 
the small parts deftly and with ease. 

As soon as the individual parts 
have been finished they are stored 
away until needed in the assem- 
bling: rooms. 

illustration No. 7 — Glueing Bellows 



Illustration No. 8 — Bellows Room 

Illustration No. 9 — A Portion of An Assembly Room 



Final Ini>pection 

In these rooms the Kodak frame 
goes from bench to bench and 
down one aisle and up another, 
picking up parts as it goes until it 
becomes the real article — a finished, 
ready-to-use Kodak to delight the 
heart of every one that uses it. 
From the assembling room each 
camera goes to an inspection de- 
partment where it is carefully ex- 
amined. From the inspection de- 
partment it goes to the shipping 
and packing department where it is 
given a final inspection and then is 
packed in a carton with necessary 
instruction booklets. 

Besides the final inspections, 
every department has what is called 
an incoming and outgoing inspec- 
tion. By means of these repeated 
inspections and by careful selection 
of raw materials the product neces- 
sarily must be high class — and that 
is the big point that we feature in 
everything we turn out. 

Your Opportunity 

In the summer time social gath- 
erings and the like usually take the 
form of excursions and picnics and 
of course the ubiquitous Kodak is 
always there (usually with his 
brothers and sisters) to bring back 
mementos of the occasion. To make 
such pictures, no departures from 
simple outdoor exposure practice 
are necessary. 

On the other hand, in the winter 
time, while there are outdoor sports 
in which groups of young people 
engage, the real gatherings are us- 
ually in the evenings and indoors, 
and right now thev are verv popu- 

By showing Eastman Flash 
Sheets and the Flash Sheet Holder 
and explaining how simple it all is 
to make pictures without the aid 
of daylight, you can do an appre- 
ciable amount of extra business. 
Everything is clearly explained in 
"By Flashlight." 



/ Salesman 

THE other day a man came in to 
sell me something. He was so 
smooth that every moment 1 was 
afraid that he would slip oil his 
chair — and. darn him, he agreed 
with everything I said. 

"What I think of him is a good 
deal as old Andrew Johnson ex- 
pressed himself regarding an ac- 
quaintance of his — ' I never like a 
man to be for me more than I am 
for myself.' 

"There is such a thing as being 
too agreeable, too suave and plaus- 
ible, and I am of the opinion that 
the average business man does not 
like to be fawned upon. 

"We all like a person of agree- 
able personality — and are suscept- 
ible to a wee bit of flattery — but 
most of us prefer to let it go at 

"When a man seemingly tries to 
impress you that you are something 
that you know you are not, and 
w hich you are pretty sure he is onlv 
saying for efifect so as to get you in 
a good humor, you immediately lose 
faith in him and his whole proposi- 

"There is one hotel on my route, 
and it is a good one, but just the 
same I dislike to go into its dining 
room because the head waiter is so 

" 'Fine day. sir. yes sir, thank 
you, sir' accompanied by a rubbing 
of the hands and much low bowing. 

" 'You're looking very well to- 
day, sir,' when all the time it's 


sleeting outside and you need a 
shave and a freshly pressed suit. 

"He is an old prevaricator, and 
he knows it and I know it, and 
some of these days I am going to 
rise up and smite him hip and thigh/ 

"I like to do business with an 
agreeable man, the same as all the 
rest of us do, and I try to be pleas- 
ant and agreeable to those with 
whom I come in contact, but I am 
mighty careful not to overdo it — 
there is a big difference between 
service and servility. 

"vSpeaking of good service; I 
needed a clean collar — I always do 
seem to be needing one — so I 
walked into a man's shop and a 
}oung woman stepped up to wait 
upon me. 

"1 told her what I wanted and 
she said, 'Excuse me just a moment 
till I wash my hands as I don't 
want to give you a soiled collar.' 

"Xow, I wcmld have taken a 
chance on her hands being clean 
anyhow, but after many past ex- 
periences of having a grimy thumb 
print impressed just where it would 
show most, this experience was re- 

"It is really the little things that 
count for the most with the average 
human being. 

"I would much rather have some- 
one wait upon me who, perhaps, 
couldn't tell me just how much 
faster an /. 6.3 was over a rapid 
rectilinear, than to have another 
clerk tell me in a bored, listless 


manner, just what I wanted to 

"But that doesn't mean either 
that I don't prefer to be waited 
upon by a salesman who knows both 
his line and the value of being; 

"It is queer how some little and 
seemingly trivial thing will work 
for. or against a man. and so. for 
or against his business. 

"In a city where once upon a 
time I toiled for sustenance, was a 
druggist — a genial sort of a chap 
but possessed of one obsession. 
After many years of marital exist- 
ence he had finally been blessed 
with the arrival of a daughter and 
she became the sole reason for his 
existence which. I must admit, was 
highly commendable. 

"This daughter grew daily in 
beauty ( in her father's eyes at 
least ) and so when she had at- 
tained about the mature age of two 
years he put out a line of cigars 
and perfumes named after her witn 
her face on the lid of every cigar 

box and on , r li tie of scenr. 

..T I rst of the , , 

1 have , 1 the angel 
1 ., ,. ore sent h ,, .'^ 

child s nam(^,^^ ^^^ 3 recall dis- 
tinctly that no matter what brand 
of cigars you called for. from an 
El Cabbago to a Coroner's Joy. out 
would come a box with angel child's 
picture upon it. and if you didn't 
immediately go into ecstacies over 
the picture instead of selecting a 
'rope,' your attention would be 
called to what you were overlook- 
ing and you would be expected — 
and have to — listen to a long disser- 
tation upon her superhuman perfec- 

"Well, angel child soon became 
a joke and so. unless we wanted 
to have some fun with a friend 
from out of town, we went else- 
where for solace from My Lady 
Nicotine. And I guess it mu>L 

have affected the gentler sex in the 
same way. because I noticed that 
after a time the angel cliild brands 
had been withdrawn. 

"So you see that it is often the 
little things that make for, or 
against, the success of a man or a 

The February "Kodakery" 

Ahnost every part of Canada is 
visited by snow in winter time — or 
it is a mighty unusual winter — so 
tlie articles in the February Ko- 
dakcry ought to be particularly in- 

Where there is snow the oppor- 
tunities for beautiful pictures are 
countless, and the instructions con- 
tained in ''Picturing a Snowy Win 
ter" can be read with profit by even 
the most advanced amateurs. 

Some winter days are best en- 
joyed inside the house, and these 
days have been provided for by 
splendid articles on "Pictures in 
the Home." and "Picturing Interi- 
ors in Winter." 

The February issue also con- 
tains a most instructive article on 
"Defects in Prints" with a lot ot 
illustrations to make each ])oint 

Now. when you have read all the 
articles in the February Kodakcry. 
turn to page 27 and read "When in 
Xeed of Assistance." The editors 
of Kodakcry do receive "niuifi- 
titdcs" of letters, and every one is 
answered carefully, thoroughly and 

So. with this in mind, won't you. 
every time you make the sale of an 
amateur camera, fill out the Kodak- 
cry subscription blank in the man- 
ual and mail it in to us the same 



New Users 

During the month of December 
most of you sold a number of cam- 
eras which were going to be given 
as Christmas presents. Quite a few 
of the happy recipients are abso- 
hitely without any previous experi- 
ence in Kodakery and are Hkelv 
to be a httle diiifident about asking 

They have been placed in quite a 
different position to the ordinary 
purchaser, who is usually guided to 
some extent by the salesman's sug- 
gestion a't the time of purchase and 
is given to understand that any 
information he wants about the 
camera or Kodak work in general 
will be cheerfully given at any time. 

It cannot yet be said that all 
these people who have had Kodaks 
"thrust upon them," so to speak, 
are enthusiasts, but obviously the 
salesmen with whom they come in 
contact when purchasing film, etc., 
have the opportunity of moulding 
their future attitude toward picture- 

It should not be hard to decide 
if any customer comes in the cate- 
gory mentioned ; unless he has read 
the camera m'anual carefully, he 
will probably not know what him 
to ask for even. Once you have 
elicited the fact that the camera 
was a gift, spare no effort to show 
and explain anything he wants to 
know ; because by demonstrating 
that your store service doesn't exist 
in name only, you stand a very 
good chance of adding him to the 
list of regular customers of your 
Kodak Department. 

If the salesman who sold the gift 
camera did his duty, the new owner 
will receive "Kodakery" in Janu- 
ary and monthly thereafter, which 
will be a considerable help; but the 
salesman who sells him the first 
supplies for the new camera has it 
in his power to make or mar the 


situation by judicious or injudicious 

Another thing, these additions to 
the ranks are going to need a lot 
of sundries and it will be good busi- 
ness to see that your stock is cooi- 
plete on such items as : — - 

Portrait Attachments, 

Color Filters, 

Sky Filters, 




Developing Tanks, 



Self Timers, 

Developing Powders, 

A'elox Paper 

Kodak Amateur Printers. 

It would be a mistake to try and 
sell a long list of accessories right 
at the start, but from time to time 
opportunities w^ill present them- 
selves for those tactful suggestions 
which will be a real help to better 

ti stepped 1 

That Good 
Window Display 

Photograph it 
and enter it 
in the 

See page 1, 


Ten minutes 
witK the Boss 

COME in and sit down, Sammy, 
I've got a new one to spring on 

"The other day I dropped into 
the bank to see the Cashier, amd as 
he happened to be busy I picked up 
a magazine called Business to pass 
the time. Here is a story I found 
that set me to thinking a bit. 

"It told of an old charge custo- 
mer of a certain store who owed 
the store fifteen dollars on account. 
A day or so after her statement was 
mailed to her, she came in, bought 
fifteen dollars worth of goods and 
paid for it by check. 

"On the first of the following- 
month the store sent her another 
statement for the fifteen dollars still 
due on account. 

"To the surprise of the '^tore's 
cashier the woman came in a few 
days later and said she had already 
paid the bill. To support her claim, 
she showed a cancelled check for 
fifteen dollars payable to the firm. 

"The cashier had his owin suspi- 
cions — which were confirmed by 
looking over the duplicate sales 

"Just the same he bad no proof 
that the fifteen dollars had been 
tendered in payment for the new 
goods and not on the old account. 

"All he could do was to grin and 
bear the loss. 

"The cashier recalled that he had 
had the same trick played upon liini 

before and decided not to be caugh: 

"So he had made a stamp wi*:h 
the words, 'Received on Account.' 
All checks tendered in payment on 
account were then so stamped, and 
whenever possible, in the presence 
of the customer. 

"Now, you see, Sam, the store 
can point out that any check not 
bearing this stamp was tendered in 
payment for new goods and not on 

"This plan isn't air tight, of 
course, but when most of the custo- 
mers know of the practice it will 
surely exercise a strong influence 
on any other dead beats who may 
think of the same plan. 

"I don't recall, Sam, that we have 
ever had this game tried on us, but 
forewarned is forearmed. 

"It wasn't so miudi finding this 
particular pointer, Sam, that set 
me to thinking, but the fact that I 
must have been missing a whole lot 
of equally good information by not 
reading more of such literature. 

"The bank cashier tells me that 
he receives a number of similar 
publications each month and has in- 
vited me to come and look them 
over whenever I want to, and you 
can gamble, Sam, that that is one 
invitation I am going to accept. 

"I have likewise also often won- 
dered, Sam. as to how many of the 
boys here have made any definite 



plans as to how to make their pres- 
ent jobs grow into bigger jobs. 

"So many young fellows over- 
look the fact, Sam, that they must 
some day be offered or forced to 
accept greater responsibilities and 
so do not prepare themiselves other 
than b}' performing as acceptably as 
possible, their daily duties. 
■ "They read a daily paper ; that is, 
glance over the general news and 
only study the sporting page. They 
can tell you all the hatting average.^ 
and the high scores on all the alleys, 
and that is about all. 

"So^me of the boys might possibly 
resent this, Sam, if you ]:)ointed it 
out to them. 

"I'll admit that they know the 
line and the stock, and how to an- 
swer the majority of questions cor- 
rectly, but how much do they know- 
about the broader principles oF 

"They may co'me back at vou 
with, 'What do we need to know 
that for in our present jobs?' or. 

'We don't get a chance here to 
learn anything like that.' 

"On the other hand, Sam, I 
heard one of the errand boys ask 
the bookkeeper the other day just 
what was meant by a trial balance, 
and he listened most intently to the 

"Trial balances haven't anything 
to do with his job as errand boy but 
he may develop into an expert ac- 
countant some day because he has a 
vision beyond his present job. 

"A travelling man was in to see 
me the other day and he accidental- 
ly pulled out a copy of the philoso- 
phies of Epictetus with his order 
book. I glanced inquiringly at it, 
Sam, and he grinned and said, 'Old 
Epic gives me some pretty good 
ideas as to how best to handle some 
of my customers, as well as how to 
handle myself,' \'ision is the big 
thing in life, Sam. and it can only 
be broadened and strengthened 
by studyhig the things worth 
while outside of your regular job." 


his issue completes Volume Five of the 
Kodak Salesman. JVe take this oppo?^- 
tunity to thank you tnost heartily for your 
good will and co-operation , and wish you 

A Happy New Year 


They said it couldn't 
be done, but he didn't 
know it, so he went 
ahead and did it. 





iiii tiie ^ruiid atiiiid 
tii:i iViiJfld iiu ill Lii 


The Friendly W^ork 

\ K K V (lav I bless inv 
\v()i-k hccausi' of the joy 
it l)rin<4's h) uu'. The men 
with whom I do business 
ai-e moi'e than mere busi- 
ness accjuaintances. Most of them 
become personal friends. Kven if 
we had no })usiness coiuiection I 
should want to know that they were 
in my life. They pay me money, 
it is true. And that money is neces- 
sary. But they pny me moie than 
that. They ])ay me in the finer coin 
of their own personalities. I think 
that I am one of the richest men in 
the world. Life has ln'i'ii and is very 

The I agahond. 

Display Ideas from Kodak Ltd., London —See Page 3 


an aia to the man oeninci tne con^nte^ 

Vol. 6 


No. 1 

The Window Display Competition 

To help the Window Display 
Competition to get away to a good 
start we will again outline the plan 
as announced in the January issue. 

We want to help you increase the 
effectiveness of your window dis- 
plays, and to be a'ble to pass along 
your good ideas to others through 
the medium of photographs of dis- 

To stimulate interest, and to help 
make it still more worth while, we 
offer an award of twenty-five dol- 
lars each month for the best win- 
dow display of photographic goods. 

Entries for each month w'ill be 
received up to and including the 
twentieth of the month; entries ar- 
riving after that date will be in- 
cluded with the entries for the next 

Photographs of displays must not 
be smaller than post card, but may 
be larger ; if only post card size, 
it is im'portant that all the avail- 
able picture space should be occu- 
pied by the display itself and not 
be partly taken up by the external 
features of the store. 

The negative to be sent in a sealed 
envelope, bearing the sender's name 
and address. This envelope must 
not be attached to the print but 
mil St accompany it. 

Prints must be sent flat — not 
rolled or folded — and may be 
either mounted or unmounted. 

The name and address of the 
sender to be placed on the back of 
the print or mount. 

Prints should be addressed to 
Editor, Kodak Salesman, Canadian 
Kodak Co., Limited, Toronto, Ont. 

Through the courtesy of Kodak 
rjmited, London, England, we have 
received photographs of a number 
of their displays, two of which are 
shown in this issue, and it is possi- 
ble that they may afford a sugges- 
tion or two you can use to advant- 

We want this competition to be 
a big success, because it will mu- 
tually benefit us all, so plan your 
displays carefully, photograi)h them 
ditto and send them in. 

Mr. Salesman: — This is your magazine. If 
you want advice, or suggestions on any selling or 
technical problem, we are at your service. 


The Why of the Anastigmat and the Kodak 
Anastigmat in Particular 


Article I. 

In previous issues of the Kodak 
Salesman we have told somewhat 
in detail of the manufacturing pro- 
cesses in the Kodak lens factory, 
and afforded you some idea of its 

We think it ver}- nnich worth 
while for every salesman of photo- 
graphic goods to not only know 
how these lenses are manufactured 
but to know the technical side as 
well, so in a short series, of which 
this is the first, we are going to 
alTord you this information in an 
understandable way : 

It was with the inception of the 
"You press the button — We do the 
rest" idea, made possible by the in- 
troduction of film, that photogra- 
phy began to be really popular in a 
broad sense. Since that time the 
development of new and improved 
apparatus and materials has kept 
pace with the rapidly growing body 
of enthusiastic amateurs, the ideal 
always being the attainment of bet- 
ter photographic results. The earlier 
Kodaks were equipped with single 
achromatic and rapid rectilinear 
lenses since the use and under- 
standing of the more costly anastig- 
mats were left almost exclusively 
to the professional. Gradually, 
however, the advanced amateur in- 
terested himself in these better 
lenses and their advantages became 
a matter of discussion among an 
ever widening circle. Having passed 
through the period when its use 
more often indicated a desire to im- 
press sortie presumably less erudite 
member of the photographic clan 
rather than any real knowledge of 

optics, the wurd anastigmat gradu- 
ally began to mean to the general 
photographic public a lens capable 
of yielding results of a superior 
sort. People came to know that as 
compared to a rapid rectilinear the 
anastigmat gives l)etter definition 
and, as a rule, makes it possible to 
take photographs under conditions 
of poorer lighting. There was one 
very potent reason why anastigmat 
lenses did not come into popular 
use — the high price whicli their 
more complex and accurate struc- 
ture compelled the manufacturers 
to ask. 

Improvements in canuras and 
materials had been made very rap- 
idly and with them prices well with- 
in the reach of the average amateur 
had been maintained ; but the prices 
of anastigmats r e m a i n e d high. 
While it is possible to make most 
excellent photographs w i t h the 
cheaper lenses, such as the single 
achromats and rapid rectilinears, 
the firm conviction established it- 
self that only with the general use 
of anastigmats of the best quality 
would the level of the photogra])hic 
results obtained by amateurs be 
raised to keep pace with the more 
and more rapid betterment of the 
photographic supplies ofit'ered on 
the market. It was this conviction, 
backed by the progressive spirit 
which has always animated the 
name Kodak, that made it possible 
to accomplish the apparently almost 
impossible task of producing anas- 
tigmat lenses of the verv highest 


Fig. 1. 

(jualiiy at a vcr_\- niuderate price. 
Tliat the goal has been reached i> 
vouched for to-day by thousands of 
users of Kodak Anastigmats. from 
the Government down to the hum- 
blest amateur. In order that you 
may understand how the dream of 
the Kodak Anastigmat became a 
reality and how the solution of cer- 
tain problems in connection with 
the production of lenses for use 
in aerial photographs durii-g the 
great war was a potent factor in 
making it available to the photo- 
graphic public at such reasonable 
prices, it will l)e necessar\- to con- 
sider the difficulties of design and 
manufacture that had to be over- 

As a basis for our (li>cu->ion we 
shall review briefly the concepts of 
focal length and relative aperture 
or speed. When a photographer 
focuses the image of a distant ob- 

ject on his ground glass, plate or 
fllm. the focal length of the lens is, 
roughly speaking, equal to the dis- 
tance from the sharply focused 
image to the diaphragm of the lens. 
This is not an exact scientific defi- 
nition of focal length but it will 
serve our puropse. It should also 
be recalled that the size of the 
image falling on the film depends 
upon the focal length of the lens 
used. Suppose we take a picture 
of a building. Fig. 1, from an air- 
plane by means of a lens of five 
inch focal length and obtain an 
image of it on the film one-half inch 
long. If we take another photo- 
graph of this same building from 
the same position with a lens of 
twenty inch focal length, such as 
those which were used in such num- 
t)ers in Aerial Photography, we 
shall obtain an image of the build- 
ing 2 inches long. In other words. 


the images in the two cases are pro- 
portional to the focal lengths of the 
lenses producing them. 

Our modern life seems to be 
placing more and more stress upon 
speed in all branches of human en- 
deavor. \\'e are told that, in order 
to maintain high wages and short 
hours, greater speed of production 
must be attained and that all our 
activities must be placed on a higher 
plane of speed and efficiency. The 
trans-Atlantic airplane and the two 
mile a minute automobile excite our 
admiration because they are the 
tangible embodiment of the spirit 
of the times. Photographic lenses, 
inert as they may seem, possess this 
cjuality of speed and one is often 
asked, through more or less of a 
misunderstanding of the term, if a 
certain lens is "fast enough" to take 
a picture of an automobile going a 
hundred miles an hour. 

By the speed or working aper- 
ture of a lens is meant the diameter 
of the clear opening of the lens as 
compared to its focal length. For 
example a lens w^ith an aperture of 
/.6 has a maximum clear opening 
of a diameter equal to 1/6 of the 
focal length. The larger the clear 
opening, as compared to the focal 
length, the more light admitted and 
the shorter the exposure necessar\' 
to give a fully timed negative. 

It is to be pointed out that it is 
the relative opening, or the opening 
as compared to the focal length that 
is of importance. If, for instance, 
a circular uniformly illuminated 
sheet of white paper is photo- 
graphed by means of a lens of 5 
inch focal length working at /.6, 
the light which impresses the image 
on the film is admitted through an 
opening 5/6 of an inch in diam- 
eter. Let us say that the proper 
exposure is obtained in 1/200 sec- 
ond. This means that in 1/200 


second enough light has fallen on 
the film where the disc is imaged 
to give a certain photographic den- 

If. now. this same disc is photo- 
graphed from the same position 
with a lens of 10 inch focal length, 
the image of the disc on the film 
will be twice the diameter for four 
times the area) of the image with 
the 5 inch lens. In order to get on 
the film in 1/200 of a second an 
image of the same photographic 
density as was obtained with the 5 
inch lens in 1/200 of a second when 
working at /.6 we must admit four 
times as much light as in that case. 
In other words, the area of the 
opening of the 10 inch lens must be 
four times that of the 5 inch lens 
which means that the diameter of 
the opening in the 10 inch lens must 
be twice that in the 5 inch, that is 
10/6 or 1 2, 3 inches. But 1 2/3 
inches is 1/6 of the focal length of 
a 10 inch lens. Hence it is seen 
that, other things being equal, lenses 
of the same relative aperture will 
work with the same speed regard- 
less of focal length. A 10 inch lens 
working at /.6 works with the same 
speed as a 5 inch lens of aperture 

It takes a definite time to impress 
an image upon a photographic plate 
depending upon the amount of 
light admitted by the lens. Sup- 
pose we are taking a picture of a 
racing automobile going at a speed 
of 100 miles an hour with a lens 
working at /.4.5. An exposure of 
perhaps 1/800 second will give us a 
good negative on a bright day. If 
the man standing next to us is 
equipped with a lens working at 
/.8 he will be unable to get a satis- 
factory picture of the automobile. 
Relatively speaking, his lens admits 
less than one-third as much light as 
ours so that to get a negative of the 


same density he must give an ex- 
posure of three times 1/800 second 
or 1/266 of a second. But with an 
exposure of 1/266 second the pic- 
ture of the automobile will be quite 
blurred. It is seen, therefore, that 
under these conditions our /.4.5 lens 
is "fast enough" to take a photo- 
graph of the automobile but the /.8 
lens is not. A lens working at 
large aperture as compared to one 
working at a smaller aperture will 
permit of shorter exposures under 
the same circumstances or under 
conditions of bad lighting will per- 
mit the taking of a picture when a 
slower lens would be useless. 

"Kodakery" for March 

The ]\Iarch Kodakery is going to 
sell some Kodak Self Timers — a 
whole lot of 'em. 

You'll agree when you read the 
first article. 

If you are interested in making 
pictures by moonlight, the second 
article will tell you all about it. 

"Photograpliing the Shore Ice" is 
a timely talk on an interesting sub- 

"Lenses of Normal and Almor- 
mal Focal Lengths" is a mighty 
practical article, and you can read it 
twice over with profit. 

Altogether, you will find the 
whole issue of absorbing interest. 

Human and Friendly 

Every business house has a num- 
ber of customers with whom none 
of its staff have ever come into per- 
.sonal contact. Likewise, new cus- 
tomers are writing in either order- 
ing goods or seeking information. 

The person, ur persons, entrusted 
with answering such business cor- 
respondence has a great opportuni- 
ty for making friends for his firm 
— an opportunity too often neglect- 
ed, due to lack of thought or to the 
following of obsolete stereotyped 
letter forms. 

Xow to remove this from the ab- 
stract, and making it sound a bit 
too much like a preachment, allow 
me to afford a few actual experi- 

Some years ago I moved to a 
strange city and found the renting 
of a suitable home a matter of con- 
siderable difficulty, as good houses 
were scarce. 

So. as a means to the end. I se- 
lected the name of two real estate 
firms from the advertisements in 
one of the local papers and wrote 
them, stating my needs, and about 
the rental I wished to pay. From 
one of them I received the follow- 
ing reply : 

Dear Sir: 

In reply to your esteemed letter we 
are enclosing our bulletin of houses 
for rent. We have the largest rental 
agency in the city, and are sure we 
can serve you. 

Hoping to be favored with your 
valued patronage, we are. 

Yours respectfull3^ 
The Blank Rental Agencv. 

Their list of houses for rent was 
a long one, and on it were houses 
on several streets I had canvassed 
with nary a sight of a "To Let" 

I showed this list to a man who 
had resided in the city for some 
years and he obligingly went over 
it with me. 

"Why, dog-gone it," he ex- 
claimed, "here is the house I have 
been living in for two years." and 
pointing to another listing, "Tom 
Brown has lived there for at least 
six months." 


The otlicr firm replied sonietliin<; 
like this: 

Dear J\Ir. Thoinpson: 

iNIoderii houses for rent in good 
localities are a bit scarce just at pres- 
ent, as you must have discovered, or 
else you would not have written us for 

Our present list is not large, but we 
think we have one on Rosewood Ter- 
race in the south-eastern part of the 
city, and one on the west side, both 
within the two-mile circle, which may 
suit you. 

Our Telephone number is 494 INIain. 
and if you will let us know a conven- 
ient hour, we will be pleased to send 
our car and go with you to inspect 

Hoping to locate you to your satis- 
faction, we are. 

Truly yours, 


The difference in tone between 
the two rei)Hes and the feehng they 
created in me. is too O'bvions for 
fnrther comment. 

Once upon a time I purchased a 
certain patented device for shaving ; 
it in ever}- way came up to expec- 
tations and afforded me excellent 

A year or so later I read an ad- 
vertisement issued by the concern 
making the device, in which they 
mentioned a booklet I thought I 
would like to peruse. 

I wrote, asking them for a coi)y 
of the booklet and mentioned inci- 
dentally how well I had been satis- 
fied with their device. 

1 received a curt letter in re- 
sponse, stating that they had re- 
ceived dozens of letters similar to 
mine, about the quality of their 
]»roduct. They made no mention of 
the booklet, nor did T ever receive 

J still like and use their device, 
but I don't boost it to my friends 
any more. 

Their letter to me was, in all 
probability, just a careless over- 


siglu. but it left a bad taste with 
me. Maybe one of the reasons was 
becatise the letter was signed by an 
off'icial of the company. 

If it is part of your job to an- 
swer letters for your firm, try to 
make them human — just as if you 
were talking to the person ; make 
them feel that your house is their 
friend and that it wants to do every- 
thing it can to prove it — and very 
ini])ortant — answer every question. 

// (/// of us i^'oiild think as much 
of our duties as zee do of our rights 
how uiuch happier the leorld z^'ould 
he." — Jerrv McOuade. 


■'There is much truth in the say- 
ing that men can win because they 
believe they can win. Energy in 
action naturally follows their self- 
confidence. To develop a self-confi- 
dent feeling, decide careftilly what 
you wish to do and how to do it. 

"Be on the alert for new points 
of view, new ideas and new light on 
the old ideas. You will thus ac- 
quire a fund of ideas in experience 
that will make you master of your 

Measure your -ieork leith a speed- 
ometer, not a clock — / don't care 
how loncj you took, I zvant to knozv 
how far \ou zeeiit. 

Meet your customer's mood. If 
he is in a hurry and knozvs zehat he 
zcants, give him snappy service and 
use no needless zvords. If he is in 
doubt and zca)its advice, give him 
that. Recommend something you 
knoze is qood. And knoze zchx. 


An Idea for Any Season 

Courtesy of E. !■'. Sausch cr Son Ok. Rochestfr. .V. >' 

It Stopped 'Em 

The E. E. Bausch & Son Com- 
pany, dealers in Kodaks and optical 
goods in Rochester, has long been 
noted for its artistic window dis- 

Through the courtesy of the 
Bausch Company we are enabled to 
>how one of their recent holiday 

Aside from the holly running up 
one side of the window, and the 
small basket filled with holly, the 
display was confined to the gold 
framed shadow box. 

The shadow box was lined with 
artistically draped black velvet, and 
without o-lass in the front : the t-ffect 

being that of a painting of what was 
within the frame ; a concealed light 
strongly illuminating the frame. 

The window itself is small and in 
immediate competition with a num- 
ber of large windows. 

A block up the avenue is a high- 
class motion picture theatre and it 
was more than ordinarily interest- 
ing to watch how this small display 
arrested the attention of the pass- 
ing theatre crowds. 

We are glad tu pass tlie idea 
along, as it can easily be adapted to 
a window of any size, and made to 
>erve at anv season of the vear. 

The \V indole Display Com pcfilio 


Twenty-five dolLirs eacli Niofiti^ for t/ie 
best wi/idrnv display of P/iotO[>'r(ip/iic goods. 


of a Salesman 

"IX common with a good many 
1 other folks, whose early musical 
education was neglected, I possess 
a player piano and a talking ma- 

"It so happens that I have a fair- 
ly good ear for music and have 
learned to appreciate the higher 
class selections. But. when I wish 
to add to my collection of rolls I 
have a truly hard time in obtaining 
what I want. 

"I have heard dozens of selec- 
tions that have pleased me but can 
not always recall them by name, 
and I have yet to find a music roll 
store that will, in any manner, aid 
me in possessing them. 

"I patiently tell the clerk just the 
class of music that appeals to me, 
and then, invariably, he or she trots 
out the latest 'jazz' or some mushy 
song of the moment. 

"On the other hand, I know of 
several talking machine stores 
where I can be served intelligently. 

"Have I just been unfortunate in 
this particular direction or is it a 
matter of education? 

"I recall, with pleasant memories, 
a salesman of my early photogra- 
phic days ; he not only knew the 
technical side of photography thor- 
oughly, but in addition he was well 
grounded on art principles, and so 
could be, and w^as, a real help to his 
customers from all standpoints in 
improving their w^ork. 

"He was tactful enough to never 


otter any criticism of the artistic 
side of a customer's work tmless it 
was asked for, but he never hesi- 
tated to suggest the ways for the 
technical betterment of negatives 
or prints. 

He had a very large personal fol- 
lowing, and I believe that, without 
any exaggeration, he sold five times 
as many high-grade equipments as 
all the other salesmen in town put 

"^^'e all hke to be served by peo- 
ple who know and who are willing 
to take an intelligent interest in our 
wants, and I beHeve this knowledge 
and willingness is one of the great- 
est assets of the salesman. 

''It goe> without saying that, in 
our line, technical knowledge is of 
importance, and a knowledge of the 
artistic side will often come in 

"Every photographic supply store 
has a numl)er of amateur custo- 
mers whose work is really artistic, 
and whose pictures conform to the 
accepted rules governing composi- 
tion, and are so made because of 
this knowledge and not through an 
occasional lucky accident. 

"So. if in conversing with a cus- 
tomer of this type, you happen to 
comment on the excellence of some 
one of his pictures and show that 
you really know why it is good, 
you immediately acquire an added 
standing in his opinion. 

"And this knowledge is compara- 
tively easy to acquire ; there are a 
numtyer of good books on the sub- 
ject, written with special reference- 
to photography. 


"These books are not overly ex- 
pensive and quite possibly are now 
on the shelves of your local public 
library, or would be placed there if 
you suggested it to the librarian. 

'"I would like to give you the 
titles of some of these books but I 
hardly dare because I might inad- 
vertently fail to mention some of 
the good ones, and so be accused of 
favoritism — but if you are inter- 
ested and will drop me a line, I'll 
gladly give you the names of those 
in my own library. 

"Knowing what really constitutes 
a picture will not only help you in 
your relations with your customers, 
but will add greatly to your own 
pleasure in picture making because 
you will be working towards better 
■ results intelligentlv." 

The "Shoulder Touch" 

Do you remember the first day 
you ever worked in a store, and 
how shy and strange you felt — and 
liow most of the other employees 
didn't pay any attention to you. 
and allowed you to attempt work- 
ing out your own salvation ? 

There was one exception : he ap- 
proached you with a kindly smile. 
asked how you were getting along, 
and told you to call on him regard- 
ing anything you didn't understand. 

As the weeks grew into months 
you found the rest of your asso- 
ciates pretty decent fellows, but 
you had. and always will have, a 
special kindly feeling for the one 
who first tried to make you feel at 
home — who had " touched shoul- 
ders" with you. 

A writer in Mcrclumd{sr:ig Ad- 
vertising has just written a short 
little homily on the value of the 
"shoulder touch" and it is so good 
that we are impelled to pass it on 
to you : 

'"There is courage in the "shoul- 
der touch' — the inspiration that 
comes from contact with our fel- 
low-workers. If a man is natu- 
rally a brave, aggressive, competent 
worker, he is aroused to that cour- 
age of the strong for the weak. 
The spirit of help is in everybody 
more or less and comes out even in 
the selfish strong when they get the 
thrill that comes when somebody 
depends on them. 

"And for these weak ones, for 
the shoulder that leans — there is 
often salvation in somebody's help- 
ful touch. It gives courage — the 
courage that makes a man ashamed 
to be afraid. 

"This reminds me of the French 
soldier who said when somebody 
asked him what he carried in his 
basket: 'It is nothing — only a lettle 
of ze dvnamite — I blow ze stumps 

"And when he was asked if he 
were not afraid to do it, he said, 
'Pierre helps me.' You see, he had 
touched shoulders with Pierre. 

"There is efificiency in the 'shoul- 
der touch.' The same sort of efifi- 
ciency that gave rise to the old say- 
ing, ']\Iany hands make light work.' 
And not only light work but better 
work, faster work when there's that 
dynamic power of the 'pull to- 
gether." It is the spirit which gives 
you confidence in your fellow-man. 
As Bret Harte once said : 'You 
can't always tell by appearances. 
The surest shot in camp had only 
three fingers.' 

"The result of getting this spirit 
of the corps makes all the dififer- 
ence between work and drudgery. 
It is the 'shoulder-to-shoulder' joy 
in the work which has been the light 
at the end of every long tunnel in 
the history of business — the secret 
of past success and a shining guar- 
antee for the future." 



*C» AJM. we certainly sold a lot of 
O Kodaks and other cameras in 
December, and I am pretty sure the 
majority of them are going to be 
put to work in this town. 

'*When a customer comes in and 
buys a camera for his own use, we 
liave the opportunity to establish a 
personal relation with him, and 
treat him so well that he will be 
pretty apt to come back to us for 

"On the other hand, Sam, the 
majorit}- of the cameras sold for 
Christmas presents will go to per- 
sons with whom we have not this 
personal relation, and it seems to 
me that it is up to us to, in some 
manner, get them to feel that our 
store is just the place to come for 
things photographic. 

"New business, you know, Sam. 
is the life of every store, and liere 
is our chance to obtain a lot of new 

"I know that our business card 
went into every camera package we 
sold, but that is not enough, so I 
think, Sam, that we should devote 
some newspaper space to inviting 
the Christmas Kodakers to come 
in and get acquainted with us, and 
make our window displays back up 
this advertising. 

"What do you tliink ci the idea, 
Sam, of putting a good sized card 
in the window reading something 
like this: 


Ten Jilinutes 
with the "Boss 

" 'If you received a Kodak or 
other camera for Christmas, we 
hope you will come inside and get 
acquainted with us. We have every- 
thing for the amateur photographer 
and our experts are friendly sort 
of folks who will be only too glad 
to help you over your little difficul- 

"You see, Sam, I want to get 
away from anything savoring of 
the usual formal invitation, and 1 
want whoever reads this card to 
feel just as if some one of us were 
really talking to him. 

"It may sound a bit undignified. 
Sam, but it's friendly anyhow, and 
I have a suspicion that it will get 
folks into the store. 

"Then let's cut out the advertise- 
ments in Kodakcry or some other 
of the photographic magazines, of 
the various sundries, and mount 
each one on a card and put it in the 
window along with the article ad- 

"You see, Sam, all these tliing> 
will be new and of absorbing inter- 
est to the beginner, and so if he sees 
them in our window and gets the 
idea that we won't be a bit bored 
by his lack of knowledge and really 
want to help him get all the fun 
there is to be had out of picture 
making, he is pretty apt to open the 
door and come in. 

"Then the rest of it will be up to 
us, and that is the easiest part. 

"Why, Sam. the idea of slow busi- 
ness during the first months of the 
year in our line is simply prepos- 
terous with this big bumper crop 
of new enthusiasts cominsf aloner. 


"1 know. vSani, that we'll have to 
answer a heap of foolish questions 
and correct a lot of, to us, absurd 
errors but, Sam, anybody can ask 
me all the foolish questions he 
wants to when the answer is pretty 
apt to make the cash register bell 

"And here is another thing, Sam ; 
1 want all of our folks to pay par- 
ticular attention to our developing 
and printing orders. 

"When we deliver an order, Sam. 
the package should not just be 
handed to the customer, but the 
package should be opened and a 
quick glance given at the (juality of 
the work. 

"If we see that tiie work is that 
of a beginner, and that he has made 
some one of the common errors, we 
then have the opportunity to tact- 
fully suggest tlie proper remedy, 
and so ])ut the customer on the 
right track for good results next 

"On the other hand, if the results 
are good, a word of ])raise will 
warm the cockles of that amateur's 
heart : he will feel that you are a 
person of good judgment and will 
come back to you for more of the 
same, because we all like to be 

"It seems to me. Sam. that this 
season of the year afifords us op- 
l)ortunities unlimited to make new 
business, so let's <ret to it." 

They Tell a Lot 

Clothes don't make the man but 
thev tell a lot about him. 

John Raper, a newspaperman, 
tells how he once went to his tailor 
to try on a new suit of clothes. 

As he stood before the mirror he 
complained to the tailor that he did 
not like the fit of the coat. He was 
told that it was an exact duplicate 
of his previous suit, and that it had 
been fitted with exceptional care. 

"What you need, ^Ir. Raper, is a 
shave," said the tailor. 

Raper agreed to try the remedy, 
and as he started for the barber 
shop next door the tailor suggested 
that he also get his shoes shined. 

A half hour later he came back, 
tried on the suit, and said he was 
completely satisfied, that it looked 
as well as any suit he had ever had 

Tlie tailor then explained that 
this was not an isolated instance. 
He said he frequei>tly delayed let- 
ting his customers try on new 
clothes when they appeared with 
dusty shoes or faces. 

Some business men say that fif- 
teen extra minutes spent in brush- 
ing up in the morning will get them 
hcjme an hour earlier in the even- 
ing, meaning that they can work 
faster when they look and feel 
s]iick and span. 

"The man i^'ho tries tu buy Some men full heeaiise lliey liaie 

friendship seldom strikes a bar- /,, „^^^].^^ „se of the entire eaf^aeity 

of their head to correct the mis- 
lakes of their heart. 


,, 1 , ,, J t ■ ti Ibc reason so many promises are 

If \oii resolve to attend stnetly 
to business, be sure it is your o:en ^^oken is because new ones are .w 
business. easily made. 





THE customer inquires, "Can I 
use the same fixing bath that I 
have used for fixing negatives for 
the fixing of prints?" and you tell 
him that he can if he wants to but 
that he really should not, and then 
he comes back at you with "Why?"" 

Here is the reason : Negatives 
and prints should be fixed in sepa- 
rate fixing baths — so much for a 

The reason is that a fixing bath 
that is used exclusively for prints 
should always remain clear and 
colorless, while a bath that is used 
for fixing negatives will usually be- 
come discolored before it is ex- 

This is due to the fact that the 
developer is seldom completely 
washed out of the negatives before 
they are placed in the fixing bath. 
and is also due to the difference in 
the emulsions used for making film 
and paper. 

The unaltered silver the fixing 
process removes from a print does 
not show as a visible precipitate, 
while the silver the fixing process 
removes from a negative forms a 
black precipitate in the bath. 

A slightly discolored bath will 
not affect the quality of negatives. 
but it will almost always stain 


vr the'Beginner 
'Behind the Counter 

The fixing bath costs very little 
and can be used until exhausted. 

A one pound package of Kodak 
Acid Fi.xing Powders or a one 
pound package of hypo acidified 
with Velox Liquid Hardener will 
make sixty-four ounces of solution, 
in which two gross of 3^4 ^ 5^ 
prints can be fixed. 

Either of these baths can also be 
used for fixing negatives as long as 
it will clear the negatives inside of 
fifteen minutes. 

Always use separate baths for 
negatives and prints. Fixing prints 
in a bath that may stain tliem is 
poor economy. 

Whenever you deliver an order 
of prints that do not appear as 
brilliant as they should, ask the cus- 
tomer to allow )'ou to examine the 
lens of his camera, if he has it with 
him, and if you find it is dirty, ten 
to one you have the cause. 

No matter what the quality of 
the lens, if it is dirty it can not pro- 
duce brilliant negatives. 

Tell your customers of the im- 
portance of keeping the lens clean. 

A lens should never be touched 
with the fingers, and it should be 
examined frequently. 

Any dust that settles on the lens 
should be removed with a camel's 
hair brush and it should then 
be wiped gently — not with wash 
leather or paper — ^but with a clean, 
well worn, linen handkerchief that 
has become soft from repeated 


Alcohol, acid or any sort of pol- 
ishing material should never be 
used on a lens. 

A lens should never be unscrewed 
from the shutter unless the sur- 
faces inside the shutter have be- 
come soiled, and this rarely occurs. 

If the lens combinations are re- 
moved, care must be taken to re- 
])lace the combinations in their 
])roper place. 

If they are transposed the lens 
will probably be useless until the 
combinations have been placed 
where they belong. 

Likewise, a lens should never be 
removed from the cell or metal 
rings which hold it because it will 
take an expert to replace them 

Single lenses that are mounted 
behind the shutter are usually built 
into the camera and can not be re- 
moved. They may be cleaned, how- 
ever, by means of a piece of a 
handkerchief wrapped around the 
head of a small, soft, pencil shaped 
l)rush after the shutter has been 
opened as for a "time" exposure. 

Dirty lenses make flat pictures, 
and brilliant negatives can only be 
l)roduced with lenses that are clean. 

It is a far-reachiny irnth that 
very few things turn up of their 
07vn accord. Almost everythvng 
has to he dug up, has to be ivorkcd 
for, he it a job, advancement, suc- 
cess, money reward, or higJi posi- 

A real salesman has three re- 
sponsibilities — to his house, to him- 
self, and to the customer — and the 
most important of these is to the 
customer. Without him there could 
be no business. — Standard. 

Selling An Ideal 

In a recent issue of the People's 
Magazine there appeared an article 
on "What Lies Behind the Adver- 
tisement," written by Henry Pay- 
son Dowst, a well known author 
and advertising man. 

In his comments on advertising. 
Mr. Dowst remarks : 

"It will sell an ideal. Here is a 
case in point : 

"A famous and successful cor- 
poration not long ago ran a series 
of quite unusual advertisements 
that were not intended to sell mer- 
chandise. The sponsors of this 
campaign had full faith that the 
large expenditure involved would 
be well repaid in the form of good 
will on the part of millions of read- 
ers. This concern makes a product 
as familiar to you as your own 
name. Its slogans are as current in 
every household as the trenchant 
brevities of that prince of adver- 
tisers, Ben Franklin. Through a 
third of a century the company has 
been building up its vast interests 
and to-day employs upward of ten 
thousand persons. 

"In its great laboratories have 
been developed highly technical, in- 
tricate and costly devices and pro- 
cesses which are closely interwoven 
ill the very fabric of our civiliza- 
tion. It would be hard to mention 
any art or science unaffected by 
these processes. And in the hum- 
bler affairs of everyday life they 
])lay a part which, though often- 
times unobtrusive, is of vital im- 

"So, you see, this company is 
something of an institution, a very 
broad and useful institution, doing 
a big work. Its sponsors thought 
the public would be interested to 
know something of the results. 

'"Thirteen advertisements were 
prepared and run in magazines. It 



took nearly a year to perfect these 
advertisements. The cost of run- 
ning them was certain!}- not far 
short of two hundred thousand dol- 
lars. And they were not expected 
to sell a dollar's worth of merchan- 

"Here are some of the headlines: 

" 'They doubted Columbus, but 
believed Scott's photographs.' 

■' 'Jerusalem Regained.' 

" 'Mapping Alaska's Mountains 
with a Squeeze of a Bulb.' 

" 'Weighing Stars by Photog- 

"Doubtless you remember seeing 
tliem and caught the spirit of the 
message they were intended to con- 
vey — the tremendous usefulness of 
photography in science and art and 
the importance of one company's 
participation in its development. 

".\dvertising is. then, "big bu^i 
ness.' because it is capable of the 
broadest conceptions, because it de- 
mands and encourages men of 
clear, strong vision. The advertis- 
ing man works with elements, like a 
chemist. His elements are not 
alone words and pictures, type and 
paper ; they are the very elements 
and principles of human nature it- 


Luck in selling is m(_)^tly m}th. 
It is. indeed, hardly possible that 
there can be any such thing as so- 
called luck in salesmanship. As a 
general proposition, the best sales- 
men will have the best trade. 

True, these best salesmen must 
have their off days. The continu- 
ous grind demands relaxation. 
This is particularly true if business 
has been dull, because poor busi- 
ness has a depressing effect. A 
good business braces a man up and 


enables him to store his energy in 
reserve. Nothing exhausts the re- 
serve e n e r g y and enthusiasm 
(juicker and more effectively than 
a sudden tempting conviction that 
after all salesmanship is mere luck. 

