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To My Fellow Macheads 

d,Md .„ *e c„p, Of 

Guide to Macintosh System 7 ? ? • 

> wee rfamganee (OK, mavte ® say te 

"' "f' 'am K Hayden is the best in £'h ' '"o'e it 

''•wl»»P««yda™a»db '■'*d. Enough said ^ 


book IS proof of rJiat. ’ ^ ^ to get all the details right; this 

exception. Apple had the guts to itr nT ^ 7 5 5 is no 

on System 7 K5 (albeit made so, new”a,feL\w„? ? 

honesty, I simply can’t imagine our friends L otherwise!). In 

' ^ about Windows95 orwZ^tsm. 

through me. VeXt S MlctolS 'T ® 

solve real problems. Which means I can take 7 “ " ’’'^o'ts for real people that 

m Jooldng forward to id cnticism you can dish out In feet 

See you on the ether! 

k feon Crabb 

September, 1996 

Don Crabb 

Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

©1996 Don Crabb 

All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this 
book may be used or reproduced in any form or by any means, or stored in a 
database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the pub- 
lisher except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and 
reviews. Making copies of any part of this book for any purpose other than 
your own personal use is a violation of United States copyright laws. For 
information, address Hayden Books, 201 W. 103rd Street, Indianapolis, 
Indiana 46290. 

Library of Congress Catalog Number: 94-75945 
ISBN: 1-56830-109-X 

This book is sold as is, without warranty of any kind, either express or 
implied. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this 
book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or 
omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the 
use of the information or instructions contained herein. It is further stated 
that the publisher and author are not responsible for any damage or loss to 
your data or your equipment that results directly or indirectly from your use 
of this book. 

98 97 96 4 3 

Interpretation of the printing code: the rightmost double-digit number is the 
year of the book’s printing; the rightmost single-digit number is the number 
of the book’s printing. For example, a printing code of 96-2 shows that the 
second printing of the book occurred in 1996. 

Trademark Acknowledgments: All products mentioned in this book are 
either trademarks of the companies referenced in this book, registered 
trademarks of the companies referenced in this book, or neither. We 
strongly advise that you investigate a particular product’s name thoroughly 
before you use the name as your own. 

Apple, Mac, and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, 

The Hayden Books Team 


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To Roberta with love: thanks for putting up with all the nonsense that I spew 
out when writing books. You are, quite literally, the greatest. I don’t deserve 
you, but I am darn glad you’re here. 

Who Is This Crabb 

For those of you who care (and apparently a lot of you do, judging from my 
mail), here is my current bio (the brief version) to give you some idea of my 
background— just so you know that I might just know what the heck I am 
talking about! 

Don Crabb 

Syndicated Computer Columnist and Computer Scientist 

The University of Chicago 312- 702- 71 73 ( voice) 

Department of Computer Science 312-702-941 7 (fax) 

Ryerson Physical Laboratory 
1100 East 58th Street 
Chicago, IL 60637 


Computer Scientist. Don Crabb is the Associate Director of Graduate and 
Undergraduate Studies in Computer Science at the University of Chicago, 
where he has taught undergraduate, graduate, and professional computing 
and computer science courses since 1979- Don also functions as a certified 
instructional software developer for Microsoft, IBM, Apple, and Sun. 

Columnist. Don is a Contributing Editor and Columnist iorMacWEEK 
magazine— writing the weekly “Mac Manager” and “Steamed Crabb” col- 
umns, as well as other articles. Don is also the Chicago Sun-Times Computer 
Columnist and a technology writer, writing the thrice weekly column “Crabb 
on Computers,” which is syndicated by the Chicago Sun-Times Features 
Syndicate. Don’s Reader Q&A, Product Reviews, and FAQ can also be read 
via The Chicago Sun-Times Online at 

Don works as a Contributing Editor and/or Columnist for MacUser (“The 
Mac Workshop” column, features, and reviews), PC Magazine (features and 
reviews), Mac/CHICAGO (“Don’s Desktop” column, features, and reviews), 
The Weigand Report zoA Digital Chicago (“Don Crabb Says” column), 
CompuServe Magazine (features), (“Crabb’s Apple” column), 

Mobile Office (features), Macinsider (“Inside Apple” column), MacTech 
(“Crabb’s Apple” column), IDG’s Do It with the Mac and PowerBook Com- 
panion (“Macinations” and “The Traveling Mac” columns, respectively), 
MacToday (“Present at the Creation” column), MacHome Journal (“The Last 
Word” column and features), IDG’s Tip World (“Crustacean-At-Large” 
column), IDG’s InfoCaster (“Monsieur Farci” column), and Consumer Guide 
(reviews), among others. 

Since 1979, Don has written more than 3500 articles and columns for these 
magazines and newspapers, as well as others: PC World, PC Resource, 
MicroCAD News, Macworld, ComputerWorld, UniSIG News, Digital Review, 
UnixWorld, B.C.S. Mac Active Window, The Chicago Tribune, The Macintosh 
Business Review, and Chicago Computing. His most recent books were 
MacWEEK Guide to System 7 (Emeryville: Ziff-Davis Press, 1992-1993) and 
Running UNIX So It Doesn’t Run You (Emeryville: Ziff-Davis Press, 1993-4). 

TV/Radio Producer and Personality. Don was the co-producer, co-host, 
and technical editor of the weekly syndicated cable “MacTV” show, for which 
he now plays an advisory role. He was also a frequent guest co-host of 
“PCTV,” a syndicated weekly cable TV show dealing with all kinds of comput- 
ing topics. Don can also be seen regularly discussing technology and 
computers on Chicago’s NBC-TV station, and he’s currently developing a 
new syndicated radio show, “Crabb on Computers” in the Chicago area. 

Book Series Editor/Author. Don was the senior consulting editor for books 
published by Hayden Books, and the series editor of The Don Crabb 
Macintosh Library, of which Guide to Macintosh System 7.55 is a member. 
The Word Book by Tonya Engst, Excel 5 Starter Kit for Macintosh by Charles 
Seiter, and PowerMacintosh Programming Starter Kit by Tom Thompson 
are other books in The Don Crabb Macintosh Library. Don is now an author 
and editor for Osbome/Mcgraw-Hill, MIS Press, and M&T Books. 

Analyst. As a computer industry analyst, Don has been quoted extensively in 
Business Week, Forbes, Fortune, Time, Newsweek, Money, The New York 
Times, The Chicago Tribune, and other publications. 

All this bio stuff really proves, of course, is that I have no social life, 
whatsoever. Is this the fun part? 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


As any sincere author knows, no book is his work alone. Book writing— at 
least good book writing— is a collaborative effort between authors and all of 
their colleagues, editors, and friends. After all, better to pick the brains of 
the experts and get it wrong, than to have just gotten it wrong all on your 

Guide to Macintosh System 735 is no exception to this. The simple fact is 
that without the guidance and help of my editors, colleagues, and friends, 
this book never would have been completed (especially with the nutty 
production schedule— don’t ask!), nor probably even started. 

It most certainly would have been a much paler effort. Having said that, I 
want to thank some people explicitly. My acknowledgments list is not 
exhaustive; many more people helped me with this book in ways both 
profound and subtle. I’ve tried to list as many of them here as I can, so I 
apologize in advance for missing some. I think, though, that it is safe to say 
that the people most responsible for any success this book might have are 
listed here. 

Keep in mind, too, that the shortcomings, mistakes, and problems that you 
might find in Guide to Macintosh System 755 are all mine. Please don’t 
think that any of these wonderful folks have anything to do with these gaffes. 
Had I only listened more closely to them, I probably could have eliminated 
all such problems. 

My new friends at Hayden Books not only have been marvelous to work 
with, but they have greatly helped me to write a good book. For this alone, I 
owe them a debt of gratitude that I can never repay. If this book has any 
elegance and value, it is due to these publishing professionals. I can’t 
imagine working with better people. 

The technical content of this book has been immeasurably improved by Tom 
Thompson. Tom was my editor at BYTE magazine and he made many 
suggestions, changes, and improvements to the manuscript. 

Acknowledgments xv 

Also to Chuck Weigand, who made important contributions to chapter 4, 
and Ross Rubin, who helped immeasurably with chapters 6 and 7, 1 want to 
express my thanks. 

I also must thank my beta tester for this book— my old friend and Mac fan, 
Roger Ebert. Roger read every chapter and used the manuscript to help him 
get 7.5.5 up and running. His comments, asides, support, and friendship 
have been invaluable to me. 

There are a slew of other folks who helped me with this book in a variety of 
ways. I wish I could write a paragraph about each one of them, but if I do 
these acknowledgments will be longer than the book, itself. Again, if I have 
omitted anyone, I apologize: Dale Coleman, Anita Malnig, and Mark Hall of 
MacWEEK; Susan Janus oiMacUser, David Rogelberg, Karen Whitehouse, 
Stacy Kaplan, Brian Gill, and Brad Miser of Hayden Books; Andy Hammond, 
Eric Slosser, Bob Hagenau, Mary DeVincenzi, David Nagel, Kurt Piersol, 
Whitney Greer, Cyndie Powers, Andy Lauta, Radhi Sammeta, and 
Leslie Torvik of Apple; and Jon Perr, Mel Badgett, and Larry Slotnickof 

Contents at a Glance 

0 System 7.5.5 Reality Check 1 

1 A First Look at System 7.5.5 15 

2 Using Finder 7.5.5 65 

3 Modilying the System 7.5.5 Environment 121 

4 Fonts and Printing 191 

5 The Multimedia is the Message 229 

6 Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 261 

7 Improving Your Memory 333 

8 Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 363 

9 The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 401 

10 We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 447 

Appendix A Apple Guide and Guide Maker 467 

Appendix B PlainTalk 481 

Appendix C Glossary 487 

Index 511 

Table of Contents 

0 System 7.5.5 Reality Check 1 

What’s in System 7.5.5? 3 

Third-Party Software Bundled on the CD-ROM 

Version of System 7.5.5 10 

Crabb’s Bottom Line 11 

1 A First Look at System 7.5.5 15 

The Macintosh Desktop: A Guided Tour 17 

What’s New and Important in System 7.5.5? 24 

Finder 7.5.5 25 

GUI Improvements 25 

Miscellaneous Improvements 27 

New Find Command 29 

Scriptable Finder 30 

File Manager Improvements 31 

Macintosh Drag and Drop 32 

Macintosh Easy Open 33 

QuickDraw GX 34 

Better Typography 38 

Font Management 39 

International Support 39 

Better Color Support 40 

Smaller Applications 40 

Collaboration (AOCE and PowerTalk) 41 

A Universal Desktop Mailbox 41 

AppleMail 43 

Catalogs and Information Cards 44 

DigiSign Digital Signature Verification 46 

The PowerTalk Key Chain 46 

PowerShare 46 

Messaging Microsoft 47 

Macintosh Telephone Manager 48 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Improvements for PowerBook Owners 49 

System Requirements and Availability 51 

Software and Hardware Compatibility 52 

Installing System 7.5.5 52 

The Installer 53 

Upgrades 54 

Common Myths about System 7.5.5 57 

The Party Line and Don’s Comments 57 

Chapter 1 Summary 58 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 1 59 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 1 60 

2 Using Finder 7.5.5 61 

Finder Menus 62 

The Apple Menu 62 

The File Menu 66 

The Edit Menu 70 

The View Menu 70 

The Label Menu 76 

The Special Menu 79 

SuperClock 83 

The Balloon Help/Apple Guide Menu 84 

The Application Menu 93 

Managing Your Hard Disks and Their Files 93 

Opening and Saving Documents 93 

Using File Aliases 98 

Working with the Enemy 99 

Using the Improved Find Application 101 

Other Cool Stuff 108 

SimpleText 108 

WindowShade 109 

Scriptable Finder and AppleScript 109 

Drag and Drop Ill 

Chapter 2 Summary 114 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 2 114 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 2 115 



3 Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 117 

Applying What You Already Know 119 

What Are Your Customization Goals? 121 

Compatibility Issues 123 

Using Customization Features 126 

Automatic Modifier Organization 130 

Making Up the Apple Menu 131 

Desk Accessories and the Apple Menu 132 

Not Desk Accessories and the Apple Menu 133 

Installing DAs, Control Panels, and Extensions 134 

Using System Extensions and Control Panels 134 

Controlling Extensions at Startup 136 

Using Multiple Programs 155 

Setting a Startup Configuration 156 

Doing Two (or More) Things at Once 156 

Setting Memory Requirements 158 

Setting System Preferences 159 

Automating Your Work with AppleScript and AppleEvents 159 

Getting the Most out of AppleScript 16 1 

AppleScript, System 7.5.5, and You 163 

Script Editor Basics 164 

Saving Your Scripts 169 

Using the Script Editor Everyday 169 

Using Third-Party Products to Enhance Your AppleScript 

Environment 179 

Chapter 3 Summary 183 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 3 184 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 3 185 

4 Fonts and Printing 187 

TrueType Fonts 188 

Installing Fonts 189 

Basic Usage— Fonts 101 193 

Using GX Fonts 195 

Using Adobe’s Type 1 Enabler 197 

Dealing With Many Kinds of Fonts 198 

GX Compatible Programs? 201 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Printing with System 7.5.5 203 

QuickDraw GX or Not? 203 

GX Printing and Dialogs 207 

Finder Printing 221 

Managing Multiple Serial Printers and Modems 222 

Chapter 4 Summary 223 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 4 223 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 4 224 

5 The Multimedia Is the Message 225 

QuickTime 2.5 227 

What Is QuickTime? 227 

QuickTime 2.5 Features: 229 

QuickTime and the QuickTime Architecture 231 

Using QuickTime— What You Need 235 

Using QuickTime— What You Get 236 

Using QuickTime— What You Don’t Get 241 

Using Multimedia Applications for Fun and Profit 242 

Don’s Video Fun House 243 

Chapter 5 Summary 252 

The Multimedia/OpenDoc Desktop 253 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 5 255 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 5 256 

6 Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 257 

Collaborative Competition 258 

PowerTalk and PowerShare vs. Windows 260 

Moving Toward the Future— Cyberdog and OpenDoc 

and Apple’s New Internet System Strategy 261 

Intranet Access 261 

Intranet Creation 263 

Apple’s Internet and New Collabration Technologies 

At a Glance 264 

Cyberdog: Up Close and Personal 265 

Cyberdog 1.1 Features In Depth 267 

Cyberdog: Incorporating Internet Access into the OS 269 

Contents xxiii 

Moving Toward the Future— Open Transport Networking 269 

Fields in the TCP/IP Control Panel: 271 

Configuring Open Transport/TCP: 272 

DHCP Configuration 273 

BootP Configuration 274 

RARP Configuration 275 

MacIP Server Configuration 276 

Bootp and Open Transport Configuration 278 

PowerShare Mail Server 279 

Moving Toward the Future— Collaboration 279 

The Virtual Desktop 280 

The Sociology of the Virtual Desktop 281 

A Lineage of Linking 282 

Using File Servers 284 

A Debt to Doohickeys 286 

Peer Prudence 287 

A Privileged Class 295 

Share and Share Alike 299 

The Mac Is a Telephone 302 

A Publisher’s Clearinghouse 303 

Publish and Subscribe 303 

OpenDoc 101 and Cyberdog 305 

Sharing Alike: The Rebirth of AOCE 306 

The Collaborative Desktop— Extending the Virtual Desktop .... 307 

PowerTalk Clients 310 

PowerShare 310 

PowerShare Servers 311 

AppleMail 311 

The PowerTalk Mailer 313 

Catalogs (Personal and Shared) 317 

Personal Catalogs 318 

Card-Carrying Netters 319 

Key Chains 320 

The Personal In/Out Board 322 

AOCE Gateways 322 

xxiv Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The Communications ToolBox vs. Open Transport 

Communications Architecture 323 

Chapter 6 Summary 325 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 6 326 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 6 327 

7 Improving Your Memory 329 

Memory Strategies 101 330 

Whether to Install It at All 332 

Of RAM and ROM 333 

Of RAM and Macs 335 

The Disk Cache 335 

Virtual Memory 338 

32-bitvs. 24-bit Addressing 341 

OptiMem and RAM Doubler 344 

Modem Memory Manager 346 

RAM Disks 347 

Managing Memory 348 

The Application Heap 348 

File Sharing’s Effects on Memory Usage 351 

Resetting Parameter RAM 351 

SCSI Manager 352 

Working with Disks 353 

On Formats 353 

To Upgrade or Replace, That is the Question 355 

Chapter 7 Summary 357 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 7 357 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 7 358 

8 Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 359 

What to Do Before You Install System 7.5.5 360 

The Minimum System 7.5.5 Macintosh 360 

Installation Schemes and You 362 

Before You Install 365 

Managing and Supporting Users During the Upgrade 369 

Avoid Haves vs. Havenots 369 

Basic Help for System 7.5.5 Training and Support 370 

Finding the Right Training Materials 371 

Contents xxv 

Training 381 

Why Do You Need System 7.5.5 Training? 382 

A Recipe for a Training Program 383 

Summary 393 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 8 394 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 8 395 

9 The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 397 

Preventing Problems by Strategic Thinking 399 

The Publish and Subscribe Problem 400 

The Forest and the Trees (Troubleshooting Strategy 101) 400 

Evaluating Your 7.5.5 Tools Before Using Them and 

Watching Them Break 401 

Installation Troubleshooting 404 

Different Problems Deserve Different Solutions 406 

How Do You Begin? 406 

Software Boo-Boos and Their Tell-Tale Errors 408 

Eixing Other Errors 412 

Systematic Error Debugging 412 

Starting Up When the System Eails 414 

Protection and Prevention are Better than Troubleshooting 415 

Security Issues 415 

Avoiding Data Loss 417 

Eixing Broken Hardware— The Ultimate in Troubleshooting ... 423 

Nobody Knows the Troubles I’ve Seen 427 

The System 3 0 Update 427 

PowerBook Duo 210 and 230 Battery Usage Problems 427 

PowerBook 200 and 500 Series Printing Problems 428 

How to Reconnect to a Lost File Server 428 

How to Use the Old “Find File” Feature 429 

How to Use the Shutdown Items Folder 430 

How to Rebuild Your Desktop 430 

CloseView and the Apple Video Player 432 

Express Modem Software 432 

Incorrect “Guide” File Balloons 432 

Apple Guide Documents and PowerBook Sleep 433 

Using QuarkXPress with System 7.5.5 on a Power Macintosh .. 433 

xxvi Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Disk Volumes Larger than 2 GB 434 

Using ISO 9660 and High Sierra CD-ROM Discs 434 

Printing Large Fonts with LaserWriter 434 

Problems with the AudioVision 14 Display Software 

Driven by PowerBooks 435 

The PowerBook Assistant Toolbox and 

Non-Networked Printers 435 

Losing Your Desktop When You Have an Apple AV Card 

Installed 435 

Macintosh Centris/Quadra 660AV or Quadra 840AV, 

and Alert Sounds 436 

Help with the Japanese or Chinese Language Kit 437 

Problems with a RasterOps Video Board 437 

Dealing with PC Exchange and Third-Party Software 437 

Chapter 9 Summary 440 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 9 440 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing Quiz for Chapter 9 441 

10 We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 443 

Where to Get More Help 444 

The Future of Macintosh 446 

RISCy Business 446 

The PowerPC and Apple’s Future 447 

System X and the CPU 448 

The Applications Puzzle 448 

System 7.5.5 Predicts the Future 449 

Moving to Object Technologies 450 

Getting Collaborative 454 

Passive vs. Active User Interfaces 455 

Future Shock? 457 

Chapter 10 Summary 457 

System 7.5. 5’s Major Features 457 

What You Know and Don’t Know and How to Tell Me Offl 458 

Crabb’s Final Exam 459 

Answers to Crabb’s Final Exam 460 

Contents xxvii 

Appendix A Apple Guide and Guide Maker 463 

Guide Maker 464 

How Apple Guides Are Implemented 466 

Building an Apple Guide 466 

Apple Guide Resources 475 

The Future of Apple Guide 476 

Appendix B PlainTalk 477 

Look Who’s Talking Now 478 

Voice Recognition 479 

The Usability of Speech Recognition 479 

PlainTalk for Developers 480 

PlainTalk on the CD 480 

Appendix C Glossary 483 

Index 499 

by Roger Ebert 

This time it is WindowShades and Stickies. Before that it was Aliases, and 
before that— those little arrows to the left of the folders in the Name view. 
Every time Apple updates the Macintosh System, I am presented with 
innovations that are useful, make sense, and feel exactly right. And they’re 
usually so easy, so obvious, that all I have to do is click to understand them. 
Then Don Crabb comes along to explain all the other features— the stuff I’m 
going to grow into during the weeks and months to come. 

Crabb is the guy who talked me into buying my first Macintosh. “Get the SE, 
dude,” he said. “You’re a heavy user and you’re going to need that extra 
power.” Over the years, the old SE has been followed by an LC, a Ilci, an LC 
575, and a PowerBook 540, and the last time I fired that SE up, it seemed 
lumberingly slow. But he was right. The SE did give me extra power: the 
power to use it. 

My previous computers (starting with my beloved Tandy Model 100, and the 
visionary but doomed DEC Rainbow) were arcane tools that I approached 
with hesitation. I found out how to do two things on them (write text files 
and send them electronically), and that was where I stayed, stuck, until I got 
the Mac. I fired the SE up, took the Macintosh Tour, and stayed at the 
keyboard for hours, clicking here, clicking there. I logged on to 
CompuServe. I made squiggles with Draw. I splashed them with Paint. I 
opened a spreadsheet and typed in some data about my mutual funds. An 
idea was slowly forming: This Mac was not simply a tool, but an extension. 
Like the extensions loaded into the System folder, the computer as a whole 
was an extension used by my mind— a way of doing things and going places 
that I had not experienced before. 

One of Crabb’s colleagues in the world of expert Mac writers, Andy Ihnatko, 
says his “Spidey-Sense” tells him when something is truly exciting. He 

emailed me a few days ago: “Just like Spiderman gets this tingling in the 
back of his head when there’s danger present, I have a psychic reaction on 
those VERY few occasions when I’m being introduced to a machine which is 
simply a brilliant idea, executed with EXACTLY the right hardware and 

An hour after I sat down at my first Mac, my Spidey-Sense was tingling like 
cra 2 y. Eor the first time, computing truly became accessible to me. The 
Rainbow sat there and waited for me to sweet-talk it. The Mac reached out 
and guided me into all the ways I could use it. It was exactly right. Some 
years later, I tried Windows, but come on now. Start two computers, side by 
side, one with Mac OS, one with Windows, and what reasonable person 
could argue that Windows is not the wallflower? 

Don Crabb is one of those rare writers who is able to deal with technical 
information in a way that helps you visualize what he’s talking about, and 
what it would be like to do it. His column printed in the Chicago Sun-Times 
and other newspapers is written like a balancing act: Useful for profession- 
als, but understandable to general readers. He shipped me his Guide to 
Macintosh System 7.5.5 in text form, via CompuServe, shortly after supply- 
ing me with a beta version of 7.5.5 in my LC 575. So I’ve been living with the 
book for awhile. I learned about Apple Guide and PC Exchange and 
Launcher (which I am not crazy about, because it replaces too many old 
habits). And when I ported 7.5.5 to my PowerBook (as a beta tester, this 
wasn’t piracy, right?), I followed his italic warnings and used Safe Install 
Utility BEFORE doing anything else. 

This book is complete, useful and reassuring. And because it is by Crabb, it is 
also entertaining (see “The Top Ten Reasons Why You Must Buy and Read 
Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5). It goes next to my computer, and there it 
will stay. 



Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

I Have the Manual, Why do I 
Need This Book? 

The manual that ships with System 7.5.5 {The Macintosh System 7.5.5 
Upgrade Guide) is about as slim as any manual that Apple’s ever produced. 
The reason is twofold: System 7.5.5 is a natural extension of System 7, so the 
learning curve is not steep; and Apple wants you to learn about 7.5.5 from 
reading this book and from using the Macintosh’s Apple Macintosh Guide— 
which showcases the new Apple Guide online help system (accessible from 
the Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu in the Finder menu bar). 

As good as those Apple Guides are (and believe me, they are quite good), 
this book takes more of a critical solutions-oriented approach to the installa- 
tion, use, and abuse of System 7.5.5 In short, I’ll tell you not just how to do 
something, but I ’ll put it into context, telling you why to do it, when to do 
it, and what benefit it will be to you— what solutions it can offer. 

Of course, there are other, perhaps less rigidly-defined reasons why you 
should buy and read this book that cry out for a Top Ten List. 

The Top Ten Reasons Why You Must 
Buy and Read the Guide to Macintosh 
System 7.5.5 

10. So you can amaze your friends with inside information on the latest 
Apple System software. 

9. Because you will learn to decipher buzzwords like “Active Assistance,” 
“Application-Centric,” and “Document-Centric.” 

8. You’ll regain your faith in Apple as you see that it’s got a cool future 
laid out for us with new Mac operating systems and Power Macs. 

7. So you can tell the difference between an Apple Guide and a tour 

6. If you don’t buy it, you’ll miss out on an instant collector’s item! 

5. Because it “Fits In and Stands Out.” 

Contents xxxi 

4. You’ll learn who makes up those “interesting” Apple System marketing 
tag lines (see number 5). 

3. So that you can become a pontificating gasbag of System 7.5.5 knowl- 
edge like a certain author we know. 

2. Because I was too stupid to write a book about Windows95— where I 
could have made some real dough. Oops, sorry, that’s a top ten reason 
why I should have written about Windows. 

And the number one, Top Ten Reason is: 

1. Because the ghost of Don Crabb will inhabit your conscience forever if 
you don’t. Hey, $25 is a cheap way to prevent that! 

Criticisms and Comments 

m be the first to admit that this book is not perfect. I fully expect to start 
revising it even before the ink is dry on the first printed copies. I have 
already planned with my editors to update the book for revised printings as 
Apple updates System 7.5.5 (8.0, 9 0, 2000.0...). 

To do a creditable job of revising and updating, as well as getting my 
advanced planning together for System 8.0, I’d like to encourage you all to 
get in touch with me. Tell me where I am full of it, that I’ve missed the point, 
or that I am just plain wrong. And if you agree with me or just want to share 
your own System 7.5.5 war stories, I want to hear about them. Eventually, 
they will somehow get into the revised editions of this book, and I’ll quite 
likely address them in mjMacWEEK column. 

The best way to contact me is via electronic mail. While I have accounts on 
nearly every online service, please send mail to my Internet address at the 
University of Chicago: If you don’t have email 
access (sorry, but you have no excuse NOT to have email these days!), then 
please write to me at Hayden Books. This is also the place to send letters 
with direct comments and criticisms to my editors and publisher (but please 
don’t complain too loudly!). You can also write to me directly at: the 
University of Chicago, Department of Computer Science, Ryerson Physical 
Laboratory, 1100 East 58th Street, Chicago, IL 60637. 

System 7.5.5 
Reality Check 

Chapter Q 

hat’s the deal with System 7S5?Doyou need it, or is this 
just an attempt by Apple to make a 
silk purse out of sow’s ear? 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Well, the short answer is that System 7.5.5 is important and not just a way to 
waste your money. System 7.5.5 codifies important System tools and fea- 
tures, like AppleScript, Open Doc, Open Transport, Cyberdog, PowerTalk, 
and QuickDraw GX, that Apple has developed over the past five years (since 
the release of System 7.0) and previously sold separately at considerable 
cost. Besides those underpinnings, System 7.5.5 adds a bunch of functional- 
ity that was previously available only with extra-cost third-party control 
panels and extensions. And to top it all off. System 7.5.5 also adds Apple’s 
hot new online documentation technology, Apple Guide. 

In essence, then, System 7.5.5 is a reference release and a productivity 
release that puts all Mac owners on the same System page, with the same set 
of available System functions and features, and with a number of productiv- 
ity enhancements. 

About four years ago, Apple made the decision to spend its primary re- 
sources on the move to the Power Mac platform, seeing that the end of the 
68K CPU was in sight. At that time, Apple could have decided to focus 
instead on its Systemware, such that this book could have been Guide to 
Macintosh System 9.0. The problem with that strategy is that Apple derives 
most of its revenue from the sale of its computers, not from the sale of its 
Systemware. For my money, Apple made the right decision in dialing down 
System development to concentrate on the Power Macs. Now that the Power 
Macs are out and flourishing, hindsight rakishly agrees with Apple’s original 

As important as System 7.5.5 is to all Mac owners (especially to Power Mac 
owners, because more of the System is written in PowerPC native code, 
making it run faster and smarter than System 7.1.2), it’s hardly the end of 
the line. Indeed, there will be a System 8.0 MacOS sometime in 1997 and a 
System 9 0 sometime beyond that. And as operating systems from Apple’s 
corporate partners like IBM come into their own, you’ll likely see a conver- 
gence of their technologies with Apple’s own system efforts. 

But I digress. The bottom line with System 7.5.5 is that it is the best System 
to run on any Macintosh that can support it (more about that later). It’s a no- 
brainer that most every Mac owner should buy it (and many of you reading 
this will already have it, since it’s included on new Macs). 

Chapter 0: System 7.5.5 Reality Check 


What’s in System 7.5.5? 

System 7.5.5 includes a collection of new capabilities that streamline how 
people work on a computer (both individually and with others), simplify 
working with MS-DOS and Windows disks and files, and improve printing 
and graphics. Apple believes that Macintosh System 7.5.5 will advance its 
efforts to attract MS-DOS and Windows users to its platform, and will 
enhance the company’s competitive position in its traditional markets. 

System 7.5.5 uses Apple’s new version numbering scheme and is the last for 
Macs and Mac clones that don’t support 32-bit memory addressing, includ- 
ing the Mac Plus, SE, SE/30, Classic, LC, II, IIx, Ilex, Portable and PowerBook 
100. Euture Mac OS releases will require 32-bit memory addressing. 

System 7.5.5 will install only on machines running System 7.5.3 and will 
integrate everything found in System 7.5.3 (released in June of 1996), which 
was the last full CD-ROM based Mac OS. System 7.5.5 improves the perfor- 
mance of virtual memory and reduces the launch time of memory-hungry 
applications. System 7.5.5 also improves the System’s memory management 
on Power Macs and comes with a revised Code Fragment Manager to 
properly handle multi-threaded modern Mac applications. System 7.5.5 also 
fixes a floppy drive problem that occurs when you insert a disk while 
Windows is launching on a Mac running a DOS Compatibility Card. 

System 7.5.5 improves the general reliability of PCI Macs and PowerPC-based 
PowerBooks and fixes a handful of networking bugs, including a problem 
with machines running virtual memory and connected to Ethernet networks. 
System 7.5.5 also fixes aLocalTalk problem on Macintosh 5400 machines and 
improve general networking performance on 5400 and 6400 systems. 

System 7.5.5 will also improve the performance of Mac OS clones running 
180-MHz or faster PowerPC 604 or 604e processors. System 7.5.5 also 
improves the performance of Quadra and Centris systems updated with the 
Apple Power Mac upgrade card when running sound-intensive applications. 
System 7.5.5 also improves the reliability of the remote control included 
with the Apple TV tuner and Macintosh TV. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Figure 0.1 System 7.55 desktop 

Here’s a short list of the goodies in System 7.5.5: 

Safe Install Utility (application to run before all others)— this one is out of 
alphabetical order, because you should run it before you install System 
7.5.5. It will flag control panels and extensions that might not work with 
7.5.5 and move them to a special folder. It also offers a database with vendor 
contracts for all the software it finds on your disk. Very handy. REMEMBER 

One final caveat, if you have a Workgroup Server 95 or an Apple Network 
Server 500 or 700, do not install System 7.5.5 on them. You must con- 
tinue to run System 7.0.1 with the System Update 3.0 on an AWS 95 and the 
new AIX on the ANS 500 and 700. Doing otherwise will cream your server. 

Apple Macintosh Guide (extension and guide files)— a built-in, interactive, 
step-by-step guide that helps the user solve a problem without interrupting 

Chapter 0: System 7.5.5 Reality Check 


the task at hand. When a user has a question, such as “how do I change the 
desktop pattern?,” he fires up the Macintosh Guide, and he is then prompted 
with meaningful queries throughout the process. It provides onscreen visual 
cues (or coachmarks) to highlight items so that he can proceed through to 
the next step. 

Apple Guide, the System 7.5.5 extension, is the engine that enables Guide 
files (like the Macintosh Guide and PowerTalk Guide that live in the System 
folder) to provide appropriate information and steps based on current 
context (such as which window is in front, items selected, and so on) and 
will skip steps if they are already complete. It also checks to make sure a step 
has been completed before moving on to the next one. Overall, Apple Guide 
allows users to learn quickly, thereby increasing productivity and decreasing 
support and training costs. In addition, Apple Guides can be customized by 
using the Guide Maker developer’s tool (available separately as part of the 
Apple Guide Authoring Kit), to lead users through tasks that are unique to 
their company or products. 

CD Audio Player (control panel)— full controls for playing and program- 
ming audio CDs. Very cool. 

Date and Time (Finder enhancement)— are now displayed in the menu bar, 
thanks to Steve Christensen’s built-in SuperClock. 

Desktop Patterns (control panel)— new textured desktop patterns so that 
people can customize their desktops. 

Default Documents Folder (file manager improvement)— the System 
automatically saves files to a folder named “Documents” on the desktop 
(rather than to the creating application’s folder), making it easier for novices 
to keep track of a document. Saving a document can be set to the most 
recently accessed folder for an application, the Document folder, or the 
folder where the application is located. 

Desktop Hiding (Finder improvement)— allows the desktop to be inactive 
while an application is running. If you click outside the document window, 
the application will still remain active, preventing the novice user from 
getting “lost” by switching to the Finder or another application. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Find File (new application and extension)— enables more detailed file 
searches based on an increased number of search criteria. Presents all files 
found in list form with a path to the file. From the found file list, users can 
now open or drag and drop the file to a new location. Very sweet, indeed. 

Hierarchical Menus in Apple Menu (Finder improvement)— allow faster 
and easier access to items in the Apple menu by displaying submenus. 

Launcher (Finder improvement)— enables applications, documents, and 
folders to be accessed by clicking on buttons contained in a floating window. 
Many like it, I never use it. You be the judge. 

Macintosh Drag and Drop™ (Finder improvement)— introduces the drag- 
and-drop metaphor for transferring data. When either text or graphics are 
dragged onto the desktop from a “drag-aware” application, a clippings file is 
automatically created. You can use Macintosh Drag and Drop to add the 
same element to many additional documents. Seriously good stuff, it starts 
to get you thinking more about your documents and less about your soft- 
ware. OpenDoc will leverage this “document-centric” computing metaphor 
up another notch. 

Macintosh Easy Open™ (Finder improvement)— used in conjunction with 
Macintosh PC Exchange, it automatically searches for a Macintosh applica- 
tion that is capable of opening a document for which you don’t have the 
creating application, including DOS and Windows documents. 

Once an application is selected by the user from the list of possibilities, 
Macintosh Easy Open manages the translation and opens the file. No more 
Apple File Exchange! Way to go, Apple! 

Macintosh PC Exchange 2.0^^“ (Finder improvement)— allows you to insert 
a DOS or Windows-formatted disk into your Mac’s floppy drive (must be a 
high density capable drive) and view the disk’s contents from the Macintosh 
desktop. Directories and files are viewed by the Macintosh user as folders 
and documents. Most notably enhanced in this version is the ability to read 
SCSI hard disks and SyQuest and Bernoulli removable-media disks. 

MacTCP® 2.0.6 and Open Transport 1.1.1 and the Network Selector 
Switch Application (Networking improvement)— built-in TCP/IP (Transmis- 
sion Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)— a major and pervasive 

Chapter 0: System 7.5.5 Reality Check 


communications protocol for UNIX networking (at the software level). TCP/ 
IP is also the standard protocol for the Internet. 

Multitasking Thread Manager (System improvement)— for concurrent 
applications processing. This feature allows software that has adopted the 
Thread Manager to run concurrent processes. It is extremely beneficial for 
architectural or engineering packages that require intensive calculations. It 
still isn’t process or application preemption, though, but it’s better than 
System 7.x. Expect full preemption in later Systems that will benefit ALL 

PowerBook® Utilities (PowerBook improvements)— allow for extended 
battery life and provide automatic power management for tasks such as 
switching to full performance (if the PowerBook is plugged in) or to full 
conservation (if it’s not). Includes: 

• Battery management features— include automatic backlight dimming 
and a permanent RAM disk feature that saves information between 
restarts and shutdowns. 

• Consolidated Control Strip— simpler access to controls for customizing 
the PowerBook system. The Control Strip can be moved anywhere on 
the screen and the whole strip, or portions of it, can be hidden to fit 
user preferences. The Control Strip includes: AppleTalk Switch, Battery 
Monitor, Filesharing, Hard Disk, Power Settings, Sleep Now, Sound 
'V^olume, and Video Mirroring. You’ll wonder how you ever got along 
without it. 

• File Assistant— synchronizes files between any two files, folders, or 
entire disks to ensure that the user is always working on the latest 
version of a document. You have to be very careful not to monkey 
around with your System clock, though, or you will overwrite the 

• PB 150 Modem Patch (System bug fix)— this fixes a problem with the 
built-in modems of PB 150s and some communication programs. 

PowerTalk™ (Collaborative improvement)— enables users to send elec- 
tronic mail, share files, and digitally “sign” and forward documents from 
within an application. PowerTalk previously cost extra under System 7 Pro. 
PowerTalk features include: 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• A Universal Desktop Mailbox— a single mailbox and a consistent 
interface for browsing and searching information, regardless of the 
number of communications services in use. It provides a single 
mailbox icon for all incoming and outgoing mail— including online 
services, fax, voice, electronic mail from various sources, and docu- 
ments from any application. Cyberdog 1.1 also provides for a universal 
mailbox and is included in System 7.5.5. 

• Catalogs and Information Cards— store information about users and 
other objects required to facilitate better communication. Catalogs 
contain Information Cards that keep individual or group profiles 
including electronic addresses, phone and fax numbers, personal 
notes, and more. Because PowerTalk supports drag and drop, delivery 
flies and folders can be sent to others by dragging them onto Informa- 
tion Cards. Catalog storage ranges from Personal Catalogs (collections 
of Information Cards stored on a user’s hard disk) to sophisticated 
hierarchical, distributed, and replicated repositories such as those 
implemented by Apple’s PowerShare Catalog server. 

• AppleMail and Cyberdog 1.1 mail— built-in, entry-level mail applica- 
tions with support for messages that contain stylized text, images, and 
video. It does not require a mail server. Neither requires a mail server. 

• DigiSign— enables users to sign documents without printing them and 
circulating them for approval. Instead, documents can be routed 
through electronic mail and verified. DigiSign supports data ranging 
from a single cell or file to a complete compound document. 

• PowerTalk Key Chain— a single mechanism for securing access to 
multiple network and desktop services, including the mailbox. 

• PowerShare (Client)— for the sharing and administration of central- 
ized collaboration services such as shared catalogs and gateways. 

Jigsaw Puzzle (Fun improvement)— lets you paste in any image and 
scramble the pieces to create a jigsaw puzzle with three levels of difficulty. 
Shows that Apple will never become as straightlaced as its competition. 
Praise be for that! 

QuickDraw GX™ (Printing and Imaging improvement)— advances graphics 
and printing with drag-and-drop printing from the desktop, ways to print 

Chapter 0: System 7.5.5 Reality Check 


and view any document (regardless of the application), greater typography 
control, and improved color management. QuickDraw GX includes: 

• Streamlined Printing— printer control via desktop printer icons. To 
print a document, you can simply drag a file onto a printer icon. 
Double-clicking a printer icon reveals the printer queue, and you can 
arrange and rearrange the document order in the queue, or change to 
a different printer by dragging and dropping the file. New print 
extensions from third-party developers can be used with existing 
applications and enable users to customize print output with water- 
marks. The System 7.5.5 CD-ROM includes two such GX print goodies 
from the Peirce Print Tools collection. 

• Portable Digital Documents (PDDs)— enable users to generate files that 
can be opened, viewed, and printed from any Macintosh that has 
QuickDraw GX installed (without having the same applications or fonts 
used to create the file). Portable documents can be created with any 
existing Macintosh applications. Goodbye mixed-network document 

• International Support— extensive, system-level support for interna- 
tional text such as Arabic or Kanji. Text that combines different reading 
directions— left to right, right to left, or vertical— can be combined 
within the same line. QuickDraw GX fully supports world-wide charac- 
ter sets based on international standards. Achtung Baby! 

• Consistent Color Input, Display, and Output— incorporates Apple’s 
ColorSync color management technology to ensure that the onscreen 
color matches the colors produced by a variety of output devices, 
thereby saving the cost of printing drafts just to proof color. 

QuickTime™ 2.5 for Macintosh (Multimedia enhancement)— enhanced 
version of the popular QuickTime multimedia software extension that lets 
you integrate sound, video, graphics, and animation on your Mac and on the 
World Wide Web. Also, QuickDraw 3D and QuickTime Conferencing provide 
3D imaging and video conferencing over the Web. 

Scriptable Finder and AppleScript 1.1 (Finder improvement)— automates 
system tasks with AppleScripts for complex or mundane tasks, such as 
backing up a hard disk onto the server. A “Watch Me” feature lets you create 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

scripts by turning on the “Watch Me” recorder and the Mac records your 
actions. AppleScript can control many Mac applications for true automation. 
For my money, this may be the best improvement in System 7.5.5— a critical 
Apple technology unmatched by the competition. 

Sound Manager (Multimedia improvement)— l6-bit stereo quality sound for 
multimedia applications. 

“Stickies” (Productivity improvement)— onscreen electronic notes with 
various colors and stylized text. 

System and Application Folder Locking (Finder improvement)— prevents 
accidental deletion of important files by novice or infrequent Macintosh 

Telephone Manager (Communication enhancement)— part of the 
Macintosh Telephony Architecture (MTA), which provides a framework for 
the integration of personal computers and telephones. For example, Contact 
Manager programs that take advantage of MTA could be used to initiate 
telephone calls or video conferences. 

WindowShade (Finder improvement)— a utility that enables you to click on 
a window title bar to hide the window from view, thereby reducing screen 
clutter caused by having numerous windows open at once. Very handy. 

Updated Scrapbook and Notepad (Productivity improvement)— includes 
new built-in support for Macintosh Drag and Drop that enables users to drag 
and drop text or graphics from applications (that support it) directly onto 
either item. 

Third-Party Software Bundled 
on the CD-ROM Version of 
System 7.5.5 

Ifyou bought the CD-ROM version of 7.5.5, check out the CD Extras folder 
on the disc. You will find some nice third-party software that takes advantage 
of new System 7.5.5 capabilities. 

Chapter 0: System 7.5.5 Reality Check 


Two printing extensions— one that lets users add watermarks to printer 
output and one that lets users print multiple pages (in a reduced format) on 
a single page— are included from Peirce Software, Inc. (Peirce Watermark 
and Paper Saver). 

Several of the products are PowerTalk personal gateways, which provide 
transparent access from the universal mailbox to other mail and messaging 
services, including the Apple PowerTalk Direct Dialup gateway (which allows 
you to dial into a Mac server to read your AppleMail from your PowerBook, 
without needing AppleTalk Remote Access). You can also send messages 
using the AppleMail application or third-party applications that support the 
PowerTalk mail capability, which may really make PowerTalk a big deal for 
you. You also get the CompuServe PowerTalk gateway, so you can handle 
your CompuServe mail direcdy through your AppleMail PowerTalk universal 

The included lull version of PowerPax PE Software from STF Technologies, 
Inc. will let you send and receive faxes via PowerTalk, and the 60-day trial 
version of Notify! software from ExMachina, Inc. will let you send pager 
messages from your PowerTalk mailbox. 

In addition, the CD-ROM contains 60-day trial versions of software from 
Quarterdeck, Inc., which lets you exchange email messages with users of 
QuickMail and the Internet. For only $49, you can buy full versions of these 
gateways from StarNine (which normally cost $65). 

You also get a nice multimedia tour of PowerTalk, an offer to receive the lull 
Apple Guide Authoring Kit for free, a game called Eric’s Solitaire, some 
QuickTime extras (including the MoviePlayer and some sample movies), the 
At Ease! updater, PlainTalk updater, and Power Mac GeoPort Updater. 

In short, you get a nice litde bundle of goodies when you buy System 7.5.5 on 

Crabb’s Bottom Line 

The deal with this book is simple: read it and I’ll teach you about System 
7.5.5, what it does, what it doesn’t do, and what it’s leading to with future 
Apple Systems. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

I will also teach you how to work around System 7.5. 5’s shortcomings using 
tips and tweaks (or is it hints and tricks?) and using good old-fashioned 
consumer power— by buying the right third-party applications, control 
panels, and other helpful doodads. You’ll also learn why certain things are 
done (in addition to how and when) and how to solve particular problems 
with System 7.5.5. 

In short. I’ll give you the skinny (and the fat, 1 suppose) on System 7.5.5, 
with my basic, “prove it to me” attitude. 

This book is written for beginners, for experienced Macheads, and for Mac 
managers. I’ve purposefully called-out the material that appeals to Mac 
managers in special layouts, so that beginners or Macheads who don’t care 
about System 7.5. 5’s management issues can skip them. Likewise, beginners’ 
tips are also called-out. You will also find each chapter full of Dow Crabb 
Bottom Line Tips to help you over System 7.5. 5’s rough spots, as well as a 
quiz at the end (with answers, can you beat that!?!). Indeed, this book is 
really full of it. 

Here’s how the chapters break down: 

Chapters 1 through 6 explain all the features, commands, and functions 
of System 7.5.5 in a critical, solutions-oriented framework. Along with these 
detailed explanations, the chapters show you how to use these new 
capabilities to get the most out of the new System. 

Chapter 1, “A First Look at System 7.5.5,” gives you an overview of System 
7.5.5 and introduces the features that you need to know. Chapter 2, “Using 
Finder 7.5.5,” takes a detailed look at the Mac’s most important application 
and how you use it. 

“Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment” is chapter 3. In it. I’ll show you 
how to customize the System so that it reflects jowr needs and preferences. 
Chapter 4, “Fonts and Printing,” gives you the information to handle 
QuickDraw GX, which may very well revolutionize the way we work with our 
Macs. Chapter 5, “The Multimedia is the Message,” describes how multime- 
dia support, always one of the Mac’s major benefits, has been woven into 
System 7.5.5 with the new QuickTime 2.5 extension. 

Chapter 0: System 7.5.5 Reality Check 


Chapter 6, “Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup),” 
takes you through a salient discussion of the virtual desktop, networking, 
and using PowerTalk and Apple’s Open Collaboration Environment, Open 
Doc, and Cyberdog to handle peer-to-peer AppleMail, network catalogs, 
integrated messaging. World Wide Web, email, and digital signature 

Chapters 7 through 10 concentrate more exclusively on management issues, 
getting help, and other extended topics. 

Chapter 7, “Improving Your Memory,” focuses on managing and maximizing 
memory under System 7.5.5. Chapter 8, “Management Strategies for System 
7.5.5,” shows how to best utilize System 7.5. 5’s features to help workgroups 
of Macs work well together. 

Chapter 9, “The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5,” is painful, 
but hey, I’m staying in the real world on this one; it’s likely that you’ll have 
trouble at some point that you need to fix ASAP. If the tips in chapter 9 don’t 
bail you out of your crises, then you can use chapter 10, “We All Need More 
Help, So Here’s Howto Get It.” 

Last, but not least, you’ll find three appendices: Apple Guide and 
GuideMaker, PlainTalk, and Glossary. 

Without further ado, it’s time to go to chapter 1. 

A First Look at 
S)«tem 7.5.5 

Chapter \ 

fyou have already bought System 7.5-5, you have my 
congratulations. If you are sitting 
on the fence and don’t know 
whether to buy or wait, let me 
twist your purchasing arm with 
some solid reasons, upfront, for 
why you should buy 7.5.5, rather 
than waiting or trying to put it 
together from the parts bin. In any 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

case, what I will do in this book is tell you all about 7.5.5, and then you can 
make your own decisions. 

Do you need to buy System 7.5.5? No, not if you are happy going through all 
the trouble of surfing the online world, contacting your local dealer, and 
putting together all the machinations required to assemble the functional 
parts of System 7.5.5. Even then, your system ditty bag won’t have the full 
contents of System 7.5.5. 

If you are like the rest of us, though, going through all that hassle and 
expense just doesn’t make sense. For us, getting a set of floppies or a single 
CD-ROM with all of the System 7.5.5 goodies is the way to go, even if it 
“looks” like it costs more. Add up the costs of surfing online, dealer-hop- 
ping, buying blank disks, or using hard disk space (to hold all the stuff you 
are downloading and copying), and your time spent, and you’ll find that the 
System 7.5.5 Personal Upgrade Kit from Apple is a bargain. And, it’s com- 
plete. ft’s your only source for all the doohickeys that Apple calls collectively, 
System 7.5.5. 

System 7.5.5 incorporates many new features into a base that is pure System 
7 Pro (System 7.1.1). System 7.5.5 includes a number of products that Apple 
sold or freely distributed separately, including Open Transport 1.1.1 (for 
advanced TCP/tP networking), OpenDoc (for document-centric small 
applications and application “parts”), Cyberdog (for WWW browsing and 
email and other Internet functions all in an OpenDoc context), PC Exchange 
(for reading DOS and Windows disks), Macintosh Easy Open (for reading 
files in which you don’t have the creating applications, such as DOS applica- 
tions), and MacTCP (for basic TCP/tP networking) on non-PCI PowerMacs. 
The new system also includes an extensible hypertextual and context- 
sensitive help system, called Apple Guide, which lets you use Apple Guides 
(System 7.5.5 ships with several Guides, including a PowerTalk Guide, a 
Macintosh Guide, and others). You also receive useful programs that were 
previously sold by third parties or by Applesoft, including, for a limited time, 
DataViz’s MacLinkPlus (which works with Macintosh Easy Open and PC 
Exchange) and Adobe’s Type Manager GX (ATM GX) that works with 
QuickDraw GX fonts. 

With the CD version. System 7.5.5 also ships with a slew of third-party 
utilities and some trial programs. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


System 7.5.5 comes as a set of fat binaries that includes both the 68K and 
Power Macintosh versions, making installation a breeze with the smart 
Installer 4.0 that Apple also includes. 

But if you don’t have a Power Macintosh or lots of RAM, you don’t need to 
worry about System 7.5.5 hogging all your resources. 

The reason is that the 7.5.5 installer is actually three installers— one for 
System 7.5.5, one for PowerTalk, and one for QuickDraw GX. If you have a 
RAM-limited Mac, you can decide simply to run ONLY the System 7.5.5 
installer, and hold-off on PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX until you add to 
your RAM. 

In addition, the Safe Install Utility, which comes with 7.5.5, should be run on 
your system before installing the new Mac OS. Safe Install determines which 
of your current extensions can be safely used with the new stuff in System 
7.5.5. If Safe Install finds old extensions and control panels that won’t work 
with 7.5.5, it can (at your discretion) move them to a new folder called “May 
Not Work with System 7.5.5.” 

System 7.5.5 also comes with Version 1.1 of PowerTalk (which is the applica- 
tion that implements AOCE— Apple’s Open Collaboration Environment), 
which improves performance, adds and updates some interface elements to 
the first version of PowerTalk, lowers memory requirements, and fixes many 
bugs (including the nasty one that can cause a large PowerTalk Catalog to 
simply disappear from the desktop). The new System also includes other 
AOCE improvements, like multiple message tagging and letterhead creation. 

The Macintosh Desktop: 

A Guided Tour 

If you are a veteran Macintosh user, System 7.5.5 will not surprise you. 
Indeed, System 7.5.5 is simply another in a long series of incremental 
upgrades to the Macintosh System (6.0, 6.07, 7.0, 7.1, and so forth). In short. 
System 7.5.5 doesn’t break all that much new ground (with the exceptions of 
QuickDraw GX and Apple Guide), but it does consolidate gains that Apple 
has made over the past year with its System software. And for that reason 
alone, System 7.5.5 is very significant for all Macintosh users. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Of course, if you have never used a Macintosh before, or you are migrating 
from Windows (good for you!), the System and its integrated graphical user 
interface (GUI), called the Finder, will take some getting used to. In this 
chapter. I’ll give you the 50 cent overview on how System 7.5.5 works, while 
introducing its GUI, Finder 7.5.5. But if you want to really get you feet wet 
with the new Finder, I’ll cover that in chapter 2, “Using Finder 7.5.5.” 

A-number one on your list of things to remember about the Macintosh is that 
the Finder was created around a concept that Apple borrowed from Xerox 
PARC in the early 80s— the concept of the desktop (see figure 1.1). 

New and Improved Apple Menu 

File Edit Uieiu Label Special 

Universal Desktop Mailbox 
Application Icon 
New Balloon Help 
Battery Icon (PowerBooks) 

The Legendary Super Clock 
Catalogs Icon | 

10:2|4PM|h ? 

1 2 items 



Macintosh HD 

192.1 MB in disk 

133.1 MB available 



Apple Extras Applications 

Macintosh Basics 



PowerPorf^ 500 Accessories 

Read Me 

Remote Access Client Folder 


Retrieve It! Help 



Softvsro HjgbJjgbts 


System 7.5 Read Me 

System Folder 




PowerBook Toolbar 

I Catalogs | 

Chsjn Ifor Don Cr^bb I 

: LaseifVriler II NTl^ 

Key Chain 

Printer Icon 

Figure 1.1 The System 7.5.5 desktop 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


After you have taken a gander at figure 1.1, please note that the figures of the 
desktop here and throughout the book show most of the new desktop 
features of 7.5.5, including QuickDraw GX printer icons, PowerTalk mailbox, 
and PowerBook control strip. If you don’t install QuickDraw or PowerTalk, 
or you aren’t using a PowerBook, your actual screen may look different. (In 
fact, you can’t officially use the PowerBook control strip on a desktop Mac’s 
desktop.) 1 made these figures so you would see the whole works. Your 
mileage may vary and you probably won’t see a desktop exactly like those in 
this book’s figures. Don’t worry about it; it’s not a big deal, but you should 
note it for future reference. 

The desktop is what you see when you turn on any Macintosh. Whether that 
Macintosh is running System 1.0, System 6.x, System 7.0, or System 7.5.5, 
the desktop will look substantially the same. For my money, that is the 
beauty of the Macintosh computer’s original conception. Across the top of 
the screen is a menu bar. The menu bar gives a list of command categories 
that you can search through and select from at any given time. For the 
desktop menu bar under System 7.5.5, those categories are the Apple menu 
(which is referenced by the Apple Logo (# on the far left of the menu bar), 
File menu, Edit menu, View menu. Label menu, and Special menu. Your 
instrument for the menu and command selection process, of course, is the 
mouse, or a trackball or trackpad (as you will find on the PowerBook 500 
series). When you move your mouse/trackball/trackpad on your real desktop, 
an arrow cursor moves about on your Finder desktop. To activate a menu 
bar command, you point to it and click to open the menu bar. Then drag the 
mouse down to highlight the command you want and release the mouse 
button. The command then executes. To work with icons and windows on 
the screen, you control them by clicking and dragging the mouse. A good 
place to start is with the Macintosh Basics folder (that came with your 
Macintosh) and with the Macintosh Guide (that comes with System 7.5.5). 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

To the right of the menu categories you’ll find a clock. This is made possible 
by Steve Christensen’s famous freeware SuperClock control panel, which 
now ships with System 7.5.5 as a value-added freebie incorporated into the 
Date and Time control panel. Adjacent to the clock (which can show the 
time or date), you may see the symbol of a battery (if you are running System 
7.5.5 on a Portable, PowerBook, or Duo). This symbol, part of the 
SuperClock implementation, displays the approximate amount of charge left 
in the battery or batteries. If you already have SuperClock installed, make 
sure you remove it before installing the full System 7.5.5 set of extensions, 
otherwise you will end up with two competing menu bar clocks, which can 
lead to problems with your system (not the least of which is the lousy 
aesthetic competing clocks create!). 

Next to the battery icon, you’ll find the new Balloon Help/Apple Guide icon. 
This icon gives you access to Balloon Help, the Macintosh Guide (an online 
Apple Guide document), documentation of command shortcuts, and access 
to the PowerTalk Guide (if you installed PowerTalk). Depending on your 
installation, you may also have access to other customized Apple Guides. 

Directly to the right of the Balloon Help icon you’ll find the Application 
menu, which allows you to manipulate any open application (including the 
Finder) by hiding it from the desktop view, or by moving to any other 
application that you have open, by choosing the application’s name from the 
Application menu’s list of open applications. 

To see which commands reside in any given desktop menu, just point to the 
command category (File, for example) and press the mouse button. Hold the 
button down, and you’ll see a list of all the possible commands you can 
activate from that menu. As you can see in figure 1.2, the File menu opens 
and displays all the possible command choices (New Folder, Open, Print, 
Close Window, Get Info, Sharing, Duplicate, Make Alias, Put Away, Find, 

Find Again, Page Setup, and Print Desktop). 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 



Neill Folder 





Close LOindoin 


Get Info 





Make niias 


Put Rinay 



Find Rgain 


Page Setup... 
Print Desktop... 

Figure 1.2 The File menu opened on the desktop 

The Sharing, Find, Page Setup, and Print Desktop commands each have 
ellipses (...) after them. Apple uses ellipses to show you that a command 
offers more options, either through a pop-up menu, or through a dialog 
box. Select the Sharing command from the File menu, and a dialog box 
appears (see figure 1.3). 


Vhere ; 

Data = 

Data, Don's Home llci 

Connected As : Don Crabb 

PriYileges ; See Folders, See Files, Make Changes 

0 vner : 
User /Group : 

||Pon Crabb 








g m 



] s 




I I Make all currently enclosed folders like this one 

Figure 1.3 The Sharing dialog box 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Mac Masters 

The most compre- 
hensive way to add 
complete hierarchi- 
cal menus 
(submenus) to 
applications and to 
the desktop menu 
bar is by using 
Now Software’s 
Now Utilities (Now 
Menus and 
WYSIWIG Menus). 

If you use one of 
these, discard the 
Apple Menu 
Options control 
panel, or move it 
into a folder named 
Holding Tank, if 
you’re the type that 
never throws 
anything away. This 
maneuver saves 
some memory, and 
can increase 
system reliability. 
That’s because 
when the Mac 
starts, the Apple 
Menu Options 
control panel 
allocates some 
memory and 
patches the same 
Toolbox routines 
that Now Menus 
does, whether its 
capabilities are 
used or not. 

A little triangle (►) next to a command in a pull-down menu means that 
another hierarchical menu (submenu) can be displayed. You can view this 
menu by placing the mouse cursor on the arrow and holding down the 
mouse button. Apple supports hierarchical or cascading (doesn’t that sound 
pleasant?) menus (submenus) in the Apple Menu, and many many third- 
party extensions or control panels add that ftinctionality to appropriate 
menu bar commands (Now Menus from Now Utilities is the best). You can 
turn this feature on and off via the Apple Menu Options control panel (see 
figure 1.4). This control panel also controls the Recent Documents, Recent 
Applications, and Recent Servers folders in the Apple menu (more about 
these later). 

Hpple Menu Options 

I— Submenus 

® On 


r— Recent Items 

^ Remember recently used items 






Figure 1. 4 Apple Menu Options control panel 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip When installing System 
7.5.5, make sure that you remove all third-party exten- 
sions and control panels (place them into folders called 
something like MyOldExtensions and MyOldControlPanels). 
Then, when you install System 7.5.5, you won’t create startup or 
operational conflicts with your old third-party stuff. Only after you 
verified them (either by testing them separately — using the 
Extensions Manager or Casady and Greene’s Conflict Catcher II 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


as an aid — or by checking out their compatibility from Apple and 
other sources) should you move them over to your new Control 
Panels and Extensions folders. If you want to automate this 
when installing System 7.5.5, you can use the K-K option once 
the installer is launched. This undoc-umented option automati- 
cally moves your entire existing System folder to a new folder 
called Previous System Folder. Consider it a cheap prophylactic 
against installation incompatibilities. 

As in previous versions of the Finder, you’ll also see that some menu 
commands are dimmed (you can see that the Duplicate command, for 
example, is dimmed in figure 1.2). A dimmed command simply means that 
the command is not available at that point. Usually, this is because it 
wouldn’t make any sense for the command to be available. In the case of the 
Duplicate command above, it is dimmed because nothing has been selected 
to duplicate. 

Using Finder 7.5.5 takes a bit more practice than just mousing around the 
desktop menu bar, but that’s not the point of this chapter. If you’ll check out 
chapter 2, 1 get down and dirty with using Finder 7.5.5 everyday. Apple also 
does a very nice job explaining the use of desktop menus in the online 
Macintosh Guide which is part of every System 7.5.5 upgrade kit. 

f Manager’s Tip From the management perspective, the 
important thing to remember about Finder 7.5.5 is that it 
works the same as it did under previous versions of the 
System. If you trained your staffers on Finder 7.1 , they will 
have no problems migrating to 7.5.5. You and your staff won’t 
have to learn any new techniques to make things happen, 
although you will have to learn the Finder’s new commands and 
capabilities, which I cover in chapter 2. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

System 7.5.5 consists of more than just the Finder; although the Finder is the 
most obvious part of the System since you see it all the time. Even when you 
are running an application program with its own menu bar sitting on the top 
of the screen, the Finder is still there, in the background, waiting to be called 
back to the surface. If you pay attention to the menu bar that is showing on 
your desktop at any time, you can always tell whether or not you are work- 
ing inside an application (its menu bar will be showing) or you are working 
on the desktop (its menu bar will be showing). Moving between layers of 
application menu bars and the Finder menu bar is as easy as clicking on the 
layer you want to use. But I’m getting ahead of myself a bit here with this 
talk of using multiple applications. Let’s return the focus to the System 

Besides the Finder, which controls everything on your Macintosh, the 
System consists of a set of control panels (which were called CDEVS before 
System 7 appeared in 1991), Extensions (AKA INITS), desk accessory pro- 
grams, utility programs, fonts, device drivers, preference files, communica- 
tions protocol files, and some miscellaneous other program flotsam. I’ll 
cover each of these System components, how to use them, and how to 
manage them in subsequent chapters. 

What’s New and Important 
in System 7.5.5? 

System 7.5.5 is best described as a features and marketing consolidation 
effort. It consolidates separate Apple products released over the past three 
years (since System 7.0), adds some features and goodies from third-party 
software, and improves all areas of the Macintosh, including the finder, 
printing, memory usage, scripting, networking, messaging, communications, 
and how you customize your Macintosh work. These changes are generally 
good, although some are less good than others. Apple’s improvements to 
System 7.5.5 make the Macintosh easier to use and manage. I’ll go through a 
brief discussion of these improvements now, and then concentrate on the 
details in later chapters. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


Finder 7.5.5 

The Finder, the Macintosh computer’s most obvious and, I think, its most 
important application, has received a minor facelift. Finder 7.5.5 includes 
some solid new features and fixes a lot of interface quirks that were bother- 
some under System 7. For the most part, the new features are logical 
extensions of the way Macintosh users expect things to work. The designers 
of System 7.5.5 clearly realized that most people are accustomed to some 
version of System 7. It took me about an hour to get used to the changes, 
and really smart folks will get used to them almost immediately. 

But keep in mind, getting used to System 7.5.5 is NOT the same as becoming 
solidly productive with System 7.5.5. That takes a lot more practice and 

GUI Improvements 

Many of the changes to the Finder are subtle; nonetheless they make the 
Finder 7.5.5 desktop (AKA the Finder’s GUI) a much friendlier and more 
modern GUI. Apple paid close attention to its users and their concerns, 
while also noting the features now made popular by non-Macintosh GUIs, 
like Windows and Motif (the de facto standard GUI in the UNIX world). 

Frankly, there is no big news about Finder 7.5.5. It’s really a features consoli- 
dation, not a new features breakthrough. 

Finder 7.5.5 includes a few visual and functional improvements. These 

• Apple Menu Changes— hierarchical sub-menus now enable faster and 
easier access to items that are kept in folders under the Apple menu. 
Also, a set of Recent Applications, Recent Documents, and Recent 
Servers automatically track documents, applications, and servers that 
were recently used, allowing the user to quickly refer back to them and 
open them again (see figure 1.5). 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

^ Rpple HD SC Setup 
(p^ flppleCD nudio Player 
r~l Applications ^ 

m Calculator 
S Calendar 

Control Panels ► 

Disk First Rid 
^ Fan Center 
^ Find File 
p Find in Catalog 
Jigsaiu Puzzle 
Key Caps 
Key Chain 

n Mail and Catalogs ► 

Q Note Pad 
(2S Personal Catalog 
S Puzzle 

^ Recent Applications 

fpl Recent Documents 

Recent Seruers ► 

|T^ Remote Recess Disconnect 

Rpple DocUieuier 
Desktop Patterns 
Find File 

Figure 1.5 Apple Menu changes 

• Stickles— lets you create onscreen electronic notes (see figure 1.6). 

• Finder hiding— allows the Finder to be inactive while an application is 
running; if you click outside a document window, the application 
remains selected, thus preventing a novice user from getting “lost” by 
switching to the Finder or another application. 

• Default document folder— automatically saves files to a folder named 
“Documents” on the desktop, rather than to the application’s folder, 
making it easier for novice users to keep track of documents. 

• System and application folder locking— prevents accidental deletion 
of important files. 

• Updated Scrapbook and Notepad— includes built-in support for 
Macintosh Drag and Drop. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


Figure 1.6 Stickies 

• WindowShade— allows you to easily hide windows from view, thereby 
reducing screen clutter caused by multiple windows being open at 
once (see figure 1.7). The WindowShade control panel works much 
like Motifs iconification method and Windows 3.1 and 95 minimize 

Besides the visual improvements and the changes to the Apple menu, Apple 
has improved the way the Finder organizes and manages your files. 

Miscellaneous Improvements 

System 7.5.5 has keyboard layout and international date, time, number, 
and text formats for Roman languages. This allows you to customize 
system software using these control panels (many of which were in earlier 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Figure 1 . 7 WindowShade 

Date &Time 

The available date and time formats are Australian, British, Danish, Dutch, 
Finnish, Flemish, French, French Canadian, German, Italian, Norwegian, 
Spanish, Swedish, Swiss French, Swiss German, Swiss Italian, and U.S. The 
Date and Time control panel also controls the menu bar SuperClock. 


The available number formats (decimal and thousands separators, currency) 
are Australian, British, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, Flemish, French, French 
Canadian, German, ItaUan, Norwegian, Spanish, Swedish, Swiss French, 
Swiss German, Swiss Italian, and U.S. 

This control panel seems Hke a very minor point, unless you work with 
numbers formatted according to some European and Japanese conventions, 
where decimal points are used as thousands separators. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 



The available text behaviors (sorting order and text selection) are Danish, 
Dutch, English, Finnish, French, French Canadian, German, Italian, Norwe- 
gian, Spanish, and Swedish. 

These are important if you are working in a language other than English as 
you need to use certain accent marks, special characters, and the like that 
aren’t normally used in English. 

Non-Roman alphabet languages, like Hebrew, Arabic, Kanji, Chinese, or 
work with System 7.5.5 through extra-cost language kits and the built-in 
WorldScript language support of System 7.5.5. 


The available keyboard layouts are Australian, British, Danish (regular and 
Macintosh Plus), Dutch, Finnish, Flemish, French (regular and numerical), 
French Canadian, ISO Canadian, German, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, 
Swedish, Swiss French, Swiss German, and U.S. (regular and System 6). 
Contact your Apple dealer to inquire about international keyboards. 

System performance 

Overall, Arabic, Hebrew, and Thai system versions are faster than the 
corresponding older System 7.1 versions. Opening text files and text editing 
is significantly faster. 

New Find Command 

With System 7.5.5, the improved Find File command of System 7 has been 
further improved and now offers features like third-party file finders such as 
PraireSoft’s DiskTop, Symantec’s Fast Find, and Claris’s Retrieve It. 

As with System 7, the Find Command is found in the File menu and under 
the Apple Menu. 

The Find Command lets you search for files by name, size, kind, label, date 
created, date modified, version, and lock attribute (see figure 1.9). You can 
also search for multiple attributes, which you couldn’t do with System 7— a 
nice improvement. Unlike the third-party utilities, however. Find can only 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

look at file names and their allied attributes, not at file contents. The 
windows in the Find command are now live Finder windows, which means 
you can manipulate them in natural ways, including opening the files found 
simply by double-clicking on their icons. That is amazingly handy! 

Find File 

Find items 

on “Macintosh HD” ▼ | mhose 

name \ 


size T 1 

is less than ▼ | 



kind T 1 

is T 1 


label ▼ 1 

is ▼ 



date created \ 

is ^ 1 


1 date modified \ 

is ▼ 1 



uersion ▼ | 

is T 1 



lock attribute ^ \ 




[ More Choices ] [ Femer Choices ] Find 

Figure 1. 8 New Find command 

Scriptable Finder 

With System 7.5.5, Apple builds in its AppleScript scripting technology and 
Open Scripting Architecture (OSA) so you can automate routine or complex 
tasks— offering a broad range of scripting options. You no longer have to pay 
extra to buy this capability. 

Using AppleScript’s “Watch Me” feature in supported applications, you can 
automate any series of actions— such as reformatting a document or recalcu- 
lating a spreadsheet. With scripting, you can also build custom solutions by 
combining the most useful features of several applications— for instance, a 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


word processing program could be scripted to automatically retrieve 
information from a customer database and an accounts payable module to 
generate a letter demanding payment. 

In addition to regular AppleScripting, System 7.5.5 makes the Finder a 
“scriptable” application— so now you can automate system tasks with your 
scripts. For example, using AppleScript and the desktop functions of the 
Finder, you could create a script that backs up a hard disk onto a server, 
automatically logs into the Internet and searches a World Wide Web server 
for new information on a particular Web page and downloads it, or performs 
other system administration functions that benefit from the automation of an 

Taking advantage of the Scriptable Finder, you could also create a script that 
sets up a File Sharing “drop” folder (for use in gathering project materials 
or offering a place for students to leave their homework electronically), 
automatically enabling File Sharing, specifying privileges, and creating a 
folder that can be shared (Apple had this idea too and provides a script to do 
just this). 

Using AppleScript to script both the Finder and applications, one could 
automate the process of updating a weekly report. The script could retrieve 
and open the report template from a departmental server and then go onto 
an administrator’s hard disk and open the most recent budget spreadsheet, 
select this month’s figures, and copy them directly into that report. Very slick 
and very handy. 

The script could then enter today’s date in the report, open the PowerTalk 
“mailer” attached to the report document, identify people on several 
different mail services to whom it should be sent, and send it. Once sent, the 
script can do a “Save As” and name the report with the current date, saving it 
in an archive folder on the server. 

File Manager Improvements 

System 7.5.5 provides an improved set of file management features over 
those in System 7.0, 7.1, and 7 Pro. The glue for these improvements is 
the System’s built-in file manager that is more robust in System 7.5.5. The 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

enhanced file manager better handles multiple disks with lots of files and 
folders stored on them. You don’t have to worry, for example, about System 
7.5.5 choking on large numbers of file copies (which occasionally occurred 
under System 7). That alone may be reason enough to upgrade to System 

The largest supportable partition size has been increased from 2 GB to 4 GB 
for System 7.5.5. Unfortunately, with 4 GB disks (we should all be this 
unfortunate!), the minimum block size is 64K, so that even tiny files will use 
up that much disk space on a 4 GB disk under System 7.5.5. 

Macintosh Drag and Drop 

As early as 1984 and the first System, the Macintosh made “cut and paste” 
functionality popular— selecting data in a particular document, cutting it, 
and then pasting it elsewhere in the document or in another open file. 

Under System 7.5.5, Apple pushes beyond cut and paste by supporting 
Macintosh Drag and Drop— many find that this is a big improvement in 
manipulating files on the desktop. 

Using an application that supports Macintosh Drag and Drop, you select a 
block of data (text, graphics, and so on) from an open file (or the desktop) 
and drag it to another location. This eUminates the steps of opening the 
application, copying the selected data, switching to an open document, and 
pasting the data elsewhere— instead, the user simply drags the data to where 
he wants it. 

An example makes this Drag and Drop process a bit clearer: A person using a 
graphics program creates a design document that she wants to add to a 
word-processing document. To do so, she selects the design and drags it 
into the document (which needs to be open). The graphic now appears in 
both the drawing program and the word-processing document— without 
copying and pasting. This drag and drop operation is not a hot hnk, how- 
ever, like you would get with Publish and Subscribe. It is a simply a more 
convenient and less modal way of doing static cuts, copies, and pastes. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


Alternatively, she could drag the design onto her desktop (where it becomes 
a Clippings file that she can drag into other files), making it a useful organi- 
zation technique for work in-progress. For example, suppose she wants to 
use her mailing address or company logo repeatedly. She could save these as 
Clippings files and drop them into any document when she needed them 
(see figure 1.9). 

Figure 1.9 Macintosh Drag and Drop clippings files 

A desktop Clippings file, such as a graphic, can be dragged into other 
locations when needed. In this example, the graphic is represented by the 
picture clipping on the desktop, and was dragged into the Scrapbook. 

Macintosh Easy Open 

To provide the correct data translation between different types of applica- 
tions, System 7.5.5 also supports Macintosh Easy Open, which automatically 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

translates data when it is moved between different applications (and the 
correct data translators are present). DataVfz’s MaclinkPlus data translators 
for Macintosh Easy Open are included, as well. 

QuickDraw GX 

System 7 brought great improvements to Macintosh imaging, printing, and 
font control with its printing architecture, TrueType fonts, Fonts folder, and 
other tweaks. With System 7.5.5, Apple pushes these improvements forward 
with QuickDraw GX. 

With QuickDraw GX, Apple believes it is setting the stage for the next 
generation in graphics, imaging, and printing. QuickDraw GX significantly 
extends and expands the graphics capabilities of the Macintosh, creating a 
new standard for desktop graphics computing (and should resolidify the 
Macintosh as the best desktop publishing platform). 1 am betting that Apple 
got most of this right. QuickDraw GX offers significant improvements for 
both Macintosh generalists and DTP pros. 

What does QuickDraw GX do and how does it work? It’s a very large (1.6 
MB!) extension that the separate QuickDraw GX Installer will install for you. 
Once installed, its new features are available: 

• Simplified printing and print management via a new, customizable 
print architecture and user interface. 

• The capability to create “portable” documents from any applications 
that allow you to print and view the document without having the 
original application or fonts. 

• Consistent color between scanners, displays, and printers via Apple’s 
ColorSync color management technology. 

• Powerful type and text capabilities that, in conjunction with updated 
or new applications, enable the display and printing of any typeface. 

• Tools for developers that result in new applications offering greater 
sophistication in graphics, type, and printing. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


QuickDraw GX is compatible with all of your existing pre-System 7.5.5 
applications. Current Macintosh fonts also work with QuickDraw GX, and 
can work with many of the printing enhancements it provides. Revised and 
newly-designed applications and fonts that take full advantage of QuickDraw 
GX color, type, and graphics capabilities are being released by third-party 

QuickDraw GX runs on 68020, 68030, or 68040 Macintosh systems and is 
also optimized for the PowerPC chip, allowing applications to access the 
greater speed and performance of the PowerPC technology (available on 
Power Macintosh computers). 

Many of the features of QuickDraw GX are available to users immediately, 
such as improved printing and portable document technology. Other 
features, such as advanced type and graphics, will require developers to 
build those features into new GX-sawy applications. 

But what do you get from QuickDraw GX now? (The future is always won- 
derful in this kind of scenario, isn’t it?) 

Overall, you get simplified, more powerful printing (if you are willing to pay 
the price of installing QuickDraw GX, which increases the size of the System 
heap by nearly 2 MB). The Macintosh continues as an industry leader in this 
area by providing powerful and intuitive printing functionality. QuickDraw 
GX takes the successful Macintosh print functions and makes them even 
more powerfuf and convenient. 

QuickDraw GX alfows you to display and control selected printers via printer 
icons on the Macintosh desktop (see figure 1.10 and figure l.lOB). To print 
a document, drag the file to the desired printer icon (further picking up on 
the drag-and-drop theme of System 7.5.5). 

Whife this might not seem fike a big deal now, as Apple moves the Finder 
towards more document-centric computing with OpenDoc (that will let 
you get more done from your documents and worry less about your applica- 
tions), QuickDraw GX will become a key enabling technology. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Figure 1.10 QuickDraw GX printer icons on the desktop 

Figure l.lOB A QuickDraw GX printer window 

By the way, OpenDoc is Apple’s upcoming document-centric computing 
architecture that will move you from thinking about your applications to 
thinking about your documents. It will allow the development of smaller 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


applications and a rich document format where you won’t care which 
application produced which part of the document. More on OpenDoc in 
chapter 6. 

QuickDraw GX’s desktop printer icons become a key part of document- 
centric architecture, which will change the way you use your Macintosh 

Because multiple printer icons can appear on the desktop, you can choose 
to send a document to a number of printers. An improved print dialog box 
also lets the user select among multiple desktop printers without having 
to access the Chooser, or that creaking old PrintMonitor application (see 
figure 1.11). 



Print Time 

Paper Match — 

Print to: | LaserlUriter II NTH 

Pages: ® Rll 

O From: 



I Collate Copies 

Paper Feed: ® Rutomatic 
O Manual 

Destination: | Printer ▼ | Quality: | Best ▼ | 
[ Feuter Choices ] [ Cancel ] 

Figure 1.11 QuickDraw GX improved Print dialog box 

A desktop printer icon behaves much like a file server or other network- 
device icon. Double-chck on a printer icon, and a print queue status window 
appears (see figure l.lOB). You can decide to reorder the print queue or 
postpone a print job simply by dragging document icons to a new location. 
You can also transfer print jobs to other printers by dragging document 
icons to another printer icon. These print management functions replace the 
old PrintMonitor, which works with System 7.5.5, but you don’t need it 
(unless you don’t install QuickDraw GX). 

QuickDraw GX also supports new printer extensions that can be used with 
existing applications. These allow you to customize print output with 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

watermarks and print multiple pages on one sheet (this is great for snapshot 
views of long documents). An introductory set of these custom QuickDraw 
GX printing extensions from Peirce Software (Peirce Print Tools) comes on 
the System 7.5.5 CD. 

QuickDraw GX supports a new type of document file format, known as a 
portable digital document (PDD) or “print and view” document. This 
technology makes it much easier to exchange documents in electronic form. 
With a “print and view” document, users can create a file that can be 
opened, viewed, and printed from any other Macintosh that has QuickDraw 
GX installed. It will be interesting to see if GX kills third-party document 
interchange technologies such as Adobe’s Acrobat, NoHands’ Common 
Ground, and Farallon’s Replica. 

Because any Mac that has 7.5.5 can have PDDs, that alone may be sufficient 
reason for PDDs to succeed where the extra cost third-party products have 

Even if the target Macintosh doesn’t have the same application or typefaces 
that were used to create the document, the file retains all of the original 
document’s graphics and typographic information. New software is not 
required: portable documents can be created using any of today’s applica- 
tions. In fact, one of the QuickDraw GX extensions called the PDD Maker 
(Portable Digital Document Maker), allows you to drag a file to its icon, and 
“print” it into a disk file that any QuickDraw GX Macintosh computer can 
use. This extension works regardless of whether the host computer has the 
creating application or not. This, my friends, is way cool. 

QuickDraw GX will also offer you a bunch of extras— once third-party 
applications incorporate it. Expect to find, by late 1994, the following 
improvements from third parties. 

Better Typography 

Macintosh gave many of us our first opportunity to work with high-quality 
type. This helped make our written work more readable and effective. Many 
Macfolk are now demanding better typography from their applications, and 
they want it to be even easier to use. Applications that work with QuickDraw 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


GX satisfy both of these demands. Everything from QuarkXpress to Aldus 
PageMaker will be updated to work with QuickDraw GX. 

QuickDraw GX will raise the standards of type and document composition, 
making typographic excellence the standard, not the exception. This is 
because QuickDraw GX automates much of the typographic process. If you 
work extensively with type, you will no longer have to determine the proper 
kerning and justification for a particular block of type, or remember to select 
special characters (such as ligatures) when typing. These settings and 
capabilities are built into QuickDraw GX fonts, and are handled automati- 
cally within applications that support QuickDraw GX. 

You can find more information about GX fonts and typography in chapter 4. 

Font Management 

The installation, screen display, and printing of fonts will be simplified with 
QuickDraw GX, which includes support for Apple’s TrueType font standard 
as well as a new version of Adobe Type Manager (ATM GX) for support of 
Adobe Type 1 fonts, which ships with System 7.5.5. This will allow you to 
select the typefaces you want, whether in TrueType or Typel format. 

International Support 

QuickDraw GX also provides extensive system-level capabilities for the 
display and printing of any international text system, such as Arabic, Hebrew, 
Mandarin, or Kanji. It doesn’t matter whether the text reads right-to-left, left- 
to-right, vertically, or some combination of the three. QuickDraw GX can 
even display text that combines different reading directions within the same 

In addition, QuickDraw GX and WorldScript, Apple’s existing system 
technology for international application development, will offer Macintosh 
computer developers a solid set of tools for the creation and release of 
equivalent software versions worldwide. Nisus Software’s NisusWriter, for 
example, already includes this multiple language support via QuickDraw GX 
and WorldScript. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Specifically, QuickDraw GX provides support for the display and graphical 
manipulation of international fonts and text systems on Macintosh comput- 
ers. QuickDraw GX fully supports worldwide character sets based on 
international standards. 

Better Color Support 

It’s easy to create documents that contain color information— most 
Macintosh computers have color displays and most Macintosh applications 
are color-capable. The difficulty is in getting the onscreen colors to match 
the colors produced on a variety of color output devices. All too often the 
printed color output doesn’t even come close to the onscreen colors. 

For example, without QuickDraw GX, if you find that the contrast between 
the text and the background colors are not nearly as visible on transparen- 
cies as it is onscreen, you may find yourself redesigning an entire presenta- 
tion. Or a graphic designer might have to rework a design when the colors in 
a corporate logo come out differently in print than they look on the screen. 

To create better color matching, QuickDraw GX incorporates Apple’s 
ColorSync color management technology. ColorSync will enable color 
devices and applications to input, display, exchange, and output color 
information consistently and predictably. It will match colors between 
scanners, displays, printers, and even between Macintosh systems: you can 
send a color file from one Macintosh (with QuickDraw GX installed) to 
another, and the same color matching processes will help maintain accurate 
color display and printout on the second machine. 

Smaller Applications 

Some QuickDraw GX applications are much smaller than comparable 
applications today, requiring considerably less RAM and hard disk space. 

And they should be easier and faster to develop. 

Because major print functions— including background printing, dialogs, and 
PostScript font management— are provided as standard objects under 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


QuickDraw GX, developers should be able to quickly build printer drivers 
for existing and new output devices, resulting in Macintosh support for an 
even greater range of output devices. 

Collaboration (AOCE and 

System 7 Pro’s dubious claim to fame was its inclusion of PowerTalk— 
Apple’s collaboration solution for individuals. Apple split the System into 
two versions— System 7.1 without PowerTalk and System 7 Pro with 
PowerTalk (at a greater cost)— to help generate revenue to pay for the 
development of PowerTalk. 

Fortunately for all Macfolk, Apple abandoned this policy and included 
PowerTalk with System 7.5.5. Unlike the separate server product, 
PowerShare, the communications aspects of PowerTalk do not require a 
server and can be used on a peer-to-peer basis with a modem or AppleTalk 
local area network (LocalTalk, EtherTalk, or TokenTalk). 

PowerTalk builds messaging, electronic mail, digital signature verification, 
and other collaboration technologies into the System rather than having 
them provided by third parties. As a result. System 7.5.5 can handle personal 
messaging and mail directly. 

With System 7.5. 5’s PowerTalk, you get all of the following (which, remem- 
ber, used to cost you extra!). 

A Universal Desktop Mailbox 

PowerTalk gives you the benefits of a single mailbox and a consistent 
interface for browsing and searching information, regardless of the number 
of communications services the mailbox represents (see figure 1.12). It 
provides a single mailbox icon for all incoming and outgoing mail— including 
online services, fax, voice, electronic mail from various sources, and docu- 
ments from any application (see figure 1.13). The universal mailbox makes 
use of third-party gateway software that can permit seamless information 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

exchange among users, assuming that the gateway software works appropri- 
ately. At this stage in PowerTalk’s development, there are a number of third- 
party gateways (also called SAMs, for Service Access Modules) available, but 
few of them really work seamlessly yet. 

Figure 1. 12 PowerTalk mail announcement dialog 

1 item 

■/ Subject 

Q QuickTime File Enclosed 

Sender Date Sent 

Den's PB 1 SOc 6/29/94, 1 2 :59 PM 




Figure 1. 13 Mailbox icon opened on the desktop 

Of course, not everyone will want a universal mailbox. Some like having 
multiple mailboxes for different projects. Apple’s PowerShare server gives 
you this flexibihty, but you must pay extra to get it. Of course, you can 
always use the PowerTalk Mailbox for some mail, and still keep your direct 
mailboxes (like CompuServe). 

Mail agents that are available from third parties, such as Beyond, Inc., can 
help you manage the ever-increasing flow of electronic correspondence. Mail 
agents can automatically sort and forward incoming mail, archive mail after it 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


is read, monitor databases and information sources, and create personalized 
newspapers by delivering preselected types of information to any System 
7.5.5 desktop mailbox. 

Besides the universal desktop mailbox, PowerTalk provides AppleMail, a 
built-in electronic mail (email) application (see figure 1.14). 

^ From 

1 S Brian's Mac 



S Brad's Mac 




Sent Mon, Sop 12, 1994, 1 1 :29 AM 

Subject ^ 

Chapter S 


^ Ch OS.oditod 9/7 





Here is the chapter 8 file you requested| 



Figure 1.14 AppleMail— PowerTalk ’s built-in e-mail 


AppleMail provides entry-level mail capabilities for messages that contain 
stylized text, images, and video. Unlike many e mail applications, AppleMail 
does not require a server. Best yet, it’s free with System 7.5.5! 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

In addition to providing mail capabilities with AppleMail, PowerTalk also 
extends mail functionality to every application by providing a “mailer,” so 
that you can send mail from any PowerTalk-compliant application without 
invoking a separate e mail system. 

The mailer provides a standard user interface for a mailing label that can be 
attached to documents. 

Applications that take advantage of the mailer are “mail-capable,” and allow 
you to send a given document to any number of people using any available 
mail system (including fax). The mailer also features the ability to attach 
multiple enclosures and a digital signature. 

Catalogs and Information Cards 

Catalogs store information about the people to whom you want to send 
email and other objects that make communication easier. Catalogs store 
these as Information Cards and provide quick access to the information 
needed (see figure 1.15). 

iP Untitled Info Card 

I Business Card 

Don Ciahb 

Crustacean at Lar^ 

Harden BooJcVMacMillan Publis^^ 

The University of Chicago 
Department of Computer Science 
Chicago, IL 60637 

decc@cs .uchicago .edu 

Figure 1.15 Information Card 

Information Cards keep individual or group profiles containing electronic 
addresses, phone and fax numbers, personal notes, and more (see figure 
1.16). Because PowerTalk supports drag-and-drop delivery, files and folders 
can be sent to others by simply dragging them onto Information Cards. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


Business Card 
Personal Info 
Phone Numbers 

Harden Books/MajcMillan Publishing 

The University of Chicago 
Department of Computer Science 
Chicago, IL 60637 

Figure 1.16 Information Card pull-down menu 

By defining new catalog templates, third-party developers are able to extend 
and customize catalog functionality to deliver access to any type of informa- 
tion via PowerTalk (see figure 1.17). The implementation of catalog storage 
ranges from Personal Catalogs (collections of Information Cards stored on a 
user’s hard disk) to sophisticated hierarchical, distributed, and replicated 
repositories of information such as those implemented by Apple’s 
PowerShare Catalog server. 

|a^1 itgm 


^ ^ Name Kind 

^ Don's Home lloi AppleShare file server 

S Don's Home lloi Direct AppleTalk mail ... 

^ Don's PB 180c AppleShare file server 

S Don's PB 180c Direct AppleTalk mail ... 

S PowerBook 540c ^ Direct AppleTalk mail ... 


^ ^ 

Figure 1.17 Desktop catalog 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

DigiSign Digital Signature Verification 

DigiSign digital signature technology represents an important new capability 
at the System level. DigiSign provides a mechanism to electronically approve 
and verify data. The data can range from a single cell or field to a complete 
compound document. With DigiSign, you can attach an electronic signature 
as well verify other signatures and determine if a document has been altered. 

You can now sign documents without the time-consuming process of 
printing them and then circulating them for approval. Instead, documents 
can be routed through electronic mail, allowing them to be processed 
electronically. This allows individuals or organizations to do business in a 
more time- and cost-effective manner. System 7.5.5 includes a demonstration 
DigiSign signer, as well as information on obtaining actual signers for all 
your needs. 

The PowerTalk Key Chain 

This security technology provides a single mechanism for securing access to 
multiple network and desktop services, including the mailbox. It’s imple- 
mented as a fairly simple dialog box where you set access passwords for each 
of the network and communications services you want to connect to via 


For larger installations and more complex requirements, Apple offers 
PowerShare Collaboration Server software as an optional product to aug- 
ment the peer-to-peer capabilities offered by PowerTalk and System 7.5.5. 
PowerTalk includes the client-side software in a PowerShare client/server 

PowerShare, which shipped in January 1994, provides sharing and adminis- 
tration of centralized collaboration services. By providing for consolidated 
administration of shared information catalogs and gateways, PowerShare lets 
users take advantage of server-based messaging, catalog, authentication, and 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


privaq^ services on an AppleTalk network. As a result, PowerShare enables 
teams of people to work together more easily— whether they are collaborat- 
ing on projects, routing a document through several electronic signature 
levels, or communicating with each other with disparate electronic mail 

PowerShare also addresses another key requirement in today’s distributed 
information systems: network security. Most information traveling on today’s 
local area networks (LANs) can be easily captured by anyone with the 
appropriate tools. PowerShare secures network traffic through network 
authentication and encryption services that support the exchange of mission- 
critical or highly sensitive information on existing LANs. 

Messaging Microsoft 

At the same time that Apple announced PowerShare, it announced a joint 
agreement with Microsoft that ensures interoperation between their respec- 
tive messaging and directory services (at least that is what the agreement 
says— so far products have not been released). 

Under the terms of this agreement, Apple’s PowerShare servers, which are 
built upon the AOCE (Apple Open Collaboration Environment) architecture, 
will support Windows clients as well as Apple’s own PowerTalk clients. And 
Microsoft will support PowerTalk clients on its Enterprise Messaging System 
servers (that use the MAPI protocols). 

Because PowerTalk is built into the operating system, System 7.5.5 users will 
be able to take advantage of this interoperability as soon as it becomes 
available. Of course, given the strange love/hate relationship that Microsoft 
has for the Macintosh computer (Microsoft loves all the applications it sells 
into the market, but it hates the fact it has to sell them at all, since it takes 
sales away from its Windows mainstream) who knows if ANYTHING will ever 
come of this agreement. It wouldn’t be the first time Apple signed up with a 
competitor on a joint project only the have the whole deal fizzle. Does the 
name Digital Equipment Corporation ring a bell? 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Macintosh Telephone Manager 

Apple’s Telephone Manager software has been available to developers for 
two years, and is now built into the operating system with System 7.5.5. The 
Telephone Manager is part of the Macintosh Telephony Architecture (MTA), 
which provides a framework for the integration of personal computers and 

The MTA framework enables developers to create sophisticated telephony- 
based solutions, which users are able to take advantage of with System 
7.5. 5’s built-in Telephone Manager support. Solutions (for which you pay in 
the form of third-party applications), so far, include: 

• Telephony-aware applications that tie software applications to tele- 
phone ftmctions. These include applications such as: contact managers 
that can initiate telephone calls, databases that automatically present 
information based on incoming calls, calendar programs that automati- 
cally dial scheduled conference calls, accounting applications that can 
automate accounts receivable follow-up phone calls, and electronic 
forms applications that allow individuals to call the originator of a form 
before approving it. 

• Screen-based telephony applications that provide the user interface for 
a virtual telephone on the user’s Macintosh desktop. At a basic level, 
these applications provide an easier-to-use and a better integrated 
alternative to the keypad on a telephone— allowing you to place calls, 
answer calls, transfer and hold calls, and so on, with a simple, direct 
manipulation user interface. Examples include: programs that log call 
times for professionals charging hourly rates, and phone applications 
for receptionists who juggle many calls simultaneously. 

• Programmed telephony applications that allow you to script a 
Macintosh computer to handle incoming calls and interact with callers 
to create telephone-based information retrieval systems, voice mail, 
and personal agents. 

• Telephony applications can be combined with PowerTalk’s catalogs 
technology for the storage of telephone numbers and other personal 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


information. This provides a real-time application of PowerTalk’s 
integration of store-and-forward collaboration to the Macintosh user 

Improvements for PowerBook 

System 7.5.5 includes a new set of utilities that extend PowerBook battery 
life, synchronize fdes between laptop and desktop systems, and offer 
convenience features that make mobile computing easier and faster. These 
same new utilities and extensions are also shipping separately with the new 
PowerBook 500s and Duos. 

Extending Battery Life 

The PowerBook Assistant gives you increased hours of battery life by provid- 
ing automatic power management— switching to full performance if the 
PowerBook is plugged in, and full conservation if it’s not. It also provides for 
quick and easy configuration of the PowerBook for either performance or 
battery conservation. 

Battery management features include automatic backlight dimming and a 
permanent RAM disk feature that saves information between restarts and 
shutdowns. The PowerBook control panel consolidates power-management 
features into a single control panel. 

Consolidated Control Strip 

Because PowerBook control panels are now combined into a single Control 
Strip (see figure 1.18), you have simpler access to controls and 
customization of PowerBook systems. 


IS 0 


\ 1 ; L 

(HD ► 

Figure 1.18 PowerBook Control Strip 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The Control Strip can be moved anywhere on the screen. The whole Strip, 
or portions of it, can be hidden and you can arrange the modules to fit the 
way you work: 

• AppleTalk Switch: Enables you to switch AppleTalk on or off without 
going to the Chooser. 

• Battery Monitor: Provides a visual indication of present battery charge 
levels, rate of battery consumption, and a digital readout of battery 
time remaining. It also displays whether one or two batteries are being 
used (on 500 series PowerBooks), and includes icons that let the user 
know if the batteries are charged, charging, or draining. 

