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Metropolitan Canberra 


Policy Plan 
Development Plan 


National 

Capital 

Development 

Commission 

Canberra, July 1984 


© Commonwealth of Australia 1984 
ISBN 0 642 87110 8 
Published by the 

National Capital Development Commission 
Canberra, ACT Australia. 




Foreword 


The Commission’s first metropolitan planning report was published 
in 1965 under the heading of The Future Canberra. Its objective was 
to define a pattern of future urban development sufficient to accom¬ 
modate an ultimate population of 250 000, and to create a structure 
of separate urban districts which would avoid the adverse consequences 
of urban sprawl. The 1965 Outline Plan made provision for ‘satellite 
towns’ to be developed at Woden, Belconnen and Majura, separated 
from one another and from existing urban areas at North and South 
Canberra by continuous non-urban (rural) belts and recreational open 
spaces. 

In 1970 the Commission published a revised metropolitan plan 
under the heading of Tommorow’s Canberra. This was the so-called 
‘Y-Plan’ which rearranged the satellite towns into a linear pattern in 
order to obtain a more efficient transport system. The Y-Plan was 
influenced by the application of land use/transport planning techniques 
which were popular amongst engineers and town planners in the 1960s. 
It reflected the clear acceptance of the private car as the principal mode 
of transport for all trips, particularly the journey-to-work. It also aimed 
at the segregation of the private car network and the public transport 
network with the object of keeping public transport movements as 
free as possible from traffic congestion. In particular, an objective 
of the Plan was to protect the essential features of the Griffin Plan 
and maintain a dignified setting in the Central Area for the 
Parliament. 

Unlike metropolitan planning schemes prepared for other 
Australian cities the Y-Plan has, for the most part, been closely 
adhered to and has worked much as the planners intended at the time 
it was formulated in the late 1960s. 

When the time came to review the Y-Plan towards the end of the 
1970s it became increasingly apparent to the Commission that it was 
no longer possible to produce a single report on metropolitan planning 
that would do justice to all of the key issues. Physical expansion was 
no longer the most important issue in the way that it had been in 1965 
and 1970 when the two previous reports had been prepared. Social 
and economic issues were now more pressing. 

As a consequence the Commission in 1980 published a Discussion 
Paper in order to elicit views from the community on a variety of 
metropolitan planning issues occurring in physical, social and 
economic realms. As a result of the submissions received the 
Commission decided that it would produce a series of reports on a 
fairly regular basis dealing with different but related aspects of 
metropolitan planning and development. The more significant reports 
which have been published since 1980 have dealt with the following: 

• Civic Centre Policy Plan and Development Plan 

• Parliamentary Zone Development Plan (two reports) 

• Murrumbidgee River Corridor Draft Policy Plan and Development 

Plan. 


in 






This present report is intended to be an ‘overview’ document which 
draws on some of the material previously published in the 1980 
Discussion Paper, but updated to reflect recent trends and the latest 
demographic data from the 1981 census. It is not meant to be an 
exhaustive report on all aspects of metropolitan planning. More detailed 
information is - or will be - contained in specific reports on designated 
areas or explicit issues of the kind indicated above. In some instances 
there are bound to be gaps in the sense that some issues, particularly 
in social and economic realms, can be identified as problems but the 
solutions are either not clear to the Commission or lie outside the scope 
of its statutory responsibilities. In such circumstances the Commission 
tries to act in an advocacy role or seeks to establish collaborative 
arrangements as a way of tackling complex social and economic 
problems, thus it is necessary to look beyond the scope of this report 
in relation to such matters. 

This report confirms the basic structure of the Y-Plan as a 
continuing and valid basis for guiding metropolitan development at 
population capacities up to 400 000. It indicates that as Canberra’s 
population reaches a level of 250 000 in a few years time, and as 
remaining lands in Tuggeranong are serviced and occupied, it is 
necessary to start now the planning and development of a fourth ‘new 
town’ at Gungahlin. In addition the existing commercial/retail centres 
at Civic and Woden are fast approaching employment/accessibility 
thresholds which means that - particularly in the case of Civic - major 
investment in roads, public transport and parking facilities will be 
needed from now on in order to maintain their functional effectiveness 
in infrastructure terms. Otherwise congestion, air pollution and other 
adverse environmental impacts will increasingly be experienced. 

Such issues are touched on in this report but will be the subject 
of further, more detailed, reports as current study programmes are 
completed. In particular, reports on the Tuggeranong Town Centre, 
Gungahlin and the Parliamentary Zone will be published progressively 
over the next year or so. The concept of the National Capital Open 
Space System will be further refined in conjunction with the Department 
of Territories and Local Government, and a report published for 
public discussion covering both the development and management 
aspects. 

The Commission is aware of the fact that, periodically, different 
community groups raise fundamental questions about the validity of 
specific principles or policies contained in the Y-Plan and it is 
conscious of the possibility that some of these questions might not 
be satisfactorily dealt with in this report. To some extent this happens 
either because the question posed is inherently difficult to answer or 
because it could take months or even years of investigation to validate. 

In other words there are limitations on what planners can hope 
to achieve in their efforts to satisfy the diverse needs and demands 
of their client communities. While it is not possible to produce a 
metropolitan pian that will be ‘all things to all men’ it is reasonable 
to expect, however, that the Commission as the authority responsible 
for the planning and development of the National Capital does provide 
clear statements of its policies and an explanation of their underlying 
reasoning. This is what this report aims to do. 

In the final analysis the crucial judgements to be made about 
planning are whether or not Canberra provides a large measure of 
satisfaction as an environment for living so far as its residents are 
concerned, and as an effective seat of government so far as the 
Parliament and the executive government are concerned. In the 
Commission’s opinion it does achieve both these things in large 
measure and has good prospects for continuing to do so. 


A.J.W. POWELL 

Commissioner July 1984 


JV 


Contents 


Page 

Foreword iii 


Introduction 1 


Background 1 

Purpose of the Report 3 

The Planning Area 3 


Summary of Conclusions and Proposals 5 


Introduction 5 

Nature and Contents of the Report 6 

Existing Situation, Trends and Forecasts 

Generation of Alternative Plans 12 

Evaluation of Alternative Plans 15 

The Preferred Plan 20 

Policy Plan 21 

Development Plan 26 


Background 31 


The Y-Plan (1970) 31 

Metropolitan Issues Report (1980) 36 


Existing Situation and Forecast Change 41 


Existing Land Use Plan and Location of Key Activities 41 

Social and Economic Aspects of the City 46 

Transport 76 

Waier Resources and Energy Services 97 

Physical and Environmental Aspects of the City 101 


Planning for Growth and Change 109 


Approach to Planning 109 

Generation of Alternative Plans 115 

Framework for Evaluation of Alternative Plans 122 

Transport Evaluation 123 

Centres Evaluation 139 

Aims Achievement Evaluation 157 

The Preferred Plan 169 


Policy Plan 171 


Introduction 171 

Principles of Urban Structure 172 

Subjects of the Plan 178 


Development Plan 207 


Introduction 207 

Development Proposals 209 

Implementation 227 
























Chapter 1 


Introduction 


Background 

Canberra has a history of long-term metropolitan planning. In 
1911 the Federal Government launched a world-wide design competition 
to produce a plan of layout for Canberra as the Seat of Government 
and National Capital of Australia. The competition was won by 
Walter Burley Griffin, an architect and landscape designer and his 
plan for a city of 75 000 was far sighted, serving Canberra until the 
mid-1950s. The Griffin Plan was concerned primarily with the formal 
layout of the Central Area as a setting for the Parliament House and 
location of the main functions of government. The Plan also established 
a number of important principles relating to the pattern of urban 
development and its relation to topographic and landscape elements, 
which have been incorporated into all subsequent plans for the City. 

When the Commission was established in 1957, its immediate tasks 
were to assume responsibilities for those projects already in progress, 
establish a construction programme for the approved public service 
transfers and consequent development and to launch the necessary 
long-term planning studies for the future extension of the City. 
Preliminary forecasts made by the Commission when it first assumed 
office indicated that the population of the Canberra City Area would 
reach 100 000 by June 1974. The results of the 1959 Population Count 
provided more precise information concerning the rate of public service 
transfers, and more detailed research into population growth showed 
the original estimate to be conservative. The Commission was faced 
with the problem of a population of 100 000 being reached by 1969-70. 

Given this situation and the fact that the Griffin Plan was only 
intended to accommodate 75 000 people, the Commission undertook 
a series of studies to define a long-term metropolitan strategy for the 
future expansion of the City. These studies indicated that the choice 
lay between the intensification of densities at existing population centres 
coupled with the extension of the urban fringe areas in the traditional 
growth pattern of Australian cities or preserving the open character 
of the City by limiting the extent of the existing population area and 
forming new residential districts in the surrounding rural areas. 

The Commission chose the latter and produced an Outline Plan 
for a population of 250 000 and a diagram showing possible growth 
patterns beyond this level. The main reason for this choice was that 
it preserved the integrity of the Griffin Plan along w ith Griffin's concept 
that Canberra should be a Garden City in a landscaped setting with 
the topography the dominant element in the City structure. 

In 1963, Rankine and Hill and De Lcuw Cather undertook the 
Canberra Area Transportation Study (CATS) to examine the Outline 
Plan for 250 000 people. The study showed that the Plan would break 
down when growth occurred beyond this level, and it was recognised 
that a new plan would be needed to cater for Canberra's long-term 


1 




growth prospects. In 1965 Alan Voorhees was approached to undertake 
a study to develop a series of long-term test plans and to evaluate 
their relative effectiveness. 

Analysis of the test plans resulted in the development ot the Y-Plan 
which was published in Tomorrow's Canberra in 1970 (Figure 1). 

In 1980 the Y-Plan was reviewed and the Commission concluded 
that it was a viable strategy at least up to a population level ot 500 000 
people. Within the broad framework of the Y-Plan there were, 
however, a number of important policy and development issues which 
needed resolution. These issues were canvassed in the Metropolitan 
Issues-Public Discussion Paper which was published in 1980. I he most 
important question raised in this report was the location and staging 
of future development. One aspect of this was the issue of whether 
or not West Murrumbidgee should be developed and it so, how 
adverse environmental impacts should be handled. 

Since the Metropolitan Issues Report was published in 1980, 
continuing studies by the Commission, coupled with a resurgence ot 
development and employment growth, have shown that by the end 
of this decade it will be necessary to have population settlement in 
the new town of Gungahlin. This has significant implications lor both 
the government and private sector in terms of funding and investment 
decisions. From the viewpoint of government, considerable funds will 
be required to finance major urban infrastructure, especially hydraulic 
serv ices and roads and for land servicing. 

Also by 1990 the overall operational requirements of the City are 
likely to result in the need for additional funds and investment to 
upgrade the metropolitan road network, to prov ide additional public 
transport facilities and to prov ide for structured car parking at major 
metropolitan shopping and employment centres. 

The key issues dealt with in this Report relate to the location and 
staging of population settlement and employment centres, the provision 
of major retail facilities, the provision of a metropolitan park through 
the establishment of a National Capital Open Space System and the 
provision of a metropolitan road network and public transport system. 
Related key issues are the preservation of the natural environment, 
in particular the preservation of the Murrumbidgee River and the land 
immediately to the west in Tuggeranong, the need to ensure adequate 
air and water quality and the costs associated with maintaining and 
protecting the intrinsic value of the existing built environment, in 
particular the Central Area which contains the main activities of the 
Parliament and the government. 

While this Report discusses many of these issues and proposes steps 
to resolve them through forward planning, development programmes 
and policies, several issues remain unresolved. The Commission 
recognises that ultimately certain of these remaining issues involve 
political decisions which must be made by governments, influenced 
to some extent by the Commission’s technical assessments and 
community opinion and representation. Other issues, such as 
redevelopment of inner-city areas are referred to in the Report, but 
not conclusively dealt with because by their very nature, they demand 
an iterative approach to the formulation of detailed planning policies 
and development control. 

Any plan for Canberra cannot be implemented by the NCDC 
alone. Such a plan will need the guidance and support of the 
Australian Parliament through the Joint Parliamentary Committee 
on the ACT; the people of Canberra through the ACT House of 
Assembly; the Department of Territories and Focal Government; the 
Canberra Development Board; and other government agencies involved 
with Canberra’s development. It will need the continued support of 
Canberra’s private enterprise sector which makes major investment 



f igure 1 Strategy Plan for Metropolitan 

Growth (The Y-Plan) 


2 






NSW 



Figure 2 


decisions. It will also require support from the various private sector 
organisations such as the Canberra Association for Regional Develop¬ 
ment, the Chambers of Commerce and other business associations. 


Canberra 


NSW 


Purposes of the Report 

The purposes of the Metropolitan Planning Report are to: 

• describe the background to the existing Metropolitan Plan (Y-Plan) 

• describe the existing land-use structure of the City and the location 
of key activities 

• prepare forecasts of future growth and change 

• predict the future needs of the City based on such forecasts 

• show how these needs can be accommodated in alternative plans 
and analyse the implications of the alternatives 

• describe a preferred strategy for future growth and change 
indicating the main metropolitan policies and development 
programmes needed to guide the long-term development of 
Canberra 

• describe how the public and private sectors can carry out urban 
development both jointly and individually. 


0 20 km 

l_i i i i 

The Planning Area 


The Planning Area 

The planning area for this report is the Australian Capital 
Territory. The subject matter is mainly concerned with Metropolitan 
Canberra which comprises the existing urban areas of Canberra plus 
those settlement areas which will accommodate the population 
expected during the next twenty years. Population, employment, land, 
housing, retailing and transport have all been analysed on this basis. 

The planning area is shown in Figure 2. 


3 





Chapter 2 


Summary of Conclusions 
and Proposals 


Introduction 

The Commission’s role is to formulate planning policies and to 
carry out development which meets the social and economic needs 
of the resident and business community. It is the Commission's aim 
to have policies and development programmes which are comp¬ 
lementary to private enterprise investment. 

The Plan for Metropolitan Canberra comprises both a Policy Plan 
and a Development Plan. The subject matter of the Plan can be 
described as follows. 

• The Plan focuses on physical development. It meets a specific need 
to provide advice on physical development and should be 
understood as being complementary to other planning activities 
within the City. 

• The Plan is long range. It focuses on the future needs of the 
community, insofar as it is possible to make reasonable judgements 
as to what these needs will be. The Plan can be seen as a statement 
of long-term targets to which short-term decisions should be geared. 
As conditions and circumstances change, the targets might also 
change. 

• The Plan is comprehensive with respect to physical elements of the 
urban environment. 

• The Plan relates the major physical proposals to the basic policies 
of the Plan. 

The Plan thus deals with the overall physical planning and develop¬ 
ment of Canberra, although it also considers social and economic 
aspects. 

The Metropolitan Policy Plan and Metropolitan Development Plan 
essentially comprise the Commission’s strategic plan, which not only 
illustrates the physical and functional end-result, which is an urban 
development pattern, but also defines the policy base for regulating 
both public and private sector development. The Metropolitan Policy 
Plan shows the principles and policies adopted by the Commission to 
guide future urban development and to regulate redevelopment. 




Nature and Contents of the Report 

The Report covers four main aspects, namely: 

• background, which outlines the Y-Plan, and the review of the Plan 
which has occurred over the past four years 

• the existing situation and forecast change 

• the generation and evaluation of alternative plans for Metropolitan 
Canberra leading to a preferred plan for the long-term development 
of Canberra 

• planning policies and development programmes needed to 
implement the preferred plan. 

The existing situation is described in terms of the major 
metropolitan structural elements, such as land and housing, retailing, 
transport, etc. Relevant trends have been analysed in terms of 
demographic, economic, land use and transport factors, in order to 
identify likely future needs. 

In the light of such needs, forecasts of future development have 
been formulated and alternative plans have been derived to show how 
development might be accommodated within the next twenty years, 
which is the plan period for this Report. 

The preferred plan has been prepared as a Policy Plan to indicate 
the Commission’s intended location for future development in 
Canberra. A Development Plan has been prepared to show how the 
more significant policies might be implemented by both the public 
and private sectors. 

Policy Plans comprise broad statements of planning policy, as a 
basis for making decisions about urban development by both the 
public and the private sector. Where possible, the objectives and 
principles underlying the policies are indicated, as well as the 
environmental and town planning standards to be met. 

Development Plans show development intentions and proposals 
for works by the Commission, as well as possible development by the 
private sector. They focus attention on the Commission’s intentions 
for development within the broad context of the Policy Plan. 

Generally, Development Plans relate to Commission programmes 
for expenditure and are, therefore, short-term, while Policy Plans have 
a longer time frame. 


6 


Existing Situation, Trends and Forecasts 

The following section summarises the existing situation and 
forecast change for Metropolitan Canberra, together with those trends 
or issues which bear directly on the formulation of the Policy Plan 
and Development Plan. The method of analysis is based on the 
separate treatment of subject areas, such as employment and retail. 


Social and Economic Aspects 

Em ployment 

• At June 1983, the labourforce of the ACT was approximately 
115 700 of which 7 700 were unemployed. In addition, approxi¬ 
mately 6 000 jobs were located in Queanbeyan. 

• In the next twenty years the Canberra/Queanbeyan workforce is 
projected to increase to about 186 000. 

• The distribution of employment is a key planning variable 
influencing the length and cost of the journey to work; the level 
of noise, air and water pollution; and the level of investment 
required to implement the plan. 

Population 

• Between 1971 and 1975, the average annual population increase 
in the ACT was 11 000, of which about three-quarters was a result 
of net migration. Between 1976 and 1982, net migration averaged 
only 1 000 per annum, or 22 per cent of the growth of the period. 

• At June 1983, the population of Canberra was estimated at 
234 900, and that of Queanbeyan at 20 150. 

• At June 1983, the population of Inner Canberra had fallen to 
below' 60 000 from a peak population of 83 000 in 1967. The 
population of Woden-Weston Creek had begun to decline, w hile 
Belconnen’s population was stable at about 77 000. Tuggeranong’s 
population had grown to 38 450 in June 1983 since its settlement 
commenced in 1973. 

• Canberra’s population is projected to increase to 292 000 by 1991, 
and to 378 000 in twenty years time. 

• The population over 60 years of age is projected to increase from 
15 100 in 1981 to about 37 000 by the turn of the century. 

• The growth of the population, its location and characteristics 
produce demands for schools, shops, employment, land, housing, 
hospitals and other community facilities. Its distribution has a 
bearing on the level of investment required, the environment and 
the relative accessibility of the population to commercial, 
community and recreational facilities. 


Land and Housing 

• At June 1983, there were an estimated 63 900 occupied single 
residential dwellings and 11 200 occupied medium-density 
dwellings in Canberra. 

• Annual occupations of single residential dwellings have fallen from 
3 100 in 1976-77 to 1 570 in 1982-83. Medium-density dwelling 
occupations have varied from between 500 and 750 per annum 
over this period. 

• Land for development in the existing towns and in North-East 
Tuggeranong is expected to be largely developed by 1987-88. By 
this time, land is required for development in another settlement 
area, with the choice being either Canyon or Gungahlin. Under 
the population growth projected in the plan period, there is 
insufficient time to have serviced land in Gungahlin available in 
1987-88. The planning and development pipeline for a new tow n 
is six-and-a-half years between initial planning and first settlement. 


As a consequence, first land turn-off in Gungahlin is unlikely to 
occur until 1989-90. Lanyon, as a result of its more advanced stage 
of planning (Conder, its first suburb, is already gazetted) can be 
available for settlement in 1987-88. Therefore, as North-East 
Tuggeranong reaches capacity, the development frontier will move 
to Lanyon. 

Retail 

• At September 1982, Canberra had an estimated 369 000 m 2 of retail 
floorspace or 1.6 nv per capita according to the Commission’s 
definitions and measurements, although the ABS 1979-80 Retail 
Census suggested that there was only 1.4 nr per capita. 

• The provision varied from 1.8 nr per capita in Inner Canberra 
(excluding Fyshwick) to 0.23 nr per capita in Tuggeranong. 

• There was movement of expenditure between each of the towns 
in response to the retailing opportunities available. The level of 
expenditure outflow from Tuggeranong was the most pronounced, 
with only 23.5 per cent of Tuggeranong residents’ retail expenditure 
occurring in Tuggeranong in 1980. 

• Relative to the State Capitals, Canberra’s level of floorspace 
provision per capita in 1980 was not excessive, being less than 
Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth and Hobart. Sales per square metre 
were higher than in all Capitals except Sydney. 

• It appears that the Canberra population can support retail 
floorspace of about 1.4 nr per capita in planned centres. 

• The level of floorspace provision in Gungahlin and Tuggeranong 
will be related primarily to the floorspace supportable by the 
residents of these districts, but will also be subject to the overall 
metropolitan supply of retail floorspace. 

• The distribution of population indicates that Civic is more central 
than any other centre to the metropolitan area. Civic may be able 
to capitalise on this accessibility advantage for goods requiring 
a metropolitan population threshold. 


Leisure and Recreation 

• Outdoor leisure opportunities in Canberra include those available 
in neighbourhood and district parks, and rivers, lakes, nature 
reserves and other components of the National Capital Open Space 
System. Leisure opportunities are also provided by the surrounding 
region which includes the NSW South Coast and the Snowy 
Mountains. 

• The rate of daily use of river and lakeside recreation has remained 
static since 1975 at about 165 visits per 1 000 population. On this 
basis, in twenty years the daily participation will be about 67 000 
people. As recreation pressure increases, development of additional 
swimming areas may be required to enable the continued use of 
the lakes for swimming. 

• Rising maintenance and management costs of municipal open 
space have resulted in greater mechanisation, and changes in 
maintenance standards. 

• The Canberra population is served by a wide range of indoor 
leisure and recreation facilities, including tenpin bowling alleys, 
community halls, basketball stadiums, the National Exhibition 
Centre, National Sports Centre, Canberra Theatre Centre, 
Theatre 3 in Acton, cinemas in Civic and Manuka, and indoor 
soccer, cricket and riding facilities. 

• There has been increasing demand for indoor leisure facilities, 
often incorporating gynmasiums, swimming pools and squash 
courts. Each of the towns is served by at least one of these facilities. 
In Inner Canberra there is the YMCA in Civic Centre and the 
Deakin Health Spa; there are Lifestyle centres in Woden and 


8 


Belconnen; YMCA in Woden; Kippax Sports World in Belconnen; 
and the Erindale Centre in Tuggeranong. The Commission will 
continue to assist in their provision through the selection of 
appropriate sites. 

• According to the Domestic Tourist Monitor Survey, the estimated 
number of tourists to the ACT in 1980-81 was 1.9 million. Popular 
attractions included national works and government-operated 
activities such as the National Library, High Court, War 
Memorial, National Gallery and Parliament House. 

• Annual tourist numbers could increase by some 600 000 by 1988, 
and double in twenty years. Accommodation and entertainment 
services currently provided would need to increase proportionally 
to cater for the increased needs. 

• Tourism provides an opportunity to diversify Canberra’s economic 
base. As the national areas will remain the focus of tourist activity, 
Civic and adjacent areas are well placed to serve the tourist demand 
for accommodation, entertainment and recreation. 


Transport 

Road System 

• The car is the dominant form of transport for all purposes except 
for journeys to and from school. About 75 per cent of trips are 
made as a car driver or passenger, 7.5 per cent by bus, 15.4 per 
cent walking or cycling, and 1.5 per cent by taxis or motorcycle. 
Bus travel accounts for 8.5 per cent of all work trips, and from 
15 per cent to 18 per cent of work trips to the office/retail core 
of each town centre. 

• Canberra’s hierarchical road strategy of local access streets, 
distributor roads, arterial roads and parkways has resulted in 
improved residential amenity and contributed to Canberra's 
relatively low accident rate - 11 fatalities per 100 000 population 
compared to the Australian average of 20 fatalities per 100 000 
population. 

• Congestion is being experienced in Civic Centre on both the 
primary access roads and the internal distribution system. Growth 
in Civic employment and retailing will exacerbate problems in the 
absence of additional road capacity or policies to reduce traffic 
demand. A computerised traffic signal system is currently being 
installed to improve traffic flow in Civic. There are currently 
localised traffic congestion problems at the Woden and Belconnen 
Town Centres. 

• Traffic congestion results in increased fuel consumption, 
encourages the use of minor roads, reduces residential amenity 
and causes safety problems. Roads on which there are undesirable 
traffic volumes include Strickland and Stonehaven Crescents, Kent 
and Govder Streets, and Limestone, Macarthur and Wakefield 
Avenues. 


Public Transport 

• The public transport system is based on a line-haul and feeder 
concept. Local bus services or feeders provide a basic transport 
service between each suburb and the closest town centre. Express 
buses provide a line-haul service between the centres. A public 
transport interchange at each of the town centres enables the 
efficient transfer of passengers. 

• The bus network covers 800 route kilometres. Most residents live 
within 400 m of a bus stop. Annual bus patronage is about 
20 million passenger trips. 

• Over the past decade the public transport deficit has increased, 
being $12.5 million in 1981-82. In 1980 the subsidy per passenger 
in the ACT was 52 cents. This compared to 50 cents per passenger 


9 


in Melbourne, 79 cents in Brisbane, 59 cents in Adelaide, 60 cents 
in Perth, 46 cents in Hobart and 52 cents in Sydney. 

• The future mode split between car and bus transport will be 
influenced by factors such as the relative cost of each mode, 
availability of fuel, supply and cost of parking, household income 
and car availability, and the quality of the public transport system. 

Car Parking 

• Parking controls have been introduced in Civic Centre and the 
Woden Town Centre to enable the provision of short-stay parking 
in convenient locations. Long-stay parking charges will need to 
be introduced to modify parking demand and to assist in the 
financing of new facilities. 

• A parking structure is proposed for Civic in the next two to three 
years to relieve parking pressures. As employment grows in Civic 
further parking structures will be required. Structured parking 
costs in the order of six times more than surface parking. 

Sum m ary 

• Transport facilities in Canberra have been planned to complement 
the City’s urban structure and provide a basis for future growth 
and development. Canberra is serviced by a high-quality parkway 
and arterial road network which provides for reduced travel times, 
lower congestion, reduced fuel and operating costs, a reduced 
accident rate and less air pollution. 

• The public transport system, which is based on trunk inter-town 
services between bus interchanges at town centres and local feeder 
routes within towns, provides a high-quality and flexible service 
to meet both off-peak and peak-hour needs. 

• Car parking provision at most employment centres is currently 
adequate to meet demand although Canberra is entering a stage 
of development where it will not be possible to provide parking 
at a scale to meet unrestrained demand. 


Water Resources and Energy Services 

W ater Supply 

• The three dams on the Cotter River and the Googong Dam on 
the Queanbeyan River, have a capacity to serve a Canberra/ 
Queanbeyan population of 450 000. 

• A high proportion of consumption in the ACT is for watering 
public parks and private gardens. Given the high cost of dam 
construction and their environmental impact, consideration is 
being given to techniques for reducing demand and to recycling 
of waste water. 

Sewerage 

• The Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre, which treats 
all of Canberra’s sewage, has a capacity of 400 000 population. 
Augmentation of some existing sewers is necessary as their capacity 
is exceeded at times. 

Stormwater 

• Urban runofl is a source of pollutants which may impact on the 
water quality ot local lakes and streams. Progressive provision of 
stormwater control measures will need to be undertaken in 
Tuggeranong and Gungahlin and there will be a need to modify 
some existing infrastructure. 


10 


Physical and Environmental Aspects of the City 

Ecological Resources 

• Population and employment expansion will place additional 
pressures on the Territory’s ecological resources, the 
Commission’s environmental aim is to ensure the luture develop¬ 
ment of the ACT is in harmony with the general environment. 

Water Quality 

• Parts of Take Burley Griffin exhibit considerable water quality 
stress at times due to low flows into the lake and the discharge 
of Queanbeyan sewage effluent. The impact on waters downstream 
of the ACT has been virtually eliminated as a result of the high 
quality of effluent treatment provided by the Lower Molonglo 
Water Quality Control Centre. 

Air Quality 

• Emissions from motor vehicles comprise Canberra’s major source 
of air pollution. World Health Organization air quality standards 
for carbon monoxide and ozone have occasionally been reached 
or exceeded in Civic Centre. The Commission's planning 
philosophy of developing town centres to disperse employment 
and retail opportunities and providing peripheral parkways, has 
assisted in the prevention of a marked deterioration in Canberra’s 
air quality. 

Noise Quality 

• The impact of noise in Canberra has also been lessened by the 
development of the road hierarchy and peripheral parkway system. 


Generation of Alternative Plans 


Two plan options for a Canberra/Queanbeyan population of 
approximately 400 000 were developed for detailed testing and 
evaluation. Each option assumed a total retail floorspace of about 
585 000 m 2 and a total employment of 185 600. The population 
distribution under each plan was the same and included the develop¬ 
ment of North-East Tuggeranong, Lanyon and Gungahlin. 

The Concentrated Plan 

In the Concentrated Plan (Figure 3), a significant level of employ¬ 
ment and retail floorspace was concentrated in the Central Area and 
in the Woden and Belconnen Town Centres. The essential features 
of the Concentrated Plan were: 

• employment in the Central Area would grow by about 33 000 to 
78 000, with employment in Civic Centre growing by 19 000 to 
35 000 and retail space at the centre increasing by almost 50 000 nr 


-A 

% 


NSW 


0 1.0% 1 800 
3.1% 18 000m 2 


< 20 6% 84 000 




NSW 



35 000 
25 000 



Employment 
Q Retail 
<i Population 

% Share of Canberra/Queanbeyan Totals 



o 


5 km 


12 


Figure 3 


Population, Major Employment and 
Retail Nodes - Concentrated Plan 











o o 


• employment at the Woden and Belconnen T own Centres would 
grow by about 8 000 and 10 000 respectively, with retail floorspace 
increasing by 22 000 nr in each centre 

• Gungahlin and Tuggeranong new towns would not receive signif i¬ 
cant levels of comparison retailing or employment. These districts 
would be provided with expanded group centres of 18 000 nr and 
21 000 m 2 respectively. 

The Dispersed Plan 

The Dispersed Plan (Figure 4) was based upon continuing to 
disperse employment and retail opportunities along the lines envisaged 
by the Y-Plan and successfully carried out in Woden and Belconnen. 
The main features of the Dispersed Plan were: 

• town centres with significant retailing and employment would be 
established in both Tuggeranong and Gungahlin. Tuggeranong 
Town Centre would include employment of 17 000 and retail 
floorspace of 50 000 nr , and Gungahlin Town Centre would 
include 9 000 employment and 47 000 nr of retail floorspace 



- 120 000 
- 80 000 
- 40 000 


Employment 
Retail 
< Population 

% Share of Canberra/Queanbeyan Totals 



NSW 




4.8% 

8 . 0 % 


9 000 
47 000m 2 



<20.6% 84 000 


20.3% 83 000 > 


° n 9lo 


14.7% 60 000O 




2.3% 
4 300 






7.4% 13 800 
11.9% 69 800m 2 


4.4% 8 100 


<15.2% 62 000 


13.5% 25 000 
12 9% 75 700m 2 


8.1% 15 000f j 

v_yn 


4.3%W 
25 000m 2 


5 9% 10 900 


4 8% 9 000 
8 8% 50 200m 2 


6.2% 11 500 
12.0% 70 400m 2 

7.4% 30 000 > 

4 3% 8 000 
6.8% 40 000m 2 


21.8% 89 000 > 


2.2% 4 000 





0 0.9% 1 700 
2.4% 14 000m 2 

9.2% 17 000 
8.5% 50 000m 2 



D 

o 


NSW 



5 km 





Figure 4 


Population, Major Employment 
and Retail Nodes - Dispersed Plan 


13 









employment in the Central Area would grow by 20 000 to 64 000. 
Civic’s employment would grow' by 9 000 to 25 000, and the retail 
space in the centre would increase by 15 000 nr 

employment at the Woden Town Centre would grow by 2 200 and 
at Belconnen Town Centre by 5 800. Retail floorspace at each 
centre would increase by 2 500 nr 

the Central Area would remain dominant in relation to employ¬ 
ment and retailing opportunities. The town centres in Belconnen, 
Woden, Tuggeranong and Gungahlin would primarily serve their 
respective town catchments. 


Evaluation of Alternative Plans 


The plan forms were assessed in relation to transport, centres and 
the Commission’s metropolitan aims. 

Transport Evaluation 

The provision of a transport system is one of the most expensive 
components of urban infrastructure. Decisions relating to road 
capacity, the level of parking provision and the level of service and 
quality of the public transport network, all influence the efficiency 
and distribution of costs within a city. 

Evaluation of the plan forms indicated that the Dispersed Plan, 
relative to the Concentrated Plan, would confer substantial benefits, 
including: 

• it would have less physical impact, as it would not require the 
construction of a third crossing of Take Burley Griffin and as a 
lower level of road capacity would be required 

• lower concentrations of air pollutants, a lower incidence of noise 
pollution and lower traffic volumes in residential streets would 
occur 

• a more efficient use of the road system. The reverse loading on 
roads would be higher and there would be fewer congested traffic 
links 

• there would be a 12 per cent saving in user fuel costs 

• a saving of at least $120 million on the investment required for 
urban arterials and parkways 

• fewer structured car parks would be required, producing a saving 
of $80 million to $100 million 

• a lower public transport deficit, as peak-hour demand would be 
lower and the Dispersed Plan would more evenly balance 
directional flows 

• the Dispersed Plan proposes a more equal provision of retailing, 
employment, and community facilities. In doing so, it would 
reduce the length and cost of journeys by the residents of all towns, 
in particular, those of Gungahlin and Tuggeranong. 

Centres Evaluation 

The level of employment and retail floorspace at Civic Centre and 
the Woden and Belconnen Town Centres was evaluated in relation to: 

• development thresholds, i.e. the availability of vacant land 

• transportation thresholds, i.e. the capacities of the arterial road 
system feeding each centre and of each centre's internal road 
network 

• Canberra’s urban structure goals 

• the effect on Canberra’s retail system. 

Development Thresholds 

Under the Dispersed Plan, employment at Civic Centre and the 
Woden and Belconnen Town Centres would increase by 17 000 in 
total, and under the Concentrated Plan, these centres would grow by 
37 000. At their existing development densities these centres could 
accommodate an additional employment of 10 000 to 14 000. The 
intensity of development at the centres, particularly Civic Centre and 
Woden Town Centre, would need to be increased considerably by 
large-scale redevelopment if the employment proposed in the 
Concentrated Plan were to be accommodated. It was considered, 
however, that the employment associated with the Dispersed Plan 
could be accommodated with only limited redevelopment occurring 
in Civic Centre and Woden Town Centre. 


15 


Transportation Thresholds 

Road Network Thresholds 

The employment capacity of the centres, based on the capacity 
of the road network, was evaluated. The results are summarised in 
Table 1. 


Table 1 Employment Capacity 



Existing 

Existing Road Network 


Road 

Plus Doubling of Bus 

Centre 

Network 

Patronage 

Civic Centre 

27 000 (1) 

29 000 

Woden Town 

Centre 

13 200 

17 000 

Belconnen 

Town Centre 

23 000 

30 000 


(1) Assumes construction of Monash Drive and duplication of 
Coranderrk Street. 


The existing road networks could handle a total additional employ¬ 
ment of 30 000 at the three centres, and an extra 43 000 employment 
if the mode split to the centres doubled, which is considered unlikely. 

Civic Centre and the Woden Town Centre were not designed for 
the levels of employment proposed in the Concentrated Plan. As a 
consequence, both centres would require modifications to their road 
networks if the Concentrated Plan were pursued. 

The road system in Civic would require two arterial by-pass routes, 
which could have significant environmental impacts, and major 
improvements to the distributor road system. Bus-only lanes would 
be essential as well as an extension of the bus interchange. 

In Woden Town Centre, Hindmarsh Drive would need grade 
separation from Ainsworth Street to Melrose Drive inclusive at a cost 
of about $5 million. 

Car Parking Thresholds 

The Dispersed Plan would require lower investment in car parking 
structures than the Concentrated Plan (Tables 2 and 3). 


Table 2 Number of Structured Car Parking Spaces at 15 Per Cent 
Mode Split 


Dispersed Plan Concentrated Plan 


Centre 

Spaces 

Civic Centre 

8 100 

Woden Town Centre 


(excluding Woden East) 

1 500 

Belconnen Town Centre 

1 500 

Total 

11 100 


Cost 

($ millions) 

Spaces 

Cost 

($ millions) 

50 

18 000 

110 

10 

7 000 

40 

10 

3 000 

20 

70 

28 000 

170 


At 15 per cent mode split, equivalent to the current level, the 
Concentrated Plan would require additional car parking investments 
of S100 million compared to the Dispersed Plan. In the Dispersed Plan 
8 100 structured car parking spaces would be required in Civic assuming 
15 per cent mode split, while in the Concentrated Plan 18 000 structured 
spaces would be required in Civic. This represents an additional cost 
of $60 million. 


16 


Table 3 Number of Structured Car Parking Spaces at 30 Per Cent 
Mode Split 


Dispersed Plan Concentrated Plan 


Centre 

Spaces 

Cost 

($ millions) 

Spaces 

Cost 

($ millions) 

Civic Centre 

3 200 

20 

11 000 

70 

Woden Town Centre 
(excluding Woden East) 

_ 

_ 

3 000 

20 

Belconnen Town Centre 

- 

- 

1 500 

10 

Total 

3 200 

20 

15 500 

100 


Urban Structure 

A major strength of Canberra’s urban structure is its system of 
centres. Combined with the transport network they produce a relatively 
efficient and congestion free city despite its apparent widespread 
character. Other cities such as Perth and Brisbane have proposed 
subsidiary centres in their plans for future development in order to 
achieve some of the benefits Canberra already experiences. 

The continuation of the system of town centres would: 

• reduce construction costs for new metropolitan roads and structured 
car parks 

• reduce travel and car operating costs and air quality problems in 
Civic and the Central Area 

• limit the increase of the public transport deficit 

• provide opportunities for people to live and work in the same town 

• provide opportunities to achieve a more equal distribution of shop¬ 
ping, community and other facilities and services across the City. 

The evaluation confirmed that employment levels similar to those 
in the Dispersed Plan, which limits the growth of existing centres in 
order to enable new centres to be established, would ensure the 
continued attainment of these benefits in the future. 

Retail Evaluation 

The Dispersed Plan, by proposing retail centres in Tuggeranong 
and Gungahlin at a level comparable to the other towns, would improve 
the accessibility of the residents of these districts to retailing 
opportunities. 

The provision of a Tuggeranong Town Centre would reduce 
pressures on the Woden Town Centre to expand, thereby assisting 
Civic’s function as the main metropolitan centre. 


Aims Achievement Evaluation 

Each Plan was evaluated in relation to how it met the Commission’s 
metropolitan aims of image, social and economic need, environment, 
choice, conservation, movement, flexibility and implementation. 

This evaluation drew in part from the transport and centres 
assessments and from qualitative assessments of issues relating to the 
social, economic and environmental impacts of the Plans. The 
evaluation was aimed as a broad overview of the impacts of the 
alternative Plans in order to ensure that adequate consideration had 
been given to the other systems of the City. 


On balance, the evaluation indicated that the Dispersed Plan would 
perform better than the Concentrated Plan in relation to transport and 


17 


centres issues and, overall, also perform better in achieving the stated 
aims for the future Canberra. This performance is briefly described 
as follows: 

Image 

The Concentrated Plan would place greater transport pressure on 
the Central Area due to the greater concentration of employment. It 
also has the potential to generate increased traffic intrusion into 
residential streets in Reid, Braddon, Turner and Barton because of 
increased parking demands and to cause a greater deterioration of air 
quality in the Central Area. The Dispersed Plan is therefore favoured, 
as it would be more likely to enhance Canberra’s image as the National 
Capital. 

Social and Economic Need 

Economic implications relate to such factors as the level of invest¬ 
ment required to implement and operate the Plan for the City. Social 
implications include consideration of such issues as the lengths and costs 
of journeys to work, school, shopping, recreation and community 
facilities, and housing choice and cost. The Dispersed Plan would 
require less total infrastructure for transport facilities, offers the 
potential for a more efficient and less costly public transport system, 
and would result in lower average private travel costs. 

Environ mcnt 

Because development in Gungahlin and south-eastern Tuggeranong 
is common to both the Concentrated and Dispersed Plans, there are 
no major differences between the options, in terms of the impact on 
ecological resources, open space and recreation areas, or the viability 
of rural land use. The issues of greatest concern with respect to 
ecological resources involve the impacts of peripheral parkways and 
arterial roads, which will need to be given due consideration in planning, 
design and construction. 

Both Plans would significantly increase traffic noise in the inner 
city suburbs of Ainslie, Reid and Braddon, particularly along Limestone 
Avenue. On a comparative basis, the Concentrated Plan would have 
a marginally greater impact, notably in the Yarralumla area and in 
North Canberra along Antill Street, Wakefield Avenue and Barry 
Drive. 

A water resources evaluation indicated that there was no significant 
difference between the two plan options with respect to infrastructure 
costs in water use implications. 

On balance, the Dispersed Plan is favoured, as it would have less 
impact on the environment. 

Choice 

Because of the greater dispersal of employment opportunities and 
retail floorspace in association with community facilities to the new 
town areas, the Dispersed Plan is seen as offering the greatest potential 
choice for living, working and shopping. 

Movement 

The Dispersed Plan would prov ide the potential for shorter journeys 
for Tuggeranong and Gungahlin residents and considerably lower 
average metropolitan travel times for journeys to work, and shopping 
activities. It would be less costly to implement in terms of road 
infrastructure and car parking provision, offers the potential for a more 
efficient and less costly public transport system and would result in 
lower average private travel costs. The Concentrated Plan would also 
require a third crossing of Lake Burley Griffin and a new distributor 
road in Civic Centre for the movement system in the Central Area to 
function. 


18 


Conservation 

Both plan options would have the same level of impact on the rural 
areas and natural systems of the ACT such as the lakes, rivers and 
streams. In the urban areas, because of the greater concentration of 
employment opportunities and retail floorspace in the Central Area 
and in the Woden and Belconnen Town Centres, the Concentrated Flan 
would have a significantly greater impact on the existing built environ¬ 
ment adjacent to these areas, and on Inner Canberra in particular. The 
Dispersed Plan is therefore favoured. 

Flexibility 

The provision of town centres in the new towns of Tuggeranong 
and Gungahlin and the greater dispersal of employment opportunities 
and retail floorspace in the Dispersed Plan are seen as offering a more 
flexible framework for allowing future changes and alternative phasing 
possibilities to occur than the Concentrated Plan. 

Implementation 

The Dispersed Plan would require a lower level of government 
investment to implement than would the Concentrated Plan. However, 
the Dispersed Plan would require considerable support and assistance 
from the Department of Administrative Services and other government 
departments in achieving the decentralisation of offices to Tuggeranong 
and Gungahlin. The private sector would also need to be supportive 
in making new investments in these areas. 

While a high level of employment dispersal would be beneficial to 
the functioning of the City as shown by the evaluation of alternatives 
and would lead to a more cost efficient programme of development, 
it would be difficult to achieve because it involves the establishment 
of two new town centres. The relocation of departments and the 
establishment of private sector offices in a new area can be a difficult 
and slow process. 


The Preferred Plan 


Since the testing was undertaken, the Commission has reviewed its 
planning for Tuggeranong and 4 000m of retail floorspace is now 
considered the appropriate size of the Erindale Centre. 

The reduction in the size of the Erindale Centre will increase the 
viability of a retail release at the Tuggeranong Town Centre and allow 
major comparison shopping opportunities to be consolidated at the 
one centre, and to be co-located with offices, service trades and other 
community facilities. 

The reduction in the size of Erindale Centre from 14 000m 2 to 
4 000m 2 of retail floorspace and its employment from 1 700 to 700 will 
have minimal impact on the results of the testing that was undertaken. 
Changes of this magnitude are not significant in terms of trip generation 
on the metropolitan road network. 

The evaluation of the Plans clearly shows the benefits of employ¬ 
ment dispersal, although the ability of the Commission to attain the 
benefits of the Dispersed Plan will depend on the co-operation of 
government authorities, the private sector and community groups. 

Having regard to the level of dispersal the Commission was able 
to achieve between 1968 and 1983 at the Woden and Belconnen Town 
Centres, the nature of office growth, and the other activities which 
have been located at town centres, the likely range of employment 
located at major nodes at the end of the plan period could be as shown 
in Table 4. 

Table 4 Planned Employment Levels at Major Nodes 


Civic Centre 
Parkes/ Barton 
Woden Town Centre 
Belconnen Town Centre 
Tuggeranong Town Centre 
Gungahlin Town Centre 


25 000 - 27 000 
15 000 - 18 000 

11 000 - 13 000 
13 000 - 15 000 

12 000 - 17 000 
7 000 - 12 000 


The Commission will endeavour to achieve a high level of employ¬ 
ment dispersal to the new towns, in order to improve the functioning 
of the City, to reduce traffic congestion and to ensure that all residents 
are within a reasonable distance of an appropriate range of facilities. 


20 


Policy Plan 

The policies of the Plan are dealt with in Chapter 6 in two parts. 
The first relates to the policy with respect to the urban structure of 
the City, and the second to the significant elements of urban structure, 
namely: 

• National Works 

• Employment 

• Offices 

• Industry 

• Population, Land and Housing 

• Retail 

• Transport 

• National Capital Open Space System 

• Recreation and Tourism 

• Community Facilities 

• Urban Environment 

• Rural and Non-Urban Areas 

• Public Utilities 

The Polieies should be read in conjunction with the Policy Plan 
(Figures 5 and 6) in order to gain a fuller appreciation of the proposed 
overall urban structure of the City. 

On the basis of the evaluation carried out and after consideration 
of the public submissions on the 1980 Metropolitan Issues-Public 
Discussion Paper , the Commission's preferred metropolitan strategy 
is that which retains the basic urban structure principles of the Y-Plan. 

The strategy for urban growth is based on the development of new 
towns with town centres, combined with consolidation and redevelop¬ 
ment. The features of the strategy are as follows: 

• The Central Area will remain the dominant metropolitan employ¬ 
ment centre, but the existing policy of decentralising employment 
opportunities to the new towns will be continued through the 
dispersal of government offices to town centres in each of the 
towns. 

• Civic Centre will be encouraged to develop as the most specialised 
retail centre serving both the metropolitan market and special 
markets such as tourism. Decentralisation of retail floorspace will 
be continued and will be related to consumer needs, retail 
economics, transport accessibility and equity considerations. 

• Tuggeranong and Gungahlin will both be provided with town 
centres to service many of the retail, community and recreational 
needs of the town populations. The eventual size of the 
Tuggeranong Town Centre is intended to be between 12 000 and 
17 000 employment and between 40 000 nr and 50 000 nr of retail 
floorspace. 

• Tuggeranong, that is, the existing planned development east of 
the Murrumbidgee including Lanyon, w ill expand to the order of 
85 000-90 000. 

• While the main suburban development frontier will be in 
Tuggeranong and Gungahlin, the existing urban area will be 
consolidated by development of suburbs such as Florey, Mckellar, 
Stirling, Isaacs and O'Malley. Throughout the period of urban 
expansion in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin, redevelopment of the 
older parts of Canberra will be increasing. 

• The hierarchical system of roads developed in the existing new 
towns of Canberra and comprising parkways, arterials, sub- 
arterials, and distributor, collector and access roads, will be 
continued in the future development of the City and existing road 

21 



patterns in other parts of Canberra will be improved to reflect this 
system where practicable. Traffic congestion will not be promoted 
as a method of traffic management or to encourage the use of 
alternative transport modes. The parkway and arterial system will 
be improved and extended to meet movement demands as they 
arise. 

The metropolitan road system will need to be extended during the 
plan period by the following major elements: 

a) the first stage of the Eastern Parkway will be required to 
service traffic demands generated by Tuggeranong residents 
by the time Tuggeranong’s population reaches approximately 
55 000-60 00(T 

b) the existing parkways, Tuggeranong Parkway and Parkes 
Way, will be progressively upgraded as traffic demands 
warrant. The further development of Glenloch Interchange 
will be undertaken in conjunction with these works 

c) Monash Drive and John Dedman Parkway will be required 
to service traffic resulting from population settlement in 
Gungahlin 

d) other major roads, including Erindale Drive, William Slim 
Drive, Caswell Drive, Bindubi Street, Flemington Road, 
Morshead Drive, Fairbairn Avenue and Athllon Drive will be 
upgraded to provide necessary access and to improve the 
efficiency of the metropolitan road system. 

Routes for a segregated form of public transport to serve the major 
movement corridors will continue to be investigated. 

Industrial land will continue to be developed in Fyshwick, Hume 
and Mitchell. The Canberra Technology Park is reserved for 
development of high technology industries. 

Tourist facilities will be directed, where possible, into Civic Centre 
or the Special Tourist Commercial Area at North Watson, 
consolidating the existing tourist-oriented facilities in these areas. 

The National Capital Open Space System will be progressively 
developed to accommodate the diverse demands made upon it by 
Canberra residents and visitors. 


] National Capital Open Space System 
- Major Roads 
Special Use Areas 
Rural and Non-Urban Areas 
Water Catchment Areas 

% 

Urban Areas 

0 2 4 6 8 10km 

i-1-i-i_i_i 

Figure 5 Metropolitan Canberra 

Policy Plan (ACT) 















NSW 












Principles of Urban Structure 

The principal concepts of the Y-Plan which have been con firmed 

as those to guide metropolitan growth and development are as follows: 

• The role of the City as the National Capital remains paramount. 
The National Capital role demands that national functions are 
located in a prominent position where they may operate effectively 
and efficiently. The National Capital role also demands that high 
environmental and aesthetic standards are applied, particularly in 
the Areas of Special National Concern. 

• The metropolitan growth of Canberra is based on the develop¬ 
ment of separate urban districts or towns, in a linear arrangement 
in the form of a ‘ Y'. Each town is intended to be relatively self- 
contained and provide for most of the needs of its residents 
including employment, retail, community facilities, leisure and 
recreation. Each town is separated from adjacent towns by hills, 
ridges and other major open spaces. 

• The hierarchy of centres will be maintained, with each town having 
a centre acting as a focal point for higher order retail functions, 
commercial services, offices and community facilities. Civic Centre 
is intended to be the highest order commercial, entertainment and 
tourist centre in Canberra. It will also accommodate the majority 
of specialised functions and continue to develop as the Central 
Business District and administrative centre of Metropolitan 
Canberra. 

• Large volume vehicular trajjic is carried on a peripheral parkway 
system, reducing the amount of traffic on the internal systems of 
the towns. A public transport right-of-way will be developed linking 
the town centres on an internal spine. 

• Industrial estates will continue to be located on the edge of the 
urban areas in locations which conveniently serve the workforce 
of the towns and have good accessibility for long-distance freight 
movements. 

• The hills and ridges within and around the urban areas of Canberra 
will be kept largely free of urban development both to act as a 
backdrop and setting for the City and also to provide a means 
of separating and defining the towns. Special use areas and rural 
and non-urban areas also form part of the buffer zone between 
the towns and a land bank for future land use and activity needs 
associated with the growth of the National Capital. 



Parliamentary Zone 
Civic Centre/Existing Town Centres 
Future Town Centres 
Existing Urban Areas 

Future Urban Areas 

National Capital Open Space System 

Major Roads 

Inter-Town Public Transport Route 



Existing Industrial Areas 
Future Industrial Areas 
Special Use Areas 
Airport/Railway Uses 
Rural and Non-Urban Areas 


0 1 2 3 4 5 km 

l-1-1-!_I_I 

Figure 6 Metropolitan Canberra 

Policy Plan (Urban Area) 



24 



















Lake , 
inninderr.l 


Canberra 


Burley 


Central 


Woden 

\Valley 


NSW 




1 I 


■ 




Halt 


* 


Gungahlin 


Airport 


Oaks 

Estate 




I Lake ^Smmmm 

| Tugger anong 

\ 

■■ 


Tuggerant 


V 


/ Queanbeyan 


NSW 


Tharwa 







Development Plan 

The purpose of the Development Plan is to indicate those develop¬ 
ment proposals which should be implemented to meet needs arising 
from population growth or change. The development proposals 
indicate the main public works that will need to be carried out by 
the Commission and other public authorities, as well as indicating 
development opportunities for the private sector, particularly in terms 
of new housing, offices and retail facilities. The ability to implement 
the public works will be subject to adequacy of continuing annual 
appropriations from the Budget. 

The Metropolitan Development Plan has been prepared to: 

• identify the Commission’s intentions for major development works 

• inform other public authorities and the private sector of Canberra’s 
expected growth and development over the next twenty years or so 

• inform the public of proposed development works 

• highlight the range, t\pe and location of development 
opportunities likely to arise for private enterprise during the plan 
period. 

The Development Plan translates the needs forecasts (outlined in 
Chapter 4 in terms of housing units, retail floorspace, etc.) into spatial 
and programme terms. 

In implementing the Development Plan the Commission will give 
priority to: 

• consolidating development in the existing towns and promoting 
the orderly expansion of the City 

• encouraging the development of Civic Centre as Canberra’s 
metropolitan centre (Central Business District) 

• providing activity centres in the newly developing areas to meet 
the needs of the local community 

• providing adequate traffic access to employment and service 
centres as Canberra’s population grows 

• continuing the development of the National Capital Open Space 
System 

• minimising undesirable impacts on the environment, enhancing 
and protecting the desirable qualities of the existing environment 
and ensuring that projects, when approved, contain adequate 
environmental safeguards. 


The Development Plan provides the basis for two related streams 
of action. For its part, the Commission will seek programme status 
and funding for public works. For the private sector, specific develop¬ 
ment opportunities will need to be identified, through consultations 
between the Commission and industry and in conjunction with the 
promotional activities of the Canberra Development Board. Where 
possible, projects which should or could be carried out by private 
enterprise are identified in the Development Plan. 

The development proposals cover the whole of the ACT, and 
because of the different amounts of detail to be illustrated the 
Development Plan has been prepared in two parts: 

• Metropolitan Canberra Development Plan (ACT), dealing with 
the rural areas (Figure 7) 

• Metropolitan Canberra Development Plan (Urban Area), dealing 
with the town areas (Figure 8). 


1 Progressive Development of the National Capital 
Open Space System - the National Capital Open 
Space System will be progressively developed 
to protect the river systems, maintain visual 
quality, provide recreational opportunities, 
maintain ecological diversity and ensure the 
ecological stability of urban lands. 

2 Investigation of Pine Plantations - economic, 
planning and landscape studies will be under¬ 
taken to determine the selective replacement of 
pine plantations by native species. 

3 Protection of Water Uses - water quality in lakes 
and streams will be protected to ensure their 
designated uses which may include water supply 
and recreation uses. 

4 Augmentation of Water Supply - the limits on 
water resources in the ACT require the protection 
of possible future sources of supply such as the 
Naas-Gudgenby Catchment, the restriction of 
allocation of water to the sub-region and a 
programme to reduce water consumption. 

5 Federal Highway Duplication and Upgrading - 
improvement works will be undertaken to tie in 
with associated works in New South Wales. 

6 Reconstruction of Monaro Highway - the road is 
being progressively upgraded to facilitate move¬ 
ment to and from the Snowy Mountains. 

7 Upgrading of Cotter Road - the road will be 
upgraded to improve safety and provide over¬ 
taking opportunities. 

8 West Belconnen-Uriarra Road Connection - a 
road connecting Stockdill Drive with Uriarra Road 
will improve access for Belconnen residents to 
Murrumbidgee and Cotter River recreation areas. 

9 Brindabella Road-Mt Franklin Road Upgrading, 
Mt Franklin Road-Corm Road Connection - these 
works will complete a tourist route from Cotter 
to Tharwa via the Brindabella Road, Picadilly 
Circus, Mt Franklin and Corin Dam. 

I 0 Boboyan Road Upgrading - work will continue to 

upgrade and seal the road to the ACT border. 

II Relocation of Naas Road - if the Naas-Gudgenby 
Catchment is required for water supply and the 
Tennent Reservoir is constructed, the northern 
part of Naas Road will need to be relocated 
higher up the slopes of Mount Tennent. 


Proposed Commonwealth Works 



0 2 4 6 8 10 km 

I-1_I_I_I_I 


Figure 7 Metropolitan Canberra 

Development Plan (ACT) 


26 








27 







1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

28 


Parliamentary Zone Development - works will be undertaken to 
meet the needs of Parliament, national institutions, tourism and 
public administration. 

Museum of Australia Development - development of Museum 
at Yarramundi Reach, road access from Lady Denman Drive and 
complementary works such as car parking and landscaping. 

Development of the National Sports Centre - progressive develop¬ 
ment as a sport and recreation venue and training facility. 

Development of the National Botanic Gardens - further develop¬ 
ment including a Visitor Information Centre to enhance its 
landscape and visitor facilities. 

Inner Canberra Land Settlement and Urban Consolidation - 
development of North Lyneham, further redevelopment of 
Kingston. 

Central Area Employment Expansion - Employment expansion 
of between 19 450 and 24 450 of which between 17 650 and 
22 650 will be in Civic, Parkes/Barton and Russell/Campbell 
Park 

Civic Centre Employment Expansion and Retail Development 
- Civic Centre employment will grow by between 9 000 and 
11 000 and its retail floorspace in the order of 15 000m 2 . 

Woden-Weston Creek Land Settlement - development will be 
consolidated by the development of Isaacs, Stirling and East 
O'Malley ana vacant medium-density sites 

Woden Town Centre Employment Expansion and Retail Develop¬ 
ment - employment will grow to between 11 000 and 13 000, and 
its retail floorspace by up to 2 500m 2 . 

Belconnen Land Settlement - development will be consolidated 
by the development of vacant residential land including McKellar, 
Florey and the Belconnen Naval Station 

Belconnen Town Centre Employment Expansion and Retail 
Development - employment will grow to between 8 000 and 
13 000. and retail floorspace by up to 2 500m 2 


12 Tuggeranong Land Settlement - the development of remainder 
of North-East Tuggeranong, the Town Centre and Lanyon. 

13 Erindale Centre Retail Development - a 4 000m 2 retail centre will 
be open by the time Tuggeranong's population reaches 50 000 

14 Tuggeranong Town Centre Development - the town centre 
development will commence within 2 years and will eventually 
have between 12 000 and 17 000 employment and between 
40 000-50 000m 2 of retail floorspace. 

15 Gungahlin Land Settlement - settlement will commence in 
1989-90 and the town will grow to an eventual population of 
84 000. 