Luck in selling is a very positive 
effect of a very definite cause. Mod- 
ern selling demands that the sales- 
man must be a trained selling argu- 
ment. We, on this continent, have 
realized this better, perhaps, than 
any other people. It was realized 
years ago, so that to-day selling is 
an exact science. Most of us can 
look back to the typical quack who 
completely within himself embraced 
the administrative force of selling, 
the advertising force and the man- 
ufacturing force, as well. He dis- 
posed of a wonderful headache 
remedy and he did not give it away, 
either. Neither did he have any 
so-called luck about disposing of it. 
Having previously made up a quan- 
tity of the harmless dope, and hav- 
iii(i "icorkrd up a perfect kuoivledge 
of its I'ciliic, he mounted a dr\- 
goods box on the corner and dis- 
tributed his products to all comers. 
Psychology was an unknown word 
to him and the princi]:)le> of sales- 
manship were items of which lie 
had no cognizance, but he was a 
trained selling organization within 
himself nevertheless, crude thougli 
effective, and he was in no wav in- 
oculated with htck. 

The one-armed newsboy, the 
hump-backed peddler, the tongue- 
tied bootblack and the double- 
chinned grocer, touched with bad 
luck, all secure patronage not so 
inuch in spite of their deficiencies 
as actually on account of them. — 

Fill out the "Kodakery" subscrip- 
tion Iilaiik. 


^ij ii^iiitiii^ir. fun \ 

J..I /' 


If you ask at the store for a Kodak 
camera, or Kodak film, or other Kodak 
goods and are handed something not of 
our manufacture you are not getting 
what you specified, which is obviously 
unfair both to you and to us. 

"Kodak" is our registered and 
common law trademark and cannot be 
rightly applied except to goods of our 

*Trademark: Any symho!, mark, name or orhe 
arbitrary imiication secured lo the I'ser by a Icyal regp<.tration, adopted 
and used, as hy a manufacturer or merchant to de'^ignate ihe goods 
he manuTacrures of sells and to distintjuish them from the goods of 
competitors. Standard Dktionary. 

If it isu V an Eastman, it isn V a Kodak. 





The man who believes the brick 
was thrown at some one else, 
but dodged it, is an optimist. 

WORK for advancement; 
work hard for it, but be 
fair about it. Do not be- 
come impatient or discouraged. 
It takes time to demonstrate 
fitness and abibty. People do not 
step into better paying positions 

Real ability, loyal service, and 
perseverance are bound to make 
themselves felt in your case just 
as it always has in the case of 

Work while you w^ork. 

Think It Over. 


as ~ 
be 5 

CLh ,^ 




an aia to the man aenina tne counted' 

Vol. 6 

MARCH, 1920 

No. 2 

Fifty Times 

If all the Kodakcry subscribers 
could be assembled iu conventiou it 
would be quite some gathering, as 
there are twenty-two thousand of 

Of this number about one thous- 
and have thought enough of the 
merits of the publication to pay for 
it after the expiration of their orig- 
inal subscription. 

A good many more — we do not 
know just how many — have re- 
newed their subscriptions by the 
purchase of another camera — and 
in this connection a good many 
Brownie users have graduated into 
the Special or Graflex class. 

Most of you realize how much 
help Kodakery has been in stimu- 
lating interest and sales. 

Xow it stands to reason that if 
one thousand Kodakers. without 
any urging, send in their money for 
subscriptions, that many thousands 
more would do so if the matter was 
brought to their attention. 

If we can get one thousand paid 
subscribers without any kind of a 
selling campaign, we can get manv 
thousands with your co-operation — 
and we purpose to do it with a 
good profit to your store. 

Our plan is not in an\- wav to 
interfere with the present method 
of sending Kodakcry free for one 
year to those purchasers of our 
amateur cameras who fill out and 

send in to us the subscription blank 
which is a part of every manual. 

There are thousands of amateur 
photographers in this country who 
are not entitled to Kodakery free 
under our otter. We want these 
people as paid subscribers. 

Kodakcry will be worth the 
money to them : it will be worth 
more money to your store and to 
us from an advertising standpoint 
if they pay for it. 

The plan is to make the subscrip- 
tion price sixty cents a year with a 
liberal discount to Kodak dealers 
who secure the subscriptions. And 
this will mean far more to you and 
\-our store than the profit on the 
subscription. It will mean that for 
every subscription you take, the lit- 
tle magazine will be stimulating in- 
terest for your store twelve times a 
year. It is because it has shown its 
worth under the original plan of 
distribution that w€ want to in- 
crease the subscription list even 
though such increase means a big 
added expense to us. For every 
dollar we receive from you on this 
otter, we will spend more than a 
dollar and a half in printing and 
mailing the magazine. 

Some sayer of business saws has 
remarked that "new customers are 
the hfe blood of business." True, 
but new customers cost so much to 
get that it is worth while to spend 
money to keep them — and we know 



of nothing we can do that will do 
more toward keeping alive their in- 
terest in photography than supply- 
ing the amateurs with an illustrat- 
ed monthly magazine that will help 
them make better pictures and con- 
stantly suggest to them new ways 
in which they can make their cam- 
eras add to their pleasure. 

Kodakcry sells film and sundries 
— frequently it makes the Brownie 
user a Kodak purchaser and the 
Kodak purchaser a Grafiex pur- 
chaser. It may not make many 
new customers, but it does increase 
the business from the old custo- 

We will send your store a few 
Kodakcry Paid Subscription Blanks. 
You can have more for the asking 
— or can send subscriptions direct 
on vour own store stationerv. 

When mankind is ruled by how 
much can I do, instead of how 
much can I get. the high-cost-of- 
living puzzle will be worked out. 

Change 'Em 

Ever}- day vn my way to work I 
pass the display window of a dealer 
in plumbing supplies. As far as I 
know the display has not been 
changed in ten years except for an 
added amount of dust. 

I don't suppose I would have 
ever noticed this window a second 
time except for the fact that I am 
interested in window displays, and 
so am a bit curious to see if it ever 
will be changed. 

In all probabilit}- the proprietor 
of this store figures that he does not 
have to depend u{X)n his window 
display for business, and perhaps 
he doesn't, as he has kept going. 

But I am wondering how much 
more he could have increased his 
business had he changed his dis- 


plays frequently and kept the glass 
clean and shining. 

Having only his display window 
to judge him by I gather that he i> 
of the old fogy type and that most 
of his stock dates back to the time 
of the Laurier administration. 

So when the Alissus asked me to 
procure some washers for the fau- 
cets in the kitchen sink I didn't go 
to him, and when we installed the 
new bathroom shower I never 
thought of his place. 

Now, most of you do pay a 
whole lot of attention to your dis- 
play windows because you know it 

Possibly, however, here is a little 
point you may have overlooked — 
and that is the right sort of atten- 
tiou to your counter display cases. 

Now I don't mean to insinuate 
that you do not keep these cases 
clean and their contents well ar- 
ranged, but do vou ever change the 
arrangement entirely ? 

Vou know if you associate with 
a cross-eyed man or one who stut- 
ters, you soon forget that these in- 
firmities exist. 

And this is so as regards your 
display ca>es with your regular 

They are in \our store frequently 
and have become thoroughly fa- 
miliar with your stock and its ar- 
rangement — so familiar, in fact, 
that if you do not make frequent 
and radical changes in your show- 
case dis])lays they iiez'cr see icliat 
is ill the III at all. 

Change the displays in the inside 
of the store as often as you do your 
windows so your regular customers 
can view them from a new angle. 
You'll find that they will see — and 
i^'aiif — many things that they really 
liadn't seen l)efore. 

Fill out the "Kodakery" sub- 
scription blanks. 


The Why of the Anastigmat and the Kodak 
Anastigmat in Particular 


Article II 

We now pass on to a considera- 
tion of the aberrations, as they are 
called. The aberrations which may 
exist in the lens are simply the 
errors or departures from theoret- 
ical perfection wliich always tend 
toward a decrease in the excellence 
of the definition. 

Dtie to the inherent proi)erties of 
the glass of which it is made a sim- 
ple collective lens does not behaye 
in the same wa_\- with respect to 
light of different colors. If one at- 
tempts, with such a lens, to focus 
upon a screen the image of a dis- 
tant white light, it will be found 
that the blue rays will not focus at 
the same point as the yellow rays 
but come to a focus at a point 
nearer the lens as shown in Figf. 2. 

chromatic correction. The elimina- 
tion of chromatic aberration in lens 
system was one of the earliest and 
most important achievements in 
optics. Photographically, it is of 
great moment and all modern an- 
astigmats are corrected in this way. 
In testing a lens for color correc- 
tion a point source of light is set up 
on the axis of the lens at a consid- 
erable distance from it. For our 
purpose we may consider the axis 
of a lens as an imaginary line pass- 
ing through the center of the lens 
perpendicular to the plane of the 
film. The color of this light can be 
varied at will throughout the spec- 
trum, that is from violet, through 
blue, green, yellow, orange and red. 
The light is made blue for instance 

focus |or 

I (ocas (or 
i yellow ray 5 

Fig. 2. Focusing Point tcir Different Ravs 

The green rays are focused at a 
point intermediate between the blue 
and yellow. The red rays are fo- 
cused at a point further from the 
lens than the yellow, and so on. 
Modern photographic objectives 
are comi>ounded of two or more 
kinds of glass in such a way as to 
largely eliminate this defect, the 
presence of which is detrimental to 
good definition. Such lenses are 
termed achromatic and the prop- 
erty of a lens by virtue of which 
this defect is eliminated is called its 

and its image as produced by the 
lens is carefully located by suitable 
instruments and the focal point for 
blue light is then known. The light 
is then changed to green and the 
image again found. In this way the 
foci for all the colors are located. 

Fig. 3 shows the color curve, as 
it is called, for a Kodak Anastig- 
mat working at /. 6.3. Suppose we 
take yellow-green as our standard 
color and call the focal length of 
the lens in question for this color 
100. Then to make the focai ieng^th 





























S J 





Fig. 3. 
Color Curve Kodak Anastigniat /. 6.3 

for the other colors comparable we 
must reduce them to this same 
scale. This has been done in the 
diagram where the lens is repre- 
sented as though its focal length 
were 100 mm. though the focal 
length of the actual lens tested mav 
have been 260 mm. for example. 
In showing the tests of lenses 
graphically they are all reduced to 
a focal length of 100 mm. as in the 
diagram, thus making all the tests 
directly comparable. 

The curve shows the focal points 
for the various colors from violet 
to red. This color curve is of the 
most modern type ; that is, it is best 
adapted to the general needs of the 
amateur and professional as well 
as to the requirements of the mili- 
tary photographer. There is also 
^hown in Fig. 3 a color curve of the 
older type which will be found in 
many of the lenses now on the mar- 
ket. The difference between these 
two curves, insignificant as it may 
seem on paper, is of great imjxirt- 


ance to the amateur and profes- 
sional and of vital moment to the 
aerial photographer. The newer 
type of color curve permits of the 
attainment of the best results on 
color sensitive plates while the older 
does not. 

Ordinary photographic plates are 
more sensitive to light in the region 
of the blue only and the older an- 
astigmats were designed with ref- 
erence to such plates. The human 
eye is far more sensitive to yellow- 
ish green light than to light of other 
colors such as blue or red. For 
this reason the photographer's judg- 
ment of focus upon the ground 
glass is made through the medium 
of the yellow-green light: that is, a 
lens correctly focused visually by 
means of a ground glass is focused 
for yellow-green light. Xow the 
ordinary photographic plate is sen- 
sitive to blue light only so that the 
f()cu> will not be correct for such a 
plate tmless the focal point of the 
lens for blue light coincides approx- 
imatel}- with the focal point for the 
yellow-green. It will be seen from 
the figure that the newer type of 
color curve fulfils this condition 
better than the older. 

When viewed from an airplane 
at any considerable altitude the 
earth almost always appears to be 
blanketed with a bluish haze of an 
intensit}' wliicli varies with weather 
conditions. This haze is nearly 
always heavy enough to interfere 
with visual observations and some- 
times is heavy enough to make 
them impossible. Fortunately, how- 
ever, modern developments have 
freed photography from a similar 
handicap. As stated above, the 
light coming to the eye or camera 
from this haze is bluish in color. 
Xow suppose we put over our pho- 
tographic lens a filter which will 
absorb the blue light, a \\Vatten K 
filter for instance. The blue light 


from the haze will be excluded 
from the camera and a good pho- 
tograph can be taken by means of 
the light of other colors which the 
filter allows to pass. Under such 
circumstances an orthochromatic 
plate is used. Orthochromatic plates 
are sensitive to green and yellow 
light as well as to blue so that in 
excluding the blue light by the filter 
it is still possible to obtain good 
photographs by means of the green 
and yellow light transmitted. Xow 
as the haze becomes heavier, as it 
does under certain conditions, the 
light from it is not only blue but 
contains some green and perhaps 
yellow. In order to eliminate this 
haze photographically it then be- 
comes necessary to put in front of 
the lens a filter excluding the blue, 
green and yellow and admitting 
only the orange and red. ^^'ith such 
a filter panchromatic plates must be 
used. Panchromatic plates are sen- 
sitive to light of all colors. With 
a suitable plate of this kind such as 
the Eastman Special Panchromatic, 
developed for the Air Service, it is 
possible in this way to take good 
photographs through haze, all but 
impenetrable to the eye. In this 
case the photograph is taken by 
means of the orange and red Hght 
only. A lens to be successfully used 
with ordinary blue sensitive plates, 
with orthochromatic plates and a K 
filter for example, and with pan- 
chromatic plates and a filter admit- 
ting the red and orange light only, 
must have within limits a common 
focal point for all colors from blue 
to red. It will now be seen from 
Fig. 3 that the newer type of color 
curve means a much closer approx- 
imation to these conditions than 
does a color curve of the older 

The vital importance of these 

Uiings to the aerial photographer 
during the great war will be real- 
ized when it is pointed out that this 
difference in color curve often cor- 
respond- to the difference between 
sharp photographs of the greatest 
use to the interpreters and fuzzy 
pictures which are useless from a 
military point of view. With a 
lens of the newer type as in Fig. 3 
and with the correct plate and filter, 
it was possible for our observers, at 
an altitude of 15.000 feet or more, 
entirely invisible from below, to 
take photographs of Hun opera- 
tions which, due to the presence of 
haze, were being executed in fan- 
cied secrecy. 

To the amateur photographer 
also this matter of color correction 
is of interest. Orthochromatic film 
and plates are becoming widely 
used on account of their better ren- 
dition of color values. Everyone 
knows the much more pleasing re- 
sults attainable with these materials 
on subject.- >uch as a summer land- 
scape with a sky dotted with fleecy 
clouds and a foreground rich in 
brilliant colors. For even better 
color rendition the amateur and 
professional are making use of pan- 
chromatic plates and a series of fil- 
ters adapted to the work in hand. 
In such instances it is of great im- 
portance to have a lens which cart 
be relied upon to give sharp pic- 
tures with filters from the lightest 
yellow to the deepest red. Kodak 
Anastigmats are corrected in this 
way. It was imperative that lenses 
so corrected be supplied for use in 
the air in the great war and now, in 
time of peace, it is a source of grati- 
fication to know that Kodak .Anas- 
tigmats have been painstakingly 
given a color correction which 
adapts them equally well to use 
with materials of all sorts from the 
ordinary plate to the most red sensi- 
tive panchromatic. 



M( )ST of yon have heard the 
story of the traveling man who 
wrote his firm — 'Dear Firm : En- 
closed please find orders ; I can't.' 

"When all is said and done it is 
only the orders — sales — that connt 
in the life of the salesman- — and it 
often takes more than good mer- 
chandise and right prices. 

"To get at what 1 mean, take 
your own experiences as a pur- 
chaser. What influenced you to go 
back to any store the second time, 
and why do you patronize certain 
particular places in preference to 
others of equal character? 

"In the majority of cases you 
will find that it is because you like 
some particular salesman. 

"The same salesman has sold me 
clothing for years, because the first 
time I went to him he seemed really 
interested in providing me with ex- 
actly what I needed, and he has 
jnaintained this interest ever since. 

"I have bought shoes at another 
store ever since I have been in the 
town because a salesman there took 
•extra pains to fit my feet the first 
lime I paid the store a visit. 

"When I want to put in a long 
distance telephone call I go to a 
certain operator because she is al- 
ways agreeable and puts my call 
through in a hurr}'. 

"Possibly one of the reasons she 
gets her calls through in a hurry is 
because she is pleasant to the oper- 
ators along the line. 

"Before a certain July the first I 


used to — hut why dwell too long in 
the past. 

"When I first went on the road I 
was given a list of the buyers in my 
territory and some hints regarding 
their peculiarities, and there were 
quite a few tough nuts on the list. 

"In time I found ways of getting 
to most of the tough ones and sell- 
ing them. 

".\.nd in selling goods from be- 
hind the counter I don't see much 
difiference in the various classes of 
customers and I honestly believe 
that you can make the crankiest 
one come back to you because he 
or she wants to, if you try hard 

"But you have got to want to 
try; that is the real test of sales- 
manshij) ; the dividing line between 
clerk and salesman. 

"1 don't mean by this that the 
sole requirements of a salesman 
are courtesy and a willingness to 
])lease ; it must naturally include a 
full knowledge of his goods. 

"lUit you may be the best posted 
man on your line in the trade, but 
you won't get far without the other 
two essentials. 

"It sometimes takes quite a bit of 
resourcefulness to get on the right 
side of a cranky customer. When 
I was on the road there was a cur- 
rent story about a traveling man 
who sent in his card to a buyer. 
The buyer threw the card into the 
waste basket and told the office boy 
to tell the traveler that he couldn't 
see him. 

"The office boy took out the mes- 
sage, whereupon the traveler de- 
manded his card back. The office 


boy saw the buyer and returned 
with five cents to pay for the card. 

"The traveHng man pocketed the 
nickel, took out another card and 
told the office boy to take it into the 
boss as his cards were two for five 
cents. The buyer saw the joke 
and invited the traveler in. 

"I once had a very austere 
maiden lady for a customer ; I was 
almost afraid to smile when greet- 
ing her for fear she would take of- 

"Her photographic attempts were 
atrocious, and she almost invari- 
ably came in with a big handful of 
prints for me to examine. 

"The first couple of times I at- 
tempted to admire them, partly be- 
cause I was a bit afraid of her lady- 
ship, and partly because I thought 
that was what she wanted. 

"The next time she came in with 
a bunch of prints I did a lot of 
thinking, and so 1 told her frankly 
that I thought she was capable of 
turning out a whole lot better work 
and pointed out several difi^erent 
ways whereby it could he improved. 

"For the first time I saw her 
smile. 'Young man, I've been hunt- 
ing all over this blessed city trying 
to find someone who would tell me 
how to make better pictures. I 
know my stufif is simply awful, but 
no one has ever before seemed to 
give me credit for having even that 
much intelligence." 

"She had an amj^le bank roll to 
back up her desires, and from then 
on was one of my best customers 
and boosters. 

- "The way to boost sales is to 
know your goods; know yourself 
well enough to conceal any natural 
dislikes for a customer, and to 
make the customer feel that you 
can and will be of real service." 

The Window Display 

To be perfectly frank, we did not 
expect a big rush of entries for our 
monthly \\'indow Display Competi- 
tion for FeJjruary and we cannot 
deny that the weather has been 
peculiarly unfavorable to most of 
you for photographing displays ; in 
fact, in quite a number of cases it 
is more than likely that windows 
have been more or less frozen up. 

Those entries which we did re- 
ceive were under these circum- 
stances, h a r d 1 y representative, 
neither was the standard of merit 
l^articularly high, when considered 
from the viewpoint of what consti- 
tutes a good presentment of a sell- 
ing idea. 

Dne fault was particularly appar- 
ent. We refer to the tendency to 
crowd the disj^lay. A large number 
of goods in the window may. if the 
beholder is sufficiently interested, 
attract attention ; but it leaves him 
to formulate the desire to purchase. 
A good display ought to help to 
create such a desire. 

In the circumstances the judges 
declined to make an award. The 
Competition is again open this 
month and we are looking forward 
to a larger number of entries. 

To recapitulate the conditions in 
brief, we offer an award of twenty- 
five dollars each month for a photo- 
graph of the best window display of 
photographic goods. 

Entries for the month will be re- 
ceived up to and including the 
twentieth of the month ; entries re- 
ceived after that date will be in- 
cluded with the entries received for 
the following month. 

We reserve the right to withhold 
the award any month when the en- 
tries do not come up to our stand- 
ard, or W'hen they are too few in 
number to make a fair test. 



Technical Knowledge 

Commenting on the encourage- 
ment of acquiring practical techni- 
cal knowledge by the photographic 
salesman, a writer in the Plioto- 
qraphic Dealer remarks: 

"The presence or absence of 
technical knowledge on the part of 
the customer or salesman is very 
noticeable — in effect — in the finish- 
ing department. Its presence facil- 
itates a smooth, even flow of work, 
free of chance jobs, and otlier knot- 
ty problems. Enlarging orders, 
treatment of negatives, complaints 
and queries, all afford opportuni- 
ties for technical knowledge to 
show to advantage. 

"A few actual cases of its ab- 
sence may make this clear. 

"A customer gave an order for a 
10x12 enlargement from a lA 
film. The subject a sea shore snap 
showing two figures situated almost 
at each end of the negative. 

"The order was booked and 
passed on to the finishing depart- 
ment. When it reached the en- 
larger he was confronted with the 
following problem : 

"Did the customer require a 
straight 10 x 12 — which was impos- 
sible — or a 7x12. which was not 
exactly what he ordered. Dare he 
— the enlarger — cut off' either end 
of the picture to make a 10x12? 
If so, which end? Dare he add to 
the sky? Almost certainly one or 
the other end, or perhaps the sky. 
was of paramount importance to 
the customer and, therefore, the 
rest of the negative might be sacri- 
ficed to make a picture, but to find 
out the facts would mean starting 
i'^quiries and delaying the work in- 
stead of getting it done. 

"He could, of course, use his own 
discretion, wliich might or might 
not coincide witli the customer's 


"Had the salesman considered 
the technical possibilities of the 
negative, the vague order for an 
impossible 10 x 12 might have been 
a quite feasible 9x15 or 13x20. 
or a pictorial enlargement of any 
size or shape. 

"I have known negatives to be 
sent in for intensifying, and others 
for reducing, which could be spoiled 
only by the treatment ordered. 

" 'Rrick-wair negatives, and ura- 
nium-toned films are received for 
developing out prints. (The neces- 
sarv exposure mav be half an hour 
with a 1,000 C. P'. Lamp). 

"Thin, washy negatives are sent 
in for >()ft bromide, or i)erhaps. 
sepia prints. 

"A purchaser of an expensive 
camera once complained that his 
negatives were never sharp, in 
spite of careful focusing. 

"He was asked to call back in a 
few days — meanwhile his camera 
was sent to the factory to be tested. 
-\ skilled man wasted an hour but 
could find no fault. 

"He concluded from the nega- 
tives that they had been taken glass 
side to the lens, which happened to 
be correct. The salesman should 
have been able to settle the matter 
on the spot, and saved time and 
annoyance all around." 

Vou naturally can not expect the 
beginner salesman to know all these 
things, but he should lose no time 
in acquiring all the technical knowl- 
edge .possible to absorb, because it 
means so much in every way as a 
stepping stone to his success. 

If your rewards don't come as 
fast as vou think they should, re- 
member that life, while relatively 
short, is vet long enough to enable 
\o\\ to wait. Furthermore, what 
would you do if everything had al- 
readv been done? You've still got 
time. Go ahead. — U^arde's Words. 


Goods Well Displayed Are 
Half Sold 

If your windows are worth some- 
thing to the Y. M. C. A. ^Minstrels 
and other local instittitions for ad- 
vertising purposes, surely they are 
worth more to you who depend 
upon the sale of merchandise for 
your success. 

Even though you cannot obtain 
the services of a trained window 
trimmer, at least you can keep your 
window clean and change the goods 
displayed frequently. 

The secret of good window trim- 
ming is to keep the display as sim- 
ple as possible, ^'ou'll agree there 
is nothing pleasing from the stand- 
point of attractiveness in a pawn 
shop window. One article neatly 
displayed will attract more people's 
attention than several dumped pro- 
miscttously into the window. 

Change the display frec[uently, 
showing not more than three or 
four articles at a time. If you use 
a background or floor covering, 
avoid the use of clashing colors. 
Stick to one if possible and ne\t'r 
use crepe paper or cloth with a 
large design, which only serves to 
confuse the observer and attract 
his attention from the display itself. 
.\lways choose a pleasing and har- 
monizing color for trim which will 
accentuate the value of the object 
displayed. For example, note the 
window displays of the liigh grade 
jewelry stores. There vou will find 
some bit of jewelry or a precious 
stone very neatly arran.ged in a 
background of a most harmonizing 
color, usually a black or grey, sel- 
dom do you find more than one 
kind of article shown. Here, though, 
you seldom find the same display 
for more than three days. Did you 
ever see windows that attract 
greater attention ? 

Rear in mind in displaying acces- 
sories that the majoritv of people, 
even though not mechanicalh' in- 

clined, have a keen desire to see 
how things are made. If the art- 
icle shown is of a mechanical na- 
ture, try and show the construction. 
There are few of us who have yet 
outgrown the age where we like to 
take a watch apart to see how it 

If you are showing an article 
that possibly cannot be shown in 
detail, at least print a few cards 
telling how well it is made or how 
simple is its construction. 

Las.tly remember you pa}' a good 
rent for your display window. Make 
it show a profit, at any rate use it 
to display your wares and not cob- 
webs or year-old posters. — Silz'er 

"Kodakery" for April 

Frecjuently the amateur snaps 
some landscape bit wherein the 
clouds in the sk}- add much to its 

His negative show> the cli^uds 
but the resulting print is often a 
disappointment because the clouds 
do not seem to priiT^ as thev should. 
The firi^t article in the April 
issue of Kodakcry tells just how to 
print so the clouds in the negative 
will record in fttU value. 

This number also contains a 
mightv interesting illustrated home 
portraiture story an.d is followed by 
one of equal interest on the tise of 
the Kodak Portrait Attachment. 

■■-Making a Kodak Biography" 
will appeal to everyone with a 
youngster in the family, and the 
illustrations accompanying it will 
be a big incentive to go and do 

Several other interesting and in- 
structive articles round out the 

Read it carefull\' as there are lots 
of good pointers for the salesman 
in it and it will al^o help you to 
remember to fill out the subscrip- 
tii in l)lanks. 




(QiAAI, how many of our people do 
ij you suppose ever give a thought 
as to just why this store exists and 
has been a success ? 

"I presume that after the first 
strangeness has worn oft' that the 
average employee considers the 
store merely as a place where he 
has to spend so many hours a day, 
and to do a certain .amount of work 
for a certain amount of money. 

"The store and stock arrange- 
ment become so much a matter of 
course that he scarcely sees them, 
and so fails to consider or see 
where anything might be done to 
further the business. 

"I presume. Sam, that in a way 
this is only natural : they may not 
feel that it is up to them to see or 
to suggest any methods for im- 
provement, or possibly that we 
might resent any suggestions. 

"_Uist the same, Sam. I like to 
feel that everyone on the payroll is 
interested in the store as an institu- 
tion and not merely as a place to 

'"It helps a lot. Sam, when you 
can get every employee to realizing 
that the success of a business does 
not depend upon any particular de- 
partment, or any one person, but 
upon the harmonious working-to- 
gether spirit. 

■'The boys behind tlie counters 
may sell a lot of goods, but if the 
boys in the shipping room' are 
careless in packing or slow in get- 


Ten J\iinutes 
with the "Boss 

ting out the goods, the whole busi- 
ness suffers. 

"Whoever has to sweep the side- 
walks, clean the windows and dust 
the fixtures may not feel that his 
work is important, but if these 
things were not done properly, it 
would reflect on the whole store. 

"If goods were not purchased in- 
telligently, letters answered prompt- 
ly, and the books accurately kept, 
everybody from the errand boys up 
would suft'er accordingly. 

"1 don't care how big or how 
small the job is, it is always of im- 
portance as related to the store as 
a whole. 

''I don't know whether you saw^ 
it or not, Sam. Init a week or so 
ago a man came in accompanied by 
a dog; this dog was one of the 
wagging tail kind, and he, in his 
tour, wagged his way through the 
stock of tripods standing on the 
floor and they toppled all four ways 
for Sunday. 

"One of the stock boys happened 
to be waiting for some goods to 
come up, and, though it wasn't his 
job, he hopped over and straight- 
ened them up again. 

"It may just have been an in- 
stinctive love of orderliness, but I 
like to think, Sam,' that he did it be- 
cause he was interested in the store. 

"I may not seem to notice all 
these little happenings. Sam, nor 
can I always stop to commend 
them, but I know pretty well every- 
one here who takes a real interest 
in things. 

"T remember a good many years 
ago when I was employed by a big 


department store, I was going 
through the store with the Presi- 
dent of the concern, and as we 
passed down an aisle a woman cus- 
tomer unwrapped a parcel and 
dropped the paper on the floor ; a 
cash boy standing near promptly 
picked up the waste paper. 

"The boss stopped. '\\'ho told 
you to pick up that paper?" he 
asked. 'AMiy. nobody, sir.' replied 
the youngster. A week or so later 
I found this boy in the office of the 
boss as his private messenger — so 
you see things are noticed. 

"Of course in the movies. Sam, 
the young man who alwa}-s does 
just the right thing and always safe- 
guards his boss' interests, eventual- 
ly marries the lovely daughter of 
friend Boss and succeeds to the 

■'It (loc'>n"t necessarih' follow that 
this is what always happens in real 
life. Sam. but the chap who takes a 
broad view of his job and of the 
house employing him will never get 
the worst of it. 

''The employee who takes a real 
interest in everything that pertains 
to the store's workings is bound to 
take the same interest in tlic custo- 
mers' welfare, and the customer 
very soon senses it. This accounts. 
Sam. for the large personal follow- 
ing of a good many salesmen you 
know, and possibly quite a bit for 
the reason of vour own success." 

If some photographic problem 
puzzles you, write us — our staff of 
experts is always at your service. 

Play for Repeats 

The majority of salesmen selling 
Kodaks and photographic supplies 
handle a number of other lines as 

Practical!} all of these other 
goods require a certain amount of 
knowledge and experience on the 
part of the salesman to sell success- 
fully, but none, perhaps, demand as 
much knowledge as is necessary in 
the selling of photographic goods. 

It will pay the salesman to ac- 
(juire all the photographic knowl- 
edge he can for this reason. 

When he sells a man a hand sled, 
a pair of skates or a hammer, he 
is practically through with that par- 
ticular customer for a long time to 
come, but when he sells a camera 
his relations with that customer 
have just begun. 

If he has sold the camera intelli- 
gently and impressed the customer 
that he understands photographic 
goods and their use, and that he is 
willing to pass out this information 
cheerfully, he will find the custo- 
mer coming back to him weekly, or 
oftener. for the other jjhotograjihic 

This does not mean that you 
should neglect to inform yourself 
fully regarding any and all lines of 
merchandise you are reqtiired to 
sell, but that it will pay you, and 
yotir store, to post yourself fully 
on the Kodak line and amateur 
photography in general, because the 
Kodak enthusiast is the best repeat 
customer you have — and it is the 
re|)eat sales that count in business 

Fill in the ''Kodakery" 
Forms — both kinds 
(See page 3). 

Keep your head, think with it for 
yourself, be game, and your batting 
average is bound to rise. 



vr the'Beginner 
behind the Counter 

IF some of the old timers should 
pause to read this column they 
might smile a gentle smile and say 
to themselves, "This stuff is not for 
me" — and neither is it intended for 
you. sir — unless you have failed to 
keep yourself posted. 

One of the first things the be- 
ginner in selling Kodak goods 
should do is to post himself thor- 
oughly on every sundry carried in 

For instance, a customer notes 
that there are three different models 
of the Kodak Metal Tripod and 
wants to know which one to select 
for use with his particular camera. 
Can you tell him right oft" the reel 
the difference and hand him the 
one best adapted to his needs? 

Suppose, again, he says he doesn't 
like to use his tripod on hardwood 
floors because the spurs mar the 
floor or slip. Do you just sympa- 
thize with him, or do you know 
your stock well enough to recom- 
mend him an R.O.C. Tripod truck 
to overcome this diff'iculty? 

The actual sale of any particular 
sundry is not much in itself, but if 
it helps the customer to attain bet- 
ter results, or affords greater con- 
venience, you have made a friend 
for yourself and your store. 

You can emplo}- an hour or so to 
most excellent advantage by study- 
ing the various catalogues and post- 
ing yourself thoroughh- on everv 


Don't overlook the fact that a 
very great number of amateurs are 
not familiar with the catalogues 
and so do not know of the many 
conveniences to be had. 

Some beginner becomes im- 
pressed with the important part 
correct temperature plays in de- 
velopment and wonders just how 
he can maintain the proper degree. 
The ordinary house thermometer is 
not exactly suited to the purpose 
and so he asks you how about it. 
If yon are posted you reach in the 
sundry case and bring out the East- 
man Thermometer for tank devel- 
opment and the Thermometer Stir- 
ring Rod ; you tell him the Eastman 
Thermometer is especially designed 
for tank development but can be 
used equally well for tray develop- 
ment while the dual use of the 
Thermometer Stirring Rod is obvi- 

Again, a beginner shows you a 
Ixmch of prints that have been 
trimmed with a ])air of scissors. 
Xow he would like to have nice 
true edges and wonders how he can 
get them. Strangel_\- enough, he 
doesn't know that there are such 
things as trimming boards — but 
}'ou do, and you show him one and 
how easily it works — well, he won't 
be happy till he has one. 

Perhaps he has developed a few 
rolls of film and pinned them up — 
or attempted to pin them up. for 

He feels sure that there must be 
^ome more convenient wav but he 


just hasn"t happened to hear of 
rtlin cHps ; he tells you of his trou- 
bles and you show him the various 
clips for the purpose. 

He may want to make some 
glossy \>lox prints with the high- 
est possible finish. He dries them 
in the ordinary manner and is not 
satisfied because he has never heard 
of a ferrotype plate and how to use 

So once more he asks you. and 
you show him a ferrotype plate and 
liow to place his wet prints on the 
surface of it and make them ad- 
here by using a squeegee or print 
roller to remove the surface moist- 

Or. perhaps through inexperi- 
ence, he has been a bit careless in 
dusting his printing frame and. as 
a result, his prints show a number 
'I white specks. He would like to 
get rid of these specks but doesn't 
know how. 

He asks you how it is that when 
he has his prints finished for him 
that they don't have these specks — 
and you tell him how all prints are 
spotted where necessary, and you 
show him a set of Eastman Spot- 
ting Colors and how they are used. 

Xow. all this may be "old stufif" 
to the experienced salesman or to 
you. but it is of mucli importance 
just the same. 

Study the sundry items : learn 
what they are for. and how to use 
them — and how to sell them intelli- 

li you don't know and the be- 
ginner doesn't know, it's a sad case. 

Stud\- the sundries. 

Read "Fifty Times" on page 3 
over again. 

The Sequel of Careless 

A number of unhappy conse- 
quences follow the making of care- 
less figures on sales checks but a 
customer of this store presents an- 
other phase of the subject. Put 
yourself in her place and then see 
how kindly and clearly she has told 
us of a practice that has put her to 
inconvenience several times. 

Messrs Strawbridge & Clothier. 
Gentlemen : 

Permit me to call your attention to an 
error often made in taking an address of 
a purchaser whose house number is one 
where a figure 5 precedes a figure 1. 
You can readily see how easy it is in 
completing the figure 5 to make a com- 
plete 7 of the 1, by letting the top of the 
5 unite with the top of the figure 1. 

During the recent holiday season an 
inexperienced boy (helper") brought a 
paid package to my door. I told him it 
did not belong to me but he said "It is 
marked 516 Blank Street" and insisted 
that I take it in. I answered "'Xo, it 
does not belong here ; you try 576 Blank 
Street, it ma}- belong there for the fig- 
ures are not just true."' 

This mistake has been made a number 
of times to our inconvenience and if this 
will help to guard against mistakes in 
the future I shall not regret calling your 
attention to the cause of some wrong 
addresses. Trusting this will reach the 
right department of your store. 
Sincerely vours, 

"Mrs. E. C. S. 

This customer's sttggestion has 
been properly acknowledged in a 
letter to her and now let's mind 
our P's and Q's." or. more strictly 
speaking, our 5's and I's. — Store 

An empty show window is like 
an unmined ton of ore; it has no 
value. Intelligent labor makes it 
an irresistible selling force. In the 
interest of production make your 
show window a sales producer. — 
The Loop. 



Ten Don'ts 

Julius Alentzel is a salesman — a 
hig-hly successful one — for a busi- 
ness specialty. He has to go out 
and dig up his customers and sell 
them a fairly high priced article 
that at the beginning most of them 
feel that they can get along with- 

Like all successful salesmen, Mr. 
Mentzel pursues a definite line of 
action, and has jotted down in the 
Protcctograph Bulletin for the ben- 
efit of some of the younger sales- 
men in his line ten "don'ts" in sell- 
ing. As they apply equally well to 
your proposition we pass them 
along to you : 

"Don't he Timid: Vou have some- 
thing to sell that you don't have to 
be ashamed of : You represent the 
largest and most reputable concern 
in the world in its line : Uphold the 
dignity of this institution. 

"Don't be afraid of tvork: It is as 
easy to acquire the work habit as 
the swivel chair habit. Get the work 

"Don't lose your nerz'e: The 
brainiest men in the world say 'lose 
everything you have, even your 
shirt, but keep your nerve.' I have 
gone several days without a sale, 
but my average was there at the 
end of the week. Hard knocks 
may be discouraging but surmount- 
ing them is good exercise. 

"Don't argue: You may win your 
argument but sure as fate you'll 
lose your sale. Get the habit of 
convincing a man without arguing. 
Remember the wisdom of Solomon, 
'A soft answer turneth away wrath.' 

"Don't appear careles'sly dressed: 

A clean collar, a shave, shined 
shoes, cost very little even in these 
H. C. L. times. Appear prosperous. 
Nothing succeeds like success. But 
be careful that your wearing ap- 
parel does not attract more atten- 
tion than your sales talk. 

"Don't knock: There is a way of 
expounding the merits of your own 
proposition which will automatical- 
ly win out. We get a great deal of 
advertising through our competi- 
tors playing the 'Anvil Chorus.' 

"Don't speak i'.i harsh, shrill or 
rdsping tones: If your speaking 
voice is not pleasant try to cultivate 
a pleasantness of tone. It's half 
the battle in retaining interest in 
selling. Take special notice of 
voices that please you and try to 
imitate them. 'The voice with the 
smile wins.' 

"Don't have everything to say: 
Remember a good salesman is one 
part speech and nine parts judg- 
ment. Cultivate being a good lis- 
tener as the occasion presents it- 

"'Don't display temper: It is true 
that there are times that patience 
ceases to be a virtue, but it is well 
to remember that anyone may ha- 
bitually become unbalanced by tem- 
per, but it takes the diplomat to re- 
main calm and maintain composure 
at all times. The most dangerous 
fighter is always the one who never 
gets rattled. 

"Don't arouse antagonism: Ask 
no questions and make no state- 
ments calling for negative replies. 
Plan your words so that each an- 
swer will be an agreement or the 
word 'Yes.' You then have your 
prospect thinking your way." 

Twentij-jive Dollars Award for the Photograph 
of the Best Windoxv Display of Photographic Goods 

(See Page .0) 


Good citizenship is a duty. Sim- 
ply being an inhabitant of a 
place does not fill the bill 

— Delco Bearings. 

The History of a Word 

^ I ^HE trade-iiKirk "Kodak was first applied, 
-*- in 1888, to a camera luaniifactiired by the 
Kodak Company and intended for aniatenr nse. 
It had no "derivation." It was simply inven- 
ted — made np from letters of the alphabet to 
meet onr trade-mark reqnirements. 

It was short and enphonions and likely to 
stick in the pnblic mind, and therefore seemed 
to ns to be admirably adapted to use in ex- 
ploiting our new product. 

It was, of course, imniedi- 
atel\- registered, and so is ours, 
both b}- such registration and 
by common law. Its first ap- 
plicatirn was to the Kodak- 
Camera. Since then we have 
appliefl it t.) other goods cf 
our manufacture, as, for in- 
stance. Kodak Tripods, Kodak 
Portrait Attachments, Kodak 
Fihn, Kodak Film Tanks and 
Kodak Amateur Printers. 

The name "Kodak" does 
nut mean that these goods 
must be used in connection 
with a Kodak Camera, for as 
a matter of fact any of them 
may be used with other ap- 

paratus or goods. It simply 
means that they originated 
with, and are manufactured 
by, the Kodak Companies. 

■"Kodak" being our regis- 
tered and common law trade- 
mark, can not be rightly ap- 
plied except to goods of our 

If \-ou ask at the store for 
a Kodak Camera or Kodak 
Film, or other Kodak goods 
and are handed something 
not of our manufacture, 
you are not getting what you 
specified, which is obviously 
unfair both to yoti and to 

// it isn't (111 Eastuian. it isn't a Kodak. 





^^The reason some men never 
get ahead is because they have 
too many irons in the fire and 
don^t keep any of them hot/' 

TIIK customer who c'oiii])laiiis 
is actually doing you a favoi\ 
and the very fact that he 
complains proves that, unconscious- 
ly, he has your interest, as well as 
his own, at heart. Wouldn't you 
prefer that he complained rather 
than that he should (juit you cohW 
The man who complains icaut.s 
to do business with you, provided 
you will meet him half way. The 
man who doesn't complain stays 
away from you, and, without any 
deliberate intention of being mean, 
he simply relates his experiences to 
his friends."" 

— The J'oice of the J'ictor. 

Two Good Display Suggestions from Abroad (See Page 3) 


an aia to tne man aenina the counteT- 

Vol. 6 

APRIL, 1920 

No. 3 

Effective Window Displays 

Very effective window displays 
can be made with comparatively 
little material, and with but a mini- 
mum of effort if the plan is care- 
fully thought out beforehand. 

We reproduce in this connection, 
photographs of two displays re- 
ceived from abroad which demon- 
strate this contention perfectly. 

The selling idea behind display 
number one is Kodak Snap Shots 
of your Children, and Kodak Pic- 
tures for Home Decoration. You 
will note that while this display car- 
ries out the idea clearly that there 
is not a camera of any sort in the 

Eight simpl}- framed pictures 
and a few albums form the base of 
the display. 

The panelled screen is easy to 
construct, the flowers are obtainable 
anywhere, and any sign writer can 
make display cards similar to the 
ones used in this display. 

The screen in this display was 
covered with brown canvas paper 

with a border of flat gilt studded 

The second display makes use of 
but a single Kodak, yet its atten- 
tion value is very great. This dis- 
play is, perhaps, a bit more difficult 
to install as the pleating in the cen- 
ter panel takes a bit of time and 

The cards in the side panels fea- 
ture the slogan, "Take a Kodak 
with you ;" motoring, vacations, 
week-end parties, up the river, and 
other out-of-door good times. 

This same slogan also appears on 
the oval on which the Kodak is 

The framed pictures are dupli- 
cates of two on view at a local pho- 
tographic exhibition. It is to be re- 
gretted that the half-tone process 
does not permit of these details 
showing with greater clearness. 

The award in the Window Com- 
petition for ^larch goes to H. A. 
Jones, Raymond Mercantile Co.. 
Raymond. Alta. 

The Competitions are now dis- 
continued for the time being. 

Every additional suhscriptio7i to "Kodakerif" means 
more business. 

Fill out the subscription blanks. 


The Why of the Anastigmat and the Kodak 
Anastigmat in Particular 


Article III 

There are optical errors or aber- 
rations other than those mentioned 
in Article II which are of equal 
importance from the standpoint of 
both war and peace time use. Sup- 
pose we focus on a screen by means 
of a simple collective lens the 
image of a distant point of light 
which emits one color only, say yel- 
low. Suppose further that this point 
of light is located on the axis of the 
lens, which is an imaginary line 
passing through the center of the 
lens and the center of tlie plate. It 

rays \vxi\ disrinf 

115'nr onaris 
o|- l^ns 

by virtue of which axial rays pass- 
ing through it at different distances 
from the axis are focused at differ- 
ent points on the axis, is called 
spherical aberration — spherical be- 
cause an aberration of this sort is 
an inherent property of a spherical 
refracting surface. The amount of 
spherical aberration can be changed 
by altering the shape of the lens ; 
that is. by altering the radii of curv- 
ature of the surfaces. In a photo- 
graphic objective made up of sev- 
eral simple lenses it is possible, by 


will be found that the smallest 
image that can be obtained is not a 
point but a small disc. In other 
words, the image of a point of Hght 
formed by such a simple lens is not 
a point but a small area. This is 
due to the fact that the rays of light 
passing through the outer portions 
of the lens are bent more than 
those passing through the lens in 
the region near its center. The 
central rays are collected at A, Fig. 
4, while the rays going through the 
lens near its edge are focused at B. 
Rays passing through the lens at 
points intermediate between the 
axis and the periphery are focused 
at points intermediate between A 
and B. The best image will be 
somewhere between A and B as in- 
dicated. This property of a lens 

properly designing it, to eliminate 
to a large extent this spherical ab- 
erration. The designer may decide 
that he will have the central rays 
and the rays passing through the 
objective three-fourths the distance 
from the axis to the periphery focus 
at the same point. If this is done 
other rays will not be focused at 
exactlv the same point as the cen- 
tral rays and the rays three-fourths 
out. but will show shght departures 
as in the diagram. Fig. 5. The 
magnitude of these departures, 
among other things, determines the 
size of the image of a distant point 
of light as produced by the objec- 
tive. The better the spherical cor- 
rection the smaller such an image. 

When a lens is tested, the image 
of a distant p^int source of light is 


Tuys from distanC ^^.c 
|jei«fi«u.Tw q(- 

r=^ 111 it. 4 Ur.« 

tit ^roY 

•Ig. .-. 

examined and its diameter on the 
focal plane observed with a micro- 
scope. Since objects which are to 
be photographed may be thought of 
as made up of a series of points, it 
will be seen that the sharpness of 
the image of such objects as pro- 
duced by the lens will depend, 
among other things, upon its spher- 
ical correction. 

Now suppose that the point of 
light, the image of which we wish 

the central portions. This sort of 
oblicjue spherical aberration is called 
coma. Coma, too, can be greatly 
reduced through suitable combina- 
tions of lenses of proper shapes. 