• File Sharing: You can switch File Sharing on or off and change the 
sharing set-up. 

• Hard Disk (HD) Spin Down: Allows you to spin down the hard disk 
drive with a single click. This saves battery power. 

• Power Settings: You can open the PowerBook control panel or set 
your PowerBook system to better conservation or better performance. 

• Sleep Now: Allows you to put the PowerBook into sleep mode with a 
single click. 

• Sound Volume: Click on the sound icon to select volume— you no 
longer need to resort to the control panels. 

• Video Mirroring: Allows you to switch video mirroring on or off 
without going to the control panels. (This icon is available in the 
Control Strip only when a PowerBook is attached to an external 

Video Mirroring means that you connect a large monitor or projection 
system to your PowerBook such that the image on your PowerBook’s 
screen is the same as image on the attached screen. This is very useful 
for doing presentations. 

File Synchronization 

The PowerBook File Assistant (formerly an extra cost package from 
Applesoft) automatically synchronizes files between PowerBook computers 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


and other Macintosh systems. With it, you have the freedom to work when- 
ever and wherever, without worrying about whether the other computers 
have the most current version of a document. The PowerBook File Assistant 
keeps any two files, folders, or disks synchronized— locally, over a network, 
or using a disk. It provides “drag and drop” set up and lets you select 
automated or manual synchronization of data. Synchronization can be one- 
way or bidirectional. 

Convenience features 

Other built-in utilities include queuing up documents to print as soon as the 
PowerBook is connected to a printer and improving mouse tracking by 
enhancing cursor visibility. A sleep key puts the PowerBook into sleep mode 
when not in use. When it comes out of sleep, hard disks and servers are 
automatically remounted using the AutoRemounter control panel. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip When installing System 
7.5.5 on your PowerBook, make sure that you write 
"" down your preference settings for backlight dimming, 
disk spin down, and so forth. That way, if System 7.5.5 installa- 
tion removes your preferred settings, you will be able to redo 
them easily. Also, make sure that any third-party utilities don’t 
conflict with the new built-ins of System 7.5.5. 

System Requirements and 

According to Apple, System 7.5.5 requires a Macintosh Plus or later with a 
minimum of 4 MB of RAM; for PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX, a minimum of 
8 MB of RAM and a 68020 processor is required. When installed on Power 
Macintosh systems. System 7.5.5 requires a minimum of 8 MB of RAM; for 
PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX, a minimum of 16 MB is recommended. 

Multiply all those Apple minimums by a factor of two and you will have a 
dandy System 7.5.5 platform. Frankly, 1 wouldn’t install System 7.5.5 on 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

anything older or slower than a Mac II (and that’s really pushing it). You 
simply won’t be happy with it because you will have to give up many System 
7.5.5 features just to make it small enough to launch in the available memory 

Software and Hardware 

Although the most up-to-date information about software and hardware 
compatibility can only be found in the README files (that Apple updates 
periodically and ships with System 7.5.5), I need to give you a couple of tips 
up front. 

Eirst of all, virtually all of your software that ran under System 7.0, 7.1, and 
7 Pro is going to run under System 7.5.5. You might have to fiddle with your 
systems a bit, but you can probably make your old software work perfectly. 

Second, virtually all of your Apple and third-party hardware and peripherals 
work OK under System 7.5.5— although you may have to contact the vendors 
to obtain new device driver software, especially imaging devices that will use 
QuickDraw GX. 

Installing System 7.5.5 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip A lot of your friends and 
colleagues may tell you that you don’t need to buy 
^ '' System 7.5.5 to upgrade. You can simply borrow their 
copy. Don’t believe them. If you do, you will be engaging in 
software piracy, which is wrong for so many reasons, I could 
write another book on that issue alone. 

Installing System 7.5.5 is really pretty easy, but you shouldn’t rush into it. 
You should buy the necessary upgrade kit from Apple and read all the 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


manuals before you start. Then make sure that you backup the installation 
disks {make sure that if you use the floppy version, you lock the disks 
to prevent you from overwriting them) before proceeding. If you buy the 
CD-ROM version, though, don’t sweat this part. 

The Installer 

The installer that Apple includes on the System 7.5.5 upgrade disks (and CD- 
ROM disc) works just like it did in earlier software upgrade versions. In fact, 
using the installer is practically a no-brainer, so you have to be careful that 
you don’t let it do something that you don’t want done. The installer has 
two basic operating modes— automatic and custom. 

Automatic Installation 

Automatic installation lets you click an OK button and have at it; all you do is 
sit back and pump in the floppy disks while the installer removes old System 
files and installs new ones. (Of course, if you are using the CD version, you 
don’t even have to do this much!) But be careful when selecting automatic 
installation. If you don’t want all of the System 7.5.5 files installed, or if you 
don’t want to overwrite your existing System 7.5.5 files on your startup disk, 
then don’t run the installer in automatic mode. Instead, switch to custom 
mode and only install what you want to. 

Custom Installation 

The Custom mode lets you select precisely which files (System, printing, 
fonts, utilities, and so on) that you want to install, and where you want to 
install them (on which disk). This lets you install System 7.5.5 on a disk 
other than your current startup disk, in case you want to keep a working 
version of System 7.0, 7.1, or 7 Pro. The custom mode also lets you install 
only the support files, rather than the full set of System files. Whatever the 
reason, though, if you expect to have any control over the System 7.5.5 
installation process, you need to switch into the custom mode. 

Mac Masters 

If you bought the 
CD version of 
SYstem 7.5.5 and 
intend to install it 
from a non-Apple 
CD-ROM drive, be 
prepared for some 
potential problems; 
The Apple Installer 
will warn you about 
using the CD 
Installer with a non- 
Apple CD-ROM 
drive. In most 
cases, the 
installation will 
work fine, but you 
may encounter 
glitches that require 
you to make floppy 
disk copies from 
the CD and do the 
installation from 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Masters 
If you decide to 
do a customized 
installation of 
System 7.5.5 
you should note 
that the Custom 
button offers 
many options not 
readily apparent 
because they 
are hidden in 
menus. Doing 
a custom 
installation can 
be especially 
convenient if you 
want to install just 
the minimal 
software needed 
for your machine, 
thus avoiding 
doind something 
wasteful such as 
installing a bunch 
of PowerBook 
extensions on 
you desktop Mac. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip To install System 7.5.5 
and automatically update your existing System folder, 

^ ^ copy its contents into a new folder (called Previous 
System Folder), and then install a new clean System 7.5.5 folder 
by holding down the K-shift-K keys while you click the Install 
button. Once installed, you may copy the third-party control 
panels and extensions from your old system folder to the new 
one. By doing it this way, you risk fewer installation problems. 


System 7.5.5 is the latest version of the Mac OS for all Macs and it updates 
and replaces System 7, 7.01, 7.1, 7.5, 7.5.1, 7.5.2, 7.5.3, and 7.5.4. It comes 
on CD-ROM, costs 199 list and $79 street, and is the version every Mac 
owner should be using. If you own System 7.5, you can upgrade first to 
System 7.5.3, using the updte software available free on Apple's Web site ( and then to System 7.5.5 using the same mechanism. 
To make it even simpler, though, shell out the #79 for the hill System 7.5.5 
CD-ROM. It will make Open Doc and Cyberdog installation easier, too. 

The installation disks contain (the following dull list of stuff is a necessary 
evil, since throughness is a virtue): System Software 7.5.5 and Utilities, 
AppleCD Audio Player software, version 2.0; AppleScript software version 
1.1, including sample scripts; Macintosh CD Setup software version 5.0.1; 
Macintosh Easy Open software version 1.1; Macintosh PC Exchange software 
version 2.0.1; MacTCP software version 2.0.4; PowerBook utilities; 
PowerTalk software version 1.1, including DigiSign and AppleMail; 
QuickTime software version 2.0 (boo-hoo, you don’t get the cool QuickTime 
VR); and the QuickDraw GX software version 1.0. 

You also get a thin manual called the Upgrade Guide, which is another 
reason why you need this book to help you really use System 7.5.5. 

These upgrades also come with phone support. Apple, having caught user- 
support fever a few years ago, gives you unlimited basic free telephone help 
when you buy System 7.5.5. All you have to is call Apple’s toll free hotline. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


the System 7 Upgrade Answerline at 1-800-SOS-APPL, and pray (picking 
multiple deities helps). 

Every time that you dial up the Apple help line, you will eventually get to a 
live support specialist, but you will likely have to play touchtone trivia to get 

If you need more help from Apple— like information about service, support, 
and training programs— look for the support phone number on the little 
card that came with your upgrade kit (that has probably already fallen onto 
the floor). You should send this in right away as it entitles you to receive 
information from Apple on future updates, buys and so on. Here are the 
numbers that you can call to find out more about System 7.5.5 and Apple’s 

• For training help call 1-800-732-3131, extension 400 

• For service provider help call 1-800-732-3131, extension 400 (yeah, I 
know, it’s the same number, but trust me, it works) 

• For other service and support problems call 1-800-776-2333 

Apple System 7.5.5 Information 
Assistance Numbers 

For general information: 

Customer Assistance Center 1-800-776-2333 

To locate an Apple Reseller 1-800-538-9696 

Education and Government customers can contact their Apple Inside Sales 

K-12 Inside Sales 1-800-800-2775 

Higher Education Inside Sales 1-800-793-3389 

State and Local Government Inside Sales 1-800-998-2775 

Federal Government Inside Sales 1-800-676-2775 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Program information can be found on AppleLink at Apple Sales & Mktg, 
Apple Programs, and Apple Software Volume Licensing Program. 

Questions about the program can be sent via AppleLink to VOL.LICENSE. Or 
if you are really retrograde (!), you can write to Apple at: Apple Computer, 
Inc., 1 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, CA 95014, or phone them at (408) 996- 
1010, or telex at TLX 17.576 (you’ve got that home telex option on your 
Performa, right?!). 

Apple Software Maintenance Program 

To keep your 7.5.5 multiple copies up-to-date, you might consider purchas- 
ing a 2-year software maintenance program. Again, your price will be what 
you can negotiate with Apple: 

• Subscription term is for 2 years, payable in 1-year (annual) install- 
ments. Annual fee for licensee begins with quantities of 50 and above 
covered systems. 

• Prices depend upon product and quantity purchased— flat fee per 
discount tier level (same as previous tier levels). 

• Subscription covers software upgrades, updates, like-platform replace- 
ment products, and system enhancements. Eor details, please refer to 
the Apple Software Maintenance Program documentation you can 
obtain from Apple. 

• Available for all products covered under the Apple Software Volume 
Licensing Program, as well as System 7.5.5, except for the Apple Pont 

• New System 7.5.5 and MAE maintenance subscribers at tier levels 
above 500 receive a 1-year free subscription to the Apple Support 
Professional Program, a robust array of tools and services designed to 
meet the special needs of support professionals, as an introductory 

Getting System 7.5.5 Outside the U.S.A. 

Availability of Macintosh System 7.5.5 outside the United States varies by 
country. Localized versions began shipping during September 1994. Eor 
information about the availability and price of Macintosh System 7.5.5 in a 
specific country, contact the Apple office in that country. 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


Common Myths about 
System 7.5.5 

Being the public-spirited individual that 1 am, 1 now present some of the 
most common myths, the party line, and the truth according to Crabb about 
System 7.5.5. Remember, your mileage may vary. 

The Party Line and Don’s Comments 

Myth #1. You have to upgrade all your machines to System 7.5.5 at once. 

The Party Line: System 7.0, 7.1, 7.1 Pro, and 7.5.5 systems can share 
networks, applications, documents, and printers transparently. You can 
upgrade some machines to System 7.5.5 and leave others at previous 
versions of System 7. 

Don’s Comments: Anytime 1 hear the word “transparently” (when it comes 
to computers), 1 run for the hills. As a result, 1 would upgrade all my 
Macintosh computers to 7.5.5 just as soon as 1 could afford it. This system 
has too many bug fixes and enhancements not to be installed right away. 
Why create problems for yourself? Still, if you choose to keep older System 
7.x around with 7.5.5, my tests show you will have very few problems. 

Myth #2. They say System 7.5.5 runs in 4 MB but you really need 8 MB. 

The Party Line: There’s more application space available in a 4 MB System 
7.5.5 machine (without PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX installed) than there 
is in a 2 MB System 7.0 machine. So a 4 MB configuration will be great for 
running one application at a time, just like a 2 MB 7.0 Macintosh. Of course, 
to run larger applications or multiple applications, you’ll want more 

Don’s Comments: You need at least 8 MB to run 7.5.5 on a 68K Macintosh, 
and 16 MB on a Power Macintosh. 1 wouldn’t be happy without at least 
double those minimums if 1 were also running the QuickDraw GX and 
PowerTalk. System 7.5.5 has too many improvements to hamstring it with 
insufficient memory. RAM is a cheap way to make your Macintosh experience 
a very pleasant one. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Myth #3. MacTCP won’t work with System 7.5.5. 

The Party Line: System 7.5.5 includes MacTCP 2.0.4, which is the latest 
version. This fixes everything. 

Don’s Comments: Bingo, you must be in the front row! Now, let’s see you 
keep it up! 

Myth #4. System 7.5.5 includes a new version of HyperCard. 

The Party Line: System 7.5.5 includes no version of HyperCard at all. It 
includes the new Apple Guide technology and Apple Guides for hypertexual 
online help, which supplant the need for the HyperCard Player. 

Don’s Comments: HyperCard is a dying duck, so it’s not included in 7.5.5. 
That’s a shame, but so are lots of things in life. 

Myth #5. Buyers of new Macintosh computers don’t have to pay for System 
7.5.5, why should 1, an old Macintosh user, have to pay? 

The Party Line: Apple ships System 7.5.5 with every CPU once it is available. 
It doesn’t cost Apple anything more to include its latest System, which is why 
the System is bundled with it. Apple charges existing customers to help 
recover development costs and because Apple has to make money from its 

Don’s Comments: Apple has always been a software company and just 
recently started acting that way. It simply can’t give away its software any 
longer, so the days of free System software are now officially over. Get used 
to it. PC users have for years. Repeat after me: System Software Costs 
Money to Create so it Must Cost Money to Buy!!! 

Chapter 1 Summary 

Thus ends chapter 1. I’ve tried to give you some introductory information 
about System 7.5.5, point out the important new features, and let you in on 
some common myths. In the next chapter. I’ll get into the Finder 7.5.5 
improvements in more detail, including how to use its new features and 
functions. But before 1 close this chapter officially, here’s a short quiz to help 
you focus on the important stuff in this chapter. (And it will also test 
whether you’ve looked ahead in this book!) 

Chapter 1 : A First Look at System 7.5.5 


Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip 

Why upgrade to System 7.5.5? 

System 7.5.5 provides a more robust environment that 7.0, 7.1 , 
or 7.1 Pro. It handles memory more intelligently and it's also 
faster 9except when you pile on PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX). 
And it includes every estra System doodad for which Apple used 
to charge extra. For me, though, the bottom line is that it crashes 
less often than previous versions and it comes with enough built- 
in Apple extras (AppleS cript, Apple Guide, WindowShade, 
MacTCP, Hierarchical Apple Menus, and 3rd party extensions 
(which always increase the likelihood of crashing). 

I like the File Assistant because it enables me to keep my 
PowerBook and desktop Mac’s files synchronized. I also like the 
Control Strip and the built-in PC Exchange and DataVix MacLink 
translators, since I have a lot of old Mac and PC files in odd 
formats that I want to use. Considering you used to have to pay 
$149 just to get PC Exchange, the price for System 7.5.5 starts 
to look pretty good. 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 1 

1 . Why did Apple call it System 7.5.5? 

2. What kind of hardware do you need to run System 7.5.5? 

3. What would you use drag and drop for? 

4 . What sort of glue do Stickles use? 

5. Why does Apple use “Power” in so many of its products? 

6. How much did you pay for System 7.5.5? 

7 . Does System 7.5.5 support application preemption? 

8. What’s the best improvement with System 7.5.5? 

9. What’s the most dubious improvement with System 7.5.5? 

1 0. How many of you thought this would be a serious quiz? 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 1 

1 . Because Windows95 was already taken. Seriously, the number was 
chosen as a half-way marker to System 8.0. It’s probably not half-way in 
terms of OS architecture, but it is a serious stepping stone towards 
System 8.0. 

2. A Macintosh would be a good start. This information was in the middle 
of this chapter. You skipped to the end, didn’t you? 

3. Bad habits, perhaps? 

4. Don’t be an idiot. 

5. They are overcompensating for something. Probably Redmond-envy. 

6. 1 got it for free! 1 love being an author... 

7. No, but you can bet some future System will. Apple’s too smart not to 
include it. 

8. Apple thinks it’s QuickDraw GX. 1 am betting on the Apple Guide, 
myself. Or maybe the Scriptable Finder. Both are way cool. 

9. The Launcher— 1 will talk about it in the next chapter, but, frankly, 1 
think it’s of very limited use, although it looks cool and some people 
really like it. But, then, some people really like Hver and onions. Tripe 
ala Normande, and the Beastie Boys. There is no accounting for taste. 

1 0. Ha, way too many! 


Using Finder 7.5.5 

his chapter will show you how to use the new Finder 

7.5.5 for your everyday tasks as well 
as how to manage its capabilities for 
your staff. (Of course, that assumes 
you have a staff. If you don’t have a 
staff to manage, consider yourself the 
luckiest person on the planet!) 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Although you can use System 7.5.5 (and manage others who use it) without 
knowing much about how the operating environment works, a better 
strategy is to get grounded in the basics of Macintosh System 7.5.5. That’s 
what this chapter is designed to do— give you enough of the bits and bytes of 
System 7.5.5 so that you’ll have an idea of what to expect when you are 
using it in the real world (wherever that is). 

Finder Menus 

Just as with previous versions of the System, the Finder is where all the 
action takes place. Ergo, a good place to start with System 7.5.5 is with 
the new Finder (Finder 7.5.5), and each of the menus and commands 
in the Finder’s menu bar. 

Please take a close look at the annotated screenshot in figure 2.1. This figure 
shows each of the menus available from the Finder. 

In this figure, you’ll see the Apple, File, Edit, View, Label, and Special menus 
at the top of the screen. 

How is this different from the old System 7.x Finder menus? It isn’t. There’s 
nothing new. Nada. Zilch. Remember, friends, System 7.5.5 is a reference 
release, not a groundbreaker. However, further along the menu bar, you see 
that a clock has been added (Steve Christensen’s SuperClock, which is 
controlled by the Date and Time control panel), the balloon help icon looks 
3D (and it has new features), and the old Application menu icon still 
anchors the right side of the menu bar. 

The Apple Menu 

Let’s look at the menus and refresh ourselves on exactly how the Finder 
commands work. The Apple menu is a good place to start. The only differ- 
ence between the Apple menu and other Finder menus is that the Apple 
menu is fully customizable, while the others are not. You can modify the 
Apple menu to suit your own working style and preferences. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


New and improved Apple menu 

Application menu 
New balloon help 
Battery icon (PowerBooks) 

The legendary SuperClock 

Printer icon | 
Key chain 
Universal desktop mailbox 

Figure 2. 1 The Finder desktop 

As it is under System 7.x, the Apple menu holds the contents of your Apple 
Menu Items folder (which lives in your System folder). You can put applica- 
tions (including any old-style Desk Accessories [DAs]), aliases, files, and 
folders in this folder. To open an item in the Apple menu, drag down the 
menu to highlight your choice and release the mouse button. 

Allow me to demonstrate: in figure 2.2, 1 moved my mouse pointer to the 
Apple menu, opened it by clicking the mouse button, then dragged down 
the menu to find Disk First Aid (the application I wanted to launch, which 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Masters 

System 7.5.5 
includes an updated 
version of Disk First 
Aid that does a solid 
job of diagnosing 
and fixing disk 
problems. Still, if 
you want the best 
disk diagnostic and 
repair utility, buy a 
copy of Norton 
Utilities 3.1 from 
Symantec. It 
includes the best 
parts of Norton 
Utilities 3.2 and 
Symantec Utilities 
for Macintosh, rolled 
into a new set of 
utilities, and it can 
find and fix disk 
problems that even 
Apple’s Disk First 
Aid cannot handle. 
Symantec also sells 
the excellent 
MacTools 4.0, 
another first rate 
disk saver/fixer. 

In any case, I 
recommend that 
you run Disk First 
Aid at least once 
per month (and 
more often if you 
have to do a hard 
reset on your 
Macintosh fairly 
often to free it from 
a System crash). 
Also, after you run 
Disk First Aid (or 
Norton Utilities) 
make sure that you 
rebuild the desktop. 

was in the new Recent Applications folder). (By the way, 1 would strongly 
recommend that you run Disk First Aid immediately after a serious crash. 
This way you catch and repair any directory structure corruption before it 




QuicKeys Utilities 


About Microsoft Lbord... 

AppleCD Audio Player 
r~l Automated Tasks 
Control Panels 
^ Find File 

Jigsam Puzzle 
Key Caps 

r~1 Mail and Catalogs 
Q Note Pad 

Aecent Applications ^ 

fpl Aecent Documents 
[g] Aecent Seruers 
1^ Speakable Items 
^ Stickles 
S • Shut Domn 

AppleCD Audio 
^ Disinfectant 


FileMaker Pro 
Microsoft IDord 
Stuffit Lite"^ 

0 Player I 


Figure 2.2 Using the Apple menu 

Note that the Apple Menu now supports hierarchical or cascading of 
submenus (call them what you want, they make it easier to find and open 
files and folders). Hierarchical menu items have a little triangle (it looks like 
► ) that indicates there are ftirther selections available “under” that item. To 
see these choices, drag down the menu and highlight a hierarchical menu 
item. You can then move out into the “new” menu to make a selection. Take 
another look at figure 2.2 and you’ll see what 1 mean. This option is very 
handy if you have a lot of applications, since you can keep application aliases 
in your Apple menu, and launch the applications using the new submenus. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


You’ll also note some new folders have been added to the Apple menu 
under System 7.5.5: Mail and Catalogs, Recent Applications, Recent Docu- 
ments, Recent Servers, Speakable Items (AV Macs only), and Automated 
Items (sometimes installed as Useful Scripts if you already have AppleScript 
1.1 installed). You’ll also find the ‘Shut Down command, the usual desk 
accessories, the Control Panels folder. Stickles (electronic Post-It notes), the 
new Jigsaw Puzzle (who says Apple can’t provide corporate America what it 
needs!), plus the PowerTalk Key Chain control (which lives in the Mail and 
Catalogs folder and its aUas can also appear on the desktop). 

Apple Menu Options 

The new folders in the Apple menu are fairly easy to understand. The most 
immediately useliil items are Recent Applications, Recent Documents, and 
Recent Servers. Each folder automagically holds the most recently used 
apphcations, documents, and servers (it keeps track of them even after you 
restart or shutdown, which is very nice). You can set the number of apphca- 
tions, documents, and servers that each folder holds in the Apple Menu 
Options control panel (see figure 2.3); you can also use this to turn off the 
hierarchical menus (but why would you ever want to do that?). 

Figure 2,5 The Apple Menu Options control panel 

Mac Masters 

You do not, 
however, have to 
rebuild your 
desktop everytime 
you get a blip on 
your Mac, which 
used to be the 
wisdom. See 
chapter 9 for more 
details on these 
sorts of trouble- 
shooting issues. 

Mac Basics 

To rebuild your 
desktop, press the 
Shift- ^ -Power keys 
to restart your Mac 
(the Power key is in 
the upper right 
corner of your 
keyboard, it has a 
little triangle on it). 
While your Mac is 
restarting, hold the 
^ and Option keys 
down. After a bit, a 
dialog box will ask 
you if you want to 
rebuild the desktop 
file for the currently 
open disk. Click OK 
to have the desktop 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The File Menu 

The File menu is the heart of the Finder, just as it is under earlier versions. 
The File menu enables you to: 

• Create new folders. 

• Open selected desktop objects. 

• Print selected desktop objects. 

• Close windows. 

• Get information about a selected object. 

• Turn on file sharing for a selected item. 

• Make a copy of a desktop object. 

• Create aliases of desktop objects. 

• Put open objects away and close objects. 

• Find objects. 

• Find them again with the same parameters (which is useful for re- 
peated searches). 

• Setup a page for printing. 

• Print the currently selected window. 

All of this is shown in figure 2.4. 


Neill Folder 






Close LOIndoui 

Get Info 




Make Rllas 

Put fluiay 



Find flgaln 

Page Setup... 
Print LOIndoui... 

Figure 2. 4 The File menu 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


Get Info 

Let’s take a closer look at one of the most useful File menu commands: Get 
Info. To use this command, highlight something (a file, folder, or applica- 
tion) and choose Get Info from the Finder menu. 

Figure 2.5 shows you the Get Info command being selected from the File 
menu, while figure 2.6 shows the Info dialog box for a document. 


New Folder 




Close LOindow 





Make Rlias 


Put Rway 




Find Rgain 


Page Setup... 

Print LOindow.. 

Figure 2.5 Get Info command selected 

A look at this dialog box reveals no changes from System 7.x. For example, 
the Stationery pad option remains. 

Get Info also enables you to change a document’s icon. You can select the 
icon within the Info box and then paste in a new icon (which you have 
created elsewhere or via a handy icon editor such as Icon 7). 

Note also the Locked checkbox in the bottom left-hand comer. If you check 
this box, you prevent changes from being made to the document, so don’t 
check this box if you plan to edit the file. When you close the Info box, the 
changes you made to the Locked and Stationery pad checkboxes take effect 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

Checking the 
Stationery pad box 
turns the current 
item (selected for 
Get Info) into a 
“template.” A 
document gives 
you a ready-to-use 
template. This is 
useful for letters 
and other docu- 
ments that have a 
similar format every 
time you create 

iDi System 7.5 --Read Me Info 

System 7.5 --Read Me 
=^=l System Software 7.5 

Kind: SimpleText read-only document 
Size : 24K on disk (21 ,9S9 bytes used) 

Vhere : Macintosh HD : 

Created : Tue, Aug 2,1 994, 1 2 :00 PM 
Modified : Tue, Aug 2, 1 994, 1 2 :00 PM 
Version: 7.5, © Apple Computer, Inc. 1994 

Comments : 

I I Locked 

I I Stationery pad 

Figure 2. 6 Info dialog box for a document 

As you see in figure 2.7, completing a Get Info command on an application 
gives you a different dialog box than the one given for a document. This Info 
dialog box lacks the Stationery pad checkbox, since the concept of 
boilerplate appUcations doesn’t make much sense. The Locked checkbox is 
there, however, so you can prevent an application from being altered. 

MDM Adobe Premiere^"^ 3.0 Info 

; Adobe Premiere"^ 3.0 

The Digital Movie Making Tool 

Kind : application program 
Size : 1 .4 MB on disk (1 ,5S7,0S9 bytes 

Vhere: Macintosh HD: Applications: Adobe 
Premiere"^ 3.0 : 

Created : Mon, Jul 1 9, 1 993, 2 :02 PM 
Modified : Thu, Dec 30, 1 993, 8 :1 3 PM 
Version: 3.0 - written by Randy Ubillos, 

©1991-1993 Adobe Systems Inc. 

Comments : 

I I Locked 

^-Memory Requirements 

: Suggested size : 8000 K 

Minimum size: [SOOP ] K 

I Preferred size : |SQQ0 | K 

Figure 2 . 7 Info box for an application 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip The most important 
difference between an Info box for an application and 
^ ^ one for a document is the Memory Requirements box 
(see figure 2.7). This area tells you the software publisher’s 
recommendation for the minimum amount of memory that the 
program needs to function properly {Suggested size), the cur- 
rently set minimum amount the program should have before it 
will open {Minimum size), and the maximum amount of RAM the 
program will be able to use {Preferred size). 

Since almost every application needs more memory than the 
vendor thinks it needs, you are almost always better off setting 
the Preferred size to at least 25 percent larger than the Sug- 
gested s/ze figure indicates. As soon as you close this Info box, 
your new memory configuration will be active for that program. 
However, you will find that you cannot change memory sizes of 
System files and desk accessories (even though they may be 
classified as applications). This is to keep you from setting the 
memory value so low that it would prevent your Macintosh from 
starting up (see figure 2.8). 


Sys’tem Software 7.5 
Kind : suitcase 

Size: 1 .8 ME on disk (1 ,883,555 bytes 

Vhere : Macintosh HD : System Folder : 

Created : Tue, Aug 2, 1 894, 1 2 :00 AM 
Modified : Mon, Sep 1 2, 1 994, 1 0 :1 2 PM 
Version: 7.5, ©Apple Computer, Inc. 

Comments : 

I I Locked 

Figure 2.8 Info box for a System file 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

When you need to 
find an original file 
for which you have 
an alias, click the 
Find Original button 
in the alias’ Info 
box, and the Finder 
will blast you to the 
desktop with the 
original file selected. 

You can, of course, use the Get Info command on any icon that appears on 
the desktop, whether it’s a document, application, alias, System file, disk 
volume, fileserver volume, or folder. The kinds of Info boxes those com- 
mands will invoke look very much like the ones you have seen, except that 
you probably will have less information and you may not be able to make 
many changes. 

The Edit Menu 

In the Edit menu, you will find the same Undo, Cut, Copy, Paste, Clear, 
Select All, and Show Clipboard commands that you used under System 7.x. 
Each of these Finder Edit commands can work on files, folders, disk volume 
names, or other icons. In short, the Edit menu does the basic dirty work on 
Finder-level data— cutting, copying, and pasting information within the 
desktop and within applications. 

The View Menu 

The View menu is the same as it is in System 7.x. The View menu enables 
you to view the contents of any Finder window according to seven different 
display parameters (display by Small Icon, Icon, Name, Size, Kind, Label, or 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip I have already used the 
Views control panel to cut this list of parameters down 
^ to a manageable size (you can have as many as nine 
parameters); otherwise when you display view by Name, by 
Kind, and so forth, you’ll get too much useless information. (Let’s 
get serious here folks, who really cares about viewing by version 
or by commenti Talk about a non-productivity aid.) 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


I used to think it was pretty swift to be able to sort your Finder 
window views by all these criteria. In real life, though, I’ve found 
the only important ones are View by Label, View by Name, and 
View by Date. I’d eighty-six the rest by turning them off in the 
Views control panel; this will also have the salubrious effect of 
speeding-up your windows displays. 

Using Views to Organize Fiies 

The Views menu enables you to select the “sort order” and display type for 
each file in a given window. Figure 2.9 shows View by Name being selected; 
to see the effect of the View by Name command, take a look at figure 2.10, 
which shows an open Finder window. Notice that the files in that window 
are listed in alphabetical order by name. If you change to View by Label as in 
figure 2.11, you can see the files rearranged according to the sort order of 
their labels (see figure 2.12). At any time, of course, you can return to the 
old standby, the View by Icon (see figure 2.13). 

by Small Icon 
✓ by Icon 

by Name 

by Size 
by Kind 
by Label 
by Date 

Figure 2.9 View menu, with by Name being selected 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 




Sustem Folder 





Last Modified 

> □ 

Apple Menu Items 




Fri,Sep5, 159^,7:26 PM 

> □ 

Apple Menu Items (D Isa... 




Sat, Sep 10, 199^,8:13 AM 

> □ 

AppleLink Out Basket 




Fri,Nov12, 1993,8:17 AM 

> □ 





Tue, Jul 26, 199^,8:39 PM 






Tue, Sep 13, 199^,8:23 PM 

> □ 

Control Panels 




Mon, Sep 12, 199^,9:58 PM 

> □ 

Control Panels (Disabled) 




Mon, Sep 12, 199^,9:58 PM 

> □ 

Control Strip Modules 




Fri,Sep9, 199^,9:0^ AM 

> □ 





Sun, Oct 17, 1993,7:37 AM 

> □ 

DeskWriter Fonts 




Sun, Oct 17, 1993,7:37 AM 

> □ 

Disabled Stuff 




Sun, Jul 31, 199^,8:28 AM 

> □ 





Mon, Sep 12, 199^,9:07 PM 

> □ 

E>4ensions (Disabled) 




Sat, Sep 10, 199^,8:17 AM 






Tue, Aug 2, 199^, 12:00 PM 

> CD 





Fri,Sep9, 199^,9:59 AM 




SimpleTe>4 te>4 do.. 

. - 

Wed, Jul 13, 199^, 12:00 AM 

v' CD 

Launcher Items 




Fri,Sep9, 199^,9:11 AM 




Wed, Jul 13, 199^, 12:00 AM 




Wed, Jul 13, 199^, 12:00 AM 



MacInTaJk Voices 




Fri, Jul 30, 1993, 12:27 PM 




control panel 


Sat, Sep 10, 199^,8:08 AM 

> CD 





Sun, Oct 17, 1993,7:37 AM 

> CD 

MouseStick Sets 




Thu, Sep 8, 199^,^:^8 PM 

> CD 

PowerTaJk Data 




Fri, Sep 9, 199^,7:23 PM 

> CD 





Sun, Sep 11, 199^,3:56 PM 

■^1 K'l 


Figure 2.10 Viewing a window by Name 

by Small Icon 
by Icon 
v^by Name 
by Size 
by Kind 

by Label 

I by 



Figure 2.11 View menu, with by Label being selected 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 




Folder i 



Size Kind 


Last Modified 

^ □ Apple Menu Items 

— folder 


Fri, Sep PM 

^ €2 Apple Menu Items (D Isa... 

— folder 


Sat, Sep 10, 100^,8:13 AM 

^ Q] Control Panels 

— folder 


Mon, Sep 12, 10H^:58 PM 

□ Clipboard 

68K file 

In Progress Tue, Sep 13, 1^5^, S:25 PM 

^ mi AppleLink Out Basket 

— folder 


Fri, Nov 12, 1003,8:17 AM 

^ mi Claris 

— folder 


Tue, Jul 26, 100^,8:30 PM 

^ m Control Panels (Disabled) 

— folder 


Mon, Sep 12, 100^,0:58 PM 

^ mi Control Strip Modules 

— folder 


Fri, SepO, 100^,0:0^ AM 


- -- - --- - 

Figure 2.12 Viewing a window by Label 

System Folder 

31 items 

217 rvE in disk 

H.5 NE aYailable 

S] D ^ [aai Q 

Apple Menu Items Claris Control Panels E>iensions Fonts Disabled Stuff 

Q Q 

Finder Desk Writer Fonts MouseStick Sets DataViz Launcher Items 

Preferences Startup Items Mcroso AppleLink Out Basket Scrapbook File 






InTaJk V 

Q [®] 

Mac InTaJk Voices Control Panels (Disabled) Control Strip Modules 

,pple Menu Items (Disabled) Extensions (Disabled) Shutdown Items PrintMonitor Documents 

Figure 2. IS Viewing a window by Icon 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Mac Masters 

If you want to really 
maximize the 
Views control 
panel, consider 
adding Inline 
Software’s clever 
control panel. 
PopUpFolder puts 
hierarchical control 
over any Finder 
folder, which plays 
beautifully off of the 
Finder’s sorting 
PopUpFolder also 
extends the Apple 
menu by making it 
available from any 

PopUpFolder is an 
inexpensive way 
(less than $50 at 
street prices) to 
extend 7.5.5’s 
already solid 
viewing and 
accessing file 
management tools. 
Figure 2.14 shows 
how PopUpFolder 

p~| Anarchic 1.2.0 
P~| Essential Booknarfcs 

S Eudora 1 .4.3 

f-| MacWAIS 1 

' — ' 1 macppp.M f 

f-| MacWeb D.OS^ 

TuttoGopher 1 .0 

b=.=r| Modem Strings 
b=.=l release notes 

Figure 2.14 PopUpFolder in action 

Using the Views Control Panel 

The Views control panel controls the way that your Finder displays files. 
Figure 2.15 shows the Views control panel (which is stored within your 
System folder, and can be quickly reached through the Control Panels item 
in your Apple menu). 

Font for views : 

Heluetica ^ | |9 |[^ 

, ... Icon Views 

□ □ D □ 

D D □ □ 

® Straight grid 
O Staggered grid 

^ Always snap to grid 

... 1 i^+ 

o o 

^ Show size 
^ Show kind 
^ Show label 

^ Show dete 

I I Calculate folder sizes Q Show version 

I I Show disk info in header Q Show comments 

Figure 2. 15 The Views control panel 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


The Views control panel enables you to set the default type font and size 
(but not style) for each Finder window and its components (files and 
folders). It also enables you to set whether you want a straight grid or a 
staggered grid when you View by Icon. You can even make sure that your 
icons always snap to an invisible grid within the window— which really helps 
reduce window clutter. 

Under the List Views area, you can choose the size of the small icon dis- 
played next to each file and folder name (you ought to pick the smallest one 
to save valuable screen real estate), as well as the default information 
calculated and displayed with each file and folder. 

Here’s one more bit of info about Finder outline views (see figure 2.16 for a 
quick look at a list view showing outlines). 



= System Folder = 

Size Kind Label 

Last Modified 


0 Q Claris 


fclder — 

Sat, Sep 17, 199^,3:12 AN 


Q Clipboard 


file — 

Fri, Sep 23, 199^,3:33 AM 

[> Q Control Panels 


folder — 

Fri, Sep 23, 199^,6:35 AM 


[> Q Control Panels (Disabled) 


folder — 

Mon, Sep 19, 199^,3:36 PI 

(23 Control Strip Modules 


folder — 

Sat, Sep 17, 199^,2:^0 PN 

V' DataViz 


folder — 

Sat, Sep 17, 199^,3:01 AN 

^ 123 Languages 


folder — 

Sat, Sep 17, 199^,3:01 AN 

Q European 


MacLinkPlusfTran... — 

Wed, Aug 13, 1993, 12 


□ Ftenoh-Canadian 


MacLinkPlusfTran... — 

Wed, Aug 13, 1993, 12 


Q Icelandic 


MacLinkPlusfTran... — 

Wed, Aug 13, 1993, 12 


Q Scandinavian 


MacLinkPlusfTran... — 

Wed, Aug 13, 1993, 12 


□ US-UK 


MacLinkPlusfTran... — 

Wed, Aug 13, 1993, 12 


D MacLinkPlus/TranslatorsI 


document — 

Sat, Sep 17, 199^,3:01 AN 

D MacLinkPlus^Translators2 


document — 

Wed,Mar2, 199^,^:25 PM 

D MacLinkPlus/Translatcrs3 


document — 

Wed,Mar2, 199^, 10:13 Af 

Q MacLinkPlus/Translatcrs^ 


document — 

Fri, Mar 199^, 10:03 AM 

123 DeskWriterFcnts 


fclder — 

Sat, Sep 17, 199^,3:12 AN 

[> 123 EsJtensions 


folder — 

Mon, Sep 19, 199^,3:36 PI 

[> Ej^tensions (Disabled) 


folder — 

Mon, Sep 19, 199^,3:36 PI 


f jlp 

Qpr 17 igpfj fi-ri= 

i lit, 


<>|iiNi;r: ■ ■ : ■ : 


Mac Basics 

One caveat, 
though. If you 
select the Calculate 
folder sizes 
checkbox, you will 
slow down your 
system, because 
your Macintosh will 
have to keep track 
of each folder’s 
size (on an 
basis). If you need 
that info, it’s faster 
just to use the Get 
Info command in 
the File menu to 
see the size of a 
folder. To do that, 
select the folder 
you want to 
“measure” by 
clicking it, selecting 
the Get Info 
command from the 
File menu, and 
reading the size 

Figure 2.16 Finder window showing an outline view 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Outline views are automatically invoked (you won’t find a View by Outline 
command, for example, in the Views menu) when you select any list view of 
your files and folders (name, size, kind, label, date, version, or comments). 
Like an outliner in a word processor, outline views give you an indented, 
hierarchically organized view of your files. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip 

using outline views: 

Here are some tips for 

• Outline views are great for organizing the top two levels of 
each nest of folders. 

• When you use outline views for more than the top two 
levels, you’ll probably run out of display space in the win- 
dow to show all your files at once. 

• Open folders below the top two levels and then use the 
outline views within those folders to help organize them. 

The key to using outline views and nested folders is to try to 
avoid large folders that you must scroll through to find what 
you need. 

The Label Menu 

The Label menu is another carryover from System 7.x; it replaces the Color 
menu found in System 6.x. 

The Label menu offers a very basic (eight colors) color-coding scheme for 
your files, folders, disks, and other Finder items. To use the Label menu, you 
must have a least an 8-bit color Macintosh with the display set to 16 colors or 
shades of gray. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip FYI, if you do not have a 

color monitor, using labels with gray shades is a pain in 

^ ^ the eyes. For people who cannot distinguish gray scales 
easily, it may also prove to be an exercise in futility. Also, if you 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


don’t have a color monitor, what are you waiting for? Buy one 
now! Color is easier on your eyes and your brain. 

The Label menu comes with several default names associated with its colors 
or shades of gray. As you can see from figure 2. 17, these names are None (no 
label), Essential, Hot, In Progress, Cool, Personal, Project 1, and Project 2. If 
Apple’s default names don’t work well with your labeling scheme (and 
frankly, they DON’T for mine!), then you can edit them easily, by opening 
the Labels control panel (see figure 2.18). 




In Progress 

Project 1 
Project 2 

Figure 2.17 The Label menu 

Figure 2.18 The Labels control panel 

The Labels control panel enables you to change the names associated with 
the colors or gray shades in the boxes. All you need to do is: 

• Select the label name that you want to change. 

• Type a new name or edit the name being displayed. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

Or, you can simply 
apply colors to 
desktop icons to 
make your desktop 
more fun to look at. 

Never overlook a 
chance to have fun 
with your 

• Hit a Return or Enter key to set the new name. 

• Press the Tab key to set the name while advancing to the next name in 
the list. 

As soon as you change a Label name, it will be reflected in the Labels control 
panel, in the Labels menu, and throughout the Finder. 

Of course, you don’t have to monkey around with labels if you don’t want 
to. If you choose not to play with labels, each time you create a new icon on 
the desktop (whether its a document, application, or whatever) it will lack a 
label. And if you want to color code it with a label, simply select the icon and 
then select a color or shade of gray from the Labels menu. 

Besides the most obvious label characteristic (its color or shade of gray). 
Label shows up in any list view within a Finder window. Figure 2.19 shows 
how the Label field is displayed in a list view of files. 


Sustem Folder ^ 






Last Modified 

^ CD Apple Menu Items 




Fri,Sep^, PM ^ 

^ CD Apple Menu Items (DIsa... 




Sat, Sep 10, 8:13 AM " 

^ Control Panels 




Mon, Sep 12, 1 0H ^:58 PM ;||| 

□ Clipboard 



In Progress Tue, Sep 13, 8:25 PM |ij 

^ CD AppleLink Out Basket 




Fri, Nov 12, 1003,8:17 AM If 

^ Q Claris 




Tue,Jul 26, 100^,8:30 PM ||| 

^ Control Panels (Disabled) 




Mon, Sep 12, 100^,0:58 PM 

^ Q Control Strip Modules 




Fri, Sep 0, 100^,0 :0^ AM 


Figure 2. 19 A window sorted by the Label field 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Labels can be useful 
organizational aids, since they allow you to sort in 
^ '' Finder windows just as you can also sort on name, 
date, kind, and other list view categories. Unfortunately, only 
having eight discreet labels (including the None label) can make 
for some pretty rough organization. For example, if you want to 
sort documents that belong to the same project, you might want 
to use color or gray labels. I use them, for example, to help 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


organize the different kinds of files (text, screens, tables, and so 
on) that made up this book as I was writing it. When used in 
conjunction with the intelligent use of folders, labels can help 
keep your desktop organized. Just don’t expect those eight 
categories of labels to perform organizational miracles. 

The Special Menu 

How special is it? The Special menu remains firmly in control of its System 
7.x role as Apple’s multipurpose Finder menu. All the funky little commands 
that couldn’t be shoved into some other Finder menu are found in the 
Special menu. As in previous versions of the Finder, the Finder 7.5.5 Special 
menu includes Restart, Shut Down, Eject Disk, and Erase Disk commands 
that do what they always have done. 

The Special Menu houses two PowerTalk-related commands: I’m at and Lock 
Key Chain (or Unlock Key Chain if the sucker is already locked!). The I’m at 
command enables you to tell PowerTalk where you are currently working (at 
work, at home, on the road, or offline). Based on which of those you select, 
PowerTalk will attempt to connect you to the PowerTalk-related mail and 
messaging services in each of those domains— either over hardwired net- 
works (AppleTalk, EtherTalk, or TokenTalk) or over modem dialups (via the 
AppleTalk Remote Access software or the PowerTalk Remote Dialup soft- 

The Lock or Unlock Key Chain commands let you button-down PowerTalk 
access— so if you wander away from your Macintosh, some cretin won’t be 
able to access all the AppleShare compatible and mail servers PowerTalk 
enables you to access. 

But, 1 am getting way ahead of the game here. If you don’t have a clue what 
all that jazz is about, jump ahead to chapter 6, “Networking vs. Collaboration 
(Welcome to the Workgroup),” where I’ll dive into PowerTalk in all its glory, 
including using these Finder commands. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The other important command within the Special menu is Clean Up. It 
allows you to keep from having icons in a mess all over the screen. As under 
System 7.x, Clean Up only works on windows displaying icons or small 
icons, not on any of the list views, since they are organized by alphabetical 
or some other sort order. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Just as with System 
7.x, you can choose from among six different Clean Up 
^ commands, depending upon what you have selected to 
be cleaned up, and whether you pressed the Option key while 
selecting the Clean Up command. The Clean Up command 
choices include: 

• Clean Up Window, which attempts to organize everything in 
the Window so that icons don’t overlap and make names 

• Clean Up Selection, which does the same thing for a 
selection of icons in a window. 

• Clean Up by Label or Clean Up by Name, which organize 
icons according to the labels or names you have set for 
them. Label is chosen if you previously organized this 
window with the View by Label command. Name is chosen 
if you previously organized this window with the View by 
Name command. 

• Clean Up Desktop or Clean Up All, which attempts to 
organize your entire desktop. To use these commands, 
select a single icon on the desktop, or select the desktop’s 
background (so that no icon is highlighted). To select Clean 
Up Desktop, just pick it from the top of the Special menu. 

To select Clean Up All, hold down the Option key while 
selecting Clean Up All from the Special menu. 

Regardless of which Clean Up command you select, you will be 
organizing your window and desktop icons according to an 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


invisible desktop grid. This grid, just as in System 7.x, hides 
under all icon view windows and the Finder desktop. You can 
adjust it slightly using the Views control panel that I described 
earlier in this chapter. Using any Clean Up command forces the 
Finder to move icons around, snapping them to this invisible grid. 

You also empty the trash, erase floppy and hard disks, and shut down and 
restart your Macintosh from the Special menu. 

Using the Trash 

The Trash is a full-blown folder under System 7.5.5, as it is with System 7.x. 
Its contents remain intact until you choose the Empty Trash command from 
the Special menu. Even then, you’ll get a warning dialog from the System 
asking you to verify that you want to continue with this potentially heinous 
act (see figure 2.20). If you really want those files to go bye-bye, then click 
the OK button. If you’ve flubbed it, however, and didn’t know what you 
were doing, you should click the Cancel button. Open up the Trash (remem- 
ber, it’s a folder) and retrieve the stuff you didn’t want to toss. 

■hr H4 u^hkfc*pr 

MB ri dl*t ppm- i^iw rurrynu 
iijqnl In prrmqnrnlly rrmnur IhrH* 

[ LflnLW 

Figure 2.20 Emptying Trash Warning 

Because the Trash shows up in file dialogs as a real folder, you can even 
recover files that have been accidentally placed there from within an applica- 
tion. If you are like me, though, you already practice safe trash habits, so 
that all this extra fuss about the Macintosh computer’s file dustbin is little 
probably overkill. Never fear, though, because Apple gives us an out. If you 
don’t want to see that darned warning dialog every time you want to empty 
the trash, you can avoid it simply by holding down the Option key when you 
select Empty Trash from the Special menu. Then it’s good-bye, you rancid 
old files! 

Mac Basics 

Don’t forget to use 
the Shut Down 
command in the 
Special Menu or in 
the Apple menu to 
shut down your 
Mac properly. Don’t 
just hit the power 
switch, or you risk 
scrambling your 
hard disk. Not a 
pretty sight. 

Mac Masters 

Some Macintosh 
users even create 
their own custom 
Recycling folder to 
which they drag all 
the stuff they think 
can be trashed, and 
then carefully check 
it once a week. The 
stuff that’s really 
trash gets dragged 
to the Trash and 
emptied, while the 
good stuff either 
remains in the 
Recycling folder or 
is moved to some 
other folder for 
safekeeping. I’ve 
tried this Recycling 
folder strategy for a 
while now, and it 
has saved me from 
firing up Norton 
utilities in an 
attempt to recover 
files I accidentally 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

If you hold down 
the Option key 
when you delete 
trashed files the 
Finder will eighty- 
six locked files, 
which is a big help 
when throwing 
away old software 
that often comes 
replete with niggling 
little documentation 
files that are locked. 

Like other folders, the Trash can be examined with the Get Info command 
(see figure 2.21). Be sure to note the checkbox at the bottom left comer of 
the screen— Warn before emptying. This preference checkbox enables you to 
set a default for trash warning, rather than using the Option key method I 
described earUer. With this checkbox marked, the warning dialog box does 
not appear when you select the Empty Trash command. For that reason, I 
don’t recommend that most Macintosh users make this change. Unless you 
plan to be very dihgent about not trashing important documents, that is. 

Trash Info 



Vhere : On the desktop 
Contents : The Trash is empty . 

Modified : Tue, Sep 1 3, 1 S94, S :43 PM 

^ Vorn before emptying 

Figure 2.21 Trash Info 

Erasing Floppy Disks 

The Erase Disk command has been expanded with System 7.5.5, thanks to 
the inclusion of the PC Exchange control panel. This means that when you 
select a disk to be erased or initiahzed, you can specify not only the disk 
name, but also the kind of formatting you would like: Macintosh 1.4 MB or 
BOOK (depending upon the density of the disk— the Macintosh reads this 
from the notches on the disk), ProDOS (Apple II format) 1.4 MB or BOOK, or 
MS-DOS 1.4 MB or 720K. Figure 2.22 shows the options you get with a HD 

Once you have selected the proper formatting and given the disk a name, 
chck the OK button and the formatting magic begins. Ooohhh!!!, is that cool 
or what? 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


Completely erase disk named 
“Untitled” (Internal)? 



UUS1.4MB n 

ProD0S1.4MB | 

Figure 2.22 The Erase Disk dialog box and its formatting choices for a 
high density disk 

The same command can be used for erasing hard disks. However, RESIST 
THIS URGE! Never blithely use this command on hard disks. Take a pill first 
and consider what you are doing. It will blow away all those megabytes on 
your hard disk. Stop the madness! 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Seriously, don’t try to 
reformat a hard disk this way. Instead, if it’s an Apple 
drive, first backup all of its contents. Then, use the 
Apple HD Setup application to reformat and reinitialize the disk. 
Then copy all your stuff from the backups to the restored disk. 
You only want to reformat a disk when you install new system 
software (and it is recommended), when the disk is badly 
munged from abortive shutdowns, or when you have problems 
because of severe fragmenting. 

If you don’t have an Apple drive, use the formatting software that 
came with your drive. Or, use an outstanding third party format- 
ting program, like FWB’s Hard Disk Toolkit. This is absolutely 
first-rate formatting software that can do more to hard disks than 
I thought possible, including fixing those that seemed forever ill. 


Hi, my name is SuperClock. People call me SuperClock. This one is a true 
no-brainer. If you want a clock that can show you either the date or the time. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

turn it on using the Date and Time control panel (see figure 2.23). If you 
have a PowerBook, the menu bar clock (this is really Steve Christensen’s 
SuperClock built into the Date and Time control panel) also shows a battery 
gauge in the form of a filled battery icon. This gauge is highly approximate, 
however, so you’re better off trusting the battery gauge in the PowerBook 
Control Strip. 

Current date 

Current time 


9:01:22 PM 

[ Date Formats... ] 

[ Time Formats... ] 

^ Time Zone 

The fime zone hes not been 

□ Daylight Sauings Time 

2:34 Menubar Clock 

® On O Off 

[ Set Time Zone... ] 

[ Clock Options... ] 

Figure 2.25 The Date and Time control panel controls the menu bar 

The Balloon Help/Apple Guide Menu 

The Balloon Help menu has retained balloon help and Macintosh shortcuts 
from System 7.x. In addition, this menu has, in my opinion, the most 
enabling technology of System 7.5.5— Apple Guide. 

Apple Guide is so important that the Balloon Help menu is now called the 
Guide menu by Apple. Whip that Balloon Help name from your cerebrum. 
The items in this menu include: 

• About Apple Guide— an Apple Guide about Apple Guides! Pinch us 
all, we’re definitely dreaming! 

• Show Balloons— good old System 7 Balloon Help. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


• Tutorial— a training guide to basic Macintosh skills that you’ll need if 
you are new to Macintosh. 

• Macintosh Guide— a step-by-step set of instructions for a variety of 
tasks and other information about your Macintosh and System 7.5.5. 

• Shortcuts— a six-screen guide to command key shortcuts on the 
Macintosh that keep your hands on the keyboard and off the mouse. 

• PowerTalk Guide— everthing you need to know about PowerTalk (if 
you have not installed PowerTalk, you won't see this Guide). 

Apple Guide 

Click the Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu and see the various options. Go 
ahead and open About Apple Guide. You get a two-panel introduction to 
using Apple Guide, like you see in figures 2.24 and 2.25. 

About Apple Guide 

The Guide menu contains information about using 

your computer. The items in this menu include: 

• About Apple Guide— the item you are reading 

• Show Balloons— a description of an item when the 
pointer is on that item 

• Tutorial— training in basic Macintosh shills 

• Macintosh Guide— step-by-step instructions for a 
variety of tasks and other information about your 
computer and its system software 

• Shortcuts— keyboard commands and tips to help you 
work faster and more efficiently with your Macintosh 

You may see other items in the Guide menu as well. 

For a picture of the Guide window, click the right arrow. 


Figure 2.24 About Apple Guide (first panel) 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Figure 2.25 About Apple Guide (second panel) 

You’ll learn that Apple Guide windows (panels) always float on top of 
anything else on your desktop, so you can always find them. It also means 
that you may have to shift items so that a Guide window does not obscure 
your other windows. 

To compress the Guide window, click the box in the upper-right corner. To 
close the Guide window, click the upper-left corner box. Guide windows 
cannot be resized. 

Each Guide window typically contains: a Topics button that you can click to 
bring up a list of help topics, a Huh? button that you click to receive more 
information, and left and right arrows to advance forward and backward 
through the material. A number placed between the arrows (lower-right 
comer) shows you which panel of information you are currently reading. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


Besides providing you with context-sensitive online textual help, Apple 
Guide can also show you, on the desktop, exactly how to do something and 
then go ahead and do it. What a concept! 

To test this, open the Macintosh Guide from the Guide menu (see figure 

Rbout Rpple Guide 

Shoiu Balloons 

r zmummam 


PouierTalk Guide 

Figure 2.26 Opening Macintosh Guide 

You will get an intro screen. Click the Topics button (see figure 2.27). Then 
you’ll get a Hst of scrollable topic areas. 


/ Guide 

1 ■ 
I 1 

R =- 



Topics Index 

Look For 

1 . Click a topic area: 

Reviewing the Basics 


Working with Programs 




Using DOS Files &. Disks 

Printing &. Fonts 

Networks ^ Telecommunications 

Setting Options 






( 1 

Figure 2.27 Topics button and topics list in Macintosh Guide 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

From that list, select Using DOS Files & Disks. Highlight it and you will get a 
list of “How do 1” explanations and one “Definitions.” Select “How do 1 set 
up my Macintosh to use DOS files?” as shown in figure 2.28. 

|□!!!!!!! = !!!!!!!!lllllll!!!!!!!! = 


m- 1 xMadnrosh 

/ Guide 

H =- 
B =“ 






Look For | 

1. Click a topic area: : 

Z. Click a phrase, then click OK: 

Reviewing the Basics 


^ How do 1 


Working with Programs 


open a DOS file? 



create a file in DOS format? 


set up my Macintosh to use DOS files? 

Using DOS Files A Disks 

use a DOS disk? 

Printing & Fonts 

prepare a disk in DOS format? 

Networks ^ Telecommunications 

^ Definitions 

Setting Options 






[ OK 


Figure 2.28 Learning how to use DOS files on your Mac 

Double-click the “How do 1” command, or click the OK button in the 
bottom-right comer. The Guide will bring up a new panel with information 
about the topic you have chosen. You can choose to let it teach you about 
choosing a program or about assigning a program to open each type of DOS 
file. Choose the former and then click the right arrow as instructed. 

The Guide will tell you to use the Macintosh Easy Open control panel. Click 
the right arrow to continue. 

The next panel will tell you to open the Apple menu and choose the Control 
Panels folder, then click the right arrow. Ignore the instruction and simply 
click the right arrow. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


The Guide ignores your stupidity and goes ahead and opens the Control 
Panels folder for you anyway, telling you that “Apple Guide is assisting you 
by opening the Control Panels folder.” Even a doofus like me can figure this 
out, as you can see from figure 2.29! 

How do 1 set up my Macintosh to use DOS files? 

Please wait a moment. Apple Guide is assisting you by 

opening the Control Panels folder. 

Cafitinue | 

After the folder opens, click Continue. 


M 1 

Figure 2.29 Apple Guide’s active assistance 

The Guide then circles the Macintosh Easy Open control panel in the 
Control Panels folder with a broad red coachmark, telling you to select it 
then click the right arrow (the coachmark looks like a Magic Marker job). If 
you continue to miss the point, the Guide will continue to give you active 
assistance, opening the control panel for you and, step-by-step, taking you 
through the task at hand. 

The Apple Guide active assistance is so good that you will want to fiddle with 
it— even when you don’t have a real question or problem. 

Depending upon your model of Macintosh and what parts of System 7.5.5 
you installed, your Guide menu may include the Macintosh Guide, a 
PowerTalk Guide, and an AppleMail Guide. More Apple Guides are forth- 
coming from Apple and, you can use the Guide Maker application to create 
your own custom guides. See appendix A for more information on Apple 
Guide and the Guide Maker application. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Remember that the 
Apple Guides will only appear in the Guide menu when 
^ ^ you are at the Finder level. From within applications 
that don't have Guides, the Guide menu only allows you to turn 
on Balloon Help and to bring up the screens of Macintosh com- 
mand key shortcuts. To use these Guides, you must be at the 
Finder (desktop) level. As other applications support Apple 
Guides, you will be able to access them from within the applica- 
tion itself. As an example of this, AppleMail (installed if you are 
using PowerTalk) has its own Guide that can be accessed while 
you are in AppleMail. 

Balloon Help 

System 7’s Balloon Help continues with System 7.5.5. It’s in the same menu 
as the Apple Guides (see figure 2.30). 

Rbout Apple Guide 

Macintosh Guide 

PouierTalk Guide 

Figure 2.30 Balloon Help lives 

Balloon Help remains a clever little context-sensitive help system that offers 
the most utility to new Macintosh users. To use it, turn it on by selecting the 
Show Balloons command (see figure 2.30). Then you can point to anything 
on the desktop or within System 7-sawy applications and get a short descrip- 
tion of the item to which you are pointing (see figure 2.31). 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


File. Edit Uieiu Label 

Figure 2,3 1 Balloon Help describes the File menu 

Balloon help also explains the function of many of the Finder’s icons, 
menus, windows, and other visible objects. Balloon help is also incorporated 
into many third-party application programs as a standard way to provide 
online help. 

When you get sick of all these balloons (my tolerance for them is pretty low, 

I have to admit), go back to the Balloon Help menu and select Hide Bal- 
loons. Ahhh, now that is true customization! 


As I mentioned above, the Apple Guide/Balloon Help menu is also where 
you will find a list of Finder shortcuts. To access them, select Shortcuts from 
the Balloon Help menu. 

You’ll then see a single Apple Guide panel that gives you six alternatives (see 
figure 2.32). These alternatives are: 

• Working with icons 

• Working with windows 

• Working with list view 

• Using directory dialog boxes 

• Restarting the computer 

• Miscellaneous options 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Macintosh Shortcuts 

You can use keyboard commands to work quickly in the 
Finder. Click a category below. (Other keyboard 
commands are listed in the menus.) 

Working with 



0 P. 

Working with 


\ ijVtVtVifen 





Working with 
list view 


Using directory 
dialog bones 

Restarting the 



Figure 2.32 Macintosh Shortcuts 

From this window, pick any of the six options (by clicking on them) to 
receive instructions on how to use Finder shortcuts. Each domain contains 
multiple screens with explanations of the command keys. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip For my money, how- 

ever, shortcuts are one place where the Apple Guide 

^ ^ technology is a pain in the butt. If you want some quick 
reference panels (like the Finder Shortcuts command in the 
Balloon Help menu of System 7.x), you are out of luck. And if you 
are like me, you’ll quickly run out of patience. This is one place 
where Apple should have let the old technology stand. For 
example, just to find out the different command key modifications 
you can make when restarting your Macintosh now takes three 
Apple Guide shortcut screens, plus the intro screen to get you 
there. That’s annoying. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


The Application Menu 

The Application menu is the same as it is under System 7.x. It enables you 
switch among all the applications that you are currently running (the old 
MultiFinder technology of System 6.x remains built into System 7.5.5), and it 
enables you to hide or show different applications (minimizing the number 
of open windows). However, hiding doesn’t shut down or close applications 
that are open. Figure 2.33 shows a typical Application menu in action. The 
checkmark indicates that the Finder is the frontmost, active application. 

Hide Finder 
Hide Others 
Shoui RH 



^ Microsoft IHord 
|S| QuicKeys""" Toolbon 
^ TeachTent 

Figure 2.33 The legendary Application menu 

Managing Your Hard Disks 
and Their Fiies 

The Finder, of course, is the controlling application for System 7.5.5. It 
functions as a traffic cop for system services, as a visual display and control 
center, and as the primary interface to the Macintosh computer’s filing 
system. In short, its much more than a simple menu system for commands. 

Opening and Saving Documents 

The way that you open documents (files and applications) from the Finder 
desktop remains the same as it is under System 7.x. You can either: select 
the document by single-clicking it with the mouse, and then select the Open 

Mac Basics 

Finder 7.5.5, while 
improved over 
previous versions, 
still looks and 
works much the 
same as it always 
has, which makes 
learning the few 
new Finder menu 
commands a snap. 
Apple put most of 
the Finder 
improvements into 
the operating 
system features 
that live behind the 

The Macintosh 
computer’s file 
manager. Finder 
7.5.5, displays the 
pull-down menus 
and the file icons 
and windows. As 
the Macintosh 
computer’s traffic 
cop, the Finder 
makes sure that 
fender benders 
don’t occur in the 
machine’s physical 
and logical 
(including the 
opening, saving, 
moving, copying, 
duplicating, and 
editing of files, 
folders, disk 
volumes, and other 
Finder icons). 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

command from the File menu; bypass the second step by simply double- 
clicking on the selected document; or drag the document icon to an applica- 
tion and let the application open it. 

If the Finder cannot locate the application that created the document, or if 
you drag a file to an incompatible application, like trying to open a Word file 
with a copy of 4th Dimension (or perhaps because it is a document that you 
copied from someone else, and you don’t have the application that created 
it), then the Finder will give you a dialog box allowing you to pick an 
application that is able to read the document, courtesy of the new Macintosh 
Easy Open control panel (see figure 2.34) and the DataViz file translators 
that come with System 7.5.5. 

Figure 2.34 Macintosh Easy Open at work 

If Macintosh Easy Open cannot find a suitable translator and application, you 
can try to open the file with SimpleText. In any case, if Easy Open gives up, 
you will see the infamous Missing Applications dialog box, telling you no 
application or translator exists to open and read the file. 

If you don’t want to open the file with SimpleText, then you’ll need to do 
one of the following: 

• Get a copy of the creating application. 

• Change the application creator type so that another application will 
open it (you can do this using ResEdit or a utility like Eilelnfo). 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


• Open the file by opening a compatible application first, and then using 
it to open the recalcitrant file. 

• Use a third-party file launching redirection utility, like Connectix’s 
Handolf II, to automatically open certain files using a substitute list of 
applications (which sometimes works when Macintosh Easy Open does 

Using the Save and Save As Dialogs 

Well, here’s a shocker, saving files from within applications works the same 
under System 7.5.5 as it does under System 7.x. Stop the presses! Damn the 
torpedoes! Hi-oh Silver, away!!! (Is this how Tom Clancy got his start?) 

Applications still sport the usual Save and Save As commands and the 
desktop button in the dialog boxes allows you jump to the desktop. (The 
desktop is the top level of your Finder directory path and file dialog box.) 
Because the desktop is the place where you can see all of your currently 
mounted disks and fileservers (plus the Trash), it is easier to save documents 
exactly where you want them. See figure 2.35 for a look at a sample file 
dialog box and the desktop button. 



Cll*tlkl£ip ICMi 


CDCHPI F-ks rn^ldAI 


[Chapiai 2.hii 

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Figure 2.35 Microsoft Word’s Save As dialog box 

Besides the Desktop button, you’ll also see a pop-up menu above the list of 
disk volumes or files being displayed. You can click this pop-up menu in 
order to scroll through the other possible locations for the file you are 
saving. This makes it very handy to find the disk and folder you need. Figure 
2.36 shows what a typical file dialog pop-up menu looks like. 

Mac Basics 

Sometimes you’ll 
need to use an 
application other 
than the creator 
application to open 
a document. For 
illustrations sake, 
suppose that you 
are trying to open a 
Microsoft Word file 
from the desktop, 
but you lack that 
application. But you 
do own a copy of 
Nisus, which can 
read Word files. 
Open Nisus, then 
open the Word file 
from within Nisus. 
But make sure to 
save it as a Nisus 
file so you can 
open it directly from 
Nisus from now on. 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

Open any Finder 
window and select 
a list view. Create a 
new folder in that 
window. Rename 
the folder TEST 
FOLDER. Select 
View by Name and 
look at the window, 
the new folder 
migrates to the 
bottom of the list, 
probably disappear- 
ing from the screen. 
Then select a file 
you want to move 
to this new folder. 
Drag the file down 
towards the bottom 
of the window; 
notice that the 
window scrolls 
downward (you can 
adjust the speed by 
moving the file 
relative to the 
bottom of the 
window). Once you 
see the TEST 
FOLDER appear, 
continue dragging 
your file to it, and 
drop it in. That’s all 
made possible by 
Finder 7.5.5’s 
automatic window 

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Figure 236 Save As dialog box showing a pop-up menu 

The same pop-up menu will also be found when you open documents from 
within appUcations, as its function is generic to all file operations (opening, 
closing, saving, saving into, and so on). 

Items that appear dimmed in the pop-up display aren’t available. 

As with all Macintosh item lists, you select the file, folder, or disk volume 
from the list shown in the file dialog box by double-clicking it, or by select- 
ing it and then using the Open command. 

Another file dialog button you use in concert with the pop-up file dialog 
menus is the New Folder button, (see figure 2.36). This command enables 
you create a new file folder to use, making it much easier to manage and 
organize your files from within the file dialog boxes. 

Using Automatic Window Scrolling 

System 7.5.5 supports the same automatic window scrolling of System 7.x. 
This allows you to select a file in any list-view of a window, and then drag it 
to another folder within that window. When the dragged file (or folder) gets 
to the window limit, the window will scroll up or down (whichever way you 
drag the file), until you deposit the item you’re dragging. While this may 
sound a bit confusing, it works great in practice. 

Using Pop-up Window Navigation Menus 

If you take a look at figure 2.37, you’ll see a pop-up file window navigation 
menu. To see such a menu, click on the name of the active window from 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 


which you want to navigate while holding down the ^ key. This pops-up 
the menu, letting you quickly navigate up and down the window’s filing 
hierarchy. Still, to improve this function, I recommend buying and installing 
Inline Software’s PopUpFolder, which adds hierarchical management pop-up 
menus to every folder. 

Figure 2,5 7 A pop-up window navigation menu 

Moving and Copying Files 

File moving, copying, and duplicating hasn’t changed much under Finder 
7.5.5. You move a file simply by dragging it around. Finder 7.5.5 always 
moves a file when you drag it among folders on the desktop, and it always 
makes a copy of that file (and deposits the copy on the target disk) when you 
drag it between disks or volumes. 

If you want to duplicate a file or folder on the same disk, you can use the 
Duplicate command in the File menu. You can also press the Option key 
while dragging an item to dupUcate it; simply select the item, hold down the 
Option key and drag it to the new location. A copy will be made at the new 

Editing File and Icon Names 

Editing icon names (files, folders, and disk volumes, for example) also hasn’t 
changed under System 7.5.5. As before, if you want to change the name of a 
file, folder, or disk volume, click once on the item’s name. Wait for a bit and 
then the name will be highlighted and surrounded by a box. Once it is, you 
can edit at will (see figure 2.38). 


Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

It’s simple to create 
file aliases. Just 
select a file for 
which you want an 
alias. Then go to 
the File menu and 
select the Make 
Alias command (or 
press K-M). This 
will place an alias 
next to the original 
file (it may overlap 
the original file) with 
the name “alias” 
stuck to the end of 
the original file 
name. Figure 2.39 
shows what 
happened when I 
made an alias of 
the monitors control 


thRP 2 = 


220.^rvEin disk 



















Figure 2.38 Selecting a file name to edit 






I Name ready to be changed. 

Using File Aliases 

File aliases enable you to create placeholder files that refer back to an 
original document or application stored elsewhere on your Macintosh (or 
on a large network). When you open the alias, you actually open the real file 
that it references— even though the two files may reside on different 
Macintosh computers. File aliases can be easily accessed and you don’t waste 
disk space with duplicate files. Aliasing also gives you better control of the 
information appearing on your desktop. Aliases are especially handy as 
organizational aids to workgroup computing over networks. Plus, you can 
have a number of aliases of the same file scattered about so that access to 
that file is always convenient. 

After making an alias (as you can see in figure 2.39, the monitors file 
spawned the monitors alias), you’ll see that the alias’s name is selected— this 
allows you to immediately change the name of the alias. For some applica- 
tions, though, you may want to keep the alias name, since it will give you 
instant text confirmation of the file’s status. You’ll also see that the alias’s 
icon is the same as the original’s. In all cases, though, every alias’ name will 
be in italics; this cannot be changed so that you can always differentiate 
aliases from the original. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 



Figure 2.39 An alias of the Monitors Control Panel 

Aliases can be launched, renamed, duplicated, copied, moved, manipulated 
via AppleScripts, or trashed just like any other file. You can use the Get Info 
command on them, and you can lock them to prevent them from being 
altered or deleted. But the most important thing to remember about aliases 
is that changes made to the alias do not affect the original file. If I delete my 
Monitors alias, it won’t delete the original Control Panel. 

This feature works both ways. If I delete the original Monitors Control Panel, 
iht Monitors alias remains. However, the alias is useless because the 
Control Panel to which it refers no longer exists. 

The best use of aliases can be found in the Apple Menu Items folder. Here, 
you can deposit aliases for all the applications or other files that you use 
regularly, then you can open them from the ever present Apple menu. And 
most aliases take up only 1 to 4K (depending upon the block size of your 
hard disk), so keeping them in the Apple Menu Items folder doesn’t add 
much to the size of your System folder. 

System 7.5.5 creates several aliases when you install the System software, 
they are: Automated Tasks (aliases to some System 7.5.5 AppleScripts); 
Control Panels; Mail and Catalogs (aliases to PowerTalk and Mail Catalogs); 
Recent Documents, Recent Applications, and Recent Servers; and Speakable 
Items (if you installed Apple’s PlainTalk speech recognition software). 

Depending upon your System 7.5.5 installation, you may have others to 
work with as well. 

Working with the Enemy 

Before System 7.5.5, mounting DOS (or Windows) disks on the Macintosh 
was a real pain. Apple File Exchange worked, but it was anything but elegant 
and straightforward. 

Mac Masters 

Another way to 
differentiate alias 
files is by viewing 
by Kind. The alias 
files will be grouped 


Mac Masters 

But you can setup 
your Mac to 
remove any alias 
whose referenced 
file has been 
adiosed. But to do 
that you’ll need to 
acquire the Trash 
Alias utility 
available as part of 
the Super? Utilities 
package from 
Atticus Software. 
Trash Alias can be 
set to automatically 
blow away aliases 
when their original 
files are blown 
away. Very handy. 

100 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Mac Masters 

Besides placing 
application aliases 
in the Apple Menu, 
you might want to 
consider some 
other uses for these 
handy little 
placeholders. I use 
aliases named 
Messages, and 
Games to point to 
folders of the 
goodies I use most 
often every day. 
These folder aliases 
all live in the Apple 
Menu Items folder 
so they appear in 
the Apple Menu. 

With System 7.5.5, Apple adds the PC Exchange control panel (see figure 
2.40) that enables you to automatically mount foreign floppy disks on your 
desktop (MS-DOS, ProDOS, and Windows). PC Exchange recognizes the file 
type by the extension on the file name. Using this extension, PC Exchange 
selects the application to be used by your Mac to open the file. This is shown 
in figure 2.40, where all files ending in ,DOX are set to be opened by 
Microsoft Word. 

Some of the more common DOS/Windows file extensions and Macintosh 
applications 1 recommend to open their file types are: 

DOS file suffix 

Mac Application 






BinHex or Stuffit Deluxe 


ClarisDraw or Illustrator or Painter 




EileMaker Pro 




Eorget it, these are DOS system fdes so don’t 




Photoshop or Live Picture (if you have won 
the Lotto and can afford it) 

Coupled with the Macintosh Easy Open control panel, PC Exchange makes it 
a snap to load and use files on a DOS disk. 

Of course, all of this is dependent upon whether you have an application 
that is capable of reading and using the DOS files. So if you tell PC Exchange 
to use PageMaker to open a DOS Lotus 1-2-3 file, it won’t work. PC Exchange 
can’t give PageMaker the magic capability to read a file type it doesn’t 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 101 

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Figure 2. 40 PC Exchange control panel 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip PC Exchange does not 
turn your Macintosh into a DOS or Windows machine. It 
^ does not enable you to run DOS or Windows software 
on your Macintosh (for that you need a software utility like 
Insignia’s SoftWindows, an add-on PC board like Apple’s PC 
Board, or a network-control connection to a nearby PC [you can 
establish this with Farallon’s Timbuktu Pro]). PC Exchange 
enables you to mount DOS (and ProDOS and Windows) disks on 
your desktop. Once you mount the disks, you can use its files 
only if you have the proper Macintosh software. PC Exchange 
does not allow you to connect PC or Windows external hard 
disks to your Macintosh either, so don’t try it. 


Mac Masters 

Because aliases 
stand-in for real 
files, you have to 
be careful about 
what you do with 
them. If you make 
an alias of an alias 
for example, you 
may find it hard to 
remember where 
and what the 
original file is. The 
original file can be 
found by selecting 
the alias and 
choosing Get Info 
from the File menu 
and clicking on the 
Find Original 
button. Aliases are 
one of the most 
important ways to 
customize your 
Macintosh and 
make it easier for 
you to use. 

Using the Improved Find Appiication 

The old Find File desk accessory, which was eliminated in System 7.0, is back 
as a System extension/application under System 7.5.5. You can use this to 
search for file criteria as shown in table 2.1. 

102 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Table 2.1 Find Parameters and Criteria 




contains, starts with, ends with, is, is not, 
doesn’t contain comparators 


is less than, or is greater than comparators, with 
the byte size settable 


is or is not comparators 


is or is not comparators 

Date Created 

a slew of comparators so you can pinpoint a 
date or date range 

Date Modified 

a slew of comparators so you can pinpoint a 
date or date range 


is or is not comparators, and a field to hold the 


contain or doesn’t contain comparators, and a 
field to hold the comments 

Lock Attribute 

either locked or unlocked criteria 

Folder Attribute 

is or is not comparators, and the field attribute 
of empty, shared, or mounted 

You access the Find command from the File menu or by pressing K-F. 
System 7.5. 5’s Find command is more powerful than the variant under 
System 7.x, because it enables you to search for multiple file criteria simulta- 
neously. In addition, its find windows are “live” Finder windows; a live 
Finder window allows you to open the found item (or another item in the 
Items Found path) by double-clicking it. That is, in a word, slick. 

Unfortunately, unlike some third-party file finders (Claris’s Retrieve It! and 
On Technologies On Location come to mind), Find only looks at file names 
and characteristics (attributes), not at the contents. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 103 

You can use Find to locate any file, folder, or disk volume someplace on 
your Macintosh. You can search for names on locally mounted disk drives or 
on a network server. Unless you specily otherwise. Find searches all the local 
disks that currently appear on your desktop. Figure 2.41 shows you the basic 
Find File window. 


rind lirmi-l 


tiU iDL-HMkS 




rind j 

L 1 

Figure 2.41 The Find command in action 

As you can see from the figure, the Find command’s basic dialog is fairly 
straightforward. You have two buttons to choose from. More Choices and 
Find. To cancel a Find, close the window or select Quit from the File menu 
(Find is now an application). 

If you’re satisfied with looking for a simple text string on all your disks, then 
simply type the name in the blank text field and hit the Find button. Find 
looks for this text string, and when it completes the search, all the matches 
appear in a window titled Items Found, as in figure 2.42. 


lt0iTi^ Fouprl 



Size Kind 

Last Modified 


1 4K 

CIM, ZiffTJet/Mac Edition... 


8:29 PM 

CIM, ZiffFJet/Mac Edition 

1 .1 ME 

application program 


12:15 AM 

Q Contacting SuperMac 


TeachText document 


12:12 PM 

CD Dark Side of the Mac 3.2 




3:30 PM 

Q Home Mac Starter Kit 


Microsoft Vord document 


9:16 PM 

Q Home Mac Starter Kit 


Microsoft Vord document 


9:07 PM 


S) ZiffTJet/Mac O 

Q Filing C^binef 
Q Macintosh Hardware+ Topics 

D AV Book/Grog Poulos-MacGrap... 

Found 70 Items | 


Figure 2.42 The Find command finds all occurrences of the string “Mac 
on the local hard disks 

104 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

Like SuperClock, 
the new Find 
command is written 
by an Apple 
developer. In this 
case it’s Bill Monk, 
whose original 
version of Find 
appeared in the 
Ziff net/Macintosh 
forums on 
eWorld, and 
AppleLink. Kudos to 
Apple for finding 
such quality 
shareware and 
incorporating it into 
System 7.5.5. 

You can scroll this two-part window; the top part contains the lists of found 
items, the bottom part shows the path to any of those found items (you can 
see the path by clicking on an item’s name in the upper window). You can 
open any item by double-clicking it! With this new Find command, there is 
no reason to lose a file again. 

If you want to select other occurrences of the item, use the Find Again 
command in the File menu or use K-G; you can use this if you have inter- 
rupted the Find command without stepping through the dialogs again. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip As with the old Find File 
Desk Accessory from System 6.x, or the System 7.x 
Find, you can type in as much information about the 
item as you know, and Find does its best to locate the item. It’s a 
good idea to be specific, because Find does a better job locating 
your item with a more specific search string. Also, Find is not 
able to locate items that are not currently on your desktop (be it a 
local or networked disk). For example, this command cannot 
locate files that are written on disks that aren’t loaded on your 

For more complex searches, select the More Choices button in the Find 
dialog box. A new dialog pops-up on the screen, and it gives you more 
selection possibilities. In figure 2.43, you see a bunch of possible search 
parameters, but in real life you get a single new parameter each time you 
click on the More Choices button. 

You can change the parameter in each search parameter box by selecting 
one from the pop-up list that appears. If you select the “name” parameter, 
you’ll see a scrollable list that enables you to specify either the name, size, 
kind, label, date created, date modified, version, comments, lock attribute, 
folder attribute, file type, or creator of the item (see figure 2.44). Just scroll 
down the list and select the parameters on which you want to search. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 105 

Find File 

Find items on local disks 

^ I luhose 

'T' contains 


is less than 

^ 1 128 

I alias 


^ 1 1 None 

date created 


date modified 






Z] 09/13/94 
Z] 09/13/94 

lock attribute ’t' 

folder attribute 


1 locked 


^1 emptT^ 

[ More Choices ] [ Feiuer Choices ] 

I ll 

Figure 2.43 The Find Command with mucho choices 

At the bottom of the dialog, you’ll find buttons for Fewer Choices (which 
removes one search parameter for each click on the button), and Find 
(which starts the Find process). 

A similar process is done with the “contains” field (also called the compara- 
tive field, since this is how you will compare the search parameter to the 
criteria). When searching on the “name” parameter, for example, you select 
how the information you entered for the file name will be compared to the 
items you are searching through. Don’t worry, it sounds more complicated 
than it is. You are given as many choices as makes sense for the specific 
criteria you are searching for. 

The “ Find items” scrollable menu (at the top of the window) enables you to 
specify the disks on which Find searches. 

Mac Basics 

When you use the 
comments field, for 
example, be very 
careful to specify 
enough in the text 
field of the Find 
dialog to make the 
search worthwhile; 
otherwise you’ll 
end up finding too 
many items. 

106 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

=n Find File 

Find items | on local disks ▼ | mhose 

I contains | 


size ^ 



date created 
date modified 
lock attribute 
folder attribute 
file type 

is less than ^ | 

128 K 

I is ’T'll alias t 

I is tII None t 

I is ▼! 09/13/94 

1 is ▼! 09/13/94 

1 is ’▼'1 

comments ’t' 

1 contain ’t' | 

j 1 lock attribute is 

locked T j 


[ More Choices ] [ Femer Choices ] 

II Find 11 

Figure 2. 44 Selecting search parameters 

The most interesting of the Find items scrolling menu is the “in the Finder 
selection” criteria. This allows you to search within a Finder window or icon, 
or part of a window or folder. This is another nice touch that makes Find a 
real boost to productivity. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Learn to use the Finder 
selection criteria method (sorting by kind, date, or 
^ name) in order to keep track of project files and folders. 
Using it will also help you develop a file organization strategy. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Because the Find 
command can be misused, especially if you cast your 
search net too broadly, it’s good to have a few basic 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 107 

ideas and strategies in mind before executing a Find. Consider 
these as the starting points of your Find command solutions: 

• If you are trying to find files on a fileserver or another 
Macintosh, try specifying the “lock” criteria. Shared files are 
often locked against changes and this will find them quickly. 

• The “date Created” and “date Modified” criteria are very 
useful if you do your own backups. They allow you to find all 
the files that were created or modified on a specific date. 
Still, I don’t recommend this kind of manual searching/ 
backup routine, since you will likely miss some files this 
way. It’s better to use a dedicated backup system con- 
nected to an off-line storage device (like a removable 
optical disk, a DAT, or 8MM tape drive). I recommend 
Dantz’s Retrospect for backup purposes. 

• The “name” criteria should form your default search 
method. That’s why name is the first criteria that pops-up in 
the expanded Find dialog box. Remember, you don’t need 
to know the file or item’s exact name, you just need to get 
part of the text string correct. 

• Searching by “label” is pretty much a waste of time, be- 
cause you only have eight label types to search. This will 
make any Find that you do pretty gross in its actions. 
Naturally, if you don’t use labels to mark all of your files, 
folders, and disk, then searching by label is a complete 
waste of time. Labels are useful, though, for organizing files 
around projects or workgroups. 

• You can use the “kind” criteria to help sort applications from 
documents. I find it especially useful when I am reorganiz- 
ing a disk’s folders according to the purpose of a file. 

• I rarely use the “size” criteria in searches, although it 
would be good for selecting large files, like multimedia, 
drawings, pictures, and sound files, for compression or 
offline storage. 

Mac Masters 

The Fm6 comman(d 
enables you to 
search for multiple 
occurrences antd 
multiple criteria. But 
you may want to 
enhance that 
capability. You can 
use Fin(d to search 
for all instances of 
an item, then 6o a 
search only on the 
items that your first- 
level search fountd. 
Do this by using the 
“in the Fintder 
selection Fintd items 
criteria.” You can 
repeat this process 
as many times as 
you want. 


108 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


• Searching by “comments” only works if you added com- 
ments to the Get Info command for a file, folder, or disk. 
Otherwise, the comments field is empty and there’s nothing 
to search. I’ve used Macintosh computers since before the 
machine was announced, and I have yet to do this, but you 
might want to give it a try. If you are trying to find particular 
versions of some applications, though (which may have the 
same version number and creation/modification date), 
searching on the comments field may be the answer. Don’t 
forget that if you rebuild your desktop, you blow away 
comments, so you will have none to search for or sort on. 

Other Cool Stuff 

Here is some other cool stuff you can use with Finder 7.5.5 to make your 
Mac really hum. Let’s take a look. 


The elegantly simple and easy-to-use text editor, TeachText, has been 
replaced in 7.5.5 with the equally elegant and easy-to-use text editor, 
SimpleText. SimpleText includes such niceties as font control, style control, 
size control, and a sound menu where you can record and play sounds and 
audio clips. If you don’t need a lull-blown word processor, SimpleText 
works very well, is very small, and very fast. Try it and see what 1 mean. You 
can also use Simple Text to play audio clips with a variety of synthesized 
voices. These voices are fully integrated with the PlainTalk speech recogni- 
tion and synthesis software. 

SimpleText is also wonderful because you can open more than one file at a 
time, unUke the limited TeachText. It’s also a fat binary, which means it will 
work on any Mac. However, SimpleText only works on documents up to 
32K in size. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 109 


The WindowShade control panel enables you manage lots of open Finder 
windows by simply “rolling them up.” Click the title bar (you set the number 
of clicks required at one, two, or three in the WindowShade control panel) 
and it rolls up the window so that only the title bar shows. It quickly makes a 
desktop look clean, without making you resort to minim iz ing windows or 
other hacks that are a pain to undo. See figure 2.45 for an example of using 
WindowShade and a look at the WindowShade control panel. WindowShade 
works like a charm if you are a desktop slob like me. 

Figure 2.45 WindowShade in action and the WindowShade control 

Scriptable Finder and AppleScript 

Since its introduction, AppleScript has provided Mac users with the ability to 
automate their Macs by writing scripts themselves, or by using scripts other 

110 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

people have written. But, until System 7.5.5, the Finder itself was not 
scriptable, meaning that while you could automate actions within scriptable 
applications, you couldn’t automate system level stuff. This was a big 
limitation on the usefulness of AppleScript. But, fortunately, System 7.5.5 
makes the Finder fully scriptable. 

System 7.5.5 includes the Scriptable Finder and the full AppleScript 1.1 
implementation— including the Script Editor, Scriptable Text Editor, and a 
some useful scripts that can control System and Finder actions, including: 

• Add Alias to Apple Menu 

• Find Original from Alias 

• Share a Folder 

• Start File Sharing 

• Stop File Sharing 

• Turn Sound Off 

• Turn Sound On 

• Alert When Folder Changes 

• Change Monitor to 256 (colors) 

• Change Monitor to B&W 

• Hide/Show Folder Sizes 

• Synchronize Folders 

These scripts are located in the Automated Tasks folder in the Apple menu 
as well as in a folder called More Automated Tasks in the AppleScript folder 
(in the Apple Extras folder). To use one, select it from the Apple menu or 
double-chck its icon. You can also copy all of these scripts to the Automated 
Tasks folder only, or you can reference them all with aliases from their 
original folder. 

Chapter 3 and chapter 8 discuss more on AppleScript, but if you really want 
to become an AppleScript guru, buy a copy of The Tao of AppleScript 2nd 
Edition, by Derek Schneider, and read it cover to cover (Hayden Books, 
1994). Make sure that you use the sample scripts included (on disks) with 
the book as you explore scripting. 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 111 

For now, consider that when you use your Macintosh, you use the mouse 
and keyboard to open documents and applications, move documents and 
file folders, enter information, print, and perform any other actions. With 
AppleScript, you learn a whole new way to work: you can give the computer 
a list of things you want it to do (a script), and it does everything for you. 
Because AppleScripts work with Apple Events, they drive your Macintosh 
directly, while System macro languages (like QuickKeys) work on top of the 
Finder and System. 

You can create a script by simply turning on the AppleScript recorder while 
you perform a set of actions. AppleScript keeps a record of your actions 
while the recorder is turned on. When you turn the recorder off, you can see 
the recorded script. When you run the script, your computer repeats your 
actions automatically. 

You can use many application programs with AppleScript to make your Mac 
really work for you. For example, a script might format a letter the way you 
want, save it in a particular folder, and print it. 

You can also use AppleScript to combine the capabilities of application 
programs. For example, a script might use the calculation capabilities of a 
spreadsheet, and the formatting capabilities of a word processor to assemble 
an invoice. 

Drag and Drop 

Macintosh Drag and Drop is a collection of system software services (in- 
stalled with an extension in System 7.5.5) that enable a better interface for 
apphcations software. 

Once an application includes Macintosh Drag and Drop, you can easily move 
text or graphics from one document or application to another. Instead of 
using copy and paste to move information, you can simply point, click, and 
drag text or graphics to the desired destination. It works very much like the 
drag and drop supported within certain applications, such as Microsoft 
Word 6.0. 

112 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Macintosh Drag and Drop applications also enable you to move text or 
graphics onto the desktop (the Finder), save the item (as a Clippings file), 
and drop the Clippings file into a separate document (see figure 2.46). Drag 
and Drop is memory-sensitive, however, and the only application that comes 
with System 7.5.5 that works reliably with Drag and Drop is the new Scrap- 
book. SimpleText is supposed to be the other, but it often chokes when you 
try to drag a Clippings file to it, especially if you’re running a Mac with little 
RAM headroom. 

Figure 2. 46 A Clippings file on the desktop 

For example, a mailing address or company logo can be saved as a Clippings 
file and dropped into any document. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Utilities within Macintosh 
System 7.5.5 such as the Notepad, Scrapbook, 
SimpleText, and Stickles already include support for 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 113 

Macintosh Drag and Drop. It should also be easy for developers 
to incorporate Macintosh Drag and Drop in their applications. A 
slew of applications that have added Drag and Drop (and have 
also gone native for the Power Macintosh). Most third-party 
developers have jumped on the Drag and Drop bandwagon. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Macintosh Drag and 

Drop provides drag-and-drop software services similar 
to Microsoft’s proprietary OLE (Object Linking and 
^ ^ Embedding) 2.0. However, Drag and Drop is significantly 
easier to implement (for most developers), much easier to 
support, requires less memory, and is more compatible with 
Macintosh system software. In addition, it provides a stepping 
stone for the forthcoming OpenDoc applications architecture 
which creates an entire document-centric framework for Drag 
and Drop to work with. 

OpenDoc is Apple’s open component-based architecture for 
compound document computing (document-centric computing). It 
will enable you to edit and work with different types of data in one 
document, without needing to switch applications and copy data 
(as you do today). It also includes the ability to manipulate that 
data using drag and drop. Macintosh Drag and Drop, however, 
provides this latter functionality to today’s applications. And, by 
incorporating Macintosh Drag and Drop into applications, third- 
party developers will move the application’s human interface one 
step closer to the ease-of-use of OpenDoc. 

Unfortunately, OpenDoc is still under development and won’t 
influence application development until 1996. Apple expects to 
release OpenDoc freely to all its customers — in stark contrast to 
Microsoft’s proprietary OLE technology. Apple and its partners — 
IBM, Motorola, Adobe, and others — founded Component Integra- 
tion Labs (CILabs) to make sure standards like OpenDoc remain 
available to all. Kudos to Apple. 

114 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Macintosh Drag and Drop runs with System 7.5.5 by installing the Drag and 
Drop extension, but dragging to and from the Finder does not work with 
earlier system releases that are using the Drag and Drop extension, but it 
will work with Drag and Drop applications. 

Chapter 2 Summary 

With all this talk about AppleScript and Drag and Drop, 1 am reminded that 
it’s time to move on to chapter 3, where 1 devote some serious time to the 
issue of customizing your System 7.5.5 environment. In chapter 2, 1 pro- 
vided you with some basic information about Finder 7.5.5, and have pointed 
out the important new features and commands. 

From Finder menus through managing your files and using some of the 
Finder’s cool new features, 1 tried to make chapter 2 as straightforward as 
possible, while not omitting too many operational details (even at this point 
in the book). In the chapter 3, 1 get into customizing and modilying your 
newly installed System 7.5.5 environments, with an eye toward the critical 
and strategic realities of these customization tricks. 

But before 1 close chapter 2, here’s another short quiz to help you focus on 
the important stuff in this chapter. Please use these questions as a study 
guide for this chapter. If you can’t answer a question, jump back to that 
section of chapter 2 and give it another read. 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 2 

1 . What are aliases? Why didn’t Dr. Richard Kimble use one? 

2. What’s a Finder menu? Who cares? 

3. What’s the difference between the View menu and the View control 
panel? This is getting ridiculous, isn’t it? 

4. How can labels help you organize your files? How can files help you 
make use of labels? 

Chapter 2: Using Finder 7.5.5 115 

5. What’s so special about the Trash in System 7.5.5? Oh, pinch me, I 
must be dreaming! 

6. What’s new in the Edit menu? Hint: this is a trick question. 

7. Has the Apple menu changed? How? Why? When? Where? Welcome to 
Journalism 101. 

8. Where can you get online help in the Finder? Duh... 

9. Has file navigation within windows been improved? Will the Cubs win 
the pennant? 

10. What can you do to find the item you are looking for on a crowded 
desktop? What if you are using Windows95? How about if you have an 
old Osborne 1 running C/PM? 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 2 

1 . File aliases are placeholder files that you can create with the Make Alias 
command of the File menu. This is a carryover from System 7.x and 
still damn useful. Aliases can be used to place file references where you 
need them, instead of where the original file is stored. Richard Kimble 
had a true heart and knew he would be exonerated. Besides, Harrison 
Ford’s never the bad guy. 

2. The Apple, File, Edit, View, Special, Balloon Help/Apple Guide, and 
Application menus across the menu bar of the Finder are all Finder 
menus. They give you the basic control commands of the Macintosh. 1 
care, very deeply. But, then, 1 have no life. 

3. The View menu allows you to select the kind of view a particular 
window has vis a vis its contents (View by Name, View by Label, and so 
on). The View control panel establishes control over stuff like default 
window labels and fonts. You should know this stuff already if you 
have been using System 7.x. If not, read this book twice and repeat 
after me: “1 love the Macintosh, 1 hate Windows, 1 love the Macintosh, 1 
hate Windows.” 