16 Gungahlin Town Centre Development - the centre will commence 
as a 5 000m 2 group centre when the town's population is 20 000 
and will eventually have employment of 7 000-12 000 and 
47 000m 2 retail floorspace. 

17 Industrial Development - Fyshwick. Mitchell and Hume and the 
Canberra Technology Park will be developed to cater for likely 
demands over the next two decades. 

18 Development of Special Tourist Commercial Facilities - tourist 
facilities will be directed where possible to Civic and North 
Watson. 

19 Metropolitan Roads Upgrading or Development - the road net¬ 
work will be expanded to cater for expected population and 
employment growth. 

20 Upgrading of Airport and Railway Facilities - these facilities will 
be upgraded to cater for growth in tourist, business and govern¬ 
ment traffic. 

21 Development of Major Electricity Network - the network will be 
expanded to cater for expected population and employment 
growth 

22 Water Resources Infrastructure - the water, sewerage and storm¬ 
water networks will be expanded to cater for the expected 
population and employment growth. 


Proposed Commonwealth Works 
Potential Private Enterprise Works 



01 234 5km 


Figure 8 Metropolitan Canberra 

Development Plan (Urban Area) 









Gungahlin 


Ginhmderra 


Burley 


Weston 
TCreek ; 


Queanbeyan 


x Tuggerattong 


Tharwa 


29 


























Chapter 3 


Background 



Belcon 


Majura 


Jerrabombi 


Tuggeranong 


Cooma 


Yass andT 
Melbourne 


/ 

y\J\ \r°. 

/< —^ 

Weston 

TW: 

'Wodenl 

Creek - 

A • 


Valley 


Goulburn 
and Sydney 


Existing Urban Districts 
Propcsed Urban Districts 
Possible Urban Districts 


Industrial Areas 



Existing and Proposed Institutions and Special 
Use Areas 

Possible Institutions and Special Use Areas 


Civic Centre 


District Centre 
Arterial Roads 

0 10 km 

I_l_ l _ I-1-1 

Figure 9 The Outline Plan as Published in 
The Future Canberra 



The Y-Plan (1970) 

When the Commission was established in 1957, its first task was 
to establish planning proposals and development programmes to meet 
the immediate and pressing needs of Canberra in relation to land, 
housing, offices, schools, shopping, transport, social and community 
facilities, and essential National Capital components. 

Once this task was completed the Commission turned its attentions 
to the question of the longer-term strategy needed to cope with 
Canberra’s long-term growth. A strategy was prepared for accom¬ 
modating a population of 250 000 by about 1980 and was published 
in The Future Canberra in 1965 as the Outline Plan (Figure 9). In 
order to ensure that this Plan was a satisfactory and efficient strategy 
the Commission, in conjunction with Rankine and Hill and De Leuw 
Cather, undertook the Canberra Area Transportation Study (CATS). 
The study showed that as the population of Canberra grew beyond 
250 000 the Plan would break down and the City would be over¬ 
whelmed by transport pressures and traffic congestion. This was 
because most of the major employment and retail facilities in the Plan 
were concentrated in Civic and the national area of Parkes and Barton. 
This meant that the 1965 Plan was of limited effectiveness beyond 
a population threshold of 250 000. 

In recognition of this limitation the Commission in 1966 set about 
developing objectives for a revised plan for the City that would not 
only avoid the problems of the 1965 Outline Plan, but would result 
in a plan that would be economically, socially and environmentally 
acceptable at population levels well beyond 250 000. The objectives 
were to: 

• allow Canberra to develop as a dignified setting for the Seat of 
Government 

• be amenable to one-stage, short-term development so that the 
environment desired for a particular area could be achieved at an 
early stage and stabilised thereafter, without the need for costly 
reconstruction 

• provide variety in the metropolitan area so that reasonable choices 
of modes of living, working and travelling could be made 

• meet future social and technological change by means of a simple 
but flexible framework for urban development and redevelopment 

With these objectives in mind, the Commission in 1966 undertook, 
in conjunction with Alan M. Vorhees and Associates an American 
firm of land use and transport consultants, studies to develop a plan 
which would lead to the establishment of an efficient public transport 
system and which would reduce potential traffic congestion. The main 
variables tested related to location and levels of employment; distri¬ 
bution and levels of retail floorspace; the metropolitan road network 

























alternatives including the principal freeway and arterial systems of 
the luture urban areas; and possibilities for a rapid public transport 
system between future urban districts and major centres. 

Four theoretical plan forms catering for an ultimate population 
of 1 000 000 were formulated as a basis for detailed transport testing. 
These were a ‘Diamond’ shape, confined to the Australian Capital 
Territory; a ‘Linear’ shape, extending to the north-west; a ‘Linear’ 
shape, extending to the north-east; and a ‘Fan’ shaped form, extending 
to the north-west and north-east (Figure 10). 


A Development in concentric form close around 
A B Inner Canberra 

B Linear development with expansion to the north¬ 
east of Canberra 


C Linear development with expansion to the north¬ 
west of Canberra 

D Development in a fan shape northwards from the 
existing Civic Centre 


Figure 10 Theoretical Plan Forms Tested in 
the 1966 Metropolitan Planning 
Studies 


To test these theoretical notions for growth six optional land-use 
patterns consisting of different arrangements of towns of 50 000 to 
150 000 people were devised. The first four were based on the 
theoretical plan forms and the remaining two were modifications to 
the Diamond plan, developed in order to test the effects of increasing 
residential density and central area employment. The options were 
then evaluated with respect to retail and market potential, transport 
efficiency and employment distribution. The conclusions from this 
work were published in Tomorrow’s Canberra in 1970. 

The preferred plan became known as the Y-Plan because of the 
proposed form of development which was a linear pattern in the shape 
of a ‘Y\ 

The essential features of the preferred option (Figure 11) which 
emerged from this testing can be summarised as follows: 

• The Central Area: This area, comprised of the national area of 
Parkes and associated parts of Barton; Civic Centre, the Australian 
National University, CSIRO, Royal Canberra Hospital and 
Braddon Service Trades Area; and Defence Headquarters, Russell; 
was to be planned to accommodate an employment level of 60 000 
persons at a metropolitan population of 500 000, and 90 000 
persons at a metropolitan population of 1 000 000. These levels 


32 


NSW 


- 0 - 20 000 Vehicles per day 

- 20 - 40 000 Vehicles per day 

■— 40 - 60 000 Vehicles per day 
mam Over 60 000 Vehicles per day 
Public Transport Route 
Town Centres 
Regional Centres 
O Lower Order Centres 



Figure 11 The Preferred Option for 1 000 000 
Population 



were considered to be the optimum if the area was to function 
efficiently and not be overwhelmed by traffic congestion. 

• The Regional Structure: The regional structure was to be formed 
by directing growth into a series of new towns grouped into three 
corridors, north, north-west and south-west of the Central Area 
and forming a ‘Y’ shape. This would require and in turn support 
a clearly structured transport system. The growth corridors would 
occupy natural valley systems and possess a sense of self¬ 
containment by virtue of the surrounding hills. 

• Towns and Town Centres: Each town was intended to ha\e a 
population of about 100 000-120 000 people. This level w as arrived 
at having regard to the thresholds necessary to support certain 
social, economic and municipal developments. For example, towns 
of this size could support a large shopping and employment centre, 
hospital, Court of Petty Sessions, and police station and would 
be convenient units in which to operate municipal and social 
welfare services. In addition such population units could become 
local government or Federal electorates. 

With regard to the distribution and level of retail shopping, 
comparison goods space of between 110 000 nr and 136 000 m 

33 
















was considered to be the range required for Civic Centre. This 
would be supported by a town centre in each of the new towns 
which would contain retail space appropriate to the needs of the 
town population. In order to provide the opportunity for people 
to work close to where they lived each town centre was to be 
designed to accommodate between 10 000 and 15 000 employees. 
Decentralisation of employment and retail opportunities was seen 
as providing relief from traffic congestion in the Central Area; 
competition for comparison goods shopping; and more efficient 
use of the road network system through reverse loading and reduced 
journeys to work. 

• The Transport System: The transport system was to comprise an 
express public transport route connecting the town centres and 
running through the built-up spine of each town. It would be 
supported by local feeder bus systems. The notional central express 
route connected the Belconnen and Gungahlin Town Centres to 
Civic Centre, Russell, the Woden Town Centre, and the 
Tuggeranong Town Centre with stops placed not less than one and 
a half kilometres apart, except within the town centres themselves. 
The main element of the road network was a system of peripheral 
parkways situated for the most part outside the built-up areas. 

• Landscaped Open Space: A landscaped open space system was 
to be used to reinforce the natural hill and ridge systems in order 
to define a clear boundary between urban areas and rural areas. 
Within the town areas landscape treatment was to be used to 
enhance the localised natural features, provide recreation spaces 
and provide colour and contrast within the built-up area. 



0 - 20 000 Vehicles per day 
20 - 40 000 Vehicles per day 


The total population capacity of the Y-Plan, which extended across 
the ACT/NSW border, was up to 1 000 000. From this generalised 
concept for urban growth an Intermediate Plan at the 500 000 
population level was developed as a basis for forward planning for 
the immediate and mid-term futures (Figure 12). 

In formulating an Intermediate Plan to the 500 000 population 
level the distribution of key activities was guided by two development 
objectives. The first was to strengthen the Central Area so that it 
achieved, as soon as possible, the indisputable appearance and 
function of the main focus of the region. The second was to concentrate 
development in as few of the towns as necessary to provide a 
reasonable choice for the future residents and businessmen of the City. 
It was considered that concentration of growth would permit 
economies ot large-scale construction programmes and provide early 
attainment of the final built-environment for the occupants of the 
new towns. 


—— Over 40 000 Vehicles per day 
Public Transport Route 
Town Centres 
Lower Order Centres 



Figure 12 The Intermediate Plan for 500 000 
Population 


The build-up of the Central Area had also to be controlled to 
ensure that imbalances in the location of home and work locations 
during the various stages of the City’s development would not produce 
higher traffic volumes on the inner road network than those forecast 
for the 1 000 000 population level. Testing indicated that to achieve 
an acceptable balance between town development and Central Area 
employment, the Central Area at the 500 000 population level should 
not exceed 60 000 employees or two-thirds of its ultimate size. This 
was because the adjacent towns would provide a higher proportion 
of their employment to the Central Area than would the more distant 
towns. With regard to the build-up of town populations, the study 
showed that if the population of a town could be built-up to 
40 000-50 000 in the first five years, this would support a first stage 
of its town centre in terms of retail and employment activity. During 
the following five-year period, it was intended that the population 
should continue at a fairly rapid rate to provide firm support for the 
continued expansion of the town centre (Figure 13). At the growth 


34 








Per Cem of Ultimate Development 


100 


Non Retail 



Figure 13 Town Development Strategy for the 
Intermediate Plan 


rates being experienced in 1967, this implied the commencement of 
a new town approximately every ten years. 

The evaluation showed that highway facilities should be 
programmed in accordance with the needs of both traffic demands 
and access requirements. The general strategy postulated was to build 
only the internal or central arterial during the initial development of 
the town with the extension of the peripheral parkways and arterial 
feeders giving access to the town centre, being provided after the tow n 
had achieved 50 to 70 per cent of its growth. 

The principal conclusion derived from the evaluation was that an 
urban form based on linear corridors containing a series of towns and 
radiating from the Central Area in the shape of a ‘Y’ would be the 
best form for long-term growth of the City. It would facilitate extension 
of the urban area and would protect the integrity of the Griffin Plan. 









Metropolitan Issues Report (1980) 

All plans need to be reviewed at regular intervals. In the ten years 
after the publication of Tomorrow’s Canberra dramatic changes 
occurred in many crucial factors the most important of which were 
population growth rates, car ownership and household size. With this 
in mind, the Commission in 1980 undertook a review of the Plan’s 
performance to date, and identified the significant existing and 
emerging metropolitan issues. In April 1980 a ‘green paper’ was 
published on metropolitan issues which was the subject of discussions 
at a seminar attended by members of the Canberra community, the 
ACT House of Assembly, local parliamentarians, shire councillors, 
representatives of special interest groups and other authorities 
concerned with Canberra’s future development. 

Following the seminar, in June 1980, a publication titled 
Metropolitan Issues - Public Discussion Paper was released. To assist 
in understanding the paper the Commission placed a series of adver¬ 
tisements in Saturday editions of The Canberra Times and mounted 
static displays in the Monaro Mall, Civic; Belconnen Mall; Woden 
Plaza; and the Erindale Centre, Tuggeranong. In addition, detailed 
briefings were arranged for a number of business, community and 
trade union organisations. 

The main issues canvassed were as follows: 

• Changed assumptions about population growth rates which, 
during the late 1960s and early 1970s, had been expected to 
continue at 8 per cent per annum, with the likely prospect that 
by AD 2000, Canberra’s population would exceed 500 000; 
however, by 1976 there had been a dramatic decline in this growth 
rate and by June 1981 it had fallen to 1.3 per cent. In absolute 
terms this represented a fall from a peak annual increase of 12 000 
people in 1972 to 4 500 people in 1980 (Figure 14). 

• Associated w ith this decline of population growth rates there was 
also a slowing dow n in most sectors of economic activity (Figure 
15). The workforce in the building industry decreased from over 
9 000 in 19/5 to about 4 000 in 1980. This was a direct result of 
the reduction in housing demand, the cessation of government 
housing construction and a significantly reduced construction 
programme tor schools, health and community facilities generally. 

• Canberra’s private enterprise economy also moved from a position 
of high growth to low growth with the result that in one 12 month 
period to April 1980 there was a 4.7 per cent decline in private- 
sector employment. This represented a loss in one year of 1 500 
jobs and was directly related to reductions in the level of govern¬ 
ment activity. Between 1971 and 1973 private-sector employment 
growth exceeded government-sector employment, while between 
1976 and 1980 private-sector employment declined each year at 
an average of 3 per cent, in response to the containment of the 
government sector. 

• The decline in the growth rates of population and employment 
also resulted in more significant and persistent imbalances in the 
provision of shopping facilities, housing and land than would have 
been the case under the anticipated high growth scenario of the 
Y-Plan assumptions because any oversupply in the provision of 
facilities would be quickly absorbed under conditions of higher 
population growth (Figure 16). 

• Other significant issues were: 

a) the decline of population in Inner Canberra, the early 
indicators of this problem being declining enrolments in 
schools in Woden, Weston Creek, Belconnen and the first 
settlement area of Tuggeranong 

b) the reduced capacity of the Y-Plan caused by changed 
population structure and household formation rates 


15 



5 1 — 1 — 1 —■—i—i—i—i—i—i_i_i_i_i_i_i_i_i_i_i_ i i i i i i ' 

58 60 65 70 75 80 83 

Year 


Total Population Increase -Net Migration 


Figure 14 Growth Indicator - Population/ 
Migration 


4 



Year 


Figure 15 Growth Indicator - Residential 
Land Sales 


36 















Population 1000 si 


800 


700 -/ 


600 


500 


400 


300 



Year 


Figure 16 Population Growth Projections 
from Tomorrow’s Canberra ; 
Actual Population Growth to 
1983 



c) the relative imbalance between population and retailing 
facilities in the City 

d) the need to maintain air and water quality 

e) the need to construct significant elements of the road network 
in environmentally sensitive areas. 

In developing revised long-term planning and development policies 
to correct the imbalances noted above, the 1980 Review of the Y-PIan 
included an examination relating to the future phasing of the Plan. 
This examination assessed whether population settlement should 
continue in Tuggeranong or be switched to Gungahlin, and three 
options w'ere identified and analysed for discussion purposes 
(Figure 17). 

Option 1 

The first option proposed the continuation of the policy which 
had guided the development of Canberra for the previous decade. 
Essentially, this option involved the development of North-East 
Tuggeranong, Lanyon and the northern part of West Murrumbidgee 
to a population level of 109 000, prior to the commencement of the 
next new town, Gungahlin. It implied the development of 
Tuggeranong Town Centre, and new employment opportunities in 
that centre and the Hume Industrial Estate, in order to achieve the 


Option 1 

To continue existing policy which is to complete the 
development of Tuggeranong including the early 
settlement of Lanyon and West Murrumbidgee and 
O the development of the town centre. 

4 

O 

/ 

o 


« 

o 

/ 

o 


Option 2 

To develop northern Tuggeranong to a population of 
70 000 (i.e. including development in Kambah. 
Wanniassa, Monash, Gowrie, Chisholm, Gilmore. 
Fadden, Macarthur, Oxley, Richardson, Calwell. 
Theodore, Isabella Plains), with a town centre, and 
then commence the settlement of Gungahlin. The 
development of Lanyon and West Murrumbidgee 
would be postponed until after Gungahlin. 


_ Existing Land Settlement 

Land Settlement 1980-1995 

_| Industrial Areas 

; r Central Area 
O Town Centres 


O 


O 

s 



O 


/ 


Option 3 

To develop north-eastern Tuggeranong (i.e including 
the occupation of existing serviced blocks as well as 
the completion of servicing in Gilmore and Oxley) with 
a small centre - and then settle Gungahlin The 
development of Lanyon and West Murrumbidgee 
would be postponed until after Gungahlin 



Figure 17 Land Settlement Options - 1980 



















policies of partial self-containment and a balance between the location 
of new employment and housing to meet the needs of the expanding 
population. 

The advantages of this option were seen as: making the optimum 
use of the trunk services already built in Tuggeranong; enabling 
Tuggeranong to be provided with a full urban structure and fulfilling 
the expectations of Tuggeranong residents, albeit at a slower rate than 
originally planned; and enhancing the opportunity to develop 
Tuggeranong Town Centre, at least to a scale comparable with other 
town centres in Canberra. 


Option 2 

Option 2 proposed that Tuggeranong would be developed to a 
capacity of 70 000 people, prior to the commencement of Gungahlin. 
The development envisaged completion of Kambah, Wanniassa, 
Monash, Gowrie, Chisholm, Gilmore, Fadden, Macarthur, Oxley, 
Richardson, Calwell, Theodore and the Isabella Plains area. A town 
centre was also to be established, while the development of Lanyon 
and West Murrumbidgee would be postponed until the completion 
of Gungahlin. 

The advantages were seen as providing the opportunity to develop 
the Tuggeranong Town Centre to a size comparable with other town 
centres; fulfilling the majority of the expectations of Tuggeranong 
residents for community and other facilities; and in curtailing growth 
in the south so that lines of communication would not be extended 
prematurely or out of balance with development to the north. 

Option 3 

Option 3 proposed that development in Tuggeranong would be 
constrained to the north-east sector at the 50 000 population level, 
at which point, settlement would commence in Gungahlin. This 
differed from Option 2 in that some land in North-East Tuggeranong 
(subject to potential cost, servicing or environmental problems) would 
be left vacant until after the completion of settlement in Gungahlin, 
i.e. only land within the existing Tuggeranong development front and 
already provided with trunk services would be developed. In this 
option, the development of the Tuggeranong Town Centre was to be 
deferred until after the completion of Gungahlin and after commence¬ 
ment ot the second stage of Tuggeranong development. 

The advantages of this option were: it recognised the potential 
servicing difficulties, environmental problems and high costs 
associated with developing certain areas within North-East 
Tuggeranong; it would be less difficult to implement; it would provide 
a reasonable choice of housing environment; and it would optimise 
the community facilities provided at the Erindale Centre in the short 
and intermediate term. 

Following release of the Metropolitan Issues Report and the 
advertisements in The Canberra Times , 198 responses were received 
from the Canberra community and special interest groups. 

The submissions included comments on a wide range of issues, 
including the eight specific topics identified by the Commission for 
review: 

• Priorities for Future Growth 

• Settlement Options 

• The Tuggeranong Option 

• Urban Consolidation 

• Town Centres 

• The Natural Environment 


38 


• Transport 

• Economic Development 

Some of the submissions included general comments only, while 
others produced very detailed analyses and judgements on a number 
of both conceptual and specific issues. 

In view of the fact that, traditionally, many residents and interest 
groups do not express their opinions about long-term planning 
intentions until particular proposals affect their neighbourhood, the 
Commission was impressed with the research and documentation 
contained in many of the submissions. 

Business groups generally focused their attention on the subject 
of consolidation. Most felt that because of energy costs, declining 
school enrolments, transport and other reasons, the Commission 
should concentrate on measures which would increase settlement 
within existing areas of development. They also pointed to several 
areas (e.g. those occupied by the CSIRO Division of Plant Industry’s 
Ginninderra Experiment Station and the Belconnen Naval Station, 
and McKellar) which they felt the Commission should assess before 
extending development beyond the present urban periphery. Several 
older residential areas were recommended for redevelopment to 
increase use of existing schools, shops and community facilities. 
Business groups also favoured restricting further major retail releases 
until existing centres were more fully used. 

Community groups and residents generally agreed with making 
consolidation a higher priority, although some mixed feelings regarding 
Inner Canberra redevelopment were evident. Some concern about the 
nature of the redevelopment and its effects on the character of older 
neighbourhoods was expressed. 

Within the wide range of issues presented by community groups, 
several conservation groups asked that the Murrumbidgee River 
Corridor be protected from development and maintained as a low- 
intensity use, recreational reserve. 

The submissions received on the settlement options issue were quite 
varied. No option was enthusiastically received in its entirety. Major 
comments made in relation to the settlement options issue included 
the following: 

• a considerable number of respondents expressed general support 
for settlement Option 3, because of a stated belief that limiting 
Tuggeranong development would protect the Murrumbidgee River 
environment and that consolidation should take priority oxer fur¬ 
ther peripheral development, in Canberra 

• comments were made that consideration should be given to the 
expectations of the present residents of Tuggeranong. It was 
suggested these expectations include a population of at least 50 000 
to 70 000 to support a town centre (even if on a smaller scale than 
was originally planned) and the development of Tuggeranong Lake 

• comments were also made that the Commission should utilise 
Tuggeranong’s existing infrastructure in order to achieve any 
economies of scale. 

Generally, residents felt that it should be possible for the present 
inhabitants of Tuggeranong to have access to facilities comparable 
in range and level of facilities to those they had anticipated when they 
purchased houses in the area. Because Woden Town Centre is nearby, 
however, a major town centre in Tuggeranong was considered to be 
unnecessary for some time by many respondents. 

The comments were both encouraging and useful and formed a 
significant input into later work, which involved a more detailed 
analysis of the issues raised in 1980. 


One of the most important issues highlighted the distribution of 
activities between town centres. People commenting on this issue 
focused, to a large extent, on the particular problems facing Civic 
Centre. Consequently, the Commission resolved to undertake a major 
review of planning and development policies for Civic Centre. The 
Civic Centre Policy Plan and Development Plan was published in 
February 1984. 

Another important issue was the provision of shopping and 
community facilities for Tuggeranong. In general, those commenting 
on the issue agreed that the residents of Tuggeranong should have 
an appropriate range of faeilities, but did not favour a major town 
centre in Tuggeranong at this time. The Commission, accordingly, 
investigated in detail the range of facilities which could appropriately 
be located at the Erindale Centre, bearing in mind both the needs of 
the residents of Tuggeranong and the current viability of commercial 
development and retailing throughout Canberra. A report outlining 
the findings of this review was published in July 1983. 

The Commission also continued work on the National Capital 
Open Space System and focused on the need for closer integration 
of planning and management, based on aesthetic, environmental and 
symbolic (national capital ethos) considerations. Open space 
requirements were assessed in relation to existing and likely future 
populations and also to meet the special needs of the National Capital. 
Information on key elements of the natural environment of the ACT 
was collected to enable an assessment of the impact of urban develop¬ 
ment on the various ecosystems and on rural lands. The boundaries 
of the system are being progressively defined. 

In the period since the 1980 publication of the Metropolitan Issues 
Report further studies have shown that the issue of future land 
settlement sequence is still a key issue, not so much in terms of whether 
the next major development stage should occur in either Tuggeranong 
or Gungahlin but rather in terms of how soon and in what form should 
the development of Gungahlin be carried out. 

This in the Commission's view is the most important metropolitan 
planning issue raised in this present Report. Its significance lies in 
the fact that to start a new ‘development front’ in Gungahlin has 
substantial fiscal implications for the government. Also the development 
ol Gungahlin could defer but would not resolve the question of 
whether or not rural lands in Tuggeranong west of the Murrumbidgee 
River are to be preserved, and whether rural lands in NSW north of 
the ACT will eventually become urbanised and incorporated into 
Canberra. 


40 


Chapter 4 


Existing Situation and 
Forecast Change 


Existing Land Use Plan and Location of 
Key Activities 

Existing Land Use Plan 

The Existing Land Use Plan (Figure 18) provides a brief description 
of the metropolitan structure of Canberra, depicting, in very broad 
terms, the location of such key activities as the main settlement areas, 
employment and retail nodes, recreation facilities and the network 
of transport routes connecting them. 

Employment and retail activity is distributed among town centres 
and employment nodes within and adjacent to the towns, and leisure 
and recreation facilities are dispersed both within the town areas and 
within the metropolitan open space system connecting the main hill 
and valley systems, which surround and pass through the town areas. 
The main road system consists of a central arterial spine connecting 
the major centres and a peripheral parkway system carrying inter-town 
traffic to the major activity nodes. 

The Towns 

The main settlement areas comprise the original Federal Capital 
City of Inner Canberra, Woden-Weston Creek (Canberra's first new 
town), and the additional new towns of Belconnen and Tuggeranong. 

In June 1983, the total population within the settled area of the 
Canberra City District was estimated at 234 900. The structure of the 
towns may be summarised as follows: 

• Inner Canberra 

In 1958, Canberra had a population of 39 000. North Canberra 
consisted of five suburbs and South Canberra had six suburbs 
which were partly developed. Between 1958 and 1969 another seven 
suburbs had been developed and the total population increased 
to 82 000. 

The population in June 1982 was 59 400, a reduction of 22 000 
over the previous 14 years. The decline was the result of mortality 
and out-migration to new developing areas. All Inner Canberra 
suburbs have declining household occupancy rates. Inner Canberra 
also has a significantly higher proportion of one and two-person 
households and older age groups. 

• Woden-Weston Creek 

Woden was the first new town designed by the Commission. 
According to the principle established by the Outline Plan and later 
the Y-Plan, it is physically separated from, but conveniently related 
to, Inner Canberra. Woden was originally planned as a discrete 
unit, but the development of an adjoining valley, Weston Creek, 
increased the population to a level where Woden could support 
a larger town centre and provide better town facilities. 


41 





The structural concept for Woden consists of twelve 
neighbourhoods located on the valley slopes. In the floor of the 
valley are the Town Centre, playing fields, large school grounds, 
and transport facilities. The Town Centre is located at the intersec¬ 
tion of the main traffic routes through the valley. Weston Creek 
consists of eight neighbourhoods. 

The development of Woden-Weston Creek is substantially 
complete. The population peaked in 1976 at about 63 000 people. 
Most suburbs in Woden are already experiencing a population 
decline and enrolments have begun to decline at some schools. The 
population of Woden-Weston Creek at June 1982 was 59 950. 

• Helen nnen 

Belconnen was the second town designed by the Commission. The 
Town Centre is close to the geographical centre of the area, 
adjacent to an artificial lake, Lake Ginninderra. The road system 
is based on a grid pattern. 

The development of Belconnen is not yet complete. The suburbs 
of Florey and McKellar are still to be settled and extensions to 
other suburbs such as Kaleen and South Bruce are yet to be 
constructed. When the Naval Station is relocated land will become 
available for an additional suburb. The planning structure of 
Belconnen allows for all of these future residential areas. Because 
development has been spread over a number of years, the older 
suburbs such as Aranda and Cook are experiencing a fall in 
population before housing development is completed in the newer 
areas. The population at June 1982 was 77 000. 

• Tuggeranong 

The planning of Tuggeranong has been based on the concept of 
‘territorial units’ rather than neighbourhoods. The boundaries of 
territorial units are either defined by physical features which occur 
naturally such as ridges or significant stands of trees, or are man¬ 
made, for example, floodways which do not have visual links with 
the adjacent areas. Because these features normally follow the 
topography, territorial units in Tuggeranong vary in size. Areas 
such as Kambah with weaker physical constraints tend to be less 
contained and larger whereas areas with more striking landscape 
features such as Macarthur tend to be smaller and have greater 
identity. 

At February 1984, Tuggeranong had eight local centres and two 
larger centres (Kambah Village and Wanniassa). No retail facilities 
have as yet been provided at the group centre or town centre level 
although the recently announced retail developments at the Erindale 
Centre and the Tuggeranong Town Centre will provide for the 
higher order shopping needs of Tuggeranong residents. 

Tuggeranong experienced the greatest impact from the slowdown 
in metropolitan growth. The population at June 1982 was 32 800 
people, although it is increasing at a rate of about 5 000 people 
per year. 

Major Metropolitan Centres 

The locus ot each Iully developed town is a town centre. The town 

centres are at the following stages of development. 

• Civic Centre 

Civic Centre is the highest order commercial centre for Canberra 
and the region, and in addition, provides the greatest concentration 
ot employment opportunities. It has always been envisaged as the 
main local administrative and commercial centre and as an area 
important tor tourists and visitor-associated uses. It accommodates 
Canberra’s major cultural, leisure and entertainment facilities, is 
the main legal, financial and medical centre, and contains the 
majority of Canberra’s professional and specialist functions. 
Employment in Civic Centre at June 1982 was approximately 
16 000. There was 60 800nr of retail floorspace in Civic at 
September 1982. 




Parliamentary Zone 

Civic Centre/Town Centres 

Urban Areas 

Public Open Space 

Major Roads 

Industry 

Special Uses 

Airport/Railway Uses 

Rural and Non-Urban Areas 

Forestry 

Water Catchment Area 



2 4 6 8 10 km 

j -1-1_i_ i 

Metropolitan Canberra 

Existing Land Lise Plan 


42 
















Gungahlin 


Belconnen 


Canberra 


Majura 


eston 

reek 


/Queanbeyan 


Jerrgbomberra 


Valley 


COTTER 


TIDBINBILLA 

NATURE 

RESERVE 


CATCHMENT 


Tharwa 


NATURE 


NSW 


h.U 


■'u ~ n > 


f 


AREA 


GUDGENBY 


« 






- RESERVE 




NSW 


43 






• Woden Town Centre 

Woden Town Centre was the first major centre to be constructed 
outside Inner Canberra. Existing development includes a mixture 
of government and private enterprise offices, retail facilities and 
service trades, community services, leisure and recreation facilities, 
and a major bus depot and interchange. Employment in the centre 
at June 1982 was approximately 9 300. There was 67 900m : of 
retail floorspace in Woden Town Centre at September 1982. 

• Belconnen Town Centre 

Existing development in Belconnen Town Centre comprises a retail 
mall, service trades, offices, institutions, bus depot and inter¬ 
change, and flats and townhouses. Employment at the centre at 
June 1982 was approximately 8 000. This figure excludes the 
CCAE which is not part of the town centre. There was 67 300m’ 
of retail floorspace in Belconnen Town Centre at September 1982. 

Industry has been developed in estates, to accommodate manu¬ 
facturing, processing, storage, regional service trades and public 
utilities. 

The estates have been sited on the edge of the urban areas but 
in locations which conveniently service the workforce of the new towns 
and have good accessibility for interstate freight movements. Industrial 
estates are currently located at Fyshwick, Elume and Mitchell. In 
addition, Queanbeyan has an important role in industrial develop¬ 
ment with two major industrial estates. 

At June 1982 Fyshwick had an employment level of 8 300 and was 
substantially completed. Hume is being developed to provide a 
location for rail-oriented industries. Development is also continuing 
at Mitchell, particularly for transport and road-haulage firms and 
those needing direct access to road links with Sydney and Melbourne. 

In addition to the town centres and industrial areas, employment 
has been dispersed to locations between the towns and adjacent to 
the public transport spine. These have become centres for office 
employment and a variety of activities including hospitals and 
educational establishments. Employment concentrations are located 
at: 

• Parkes/Barton 

• Russell/Campbell Park 

• Bruce 

• South-West Deakin 

The National Capital Open Space System 

Within the metropolitan area, the hills and ridges have generally 
been kept free of urban development. They act as a backdrop for the 
City, and provide a means of defining the towns so that each might 
develop a distinctive character. 

The National Capital Open Space System comprises these hill 
reserves and ridges, together with Canberra’s lakes and foreshores, 
the river corridors of the Murrumbidgee and Molongo Rivers, the 
distant mountain areas west of the Murrumbidgee, and other major 
open spaces. 

The System provides not only a pleasing and unifying visual 
background to the Capital, but also a diverse recreational, cultural 
and ecological resource. 

The Transport System 

At the metropolitan level, the system derived from the Y-Plan has 
two complementary components: an inter-town public transport route 


44 


connecting the town centres and running through the urban areas; 
and a peripheral road system designed to keep the major inter-town 
vehicle movements out of the urban areas. 

Water Resources 

The ACT forms part of the Upper Murrumbidgee Basin. The 
climate is essentially continental with hot summers and cold winters. 
Although the low rainfall (450-550 mm per year) is generally 
distributed throughout the year, the region experiences extended 
drought periods in common with the rest of inland Australia. 

Under the Seat of Government Acceptance Act 1909 the 
Commonwealth has paramount rights to the w aters of the Queanbeyan 
and Molonglo Rivers. 

The regulation and diversion of streams for municipal water supply 
purposes is undertaken in the Cotter River to the w'est, and the 
Queanbeyan River to the east. The Naas-Gudgenby catchment to the 
south has been identified as a potential future source of water supply. 
This system and the associated network of bulk supply mains reflect 
to a considerable degree the development of the Y-Plan. 

The metropolitan trunk sewerage system comprises a network of 
tunnels and interceptor sewers servicing Tuggeranong, Woden-Weston 
Creek, Inner Canberra, and Belconnen. Provision exists to service 
Gungahlin. In view of the high standard of wastewater treatment 
required to protect inland waters, and in the interests of economy, 
wastewater treatment in the ACT is largely undertaken at one plant 
(the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre). 

The system of lakes and streams incorporated into the National 
Capital Open Space System is also required to transport urban storm¬ 
water and rural floodwater through the metropolitan area. The 
management of surface water includes the reservation of flood plains 
along the major drainage routes, and the provision of stormwater 
drains within the urban areas. These systems represent significant 
constraints on the configuration of metropolitan development. The 
waters of the ACT are generally suitable for a range of uses including 
swimming, boating and other forms of recreation. 


45 


Social and Economic Aspects of the City 


Introduction 

Expansion of the Public Service workforce has been the fundamen¬ 
tal reason for the growth in Canberra’s employment and population. 
As a consequence, changes in government policy have resulted in 
sudden shifts in the level of economic and social activity in Canberra 
with consequent effects on the population. 

The level and types of population-based demands in the future 
will be closely related to the likely population and employment growth 
and the future characteristics of the population, particularly in terms 
of age and income. 


Population and Employment 

Aspects of population and employment are relevant to forecasts 
for planning and assessments of social needs. This section describes 
the following: 

• existing employment, its distribution and structure 

• recent trends in employment, which need to be studied to gain an 
understanding of the effects of likely future growth 

• labourforce characteristics, and unemployment - two important 
sets of social indicators 

• the existing population, its structure and distribution, and recent 
population trends including population decline in the older areas 
of Canberra 

• income and expenditure effects 

• population and employment balance 

• population and employment forecasts. 

Existing Employment 

As at June 1983, the labourforce of the ACT was 115 700, of which 
7 700 were unemployed. In addition, an estimated 6 000 jobs were 
located in Queanbeyan. 

Employment Distribution 

Although the employment distribution is strongly biased towards 
Inner Canberra, a fundamental goal of Canberra’s planning has been 
the dispersal of employment away from the Central Area to the new 
towns so as to reduce the costs associated with the journey to work, 
congestion and pollution. 

While the strategy for dispersal includes industry and retail 
floorspace, otfice decentralisation is emphasised because of the 
structure of Canberra’s workforce. The estimated employment 
distribution in the ACT and Queanbeyan is shown in Table 5. 

Table 5 Estimated Emplovment Distribution ACT and Queanbeyan - 
1981 



Employment 

% 

Inner Canberra (I) 

67 700 

60.9 

Woden-Weston Creek 

16 000 

14.4 

Belconnen 

15 000 

13.5 

Tuggeranong 

1 600 

1.4 

Other ACT 

4 900 

4.4 

Queanbeyan 

6 000 

5.4 

Total 

111 200 

100.0 


(1) Includes Fyshwick. 


46 


I able 6 Major Employment Nodes - 1982 


Civic Centre 

16 000 

Acton 

7 300 

Woden Town Centre 

9 300 

Belconnen Town Centre 

8 000 

Parkes/Barton 

10 650 

Russell/Campbell Park 

6 600 

Fyshwick 

8 300 

Queanbeyan 

6 000 


The major employment nodes within these districts are shown in 
Table 6. 


Employment Structure 

Canberra’s employment structure is markedly different from other 
urban areas in Australia (Table 7). The most notable features are the 
minor manufacturing (secondary) component in the ACT and the 
comparatively high component of public administration and defence, 
which accounted for 32.5 per cent of employment in 1981. 


Table 7 Employment Structure of the ACT 1971-1981 and Australia 
1981 (°7o) 


Industry Type 

ACT 

ACT 

ACT 

Australia 


1971 

1976 

1981 

1981 

Agriculture/Mining 

1.0 

0.8 

0.9 

7.4 

Manufacturing 

5.6 

4.7 

3.6 

17.7 

Electricity 

0.7 

0.7 

0.7 

2.0 

Construction 

10.3 

9.0 

5.0 

6.3 

Wholesale/Retail 

12.9 

12.9 

12.9 

17.4 

Transport/Storage 

2.5 

2.3 

2.7 

5.2 

Communications 

1.6 

1.5 

1.6 

2.0 

Finance etc. 

Public Administration/ 

6.0 

7.1 

7.6 

8.4 

Defence 

32.6 

31.7 

32.5 

5.6 

Community Services 
Recreation/Personal 

17.6 

19.1 

22.3 

14.9 

Services 

6.2 

4.8 

5.9 

5.2 

Other 

3.0 

5.7 

4.3 

7.7 


100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 


The decline in construction employment from 9 per cent of the 
workforce in 1976 to 5 per cent of the workforce in 1981, reflected 
the downturn in the ACT economy during that period. 

In 1981, the public sector accounted for 59 per cent of total 
employment in the ACT compared to 25 per cent for Australia (Fieure 
19). 

The dominance of the government sector makes the ACT economy 
and social structure susceptable to changes in government policy. This 
has led to calls for diversification of Canberra's economy. 


Private sector activity in the ACT has essentially served the growth 
of the public sector. 


Figure 19 Government Share of Total 
Employment - 1981 



Australia 



47 













Recent Trends in Employment Growth 

Expansion of employment opportunities is the prime determinant 
of a city’s population growth. High levels of employment and 
population growth occurred in Canberra in the 1960s and early 1970s, 
in response to high levels of government employment and investment 
(Figure 20). The transfer of government departments, and the sub¬ 
sequent growth of those departments, has been the mechanism behind 
the growth of private sector employment. 

Public and private sector employment grew strongly until the 
mid-1970s when growth rates slowed considerably. During 1971-76, 
public sector employment increased by nearly 16 000 and the private 
sector by 15 000. In the following five years, 1976-81, employment 
in the private sector declined by some 250 positions, while the public 
sector increased by about 10 000. 

Expansion in Public Service Act (PSA) employment has been the 
major impetus for employment change. During the last twenty years, 
PSA employment growth rates and total employment growth rates 
have been almost identical during both high and low growth periods. 


60 

50 


40 

C/O 

CD 

CD 



1961 66 1966 71 1971 76 1976 81 


Year 

] Population Growth J Employment Growth 

Source: A8S 


The transfer programme has accounted for the majority of PSA 
employment growth in recent years. From 1971 to 1976, the transfer 
programme accounted for about one per cent of PSA growth. Since 
1976, it has represented over 60 per cent of growth (Figure 21). 

At June 1983 PSA employment accounted for 36 per cent of total 
employment and 64 per cent of the public sector employment within 
Canberra. 

Labourforce Characteristics 

Major features of the ACT labourforce are: 

• High Participation Rates 

The labourforce participation rate (the proportion of people 15 
years and over in the labourforce) is high by Australian standards. 
At June 1982, the labourforce participation rate in the ACT was 
68.8 per cent, compared to 60 per cent for Australia. This reflects 
the age composition of the population and job availability in the 
ACT. Between 1966 and 1982, the female labourforce participation 
rate rose from 45 per cent to 55 per cent in the ACT, while the 
Australian average rate rose from 35 per cent to 44 per cent. In 
Australia, between 1971 and 1982, male participation fell from 
82.5 per cent to 77.2 per cent, as a result of earlier retirement, 
increased participation in full-time education and age structure 
change. In the ACT, male participation fell from 84.7 per cent 
to 82.1 per cent (Figure 22). 

• Highly Educated 

At June 1981, 14.1 per cent, of the population over 15 years had 
a Bachelor’s degree, or higher, compared to the Australian average 
of 4.1 per cent (Figure 23). The high levels reflect the nature of 
employment available in the ACT. The retention rate to Year 12 
in the ACT in 1981 was 68 per cent compared to 35 per cent for 
Australia. 

• Relatively High Income and Expenditure 

Average male weekly earnings in the ACT, at March 1983, were 
$406.30 compared to the Australian average of $345.00, reflecting 
the occupational structure of the workforce. 

• Increasing Part-Time Employment 

In the ACT, the share of part-time employment (people working 
less than 35 hours per week) increased from 11.7 per cent to 19.6 
per cent between 1971 and 1981. Over the same period, the part- 
time employment share of Australia’s total employment increased 
from 10.5 per cent to 16.3 per cent. Eighty per cent of employment 
growth between 1976 and 1981 was in part-time employment. 


figure 20 Population and Employment 
Growth 


4 - 



71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 


Year 

I Annual Increase fcn&l Positions Transferred 

Source ABS 

Figure 21 Public Service Act Employment 
ACT 1971-1983 



- 1966 - 1976 

- 1971 - 1981 

Source: ABS 


figure 22 ACT Labourforce Participation 
Rates 1966-1981 


48 























































































Per Cent 

1 1 Australia 1 1 ACT 

Source: ABS 


Figure 23 Educational Qualifications 
Australia and ACT - 1981 


Figure 24 Age Distribution of ACT 

Unemployed Persons 1976 and 1981 


Between 1976 and 1981, female part-time employment increased 
from 29 per cent to 37 per cent of total female employment. Male 
part-time employment increased from 4.4 per cent ot total male 
employment in 1976 to 11.2 per cent in 1981. Part-time employment 
is particularly prevalent in the retail, community service and 
entertainment industry sectors. 

Unemployment 

Between the 1976 Census and 1981 Census, the unemployment rate 
increased from 2.6 per cent to 5 per cent of the labourforce (Figure 
24). As at May 1983, the unemployment rate was estimated to be 7.8 
per cent in the ACT. This compared to 10.3 per cent for Australia. 

The impact of unemployment is uneven in the community, being 
higher for the young, females, migrants, the disabled, and the less 
well educated. 

The ACT Employment Task Force Report (1983) outlines this 
uneven impact. While the overall unemployment rate in the ACT is 
below the Australian average, the level of teenage unemployment is 
substantially above average. At December 1982, teenage unemploy¬ 
ment in the ACT was 35.8 per cent compared to the Australian average 
of 26.3 per cent. High unemployment among teenagers is a product 
of their lack of experience and skills, and has also been influenced 
by increases in teenage rates of pay. The higher youth unemployment 
in the ACT is partly a product of the Territory’s industrial structure 
which requires relatively high levels of skills. 

At November 1982, 8.0 per cent of females were unemployed and 
7.7 per cent of males. However, the duration of unemployment is less 
for females. At November 1982, the average duration of unemploy¬ 
ment for females was 20.7 weeks and for males 34.2 weeks. 

The duration of unemployment increases with age. The median 
duration for teenagers is 17 weeks, compared to over 34 weeks for 
persons 45 years and over. 

The 1981 Census indicates that for ACT residents who were born 
overseas the unemployment rate was 6.3 per cent compared to 4.5 
per cent for persons born in Australia. The unemployment rate for 
migrants is influenced by their time since arrival in Australia. The 
Vietnamese in the ACT, for example, had an unemployment rate of 
38.4 per cent at the 1981 Census. 

The age a person leaves school also influences the likelihood of 
unemployment, particularly for males. Males who leave school at 15 
have double the unemployment rate of those who leave school at 17. 

The level of unemployment in June 1981 was higher at 6.3 per 
cent, in Inner Canberra than in the other towns. This compared to 
4.9 per cent in Belconnen, 4.5 per cent in Woden, 4.1 per cent in 


Age Age 




49 
















































































Tuggeranong and 4.0 per cent in Weston Creek. The unemployment 
level, in part, is related to the age structure of suburbs and the location 
of government housing. At 1981, the suburbs with unemployment 
above 7.0 per cent were Lyneham, O’Connor, Turner, Ainslie, 
Kingston, Narrabundah, Melba and the Division of Belconnen. 

Existing Population 

As at June 1983, the Canberra population was estimated at 
234 900, and the population of Queanbeyan was estimated to be 
20 150. 

The distribution of the Canberra population at June 1983 was as 
shown in Table 8. 

Table 8 Population Distribution - 1983 


Inner Canberra 

59 

700 

Woden-Weston Creek 

59 

700 

Belconnen 

76 

700 

Tuggeranong 

38 

450 

Other ACT 


350 


Compared to the Australian pattern, the age structure of 
Canberra’s population (Figure 26) has: 

• a much lower proportion aged over 65 years 

• a lower proportion in all age groups aged over 45 years 

• a higher proportion of those aged 0-14 years. 

Although Canberra’s population shows a younger age distribution, 
a number of changes have occurred during the past twenty years, the 
most significant being: 

• the proportion of 0-4 year olds has steadily declined. This is con¬ 
sistent with national trends 

• the proportion of those aged over 45 years has steadily increased. 

Nationally, the change for these groups has been only marginal. 

The ageing of the population is indicated by the increase in the 
median age of the population from 23.6 years in 1971 to 27.1 years 
in 1981. In 1981, median age for the Australian population was 29.7. 

Population Trends 

Since 1975, the rate of population and employment growth has 
fallen sharply in response to contraction in the rates of growth in 
public sector employment. 

From 1966 to 1975, the average level of population growth was 
11 000 per annum, of which 73 per cent was a result of net migration. 
Between 1976 and 1982, inward net migration has averaged 1 000 per 
annum, only 22 per cent of the growth in that period (Figure 27). 

Migration flows to the ACT have been dominated by young adults 
and children, although between 1961 and 1976 there were net gains 
in all age groups. Between 1976 and 1981, there was a net outflow 
in the 45-59 age groups (Figure 28). 

It has been characteristic of Canberra’s settlement that the new 
towns have been settled rapidly by households at a similar life cycle 
stage. 

The age pyramids of the towns reflect their time and pace of 
development. The towns exhibit a ‘bi-modal’ profile - that is, initial 


80 - 

^ — Belconnen 

/ 

/ 

60 - L - 



Figure 25 Population Distribution by 
Settlement Area 1960-1983 


Age 



12 10 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 

Per Cent 


Source ABS 


Figure 26 Age Structure of Population 
ACT and Australia - 1981 


14 - 



2 --- 

72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 

Year 

I 1 Natural Increase [^j Net Migration 


Source: ABS 

Figure 27 Annual Population Increase 
1972-1983 


50 





































































Population 1000 si 



>2 i_i_i_i_i_i_i_i_i 

0 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 70 

Age 


1961 -66 
1966-71 


-1971-76 

- 1976-81 

Source: ABS 


Figure 28 ACT Net Migration Age 
Distribution 1961-1981 


Figure 29 Age Structure by Town - 1981 


settlement of the towns by young adults in the child-bearing ages 
(Figure 29). Over time, the migration of children when they reach the 
15-24 age groups to form new households in or outside the ACT and 
the impact of mortality, produce a marked population decline. I he 
population of Inner Canberra has declined from a population peak 
of 83 000 in 1967 to below 60 000, reflecting the impact of out¬ 
migration and mortality. The process of demographic change in Inner 
Canberra is illustrated in Figure 30. 

A survey undertaken by the Commission in North Canberra found 
evidence of ‘regeneration’ in the older suburbs, as reflected in the 
increase in 0-4 year olds in these areas since the 1976 Census. This 
‘regeneration’, however, is insufficient to counteract the influence of 
out-migration and mortality. The new households being formed will 
have a lower ‘peak’ family size than the households they are replacing. 




Age 



Population 1000 si 


Age 




Age 



Population 1000si 

Source ABS 



Approaching/Over 4 Persons 
Falling from 4 Persons 
Falling below 3 Persons 



Figure 30 House Occupancy North 
Canberra 1961-1981 




51 


















































































The impact of ageing and the trends towards smaller family size 
are reflected in town household occupancy rates (Table 9). Inner 
Canberra achieved peak household occupancy rates of 4.2 persons 
per household, while Woden and Belconnen peak household occupancy 
rates were 3.9 and 3.8 respectively. 

While occupancy rates of 4 persons per household will be 
approached in individual suburbs, the slower pace of town develop¬ 
ment and demographic change will result in average town household 
occupancy rates of below 4 persons per dwelling. The pattern of 
Canberra’s suburban development, characterised by rapid population 
build-up, has resulted in concentrations of population in specific age 
groups. This creates high short-term demands for age-specific facilities 
such as pre-schools and later primary schools and high schools. The 
under-utilisation of school space in the older areas of Canberra is a 
result of the demographic change that is taking place. 

Table 9 Dwelling Occupancy by District 1961-1981 (1) 



1961 

1966 

1971 

1976 

1981 

North Canberra 

4.2 

4.1 

3.4 

2.9 

2.6 

South Canberra 

4.2 

4.1 

3.4 

3.0 

2.6 

Woden 

- 

3.9 

3.9 

3.4 

3.0 

Weston Creek 

- 

- 

3.5 

3.7 

3.4 

Belconnen 

- 

- 

3.8 

3.6 

3.4 

Tuggeranong 

- 

- 

_ 

3.3 

3.5 

Other ACT" 

n.a. 

n.a. 

n.a. 

3.2 

3.0 

Average ACT 

4.2 

4.1 

3.6 

3.3 

3.1 


(I) Average number of persons per occupied dwelling. 
(Source: ABS Census, various years) 


Income and Expenditure Effects 

The characteristics of the ACT population and labourforce outlined 
above affect the demand for facilities. The level of income a household 
has at its disposal is an indicator of well-being and determines the 
degree of access to a wide range of goods and services. The ABS 
1975-76 Household Expenditure Survey found that weekly household 
expenditure in the ACT was 40 per cent higher than the Australian 
average. This higher household expenditure,in part, reflects the higher 
participation ot women in the labourforce, which has implications 
tor the demand and supply of childcare facilities and the demand for 
retail facilities outside normal trading hours. Higher household 
incomes result in the majority of the ACT population being affluent 
and mobile. Car ownership rates are high; retail sales per capita are 
on par with Melbourne, the highest of the State Capitals; and school 
retention rates for Years 11 and 12 and participation in tertiary 
education are above average. 


Household income levels are lowest in Inner Canberra. The older 
North Canberra suburbs of Ainslie, Turner, Braddon and Reid had 
median household incomes of below $18 000 at the 1981 Census. Other 
areas with low median household incomes were Barton, Kingston, 
Lyons, Narrabundah, Macquarie, Charnwood and the Division of 
Belconnen (Figure 31). This pattern is largely related to the distribution 
of government housing. 


In part, higher average wages in the ACT are offset by higher living 
costs. An indication ot the relative cost of living between urban areas 
in Australia can be obtained trom established housing and food cost 
data. Canberra is the second most expensive capital, after Sydney, 
in terms of the median cost of established houses (Table 10). 

The average retail price for selected food items in the June quarter 
1982 placed Canberra as the second most expensive capital after 
Hobart (Table 11). 


fable 10 Median Price of Established 
Houses - May 1983 


$ 


Sydney 

82 500 

Canberra 

68 400 

Melbourne 

55 750 

Brisbane 

55 750 

Perth 

51 500 

Adelaide 

49 600 


Table 11 Retail Prices Index of Selected 
Items - June 1982 


Melbourne 100.0 

Sydney 102.2 

Perth 103.1 

Adelaide 104.5 

Brisbane 104.5 

Canberra 105.5 

Hobart 108.3 


52 


The economic recession led to greater inequality in the Territory 
than had previously existed, and increased unemployment created 
greater demands for social welfare payments and services. Between 
1974-75 and 1981-82, welfare expenditure by the Department of 
Territories and Tocal Government increased from $2.6 million to $8.6 
million (per 1981-82 prices). Over this period expenditure on rental 
rebates increased from $0.8 million to $5.6 million, indicating the 
increased need for subsidised housing. 


Less than $18 000 


$18 001 to $22 000 


$22 001 to $26 000 



More than $26 000 


Source: ACT Employment Task Force 


0 1 2 3 4 5 km 

i_i_i_i_i-1 

Figure 31 Annual Median Household Income 
by Suburb - 1981 




:harnwood 


Melba 


Macgregor 


Giralang 


Lalham 


McKellar, 


Florey /< 

Belconnen 


Kaleen 


Scullin 


Watson 


Belconnen 


Downer 


Bruce 


Hackett 


Hawker 


'neb am 


Macquarie 


Dickson 


Aranda 


O Connor 


Turne ' /Braddon 

"Canberra . 


Acton 


Cam obeli 


.Russell 


Yarralumla 


Central 

J Barton 


Kingston 


Deakrrs / Forrest 


Griffith 


Curtin 


Fyshwick 


Narrabundah 


Hughes j 


/ Holder / \ 

ffy { I \ 

\ j Weston \ 

Weston" Creek 

Rlvett /'Stirling \ 
^Warramanga 


Garran 


Woden Va le’ 

ph '"'p y 


O'Maftev 


Fisher 


Mawson 


orrens 


Farrer 


Population and Employment Balance 

The greater the co-ordination between population build-up and 
employment provision in a new town, the greater the likelihood of 
people living and working in the same town. Traditionally, employment 
has lagged behind population growth. Belconnen began settlement in 
1967, while the first offices opened in 1975. Tuggeranong is yet to 
attain offices, although settlement began in 1973. The imbalance 
between population and employment build-up has resulted in higher 
levels of cross town commuting than would have otherwise resulted. 

The essential justifications for the dispersal of employment are: 
to reduce the length and cost of the journey to work; to minimise 
traffic congestion; to reduce public investment; and to provide 



























opportunities for people to live and work in the same town. The 
greater the co-ordination of employment and population, the greater 
the benefits are likely to be. 

Proximity to work is, of course, only one aspect of a household’s 
location decision. The workplace of other members of the household; 
access to housing and finance; attributes of the house; house price; 
accessibility to other urban activities such as educational facilities, 
retailing and recreation; and the amenity of an area; all impact on 
residential location decisions. Once a residential location decision is 
made, there is considerable inertia to adjust that location. 

In order to facilitate employment dispersal, functional groupings 
of government departments have been located in particular centres. 
Thus, Woden Town Centre has been nominated as the location of 
social welfare departments such as Social Security and Education. 
Defence functions are located at Russell/Campbell Park, major policy 
departments at Parkes/Barton, service and technical departments at 
Belconnen Town Centre, and civic and administrative functions in 
Civic Centre. 

Between 1968 and 1983, the Belconnen and Woden Town Centres 
attained 55 per cent of the growth in PSA office employment, the 
main vehicle for the dispersal of employment. 

Private enterprise office employment remains concentrated in 
Civic, while employment in statutory authorities and other govern¬ 
ment agencies remains concentrated in the Central Area. 

To evaluate the employment dispersal policy an analysis of the 
journey to work data from the 1981 Census was undertaken. 

The analysis indicated the dominance of Inner Canberra as an 
employment location. While Inner Canberra had 26 per cent of the 
Canberra/Queanbeyan resident workforce, the district had 61 per cent 
of Canberra/Queanbeyan employment. Tuggeranong on the other 
hand was the residence of 11 per cent of the Canberra/Queanbeyan 
workforce yet had less than 2 per cent of the Canberra/Queanbeyan 
employment. 

North Canberra had the highest proportion of residents who lived 
and worked in the same town (self-containment) - 56.5 per cent 
compared to only 7.5 per cent in Tuggeranong (see Table 12). 

Tuggeranong residents, however, took a relatively high proportion 
of the jobs that were available in Tuggeranong. Tuggeranong, 
Belconnen and Queanbcyan residents took over 60 per cent of the 
jobs available in their respective towns. This compared to less than 
35 per cent in both Inner Canberra and Woden-Weston Creek (see 
Table 13). 

The unequal distribution of employment between towns is reflected 
in the work locations of the residents of each of the towns. North 
and South Canberra comprise the dominant employment location for 
the residents of each of the towns except Queanbeyan (see Table 14). 

The 1981 Census also indicated that 69 per cent of jobs at the 
Woden Town Centre were taken by residents of Woden, Weston Creek 
or Tuggeranong, and that 60 per cent of jobs at the Belconnen Town 
Centre were taken by Belconnen residents. 

The analysis indicates that the distance from home to work is a 
major factor in a household’s location decision. The policy of employ¬ 
ment dispersal increases the locational choice available to a household. 

The implications of the locational imbalance between employment 
and population are discussed in Chapter 5. 


1 able 12 Level of Self-Containment by 
District - 1981 ( r o )(1) 


North Canberra 56.5 

South Canberra 45.3 

Woden 28.0 

Weston Creek 10.8 

Belconnen 30.0 

Tuggeranong 7.5 

Queanbeyan 40.3 


(l) Self-containment is the ratio of people 
who live and work in a district to the 
resident workforce of the district. 


fable 13 Proportion of Jobs in a District 

Taken by Residents of that District 
- 1981 (%) 


North Canberra 

27.1 

South Canberra 

15.3 

Woden 

34.2 

Weston Creek 

51.8 

Belconnen 

67.5 

Tuggeranong 

60.3 

Queanbeyan 

63.1 


54 


Population 1000si 


500 


Table 14 Work Location by Residence - 1981 (%) 



0 

1981 


Figure 32 


_ 

1986 1991 


i i 

1996 2001 2006 


Year 


Population Forecasts for Canberra 
1981-2006 



Primary 

Second 

Third 



Employment 

Employment 

Employment 


Residence 

District 

District 

District 

Other 

North Canberra 

56.5(NC) 

19.9(SC) 

9.4 (B) 

14.2 

South Canberra 

45.3(SC) 

30.6(NC) 

8.6 (W) 

15.5 

Woden 

29.1(NC) 

28.0 (W) 

26.3(SC) 

16.6 

Weston Creek 

27.5(NC) 

25.1(SC) 

19.8 (W) 

17.6 

Belconnen 

37.5(NC) 

30.0 (B) 

18.0(SC) 

14.5 

Tuggeranong 

26.8(SC) 

26.4(NC) 

20.5 (W) 

16.3 

Queanbeyan 

40.3 (Q) 

24.1 (SC) 

15.4(NC) 

20.2 


Population and Employment Forecasts 

The extent to which Canberra will grow will be determined largely 
by the number of new jobs which will be created. The level and 
composition of Canberra’s existing population indicates that over the 
next twenty years natural increase alone will add some 60 000 people 
(Figure 32). If these are to remain in Canberra, employment 
opportunities will need to expand. On the other hand, natural increase 
creates a domestic demand for goods and services which, in turn, leads 
to new jobs, so that even under the circumstances of only modest 
economic growth there is at least a partial self-sustaining effect from 
natural increase and from changes in the population composition. 