It will now be seen that the cen 
tral and oblique images of a point 
of light as produced by a simple 
lens are not points but areas, and 
that the definition yielded by the 
lens will depend, among other 
things, upon the sizes of these 

Fig. 6 

to focus upon the screen, does not 
lie on the axis of the lens but is at 
one side as shown in Fig. 6. An 
effect somewhat similar to spheri- 
cal aberration is noted. Xo sharp 
image of the point of light can be 
found but a small area of irregular 
shape is the best focus that can be 
obtained. This is due to phenom- 
ena of a sort similar to those de- 
scribed above. The oblique rays 
passing through the outer portions 
of the lens are not focused at the 
same point as those passing through 

areas. These sizes are determined 
by coma and spherical aberrations 
as well as by other errors such as 
astigmatism and curvature of field 
to be discussed later. In testing 
lenses these areas are measured on 
the focal plane. For instance, the 
curve marked "image size" in Fig. 7 
gives the diameters of the images 
on the focal plane of a point source 
of light when the rays are passing 
tlirough the lens along the axis and 
at angles of 3", 6°, 9° and so on, 
with the axis as in Fisr. 8. 





o -^. 



i C 

^^ 0. 

per j 














e 1 


^ F/4 


rationists is menacing to the struc- 
ture of civilization. There was a 
time when the possessor of an an- 
astigmat which had found its way 
into his hands from abroad felt 
himself just a little better equipped 
than his neighbor who could boast 
only of a lens originating in the 
United States perhaps. It may be 
that years ago there was some justi- 
fication in this attitude and that the 
imported lenses were better correct- 
ed for spherical aberration, coma 
and all the other optical errors than 
were lenses here, but that time has 
long since passed. In addition to 
being available at a more reason- 
able price, Kodak Anastigmat lenses 
are now equal to the imported 
lenses which we once looked upon 
as being the acme of perfection. 

Fig. 7 

These errors, such as spherical 
aberration and coma, are the radi- 
cals of the world of optics and they 
are quite as troublesome to the lens 
designer as the doctrine preached 
by modern political and social aber- 

"Every salesman must realize 
that he is not merely selling goods 
— he is selling an idea, of which 
the merchandise is only a part." 

"Sue o( inwfe on 

rdy5 (n)mdis6(/|X)inrsou.tu 
Ccnmjl ray nwke5«n^|Kof-o;f, 

Fig. 8 



SOME excellent advice is con- 
tained in the accompanying 
article by a practical man in a 
recent issue of the Photographic 

"What sort of an enlargement 
will it make?" 

Coming from a customer the 
above question is one, the import- 
ance of which is only equalled by 
the difificulty of giving a definite 

Without an enlarging lantern at 
hand with which to project and 
examine the picture, it is impos- 
sible to say with anything like cer- 
tainty just what sort and size of 
projection a strange negative will 
make. And yet the more definite 
the reply can be the better for busi- 
ness. It is evident therefore that 
the query is not one to be passed 
over lightly, but that it should re- 
ceive the best attention possible and 
any practicable means made use of 
to ensure the best answer being 

The convenient presence of a 
■lantern within reach of the counter 
is not at all usual, so we must con- 
sider what can be done without it. 

The main things which affect a 
negative's enlarging possibilities 
are cleanliness, . definition, color, 
density and shape. 

If the negative is dirty most prob- 
ably it can be cleaned. It depends 
on the age and extent of the dirt, 
but providing there is no oblitera- 
tion of small detail, a small amount 
of dirt is not likely to prove an in- 
surmountable obstacle, though it 
may add to the working-up. 

E.xcept in large negatives, the de- 
finition cannot be well judged with 
the naked eye. A powerful magni- 
fier is necessary. A negative ap- 
pearing needle sharp in the import- 
ant parts when well magnified, will 
enlarge to any size, other factors 

permitting and provided that an ef- 
ficient enlarger is to handle the job. 
A negative that is not dead sharp, 
but is nevertheless sharp enough to 
be distinct, will usually enlarge to 
three times linear without much loss 
of quality, but it is unwise to 
attempt to enlarge a decidedly 
■'woolly" one at all. 

The color — or colors — of a nega- 
tive can greatly affect the quality of 
an enlargement. With the exception 
of odd cases the best enlarging neg- 
atives are pure black or blue-black 
and of the same color all over. In 
the case of very soft negatives 
which are also thin, a slight tint of 
yellow, brown or green is no disad- 
vantage, on the contrary it may im- 
prove matters. With dense or hard 
ones, however, such tints are decid- 
edly a drawback although the tinted 
negatives may give good contact 

Negatives that have acquired 
highly colored stains from im- 
proper fixing, intensifying or any 
other cause, are best left alone alto- 
gether, particularly if the stains are 
in patches. Of course these colored 
defects can sometimes be removed; 
but their removal is attended with 
risk, and at the best there is only a 
slight chance of ultimate satisfac- 
tion. Only a practical expert can 
predict with success the result of 
enlarging from a badly stained neg- 

Density is another thing that 
plays a more important role in pro- 
jection than it does in contact work. 
A negative that is fairly dense for 
the latter will be very, very dense 
for the former even if a powerful 
illuminant be used, and there is this 
difference as well, that while in con- 
tact printing prolonged exposure 
only means loss of time at the most, 
in enlarging it is also likely to mean 
fogged results. 



The white patch at the top of the picture is the Recreation F 



ile the smaller area on the right indicates the Tennis Courts. 



of a Salesman 


JD you ever try to sell yourself 
to a fish ? 

"I did once ; my guide and I were 
paddling along close to shore and 
we approached a spot where a big 
up-rooted tree had fallen into the 

"If ever a spot looked like the 
ideal home for a grand daddy bass 
this one appeared to be it. I put on 
a nice new lovely minnow and 
dropped it alongside the log; there 
was a mighty swirl — I waited a 
moment and then gave a gentle tug 
to set the hook. 

"No resistance followed and so 
I reeled in to find that grandpa had 
cleverly stolen my bait. I put on 
another minnow and cast again to 
the same spot. Nothing doing — 
grandpa was quite evidently wise. 
So I opened up my tackle box and 
hooked on an artificial fish that 
looked good enough for any bass to 
eat. It evidently did not possess 
sufficient attention value and was 

"Then I tried an artificial frog 
and next a rubber crab but I 
couldn't sell him on either of them. 

"I sat and thought a moment: I 
knew that I had done a good many 
foolish things at times and so I fig- 
ured that the fish might have some 
mental weakness of which I might 
take advantage. I looked my tackle 
over and selected a bait that resem- 
bled nothing that ever inhabited 
either water or land ; I think I must 


have purchased it from some good 
looking saleslady in a department 
store in a fit of temporary aberra- 
tion. Even my Indian grunted as I 
fastened it on — so you see it must 
have been pretty bad. 

"I cast once more in the shadow 
of the log — Jam! Slam! Bing! I 
don't know whether it was curiosity 
— it certainly wasn't idle curiosity 
— or just a wild rage because such 
a looking object had invaded his 
dominion — anyhow the fact remains 
that I sold him. 

"Now when you come to think 
about it you can sell yourself or 
almost any proposition, or com- 
modity, if you put your heart in 
your work and go at it intelligently. 
You can't expect to average one 
hundred per cent.; if. you could 
there wouldn't be any fun in the 
game. That reminds me of another 
of my youthful failures. 

"I have always been fond of ani- 
mals and as a small boy I had gone 
through the white mice and tame 
squirrel stage and longed for other 
worlds to conquer. At about this 
time a colored boy passed our 
house swinging a 'possum by the 
tail. Naturally I was much inter- 
ested and particularly so when I 
found the 'possum was alive and so 
began negotiations for his purchase 
— a quarter and a 'lignum-vitae' top 
changed hands and the 'possum be- 
came mine. 

"After the preparing of a suit- 
able cage came the Hagenback 
stunt of taming Mr. 'Possum. 

"Here I found that I was a bit 
weak on natural historv as he not 


gently, but firmly, declined to be 
tamed, and to this day I carry the 
marks of his teeth in my left hand, 
from which I had to persuade him 
to disassociate himself with a ball 

"If you are wise you profit by 
your failures ; thereafter I pur- 
sued my fauna investigations with 
greater care and in due time be- 
came possessed of both a tame fox 
and a coon, but passed up any in- 
timate investigations as regards rat- 
tlesnakes or alligators. 

"I am quite sure that all such ex- 
periences have had an influence on 
my career as a salesman and I think 
that if you will study your own 
case that you will find that you 
have been influenced by much the 
same things. 

"From your past experiences you 
learn how to judge, and to handle 
people ; from external appearances 
you can put them in their general 
classification. You know instinct- 
ively the reserved type or the dig- 
nified type at whom, or with whom, 
it would be lese majeste to smile. 

"You can detect the person who 
likes to talk and be talked to. and 
with whom you can crack a joke. 

"Certain characteristics mark the 
person of indecision — the sort who 
really want you to push and force 
them to purchase and so on. Some- 
times these external signs fail — 
sometimes the grufif, crabbed ap- 
pearing person may have a smile 
just under the surface, but you will 
do well to follow your first diag- 
nosis, and permit the smile if it is 
there to emerge from retirement on 
its own accord. 

"The close student of nature, hu- 
man and otherwise, knows this ; he 
makes his general classifications yet 
if he finds his subject not running 
true to form he is ever alert to 
change tactics." 

Kodak Heights 

The Aeroplane view of our plant 
on pages 8 and 9, afifords an excel- 
lent idea of the lay-out of the 
grounds and buildings. 

The smaller building on the left 
of picture (though actually not so 
small) is the executive building 
wherein are located the various 
ofifices connected with the manage- 
ment of the plant. Here are also 
found the commodious dining 
rooms where the noon meal is 
served on the cafeteria plan. 

The upper of the two railway 
tracks in the top left corner is the 
Grand Trunk, while the other is the 
main line of the C.P.R. and from 
this can be discerned immediately 
above the recreation field, our pri- 
vate switches for coal and freight. 

The building in close proximity 
to the C.P.R. houses many of the 
manufacturing sections, including 
Camera, Blount, Printing and Box 
departments, the ground floor ac- 
commodating the stock and ship- 
ping rooms. 

The central structure is devoted 
to the coating of Film, Plates and 
Paper, as well as. the cutting and 
packing of these important products 
for the market. 

The dark buildings in the right 
foreground are the Power Plant. 
Normally they are not as promin- 
ent as would seem to be the case 
from this photograph, this end of 
the property being on a much lower 
level than that portion where the 
other buildings are situated. Fur- 
thermore there is a heavy screen of 
trees on the sloping bank. The res- 
ervoirs are clearly shown at the 
lower part of the picture. 

Go about your work with an air 
of resignation and maybe the boss 
will ask you for it. 




SAAI, since the first of the year I 
have seen a good many new- 
faces in front of the counters and I 
have discovered quite a few new 
charge accounts on the books. 

"Now this is highly gratifying, 
Sam, because it tells me that our 
advertising and display windows 
have been doing good work. 

"One of the hardest jobs of any 
store is to get — and hold — new cus- 
tomers. As our store is right in 
the heart of things, we do have a 
good many transient customers who 
reside in some other town, and 
these we cannot expect to turn into 
regular customers. Even the green- 
est clerk, Sam, can tell new custo- 
mers at a glance"; they do not come 
into the store with certainty and 
proceed at once to the counter or 
section containing the goods they 
desire, and when they do reach the 
right counter they inquire about 
certain goods which the regular 
would simply ask for because he 
would know we had them from his 
previous dealings with us. 

"Now the point is this, Sam, do 
our sales people put forth any spe- 
cial efifort to make these new custo- 
mers feel at home and to believe 
that they have come to the best 
store in town so that when they 
are again in need of something in 
our line they will come back again ? 

"As I said a moment ago, even 
the greenest clerk can tell a new 


Ten JUinutes 
with the "Boss 

customer and so I am wondering if 
any of us say to ourselves, 'He is 
just an out-of-towner — won't ever 
see him again,' and so try to get 
rid of him with mediocre or ineffi- 
cient service. I had an example of 
this the other evening, Sam ; I came 
back from a little trip in the morn- 
ing and went directly to the store, 
and so had to carry my bag home 
with me at night. During the day 
my wife phoned me and asked me 
to purchase a pair of scissors for 
her ; this request I promptly pro- 
ceeded to forget until after the reg- 
ular stores had closed. As I started 
for home, I happened to think of 
the scissors so I went into a drug 
store and inquired of a woman be- 
hind the counter if they carried 
scissors; she said 'Yes' and just 
stood there. 

"I asked to be shown some and 
she said, 'Haven't got any.' and I 
said, 'I thought you said you car- 
ried them,' and she said, 'All sold 
out," and then walked away from 

"She did not even smile, or 
evince any regret that she could not 
be of service. I am wondering if 
she judged from my bag that I was 
from out of town and so not worth 
bothering about. 

"However, Sam, my curiosity 
does not extend far enough for me 
to go back to her again and that 
store has lost a possible customer. 

"Sam. a certain percentage, and 
a good sized chunk at that, of all 
we spend for a good store location, 
and for advertising and window 


displays must be charged to the ob- 
taining of new customers. 

"In every Hne of business there 
is a steady loss of old customers, 
from a number of different causes, 
and if this loss is not made up — 
and more than made up — the busi- 
ness will decrease and eventually 

"Every new person seen in the 
store is an asset even if he or she 
is but a 'one time' purchaser if they 
leave the store in a satisfied frame 
of mind. 

"You never can tell when a non- 
resident will become a resident, or 
when the transient non-resident will 
speak a good word for the store. 

"It would be foolish, Sam. for 
me to say that the new customer 
should receive better treatment than 
the regular customer — but the new 
customer should be treated equally 
as well. 

"If time permits, the new custo- 
mer should be tactfully made aware 
of the scope of the store and of its 
special facilities for handling trade. 

"He should be made to feel that 
the salesman finds pleasure in wait- 
ing upon him, and that the store is 
a pleasant place in which to trade 
and that it is thoroughly up to date 
and progressive. 

"Particular attention should be 
paid to very old people, and to chil- 
dren. Many old people get the er- 
roneous idea that they are becom- 
ing a 'bother' and so are • diffident 
and ill at ease. A smile, a hearty 
interest in their wants, and perhaps 
a comfortable chair in which to 
rest, will make a fast friend. 

"The young sales person, Sam, is 
ai)t to forget just how quickly boys 
and girls grow to be men and wo- 
men ; to us older ones this transfor- 
mation takes place over night. 

"The juvenile customer quite 
properly resents any inattention, or 
being made to wait while a later 

coming adult customer is being 

"The average youngster is eager 
for information and often surpris- 
ingly well posted, and so will also 
resent a patronizing attitude, or the 
attempt to sell him something he 
does not want with but half an ex- 

"Youthful impressions are very 
strong, Sam, and persist in after 
years, and in the same measure 
youthful business friendships per- 

"The inexperienced, or unthink- 
ing sales person, Sam. thinks only 
of the customer in his personal re- 
lation to him and overlooks entirely 
his relation to the store. 

"If the customer is seemingly a 
grouch or of indifferent or unpleas- 
ing personality, his sole thought is 
to get rid of him as soon as possible 
with a prayer that he will never 
come back. 

"On the other hand, the experi- 
enced, thoughtful salesman will 
know that first impressions are 
quite apt to be wrong and in addi- 
tion will hold to his duty to the 
store, and use extra effort in cour- 
tesy and wnlHngness to turn the 
grouch into a friend and often with 
surprisingly happy results. 

"The new customer is much more 
than just a part of the day's work, 
Sam; if he is made into a regular 
customer he becomes an additional 
stone in the foundation of the 
store's prosperity, and so an addi- 
tional surety for the salesman's job 
and its betterment. 

"Keep your eyes open for the 
new customers, Sam ; they are what 
keep the business moving ahead." 

/// the Spring rush 
don't overlook the 
K o d a k e r // Paid 
S u b s c ription Flan. 



vr the'Beginner 
'Behind the Counter 


HAVE been selling goods be- 
hind the counter for several 
years, l)ut have just commenced 
selling Kodaks and suppHes. Please 
tell me how and where I can obtain 
the necessary information to handle 
this line intelligently." 

We know of no more fitting place 
to answer this letter than on this, 
the Primary Page. 

The first thing to do is to obtain 
catalogues of the various lines car- 
ried in stock, and to read them 
thoroughly, and then compare the 
catalogue description with the 
actual goods. This will serve to 
identify the goods in your mind, 
and also give you a good idea of 
their physical appearance and dif- 

"After studying and comparing 
the various camera models, do the 
same thing with the sundries. 
Learn to know just what a Kodak 
Portrait Attachment and a Kodak 
Color Filter look like, what they 
are for, and why the color filter is 
yellow in color instead of colorless 
like the portrait attachrrrent, and 
the difference between the ordinary 
printing frame and the Auto-AIask 
and Alaskit Printing Frames and so 

After you have done this take a 
Kodak from stock and study — not 
just read over — the manual ac- 
companying it. Learn just how to 
open and close the various models, 
how to remove and replace the back 


and how to load and unload the in- 

Study the mechanism and oper- 
ation of the shutter ; learn how to 
adjust it for the various automatic 
and "time" exposures and how to 
adjust the diaphragm for the vari- 
ous stop openings. 

The manual will afford you the 
reasons for employing the different 
speeds and diaphragm openings to- 
gether with sufficient other infor- 
mation to attempt actual picture 

The best course of instruction is 
in the old, old school of experience; 
/. c, take a Kodak and make pic- 
tures with it. 

Develop your first rolls by hand, 
following the instructions in the 
manual so that you may learn just 
what happens and just how the 
image appears before and after fix- 

When your negatives are ready 
for printing, try making a few 
prints on A'elox. 

By developing and printing from 
the negatives you have made your- 
self, and in which you naturally 
have more interest than in those 
made by some one else, you will 
learn speedily how to correct your 
errors, and to turn out acceptable 

Having been through the mill 
yourself you will be in position to 
sympathize with the beginners com- 
ing after you and likewise to in- 
telligently put them on the right 
road. You cannot help but become 
interested in the work, and the 


more you learn the further you will 
desire to progress. 

At about this stage of the game 
possess yourself of a copy of 
"How To ^fake Good Pictures'!— 
you will find it in stock. By this 
time you will not haye to be urged 
to study it ; you will find it simply 
written, avoiding technical names 
and terms as much as possible, and 
also that it covers understandingly. 
practically every part of amateur 
picture making. 

By now you will have learned 
not only how to correctly estimate 
exposures and distances, but how to 
develop your exposures into good 
negatives, and how to select the 
proper grade of paper to produce 
the best results from negatives of 
varying quality or density. 

Quite possibly your first prints 
will not come up to the standard 
set by your store's finishing depart- 
ment, but soon you will know when 
you have fallen down in their man- 
ipulation and so be able to pass all 
this information on to your custo- 

M'hen an opportunity presents it- 
self — if it doesn't try and make one 
— pay a visit to your finishing de- 
partment and see how they do 
things. Ask if they are reducing 
or intensifying any negatives, and 
if they are. note the improvement 
that can be made by these simple 
processes. Don't forget to ask a 
question once in a while. If they 
happen to be making enlargements 
stick around and watch how they 
do it. 

If you have never seen an en- 
largement made before you will be 
fascinated with the results and 
amazed at the simplicity of the 
process. You will have a lot more 
respect for the Brownie Enlarging 
Cameras thereafter, and quite eager 
for the chance to try your hands 
with one of them or with the 
Kodak Enlarging Outfit. 

By the time you have progressed 
thus far you will have found out 
ways to post yourself regarding the 
various types of lenses and their 
use, and making use of your own 
practical experience to solve the 
problems of others. 

Best of all, you will have become 
an enthusiastic amateur and you 
just cannot help passing this en- 
thusiasm along to your customers. 

If at any time some problem con- 
fronts you that >nu cannot solve. 
just drop us a line — the whole 
Kodak stafif of experts is at your 

"Kodakery" for May 

There are a lot of good articles 
and stories in the May Kodakery, 
including another ]\Iiddleton nature 
story, but one of the most interest- 
ing from the photographic stand- 
point is entitled "The Pyro Devel- 

As is well known the pyro de- 
veloper not only develops the image, 
but it also stains those parts of the 
gelatine in which the image is 
embedded, and it is this stain which 
gives a pyro developed negative its 
peculiar quality. 

This article brings out a number 
of facts regarding a pyro developer 
not generally known and you will 
be more than ordinarily surprised 
and interested when you read it. 

Health and disposition are the 
two most important things in life. 
Good health enables you to live 
with yourself; a good disposition, 
to live successfully with others. — 
Through the Meshes. 

To-day is the to-morrow of yes- 
terday — the day on which you 
said you would accomplish so 
much. Have you done it? — Temco 



They Are Not Made 

The salesman is frequently ques- 
tioned regarding some special or 
additional equipment or if some 
modification of our regular pro- 
ducts can be obtained. So, in order 
to save your time, the customer's 
time and our own. we append here 
a list of goods sometimes asked for 
that we are not in position to sup- 
ply. Some of these things it is not 
physically possible to make in a 
practical wa\-. In most of the cases 
where it is possible to supplv these 
articles there is not a sufificient de- 
mand so that they could be manu- 
factured and sold at a reasonable 
price. Where there are exceptions 
to this rule the features asked for 
may be had in other similar goods. 
For instance, there are frequent 
suggestions that we supply Auto- 
graphic Folding Cartridge Premo 
Cameras. This could be done, of 
course, but it's much simpler to sell 
a Folding Brownie or a Junior 

Not Made 

Autographic Back- for old stvlc 
fixed focus Kodaks, and Box tvpe 

Autographic Feature for Car- 
tridge Premo Cameras. 

Cable Release for cameras 
equipped with finger release onlv. 

Combination Backs for small 
Kodaks and Junior Kodaks. 

Combination Back for 3-A Auto- 
graphic Brownie. 

Duplicators for Kodaks or 

Film for Kodaks, Brownies or 
Premos in a slow emulsion. 

Film Packs, six expo-ures. 

Film Pack Adapters for Kodaks 
and Brownies. 

Focal Plane Shutter for Kodaks. 

Lens, Copying for Kodaks. 

Lens, /. 4.5. for Kodaks larger 
than the Xo. 1 Special Kodak. 


Lens. /. 7 .7 , for Cartridge Premo 
and Brownie Cameras. 

Lens. Anastigmat. for Xo. 4 Pan- 

Lens. Telephoto. for Kodaks. 

Lens, for B r o w n i e Enlarging 
Camera of greater speed than the 
one supplied. 

Range Finder, separate from the 
instruments it is listed with. 

Rack and Pinion, for regular 
K( daks. 

Rising Front, for Kodak Juniors. 

This list was taken from an 
analysis of our recent correspond- 
ence and in consequence is not 
complete, but does cover most of 
the items usually asked for. 

"I believe that Kodakcry- is with- 
out doubt the most helpful maga- 
zine for amateur photographers T have vet seen." 

''A\ ill you look up your records 
and see if my subscription to 
Kodakcry has run out? I do not 
want to miss anv of the numbers." 

"I have every copy of Kodakcry 
since Januar\-. 1916. and intend to 
b.ave them bound." 

"T want til thank you for the 
splendidly helpful number — the Oc- 
tober Kodakcry." 

"Many thanks for the Xovember 
and (Jciober issues of Kodakcry — 
they are indeed splendid." 

■'The faculty are of the opinion 
that the articles contained in 
Kodakcry are deserving of being 
bound in book form to give them 
greater permanency for our library." 

Never quarrel with a cus- 
tomer unless you are dead sure 
that you can secure for the 
store the amount at stake- 
then don't do it if you want to 
keep the customer. 

What "KODAK" Means 

yiS a word, a trade-name, "Kodak" is simpl}' an 
-^^ arbitrary combination of letters. It is not de- 
rived from an}' other word. It was made up from the 
alphabet, not by lucky chance, but as the result of 
a diligent search for a combination of letters that 
would form a short, crisp, euphonious name that 
would easil\- dwell in the public mind. 

As a trade-mark, "Kodak" 
indicates certain of the pro- 
ducts of the Kodak Companies, 
to which it has been applied, 
as, for instance, Kodak Cam- 
eras, Kodak Tripods and 
Kodak Film Tanks. 

As an institution, "Kodak" 
stands for leadership in pho- 
tography. To the world at 
large it is best known for its 
simplification of photography 
for the amateur, for its Kodak 
and Brownie Cameras, for its 
films and papers. To the pro- 
fessional photographer, it is 
known for its progressive 
leadership in the manufacture 
of everything that is used in 
the studio. In the cinema world 

it is known as the producer of 
the film that made the motion 
picture possible. To military 
and na\'al experts it is best 
known for its aerial cameras 
and aerial lenses — the latter a 
modification of the Kodak 
Anastigmats. To the scientist, 
it is known for its X-Ray pro- 
ducts, now so vital in the 
mending of men, and for the 
work of its great Research 

In 1888, when the two "k's". 
the "o", the "d" and the "a" 
were euphoniously assembled, 
they meant nothing. To-day 
they mean protection for j'ou 
in the purchase of photo- 
graphic goods. 

If it isn't (111 Eastman, it isn't a Kodak 







Results are measured, not by the 
amount of energy you have, 
but—by how much you use. 

CAN you name a single, 
solitary man who has 
ever achieved a great, big, un- 
qualified success in any line 
of legitimate business by limit- 
ing his mental and physical 
exertions to exactly eight 
hours a day ? 




an aia to the man oenina tne countej^ 

Vol. 6 

MAY, 1920 

No. 4 

Young Folks' Business 

Does the average retailer in lii> 
advertising window displays and 
selling talks, pay sufficient atten- 
tion to the potential purchasing 
power of the youngsters ? 

Of course, in the majority of 
cases they will not be receiving a 
fixed ■■ income," but it can't be over- 
looked that nearly all have souii 
money to spend each week, and a 
quiet investigation might bring out 
some surprising facts, for what 
they earn for odd tasks here and 
there, coupled with what they cajole 
from parents and relatives, often 
makes a tidy sum. 

All of this goes to illustrate the 
fact that there is a considerable 
market if it is properly cultivated. 

Few goods make as strong an ap- 
peal to the rising generation, both 
boys and girls, as Brownies and 
Kodaks, which provide the means 
of making picture s — something 

which is alluring to all. grown-ups 

Feature the less expensive models 
for the young folks, treat them 
right when the}" come to your store, 
and their business will be found 
worth while. Don't forget also that 
it is very easy to develop lasting 
business friendships, which will be 
a real asset to the store. 

Mr. J. H. Stanton, of Feiielon 
Falls. Out., sends the picture re- 
produced on the opposite page. It 
represents the Camera Club in a 
boy's camp, located near to him. It 
doesn't need a livel\- imagination 
to realize what a bunch of inter- 
ested youngsters like this means in 
any community ; not only will they 
influence others, but they them- 
selves, as they grow up, will wish 
for more and better photographic 
equipment, while all the time they 
are usinsr film. 

Success alzc(i//s increases interest. Keep //our 

(uiiateur customers interested hfj filling out the 

"Kodaker//" su1)scri ption hlfinks and boosting tlte 

"Kodakert/" paid subscription plan. 



The Why of the Anastigmat and the Kodak 
Anastigmat in Particular 


Article IV 

Tliere are two o]:)tical errors aside 
from those noted in Article III 
which must be eliminated to a high 
degree in a well C(n-rected anastig- 
mat : astigmatism and curvature of 
tield. The reader may by this -time 
wonder how it is that a lens can I)e 
made to give even fair definition, 
and well he may. The design of a 
high grade anastigmat, eliminating 
these defects and at the same time 
fulfilling the practical recjuirements 
of manufacture, recjuires months 
and often vears of labor of the 

us select a small bundle of rays 
passing through the area BDCE on 
the surface of the lens. We may 
consider that this area BDCE has 
two diiTerent curvatures in two dif- 
ferent directions ; the curvature 
along BC is diiTerent from the 
curvature along DE. 

To make this clearer consider a 
sphere cut through the center. Look 
at the flat surface exposed on one- 
half as in Fig. 10. This flat sur- 
face is bounded b}- a circle MNPQ 
whose radius is ecjual to the radius 
of the sphere. Now cut through 

Fig. 9 

most tedious sort, the successful 
execution of which calls for a de- 
gree of patience exceeding even the 
proverbial maximum possessed bv 

Suppose now that a cone of light 
of any one color from a point 
source falls on the surface of a sim- 
ple, convex lens as ABC in Fig. 9. 
Suppose further that the rays are 
oblique, that is they make an angle 
with the optical axis of the lens. 
Out of the total cone of lieht let 

the remaining hemisphere at right 
angles to NO leaving exposed the 
surface nnipq. Tliis surface is 
bounded by a circle mnpq which 
has a radius smaller than the circle 
MXPO. If at a point m on the 
surface of the sphere as it original- 
ly was, we draw two crossing lines, 
one along MX and another along 
nmq. then at the point m we may 
say that the curvature of the sur- 
face is diiTerent along MN and 


Fig;. 10 

Similarl)- in Fiy. 9 DE is a por- 
tion of a circle of radius shorter 
than the radius of BC. Light rays 
striking a curved refracting sur- 
face are, in general, hent more the 
sharper the curve. We expect, 
therefore, that the rays from P to 
B and C will be bent in a way dif- 
ferent from those striking at D and 
E. Since DE is a sharper curve 
than BC the rays D and E are bent 
so as to cross at E at a point nearer 
the lens than those through B and 
C which cross at G. This difference 
of focus for rays lying in the two 
mutually perpendicular planes PDE 
and PBC is characteristic of obliciue 
bundles of rays refracted by spher- 
ical surfaces. Such a bundle of 
rays is said to be refracted astig- 
matically and the length EG is 
called the astigmatic focus dift'er- 
ence or merely astigmatism. 

Now imagine other rays passing 
through the boundary of the area 
liDCE. There will be other pairs 
of rays similar to PD and PE inci- 
dent at d and e for instance. These 
rays will cross above F. Other pairs 
will cross below E so that at F we 
shall have a lint- image. Likewise, 
other pairs of ra\s similar to VC 

and PB can be chosen, such as rays 
I'h aiul I'c. These rays will cross 
at a ])oint to one side of G and other 
similar pairs of rays will cross on 
a line through G which is at right 
angles to the line through E. Li 
this way the whole bundle of ravs 
will, after refraction, pass through 
iwi) mnlually perpendicular lines at 
I'' and G >o that the best image of 
I he ])()int T will be between E and 
Ci. Tliis image will be an area 
which, at E, is reduced to a line 
and at G is reduced to another line 
at right angles to E. 

If we are photographing from a 
height an area on the ground, let us 
imagine for the moment that a net- 
work of the sort shown in Eig. 11 is 
laid over this area. If the lens we 
are using possesses astigmatism to 
an objectionable extent, lines on the 
ground (edges of buildings, roads, 
etc. ) which lie along the radial lines 
in the network and those which lie 
in the direction of the circular lines, 
will not be focused at the same dis- 
tance from the lens. This effect 
arises because of the astigmatism 
described above. Lines lying in 
other directions will not be sharply 
focused anvwhere. We can so focus 

Eig. 11 




— ^ 





















le ■ 
























f IbuS 

















\ i 












Fiff. 12 

tlie lens that radial lines are sharp 
or we can focus it so that tangen- 
tial lines will be sharp, but we can 
not make both sharp at the same 
time. Probably the best compro- 
mise is at an intermediate position 
where both are unsharp to the same 
degree. By properly combining sim- 
ple lenses into a photographic ob- 
jective, the optician can go far 
toward eliminating this astigma- 
tism. Lenses in which this has been 
done are called anastigmats. 


In examining a lens for this de- 
fect a ])oint source (jf light is set up 
in front of it so that the rays pass- 
ing through the center of the lens 
make angles of 3°, 6°, 9°, etc., witli 
the axis. Fig. 8 (See April num- 
ber). The images of this point of 
light, as produced by the lens, are 
then examined and the location of 
the two astigmatic focii, as F and 
(j in Fig. 9, with reference to the 
fcx'al plane is determined. The loca- 
tions of these two astit?in.'itic focii 


are shown in the accompanying 
chart. Fig. 12. where they are the 
two outside curves designated 
"Field." The line lying between 
these two is the position of the best 
average image, somewhere between 
F and G in Fig. 9. The line repre- 
senting this best average image is 
called tlie field curve; it shows how 
the best image departs frdui the 
photographic ])late. 

As stated above, the optician can 
do much toward eliminating the as- 
tigmatism of a photographic ob- 
jective by making it up of the 
proper sorts of simple lenses. In 
fact, he can design his objective so 
that rays passing through it at a 
given angle, say 26°, show no as- 
tigmatism. Rays passing through 
the lens at other angles will, how- 
ever, be refracted astigmatically. 
In general the rays passing through 
at an angle less than 26° will have 
small astigmatism while those mak- 
ing greater angles than 26° will 
show increasing astigmatism. 

Now, as a rule, the astigmatism 
increases rapidly for rays beyond 
the node, as this point of no astig- 
matism is called. Lenses differ in 
this respect, however, the astigma- 
tism increasing more rapidly be- 
yond the node in some than in 
others. Practically this means rap- 
idly declining definition beyond that 
point so that the corner of the larg- 
est plate or film with which a given 
lens should be used lies a little be- 
yond the node ; just how much be- 
yond depends upon the rate at 
which the astigmatism increases. 
Ill the case of the Kodak Anastig- 
niat the astigmatism increases rap- 
idly beyond the node so that a film 
of a certain given size will be cov- 
ered with excellent definition but 
the definition at the corners of a 
larger film would l)e unsatisfactory. 

"Kodakery" for June 

The editor of Kodakery lays 
claim to being a hard working in- 
dividual and the contents of the 
June issue certainly bear out his 
contention, as there is a mighty in- 
teresting lot of reading in this is- 
sue ; not that this number differs in 
that respect from its predecessors. 

"Out-door Pictures by Electric 
Light," a fascinating subject for 
those living in the towns and cities. 

"Graflexing a Hawk with a 
]\Iouse Trap," another good story 
by that ingenious chap, H. T. Mid- 

"Photography and X-Rays," a 
subject you are sure to be queried 
upon sometime. 

"Intensifying Negatives with 
Pyro." of equal interest with the 
Pyro article in the May issue. 

Also a most interesting story on 
the manufacture of Pyro, and for 
good measure, another good article 
on how to avoid fogging the pic- 
ture in the making. 

There is nothing mysterious 
about Salesmanship. Thousands 
of successful salesmen have never 
studied psychology or the kindred 
sciences. To be able to sell is to 
be human. Successful selling is 
made up of a number of little 
things — a smile ; a word of cheer ; 
a tone of voice ; a right word at 
the right time. 

Don't wait for to-morrow — Do 
it to-day. 



Three Simple Principles 

" A great deal of abstruse high- 
falutin advice has been written and 
uttered on tlie subject of scientific 
salesmanship. There is nothing 
mysterious or profound about it — 
nothing that you can not grasp in a 
few nn'nutes,"' so remarks Merchan- 
dising and Advcrti<;i)i(i, and we 
thoroughly agree. 

This same article makes another 
good point: "First of all the sales- 
man must know himself ; must 
know what is required of him as a 
salesman, ascertain in what quali- 
ties he is weak and set to work to 
strengthen himself. Too much self- 
analysis, excessive introspection is 
deplorable and often leads to self- 
consciousness and discouragement, 
but most salesmen err in the other 
direction and go through life half 
way developed because they are in- 
different as to what they need to 
measure up to the full stature of a 

''The real salesman must know 
his goods, and he must study and 
know people." 

Now in spite of all the reams and 
reams that have been written re- 
garding scientific salesmanship, isn't 
the foregoing just about all there 
is to it. 

It has been the endeavor of the 
Kodak Salesman to teach you 
practical salesmanship, and in so 
doing to give you just enough of 
the abstract so that you might be 
led, not driven, to study yourself 
and so strengthen your weaker 

You see, when you study your- 
self you just can't help studying 
other people as well, and so we 
have once in a while hinted at this, 
knowing full well that the other 
step would automatically follow. 

You know from the other im- 
pressions that people make upon 


you that a pleasant manner, neat- 
ness in attire and an air of general 
good health fulness are assets in 

Tf you have any ambition at all, 
you naturally absorb these facts and 
conduct yourself accordingly. 

With these qualifications, the big 
thing remaining is to knoiv the 
goods, not just enough to get by, 
l)ut thorouglily. 

The fact that you know your line 
thoroughly will give you confidence 
in approaching and handling custo- 

If you are enthusiastic over it, 
and this you can not help but being, 
because amateur picture making is 
so full of interesting things, you 
can convince even the most doubt- 
ing of Thomases, and draw the con- 
firmed grouch out of himself. 

Salesmanship is a simple thing. 

Know yourself. 

Know other people. 

Know the line. 

That is all there is to it. 

A mind concentrated upon but 
one thing day and night soon loses 
some of its tremendous power. 
Therefore, pursuing a useful hob- 
by takes the mind seemingly from 
its usual sphere of activity and ex- 
ercises, as it were, certain other 
parts of the brain, giving the cells 
which are so continuously worked 
a chance to rest and store up more 
energy. — The Wilsonian. 

Some men are naturally enthu- 
siastic. Others are quite lack- 
ing in that quality, and they have 
to get along on the enthusiasm of 
others which does not keep them 
properly keyed up. For a sales- 
man to try to raise himself with- 
out enthusiasm is a good deal like 
trying to lift yourself by your own 
bootstraps. — Hardware Trade. 


Two effective Window Displays 


of a Salesman 

— / s^y 

*I -^^^ >}^^^' that I was born with 
£ an inquisitive turn of mind be- 
cause this inquisitiveness has taken 
most all of the drudgery out of my 
life's routine. 

"Particularly has it been a help 
to me in selling goods because I 
just had to know every possible use 
they could be put to. and how they 
were made. 

"In acquiring this information I 
have never yet failed to encounter 
any number of interesting facts 
which have given me a double in- 
terest in the goods. 

"It has never mattered to me 
whether any of my prospective 
customers asked me for this infor- 
mation or not, because I was ready 
for them if they did, and I am hav- 
ing a lot of fun in just knowing it 
for myself. 

"I have sold a good many differ- 
ent things and have found them all 
interesting when I came to trace 
their manufacture, the various 
sources of supply, and their his- 

"Take the most commonplace 
thing you can think of — glue, for 
instance. I have never sold glue 
but I'll gamble that I could get a 
lot of fun out of it. 

"To me, glue would be a whole 
lot more than just an evil smelling, 
sticky compound. I would want 
to know how many different kinds 
there were, what they were used 


for and wlic-rc they came fmrn and 
hdw the\ were prepared. 

"Then, in all probability, I would 
get to wondering how glue was first 
discovered, and what folks used 
before that, and soon I would be 
oft' on a highly entertaining voyage 
of discovery. 

"Now just to prove that this idea 
of mine isn't original, let me quote 
you from a book just published on 
retail salesmanship : 'The first rea- 
son why a salesman should know 
all al)out the goods is because such 
knozdcdijc takes the dntdr/cry out 
of 7vork.' 

"Fvujoying your work shortens 
the day amazingly. 

"If you just stand behind the 
counter and hand out what people 
ask for, and have no interest in 
your customers or in the goods you 
are letting them buy, then your 
work becomes drudgery — and if it 
does it is your own fault. 

"In your own line there is .so 
nuich of interest ; if you are not in- 
terested in the artistic side of pic- 
ture making, the technical side is 
equally fascinating. The history of 
photography reads like a romance, 
and no more interesting story has 
ap])eared in years than the story of 
the great part photography played 
in the recent war. 

"Supposing — though it is a long 
chance — that you are not in any 
way interested in amateur photog- 
raphy, it is fair to presume that you 
are interested in some other form 
of recreation and if you can find 
one wherein amateur picture mak- 


ing would not increase its pleas- 
ures, you can do better than I can. 

"It so happens that I enjoy the 
acquaintance of one of the biggest 
business men in the country, and as 
a question asker he is without a 

"Everything seems to interest 
lu'm and lie ahvays want-^ to know 
the "how" and "wliy." 

"1 chanced to sit next to him at 
an indoor athletic meeting one 
evemng, the program including a 
number of boxing bouts. 

"He seemed a bit unfamiliar 
with this phase of amateur sport, 
and as the various contestants ap- 
j.eared, he asked me which one I 
diought would win — and why. 

" As the contests proceeded he 
wanted to know which man was 
getting the better of it — and why. 

" He was genuinely interested 
and ever}- query was to the point, 
and I have found him just the same 
wav in relation to Iju-^iness prob- 

"This mental trait, without doubt, 
has been a big factor in his success 
because his wanting to know all 
about things has increased his en- 
joyment and interest. 

"Standing behind a counter all 
day isn't the easiest thing in the 
world; getting into a town at 2 
.\. M. and getting out at midnight, 
and sleeping in strange beds and 
eating small town hotel food isn't 
all it is cracked up to be either, but 
if you will just figure that it is all 
in the day's work and look for the 
interesting things you won't mind 
it nearly so much. You see, I know 
because I have been through all 
ends of it. 

"Tyook for the interesting things, 
know your line from A to Z and 
}()u will tind most of the unpleas- 
antness vanish from \(iur work." 

Vital Points in Window 

G. A. Smith, who has charge of 
tlie win.dows of the general offices 
of the United States Tire Com- 
|)any. ofifers the following funda- 
mental suggestions for those who 
doirc good results from tlu'ir win- 
dows : 

Make the windows all glass, dust- 
proof and frost-proof. 

Have your windows well lighted. 

Plan vour windows to overcome 

Change the backgrounds fre- 

Thoroughly clean all merchan- 
dise before it goes into the window. 

See that window^ hvq kept clean 

Do not crowd the merchandise. 

Do not let window decorations 
conflict with the merchandise. 

Pose the merchandise in a broken 
line, so it won't look like a row of 

Disphn- accessories in the win- 

A neat show card will answer 
many a customer's unasked ques- 
tion. Price tickets on certain goods 
will sell more goods than a high- 
priced clerk. 

Stewart Edward White, the ex- 
pert rifle shot, says the way to 
judge your improvement in shoot- 
ing is to count not your successes 
but your failures. A steady de- 
crease in misses counts for more 
than a few brilliant but flukey 
bull's eyes. The same is true in 
business. A man is inclined to re- 
member a few brilliant but chance- 
aided deals, and forget his fail- 
ures ; yet if he keeps a watch on 
those failures, and sees they de- 
crease in number, he will in the 
end make up a far higher general 




IT is queer, vSam, how some little 
thing, seemingly trivial, will 
make a friend for you or the store. 

"Some years ago I met a man 
named Roberton ; his name struck 
me as a bit unusual, and it stuck in 
my memory as such things some- 
times have a habit of doing. 

"One morning, shortly after I 
had met him, he came into the 
store and I said, ' Good morning, 
Mr. Roberton.' 'Thank goodness,' 
he responded with a broad smile, 
'at last I have found a place where 
they do not call me Robertson or 
Robinson' ; and I had him for a 
friend and a customer as long as 
he lived in the town. 

"It is a funny quirk in human 
nature, Sam, but everyone of us 
likes to have our name remem- 
bered, and if it happens to be un- 
usual, we like to have it correctly 
spelled and pronounced. 

"As you are without doubt 
aware, Sam, I possess a name pe- 
culiarly susceptible to punning, and 
I can always feel a cold chill creep 
up my spine when some misguided 
individual starts to spring a pun on 
my name because I know I am 
going to hear one originally sprung 
on at least my great, great grand- 

"And in the spelling of my name 
— years ago I passed the well 
known "fifty-seven v a r i e t i e s' in 
learning how different people at- 


Ten JKinutes 
with the "Boss 

tempted to put it together. P'ortu- 
nately, Sam. 1 am not supersensi- 
tive on tliis ])oint, and I don't let it 
bother me. just the same I appre- 
ciate the person who does not at- 
tempt to take liberties with it. 

"Sometimes we find that a cer- 
tain customer has transferred his 
business to some other store, and 
for the life of us we can't figure 
out as to why he left, and neither 
can we get any expression from 
him. and I wouldn't be a bit sur- 
prised, Sam, if in some cases we 
really got to the bottom of it we 
would find some seemingly trivial 
reason for it. 

"A lost customer is a lost custo- 
mer, Sam, and we can not afford to 
lose a single one, except for rea- 
sons entirely beyond our control, 
so it seems to me that knowing the 
many peculiarities of people we 
should be exceedingly careful not 
to offend in any such direction. 

"We all have, as a friend of 
mine terms it, 'our pet aversions.' 
I confess to several of them and I 
presume you have some in your 
own collection, but of course we 
have to overlook these while we are 
on the selling side of the counter. 

"Then there is the other side of 
the question, Sam ; the things we 
do like, and the certain way in 
which we like to have some things 

"During the war we had a good 
many officers for customers, and 
you can gamble, Sam, that I kept a 
close eye on their cuffs and badges, 
so that when a Lieutenant had been 


])rom()te(l to a Captaincy, or a Cap- 
tain to a Major, that I didn't ad- 
dress him by the lower rank. 

"T find that most doctors like to 
be addressed as 'Doctor So and 
So.' and have a particular aversion 
to being called 'Doc' If you know 
them intimately enough to call 
them Jini or Sam or George very 
well — but 'Doc' never. And judges, 
even if they haven't been on the 
bench in twenty years, cling most 
affectionately to the title. 

"Lots of people are perfectly 
willing to carry home a package if 
it is wrapped in plain paper, but 
will insist on its being delivered if 
the wrapping is loud in color or 
carries advertising matter. 

" I remember when I was a 
youngster. Sam, a certain candy 
store in our town which, in my 
opinion, carried a bit the choicest 
assortment and gave the most for 
the money, yet I didn't like to go 
there because the proprietor always 
called me 'Bub.' and that appella- 
tion to this day has a grating sound 
on my ears. 

"T am of the opinion that young 
boys simply loathe to be addressed, 
as 'kid,' or by any other term sig- 
nifying immaturity and I find that 
it pleases them mightily to be treat- 
ed with even more dignity than is 
accorded to grown-ups. 