116 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

4 . Labels can be used to mark files a distinctive color, with each color 
representing a category of file. You can then sort your files by their 
labels and display them in a list view window. Even the Find command 
works on labels. Too bad labels only come in eight colors. But it’s great 
if you limit yourself to eight ideas (a godsend for many out there). And, 
of course, by placing those eight cool colors on your files and folders 
you’ll be that much more interested in opening those suckers up 
everyday. Technology, catch the wave... 

5 . As under System 7.x, the Trash is now a full-blown folder, so it doesn’t 
go away when you Restart or Shut Down your Macintosh. You can 
manage it like any other folder, or mismanage it as the case may be. 

6. Nothing. Ha! A trick question! Told you so! Man-oh-man, get with it! 

7 . Yes, it holds the contents of the Apple Menu Items folder, and includes 
a bunch of new special purpose hierarchical folders, but I refuse to 
bum down rain forests by relisting those here. 

8. Balloon Help, the Apple Guide, and Macintosh Shortcuts, all found 
under the lovely art nouveau Question Mark/Apple Guide/Balloon 
Help menu. 

9. Yes it has. No they won’t. Ever. 

1 0. Use the newly expanded and wonderfully complex and fast Find 
command in the Edit menu. If you are using Windows95 or NT, you 
are reading the wrong book. If you are using an Osborne 1 mnning C/ 
PM you are dead. 

How did you do on the quiz? Ask me if I care. What do you expect for |25, a 
flaming course on the Macintosh!?! 

OK, so I care. If anything didn’t make sense, please re-read the chapter and 
try the Macintosh Guide that comes with System 7.5.5. 

Modifying the 
System 7.5.5 

Chapter \ 

n this chapter we’ll see how to modify System 7.53 and 
thus your Mac; we’ll show you not 
only how to do it, but give you recom- 
mendations to help you make changes 
right away so you can get the most 
out of your Mac now. 

118 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Under earlier system versions, many users and Mac managers had good 
reason for wanting to modify the standard environment. Perhaps they 
wanted to tweak memory management, enhance file dialog boxes, change 
the Finder’s windows, or allow a more personalized desktop. With System 
7.x, of course, many of these “needs” were precluded because the features 
were included in the standard System. 

And System 7.5.5, with its additional built-in features, may further preclude 
the need to monkey with your Mac. The Mac has always been a computer 
that is easy to modify, and Apple has made it even better under 7.5.5. 

Even with System 7.5. 5’s improved Finder, file manager, third-party add-ons, 
and all the other improvements (see chapters 1 and 2), you still may want to 
master the art of “responsible environmental modification” on your own 
Mac and those of your staff. To do so requires that you recall what you 
already know about desk accessories, fonts, extensions, and control panels, 
while modifying that knowledge to work with System 7.5. 5’s new rules of 

In this chapter. I’ll cover the ways to modify your System 7.5.5 operating 
environment and I’ll tell you what the drawbacks of each method are (some 
of which are not trivial). However, this is not an exhaustive look at every 
public domain, shareware extension, and control panel out there. (If you 
want that info, there are other places to look as well. Look online in America 
Online, CompuServe MAUG, on the Internet, and the BMUG and B.C.S. 

BBSs [plus those many largely unsung local BBSs.) Instead, I’ll emphasize 
the reasons that might make you want to modify your system in the first 
place. In short. I’ll try to help you formulate a strategy for customizing your 
System, instead of just jazzing it up. 

Keep in mind that 1 discuss some aspects of System modification in chapter 1 
(where 1 discuss the overall improvements to the System 7.5.5 and how they 
can be customized) and chapter 2 (where 1 cover using the Finder). 

In future chapters, you’ll also find System modification discussions as 
they relate to printing, fonts, and QuickDraw GX (chapter 4); multimedia 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 119 

(chapter 5); networking and collaboration (chapter 6); improving your 
memory (chapter 7); management strategies (chapter 8); and troubleshoot- 
ing (chapter 9). 

Well enough introduction. Let’s get to it! 

Applying What You Already 

Although you may not have thought of it this way, you already know how to 
tweak your Macintosh so it works with you. If you ever used a control panel 
under System 7.x or any desk accessory, or even the Chooser, you already 
have some idea of what can and cannot be modified on a Mac. 

In general, a Macintosh running System 7.5.5 can be modified in one of two 
ways. First, you can alter the way that the default System, as installed from 
the Apple installer, works. Second, you can add additional software, or even 
hardware devices, to the Mac to give it even more capabilities. While this 
chapter concentrates primarily on those tweaks afforded by the System 
software (after all, this is a book about System 7.5.5 and not a general 
Macintosh book), I’ll also touch on some classes of add-on software (and the 
problems such software might present to a System 7.5.5 user or manager). 

Just as under System 7.x, the software with which you can modify System 
7.5.5 includes desk accessories, extensions, control panels, and preference 
files. Some of these custimization tools include: 

• WindowShade 

• DOS and Windows compatibility with PC Exchange and Macintosh Easy 

• Apple Menu Options (AKA submenus) 

• Date and Time menu bar display 

• Automating System Tasks with AppleScript 

• PowerBook Improvements such as the Control Strip and New 
PowerBook control panel 

• The Extensions Manager 

120 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Audio CD Player control panel 

• Auto On/Off control panel 

• Button Disabler control panel 

• Sound control panel 

• CPU Energy Saver 

• ColorSync System Profiler control panel 

• ATM GX control panel 

In addition, some of your old favorites have been improved, including: 

• General control panel 

• MacTCP and TCP/IP control panels 

• QuickTime 2.0 extension 

The customization lessons that you learned under System 7.x, especially 
with regards to the control panels and desk accessories that Apple gives you, 
hold up under System 7.5.5. With regard to third-party software add-ons, 
you may find that you don’t need as many under System 7.5.5 (because it 
has more built-in “stuff’), or that you need different ones to adjust to your 
way of working. 

Manager’s Tip Just as with System 7.x, you need to lay 
W out a customization strategy under System 7.5.5. If you 
^ manage a group of Mac users, you’ll want to put some 
suggested customization strategies together that address as 
many of their needs as possible, while still leaving you with a 
software base that you can support. No matter how good a 
manager you are, you can’t deal with each staffer running 
dozens or hundreds of shareware and public domain control 
panels and extensions. No one wants you to be a member of the 
System Thought Police. You’ll have to learn how to draw the line 
with some of the questionable “modifiers” that are likely to show 
up in your shop. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 121 

What Are Your Customization Goais? 

Setting your customization goals is sometimes harder than you think. 
Consider it both from a personal point of view and from the point of view of 
any Macstaff you manage. 

f Manager’s Tip This all leads, then, to sitting down with 
your staffers and figuring out just what your customization 
goals really are. This won’t be easy and it might even be 
unpleasant, but you’ve got to do it or System customization will 
get out of hand, and you’ll end up trying to support every share- 
ware doodad on the planet. 

Your Personal Customization Goals 

The best place to start this confab is with yourself Although I hate reducing 
thought processes to lists, I find that sometimes lists are the only way to 
keep organized. With that in mind, here’s my short list of questions to ask 
yourself in order to figure out your own personal Macintosh System 7.5.5 
customization goals. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip 

• Did you try System 7.5.5 without adding any non- 
Apple modifiers? Be honest about this, most people don’t 
even give the default System a chance to work its magic on 
them before they start twiddling. 

In fact, I have found in all my teaching, consulting, and writing 
over the past 1 6 years that Mac users want to mess with their 
computers in ways that users of DOS, Windows, OS/2, or 
UNIX systems never even imagined. Even diehard CP/M 
users, who loved to tweak the screen displays of their old 
Osborne luggables, don’t hold a candle to the dedicated Mac 
tweaker. There is still something about the Mac that draws 


122 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


even novices under its spell and just begs you to change it 
(perhaps it is because the Mac is so well put together that 
even the average user can modify it). Rather than trying to 
hold out against this Siren Song, give in, but only after you’ve 
read the caveats and suggestions in this chapter. How can 
you know what you want to modify if you aren’t really familiar 
with the way the System works “as is”? 

• What tasks (not what software) do you use your Mac for 
everyday? Managing a budget? Designing widgets for 
machine tools? Publishing the company newsletter? Preparing 
letters? Building new software? Whatever your answers are, 
be as specific as possible in defining as many tasks as you 
can. Each of these tasks can become the basis for the “kind” 
of modifications you’ll want to make. You may even decide 
that you’ll want a set of separate custom environments to 
meet the needs of each task. If so, you can build a set of 
scripts, using AppleScript, to set each of these up. 

• How reliable must your Mac be? How many restarts or 
crashes can you endure in a day? Every mod that you make 
to your Mac multiplies the chance of major and minor disas- 

• Do you share your Mac with someone else? If so, you and 
your Mac partner will have to come to some modus vivendi vis 
a vis System modifications. Here’s where separate setup 
scripts might pay off nicely. This is one time where you might 
be able to have your cake and eat it too. 

• Do you frequently use your Mac for demos? Sometimes 
nonstandard modifications confuse people watching the demo 
because they’ve “never seen a Mac work like that before.” 

• How much space can you devote to storing DAs, control 

panels, and extensions? While the Apple-supplied modifiers 
take up a few megabytes of hard disk space, third-party 
modifiers can be much larger. I was shocked to learn, for 
example, that I had more than 40 megabytes of these things 
under System 7.x. I used the upgrade to System 7.5.5 to 
separate the wheat from the chaff. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 123 

I could go on with this list forever, I suppose, but my editor would 
kill me. However, these questions are a good place to start. What 
you should be getting at is how you use your Mac and what your 
expectations are. And perhaps more importantly, how much pain 
you are willing to endure to achieve the perfect Mac environ- 

Especially for Mac Managers — Managing the 
Customization Goals of Others 

f Manager’s Tip As tough as it is to come to grips with 
your own customization goals, getting your Mac staffers to 
do the same exercise will be tougher. Because unlike you, 
they’ve “got better things to do than fool around with their Macs.” 
You’ll have to fight that reasoning and insist that each Mac user 
sit down, go through the five questions, and come to some 
preliminary conclusions about the tradeoff between customized 
bliss and reliability. 

An effective exercise that I use is to show them just what hap- 
pens to some Macs when they are overloaded with too many 
control panels, DAs, and extensions. Show them how long it 
takes the thing to startup. And show them how many times it 
crashes, often taking work down the rathole with it. In short, be 
brutally frank with your staffers. They may hate you now for it 
(since no one wants to admit that the Mac may not be the coolest 
doohickey in the office), but they’ll love you later on when their 
Macs are breezing along with few crashes and little histrionics. 

Compatibility Issues 

The biggest problem that you will have in managing System customization is 
going to be compatibility. Unfortunately, some of your favorite extensions 
and control panels from System 7.x just didn’t make the ride to System 7.5.5. 
While most commercial, shareware, and public domain authors have fixed 

124 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

that, some will never be 7.5.5-compatible. This means you’ll have to learn to 
live without some of your favorite modifiers, learn to get by with something 
similar, or master a built-in System 7.5.5 feature. 

At least you don’t have to worry about Apple’s contributions to this compat- 
ibility problem. All of the utilities (like SimpleText, Disk First Aid, and Apple 
HD SC Setup), control panels (like Views and Monitors), startup documents 
(like the Network and File Sharing Extensions), and desk accessories that 
Apple supplies on the System 7.5.5 installation disks (or disc) are 7.5.5- 

The story is a bit different on the third-party software side of town, though, 
and that’s where the real work comes. While a number of important third- 
party extensions and control panels are already compatible with System 
7.5.5, a few don’t work. Fortunately, the number of these that won’t work 
with System 7.5.5 is very, very small. 

For example, on the one hand I have found that the versions I had of 
Symantec’s Norton 3.2, Central Point MacTools 4.0 (now owned by 
Symantec), and Disinfectant all worked just fine with System 7.5.5. Unfortu- 
nately, the same cannot be said for control panels like the NOW Utilities 4.0 
(5.0 should fix this), Aladdin’s Shortcut 1.5 (fixed by 2.0), and Global 
Village’s GlobalFax 2.0.8a (2.0.9 fixes this). 

Keep in mind that some shareware authors just don’t have the resources to 
crank out upgrades quickly, even for important System changes, like those in 
System 7.5.5. That whole shareware/public domain software acquisition 
issue, is, of course, made more compelling by the changes necessitated by 
System 7.5.5. 1, personally, don’t intend to stop using public domain (PD) or 
buying shareware products, but I am quite careful about having my comput- 
ing labs rely on too many of them. The same strategy might be effective for 
other Macfolk and Mac managers. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 125 

f Manager’s Tip Running the Safe Install Utility on every 
Mac on your network could be a daunting, even Herculean 
task. If your staff’s Mac software base is plain vanilla, 
meaning that every user on the network uses a standard set of 
software, you may choose to test a representative sample of 
Macs, then apply the results across your company or depart- 
ment. But most Mac users tend to introduce idiosyncratic soft- 
ware of their own, particularly extensions and control panels, so 
those kind of management techniques based on homogeneity 
may not work. If your company or situation falls into that cat- 
egory, you have several options: 

• Run the Safe Install Utility on each Mac before upgrad- 
ing. This can be unbelievably time consuming. 

• Train users to run the Safe Install Utility and prepare their 
system for installation of 7.5.5. This can lead to errors, 
mistakes, omissions, or other screwups. 

• Standardize the software across the network by simply 
ordering users to do so. This can lead to your own well- 
deserved lynching. Remember that the Mac has always 
stood for the individual and personal computing. Stomp- 
ing your management jackboots on the Mac staffers 
would be a big mistake. Plus, many Mac users will just 
ignore your “orders” anyway, so why bother? 

None of these options are ideal for all situations, and many Mac 
managers will need to use a mix of all three strategies, and often 
a hit of Valium or a cold drink before the process is over. Which- 
ever option you adopt, use the Safe Install Utility first to prepare 
System folders for installation of System 7.5.5, and to check the 
compatibility of all your critical software and data files. 

You should also test your critical applications under a variety of 
System 7.5.5 conditions. The Safe Install Utility is Apple’s best 
effort at supplying compatibility information, but it’s impossible to 
test every application under every configuration. If a critical 


126 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


application doesn’t work with System 7.5.5, you want to find out 
before you upgrade the entire network, not after you’ve spent all 
those hours working only to run into a nightmare of compatibility 

Using Customization Features 

Under previous versions of the System, especially System 7.x, you probably 
installed some of the many initialization resources (extensions), control 
panels, desk accessories, or fonts that are either available in the public 
domain or via shareware. You probably also purchased one or more of the 
growing number of commercial products out there to put in your System 
folder. You probably already own software like On Technologies’ On 
Location active file indexing system, Inline Software’s PopUpFolder, 
Aladdin’s Shortcut file dialog enhancer, Now Software’s SuperBoomerang 
file manager extensions, or. . . , well, you get the idea. Each of these excel- 
lent packages provides one or more handy extensions to the Macintosh and 
can still be used under System 7.5.5 (sometimes you must obtain a 7.5.5- 
compatible version). Otherwise, when you run the Safe Install Utility, these 
products will be flagged as potentially incompatible with System 7.5.5. 

Apple gets you started on this system modification odyssey. After you have 
installed System 7.5.5, you’ll find that inside your System folder reside 
several different folders, each holding specific system modifiers: control 
panels, extensions, fonts (discussed in chapter 4), Apple menu items, 
preferences, shutdown items, scriptable items, PowerTalk data, and startup 
items, plus the System itself, among others. Figure 3.1 shows you the 
organization of the System 7.5.5 System Folder. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 127 

Figure 5- 1 The System 7.5.5 System Folder revealed 

Let’s take a look at some of the more important folders you will find in the 
mighty System folder and their contents. 

• Apple Menu Items: AppleCD Audio Player, Automated Tasks, Calcula- 
tor, Control Panels, Jigsaw Puzzle, Key Caps, Mail and Catalogs, Note 
Pad, Recent Applications, Recent Documents, Scrapbook, Stickles, 

• Shut Down, and Speakable Items (see figure 3.2); some of these are 
aliases (look for italics in the file name) 

Figure 3-2 Apple Menu Items 

128 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Extensions: Apple CD, About Apple Guide, Apple Guide, Apple Photo 
Access, AppleScript, AppleShare, AppleTalk Services, Catalogs Exten- 
sion, Clipping Extension, Color Picker, ColorSync, EM Extension, 
EtherTalk Phase 2, EtherTalk Prep, File Sharing Extension, File System 
Extensions, Find File Extension, Finder Help, Finder Scripting Exten- 
sion, Macintosh Drag and Drop, Macintosh Guide, MacLinkPlus for 
Easy Open, Mailbox Extension, PowerTalk Guide, PowerTalk Manager, 
Printer Descriptions, PrinterShare GX, QuickDraw GX, QuickTime, 
QuickTime Musical Instruments, Scripting Additions, Shortcuts, and 
the Apple printer and fax extensions for the Chooser and QuickDraw 
GX (see figure 3-3) 

Figure 3-3 Extensions galore 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 129 

• Control Panels: Apple Menu Options, ATM GX, AutoRemounter, 
Cache Switch, CloseView, Color, ColorSync System Profile, Date and 
Time, Desktop Patterns, Easy Access, Extensions Manager, Eile Sharing 
Monitor, General Controls, Keyboard, Labels, Macintosh Easy Open, 
MacLinkPlus Setup, MacTCP, TCP/IP, Map, Memory, Monitors, Mouse, 
Network, Numbers, PC Exchange, PowerTalk Setup, Sharing Setup, 
Sound, Startup Disk, Text, Users and Groups, Video (for AV models of 
the Macs), Views, and WindowShade (see figure 3.4) 

Control Panels 

29 items 

H0.7NEin disk 

91 .2 NE available 


speech Setup 

Apple Menu Options Color Date S Time 


™ System Profile Macintosh Easy Open 


Monitors E>^ensions Manager 

Desktop Patterns 



Oenerai Controls Keyboard 




3 is 

MacLinkPlus Setup Sharing Setup ATM™ OX Numbers 


Startup Disk 


PC Exchange 

Users £ Groups 

WindowShade PowerTaik Setup 


Figure 3-4 Control Panels, Control Panels, Control Panels 

• Preferences: AppleMail, Extensions Manager, Finder, PowerTalk 
Data File, Users and Groups Data File, and much much more (see 
figure 3.5) 

130 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


HO.Q in disk 

Q1 IVE available 

0 -- 

Apple Menu Opt ons Prefs 

O — 

Apple Phone Prefs 


AppleCD Audio Player Prefs 


AppleMail Lettetheads AudioVision Preferences CD Remote Programs 

CEToolBox. Prefs 

DatkSide Preferences 

E^cel Settings (^) 
Es^ress Modem Preferences 


FaxTenninaJ Pref 


ColotSyic™ Profiles 
DSP Preferences 




Embedding Preferences 

E^cel Startup Folder(^) 
Es^ensions Manager Prefs 
FileMaker Prefs 

E>ocel Toolbars 

FaxTerminal Log 
Finder Preferences 

Figure 3-5 Everyone ’s got their own Preferences 

The general way you use these built-in desk accessories, control panels, and 
extensions hasn’t changed under System 7.5.5, you just have more things 
you can control and your Mac has greater inherent abilities than under 
previous Systems. 

Automatic Modifier 

The way the System 7.5.5 System folder works can be figured out just from 
its “modifier” folders (Apple Menu Items, Preferences, and so forth), by that 
I mean the logical organization of files in the System folder. Instead of 
having hundreds of loose unrelated files floating around the System Folder, 
as was the case under 6.x, 7.5.5 continues the System folder organizational 
metaphors that originated with System 7.0. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 131 

Apple Menu Items hold desk accessories, of course, but it can also hold any 
other application or document you want to use frequently, including aliases 
to applications or documents. Just make sure you don’t try to add more than 
55 items to this folder, or it won’t display them all. 

Making Up the Apple Menu 

Desk accessories and any applications you want to launch easily live in the 
Apple menu, and you install them by dragging their icon into the Apple 
Menu Items folder— a subfolder within the System folder. You can also place 
desk accessories loose on the desktop, or in other folders and launch them 
by double-clicking. The items show up in the menu as a scrollable alphabeti- 
cal list (see figure 3.6). No matter how you specify the view in the Apple 
Menu Items folder (View by Name, Icon, Small Icon, Date, and so on), the 
able Apple menu list will always display those items in ascending alpha- 
betical order (A-Z). (Note that in the figure, my Apple menu has QuickKeys 
on it. If you don’t have QuickKeys [you should], you won’t see these items.) 


Rbout This Macintosh... 


QuicKeys — 

QuicKeys I 


QuicKeys Dtilities I 

@ RppleCD Rudio Player 
r~l Rutomated Tasks ► 

§ Calculator 
^ Chooser 

Control Panels ► 

^ Find File 

Jigsaw Puzzle 
(2 Key Caps 

r~l Mail and Catalogs ► 

Q Note Pad 

Recent Rpplications I 

fp1 Recent Documents ► 


1^ Speakable Items I 

^ Stickles 
Q| • Shut Down 

=□ = System Folder ' EI= 

2A items 1 d 1 .3 in disk 50 .6 IVE available 

[1] S [a] 

Apple Menu Items Control Panels E>iensions 



Control Panels (Disabled) 

■Archived T-^^e 1 Fonts- 


Q i 

E>densions (Disabled) 

DataViz Sera 


[®] c: 

Startup Items 

Shutdown Items Claris 


Mac Masters 

You must remove 
DAs from any DA 
suitcases. The old 
Font/DA Mover 4.1 
can do this for you. 
Or you can open 
the suitcase by 
double-clicking it 
and dragging the 
DAs out. 

Figure 5- 6 The Apple menu and the Apple Menu Items folder 

132 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Desk Accessories and the 
Apple Menu 

Desk Accessories still behave like they did under System 7.x. Since you’ll use 
the System 7.5.5 built-in DAs everyday, now is a good time to familiarize 
yourself with them. Table 3.1 attempts to set you straight on what the 
standard desk accessories do. I’ve been a Macophile since before 1984, and I 
sometimes forget this stuff too. But it’s important to keep it in mind as you 
upgrade to System 7.5.5. These DAs work similar to the way they did under 
System 7.x, only their appearance, organization, or placement on your hard 
disks may have changed. 

Table 3.1 Desk Accessories/Apple Menu Items Supplied 
With System 7.5.5 

DA Actions it Performs 

Alarm Clock 

Audio Player 


Gives you a simple clock/calendar with a built-in 
alarm. If you want something more industrial 
strength and functional, buy PraireSofts’ Alarming 
Events. System 7.5.5 also includes Steve 
Christensen’s menu bar SuperClock that is controlled 
by the Date and Time control panel. 

Makes any Apple-compatible CD-ROM drive that 
can handle audio into a programmable music 
CD player. Very cool. 

Lets you add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers 
and paste the result into other documents. Get 
something like Borland’s old Calculator-I- (from the 
SideKick package) if you really want a good onscreen 
calculator. There are dozens of shareware calculators 
(RPN, Binary/Hex, and so on) that you can also try 
that will work under System 7.5.5. Better yet, buy any 
Hewlett-Packard pocket calculator and just type in 
the calculation results on the screen (it’s faster than 
diddlying around with a screen calculator anyway). 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 133 


Actions it Performs 


Selects different printers, file servers, and other 
network resources (like fax modems, scanners, 
plotters, and so on). Largely obviated by the much 
better Catalogs desktop icon of PowerTalk. See 
chapters 4 and 6 for more details. 

Jigsaw Puzzle 

Just what you think it is. You can paste any picture 
into it and select your difficulty level. A serious time 
waster. Way to go Apple! 

Key Caps 

Displays characters of different fonts so you can 
preview them before using them in an application. 
See chapter 4 for more details. 

Note Pad 

Gives you eight pages of electronic scratch paper to 
doodle on. Supports Drag and Drop under 7.5.5. 


A way station for frequently used graphical and text 
elements. Supports Drag and Drop under 7.5.5. 
Other third-party products, like Solutions, Inc.’s 
SmartScrap are about a million times better, with 
more functions, features, and usefulness. 

• Shut Down 

Electronic Post-It notes. Work well, give ’em a try. 

A separate software shutdown switch in the Apple 
Menu, in case you forgot where the other Shut Down 
is located (in the Special menu). Shut Down (either 
here or in the Finder menu bar) will also run any 
scripts or applications that live in the ShutDown 
Items folder in your System folder. 

Not Desk Accessories and the 
Apple Menu 

Besides DAs and applications, you can also place folders, documents, aliases, 
and anything else that is launchable into the Apple menu, where they can be 

134 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

used directly (without having to search through folders to find it). This 
makes the Mac a nice place to work, and makes it easier for you to keep the 
files you use most often in one handy location. Keep in mind, though, that 
the Apple menu is limited to displaying 55 items. If you install more than 
that in the Apple Menu Items folder, not all of them will be displayed. The 
menu will not display items in reverse alphabetical order, so if item number 
56 was XMODEM DIALUP in your Apple menu, it would not be displayed. 

If you need to extend the Apple menu, there is third-party launching soft- 
ware available. My favorite is from Now Software, and it’s called Now Menus, 
part of the Now Utilities (make sure you are running at least version 5.0). 
This program does a lot more than just extend the Apple menu, though, so 
you’ll need to check it out for yourself. 

Installing DAs, Control Panels, 
and Extensions 

You don’t need to drag your System 7.x third-party carryover DA’s into the 
Apple Menu Items folder after 7.5.5 installation, since the 7.5.5 Installer 
won’t touch your existing DAs unless the Safe Install Utility finds them 
incompatible. Even then, all that Utility will do is move them to a folder 
named “May Not Work With System 7.5.5” that is placed on your startup 
hard drive. 

The 7.5.5 Installer also leaves your existing third-party extensions and 
control panels in the Control Panels and Extensions folders. If you do a 
clean install, you create a new System folder with only the Apple items in it 
(and thereby renaming the existing System folder Old System folder). A 
clean install is initiated by holding down the K-K keys while launching the 
7.5.5 Installer (this is an undocumented feature). 

Using System Extensions and 
Controi Paneis 

Like System 7.x, using extensions (INITs) under System 7.5.5 is pretty much 
a no-brainer. Extensions are installed in the Extensions folder within the 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 135 

System folder (see figure 3.7). From there, they execute automatically during 
startup. You control their actions in a simple on-off manner. If you want 
them on, leave them in this folder. If you want them off, then move them to 
another folder (I use the folder “Extensions (disabled)” to hold mine, as this 
is what Extensions Manager creates). 


Figure 3- 7 The Extensions folder 

The same thing works for Control Panels, which also get executed at startup 
time. The difference with Control Panels is that they can also be opened 
once your Mac is running. This lets you change whatever the particular 
control panel does. Eor example, take a look at figure 3.8, showing the Easy 
Access control panel. Here you can set up your keyboard to function in lieu 
of a mouse, by turning sticky keys (the kind of modifier keys that will make 
changes, like the Option key) on or off, the delay of keyboard/mouse keys, 
and the overall speed of keyboard/mouse operations. 

^ Use On/Off eudio feedback 

Mouse Keys: 

O On ® Off 

Initial Delag : 


long short 

Maxinnum Speed : 

oo ®ooo 


slow medium 


Slolu Keys: 

O On ® Off 

Acceptance Delag : 


long short 

^ Use keg click sound 

Sticky Keys: 

O On ® Off 

^ Beep vhen nnodifier keg is set 

Figure 3- 8 The Easy Access control panel 

136 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Controlling Extensions at Startup 

As I have mentioned before, you can choose to bypass all your extensions at 
startup by holding down the Shift key during the startup sequence. This can 
get you out of a jam (if you’ve left a funky extension in your 7.5.5 System 
folder by mistake) by turning off all the Startup documents for this one 
startup sequence. If you want more control of your extensions, though, 
you’ll want an extension manager. 

In the past, you had to rely on third-party products for this, with shareware 
like Init Cdev or commercial products like Inline Software’s Init Picker and 
the truly excellent Conflict Catcher II from Casady & Greene. You can still 
do that with their 7.5.5-compatible versions, or you can use the freebie that 
Apple provides with System 7.5.5. The Apple brand extension manager is 
called, cleverly enough. Extensions Manager, with an extension (EM Exten- 
sion) and a control panel (Extensions Manager) to provide the service. 

The Apple Extensions Manager enables you turn “oft” or “on” the code that 
executes at startup in certain “extension documents,” such as control panels, 
Chooser devices, and extensions. Eigure 3.9 shows the Extensions Manager 
control panel. 

blJj EKtensions Manager i | 


Use -this control panel to turn 
off problematic extensions so 
you will be able to boot your 
Macintosh correctly . 

Warning: Incorrect use of 

this control panel may cause 
problems with your Macintosh. 

[ Undo ] 
[ Help ] 

Sets: I Custom V] 

Extensions ^ 

Disinfectant INIT " 

Apple CD-ROM — 

Apple Guide 




Color Picker 


s/ DW 3.1 (Serial) 

Fax Extension 

Fax Sender 

Find File Extension 

Finder Scripting Extension 

Foreign File Access 


Norton Backup Scheduler 
PowerTalk Extension 
PowerTalk Manager 

QuickDraws qx O 

Figure 3-9 The Extensions Manager control panel 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 137 

The main features of the Extensions Manager are: 

• System 7.5.5 folder structure-aware so it finds the right folders inside 
the System folder where extensions live 

• Context-sensitive help (Balloon Help) 

• Startup icons do not get scrambled into generic ones when disabling a 
system extension 

• It’s updated as necessary by Apple (for free) 

Some older (pre-System 7.5) extension managers turn off extensions and 
control panels by changing their file types to xNIT and xdev, respectively. If 
the System folder contains extensions that have been turned off by such an 
INIT Manager (changed to file types xNIT and xdev), the Safe Install Utility 
won’t see them for what they are. Turn on all extensions and control panels 
before running the Safe Install Utility to avoid problems later. The Safe 
Install Utility can’t flag or fix what it can’t find. 

Control Panels, logically enough, are installed in the Control Panels folder 
within the System folder (what a concept!). In the following discussion, 

I will give you an annotated list of all the control panels supplied by Apple 
with System 7.5.5. 

Keep in mind, however, the big difference between extensions and control 
panels. To get an extension’s functionality, you leave it in your Extensions 
folder. You cannot alter how extensions work once they load. With control 
panels, they also load if the System finds them (in the Control Panels folder, 
see figure 3.10), but once they are loaded, they provide some control 

Control Panels 

Figure 3-10 The Control Panels folder 

• Apple CD Speed Switch sets the speed of Apple two-speed CD-ROM 
drives so they can accommodate older CDs that don’t work at the 
faster speed. 

138 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Apple Menu Options sets whether submenus are active in the Apple 
Menu and how many recent documents, applications, and servers 
are remembered by the Recent Documents, Recent Application, and 
Recent Servers folders in the Apple Menu Items folder (see fig- 
ure 3.11). The maximum for each is 99 items. 


Apple Menu Options 

I— Submenus ~ 

®0n OOff 

1— Recent Items - 

I Remember recently used items 
Documents: 1 1 o| 

Applications: js | 


Figure 3-11 The Apple Menu Options control panel 

• ATM GX turns the Adobe Type Manager GX on and off to make Adobe 
Type 1 screen fonts look nice. You can set the font cache with this (see 
chapter 4 for details) and also set line spacing and the character-shape 
preservation characteristics that ATM will use (see figure 3.12). 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 139 


Adobe Type Manager™ 

® On 

Font Cache 



® Line spacing 
O Character shapes 

© 1983-1994 Adobe Systems Incorporated. 
All Rights Reserved. Patents Pending. 

Figure 5-12 The Adobe Type Manager control panel 

• AutoRemounter can be set to automatically remount shared volumes 
after System shutdown, restart, or sleep (on PowerBooks only, see 
figure 3.13). 

=□ flutoRemounter : 

Remount Shared Disks : 
® After Sleep 
O Always 

Connect To Disks By : 

O Automatically Remounting 
® Always Entering Passwords 
1 .2 

Figure 5- 13 The AutoRemounter control panel 

• Brightness sets the screen brightness on Macs that lack actual screen 
controls. Works with few Macs. Sometimes, you can over-engineer 
things a bit, if you aren’t careful. Brightness is such an example, since 
all monitors ought to have hardware brightness controls. Also works to 
set screen brightness with shareware screen savers, like Twilight. 

140 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Cache Switch turns the 68040 cache on or off on Macs equipped with 
that processor so that software that is incompatible with the 68040 
(precious little at this point) can be used (see figure 3.14). If your Mac 
does not have a 68040 CPU, you don’t need this control panel. If you 
do have a 68040 CPU (check your owner’s manual), only adjust this if 
you are having trouble running some software (that might be incom- 
patible with the 68040— because it does things a bit differently than the 
older 68030 CPUs). 

Cache Smitch 

wm Processor C^ohe : v7 .0 . 1 

(•) Faster (Caches Enabled) 

O More Compa'tible (Caches Disabled) 

Some applioations vill not vork oorreotly 
vhen the prooessor's oaohes are enabled. 

Figure 3-14 The Cache Switch control panel 

• CloseView is a screen magnifier for sight-impaired Mac users (see 
figure 3.15). It lets you magnify the screen from two to 16 times its 
normal dimensions (to highlight part of it for easier viewing). You can 
also invert the displayed colors on the screen for improved visibility. 



® Black on LOhite 


O Uthite on Black 

® Off 

Keyboard (•) On 

1 1 t 

Shortcuts OOff 

1 ^ “I® 

^ = Option 

% = Command 

Figure 3- 15 The CloseView control panel 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 141 

• Color is a lame, but still useful tool for setting the highlight color and 
the color of some windows. It comes in the form of the old Color 
control panel. Too bad it doesn’t allow you to customize all of your 
GUI visual elements. For that, you’ll have to turn to the dozens of 
freeware control panels that do it. 

• ColorSync System Profile is used to set the proper monitor type so 
that colors remain consistent between QuickDraw GX documents and 
the colors that appear on your monitor (see figure 3.16). 



ColorSync^"^ System Profile = 

1 .0.5 

■ j 

Sysfem Profile : 

Rpple 1 3" RGB standard | 

Figure 5-16 The ColorSync System Profile control panel 

• Control Strip displays and controls critical PowerBook functions, 
including battery life and charging, turning AppleTalk on and off, 
turning filesharing on and off, changing the battery saving characteris- 
tics, making PowerBooks sleep, setting the sound level, and others. 
Third-party control strip drop-in modules are available; one of the 
most useful is the PBTools 2.0 Control Strip from VST Systems. If you 
are adventurous, you can hack the Control Strip with ResEdit and use 
it on non-PowerBooks. (In fact, there is already a version of this 
floating around called, creatively enough. Control Strip.) 

• CPU Energy Saver lets you shut down the computer automagically if 
you can turn the power on and off with the keyboard (some Centris, 
Quadra, Power Macs, PowerBook 500 series, and other later models). 
You can pick the shutdown time when you are idle for a particular 
period of time, or for a specific time of day on one or more days of the 
week. You can also set conditions that will prevent the Mac from 
shutting down, such as when you are connected to a shared disk, when 
the serial ports are in use, or if a sound is playing. 

142 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Date & Time sets the, get this, here it conies, TA-DA, date and time 
(see figure 3.17)! Incredible. Hear the chorus of hosanna’s? It sets the 
current date, current time, time zone, and controls the menu bar clock 
(AKA SuperClock). 

=□= — - Date G 

Current date 

Current time 


1:54:16 PM 

[ Date Formats... ] 

[ Time Formats... ] 

^ Time Zone 

The -time zone has not been 

□ Daylight Sauings Time 

2^34 Menubar Clock 
® On O Off 

[ Set Time Zone... ] 

[ Clock Dptions... ] 

Figure 3.17 The Date & Time control panel 

• Desktop Patterns enables you to set the pattern of your desktop (see 
figure 3.18). This also makes the General Controls control panel less 
crowded (desktop patterns used to be part of that one). Personally, I 
liked it better the old way. Why, in my day, we walked 500 miles to go 
to school with no shoes. . . Oops, sorry. Anyway, you have 50 to 70 
(depending upon Mac model) desktop patterns to choose from, 
including such edifying screen backgrounds as Teddy Bears, Kitty Cats, 
and Vomit. How lovely. Cycle through them and you will be amazed at 
some of the stuff Apple thinks you’d actually want as a background to 
your desktop. You can add third-party patterns to this, such as the 
excellent Wallpaper patterns. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 143 

Desktop Patterns 


1 /64 

Set Utilities Pattern 

Figure 3-18 The Desktop Patterns control panel 

• Easy Access lets you control the Mac from the keyboard, without using 
a mouse. It’s also great for some disabled Macintosh users. Easy Access 
sets up three different kinds of alternate keyboard/mouse control 
options. You can choose Mouse Keys, Slow Keys, or Sticky Keys, and 
you can turn on or off their sound alert. 

Sticky Keys let you type in different keystroke combinations (like 
those Finder shortcuts I talked about in chapter 2) one key at a time, 
since some users may not be able to type more than one key at a time. 

Mouse Keys control the mouse pointer and its operations (clicking 
and dragging) from the numeric keypad, instead of by using the 
mouse. The 5 key on the keypad is your mouse button, while the other 
numeric keys surrounding it move the mouse pointer in any direction, 
according to the key’s physical orientation on the keypad (the 8 key, 
for example, moves the mouse pointer up). You can lock down the 
mouse button with the Period key on the keypad, and Clear turns off 
Mouse Keys. Remember that Mouse Keys only works with the numeric 
keypad, not with the number keys above the QWERTY row on your 

144 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Slow Keys change the speed with which the System recognizes 
keystrokes, so that very slow or erratic typists get many of their errant 
keystrokes removed before they hit the System. 

• Extensions Manager enables you to turn extensions, control panels, 
and other startup programs on or off at startup (to reduce memory 
requirements, troubleshoot, customize the Mac, and so on). You can 
also save different sets of startup programs for various scenarios. 
Extensions Manager is useful, but limited. For much better control of 
startup programs, use Casady & Greene’s Conflict Catcher II (which 
has loads of other features that make it worth the extra cost). 

• File Sharing Monitor monitors all of your current file sharing activity 
(see figure 3.19). Serious network administrators will need better 
third-party monitoring utilities like Farallon’s Network Manager’s Pack 
(with products like Checknet, Netwatch, and others), TechWork’s 
GraceLan, Pharo’s Status ‘Mac, or Dartmouth University’s MacPing 3.0, 
to keep on top of their file sharing. As you’ve probably guessed by 
now, I spend a lot of time in chapter 6 talking about file sharing, 
including using this control panel. 

Figure 3- 19 The File Sharing Monitor control panel 

• General Controls sets desktop parameters (whether the desktop is 
shown when in the background or the Launcher is shown at System 
startup), insertion point blinking speed, menu blinking speed, the shut 
down warning (that tells you during the next startup if the Mac was 
“perhaps” shutdown improperly), whether to protect the System folder 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 145 

and Application folders against change, and document defaults (when 
opening or saving a document, either automatically takes you to the 
folder containing the application, the last folder used in the applica- 
tion, or to the default Documents folder [created on your desktop by 
clicking this checkbox]). In short, the General Controls panel is a jam- 
packed little dealie-bop (see figure 3.20). Start playing with it now. 

General Controls 


] Show Desktop when in beokground 

I I Show Launcher at system startup 


Shut Dovn Varning 

I I Varn me if computer was shut down improperly 

- Insertion Point Blinking - 

O ® O 

Slow Fast 

I” Menu Blinking ■ 

o o o ® 

Off 1 2 3 

■ Folder Protection ■ 

I I Protect System Folder 
I I Protect Applications folder 


Documents - 

When opening or saving a document^ take me to 
O Folder which contains the application. 

® Last folder used in the application. 

O Documents folder. 

Figure 5-20 The General Controls control panel 

• Keyboard sets the keyboard repeat key speed and the keyboard layout 
for international users with all those wacky, but cool, international 
characters (don’t confuse this with the KeyCaps DA). 

• Labels lets you set colors and customized labels for icons within 
the Finder. (You can find more information about this in chapters 
1 and 2.) 

• Launcher enables you to setup a special desktop venue for launching 
applications. The Launcher has been borrowed from Apple’s At Ease! 
idiot-level Finder add-on. I never use Launcher, maybe you will. 

• Macintosh Easy Open allows you to setup how your Mac handles 
open non-Mac files and disks (see figure 3.21). Works with the PC 
Exchange control panel and the MacLinkPlus Setup control panel. 

146 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Automatic document translation : ® On O Off 

p Translation Choices Dialog box 

I I Alvays show dialog box ^ Translate 'TEXT' documents 

^ Include applications on servers 

El Auio pick if only 1 choice [ Delete Preferences... ] 

1 .1 

Figure 3.21 The Macintosh Easy Open control panel 

• MacLinkPlus Setup sets the default file translators provided by 
DataViz and used by Macintosh Easy Open. 

• MacTCP controls Mac access to TCP/IP networks (Transmission 
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, see figure 3.22). Allows your Mac 
to access the Internet via an Internet service provider and some 
additional software. Absolutely critical for Mac wide-area networking. 
You must use the TCP/IP Control Panel and Open Transport 1.1.1 if 
you have a PCI-based Power Mac. Use the Network Software Selector to 
select between Mac TCP (Classic AppleTalk) and Open Transport 
networking and then reboot to establish the change. 

Figure 3-22 The MacTCP control panel 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 147 

• Map seems to do nothing useful! (I hate this one!) But Apple thinks it 
helps by letting you set a physical location for your machine and a time 
zone to keep your times straight. I am dubious of that! 

• Memory is a very useful control panel, my friends (see figure 3.23)! 
This little Memory dude (AKA the Modern Memory Manager on Power 
Macs) puts you in direct control of three or four important aspects of 
your Mac’s use of memory. For more on memory, check out chapter 7, 
“Improving Your Memory.” 

Figure 3-23 The Memory control panel 

First, you can control the size of the Disk Cache in RAM (which is 
always on). This speeds up disk accesses by keeping junk in memory 
that normally would be left on the disk. The minim u m setting for Disk 
Cache is 16K. A good value to use is 32K times the number of MB of 
RAM you have installed. So, if you have 10 MB installed, you’d set the 
Disk Cache to 320K. The Disk Cache speeds up disk accesses by letting 
more of your temporary data live in fast silicon instead of in relatively 
slower magnetic disk platters. 

The maximum is determined by how much RAM you have installed. 
You can’t use virtual memory as part of this RAM disk cache. And the 
best rule for setting the cache is the 32K rule I discussed above. Hey, 
sometimes Macintosh computing is NOT an exact science, OK? 

Mac Masters 

If you have a very 
fast hard disk with 
built-in caching, or 
are using a Nubus 
SCSI speedup 
board, like the one 
from DayStar 
Digital, disk caching 
will actually slow 
things down. So 
use the minimal 
16K setting in the 
Memory control 

148 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The next thing you get to set is Virtual Memory. You get to pick which 
disk is used for disk paging, also known as temporary RAM, and how 
big that virtual memory segment on disk will be, plus whether or not 
the whole thing is even turned on. If you have lots of RAM like me, you 
don’t need to waste your time fiddling around with this setting, but if 
you don’t, it might help you run some very large applications that you 
can’t run without it. Better yet, get a very good virtual memory exten- 
sion from Connectix, called appropriately enough, RAM Doubler. It 
really works. 

Don’t set virtual memory to more than one-half of your real memory, 
or you will pay for it with glacial performance. Virtual memory only 
works with Mac II class and better machines that have a Paged Memory 
Management Unit (PMMU) installed, or contain it as part of the main 
CPU (any 68030 or 68040 Mac has this feature). The SE/30, IIx, Ilex, 
Ilsi, Ilci, life , Classic II, and later Macs, including the Power Macs, all 
have this capability. The Mac II can add it with an Apple or third-party 
PMMU (get the one from Connectix, since you can also get its very 
good MODE32 utility that lets your Mac II use 32 bit addressing). The 
512KE, Plus, Classic, Portable, and LC cannot use Virtual Memory. 

The second to the last memory setting (on some Macs, modern Macs 
don’t have this setting) is for 32-bit addressing. Here is where you turn 
on your Mac’s ability to address real memory (SIMMs, that is) above 
the old limit of 8 MB, set by System 6.x’s 24-bit addressing mode. With 
this you can address up to 256 MB of real RAM, depending upon your 
Mac. You need a modernish Mac to use 32-bit addressing, such as a 
life, Ilci, Centris, Quadra, Performa, LC II or LC III, or Power 
Macintosh. Most modern Macs run in 32-bit addressing all the time. 

Other Macs can’t work with 32-bit addressing because their ROMs 
weren’t designed to understand it. But for the Mac II anyway, there 
are third-party workarounds (like the Connectix MODE32 product I 
mentioned earlier). Others are bound to hit the market too. There is 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 149 

no chance that Apple will come out with 32-bit clean ROMs to work on 
all those old Macs with 68020 or 68030 chips in them (II, IIx, SE/30, 
Ilex). If you want 32-bit addressing on your Mac II, IIx, SE/30, or Ilex, 
you better look for third-party product help, or better yet, buy a new, 
modern Macintosh. 

Einally, the Memory control panel will allow you to setup a RAM disk. 
This can be used to hold important applications and data to make a 
PowerBook run faster and to cut down on battery use (because the 
hard disk doesn’t spin all the time). Keep in mind, however, that the 
contents of RAM disks don’t get written through to the hard disk 
everytime you issue a save command. That means that with a RAM disk, 
you could lose data if the machine failed while the RAM disk was active, 
and before files were saved onto the hard disk. You can check on 
whether or not a file has been saved to disk simply by issuing another 
save command and seeing if the hard disk spins. 

Desktop Mac users, who want to run a RAM disk (if you have lots of 
RAM) to speed up the System and to keep some disk-intensive applica- 
tions always loaded into memory, should turn to third-party RAM disks 
to meet their needs. 

• Monitors sets the color depth of your monitor (see figure 3.24). You 
can choose 1 bit (Black and White), 2 bit (very limited grayscale— 4 
levels or 4 colors), 4 bit (better grayscale— 16 levels or 16 colors— like 
an IBM PC CGA monitor), 8 bit (256 grays or colors— better still), 16 bit 
(thousands of colors), or 24 bit (16.7 million grays or colors— ZOWIE! 
photorealistic images!). Your options, of course, are limited by the 
capabilities of your Mac’s display card or display monitor built-in port. 

150 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Settings of selected monitor : v7.5 

O Grays : 

® Colors : 

Drag monitors and menubar to rearrange desktop. 

O Rearrange On Restart 
® Rearrange On Close 

Black ^ While 







I — I [ Identify 

Figure 3-24 The Monitors control panel 

Unfortunately, the more pixels that you “turn on” on your monitor, the 
more RAM the system needs to keep it running, and consequently the 
slower the whole shebang runs. That’s why utilities like DepthKey, 
which let you set or change color depths for different applications and 
documents (after all, there’s no need to waste 16.7 million colors on a 
word processed text document, is there?) are so handy. Some applica- 
tions, like games or graphics, require a certain bit depth to display 
their images properly. 

Besides the performance penalty that grayscale or color brings to the 
party, don’t forget that you can’t even invite them if you don’t have a 
grayscale or color compatible monitor and video card. The Mac 512KE, 
Portable and Portable II, PowerBook 140, 145B, and 170, Plus, SE, 
SE/30, and Classic, and Classic II are strictly black and white machines 
using their built-in monitors (not that you will install 7.5.5 on these 

Virtually every other Mac can support color or grayscale monitors using 
built-in video or Nubus video cards to drive them. The Monitors 
control panel also lets you specify the positions for multiple monitors. 

So, for example, if you have the hot new SuperMac/Radius, Sony, NEC, 
or Apple 2-page color displays hooked to your Mac, you can hookup an 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 151 

old 13" Apple RGB monitor and use it to display some tear-off menus 
from applications, along with all your disk drives and network disks, 
without wasting any of that great 2-page display. 

• Mouse sets the mouse tracking speed and its double-clicking respon- 
siveness. If you use a non-Apple cursor controller, like a trackpad, 
trackball, or digitizer tablet, it will probably come with its own control 

• Network tells your Mac which network cabling system (LocalTalk/ 
PhoneNet, EtherTalk, or TokenTalk) you’d like to use at any given 
moment (you can be connected to more than one, but the Network 
control panel only lets you use one at a time, see figure 3.25). 

Apple! alk Connection : 3.0.2 


Built In 

4 *^ 

Built In 



Current Zone : MAC2 

AppleTalk Version: 53. 1 .3 
EtherTalk Version: 2.5.3 

Figure 3-25 The Network control panel 

To get around this limitation, to say, connect to an EtherTalk and a 
LocalTalk network simultaneously, you will need a third-party utility 
program, like Farallon’s Liaison, which is a network bridge/intelligent 
gateway software utility. Remember that regardless of which physical 
cabling system you choose to run or connect to, you are running 
AppleTalk protocols since that is the Mac’s built-in networking system. 
Third-party systems that don’t work through the Network control 
panel, like Novell’s NetWare Mac, are handled much differently. Please 
see the documentation that came with your third-party network to 

152 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

determine how it is interfaced with System 7.5.5. You should also read 
chapter 6 to get the full scoop on System 7.5.5 networking issues. 

• Numbers defines the kind of default format, separators, and currency 
notation used to display numbers on the screen. 

• PC Exchange allows you to open and use DOS, Windows, and ProDOS 
(Apple II) disks and files (see figure 3.26). You can assign specific 
applications to open each type of DOS, Windows, or ProDOS file with 
this panel. 

Each assignment below determines which 
Macintosh application program is used when 
you open DOS documents with a particular suffix. 

DOS Suffix 

Application Program 

Document Type 






Microsoft Vord 



Microsoft Excel 



[ Bdd... ) [ Change... ) ( Remoue~] 

® On O Off [ Options.. ■ ] 

Figure 3-26 The PC Exchange control panel 

• PowerBook controls the use of battery power (and the resultant 
performance) of your PowerBook. You can choose from a single slider 
control for this (Easy configuration) or a multiple slider control for 
screen dimming, hard disk use, and processor speed (Custom configu- 

• PowerBook Setup sets up and controls whether you have an internal 
or external modem installed, whether a phone call can wake up your 
modem and PowerBook, and the SCSI disk number if you are using 
your PowerBook as an attached SCSI hard disk to another Macintosh. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 153 

• PowerBook Monitors allows you to use external monitors connected 
to your PowerBook’s external video port. You may mirror your built-in 
display’s image on the monitor, or use the monitor as an extension of 
your display’s video space (in which case, you can use the Monitors 
control panel to establish which monitor is the primary one— where 
menu bars and other goodies are displayed). 

• PowerTalk Setup turns PowerTalk collaboration services on or off 
(see figure 3.27). It also can automatically lock your PowerTalk Key 
Chain, and force you to enter your PowerTalk Key Chain password 
upon Mac startup. You also use this control panel to change your Key 
Chain password and change the services that you can reach through 
your keychain. 

Collaboration Seruices 


I Collaboration Services are- pre-sently unavailable-. They 
O Off available after this Macintosh is restarted. 

I I Lock Key Chain after || | minutes of inactivity . 

I I Ask for Key Chain Access Code at startup. 

To add services or change your 

Access Code, open your PowerTalk f KOU Chain 1 
Key Chain. ^ 

Figure 3.27 The PowerTalk Setup control panel 

• Screen is used by Macs without screen controls to set screen display 
characteristics. Also used by some third-party screen saver programs. 

• Sharing Setup is an important control panel under System 7.5.5 (see 
figure 3.28). It registers your Mac on the network(s) to which you are 
connected, while letting you start or stop fde sharing, specify a master 
password for your Mac, and turn on program linking (interapplication 
hotlinks). It is so important, in fact, that chapter 6, “Networking vs. 
Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup),” discusses it in much 
more detail. 

154 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Sharing Setup 

Network Identity 

OvnerName: [Pon Crab^ 

Ovner Password : !•••••••• 

Macintosh Name : Don's Mac 

File Sharing 

[ stop ] 


File sharing is on. Click Stop to prevent other 
users from accessing shared folders. 

Program Linking 

[ Start ] 


Program linking is off. Click Start to allow other 
users to link to your shared programs. 

Figure 3-28 The Sharing Setup control panel 

• Sound lets you choose an alert sound and volume, record a new alert 
sound (on Macs with a microphone), choose a sound input source 
(such as microphone or internal CD player), set sound output param- 
eters (such as rate, size [8- or l6-bit on AV Macs for example], and 
stereo or mono), set relative volume levels (between the internal 
speaker, external speakers, and headphones), and choose various 
parameters for Macs using AV monitors (such as microphone level 

• Startup Disk sets the disk drive that your Mac will be booted from at 
start-up or restart time. 

• Text sets the behavioral characteristics of the default screen text 
(affects text sort order, case conversion, and related characteristics). 

• Users and Groups enables you to administer file sharing (see fig- 
ure 3.29). You can set the names and passwords of users who will 
share your files and folders. It works like a much stripped-down 
version of the AppleShare Administrator program. Chapter 6 gives 
you the details. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 155 

=l l^= 

Users & Groups : 

^ items 

316.1 NE in disk 

101 .7 NE available 

□ □ □ 

>on Crabb <<3ues:t Karen Whitehouse 

□ □ □ 

Angie Staoy ROGELBERG 

□ □ □ 

Meshell Brian Marta 


Figure 3-29 The Users and Groups control panel 

• Video controls and defines video sources on an AV Macintosh. 

• Views enables you to customize the way that icons and Finder window 
information is displayed. This one is discussed in detail in chapter 2. 

• WindowShade turns the WindowShade feature off or on, and lets you 
set the number of mouse clicks and select which (if any) modifier keys 
that will cause the window to “retract.” When a window is retracted, all 
you see is the window’s title bar (see figure 3.30). You can also turn 
the WindowShade sound on or off. 

=n = lilindoiuShade = 

1 liM 


^ Clicks to hide or show window : 



O ® O 

^ Off 2 3 

Also use modifier keys : 

□ I □ [Option I □ [control | 

^ M^ke sounds when using WindowShade 

Figure 330 The WindowShade control panel 

Using Multiple Programs 

One of the best ways to customize your Mac is to decide which applications 
you will use regularly and want to keep open simultaneously. Keeping 
multiple applications open at the same time can really be a time saver, but 

156 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

there are some drawbacks to doing so. Let’s take a look and figure out the 
best way to use this capability for you. 

Setting a Startup Configuration 

As long as you have enough memory (a big concern), you can keep many 
applications open and ready for use at all times. In order to set this configu- 
ration everytime you startup your Mac, place aliases to the applications that 
you use each day (don’t toss in the stuff you use only occasionally, because 
the more items you have open during the startup process, the longer startup 
will take and the more RAM that will be in use) into the Startup Items folder 
within the System Folder (see figure 3.31). 


Startup Items 

Figure 331 The Startup Items folder 

Each file that you place in the Startup Items folder opens everytime that you 
start your Mac. 

Doing Two (or More) Things at Once 

Once they are opened, applications can be made active by selecting them 
from the Application menu at the top right corner of the Finder desktop (see 
figure 3.32). 

Hide Finder 
Hide Others 
Shoui RH 

121 DarkSide 
s/P Finder 
^ Microsoft IHord 

QuicKeys^"^ Toolbon 

Figure 332 The Application menu 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 157 

You can make an application active (also known as bringing it to the fore- 
ground) simply by clicking on the window of the application with which you 
want to work. Keep in mind also that this built-in multitasking capability 
works for some Finder commands, too, most notably the Copy command. If 
you already launched some applications and want to do a large file copy 
while still working in one of those apps, you can do so with System 7.5.5. 

You can jump to the Finder using the Application menu, issue the Copy 
command, then jump back to your application (again using the Application 
menu) and continue working in it while the copy takes place. This is espe- 
cially handy when copying large numbers of files from a FileShare or 
AppleShare volume. Don’t forget, though, that this background copying 
activity will slow down things in the foreground (every time you press the 
mouse button, for example, the background process is interrupted). Also, if 
you haven’t already launched the applications that you want to use when 
you invoke the Finder command in the background, you will not be able to 
launch them while the copy or find is in progress. 

The key to successfully managing multiple applications under System 7.5.5 is 
to recognize that most of them are dead when you don’t have their windows 
active. Some applications, like spreadsheets or communications programs, 
may be able to carry on tasks in the background while you are doing some- 
thing else in the foreground (like recalculating a large spreadsheet or 
downloading a file), but most of them cannot. 

Even if you choose to run some applications in the background that are 
background-aware (for example, you might want to download a file from 
CompuServe’s ZMac forum while you are editing another file), this will affect 
your foreground application’s performance. The more system resources that 
the background application needs, the slower and more sluggish the appli- 
cation in the foreground runs. And you might even abort the background 
operation accidentally by using too many system resources in the fore- 
ground (you might try to render a 3-D object using Alias’s Sketch program 
for example, while doing a file download under Synergy’s VersaTerm Pro). 

I’ve run into this problem repeatedly since I started using System 7.5.5. If 
you expect to do anything critical in the background, you might as well bring 
that application to the foreground and let it complete its task unhindered by 

Mac Basics 

The Application 
menu lets you 
switch among all 
the applications that 
you currently have 
open, whether or 
not you opened 
them automatically 
during System 
startup. It also lets 
you hide or show 
different applica- 
tions to help you 
keep your screen 

Hiding applications 
that are running 
doesn’t shut them 
down or close their 
open files, it just 
moves their 
windows into the 
background and 
makes them 

158 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

any other application. The Mac, even under System 7.5.5, is not a true 
multitasking computer, like a Pentium PC running Windows 95. You have to 
remember this fact when launching and using multiple applications. If you 
don’t, you’ll get one nasty surprise after another. 

Setting Memory Requirements 

You also need to be careful about setting the preferred and minimum 
memory requirements for each application that you run, especially in a 
multiple application environment. As figure 3.33 shows, every application 
comes with a factory setting for the default amount of memory it needs to 
run (called the Suggested size). Don’t believe these numbers. You’ll almost 
always have to set them higher (by changing the preferred and minimum 
size numbers), from 10 to 50 percent higher, unless you like to watch the 
application abort with Type 1 errors. The only way to determine this amount 
is by the old saw of trial and error, I’m afraid. For myself. I’ve settled on 
giving most applications 25 percent more RAM than the minimum they 
require (again, this is the Suggested size) as a starting point. Some memory- 
intensive applications, like nuBASE (for which 2000K is suggested) get 50 
percent more (3000K) than it asks for, just to keep down the number of 
uninvited memory errors. 

ClarisUlorks Info 


Kind : application program 

Size : 60SK on disk (61 4,SS7 bytes used) 

Vhere : Macintosh HD : Applications : 

Claris Vorks 2.0 : 

Created : Thu, Mar 1 8, 1 993, 8 :00 PM 
Modified : Sun, Jul 31 , 1 994, 9 :21 AM 
Version: Claris Vorks 2.0 v1 
March 1 993 

Comments : 

I I Locked 

; -Memory Requirements 

! Suggested size : 950 K 
Minimum size : |950 ] K 

i Preferred size : 1 1200 I K 

Figure 3-33 Setting application memory 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 159 

You can, of course, choose to run with only the memory minimums. But 
don’t be too surprised when you start getting odd application aborts when 
running several large applications simultaneously. 

Applications simply need a bit more memory breathing space under 
System 7.5.5 than they did under 7.x. If you don’t have enough RAM to give 
it to them in a multiple application environment, consider running a smaller 
number of applications simultaneously. 

Setting System Preferences 

Besides the control panel preference settings that affect the desktop, 

System 7.5.5 includes a folder called Preferences that you’ll find under the 
System folder. Here, Apple and third-party vendors place various preference 
and customization documents for controlling different parameters (see 
figure 3.34). 


Figure 334 The Preferences folder 

Other than copying third-party preference documents to this folder, you 
don’t have much control over it. That’s likely to change under System 8, 
however, as the System moves more towards a modular, object orientation. 
For now, though, there’s not much need to sweat this one. 

Automating Your Work with 
AppieScript and AppieEvents 

When you use your Mac, the mouse and keyboard open documents and 
application programs, move documents and file folders, enter information, 
print, and perform any other actions you want. AppleScript and the System 
7.5.5 Scriptable Finder allow you to give your Mac a list of things you want it 
to do— a script— and let the Mac do everything on the list. 

160 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

You can create a script simply by turning on the AppleScript Script Editor 
recorder and performing a set of actions (see figure 3.35). AppleScript keeps 
a list of what you do while the recorder is on. When you turn the recorder 
off, you can see and edit the recorded script. When you run the script, your 
computer repeats your actions automatically. 

File Edit Controls Font Style 

I Descrip-tion : 


S] [X] CZ] 

stop Run Chock Syntax 




a ipt |<^|llll| :K>| 


Figure 335 AppleScript Script Editor recording a script 

Once you have recorded some actions, you can use AppleScript’s scripting 
language to give the script some special controls or to turn it into an execut- 
able application. You can also write a script directly without recording 
anything. A script might look like the following: 

on open x 

tell application "Scriptable Text Editor" 
open X 

set charCount to 0 
set wordCount to 0 
set paraCount to 0 

repeat with i from 1 to number of documents 

set charCount to charCount + (number of 
characters in document i) 
set wordCount to wordCount + (number of 
words in document i) 
set paraCount to paraCount + (number of 
paragraphs in document i) 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 161 

end repeat 

close documents saving no 

end tell 

display dialog "Total counts..." & return & -> 

"Chars : " & charCount & return & -■ 

"Words : " & wordCount & return & -■ 

"Paragraphs : " & paraCount 

end open 

Once you write the script, you can save it as an executable drag-and- 
droppable application (a so-called Applet). 

This script counts characters, words, and paragraphs in all text documents 
dropped onto it using the Scriptable Text Editor (this is a sample scriptable 
application that is included with System 7.5.5). You can use many applica- 
tion programs with AppleScript, as well as Finder 7.5.5 (using the Finder 
Scripting extension). Scripts can make the programs do many things for you. 
For example, a script might format a letter the way you want, save it in a 
particular folder, and print it. You will need to check the documentation of 
your favorite application to find out if it is scriptable. 

It is also important to note that you won’t be able to record a script in an 
application unless the application is AppleScript aware. 

You can also use AppleScript to combine the capabilities of applications 
together, into sort of a mega-application. For example, a script might use the 
calculation capabilities of a spreadsheet and the formatting capabilities of a 
word processor to assemble an invoice. 

Getting the Most out of AppleScript 

To get the most out of AppleScript as a System 7.5.5 modification and 
automation tool, you’ve got to adopt some strategies. In short, you have to 
decide just what you intend to do with AppleScript, and what you expect it 
to do for you. And if you are a Mac manager, you will have to pick some 
AppleScript strategies that work for your staffers and that you can afford to 

To develop such strategies, you need to consider just what scripting automa- 
tion can do for you. 

162 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Manager’s Tip Systemization is the straightforward 
process of assigning reachable goals, doable methods, and 
realistic timetables to any business problem. And it’s been 
around since the Flintstones. But what Mr. Slate didn’t have was 
today’s Macintosh (Rockintosh?) technologies to help him. As a 
result, his efforts at systemization often failed. 

Simply put, Mr. Slate and other Stone Age managers lacked a 
good scripting engine. Scripting, as we know it on Macs, is a 
control system for applying the same methods, commands, tools, 
and so on over and over again. Or to process different data with 
the same methods repeatedly. Or to attack similar problems with 
a predefined set of responses. All automatically. 

Fortunately, we Mac managers have a good scripting engine 
thanks to Apple’s Open Scripting Architecture (OSA), AppleScript 
1.1, and System 7.5. 5’s Scriptable Finder. Our problem is that 
few of us are taking advantage of it. 

The proper use of AppleScript and OSA can reduce the head- 
aches of managing changing staffs who don’t always know how 
to use their Macs for basic housekeeping. To make it work, you 
need to figure out some scripts that help your staff get its work 

Consider these starting points towards what are best called 
systematic scripting strategies: 

• Learn how to script yourself. While Mr. Slate would have 
given the task to Fred, don’t make the same mistake. Read 
The Tao of AppleScript, 2nd Edition (Hayden Books, 1994) 
and the AppleScript 1 .1 manuals (from the Apple Scripter’s 
Kit) and start scripting. Try working with the Scriptable 
Finder. Surf the Internet and check out the MacScripting 
mailing list (find it on for 
specifics on implementing AppleScript and Frontier scripts. 

• List the top five menial tasks your staff does each week. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 163 

• Try to automate at least one of these immediately with a 
script tied to the necessary applications. Good candidates 
for systematic scripting include the obvious, like full and 
incremental backups, as well as the not so obvious, like 
network optimization, (including regular server, gateway, 
router, and star rebooting to clear networking “state” slow- 
downs), and redundant or dead file removal and archival. 

• Pick the two most important weekly tasks your staff does 
and automate as many of them as possible with scripts. 
Even if they don’t use the scripts each week, the scripts will 
give them a starting point to automate their own work. 

The beauty of these kinds of management scripting strategies is that they can 
easier be scoped down to the personal level; the only difference is that you 
are managing yourself. Give it a try and see what I mean. 

AppleScript, System 7.5.5, and You 

System 7.5.5 gives you the Scriptable Finder (the Finder Scripting exten- 
sion), Script Editor (an application you use to open and run scripts, make 
new scripts by recording or writing them, and save scripts), Scriptable Text 
Editor (a scriptable text editor) that you can use to practice making scripts, 
and some sample scripts (in the Automated Tasks folders within the Apple 
Extras folders). If you want more help with scripting (and to get really good 
at it), you will need to buy some additional software: 

• AppleScript Scripter’s Kit, which includes the ErontMost application (a 
sort of AppleScript application development environment). 

• Scripter from Main Event Software. The best AppleScript editor and 
development environment you can buy. 

For now, let’s take a trip through AppleScript, shall we? 

Mac Basics 

Remember that if 
you don’t know 
where any of the 
AppleScript related 
files are on your 
Mac, use the Find 
command in the 
Finder to locate 

164 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Script Editor Basics 

The easiest way to create a script is to use the feature of the Script Editor 
called the recorder. The recorder records your actions and makes them into 
a script. 

To record a script that opens the Scriptable Text Editor and types a message, 
follow these steps: 

1 . Open the Script Editor by double-clicking its icon (see figure 3.36). 

Script Editor 

Figure 336 The Script Editor icon 

A new script window opens. 

2. In the Description window, type a description of your script. 

I called mine, Don’s First Script (see figure 3.37). You can use this 
description to tell what your script does or to explain something about 
the script. 

Description : 

Don's First Script 



SEE ^1 

Record Stop Run Check Syntax 


AppleScript ^ \^\ iiii i | ■: J i:] /.i; ; 


Figure 337 Describing a script in the Script Editor 

3. Click the Record button to start recording your script (see figure 3.38). 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 165 

Description : 


Don's First Sciipl| 

I ^ m rn 

J Stop Run 

Check Syntax 




Figure 338 Script Editor recording a script 

As long as the recorder is turned on, the Script Editor keeps a record of 
the things you do. While recording, the Apple icon in the menu bar 
alternates with a recording icon that looks like a cassette tape— this 
serves as a reminder that the Script Editor is recording your actions. 

4. Choose Einder from the Application menu. 

Do this step in order to open the Scriptable Text Editor (see fig- 
ure 3.39). 

Hide Script Editor 
Hide Others 
Shoui RH 

121 DarkSide 

I QuicKeys^"^ ToolboH 
Script Editor 

Figure 3-39 Choosing Finder from the Application menu 

5. Open the Scriptable Text Editor by double-clicking its icon (see fig- 
ure 3.40). 

166 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Figure 3- 40 Opening Scriptable Text Editor 

When you open the Scriptable Text Editor, an empty text window 

6. In the Scriptable Text Editor window, type the message /am in control 
here! (see figure 3.41). 

Figure 3- 41 Typing a message into the Scriptable Text Editor 

7. Select the word control and then choose bold from the Style menu 
(see figure 3.42). 


✓ Plain 3€T | 







Figure 3- 42 Bolding a word in the Scriptable Text Editor 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 167 

That’s the last action to include in the script. Now you’ll switch back to 
the Script Editor and turn off the recorder. 

8. Choose Script Editor from the Application menu (see figure 3.43). 

Hide Scriptable Te»t Editor 
Hide Others 
Shoio RH 

0 Finder 

|S| QuicKeys^"^ Toolbon 

^ Script Editor ^ 

Scriptable Tent Editor 

Figure 3- 43 Choosing Script Editor from the Application menu 
9. Click the Stop button in the script window (see figure 3.44). 


Description : 



ra CE 

Record Sti^' Run 

Check Syntax 

se I ecT Ti I e bc n i n i ec n noRi'g'gniiiTTiJTTi'sr 

open selection 
end tell 

tell application "Scriptable Text Editor" 

set selection to "I am in control here!" 
select vord 4 of document 1 
set style of selection to bold 

AppleScript ZM: 

Figure 3-44 Stopping the recording of a script 

When you stop recording, the Script Editor adds one last command 
to your script. Your script window should now look like that in 
figure 3.45. 

168 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Figure 3- 45 End of a script recording session 

You are now done recording your first script! Next you should quit the 
Scriptable Text Editor (not the Script Editor) so you can see what happens 
when you run your script (do that by selecting Scriptable Text Editor from 
the Application menu and quitting the application). 

To run your script from the Script Editor, simply click the Run button. 

When you run your script, the Scriptable Text Editor opens, displays a new 
window, types /flw in control here! in the window, and changes the style of 
the word control to bold. 

Congratulations, you’ve made and run your first script! 

You use the same Script Editor to edit the scripts that you create by record- 
ing (to give them additional capabilities or to alter the sequence of events 
you have recorded) or you can create direct AppleScripts by writing them, 
just as if you were writing a HyperTalk script or Pascal program. Of course, 
to do this, you really need to become an AppleScript developer, but this is 
not as foreboding as it sounds, so don’t start breaking out into the sweats. 
Being an AppleScript developer simply means being equipped with some 
goodies you don’t get with System 7.5.5 and then starting to script regularly. 
Eor all of that, you will definitely need the Scripter’s Kit, a copy of Main 
Event’s Scripter, and a copy of The Tao of AppleScript, 2nd Edition (Hayden 
Books, 1994). 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 169 

Saving Your Scripts 

You should save your scripts, but you do have a choice as how you want to 
save them. This choice depends on what you want to do with your script 
later. As such, you can either save your script so that you can: run your script 
by itself as an appUcation (without opening the Script Editor), open your 
saved script in the Script Editor, or open your saved script as text in another 
program (for example, in the Scriptable Text Editor). 

Use the first format if you have locked in what the script is going to do, know 
that it works, and want to save it. Use the second format if you still need to 
tinker with the script later on. Use the third if your script is going to become 
part of a much larger script, or if you are using it as an illustrative example 
for others (like in-house documentation). 

Using the Script Editor Everyday 

You can use the Script Editor to open any script except those that have been 
saved as run-only scripts. To open a script: 

• Choose Open Script from the Eile menu. 

• In the dialog box that appears, select the script you want to open and 
click Open. Of course, you should always save a copy of a script in 
editable format in case you want to modify it later on (which is double- 
click editable from the Script Editor). 

An application is scriptable when you can use AppleScript to control it. It is 
recordable when you can use the recorder with it. And to make things really 
confusing, an application can be scriptable without being recordable. You 
can tell the difference by trying the apps out or by checking with your 
software vendors. 

Now, having said all that, not all actions are recorded (you knew this was 
going to get complicated, didn’t you?). If you move the mouse in circles, for 
example, it won’t be recorded in your script. That’s because moving the 
mouse doesn’t result in a change in your document. The recorder records 
only things you do that change your document in some meaningful way. Eor 
example, typing a message in a text window is a meaningful change, because 

170 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

it makes something about the document different. Saving a file also results in 
a meaningful change. Clicking somewhere in the document doesn’t result in 
a change in the document and isn’t recorded. 

To start recording your actions as a script you need to: 

• Click the Record button in the active script window, or you can choose 
Record from the Controls menu. 

• Open a scriptable application and perform the actions you want to 

To stop the recording, you need to: 

• Click the script window to make it active (or choose Script Editor from 
the Application menu). 

• Click the Stop button, or choose Stop from the Controls menu. 

Script Editing and Formatting for Fun and Profit 

You edit a script much as you would edit any text document on your 
Macintosh computer. Taking a few minutes now to fiddle with the editing 
environment of the Script Editor will make it easier to use later on. The basic 
editing actions are shown in table 3.2. 

Table 3.2 Script Editor Commands 

Action Result 


Click and drag 

Press arrow key 

Option-Left Arrow key 

Places an insertion point in the text at the 
location where you clicked. 

Selects the portion of the script and then 
drags it. 

Selects a word. 

Selects an entire line. 

Moves the insertion point in the direction 
of the arrow. 

Moves the insertion point to the beginning 
of the line. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 171 



Option-Right Arrow key 

Moves the insertion point to the end of the 

Option-Up Arrow key 

Moves the insertion point to the beginning 
of the script. 

Option-Down Arrow key 

Moves the insertion point to the end of the 


Inserts a line-continuation character 


Moves the insertion point to the beginning 
of the next line. 

After you have recorded and/or written your script, you need to check it to 
see if its syntax is correct (yes, you are doing a kind of computer program- 
ming here). You can use the Script Editor to check the syntax of a script (just 
click the Check Syntax button). If the syntax is correct, the script is com- 

When you record a script and don’t make any changes to it, the Check 
Syntax button is not available. This is because the Script Editor does not 
record scripts with incorrect syntax. When you make a change to a recorded 
script, or when you write a script, you can use the Check Syntax button. 

The Script Editor identifies the first syntax error it finds for you by selecting 
the text that appears to contain the error. When the Script Editor finds a 
syntax error in a script, it does not apply any formatting to the script. Of 
course, you will need to study scripting in some detail (see The Too of 
AppleScript) in order to write truly interesting and useful scripts. 

Checking syntax won’t find all the problems a script can have, but it will 
identify AppleScript expressions that are put together incorrectly. A script 
containing syntax errors can be saved only as text, not as a compiled script 
or script application. 

When you write a script, all of the terms you type appear in the same font 
and size (the default is 10-point Courier). When you check the syntax, the 

172 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Script Editor applies different fonts, sizes, styles, and colors to the different 
kinds of terms in your script. 

Scripts have a number of different parts, including operators such as “+” 
and “=”, keywords, comments, and more. The Script Editor keeps track of 
these different parts for you, and applies formatting to help you identify 

You can change the fonts, sizes, styles, and colors used for parts of scripts. 
The changes you make apply to all of your scripts, not just the active script. 

If you want to change this default script formatting, you need to: 

• Choose AppleScript Eormatting from the Edit menu of the Script 

• In the dialog box that appears, click a script element to select it. 

• Use the Eont and Style menus to choose a font, size, style, and color 
for the script element you selected. 

Table 3-3 is a short list of the kinds of terms you can format with the Script 

Table 3.3 Script Editor Formatting Terms 

Category What It Means 

New text Any portion of a script you type before saving, 

running, or checking syntax— or an entire 
script that will not compile due to syntax 


Language keywords 
Application keywords 

Operators perform actions (“operate”) on 
values. Eor example, the “+” operator adds 
two values together. 

The scripting terms built into AppleScript and 
available to all scripting applications. 

The scripting terms specific to an application. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 173 


What It Means 


Explanations about things in your script. You 
can use them for yourself and for people who 
read your scripts. The Mac ignores comments. 


A kind of data (information) that AppleScript 
can use. Numbers can be values. 


Terms that are used as containers for values 
(such as a number or a word). 


Phrases that specify an object that a script can 
identify. For example, “word 2 of document 1” 
is a reference. Reference formatting is applied 
only in the Result window, not in the script 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip To format a script, you 
must use the AppleScript Formatting command; you 
can’t just select part of a script and choose an item from 
the Font or Style menus. This is so the formatting is consistent 
throughout the whole script. You can, however, use the Font and 
Style menus to format text in the description area of the script 
window. If you save the script as an application, the formatting 
you apply to its description appears in the script’s startup screen. 

In addition to formatting your script by choosing fonts, sizes, 
styles, and colors, the Script Editor automatically indents some 
lines of your scripts. All lines within compound statements are 
indented. (A compound statement is one that takes up more than 
one line and includes other statements within it.) 

You can use the Tab key to indent lines in your scripts. If you use 
the Tab key in the middle of a line, however, the tab will be 
replaced by a space when you check syntax. 


174 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


To indent your scripts automatically, press Return at the end of 
each line. 

To force the next line of your script to begin at the left margin, 
hold down the Shift key and press Return. 

Lines in a script are sometimes too long to fit in the active win- 
dow. You can make a line shorter by breaking it up into two lines 
with the continuation character. To insert a continuation charac- 
ter into a line in your script, hold down the Option key and press 
Return. A line broken into two or more lines with a continuation 
character is treated as a single line when you run your script. 

You can save a script as one of three kinds of documents: 

• as a text file, for opening in the Script Editor or other Macintosh 

• as a compiled script, for opening in the Script Editor; 

• as an application, for use by itself, without the Script Editor. 

You can save a script in a format that can be run but cannot be opened in 
the Script Editor (or any other application). This is called a run-only script. 
When you save a script as an application, two additional buttons appear in 
the dialog box: 

• Stay Open Choose this option when you want your script to remain 
available after it runs (instead of quitting automatically). This can be 
useful when you want to send commands from another script to the 
open script. 

• Never Show Startup Screen Choose this option when you don’t 
want the startup screen to appear. The startup screen displays the 
description of the script you write in the top part of the Script Editor 

AppleScript Dictionaries 

Every scriptable application (including the Finder, which is an application) 
has its own dictionary, which is a set of AppleScript terms that you can use 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 175 

with it. You can open an application’s dictionary in order to find out what 
terms are available and their syntax. 

A suite is a set of AppleScript terms that are related. The required suite is the 
most basic set of AppleScript terms. The standard suite is the set of terms 
that every scriptable application should support. Most scriptable applications 
(such as the Scriptable Text Editor) also have their own suite of commands. 

The terms available in an application’s dictionary are organized into suites. 
For example, the Scriptable Text Editor Dictionary includes the required 
suite, the standard suite, and the Scriptable Text Editor suite. 

You can also use the Script Editor to write scripts for scripting systems other 
than AppleScript, but that is way outside the scope of this short introduc- 
tion, and the purpose of this book. 

But to give you some brief familiarity with other scripting systems, you 
should know that a scripting system is software that lets you write scripts. 
You write scripts using a set of terms put together according to rules of 
syntax that support Apple’s Open Scripting Architecture (OSA). AppleScript 
has one set of terms and syntactic rules. Other scripting systems offer 
different terms and rules. 

To use a different scripting system, you must first install that system. To find 
out how to install a specific scripting system, see the documentation that 
came with it. To use the Script Editor with an installed scripting system, 
choose the scripting system from the pop-up menu at the bottom of the 
Script Editor window. For more information about a scripting system you 
have on your Macintosh, see the information that came with the scripting 

Showing the Results of a Script 

When a script runs, some of its expressions can produce an outcome or a 
result. For example, the expression “2+2” produces the result “4.” When a 
script produces a result, it appears in the Result window of the Script Editor. 
Some error messages also appear in the Result window. 

176 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

You can open the Result window at any time when you use the Script Editor. 
To open the Result window, simply choose the Show Result command from 
the Controls menu of the Script Editor. 

Using References in Scripts 

You can use the Paste Reference command (in the Edit menu) to paste an 
object reference into your script. An object reference is an AppleScript 
phrase that identifies an object in an application program. For example, the 
phrase “word 3 of document 1” identifies an object in the Scriptable Text 

You can paste references only from applications that support this particular 
feature; an application can be scriptable and recordable without allowing 
pasting of object references. You will need to check on the scriptability of 
any application you want to control in this manner. 

Script Editor Commands 

The Script Editor supports the commands shown in table 3.4 (yes, I know 
this is boring and pedantic as all get out. But you will note that We 
Macintosh System 7.5.5 Upgrade Guide documents none of this!): 

Table 3.4 Script Editor Commands 

Command Function 

In the File menu: 

New Script 

Open Script 
Open Dictionary 



Opens a new script window in which you can 
write or record a new script. 

Opens the script you select. 

Opens a window containing all the AppleScript 
terms you can use with an application you 

Closes the active window. 

Compiles and saves the script in the active script 
window. If you have not saved the script before, 
choose the format in which to save the script. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 177 

Command Function 

Save As 

Save As Run-Only 


Page Setup 


Set Default 
Window Size 


the name, and the location. To save a script 
without compiling it, hold down the Shift key 
while you choose the Save command. 

Saves a copy of the script in the active script 
window. You specify a name and a location and 
choose the format in which to save the script. 
The new copy becomes the active script. 

Saves a copy of the script in the active script 
window as a compiled script, or an application 
that cannot be edited. You specify a name and a 
location in which to save it. 

Returns the script in the active script window to 
the way it was the last time you saved it. Any 
changes you made since the last time you saved 
the script are lost. 

Opens a dialog box in which you can choose 
page size, orientation, and other printing 
options. The options you can choose depend on 
the printer you selected in the Chooser. 

Prints the script in the active script window. The 
name of the script and its description are also 
printed. Different parts of the script are printed 
in the font, size, style, and color that you chose 
in the AppleScript Formatting dialog box. 

Sets the size of the active script window as the 
default. New script windows that you open (by 
choosing New Script from the File menu) are 
automatically opened at the default size. 

Quits the Script Editor. 


178 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Table 3.4 Continued 

Command Function 

In the Edit menu: 






Paste Reference 

Select All 



Reverses the effects of your last action. If you 
choose Undo while recording a script, the last 
line you see in the script window is removed. 

Removes selected text and places a copy on the 

Places a copy of selected text on the Clipboard. 

Places a copy of the text that’s on the Clipboard 
at the location of the insertion point, in either 
the description area or the script area of the 
active script window. 

Removes selected text without placing a copy on 
the Clipboard. 

Pastes an AppleScript expression from the 
Clipboard into the script area of the active script 
window (at the location of the insertion point). 
The AppleScript expression is a reference— a 
phrase that identifies something in an applica- 
tion program. For example, “word 2 of docu- 
ment 1” is a reference that might be used with a 
scriptabie word-processing application. You can 
use the Paste Reference command only with 
application programs that support it. 

Selects all the text in the description area or 
script area of the active script window, which- 
ever contains the insertion point. 

Opens a dialog box in which you select the 
font, size, style, and color of text indicating 
various parts of scripts. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 179 



In the Controls menu: 


Starts recording your actions as a script. Choos- 
ing Record is the same as clicking the Record 
button in the active script window. 


Checks the script in the active script window for 
syntax errors, and if no errors are found, 
compiles and runs the script. Choosing Run is 
the same as clicking the Run button in the active 
script window. 


Stops a script that is currently running. 

Show Result 

Opens the Result window. The Result window 
displays the outcomes of some types of expres- 
sions in scripts. (For example, a script with the 
expression “2+2” would display “4” in the 
Result window.) 

In the Font and Style menus: 

Font, Size, Style, 

Changes selected text in the description area 

and Color 

of a script window, and changes text indicating 
different parts of a script when used with the 
AppleScript Formatting command. 

Any changes you make to the formatting of the text in the description area 
also appear in the startup screen when the script runs. 

Using Third-Party Products to 
Enhance Your AppieScript 

Over the last couple of weeks, I’ve been putting it all together. How to get 
the most out of Apple’s current system software, that is. For my money, that 
currency lies in a combo platter of scripting, agency, and automation. The 
Apple technologies that offer these capabilities, of course, are AppleEvents, 
AppleScript, and PowerTalk/PowerShare. 

180 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

But tying them together in productive ways has proven elusive, thanks in 
large part to an appalling lack of scriptable applications, the late arrival of 
the Scriptable Finder (with System 7.5.5), and to scriptable toolkit widgets. 

Power AG ENT 

Thankfully, a tiny company, .i.SouthBeach Software Corp.;SouthBeach 
Software Corp., has attacked that last part of this problem with aplomb. Its 
program PowerAGENT, which I’ve spent the months abusing, points the way 
to using Apple’s core automation technologies together. 

PowerAGENT (third-party Applescript utility); PowerAGENT uses 
AppleEvents scripting and the email built into PowerTalk to automate those 
important but tedious daily tasks. The software also works directly with CE 
Software’s QuickMail as well as the other 70 or so AppleScript-aware 
applications, like Excel 5.0, QuicKeys 3.5, TouchBase Pro 4.0, PageMaker 
5.0, QuarkXPress 3.5, and others. 

But the really useful PowerAGENT connection is its support for Claris’s 
EileMaker Pro 3.0. With that connection, you can run PM Pro scripts on a 
timed basis, making it a breeze to update an PM Pro view into a larger server 
database every hour, every day, or every week. Later versions of the software 
will support the full Database Suite of AppleEvents for other software. 

Unlike some other automation agents I have used and found beneficial, also 
the first agent that’s completely intuitive to setup and use. 

To create a PowerAGENT job, you run the PowerAGENT front-end applica- 
tion from a very straightforward job list window that catalogs each job via a 
job card. The PowerAGENT system extension runs in the background and 
keeps track of timed events so they go off when needed. The PowerAGENT 
Messenger program actually processes the jobssending AppleEvents, pro- 
cessing scripts, and provides the PowerTalk control features. 

PowerAGENT lets you build a list of automated tasks. You define each task 
and you also define how to accomplish it. PowerAGENT can handle five 
different kind of jobs: sending alerts to networked users or to yourself, 
printing messages, sending email (messages and faxes, too), executing 
simple or complex AppleScripts, and executing a EileMaker Pro script. 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 181 

The last two kinds of jobs really give PowerAGENT its control and connec- 
tion flexibility. The scripting control, for example, allows you to automate 
database data retrieval, package that data into an AppleMail or QuickMail 
enclosure, and blast it out to your key staffers who need this info-update 

PowerAGENT also shines with its PowerTalk control. Eor example, it was 
easy to setup a job to drive a pager gateway to send pages to a Newton 

The problem with PowerAGENT is that it’s still a rare product. We need 
many such automation widget tools and we sure need more than 70 
scriptable applications. PowerAGENT costs $159 list, and approximately 
$99 on the street. SouthBeach Software Corp. is at 2631 Lincoln Ave., 
Coconut Grove, EL. 33133. Phone (305) 858-8416; fax (305) 857-0420. 

Cron Manager 

In order to execute AppleScripts or AppleScript applications in a timed 
manner, execute important System functions, or open System documents 
when you 

want them to execute (talk about customizing your Mac!) you can use 
PowerAGENT, or an even simpler utility like .i.Cron Manager (third-party 
AppleScript utility) ;Cron Manager. Here’s how Cron Manager works. 

It’s 11:30 on a Tuesday, and you’ve got to give a big presentation in two 
hours. Fortunately, you’ve also got Cron Manager, a helpful little utility 
program for your Apple Macintosh from Orchard Software. Cron Manager 
automatically launched your presentation program an hour after you turned 
your Mac on this morning, reminding you to get cracking. As a result, you’re 
flying high and ready to dazzle your boss. 

Cron Manager is one of those important utility programs that is so easy to 
use, so intuitive, and so helpful that you wonder why Apple doesn’t include 
it with System 7.5.5. Fortunately, since it costs only $26.95 (plus two bucks 
for shipping), you can afford to buy it yourself. 

To use Cron Manager, you create fde aliases for the files or applications (like 
your saved AppleScripts) you want to open at specific times and on specific 

182 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

days. That takes about two seconds. Then you rename the aliases to reflect 
the days and times you want those files or applications to open. That takes 
another two seconds. Then place the renamed aliases into the Cron Events 
Folder that gets installed when you install Cron Manager on yourMac. 
Another two seconds. And that’s it. Now that is some serious System 7.5.5 
modification with no sweat invested. 

The files and applications that you aliased with Cron Manager will open 
automatically (assuming that your Macintosh is turned on, of course!) at the 
time and on the day that you specified in their names. For example, suppose 
you wanted that presentation to open on April 11, 1997 at 9:00 A.M. You 
would rename the alias file of the presentation “4/11/957 9.00”. Cron 
Manager then knows that this file must be opened on April 11th, 1995 at 
9:00 A.M. 

Or suppose you wanted to open that presentation every day at the same 
time. You could name it “9.00”. Or if you want it to open every Monday and 
Tuesday at noon, you’d name it “Mon Tues 12.00”. Get it? It’s so darn 
simple, you have to really try to mess it up. 

Cron Manager (which is really a version of a standard utility found with the 
UNIX operating system) is a control panel on your Macintosh and it works 
like a smarter version of Apple’s own Startup Items folder. The Cron Events 
folder expands upon that by allowing you to pick any day and any time to 
automatically open files or applications. 

The program can do a lot more to help you manage your time better and to 
use your AppleScripts automagically. It can open a file repeatedly, say every 
hour during the day for three days a week (Mon Wed Fri *60), or open it 
every four hours but only during April of 1997 (4/-/1997 *240). Or, open the 
file two hours after you start your Mac each morning (+ 120). All you have to 
do is make the file alias, copy it to the Cron Events Folder, and then rename 
it with this abbreviated date and time syntax. 

If have any trouble naming your automatic files. Cron Manager comes with 
succinct online help. The program, blessedly, doesn’t need much memory 
and it won’t slow your Mac down. The beauty of Cron Manager is that it sits 
there in the background, completely unobtrusive, just waiting to launch 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 183 

your AppleScripts, your files, and your applications according to your 

You can also get Cron Manager with another clever utility program called 
CLlmate, which is a command line interface and scripting system that works 
parallel to AppleScript, for those of you who feel the need to make your 
Macintosh work like a DOS machine (with the command line prompt 
blinking at you). That bundle costs 159-95, plus three bucks for shipping. 
Cron Managers is from Orchard Software, Inc., P.O. Box 380814, Cambridge, 
MA 02238-0814, 617-876-4608. 

Chapter 3 Summary 

Before 1 complete this chapter, and move on to a discussion of QuickDraw 
GX, fonts, and printing in chapter 4, it’s time once again to summarize our 
discussion and the personal use and management issues you should be 
thinking about. I’ve put together some issues to reflect on before you move 
to this chapter’s computing quiz and the next chapter. 

The key issues raised in this chapter with which you should now be conver- 
sant include: 

• Modifying your Mac under System 7.5.5 is just as easy as it was under 
System 7.x. 

• Deciding on customization goals won’t be easy, since it will involve 
compromises, but it’s necessary if you’re going to be happy with 
System 7.5. 5’s performance and utility. 

• Managing your Mac staffers on the customization issue will be even 
tougher, since you’ll have to figure out how to create the custom 
computing environment they want, without creating a support head- 
ache for you. 

• Control panels, extensions, DAs, and Apple Menu items can improve 
the way your Mac works, as long as you remember not to overload 
your Mac with too many of each. 

• You may still need good third-party control panels and extensions to 
reach your customization goals. 

184 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• When moving to System 7.5.5, check the compatibility of System 7.x 
extensions and control panels using the Safe Install Utility. 

• How to create, save, and use AppleScripts. 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 3 

With the many customization issues in mind, consider each of the questions 
below in the context of your individual Macintosh installation: 

1 . What do you expect to get out of adding Chooser extensions, startup 
documents, and control panels to your Macs or your staffer’s Macs? 

2. What don’t you or your staffers like about the standard 7.5.5 environ- 
ment? Will AppleScript make it easier for you to modify? 

3. What startup goodies did you have installed under System 7.x? Do you 
know what they did to your System? 

4. How much memory did they all take up? Getting the point here? 

5. How much memory will the third-party control panels and startup 
documents use under System 7.5.5? See what I mean? 

6. Have you checked the compatibility of these system modifiers with the 
Safe Install Utility? What about the compatibility of the desk accessories 
and applications that you want to drag into your System Folder’s Apple 
Menu Items Folder? Do you even know what the Safe Install Utility is? 

7. Where can you go for help in determining System modifier compatibil- 

8. How important is stable operation to you and your Mac staffers? How 
often are you all willing to put up with rebooting your machines? The 
more you modify your Mac, the more you will make it crash, no matter 
how reliable and compatible the modifiers might be. 

9. What’s the difference between a startup document, a control panel, 
and a Chooser extension? 

10. What happens to your third-party extensions, control panels, and desk 
accessories when you install System 7.5.5? 

Chapter 3: Modifying the System 7.5.5 Environment 185 

If you are stumped by any of these questions, you should reread this chap- 
ter. Even a quick perusal of this chapter will put you in better shape to make 
decisions about your personal Mac environment and about the environ- 
ments of your staff. 

One final point: Remember that every change made to the standard 
Mac System makes it inherently more unreliable, and since System 
7.5.5 defines the virtual desktop across the network quite well (with capabili- 
ties like PowerTalk, filesharing, aliasing, and lAC hotlinks), System changes 
made on one Mac may influence many others. That whole issue, of course, 
the “sociology of virtual desktop features” is really the core of this book, and 
I’ll be discussing it fully in chapter 6. 

In the meantime, if you’ve got some System 7.x modifiers lying around that 
you want to use under System 7.5.5, you’ve got some compatibility home- 
work to do. Reread my “how to” steps in this chapter; read the details on 
using the Safe Install Utility in The Macintosh System 7. 5-5 Upgrade Guide, 
and then roll up your sleeves and get to it. But don’t sweat it! 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 3 

1 . You better expect a changed Mac environment, because you are editing 
the System at startup time with every startup document, extension, and 
control panel. If you can’t answer this quickly and cleanly, you’ve got 
potential problems. Will you be surprised if you crash the Macs by 
adding too many of these “goodies?” 

2. It’s pretty darned good out of the box this time, so try to live with a 
standard System 7.5.5 environment for a while. If you are expecting 
perfection, you will be disappointed. AppleScript will let you build a 
bunch of custom AppleScripts and Applets to make your Mac spin on 
the head of pin if you want (more or less.) 

3. How would I know? I am not clairvoyant (although I do read Jean 
Dixon everyday, don’t you?!). But you better find out before you install 
System 7.5.5. 

186 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

4. Ditto. 

5. Ditto times two. 

6. Better check now, sport. 

7. The Safe Install Utility and your third-party vendor. Probably in that 

8. It better be really, really important, unless you like stomach acid. 

9. Gimme a break, you know this stuff! 

10. They are still there, and will cause problems if they are incompatible. 


Fonts and Printing 

ith the release of its long-awaited QuickDraw GX architec- 
ture as part of System 7.53, Apple has 
a very good shot at revolutionizing the 
world of Electronic Document Prepara- 
tion. (For those who like to follow these 
things, “Electronic Document Prepara- 
tion” or EDP is the new, politically 
correct euphemism for the now passe 
term “Desktop Publishing. ’’Aren’t you 
glad you’re enlightened?) 