Two factors indicate that the rates of growth in population and 
employment prior to 1975 will not be repeated: 

• the current PSA employment transfer programme, although not 
yet completed, is largely accomplished and is a non-recurring event 

• the requirement for government office buildings, land, housing 
and associated facilities, which created many jobs in the con¬ 
struction industry at the time when new buildings were required 
to accommodate whole departments, will not recur.Future demand 
will be incremental and probably more constant at a lower level. 

On the other hand, there are other factors which have not been 
part of the historical experience, but are likely to have an impact in 
the future. These include: 

• less propensity for retirees to leave Canberra 

• a greater propensity for older people to move to Canberra to join 
their relatives or for other social and economic reasons 

• the effects of deliberate policies to attract private enterprise 
investment and a consequent diversification of employment, which 
will not only create new jobs, but also provide better opportunities 
for local people to stay in Canberra 

• world-wide trends for white-collar tertiary employment to increase 

• increasing demands by society for government intervention, which 
may outweigh ‘small government’ pressures. For example, govern¬ 
ment employment has shown an overall increasing proportion of 
total employment, even during the 1976-81 period 

• the ACT has, over the past decade, continued to increase its share 
of both total Commonwealth and PSA employment, although at 
a slower rate during the past 5-6 years. This trend has arisen 
through transfers, continued growth of policy elements of depart¬ 
ments and responses to specific government initiatives 

• notwithstanding the suggestions of some commentators, the 
National Capital will not be complete when the New Parliament 
House is built.There will be new national institutions - of which 
the Museum of Australia is one that has already emerged - and 
there are others which will expand or relocate. Cultural and 
representative institutions of all kinds are continuing to locate in 
national capitals, not necessarily because of government initiative 
or funds, and it is not unreasonable to predict similar trends for 
Canberra 


ss 







• the potential for growth in the tourist industry in Canberra has 
not yet been fully exploited. The comparatively small steps taken 
in the last year or two show what can be achieved by promotion 
and effort 

• continued strong growth in the South-East Region of NSW, 
particularly areas close to the ACT and the South Coast, is likely 
to lead to increased demands for Canberra-based goods and 
services. 

Government Employment 

On balance, the historical evidence and indications of future social, 
political and technological changes point to the likelihood that govern¬ 
ment employment will continue to increase. It is not unreasonable 
to consider a long-term relationship between government activity and 
national population growth. The latest official population projections 
for Australia, prepared by the Department of Immigration and Ethnic 
Affairs for Commonwealth Government planning purposes, suggest 
a population by the year 2006 of over 21 million (1.4 per cent per 
annum growth). The additional propensity of the population to seek, 
and the government to provide, additional services would tend to 
increase jobs above this base level as would further concentration of 
government employment in Canberra. 

On the basis of the factors giving rise to government employment, 
the Commission’s assessment is that an average annual growth rate 
of 2.1 per cent in government employment over the plan period is 
a tenable basis for forward planning. This would represent an increase 
of 33 000 government jobs over twenty years (averaging approximately 
1 700 per annum). The level of growth suggests an upturn approaching 
the end of the decade associated with the completion of the New 
Parliament House. After that, more stable growth is forecast which 
would be below the rate generally experienced from 1961-81 (Table 
15). 

Private Sector Employment 

The natural increase in population, the population settlement 
pattern, and the level of growth in government employment, will all 
have an effect on the levels of employment in the private sector. 

In its simplest terms, growth in the population generates employ¬ 
ment expansion in the private sector, through demands for additional 
goods and services in manufacturing, construction, retail, finance and 
recreation, roughly in proportion to the population increase as shown 
in Table 16. 

Table 16 Relationship Between ACT Population Growth and Private 
Sector Employment 1961-1981 



Population 

Private Sector 
Employment//) 

Population to 
Employment ratio 

1961 

58 800 

10 400 

5.7 

1966 

96 000 

18 400 

5.2 

1971 

146 000 

26 000 

5.6 

1976 

203 100 

35 900 

5.7 

1981 

227 300 

36 400 

6.2 


Table 15 ACT Government Employment 
1961-1981 and Forecast Growth 
1981-2006 


1961 

1966 

1971 

1976 

1981 

1986 

1991 

1996 

2001 

2006 


13 300 
22 600 
35 700 
51 200 
61 600 
65 400 
77 900 
85 600 
95 000 
104 500 


(Sources: ABS; SCDC 1971 to 1982 Population 
Estimates; \CDC Population Forecasts, February 
19831 


(1) As there is not a consistent series of Census-based government and 
private sector information from 1961-1981, those industries where 
private sector employment predominates (manufacturing, construction, 
wholesale/retail, finance and recreation) have been used as an indicator 
of long-term private sector employment trends. 

(Source: ABS Census) 


There are other factors which generate increases in demand for 
local services. For example, in the five-year period 1976 to 1981, the 
population of Canberra increased by 24 000, but in that same period, 


56 


Table 17 ACT Private Employment 1961- 
1981 and Forecast Growth 1981-2006 


1961 

n.a. 

1966 

n.a. 

1971 

27 800 

1976 

42 600 

1981 

42 400 

1986 

48 000 

1991 

55 200 

1996 

63 400 

2001 

71 400 

2006 

79 300 


(Sources: ABS; NCDC 1971 to 1982 Population 
Estimates; NCDC Population Forecasts, February 
1983) 


Table 18 ACT Population and Employment 
1961-1981 and Forecast Growth 
1981-2006 



Population 

Employment 

1958 

41 100 

n.a. 

1961 

58 800 

24 000 

1966 

96 000 

42 000 

1971 

146 000 

63 400 

1976 

203 100 

93 800 

1981 

227 300 

103 900 

1986 

249 000 

113 400 

1991 

292 300 

133 100 

1996 

327 200 

148 900 

2001 

365 400 

166 300 

2006 

403 700 

183 800 


(Sources: ABS; NCDC 1971 to 1982 Population 
Estimates; NCDC Population Forecasts, February 
1983) 


some 40 000 people settled in new housing, mainly in I uggeranong 
and Belconnen. The direct reason for this difference is the decline 
of population in older inner areas due to mortality and out-migration 
to developing areas. 

The employment effects of this settlement pattern manifest 
themselves in areas such as house building, new shopping centres, 
schools, sales of household products, extension of postal services, 
public transport, and other municipal services at a level which is well 
above that indicated by the absolute increase in population. 

The other important, but rather more speculative, area of new 
employment is the development of ‘export’ industries in Canberra. 
There are encouraging signs of interest from tourist and high 
technology industries but their future development in the National 
Capital is uncertain. 

The Commission’s forecast of the private sector employment 
growth over a 25 year period from 1981 to 2006 is an increase of 37 000 
or about 1 500 per annum. This represents about 2.5 per cent per 
annum and reflects an assumption that, over the next 25 years, the 
private sector’s relative contribution to the Canberra economy will 
increase marginally from 40 per cent today to 43 per cent by 2006 
and, in this period, will provide 47 per cent of new jobs. Following 
the slight decline in private sector employment from 1976-81, growth 
in this sector is expected to recover, but at levels below that experienced 
from 1961-76 (Table 17). 

The combined results of the Commission’s forecasts of employ¬ 
ment and population over the next 25 years are shown in Table 18. 
Information for the years 1958-81 is shown for purposes of 
comparison. During this period, the ACT population increased by 
186 000 (averaging some 8 000 per year), while the next 25 years is 
forecast to see an increase of 177 000 (averaging some 7 000 per year). 

It is useful to note that on these forecasts Canberra’s population, 
as a proportion of the national population, will increase only slightly 
above its current level and at a slower rate than previously. From 1961 
to 1981, the ACT proportion of the Australian population increased 
from 0.55 per cent to 1.51 per cent. Under the forecasts included in 
this report and the latest official national projections, the ACT share 
will increase to only 1.89 per cent by 2006. 

Age Structure Change 

Canberra’s age structure is projected to change substantially during 
the plan period. In 1981, 0-14 year olds represented 29 per cent of 
Canberra’s population. This proportion is expected to decline to about 
25 per cent by 1991, and 23 per cent by 2006. 

Those aged 60 years or more represented about 7 per cent of the 
population in 1981. By 2006, this age group may increase by over 
30 000 people, or to about 12 per cent of Canberra’s population 
(Table 19). 


able 19 

Forecast 

Age Structur 

e Change 

1981-2006 




0-14 

15-29 

30-44 

45-59 

60 + 

Total (1) 

1981 

65 800 

60 900 

55 700 

28 600 

15 100 

226 000 

1986 

67 500 

63 600 

64 100 

33 800 

20 000 

249 000 

1991 

73 300 

75 900 

73 900 

43 700 

25 500 

292 000 

1996 

79 700 

81 500 

77 300 

58 600 

30 100 

327 000 

2001 

86 700 

86 600 

85 400 

69 400 

37 300 

365 500 

2006 

94 200 

90 700 

94 800 

77 300 

46 900 

403 500 

(1) Discrepancies due to rounding. 





The ageing of Canberra’s population will result in increased 
demands for health and medical services. Leisure and recreation 
requirements will alter, as will the type of housing required. The 
absolute increases in school age population will require additional 
education investments to be made. The altered age structures, 
particularly at a district level, will result in changes in expenditure 
patterns, particularly in relation to retail goods and services. 


Land and Housing 


Existing Situation 

At June 1983, there were some 63 900 occupied single residential 
dwellings and 11 200 medium-density dwellings in Canberra. Within 
the existing towns, including North-East Tuggeranong, there was land 
on which a further 16 100 single residential dwellings and 6 100 
medium-density dwellings could be occupied (Table 20). 

Table 20 ACT Housing June 1983 


Single Residential Blocks 



Occupied 

To be Occupied 

Total 

Inner Canberra 

17 300 

200 

17 500 

Woden-Weston Creek 

16 000 

1 200 

17 200 

Belconnen 

19 900 

4 200 

24 100 

N-E Tuggeranong 

10 700 

10 500 

21 200 

Total 

63 900 

16 100 

80 000 

Medium-Densitj l nits ( 1 ) 


Occupied 

To be Occupied 

Total 

Inner Canberra 

4 700 

800 

5 500 

Woden-Weston Creek 

3 300 

900 

4 200 

Belconnen 

2 900 

2 300 

5 200 

N-E Tuggeranong 

200 

2 100 

2 300 

Total 

11 200 

6 100 

17 300 


(1) Discrepancies due to rounding. 


Recent Trends 

During 1982-83, 1 300 single residential blocks and land on which 
120 medium-density units could be constructed were sold. 

Land sales have fluctuated greatly in response to factors such as 
the availability of finance and perception of the likely future supply 
of land. In 1980-81, 2 370 single residential blocks were sold, 
compared to less than 1 000 blocks in both 1979-80 and 1981-82. 

The level of new housing occupations has been a better indicator 
of the demand for new housing. Occupation of single residential dwell¬ 
ings has fallen from 3 100 in 1976-77 to 1 570 in 1982-83. Medium- 
density dwelling occupation has been relatively stable, despite the 
decline in the overall housing market. In 1982-83, 620 medium-density 
units were occupied. 

The supply of serviced land has declined markedly in recent years. 
At June 1983, the supply of serviced single residential blocks was nearly 
exhausted with about 350 single residential blocks available for sale 
at the Department of Territories and Local Government. The supply 
of medium-density sites was adequate to meet demand. 

Performance of Recent Activities 

In response to the population decline occurring in Inner Canberra, 
and the under-utilisation of schools, retail facilities and open space 


58 


that this produces, the following attempts have been made to arrest 
population decline: 

• redevelopment of single residential blocks for aged persons units 
has occurred in Brad don 

• government houses have been refurbished in Inner Canberra to 
ensure that young families are able to move back into the area 

• part of the Narrabundah area has been regenerated with some 
houses being refurbished, some being replaced by the government 
and some by private enterprise 

• vacant land has been released for medium-density housing and 
additional land is to be released 

• a redevelopment area has been designated in Kingston for medium- 
density housing and flat development. 

The Kingston area was selected for redevelopment in 1967, because 
of its age and pressure from residents, property owners and 
commercial interests for change. Despite longstanding interest among 
lessees, firm redevelopment proposals were not submitted until 1974. 
Prior to that, lower prices for newly serviced land, combined with 
the high prices demanded by lessees, restricted opportunities for 
private enterprise redevelopment. The redevelopment experience in 
Kingston suggests that the process of redevelopment is slow and that 
the benefits of consolidation are in the long term. Despite increases 
in the dwelling stock at Kingston, population fell, due to declining 
occupancy rates and vacancies. In fact, the early stages of the Kingston 
experience were characterised by declines in the dwelling stock, due 
to demolitions. 

Redevelopment generally takes the form of medium-density 
housing and the demolition of existing standard dwellings. As such, 
redevelopment dwellings will be at a cost disadvantage to dwellings 
constructed on vacant land. 

Given the overall size of the medium-density market, currently 
500-600 dwelling occupations per year, and the supply of vacant sites 
in the new towns, the pace of redevelopment is likely to remain slow. 

Medium-density dwellings have not been attractive to family 
groups. A medium-density housing survey by the Commission in 1980 
found that medium-density housing was most attractive to young 
adults without children and that there was increasing attractiveness 
of this housing form to people 50 years and over. 

Forecasts 

Over the next twenty years, it is estimated that land on which 
60 000 dwellings could be constructed will be required. 

Between 1976 and 1983 medium-density dwelling occupations and 
sales have been about 25 per cent of total occupations and housing 
sales. Compared to previous periods, this has been a relatively high 
market share and may reflect the limited housing choice available in 
Canberra over the period and changed lending criteria of financial 
institutions. The future demand for medium-density housing will 
depend of factors such as price and the rate of household formation 
among young adults. 

The current size of the market for medium-density housing in 
Canberra is about 500-600 units per year whereas the demand for 
standard housing is about 1 500 houses per year. For reasons of cost, 
lower occupancy rates and limited market share, redevelopment for 
medium-density housing cannot be relied upon to make much 
impression upon declining population lex els as the various districts 
age. 


59 


It is likely that the medium-density housing share will be between 
20 per cent and 25 per cent of total demand. This suggests that 
medium-density land sales will be 12 000 - 15 000 between 1982 and 
2001, with the demand for standard housing being 45 000 - 48 000 
blocks. 

Retail 

Introduction 

Retailing forms a major component of the system of town, group 
and local centres which contributes to the social and economic life 
of the City. This section describes: 

• existing floorspace and its distribution 

• expenditure and the factors affecting it 

• turnover of the various levels of the hierarchy 

• the performance of elements in the retail system which have 
implications for planning 

• industry trends 

• forecasts. 

Existing Floorspace 

At September 1982, there was approximately 369 000m : of retail 
floorspace in Canberra, a provision of about 1.6m 2 per capita. The 
retail provision per capita varied from 2.06m 2 per capita in North 
Canberra to 0.2m 2 per capita in Tuggeranong. (These floorspace 
estimates relate to actual operating retail floorspace). The distribution 
of floorspace by hierarchy level and functional type varies substantially 
between districts (Tables 21 and 22). The distribution over the whole 
metropolitan area was as follows: 

• 53.2 per cent of the floorspace was located in town centres; 20.5 
per cent in group centres; 11.1 per cent in local centres; and 15.2 
per cent at Fyshwiek and Mitchell 

• in terms of functional types, 25.1 per cent of the floorspace was 
in the department and variety store category; 15.2 per cent in 
clothing, fabric and furniture stores; 13.0 per cent in household 
appliance and hardware stores; 23.3 per cent in food stores; 13.4 
per cent in other retail; and 10.0 per cent in services. 


Table 21 Distribution of Retail Floorspace by District (nr) - September 
m2(l) 




Town 

Group 

Local 

Total 

North Canberra 


60 700 

9 400 

8 600 

78 700 

South Canberra 


- 

24 500 

6 200 

30 700 

Woden-Weston Creek 


67 900 

20 300 

10 900 

99 100 

Belconnen 


67 400 

16 500 

12 700 

96 600 

Tuggeranong 


- 

5 000 

2 600 

7 600 

Total 


196 000 

75 700 

41 000 

312 700 

(1) Excludes Fyshwiek 

and 

Mitchell. 




Table 22 Distribution 

Per 

Capita of 

Retail Floorspace (nr) - 

■September 

19826/> 







Town 

Group 

Local 

Total 

North Canberra 


1.59 

0.25 

0.22 

2.06 

South Canberra 


- 

1.16 

0.29 

1.45 

Woden-Weston Creek 


1.13 

0.34 

0.18 

1.65 

Belconnen 


0.88 

0.21 

0.16 

1.25 

Tuggeranong 


- 

0.15 

0.08 

0.23 

Total 


0.85 

0.33 

0.18 

1.36 


(1) Excludes Fyshwiek and Mitchell. 


60 


Table 24 Expenditure Containment 

North/South Canberra 
Woden-Weston Creek 
Belconnen 
Tuggeranong 
Queanbeyan 


Expenditure 

Canberra residents’ retail expenditure in 1980 (private dwellings 
only) was $582 million, an expenditure level of $2 725 per eapita. Ol 
this, 93 per cent or $545 million was spent in the ACT. 

There was an expenditure inflow into the ACT of approximately 
$38 million, of which $10.8 million was by Queanbeyan residents. 


The level and distribution of expenditure is influenced by such fac¬ 
tors as: 

• time since settlement of an area. North Canberra’s average per 
capita expenditure of $2 378 reflects its older age structure while 
Tuggeranong’s per capita expenditure of $3 024 reflects its early 
stage of growth (Table 23) 

Table 23 Expenditure by District - 1980 



Per Capita 

Per Household 

Total 


$ 

$ 

($ Millions) 

North Canberra 

2 378 

6 195 

85.0 

South Canberra 

3 088 

7 560 

59.8 

Woden 

2 972 

8 750 

96.2 

Weston Creek 

2 672 

9 280 

74.5 

Belconnen 

2 613 

8 975 

193.5 

Tuggeranong 

3 024 

9 165 

73.3 

Average 

2 725 

8 205 

582.3 

• provision of facilities and floorspace in an area. 

Less than one- 


quarter of Tuggeranong residents’ total retail expenditure, only 
58 per cent of their group centre expenditure, and 64 per cent of 
their local centre expenditure, is spent within the town. This is 
the lowest of all districts for all categories (Table 24) 

• the location of a centre in relation to its catchment. South 
Canberra and Weston Creek, which have large group centres, but 
no town centre within the district, have a higher than average share 
of expenditure at the group centre level (Table 25) 

• the competition a centre receives from other centres. For example, 
48 per cent of South Canberra residents’ expenditure at town 
centres occurs at Civic and 45 per cent at Woden Town Centre 
(Table 26). 


10 (To) 

Table 25 Expenditure Patterns by District - 

1980 (To) 


63.7 


Town Group 

Local 


66.1 


Centre Centre 

Centre Other Total 

59.4 

North Canberra 

47 26 

14 13 

100 

23.5 

South Canberra 

31 40 

15 14 

100 

66.3 

Woden 

50 27 

13 9 

100 


Weston Creek 

41 31 

16 12 

100 


North Belconnen 

58 17 

14 11 

100 


South Belconnen 

49 29 

13 9 

100 


Tuggeranong 

40 30 

10 20 

100 


Canberra 

47 28 

14 11 

100 


Table 26 District Expenditure at Town Centres 




Percentage of District 

Percentage of District 




Expenditure at Town 

Expenditure at Town 




Centres to ‘First’ Town 

Centres to 'Second' 




Centre 

Town Centre 



North Canberra 

64 (Civic) 

23 (Belconnen) 



South Canberra 

48 (Civic) 

45 (Woden) 



Woden 

76 (Woden) 

19 (Civic) 



Weston Creek 

76 (Woden) 

17 (Civic) 



Belconnen 

68 (Belconnen) 

23 (Civic) 



Tuggeranong 

83 (Woden) 

11 (Civic) 



61 


Turnover 

In 1980, the average retail turnover per square metre in the ACT 
was $1 600. 

Average turnover in 1980 at town centres, excluding service trade 
areas, was $1 460 per nr . The turnover averages per square metre 
were: Civic $1 300; Belconnen $1 350; and Woden $1 740. Turnover 
at the town centre service trades areas was $520 per m 2 in Civic and 
Belconnen and $880 per nr at the Woden Town Centre (Table 27). 
Average turnover at group centres was $2 190 per nr and at local 
centres $1 920 per nr . Turnover rates reflect, in part, the type of 
floorspace found at each hierarchy level. The lower turnover rates 
at town centres reflect their functional mix, in particular, the high 
level of comparison goods floorspace. 

Table 27 Turnover Per Square Metre at Town Centres - 1980 



Retail Core 

Service Trades Area 


($) 

($) 

Civic Centre 

1 296 

520 

Woden Town Centre 

1 742 

887 

Belconnen Town Centre 

1 346 

523 

Town Centres Average 

1 460 

733 


Performance of Elements in the Retail System 

Civic Centre 

From the earliest days of Canberra’s retail planning, Civic was 
intended to be the location of goods and services requiring a 
metropolitan catchment and to meet the town centre requirements 
of the Inner Canberra population. 

As the retail hierarchy has evolved and the distribution of 
population has changed, the retail function of Civic has altered. 
Presently, Civic is one of the three town centres serv ing the population. 
Fyshwick, with concentrations in household appliance and furniture 
sectors, and Kingston and Manuka, are additional centres performing 
a metropolitan role. 

Competition from the Belconnen and Woden Town Centres has 
led to 36 per cent of North Canberra and 52 per cent of South 
Canberra’s tow n centre retail expenditure occurring outside Civic. The 
presence of Kingston and Manuka has also led to South Canberra 
residents spending only 31 per cent of their retail expenditure at the 
town centre level compared to the Canberra average of 47 per cent. 

In performing its town centre role, Civic’s trading has been 
affected by the ageing of its catchment. Whereas average household 
expenditure in Canberra in 1980 was $8 205, in North Canberra it 
had declined to $6 195. 


The net result ot the increased competition and ageing has been 
for Civic’s trading position to decline. 

The Civic Centre Policy Plan and Development Plan outlines 
options for improving Civic’s retail performance including residential 
intensification, increased employment and an improvement in Civic’s 
retail structure. 

Tuggeranong 

As indicated earlier, Tuggeranong’s retail provision is 0.2m 2 per 
capita as compared to the Canberra average of 1.6m 2 per capita. A 
retail survey by the Commission in 1980 found that in response to 
this low provision, Tuggeranong residents’ expenditure within 


62 


Tuggeranong was only 23.5 per cent of their total retail expenditure, 
compared to the average in Canberra districts ol over 60 per cent. 

As a result, Tuggeranong residents incurred higher travel times 
and costs in gaining access to shops. Between 1980 and 1983 
Tuggeranong’s population has increased by 14 000, most ol which 
was in areas even further from the existing centres. 4 he recent release 
of centres in Monash, Cowrie and Richardson will improve accessibility 
to local convenience retailing. 

Tuggeranong residents still rely on centres outside the district for 
comparison shopping and weekly grocery shopping. T he provision 
of larger-scale shopping centres, including the Tuggeranong Town 
Centre, will help overcome these deficiencies. 

The restriction of floorspace in Tuggeranong not only places 
Tuggeranong residents at a disadvantage, but also has the effect of 
creating pressures for the expansion of the Woden Town Centre. In 
1980, 83 per cent of Tuggeranong residents’ town centre expenditure 
was in Woden. This inflow represented 24 per cent of Woden Town 
Centre’s retail turnover and contributed to the substantially higher 
turnover at the Woden Town Centre relative to the other town centres. 
This ‘overtrading’ at Woden is expected to balance out when town 
centre retailing is established in Tuggeranong. 

Fyshwick 

The emergence of Fyshwick as a retail centre was not intended. 
It grew in response to weak lease purpose clauses, and the non¬ 
enforcement of purpose clauses. In 1980, it attracted about 11 per 
cent of Canberra’s retail expenditure, gaining expenditure from all 
districts in response to the retail opportunities available there. 

At September 1982, 65 per cent of Fyshwick’s floorspace was in 
the clothing and furniture, and household appliance categories, as 
compared to the total Canberra proportion of 38.5 per cent. Fyshwick 
had almost 35 per cent of Canberra’s clothing and furniture sales 
floorspace and 30 per cent of the household appliance sales floorspace. 

These activities generally require single-level and low-rent 
floorspace. From a metropolitan planning viewpoint, the location of 
such floorspace at Fyshwick is not desirable. It is not central to the 
current and future population distribution and has led to a higher 
level of retail floorspace in Canberra than was intended. There is a 
demand for low-rent space for the types of retail activities carried out 
in Fyshwick and the demand should be met at locations more central 
to the established population. 


Performance of Local Centres 

Local centres are provided to meet the day-to-day shopping 
requirements of consumers. Currently, there is pressure from some 
supermarket chains for the expansion of the supermarkets located at 
local centres. The reasons advanced are that it is necessary to incor¬ 
porate a wider range of goods, to provide more storage and display 
space and to achieve greater efficiency. However, from the overall 
planning viewpoint larger supermarkets would require the wider spacing 
of centres which would result in longer journeys to local shopping 
opportunities, penalising those with low mobility. 

Analysis of the ABS 1980 Retail Census indicates that the 
traditional local functions, such as chemists, butchers and new sagents, 
require an average population for support of below 3 500 people. 
However, these functions are not only found at the local level. Their 
continued viability at the local level will depend largely on the retail 
hierarchy found in each district and the attractiveness of the centres 
to their catchments. 


63 


Industry Trends 

A number of broad trends in retailing have either been reinforced 
or have emerged during the 1970s, and play a major role in any 
consideration of the future of retailing in Canberra. All are common 
to Australian cities. 

• The Suburbanisation of Retailing 

This has occurred in response to increased mobility and affluence. 
Retail developments are generally of a larger size to accommodate 
an increased number of retail and self-service check-out systems. 

• Decline of Investment in Traditional ‘Flagship’ Department Stores 

From an investment point of view, the late 1970s have seen a 
decline of interest in building major new department stores, with 
emphasis being placed on the refurbishing of existing stores, or 
a switch of strategy towards the promotion of discount-type 
subsidiaries. 

• Discount Store Retailing 

While retail sales in Australia in the five years to 1978-79 grew 
by 12.9 per cent per annum compound, discount stores grew at 
a rate of 31 per cent per annum compound. 

• Continued Prosperity of Mall Retailing 

The good performance of mall retailing has been due to locations 
in suburban areas, management techniques, and the economies 
attained in the substitution of floorspace for labour. 

• ‘Theme Centre Retailing' 

There has been a marked swing in speciality retailing towards the 
development of ‘bazaars’ and ‘village’ environments, where shop¬ 
ping is conducted in a relaxed, well-designed environment, and 
where high quality materials and finishes combine in a mix of 
coftee shops, speciality food, clothing, giftware outlets, etc. Civic’s 
Centrepoint exemplifies this trend. 

• Technological Change 

Already in evidence is the advent of bulk purchasing by retail 
chains. Not so evident are the equivalent mass distribution 
mechanisms, and retailers are still forced to evolve a hierarchy of 
distribution outlets. The advent of television and data 
storage/retrieval systems may radically change distribution of basic 
goods. The growth of ‘non-shop’ shopping will be assisted by 
increasing transportation costs, continued high levels of employ¬ 
ment of married women and the relative high cost of in-store 
service. 

• Substitution of Floorspace for Labour 

There has been a trend to substitute floorspace for labour in the 
ACT. Floorspace per worker on ABS estimates increased from 
27m : in 1976 to 36m : in 1980. While the floorspace increased by 
about 50 per cent between 1976 and 1980, retail employment in¬ 
creased by only 13 per cent from 7 790 to 8 789. 

• Size of Supermarkets 

The larger supermarket chains indicate that supermarkets of about 
3 000m ; are an efficient size for their operations. A population 
of about 20 000 is required for their support. As the supermarkets 
operated by the major chains have formed the major component 
of group centres, changes would be required in the spacing of 
group centres for these supermarkets to be accommodated. This 
would have impacts on the provision of community facilities and 
other retailing opportunities found at group centres. 


Retail Forecasts 

The 1980 level of retail floorspace provision in the ACT was not 
excessive, relative to the majority of State Capitals. Similarly, turnover 
in the ACT is above average, as is the retail expenditure per capita 
(Table 28). 


64 


Table 28 Comparative Retail Performance (!) 



1980 Retail Floorspace 

Sales Per 

Sales Per 


Per Capita(nv) 

nr ($) 

Capita ($) 

Canberra 

1.43 

1 420 

2 035 

Sydney 

1.23 

1 632 

2 011 

Melbourne 

1.49 

1 377 

2 036 

Brisbane 

1.32 

1 333 

1 695 

Adelaide 

1.74 

1 132 

1 943 

Perth 

1.49 

1 352 

2 012 

Hobart 

1.45 

1 315 

1 897 


(!) These comparisons are based on the ABS 1980 Retail Census. ABS and 
Commission estimates vary, as the Commission’s definition of ‘retail’ 
includes services such as restaurants, photographers and laundromats. 
The Commission’s estimate of retail floorspace per capita in Canberra 
in 1980 was 1.6m 2 ,compared to the ABS estimate of 1.43m 2 . 


Little information exists on the cost side of retailing. The ABS 
1980 Retail Census indicated that wages were the equivalent of 10.5 
per cent of retail sales in Canberra, the lowest of any of the State 
Capitals. Comparative data on rent and other overhead costs were 
not available. These costs could be expected to be higher in Canberra, 
given the recent construction of much of the floorspace. 

Another measure of retail health is the level of vacancies. From 
a peak of 361 premises vacant in June 1979, the number of vacancies 
fell to 90 by September 1982. This represents about 5 per cent of total 
retail premises. Of the 90 vacant premises, 36 were in Fyshwick or 
in town centre service trades areas, locations not intended for retailing. 
Wolinski (1) indicates that a vacancy rate of 4 per cent is an average 
level of vacancy in a retail system. 

The ageing of the Canberra population (by the year 2001, 29.2 
per cent of the population will be 45 and over, compared to 16.9 per 
cent in 1981) will have the effect of reducing the per capita expenditure 
below its current level of $2 725. However, counteracting this is the 
projected increase in tourist numbers, which will increase the level 
of retail expenditure in the ACT. Further, the trends to substitute 
floorspace for labour may lead to an increase in the supportable 
floorspace. 

The industry in the ACT expressed concern in 1980 over the level 
of trading, particularly at town centres. Canberra does have a relatively 
high provision of department and variety store floorspace. 

As a guide to future planning, a provision of about 1.4nT per 
capita appears supportable in planned retail centres, under the 
Commission’s wider definition of retail floorspace (Table 29). Cur¬ 
rently personal service floorspace comprises about 10 per cent of 
Canberra’s retail floorspace. This equates to a level of 1.25m : per 
capita, if personal service floorspace is excluded. 

Table 29 Planned Retail Floorspace 1982-20036 



Population 

Floorspace Support¬ 
able in Planned Retail 
Centres (nr) 

Total Increase in 
Floorspace from 
1982 (nr) 

1982 

229 500 

313 000 

- 

1991 

292 500 

410 000 

97 (X)0 

2003 

378 000 

529 000 

216 000 


(I) Excludes Fyshwick and Mitchell. 


(1) G. Wolinski, Retail Floorspace Demand Supply Analysis for Canberra 1980-90, 
Wolinski Planning. A Study Prepared for the NCDC. 1980. 


05 





Community Facilities 

The Commission plans and builds a range of community facilities 
for client departments or authorities, and defines sites for welfare, 
youth, cultural, leisure, sporting, educational, health and municipal 
services. 

The Commission’s closest working relationship with respect to 
social and community services is with the Department of Territories 
and Local Government. The Department’s most significant 
administrative responsibilities are the maintenance and operation of 
municipal facilities and metropolitan functions such as childcare. The 
Department’s role is to co-ordinate and facilitate the development of 
appropriate services and act as a client authority to the Commission 
in this regard. 

The Commission directly liaises with the Department on matters 
of capital works and programming for the accommodation of user 
groups within a client umbrella. Ongoing discussions are conducted 
with the Department and community groups to determine the need 
for additional facilities in the metropolitan area. 

At the metropolitan level, the most important community facilities 
that the Commission plans and develops for client authorities are 
health and education facilities. 

The Capital Territory Health Commission assesses the need for 
and administers health facilities. There are three public hospitals in 
Canberra: Royal Canberra, Woden Valley and Calvary. There were 
950 beds available at these hospitals in June 1982. In addition, there 
were 51 beds at the John James private hospital. Each of these 
hospitals serves a metropolitan-wide catchment and also provides 
services to people outside the ACT. 

An important community demand to be met is that of aged persons 
accommodation. This accommodation is generally provided by 
community groups such as the Goodwin Homes or church groups, 
with government financial assistance. The form of aged person 
accommodation varies with the degree of mobility of the aged, ranging 
from self-care units to nursing homes for those requiring substantial 
medical supervision. At January 1983, there were approximately 1 170 
beds in nursing homes, aged persons hostels and self-care units. About 
55 per cent of the beds were in Inner Canberra which is approximately 
the same as Inner Canberra’s share of the population aged 65 years 
and over. The Commission attempts to site these facilities near centres 
and on public transport routes. Most aged people still live at home 
and there are attempts by several community organisations to 
encourage the aged to remain at home through the provision of 
domicilary services such as Meals On Wheels and emergency 
housekeeping. 

Welfare services are provided by the Department and organisations 
such as the Salvation Army, St. Vincent de Paul Society and the Smith 
Family. The demand on their services has increased in recent times 
as the impact ot the economic recession has deepened. 

Primary and secondary schools form a basic element of the 
Commission’s neighbourhood planning. The size of a neighbourhood 
is largely determined by the desirable size of primary school and shop 
catchments, and considerations of convenient walking distances. The 
emphasis on the primary school is based on its role as a focus for 
community activity. Primary schools are generally located near local 
centres. Three or four primary schools form the catchment for a high 
school. 


Religious groups also participate in primary and secondary 
education with about 30 per cent of pupils enrolled at private schools. 


66 


The Catholic school system has about 85 per cent of private school 
enrolments. 

The Anglican Church of Australia operates three Grammar schools 
in the ACT providing pre-school, infants and primary, and high school 
facilities. A number of other private schools operating include the 
AME school at Weston, the Trinity Christian School at Wanniassa 
and the Seventh Day Adventist School at Mawson. 

School enrolments have declined in the older areas of Canberra. 
The Schools Authority has been faced with a situation of surplus space 
in older areas, while there are emerging demands for facilities in the 
newer areas. The enrolment decline has been associated with increasing 
schooling costs per pupil. The Schools Authority is currently reviewing 
its options in relation to this demand and supply imbalance. 

Tertiary education facilities are located in Inner Canberra, Woden- 
Weston Creek and Belconnen. The Australian National University 
(ANU) which had 4 896 undergraduate enrolments in June 1983, is 
located adjacent to Civic Centre. The Canberra College of Advanced 
Education (CCAE) with enrolments of 5 874 students at June 1983, 
is located near the Belconnen Town Centre. The home residence of 
about 40 per cent of the ANU students and 15 per cent of the CCAE’s 
pupils is further than 40 km from Canberra. There is also movement 
of students out of the ACT in response to the educational 
opportunities available, but on balance Canberra has a net inflow of 
students. 

Canberra’s three Technical and Further Education (TAFE) 
Colleges serve a more localised need with 95 per cent of their 23 326 
pupils resident in either the ACT or Queanbeyan. They are located 
near Civic Centre and the Woden and Belconnen Town Centres. 

The Schools of Music and Art are also located near Civic Centre. 
The location of tertiary education facilities adjacent to major centres 
allows their efficient servicing by public transport, and contributes 
to the interest, vitality and economic well-being of each of the centres 

Community facilities such as libraries, health centres, childcare 
facilities and police, ambulance and fire stations tend to be found 
in or near centres. Together with recreation facilities such as swimming 
pools, indoor leisure centres and clubs, they interact with the retailing, 
offices and personal services to provide a focus and opportunity for 
social interaction at the centres. 

Sites for Scout and Guide halls are generally provided in or near 
neighbourhood parks. Rural camps for these organisations are also 
set aside. 

Many cultural, community, sporting and welfare organisations do 
not require a specific site, and are located in available space at existing 
centres. 

The settlement of Tuggeranong, particularly south of Erindale 
Drive, has coincided with the economic downturn and reduced levels 
of funding. As a result the provision of community facilities in the 
district has lagged behind population growth. The Erindale Centre 
has provided a focus for activity as it is the location of a secondary 
college and community centre including an indoor pool, meeting 
rooms, theatre, squash courts, childcare facilities and a gymnasium. 
This role will be reinforced by the 4 000m 2 shopping release at the 
centre. 

The existing facilities at Erindale, however, are inadequate to cater 
for many community demands. The deficiency in facilities in 
Tuggeranong is being addressed. Shops are now open in Cowrie and 


67 


Monash and the Richardson shops should be trading later in 1984. 
Sites have been identified for future shops, childcare facilities and 
community meeting halls. 

To assist the public with enquiries and to ascertain community 
needs, the Commission has opened an office at the Erindale Centre. 
The establishment of the Tuggeranong Community Council, on which 
major community groups such as Tuggeranong Family Action and 
the South Tuggeranong Progress Association are represented, will 
assist the Commission in the future planning of the district. 

Leisure and Recreation 

Open Space 

Canberra’s open spaces comprise two distinct types which cater 
for a wide variety of leisure and recreation pursuits: 

• municipal open spaces (active sports areas, parkland and flood¬ 
way easements) totalling about 1 700 ha 

• the National Capital Open Space System, which includes certain 
defined metropolitan parklands and special areas totalling about 
28 000 ha, and the regional open spaces of the Cotter catchment 
area, and Tidbinbilla and Gudgenby Nature Reserves, all lying 
west of the Murrumbidgee River and, together with forest 
plantations, totalling about 1 400 km' . 

M nnicipal Open Space 

The Commission’s standard prov ision of municipal open space 
includes playing fields, local and district parks, ancillary open space 
(floodways, etc.) and an allowance for future club facilities for tennis, 
lawn bowls, etc. The minimum provision in planning for these forms 
of open space is 4.0 ha per 1 000 population (Figure 33). In addition, 
provision is made for golf courses and other open spaces, which serve 
a wider role. 

In the area of public recreation, there has been sustained pressure 
in recent years to reduce maintenance and management costs. This 
has resulted in changes both to management practices and to design. 
An example is the maintenance of open space, where mechanisation 
and the greater use of contractors have resulted in substantial cost 
economies. 

There have also been changes in the standards of maintenance. 
Lovwuse areas are being mown less often, long grass along fences and 
paths is more readily tolerated, and areas not suited to mechanised 
maintenance have been redesigned. All of these measures will result 
in a different character for open space designed now and in the future. 

With regard to recreation patterns, it appears there is a preference 
for greater diversity and more passive forms and an increase in the 
development of organised sporting facilities at the work place. 

Over the past ten to fifteen years, there have been significant 
changes in most of the factors affecting leisure activities, particularly 
time, disposable income and mobility, and new leisure activities are 
continually developing. Some sports have emerged and displayed 
astounding growth, emphasising the need for planning multi-purpose 
playing fields, etc. Touch football is an example of a new sport which 
has emerged as a year-round activity. Other examples are baseball, 
and skateboard and BMX riding, which have grown in popularity to 
the point where special purpose sites are warranted. However, the large 
peak demands of new activities must be balanced against the probable 
long-term demands, which may be quite low in the case of some 
‘novelty’ activities. 

Recreational cycling has become popular in recent years, and 
experience at Lake Burley Griffin has demonstrated the extent to 



Town and District Parks 
0 4 Hectares/1000 People 


Ancillary Space 
0 4 Hectares/1000 People 


Demand Space 
0 2 Hectares/1000 People 

Playing Fields 
1_B Hectares/1000 People 

Local Neighbourhood Parks 
1 2 Hectares/1000 People 


Total 4 0 Hectares Per 1000 People 


Figure 33 Formulae for Provision of 

Parkland and Public Open Space 


68 












which the provision of cycleways can positively encourage cycling. 
Other activities and demands are likely to emerge and develop in the 
future, with increasing leisure time. 

National Capital Open Space System 

Setting 

The mountain ranges that rise on the western side of the 
Murrumbidgee River and the lines of ridges and high hills on the east 
that contain and shape Canberra’s urban areas form the most striking 
quality of the City. This mountain and tableland scenery is an essential 
part of the City’s landscape character and frames the views of the 
National Capital. 

There is much to be gained by deliberately retaining certain 
essential physical elements of the broad landscape setting of Canberra 
for special design and landscape consideration. This does not mean 
that these areas should not contain development and that the land 
remain entirely public open space. Rather, the concern should be for 
the planning, development, landscaping and land management of these 
areas to be carried out consistent with clearly defined relationships. 
The aim would be to retain, reinforce and enhance the landscape and 
scenic quality of the Nation’s Capital. 

Failure to do this could well lead to the destruction of the environ¬ 
ment that might not be felt for many years, but which would deprive 
future generations of scenic and recreational advantages that Canberra 
presently enjoys and diminish the quality of the National Capital for 
all time. 

For most cities, the aim of preserving the quality of the landscape 
setting of the city would be impracticable. The uniqueness, however, 
of the planning and land administration arrangement in the ACT with 
public ownership and control of land, gives the Commonwealth wide 
powers of decision and the community ample opportunity to influence 
a large range of issues that affect the use, care and management of 
lands in the Territory. 

This situation makes it possible to propose that the hills and river 
corridors on the periphery of the Canberra metropolitan area, and 
the mountain and bushland areas west of the Murrumbidgee, should 
be designed and managed as an integrated open space system. These 
areas are collectively known as the National Capital Open Space 
System. This open space system represents a relatively large land area, 
being about 170 300 ha or 72 per cent of the ACT (Figure 34). The 
various components are shown in Table 30. 

Table 30 Composition of National Capital Open Space System 


Inner Area ha 

Hill Areas (dense forest or cleared land) 13 100 

Hill Areas (pine forest) 3 600 

Murrumbidgee River Corridor 

(including water area) 8 900 

Molonglo River Corridor 
(including lake area and lakeside 

parkland) 1 390 

Lower Gudgenby River Corridor 

(including water area) 440 

Lake Ginninderra and Ginninderra 

Creek Corridor 370 

Total 27 800 

Other Areas ha 

Cotter water supply catchment area 46 900 

Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve 5 060 

Gudgenby Nature Reserve 60 000 

Other forests and pine plantations 30 540 

Total 142 500 



Gudgenby 

Nature 

Reserve 


River Corridor 
] Hill Areas 

Mountain and Bushland Areas 


\ \ J 0 5 10 15 20km 


Figure 34 Distribution oi National Capital 
Open Space 


Role and Function 

Not all of the open space system is or should be public open space. 
Most of the area could remain in productive use for either forestry 
or grazing. Only about 1 800 ha would be suitable for the develop¬ 
ment of intensive or extensive recreation areas, mainly in the river 
corridors where there are suitable beaches with flatter margins that 
are suitable for recreation development. 

In addition to their recreation value, the areas forming the open 
space system contain diverse ecological resources with scientific value 
and cultural resources which have historic significance. 

George Seddon, in his report An Open Space System for Canberra, 
(NCDC 1979) defined the role and functions of the National Capital 
Open Space System under the following headings: 

• symbolic - the natural landscape setting of the City’s surrounds 
is one of the major symbolic elements of the National Capital 

• showpiece - some of the elements of the open space system form 
primarily a display function, offering viewpoints and opportunities 
for pedestrian experience of Griffin’s plan 

• tourist and educational facilities - the open space system offers 
opportunities to visitors for picnicking, pleasure driving and other 
recreational pursuits in the easily accessible countryside surrounding 


70 










Visitors lOOOs) 



20 

10 


0 i_i_i_i 

1970 1980 1990 2000 

Year 

Figure 35 Demand L.evel for Metropolitan 
Open Space 


Canberra; and local educational institutions use the open space 
system for a range of purposes including physical, historical and 
ecological studies 

• social - the open space system serves a social function, giving 
privacy to those who seek it, and giving opportunities for mixing 
to the gregarious 

• social science value - Canberra has the opportunity, and, therefore, 
a responsibility to develop an integrated open space system as a 
model for other Australian cities 

• natural science studies - the open space system contains many 
valuable ecological resources, including flora and fauna, natural 
habitats and geological monuments 

• water catchment and environment protection - the hill areas, as 
well as providing a buffer zone between urban development and 
the surrounding countryside, and providing wildlife movement 
corridors, help to modify the effects of air pollution in Canberra 
by providing a breathing space between towns 

• land bank - Canberra, as the National Capital, must have adequate 
land reserved to meet unpredictable, as well as predictable, future 
needs, thereby allowing flexibility in land use planning 

• recreation - in Canberra, the ease of access to the countryside and 
the high level of car ownership has led to a pattern of recreation 
in which the car trip is a major component of the outing. Visual 
open space plays an important role during the scenic drive. An 
integrated open space system can cater for both active and passive 
recreation, and it can contain planned activities and opportunities 
for spontaneous ones. 

It is the Commission’s intention to develop the open space as an 
integrated system in terms of policy management and design and to 
constantly review use, cost and degree of user impact. The concern 
will be not only the preservation of the landscape and environmental 
quality of the ACT but also the enrichment of the recreational and 
environmental experience, recognising that different people use the 
open space system in different ways. 

Trends and Forecasts 

The Commission has conducted a monitoring programme on open 
space and recreation use since 1970. A ten-year time series is now- 
available to help identify trends and make projections for future 
demands. Some of the trends identified to date are: 

• In 1970, 26 000 people visited river and recreation areas on a 
typical fine summer Sunday. This number increased by more than 
50 per cent to almost 40 000 by 1980, as shown in Table 31. 

• The daily participation rates for river and lakeside recreation have 
remained stable since 1975, when compared to the 
Canberra/Queanbeyan population at 165 people per 1 000 
population. On this basis, it is predicted that daily visitation to 
lakes and rivers will increase from 40 000 in 1980, to about 67 000 
in twenty years (Figure 35). 

• Parkland associated with water attracts the major usage. More 
than 80 per cent of demand is concentrated on Lake Burley Griffin, 
Fake Ginninderra and the recreation areas on the Murrumbidgee 
River. 

• Lake Burley Griffin and Lake Ginninderra are drawing an increas¬ 
ing proportion of water-related recreation use, thereby reducing 
pressure on the more environmentally sensitive areas (Table 32). 

• It became apparent in the late 1970s that travel distance was emerg¬ 
ing as a strong influence on people’s recreation habits, due to rising 
fuel prices. 

• During the 1975-80 period, picnic areas close to urban develop¬ 
ment showed the greatest increase in popularity, w ith some of the 
more remote recreation areas experiencing reductions in use. 


71 










Table 31 Fine Summer Sunday Outdoor Recreation Participation - 
1970-1980 


Casuarina Sands 

Cotter Playground 

Cotter Pool 

Other areas in Cotter/ 

Pierces Ck. area 

Cotter Camping area 

Uriarra Crossing 

Kambah Pool 

Pine Island 

Point Hut Crossing 

Tharwa area, inch Smith Rd 

Bridge Area 

Murrays Corner 

Flints Crossing (Riverlea) 

Tanners Flat 

Woods Reserve 

Gibraltar Falls 

Corin Dam 

Brindabella Ranges 
Stromlo Forest 
Uriarra Forest 
Pierces Creek Forest 
Kowen Forest 
Molonglo Gorge 
Coppins Crossing 
Coppins Crossing North 

Angle Crossing 
Hall, park and showground 
Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve 
Gudgenby Nature Reserve 
Canberra Nature Park 
Googong Dam Foreshores 
Ginninderra Falls 
Lake Ginninderra 
Lake Burley Griffin 

Total 


Number of Visits Likely on a Fine 
Sunday in Summer 


Recreation 

Recreation 

Recreation 

Demand 

Demand 

Demand 

1970 (1) 

1975 (2) 

1980 (3) 

4 000 

3 500 

3 300 

3 000 

4 000 

3 000 

2 500 

2 600 

2 600 

. 

790 

560 

- 

630 

530 

1 200 

1 050 

1 500 

1 300 

1 390 

1 600 

1 600 

2 100 

2 400 

500 

840 

550 

100 

200 

200 

250 

560 

590 

50 

210 

90 

100 

310 

100 

- 

140 

80 

150 

300 

120 

400 

550 

120 

500 

560 

700 

200 

450 

700 

150 

250 

250 

- 

300 

340 

- 

180 

200 

250 

300 

250 

- 

40 

40 

- 

- 

20 

150 

150 

150 

- 

200 

220 

1 000 

1 200 

1 200 

500 

700 

500 

- 

- 

800 

- 

- 

700 

- 

- 

600 

- 

- 

1 950 

8 000 

10 500 

14 000 

26 200 

34 000 

39 960 


(1) Changing Land-use in the Canberra Region, R. W. Baden. PhD Thesis. 
ANU. 1971. 

(2) Outdoor Recreation Demand Study: Murrumbidgee River Corridor 
Tuggeranong, ACT, Canberra, J.G. McMastet. 1978. 

(3) River Recreation Demand Study, 1980 by J.G. McMaster on behalf of 
the National Capital Development Commission. 


• 1 here is increasing demand for leisure activities requiring special 

facilities. 


• Car occupancy at riverside and lakeside sites has decreased steadily 
since 1970. In 1970 one hundred recreationists required 26 car 
spaces; in 1980 they required 33 spaces. 

• The peak attendance occurs between 2.00 p.m. and 3.00 p.m. on 
Sunday afternoons. On average, there is a turnover of 3 vehicles 
for each car park space. 

• Between 1975 and 1980, the Commission developed new areas at 
rivers and lakes at the rate of 140 new car park spaces per annum. 
To meet the projected daily demand of 46 600 visitors in 1990, 


72 


Table 32 Water-Related Recreation Use 1970-1980 



1970 

1975 

1980 

Lake Burley Griffin 

8 000 

10 500 

14 000 

Lake Ginninderra 

- 

- 

1 950 

Total Water-Related 
Recreation 

23 850 

30 160 

35 050 

Lakes as Proportion of 

Total 

33.5% 

34.8% 

45.5% 


new areas are required at the rate of 85 new car park spaces per 
annum. 

• Examination of the estimates of recreation activity in ACT forests 
made by officers of the Forests Branch of the Department in 
1974-75 and 1979 shows a steady increase in the use of forests for 
picnics and barbecues. Forests offer a special environment suited 
to some activities, and forests near urban areas are a well-used 
recreation resource. Stromlo forest, for example, is heavily used 
for horse riding, orienteering and educational excursions, in 
addition to its use for picnics and barbecues. 

• Upgrading of the Brindabella Road has encouraged an increasing 
use of the area. Visits are concentrated into a short winter period 
when recreation in the snow- can be enjoyed. 

• Visitation to Tidbinbilla Reserve is seasonal in character, and tends 
to peak in autumn and spring. The number of visits has increased 
from 97 084 in 1970 to 147 768 in 1980. 

• The importance of Lanyon Homestead as an historic feature is 
indicated by the steady stream of visitors since 1975. On peak days 
in 1977, more than 1 500 visitors were recorded. 

• Tourists comprise a large component of the use of the National 
Capital Open Space System. In 1977 it was observed that 39 per 
cent of all visits were made by tourists from outside the 
Canberra/Queanbeyan area. 

Other factors will also have implications for future open space 

demand and supply: 

• The most significant demographic change in Canberra's 
population over the next fifteen years will be a marked increase 
in the numbers of people forty years and older. This ageing of 
the population will influence the recreation preferences of 
Canberrans, their ability to pay for commercial recreation, and 
their expectations in terms of the public provision of facilities. 

• Overcrowding occurs at most of the major river recreation areas 
on peak days, but even on peak days, there is capacity available 
at other, less popular sites. Some redistribution of demand would 
alleviate crowding and congestion on these days; on typical 
summer Sundays any crowding is usually localised. 

• There have been problems with water quality in Lake Burley 
Griffin during the 1970s, causing lake closures for varying periods. 
The nature of the problems has been diverse, but it is clear that 
the threat to lake recreation is not diminishing. 

• Increasing pressure from a growing Canberra population on the 
limited areas available w ill make preservation of w ater quality a 
paramount objective. As the development of recreation areas 
around the lakes intensifies, the closure of the lake waters for 
swimming will become increasingly unacceptable. One option is 
to develop swimming lagoons in purpose-built structures where 
water quality can be controlled. This concept has been developed 
in California quite successfully. 


73 


Indoor Leisure and Recreation 

Indoor leisure facilities in Canberra include community halls, 
indoor recreation centres, tenpin bowling alleys, gymnasiums, squash 
courts, a basketball stadium, indoor riding schools and indoor 
swimming pools. 

Many of these facilities are provided by private enterprise, 
community groups or incorporated as part of educational 
establishments. 

Each town is served by at least one centre providing a range of 
these facilities: 

• Inner Canberra - YMCA, Civic; Deakin Health Spa 

• Woden-Weston Creek - L ife Style Centre; YMCA 

• Belconnen - Kippax Sports World; L ife Style Centre 

• Tuggeranong - Erindale Centre 

Special purpose leisure facilities include the National Sports Centre 
and the National Exhibition Centre. Cultural facilities include the 
Ginninderra School House, Theatre 3 Acton, the Schools of Music 
and Art, Canberra and Erindale Theatres, cinemas in Civic Centre 
and Manuka, the Australian War Memorial and Lanyon Homestead. 

Tourism 

According to the Domestic Tourist Monitor Survey, the estimated 
number of tourists to the ACT in 1980-81 was 1.9 million, comprising 
61 per cent domestic tourists, 7 per cent international visitors and 32 
per cent daytrippers. 

Table 33 gives the total number of people visiting the main tourist 
attractions in the ACT during 1981. 


Table 33 Attendance at Major Tourist Attractions - 1981 


Attraction 

War Memorial 
National Library 
Royal Australian Mint 
Parliament House 
Regatta Point 
Black Mountain Tower 
High Court 
Tidbinbilla 
Botanic Gardens 

(1) Figure is for guided tours only. 

(2) Estimate. 


Number of Visitors 

848 100 
298 800 
246 500 
222 900 (1) 
213 800 
449 900 
389 700 
142 400 
200 000 ( 2 ) 


The favoured tourist attractions in Canberra appear to be national 
works and government-operated activities such as the National 
Library, High Court, War Memorial, National Gallery, Parliament 
House and the Mint. These institutional elements, when coupled with 
the natural attractions of mountains, river corridors, urban lakes and 
nature reserves, offer a range of visitor attractions that has contributed 
to the growth of Canberra’s tourist industry. 

Tourists, as well as business visitors and politicians, require 
accommodation. Commercial tourist accommodation available in 
Canberra in February 1981 is shown in Table 34. 

There is a strong concentration of tourist accommodation in the 
central areas and along the northern and southern approach routes 
to the City. 


Table 34 Tourist Accommodation in 
Canberra - 1981 


Hotel, Motels 
Commonwealth Hostels 
ANU, CCAE (!) 
YWCA 
Youth Hostel 
Camping, Caravanning 

(!) Minimum 345 rooms. 


2 190 rooms 
680 rooms 
1 110 rooms 
25 rooms 
40 beds 
830 sites 


74 


Tourist 'Millions 


3 



0 i_i_i_i_i_i_i_i-1-1-1 

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 

Year 


Figure 36 Estimated ACT Tourist Numbers 
1981-1991 


Domestic tourism in Australia increased by 3.4 per cent in 1978-79 
and 7.1 per cent in 1979-80. It is expected to continue to increase at 
a minimum rate of 4 per cent per annum. If tourism in the ACT grows 
at a similar rate, tourist numbers could double in twenty years. 
Tourism will increase substantially in 1987 and 1988 due to the 
Bicentenary celebrations and visitor numbers could already be as high 
as 2.5 million by 1988 (Figure 36). 

As other institutions of significance commence operations (for 
example, the Museum of Australia), they will strengthen the range 
of attractions offered by Canberra and may result in longer visits to 
Canberra by tourists. 

The development of the New Parliament House and the 
Bicentenary celebrations provide a unique opportunity for Canberra 
to launch a major tourist drive, culminating in 1988. Already, some 
220 000 tourists visit Parliament House each year and the New 
Parliament House will attract many more visitors. 

The main impacts of tourist growth will be in the areas of 
accommodation and retailing. If the ratio of visitors to facilities 
remains at 1980 levels during Canberra’s development over the next 
twenty years, a doubling of accommodation and entertainment 
directed to tourism will result, together with concomitant increases 
in visitor attendance at attractions such as the National Library, 
National Gallery, Parliament House and the War Memorial. 

Tourist-based demand will create a need for the following specific 
types of facilities: 

• hotels/motels 

• tourist accommodation centres and other integrated developments, 
incorporating accommodation and attractions 

• low-cost accommodation 

• camping grounds and caravan sites 

• private enterprise tourist attractions 

• specialist retail and personal services, restaurants, cafes, clubs and 
bars 

• indoor and outdoor recreation facilities. 


75 








Transport 


Introduction 

This section presents the broad characteristics of urban travel 
related to Canberra. It summarises information on travel patterns and 
provides a general description of Canberra’s road and public transport 
systems. The main intention is to provide an insight into how 
Canberra’s transport system has been planned and to provide 
background information related to the future travel forecasts used 
as the basis for the transport evaluation in Chapter 5. 

Travel Patterns 

Background 

The 1975 Home Interview Survey contains the most comprehensive 
data base related to trip-making and travel characteristics in Canberra. 
Many of the characteristics have been confirmed as representative of 
today’s travel behaviour by recent surveys including: 

• journey to work - (1981 Census) 

• journeys related to shopping - (NCDC retail surveys) 

• journeys to school - (ACT Schools Authority survey, 1980) 

• traffic generation - (NCDC traffic surveys) 

• public transport - (DCT Annual Reports). 