"You see. Sam. when you have 
had to carry papers, or beat rugs 
or carr\- up the ashes to accumulate 
the price of a Brownie, the spend- 
ing of that hard won coin is a mat- 
ter of no small moment, and to be 
com])ared in importance with the 
signing of a Peace Treaty or other 
affair of weight. 

"I happened to be in a store a 
few days ago and standing next 
me at the counter was a lady wear- 
ing white gloves. 

"She picked up a box which had 

been set out for her inspection and 
when she replaced it discovered 
that the tips of her glove fingers 
were covered with dust. 

"vShe could not conceal her an- 
noyance, lost all interest in the 
goods being shown, and left the 

"I don't suppose, Sam. that the 
salesman was to blame for the dust, 
but he was to blame for not discov- 
ering it before the lady got hold of 
the box, and I am afraid that store 
has lost a customer. 

"My small daughter doesn't like 
to go to one store in the neighbor- 
hood because the door opens so 
hard, and she avoids another one 
because of a big dog usually asleep 
in front of the counter. 

"Xow both of these conditions 
could easily be remedied, but as the 
adults can open the door easily and 
know that the dog is a harmless, 
friendly old fellow, both stores are 
losing customers from the mothers 
in the neighborhood who send their 
voungsters on errands. 

■'I am after all the customers T 
can get. Sam. and I want to hold 
them, so that is perhaps why I am 
so keen in noticing these seemingly 
trivial things." 

A salesman should systematize 
his acquired knowledge of selling 

This places his stock of facts 
where they are available for his 
need at any time. 

To be "stumped" by an objec- 
tion to which there is an answer is 
to be like the ignorant merchan- 
dising clerk who couldn't find the 

You can best avoid being forced 
into a defensive position by being 
fortified with the positive facts, — 



vr the'Beginner 
"Behind the Counter 

HERE is an extract from a letter 
whicli fcjrnis the basis for this 
month's I'rimary Page: 

"Every month when the Kodak 
Salesman arrives T read it through 
and find a great many helps in it 
but hardly ever see an article on 
how someone sells Kodaks, or how 
to get the customer interested 
enough to buy a Kodak." 

This same gentleman then pro- 
ceeds to admit that he has sold a 
total of twenty-three Kodaks and 
other cameras in the past seven 
months in a town of less than 400 
population, w h i c h demonstrates 
that he is not in desperate need of 
selling ideas. 

In his letter he brings out a good 
selling idea used by him. When he 
has the customer's interest cen- 
tered on some particular model he 
produces a sample print ( one sup- 
plied by us ) made with that model. 

He remarks, "Tliis always seems 
to please the customer and this 
plan has helped me to sell a good 
many Kodaks and other cameras." 

To be of assistance to this in- 
quirer, and to others in similar po- 
sitions, we mav have to repeat some 
of the points we have brought out 
in previous articles. 

A good rule to begin with is : 
Never be afraid to show the higher 
priced goods first. 

If you have started too high you 
can always gracefully descend to 
the customer's financial level, but 


vou will find it nuicli liardcr to 
boost a sale u])war(l if you have 
started too low. 

The customer will appreciate 
your implication that he wants only 
the best, even if he does eventually 
select some one of the less ex])en- 
sive models. 

Right here a thought to always 
have in mind: If you see that the 
camera shown is higher in price 
than he cares to pay, never say. 
" Let me show you something 
cheaper!" Avoid always the word 
"cheap!" it has no place in the vo- 
cabulary of the first-class salesman. 

Show a smaller model, or if you 
have been showing a " Special." 
show a regular model and remark, 
" Here is one a bit less expensive 
which is Eastman quality all 
through and will give you excellent 

If a boy or girl comes in and 
asks to see a Brownie, show them 
first a 3A or some other of the 
folding type; they may go out with 
a Box Brownie or Premo, l)ut it 
will be with a longing for the fold- 
ing camera, and boys, and girls, too. 
have a way of saving nickels and 
quarters for what they want. 

It does not appear to be a good 
plan to ask the customer as to what 
size picture he desires to take, be- 
cause in most instances he is un- 
familiar with the various sizes. 

In ninety cases out of a hundred 
you will be safe in showing the 
average man the 3A size first. 

Do not set out three or four dif- 
ferent models at the same time for 


his inspection because by so doing 
you will divide his interest, and 
you will experience greater diffi- 
culty in getting him to concentrate 
on any particular one. 

A time tested ])lan is to place 
some one of the folding models, un- 
opened, in the customer's hands, at 
the same time remarking that it is 
one of the most popular models. 

By placing the camera, unopened, 
in his hands; you at once concen- 
trate his attention ; allow him to 
examine it for a moment or so, 
then take it from liim. oj)en it and 
extend the bellows, and proceed 
with your selling talk. 

But why liand it In liini at first 
unopened . 

The answer is simple : Because 
you want to be sure of his undi- 
vided interest from iJie start. 

If you show it to him extended, 
his eyes will take in the shinv lens 
and shutter, and the other operat- 
ing mechanisms, his mind will wan- 
der to them and he will not hear 
your opening remarks, and the 
opening sentence to a sale is often 
of more importance than the clos- 
ing one. 

Xo matter how well posted vou 
are on. things ])hotographic, don't 
attempt to display your knowledge 
too much, particularly when you 
see that your customer is interested 
in his first camera. 

Talk simplicity, avoid the use of 
technical names and phrases ; show 
how simple and easy it is to take 

" Why. anybody, even a young- 
ster, can take good pictures with a 
Kodak ; simplest thing in the world. 
Yes, you can load a film into the 
camera anx-where, in any light." 

(Remove the back and demon- 

"Then all you have to do i"; to 
turn this thumbscrew mitil num- 

ber one ap])ears in this little red 
window here in the back. 

"Then locate the image in thi< 
little thing called the 'finder.' (Al- 
low the customer to do this. ) Press 
this release and there you are. 

"A very complete instruction 
book comes with the camera and 
tells you all you need to know to 
make good pictures. Also, you will 
receive, without extra charge, a 
year's subscription to a mightv 
cleverly written photographic maga- 
zine called Kodak ery — see. here is 
the blank in the manual to be filled 

When you have made the sale — 
and not l)efore, Ijccause some folks 
are afraid they cannot understand 
any mechanism, explain how to 
estimate distances in using the fo- 
cusing scale, and how to set the 
shutter for the various exposures, 
and how to make use of the dif- 
ferent stop openings. 

Have the customer perform these 
operations — show him how simple 
it really is, and make him feel sure 
by inviting him to come in early 
and often, that you are truly in- 
terested in seeing that lie gets good 

Some clerks say there is no senti- 
ment in business. They are wrong. 
Business is full of sentiment. The 
reason for there not being more 
sentiment exhibited between pro- 
prietors and clerks lies in the fact 
that the clerk, as a rule, thinks that 
all of the sentiment should come 
from the boss. He forgets that like 
begets like, and that the clerk with 
sentiment for the man for whom he 
works will call forth like sentiment 
from the other fellow. — N. D. C. 



For the out-of-doors days 


And not merely the alkirin<r picture story, but on e\ery 
neo;ati\c at least a date; and a title, too, if \"ou like. 1 itlino; 
IS the work of but an instant with an Autographic Kodak; 
is as simple as makin<^ the picture itself — and there is no 
extra change for Autoy;raphic film. 

If it is/i' i (Ui R(isf)inin, it is/i' t <i Kixldh. 



tiKloiiiir irn lit ijiiin- dcnlcrs or h,i mnil. 

One of our May magazine advertisements (reduced) 


Work is the best thing ever invented 
for killing time. 

Tzuo ''k\s\ an '' o\ a '^/" and an 'V/' 

In 1888 when the above letters were first 
euphoniousl_v assembled they meant nothing. 
To-cla\- thev mean protection for you in the pur- 
chase of photographic goods. 

Arrano:ed to spell "Kodak", they signify certain 
products of the Kodak Companies, such as Kodak Cameras, 
Kodak Tri]>ods and Kodak Film Tanks. 

Kodak is our registered and common law trade-mark 
and cannot be rightfully applied except to goods of our 

If it is)C t ail Eastman, it isil t a Kodak. 






You may crowd a customer 
into buying something against 
his judgment, but you can^t 
crowd him into being satisfied 
with it afterward. 

—Glove Tips. 


If you toot your little tooter 
And lay away your horn, 

Within a week there's not a soul 
Will know that you were horn. 

The man who tries to advertise, 
By short and sudden jerks, 

Is the man who's always kicking 
Because it never works. 

The fellow who is on the job 

A-humpin' every day, 
And keeps forever at it. 

He's the one who makes it pay. 

— Hiibbdl s Individualitx . 



There is certainty in ]Mcture-making with a Graflex. 
The user of the Graflex brushes aside the usual handi- 
caps — he almost disregards subject, time, place or light. 

The 1-1000 of a second snaji that sto])s the bird on the 
wing, the slow snap for an indoor i)ortrait, the prolonged 
time exposure — all are easily within its scope. 

Graflex widens the possibilities of pictorial 



Cilil'nnw fi-f at Willi- Il.jllrr's nr hi, miiil. 

Graflex advertisement (reduced) 


an aia to t/ie Tnan oenina the cotrnteT- 

Vol. 6 

JUNE, 1920 


Know the Graflex 

With Graflex advertising occupy- 
ing pages and half -pages in many 
of the general magazines for May, 
your customers are going to ex- 
hibit a quickened interest in the 
Graflex. Somebody is very apt to 
ask you about this camera in some- 
thing less than 1/1500 of a second, 
Graflex time, and if you will just 
travel along with us for a column 
or so, we may be able to give you 
some helpful facts. Bear in mind, 
too, that even if you haven't the 
goods right now, a well-posted 
salesman can do a lot toward nurs- 
ing along enthusiasm and building 
a sale for the future. And when 
the bell rings on a Graflex sale, it 
keeps right on vibrating. 

There is a tendency on the part 
of those uninitiated in picture tak- 
ing the Graflex way, to consider the 
Graflex complicated. Actually, pic- 
ture-making with a Graflex is par- 
ticularly easy, and the uncertainties 
of the beginner are due to unfa- 
miliarity with the mechanical ad- 
justments. The reflecting principle 
of the Graflex requires little expla- 
nation. The swinging mirror in- 
terposed between the lens and the 
film or plate reflects the full picture 
size image upon the focusing screen. 
Watching this brilliant image of the 
subject, one can accurately arrange 
the picture and focus to suit. There 
is no guess work. 

The shutter consists of a long 
curtain having metal bound aper- 
tures of different sizes. An adjust- 
able tension regulates the pull on 
this curtain and the speed with 
which this curtain moves across the 
plate or film during exposure. A 
shutter speed plate attached to the 
camera shows the fraction of a 
second exposure that is obtained 
with the various combinations of 
curtain apertures and tension num- 
bers. There are twenty-four in- 
stantaneous exposures available 
with the four apertures in the cur- 
tain and the six tension numbers. 
There are also adjustments for 
slow instantaneous and time expo- 

But one thing remains to show 
the way clearly — exposure tables 
that W\\\ show the fraction of a 
second exposure required for the 
subject to be photographed. The 
Graflex Exposure Tables provided 
with every camera that leaves our 
factory, illustrated by picture and 
subject groupings, cover a very 
wide variety of subjects and indi- 
cate the exposure or shutter speed 
required for the subject, during a 
certain month of the year, hour of 
the day or under certain light con- 
ditions, with a basic lens stop. 

Don't start out with the idea that 
the Graflex is complicated. One 
cannot imagine a camera with 



which pictures can be made easier 
'or with greater certainty, because 
you see every picture before it is 
made. The effect of every adjust- 
ment of the focusing button is vis- 
ible as 3'ou watch the reflected 
image. Every adjustment of the 
lens stop, regulating the degree of 
sharpness of this reflected image, is 
also visible. What could be sim- 

The Graflex has been too fre- 
quently associated with speed pic- 
tures alone, possibly because of the 
high shutter speeds available with 
it. The usefulness of the full pic- 
ture size reflection in making pic- 
tures of still life is frequently lost 
sight of, whereas it is just as im- 
portant and just as helpful in mak- 
ing landscapes and portraits as it is 
in centering a rapidly moving ob- 
ject upon the plate. 

Another valuable Graflex feature 
is the higli illumination and uni- 
form exposure of the Graflex Eocal 
Plane shutter. All the light enter- 
ing the lens is transmitted to the 
plate or film from the beginning to 
the end of the exposure. That is 
the reason why fully timed nega- 
tives are obtained at high shutter 
speeds, as well as under conditions 
of light, thought impossible for 
photGgra])hy. The metal bound 
curtain apertures are constant in 
size and sha])e. Therefore the plate 
is uniformly exposed. 

There are the popular size models 
of Graflex that use Eastman Auto- 
graphic or X. C. cartridge film ex- 
clusively. There are other models 
where Graflex roll film, Premo film 
packs or any of the brands of plates 
may be interchangeably used. 

Know the Graflex. 

For the Man Who Writes Your Ads 

When you have written an ad- 
vertisement, read it over again, and 
then ask yourself : 

Is it true? 

Does it ring with sincerity? 

Does it "knock" or even slur? 

Has it too much novelty ? 

Is the language too flowery? 

Is it grammatical ? 

Is the wording as direct and sim- 
ple as it should be ? 

Does each word best express the 
meaning you want to convey? 

Can any part of your text be 
misunderstood? the punctuation and spelling 

Is there too much copy for the 
space ? 

Will your text of twenty-five 
words or fewer make the reader 
think of a hundred ? 

Does the illustration link up with 
the text ? 

Does it tell a story?' 

Does your "add" as a whole have 
the atmosphere of the goods adver- 
tised ? 

Wil! it get your message across? 

W"\\\ the type set-up and the gen- 
eral layout permit the text to be 
read ec.sily ? 

W'ill the "ad" appeal directly to 
the audience you want it to reach? 

In gauging the sales value of your 
text, have you put yourself in the 
reader's place? 

Will it sell the goods? — Puhlicity. 

Kodakery will keep the beginner interested and enthusiastic. 



"Kodakery" for July 

The leading article in July 
Kodakcry contains practical points 
on the proper exposure for outdoor 
subjects. Specific information as 
to just what exposure with what 
stop for the various types of pic- 
tures is given in comprehensive 
tables. It is just the sort of an 
article that not only will you want 
to read yourself but that you will 
want your customers to read. Call 
their attention to it. It helps you 
to better business because it helps 
them to better pictures. 

" We Graflex a ]\Iob Scene in 
Rirdland " — there's a title that 

arouses interest and the story, it- 
self, sustains it. There is plenty of 
human interest even if the charac- 
ters are birds — and instructive as 

A story on "Outdoor Silhouettes" 
strikingly illustrated and a helpful 
explanation as to " The difference 
between under-exposure and under- 
development" are two other articles 
tliat command particular attention. 

Kodakery is always alive with 
interest for the Kodak salesman. 
It's a distinct help to sales. Every 
issue gives the man behind the 
counter valuable selling pointers. 

What Is a Dopitpo? 

While Cooper was waiting for 
his collars to be wrapped up at the 
Smart Shop he noticed this sign on 
the counter, "This is a Dopitpo." 
Above the sign was the article, it- 

The interrogation point was in- 
evitable. "What in blue blazes is a 
Dopitpo?" asked Cooper. And, of 
course, the salesman told him. The 
Dopitpo, let us say, was a clever 
device for hanging trousers. Per- 
haps Cooper didn't need a trousers' 
hanger but in any event he had had 
the article brought forcefully to his 
attention so that when he does want 
one he knows where to go and what 
kind to get. 

Now suppose that Cooper instead 
of going to the Smart Shop for 
collars had gone to your store for 
film. And suppose instead of the 
article "Dopitpo" the little sign had 
concerned itself with the "Optipod" 
which by a strange coincidence that 
savours of the supernatural is 
"Dopitpo" spelled backwards. You 
turn to get Cooper his film but even 
as you do so the sign catches his 
eye. "This is an Optipod." "What 

in blistering sunlight is an Opti- 
pod ?" says Cooper. Then you tell 
him. You explain what a handy 
little Kodak help the Optipod is. It 
really amounts to a pocket tripod. 
You tell him that it will clamp tight 
to any straight edge and show him 
the value of the ball and socket. 
His question invites you to sell him 
— naturally you try. Perhaps he 
buys and perhaps not but he's not 
going to forget that there is such a 
thing as an Optipod and that your 
store sells it. 

If you can deftly make the cus- 
tomer ask a specific question about 
a specific article, naturally the prob- 
lem of suggesting new goods is 

The above method works suc- 
cessfully with the Optipod because 
the name itself arouses speculation 
and the calm assumption that every- 
body knows all about it, prods the 
human bump of curiosity to the in- 
terrogation point. 

There's the Kodapod, too, — and 
the Kodak Self Timer. — although 
the latter has not quite as seductive 

It's worth while trvinsf. 


Fireless Locomotive At Kodak Park 

You have no doubt heard of fire- 
less cookers and wireless tele- 
phones, but have you ever heard of 
a fireless locomotive? No, we don't 
mean an electric locomotive, but 
a real steam locomotive, hauling 
trains of freight cars and operating 
without the smallest spark of a 

This is the type of locomotive 
used in the yards at Kodak Park, 
Rochester, N.Y., and it is known as 
a fireless steam storage locomotive. 

This engine carries a tank which 
is filled about four-fifths full of 
water, after which steam is admit- 
ted to the tank from the boilers at 
the power house by means of a 
pipe, until the pressure has reached 
125 pounds. At this pressure, the 
boiling point of water is 353° 
Fahrenheit instead of 212° as at 
normal pressure. As the steam is 
used, the pressure is lowered, and 
the boiling point of the water is 
also lowered, so that more steam is 

formed. The pres^^ure in the cylin- 
ders is 60 pounds, but the locomo- 
tive can be operated with the pres- 
sure as low as 20 pounds, until 
with the pressure 15 pounds, the 
locomotive is only able to propel it- 
self back to the power house to be 
recharged. At 60 pounds pressure, 
the tractive effort or pulling power 
is 14,520 pounds. 

This engine, which is used for 
moving freight cars about our own 
yards, handles from 30 to 40 car- 
loads of material a day. We re- 
cently received a train of 80 freight 
cars, two-thirds of a mile long, 
which this small engine was able to 
draw as one train. 

The use of this type of locomo- 
tive obviates the danger of fire 
caused by sparks. All soot and 
smoke are also eliminated and the 
engine can be operated by one man, 
there being no need of a fireman. 

Where there isn't any fire there 
isn't any smoke — and the manufac- 


turers saw no necessity for a smoke 
stack on a fireless locomotive. The 
engineer who drives the locomotive 
thought differently, however. Some- 
how he missed that little home 
touch of the familiar stack. So 
concerned was he, that he attached 
a length of stove pipe, which, as 
you will notice from the accompa- 
nying photograph, lends an air of 
respectability and conservatism to 

the engine that might otherwise be 
sadly lacking. 

A large locomotive of this same 
type is now being built specially for 
us at The Baldwin Locomotive 
\\'orks. Its tank will hold a pres- 
sure of 200 pounds, and its weight 
will be 128,000 pounds. \\'ith a 
pressure of 60 pounds in the cylin- 
der, it will have a pulling power of 
25,660 pounds. 

When They Get Kodakery They Get Enthusiastic 

^Ir. \\'illiam Maddock likes Ko 

dakcry and not only was he good 
enough to write and tell us so while 
renewing his subscription for two 
years but courteous enough to allow 
us to reproduce his letter when we 
asked him for permission. ]\Ir. 
!Maddock writes : 

"Kodakery is the most welcome 
magazine that comes to my house. 
It is the one magazine that I read 
from cover to cover. Moreover, 
Kodakery- is a veritable storehouse 
of photographic information from 
the picture on the cover to \'elox 
on the back. 

"Kodakery is 99.5% perfect and 
I know the other five-tenths is 
forthcoming. I should like to have 
you know the various points which 
appeal to me. The greatest of all 
is the volume index which is so 
complete that any subject within 
the realm of amateur photography 
from handling your first camera to 
the scientific treatment of light is 
readily available. I never leave 
for a week-end Kodak hike with- 
out previously consulting Kodak- 
ery. I have my plan all made and 
I go to your index to find how to 
put it into action. In the early 
days I used to ponder over the 
numerous exposure devices and al- 
wavs got floored on the constant 

of 'Subject." In Kodakery I find 
subjects of various classification, 
with the exposure conditions accu- 
rately described and the actual ex- 
posure given. I carefully go over 
these pictures which are most beau- 
tifully reproduced and mark the 
classification and it only remains 
for me to get them in my mind's 
eye and use the information on my 
own subjects under similar condi- 
tions. This has saved me many 
dollars, it has secured me many a 
picture which would have cost dol- 
lars to duplicate and other pictures 
which could never be duplicated. 
It is with a sense of security that I 
go into the fields for pictures after 
reviewing Kodakery. 

"Kodakery is my consulting pho- 
tographic engineer." 

Isn't that a nice letter ? 

Kodakery breeds enthusiasm. 
Not only do its readers make better 
pictures but more pictures. It 
brings your customers back and 
keeps bringing them back. 

That's to remind you of the dot- 
ted line on the Kodakery subscrip- 
tion blank. 

Are they all working or are 
there Kodaks idle for want of 


The Why of the Anastigmat and the Kodak 
Anastigmat in Particular 


Article V 

If we use a smaller stop with a 
lens, the definition over the whole 
film will be improved and the ques- 
tion then arises as to whether or 
not we can cover a larger film using 
this smaller stop. It has already 
been pointed out that the image of 
a point source of light produced by 
a lens is. due to the residual aber- 
rations, a small area and not a 

opening the corresponding increase 
in permissible film size depends 
upon the rate at which the aberra- 
tions increase in the region beyond 
the node. 

point. When the lens is stopped 
down as shown in Fig. 13 the efl:"ect 
is to decrease the size of the area 
and. since the image of any object 
can be thought of as made up of 
a series of points, th.e definition is 
bettered. Looking at the matter 
from the opposite point of view we 
may say that a lens which may fail 
to come up to a certain standard of 
definition at a large stop may be ac- 
ceptable when the opening is de- 
creased. It is at once seen, there- 
fore, that when the opening is made 
smaller we may, if we like, make 
use of a little more of the region of 
the field lying beyond the node in 
which the definition was not satis- 
factory with a large stop. In other 
words, with a smaller stop we can 
cover a larger film with our lens. 
For a given decrease in the lens 


Fig. 13 
As pointed out above, in the case 
of the Kodak Anastigmat. the as- 
tigmatism increases rapidly beyond 
the node so that a reduction of stop 
does not permit of the use of a 
much larger film. There is shown 
in Fig. 14. the right hand diagram 
of Fig. 12 published on page 6. 
April issue, a field curve for a lens 
in which the astigmatism does not 
increase so rapidly beyond the node. 
With this lens the increase in cov- 
ering power gained through a re- 
duction of stop diameter will be a 
little greater. There is nothing 
mysterious about this increase in 
covering power with decreasing 
stop diameter ; it is under the con- 
trol of the designer as is any other 
property of his lens. But a lens 
is a compromise ; it is impossible to 
eliminate all aberrations and obtain 
the theoretically perfect lens. One 
aberration is balanced against an- 
other so that all are at the practical 


minimum and at the same time care 
is taken that the design is not too 
difficult of manufacture. There 
could be made a lens for Kodaks 
which would give an appreciable 
increase in covering power with de- 
creasing stop diameter but it would 
not be the Kodak Anastigmat. To 
make such a lens would violate the 
ideal which prompted the produc- 
tion of the Kodak Anastigmat for 
the attainment of this feature 
would mean the abandonment of 
the present design 
and the adoption 
of another more 
difficult and con- 
sequently m o r e 
costly of manu- 

There was a 
time when ever_\- 
man. or at least 
every family, was 
self- sufficient ; 
man did not de- 
pend upon others 
for the securing 
of his clothing, food, or fuel, or 
for the constructioix of his dwell- 
ing and its furnishings. His wants 
were simple and the requirements 
of the family could be fulfilled 
within itself. As the human race 
has progressed, however, our wants 
have enormously multiplied and it 
has become impossible for the indi- 
vidual to make his own house, con- 
struct his automobile, forage for 
himself or make his own clothing: 
his wants are so many and so varied 
that the}- would be impossible of 
fulfillment were he left entirely to 
his own devices. Specialization is 
the key which gives access to the 
satisfaction of our manifold de- 
sires. By having every man per- 
form that task for which he is best 
fitted, and that task alone, the effi- 
ciencv of the race has been so in- 

The "why" of the an- 
astigmat is often the 
"how" of a sale. Dr. 
Chapman's articles are 
authoritative, and while 
clerks may not be inter- 
ested, salesmen and 
saleswomen will realize 
their value at once. The 
series began in the Jan- 
uary issue. 

creased that the multitudinous long- 
ings of the present generation are 
fulfilled with an individual effort 
far less than that put forth by our 
forefathers in the struggle for their 
few necessities. Modern conditions 
do not call for the jack of all trades 
but the specialist is in increasing 

There are on the market lenses 
which will perform a number of 
functions very satisfactorily; they 
work well at /. 6.8 say ; they cover 
a given film or 
plate with good 
definition : w h e n 
stopped d o w n 
t h e y will work 
with a larger film ; 
they are converti- 
ble, giving really 
three focal 
lengths with one 
objective : and 
the\' are expen- 
sive. For profes- 
sionals and ad- 
vanced amateurs 
doing certain sorts of work they 
are admirable. But the amateur, 
generally speaking, has one camera 
only; he is not interested in being 
able to cover a larger film by stop- 
ping down his lens because he uses 
no larger plate or film than his one 
camera will take. Xor does he re- 
quire a convertible lens. His one 
interest is in obtaining with the 
camera which he has the very best 
possible photographs. Kodak An- 
astigmats are not convertible nor, 
when stopped down, will they cover 
a film appreciably larger than the 
one for which they are listed. But 
they will cover this film with the 
very best of definition and are 
available at a price within the reach 
of every amateur. The Kodak An- 
astigmat is a specialist. It was con- 
ceived with the idea of furnishing: 


to the greatest possible number of 
people the means to better pictures. 
It ma}- be that a lens is relatively 
free from all of the aberrations 
hitherto mentioned so that it gives 
sharp, clear images on the plate, yet 
these images may not be exactly 
similar to the objects themselves as 
regards their geometrical propor- 
tions. A lens giving such results is 
said to be affected by distortion. 
For instance, if we photograph a 

l-io. 15 

Pin Cushion Distortion 

square network of lines such as 
that shown in Fig. 15 with a lens 
from which distortion has not been 
eliminated, we shall get a negative 
upon which the network appears 
similar to one of the deformed net- 
work. That is to say. there are 
two sorts of distortion — pin cush- 

ion distortion and barrel distortion. 
In the case of pin cushion distor- 
tion points are displaced away from 
the center of the picture as regards 
the position which they should oc- 
cupy. This displacement increases 
as the distance from the center of 
the picture increases so that ob- 
jects near the edge are relatively 
displaced more than those nearer 
the middle of the picture. In bar- 
rel distortion this effect is just 
reversed, the displacement being 
toward the center of the picture. 

Barrel Distortion 

Xozv — xcheti the number of negatives passing from i/oiir fin- 
ishing department over tlie counter to customers is greatest, is 
the time to mention enlargements. The timely suggestion xcill 
interest manij in this fascinating branch of amateur photography 
and increase your sales of Enlarging Cameras and Bromide 



A Window in Spain 

Kodak Covers the Earth 

The window display, illustrated 
above, comes all the way from 
Spain, reminding us that Kodak 
goods are the standard photogra- 
phic products of all countries. 

It may be interesting to our read- 
ers to learn that since the war in 
building up our export trade Kodak 
goods "Made in Canada" have been 
shipped from Toronto for distribu- 
tion in many parts of South Amer- 
ica, Asia, Africa, and Europe. 

The unusually attractive window 
from Spain seems to us well adapt- 
ed for use here. Substitute a Kodak 
enlargement for the center frame 
and one or two window cards in 
place of the long strip that runs 
across the platform and the display 
may easily be duplicated by anyone. 

"All Outdoors Invites your Ko- 
dak" — here's a window that will 
help to tell 'em so. 




The bosses diary 
as kept by his son 

April 12 — I mowed the lawn this 
afternoon because I take a great 
deal of pried in the way our place 
looks and besides I axidently threw 
a rock through the garadge win- 
dow and I thought that if my dad 
saw me mowing the lawn when he 
came home it might be a pretty 
good thing. And so when father 
got home I w'as mowing the lawn 
and he looked kind of suprised and 
he said you aren't sick are you and 
I said — no, father, but I take quite 
a lot of pried in the way our place 
looks. And he said that's the idea, 
son, now get your ball and glove 
and we will have a game of catch 
before dinner. And I got the ball 
and glove and my dad said — Now 
I'll pitch because I was a champeen 
pitcher not so many years ago. And 
so he vvent through a lot of mo- 
tions and finally threw the ball and 
it must have slipped or something 
because it went about ten feet over 
my head and sailed right through 
the garadge window that I had 
broke, so, of course, he thought 
then that he was the one that broke 
it and I don't see any reason for 
telling him any different — at tliat 
he blamed me for not jumping 10 
feet in the air and stopping it. 

April 14 — My dad got to talking 
to-night and he said that there's a 
fella he knows that is forever giv- 
ing advice but never accepting it. 
He is one of these fellas that re- 
fuses to use an idea luiless it bears 
his ow-n imprint. If it's his thought 
he passes it on — if it's somebody 

else's he passes it up : whenever you 
catch him listening — you'll hear him 

As a result, my dad said, his ad- 
vance has been so rapid that the 
eye can't deteckt it. jNIy dad says 
that he would like to introduce that 
fella to an echo. 

An echo only speaks when its 
spoken to. 

April 26 — Since I got to keeping 
this diary I've been giving my dad 
a lot of my time and I guess he's 
pretty glad to have somebody to 
talk to about the store because 
every time he starts at the dinner 
table mother says For Heavens 
sakes. Frank, can't you talk about 
anything but business. And then 
mother says that it's high time she 
had a new car and high time she 
had a new dress and high time we 
had the house painted — mother 
don't konfine herself to one subjeck 
like father does. But father don't 
seem to like it very well and he 
starts to kritisize the food and then 
both of them don't say nothing. 

My dad was telling me about a 
new man in the photografic depart- 
ment and he said that he liked the 
way he started out. He said that 
the first thing he did was to go 
through all the Kodaks and make 
sure that he knew how to open them 
properly because all the cameras 
don't open the same and a fella 
wants to be sure of himself. My 
dad says that no one can close a 
sale that can't open a Kodak. 

Then my dad got to talking about 
when he was All-American delivery 
boy in 1896 but I've heard all that 
before so when his back was 
turned I sneaked out and joined 
the gang and I could still hear him 
talking through the open window. 

My dad says a salesman is known by the customers he keeps. 



vr the^eginner 
'Behind the Counter 

IT seems safe to assume that the 
majority of the readers directly 
interested in this page will have had 
but a limited experience in sales- 
manship of any sort. 

With such assumption this may 
be a fitting place to call to your at- 
tention some of the things you can 
do to build up your department. 

You can scarcely expect any 
young man or woman just starting 
on a business career to have given 
any deep thought to salesmanship 
as a science. 

Due to this, man}- regard it their 
job to simply hand out the goods 
the customer may ask for, and to 
be sufificiently well informed to 
locate the goods promptlv. and to 
answer the usual questions regard- 
ing them. 

This attitude will tie you firmlv 
to the clerk class and forever bar 
you from becoming a salesman. 

A pleasing personality, a willing- 
ness to be of service, and a thor- 
ough knowledge of the goods are 
all prime essentials in salesmanship, 
but there is a whole lot more to it 
than that. 

For instance, in comes a person 
who remarks. "I may buy a camera 
some day. so I thought I would just 
look around a little."' 

You may say to yourself, "(^h. 
just a looker, so why waste much 
time or effort." 

If you do this you are making a 
mistake. Have you ever stopped to 

think that the hardest problem the 
merchant has is to get people into 
his store, and that all the money he 
expends for store location, adver- 
tising and window displays is done 
to accomplish this purpose? 

Even if the person before you is 
only a "looker" he is in the store 
and it is most decidedly uj) to you 
to try and turn him into a customer. 

Thi> doesn't mean that if the 
store is crowded w^ith customers 
and you are endeavoring to wait 
upon two or more people at the 
same time, you are to devote your 
sole attention to this "looker ;" but 
}ou can. and should, show him all 
the attention possible. 

There are. however. man\- occa- 
sions when you have ample time 
to proj^erly handle a "looker" and 
then you can make your description 
of the merchandise so attractive, 
and your personal interest in the 
customer so apparent, that his inter- 
est will increase to the buying point. 

This naturally can not be done 
every time but it can be done and 
has been done in a surprising num- 
ber of instances. 

A little attention to some per- 
sonal want of a customer will often 
turn an occasional customer into a 
regular one. It often happens that 
a woman customer will come in 
with a number of bundles; you will 
find that it will always pay you to 
ask her if she would not like to 
have them all wrapped together. 



In your own particular line you 
will find man}' ways to be of special 

Sometimes a beginner will pull 
out a bunch of prints which he. or 
more often she, has attempted to 
trim with a pair of scissors. 

If the c^uantity is not excessive it 
will not take long to trim them^ 
properly, and your act besides mak- 
ing a friend may lead to the sale of 
a trimming board — but don't do it 
as though you only had the sale of 
the trimmer in mind. 

Always bear in mind that the 
average customer does not know 
the stock as well as you do, and 
that you can suggest many things 
that will be new and interesting to 
him, though old to you. 

For instance, a customer may 
bring in some fine landscape nega- 
tives and it will not do you any 
harm to show him some prints, 
and to suggest a paper would be 
especially well adapted to his nega- 

He may not follow your sugges- 
tions but he will appreciate your in- 

Usually the customer comes in to 
the store with some specific thing 

or things in mind; if he sees noth- 
ing but those particular things, his 
purchase is limited to that extent. 

One of the big ideas in merchan- 
dising is to get the customer inter- 
ested in things other than those he 
came in for ; to get him to think, 
"Why, there is something I'd like," 
or "What is that ?" 

This accounts for the many coun- 
ter display stands for the sale of 
small articles, and is also the rea- 
son why so many stores put pack- 
ages of chewing gum and candy in 
close proximitv to the cashier's 

In your case this means attention 
to your displays of photographic 
sundries. Don't keep the sundries 
hidden away in drawers or on the 
shelves ; put them in a show case 
where they are plainly visible. 

Whenever possible have a small 
card telling what the name of the 
sundry is, and what it is for. You 
will be surprised how many articles 
your show case will sell for you. 

Keep constantl}- in mind the 
building up of your department; if 
you do, many more ways and means 
will come to vou. 

Here Is An Idea for Store Signs 

Investigators have made careful 
tests with a view to deciding the 
legibility of colored letters on col- 
ored papers, the distance, size and 
form of the type used and other 
conditions being the same. The 
following list shows their findings 
in order of legibility : 

1. I Hack letters on yellow 


2. Green letters on white 


3. Blue letters on white 


4. White letters on blue 


5. Black letters on white 


6. Yell(5w letters on black 


7. White letters on red 


8. White letters on green 


9. White letters on black 

10. Red letters on yellow 
It might pay some merchants to 
study the above list when making 
up sign cards or window posters. — 
The Red Ball. 




Fl'XXY, isn't it, Sam, how some 
seemingly unrelated thing will 
set up a train of thought. This 
morning I found that my watch 
was misbehaving so I stopped into 
a store down the street to have it 
looked over. 

"When the jeweler opened up the 
case I saw the various big wheels 
and little ones, and the tiny hair 
spring and some of the almost mi- 
croscopic screws that hold the vari- 
ious parts together. 

"Now I had investigated the in- 
wards' of a watch before with no 
particular thought of their relation 
to anything else than the correct re- 
cording of time. 

"This time, however, as I walked 
back here I got to comparing the 
mechanism of my watch with our 
store organization. 

"It seemed a fitting comparison 
between the parts of the watch and 
the members of our staff here. 

"Xo matter how small the part, 
if it goes wrong it affects the whole 

"And, Sam, it is just the same 
here in the store. 

"Suppose Mike does a poor job 
of window washing, or forgets to 
wash them : the passers-by are apt 
to think from this that we just 
can't be an up-to-date store, and so 
continue to be just passersby in- 
stead of 'comers-in.' 

"Perhaps one of the delivery men 

Ten JKinutes 
with the "Boss 

leaves a package at the wrong ad- 
dress, or holds a 'rush' delivery 
package over until the following 
day, and so disappoints a customer 
who needed the goods badly ; this 
gives the whole organization a jolt 
and we may lose a customer by it, 
or have to make apologies and con- 
cessions which should have been 

"Again, you or I, Sam, might 
come down to the store some morn- 
ing feeling a bit off" color and rep- 
rimand some employee unju'^tly; it 
is a safe bet, Sam, that we wouldn't 
get a full or a good day's work 
from him, and that he would hold 
resentment a good long time after 
we had forgotten the incident. 

"Maybe Tom, out in the shipping 
room, pries the cover off' a box and 
leaves a part of it with a nail stick- 
ing up; along comes one of the 
other boys and steps on the nail. 
He may be laid up for a day or a 
week, and so this part of our organ- 
ization goes out of balance. 

"Some clerk doesn't know the 
line and so gives misinformation, or 
none at all, or is indifferent or un- 
civil to a customer ; that puts sand 
in the gears, Sam, and a few repe- 
titions will come pretty near stop- 
ping the works. 

"Petty jealousies and personal 
dislikes — just suppose, Sam, if one 
wheel of a watch took a dislike to a 
neighbor wheel and refused to 
mesh properly, or a pinion tried to 
run off true just because it thought 
it was better than some other part 
of the works. 

"\W can not always overcome 



our personal dislikes. Sam. but we 
can keep tliem from interfering 
with business, and a jealous person 
is his own worst enemy. Every or- 
ganization must have whole hearted 
co-operation to get results. 

"Every member of the organiza- 
tion from the latest acquisition in 
the way of an errand boy. to the 
boss, must feel that his part of the 
work is important and that if he 
slights it. it will be felt all through 
the force. 

"Xow human hearts, Sam. have 

it over the parts of the watch in 
that the employee starting in the 
humblest capacity has, if he has it 
in him, the opportunity to some da\- 
be the 'main spring' of the whole 

"Folks have got to recognize. 
Sam, that the main spring has to be 
of first equality tempered steel; that 
just soft iron or a strip of tin will 
not do. and so if aspirations are 
directed towards the main spring 
class, the candidates must expect to 
go through the tempering process 
before thev arrive." 

He Fell in Love 

He was just a regular sort of a 
fellow. There was nothing about 
him that made the boss pick him 
for a winner, nor was there any- 
thing about him that made the boss 
want to fire him. ;-■ .-- 

He came in at 8^ every morn- 
ing. You could set your watch 
when he entered the office. He 
punched the clock at 12:^30 out, and 
in at 1 ?0O with a precision that 
would have made a chronometer 
jealous. He was quiet and never in 
the way. He did what he was told 
to do, and nothing more, even if he 
had to sit idle. At S^jxeioek he left 
just as regularly as 5 ^o'clock came 

He never got angry. H things 
in his department went wrong, it 
didn't bother him the least bit. He 
seemed to feel that it was up to his 
boss, the department head, to do all 
the bothering. 

H his department made a partic- 
ularly good showing he didn't 
throw his hat in the air and give a 
yell and offer to buy a Coca Cola 
for the crowd — not by a long shot. 
He simply went ahead with his 

And then suddenly and without 
warning he fell in love. 

And gracious, what a change L-^ 

He startled the ©ffice by show- 
ing up ahead of time, and more, by 
putting some pep into his work. 
Twelve-Thirty would come along, 
and 1 o'clock, and there he'd be — 
plugging away at-hts-d^-sk. A sand- 
wich and a glass of milk, consumed 
in ten minutes, was his regular 

He made a whole lot of sugges- 
tions about his work, and the work 
of the department, and the work 
of the whole organization. And 
good suggestions, too ! 
^ He st{ick around the office every 
night until the watchman put him 
out. and then he would take some 
work home,^ When his department 
beat all the other departments on 
sales, he gave a whoop of joy that 
sounded like a Com.auekie Indian. 

And just because he had fallen 
in love ! 

With a girl? Oh, no. You're all 

He fell in love with his job! — 


This is the key to wealth, and the door to power, and the way to 
splendid service: Ambition that says: "I must!" Confidence that 
says: "I can!" Determination that says: "I will!" — Good Hardware. 


The clerk who lays out the 
goods with a ''you can take 'em 
or leave 'em" air will find that 
the customer will generally 
leave 'em. 


Kodak as you go. 



One of our June advertisements (reduced) 




You might profitably con- 
sider the fact that two-thirds 
of 'promotion'^ is nothing more 
or less than ''motion.'' 

—All of Us. 


Here's a motto just your fit — 

Laugh a little bit. 
When you think you're trouble hit. 

Laugh a little bit. 
Look misfortune in the face, 
Brave the bedlam's rude grimace; 
Ten to one 'twill yield its ])lace. 
If you have the wit and grit 

Just to laugh a little bit. 

Cherish this as sacred writ — 

Laugh a little bit. 
Keep it with you, sample it, 

liaugh a little bit. 
liittle ills will sure betide you 
Fortune may mock and fame deride you, 
But you'll mind them not a whit 

Tf you laugh a little bit. 

— J. E. V. Cooke in Cheerful Moments. 

Friend Customer, Who Has Just Bought a Roll of Film, 
"And Please Wrap These All Up Together." 



an aia to tne man oeninci t/ie cotrnteT- 

Vol. 6 

JULY, 1920 

No. 6 

We're Paging the Man Who Writes Your Ads 

Just wanted to get in touch with 
you for a minute so as to be sure 
you knew about the booklet of 
Kodak store advertisemients re- 
cently off the press. It came to 
_\our store via third class mail and 
we wanted to be positive that you 
got it all right. We didn't know 
Init the ofifice boy might have taken 
it home to improve his mind. 

Heme's the point. This booklet 
contains a series of fourteen adver- 
tisements especially prepared for 
th:e store that carries the Kodak 
line. Some of the ads. deal with 
the various Kodaks, while others, 
with cuts from drawings made by 
the best commercial artist that we 
could find, remind people to take a 
Kodak with them and to Kodak as 
they go. And all of them sell }our 
store — Its goods and its service. 
It isn't Canadian Kodak Co. adver- 

tising — it's advertising for the 
store that wants to sell more 
Kodaks — your store. 

The series ought to be a help to 
}"ou. vSummer is a rush season as 
far as you are concerned and these 
ads. may be just what you want. 

To suit your preference, the series 
is supplied in two forms — electro 
complete with text and cut all ready 
for the printer, or illustrations only. 
If your choice is the latter, all that 
you have to do is to tear out the ad. 
that you select along the perforated 
margin and send it over to the 
r.ewspaper with the necessary cut. 

]\Iost of the ads. are furnished in 
two sizes as well — single and dottble 
column — ^six and eight inches deep, 

"Summer Advertisements for the 
Kodak Dealer" — hope you can us*" 

Selling the Autographic Fealure 

Amateur pictures are not made 
just for the pleasure of the taking, 
but for the greater pleasure of re- 
membering some one — some inter- 
esting place or event. 

How much more valuable then 
will be the pictures that years hence 
can be identified by the date and 
title permanently recorded on the 

negative at the tiiue tlie picture 
was made ? 

And the only way this can be 
done is with an Autographic Kodak 
or Brownie by writing the record on 
.\utographic Film. 

■"Autographic." Yes, that's the 
talk to make the sale. 



Boosting Kodak 

Each month more than one mil- 
lion advertisements, read by some 
five million people — that's the sort 
of publicity "'Kodak" is receiving' 
in Canada now. and these figures do 
not take cognizance of the adver- 
tisements of oiir friends, the East- 
man Kodak Co.. that are carried in 
the man}' thousand copies of 
American magazines circulated 

The campaign commenced early 
in the year and gained its full force 
in June with colored covers or full 
page advertisements in such well- 
known and widely read Canadian 
-National Magazines as Ever\'- 
woman's World, La Canadienne, 
MacLean's, Canadian Home Jour- 
nal. Canadian Courier. Western 

Plome Monthl}'. Farmers' Maga- 
zine and Grain Grower's Guide. 
Generous space is also being used 
in Toronto Saturday Night, La 
Presse Weekly, The Family Herald 
and Weekly Star, Canadian Coun- 
tryman, Canadian Farm, Rural 
Canada. Farmer's Advocate. Farm 
and Dairy. Xor" West Farmer, 
Farm and Home and The Farm 
and Ranch Review. There's a 
list for you that will miss few 
Canadian homes with its moiithly 
Kodak message. 

"At your dealer's" each one of 
these advertisements tells 'em and 
we suspect that a goodly number of 
people will be dropping in to ask you 
"How?" and "Why?" Get ready 
for them. 

Good Morning" 

\\ hen a customer comes into 
your store do you walk up to her 
and say, "Hello!" or "Yes?" 

Of course you don't. Would be 
impolite — fresh and entirely too fa- 
miliar. Rather you say. "Good 
niorning, may 1 serve you ?" Vet 
when that same customer calls up 
on the phone how do you greet her? 
Hello ? Yes ! Jones & Company. 

Why shouldn't you greet a cus- 
tomer on the phone the same as in 
your store ? Put the same person- 
ality into your phone business that 
you do in your personal business. 

In the final analysis a customer 
is a customer whether she comes in 
the front door or nierelv sends her 

voice over the wire. Why should 
she be treated dififerently in each 
case? Of course in greeting a 
patron over the phone one does not 
liave the advantage of personality 
and a smile, but these can be reg- 
istered effectually over the wires by 
means of voice inflection and a 
careful selection of words — partic- 
ularly the opening phrase. 

Suppose you substitute "Good 
morning" or "Good afternoon" for 
"Hello" aiKl then endeavor to fol- 
low this salutation with a selling 
talk about merchandise in which 
your customer expresses an inter- 
est. It ought to help. — Chocolate 

ill (Its. 

Your customers' photographic problems may occasionally 
stump you. If they do let KODAKERY'S Service Depart- 
ment help you out. 