188 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Whether it be EDP or DTP, QuickDraw GX will have a profound effect on 
desktop computing. However, for now, if you are already familiar with 
System 7’s method of handling fonts and printing, you will immediately feel 
at home in System 7.5.5. On the surface, little has changed. Beneath the 
surface, though, there’s a whole new world waiting to be explored. . . 

This chapter will show you how, why, and when to use QuickDraw GX and 
GX fonts, what has happened with Adobe Type 1 and TrueType Fonts, and 
how to use and manage printing and imaging resources with System 7.5.5. 

Which fonts are included with System 7.5.5 and what’s the deal on them? 
And, why should you care about them? How will they influence the way that 
you and your Mac users print documents? Let’s install them and see what’s 
happening. But before we do that, it’s a good idea to remind ourselves about 
Apple TrueType font technology that carries over from System 7.x (and if you 
are new to the Mac, you need to know where we came from to get to 
QuickDraw GX and GX fonts). 

TrueType Fonts 

The term TrueType fonts, like any other “font” type on the Macintosh, refers 
to a way of generating type both on the screen and on output devices like 
printers. If you know anything about printing and publishing, you probably 
know that the term “font,” as it has been used from the days of the first 
Macintosh, is an incorrect usage of a well-worn printing term. 

What Apple and the Macintosh world calls “fonts” are really typefaces— 
designed groups of letters, numbers, and symbols that have a particular 
“look.” Although typeface names can be copyrighted, their look cannot. This 
is especially important for Macintosh users who might consider buying new 
TrueType versions of fonts they already own, but are in other font formats 
(like PostScript fonts or Bitstream fonts— more about these later). 

So while the font (typeface) called Garamond, which is sold and copyrighted 
by Adobe Systems, has a particular look, the look is not copyrighted, only the 
name is. Nothing prevents another font company, like Bitstream, or even 
Apple, from producing a Garamond-looking font so long as they call it 
something else. 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 189 

OK, enough of that stuff, (it gives me a headache too), but you need to keep 
this in mind throughout this chapter. Let me get back to my original ques- 
tion: What is a TrueType font? 

TrueType is a font technology that Apple invented (and Microsoft licensed). 
It’s an outline font technology, which means that the System 7.5.5 software 
uses mathematical descriptions (algorithms) to draw fonts on the screen, 
rather than using an exact picture of each font in each size (which is what 
bitmapped fonts are). 

TrueType also uses the same mathematical descriptions to create fonts on 
output devices, like printers, that are TrueType-compatible. (Any printer that 
can print PostScript fonts is also TrueType compatible.) In fact, I can’t think 
of a single printer in Mac shops that is unable to use TrueType fonts and 
Apple’s method of printing them. 

What this means for Mac users is that their existing printer hardware will 
work just fine with System 7.5.5 TrueType fonts (which is also true for 
QuickDraw GX fonts). In fact, ancient dot matrix printers, like ImageWriters 
and ImageWriter IIs suddenly take on higher resolution aspects as they are 
driven to their maximum dot matrix potential (144 dots per inch for the 
ImageWriter II) with TrueType fonts. 

TrueType fonts can be rendered at the maximum resolution on any output 
device, thanks to the way that Apple implemented them in System 7.5.5. 

The basic font set provided with System 7.5.5 includes both TrueType (AKA 
standard) and QuickDraw GX fonts. The TrueType fonts include Chicago, 
Courier, Geneva, Helvetica, Monaco, New York, Symbol, and Times fonts; 
I’ve listed the GX fonts in the next section. 

Installing Fonts 

Apple expanded its font offerings with System 7.5.5 to include several new 
GX fonts— Apple Chancery, Hoefler Text (regular, bold, italic, and bold- 
italic), Hoeffer Ornaments, Skia, and Tekton Plus (Adobe’s hugely popular 
Tekton typeface). System 7.5.5 installs these fonts along with the standard 
TrueType fonts (when you install QuickDraw GX). QuickDraw GX works 
with these and all TrueType fonts without modification. 

190 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

however, you do not need to install QuickDraw GX to use these new GX 
fonts, but you do have to run the QuickDraw GX Installer to place them in 
your Fonts folder. After you install the fonts, you will be able to use them, 
even if you are not running QuickDraw GX (say, for example, you have 
turned it off with the Extensions Manager to save RAM or because you don’t 
have any GX-compatible printers or applications). But you will lose GX’s 
graphics and typographic manipulation capabilities vis a vis these fonts if you 
don’t have GX running. 

OK, let’s get started. . . 

The first step is to run the System 7.5.5 and QuickDraw GX Installers. It’s 
simple, the Installers do ail the work. The System 7.5.5 Installer places 
Apple’s standard fonts into the Fonts folder (found in the System Folder), 
and the QuickDraw GX Installer does likewise for the new GX fonts. The 
QuickDraw GX Installer also installs Apple’s QuickDraw GX extension and 
GX-compatibie printer drivers, along with Adobe’s ATM GX. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Unless you have more 

than 8 MB of RAM on a 68K Mac and 1 6 MB of RAM on 

^ ^ a Power Mac, don’t bother trying to run QuickDraw GX. 
It just won’t work properly. Even if it works, it won’t work well and 
it will slow down your Mac. 

You should know that if you are installing System 7.5.5 (see figure 4.1) over 
an existing System, the QuickDraw GX installer automatically “enables” 
any PostScript Type 1 fonts it finds already installed. Type 1 PostScript 
printer fonts should be enabled before they are used with ATM (Adobe Type 
Manager) GX version (which is included with System 7.5.5). However, your 
original Type 1 fonts are protected. The installer places backup copies of 
them in an ‘Archived Type 1 Fonts* folder in the System folder, so you can 
reinstall them if you remove or disable the QuickDraw GX extension. 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 191 

Reading from: 


Install Quit 1 Cr a w ' GX 1 QuickDraw’" GX 2 

Installing onto the disk “Internal” 

lUriting QuickDram^” GH 

^ I ( Cancel ) 

Figure 4. 1 Installing QuickDraw GX 

Installing additional fonts under System 7.5.5 is easy. You install them the 
same way you did with earlier versions of System 7. First, quit all running 
programs and then drag your font suitcases and PostScript printer fonts onto 
the closed System folder (see figure 4.2). The Mac will automatically put 
them where they belong (after asking you if it can do so, of course). 

Figure 4.2 Dragging a Font suitcase to the System folder 

Even though the Mac does the installation on its own, you can always choose 
the Macintosh Guide command from the Help menu and let System 7.5.5 
walk you through the procedure (see figure 4.3). 

192 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

If you forget what 
any font looks like, 
open the Fonts 
folder in the System 
folder and double- 
click on the font 
suitcase. In the 
window that 
appears, double 
click on the dog- 
eared icon that has 
three little “A’s” 
pictured on it. A 
font window 
appears displaying 
text in three 
different type sizes 
(9, 12, and 18 point 
type) as in figure 
4.4. The phrase 
“How razorback- 
jumping frogs can 
level six piqued 
contains every 
letter of the 
alphabet, so you 
can see how your 
font will look when 
you use it in your 




Topics Index Look For 

1 . Click a topic area: 2 . Click a phrase, then click OK: 

Revievv-ing the Basics 

use more than one printer? 


Working Vv'ith Programs 


change printing options? 



create a portable digital document? 


previevv" hovv" my document Vv'ill print? 

Using DOS Files ^ Disks 

share a printer Vv'ith other users? 


Netvv-orks ^ Telecommunications 

find out -vvhich fonts are installed? ^ 

Setting Options 

find out -vvhich characters are in a font? 


change the font used in icon names? 


^ Definitions 


background printing 




[ OK ] 

Figure 4.3 Using the Macintosh Guide to learn how to install an 
remove font 

:-9 point ^ 

i How nLsoiback-^iiJTpLng frog; can level ax piqued 
i gymnast;! 

- 1 2 point \ 

How raaotback- jumping fro can level I 
six piqued gymnasts! 

- 1 8 point 

How razorback-jumping 
frogs can level six piqued 

Figure 4. 4 The Font display window 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 193 

Figure 4.5 Using ResEdit to change the text in the Font display window 

Mac Masters 

To display a more 
representative text 
sampling in the font 
window, create a 
copy of the Finder. 
Open the copy in 
ResEdit and open 
String 14516 in the 
STR# resource. 
Replace the 
existing text with 
your preferred text 
(see figure 4.5). 
Save your changes 
and quit ResEdit. 
Replace the current 
Finder with your 
modified version 
and restart your 
Mac. Your text will 
now appear in the 
font window instead 
of the original 
frogs text. 

Basic Usage — Fonts 101 

So what’s the big deal? Why all this fuss over fonts? Well, other than the fact 
that Apple would be out of business right now if it had not embraced DTP 
(and now, EDP) early on, and other than the fact that Mac remains the best 
EDP computer you can buy, fonts are very important! 

The point is, fonts, typography, and printing all make a big impact on the 
documents you produce everyday and what people think of them (and, as a 
result, think of you). 

Of course, every printed document consists of text or graphics, and usually 
both at the same time. A single picture may proverbially replace a thousand 
words, but it’s generally the words themselves that must convey the actual 
message (consider, for example, the relationship of text to graphics in the 

194 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

book you are reading). Using a wrong typeface is like wearing a tuxedo to a 
mud-wrestling match, gym sweats to a formal dinner, or a bikini to bar 
mitzvah. Wear the wrong outfit and you’re likely to make an undesirable first 
impression. Making a good impression is what using fonts and typography is 
all about. 

Choosing complementary fonts to dress up your words is like picking the 
right clothes for any occasion. After all, you wouldn’t send out engraved 
wedding invitations printed in a chunky stenciled font like that used on 
packing crates, would you? OK, you might, but you’d guarantee yourself 
lousy attendance (even from the reception-freeloading third cousins) and 
years of behind the back carping from your mom about “those cheesy- 
looking wedding invitations.” 

To get to the real basics of fonts and typography, consider the many typo- 
graphical niceties that have developed over the last several centuries of 
printing. Such things as ligatures, proper fractions, and kerning all help 
polish your documents because the visual impact matches the intellectual 

Let’s agree, then, that it’s a good idea to select the right typeface (font) for 
the job and that it should look good as well. That’s why Apple includes so 
many new fonts with System 7.5.5— more fonts equals more ways to commu- 
nicate in print. That’s also why these new fonts are GX fonts. Apple’s new 
GX architecture allows developers to create individual fonts containing all 
the possible characters you could ever wish for— ligatures, special symbols, 
old-style numerals, and so on— up to as many as 65,000 characters in all (see 
figure 4.6)! That’s a boatload of characters, monfreres. 

GX supports diverse non-Roman languages, such as Japan’s Kanji, that 
contain thousands of symbols. GX also handles languages that read right-to- 
left instead of left-to-right, as well as down-to-up instead of up-to-down. 

Each GX font can contain detailed information about kerning, tracking, 
ligatures, stem widths, character weights, special punctuation, character 
accents, and more. GX fonts can also include alternate characters, small 
caps, old-style numerals, superior and inferior numbers, fractions, swashes, 
ornaments, and. . . well, the list is a long one that’s limited only by the font 
designer’s imagination. 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 195 

I HpplH Chnnctri | 

Figure 4. 6 Apple Chancery GX contains more than a thousand different 

GX font technology is one of the reasons that System 7.5.5 and QuickDraw 
GX will be more important to developers initially, rather than to users, 
because developers will be leveraging this stuff to give us the cool products, 
font libraries, and so on, that GX makes possible. 

Using GX Fonts 

The possibilities for type enhancement under QuickDraw GX are probably 
more than you could ever explore and certainly more than you can use. But 
here are a few possibilities, just to tickle your fancy. 

So what if GX fonts include features like built-in kerning? Who wants to do 
manual kerning anyway? And, you might ask how you are expected to find- 
much less type— 65,000 characters on your keyboard? 

Before QuickDraw GX, if you wanted to include ligatures in your docu- 
ments, you needed either a complementary styled font that contained the 

196 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

ligatures, or you had to know how to type the correct keystroke combina- 
tions for the font you were using. The use of proper fractions required that 
you super- and sub-script the individual numbers, and maybe even resize 
them for better appearance. Kerning of text generally entailed buying a 
capable desktop publishing program and then manually adjusting the 
spacing between letter pairs. Pretty involved stuff, huh? That’s why nobody, 
except desktop publishing experts and graphic designers, bothered with it, 
and it’s why so many DTP docs produced by folks like me didn’t look so 

But with GX— even if your program doesn’t normally support kerning— so 
long as it is GX-compatible, you’ll be able to choose a kerning command 
from a styles menu or set a preference in a dialog (much like you set the 
“Smart Quotes” option today), and Apple’s QuickDraw GX type engine will 
apply the proper kerning pairs for you automatically. No manual steps 
necessary. In the same manner, you’ll be able to choose a ligatures com- 
mand to have the correct ligatures substituted on the fly. 

Soon you’ll be able to adjust the stem thickness of letters to produce 
different degrees of boldness. You’ll also be able to set optical alignment 
automatically (optical alignment is where rounded letters are adjusted so 
that they look as if they lie on the same baseline as their neighboring flat- 
bottomed cousins). When using stylized lettering, such as that produced by 
script and calligraphic typefaces, you’ll be able to do context-sensitive 
substitution of characters, replacing otherwise standard letters at the 
beginning and ending of sentences with flourishes (smart swashes). 

In each case, all you have to do is choose among the various menu or dialog 
options and type normally. In short, your pages will shine with typographi- 
cal excellence even if you are little more than a novice! GX fonts can be very 
cool indeed. 

QuickDraw GX and Your Printer’s Memory 

To avoid overloading printer memory with a lot of unnecessary information, 
QuickDraw GX downloads only the actual characters you use in your 
documents, not the entire fonts. So, not only will you be able to print more 
complex documents without your printer balking, but your files will be 
smaller, which saves disk space and reduces telecommunications costs when 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 197 

you send them to others by modem. That’s a big improvement over a non- 
GX Mac environment. 

QuickDraw GX Fonts — Today and Tomorrow 

Unfortunately, many of QuickDraw GX’s capabilities aren’t immediately 
available to you, because GX-compatible applications, device drivers (for 
printers and fax modems), and related products are still few and far be- 
tween. Apple has given us a whole new GX world. But now it’s up to the 
software program developers, font designers, and hardware engineers out 
there to see what they can make of it for us. 

Until more GX-sawy application programs become available, you may not be 
able to access the many extra characters built into GX fonts. You’ll only be 
able to use the first 256 characters as you do now with non-GX fonts. 

Furthermore, GX fonts as such will remain scarce for awhile. While several 
font companies, including Adobe Systems, Linotype-Hell, Monotype Typog- 
raphy, and Bitstream are working on GX versions of their fonts, it will take 
some time to build up their libraries. Plus, there’s still no generally agreed- 
upon standard for GX fonts. Until an industry standard is established, you 
may be enticed by fonts that claim to be GX, but which fall far short of 
expectations. Watch for reviews in publications Publish, MacWEEK, 
Macworld, mAMacUser before making any buying decisions. 

Using Adobe’s Type 1 Enabler 

System 7.5.5 doesn’t initially change the way most existing programs use 
fonts. Fonts still appear alphabetically in Font menus, and you can use either 
TrueType or PostScript fonts in your documents. One change, though, is 
that System 7.5.5 includes ATM (Adobe Type Manager) GX. ATM is a utility 
that renders PostScript Type 1 outline fonts smoothly on screen, eliminating 
the “j aggies” so common with fixed-size screen fonts. (TrueType fonts have 
never had this problem.) 

To use ATM GX with your existing Type 1 PostScript fonts, those fonts must 
be “enabled.” There’s no way to tell in advance that a given Type 1 font is 
ATM GX-compatible. So, you might wish to run Adobe’s Type 1 Enabler that 
comes with System 7.5.5 on all your Type 1 fonts (see figure 4.7). 

Mac Basics 

Try to keep the 
number of fonts you 
use to a minimum, 
consistent with the 
requirements of 
your publication. It 
doesn’t matter 
whether you use 

(TrueType) fonts or 
GX fonts. Using too 
many fonts and too 
many styles in a 
given document not 
only looks 
atrocious, but it 
hogs printer 
memory. While 
QuickDraw GX 
downloads only the 
actual characters 
used, with too 
many non-GX fonts 
and styles, you’ll 
suffer interminably 
long print times, 
and in some 
instances your 
document may not 
print at all. 

198 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Type 1 Enabler 

Figure 4 , 7 The Type 1 Enabler icon 

Adobe’s Type 1 Enabler is an application program. Double-click to launch 
and choose the Type 1 fonts you want to enable. Both the outline fonts and 
the screen font suitcases must be in the same folder, but be sure not to 
include any TrueType fonts in the folder or the Enabler won’t work. In the 
dialog window, only the screen font suitcases are listed for selection, not the 
actual printer outline fonts. 

You can choose individual fonts for processing, or you can process them all 
at once by selecting the entire folder. The Type 1 Enabler creates new font 
suitcases and saves them wherever you wish. When you are done, install 
these new suitcases by dragging them to the System folder. 

Adobe’s Type 1 Enabler utility is NOT installed automatically when you 
install either System 7.5.5 or QuickDraw GX. To install the Type 1 Enabler, 
launch the QuickDraw GX Installer and choose Custom. Click the 
QuickDraw GX Utilities checkbox and then click Install (see figure 4.8). 
Apple’s Installer will place the Type 1 Enabler utility at the root level of your 
hard disk. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip When processing a 
folder of fonts, Adobe’s Type 1 Enabler stops working 
if it encounters a TrueType font or a Type 1 font that 
has already been enabled. If this happens, select the fonts you 
want to enable and use the Enable command in the File menu to 
process them one at a time. 

Dealing With Many Kinds of Fonts 

If you have been using a Mac for a while, you probably have assembled what 
1 usually call the “font files from hell.” Most Mac users, even the novices, are 
packrats. We tend to save every little bit of Macintosh software that we get. 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 199 

because too many of us remember when each new Macintosh application 
announcement was practically an Apocalyptic event. Fonts, along with clip 
art, have long been a staple of Macintosh enthusiasts’ ditty bags. If you are a 
new Mac user, you may think I’m kidding about this, but check your Mac in 
about six months and then tell me I’m wrong! 

Install QuickDraiu"'^ GH 



Custom Install 


Help ] 

Check features to be installed 

- ^ 

□ Base QuickDrain'” GK Softinare for this Macintosh CD 

□ Base QuickBrain'” GK Softinare for any Macintosh CD 

7 ^ QuickBraio™ GB Utiiities CD 

^ LaserUJriter Utiiity CD 

^ PaperType Editor CD 

^ QuickBraio”' GB Beiper CD 

^ Type 1 Enabier CD 

□ RTM'" for QuickBraw^'^ GB CD 

Disk sp^ce 3V3ilable : 61 ,1 84K 

-Destination Disk 

r I 




[ Siuitch Disk ] 

Selected size : 598K 




Figure 4.8 Custom Installing the GX Utilities 

It’s likely that many of you already have dozens, maybe even hundreds of 
fonts on your hard disks. Your network file servers may be loaded with 
hundreds more. Even the poor soul just down the hallway who you hired 
last week has to put up with a gigantic Font menu in MacWrite Pro that 
would frighten most keyliners. 

If you get and use a font utility such as SuitCase II, you can organize this 
mess. I recommend that you do that when you make the upgrade to System 
7.5.5. In fact, you might want to work out some standard suitcases of font 
families, load them onto the file servers, and advise your users of their 
whereabouts and how to copy them for their organized use. The key, 
though, is to get serious about dynamically-loading only the fonts that you 
really need. Usually, those conditions are dictated by document require- 
ments, or by workgroup constraints and future design plans. Whatever the 
case, though, you may have to sound like a broken record to some of your 


Mac Masters 

When you run the 
Type 1 Enabler on 
your Type 1 fonts, it 
builds new 
suitcases contain- 
ing what look like 
families of 
bitmapped screen 
fonts and TrueType 
fonts. These 
apparent TrueType 
fonts use sfnt 
resources to 
contain the Type 1 
PostScript code. 
While these fonts 
may look like 
TrueType fonts, 
they behave exactly 
like Type 1 
PostScript fonts 
and require ATM 
GX to generate a 
smooth display 

200 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Masters 

Another issue here 
is fonts that look 
alike, but are 
actually different 
versions and 
incarnations of a 
basic design. You 
may find this is the 
case if you have 
Adobe’s PostScript 
Type 1 outline 
fonts. Adobe gives 
you a fixed-sized 
screen font in every 
size and every 
basic style (bold, 
italic, bold italic, 
and so on). That’s 
why font names like 
I Garamond Italic 
appear in your font 
menus. Ask 
yourself, and users 
that you manage, 
just how many of 
these screen fonts 
you really use 
regularly. Keep 
those in the System 
suitcase and 
offload the rest to 
other suitcases that 
you’ll manage with 
MasterJuggler or 
Suitcase II. You 
can also clean up 
font menus in 
applications (if you 
decide to live with 
all your fonts) by 
using a utility like 
Adobe’s Type 
Reunion, or by 
invoking the font 
menus showing 
font names in their 
own typefaces. 

users to help get their fonts under control. System 7.5.5 makes this process 
easier, but it also makes it more likely that abuse will occur, so Mac manag- 
ers and users have to be aware of the potential problems. 

Another thing to watch for when using styled fonts, like the Adobe screen 
fonts, is how you specify a Style from within your application. System 7.5.5 
can style any font by slanting it for italics, bolding it for bold, condensing it 
for condensed, and many other effects. It can even display the font in 
OMtlime style, which should not be confused with an outline font (which 
refers to the way the font is drawn on the screen, not it’s actual appearance 
as an outline). 

But when you choose to let the System style your fonts for you, you won’t be 
getting the exact bitmap of the prestyled font (like Garamond Italic). Instead, 
the System will take the plain version of Garamond and style it to italics by 
slanting it— which makes for a much uglier font and a differently sized one, 
to boot. 

If you must have the precisely-styled bitmap on the screen that you loaded in 
your System suitcase, you have to specify it from the Font menu of your 
application, rather than selecting the plain style of that font and letting the 
System style it for you. 

One trick to managing lots of different styled bitmap, GX, and TrueType 
fonts installed is to keep your Key Caps desk accessory (found in the Apple 
menu) open all the time. This gives you quick answers when you (or some- 
one else) wonder why you can’t find the registered trademark symbol in the 
Palatino 12 font (there is no trademark symbol in Palatino 12). If you have 
Key Caps open all the time, you can verify this by simply selecting Palatino 
12 from the Key Caps menu, and noting the lack of a registered trademark 
symbol (®) under any combination of modifier keys (Control, Option, 
Command, and Shift). 

Key Caps also gives you visual access to all the special characters on the Mac 
keyboard that require multiple key combos to create, such as accent keys 
(grave, acute, circumflex, tilde, and umlaut) that are used with the Option 
key acting as a dead key (which lets you type the accent symbol, keep the 
cursor in the same location, and then type the letter you want to accent). 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 201 

Key Caps also lets you use the characters it displays since it supports the 
Clipboard and the standard Cut, Copy, and Paste commands. This can be 
handy if you have a nonstandard keyboard (like those on the Outbound 
Portable or a third-party keyboard), or if your keyboard starts to get old and 
experiences sticky or failing keys. (Of course, cutting and pasting characters 
from Keycaps into a document can get pretty tedious. The bottom line with 
a bum keyboard is that you should get it fixed— quickly. You can’t operate a 
Mac well from a failing keyboard.) 

GX Compatible Programs? 

By the time you read this, there should be several programs available that 
are fully GX-compatible. These include Ready, Set, Go! from Manhattan 
Graphics, a high-powered, low-priced desktop publishing program; Font 
Chameleon from Ares Software; and Nisus Software’s extraordinary word 
processor NisusWriter. 

Most existing font utilities work with GX fonts, although some will require 
updates to be fully compatible. SuitCase II 4.0p, for example, works fine, but 
PopChar bombs whenever you try to view a GX font. Other shareware font 
utilities like the popular desk accessories ASCII Chart and FontView can only 
display the first 256 characters of a GX font. Fontographer 4.04 can access 
and manipulate all the characters in a GX font. 

Unfortunately, several major developers in the Mac community, including 
Adobe Systems and Quark, have indicated that they won’t take the plunge 
unless they encounter a backlash of public opinion. This is primarily due to 
a desire to ensure full cross-platform compatibility with their PC-Windows 
products and, to keep development costs down (in the case of Adobe) to 
avoid cannibalizing sales of its Acrobat graphics file interchange program 
(which, for some, is rendered superfluous by QuickDraw GX’s PDD Maker). 
Remember that Windows has no GX equivalent. 

You might recall that these same companies a few years ago similarly resisted 
Apple’s introduction of TrueType. Yet TrueType fonts have shown them- 
selves to be superior and far easier to use than PostScript fonts. Time proved 
these companies wrong once. And so it will again. QuickDraw GX is a heck 

202 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

of a good idea (though by no means perfect), so much so that any compa- 
nies who shortsightedly fail to support it may get left in the dust. 

QuickDraw GX is also a moving target. Apple is not standing still with this 
first release. One future development will be the inclusion of Ares’ Chame- 
leon Technology (in the Font Chameleon application) in the Macintosh 
System software. Apple has already licensed this technology from Ares 

Font Chameleon is a revolutionary product that uses a library of user- 
modifiable descriptor files to morph a single master font outline to produce 
literally billions of different fonts. An entire library of descriptors can reside 
on a single floppy disk. In a future implementation of QuickDraw GX, the 
master font outline will become a System INIT, and the list of descriptors 
will appear in the font menus of programs. 

If you own Font Chameleon, you’ll be able to extensively modify the original 
descriptors and create new ones (see figure 4.9). Ares Software also plans to 
release additional libraries of descriptors in the coming months. A fringe 
benefit of using descriptors is that you will be able to embed them in your 
documents for viewing and printing by others without any significant 
increase in document size. Each descriptor file, after all, is only about 4K, 
whereas a typical font may average 200K-300K or more in size. 

Font Descriptors 

Neuj Blend 

t> Bodoni O 

... ” 

1 58 1 1 1 1 ; ; ; ; | 

Thin Medium Bold Extra Bold Ultra 

Caslon Black 
t> Centurg Old Stgle 
t> Cooper Black 
t> Courier 

\ 7 ... V: 

Frankli n Gothic Extra Condensed 
Franklin Gothic Book 
Franklin Gothic Book Oblique 
Franklin Gothic Demi 
Franklin Gothic Demi Oblique 

1 52 II 1 i 1 

Ultra-cond. Condensed Normal Expanded Ultra-exp. 

1 [iii::::: : | 

Short x-height Tall x-height 

1 35 1 1 1 1 

Caslon Blaok Franklin Gothic Demi Obi... 

Franklin Gothic 2 Roman O 

f Set Base Font ] [ Clear Blend Font ] f Uicnd ] | Reset Sliders ] 

^Similar To 

(See User Guido Appendix A) 


Font Preview 

^| Sample Size: 1 72 pt Text:] Wow M 


Ol 1 jc 

Wow! ! 




Figure 4.9 The Font Chameleon editing window 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 203 

In short, Apple plans to eliminate the need for traditional fonts as we know 
them today. Of course, whether GX pulls this off for Apple is the $64,000 
question. Right now, I give Apple a 50/50 shot of making it happen; that 
percentage would move higher if Apple shows us that it has finally learned 
how to market its hot technologies. For example, this opens up some pretty 
cool opportunities for speedier digital transmission of documents through 
the rapidly expanding Information Highway, and it flags Apple as an emerg- 
ing leader in this arena. 

For the present. System 7.5.5 is a reasonable first step. As more and more 
GX-compatible programs become available, either as updates or new 
releases, you will be able to take greater advantage of the many font-manipu- 
lation features QuickDraw GX offers. 

Printing with System 7.5.5 

Here’s the good news. . . Printing with System 7.5.5 offers radically expanded 
capabilities that will change the way you use your Macintosh. What I’m 
talking about here is a whole new printing interface. Drag-and-drop icons, 
print queue management, customized output via printing extensions, printer 
sharing with password protection. Portable Digital Documents (PDDs), 
consistent color matching between devices, and more. 

Now here’s the bad news. . . While many of these GX capabilities are immedi- 
ately available (especially if you have Apple branded printers), developers 
must add support to their programs via new Print dialogs or special printer- 
driver utilities, and, as I just said, several major companies have declined to 
do so, at least for the time being. 

QuickDraw GX or Not? 

Like the proverbial Shakespearean quotation “To be, or not to be, ” one must 
decide whether to install and use QuickDraw GX for printing— or not. 

The pluses are these: improved printer dialogs and greatly improved 
printer control (no more need for the lousy PrintMonitor!), portable digital 

204 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

documents, desktop-based iconic printing, and greatly improved typogra- 
phy. The minuses, however, are not to be sneezed at: it has a big RAM 
footprint (1.7 MB for the GX extension), it conflicts with some existing fax 
modem software (you simply can’t use GX if you have an older fax modem 
and want to use fax software until you upgrade it to a GX-compatible 
version), it has few GX compatible applications, and it has few GX compat- 
ible imaging devices (pretty much only Apple printers now, more later). You 
will want to weigh these factors before deciding to use GX now or hold off 
on it until more devices and applications support it. 

Even though access to many of QuickDraw GX’s print functions must wait 
for new program updates from software developers, many other functions 
are usable now. These include intuitive drag-and-drop printing and control 
of the print queue without using the Chooser or Print Monitor. They also 
include the ability to generate Portable Digital Documents so other users 
with QuickDraw GX can view and print your files without the original 
program or fonts. 

You also have immediate access to a variety of custom printing enhance- 
ments via third-party GX printing extensions such as Peirce Software’s 
recently released Peirce Print Tools. And you have the ability to share and 
password protect any and all printers on the network, including serial 
devices like ink-jet, dot-matrix, and personal laser printers. 

Apple’s ColorSync color management software is also now an integral part of 
System 7.5.5. This helps achieve consistent color rendering among diverse 
hardware devices. Color matching between scanners (input), monitors 
(display), and printers (output) is handled transparently by the operating 
system to ensure that you work with accurate color profiles at all stages of 

QuickDraw GX is also compatible with most current programs. The various 
GX printer drivers included with System 7.5.5 support most printer types, 
including ImageWriters, StyleWriters, personal laser printers, and PostScript 
laser printers (both Level 1 and Level 2). Notable exceptions include label 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 205 

printers, such as those from CoStar and Seiko, non-Apple color printers 
(both low-end like the HP 1200c and high-end like the Canon color lasers 
and the Tektronix wax deposition printers), and fax modems. Until GX- 
compatible drivers for these devices become available, you will have to 
restart your computer with QuickDraw GX disabled whenever you print 
labels using driver-dependent labeling software, print in color, or fax 
documents using your modem. 

Other than these specialty output devices, you should have little, if any, 
difficulty printing documents from almost any brand of printer. You might 
notice (by looking at some of the figures) that I use an HP LaserJet 4MP 
printer. Even though Hewlett Packard has not yet released GX drivers for its 
printers, Apple’s GX printer driver for PostScript laser printers works just 
fine. Anyway, most printer manufacturers simply license Apple’s printer 
drivers and customize them for their own use. HP did this with the 
LaserWriter 8 driver, and I expect they’ll do likewise with the GX driver. 

So far I have painted a pretty rosy picture. But there are still some serious 
incompatibilities between popular application programs and the new GX 
printer drivers. Depending on which programs you use, you too may 
encounter occasional printing difficulties when using the new GX drivers. 
You will want to harangue your software and hardware vendors to releasing 
GX-compatible drivers so you can get your work done. Since the momentum 
for GX is finally starting to build, it’s likely that Adobe, Quark, and others 
will jump on the bandwagon. 

To deal with this issue, Apple includes a QuickDraw GX Helper extension 
with System 7.5.5. This extension lets you turn off desktop printing tempo- 
rarily in the Apple menu so you can use a non-GX printer driver (see figure 
4.10). That way, while software vendors busily scramble to update their 
programs, you can still use QuickDraw GX for most of your work, and switch 
to an older printer driver whenever necessary. 

206 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Rbout Microsoft Lbord... 

Turn Desktop printing Off 

42 Suitcase 

^ SLP Pro 
r~l Rutomated Tasks 
^ Calculator 1 1 

Control Panels ^ 

^ Find File 

Figure 4.10 Turning off desktop printing in the Apple Menu 

Be advised that once you turn off desktop printing, it remains off untif you 
turn it on again. Also, when you turn off desktop printing, Apple’s 
QuickDraw GX Helper extension looks for an equivalent non-GX printer 
driver. It won’t allow you to choose a different non-GX printer driver until 
you first select the corresponding GX version (see figure 4.11). If you don’t 
have the corresponding GX driver installed, the only way to print with an 
older printer driver is to restart your computer with QuickDraw GX 

The QuickDraiu^'^ GK Helper mas unable to 
find a driuer compatible mith your default 
desktop printer named “SLP Pro""".” Make a 
different desktop printer your default 
printer, then choose “Turn Desktop printiny 
off” ayain. 

Figure 4.11 Without an equivalent non-GX printer driver installed, you 
get this message whenever you try to turn off desktop printing 

More good news is that the number of printer vendors that have announced 
future GX drivers is growing, including HP, Brother, Canon, LexMark/IBM, 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 207 

Panasonic, and others. By the time you read this, you may be able to find 
GX-compatible drivers for your printers. 

You can get around your faxing problems if you’re using Global Village’s 
TelePort Mercury and Platinum by installing the newest GX-compatible 
TelePort software. 

Another strategy, if you own more than one Mac, is to dedicate one of those 
Macs to non-GX compatible functions (like non-GX printing and faxing) with 
the other one dedicated to GX printing. You can keep your file systems 
copacetic and up-to-date between the machines by using filesharing and any 
AppleTalk network (which is what I do). 

These problems, as I’ve indicated, will be different for different situations. 
For many, the use of GX will be a no-brainer because you don’t have incom- 
patible printers and don’t use a fax modem. For others, switching back and 
forth between GX and non-GX will be a major pain in the rear, and they will 
probably want to avoid that scenario. My advice for everyone (who has the 
minimum required 8 MB of RAM on a Mac and 16 MB on a Power Mac) is to 
install GX and see whether it works for you (as is with your current hard- 
ware and software). You can always turn the sucker off if you decide it’s a 

GX Printing and Diaiogs 

With System 7.5.5, Apple has introduced yet another desktop metaphor— the 
“desktop printer.” A desktop printer is nothing more than a Finder icon that 
remains on the desktop. It represents a real printer, much like a hard disk 
icon represents a real hard disk. 

You can have as many desktop printers as you like. To switch printers, just 
select a different icon and choose Set Default Printer from the Printing menu 
(see figure 4.12). You no longer have to use the Chooser to make printer 
selections. (Incidentally, the Printing menu appears in the Finder whenever 
a desktop printer is selected.) 

208 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Start Print Queue 
v^Stop Print Queue 

Hold Print Request ^ 

Resume on Page 0ne*t 
Resume on Page... 

Set Print Time... 

^/Set Default Printer 
Input Trags... 
Eutension Setup... 

Figure 4, 12 The Printing menu 

When you first install System 7.5.5, it creates a desktop printer for the 
printer you selected with the Chooser. To create additional desktop printers, 
open the Chooser and click on a printer icon. Select the printer name that 
appears in the window at the right and click the Create button (see figure 
4.13). System 7.5.5 creates a desktop printer icon for that printer and installs 
it on your desktop. 



LassrVriter 300 OH 

LaserWriter I ISC OH FDD Maker OH 

StyleWriter GH 



® Active 
O Inactive 


Figure 4, 13 Creating a Desktop Printer icon with the Chooser 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 209 

Desktop printers are drag-and-drop capable. This means that if you drag a 
file to a desktop printer icon, your file prints automatically. You don’t have 
to open the program and choose the print command. Of course, you can still 
print from within any application, and as more programs become GX-sawy, 
you will be able to select a destination printer directly from a pop-up menu 
in the Print dialog. 

With QuickDraw GX, you can also drag multiple files to a desktop printer for 
automatic printing, or drag the same file to multiple desktop printers (see 
figure 4.14). What could be more convenient? 

A black border around this icon 
indicates it is the default printer. 

Drag a file to any desktop 
printer icon to print the file 
using that printer. 

Figure 4.14 Desktop Printer icons 

210 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Printer Sharing 

Under System 7.5.5, any printer or output device (serial or otherwise) can be 
shared without the need for servers or special network hardware or soft- 
ware. The only requirement is that you install a GX printer driver for each 
independent device. 

Setting up sharing for desktop printers is just like setting up file sharing. 
Click on the desktop printer and choose Sharing from the File menu. This 
brings up the Printer Sharing dialog (see figure 4.15). Here you allow access 
to users and groups, extend guest privileges, and specify who may view, 
print, or change files. 

HP LaserJet 4MP 

Printer Type: L^serVriter GX 

Zone : * 

0 this printer 

^ Non-Quickdrew GX systems mey also use this printer 

May See Change 

Print Files Files 

User /Group : I <Non?> 'T I 0 ^ ^ 

Guest : ^ 

Figure 4. 15 The Printer Sharing dialog 

You can also password-protect any shared printer. The trick is to uncheck 
the “Non-QuickDraw GX systems may also use this printer” checkbox in the 
printer sharing dialog. This effectively removes the printer icon from the 
Choosers of all non-GX users (there’s no other way to limit their access). GX- 
equipped users gain access by choosing “Server” from the “Connect via” 
pop-up menu in their Chooser dialogs and entering the correct password. 

Printing Controi and Spooling 

“The Print Monitor is dead. Long live print monitoring!” 

Yes, Virginia, it’s true— you can still monitor the printing of documents in 
System 7.5.5. But rarefy will you have to suffer the irascible behavior of the 
often unpredictable and underpowered Print Monitor, that is, unless you 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 21 1 

encounter a problem printing and get an alert message. Print spooling is 
automatic now, and there’s no longer a button to turn off background 
printing. All printing normally takes place in the background. That is (again), 
unless you stop printing altogether by choosing the Stop Print Queue 
command from the new Printing menu, or place items on hold by selecting 
them and clicking the Hold button in the print queue. 

To view or change the status of any print job, double-click on the appropri- 
ate desktop printer icon. A print queue window appears that shows not only 
all jobs for that printer, but also the number of pages remaining to be 
printed, number of copies, assigned priority, and status of the printer itself 
(see figure 4.16). Double-click on any job to preview how it will print. 

[ Hold ] [ Remoue ] 

Documerrts: in Queue : 3 

Document Name Pages Copies Print Time 


Guide to GX Printing CPD... 9 1 Urgent 

user ^document Guide to GX Printing (PDD)Cprin; status : printer busg 



Resume(print) 1 1 Normal 

Tips.GCprint) 5 1 Mon, Nov 1 4 J 994, 7 :00 A1 

4=1 mil 

iVi iVi iVi iVi iVi iVi iVi iVi 1»1 

Figure 4.16 The print queue 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip To check the status of 
printing while working in a program that obscures the 
^ desktop, create aliases for all your desktop printers and 
place them in the Apple menu. That way you can access any 
print queue directly from the Apple menu without leaving your 

212 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

To change the printing order, drag individual jobs up or down the list in the 
print queue window. You can also use the Set Print Time command in the 
Printing menu to assign job priorities of urgent (moves a job the head of the 
queue) or normal, or to set a date and time for printing to occur (see fig- 
ure 4.17). 

Figure 4.17 The Set Print Time window 

You can also set print priorities from within any GX-sawy application by 
choosing Print from the File menu (figure 4.18). The new GX Print dialog 
supports extensible printing. Printing extensions appear at the left of the 
dialog window. To set the print time, click on the Print Time extension and 
make your selections from the Print window. System 7.5.5 (on CD-ROM) 
also includes a couple of the Peirce Print Tools to get you started with 
printing extensions (the extensions let you print “watermarks” [Peirce 
Watermark] and save paper by printing multiple images on the same page 
[Peirce PaperSaverj). You’ll find those tools on the CD in the QuickDraw GX 
folder inside the CD Extras folder. Of course, you can buy the full Peirce 
Print Tools set, which also includes Peirce Log, Border, Pamphlet, InkSaver, 
DoubleSider, BacktoFront, and CoverPage. Each tool does pretty much what 
its name would lead you to believe. 

While a job is actually printing, a small page icon is added to the desktop 
printer icon. This icon also appears in the print queue window. If you have a 
problem printing, this icon changes to an alert symbol. This is the only flag 
you’ll get of a printing problem, so you’ll want to keep the print queue 
window open when printing large or multiple jobs. 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 213 

Set the print time priority to: i o 

O Normal: print noio 
O Urgent: print before other documents 
(D Print at: 6:00 RM 11/[E/94|| 

O Hold document in printer “HP LaserJet 4MP” 

Shoui alert: 

□ Before printing starts 
^ Rfter printing finishes 

( Feujer Choices ] ( Cancel ] (^?Nn^| 

Figure 4.18 The new Print window with the Print Time extension 

To keep a document from printing, select the document in the print queue 
and click the Hold button. To remove a document from the queue, click the 
Remove button or drag the document out of the window. The print queue is 
a window, so you can drag documents to the trash, the desktop, a folder, or 
another disk. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip If you encounter a 
printer jam or PostScript error while printing, the System 
puts your job on hold. Once you solve the problem, use 
the Printing menu’s “Resume on Page” command to continue 
printing. If you find that the problem lies with the printer itself and 
you have another printer available, simply drag the job from one 
print queue to the other and resume printing. 

To stop all printing, choose Stop Print Queue from the Printing menu. A 
small stop sign icon is added to the desktop printer icon (see figure 4.19). 
The stop icon also appears in the print queue window. 

214 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Masters 

To delay printing 
documents until a 
printer becomes 
available, such as 
when traveling with 
a PowerBook, 
select a desktop 
printer and choose 
Stop Print Queue 
from the Printing 
menu. As you print 
your documents, 
they stack up in the 
queue. When you 
gain access to a 
printer, choose 
Start Print Queue 
from the Printing 
menu and your jobs 
will print normally. If 
the printer is 
different from the 
one you had 
planned to use, 
open both desktop 
printers and drag 
your documents 
from the first print 
queue window to 
the second. You 
can also use a 
third-party tool, like 
Connectix’s Qn The 
Road, which will 
reconnect your 
PowerBook to 
networks and 
reestablish printing 
when you have 
access to a printer. 

Printing has Something is There is a problem 

been stopped. being printed. with a print job. 

Figure 4. 19 Desktop Printer icons change appearance to reflect the 
status of printing 

Portable Digital Documents (PDDs) 

One of the most exciting features of System 7.5.5 is the ability to produce 
electronic files called Portable Digital Documents (PDDs). These PDDs need 
neither the creating application program nor the original fonts in order to be 
viewed and printed. You open them using the SimpleText application 
program provided by Apple. The only requirement is that you have 
QuickDraw GX installed and turned on. PDD files carry with them all the 
information necessary to produce output documents that are virtually 
identical to the originals. 

Of course, there are competing virtual document technologies, including 
NoHand’s Common Ground, Farallon’s Replica, and Adobe’s Acrobat (the 
clear leader). Will GX displace these? Probably, for basic virtual document 
interchange. And since the Common Ground and Replica products have had 
little success in the market, they just aren’t major players. But Acrobat is. 

And the Acrobat document reader is now shareware, which will tend to 
counteract System 7.5. 5’s inclusion of GX PDDs and its resulting instant 
large market (by virtue of the sell-through of System 7.5.5 to much of the 
Mac-installed base). 

What 1 see happening is this: GX PDDs will become the default virtual 
document architecture for low-end, basic documents. Acrobat will become 
the default for the middle- to high-end documents (especially since Acrobat 
2.5 includes QuickTime 2.5 support). Of course, you still have to buy the 
Acrobat Maker application, which isn’t free. This is one of those situations 
that will be interesting to watch over the next couple years. 

Well anyway, back to our story. . . 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 215 

Once upon a time, not so very long ago, if you sent out a file to be printed 
by a service bureau, you ran the risk of the service bureau not having the 
same application or fonts. That meant they would be unable to process the 
file. Even if they had the same program and fonts, subtle version differences 
in System software might produce a reformatted document— not at all what 
you hoped for. 

The use of FDD files eliminates all uncertainty. You get exactly what you 
expect every time. You can even send documents electronically, and the 
recipient can view and print them as if they were the originals. 

PDDs cannot be edited. They are for viewing and printing only. Apple has 
indicated that editing is possible, but has left the task of producing the tools 
to do it up to third-party developers. 

To generate a FDD, drag the original document to the FDD Maker GX 
desktop printer icon (which you can add to your desktop with the Chooser). 
A dialog appears asking you to name the file and specify a disk location for 
saving. Apple’s FDD Maker does the rest. If you use your GX-sawy program’s 
Print command, a pop-up “Include” menu in the dialog window lets you 
indicate whether to include all fonts, no fonts, or just non-standard fonts in 
your FDD document. Unless you are sure the recipient of your document 
has the same fonts installed in their System, it’s best to include all fonts. 

To view the resulting file, double-click the FDD icon (see figure 4.20). To 
print the file, drag the FDD icon to a desktop printer. 

i— j^jri! 

Resume FDD 

Figure 4.20 The way-cool FDD icon 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Some application 
programs currently do not produce workable FDD 
documents, because they misbehave with GX’s 


216 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Masters 

Any print- 
documents you 
drag out of the 
print-queue window 
behave just like 
PDD files. You can 
make copies of 
them, store them 
for later printing, 
transmit them to 
others, and view 
their contents by 
double-clicking. In 
cases where you 
find that you cannot 
create a viewable 
PDD file (some 
programs like Nisus 
3.4 produce 
documents that 
generate PostScript 
errors when you try 
to print them), try 
the following: 
Select a desktop 
printer, choose the 
Stop Print Queue 
command in the 
Printing menu, print 
the file by dragging 
it to the desktop 
printer, open the 
print queue 
window, and drag 
the file to the 


PDDMaker. To be on the safe side, each time you generate a 
PDD, double-click the resultant file to view it on screen. This 
allows you to verify that you have, indeed, generated a document 
that is both viewable and printable. 

GX Printing Extensions 

As I said earlier, one especially useful feature of QuickDraw GX is its ability 
to do extensible printing. Background printing extensions can be accessed 
directly from within the Print dialogs of GX-sawy applications. This provides 
the customized printing of files once the host program has finished with 
them. Previously, you had to rely on software companies to include any 
special printing capabilities. No more, though. QuickDraw GX printing 
extensions can be used by all GX-sawy applications, so you get to choose the 
capabilities you need and customize your system as you see fit. 

To check out how printing extensions work, open any SimpleText document 
and choose Print from the File menu. You see the dialog in figure 4.21. 



Prirvt Time 

Paper Match 

Print to: | HP LaserJet 4MP ▼ | 

1 .0 

Pages: ® nil 

O From: 




I Collate Copies 

Paper Feed: ® Rutomatic 
O Manual 


[ Femer Choices J 

Printer ^ Quality: | Best ^ | 

[ Cancel ] [[ Print ^ 

Figure 421 The General print dialog 

The icons at the left are printing extensions. You install printing extensions 
like you do System extensions— just drag them to the System folder. Once 
installed, printing extensions are available for use by all your desktop 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 217 

Notice that the General extension is selected, and General choices are 
shown in the Print dialog window. The pop-up “Print to” menu, for example, 
lets you switch printers without using the Chooser or going to the Finder to 
select a desktop printer. Go ahead. Give it a try. Neat, huh? 

The pop-up Destination menu lets you print to your printer or save your 
document as a PostScript file to disk. Other pop-up menus, fields, and 
checkboxes, of course, give you additional options. You can hide the 
extensions at the left and reduce the number of selectable options by 
clicking the Fewer Choices button. 

To control what extensions a desktop printer uses and in what order, select 
the desktop printer in the Finder and choose Extension Setup from the 
Printing menu (see figure 4.22). You can turn extensions on or off and drag 
them up or down to change their order of execution. 

EKtension Setup 

Select and order extensions for the printer, 
■HP LaserJet 4MP' 

^ Peirce Print Tools 


Printing Extensions vill be 
activated in the order shown 

[ Cancel 


Figure 4.22 The Extension Setup window 

If your printer uses different paper sizes, you can tell each desktop printer 
what size to print to by choosing Input Trays from the Printing menu. Use 
the pop-up menu to select a particular paper size (see figure 4.23). 

218 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

For paper matching, select the paper in the 
input tray of “HP LaserJet 4MP”: 


US Letter 

US Legal 
fl4 Letter 
B5 Letter 

Tabloid (1 1 k17) 

US Letter (8.5 h1 1) 

H4 Letter (7.8 h 1 1.4) 
Enuelope - Center Fed 
Enuelope - Edge Fed 



Figure 4.23 The Input Trays Setup window 

Additional control over paper handling is provided by the Paper Match 
extension in the Print dialogs of GX-sawy programs. Here you can ignore 
paper matching for a given document, and you can tell your desktop printer 
to automatically crop, tile, or scale pages to fit the chosen paper sizes (see 
figure 4.24). 

^ Print 1 

O Print uiith input tray paper matching i o 

(■) ignore paper matching and redirect 
aii document pages to: 

US Letter (internai Tray) ^ 

US Legal 

fl4 Letter 

If necessary: 

(S)Crop ^ OTile □□ O Scaie to fit gj 
[ Feuier Choices ] [ Cancei ] |[ Print 

Figure 4.24 The GX-Savvy Print dialog with the Paper Match extension 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 219 

Third-Party Printing Extensions? 

Let me point out that PostScript Printer Description files (PPDs), text files 
that contain information about printer specs, default resolution, and so on, 
cannot be used with QuickDraw GX. Printer manufacturers need to provide 
GX printing extensions to access these settings. If designed properly, these 
extensions should eliminate the need for constant updates with hardware or 
system changes (as was often the case previously with PPDs). Beyond that, 
look for vendors to offer a slew of third-party printing extensions to access 
QuickDraw GX’s many capabilities. 

The first such utility package specifically tailored for use with QuickDraw GX 
is Peirce Software’s Peirce Print Tools, a single printing extension that boasts 
nine different tools (discussed earlier in this chapter). These include custom 
watermarks, page borders (with previews), editable cover pages, bi-fold 
pamphlets, double-sided and reverse-order printing, ink and toner reduc- 
tions, printer-usage logs, and thumbnails. 

You can turn any setting on or off, and you can save groups of settings for 
different job requirements. You can also save settings as desktop printer 
defaults. Server settings and overrides are supported. A separate utility lets 
you view and export the print logs, and create your own watermarks and 
cover pages. 

Peirce Print Tools replaces at least half a dozen separate utilities available for 
earlier non-GX Systems. As the first in what could become a flood of 
customizable printing extensions, it also gives you a glimpse of what the 
future holds for GX printing. As I mentioned previously, if you buy the CD 
version of System 7.5.5, you’ll find the Peirce WaterMark and Peirce 
PaperSaver tools as freebies to get you started. 

Future GX printing extensions will deliver many new printing enhance- 
ments. Apple’s QuickDraw GX architecture includes more than a 100 
standard functions that can be called by third-party extensions. This means 
that you can look forward to such capabilities as: automatic tracking of print 
jobs across a network with controlled access and automatic finks to account- 
ing or billing systems; high-end color separation and trapping for graphics 
users and desktop publishers; variable sizing and placement of thumbnails 
on a page; and multiple page formatting for, well, all of us. 

220 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Ah, yes! Just think of how nice it will be to tell your printer to output a series 
of horizontal pages appropriately collated within a vertically oriented 
document, then finish by printing the required letterhead cover sheet and 
matching envelope, all with a single print command. . . Well, hang onto 
your mouse, ’cause it’s coming sooner than you think! 

Additional Printer Utilities from Apple 

Included with System 7.5.5 are two printing utilities that you may not use 
often, but are absolutely priceless when you need them. The first is 
LaserWriter Utility, a small application program that lets you adjust the 
settings of your laser printer. 

With the LaserWriter Utility, you can control everything from turning the 
startup page on or off to specifying print density, photograde, and fine print 
settings. You can download fonts to your printer’s memory or hard disk, and 
also PostScript files for printing. You can request a current page count, 
change printing zones, rename your printer, restart it remotely, and so on 
(see figure 4.25). 

Doiunload Fonts... 


Display Ruailable Fonts... 

Initialize Printer’s Disk... 

Page Setup... 


Print Font Samples... 



Figure 4.25 The LaserWriter Utility menus 

The PaperType Editor, on the other hand, has only one purpose. It allows 
you to customize paper types for unusual printing requirements. You can set 
different margins, print areas, and so on (see figure 4.26). This is particularly 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 221 

helpful when you have a need to print odd-size paper specifications. With 
the PaperType Editor, you can adjust the print dimensions and then save the 
settings for future use. 

untitled 1 

Based on: 

Any Printor 


US L0tter 


[ Saue fls... ] 

Figure 426 The PaperType Editor 

Finder Printing 

Apple knows a good thing when it writes it. And it often knows how to get a 
little bit extra out of that good thing. That’s certainly the case with System 
7.5. 5’s Finder printing shortcut. 

As in past Systems, you can print multiple documents from the Finder simply 
by selecting them by and then choosing Print from the File menu. Feel free 
to select documents from as many different applications as you have 
memory to launch simultaneously. 

Remember that you will NOT get the Page Setup dialogs from the applica- 
tions that are launched by the Finder. You will only see the Print dialogs for 
each application and document, allowing you to select the number of 
copies, front to back printing, pages to be printed, and so forth. But if the 
specific applications that are launched to print your documents have 

222 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

inappropriate Page Setup values set, those will be reflected in your printed 

That’s why Finder printing is not everything Apple cracks it up to be. When 
the multi-print job is done, the Finder will return control to the desktop and 
close all the applications that it launched. It will NOT, however, close any 
applications that were already open when the multi-print job was started. 

Managing Multiple Serial 
Printers and Modems 

What happens when you also have a modem connected and you want to use 
a serial printer with your Mac on the same port? You could switch the plug 
for the printer and modem when you want to use each device (which is a 
pain and will eventually break or bend the connectors), you can stop using 
the modem (which is probably not a valid option), you can decide not to 
print (even worse), you can buy a modem that connects to your AppleTalk 
network, or you can buy a serial switchbox. 

The switchbox is probably the best and cheapest solution, since one from a 
vendor like Data Spec will cost you only about |40. To hook it up, connect 
the switchbox to your modem port via a supplied cable. Then connect your 
modem to the switchbox and your serial printer. Then, when you want to 
use the modem, you just press the switch and voila, you’re telecommunicat- 
ing with the best of them. When you want to print, shut down your telecom 
session, switch the modem out of the serial connection and switch the 
printer in. Then print away. 

You can probably even keep your modem connected during this switchover, 
without having to redial the line (most online services will hang you up 
automatically, however, if they don’t detect any activity after a certain length 
of time). I’ve been very successful using the switchbox solution to keep a 
MacroMedia MacRecorder, a Global Village TelePort Mercury modem, an 
Apple StyleWriter II printer, and a Tektronix serial scanner, all connected to 
the same accelerated Mac Ilci serial ports. I can keep connected to online 
services via the modem and its phone line, even when I punch up the 

Chapter 4: Fonts and Printing 223 

scanner. Just remember not to change the switch setting during the printing 
operation, or you will lose pages of output. The System will think it’s 
printing away, even though it’s sending your document to the great Bit 
Bucket in the Sky. 

A better solution, of course would be for Apple to give us more than two 
serial ports on a Mac (one on a PowerBook 500 series machine or Duo). You 
can opt, however, to buy a serial port Nubus board (if you have a Nubus- 
capable Mac) to plug into your Mac to add more serial ports. 

Chapter 4 Summary 

And so I’ve finally come to the end of chapter 4. I’ve shown you why it pays 
to install QuickDraw GX and get started using it now. I’ve also highlighted 
several important new printing capabilities that you can take advantage of 
immediately. Plus, I’ve gone out on the limb (it’s a very stout tree) and 
painted a fairly bright picture for the future of computing with QuickDraw 
GX. In the next chapter. I’ll dive straight into Multimedia and all that 
leading-edge visual stuff made possible by QuickTime 2.5. Stay with me and 
I’ll even show you how you can turn multimedia to your advantage for fun 
and profit! 

But first (you guessed it) here’s another short quiz designed to test your 
ingenuity, if not your patience! . . . Enjoy! 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 4 

1 . Why did Apple call its font technology TrueType? 

2. How many fonts does it take to produce a ransom note? 

3. What would you use drag and drop for? 

4. How would you summarize all the printing improvements offered by 
QuickDraw GX (fewer words earns more points)? 

5. Is GX (a) the name of a new sports car, (b) slang for a newly discov- 
ered disease, or (c) an acronym for a new secret weapon? 

224 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

6. How much memory do you need to run System 7.5.5 with QuickDraw 
GX installed? 

7 . Does QuickDraw GX support virtual reality? 

8. What’s the best improvement offered by QuickDraw GX? 

9 . What’s the most dubious improvement offered by QuickDraw GX? 

1 0. Why are some vendors not yet updating their products to include 
QuickDraw GX capabilities? 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 4 

1 . Because FalseType was already a well-known trademark of politicians. 

2. Twenty-five, which just so happens to be the number of fonts (includ- 
ing style variations) that ship with System 7.5.5. Think of the possibili- 

3. Bad habits, (fust checking to see that you’ve been doing your home- 
work. . . This question was part of the chapter 1 Computing Quiz.) 

4 . Oh, my, they are too numerous to mention! 

5. Youthful Apple engineers will claim (a) is the right answer. Microsoft, 
of course, will think (b). But true Mac enthusiasts will correctly guess 

6. If you have to ask, you don’t have enough. . . 

7 . No, but you can bet Apple’s working on it. Of course, figuring out how 
to sell it is another matter. . . 

8. Portable Digital Documents (PDDs). I mean, just look at the ultra-cool 
icons. You know this has got to be gee-whiz stuff! 

9 . Adobe’s Type 1 Enabler. . . Continually patching Type 1 PostScript 
fonts to work almost as well as TrueType must be keeping a lot of 
Adobe engineers gainfully employed. Don’t you love the politics in the 
computer business? 

1 0. They mistakenly guessed that (b) was the correct response to 
question 5. 

The Multimedia 
Is the Message 


n this chapter, we’ll discuss some of basics of using the 
multimedia resources and tools 
provided by System 7.5.5. In addition, 
I will take a stab at giving you some 
examples of how I have used multi- 
media resources, and give a few 
examples of the third-party products 
you will need to use them. 

226 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Before we get started, let me define multimedia. Multimedia is any combina- 
tion of graphics, text, pictures, sounds, music, video, animations, and related 
data that can be manipulated and presented with a computer— in our case 
with a Macintosh. Interactive multimedia adds control over these media so 
that you can decide when, where, how, and in what form they are presented. 
Interactive multimedia also assumes that you can stop and start the media 
data stream at will. 

Unlike other parts of System 7.5.5 where the enabling technologies 
(AppleScript, Apple Guide, and PowerTalk) include built-in or sample 
applications (for example AppleScript’s Script Editor and Scriptable Text 
Editor, Apple Guide’s Macintosh and PowerTalk Guides, and PowerTalk’s 
DigiSign and AppleMail), the basic multimedia technology of System 7.5.5— 
QuickTime 2.5— comes with no built-in or sample applications to show you 
how to use the technology in your work or play. 

That’s a mistake on Apple’s part, but it’s an omission that is easily rectified 
thanks to the plethora of third-party multimedia authoring and user tools. 
This chapter will discuss some of those that will get you started, as well as 
point you to other books and sources of third-party multimedia help. 

The good news, however, is that unlike the “year of networking,” the “year 
of multimedia” (that has been coming real soon now ever since Apple’s 
release QuickTime 1.0 in 1991) is finally here. The reasons? QuickTime 2.5, 
QuickTime for Windows, and Apple’s wise decision to include QuickTime 
2.5 with the System 7.5.5 release. This chapter will celebrate our resulting 
good fortune. 

While I have tried to cover as much ground on multimedia and System 7.5.5 
as necessary to get you started, this is not a book on multimedia resources, 
authoring, or the related techniques of creating presentations, capturing 
video and audio, or the multimedia creative process. In short, this chapter is 
anything but exhaustive. Consider it a multimedia appetizer for your Mac 

What I want to do here is get you started with System 7.5. 5’s multimedia 
prowess, suggest what is possible (and what is not possible), show you how 
to attack multimedia for fun and profit, and then leave you to your own 


Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 227 

So, to get at these basic multimedia issues, I’ve divided this chapter into five 
sections, QuickTime 2.5, Using Multimedia Applications for Fun and Profit, 
Summary, Quiz, and Quiz Answers. 

QuickTime 2.5 

According to Jim Armstrong, one of Apple’s multimedia gurus, QuickTime 
adds capabilities that allow your applications to integrate graphics, sound, 
video, and animation into your documents just as if they were any other data 
type, like text or numbers. In fact, Armstrong says, “Because QuickTime 
provides a standard way for all Mac and Windows PCs to control multimedia 
data, it gives any user interested in multimedia the foundation to attack their 
real problems— creating interesting and enriching multimedia content.’’ 

The critical thing to remember, says Armstrong, is that QuickTime is NOT an 
application. “It’s an extension of your computer’s system software, so that it 
allows you to work with media data types, but it does not give you the 
tools— the applications— to do that work. For that,” he says, “you will need 
specific multimedia applications for authoring or for playing back previously 
created QuickTime movies.” 

What Is QuickTime? 

QuickTime 2.5 is a Macintosh system software extension (actually, it is more 
than one extension— there is the QuickTime 2.5 extension, the QuickTime 
PowerPlug extension for Power Macs, and QuickTime for Musical Instru- 
ments for recording and playing back high-quality audio). 

QuickTime has been enhanced versus earlier versions (1.x). This version 
includes the ever-popular improved performance, sound, and graphics, but 
it also offers improved capabilities for your multimedia applications. More 
about this in a moment. In addition, portions of QuickTime are now native 
on the Power Macintosh, so it can be bloody fast! 

QuickTime 2.5 for Macintosh computers is the pervasive industry standard 
for CD-ROM and Internet content authoring, playback and deliver. It’s also a 
multiplatform architecture for storing, editing and playing synchronized 

228 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

video, sound, music, graphics and text. The QuickTime 2.5 release addresses 
specific requirements of content creators for broadcast, music, film, and the 

“Apple’s contributions to the computer industry for multimedia, Internet 
content creation, professional video, and music continue to push the 
envelope in innovation with this new version of QuickTime,” says Ellen 
Hancock, Apple’s chief technology officer and executive vice president of 
research and development. “QuickTime makes it easy for broadcast profes- 
sionals, CD-ROM developers and Internet content creators to manage and 
repurpose their content for new markets, thereby receiving a greater return 
on their investments.” 

With the release of QuickTime 2.5, Apple has expanded QuickTime’s 
capabilities to include an enhanced music architecture; multiprocessor 
support; support for 3D Objects; a Graphic Importer Component; support 
for Closed-Caption capture APIs; an enhanced primary data handler; asyn- 
chronous JPEG and raw codecs on Power Mac; and a new Clock component. 
Apple plans to continue innovating and expanding the multiplatform 
capabilities of QuickTime with a strategy to support the universal creation, 
distribution and playback of all time-based and spatial media types. 

“Digital technology is blurring the lines between traditional media markets, 
professional film and video producers, consumer multimedia developers, 
and Internet content creators. This has created a significant challenge for the 
creative world: the lack of a unified standard that meets the needs of all 
content creators, enabling them to handle the creation, storage and delivery 
of their information in one simple, straightforward way, regardless of 
platform and eventual means of distribution,” says Carlos Montalvo, director 
of products and technologies for Apple’s Interactive Media Group. “Creative 
developers need a rich set of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) and 
a “universal container” for holding digital media, guaranteeing that their 
tools work together and that their content can be delivered and viewed 
everywhere— QuickTime provides this today.” 

Over the last five years, QuickTime has evolved into the standard, 
multiplatform architecture that allows multimedia software tool vendors, 
content creators and production staffs to create stunning content for 
delivery anywhere. Today QuickTime supports multiple data types, including 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 229 

video, sound, graphics, animation, text, music/MIDI, MPEG and sprite 3D, 
with the ability to synchronize all the media types to a common time base. 

QuickTime 2.5 Features: 

Interchangeable M-JPEG File Format 

Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) is a compression standard for video professionals 
that is implemented in a distinct way by each different video capture prod- 
uct. Eiles created in one system typically cannot be played back or edited by 
another system. Through a QuickTime developer working group, Apple and 
leading digital video solution vendors have agreed to a fully interchangeable 
M-JPEG file format. Apple has implemented this new format in QuickTime 
2.5, allowing video professionals and editors to work with M-JPEG files 
independent of the hardware solution originally used to capture the media. 
QuickTime will also include a software interchangeable M-JPEG codec, 
allowing editors, and others involved in the creative process to view M-JPEG 
compressed files on any Power Macintosh with no additional hardware 

QuickTime Music Architecture 

Significant enhancements to the QuickTime Music Architecture (QTMA) now 
enable title developers to easily enhance their content by creating their own 
musical identity. With the introduction of the QTMA, Apple made it easy for 
computer users to work with MIDI music by providing a software synthesizer 
and a library of Sound Canvas instruments licensed from Roland. The 
enhancements in QuickTime 2.5 build on the QTMA by allowing music and 
synthesizer developers to deliver their own custom software synthesizers, 
instruments and libraries of musical instruments through QuickTime. Title 
developers can use these components to embellish their content with music 
and create a distinctive aural experience. 

The enhancements to the QTMA will also benefit professional musicians and 
music enthusiasts who use the Macintosh to create music. In addition to 
playing through the computer built-in speaker, QuickTime 2.5 can rout 
musical information to external MIDI devices and effects processors working 
directly with music Industry standards such as Opcode’s Open Music System 

230 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Multiprocessor Support 

For power-hungry video professionals needing real-time editing capabilities 
and requiring faster media compression, Apple has also enhanced 
QuickTime 2.5 to support multiprocessing hardware such as the Genesis MP 
from DayStar Digital. 

QuickTime to Support 3D Objects 

Apple has enhanced QuickTime to use Apple QuickDraw 3D engine for 
rendering 3D objects in real time within a QuickTime movie. Now video 
professionals can synchronize, composite, and animate workstation-class 3D 
objects with other media types such as video, audio and music. 

Graphic Importer Component 

QuickTime 2.5 for Macintosh includes a new graphic importer component 
allowing for import of a variety of diverse file formats. With this feature, any 
application that is QuickTime aware is able to import file formats such as 
GIF, MacPaint, Silicon Graphics Inc., and Photoshop directly into their 

Support for Closed-Caption Capture APIs 

Traditional closed-captioned simply displays the accompanying text as an 
overlay graphic to the video (and thus the captured movie). The closed- 
captioned text embedded in the video is lost for any useful purpose other 
than viewing. Along with video, sound, and music channels, closed-cap- 
tioned text can be captured and embedded into a QuickTime movie’s text 
track. This allows for fast searching and cataloging of stored media. 

Enhanced Primary Data Handler 

QuickTime’s primary data handler has been updated to allow for higher 
performance playback. The data handler has been modified to maximize 
throughput resulting in noticeable performance improvements. 

Asynchronous JPEG and Raw Codecs 
on Power Mac 

The JPEG and Raw codecs are now asynchronous allowing QuickTime to 
continue processing data while the codecs simultaneously compress or 
decompress video. 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 231 

New Clock Component 

A new Clock component now guarantees enhanced synchronization of video 
and sound, and simpHfies the problem of synchronizing these data types 
across the diverse array of sound and video hardware configurations sup- 
ported by QuickTime. 

QuickTime and the QuickTime 

QuickTime (QT), which began shipping to all Apple customers in 1991 as 
version 1.0, is now a certifiable breakthrough technology. It’s doing to video 
and sound what PostScript did (and now QuickDraw GX will do) for printing 
and graphics. QuickTime 2.5 is included as a standard part of the System 
7.5.5 software, and all customers get it free. 

System 7.5.5 also includes the Sound control panel, Sound Manager 3.0 (for 
l6-bit stereo quality sound in multimedia applications), Apple CD Audio 
Player control panel, CD-ROM extension, and PlainTalk extensions (for 
controlling your Mac via voice commands) as its basic multimedia system 
underpinnings (for more information on PlainTalk, please see appendix B, 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip System 7.5.5, however, 
does not include any multimedia authoring or editing 
tools. It does not include, for example, HyperCard 2.2 or 
even the HyperCard Player. You have to buy third-party tools 
and applications to do multimedia authoring or editing, as well as 
additional hardware for your Macintosh. 

The bottom line is that QuickTime 2.5 is the System software architecture for 
the integration of dynamic media for Macintosh computers (a separate 
QuickTime for Windows allows some of these capabilities for Windows 
computers, too). 

QuickTime 2.5 allows third-party developers to integrate dynamic media- 
such as sound, video, and animation— in a consistent and seamless fashion 
across all Macintosh applications. Apple expects that any Macintosh 

232 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

application that supports graphics today under System 7.5.5 will eventually 
support all other multimedia data as well. QuickTime provides the technol- 
ogy base for making that happen in a rational way. 

QuickTime also provides a standard integrated dynamic platform for all 
Macintosh development, enabling developers to extend the capabilities of 
current applications, plus create new categories of applications (which will 
alternately benefit and frustrate Mac managers and users). Categories of 
software products that are now taking advantage of QuickTime include: 
videoconferencing, store-and-forward video mail, low-cost video editing, 
and dynamic CD-ROM magazines. 

The QuickTime architecture consists of four major components: 

• System Software 

• File Formats 

• Apple Compressors 

• Human Interface Standards 

These components form an integrated software architecture that is exten- 
sible, open, and offers cross-platform standards for dynamic data exchange. 
This means that Mac users and managers have a better way to make their 
cross-platform networks operate, but it also means a big increase in network 
traffic, because video and sound are not dainty even when compressed. If 
you have used previous versions of QuickTime and have a Mac LAN, you 
know what I mean. 

QuickTime 2.5 gets installed automatically when you upgrade to System 
7.5.5, so you can immediately take advantage of its capabilities. Eventually, 
with some later release of the System, QuickTime may be built into the main 
System code, rather than being a startup extension. 

System Software 

The system software component of QuickTime incorporates these three 

The Movie Toolbox 

Apple uses the term “movie” to denote dynamic data such as sound, video, 
and animation. The QuickTime data type is MooV (get it?). The Movie 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 233 

Toolbox is a set of system software services that make it easy for developers 
to incorporate support for movies in their applications. 

The Image Compression Manager 

The Image Compression Manager (ICM) shields applications from the 
intricacies of individual compression and decompression schemes (which 
can be nightmarish— just look how difficult it is sometimes to compress and 
decompress a static file of text and graphics using a solid program like 
Aladdin’s Stuffit Deluxe). All it takes is one bad bit to junk a compressed file. 
Video and sound make the problem worse because of the sheer volume of 
the stuff. For example, multiply 44,400 (the digital sampling rate of a 
compact disc) by 240 (an average number of seconds for a song on the pop 
charts). What do you get? 10,560,000— more than 10 million bits just to 
sample and play back a single short pop song. Even at ten-to-one compres- 
sion ratios, we are still talking about a data storage problem. And video 
increases the number of bits needed by several orders of magnitude. 

The ICM allows software and hardware developers to take advantage of 
numerous compression schemes— such as DVI, Group 3 fax , JPEG, and 
MPEG— in their applications, without having to make modifications. 

The Component Manager 

The Component Manager (CM) allows external system resources, like 
digitizer cards, VCRs, and system software extensions, to register their 
capabilities with System 7.5.5 so that any application can access these 
capabilities. Application developers who want to take advantage of features 
from a hardware product, such as a digitizer card, had to write custom 
software for that card and update their software each time the hardware was 
updated. With QuickTime 2.5, the hardware is transparent to the software 
application, and developers can concentrate on the capabilities they would 
like to offer their users. This ultimately makes it easier for users to use and 
for Mac managers to manage. 

File Formats 

File formats are standard descriptions for a piece of data such as text and 
graphics. Formats like EPS, TIEF, PICT, PICT2, HDM, and PIC files all use 
standard methods to describe the way the data they hold is represented and 

Mac Basics 

Dynamic data is 
data that varies with 
time. That’s why 
animation and video 
(images changing 
with time) and 
sound (pitch and 
tone changing with 
time) are both part 
of QuickTime. 

234 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

stored. (These standard descriptions are supported by most applications, 
thus allowing users to “cut and paste,” “Drag and Drop,” or “Publish and 
Subscribe” data between applications and documents.) 

With QuickTime 2.5, you get the MooV format, also known as a QuickTime 
Movie. A QuickTime Movie refers to any and all dynamic data, such as a 
presentation slide show or a dynamic graph of lab data. The MooV file 
format is a container for this time-based data. Apple has published the full 
specifications for the MooV file format, providing developers of cross- 
platform applications with a standard way of exchanging dynamic data from 
one computing environment to the next. 

In addition to QuickTime 2.0’s MooV file format, Apple extended the PICT 
file format with QuickTime 1.0 and continues this with 2.5. The PICT file 
format will now support image compression, allowing you to open any 
compressed still image from within any existing application. The PICT file 
format also offers preview support, allowing applications to save a small 
“thumbnail” of a picture along with the image itself (this saves disk space in 
a big way for serious dynamic media users). These thumbnails allow you to 
quickly browse through still image libraries in the same way you currently 
browse through files in a folder. 

File Compression under QuickTime 

With QuickTime 2.5, Apple supports a basic set of software compression/ 
decompression schemes that meet a range of compression needs for still 
images, animation, and video. It includes the Joint Photographic Experts 
Group 0PEG) compression scheme as a standard part of QuickTime. JPEG is 
a high-quality still image compression scheme that offers compression ratios 
ranging from 10:1 to 25:1 with no visible picture degradation. 

QuickTime’s Animation Compressor is based on run-length encoding 
principles to compress computer-generated sequences from 1 to 32 bits in 
depth. This compression scheme displays animations, such as a PowerPoint 
or Persuasion slide show or a Claris Resolve dynamic bar chart, at acceptable 
speeds on most Macintosh computers (if you own an old Mac II, you’ll see 
that acceptable is a relative term). 

In addition, the Animation Compressor allows complex animations— such 
as 32-bit scientific visualization data (like that generated by the outstanding 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 235 

Spyglass software)— to be previewed on any Macintosh, thus saving users the 
time and expense of having to lay the animation to videotape one frame at 
a time. 

Apple’s Video Compressor allows digitized video sequences to play back 
from a hard disk or CD-ROM drive in real-time on a Macintosh with a 68020 
or higher processor and the proper 8-bit or higher display card (but you 
need 24-bit to get photorealistic [NTSC TV-like] color). 

The Video Compressor offers compression ratios ranging from 5:1 to 25:1. 
The video playback size is typically less than 1/3 of the computer screen size, 
which helps improve perceived resolution by hiding missing detail in the 
small screen size. QT 2.5 also supports full screen playback at decent quality. 

Human Interface Standards 

Apple has also provided human interface guidelines for dynamic media 
software developers and content providers with QuickTime 2.5. These 
guidelines will allow ease-of-use and consistency across applications when 
dealing with dynamic media. 

Apple provides a standard movie controller (MoviePlayer) that gives you a 
consistent way to control movies (on the System 7.5.5 CD only). MoviePlayer 
lets you turn sound on and off, play or stop a movie, move to different 
segments in the movie, step-forward and step-reverse through the movie, 
and it indicates where you are in the movie. 

QuickTime 2.5 also offers developers a preview option for use inside 
applications. Application developers can now incorporate into their prod- 
ucts a dialog box that includes a preview window for still images and movies. 

Taken altogether, the improvements in QuickTime 2.5 help lock it in as the 
best for dealing with data, be it text, graphics, screen animation, sound, or 

Using QuickTime — What You Need 

According to Jim Armstrong, you need either a multimedia PC (MPC) or 
“virtually any modem Macintosh” to use QuickTime as a QuickTime player. 

If you are using a PC, it must be at least a 20MHz 386 machine with 

236 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Windows 3.1 or higher installed, as well as a compatible color high-resolu- 
tion video card. You’ll also need at least 4 MB of RAM, plenty of hard disk 
space (to store QuickTime movies), and a CD-ROM drive to access commer- 
cial movie sources. Of course “more RAM, a faster 486 (DX or DX2), and 
hard disk space are a must for comfortable QuickTime use in the PC world,” 
Armstrong advises. 

If you plan to author with QuickTime (create you own QuickTime movies), 
then “you’ll need to be able to manipulate video and audio sources with 
your computer,” Armstrong continues. “You’ll need a faster 486 machine, a 
video frame grabber card, a high-resolution sound card (l6-bit sound) and 
sources of audio and video to control, like those from a laserdisc player, 

VCR, or camcorder.” 

Mac users will need at least a Mac Ilex with a 256 color monitor for 
QuickTime. “But you will be happier with the performance of any modern 
Mac, from the 68040-based Performas up through the new Power Macs, as 
well as the older Quadra series,” Armstrong told me. “Playing QuickTime 
movies takes up processor horsepower, as well as hard disk space,” he says, 
“and you also need a CD-ROM drive, plus a minimum of 4 MB of RAM. If you 
plan to play big movies, or author your own movies, then you will need a 
minimum of 8 MB of RAM, and double that on a Power Mac,” Armstrong 
continued. (You can also play movies directly from a CD.) 

Using QuickTime — What You Get 

If you buy the CD-ROM version of System 7.5.5, you will get a folder of what 
Apple calls “QuickTime Extras.” In reality, these are the MoviePlayer from the 
old QuickTime Starter Kit and some sample QuickTime movies (animations, 
sound clips, and a few video clips). If you buy the floppy-only version of 
System 7.5.5, you get only the QuickTime extension, QuickTime for Musical 
Instruments, and the QuickTime PowerPlug extension— but no MoviePlayer 
and no sample movies. 

That means that with the floppy version of 7.5.5, you can do exactly 
nothing with QuickTime unless you already have a QuickTime-compatible 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 237 

application (a movie player, authoring tool, animation program, video 
grabber, sound generator, spreadsheet, database, whatever) or unless you go 
out and buy one. At least with the CD-ROM version you can launch the 
MoviePlayer and fool around a bit with the CD movies and with movies you 
can download (watch out for those download charges, as MooVs can be 
large!) from the Internet. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Note that the file name 
extension SCAN reflects the kind of file it is. SEA files 
are compressed self-extracting archives, you do not 
need a decompressor to use them since they decompress when 
opened. SIT files are Stuffit Archives and you must have a copy 
of Aladdin’s UnStuffIt, Stuffit Classic, Stuffit Deluxe, or UnStuffIt 
Expander (a fabulous freeware decompressor) to decompress 
them. GIF files are PC or Mac graphic format compressed files, 
and you must have a program like the shareware GlFConverter 
to decompress and use them. ZIP files are PC ZIP-format 
compressed files and you must have a copy of UNZIP, Stacker, 
or another decompressor that can read ZIP files to decompress 
and use them. BIN files are in the BINHEX format, you need the 
BINHEX decompressor or other compatible decompressors 
(such as Stuffit Expander) to decompress and use these files. 
TXT files are text files that can be read with SimpleText. 

Using the MoviePlayer 

If you have the MoviePlayer, you probably want to use the sucker. Here’s 
how, step-by-step (assuming you have the 7.5.5 CD): 

1 . Open the QuickTime Extras folder on the System 7.5.5 CD and copy 
MoviePlayer to your hard disk. 

2. Launch MoviePlayer (see figure 5.1). 

238 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


15^.3 NE in disk 

77.6 IvE available 

D D D 

Quicken d Folder V^ord H^petCatd £.1 Player TeachTe>d 


D D D Q fn 

E>ce| MacDrawll FilemakerPro Publish It! Easy 3.0.1 | J 

Adobe Photoshop© 2.0.1 


ClarisWotiis £.0 



Adobe Premiere™ 3.0 


Figure 5 . 1 Launching MoviePlayer 

3. Open the File menu and bring up the Open dialog as in 
figure 5.2. 


|ei Uideo ’T' 

© Macintosh S... 

r~l Best if played from hard disk 


[ Eject ] 


f Create 1 


[ Desktop ] 

[ Cancel ] 
|[ Open 11 

1 J 

^ Shouj Preuieiu 

Figure 5.2 Using the MoviePlayer Open file dialog 

4. Open one of the QuickTime sample movies from the list available in 
the QuickTime Extras folder on your 7.5.5 disc (see figure 5.3). (For 
best performance, you should copy the movie from the CD to your 
hard disk first.) 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 239 



r~l Best if played from hard disk 



© Macintosh S... 
( Eject ] 

( Desktop ] 

[ Cancel ] 

[ Create ] 

I Shoiii Preuieiu 

Figure 5.3 Opening a QuickTime movie with the MoviePlayer 

5. You now have a window displaying the first frame of the movie. Click 
the sound control at the bottom of the screen, and make the sound as 
loud as possible (assuming the movie you chose includes sound), as in 
figure 5.4. 



QuickTime 2.0 
Introduction to Event 
American Film Institute 
June 6th, 1994 

nun IS 

Figure 5. 4 Adjusting sound volume in MoviePlayer 

6. Play the movie by clicking on the single right arrow in the controller at 
the bottom of the window as in figure 5.5. 

240 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Figure 5 5 Playing a movie with the MoviePlayer 

7. Sit back and be amazed. 

8. Monkey around with the slider control and the left and right fast 
forward arrows to see their effects. Adjust the side of the window to 
see how lousy the picture gets when you make it bigger. 

9. Boy, we are having fun now, huh? 

1 0. Welcome to the world of Macintosh Multimedia! 

OK, the MoviePlayer won’t exactly turn you into Cecil B. DeMille, but it’s not 
supposed to. It’s only there to show you what a QuickTime movie looks like. 
In order to really use QuickTime on your Mac with System 7.5.5 you are 
going to need two things: 

Thing Number One: A reason for doing it! 

Thing Number Two: An application that can that read, read and write, or 
read, write, and edit QuickTime movies. 

More about both of these, next. 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 241 

Using QuickTime — What You 
Don’t Get 

Although 7.5.5 includes the basic QuickTime extension, and the CD-ROM 
version includes the MoviePlayer and some QuickTime movie clips, System 
7.5.5 lacks the following kinds of software that you need to do multimedia 
authoring, creation, and editing: 

• Multimedia Authoring tools, like MacroMedia Authorware and 

• Multimedia Editing tools, like Adobe Premiere and VideoFusion. 

• Multimedia Audio and Video controllers, hke Abbate’s VideoToolKit. 

• Object Graphics tools like ClarisDraw, Adobe Illustrator, or 
Macromedia FreeHand. 

• Photo composition and retouching tools like Adobe Photoshop, 
Macromedia XRes, or HSC’s Live Picture. 

• Presentation makers like Microsoft PowerPoint, Aldus Persuasion, or 

• Animation utilities like Morph and GraphixPlus. 

• MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) software. 

• Software capable of using QuickTime MooV format files in a meaning- 
ful way (other than the Scrapbook) as a data type. 

• Any mention of QuickTime or PlainTalk in the Macintosh Apple Guide. 

• Any real help in using PlainTalk (see appendix B for my attempt at this 
interesting, if highly-flawed voice control technology that is an after- 
thought extra supplied on the 7.5.5 CD-ROM). 

• Any real mention of multimedia resources in the Apple Guide or 
Upgrade Guide. 

What all this means is that if you really want to create multimedia resources 
with your System 7.5.5 Mac, you are going to have to spend time and money, 
as you will see in the next section, on training, software, and hardware. 

242 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Using Multimedia Applications 
for Fun and Profit 

Why do you want to manipulate multimedia materials? If you can’t answer 
this question, you might as well jump to chapter 6 and read about 
PowerTaik, collaboration, and networking. But if you can answer the 
question honestly, then maybe you do need to set up your Mac as a multi- 
media system. 

Some reasons for using multimedia materials include the need to: 

• Make your presentations more dynamic and persuasive. 

• Communicate computer-generated information better. 

• Advance your career with a new skill. 

• Become more productive with your Macintosh. 

• Incorporate archival video, audio, or animation clips into presentations 
for training. 

• Create a good training program in a non-computer subject. 

• Express your artistic side via music, video, and graphics authoring. 

• Be totally cool. And let’s face it, working with multimedia materials can 
be totally cool. 

To that list you might want to add a hundred or so of your own more 
specific reasons, all of which probably have some validity. Far be it for me to 
rain on your multimedia parade! 

In any case, decide what you expect from multimedia materials so you can 
learn how to use them and to put together the right Multimedia Mac— both 
hardware and software. The bottom line here is that if you plan to create, 
edit, or author multimedia presentations, productions, or content of any 
kind, you will need to buy considerably more software than System 7.5.5 
provides, and you will need much more Macintosh hardware. 

If you aren’t prepared to spend the additional thousands of dollars (not an 
exaggeration) to do this, then spend your time fooling around with the 
MoviePlayer (included in 7.5.5) so that you can at least see the impact that 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 243 

QuickTime and multimedia can have on information conveyance. If you are 
prepared to spend the bucks, and have definite multimedia goals in mind, 
then read on to see what I have been doing with multimedia (and what you 
can do with it), and what I think you need to really do multimedia with 
System 7.5.5. 

Don’s Video Fun House 

My multimedia needs are pretty much confined to three areas: 

1 . Multimedia data used to help explain programming concepts to my 
students at the University of Chicago. 

2. Multimedia data used to jazz-up presentations I give. 

3. Multimedia data (mostly video) used on the TV shows I work with or 
appear on. 

I am not a primary multimedia author, by any means. Nor am I a musician 
(although I do play a mean trumpet), so what I know about using a MIDI 
keyboard could be easily stored on the head of a pin. Likewise, I am not a 
media artist, graphic designer, fine artist, or any of those other noble 
creative professions. But I am a writer, a teacher, and sometimes a radio and 
TV performer who needs multimedia data the same way I do text and 
numbers. I suspect many of you are in the same boat. Let me look at my 
third need (mostly video, with some audio) to show you what I am up to, 
why I picked the software and hardware that I picked, and how it might 
apply to you. Of course, your mileage may vary. 

Audio/Video 101 

I’ve been working on a number of projects that use QuickTime movies and 
real time external audio and video. I use these to see if Apple’s planned 
multimedia desktop really makes sense, and if it can be made to work for me 
in an instructional setting. In addition, I have had to do plenty of real time 
video rough-cut editing— and for that, I have turned to the Macintosh. 

Naturally, I’ve been culling the software and hardware bins looking for the 
goodies to get these media projects underway. I couldn’t afford to chuck my 
trusty old Mac Ilci (with its 40MHz 68040 Daystar accelerator and 64 MB of 

244 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

RAM) in favor of an 840AV. I also couldn’t wait to buy a PowerPC Mac 9100/ 
150AV in 1995. Instead, I looked for two things: a digitizer/frame-grabber 
board to handle the conversion (digitization) of source audio and video to 
QuickTime format, and software to handle the control and editing processes. 

I started first with QuickTime 1.6.1, then moved up to QT 2.5, which is 
measurably faster, smarter, and better than 1.6.1. QT 2.5 fixes problems with 
the earlier versions and supports higher and more accurate frame rates at 
large resolutions, so the media you intend to manipulate and digitize can be 
worked with effectively. Over the last couple of months I moved all my work 
to System 7.5.5 so I could take advantage of its general reliability improve- 
ments, plus the Sound Manager 3.0 and other media goodies. 

A Real Media Desktop 

For a digitizer, I chose the Radius VideoVision Studio Pro (with the merger 
of Radius and SuperMac, who knows what this product will be called in the 
future, maybe the Diameter VideoVision Super Studio Pro!). It’s not cheap at 
about 14,000, but it can handle the Hi-8, SVHS, and laserdisc video and 
audio inputs with which I need to work. While the board comes with its own 
basic editing software, I opted for three other packages to supplement it: 
Adobe Premiere 4.0 (which you all have read tons about), VideoFusion 2.5 
(also extensively reviewed in MacWEEK and MacUser), and Abbate Video’s 
VideoToolKit (about which you have probably read zilch). 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip VideoToolKit (v 2.5), is 
one of those small products that the Mac is justly 
^ ^ famous for fostering. The program comes with a set of 
control cables that can control up to three external audio/video 
sources (two for playback and one for recording). It essentially 
turns your multimedia Mac into a desktop video editing console, 
which also supports QuickTime digitizing, without having to buy 
an editing console from Sony or Panasonic (that would set you 
back $600 to $50,000 depending on its fanciness). 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 245 

With VideoToolKit software, you can log, edit, and assemble 
your own videotapes just as if you were sitting in front of a 
$20,000 professional editing console. But unlike that console, 
VideoToolKit can also record directly to QuickTime (rather than 
a target VCR), through your Mac’s digitizer board (in my case, 
the Radius board). 

I’m pretty psyched by VideoToolKit, as it’s proving to be a daily 
companion for me. It’s allowed me to do rough cut edits of the 
“MacTV” and “Personally Computing” remote footage I’ve pro- 
duced, as well as work on video projects for some other clients, 
and produce video clips for my introductory programming course. 
In addition, it’s become my basic tool for assembling QuickTime 
movies of all kinds, since it also allows me to easily create and 
edit those movies with a simple 8mm camcorder. 

The reason I’m so high on VideoToolKit is that it leverages the 
Mac’s desktop and its media capabilities, rather than trying to 
replace them, as some products do. I’ve looked at dozens of 
programs over the last year that purport to make it easy to 
produce offline edited videotapes and to record QuickTime 
movies. I’ve also found most of them to be either way too compli- 
cated for everyday use or way too restrictive in the third party 
audio/video sources with which they’ll work. 

VideoToolKit suffers from neither of these problems. Installation 
is a breeze and, once you fire it up, you’ll have little trouble using 
it, even if you don’t know a camcorder from a can of peas. As 
you can see from figure 5.6, the software is controlled by a basic 
window for establishing the two VCRs (one that holds your 
original uncut video [source] and other holding the blank tape 
you want to record edited video on [record] and their operating 
characteristics). You also have separate control panels for the 
tape transports on your source and record machines. 


246 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Figure 5. 6 VideoToolKit in action 

To use VideoToolKit, simply look through the straightforward 
manual, hook up your source and record VCRs or camcorders, 
patch in the connections to your Mac’s digitizer or to an external 
video monitor, and you’re ready to roll. The manual teaches 
you, step-by-step, how to log a source tape (so you know 
what’s on it), how to select the scenes you want to use in your 
final “movie,” and how to assemble those scenes automatically. 

Once you’ve created a scene edit list, VideoToolKit gives you a 
set of note fields to annotate each scene — these notes are 
automatically displayed while you are creating the edit list. It also 
gives you windows to display QuickTime stills, marking the 
starting and stopping points of a clip (the so-called In Points and 
Out Points in video editing parlance), you can simply press a 
screen button and the program will make the finished movie for 
you. You decide whether you want it recorded to tape or digitized 
as a QuickTime movie, and then save it to your hard disk or to a 
large removable disk (like an optical disk). 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 247 

The beauty of this is that you’re never taken far from the desktop 
to do it. Unlike other systems where you still have to do a fair 
amount of monkeying around with your audio/video hardware, 
VideoToolKit requires no such intercedence. Using a special 
version of the product that “plugs-in” to Adobe Premiere, you can 
complete all this media editing from within Premiere, another 
considerable advantage, since Premiere is the top-selling full 
metal jacket QuickTime movie editor (I use it to arrange 
QuickTime scenes and to cut and paste QuickTime movies a 
frame at a time). 

VideoToolKit 2.5 works with just about any source and record 
camcorder or VCR you can think of, controlling it with one of a 
number of industry-standard control schemes (LANC [Control-L], 
Control-S, Pana M, ViSCA [Sony’s Video System Control Archi- 
tecture], Vbox L, or Vbox S) through the special control cable it 

You simply hook this cable to one of your Mac’s serial ports, 
and connect the control pins to the source and record VCR’s 
and/or camcorders, and off you go. I used a Sony CCD-TR81 
Hi-8 camcorder as my source deck during tests (this was also 
the camcorder I used to record scenes I would later digitize and/ 
or edit), and a Sony EV-C100 Hi-8 VCR as my record deck. 

The program can also be used when working with professional 
video, and if you expect to really integrate media into your Mac’s 
desktop, this is a big plus. For example, I used my test setup to 
do rough cut editing of remote interview footage (which I pro- 
duced for “MacTV” and a local news show) of my pal Roger 
Ebert chatting about his life with the Macintosh. 

The dubbed Hi-8 source tape (dubbed from a BetaCAM SP 
professional original) I was working with used professional RC 
time codes, which VideoToolKit handled with ease (the program 
can also use real time counters or ordinary VCR reel counters to 
position the tapes while editing). In a matter of a few hours, I had 
put together a 15-minute tape that contained a half-dozen 


248 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


segments that were composed of a bunch of original video. I also 
chunked out several short video bites, lasting from 30 seconds to 
three minutes. 

While I don’t expect that many of you need to do rough cut 
editing of professionally produced video, I do know that having 
that additional capability makes VideoToolKit 2.5 a more usable 
tool in a number of different Mac shops. I suspect, for example, 
that folks producing in-house training tapes, sales demos, or 
marketing reports, will find the program extremely useful. And for 
Macfolk who are trying to come to grips with how desktop media 
can really benefit them, VideoToolKit 320 is precisely the kind of 
software they should be looking for. 

Abbate Video, Inc. is located at 14 Ross Avenue, Floor 3, Millis, 
MA 02054-1544. Phone it at 508-376-3712 or fax it at 508-376- 
3714. The VideoToolKit plug-in for Premiere lists for $99. The full 
version of VideoToolKit 2.5 costs $199. 

As you can see from this brief coverage of my use of VideoToolKit and 
Premiere, the manipulation of multimedia data (whether you create it 
yourself with a camcorder, MIDI device, or microphone; or whether you 
“borrow” it from a music CD, videotape, audiotape, or laserdisc) is making 
more and more sense with the power of Macintosh. 

If you can think of similar needs, including the creation of complete multi- 
media materials using a multimedia authoring system like MacroMedia’s 
Authorware or Director (especially including animations), then read on to 
get the full picture of how these needs are met by System 7.5.5, and what 
else you will need to buy. 

Towards a Multimedia System — 

The Nuts and Bolts 

OK, so System 7.5.5 gives you the software underpinings to do multimedia 
in the form of QuickTime 2.5, the Sound and CD Audio control panels, and 
related bits. But as you have learned, you need more than that if you plan to 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 249 

either edit or author multimedia materials. For that, you need applications 
software that I talked about in the preceding section, and you need some 
additional hardware and authoring software, which I will talk about now. 