The 1975 data base has, therefore, been used as a basis for most 
estimates, updated where more recent or accurate data were available. 


Car Ownership and Trip Frequency 

The average car ownership rate in the ACT is 0.45 vehicles per 
person (1980). On a population basis this is almost the lowest rate 
in Australia. Historically, the ACT has had one of the highest car 
ownership rates in Australia; however, during the past 6 years 
(1975-1980) the rate of growth in car ownership has been the lowest 
in Australia (Table 35). 


Table 35 Number of Motor Vehicles per 1000 Population - 1975-1980 


Year ending June 



1975 

1976 

1977 

1978 

1979 

1980 

NSW 

419.8 

426.8 

435.1 

446.7 

457.2 

470.2 

VIC 

447.2 

466.6 

470.1 

487.9 

498.2 

490.4 

QLD 

413.1 

445.4 

463.9 

485.8 

504.1 

523.0 

SA 

467.1 

482.2 

498.7 

505.4 

509.8 

519.5 

WA 

470.7 

493.4 

523.7 

546.0 

557.5 

565.6 

TAS 

461.8 

481.1 

494.9 

515.1 

531.0 

531.6 

NT 

334.5 

315.6 

338.0 

375.1 

371.9 

362.7 

ACT 

433.7 

436.8 

456.3 

436.0 

465.6 

450.6 

Australia 

435.6 

451.9 

463.4 

478.8 

490.2 

496.9 


(Source: ABS Motor Vehicle Registrations Australia 1980-81) 


The change in age structure (primarily the proportion of elderly 
and those under licence age) combined with the increasing trend 
towards ‘car-less’ households (Table 36) accounts largely for the 
declining car ownership rate. 

The average daily trip generation is estimated at approximately 
4.1 trips (by all modes) per person, or about 13.5 trips per household. 
Recent surveys indicate that each residence contributes at least 10 
vehicle trip ends per day (arrivals and departures) to the total daily 


76 


traffic, and that approximately 10 per cent of these occur during the 
peak (see Table 37). These rates are similar to those observed in other 
Australian cities. 


Table 36 Number of Households in the ACT by Number of Motor 
Vehicles - 1976 and 1981 (/) 


1976 Census 1981 Census 


Number of Motor 
Vehicles 

Number of 
households 

To 

Number of 
households 

To 

0 

3 720 

6.5 

5 763 

8.4 

1 

28 400 

49.8 

33 804 

49.3 

2 

18 980 

33.3 

22 210 

32.4 

3 

3 462 

6.1 

4 234 

6.2 

4 or more 

1 090 

1.9 

1 173 

1.7 

Not stated 

1 326 

2.3 

1 407 

2.1 

Total 

56 978 

100.0 

68 591 

100.0 


(1) Excludes motorcycles, motor scooters and tractors. 
(Source: ABS) 


Table 37 Household Car Trip Generation - 1982 




Average Weekday 

Average a.m. Peak 

Location of 

Number of 

Trip Ends 

Hour Trip Ends 

Sample 

Households 

(inch Cycle) 

(inch Cycle) 

Farrer 

55 

15.7 

1.3 

Curtin 

25 

11.1 

0.9 

Chapman 

50 

14.1 

1.1 

Kaleen 

44 

11.6 

1.3 

Wanniassa (a) 

50 

13.6 

1.0 

Wanniassa (b) 

83 

9.9 

0.9 

Duffy 

54 

9.9 

0.9 

Average 

- 

12.3 

1.1 


Mode of Travel 

A summary of the modal split (proportion of trips using the 
various modes of transport) for the total daily trip pattern is presented 
in Table 38. 


Table 38 Mode Choice For All Travel on an Average Working 
Day - 1975 (To) 


Mode To 

Bus 7.5 

Taxi 0.4 

Car Driver 54.6 

Car Passenger 21.0 

Motorcycle 1.1 

Bicycle 2.1 

Walking 13.3 

Total 100.0 


(Source: S. T. T. P. Study, Vol. I: Surveys 
& Data) 


The minor modes (walking and cycling) account for approximately 
15 per cent of all daily trips. These are usually the shorter trips, the 
majority of which are made by school age children. Of the remainder, 
travel by car accounts for almost 90 per cent. 

The mode of transport used for v arious trip purposes is summarised 
in Table 39. 


77 


Table 39 Distribution of Trips by Mode and Purpose - 1975 


Mode 

Home-Based 

Work 

Home-Based 

Education 

Home-Based 

Shopping 

Home-Based 

Other 

Not Home-Based 

Car Driver 

67.5 

7.9 

57.2 

62.7 

64.7 

Car Passenger 

15.6 

17.9 

22.3 

24.3 

19.4 

Bus 

9.0 

13.2 

5.2 

2.3 

3.8 

Taxi 

0.4 

0.0 

0.4 

0.4 

0.3 

Motorcycle 

1.8 

0.3 

0.8 

1.1 

1.0 

Bicycle 

0.6 

8.1 

1.6 

1.1 

0.6 

Walk 

5.1 

42.5 

12.5 

8.1 

10.2 

% of all daily trips 

22.7 

14.9 

12.9 

29.6 

19.9 


(1) 'Home-Based’ means a trip to or from home for a particular purpose. 


Table 40 Mode Choice for Work Trips to Selected Employment Nodes - 1981 (%) 


Mode 

Total 

Canberra 

City 

Division 

Braddon 

Woden 

Belconnen 

Barton 

Russell 

Fyshwick 

Did Not Travel 

(non-participating) 

8.9 

6.8 

6.2 

7.1 

8.4 

4.9 

4.7 

4.6 

Walking 

3.4 

2.0 

3.0 

3.6 

1.8 

1.3 

1.6 

0.5 

Bicycle 

1.9 

1.8 

2.0 

1.9 

2.0 

2.4 

1.8 

0.3 

Motorcycle 

1.5 

1.3 

1.2 

1.6 

2.1 

1.3 

1.5 

1.6 

Bus 

8.5 

15.3 

7.6 

14.1 

14.0 

12.2 

14.6 

3.4 

Taxi 

0.4 

0.4 

0.7 

0.2 

0.2 

0.2 

0.4 

0.2 

Car Passenger 

11.1 

11.9 

9.4 

12.2 

11.8 

11.4 

13.9 

9.6 

Car Driver 

64.3 

60.5 

69.9 

59.2 

59.2 

66.3 

61.5 

79.8 

Total 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 


The car is the dominant mode of transport for all purposes except 
journeys to and from school. Generally, buses account for less than 
10 per cent of trips for any particular purpose, excluding school trips. 

A summary of the modal split for journeys to work at the major 
employment centres is shown in Table 40. 

It is estimated that the proportion of journeys by public transport 
to the otfice/retail core of each town centre is in the range 15-18 per 
cent. For work trips to other major employment nodes, e.g. Parkes, 
Barton, Russell and the service trades/industrial areas of Braddon 
and Fyshwick, commuter travel by bus is considerably less due to the 
reduced standard of service (frequency and coverage) and the greater 
supply of convenient parking. 


Table 40 also shows that the current long-stay parking generation 
rate for the town centres is approximately 0.6 spaces per employee. 


Average Travel Time 

The average navel times for various trip purposes are shown in 
Table 41. 

Owing to the further development of Canberra since 1975 it is 
thought that average travel time by bus and car may have increased 
slightly for all journey purposes. 


78 


Table 41 Average Travel Times For Various 1 rip Purposes - 197S 


Trip Purpose 

Car 

Time in 

Bus 

Minutes 

Cycle 

Walking 

Home-Based Work 

19 

39 

17 

11 

Home-Based Education 

11 (1) 

25 

10 

12 

Home-Based Shopping 

12 

21 

9 

11 

Home-Based Other 

17 

27 

13 

12 

Not Home-Based 

16 

27 

10 

11 


(1) Relutes to car passengers only. 
(Source: 1975 Home Interview Survey) 


The Existing Road System 

The Road Hierarchy 

Canberra’s road system has been planned on a hierarchical basis 
to satisfy broad interrelated transport and town planning objectives. 
Each road type in the hierarchy has particular functions and objectives 
which are defined by the land uses it services and the amount of traffic 
it carries. It is reinforced by the use of different design standards and 
forms of traffic control. Basically, the hierarchy consists of: 

• local access streets 

• distributor roads 

• arterial roads (sub-arterial and major arterial) 

• parkways 

• highways and rural roads. 

The lower order roads, local access streets and distributor roads, 
provide the basic distribution function within a residential precinct 
or activity centre, and linkages to the main road system. The local 
access streets provide primary access to abutting property and are 
designed to appropriate standards, often incorporating narrow 
pavements, tight geometry and steep grades, to discourage high speeds 
and through-traffic. Distributor roads accumulate traffic from the 
local street system before the capacity of the individual local streets 
is exceeded, and provide for local bus operations. Traffic flow is 
usually controlled by priority legislation or traffic signals where 
warranted. 

The higher order roads provide for the movement of major traffic 
flows, longer-distance travel and heavy freight movement. They are 
characterised by limited or no frontage development, higher design 
standards and more elaborate control techniques (signals or grade 
separation). 

Sub-arterial roads penetrate into neighbourhoods or centres. They 
generally provide for intra-town movement and access to the main 
inter-town arterial system. These roads can be single carriageway and 
often have no restrictions regarding frontage development. Traffic 
flow is generally controlled and can involve local interruptions. 

Major arterial roads are the most common of the higher order 
traffic routes. Their primary function is to provide a direct link 
between adjacent towns or to higher order roads, and to cater for 
very heavy traffic movements within the towns. They generally have 
divided carriageways or have sufficient reservation for an additional 
future carriageway. There is generally no frontage development and 
they are characterised by heavy traffic volumes operating under 
controlled flow conditions. 

Parkways are the highest order element in the road hierarchy. Their 
primary function is to provide a direct link between non-adjacent 
towns, and to accommodate most of the long-distance inter-town 


79 



travel. Generally, they are developed in a parklike or rural setting on 
the edge of the urban areas. Frontage development is not allowed and 
access is usually strictly controlled via grade separated interchange 
connections with other major roads. Parkways are similar in character 
to freeways, in that they carry very heavy traffic volumes at high 
speeds. 

Highways are routes of national significance, providing regional 
access to the ACT. They serve long-distance travellers and heavy 
transport. Rural roads provide primary access to neighbouring rural 
communities and local recreation areas. Generally, these roads are 
two-lane two-way roads and cater for relatively low traffic volumes. 

Canberra’s hierarchical road system is considered to have a number 
of important advantages. These include: 

• Improved residential amenity. This is achieved by attracting non- 
essential or through-traffic to the main road system, and reducing 
traffic intrusion into residential areas, resulting in improved safety 
and reduced traffic-related environmental impacts (noise, air and 
toxic pollutants). 

• Reduced traffic accidents. The ACT has slightly more than half 
the Australian average of fatal and injury related accidents, and 
considerably less than any other State or Territory as shown in 
Table 42. 


Table 42 Comparison of Fatal and Personal Injury Accidents by 
State/Territory for the Year Ending December 1981 

Accidents Per Persons Per 100 000 

100 000 Population Population 



Fatal 

Injury 

Killed 

Injured 

NSW 

22 

167 

25 

218 

VIC 

17 

163 

19 

210 

QLD 

22 

157 

25 

201 

SA 

15 

181 

17 

239 

WA 

17 

162 

18 

212 

TAS 

23 

167 

26 

226 

NT 

51 

294 

57 

430 

ACT 

11 

104 

13 

121 

Australia 

20 

165 

22 

215 


(Source: ABS) 


• Improved accessibility and reduced travel times to major employ¬ 
ment, retail and recreation opportunities. 

• Reduced energy consumption and air pollution due to the higher 
operating speeds associated with the road network. 

The significance ot the road hierarchy and the neighbourhood 
planning concept to road safety is clearly demonstrated by a 
comparison of accident rates of the older suburbs (where the road 
hierarchy is not well defined) with recently established suburbs (where 
a well-defined road hierarchy exists) as shown in Table 43. 

The structure of road network in the older suburbs is not necessarily 
consistent with the hierarchical planning strategy. Many of these roads 
were constructed prior to formation of the NCDC and were based 
on different planning criteria. For example, some were designed as 
part ot Walter Burley Griffin’s original planning concept, hence, visual 
impact and geometrical layout were of prime importance. The 
majority of these roads were never intended to carry heavy traffic 
volumes. 


80 


fable 43 Accident Rates for Canberra - 1975 


Reported Accidents Accident Rate (Per Thousand 

Population) 



Residential 

All 

Population (1) 

Residential 

All 

Suburb 

Streets 

Streets 

(000s) 

Streets 

Streets 

Old Design 

Turner/O’Connor/Lyneham 

224 

575 

11.5 

19.5 

50.8 

Braddon/Reid/Campbell/Russell 

331 

842 

9.5 

34.8 

88.6 

Kingston/Griffith/ 

Narrabundah/Red Hill 

402 

936 

14.8 

27.2 

63.2 

Yarralumla/Deakin/Forrest/Barton 

407 

1 030 

9.5 

42.8 

108.4 

Total 

1 364 

3 383 

45.3 

30.1 

74.7 

New Design 

Hughes/Garran 

110 

182 

7.7 

14.3 

23.6 

Curtin/Lyons 

219 

380 

7.4 

29.6 

51.4 

Chifley/Pearce/Torrens 

94 

146 

9.3 

10.1 

15.7 

Aranda/Cook/Macquarie 

226 

440 

9.4 

24.0 

42.6 

Total 

649 

1 108 

33.8 

19.2 

32.8 


(1) The population figures are for 30 June 1975. 


Metropolitan Roads 

Those roads considered to perform a metropolitan function are 
the arterial roads, parkways, highways and rural roads. They are 
shown in Figure 37. This metropolitan road network provides a high 
standard of service, in terms of average speed, capacity and control, 
to encourage use of the ‘main road system’ for all inter-district travel. 

Most of the network has an 80 km/h speed limit (this excludes 
those roads with frontage development or within an activity centre). 

In the past, metropolitan roads have been built to relatively high 
standards, in terms of design and capacity, and were often constructed 
to cater for their expected eventual traffic demands. This has resulted 
in some short-term, inefficient use of resources and possibly justifiable 
criticisms. There were, however, valid reasons for the scale of 
provision, the main ones being: 

• Canberra was growing rapidly and it was expected that extra road 
capacity would soon be required. The rapid growth was not 
sustained 

• during this period, there were economies of scale associated with 
larger projects 

• the minimum amount of additional road capacity which can be 
provided at any time is one lane which may be in excess of the 
actual traffic volume requirements 

• planning and design of the road system was not constrained by 
existing development as is often the case in other cities 

• there were other social benefits to be obtained including: reduced 
energy and travel time associated with congestion-free motoring; 
reduced accidents; reduced impacts on public transport operations; 
and improved environmental conditions. 

In recent times, economic and political pressures have resulted in 
the Commission reassessing its planning and design standards, and 
its implementation strategy. For example, roads which previously may 
have been designed and constructed as parkways may now be designed 
as urban arterials with subsequent reduction in design speeds and 
standards of intersection control, but considerable savings in terms 
of land take and capital costs. 

The Commission’s major road planning and design standards are 
still, however, consistent with those used by the road planning 


81 


authorities in the other States. Essentially, road facilities are planned 
and designed to provide a level of service ‘C’ as defined in Guide to 
Traffic Highway Practice by the National Association of Australian 
State Road Authorities (NAASRA). This is equivalent to an ‘average’ 
rating, if the level of service concept is rated on a scale of ‘excellent’ 
through to ‘unsatisfactory’, as described in Table 44. Capacity is 
normally increased when service conditions approximate those of level 
ot service ‘D’, which is rated as ‘poor’. 

Before they are constructed, all major road projects are ranked 
in order of priority with the highest ranking projects making their 
way into the current construction programme. There are several 
different criteria by which competing projects are evaluated, including 
safety, primary access, efficiency and environmental impact. When 
a project achieves construction status it may be stage constructed. The 
standard of provision is determined by the short-term traffic 
predictions with future upgrading subject to competition for funding 
in a future needs programme. 


NSW 



82 







1 able 44 Level of Service Characteristics 

Level of Service 



‘A’ 

‘B’ 

‘C* 

‘D’ 

‘E’ 

‘F’ 

Performance Rating 

Excellent 

Good 

Average 

Poor 

Unsatisfactory 

System Failure 

A) Urban-Suburban Arterial Roads 

Maximum Volume/Capacity Ratio 

0.6 

0.7 

0.8 

0.9 

1.0 

n.a. 

Average Journey Speed (km/h) 

50 + 

40 

30 

25 

<25 

<20 

Proportion of Signal Cycles Fully 

Loaded 

0.0 

0.1 

0.3 

0.7 

0.7-1.0 

n.a. 

Average Delay at Signals 

Minimal 

Reasonable 

Acceptable 

Approaching 

intolerable 

Intolerable 

n.a. 

Average Peak Flour Factor 

0.7 

0.8 

0.85 

0.9 

0.95 

n.a. 

Traffic Flow Conditions 

Free flow' 

Stable 

Stable with 

some 

restrictions 

Approaching 

unstable 

Unstable 

Forced flow 

B) Urban Freeways-Expressways 

Maximum Volume/Capacity Ratio 

0.35 

0.5 

0.75 

0.90 

1.0 

n.a. 

Average Operating Speed (km/h) 

100 + 

90 + 

80 

60 

50-55 

<45 

Service Volume for 2 Lane Facility 

1400 

2000 

3000 

3600 

4000 

4000 

Average Peak Hour Factor 

n.a. 

n.a. 

0.85 

0.95 

n.a. 

n.a. 

Traffic Flow Conditions 

Free flow 

Higher speed 
range of 
stable flow 

Stable flow' 

Lower speed 
range of 
stable flow 

Unstable flow 

Forced flow 


Notes: 

1. Average journey speed is the total distance divided by total journey time. It includes delays at signals, etc. 

2. Average operating speed is the highest overall speed possible. It applies to freeways and other limited access roads only, 
since delays can generally be regarded as negligible. 

3. Peak Hour Factor (PHF) is the ratio of the volume occurring during the peak hour to the maximum rate of flow during 
a given time within the peak hour. For freeways, PHF is based on a maximum 5-minute flow; for arterials it is based on 
a maximum 15-minute flow. 


Traffic Demand 

The average daily traffic volume using the metropolitan road 
network (1982) is shown in Figure 38. It is estimated that up to 450 000 
daily car trips made up these volumes. 

Currently, some of the major roads are experiencing congestion 
for a short time during the peak periods of travel. These roads are 
identified in Figure 39. 

Several factors contribute to the congestion problems: 

• the roads in Canberra’s older suburbs were built to cater for neither 
the speed of the modern motor vehicle nor the volumes of traffic 
experienced in a city of 250 000 people 

• local inefficiencies occur at some major road intersections, e.g. 
traffic capacity is reduced to increase safety by introducing 4-phase 
signal cycles 

• some major elements of the metropolitan road network are 
incomplete, e.g. Glenloch Interchange is incomplete because the 
parkway connections to the north are not yet required. 

Works to resolve many of the problems are currently either in 
progress, are identified in the needs programme or are at the planning 
and design stage. Some of the works in progress include Hindmarsh 
Drive duplication, Dairy Flat Road/Pialligo Road roundabout and 
Coranderrk Street widening. Future works include the Eastern 
Parkway and John Dedman Parkway/Arterial. 

A higher degree of congestion exists and is tolerated in the vicinity 
of the main commercial and employment centres. These conditions 


83 


are a necessary consequence of providing high accessibility, circulation 
and movement flexibility in these areas. As such, congestion problems 
will always exist due to the sharing of rights-of-way between conflicting, 
heavy demands. A high cost or reduced accessibility would be incurred 
in attempting to alleviate these problems which occur for less than 
1-2 hours per day. The situation has worsened over time due to the 
continued growth of the centres. 

Civic is recognised as having the most significant congestion 
problems on both the primary access roads and the internal 
distribution system. Congestion on the primary access roads is due 
to the following factors: 

• approximately half of the traffic entering Civic passes through it. 
Opportunities for suitable by-pass roads are limited 

• most of the major approach roads are operating near their 
operational capacity, and opportunities to provide significant 
improvements are restricted by existing bridges or adjacent 
development. 

The capacity of the internal distribution roads is also influenced by: 

• the number of signals 





^ 0 

0 5 km 

Figure 38 Average Daily Traffic Flows - 1982 


84 





• closely spaced intersections and other property acces 

• heavy conflicting pedestrian movements 

• circulating traffic looking for parking spaces. 

Growth of Civic, in terms of employment opportunities and retail 
floorspace, will exacerbate problems in the absence of new road 
capacity or policies to reduce traffic demand. A computerised traffic 
signal system is currently being installed to improve traffic flow. It 
will significantly improve the operating conditions of major roads, 
and access to and from the City Bus Interchange. However, only a 
minimal increase in traffic capacity is expected. 

There are currently no major traffic congestion problems in the 
other town centres, although there are some local issues associated 
with inefficient signal operation and access to car parks. 

Minor traffic congestion problems have been identified at Kingston 
and Manuka. These problems are primarily associated with on-street 
parking and vehicle interaction with pedestrian movements. In these 
areas little can be done without extensive redevelopment of the traffic 
circulation system or major investment in off-street parking. Either 


O 

NSW 












Roads currently experiencing some 
degree of congestion 

Undesirable Traffic Volumes 



~v 

X 

O 


NSW 


9 Congested Intersection 

0 5 km 


\ 


figure 39 


Existing Traffic Congestion 






alternative would result in major expense and an undesirable change 
in character. Currently, therefore, no action is contemplated. 

Some of the roads which have been identified as part of the 
metropolitan road system have residential frontage and their traffic 
loadings are considered to exceed their environmental capacity. They 
are located in the older areas of Canberra and were not originally 
planned according to the principles of the road hierarchy. Examples 
of these roads include Limestone Avenue, Macarthur Avenue, 
Wakefield Avenue, etc. There are many other roads with similar, 
undesirable traffic volumes but these are not considered to have a 
metropolitan function, e.g. Kent Street, Stonehaven Crescent, Flinders 
Way, Cowper Street, etc. The Commission recognises the existence 
of these problems and is endeavouring to resolve them by upgrading 
appropriate elements in the metropolitan road system or employing 
traffic management techniques. In some cases it will not be possible 
to achieve a reduction in traffic. However, planning initiatives will 
be implemented to ensure that problems do not worsen. 


Traffic Accidents 

Traffic accidents appear to be highly correlated with the most 
heavily trafficked roads. The Commission maintains an extensive 
accident data base which is used to identify locations with a significant 
accident history, and establish appropriate design standards and 
solutions. Figure 40 identifies the most significant accident ‘black 
spots’ in the metropolitan area. 

Road safety projects have a high priority in the Commission’s road 
needs programme. Examples of recently completed safety-related 
projects include duplication of Hindmarsh Drive and roundabouts 
at several intersections on Erindale Drive. 


Car Parking 


Background 

Until recently, the Commission had provided car parking spaces 
on a scale to meet the unrestrained demand for parking. Economic 
pressures in recent years hav e, however, had a considerable effect on 
the provision of parking facilities. During this period, scarce funds 
were allocated to major road and safety-related projects. The provision 
of parking was either deferred or provided at a reduced scale. Over 
the same period development has taken place on what were once car 
parking areas, thereby creating new and additional demands. 

The relationship between parking demand and supply at the major 
employment and retail centres is shown in Table 45. 

A potential undersupply has been identified at several major 
employment and retail centres. At present, any imbalance between 
supply and demand is overcome by the significant amount of informal 
parking which is provided on vacant development sites or areas 
identified tor tuture landscape treatment. As new development takes 
place this parking resource is rapidly being diminished. This is 
particularly the case at Civic Centre and Woden Town Centre. 

Pay parking has been implemented at Civic Centre, Woden Town 
Centre and Canberra Airport to ensure that short-stay parking is 
readily available. Pricing is carried out by boomgate, voucher and 
meter controls. Short-stay parking is generally provided within 
convenient walking distance of the desired location and at a scale 
needed to satisfy average daily peak demands. The critical peak 
demand tor short-stay parking at retail centres occurs during Friday 
evenings or Saturday mornings when long-stay parking areas are also 
available for use by shoppers. 


86 


The Commission and the Department of Territories and Local 
Government are currently reviewing the policies in regard to parking. 
Some options which are being considered include: 

• the introduction of long-stay parking charges to modify parking 
demand and assist in the financing of new facilities. The potential 
implications for public transport operations and the effect on 
adjacent residential areas would have to be carefully evaluated. 
It may also have significant effect on the commercial viability of 
particular areas 

• revision of lease conditions so that future developers must provide 
an adequate supply of parking to suit their potential demands. 
However, the majority of new developments would require parking 
structures as land for surface parking may not be available. The 
cost of these parking structures may discourage new development. 

Parking in Civic Centre 

The current demand for long-stay parking in Civic (excluding 
Braddon) is greater than the ‘formal’ supply. The shortage is taken 
up by abuse of short-stay parking controls and informal parking on 




% 


NSW 




***»> 



x 





• 2 or More Fatal Accidents in last 5 years 
x Intersections with High Accident Rate 
— Mid Block Locations with High Accident Rate 

0 5 km 



u 

O 


NSW 


1 

i. 


Figure 40 Locations with High Accident Rates 


87 



open space or land identified for future development. Intrusion into 
nearby residential areas is also increasing. 

Current development activity has resulted in a substantial park¬ 
ing imbalance, especially in City West. New developments which have 
had an effect on parking include: 

• the recent completion of Jolimont Centre 

• the development of new office blocks 

• conversion of long-stay parking to boomgate short-stay parking. 

The situation is exacerbated because land suitable for surface 
parking is becoming very scarce and proposed future developments 
will reduce the available land even further. New development 
proposals confirmed or planned within the next 10 to 12 years are 
expected to have the following impacts: 

• it is estimated that up to 8 000 new jobs and 15 000 square metres 
of retail floorspace will be created 

• the new developments will displace approximately 2 500 existing 
car spaces 

• the new development will generate new demand, estimated at ap¬ 
proximately 5 500 additional car spaces, thus adding to existing 
pressures 

• if additional surface parking is not provided, car parking structures 
on existing surface parking areas will be necessary to accommodate 
the anticipated demand. It is estimated that a further 4 200 existing 
spaces could be displaced. 

Up to 9 500 car spaces in structures could, therefore, be required 
within this period. The first parking structure will be constructed 
within the next two to three years to relieve existing parking pressures. 

The current supply of short-stay parking is considered to be 
adequate for existing and short-term future average daily demands. 
It has recently been increased by the installation of new boomgate 
areas on London Circuit. Some problems have previously been 
observed during the lunch time peak period and at other periods of 
high retail activity (e.g. Christmas and Easter). 


Table 45 Existing Parking Situation - 1982 

Parking Demand Parking Supply 

Retail 

Floor- 


Location 

Employment 

space 

(nr) 

Long- 

Stay 

Short- 

Stay 

Total 

Long- 

Stay 

Short- 

Stay 

Total 

Civic Centre 

• City Division 

14000 

52800 

8200 

1350-1850 

9550-10050 

7250 

2650 

9900 

• Braddon Service Trades 

2000 

7950 

1400 

200-360 

1600-1760 

1360 

420 

1780 

Woden Town Centre 
• Retail/Office Core 

8000 

47750 

4400 

1230-1750 

5630-6150 

3500 

1650 

5150 

• Phillip Service Trades 

1300 

20150 

1000 

500-700 

1500-1700 

2290 

60 

2350 

Belconnen Town Centre 
• Retail/Office Core 

6800 

49100 

3950 

1230-1720 

5180-5670 

6050 

160 

6210 

• Belconnen Service Trades 

1200 

16450 

1050 

410-580 

1450-1630 

2490 

510 

3000 

Parkes 

6150 

- 

3530 

- 

3530 

3600 

200 

3800 

Barton 

4500 

- 

3100 

- 

3100 

3340 

120 

3460 

Russell 

4700 

- 

2920 

- 

2920 

2060 

100 

2160 

Campbell Park 

1900 

- 

1250 

- 

1250 

1200 

40 

1240 

Kingston Group Centre 

600 

16100 

420 

400-560 

820-980 

410 

310 

720 

Manuka Group Centre 

900 

8450 

610 

340-380 

950-990 

360 

340 

700 


Notes: 

1. Long-stay supply in Belconnen Town Centre includes car parking structures. 

2. Long-stay supply in major employment centres includes some informal and temporary parking areas. 


88 


An increase in short-stay parking and improved enforcement ol 
parking regulations are expected to overcome the existing shortages 


Parking in Braddon 

Demand for parking in the commercial and service trades area of 
Braddon is currently in balance with the formal supply. There are, 
however, some local imbalances, necessitating longer walking 
distances. Parking pressures are not as great as in the retail and office 
core because of the lower density of development and significant 
amount of private parking available. Any new high intensity develop¬ 
ment could, however, result in major parking problems for Braddon. 


Parking in Woden Town Centre 

Woden is currently experiencing similar parking problems to those 
of Civic. The existing parking demand exceeds the current formal 
supply. The shortfall is made up by informal parking and land suitable 
for surface parking is almost completely exhausted. 

Developments proposed in the short term will displace only a few 
of the existing parking spaces. However, these developments will add 
to the pressure by the increasing demand for parking. 

Future development proposals within the existing core of the 
Woden Town Centre would displace existing car parking and generate 
an immediate need for parking structures. 

There are limited opportunities for higher intensity development 
in the service trades area. Most of the land is already leased or 
developed and it is estimated that a single large office complex would 
consume most of the existing reserve parking capacity. Improved 
public transport facilities would also be required if higher intensity 
development occurred in the service trades area. 

Parking in Belconnen Town Centre 

It is generally acknowledged that there is an oversupply of parking 
in the Belconnen Town Centre. There is a generous provision at the 
existing office complexes due to their relatively low employment 
density. 

There is also a generous provision at the retail mall because: 

• structures were provided so that they could be converted to retail 

development, if necessary 

• the scale of parking provided was based on projected demand. 

These were related to higher population projections for Belconnen 

and more intense office development. 

A substantial amount of open space has been provided in the town 
centre. The open space and undeveloped development sites also 
provide attractive parking areas. 

No parking problems are anticipated in the Belconnen Town 
Centre for the immediate future. 

Parking at Major Employment Areas 

While the parking supply at Campbell Park is generally considered 
to be sufficient to accommodate current demands, parking problems 
have been identified at Parkes, Barton and Russell. However, 
adequate parking is available at slightly greater walking distances in 
some locations and many drivers take adv antage of the large amount 
of informal parking which is quite often more convenient. 




Parking at Secondary Level Retail Centres 

The parking supply at most existing group centres is considered 
satisfactory. It generally meets the average weekly peak demands. 
However, there are occasions when supply may be exceeded for short 
periods. This situation is considered to provide the most economic 
and efficient use of available resources and is common to most retail 
centres. 

At both Kingston and Manuka, average daily parking demands 
usually exceed the formal parking supply. Most of the shortfall is 
accommodated in nearby residential streets. Recent redevelopment 
has had a considerable impact on the parking situation. New speciality 
stores and other high traffic generating developments such as 
restaurants and bars have been constructed in the commercial core. 
Office, commercial and medium-density housing development has 
occurred in what were previously low-density residential areas. This 
development has significantly increased the demand for parking. 
Parking and circulation problems are further exacerbated because a 
major proportion of the parking is provided on-street. 

Public Transport 

Background 

The past two or three decades have seen a marked change in public 
transport. Historically, the provision of public transport services was 
economically profitable and cheap travel could be provided. The rapid 
increase in ownership and use of private motor vehicles has resulted 
in improved accessibility over a much wider area than can be matched 
by improved public transport operations. This has encouraged land 
use patterns where access to jobs and services are more difficult for 
people without cars. Overall the effect has been to reduce the growth 
in patronage and increase the cost of public transport operations. 

Nonetheless, public transport has an essential role to play. It is 
the primary source of mobility for those who for reasons such as 
health, age or income cannot use or do not have access to a motor 
car. Under certain circumstances public transport increases overall 
transport efficiency by minimising land take for roads and car parks, 
and by conserving energy and reducing fuel consumption. However, 
such efficiencies can only be fully realised where passenger loadings 
are high. Additional improvements to road safety can also be achieved 
where there is a substantial transfer from private to public transport. 
Furthermore, public transport is considered to have a less damaging 
effect on the environment. 

Since public transport provides an essential social and community 
service, it is considered desirable that it should be encouraged by policy 
decisions which promote its use. It is also considered essential that 
a suitable standard of public transport be provided for that sector 
of the community that is wholly dependent on it, and that it be 
promoted where it can be demonstrated as providing more efficient 
use of available transport resources. This will necessitate some public 
expense (subsidy) since the measure of success is no longer profitability 
but rather the satisfaction of a number of social objectives. 

The Existing Public Transport System 

Public transport within the metropolitan area consists of taxis and 
buses. 

Taxis 

Taxis account for approximately 0.4 per cent of the average daily 
transport needs. However, they do perform an important metropolitan 
function in that they supplement the bus system during the evenings 
and weekends when other public transport services are limited or non- 


90 


existent and provide a demand responsive service. The current taxi 
fleet in Canberra is privately operated and consists of 117 vehicles. 

The Hus System 

The responsibility for operating and managing the metropolitan 
bus system (ACTION) lies with the Department of Territories and 
Local Government. 

The Department’s public transport strategy is based on a line-haul 
and feeder concept. In this strategy, local bus services, or feeders, 
provide a basic transport service between each suburb and the closest 
town centre. High speed express buses provide a line-haul service 
between the centres. 

Special purpose public transport interchanges at each of the town 
centres are an important part of the strategy. They provide a 
convenient focus or point of concentration for all the bus routes, 
enabling the efficient transfer of passengers and synchronisation of 
bus operations. During the peaks, most interchanging passengers are 
able to alight from one bus and immediately board another. The public 
transport interchanges are also an integral part of the town centres 
and, because they are centrally located, provide maximum convenience 
to terminating passengers, i.e. those who work or have personal 
business at the centre. 

The line-haul strategy is particularly suited to Canberra’s land use 
distribution and hierarchical road system. The urban structure of 
Canberra consists of several towns with centres which are separated 
by relatively long distances. This enables a line-haul service to be 
operated efficiently. The major advantages of the strategy are 
considered to be: 

a) for the passenger: 

• higher frequency of service 

• reduced journey times for most journeys 

• greater choice in number of destinations 

• improved reliability and schedules 

• passenger amenities at interchanges 

b) for the operator: 

• improved efficiency through higher operating speeds, 
minimising unproductive travel and higher numbers of 
passengers per kilometre travelled 

• improved control and co-ordination of services 

• improved driver amenities. 

The main disadvantage is that most passengers have to interchange 
involving inconvenience and usually extra cost. 


Bus Operations 

The existing bus network is shown in Figure 41.lt consists of about 
70 routes and covers approximately 800 route kilometres. 

The inter-town express (line-haul) services travel on the most direct 
routes between town centres. Supplementary express services are 
provided between the Woden and Beleonnen Town Centres and major 
employment centres at Campbell Park, Russell and Parkes/ Barton 
during the peak hours to accommodate the high commuter demands. 
During the peak hour, express buses operate even six to seven 
minutes, whereas, off-peak, the frequency is even fifteen minutes. 

Each suburb in Canberra is sen iced by at least one local bus route 
(feeders). The routes are selected so that most residents have less than 
a 400 m walk to a bus stop. However, bus routes are subject to specific 


91 


design considerations which may affect the maximum walking distance 
criterion. They include: 

• a minimum street pavement width of 10 m 

• heavy duty pavements 

• maximum grades of about 8 per cent. 

Generally, local bus services are provided every fifteen minutes 
during the peak, with thirty minute frequencies during the off-peak 
and sixty minute frequencies on evenings and weekends. 

ACTION has introduced other innovations to try to improve the 
standard of service and efficiency. These include: 

• a fare box system to reduce boarding time 

• articulated buses 

• advanced purchase tickets 

• zonal fare structure, involving a single fare for any part of a single 
zone 

• area bus operations for after hours services. 


NSW 







NSW 





- Feeder Route 

- Line Haul Route 

• Interchange 



Figure 41 Existing Bus System 


92 






Demand for Public Transport 

It is estimated that Canberra’s bus system caters for about 8-10 
per cent of the average daily travel demand. 

Annual bus patronage in 1982-83 was approximately 20 million 
passenger trips. This represents approximately 14.3 million individual 
journeys. Bus patronage has increased steadily (excluding effects of 
population increases) since about 1976. Table 46 shows the relative 
increases over the period 1975-76 to 1981-82. The 1981-82 figures are 
not considered to be representative, because of major industrial action 
during that year. Most of the increase in patronage is due to natural 
growth (population increase) and restructuring of services (some 
people who previously made one trip per journey, now make two). 
However, a significant proportion of the increased patronage is due 
to the improvements to services introduced over that period. These 
include higher frequencies, advance purchase of tickets, synchronisation 
at the bus interchanges and supplementary peak-hour services. 

Table 46 ACTION Annual Passenger Trips - 1976-1982 



1975-76 

1976-77 

1977-78 

1978-79 

1979-80 

1980-81 

1981-82 

Special School Services (000s) 

- 

- 

- 

- 

3 266.6 

3 417 

3 600 

Scheduled Route Services (000s) 

- 

- 

- 

- 

15 233.4 

16 383 

13 947 

Total (000s) 

11 400 

12 355 

13 874 

16 240 

18 500 

19 800 

17 547 

Vo Increase/Year 

- 

8.4 

12.3 

17.0 

13.9 

7.0 

-12.8 (I) 

Vo Population Increase 

7.0 

3.2 

3.0 

1.9 

2.0 

1.3 

1.5 


(1) Large proportion of reduced patronage due to substantial industrial stoppages, but previous years suggest the rate 
of increase was falling off. 

(Source: DCT Annua! Reports). 


Table 47 Distribution of Bus Travellers by 
Purpose - 1975 (Vo) 


Purpose Vo 

Home-Based Work 27.2 

Home-Based Education 44.0 

Home-Based Shopping 9.6 

Home-Based Other 8.3 

Not Home-Based 10.9 

Total 100.0 


(Source: 1975 Home Interview Data Base) 


More than 70 per cent of bus travel is related to school and work 
trips, as indicated in Table 47. Special school bus services 
accommodate about 50 per cent of daily school bus trips, while the 
remainder are catered for by the normal scheduled services. It is 
estimated that up to 35 per cent of daily bus use occurs during a two 
hour period in the a.m. peak. A similar amount is carried oxer about 
three hours during the p.m. peak period. 

It is also estimated that about 20 per cent of daily bus travel occurs 
during the critical peak hour (a.m.). During this time, express bus 
services are operating at about 95 to 115 per cent of seated capacity 
(seated capacity is about two-thirds of ‘crush capacity’). However, 
most feeder services are operating at less than 60 per cent of seated 
capacity. In the off-peak period most buses operate at a fraction of 
their capacity (estimated at 10 to 15 per cent on average). 

Public Transport Operating Costs 

Over the past decade, the annual bus operating deficit has 
increased substantially. Table 48 shows that the increase in the annual 
deficit was greater than the annual rate of inflation for the same 
period. 


Table 48 Public Transport Operating Costs, Revenue and Annual Subsidy - 1976-1982 



1975-76 

1976-77 

1977-78 

1978-79 

1979-80 

1980-81 

1981-82 

Operating Costs ($000s) 

6 997 

8 496 

10 630 

12 608 

15 728 

19 589 

21 309 

Revenue (5000s) 

2 939 

3 583 

4 357 

4 875 

5 619 

7 828 

8 788 

Annual Deficit ($000s) (1) 

4 058 

5 363 

6 273 

7 733 

10 109 

11 761 

12 521 

Annual Rate of Increase of Deficit (Vo) 

- 

32.1 

17.0 

23.3 

30.7 

16.3 

6.5 


(I) Equivalent to Subsidy 
(Source: DCT Annual Reports) 


It is notable that other government operated public transport 
services throughout Australia have similar operating deficits, and 
attract government subsidy. Table 49 shows the annual deficit for each 
Australian Capital City for the financial year 1979-80. 

Table 49 Urban Public Transport Performance - 1980 (1) 


Deficit per Passenger 




Deficit (2) 

Passengers 

Each Type 

System-Wide 

City 

Type 

($ millions) 

(millions) 

($) 

($) 

Sydney 

Rail 

132.4 

205.0 

.65 

.52 


Bus 

73.5 

194.4 

.38 


Melbourne 

Rail 

62.0 (3) 

85.8 

.72 



Tram 

29.1 (3) 

98.9 

.29 

.50 


Bus 

11 71(3) 

19.9 

.59 


Brisbane 

Rail 

43 A (4) 

28.0 

1.54 



Bus 

15.8 

46.4 

.34 

.79 

Adelaide 

Rail 

17.2 (4) 

13.8 

1.25 



Bus 

21.1(4) 

61.0 

.45 

.59 


Tram 

0.8 (4) 

2.7 

.30 


Perth 

Rail 

10.5 

7.1 

1.47 



Bus 

27.6 

56.3 

.49 

.60 

Canberra 

Bus 

10.1 

19.5 

.52 

.52 

Hobart 

Bus 

5.8 

12.6 

.46 

.46 


(1) Government-operated systems only, for financial year 1979-80. 

(2) Deficit includes interest, depreciation and government reimbursements. 

(3) Scholar and pensioner reimbursements estimated. 

(4) Interest and depreciation charges estimated. 

(Source: Respective State Authorities and Annual Reports) 


It should be recognised that it is not possible to provide the level 
of service demanded by the community on a ‘break-even’ basis. The 
fleet size is determined by the peak-hour operation and for most of 
the day is not used efficiently or remains idle. Weekend and evening 
operations attract penalty wage rates, but only a few patrons, and 
students, pensioners and children are carried at reduced fares. 

The general indications are that the annual deficit will continue 
to increase at a rate greater than the rate of inflation. The main reasons 
are: 


• increasing running costs (fuel, spare parts, tyres) 

• increasing wages 

• Canberra’s growing population and expanding urban area will 
require a larger fleet, which because of the inherent uneconomic 
nature of peak and off-peak loadings will be idle most of the time. 


Future Travel Patterns - Trends and Implications 

Background 

The existing planning of Canberra has been determined, to a large 
extent, by previous actions and community desire to retain the current 
lifestyle and standard of amenity. Future planning strategies are 
discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Some of the basic elements which 
will have a major impact on the planning for future transport facilities 
are: 

• within the planning period, the population of Canberra/ 
Queanbeyan will grow to about 410 000 

• there will be continued population settlement in Tuggeranong to 
an eventual population exceeding 85 000 persons 


94 


• population settlement will occur in Gungahlin, leading to an 
eventual population of approximately 84 000 persons. 

The proposed population settlement strategy takes advantage of 
the extensive capital investment to date in roads, hydraulic works, 
major electrical infrastructure, etc., and although it recognises the 
increasing economic pressure for higher-density living, it acknowledges 
the fact that it will probably have minimum impact on the overall 
density. This means that when Canberra’s population reaches 400 000, 
the residential density will be about the same as it is now, i.e. 
approximately 16.5 persons/ha. Planning for Canberra’s future needs 
has, therefore, continued to be based on servicing a widely-spread, 
low density city. 

Future Trip Generation 

Travel demands over the next twenty years are expected to be 
similar to those which currently exist. 

There may be a slight reduction in average daily trip generation 
from about 4.1 trips per person per day to about 3.9 trips per person 
per day. There is evidence of a reduction in discretionary travel 
(shopping, social, recreation, etc.) over the past decade and this trend 
is expected to continue. Some trips are no longer made and some have 
been combined with other trip purposes, (e.g. a shopping trip on the 
way home from work). The increasing cost of travel is considered to 
be the main reason for the reduction in trip generation. The increasing 
average age of Canberra’s population is also believed to have some 
effect. 

It is the peak period which is the major determinant affecting the 
provision of facilities for either public or private transport. There is 
unlikely to be any change which could significantly affect peak-hour 
travel demand. More than 75 per cent of morning peak-hour trips 
are currently concerned with travel to work or school. This situation 
is expected to be the same in the future. 

Future Mode Split 

Predicting the mode choice of future travel demands is difficult, 
due to the complex interaction of many variables. Some of the most 
important factors that will influence the amount of travel by public 
transport are: 

• layout of the City, including the location and intensity of activity 
centres, and the population density 

• proportion of community which is captive to public transport 

• efficiency, availability and relative cost of travel 

• supply and cost of parking available for private cars 

• availability of fuel for private cars 

• improved public transport services 

• ability to provide low cost public transport facilities. 

The future planning strategy can be view ed as an extension of the 
existing City, the residents of which will probably retain their 
transport-intensive lifestyle. Private car travel is currently the main 
mode of transport and accounts for about 90 per cent of daily 
vehicular travel. Bus travel, on the other hand, caters for less than 
9 per cent (the remainder are taxis and motorcycles). 

Any significant increase in average journey travel time resulting 
from an increase in the size of the City is predicted to have an adverse 
reaction on the relative proportion of travellers using public transport. 

It is estimated that up to 88 per cent of public transport trips 
(excluding school children) were made by travellers with no alternative 


95 



form of transport available for that trip, that is, they were captive 
to public transport. 

Of those passengers who actually chose to travel by public 
transport, the journey to work currently accounts for the highest 
proportion by journey type, and shopping trips the lowest, (19 per 
cent and 2.5 per cent respectively). Commuter travel by public 
transport is expected to increase significantly to the town centres due 
to parking controls (reduced availability or higher cost), and shopping 
journeys by bus may decrease if trip lengths and car availability 
increase. Little change is expected for other journey purposes. 

Increasing motoring costs (excluding parking charges) relative to 
public transport fares are not expected to have a significant effect 
on mode split. In recent years motoring costs have increased 
dramatically while public transport fares have reduced in ‘real terms’, 
with little apparent change in car usage. The large increase in fuel 
costs (since 1975), however, appears to have resulted in a change to 
smaller, more fuel-efficient cars. Reducing public transport fares is 
also not expected to change the situation significantly. Research in¬ 
dicates the ‘price elasticity of demand’ for public transport is about 
-0.3 (i.e. a 10 per cent reduction in fares would achieve a 3 per cent 
increase in ridership), and that most of any increase is due to existing 
captive users making greater use of cheaper transport, and greater 
use by travellers who would otherwise be car passengers (as opposed 
to drivers). 

The future introduction of parking charges for long-stay parking 
is considered to have the potential for the most significant increase 
in public transport use. However, parking charges can be realistically 
applied only where supply, relative to demand, is limited, and then, 
only if suitable alternative transport is available. The town centres 
are thought to be the only reasonable application for this type of 
policy. 

The past rate ot increase in ACTION’S annual operating subsidy 
and the forecast that it will continue to increase faster than inflation, 
indicate that low cost public transport is not possible in the foreseeable 
future. 

The increase in public transport usage in Canberra over the past 
seven years is atypical. Elsewhere in Australia, and throughout the 
world, patronage levels have declined. Most of the increase in 
Canberra was due to major service improvements over the period. 
In view of the likelihood of increasing public transport costs generally, 
and considering the possible development strategies for Canberra, it 
is anticipated that the average proportion of travel catered for by 
public transport will remain about the same (8 to 10 per cent of all 
vehicular trips). This implies an increase in public transport travel of 
approximately 56 per cent due to population growth. A significant 
distributional change is forecast for peak hour travel. Mode split to 
the existing town centres is expected to increase although the amount 
will depend on the density of town centre development, the successful 
introduction of a pay parking strategy at major centres and public 
acceptance ot a substantial increase in the cost of operating the public 
transport system. In the transport evaluation in Chapter 5, estimates 
have been made of the maximum likely increase in mode split. 


96 


Water Resources and Energy Services 


Water Resources 

Introduction 

The water resources of the ACT are limited in terms of their 
capacity to supply water and assimilate wastes consistent with the 
protection of recreational use and the environmental quality 
expectations of the community. There is, therefore, a need to allocate 
the resource across a number of competing demands. 

Decisions on land use and its management are the principal 
determinants of both the nature of water use demands placed on lakes 
and streams of the region, and of the ability of the lakes and streams 
to sustain the uses. Accordingly, decisions on land use need to be 
considered in the context of their implications for existing water uses 
and associated land uses in the basin. 

Allocation of Water Resources 

The ACT Water Use Policy Plan provides a comprehensive state¬ 
ment of the allocation of water resources (in quality and quantity 
terms) of the ACT across the competing uses. It also provides a brief 
description of the water resources of the region, obligations in respect 
of protecting the rights of downstream users, and the location of such 
key uses as diversion for water supply, wastewater and stormwater 
discharges, recreation, and areas of aquatic habitat of regional 
significance. 

It provides the basis for an assessment of the implications of land 
use changes and infrastructure proposals for existing water uses and 
associated land uses in the basin. 

Water Resources Management and Current Issues 

A range of management and infrastructure strategies have been 
adopted as the means of providing the services and conditions to meet 
community aspirations. The management strategies comprise: 

• land use and management control, which is cognisant of the pro¬ 
tection of water and associated land uses downstream 

• the provision of water supply, wastewater, and surface water 
management infrastructure 

• the management of demands for services by means of siting 
controls, water supply and wastewater discharge tariffs, and 
regulations. 

The principal infrastructure components comprise: 

• municipal water supply, including potable and second class 
(irrigation) water supply systems 

• wastewater management, including the provision of sewerage and 
industrial wastewater management schemes 

• surface water management, including the provision of urban lakes, 
water quality control ponds, stormwater drainage, and flood 
control. 

The following factors are currently, or may in future become, 
significant issues in relation to water resources: 

• the requirement to augment water supply to meet growth in 
demands associated with metropolitan growth 

• the limited extent of the ACT water resources in relation to the 
ability to meet future water supply demands and environmental 
protection expectations 

• the exacerbation of water quality problems in lakes and streams 


97 


as a result of stream diversion (principally the Queanbeyan River 
at Googong) for water supply 

• the high cost of wastewater treatment associated with the level of 
protection of environmental and recreational amenity of inland 
lakes and streams expected by the community 

• the demands for water-based and related recreation, and the 
limited capacity of natural and constructed facilities to 
accommodate these demands 

• an expectation that water features will be provided and managed 
in a manner consistent with facilitating a wide range of recreational 
uses 

• the requirement to contain urban runoff pollution in order to 
protect the environmental quality and recreational amenity of the 
Murrumbidgee River through Tuggeranong, and Ginninderra 
Creek downstream of Gungahlin 

• the expectation of the retention of natural channels and ecosystems 
within the urban environment, and the associated problems of 
managing surface runoff consistent with the protection of property 
and recreational amenity 

• the requirement for the provision of higher levels of water treat¬ 
ment ot Cotter water in view ot the increased recreational pressure 
on the Cotter catchment 

• the cost of replacing ageing infrastructure. 

Current Patterns of Demand and Service 

W ater Supply 

The management of water supply comprises the provision of a 
supply upon demand (municipal water supply), the conservation of 
water through the recycling ot sewage effluent and urban runoff for 
irrigation purposes, the management of demand through water tariffs 
and the use ot native plants for landscape purposes, and the application 
of water restrictions in periods of drought. 

Canberra and Queanbeyan are supplied with water from three 
dams on the Cotter River and one at Googong on the Queanbeyan 
River. Total dam capacity is adequate to cope with a 
Canberra/Queanbeyan population of 450 000 at current levels of 
consumption. ACT water consumption per head of population (680 
litres per person per day) is relatively static, subject only to short¬ 
term variations reflecting seasonal conditions. 

A high proportion of ACT water consumption is used for water¬ 
ing parks and domestic gardens (55 per cent of total consumption as 
a long-term average). Recycling of wastewater and urban runoff for 
the irrigation of parks and gardens, and the adoption of landscape 
forms which have a reduced watering requirement, offer potential 
savings in the cost of water supply. 

Wastewater 

The management of wastewater comprises the provision of 
collection and disposal (sewerage) services upon demand (including 
the provision of wastewater treatment facilities), the conservation of 
wastewater through recycling of sewage effluent for irrigation 
purposes, the management of demand through charges for discharge 
to sewers, and regulations controlling discharges to streams and 
sewers. 


Urban areas in Canberra are fully sewered. The Lower Molonglo 
Water Quality Control Centre (LMWQCC) treats all of Canberra’s 
sewage, and has a capacity to service a population of 400 000. The 
timing of augmentation will be dependent on population growth and 
the amount of waste generated by each household. 


98 


Water pollution control legislation will necessitate the connection 
of all wastewater discharges to the sewerage system, the upgrad 
of the level of treatment provided at the Cotter and Hume Sewage 
Treatment Works, and the provision of sewers to cater for industrial 
discharges. 

In addition, replacement of the Molonglo Outtall Sewer 
constructed in 1918 and the progressive construction of trunk sewers 
in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin will be required over the next ten to 
fifteen years. 

The design capacity of existing sewers is exceeded in some areas, 
resulting in periodic spills of sewage to local lakes and streams. Where 
the potential risk to public health is high, augmentation will be 
required. 

Surface Water 

Surface water management comprises the provision of collection 
and disposal (stormwater) services upon demand (including the 
provision of water pollution control facilities), the establishment of 
urban water features in response to recreation and landscape demands, 
the conservation of urban runoff through recycling for irrigation 
purposes, the management of demand through design and siting of 
urban development and zoning of water uses, and restrictions 
controlling land use in flood plains. 

Urbanisation causes a fivefold to sixfold increase in peak runoff 
generated by storms, and consequently a need to augment the capacity 
of natural channels to transfer these peaks safely out of the urban 
area, or to store the stormwater in the floodways, retarding ponds, 
and in the ground storage systems. 

The stormwater drainage system, which is separate from the 
sewerage system, comprises pipe drains, stormwater channels and 
retarding basins which complement the creek and river system. Lakes 
and water quality control ponds are employed to protect receiving 
waters. 

Urban stormwater is a source of pollutants which may impact on 
the water quality of local lakes and streams. Current design of storm¬ 
water systems seeks to incorporate both the means for collecting and 
removing stormwater from the urban areas and of trapping pollutants 
carried in the stormwater. Much of the existing stormwater control 
infrastructure was constructed in the 1950s and 1960s without the 
benefit of present day knowledge. In these cases, corrective works 
will be required. 

As with sewerage reticulation, progressive provision of main drains 
for stormwater will be required in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin over 
the next ten to fifteen years. 

Future Demand Trends and Implications 

Canberra’s water consumption is high in comparison to Capital 
City standards. This is largely a reflection of Griffin’s concept of 
Canberra as a ‘garden city’ and the inland location of Canberra. As 
the City grows, there will be a need to modify consumption patterns 
consistent with the available supply and the protection of water 
quality. 

Wastewater volumes generated per household in Canberra are 
comparable to those of urban areas in Melbourne and Sydney. With 
a trend to increasing use of household appliances and a falling 
household occupancy rate, it is expected that a growth of 1 per cent 
in wastewater generation per person per annum will occur in the 
future. Experience gained in the commissioning of the Lowei 


99 


Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre has validated the 
appropriateness of stringent standards controlling levels of nutrients 
in sewage effluent. 

The pattern of increasing leisure time will yield further demands 
for water-based recreation facilities, and reinforce the importance of 
protection of water quality of lakes and streams of the region. 

Energy Services 

Solar Energy 

A number of swimming pool solar heating systems have been 
installed by the Commission as a means of reducing energy 
consumption costs and as a basis for the evaluation of solar heating 
systems. Increasing use is being made of solar hot water installations 
for domestic purposes. 

Solid (Wood) Fuels 

There has been a trend to the use of wood burning heaters in 
domestic dwellings in Canberra in recent years. The trend raises 
concerns in respect to environmental (air pollution) implications of 
the emission of wastes from this source. 

Electricity 

The installation and augmentation of electricity services is carried 
out by the ACT Electricity Authority (ACTEA), in conjunction with 
the Commission. The Commission’s aim in the planning for electrical 
supplies is to provide reservations for transmission lines and reserve 
sites tor substations which meet the needs of ACTEA for an economic 
and reliable distribution system, consistent with the protection of the 
environment of Canberra and the visual setting of the ACT. 

Electrical power is supplied to the Territory primarily via a 330 kV 
system, which feeds the Canberra 330/132 kV substation at Holt. A 
secondary 66 kV supply is provided to the Kingston substation from 
the NSW 132/66 kV substation at Queanbeyan. This secondary supply 
will be phased out in the near future. 

Power is transmitted from the supply points, via a 132 kV sub¬ 
transmission system, to substations throughout the metropolitan area. 
Power trom these 132/11 kV substations is then transmitted via 11 kV 
lines to local transformers within the suburbs or centres where the 
voltage is further reduced for supply to users. 

Natural Gas 

Natural gas is distributed in the ACT by the Australian Gas Light 
Company. The natural gas comes from Moomba gas fields in South 
Australia and is supplied to the ACT through a high pressure pipeline 
extending from the Moomba to Sydney pipeline. 

The Australian Gas Light Company receives the gas at a trunk 
receiving station in Gungahlin. The gas is reticulated through a 
network of steel mains to major commercial and industrial consumers. 
The network also supplies gas to district regulators which are located 
throughout Canberra to service the various residential areas. 

The Commission began a programme in 1980-81 which identified 
185 government buildings suitable for conversion to natural gas. 
Installation ot systems for the conversion of the first public buildings 
in the ACT to use natural gas (the Royal Canberra, Woden Valley 
and Calvary Hospitals) was completed in January 1982. Since then, 
the Russell Defence Offices, Cameron Offices and a number of 
Canberra schools have been changed over. 


100 


Physical and Environmental Aspects of the 
City 

Environment 

Introduction 

From a metropolitan perspective, the following environmental fac¬ 
tors are important when preparing a long range policy plan for 
Canberra: 

• water quality 

• air quality 

• noise quality in the urban environment 

• ecological resources. 

It is recognised that increased population, urbanisation and 
potential industrialisation will place growing pressure on the finely 
balanced and limited assimilative capacity of the environment and 
on the finite stock of natural resources. The Commission’s broad 
environmental aim is to ensure that future development in the ACT 
is in harmony with the general environment and within the 
requirements of the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) 
Act 1974. This section examines the existing environment from the 
point of view of the environmental factors noted above (see Figure 42). 

Water Quality 

It is essential that the water quality of lakes, rivers and streams 
within the ACT is adequate for community uses such as domestic 
water supply, recreation, irrigation and stock water supply, angling 
and maintenance of significant aquatic habitats. 