Take a 


with you 



Cafalos^iie/ree a f your /h'afer's or by mail 

Julv advertisement — reduced 



The bosses diary 
as kept by his son 

May 3 — My dad says that when 
he was delivery boy in 1898 he 
learned one thing that he never for- 
got and my mother says this sus- 
j,ens is killing me. Frank what 
did you learn in 1896 and how did 
you happen to remember it because 
you've been a week now trying to 
think to bring home some film but 
my dad went right along and didn't 
pay no attenshun. 

It was when I was working for 
old man Brown, my Dad said. I 
came in from delivering packadges 
one day and see that one of the 
Kodaks in the display window was 
tipped over and a trypod wasn't 
level. Conners was the window- 
man and so I tried to find him to 
tell him about it but I couldn't find 
him any where and then I tried to 
find another fella who helped him 
and I couldn't find him either and 
while I was going around the store 
I ran into the old man and the old 
man asked me where the fire was 
and 1 said that there wasn't no fire 
and he said what are you doing 
then riding to hounds and I said 
that 1 was trying to find Mister 
Conners because I wanted to tell 
him that a Kodak in the window 
was tipped over and that a trypod 
wasn't straight. 

The old man just looked at my 
father for a minute and then he 
asked him how old he was and my 
father said that he was fourteen 
only he wasn't fourteen when he 

was my father if you know what I 
mean. Well the old man said it 
seems to me that by a supperhuman 
efifort a boy of fourteen ought to be 
able to set that camera right side up 
all by himself but of course the try- 
pod is a different matter. It will 
probably be necessary to hire a 
couple of big strong men from the 
carting company next door to level 
up that trypod. My dad said that 
he felt small enough to curl up on 
a stick of gum and weep bitterly 
and that he had that window fixed 
up in something less than no time 
at all. 

My dad said that at that he made 
a hit with Mister Brown for no- 
ticing that something was wrong 
with the window. 

May 5 — We was going out for 
an auto ride to-night and we was 
about half way from the garadge 
at the back of the house to the 
street when my dad who was driv- 
ing leaned over the side of the car 
and says Clara did you have the 
car out this afternoon and my 
mother said she had and my father 
said well it's a wonder you wouldn't 
keep the machine in the drive — just 
look at the edge of the lawn — it's 

Then I yelled and just in time, 
too, because we'd reached the side- 
walk by this time and Deacon Hu- 
bert was passing by and we just 
missed him by two or three quar- 
ters of an inch. We would of hit 
him but my dad steered the car 
right through my mother's favorite 
flower bed. 

There wasn't nothing more said 
about the lawn but the subjeck of 
flower bed come up from time to 

My dad says that when a fella thinks "let the other fella 
do it," referring to work, the boss says "let the other fella get 
it," referring to salary. 



«1 1^7 HAT kind of a purchasing a- 
VV gent does Jenkins make, Sam?" 

"Ed doesn't do any buying," re- 
plied Sam as he looked at the boss 
in a puzzled fashion; "he's a sales- 
man — and a good one too. You 
know that." 

■'Yes, I know he's a good sales- 
man. Sam. and so I suspect that 
he's a good purchasing agent, too. 
The two jobs go together. You 
know what a purchasing agent is, 
of course?" 

"Sure I do," replied Sam, as yet 
uncertain as to whether or not the 
boss was serious, but determined 
to play safe; " a purchasing agent 
is the chap that does the necessary 
outside buying for a concern — coal, 
for example, or raw product." 

"He doesn't just buy. Sam,— he 
buys judiciously and intelligently. 
He makes his knowledge of his 
firm's needs and his knowledge of 
what the market offers unite in eco- 
nomical buying. With him it isn't 
a question of price but value. He 
uses his firm's money and his own 
brains at one and the same time. 
That's the job of the purchasing 

"I understand all that." said Sam 
a trifle impatiently, "but what has 
all this to do with Ed Jenkins ? Ed 
Jenkins is selling Kodaks — not buy- 
ing coal." 

'T was just getting to Ed." the 
boss continued, smoothly, "in fact 

Ten J\{inutes 
with the "Boss 

I'm there right now. Jenkins is the 
purchasing agent for the customer. 
He is also the selling agent for the 
store. And these two jobs are not 
contradictory in the slightest. He 
who serves the best interests of the 
customer serves the best interests 
of the store. That's obvious. And 
that this may be accomplished by 
aiding the customer in buying in- 
telligently is also so obvious that I 
wouldn't speak of it. if I hadn't 

"The salesman knows the line. 
From Graflexes and the Special 
Kodaks to the box Brownies, he is 
in possession of all the characteris- 
tics and features that make them 
worth while. The customer hasn't 
the benefit of all this information. 

"^Irs. Curtis wants a Kodak. 
What Kodak? Does she want it 
for pictures of the children ? Does 
she want a camera that she can 
carry with her most conveniently? 
Here is where the salesman's inti- 
mate knowledge of the various 
models counts, and here is where 
he assumes the role of purchasing 

"Jimmie Hunter comes in. Jim- 
mie says he wants a 3A Kodak — 
but the salesman knows all about 
Jimmie. He knows that when 
Jimmie was a youngster he rode 
the fastest pony and that now he 
drives the fastest car. The argu- 
ment of speed camera will not only 
appeal to him, but a Ciraflex is 
actually what he wants — he simply 
does not know about it. The sales- 
man becomes the purchasing agent, 
and Jimmie gets the Graflex. 


"Exposures made on an automo- 
bile trip show tliree figures in al- 
most every negative, while four 
people took the tour. ( )ne of the 
big jobs of the purchasing agent, 
Sam. is to keep in touch with new 
inventions and improvements that 
his hrm might employ to advan- 
tage. \\'hen the salesman suggests 
'Kodak Self-Timer' to the woman 
who made the motor pictures, he is 
acting in the capacity of her pur- 
chasing assent. 

"Helping the customer to buv in- 
telligently, Sam, is part of the 
game. Keeping your feet on the 
floor behind the counter, and yet at 
the same time standing right along- 
side the customer to make sure that 
he gets what he really wants — that's 
real salesmanship. 

"Don't paste this idea of pur- 
chasing agent in your hat. vSam — 
you have your hat ofif when you 
are back of the counter — glue it in 
\onr brain." 



Y( )L' can sell "em if nou tell 'em. 
The first 'em refers to sun- 
dries — the second to people, and the 
argument is just plain common 

Folks certainly aren't going to 
buy a Kodak Metal Tripod if they 
don't know that there is such a 
thing. And if they never heard of 
a Kodak Portrait Attachment they 
'Can't be expected to step right up to 
"ihe coimter and ask you for one. 

We spend thousands of dollars 
each year in advertising sundries. 
the advertising in Kodakcry is 
mainly devoted to sundries, as is 
our extensive advertising in the 
other photographic magazines. But 
we aren't reaching all your custo- 
mers — we can't — and those that we 
do reach need to be reminded. 

Mrs. Smith brings in her vaca- 
tion films, and evidently her Kodak 
was kept pretty busy. The prints 


^ The Trimary Tage 
" fir the^eginner 
behind the Counter 

are good. Are you going to let her 
leave the counter with those pic- 
tures in an envelope, or will she 
have a Kodak album under her 
arm? And if she gets the album, 
will you suggest Kodak Dry Mount- 
ing Tissue as the cleanest method 
of mounting prints and the most 
efficient as well, or will you let the 
opportunity pass ? 

Mr. Calkins wants a Kodak Film 
Tank. He tells you as much. Per- 
haps he would tell you that he 
wanted an Eastman Thermometer 
if he realized the importance of 
correct solution temperature and 
knew that the Eastman Thermom- 
eter, with its hook top and curved 
back, is made especially for use 
with the Film Tank. You say you 
will tell him ? Fine. 

And does he know about the 
Kodak Amateur Printer? If he 
likes to do his own developing, it i> 
reasonable tcj suppose that print- 
making would appeal to him. par- 
ticularlv as the Amateur Printer is 


such an up-to-date piece of appa- 
ratus. You'll remind him? Good. 
And, by the way. in connection 
with tlie Kodak Film Tank and the 
Kodak Amateur Printer, don't get 
the mistaken idea that because the 
customer will do his own finishing, 
the store is a loser. Quite the con- 
trary. In the first place, Mr. Cus- 
tomer becomes an enthusiastic ama- 
teur. He isn't just taking pictures, 
he's making them. Photography 
has become a real hobby and he has 
an interest that he never felt be- 
fore. He's the chap that reads 
Kodakcrx from cover to cover and 

subscribes to other photographic 
magazines. You don't even need 
to tell liiui about the Optipod and 
the Kodak Self-Timer and the rest 
of the Kodak helps and con- 
veniences. He learns about them 
all soon enough and he buys them 
too. Then, think of the Eastman 
Tested Chemicals and \'eIox paper 
that he is going to require. 

The man who makes photogra- 
ph}- his hobby— and the Kodak 
Film Tank and Kodak Amateur 
Printer are sure indications — makes 
\our store his headquarters. 

Nearly a Million Copies 

Referring to ■Tiinocent> Abroad" 
Mark Twain once said, "It sells 
right along with the Bible." 

We can't quite claim that much 
for "How to Make Good Picture?" 
but its career does make the record 
of many a best seller drop into in- 

To date nearl_\' a million copies 
of this practical hand book of pho- 
tography have been bought by in- 
terested amateurs ; and this figure 
is exclusive of the several editions 
in foreign languages iiubli-^hed in 

A thing that tickles us about 
"How to Make Good Pictures" is 
the fact that it has grown in interest 
with the years. Originally the edi- 
tions were small because the de- 
mand was limited. Xow, however, 
one edition of 10.000 copies solely 
for distribution in Canada was re- 
cently completed by our printers. 
Altogether approximately 120.000 
copies were sold last year. 

It's a good book — is "Mow to 
Make Good Pictures" — a good 
book from our point of view and 
from vours. The customers who 

con>ult it will get better photo- 
graphic results and better pictures 
mean greater enthusiasm — more 
sales. Incidentally the salesma':. 
himself, may study it with profit. 

Not long ago a University pro- 
fessor of English read "How to 
Make Good Pictures" and was so 
impressed with its simple style that 
he inquired the name of the author. 

"An advertising man. eh?" mused 
the 'professor after he had been en- 
lightened: "It's a great pity that he 
went ill that line of work — he 
would have made a most excellent 

Every succeeding edition of 
"How to IMake Gccd Pictures" 
been brought up-to-date and new 
chap::ers have been added from 
time to time so that in the words 
of the old circus poster, the book is 
"bigger and better than ever be- 
fore." It has never been priced 
with the idea of profit. The book 
used to sell for a quarter ar.d de- 
spite the tremendous increase in 
paper and printing cosis the retail 
price has only been advaiiced to 
fiftv cents. 



Windows That Sell 

The selling value of any window 
display depends first on its capacity 
to attract attention and then upon 
its ability to convey a story to the 
minds of the persons whose interest 
has been secured. 

Each of the two windows illus- 
trated this month tells a story and 
the reason they are so good is be- 
cause their stories are convincinglv 

This one above illustrates another 
point in striking fashion. It would 


be pretty hard to find a closer tie-up 
between general advertising and 
window display. The passerby on 
seeing this window says to himself 
"Why 1 read about that Kodak in 
an advertisement just the other day" 
and this seeming coincidence in- 
creases his interest, thereby adding 
to the drawing power of the displa}'. 
The advertisement and the window 
work together. 

Everyone who takes one look at 
the window on page 11 will at 


once know that this dealer carries 
the Kodak hne and all of it. The 
row after row of cameras is im- 
pressive to the nth degree and the 
slogan "If we don't have it, East- 
man doesn't make it" is the finish- 
ing touch. 

Such displays have the punch 
to make a salesman of the window 
and both of these can be very easily 
duplicated for. in addition to some 
sample prints, a few advertising 
enlargements and the Kodaks thenv 

selves, only one or two hand let- 
tered cards are required. 

It is apparent from the price 
tickets displayed in the windows 
illustrated that these were put in 
before the new Excise Tax became 
law. Do not let this Tax or any- 
thing else deter you from showing 
the high priced cameras. There are 
more customers for the best that 
tlie market affords than at any pre- 
vious time, but to get this trade 
your displays must advertise that 
vou have what thev want. 

A window is only a window till a good display gives the 
punch — then it's a salesman. 



A Story with a Moral 

Two young" men, with plenty of 
ambition and heaps of energy, came 
to town not long ago and o \'^<^ up 
a store, handling, let us say for 
argument's sake, musical i:i-tru- 

After carefully studying the pro- 
ducts of various manufacturers in 
the phonograph line, a brilliant idea 
occurred to them. 

They would obtain as many of 
the well-known and widely adver- 
tised m^kes as possible to represent 
their store, for was not this the sure 
and quick way to success. Anyone 
interested in a phonograph could 
easily be sold on one or another of 
the popular lines that they would 

Their only problem would be to 
get customer^ into the store. 

Advertising brought the cus- 
tomers and plenty of them, but 
closing the sale did not prove the 
simple matter that had been expec- 
ted. Customers came, they looked 
and listened while the good points 
of the different makes were demon- 
strated. There was much matching 
up of tone and appearance. Tlien. 
almost invariably, with some re- 
mark about wanting to think over 
the matter before coming to any de- 
cision, the customers would depart. 

When an old and more experi- 
enced friend came in one dav and 

inquired how things were going, 
these two young men of business 
were not enthusiastic. "Plenty of 
inquiries but not enough sales" was 
their response. "Which of these 
lines of phonographs is the best?" 
was the next question. Answer : 
"Oil, I don't know, they all have 
their points." "The trouble with 
thi> store." the friend continued, "is 
that }ou are playing too much the 
part of exhibition purposes and 
with variety promoting indecision. 
You don't know yourselves which 
one of these machines is the best, 
but expect your customers to de- 
cide where you have been unable 
to do so. Take my advice and find 
out which line is the best and why 
it is. Then get rid of all but that 
one line and when the customers 
come tell them \ou"ve got the be.-^t 
and why. l>e enthusiastic about 
the line that you are handling and 
instead of lots of inquiries and not 
many sales, those who come into 
your store will become purchasers." 
The advice was sound as the two 
\oung men were quick to see. A 
better eft'ort on the part of the 
sales force of the organization was 
at once noticeable when the change 
was made. Instead of instruments 
being exhibited, they were sold and 
the change of policy fortunatel}" 
came in time to keep the business 
from bankruptcy. 

Chemistry and Temperature 

The human body, which is too 
complex for even the doctors fully 
to understand, is possessed of a tem- 
perature control which puts to 
shame the many delicate and intri- 
cate instruments designed for main- 
taining a uniform temperature 
which are used in many laboratories 
and manufacturing establishments. 

Should the temperature of the 


body be lowered even a few de- 
grees, the vital processes of life 
are so retarded and depressed that 
serious, if not fatal consequences 
may follow if steps are not taken 
to resuscitate the individual, or in 
other words raise the temperature. 
Conversely when the body temper- 
ature exceeds the normal by as lit- 
tle as 2 or 3 degrees Fahr., there is 


a condition of fev6r, passing 
rapidly with any further increase, 
to deHrium and unconsciousness. 

There is a close analogy here to 
the action of the developer on an 
exposed filn cr plate. Tr.e chemical 
reactions l:i each case are equally 
delicate and just as sensitive to 
modification of temperature. There 
is one best temperature to develop 
a negative emulsion (65 degrees 
Fahr. ) and any decided variation 
from it will infallibly affect the 
ultimate character of the negative. 
At low temperatures the action of 
the developer is appreciably slowed. 

while at hi.,^h temperatures it will 
act very rapidl}' and do far more 
work than is desirable. 

A Developer cannot, any better 
than a human being, accomplish the 
best work when suffering from a 
dera::gement of temperature. 

Just as th.e maintenance of health 
demands a balanced diet, so the 
chemicals which compose the de- 
veloper must balance, but the equili- 
brium of the best of developers 
will be upset if it is r.ot used at the 
temperature for wliich it was de- 


For The Small Town Store 

Perhaps there are some mer- 
chants in the smaller towns who 
believe that the bulk of magazine 
and similar advertising that is done 
by m,anufacturers is of benefit only 
to stores located in the larger towns 
and cities, the smaller places re- 
ceiving but little advantage. 

Is this your opinion? For if it 
is, we would like you to look again 
at the list of publications now 
being used for Kodak publicity. 
The page is number 4 of this issue. 
Quite contrary is the case, is it not? 

A great deal of Kodak adver- 
tising goes into Farm and Rural 
Home Publications and rightly so, 
for ours is a country whose main 
source of wealth lies in its vast 
agricultural resources. These maga- 
zines are going into just those 
homes that are served by the small 
town store and there are few such 
homes in the whole Dominion from 
-Atlantic to Pacific that will not re- 
gularly receive the Kodak message 
from one or more of them. 

The opportunities for the >mall 
town store to connect up witli and 
take advantage of our general ad- 
vertising are rjuite as great as those 
of concerns in the larger centres. 

There's the local newspaper and 

what home in any district is not so 
served these days. Of course it is 
difficult for the merchant of a small 
town to locally obtain suitable cuts 
to illustrate his newspaper adver- 
tisements and writing copy may not 
come easy to him. Realizing this, 
it is our custom, and that of many 
other large manufacturers, to fur- 
nish the small town store with suit- 
able advertising copy and cuts to 
illustrate the advertisements. 

"The Kodak on the Farm" is not 
just a catalogue but an illustrated 
booklet with a story that is of in- 
terest to anyone in any rural com- 
munity. A copy enclosed with a 
personal letter and mailed to pro- 
spective purchasers will reach many 
to whom a Kodak is regularly sug- 
gested by our general advertising 
and the chances are that this will 
bring them to your store the very 
next time they come to town. 

There never was a more oppor- 
tune time to connect up with and 
cash in on general advertising than 
the present. Xot only is our ad- 
vertising wider in its scope than 
at any previous time, but indications 
are that this year's crop will be the 
best yet and higher prices are being 
obtained by the producer. 



The Why of the Anastigmat and the Kodak 
Anastigmat in Particular 


Article VI 

It ma}- seem a far cry from as- 
tigmatism, coma, and distortion to 
twelve inch guns yet it may safely 
be said that the effectiveness of the 
guns in the great war depended to 
a very great extent indeed upon 
the optician's having eliminated 
from his lenses used by the aerial" 
photographers all of the aberra- 
tions before mentioned. If the Hun 
could have inoculated the lenses 
used by the Allies with some 
strange serum productive of the 
optical diseases before discussed, 
the course of subsequent events 
might have been much altered. 
\'ery few people reahze the import- 
ar.ce of Aerial Photography in the 
conduct of military affairs. Pho- 
tographs taken over the enemy 
lines furnish by far the most fer- 
tile source of information concern- 
ing his activities. The observer is 
a much less spectacular person than 
the pilot, particularly the fighting 
pilot of the chasse plane, yet the 
fighting pilot exists mainly for the 
protection of the photographic 
planes. Fully seventy per cent of 
the flights made during the latter 
part of the war by the Royal Flying 
Corps were for the purpose of tak- 
ing photographs. Photography fur- 
nished information concerning en- 
emy troop movements, located ma- 
chine gun nests, searched out dug- 
outs, penetrated the camouflage of 
batteries, corrected the range of 
heavy artillery fire, and furnished 
to military headquarters detailed 
information of every sort. One can 
realize then how important it was 
to have lenses capable of yielding 
photographic results of the very 


highest order. Photographs made 
from the air are subjected to the 
most searching examination by 
skilled interpreters and if the defi- 
nition is not of the very best his 
labors are in vain for the objects 
sought are, for the most part, dis- 
covered only by consideration of 
minute details. After an object of 
interest has been located on a pho- 
tograph its distance from • some 
known point in the picture is ac- 
curately measured. Perhaps it is 
a hidden battery. From the photo- 
graph locating it the range can be 
computed and the gun pointer told 
just how to lay a few high explo- 
sive shells where they w'ill do the 
most good. Of course, if the pho- 
tograph was made with a lens af- 
fected by distortion these measure- 
ments will be in error and the ex- 
pensive H. E. shells will probably 
fall harmkssl}- at a distance from 
their objective. 

From this it is apparent that 
lenses to be used for aerial photog- 
raphy must be of the very best 
quality: all of the aberrations men- 
tioned above must be reduced to a 
minimum. For some years prior 
to the great war, work was in pro- 
gress on the design of the Kodak 
Anastigmats and on methods of 
producing them. When the call 
came from the Government for 
lenses for use in taking photo- 
graphs from the air, the design of 
the Hawkeye Aerial Lenses, as the 
Kodak objectives produced for the 
Air Service were called, was ready 
and these lenses easily passed the 
rigid tests required of them. The 
Kodak Anastigmats now available 


on Kodaks, Gratlex and Premo 
Cameras are of exactly the same 
type of construction as the lenses 
made for the Air Service. They 
are, of course, made in various 
speeds from j7 .7 to /.4.5 whereas 
the lenses produced for military 
purposes worked at /. 4.5 and /. 6 
in the 10" and 20" focal lengths 
respectively. The production of 
lenses of the very highest quality 
was a vital matter in our struggle 
against German aiuocracy. W hile 
it is not a matter of life and death 

to the amateur or 

professional, the 
possession of an 
equally good lens 
is essential t o 
his photographic 

It has been be- 
fore shown how 
carefully the vari- 
o u s aberrations 
have been elimin- 
ated from the Hawkexe Aerial 
and the Kodak Anastigmat lenses 
but nothing has been said concern- 
ing the reasons for their very 
moderate price. Kodak Anastig- 
mats wtre designed from the first 
with the idea of economical and 
efficient production but the practi- 
cal lessons learned under the war- 
born lash of vital necessity have 
proven them^elves of inestimable 
value. In order to appreciate the 
advances which have been made we 
shall review the situation, optically 

^lany years ago designers came 
to a point where further great ad- 
vances in optics could be made only 
through the production of glasses 
which had been unobtainable up to 
that time. Indeed the exact char- 
acteristics of the glasses needed 
were well known and at least some 
of the advantages accruinsf. from 

their i)ossible use had been fore- 
told. In 1884 the Prussian Govern- 
ment heavily subsidized the Schott 
& Company Glass Works of Jena, 
Germany, for the specific purpose 
of undertaking a series of experi- 
ments with a view to making 
these glasses. The painstaking ex- 
periments of a number of year- 
proved successful and many new 
glasses, particularly the dense bar- 
ium crowns, were produced. These 
glasses opened up an entirely new 
field in optics as a result of which 
most of our op- 

This instructive series 
which began in February 
concludes next month. 
The wise salesman will 
not only read the va- 
rious installments, but 
will put them aside for 

tical instrimients 
as we now know 
tliem. were devel- 
oped. Later the 
nrm cif Parra- 
Mantois in Paris 
succeeded in du- 
plicating all of 
the Jena glasses 
and since then 
the world has. in 
the main, gone to Paris and Jena 
for its supply of high grade optical 

In common with manufacturers 
all over the world we had been 
quite content to import our 
glass rather than to embark on 
the costly and protracted series of 
experiments which would form 
a necessary preliminary to our 
making it for ourselves. In 1914 
the German supply was. of course, 
cut oft and soon the French 
Crinernment was taking all that 
Parra-Mantois could supply. Stocks 
of optical glass in this country 
diminished almost to the vanishing 
point but the vital necessit}- of pro- 
ducing o]:)tical instruments in huge 
(juantities remained, for in modern 
military operations the important 
functions of observation and fire 
control can be carried oiU only by 
mean- of field glasses, periscopes. 



range finders, pl:otographic lenses, 
gun sights and a multitude of other 
instruments. These things are pos- 
sihle onl_\- if optical glass is avail- 

To meet this situation a group of 
scientists from the Geophysical 
Laboratory of the Carnegie Insti- 
tution undertook to solve, with the 
co-operation of certain optical 
manufacturers, the problem of the 
production of o|)tical glass on a 
large scale and to solve it duickh'. 

That tliey were successful in \)xo- 
ducing optical glass of the firs^ 
(luality is an achievement of which 
those concerned may be well proud. 
To produce, unaided, in five short 
months a product equal in quality 
to that which is the result of the 
accumulated and well kept secrets 
of over thirty years was to render 
a service which can be measured 
not by the difficulty of its accom- 
plishment, but only by the situation 
which it relieved. 

The Catalogues Are Ready Kodakery for August 

All three of them, Kodak, Premo 
and Graflex — and although it's just 
possible that we are a bit preju- 
diced, we never saw a better trio of 
catalogues in our life. 

These catalogues are going to help 
you sell cameras and you can make 
them work for you if you see to it 
that they get in proper hands. 

.\dvance copies have been sent to 
every store and the work of gen- 
eral quantity distribution is going 
forward just as rapidly as is physi- 
cally possible under the present try- 
ing conditions. 

However, we are doing the best 
that can be done and the catalogues 
should reach vou soon. 

"Moonlight Dancing on the Wa- 
ter" — an article that tells the ama- 
teur how to get moonlight efifects. 

"When You Are a Member of 
the Group" — a storv that will sell 
many a Kodak Self-Timer. 

"Photographing Cut Flowers" 
might have been named "Stimulat- 
ing interest in the use of the Kodak 
Portrait Attachment and making 
more people buy more film." 

"Adjusting Small Focusing Cam- 
eras for Use -As Fixed Focus Cam- 
eras" — a Self-explanatory title. 

An article that will 'help you, 
completes the issue. Your custo- 
mers are instructed to order film by 
number — and told whv. 

7 here has hern so much (trcjiiiiicjit and discussion of Budget 
E.vcise Tax that itoz^' the average man is about ready to fight 
Zi'hen he hears the icords. 

Is it tTCtter then. :c!ien the customer inquires "How much 
for this J 'est Pocket Kodak" to reply — 

"O-a'ing to the new Tax. Camera Prices have advanced and 
this T'.P.K. is now etc., etc" 

"Including Excise Tax, Eleven Dollars and 'Tz^'cuty-one 
Cents." or just '"Eleven Dollars and Ti^'cnty-one Cents/'" 

ll'hy run a.iy risk of antagonizing your customers by the 
unnecessary mention of either Tax or liudcietf 


Brace up. Brush up. Think up. 
And you will get up. Thinly 
down. Look down. Act down. 
And you will stay down. 

Paint your face with a smile. 
Advertise that you are a success. 
Then think and work for it. 

— 1 he Silent Partner. 


/7s you go. 

If it isn^t an East wan, if isn''t a Kodak. 
Canadian Kodak Co., Limited, Toronto, Canada 

One of our July advertisements (reduced) 




''To give the face a good colore'' says 
an exchange, ''get a pot of rouge and 
a rabbit's foot. Bury them two miles 
from home and walk out and back 
once a day to see if they are still there" 


Vigor. \'itality. \'im, and Punch — 
With courage to act on a sudden Hunch — 
The nerve to tackle the hardest thing. 
With feet that climb, and hands that cling, 
And a heart that never forgets to sing — 
That's Pep. 

Sand and grit in a concrtte base — 
A friendlv smile on an honest face — 
The spirit that helps when another's down. 
That knows how to scatter the blackest frown. 
That loves its neighbor, and loves its town — 
That's Pep. 

To sav "I Will" — For you know you can — 
To look for the best in every man — 
To meet each thundering knock-out blow. 
And come back with a laugh, because you know 
You'll get the best of the whole blame show — 
That's Pep. 

—The Grid. 

The Enthusiast 

'I want a Special Kodak fitted with No. 4 Tessar, Series lib, Anasti^mat/. 6.3, 
and a half pound of monomethyl paramidophenol sulphate." 


an aia to the man oenina tne ccmnteT' 

Vol. 6 

AUGUST . 1920 


Just Between Us 

This is nut intended for the 

What follows is a conspiracy, a 
holdup, a deep laid plot, whereby 
you are to make so much money for 
him that he will joyfull\- come ac — 
but "shush." He mustn't know — 
not }et. 

There's a lot more to this busi- 
ness of selling photographic goods 
than ringing up a quarter for the 
sale of \'. P. film. It would be no 
trick whatever to build a vending 
machine to do that. lUit the ma- 
chine cannot answer questions 
about lenses and portrait attach- 
ments and papers. You can. 

To make good, however, you've 
got to know. And the way to know 
is to read, and the books to read 
are at }Our command. 

As long as we are in a conspiracy 
against your Boss, let us, first of 
all, suggest that in fairness to him. 
you go about it systematically and 
pursue your knowledge of photog- 
raphy at home, on your own time. 
You won't find it a dull pursuit. 

Along with learning more about 
photography, you want to learn, 
too, about selling photographic 
goods. You ma\- be a natural born 
salesman but having been in touch 
with the photographic trade for 

longer we care to admit, we 
have just naturally learned some 
things that we have put into booklet 

There is a booklet that we 
want to send you at your home, if 
you haven't already read and di- 
gested it : 

"Sellix(". Kodaks axd Sup- 


Just dro]) us a line, telling where 
}0u want the book sent and who 
you work for. and it will go for- 
ward to your address without 

The next book tiiat }'ou >hi:)uld 
read carefully, you can borrow 
from the store. Its title is. "How 
To Make Good Pictttres." and it 
now costs your people Z}) ceuts. 
We can't offer to send you a copy 
free, for to try to both sell and give 
away the same thing causes most 
irritating mixups. 

"How To Make Good Pictures" 
will give you a good elemeutary 
knowledge of amateur photography. 
r>eing written for the beginner, it 
explains, in a simple, non-technical 
manner, all the essentials in pic- 
ture-taking. Even if you already 
h.ave a good ground work in pho- 
tographic knowledge, it will bru^h 
up your memory on a lot of points 
that every good photographic sales- 


man is keen about. It's not a hard 
book to read. It sells in as great 
quantities as the most popular 
novels, and has for years — which is 
ample proof that it is both worth 
while and easy to take. 

The next books may not make 
you feel like sitting up all night 
reading, but you should know them 
— not by heart, but, nevertheless, 
in a very intimate way. They are 
the catalogues. Kodak. Graflex and 

Get this far and you will begin 
to be fascinated, will be strong for 
a full and intensive knowledge of 
photography, of photographic goods 
and of how to use and sell them. 

And there are more books that 
we will then be glad to send you — 
without charge. 

About Lenses. Elementary Pho- 
tographic Chemistry, By Flashlight. 
Lantern Slides and Bromide En- 
larging with a Kodak, are all books 
that will help you, and. of course, 
you will read Kodakcry from cover 
to cover every month. 

And when you find a problem that 
we have failed to cover in a clear 
and easily understandable way, a 
line to our Service Department will 
bring you a full and prompt reply — 
again without charge. 

Our correspondents and our lit- 
erature are here to help you on 
every thing from snapshotting with 
a Brownie to the theory of photog- 
raphy, a complete explanation of 
the chemical action and reactions 
that take place, and a full discus- 
sion of photographic optics. 

What we want to do is to help 
you make the most of your oppor- 
tunities. You need have no hesita- 
tion in asking; and asking freelv. 

The only obligation you are under 
is to read carefully the books that 
we supply you. Frankly, in helping 
you to learn more about the photo- 
graphic business, we expect that we 
are helping you. in the long run, to 
bigger sales and more intelligent 
sales. That, in turn, means bigger 
sales for your store and eventually 
bigger purchases from us, and final- 
ly a net advantage to all of us. 

We invest the time of our corre- 
spondents and the cost of our book- 
lets ; you invest a part of your spare 
time. With an intelligent and persis- 
tent follow-up on your part and on 
our part, such investment is sure to 
prove profitable to all concerned. 

And to those who are really am- 
bitious, there is more in all this than 
simply making two cameras work 
where only one worked before. 
Photography is playing a big part 
in the work of the world to-day. It 
touches every phase of art and 
science and life. It takes part in 
the ^lay Day walk with John and 
Jane, gives tis the smiles and tears 
of Mary Pickford. brings home to 
us the tales of foreign lands, helps, 
through the X-Ray. in the mending 
of men. maps our cities from the 
air. enables the scientist to study 
the canals of Mars or study the 
crystallization of a piece of steel. 

The place to begin is at the be- 
ginning. Ask for the first of the 
booklets that we suggest ; read 
them ; make pictures ; read more, 
and no matter how far your prog- 
ress or in what phase of photogra- 
phy your interest is keenest, we will 
cheerfully help you by advice and 
truly constructive criticism. 

(Jur Service Department is for 

To help your customers with their photographic problems, 
and to help you with either theirs or your own is the object 
of "Kodakery's" Service Department. 



You dont carry it; 
you wear it — 
like a watch. 


Phe Vest Pocket 

With a "Vest Pocket" you're always ready for 
the unexpected that is sure to happen. 

Your larger camera you carry when }ou pla)i to 
take pictures. The Vest Pocket Kodak you have 
constantly with you to capture the charms of the 
unusual. It is small in size hut lacks nothing in 

The price is #11.21 and film for 8 exposures is 
25 cents. 

All Dealers 




One of our August adrertisements much reduced 



The bosses diary 
as kept by his son 

-My clad was talking the other 
niglit about what a great thing self- 
confidents was and how necessary 
it was to success and I got to think- 
ing about it and decided to test his 
theory out. 

There's a team here called the 
Auricles and they have uniform-^ 
and everything and so I decided to 
use a little self-confidents and join 
the Auricles. They have won every 
game so far this season and every 
fella in it is a wonder and so I 
went to the captain and used a little 
self-confidents and told him I wa> 
a man they needed. And he said 
what can you do and I said Babe 
Ruth is older than I am — that's tlie 
only difference. And he sa\s can 
you pitch and I says I've got so 
much speed that the catcher has to 
di]) his glove in water every once 
in a while to keep it from bursting 
into rtame. And I've got a curve 1 
invented myself — I call it the j^alm 
leaf. Why palm leaf? llecause it 
fans the batter. 

Aly self -confidents made a great 
impression on the captain and he 
give me a tmiform on the spot and 
told me to report that afternoon 
when they would play their rivals 
— tlie Xorth Enders — for the cham- 
peenshi]) of the citw I'm going to 

>]jring _\ou on them, unannounced, 
he said. 

And so t'nat afternoon I put on 
the uniform and the Auriole cap- 
tain told me he was going to let me 
l)itch and 1 tried to keep hold of 
tliat self-confidents because I felt 
kind of trembly inside and they 
was a big crowd. 

Well they never did find the first 
ball I pitched. It looked like a fiy 
speck on the blue valt of the heav- 
ens at one time and then it disap- 
])eared. The next Xorth Ender got 
a three base hit and the next a two 
bagger and the next a home run 
Imt then 1 tightened up and give tlie 
next fella his base on" balls. 

I didn't pitch any more after that. 
The Aurioles put in a new pitcher 
and after the game they made me 
give the uniform back. 

1 told my dad about it and said 
that 1 had exploded that self-confi- 
dents theery of his to ni}' own com- 
pleat satisfaction. There was notli- 
ing to it. 

My dad sa\s that an idle boast 
never will work — that's the reason 
it's idle. My dad says that saying 
you can do a thing isn't self-confi- 
dents — it's kiiowiiii/ you can do it. 

My dad says that any salesman 
who isn't sure of himself, isn't sttre 
of the goods he is selling. He has 
the feeling that the customer is 
going to ask him something that he 
can't answer or to demonstrate 
something that he can't demon- 
strate. Naturally a fella who is 
like tliat isn't going to bubble all 
over with self-confidents. 

My dad says that Little Lord Fauntleroy 
never would have made a howling success as 
a bond salesman. 


Addition to Graflex Factory 

The additidii to the Gratlex fac- 
tory, now in process of construc- 
tion at Rochester, X.Y.. will ma- 
terially increase the production of 
Graflex cameras. This building, 
which is now nearing completion, is 
approximately 58 feet wide and 103 
feet long. It has five stories and a 
basement, giving an increase ()f 
30% over the floor space in the 
original building. While the actual 
available manufacturing space is 
increased 30%. the production of 
cameras will be increased more 
than that, as the extra room will 
afford an opportunity for rearrang- 
ing the various departments and 
grouping the machinery in such a 
way that work may be routed 
through the factory mure ad\an- 
tageousl}-. In the future all sjiecial 

work will l)e handled in a separate 
department and this arrangement 
alone will relieve the regular manu- 
facturing departments ()f a great 
deal of congestion which has here- 
tofore been unavoidable. 

The new building is of pier con- 
>truction with saw tooth roof, in- 
>uring the best possible light on all 
floors, a consideration of prime im- 
portance in a building devoted to 
the manufacture of an article like 
the Graflex camera, made almost 
entirely b\- hand, and requiring ex- 
])ert workmanship and exacting 
pa!n> in fitting the parts together. 

Construction work t)n this new 
addition is being pushed as fast as 
possible and we expect to have it 
ready for occupancy early this fall. 

Life is simply a matter of concentration — you are what you 
set out to be. You are a composite of the things you say, the 
books you read, the thoughts you think, the company you keep 
and the things you desire to become. — The Hudsonian. 


A Window That Stopped Them 

With window displays like every- 
thing else it is the unusual that at- 
tracts. The commonplace receives 
and is entitled to scant attention. 
The striking display reproduced 
above has been built along unusual 
lines — so unusual, in fact, that it 
needs a word or two of description 
to properly appreciate it. 

The window consists really of 
two displays. At the front of the 
window, snappy enlargements told 
their story while half way back the 
word "Kodak" cut out of card- 
board permitted the eye to pene- 

trate to the rear h.alf of the win- 
dow, completely screened by the 
trim except for the Kodak cut-out. 
Back of the cut-out was a second- 
ary display of Kodaks and tripods, 
which gained in etTectiveness from 
tlie originality of their presentation. 

The display lent itself particu- 
larly well to night use. Obvious- 
ly, light back of the cloth trim and 
shining through the cut-out letters 
— "Kodak" attracted the eye. 

A striking display and one that 
could be adaj)ted to a window of 
any size or shape. 

It is easy to follovt' the line of least resistance v^^hen it comes 
to changing your window display, but don't forget that both you 
and your store are frequently judged by your window. 



Here's Another Window For You 

Like tlie window reproduced on 
the opposite page, this display, of- 
fers "something different." and to 
adopt it for any window no matter 
what the size or shape will be easy. 

The role of mother hen abl}' 
taken by a 3.\ Kodak and the sup- 
porting characters of chicks capi- 
tally assumed by \ est Pocket 
Kodaks contributed to a thrilling 
window drama that scored a hit. 

Without change the card and dis- 
l^lay are right for you. 

The hand lettered sign in the 
background gives the prices in an 
attractive wav. "1920 Spring 
Hatch, Chicks '$11.21 and up. Old 
Hens $31.51." 

Two photographs of the display 
are reproduced to give a clear idea 
of just how it was constructed. 

The picture above with the fence 
across the window front shows the 
display as it was actually used. The 
picture below was made with the 
front fence down to show the ar- 
rangement of Kodaks. 

An Amateur Writes 

"The opening article in Kodakcry 
for July is so vital that I am en- 
closing 12 cents postage and ask 
}"Ou to kindly send me a few copies 
to distribute among my Kodak 
friends who are having failures. 

"Personally I have found the ex- 
posure tables a great help as they 
briefly tell a volume, and Pm sure 
Kodakcry readers will be pleased 
to get more along the same lines." 

Kodakcry keeps them enthusias- 

A Window Display That's Different (See Above) 


Window Cards with Local Color 

\\ e don't know wlu'tluT or not 
the designer of these window cards 
ever had newspaper training, but 
we do know that he has news sense. 
Everybody scans the telegraph news 
in their favorite newspaper to be 
sure, but they read the local pages ; 
the cards illustrated apply this fact 
to the display window — with re- 

Window cards on which local 
Kodak pictures were mounted, 
cleverly titled and artisticallv ar- 
ranged, stopped the passer-by and 
held his attention. "By George, 
that picture was made on the Jud- 
son farm and here's one made at 
the lake — right at the point," says 
^.Ir. Customer. Then he reads the 
caption, and almost unconsciously 
the advertising message insinuates 
itself into his system. It may be a 
hint that he'd better take a Kodak 
with him — it may be a simple state- 
ment that the pictures were made 
witli a Kodak. In cither event, tlie 

message is delivered. 

Local prints, whether contact or 
enlargements, are always effective 
in dis])lav. but this method of tying 
the advertising thought directly 
witli the pictures, strikes us as ]:)ar- 
ticularly happy. 

A Kodak displa\- with a few 
good picture-cards in plain view 
will stop eighty passers-by where 
a display of Kodaks alone will stop 
one (by actual coimt). And mind 
you. ])icture-cards of local interest 
sto]) sixty persons where picture- 
cards, not of local interest, stop 

The idea should not be used to 
the exclusion of the regular Kodak 
window cards, of course. Obvious- 
ly, cards that you make hardly com- 
l^are in beauty of design or strength 
of argument with the window 
cards that we furnish because you 
can't afford to go to the expense for 
art work on a single card, that we 
can a fiord when the cost of that art 



work may he distributed over 
two thousand cards. Obviously, 
too, the cards mailed from Toronto 
can not be toned in local color, so 
to r-peak. They are two entirelx 
different kinds of cards and botli 
deserve a prominent place in your 

Any way, we liked this dealer"> 
idea and the manner in which it 
was executed — perhaps you will. 

For the Good of the Service 

Mr>. Smith — '"Why this picture 
uf mine is all Iilurrcd — what's the 
matter with it ?" 

Salesman — "" I'm afraid. Mrs. 
Smith, that you moved the camera 
a l<it. That's a common fault and 
}et it's i)erfectly simple to over- 
come. Here's the proper wav to 
hold the camera to guard against 
movement." ( Takes camera from 
case and demonstrates. ]\Irs. Smith 
watches attentively and then, to b.- 
sure, tries it herself. ) 

Salesman — "That's fine. That'> 
just right. 1 don't think you will 
have any trouble after this." 

Mrs. Smith smiles her gratitude 
and leaves the store. 

That salesman had read the Ser- 
vice Talk in the .\ugust Kodakcrx 
and he had been (juick to ])ut it to 
his own use. ATrs. Smith won't f(,r- 
get "that nice young man at 

Each month in Kodak cry there 
a])pears an article from our Service 
Hepartment of particular interest 
to the Kodak salesman. \\\ .August, 
for example, the amateur was told 
how necessary it was to hold the 
camera steady, while the September 
Service Talk concerns itself witli 
hot weather troubles. 

Just a page a month — tliat \ou 
can't afford to miss. 

Page 2S, September Kodakcrw 


The Local \'iew Pictured on this Card 
Obviously Increases Its Interest 

September Kodakery 

Many favorite --ummer haunts 
are sure to be in den-ely >haded 
places where the light i> so weak 
that satis factor}- ])icture> can only 
be secured b_\' making time expos- 

The leading article in September 
Kodakery. entitled "The Densely 
Shaded Places," tells about this 
class of subject in a way that will 
make it easy for your customers to 
obtain good pictures. 

"Alove that cracker away from 
}"our face. Sink the cheese about 
a foot. Xo, over toward the mid- 
dle of your body. .Xow smile, dog- 
gone yuli, smile." 

There's the opening sentence of 
a little story, " That Pal o" Mine," 
in which the value of a Kodak as a 
camping companion is amusingly 

( )ther articles include : 

" The Right Way To L'se tlie 

".Nature's Pyrotechnic>" — light- 
ning pictures. 

"Developing F'ilm Pack Film- in 
( )rdinary Rooms." 

"Autographic Records f r o m 

As usual Kodakery is alive witli 



The Why of the Anastigmat and the Kodak 
Anastigmat in Particular 


Article VII 

Pending the production of our 
own glass for war purposes, photo- 
graphic lenses were needed, and 
needed most urgently. The design 
of the Hawk-Eye Aerial Lenses 
was ready hut there was no glass 
available in worth while quantities. 
Realizing the situation the Eastman 
Kodak Company early in the war 
sent a representative to Europe to 
investigate the possibility of obtain- 
ing there even a limited supply. As 
was to be expected, the British and 
French Governments were taking 
practically every pound of glass 
manufactured in France and Eng- 
land. Rut 1914 had seen in Eng- 
land much the same glass situation 
that confronted us here later, and 
as a result new glass plants had 
been established in England and old 
ones enlarged. Much progress had 
been made and fortunately there 
was found one factory capable of 
supplying us with a part of the 
glass needed iox lenses to be used 
in aerial photography. Thi> im- 
ported glass, together with that 
available here, bridged the difficult 
period, and from then on things im- 
proved rapidly. 

During this trying period high 
grade photographic lense> were 
made under many practical difficul- 
ties. The successful solution of 
these problems one after another 
as they arose not only made lenses 
available to the Air Service but fur- 
nished a fund of experience valu- 
able in making possible the econo- 
mical and efficient production of 
lenses for peace time use. In the 
construction of a photographic ob- 
jective of the anastigmat type two 


or more kinds of glass are u>ed in 
making the separate lenses of which 
the objective is composed. The 
various kinds of optical glass are 
specified in the main, by two con- 
stants, the index of refraction and 
the dispersion. When a beam of 
light strikes a plane glass surface 
in any direction except perpendicu- 
lar to the surface, it is bent as it 
goes into the glass. This bending 
is called refraction and various 
sorts of glass will bend a beam of 
light by differing amounts depend- 
ing upon its characteristics. This 
property is specified by a number 
called the index of refraction. Now 
if we investigate this bending in 
any given piece of glass it will be 
found that it varies for light of dif- 
ferent colors ; blue light is bent 
more than red, for instance. The 
dispersion of a given sort of glass 
is a number which gives a quantita- 
tive measure of this effect. In de- 
signing an optical system the opti- 
cian has at his disposal glasses of 
various indices of refraction and 
various dispersions which form the 
raw material for his work. Once 
the lens has been designed glasses 
having exactly the indices of re- 
fractions and dispersions used in 
the computation must be emploved 
in making it. 

Xow in practice the lens manu- 
facturer receives from the glass 
manufacturer glasses conforming 
to his specifications with but small 
variations. Some lenses are much 
more sensitive than others to these 
variations in the indices and disper- 
sions of the glasses of which they 
are made.' Under the conditions 


which existed during the war the 
glasses furnished by makers, who 
were all laboring under a handicap 
of forced production, inexperience, 
and lack of skilled help, often de- 
parted seriously from the specifi- 
cations laid down. Fortunately the 
Hawk-Eye Aerial lenses are quite 
insensitive to errors in the indices 
and dispersions of the glasses of 
which they are made, and depar- 
tures from specifications were tol- 
erated which would have been fatal 
to a lens more sensitive. As a re- 
sult, many a batch of glass was 
used which would have been reject- 
ed had it been intended for a lens 
of more sensitive construction and. 
consequently, lenses were supplied 
at a more rapid rate than might 
have otherwise been possible. 