If you plan to build a professional multimedia Mac (the only kind I recom- 
mend for serious media work), you are going to need the following: 

• A Powerful Mac with AV Support. This could be a Quadra 660AV or 
840AV or a Power Mac 6100/6200AV, 7100/7200AV, or 8100/8200AV or 
later Power Macs with the AV option. The AV option lets you display 
and use video images from sources like a TV camera, camcorder, 
laserdisc player, or VCR, as well as audio sources like CDs, tapes, and 

The AV option on Macs includes both composite and S-Video inputs 
and outputs (S-Video is a high quality format that separates the lumi- 
nance from the chrominance signals, resulting in crisper colors and 
better-defined images). SVHS, BetaCam-SP, and Hi-8MM format VCRs 
all typically supply S-Video inputs and outputs, as well as some higher- 
end laserdisc players. If you have S-Video sources, make sure you use 
them. The AV options adds between $700 and $1,000 to the price of 
any Mac on which it is available. 

The AV option enables you view or capture (digitize or frame 
grab in video parlance) video that you input to the card. You can view 
it on your main monitor in a window, view it on an attached second 
monitor, or digitize it to the hard disk. Apple provides a simple 
application called the Video Monitor with its AV boards that you can 
use for simple viewing. 

The Video Monitor application also allows you to digitize a 
single image displayed in the video monitor window on your screen. In 
order to digitize an entire movie (in order to frame-grab an entire 
video source and turn it into a QuickTime movie), you need a third- 
party program, like Adobe Premiere, VideoFusion (shipped with AV 
Macs), Adobe After Effects, Macromedia Director, Abbate Video ToolKit 
3.0 Plug-in Pack, or Apple’s Movie Recorder. 

250 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Alternatively, and il you want a higher-end system, you could take any 
high-end 68040 or Power Mac and couple it with a third-party AV 
board installed, like the Radius/SuperMac VideoVision Pro, which 1 
have used extensively. 

You could also use the older Radius VideoVision Studio, SuperMac 
DigitalFilm Deluxe, RasterOp’s MoviePak2 Pro Suite, Data Translation 
Media 100, or Avid’s Media Suite Pro (very high end and very expen- 
sive). These third-party boards cost between $3,000 and $16,000. 

• Lots of RAM and Fast SCSI/2 Disk. To work with digitally sampled 
audio and video, you need lots of CPU horsepower, very large and fast 
SCSl/2 hard disks, big removable random access media like optical 
drives, and lots of RAM. 

My minimum recommended multimedia Mac is a 660AV with 64 MB 
RAM, 2 GB of SCSl/2 hard disk space (up to 20 GB is preferred), a CD- 
ROM drive, 19" high resolution color monitor with an accelerated 
color card, and a separate 13" high resolution color monitor connected 
to the S-Video output of the AV board for viewing direct and captured 

• Speakers and More. You will also need at least two shielded two-way 
stereo speakers, and the other Mac media basics like a stereo micro- 
phone. If you plan to move QuickTime movies around, you will need a 
big removal/rewritable optical drive or an Ethernet network (and lots 
of time). 

• Audio and Video Sources. Use only high quality sources of video and 
audio, including CDs, MiniDiscs, MIDI instruments, DAT tapes, analog 
audio tape decks with Dolby C or Dolby S noise reduction, and VCRs, 
camcorders, and laserdiscs that supply S-Video and digital audio 
outputs. For basic semi-pro use, that will largely mean S-VHS or Hi- 
8MM VCRs. If you have access to professional video sources like half- 
inch (Umatic) or professional tape machines (one inch reel-to-reel or 
BetaCAM-SP), these can also be used to drive AV and frame-grabber 
boards for making QuickTime movies. 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 251 

• Authoring Software. If you want to create multimedia, you need 
content. You can get that content by borrowing it or by creating it. In 
either case, you need authoring software to put it all together into 
some coherent stream with a beginning, middle, and end. The top 
authoring packages include MacroMedia Authorware and Director, the 
Apple Media Kit, and Apple’s HyperCard 2.2. 

• Graphics Software. To create the graphics that you will use, consider 
either Macromedia FreeHand, Adobe Illustrator, ClarisDraw, or Fractal 
Design Painter. 

• Photographic Software. You will want to manipulate photos as part 
of any multimedia presentation or project. That means you need 
Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia XRes, or the awesome and very high 
end Live Picture from HSC Software. 

• Video/Audio Editing Software. A fancy AV board and frame grabbers 
won’t get you squat without the right software to edit the audio and 
video you have captured or borrowed. To do that editing you need 
Adobe Premiere, VideoFusion, and Abbate Video’s VideoToolKit (see 
previous section for my Bottom Line Tip). 

• Training in Multimedia Authoring and Editing. This stuff does not 
come naturally! You need training to figure it out. Consider courses 
offered by area colleges and universities and from national centers like 
the Center for Creative Imaging. You might also latch onto a well-run 
local cable TV outlet that is willing to teach you the basics of audio and 
video production, which is really what learning multimedia on a Mac is 
all about. To this end, there are some books that are must-reads (most 
include CDs that are must-looks, too): 

Multimedia Starter Kit by Michael D. Murie (Hayden Books, 1994). 
How to Digitize Video by Nels Johnson (John Wiley and Sons, 1994). 
MacroMedia Director Design Guide by Lee Swearingen and Cathy 
Clarke (Hayden Books, 1994). 

252 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Multimedia Power Tools with CD-ROM by Peter Gerram and Michael 
Gosney (Random House, 1993). 

Virtual Playhouse for Macintosh by Jonathan Price (Hayden Books, 

How to Create Multimedia CD-i?OM by Jasmine Multimedia (Jasmine 
Multimedia, 1994). 

The BusinessWEEK Guide to Multimedia Presentations by Robert L. 
Lindstrom (Osborne/McGraw-Hill, 1994). 

Apple Promises the Future of Multimedia 

Apple has promised us that media of various stripes (audio, video, still 
images, QuickTime movies, and so on) will eventually be as important to us 
as our beloved spreadsheet, database, and word processing documents. To 
date, however, most of the Macfolk using multimedia have either been 
viewerAisteners (which is why CD-ROM has finally become a big deal) or 
hard core media buffs (producing their own QuickTime features) using very 
expensive hardware and software. 

With the introduction of the System 7.5.5, Power Mac AV Macs, the improve- 
ments offered by QuickTime 2.5, the ability to share and catalog media 
sources as e mail attachments fostered by AOCE, and the ability to interact 
with the Mac using voice commands a la PowerTalk, Apple’s finally poised to 
make the desktop and Finder a real multimedia experience. Clever third- 
party products like Abbate Video’s VideoToolKit 2.5 promise to keep 
pushing Apple in that direction. Jump in, the multimedia’s fine! 

Chapter 5 Summary 

Multimedia on the Macintosh has gotten better, faster, and easier to use with 
System 7.5.5 and QuickTime 2.5. Even if you have no need to use, create, or 
edit multimedia data now, you will in the future; I guarantee it. That’s simply 
the way computing is heading. Multimedia data represents a more reason- 
able approach to portraying reality, and reality control is what the emerging 
Mac interface is all about. 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 253 

If you want to jump ahead and consider more of my thoughts on the next 
general Macintosh user interface and how multimedia resources will play a 
big part in that, make a quick jump to chapter 10 and read the section on 
The Future of Macintosh. 

In the meantime, here’s a summary of what I think that future Mac will look 
like. You will see that multimedia data plays a huge part in this conception. 

The Multimedia/OpenDoc Desktop 

The future of the Macintosh Desktop will reside in something I call Open 
desktop Architecture (ODA)— as Apple ought to articulate it and we ought to 
use it in the form of a new Multimedia/OpenDoc desktop. 

Back in May of 1994 at the Worldwide Developer’s Conference, Don 
Norman— Apple Fellow and Interface Guru Extraordinaire— told us about 
one possible future Mac interface (AKA Finder) based on Apple Guide, that 
would become truly active in its assistance features and orientation. My 
Open Desktop Architecture relies on this same active assistance to make it 
fly, but it adds the OpenDoc document-centric idea of computing (see 
chapter 6 for more details) and the liberal use of multimedia data. 

The Omniscient Sage 

To start with, though, we need a basic interface metaphor in mind for our 
new desktop. I call my metaphor The Omniscient Sage. Corny sounding? 
You bet. But highly descriptive. The Omniscient Sage watches what you do 
on your Mac without being judgmental. 

The role of the Omniscient Sage is to watch, assimilate, correlate, and then 
assist. Active assistance based on observation, analysis, and planning at a 
level as far above Apple Guide 1.0 as the it was above Balloon Help. Active 
assistance based on the artificial intelligence work that’s been modeled and 
executed over the last five years. Active assistance based on a world of 
OpenDoc files and apps. 

254 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The Future System for the Future 
Multimedia Interface 

But before we can build The Omniscient Sage and its Multimedia/OpenDoc 
desktop, we have to know what operating system services we’ll have to build 

For ODA, I’ll presume we have these System features as our minimum 
infrastructure (in System 8, 9, or whatever): 

• Full preemptive multitasking for applications and processes so that we 
can use multiple apps and parts of apps in some sort of harmony. 

• Protected memory, so this harmony doesn’t decay into sour notes. 

• Demand paged virtual dynamic memory, so we don’t have to worry 
about memory segments and their nil effects. 

• User profile information so that multiple users can work with the same 
Mac, yet have protected files, access paths, and initialization scripts. 

• Fully implemented Open Transport Architecture for networking. 

• QuickTime 3.0 with 50: 1 full motion video compression, built into 

• PowerTalk, AppleScript, and QuickDraw GX 2.5 built into ROM. 

• Apple Guide 2.5 built into ROM. 

• PlainTalk 2.5 that actually is worth using, and is built into ROM. 

• OpenDoc 2.5 as the document standard. You guessed it, ROM-based 
and very fast. 

It might seem that giving us all of this infrastructure will keep Apple busy for 
years to come. Too busy to conceive and create the Multimedia/OpenDoc 
desktop with The Omniscient Sage. 

If Cupertino was still the HQ of the Old Apple, I’d agree. But the New Apple 
has shown an ability to actually finish systemware and sell it in semi-realtime. 
That ability is still nascent, but if we nurture it, maybe we’ll get lucky. My 
ODA scenario assumes as much. 

Chapter 5: The Multimedia Is the Message 255 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 5 

This chapter seems like a very good place to use one of my reflective com- 
puting quizzes to get my major points summarized and to help you establish 
some multimedia goals for System 7.5.5. 1 urge you all to use the opportu- 
nity provided by System 7.5.5 to reflect on your current Mac multimedia 
needs, the manner in which the Mac is becoming more of a multimedia 
system, and then go ahead and get your feet wet with multimedia. 

You should read each of these questions carefully and then write down your 
answers. These answers should form your basic set of strategies for handling 
your System 7.5.5 multimedia goals. 

1 . What’s a VCR? Camcorder? Laserdisc? 

2. How about S-Video? Know anything about it? 

3. What do you want to use multimedia resources for? 

4. What does QuickTime do? 

5. What does System 7.5.5 give you to author and edit multimedia data 

6. Besides QuickTime, what other multimedia software does 7.5.5 

7. Do you have the hardware necessary to play QuickTime movies? 

8. Do you have the software necessary to play QuickTime movies? 

9. Do you have the hardware and software necessary to create QuickTime 

10. How many copies of idiotic Simpsons, Ren and Stimpy, Duckman, and 
Beavis and Butt-head QuickTime movies have been uploaded to 
CompuServe in the last five minutes? 

256 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 5 

1 . It gets harder from here. 

2. See, I told you so. Do the words chrominance and luminance mean 
anything to you? 

3. Yikes, now we are talking tough questions. You can always fall back on 
the “it’s way cool so why not” theory of multimedia. 

4. Works faster than SlowTime (a Microsoft product)... 

5. Hint: this is a trick question, hunky. 

6. Let’s see, there was the SuperWhizBangMediaDingusWhatchAMaCallit 
Extension and then there was the... 

7. Hey, how would I know? 

8. Duh... 

9. Time to reread that part of the chapter, eh? 

10. Your Mac cannot handle integers that large! 

Networking vs. 
(Welcome to the 

he Mac initially boosted individual productivity with its 
easy-to-use interface and built-in 
networking. Today, the Mac is supply- 
ing the technology to increase the 
productivity of groups as well as 
individuals. System 7.53 is the means 
for those workgroup productivity 
gains. Because of the intense competi- 
tion in today’s business world, the 

258 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

need for effective communications and, more specifically, effective teamwork 
has become acute. It’s so important, in fact, that it can provide companies 
with the competitive edge that can spell the difference between profit and 

With System 7.5.5, Apple addresses the need to move beyond individual 
productivity and energize workgroups. In short. System 7.5.5 lets Apple 
throw down the gauntlet to its biggest competitor (Microsoft Windows) and 
address the real problems that hinder effective collaboration: all the multiple 
file formats and competing communications services and standards, as well 
as the sheer bulk of information that people must manage personally and as 

To provide advanced collaborative solutions, strong and consistent network- 
ing capabilities must be built directly into the operating system, which is the 
case with System 7.5.5. Using System 7.5.5, you can deploy systems, applica- 
tions, and services and have them transparently take advantage of the 
appropriate network protocol— thanks to the inclusion of TCP/IP (Transmis- 
sion Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) software (MacTCP and/or TCP/IP 
when using Open Transport networking)— as well as personal file sharing, 
network support for AppleTalk (LocalTalk, EtherTalk, TokenTalk), and the 
core of 7.5’s collaboration architecture (Apple Open Collaboration Environ- 
ment, AOCE) PowerTalk. 

In this chapter. I’ll examine how Macs reach out to file servers (and each 
other) to trade files across a network, how program linking, publish and 
subscribe and, eventually, OpenDoc, can move beyond file sharing, and how 
PowerTalk and PowerShare can condense the web of network and external 
email packages into a central repository well-integrated into System 7.5.5. In 
short. I’ll show you how the virtual desktop that debuted in System 7.0 has 
matured in System 7.5.5. 

Collaborative Competition 

To the base of networking and collaboration technologies, Apple has 
announced it will grow its overall communication architecture (and replace 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 259 

the ubiquitous and painfully inadequate Communications ToolBox) with the 
Open Transport Communications Architecture— an architecture that allows 
all networking protocols (AppleTalk, IPX, IP, DECnet, and more) to function 
at a high level in the Macintosh networking world. 

In contrast, networking in the Windows world is complex, with multiple, 
competing implementations of the same protocol and no unifying architec- 
ture for developers or users. 

In developing PowerTalk (and the server software, PowerShare), Apple 
realized that in order to get all the advantages of Mac-based collaboration 
and communications, electronic mail services (supporting media-rich data, 
including graphics, animation, sound, and video) needed to be integrated 
directly into the operating system— not provided as a separate utility— and 
mail should be gathered from different sources into a single desktop mail- 
box. The result is a unified PowerTalk mailbox and a simple mail utility, 

PowerTalk provides an open back-end to facilitate the integration of gate- 
ways providing access to a variety of mail environments, such as the Internet, 
CompuServe, and QuickMail. AOCE works at the simple peer-to-peer level 
for small workgroups with the built-in PowerTalk of System 7.5.5, but 
medium and large workgroups will want to buy the extra-cost AOCE server, 
PowerShare, to provide the power necessary for larger groups as well as 
adequate backup and security of collaborative data and messages. 

Additionally, whether your collaborators work across the hall or across the 
country, you need Digital Signature Verification (DSV) so that your elec- 
tronic collaborations can be trusted and kept secure. PowerTalk and 
PowerShare provide DigiSign for exactly that purpose. They also allow you 
to customize and automate collaboration; being able to use AppleScript to 
control processes is a big win with System 7.5.5. AppleScript lets you take 
off-the-shelf programs and weave them together into custom workflow 

260 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

PowerTalk and PowerShare vs. 

PowerTalk is the first comprehensive collaboration product for individuals. 
Its built-in electronic messaging, catalog, security, and digital signature 
capabilities make it easy for you to communicate and work with other 
individuals or groups on a network. 

PowerShare Collaboration Servers handle the team-oriented collaboration 
platform approach and work seamlessly with System 7.5. 5’s built-in 
PowerTalk services, but they cost extra ($995 list for each server that handles 
50 to 100 users). The PowerShare Collaboration Server software is designed 
to: reduce management overhead and costs through the consolidation of 
system administration, improve network security, and facilitate the creation 
of systems with large numbers of PowerTalk users on an AppleTalk network. 
It provides server-based mail, catalog, and privacy services for PowerTalk 

Apple has approached the whole issue of collaboration differently from 
Microsoft. Take a look at table 6.1 which compares System 7.5.5 and Win- 
dows for Workgroups (whose networking features will encore in Win- 
dows95) and see what I mean. 

Table 6.1 System 7.5.5 vs. Windows Collaborative 

Feature Macintosh System 7.5.5 Windows for Workgroups 

Desktop mail / 

Peer-to-peer LAN / 


Point-to-point / 


Server independent / 

(open back-end 

Single log-in / 

(key chain) 


Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 261 


Macintosh System 7.5 

Windows for Workgroups 

Simple directory 



Server based 



Rich data content 


Digital signatures 







Extensible catalog 




integrated into 0/S 


Third-party support 



Available for 


Moving Toward the Future — 
Cyberdog and OpenDoc 
and Apple’s New Internet 
System Strategy 

Intranet Access 

Apple is committed to delivering Macintosh clients that are intranet-ready 
and can be easily integrated with intranet services and corporate networks 
With an intranet as with its network architecture, a corporation gives its 
users the ability to choose the computer that best serves their application 
needs, while plugging into an organization’s horizontal enterprise 

262 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

applications. The key is that the horizontal enterprise applications are based 
on the same intranet that is native to any department’s specific client 
platform, giving users the best of all worlds. 

An intranet can connect everyone in an organization to all of its electroni- 
cally stored information, whether in text files, web pages or databases. And 
Apple’s Open Transport networking software, included with System 7.5.5, 
provides the networking underpinnings for the Internet, intranet, WWW, 
LANs, and even simple AppleTalk networking. Information can be browsed, 
queried, or viewed in a variety of ways using System 7.5.5, Open Transport, 
OpenDoc, and Cyberdog. But until now, it was necessary to develop special 
software for each method of accessing each store of data. Apple is proposing 
a new Internet standard, the Meta Content Format (MCF), that addresses this 
problem. MCF opens up a new market for “data-independent viewers.” 
Because MCF is an open standard, software developers can create a wide 
variety of such viewers. Database and web site administrators can describe 
their data once in MCF and automatically make that data available for access 
through any compliant viewer. 

Apple’s Advanced Research Laboratories in working on an MCF initiative 
called “ProjectX.” One ProjectX viewer offers a 3D information navigation 
system that allows users to effortlessly “fly-through” any web site, data base, 
or desktop folder structure for which an MCF description is available. The 
other ProjectX viewer allows the same information to be browsed using a 2D 
outline similar to that of the Macintosh Finder. 

A new intranet feature that’s included with the 1.1 version of the Cyberdog 
Internet software suite included in System 7.5.5 is the abihty to allow users 
to browse AppleTalk networks and save items such as Zones and AppleShare 
files as hve “Cyberitems.” It is ideal for mixed TCP/IP and AppleTalk net- 
works, and integrates Internet and intranet access into a user’s desktop. 

To improve delivery of information on intranets, Apple provides easy-to-use 
servers for departments and Information Services (IS) applications. Apple’s 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 263 

scaleable server products for Internet and intranet solutions are easy to 
install and maintain, and range from easy-to-use, inexpensive solutions to 
industrial-strength UNIX-based servers. 

NetFinder, a Mac OS asynchronous common gateway interface (ACGI) for 
distributing documents via the World Wide Web works with the new Open 
Transport and Cyberdog software. NetFinder lets administrators and 
webmasters of Mac OS servers distribute documents via the Web, including 
software and product documentation, using Apple’s familiar folder 

Previously, users connected to a server had to use FTP, Gopher or custom- 
designed Web pages to retrieve these documents. Now, with NetFinder 
installed on a server, users will see an automatically generated HTML page 
that looks like a Macintosh desktop folder. Users can open folders and 
download documents by simply clicking on familiar icons. Apple server 
customers can download NetFinder from the Apple website free of charge. 

Intranet Creation 

For creating intranet content, Apple is delivering creation platforms and 
tools that make it easy for IS to leverage the new rich media enabled by the 
intranet. With an intranet, corporations can introduce media-rich communi- 
cations into the corporate network environment to increase the effectiveness 
of communication for improved productivity and corporate participation. 

Some such authoring tools include Adobe PageMill and Claris Home Page as 
examples of how Macintosh developers are bringing Apple’s ease of use to 
the Internet/intranet. Claris Home Page is a new web authoring application 
that hides the complexity of HTML by automatically generating HTML code 
when text is entered and items are selected from pull-down menus or the 
Toolbar. Advanced users can choose to edit their HTML code for more 
sophisticated authoring, as well as developing dynamic, interactive sites that 
call applets (using Java or JavaScript) and CGI applications. 

264 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple’s Internet and New 
Collabratlon Technologies 
At a Glance 

Networking Infrastructure Apple is supporting industry standard TCP/IP 
protocols as a core component of the Mac OS. The first step of this move has 
been the introduction of Open Transport, which makes TCP/IP an equal 
peer to AppleTalk and is now available as part of Apple’s latest Mac OS 
release, System 7.5.5. Apple also recently announced plans to extend 
support of TCP/IP protocols to its remote access product line (AppleTalk 
Remote Access). 

QuickTime Media Layer Today, QuickTime is already established as the 
defacto standard for multimedia content on the Internet. A recent survey of 
2,000 multimedia web sites found QuickTime to be the No.l multimedia 

More than 20,000 web pages today use Apple QuickTime content and more 
than 5,000 use QuickTime VR, including industry leaders such as CNN, 
Tower Records, Warner Brothers, Disney, MTV, BMW and Atlantic Records, 
according to a search from the Alta Vista Web Index. Apple intends to 
proactively drive adoption of QuickTime as the industry-standard multime- 
dia format for the Internet. Apple recently announced the invention of 
QuickTime “fast start” movie play-back, which allows users to begin to view a 
movie while it’s still downloading. 

Additionally, the VRML virtual reality movie language 2.0 moving worlds 
standard, sponsored by Netscape and SGI, has adopted Apple’s 3DMF, a 3D 
file format. Netscape has also recently announced that it will be bundling 
QuickTime with its upcoming Navigator 3.0 release. 

OpenDoc This industry-standard component architecture allows Apple to 
merge otherwise disparate software such as Cyberdog, Java applets, and 
Netscape plug-ins. 

Java Apple and Sun Microsystems recently announced that Apple has 
licensed Java. Apple plans to embed Java across a range of Apple products 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 265 

and technologies, including Mac OS, OpenDoc, Cyberdog, HyperCard, 
Newton, Pippin and Apple Web servers. 

Cyberdog: Up Close and Personal 

Cyberdog is the code name for Apple’s newest way to explore the Internet. 
Based on OpenDoc, Apple’s new component software technology, Cyberdog 
provides a set of internet browsers, data viewers, and communication tools 
to do what you want to do on the Internet. 

Cyberdog 1.1 is the first really solid user release of the software first intro- 
duced as betaware back in late 1995. If you are a Mac OS user you can 
download and install the software for free by linking to the Cyberdog Web 

The big advantage to Cyberdog is that it offers the first set of Internet 
programs with a common look and feel— so you don’t have multiple 
browser, email, and other Net software interfaces to learn and memorize. 
Instead, Cyberdog works by offering simple drag-and-drop control across 
different Internet services while working seamlessly with other Macintosh 
and OpenDoc software. As a result, Cyberdog’s Web browser, mail reader, 
Internet address notebook, and news reading software are integrated with 
one common interface to accomplish your different Internet needs. 

Because Cyberdog’s is integrated with the Mac OS and Mac applications, 
integration, Internet connectivity becomes an extension of the Finder 
desktop. You can, for example, drag and drop a live URL to your desktop, 
driving Internet links from the Finder and Mac OS rather than from a 
separate browser. Essentially, Cyberdog puts the Internet into everything 
you can do on a Mac. 

Cyberdog is based on Apple’s cross-platform (Mac and Windows) compo- 
nent software technology called OpenDoc. OpenDoc is an open standard 
that is available to third-party developers for free to instantly make their 
applications interoperable with other OpenDoc applications, as well as 
Internet-enable them with a link to Cyberdog. The benefit of OpenDoc is 
that it gives you the freedom to replace one or all of Cyberdog’s software 

266 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

components with those offered by a third-party — like, for example, substi- 
tuting the popular Netscape Web browser for the one provided by Cyberdog. 
This lets you customize the way you use the Net without any artificial 
software limitations. 

Cyberdog includes DocBuilder, an OpenDoc application that supports the 
inclusion of Cyberdog components, along with text and graphics. With 
Cyberdog’s DocBuilder, and any OpenDoc-enabled word processor, you can 
create intelligent documents that combine text, graphics, data and informa- 
tion from the Internet. You can build a single document that can contain 
previously-disconnected combinations of sound, real-time Web site links, 
graphics, text , and pointers to specific newsgroups. This document can then 
be shared among Cyberdog users as “live” text which can be used to directly 
access the Net. That’s pretty darn slick. 

Such Cyberdog/OpenDoc documents then become powerful communica- 
tions tools because they easily organize and distribute Internet information 
and resources. A small business owner, for example, could use these docu- 
ments to direct their customers to those Internet resources they considered 

In addition to a browser for the Web, a Gopher search engine, and an FTP 
(file transfer protocol) browser; Cyberdog provides a telnet terminal applica- 
tion (for directly connecting to a remote computer), online notebooks for 
storing Internet addresses, and a log for tracking all the sites you’ve visited. 
Cyberdog also includes a handy email and news-reading program. 

Cyberdog can manage multiple email addresses, letting you manage incom- 
ing mail from various mailboxes. Mail handlers can identify prioritized and 
unwanted mail, and categorize it for you. The software also includes a 
sophisticated search mechanism that helps find email messages by content, 
and can also archive Internet News Group Information. 

Other Cyberdog 1.1 features include the ability to import bookmarks from 
Netscape Navigator and mail and addresses from Qualcomm’s Eudora. A 
new HTML embed tag also allows OpenDoc components to be included in 
Web pages and viewed with the Cyberdog browser, so you can prototype 
Web pages without publishing them. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 267 

The software currently runs only on Macs and PowerMacs and Mac OS 
clones and you must also download OpenDoc (also free from the Cyberdog 
Web site) and install it. Apple has promised a version of OpenDoc and 
Cyberdog for Windows 95 and NT for “sometime later during 1997.” 

Numerous developers are already actively developing or enhancing applica- 
tions to work with Cyberdog. Making an application “dog savvy” is as easy as 
supporting OpenDoc, and instantly makes applications Internet-ready. 

For example, Macintosh word processing software vendors such as Claris, 
WorldSoft and Digital Harbor are supporting Cyberdog to enable their 
applications to develop “live” documents that link to Internet resources. 

In addition to Cyberdog-enabled “live” documents, developers are offering a 
host of capabilities to Cyberdog users. Addison-Wesley is developing interac- 
tive CD-ROM titles that use Cyberdog to retrieve content from the Internet; 
Corda Technologies offers a graphing component that uses Cyberdog to 
graph information directly to web pages; and OnBase Technology is offering 
users an alternative to the standard Cyberdog notebook. 

For developers, third-party suppliers are offering several tools to promote 
OpenDoc and Cyberdog add-ons. Spyglass is offering a Web Technology Kit 
(WTK) that offers components for making applications, services or devices 

The Spyglass WTK supports Cyberdog as well as HTML browsers, giving 
users the option to plug in their preferred browser. ResNova software has 
announced the development of a Java applet viewer for Cyberdog called 
“Cyberjava.” This component enables the user to play Java applets within 
any OpenDoc document, not just Cyberdog components. Kantara Develop- 
ment is offering developers “PartMerchant,” an online source for buying and 
selling OpenDoc components that are based on Cyberdog. 

Cyberdog 1.1 Features In Depth 

Mail Browser The mail component offers many new features, including the 
addition of a tool bar to the mail browser window to provide easier access to 
commonly used functions. Also added to the mail window is the number of 

268 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

total unread and unsent messages to display message status. An option has 
been added to allow mail to be downloaded, but still left on the server— a 
useful function for users who want to access their mail from two different 
machines. The mail system can now read and send standard Japanese 
character encodings. A pop-up menu lets users select MIME or ASCII encod- 
ing for their mail and newsgroup messages. Users can now send messages 
with graphics and styled text to others using Cyberdog and other products 
that support the full MIME standards, or send ASCII text that can be read by 
Cyberdog and all other mail and newsgroup systems. 

Web/FTP Browser The Cyberdog 1.1 web browser supports embedding and 
client-side image maps. Through user feedback, many improvements have 
been incorporated to improve the user experience. The browser component 
also allows users to browse local AppleTalk networks as well as the Internet, 
and save these paths as Cyberitems— live links to information whether it 
resides on the Internet, intranet or AppleTalk network. From within the 
browser interface, a user can locate and mount shared volumes and folders 
on AppleTalk or AppleShare networks and also save the shared volumes as 
Cyberitems. In addition, a webmaster can use AppleTalk Cyberitems to 
embed hot links within intranet web pages to give users direct access to 
shared servers. This is a faster way than the chooser for selecting and 
mounting a shared volume. With the HTML embed tag and the Cyberdog 
browser, a web site can include an FTP site directory for file downloads, a 
newsgroup for messaging or an AppleTalk server to connect directly to the 
local network. 

DocB uilder The Cyberdog DocBuilder now provides support for back- 
ground colors, patterns and pictures as well as improved alignment and 
editing capabilities. Better support has been added for grouping and 
ungrouping of objects and users can create multi-page documents and better 
control display size and position. This provides users greater control and 
customization over the total document environment. 

In addition. Cyberdog 1. 1 components now run in a single process, reduc- 
ing memory requirements on a user’s machine. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 269 

Cyberdog: Incorporating Internet 
Access into the OS 

Cyberdog is the first full-featured Intemet/intranet suite of products with a 
common look and feel. Different tools no longer have to be used to access 
the Internet or intranet. With Cyberdog, one application can be used to 
access information on the Internet, intranet and now, local area AppleTalk 
or AppleShare networks. Cyberdog also includes many built-in data-type 
viewers, such as GIF or JPEG files or QuickTime movies, so the user does not 
need to install additional applications. 

Cyberdog is tightly integrated with the Mac OS. For example, a user can take 
a Cyberitem in the web browser and drag it to the Finder. This Cyberitem 
can then be used to launch Cyberdog from the desktop and access that 
particular resource. With Cyberdog, users can take information found on the 
Internet or intranet and embed these resources directly into documents 
created with OpenDoc-aware software such as Cyberdog’s DocBuilder— 
which allows users to construct custom documents or personalized 
Cyberdog front-ends. This capability allows users to build live hothnks to 
Internet information into documents they create. 

Moving Toward the Future — 
Open Transport Networking 

Open Transport is the new modern networking and communications 
subsystem for the MacOS. Open Transport is based on industry standards 
and brings a new level of networking connectivity, control, and compatibility 
to Macintosh customers, while preserving and enhancing the MacOS built-in 
support for easy-to-use networking. 

Networking and communications technologies are mission critical, so 
rehabihty is a base-level requirement. Organizations require interoperability 
in heterogeneous environments; full compliance with standards is necessary. 
Fligh performance is also key. Increasing fde sizes— often related to the 
rich media types found in graphics and publishing, multimedia, video 

270 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

production, and technical markets— create a demand for effective use of 
higher bandwidth communications technologies such as ISDN, FDDI, fast 
Ethernet and ATM. 

Apple began with two key assumptions: that networking is inherently a 
multi-platform, multi-protocol proposition; and that customers cannot start 
over to achieve networking interoperability. This lead us to adopt five key 
design goals: 

• Open Transport must protect customer and developer investments in 
existing network infrastructure and applications. 

• Open Transport must be based on existing cross-platform industry 

• Open Transport must provide users with an easy to set-up, easy to 
use abstraction of the underlying complexity of multi-protocol 

• Open Transport must also provide a complementary abstraction of 
networking and communications services for applications 

• Open Transport must offer a flexible run time model— one that lets a 
specific protocol be configured and selected at run time, rather than 
statically linked at compile time. 

• Open TransportA'CP is supported over Ethernet, 802.3, Token Ring, 
and AppleTalk (as MacIP). It is also supported over serial lines when 
using backward compatible MDEV support (for example, MacPPP and 

• Open Transport/TCP is configured using the TCP/IP Control Panel. 
Configuration may be done manually, or via a BOOTP, DHCP, RARP, 
or MacIP server. The steps to follow using each of these methods are 
detailed below. 

By default, the TCPAP Control Panel comes up in basic mode. Advanced or 
administration mode may be entered via the Edit menu. These modes allow 
expert users additional choices as well as the ability to augment information 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 271 

returned from a configuration server or to fill in gaps in the returned 

The TCP/IP Control Panel may be used at any time to reconfigure the system. 
However TCP will not notice the new configuration until it has unloaded 
from the system. By default, this takes about 2 minutes after the last applica- 
tion using TCP or UDP has gone away. 

Fields in the TCP/IP Control Panel: 

Connect via This is where you select the interface the system is going to 
use. This can include, but is not limited to, Ethernet, Token Ring, AppleTalk 
(MacIP), and MacPPP. 

Configure This is where you select how the system will obtain its IP address. 
The choices are Manually, BootP, DHCP, and RARP. 

IP Address This is where you enter the systems IP address if you have 
configured it to obtain its address manually. If BootP, DHCP, or RARP were 
selected for the “Configure:” field, the text “< supplied by server >” will be 

Domain name This is the default domain name used for domain name 
searches. For example, if a domain name of “” is configured, a 
search for “scott” would initially search for “” It is not always 
necessary to fill in this field when configuring from a BootP or DHCP server 
since it may be returned along with the IP address. It is not necessary to have 
a domain name entered in this field. 

Admin domain In Advanced User mode only, you may enter an Admin 
Domain. This is used to allow implicit searches. For example, if my domain 
is, and my Admin domain is set to, a 
search for the name “scott” would first look for, then for, then for Implicit searching will not be done unless an Admin 
Domain is explicitly setup and the default domain is a subdomain of the 
Admin Domain (per RFC 1535). If the name “scott” is not found here and 
Search domains are present, they are searched as well. 

272 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Search domain names In Advanced User mode only, you may enter Search 
domains. See the “Domain Name Resolver Information” for complete details 
on how searching and the DNR work. 

Domain Name Resolver Information When a client of the DNR requests a 
name-to-address mapping, the DNR checks for a at the end of the name. 

If it exists, the name is assumed to be fully qualified (see RFCs 1034 and 
1035 for an explanation of the Domain Name System). Otherwise, if the 
name contains at least one internally, it is considered to be provisionally 
fully qualified. Otherwise, the name is assumed to be partially qualified, and 
the DNR will begin a search for that name in the domain name in the 
“Domain name:” field. If it is not found there, and there is an Admin domain 
configured, implicit searches will take place as described in the “Admin 
domain” section. If the name is still not found, the Search domains are 
searched. For each search domain, the configured name servers are con- 
tacted in the order specified. If the name is resolved in the first search 
domain, that answer is returned. If an authoritative answer that the “name- 
does-not-exist” is returned, the DNR begins the search in the next configured 
search domain. The search continues through the domains, and if no match 
is found, the DNR will search the root domain if it makes sense to do so. The 
DNR has an overall timeout of 2 minutes after which it will abandon its 

Subnet mask This is for the subnet mask for the network the system is 
connected. For example, on a class C net which uses 4 bits of the host field 
for subnetting, the subnet mask should be entered as “”. 

Router address This is for the IP address of the default IP router located on 
the network the system is on. 

Name server addr This is for the IP address(es) of one or more Domain 
Name Servers. 

Configuring Open Transport/TCP: 

Manual Configuration To manually setup Open TransportA'CP, follow 
these steps: 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 273 

1 . Select the interface to use, or pick “AppleTalk (MacIP)” to run over 
AppleTalk on the interface selected in the AppleTalk control panel. 

2. If an Ethernet interface is selected, a check box will appear offering the 
use of 802.3. By default. Open Transport/TCP uses Ethernet rather 
than 802.3. 

3. Select “Manually” as the configuration method. 

4. Eill in the IP address in dot notation (for example, 

5. Fill in the default domain extension to be used on name searches. 

6. In Advanced User mode only, you may enter an Admin Domain. This is 
used to allow implicit searches. 

7. Fill in the subnet mask in dot notation. 

8. Fill in the IP address of the default IP router. 

9. Fill in the IP address(es) of one or more Domain Name Servers. 

10. In Advanced User mode only, additional search domains may be 
entered. See the preceding description of the Domain Name Resolver 
operation for details. 

11. If a Hosts file is required, select it using the Hosts file button. For 
details about the Hosts file, see the description which follows. 

DHCP Configuration 

To use a DHCP server to setup Open Transport/TCP, follow these steps: 

1 . Select the interface to use in the AppleTalk control panel. 

2. If an Ethernet interface is selected, a check box will appear offering the 
use of 802.3. By default. Open Transport/TCP uses Ethernet rather 
than 802.3. 

3. Select “Using DHCP” as the configuration method. 

4. In Advanced User mode only, you may enter an Admin Domain. This is 
used to allow implicit searches. 

274 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

5. In Advanced User mode, a subnet mask may be entered but is not 
required. If a value is entered, it will be used if no subnet mask is 
returned from the DHCP server. Otherwise, any value entered is 

6. In Advanced User mode, the manually entered IP addresses of routers 
are attached to the end of the (possibly empty) list of IP routers 
returned by the DHCP server. 

7. In Advanced User mode, the manually entered IP addresses of Domain 
Name Servers are attached to the end of the (possibly empty) list of 
Name Servers returned by the DHCP server. 

8. In Advanced User mode only, additional search domains may be 
entered. See the preceding description of the Domain Name Resolver 
operation for details. 

9. If a Hosts file is required, select it using the Hosts file button. For 
details about the Hosts file, see the description which follows. 

DHCP Address Leases DHCP provides a network administrator with the 
ability to configure a host’s IP address either for an unlimited or for a limited 
period of time. The limited lease period is under the network 
administrator’s control and is non-negotiable. Leases may, however, be 
renewed at the option of the configuring server. 

Open Transport/TCP fully supports DHCP address leases. Should an 
interface’s IP address lease expire, the interface will be closed down. How- 
ever, Open Transport/TCP will automatically attempt to renew any address 
lease that reaches it’s Renewal Interval, which defaults to half of the lease’s 
lifetime, but may be configured to a different interval by the configuring 
server. Renewal will be attempted regardless of how many times the lease 
has already been renewed. 

BootP Configuration 

To use a BootP server to setup Open Transport/TCP, follow these steps: 

1 . Select the interface to use, or pick “AppleTalk (MacIP)” to run over 
AppleTalk on the interface selected in the AppleTalk control panel. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 275 

2. If an Ethernet interface is selected, a check box will appear offering 
the use of 802.3. By default, Open Transport/TCP uses Ethernet 
rather than 802.3. 

3. Select “Using BootP “ as the configuration method. 

4. In Advanced User mode only, you may enter an Admin Domain. This 
is used to allow implicit searches. 

5. In Advanced User mode, a subnet mask may be entered but is not 
required. If a value is entered, it will be used if no subnet mask is 
returned from the BOOTP server. Otherwise, any value entered is 

6. In Advanced User mode, the manually entered IP address of the 
router is attached to the end of the (xpossibly empty) hst of IP routers 
returned by the DHCP server. 

7. In Advanced User mode, the manually entered IP addresses of 
Domain Name Servers are attached to the end of the (possibly empty) 
list of Name Servers returned by the DHCP server. 

8. In Advanced User mode only, additional search domains may be 
entered. See the preceding description of the Domain Name Resolver 
operation for details. 

9. If a Hosts file is required, select it using the Hosts file button, for 
details about the Hosts file, see the description which follows. 

RARP Configuration 

To use a RARP server to setup Open Transport/TCP, follow these steps: 

1 . Select the interface to use, or pick “AppleTalk (MacIP)” to run over 
AppleTalk on the interface selected in the AppleTalk control panel. 

2. If an Ethernet interface is selected, a check box will appear offering 
the use of 802.3. By default, Open Transport/TCP uses Ethernet 
rather than 802.3. 

3. Select “Using RARP” as the configuration method. 

4. Pill in the default domain extension to be used on name searches. 

276 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

5. In Advanced User mode only, you may enter an Admin Domain. This 
is used to allow implicit searches. 

6. Fill in the subnet mask in dot notation. 

7. Fill in the IP address of the IP router. 

8. Fill in the IP address(es) of one or more Domain Name Servers. 

9. In Advanced User mode only, additional search domains may be 
entered. See the preceding description of the Domain Name Resolver 
operation for details. 

10. If a Hosts file is required, select it using the Hosts file button. For 
details about the Hosts file, see the description which follows. 

MaclP Server Configuration 

To use a MacIP Server to setup Open Transport/TCP, follow these steps: 

1 . Select “AppleTalk (MacIP)” as the interface to use. TCP will now run 
over AppleTalk on the interface selected in the AppleTalk control 

2. Select “Using MacIP Server” as the configuration method. 

3. Select the zone the DDPAP Gateway is in using the “Select Zone” 

4. Fill in the default domain extension to be used on name searches. 

5. In Advanced User mode only, you may enter an Admin Domain. This 
is used to allow implicit searches. 

6. If a Hosts file is required, select it using the Hosts file button. For 
details about the Hosts file, see the description which follows. 

Hosts File 

Open Transport/TCP supports a Hosts file that may be used to supplement 
and/or customize the Domain Name Resolver’s initial cache of information. 
The Hosts file is found in the System’s Preferences folder. This file is parsed 
when Open Transport/TCP is initialized. As in MacTCP, the supported Hosts 
file features follow a subset of the Domain Name System Master File Format. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 277 

Supported features include blank lines, comments (indicated by a semico- 
lon), and data entry. Comments may begin at any location in a line; they may 
follow data entry on the same line. A comment extends from the semicolon 
to the end of the line. Data entry must follow the format: 

< domain-name > <rr> [< comment >] 

where < domain-name > is an absolute or Fully Qualified domain name 
(which, however, need not be terminated by a dot, but must contain at least 
one dot internally) and where 

<rr> = [<ttl>] [<class>] <type> <rdata> OR[<class>] [<ttl>] 
<type> <rdata> 

The only class currently supported is IN (Internet Domain); ttl (time to live; 
indicates the record’s configured lifetime) is in seconds; and type can be A 
(host address), CNAME (canonical name of an alias), or NS (name server). If 
ttl is not present the entry is assumed to have an infinite lifetime; this may 
also be indicated by specifying a ttl of minus-one (-1). 

flNCLUDE and lORIGIN are not supported. 

Examples of valid data entry lines including comments: A ; 

foobar CNAME ; canonical name for the host 

; whose local alias is “foobar” 86400 NS ; name server for 

; entry has a one-week lifetime 

Open Transport/TCP’s Hosts file support is somewhat more stringent than 
that of MacTCP. MacTCP permitted violation of the Fully Qualified require- 
ment for < domain-name > , and this feature was often used to avoid the 
necessity for entering CNAME records by associating an address directly with 
a non-fully qualified name. For instance, this format: 

freddie A 

which was acceptable to the MacTCP DNR, is no longer permitted because of 
the use of domain search lists in Open Transport/TCP (charlie could 

278 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

potentially exist in any or all of the configured domains). If such a line exists 
in your hosts file, kOTBadNameError will be returned when the Hosts file is 
read. To accomplish the same effect, use this format instead: 

freddie CNAME A 

This associates the local alias “freddie” with the fully qualified domain name 
“” and resolves it to the address Use of 
local aliases is limited to CNAME entries; NS and A entries must use fully 
qualified domain names. 

In general, use of the Hosts file is discouraged, as it often simply wastes 
memory by permanently configuring data that may only rarely be accessed. It 
is also highly susceptible to misuse by users who try to configure far too 
much information internally in order to avoid accessing DNS servers. 

Besides tying up memory, this practice is exactly the reason that the Domain 
Name System was developed in the first place— to eliminate the performance 
degradation caused by use of enormous hosts files. 

Should a Hosts file be used, every effort should be made to keep it as small 
as possible and to only include entries that will be accessed frequently. 

Bootp and Open Transport 

The most common issue with Open Transport TCP/IP configuration is, the 
bootp server has not been configured to return a domain name, and no 
domain name was specified in the Open Transport TCP/IP control panel. 

In order to permit the resolution of partially qualified domain names, Open 
Transport TCPAP requires a domain name to be configured, either in the 
control panel, or from your BOOTP/DHCP server. This corresponds to the 
default domain in MacTCP. In order to use the DNR at all. Open Transport 
TCP/IP also needs the address of at least one domain name server, but it can 
also be configured or returned from a server. This information was included 
in the Open Transport documentation, but did not get included in balloon 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 279 

Either configure the bootp server to return a domain name, or enter a 
domain name in the TCP/IP control panel. You must be in Advanced user 
mode in the Open Transport TCP/IP control panel to do this. 

If you have problems with TCP/IP application after installing new networking 
software, open the Control Panels folder and look for the MacTCP control 
panel. If one is there, remove it from the Control Panels folder and restart 
your computer. Each time you install new networking software, you may 
want to verify whether the software’s installer also installed MacTCP, and 
follow this procedure. You should use the Networking Software Selector 
Application to choose between “Classic AppleTalk” (MacTCP) and Open 
Transport (TCP/IP). 

PowerShare Mail Server 

There is a known compatibility problem between Open Transport and 
version 1.0 of the PowerShare Mail Server. If you set up the PowerTalk 
Universal Mailbox to read mail on the same machine on which the 
PowerShare Mail Server is running, the Mail Server may crash some time 
later, usually on shutdown. The work around is to use another machine to 
read mail. This problem will be fixed in PowerShare Collaboration Servers 
version 1.1. 

Moving Toward the Future — 

As we speed toward the end of the millennium, one of the dominant 
computing trends will be a shift from individuals working with standalone 
applications to teams of people working with collaborative applications. The 
fanfare heralding the golden age of collaborative computing has been 
playing for many years; Steve Jobs’ initial marketing spin on his ill-fated 
NeXT workstations centered on “interpersonal” computing. Apple even had 
the chutzpah (some would say they had a stroke!) back in 1985 to declare 
the Macintosh Office as the predecessor technology base for future 
interpersonal computing. Of course, in 1985, they had nothing to go with 
the name except a LocalTalk wire! 

280 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

However, the Internet’s explosive growth and the emergence of groupware 
products such as Lotus Notes and SoftArc’s First Class are showing that 
information sharing and reuse are starting to play a larger role in the life of 
desktop computing today, and make-believe solutions like Macintosh Office 
don’t cut it. 

Against that backdrop, Apple realizes that collaboration must go beyond an 
isolated application to be an intrinsic part of the computing experience. I’ve 
already discussed how PC Exchange and Macintosh Easy Open have made it 
easier than ever to trade files with those PC users down the hall. But by 
including MacTCP, AppleScript, and PowerTalk in 7.5.5, Apple has kept the 
Mac at the forefront of seamless information sharing, while building on the 
gains made in System 7.x: peer-to-peer file sharing and the concept of the 
virtual desktop. 

The Virtual Desktop 

Previous versions of the System were moving in the direction of a “virtual 
desktop,” but System 7.5.5 really kicks the sucker into high gear. The 
concept of a virtual desktop refers to the idea that not all of the control 
menus or device icons that you see on your desktop necessarily represent 
physical devices attached to your Macintosh. 

A good example of a virtual icon carries over from previous versions of the 
System— the AppleShare icon. Even though the AppleShare icon represents a 
physical device— in this case a hard disk drive— the physical device is not 
directly or locally connected to the Macintosh displaying the icon. The icon 
represents a virtual entity (in this case, a logically defined device) that just 
doesn’t happen to be directly connected to the Mac. 

Even though this disk is not directly connected, though, the Macintosh can 
access it as if it is. You can double-click the icon to open it and manipulate 
the contents of that disk as if it is locally attached (assuming, of course, that 
if the AppleShare disk is password protected, you know the password!). Files 
can be copied, deleted, modified, or added just as if it were a local disk (and 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 281 

again, assuming you have the necessary security/password clearance). That’s 
what I mean by a virtual desktop. 

The Mac can control and work with devices or applications that are hun- 
dreds of feet or even thousands of miles away from its geographical location, 
just as if they were directly connected in the same room. System 7.5.5 
expands the Macintosh definition of the virtual desktop to include all of the 
collaboration technology defined by PowerTalk, including catalogs, 
AppleMail, DigiSign, and service gateways. 

Each of these features helps Apple extend the dynamics of the virtual 
desktop and help make System 7.5.5 one of the best operating systems for 
hiding the dirty work (making it all appear so seamless in its execution) 
required for collaboration. 

The Sociology of the Virtual Desktop 

A lot has been written about the “future” of workgroup computing on 
Macintosh computers. I’ve even done my share. But precious little has been 
written about what is happening today. In fact, few writer/analysts have even 
done a good job of defining what the devil workgroup computing is. Never 
one to back down from a challenge, it’s time for me take a shot at doing so. 

Part of the problem with writing about workgroups is that no one can agree 
what they are. One person’s workgroup is another’s loose project confedera- 
tion. This confusion about workgroup computing and its special technology 
needs has led to a jumble in the marketplace that needs to be sorted out. 

And as you will see, the Macintosh provides some defining technologies with 
System 7.5.5 that should make workgroup computing a definable reality. 

The best place to start is with a generic definition of workgroups: any group 
of people working together on a common project. Those could be carpen- 
ters, cab drivers, certified public accountants, or almost any other profes- 
sion. The groups need not be homogeneous, as many projects are composed 
of different people with different talents. 

In general, and with the Mac in particular, workgroups most often are 
composed of the ubiquitous “knowledge workers.” The reason is that 

282 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

knowledge workers manipulate information as their “workstuff ’ and com- 
puters are a whiz at manipulating data. 

With this brief exegesis, then, we have an operational definition of 
workgroup computing: special tools and software that make it easier for 
knowledge workers to manage their shared information— report on it, 
store and retrieve it, edit and present it, and a thousand other allied tasks. 

While the sharing implies a network, workgroup computing is a lot more 
than just another name for an AppleTalk network. The key is in the combo 
of shared information and effective group software tools. The hoped-for end- 
result of this information/software synergy is something called a compound 
document. For a workgroup, a compound document is a document that 
contains local and remote sources, yet it’s accessible by every member of the 
workgroup as if it were their private file. Even though a compound docu- 
ment might have many sources to it (from computers scattered over a large 
network), good workgroup software should take care of that management 
task automatically. 

To date, few new software products have tried to pull this definition off in 
any more than a rudimentary way (with a product like Lotus’ Notes being a 
strong exception that proves the rule). 

Notes defines a set of tools and methods for working for certain kinds of 
shared workgroup data. Its raison d’etre is the management and reuse of 
existing information, and the assistance in the creation and management 
of new shared documents. The beauty of System 7.5.5 is that by including all 
the peer-to-peer networking of System 7.x, and adding the collaboration 
capabilities of PowerTalk, you’ve finally got a Mac OS that can really support 
workgroup computing. 

A Lineage of Linking 

It looked innocent enough, but the printer port on the very first Macintosh 
hosted a bold advantage— integrated networking— something that the PC 
world is still struggling to build into its system. In contrast to the web of 
cards, cables, and servers that PC users must endure to string together even 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 283 

a few computers, all Mac users need to form a network are a few PhoneNET 
connectors, and some phone cable-like wire. Of course, larger Mac networks 
demand faster speeds, dedicated servers, and centralized management. 
Generally, though, if you’ve got two Macs within a few dozen feet of each 
other, you’re about 20 seconds away from a network. Slower if you have my 
bad knees. 

As Apple has advanced the Macintosh, integrated networking has blossomed 
into a client that fits smoothly into nearly any network scenario. Macintoshes 
can connect to virtually anything— from the IBM AS/400 minicomputer 
running the corporate accounting program, to the Sun SPARCstation 
running a World Wide Web server on the Internet. Macs can connect to 
servers from Apple, Novell, Banyan, Artisoft, IBM, and Microsoft. Macintosh 
computers can also take advantage of virtually any kind of network cabling, 
from a basic unshielded twisted pair to fiber-optic cabling. Apple Remote 
Access has become a model of convenience that Apple’s competitors have 
scrambled to mimic. Rarely does any part of the Macintosh advance without 
due thought being given to network access. 

System 7.5.5 provides TCP/IP, an alternative to the Macintosh computer’s 
native AppleTalk protocol, which lets Macs cruise the Internet to its fullest. 
MacTCP is the train tracks that enable you to tour the Internet using friendly 
Macintosh implementations of ftp (Fetch), news (NewsWatcher, InterNews, 
and Nuntius), archie (Anarchie), and, the current darling of electronic 
publishing, the World-Wide Web (through Netscape Navigator and Microsoft 
Internet Explorer). 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Many of these programs 
are freeware and can be found in Adam Engst’s excel- 
lent book/CD-ROM combo: /nternef Starter K/f for 
Macintosh, 4th Edition (Hayden Books, 1996). You can also pull 
this software off of many online services and local BBSs. See 
chapters 9 and 10 for more information on these sources of 
information and software. 

284 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple is also working hard with Novell to bring the native protocol of 
Novell’s industry-leading NetWare— IPX (Internetwork Protocol Exchange)— 
to the Macintosh soon, allowing Macs to have equal footing with PCs using 
Novell’s services. IPX will be part of the Open Transport Communications 
Architecture, and is likely to be initially implemented via a control panel 
called MacIPX. 

Using File Servers 

Part of the beauty of AppleTalk is that Mac users need to learn how to 
connect to a server volume only once. As long as a server supports the 
AppleTalk Filing Protocol, Mac users don’t need to know or care whether 
the file server they are accessing comes from Apple, Novell, Microsoft, 
Banyan, or a number of other vendors. 

Here’s how: 

1 . Select Chooser from the Apple menu. 

2. Click on the icon labeled AppleShare. 

3. If necessary, select the appropriate AppleTalk zone from the list. 

4. A list of file servers will appear on the right. 

Server problems, heavy network traffic, and other problems may 
interfere with a server volume appearing. 

5. Select a server and click OK, or double-click the name of the server. 
The standard AppleShare login dialog box appears (see figure 6.1). 

Figure 6. 1 AppleShare login dialog 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 285 

6. If you are a registered user of the server, enter your name and pass- 
word, and click OK. Otherwise, select the Guest radio button and click 
OK (see figure 6.1). (This only works if your server allows Guest 
access— which might not be the case. Check with your local server 
administrator to find out.) 

A list of available volumes appears. Volumes can be multiple hard disks 
attached to a server, or different folders or partitions on the same hard 
disk. You can select multiple volumes by Shift-clicking. 

7. Click OK. 

The volumes appear on your desktop. 

By selecting the checkbox to the right of a volume when connecting to a 
volume, you can indicate that you want to automatically connect to the 
volume every time you start your Macintosh. You have the option of having 
the Mac automatically remember only your login name, or both your name 
and password. If you consistently need access to a given volume, having an 
automatic login may be convenient. Having the Mac remember both your 
name and password, though, is an open door to whomever starts your 
computer. Not only can the person access all your local files, but your 
network-based files as well. For this reason, many managers consider it a 
security risk to enable password remembering. 

Network Zone Strategies 

Strategies for putting Macs and servers and printers into different AppleTalk 
zones haven’t really changed with System 7.5.5 either— you might want to 
place Macs and printers that are physically close in the same zone, or you 
might want to create zones according to the needs of departments or 

In any case, unless you have a third-party bridge, router, gateway, or router 
software on a Mac, you cannot create AppleTalk zones with System 7.5.5 
unless you are connected to EtherTalk or TokenTalk networks. Standard 
LocalTalk has no features for creating AppleTalk zones, even under System 
7.5.5. But remember that the AppleTalk Phase II protocols can support up to 
32,000 nodes (Macs, printers, fileservers, and so on) on a single network, so 
you don’t need zoning to break the old AppleTalk barrier of 32 nodes per 

Mac Masters 

Using Apple’s 
elegant network 
dial-in package, 
Apple Remote 
Access (ARA), any 
aliases you create 
will be remembered 
as being remote. 
That is, when you 
double-click on an 
alias for a remote 
file or server, the 
modem calls the 
remote LAN en 
route to fetching 
your remote file. It’s 
pretty neat, all 
right, but make 
sure you don’t 
delete or disable 
the Remote Access 
Aliases extension, 
which makes the 
magic possible. 

286 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Masters 

When the Mac 
boots and fails to 
find the volumes it’s 
supposed to mount, 
the Ethernet 
protocol stack is 
lost. The Mac will 
warn you that it is 
switching to the 
LocalTalk protocol 

You will need a third-party routing product like Farallon’s Liaison or Apple’s 
AppleTalk Router to create an AppleTalk zone that would display in the 
Chooser. Or, you could use a hardware router, like the Cayman System’s 
Gatorbox, to create a zone. The setup and use of such devices, however, 
hasn’t really changed under System 7.5.5. You’ll need to check with your 
third-party network vendor to get the specifics on any changes in configura- 
tions, or if there are any special needs because of System 7.5. 5’s PowerTalk 
and MacTCP capabilities. 

Most Mac sites use EtherTalk as the protocol to link large numbers of Macs. 
Sometimes, if you have been using a PowerBook, or if you have lost your 
Ethernet network connection, the Mac will default to its native LocalTalk 
protocol. In this case, you will not see your zones or other Ethernet re- 
sources. To remedy this, open the Network control panel and choose 

A Debt to Doohickeys 

Occasionally, Apple makes available free utilities that provide a quick fix to 
problems that may be addressed better by future releases of system software. 
While these utilities are often handy, they are often unsupported. Apple, or 
even the author, asks that you not contact them for technical support. 
Nevertheless, unsupported utilities can be valuable tools when the risk they 
entail is managed properly. 

One of the unsung heroes among these tools is a package of network 
utilities called FSID— Eile Sharing Improvement Doohickeys. The utilities 
consist of three programs: 

• AppleShare Setup— This conglomeration of controls lets you make 
specific AppleShare alerts dismiss themselves after a set amount of 
time, disables all AppleShare alerts and greeting messages, and lets 
security-conscious administrators disable some auto-mount features 
(see figure 6.2). 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 287 

Ti^ m bI j*tQndji! |i I 

□ mpi-pflgpi- 

□ H tiniMii ■4-rT#tt 

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□ t-FVPfc- 

□ llJIII br rllTf?nnrrl«4B4-ri-t^ 

□ Ibprp 4lw?nn?r \*4 "-e-ri-i-ft 

□ UJIII nn Inngrr br dlvrrnnrri«4^M-ifc- 
DHri-^E 'i Erlrdlg ri*rrd mri-Fdgr 


Figure 6.2 Setting Alerts 

• Server Remote Control— This is a pair of applications that allow you 
to start or stop a file sharing session from a remote machine. It’s but a 
shadow of the commercial remote server control application offered by 
TechWorks, but this humble pair of applications is an excellent 
example of the power of program linking. 

• UnMountIt— This small application can reside on the desktop and can 
be a godsend in removing removable devices such as SyQuest car- 
tridges or a CD-ROM. System 7.5.5 often reports that these devices are 
being shared even when no one on the network is accessing them. If 
you drag-and-drop captive removable media to the UnMountIt icon, it 
checks for users accessing the media. 

You can get these nifty doodads from authorized Apple dealers and resellers. 

Peer Prudence 

With System 7, Macintosh computers gained the ability to share files with 
each other by using the same interface and access restrictions found in 
dedicated AppleShare file servers. This “peer-to-peer” file sharing does not 
require any additional software, or a Macintosh to be used exclusively as a 
file server— so it is much less expensive than having a dedicated server. 

288 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Unfortunately, it also lacks the security, ease of backup and access, and 
speed of a dedicated file server. In addition, it will slow down every Mac on 
which it’s enabled, especially if you allow lots of colleagues to use your Mac 
as a fileserver. 

Peer-to-peer networks are easy to set up after you’re familiar with the 
procedure, but they grow unwieldy as the size of the network increases. 
Since critical files are invariably spread among different Macintosh comput- 
ers, having any link in the chain go down can cause havoc. Peer-to-peer 
networks are also difficult to manage, and multiple versions of the same 
document often appear to further befuddle users. 

I’ll first give you the short version on how to do 7.5.5 file sharing, then 
explore the methods, ramifications, and collaboration strategies that you 
should consider after you know the basics. 

Sharing Setup 101 

To share files using the built-in file sharing feature, you need to launch the 
Sharing Setup control panel (see figure 6.3). Once launched, you should 
name your Macintosh under the Network Identity part of the dialog box, and 
also give your machine a password and owner name (typically your own 
given name). Then, to allow your Mac to share some or all of its files (use 
the Users & Groups control panel to select which ones you will allow to be 
shared) with other Macs on your network, press the “Start” button under the 
File Sharing part of the Sharing Setup dialog. 

To allow for Publishing from and Subscribing to documents on your Mac, 
you need to travel on down the Sharing Setup dialog and click “Start” the 
Program Linking. That’s it, as far as starting these processes rolling. But now 
you need to make some decisions about who can use which files and for 
what purpose. For that you’ll need to access the Sharing command in the 
File Menu and the Users & Groups control panel. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 289 

p i Sharing Setup 

Netujork Identity 

Owner Name : Don Crabb 

Owner Password : 

Macintosh Name : [Crabb's Apple 

File Sharing 



File sharing is off. Click Start to allow other users 
to access shared folders. 

Program Linking 

[ Start ] 


Program linking is off. Click Start to allow other 
users to link to your shared programs. 

Figure 6.3 Sharing Setup control panel 

Sharing Command 

To share any folder or disk (but not floppy disks, only hard disks and 
CD-ROMs) with other Macs on your network, follow these steps: 

1 . Make sure that file sharing is turned on. 

2. Select the folder, hard disk, or CD-ROM to share (you cannot share an 
individual file by selecting it, but you can create a shared folder and 
place files in it that you want to share). 

3. Select the Sharing command from the File menu. 

4. Chck on the box labeled “Share this item and its contents.” 

The access privileges for this item will be those that are set in the Users 
& Groups control panel (See Folders, See Files, or Make Changes). 

5. Close the Sharing command window. Then click Save in the dialog 
box that pops up to save your changes. 

After this, the icon of a shared folder will change slightly to show that 
it’s shared (see figure 6.4). 

290 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Share Me 

Figure 6.4 A shared folder 

6. Drag as many files and folders that you want to share over the network 
into your new shared folder or disk (in fact, a good strategy is to create 
a folder on your desktop called Shared Folder [kind of Uke the old 
Claris Public Folder INIT] that you use to hold the files you want to 
share with others). 

Watch out for conhision between the Owner Name and Macintosh Name 
when setting up and using file sharing. This holds especially true among 
longtime Macintosh users accustomed to the “Chooser Name” (as if it’s not 
frustrating enough that they moved it to the Sharing Setup control panel!). 

Indeed, Owner Name is simply the new term for the old System 7.x 
“Chooser Name” under System 7.5.5. This is the name that normally identi- 
fies you on the network and on the cover sheets of your print jobs. You 
should probably use your real name for this field. Macintosh name, on the 
other hand, is the name that other people see only when connecting to your 
Macintosh— the name of your personal “fileserver.” 

Users & Groups Control Panel 

Unless you modily the default settings, any disk or folder that you share will 
automatically give everyone on the network hill access to that file. If you 
want to control this access, however, you need to fire up the Users & Groups 
control panel (see figure 6.5). You can also use this control panel to create 
user groups, too. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 291 

7 items 

s Users & Groups i[HJ= 

535.1 MB in disk 304.2 MB availabl 






|~n Eileen 


Don Crabb J' Jared 


■J Committee Members 

i 3 



Figure 6.5 The Users & Groups control panel 
To get started, follow these steps. 

1 . Choose New User from the File menu (K-N), which is only active 
when you have the Users & Groups control panel open. 

2. Replace the name “New User” with the name of the user who will be 
using the shared folders and disks (this name must correspond exactly 
to the name that the user has set in his Sharing Setup control panel). 

3. If you want to set up a password for this user, or create a customized 
(restricted access) view for them, open the user icon you just renamed. 

4. After the dialog opens, type in a user password (see figure 6.6). If you 
want that user to be able to connect to you for file sharing, check the 
box marked “Allow user to connect.” If you want that user to be able to 
remotely change their access password to your Mac {this can be a 
dangerous privilege, so be careful about assigning it!), check the box 
labeled “Allow user to change password.” 

5. Close the window, then click Save in the dialog box that pops-up to 
save your changes. 

6 . You must repeat this procedure if you want create more users for 
filesharing on your Macintosh. Unlike the administrative tools in 
AppleShare, System 7.5. 5’s fdesharing setup is a bit more labor inten- 
sive, which should remind you that it is intended only for the casual 
and limited sharing of files and folders. It should not be considered a 
replacement for a more robust fileserver, like a centralized 
AppleShare, UNIX, or Novell fileserver. 

292 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

=[■ Eileen 

User Password : 

File Sharing 

^ Allow user to oonnect 
^ Allow user to change password 

Groups : 

Program Linking 

^ Allow user to link to programs 
on this Macintosh 

Remote Recess 

^ Allow user to dial in 
□ Call back at I 

Figure 6. 6 Setting access for Eileen 

7. When you are finished setting up users, close the Users & Groups 
control panel. 

Creating User Groups for the First Time 

File sharing under System 7.5.5 also has the ability to create groups of users 
(sort of like a much-limited AppleShare server would do). To name a group 
of users and give them particular access to files and folders on your Mac, the 
steps are simple, and not unlike what you have learned previously: 

1 . Open the Users & Groups control panel. 

2. Choose New Group from the File menu. 

3. A new icon called “New Group” will appear in the Users & Groups 
window. Replace the “New Group” name with the name of a group as 
you would like to call it (such as Committee Members). 

4. Drag the user icons of each person you want in this new group into the 
new group’s icon (see figure 6.7). 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 293 

7 items 

Users & Groups =[^= 

535.6 MB in disk 303.8 MB availabl 



I 'J 


Don Crabb 







Figure 6 . 7 Defining the group Committee Members 

You may shift-click user icons and drag them simultaneously to speed 
this process up. You may create as many groups as you like, and you 
may drag the same people’s user icons into as many groups as you 
choose. Thus, John and Mary might both be in the new group, “Ac- 
counting Files,” while John and Louise are also in the new group 
“Review Files,” and Mary and Louise are in the new group “Budget 

5. That’s it. If you want to check which folks are in the group you just 
created, all you need to do is double-click the group icon to get a 
window showing its members. 

If you want to restrict the access of a shared file or folder to just a single 
person or group, you can do so from the Sharing command in the File 
menu. Again, follow these quick steps: 

1 . Turn on file sharing. 

2. Select the item to be shared. 

3. Select the Sharing command from the File Menu. 

4. Check the box marked “Share this item and its contents.” 

5. Select a user or group from the User/Group pop-up menu. 

6 . Select which privileges you want to give to that user or group: See 
Folders, See Files, or Make Changes (see figure 6.8). 

294 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

=□ Shared Files 

^ Vhere : 
Inside : 



1 1 Same- as e-nclosing folder 







Ovner : 

Don Crabb 

User /Group : 

Committee M.. 






I I Make all currently enclosed folders like this one 
^ Can't be moved, renamed or deleted 

Figure 6. 8 Setting sharing capabilities for the group Committee Members 

Clicking on the checkboxes and leaving an “X” will enable the access 
privilege; clicking on the box again will remove the “X” and disable 
access privilege. Be very careful about which users and groups you give 
sharing access privileges to, since it means that they can view or alter 
files, folders, or disks on your Macintosh. 

In my own experience, you’ll likely need to modify the access privileges of 
individuals and groups fairly regularly, depending upon how your needs 
change. Remember though, that file sharing is NOT AppleShare and it is not 
intended to provide centralized, secure fileservice. Don’t expect fileshare’s 
access controls to be as robust or as configurable as AppleShare’s. 

You can even let others access your Macintosh remotely from another Mac 
either on a direct network or via a network dialup modem (look back to 
figure 6.6). 

On Users & Groups 

Users & Groups is technically a control panel, of course, but like its System 
7.5.5 cousin, the Launcher, it resembles no traditional members of its genre. 
Opening the Users & Groups control panel appears to open a Finder 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 295 

The Owner’s User icon has a bold outline. Its preferences window lacks the 
password field because the owner enters her or his password in the Sharing 
Setup control panel itself. As the Macintosh owner, you can always control 
all the contents of any shared folders. Selecting the Allow user to see entire 
disk checkbox, though, allows you to see ail items on a disk, even those in 
folders that are not shared. It’s Apple’s way of saying that ownership has its 

Philosophically, groups consist of people who need to share work. Realisti- 
cally, they provide a shorthand way of allowing and denying access to a 
number of people simultaneously. A folder’s owner must be confined to a 
single user or group that can completely access a folder and change the 
access privileges to a folder. 

You can, however, define an additional user (individual or group) that can 
access the folder, but cannot make changes to its access privileges. Were it 
not possible to prevent users from changing these privileges, people whom 
you let use your files could easily prevent you from using them. This sce- 
nario would create administrative nightmares, to say nothing of opportuni- 
ties for disgruntled co-worker revenge. 

Now that you know how to set up your users and groups, it’s time to 
prepare your hard disk for your guests’ arrival. 

A Privileged Class 

For years, AppleShare administrators have lived by a three-by-three grid 
that determines access privileges for folders. If you have used folders on 
a fileserver, you already may be familiar with access-restricted folders, but 
if you’re planning to be a remote access host, you should definitely know 
about them now. 

Mac Masters 

The Apple Remote 
Access Personal 
Server adds its own 
portion to the user 
window. By 
selecting the “Allow 
user to dial in” 
checkbox, you 
enable a user 
normally allowed to 
access shared 
folders to access 
them remotely. Of 
course, File 
Sharing must be on 
and Remote 
Access must be 
running, with 
Remote Access 
Setup set to answer 

296 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

While the AppleShare security regime does not provide the depth of control 
of competing file servers such as Novell NetWare (a key reason for the 
popularity of that DOS-based server’s success in the Macintosh world), it is 
relatively easy to learn and administer. Three kinds of access privileges may 
apply to a folder. Each gives you an added measure of control over its 

The See Folders privilege provides only the most basic access. If you have 
only this access to a folder, you may peruse its hierarchy and sometimes gain 
access to files at deeper levels. If you do not have the ability to see folders in 
a folder you can open, its window displays a crossed-out folder in the left 
side of the window’s status bar (see figure 6.9). 

1 item 43.7 MB in disk 71 .5 ME aveileble 

Memory chapter 

^ ^ 


Figure 6.9 A folder window in which you cannot see folders 

See Files bestows the ability to see files not only in the folder, but to see 
their contents as well by opening them. If you cannot see the files in a folder 
that you can open, its window displays a crossed-out document icon in its 
window’s status bar (see figure 6.10). 

Make Changes, the final privilege, enables users to add or remove files from 
a folder and includes the capability to change or delete the files within it. 
You only should grant this privilege to your most trusted users and to those 
who need to collaborate on files. Other users can copy files from folders 
with the See Files privilege. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 297 

Figure 6.10 A folder window in which you cannot see files 

Make Changes allows a user or group free reign to do whatever they want to 
the contents of a folder— short of changing the access privileges themselves. 
If you cannot make changes to the folders and files in a folder that you can 
open, its window displays a crossed-out pencil icon in its window’s status 
bar (see figure 6.11). 

=[jj Shared Files ^=l^= 

J^2 items 43.7 MB in disk 71 .5 MB available 

Memory chapter Files for Dave 



Figure 6.11 A folder window in which you cannot change the files and 
folders within that folder 

These privileges can be combined to create four folder types, all of which 
have distinctive icons (see figure 6.12). These icons appear as the privileges 
for the folder’s change (unless the folder has a custom icon). Note that a 
user or group must have the ability to make changes to a folder in order to 
give it a custom icon under System 7.5.5, because the icon resides in an 
invisible file within the folder itself 

298 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


1 Shared Files igii^l 

43.7 MB in disk 71 .5 MB ^1 


You ovn ^his 


You can use this 



Drop box 


Figure 6. 12 Four network folder icons 

Folders that you own and those that you typically create have a “label” across 
their tab (top left in figure 6.12). 

Folders that you can open (those for which you have See Folders or See Files 
privileges) have a normal folder icon (top right in figure 6.12). 

Folders for which you have no privileges have a locked belt around them 
(bottom left in figure 6.12). 

Although Make Changes generally confers more authority over a folder than 
See Folders or See Files, you can grant the former privilege without the latter 
two. In this case, the user can add to the folder but cannot see or delete 
anything within it. This type of folder is called a drop box. (System 7.5.5 
includes a handy script that automates the creation and deletion of a drop 
box with Guest access turned on with its Share a Folder script, located in the 
Automated Tasks folder in the System Folder.) 

Folders that act as drop boxes (of course, with PowerTalk you don’t need 
drop box folders as you can do this directly with your Desktop Mailbox and 
Catalogs) have a belt and an arrow indicating that you can put stuff in the 
folder, but once you do, you won’t be able to access it again (bottom right in 
figure 6.12). 

Still, drop boxes can be an extremely handy use of AppleShare privileges— 
especially if you don’t expect to install PowerTalk for a while (because of 
RAM constraints or because you just don’t need it for collaboration). Drop 
boxes can be used as a primitive form of electronic mail in which folders 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 299 

and files can be added to a folder without knowing what else is in it. To 
reflect the loss of control over a file after it is deposited into a drop box, the 
Macintosh displays a dialog box that tells you that you won’t be able to see 
the item after you place it in the drop box. 

Share and Share Alike 

Choosing Sharing from the File menu allows you to view the privileges of a 
folder that’s already being shared, as well as set the privileges of folders 
shared on your hard disk. 

When you see a folder’s privileges, you easily can determine which of the 
three user types or categories has which three privileges. The Owner is 
generally the person who created the folder and retains administrative 
control. The User or Group indicates who has access to the folder— probably 
with more limited access. 

The third group. Everyone, means that access privileges are available to 
anyone who connects to your Macintosh across the network or with Remote 
Access, as a Guest or otherwise. If the folder’s contents contain data that 
should be kept privy to a certain user or group, you should make sure that 
you do not set privileges for “Everyone.” 

There are two additional settings under your control for shared folders. 
“Make all currently enclosed folders like this one” (runner-up for the 
Longest Checkbox Name Award) is a command rather than a privilege. 
Selecting this setting results in all folders inside of a folder inheriting the 
same privileges. You always can go back to any enclosed folder (s) and set 
privileges independently after you use this command on a folder. 

The “Can’t be renamed, moved, or deleted” checkbox helps limit the power 
of the Make Changes command. If this checkbox isn’t checked, other users 
can rename, move, and delete any files or folders within a folder. 

How do you know if someone is accessing your shared folders? When you 
first share a folder, its icon changes to reflect its network status. When 
someone is connected, however, the icon changes yet again to reflect that 

300 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

people are accessing it and that it has been mounted on someone’s desktop. 
Occasionally, you may see two small arrows flash in the left corner of the 
menu bar to indicate your Mac is communicating with the network. 

Monitoring FileSharing Activity 

Although Apple insists that the increased networking usage that users of file 
sharing, publish and subscribe, PowerTalk, and file aliasing across networks 
will foster won’t slow down your networks all that much, common sense 
dictates that you at least be cautious in how you implement file sharing 
among your Macintosh computers. At the very least, even if you go whole 
hog and give everyone the capability to do full-metal file sharing and collabo- 
ration from the day that System 7.5.5 is installed, you’ll need to keep a 
handle on file sharing traffic. 

If you have anything more than a basic LocalTalk network, you’ll need to buy 
third-party network monitoring utilities, such as those sold by Farallon, 
Stratus, Technology Works, and others. But for basic monitoring of file- 
sharing activities the File Sharing Monitor that is part of 7.5.5 works OK (see 
figure 6.13). 

File Sharing Monitor 

Crabb's Apple 
Shared Items 

Connected Users 


□ 1^ 

File Sharing Rctiuity: 


[ Disconnect ] 


Figure 6. 13 The File Sharing Monitor in action 

This monitor gives you a scrollable list of all your shared folders and disks 
and who is currently sharing them. It also allows you to disconnect any 
individual user (with or without a timed delay). A small bar chart indicates 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 301 

how much file transfer work your Macintosh is doing. As you may expect, the 
more people who access files on your computer, the more your local 
operation slows down. 

Nok Nok is No Joke 

For those wanting more bells and whistles, Nok Nok is just what you need. 
Nok Nok began inside Apple, but is now being sold as commercial software 
by The Ag Group. Nok Nok provides many ways of notifying you when 
someone has connected to your Macintosh and enables you to set a time 
limit for all users— not just remote ones. Nok Nok also can tell you who is 
accessing your machine— even if they log on only as a Guest. 

Program Linking 

The bottom of the Sharing Setup control panel is devoted to Program 
Linking (see figure 6.14). Clicking Start allows other users to connect to 
applications on your Macintosh. This must be turned on for other applica- 
tions to remotely send and receive AppleEvents (which are powerful 
interapplication commands that enable programs to control other 

Netujork Identity 

Owner N^me : Don Cr^bb 

Owner Password : 

Macintosh Name : [Crabb's Apple 

File Sharing 

[ Start ] 

- Status 

File sharing is off. Click Start tc allow other users 
to access shared folders. 

Program Linking 

[ Start ] 


Program linking is off. Click Start to allow other 
users to link to gour shared programs. 

Mac Basics 

If you try to stop file 
sharing (or 
restarting or 
shutting down) 
while other people 
are accessing your 
computer, you will 
see a dialog box 
that asks you how 
long you want to 
wait before 
disconnecting. As 
“network adminis- 
trator” of your 
Macintosh, give a 
reasonable amount 
of time for people to 
log off properly and 
stop using items on 
your Macintosh 
before your 
machine shuts 
down. Otherwise, 
you may end up 
with some very 
unhappy campers. 

Figure 6.14 Program Linking in Sharing Setup control panel 

302 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Now that System 7.5.5 includes AppleScript and the scriptable Finder, the 
formerly neglected AppleEvents should enjoy a renaissance, particularly 
among savvy network administrators who are looking to create economical 
scripts that handle some functions of sophisticated network inventory, 
distribution, remote control, and file synchronization programs. 

The Mac Is a Telephone 

One of the little known additions to System 7.5.5 is MTA (Macintosh Tele- 
phony Architecture). With MTA, developers can create applications that 
integrate telephony functions into the Macintosh. Products that already use 
MTA include Jabra’s innovative EarPhone, a small device placed in the ear 
that works like a telephone earpiece and mouthpiece. Another is Cypress 
Research’s PhonePro, an application that allows you to create full-featured 
voice mail applications on the Macintosh. Other applications that will 
integrate telephony into the Macintosh include PhoneBridge, which will 
allow the Macintosh to act as an integrated fax repository, voice mail system, 
and full-feature telephone. 

Apple itself has furthered the integration of telephony into the Macintosh 
through its use of the GeoPort, a high-speed successor to the original serial 
port that can accommodate a variety of external adapters. Using the 
Macintosh Quadra 660AV, Quadra 840AV, or any Power Macintosh, the 
GeoPort Telecom Adapter can work with the Macintosh computer’s proces- 
sor to emulate a 14.4 modem. 

Much has been made about the reliability of modem emulation versus a real 
modem. The truth is you’re not saving a lot by buying the GeoPort Adapter 
and it is often problematic. (I have two of them— I am an easy sell— and use 
neither.) Modem emulation, however, is just a sample of the GeoPort’s 
flexibility. It also can be adapted to support other kinds of communication 
interfaces, such as ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), which is a 
high-bandwidth dial-up protocol that is enjoying some success in wide-area 
settings. If Apple gets the driver software for the GeoPort to work reliably on 
all AVs models, then all of its potential benefits may translate into real 
benefits. For now, the GeoPort remains an unrealized Apple advantage. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 303 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip If you plan to use a 
GeoPort with System 7.5.5 on a Power Macintosh AV 
’’ machine, you will have to wait until Apple updates the 
GeoPort software, which is currently scheduled for late 1994. 
GeoPort now supports v.34 28.8, but still not ISDN. Until the, 
DON’T USE THE OLD VERSION. Trust me on this. 

A Publisher’s Clearinghouse 

We talked about file sharing and program linking, but those aren’t the only 
(or best) ways you can share data over a network. Others ways exist now 
(Publish and Subscribe), but the good stuff is yet to come (OpenDoc). 

Publish and Subscribe 

Introduced with System 7.0, Publish and Subscribe extends the capabihties 
of copy and paste to “live” data that can be automatically updated. In other 
words, with Publish and Subscribe, the data that you paste into a document 
can be updated easily (automatically if you would like) without repasting it 
everytime something changes. 

Unfortunately, few vendors or users ever got on the Pubhsh and Subscribe 
bandwagon, led by Apple’s amazing apathy towards this signature System 7.0 
technology. Still, there are dozens of applications out there that support 
Publish and Subscribe (virtually everything in the Claris inventory, for 
example), so in the name of completeness, I’ll cover it briefly. But in truth, 1 
never use it and it essentially will be pushed aside by AppleScript and 

To publish and subscribe data: 

1 . Select some text or graphics in a System 7-sawy application. 

2. Choose Create Publisher from the Edit menu. (It may be in a hierarchi- 
cal menu.) 

A Save dialog appears. 

304 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

3. Name the edition file that will keep track of the live data and click Save. 

4. While in a different document, choose Subscribe To from the Edit 

An Open dialog box appears and a special alias highlights the last 
edition file used. A preview appears to the left of the file list. 

5. Select the edition to which you want to subscribe and click Subscribe. 

A copy of the data is inserted into the document. 

Note that the document can be in the same application, a different applica- 
tion, or an application across the network. As long as the application can 
access the edition file, Publish and Subscribe will preserve the links. Saving a 
document automatically updates all editions created from it, and applica- 
tions provide controls for manually updating editions and getting the latest 
versions of an edition (see figure 6.15). Subscribed data can be selected and 
moved within a document, but you must launch the publishing application 
in order to fully edit it. 

Figure 6. 15 Selecting updating options 

If you have Publish and Subscribe-compliant applications, Publish and 
Subscribe can be valuable for ensuring your workgroup stays in sync— 
particularly when multiple people need access to changing data. For ex- 
ample, someone creating a magazine ad often needs to work with graphics, 
logos, body copy, and headlines. Using Publish and Subscribe, a copywriter 
working in Microsoft Word could update a document to reflect the latest 
whim of a client. When she saves the updated file containing additions, her 
editor, who has subscribed to the text, can be instantly given the latest 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 305 

version, while the person composing the ad will have the latest revision as 
soon as she reopens the PageMaker file containing the published text. 

Despite its utility and flexibility, however, Publish and Subscribe has been 
hampered by too many steps, it generates too many files, it works slowly 
with many users (you can have 30-40 users tops), and uses too much 
terminology. Keeping track of the edition files can be a chore. Apple is aware 
of its deficiencies, which is why the AppleScript/OpenDoc combo platter will 
write the Publish and Subscribe epitaph. 

OpenDoc 101 

There have been numerous battles as the Mac has evolved such as TrueType 
versus Type 1 fonts, CISC versus RISC, and so forth. One of the fiercest 
battles now, though, has spilled over from the Macintosh into the software 
industry at large— that of OLE versus OpenDoc. 

Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) is a technology created by Microsoft 
that allows objects from one application to exist within the file of another. 
Embedding is easier and more convenient than the data linking in 
Microsoft’s DDE or Apple’s Publish and Subscribe. OLE 2.0 offers several 
improvements over the original specification, such as the capability to edit 
an object without opening a new window for it. OLE is supported by many 
prominent Windows applications and is used by the Macintosh versions of 
Microsoft and Aldus applications as well. 

Apple, however, has proposed a rival standard for object sharing called 
OpenDoc, which has attracted a large industry following, including IBM, 
Borland, Xerox, and Lotus. OpenDoc leapfrogs even OLE 2.0. With 
OpenDoc, you can switch editing tools in a “container” application simply by 
clicking on a “part.” Parts can be virtually any kind of data— text, graphics, 
QuickTime movies, sounds, even data types of which we haven’t yet con- 
ceived. The effect is similar to the transparent switching of editing tools in 
Claris’ superb integrated package ClarisWorks. However, OpenDoc allows 
you to edit any data type with your choice of best-of-breed editors. 

306 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Unlike OLE 2.0 objects, OpenDoc parts support network access, running in 
the background, and irregular, overlapping shapes. Not surprisingly, 
Microsoft claims it is working on network support and irregular shapes for 
the next version of OLE. While Microsoft has a head start in the object wars— 
even on the Macintosh side— OpenDoc will play an increasingly important 
role in the Macintosh operating system, driving it from its application-centric 
origins to a document-centric future. 

Unfortunately, OpenDoc is still in development and so we will have to 
wait a bit for this extremely exciting technology to show up on our desktops. 
I’m sure we will talk about it at great length in Guide to Macintosh 
System 8.0. 

Sharing Alike: The Rebirth 
of AOCE 

OK, I’ve given you the guided tour through the basics of the virtual desktop, 
most of which carried over from System 7.x. But all of that is just the over- 
ture to the aria that is PowerTalk and AOCE. System 7.5.5 marks the begin- 
ning of a new level of collaboration within the operating system and 
Macintosh applications through the Apple Open Collaborative Environment 

AOCE is a broad initiative, the mission of which is to make working with 
people around the office, or around the world, a part of the applications you 
use everyday. System 7.5.5 represents a second time at the plate for 
PowerTalk, which debuted in System 7 Pro. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip After you finish reading 
this chapter, you should go through the PowerTalk 
Guide (an Apple Guide) that’s provided with 7.5.5. It will 
teach you the hows and whens of using PowerTalk. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 307 

Currently, Apple has two major products based on AOCE. PowerTalk is the 
AOCE client included with System 7.5.5. Like peer-to-peer file sharing, it 
provides a number of immediate benefits out of the box, including: 

• A baseline electronic mail program, AppleMail. 

• An integrated Desktop Mailbox through which you can access all 
manner of electronic mail. 

• A standardized way of searching through directories via public and 
private catalogs. 

• A standardized access protocol for collaboration services via the Key 

• Messaging/email capabilities integrated into popular applications. 

• Drag-and-drop mail sending. 

• Public-key encryption and digital signatures. 

The Collaborative Desktop — 
Extending the Virtual Desktop 

If you were among the majority that skipped over System 7 Pro (because it 
was too expensive and too slow), the Mailbox and Catalogs icons that 
PowerTalk added to the desktop will be new to you with System 7.5.5. One 
of the icons that System 7 Pro installed, the Key Chain, has been moved by 
default from the desktop to the Apple menu. (You may want to keep its alias 
on the desktop as I do, for quick access. Apple recommends this also.) The 
Key Chain is located in the Mail and Catalogs folder. 

The Mailbox and Catalogs icons cannot be moved from the desktop, 
although you can place aliases of them anywhere on the hard disk (see 
figure 6.16). 

308 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

You won’t see 
the Catalogs or 
Mailbox icons 
unless you 
choose to install 

Figure 6.16 The Catalogs and Mailbox icons 

Controlling the Universal Desktop Mailbox 

The first time you open the Mailbox, PowerTalk will prompt you for a name 
that can be used to identify you on the network (this can be changed later if 
you need to). After giving a name and password, the System configures the 
Key Chain to store that information. 

Opening the Mailbox presents the letters addressed to you in chronological 
order (see figure 6.17). By default, the most recent messages to you are 
listed last, although this can be changed through the Mailbox Preferences 
dialog box (see figure 6.18). PowerTalk also enables you to customize 
settings for how you are notified when there’s new mail. 


In Tray for Don Crabb 

6 fagged ifems (Personal) 


Date Sent 

■/ Re>>>> MacSki Greg 

^ MacSki Greg 

■/ MacSki Greg 

'Z Re>>>> The OS Fornnerly Cal... Greg 

■Z Re>> The OS Fornnerly Calle... Greg 

Z' The OS Fornnerly Called Sys... Greg 

9/21 /94, 1 1 :01 PM 
9/21 /94, 10:47 PM 
9/21 /94, 10:32 PM 
9/17/94, 9:12 PM 
9/17/94, 8:59 PM 
9/17/94, S:40 PM 



Figure 6.17 Opening the Mailbox 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 309 

MailboH Preferences M 

Mail Tray : 

m Shov nncisl: recervl: first 
I I Allov visitor's mailbox 
Vhen Mail Arrives : 

0 Display alert 
^ Blink icon in menu bar 
^ Play this sound: | Droplet 

Out Tray Aging : 

Remove processed items after 1 1 4 | days. 

Tags List : 

[ 1 

Figure 6.18 Setting Mailbox Preferences 

Depending on the settings you choose, you will receive some sort of notifica- 
tion when new mail arrives. To see the subject of the letter, open the 

The Mailbox window resembles other Finder windows and, to some extent, 
acts like one. Clicking any of the various column titles, such as Date Sent or 
Priority, sorts mail by that criteria. Many different data types can coexist in 
the PowerTalk Mailbox. Any file type the Macintosh supports can be sent 
through PowerTalk. You can launch files or hear sounds in your Mailbox by 
double-clicking them. You can file them by dragging them into folders. 
However, you can’t drag items into the Mailbox window or create folders 
within it. While the first limitation is intentional, the latter should be 
resolved in a later version of PowerTalk. 

In the interim, PowerTalk provides a feature called Tags that is similar to the 
Finder’s Labels feature. One good thing about this feature is that you can 
apply multiple Tags to the same file. You can apply Tags by selecting items in 
the Mailbox and choosing Tags from the Mailbox menu. 

In the resulting window, you can add Tags by selecting them from the 
popup menu or by creating new Tags; you create Tags by typing in the name 
of the new Tag and clicking Add. Apply a Tag by selecting it from the popup 
menu. Note that each Tag you select will be applied to the selected items. 

Mac Basics 

You can see the 
most recent 
items that 
you’ve sent via 
PowerTalk by 
choosing the Out 
Tray from the 
Mailbox menu. 

Mac Masters 

Many programs 
that support 
PowerTalk — 
AppleMail — have 
a menu command 
to open the next 
letter, but this 
will not work if 
you received a 
file or sound sent 
directly through 
PowerTalk, and 
not as an 
attachment to a 

310 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

To remove a Tag, select it in the popup menu and click Remove. The 
Remove button does not delete a Tag, it merely deassigns it from the 
selected In Tray items. To permanently delete a Tag, choose Preferences 
from the Mailbox menu and click Edit Tags. Here, you can select multiple 
Tags and click Delete to remove them. 

To filter your mail according to a Tag, open the In Tray and choose with Tag 
from the View menu. Choose the Tag from the popup menu (or type it in) 
and click OK. The PowerTalk In Tray displays the number of tagged items 
along with the Tag name above the list of In Tray items. (PowerTalk’s Tray 
windows have no Icon view.) 

Items that you have opened (and read, theoretically anyway) are marked 
with a checkmark. With version 1.1 of PowerTalk (included in System 7.5.5), 
you also can mark items by selecting letters in your Mailbox and choosing 
Mark Read from the Mailbox menu. Marking items as read stops notification 
that the unread items exist. If you still want to be notified about read items, 
select them in the mailbox and choose Mark Unread from the Mailbox menu. 
The checkmark that denotes whether the item has been read disappears. The 
Mailbox menu also allows you to copy items on the mail server (if you are 
using one) to your hard disk by selecting them and choosing Copy Local 
from the Mailbox menu. 

PowerTalk Clients 

Any Mac that can run System 7 Pro or later can be a PowerTalk client, so 
mixed-collaborative networks of 7.5.5 and 7 Pro Macintosh computers will 
work. To enable your Macintosh to collaborate with other PowerTalk users, 
you must open the PowerTalk Setup control panel, turn Collaboration 
Services On and restart the Macintosh. 


Out of the box, PowerShare supports PowerTalk clients for email. 
PowerShare (a server) can store and forward mail, which means that two 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 31 1 

machines need not be running at the same time to exchange email (as they 
do with PowerTalk), possibly resulting in critical delays. A host of third 
parties are providing gateways that will link PowerShare servers to other mail 
servers and collaboration servers. 

In everyday use, PowerShare is proceduraiiy similar to using an AppleShare 
server, but covers more collaboration services. Once you log in to your Key 
Chain, you have access to ail the network services, including other 
PowerShare servers and PowerTalk-enabied Macintosh computers that 
appear as just another service on your Key Chain. Traditionally, these have 
been file servers, print servers, and electronic mail, but will grow to include 
chat-based and video conferencing, whiteboard, bulletin board, scheduling, 
and other collaborative applications. 

PowerShare Servers 

Simply stated, PowerTalk is to PowerShare what System 7.5.5 file sharing is 
to AppleShare. PowerShare acts as a central server for the catalogs and 
gateways that would otherwise be maintained on each individual Macintosh. 
As with peer-to-peer file sharing, you probably don’t need a dedicated 
PowerShare server if you have a small workgroup of 10 or less, but large 
LANs may need several PowerShare servers. PowerShare is an extra-cost 
package (1995 list for a single server that can accomodate up to 100 users). 


AppleMail is often maligned for its lack of features, but it was never intended 
to represent the last word in electronic mail clients. Rather, you should think 
of it as the SimpleText of email. After all, one of the ideas behind PowerTalk 
is to stop thinking of electronic mail as an application and start integrating it 
into the applications you already use— so in this context, the lack of a million 
features in AppleMail makes sense. 

Today, many popular applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel, 
WordPerfect, and ClarisWorks allow you to use PowerTalk to send and 

Mac Basics 

The Key Chain is 
a very handy 
feature that you 
should learn to 
use. With it, you 
can easily log on 
to a number of 
different servers 
and services 
without having to 
remember a 
password for 

312 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Mac Masters 

Holding down 
Option as you 
select New from 
the File menu 
overrides the 
default Letter- 
head and creates 
an empty 

receive email. AppleMail was the first and still serves well as “the SimpleText 
of PowerTalk.” Much of AppleMail looks and acts like a standard Macintosh 
word processor, but there are some differences. 