While pollution of aquatic systems can arise from land used for 
grazing, agriculture, forestry or nature conservation, under normal 
conditions, effluent from sewage treatment works and urban storm¬ 
water runoff are responsible for the major part of pollutant loadings. 

In July 1978, the LMWQCC commenced operation, enabling the 
Weston Creek Sewage Treatment Works to close in September 1978 
and the diversion of sewage from the Belconnen W ater Pollution 
Control Centre, as of October 1979. These actions have caused a 
dramatic improvement in the water quality in parts of the Molonglo 
and Murrumbidgee Rivers and Ginninderra Creek, even though the 
detailed interpretation of the extensive monitoring data collected since 
that time has been complicated by the fact that, from late 1978 to 
early 1983, the region experienced a period of severe drought. 

There is increasing evidence that, in recent times, parts of Lake 
Burley Griffin have been exhibiting considerable water quality stress, 
due to very low flows into the lake and high nutrient loadings from 
urban runoff and the Queanbeyan sewage treatment works. Even 
though the ameliorative works at Captains Flat have reduced the threat 
of zinc pollution in Lake Burley Griffin, the biological character of 
the Molonglo River has shown limited improvement. Lake 
Ginninderra has continued to maintain a higher quality than Lake 
Burley Griffin. 

Overall, the water quality of the Murrumbidgee River, from Angle 
Crossing to the confluence of the Molonglo River, is generally of high 
quality, suitable for body contact recreation and irrigation, and 
supports a diverse range of fauna, even though there are observed 
impacts associated with urban runoff from Tuggeranong. 

In summary, when the LMWQCC is operating at its maximum 
level of performance, the impact on the environment from sewage 


in the Canberra region is virtually eliminated. However, periods of 
water pollution are still occurring in parts of Lake Burley Griffin and 
the Molonglo River, due to increasing urban runoff from Canberra 
and Queanbeyan, continuing pollution from Captains Flat and 
effluent discharge from the Queanbeyan sewage treatment works. In 
these areas, the main water quality concerns are associated with excess 
nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) and their subsequent effects on 
plant growth and/or with bacteria from sewage spills. 

Air Quality 

The major aim, in terms of metropolitan planning, is to ensure 
that air pollutants do not exceed levels at which they can have 
identifiable health effects. In the ACT this is a significant issue, as 
Canberra has a high potential to accumulate air pollutants because 
of the high percentage of calms or periods of low wind speed and 
frequent temperature inversions. 

The major source of air pollution is associated with emissions from 
motor vehicles. Such emissions are high in areas of traffic congestion, 
particularly if this is concentrated in one central business district. 





NSW 



* 



Noise level exceeds 65dB (A) (L 0 18 Hour) at a point 
10m from the road 

Carbon Monoxide Levels exceed NHMRC (A) 
w Standards 

<§§? Ozone Levels exceed NHMRC (A) Standards 

(3 Lead Levels exceed NHMRC (A) Standards 

• Total Suspended Particulates exceed NHMRC (A) 
Standards 

i Waters not meeting some Designated Use Quality 
—J Standards 



o 


5 km 


Figure 42 Existing Environmental Conditions 


102 






Intermittent monitoring since 1974 has lound that, while World 
Health Organization air quality standards have been reached or 
exceeded in Civic for carbon monoxide and ozone on a few occasions, 
there are no indications that there has been a marked deterioration 
in Canberra’s air quality over this period. These observations support 
the Commission’s planning philosophy of creating an efficient public 
transport and road system, decentralising employment and discouraging 
through-traffic movement in centres. 

Overall, these measures have resulted in a reduction in the extent 
of traffic congestion and travel distance and time which, in turn, have 
reduced air pollution by reducing the amount of vehicle emission 
and/or dispersing them over a wide area. 

Recent monitoring activities by the Capital Territory Health 
Commission, as part of an Australia-wide survey of lead levels in 
urban airsheds, has found lead levels in Civic Centre and the Woden 
and Belconnen Town Centres which exceed National Health and 
Medical Research Council standards. 

Noise Quality in the Urban Environment 

Noise is one of the many problems which occur in the urban 
environment. Research has shown that, within urban areas, excessive 
noise has a detrimental effect on the quality of life in the community. 

As a result of careful planning, the impact of noise on Canberra’s 
urban environment has been significantly reduced. Major traffic routes 
have been located away from residential areas or adequate set-backs 
from arterial roads have been provided, and residential areas have 
been arranged so that through-traffic is discouraged or eliminated. 

However, recent studies have shown that parts of Inner Canberra 
are experiencing high noise levels, caused by through-traffic using 
residential roads to travel to Civic. There is also evidence of extensive 
parking in residential streets surrounding Civic, with the resultant 
increase in vehicles in these areas. 

Ecological Resources 

From a metropolitan viewpoint one of the key environmental issues 
is to ensure adequate environmental protection and conservation of 
significant ecological resources. Four categories of ecological resources 
have been recognised: 

• large natural bushland areas in the southern and western parts of 
the ACT 

• areas and sites of ecological significance in the remainder of the 
ACT 

• significant wildlife movement corridors 

• arboreta and exotic plantings. 

These categories and individual sites and areas are shown in 
Figure 43. 

Targe Natural Bushland Areas 

These areas cover the Gudgenby, Gibraltar Creek, Tidbinbilla and 
Cotter areas which are major bushland environments surrounding the 
existing and future metropolitan area. While these large areas contain 
numerous smaller areas and sites of ecological significance, at the scale 
of the Metropolitan Policy Plan there is no point in evaluating 
individual sites. Rather, it is sufficient to recognise these areas in their 
entirety as ecological resources of outstanding significance and to 
develop appropriate broad policies for their protection and use. 


103 


Specific Areas and Sites 

Hie areas in the north and east of the ACT which includes all of 
the existing urban areas, have been extensively modified by land use 
and contain only remnants of the original vegetation patterns. The 
areas shown on Figure 43 have significance as ecological resources 
mainly because they are the last remaining examples of formerly more- 
widely distributed plant communities and animal habitats. Many 
provide habitats for plants and animals which are now uncommon 
in the ACT, because their original habitats have been severely reduced 
in extent. 

At present, the Commission is assigning ecological significance 
ratings to each of these areas, so that appropriate planning and 
management actions can be developed to ensure adequate protection 
of these areas. 

Significant Wildlife Movement Corridors 

These are zones or routes along which defined movements take 
place by certain native animal species. 

Four major corridors have been identified: Lower Molonglo 
Valley, Upper Majura Valley, South Canberra Hills and Murrumbidgee 
River Valley. The first three of these are primarily kangaroo movement 
corridors, and the latter is a key bird and fish movement corridor. 




Areas and Sites of Ecological Significance 

Large Natural Bushland Areas in Southern and 
Western ACT 

Pine Plantations, Arboreta and other Exotic Planting 
Significant Wildlife Movement Corridors 


Reserve 



o 


10 15 20km 


104 


Figure 43 Ecological Resources of the ACT 










NSW 


NSW 


Topographically Unsuitable 

eg. Slopes, Rocky, Broken Character, Height 



0 

_ 


20 km 


Figure 44 Topographical Limitations to 
Urban Expansion 


Arboreta and Exotic Plantings 

There are three main types of ecological resources (other than 
artificial lakes, ponds and dams) which fall into this category of man¬ 
made ecosystems: 

• pine plantations 

• arboreta 

• other exotic plantings. 

While these resources do not have ecological value in the same 
sense as those ecological resources of natural origin, they nevertheless 
are of some ecological interest. Some forests such as the Stromlo- 
Green Hills area intrude into the view from the Central Area. Parts 
of the existing exotic forests may have to be re-established as 
indigenous landscapes if the National Capital Open Space System is 
to be extended and the visual backdrop to the City is to take the form 
of a landscape of Australian character. Other areas may be required 
to accommodate the extensive special purpose land uses which require 
non-urban locations close to Canberra. 

Constraints to Development 

Topographical Limitations 

Of the 2 356 km 2 of the ACT, nearly 60 per cent is topographically 
unsuitable for urban development. The land is too steep, too rocky, 
or too broken (Figure 44). Much of it, however, is used for water 
catchment areas, nature reserves, the clearance zone for com¬ 
munications facilities and other appropriate uses. 

The waters of Lake Burley Griffin and Lake Ginninderra and the 
flood plains of the Molonglo and Murrumbidgee Rivers cover another 
26 km 2 . 


NSW 




Nature Reserves 
□ Water Catchments 



Water Catchment Areas 

The Cotter River catchment covers an area of 483 km 2 of steep 
mountainous terrain, of which 470 km 2 is in the ACT. The Naas- 
Gudgenby River catchment has been identified as a possible future 
source of water supply, which may be required when the Cotter and 
the Googong system reach capacity at a Canberra/Queanbeyan 
population of 450 000. Although these catchments may be able to cope 
with recreational and other selected uses, it would not be appropriate 
for urban development to be located in these areas. 

Nature Reserves 

The Tidbinbilla Nature Reserve occupies 46 km 2 of the ACT. The 
Gudgenby Nature Reserve, which currently comprises 600 km : or over 
25 per cent of the area of the ACT, is a large reserve used primarily 
for nature conservation and low intensity recreation. 

Smaller gazetted reserves which also have nature conservation and 
recreational roles include Black Mountain Reserve and Molonglo 
Gorge Reserve. 

Because the primary land use in nature reserves is the conservation 
and public appreciation of native flora and fauna within their natural 
environment, these areas are unavailable for urban development. 

Communications Installations 

The ACT contains a number of communications installations 
which, to operate efficiently, require protection from the generated 
effects of urban settlement and associated development (Figure 46). 


Figure 45 Water Catchments and Nature 
Reserves 


The Commonwealth has obligations to protect tracking stations 
from any electrical or other interference from urban settlement, power 












Conn Dam 



NSW 


1 Tidbinbilla Deep Space Communication Centre 

2 Harman Bonshaw 

3 RAAF Gungahlin 

4 Mount Stromlo Observatory 

5 Canberra Airport 

6 Mugga Quarries 

7 RMC Field Firing Range 

8 Australian Federal Police 

J 0 5 10 15 20 km 


transmission lines, radio transmitters or electrical, scientific, medical 
and industrial equipment. 

Tidbinbilla Deep Space Communication Complex 

Urban development near the facility is limited by the following 
zone constraints (Figure 47): 

• Zone ‘A’ - no development is permitted within a 1.25 km radius 
from the centre of the complex 

• Zone l B' - no industrial development is permitted within a 3 km 
radius of the centre 

• Zone ‘C’ - an arc from the north-west to the south-west which 
is modified by the terrain. Consultation is required prior to 
development by any electrical users or transmitters to allow assess¬ 
ment of their impact. 

Defence Receiving Stations - Harman and Bonshaw 

The sensitive and sophisticated nature of modern communications 
equipment renders a high degree of protection a matter of 
metropolitan significance, because of the area of land which is 
potentially sterilised from development and the complexity of some 
protection measures. 


The Commission, in its planning, consults with the Department 
of Defence and takes all reasonable steps to protect Defence wireless 
communications from significant adverse physical and generated 


Figure 46 Protection Zones 



Figure 47 Zone Constraints 


106 









effects of urban and associated development. The Australian 
Interdepartmental Telecommunications Advisory Committee code of 
practice 1976-77 identified three concentric zones of consultation: 

• 2 km radius - residential development 

• 6 km radius - industrial development, main roads, etc. 

• 16 km radius - high electrical energy users, transmitters, hospitals. 

The Harman-Bonshaw facility may be relocated in an area remote 
from urban development in the next 5-10 years to reduce interference 
effects on its operations. 

Defence Transmitting Stations 

RAAF Gungahlin is surrounded by a protection zone within which 
the height of structures is limited. 

No constraints are imposed on development outside the boundaries 
of the Belconnen Naval Station. The station may be relocated in the 
next 10 years and so release the land which it now occupies for 
additional residential development. 

Microwave Links 

The use of microwave links between various defence and emergency 
service facilities is increasing. Some of these may require protection 
in the future. 

Mount Stromlo Observatory 

The Form of Arrangement between the Commonwealth and the 
Australian National University for the transfer of the Mount Stromlo 
Observatory made in January 1957 states: 

‘The Commonwealth will ensure that the land which is within the 
area bounded by the Cotter Road, a meridian line one mile to the 
west of the Stromlo Trigonometrical Station, the Uriarra Road 
and a meridian line three-quarters of a mile to the east of the 
Stromlo Trigonometrical Station... will not be used for any 
purpose... which, is injurious or prejudicial to the operation of 
the Observatory...’. 

Canberra Airport 

The height of structures in an area around the airport can be 
critical to airport operations, depending upon ground elevation and 
flight paths. Consultation with the Departments of Defence and 
Aviation is undertaken in the case of structures likely to infringe the 
clearance requirements. 

Noise Exposure Forecasts (NEF) for 1985 also impose constraints 
on development. Generally, only broadacre, institutional, recreational 
or rural uses are acceptable within the 25 NEF zone. 

Quarries 

The main source of quarrying materials in the ACT is the Mugga 
porphyrys which occur along Jerrabomberra Ridge to Mt. Mugga. 
The two existing quarries are in this area and a possible site for a third 
quarry has been identified. 

A buffer zone of 1 km is maintained around the quarry sites in 
order to ensure protection from noise, air blast overpressure and 
ground vibration nuisance. Within this protection zone, only dev elop¬ 
ment compatible with quarry operations is to be permitted. 

RMC Field Firing Range 

The firing range is used for training of officer cadets at the Royal 
Military College Duntroon and the Australian Defence Forces 


107 


Academy. Existing unexploded bombs and shells would need to be 
removed, at a high cost, if the area is to be considered for any urban 
use. 

Australian Federal Poliee Firing Range 

A firing range may be sited at Kowen, and if so, the range and 
its clearance template could both become constraints on development 
in the vicinity. 


108 


Chapter 5 


Planning for Growth 
and Change 


Approach to Planning 

Identifying the Scope of the Work 

In defining the scope of the work to be undertaken by the study, 
the following factors were considered: 

• the considerable investment already committed to the existing and 
proposed urban structure derived from the Y-Plan 

• the population capacity of the existing and proposed settlement 
areas of the Y-Plan lying within the Australian Capital Territory 

• the population projections which indicated that these settlement 
areas (excluding West Murrumbidgee) would not be completely 
settled to their capacity of about 380 000 until about the turn of 
the century. 

In terms of examining alternative urban structures to the Y-Plan 
itself, the previous work undertaken in 1976 was used as a basis. This 
work established that opportunities to depart from the intermediate 
form of the Y-Plan (the Y-Plan within the ACT) were long-term and 
would not occur until the population level approached 400 000- 
450 000 (under the settlement pattern and housing occupancy rates 
assumed at that time). The work also established that until these 
population levels were approached, the intermediate Y-Plan was as 
valid as any alternative urban structure and on environmental grounds 
had certain distinct advantages. 

The work in 1976 examined development opportunities in the 
Molonglo, Majura and Jerrabomberra Valleys and found that each 
had significant environmental or other constraints, which precluded 
their development for urban purposes in the near future. Parts of the 
Molonglo Valley for example, lie within the Areas of Special National 
Concern. In addition, the Molonglo River itself is a valuable recreation 
resource and urban development might degrade its water quality and 
cause pollution of the Murrumbidgee River. In essence, the same 
concerns currently applying to development in Tuggeranong, adjacent 
to the Murrumbidgee River, also apply to the Molonglo Valley. 

With regard to the Majura Valley, much of its area is utilised for 
the Canberra Airport and its approaches and for a field-firing range 
of the Department of Defence. The investment in the airport precludes 
its relocation even if a suitable site could be found and the Department 
of Defence has indicated that the field-firing range location is essential 
to the operation of the Australian Defence Forces Academy. 
Moreover, preliminary investigations have shown that the cost of 
clearing the area of possible unexploded devices could well be 
prohibitive. 

The Jerrabomberra Valley is a comparatively small area for urban 
development and is currently constrained by the Naval establishments 


109 




at Harman and Bonshaw. Existing commitments to protect large areas 
surrounding these establishments in order to ensure freedom from 
interference to radio reception preclude development of the area until 
such time as the establishments are relocated. 

In order to deal effectively with the short and mid-range problems 
of the City, it was considered that the main thrust of the work should 
be concentrated on refining and evaluating various options for the 
distribution of key metropolitan activities within the framework of 
the intermediate Y-Plan. 

The next stage of the work was to pose a series of key questions 
relating to the future development of the City, bearing in mind the 
matters canvassed in the 1980 Metropolitan Issues - Public Discussion 
Paper and the general public response received. The key questions 
included the following: 

• what should be the aims and objectives for the future planning 
of the National Capital? 

• what planning assumptions can be made about the future? 

• given the forecasts about the future, what is the anticipated growth 
and change in activity needs? 

• do the current metropolitan policies and development proposals 
need to be reviewed and amended in the light of changing 
circumstances? 

• what do the past trends tell us about the City; can these trends 
be expected to continue; and is there a need to modify immediate 
trends with policy initiatives? 

• what options are there for accommodating future growth and 
change? 

• how can these options be tested and evaluated? 

• when a preferred option has been identified, how can its economic 
and financial feasibility be tested in broad terms? 

• what metropolitan policies are essential to the implementation of 
the preferred plan? 

• how can the preferred plan be implemented to ensure an optimum 
balance of metropolitan systems at successive stages of population 
growth? 

• how can the next major settlement area be decided; should the 
Commission continue to develop the new town of Tuggeranong, 
phase it out and commence the new town of Gungahlin, or develop 
in both new town areas? 

Aims 

Aims are generalised statements of society’s aspirations which the 
creation ot an efficient physical structure and a good environment 
will go some way towards satisfying. Aims tend to be idealistic, but 
they point the way in which planning action should be broadly 
directed. The setting of the following aims was based on both an 
awareness ol the metropolitan issues facing Canberra and on the 
results ot continuing discussions with interest groups and the general 
public. 

Image; to provide a distinctive setting for Canberra which clearly 
identifies the City as Australia’s National Capital and Scat of Govern¬ 
ment, and to provide a clear framework for growth and change which 
will be able to meet the functional needs of all the activities associated 
with Canberra’s role as the National Capital. 

Canberra enjoys a unique physical setting and the preferred plan 
should seek to create a physical structure for the metropolitan areas 
which would make lull use ot the variety of land forms and the scenic 
setting of the National Capital site. 


The Central Area occupies a dignified and quiet setting within 
which the business of government can be carried out efficiently. It 
will require protection from future land use and transport pressures 
that could otherwise overwhelm it, yet, at the same time, there needs 
to be a clear physical relationship between National Capital functions 
and the network of communications which links them to other 
activities. 

Social and Economic Need: to provide sites in appropriate locations 
for the social and economic activities of the present and forecast 
population. 

The plan should seek to provide a broad framework which will 
maintain the quality of life currently enjoyed by the existing residents 
of Canberra. The plan should also seek to facilitate the provision of 
health, welfare and educational facilities. 

Due to the scale of the expected future urban development, 
substantial amounts of money will need to be invested by both public 
and private enterprises to realise the plan’s proposals. The plan, 
therefore, should seek to guide development in such a way as to make 
efficient use of such investment. 

In order to minimise costs, the fullest use should be made of the 
existing or committed facilities and the transport and other network 
systems in determining the location of new' developments and 
activities, including the phasing of development. 

Environment: to satisfy community needs by creating safe, healthy, 
attractive and convenient surroundings for living, working, shopping, 
education and recreation. 

Various planning studies have highlighted the high quality of the 
present physical environment of Canberra. The community has 
expressed a strong desire that these environmental standards should 
be maintained in the future. The plan, therefore, should seek to ensure 
that traffic in residential areas is limited to levels which would not 
adversely affect the safety of residents or significantly diminish their 
amenity. It should also seek to ensure that air quality is maintained 
at a level which does not adversely affect public health and that water 
runoff is controlled so that w'ater quality can be maintained at a level 
which will not adversely affect use for recreation purposes or be 
detrimental to ecological systems. 

Choice: to provide people wdth a wide choice for housing, and 
convenient shopping, recreation and employment opportunities, and 
to provide opportunities for private businesses. 

The plan is intended to guide the economic, social and physical 
development of Canberra in the interests of the residents of the City 
as a whole. It should seek to provide a broad range of housing, 
employment opportunities, comparative shopping and recreational 
facilities. 

Conservation: to conserve and protect important natural and man¬ 
made features of the ACT and to implement new development in such 
a way as to cause the least disturbance to the existing urban, rural 
and natural areas. 

The people of Canberra presently enjoy a wealth of valuable 
natural and man-made resources. The ACT contains tracts of 
attractive and unspoiled countryside, important areas of grazing and 
agricultural land and significant river systems and forest areas. In 
addition, the settlement areas and surrounding villages contain 
important areas of quality and character, and distinctive buildings 
and settings worthy of conservation. The plan should seek to ensure 
that the adverse effects on future growth on these resources are 
minimised. 


M ovement: to ensure that the plan’s land use and transport system 
enables people to travel and goods to be moved conveniently and 
efficiently about the metropolitan area. 

One of the major issues facing the future Canberra is the need 
to develop a transport system which will be capable of securing 
adequate mobility for the entire population and to do this within the 
financial budget likely to be available. The plan should seek to strike 
a realistic balance between public and private transport in an inter¬ 
related system of traffic movement which will satisfy both personal 
and commercial travel needs with a minimum of congestion and a 
maximum of safety. 

Flexibility: to be adaptable so that the plan can cope with variations 
in circumstances. 

Studies of financial resources, urban form, and technological, 
social and industry trends, emphasise that a plan concerned with 
developments over the next twenty years cannot be fixed and finite. 
It must allow, as far as possible, for changes in, for instance, the 
location and rates of expansion and growth both in the short and long¬ 
term, and should be able to cope with such circumstances. The plan 
should seek to minimise the sensitivity to alternative phasing 
possibilities and changing parameters in the economic base of the City. 

Implementation: to ensure that the plan can be carried out effectively. 

The success of the plan is heavily dependent on the extent to which 
its policies and proposals are carried out. The responsibility for realising 
these will be shared by both the private sector and public authorities. 
The plan's policies and proposals should, therefore, be formulated 
having regard to the ways and means of implementation, the 
foreseeable organisational powers of the Commission, realistic levels 
of public expenditure and likely political acceptance. 


Planning Assumptions 

These are qualitative or quantitative matters used in preparing 
plans which may, or may not, be susceptible to control or influence 
by the planning authority. For example, assumptions need to be made 
about migration rates, which torm part ot the population growth 
projections; future levels of car ownership and public transport 
systems, which form an input to the transport modelling; the growth 
in the government office workforce and the Commission’s ability to 
intluence work location, which is an important input to land use and 
transport relationships; and the likely levels of financial resources 
which will be available to implement the plan. 

Given the long-term nature of the plan’s proposals, the 
assumptions and forecasts of activity growth need to be carefully 
monitored throughout the plan period in order to ensure good plan 
performance. Changing situations which result in significant variance 
between predicted and actual circumstances will signal the early need 
for a review of the plan. 

In generating alternative plan options, the following assumptions 
were made. 

Queanbeyan 

Although Queanbeyan is not part of the Australian Capital 
1 erritory, its location adjacent to the ACT border requires its inter¬ 
actions with the urban and natural systems of Canberra to be 
considered. It was theretore assumed that Queanbeyan was part of 
the metropolitan study area tor the purposes of plan formulation and 
testing. 


112 


hmplov men I 

Employment assumptions were derived from the 1982 NIC IX 
population projections. Over the following twenty years, employment 
in tlie ACT and Queanbeyan was projected to rise to 185 600, an 
increase of about 75 000 on the existing level. This would create a 
jobs to population ratio of 45.5 per cent. 

A marginal increase in the share of employment to industrial areas 
was assumed to result from the development of the Canberra 
Technology Park at Bruce and initiatives by the Canberra Development 
Board. 

Population 

The 1982 NCDC population projections were assumed. Over the 
following twenty years, the metropolitan population was projected 
to grow to 408 000. The distribution of this population was assumed 
as being: 

• Inner Canberra, population stablised at about 62 000, with 
progressive and selected redevelopment, regeneration and infill 
balancing falling population levels caused by population ageing 
and outward migration to developing areas 

• Woden-Weston Creek, population stabilising at 60 000 

• Belconnen, population settlement completed and stablised at 
83 000 

• Tuggeranong, population of 89 000 (excluding land west of the 
Murrumbidgee River) 

• Gungahlin, fully settled with a population of 84 000 

• Queanbeyan, progressively settled to a population of 30 000. 

Implicit in these settlement figures was the further assumption that 
the eventual occupancy rates for standard residential dwellings would 
be 3.0 and the eventual occupancy rates for medium-density dwellings 
and Hats would be 1.8. A slight increase in the proportion of medium- 
density dwellings and flats was also assumed. The same land settlement 
pattern was common to the generation of all alternative plans. 

Retail 

It was assumed that the retail provision would be 585 300m : by 
the 408 000 population level, a provision approaching 1.45m : per 
capita. This would represent an increase of about 180 000m : on the 
current provision in Canberra/Queanbeyan. 

Transport 

It was assumed that the existing line-haul and feeder system which 
currently provides a high level of public transport service would be 
retained and extended to the new towns of Tuggeranong and 
Gungahlin. 

The standard of road provision was assumed to remain at approxi¬ 
mately the current standards, except in those parts of the built 
environment where additional roads or lanes could not be provided. 

The existing morning peak-hour trip generation was assumed to 
represent the future situation, since most trips are home-based, and 
work or school related, and little change is forecast in these 
characteristics in the short to medium-term. The existing average daily 
mode split conditions were assumed to apply in the future situation. 
However, some spatial and distributional changes were predicted. In 
the peak hour, mode split was assumed to increase for travel to the 
existing town centres, due to the shortage of land available for car 
parking. It was assumed to remain about the same for travel to other 
destinations. This was justified by the fact that the rate of growth 
of public transport patronage has reduced in the last few years and 
may now have levelled off. Experience, both in Australia and overseas. 


shows a decline in the use of public transport while the annual subsidy 
needed to operate the public transport system has been increasing 
steadily. 

Therefore, in the calibration of the transport model Transtep, it 
was assumed that trip-making characteristics and, in particular, trip 
generation and trip length frequency in the future City would remain 
similar to those rates prevailing in the City today. 

Financial Resources 

Financial resources were assumed to be within the limits of past 
budgetary trends and adequate to meet the basic provisions of 
infrastructure and future needs at standards slightly lower than current 
conditions. 

Environment 

Previous public consultation programmes and surveys of the 
Canberra environment have indicated that the majority of the 
population are satisfied with Canberra as a place in which to live, 
work and partieipate in leisure activities. The ability to move around 
the City easily, free from the congestion experienced by other cities, 
the closeness to rural recreation areas and open countryside, the air 
quality, the quality of the water in the rivers and streams around the 
ACT and the quality of the landscape setting were some of the factors 
mentioned as being positive attributes of Canberra. It was therefore 
assumed that the plans would reflect Canberra’s present lifestyle in 
respect of these aspects whenever possible, and that where departures 
occurred, there were identifiable public benefits to be gained. 

Water Resources 

In view of the water resources issues and trends identified in 
Chapter 4, it was assumed that ongoing development would be based 
on: 

• full provision of sewerage, with treatment to the existing high 
standard at Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre 

• adoption of water pollution control ponds to contain urban runoff 
pollutants in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 

• adoption of an urban form and structure in Gungahlin consistent 
with minimising the generation of pollution from urban runoff 

• water consumption and wastewater generation standards remaining 
constant with the use ot charges and education programmes to 
offset normal increases 

• continued growth in water-based recreation demands. 


Generation of Alternative Plans 


Development of the Two Plan Options 

Fundamental to the work was the generation and sifting of 
alternative plans. This was a cyclical process, whereby a large number 
of sketch outline options were progressively grouped into two main 
families of plans so as to maximise the contrast between them. 

These two groups of plans were classified according to different 
degrees of concentration or dispersal of employment opportunities 
and comparative retail floorspace in relation to the settlement pattern 
which was constant for each option. From these two main families 
of plans, the most representative option from each was selected as 
the basis for more detailed plan development and evaluation. 


<p 



NSW 




O Employment 
(Retail 


<J Population 


30 9% 77 000 > 



7.3% 8 000 
16.5% 67 300m 2 




< 23 8% 59 400 


to. 


'o/o, 


'Off/o 


24 1% 59 950 0 




9 8% 40 000m 2 


13 2% 32 800 0 



NSW 


°/o Share of Canberra/Queanbeyan Totals 

JO 5 km 


Figure 48 Population, Major Employment 
and Retail Nodes - June 1982 


115 










Alternative 1 - Concentrated Plan 


In this Plan (Figure 49), growth in employment opportunities and 
retail floorspace was directed into the Central Area and the Woden 
and Belconnen Town Centres. At the 408 000 population level, this 
Plan has an urban structure in which: 

• the Central Area would be allowed to expand relatively 
unconstrained to the point where transport accessibility problems 
would force an overspill of these activities to the Woden and 
Belconnen Town Centres. Employment in the Central Area would 
grow by about 33 100 to 77 900; and employment in Civic, a major 
node within the Central Area, would grow by 19 000 to 35 000, 
with retail floorspace in Civic increasing by about 50 000m 2 

• the Woden and Belconnen Town Centres would then be allowed 
to expand, to provide a further concentration of employment 
opportunities and comparison retail floorspace and would serve 
a metropolitan function rather than a town function in relation 
to these activities. Employment at the Woden and Belconnen Town 
Centres would grow by 8 400 and 10 000 respectively. Retail 
floorspace would grow by 22 000m 2 in each centre 


% 


NSW 



0 1.0% 1 800 
3.1% 18 000m 2 

/ 

< 20.6% 84 000 


20.3% 83 000 > 




14.70/0 60 000 > 



21.8% 89 000 > 




D 

O 


NSW 



35 000 



o Employment 
(A Retail 
< Population 

% Share of Canberra/Queanbeyan Totals 



5 km 

t_i_i_ i i i 


116 


Figure 49 Population, Major Employment and 
Retail Nodes - Concentrated Plan 













• the new towns of Tuggeranong and Gungahlin would not be 
provided with town centres and, consequently, would be without 
a significant level of town centre employment opportunities and 
comparative retail shopping. The residents of these towns would 
therefore have longer distances to travel to employment 
opportunities and comparison shopping than residents of other 
tow ns. Expanded group centres w ould be provided to meet in part 
the needs for comparative shopping in these towns. 

Alternative 2 - Dispersed Plan 

This Plan (Figure 50) assumed that the Commission could 
significantly influence the dispersal of employment and retail 
opportunities along the lines envisaged by the original Y-Plan and 
successfully carried out in the new towns of Woden and Belconnen. 
At the 408 000 population level, this Plan has an urban structure in 
which: 

• employment in the Central Area would grow by about 19 500 to 
64 300. As a component of this total, Civic’s employment would 
grow by 9 000 to 25 000 and retail floorspace in the centre increases 
by 15 000m 2 



r 120 000 
- 80 000 
* 40 000 


Employment 
( ) Retail 
< Population 

% Share of Canberra/Queanbeyan Totals 

J0 5 km 





NSW 




4.8% 

8 . 0 % 


9 000 
47 000m 2 



<20.6% 84 000 


20.3% 83 0001> 






y/o 


14.7% 60 000> 




2.3% 
4 300 






<15.2% 62 000 



21.8% 89 0001> 


(^) 2.2% 4 000 



0 0.9% 1 700 
2.4% 14 000m 2 

9.2% 17 000 
8.5% 50 000m 2 



NSW 





Figure 50 Population, Major Employment 
and Retail Nodes - Dispersed Plan 


117 














• the Central Area would be prevented from becoming congested 
by the decentralisation of employment and retail floorspace to new 
town centres. Employment at Woden Town Centre would be 
increased by 2 200 and at the Belconnen Town Centre by 5 800. 
Retail floorspace at each centre would increase by 2 500m 2 

• Tuggeranong and Gungahlin new towns would be provided with 
town centres having significant levels of employment opportunities 
and retail floorspace related to their town needs. This would also 
assist in achieving the metropolitan objective of decentralisation. 
Tuggeranong Town Centre would include 17 000 employees and 
50 000m 2 of retail floorspace, and the Gungahlin Town Centre 
would include 9 000 employees and 47 OOOnr of retail floorspace. 
In Tuggeranong, an expanded group centre would be provided 
at Erindale, as an interim solution until the town centre could be 
provided. However, in Gungahlin, the town centre would be staged 
to meet the needs of the population and an expanded group centre 
would not be required 

• the Central Area would remain dominant in relation to employment 
opportunities. The town centres of Woden, Belconnen, 
Tuggeranong and Gungahlin would primarily serve their respective 
town catchments, as originally intended. 

In both plan options, employment in the industrial areas of 
Fyshwick, Hume and Mitchell is about 17 000. Fyshwick retailing was 
assumed not to expand beyond its current level of 50 OOOnr' . 

As the Commission has no direct control over the population, 
employment or retail floorspace levels in Queanbeyan, the growth of 
Queanbeyan in both options was related to overall growth in the 
region. Employment in Queanbeyan was assumed to increase by 2 000, 
while it was assumed that retail floorspace would remain at its current 
level. 

Employment Distribution 

Employment was distributed to the various employment centres 
in both plan options in different degrees of concentration. These 
employment centres were: 

• the Central Area (Figure 51), comprising the defence headquarters, 
Russell and the Campbell Park complex; the ANU/CSIRO/Royal 
Canberra Hospital education, research and health complex; Civic 



TURNER 


BRADDON 


CAMPBELL 


RUSSELL 


PARKES 


CAPITAL 

HILL 


BARTON 


KINGSTON 


YARRALUMLA 


Campbell Park 
Offices 


AINSLIE 


CITY ^ 

ACTON \ REID 


L3* e 


PIALLIGO 




I-1_L. 


2 km 


Figure 51 The Central Area 


118 






Centre; the Parkes/Barton office area; and ADFA/Duntroon, 
Anzac Parade and Braddon 

• Town Centres 

• Secondary Zones, comprising the industrial estates at Bruce, 
Fyshwick, Hume and Mitchell, the Queanbeyan City Centre and 
large group centres 

• Local Zones, consisting of employment within the settlement areas 
at educational establishments, local shopping centres and con¬ 
struction sites, etc. 

The degree of concentration/dispersal to these areas is shown in 
Table 50. 


Table 50 Distribution of Employment Opportunities 



Existing 

(1982) 

Concentrated 

Plan 

Dispersed 

Plan 

Central Area 

ANU/CSI RO/Hospital 

7 300 

8 100 

8 100 

Civic Centre 

16 000 

35 000 

25 000 

Parkes/Barton 

10 650 

18 600 

15 000 

Russell/Campbell Park 

6 570 

10 900 

10 900 

Other 

4 300 

5 300 

5 300 

Total 

44 820 

77 900 

64 300 

Town Centres 

Belconnen Town Centre 

8 000 

18 000 

13 800 

Gungahlin Town Centre 

- 

- 

9 000 

Tuggeranong Town Centre 

- 

- 

17 000 

Woden Town Centre 

9 300 

17 700 

11 500 

Total 

17 300 

35 700 

51 300 

Secondary Zones 

Bruce 

1 700 

3 000 

3 000 

Erindale Centre 

200 

2 000 

1 700 

Fyshwick 

8 300 

10 000 

9 000 

Gungahlinf/y 

- 

1 800 

8 000 

Hume 

230 

3 500 

4 000 

Mitchell 

740 

3 700 

4 300 

Queanbeyan 

6 000 

8 000 

8 000 

Total 

17 000 

32 000 

30 000 

Local Zones 

Belconnen 

5 575 

5 950 

5 950 

Gungahlin 

- 

4 600 

4 600 

Inner Canberra 

14 505 

14 855 

14 855 

Tuggeranong 

2 450 

5 500 

5 500 

Woden-Weston Creek 

6 985 

7 030 

7 030 

Other ACT 

1 385 

2 035 

2 035 

Total 

30 900 

39 970 

39 970 

Total 

lift ()2ft 

185 57ft 

185 57ft 


(I) Expanded Group Centre. 


The significant difference between the two Plans is the degree of 
concentration of employment opportunities in the Central Area and 
Town Centre nodes. This was largely brought about by the absence 
of town centres in the Gungahlin and Tuggeranong new towns. 

In the Concentrated Plan, the Central Area would be built up to 
contain 77 900 job opportunities, with the major employment area 
being Civic with a 45 per cent share of all the jobs in the Central Area. 
In the Dispersed Plan, the Central Area would be slightly smaller with 
64 300 job opportunities; again, Civic was given the dominant 
concentration of 39 per cent of all the jobs in the Central Area. In 


119 


addition, the number of jobs allocated to Parkes/Barton was also 
slightly reduced. 

In both plan options, the distribution of job opportunities to local 
zones was the same. 


Retail Distribution 

Retail floorspace was distributed to three functional areas in both 
plan options in different degrees of concentration. These functional 
areas were: 

• Town Centres 

• Secondary Zones, comprising Fyshwick, Queanbeyan and large 
group centres 

• Local Zones within the settlement pattern at the group, 
intermediate and neighbourhood shopping level. 

The relative degree of concentration/dispersal to these zones for 
the alternative Plans is shown in Table 51. 


Table 51 Distribution of Retail Floorspace (m ) 



Existing 

Coneentrated 

Dispersed 


(1982) 

Plan 

Plan 

Town Centres 

Belconnen Town Centre 

67 300 

89 300 

69 800 

Civic Centre 

60 770 

108 700 

75 700 

Gungahlin Town Centre 

- 

- 

47 000 

Tuggeranong Town Centre 

- 

_ 

50 000 

Woden Town Centre 

67 900 

89 900 

70 400 

Total 

195 970 

287 900 

312 900 

Secondary Zones 

Erindale Centre 

- 

21 000 

14 000 

Fyshwick 

50 200 

50 200 

50 200 

Gungahlinf/y 

- 

18 000 

. 

Queanbeyan 

40 000 

40 000 

40 000 

Total 

90 200 

129 200 

104 200 

Local Zones 

Belconnen 

28 180 

30 260 

30 260 

Gungahlin 

4 240 (2) 

29 240 (2) 

29 240 (2) 

Inner Canberra 

48 500 

48 580 

48 580 

Tuggeranong 

7 600 

27 950 

27 950 

Woden-Weston Creek 

31 260 

32 160 

32 160 

Total 

119 860 

168 190 

168 190 

Total 

406 030 

585 290 

585 290 


(1) Expanded Group Centre. 

(2) Includes retail floorspace in Mitchell Industrial Area. 


In both Plans, the total level of retail floorspace was held constant 
as was the level at local centres. 

Retail floorspace in Queanbeyan and Fyshwick was assumed to 
remain at existing levels. Although they may expand beyond these 
levels, the following assumptions were made. Queanbeyan floorspace 
in 1980 had substantially lower trading levels than that of Canberra 
(below $1 000 per square metre compared to $1 420 for Canberra) 
and its provision of floorspace at 2nr per capita was higher than that 
of Canberra. It was, therefore, assumed that the level of floorspace 
would stay at its existing level with the turnover and provision per 
capita changing to become closer to the Canberra level. With regard 


120 


to Fyshwick, it was assumed that Commission policy would be aimed 
at discouraging further expansion of retail facilities. 




0 2 4 6 8 10km 


Figure 52 Road Network for Transport 
Testing 


The distribution to local zones was held constant for both plan 
options. It should be noted that the allocation to Inner Canberra local 
zones assumed no increase in retail floorspace and that fairly negligible 
increases were assumed for both Belconnen and Woden-Weston Creek 
local zones, because of the stabilising population levels. 

Transport 

The road network (Figure 52) was compiled and calibrated to cover 
the testing of both Plans. The process was iterative and covered the 
following steps: 

• a preliminary network was established by extending the existing 
system to cover the proposed Plans 

• this w'as then related to population settlement and the differing 
distribution of employment opportunities and retail floorspace 

• the preliminary network was used to ascertain the total traffic 
demand using assumptions based on the current mode split 
between public and private transport 

• the total demand was then distributed throughout the preliminary 
network which was then refined, in order to balance land use and 
transport relationships 

• the revised network was then tested using the transport model 
Transtep, in order to evaluate the total system operation 

• the network w'as again refined to optimise the land use and 
transport relationship using an iterative process 

• trip tables were generated and assigned to the refined network for 
final testing and evaluation of the plan options. 

The existing comprehensive system of bus services operating on 
the road network system was expanded to cover both plan options, 
on the assumption that local services would continue to be provided 
to meet future demand. Provision for express services was related to 
differing mode split assumptions and car parking availability at major 
employment and retail centres. 

The provision of car parking facilities in each plan option was 
related to: 

• mode split assumptions 

• the estimated requirement at major employment and retail nodes 

• the availability of land for parking facilities, which, in turn, 
provided an indication of the level of parking required in 
structures. 


121 










Framework for Evaluation of Alternative 
Plans 

Assessments at the metropolitan level are necessarily broad in their 
approach, coarse-grained in regard to quantitative measurement, and 
judgemental in those cases where qualitative assessments have to be 
made, either because of the lack of a suitable methodology, insufficient 
data, or a combination of both. Plan assessments were aimed at 
evaluating overall performance and at identifying areas where 
additional work and longer-term studies would be required to clarify 
the issues identified. Assessments of the Plans included the following 
types of evaluation. 

A Transport Evaluation 

Research has shown that the total infrastructure and operating 
costs of the transport system have about four times the impact of other 
urban systems on the urban structure of a city. Methodology for 
transport testing and analysis is well developed in relation to other 
urban evaluation methods, and measures of the transport system 
provide useful quantitative and qualitative measures of social 
indicators, such as accessibility and self-containment; environmental 
indicators, such as air quality, noise levels and traffic intrusion into 
residential areas; and economic indicators, such as total travel costs, 
infrastructure needs, reverse loading ratios, congestion and energy 
costs. For these reasons, the testing of the land use/transport systems 
received considerable attention in the evaluation phase of the study. 

Both Plans were tested using a strategic transport planning model, 
Transrep. This programme provides comparative data for the synthesis 
and analysis of alternative land use/transport plans according to 
particular planning policies. The model is structured along the lines 
of the traditional four-step transport models, (trip generation, trip 
distribution, mode split and trip assignment). However, it is responsive 
to changes in accessibility and other factors, which affect trip generation 
and trip distribution. The model outputs included: 

• total trips generated 

• travel costs (time, distance or generalised cost) 

• reverse loading ratio 

• several accessibility measures 

• self-containment measures 

• network loadings, etc. 

This information was used to identify problems and infrastructure 
requirements in the transport system, to optimise the landuse strategy 
and provide evaluation criteria for comparing the performance of the 
land use/transport system. 

A Centres Evaluation 

This was carried out to assess the impact of the varying degrees 
ot concentration or dispersal of employment and comparison retail 
tloorspace to the existing and proposed major centres. Evaluation 
included the impact of the transport system necessary to service the 
centre, economic impact of trading within and between the centres 
and the environmental impact of the various proposals. 

An Aims Achievement Evaluation 

This evaluation was carried out to determine how the Plans 
performed when measured against the stated aims for the future 
Canberra. This evaluation drew, in part, from the transport and 
centres assessments and from quantitative assessments of issues related 
to the social and environmental impacts of the Plans. The evaluation 
was aimed at formulating a broad overview of the impacts of the 
alternative Plans in order to ensure that adequate consideration had 
been given to all of the systems of the City. 


122 


Transport Evaluation 

Transport has a major influence on the structure of cities and the 
lifestyle of their inhabitants. People spend a considerable part of each 
day travelling and a significant proportion of their disposable income 
on transport. The transport evaluation compared the relative perform¬ 
ance of the two plan options in terms of new transport infrastructure 
required and likely effects on travellers. 

In order to compare the impacts of the two plan options, it was 
necessary to forecast the pattern of travel in the future City and derive 
an efficient and balanced total transport system for each option. It 
is important to develop an optimum economic package, as transport 
is a major component of development costs. Moreover, the transport 
system must be flexible to accommodate variations in daily travel 
patterns and the timing or staging of development and also to cope 
with unforeseen circumstances. 

The evaluation of the road system considered the structure of the 
existing road system, previous investment and under-utilised road 
capacity. It assumed a tolerance to higher levels of traffic congestion 
than are currently experienced and identified the new roads and main 
works associated with future development. 

The evaluation of the future public transport system analysed the 
opportunities and effects of increasing the use of public transport 
associated with both plan options. 

Car parking needs at the town centres and in the Central Area 
were identified as part of the centres evaluation. The analysis 
considered the effects of increasing mode split, and identified the 
amount of structured and surface parking which would be required. 

Transport evaluation, therefore, contains two sections dealing 
with: 

• the road network 

• the public transport system. 


Road Network 

Determining the Future Road Network 

Based on the Commission’s current transport planning philosophy, 
a basic metropolitan-scale road network was developed for testing 
purposes which took account of the relative proportion of employment 
and retail opportunities in each district under both plan options. 

This network linked the existing and proposed population settle¬ 
ment areas and the key activity centres. Alignments of new roads w ere 
related as closely as possible to the principal travel design lines and 
to the topography. The basic road network is shown in Figure 52. 

Assumptions were made regarding the standard of provision, 
average speeds and traffic flows. The basic network was then used 
in conjunction with the forecasting models to predict future traffic 
loadings. 

The projected traffic loadings were used to assess traffic conditions 
on each section of the network. The assignment process assumed there 
would be no capacity limitations and the traffic volumes obtained w ere 
related to the estimated capacity of major metropolitan roads. This 
established the basic cross-section (number of lanes, type of road) 
which was used in the assessment of future road needs. The standards 
used in the capacity analysis were developed from the NAASRA 
guidelines and are provided in Table 52. 


Table 52 Design Capacities for Metropolitan Roads 


Capacity (Vehicles/Hour/Lane) 


Facility Mid-Block 



‘C7 1 ) 

‘DY 1 ) 

Expressway 

1400 

1700 

Major Arterial 

1200 

1460 

Sub-Arterial 

1000 

1200 

Town Centre Distributor 

1000 

1200 

Residential Distributor 

- 

- 

Residential Collector 

- 

- 

2-lane 2-way Limited Access 

\ 400(3) 

17006?; 


Signalised 

Intersection 

Priority Intersection 

Main Road 

50% Green 

Main Road 

50-80% Split 


Time 



‘C’ 

‘D’ 

‘C’ 

‘D’ 

630 

710 

600-960 

730-1170 

520 

630 

500-800 

600-960 

520 

630 

500-800 

600-960 

- 

- 

- 

500-600f2; 

- 

- 

- 

300-3606?; 


(1) Level of Service ‘C’ and ‘D’ as defined in NAASRA Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice. 

(2) One-way capacity. 

(3) Total two-way capacity. 


The likelihood of future reduction in funds for transport facilities 
was considered throughout the analysis. This is reflected in higher 
service volumes for a particular level of service category in the 
preceding table and the lower standard of facilities assumed in the 
basic network(e.g. arterial roads instead of parkways). 

The analysis was based on peak-hour travel demands and assumed 
existing rates of peak-hour trip generation. A range of mode split 
assumptions, based on the current level of 15-18 per cent and a 
situation where the mode split to major town centres was 30 per cent, 
were tested. An increase in mode split would have a beneficial impact 
by reducing the number of car trips and the level of congestion in 
the peak hour. The mode split would need to more than double, 
however, before there would be any noticeable change to the 
recommended scale of metropolitan roads. 

As traltic congestion is not expected to occur over most of the 
network between the peaks, travel demands at this time of the da\ 
were not considered in the evaluation of road needs. Exceptions to 
this rule occur on the roads in and around Civic and other major 
commercial or retail centres. Although there will be serious congestion, 
traffic volumes will be generally less than during the peaks, as 
congestion will be the result of major interaction between pedestrians 
and vehicles, or between parking and circulating traffic. Congestion 
is generally considered to be acceptable under these conditions, and 
helps to discourage through-traffic. 

The evaluation was not intended to provide a comprehensive social 
cost-benefit analysis, and should only be viewed as a general 
comparison of two disparate development strategies, from which 
appropriate policy and planning guidelines can be drawn. 


The Scale of Future Metropolitan Roads 

Concentrated Plan 

The scale of metropolitan roads required under the development 
conditions implied by the Concentrated Plan is shown in Figure 53. 
The major features are as follows. 

(a) Third Lake Crossing 

A third bridge across Lake Burley Griffin, in conjunction with 
improved access to Civic Centre, would be necessary. 

The analysis highlighted a need for the equivalent capacity of ten 
parkway lanes in each direction crossing the lake. The large concentra¬ 
tion of employment in the Central Area (approximately 79 000 
employees) generates the main travel desires. The existing 


124 


Commonwealth and Kings Avenue Bridges and the Capital 
Circle/State Cirele rotary interchange are major constraints and limit 
the extent to which access roads can be upgraded. Problems at these 
existing bottlenecks would be exacerbated by the proposed increased 
development in Parkes/Barton. 

There is also a limit to the potential capacity improvements to 
Tuggeranong Parkway. The analysis suggests that the maximum is 
three lanes in each direction at the Glenloch Interchange due to the 
merging of Belconnen traffic. While the Eastern Parkway theoretically 
has an unlimited capacity, it is anticipated that it will only be attractive 
to a limited number of users. 

The resulting distribution of road capacity across the lake, under 
this option, is described in Table 53. 

Sensitivity tests indicated that even if a very high mode split to 
the Central Area were possible, it w'ould not eliminate the need for 
the additional lake crossing. The reduction in traffic volumes would 
be offset by a need for an exclusive right-of-way for public transport 
across either Commonwealth Avenue or Kings Avenue Bridge. 


NSW 


NEW ROADS 
- 1 Lane each way 

■—— 2 Lanes each way 

mmma 3 Lanes each way 

CAPACITY IMPROVEMENTS 
TO EXISTING ROADS 

. 2 Lanes each way 

■■■■ 3 Lanes each way 
mi 5 Lanes each way 


0 5 km 

I 1 I I I_J 

Figure 53 Concentrated Plan - Possible 
Metropolitan Road System 





G/AJMtA/o< 


*OVEU 


h/ndmarsh 


2 

r 

c 

X 


X 

o 

J- 

o 


avenue 


% 




NSW 


X 

o 





Table 53 Number of Lake Crossings Required : Coneentrated Plan 


Minimum Number of Lanes 
in Each Direction 


Tuggeranong Parkway 3 

Commonwealth Avenue 3 

Kings Avenue 2 

Eastern Parkway 2 

New Lake Crossing 2 

Total 12 


The third lake crossing of Lake Burley Griffin could be expected 
to relieve existing pressures in the vicinity of State and Capital Circles. 

Construction of this additional lake crossing would also involve 
upgrading of Yarra Glen arterial and the resumption of a right-of-way 
through Yarralumla to the lake. On the northern side of the lake, 
special road arrangements would be necessary, including a direct 
connection with the Molonglo Arterial and a new facility providing 
access into Civic. A new access road would be essential as 
improvements to existing facilities would result in the equivalent of 
a ten lane section of road (Parkes Way between the new lake crossing 
and Commonwealth Avenue). Even so, there is considerable doubt 
that the internal distributor road system in Civic could handle the 
traffic demands. In addition, recent developments have eliminated 
most opportunities for such a new access road at surface level. 

(b) Tuggeranong Roads 

The further development of Tuggeranong, to a population level 
of about 89 000, would require the construction of one new major 
road corridor to the north, and major improvements to existing roads 
servicing the Tuggeranong Valley. If no major employment centres 
are provided locally, the estimated peak-hour demands out of 
Tuggeranong would require the equivalent of ten parkway lanes. The 
majority of travel would be to Woden and the Central Area. Although 
the Tuggeranong Parkway could be easily upgraded, the east-west 
links to main distributors are highly constrained (Hindmarsh Drive 
and the Molonglo Arterial). The construction of the Eastern Parkway 
to at least a dual three-lane facility is considered essential to this 
option. Major roads and their desirable capacity to service 
Tuggeranong needs are shown in Table 54. As can be seen from the 
table all existing roads including Athllon Drive and the Monaro 
Highway will require duplication. 


Table 54 Roads Required to Service Tuggeranong at a Population of 
89 000 : Concentrated Plan 


Minimum Number of Lanes 
in Each Direction 


Tuggeranong Parkway 3 

Athllon Drive 2 

Erindale Drive 2 

Eastern Parkway 3 

Monaro Highway 2 

Total 12 


(c) Gungahlin Roads 

The future development of Gungahlin to a population exceeding 
80 000 would require the construction of at least two major roads’, 
providing connections to Civic and the main inter-town road network. 

The alignment ot the new roads was assumed in the evaluation 
to generally follow the routes of John Dedman Parkway and Monash 
Drive. It was estimated that capacity equivalent to nine parkway lanes 


126 


would be required to service the peak-hour demands out of Cungahhn. 
The proposed distribution of road space is shown in Table 55. 


Table 55 Roads Required to Service Gungahlin at a Population of 
84 000 : Concentrated Plan 


Minimum Number of Lanes 
in Each Direction 


Northbourne Avenue 1 

Monash Drive 3 

John Dedman Parkway 3 

William Slim Drive 2 

Total 9 


The analysis indicated that Northbourne Avenue would be almost 
at capacity without any contribution from Gungahlin, due to 
population increases in Kaleen and North Lyneham and greater 
demands generated by existing suburbs, because of increased employ¬ 
ment opportunities in the Central Area. It was assumed, therefore, 
that the existing geometry of Northbourne Avenue would be retained 
and that grade separation at interchanges was not feasible. However, 
some improvement in capacity was assumed to be possible by the 
introduction of improved traffic management techniques. 

It was also assumed that access to Monash Drive would be strictly 
controlled to protect the residential amenity of inner North Canberra 
suburbs. It would have direct connections with Ainslie Avenue (to 
Civic) and the Eastern Parkway. 


John Dedman Parkway would be a northern extension of the 
proposed new lake crossing. Although it would provide some degree 
of access to Civic, its primary function would be that of a Civic by-pass 
road. The Parkway would require a minimum three lanes in each 
direction over the whole of its length, (from Gungahlin to Parkes 
Way), and access would need to be controlled. However, it was assumed 
that there would be grade separated interchanges with all major east- 
west loads. 

To provide for most of the Gungahlin to Belconnen Town Centre 
travel demand, William Slim Drive would require duplication and 
realignment east of Lake Ginninderra to meet Aikman Drive. The 
remainder would use John Dedman Parkway and either Ginninderra 
Drive or Belconnen Way. 

(d) Other Improvements 

Other major improvements would be required for existing roads 
under the development implied by the Concentrated Plan. The main 
ones are: 

• further development of the Glenloch Interchange and realignment 
of Caswell Drive 

• duplication of Bindubi Street, Caswell Drive and William Hovell 
Drive 

• an extra lane and intersection modifications on Belconnen 
Way/Barry Drive from Coulter Drive to Northbourne Avenue 

• improved capacity on Parkes Way 

• duplication of the Cotter Road 

• grade separation of Hindmarsh Drive in the vicinit\ of W oden 
Town Centre 

• additional capacity on the Molonglo Arterial (minimum of three 
lanes in each direction). 


Dispersed Plan 

The scale of roads which would be required under the Dispersed 
Plan is shown in Figure 54. The main features to note are as follows. 

(a) Third Lake Crossing 

The Dispersed Plan is not dependent on the need tor a third bridge 
across Lake Burley Griffin although it would provide substantial 

benefits. 

The reduced Central Area employment, combined with wider 
dispersal of employment opportunities (five town centres instead of 
three), would result in a significant reduction in trat tic crossing from 
either side of the lake. The analysis indicated that less than nine 
equivalent parkway lanes would be required. The resulting distribution 
of road capacity is shown in Table 56. 

In the event of a substantial increase in mode split to the Central 
Area, bus priority measures would be required to improve public 
transport efficiency. While this would have a detrimental effect on 
motorists, the road system as proposed could still serxice the 
anticipated demands. 


<s> 


% 


NSW 




NEW ROADS 
- 1 Lane each way 

—— 2 Lanes each way 

3 Lanes each way 

CAPACITY IMPROVEMENTS 
TO EXISTING ROADS 

' '■■■ " 2 Lanes each way 
■■■■ 3 Lanes each way 

0 5 km 

i_i_i_i-1-1 



128 


Figure 54 Dispersed Plan - Possible 
Metropolitan Road System 






Table 56 Number of Lake Crossings Required : Dispersed Plan 


Minimum Number of Lanes 
in Each Direction 


Tuggeranong Parkway 3 

Commonwealth Avenue 3 

Kings Avenue 2 

Eastern Parkway 2 

New Lake Crossing 

Total 10 


Due to the reduction in total road capacity across the lake, the 
effects of congestion on these roads would be considerably higher than 
under the Concentrated Plan. This would lower the average speed and 
result in longer trip travel times. 


(b) Tuggeranong Roads 

The road capacity required to service Tuggeranong would be 
considerably reduced, due to the relatively large concentration of 
employment assumed in the Tuggeranong Town Centre. 

Whereas the equivalent of ten parkway lanes was considered a 
requirement under the Concentrated Plan, less than eight parkway 
lanes would be required for the Dispersed Plan. The distribution of 
road capacity is shown in Table 57. 


Table 57 Roads Required to Service Tuggeranong at a Population of 
89 000 : Dispersed Plan 


Tuggeranong Parkway 
Athllon Drive 
Erindale Drive 
Eastern Parkway 
Monaro Highway 

Total 


Minimum Number of Lanes 
in Each Direction 

2 

L 

2 

2 

1 

9 


It was assumed that the Eastern Parkway would be constructed 
in preference to larger-scale improvements to the existing primary 
access roads. This would provide greater flexibility in the event of 
Tuggeranong’s population exceeding the currently proposed level, or 
in the event of some natural disaster or accident which might affect 
one or more of the roads. It would also be important if the desired 
level of local town centre employment could not be provided, or its 
timing, relative to population settlement, were significantly delayed. 

A detailed design study is being undertaken on the alignment of 
the Eastern Parkway. 

Only minor improvements would be needed to the Tuggeranong 
Parkway. However, both Erindale Drive and Athllon Drive would 
require duplication. Duplication of Monaro Highway would be 
desirable but not essential, as minor intersection treatments might 
suffice. 

(c) Gungahlin Roads 

For the future development of Gungahlin, the two new facilities 
proposed in the Concentrated Plan were also considered to be essential 
to the Dispersed Plan. However, it may be possible to reduce the John 
Dedman Parkway to a dual two-lane facility. 