It has been stated above that the 
Hawk-Eye Aerial lenses are not 
sensitive to variations in index and 
dispersion but this is not strictly 
true. They are sensitive in this 
way but adjustments are possible to 
correct matters. When a number of 
lenses have been made from a batch 
of glass which is not of the correct 
index and dispersion, the definition 
yielded by them would normally be 
impaired but. by varying the air 
spaces between the single lenses of 
the objective, the errors introduced 
by this glass can be entirely cor- 
rected. In the manufacture of 
Kodak Anastigmats. therefore, it is 
quite possible to use lots of glass 
which would be utterly useless for 
the purpose if these adjustments 
could not be made. That these ad- 
justments can be made without det- 
riment to the definition is one re- 
spect in which these lenses dififer 
from other anastigmats and herein 
lies one of the reasons for their rea- 
sonable price. 

As has already been pointed out, 
the total production of our optical 
factories had to be enormouslv in- 

creased during the war. Now op- 
tical instruments of precision re- 
quire for their manufacture a stafif 
of workmen who have acquired a 
high degree of skill which comes 
only with long training and experi- 
ence. The increase in the person- 
nel of optical plants, of course, 
meant that the new workers must, 
of necessity, pass through a train- 
ing period during which the accur- 
acy and excellence of their work 
would not be up to the required 
standard. The result was that re- 
jections were numerous and that 
the desired rate of production was 
deferred. This situation, of course, 
had to be met in the manufacture of 
photographic lenses. The inferior 
workmanship resulting from these 
unavoidable circumstances mani- 
fested itself usually in errors in 
thickness of the components of the 
objective and in errors in the curva- 
tures which the surfaces of these 
component lenses should possess. 
These imperfections normally show 
themselves in the finished objective 
to the detriment of definition which 
means that they introduce coma. 
spherical aberration, astigmatism 
and all the other optical aberrations 
discussed before. In the Hawk-Eye 
Aerial and Kodak Anastigmat these 
small aberrations resulting from 
imperfect workmanship can be elim- 
inated by adjusting the air spaces 
or separations between the compo- 
nents of the objective. With most 
anastigmats this would be impossi- 
ble as the decrease of curvature of 
field, for instance, in this way 
would increase the coma or astig- 
matism and hence if the curves 
are badly ofif the lens would prob- 
ably have to be discarded in the 
factory inspection. Again the de- 
sign of the Hawk-Eye Aerial in 
permitting these adjustments made 
for a lower proportion of rejections 
on factory inspection and allowed 



a little more tolerance in manufac- 
ture with the maintenance of the 
very highest optical quality, all of 
which tended toward more efficient 
and speed}- production at a period 
when a saving of time meant a sav- 
ing of hves. The same procedure 
is. of course, followed now in mak- 
ing the Kodak Anastigmats with a 
consequent saving of money to the 

These illustrations will >uffice to 
show wh\- a lens of such high (|ual- 
ity can be made at so moderate a 
price. The Kodak Anastigmat was 
born of a desire to make better pho- 
tographs possible to amateurs gen- 
erall}- ; it was developed and per- 
fected in fulfilling the war-born 
necessities of nations enlisted in a 
gigantic struggle for right ; and 
now. as the embodiment of progress 
and efficiency, it is serving the pho- 
tographic needs of a world once 
more returning to peace time ])ur- 

>uit>. Jn the evolution of thi> lens 
a step in advance has been taken 
along the road of progress of the 
human race. Collectively, man is 
striving toward a more complete 
satisfaction of his desires with an 
ever decreasing output of individ- 
ual energy.- We all want to work 
less and at the same time enjoy, in 
an increasing measure, the material 
and intellectual good things of life 
which are produced only by human 
efifort. The simultaneous fulfill- 
ment of these desires is possible 
only by enhancing the efficiency, 
speed and efifectiveness of our ef- 
forts. And, photographically speak- 
ing, the Kodak Anastigmat repre- 
sents a long step in this direction : 
for a smaller outlay of time, labor 
and money and hence for a lower 
price, it places at the disposal of 
the photographer. — amateur ai-.d 
profe><ional. — a better len>. 

This concludes this instructive series on the Anastig- 
mat which began in the February issue. 

Another Store Down the Street 

It was down in Uuebec. 

The salesman from .Montreal 
had taken his semi-annual order 
from the general store and having 
an hour or so to wait for the local 
to the next town, was sitting at the 
rear of the store playing checkers 
on a cracker box with the clerk. 
Tlie ])ro])rietor had gone out. 

The clerk thought he saw a way 
to the king row in three more 
moves. He was intent. 

The door opened and a man came 
in. The clerk kept his eyes glued 
to the red and black squares. 

The salesman interrupted : 
" Somebody just came in — a custo- 
mer. I think." 

■"llu^h, lui>h." whispered the 
clerk, without taking his eyes off 
the king row. "be (juiet and he may 

gf) out." 

This could n.e\-er hapi)en in your 
store, llut do }Ou always start with 
alacrity when a customer comes in 
if the subject under discussion hap- 
pens to be Babe Ruth's home run. 
last night's dance, Theda Bara. or 
the wetness of a dry town? 

The customer will await his turn 
with patience when the salespeople 
are obviously busy, but when an 
idling clerk is slow to respond, the 
feeling is different. As a rule, no 
comment is made — but there's an- 
other store down the street. 



Autographic Arguments 

Pictures of Children 

It is fair to assume that ever}- Kodak sold will at some 
time or other he called upon for pictures of the youngsters. 
Notice the films that come through for develoi)ino- and i)rint- 
ing and you will lind a considerahle ])<)rti<»n of them "kid" 

Almost invariahl}- a snapshot of a \oungster pro\-okes 
this (piestion, "When was it made?" "How old was l)ill\' 
then ?" 

The date written on the film at the time is half the 

Motoring Pictures 
Here, the title rivals the date in importance. Such is the 
speed of the modern motor car, that even a week-end trij) 
may carry the motorist to strange fields. "I rememher that 
old church — but where was it?" The autograi)hic record 
holds the answer. 

Travel Pictures 

Pictures made in Europe, for example, or in distant parts 
of our own countrv — pictures showing scenes that the tour- 
ist may never view again. Home with only a laggard mem- 
ory to guide him, positive identification of the ])rints made 
with an ordinary camera is a ho])eless task. 

It's a different stor}- with an Autographic Kodak — a 
stor}- complete — ])icture. title, date. 

Business Pictures 

Often a camera is to l)e u>e(l as much for Inisiness as for 
])leastu*e. If your |)ros]3ective customer is a contractor, for 
example, or a farmer, or a real estate man — the autograi)hic 
feature of the Kodak will make a particular a])])eal. Such 
men want an authoritatix'e record in which the date i)la}-s an 
im])(»rtant part. 

Method of Improving Work 

The sincere amateur — the tyi)e that makes ])hotography 
a real hol)l)y — will respond to \'our suggestion that the auto- 
gi"aphic record otters an excellent method of imi)roving re- 
sults. ^^'ith the stop opening, length of exposure, and light 
conditions noted on the tilm, each negative l)ecomes an 
object lesson so that a success may he re])eated or a failure 
avoided in the future. 



Bill Blivers' Boss 

I met my friend Bill Blivers the 
other day. Bill is one of your 
chronic optimists.. He can see a 
million a thousand miles off. while 
a dollar right under his nose doesn't 
make a noise loud enough to at- 
tract his notice. 

Bill said he had a new job with 
some concern — a new outfit. Thev 
expect to manufacture a prepara- 
tion for removing warts from dill 
pickles, or something equally novel, 
and Bill is all enthusiasm. He al- 
ready feels the bulge of the bank 
roll all clogged up in liis wai-tcoat 

I says. "15ill. you had a good job. 
didn't you ?" 

He says. "Ves. it was alright, 
only they didn't appreciate me. 
Xow I'm going to be an executive 
and be my own boss." 

That's Bill's trouble. He never 
has learned how to handle a boss. 
So Bill has bumped around from 
one boss to another gathering a pile 
of experience he doesn't know how 
to use, and nothing in the bank. 

A man that can't manage a good 
boss will never be capable of run- 
ning a business of hi> own. And 

Bill r.liver> can't seem to keep a 
boss at work for him. He always 
ends up by firing 'em and then he's 
out of a job. trying to get a new 
one he can manage. 

-My idea of a boss is a man that's 
>uccessful; the bigger the better. 
()f course if he isn't successful 
you've got to fire him. But if you 
do have the luck to land a live one. 
hang on to him. He's too valuable 
a man to lose. 

Xow here's the way to manage 
\our boss so as to get the best that 
is in him : 

Trust him. 

(jive him credit for knowing his 

Let him know xou ])elieve in him. 

liave enough loyalt}- not to knock 

Don't be constantly full of doubt 
as to his attitude toward you. Re- 
member, he knows you are ambi- 
tious and realizes that it is as much 
to his advantage as yours for you 
to get ahead. 

Stick to him through his trou- 
bles ; have a little sympathy with 
his perplexities : help him out when 
lie needs help. — Seaman's Log. 

The Pocket Premo 

A read3'-on-the-instant camera that is making good. 
Snaps automatically into focus as the bed is dropped. 

Pictures 2| x 


List Price, 514.95 

Full-page advertisements are now telling the stor}^ 
of the Pocket Premo to the public. More will follow. 

We now have them in stock. You should have. 


Don't blame a successful man 
for bragging a bit — no one with 
a good catch of fish goes home 
by way of the back alley. 

— Through the Meshes. 

77?^ Pocket Premo 

For 2li X 3li Pictures 

Price, $14.95 

Easy to Carry — 

Small as a purse 

Easy to Load — 

Open the back and drop in a 

Premo Film Pack 
Easy to Use — 

Snaps into focus when opened 

Catalogice free ai your dealer s 
or by mail 



An August advertisement i reduced) 





If you must blow your 
own horn^ join a band. 


"Sure this world is full of trouble — 

I ain't said it ain't. 
Lord! I've had enough, an' double. 

Reason for complaint. 
Rain and storm have come to fret me. 

Skies were often gray; 
Thorns an' brambles have beset me 

On the road — but, say. 

Ain"t it fine to-dav? 

•What's the use of always weepin". 

Makin" trouble lastr* 
What's the use of always keepin' 

Thinkin' of the past? 
Each must have his tribulation. 

Water with his \vine. 
Life, it ain't no celebration. 

Trouble? I've had mine — 

But to-dav is fine. 

•Its to-dav that 1 am livin'. 

Not a month ago, 
Havin', losin", takin', givin'. 

As time wills it so. 
Yesterday a cloud of sorrow 

Fell across the way: 
It may rain again to-mor7ow. 

It may rain — but, sa^. 

Ain't it fine to-day! " 

— Douglas Malloch. 

I\l^/ s\ V, fif.Kll'U^s^ 

/ / ■ J^?veP>.(b 

Before the Days of the Kodak Self-Timer 

The Colonel Takes His Own Picture 




an aia to tne man oenina tne counteT- 

Vol. 6 SEPTEMBEK, 1920 No. K 

Your Cue 

Tlie on]}- man wlm can't l)e interested in |)h()t()i^"rai)h}" 
is the man who isn't interested in an\'tliin^- else. 

A man l)uys i^olf sticks 1)ecause he has l)een l)itten hy the 
g'olt l^iii^'. or l)ecause someone has told him that he has a 
torpid liver. A man Iniys a g'lin or fishinjo- tackle hecaiise 
he loves to i4"et away from the crowd and hack to nature. 
A man or woman Iniys a l)ai)}- carriage because it has become 
a necessar}- ])art of the family e(|ui]:)ment — and then they 
talk and think bah}- just because they can't help it. People 
buy railway and steamer tickets because the}' love to travel 
— to jo'et out of the beaten i)ath. They buy automobiles and 
talk their heads oft about automolnles because, for them, 
the automobile is the all-absorbino- interest. 

On all these thin^^'s and a score of others there are fans, 
fans. fans. Ikit you don't often see a phot(^ii'raphic fan. 
^Ou think you do, but }-ou don't. 

^(>u are now saying to yourself: "lUit f do. Smithson 
talked an arm off me showing the ])ictiu"es of his fishing 

\\\\\ it was the fishing tri]) that really started Smithson's 
interest and he liked the i)ictures because they were pictures 
of the fishing trip. 

And those pictures I^irownlee showed nou — -the}- were 
mostl}- of his children. And White's i)ictures were made 



on his automobile trips. Miss Sweet was enthusiastic over 
her Muskoka trip and showed you the pictures she took, 
and you were really more interested in Miss Sweet than you 
were in the pictures or in Aluskoka — really you ought not to 
have tried to lug ofif that picture of the lady herself! 

Nearly everybody who owns an automobile, belongs to 
an automobile club. Not one camerist in a thousand belongs 
to a camera club. 

As a hobby in and of itself, photography has only a 
limited field. As a delightful and unobtrusive ally of every 
other hobby, its held is limitless. 

Which fact gives you the cue as to how to sell cameras. 
First of all, get in the game yourself. Take j^ictures of the 
things you are interested in. Fishing? \'er}- well, show 
your fishing pictures to the other disciples of Walton, but 
don't talk camera — yet. 

Brown has made some wonderful ])ictures of his children. 
Tell Johnson, wdio has two corking fine kids, to ask Brown 
to show those pictures next time he sees him. Yes — sure 
Brown has a half dozen of them in his pocket this minute. 
But don't mention Kodak to Johnson — yet. He will l)e in to 
see you soon after he sees Brown. 

Especially in the smaller towns, where everybody knows 
most everybody, this plan works. 

And the picnics, school and Sunday school and grange 
and lodge. Oh, what an opportunity for lousiness! And 
circus day! Make a few^ of these pictures yourself, then 
stick them in the window just before the next excitement 
of the kind comes along. 

People's fads, the things the}- are interested in. have 
made the Kodak business. Most of "em don't care a rap for 
photography except that it helps them have more fun out of 
the things they do care for. It may be a Leghorn hen with 
one man, a steam yacht with another, but the}- both want 

And that's vour cue. 



The bosses diary 
as kept by his son 

Clara, niy dad said when we was 
at dinner, there's a fella down to 
the store — 

Just a minute Frank — my mother 
replied — if you are going to tell a 
story about the store, I'll lissen to 
it on just one condition, and that is 
that you don't mention anything 
about when vou was a delivery bov 
in 1896. 

There's a fella down at the store, 
my dad said as if nothing had hap- 
pened — who made quite a hit with 
me to-day. We're breaking in a — 

For Heavens sake, Frank, my 
mother interrupted — hurry up and 
carve that steke. I'm starved. 

New man — my dad continued — 
and the way that Ed. Perkins is 
helping him along is certainly fine. 
Ed's pretty busy himself but he 
seems to find time to show this new 
fella the ropes and give him point- 
ers and I tell you that's the attitude 
I like to see. 

There are fellas who will just 
sit back when a new comer arrives 
and watch him make mistakes with- 
out lifting their finger. Some fellas 
are so deep in a rut that they can't 
go out of their way even to do a 

favor. Brotherly love is too often 
found exclusively in the Bible. 

You can talk of brotherly love all 
you want to — my mother said — but 
the way you used to malltreat 
your brother James was positively 

And so — my dad said — I was 
pretty glad to see how Ed handled 
this youngster. Explained some of 
the cameras to him and helped him 
out in a nice way when customers 
asked him questions he couldn't an- 
swer and showed him where the 
boys went for lunch and introduced 
him around to the other peopul in 
the store. Kidded him' a little too, 
just to show he was human but did 
it so the youngster couldn't help but 
smile himself. And then before he 
went home he. give him some cata- 
logs and Kodakery and the Kodak 
Salesman so that he could read up 
on things a bit. 

Ed showed by his interest in the 
kid that he had an interest in the 

He also showed that he had 
enough brains so that he could af- 
ford to share them with somebody 
else for a day or so. 

Why I remember that in 1896 
when I was a — 

My mother pushed back her chair 
and looked daggers at my dad and 
so he stopped talking. 

My dad says that on the jump 
and on the job lands a fellow on 
the payroll in a preferred position. 


Magazines and Farm Publications are circulating a million and 
a quarter Kodak messages again this month. Tie up to this publicity 
in your window displays and local advertising. Our September ad- 
vertisement is reproduced on page 12. 



A Case of Enthusiasm 

W'c think -11 much of that splen- 
did little camera, the Pocket IVemo, 
that we have started right in to 
make a lot of people just as enthu- 
siastic about it as we are. 

\f lit mav have noticed that for 
the past couple of years our Ad 
Man hasn't done much but tell the 
people what Kodak means or to 
suggest that they Kodak as they go. 
This is because it was dangerous 
business for him to advertise any 
special thing. When he did nearly 
everv time we were oversold on it 
a.nd the wrath of the dealers and 
the Sales Department descended 
upon him. 

The result is that new goods 
liaven't had their share of sales. We 
didn't dare make a noise about 

But all the time we've been en- 
thusiastic about the Pocket Preniu. 
It is a high-class little camera at the 
right price and only needs publi- 
city to make it extremely popular. 
It is getting that publicity now and 
the Prenio Factory is making a 
special push on Pocket I'remos so 
that we can safely do the advertis- 
ing it merits. 

If you are not enthusiastic about 
the I'ocket F'remo. it must be be- 
cause you have not seen one. In 
this case vou had better get hold 

of one and make yourself ac(iuain- 
ted now for when thev read all 
about it. there will be a lot of people 
interested. They will be dropping 
in to ask you liow and whv. 

Ynu will I)e delighted with the 
wa_\' it >nap> automatical!}- into 
focu> when the front board i- drop- 
ped — absolutel}' ready for business 
— instantly. The jjictures are 2!4 x 
3)4. yet the camera measures only 
P4 X 3y_i X 4i'': in. It is fitted with 
tlic Kodak Ball Bearing Shutter. 
Meniscus Achromatic Lens. Collap- 
sible Finder and Tripod Sockets, 
loads for 12 exposures with the 
Premo I-'ilin Pack and lia- a fine 
grain leather cover, black bellows 
and the metal parts are heavily 

Pike the \'est Pocket Kodak, the 
Pocket Premo is strong in it> ap- 
peal to enthusiasts wIto liave other 
and larger camera^, but it makes a 
larger picture than the \ M'.K ruid 
so we are also pusin'ng it in Ko- 
dakcry and other ])]iotogra]jhic 

The price is right. 

The advertising is big. and 

We have them in stock. 

ju-t jHit one in the window to 
in\il:e tlie jieopk' in and then watch 
tile -ale- juni]). 

One Way and — Another 

A Noung woman went to a cer- 
tain store the other day. asked for 
a roll of \'est Pocket Kodak Film 
and counted out 20 cent-, which -he 
laid on the counter. 

The clerk said "You've got to i)ay 
a quarter for it now. The Kodak 
Company has boosted the price." 

.\nother .^ cent piece was handed 
out. the young woman grumbled a 
bit. felt that the II.C.L. had hit in 

a new .-]j()t. re-olved to u-e a- little 
film a- ])o--ible and left the store 
with a feeling of re.-entment toward 
the Kodak Compan\-. the clerk and 
the dealer for whom the clerk 

In another -tore, inider similar 
circumstances, the salesman was 
careful to explain that for the first 
time in years the price of film had 
advai:ced. "It i- reall\- remarkable." 



lie said, "that the Kodak Company 
liave been able to maintain pre-war 
])rice.s for so long and that the ad- 
vance recently made is not larger." 
This young woman immediately 
thought of what she had paid for 
her last ])air of shoes, her new 
>prin^- hat. her --ummer gown, re- 

called the shock that she experienced 
at the size of the monthlv grocery 
bill and wondered why film had not 
gone from 20 to 50 cents instead of 
from 20 to 25 cents. 

It was all in the way of putting it 
an.d the salesman was justified, for 
he was dealing with facts. 

One Out of Seven 

One of the most poj)ular .-sundries 
that we manufacture, and you sell. 
is the Kodak i'ortrait Attachment. 
The idea of "close-ups" appeals to 
a host of amateurs and the demand 
for this handy little attachment i.> 
consistently strong. 

And yet — 

\\'ell. here's an actual incident. 

A friend happened in our of- 
fice the other day. and the proof 
of a Kodak Portrait Attachment 
ad. lay on our de>k. lie read it 
and seemed amused — in fact he 
chuckled. Xow. he wasn't hurting 
our feelings in the slightest be- 
cause we hadn't written the ad. l)ut 
he did arouse our curiosity. 

"What's the matter?" we asked. 

He took the ])roof from the (le>k 
and read it aloud — 

" to slip on and off" — \vh\- 
don't you add the phra-e 'and hard 
to get' r" 

"Every store carrie> tlie Kodak 
Portrait Attachment." we >aid. "Xo 
trouble about getting it." 

"Xo trouble about getting it. eh. 
\\ ell. 1 went to seven different 
Kodak stores before 1 could get 
the right attachment to fit m\- 

Then he went on to exjjlain that. 
while all the >tores visited carried 
Portrait Attachment>. it wa-n't un- 
til he reached the seventh, that he 
found a >ale>man who knew the 

size he sh(ntld I)uy for the i)articu- 
lar model Kodak he owned. Inci- 
dentally, this salesman impressed 
him so favorably and the store it- 
>elf aj>peared so thoroughly abreast 
of the times, that our friend an- 
nounced that all his future Kodak 
purchases U'Ould be made there, 
despite the fact that, as far as he 
was concerned, its location was in- 

( )f course he'll buy there. Any- 
body i> willing enough to go to ex- 
tra trouble for better service. 

This man will remember six 
>tores as places where they don't 
know their business, along with the 
one store where th-ey do. 

And all through a simple little 
item like the Kodak Portrait At- 

Turn to page 3*J (,f the 1920 edi- 
tion of the Kodak catalogue. There 
it all i-. The correct size attach- 
ment for the various Kodak and 
Prownie models all clearly present- 
ed so that you have the answer at 
a glance. 

Turn to page 24. 1920 Premo cat- 
alogue. There it all is for the Pre- 

That friend of ours would have 
had no difiicult}- in determining the 
size himself, had he referred to his 
catalogue. lUit then, he didn't know. 
\ on know of conrse. lUu how 
about ilarrv and Alice — do thev? 

Don't simply see how you can "put in the day," see how much you 
can put into the day. — The American Outlook. 


This Window Sells Kodakery and Kodakery 
Sells the Store. (See opposite page). 


Selling the Dotted Line 

You sell Kodak cry and Kodakery 
sells for you. 

That's the way one dealer looks 
at it, as is evidenced by a recent 
window display reproduced on the 
opposite page. 

It's a good window, hut even bet- 
ter than the window display itself, 
from our point of view, is the fact 
that here is proof positive that that 
store believes in pushing Kodakcry 
to the limit. 

And why not? 

You can't go in your customers* 
homes and talk to them about the 
Kodak Self -Timer and the Optipod 
and the Kodak Film Tank and the 
Kodak Portrait Attachment. But 
Kodakcry can and does. You can't 
drop around every month and chat 
with them about their little photo- 
graphic problems and how to over- 

come them. You can't quicken 
their enthusiasm in picture making 
by exhibiting before their eager 
eyes, page after page of cracker- 
jack pictures. But Kodakcry can 
— and doe>. 

Identify Kodakcry with your 
store. A window display is an ex- 
cellent plan, and this interesting 
lay-out can be followed by any one 
in any size window. 

Get the name on the dotted line, 
yourself, in your store. Send it on. 
yourself, to us. Then you enter in 
the transaction and, in the custo- 
mer's mind. Kodakcry is associated 
with your store. The Kodak peo- 
ple publish it. to be sure, but "it's 
the magazine he got down at 
Smith's Photo Shop." And as he 
reads, he knows that the sundries 
described therein are waiting for 
him "down at Smith's Photo Shop." 

Kodakery for October 

"The Surf" — expaining how to 
make surf pictures. 

"Sihouette> of Decorative Tllu- 

"Developing Roll Film Uutdoor>"' 
an article that will sell Kodak Film 

"Pictorial Records" — a story that 
will arouse interest in the Kodak 

"Hio-h Canura ov Low"" — a liit 

of instruction on pictorial composi- 

■'The Water in the Foreground."" 
This issue, the last of X'olume 
\ II, concludes with an index to the 
instructive articles in Kodakcry 
from Xov. 1919 to Oct. 1920, in- 
clusive. Glance through the index 
— very probably you have over 
looked some articles that you would 
particularly like to read. 






the pictures made 

during this 



-to keep them 






Opportunities for the Saleswoman in Selling to 
Women and Children 

It is safe to say that the average 
woman customer prefers to state 
her wants to another woman rather 
than to a man because she knows 
that a saleswoman understands her 
view])oint and can supply her needs 
largely through intuition. 

Especially in the Drug Store — 
where most of the salespeople are 
men— the saleswoman can capital- 
ize this feminine trait and use it to 
her own. advantage, and that of her 

v^av she is showing dyes for silk 
or wocillen goods. The ordinary 
sales///(/// knows what the envel- 
ope says the dye will do — hut. nat- 
urall}-, he has never had any prac- 
tical experience in dyeing cloth. ( )n 
the other hand a salesa'0//;a/; has 
probably tried the various dyes in 
lier own liome and can give lier 
sales talk in term> of her own ex- 
perience. The customer wants to 
know things the directions do not 
give, viz: "Will navy blue cover 
red?" or "\\'hat"s the iighte>t rhade 
of blue that will cover a wai>t that 
has been dyed pink?"" "What has 
been your ex])erience in dyeing silk 
with this dye?" etc. 

When it comes to selling Kodaks 
and l\r)dak sundries, the saleswo- 
man ha> an unusually good opi)or- 
tnnitv to >ell the woman customer. 
The \-oung luother with her first 
bal)\- i> a si)lendid ])rospect for a 
Kodak; and the >ale- woman's tact 
and s\-mpath\' pla\ an important 
])ari in the sale. The girl-l>ehind- 
the-counter shows a frieiidl\- inier- 
e>t in the mother and in .A!a>ter 
liaby on their hrst visit to the store. 
She begins her sales talk with the 
statement that while the baby is 
small and con>tantl\- changing and 
developing is just the time to start 

a baby book of pictures taken each 
week. And she describes the value 
of such a book and the pleasure it 
will afford when his IJabyship is 
grown u]i and has children of his 
< iwn. 

.\ Kodak album is brought (jut 
and >uggestion> given for making 
the exposures and for arranging 
and lettering the prints in the book. 

The mother becomes enthusiastic 
so the clever saleswoman swings 
the talk to the Kodaks, themselves, 
and brings out one that she recom- 
mends as being" easy to carry — a 
telling argument, for an\- baby is an 
armful. She points out the fact 
that the picture size is ideal for the 
album and that four pictures to the 
page make a very attractive lay- 
out. She ex]>lains the operation of 
tlie Kodak so that the mother can 
see for her- elf how simple it all i>. 
Then there is the autographic fea- 
ture — and the mother is r|uick to, 
realize the \alue of the date in baby 

The salesman would perhai)> find 
more difficulty in easily directing the 
converr ation through these chan- 
nels. lUit to the saleswoman, inter- 
est in the baby is the most natural 
thing in the world. The mother re- 
gards it as homage due. 

.\nd then there are the children. 
I I ere. again, the saleswoman has an 
advantage. .\s a rule, women nn- 
der>tan(l children better than men 
do and ha\'e more ])atience witli the 
child customer: so the saleswoman 
has a s])lendi(l opportunity in serv- 
ing the children to make permanent 
customers of them as they grow u]i. 

The child sent to the store on an 
errand is the representative of the 
parent and as such deserves ([uite 
as nuich consideration as a grrown- 



up. Too frequently salespeople let 
children wait while they serve older 
])eople out of their turn. This dis- 
courtesy i.s sure to be mentioned at 
home and the parent has a jierfect 
right to resent it. 

The clever saleswoman under- 
stands childish traits. She knows 
tliat "Stubby" Warner. "Reddy"" 
Phillips and the rest of "the fel- 
lows" do not like to be regarded as 
children ; so she says in greeting 
them : "Good morning, young 
man I" The small boy swells with 
pride at being so addressed, and 
states his errand with all the dignity 
of his six or seven years. On his 
return home he makes favorable 
comments on the store and the dis- 
criminating saleswoman who served 

The earnest saleswoman will 
cater to the children, making it her 
business to discover the things that 
interest them at certain times in the 
vear so that she can call attention 
to her wares at the proper time, 
"l.ook here. Tommy, at the new 
marbles we just got yesterday!" 
"Some class!" Tommy concedes, as 
he fingers the coveted treasures — 
mentally calculating the number he 
can I)uy with his week's allowance. 
All "the fellows" will know abou. 
your new su]~)])ly of marbles within 
a few hours. 

With cither the woman or the 
child customer you can link up 

\dur >ales talk with local events — 
the auto show, the street carnival, 
or the annual -chool picnic. The 
store does it when it suggests in its 
advertisements "Blossom Time Is 
Kodak Tiivc." Kodaks and films 
and developing materials are much 
more in demand ( and easier to 
sell ) when there is something spe- 
cially attractive to photograph. Find 
out what interests children and 
grown-ups at certain seasons of the 
year, and then ai)peal to that in- 

For example : 

"lohmiie. I should tliink yovi 
w(juld like to make some i)icture> 
of the circus parade next week." 
^a\s the >ales woman. 

"I would," re])lie> Johnnie, who 
knows the C(;iitent> of tlic circus 
poster by heart, "but 1 haven't got 
a camera." 

"Why don't you get one? Look 
at this Brownie. You could get 
great pictures with that. Fxldie 
Brown's got one. Let me show 
\"ou how it works." 

When Johnnie gets home that 
night, there is just one thing on his 
mind — a Brownie. He wants to 
make pictures of "the elephants and 
everything" and it's just possible 
that Johnnie's father or mother will 
he a caller at x'our store. 

"Fddie Brown's got one." — Vou 
can help Johnnie get one too. 



customers know 

about ' 







will help 





Have you 





? Se 

nd for 




You don't 
carry a 

Vest Pocket Kodak; 

you wear It, like a watch 

Your larger camera you carry when 3'ou 
plan to take pictures. The \'est Pocket Kodak 
vou have constantly with 3'ou to picture the 
unexpected and the unusual. It is small in 
size but lacks nothing in quality-. 

The price is 511.21 and film for 8 expos- 
ures is 2:; cents. 


A September advertisement (reduced) 



"rXlD you know. Sammy, that the 
\J Brazilian is one of the most 
exquisitely courteon- inrlividtials in 
the world ? 

"When he hands his card to an- 
other gentleman, for example, he 
turns down the corner as evidence 
that he himself proffers it and not 
his servant. 

"Even the Brazilian street car 
conductor creases the transfer he 
hands you as an indication of re- 

"You didn't know tiiat. Well, I 
don't think that I ever told you 
about Bob Atkin, either. 

"Bob Atkin was conductor on the 
trolley that conveyed me to the 
store almost every morning some 
years ago and he made an impres- 
sion on me the first time I laid my 
nickel in his hand and my eves on 
his face. It was a simple little 
thing too. He didn't crease the 
transfer. That's courtesy in Brazil. 
But he did say 'Good morning' in a 
pleasant way and smiled. And 
that's courtesy in Canada. 

"The car that brought me down 
mornings also transported some 
twenty youngsters just over the 
kindergarten age to their school. 
You know how irrepressible chil- 
dren are at this age. Sammy. You 
were that way once yourself. So 
was I. So was Bob Atkin. And 

Ten Jiiinutes 
with the "Boss 

he hadn't forgotten it. He only 
laughed good naturedly when they 
got in his way and pulled his coat 
and generally tormented him. They 
all called him 'Bob' and he had a 
>pecial nickname for every member 
of that juvenile crew. These chil- 
dren worshipped him. 

"(Jne morning as I was peering 

over the top of my pai>er at Bob as 

he affectionately rumpled the hair 

of some freckled face urchin, tlic 

. man next me said : 

" 'Say, that conductor is a won- 
der. I've taken this same car 
morning after morning for the past 
six months and he's always the 
same. I firmly believe that he is 
the only street car conductor in the 
world who has not an ingrowing 
grouch. Look at him now. ( Bob 
had just tipped his hat to a lady 
and was smiling a courteous greet- 
ing). Has a smile for everyone. 
What's his name, anyway. Bob. 
eh? Well. Bob and I can do busi- 

"This man was manager of a big 
store and Bob wa> glad enough of 
the opportunity. He made good — 
so good that he is now that same 
manager's right hand man. 

"A smile gave him his chance. 

"You would rather wait on a 
customer who was pleasant and 
cheerful and considerate, wouldn't 
you. Sammy? 

"Well, after all. there is a trace 
of human being about even the 
most rabid custi")mer. They feel 
much the same wa\' about it." 



Grow Where You Are 

The second ])L'r'-i.n singular i> 
easy — "you." 

It"s the third ])er>oii sin^-uhir that 
offers tlie ])r(»hlem. v^hah it he "lie"' 
or "she" ? 

Ill most of the article'^ in tlie 
KoOAK S.\l,!:SM.\x "he" has heen 
i^iven altogether too much promi- 
nence. The woman hehind the 
counter i- ju>t a> im])ortant as the 
man. She deserves recognition, and 
she's going to get it. Here goes : 

The saleswoman in the small 
town is inclined to >igh tor the «)]>- 
portunitie- for service and ad- 
vancement that. >o she think>. 
would surel\ he hers if she could 
only go into a hig city store, where 
she didn't know the customers, and 
wouldn't he bothered with garru- 
lous accounts of likes, dislikes and 
ailments. "\\'h\ hours of time 
would be saved every week!" she 
sighs regretfully. "Just think liow 
many more customers I could 
serve I" 

liut thi> i■^ ju>t w lu-re the small- 
town girl overlooks a big opportu- 
nity. She can make capital of these 

\"er\' annovances. 

l^'olks want to "talk the sale over" 
with somebody. Lucky you are if 
you happen to be "somebody!" A 
saleswoman ]:)0ssessing tact and a 
friendly interest in her customers 
i> in a position not only to secure 
much valuable data from them, but 
their good-will and their mone\' as 
well. "^ 

Such a girl is never bored when 
customers insist on disctissing per- 
sonal matters. Instead, she eagerlv 
drinks in every word and turns the 
information into suggestions that 
often make immediate sales. Or 
maybe the idea is not usable right 
at the moment, in which case she 

jot> it down in her notebook (after 
the departure of the customer ) and 
uses it later as the op])()rtunit\- pre- 
sents itself. 

Mrs. IJrown of Four Corners en- 
ters the store to purchase a safety 
razor as a gift to her son. just home 
from college. The saleswoman 
serves her: and. since they know 
each other well. Mrs. Urown im-> the information that Fred- 
erick like> a -afety razor, while 
lames, her elder son, will use noth- 
ing but the old-fashioned kind; that 
h'rederick likes a shaving stick, and 
lames prefers his shaving soap in a 
mug ; that Frederick uses a vanish- 
ing cream after shaving, as his skin 
is tender, etc. All tlii- in a few 
minutes' conversation. 

The saleswoman's mind i> work- 
ing rai)idly. Several articles occur 
to her that she can "link up" with 
tlie mother's safety-razor purchase, 
thanks to her friendly chatter. She 
i|uickly produces a new kind of 
shaving stick, a good cold cream, a 
well known brand of talcum and 
perhaps even a shaving mirror; and 
.Mrs. Brown can make no objection 
to auy of them — for did she not 
suggest them herself? She usually 
buys one or more of the articles 
without realizing that her own idle 
words have flattened her purse and 
increased the sales totals of the 
friendly girl-behind-the-counter. 

If a Kodak customer mentions 
the fact that he is going to the 
mountains for a few weeks, the 
saleswoman makes the most of it 
and sells him a dozen rolls of film 
and a Kodak Self-Timer; or per- 
haps some tested chemicals and a 
supply of \'elox if he does his own 
finishing. Whatever it is — the cus- 
tomer gives the lead and the sales 
woman follows through. 



The big city iiKTchant woukl give 
much to be able to know bis custo- 
mers i)ersonally : to greet tliem by 
name; to know their famihes. and 
tlieir tastes. Then he woukl be in a 
])osition to know withmn a>king, 
what they need and to anticipate 
th.eir wishes. The father of tive 
h'vel\- youngster> will not have the 
same tastes or nee(l> a> doe-~ the 
bachelor, living at his club. lUu 
alas! the cit\- merchant ha> no wa\ 
(.f knowing ■■who"> wdio," because 
bis customers never speak of per- 
gonal affair^ to eity -alesjieoiile 

w h( nn the\- do ni 


In a small-town store where cus- 
tomers tell who i> ill. who i- ])lan- 
ning a tri]). who ha> company and 
.ill the other intimate details — the 
saleswoman >ecures an invaluable 
'"working capital" so that when any 
members of those families- enters the 
store she is read}' to suppl\ the 
need ar.d make the sale. She can 
plan -ales not in a general wa_\-. but 
with a definite individual in mind. 

I Jigger sales becau>e }(iu are in 
a ^mailer town. 

Blaming Billy 

llilh might ha\e been respoiisi- 
ble for the missing strawberry jam 
and the broken garage window, 
but he really shouldn't have been 
blamed for that ruined negative. 

It was a salesman — a thoroughK 
posted salesman — who removed 
this stain from llill_\"s escutcheon. 

It happened this way. 

"That's too bad." -aid .Mr'-. 
Cooper, as her l:)atcb of negatives 
was handed her. "["ve been trying 
to get a picture of T>illy all thi> 
summer and be just won't >ta\' <till. 
See bow blurred this i>. 1 declare 
there never was such a child." 

"But Airs. Cooper." the salesman 
remonstrated. "I don't believe that 
l'>ill\- is at fault here. The camera 
moved — not your little son." 

Mrs. Coo])er looked up in sur- 
prise; "1> that the troul)le?" she 
asked, and her tone indicated that 
>he was a bit skeptical, "How can 
you tell?" 

The salesman went on to explain 
that the tree and the foliage in the 
negative — even the bench — were 
blurred — everything. If I '.illy had 
moved, only P.illy would be blurred. 
( )bviously. his uneasiness wouldn't 
affect the tree and the foliajre and 

the bench. Then he -bowed her 
how the camera should be held. 

■■( )h." said Airs. Cooper. 

-Mr.-. Cooper blamed Billy. She 
might have blamed the lens or the 
■ Initter or the film, or even become 
convinced that the store, itself, was 
somehow at fault. The customer 
is always right and -ometimes a 
trifle unreasonable. 

To protect a -tore'- good name 
arid to uphold it- reputation for 
-ervice. a salesman -hould be in a 
po-ition to e.\i)lain awa\" i)hoto- 
graphic dit^culties and, through 
constructive criticism, to aid the 
amateur in getting result-. 

.\nd it is so easy to be "photo- 
graphically fit" so to speak. 

The salesman who came t(^ r>illy's 
rescue had very prtohably read 
"Sharp and I'nsharp Pictures" in 
the December 191<> issue of Kodah- 
cr\. I'crhai).- he had read as well 
tl.e Service Talk in the .\ugust 

In any event Mrs. Cooper left 
the counter with a high opinion of 
ihat particular salesman and that 
particular store. 

.\ well posted salesman who 
l-:nows the ]Vhotogra])hic "How?" 



and "why?" sells himself and his 
store to every amateur with whom 
he comes in contact. 
It pays to be posted. 

Last month we suggested that we 
send to your home where you would 
have leisure to r'ead it, "Selling 
Kodaks and Supplies." We sug- 
gest this again — and all we want is 
your address. 

We suggested that you look over 
a copy of "How to Make Good Pic- 
tures," whicli you have in stock. 
We can't do better than to suggest 
this again — and you'd better sell 
Mrs. Cooper a copy. 

There are booklets. "About 

Lenses" and "Elementary Photo- 
graphic Chemistry" — a little bit 
more advanced reading, but ready 
for you when you are ready for 

And then there is the Service De- 
partment here in Toronto, which 
considers it a very important part 
of its work to answer any photo- 
graphic questions that may perplex 
you — ^either with a personal letter 
or by reference to a particular page 
in a particular piece of our liter- 
ature, in which the subject is au- 
thoritatively discussed. 

You can only blame yourself if 
your customers sttmible along 
"blamino- Billv." 

Consider the Deer 

If you had been living in the 
days of the early settlers, you 
would have seen many packs of 
wolves and many herds of deer, 
and, if you had watched the strug- 
gle for existence, >ou would have 
noticed that the deer were getting 
decidedly the worst of the argu- 

The wolves were doing pretty 
much as they liked, stealing, pillag- 
ing and slaughtering the deer in 
great quantities. 

Had you been asked, \'ou would 
in all probability have said that of 
the two species, the wolf was bound 
to survive. 

That you would have been mis- 
taken is proved by the fact that to- 
day the wolf is practically extinct 
in America, while farmers are 
forced to erect high fences around 
their farms in order to keep the 
deer from despoiling their crops. 

What's the answer ? Co-opera- 
tion; that and nothing more. 

The wolf is by nature a solitary, 
self-centered beast ; he would light 
to the death rather than allow a 

lirotlK-r wolf to eat from the same 
carcass. During hard weather when 
food is scarce, those of the pack 
which shows signs of weakness live 
but a s'hort time. They are quickly 
torn to pieces by the stronger mem- 
bers. There naturally comes a time 
when the last survi\T)r goes the way 
of the rest. 

The deer, howe\er, have a com- 
mon interest and use every natu- 
ral resource to guard themselves 
against the wolves. 

In a herd of fifty there were one 
lumdred ears continually listening, 
one hundred eyes continually 
looking for the approach of the 
common enemy, and at the first sign 
of warning they were off, leaving 
the wolves far behind to snap and 
snarl and kill among themselves. 

Everybody, from the manufac- 
turer down to the retail salesman, 
has a common object in view — to 
win the good will of the customer. 

And to attain this end with the 
least amount of effort and wasted 
energy a hearty co-operation is 
needed all along ilie line. — Scope. 


Ifs the ability a man uses, 
not the ability he possesses, 
that regulates his reward. 

— U Bet ween S. 

flow io n\al 






Published by 

Canadian Kodak Co., Limited 


/ book thai j)ic)its your persistent interest becausi 

it is published that your customers way 

Diake better pictures. 




TOBIEP ^l^^^-P 

li .-*' 


The I^g Book of Christopher Col uuibus reads as follows: 
September 29 — We sailed due Westward. 
September 30— We sailed due Westward. 
October i — We sailed due Westward. 

Colnmbiis set an example we cou/d all 

follozOy IV hat ever our busmess. 
Set yottr eoiirse and stick to it, 

— The Skyscraper. 


To-day is here with prospects fair. 
While yesterday's work is done; 

To-day's a day to do and dare. 
Not to dream of days to come. 

The message of to-day is plain 
While the future's lips are stilled. 

We have this day to work and gain. 
Let us, then, our business build. 

If yesterday we failed to hear 

The urging call of chance. 
Let us now with right good cheer 

Make this a day. Advance! 


Horrible Consternation Depicted on the Face of J. B. Salesman as 
Friend Customer Opens Up a Package of Velox in Glaring Day- 
light To Assure Herself That Each Sheet Is "Perfectly Clean" 



an aid to the man iehind the cotinteT 

Vol. 6 

OCTOBER, 1920 

No. 9 

Question— What's the Difference? 
Answer — There Isn't Any 

Suppose that you were selling in- 
surance, and that you heard of a 
prospect occupying an office in the 
Granite Building. Suppose that 
you were able to arrange an inter- 
view and that, after you were once 
inside his office, you strolled lan- 
guidly over to the window and si- 
lently contemplated the view or 
passed a few pleasant words with 
the stenographer, before entering 
upon the business that brought you 
there. This would make a big hit 
with your prospect, who had 
dropped his work and leaned back 
from his desk in order to hear 
what you had to say, would it not? 
Go to the head of the class, Harry, 
and receive the gold loving cup. 
You are right — it would not. 

You aren't selling insurance, but 
Kodaks. You don't call on your 
prospects but you spend a consid- 
erable amount of mone\' and time 

and efifort in persuading them to 
call upon you. And then — 

Suppose that, as your customer 
neared the counter, you indicated 
his presence by going right ahead 
with telling Edna about last night's 
dance or suppose that, if you were 
in another part of the store, you 
stayed right there so that the custo- 
mer would have to come and find 
^•ou. or suppose that you looked at 
him in a bored sort of manner, as 
much as to say. "What, you here 

Just suppose you did these things. 
vou'd be pretty sure to sell lots and 
lots of cameras and sundries, would 
you not^ 

Go right up on the platform in 
plain view of the audience. Egypta, 
and receive the platinum wrist 
watch offered as first prize. You're 
right — yoil would not. 


About "Kodakery" — how interesting and helpful it is. Let 
them know that the subscription price is only 60 cents a 
year, and that you can take and forward their subscriptions. 
Doing so, you serve them and your store. 


A Typical Kodak Store in Japan 

Something About Japan 

Then there's Japan! As Mr. 
Eastman, fresh from his visit to the 
land of cherry blossoms, hari-kari, 
jiu-jitse, sunrise — and now Kodaks 
— reminds us. Do you know that 
ten years ago the Japanese would 
hardly look at a Kodak? Not be- 
cause they knew of anything better 
or even thought they did, but just 
because — well! you know, or may- 
be you have heard of a certain pre- 
judice among certain artists, even in 
our own country, against it at one 
time. They couldn't explain it. but 
they had it, some of them, and some 
of us have "felt" their supercilious 
smile as we passed by, Kodak in 

The professional photographers 
in Japan plied their art, had for 
many years, and Mr. Eastman on 
his visit met a gentleman in Tokio, 

Mr. Asanuma by name, who had 
been five years longer in the photo- 
graphic business than Mr. Eastman 

But the amateur simply did not 
exist. The Japanese being a highly 
artistic race— much more than we 
are — more sensitive, that is to art 
impressions and art forms, looked 
on this simple mechanical method 
of picture taking by unskilled and 
untrained hands as an invasion of 
the exclusive domain of art. And 
being thoroughly conservative in 
taste, they would have none of it. 
In fact, a clothing salesman in the 
Garden of Eden would have had 
about as much chance as a Kodak 
Salesman in Tokio only a few short 
years ago. As though the useful lit- 
tle, joy-giving, story-telling Kodak 
ever presumed to rival the arts ! 