In addition to styled text, AppleMail can accept PICT files, QuickTime 
movies, and sounds. You can record sounds directly into an AppleMail 
document by choosing Record Sound from the Edit menu. 

AppleMail enables you to use nice looking electronic letterhead in your 
email. Choosing Letterheads from the File menu presents a choice of 
stationery files with some nicely designed PICT files having been provided by 

You can also make and save your own letterhead by choosing Save as 
Letterhead from the File menu. The resulting dialog box gives you the 
option to delete any Letterhead or set one as a default for when you create a 
new AppleMail document. Perhaps the only significant difference between 
AppleMail letterhead and traditional stationery is that AppleMail letterhead 
can retain PowerTalk mailer information (of course, the fact that one is 
electronic and one is paper is also a big, but obvious difference). Thus, they 
are very useful for people to whom you frequently send mail. 

Choosing Preferences from the Edit menu allows you to designate the 
default font for your missives, and other default options such as if a letter is 
automatically closed after it is sent; if you are prompted to save a letter after 
sending it; when the PowerTalk mailer is expanded by default; and how the 
text from an original letter is handled in a reply (see figure 6.19). 

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— finding q 

ifJJpr -i- ■ H-l 

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h VllfT 


^ MkMI-4*lir+ blfcK 


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Figure 6. 19 AppleMail Preferences 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 313 

The PowerTalk Mailer 

The heart of PowerTalk addressing lies in the PowerTalk mailer, which can 
be added to PowerTalk-sawy applications by using the Add Mailer command, 
typically in the File menu. The PowerTalk mailer is divided into four parts. 

The From field designates the sender of the message. Naturally, it is initially 
set to your Mailbox name. Double-clicking on the name, however, allows 
someone else to log in to a PowerShare server, if one is available, and send 
mail from a different Macintosh. 

The Recipients field lists the addressees for the email (see figure 6.20). 
Clicking the Recipients button or pressing Return while the field is high- 
lighted, calls up PowerTalk’s addressing window pane which has four 
buttons on its left side: the Personal Catalog (a book), the Catalog Browser 
(a globe). Find Address (a magnifying glass), and Type-in Addressing (a 
pencil). Each of these icons provides a different way of adding an address to 
your letter. 

• The top button allows you to quickly enter an address from your 
Personal Catalog. 

• The second button, the catalog browser, enables you to traverse 
personal and shared catalogs and even hard disks and file servers 
looking for addresses to enter. 

• The third button, with the magnifying glass, allows you to search 
catalogs for the address you want. 

• Finally, the bottom button lets you type in addresses directly. 

If you have a recipient from another mailer available, you can drag it into the 
recipients’ window. 

PowerTalk also supports sending mail to someone directly, as a carbon copy 
(CC) or as a blind carbon copy (BCC). You can double-click any recipient’s 
name to change their addressee status from To to CC to BCC. 

314 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The PowerTalk 

Figure 6.20 Addressing mail using the PowerTalk mailer 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Like other parts of 
PowerTalk, the address pane is chock full of shortcuts. 

Holding down the Shift key changes the default button 
from To to CC. Selecting a recipient and pressing Shift-Return 
will add that recipient as someone to receive a copy of the letter, 
saving you the step of changing the recipient’s status later. 

Holding down the Option key changes the To button to Save and 
the CC button to BCC. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 315 

Pressing Tab or Return will close the Address pane. 

You also can drag addresses from a Catalog or your hard disk 
into the Recipients field. 

Don’t worry about remembering this shortcut madness, however. 
All is revealed in the excellent Apple Guide for AppleMail, avail- 
able from the Balloon Help/Apple Gode menu. 

The Subject field informs recipients what the message is about before they 
read it. All PowerTalk messages must have a subject. While PowerTalk can 
accommodate subjects with long names, keep in mind that many mail 
gateways can accommodate only shorter subjects labels. 

Finally, the Enclosures field allows you to attach files to your messages. To 
some extent, PowerTalk diminishes the need for enclosures since you can 
attach a mailer to a document if the creating application supports 
PowerTalk. Still, PowerTalk’s method of adding enclosures is quite slick. 
Clicking the Enclosures button provides a standard Open dialog from which 
you can select files or folders. 

The System 7.5.5-sawy way of adding enclosures is to drag them from the 
finder into the Enclosures field. The System still must copy the files, but it’s 
a taste of the juicy interface conventions that OpenDoc will make common- 

The small triangle in the upper left corner of the mailer enables you to 
expand or collapse the mailer down to one line containing the recipient and 
subject— a godsend to those who still must make do with smaller screens. 

Once you’ve created your communique, choose Send from the Mail menu, 
or press K-M. The PowerTalk Send dialog box presents you with several 
options (see figure 6.21). 

316 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 






Figure 6.21 Sending AppleMail 

You can digitally sign the letter, you can assign a priority, and you also can 
choose among several formatting options: 

• AppleMail allows other PowerTalk users to open the letter with 
AppleMail, but fonts will not match if the recipient doesn’t have them. 

• Snapshot sends an image of the letter that preserves its look, but it 
isn’t editable. Gateways that convert messages to text-only formats 
cannot use this format. 

• In most applications that support PowerTalk, you can send letters in 
their file format as well. Applications that support XTND filters, such as 
Claris Corporation’s ClarisWorks, will even allow you to send a 
message in any word processing format ClarisWorks can translate. 

• PowerTalk also enables you to send messages in multiple formats, in 
which case you don’t have to make assumptions about which is the 
best choice. 

After sending a message, the letter will close or prompt you to save it— 
depending on your designated preferences. Messages that have been 
delivered have a small postmark in the mailer. 

If a message cannot be delivered, a problem report will be delivered to your 
In Tray along with the original letter. A yellow caution sign appears in the In 
Tray to indicate that there has been a problem. (A common cause of undeliv- 
ered mail is an unavailable or wrong address.) Opening the problem report 
will notify you of the recipients who did not receive the message; their icons 
will be marked with a “thumbs-down” icon. Double-click the bad address to 
make sure that there wasn’t an error entering the address. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 317 

If an address is unavailable, it may be because there is a problem with the 
appropriate gateway. Click the yellow caution sign to discover the nature of 
the problem and to resolve it if possible. 

Replying and Forwarding 

Not all messages you create will start from scratch. PowerTalk allows you to 
reply to and forward letters you receive. 

• To reply to a message, choose Reply in the Mail menu or press 
K'R. The Reply Letterhead appears by default, although you can use 
the Letterhead command to change it to anything you wish. 

• Holding down the Option key will change the Reply command to Reply 
to All, which directs your reply to all recipients of the original message. 

• Choosing Forward from the Mail menu creates a new message with the 
text of the old one demoted a few lines in order for you to put in a 
forwarding comment. Unlike a reply, you must address forwarded mail 
because— by its definition— the Macintosh doesn’t know where the mail 
is going. 

Catalogs (Personal and Shared) 

If the PowerTalk is your computer’s way of reaching out and touching 
someone— Catalogs are its phone books. Essentially, Catalogs are listings of 
who and what is out there. 

You have an AppleTalk catalog that, in some ways, replicates the functions of 
the venerable Chooser. It allows you to peruse zones and access AppleShare 
servers. It also enables you to see who else is running PowerTalk and can 
therefore receive your email. 

As PowerTalk becomes a more universally accepted way for Macintosh users 
to locate resources on a network, we’ll likely see it linked to other directory 
service technologies such as Novell’s Bindery in NetWare 4.0 or Banyan’s 

318 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

As fans of mail order companies like MacWarehouse will tell you, browsing 
through a catalog can be fun. In the case of PowerTaik, that’s true as long as 
you have only a few machines linked together with LocalTaik. Larger net- 
works, however, make finding disperse resources a chore. Thankfully, Apple 
provides a minimalist application in the Mail and Catalogs folder that allows 
you to locate anything a catalog can contain: users, servers, collaborators, 
and so forth. As PowerTaik matures and searching algorithms improve, we 
can expect to see this functionality become as slick as the Find File applica- 
tion in System 7.5.5, or perhaps get rolled into it. 

Gateways also can add their own catalog resources. For example with 
QuickMaii, the directory can be so large that it is locked to prevent brows- 
ing, but it can be searched through the find feature in the Catalog applica- 
tion or the search feature in the PowerTaik mailer. CompuServe is also 
considering adding a catalog to its gateway, which would presumably link 
to its member directory search feature. 

Personal Catalogs 

Most network-based catalogs that you encounter will be locked to some 
degree. Since most users are not administrators, they often can browse and 
search a catalog, but not modify or delete it. You can view the Privileges you 
have for a Catalog or Information Card by selecting it and choosing Get Info 
from the File menu. 

PowerTaik also lets you create Personal Catalogs. If Catalogs are the Yellow 
Pages of potential collaborators— Personal Catalogs are your Little Black 
Book. Unlike shared Catalogs, Personal Catalogs do not contain folders. 
However, you can create your own Groups by choosing New Group from 
the Catalogs menu and dragging electronic addresses into the Group icon. 
Groups are a shortcut way of addressing items to multiple people using only 
a single address. 

System 7.5.5 comes with a blank Personal Catalog that you can fill up in a 
number of ways. You can drag users’ electronic addresses from other 
Catalogs into a Personal Catalog; drag electronic addresses from the From 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 319 

field of letters sent to you; and you can create new entries from scratch by 
choosing New User from the Catalogs menu. Some gateways, such as 
StarNine’s PowerTalk/QuickMail gateway, also provide utilities to convert 
address books into catalogs. 

You can create as many personal catalogs you wish, but one must be a 
preferred Personal Catalog. You can set a Personal Catalog as your preferred 
personal catalog by selecting it and choosing Get Info from the Finder’s File 
menu and clicking Set Preferred. 

Card-Carrying Natters 

Laden with file servers, print servers, mail servers, groupware servers, video 
servers, and calendar servers, what networks ultimately link is people. 
Information Cards are PowerTalk’s extensible view of your fellow communi- 
cators. As they ship from Apple, Information Cards contain four parts— 
accessible from a popup menu (see figure 6.22). 

Figure 6.22 An Information Card (with Business Card selected) 

Business Cards resemble their real world counterpart. You can paste 
pictures or logos in the picture field on the left, add names, titles, company 
names, and addresses. Personal Info lets you add comments. Phone Num- 
bers provide up to four different phone numbers. Each of the different 
phone number types can be dragged into a Personal Catalog or onto the 
hard disk— although doing so serves no practical purpose yet. Indeed, a 
product corralling the data in Information Cards could make a good poor 
person’s PIM. 

The last part of the Information Card— electronic addresses— can be ex- 
tended to include addresses from any of the gateways available (for example, 

320 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

CompuServe which is included on the 7.5.5 CD-ROM). These addresses also 
can be dragged into Catalogs and the Recipients field in the PowerTalk 

One use for electronic addresses is to drag them onto the desktop. This 
makes it simple to send files to other PowerTalk users by dragging and 
dropping them onto the electronic address icon. Holding down the K key 
enables you to drag and drop items onto an electronic address icon while 
bypassing the confirmation dialog box. 

Key Chains 

If your work requires that you access multiple file servers, then you’re 
probably familiar with the heartbreak of multiple logins. Even when you 
have designated automatic logins when you start your Macintosh, you must 
enter password after password. It’s the sort of inefficiencies that Macintosh 
users shouldn’t have to endure. 

With PowerTalk, they don’t. The Key Chain provides a single password from 
which you can access all your services, including any AppleShare file servers, 
PowerShare email servers, and gateway services (see figure 6.23). The Key 
Chain also allows you to add, remove, or configure collaboration services. 

Key Chain 

Info Change- Code 





Don Crabb 

OuickMail Service 

STF Po-werFax 

Don Crabb 

Local Fax Gateway 


Don Crabb 

Electronic Mail 


Don Crabb 

Notify ! Paging 

[ Romovo ] [ Add... ] [ Open ] 

Key Chain For Don Crabb 

Figure 6.23 A crowded Key Chain 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 321 

After installing software for a new service or gateway, it is registered with the 
Key Chain. Opening the Key Chain and clicking Add gives you the option of 
the kind of service you wish to add (see figure 6.24). 

■Mil i^*r rrrulr^ wi«i# 



[ | 


Qii(i>c.xi i^ifrulrc 



Figure 6.24 Making the Key Chain longer 

Once a service is added, it likely will need to be configured. Select the 
service in the list and click Open. A configuration window will enable you to 
set options for that service. When the service is configured, click its 
window’s close box. The service should then be usable through PowerTalk. 

Should you wish to remove a service, select it in the list and click Remove. 
Removing a service requires that you immediately restart the machine. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip While the Key Chain 
represents a convenience, it is a Pandora’s box. Any- 
^ one who discovers your Key Chain password will have 
unlimited access to all the services that you have added to the 
Chain. As careful as you are with any critical password, multiply 
the caution you exercise by one for every service you have 
connected to your Key Chain. Don’t pick obvious passwords and 
change your password periodically using the Change Code 
button in the Key Chain window. 

PowerTalk provides several features to help ensure no one poses as you at 
your machine. The Lock Key Chain command in the Finder’s Special menu 
disables all services until the proper password is entered. The PowerTalk 

322 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Setup control panel also includes options for locking the Key Chain after a 
given interval and the option to force entering the password when starting 
the Macintosh. You should take advantage of any precautions necessary to 
keep your password safe. 

The Personal In/Out Board 

Any company that engineered a mobile computer as successful as the 
PowerBook understands some fundamentals about computing-on-the-go. 
Many Macintosh users are simply not chained to a desk all day. That’s why 
PowerTalk provides different service activation options depending on where 
you are. Easy to overlook, the “Em at” command in the Finder’s Special 
menu allows you to select different PowerTalk services— depending on 
whether you’re at work, at home, or on the road (see figure 6 . 25 ). 

Figure 6.25 Letting your Mac know where you are 

For now, all you can do is activate or deactivate different services. A short 
look into the crystal ball, though, reveals that it’s only a matter of time 
before you’ll be able to establish different forwarding rules depending on 
your location. It will be great to have our mail follow us around for once 
instead of jumping through hoops trying to get in touch with it. 

AOCE Gateways 

If PowerTalk’s Mailbox is to realize its mission to create a central in-box for 
all manner of correspondence, it will need the help of gateways to communi- 
cate with existing mail systems. There are two kinds of gateways for 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 323 

PowerTalk: client-based and server-based. Client gateways are installed on 
local machines while server gateways are installed on PowerShare servers. 

The System 7.5.5 CD-ROM includes client gateways for sending mail to 
alphanumeric pagers and to CompuServe, as well as demo versions of 
StarNine’s gateways for QuickMail and the Internet. Quarterdeck also 
provides gateways for Microsoft Mail and SMTP (the Simple Mail Transfer 
Protocol popular in UNIX environments). Other client gateways on tap will 
provide links to voice mail. 

If PowerTalk takes off as it should, the growth of gateways will be nothing 
short of exponential. They offer new levels of integration for email and 
messages from every possible source. 

The Microsoft Connection (MAPI) 

One of the most significant server gateways will link PowerShare to Microsoft 
Exchange (the Windows NT-based communications server that Microsoft is 
implementing to host the next generation of Microsoft Mail and other 
Windows-based communication services). With this gateway, both Macintosh 
and Windows users will be able to use their native email systems to commu- 
nicate with each other— a benefit that we owe to delicate negotiations 
between Apple and Microsoft. 

Furthermore, Microsoft is working on its own universal electronic mailbox 
for its forthcoming Windows95 release called the InfoCenter, which provide 
similar features. Indirectly, this is good for PowerTalk, because it provides 
competition and legitimizes the concept. Cross-platform developers also 
have corresponding technologies to work with, so they need not worry 
about appearing to favor a given platform. 

The Communications 
TooiBox vs. Open Transport 
Communications Architecture 

System 7.5.5 includes the Communications ToolBox of System 7.x, but all 
that is going to change over the next year with Apple’s newer (and better, we 

324 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

can only hope) and more modern networking and communications architec- 
ture for the Mac— Open Transport. Open Transport will provide a superset 
of the features of the Communications Toolbox for your synchronous and 
asynchronous connections needs (so that your favorite telecommunications 
or online connect software can work with your modem as well as on LANS 
and WANS). It also will provide networking services such as FTP and 
AppleTalk, which are currently provided with System extensions and control 
panels such as MacTCP and AppleTalk. In short, OTA promises to rationalize 
the way networking and communications are provided as Macintosh operat- 
ing systems services, which can only improve the delivery of collaboration 
services like PowerTalk. 

The Communications Toolbox, like other Apple Toolbox-style operating 
system services (the Thread Manager and the Drag and Drop Manager are 
two other examples), lives in the System. You no longer install it separately 
as you did (using the Apple Installer) under Systems prior to 7.x. 

In fact, don’t try to run the old Installer to install the old Communications 
Toolbox under System 7 .5.5, should you have some older communications 
applications around. If you do, you will cause problems that are often hard 
to diagnose. Under System 6.x, the Installer (or the person who is doing that 
job manually), would place communications tools (like specialized software 
for certain modems or other kinds of communications hardware) in the 
Communications folder within your System Folder. 

When you want to use additional communications tools (that may come with 
a communications program like VersaTerm Pro), you simply drag the tool 
into the Extensions folder, or onto the closed System Folder and the System 
will place them in the Extensions folder automatically. 

A System 7.5.5-compatible Installer that may come with your communica- 
tions programs also would do the same thing. If you have older third-party 
communications program documentation that refers to the Communications 
folder, just substitute the Extensions folder as you read to keep it clear 
under System 7.5.5. You’ll also want to note those changes for your staffers 
using those products. 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 325 

MacTerminal and Third Party Asynchronous 

Apple’s own asynchronous communications application, MacTerminal 3.0, 
works fine under System 7.5.5. Most other third-party communications 
programs such as VersaTerm, VersaTerm Pro, MicroPhone Pro, and 
SmartCom will all work fine with System 7.5.5, if they worked fine with 
System 7.x. 

Chapter 6 Summary 

System 7.5.5 packs considerable networking power and even more collabo- 
ration capabilities into its 14 floppies and one CD-ROM. Its virtual desktop 
easily beats Windows 3.1, Windows for Workgroups 3.11, and Windows 95. 
In addition to using the power of AppleScript to simplify peer-to-peer file 
sharing, PowerTalk and/or OpenDoc/Cyberdog provides a deep and robust 
peer-to-peer collaboration and messaging environment. Applications that 
take advantage of PowerTalk, including the screen sharing product 
Timbuktu Pro and Crosswise’s Face to Face, are extending the notion of 
network collaboration beyond simple file and print sharing. 

You can send messages using the AppleMail application or third-party 
applications that support the PowerTalk mail capability. 

If you buy 7.5.5 on CD-ROM, you also will get some third-party software that 
takes advantage of PowerTalk— which is a very good way to figure out if you 
need it and how you can use it. 

Several of the products are PowerTalk personal gateways, which provide 
transparent access from the universal mailbox to other mail and messaging 
services. The best of these freebie gateways on the CD is the CompuServe 
Mail Gateway. Give it a try if you have a CompuServe account. Once you 
fiddle with it to get it to work with your modem, it really does integrate your 
CIS mail into your PowerTalk mailbox. 

In addition, the 7.5.5 CD-ROM contains 60-day trial versions of PowerTalk 
gateway software from Quarterdeck, which lets you exchange email 

326 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

messages with users of QuickMail and the Internet. Both work OK, but 
require lots of setup tinkering. 

And that’s really the whole point of System 7.5.5: collaboration. PowerTalk is 
still one of those technologies that is just young enough to require lots of 
monkeying around on our part to figure out if it really does make our work 
easier— especially if we collaborate with others in a workgroup. My advice is 
simple: dive into PowerTalk and start monkeying. But before you do that 
you’d better take my quiz and see where you stand. 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 6 

1 . What two icons does PowerTalk place on the desktop when you first 
install it? Why doesn’t it place a PowerTalk icon on your desktop? 

2. What is the most important characteristic among PowerTalk, 

AppleTalk, LocalTalk, PlainTalk, EtherTalk, and TokenTalk? 

3 . What is it about System 7.5.5 that may enhance program linking? Why 
does it need enhancing? 

4 . What services does PowerShare support out of the box? Why do 
computer writers always say stuff like “out of the box?” 

5 . What slick feature does Remote Access Aliases provide? Can you say 
Remote Access Aliases three times fast? 

6. Name the three network protocols Macintosh computers running 
System 7.5.5 can support. Which one’s the coolest? 

7 . How can you see a listing of active PowerTalk gateways? Why would 
you want to? 

8. What’s the easiest way to create a drop folder in System 7.5.5? What 
about a drag folder? 

9 . What do you call the files that track the latest version of a published 
selection? Why would you care? 

1 0. How can you change the default order in which mail is sorted? Why 
would you change the default order in which mail is sorted? 

Chapter 6: Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup) 327 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 6 

1 . Catalogs and Mailbox. Because that would be too easy to figure out. 

2. Too much talk, not enough action. 

3. The inclusion of AppleScript and the Scriptable Finder. Because exactly 
three people on the planet actually used program linking under 
System 7.x. Of course, four people used Publish and Subscribe, a much 
bigger success! 

4. Email, digital signature verification, and network catalogs. ‘Cause we 
are geeks of the first order. 

5. It will dial the modem to retrieve a remote file or server when its alias 
is double-clicked. Depends on your current state of sobriety. 

6. AppleTalk, TokenTalk, and TCP/IP. Gimme a break, coolness for 
network protocols? Not a chance. . . 

7. Choose Key Chain from the Apple menu. Because you’re a conscien- 
tious virtual desktop aficionado! 

8. Run the Share a Folder script from the Automated Tasks folder in the 
Apple menu (ooh, tough job, eh?). Cross-dress as appropriate for your 
gender and then sit on a file folder. 

9. An edition file. Search me, sport, I never use publish and subscribe, 
but your mileage may vary. 

10. In the Mailbox Preferences dialog box. Because you’re choosy about 
your email and choosy emailers choose. . .oh, forget it. 

Improving ^ur 


n this chapter, we will take a look at how to add and 

manage both memory and disk space, 
while improving the way that you use 
your RAM and disks under System 7.5.5. 
I will discuss 7.5.5’s memory constraints 
and will talk about how to use Apple’s 
improved Memory control panel to set 
the size of the always-on disk cache, use 
virtual memory, select the addressing 

330 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

scheme (24-bit or 32-bit, if applicable), and use the RAM disk (on 

The important management lessons to be learned here are fairly straightfor- 
ward, but I always find that the simple stuff is what screws me up. 

Memory Strategies 101 

Let’s cut through the confusion and get straight to some strategies for 
managing our hard disks and RAM. 

• You never can have enough RAM or disk space. Never believe 
Apple or any third-party vendor when they tell you that “it will run fine 
with xK.” How do they know? Have they tried it on YOUR machine 
attached to YOUR network? No way. Generalized memory advice that 
emphasizes the minimalist nature of things is almost always worthless. 
Because many applications have become both feature-heavy and 
bloated with extra code they may never need, they take up more disk 
space and use more memory than earlier versions. Expect to add 
memory to accommodate these increases and to handle System 7.5. 5’s 
increased load. 

• Keep virtual memory use as low as possible. Virtual memory, as 
implemented under System 7.5.5 is S-L-O-W. It’s nothing like the 
demand-paging algorithm implementations that some of you may be 
familiar with on a mainframe IBM machine or a hot UNIX workstation. 
Repeat after me: I won’t use System 7.5. 5’s virtual memory unless I 
need to run a large application that wouldn’t run otherwise. Now, 
don’t you feel better? 

• If you want to add RAM but can’t afford it, buy RAM Doubler. RAM 

Doubler 2 (from Connectix) does just what its name suggests and it 
works with any modem Macintosh. Install it and forget it. 

• Disk space is cheap, so have lots around. You can buy 500 MB of 
fast, reliable hard disk space for what 250 MB cost you just a few 
months ago. There’s no longer any reason for Macintosh users and 
managers to skimp on disk space. If you can afford Macintosh 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 331 

computers, you can afford the necessary hard disk space to get the 
most from your investment. 

• Partition hard disks into smaller logical volumes. This will help 
prevent logical disk failures from zapping everything on a big disk 
(when the directory blocks get wonked, for example). I’ve used 
partitioners from Symantec (Norton Utilities 3.2), Alsoft (MultiDisk), 
IDS (IDS Express), FWB (Hard Disk Utilities), and others. I like the 
FWB product the best, because— for my needs— it offers the most 
flexibility in setup and use. Plenty of others work well too. One 
reasonable strategy here is to simply buy one that has the features that 
meet your needs. 

• Back up your hard drives early and often. Use Dantz’s Retrospect. 
Buy an APS DAT drive. Save your sanity. They are simply outstanding in 
concept, design, and execution. (Yes, the price could be lower, but 
that’s always the case.) We use them as the standard backup software/ 
hardware combo at the University of Chicago. Many other backup 
programs also work well and you’ll find dozens to choose from— 
regardless of your backup media. 

• Don’t expect a networked fileserver disk to do the work of a local 
one. This is really a by-product of my caveat on buying large hard 
disks. Buy them and use them— large hard disks, that is— where 
individuals have lots of data on which they (exclusively) work. Don’t 
use those same disks for shared data (workgroup) files. Also, don’t use 
them for shared applications, unless the application really works well 
that way (few do). 

• Buy your memory SIMM chips and hard disks from reliable 
vendors. Sounds like a sophomoric no-brainer, right? Ask all those 
people who bought from the old Jasmine and Mirror companies 
(before they went bankrupt) and now have broken disks that should 
have been covered by the warranty, what they thought about Jasmine 
and Mirror at the time they purchased the products. Today’s “reliable 
company” is tomorrow’s chapter 11 headline. Selling hard disks is a 
tough business. Profit margins are razor thin. Support is hard to 
provide, because it narrows those margins even more. 

332 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Before you buy, ask yourself how long the company has been in 
business and how long you think it will stay that way. Consider buying 
from vendors who make more than hard disks (their diverse product 
lines may keep them in business longer). Also consider the kind of 
drive mechanism you are buying and how costly it may be to repair in 
the absence of the original vendor. 

If you don’t have expertise in this area, then you’ll want to read hard 
disk and memory chip reviews and feature stories that frequently are 
carried 'mMacWEEK, Macworld, MacUser, InfoWorld, BYTE, and other 
computer maga2ines. You occasionally will find hard disk and memory 
tutorial articles in MacUser md Macworld, and disk technology 
tutorials in BYTE md PC Magazine. Depending on your interest and 
tolerance for the bits and bytes, you also may consider reading the 
technology “white papers” that hard disk and memory manufacturers 
occasionally publish. Also, check into local user groups, as well as 
BMUG and B.C.S., to see what they have to say about memory and disk 
vendors. For my money, however, APS is the only vendor to buy hard 
disks from (they are ultrareliable, fairly priced, and offer great service). 
For RAM purchases, buy mostly by price. 

Whether to Install It at All 

If you, like some Macintosh users, are contemplating the installation of 7.5.5 
on a Macintosh with 8 MB of RAM, you need to make some hard decisions as 
to whether to install PowerTalk and GX or not. The obvious clues don’t 
make for automatic decisions. You may think, for example, that not having a 
Macintosh connected to a network would make leaving out PowerTalk a no- 
brainer. (Of course, PowerTalk does shine when you’re connected to a LAN.) 
However, PowerTalk gateways for CompuServe, faxing, and paging make it 
useful on a stand-alone Macintosh as well. 

You should also consider the RAM question before you install system 
extensions, control panels, and so on. These can eat up RAM in a hurry. Ask 
yourself if the RAM penalty is really worth the utility (or entertainment) that 
the latest software doodad will provide. Plus, the more “stuff” you have 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 333 

installed, the more likely conflicts and other nasty problems are. So, make 
intelligent decisions about what you put in your machine and be aware of 
the trade-offs that you are making. 

Of RAM and ROM 

As with System 7.x, you have two primary data and application storage areas 
with System 7.5.5: RAM (random access memory) and disks (floppy and hard 
disks are two primary types). System 7.5.5 also uses memory on your 
computer that you can’t change: the ROM (read-only memory). The ROM 
contains the startup code for your Macintosh and holds much of the so- 
called ToolBox code for things like QuickDraw and different System services. 

RAM is where all the volatile stuff (including the parts of the System that are 
loaded from disk) is stored while your Macintosh is turned on. The second 
that you turn off the machine or the power is lost, everything in the RAM 
goes away. Floppy and hard disks, of course, don’t lose their contents when 
the power is cut, because they rely on magnetic effects to hold your data. 

This much hasn’t changed since System 7.x. But Apple has improved the 
ways that RAM and disks are used, and it has improved memory performance 
as a result. 

Every time that you switch on a Macintosh, the System gets loaded from the 
startup disk. Each application that you launch also gets stuffed into RAM, 
until you quit that application. Even if you hide the application using the 
Hide command in the Application menu, the program stays in RAM. 

Because of this, you can fill all of your available RAM under System 7.5.5 in a 
hurry. Earlier today, for example, I was wondering why the Macintosh 660AV 
I was using was acting so sluggishly. So I opened the Application menu and 
was astonished to see that I had several applications running. I had forgotten 
to close the ones I wasn’t using, having hidden them instead with the Hide 
command. When I used the About This Macintosh command in the Apple 
menu, I found that I had almost no free RAM space left, which contributed to 
my machine’s sluggish behavior (see figure 7.1). 

334 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Rbout This Macintosh 

System Software 7.5 


© Apple Computer, Inc. 1983-1994 

Built-in Memory : 


Laryest Unused Block: 380K 

Total Memory : 


Adobe Phcfoshop... 



AppleCD Audio PI... 



1 ,200K 




FileMaker Pro 

1 ,200K 


HyperCard Player 


Microsoft Excel 

1 ,500K 

Microsoft Word 

1 ,024K 


OuicKeys™ Toolb... 



System Software 


Figure 7 . 1 About This Macintosh 

Even though System 7.5.5 gives you good control over the use of your RAM 
and allows you to supplement it with virtual memory, you should remember 
that RAM is still precious. Abusing it will almost always cause you problems— 
ranging from the slowdowns I just mentioned to more serious ones. 

One of the benefits of the System 7.5.5 installer is that it makes it easy to 
install only the parts of the operating system you want and remove those you 
don’t want. Two of the major features of 7.5.5, PowerTalk and QuickDraw 
GX, have separate installers, because of the realization that they add signifi- 
cantly to the operating system’s RAM requirements. Of course, if you’re 
determined to squeeze 7.5.5 onto that 4 MB machine, PowerTalk and GX are 
prohibitively RAM-hungry. 

Remember that System 7.5. 5’s significant number of extensions— which run 
the gamut from AppleScript to WindowShade— do part of the work that 
third-party extensions used to accomplish. You can, of course, scale back on 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 335 

these using the Extensions Manager. On the other hand, System 7.5’s 
extensions have not been so complete as to shut out innovative third parties. 
If you’re determined to run the best-of-breed utilities from Norton and Now, 
remember that these, too, suck up RAM. 

After you’ve honed System 7.5.5 to a RAM consumption level in sync with 
your computer’s RAM capacity, you should turn your attention to applica- 
tions. The good news is that, one day, Macintosh users won’t have to worry 
about allocating memory to applications; they will dynamically take what 
they need. Until then, you are relegated to the application’s Get Info win- 
dow, which provides information on Suggested, Minimum, and Preferred 
application size. 

Of RAM and Macs 

If you read chapters 2 and 3, you already have a pretty good idea how the 
Memory control panel works to control System 7.5. 5’s RAM and virtual 
memory. Even so, because this chapter lives and breathes memory, it seems 
a good place to review the Memory control panel one more time. If you or 
your staff don’t understand its use, you will likely shortchange either your 
use of applications or your performance. 

The Disk Cache 

The Memory control panel gives you direct control over three or four 
different memory-related system functions: the disk cache, virtual memory, 
control of the RAM disk, and 32-bit memory addressing (see figure 7.2). (You 
may notice that in figure 7.2, you don’t actually see a control for memory 
addressing. That’s because the machine I was using at the time always uses 
32-bit addressing. So, depending on the machine you are using, you may or 
may not have control over this. If you don’t, don’t worry about it; that means 
you have a modem Mac and so are better off than some.) 

336 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

=l~i Memory 

Disk Cache 
Alvays On 

Cache Size 

|76SK I 

Virtual Memory 

O On 

® Off 

Select Hard Disk : 


Available on disk : S2M 
Available built-in memory : SM 


RAM Disk 

® Off 

Percent of available memory 
to use for a RAM disk : 

6^ 50?5 100?5 

RAM Disk Size I OK 

( Use Defaults ] 


Figure 1.2 The Memory control panel 

The disk cache, which is always on under System 7.5.5, has been improved 
from the old System 7.x cache. The disk cache creates an area in RAM where 
it stores frequently used data and parts of programs that would otherwise be 
pulled from the disk. (RAM is always faster than disk— thus the theoretical 
speedup when using a disk cache.) The smallest disk cache size that you can 
create is 16K. The largest size depends on how much real RAM (you can’t 
use virtual memory as a disk cache, because that wouldn’t make any sense), 
that you have installed on your Macintosh. The maximum disk cache size— if 
you have 32 MB of real RAM— is 7680K. Sixty-four megabytes or 128 MB of 
real RAM would allow even larger disk cache sizes. 

A controversy has raged for years concerning the use of the disk cache, 
probably because of the poor performance of the old disk cache under 
System 6.x. Plenty of the Mac-wise are advising that only the default mini- 
mum cache (16K) be used. They claim to have better read- and write- 
through performance with the minimal cache than with anything above the 
16K level. While I certainly would be the first to join the “bashing the disk 
cache” bandwagon if I thought it were warranted, in this case it isn’t. 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 337 

I have performed timed tests under a variety of circumstances on a variety of 
my own Macintosh computers and those in our labs. I also have performed 
the same with some of my consulting client’s machines and I’ve seen the 
results of Apple’s own tests. The numbers don’t lie. For the vast majority of 
users and Macintosh configurations, the bigger the disk cache, the better the 
performance. Apple has said so publicly in its own System 7.5.5 literature, in 
maga 2 ine interviews, and through postings online. This time, I agree with 
Apple. Crank that disk cache up as high as you can, without taking away 
valuable RAM needed for applications. A good rule of thumb is to increase 
the cache by 32K for every 1 MB of RAM you have installed. 

It doesn’t make much sense, of course, to steal RAM for the disk cache if you 
have to turn around and use virtual memory to get enough contiguous RAM 
space to run a large application. 

Another case where a large disk cache may be counterproductive is with 
third-party SCSI and SCSI/2 NuBus controller cards. These cards (the 
excellent ones made by DayStar Digital top my list) already contain their 
own high-speed burst cache memory to help accelerate the rate at which 
they can read and write data to disks attached to them. 

By setting System 7.5. 5’s own disk cache to anything but the minimum 16K, 
you will slow down these cards. Keep in mind, however, that to get the 
maximum speed benefit from such SCSI cards you will have to make sure 
that all of your external hard disks are attached to the card’s SCSI chain. If 
you use the Macintosh computer’s built-in SCSI, you won’t get the benefit of 
the SCSI acceleration, nor will you have the improved performance offered 
by the System’s own disk cache (because you will have turned it to 16K 
when you install the SCSI card). 

The real bottom line is much less straightforward. Expect to spend some 
time fine-tuning the disk cache on your own and your Macintosh users’ 
machines to get them the best combination of fast disk access and enough 
RAM to run major applications without a virtual memory assist. 

338 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Virtual Memory 

I discussed virtual memory earlier in chapters 2 and 3, but I’ll go into some 
detail here about its use under System 7.5.5. Virtual memory refers to using 
your hard disk in such a way that it acts like an extension of your physical 
RAM. The operating system process for accessing this virtual memory is 
called variously paging, demand paging, or disk paging. The name refers to 
the process of taking stuff from the hard disk and putting it back, with the 
operating system and all of its applications acting as if it were the real McCoy 

Because the process is a httle more complicated than that, let me try to 
explain it. In fact, understanding virtual memory will give you some impor- 
tant insights into how System 7.5.5 works. System 7.5.5 is probably not the 
first time that many of you have been exposed to virtual memory on the 
Macintosh. Several application vendors have built virtual memory implemen- 
tations into their software so that their programs would run without using 
all of your RAM. 

Remember that physical RAM comes from Single Inline Memory Modules 
(SIMMs) installed in your Mac. These SIMMs also can be referred to as real 
memory— that is, the silicon chips themselves are installed for the express 
purpose of providing the Macintosh with the instant storage and operating 
space that it needs to load System 7.5.5 and the appftcation programs that 
you want to use, plus some fraction of their data. 

Real memory is not the same as your hard and floppy disks, however. When 
you turn off the power on your Macintosh, disks retain their contents 
because the data has been magnetically encoded on them, but real memory 
loses its contents. That big spreadsheet you have been working on, for 
example, will go away if you accidentally pull the plug on your Macintosh, 
unless you saved it to disk beforehand. While disks are used for the long- 
term storage of appftcations and data, real memory is used by the Macintosh 
for instantaneous operations such as word-processing or spreadsheet 
calculations on which it is currently working. That’s one reason why you 
have so many megabytes of disk storage, but far less real memory— the 
Macintosh just doesn’t need as much RAM as it does disk space to get the job 
done for you. 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 339 

The RAM You Need 

But the Macintosh does need more RAM than it did when it was first intro- 
duced back in 1984; and System 7.5.5 is the worst yet at sucking down the 

If you recall, those initial Macintosh computers had only 128K of RAM and a 
400K floppy disk drive. Yet, despite those small capacities (by today’s 
standards), you could run System 1.0, a couple of applications (MacWrite 
and MacPaint— which was pretty much all that existed at the time), and still 
have some data— all in RAM. Today, of course, you would be lucky to fit an 
old-style desk accessory into 128K of real memory. System 7.5.5 needs more 
than 4 MB just to load a basic version with just a few fonts installed! 

Fortunately, today’s Macintosh comes with more than the standard 128K of 
real memory that the 1984 versions sported. In fact, Apple does not sell any 
Macintosh computers today without a minimum of 4 MB of RAM installed (8 
MB for Power Macintosh computers). But even 4 MB/8 MB of real memory, 
as we have seen, tends to be pretty lightweight when it comes to running 
System 7.5.5 and applications. 

That’s why I recommend a minimum of 16 MB of real memory in every 
Macintosh that will run 7.5.5, and 32 MB for every Power Macintosh (be- 
cause of 68K emulation and other features, the Power Macintosh currently 
takes about twice as much RAM as 68K Macintosh computers to run the 
same software). This will allow you breathing room for QuickDraw GX and 
PowerTalk, too. 

The VM You Get 

But not everyone can afford to upgrade their computers to 16 MB of RAM 
(and many computers, such as the Macintosh Plus, Macintosh SE, and 
Macintosh Classic cannot be upgraded beyond 4 MB), because RAM isn’t free 
(although you can now buy a one MB SIMM for less than $35, installed). 
Apple realized this, and it also realized that even users of Macintosh models 
with lots of RAM may occasionally like to be able to increase their real 
memory space— say to run several very large programs like AutoCAD, Live 
Picture, and Photoshop. 

340 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

That’s what the virtual memory (VM) implementation in System 7.5.5 is all 
about— allowing you to get more RAM for the System and your applications 
without actually having to open the case and install more SIMMs. Virtual 
memory works this magic by using part of your hard disk as if it were an 
extension of your real memory. System 7.5. 5’s virtual memory operates by 
moving information from your real memory (RAM) onto free space on your 
hard disk, then pulling the information back when it is needed to continue 
an operation. 

This movement of information back and forth from the hard disk is called disk 
paging or page swapping. The names come from the mainframe idea that a 
logical “page” at a time of data is swapped back and forth when virtual 
memory is used. Virtual memory under System 7.5.5 provides two basic 
benefits: it frees up real memory for use on more important tasks and thus 
makes those tasks go faster (because real memory is faster than any virtual 
memory on a hard disk), and it gives you more memory space with which to 

The latter is probably the most visible benefit of virtual memory under 
System 7.5.5. For example, suppose you have a Macintosh Performa 575 with 
8 MB of RAM installed. Then, let’s say that you want to run Microsoft Word 
and Excel, Claris’ Filemaker Pro, and Acius’s 4th Dimension at all times, 
while occasionally running a couple of smaller applications as well. 

With only 8 MB of RAM, you would be out of luck and out of RAM. But 
suppose you have virtual memory turned on. With virtual memory you could 
specify a hard disk to be used to extend your real memory space by disk 
paging, and you even could control the amount of virtual memory you want. 

The more virtual memory you request, however, the slower things will get. 
This is because you would be using the hard disk most of the time as virtual 
memory space, and your hard disk is much slower to read and write than 
your RAM SIMMs. So you need to strike a compromise between having just 
enough virtual memory turned on to run all the applications you need, and 
having too much turned on, thereby slowing down your Macintosh. In fact, if 
you were to go overboard with virtual memory by requesting some very 
large megabyte number, you would find that most of the computer’s time 
would be spent paging to and from disk, rather than running your 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 341 

A good rule of thumb is to never more than double your real memory with 
virtual memory. 

I’ve yet to be happy on any Mac when I set the virtual memory to be any- 
thing larger then half the available RAM. The whole point of virtual memory 
is to have it available only when it’s absolutely necessary to load very large 
applications or run many applications at the same time. Using it in everyday 
situations as if it were as fast as real RAM will quickly lead to disappointment 
and frustration. 

Keep in mind that when you set a virtual memory partition of say, 16 MB, in 
the Memory control panel (which doesn’t take effect until you restart), the 
System actually blocks out a space on the hard disk equal to 16 MB, plus an 
amount equal to your machine’s installed RAM. In the case of my trusty 
accelerated Ilci, which has 32 MB of RAM installed, creating an additional 16 
MB of virtual memory results in the System blocking out 48 MB (16 + 32) 
on the disk for virtual memory. If you are running short of disk space, then 
virtual memory is certainly not a quick fix for insufficient RAM. 

The minimal Macintosh configuration you need to take advantage of virtual 
memory is a 68K CPU with a paged-memory management unit built-in 
(68030, 68040), added on (68020), or a Power Macintosh PowerPC CPU. 

32-bit vs. 24-bit Addressing 

Physical memory addressing (sometimes called RAM addressing) easily can 
be confused with virtual memory. But the concepts are two completely 
different means to the same end: getting more application space to run 
software. On the Macintosh, the memory addressing issue can be reduced to 
a simple dichotomy: 32-bit addressing versus 24-bit addressing. 

There is a lot of confusion about what 32-bit addressing really means. I know 
that I deal with this stuff everyday and I still can confuse what 32-bit address- 
ing “really means” with what it “ought to mean.” The confusion stems from 
the overuse of the term 32-bit as some sort of performance mantra. 32-bit 
QuickDraw, 32-bit color, 32-bit this, and 32-bit that are all out there and 
each has nothing to do with 32-bit memory addressing. 

342 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

Remember that 
some Macs (such 
as the Quadra 
660AV) always run 
in the 32-bit 
memory addressing 
mode. So, if your 
Memory control 
panel doesn’t offer 
a 24-bit option, you 
don’t have any 
choice in the 
matter. In this case, 
that probably 
means that you 
have one of the 
more modern 
Macs, so congratu- 
lations are in order. 

32-bit memory addressing mode simply refers to the use of all 32 bits of 
address space by any Macintosh CPU capable of it (the 68020, 68030, and 
68040), and the recognition of the System that all of those 32 bits are being 
used to reference addresses in memory. Assuming that everything else can 
take advantage of 32-bit addressing to the maximum, a Macintosh with 32-bit 
addressing turned on in the Memory control panel can address up to 4000 
MB or 4 GB of memory (2 raised to the power of 32 memory addresses). 

All of this is moot, however, because 16 MB SIMMs are generally the largest 
available today through normal memory vendor channels and 16 MB SIMMs 
are still expensive themselves. (Not to mention that the cost of installing 
upwards of 4 GB of RAM would be astronomical if it were even possible.) 

Rather than installing anything like 4 GB of RAM in your Macintosh, a better 
plan is to top out at 128 MB (which should be more than enough to load 
dozens of very large programs and always keep them open), and use some 
memory beyond what is required to keep your applications running as a fast 
RAM disk, which we will discuss in a bit (the DayStar RAM Nubus 
PowerCards are especially adept at this use). Many good shareware and 
other third-party, software-based RAM disks also exist, plus the one you get 
in the Memory control panel. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip Of course, your Mac may 
not have the capability to install 128 MB of RAM and you 
may not have the resources to purchase that much for 
your machine (especially if you are using your Mac at home). 
Don’t worry about it. Many users can get along with much less, 
such as 16, 24, or 32 MB of RAM, even in work situations. The 
bottom line is that you should have as much RAM as you can 
reasonably afford. 

The amount of RAM you need also depends on the tasks for 
which a particular Mac is used. A Mac exclusively (and I do 
mean exclusively) for word processing can get by with 8 or 1 6 
MB of RAM. But, a Mac used for high-end graphics and video 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 343 

processing needs to have 128 MB or more. So, as with most 
things, you have to determine your RAM needs based on your 
particular situation (tasks, resources, and so forth). But remem- 
ber the minimums that we talked about earlier. You WILL be very 
unhappy if you try to scrape by with less than these minimums. 

24-bit addressing mode works just like 32-bit, except that only the first 
24 bits of a memory address are actually parsed by the CPU and understood 
by the System. This limits any 24-bit addressing mode on a Macintosh to 
using no more than 8 MB of memory (machines like the Macintosh Classic 
have ROM limitations that further constrict this amount), which was also the 
limit under System 6.x’s 24-bit only addressing mode. 

In fact, until the release of System 7.0, Apple’s system software ignored the 
top 8 bits of any memory address, using only the lower 24 bits, so that 24-bit 
addressing was the norm. With the release of System 7.0, Apple finally 
acknowledged the importance of those additional 8 bits of memory ad- 
dresses. In short. System 7.0 qualifies as being Apple’s first 32-bit clean 
system, and System 7.5.5 continues that tradition. Initially, Apple made this 
an option, rather than the default, because some application programs were 
not 32-bit clean. 

To turn on 32-bit addressing (assuming that you have a Macintosh that 
provides this option), go to the now familiar Memory control panel and 
check the radio button marked 32-bit addressing. Like all the other controls 
in this control panel, this change won’t take effect until after you have 
restarted your computer. 


What if you have an older Macintosh capable of 32-bit addressing, except for 
its 32-bit dirty ROMs? Connectix has released an updated MODE32 to work 
with System 7.5.5, and Apple has dropped development for its solution— 
which never seemed as stable anyway. The 7.5.5-compatible version is called 
MODE32 7.5.5, and is widely available from America Online, CompuServe, 
the Internet, and users’ groups. 

Mac Basics 

To say a piece of 
software is 32-bit 
clean means that it 
is capable of 
addressing all 32 
bits of memory 
address. If you try 
to run a 32-bit 
program in 24- 
mode, you’ll have 
nothing but trouble. 
Again, it’s not a big 
deal because most 
software today is 
32-bit clean (that’s 
why modern Macs 
run in 32-bit mode 

344 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

What Does 32-bit Addressing Get You? 

32-bit addressing offers Macintosh users the capability to work with very 
large data fdes and appUcations as well as the capability to run many applica- 
tions concurrently. On my Macintosh llci, which has 32 MB of RAM installed, 
1 can run dozens of applications simultaneously— although as a practical 
matter, 1 don’t often have more than six programs launched at once. 

As such, 32-bit addressing will be most attractive if you’re working with large 
memory-intensive programs, like computer-aided design (CAD) behemoths 
such as AutoCAD, color drawing and photorealistic imaging software such as 
Macromedia FreeHand, Adobe Illustrator, and Adobe Photoshop, relational 
database systems such as 4th Dimension and FoxBASE, and programming 
language systems such as MPW/MacApp, SmallTalk, and HyperCard. 

While 32-bit addressing may seem to benefit a small percentage of your 
Macintosh staffers today, users can expect to see powerful “general purpose” 
tools benefit from 32-bit addressing in the very near future that just weren’t 
possible to create under smaller RAM constraints. 

To sum up the 32-bit issue, consider that in order to use 32-bit addressing 
you must have either a newer Macintosh with a paged-memory management 
unit built in (68030 or 68040), added externally (68020), or with a PowerPC 
CPU. If you have an older Macintosh model with ROMs that are not 32-bit 
clean (that means they know not to use the top 8 bits of memory addresses 
for any non-memory purposes), you will also need a copy of MODE32 from 

OptiMem and RAM Doubler 

The good folks at Connectix Corporation have a proud history of beating 
Apple to the punch on many technologies, particularly in the memory 
management field. Among Connectix’ credits are the first virtual memory 
implementation for the Mac (Virtual), the first software that allowed 
Macintosh users to break the 8 MB RAM barrier (Optima), the first software 
that “cleansed” ROMs that weren’t 32-bit clean (MODE32), and first-class 
RAM disk software (Maxima). (The company recently created a sensation 
with its first hardware product: a $100 grayscale camera that may finally 
bring QuickTime to the masses.) 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 345 

Not content to merely have a faster and more efficient form of virtual 
memory, Connectix created RAM Doubler. In the simplest of terms, RAM 
Doubler doubles your RAM. If you have 8 MB of RAM, it gives you 16; if you 
have 40, it gives you 80. There are only a few caveats to its use: 

• Your Mac must have a PMMU (paged-memory management unit, either 
external to a 68020 CPU, internal to a 68030 and 68040 CPU, or 
internal to any PowerPC). This is required for virtual memory as well. 

• You must have at least 4 MB of real RAM. 

• RAM Doubler cannot currently double more than 128 MB of RAM. 

Is it safe? Astonishingly so. The rule of thumb is simple: if a program works 
with virtual memory, it practically is assured that it will work with RAM 
Doubler. As a corollary, RAM Doubler is an effective substitute for virtual 
memory in allowing you to run more applications than you would normally 
be able to accommodate. Checking About This Macintosh reveals total 
memory to be twice as much as your installed RAM when you have RAM 
Doubler installed (see figure 7.3). 

: About This Macintosh l=U= 

System Software 7.5 


© Apple Computer, Inc. 1933-1994 

Built-in Memory : 


Largest Unused Block: 10,345K 

Total Memory : 



AppleCD Audio PI... 






QuicKeys™ Toolb... 



System Software 




Figure 7.3 Total memory with RAM Doubler installed 

RAM Doubler accomplishes its magic through three techniques. First, it takes 
memory allocated to, but unused by, applications and makes it available to 
all applications. Second, it compresses memory used in tasks unlikely to be 

346 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

repeated by an application, such as code that launches the program. Finally, 
if the performance hit of compression will be too great, it sometimes puts 
compressed data on the disk in its own, fast virtual memory scheme. 

For sheer convenience and simplicity, RAM Doubler is about the best 
memory expansion you can get, but if you don’t have a PMMU in your 
Macintosh (older Macintosh IIs and “classic” 68000 CPUs such as the 
Macintosh Plus, SE, Classic, and PowerBook 100 models) you may wish to 
consider Jump Development’s OptiMem. OptiMem allows applications to 
run in their minimum RAM configuration and grabs more memory out of the 
remaining RAM as the application needs it. OptiMem requires more configu- 
ration than RAM Doubler, and has some compatibility problems with some 
applications, but it works with every Macintosh from the Plus on up. 

Modern Memory Manager 

The Power Macintosh computers brought with them yet another addition to 
the growing Memory control panel family— a simple control for toggling the 
Modern Memory Manager (MMM). When using virtual memory, or better yet 
Connectix’s RAM Doubler, the MMM takes advantage of the memory man- 
agement capabilities of the PowerPC, loading fragments of native application 
code into memory as they are needed, easing the application’s RAM require- 
ment. For example, the native application QuarkXPress requires more RAM 
when virtual memory is turned off, but drops down when virtual memory is 
turned on when running on a Power Macintosh. 

To determine the savings that can be gained by using the Modern Memory 
Manager and virtual memory, select the application and choose “Get Info” 
from the File menu. In addition to the familiar Minimum, Suggested, and 
Preferred RAM values is a note that the RAM requirements will decrease or 
increase depending on whether virtual memory is turned on. 

Turning off the MMM seems to cure most of the minor compatibility 
problems applications had in Apple’s otherwise stellar job of preserving 
compatibility in the shift to PowerPC. 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 347 

The Modern Memory Manager is also fined-tuned to a RISC processor’s 
memory usage, which yields better performance. 

RAM Disks 

A RAM disk appears on your desktop (see figure 7.4) and is treated like a 
small hard disk, but it has no magnetic media; its contents are stored in 
RAM. With RAM several orders of magnitude more expensive than hard disks, 
why would you want to devote a portion of this precious fast memory to the 
usually menial chore of storage? It’s sort of like renting a Park Avenue 
penthouse to store the stuff that won’t fit into your crowded apartment. 

Figure 7.4 A RAM disk on the desktop 

There are two reasons why you might want to use a RAM disk: speed and 
battery preservation. 

348 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

First, let’s talk speed. There is virtually no access time required when 
retrieving information from RAM. Therefore, keeping a document, applica- 
tion, or even a System Folder on a RAM disk dramatically speeds operations 
such as opening, scrolling, and saving— anything for which the Macintosh 
would normally slow down in order to access the disk. 

Now, the battery reason. While virtually everything in a PowerBook con- 
sumes some precious battery life, RAM is far more miserly than hard disks. 
Placing the System Folder, applications, and documents on a RAM disk 
virtually eliminates disk access. Using a RAM disk, you then can use the 
Control Strip or a third-party product such as the excellent PBTools to “spin 
down” the hard disk and extend your battery life by 20 percent or so. 

Apple’s Memory control panel allows you to allocate a portion of your RAM 
as a disk, but caveat emptor: saving is done to the RAM disk, not to your 
hard disk or floppy. This means that everything on the RAM disk is vulner- 
able to a loss of power. Thus, when the power is turned off (whether 
intentionally or not), everything that was on the RAM disk is history, lost 
forever, I mean gone. 

Because of this, you are not likely to make use of RAM disks unless you are 
using a PowerBook, where the risk may be outweighed by the battery 
savings. There are a number of third-party utilities to help you work effec- 
tively with RAM disks, but let me just say that if you use a RAM disk, be very 
careful so that you don’t lose your important work. 

Managing Memory 

There are a number of techniques you can use everyday to help you manage 
your memory requirements. Let’s take a look. 

The Application Heap 

Under System 7.5.5 (and earlier versions for that matter), applications share 
the total memory heap (RAM, virtual memory, and so on) available. Some- 
times you will need to determine how much memory an application should 
be allowed to use in order to make your Mac work like you want it to. 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 349 

In order to determine the memory allocation of any application, you should 
select the About This Macintosh command from the Apple menu (see figure 
7.5). This status box displays all of the applications that you are currently 
running and shows how much memory each is using. It also shows how 
much memory is available for opening new applications with the label, 
“Largest Unused Block.” 

=□ About This Macintosh = 

r^l System Soft vare 7.5 

Macmtosh © Apple Computer, Inc. 1983- 


Built-in Memory : 
Total Memory : 

8,1 92K 

Largest Unused Block: 10,345K 

gij) AppleCD Audio PI.. 




0 DerkSide 



] \ OuicKeys"^ Toolb.. 



Q System Softvere 



Figure 7.5 About This Macintosh revisited 

When you try to open another application that is larger than the “Largest 
Unused Block,” you will get a warning such as, “Not Enough Memory To 
Run the Application, Try Quitting Another Application First.” (The advantage 
to having lots of RAM is that you don’t have to see this message much.) 

You can change the amount of RAM that each application requires by using 
the Get Info command in the Finder’s File menu. To do so, click on the 
application for which you want to change RAM settings, select Get Info, and 
you will see a window like that in figure 7.6. 

The Suggested size is what the developer recommends to ensure desirable 
application performance. Of course, developers often have no idea to what 
obscene lengths you will try to stretch their software, so keep in mind that 
this means “in normal use.” 

350 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

The amount of 
memory used by 
the System 
Software is also 
shown in the About 
This Macintosh 
window; this 
amount depends on 
several factors, 
including how many 
fonts you have 
installed your 
System, whether or 
not you have file 
sharing enabled, 
and the number of 
System extensions 
you have in your 
Extensions folder. 

iP= Adobe Premiere^^ 3.0 Info 

' Adobe Prenniere'^ 3.0 

The Digital Movie Making Tool 

Kind : application program 
Size ; 1 .4 MB on disk Cl ,567,089 bgtes 

Vhere ; Macintosh HD : Applications : Adobe 
Premiere^ 3.0 : 

Created : Mon, Jul 1 9, 1 993, 2 :02 PM 
Modified : Thu, Dec 30, 1 993, 8 :1 3 PM 
Version: 3.0 - vritten by Randy Ubillos, 

©1991-1993 Adcbe Systems Inc. 

Comments : 

I I Locked 

^ -Memory Requirements 

i Suggested size : 6000 K 
Minimum size : |6000 ] K 

i Preferred size : 1 8000 I K 

Figure 7 . 6 Using the Info window to change application memory 

The Minimum size is the bare amount of RAM that the application needs to 
launch. This should be generally the same as or slightly larger than the 
Suggested size unless you are doing something weird with the software. You 
should avoid setting the Minimum size below the Suggested size. If you do, 
be prepared for surprises (mostly nasty ones). 

The Preferred size is where you get to dictate what the application memory 
should be— if that much is available. Many applications seem to do well with 
an allocation that is somewhat higher than their Suggested size. You may 
need to experiment to determine the right RAM allocations for your applica- 
tions, but always be aware that shaving the requirements too close to the 
bone may be an invitation to stripped functionality or stability problems. 

The way it works is like so. When you launch an application, but there is less 
than the Minimum amount of RAM available, you get the ever popular Not 
Enough Memory message. When you launch the application and at least the 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 351 

Preferred amount is available, that much is set aside for the application to 
use. If you launch the application and something between the Minimum and 
the Preferred amount is available, the application uses whatever is available. 
Got it? 

File Sharing’s Effects on 
Memory Usage 

File sharing requires approximately 268K of extra memory to operate 
properly. On a 4 MB Macintosh, the System software already uses between 
1100-1900K, which doesn’t leave much slack. If you expect to run file 
sharing a good deal of the time on 4 MB Macintosh computers, then you had 
better get used to running with a minimal System configuration (few fonts, 
INITs, and so on) on those machines. A better strategy is to upgrade them to 
at least 8 MB of RAM (16 MB would be even better). 

Resetting Parameter RAM 

Every once and a while, you will need to clear all of the settings that have 
accumulated in your computer’s parameter RAM (PRAM). Things like the 
repeat frequency for keys or the tracking rate for the mouse may all need to 
be reset. You can, of course, diddle with the individual control panels for 
each of these settings to get it back to the Apple default setting, but a quicker 
strategy is to simply reset PRAM when you restart. Here’s how you do it: 

1 . Hold down the K, Option, P, and R keys simultaneously. 

This is definitely a two-handed task. 

2. Restart your Macintosh and wait until you see the “Welcome to 
Macintosh” screen. Continue holding these keys while the Macintosh 

3. That’s it. You now have reset the entire PRAM. 

Now you can enjoy resetting a whole bunch of stuff. Have fun! 

Mac Basics 

RAM also may 
have an effect on 
application speed. 
The more RAM an 
application can 
access, the greater 
portion of a 
document it can 
keep open and not 
access from the 
disk. Some 
graphics or 3-D 
applications can 
consume huge 
amounts of RAM. 
Here, the perfor- 
mance gains from 
adding RAM can be 
dramatic. For 
example, Adobe 
recommends that 
you have twice as 
much RAM 
available as the 
size of the 
document on which 
you’re working. 

352 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

SCSI Manager 

System 7.5.5 extends the availability of SCSI Manager— previously available 
only for Power Macintosh and AV Macintosh models— to the entire 
Macintosh line. One of the main benefits of the new SCSI Manager is that it 
supports asynchronous data transfers, which means that the computer’s CPU 
can turn its attention elsewhere while data is coming from the hard disk. 
Drives don’t need to be formatted with SCSI Manager-aware software in 
order to work with the new SCSI Manager, but access times may be dramati- 
cally slowed if the driver is not compatible. 

While you’ll want to avoid this slowdown, there aren’t many applications 
that take advantage of the new SCSI Manager yet. Dantz Development’s 
Retrospect is one exception. 

The good news is that two of the best third-party formatters now work with 
SCSI Manager. FWB’s Hard Disk Toolkit is SCSI Manager-sawy as of version 
1.6, while Casa Blanca Works made the grade with version 3.0 of Drive? (see 
figure 7.7). APS PowerTools 3.0, which is based on Drive?, is also compat- 
ible. The lesson from the driver sagas is that you should keep abreast of the 
latest version of your drive formatter, and stay current to minimize problems 
with new OS releases and hardware. 



Version 3.0 


Hard Diiik For metier 
O CitSA ln€. 

Nip, Tuck 
<No medi^> 
<No medi^> 
<No medi^> 


Select the drive to fornn^t /update. 

Figure 7. 7 Drive 73-0 is SCSI Manager 4.3-savvy 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 353 

Working with Disks 

As you know, RAM is the memory you use while you are working, but you 
need to store the results of your labor so that it will be available to posterity 
(well, at least until you need it again). To store the fruits of your labor, there 
are several types of “disks” that you will use during your Mac expeditions: 
hard drives, floppy disks, SyQuest cartridges, and so on. We’re only going to 
talk about hard drives and floppy disks here as the other types are less 
frequent, but still very useful at times. 

On Formats 

Every disk has some type of format; the format is, basically anyway, the 
structure in which the data is recorded in the disk’s media. To be usable, 
each type of disk must be formatted properly. 

In the ancient days of the Mac, the format was called Macintosh Filing 
System (MFS). This format was used for the 400K floppies that were the only 
media used by Macs in those days (remember, this was before Macs came 
with hard drives). If you have some really ancient stuff on 400K disks, don’t 
worry about it. Just copy the stuff onto 800K or 1.44 MB floppies. You might 
have a few troubles, but I doubt it. That’s about all you need to know about 
the MFS. 

In more modern times, the Mac uses the Hierarchical File System (HFS) to 
format disks. Hard disks and floppies both work the same as they did under 
previous versions of System 7. All you need to do is make sure the driver for 
your hard drive is updated to be fully System 7.5.5 compatible. Fortunately, 
this is very easy to do. 

Non-Apple Drives 

If you have any non-Apple hard drives, you will want to call your hard disk 
drive vendor to obtain a copy of their latest System 7.5.5-compatible soft- 
ware so that you can update the SCSI drivers on those disks and partition 
and otherwise manage the drives properly. 

Mac Basics 

You should also run 
Disk First Aid 
before you do any 
7.5.5 installation. 

354 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple Drives 

If you have Apple hard drives, you should update all your drives’ software 
before installing System 7.5.5. The process is very simple and painless. Note 
that this process does not affect the data on your hard drive. 

1 . Locate the System 7.5.5 floppy disk named “Disk Tools.” 

2. Shut down your computer and restart it with the Disk Tools floppy 
inserted in your disk drive (boot off the Disk Tools disk). 

3. Launch the program Apple HD SC Setup. 

4. Click the Update button. 

Make sure you do not use the initialize option. If you do, you will be 
very sorry you did. 

5. When the program is finished, click Quit. 

That’s it. Now the driver has been updated to be fully compatible 
with 7.5.5. 

By the way, you can move hard drives between Macintosh computers 
running System 7.x and System 7.5.5. When a hard disk is moved from 
System 7.x to System 7.5.5, you will see a dialog box during bootup that 
states “This disk is being updated for new system software.” This process 
does not touch any data on your disk. The message means that the System is 
creating a new System 7.5.5 desktop on that hard disk. Afterwards, you may 
use your hard disk as usual. 

When a hard disk is moved from System 7.5.5 back to System 7.x, you will 
notice a few differences under System 7.x. First, you should rebuild the 
desktop of the hard disk by holding down the K and Option keys while 
restarting the Mac. If you don’t do this, the first time you go back to System 
7.x, some icons may not appear properly. 

Users of non-standard SCSI media, like WORM drives (Write Once, Read 
Many), Read/Write Optical Drives, Bernoulli Drives, SyQuest Drives, DAT 
and 8 MM tape drives, and other SCSI storage devices should contact your 
vendors about obtaining System 7.5.5-compatible drive management, 
partitioning, and backup software. With the use of file sharing to setup ad 
hoc workgroups, the use of shared non-standard storage media is likely to 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 355 

grow. Now is the time to get everyone and everything on the same System 
7.5.5 page. 


Unfortunately, at press time neither Drive? nor Hard Disk Toolkit could 
format the internal drives in the Quadra 630, PowerBook 150 and future 
Macintosh computers targeted toward the budget-conscious. The internal 
drives on these machines use an interface long popular in the PC-compatible 
world, but brand new to the Macintosh. IDE, or Integrated Drive Electronics, 
limits drive size and daisy-chaining more than the SCSI system used since the 
advent of the Macintosh Plus. However, the interface for IDE is less expen- 
sive than SCSI, while the quality and speeds of the drives are virtually the 

The HD Toolkit now supports IDE drives, SCSI-1, SCSI-2, Fast-Wide, and 
even RAID (levels 0, 1, and 5) hard disks. If you plan to use 7.5.5 with a 
Macintosh with an IDE third-party drive, make sure you contact the drive 
vendor to obtain a 7.5.5-compatible driver. 

That’s about all there is to working with disks with System 7.5.5. Easy, 
ain’t it! 

To Upgrade or Replace, 

That is the Question 

Now that you know how to work with your current Mac’s memory, you 
should think about your Mac’s capabilities. Is your machine (or those you 
manage) sufficient for what you need to do? Should you not be blessed with 
the latest and greatest Macs and find that your machine (or machines) can’t 
quite cut it, you have four basic choices. The first is to upgrade the Mac (or 
Macs) you have with more RAM, an accelerator, motherboard replacement, 
and so forth. Second, you can buy new machines. This is often the best 
option and amazingly enough, not always the most expensive. Then there 
are always the third and fourth alternatives: not upgrading to System 7.5.5 at 
all, or running System 7.x on computers that can’t utilize all of 7.5. 5’s 

356 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

features. (But, since this is a System 7.5.5 book, I’m going to assume that 
number three and four just won’t do at all.) What are the compromises 
involved in each decision? 

If you upgrade your current Macintosh computers, you have to decide just 
how far that upgrade will go and how much you can afford to spend. What’s 
the point of putting lots of expensive, large SIMMs into a seriously aging 
Macintosh model? Only you can answer that question. Just make sure you 
consider it carefully. 

The single most important management issue in dealing with memory and 
hard disks is upgrade cost. If you have a Macintosh plant consisting of mostly 
small hard disk, 4 MB LCIIs, for example, you are going to have to bite the 
bullet big-time, just to upgrade these machines to run System 7.5.5. Upgrad- 
ing them beyond this basic level of 7.5.5-compatibility, however, really 
requires a machine replacement strategy and the budget to pull it off. 

Because of its many enhanced capabilities, System 7.5.5 provides an excel- 
lent opportunity to replace those aging Macintosh models in your office with 
some more modern and capable silicon. As you do so, try to buy with the 
following guidelines in mind: 

• Buying new Macintosh computers also gets you new power supplies, 
keyboards, mice, and sometimes new monitors. If you were contem- 
plating the repair of older models with failing components, don’t 
waste the money fixing the old stuff. 

• If you buy new computers to take advantage of System 7.5. 5’s memory 
enhancements, will your old network setup be sufficient? Consider the 
load on your LAN and your old AppleShare server. With the increased 
traffic fostered by PowerTalk, file sharing, and network aliasing, you 
may need to jump to a LAN with a larger bandwidth (such as 
EtherTalk) or to an AppleShare server running on a faster Macintosh 
with larger server disks. 

The other issues relating to memory and disk space pale by comparison (at 
least in terms of cost) to the machine upgrade issue, but it doesn’t hurt to 
keep them in mind as you think about upgrading or replacing your Mac. 

Chapter 7: Improving Your Memory 357 

Chapter 7 Summary 

A key to effective use of System 7.5.5 is knowing how to make the most of 
your Macintosh’s RAM. RAM dictates how many applications you can have 
open at once; insufficient RAM may limit the size of documents you can 
work with or the kinds of operations you can perform on them. 

Virtual memory and RAM disks can put RAM and hard disks in each other’s 
roles. RAM disks can be useful for optimizing PowerBooks, while virtual 
memory allows you to open more applications than you normally could. 
RAM Doubler is a great alternative to virtual memory and works transpar- 
ently to double your “real” RAM. 

Having a hard disk driver that understands the SCSI Manager can have a 
profound effect on hard disk speed in Quadras and Power Macintosh 
models. Apple also is beginning to use internal IDE drives in its newer 
machines which pack plenty of speed at a lower cost, but you need to be 
careful to use an IDE-compatible driver and disk formatter if you have one. 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 7 

Here’s a short quiz to remind you of what you should be remembering 
about chapter 7. If you can’t answer these questions, you know what you 
have to do. 

1 . What is a Virtual Memory? Does the MegaMemory course help? 

2. What’s the minimum amount of RAM you need to run 7.5.5? 

3. What is a disk cache? How big should they be? 

4 . How does System 7.5.5 make it easier to manage System memory 

5 . What part does Memory control panel play in all this? 

6. What is the biggest issue you face concerning memory and System 

7 . What alternatives do you have when considering memory and disk 
upgrades for System 7.5.5? 

358 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

8. Which Macintosh models can take advantage of virtual memory? 

9. Can you share 7.x and 7.5.5 floppy disks freely? 

1 0. How much virtual memory can you safely use before performance 
takes a nosedive? 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 7 

1 . The opposite of real memory. Not a chance. 

2. 8 MB. 16 MB on a Power Mac. 32 MB to be happy. 4 GB if your name is 

3. A hunk of RAM that speeds-up hard disk accesses. About 32K for every 
1 MB of RAM installed. 

4. Haven’t been reading the chapters closely, have you? 

5. Get this one wrong and you’ll be forced to buy a Doofiis Guide to the 

6. Not having enough of one and paying too much for the other. 

7. Buy the RAM and the disk. Now, wasn’t that easy? 

8. Hey, look ’em up sport. 

9. If not, you’ve got a scoop. 

10.1 jillion bytes, or maybe somewhat less. 


Management Strategies 
for System 7.5.5 

n this chapter, I’ll discuss some successful management 
strategies for installing, user training, 
and support for System 7 33. 1 will try 
to sort out the different support op- 
tions that you have available and 
comment on them— based on my 
experience and those of my cadre of 
Macintosh managers. If you are not a 
Macintosh manager, then you may not 

360 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

find this chapter as important as the others in the book. Still, many of the 
strategies discussed here can be applicable to individual Macintosh users, so 
read on! 

While I have tried to cover as much ground as possible here, please know 
up-front that THIS IS NOT EXHAUSTIVE! I could write an entire book about 
getting, using, and managing Macintosh training and support. Rather, my 
goal here is to provide you with enough pertinent information (coupled 
with my usual mix of impertinent commentary) to help you sort out how to 
deal with System 7.5.5 training and support issues. 

I pay special attention to how you and your staff can prevent System 7.5.5 
problems from happening by using the training and resources that you 
already have on hand. When problems occur that you can’t fix on the spot. 
I’ll give you some management strategies for dealing with them in the next 
two chapters, chapter 9, “The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 
7.5.5,” and chapter 10, “We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It.” 

To get at these support and training issues, this chapter is divided into three 
themes: installing System 7.5.5, managing and supporting users, and 
training issues. At the end of the chapter, you will find the usual summary, 
and my computing quizzes and cheat-sheets (AKA answers). 

What to Do Before You Install 
System 7.5.5 

Before you can train your Macfolk on System 7.5.5, you need to give them 
the gospel about what they should do before installing it! 

The Minimum System 7.5.5 Macintosh 

Begin your pre-installation support by making sure that each of your users 
have the minimum Macintosh configuration required to run System 7.5.5. 
Check out what Apple says and then what I say. You be the judge. 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 361 

The Official Version 

Apple says those minimums are a Macintosh Plus or later with a minimum of 
4 MB of RAM; for PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX, a minimum of 8 MB of 
RAM and a 68020 processor is required. When installed on Power Macintosh 
systems, System 7.5.5 requires a minim u m of 8 MB of RAM; for PowerTalk 
and QuickDraw GX, a minimum of 16 MB is recommended. You also will 
need to be connected to an AppleTalk-compatible network to use most of 
PowerTalk’s features, and you should be connected to a QuickDraw GX- 
compatible imaging device (such as a printer) to get real use out of 
QuickDraw GX. 

And Now, Crabb’s Eye View 

Now, let’s talk about some more realistic minimums. Your staff won’t be 
happy— nor will you for that matter— if it is running aging Macintosh comput- 
ers (like the Macintosh Plus) as the platform for System 7.5.5. Part of being a 
good manager, or good Macintosh owner, is to determine when it’s time to 
eighty-six that reliable old Macintosh and buy something more modern. 
System 7.5.5 presents itself at a very good time to do just that. 

You can cut down on support problems later and make your System 7.5.5 
training plans more effective by installing a modem Macintosh on everyone’s 

The minimum Macintosh you should use to run System 7.5.5 is a Macintosh 
II with the PMMU (paged memory management unit) installed, 8 MB of RAM, 
and the MODE32, 32-bit memory utility installed (see chapter 7 for details). 
You’ll also want at least 50 MB of free hard disk space so that you have room 
to grow with additional utilities from third parties. 

These minimums mean that the following Macintosh computers— regardless 
of their configuration— are unacceptable as System 7.5.x engines: Macintosh 
128K, Macintosh 512K and Macintosh 512K enhanced, Macintosh Plus, 
Macintosh Classic, Macintosh SE, Macintosh Portable, and the 68000-based 
Outbound portable computers. You can run System 7.5.x on a Macintosh 

362 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

SE/30, but its small 9" monochrome screen makes it useless for QuickDraw 
GX screen work. The small size of the Macintosh SE/30 computer’s virtual 
desktop also makes it problematic for PowerTalk-based work. 

While you can run System 7.5.5 successfully with my suggested minimum 
Macintosh II configuration, you’ll be happier (from a performance point of 
view) with at the least a Macintosh Ilex or Macintosh Ilci. And to really get 
the most out of PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX, you’ll need to get a 
Macintosh Quadra 700 (or better) that is connected to an Ethernet network. 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip System 7.5.5 is also 
available in non-U. S. localized versions, including 
"" French, German, Japanese, and more than 32 other 

After you work out your hardware situation, you must decide whether you 
will have your users install System 7.5.5 themselves, or whether you will do 
it for them. There are significant pros and cons to either installation schema. 
Let’s explore them. 

Installation Schemes and You 

Regardless of the installation method you choose, you must buy the neces- 
sary licenses and copies of System 7.5.5. Don’t even think about piracy, you 
know better than that. 

Getting the 7.5.5 Copies You Need 

If you are covered by a corporate, educational site, or right-to-copy license, 
now is the time to check with your local license administrator to determine 
the status of that license. You may discover that your specific installation 
license includes special materials or installation products from Apple (for its 
very large customers) that will make it easier for you to install a large 
number of copies of System 7.5.5 in a short amount of time. 

If your local license does not include such products, you may want to 
consider buying a third-party installation aid, like Wave Technologies’ 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 363 

FileWave or Tech Works’ Netinstaller. In any case, you need to come to grips 
with a fair number of System 7.5.5 installations in a more-or-less simulta- 
neous manner. What you do not want to do is delay the installation on all 
your Macintosh computers for any significant period of time, because if you 
do, you will have the potential support headaches of both System 7.x and 
System 7.5.5 Macintosh computers being on the same network. 

User Installations 

In terms of sheer legwork, having your users install System 7.5.5 is consider- 
ably less strenuous for you. You need to make sure that each user has a copy 
of the 7.5.5 installation floppies or CD-ROM, or network access to a server 
with the 7.5.5 software available. For my money, if you have the network 
installed and the server space, nothing beats placing the 7.5.5 sources on the 
server and having users install from there. 

If you choose the server method, your Mac users need to follow these steps 
(and consult the tips found in the section, “Before You Install”): connect to 
the server by mounting it on the desktop and then drag the current System 
suitcase into the Trash (but they should not try to empty the trash yet!). 

After the server connection has been made and your users have access to the 
7.5.5 installation folders, they can run the 7.5.5 installer and follow its step- 
by-step instructions. When the installation is complete, each user should 
install PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX in a similar manner (although they do 
not drag the System suitcase into the Trash), so that they have all the parts of 
7.5.5 installed on their computer. Once that’s finished, they’ll need to follow 
any customization rules and documentation that exist for your site. After you 
restart the Macintosh and are running System 7.5.5, empty your Trash and 
get rid of that old System suitcase. 

This installation will place all the new 7.5.5 Apple items in your System 
folder, removing the older 7.x Apple items. All of your third-party extensions 
and control panels will remain, however. (Some of these may cause you 
problems later on. Please reread the front matter, chapter 1, and read ahead 
to chapter 9 for more information and on using the Safe Install Utility). 

364 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Keep in mind that sites will choose not to support either PowerTalk or 
QuickDraw GX. If that is the case, your staffers will need to turn these 
extensions off, using either the 7.5.5 Extensions Manager control panel or a 
third-party INIT manager such as Casady and Greene’s Conflict Catcher 11. 

It is better, though, to install PowerTalk and QuickDraw and turn it off than 
not to install it at all. This way, when the needs arise, you know you’ve got 
to them turn them on! 

If you have no need for collaboration, email, or messaging, then you can 
probably turn off PowerTalk. If you don’t have any QuickDraw GX compat- 
ible printers or applications, you can certainly turn it off for now. 

Manager Installations 

If you choose to do all this installation dirty work yourself, you’ll need to 
follow pretty much the same regimen recommended for your users. To 
speed things up, however, you may want to use one of the previously 
mentioned third-party network installers (such as FileWave or Netlnstaller), 
or the shareware RevRDist program (available on the Internet, CompuServe, 
and America Online, among other places). 

The advantage to doing the installation yourself is that you can be sure that 
it was installed correctly! Of course, that may not be much of a concern at 
your site, especially if you have a pretty savvy bunch of Macfolk, or if your 
site is pretty much plain vanilla (with few non-Apple services or networks). 

If you have a complex network that’s shared by PCs, UNIX workstations, and 
other non-Macintosh computers, however, you may find that doing the 7.5.5 
installation yourself lets you sleep better at night. This is especially true since 
the use of PowerTalk and AppleScript capabilities can affect the non- 
Macintosh users of that network (by generating inappropriate network traffic 
or by hogging shared network resources like modems, printers, plotters, 
other communications, and printing devices). 

Ultimately, it takes more time if you choose to do the installation of 7.5.5 for 
all your staffers, but you can end up with a group of users who at least start 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 365 

on the same 7.5.5 page. You have to decide which method works best for 
you, based on the sophistication of your users, your own experience, and 
whether you would rather spend more time on installation or support. 

In most cases, when users in a large Macintosh network do all their System 
installations themselves, they make more work for managers and network 
administrators in the long run. (The managers end up going around 
restandardizing things after the users have monkeyed with everything during 
the System installation.) 

In the short term, however, user installations take much less management 
work, so if you are shorthanded or short of time when you need to get 7.5.5 
up and running, you may decide to turn it loose on your users and control 
fallout on the back end, after the installations are done. 

Regardless of which installation method you choose, both you and your 
users should follow my simple “Before You Install” tips outlined in the next 

Before You Install 

To ensure a smooth upgrade to System 7.5.5, you should run Disk First Aid 
and the HD SC Setup on each hard disk on which you install 7.5.5. This 
ensures that you don’t have hardware problems that will play havoc with the 
upgrade process or with using System 7.5.5 later. Let good prophylaxis be 
your guide here. 

Disk First Aid and HD SC Setup 

Make sure you use Disk First Aid to verify the hard disk and HD SC Setup to 
update your Apple hard disk drivers before installing the system software. 

Run the version of Disk First Aid that comes with your System 7.5.5 CD-ROM 
(it’s in the folder marked “Disk Images,” in the folder marked “Disk Tools”) 
or on the Disk Tools floppy disk. Use it to verily and repair all of your hard 
disks (see figure 8.1). 

366 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Disk First Rid j ^ 

Select volumeCs) to verify : Number of volumes selected : 1 


!■ 1 1— 1 

Untitled Sysi 

Internal Asynchronous SCSI 0 :0 CD-ROb 

(Startup Disk) (Disk F 


tern 7. 
irst A 

j GM 
ID 3 C^) 
id Disk) 

^1 1^1 

Review instructions and results: 

II Uerify ]| 

[ ] 

I ] 

Disk First Aid : 

Disk First Aid is a utility which verifies the directory structure of any 
Hierarchial File System (HFS) based storage volume. Many hard disk drives 
floppy disk and Compact Disk (CD) drives are examples of HFS-based storage 

If imperfections are found within a volume Disk First Aid can be used as a 
"first step" to repair the defects. If a volume has suffered severe corruption 
other utility programs or repair methods may need to be used. 

Running Disk First Aid: 

Click on the volume you would like to verify or repair. Multiple volumes can 
be selected by holding down the Shift key while clioking on the volumes. 

Figure 8. 1 Disk First Aid 

For your Apple hard disks, run HD SC Setup and update the hard disk 
drivers (see figure 8.2). 

Rpple HD SC Setup u7.3.2 
[ Initialize ] 

[ Update 
[ Partition 



fl II 

SCSI Deuice: 0 
[ Driue ] 

The uolume name is Macintosh 

Figure 8.2 HD SC Setup 

If you have non-Apple hard disks, use the latest System 7.5.5 compatible 
hard disk management software that’s available from your disk vendor (or a 
top quality third-party package like Hard Disk Toolkit from FWB) to update 
the drivers. 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 367 

Make sure that you don’t use a hard disk checker/formatter that is incompat- 
ible with System 7.5.5 or your hard disk. Check with your software vendor 
and with your hard disk manufacturer about recommended use. 

Apple’s Installation Tips 

Here are some installation tips from Apple that are provided in the ReadMe 
file that is part of the System 7.5.5 software. (Courtesy, Apple Computer). 

• If you are installing software on a Macintosh PowerBook 150, 
Macintosh Quadra 630, or Macintosh LC 630, you should run Disk First 
Aid to verify the hard disk. You do not need to update your hard disk, 
as it will already have the latest Apple drivers on it. Doing so, however, 
won’t hurt anything— it will just waste time. Because these Macs have 
IDE, rather than SCSI drives in them, don’t run any third-party disk 
utilities on them until those utilities have been upgraded to work 
with IDE drives. 

• If you use a RAM disk, turn it off before you install System 7.5.5. When 
the RAM disk is active during software installation, it uses too much 
memory and prevents your system from starting up. 

• Run the Safe Install Utility. This utility program flags control panels 
and extensions that it believes are not compatible with System 7.5.5. 

It will move these items into a folder called “May Not Work With 
System 7.5.5,” that will reside at the top level of your startup disk (see 
figure 8.3). 

• Before you begin installing System software, quit all applications. If 
you don’t, you might lose any unsaved files. Better safe than sorry! 

• After you run Disk First Aid, HD SC Setup, and Safe Install, restart your 
computer and insert the Install Disk I floppy disk. Although starting up 
from Install Disk I is not required, it uses less memory than starting up 
from your hard disk. 

• If you are installing from floppy disks, make sure that they are locked. 

368 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

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Figure 83 Startup disk with May Not Work With System 7.5.5 folder 
displayed and the Safe Install Utility running 

• If you install System 7.5.5 from a CD-ROM, you first need to throw 
your current System folder for your startup disk into the Trash. The 
Installer will not install System 7.5.5 on top of your active System 

• Depending on your Macintosh model, installation may take fifteen 
minutes to about an hour. 

• There is a compatibility problem with the Macintosh PowerBook 150 
computer’s internal modem and some communication software 
programs under System 7.5.5. Apple includes a fix for this problem on 
the Before You Install floppy disk. After you install System 7.5.5 on a 
PowerBook 150 with an internal modem, insert the Before You Install 
disk, drag PB 150 modem Patch to the System Folder icon, and restart 
your computer. 

• Anytime you upgrade or re-install the System software, you also should 
re-install your server or network programs, such as AppleShare, Novell 
NetWare, or Apple Remote Access. If you have a Workgroup Server 95 
(AWS 95), do not upgrade to System 7.5.x. Workgroup Server 95 works 
only with System 7.0.1 and System Update 3.0. 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 369 

• After you install System 7.5.5 on a Quadra 900 or 950, it is possible 
that you may encounter a problem starting up the machine. If you have 
trouble starting your computer, take these steps to solve the problem: 

1 . Restart your computer while holding down the Shift key (to start 
up without extensions). 

2. When the computer has finished its startup shtick, open your 
Extensions folder (inside the System Folder) and drag SCSI 
Manager out of the Extensions folder. 

3. Restart your Quadra again. 

4. After you’ve started up successfully, if you need the functionality 
that SCSI Manager provides (see chapter 7, “Improving Your 
Memory”), move SCSI Manager back to your Extension folder and 
restart. Your Quadra should work properly. 

Managing and Supporting 
Users During the Upgrade 

The actual installation process is only the beginning of the list of consider- 
ations for Macintosh managers upgrading to System 7.5.5. There’s another 
less cut-and-dried piece to the upgrade puzzle— and that’s the user (your 
ubiquitous Macintosh staffer) and how she will react to the upgrade. Fortu- 
nately, if you already have some version of System 7.x installed, the migra- 
tion process is not that painful. But if you are upgrading from System 6.x (as 
many educational institutions may be), you have some psychological issues 
to deal with. Some are dealt with in this chapter, while others are considered 
in chapter 6 and chapter 10. 

Avoid Haves vs. Havenots 

Frankly, once you, as a Macintosh manager, decide to upgrade to System 
7.5.x, your next concern should be training your users. (Of course, we all 
know that won’t really happen— but I’m here to remind you that it should.) 

370 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

But before you begin training your people, make sure the upgrade you are 
providing is complete. Don’t create a situation of haves and havenots at your 
sites. If you have Macintosh staffers who lack the proper Macintosh to run 
System 7.5.5 (any Macintosh less powerful than a Macintosh II with 8 MB of 
RAM), now is the time to get them some decent Macintosh hardware. 

Assuming that all your staffers have System 7.5.5-upgradeable Macintosh 
computers, make sure that the upgrade hits them all. That process alone will 
keep your support problems down by not worrying about mixed networks 
of 6.x, 7.x, and 7.5.5. 

Basic Help for System 7.5.5 Training 
and Support 

As discussed in earlier chapters, to help users cope with System 7.5. 5’s new 
features, Apple created Apple Guides, Guide Maker (an application that 
allows you to create your own Apple Guides for site-specific online help), 
and also carried-over Balloon Help from System 7.x. Additionally, the 7.5.5 
upgrade packages include a “Before You Install” floppy disk that you should 
use before installing System 7.5.5. 

Those materials are just barely adequate as the first line of training for 
individuals and for some small businesses, especially where people are not 
old-time Mac hands. Large businesses probably have enough in-house 
software dependent on the Macintosh that specialized training materials are 
essential. Macintosh managers at all companies, however, should be con- 
cerned about making their users productive with System 7.5.5. To that end, 
you need to budget training time as integral to your System 7.5.5 upgrade 
program. Take the right approach to training and you will dramatically 
reduce your support problems later. Fail to do so, and you’ll really pay for it 

How, then, will your Mac users learn to use System 7.5.5? Is it by reading the 
thin manual or working through the Apple Guide to Macintosh provided 
with System 7.5.5? Do they watch third-party training videotapes, attend 
Apple or third-party classes, or get help from you or from a colleague? Do 
they read this book cover to cover? Or do they simply install the software 
and start exploring? 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 371 

The answer is all of the above and none of the above. For many people, 
learning any new Macintosh program— never forget that most of your 
users will not distinguish between learning the System and learning an 
application— is a multilevel process that requires a multitude of different 
training materials and support from Apple, third parties, and materials you 
generate that document your special hardware and software (and especially 
your network). 

Finding the Right Training Materiais 

If you’re a manager responsible for System 7.5.5 training, you’ve probably 
discovered that the quality of some System 7.5.5 training materials— espe- 
cially the early stuff from some third parties— fell way below acceptable 
levels. That’s because “the Macintosh System is Ready-to-Use” mystique (still 
perpetuated by many at Apple, unfortunately), has prevented many people, 
including those at third-party training companies, from giving adequate 
consideration to training and training materials. 

Fortunately, because System 7.5.5 is largely a features consolidation release 
with pretty much the same Finder as System 7.x, individual training should 
be a simple proposition. You will want to give each of your staffers a copy of 
iht Macintosh System 7.5.5 Upgrade Guide as well as a copy of this book. 

Let them explore the new built-in productivity features outlined in chapter 
1, “A First Look at System 7.5.5,” and chapter 2, “Using Finder 7.5.5,” and 
then, later, they can try their hands at the fancier stuff: using AppleScript 
(chapter 3), QuickDraw GX (chapter 4), and PowerTalk (chapter 6). 

You also want to make sure that each of your users understands the basic 
vocabulary and features of System 7.5.5. (Check out the glossary at the back 
of this book for a list of the essential terms and their definitions.) 

Know the Terms 

You will need to understand each of these terms and features after you have 
installed System 7.5.5— whether you are a Macintosh manager or Macintosh 


372 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Adobe Type Manager (ATM) A font technology that enables Adobe 
PostScript language outline fonts to be used for both onscreen display and 
printing on non-PostScript printers. 

ATM GX A version of Adobe Type Manager designed to specifically 
support QuickDraw GX. 

Apple Events The messaging language of System 7.5. 5’s interapplication 
communications technology (lAC), used by applications for sophisticated 
communication with other applications; it will enable programs to share not 
only data, but also commands. Apple events can be used by AppleScript to 
control the Scriptable Finder and Scriptable applications. 

Apple Guide An electronic assistant that is built in to System 7.5.5 that 
guides you through specific tasks one step at a time. With 7.5.5, Apple 
provides the Macintosh Guide, AppleMail Guide, and PowerTalk Guide as 
solid examples of this technology; they are accessible from the Balloon Help/ 
Apple Guide menu in the Finder (the big 3-D question mark on the right of 
the Finder menu bar). Other Apple-supplied guides, for QuickDraw GX and 
other System 7.5.5 technologies will be made available later by Apple. 

AppleScript Apple’s system software-level scripting system; it provides for 
the automation of routine or complex tasks and the customization of the 
user’s computing environment. 

Coachmarks Part of Apple Guide, coachmarks provide onscreen visual 
clues, such as circles, that give the user information about performing a 
specific task. 

ColorSync A color-matching technology that ensures color consistency 
between screen representation and color output. 

File Synchronization The capability to synchronize files on two different 
systems so that they are the same, enabling users to work on two systems 
without worrying about whether they have the most current file. Apple 
includes File Assistant as part of System 7.5.5. File Assistant automatically 
synchronizes files and folders between your PowerBook and your desktop 
Macintosh. Files also can be synchronized with a server or between two 
Macintosh systems. 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 373 

Apple Menu Options “Nested” menus that make it easier and faster to 
access items that are several layers below the top menu. 

Kerning Spacing between particular combinations of letters in a word. An 
automatic function with QuickDraw GX and the new, “intelligent” 
QuickDraw GX fonts. 

Macintosh Drag and Drop A system software extension that enables you 
to simply select the data (text, graphics, and so on) that you would like to 
move and drag it to a new location— without cutting and pasting. System 
7.5.5 includes a drag and dropable Scrapbook and the SimpleText text 

Macintosh Easy Open A system software extension that automatically 
translates data and opens documents in supported applications, even if the 
application that created them is not available. 

Macintosh PC Exchange A utility that enables MS-DOS, Windows, and 
OS/2 disks to be mounted and opened on the desktop, along with their data 
files using compatible Macintosh applications. 

MacTCP Apple’s standard software implementation of TCP/IP, which 
enables Macintosh users to access information on Cray supercomputers, 
UNIX and Sun workstations, VAX systems, and a variety of other hosts 
(including the Internet). 

Portable Digital Documents (PDDs) Using the “print and view” technol- 
ogy in QuickDraw GX, you can create portable documents that can be 
viewed and printed by other users, even if they don’t have the application or 
fonts that created the document. 

PostScript Type 1 Adobe Systems’ outline font format. Type 1 fonts are 
based on the PostScript page-description language. 

Power Macintosh Apple’s new line of Macintosh systems, based on 
PowerPC technology. 

PowerPC A CPU based on RISC technology, developed jointly by Apple, 
IBM, and Motorola. 

374 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

PowerTalk A set of collaborative services that enables users to send 
electronic mail, share files, and “sign” and forward documents from within 
an application. 

QuickDraw GX A sophisticated graphics and printing architecture that 
represents a major advance in ease-of-use, for everyday printing as well as 
high-end graphics manipulation. 

RISC Reduced Instruction-Set Computing. An advanced processor archi- 
tecture that provides greatly increased performance that is implemented 
with the PowerPC chip in Power Macintosh computers. 

Rotate A function of QuickDraw GX. Rotate turns a shape about a fixed 

Scriptable Finder A version of the Macintosh Finder included with 
System 7.5.5 that can be scripted with AppleScript, enabling you to automate 
system-level tasks. 

Scripts Written instructions that enable you to control the actions of your 
Macintosh computer; they can be automatically created with a “Do It For 
Me” command or created using Script Editor with AppleScript. 

Skew A function of QuickDraw GX that produces rubber-like distortion of 
a shape (including text) along two axes. 

SoftWindows An application from Insignia Solutions, Inc., optimized for 
the PowerPC processor, which emulates an Intel x86 processor and enables 
Power Macintosh customers to run MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows applica- 
tions on top of System 7.5.5. For most users, SoftWindows is too slow. You 
are better off using a System 7.5.5 Macintosh to read and use Windows disks, 
and leave direct Windows applications to a real PC. 

TCP/IP (The Transmission Control Protocol/Intemet Protocol) A 

growing protocol for business as well as education networks and the 

Telephony The integration of personal computer and telephone 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 375 

Telephone Manager System software support for telephony-based 

TrueType Apple’s outline font technology that was introduced in 1990, a 
year before System 7 debuted. TrueType provides system-level support for 
the display and printing of scalable type. TrueType fonts are supported by 
QuickDraw GX. 

WorldScript System-level support for integrated writing systems and 
languages worldwide that is built in to System 7.5.5. 