All other roads would be similar in scale to those identified tor 
the Concentrated Plan, as indicated in Table 58. 


Table 58 Roads Required to Service Gungahlin at a Population ot 
84 000 : Dispersed Plan 


Minimum Number of Lanes 
in Each Direction 

Northbourne Avenue (from 

Antill Street to Federal Highway) 1 

Monash Drive ^ 

John Dedman Parkway 2 

William Slim Drive 2 

Total ** 

(d) Other Improvements 

Most of the road improvements considered essential lor the 
Concentrated Plan were considered to be desirable for the Dispersed 
Plan. However, in many cases, they could be omitted if an increased 
level of traffic congestion were accepted. Those works that were not 
considered to be essential included: 

• Belconnen Way/Barry Drive roadworks 

• Parkes Way improvements 

• Cotter Road improvements 

• grade separation of Hindmarsh Drive. 

It was evident from the analysis that both the John Dedman 
Parkway and Monash Drive would be essential for any development 
proposals for Gungahlin. 

It was also evident that there is an ‘employment threshold' for 
Civic above which the local road system in its current form would 
constitute a limiting factor. At the current level ot mode split, this 
threshold is estimated to be about 25 000 employees. (This assumes 
that sufficient car parking would be available). Any increase beyond 
this, without a corresponding increase in public transport, would 
require additional roads into Civic. The problems might be overcome 
if adequate by-pass roads were possible around Civic. Currently, about 
50 per cent of the traffic using the Civic road system is through-traffic, 
and the level of through-traffic can be expected to grow as Central 
Area employment grows. This study did not specifically assess the 
opportunity for Civic by-pass facilities. It was considered that the 
assumed level of Central Area employment did not warrant the added 
expense and impact of these roads. However, they are currently being 
investigated in a more detailed study of the Civic distributor road 
system. 

Other road improvements considered essential, regardless of which 
planning option is pursued, include: 

• further development of the Glenloch Interchange, because: major 
roads currently experience congestion during peak hours, current 
population infill at Belconnen and Weston Creek will exacerbate 
existing problems; and future employment at the Belconnen Town 
Centre will attract more traffic from the south 

• upgrading of major roads to the Belconnen Town Centre including 
Bindubi Street, Caswell Drive and William Hovell Drive 

• duplication of Athllon Drive, because the road is currently 
operating near its capacity and future development of Woden 
Town Centre will increase demands 

• duplication and re-alignment of William Slim Drive, in conjunction 
with improvements to the capacity of Aikman Drive 

• duplication of Erindale Drive and the Long Gully Road connection 
to the Eastern Parkway 


130 


• improvements to the capacity of I uggeranong Parkway north of 
the Cotter Road, and improvements to the capacity of Molonglo 
Arterial. 


Comparison of the Alternative Plans 

The evaluation also considered the effects that the options would 
have on travellers and network operations. It looked at five broad 
areas, namely: 

• network efficiency - the ability of the network to respond to the 
projected travel demands 

• the relative efficiency of the combined land use/transport plan 

• environmental impacts 

• the impacts of a significant increase in mode split 

• total infrastructure costs. 

Network Efficiency 

Table 59 summarises various network performance indicators 
which w'ere derived from the transport models. 

Table 59 Comparison of Network Performance Indicators 



Concentrated 

Dispersed 

Performance Indicator 

Plan 

Plan 

Reverse Loading Ratio 

Number of Highly 

0.313 

0.371 

Congested Road Links 

32 

18 

Total No. of Trips 

84 187 

85 152 

Total Distance Travelled 

1.004 x 10 6 km 

9.823 x 10 5 km 

Total Peak Hour User Costs 

$3.1 x 10 5 

$2.8 x 10‘ 

Average Peak Hour User Cost 

$3.68 

$3.29 


The ‘reverse loading ratio’ describes the extent to which the land 
use plan has been successful in making the best use of available road 
capacity by balancing the direction of travel, i.e. it looks at the amount 
of traffic travelling in each direction. Table 59 indicates that the 
Dispersed Plan would improve network efficiency by at least 18 per 
cent over the Concentrated Plan. This is reflected in the reduced 
number of ‘highly congested’ traffic links and the reduced scale of 
the total network as shown in the earlier tables. Network loadings 
in the Concentrated Plan are considerably higher than those currently 
existing. 

The evaluation did not consider the internal distribution system 
at the major activity centres. It is evident that increasing the amount 
and density of employment at particular locations would have a 
marked effect on the adjacent street system and primary access roads. 

It may be seen from Table 59 that the average distance travelled 
would be very similar under both Plans. The important considerations 
are the relative distances travelled by particular sections of the 
community (this is discussed in greater detail in the following section) 
and the distribution of travel demands. 

Although the figures for average distance travelled are similar, 
there is a major difference between the Plans in relation to travel costs. 
In this analysis, average travel costs reflect the effects of both distance 
and time, and the values in Table 59 represent a generalised travel 
cost (both distance and time of each trip are weighted by an 
appropriate value and then combined). While the weighting may be 
the subject of some debate, it is the relative difference that is of 
importance. This analysis demonstrates that the Dispersed Plan would 
result in at least a 12 per cent saving when the effects are considered 
over, for example, a whole year. Most of this is attributable to more 


131 


balanced network loadings and higher average speeds due to the 
reduced levels of congestion under the Dispersed Plan. 

It is expected that even greater savings would be achieved during 
the off-peak hours, although this was not the subject ot detailed 
analysis. The wider dispersal of employment, retail, commercial and 
community activities under the Dispersed Plan means that more trips 
would be of a ‘local’ nature. 

Relative Efficiency of the Combined Land Use/ I ransport I Ian 

Figure 55 shows the proportion of self-containment forecast tor 
each town under the two Plans and their current lex els ot sell- 
containment. Self-containment is defined as the number of trips which 
originate and terminate in the same town or district. 

As can be seen, there is a significant difference in the distribution 
of travel demands under the Dispersed Plan. 1 he degree ot sell- 
containment in the new towns is similar to that ot the longer established 
areas. Under the Concentrated Plan, they would be seriously 
disadvantaged. The effects of the difference in distribution are also 
evident in the measures of relative travel costs tor each ot the towns 
(travel costs according to the generalised cost concept as discussed 
previously) as shown in Table 60. 


oo 



North South Belconnen Woden- Tuggeranong Gungahlin 
Canberra Canberra Weston Incl Hume Incl. 

Incl Civic Incl. Parkes / Creek Mitchell 

Russell / Barton 

Campbell Pk 


| | Existing Situation Concentrated Plan |~~] Dispersed Plan 

Figure 55 Proportion of Self-Contained Peak 
Hour Trips 


Table 60 Relative Travel Cost 



Existing 

Situation 

Concentrated 

Dispersed 

% Diff. between 
Dispersed & Con¬ 


(1982) 

Plan 

Plan 

centrated Plans 

North 

Canberra 

2.60 

2.71 

2.40 

+ 

13 

South 

Canberra 

2.28 

2.67 

2.49 

+ 

11 

Belconnen 

3.61 

4.14 

3.65 

+ 

13 

Woden- 
Weston Creek 

3.02 

3.39 

3.15 

+ 

8 

Tuggeranong 

4.01 

5.21 

4.15 

+ 

26 

Gungahlin 

- 

4.87 

3.87 

+ 

26 


Table 60 shows that, while the magnitude of the travel costs may 
be questioned, it is the relative differences that are important. 

As may be expected, both plan options would result in increased 
travel costs relative to the existing situation, due to the increasing size 
of the City. The Dispersed Plan would, however, tend to keep the 
increase to a minimum. Also, it would reduce the relative travel costs 
for all travellers and reduce the social inequities associated with longer 
journeys for the new towns of Tuggeranong and Gungahlin. 

Environmental Impacts 

A detailed environmental evaluation of the two Plans has not been 
conducted. However, a broad assessment confirms that the Dispersed 
Plan would appear to have less effect on the environment than the 
Concentrated Plan. 

Air and heavy metal pollutants from motor vehicles are generally 
associated with large concentrations of vehicles. The Commission has 
identified several locations in Canberra where these pollutants have 
exceeded, or are currently approaching, the critical levels established 
by the World Health Organization. These include specific locations 
in Civic, Woden Town Centre and near other major activity centres. 
As Canberra continues to develop, conditions will progressively 
worsen. Future legislation may reduce the effects of these pollutants 
considerably. However, the lower concentrations of traffic in the 
major centres and the generally lower traffic volumes associated with 


132 













































the Dispersed Plan would result in lower levels of pollutants than 
would exist under the Concentrated Plan. 

Similarly, the lower traffic volumes associated with the Dispersed 
Plan would result in a lower incidence of noise pollution and reduced 
potential for traffic intrusion into residential streets. Examination of 
the network loadings for roads which are considered to be 
environmentally sensitive (i.e. have residential frontage) confirms that 
these adverse effects would be reduced considerably. Relative traffic 
volumes for some typical roads are shown in Table 61. 

Table 61 Relative Traffic Volumes for Typical Roads 


Ratio of Network Loadings 
Dispersed : Concentrated 


Location 


Beasley Street, Farrer 
Kent Street, Hughes 
Stonehaven Crescent, Deakin 
Melbourne Avenue, Forrest 
Macarthur Avenue, O’Connor 
Limestone Avenue, Ainslie 


0.45 

0.96 

0.74 

0.63 

0.84 

0.97 


The Concentrated Plan would have a more severe impact on the 
physical environment. First, an additional bridge across Lake Burley 
Griffin is considered essential to the Plan. It would necessitate the 
resumption of a right-of-way through Yarralumla to the lake and an 
extensive bridge crossing. Second, the scale of most of the new roads 
required to service Gungahlin and Tuggeranong would be substantially 
greater. 

The Impacts of Increased Mode Split 

In the absence of a political or economic event which may influence 
the availability of fuel for private vehicles, there is generally little 
possibility of an ‘across the board’ increase in mode split. It is likely, 
however, that mode split may increase for travel to particular 
destinations where parking is in short supply or is very expensive. The 
analysis indicates that this could be the case in Civic Centre and Woden 
Town Centre, and possibly in Belconnen Town Centre as well. 

The effect of an (unlikely) increase of 100 per cent in mode split 
to these centres, from the existing 15-18 per cent to 30 per cent, was 
tested. In Civic, where the effects would be greatest, there would be 
a reduction of about 1 950 and 1 380 peak-hour terminating trips for 
the Concentrated and Dispersed Plans respectively. Although this 
should theoretically reduce the demand by the equivalent of up to 
three traffic lanes, it would have a negligible effect when distributed 
across all of the major access routes. Further, the sensitivity tests 
confirmed that the reduction in terminating vehicle trips would be 
almost totally displaced by through-traffic at the critical bridge links. 

The combined effect of higher mode split to all town centres would 
be a reduction of 3 630 and 2 690 peak hour car trips for the 
Concentrated and Dispersed Plans respectively. This represents less 
than 5 per cent of the total peak-hour travel demand, and would be 
insignificant when distributed across the whole network. However, 
it does involve a greater than 100 per cent increase in commuter travel 
to, and between, the town centres by bus. 

The Dispersed Plan would be able to cope with the increased 
demand by upgrading the transport system i.e. more express buses 
in conjunction with bus priority treatment at critical locations. Under 
the same mode split conditions, public transport demands associated 
with the Concentrated Plan were considered to have exceeded the 
threshold of existing public transport technology. It is likely that ex¬ 
press buses or exclusive rights-of-way could be required on substan- 


tial sections of the route. It would not, however, lead to a general 
reduction in road capacity since the reduced traffic demands would 
be more than offset by the additional requirements tor public 
transport. 

Investment in Major Roads 

The analysis demonstrated that the Dispersed Plan would result 
in a significant reduction in capital investment tor major roadworks. 
Table 62 provides an estimate of the total road-based infrastructure 
costs for both Plans at 1983 prices. 

Table 62 Total Road Costs ( 1 ) 

Concentrated Dispersed 

Road Types Plan Plan 



Lane km 

$m 

Lane km 

$m 

Urban Arterial 

189 

105 

143 

71 

Parkway 

173 

216 

102 

128 

Total 

362 

320 

245 

200 


(1) 1983 prices. 

The major roadworks associated with the Concentrated Plan are 
estimated to cost about 60 per cent more than the equivalent road 
requirements of the Dispersed Plan. Also, it a special bus facility is 
provided, a further $70 million (1983 prices) could be added to the 
cost of the Concentrated Plan (excluding the cost ot vehicles). 


Public Transport 

Estimating Future Public Transport Patronage 

During the next twenty years, it is expected that the public 
transport system will cater for about the same proportion of the total 
transport demand as it presently does, i.e. up to 9.5 per cent of daily 
vehicular trips. However, some spatial and distributional changes are 
likely. 

Most of these changes will occur during the peak hour, and will 
be associated with increased employment density in the existing town 
centres. 

Commuter travel by bus to the major activity centres may only 
increase significantly under certain conditions. These relate primarily 
to the cost and availability of parking, and the relative cost and 
standard of service of public transport. It is considered that the 
conditions conducive to a significant increase in mode split would be 
likely to exist only in Civic Centre and the Woden and Belconnen 
Town Centres. 

The magnitude of the potential increase will depend on the following 
factors: 

• public acceptance of parking restraint measures 

• public acceptance of the substantial increase in the operating 
subsidy required for the public transport system 

• the threshold before major investment is required for higher- 
technology (rail-type) systems or exclusive bus ways to service the 
demand or maintain reliability of service 

• the timing of development and parking restraint measures. 

Currently, the demand for parking is virtually unrestrained 
(charges for short-stay parking have been applied to ensure its 
availability for that use) and the annual public transport subsidy has, 
in the past, been relatively unchallenged. However, the shortage of 


134 


land available for surface parking in Civic Centre and Woden 1 own 
Centre and the certainty of an increasing annual public transport 
subsidy was considered in the estimate of future mode split. 

A mode split to these centres of 30 per cent by public transport 
may therefore be the practical maximum. This represents an increase 
of up to 100 per cent over the existing peak-hour mode split. Mode 
split to most other major employment centres and other destinations 
is predicted to decrease slightly, due to: 

• increasing car ownership 

• no parking restraint 

• the popularity of private cars 

• increasing journey distances 

• increasing value of leisure time 

• greater propensity for combining trip purposes. 

The public transport evaluation was, therefore, carried out with 
reference to both the current mode split and this higher mode split 
(i.e. 30 per cent). 

The express bus operations (line-haul and discrete peak-hour 
express services) are considered to be the most critical components 
of the public transport system. They provide an inter-town travel 
service and currently account for approximately 30 per cent of peak- 
hour patronage (excluding special school buses). At present, they 
comprise the only part of the system that is operating at capacity. 

The express services are also expected to experience the greatest 
amount of future growth. For the two plan options, it is estimated 
they will carry between 50 per cent and 55 per cent of the peak-hour 
passengers (excluding special or school buses). Express buses will also 
be most directly affected by traffic congestion. 

It was assumed that local feeder services would be provided to 
all new suburbs at approximately the current level of provision. Most 
of the existing local services are operating at less than 60 per cent of 
their capacity during the peak hour (and less at other times). In most 
cases, any modest increase in peak-hour mode split could be readily 
absorbed. Experience has shown that any reduction in frequency of 
service to rationalise apparent over-supply in capacity has an adverse 
effect on patronage levels. Hence, the current standard of service w as 
assumed as the minimum necessary to maintain or improve mode split. 
As most of their operation is local (within a suburb), they would be 
relatively unaffected by traffic congestion. 

Since population settlement was identical for both plan options, 
and it was assumed that local feeder services would be provided at 
a standard to meet expected future demands, it was considered that 
the express services would be most affected by the different plan 
options. A more detailed analysis of express services was, therefore, 
undertaken. 

To assess the implications of the plan options on public transport 
operations, future public transport travel demands were forecast. 

Local feeder services with sufficient capacity were assumed to cater 
for all intra-district trips (i.e. w here origin zone and destination zone 
are the same). 

The remaining trips were assigned to a simplified network represent¬ 
ing line-haul and some special express bus operations. From Woden, 
Belconnen and Civic, it was assumed that a discrete express service 
would follow the most direct route to its destination. This would not 
necessarily be a line-haul service. In the case of Tuggeranong and 
Gungahlin, the most direct route for most services passed through 



Woden and Civic respectively, thus, the demands that could be 
satisfied by other express services were included in the line-haul 
volumes. 

Evaluation of Future Public Transport Demands 

Estimates based on the current mode split, ol the peak-hom , line- 
haul passenger volumes tor the Concentrated and Dispersed Plans 
are shown in Figure 56. 1 his is considered to be the most likely 
situation in the absence ot any direct policy to reduce car tra\el. 

The analysis indicated that the total amount ot inter-town travel 
on the line-haul system would be very similar tor both Plans, i.e. about 
52 per cent for the Concentrated Plan and 56 per cent tor the Dispersed 
Plan. However, the Dispersed Plan is considered to offer a much more 
efficient public transport operation, first, the passenger loadings 
would have a better directional balance. The Concentrated Plan has 
a reverse loading factor of 0.18, compared to the Dispersed Plan with 
0.47. Second, the magnitude of passenger loadings in the peak 
direction would be considerably less. The hourly volumes on some 
routes in the Concentrated Plan are more than double the equivalent 
Dispersed Plan route loading. 

The combined effect of the reduced peak demand and more ev enly 
balanced directional loading would result in a higher load 1 actor per 
bus. This would reduce the total capacity required and, hence, would 
reduce the operating deficit. 

The analysis also indicated that the Dispersed Plan would have 
approximately 30 per cent more single bus journeys. Most ot the 
increase is due to the greater provision of local employment 
opportunities at Gungahlin and Tuggeranong. Single bus journeys are 
more attractive to passengers, because they do not involve transfer. 
However, they also imply greater utilisation of local feeder services 
and higher operating costs. As mentioned previously, feeder services 
are currently operating at less than 60 per cent of their capacity. 
Therefore, much of the increase could be absorbed. By increasing the 
proportion of local journeys, the Dispersed Plan would also reduce 
journey time and distance for those passengers with the greatest 
distance to travel. Inter-town loadings for Tuggeranong and 
Gungahlin would be reduced by 42 per cent and 32 per cent 
respectively. 

If mode split were dramatically increased for commuter travel to 
the existing town centres from the existing range of 15-18 per cent 
to 30 per cent, the estimated line-haul passenger loadings would be 
as shown in Figure 57. The characteristics observed previously still 
apply. The directional balance would be slightly less for both Plans 
(reverse loading factor of 0.15 and 0.35 for the Concentrated Plan 
and Dispersed Plan, respectively). However, the difference in 
magnitude of the peak loadings for most routes would be increased. 
This would result in a significant increase in the fleet size needed to 
service the Concentrated Plan. 

Even with the passenger loadings predicted under the high mode 
split conditions, it is considered that buses could cater for Canberra’s 
future public transport needs. The analysis indicated that neither peak- 
hour nor daily passenger volumes would satisfy the minimum route 
loading conditions needed to justify light or heavy-rail technology. 
However, the analysis was not extensive enough to confirm the 
location of necessary bus-only lanes or exclusive rights-of-way for 
either Plan. The loadings indicate that bus priority facilities can 
certainly be justified under both plan options, although the need for 
facilities would be reduced under the Dispersed Plan. In relation to 
staging, this implies that the appropriate investment could be deferred, 
or alternatively, that a higher mode split could be absorbed. 



Tuggeranong 


CONCENTRATED OPTION 


Gungahlin 


Belconnen 


Civic 


Parkes 

Commonwealth 

Avenue 


Woden 


Tuggeranong 


DISPERSED OPTION 


100 

500 

1000 

2000 


Direct Buses to Russell, Campbell Park, 
Parkes and Barton 

Feeder Routes 


f igure 56 Morning Peak Hour Commuter 
Volumes on Line-Haul Routes - 
Existing Mode Split 


136 


Gungahlin 


Belconnen 


Civic 


Parkes 

Commonwealth 

Avenue 


Woden 


Tuggeranong 


CONCENTRATED OPTION 


Gungahlin 


Belconnen 


Civic 


Parkes 

Commonwealth 

Avenue 


Woden 


Tuggeranong 


DISPERSED OPTION 


100 

500 

1000 

2000 


Direct Buses to Russell, Campbell Park, 
Parkes and Barton 


Feeder Routes 


igure 57 Morning Peak Hour Commuter 
Volumes on Line-Haul Routes - 
High Mode Split 


A further sensitivity test was performed to assess the implications 
of drastically reducing the supply of parking in Civic. It was assumed 
that a maximum of five parking structures would be constructed (these 
would accommodate about 5 000 vehicles). Under the Concentrated 
Plan, mode split to Civic would need to increase to more than 60 per 
cent. This would be about 50 per cent higher than Perth’s mode split 
which has a population about four times that of Canberra and a much 
more concentrated central area. The estimated passenger loadings on 
the line-haul route from the north (combined Belconnen and 
Gungahlin) exceeded the capacity of a busway system and, con¬ 
sequently, the high front-end costs of rail technology were considered 
to be necessary under these conditions. The capacity of the existing 
City Bus Interchange would have been exceeded even at a reduced 
mode split. 

Applying the same conditions to the Dispersed Plan results in a 
maximum mode split of 30 per cent, which constitutes the upper range 
of the earlier considerations on mode split. 

The evaluation also revealed that the advantages of the public 
transport spine concept, which has been the basis of public transport 
planning in Canberra, w^ould not be realised, unless there is a much 
greater change to public transport use than has been forecast, or unless 
Canberra continues to grow in a linear form. If Canberra does not 
continue to grow in a linear form, or alternatively, if future develop¬ 
ment involves a major infill programme, transport flows would be 
very different. Until the long-term future of Canberra is able to be 
defined in greater detail, suitable public transport corridors should 
be reserved to maintain planning flexibility. These corridors should 
extend between the town centres and to the ‘edge’ of any development 
where there is the possibility of further development. 

The evaluation of future public transport needs and operations 
has been, of necessity, very limited. A major deficiency of the 
evaluation is the lack of a detailed economic or cost-benefit analysis 
as this would have required more detailed information than is currently 
available. It should be stressed that any planning initiatives which 
involve a significant change in mode split should be subjected to a 
comprehensive cost-benefit analysis before being implemented. 

An Overview of the Proposed Metropolitan Public 
Transport System 

The existing line-haul and feeder strategy will be extended to the 
new towns of Tuggeranong and Gungahlin as they are developed. 
Public transport interchanges, similar to those at the existing town 
centres, will be essential. During the interim stages of development, 
they can be temporarily located, but ultimately they should be 
integrated into the local town centre. 

New' line-haul express services operating between Tuggeranong and 
Woden, Gungahlin and Civic, and Gungahlin and Belconnen, will 
be integrated into the system. It has been assumed that no special 
express services w ill be operated from Gungahlin or Tuggeranong and 
that the demand for these services will be added to those currently 
operating from Civic and Woden. However, if sufficient demand were 
demonstrated, they could easily be implemented. 

During the interim stages of development, line-haul serv ices can 
be operated in mixed traffic, and on those routes which will provide 
a satisfactory standard of service at minimum cost. Generally, public 
transport will be given priority ov er other vehicles at intersections or 
along sections of road where delays may be significant. However, 
when passenger volumes reach a threshold which warrants improved 
facilities, (e.g. bus-only lanes or exclusive rights-of-way), the required 
improvements should be incorporated within the appropriate section 


137 


of reserved corridor. Similarly, when traffic congestion reaches levels 
which substantially reduce the reliability of services or terminal 
capacity, improved corridor facilities should be implemented. 

It is anticipated that local bus services will be provided to all new 
suburbs. In general, they will operate between a particular suburb and 
the local town centre. However, because of the central location of 
the interchange, some local services will also provide a service to 
adjacent town centres (a similar situation already exists). It is expected 
that the standard of service will be similar to that existing. A fast, 
frequent and reliable service will be provided within about 400m walk¬ 
ing distance of most residences. 

It is proposed that a public transport corridor linking all of the 
existing and future transport interchanges be reserved to accommodate 
the longer-term development of Canberra, or future unforeseen 
circumstances, which may affect mode split to such an extent that 
a higher technology public transport system is needed. The corridor 
should follow the most direct and feasible alignment. A preliminary 
route is identified in Figure 58, although this will be the subject ot 
a more detailed assessment. 




S 

O 


NSW 



—• Preferred Route 
*■■■ Alternative Route 
• Public Transport Interchange 



o 


5 km 

J 


Figure 58 Inter-Town Public Transport Route 


138 






Centres Evaluation 


Introduction 

Any comparison of options involving the system of centres in 
Canberra must take into account a wide range of factors. The objectives 
set for the City need to be met and the centres should also contribute 
to the attainment of a dignified National Capital, with an efficient 
urban structure and an environment which fulfils the aspirations of 
both residents and visitors. 

The capacity of the centres to accommodate existing and proposed 
development efficiently also has to be assessed. Over-development 
creates cost penalties, which are manifest in the need to provide 
extensive car parking structures and to upgrade the internal road 
system or to accept congestion on the roads within the centre, and 
can impose redevelopment pressures. On the other hand, under¬ 
development fails to realise the full potential of a centre and neither 
completely uses the investment in services nor supports the existing 
facilities established in the centre. 

The capacity of the arterial network providing access to the centre 
has to be considered to ensure that the centres do not grow to a size 
which causes congestion on the metropolitan road system or creates 
a need for additional arterial roads. Finally the incremental growth 
of the centres needs to be monitored to ensure that they do not usurp 
the role of new centres, containing shops and facilities which better 
meet the local needs of developing areas. 

The centres evaluation takes into consideration the following 
thresholds and comparisons: 

• the capacity of the unconstrained vacant land in the centres to 
accommodate new buildings and car parking at the existing 
intensity of development 

• the capacity of the vacant land at an increased intensity of develop¬ 
ment, assuming the existing public transport patronage rates (mode 
split). The feasibility of increasing mode split to 30 per cent has 
not been investigated in detail. The implications for the bus deficit 
could be significant and an analysis of such a strategy should be 
carried out before any campaign to increase the use of public 
transport is undertaken 

• the capacity of the arterial system serving the centre 

• the capacity of the arterial road system after possible improvements 
such as duplication where appropriate and the construction of 
overpasses and other methods of improving the flow at inter¬ 
sections. These thresholds are not absolute. The highest threshold 
will be achieved when public transport demand is high but when 
traffic congestion is sufficiently low not to require the reservation 
of bus-only lanes. The centres may be constrained at lower 
thresholds because: the internal distributor system does not match 
the access system; pedestrian activity or bus circulation increases, 
reducing the capacity of intersections; existing traffic lanes are 
dedicated for exclusive bus use for the inter-town public transport 
system; or because the metropolitan road system cannot supply 
adequate capacity to the roads accessing the centre 

• constraints which should be placed on existing centres to enable 
the establishment of centres in the new settlement areas. These 
centres offer the opportunity to achieve a more efficient and equal 
distribution of shopping, employment, community and other 
facilities and services across the City 

• the performance of the distribution of the retail floorspace and 
social and community facilities under the two Plans. 


139 


Development Thresholds 

Table 63 shows the extent of development and the vacant 
developable land in each ot the main centres in 1982. 


o 






Table 63 Land Occupied by Development and Car Parking and 

Developable Vacant Land in Civic and the Town Centie Core 

Areas (1) 


(1) Undevelopable vacant land and roads not included. 


drive 





Woden 

Belconnen 




Civic 

Town 

Town 




Centre 

Centre 

Centre 

/ 

Developed Land 

(ha) 

33 

15 

19 

/ 

(%) 

45 

47 

33 


Car Parking 

(ha) 

(%) 

24 

32 

13 

41 

18 

32 

***** 

Vacant 

(ha) 

17 

4 

20 

PARKES 


(%) 

23 

12 

35 


Total 

(ha) 

74 

32 

57 



(%) 

100 

100 

100 



\ 


o 

5 

5 

o 

o 


COOVONG 


CITY 

HILL 




Lake 


Burley 


% 




v 










Griffin 


From this information and the employment levels in the core areas, 
it was possible to calculate the development threshold of each core 
area at the existing intensity of development. Alter this increase was 
combined with the potential increase due to development ot vacant 
land in peripheral areas such as service trades areas, the threshold 
of the centre at the existing intensity of development was obtained. 
The extra employment potential in the Woden Town Centre is only 
achievable if vacant land to the east of the centre is utilised. 


1 Core 


Frame 



o 0 5 


1 Km 


Figure 59 Civic Centre - Core and Frame 


Table 64 shows the three main centres, which at present have a 
total employment of 33 000 between them, can accommodate only 
about another 10 000 to 14 000 employees at existing densities, 
compared with the additional 17 000 employees which are proposed 
to be located in them in the Dispersed Plan and 37 000 in the 
Concentrated Plan. 


Table 64 Existing (1982) Employment Levels, Potential Increases and 
Employment Thresholds at the Existing Intensity of 
Development 




Woden 

Belconnen 


Civic 

Town 

Town 

Core 

Centre 

Centre 

Centre 

Existing 

14 000 

7 700 

6 800 

Potential Increase 

Other Areas 

4 000 

1 100 
(3 800) 

3 900 

Existing 

2 000 

1 600 

1 200 

Potential Increase 

- 

400 

900 

Development Threshold 

20 000 

10 800 
(14 600) 

12 800 


Notes: 

J. The figures in brackets for Woden are thresholds including the vacant 
kind to the east of the stormwater channel. 


Uu *CEST 0 iv 


Sr, 


'ter 




'4«S* 


A 


WODEN 

EAST 


) 


% 


Core 


Frame 


The development potential of the centres was assessed by assuming 
that the development intensity on the remaining land would be 
increased so that on building sites the floor area of the development 
w'ould be three times the area of the land on which the building was 



o 


0 5 


1 km 


Figure 60 Woden Town Centre - Core and 
Frame 


140 











o 

Z 


Lake 

Ginninderra 


‘■UjrroN ' 




Z 


D 

O 


\ 

% 


Q 


Z 

DRIVE > 
S 
z 


COLLEGE 








l 0. 




> 

-< 




V 

z 

* 


T 


STREET 


% 


\ 




Core 


Frame 



0 5 

J_l 


1 km 


Figure 61 Belconnen Town Centre - Core and 
Frame 


sited - a plot ratio of 3.0. It should be noted that Hobart Place and 
other high-rise clusters in the existing centres have not reached this 
development intensity. Land occupied by low buildings and service 
pedestrian areas compensates for the intense development in tall 
structures. 

In determining the possible employment levels in f uture buildings 
it was assumed that 7 out of every 8 workers would occupy about 
20nr of space, the current gross floor area occupied by office workers. 
The other worker in 8 was assumed to be in hotels, cinemas and 
theatres, public buildings and entertainment facilities which are more 
extensive and w here an employment density of 100m 2 per worker was 
assumed. Additional retail development was treated separately. 

The nature of retail malls and other shopping facilities is such that, 
except where office towers are constructed over part of them, they 
are usually limited to two or three storeys and have a lower develop¬ 
ment intensity than office development. Consequently, new' retail 
development was assumed to have a plot ratio of 2.0 in Civic and 
1.5 in Woden and Belconnen Town Centres. Visitor parking for 
shopping and commercial facilities was assumed to be provided at 
an off-peak rate of 2.5 spaces per 100m 2 of retail space. In the 
Concentrated Plan, the 30 000m 2 of retail space in Civic and the 
20 000m 2 in Woden and Belconnen Towm Centres, provided in addi¬ 
tion to the levels in the Dispersed Plan, reduce the capacity of the 
centres to accommodate offices. Consequently, the thresholds show n 
in Table 65 are approximately 1 500 lower for Civic and 1 000 lower 
for the town centres in the case of the Concentrated Plan. 


Table 65 Existing (1982) Employment Levels, Potential Increases and 
Employment Thresholds at Increased Development Intensity 




Woden 

Belconnen 


Civic 

Town 

Town 


Centre 

Centre 

Centre 

Core 

Existing 

14 000 

7 700 

6 800 

Potential Increase 

5 000 

1 500 
(5 000) 

7 100 

Other Areas 

Existing 

2 000 

1 600 

1 200 

Potential Increase 

- 

700 

(500) 

1 700 

Development Threshold 

21 000 

11 500 
(17 000) 

16 800 


Notes: 

I. The figures in brackets for l Voden are thresholds including the vacant 
land to the east of the stormwater channel. 


It is obvious from the table that the thresholds at the increased 
intensity of development are adequate for the Dispersed Plan in 
Woden and Belconnen Town Centres. The thresholds are, however, 
less than the employment levels tested in the Concentrated Plan. 

The thresholds referred to above assumed that existing patterns 
of car usage would persist. If measures such as pricing for parking 
and restrictions on the supply of long-stay parking spaces were 
introduced, the thresholds may be slightly increased. A mode split 
of 30 per cent by bus was considered the maximum feasible, within 
the next twenty years, without major investment in public transport 
infrastructure and subsidy, and substantially increased parking 
restraint measures. The employment threshold of the centres with a 
30 per cent mode split was estimated to be as follows: 29 000 for Civ ic; 
17 000 for Woden and 30 000 for Belconnen. Even at this mode split, 


141 









the capacity of the centres is still below the total employment allocated 
to them in the Concentrated Plan. 

Throughout the analysis, it was assumed that the intensity ot 
development in the service trades areas would not increase 
substantially. The existing development density will be maintained and 
only vacant land will be occupied. The ellects ot a large increase in 
employment in these areas would be to reduce the capacity ot major 
traffic arteries to the core areas, and in the case ot Braddon, to cause 
traffic intrusion on residential streets. The development ot sei\ice 
trades areas poses difficulties tor the public transport services, and 
mode split to these areas is typically much lower. Development 
intensity in the service trades areas is also constrained by availabihtv 
of land for parking. A major office development, for example, would 
result in significant local parking problems. 

As a consequence ot the shortage ot land at centres and employ¬ 
ment nodes, it was assumed that the provision ot car parking at these 
nodes would be restricted to approximately 0.5 spaces per worker 
under the Dispersed Plan and 0.4 under the Concentrated 1 lan, 
compared with a current provision ot 0.6 spaces per worker. 

No detailed consideration was given to the threshold or capacity 
of the town centres in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin, since it was 
assumed that they would be planned with adequate land and adequate 
transport capacity. At present, there are no constraints which would 
limit their thresholds. 

Transport Thresholds 

The thresholds of the arterial network serving the centres were 
evaluated at two levels - the capacity of the existing network and the 
capacity of the network with a range of improvements. 

Civic Centre 

The potential capacity of the road system feeding into City 
Division, the core of Civic, was assessed. During the average morning 
peak hour in 1982, about 10 000 vehicles travelled in on these roads 
and approximately half travelled out, indicating that up to 5 000 
vehicles terminated in the core during the peak hour. Based on current 
travel characteristics it was estimated that 6 out of every 7 of the 
terminating vehicles carried workers with the other being used for 
shopping, business or other activity not related to work. 

In order to determine the employment threshold of the core at 
which the access road system reached capacity, it was necessary to 
determine first the transport capacity of the roads, in terms of vehicles 
per hour, and then make an allowance for through-traffic and 
terminating traffic not associated with work. The remaining vehicles 
were estimated to have carried workers and the capacity of the core 
could be assessed by reference to the proportion who drove cars to 
work. 

The capacity of the road system providing access to Civic core 
was estimated to be approximately 14 500 vehicles per hour, if 
Coranderrk Street is duplicated and Monash Drive constructed. 

Table 66 shows the capacity of the approach roads. 

Through-traffic was assumed to increase by up to 20 per cent in 
response to a 25 per cent increase in Central Area employment. Civic’s 
mix of activities is likely to continue in the future, as will the share 
of trips entering the area during the peak for purposes other than 
work. Table 67 shows an estimate of the approximate volumes for 
the various purposes. If the peak period extends to two hours, the 
roads accessing the core could service an employment of up to 25 000. 


142 


Table 66 Traffic Capacity of Civic Centre Approach Roads 


Capacity 

Road Number of Lanes (Vehicles Per Hour) 


Barry Drive 

3 

2 300 

Northbourne Avenue 

3 

2 400 

Torrens & 



Associated Streets 

1 

500 

Ainslie Avenue 

2 

1 500 (1) 

Coranderrk Street 

2 

1 500 (2) 

Constitution Avenue 

1 

800 

Commonwealth Avenue 

3 

3 700 

Edinburgh Avenue 

3 

1 800 

Total 

18 

14 500 

(1) Assumes Monash Drive. 



(2) Assumes Duplication. 




Table 67 Civic Centre Core: Relationship Bet 

ween Employment 

Threshold and Access Capacity 


Access Capacity 

14 500 Vehicles per Hour 

Through-Traffic 

6 000 Vehicles per Hour 

Terminating Traffic 

8 500 Vehicles per Hour 

Terminating Non-work 

1 200 Vehicles per Hour 

Terminating Work 

7 300 Vehicles per Hour 

Employment Capacity 

25 000 Workforce 


If the mode split increases, two countervailing circumstances can 
be expected. The employment threshold will increase and a point will 
be reached at which bus-only facilities will be required on Barry Drive, 
Commonwealth Avenue and Northbourne Avenue. If these are 
provided on existing road space, the capacity of access roads will be 
decreased by at least 1 800 vehicles per hour. The net effect of a 
doubling of the existing mode split to Civic, which was considered 
the highest mode split feasible under stringent controls, is that the 
employment threshold of the core would increase to about 27 000. 
At the extreme, if the bus-only lanes are added, for example, an 
additional lane to and across Commonwealth Avenue Bridge and a 
lane in the median of Northbourne Avenue, the employment threshold 
of the core could increase to approximately 34 000. This was 
considered most improbable. To determine the employment thresholds 
of Civic, the future employment of the Braddon Service Trades Area, 
estimated at 2 000 to 3 000, should be added. 

The employment thresholds of Civic based on road access are 
summarised in Table 68. 


Table 68 Civic Centre: Road Access Thresholds 


Condition 

Threshold 

Existing Mode Split (15%), 

Full Road Network 

27 000 

100% Increase in Mode Split, 

Bus Lanes on Existing Roads 

29 000 

100% Increase in Mode Split, 

New Bus Lanes Constructed 

36 000 


The access road thresholds are, therefore, not likely to be the 
primary constraints on the development of Civic. The cost of parking 
structures and the traffic capacity of the internal distribution system 
are considered to be the main limiting factors. 


143 


Woden Town Centre 

The highly accessible location ot Woden Town Centre, at the 
intersection of the arterials serving Woden, Weston Creek and 
Tuggeranong, is responsible tor limiting the capacity ot the roa 
system which accesses the centre. The arterial road network surrounding 
Woden Town Centre is serving a dual tunction ot first, providing 
access to the town centre and second, carrying by-passing tiat tic tiom 
Woden and Tuggeranong moving north. In 1982, only one-third ot 
the traffic on the road system was destined tor the centre. Table 69 
shows the estimated capacity ot the arterial road system serv ing W oden 
Town Centre. 


Table 69 Traffic Capacity of Woden Town Centre Approach Roads 


Road 

Hindmarsh (West) 
Melrose (North) 
Athllon 

Hindmarsh (East) 
Launceston 
Melrose (South) 
Launceston 

Total 


Number of Lanes 
4 
3 
2 
3 
1 
3 
2 

18 


Capacity 

(Vehicles Per Hour) 
2 400 
1 600 
1 000 
1 500 
800 (1) 

1 600 
1 000 

9 900 

Maximum Possible 


(1) Residential Street. 


Upstream capacity restrictions and the imbalance of demand, as 
the result of low demand from north of Woden Town Centre, were 
considered to reduce the access capacity to about 8 800 vehicles per 
hour. 

An assessment of the current levels of terminating traffic and the 
current workforce in the core showed that fewer than 5 per cent of 
vehicles currently travel to Woden Town Centre for shopping and 
other non-work purposes during the peak. The 1982 levels of 
terminating non-work trips and car usage were assumed to persist, 
and it was assumed through-traffic would increase by no more than 
5 per cent even though substantial increases were assumed in the 
population of Tuggeranong and in Central Area employment. The 
transport threshold of the core would be an employment level of 
approximately 10 700 as is shown in Table 70. 


Table 70 Woden Town Centre Core: Relationship Between 
Employment Threshold and Access Capacity 


Access Capacity 
Through-Traffic 
Terminating Traffic 
Terminating Non-work 
Terminating Work 


8 800 Vehicles per Hour 
5 500 Vehicles per Hour 
3 300 Vehicles per Hour 
100 Vehicles per Hour 
3 200 Vehicles per Hour 


Employment Capacity (Two-Hour Peak) 10 700 Workforce 


The employment capacity of the core at 30 per cent mode split, 
which represents a doubling of the present rate, would be about 
14 500. Such a high mode split could be expected only if parking was 
adequately controlled by charging for long-stay parking and 
prohibiting commuter parking in adjacent residential areas. 

The capacity of the access roads could be increased by grade 
separating the intersections of Hindmarsh Drive and other minor roads 
between Melrose Drive and Ainsworth Avenue inclusive, at a tentative 


144 


order of cost of $5 million. It was estimated that these road 
improvements could improve the access capacity to Woden Town 
Centre by up to 2 000 vehicles per hour and improve through-traffic 
operations substantially. 

The proportion of traffic which terminated during the peak hour 
for shopping and other non-work purposes can be expected to increase 
as the centre grows and a more complex mix of activities eventuates. 
On the basis that the proportion of non-work trips will be half of 
that now evident in Civic, it was estimated that when Woden Town 
Centre reaches Civic’s current size, 400 vehicles per hour will arrive 
in the centre for non-work purposes. 

Consequently, with major improvements, the arterial road system 
would have capacity to cope with about 5 200 terminating trips to 
Woden Town Centre, of which 4 800 would be work trips. Based on 
a two-hour peak and the current rate of car usage, the threshold for 
the town centre core would be 16 000. If the mode split increased to 
30 per cent, the threshold would increase to about 21 800 employees. 
If bus-only facilities required for the higher mode split occupy road 
space, the threshold would be reduced. 

In order to obtain the total employment thresholds for Woden 
Town Centre, the employment levels expected in the service trades 
area were added to the thresholds for the core. If substantial growth 
occurs in the service trades area, it would be at the expense of the 
capacity of the core, because both rely on the same arterials for access. 
The road access thresholds for Woden Town Centre, summarised in 
Table 71, are based on the assumption that employment in the service 
trades area grows to 2 500. Other thresholds, such as land availability 
and car parking, are not considered. 


Table 71 Woden Town Centre: Road Access Thresholds 


Condition 

Threshold 

Existing Mode Split and Road Network 

13 200 

100% Increase in Mode Split, 

Existing Road Network 

17 000 

Existing Mode Split, Major Improvements 
to the Road Network 

18 500 

100% Increase in Mode Split, Major 

Improvements to the Road Network 

24 300 

Notes: 



1. The employment capacity of the Woden Town Centre, which includes 

the service trades area, is 2 500 higher than the equivalent capacity 
of the core area. 


Belconnen Town Centre 

The access threshold of Belconnen Town Centre, like the access 
capacity of Woden Town Centre, depends on the extent to which the 
arterial system is expanded to provide alternative routes for traffic, 
which would otherwise travel through the centre or compete with 
terminating traffic on roads adjacent to the centre. 

Belconnen Town Centre, however, is different from W oden Town 
Centre when considered from the viewpoint of local traffic access. 
Major town arterials such as Belconnen Way, and Ginninderra, 
Haydon and Kingsford-Smith Drives by-pass the centre, yet others, 
such as Southern Cross Drive, Aikman Drive and Eastern Valley W ay, 
terminate at the centre. Accordingly, it can be expected to have a 
higher transport threshold and to experience a growth in through- 
traffic until the access roads reach capacity. 


In 1982, one car in three entering Belconnen Town Centre 
continued through. It was considered that approximately one car in 
twenty-five of the terminating traffic entered the centre tor business, 
shopping or other non-work purposes. The remainder, slightly less 
than 2 400 vehicles, were work trips. 

The 1982 access capacity of the town centre was estimated at below 
10 000 vehicles per hour. When Gungahlin development occurs, 
Aikman Drive will require duplication to meet the needs tor access 
between Gungahlin and Belconnen Town Centie. In addition, the 
intersection of Coulter Drive with Nettlefold Street could be improved 
to accommodate increased access from northern and western 
Belconnen. The future access capacity of Belconnen Town Centre 
would then be approximately 11 000 to 11 500 vehicles pei houi 

(Table 72). 


Table 72 Traffic Capacity of Belconnen Town Centre Approach Roads 


Road 

Benjamin Way 
Nettlefold Street 
Luxton Street 
Joynton Smith Drive 
Aikman Drive 
College Street 
Eastern Valley Way 

Total 


Number of Lanes 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
1 

2 

14 


Capacity 

(Vehicles Per Hour) 

2 000 

1 500 

3 000 4 500(1) 

2 000 
2 000 

800 
2 000 

11 300 


(1) The capacity on these roads depends both on the upstream capacity 
and on the demand from the areas of Belconnen which use the roads. 


Through-traffic is expected to grow in proportion to the general 
growth of traffic to Belconnen Town Centre for several reasons. The 
town centre is surrounded by other employment nodes such as the 
Bruce TAFE, CCAE, Calvary Hospital and the proposed Canberra 
Technology Park. For some travellers, the quickest route to these 
destinations will always be through the town centre. Others will drop 
passengers at the town centre on their way to other destinations, such 
as Civic. Because Southern Cross and Aikman Drives and other 
arterials terminate at the town centre, a through-route will be the 
shortest path for some trips. 

If the 1982 proportion of terminating non-work trips persists as 
the centre grows, and the level of car usage remains constant, the 
transport threshold of the Belconnen Town Centre, including the 
service trades area, is estimated to be an employment level of 
approximately 23 000 as is shown in Table 73. 


Table 73 Belconnen Town Centre: Relationship Between Employment 
Threshold and Access Capacity 


Access Capacity 
Through-Traffic 
Terminating Traffic 
Terminating Non-Work 
Terminating Work 

Employment Capacity (Two-Hour 


11 300 Vehicles per Hour 
4 000 Vehicles per Hour 
7 300 Vehicles per Hour 
300 Vehicles per Hour 
7 000 Vehicles per Hour 

Peak) 23 000 Workforce 


146 


If Aikman Drive is duplicated, and a inode split of 30 per cent 
is achieved, the employment capacity of Belconnen Town Centre 
would be 30 000. Accordingly, the road system is not the constraining 
threshold on Belconnen Town Centre. Other constraints, such as the 
availability of land for development and car parking, and the need 
to decentralise development to the other towns to achieve balanced 
metropolitan growth, are more likely to restrict the size of the centre. 

Urban Structure 

A major strength of Canberra’s urban structure is its system of 
centres. Combined with the transport network, they produce a relatively 
efficient and congestion-free city, despite its apparent widespread 
character. Other cities, such as Perth and Brisbane, have proposed 
subsidiary centres in their strategic plans, in order to achieve some 
of the benefits Canberra already experiences. 

The continuation of the system of town centres would have the 
following advantages: 

• reduce construction costs for new metropolitan roads and 
structured car parks 

• reduce travel and car operating costs and air quality problems in 
Civic and the Central Area 

• limit the increase of the public transport deficit 

• provide opportunities to achieve a more equitable distribution of 
shopping, community and other facilities and services across the 
City. 

To achieve this dispersal, decentralisation of employment and 
other activity needs will be required and the growth of existing centres 
will have to be constrained. In order to determine the broad level of 
the constraints which would have to be imposed on existing centres, 
approximate thresholds were established based on the following 
assumptions: 

• providing job opportunities for 60 per cent of the workers who 
reside in the town to work in the town. This would be achieved 
by providing opportunities in the town centre, local areas, and 
adjacent industrial estates, and 

• recognising that the remaining 40 per cent of workers would, for 
a wide variety of reasons related to job advancement opportunities, 
choice of housing and environment, prefer to work at other 
metropolitan employment locations and accept a large journey to 
work by cross-commuting. 

In order to achieve the level of decentralisation of employment 
proposed, Central Area employment has to be limited to approximately 
65 000 and Civic to approximately 25 000 employees. The town centre 
thresholds established, town populations and other employment in 
the towns are shown in Table 74. 

Table 74 Decentralisation of Employment and Town Centre Thresholds 

Industrial/ 



Eventual 

Resident 

60% Employment 

Local 

Special Use 

Town Centre 


Population 

Employees 

Containment 

Employment 

Employment 

Threshold 

Woden-Weston Creek 

60 000 

27 300 

16 380 

7 030 

- 

9 350 

Belconnen 

83 000 

37 800 

22 700 

5 950 

3 000 

13 750 

Tuggeranong 

89 000 

40 500 

24 000 

5 500 

4 000 

14 500 

Gungahlin 

84 000 

38 200 

22 900 

4 600 

4 300 

14 000 


147 


Capacity of Other Employment Areas 

The Central Area is the main employment area in Canberra within 
which are several nodes including Civic and Parkes/Barton. Because 
the major metropolitan road system tocuses on the Central Area, the 
employment threshold is inextricably linked to the performance and 
capacity of the metropolitan transport system, which is discussed 
elsewhere. In general, it is assumed that further development of 
individual nodes will be limited lirst, to the capacity of the access 
roads, except where these roads can be economically upgraded, and 
second, to the capacity of the land available to accommodate buildings 
and car parking. The analysis suggests there are no immediate 
constraints on any major node, although their cumulative growth has 
implications for the metropolitan road network. For example, there 
is sufficient land available in Parkes/Barton to double the existing 
levels of employment (to a total of over 20 000). This includes 3 000 
jobs to be located in the Parliamentary Zone and the development 
of York Park for offices and extensive car parking. The estimated 
car parking demands at the existing rates of car usage, tor the 
individual employment nodes in the Central Area (excluding Civic) 
in the two options are shown in Table 75. 


Table 75 Estimated Car Parking Demands in the Central Area (excluding Civic Centre) 


Concentrated Plan Dispersed Plan 



Employment 

Car Parking 

Employment 

Car Parking 

ADFA/Duntroon 

& Campbell Park 

5 300 

3 200 

5 300 

3 200 

ANU/CSIRO/Hospital 

8 100 

4 800 

8 100 

4 800 

Anzac Parade/Braddon 

3 300 

2 000 

3 300 

2 000 

Parkes/Barton 

18 600 

10 000 

15 000 

9 000 

Russell 

7 600 

4 600 

7 600 

4 600 


Comparison of the Centres in the Options 

Development and Access Capacity 

The development proposed for the centres in both options is such 
that desirable thresholds are exceeded. Consequently the construction 
of new access roads, multi-level car parks and higher density develop¬ 
ment and redevelopment will be required. Other factors which may 
influence the decisions to build structured car parking are related to 
convenience of access and physical or environmental constraints. 
Distances of over 200 m for short-stay parking and over 500 m for 
long-stay car parking reduce the use and acceptability of those spaces. 
Factors which militate against structured car parks are their initial 
capital costs and visual impacts. 

Civic Centre 

In the Dispersed Plan Civic Centre has an employment level of 
25 000. Under this proposal all the developable land will be occupied, 
and some redevelopment will be required. Furthermore, at the existing 
mode split at least 5 000 car parking spaces will have to be accom¬ 
modated in structures and up to six hectares of additional land would 
have to be made available for parking. 

In order to avoid the unsightly appearance of car parking along 
the major approach roads and from the Parliamentary Zone, it may 
be necessary to restrict the areas of surface parking to their existing 
extent. Under these circumstances and assuming existing mode split, 
up to 8 000 spaces will have to be accommodated in structures. With 
a mode split of 30 per cent - an extreme situation - and no increase 
in the area available for car parking, over 3 000 spaces will have to 
be incorporated in structures. Thus between 4 000 and 8 000 cars will 


148 


have to be accommodated in parking structures under the Dispersed 
Plan, depending on the level of public transport patronage and the 
controls placed on the supply and use of car parking. These would 
need to be constructed incrementally over the twenty years of the plan 
period. An employment level of 25 000 is essential if the practice of 
decentralisation is to continue. 

In contrast, Civic under the Concentrated Plan would exceed all 
the thresholds considered and major intervention and reconstruction 
would be required, if the proposed employment level of 35 000 was 
reached. Extensive redevelopment would also be essential. The 
Commission would no longer be able to assist in the release of vacant 
sites, and development would be totally reliant on lessees applying 
to redevelop their existing buildings. 

Depending on the level of bus use between 11 000 (at 30 per cent 
mode split) and 18 000 (at 15 per cent mode split) car parking spaces 
will be needed in structures. The cost of parking structures will be 
at least $50 million higher than under the Dispersed Plan at the same 
level of mode split. Such a level of provision will be difficult to achieve 
in the twenty years of the plan period (Table 76). 


Table 76 Civic Centre: Parking Demands and Thresholds 


Concentrated Plan Dispersed Plan 



15% Mode 

30% Mode 

15% Mode 

30% Mode 


Split 

Split 

Split 

Split 

Total Parking in the Core 

Number of Parking 

22 200 

17 000 

15 500 

11 800 

Spaces in Structures 

18 000 

11 000 

8 100 

3 200 

Cost of Structures ($ millions) 

110 

70 

50 

20 

Thresholds Exceeded 

All 

All 

Existing 

development 

intensity 

Increased 

development 

intensity 

Existing 

development 

intensity 


Even at a mode split of 39 per cent, (the current rate to the CBD 
of Perth), Civic would still require over 8 000 spaces in structures 
under the Concentrated Plan. The City of Perth is currently twice 
the size Canberra will be at the end of the plan period. Also, it is 
estimated that between 1 500 and 2 000 of the existing surface spaces 
would be lost to development. At a higher mode split, the bus inter¬ 
change would have to increase in size substantially and additional bus 
priority measures would have to be introduced to maintain the 
reliability of the bus service. 

The main arterial road system providing access to Civic will be 
deficient under the Concentrated Plan. An additional arterial road 
will be needed, but no obvious alignment presents itself. In this 
context, it was considered worthwhile comparing the current proposals 
for Civic with the 1962 proposals (Figure 62), which envisaged a 
dominant Civic Centre with an employment of approximately 40 000 
when the metropolitan population grew to 500 000. When the City’s 
population reached 400 000, the employment level in Civic was to be 
about 35 000. It implied mode split to Civic would be similar to 
existing levels. 

The 1962 Plan also made provision for 18 car parking structures 
which, at 1 000 spaces per structure, was similar to the requirement 
determined fora 15 percent mode split. In addition, the Plan included 
two high capacity, peripheral distributor roads with grade-separated 
intersections. The current analysis confirmed these roads would be 


149 



| Parking Structures 

© 

Figure 62 The 1962 Plan for Civic Centre 
Development 


required under the Concentrated Plan. The internal distribution system 
will also require upgrading to support the increased number ot 
buildings and to access the many structured car parks. 


A Civic Centre of 35 000 would severely constrain the extent to 
which employment could be dispersed to new settlement areas. 

Woden Town Centre 

In the Dispersed Plan, Woden Town Centre would be 1 ully 
developed west of the stormwater channel. One car parking structure 
with a capacity of up to 1 500 spaces may be required depending first, 
on the extent of bus travel, and second, on the availability of suitable 
land for surface parking. Little additional land can be earmarked for 
parking in the core area. If development extends to the eastern sector, 
car parking could be provided south of the Woden TAFE, removing 
the need for structured parking. 

No major roadworks would be required except possibly the realign¬ 
ment of Athllon Drive into Cailam Street. 

The size of Woden Town Centre under the Dispersed Plan will 
enable the policy of decentralisation to continue, by facilitating the 
establishment of a town centre in Tuggeranong. A constrained size 
will ensure that Woden Town Centre does not compete unduly with 
Civic Centre. 

Under the Concentrated Plan , Woden Town Centre will fully 
occupy Woden East and require between 1 500 (30 per cent mode split) 
and 2 700 (15 per cent split) car parking spaces in structures depending 
on public transport usage (Table 77). The cost of car parking structures 
would be $ 10-$ 15 million higher than for the Dispersed Plan. 

The extended area of the town centre, including Woden East, will 
result in unacceptable walking distances and less support for the 
facilities in the core from the more remote office workers. A further 
implication of an extended town centre is that public transport usage 
would be lower in Woden East than in the core area. A comparison 
of the commuter mode split to Braddon (8 per cent) and to Civic (16 
per cent) shows the decline in the usage of buses as the distance from 
the centre, the public transport interchange and the location of high 
quality services increases. 


150 








I able 77 W oden Town Centre : Parking Demands and Thresholds 


Woden 

Total Parking in the Core 
Number of Parking 
Spaees in Structures 
Cost of Structures ($ millions) 
Thresholds Exceeded 


Woden 

(including Woden East) 

Total Parking in the Core 
Number of Parking 
Spaces in Structures 
Cost of Structures ($ millions) 
Thresholds Exceeded 


Concentrated Plan 

Dispersed Plan 

15% Mode Split 

30% Mode Split 

15% Mode Split 

30% Mode Split 

10 800 

8 400 

6 800 

5 300 

7 000 

3 000 

1 500 


40 

20 

10 

- 

Decentralisation 

Decentralisation 

Decentralisation 

Decentralisation 

Existing and 
increased 
development 
intensity 

Existing and 
increased 
development 
intensity 



Arterial Access 

Arterial Access 



15% Mode Split 

30% Mode Split 

15% Mode Split 

30% Mode Split 

10 800 

8 400 

6 800 

5 300 

2 700 

1 500 

_ 


15 

10 

- 

- 

Existing and 
increased 
development 
intensity 

Existing 

development 

intensity 

Decentralisation 

Decentralisation 

Arterial Access 

Arterial Access 




If the town centre is kept to the west of the stormwater channel 
between 3 000 (30 per cent mode split) and 7 000 (15 per cent mode 
split) car parking spaces will have to be located in structures, at a 
cost of between $15-$40 million. 

The Woden Town Centre, as proposed under the Concentrated 
Plan, will require major arterial road improvements, unless the public 
transport usage can be increased. Hindmarsh Drive will need to be 
grade separated from Melrose Drive, Botany Street and Athllon Drive 
at an approximate cost of $5 million. The bus interchange will also 
require upgrading and bus-only lanes will be needed through the 
centre. 

Beleonnen Town Centre 

Under the Dispersed Plan, Beleonnen Town Centre will not be 
fully developed. In theory, all the car parking demands could be 
accommodated on-surface. However, the structure of the centre is 
such that unacceptable walking distances would arise unless at least 
one structure is provided. 