At the banquet given lo Mr. Eastman by Messrs. Asanuma, Tokio, 
and Messrs. Kuwada, Osaka. On Mr. Eastman's ri^ht is Mr. 
Asanuma, the oldest dealer in Japan. In front of Mr. Asan- 
uma, stands Mr. S. Kuwada, one of the largest dealers there. 

But what's the use? The Japanese, 
being practical as well as artistic, 
did awake and with characteristic 
energy made up in their waking 
hours for the time they had lost in 

Now. as Air. Eastman observes, 
you will find a Kodak wherever you 
go in Japan, and the Japanese as 
addicted to the Kodak habit as we 
are. The Jap has found the Kodak 
a good thing — good in travel — they 
are great travelers, the Japanese- — 
good in recording the home life to 
which they are devoted to the point 
of ancestor worshij) — and good for 
recording the beauty spots in which 
their own land abounds. The work 
of these Japanese amateurs has an 
artistic quality, too, that will com- 
pare with the very best of our own 

The dealer shops which Mr. Kast- 

man had time to visit, he found per- 
fect little hives of industry. In fact, 
the photographic business there is 
very live indeed. Whereas ten 
years ago sales for an entire year 
in Japan could be told in five fig- 
ures, the sales for the first six 
months of 1920 need seven figures 
— and good sturdy figures at that. 
Twenty-five times in volume what 
they were ten years ago and in ama- 
teur supplies a greater increase 
than any country in the world can 
show for the same period, is the 

Some salesmen, these Japanese 
must be to pile up a record like this 
against what was once a prejudice 
ingrained in the artistic tempera- 
ment of the people. 

And when the Japanese buy they 
want the best. This, too, our sales 
records show. Kodaks of the bet- 


Mr. R. Konishi, seated at Mr. Eastman's left, and in the rear row 

his four sons, to whom the active management of his 

large photographic supply house now falls. 

ter grade almost invariably — lenses 
the best money can buy — and one 
order we saw called for 200 Graflex 
Cameras of one type. This tells its 
own story, too. 

Seed and Stanley Plates were 
universally used before and during 
the war. Mr. Eastman, however, 
found Japan very enthusiastic over 
Film. This shows their pro- 
gressiveness, as well as their in- 
stinct for the best. Perhaps it's 
this instinct for tlie best — this abil- 
ity to choose the best the Western 
World has to offer, that has made 
them the mighty nation the\- are to- 
day. And that 's why tlie diMiiand 
there, is for \\'estern products. In 
photographic lines^ for instance. 
]\rr. Eastman found that Kodak 

goods were used to the pra':'ical 
exclusion of all others. 

Xo wonder Mr. Eastman is mi- 
pressed with the photographic out- 
look in Japan. But he is equally- 
impressed with the practically un- 
limited opportunity for trade of all 
kinds with Japan. 

The visitors had many proofs of 
Japanese friendship in the hospi- 
tality and welcome extended them 
wherever they went. But — and 
this is strictly between ourselves — 
what Mr. Eastman enjoyed as 
much, as anything was knocking 
about among the dealers, watching 
the busy salesmen at work, study- 
ing their methods — and, to cap all, 
the two jolly good banquets which 
the dealers ijave him. Tliev offered 


more, many more, and showed their 
keen interest and delight in Mr. 
Eastman's visit in every way they 
could. But time was short and he 
had to limit himself to two, one ten- 


The bosses diary 
as kept by his son 

To-day, my dad said, that he re- 
arranged the Kodak department so 
that there would be more light 
where more light was needed. He 
said that in all that darkness the 
stock might sleep so hard that it 
would forget to turn over. 

But the thing about it that struck 
my dad was that when he give in- 
structions to change the department 
around, one of the fellas said — 
"I've been hopping you'd do that 
for years," he said. 

"Your hopping did me a lotta 
good," my dad said, "Why didn't 
you suggest it?" 

My dad was kinda peeved about 
it. Think of that, he says. He'd 
been hopping I'd do that for years. 
Probly he'd practicly engulfed me 
with thought waves on this subjeck 
for years. Probly he'd tried to get 
in touch with me through his Wee- 
gee board time and time again, all 
to no avail. The onlv thing left 

dered by Messrs. Konishi, of Tokio, 
the other jointly by Messrs. Asanu- 
ma of Tokio and Messrs. Kuwada 
of Osaka, to both of which all other 
dealers were thoughtfully invited. 

was to come right up and tell me or 
drop me a letter and of course-, 
them two methods of proceedure 
was out of the questshun. 

There are a lotta people like that. 
F'irst they get the big idea. Bang. 
It looks good to them. They ex- 
amine it carefully all the rest of the 
day — and ar'- still weighing it in 
their minds at the end of the week. 
Next month they think of it again. 
No questshun — a real idea. Then 
they forget it until some one else 
gets the same idea and puts it over. 

Some fellas when they get an 
idea get it over — others get over it. 

My dad says that that don't mean 
that a fella should serve up a half- 
baked idea or a under-developed 
suggestshun. It's a good plan to 
turn em over in your mind until 
they are thoroughly done on both 
sides — pro and con. My dad says, 
that too many people, though, get a 
good thought, do it to a turn, and 
then never put it on the menu so 
that nobody knows about it except 

My dad says it's a great world 
and any way it's the only one we've 


Albums — Think of the pictures they made this summer 
that are still lying around 

Kodak Dry Mounting Tissue — for album mountings. 

Kodak Portrait Attachments— ior head and shoulder 
portraits in the home. 




Most important of all the auto- 
graphic advantages is dating the 
negative — for every negative worth 
taking is worth dating — but there 
are other advantages, too. The 
memo which it makes possible at 
the bottom of the negative showing 
the conditions under which each 
picture was made, the stop, time 
and light, presents a practical meth- 
od of repeating successes. The 
autographic record can be made an 
authoritative check on results. 

And in addition the autographic 
record can eliminate the double ex- 
posure from the list of amateur 


failures. Amateurs may come and 
amateurs may go, but the double 
exposure might go on for ever — ex- 
cept for autographic intervention. 
The solution is very, very simple. 
Always write the autographic re- 
cord — often the date and title, seem- 
ingly trite at the time, may become 
vitally important later. Always 
look in the autographic slot before 
making the exposure. If you see 
writing there you have forgotten 
to turn the key and a twist of the 
wrist saves you from a double ex- 

Attention of Mr. Webber, Please 

The mail clerk was rapidly sort- 
ing the incoming letters — marking 
them for proper distribution to the 
various individuals in the office. 
There were hundreds of these let- 
ters, and this particular morning 
the mail clerk was fairly swamped. 
Nimble fingers and a quick mind, 
however, were accomplishing won- 
ders, when suddenly the clerk 
stopped, glanced at a certain letter 
a second time, and immediately left 
her desk with the letter in her hand. 

I followed at her heels — plain 
curious, that's all. She entered one 
of the offices — it happened to be 
Mr. Webber's — laid the letter on 

his desk and returned to her work. 

"Here's another request for that 
cut sheet," he remarked. "Getting 
lots of them lately." 

I glanced over his shoulder — just 
an ordinary request for a cut sheet. 
Hundreds of them just like it had 
been coming in every week for the 
past month. "Just like it?" — well, 
no — for this letter carried the 
phrase, "Attention of Mr. Webber 

Of course it just happened that 
way, but — the word "please" will 
do a lot of work for you if you 
let it. 

An Ally of Every Other Sport 

So true is it that Kodak is an 
ally of every other sport that most 
of our advertisements which appear 
iin Canadian National Magazines 
•are illustrated with pictures of out- 
door life. 

No matter how occupied a man's 
brains may be with whirring reels 
and tugging fish, the thought of a 
Kodak to tell the story of the trip 

makes instant appeal. 

Sportsmen come to your store — 
lots of them — and Kodak advertis- 
ing has sent them there. 

On the opposite page is repro- 
duced one of our advertisements 
which will appear during October 
in the Family Herald and Weekly 
Star, Toronto Saturday Night and 
other publications. 



If it isn't 
an Eiistnian, 
it isn V a 

Make your KODAK Story 


Keep on everj' negative the date and title; make your Kodak storj' 
not merely a picture story but also a record storj'; a story that will take 
you back to the year, the month, the \ery spot — will bring those outing 
days freshly before you even when time has played sad tricks w ith memory. 

Making the autographic record is the work of but a moment — and 
autographic film costs you no more than the other kind. 



An October advertisement — reduced. See opposite page 



"IIEARD the story about the two 
jm men in the Puhman smoker 
Sam?" asked ^Ir. Clark, as he 
shoved his chair back from the 
desk with the air of a man who 
had been working hard all day and 
was, accordingly, entitled to a few 
minutes relaxation. 

Now the last census tallied some 
two thousand two-men-in-a-Pull- 
man-smokcr stories, all of which 
everyone has heard at least twice. 
But Mr. Clark was Sam's boss and 
Sam was diplomatic. 

"No. chief." he said. ''I haven't 
heard it. Shoot." 

"Well, these two traveling sales- 
men were sitting up in the smoker, 
endeavoring to annihilate distance 
with nicotine. One of them, 'Bangs.' 
we'll call him. was rather flashy in 
his dress and loud in his conversa- 
tion. His companion, on the con- 
trary, was a quiet sort of chap. 
We'll call him 'Royce.' 

" 'Only took seven orders in this 
town.' commented Bangs, as the 
station dropped behind. 'Believe 
me, though, I'm going to make 
Hamilton sit up and take notice.' 

" 'I got my last order just three 
years ago to-day,' remarked Royce. 
quietly. T expect to get another 
one in about si.x weeks 

"Bangs' jaw dropped. He had 
been kicking about seven orders in 
one dav, and here was a man who 

Ten Minutes 
with the "Boss 

had taken one order in three years 
— and didn't seem very much dis- 
turbed about it either. ' 

" 'What do you happen to be 
handling, anyway?' he asked, help- 

" 'Suspension bridges.' was the 
quiet rejoinder. 

"This story illustrates a point. 
Sam. that I'd like to get over — right 
over the counter among you sales 
people. Build sales. If you can't 
sell a man a Special Kodak, now, 
don't give him up. Nurse him along. 
Try to keep up his interest. If your 
customer isn't ready for a Graflex 
yet, he may be then. Build sales. 
Some salesmen get the foundation 
started all right, but forget the 
structure proper. The only time to 
(|uit work on a prospect. Sam. is 
not when the whistle blows, but 
when the cash register bell rings. 
"I worked a year with Mrs. 
Hofifman, who first bought a lA 
Junior before I sold her that 3A 
Special. She was interested in the 
Special from the first, but — well 
you know ^Irs. Hofl:'man. 'Isn't 
that just like a woman' describes 
her exactly. I kept that interest 
alive, Sam. Some phrase like. 'Did 
you ever see how the Range Finder 
on this 3A Special works. Mrs. 
Hofifman ?" Or. 'Here are some 
spler.did pictures that were made 
with a 3A Special,' would direct the 
conversation through proper chan- 
nels. She was a frequent visitor to 
the store and so opportunities were 
rot lacking. 

"There's added eniovment to that 



kind of selling. Sam — and the satis- 
faction when the sale is finally 
made, is worth more than the 
money itself. 

"Special Kodaks and Grafiex 
cameras offer splendid opportuni- 
ties for building sales. And your 
prospects are right there before you 
ever}^ day. There are few people 
indeed who visit a Kodak depart- 
ment, who would not be interested 
in a demonstration of the Gratiex 
or a practical illustration of the 
Kodak Range Finder. 

"Build sales. Sam." 





1 hK^^v 

The Big Idea 

They spend a lot of time with 
their window displays at F. A. 
Toombs & Co.. and the resulting 
trims show the result of careful 
work. One portion of the store is 

reserved for the setting up of dis- 
plays, to decide their fitness for the 
front windows. On the floor are 
chalked the outlines of window 
space and the displays are here 
arranged until the trimmer is con- 
vinced that he has the effect he 
wants. Then, and not until then, 
the trim is put in the window. 

A striking feature of recent win- 
dow displays has been the use of 
the large Kodak pictured below. It 
looks like the real thing and shows 
painstaking workmanship. 

Three slogans were used in con- 
nection with this dummy Kodak — 
"All outdoors is a big Kodak pleas- 
ure." ''There's a big Kodak satis- 
faction in any size Kodak," and 
"All outdoors is a big Kodak temp- 

The idea of the large Kodak and 
the slogans were conceived by W. 
A. Alexander, while the instrument 
itself is the work of ^lichael Bren- 
nan — ^both of whom are connected 
with the F. A. Toombs & Company 

Kodakery for November 

"Glimpses of the Orient" is an 
interesting article, illustrated with 
imusual pictures of Japan and 

"Coon Hunting with a Camera"' 
suggests a field for the camera that 
will interest many readers. 

"How to Hold a Camera Steady." 
illustrated with diagrams showing 
how the camera should be held to 
avoid blurred pictures. 

"Recording the Clouds" tells how 
to get the cloud eft'ects in your pic- 

"Air Bubbles in Tap Water." 
"Effect of Temperature on Devel- 
opment" and "Printing from Wet 
Negatives" are some of the other 
articles of -.special interest. 



Catching the Camera Thief 

In an article entitled "Warnings 
to the Photo Salesman" by Mr. 
Charles G. Willonghby, appearing 
in the August number of the Photo 
Bra, some of the schemes to which 
camera thieves resort are related. 

In this article, Mr. Willoughby 
says in speaking of the new tricks 
of the camera and lens thief, "Here 
are some of them. A would-be cus- 
tomer edges up to the counter and 
ofifers a camera or lens for ex- 
change, leaving it on the show case 
rather carelessly. The salesman 
shows him an outfit, and the thief 
tells him it looks good ; but he 
would like to see another, in the 
meantime stepping away several 
feet from his own outfit. At this 
juncture, the thiefs confederate 
moves up near it, and it usually be- 
comes an easy thing for the confed- 
erate to get it. The crook remain- 
ing behind demands pay for his out- 
fit, and many times, the dealer not 
wishing to have a scene created in 
his store, nor defend a suit in court, 
settles and swears that it will never 
happen in his place again." 

Mr. Willoughby em]:)hasizes the 
fact that too many salesmen bring 
out on the counter from two to five 
outfits at once, with the result that 
not one in ten can tell when a cam- 
era is missing. This does not seem 
possible but he states that it was 
thoroughly proved in his establish- 
ment by salesmen taking outfits 
from each other by way of tests, 
and in almost every case the sales- 
man who had lost the camera or 
lens was entirely ignorant of the 
fact that anything was missing. 

Another instance that is men- 
tioned is the case where a thief 

came into a well known supply 
house and asked to see a Graflex 
camera with lens. The salesman at 
the time was waiting on another 
customer, and had he known his 
business, would not have shown the 
reflecting outfit before he had fin- 
ished. But he handed it out and 
proceeded to finish with his pros- 
pect, when suddenly the thief hand- 
ed back the outfit with some re- 
mark, and the salesman placed it on 
the shelf and gave it no further 
thought at the time. When he came 
to look at the camera a few min- 
utes later, the lens was missing. 
The thief had simply unscrewed it 
from the front board and closed the 

To quote another. "A prospec- 
tive customer comes into the store 
and selects a high grade outfit with 
the request that it be sent C. O. D. 
to some hotel in the vicinity at a 
certain hour. At the appointed time 
the crook is waiting in the lobby 
for the boy to deliver the package. 
When the boy arrives, the crook 
steps up to him and asks if the 
package he has to deliver is ad- 
dressed to a certain party, and nat- 
urally the boy's suspicion is not 
aroused for he is glad he has so 
easilv found the would-be owner. 
The crook either gives him a worth- 
less check, or takes the package, 
saying that he wants to go to his 
room for the money. Once in the 
elevator, the swindler is on his way 
to the pawnbroker ; for he gets ofif 
the elevator and walks down the 
stairs unobserved." 

These are a few of the tricks 
mentioned in Mr. Willoughby's 
article and which should serve to 
put the salesman on his guard. 

"A pessimist is a blind man in a dark room looking for a black hat 
that isn't there." — Selected. 



A Friend of Yours? 

This story is about Bill. Per- 
haps I shouldn't be telling it, but 
you and I are such old friends of 
liis that I don't think he'll mind. 

Bill's got a hobb}'. He is one 
of those fellows who exist fifty 
weeks of the year for the fall hunt- 
ing trip with its two weeks of real 
life in the wilds of the North coun- 
try. Deer and wild ducks are Bill's 
hobby, and he is happiest when sit- 
ting in his blind at dawn on a chill 
October morning or when tramp- 
ing through the brush stalking an 
elusive buck. 

In August as soon as the leaves 
begin to show a little red or l)rowr. 
it is all oflf with the usual pursuits 
of life and Bill's steady job seems 
like a life sentence. 

About this time the guns are 
brought out for cleaning and oiling 
to be in readiness for the all-impor- 
tant trip and perhaps to give Bill a 
chance to squint along the barrel 
and get a bead on an imaginary 

There's lots to be done in Sep- 
tember for Bill is not one to leave 
the packing for two or three days 
before his departure northward. X'o 
danger of his turning up at 
camp with some very necessary 
items forgotten. He must obtain 
the exact loads he will want to 
shoot. Boots and proper clothing 
are of great importance and the 
camp kit must be complete in everv 

By the middle of October every- 
thing is packed and in readiness. 
Everything did I say? Xo — not 
quite — and here's the secret. Bill 
doesn't own a Kodak! 

Those pictures that he showed 
you are some that Dick made with 
his Brownie last year. Bill has 
carried them around in his pocket 
ever since and will tell you that 
they've helped to make the interval 
of waiting for this year's hunting 
season something more than mere 
existence for him. 

But these last few months Bill's 
mind has been so full of that two 
weeks' vacation, and of ducks and 
deer, that he just hasn't thought 
of the other fifty weeks and a 

To-day or to-morrow Bill is 
going to drop into the store for a 
package of cigarettes or some 
shaving soap. If you talk over this 
year's trip with him and let him 
see those pictures that the boss 
made when he was up north four 
years ago. it's a safe bet that Bill 
will walk away with that lA Auto- 
graphic, jj J that came from Tor- 
onto to-day. 

Harry and Tom and Dick are 
going north this year too. Harry's 
got a Special so he's all right, Tom. 
like Bill, doesn't own a Kodak, and 
Dick really should have something 
better than that Folding Brownie. 

"The only man who can't be interested in photography 
is the man who isn't interested in anything else." — From 
"Your Cue," page 3, September Kodak Salesman. 



One At a Time— The Boss Talks to Himself 

I was going home on the street 
car the other evening with Bill 
Johnson, of Johnson & Taylor, and 
after we had finished speculating 
as to who had the best stocked cel- 
lar in town, Bill turned to me 
and said : "You know Jenkins and 
Smith's place? Well, I went in 
there to-day to get a couple of neck- 
ties and the salesman led me over to 
a case where they had a fine dis- 
play. Then he started in bru-'giiig 
out neckties and slappmg tliem en 
the counter so fast that I had no 
chance to more than glance at a lie 
before it was buried h\ another, til' 
soon it looked as if an avalanche of 
neckties had descended. 

"As he brought them out lie kept 
up a rapid fire of conversation re- 
garding the color, wearing qualities 
and o^her advantages of the ties, 
till my ears were ringing and my 
head was swimmino-. J tr'ed to in- 
terrupt him several times, but noth- 
ing could stop him. 

"At last he either ran out of 
breath, or neckties, or both, and be- 
fore he had time to get started 
aeain, I hurriedly asked him how 
much tlie ties were. He mentioned 
the price, a'^d rather than waste 
more ti'^ne \^'i^h a youth who didn't 
know his job, I made a hurried 
choice, paid for the ties and got 
out. But the feeling I had was 
t]"iat if it was that much trouble to 
buv a necktie in that place, I'd hate 
to eo in there to buy a suit of 

Tust then wp reached Bill's cor- 
ner P^xl hp l»ft me but the story 
s^^aved, ?""'d T besran to wonder if 
t^i'->o■^ HVe Hiat ever happened in 
our store. 

T^Vip "pxt mornin? T was walking 
around when f noticed that one of 

our new salesmen was showing 
some cameras to a man whom 1 
knew sHghtly and who is a lawyer 
here in town with a good practice. 

As I approached, I observed that 
there were Brownie cameras, both 
box and folding in all sizes and 
Kodaks and Special Kodaks spread 
around the counter, and that while 
the customer had a lA Special 
Kodak in his hands the salesman 
was handling a folding Brownie, 
and giving an excellent description 
of its various features. 

I said good morning and in a 
natural way we fell into conversa- 
tion. I soon led the talk around to 
the Special Kodak which he had in 
his hands and explained the Kodak 
Range Finder. He was much in- 
terested and I led him over to the 
door where the light was better and 
let him work the Range Finder 
himself, on several objects at vari- 
ous distances. When we came back 
through the store I steered him to a 
different part of the counter where 
there were no other cameras in 
view but the lA Special Kodak 
which he was carrying. T showed 
him how to open it and how to load 
it and in a very few minutes he had 
paid for the camera and taken it 
along with him. 

I called the salesman over and 
explained to him just why I had 
interfered, pointing out that by 
brinsfing out so many widelv dif- 
ferent stvles of cameras he was 
merelv confusing the customer and 
dividing his attention among a lot 
of cameras instead of concentrating 
it upon the one camera that partic- 
ularlv interested him. 

[f you try to look at three rings 
at the circus at the same time, you 
7coii'f see the circus. 



A Window With a Point 

"Kodak on land and sea" is the 
story so quickly and convincingly 
told by the window displa}' illus- 
trated above. 

While this display could be easily 
duplicated by any dealer. Straup's 
Pharmacy had the advantage of the 
use of a real ship, even if on a small 
scale. As Mr. Straup writes : 

"The sailing vessel used in the 
display is a model ship valued at 
$500.00. carved by hand by a mas- 
ter mechanic in the Xavy for 
twelve years. This vessel caused 
considerable comment by the pass- 
ersby and the local newspapers and 
therefore centered on the main ob- 
ject. "Kodak on land and sea." 

Have your rural customers read "The Kodak on the 
Farm?" Every farm home should have one. It is harvest 
time. Mail copies now. 



Where Is Opportunity? 

In a poem by H. AI. Railsback, 
entitled "The Stay-At-Home," we 
find these homely words of wis- 
dom : 

"It's a part of nature, human. 

To be always frettin', fumin'. 
And to want to wander hither, yon 
and thence. 

And most every youthful feller. 

Like a cow, is prone to beller 
For the grass that grows on to'ther 
side of the fence." 

It is decidedly true that man ever 
thinks of opportunity in some far 
ofif land or in some distant city. 

This is principall}^ because "to 
err is human." 

So we find the man in Toronto 
casting his eyes longingly toward 
Vancouver, or to the other coast 
and exclaiming, "If I were only 
there I hnoxv I would find /;<-v op- 

The man in the small town knows 
that his opportunity lies in the big 

The boy on the farm feels cer- 
tain that his fortune awaits him in 
Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg or 

The man in the city looks hope- 
fully toward the wonderful oppor- 
tunities of farm life. 

And so, still closer to home, we 
find right in our own shops, offices 
and stores, scores of men and wom- 
en who ever have their eyes on the 
false light of some imaginary op- 
portunity in the distance. 

That is because they do not know 
that all they have to do is to put 
their thought and efifort to the task 
in hand and they will find opportu- 
nit\' standing by their side. 

People are too apt to mistake 
"Chance" for Opportunity. 
"Chance" gives a man a worthless 
farm and upon it he strikes oil. It 
leads the footsteps of the wanderer 
to a gold mine. 

Opportunit}-, however, has to be 
made and worked for. It is the 
direct result of hard work and 
really consists of growth and devel- 
opment which are possible any- 

Close your eyes for a moment. 

Shut out the picture of that far 
otT imagined opportunity. 

Consider this thought : 
;. Opportunity is ever right before 
yon — on your work bench, on your 
desk, or in your store, shop or office. 

Then open your eyes again, look 
about you and you'll see Opportu- 
nity staring you right in the face. 

If there are any successes in your 
organization or business there is 
room for another. 

A little more study, a little hard- 
er work and soon you'll find that 
you don't need to go even across 
the street for what you want. 

Wake up! 

Shake hands with Opportunity ! 

Get busy ! 

— The "Lightning" Line. 


Last month we suggested that we send to your home where you 
would have leisure to read it, "Selling Kodaks and Supplies." We 
suggest this again — and all we want Is your address. 


not t'asv — 
) apologize. 
To begin over. 
To admit error. 
To be unselfish. 
To take advice. 
To be charitable. 
To be considerate. 
To endure success. 
To keep on trying. 
To avoid mistakes. 
To forgive and forget. 
To keep out of the rut. 
To make the most of a little. 
To maintain a high standard. 
To recognize the silver lining. 
To shoulder a deserved blame. 

— 7lir ffallrgnuu. 

If it isn't 
an Eastman, 
it isn 't a 




The man who goes ahead 
and does it, goes ahead. 


All office is a fiiiuiy thing; each nioniing certain men. 
And certain girls, and certain hoys come into it aj^ain 
And hang their coats on certaiii pegs, theii* hats on cei-tain hool^s, 
And sit down at certain desks in front of certain Iiooks. 
'IMiey all have a certain work to do in just a certain time. 
Concei'ning certain dollars for a cei'tain fixed ])er diem; 
And then at jnst a certain liour, in sunshine or in rain, 
They close their desks and hurry out to cfitcli a certain train. 

An office is a tragic thing when that is all there is. 
When each one has certain woi'k and certain way of his 
And Avallows in a certain rnt and lunan- seems to see 
Tliat there are certain otiiei* ones in life as well as he. 
For we would find a certain fnn in certain other ways, 
If we would give a word of cheer on certain busy days — 
When problems vex, when certain things require a helping hand. 
Would give a cei-tain symi)athy that mortals understand. 

An office is a pleasant place — at least, a certain kind 
Tliat lias a certain brotherhood where day by day you lind 
Some neighbor with a new idea he's glad to ])ass along, 
A certain sort of friendliness, a cei'tain sort of song. 
There is a cei-tain duty that Ave owe to other men 
To help them when they need a lift, to steady them again. 
An office can become in time, to man and girl and boy, 
A certain kind of fellowship, and w(n-k a certain joy. 

— Abbourams. 

Irate Customer: "This here print of Martha only shows her back. 
Why didn't you turn the negative around so you could get her face?" 



an aic/ to tne man ienina the copcnteT- 

Vol. 6 


No. 10 


Xearly all the makes of automo- 
biles are water cooled. There are 
a few that are air cooled. One of 
these air cooled motors is tremen- 
dously popular. It has certain ad- 
vantages over the water cooled cars. 
It has a big sale and gives a good 
profit to the dealers who handle it. 
in spite of the fact that most people 
prefer the water cooled motors. 

Xearly all the makes of hand 
cameras use cartridge film. There 
are a few that use Film Packs. 
One of them, the Prenio, is tremen- 
dousl}- and increasingly popular. 
The film pack has certain advant- 
ages over the cartridge film. It has 
a big sale and gives a good j^rofit to 
the dealers who handle it. in spite 
of the fact that most people j^refer 
the cartridge film. 

^^'e believe in the cartridge sys- 
tem. Rut we believe also in taking 
care of the really important trade 
that prefers the film pack system. 
The business bulks big. It is small 
only by comparison with the tre- 
mendous cartridge film business. It 
is bigger to-day than the entire film 
business was only a few year-; back 
— well within the memory of hun- 
dreds of Kodak dealers — and it is 
growing steadily, rapidlv. 

The dealer who overlooks round- 
ing out his line by stocking the 
Premo and keeping it well up to- 
ward the front row is making a 
mistake. The film pack, like the air 
cooled motor, has its enthusiastic 
devotees by the tens of thousands. 
They make a trade wortli cultivat- 

Take the Pocket Premo. It is 
less than a handful — yet makes a 
2 '4 X 3 '4 picture. As the front i'i 
dropped, it snaps into automatic 
focus in a businesslike manner that 
is a delight. Xo camera for pic- 
tures of the same size is less ob- 
trusive, so easy to store away in the 
pocket and so quickly ready for 
business. The finish and construc- 
tion are right, the price is low. the 
pictures are g*X)d. 

We are back of the Pocket 
Premo now with real publicity. Our 
advertising began last summer and 
the increased business proves that 
our faith in this little camera was 
not misplaced. 

Your store is one of the natural 
outlets for Pocket Premos. The 
business is coming but — you can 
only get it by having the goods in 

Your Premo customers might like to develop their own 
fihn packs. Try suggesting the Premo Film Tank. 



They Are Going to Ask You 

We can't forget tlie tale of woe 
of a friend of ours who swore by 
all that was great and good that he 
went to seven different photo- 
graphic shops before he found a 
salesman. The other six clerks had 
not been able to tell him the correct 
Portrait Attachment for liis ]iartic- 
ular Kodak. 

Glance at the advertisement on 
the opposite page — a quarter of a 
million people will do that very 
same thing next month when it ap- 
pears as a full page in Bvcr\- 
woiuans World, Mac Lean's, Can- 
adian Home Journal, Canadian 
Courier and La Caiiadienne. The 
basic idea of that advertisement, 
like most Kodak advertising, is to 
make people want to make pictures. 

but incidentally it's going to sell 
lots and lots of Kodak Portrait At- 
tachments. Customers are going to 
question you as to the correct num- 
ber for their particular camera. 

It is at a time like this that a 
clerk goes through his hem and 
haw exercises, but all tliat the sales- 
man does is to turn to ])age 39 of 
the 1920 edition of the Kodak cata- 
logue. There it all is. The correct 
size attachment for the various 
Kodak and llrownie models all 
clearly jjresented >o that he has the 
answer at a glance. 

Or, if the cu>tomer owns a 
Premo, he turns to page 24, 1920 
Premo catalogue and finds the in- 
formation there. 

The Gentle Art of Suggestion 

The gentle art of increasing a 
customer's purchases through the 
power of suggestion is the science 
of salesmanship. It takes a sales- 
man to deftly shape the talk so that 
other articles beside the one spe- 
cifically demanded by the customer 
may be brought out for inspection 
and considered. Not that it is difli- 
cult at all, for the man behind the 
counter who has real selling ability. 
To him it's second nature. He 
keeps clearly in his mind the related 
items. He rememljers. for ex- 
ample, that a person who wants an 
album, wants Kodak Dry Mounting 
Tissue, and perhaps a Trimmer ; 
that a customer who owns a Kodak 
Film n\'uik would obviously be in- 

terested ni 

Kodak .\mateur 

It's simple for him. It's simple 
for anyone. .\nd yet a novice never 
seems to get the trick. It is a safe 
statement that nowhere in the 
world is there a novice who has 
mastered this art of suggestion, 
who links up the related items in 
his mind so that a request for one 
may logically lead to a description 
of the value of another. That is a 
pretty broad statement, but it's true. 

The reason is this. Xo sooner 
does the novice get the hang of this 
suggestion idea, than almost over 
night as it were, he becomes a sales- 

Back on the }narkt't again — 

Kodak Magnesium UihJxm Holder — Price Soc. 

Tell //our customers. 


At home 
with a 


After all, Kodak means most in the 
home — because home pictures mean the 


The vacation album, the pictures of 
the summer outing, the travel pictures, 
our pet hobby pictures — Great! All of 
them! But the pictures of the children 
— just as they are every day about the 
home — these are the ones of which we 
never tire. 

The two pictures shown here were 
both made with the same Kodak. In 
the lower one the Portrait Attachment 
was used. This attachment is simply 
an extra lens, costing but 75 cents, that 
slips on over the other lens and so alters 
the focus that sharp pictures can be 
made of a "close up" 

There are Portrait Attachments t(» Ik 
Kodaks and Brownies of every size — and 
their use is very simple. 

All Dealers 

Toronto, Canada 

One of our Fall advertisements (reduced). See top of page opposite. 


Selling the Goods 

Before you can sell others, you 
must first sell yourself — in other 
words A-ou must be convinced of 
the fact that the Kodak line is ab- 
solutely the best the market atTords. 
and that good results can be pro- 
duced even by the inexperienced. 
Also, that the Eastman line includes 
no toys ; that even the little No. 
Brownie is a thoroughly practical 
picture taking machine and will 
produce excellent results. 

Tlie Kodak line is so well known 
and so thoroughly advertised that 
in many cases the customer will 
come in knowing exactly the model 
he wants and with the price ready 
in his hand. 

On the other hand you will find 
a great many attracted to Kodakery 
through having seen the Kodak pic- 
tures made by their friends and 
who have little or no knowledge of 
the line or anything that pertains 
to picture making. 

When the prospective customer 
enters with "I am thinking of buy- 
ing a camera," or some such remark, 
he or she should be given a quick- 
appraisal as to their ])ossible pur- 
chasing power. 

vSelling Kodaks entails no depart- 
ure from the principles of good 
salesmanship in other lines and you 
will find that it is always much 
easier to come down if you have 
started too high than to go up if 
you have started too low. 

Never be afraid of scaring the 
customer by first showing the 
higher priced goods. The customer 
will feel flattered because you im- 
ply his ability to purchase what- 
ever he desires. 

Even when the customer speci- 
fies the amount he feels that he can 
spend you will find that he usually 
will go another twenty-five per 

cent, or better if you can show 
him why. 

A felt or velvet counter pad is a 
good asset, as when a camera is 
placed upon it for the customer's 
inspection he at once feels that he 
is being shown something of quality, 
and this holds equally good with 
the boy customer for a Brownie as 
for the customer for the highest 
price article you have in stock. 

Having decided upon the camera 
to be shown the customer, it should 
be taken from the show-case and 
placed upon the pad before him; 
if it is of the folding type it should 
be open with the bellows extended. 

Allow the customer to take the 
instrument in his hands and ex- 
amine it, and after a moment's in- 
spection you can take it from him 
and explain its manipulation. Never 
start by stating the price unless 
asked the question. 

"This is the lA Autograi)hic 
Junior Kodak — it takes pictures 
2^M X 414 inches, and is one of our 
most popular sellers ( show sample 
picture made with the lA) as it 
is so simple to handle, and is also 
very light and com])act. 

"It is a very simple matter to 
estimate distances, and this auto- 
matic focusing lock holds the lens at 
just the right point" (demonstrate 
lock). "You locate the picture in 
the finder" ( allow the customer to 
see for himself — going to the door 
where the light is better if neces- 
sary), "the finder reverses if you 
wish to take the picture the other 
wav of the film. The shutter works 
automatically, all aou have to do 
is to press this release" ( allow cus- 
tomer to release shutter). 

"Easiest thing in the world to 
load and unload it — yes. right out 
in full davlight" (remove back and 



show how the fihn is |)ut in and 
removed ) . 

"Xow, 1 want to >hi)w you one 
of its most important features — 
and an exclusive Kodak equipment. 

"Experts deem it the most im- 
portant advance in twenty years ; 
it is called the 'Autographic Fea- 
ture.' By means of it and the spe- 
cially prepared autographic film it 
is possible to record on the negative, 
permanently, any desired data or 

"You can readily see the impor- 
tance of this feature" (show how 
autographic record is made and 
turn to page in manual showing 
facsimile reproduction of auto- 
graphic negative ). 

Do not pass from j)oint tc) p(jint 
too rapidly, be sure the customer 
understands fully before proceed- 
ing, and always dwell strongly 
upon the extreme simplicity of pic- 
ture making the Kodak way. 

\\hen selling Premo Cameras ex- 
plain the advantages of the Film 
Pack System : how simple the 
Premo is to load and unload : how 
one or more films may be removed 
for development without disturb- 
ing the balance of the pack, and 
so forth. 

The foregoino' is not intended as 

a complete selling demonstration, 
but only as suggestive. 

W hen the camera has been de- 
cided upon enter it upon your order 
pad, but do not put down the price 
just yet. Then suggest two or more 
rolls of film. Right here is a good 
time to say something more about 
taking "time" exposures, and then 
(|uietly place the camera upon a 
trij)od and show its great con- 
venience. Should this result in a 
sale add the item to the order, but 
do not total up yet. 

Take out a carrying case, slip the 
camera in it, adjust the shoulder 
straps and have the customer slip 
the strap over his shoulder so he 
can note how easily the camera can 
be carried, and how it will protect 
the instrument from damage — this 
will in many cases make a sale. 

Unless the customer asks about 
other items it will perhai>s not be 
well to try to sell other goods at 
this time, as no customer likes to 
feel that he has been over-sold. 
This, however, must be left to your 
own judgment based upon your 
knowledge of him and \our past 
selling experience. 

Impress upon him your real per- 
sonal interest in his efforts, and ask 
him to bring in his first roll so 
\(ni can see how he is getting on. 


The sale of a Kodak is only the beginning of 
your relations with the customer. 

This being the case, it devolves upon you to 
render the customer every good service possible in 
order to sustain his interest and keep him coming 
back to you for films and supplies. 


They Like to be Bothered 

The Dther day as \vc were >tr()ll- 
ing through the Service Depart- 
ment, we noticed that one of the 
correspondents was smihng hroad- 
Iv. We stopped short. Our con- 
ception of a cf)rrespondent used to 
he an old man with flowing beard. 
who viewed hfe as a necessary evil 
\'et here was this chap quite the re- 
verse of the picture our fancy had 
l)ainted, regarding a letter in his 
liand with a cheerful grin. 

"Listen to this," he said, and then 
read from the letter, " 'Why is film ? 
I've often wondered.' " 

"Do you get many letters like 
tliat ?" we ventured. 

"Oh, no," he replied, "just once 
in a while to sort of break the mo- 
notony. One time in one of our 
catalogues, where we listed a cam- 
era with several diiTerent lens 
equipments, we gave the name of 
the camera on the first line and be- 
low that we used the word 'ditto.' " 

"Yes?" we asked, inquiringly. 

"Well." the correspondent con- 
tinued, "this cha])'s brother, I guess" 
( he indicated the why-is-film let- 
ter ), "wrote in and ordered a Ditto, 
specifying the equipment. 

"Ihit. of course, a letter like that 
is the exception that proves the 
fool. Practically all of our letters 
come from intelligent people who 
want an intelligent reply to an in- 
telligent question. To see that they 
get it is our job up here. That's 
what we're paid for. It's interest- 
ing work. too. We all like it." 

The correspondent's eye rested 
on a pile of letters on his desk. We 
took the hint and left him — but we 
didn't leave the department. We 
-.till had hopes of meeting that 
cross-grained. snap])i'-h. hearded 

martinet who, from his superior 
knowledge, looked upon people who 
wrote in for information as a parcel 
of idiots, and the task of answering 
their letters a disagreeable duty to 
be discharged just as quickly as 
possible. We found other corre- 
spondents — all interested in their 
work — all eager to make each reply 
illuminating and comi)lete — to give 
each man and woman who wrote in. 
all the information they asked for 
— and perhajis a little more. lUit we 
couldn't find Old Man Grouch. He 
doesn't exist there. 

The man from ^lissouri. with a 
little box Brownie, has at his dis- 
posal all the resources of the big- 
gest photographic organization in 
the world to satisfy any photo- 
graphic perplexity that may disturb 
him. Nor do the Kodak experts 
consider in their work that they are 
rendering a favor. It's service to 
which the amateur is rightly en- 
titled. The position of the Kodak 
Company in the photographic world 
makes such service an integral ])art 
of its job. 

We cornered the hiead of the 
Service Department just long- 
enough to pump one question at 

"Do many Kodak salesmen write 
you letters ?" we asked. 

"We don't get nearly enough in- 
quiries from sales people." he re- 
plied. "It's funny, too. They must 
be confronted with a lot of puzzling 
questions that we could best answer 
so that they wouldn't be puzzling 
another time. "S'ou know we like to 
be bothered." 

That's it — thai'- tlie Service De- 
partment — "they like to l)e ])Oth- 

!'>i>tlit.r 'em. man — Ijotlier 'em. 



The bosses diary 
as kept by his son 

I was >ittiiig' by the library table- 
doing my arithnietick lesson only 1 
wasn't really doing it because I see 
at a glance the thing was hopeless 
and my dad was talking and so I 
lissened. My dad said that he knew 
a fella who couldn't remember h\> 
e^wn name and my mother asked 
what his name wa- and my dad 
said Alonzct 11. I'ennythwistle and 
my mother said no wonder. That"- 
all right my dad says but this fella 
might be a whurlwind if he could 
only reniiember things. He forgets 
instructshun> and forgets people's 
names and forgets where the stock 
is lokated. He keeps asking other 
peepul where this thing is and that 
thing is and what this price i-^ a->! 
then the informashun goes in one 
ear and out the other bekus there"- 
nothing between to stop it. He 
don't even remember that he ain't 
got a memor}-. You tell him to d( > 
a thing or give him some pointer he- 
ought to have and he smiles and 
says "\ es >ir — I understand per- 

fectly"" — and then in-tead of ,-aying 
to himself "Here ] ain't got no 
memor}- but I can read all right. 
I'll ju>t jolt that down," he kid> 
himself into thinking that the in- 
formashim is his fcr all time and 
the informashun promptly skips out 
the side exit. 

Now there aint no necessity in 
greeting a customer with "How de 
do Mrs. Raymond D. Pater son I 
haven't seen you since three years 
ago last Tuesday. You came in 
here then about a roll of film, at 
just eighteen minutes of four and 
you was leaving on the 9:16 for 
Montreal. I hadn't laid eyes 
on you before and I aint >een 
you >ince. How's everything?" 
That aint necessary but a sale-man 
who can remember names has a big- 
advantage. And the clerk who 
can't remember where the varyou> 
items are located and forgets price> 
and bothers everybody else in the 
store finding out, will never >ay it 
with sales. 

Frank, my mother said, did _\-ou 
bring home that film like I asked 
you? My dad >ort of flushed uj) 
and -aid he'd bring it to-morrow 
-ure. And mother said "Jott it 
down. Frank, jolt it down" and 
then ])oth she and me snickkered. 

Enlarging at Home 

Just as tile Kodak h'ilni Tank 
and Kodak Amateur Printer have 
simplified negative and print mak- 
ing for the amateur photogra])her 
who does his own work, so the 
Kodak Enlarging ( )utfit makes it 
easy for him to make his own en- 
largements right at home. 

The Outfit is small in size and so 
compact as to be convementl\- 

-lored. For u-e any Drdiiiar}- 
table will suffice. 

Many of your cu.-tomers have 
vacation pictures that the}- would 
like to enlarge. It they knew how 
easily this could be done, the} 
would willingly spend the money 
ft r a Kodak Enlarging Outfit and 
every sale of an outfit means big- 
ger sales of l»romide l*aper and 

IVhen ijou sell a i/ear\s suhficrlpiion to "Kodaker//" //o// 

arc selling ticelvc advertise in r fits for //our store. 



I'\'E just been reading a book," 
said ^Ir. Clark as Sam stopped 
by his desk one morning. 

"Pretty soft." thought Sam to 
himself. "It must be great to be a 
boss and read book- during busi- 
ness hours." 

"The name of the book is 'Fun- 
damentals of Photography" — the 
Kodak people publish it and the 
head of their Research Laboratory 
wrote it. It's a good book. Sammy 
— well worth the dollar and a 
quarter it sells for. The thing- 
you have always wanted to know 
— why this happens and why that 
happens in the making of a pic- 
ture — are explained so that even 
you could understand it. Sammy 
— yes, even you." 

The boss smiled and Sam gave 
an answering grin. 

"Fm going to let you take the 
book when I've finished — and then 
T want you to pass it down through 
the line. It will do us all good. Xow 
see, Sammy, in the long run. it isn't 
so important tliat we sell cameras 
and film as it is that we sell pho- 
tography. As long as we sell pho- 
tograjihy. we won't have to worry 
about our Kodak and film sales. 
And naturally the more we can 
know about photography, the better 
we can sell it. "Fundamentals of 
Photography' helj^s. While it's the- 

Ten Jiiinutes 
with the "Boss 

ory — it's theory that any salesman 
can put to practical use." 

"I'd be glad to read it," said Sam, 
"and I'll see that the rest of the 
crowd have a chance at it." 

The boss closed the book and 
pushed it to one side on his desk. 
Then he leaned back, assumed just 
as comfortable a position as his 
chair permitted, and resumed : 

"The chapter I've just finished. 
Sammy, put an idea in my head and 
I've got just time to put it in yours. 

"Supposing that we put an ex- 
posed film in a solution of pyro. 
\Miat happens? Nothing. You 
know and I know there is no better 
developing agent than pyro and yet 
b\- itself all that it does is fill the 
tray. It doesn't accomplish one 
blessed thing for the simple reason 
that it can't. It's a developing agent 
tliat requires an alkali before it can 
develop. All right, we add the al- 
kali. .\ow, we've got a real devf-1- 
oper, but commercially it isn't 
worth a brim without a hat, be- 
cause it won't keep. So we add sul- 
phite of soda. Xow it's ready for 
business. The alkali helps the pyro 
and the sulphite of soda helps both. 
You see, Sam. for those chemicals 
to get anywhere, as far as useful 
work was concerned, team work 
was essential. They all had to help. 

"Well, Sammy, I'm not going to 
waste valuable time in pointing out 
the moral here. Anyway, I'm hun- 



When the Train Goes By 

With a disdainful blast from 
its whistle, the Limited thundered 
by the station as if the little village 
of Crossing didn't exist. Near the 
station door stood a group of coun- 
try folk wiho smiled and waved 
their hands. They did this instinc- 
tively. They always did it. although 
the people on the train were com- 
plete strangers to them — people 
who raced through so quickly that 
their faces were a blur. Just in- 
stinct. The inborn desire of human 
nature to be on good terms with the 
rest of the world. 

"Yes!" perhaps you are thinking. 
"that's the way with the folks from 
the country — open hearted people 
to whom a ready smile and a cheer- 
ful greeting are instinctive, but the 
city breds — " 

Hold on. Our storv isn't finished 

On the observation platform at 
the rear of the Limited, six people 

were seated. One was a bank offi- 
cial from Montreal, another was 
half-owner of a large store in To- 
ronto, another a woman who tauglit 
school near Winnipeg, and tlie 
other three, quite obviously bu>i- 
ness men from large industrial 
centers. And every time that a 
group at a wayside station smiled 
and waved, the occupants of t!ie 
observation j)latform smiled and 
waved in return. Just instinct. 