After this vocabulary and features review, you should move right into using 
the excellent training resource that Apple provides with every copy of 7.5.5: 
the Macintosh Guide in Apple’s hot new Apple Guide online document 

Basic Training with the Macintosh Guide and 
Apple Guides 

Apple Guide, the electronic assistant that goes beyond traditional online 
help systems (it guides you through specific procedures one step at a time), 
comes as a standard part of System 7.5.5. With Apple Guide, you can learn 
how to accomplish new or complex tasks by following onscreen prompts. 
Apple Guide provides red onscreen “coachmarks” that give visual cues by 
circling or highlighting items such as menu items (see figure 8.4). 

Rather than requiring you to search an electronic manual that covers an 
entire application, Apple Guide decides which information to provide based 
on the current context (which window is in front, what item is selected, and 
so on). For example, Apple Guide will automatically skip a step in a process 
if you have already completed that step, allowing you to accomplish the task 
more quickly. It also checks to make sure that you have completed the 
current step before moving on to the next one (see figure 8.5). 

376 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Figure 8. 4 Apple Guide showing red “coachmarks ” to highlight a Finder 
menu item to open 

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; p 

How do 1 change the beep sound? 

Please wait a moment. Apple Guide is assisting you toy 
opening the Control Panels folder. 


After the folder opens, click Continue. 


Figure 8.5 Apple Guide completes an action for you to show you how to 
do it 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 377 

Apple Guide doesn’t simply offer a text description of various tasks; rather, it 
prompts you with meaningful queries about specific operations. For ex- 
ample, at the desktop level, it offers queries that apply to Finder and System 
operations (such as. How do I change the desktop pattern? How do I share a 
file? How do I empty the trash?); it then provides hands-on instruction for 
the selected task. 

Apple Guides and Third-Party Application Help 

Since Apple Guide is built into 7.5.5, it will eventually become the standard 
for providing access to advanced functionality within Macintosh applications. 
Apple expects the majority of software vendors to provide support for Apple 
Guide in their applications within a year of 7.5. 5’s release. Applications that 
support Apple Guide will lead you through the steps required to perform 
particular operations. This is especially important as applications add more 
and more features and functionality. 

In a page layout application such as Adobe PageMaker, for example, you or a 
staff member may want to know how to change a block of text to a different 
font or import a word processing file into a column. With Apple Guide, you 
can learn the steps for completing the operation while actually performing 
the task and getting work done— rather than leafing through a manual, 
browsing through online help for the relevant topic, or working through a 

Businesses, schools, and other organizations can reduce training and 
support costs by creating their own Guides using the Guide Maker applica- 
tion (for more information see appendix A, “Apple Guide and Guide 
Maker”), to lead users through tasks that are unique to their company or 
organization. For example, a human resources department could use Apple 
Guide to assist employees in filling out forms electronically by guiding them 
through obtaining the correct form from a network server, filling it out, and 
sending it to the proper electronic mailbox. 

Using Apple Guide and the Macintosh Guide to 
Learn System 7.5.5 

The place in which every 7.5.5 user (Macintosh managers and staffers alike) 
should start learning about the new System (after they have read the manual 
and this book, of course) is the Macintosh Guide. It is part of System 7.5.5 

378 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

and can be found under the Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu in the Finder 
(you cannot get to the Macintosh Guide unless you are in the Finder; it does 
not appear when you are in another application). Figure 8.6 shows you 
where to look. 

Figure 8. 6 Balloon Help /Apple Guide menu 

Open the Macintosh Guide from the Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu as in 
figure 8.6. You will see a screen as shown in figure 8.7. Note that an Apple 
Guide screen takes precedence on the desktop. It will always float on top of 
the current application or Finder windows. It cannot be resized, although it 
can be moved or closed. 

Figure 8 . 7 The opening screen of Macintosh Guide 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 379 

At the top level of the Guide, you can search for a particular help topic or 
you may see a list of topics, or you can bring up a full index to the Guide. 
You can select topics by clicking a particular button’s icon. See figure 8.8 for 
a scrolling list of topics. 



/ Guide 



Look For 

1 . Click a topic area: 

Reviewing the Basics 


Working with Programs 





Using DOS Files & Disks 

Printing & Fonts 

Networks ^ Telecommunications 

Setting Options 






Figure 8.8 Macintosh Guide with scrolling topics list 

Select Reviewing the Basics and choose an item from the list in the right- 
hand window as shown in figure 8.9. 

Click the topic, “How do I review the basics?” and then click on OK. You’ll 
see a panel that tells you what to do (see figure 8.10). 

From this panel, you are told to invoke either the tutorial that came with 
your Macintosh (it can be found in the Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu or 
via a separate program called “Basics” in the top level of your hard disk) or 
that comes with System 7.5.5. Follow the panels carefully, and click the 
navigator buttons in the lower-right comer of each screen to go to the next 

380 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


C Guide 



Look For 

1. Click a topic area: 

2. Click a phrase, then click OK: 

Reviewing the Basics 

^ How do 1 


Working with Programs 

review the basics? 




use icons? 



use menus? 

Using DOS Files & Disks 

use windows? 

Printing ^ Fonts 

use Macintosh Guide? 

Networks &. Telecommunications 

turn off the computer? 

Setting Options 

^ Definitions 


active window 










Figure 8.9 Reviewing the Basics Macintosh Guide screen 

How do I review the basics? 

To use your computer effectively, you need to have a 
few basic skills and understand a few key concepts. 

* To learn how to control the pointer on the screen 
(using a mouse, a trackball, or another device), open the 
Guide menu (on the right with the ? icon) and choose 
the ''Tutoriar item. (If you don't see a tutorial item in 
the Guide menu, use the introductory tour, usually 
named ’^Basics," supplied with your computer.) 

* To learn about icons, menus, and windows, open the 
Guide menu and choose the "^Tutoriar item. (If you 
don't see a tutorial item in the Guide menu, use the 
materials named ''Learning Macintosh" or "Basics" 
supplied with your computer.) 

Read this infortnation, then you're done. 

Topics 1 Huh? 



navigation buttons 

Figure 8.10 How do I review the basics? screen in the Macintosh Guide 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 381 

That’s the pattern for all of the Macintosh Guides that come with System 
7.5.5. Use it, step-by-step, to show you and tell you how to use the features 
of System 7.5.5. 

Each Guide panel offers you a button that takes you back to the top level of 
the Guide (Topics), and the navigation buttons (see figure 8.10). This allows 
you to step forward and backward through each of the informational panels 
that make up a particular topic. Many panels also offer you a button called 
“Huh?” that will bring up explanations of terms used in the panel. 

Learning to “read” and “use” an Apple Guide, like the Macintosh Guide, is a 
very good place to start your individual System 7.5.5 training. Once you and 
your staff have browsed all the information contained in the Macintosh 
Guide, you will know something about what 7.5.5 can and cannot do, and 
you will know the basic ways to use those technologies. 

The beauty of Apple Guides and the Macintosh Guide are that they are fully 
extensible. As Apple continues to revise System 7.5.5 (on the way to System 
8.0), it can add to the Macintosh Guide, so that we can learn about the new 
features in additional System releases. 


Some Macintosh managers and users, of course, will be able to install System 
7.5.5 and never look back, much less look at this book, the thin upgrade 
manual, or the Macintosh Guide. But you’ve got to remember that this kind 
of user is probably in the minority. More Macintosh computers have been 
sold in the last year than in the previous three, so many of today’s System 7.x 
users are not Macintosh gurus or aficionados, or even Mac-enlightened. In 
fact, many Mac users are befuddled by some of their Mac colleagues (who 
have a virtual love affair with their Macs), because they see Macs simply as 
electronic Swiss Army knives. 

382 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Why Do You Need System 7.5.5 

Studies completed by a consulting firm, the Gartner Group, for Apple in 
1994 are often tossed about as proof that the Macintosh is so easy to use that 
training isn’t an issue. These studies showed that the Macintosh increased 
worker productivity by about 40 percent over offices equipped with Win- 
dows 3.1-based PCs. 

It is interesting to note that few people bother to read that the 40 percent 
productivity gains were attained after the Macintosh users completed a 
proper training program, just as the Windows users had attended. The 40 
percent figure does not represent the difference in productivity between 
Macintosh and Windows applications; it represents the differences in 
operating system functions. 

With System 7.5.5, application-specific training takes on special importance, 
since many of its users won’t begin to “get” the importance of AppleScript, 
file sharing, PowerTalk, aliasing, publish and subscribe, and QuickDraw GX 
without some seriously directed training programs. As a result, some of your 
users will need to be trained on the fundamentals of System 7.5.5 itself; 
while others will need merely to be given the appropriate comparative 
context (that being System 7.x) to learn to use all of System 7.5. 5’s features. 

Adult Learning Problems 

A related problem for Macintosh managers is that many Macintosh training 
programs that have already been implemented in their companies (if not in 
their departments) don’t take into consideration the fact that adults learn in 
different ways. Moreover, many such programs don’t recognize that different 
levels of an application’s use imply different learning problems. 

I’ve found that when training users to use System 7.5.5, the best kind of 
training actively involves the trainee. My materials almost always take a 
tutorial approach, providing examples that students can work through, step- 
by-step, at their own pace. This means that they can see the result of their 
actions, as well as why they would want to do them in the first place. Making 
sure that my own customized materials track Apple’s manual and Macintosh 
Guide also helps keep users focused as they are learning. 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 383 

A Recipe for a Training Program 

A quality System 7.5.5 training program should offer multiple training 
media; this is because the greater variety of learning environments you 
provide, the greater Ukelihood that at least one will click with a given 
person. Your training program should pay particular attention to adult 
learning problems, as well as present the material in a variety of contexts. 

For my money, any good System 7.5.5 training program should include the 
Macintosh Guide and a customized Apple Guide (that you build with Guide 
Maker) that simulates the access and use of specific Macintosh files on the 
network. (Learn how to author with Guide Maker in appendix A.) Your 
training program also should include a higher-level discussion of the 
differences between two-dimensional and three-dimensional thinking as it 
relates to using a Macintosh computer and the Macintosh current GUI 
(graphical user interface), the Finder. 

2-D vs. 3-D Training 

Most Mac users think in two dimensions (2-D). In fact, 2-D versus 3-D 
represents the most important hidden issue in System 7.5.5 training. This is 
because of System 7.5. 5’s virtual desktop metaphors [see chapter 6, “Net- 
working vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup)”]. In order to use 
System 7.5. 5’s virtual desktop features (PowerTalk, publish and subscribe, 
AppleScript, file sharing, aliasing), you need to think beyond the 2-D desk- 
top of your local Macintosh computers. 

Rather, you must keep in mind that things now work much more transpar- 
ently across their networks under System 7.5.5 than they did under even 
System 7 Pro. Thinking of the 3-D topology of their networks and how files 
may be used over such a LAN is what’s needed. You quite likely need to train 
your users repeatedly to understand this point. Remind them that they need 
to reread chapter 6 several times to get the point of this new virtual desktop. 

Building a Specific Recipe for Training 

Teaching your users to deal with file sharing, email, and messaging across 
your networks is one such place where learning simulations may really help. 
This is because they allow a student to pick apart the way they work. 

384 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Simulations and direct assistance, as provided by Apple Guide, can easily 
make the point about the virtual desktop and 3-D learning. 

Such in-house System 7.5.5 training materials could come with a set of 
introductory written tutorial problems that rely on the program for their 
solution. There also may be a videotape or QuickTime movie excerpts (see 
chapter 5, “The Multimedia is the Message,” for details), that show System 
7.5.5 and 7.5.5-sawy applications being used by an expert, while giving an 
overview of their capabilities. 

Other items that you may want to include are an online Apple Guide refer- 
ence manual (of your specific System 7.5.5 virtual desktop environment). 
The online Apple Guide reference manual would work with the other 
training materials and a real textbook. These would pull together the 
training process for your students and your training coordinator. 

Of course, such specialized System 7.5.5 in-house training is expensive and 
can get outdated easily. For many Macintosh managers, expediency and 
simple budget pressures will prevent anything so grandiose. For those 
Macfolk, the need to rely on both Apple’s materials and third-party materials 
is great. 

Using Third-Party Materiais to Suppiement Your 
Training Program 

Where can you find such third-party materials? 

A few third-party training companies (such as MacAcademy) can provide 
high-quality System 7.5.5 multimedia training, but the cost per student is 
high. One alternative to third-party materials is using software from publish- 
ers that now include high-quality training materials with every System 7.5.5- 
sawy program they ship. A good example of this is Claris, with its emphasis 
on Apple Guides for System 7.5.5-sawy applications. Most third-party 
application vendors will follow Claris’ lead and provide detailed tutorial 
Apple Guides with their software. 

If you need more support than Apple can offer over the phone or through 
basic System 7.5.5 support and training materials, authorized Apple resellers 
and other support providers (consultants, Apple Training Providers, and 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 385 

Apple User Groups), typically offer a comprehensive set of support and 
training services you may need. 

Apple has trained resellers and support providers how to install, use, and 
support System 7.5.5 so that they have a decent chance to offer help when 
you can’t get it elsewhere. 

Many resellers and other support providers who already are providing such 
services for other Macintosh products are offering support and training 
services for System 7.5.5. Here are some categories of these third-party 
products, plus some representative offerings: 

• Services before installing System 7.5.5. These services include using 
tools such as Apple’s own Safe Install Utility, Pharos’ Status Mac, 
Technology Works GraceLAN, and NOW Software’s Profiler (I recom- 
mend them all for specific tasks) to evaluate the systems to be up- 
graded, compiling a list of hardware and software upgrades required to 
take full advantage of System 7.5.5, and planning the implementation 
of the upgrade. 

• System 7.5.5 upgrade kits for products. These services include 
selling upgrade kits, additional memory, or other hardware upgrades 
that may be required to take full advantage of System 7.5.5. Only 
authorized Apple resellers can sell the System 7.5.5 Upgrade Kits and 
install memory upgrades, but all of System 7.5. 5’s third-party support 
providers can offer System 7.5.5 installation services. 

• Upgrading to System 7.5.5 also gives you a good shot at imple- 
menting other upgrades and updates you may think about purchas- 
ing that are independent of System 7.5.5, such us upgrading 
LaserWriter printers, adding hard disk drives, installing new file 
servers, and so forth. 

• Training and support after System 7.5.5 is installed. These services 
include offering ongoing System 7.5.5 support, such as on-site trouble- 
shooting and telephone support. Authorized Apple Training Providers 
also can offer System 7.5.5 training for your in-house support staff and 
end users, either at your location or at the training provider’s facility 
(where it may be cheaper, but less convenient). 

386 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Once you have evaluated these third-party training materials, you will want 
to go back to the mothership and check out Apple’s offerings (which, at 
press time, were still evolving). 

Apple Supplemental 7.5.5 Training Resources 

Fortunately, Apple knows you need this help in building a good training 
program. Apple has created a program called “Technical Coordinator 
Answerline (TCA).” This is different from the free direct support you get 
from the System 7.5.5 Answerline (800-SOS-APPL), which is intended to be a 
one-to-one basic helpline for individual users. Intended for the help desks 
and networking support staffs of large customers, TCA gives its subscribers 
direct access to Apple’s support engineers for assistance on the day-to-day 
operation of networks— including those running System 7.5.5— and assis- 
tance with upgrades “to some extent,” according to Apple. 

TCA help topics include installation, compatibility, configuration, product 
usage, troubleshooting, and system administration in multivendor network- 
ing environments, and within all Macintosh operating systems, including 
System 7.5.5 and AAJX, AppleShare File Server and Print Server software, 
AppleScript software (with the exception of creating custom scripts), and 
AppleTalk and other local area network solutions. 

Apple’s TCA also can give you help with connectivity solutions for Digital, 
IBM, Ethernet, and Token-Ring environments. TCA pricing is variable. Call 
Apple at 800-SOS-APPL or 408-996-1010 for details. 

Apple also offers an upgraded Information Source CD-ROM disc that gives 
corporate Mac staffers and managers a library of software and information 
needed to maintain System 7.5.5 networks. The Information Source CD 
contains a complete set of system software for all Macintosh and Apple II 
products, a section called “developer essentials,” peripheral drivers, product 
training, cabling and configuration guides, and a directory of third-party 
network providers. You do not need to be a registered developer to buy this 
CD-ROM disc. 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 387 

In addition, Apple recently made available its Advanced User Techniques 
disc to all System 7.5.5 users. The CD contains “how-to” information on 
security procedures, virus prevention and eradication, disk and file encryp- 
tion, file compression and expansion, and tips and techniques for System 
7.5.5. Both CDs are available from local resellers and from Apple directly (if 
you are one of the few remaining Apple direct customers), or if you are an 
educational customer. 

Apple has made it clear that it cannot support all of its Macintosh users 
during the System 7.5.5 transition. While its Technical Coordinator 
Answerline is aimed at large accounts, Apple relies on its resellers to support 
all but its largest customers. 

But not all resellers are either predisposed or equipped to handle these 
complex networking issues. You should call Apple at 800-732-3131 for 
names of the Apple resellers in your area. You will need to call these 
resellers directly to determine whether or not they can provide the technical 
support you may need. 

Apple, of course, has packaged telephone support with its System 7.5.5 
upgrade kits; you get basic phone support on an unlimited basis by calling 


The Apple System 7.5.5 helpline (based on the existing Apple helpline, 800- 
SOS-APPL) is designed, according to Apple, to provide the following benefits 
to every System 7.5.5 customer. Naturally, your mileage will vary. The 
helpline can: 

• Help you plan your upgrade, including hardware requirements, 
software compatibility issues, and back-up strategies. 

• Assist you with the installation process. 

• Troubleshoot issues that arise as a direct result of the upgrade. 

• Ensure that your system is able to recognize and use all Apple periph- 
erals (in your local workgroup) and applications known to be compat- 
ible with System 7.5.5, as indicated by the Safe Install Utility. 

388 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple considers that upgrade assistance applies only to the upgrade process, 
not the ongoing use of System 7.5.5 features, and only to your immediate 
workgroup; it does not cover routers, spoolers, hubs, bridges, or unattended 
servers that are part of an extended computing environment. In practice, 
however, you will find the SOS-APPL line technicians will try to help you 
with just about any System 7.5.5 question, as I have discovered during recent 

Using the helpline works well for supporting you during troublespots and in 
dealing with critical problems, but you might find that you still need specific 
Apple training products. Apple gives you a few to choose from, naturally, at 
an extra cost. 

Apple’s 7.5.5 Extra Cost Training Products 

At press time, Apple provided specific extra cost System 7.5.5 training, 
support informational items, and classes: 

• Macintosh System Software 7.5.5 product sheet. Free from any 
Apple Authorized Reseller. 

• Introduction to Macintosh System Software 7.5.5 (training class). 
Prices vary based on training location. (This training module assumes 
that you have experience using the Macintosh.) Teaches you how to 
use most of the key features of System 7.5.5. The course covers 
installation, the desktop, the new organization of the System Folder, 
working with documents, virtual memory, file sharing, QuickDraw GX, 
PowerTalk, and AppleScript. 

• Supporting Macintosh System Software 7.5.5 (training class). Prices 
vary based on training location. This course covers System 7.5.5 
technology, support issues related to installing the software, 
interapplication communication (lAC), PowerTalk and collaboration, 
Apple events and AppleScript, QuickDraw GX, and working with 
System extensions and control panels. This course is available through 
Apple in two ways: 

It’s available from authorized Apple Training Providers. Contact your 
local training provider for more information about System 7.5.5 
training and course schedules. (Call 800-732-3131 for the name of an 
Apple Training Provider near you.) 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 389 

You can purchase the System Software 7.5.5 Training course materials 
on a CD-ROM disc from any authorized Apple reseller. This CD-ROM 
will be particularly useful to the in-house training staff of large busi- 
nesses, education, or government institutions who want to offer 
System 7.5.5 training to Macintosh users within their organization. For 
the name of an authorized Apple reseller near you, you should call 
Apple at 800-538-9696. 

• Software Development Answerline and Technical Coordinator 
Answerline can be ordered by calling 800-950-2442. Macintosh 
computer users and managers who develop software for in-house use 
can get assistance with developing on any System 7.5.5 platform 
through the Developer University training course described earlier. 
Support is also available through a new in-house developer support 
program designed specifically for noncommercial developers. 

• The Software Development Answerline provides direct access to 
Apple support engineers via AppleLink or telephone. The Software 
Development Answerline can give you development assistance with 
programming tools and languages, guidance in writing code, and help 
with user interface considerations. Their support extends beyond 
System 7.5.5, naturally, to include all Macintosh operating systems, 
including A/UX, Macintosh hardware, Apple networking and communi- 
cations products, and Macintosh development products, such as MPW 
and MacApp. 

• Programunaing with System 7.5.5 is a new Apple course from Devel- 
oper University designed for developers who have already created an 
application and would like to now incorporate the new features of 
System 7.5.5. The course focuses on AOCE, QuickDraw, AppleScript 
and Macintosh Drag and Drop. The course also covers file system 
tools, Apple events, human interface issues related to TrueType font 
capabilities and QuickDraw GX, and virtual memory training for your 

This course is offered to all your developers through Developer 
University, Apple’s developer training program. For more information 
or to register, please contact Apple Developer University or by phone 
at 408-974-6215. 

390 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

And naturally, if you are not already an Associate Apple Developer, call Apple 
at 408-996-1010 and ask for an Apple Developer’s kit to become one. For 
that you will get monthly mailings, including CD-ROMs of the latest System 
software, as well as an Apple Developer Newsletter, a catalog of Developer 
University Offerings, access a website from the Apple page 
(, and the APDA catalog and updates. 

Training Time for System 7.5.5 

Even all the first-rate training and support materials in the world will not 
make for a successful training program if you don’t allow yourself, or your 
troops, the time to do the job properly. Not too surprisingly, Apple main- 
tains that users who are familiar with the Macintosh can begin to take 
advantage of System 7.5.5 in one to two hours. 

That’s probably true if you or your Mac staffers are using plain vanilla 
standalone Macintosh computers with no third-party extensions or control 
panels with System 7.x, and if they have gone through System upgrades 
before. Many of your users, however, can’t begin to uncover the new 
features of System 7.5.5 in that short period of time. And if you are upgrad- 
ing from System 6.x, the training time will be extensive if you and your users 
really expect to use most or all of the System 7.5.5 features. 

How long will it really take to learn and teach each of your users to use 
System 7.5.5? As a rule of thumb, managers should budget 10 hours of 
hands-on training to get their System 7.x staffers already familiar with the 
Macintosh operating system to be minimally productive with System 7.5.5. 

If you are making the upgrade to System 7.5.5 from System 6.x, count on 
two to three times that number of hands-on training hours (again, I am 
talking about the right way to do training, not some half-baked training 

Of course, some users will need less training, while others will need much 
more. Try very hard not to underestimate the time needed to do proper 
System 7.5.5 training. Make sure that your Macintosh users have that training 
time apart from their regular duties. Otherwise, the training time will be 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 391 

Companies that have in-house support staff and extensive in-house software 
can expect to add an additional 6 to 36 hours on technical hands-on training 
for its users of System 7.5.5-sawy in-house software. 

Online Services and the Internet 

Other than using Apple’s built in 7.5.5 training, extra cost support materials, 
and third-party 7.5.5 materials and support, you will want to get some 
additional help from what I call “the usual sources.” The first of these are 
online services, including Apple’s own newly-formed eWorld. 

You will find support forums for System 7.5.5 on CompuServe’s Ziffnet/Mac 
forum, CompuServe MAUG (Micronetworked Apple User’s Group), and 
America Online’s Macintosh fora. Other good online services that offer some 
quality System 7.5.5 support forums include The Well, and to a lesser 
degree. Prodigy. 

You also can find help by surfing the Internet’s user groups and message 
fora including those available through Usenet. Since dozens of good books 
have been written about using the Internet (I recommend the Internet 
Starter Kit for Macintosh written by Adam Engst, since Adam seems to know 
more about the Internet than any other human on the planet). Keep in 
mind, however, that Internet surfing is very time-dependent and you have to 
deal with a very large signal-to-noise ratio: in other words, there is a lot of 
junk to sort through to find the nuggets of System 7.5.5 wisdom. 

Several applications make this sifting easier. To this end, if you snag a copy 
of World Wide Web, Netscape Navigator, or Internet Explorer along with 
copies of Eetch (from Dartmouth University), and TurboGopher (The 
University of Minnesota), to sort through the enormous resources of the 
Internet, you will have a better chance of finding useful System 7.5.5 infor- 
mation. You will need to consult Engst’s books for details on how to use 
these programs (and in the case of Eetch and TurboGopher, you will also get 
the software on disk with the books). 

Remember with all online services, however, that the quality of the support 
is often directly proportional to the religious fervor of your fellow Macintosh 
users and managers in their help postings. Take all that you read on those 

392 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

services with a mountain of salt before you try to implement specific support 
or usage methods they may recommend. 

To use an online service, of course, you will need a phone line and a 
modem, and some bucks for the membership and monthly usage fees. In 
addition to support for System 7.5.5, you will find that online services also 
offer you public-domain and commercial software libraries to browse and 
download from, discussion fora on a variety of computer and non-computer 
topics, and vendor-supported fora. 

To contact CompuServe, call 800-848-8990 or 614-457-8600. You can reach 
Ziffnet/Mac and ZD Net at 800-666-0330 or 617-252-5000. Get more informa- 
tion about American Online at 800-827-6364 or 703-448-8700. Check out 
Internet service providers in Internet Starter Kit for Macintosh 4th edition, 
(1996, Hayden Books) written by Adam Engst. 

National User Groups 

After online services, you will want to check with the two big national 
Macintosh user groups, BMUG (Berkeley Macintosh User Group in Berkeley, 
CA) and B.C.S. Mac (Boston Computer Society Mac forum). Both sponsor 
BBSs where you can browse downloadable files and get help online. Both 
also provide some good informational and training programs for all 
Macintosh users, especially those struggling with System 7.5.5. You’ll need 
to become a paid member of these groups in order to take advantage of all 
of their Mac-specific training and support activities. 

Contact B.C.S Mac at 617-252-0600. BMUG can be reached at 510-549-2684. 
You can order BMUG products and services (including System 7.5.5 support 
materials) by calling 800-776-BMUG. 

Local User Groups 

Your own city will likely offer some kind of Macintosh user group, although 
you may have to hunt for it by calling Apple and some of your Macintosh 
colleagues outside your company. In my hometown, Chicago, the local 
Macintosh User Group, called “The Rest of Us,” and another area user group, 
“The Northwest of Us,” have done good jobs in helping its members make 
the transition to System 7.5.5. Hopefully, your city or perhaps local college 
or university will offer as good a local Apple Macintosh User group as mine 
in Chicago does. 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 393 

You can find out information about your local user groups by calling Apple 
at 800-538-9696 or 408-996-1010. You also can start your own user group 
to support your System 7.5.5 users (if you really get the fever!). Call Apple 
at 800-538-9696, ext. 500 for a free copy of the “Apple’s User Group 

Once you have exhausted the help provided by Apple, third parties, online 
services, and user groups you still may want to acquire specialized training 
materials to help you train others to train your staffers in the best use of 
System 7.5.5. For that, you can turn to the following sources from Apple and 
other training providers. 

Training Your Trainers 

Six-hour classes aimed at intermediate users range from about 1 100 to $300 
from local computer training companies. 

Classes for support personnel will be harder to find. Managers looking for 
such classes can call Apple’s Developer University at 800-732-3131, ext. 300, 
for training providers in their area that offer technical support classes. 

Other than formal classes, a number of third parties provide self-based 
tutorials that make use of some combination of disks, audiocassettes, and 
videotape for the general user population. Personal Training Systems (PTS), 
of San Jose, CA, for example, offers two $49.95 tutorials, using an audiocas- 
sette and a disk for users upgrading from System 7.x to System 7.5.5. One 
tutorial covers System 7.5.5 installation as well as basics; the other covers 
advanced features. 

MacAcademy, of Ormond Beach, FL, offers a two-hour, $69 videotape 
explaining System 7.5.5 features to current Macintosh users. MacAcademy 
also offers three $69 videotapes on System 7.5.5 for beginner, intermediate, 
and advanced users. 


Most computer training is a pain to consider— and even more of a pain to 
implement. System 7.5.5 is no exception to this rule. Macintosh managers 
and users alike would prefer to hook their brains directly up to a Macintosh 
and let the machine teach them everything they need to know. 

394 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Unfortunately, despite the big help provided by Apple Guide, with the 
increased complexity of System 7.5.5, that training wish just isn’t realistic 
any longer. Macintosh managers who try to finesse the training issue by 
assuming things will work out, or by assuming that Apple’s own Macintosh 
System 7.5.5 Upgrade Manual and Macintosh Guide materials will be 
sufficient, are the same Macintosh managers who will be licking their 
computing wounds several months from now. 

Simply put, most of your Macintosh users are going to need some kind of 
System 7.5.5 training that goes beyond the simple or perfunctory. You need 
to get on the stick now and plan for it properly, even while you may be 
installing the software on the Macintosh computers of your most Mac-sawy 

If you take my main point from this chapter to heart, you will evaluate your 
staffs needs individually and design a specific System 7.5.5 training plan for 
them (or at least help them do that for themselves). To do so, you must take 
a look at Apple’s support and training materials, along with those from 
reliable Macintosh training vendors like Personal Training Systems and 

Having done your homework, you will be much better off when it’s time to 
deliver the training goods for your users. But you know this already. There is 
no substitute for research and planning when it comes to providing success- 
ful System 7.5.5 training and support. 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 8 

I urge you all to use the opportunity provided by System 7.5.5 to reflect on 
your current Macintosh training needs, and to implement the correct 
training for each Macintosh staff member you manage. 

And now, the quiz. You should read each of these questions carefully and 
then write down your answers. These answers should form your basic set of 
strategies for handling your System 7.5.5 upgrade and continuity training: 

1 . What training did you have in place for System 7.x. How can it be 
modified for System 7.5.5? 

Chapter 8: Management Strategies for System 7.5.5 395 

2 . How do you train your in-house developers? 

3 . What is the single biggest training problem now (before installing 
System 7.5.5)? How will this change for System 7.5.5? 

4 . How many Mac users do you need to train? 

5. Which Macintosh models are they using now and what software do 
they use? 

6. Which of these programs will need to be upgraded to run under 
System 7.5.5? Which will be upgraded to System 7.5.5-sawy versions? 

7 . How will that effect your training mix? 

8. When was the last time that you interviewed your users about their 
training needs? 

9 . What System 7.5.5 training have you taken yourself? 

1 0. How do you expect to integrate Apple’s support services for System 
7.5.5 into your own in-house support programs? 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 8 

1 . If you can’t answer this one quickly and assuredly, you are in big 
trouble. It’s time to make some serious plans for training. 

2 . How should I know? I don’t live in your pocket! But j^oa better know 

3 . It’s not likely to change, only to get larger. Concentrate on the issues 
surrounding collaboration and networking. 

4 . 1 to 10. 11 to 50. 51 to 100. You get the idea. Count them! They are 
out there waiting for you... 

5. Here’s a good time for a serious evaluation of what you’re dealing with 
in terms of computing horsepower. Do you have enough? 

6. Better check with the vendors of the software, huh? Here’s a tip: 
Apple’s Safe Install Utility can give you the names and phone numbers 
of most of the application vendors whose wares occupy your hard disk 

396 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

7. You may have to spend lots of time training people to use System 
7.5.5-sawy features, eh? 

8. If you can’t remember, you better get cracking. 

9. None, you say? Yikes. Read the book. Twice! Then repeat after me. I 
will learn about System 7.5.5 today... 

1 0. This will depend upon your budget, your willpower, and the number 
of folks you have to train. All of which argue for some outside training 
consulting help if you have lots of any of these things. 

Chapter Q 

The Art and Science 
of Troubleshooting 

System 7.5.5 

0 matter how much of an expert you become with System 
7 5.5, you will eventually encounter 
some errors and problems. No matter 
how expe rt your Macintosh users may 
become with System 7.5.5, they, too, 
will eventually encounter some diffi- 
culties. No matter how much ad- 
vanced planning, detailed training, 
fastidious support, and good solid 

398 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

management that you put into dealing with all the ramifications of System 
7.5.5, you will eventually run into trouble of some sort or another. How you 
deal with these problems is what this chapter is all about. 

In this chapter, I will show you some techniques for dealing with all these 
problems, quirks, and nonsequiturs that you and your Macintosh users will 
encounter with System 7.5.5. 1 will also try to give you something of a 
troubleshooting philosophy for System 7.5.5 to help you deal with the hints, 
tips, and techniques that can be found in other books, online services, 
BBSes, and through local and national user groups. 

While specific hints and tips can be useful in some cases, they’re extremely 
limited and, in the worse case scenarios, can be downright harmful. If you 
can’t find just the right reference for your particular problem, you’re stuck 
with a hints and tips guide. And, what if you think that you have found the 
right hint or tip, only to apply it and find that you’ve just destroyed a file or 
your disk? Where does that leave you? 

The watchword for successful System 7.5.5 troubleshooting is caution. If 
you get cocky and try to outguess the Apple programmers who wrote System 
7.5.5, you could be making a serious mistake— and you’ll likely deserve your 
fate— that will often mean lost data or worse. With that in mind, I would 
tread very carefully when using System 7.5.5 hints and tips that you gather 
from sources that aren’t interactive (you can’t ask questions), including 
books, maga 2 ine articles, and most online service postings. Better that you 
take the time to really diagnose a problem before acting “decisively” only to 
find that you’ve made the problem worse. 

But if you understand how to “think” like System 7.5.5 “thinks,” then you 
stand a better chance of fixing the problem(s) that plagues you, or at least 
you can learn to establish a modus vivendi with them. In short, I will try to 
sort out the different ways that problems occur when using System 7.5.5 and 
go over some basic strategies for handling those problems. As always, my 
experience here is tempered by the experience of “my” cadre of Macintosh 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 399 

With this in mind, I’ve divided this chapter into the following topics: 

• Preventing Problems by Strategic Thinking 

• Installation Troubleshooting 

• Different Problems Deserve Different Solutions 

• Protection and Prevention are Better than Troubleshooting 

• Nobody Knows the Troubles I’ve Seen 

You also will find specific troubleshooting (and trouble prevention) informa- 
tion in the other chapters of this book. Where possible, I have made com- 
ments throughout the book that may save you time and money. (See the 
index for some troubleshooting information cross-references.) 

Preventing Problems by 
Strategic Thinking 

While we would all like to spend our days brainstorming and perfecting our 
strategic plans, just the day-to-day activities of Macintosh management 
usually intrude pretty heavily. It often seems that all we have time to do is to 
try to keep our staffers happy and productive and fix all the little nuisances 
that pop up. 

But by focusing so heavily on the prosaic, you can miss golden opportunities 
to implement strategic solutions that would obviate these pesky problems. 

A case in point is trying to fix System 7.5.5 management problems as if they 
were merely separate events— not tied to the way you use your Mac or tied to 
other anomalies that are the root cause of your problems. What you should 
strive to do is consider the validity of the entire process of Mac troubleshoot- 
ing and see it as an opportunity to make some strategic gains. In short, you 
want to look at troubleshooting from the point of view that each error or 
problem that you track down and fix serves to build a better way of using the 
Mac (and it also serves to remind you of hidden Mac resources you’ve 
forgotten about). 

400 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The Publish and Subscribe Problem 

Many users complain about problems trying to use Publish and Subscribe 
(see chapter 6 “Networking vs. Collaboration (Welcome to the Workgroup),” 
for more on how Publish and Subscribe works) as a management tool for 
pubhshing. For example, a user was responsible for a publishing a sixteen 
volume corporate methodology with, as luck would have it, hundreds of 
(Freehand) graphics published and subscribed into dozens of chapters (of 
Microsoft Word text). 

What he discovered was your basic management nightmare: subscriptions 
magically turn to links; subscribed text changes its format; EPS graphic 
editions display black on the screen... the list of problems goes on and on. 

At that point the user made a critical error: Thinking the problem was with 
the implementation of Publish and Subscribe. Naturally, Apple and Microsoft 
were called. 

Bad move, as you’ll see. 

“Speaking with Apple result[ed] in... finger pointing [at] Microsoft, and 
Microsoft product support blame[d] Apple.” Meanwhile, this user watched 
deadhnes slip away and the project fall further and ftirther behind. 

The Forest and the Trees 
(Troubleshooting Strategy 101) 

That poor user fell into that terra infirma where managers try to fix a 
project they have been handed, rather than analyzing the efficacy of the 
project first and then adapting System 7.5.5 technology to suit that project. 

In this case, the Publish and Subscribe nightmare itself was the problem— not 
the implementation, per se. In other words, the whole concept of using 
System 7.5. 5’s Publish and Subscribe to create links among disparate 
documents in such a large publication makes little sense. Quite likely, when 
the publishing project was smaller and only involved a few chapters and not 
nearly so many linked documents, Publish and Subscribe worked fine. 

But expanding its scope to a sixteen volume magnum opus probably can 
never work— no matter how much Publish and Subscribe tweaking is done. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 401 

The plain truth in this case is that Publish and Subscribe was never made to 
handle this level of complexity. There is a reason Apple never gave us real 
linkage or edition management tools; and that reason is that Publish and 
Subscribe is not a substitute for using the appropriate dedicated software in 
the first place, especially for very large heterogeneous documents. 

Rather, this is the time to bite the real bullet— a project that has been 
attempted with the wrong technology— and migrate those Word and Free- 
hand files into a system that is meant to deal with large publications such as 
QuarkXPress, PageMaker, or FrameMaker. 

Of course, there will be considerable pain associated with that migration. 
(That’s usually the reason we shy away from it: because it simply looks too 
daunting.) However, the alternative in this case— to continue putting bailing 
wire and spit on a Publish and Subscribe system that can never do what’s 
needed would be an even bigger mistake. 

Situations like this can help us become better Macintosh managers, as long 
as we notice the forest, along with the trees. In order to move toward the 
strategic and away from the tactical, we need to become better at accessing 
our tools and determining whether they are up to the solutions we expect 
from them. 

Evaluating Your 7.5.5 Tools 
Before Using Them and 
Watching Them Break 

Let’s generalize this Publish and Subscribe example to extend to more of 
System 7.5.5. Determining how to avoid System 7.5.5 problems by thinking 
strategically is, most definitely, a trick worth learning. 

In short, you need to evaluate the System 7.5.5 tools and technologies by 
asking and answering these questions (before you even think about imple- 

• Does the 7. 5 . 5 tool or technology come from Apple or did Apple 
acquire it from a third party? 

402 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• If it’s from Apple, is it part of a larger technology that will likely result 
in more mature tools, or is it a singular implementation? 

• If it’s from Apple, has it announced any competing or extending 
technology or tools that may compromise the tool or technology? 

• If it’s from Apple, does it provide any complex solutions with the tool 
or technology by special documentation or technology discussions? 
Does Apple offer special ancillary tools to support it? 

• If it’s from a third party, is it part of a broad selection of products that 
try to solve related problems, or is it a “singleton”? 

• Regardless of who makes it, what’s the word on the street? 

Take the answers to these questions and see if you find a pattern. In the case 
of Publish and Subscribe, if you apply these tests, you’ll find answers like the 
following that would have warned you ahead of time: 

• Publish and Subscribe comes from Apple. So far so good. 

• Publish and Subscribe is part of Apple’s generalized AppleEvents 
technology, which is supported by AppleScript. Sounds good, since it 
means Apple was thinking about Publish and Subscribe right from the 
start when designing System 7. 

• Apple is now shipping OpenDoc, its technology for providing com- 
pound documents, with System 7.5.5. Eventually OpenDoc will obviate 
the need for Publish and Subscribe, just as System 7.5. 5’s Drag and 
Drop and the use of simple expedients (like network file aliases) are 
starting to move from application-centric to document-centric. That is 
a sea of change from Apple. 

Oops, now you’ve got potential problems: 

• Aside from the basic documentation on Publish and Subscribe, Apple 
has done precious little to help us use the tool (no special documenta- 
tion, no technical discussions). This should be the smoking gun telling 
you that you have hitched you wagon to the wrong horse. 

• Eurther consider that Apple has done zip since System 7.0 to improve 
the handling and management of edition files, which are critical to 
Publish and Subscribe. No new Publish and Subscribe tools come with 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 403 

System 7.5.5. Even Claris Corporation, which was working on an 
edition management utility three years ago, dropped the project. If 
that’s not a clue, nothing is. 

I don’t mean to be flippant about this, but the truth is that it angers me that 
we have to go through such convolutions in the first place. But they are 
necessary convolutions if you want to avoid problems with System 7.5.5 in 
the future. 

Now let’s apply my little test to the core technologies in System 7.5.5 to see 
if you can expect problems later. 


• Yes, it comes from Apple. Whew! 

• It’s part of Apple’s Open Scripting Architecture. You are in good shape 

• Nope, AppleScript and OSA are it. You are rocking now, dude! 

• Yes, the AppleScript Scripter’s Kit does just that with more on the way. 

• In addition, first rate third-party tools, like Scripter from Main Event 
Software extend AppleScript prowess. So, for AppleScript, the strategic 
thinking exercise suggests that if you decide to use it, you can’t go 

• The word on the street is good and getting better. 

QuickDraw GX 

• Apple all the way. 

• It’s the core of Apple’s new imaging architecture. 

• Nope, QuickDraw GX is the future here. 

• Not yet, which is a concern. In addition, not all Apple products work 
with QuickDraw GX, a big problem. 

• Weak third-party hardware and software support so far means that you 
must look closely as to whether QuickDraw GX makes sense for you, 
since it may cause more problems than it solves. 

• The word on the street is mixed, so caution is advised. 

404 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


• Apple city. 

• Part of its global Apple Open Collaboration Environment (AOCE) that 
extends to Microsoft Windows. That’s good. 

• Nope. PowerTalk is Apple’s collaborative technology. 

• Some with DigiSign and AppleMail and PowerShare, but many more 
are needed. 

• Growing third-party support, including some PowerTalk freebies on 
the 7.5.5 CD-ROM. 

• Word on the street is favorable, but guarded. Use PowerTalk care- 
fully— but know it will get better and its use will be more widespread. 

Apple Guide 

• Apple borne and bred. 

• Yes, it is part of Apple’s Active Assistance technology that will make a 
big impact with System 8.0 and the New kinder. 

• No Apple competition. 

• Some Guide files already provided; more promised. 

• Third-party Guide files promised from a number of vendors. 

• Apple Guide is hot, hot, hot says the street. Use it with confidence. Use 
Guide Maker to make your own Guides (see appendix A). 

Now, having tried this System 7.5.5 Tool evaluation methodology, try it with 
other 7.5.5 features and with third-party products that you will use with 
7.5.5, to determine if you can intuit their usefulness to you and the danger 
of them becoming an albatross later. 

Installation Troubleshooting 

Now that you have analyzed which parts of 7.5.5 you will need, you should 
read all of the Apple caveats in the upgrade kit before installing System 7.5.5. 
However, 1 know that most of you didn’t or won’t. With that in mind, here’s 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 405 

a summary that you can zip through before, during, and after installation to 
minimize problems. These steps are especially important in networked 

Manager’s Tip: If you are a Macintosh manager, the follow- 
0 ing checklist assumes that you have already tested System 
7.5.5 and all important applications and utilities on a sepa- 
rate (non-networked) Macintosh that is representative of 
those other Macintosh computer on your local area network 

Taking the following steps will minimize System 7.5.5 installation problems 
on individual Macintosh computers and for Macintosh computers on a LAN: 

1 . Make sure that CPUs slated for the 7.5.5 upgrade have at least 4 MB of 
RAM for a minimum (no PowerTalk and no QuickDraw GX) installa- 
tion. Install 8 MB if you will use PowerTalk and QuickDraw GX. 

Double these amounts for Power Macintosh computers and double 
them again if you expect to really use those computers. 

2. Ensure that network devices and services are System 7.5.5 and (if you 
have Ethernet) AppleTalk Phase 2 compatible. 

3. Buy and install required upgrades for important software. 

4 . Set up any servers with the Installer software from the 7.5.5 upgrade 

5 . Install System 7.5.5 LaserWriter drivers (and/or QuickDraw GX) on all 
machines, even if the upgrade will take more than a day, (if you have a 
lot of Macs to upgrade, it will take you more than a day!) so that you 
will not have a mixed network of drivers. 

6. Eree-up at least 8 MB of hard disk space to install the new system on 
each Macintosh. 

7 . Make sure that each hard disk has free space that is twice the size of 
the System folder— especially if you plan to install via the network. 

8. Double check that your target Macintosh drives do not have more than 
one System folder. If they do, remove any extras. 

406 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

9. Remove file and disk protection from all the hard disks that are slated 
to be upgraded on the LAN. 

10. Backup all Macintosh users’ hard disks. 

1 1 . Run the Safe Install Utility on each Macintosh computer. 

12. Allow Safe Install to perform recommended actions, such as moving 
unknown and incompatible files from the System Folder and placing 
them in the May Not Work With System 7.5.5 folder. 

1 3. Turn off virus checkers for each Macintosh that is to be upgraded. 

1 4. Restart each Macintosh after you have run the Safe Install Utility. 

1 5. Run the Installer on each Macintosh computer. 

1 6. Test all of the software that the Safe Install Utility does not recognize. 

Different Problems Deserve 
Different Solutions 

Although the Macintosh is a complicated computer (even by today’s main- 
frame standards) and System 7.5.5 is its most complicated piece of software, 
the kinds of things that can go wrong can be anticipated in a fairly straight- 
forward manner. Your task as a Macintosh user or a Macintosh manager is to 
put yourself in the best position to meet these anticipated problems head-on 
(and perhaps even prevent them from happening). If you have read this 
book closely up until now, and have done the same with Apple’s printed and 
online documentation, then you’re ready to earn your wings as a high-flying 
System 7.5.5 troubleshooter. 

How Do You Begin? 

The first place you should start with any Macintosh System 7.5.5 problem is 
to fully describe the symptoms. Carefully observe the anomalous behavior 
you are witnessing and the exact conditions surrounding the anomaly. 

Take notes about everything you observe the Macintosh doing (or refusing 
to do) and note the application software that is running, the physical 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 407 

attributes of the Macintosh (RAM, disk space, network connections, non- 
Apple INITs and cdevs that you have installed, and so on), and any other 
information that you may think is relevant. 

Even if you find this recording process tedious and annoying, DO IT. You 
can never be a good System 7.5.5 troubleshooter without good evidence 
from which to work. Anecdotal evidence just doesn’t cut it. Remember, you 
are trying to gather enough different information about the problem(s) 
observed so that solutions can be found. 

Hardware and Software Problem Triage: 

Where Does It Hurt? 

The reason that you need to collect this information is that you’ll eventually 
want to perform the first level of triage on any System 7.5.5 problem: 
diagnosing whether the problem is a software or a hardware error or 
malfunction. Other than the obvious cases where printers, hard disks, or 
keyboards are broken (and thus inoperative), many hardware errors and 
problems do too good a job of masquerading as software problems, and vice 
versa. Being as careful and precise as possible when recording information 
about the original malfunction will help to sort out the problem(s). 

In addition, if you call 1-800-SOS-APPL or other vendor help lines, you will 
need to be very specific about what went wrong and when it went wrong. 
Taking notes is assuredly the way to go. 

Most hardware problems will be easy to spot because they will incapacitate a 
device that you are using. If an internal or external disk drive will not appear 
on the desktop when you startup your System 7.5.5 Macintosh, for example, 
the first symptom to eliminate is the hardware itself. 

Is the SCSI cable properly connected and terminated? Is the SCSI ID number 
for the device set appropriately? Is the device getting power? Are there any 
breaks in the connecting cable? If none of these conditions can be found, 
then you have eliminated all of the obvious failures that could prevent a disk 
drive from appearing on the desktop. 

408 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

You should use the same kind of process to deal with other hardware errors 
and problems. You should aim to diagnose a problem with enough precision 
that you can give a repair technician sufficient information to make an 
intelligent start on the repair process. 

When you have eliminated the possibility of faulty hardware, you can be 
certain that your problems lie with some software fault. Typically, problems 
in System 7.5.5 are RAM or virtual-memory based (you either don’t have 
enough of one or the other for a particular application) or those problems 
that are nebulous, and thus very hard to determine (either their cause or 
their remedy). 

While it is beyond the scope of this book to try to teach you to troubleshoot 
all of your applications, you do need to grasp some basics about trouble- 
shooting System 7.5.5-problems (problems directly related to the way 7.5.5 
does things). 

Software Boo-Boos and 
Their Tell-Tale Errors 

As with previous versions of the System software. System 7.5.5 can generate 
a plethora of warning and error dialog boxes. Many of these are harmless 
and can be ignored (or at least you can click the OK box in the dialog box 
with impunity), but an entire class of System errors, led by the now infa- 
mous Type 1 (see figure 9-1), Type 3, Type 20 and similar errors almost 
always result in the machine killing at least the open application (and with it 
all your unsaved data), and sometimes forcing you to restart. 

The application “Safe Install Utility” has 
unenpectedly quit, because an error of 
type 1 occurred. 

[[ OK 


Figure 9- 1 Type 1 Error dialog box 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 409 

When the System fails completely with a fatal error (one that cannot be 
recovered from by the tricks discussed in a moment), what do you do next? 
You need to get your machine back up so that you can go through the 
arduous process of removing the offending extensions, control panels, 
corrupted applications, or bad System files that may be the cause. Of course, 
as you will discover on your own with many of these errors, there often isn’t 
any discernible cause. 

Those Type One Bad Boys 

With the possible exception of a root canal, child birth, or the pain felt by 
Cubs fans every year, there are few things in the life of a Macintosh user 
more frustrating than a Type 1 error under System 7.5.5. Unfortunately, the 
warning dialog box is worthless— merely telling you that a Type 1 error has 
occurred and giving you the opportunity to quit the application in which the 
error has occurred (if it hasn’t quit on its own). In fact, most of the applica- 
tion “Type” errors dialog boxes you receive are mere flags enabling you 
(with about a 50/50 probability of success) to exit the application and go 
back to the Finder without crashing your Macintosh. 

According to Apple, Type 1 errors are “bus errors,” (for whatever that’s 
worth to most of us— nothing), which means that some unknown condition 
has cropped-up in an application (including, occasionally, in the Finder) 
indicating that it is not “playing fair.” In essence, the application found the 
contents of a memory address it was using to be nonsensical. Apple calls 
such applications “run-aways” when these conditions occur, but regardless 
of the terminology, the question remains: what do you do when the Type 1 
problem strikes? 

The answer, unfortunately, is not much. Even if you have installed Casady 
and Greene’s Crash Barrier and Conflict Catcher II products as advised in 
chapter 7, the best outcome you can hope for when you get a Type 1 error is 
that you will be able to safely quit the application in distress and go back to 
the Finder. Occasionally, Crash Barrier will be able to get you back into the 
application that produced the Type 1 error, at least long enough to save 

Mac Basics 

Type 1 dialogs are 
actually of two 
types, one occurs 
with the application 
still running and it 
tells you a Type 1 
error has occurred 
and gives you the 
chance to hit the 
Quit button and 
nothing more. The 
other type occurs 
after the application 
has truly died. It 
does a QuickDraw 
redraw of the 
screen and 
removes the 
applications menu 
bar and then tells 
you that a Type 1 
error has occurred 
and all you can do 
is hit the QK button. 

410 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

your files and quit normally. Conflict Catcher II also makes it easier to 
remove conflicting extensions and control panels that may have caused the 
error in the first place. 

Once you are back to the Finder, restart your Mac (you should always restart 
your Macintosh after a Type 1 error). If you continue to get the error with a 
specific application, you should check with the vendor to see if they have a 
more recent and more 7.5.5-compatible version of their software. If not, you 
may want to consider switching to a competing application to see if you can 
avoid the problem. 

Force Quit 

If you are not running Crash Barrier and you get a Type 1 error dialog box, 
click the OK button in order to return to the Finder. If clicking the OK 
button leaves your machine hanging and refusing to budge, then you can try 
the Force Quit command (which is invoked by typing K -Option-Escape on 
most Macs). 

This should produce a dialog box that asks you if you want to force the 
application to quit. If you click the OK button, the System will attempt to 
close the application properly and take you back to the Finder. 

In many cases, however, using the Force Quit command is a waste of time, 
as your Macintosh will likely be frozen from that point on— to which your 
only response is to turn it off and back on, or hit the programmer’s switch to 
restart it (NOTE: make sure that none of the hard disk lights are on when 
you do this. Restarting your Macintosh while a connected hard disk is 
seeking, reading, or writing, will often corrupt the disk so that it CANNOT 

If you Mac lacks a programmer and/or restart switch (many do)— like the new 
500 series of PowerBooks— then you can install the software extension called 
Programmer Key, which allows you to restart by hitting Control- K -Power 
Key (nice and obtuse, right?). Programmer Key is provided on the System 
7.5.5 installation disks and CD. 

Eorce Quit is worth a try, though, if your Macintosh freezes following a Type 
1 error episode and you haven’t installed Crash Barrier. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 41 1 

MacsBug and the ROM Monitor 

If you have installed the Macintosh system debugger MacsBug (available 
from APDA or on most Apple Developer’s CD-ROMs), and your Macintosh 
freezes after taking the actions above (or for any reason), you will be thrown 
into a scary-looking screen full of hexadecimal numbers and a basic com- 
mand line interface. Hitting the programmer’s reset switch will also throw 
you into MacsBug. 

Don’t be alarmed, however. Type the command HELP MISC and hit a return. 
You will get a scrolling list of commands that you can issue to try to get you 
out of the predicament. Particularly useful are EA (end application), RS 
(restart application), and RB (reboot the Macintosh). Try them in roughly 
this order to break the deathgrip on your Macintosh. It’s also a good idea to 
peruse the MacsBug ReadMe files ahead of time so you know what to expect. 

If you do not have MacsBug installed and hit the programmer’s reset switch, 
you will pop into an odd dialog box with no dialog and only a greater than 
sign (>) as a prompt. This is the Macintosh computer’s ROM Monitor, from 
there you can try to restart the finder by typing G finder and hitting the 
Return key. Or you can try to restart the Mac by typing RS and hitting the 
Return key. If all else fails, hit the Restart switch (if you don’t have one, you 
will need to cycle the power switch or use the Control- K -Power key combo 
I mentioned previously) and start your error diagnosis. 

If you cannot restart your Mac with the Restart switch, Power switch, or the 
Control- K -Power key combo, then you may have a hardware fault. Leave 
things alone and give Apple a call at 1-800-SOS-APPL. If you have a 
PowerBook, one expedient to try for restarting is to disconnect the power 
supply and then remove the battery or batteries. That should shut the 
machine down. Reinstall the batteries and the power supply and then 

Adding RAM as a Cure 

Another avenue to explore if you get chronic Type 1 errors is to add memory 
(RAM SIMMs) to your machine and to acquire and use Connectix’s wonder- 
ful RAM Doubler extension. This will help— sometimes. Predicting those 

412 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

times, however, is just about impossible. Welcome to the real world of 
System errors. Fortunately, thanks to the bug fixes and memory management 
improvements in System 7.5.5, 1 am getting only about 10% of the Type 1 
Errors I got under System 7.1.1. 

Fixing Other Errors 

Besides the dreaded Type 1 errors, you will see lots of other Type X errors 
under System 7.5.5, where X is some seemingly arbitrary number. You can 
reference these numbers in Apple’s technical documentation, but don’t 
expect great insights. 

For most Macintosh managers and users, it doesn’t help one bit to know that 
a Type 2 error has occurred, or that a Type 2 error is an address error, or 
that an address error is caused typically by runaway software. None of these 
scintillating facts will help you fix the immediate problem, nor find a more 
permanent solution down the road. 

Systematic Error Debugging 

In short, you are never supposed to see these error dialog boxes. Apple put 
them in as a last line of defense against a total software blowout. But if you 
get them under System 7.5.5, you’ll need to look beyond them to some basic 
configuration problems you may be experiencing. If you continue to get 
these System errors, you should: 

• Check how much RAM you have installed and see how much currently 
is in use (use the About This Macintosh command in the Apple menu). 

• Consider adding RAM if you are down to the last 5 12K of free bytes. 

• Check to see if it’s the same applications that repeatedly cause prob- 
lems. If so, try reloading them from their original disks. Your hard disk 
versions may have been corrupted during the 7.5.5-upgrade process. 

• Make sure that all of your SCSI, ADB, and LocalTalk connections are 
tight. Sometimes loose cables cause intermittent software faults. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 413 

• Try using competing software for the stuff that causes you fits. If the 
offender is the Finder, then try reinstalling it using the original 7.5.5 
disks or CD-ROM. 

• When all else fails during a System error and you cannot get control of 
your machine, you can try to reload the Finder with the Force Quit 
command, or you can hit the programmer’s switch (if your Mac has 
one, or restart the Mac using the Control- K -Power key combo) and 
open the ROM Monitor dialog box. This box will have a greater than 
sign (>) sitting in the upper left hand corner. Type G finder. If by 
some miracle you get back to the Finder, then close everything down 
and restart. 

• If G Finder doesn’t work, try RS and hit the Return key to restart the 
Mac. Otherwise, hit the reset or power switch and fire everything up 

• Install Crash Barrier and MacsBug so that at least your arsenal 
against System errors is better than Apple’s Force Quit and G Finder 

• The next time that your Mac has the gall to report to you via a Error 
dialog box that you’ve a “Type 81 Error— Bad Opcode” you might 
consider calling Apple’s 7.5.5 telephone support line (800-SOS-APPL) 
and asking them just what such an error really is and how you fix it 
and keep it from happening again. 

• If all else fails and you keep getting chronic System errors, you can try 
the old “Crabb System Error Expedient”— pull out the Installer and 
reinstall 7.5.5. Run the reinstalled 7.5.5 Macintosh with all extensions 
and control panels TURNED OEE. Sometimes this helps. You may find 
by adding startup documents gradually, that you will eventually isolate 
the chronic System error as only occurring when you use your hot new 
shareware control panel, SuperDuperRAMWaster. If it does, then 
eighty-six the offending control panel. 

• If all of these remedies fail you, then it’s time for Plan B: call someone 
who knows more about the Mac than you and see if she can help. If 
you have a local Mac guru, call her. If your user group has a Mac help 

Mac Basics 

The Power key is 
located in the upper 
right corner of the 
keyboard. It has a 
triangle on it. On 
some Macs, you 
can turn on the Mac 
by pushing this key. 

414 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

line, call it. And if someone else you know has experienced the same 
problems, call him and see if you can figure out the commonalties that 
are causing you grief. 

• Whatever you do, though, please DON’T CALL ME! I have enough Type 
X errors to deal with already! 

If all of this doesn’t help, then you’re going to have to learn to live with the 
errors, or you’re going to have to decide if you can stand to live with a 
Macintosh any longer. 

Starting Up When the System Fails 

Sometimes, you will encounter serious System 7.5.5 problems such that your 
machine will no longer startup. Turning on the power will either result in 
the machine hanging when it hits the ToolBox ROM’s “Welcome to 
Macintosh” opening message window or the machine will be so confused 
that it can’t find the startup hard disk, and will flash a blinking “no disk” icon 
(an icon of a floppy diskette with an “X” drawn through it). 

When this happens, you have two choices: 

1 . Go away and cry for an hour. Then come back and get to work restor- 
ing things. 

2. Repeatedly smash your first on the table (careful to avoid the keyboard, 
mouse, and anything sharp) while cursing, “why didn’t I buy a PC!” 

Creating and Using a System 7.5.5 Boot Disk 

After you have gotten ail of that out of your system (doesn’t that feel better 
now?), it’s time to get the gremlins out of your System 7.5.5 Macintosh 
computers. For that you will need to create a floppy disk from which to boot 
your machine (since it can’t find the hard disk). Of course, you will need to 
do this before your machine exhibits the problem. 

You can create a System 7.5.5 minimal system (without printing or 
filesharing facilities) on a single 1.44 MB floppy disk (a SuperDrive-compat- 
ible disk) by using the 7.5.5 Installer. Or you can use your copy of the Disk 
Tools disk that comes with System 7.5.5. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 415 

Once you have successfully rebooted the failed Macintosh with the floppy 
disk, you will need to start checking and fixing any flies that are currently 
not compus mentis. To do that, you will need Disk First Aid to check the 
overall disk status and a third-party program, such as Symantec’s Norton 
Utilities for Macintosh 3.2, that enables you check the continuity and status 
of individual files and that can restore individual files that may be damaged. 
Apple’s own Disk First Aid cannot do this. Norton Utilities for Macintosh 3.2 
works well for this task. 

Protection and Prevention are 
Better than Troubleshooting 

While it’s essential to master the strategies and techniques of troubleshoot- 
ing as outlined previously, it’s even more important to protect yourself 
against System 7.5.5-bome Macintosh problems in the first place. And those 
problems come down to the issues of security, viruses, hardware protection 
and repair, and backups. 

Security Issues 

On the face of it. System 7.5.5 is no more “insecure” than System 7.x. But 
there’s more to System 7.5.5 than its interface— as you have learned by 
reading this book. The fact is that while System 7.5.5 continues System 7.x’s 
lack of any encryption, password, or logon interface, it has opened the doors 
to possible security breaches for your Macintosh network and its users. 

Those security breaches are the same things that System 7.5.5 provides as 
new features: PowerTalk, AppleScript, and the continuation of System 7.x’s 
file aliasing, file sharing. Publish and Subscribe, and program linking. Each 
of these features makes it easier for someone down the line on your network 
to accidentally, or with real malice, do “bad stuff” to any individual 
Macintosh on that network. 

Naturally, I am not arguing that you shouldn’t use these new features, just 
that you educate yourself on their potential abuses and security weaknesses. 

416 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

As such, learning to understand the limited security provisions that are 
provided with System 7.5.5 is the place to start. 

The mechanics for using the user and group access methods for file sharing 
and PowerTalk catalogs were covered in chapter 6, as well as the general 
usage parameters for aliasing, Publish and Subscribe, and program linking. 
That’s where you should start in your education process. 

7.5.5 Security Holes 

But even with all of that, you must realize that System 7.5.5, and most 
Macintosh networks in general, are notoriously unsecure computing envi- 
ronments. If you have sensitive data, don’t put it on a network server of any 
kind unless it is absolutely imperative. You may need to protect it with a 
third-party encryption or access program, or roll one of your own. Even with 
these aids, however, you can expect that your Macintosh computers will be 
full of security holes under System 7.5.5. Apple has never made any claims 
otherwise. System 7.5.5 is not a closed environment, indeed it fosters 
extensions. Such openness makes its limited security features quite weak. 


As with any computer operating system. System 7.5.5 is as vulnerable to 
uninvited guests and pests as any. Many of these pests come in the form of 
viruses or Trojan Horses that are unwanted programs that “infect” your 
Macintosh computers much the same as a biological virus infects a living 
body and lives off it as a parasite. 

Although it’s too early to tell, many of the viruses that infected System 7.x 
Macintosh computers also have made the jump to System 7.5.5 machines. 
That means that you will need to be as vigilant about preventing these 
vermin from destroying data and applications as you were with System 7.x. 
Viruses can get into your system from just about every possible external 
source, even from shrink-wrapped commercial software. You can try to cut 
down the velocity of their initial contact and ultimate spread by instituting 
some sane antiviral policies: 

• Never let a disk from the “outside” onto one of your networked 
machines until it has been checked with an antivirus program and 
deloused as necessary. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 417 

• Educate yourself to expect viruses in BBS and externally-collected 
shareware and public domain software. 

• Periodically delouse all your Macintosh computers even if they don’t 
show signs of an active virus. 

• Update your antiviral software often to take on new virus threats. 

• Even freeware antiviruses like GateKeeper, GateKeeper Aid, and 
Disinfectant are updated regularly. Make sure you check your source 
for these (online services, user group disks, or via the Internet) 
regularly and keep them current! 

If you are currently using a shareware or commercial antiviral or virus 
detection program, you will definitely want to contact the author or vendor 
about obtaining System 7.5.5-compatible versions (especially since many of 
the shareware products are System extensions or control panels that may be 
incompatible with System 7.5.5). 

Of course, no single product can protect your System 7.5.5 computers from 
all viruses or Trojan Horses. You may want to use more than one product to 
ensure enough overlapping coverage. When you do this, though, make sure 
that one antivirus program doesn’t conflict with another one. Try to buy or 
obtain antiviral programs that include automatic free or low-cost updates 
that try to keep up with all the idiots out there who waste their time and 
ours by writing viruses. 

Avoiding Data Loss 

You should be doing everything you can to physically and logically protect 
your Macintosh equipment investment. Use power protection devices for all 
of your Macintosh computers and their networks. You also should enforce 
strict data backup strategies. Even with these plans, however, you will 
eventually lose some data that will need to be recreated. Part of a successful 
data loss prevention strategy under System 7.5.5 is to educate yourself on 
how losses occur in the first place. 

418 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Data losses usually happen for one or more of the following reasons: 

• Macintosh computers fail. Backups and replacement machines will 
usually suffice to get around this problem. 

• Hard or floppy disks fail. Backup disks eliminate the severe results of 
this failure. 

• Networks fail. Backups can help here too, but only if the data being 
transmitted over the network exists on the sending or receiving 
Macintosh as a disk file. Real time data, like that generated by labora- 
tory instruments connected to a Macintosh network, may be lost 
forever if the network connection fails. 

• People fail. People are the biggest reason for data loss. If you trash the 
wrong file, or lose a critical floppy disk, or make it easy for your 
Macintosh to be stolen, vandalized, or infected with a virus you’ll again 
need good backups to bail you out. 

Regardless of the direct cause of the data loss, the only real remedy is a 
reliable set of backup flies to replace the data that has been zapped. Other 
devices and strategies, however, can help minimize these losses. The transi- 
tion to System 7.5.5 marks a good time to remind yourself just exactly what 
these devices and strategies are. The most important ones will be covered in 
the following sections. 

Uninterruptible Power Supplies 
and Voltage Regulators 

One place to help prevent the loss of data is with your Macintosh and your 
network’s power supply. Plain old electricity is one of those environmental 
issues that we can easily control, and so we often ignore it or take it for 
granted. That can be a serious mistake. Take the time now— during your 
initial push to System 7.5.5— to get your power systems in order. 

At the least, you should protect every Macintosh in your installation 
with a high clamping voltage, ultra-fast surge protector. A better level 
of protection would be to connect these machines and their local peripher- 
als to a voltage regulator (which works sort of like a surge protector on 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 419 

Every network routing device, server, and network backup device should be 
minimally protected at a much greater level with an online uninterruptible 
power supply (UPS) that provides both superior power filtration and battery 
backup. You then can safely power these units down in the event of a 
serious power outage or brownout. 

Keep Your Equipment Clean Daily 

Keeping your electricity “clean” is only part of the troubleshooting preven- 
tion that you should practice with your Macintosh computers and System 
7.5.5. Here’s the hardware checklist to follow each day. 

• Wipe down the equipment you are responsible for with a slightly-moist 
soft cloth (don’t use harsh cleaners or ammonia-based products— stick 
with plain old tap water). Pay careful attention to screens and key- 
boards. Also make sure that the work tables or desks that the equip- 
ment sits on are wiped down. 

• Make sure that all machine ventilation slots are open. Don’t block any 
of these or you will cook the machine’s innards over time. 

• Use a screen saver, like Pyro, After Dark, Protector Shark, or Moire if 
you intend to leave your machines on unattended. Even if you only 
leave your computers on during the workday, screen savers will live up 
to their name. 

• Turn off all laser printers and monitors. Keep hard disks turned on 
(assuming that are connected to safe, clean power), since on-off 
transients cause disks more trouble than constant spinning. Turn off all 
other peripheral devices, except those that keep network services up 
(like modems, gateways, bridges, fax modems, and so on). 

• Cover the equipment with plastic dust covers if you have them. 

• Lock-up all backup disks or cartridges before leaving the office. Make 
sure than any alarm systems (fire, burglar, smoke, and so forth) are on. 

• Follow the maintenance advice suggested in the manuals that came 
with your equipment. 

420 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

This simple list seems so obvious that you’re probably asking yourself, “why 
is Don bothering with this stuff?” Because bitter experience has taught me to 
respect the basics, that’s why. If you spend a couple of minutes each day 
cleaning your equipment it will last longer and you’ll get to run System 8.0 
on your Macintosh long before it croaks. 

Weekly and Monthly Hardware Maintenance 

In addition to daily cleaning, you also should establish a schedule for weekly 
and monthly cleaning and maintenance: 

• Vacuum the keyboards. Buy and use one of those funky little keyboard 
vacuums that you have seen advertised in the DAMARK, DAK, COMB, 
and Inmac catalogs. They work and they will keep the crud out of the 

• Clean the mice. Buy and use a mouse cleaning kit from a reliable 
vendor like Curtis. Usually, you take the mouse apart and squirt some 
cleaning fluid (usually some kind of alcohol) on a Velcro-covered ball 
that you insert where the mouse ball usually lives. You then roll the 
thing around on the supplied Velcro-covered mat and the combination 
of the scratchy ball and the cleaning fluid will scour the mechanical 
rollers inside the mouse. 

The same thing will work with most trackballs. If you have an optical 
mouse, however, aside from cleaning the LED lens you should never 
try any other type of cleaning on them. Optical mice aren’t meant to be 
“user-serviced” and they don’t have any mechanical parts in them that 
need to be cleaned. 

If you are using Apple mice or most third-party mechanical mice and 
trackballs, they will benefit greatly by regularly cleaning. Using a 
mousepad (which you must use with an optical mouse, of course, 
since they “read” the grid on the pad to generate the cursor’s position- 
ing coordinates) will not keep your mice from getting dirty, but it will 
cut down on the severity of the problem. 

• Clean floppy disk drives. Buy a cleaning kit from Curtis, Kensington, 
or Sony and follow the instructions carefully. Usually, it involves taking 
a special cleaning disk and loading it up with cleaning fluid, inserting it 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 421 

into the disk drive, and then running some special software utility 
program that comes with the kit. After approximately 10-15 minutes 
the cleaning job should be finished. 

Remember to wait at least 30 minutes after using one of these kits 
before using that floppy drive again (so the cleaning fluid can dry 
completely). Remember to clean all of your floppy drives, both internal 
and external. 

• Check all UPSes, voltage regulators, and surge suppressors. Most of 
these have special warning lights to tell you if their protection circuitry 
(their varistors) have been cooked. 

• Open all laser printers and shake the toner cartridges. This ensures 
that the toner stays evenly distributed and that you get maximum life 
from a cartridge. Take the opportunity to vacuum out the printer if 
there is paper dust or spilled toner inside. Make sure that you follow 
the complete instructions for cleaning (don’t forget the delicate 
Corona wire) and maintenance directions for your printer each time 
you change a toner cartridge. You will catch more than 90 percent of 
all impending laser printer problems this way. 

• Clean out impact printers. Vacuum paper dust and ribbon residue. 
Change nylon ribbon cartridges before they start producing seriously 
reduced images. Perform any scheduled maintenance (such as oiling 
spindles or tractor-feed mechanisms) that the printer vendor recom- 

Clean print heads using special impact printer cleaning pads, available 
from most typing supply houses. IBM, Xerox, Olivetti, and other 
electronic typewriter vendors make them. They work by roiling them 
into your printer and then typing repeatedly on them with each key to 
clean all the impact pins or the characters on the daisy wheel, spin 
wheel, or print ball. 

• Clean ink jet printers. Clean out the printing nozzles and vacuum out 
paper dust. Change old ink cartridges that haven’t been used in some 
time— they may have congealed. 

422 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Clean hard disk filters. After you have powered-down hard disks (also 
optical disks, tape drives, CD-ROM drives, WORM drives, and so on), 
remove any washable filters and clean them thoroughly. Replace any 
damaged filters or those filters that are made to be tossed. 

• Check network cabling and connections. Check for loose connections 
and retighten. Check for broken or damaged cables and replace. Don’t 
forget to check all electrical connections while you are checking 
network cabling. 

• Spot check your data backups. Load a backup tape or disk and see if 
you can read the directory. Make sure that you try this with both your 
on-site and off-site backups. 

You can, if you want, extend this list with more maintenance tasks, or you 
can condense it to fit your needs. The important point is that you need a 
maintenance policy even if you are using only one machine, and you should 
be a bit compulsive about sticking with it. 

Clock Battery Replacement 

I easily could have included clock battery replacement in one of my mainte- 
nance checklists above. However, I didn’t want it to get lost in the sauce, 
because it warrants a separate discussion. Every Macintosh has a battery 
(usually alkaline or lithium) that backs up the machine’s parameter RAM 
(PRAM) which was discussed in chapter 7, “Improving Your Memory.” The 
reason for this battery backup is quite simple: unless the Macintosh is 
powered up, the PRAM doesn’t get any power. 

System 7.5.5 can be a very inhospitable place if you have to change the 
factory default PRAM settings (such as mouse tracking speed and double- 
click recognition) every time you turn the thing on because your PRAM 
backup battery has failed. Apple usually calls its batteries “clock batteries,” 
because they also enable the internal clock to keep ticking when you shut 
the machine down— but the real point of the backup battery is PRAM, not 
just the internal clock. 

Your Macintosh backup battery can be found behind a user-serviceable door 
that you can open in order to replace it (like the Macintosh Classic), in a 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 423 

carrier on the motherboard which you can assess (but that Apple considers a 
dealer-serviceable item only), or soldered to the motherboard, where you 
cannot change it directly (and is also considered dealer-serviceable only). If 
you have a user-serviceable battery, all you need to do is remove the thing 
while the Macintosh is powered on (so as not to zap PRAM), and replace it 
with the same battery type. 

If you have a battery that is soldered to the motherboard or placed in a 
carrier there, you’re best served by calling your local Apple dealer and 
making arrangements for them to come out and replace all of your 
Macintosh backup batteries at once. 

In any case, expect to get 3-5 years from a backup battery under normal 

Fixing Broken Hardware — The 
Uitimate inTroubieshooting 

No matter how diligent you are, and no matter how good your daily, weekly, 
and monthly maintenance programs are, you will eventually have to deal 
with broken equipment. Getting it repaired, though, should be more than 
just a matter of calling your Apple dealer. If you have planned carefully, you 
may not need to expend all the time and money on repairs that you may 

Manager’s Tip You should keep your plans in two gen- 
« eral areas: disaster recovery and regular repair mainte- 
^ nance. With any luck, you will never have to use the first 
set of plans, and the second will only come into play as 

I won’t try to kid you about disaster planning and recovery by 
glossing over it here. Entire multi-volume books have been 
written on the subject by industry experts such as James Martin 


424 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


and Donn Parker. Rather, do what I have done and consult the 
experts. Hire a disaster planning and recovery consultant and 
have them help you formulate a plan for dealing with real disas- 
ters: earthquakes, fire, wind damage, water damage, major 
thefts, and so forth. 

This sort of planning needs to cover a lot more than just your 
Macintosh physical plant, of course, so don’t try to segment 
options. Spend the money now on creating and updating your 
disaster plans and on buying the backup equipment and leasing 
the temporary office space you will need to get your Macintosh 
operations backup and running. End of sermon. 

Basic Repair Strategies 

Getting back to the easier side of equipment repair, if you haven’t already, 
you may want to consider buying an AppleCare extended warranty for any 
Apple equipment that you own. AppleCare extends the basic Apple one year 
parts and labor warranty on an annual basis (you pay for AppleCare each 
year). For devices that rely heavily on mechanical components, such as 
printers (especially laser printers, which are also expensive), AppleCare can 
be a good deal. Unless you can afford to foot major printer repair bills (and 
take the risk associated with them), take a careful look at your Apple dealer’s 
AppleCare pricing. 

For other Apple components, especially for the computers themselves, 
AppleCare is less of a good deal, since those components tend to fail much 
less often. In fact, most electronics will fail during the first 96 hours of 
continuous operation (due to bad soldering or cracked circuit boards or bad 
power supplies), so buying an AppleCare policy for them may not make 
sense. If you don’t like the idea of “self-insuring” for repairs, though, 
AppleCare offers a way of getting your yearly maintenance costs out of the 
ether and into hard numbers. Sometimes annual budgeting goes more 
smoothly when this is the case. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 425 

For your non-Apple equipment, you also can find dealers willing to cover 
such equipment with annual maintenance agreements (make sure that they 
kick-in after the standard warranty has expired), but they are less likely to be 
comprehensive and are more costly than AppleCare. You’ll need to read 
those contracts carefully and ask to have any exclusions explained to you in 
detail. Remember that every maintenance exclusion may ultimately cost you 

If you do have to make arrangements for equipment repair, try to work out 
those deals ahead of time (even if you don’t buy maintenance contracts from 
your dealers). You often can get preferred pricing and guaranteed on-site 
service if you are willing to sign an agreement to have all of your Macintosh 
computers and Macintosh-related equipment serviced by the same dealer. 
Expect discounts over piece-work repairs to average 10 to 15 percent on 
such contracts. 

Repair Checklist for Your Service Providers 

If you do have broken equipment in for repair, insist on the following from 
your service provider: 

• A promised completion date, including the return of your equipment 
to your location. 

• A solid price estimate that cannot be exceeded without your approval. 

• Replacement of broken parts with Apple parts or with recognized 
industry equivalents of equal or greater reliability. 

• Return of all broken or replaced parts with a full explanation of the 
problems. This will help you isolate use and environmental problems 
and keep them from recurring. 


Anyone who doesn’t have a serious data backup strategy already in place 
deserves their fate: slow agony as the data is recreated. But having said that, 

I know how backup strategies really work. You don’t really formulate one 
until it’s too late and you have been burned. 

426 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

The same thing almost happened to me five years ago when my computer 
labs and departmental offices suffered a major theft (naturally, over the 
Christmas holidays). One of the offices hit was mine and with that hit I lost 
both my backup disks and originals. Only my networked backups and off-site 
backup disks saved me from the agony of lost data. 

Even if you don’t buy a third-party backup program (which you should!), 
you can use System 7.5.5 PowerTalk catalogs, file sharing, file organization, 
AppleScript, and aliasing features to make it easier to save backup copies of 
important data to some type of removable media or to Macintosh computers 
located far away from your physical location. Still, even those 7.5.5 improve- 
ments can’t take the place of a good third-party backup program used every 
day with removable media that can itself be duplicated and stored off-site. 

The backup bottom line is really no different with System 7.5.5 than it was 
with System 7.x: 

• Buy a full-featured backup program. Use Dantz’s Retrospect because 
it’s the best. It offers all the bells and whistles; it is easy to use and 
administer; and it can be setup to do automatic unattended backups. 

• Read the manuals carefully and put in place a backup plan for you and 
your Macintosh users. If you are a Macintosh manager, you may need 
to add network file server backups to the duties of your LAN manager 
or file server administrator. 

• Insist on daily file server backups. If you are a Macintosh manager, 
request that your users try to do the same with their most critical local 
data. Horror stories about lost data may help your strategy. 

• Check backup files as a regular part of your backup strategy. Backups 
aren’t worth doodly-squat if your Macintosh can’t restore them follow- 
ing an “event” requiring their use. 

• Review this whole backup shebang about every six months and adapt it 
to the changing needs of your Macintosh installation. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 427 

Nobody Knows the 
Troubles I’ve Seen 

Although your basic troubleshooting strategy should revolve around how 
System 7.5.5 “thinks” (so that you can then diagnose individual problems 
better), you also need to know some basic “hint and tips” to get started with 
when troubleshooting a new System 7.5.5 installation. Many of the problems 
that you may encounter with System 7.5.5 are related to odd incompatibili- 
ties or anomalies with your installation. The following tips suggest how to 
deal with those anomalies and how to avoid them. The tips have been 
organized according to how often you may encounter the problem the tip 
addresses. Of course, this list is not exhaustive. You should check with the 
sources of System 7.5.5 information that were mentioned in chapter 8, 
“Management Strategies for System 7.5.5,” for help in finding more hints and 
tips. In addition, if you want to come at the problem from a systemic “hint 
and tip” point of view, consider buying a copy of Lisa Lee’s excellent book, 
MacWEEK Guide to Repairing and Upgrading Your Mac (Hayden, 1995). 

The System 3.0 Update 

System Update 3.0 is a set of software enhancements that improves the 
performance and reliability of Macintosh computers running system software 
version 7.1, 7.1.1 (System 7 Pro), or 7.1.2 (for Power Macintosh). When you 
upgrade your system software from any of these versions to 7.5.5, you 
automatically get the enhancements provided in System Update 3.0. Don’t 
run the System Update 3.0 on any Macintosh you have upgraded to 
System 7.5.5! 

PowerBook Duo 210 and 230 
Battery Usage Problems 

When System 7.5.5 is installed, Macintosh PowerBook Duo 210 and 230 
models can use Type II batteries. Don’t use Type III batteries in these 
models without first installing 7.5.5. 

Mac Masters 

If you run the 
System Update 3.0 
on a machine 
already updated to 
System 7.5.5, you 
are doing two dumb 

1 . Wasting your 
time, since 7.5.5 
already includes all 
the changes in the 
3.0 update and 

2. Potentially 
creating a bad 
situation by 
installing older 
versions of key 
7.5.5 System 
resources or by 
munging the 
System suitcase. 

So, what does this 
tell us about the 
System Update 
3.0? Don’t install it! 

428 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

PowerBook 200 and 500 Series 
Printing Probiems 

If you have trouble printing to a serial printer that is connected to the 
Printer/Modem port of your Macintosh PowerBook 200 or 500 series com- 
puter, follow these steps: 

1 . Depending on whether or not your PowerBook has Express modem 
installed, do one of the following: 

• Open the Express Modem control panel and choose Use External 

• Open the PowerBook Setup control panel and choose Normal. 

2. Open the Chooser and do the following: 

• Turn off AppleTalk. 

• Select the serial printer. 

• Select the Printer/Modem icon (or the Modem icon if the Printer/ 
Modem icon is not available). 

How to Reconnect to a 
Lost Fiie Server 

when connection to a server is unexpectedly lost, the server’s icon remains 
dimmed on the desktop. If you double-click the dimmed icon or choose the 
server from the Recent Servers item in the Apple menu, you get a message 
telling you that the disk could not be opened because “you do not have 
enough access privileges.” Before you can reconnect to the server, you must 
close any open files, and then drag the server’s dimmed icon to the Trash. If 
you need to save your work on an open file, use Save As to save it on a 
different disk. If you use the AutoRemounter control panel and set it to 
automatically reconnect to servers, you will save yourself some reconnect 
problems by automating the process. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 429 

The AutoRemounter control panel is easy to use. When you fire it up, you 
have three things to consider: 

1 . Do you want to remount shared disks? 

2. When do you want to remount shared disks? 

3. How do you want to remount shared disks? 

The control panel uses radio buttons to turn the automatic remounting of 
shared disks on or off. You can do it after each time your PowerBook wakes 
up from sleep, you can do it always (so that every time a shared disk disap- 
pears from the desktop— say when the network goes down— it will reappear 
just as soon as it is available again), or you can turn it off. 

You can choose to do this remounting on full automatic pilot, where the 
Mac will automatically supply the proper access password (a dangerous habit 
in a corporate or shared environment if you have sensitive data on the 
server) or where it will ask you to type in the password before remounting 
(a better way to do things in the corporate or shared environment where 
sensitive data abounds). 

AutoRemounter will not work in the After Sleep mode on machines that 
cannot be put to sleep (on non-PowerBooks). 

How to Use the Old “Find File” 


In System 7.5.5, the Find File program appears when you choose Find from 
the File menu. If you want to use the earlier Find feature (that was intro- 
duced with System 7.x) rather than the Find File program, use the following 

• To launch Find, press K-Shift-F. 

• To find an item again, press K-Shift-G. 

430 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

How to Use the Shutdown 
Items Folder 

One way to prevent daily problems with your Mac is to be consistent in how 
you do things. One way to achieve this consistency is by setting up the Mac 
to do the automatic stuff for you. So, you can use the Startup Items folder to 
launch applications and/or documents you need every day, as well as 
running needed AppleScripts, mounting shared disks, and the like. 

But did you know that you can do the same thing when shutting down? 

The Shutdown Items folder (inside the System Folder) allows you to specify 
scripts or programs that will automatically run during the shutdown process. 

Using it can help you achieve a consistency in your Mac usage and help 
alleviate problems caused by too many unique events. 

It works much like the Startup Items folder. To specify an item to run during 
shutdown, put the item or its alias into the Shutdown Items folder. To run 
the Shutdown Items, choose Shut Down or Restart from the Special menu. 
(Do not choose • Shut Down from the Apple menu. It will not launch items 
in the Shutdown Items folder.) 

How to Rebuild Your Desktop 

It is not necessary to rebuild your desktop periodically. However, when 
you do need to rebuild your desktop— say, after you have reformatted a 
disk, or you have made major repairs to a disk using Disk First Aid— pay 
close attention to the following instructions. Rebuilding the desktop, 
unfortunately, erases comments in the Get Info dialog boxes and may wipe 
out the “custom” thumbnail icons Photoshop places on the image files it 
saves. Fortunately, however, it also restores screen icons to their customized 
form, rather than showing generic ones. 

Some Apple and non-Apple extensions may interfere with rebuilding your 
desktop. To prevent problems, you will need to turn off all extensions 
except Macintosh Easy Open (if you turn Macintosh Easy Open off and do a 
rebuild, some icons will not be restored to their customized form), before 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 431 

you rebuild the desktop. When you finish rebuilding the desktop, turn the 
extensions you normally use on. 

To rebuild the desktop, follow these steps: 

1 . Before you rebuild your desktop, use the Extensions Manager to save a 
record of the extensions that are currently on (see figure 9.2). 

U EHtensions Manager 


Use this control panel to turn 
off problematic extensions so 
you will be able to boot your 
Macintosh correctly . 

Warning : Incorrect use of 

this control panel may cause 
problems with your Macintosh. 

[ Undo 


[ Help 


■ ^Custom 


^ A/RO: 
^ Apple 
^ Apple 
^ Apple 
^ CEToi 
Color L 

nil On 
nil Off 

System 7.5 Only 

LOorkiny on Book 
Book LBork 
Games and QT 

Delete Set... 


Directory Assistance II 
^ DV 3.1 (Serial) 

^ File Sharing Extension 
^ Find File Extension 
^ Finder Scripting Extension 

Figure 9-2 Extensions Manager with Sets pop-up menu 

2. To turn off all extensions, open the Sets pop-up menu again and 
choose All Off. 

3. To turn on Macintosh Easy Open, find it in the list and click it to put a 
checkmark beside it. 

4. To rebuild the desktop, restart your computer while holding down the 
K and Option keys. 

5. When you see the dialog box that says “Are you sure you want to 
rebuild the desktop file on the disk ‘your hard disk’? Comments in info 
windows will be lost,” release the keys and click OK. 

6. When the desktop has been rebuilt, open the Apple menu and choose 
Control Panels. 

7. Open the Extensions Manager control panel. 

Mac Basics 

To save a record of 
the Extensions that 
are on, follow 
these steps: 

1. Open the 
Manager control 

2. Open the Sets 
pop-up menu, and 
choose Save Set. 

3. When the Save 
Set dialog box 
opens, type a 
name for your 
currently selected 
extensions (for 
example, “My 

When you close 
the dialog box, the 
name of your set is 
added to the Sets 
pop-up menu. 

432 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

8. To turn your extensions back on, open the Sets pop-up menu and 
choose the name you gave your set of extensions in step 1 (for ex- 
ample, “My Extensions”). 

9. Restart your Macintosh to activate the extensions. 

CloseView and the Apple Video Player 

You can use CloseView to magnify part of the video display up to 16 times. 
You also can use CloseView to invert the display. CloseView is not currently 
compatible with the Apple Video Player. If you want to view video in the 
Apple Video Player, you must turn off CloseView. To turn off CloseView, 
press K -Option-0 or open the CloseView control panel and click the Off 
button (see figure 9-3). 

CloseUieuj : 


View7 2 

® Off 


® Black on LBhite 


O UJhite on Black 


Keyboard ® On 

Shortcuts O Off 

1 1 r-. 

1 4 “IIH 

^ = Option 

= Command 

Figure 9-3 CloseView control panel 

Express Modem Software 

Any time you reinstall your Macintosh system software, you should also 
reinstall your Express Modem Software. 

Incorrect “Guide” File Balloons 

System 7.5.5 includes Apple Guide documents which provide the onscreen 
instructions and other information that can help you use your computer. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 433 

However, if you turn on Balloon Help (by choosing Show Balloons from the 
Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu) and point to a Guide file icon on the hard 
disk drive, the balloon may give you the wrong information about where the 
file belongs or what you can do with it. To avoid being misled by incorrect 
balloons, use the following the guidelines: 

• Leave Guide files where the System 7.5.5 installer places them. Some 
Guide files (for example, the Guide file named “Macintosh Guide”) 
belong in the Extensions folder. Others will not work if they are put 
into the Extensions folder. 

• Keep application programs that have Guide files in the same folder as 
the Guide file, for example, keep the file named “File Assistant Guide” 
in the same folder as the File Assistant program. If you move a Guide 
file that belongs with an application program, help will not be available 
to you while using the program. 

Apple Guide Documents and 
PowerBook Sleep 

If you set your PowerBook to sleep automatically, it will not sleep while an 
Apple Guide document is open. If you’re not sure whether an Apple Guide 
document is open, you can check by looking for a window that contains 
instructions and “floats” on top of all the other windows on your screen. An 
Apple Guide document window remains frontmost and active— even when 
you click other windows to make them active. Also, look for a window with 
rows of dots (rather than lines) in the title bar. To close an Apple Guide 
document, click the close box in the upper-left corner of the window. 

The “Quit” command is not available in the menu bar for Apple Guide 

Using QuarkXPress with System 7.5.5 
on a Power Macintosh 

To use QuarkXPress with System 7.5.5 on a Power Macintosh, you must 
upgrade to QuarkXPress version 3.3.1 or later. For upgrade information 
contact Quark, Inc. at 1-800-788-7835. 

434 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Disk Volumes Larger than 2 GB 

Volumes larger than 2 gigabytes (GB) with a multitude of files may show a 
negative number for bytes used in the Get Info dialog box. An incorrect 
number of bytes used does not indicate that the data on your disk drive is 

Using ISO 9660 and High Sierra 
CD-ROM Discs 

CD-ROM discs using the ISO 9660 and High Sierra formats have version 
numbers attached to filenames. Some application programs need these 
version numbers in order to use the files. 

If you have problems using an ISO 9660 or High Sierra CD with a program, 
follow the following instructions to make the version numbers available to 
the program— regardless of the kind of CD player you are using: 

1 . Make sure the application program you want to use with the CD is 

2. Drag the CD icon to the Trash to eject the disc. 

3. Hold down the Option key while you reinsert the disc. Keep holding 
down the Option key until the disk is inside the player and mounted 
on the desktop. The program should now be able to locate the 
filenames on the CD-ROM disc. 

Printing Large Fonts with LaserWriter 

If you have not installed QuickDraw GX as part of your System 7.5.5 upgrade 
and your laser printer uses either the LaserWriter 7.2 or LaserWriter 8.1.1 
drivers (or earlier versions 8 and 8f), your system may crash or freeze rather 
than report an out-of-memory error when printing large QuickDraw GX 
fonts or other large fonts. The problem is fixed in the LaserWriter 8.2 driver 
that’s available by calling 1-800-SOS-APPL. 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 435 

Problems with the AudioVision 14 
Display Software Driven by 

If you are using an AudioVision 14 Display software with a PowerBook, you 
may have trouble with the pointer “freezing” (not responding to the 
trackball) after you install System 7.5.5. To fix the problem, try the following 

1 . Shut down your PowerBook. 

2. Start up your PowerBook while holding down the Shift key (to turn off 
all extensions). 

3. When the PowerBook is ready, drag the AudioVision extension out of 
the Extensions folder. 

4. Restart your computer to turn on the extensions. 

The PowerBook Assistant Toolbox 
and Non-Networked Printers 

If you have installed the Assistant Toolbox extension on your Macintosh or 
PowerBook, the Print Later option (LaterLaser) will work only with net- 
worked PostScript printers. If you print on a non-networked printer— 
particularly a LaserWriter Select 310, you should open the Extensions 
Manager control panel and turn off the Assistant Toolbox extension and not 
use it with that printer. 

Losing Your Desktop When You Have 
an Apple AV Card Installed 

You’ve lost your desktop and you can’t get up! If you have an Apple audio- 
video (AV) card installed in your Macintosh or Power Macintosh, it is pos- 
sible to lose access to your desktop. If you encounter the problem on your 
Power Macintosh refer back to the “Troubleshooting” section in your Power 

436 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Macintosh manual (the fixes will be different for each Power Macintosh 
model). If you encounter the problem on another Macintosh model, review 
the following scenarios and fixes: 

• If you have selected the AV card in the Monitors control panel 
when no monitor is attached to the port. This usually happens 
when the Monitors control panel is set to “Rearrange on close” and 
you move the menu bar to a video card (such as the Power Macintosh 
AV Card or a non-Apple video card) when you have not attached a 
monitor to the card. The Power Macintosh cannot determine whether 
the AV card really has a monitor attached so when you restart the 
computer, you do not have access to your desktop. To correct the 
problem, you will have to remove the AV card and change the primary 
monitor back. 

• You are using a single monitor that is not attached to the AV card 
and the AV card is set to greater bit depth than your monitor. 

When you start up the computer with the AV card installed, the system 
thinks that there is a monitor attached to the AV card. For example, if 
you are using a single monitor that is not attached to the AV card, the 
system thinks that there are two monitors. The new System 7.5.5 Color 
Picker tries to display itself using the greatest screen depth available. If 
the depth of the AV card is greater than the bit depth of your main 
display, the AV card becomes the main display. To correct the problem, 
attach a monitor to the AV card and restart your computer, using the 
Monitor’s control panel to set the AV card to black and white (1 bit 

Macintosh Centris/Quadra 660AV or 
Quadra 840AV, and Alert Sounds 

If you have a Macintosh Centris/Quadra 660AV or Quadra 840AV, some 
system alert sounds may not play correctly with the Alert Volume turned 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 437 

down. To avoid the problem, keep the Alert Volume turned all the way up 
and adjust the built-in system volume. (To adjust built-in volume, open the 
Sound control panel and choose Volumes from the pop-up menu.) 

Help with the Japanese or 
Chinese Language Kit 

Japanese and Chinese Language Kits version 1.1 or earlier may not be 
compatible with System 7.5.5. To run effectively, you must upgrade your 
language kit to version 1.1.1 or later. 

Probiems with a RasterOps 
Video Board 

Some older RasterOps video boards with ROMs earlier than 2.0 may not be 
compatible with System 7.5.5. Before installing System 7.5.5, you should 
determine the ROM revision of the RasterOps video board by: 

• Starting up your Macintosh with the RasterOps video board. 