In the future, land opposite the lake front will become a stronger 
focus for development and can be expected to generate high parking 
demands. No significant car parking sites will be available, either 
because the slope of the land renders them impracticable, or the 
location, for example the lake edge, is unacceptable for both visual 
and environmental reasons. Accordingly, major surface parking could 
be accommodated only at distances approaching a kilometre from 
the point of demand. Short-stay parking should be provided within 
about 200 m of the facilities being served. The acceptability of long- 
stay parking diminishes, if it is over 500 m from the point of demand. 
In order to ensure a continuous development frontage in the vicinity 
of Lake Ginninderra, up to 1 500 parking spaces will be required in 
structures, in addition to the existing car parking structures. 

Under the Concentrated Plan, Beleonnen Town Centre will be 
developed in excess of the capacity of the available land and redevelop¬ 
ment pressures can be expected. Between 1 500 (at 30 per cent mode 
split) and 3 000 (at 15 per cent mode split) additional car parking 
spaces will be required in structures at a cost of $10 to $20 million 
(Table 78). No additional arterial road capacity w ill be required for 


151 


Table 78 Belconnen Town Centre : Parking Demands and Thresholds 


Total Parking in the Core 

Number of Parking 

Spaces in Structures 

Cost of Structures ($ millions) 

Thresholds Exceeded 


Concentrated Plan 


15% Mode Split 

30% Mode Split 

10 600 

8 200 

3 000 

1 500 

20 

10 

Decentralisation 

Decentralisation 

Existing and 
increased 
development 
intensity 

Existing and 
increased 
development 
intensity 


Dispersed Plan 

15% Mode Split 30% Mode Split 

8 300 6 400 

1 500 
10 


Belconnen Town Centre, other than the duplication ot Aikman Drive, 
which will be needed under both plan options to provide access lor 
Gungahlin residents. 


Retail Evaluation 

The distribution of retail floorspace between towns and between 
hierarchy levels needs to consider factors such as the accessibility ot 
consumers to retail facilities, the impact ot new centres on existing 
centres, changes in the retail industry such as larger supermarkets and 
discount store retailing and the impact of these trends on the spacing 
of centres. 

The Concentrated and Dispersed Plans were tested on the basis 
of the following key assumptions: 

• a metropolitan provision of 1.43m : per capita, which assumed no 
growth in Fyshwick or Queanbeyan both of which have 
considerably lower turnovers than the metropolitan average 

• between 43 per cent and 50 per cent of retail expenditure would 
be attracted to town centres 

• the per capita retail expenditure would be maintained in real terms 

• work-based expenditure at town centres would be maintained 

• no allowance was made for non-Canberra resident expenditure. 
In 1980, there was an estimated inflow of S38 million to the ACT 
of which about $7.3 million was spent at Civic, S6.8 million at 
Woden Town Centre and $4.7 million at the Belconnen Town 
Centre. As such, town centre turnover is likely to be understated 
in both options 

• in the Concentrated Plan, the expanded group centres in Tug- 
geranong and Gungahlin w'ere assumed to trade at $1 500 per m : 
(1980 levels). They are expected to trade above this level, given 
the proposed town populations. As such, the trading levels at the 
existing town centres may be slightly overstated 

• turnover per square metre and ‘retail’ floorspace includes that 
portion of service trades floorspace in which retail sale of goods 
occurs. 

Concentrated Plan 

Under the Concentrated Plan, the floorspace provided and the 
average turnover per square metre of floorspace at each of the town 
centres would be as shown in Table 79. 

The expenditure per square metre at each of the town centres 
would be above the 1980 average trading level of $1 310 per m : with 
the exception of Civic. Although Civic’s trading levels would be 
assisted by the inflow of non-resident expenditure, a provision of 
110 OOOnr appears excessive. For Civic to trade at $1 350 per nr , 
its level under the Dispersed Plan, the provision would need to be 
reduced to 102 000m 2 . 


152 


fable 79 Retail Floorspace and Turnover: Concentrated Plan 


Centre 


Floorspace 

(m 2 ) 


Expenditure Per 
Square Metre 
(1980 Dollar Value) 


Civic Centre 
Belconnen Town Centre 
Woden Town Centre 
Gungahlin Town Centre 
Erindale Centre 


110 000 

1 190 - 

1 250 

90 000 

1 320 - 

1 420 

90 000 

1 500 - 

1 680 

18 000 

1 500 


21 000 

1 500 



Woden Town Centre already trades at a level substantially above 
other centres, a result of the lower level of floorspace provision in 
Tuggeranong. 

At 1980 Woden Town Centre trading levels, the floorspace 
supportable at each of the centres given that the level of floorspace 
at the major centres in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin would be fixed 
at 21 000m 2 and 18 000m 2 respectively, would be as shown in Table 80. 


Table 80 Retail Floorspace Supportable: Concentrated Plan (1) 


Floorspace (m 2 ) 

87 000 - 92 000 
79 000 - 85 000 
90 000 - 101 000 

(l) At 1980 Woden Town Centre turnover levels. 


Centre 
Civic Centre 
Belconnen Town Centre 
Woden Town Centre 


Dispersed Plan 

The floorspace provided and the estimated turnover per square 
metre of floorspace under the Dispersed Plan would be as shown in 
Table 81. 

Table 81 Retail Floorspace and Turnover: Dispersed Plan 


Centre 

Floorspace 

(m 2 ) 

Expenditure Per 
Square Metre 
(1980 Dollar Value) 

Civic Centre 

76 000 

1 320 - 1 350 

Belconnen Town Centre 

70 000 

1 400 - 1 450 

Woden Town Centre 

70 000 

1 430 - 1 470 

Gungahlin Town Centre 

47 000 

1 210 - 1 440 

Tuggeranong Town Centre/ 
Erindale Centre 

64 000 

1 270 - 1 490 


The upper turnover figure is probably a better estimate with the 
possible exceptions of Civic Centre and Woden Town Centre, w hich 
have large group centres in their catchments. In 1980, Inner Canberra 
residents spent only about 40 per cent, and Woden-Weston Creek 
residents spent only about 43 per cent of their retail expenditure at 
the town centre level, primarily as a result of the group and local centre 
provision in these districts. However, the inflow of tourist and other 
non-resident expenditure will assist the trading levels of Civic Centre 
and Woden Towm Centre. In Tuggeranong and Gungahlin, the likely 
lower provision at the group and local level will result in a higher- 
than-average proportion of expenditure occurring at the town centre 
level. In Belconnen, where the provision at the group and local level 
is about 0.37m 2 per capita, the town centre attracted over 50 per cent 
of expenditure in 1980. 

The upper expenditure range for each of the town centres is 
expected to be above the 1980 Canberra average turnover at town 


centres of $1 310 per nr' , but below that experienced by Woden Town 
Centre in 1980. At trading levels equivalent to those in W oden Town 
Centre in 1980 ($1 500 per nr), the floorspace supportable at each 
of the centres would be as shown in Table 82. 


Table 82 Retail Floorspace Supportable: Dispersed Plan (1) 

Floorspace (nr) 

67 000 - 68 500 

65 500 - 67 500 

66 500 - 68 500 
38 000 - 45 000 

54 000 - 63 500 

(I) At 1980 Woden Town Centre turnover levels. 


Civic Centre 
Belconnen Town Centre 
Woden Town Centre 
Gungahlin Town Centre 
Tuggeranong Town Centre/ 
Erindale Centre 


The benefit to retailers and developers ot having each ot the centres 
trading at a rate equivalent to the 1980 Woden Town Centre level 
needs to be weighed against the additional benefit ot increased 
floorspace for the residents ot the new towns. The determination ot 
appropriate trading levels needs to take into account such (actors as 
Canberra’s high turnover per square metre, its floorspace provision 
per capita relative to the State Capitals, comparative rents and other 
costs. 

Comparison of the Plans 

The Concentrated Plan, through its restriction of floorspace in 
both Gungahlin and Tuggeranong, would impose additional 
accessibility costs on the residents of these districts. Those benet itting 
most from this strategy would be the developers and lessees ot the 
expanded group centres in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin, and the 
developers and lessees at the existing centres (Table 83). 


Table 83 Retail Floorspace Per Capita (nr) 


Inner Canberra (1) 

Woden-Weston Creek 

Belconnen 

Tuggeranong 

Gungahlin 

Queanbeyan 


Concentrated Plan 

3.35 

2.03 

1.44 

0.55 

0.56 

1.33 


Dispersed Plan 

2.81 

1.71 

1.21 

1.00 

0.91 

1.33 


(1) Includes Fyshwick. 


One possible benefit to consumers at the centres under the 
Concentrated Plan could be that, because some of the centres would 
be larger, a greater range of merchandise might be made available 
at these centres. 

The Dispersed Plan proposes retailing opportunities in 
Tuggeranong and Gungahlin at a level comparable to the other towns, 
thereby improving residents’ accessibility to retail opportunities. The 
development of the Tuggeranong Town Centre would reduce pressures 
for the expansion of W'oden Town Centre whilst at the same time 
assisting Civic’s metropolitan centre role. As a consequence the 
Dispersed Plan is preferred. 

The functional mix of stores at the Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 
Town Centres is uncertain and will require further investigation. 

The foregoing analysis is premised on factors such as the 
population and employment distribution and the continuance of the 


154 


1980 per capita expenditure levels; and is subject to review as 
circumstances change. It is indicative, however, of the floorspace and 
trading levels supportable at the town centres. 

Social and Community Facilities 

Employment and retail opportunities are only two of the activities 
provided at centres. Other facilities which cater for the social life of 
the community and are of immediate importance to surburban 
households are also located in centres; these include banks, post 
offices, libraries, health services, laundries, hairdressers, repair 
services, restaurants, coffee shops, clubs and a range of entertainment. 
The vast majority of these facilities progressively occupy centres in 
the new areas as space becomes available. Government services are 
also provided in a similar manner. The Dispersed Plan, because of 
its provision of town centres in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin, was 
considered to make a greater range of opportunities available to 
residents of those areas and therefore could achieve a more equitable 
provision of social and community facilities to serve the total Canberra 
community. 

Su mm ary 

In the centres evaluation both the Concentrated and Dispersed 
Plans w^ere assessed to determine the performance in centres in terms 
of development potential of the vacant land, the traffic capacity of 
the arterial roads accessing the centre, maintaining an effective urban 
structure, retail performance and the provision of a wide range of 
social and community facilities. 

The conclusion that w^as drawn from the evaluation was that the 
existing centres could accommodate the level of development proposed 
in the Dispersed Plan. However, Civic was found to be approaching 
thresholds which would be costly to overcome. It was estimated that, 
at the three existing centres, between 3 000 and 11 000 spaces would 
be needed in car parking structures at a cost of S20-S70 million 
(Table 84). 

Table 84 Summary of Total Car Parking Requirements in Town Centres (1) 

Concentrated Plan Dispersed Plan 


Number of Spaces 

15% Mode Split 

30% Mode Split 

15% Mode Split 

30% Mode Split 

in Structures 

28 000 

15 500 

11 100 

3 200 

Cost of Structures ($ millions) 

(1) Excludes Woden East. 

170 

100 

70 

20 


In contrast, the Concentrated Plan was assessed to require between 
15 000 and 28 000 car parking spaces in structures at a cost of 
$ 100-S170 million. Because Woden and Civic were not designed for 
the levels of employment proposed in the Concentrated Plan, both 
centres would require major additions to their road networks. 

The arterial road system in Civic would require one or both of 
the arterial by-pass routes envisaged in the 1962 Plan and major 
improvements to the internal distributor road system. Bus-only lanes 
would be essential as well as an extension of the bus interchange. 

In Woden Town Centre, Hindmarsh Drive would need grade 
separation from Ainsworth Street to Melrose Drive inclusive. 

The Dispersed Plan was considered preferable from the overall 
viewpoint of the provision of retail floorspace and social and 
community facilities as residents in both Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 


155 


would have better accessibility to these facilities. It would also relieve 
pressure on Woden Town Centre to expand, and prevent intrusions 
into Civic Centre’s market area. The Dispersed Plan would also enable 
the continuation of the efficient urban structure already developed 
in Canberra. 


156 


Aims Achievement Evaluation 


The level and distribution of benefits and costs differ between the 
Concentrated and Dispersed Plans. They have different impacts on 
the achievement of the aims of the plan: image, social and economic 
need, environment, choice, conservation, movement, flexibility, and 
implementation. This section reviews the performance of the 
alternative plan options in relation to these aims. 

Image 

Each Plan would maintain Canberra’s landscape character by 
limiting development on the hills and ridges, by maintaining and 
developing the National Capital Open Space System, and through 
other design elements, such as the limitation of building height in Civic 
Centre. 

The potential impacts of the Plans differ in the implications of 
their prospective employment distributions on the amenity of the 
Central Area. The Concentrated Plan, due to its higher employment 
levels in Parkes/Barton and Civic, would result in greater traffic 
intrusion into residential streets, greater amounts of land being re¬ 
quired for parking, higher traffic volumes and deterioration in air 
quality in the Central Area. The Dispersed Plan is more likely to be 
supportive of Canberra’s role as the National Capital. 

Social and Economic Need 

The key metropolitan planning function is to determine the best 
arrangement of activities and population subject to the constraints 
facing the Commission. A metropolitan plan works within parameters 
set by population and labourforce projections, although sensitivity 
to different growth rates is continually monitored. The plan’s primary 
concern is not w ith issues such as the widening of Canberra’s economic 
base or the social and economic consequences of unemployment, 
although these are fundamental considerations related to the future 
growth of Canberra. 

The economic implications of alternative plan forms relate to 
factors such as the level of investment required to implement the plan 
and the on-going costs of operating the City, including car parking, 
roads, operating the public transport system, land servicing, 
commercial developments and the ability of businesses to remain 
viable. 

Social implications include considerations of the lengths and costs 
of journeys to work, school, shops, recreation and community 
facilities, and housing choice and cost. 

The transportation testing indicated that the Dispersed Plan would 
require low'er levels of road, car parking and public transport invest¬ 
ment. As the settlement pattern was assumed to be the same for both 
the Concentrated and Dispersed Plans, the land servicing and house 
construction costs would be similar for both plan options. As there 
is insufficient time to develop Gungahlin prior to the development 
of Lanyon (under the population growth parameters of the report), 
the economic and financial costs of different phasing options were 
not considered to be relevant to the analysis. In terms of centres 
development, the costs of developing Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 
Town Centres would be less than that imposed by the expansion of 
Civic, Woden and Belconnen envisaged under the Concentrated Plan. 

The Concentrated Plan might be expected to confer benefits 
primarily on: 

• developers and lessees of existing centres, w ho would benefit from 

the restriction of retailing and commercial opportunities in 

Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 


157 


• developers and lessees of the district centres in Tuggeranong and 
Gungahlin through the lack of shopping choice and competition 
in these districts 

• property owners in the existing towns, whose land values would 
be increased by the expansion ot Civic Centre and the existing town 
centres. 

One often suggested benefit ot the concentration ot employment 
and retailing is the development of a more ‘vital’ city centre. However, 
the simple employment expansion ot Civic from 16 000 to 35 000 
under the Concentrated Plan, would not, by itself, establish a more 
‘vital’ city. This employment expansion would assist Civic retailers 
by about $30 million per annum by the 408 000 Canberra/Queanbeyan 
population level. The ‘out ot hours demand tor Civic services and 
facilities is conditioned by the quality and variety ot services Civic 
offers. These are not simply a function of employment. Increased land 
values in Civic under the Concentrated Plan would place pressures 
on lower rent activities to relocate, many ot which, such as restaurants, 
clubs and bookstores, give centres the diversity and urbanity many 
people desire. These activities would have greater opportunities for 
location in Civic under the Dispersed Plan, as a result ot the lower 
pressure on land values. 

Civic is the most central of the town centres to the Canberra/ 
Queanbeyan population ot 408 000. As such, it has the capacity to 
cater for demands that cannot be met by individual town markets. 
Under both the Concentrated and the Dispersed Plans, Civic is seen 
as the tourist, cultural and entertainment centre of Canberra. 

The Dispersed Plan's advantages include: 

• Higher Self-Containment 

The establishment of town centres in Gungahlin and Tuggeranong 
would provide greater equality of access to shops, employment, 
recreation and community facilities across the metropolitan area. 
Opportunities are also provided to residents ot these districts to 
work, shop and recreate in the towns in which they live. The 
benefits of the Dispersed Plan are reflected by the degree of self¬ 
containment. 

During the morning peak, the level of self-containment (the 
proportion of trips which start and finish in the same town) in 
Tuggeranong and Gungahlin would improve substantially under 
the Dispersed Plan. In the Concentrated Plan, the level of self¬ 
containment in Tuggeranong is 21 per cent and in Gungahlin 
22 per cent. The self-containment rate increases to 41 per cent and 
35 per cent respectively under the Dispersed Plan. Higher rates 
of self-containment reduce the level of road capacity required. 

Particularly needy groups, such as the unemployed and those 
without access to a car, would have better access to facilities in 
terms of both time and cost under the Dispersed Plan. (The 
particular needs of sub-groups such as government housing 
tenants, the aged, and the disabled are considered largely through 
the siting of their housing, which is more a local planning concern. 
However, they would all benefit by having better accessibility to 
town centre facilities). 

• Lower Average Travel Costs 

Under the Concentrated Plan, average trip cost in the morning 
peak hour is 24 per cent higher than the average existing trip cost, 
while the Dispersed Plan’s average trip cost is 11 per cent higher. 
Under the Concentrated Plan, Tuggeranong residents’ average 
morning peak-hour trip cost is 76 per cent higher than the current 
average morning peak cost, and under the Dispersed Plan 40 per 
cent higher. The relative impact of each plan option by district 
is shown in Table 85. 

Average travel costs in the morning peak hour in Inner Canberra, 
Woden and Belconnen rise in both plan options as a result of 


158 


Table 85 Relative Trip Costs 



Existing 

Concentrated 

Dispersed 


(1982) 

Plan 

Plan 

North Canberra 

76 

92 

81 

South Canberra 

122 

90 

84 

Woden-Weston Creek 

102 

115 

106 

Belconnen 

77 

140 

123 

Tuggeranong 

135 

176 

140 

Gungahlin 

121 

140 

125 

Canberra Average 

100 

124 

111 


increased congestion, although this is more pronounced in the 
Concentrated Plan. 

• More Equitable Distribution of Land Values 

Property owners in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin would receive 
benefits, in terms of increased land values through their proximity 
to urban opportunities. There is greater equality of benefit under 
the Dispersed Plan. 

The Concentrated Plan would have major impacts on residential 
amenity in areas surrounding Civic. A large Civic is more likely 
to result in higher levels of intrusion by non-residential activities. 
This intrusion would have the effect of increasing land values, and, 
through them, property prices and rates. This would work to the 
detriment of aged owners in meeting their rates and lower income 
groups, who could not afford to live close to the amenities and 
employment opportunities that Civic would offer. They would be 
forced to locate in areas of lower accessibility. 

Land values in parts of Woden and Belconnen would similarly 
rise, but not to the same extent as in the Central Area. The net 
result of the intrusion of non-residential uses would be a reduction 
in the population dependent on Civic for shopping and other 
facilities, contrary to the aim of assisting the development of a 
‘vital’ Civic. 

A ‘large’ Civic would result in substantial traffic intrusion through 
residential streets and significant deterioration of the environment. 
Employment concentration in Civic could result in high parking 
intrusion in areas such as Reid and Braddon, if the parking 
structures required were not provided, or if there were resistance 
to the parking charges imposed. 

Environment 

Ecological Resources 

Because development in Gungahlin and south-eastern 
Tuggeranong is common to both the Concentrated and Dispersed 
Plans, there are no major differences between the options, in terms 
of the impact on ecological resources, open space and recreation areas, 
or the viability of rural land use. However, the implications of 
development in both areas will need to be given due consideration 
during planning, design and construction so as to minimise the impact 
on soil erosion, drainage systems, sites of ecological significance, 
recreation resources, rural productivity and management of open 
space. 

These issues are of greatest concern with regard to the impact of 
peripheral parkways and arterial roads. It is also apparent that the 
environmental impact of development in south-eastern Tuggeranong 
will be greater than in Gungahlin largely because of the presence of 
(he Murrumbidgee River and large open space and rural areas 
surrounding the new town area. 

The most significant differences between the Concentrated and 
Dispersed Plans in environmental terms relate to the impact on the 

159 


existing environment of Canberra, particularly with iegaid to noise 
and air quality. Noise impacts are discussed later in this section. The 
Transport Evaluation indicated that the Dispersed Plan would offer 
advantages over the Concentrated Plan, in reducing the concentrations 
of air pollutants in certain parts of Canberra. An air quality modelling 
technique is currently being used to predict future concentrations of 
carbon monoxide throughout the urban area. 

Open Space and Recreational Use 

Differences in the two plan options are apparent with regard to 
the pressure of increased recreational use on local resources. However, 
this pressure is likely to be inevitable for either Plan, with the location 
rather than the magnitude ot the problem being different in each. 
There is scope for minimising the impact ot increased recreation 
pressure during the planning process. 

The major difference between the plan options relates to the 
implications for recreational use in the vicinity ot major employment 
areas. In the Concentrated Plan, the intensification ot employment 
in Civic would increase the pressure on recreation resources around 
the Lake Burley Griffin foreshores. These resources are currently not 
developed to a sufficient extent to accommodate this increased usage 
and further intensive recreation facilities (tor example, similar to 
Weston Park) may be needed, perhaps in the Acton Peninsula and 
Ferry Terminal areas. 

The requirement for a third lake crossing in the Concentrated Plan 
would also have a detrimental effect on the recreational resources of 
Black Mountain Peninsula, Lake Burley Griffin and parts of 
Yarralumla. 

Noise Impacts 

Adverse impacts resulting from both the Concentrated and the 
Dispersed Plans, include the following: 

• Ainslie Avenue - potential problem area as a result of Monash 
Drive with possible noise impacts in Ainslie, Reid and Braddon 

• Limestone Avenue - noise guidelines will be exceeded 

• Majura Avenue - noise guidelines will be exceeded 

• Northbourne Avenue - noise guidelines will be exceeded at several 
points 

• Lyneham - the impact on this suburb will depend on the eventual 
location and design of John Dedman Drive/Arterial. For example, 
if traffic is allowed to pass through Lyneham, the residential 
environment will be detrimentally affected 

• Hindmarsh Drive - potential problem at several points, particularly 
between Melrose Drive and Launceston Street 

• Deakin/Forrest/Griffith - traffic could create problems within 
these suburbs. 

Adverse impacts peculiar to the Concentrated Plan include: 

• Antill Street - existing problem likely to be aggravated 

• Wakefield Avenue - potential problem created 

• Yarralumla - potential problem created by dramatic change in 
traffic patterns through this area 

• Turner - existing problem aggravated and further potential 
problems created by third lake crossing encouraging traffic on 
Barry Drive. 

No adverse impacts w'ere identified which were peculiar to the 
Dispersed Plan. 


160 


Improvements resulting from both Plans were considered to be 
of a minimal nature and did not appear to favour any particular 
option. 

In summary, on a comparative basis, the Concentrated Plan would 
have a marginally greater impact, notably in the Yarralumla area and 
in North Canberra along Antill Street, Wakefield Avenue and Barry 
Drive. 

Both plan options would significantly increase traffic noise in the 
inner city suburbs of Braddon and Reid, particularly along Limestone 
Avenue. The Concentrated Plan would result in a less satisfactory 
overall residential noise environment than the Dispersed Plan. 

Within the general framework of the plan options presented, it 
will be necessary to explore more detailed traffic management options 
which will alleviate the existing and potential traffic noise problems. 

Water Resources 

An evaluation of the two options was carried out to determine 
their implications for the augmentation and extension of hydraulic 
infrastructure, and for water uses. 

Hydraulic Infrastructure 

Water Supply Management 

The population projections indicate that there will be a need to 
augment water supply headworks during the plan period. It is possible 
that the next stage may be a further development within the Cotter 
catchment, rather than the construction of Tennent Reservoir. Given 
the lower growth rates, the adoption of second class water supply 
systems becomes more economically attractive. 

The major infrastructure components will comprise: 

• construction of the Googong Link Main to Tuggeranong 

• extension of the Tuggeranong bulk supply system 

• construction of the Spence to Hall bulk supply main, and extension 
of bulk supply into Gungahlin 

• extension of the Googong main from Campbell to Hackett and 
north-east Gungahlin 

• construction of Stage 2 of the Googong Water Treatment Plant 

• upgrading of the Mount Stromlo Water Treatment Plant. 

Wastewater Management 

The population projections indicate that there will be a need to 
augment the capacity of the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control 
Centre during the plan period. Experience gained during the 
commissioning of the plant indicates that the standards adopted in 
1971 are appropriate to the protection of downstream waters. The 
high cost of high-quality treatment can be offset to some extent by 
utilising economies of scale available with the augmentation of the 
existing plant. Augmentation also provides an opportunity to 
incorporate the benefit of advances in wastewater treatment design 
since the early 1970s. 

The Main Outfall Sewer, a tunnel constructed in 1918, has been 
operating under surcharge conditions for some years. In the interest 
of safety of the structure, and in view of a portion of Gungahlin falling 
into the Main Outfall Sewer catchment, augmentation of this structure 
will be required. 

The extension of trunk sewers will be required in Tuggeranong 
(Lanyon Trunk Sewer) and Gungahlin (Ginninderra Trunk Sewer, 
Sullivans Creek Trunk Sewer) to service the new urban areas. 


161 


Surface Water Management . 

The development of new urban areas requires the installation ot 
systems for managing runoff from these areas consistent with the 
protection of life, property and urban amenity. Since the 1970s, there 
has been a shift to incorporating waterways into the urban environment 
as an integral part of the open space system, such that the construction 
of water pollution control ponds must respond to recreational and 
aesthetic criteria as well as to technical criteria. 

The water quality evaluation has indicated the importance ot 
containing urban runoff pollutants in order to protect the water qualit\ 
and recreational amenity of the Murrumbidgee River and Lake 
Ginninderra. The construction ot Village Creek Weir, the 
Tuggeranong water feature, and ot a water pollution control pond 
at Point Hut would be required in ruggeranong to protect the 
Murrumbidgee River. 

Water quality analysis ot proposals tor Lake Tuggeranong has 
indicated that the lake water quality will tall short ot a standard 
appropriate to a range of recreational uses. Means ot resolving this 
problem are currently under study. 

The construction of the Stranger Creek and Point Hut C reek Main 
Drains will be required to service new urban areas. 

In the case of Gungahlin, it is proposed to retain, as tar as is 
practicable, the natural drainage system as the principal mechanism 
for containing urban runoff pollutants. The assimilative capacity ot 
these systems will be augmented by the incorporation ot a number 
of wetlands or control ponds into the drainage system. The 
effectiveness of these systems in containing urban runoff pollutants 
will be dependent on the extent to which peaks in runoft can be 
minimised. The retention of natural depressions, the adoption ot 
indirect drainage and the avoidance ot development on unsuitable soils 
are some of the techniques that may be employed to minimise peaks 
in runoff. 

W ater Use Implications 

The options, incorporating the water supply, wastewater and 
surface water management assumptions identified earlier, were 
analysed by means of the Streamflow, Riverwater Quality, River 
Macrophyte, and Lake Loading Models. 

With the construction of Village Creek Weir and the lake in 
Tuggeranong, the analysis indicated that there will be a significant 
improvement in the water quality of the Murrumbidgee River 
downstream of the Tuggeranong Creek confluence. The diversion of 
Stranger Creek to Tuggeranong Creek will avoid the discharge of 
urban runoff at Pine Island. An increase in the incidence of 
macrophytes and occasional bacteriological pollution will occur 
downstream of Point Hut Creek, although generally water quality 
will be well within primary contact (swimming) standards. 

It is estimated that the drainage provisions in Gungahlin (retention 
of natural channels, incorporation of wetlands, constraints on urban 
form) will limit the additional nutrient loading on Lake Ginninderra 
to 30 per cent, while reducing the hydraulic retention time by 20 per 
cent. The Lake Loading Model indicated that the net effect of these 
changes will be a 5 per cent increase in algal levels. 

As a result of increased use of Googong Reservoir for water supply 
purposes, and further urban development (portion of Gungahlin) in 
the catchment, there will be a marginal increase in algal levels (10 per 
cent) in Lake Burley Griffin. However, the Lake Loading Model 
indicated that this increase will be more than offset by the reduced 
discharge of nutrients in sewage effluent following the upgrading of 
the Queanbeyan Sewage Treatment Works. 


162 


Choice 

The Dispersed Plan would provide greater choice within the urban 
area as it involves establishing town centres in both Tuggeranong and 
Gungahlin and the employment, retail and community facilities this 
would entail. 

The Dispersed Plan would produce relatively lower pressures on 
land prices surrounding Civic and the town centres. As such, it would 
allow greater access to housing near these centres than the 
Concentrated Plan. 

As the settlement sequence was assumed to be the same for the 
two plan options, the level of choice in new housing areas would be 
largely the same. In the next few years, there will be some choice 
between Tuggeranong, Belconnen and Woden-Weston Creek. There 
will be a period, though, where housing choice for new standard 
dwellings will be restricted to Tuggeranong. New' medium-density 
dwellings will, however, be available in a number of towms throughout 
the plan period, either through development of vacant sites or through 
redevelopment. Redevelopment is likely to be greater under the 
Concentrated Plan, as a result of the employment distribution. 

Conservation 

As the settlement pattern is the same for the two plan options, 
the impacts on the natural and rural areas and river systems would 
be similar. In relation to the man-made environment the higher 
employment levels in Civic are likely to result in greater urban change 
pressures in Inner Canberra. As a result, the Concentrated Plan would 
pose a greater threat to the conservation of Canberra’s heritage. 

Flexibility 

A metropolitan plan requires the capacity to be able to respond 
to different rates of growth, and other changes in the social, political 
and economic environments. In Canberra, the level of growth has 
varied from about 11 000 per annum in the early to mid 1970s to 3 300 
per annum in 1980-81. A drop in the rates of population increase 
affects the demand for land, housing, education facilities and retail 
floorspace. As Canberra’s economy is likely to continue to be 
dominated by the government sector, it will continue to be susceptible 
to changes in government policy. 

Possible changes w'hich might influence the implementation of the 
metropolitan plan include: 

• variations in rates of growth 

• limited funding 

• increased energy prices 

• ACT self-government. 

Variations in Rates of Growth 

Slower rates of growth extend the time period over which a plan 
is implemented. The longer the plan period, the more likely are 
deviations from the assumptions underlying the plan. 

The level of growth influences the timing of employment dispersal 
and the decision as to whether Lanyon or Gungahlin should follow 
the development of North-East Tuggeranong. If Canberra grows at 
the rate of natural increase, the 1991 population would be 257 500, 
the workforce about 117 200 and the number of Public Service Act 
(PSA) office users 35 900. Settlement in North-East Tuggeranong 
(including the Town Spine) would not be completed until about 1995. 

In this scenario, the establishment of an office employment centre 
in Tuggeranong would be delayed until after 1991. Between 1983 and 


163 


1991, PSA office employment would grow by only 3 300, all of which 
would occur at existing centres. Between 1991 and 2001, PSA office 
employment would grow by 3 600, allowing some discretion to 
establish an office centre in Tuggeranong. 

Under conditions of slower growth, the development of Gungahlin 
could proceed before development of Lanyon. Under the 
Concentrated Plan, this would result in transport advantages to 
Gungahlin as it is more accessible than Lanyon to the proposed 
employment centres. The development of Gungahlin prior to Lanyon 
would, however, require the earlier committal ol investment. 

A slower growth rate would not preclude the development of town 
centres in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin. A 1 uggeranong population 
of 89 000 would be able to support retail floorspace in the order of 
50 000m : at the town centre, and the level of employment distributed 
to the centres could be as great, though over a longer time period. 

Regardless of the rates of growth, the transport and social 
consequences of alternative land use distributions would still be felt. 

Limited Funding from Government 

The metropolitan plan requires substantial investment by the public 
and private sectors for its implementation. I he Dispersed Plan requires 
lower levels of infrastructure investment by the Commonwealth 
Government and assists in reducing its operational costs. As the total 
amount of office, retail, housing, industrial and residential land 
development is assumed to be the same tor the two plan options, the 
level of investment by the private sector required is likely to be similar 
for both the Concentrated and Dispersed Plans. A possible exception 
may be in the development of office space. II the government decides 
that the private sector should construct offices, the private sector 
would prefer to build at existing centres, particularly Civic, as they 
are proven investment locations. For the private sector to construct 
offices for government tenancy in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin, 
assurances concerning occupancy may need to be given. They would 
be assisted by the likely lower costs of office sites in the new towns. 

Adoption of the Concentrated Plan could result in major phasing 
difficulties in periods of government expenditure restraint. Failure 
to provide the road and car parking capacity required would result 
in increased lengths and costs of journeys to work, higher energy 
usage, air pollution, and increased parking intrusion in residential 
streets, particularly near Civic. 

Increased Energy Costs 

The Dispersed Plan is likely to be able to cope better with increases 
in energy costs than the Concentrated Plan. This is because the 
establishment of town centres in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin would 
provide opportunities for the residents of these districts to have shorter 
journeys to work, comparison shopping and community facilities. 
Higher levels cf self-containment result in shorter distances for the 
movement of people and goods. 

The Dispersed Plan would allow the efficient servicing of these 
nodes by public transport, thereby minimising some of the costs 
associated with the suburbanisation of employment in other cities. 

ACT Self-Government 

The nature and form of self-government for the ACT is yet to 
be determined. No matter what the nature of self-government, the 
economic, social and transport impacts of the Concentrated and 
Dispersed Plans would remain. Whether self-government w'ould result 
in a greater or lesser likelihood of implementing a plan cannot be 


164 


known, as it would depend on the values and opinions of the 
representatives eleeted and the financial arrangements under which 
self-government occurs. 

Implementation 

Employment 

The implementation of the Dispersed Plan is likely to rely on the 
ability of the Commission to disperse Public Service Act (PSA) office 
employment to the new towns, and the overall growth in PSA office 
employment. It is considered that the opportunities to direct other 
government employment to the new towns will be limited, and that 
the private sector employment attracted will be related to serving the 
needs of the town populations. If opportunities to disperse employment 
in these other employment sectors do arise, however, the ability to 
implement the Dispersed Plan will increase. 

The establishment of the Woden and Belconnen Town Centres 
relied on the dispersal of PSA office employment. At March 1983, 
PSA office employment at these centres totalled 9 700, about 30 per 
cent of the total PSA office employment in the ACT. Between 1968 
(when the first offices at the Woden Town Centre were occupied) and 
1983, the number of PSA office users increased from 15 000 to 32 600. 
Woden and Belconnen Town Centres were able to attract 55 per cent 
of this growth. 

Within the plan period, PSA office employment is likely to increase 
by 20 300. If the Tuggeranong and Gungahlin Town Centres attained 
a 55 per cent share of growth, as did Woden and Belconnen Town 
Centres between 1968 and 1983, PSA office employment in these 
centres would be 11 200 (Table 86). 


Table 86 Growth in Public Service Act Employment 1968-2003 


June 1968 
March 1983 
June 1986 
June 1991 
June 2001 
June 2003 


PSA 

Employment 

17 700 
38 800 
40 800 
47 900 
59 900 
62 200 


PSA Office 
Users 

15 000 
32 600 
34 700 
40 700 
50 900 
52 900 


At June 1981, approximately 50 per cent of employment at the 
Woden Town Centre, and 60 per cent of employment at the Belconnen 
Town Centre, w^as comprised of PSA office users. Applying the 
Woden relationship of PSA office employment to other employment 
(as Woden represents a more mature town centre structure), employ¬ 
ment at the Tuggeranong and Gungahlin Town Centres would be 
22 400. 

To achieve the employment levels for Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 
Town Centres in the Dispersed Plan, 13 000 PSA jobs or 64 per cent 
of PSA office expansion in the plan period, would need to be 
dispersed. This appears optimistic, having regard to what has been 
achieved at the Woden and Belconnen Town Centres, and the nature 
of office growth. The office growth that eventuates is likely to occur 
through the expansion of existing departments rather than through 
the creation of new departments. Office expansion in the Woden and 
Belconnen Town Centres has been assisted by each centre being 
identified for functional groupings of departments, e.g. soeial w elfare 
departments at Woden and technical departments at Belconnen. If 
the departments at Woden and Belconnen grew at the average rate 


165 


of expansion of the Public Service in the plan period, their o11ice 
employment would expand by 6 100. An overspill from these centres 
would clearly not achieve the dispersal necessary. 

A factor contributing to the demand lor new otlice buildings is 
space per worker. Between 1969 and March 1983 rentable floorspace 
per PSA office user increased from ll./m to 16.7nr . This trend 
towards increasing space per worker may assist the dispersal ot 
employment. 


The Dispersed Plan assumes that government employment can be 
further dispersed in Canberra without detriment to the administrative 
efficiency of the Public Service. Further consultation will need to be 
undertaken in this regard. It is conceivable that the internal efficiency 
of departments could be improved under the Dispersed Plan, it the 
establishment of new town centres enabled an entire department to 
be sited at the one complex. Dispersal could possibly reduce the 
external efficiency of departments. However, the increasing develop¬ 
ment of communications technology, reducing the need toi face to 
face contact, may counteract possible disadvantages ot dispersal. It 
should be remembered that the travelling times to the 4 uggeranong 
and Gungahlin Town Centres from the Central Area will be in the 
order of 15-20 minutes. They will be approximately 40 minutes travel 
time from each other, however. The departments located in 
Tugeeranong and Gungahlin Town C entres could be based on a degree 
of contact with the departments located at the adjacent town centre, 
in which case, the travelling time would be in the order ot 10 minutes. 

For the private sector, both plan options offer the opportunity 
for substantial investments in retail, office and other facilities. Civic 
is currently the preferred location for private enterprise office invest¬ 
ment. The construction of offices in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 
could be undertaken either by the private or government sector. The 
private sector would require an occupancy guarantee, it it was to 
undertake construction of offices in these locations. 

The timing of the dispersal of employment is also important, as 
it affects the degree of self-containment. Tuggeranong’s development 
will be substantially complete by 1990. It is desirable that employ¬ 
ment opportunities be available within Tuggeranong by this time, on 
both transport and social equity grounds. It is apparent there is little 
scope for office employment dispersal before 1986, given the 
commitments in Civic, and the level ot growth forecast. For many 
of the benefits of the Dispersed Plan to be achieved, major office 
dispersal to Tuggeranong needs to take place between 1986 and 1991. 
Similarly, in Gungahlin, the better the co-ordination between 
population and employment, the greater the level of self-containment 
is likely to be. 

The Concentrated Plan may be easier to implement. The existing 
nodes meet the current locational preference for the Department of 
Administrative Services, the various government departments and the 
private sector. Agreement to expansion within these nodes would not 
be difficult to achieve. Civic would grow through it being the location 
of most of the private sector office construction; Russell/Campbell 
Park through defence department expansion; Parkes/Barton through 
expansion of the key policy departments; and Belconnen and Woden 
through the growth of departments at those nodes. Despite its possible 
ease of implementation in the short term, a disadvantage of the 
Concentrated Plan is the higher level of investment required for its 
implementation. 

Having regard to the advantages offered by the Dispersed Plan, 
the Commission intends to advocate strongly to government and 
private sector decision makers that the overall well-being of the City 
outweighs any perceived administrative inconvenience in its adoption. 


166 


Public and Political Acceptance 

Parts of the private sector may be more inclined to support the 
Concentrated Plan on the grounds that it: 

• proposes major employment expansion in Civic Centre which 
would increase land values in the centre, the main location of 
private office investment in Canberra 

• proposes expansion of retailing and employment in the Woden 
and Belconnen Town Centres, which would similarly provide 
benefits to existing developers and lessees. 

Residents of Tuggeranong and Gungahlin will probably support 
the Dispersed Plan as the establishment of town centres in these 
districts would provide them with improved accessibility to work, 
shops and other opportunities, and would enhance their housing 
investment. 

Political acceptance of the Dispersed Plan would be assisted by 
the lower levels of government investment necessary. 

Summary 

On the basis of the aims set for the metropolitan plan, the Dispersed 
Plan is preferable to the Concentrated Plan. It would better protect 
the image of Canberra by its lower level of employment and traffic 
impact in the Central Area; it requires lower levels of investment in 
roads, car parking and public transport; lower levels of employment 
at Civic Centre, Woden Town Centre and Belconnen Town Centre 
would result in better air quality; and greater choice is available 
through the establishment of town centres in Tuggeranong and 
Gungahlin. The Dispersed Plan, by encouraging higher levels of self¬ 
containment would reduce the levels of movement within the 
metropolitan area. The Plan implies a more equal distribution of 
opportunities over the metropolitan area; would result in a more 
equitable distribution of land values; and would better protect the 
residential amenity of Inner Canberra residents by lowering urban 
change pressures and the extent of traffic and parking intrusion. 

The advantages of the Dispersed Plan, in relation to flexibility and 
implementation, are not as clear cut. The Dispersed Plan better reflects 
the plan form that is emerging in major cities, where regional centres 
are being established. This form is likely to be better able to cater 
for possible energy shortages, as it places employment opportunities 
closer to home, and at centres capable of being efficiently served by 
public transport. In the eventuality of lower growth, there is likely 
to be pressures to consolidate development at existing centres, 
although the costs to the residents of Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 
and to the Commonwealth, would rise with greater imbalance between 
settlement and employment expansion. In terms of plan implement¬ 
ation, the Dispersed Plan requires greater co-operation of the private 
sector, the Department of Administrative Services and other 
government departments, as the Concentrated Plan better meets their 
current locational preferences. These important decision makers need 
to be convinced of the merits of the Dispersed Plan, not just in the 
lower investment levels required by the Commonwealth, but also in 
the opportunities it provides to both the private sector and government 
administration. 

The plan forms are not neutral in their impact. The Concentrated 
Plan would impose higher transport and social costs, particular^ on 
the residents of Tuggeranong and Gungahlin and would require higher 
levels of government investment in terms of roads, car parking and 
public transport. It is more restrictive on the housing choice of people 
on low' incomes, as a result of its impact on land values. 


167 


The Commission believes that the Dispersed Plan better meets the 
aims set for the Metropolitan Plan, being more efficient in transpoi- 
tation terms and providing greater equality of access across the 
metropolitan area. 


168 


The Preferred Plan 


The testing of the Concentrated and Dispersed Plans assumed that 
the minimum size of the Erindale Centre would be as outlined in the 
Erindale Centre Development Plan (November 1982). 

Consequently, Erindale was tested at 14 OOOnr under the Dispersed 
Plan. Since the testing was undertaken the Commission has reviewed 
its planning for Tuggeranong and it is now considered that 4 000m 
of retail floorspace is the appropriate size for the centre. The reasons 
for the change in size of the centre are as follows: 

• the Erindale Centre Development Plan assumed the development 
of Tuggeranong would cease at 60 000 population, at which time 
the development front would move to Gungahlin. The development 
of Tuggeranong is now to proceed to a population of approximately 
90 000 

• as a consequence of the additional population, the demand for retail 
and community facilities and the need for employment in 
Tuggeranong will be greater. This will require the earlier provision 
of Tuggeranong Town Centre 

• the Canberra Commercial Development Authority (CCDA), which 
had been given the responsibility of developing the Erindale Centre 
to 14 000m 2 of retail floorspace, proposed that the centre be 
expanded to 24 000m 2 . A centre of this increased size would result 
in major traffic intrusion on residential streets surrounding the 
centre 

• the Erindale site is of insufficient area to cater for the community, 
office and other uses generated by a Tuggeranong of 90 000 
population. The Tuggeranong Town Centre site has the necessary 
capacity and is better located to serve the future population of 
90 000, with Drakeford, Athllon, Isabella and Erindale Drives 
focusing on the site 

• the co-location of offices, retailing and other uses on the one site 
has several major advantages including easier servicing by public 
transport, shared use of facilities such as car parking, and the 
creation of a focus for the town. In addition, several activities 
mutually support one another e.g. office workers support retail 
stores 

• the restriction of Erindale to 4 000m ; of retail floorspace would 
increase the viability of a retail release at the Tuggeranong Town 
Centre and allow' major comparison retailing opportunities to be 
consolidated at the centre 

The proposed reduction of the size of Erindale has minimal impact 
on the results of the testing described earlier in this Chapter. The key 
element in the transport testing was the distribution of employment. 
The reduction in Erindale’s retail component to 4 OOOnr' will mean that 
the level of complementary uses located at the centre will also be 
reduced. In total, the employment at the centre could be reduced to 
about 700 which is approximately 1 OCX) less than assumed in the testing. 
This is not substantial in terms of trip generation on the metropolitan 
road network. As such, no re-testing was considered necessary as a 
result of the changed size of the Erindale Centre. 

The testing of the Concentrated and Dispersed Plans confirmed that 
large volume vehicular traffic should continue to be carried on a 
peripheral parkway system. However, the analysis carried out in this 
and other studies has revealed a need to provide better accessibility 
from the parkway system to the Central Area. Consequently, the 
proposed alignment of Monash Drive/Eastern Parkway has been 
modified from the alignment assumed in the testing, to pass closer to 
the Central Area without compromising its ability to carry by-passing 
traffic. 


169 


Direct connection to the Central Area is considered vital to avoid 
overloading of Northbourne Avenue with traffic from Gungahlin and 
the consequent degradation ot residential amenity in North Canberra 
which would occur as ‘rat-runs’ developed through the suburbs. By 
making the new road system more attractive than the existing North 
Canberra network, these problems can be avoided, and the potential 
for improved public transport operations on Northbourne Avenue can 
be retained. 

The evaluation of the Concentrated and Dispersed Plans clearly 
shows the benefits of decentralising employment opportunities and retail 
floorspace, although the ability ot the Commission to obtain the 
benefits of the Dispersed Plan will depend on the co-operation ol 
government authorities, the private sector and community groups. 

Given the constraints outlined earlier in regard to implementation, 
it may be difficult to fully achieve the Dispersed Plan. In view ol the 
complexity in establishing employment in new centres, precise 
employment figures cannot be specified. Having regard to the level ot 
employment dispersal the Commission was able to achieve between 1968 
and 1983 at the Woden and Belconnen Town Centres, the nature of 
office growth and other activities which have been located at town 
centres, the most likely range of employment located at major nodes 
at the end of the plan period could be as shown in Table 87. 

Table 87 Planned Employment Levels at Major Nodes 


25 000 - 27 000 
15 000 - 18 000 

11 000 - 13 000 
13 000 - 15 000 

12 000 - 17 000 
7 000 - 12 000 


Civic Centre 
Parkes/ Barton 
Woden Town Centre 
Belconnen Town Centre 
Tuggeranong Town Centre 
Gungahlin Town Centre 


This range of employment is based on the Dispersed Plan but also 
assumes a lower level of decentralisation which has been broadly 
assessed as workable even though less efficient. 

The Commission will endeavour to achieve a high level of employ¬ 
ment dispersal to the new towns, in order to improve the functioning 
of the City, to reduce traffic congestion and to ensure that all residents 
are within a reasonable distance of an appropriate range of facilities. 
Generally, the greater amount of dispersal achieved, particularly to 
Tuggeranong Town Centre, the greater the potential benefits will be 
in relation to avoiding congestion, long journeys to work and adverse 
environmental effects. 


170 


Chapter 6 


Policy Plan 


Introduction 

Policy Plans comprise statements of planning objectives and 
policies. The purpose of a Policy Plan is to focus attention on the 
Commission’s intention to initiate, encourage or control land use 
changes in an area. 

The Metropolitan Policy Plan describes the Commission’s adopted 
land settlement strategy and relevant town planning objectives and 
policies for the whole of Metropolitan Canberra. It describes how the 
Commission envisages the long-term future development of Canberra. 
Detailed proposals, with particular emphasis on the planning and 
design of public facilities, are shown on local Policy Plans prepared 
as required, and either published or made available for inspection at 
the NCDC offices. 

The policies of the Plan are described in two parts. The first relates 
to the policy intent with respect to the urban structure of the City, 
and the second to those subjects of the Plan which require more detailed 
explanation. 








Principles of Urban Structure 


On the basis of the evaluation carried out and after consideration 
of the public submissions on the 1980 Metropolitan Issues - Public 
Discussion Paper , the Commission’s preterred metiopolitan suategv 
is that which retains the basic principles and structure ot the \ -Plan, 
with adjustments to the implementation strategy in ordei to enable 
the principal components of the Plan - the towns, town centres and 
transport system - to function more effectively. 

The Metropolitan Policy Plan describes the Commission’s town 
planning policies which will guide the tut lire development ot 
Metropolitan Canberra. In order to meet future land use demands 
and obtain a coherent urban structure, Canberra has been classified 
into several land use categories, as indicated on the Policy Plan 
(Figures 63 and 64). Essentially, they arc preferred dominant land use 
activity areas. The main policies to guide the future urban structure 
of Canberra are as follows. 

• The Central Area 

This is the heart of the National Capital, within which are located 
the Parliamentary Zone, Civic Centre and the government o11ice 
areas of Barton and Russell/Campbell Park. It contains the most 
significant concentration of employment in Metropolitan 
Canberra. 

The Commission will continue to develop the Central Area to 
accommodate functions related to Canberra’s role as the National 
Capital and Seat of Government. Special regard will be given to 
the quality of the overall environment and to transport and traffic 
management. 

The Parliamentary Zone is the national centre of the activities ot 
Parliament, the Judiciary and Government, and is the focal point 
of visitor interest in the National Capital. The Parliamentary Zone 
accommodates significant national institutions and the key policy¬ 
making departments. The intention is that the Zone should be used 
for Parliament blouse and its ancillary activities, for buildings to 
accommodate functions specifically related to Parliament and the 
executive branch of government, and for important national 
institutions. 

Civic Centre is Canberra’s principal administrative, financial and 
commercial centre. It is intended that Civic will continue to be 
developed as the Central Business District and administrative 
centre of Metropolitan Canberra and will be encouraged to provide 
for further specialisation of business, retailing and community 
services. 

• Town Centres 

The existing town centres at Woden and Belconnen provide 
community focal points for residents of their respective districts 
and offer a wide range of employment, shopping, educational and 
social opportunities. The previous hierarchy of town centres will 
be maintained so that Tuggeranong and Gungahlin will each have 
its own town centre containing high order retail, commercial and 
office development. The future scale of provision of these facilities 
will be related to the needs of the respective town catchments and 
the planned metropolitan employment and retail system. 

• Urban Areas 

Urban areas have developed on a basis of discrete districts or 
towns. An important planning objective is that each town should 
be relatively self-contained in order to meet the needs of its 
inhabitants in relation to employment, retail, service trades, leisure, 
recreation and community facilities. Each urban district is generally 
separated from the others by non-urban buffer zones of a 
predominantly natural or rural landscape. 


172 


Future urban areas will continue to be developed in accordance 
with this established pattern. Each residential community will 
consist of about 4 000-5 000 people. This corresponds approxi¬ 
mately to the threshold needed to support a local school, shops 
and other local community facilities. 

Gungahlin, the next urban district to be developed will be planned 
on the basis of this established pattern of development. 

National Capital Open Space System 

Selected areas of open space which are deemed to be of national 
capital or regional significance will be designated as part of a 
National Capital Open Space System. To this end, the hills and 
ridges within and around the urban areas of Canberra are to be 
kept free of urban development, both to act as a backdrop and 
setting for the City and also to provide a means of separating and 
defining the towns. Canberra’s lakes, foreshores and river 
corridors constitute a diverse ecological, scenic and recreation 
resource which also justifies preservation and reinforcement. These 
areas, together with the mountain and forest areas west of the 
Murrumbidgee River and other major open spaces, will comprise 
the National Capital Open Space System. 

It is proposed that the National Capital Open Space System will 
be progressively built up as an entity which is comprehensively 
planned, developed and administered. Its purpose is to meet the 
growing needs of Canberra residents and tourists for recreational 
and educational open space and to reinforce and enhance the 
setting of the National Capital. The ultimate boundaries of the 
system will only be established as local plans are progressively 
finalised for the various separate parts of the system. 

Preferred uses within the National Capital Open Space System are 
uses associated with recreation, conservation and open space. 
Other uses which may be located within the system include 
forestry, agriculture, administrative and utility services, and special 
developments associated with recreation and tourism. Community 
facilities and minor retail uses may also be permitted where these 
uses assist the functioning of recreation and tourism in the area. 

The National Capital Open Space System also includes nature 
reserves which are areas relatively undisturbed by man and possess¬ 
ing ecological and scenic value. They are managed with the aim 
of maintaining and improving their existing quality and restricting 
access and development to the minimum needed for educational 
and scientific purposes and public appreciation. The intention is 
to protect such reserves as natural resource areas for the existing 
and future population of the National Capital and its visitors. 

Major Roads 

Large volume vehicular traffic between the towns will continue 
to be carried on a peripheral parkway system. Movements between 
adjacent towns, and between towns and the parkway system, will 
be carried on the internal arterial road systems. 

The intention is to extend and improve the metropolitan road 
system, commensurate with the needs of the growing city. The 
location of future roads shown on the Policy Plan will be subject 
to future detailed engineering and environmental investigation in 
order to determine their eventual alignment. 

Inter-Town Public Transport Route 

Public transport movements w ill be given priority right-of-way on 
an internal spine system linking the town centres. 

To this end, the Commission in conjunction with the Department 
of Territories and Local Government w ill continue to investigate 
routes for express inter-town buses, with a view to eventual 
reservation of inter-town public transport routes. These routes will 
provide access from each of the existing and proposed town centres 
to the Central Area. 


• Industrial Areas 

Industrial areas catering for manufacturing, processing, storage, 
regional service trades and public utilities are located at Fyshwick, 
Mitchell and Hume. A special industrial area is located at Harman 
for industries requiring a degree ot isolation. Land has also been 
set aside at Bruce to establish a high quality, landscaped industrial 
park for technological and science-based industries. This project 
is referred to by the Canberra Development Board as the Canberra 
Technology Park. 

Another area at West Belconnen has been identified tot longer- 
term industrial needs. 

Industrial estates will continue to be located on the edge of urban 
areas with direct access to the metropolitan arterial road network, 
and in selected instances to railway and airport networks. 

• Special Use Areas 

These areas are used for national capital and metropolitian 
functions and may also form part ot the butter zone between the 
towns. Such functions include scientific and defence 
establishments, racecourses, the National Exhibition Centre, the 
Australian National University and the Canberra College of 
Advanced Education. The principal special use areas are located 
at Bruce, which already contains the National Sports Centre, 
Calvary Hospital and the Bruce TATE College; and at West 
Deakin, which contains the Royal Australian Mint, several 
national association headquarters and secretariat buildings, and 
the John James Hospital and Medical Centre, all located in a 
predominantly landscaped setting. The intention is to maintain 
these current special use areas and to provide others to meet the 
needs of the future growth of the City. 

• Airport/Railway Uses 

The Airport and Railway Station are major metropolitan traffic 
nodes, being principal arrival points for many visitors to the 
National Capital. In addition, they are significant nodes for 
Canberra’s metropolitan population seeking interstate travel links. 
The intention is to upgrade their facilities progressively, in 
accordance with future growth needs, ensuring that they are 
appropriate to Canberra’s role as the National Capital. 

• Rural and Non-Urban Areas 

These include lands used for rural and broad-acre institutional 
uses. The rural and non-urban areas form part of the buffer zone 
between the towns and a land bank for future land use and activity 
needs associated with the growth of the National Capital. Rural 
uses comprise grazing, agriculture and forestry. Broad-acre 
institutional uses include education, scientific and research 
establishments, defence and communications establishments and 
metropolitan public utilities. It is intended that rural lands will 
continue to be used for rural activities, unless required for other 
land use purposes associated with the growth of the National 
Capital. Broad-acre institutional uses will be grouped together in 
selected locations, in order to maintain the essential setting of the 
National Capital and to provide an economic provision of services. 

• Water Catciiment Areas 

The primary purpose of water catchment areas is the efficient 
harvesting and storage of rain to provide a reliable supply of water 
which can be utilised with minimum treatment to provide safe 
drinking water. Canberra’s water supply is currently drawn from 
catchments on the Cotter and Queanbeyan Rivers. The intention 
is to protect existing catchment areas. To ensure that Canberra’s 
water supply can support future population growth, an additional 
catchment area on the Naas-Gudgenby Rivers will be reserved. 


National Capital Open Space System 
- Major Roads 
Special Use Areas 
Rural and Non-Urban Areas 
Water Catchment Areas 
Urban Areas 

02468 10km 

Figure 63 Metropolitan Canberra 

Policy Plan (ACT) 



174 














NSW 









Principles of Urban Structure 

The principal concepts of the Y-Plan which have been conf irmed 

as those to guide metropolitan growth and development are as follows: 

• The role of the City as the National Capital remains paramount. 
The National Capital role demands that national functions are 
located in a prominent position where they may operate effectively 
and efficiently. The National Capital role also demands that high 
environmental and aesthetic standards are applied, particularly in 
the Areas of Special National Concern. 

• The metropolitan growth of Canberra is based on the development 
of separate urban districts or towns, in a linear arrangement in 
the form of a t Y\ Each town is intended to be relatively self- 
contained and provide for most of the needs of its residents 
including employment, retail, community facilities, leisure and 
recreation. Each town is separated from adjacent towns by hills, 
ridges and other major open spaces. 

• The hierarchy of centres will be maintained, with each town having 
a centre acting as a focal point for higher order retail functions, 
commercial services, offices and community facilities. Civic Centre 
is intended to be the highest order commercial, entertainment and 
tourist centre in Canberra. It will also accommodate the majority 
of specialised functions and continue to develop as the Central 
Business District and administrative centre of Metropolitan 
Canberra. 

• L arge volume vehicular traffic is carried on a peripheral park way 
svstem, reducing the amount of traffic on the internal systems o f 
the towns. A public transport right-of-way will be developed linking 
the town centres on an internal spine. 

• Industrial estates will continue to be located on the edge of the 
urban areas in locations which conveniently serve the workforce 
of the towns and have good accessibility for long-distance freight 
movements. 

• The hills and ridges within and around the urban areas of Canberra 
will be kept largely free of urban development both to act as a 
backdrop and setting for the City and also to provide a means 
of separating and defining the towns. Special use areas and rural 
and non-urban areas also form part of the buffer zone between 
the towns and a land bank for future land use and activity needs 
associated with the growth of the National Capital. 