Jt is natural for i)eople to wish to 
be on good terms with other peo])le. 
A smile is easier to produce than a 
frown, and doesn't require half the 
effort. A bored air is a pose. Surli- 
ness is an affectation. Don't act 
natural — naturalness doesn't re- 
quire acting — but he natural. And 
just so soon as you're you. vou 
will want to be on good terms with 
the rest of tlie world and you'll 
smile, instinctivelv. 

"Man, YouVe Said Something' 

The other day we ran across an 
advertisement which started out 
like this : 

"Everyone, everyday, owns the 
same amount of time. 

"Some learn while others loiter." 

And then after reading such a 
gem as that, the best we could do to 
show our appreciation was : 

"Man, you've said something." 

But there's the whole question of 
success or failure right down to the 
brassiest kind of a brass tack — 

"Everyone, everyday, owns the 
same amount of time." 

It is what they do with it that 
makes the difference. 

So the next time you are inclined 
to envy the chap with the bigger 
house, or the better job, or the 
lars^er income, remember this: 

"Everyone, every day. owns the 
same amount of time." IJut — 
"Some learn while others loiter." 
We can't imagine what made us 
think of it, but why don't you let 
us send a free copy of "Selling 
Kodaks and Supplies" to your home 
address ? 

A Dealer Writes 

"Twenty }ears ago, wlien 1 first 
started in the selling game. I tried 
to decide, in my own mind, just 
what constituted a successful sales- 
man. Among other things. T worked 
out this slogan : 

"Kiun<- -iclicii to say u'liat — and 
■'icliat to say when. 

"If you think it worthy, you ma\- 
pass it on." 



The Tactful Saleswoman 

Tact has Ijecn defined as "the 
mental attitude of sympathy ex- 
pressed either in speecli, action or 

Not always, but often, the sales- 
iK'oman possesses more tact than the 
sales;;/fl//. As a rule she is more 
careful in her clioice of words lest 
she oiTfend the customer whom she 

There is sincerity in her manner 
as she welcomo her "guest" and 
puts him at his ease. She would 
not bluntly approach a guest at lier 
front door with : "What do \ ou 
want here ?" Neither does she ap- 
proach her customer — her guest- 
for-the-moment — in this tactless 
way. vShe would not ask a guest in 
lier home: "How much money have 
you?" Neither does the tactful 
saleswoman embarrass her custo- 
mer with the question: "How much 
had you thought of ])aying?" She 
knows the customer is pleased to be 
regarded among the ("iraflex class 
even if a Urownie is his limit. 

The tactful saleswoman dis- 
agrees — if she must — without hurt- 
ing anyone's feelings. She agrees 
just as far as she can, then shows 
wherein her ideas dififer. Instead 
of : "No, you are mistaken about 
decreasing the stop opening for a 
short-time exposure," she says 
])leasantly : "I see your idea. 1 see 

just what you mean ; but it has been 
my experience" — 

Thus she puts lierself in harmony 
with the other's ideas until he feels 
her .sympathy for his views, and his 
mind is then in a receptive mood 
for the suggestion or correction she 
is about to make. Tact consists 
largely of getting the other person's 
viewpoint — not airing one*< own. 

h'lattery is not tact; it is untruth 
and should be avoided. Truth need 
never be blunt. It can be i)ut in a 
gentle way that will not carry the 
slightest sting. The tactful sales- 
woman, looking over a half dozen 
films, can point out errors in timing 
or arrangement in such a way that 
the amateur photogra])her will not 
realize it is a criticism. 

The saleswoman's de>ire to be of 
real service will increase with prac- 
tice, for after she has done some- 
thing for others, she is drawn to- 
ward them. Their need of her 
service appeals strongly to her : she 
becomes more patient with the irri- 
table ones and more lenient with 
the dilatory "lookers." 

And when she has done all in her 
])ower and has still failed in her 
efforts to close a sale, the tactful 
saleswoman concludes : "You think 
this over at home. And the next 
time you are down town drop in 
and tell me what you've decided 
about this Kodak." 

Putting It Across 

Nothing can be i)Ut across in thi> 
world without enthusiasm. 

No fame — no name has ever 
been gained except through belief, 
backed by that whole-hearted, earn- 
est effort which makes long hours 
])ass quickly and hard work a pleas- 

I'nless you have, first and last, an 


abiding faith in your project and in 
your ability — \ou cannot success- 
fully carry it out. 

(3n the baseball field, the battle 
front, or in the busy ways of trade 
and industry — it's all the same, for 
people like pep, and their plaudits 
and rewards are for the fellow who 
goes at it heart and soul. 

— Haversficks. 


A Brownie Window 

The Brownie display reproduced 
above is good. This kind of 
window makes people who stop to 
look, stay to buy. 

It's a good plan, every once in a 
while to go out and listen to the 
other fellows' windows. Listen? 
Well, why not — for fver\ window 
you meet is trying to tell you a 
story. In some of them, the story 
is well told and to the point. In 
others there just seems to be a con- 

fu>ed babble — and you go your way 
wondering what it is all about. 

This window gains strength from 
the fact that it deals with just one 
thing and idea and sticks to the 
point. The thing is Brownie : the 
idea, simplicity. If he had slipped 
in two or three hot water bottles 
and a dozen assorted clothes 
brushes, the effect would not have 
been nearh' as liappy. 

The connecting link hctxceen our magazine advertising and 
the purchaser is i/our zcindorc displaif. JVe sai/: "KodaJ: 
as you go!" Does if our displaif icindoic saif: "Here it is. 
hui) it here and huif it now!" 



December Kodakery 

The opening story in the Decem- 
ber issue might have been called 
"Who's Zoo" but perhaps "The 
Camera in the Zoo" does give a bet- 
ter idea of what the reader may ex- 
pect. Splendidly illustrated and very 
helpful for those who would make 
photographic studies of animals. 

The feature of every issue of 
Kodakery is the profusion of pic- 
tures, particularly the attractive lay- 
out which always appears on the 
two center pages. This month the 
center page spread shows eight 

splendid examples of Kodak skill. 

"The Power of the Lens" is a 
helpful story written in readable 

"Mounting I'rints So That They 
Will Remain Flat"— an article that 
will bring your customers to your 
store for Kodak Dry Moimting Tis- 

"Is Your Printing Room Light 
Safe?" Read it and you'll know. 

"A Universal Developer" — some 
of }Our customers will be asking, 
vou about it. 

Opening the "Clam' 

Perhaps the type most dreaded 
by the saleswoman is the "clam" 
type of customer — the kind that 
maintains an attitude of detached 
disinterest without betraying the 
least sign of whether an iiupression 
is being made or not. The clam is 
the test of the saleswoman's ability 
to make Kodak sales. 

Harve P)lack was a clam but he 
didn't know it. Martha Ware did — 
from sad experience. So one day 
when he edged up to her counter 
and said he was "just looking at the 
cameras" Martha did some quick 

She knew that the clam's "'shell" 
would have to be pried open before 
she could begin to make an impres- 
sion. He must be induced to talk — 
to take a part in the sale himself. 
Generalities would never do ! She 
could not say : "This is a splendid 
Kodak," because the clam would 
probably take the attitude : "Well, 
what of it?" 

She must be specific, must tell 
him why some particular camera 
would be suited to his special needs 
and get him to agree with her. 
Martha began at the top. She 
quickly selected a Graflex and fo- 

cused the instrument on a certain 
corner of the store that always 
showed a most attractive picture. 
Then she asked the customer to 
take the camera in his own hands. 

"Lsn't it a satisfaction to have the 
image as large as the picture?" she 
asked. And he grunted a reluctant 

"And wouldn't it be splendid not 
to have to 'guess at' the focus but to 
sec that it was correct right up to 
the time of exposure?" 

Again the clam shell opened — a 
little wider this time — to emit a 
"Yes. it would." 

Alartha knew that if his mind did 
not soon find a point to really think 
about, it would wander aimlessly 
and there would be no sale. So she 
encouragi'd him to focus on dififer- 
ent objects so that he would con- 
centrate his entire attention and in- 
terest upon it, and also see for him- 
self how simply the Graflex is oper- 

Martha was too tactful to ask the 
embarrassing, even discourteous, 
(|uestion : "How much do you want 
to pay for a camera?" vShe knew 
that if she showed anything too ex- 
pensive he would soon indicate the 



fact. Surt- fill. ugh he cHcl ; and at 
the same time betrayed his rehict- 
ance to give up the wonderful 

But the girl had gained ground 
and now that the clam was really 
interested she had only to keep up 
that interest by showing something 
else that would appeal to liis |)er- 
sonal needs. 

"I'm sure you would appreciate 
the autographic feature t^f thi'^ 3 A 
Model, Mr. Black.- she said. "All 
business men do. Often the date is 
of quite as much imjiortance as the 
picture itself. The 3A folds into a 
small space for carrying, too, which 
is another feature that men ai)pre- 

She gave him the good ])oints of 
the lens and then happened to re- 
member that he was a contractor 
and would doubtless make interiors 
and exteriors of the houses he 
built. That suggested another ad- 
vantage of the 3A — the adaptabil- 
ity of its picture size and shape to 
buildings. And it proved a telling 

In all her sales talk .Martha as- 
sumed that her customer was going 
to purchase a Kodak — the only 
question being: when. She did not 
use the word "if" but said "when" 
vou do so and so: for "if" implies 
doubt, but "when" takes the sale 
for granted. 

Although the clam said little. 
-Martha could see that his mind had 
progressed from attention to inter- 
est, then to desire. All that now 
remained was the decision. 

She finished confidently : "Of 
course when you make indoor ex- 
posures you will need a tripod and 
a i^ortrait attachment." And she 
produced them quickl\-. "Tf you 
like. I could pack them all in a box 
and deliver it to you when the boy 
goes to lunch." 

The clam was strengthened to the 
point of decision. But he was no 
longer a clam ; he was the proud 
owner of a 3A Autographic Kodak. 

"Better add a leather carrying 
case and a half dozen films," he 
said as he drew out his check liook. 
"I'll need 'em !" 

Selling Suggestions 

Don't argue — illustrate. 

Don't ever tell a pro-ipect that he 
is mistaken. 

Don't wear anything to attract or 
concentrate the eye of the prospect 
on your dress. 

Don't ask the prospect a question 
to which he can say "no" 

Don't talk ]:)rice : talk (fuality 
even though your price is low. 

Don't run down the other fel- 
low's goods : talk the reason w hy of 
our goods. 

Don't <ay anything against the 
goods on which the prospect looks 
with favor for you will offend hi> 
judgment, on which every man 
prides himself. — Haydivarc Jl'm-ld. 

Doctor Duty's Advice 

Don't knock your boss or the 
business you are in. 

If yoti don't like your boss, tell 
him so — don't go rapping him be- 
hind his shoulder-blades. 

If you don't like the busine.=5S 
your boss is in, get out of it. You 
can resign any day. you know — 
there is no string to you — the busi- 
ness will chisel right along after 
\ou have gone. 

But for the love of Pete, don't let 
your boss keep you in three squares 
per day. don't let him keep on giv- 
ing you an opportunity to pay for 
clothing, rent and other necessities 
of life, if you are going to stab him 
in the back. — Selected. 



They Grow Up 

Children may be little things, but 
they count; and even it they are 
too little to count, they are import- 
ant. Remember they grow up. 
Xancy Pllkins. aged ten. may seem 
beneath your notice ; but Miss El- 
kins, aged eighteen, won't be. And 
Miss Elkins is coming to the store 
that Xancy liked. Freddie Hewlett 
has asked you so many questions 
about his Box lirownie that it's 
sometimes pretty hard to keep your 
patience, but when Frederick J. 
Hewlett buys a Grafle.x. you'll fee! 
better about it. They grow u]:*. you 

Bear in mind, too, that if Xancy 
and Freddie don't get the attention 
at \-our counter tliat t]ie\- think thev 

should, if they are just tolerated 
and made to feel that the_\' are "only 
kids." Mr. and .Mrs. Elkins and Mr. 
and Mrs. Hewlett are going tn 
know all about it and to harbor 
lasting resentment. "The very idea," 
says Mrs. Elkins. 'Do }ou hear 
that, Harry? The salesman down 
at Clark's made Xancy wait until 
everyone else had been attended to. 
Xever mind, dear, we won't any of 
us trouble that store again." 

'"What?" explodes Mr. Hewlett. 
"Told you she was too bus\' to an- 
swer }-our question about that neg- 
ative, eh ? All right, 1 guess we can 
find a store in this town that at least 
understands courtesy." 

That's the wa\' it work^. 


l.abel identification of the different Azo grades and contrasts is l)y means of letters 
'A,B, Cetc.l for the grade and surface, and by shield-sliaped colored stickers in com- 
bination with numerals for contrast. .\zo Jiapers shonlil be selected for contrast as 

No. 2. — (iKKKX STICKKR, formerlv labeled Soi-'f, for average negatives. 

No. 3.— VKI.I.OW STICKHK, formerlv labeled H.\KD. for flat negatives. 

No. 4.— BI.l'K STICKKK. formerly labeled HARD X, for extremely flat negatives. 

Order by number for contrast, naming bj- letter and weight, the "particular grade 
and surface desired. 

Schedule below shows all grades, surfaces and weights of Azo Papers and Post 
Cards according to the degrees of contrast iu which they are supplied. 

Single Weight Double Weight 

Degrees of SURFACE Degrees of Contrast 

No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 

.... Carbon .\ 

.... Carbon .•\.\ 

.... Rough B 

C C C. ... Glossy (Pense). 

E E E ... Semi-matte E E E 

F F F. ...Glossy F F F 

....Smooth Bufif...H 
K K K. . . . Semi-gloss K K 


.... Carbon A 

.... Semi-matte E E E 

.... Glossy F F F 

.... Semi-gloss K K 


''When you do not understand, 
don't be ashamed to ask. There 
was a time when the man who will 
explain it to you did not understand 

it himself/'— Selected 



Is our registered and common-law Trade 
Mark and cannot be rightfully applied 
except to goods of our manufacture. 
When a dealer tries to sell you under the 
Kodak name, a camera or films or other 
goods not ol our manufacture, you can be 
sure that he has an inferior article that he is 
trying to market on the Kodak reputation. 

If it is?i t a 71 Eastman^ 
it isti t a Kodak 




19 2 

"This autographic feature will mean a great 
deal to you, Mr. Smith. Think of the advantage 
of dating and titling each negative as a means 
of permanent identification, at the time the 
picture is made." 

Never credit luck with the sale you make — 
diligence, it is said, is the father of luck. If 
"luck" comes to you, it is through some sensi- 
ble thing you have done or said. 

— Sales Builder. 

Success for Sale 

You want success. Are you willini>' to pay the price for it? 

How much discouragemeut can you stand ? 

How mucli bruising can you take? 

How long can you hang on in tlie face of obstacles? 

Have you tlie grit to try to do what others have failed to do? 

Have you the nerve to attempt things tliat tlie average man 
would never dream of tackling? 

Have you the persistence to keep on trying after rej^eated 
failures ? 

Can you cut out luxui*ies? Can you do witliout things that 
others consider necessities ? 

Can you go up against skepticism, ridicule, friendly advice 
to quit, witliout flinching? 

Can you keep your mind steadily on tlie single object you 
are pursuing, resisting all temptations to divide your attention; 

Are you strong on the finish, as well as (juick at the start? 

Success is sold in the open market. You can buy it — I can 
buy it — any man can buy it who is willing to pay tlie price for it. 

— Eagle "A" Unity. 

[Ki,t>AK^J^ilmf ( 

Corpulent Customer— "I want a Kodak for the vest pocket." 

Salesman, formerly behind the underwear counter— "Let's see 
you take about a 3-A size, don't vou?" 



an aic/ to the ?nan oenina tne cou^nteT- 

Vol. 6 


No. 11 

You Can't Serve Everybody First, But— 

The other day we went in a store 
for something we really wanted, to 
find the salesman there busily en- 
gaged with another customer. It 
was only fair, of course, that the 
wants of customer Xo. 1 should be 
satisfied first, but we grew restless 
and somehow disgruntled and left 
the store without waiting to make 
the purchase. This was some weeks 
ago and we shouldn't, probably, re- 
member the incident except — 

Yesterday we went in another 
store to make a purchase that might 
just as well have been delayed for 
days, to find tw'o other customers 
there before us and yet we waited. 

Afterwards our experience at 
store Xo. 1 came back to us. \Miy 
did we leave one store disgruntled 
and wait valuable minutes at the 
other, without a shade of annoy- 
ance ? 

At the first store, the fact that 
we were standing at the counter 
may or ma}- not have come to the 
attention of the salesman. Certain- 
ly he did not indicate our presence 
in any positive fashion. 

At store Xo. 2 the salesman 
smiled and said "Good morning" as 
soon as we approached the counter. 
and a moment or so later he found 
an opportunity to hand us a cata- 
logue, with the remark that perhaps 
we might find something there to 
interest us. 

Quite a different atmosphere in 
store X'o. 2, an atmosphere of 
friendliness built by a smile and a 
thoughtful act. 

Obviousl}- the salesman was busy 
but we had the feeling that he 
would make a special effort to be 
with us just as soon as he could, 
and the catalogue did help to pass 
the time away. 

\\'hen a customer waits iiiipa- 
ticntly, it is just so much harder to 
sell him. He usually turns a deaf 
ear to anything that approaches a 
suggestion from your side of the 
counter. He's had a trying three 
minutes" wait (so he thinks) and 
he blames you and the store and the 
world in general for it. Unreason- 
able ? Of course he is — but why 
permit him to reach that stage? 
First of all, acknowledge his pres- 
ence. That's the least you can do. 
Then while customer X^o. 1 is ex- 
amining a camera, hand customer 
X'o. 2 a catalogue or a copy of Ko- 
dakcrx or an album filled with 
prints, and. as _\ou do this, say "Be 
with vou in just a luinute" or some 
such reassuring phrase, in a low 
tone that won't reach customer Xo. 
1. Don't forget that customer X'o. 
1 is still your customer, and work 
just as hard with him as you did be- 
fore. It is fatal to give him the 
idea that you are in a hurry to get 
through so that vou mav turn vour 


attention to customer Xo. 2, and it 
isn't necessary. But don't let the 
second customer feel neglected. 
When a salesman has discovered 

the art of making customers wait 
their turn with a fair degree of pa- 
tience, he could find his way to the 
cash register blind-folded. 

Can't and Cant 

Can't — a contraction of can not. 

Cant — a whining manner of 

Thank }Ou. Air. A\"ebster. You've 
told the story yourself. 

Things were put in this world to 
be done, not dodged, and the 
dodger's conscience is so covered 
with guilt that it shines when the 
light strikes it. He doesn't snap the 
word "can't'' out as if it amounted 
to something. You know how he 
says it — Webster has the idea — he 
adopts ''a whining manner of 
speech." He is ashamed of him- 
self. And so "can't" and "cant" 
are pretty closely related — alto- 
gether too closely for one lone apos- 
trophe to keep the words distinct. 

We came across a little story the 
other dav that seems to belong here 

somehow. Out in Alberta a rail- 
way bridge had been destroyed by 
fire, and it was necessary to replace 
it. The bridge engineer and his 
stall were ordered in haste to the 
place. Two days later came the 
superintendent of the division. 
Alighting from his private car, he 
encountered the old bridge-builder. 

"Bill," said the superintendent — 
and the words quivered with energy 
— "I want this job rushed. Every 
hour's delay costs the company 
money. Have you got the engi- 
neer's plans for the new bridge ?" 

"T don't know." said the bridge- 
builder, '"whether the engineer has 
the picture drawed yet or not, but 
the bridge is up and the trains is 
passin' over it.'' 

For the Window Display 

The advertisement opposite will 
appear in November and December 
magazines, for the most part occupy- 
ing cover positions, which call for 
the reproduction in two, three or 
four colors. 

So that the store which handles 
Kodaks may use their display win- 
dow to connect up with this maga- 
zine advertising, the same picture 
has been used to illustrate a window 
card that will be mailed from 
Toronto with other display cards 
before the 1st of December. 

Hope you have it by this time 
right in the window with the Holi- 
day display of Kodak goods. 

National advertising is not a big 
stick that will drive people along 
the street and into your store to 

It does create a desire and a pre- 
ference for the product advertised 
but it will only afifect your cash 
register to the extent that you use 
your display windows, local adver- 
tising and aggressive sales methods 
to hook up with the national cam- 


All Outdoors invites your Christmas 


Canadian Kodak Co., Limited, Toronto, Canada 

This advertisement, much larger of course, will appear in 
November and December magazines 



The bosses diary 
as kept by his son 

My dad and I went to a store 
near here to-night and my dad 
wanted to get a magazeen but the 
fella said he didn't carry it. Why 
not asked my dad. It aint return- 
abil said the fella and I got sick of 
having two and three thousand of 
them magazeens kicking around all 
the time. 

On the way back my dad told me 
that that fella reminded him df 
Marshall Field — but only from the 
neck up. He said that ^Marshall 
Field was dead and so was this 
fella in the area designaited. He 
said that that fella reached his ex- 
pirashun date years ago. 

My dad said that any dealer 
ought to be able to figure the de- 
mand for a standard article like a 
magazeen so that he would not 
have a lot of extra copies on his 

hands. And it certainly aint good 
business not to have em at all. 

Of course, my dad said this fella 
is handy capped by his brain up 
and dying on him but luckily the 
photographic department down at 
my store is conduckted along dif- 
ferent lines. We could lose money 
if we kept ordering too much film 
all the time so we had to send the 
surplus back to Toronto and share 
the loss with the Kodak people, ^^'e 
could lose a lot of customers if we 
didn't have our stock of fresh film 
complete. So we don't do either. 

That store where we just was 
had a nayborhood trade and was 
prepaired to supply magazeens to 
the whole city. That was foolish. 
Then it went to the other extreem 
and wasn't even able to supply the 
members of its own immediate 
family. That was more foolish 
still. ' 

My dad said that the only way a 
fella like that can turn over any- 
thing in his mind is to stand on his 


Family reunions — Aunt Edith 
and Uncle Fred have come on from 
the West ; Dick is home from col- 
lege — and the hig dinner is out at 
Grandmother's — of course they'll 
want pictures. 

Remind them that they want a 
Kodak sure and plenty of film. 

Grandmother seated by the win- 
dow, smiling happily as the young- 
sters frolic on the floor. There's a 
chance for a picture — a close-up 
that will make the most of that 

Remind them that there is such a 
thing as the Kodak Portrait Attach- 
ment — suggest the Kodak Metal 
Tripod, too, because the best pic- 

tures of the Holiday festivities will 
be made indoors. 

Aunt Edith will want to know 
what Frances did last summer, and 
that will remind Uncle Fred that he 
never saw the new cottage. 

Remind them that your line of 
Kodak Albums is complete. 

Extra supplv of 

Kodak Portrait 

Kodak Metal 

Kodak Albums 
Thev link up. 





Pubiuhed b, EASTT4AN KODAK CO. 



RocHESTta, N, Y. 
PiTUdn- "Ho. 27 





And Then This Happens 

Everywhere people are the same. 
The illustration above is from a 
recent number of the 'Salesman', 
published at Rochester. It re- 
minds us of daily experiences in 
the department that has to do with 
the distribution of the Canadian 
edition of Kodakery. Perhaps- it 
happens in this way. 

Airs. Johnson (or is it Jackson or 
Jameson ? ) tears out the Kodakery 
subscription blank. She is very in- 
terested in her new camera and the 
little monthly magazine that will 
help her make better pictures is just 
what she wants. It is with a smile 
of anticipation that she fills in the 
blank. It is also with a stub pen 
and an original style. 

The blank reaches the Kodakery 
mailing department. The clerk knits 
her brows. She calls over another 
clerk and she knits her brows. One 
can almost hear them click. After 

a painful process of decoding, the 
Kodakery subscription that Mrs. 
Johnson ( or is it Jackson or Jame- 
son?) sent on so blithely yields the 
following : 

Mrs. B. (or C. ) M. (or X. or Z.) 
Johnson (Jackson, Jameson), 2120 
(or 212 ) Toulsily St., Anoa, Que. 

Obviously. Toulsily Street and 
Anoa do not exist. The entire de- 
partment works over "Tousily" 
while the postal guide is resorted to 
for "Anoa." At length some sort 
of an address is decided upon and 
the magazine goes out. 

Frequently it stays — then the 
mailing clerks have guessed right. 
Sometimes — well above you see 
what happened to one Kodakery. 
Every month they come back — just 
because of carelessness on the part 
of tlie person who originally filled 
in tile blank. 


You want your customers to get 
Kodakcry. It bears our name, to 
be sure, but the goods we suggest, 
they are going to buy from you. not 
from us. If the matter of the sub- 
scription blank is left to them, per- 
haps it will be filled in and sent on 

and perhaps it won't. And even if 
it is. perhaps we can decipher the 
name and address and perhaps not. 
Fill in the blank — carefully — and 
send it in ^•ourself. Then vouVe 

Christmas and Then^ 

\\\\o writes the ads. for your 
store? If you are the young man 
or young lady who does Ihat im- 
portant work, our ad. man has a 
message for you. It is about Chris- 
mas advertising, and what he has 
to say we give below in his own 

"Perhaps many articles that you 
have to deal with make practical 
and useful Christmas gifts, but how 
manv of them buikl for future pro- 

Does the sale bring the customer 
back to your store again and again, 
as a Kodak will for film, portrait 
attachment, inounts. albums and 
numerous other supplies and acces- 
sories, — paper and chemicals, if he 
does his own finishing. — developing 
and printing, if he does not? 

"With an eye to future profits, 
the advertising of Kodaks as Christ- 
mas gifts is going to be pretty good 
business for your store. 

"Then too. you have in the Kodak 
something that appeals alike to boy 
or girl, man or woman ; something 
that, no matter what their particu- 
lar fad or hobby may be. is going 
to add to the fun. and, after all. 
that's the kind of thing we all of us 
like to get at Christmas time ; some- 

thing that will add to the jov of 

"From the little Xo. Brownie 
— no toy. mind you, but a real cam- 
era that will make good pictures ; 
just the thing for the kiddies and 
equally suitable for grown-ups 
when a low-priced camera is wan- 
ted — to the Special Kodaks and 
Grafiex Cameras for those who 
wish the very best that their money 
can buy. the line that you have to 
offer is complete. It affords a 
choice for every requirement and 
there will be no difficulty in making 
a selection to suit any pur-<e. 

"It's just what tiiey all want — 
a Kodak. Tell them so with a series 
of ads. in your local paper. Drive 
the idea home by prominently dis- 
playing Kodak goods during the 
holiday purchasing season. Ask 
the boss to have the goods in stock, 
so that no sale will be lost ; then, 
not only will the holiday sales be 
numerous and profitable, but many 
of them will mean new customers 
for photographic supplies and, per- 
haps, other staple goods that are 
sold at }Our store. 

"Advertise Kodaks as Christ- 
mas gifts and make the holiday 
sales build for the future." 

''How to Make Good Pictures" — a book that merits 
your continued interest because it is published that your 
customers may make better pictures. 



HERE'S a riddle for you, Sam: 
"Why are chickens like a bath- 
tub?' " 

Sam thought a moment and then 
gave it up. "Why are they?" he 

"Oh. I don't know." replied ^Ir. 
Clark. "That's the beauty of that 
riddle — there must be an answer to 
it but I haven't been able to dis- 
cover it yet. You see, Sam, I just 
walked past Wilkins' Plumbing 
Shop and there was quite a crowd 
around the window so I stopped 
and looked in. The crowd was 
watching the antics of some baby 
chicks that were fenced in there — 
and very cute and amusing they 
were. At the back of the window 
was a bathtub but nobody saw it — 
the chicks were getting all the at- 
tention. X'ow Wilkins always struck 
me as a level headed sort of a fel- 
low and so there must be some con- 
nection between those little balls of 
fiutt and the plumbing business. 
There must be something about a 
newl\- hatched chicken that some 

Tm Jiiinutes 
with the "Boss 

way links up with bathroom fix- 
tures. A chap looks at chicks and 
runs a high temperature until he is 
able to buy and install a new bath- 
tub. That must be it. And yet I 
can't see it. It did remind me that 
my wife told me to bring home a 
dozen eggs — as far as I was con- 
cerned, that's all it accomplished." 

"It's just a stunt," Sam explained. 

"\\'ell," said Mr. Clark, "window 
space is too valuable for stunts. It's 
easy enough to get attention — the 
problem is to direct it intelligently. 
A\'e could put a couple of nice gi- 
raffes in our window, Sam. and I 
guarantee that we'd have the street 
blocked. But the giraffes wouldn't 
sell Kodaks for us. If those chick- 
ens had been in a hardware store 
window and were fenced in with 
chicken wire and a sign called at- 
tention to 'Duft"s Chicken Wire — 
they can't get out' — that's sense, 
Sam. But I don't believe in stunts. 

"The other day three hundred 
people watched a steeplejack repair 
the lightning rod on the First Pres- 
byterian Church. Do you think 
that Sunday's congregation was 
swelled from this fact?" 

"Xo," said Sam. 

"Xor I." said Mr. Clark. 

"If if isn't an Eastman, it isn't a Kodak." Xot 
just a phrase — a fact. Read the article on the hack cover 
of this issue. 


Adventures in Buyology 

Editor's Note — 

You may think, sometimes, that it is hard to sell, hut 
do you realize that it is, sometimes, equally hard to huy. 
From month to month we hope to reproduce here actual ex- 
periences of would-be customers. They may contain a hint 
or two of value to the man or woman behind the counter. 

Bear in mind that while the names that appear in these 
adventures are altered, each incident actually happened — 
not neces.sarily at the Kodak counter but in a store hand- 
ling Kodak goods. It gives you the customer's viewpoint 
and every word is true. 

It was a very nice shaker. Per- 
kins had formed a real attachment 
for it. Drop in a Httle cracked ice 
and a drop or so of this and an- 
other drop or so of that and after 
shaking briskly, you had the nicest 
drink of lemonade or malted milk 
that ever, passed your lips. Perkins 
thought that the secret lay in the 
shaker itself and so when one day 
the glass container broke, he has- 
tened to the store where the article 
had been originally purchased, with 
the idea of replacing a new glass 
for the one that had been smashed. 
The metal holder was of course 
just as good as it ever was. 

Oddly enough he went straight 
to the Glassware Department. We 
say oddly enough because the sales- 
man here seemed to think he should 
have known better than that. "You 
want the House Furnishings De- 
partment." he explained. Perkins 
took the elevator to the House Fur- 
nishings Department. 

"Ah, here we are." Perkins said 
to himself as he saw before him a 
corner of the store that fairly glis- 
tened with glassware of every size 
and shape. "Here we are" was 
hardly the correct expression. Per- 
kins was there but he was alone — 
there was no one to wait on him. 
He amused himself for several min- 
utes by standing first on one foot 
and then on the other and then 

started down the floor to try to lo- 
cate some one who would permit 
him to buy. At length his search 
was successful. 

"I want a glass — a large one- — to 
fit this rim." he explained and ex- 
hibited the metad holder that he had 
lugged down to the store to be on 
the safe side. "And if I can't buy 
the glass separate, I" — But the 
salesman interrupted him. "Better 
see Air. Jameson." he suggested. 
■'There he is out there in the middle 
of the floor." 

r^Ir. Jameson and another store 
employee were busily engaged in 
counting pie tins — either that or 
playing some sort of a game. In 
any event they were much too oc- 
cupied to notice Perkins for some 
minutes. At length Mr. Jameson 
unljcnded suflicientlv to hear Per- 
kins' story through. "Of course," 
he said with a general smile. "Right 
down in that far corner — just what 
you want," pointing with his finger 
and resuming his pie tin calculations 
at one and the same time. 

Perkins started out hopefully un- 
til he suddenly realized that he was 
being directed to the same part of 
the store that he had already dis- 
covered was bereft of salesfolk. 
Luck was with him. however, for 
at this very instant, right before his 
eyes was an assortment of shakers 
and amons: them several that were 



identically the same as the one he 
had broken. He told his story to 
Salesman Xo. 2. He still had the 
metal holder — business of produc- 
ing the metal holder — you see, just 
as good as new. Xow what he 
wanted was one of those glass con- 
tainers and then, presto, he would 
have his shaker complete again. 
Had he made himself clear? He 
had and just to prove it the sales- 
man started to wrap up one of the 
new shakers — glass, metal and all. 
Xow while Perkins was a frugal 
soul, and had seen no reason why it 
shouldn't be possible to replace a 
new glass for the old. at the same 
time he was more than willing to 
purchase a new shaker if this was 

' ^'ou 

necessary. He wanted to h(t sure, 
that was all. 

"Xo, no," he remonstrated, 
see I only need the glass part, 
metal holder I already have." 

"Oh, then you just want the 
glass ?" 

"That's it." 

"\\'ell I don't know about that — 
I don't know whether we can sell 
them separately like that or not. 
You'll have to ask Mr. Jameson. 
Tliere he is out there in the middle 
of the floor." 

Yes, there he was out in the mid- 
dle of the floor still juggling pie 
tins. He may be there yet for all 
that Perkins knows or cares. 

The Pocket Premo 

For 2\ X 3^ Pictures 

Easy to Carry 
Easy to Load 
Easy to Use 

Put It in His Hand 

A pocket Premo in the hand is 
worth two on the shelf as far as 
sales are concerned. As soon as the 
customer sees for himself how clev- 
erly constructed this model is — as 
soon as he jcels its compactness, 
the camera starts to sell itself. 

Put it in the customer's hand. 
Let /;/";;; load it with the dummy 
Premo film pack. Let him swing 
out the front and watch the lens 
snap rigidly in focus. He will be 
more impressed with the various 
features of the camera when he 
brings them out himself. \\\\.\\ a 

little help from 
Premo will do it? 

you. the Pocket 
own demonstrat- 

E-xplain the simplicit\" of the 
Premo film pack system, of course, 
and be sure that none of the fea- 
tures of the camera escape him but 
— most important — get the Pocket 
Premo in his hand. 

It's the type of camera that is 
just what the average person wants. 

Put it in his hand — he's pretty 
sure then to put it in his pocket — 
and nionev in vours. 



Two Birds, At Least, With One Stone 

user, 'he may well be interested in 
any or all of them. There is a big 
advantage here. Any suggestion 
that the Kodak salesman can make 
from the items his stock includes, is 
hardly a random shot because the 
entire line is related. 

The salesman always has the gen- 
eral target in front of him — and 
better than this, the customer fur- 
nishes specific directions for reach- 
ing the bulls eye. Not only is the 
whole line inter-related, but certain 
groups within it are so closely knit 
together that one item is useless 
without another. Paper requires 
chemicals, for example, and a print- 
ing frame. An album is useless 
without some sort of an adhesive. 
And then there are other sundries 
that are almost as closely connected. 
The customer who buys paper must 
have chemicals and a printing 
frame ; he should have trays, grad- 
uate, thermometer, safelight. The 
man who wants the album needs 
paste or mounting tissue ; he ought 
to have a trimmer and a negative 

So nicely does the Kodak line 
dovetail, in fact, that to the alert 
salesman, a customer never asks for 
one thing only. He may express 
specific interest in the Kodak Film 
Tank, let us say. only, but to the 
salesman he meant to include the 
Kodak Amateur Printer as well — 
not to speak of chemicals and the 

Two birds, at least, with one 

Don't be afraid to soil your hands. 

Don't wear a lazy frown ; 
You can't make footprints in the 
Of time by sitting down. 

— Campbell's Courant. 

In a recent article in Business 
Otis R. Tyson explains that there 
are two ways of increasing the 
average amount sold to each custo- 
mer : by trading up the unit — that 
is by selling the customer an article 
of a higher quality and price than 
the one he asked for — or by selling 
him other articles in addition to the 
one that formed the specific object 
of his visit. Air. Tyson continues: 

"To a limited extent the average 
customer is susceptible to both 
methods, but I sometimes wonder 
whether salesmen are utilizing the 
second method — the 'plus method' 
— as full}- as they might. 

"Rarely do we see a salesman 
making the most of his chance to 
suggest to a customer an article 
closely related in use to the one 
already called for and bouglit. A 
customer, for instance, buys a tooth 
brush ; consider the opportunity for 
turning his thoughts to a tooth 
brush cylinder case, a dentifrice, a 
dental floss or a mouth wash. Some- 
times a single suggestion will recall 
to the customer a number of needs, 
the result — a well-filled sales 

Nor is the customer likely to re- 
sent such suggestions when they 
are made in the right spirit. Accord- 
ing to ^Ir. Tyson it is only when 
the salesman is too aggressive and 
tries to impose his will on the cus- 
tomer that ofifence can be taken — - 
"never when the suggestions are 
ofifered in the spirit of helpfulness." 

The man behind the Kodak coun- 
ter is in a particularly fortunate 
position as far as utilizing this plus 
method of increasing individual 
sales' totals is concerned. Any one 
who owns a camera is a prospect 
for the hundred and one items that 
comprise the line of films, plates, 
papers and sundries. As a camera 



Selling the Street 

Kodak is the ally of every other 
sport and it fits in with fishing Hke 
a rod or creel. Mr. Decker took 
advantage of this fact and the re- 
sult is an efifective window. 

The window trim that is most 
successful is the one that tells one 
thing at a time with all the em- 
phasis possible. Everything in the 
window above has direct bearing 
on the central idea. This makes for 
unity, and unity makes for strength. 

The man who writes a display ad. 
has at his command words. The 
man who trims a window has at his 
command the articles themselves. 
The ad. man rarely makes the mis- 
take of grouping words together 
that have no bearing on each other. 
You smile when vou read. "Tooth 

paste, go-carts, hair brushes, cam- 
eras, ice-cream soda, phonograph 
records, cough medicine and all the 
latest fiction for sale here." But 
you don't often read a line like that. 
The ad. man has learned to observe 
the unities. It isn't a rare thing, 
however, to see a window contain- 
ing everything from baby's rattles 
to safety razors; and the only rea- 
son you don't smile is because you 
are so used to it. Oil and water 
won't mix — neither will peanuts 
and playing cards and razors and 
cameras and shaving cream and a 
lot of other articles that have noth- 
ing to do with each other, as far as 
good disj-)lay is concerned. 

Air. Decker's window has some- 
thino- to sav — and savs it. 




Farthest North With— 

(Reprinted from E. K. Kodak Salesman) 

It may be cold up there. Atlin, 
British Cokimbia, where the above 
picture was made, is just below the 
60th parallel. But it isu't too cold 
for business — certainly not Kodak 

L. C. Read is the Kodak dealer 
in Atlin. and Frank S. Warren of 
Warren's, Inc.. Oakland. Califor- 


He sauntered uj) to the whittlers 
on the steps of the village store and 
said : "None o' you don't know o' 
nobody round here that don't wanna 
hire nobody to do nothing, do ya?" 
No doubt, nobody broke no bones 
running after no one to ask for no 
job for the person in question. 

A[a_\be you think that method of 
trying to land a j(jb or make a sale 
exists only in newspaper funny 
columns. As a matter of fact we 
were solicited not long ago by a 
subscription book agent whose 
opening sentence was : "You don't 
want a set of O. Henry, do you?" 
The obvious answer to which is NO I 

nia. who sent us the photograph, 
thought that he might qualify as 
our "farthest north" dealer. 

The picture was made by Fred 
W". Laufer, of Oakland, who re- 
centl}- returned from an extended 
trip through British Columbia and 


Altogether different is the system 
of salesmanship explained by Julius 
Alentzel in the Protectograph 
Weekly Bulletin. Air. Alentzel 
asks questions like these in selling 
his well-known check-protecting 
device : 

You surel_\- wish to avoid loss of 
_\-our ready cash, don't you? You 
surel}- value your happiness and 
peace of mind, don't you? You 
desire to maintain amicable re- 
lations with your bank, do you not ? 
You would rather be fully insured 
than not, wouldn't you ? 

It is obvious that every one of 
these questions calls for the an- 
swer "ves." — Good Will. 



What Do You Say? 

What do you sa}' when you are 
called upon to comment on nega- 
tives that fall in the failure class ? 
\\'e overheard a conversation not 
long ago in a Kodak store, that ran 
somewhat like this : 

Customer — "Why. these negatives 
aren't even worth prints. are they ?" 

Salesman — "Worth prints? Hard- 
ly. They are complete failures — 
and that's funny, too. because even 
children have no 
diflficulty in mak- 
ing fine exposures 
with a camera like 
the one you use." 

The natural in- 
ference that the 
customer is at lib- 
erty to draw here, 
is that, in the 
opinion of the 
man behind the 
counter at least, 
he doesn't know 
enough to go in 
when it rains. He 
hasn't the intellect 
of a child — the 
salesman has told 
him as much. He 
resents this atti- 
tude — nor is it to 
be wondered at. Supposing the 
conversation had taken this turn : 

Customer — "Why, these negatives 
aren't even worth prints, are they ?" 
Salesman — "I don't believe they 
are — it's too bad because there's 
enough there to show that you had 
some excellent subjects. You've 
done something wrong, I'm afraid. 
Now let's see if we can't discover 
where the trouble lay?" 

Nothing here that the customer 
can take exception to, and the sym- 
pathetic attitude of the salesman is 
appreciated. So is his constructive 


"The Cliarm of the Sim- 
ple, ' ' by Albert Crane Wal- 

"Making Prints from 
Contrasty Negatives. ' ' 

"Reducing Contrast in 
Negatives.' ' 

' ' Tinting Photographs, ' ' 
by William S. Davis. 

' ' Drying Negatives. ' ' 

' 'Making Unevenly Dried 
Films Lie Flat." 

An unusually instructive 
issue and unusually well 
illustrated — even for "Ko- 
dakery. ' ' 

criticism. The sale>man who, be- 
cause he knows more about photog- 
raphy than the average purchaser, 
talks doiK'n to a customer, will 
make a lot of friends for the store 
— down the street. 

A little magazine called Kiiozcl- 
edge defines "Tact" as having little 
to do with what is said but every- 
thing to do with how it is said and 
then relates the following story as a 
case in point : 

"A lady walked 
int(~) a shoe store 
and asked to be 
fitted to a pair of 
shoes. The clerk 
had a great deal 
of trouble fitting 
her. trying on one 
pair after another, 
and finally said. 
'Why. Madam. 
I'm afraid you'll 
have to have them 
made to order. 
( )ne of your feet 
is larger than the 
other." The lady 
tossed her head 
and walked indig- 
nantly out of the 
store. She went to 
another store, where the clerk had 
exactly the same trouble. Finally 
he said : A\'hy, ^^ladam, I know 
what the difficulty is ; one of your 
feet is smaller than the other." She 
smiled sweetly, and ordered two 

A clear understanding of the 
difiiculties to be overcome acts as 
an inspiration to men ot knight. 
Only the man not made to triumph 
fears to tackle the job that's hard. 
— The Ambassador. 



Mean What You Say 

There is a grocery store in our 
neighborhood whose location makes 
it a most convenient place to trade. 
The other day the general manager, 
president and board of directors of 
our humble dwelling, who also hap- 
pens to be tbe woman we married 
("we" is strictly editorial here), 
bought a dozen eggs, two of which 
had given up being eggs long ago. 
What the}' were now was a mys- 
tery, but what to do with them 
wasn't. P.oth were given decent 

This grocery store sends a sales 
slip with each delivery, showing 
the amount of the purchase, and 
the entire reverse side of this slip 
is devoted to a paragraph headed 
"Satisfaction." "Our customers 
must be satisfied" is the opening 
sentence and such expressions as 
"quality goods" and "sincere ser- 
vice" are given prominent position. 

The general manager, president 
and board of directors of our hum- 
ble dwelling had taken this notice 
literally — trusting soul that she is. 
She phoned the store at once. 
"That's too bad," agreed the gro- 
cer. At first the general manager 
thought that tlie poor old grocer 
was trying to resurrect a feeble, an- 
cient pun. She got in the spirit of 

the thing at once and laughed 
heartily — but no, the grocer was 
sorry but there seemed no disposi- 
tion on his part to make the matter 
good. \\'e refused to pay for those 
two eggs, naturally enough, and we 
didn't. l)ut that grocer never did 
feel that we were treating him right. 

"Our customers must be satis- 
fied" — was just a fine-sounding 
phrase that looked nice in print. He 
didn't mean anything by it. 

There are stores that in their 
advertising always emphasize their 
superior service — and yet the cus- 
tomer fails to find it. 

There are stores that advertise 
attentive salesfolk and capitalize a 
smile that doesn't exist. 

Mean what you say^help your 
>tore make good on its claims. If 
it's a slogan of "Superior service," 
do all you can to l)ack that phrase 
up. When the store points with 
pride (in its advertisement) to its 
"attentive salesfolk," take that 
compliment to heart and live up to- 
it as nearly as you can. 

\\'e asked a friend of ours not 
long ago wliere he went for "Serv- 

"In the dictionary under 'S.' " he 
replied grimly. 

But, then, he's a pessimist. 

We take this opportunity to thaitJx i/oii most heartihi 
for your good will and co-operation, and to icish you 
the compliments of the season at hand. 


Give me for a boss the man who has worked 
hard and accomplished much, who has met the 
challenge of adversity with a smile, and listened 
to the flattery of success with a doubting ear; 
give me the man who has never belittled the 
labor that gave him bread, nor fawned on the 
hand that made up the payroll; give me this 
man for my boss and I'll not work under him, 
but with him. —The Lamp. 

IF a customer asks at a store tor a 
Kodak camera, or Kodak him, or 
other Kodak goods and is handed 
something not of our manufacture, 
he is not getting what he speci- 
fied, which is obviously unfair both 
to him and to us. 

^^Kodak" is our registered and com- 
mon law trademark* and cannot be 
rightly applied except to goods of 
our manufacture. 

^Trademark. : Any symbol, mark, name or other char- 
acteristic or arbitrary indication secured to the user bv a 
legal registration, adopted and used, as by a manufacturer 
or merchant to designate the goods he manufactures or 
sells and to distinguish them from the goods of com- 
petitors. Standard Dictionary. 

If it isnt an Eastman^ 
it isy{ t a Kodak