• When the RasterOps logo appears, look at the ROM version in the top 
right comer of the monitor. Boards with ROM revision 2.0 or later 
should operate correctly with System 7.5.5. 

If your ROM is earlier than 2.0, contact RasterOps Technical Support for 
upgrade information. The RasterOps Technical Support department is 
available Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Eastern Standard 
Time at (317) 577-8788. 

Dealing with PC Exchange and 
Third-Party Software 

Some third-party or old Apple programs do not work properly with System 
7.5. 5’s PC Exchange. If you have one of these combo platters on your 
Macintosh, pay close attention. Otherwise, you don’t need to worry about it! 

438 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple File Exchange and Macintosh PC 

The Apple File Exchange software is not compatible with PC Exchange and 
should not be used when you have installed PC Exchange on your computer. 
In short, dump Apple File Exchange from your hard disk! 


To use Symantec’s (Salient Software by way of Eifth Generation Systems!) 
AutoDoubier with PC Exchange, you must first open the AutoDoubier 
control panel and turn off the “Show DD on Compressed Eiles” option by 
clicking the Preferences button and using the dialog that appears (see 
figure 9.4). 



^ by iFiffli O^neratipjt Systems 2.0.3 

AutoDoubier Preferences 

1 n Show DD On Connpressed Files 

Advanced Op'ticns : 

^ Modem Programs Send Compressed Files In Compi 
^ Backup Programs Backup Compressed Files In Con 
1 1 Mail Programs Send Compressed Files In Compres 


■■essed Form 
■ipressed Form 
:sed Form 

Cancel 1 OK I| 

© Copg right 1992-93 Symantec Corporation 
All Rights Reserved. U.S. Patent 155,484 

Figure 9- 4 AutoDoubier control panel 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 439 

ClarisWorks Version I.Ov2 or Earlier 

Some versions of ClarisWorks cannot read or write files on DOS-format 
floppy disks. To open a PC document in ClarisWorks, you must first copy the 
document to your Macintosh hard disk. You then can copy the document to 
a DOS-format floppy disk. Contact Claris to obtain ClarisWorks version 1.0v3 
or later to eliminate this problem. 

Compressed PC Disks and Fiies 

Macintosh PC Exchange does not work with DOS-format floppy disks or SCSI 
hard disks that have been compressed using Stacker or other MS-DOS or 
Windows disk-compression utility. Before transferring compressed DOS files 
to a Macintosh, you must decompress the files and save them to a 
noncompressed DOS-format floppy disk. 

Working with PC-Format Disks that 
Contain Muitiple Partitions 

If a SCSI hard disk or removable media cartridge has been formatted for 
multiple partitions, you can use PC Exchange to mount the Macintosh-, DOS- 
, or ProDOS-format partitions as individual logical drives on the Macintosh 
desktop. If the disk contains both Macintosh and DOS-format partitions, PC 
Exchange will only recognize the Macintosh partition. In addition, PC 
Exchange will only recognize ProDOS-format partitions on SCSI hard disks 
that are less than 32 MB. 

You can use PC Exchange to erase existing individual partitions on a SCSI 
hard disk or removable media cartridge, if they have the same format. 
However, you cannot use PC Exchange to reformat and resize individual 
partitions contained on the disk. Nor can you format Macintosh-format hard 
disks or removable media cartridges as DOS-format disks. To resize or 
reformat multiple Macintosh, DOS, or ProDOS partitions, you need to use 
third-party software designed for partitioning hard disks and removable 
media cartridges. My recommendation is to buy and use Hard Disk Toolkit 
from EWB. 

440 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Mac Basics 

If you read much 
about the Mac and 
the way it handles 
hard disks, you will 
run across the 
distinction between 
a physical disk and 
a logical disk 
volume. The key 
difference is that a 
physical disk is the 
actual device, the 
“thing” that sits on 
your desk. A logical 
disk volume is an 
concept and it lives 
only on your Mac’s 
desktop. You can 
have more than one 
logical volumes for 
every physical hard 
disk you have. But 
why would you 
want to? 

Chapter 9 Summary 

This seems like a very good place to stop and seriously reflect on the major 
points covered, vis-a-vis establishing some troubleshooting goals and 
strategies for System 7.5.5. 1 urge you to use the fortuitous opportunity 
provided by upgrading to System 7.5.5 to reflect on your current Macintosh 
troubleshooting strategies; see what you can do to improve them, and 
determine how you can revitalize them in the face of the new power that 
System 7.5.5 gives to you and to your users. 

After this serious reflection, test your knowledge of this chapter and of your 
evolving troubleshooting plans by taking my chapter 9 Computing Quiz. 

Crabb’s Computing Quiz 
for Chapter 9 

1 . What systems do you now have in place to deal with the network 
problems caused by using System 7.5.5? 

2. How do you decide to use a System 7.5.5 feature? 

Suppose you have 
a large physical 
disk, say 2 GB. You 
could use that 
physical disk as a 
single large logical 
volume, but your 
Mac won’t like it. 

The solution is not 
to buy big disks (the 
physical ones), but 
to partition them 
into multiple logical 
volumes. So, with 
our 2 GB drive, we 
would use the disk 
formatting and 
software that came 
with it (HD SC 
Setup if it were an 
Apple drive) to 
create a more than 
logical volume on 
the physical disk. 

3. What is the single most important people issue that you currently have 
to work with daily? Does System 7.5.5 offer any technological aids in 
dealing with that issue? 

4. How many Macintosh users do you have? Which Macintosh models are 
they now using? How many of them will require hardware upgrades to 
run System 7.5.5? How many will you upgrade to System 7.5.5 immedi- 

5. What does your current network look like? Does it use LocalTalk, 
EtherTalk, TokenTalk, or other protocols and cabling systems? How 
many third-party network devices do you have to upgrade to run 
System 7.5.5 fully? 

6. How many critical applications do you have that don’t work properly 
with System 7.5.5? 

Chapter 9: The Art and Science of Troubleshooting System 7.5.5 441 

7. What’s a Type I Error? What can you do about them? 

8. Which security problems have you encountered in the past year: break- 
ins or theft, viruses, disk or machine failure, network break-ins, or loss 
of data? 

9. What do you know about Macintosh security under System 7.5.5? Is it 
better or worse than 7.x? 

10. Do you have a backup strategy? What is it? How often? 

Answers to Crabb’s Computing 
Quiz for Chapter 9 

1 . None you say? Better get cracking by rereading my comments regard- 
ing troubleshooting strategies. 

2. Can you say, carefully? 

3. Sorry pal, I am not sitting on your shoulder so I don’t have a clue. 

4. 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-9-10... Count ’em and check ’em out. If your aren’t a 
Macintosh manager, consider yourself a blessed individual. 

5. If you don’t know, hold off the 7.5.5 upgrade until you do. 

6. Hopefully, not many. 

7. It’s a major pain, bunky, and you can’t do squat about it. 

8. System 7.5.5 does nothing by itself to help you here. 

9. What’s to know? Except for basic (and easily breakable) access methods 
in file sharing and PowerTalk, it simply doesn’t exist. 

10. Get one or you will lose data. I know, I’ve been there. 

With a 2 GB drive, 
creating four logical 
partitions of 500 
MB each is 
probably a good 
expedient. You 
would name each 
of those partitions a 
different name, and 
when your desktop 
came up you would 
see them as four 
different logical disk 
volumes. The 
original single 
logical disk would 
no longer appear 
(since partitioning 
the disk got rid of 
it). These partitions 
could be different 
kinds of volumes, 
too, depending 
upon the capabili- 
ties of your disk 
partitioner, so that 
you could make 
one a DOS/ 
Windows partition, 
one a UNIX 
partition, one a Mac 
partition, and one a 
ProDOS partition. 

Keep in mind, 
however, that you 
have to decide to 
partition your large 
drive into separate 
logical volumes 
before you have 
filled it with data. If 
you do otherwise, 
partitioning will 
blow away all the 
data on the drive! 

For more informa- 
tion about disks, 
take a gander again 
at chapter 7, 
“Improving Your 


We All Need More 
Help, So Here’s 
How to Get It 

II you need is love, da-da-da-da-daaaaa....” But if 
you are migrating to System 7.55, you 
need less love and more help, which is 
what this book is all about. Chapters 1 
through 9 provide that help, in fairly 
detailed measure. This final chapter 
summarizes additional sources of 
help, offers a final exam for all the 
material in this book, and provides 

444 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

some insights into the future of the Macintosh (which is help 
we a// need!). 

In any case, this book only scratches the surface of what a good Macintosh 
user needs to know about the Macintosh, its newest operating environment, 
and how to manage other Macintosh users. It would take even more hubris 
than my inflated ego could produce to say that this book is the last one any 
of us will need on System 7.5.5. 

Of course, I do expect other Hayden Books to provide you with detailed 
knowledge about using specific applications and hardware with System 7.5.5 
and about using some of the core technologies in System 7.5.5 in great 
detail, including programming for System 7.5.5 using Macintosh Drag and 
Drop, OpenDoc, Cyberdog, QuickDraw GX, PowerTalk, AppleScript, and 
Apple Guide. 

Although I intend to revise this book periodically to keep it current, there 
will be other Hayden Macintosh books out there that will help you get a 
better grip on things Macintosh and how to deal with System 7.5.5 as it 
evolves into System 8.0. 

And, if you want to get a sense of where System 7.5.5 is heading as you 
implement it and begin to sort it out in your shops, I can think of no better 
source than reading Madl^££X. You may even find that my column, “The 
Mac Manager”, will give you some new insights on System 7.5.5 and System 
8.0, or at least that it will give you a fixed target on which to take aim. In any 
case, the information and the commentary will be there if you want it. 

Where to Get More Help 

You already know how to get more help with System 7.5.5 if you have read 
chapter 8, “Management Strategies for System 7.5.5,” thoroughly. If not, 
time’s a-wasting. Let me reiterate those sources for further help, in the order 
I expect you’ll want to use them. Keep in mind that you get more ReadMe 
and related online help files when you buy the CD-ROM edition of the 
System 7.5.5 Upgrade. Since both the CD-ROM edition and the floppy disk 
edition have the same price, if you have a CD-ROM drive, the CD-ROM kit is 

Chapter 10 : We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 445 

the way to go. In addition, many of Apple’s supplemental training materials 
come on CD-ROM as do third-party products, so a CD-ROM player should be 
standard equipment for any Macintosh owner at this point. 

Table 10.1 Sources of System 7.5.5 Help 

Source of Help Price How to Get It 

Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Comes with 7.5.5 

Upgrade Guide 

Upgrade, priced from 
149.99 to $134.99 

Guide to Macintosh 
System 7.5.5 by Don Crabb 


You’re Reading It! 

System 7.5.5, PowerTalk, and 


Comes with 7.5.5 

Macintosh Guide 


Comes with 7.5.5 

(Apple Guide) 


PowerTalk Guide 


Comes with 7.5.5 

(Apple Guide) 


Guide to QuickDraw 


Comes with 7.5.5 

(GX (Apple DocViewer File) 

CD-ROM Upgrade 

Guide to AppleScript 


Comes with 7.5.5 

(Apple SimpleText File) 

CD-ROM Upgrade 

Online Services 
(Prodigy, CompuServe, 
America Online) and 
the Internet 


See chapter 8 

Local User Groups 


See chapter 8 

National User Groups 
(BMUG and B.C.S. Mac) 


See chapter 8 

Apple’s Supplementary 
7.5.5 Training 


See chapter 8 


446 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Table 10.1 Sources of System 7.5.5, Continued 

Source of Help 


How to Get It 

Courses and Training 
Materials (Developer 
University), including 



Become an Associate 


See chapters 

Apple Developer 

(call (408) 996-1010 
and ask to speak with 

Third-Party Training 
and Related Courses 
and Materials 


See chapter 8 

The Future of Macintosh 

With the release of Microsoft Windows95, and much misinformation about 
Apple, the Macintosh, and System 7.5.5 flying around the ether, there’s a lot 
of trepidation, even fear, among Macintosh owners, potential buyers, and 
managers everywhere. The question keeps coming up: what is the future of 

While I don’t have a crystal ball, I do get paid to ponder this question 
regularly and I’ll offer these insights. 

The future will play itself out in Apple’s ability to handle the transition to 
RISC (Power Macintosh computers), the transition to compound documents 
and object-based computing and a new user interface, plus Apple’s need to 
make computing collaboration across the Internet more than just a 

RISCy Business 

RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) microprocessor architectures 
have been commercially successful in the workstation market since the early 
1980s. In 1991, Apple, IBM, and Motorola joined forces to bring the benefits 

Chapter 10 : We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 447 

of this technology to the mainstream personal computing arena. These three 
companies combined efforts to create a powerful, scalable, and cost-effective 
RISC-based microprocessor architecture. The result, known as the PowerPC 
microprocessor, powers the next generation of computers from both Apple 
and IBM and may be adopted by other computer vendors as well. 

According to Apple, the three companies in the PowerPC alliance believe 
that the inherent advantages of RISC microprocessor technology over 
microprocessors based on older, 1980s CISC (Complex Instruction Set 
Computing) technology, are that the PowerPC chip will offer significant— and 
increasing— performance and price/performance leadership over the compet- 
ing Intel architecture based on CISC technology. The PowerPC chip derives 
its price/performance advantage over the Intel CISC architecture through 
less complex chip design, which translates to a smaller die size and more 
cost-effective manufacturing. 

Intel’s Pentium chip, the PowerPC chip’s chief competitor, demonstrates the 
cost and manufacturing burden of having to maintain exact compatibility 
with the large CISC instruction set. 

Since Apple still makes most of its money from selling computers, the move 
to PowerPC was not only critical— it was vital, as the older Motorola 68K 
CISC CPUs were running out of gas. 

The PowerPC and Apple’s Future 

In addition to the initial PowerPC 601 chip that lives in the first two genera- 
tions of Power Macintosh computers, the Apple, IBM, and Motorola alliance 
has announced a series of follow-on PowerPC chips, under concurrent 
development. These include the low-power, low-cost PowerPC 603 and 603e 
(designed for use in PowerBook and low-end Macintosh computers), the 
high-performance PowerPC 604 and 604e (which has replaced the PowerPC 
601 in desktop and midrange systems), and the superior-performance, full 
64-bit implementation PowerPC G3 and G4 (designed for use in high-end 
workstations and servers). As a result, the PowerPC architecture offers a well- 
understood, compelling growth path, something that the 68K architecture 
simply could not provide. 

448 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

System X and the CPU 

Microprocessors and operating systems have a strong relationship. DOS 
grew up as the operating system for the Intel 80x86 architecture, and now 
Microsoft Windows is succeeding to that position. 

Although these operating systems have had a commanding role in the CISC 
microprocessor world, the PowerPC chip’s dramatic, high-volume entrance 
into the PC market will increase Apple’s market share at the expense of Intel 
x86/Windows PCs. 

Do you beUeve that I am just suffering a case of wishful thinking? Apple has 
shipped more Power Macs since March 1994 than all the Pentium machines 
combined. Soon, IBM will ship PowerPCs that will run the Mac OS, AIX, the 
WorkGroup OS, and OS/2. From a hardware point of view, Apple has Intel 
and Microsoft more than a little concerned. 

As RISC achieves mainstream status in 1997, the crucial question is which 
operating system will dominate the PowerPC platform. Several operating 
systems are jockeying for this leadership position, trying to knock Microsoft 
and Intel off the mountain. 

The operating system vendors (Apple, Microsoft, IBM, and so on), all have 
different approaches to providing operating system software for RISC-based 
personal computers. Some vendors require users to adopt a totally new 
operating system, while others take an evolutionary approach. 

Because of the 68K emulation provided by today’s Power Mac, Apple can 
make the move to RISC fairly easily. Even though more than 70 percent of 
System 7.5.5 is still written in 68K code, the whole thing runs properly and 
quickly on Power Macintosh computers because of built-in 68K emulation. 
The next Mac System, MacOS 8.0, will offfer am operating system that is 
more than 99 9 percent native to the Power Macintosh, which will make it 
run much faster on Power Macintosh computers than today’s System 7.5.5. 

The Applications Puzzie 

Because the transition to RISC centers around high performance— and the 
new capabihties enabled by that high performance— computer buyers like 
you will also judge operating systems by the breadth of selection of native 

Chapter 10 : We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 449 

applications (applications that offer full RISC performance) available. 
Software developers must choose a specific operating system for their 
PowerPC products because, for example, an application ported to System 
7.5.5 for PowerPC will not operate on Windows NT for PowerPC. So far, 
more than 2,000 major applications have been rewritten for Power 
Macintosh computers and System 7.5.x. 

To build the next generation of applications, system software extensions, 
and user interfaces, designers require robustness, performance, and addi- 
tional services beyond those provided by today’s personal computer operat- 
ing systems. High-capacity, high-performance file systems are necessary to 
accommodate the larger amounts of data generated by new technologies 
such as multimedia. The full 32-bit operation enabled by RISC performance 
speeds access to and processing of data and instructions. Preemptive, 
multithreaded execution will enable the construction of more sophisticated 
programs; and memory protection will isolate the effects of errant programs 
in System 8.0 and later. 

System 7.5.5 Predicts the Future 

System 7.5.5 and previous versions of System 7 have become the industry 
benchmark for easy-to-use system software. System 8.0 promises consider- 
ably more improvement both in terms of system services on the Power 
Macintosh and in terms of a new Finder. 

During the past two years, Macintosh system software has been enhanced to 
run on the PowerPC microprocessor. With a 68040 software emulator as a 
standard component, System 7.5.5 for Power Macintosh offers exceptional 
compatibility with existing Macintosh programs. 

A mixed-mode architecture also supports new native applications that run at 
full PowerPC speeds. Apple has been working closely with the third-party 
development community to ensure a broad range of native application 
software for the PowerPC processor-based Macintosh computers. To date, 
more than 500 companies— including most leading software vendors— have 
publicly announced commitments to bringing out versions of their applica- 
tions for PowerPC processor-based Macintosh computers. 

450 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple also offers migration paths for customers who want to move up from 
existing IBM PC environments to the PowerPC environment. Already, 
hardware-based solutions for PC compatibility are available in the Macintosh 
Quadra line. The PowerPC chip brings a new level of performance to 
software-based compatibility solutions, rendering them highly practical. 
Through a partnership with Insignia Solutions, Apple can provide software- 
based emulation of both DOS and Windows programs through a program 
called SoftWindows. Apple also provides a hardware solution with a PC CPU 
card for its Quadra machines (and may provide this same PC CPU card for 
Power Macintosh models). 

Apple is rapidly enhancing Macintosh system software to provide a solid 
foundation for the future. Although the number of differences in System 
7.5.5 for PowerPC are not always noticeable, significant changes have 
occurred within the core. A new runtime architecture, adapted from work- 
station-class operating environments, makes application development more 
straightforward. And subsequent versions of Macintosh system software will 
add true multitasking capability, memory protection, and enhanced file- 
system capabilities. 

The Macintosh operating system should become the leading operating 
system for the next-generation personal computers based on PowerPC RISC 
microprocessors. Because Apple took a fundamentally different approach in 
moving to RISC than did other companies, Apple can provide what custom- 
ers want: a mature, easy-to-use operating system with a broad selection of 
native programs from leading developers and excellent compatibility with 
existing programs. Driven by the volumes of Apple’s hardware business, the 
Macintosh operating system will offer developers a strong platform for 
developers and for buyers like us. 

Moving to Object Technologies 

Apple, of course, has not been alone in recognizing some of the problems 
with computing today and the benefits to be realized from moving to an 
object-based applications framework. Two major problems can be addressed 
through the use of object-based technologies: the difficulty of creating 
documents with varying media and the increasing complexity of 

Chapter 10: We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 451 

Ten years ago, most of what people did with computers centered around 
text and numbers. The graphical nature of the Macintosh computer brought 
a new emphasis to working with graphics on the computer, because the 
graphics-based user interface enabled easy manipulation, editing, and 
integration of words and images. 

Today, however, many of us engage in the creation of compound docu- 
ments: documents with parts containing various media, such as text, tables, 
movies, sound, and graphics in a variety of file formats. Currently, each 
medium requires users to work in different ways— and often in separate 
applications or editors— demanding a labor-intensive series of actions to 
move data from each creator application to the final document. This lengthy 
and cumbersome process tends to be error-prone and frustrating and, 
consequently, time-consuming. 

In recent years, developers have found that the demands of the marketplace 
encourage an ever-increasing complexity in successive releases of applica- 
tions; they are under constant competitive pressure to add more features to 
their products. The result is paradoxical: As applications become more 
powerful in terms of features, they also become more difficult to learn and 
use and, hence, less useful to people. In addition, they require more time 
and effort to develop, enhance, and maintain. 

Welcome to OpenDoc Compound Architecture 

Compound document architectures have emerged as the answer to these 
issues. By reducing the complexity and increasing the flexibility of software 
for both end users and developers, they offer an evolutionary approach to 
restructuring software into independent modules, or “parts,” which can be 
flexibly combined in a variety of ways. The result is an entirely different way 
of both using and writing personal computer software— one that offers a 
quite a few significant benefits. 

For most Macintosh users, compound document architectures offer the 

• Easy creation of compound documents 

• Editing “in place” 

• Powerful document management capabilities 

Mac Basics 

The brouhaha over 
object-based comput- 
ing and object-based 
applications frame- 
works is important, 
even if it sounds like 
an exercise in 
jargonology. An object- 
based application 
framework means that 
both the data being 
manipulated and the 
application manipulat- 
ing it are based on 
reusable programming 
objects, rather than on 
long strings of 
procedural instructions 
or definitions. The 
result is data that is 
easier to reuse in a 
number of contexts 
and applications that 
don’t need every 
feature in them to work 

Apple’s implementa- 
tion of object-based 
applications is known 
as OpenDoc, which 
will result in an 
interface where you 
spend most of your 
time creating and 
editing documents with 
small OpenDoc 
applications and where 
all files are of the 
OpenDoc format. This 
is true document- 
centered computing. 

452 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Cross-platform support 

• Consistency of operation 

• Uniformity of interface 

• Scalability 

• “Plug-and-play” solutions 

For developers, compound document architectures enable: 

• Faster, more efficient development 

• Reduction of application complexity 

• Diminished cost and risk of software development 

OpenDoc is a compound document architecture championed by Apple and 
other leading industry vendors. Specifically, Apple is combining its expertise 
in user-interface technology with WordPerfect’s competence in document- 
centric computing and Novell’s skills in collaborative systems in order to 
define and implement the OpenDoc technology. In addition, a number of 
other system and software vendors have helped shape the OpenDoc specifi- 
cations, and many are expected to support OpenDoc in their products and 
to assist in implementing OpenDoc on their platforms. 

The OpenDoc coalition (via the independent Component Integration 
Laboratories [CILabs]) is working closely with recognized industry associa- 
tions such as the Object Management Group (OMG), the Open Software 
Foundation (OSF), and the X Consortium. Apple’s says it will make 
OpenDoc technology not only cross-platform but also truly open— with both 
systems vendors and independent software vendors able to easily obtain the 
source code. 

OpenDoc advantages include a superior user interface, a simple develop- 
ment model, multiplatform support, and network readiness. 

In contrast to OpenDoc, the other major effort along these lines— Microsoft’s 
OLE 2.0— takes a closed and proprietary approach, with the OLE 2.0 source 
code being held by Microsoft and provided only under Microsoft license. 
However, a goal of the OpenDoc effort will be interoperability with OLE 2.0, 
which will enable developers to take advantage of its broader feature set, 
additional support platforms, and a truly open nature without sacrificing 
OLE support. 

Chapter 10 : We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 453 

Of course, because OLE is Microsoft’s baby and because Microsoft is one big 
bad baby, they have beaucoup market clout. But on the OLE vs. OpenDoc 
issue, I see OpenDoc “winning” because its open consortium will coopt 
OLE and make it easier for developers on both Macs and PCs to develop 
document-centric applications. 

OpenDoc vs. OLE 

Table 10.2 summarizes the important differences between OpenDoc and 
OLE, so you can see where I think Apple is heading: 

Table 10.2 OpenDoc vs. OLE 2.0 


Microsoft OLE 2.0 



Open standard, 

Proprietary, single-vendor effort; no 

multivendor effort 

announced UNIX or OS/2 support 

Source code available 

Source code not available 

Extensible, scalable 

Closed architecture 



Supports irregularly shaped, 

Supports rectangular, non- 

overlapping content 

overlapping content only 

Multiple-object editing; 
multiple components 
can stay active concurrently 

Single-object editing 

Designed for fast switching 
among objects 

Each application boots separately 

Verification process for 

No announced way to formally 

seamless application 

test OLE compliance 


454 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Table 10.2 OpenDoc vs. OLE 2.0, Continued 


Microsoft OLE 2. 0 



Built-in networking 

No currently announced 

network structure 

Makes collaboration 

Doesn’t store multiple drafts 

easier by maintaining 

multiple “drafts” of 

a document 

Getting Collaborative 

Just as the personal computer initially boosted individual productivity, today 
the technology is being utilized to increase the productivity of groups 
working together. In the current competitive and fast-paced business 
environment, effective communications and, more specifically, effective 
teamwork can provide organizations with the competitive edge that can spell 
the difference between success and failure. 

Too often in the past, however, we often have been hindered rather than 
helped by the technology— daunted by multiple formats, competing commu- 
nications services, and the sheer bulk of information we receive. Increas- 
ingly, it’s becoming obvious that merely having information at our fingertips 
isn’t enough. What we need are technologies that help us to manage infor- 
mation— not just get more of it. 

Fortunately for Macintosh folk, Apple has demonstrated that it intends to 
take the lead in supplying useful collaborative technologies, with its develop- 
ment and release of PowerTalk, PowerShare, and the Apple Open Collabora- 
tive Environment (AOCE). 

If we are to take full advantage of computer-based collaboration and com- 
munications, electronic-mail services should be integrated directly into the 
operating system— not as a separate utility— and mail should be gathered 
from different sources into a single desktop mailbox. The architecture 
should have an open back-end to facilitate the integration of gateways 

Chapter 10 : We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 455 

providing access to a variety of mail environments, such as the Internet and 
QuickMail. The messaging system should scale from peer-to-peer offerings 
for small workgroups to server-based systems for large groups and organiza- 
tions. And the mail service should go beyond simple text to support media- 
rich data that includes graphics, animation, sound, and video. PowerTaik 
provides ail these capabilities. 

True workflow in groups and organizations becomes possible when 
electronic-mail services are augmented with authentication, digital signature, 
and privacy services, so that organizations can build systems that are trust- 
worthy and secure. Systemwide scripting is also critical, to enable people to 
take off-the-shelf programs and weave them together into custom workflow 
solutions. Apple already provides this with AppleScript and the Scriptabie 
Finder in System 7.5.5. 

New developments should continue to help us navigate our piles of infor- 
mation and collaborate with others without concern for the platforms or 
protocols involved. 

To provide these advanced collaborative solutions, strong, consistent 
networking capabilities must be built directly into the operating system. You 
should be able to deploy systems, applications, and services and have them 
transparently take advantage of the appropriate network protocol. 

Toward that end, Apple is close to delivering the Open Transport Architec- 
ture (one of the underpinings of AOCE), which is an architecture that 
enables all networking protocols (AppleTalk, IPX, IP, DECnet, and more) to 
function at a high level in the Macintosh networking world. In contrast, 
networking in the Windows world is complex, with multiple, competing 
implementations of the same protocol and no unifying architecture for 
developers or users. OTA will eventually replace kludgy Apple developer 
toolboxes like the Comm ToolBox. 

Passive vs. Active User Interfaces 

In the 1980s, Apple pioneered the concept of the personal computer 
graphical user interface (after borrowing the idea from Xerox PARC), 
incorporating features such as windows, menus, icons, and copy-and-paste 
functionality to simplify the process of working with computers. 

456 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple has made the interface even richer with the addition of built-in 
collaboration via PowerTalk, and with speech recognition via PlainTalk 
software on the Macintosh computers that support Apple AV Technologies, 
all of which reside in System 7.5.5. 

As a result, the power of computing technology is now accessible to more 
people than ever before. The popularity of the Macintosh system software— 
and of Microsoft Windor\^— has demonstrated the relative superiority of the 
graphical user interface over older command-line interfaces. 

But after 10 years of experience, Apple says that it is able to recognize 
potential limitations of the current, and relatively passive, graphical user 
interface model. Based on this experience, Apple should be able to evolve 
the user interface from a passive GUI to one of active assistance that accom- 
plishes specific tasks with minimal direction, and even anticipates user 
preferences and needs. 

In the future, Macintosh computers will incorporate intelligence that will 
understand what the user is attempting to do and guide her through the 
task. A logical next step is allowing people to “delegate” complete tasks to 
the computer, freeing them to focus on other activities. When this technol- 
ogy is in place, the user interface will be transformed from a passive player 
to an active, “intelligent” assistant. Users will benefit from an intelligent 
interface that adapts to their way of working. 

The technology necessary to implement an active interface is wide-ranging. 
First, active interfaces will require tremendous power. Advanced natural- 
interface technologies such as speech-recognition and text-to-speech 
software are necessary to improve communication with the user. Second, the 
system software must also have high-level control over portions of itself, as 
well as over applications. 

Apple is actively working toward the creation of such an interface, harness- 
ing the power of RISC and OpenDoc technology to deliver the next genera- 
tion of system software-based functionality. Already delivered are key 
technologies such as PlainTalk speech-recognition and text-to-speech 
software, Apple Events and AppleScript scripting technologies, and 
QuickTime multimedia software. System 7.5.5 also includes the Apple Guide 

Chapter 10: We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 457 

technology, which provides step-by-step context-sensitive assistance— even 
to the extent of showing users precisely how to complete a task. 

Future Shock? 

So, if you add up RISC (Power Macintosh), compound documents 
(OpenDoc), collaboration (Cyberdog, PowerTalk, PowerShare, AOCE, and 
OTA), active interfaces (AppleScript, Finder X, and Apple Guide), and 
improved system services (preemption and protected memory), what do you 
have? You have System 8.0, which will ship sometime before the end of 
1995 . But you can get many of these features now with System 7.5.5, which 
gives you plenty of time to determine your long-term appraisal of Apple and 
Macintosh and whether it will be thumbs-up or thumbs-down. 

Having read the tea leaves, consulted my crystal ball, and dealt the Tarot 
cards, I give Apple and the Macintosh a pretty solid thumbs-up, despite the 
irrational anti-Macintosh sentiment alive in the hearts of many PC bigots. 

Chapter 10 Summary 

Well, our mutual System 7.5.5 journey has come to an end. It’s party time! 
But before we start quaffing the bubbly, we need to review what we have 
learned about System 7.5.5 and how to proceed from here. 

System 7.5.5’s Major Features 

Let’s review the major features of 7.5.5 to get started with our summary: 

• It includes Apple Guide, an innovative help system that interactively 
helps users accomplish specific tasks. You can make your own Guides 
with the Guide Maker application. 

• It offers compatibility with DOS and Windows data files and support 
for the TCPAP communications protocol, so you can network and 
communicate easily with the non-Macintosh world. 

• It gives you enhancements that enable you to tailor your systems and 
automate complex or routine tasks with your Macintosh computers. 

458 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• It rolls in the improved QuickDraw GX graphics/imaging architecture, 
which provides major advances in ease-of-use for everyday printing as 
well as high-end graphics manipulation. 

• It includes built-in collaborative services through PowerTalk software. 

• You also get a number of special enhancements that optimize 
PowerBook battery life and make mobile computing easier. 

What You Know and Don’t Know 
and How to Tell Me Off! 

If you have read this far, give yourself some bonus points for perseverance! 
But also give yourself some bonus points for knowing more about System 
7.5.5 than you did before, which will make it easier to use System 7.5.5 and 
manage others using it. As I said at the beginning of this book, I have not 
tried to be all things to all Macintosh users with the Guide to Macintosh 
System 7.5.5. Nor have I tried to offer an encyclopedia of Macintosh info, 
tidbits, or other flotsam and jetsam (or his boy, Elroy!). 

The point of this book was a critical evaluation of System 7.5.5 that would 
help you get your work done. I hope it has lived up to that promise. 

While I included what I felt was a necessary level of detail to get Macintosh 
users and managers up to speed on System 7.5.5, there is always more 
information you should read and other things you need to do. 

Having said all that, I hope that when you’ve finished reading the Guide to 
Macintosh System 7.5.5 that you will have more questions than when you 
started, since that is my hidden purpose all through the text: I wanted to 
help you think critically about your Macintosh environment and how System 
7.5.5 fits into it. If you are a manager, I wanted you to think about yourself 
and your users and how you and they will use Apple’s latest and greatest 
System software. 

If you are regular Macfolk, then I want you to send me all your money and 
repeat after me, “I love System 7.5.5.” Whoops! Sorry, that slipped in from 
an elegy to L. Ron Hubbard. Anyway, if you are a good old regular Mac user. 

Chapter 10 : We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 459 

you should be thinking about System 7.5.5 too, and what it can and cannot 
do for you and what future Systems will bring. 

As I mentioned in the introduction, if you have comments, criticisms, 
suggestions, brick bats, or bouquets about what you have read in this book, 
please contact me. The best way is via electronic mail, and I’d appreciate it if 
the mail was sent to my Internet account ( 
Although I do hang out on the different online services, especially in the 
ZiffNet/Mac forums on CompuServe, I prefer my mail via the Internet. 

As I have often mentioned in my columns, I really value the letters and 
messages from my readers, so I look forward to reading your comments and 
responding to them by improving future editions of Guide to Macintosh 
System 7.55. My publisher, editors, and I all have a commitment to keep this 
book as current as possible, even when it becomes the Guide to Macintosh 
System 25, so look for us to revise it regularly. Expect, for example, a pretty 
hot Guide to Macintosh System 8.0, when it comes out, since I have already 
been made a member of Apple’s System 8.0 development team. Your input 
will make that process go much smoother and result in a better book. 
Thanks, in advance, for that help. 

In closing, let me also add my thanks here to my regular group of Macintosh 
manager friends. Thanks to all the members of Crabb’s Cracker Barrel Gang 
for setting me straight over the past years on most of the important 
Macintosh and computing issues. And a special thanks to them for their 
input to this book. 

Crabb’s Final Exam 

The time has come to test you all on how carefully you’ve been following my 
System 7.5.5 ramblings. I toyed with the idea of an essay question here, 
“Compare and Contrast System 7.5.5 with Windows95,” but since at the time 
of this writing Windows95 is still vapor, you’d have a heck of time writing 
anything useful, so I dumped that idea. 

Instead, I’ve put together ten big ones for you to cogitate on: ten questions, 
that is! 

460 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

1 . Why does Apple use funny numbers for the released operating systems 
(like 7.5.5), rather than the cool development names before the 
products are released (like Mozart). 

2. What came before System 7.5.5? 

3. How much wood would a woodchuck chuck, if a woodchuck could 
chuck wood? 

4 . What’s the difference between Apple Guide and Balloon Help? 

5 . What’s the most significant new technology in System 7.5.5? 

6. Will you need more Macintosh resources to use System 7.5.5? 

7 . When will you install System 7.5.5 for your Macintosh folk? 

8. Does QuickDraw GX create a problem for you? 

9 . What does PowerTalk do for you? 

1 0. Does Finder 7.5.5 give you a new interface? 

And a bonus question: Will it take longer to upgrade to 7.5.5 than it took to 
upgrade to 7.0? 

Answers to Crabb’s 
Final Exam 

1 . Does the name Carl Sagan ring a bell? It should, since he threatened to 
sue Apple for using his name on the unreleased Power Macintosh 
computers! Maybe Apple is afraid dead composers like Mozart, 
Copeland, and Gershwin will rise up out of their graves and haunt 
their Infinite Loop offices in Cupertino? 

2. My name is Forrest, Forrest Gump. People call me Forrest Gump. 

3. Depends upon how much RAM the woodchuck had installed. 

4 . Fooled ya— a serious question! If you don’t know, reread chapters 1,2, 
and 8. 

5 . Hint: look at question 4. 

6. Get serious, pal. You always need more resources when Apple revs its 

Chapter 10 : We All Need More Help, So Here’s How to Get It 451 

System software. Check chapters 1 through 8 for the specifics. 

7. After you have read this book and the Apple documentation that comes 
with 7.5.5; and after you have figured out what you’ll need to do the 

8 . Yes, if you are running non-QuickDraw GX compatible fax software. 
Check with your vendors about upgrades. Also, to use GX with your 
non-Mac printers you will need GX-compatible drivers from those 

9. Stumped? Better reread chapter 6, sport. Remember, it’s that messag- 
ing thingy based on Apple’s Open Collaboration Environment (AOCE). 

10. Unfortunately, no. But it does layer together enough changes to make 
it better than the previous Finder. Refamiliarize yourself with those 
changes in chapters 1 and 2. 

Bonus Answer: No way. If it does, you have done something wrong. 

Bye y’all. See you when System 8.0 comes out! 


Apple Guide and 
Guide Maker 

s I said earlier in the book, Apple Guide represents the most 
important single piece of technology in System 
7 . 5 . 5 . This is because it signals Apple’s move- 
ment towards a new user interface and a new 
Finder; a future Finder that emphasizes active 
assistance rather than passive online help. 
System 7.5.5 includes the Apple Guide exten- 
sion, as well as Apple Guide files for the 

464 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Macintosh (Macintosh Guide), AppleMail (AppleMail Guide), and PowerTalk 
(PowerTalk Guide) that are accessed through the Balloon Help/Apple Guide 
menu in the Finder menu bar (see figure A.1). 

About Apple Guide 

Show Balloons 

PowerTalk Guide 

Figure A. 1 Selecting Macintosh Guide 

With Apple Guide and the supplied Guide files, you can get active online 
help in the Finder at any time. But what you cannot do is create your own 
Apple Guides, either to be used from the Finder or from within applications. 
The PowerTalk Guide and the Macintosh Guide that ship with System 7.5.5 
can only be accessed through the Finder; they cannot be launched from 
within an application. The AppleMail Guide can be used while in AppleMail; 
this is perhaps the best example of what application-specific Guides will be 

To enable developers and others to produce their own Apple Guides, Apple 
provides the Apple Guide Authoring Kit. To find out how to get a kit, contact 
Apple (unless you are a developer, in which case you’ll get the released 
version automatically as part of your monthly System software). Once you 
receive that kit, here’s what you’ll find and how you’ll use it. 

Guide Maker 

The point of Apple Guide, of course, is task-oriented active assistance. 

Apple Guide gives you both access to explanations of a variety of topics 
(the content is what you create or re-purpose), as well as an active tour 
through those topics, showing you precisely how to do something by 
actually doing it. 

Appendix A: Apple Guide and Guide Maker 465 

The Macintosh, AppleMail, and PowerTalk Guides that ship with System 
7.5.5 provide three access buttons that let you search by topic, by key word, 
or by an alphabetic index. Clicking on one of these buttons brings up a 
panel of additional choices, including a Search mechanism that lets you 
search for a word anywhere in the guide. With Guide Maker, the application 
provided in the Apple Guide Authoring Kit, you can create your own Guide 
(for use within your custom application, or as an additional Finder-level 
Guide), you can build the same Guide access pathways, or you can come up 
with ones that make more sense for the content you’re providing. Everything 

the tasks you provide assistance for is up to you. For the most part, however, 
a good way to get started with Guide Maker is to use the Macintosh Guide 
as a template for how to design a good Apple Guide, as you can see from 
figure A. 2. 

/ Guide 

1. Click a topic area: 



2. Click a phrase, then click OK; 

Reviewing the Basics 
Working with Programs 



^ How do 1 

open a DOS file? 

create a file in DOS format? 


set up my Macintosh to use DOS files? 

Using DOS Files Disks 
Printing A Fonts 

Networks A Telecommunications 

Setting Options 




use a DOS disk? 

prepare a disk in DOS format? 

^ Definitions 





Figure A.2 Macintosh Guide opened to Using DOS Files & Disks 

When you create an Apple Guide, you’ll need to remember that it’s interac- 
tive, not just a fancy online guide. The topics and tasks are not just textual 
(and graphical) explanations of what you can do and how to do it, but an 
Apple Guide takes you through a series of steps (as finely grained as you 
choose) to actually complete the task. Each of the milestones or steps can 
have verification built-in, so that if the person using your Guide makes a 
mistake, or fails to execute the required step, the Guide will take control and 

466 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

execute what is necessary. This is head and shoulders above the other online 
help systems available on other non-Mac OS platforms. 

Apple Guide provides you, via the Guide Maker application, the capability 

• Include direct controls, which include checkboxes and radio buttons. 

• Include context checks, which Apple Guide uses to determine if certain 
tasks or if certain conditions have been met. 

• Use red coachmarks that highlight interface elements to “coach” you 
through steps. 

How Apple Guides Are Implemented 

Apple Guide is implemented as a system extension that contains the Guide 
delivery engine, which is made up of an always running portion (with a RAM 
footprint of less than 20K) and an application portion (RAM footprint of 
about 400K) that starts up Apple Guide when you request it from the 
Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu. 

With System 7.5.5, you get four guides at the Finder level: About Apple 
Guide, Macintosh Guide, PowerTalk Guide, and Shortcuts. The application 
that lets you build Apple Guides is called Guide Maker, and it supports its 
own programming language (called Guide Script), as well as an application 
programming interface (API) to many of its features. As a programming 
domain, learning to use Guide Maker and Guide Script is akin to learning 
HyperCard/HyperTalk, and easier than learning Script Editor/AppleScript. 

When you use Guide Maker, you manipulate Guide Files, also called guides. 
You create content for your own guides from text files, which can be built 
with any word processor or text editor, including SimpleText. 

Building an Apple Guide 

Using your favorite text editorAvord processor, you embed Guide Script 
commands, a process known as “tagging” a text file. The tagged text file— 
which can define not only blocks of text, but graphics and QuickTime 
movies— is then compiled into guide files using the Guide Maker application. 
You tag (or identify) Apple Guide components in your guide file— windows, 

Appendix A: Apple Guide and Guide Maker 467 

panels, buttons, controls— using the Guide Script command language, which 
is fully documented in the Guide Script Command Reference (available on 
any recent edition of the Developer’s Reference Tools CD or Apple’s Web 

Don Crabb Bottom Line Tip The remainder of this 
appendix is for folks serious about getting a gloss on 
' how to use Guide Maker (remember, Guide Maker does 
not come with System 7.5.5; you must order it from Apple). If you 
don’t want that gloss and don’t have some programming experi- 
ence already, this stuff is safely skipped. But if you’re interested 
in really using Guide Maker to build your own Apple Guides, you 
should read the rest and follow my suggestions at the end of this 

Guide Script commands define the look, content, and navigation path of 
your guide. In a guide file, each command line begins with a command 
keyword surrounded by angle brackets (< >); for example, the command 
keyword <Help Menu> defines the help item name and guide file type. 

The Guide Maker documentation defines five types of guide files; you can 
create any or all of them depending upon your application or your online 
assistance needs: 

• About Guide File— An About guide file describes the use and contents 
of the help system (like the About box in any application). 

• Tutorial Guide File— A Tutorial guide file describes the basic features 
of an application, and is intended to bring the user to a basic level of 
proficiency. A Tutorial guide file can be written to enforce a strict 
sequential order for the user to follow, or it can merely encourage the 
user to proceed in a certain order. 

• Help Guide File— A Help guide file provides task-oriented informa- 
tion, such as step-by-step instructions on how to perform certain tasks. 
It is often the first place a user goes for initial information about the 
application— for example, to answer the questions, “How do I do this 
task?”, “What is this object on my screen?”, and “Why can’t I do this 

468 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Shortcuts Guide File— A Shortcuts guide file is intended to contain 
condensed reference material— for example, syntax rules, keyboard 
shortcuts, or command lists. 

• Other Guide File— You should use an Other guide file for information 
that does not conform to any of the previous categories. An Other 
guide file can include specialized information— for example, a quick 
reference guide or a more advanced tutorial for experienced users. 

Besides the five basic Guide files, Apple lets you build guide file additions 
(so-called “mix-in” files) to update existing guide files. If you have an AV 
Power Mac, for example, you’ll have a couple of these guide file additions 
for help with AV audio and video functions. Guide file additions don’t 
appear in the Balloon Heip/Apple Guide menu as separate items, but their 
contents are folded into the existing guide file without recompilation by 
Guide Maker. Guide file additions work well as quick updates for existing 
Guides without doing the whole shebang again. 

Once you have created and tagged a text file, you have to compile it into a 
source file with Guide Maker. That compilation process can be summarized 
by these sequential steps: 

1 . Plan and design the help content that you want. You will probably 
want to work with an instructional designer if you lack experience in 
this area. 

2. Create a source file from an existing word-processor file by tagging the 
file (embedding Guide Script commands into the file). 

3. Compile the source file into a guide file, using the Guide Maker 

4. Test your file using the diagnostic and debugging features of Guide 
Maker, or by opening it within your application. 

5. Carry out any additional steps, which may include integrating the 
guide file into your application using the Apple Guide API, Apple 
Guide Apple events, and AppleScript. 

6. You (or someone who is an experienced Mac programmer) will need 
to write source code into your application— that is, if you want your 
guide to use context checks other than those built into Apple Guide. 
(Kids, don’t try this at home!) 

Appendix A: Apple Guide and Guide Maker 469 

Apple Guide expects your guide file to live in the same folder as the applica- 
tion to which it’s attached. (If you want to put your guide files elsewhere, 
you have to write an additional routine in your application’s source code). 
Apple Guide predefines one slot in the Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu for 
one guide file of each type, plus as many “Other” guides as you want. The 
Apple Guide creation process is summarized by figure A. 3. 

Figure A.3 Schematic of Apple Guide creation 

Guide Files Access Windows 

Each of your Guide files must provide access windows that appear whenever 
you select a guide file from the Balloon Help/Apple Guide menu. The access 
window provides a list of tasks, allowing you to select the help that best 
matches your current problem. Apple Guide supports three types of access 

• Full access windows for extensive guide files— these allow you to 
cross-reference your help topics (the Macintosh Guide window shown 
earlier is an example of a full access window). Full access windows 
provide three views of the help information: Topic Areas, Index, and 
Look For. 

• Single list access windows for short lists of tasks— these are simpler 
than full access windows and are best for displaying short and focused 
lists of topics. 

470 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Simple access windows— these take you directly to help information. 
System 7.5. 5’s Macintosh Shortcuts simple access window provides 
access to six separate sequences, each accessed through a button in the 
window (several types of buttons can be defined as guide elements), as 
you can see in figure A.4. 

□ ::: ::: ::: :: ::: ::: ::: ::: :: ::: ::: ::: ::: :: :: H 

Macintosh Shortcuts 

You can use keyboard commands to work quickly in the 
Finder. Click a category below. (Other keyboard 
commands are listed in the menus.) 

Working with 

(5 e. 1 


Working with 

Working with 
list view 

Using director; 
dialog bones 

'f F 

testarting th( 

e 1 




Figure A. 4 Macintosh Shortcuts simple access window 

Guide File Panels 

When you select an item in an access window, a panel appears. A presenta- 
tion panel is a window that usually contains one step in a procedure or one 
item of information. A sequence of panels can be used to explain a task, 
either through a defined series of steps, or by means of a variety of optional 
paths that you choose. For example, if you select “How do I change a 
program’s memory size?” in the Macintosh Guide access window, you see 
the panel shown in the Macintosh Guide presentation panel shown in 
figure A. 5. 

Appendix A: Apple Guide and Guide Maker 471 

File] Edit Uieiu Label Special 


How do 

change a program’s memory size? 

Do This 

Open the File menu and choose Get Info. 

If you need instructions on choosing a menu 
item, clich Huh? below. 

Do this step, then click the right arrow. 

[ Topics 

1[ Huh? 1 


9:23 PM a 0 

iMaucintosh HD I 

i Trash j 

Figure A.5 Macintosh Guide presentation panel “How do I change a 

program’s memory size?” 

Presentation panels contain several elements, including a title area, content 
area, navigation bar, prompts, and navigation buttons. As an example, 
consider the Macintosh Guide presentation panel in figure A.5 showing all of 
these elements. You’ll also note that the navigation bar at the bottom of the 
panel includes navigation buttons and a Huh? button. This aptly named 
button takes you to a Huh? panel (I’m not making this stuff up). 

Like the rest of Apple Guide, you get several different flavors of presentation 
panels. In the current Apple Guide release, these include: 

• Huh? panels that provide information you must know in order to fully 
understand the panel. Huh? panels appear when you press the Huh? 

• Oops panels that appear when you do the wrong thing at the wrong 
time. Your guide can identify such errors if it provides context 

472 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

• Continue panels that offer to do the task for you. In many cases, you 
can have AppleScript perform the task (you must first determine if it is 
programmatically possible for Apple Guide to perform the task). 

To create a panel, use a simple Guide Script syntax, where you sandwich 
source-file commands between the commands < Define Panel > and 
<End Panel > , and then compile the sucker with Guide Maker. You can 
give a panel special features such as graphics, three-dimensional buttons, 
or a QuickTime movie by using the Guide Script commands <PICT>, 

<3D Button >, and < QuickTime >. Guide Maker uses default settings to 
automatically place panel text and objects in the panel, or you can specifi- 
cally place text and objects using format and placement commands. Defaults 
make Guide Maker easy to use, even if your programming experience is 
negligible or rusty. 

Coach This! 

Coachmarks are so cool that you’ll wonder why it took Apple so long to 
implement them. Coachmarks provide a graphical and compelling way of 
drawing attention to the exact part of the screen that needs action— a menu 
item to be selected, a control panel to be opened, or a radio button to be 
clicked— and the coachmark highlights the item so clearly that the user can 
hardly miss what to do next. 

Coachmarks do their work by sending an Apple event to the target applica- 
tion. Your application doesn’t need to handle the event, but it does need to 
be able to receive it— which is a good reason to make sure that your applica- 
tion is aware of high-level events. With Apple Guide, you get four built-in 
coach marks: 

• A red circle which surrounds a limited or enclosed area to show you 
where to click (this is the default coachmark). 

• A red underline which shows you where to input text. 

• A red arrow which points to a location on the screen. 

• A green X character to mark something or specify a place for input. 

Appendix A: Apple Guide and Guide Maker 473 

Apple Guide lets you use coachmarks in five different ways: as a menu coach, 
item coach, object coach, window coach, and AppleScript coach; each name 
is fairly descriptive of what it offers. 

A menu coach works in a specific menu, menu item, or command. When 
Apple Guide opens a panel that includes a menu coach, it uses that coach’s 
style and color (defined by Guide Script commands) to draw a coachmark 
for the specified menu. For example, in Macintosh Guide, items are identi- 
fied in the Apple menu by a red, underlined menu coach. 

An item coach appears as an item in a dialog box or other interface element 
in a window. When Apple Guide opens a panel that names an item coach, it 
uses the specified coach style to draw a coachmark for the item; for example, 
a help balloon that you want to highlight. 

An object coach is enabled when your application returns a rectangle for the 
specified object. When Apple Guide opens a panel that names a defined 
object coach, it sends an Apple event to your application that requests it to 
return a rectangle for the named object. Object coaches require Apple Guide 
event handlers in the application. 

A window coach gets enabled when you specify a rectangle within a window 
or desktop. When Apple Guide opens a panel that names a window coach, it 
uses the specified coach style to draw a coachmark in the location of the 
rectangle. For example, a window coach can highlight the Trash icon on the 

ko AppleScript coach works with a script (created by any OSA-compliant 
scripting language, like AppleScript, Userland’s Frontier scripting environ- 
ment, or CE Software’s QuicKeys) to determine the location of the object to 
mark. When Apple Guide opens a panel that includes a command naming a 
defined coach, Apple Guide executes the specified script. Once the script 
returns a rectangle for the object, Apple Guide draws the coachmark. 

Context Checking 

Apple Guide, as 1 have said, doesn’t just present cute online documentation, 
it works with the Mac OS to provide true active assistance. In fact, Apple 

474 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Guide’s context checking, which can figure out the state of a Mac or applica- 
tion, gives it the power to determine your next step. 

Context checking lets you change the Guide’s next action, based on the 
current situation. Apple calls this dynamic conditioning, but the upshot is 
clear— your Guide reacts to changes in the Mac environment as you use it. 
That’s true active assistance. 

These dynamic conditions can either be based on obvious stuff, like the state 
of certain controls on the panels (such as radio buttons or checkboxes), or 
on less obvious stuff, like context checks that have been defined elsewhere 
(typically within external code blocks). Apple Guide evaluates each condi- 
tion as either true or false, and makes adjustments to the sequence of panels 
accordingly. You can also attach an Apple event to a control to make your 
Guide even more reactive. Context checking commands include Skip If! 
Show If, If /Else/End If, Make Sure, and Start Making SurelStop Making Sure. 

As with any programming language, the ./jf statements provide conditional 
branching. IheMake Sure conditionals determine if the Guide user has 
correctly completed a step. When the Make Sure conditional returns the 
value FALSE, you see either a special Oops sequence to redirect your Guide 
user to a prior panel, or a continue sequence to perform the task (to use 
continue sequences, your application must use Apple events). 

In the current release of Apple Guide, you get two built-in context checks: 
one for checkboxes, called (cleverly enough) checkBoxState-, and the other 
for radio buttons, called (ooooh, now, think hard!) called radioButtonState. 
The check in both cases is a simple on/off. If you want to define your own 
conditions, you can do that with the Define Context Check command. 

What’s in Guide Maker? 

Guide Maker compiles your source files into Guide files, but it also provides 
debugging, diagnostic, and application localization tools. Guide Maker’s 
commands include Build (compiles source files). Look For (tests your Guide 
file’s tasks). Diagnose (shows Apple Guide status messages when you 
navigate through a Guide file). Convert (converts Microsoft’s Rich Text 
Format [RTF] and other non-Apple files into Guide format), md Localize 

Appendix A: Apple Guide and Guide Maker 475 

(creates or merges localization files that contain content strings). Guide 
Maker can extract text from your source files and convert it into resource 
files. You can also translate the text in the resource files using ResEdit or 
AppleGlot and then merge the text back into your source files using Guide 
Maker’s Localize command. Guide Maker also lets you localize any context 
checks in your Guide file. 

Putting a Guide to Work 

After you have compiled a working Guide, you should place it in the same 
folder as the application to which it refers. It will then appear in the Balloon 
Help/Apple Menu Guide menu. 

Apple expects Apple Guides to become pervasive, so much so that they’ll 
likely become the only interface many Mac folk ever see inside of applica- 
tions, and eventually, for the Finder (and whatever the Finder transmutes 
into) as well. 

Apple Guide Resources 

As I mentioned, you can get the complete Apple Guide Authoring Kit CD for 
free (until January 31, 1995, after then Apple expects to charge for it, 
although this may change). You also can get it from the WWDC 1994 New 
Technologies CD. 

This CD and the Authoring CD include: 

• Apple Guide API header file and documentation (Apple Guide 1.2 API) 

• Guide Maker 

• Apple Guide Debug extension 

• Standard include files 

• Apple Guide documentation: Introduction to Apple Guide, Guide 
Maker User’s Guide, Guide Script Command Reference 

• MoGuide application and Assistant Guide file 

• Sample Finder Guides: About Help, Macintosh Guide, and Shortcuts 

476 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

After you’ve started to crank through this stuff, you will want to snag the 
latest monthly developer mailing CD and pull-up all the develop articles 
written on Apple Guide and read them closely. In particular, you need the 
Developer CD Series Reference Library CD, along with an article written by 
John Powers, “Giving Users Help with Apple Guide,” which appears in 
develop, issue 18, and covers how you integrate Apple Guide into your 

The Future of Apple Guide 

Cast this one in concrete: Apple Guide is a big deal and it’s not going to go 
away. Apple will flog it big time. It’s going to become the cornerstone of 
future “Finders” and it heralds the real arrival of active assistance. In the 
coming year, more and more Macfolk will expect their favorite applications 
to offer Apple Guides, and even locally written apps, shareware, and 
freeware will also come to include Apple Guides. In fact, Apple Guides will 
become so pervasive we’ll come to think of them in the same way that we 
think of today’s Finder basics. If you create your own applications or are 
responsible for their creation, get to know how Apple Guide works and how 
to use Guide Maker. It’s one of the first building blocks in how Apple 
intends to redefine the Mac interface over the next few years. 



n the early 1980s, Apple successfully commer- 
cialized work done in the late 1970s 
at Xerox PARC— the concept of the 
personal computer graphical user 
interface, incorporating features such 
as windows, menus, icons, and copy- 
and-paste functionality to simplify 
the process of working with docu- 
ments, Since the first Mac in 1984, 

478 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple has made the interface richer and more satisfying to use with the 
addition of built-in collaboration with PowerTalk, multimedia with 
QuickTime, rational imaging with QuickDraw GX, and speech recognition 
and speech synthesis with PlainTalk software. 

PlainTalk, which comes in the CD Extras folder of the System 7.5.5 CD, was 
designed to work only on the 660AV and 840AV Macs and on Power Macs. If 
you don’t have one of these machines, you can skip PlainTalk for now. 

PlainTalk is speaker-independent with its speech recognition, so voice 
training is not required. PlainTalk responds to North American English 
spoken by an adult, converting speech to text commands (and then execut- 
ing them with macros, if necessary) via a built-in phonetic dictionary. The 
key limitation of PlainTalk is that it translates only commands, not dictation. 
It can open or save a letter, but it cannot type one, for example. 

PlainTalk uses special System rules that recognize the names of menu items, 
dialog box buttons, and any file or alias placed in a Speakable Items folder 
inside the System folder. 

If you want to really rock-and-roll with PlainTalk, you can connect voice 
commands to speech macros (both AppleScripts and QuicKeys). 

Look Who’s Talking Now 

PlainTalk also talks to you with its speech synthesis features, replacing 
Apple’s obsolete and clunky Macintalk technology. By using the Speech 
Setup control panel, you can set different spoken voices. For the most part, 
however, the speech synthesis of PlainTalk is controlled by any speech- 
capable application. 

PlainTalk’s text-to-speech feature, implemented by the Speech Manager 
extension, can handle a reasonable number of oddball syllables and words, 
including long numbers, national characters, and currency symbols. It can 
even change the syllabic pronunciation, depending on how a particular 
word is used. Even with its improvements, though, PlainTalk’s speech 
synthesis still sounds like the HAL 9000 after Dave Bowman pulled out most 

Appendix B: PlainTalk 479 

of its higher order functions. SimpleText uses the PlainTalk speech synthe- 
sizer to speak text; it can record audio as well. 

Voice Recognition 

PlainTalk’s voice recognition requires the new generation of Apple micro- 
phones that ship with some Macs. These high-quality omnidirectional jobs 
are meant to sit on top of your monitor. They draw their power from the 
audio input port— normal microphones cannot be substituted for them if 
you have one of the older models. The AudioVision 14 monitor builds-in this 
special microphone. 

The Speech Setup control panel turns speech recognition on/off and sets 
recognition parameters. (NOTE: Nasty commands like Erase Disk cannot be 
issued through PlainTalk, so your Mac is safe from audio input errors.) The 
sound input parameters must also be set with the Speech Setup control 
panel for speech recognition to work correctly, such as a digital sampling 
rate of 24 kHz. 

When it’s working, PlainTalk displays a text window that floats above the 
other desktop windows. This text window shows the text of the previous 
command and the current command. If PlainTalk can’t figure out what you 
have said (which happens quite often) PlainTalk types “Pardon me?” in the 

The Usability of Speech Recognition 

Two problems plague System 7.5. 5’s PlainTalk speech recognition. The first 
problem is that the PlainTalk on the CD is intended only as an upgrade to 
earlier versions (since not all Macs can use it). As such, it lacks any documen- 
tation on the disc or in the manual; there is a Speech Guide Addition to the 
Macintosh Guide, however. So, if you haven’t used PlainTalk before, don’t 
expect any help from the written materials in the System 7.5.5 distribution. 
You’ll need to refer to the manual that came with your AV or Power Mac to 
study the details of PlainTalk (or use the Speech Guide Addition). 

480 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

I’ve used PlainTalk since version 0.9 came out last year. I don’t use it any 
longer because it’s slow (even on an 8100/80AV)— much slower than execut- 
ing commands with a mouse— and it makes lots of mistakes when it is in a 
room with even only moderate background noise. In addition, it misinter- 
prets enough commands so that you can’t really trust its responses; you 
always have to double-check what it is doing. 

I’d wait for version 2.0 before I dipped into the PlainTalk waters. 

PlainTalk for Developers 

Macintosh developers can use the System 7.5. 5’s Speech Recognition 
Toolbox to recognize speech. The toolbox lets you create and modify 
“language models” (so-called LMs), which are sets of words or phrases for 
which the application wants to listen, create and start a “recognizer” that 
uses one of the LMs, and receive “recognition result” notifications when 
your target software users say something in the active LM. 

There are also many goodies in the toolbox that make it easy for applications 
to do some more sophisticated things with voice processing, including 
receiving notifications each time a user begins to speak, or automatically 
parsing results. 

The Speech Recognition Toolbox only recognizes speaker independent, 
continuous speech. There are no provisions to train the recognizer to a 
particular speaker. 

Currently, PlainTalk is designed for North American adult English speakers. 

It is not localized yet, and, in general, it will not yet work as well for chil- 
dren. Apple expects to broaden that audience over the coming months. 

PlainTalk on the CD 

The following software is included with PlainTalk on the System 7.5.5 

• AppleScript “Check For Speech Mgr”— which does what its name 

Appendix B: PlainTalk 481 

• AppleScript “Open Speech Macro Editor”— ditto 

• AppleScript “Open Speech Setup”— likewise 

• AppleScript “Speech”— script that sets up PlainTalk on your Mac 

• Speech Guide Additions to Apple Guide 

• Speech Manager extension 

• Speech Preferences file 

• Speech Recognition extension 

• AppleScript “Speech Scripting”— allows you to setup spoken phrases to 
control specific AppleScripts 

• Speech Setup control panel 

• System Speech Rules document 

• SR Monitor extension— controls speech recognition 

J^pendix P 


As with most computer stuff, there is a lot of jargon floating around when you use a Mac. So, here’s a 
list of some of the terms you are likely to run 
into and a brief definition of each. 


accelerator card An expansion card that contains another processor. This processor shares the 
work normally performed only by the computer’s main microprocessor. An accelerator card 
shortens processing time. 

access privileges The privileges to open and make changes to folders and their contents; they are 
given to, or withheld from, users. By setting access privileges, you can control access to confiden- 
tial information stored in folders on a server.h 

active window The frontmost window on the desktop; the window where the next action will take 
place. An active window’s title bar is highlighted. 

administrator The person who sets up a file server, registers users and their passwords, creates 
AppleShare groups, and maintains the server. 

Adobe Type Manager (ATM) A font technology that enables Adobe PostScript language outline 
fonts to be used for both onscreen display and printing on non-PostScript printers. 

alert A warning or report of an error in the form of an alert box, a sound from the computer’s 
speaker, or both. 

alias A “pointer” to a real file (the file may be an application, document, folder, or any other type of 
file). Aliases can be used to help you organize your Mac while also making it easier to use. 

allocate To reserve an area of memory for use. 

AppleScript Apple’s system software-level scripting system; it provides for the automation of 
routine or complex tasks and the customization of the user’s computing environment. 

484 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) A low-speed, input-only serial bus with connectors on the back panel of 
the computer that you use to attach the keyboard, mouse, and other Apple Desktop Bus devices, 
such as graphics tablets, hand controls, and specialized keyboards. 

Apple Events The messaging language of System 7.5.5’s interapplication communications 

technology (lAC), used by applications for sophisticated communication with other applications; it 
will enable programs to share not only data, but also commands. Apple Events can be used by 
AppleScript to control the Scriptable Finder and scriptable applications. 

Apple Guide An electronic assistant that is built in to System 7.5.5 that guides you through specific 
tasks one step at a time. With 7.5.5, Apple provides the Macintosh Guide and PowerTalk Guide as 
solid examples 
of this technology. 

Apple HD SC Setup A utility program that you use to initialize, update, and test SCSI hard disks. 

Apple menu The menu farthest to the left in the menu bar, indicated by an Apple symbol. This 
menu allows you to access stuff quickly and easily. 

Apple Menu Options The control panel that lets you see “nested” menus under the Apple menu; 
these make it easier and faster to access items that are several layers below the top menu. 

application A program that performs a specific task, such as word processing, database manage- 
ment, or graphics. 

archive A collection of files saved simultaneously for backup purposes, usually intended for longer 
storage than are daily backups. 

ASCII Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange (pronounced “ASK-ee”). 

A standard that assigns a unique binary number to each text character and control character. ASCII 
code is used for representing text inside a computer, and for transmitting text between computers 
or between a computer and a peripheral device. 

ATM GX A version of Adobe Type Manager designed to specifically support QuickDraw GX. 


background processing In multitasking environments, the operating system’s ability to process 
lower-priority tasks while you perform other work on the computer. 

backup A copy of a disk or of a file on a disk. It’s a good idea to make backups of all your important 
files, keeping the backups in a safe place. 

bit A contraction of binary digit. The smallest unit of information that a computer can hold. The 
value of a bit (1 or 0) represents a simple two-way choice, such as yes or no, on or off, positive or 
negative, something or nothing. 

bitmapped character A character that exists in a computer file or in memory as a bitmap, is drawn 
as a pixel pattern on the graphics screen, and is sent to the printer as graphics data. 

bitmapped display A display whose image is a representation of bits in an area of RAM called the 
screen buffer. With such a display, each dot, or pixel, on the screen corresponds, or is “mapped,” 
to a bit in the screen buffer. 

bitmapped font A font made up of bitmapped characters. Fonts stored in a Macintosh system file 
are bitmapped fonts, for example. 

Glossary 485 

boot Another way to say start up. A computer boots by loading a program into memory from an 
external storage medium such as a disk. Starting up is often accomplished by first loading a small 
program, which then reads a larger program into memory. The program is said to “pull itself up by 
its own bootstraps”— hence the term bootstrapping or booting. 

byte A unit of information consisting of a fixed number of bits. One byte consists of a series of eight 


caddy The plastic case that contains a CD-ROM disc with some types of CD-ROM drives. When you 
insert the caddy into the drive, the metal shut-ter on the caddy slides away to give the laser access 
to the disc surface. 

Calculator A desk accessory that works like a four-function pocket calculator. Calculation results 
can be cut and pasted into your documents using the Edit menu. 

CD-ROM Acronym for compact disc read-only memory; a compact disc that is 120 mm (4.72 
inches) in diameter and can store 600 MB of information. The information is designated as read- 
only memory because a CD drive can read the information but cannot record new information. 

central processing unit (CPU) The “brain” of the computer; the microprocessor that performs the 
actual computations in machine language. 

character Any symbol that has a widely understood meaning and thus can convey information. 

checkbox A small box associated with an option in a dialog box. When you click the checkbox, you 
change the option or affect related options. 

choose To pick a command by selecting it from a menu. You often choose a command after you’ve 
selected something for the program to act upon, for example, selecting a disk and choosing the 
Open command from the File menu. 

Chooser An application that lets you configure your computer system to print on any printer for 
which there’s a printing resource (on the current startup disk). If you’re part of an AppleTalk 
network, you also use the Chooser to connect and disconnect from the network and choose 
among devices connected to the network. 

client A computer that has access to services on a network. The computers that provide services are 
called servers. A user at a client may request file access, remote log-on, file transfer, print, or 
complete other available services from servers. 

Clipboard The holding place for what you last cut or copied; a buffer area in memory. Information 
on the Clipboard can be inserted (pasted) into documents. 

clipping file A file holding a selection dragged from a drag-and-drop capable application. Can be 
dropped into another drag-and-drop capable application file. 

Coachmarks Part of Apple Guide, coachmarks provide onscreen visual clues, such as circles, that 
give the user information to help him perform a specific task. 

ColorSync A color-matching technology that ensures color consistency between screen representa- 
tion and color output. 

color wheel (color picker) The dialog box that lets you adjust hue, saturation, and brightness of 
colors displayed on your monitor. 

486 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

composite video A video signal that includes both display information and the synchronization 
(and other) signals needed to display it. 

concurrent application An application that runs on a file server at the same time as the AppleShare 

concurrent processing The ability of an operating system to execute multiple programs simulta- 

configuration A general-purpose computer term that can refer to the way you have your computer 
set up. It describes the total combination of hardware components— central processing unit, video 
display device, keyboard, and peripheral devices— that make up a computer system. It also refers 
to the software settings that allow various hardware components of a computer system to 
communicate with one another. 

context sensitive The ability to perceive the situation in which an event occurs. For example, an 
application program might present help information specific to the particular task you’re 
performing, rather than a general list of commands; such help would be context sensitive. 

Control Panel Controllable system extensions with dialog boxes to set their controls. 

convergence The correctness of aim of the red, green, and blue beams of an RGB color monitor. 
When the beams converge properly, the monitor gives the best quality color. You can test your 
monitor’s convergence and adjust it by using the Monitors control panel. 

coprocessor An auxiliary processor that is designed to relieve the demand on the main processor 
by performing a few specific tasks. Coprocessors may favor a certain set of operations, like floating- 
point calculations for graphics instruction looping, and therefore they can optimize the speed at 
which such operations are processed. Generally, coprocessors handle tasks that could be 
performed by the main processor running appropriate software, but would be performed much 
more slowly that way. 

crash To cease to operate unexpectedly, possibly destroying information in the process. Compare 
hang. See also Microsoft Windows9 5. 

current startup disk The disk that contains the system files which the computer is currently using. 
The startup disk icon always appears in the upper-right corner of the screen. 

Cut To remove something by selecting it and choosing Cut from the Edit menu. What you cut is 
placed on the Clipboard. 

cut and paste To move something from one place in a document to another in the same document 
or in a different one. It’s the computer equivalent of using scissors to clip something and using 
glue to paste the clipping somewhere else. 


daisy chain A colloquial term for a group of devices connected to a host device, where the first 
device in the “chain” is connected to the host, the second device is connected to the first, the third 
device is connected to the second, and so on. 

debug A colloquial term that means to locate and correct an error or the cause of a problem in a 
computer program. Often synonymous with troubleshoot. A term not often used in Redmond, WA. 

default A value, action, or setting that a computer system assumes, unless the user gives an explicit 
instruction to the contrary. Default values prevent a program from stalling or crashing if no value 
is supplied by the user. 

Glossary 487 

Desk Accessory A “mini-application” that is typically available from the Apple menu, regardless of 
which application you’re using. For example, the Calculator, Note Pad, Alarm Clock, Puzzle, 
Scrapbook, Key Caps, and Chooser. 

desktop Your working environment on the computer. At the Finder level, the desktop displays the 
Trash and the icons (and windows) of disks that have been accessed. 

desktop publishing A system providing you with the ability to produce publication-quality 

destination Describes the disk or folder that receives a copied or translated file, as in destination 

dialog box A box that contains a message requesting more information from you. Sometimes the 
message warns you that you’re asking your computer to do something it can’t do, or that you’re 
about to destroy some of your information. In these cases, the message is often accompanied by a 

disabled Describes a menu item or feature that cannot be chosen; the disabled item appears 
dimmed. A disabled item has no effect when chosen. 

disk capacity The maximum amount of data a disk can hold, usually measured in kilobytes (K) or 
megabytes (MB). For instance, Apple 3.5-inch floppy disks typically have a disk capacity of either 
800K orl,440K. 

dithering A technique for alternating the values of adjacent dots or pixels to create the effect of 
intermediate values. In printing color or displaying color on a computer screen, the technique of 
making adjacent dots or pixels different colors to give the illusion of a third color. For example, a 
printed field of alternating cyan and yellow dots appears to be green. Dithering can give the effect 
of shades of gray on a black-and-white display, or more colors on a color display. 

document What you create with an application program— information you enter, modify, view, or 

DOS A disk operating system from Microsoft of little real value. 

dot pitch A measure of the distance between dots on the screen. The closer the dots, the sharper 
and clearer the image. 

double click Two clicks in quick succession, interpreted as a single command. The action of a 
double click is different from that of a single click. For example, clicking an icon selects the icon; 
double-clicking an icon opens it. 

download To transfer files or information from one computer to another, or from a computer to a 
peripheral device such as a printer. A printer will download fonts if a user prints a document 
containing fonts that are stored on a Macintosh, but not stored in the printer’s memory. 

drag To position the pointer on something, press and hold the mouse button, move the mouse, 
and release the mouse button. When you release the mouse button, you either confirm a selection 
or move an object to a new location. 

Drag and Drop System 7.5.5 technology that lets you select something (text and graphics) from a 
document and drop the selection into another, without using cut and paste. The 7.5.5 Finder is 
drag-and-drop compliant, too, as are SimpleText and the Scrapbook. An application must support 
Drag and Drop to use it. Also, the Macintosh Drag and Drop extension must be installed and 

driver A program, usually in a System folder, that lets a peripheral device and a computer send and 
receive information. Printer drivers control printers; a hard disk driver controls exchanges 
between a hard disk and a computer. 

488 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 


Easy Access A feature of system software that assists people who have difficulty typing on the 
keyboard or manipulating the mouse. 

Edit menu A menu in most mouse-based programs that lists editing commands. 

emulate To operate (through software) in a way identical to a different system. For example, Power 
Macs emulate the older 68K CPU's in order to run non-native PowerPC software. 

error message A message displayed or printed to tell you of an error or problem in the execution 
of a program or in your communication with the system. An error message is often accompanied 
by a beep, followed by a short, meaningful message, such as “An error of type 132.566 has 

Ethernet A high-speed local area network that consists of cable connections and a series of 
communication protocols. The Ethernet specification was developed by Digital Equipment 
Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Xerox Corporation. 

EtherTalk A high-speed AppleTalk network system that uses the cables of an Ethernet network. 
Ethernet is a widely used communications network. 


fatal error An error serious enough that the computer must halt execution. The act of buying any 
computer with Windows on it. 

fax modem A modem that supports fax sending and receiving via special software. 

file Any named, ordered collection of information stored on a disk. Application programs and 
operating systems on disks are examples of files. You make a file when you create text or graphics, 
give the material a name, and save it to disk. A Macintosh file consists of a data fork and a resource 
fork. You have to buy you own salad fork. 

File menu A menu in mouse-based applications that lists commands that affect whole documents— 
commands like Save, Print, and Quit. 

file name The name that identifies a file. The maximum character length of a file name and the 
rules for naming a file vary under different operating systems. 

file server A combination of controller software and a mass-storage device that allows computer 
users to share common files and applications through a network. AppleShare software, Macintosh 
computers, and one or more hard disks make up a file server on an AppleTalk network system. 

file synchronization The capability to synchronize files on two different systems so that they are 
the same, enabling users to work on two systems without worrying about whether they have the 
most current file. Apple includes File Assistant as part of System 7.5.5. File Assistant automatically 
synchronizes files and folders between your PowerBook and your desktop Macintosh. Files also 
can be synchronized with a server or between two Macintosh systems. 

file type A four-character sequence in single quotation marks, specified when a file is created, that 
identifies the type of file. Examples of file types are ‘TEXT’, ‘APPL’, and ‘MPST’. 

Glossary 489 

Finder The application that maintains the Macintosh desktop and starts up other programs at the 
request of the user. You use the Finder to manage documents and applications, and to get 
information to and from disks. You see the desktop upon starting up your computer, unless you 
have specified a different startup application. 

firmware Programs stored permanently in read-only memory (ROM). Such programs (for example, 
the Applesoft Interpreter and the Monitor program) are built into the computer at the factory. 

floating-point coprocessor A coprocessor that provides high-speed support for extended-precision 

floating-point unit (FPU) See floating-point coprocessor. 

folder A holder of documents, applications, and even other folders on the desktop. Folders act as 
subdirectories, allowing you to organize information in any way you wish. 

font A complete set of characters in one design, size, and style. In traditional typography usage,/ow? 
may be restricted to a particular size and style or may comprise multiple sizes, or multiple sizes 
and styles of a typeface design. 

font name The name, such as Geneva or Times, given to a font family to distinguish it from other 
font families. 

font size The size of a font of characters in points; equivalent to the distance between the ascent 
line and the descent line of one line of text. 

font style A set of stylistic variations other than size, such as italic, bold, and underline. 

fork One of the two parts of a Macintosh file the data fork contains data accessed via the 
Macintosh File Manager, and the resource fork contains data used by the application, such as 
menus, fonts, and icons. 

format (n.) (1) The form in which information is organized or presented. (2) The general shape and 
appearance of a printer’s output, including page size, character width and spacing, line spacing, 
and so on. (v.) To divide a disk into tracks and sectors where information can be stored. Blank 
disks must be formatted before you can save information on them for the first time; synonymous 
with initialize. 

gigabyte (GB) A unit of measurement equal to 1,024 megabytes. 

global backup The process of backing up all the files on a hard disk. 

gray scale Shades of gray on the screen that are created by varying the intensity of the screen’s 
pixels, rather than by using a combination of black and white pixels to produce shading. 

guest A user who is logged on to a server without a registered user name and password. A guest 
cannot own a private folder. 


hang To cease operation because either an expected condition is not satisfied or an infinite loop is 
occurring. A computer that’s hanging is called a hung system. 

490 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

hardware Those parts of the computer that you can see and touch. The computer and the machines 
that attach to it the disk drive, printer, and other peripheral devices. 

hierarchical file system (HFS) A feature of system software that lets you use folders to organize 
documents, applications, and other folders on a disk. Folders can be nested in other folders to 
create as many levels as you need. In a hierarchical file system, a file is specified by its path name 
rather than by a single file name. 

hierarchical menu A menu in which one or more individual menu items can contain a submenu. 

High Sierra format The standard proposed by a number of computer and CD-ROM companies to 
specify a way of organizing information on a CD-ROM. The information is laid out in files located 
in a series of volumes, directories, and files. The High Sierra standard makes it possible to use the 
same CD-ROM with different kinds of computers. Only the retrieval software needs to be geared to 
the computer and its operating system. 


- 1 - 

icon An image that graphically represents an object, a concept, or a message. 

incremental backup The process of backing up all files on a hard disk that have been created or 
modified since the last global backup. 

initialize To prepare a disk to receive information by organizing its surface into tracks and sectors; 
same format. 

input device A device that sends information to the microprocessor. The mouse and keyboard are 
the Macintosh’s primary input devices. 

insertion point The place in a document where something will be added, represented by a blinking 
vertical bar. You select the insertion point by clicking where you want to make the change in the 

interface The point at which independent systems or diverse groups interact (such as you and your 
Mac). Also, the devices, rules, or conventions by which one component of a system communicates 
with another. 


Kerning Spacing between particular combinations of letters in a word. An automatic function with 
QuickDraw GX and the new, “intelligent” QuickDraw GX fonts. 

keyboard shortcut A keystroke that you can use instead of a mouse action to perform a task. For 
example, pressing the K and the X keys at the same time is the same as choosing the Cut 
command from the Edit menu. 

Key Caps A desk accessory that shows you the optional character set available for a given font 

kilobyte (K) A unit of measurement consisting of 1,024 bytes. Thus, 64K memory equals 65,536 

Glossary 491 

- 1 - 

laser printer A printer that uses laser light to transfer a page image (sent by a computer) onto an 
electrostatically charged, light-sensitive drum. A black powder called toner adheres to the areas of 
the drum where the laser has drawn the image. Paper then passes over the drum, picking up the 
toner, and the toner is heat-fused to the paper as it rolls out of the printer. The Apple LaserWriter 
and LaserWriter Plus are examples of laser printers. 

leading Pronounced “LED-ing;” the amount of blank vertical space between the bottom of one line 
of text and the top of the next line of text. In early typesetting, strips of lead were placed between 
lines of type for spacing, hence the term. 

ligature A character that combines two letters. For example, the letters/and i are sometimes 
combined into a ligature. 

load To transfer information from a peripheral storage medium (such as a disk) into main memory 
for use; for example, to transfer a program into memory for execution. 

local area network (LAN) A group of computers connected for the purpose of sharing resources. 
The computers on a local area network are typically joined by a single transmission cable and are 
located within a small area such as a single building or section of a building. 

lock To prevent documents, files, or entire disks from being altered. Files can be locked with 
software commands; for example, to lock a document select it and choose Get Info from the File 
menu, then click the Locked checkbox in the lower-left corner of the Info window. 


MacBinary A file transfer type. 

Macintosh Easy Open A system software extension that automatically translates data and opens 
documents in supported applications, even if the application that created them is not available. 

Macintosh Operating System (Mac OS) The combination of ROM-based and disk-based routines 
that together perform basic tasks such as starting the computer, moving data to and from disks and 
peripheral devices, and managing memory space in RAM. 

Macintosh PC Exchange A utility that enables MS-DOS, Windows, and OS/2 disks to be mounted 
and opened on the desktop, along with their data files using compatible Macintosh applications. 

MacTCP Apple’s standard software implementation of TCP/IP, which enables Macintosh users to 
access information on Cray supercomputers, UNIX and Sun workstations, VAX systems, and a 
variety of other hosts. 

macro A user-defined command that tells an application to carry out a series of commands when 
the macro is activated. These commands may be recorded sequences of characters and commands, 
identified by a name and possibly triggered by a keystroke. 

main memory The part of a computer’s memory whose contents are directly accessible to the 
microprocessor; usually synonymous with random-access memory (RAM). Programs are loaded 
into main memory, where the computer keeps information while you’re working. 

megabyte (MB) A unit of measurement equal to 1,024 kilobytes, or 1,048,576 bytes. 

492 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

memory A hardware component of a computer system that can store information for later retrieval. 

memory expansion card A circuit board that adds extra random-access memory (RAM) to your 
computer, typically a SIMM (Single Inline Memory Module). 

menu A list of choices presented by a program, from which you can select a command. 

menu bar The horizontal strip at the top of the screen that contains menu commands. 

microprocessor An integrated circuit on the computer’s main circuit board. The microprocessor 
carries out software instructions by directing the flow of electrical impulses through the computer. 
The microprocessor is the central processing unit (CPU) of the microcomputer. Examples are the 
Motorola 68040 and PowerPC. 

MIDI Acronym for Musical Instrument Data Interface; a standard interface for electronically created 

modem Short for modulator ! demodulator; a peripheral device that links your computer to other 
computers and information services using telephone lines. 

multitasking A process that allows a computer to perform two or more tasks simultaneously; it is 
accomplished by alternating the actions of the computer between tasks. True multitasking, also 
called preemption or preemptive multitasking, won’t be available on the Mac until at least System 
8 . 0 . 


native mode Software that has been rewritten to work directly with the PowerPC CPUs of Power 
Macs, rather than running in the 68K emulator. 

network A collection of interconnected, individually controlled computers, together with the 
hardware and software used to connect them. A network allows users to share data and peripheral 
devices such as printers and storage media, to exchange electronic mail, and so on. 

Note Pad An application that allows you to enter and edit small amounts of text while working on 
another document. 

NTSC Abbreviation ior National Television Standards Committee, which defined the standard 
format used for transmitting broadcast video signals in the United States. Also, the standard video 
format defined by the NTSC, also called composite because it combines all the video information, 
including color, into a single signal. 

NuBus An address bus and data bus incorporated into the system architecture, first implemented on 
the Macintosh II. The NuBus architecture lets you add a variety of components to the system, by 
means of expansion cards installed in NuBus expansion slots inside the Macintosh. 

- 0 - 

open To make available. You open files, folders, or documents in order to work with them. 

open architecture A computer system’s ability to use a variety of optional components designed to 
meet specialized needs, such as video, coprocessing, networking, and so on. An “open” system is 
one to which a user with no technical background can easily add devices and expansion cards to 
customize the system. 

Glossary 493 

Operating system A program that organizes the actions of the parts of the computer and its 
peripheral devices. Also, low-level software that controls a computer by performing such basic 
tasks such as input/output, memory management, and interrupt handling. The operating system 
also determines the user interface. The major personal computer operating systems are DOS 
(forget it), Windows (just like the Mac, NOT!), Macintosh (the best), and 0/S2. 

Option key A modifier key that gives a different meaning or action to another key you press or to 
mouse actions you perform. For example, you can use it to type foreign characters or special 
symbols contained in the optional character set. 

output device A device that receives information from the microprocessor. The monitor is the 
Macintosh computer’s primary output device. 

Owner The AppleShare user category that the owners of folders or volumes use to assign access 
privileges to themselves. 


paging A method by which some operating systems store processes that are too large to be held in 
main memory. When a process is executing, a portion of its code and data resides in main 
memory. Other portions, divided into pages, are automatically read in from disk storage as 
needed. When the system runs low on free main memory, the kernel makes more available by 
writing unneeded pages back out to disk. The kernel shuffles pages in and out of main memory 
and disk storage like this until the process has executed. Also called page swapping. 

parallel communication A form of data communication in which the eight bits in each byte of data 
move along eight separate parallel lines inside a single cable. 

parameter RAM Battery-powered RAM contained in the clock chip that stores System preferences 
(such as time and date). 

partition A portion of a memory device— such as a hard disk or tape— that is treated like a device 
itself. For example, if you select the 50 percent Macintosh partition scheme provided by Apple HD 
SC Setup, your Macintosh volume, shown as a hard disk in the Finder, will take up about half your 
hard disk. 

password A series of keystrokes that gives you, but no one else, access to your files, messages sent 
to you through an information service, or a network. 

paste To place the contents of the Clipboard— whatever was last cut or copied— at the insertion 

peripheral device A piece of hardware— such as a video monitor, disk drive, printer, or modem- 
used in conjunction with a computer and under the computer’s control. Peripheral devices are 
often (but not necessarily) physically separate from the computer and connected to the computer 
by wires, cables, or some other form of interface. Such devices often require peripheral cards. 

pixel Short for picture element; the smallest dot you can draw on the screen. Also a location in 
video memory that corresponds to a point on the graphics screen when the viewing window 
includes that location. 

PlainTalk Speech recognition and synthesis software extensions for System 7.5.5 that work with AV 
and Power Macs. 

494 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

PMMU The Motorola 68851 Paged Memory Management Unit, which allows an operating system to 
quickly reconfigure the arrangement of memory without physically moving data, so that different 
tasks can be “swapped” within the same space. The PMMU chip is needed with virtual memory. 

Portable Digital Documents (PDDs) Using the “print and view” technology in QuickDraw GX, you 
can create portable documents that can be viewed and printed by other users, even if they don’t 
have the application or fonts used to create the document. 

Power Macintosh Apple’s new line of Macintosh systems, based on PowerPC technology. 

PowerPC A CPU based on RISC technology, developed jointly by Apple, IBM, and Motorola. 

PowerTalk A set of collaborative services that enables users to send electronic mail, share files, and 
“sign” and forward documents from within an application. 

PostScript Type 1 Adobe Systems’ outline font format. Type 1 fonts are based on the PostScript 
page-description language. 

PrintMonitor An application that monitors background printing and provides options intended to 
give you additional control over what happens to documents you are printing. PrintMonitor is not 
needed when you use QuickDraw GX. 

print server A combination of software and hardware that stores documents sent to it over the 
AppleTalk network and manages the printing of those documents. 

print spooler A utility that writes a representation of a document’s printed image to disk or to 
memory, schedules it to print in a queue of other jobs, and then prints it. 

processor The hardware component of a computer that performs the actual computation by 
directly executing instructions represented in machine language and stored in main memory. 

proportional font Any font in which different characters have different widths; thus, the space 
taken up by words having the same number of letters may vary. For example, in the typeface used 
here the letter M is wider than the letter I, so that MMMMM produces a wider string than IIIII. 

protocol Short for communications protocol; a formal set of rules for sending and receiving data 
on a communication line. For example, binary synchronous communications (BSC) is a protocol. 

public-domain software Software that is free for the taking. You can get it at user group meetings 
or through computer bulletin boards. 

pull-down menu A menu that is hidden until you move the pointer to its title and press the mouse 


QuickDraw GX A sophisticated graphics and printing architecture that represents a major advance 
in ease-of-use for everyday printing as well as high-end graphics manipulation. 


RAM cache Random-access memory that you can designate to store certain information an 

application uses repeatedly. Using the RAM cache can greatly speed up your work, but it may need 
to be used sparingly or not at all with applications that require large amounts of memory. You set 
the RAM cache in the Memory control panel. 

Glossary 495 

RAM disk A portion of RAM that appears to the operating system to be a disk volume or hard disk. 
Files in a RAM disk can be accessed much faster than the same files on a real hard disk. 

random-access memory (RAM) The part of the computer’s memory that stores information 
temporarily while you’re working on it. A computer with 4096K of RAM has 4,096 kilobytes of 
memory available to the user. Information in RAM can be referred to in an arbitrary or random 
order, hence the term random-access. (As an analogy, a book is a random-access storage device in 
that it can be opened and read at any point.) RAM can contain both application programs and your 
own information. Information in RAM is temporary, gone forever if you switch the power off 
without saving it on a disk or other storage medium. An exception is the battery RAM, which 
stores settings such as the time and which is powered by a battery. 

read To transfer information into the computer’s memory from a source outside the computer 
(such as a disk drive or modem) or into the computer’s processor from a source external to the 
processor (such as the keyboard or main memory). 

read-only memory (ROM) Memory whose contents can be read but not changed; used for storing 
firmware. Information is placed into read-only memory once, during manufacture. It remains 
there permanently, even when the computer’s power is turned off. 

registered user A user who has been given a user name and password by the AppleShare 

resource fork The part of a file that contains data used by an application, such as menus, fonts, and 
icons. An executable file’s code is also stored in the resource fork. Sometimes called a resource 

restart To cause the Mac to shut down and then turn itself on again. You have to do this when you 
are installing certain kinds of software (such as control panels). It can also help clear some types of 

RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computing; an advanced processor architecture that provides greatly 
increased performance, and is implemented with the PowerPC chip in Power Macintosh 

RGB Abbreviation for red-green-hlue; a method of displaying color video by transmitting the three 
primary colors as three separate signals. 

RGB monitor A type of color monitor that receives separate signals for each color (red, green, and 


sans serif Without serifs; serifs are fine lines that finish off the main strokes of a letter— like the little 
“feet” on the bottom of the vertical strokes in the letter M. 

save To store information by transferring it from main memory to a disk. Work not saved disappears 
when you switch off the computer or when the power is interrupted. 

scanner Any graphic input device that converts printed matter into digital data. 

Scrapbook A small application in which you can save frequently used pictures or text. 

screen font A bitmapped font intended for use on the computer screen. 

screen shot A document that is like a snapshot of your Macintosh screen. You make a screen shot 
by holding down the K and Shift keys and then pressing 3. 

496 Guide to Macintosh System 7.5.5 

script A series of commands written in HyperTalk, AppleScript, and other scripting languages that 
you can use to automate your computer. 

Scriptable Finder A version of the Macintosh Finder included with System 7.5.5 that can be 
scripted with AppleScript, enabling you to automate system-level tasks. 

SCSI An acronym for Small Computer System Interface (pronounced “SKUH-zee”) . An industry 
standard interface that provides high-speed access to peripheral devices. 

select To designate where the next action will take place. To select (using a mouse) you click an 
icon or drag across information. In some applications, you can select items in menus by typing a 
letter or number at a prompt, by using a combination of keys, or by using arrow keys. 

serial interface An interface in which information is transmitted sequentially, one bit at a time, over 
a single wire or channel. 

server A computer that provides a particular service across a network. The service may be file 
access, log-in access, file transfer, printing, and so on. 

shareware Software you can try before sending payment to the author. 

Shift-click A technique that allows you to extend or shorten a selection by positioning the pointer 
at the end of what you want to select and holding down the Shift key while clicking the mouse 

Shift-drag A technique that allows you to select multiple objects by holding down the Shift key 
while you drag diagonally to enclose the objects in a rectangle. 

68000 The microprocessor used in the Macintosh, Macintosh Plus, and Macintosh SE, among 
others. The 68000 has 32-bit data and address registers. 

68020 The microprocessor in the Macintosh II. The Motorola 68020 can also be added to the 
Macintosh SE by means of an accelerator card installed in the SE Bus expansion connector. 

68030 The microprocessors of the Mac Ilex, Ilci, and other Macs. 

68040 The microprocessors of the Quadra line and related Macs. 

68851 An optional coprocessor available for the Macintosh II that allows paged memory manage- 
ment, a technique that lets the microprocessor access a much larger body of data than can fit in 
RAM at one time. Sometimes referred to as the Paged Memory Management Unit, otPMMU. 

68881 A coprocessor that provides high-speed support for processing scientific computations. 
Sometimes referred to as the floating-point unit, or FPU. 

software A collective term for programs, the instructions that tell the computer what to do. 

Software is usually stored on disks of one kind or another. 

software pirate A person who copies applications without the permission of the author. To copy 
software without permission is illegal. 

SoftWindows An application from Insignia Solutions, Inc., optimized for the PowerPC processor, 
which emulates an Intel x86 processor and enables Power Macintosh computers to run MS-DOS 
and Microsoft Windows applications on top of System 7.5.5. For most users, SoftWindows is too 
slow. You are better off using a System 7.5.5 Macintosh to read and use Windows disks, and leave 
direct Windows applications to a real PC. 

spool printing Writing a representation of a document’s printed image to disk or to memory, and 
then printing it (as opposed to immediate printing). 

spreadsheet program A type of application program that simplifies financial planning, cost 
estimating, and other number-crunching tasks. In a spreadsheet, information is laid out in 
columns and rows. Also called an electronic worksheet. 

Glossary 497 

Start up To get the system running. Starting up is the process of first reading an operating-system 
program from the disk and then running an application program. Synonymous with boot. 

startup disk A disk with all the necessary program files— such as the Finder and System files 

contained in the System Folder for the Macintosh— to set the computer into operation. Sometimes 
called a boot disk 

system A coordinated collection of interrelated and interacting parts organized to perform some 
function or achieve some purpose— for example, a computer system comprising a processor, 
keyboard, monitor, and disk drive. 

system file Any file the computer uses to start itself up or to provide system-wide information. 
Although system files are represented by icons just as documents and applications are, they can’t 
be opened in the usual way. You can, however, alter the contents of system files. 


TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) A growing protocol for business as 
well as education networks and the Internet. 

tear-ofif menu Any menu that you can detach from the menu bar by pressing the menu title and 
dragging beyond the menu’s edge. The torn-off menu appears in a window. 

telecommunication Transmitting information across varying distances, such as over telephone 

Telephony The integration of personal computer and telephone functions. 

text file A file that contains information stored in the form of readable characters encoded using the 
ASCII format. On the Macintosh, they are known as Text Only documents. 

title bar The horizontal