Parliamentary Zone 
Civic Centre/Existing Town Centres 
Future Town Centres 
Existing Urban Areas 

Future Urban Areas 

National Capital Open Space System 

Major Roads 

Inter-Town Public Transport Route 
Existing Industrial Areas 
Future Industrial Areas 
Special Use Areas 
Airport/Railway Uses 


Rural and Non-Urban Areas 


© 


0 1 2 3 4 5 km 


Figure 64 Metropolitan Canberra 

Policy Plan (Urban Area) 


176 


















Belconnen 


Lake 

mnmderrn 


Canberra 


Burley 


Central 


Woden 

\Valley 


Tuggeranong 


NSW 




J—i 


Hall 




Gungahlin 




i r 


Airport 


Oaks 

Estate 


/Queanbevan 




It 


NSW 


Tharwa 







Subjects of the Plan 

Introduction 

This section deals with the key tunctional elements ol the Plan 
which are regarded as crucial to its successful implementation and 
which, therefore, require more detailed explanation. The subjects 
covered are: 

• National Works 

• Employment 

• Offices 

• Industry 

• Population, Land and Housing 

• Retail 

• Transport 

• National Capital Open Space System 

• Recreation and Tourism 

• Community Facilities 

• Urban Environment 

• Rural and Non-Urban Areas 

• Public Utilities 


178 



National Works 

Background and Intent 

The functional basis of Canberra is as the national legislative, 
judicial, administrative, executive, ceremonial and symbolic centre 
of the Nation. Standards of urban development will therefore be high, 
befitting the National Capital function. 

The National Capital role not only demands high environmental 
and aesthetic standards, but also requires that national functions are 
located where they may operate effectively and efficiently. 

The need to preserve and develop the spatial structure of Canberra 
conceived by Walter Burley Griffin led to the definition of the ‘Areas 
of Special National Concern’. They comprise the Parliamentary Zone, 
the Main Avenues and City Approach Routes, Lake Burley Griffin 
and its foreshores, the prominent hills and the ancillary national areas. 
All buildings, roads and landscape improvements within those areas 
are given special attention and consideration in accordance with the 
Commission’s Design and Siting Policies 1973. 

Policy 

National Capital Uses 

In order to provide a strong physical structure to symbolise the 
role of Canberra as the National Capital, major national uses with 
strong relationships to Parliament will continue to be located in or 
adjacent to the Parliamentary Zone while other National Capital uses 
will be allocated other suitable prestigious locations. 

The Parliamentary Zone 

Preferred uses in the Parliamentary Zone are those that arise from 
its role as the physical manifestation of Australian democratic govern¬ 
ment and as the home of the Nation’s most important cultural and 
judicial institutions and symbols. 

The intention is that the Zone should be used for Parliament House 
and uses directly associated with Parliament. The highest standards 
of architecture will apply to buildings in the Parliamentary Zone. 

Diplomatic Missions 

The Commission will identify sites in planned diplomatic areas 
for all foreign governments seeking representation in Canberra. 
Diplomatic areas will be established in places which are topographically 
suitable, have a prestigious location, have good access to Parliament 
House and other designated diplomatic precincts, and are appropriate 
in relation to security considerations. Diplomatic areas will be planned 
and designed in order to facilitate the development and maintenance 
of a high quality character and setting. 

National Associations 

National associations will be encouraged to locate in Canberra, 
through the supply of sites in desirable locations and appropriate 
development conditions. Inner Canberra will continue to be the 
preferred location for national associations. 


179 


Employment 

Background and Intent 

Employment, as a measure ot economic growth and change, is 
a key factor in the future development of Canberra. The forecast ot 
employment growth is a prime determinant ot the projected future 
increase in population and, thus, of projected needs for housing and 
other activities. The future distribution of employment, together with 
the transport networks, will largely determine how well the 
metropolitan system operates. The distribution ot employment in 
accordance with the policies and development proposals ot the Plan 
is therefore considered essential. 

The policy for employment is intended to assist in protecting the 
character of the Central Area from transport pressures that might 
otherwise overwhelm it. The policy also intends that each town should 
be relatively self-contained. 

Policy 

The Central Area is, and will remain, the dominant metropolitan 
employment location. However, the existing policy ot decentralising 
employment opportunities will be continued, in order to ensure that 
the Central Area can be effectively serviced by transport facilities; 
to ensure it remains readily accessible from each ot the main settlement 
areas; and to avoid adverse environmental impacts. 

Tables 88-93 show the intended distribution of employment 
opportunities throughout the metropolitan area for the plan period, 
based on transport and environmental considerations. They indicate 
the levels beyond which imbalances could lead to serious traffic 
congestion, car parking problems, increased transport costs and 
undesirable environmental impacts. 

A range of employment is given for the major nodes. As the level 
of employment available to distribute during the plan period to the 
Central Area and town centres is about 53 500, it follows that all nodes 
cannot grow to the maximum levels shown. Generally, the greater the 
amount of dispersal achieved, particularly to Tuggeranong Town 
Centre, the greater the potential benefits will be in relation to avoiding 
congestion, long journeys to work and adv erse environmental effects. 


180 


Table 88 Summary of Distribution of Employment in the Plan Period 


Location 

Central Area 

Town Centres 

Secondary Zones 
Local Zones 
Total Employment 


Employment Opportunities 


Existing 

(1982) 

New 

Total 

44 850 

19 450- 

64 300 - 


24 450 

69 300 

17 300 

25 700 - 

43 000 - 


39 700 

57 000 

10 970 

9 330 

20 300 

31 100 

9 600 

40 700 

104 220 

64 080 - 

168 300- 


83 080 

187 300 (1) 


(1) It is estimated that total employment will be approximately 
177 600. 


Table 89 Intended Distribution of Employment in the Central Area in 
the Plan Period 


Employment Opportunities 


Location 

Existing 

(1982) 

New 

Total 

ANU/CS1RO/ 

Hospital 

7 300 

800 

8 100 

Civic Centre 

16 000 

9 000- 
11 000 

25 000 - 
27 000 

Parkes/Barton 

Russell/ 

10 650 

4 350 - 
7 350 

15 000 - 
18 000 

Campbell Park 

6 600 

4 300 

10 900 

Other 

4 300 

1 000 

5 300 

Total 

44 850 

19 450- 
24 450 

64 300- 
69 300 (1) 


(1) The restriction of the Central Area’s employment to the lower end 
of the range would better achieve the benefits of the Dispersed Plan. 


Table 90 Intended Distribution of Employment in Town Centres in the 
Plan Period 


Employment Opportunities 


Location 

Existing 

(1982) 

New 

Total 

Belconnen Town 
Centre 

8 000 

5 000 - 
7 000 

13 000- 
15 000 

Gungahlin Town 
Centre 

- 

7 000- 
12 000 

7 000- 
12 000 

Tuggeranong Town 
Centre 

- 

12 000- 
17 000 

12 000- 
17 000 

Woden Town 

Centre 

9 300 

1 700- 
3 700 

11 000 - 
13 000 

Total 

17 300 

25 700- 
39 700 

43 000 - 
57 000 (1) 


(l) It is estimated that total employment at town centres will be 
approximately 51 300. 


Table 91 Intended Distribution of Employment in Secondary Zones in 
the Plan Period 


Employment Opportunities 


Location 

Existing 

(1982) 

New 

Total 

Bruce 

1 700 

1 300 

3 000 

Fyshwick 

8 300 

700 

9 000 

Hume 

230 

3 770 

4 000 

Mitchell 

740 

3 560 

4 300 

Total 

10 970 

9 330 

20 300 


Table 92 Intended Distribution ot Employment in Local Zones in the 
Plan Period 

Employment Opportunities 

Location 

Existing 

(1982) 

New 

Total 

Belconnen 

5 500 

400 

5 900 

Gungahlin 

- 

4 600 

4 600 

Inner Canberra 

14 500 

300 

14 800 

Tuggeranong (I) 

2 700 

3 500 

6 200 

Woden-Weston Creek 

7 000 

100 

7 100 

Other ACT 

1 400 

700 

2 100 

Total 

31 100 

9 600 

40 700 


(1) Includes Erindale Centre. 


Table 93 Relationship between Population Settlement and Employment Opportunities in the Plan Period 




Population 



Employment 


Settlement Area 

Existing 

(1982) 

New 

Total 

Existing 

(1982) 

New 

Total 

Belconnen 

77 000 

6 000 

83 000 

15 200 

6 700- 
8 700 

21 900- 
23 900 

Gungahlin 

- 

84 000 

84 000 

740 

15 160 — 

20 160 

15 900- 
20 900 

Inner Canberra 

59 400 

2 600 

62 000 

67 650 

20 450- 
25 450 

88 100- 
93 100 

Tuggeranong 

32 800 

56 200 

89 000 

2 930 

19 270- 
24 270 

22 200 - 
27 200 

Woden-Weston Creek 

59 950 

50 

60 000 

16 300 

1 800- 
3 800 

18 100- 
20 100 

Other ACT 

1 300 

300 

1 600 

1 400 

700 

2 100 

Queanbeyan 

20 150 

9 850 

30 000 

6 000 

2 000 

8 000 

Total 

250 600 

159 000 

407 600 

110 220 

66 080 - 
85 080 

176 300- 
195 300 


182 


Offices 


Background and Intent 

The location of office employment has been the major mechanism 
in the implementation of the policies of employment dispersal and 
the creation of town centres. This is reflected in the dominance of 
offices in the employment composition of the Woden and Belconnen 
Town Centres - approximately 55 per cent of employment at the 
Woden Town Centre and 65 per cent of employment at the Belconnen 
Town Centre is in office employment. Public Service Act employment 
is particularly important as it comprises the bulk of office employment 
in Canberra and is less difficult to direct to dispersed locations than 
private-sector office employment. 

Policy 

The Central Area, the existing town centres in Woden and 
Belconnen and the proposed town centres in Tuggeranong and 
Gungahlin, will be the major locations for office activity within the 
limitations imposed by traffic and environmental considerations. The 
Commission will monitor the progressive performance of the centres 
and the total transport system, and office developments which would 
have a detrimental effect on the transport system or the planned 
strategy of centres will not receive planning support. 

Office developments over 500m 2 will only be permitted in the 
Central Area, town centres or Deakin Section 37, in order to optimise 
the benefits of the shared use of facilities such as car parking; to 
provide for the shopping and social needs of the office workforce; 
and to avoid traffic intrusion into residential areas. 

Table 94 shows the intended levels of office employment in the 
major centres. A range of office employment is given for the major 
nodes. As the level of office employment to be distributed is about 
29 500, it follows that not all nodes can grow to the maximum levels 
shown. 


Table 94 Intended Distribution of Office Employment in the Plan 
Period 


Office Employment Opportunities 


Location 

Existing 

(1982) 

New 

Total 

Anzac Park 

1 000 

- 

1 000 

Civic Centre 

11 700 

5 800- 
7 300 

17 500- 
19 000 

Parkes/Barton 

8 000 

2 000- 
4 000 

10 000- 
12 000 

Russell/Campbell Park 

6 600 

4 300 

10 900 

Other North Canberra 

2 900 

- 

2 900 

Belconnen Town Centre 

5 200 

1 800- 
2 800 

7 000- 

8 000 

Gungahlin Town Centre 

- 

4 000- 
6 500 

4 000- 
6 500 

Tuggeranong Town Centre 

- 

6 500- 
9 000 

6 500 - 
9 000 

Woden Town Centre 

5 100 

900- 
1 900 

6 000- 
7 000 

Other Canberra 

3 100 

400 

3 500 

Total 

43 600 

25 700 - 
36 200 

69 300 - 
79 800 (1 


(1) It is estimated that the total level of office employment will be 
approximately 73 100. 


The figures indicated in Table 94 show levels of dispersal which 
the Commission intends to work towards in the implementation of 
the Metropolitan Policy Plan. Their achievement will be contingent 
upon such factors as: 

• Commonwealth Government office dispersal to implement the 
employment level in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin Town Centres 

• Commonwealth Government construction of office space 

• the need for support from other organisations 

• private sector investment decisions. 


184 


Industry 

Background and Intent 

The Commission is responsible for the planning, design and 
construction of industrial estates and the servicing of sites within the 
estates for release by the Department of Territories and Local 
Government. 

The locational requirements of industrial firms vary widely. 
Factors which affect the variations include the market served, the 
source of raw materials and labour, the mode of transport utilised, 
and the compatibility of adjacent land uses. 

To accommodate these demands, industrial estates have been 
established in Fyshwick, Mitchell and Hume. These estates cater for 
manufacturing, processing, warehousing, storage and regional service 
trades activities. 

The industrial areas as developed have a higher level of office and 
retail activity than was intended. The industrial activities that do exist 
largely serve the Canberra region. 

Policy 

In order to preserve industrial land for industrial purposes, and 
to ensure the implementation of planned metropolitan retail, office 
and industrial centres, retail and office uses not ancillary to, or directly 
related to, the industrial or service trade function carried out on a 
site will not receive planning approval. 

It is proposed that, for the foreseeable future, industrial develop¬ 
ment will be located in the existing main industrial areas of Fyshwick, 
Mitchell and Hume, and in the Canberra Technology Park in Bruce, 
w'hich will be developed to provide for high technology industrial 
development. An area at West Belconnen is also reserved for long¬ 
term industrial site needs. Table 95 shows the intended distribution 
of industrial jobs in these areas for the plan period. 

The Commission intends to introduce selective planning measures 
in the existing industrial areas to improve environmental and traffic 
conditions. 

Industries which would create a nuisance by the generation of 
hazardous waste material, noxious odours or excessive noise will not 
be permitted adjacent to existing or future urban or recreation areas. 
Such industries will be required to locate in the special industrial area 
at Harman. Industries which create a special nuisance through the 
generation of hazardous liquid wastes and groundwater pollutants will 
be required to have approved pollution control systems, in order to 
protect the water quality of local rivers, streams and aquifers. Where 
adequate protection cannot be achieved, such industrial uses will not 
be permitted. 


fable 95 Intended Distribution of Industrial Employment in the Plan Period 


Employment Opportunities 


Existing (1982) New Total 


Location 

Industrial 

Other 

Total 

Industrial 

Other 

Total 


Bruce 

85 

1615 

1700 

800 

500 

1300 

3000 

Fyshwick 

1410 

6890 

8300 

500 

200 

700 

9000 

Hume 

90 

140 

230 

2270 

1500 

3770 

4000 

Mitchell 

70 

670 

740 

2160 

1400 

3560 

4300 

Total 

1655 

9315 

10970 

5730 

3600 

9330 

20300 


Population, Land and Housing 

Background and Intent 

The population growth forecast tor Canberra represents the 
probable growth of the population based on present knowledge ot 
the trends which affect population change. The lorecasts reflect the 
expected growth in population in the ACT, in response to continued 
growth in the local economy and its attraction as a place to live. The 
factors which influence population growth will be monitored and the 
forecasts reviewed periodically. 

The population forecasts indicate the need tor about 45 000-48 000 
new standard residential housing sites and 12 000-15 000 new medium- 
density housing sites within the planning period. Within the existing 
settled areas, only a small amount ot this need can be accommodated 
as shown in Table 96. 

Table 96 Housing Sites in the Existing Settled Areas - June 1983 


Housing Sites 


Settlement Area 

Standard 

Medium-Density 

Belconnen (I) 

4 200 

2 300 

Inner Canberra (2) 

250 

800 

Woden-Weston Creek 

1 100 

900 

Total 

5 550 

4 000 


(!) Includes Belconnen Naval Station. 
(2) Excludes redevelopment. 


In the short-term, that is the next 6-8 years, it is not possible to 
supply serv iced land in Gungahlin, because of the lead-time required 
to provide the major infrastructure. Nor is it realistic to expect that 
redevelopment in Inner Canberra would do much to alleviate the 
demand for new housing or land in the short to medium-term. 

The immediate need for large numbers of new housing sites can 
only be met in Tuggeranong, where the additional population settle¬ 
ment can be accommodated on land east of the Murrumbidgee River 
to a level of about 85 000-90 000 population. The visual catchment 
from Lanyon Homestead will be preserved and is to remain clear of 
urban development. While population is being settled in Tuggeranong, 
the work necessary to produce housing sites in Gungahlin can be 
undertaken, in order to ensure continuity of supply before the land 
in Tuggeranong is exhausted. 

Throughout the period of urban expansion in Tuggeranong and 
Gungahlin, redevelopment of the older parts of Canberra will be 
increasing in response to demands by small households, single adults 
and groups for medium-density housing close to the main employment 
nodes in the Central Area and to the entertainment and cultural 
activities located in Civic Centre. As the available large parcels of 
undeveloped land within the bounds of the existing metropolitan area 
are developed, the pressure for infill will rise and available small areas 
of vacant land designated for housing will be developed. 

Experience has shown that residential areas of about 4 000-5 000 
people form a community of interest and provide the necessary 
threshold for the provision of facilities such as schools, neighbourhood 
shops and recreation areas. 

On the basis of the success of the neighbourhood concept in the 
development of new residential areas in Canberra, the Commission 
intends that, in future, neighbourhood principles will form the basis 
of residential area planning in new settlement areas. 


186 


Policy 

The urban area of Canberra will continue to be a series of separate 
towns located in valleys and framed by an open space system of hills 
and river corridors. For the foreseeable future, Metropolitan Canberra 
will comprise: 

• the existing developed towns of Inner Canberra, Woden-Weston 
Creek and Belconnen 

• Tuggeranong, which will be developed on the east bank of the 
Murrumbidgee River into Lanyon, to accommodate an eventual 
population of 85 000-90 000 

• the new town of Gungahlin which will occupy land to the north 
of the Federal and Barton Highways and will accommodate an 
eventual population in excess of 80 000. 

Within each town will be a series of residential neighbourhoods, 
based on safe and convenient access to schools and community 
facilities, and having sufficient shops and open space to cater for 
neighbourhood needs. A hierarchy of roads will control traffic w ithin 
residential areas and divert through-traffic to the arterial road system 
running between the neighbourhoods and defining their spatial limits. 
In general, residential areas will be neighbourhood units with a 
population of about 4 000-5 000, this being the catchment population 
required to support a primary school and other local community 
facilities. 

Government housing in new neighbourhoods is dependent on 
needs and government policy, but could comprise up to 30 per cent 
of the total housing units and will be distributed throughout the 
neighbourhoods in clusters of not more than 25 dwelling units. 

Medium-density housing in new' residential areas will normally be 
approximately 20 per cent of the total dwelling stock, although this 
will be dependent on market needs. The preferred locations for 
medium-density housing are: 

• adjacent to town centres 

• adjacent to the principal public transport routes 

• adjacent to group and local shopping centres 

• available locations in Inner Canberra which have been the subject 
of community agreement. 

Any proposals for urban intensification will be considered only 
after local area studies have been undertaken and detailed policies 
considered. The Commission will actively pursue studies aimed at 
preparing and publishing policies on an area-by-area basis. 


187 


Retail 


Background and Intent 

An essential part of the Metropolitan Plan is the strategic location 
of shopping with employment. Shopping centres attract trattic move¬ 
ment and have an essential role in the everyday lite ot urban areas 
which ensure their importance in land use and transport planning. 
In addition, shopping activity is closely related to other elements in 
the Plan, such as population on which it depends lor expenditure, 
to employment which it creates; to transport upon which it relics tor 
access but with which it may be in conflict at the local level, and to 
the built environment which it helps to shape and change through 
development. 

The factors leading to the development of the retail policy tor 
Canberra are summarised under three main headings: consumer needs, 
retail economics and environment. The forecasts ot likely shopping 
demand are discussed in Chapter 4. 

• Consumer Needs 

Within the planning period, about 216 000m* ot new retail 
floorspace at planned retail centres will be required to cater tor 
consumer needs. Allocation to the different levels ot the hierarchy 
including town, group and local centres, will be decided by the 
Commission in the light ot av ailable knowledge, adv ice ot retailing 
and consumer needs, and community preferences. Future growth 
in shopping demand arises from increases in consumer spending, 
which, in turn, is closely related to changes in population and its 
life cycle changes. In the existing settlement areas ot Inner 
Canberra, Woden-Weston Creek and Belconnen, a substantial 
amount of retail floorspace exists. The levelling-off of the town 
catchment populations considerably reduces the need for 
additional facilities in these towns during the next ten years. Most 
of the need will be generated by the principal growth areas in 
Tuggeranong and Gungahlin. It should be noted that Tuggeranong 
already has a significant shortfall of retail provision as compared 
to other parts of the metropolitan area. 

The continued attraction of Civic and the town centres in 
Belconnen and Woden will allow these centres to continue to cater 
for and compete in comparison goods shopping. At the same time, 
the location of new population in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin 
affords a complementary opportunity to prov ide new and accessible 
shopping centres in these areas. 

• Retailing Economics 

Trends in retail economics are relevant in determining retail 
policies. There is a continuing trend towards larger-scale retailing, 
both because of a substitution of floorspace for labour, and 
because of an increasing need for storage space. 

• Environment 

Redevelopment, improvement or expansion of some existing 
shopping centres may enhance the shopping environment in some 
parts of Canberra and may also resolve some problems where 
physical, as well as economic, obsolescence is a problem. However, 
these needs must be weighed against the impact on the total 
environment of the centre itself and the area adjacent to it, the 
impact on the transport system and the urban structure proposed 
for the City, and the overall public benefit that would result from 
the decision to allow such change. 

In adopting the retail hierarchy and broad proposals to achieve 
a socially desirable and economically effective distribution of retail 
floorspace, the Commission has to balance the economics of retail 
marketing with the needs of the consumer, the need to ensure transport 
accessibility and the possible environmental impacts on the existing 
centres and residential areas. 


188 


The policy for retailing is intended to optimise resources and 
investments while making the fullest use of existing and committed 
resources; to prevent traffic intrusion into residential areas and maintain 
air quality to acceptable standards in the major centres; to provide 
a range of opportunities for shopping; to enable good access to the 
major centres; to enable new development to be implemented in such 
a way as to cause least disturbance to the existing urban areas; and 
to provide a framework which allows for further changes in retail 
structure and consumer needs to occur without the need for extensive 
Plan modification. 

Policy 

It is considered that about 1.4irf per capita of retail floorspace 
is supportable in planned retail centres in Canberra. This will be used 
as a guide to future retail planning. It is the Commission’s intention 
to encourage an adequate provision of retail space that meets the needs 
of consumers for convenience, comparison and specialist shopping, 
and retailers’ operational requirements, as appropriate at the local, 
town and metropolitan levels in terms of location and size of centres. 
Apportioned to each level of the hierarchy the 1.4m : per capita 
provides the following approximate allocation of space per capita: 
0.9m 2 at Civic Centre and the town centres; and 0.5m 2 at group and 
local centres. Adjustments to the provision of individual centres may 
be required to take account of specific circumstances such as over¬ 
lapping catchments or other factors affecting demand at that centre, 
such as work-based expenditure or escape spending. The Commission 
will make an assessment of the retail floorspace supportable in a town, 
and its appropriate distribution, in considering proposals for expansion 
or change of use in centres which might have a significant effect on 
the planned system of retail centres. 

The Commission will maintain and extend the system of shopping 
and community centres by distributing future retail floorspace and 
complementary community facilities in accordance with a hierarchy 
that comprises: 

• Civic Centre 

• Town Centres 

• Group Centres 

• Local Centres 

Civic Centre 

The Commission intends that Civic Centre should develop as the 
most specialised retail centre serving both metropolitan and special 
markets such as tourism. However, decentralisation of retail 
opportunities will be continued and will be related to consumer needs, 
retail economics, transport accessibility and equity considerations. 

Town Centres 

The focal point and highest order central place of each town will 
be a town centre containing major employment, community and 
commercial facilities and services, as well as retailing. 

Because of the existence and extent of overlapping catchments at 
the town centre level, and the fact that town centres are a key element 
of Canberra’s urban structure, any changes to the size, structure or 
operation of Woden and Belconnen Town Centres will be carefully 
evaluated in terms of the metropolitan implications. No additional 
retail floorspace will be permitted at Woden and Belconnen Town 
Centres, beyond that which can be shown to be generated by the 
populations within their respective town catchments. Neither Woden 
Town Centre nor Belconnen Town Centre will be encouraged by the 
application of planning policies or by development works to become 
the main metropolitan retail centre. 


189 


Town centres will be developed in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin. 
The retail components of Tuggeranong and Gungahlin Town Centres 
will be related to the town catchment, employment opportunities 
within the respective town centres and the metropolitan retail system. 
In order to accommodate retail-related uses requiring large floor areas 
or low rental space, it is intended to provide mixed-use areas as distinct 
from the retail cores and the main service trades areas ot centres. A 
closer physical integration ol these tunctions will be sought in the 
future. 

Table 97 shows the intended distribution of retail floorspace to 
Civic Centre and the town centres for the plan period. 


Table 97 Intended Distribution of Retail Floorspace to Civic Centre 
and the Town Centres in the Plan Period 


Retail Floorspace (m ; ) 


Location 

Existing 

(1982) 

Intended 

Belconnen Town Centre 

67 300 

69 800 

Civic Centre 

60 800 

75 800 

Gungahlin Town Centre 

- 

47 000 

Tuggeranong Town Centre 

- 

40 000-50 000 

Woden Town Centre 

67 900 

70 400 


Group Centres 

Group centres provide the opportunity for major weekly shopping 
and for the location of retail and personal services requiring a catch¬ 
ment larger than that of a local centre, but smaller than that of a town 
centre. Group centres will provide supermarkets and other retail, 
commercial, and community facilities and services. The development 
of group centres will be restricted to that level which serves the needs 
of their respective local catchments. 

Local Centres 

The Commission will meet needs for local retail and community 
facilities by maintaining an effective system of local shopping centres 
and providing opportunities for private development. Proposals for 
extending local centres will be considered in relation to the needs of 
the people living in the local area and the impact of such proposals 
on the amenity of adjacent residential areas. Proposals will only be 
supported where it can be demonstrated that they fulfil a local need. 


190 


Transport 

Background and Intent 

the transport system comprises the road network, car parking 
facilities and public transport. The efficiency of the total system 
depends not only on the physical provision of infrastructure, but also 
on the operational policies adopted for the use and control of facilities, 
for example, road traffic management measures, parking charges and 
the fare levels of the bus services. The Commission provides the 
infrastructure and associated facilities, and, in conjunction with the 
Department of Territories and Local Government, formulates the 
broad policy for the system. In turn, the Department determines 
operational policy and maintains and operates the system. 

The importance of the interaction between land use activities and 
transport has been emphasised by the work done in reviewing the Plan. 
This has clearly indicated that it is the disposition and size of the 
centres for major employment and shopping which places different 
demands and stresses on the transport system and the physical fabric 
of the City. 

The major problems revealed in evaluating the options for the 
future development of Canberra will be difficult to overcome. They 
are: 

• a heavy concentration of movement in the morning and evening 
peak periods, due to journeys to and from work 

• the need to devise a system of roads and parking facilities to 
adequately meet movement demands, particularly in the peak 
periods and within and on the approaches to the Central Area and 
town centres, in order to avoid congestion, danger and delays, but 
to do so within the constraints of efficient expenditure 

• the need to resolve the conflict between meeting the needs of traffic 
and other uses, in order to avoid undue hazards to pedestrians 
and possible harmful effects on the environment from noise and 
fume emission and impairment of the visual quality of the urban 
fabric. 

To some extent, the hierarchical system of roads, developed 
successfully in the new towns of Canberra, has minimised the impact 
of those kinds of problems to date, providing a high standard of safety 
and service to all road users. With regard to the provision of car parking 
and the related question of public transport, the proposals in the 1980 
Metropolitan Issues-Public Discussion Paper to constrain the level 
of car parking at major employment and retail nodes and increase 
the provision of public transport services, drew strong adverse 
comments from motorists using long-stay parking at existing major 
nodes. 

The transport policy is intended to overcome existing and potential 
future problems by protecting the Central Area from traffic pressures 
that might otherwise overwhelm it; through the efficient operation 
of the total transport system; by preventing traffic congestion and 
traffic intrusion into residential areas; and by minimising the impact 
of noise and fumes emission. 


Policy 

Road Network 

The hierarchical system of roads, comprised of parkways, arterials, 
sub-arterials, distributors, collectors and access roads, will be 
continued in the future development of the City. Existing road patterns 
in other parts of Canberra will be improved to reflect this system 
wherever possible. In addition, traffic congestion will not be promoted 
as a method of traffic management or to encourage the use of 
alternative transport modes. 


\ 9 \ 


The metropolitan road network will be extended and impioved 
in the plan period in order to meet movement demands, particularly 
in the peak periods, to provide a well detined primary network toi 
longer-distance movements within the metropolitan aiea and to 
minimise congestion within and on the approaches to the Central Area 
and town centres. Improvements to the metropolitan road network 
will be carried out in conjunction with development ot an adequate 
supporting secondary network tor local access and movement. 

Public Transport 

The public transport policy aims at achieving a balance between 
public transport capacity and road capacity, as improved public 
transport and an efficient road system are to a large extent 
interdependent. 

In future the Commission will, in conjunction with the Department 
of Territories and Local Government: 

• support the continuation and future planned expansion ot a 
comprehensive system of bus services operating on the road 
network. The level of service will be commensurate with the C ity’s 
financial ability to meet the needs ot those dependent on bus travel 

• encourage people to use public transport as the means ot travel 
to work 

• continue to implement a programme of providing bus priority lanes 
along congested routes with high bus flows, where benefits can 
be realised without significant restraint on general traffic movement 
or causing adverse effects on amenity by diverting traffic into local 
roads through residential areas 

• continue to provide centrally located bus interchange facilities in 
the town centres of each of Canberra’s towns 

• continue to investigate routes for express inter-town buses. Routes 
which are reserved will be capable of design to ensure frequent 
and relatively fast services, in order to create an attractive alternative 
to trav el by private car. Routes for detailed investigation are those 
which will provide access from each of the existing and proposed 
town centres to the Central Area. 

Parking 

General 

The provision of off-street parking will be the responsibility of 
developers. They will be required to either construct or contribute 
towards the construction of parking facilities, as determined by the 
Commission, in conjunction with the Department of Territories and 
Local Government. A mechanism will need to be developed to enable 
this. The size of facilities required will be related to the activities pro¬ 
posed within the development. The size and location of facilities will 
be such that they will not cause environmental damage or inhibit the 
movement of traffic in the surrounding street system. 

The amenity of residential areas adjacent to town centres and other 
employment centres will be protected from the intrusion of car parking 
by the application of development controls and traffic management 
measures. 

Civic Centre and the Town Centres 

The Central Area will continue to be the major metropolitan centre 
of employment and Civic will be developed as the major metropolitan 
commercial centre. In the planning period, the number of jobs in the 
Central Area will increase by between 43 per cent and 55 per cent 
and the amount of retail floorspace may increase by 25 per cent. In 
Civic, because some existing car parking sites will be required for 
development purposes, between 7 000 and 12 000 spaces of the total 
requirement of 15 000 to 22 000 spaces will need to be provided in 
structured car parking. 


192 


rah 1 c 98 Car Parking Deni 

Location 

Civic Centre 
Belconnen Town Centre 

Gungahlin Town Centre 
Tuggeranong Town Centre 
Woden Town Centre 

Total 


The existing town centres in Woden and Belconnen and the 
proposed town centres in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin will be the next 
most important metropolitan retail and employment centres. Table 98 
shows the levels of car parking related to those needs. 


and at Civic Centre and the Town Centres in the Plan Period 



Existing (1982) 


Employ¬ 

Retail 

Structured 

Surface 

ment 

(nr) 

Parking 

Parking 

16 000 

60 800 

- 

12 000 

8 000 

67 300 

1 700 

6 800 

9 300 

67 900 

_ 

7 500 

33 300 

196 000 

1 700 

26 300 


Expected Demand 


Employ¬ 

Retail 

Structured 

Surface 

ment 

(m 2 ) 

Parking 

Parking 

25 000- 

75 800 

7 000- 

8 000- 

27 000 


12 000 

10 000 

13 000- 

69 800 

1 700- 

8 200- 

15 000 


4 000 

10 500 

7 000- 

47 000 

- 

5 200- 

12 000 



8 800 

12 000- 

50 000 

- 

9 000- 

17 000 



11 800 

11 000 — 

70 400 

0 - 1 500 

8 400- 

13 000 



9 600 

68 000- 

313 000 

8 700- 

38 800- 

84 000 


17 500 

50 700 


193 


National Capital Open Space System 

Background and Intent 

While each type of area in the National Capital Open Space System 
has its own use and character, they are all interrelated as a total land¬ 
scape open space system. Consequently what is done in one area has 
an effect on other areas. This requires the open space to be planned, 
developed and managed as an integrated system. 

At this stage of planning, the proposals and policies lor the open 
space system can only designate the broad use areas, general intentions 
and the nature of the interrelationship ot areas, so that each area can 
be placed separately as a distinct problem, but with a clearly defined 
and constant relationship to the whole ol the open space system. 

It is not intended that the National Capital Open Space System 
be developed or managed as traditional public open space or parkland. 
It is intended to be a multiple-use area with ditferent parts ot the 
system having different planning and management policies reflecting 
the characteristics of the land. Areas will be defined tor intensive 
recreation, conservation and open space uses but other lands would 
be leased for rural purposes and other specific uses appropriate to 
the objectives and policies set tor the specific part ot the system. 

Policy 

The following policies apply to the whole of the National C apital 
Open Space System: 

• Landscape 

The National Capital Open Space System will be preserved and 
enhanced as an essential part of the scenic background and land¬ 
scape setting to the National Capital. The preservation and 
enhancement of the landscape character and diversity is the 
objective against which all proposals for use and development will 
be measured. 

• Land Use and Access 

The National Capital Open Space System will be planned so as 
to facilitate and improve visual and physical access and provide 
a balanced range of recreational opportunities and other uses in 
a manner that reinforces the National Capital Open Space System 
as a diverse ecological, cultural, scenic and recreational resource. 
It will also provide a land bank for future National Capital and 
recreational needs. 

• Conservation and Resource Protection 

The ecological, recreational, cultural and scenic resources of the 
National Capital Open Space System will be protected consistent 
with usage, providing for the best use of each part without 
degrading its desirable condition or the quality of the experience. 

• Management 

Planning and development of the open space system will be 
integrated with effective management that sustains specific uses 
and recreational activities consistent with conservation, landscape 
protection and other planning policies. 

Specific area policies give the planning intention for the 
components and the different types of areas within the National 
Capital Open Space System. These include: 

• River Corridors 

• Hill Areas 

• Mountain and Bushland Areas 

• Pine Plantations 

• Rural Landscape Foreground Areas 

• Special Interest Sites. 


194 



The policies for other areas will be progressively defined as f urther 
detailed planning studies are undertaken. 

River Corridors 

The river corridors are key elements in the Canberra landscape 
and provide a diverse ecological, scenic and recreational resource 
which is increasingly being used, by both residents and visitors, for 
a variety of recreation activities, particularly sightseeing, swimming, 
picnicking, nature study, fishing, canoeing and walking. 

The boundaries of the Murrumbidgee and Molonglo river 
corridors define in part the ‘Areas of Special National Concern’. A 
unified approach to the planning, development and management is 
required if the essential landscape and environmental qualities of the 
river corridors are to be retained. 

The landscape and ecological continuity of the river corridors will 
be preserved and reinforced. Recreational opportunities and other uses 
are to be provided consistent with maintenance of environmental 
values. 

Specific objectives which will guide the planning of the river 
corridors are: 

• prevention of deterioration of water quality either from external 
influences that impact on the river or from the nature of the river 
corridor usage 

• preservation of areas of existing natural vegetation in a relatively 
undisturbed state 

• repair and rehabilitation of damaged areas, including revegetation 
where necessary 

• provision of a range of riverside recreation as best suited to the 
resource in terms of its physical and ecological capacity 

• protection as far as possible from external effects, such as uncon¬ 
trolled access, visual intrusion, excess nutrients and wildfire 

• maintenance of ecological continuity along the corridor for 
migrating fish and wildlife populations 

• provision of a planning and management strategy which sustains 
specific land uses and recreational activities consistent with the 
objectives. 

Hill Areas 

One of the greatest attractions of Canberra is that from almost 
anywhere in the City the ridges and slopes of the hills can be seen, 
with their varied pattern of partially wooded grassland and views to 
the mountain ranges beyond. 

Certain of the hills closer in are visually more important than 
others. The most important are those which can be seen from the 
national areas of Parkes and Barton. The next in order of importance 
are the hills and ridges that shape and contain the urban areas. Other 
hills have local importance because they are visually prominent from 
main approach roads or are part of the river corridors. 

The hill areas will be preserved from urban development and their 
essential environmental and landscape character will be retained and 
reinforced so as to provide a unified landscape setting for the National 
Capital. 

Multiple-use of the hill areas, including special development and 
service corridors for public utilities, will be permitted provided the 
proposed use is appropriate to the landscape and environmental 
intentions for the area concerned. 


195 


Mountain and Bushland Areas 

The most impressive views from Canberra are those into the 
Brindabella and Tidbinbilla mountain ranges that rise in the southern 
and western parts of the ACT beyond the Murrumbidgee River. This 
mountain and bushland area has a wide variety of dit 1 erent landscapes 
from high mountains, snow covered in winter, to foothills, rainforest 
valleys and alpine meadows, other bushland and open valleys, all of 
which contribute to its value as a scenic, ecological and recreational 
resource. 

This area also encompasses the Cotter and Gudgenby water 
catchment areas and the Tidbinbilla and Gudgenby Nature Reserves. 

The mountain and bushland areas that have remained relatively 
undisturbed and are not required for water supply reservoirs and 
associated works will be preserved and protected as nature conservation, 
wilderness and bushland recreation areas. The usage and access will 
be controlled to a level that will prevent environmental deterioration 
that would significantly detract from the quality of the area or the 
experience of use. 

Any development will be kept to the minimum required for public 
appreciation of such areas and it practicable will be confined to the 
perimeter or to the surrounding buffer zones. 

Pine Plantations 

Softwood forestry is one of the few resource-based industries in 
the ACT and the pine plantations, because of their proximity to the 
urban areas, provide for high levels of recreation use. 

Although some of the effects of extensive pine planting in the land¬ 
scape can be criticised on aesthetic grounds, pine forests, if carefully 
sited and developed, can add interest to the landscape. They help to 
emphasise the shapes of the land forms and add colour and variety 
to the general scene. 

Pine plantations will be retained where appropriate as multiple-use 
areas for other uses compatible with the primary productive purposes. 

Rural Landscape Foreground Areas 

Rural landscape foreground areas are those rural lands associated 
with the National Capital Open Space System which, while not 
necessarily visually significant when considered in isolation, form a 
foreground to panoramic views beyond. 

Because of this association with the National Capital Open Space 
System it is important to retain the essential rural landscape character 
of these areas and not permit uses that would break down the scale 
and appearance of the countryside and intrude into the main view. 

The retention of these rural landscape areas would also ensure 
representative examples of the typical Australian countryside close-in 
to the National Capital as visible links to Canberra’s rural past. 

The importance of the rural landscape foreground areas associated 
with the National Capital Open Space System, particularly 
Bulgar/New Station/McQuoid Creeks area, south-west Molonglo, 
Lanyon/Riverview, Pialligo/Dairy Flat, Paddys River Valley, and 
Booroomba, will be recognised in future planning. These areas will 
be subject to local policy and development plans aimed at retaining 
the pastoral character of the land while permitting appropriate 
National Capital and other Commonwealth uses that are compatible 
with rural usage in maintaining the broad landscape character. 


196 


Special Interest Sites 

There are a number of ecological, geological, archaeological, 
historical and cultural sites within the National Capital Open Space 
System. They are of scientific, educational or public interest because 
they have a restricted occurrence in the ACT and the surrounding 
region or because they have historic and cultural associations with 
Canberra’s past. 

These sites will be preserved and protected for the purposes of 
research, education and public interest and appropriate settings will 
be maintained or created on these sites. 

A survey of the Territory has been initiated to identify and classify 
special interest sites. Areas identified and classified will be subject 
to local policy and development plans aimed at providing an adequate 
level of protection. 


197 


Recreation and Tourism 

Background and Intent 

Recreation and tourist facilities are highly interrelated in the ACT. 
Local recreation facilities are used by visitors to the National Capital 
while tourist attractions are visited by large numbers of Canberra 
residents. 

An important component of the outdoor recreation facilities 
available in the ACT is the National Capital Open Space System which 
provides recreational opportunities for the whole metropolitan 
population. The Commission is responsible for the design and 
construction of many other recreation facilities including sports fields, 
playgrounds and swimming pools. Private enterprise and community 
groups also provide both indoor and outdoor leisure facilities, such 
as squash courts and golf courses. 

As Civic Centre is closely associated with the tourist facilities in 
the Central Area, it has the potential to develop as a major 
metropolitan focus for tourism. Expansion of tourist activities would 
help Civic to dev elop a metropolitan role by encouraging development 
in specialist retailing and entertainment. An area has been designated 
in Civic Centre where emphasis will be given to the co-location of 
commercial accommodation and tourist attractions. 

Policy 

The Commission’s policy in relation to recreation and tourism is 
to encourage, in conjunction with private enterprise and community 
groups, an adequate and balanced provision of recreation and tourist 
facilities to meet the needs of residents of the ACT and tourists to 
the National Capital. 

Recreation facilities will be provided on a hierarchical basis so that 
facilities with a metropolitan catchment are easily accessible to all of 
the residents of the ACT, and facilities with a local catchment are 
located within residential neighbourhoods. 

Inner Canberra is to remain the central focus for tourist attractions 
associated with national capital and metropolitan functions and for 
tourist accommodation. 

New private enterprise tourist attractions are to be grouped in Civic 
Centre or the Special Tourist Commercial Area at North Watson, 
rather than be dispersed throughout the City. Tourist-related develop¬ 
ment may also be located within the National Capital Open Space 
System, at special development sites identified for that purpose. 


198 


Community Facilities 

Background and Intent 

Generally, the Commission does not determine the need for 
community facilities, but responds to requests from client authorities 
such as the Department of Territories and Local Government, the 
ACT Schools Authority and the Capital Territory Health 
Commission. 

In response to these requests, the Commission selects sites and 
designs and constructs a range of community facilities for welfare, 
youth, cultural, educational, health and municipal services. 

At the metropolitan level the most important community facilities 
the Commission plans and develops for client authorities are those 
related to education and health. 

Policy 

Education 

The Commission will select sites and design and construct govern¬ 
ment education facilities, in conjunction with client authorities and 
in accordance with forecast population characteristics and development 
programmes. Education facilities will be designed to allow maximum 
use by the community and to ensure integration with complementary 
and compatible land uses. The Commission will facilitate the develop¬ 
ment of private education facilities by the selection and servicing of 
appropriate sites. 

Health 

The Commission will select sites and design and construct govern¬ 
ment health facilities in conjunction with client authorities to facilitate 
the provision of health care to the community. 

The Commission’s role in the development of private health care 
facilities is the selection and servicing of suitable sites. 


Urban Environment 

Background and Intent 

The policies and development proposals of the Plan concentrate 
on strategic matters affecting the function, scale and location of 
activities in Canberra. However, the success of the Plan will be assessed 
in the minds of many observers not only by how well the City works 
but also by how it looks and how pleasant it is to live in. 

In general, the urban environment of Canberra is of a high quality 
compared to other Australian cities. This is to be expected, given its 
role as the National Capital and its development, since its inception, 
to an overall design concept. 

With the planned interrelationship of all public landscape design 
and the high standard of private landscaping, Canberra has become 
a unique landscaped city. In fact, landscape design and development 
have made a major contribution to the overall design and development 
of the City. 

The origin ot the Canberra landscape was in the 1912 prize-winning 
plan by Walter Burley Griffin. Griffin recognised particularly the 
importance of the hills and river corridors as features capable of 
providing a basis tor the design of the City and a guide to modification 
of the landscape. 

The Commission’s broad landscape principles have been: first, to 
unite the urban elements of Canberra - the buildings, engineering 
structures, roads and spaces - into a unified design related to the 
surrounding countryside; second, to achieve a completed appearance 
in a given area in a short space of time; and third, to provide an 
environment for human activity and enjoyment both for the present 
as well as the future. 

The older residential suburbs are dominated by their landscaping, 
with built elements being obscured by the vegetation in private and 
public spaces. The fact that trees obscure any buildings less than three 
storeys high gives great impact to those buildings that rise higher, as 
they are seen against a backdrop of vegetation. 

Most ot the effect of landscape development in suburban areas 
has been achieved by planting in public spaces - streets, parks and 
the sites of public buildings. The residential landscape thus created 
is reinforced by arranging arterial roads so that the larger open spaces 
are apparent to tens of thousands of drivers each day and the resulting 
traffic is removed from residential areas. 

Urban development does not appear on the skyline of Canberra’s 
hills and ridges. Rather, development is hidden in the folds of the 
hills amongst landscaping, giving the City a predominantly low setting. 
In Civic Centre and the town centres, the establishment of contrasting 
building masses accommodating the urban activities has occurred 
through the development of buildings rising above the tree canopy. 
However, even tall buildings are subordinate to the landscape, reflecting 
the capacity ot the landscape to absorb large developments and yet 
retain its dominance. 

Commercial buildings in the national areas reflect the need to limit 
height in the interest of the National Capital functions, and make their 
presence telt through continuity in massing, colour, form and 
materials. 

Care has been exercised with the siting and landscaping of unsightly 
uses or developments on new sites. Similarly, care has been taken with 
urban uses in the rural areas to preserve the quality and scale of the 
countryside. 


200 


The policy is intended to continue the garden city concept and to 
delineate the main activity centres by strong vertical elements of 
building mass penetrating the landscape canopy. It is intended to 
provide a distinctive setting for the National Capital by enhancing 
the land forms and scenic setting of Canberra, and to maintain and 
continue the creation of attractive living environments. 

Policy 

The urban environment policy is to ensure harmony of buildings 
and landscape and thus give effect to Griffin’s concept of a garden 
city, which is the foundation of design in Canberra. 

The design and landscape principles as developed for Canberra 
will be retained and utilised for the expansion of the City. New urban 
settlement areas will be built in adjoining valleys and be separated 
from one another by preserving open spaces and the intervening 
hilltops in their natural state. This will be reinforced by the develop¬ 
ment of the National Capital Open Space System, which recognises 
the value of these spaces along with the ‘Areas of Special National 
Concern’ defined in the Commission’s Design and Siting Policies. 


201 


Rural and Non-Urban Areas 

Background and Intent 

The rural and non-urban lands of the ACT provide a distinctive 
setting for the National Capital, act as an integral part of the City’s 
open space system and provide a land bank for future land use and 
activity needs, as the City grows and changes. Such needs include 
special activities directly related to Canberra as the National Capital; 
defence, scientific and institutional uses; recreation and nature 
reserves; and other activities incidental to the development of the City. 

Rural lands contain significant natural resources such as rivers, 
streams, land forms, flora and fauna which need protection while the 
land is under rural management, in order that these resources might 
be integrated into the activities of the present and future City and 
its environs. 

The policy for rural and non-urban lands is intended to make the 
tidlest use ot natural resources by wise management and to conserve 
the natural setting ot the ACT. It is also intended to safeguard the 
future land bank of the City and to avoid difficult land assembly and 
high future acquisition costs if and when the lands are required for 
other Commonwealth purposes. 

Policy 

The maintenance of the rural surrounds of Canberra as represen¬ 
tative of Australia’s rural landscape is an important consideration in 
planning land use in the Territory. Together with the National Capital 
Open Space System, the rural areas not required for other purposes 
will be retained as part of the landscape environs of the National 
Capital. 

Rural and non-urban land should be used generally only for grazing 
purposes by stock, which will not significantly alter or degrade the 
land’s natural resources. Intensive farming will be strictly controlled. 
Where possible, rural leases should be amalgamated in order to 
provide economic grazing and for ease of land assembly, should the 
land be required for future Commonwealth purposes. Accordingly, 
the subdivision of existing holdings into smaller blocks will be 
opposed. The natural tree cover on rural and non-urban land is an 
important landscape element assisting in preventing soil erosion. 
Clearing for grazing and other rural activities, including the planting 
ot exotic forest, will also require planning permission and strict 
management controls. 

Hobby farms and rural/residential retreats are not considered to 
be bona tide rural activities. Such uses fragment viable rural holdings, 
often mar the open rural landscape, are costly to provide with services, 
create difficulties for future land assembly and, generally, lead to 
higher acquisition costs when the land is required for Commonwealth 
purposes. Applications for planning permission for these uses will not 
be supported. 

Some rural leases close to the urban area are being transformed 
into rural/residential retreats by the construction of large houses 
unnecessary for the operations of the rural holdings. Such 
developments will be prevented in future by requiring built 
improvements on rural land to be limited to those which are essential 
to the operation of the rural activities being carried out, on land of 
sufficiently large area to sustain viable agriculture or grazing. Activities 
involving intensive agriculture or grazing will be subject to special 
consideration. Generally, where the rural holding is of an acceptable 
size an application for a single dwelling house with essential rural out¬ 
buildings will receive favourable planning consideration and the 
connection of available services. Generally, an application for multiple 


202 


dwelling houses will be opposed by the Commission; where applications 
are supported, a condition of approval will be that compensation for 
acquisition will be waived for all improvements except one dwelling 
house nominated by the Commonwealth. 


Public Utilities 

Background and Intent 

The most significant public utilities the Commission plans for at 
the metropolitan level are those related to water resources and energy 
supply and other essential services. 

The water resources of the ACT are used for a wide range of 
purposes, including water supply, the discharge of wastes and surface 
runoff to streams, and recreation. Water resources are incorporated 
into the metropolitan area as an integral part of the urban landscape. 

A number of these purposes have quality and quantity attributes 
that need to be protected to secure the full enjoyment of the water 
resources. 

While the use of infrastructure provides a means of modifying 
impacts, there is often a high cost associated with technological 
solutions. A range of water resources management techniques have 
been adopted as the means of providing the services and conditions 
meeting community aspirations. They comprise: 

• land use and management control which is cognisant of the 
protection of water and associated uses downstream 

• the provision of water supply, wastewater and surface water 
infrastructure 

• the management of demand for services. 

Essential services comprise electricity, gas, telephones and postal 
services. Such services influence planning considerations by virtue of 
their land needs and the environmental effects of their supply 
structures. Although responsibility for their provision rests with other 
statutory authorities and private enterprise undertakings, it is necessary 
for the Commission to take their requirements into consideration in 
the overall planning of the metropolitan area. 

Policy 

Water Resources 

The ACT Policy Plan (Water Use) will be used as a basis for: 

• co-ordination of land and water use planning and management 

• co-ordination of the allocation of water resources across a range 
of competing uses 

• co-ordination between the ACT portion of the Murrumbidgee 
basin and the NSW portion of the basin. 

The policy for water catchment areas is to protect the water 
resource value of catchment areas in order to ensure the economic 
provision ot a supply ot safe drinking water, while simultaneously 
conserving the other natural resources within the catchments 
themselves, and maintaining their visual integrity. 

Exploitation of water catchment areas for grazing, agriculture, 
forestry and other rural acitivities, which would significantly degrade 
their resource value, will be excluded, along with hobby farms, 
rural/residential retreats and recreation uses, particularly those of a 
more intensive commercial nature. Uses of an educational, scientific, 
defence or institutional nature will be considered on the merits of their 
proposals and particular impacts on the resource value of the 
catchment. 

Although walking trails, fire trails and other essential facilities, 
needed to manage, protect and allow the study and appreciation of 
the natural resources of catchment areas may be permitted, they will 
be subject to strict planning controls and management practices. 


204 


The Cotter Catchment Area will be protected in the interests of 
an economic provision of a safe supply of potable water. 

In view of the need to augment water supply in the longer term, 
the area adjacent to Mt. Tennent on the Gudgenby and Naas Rivers 
will be reserved as a possible water storage area. The inclusion of a 
nature reserve within the catchment is consistent with this use. 

Water pollution control facilities will be incorporated into urban 
stormwater infrastructure in Tuggeranong as the basis for the protection 
of the Murrumbidgee River. A water feature will be developed in 
Tuggeranong, as a means of protecting the Murrumbidgee River, and 
as a water-based recreation facility. 

The urban form and structure of Gungahlin will make significant 
use of natural features to contain urban runoff pollution consistent 
with the protection of Lake Ginninderra and the requirements of 
urban development. 

In view of the high cost of treatment of wastewater to a standard 
consistent with the protection of inland lakes and streams, economies 
of scale will be utilised by basing augmentation of wastewater treatment 
facilities on the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. 

Energy Supply and Other Essential Services 

The intention is to ensure the availability of essential services in 
close co-ordination with urban development and to ensure that urban 
development proposals do not place unacceptable demands on 
essential services. It is also intended that the provision of essential 
services be achieved with the minimum detriment to the environment, 
and that sites will be made available in suitable locations. 

The Commission will take account of the needs of essential services 
in making proposals for the phasing and location of development and 
changes in land use. Proposals for new facilities and installations, 
including overhead electricity lines, will be approved only in suitable 
locations in accordance with the general proposals for the area 
concerned. 


205 


Chapter 7 


Development Plan 


Introduction 

The purpose of the Development Plan is to indicate those develop¬ 
ment proposals which are required to meet needs arising from 
population growth or change. The development proposals indicate 
the main public works that will need to be carried out by the 
Commission and other public authorities, as well as indicating 
development opportunities for the private sector, particularly in terms 
of new housing, offices and retail facilities. The ability to implement 
the public works will be subject to adequacy of continuing annual 
appropriations from the Budget. 

The Metropolitan Development Plan has been prepared to: 

• identify the Commission’s intentions for major development works 

• inform other public authorities and the private sector of Canberra's 
expected growth and development over the next twenty years or so 

• inform the public of proposed development works 

• highlight the range, type and location of development 
opportunities likely to arise for private enterprise during the plan 
period. 

The Development Plan translates the needs forecasts (outlined in 
Chapter 4 in terms of housing units, retail floorspace, etc.) into spatial 
and programme terms. 

In implementing the Development Plan, the Commission will give 
priority to: 

• consolidating development in the existing towns and promoting 
the orderly expansion of the City 

• encouraging the development of Civic Centre as Canberra's 
metropolitan centre (Central Business District) 

• providing centres in the newly developing areas to meet the needs 
of the local community 

• providing adequate traffic access to employment and service 
centres as Canberra’s population grows 

• continuing the development of the National Capital Open Space 
System 

• minimising undesirable impacts on the environment, enhancing 
and protecting the desirable qualities of the existing environment 
and ensuring that projects, when approved, contain adequate en¬ 
vironmental safeguards. 

The Development Plan provides a planning input into the 
Commission’s development procedures. The process is complex with 

207 





many interactions and has a high degree of flexibility. In general, the 
process follows a logical production sequence consisting of. 

• needs assessments 

• three-year construction programme 

• design 

• annual works programme 

• construction 

• handover of completed facilities. 

The Commission’s current practice is to produce Development 
Plans as a basis for detailed discussions with client departments and 
authorities, or with representative community groups. Because it is 
usually necessary to alter the plans during the course of such discussions 
and as the design evolves, it is not possible to arrive at an agreed 
plan which remains unchanged after consultation has been completed. 
By their nature such plans must to some extent remain fluid and 
adaptive to changing circumstances. Updated development plans are 
produced periodically as priorities alter and projects are accordingly 
added to or subtracted from the list. The Commission intends to 
update the Metropolitan Development Plan on a regular basis and 
make it available for public information. 

The Development Plan provides the basis tor two related streams 
of action. For its part, the Commission will seek programme status 
and funding for public works. For the private sector, specific develop¬ 
ment opportunities will need to be identified, through consultations 
between the Commission and industry and in conjunction with the 
promotional activities of the Canberra Development Board. Where 
possible, projects which should or could be carried out by private 
enterprise are identified in the Development Plan. 

Implementation of the Development Plan will rely on: 

• achievement of population thresholds for developments directly 
serving the population 

• sufficient support from the private sector, as well as relevant 
government agencies - that is, agreement about the need for and 
priority of proposed works. 


208 



Development Proposals 

The Metropolitan Development Plan deals with the planning and 
sequencing of the major metropolitan works which are needed to 
realise the intentions of the Policy Plan. While the implementation 
of the Policy Plan must evolve over time, some decisions need to be 
made sooner than others. The main decisions that have to be made 
now concern the phasing-in of the next settlement area, the location 
and phasing of office centres, the sequence of major retail releases, 
the location and design of the major road system and public transport 
network, the development of facilities for water supply, stormwater 
drainage and sewerage reticulation, and the development of the 
National Capital Open Space System. Development projects which 
are currently considered necessary and which would contribute to the 
Policy Plan objectives are summarised below in two sections: the first 
deals with projects in the rural ACT; and the second, with projects 
in the Canberra urban area. 


209 


Metropolitan Canberra Development Plan (ACT) 

The rural area of the ACT will come under increasing pressure 
as additional land is required to meet the growing needs of the City. 
In addition, Commonwealth Government institutions requiring large 
sites will continue to occupy land in the rural ACT. These uses \vi 
displace grazing or similar interim uses. It is theretore envisaged that, 
in the very long term, the rural ACT will become predominantly a 
planned and managed landscape and be visited by greater numbers 
of tourists to the National Capital (Figure 65). 

Consideration as to how the rural ACT will be piogiessi\el> 
transformed to meet emergent needs is continuing and inevitably Kiises 
complex planning and development issues. For example, to arrest and 
restore existing deterioration of the natural landscape ot the ACT will 
require a long-term and comprehensive approach, involving ecological 
and land use studies, planning and implementation. 

The major development works required during the plan period 
in the rural ACT are related to: 

• the National Capital Open Space 

• forests 

• water resources 

• National Capital entrance routes 

• rural roads. 


National Capital Open Space 

1. Progressive Development of the National Capital Open Space 

System 

Metropolitan open space is necessary for the long-term 
environmental protection of river systems, the maintenance ot visual 
quality in the modern city, the provision of adequate outdoor 
recreation opportunities for those who live in the city and the 
maintenance of ecological diversity. 

The National Capital Open Space System (NCOSS) is a major 
element of the Y-Plan. It is essential for the long-term achievement 
of a fitting Australian landscape setting for Australia’s National 
Capital. The NCOSS is also required for the environmental protection 
of the ACT river system, for, without such protection, further growth 
of the City would be jeopardised. The NCOSS is a key element in 
the provision of adequate recreation opportunities for residents and 
visitors in this large inland city. 

The NCOSS will be progressively developed during the plan period 
to accommodate the diverse demands made upon it by Canberra’s 
residents and visitors. Included will be the development of Kings Park 
adjacent to Commonwealth Park, other parklands on the foreshores 
of Lake Burley Griffin, the revegetation of hill reserves and river 
corridors and the provision of riverside recreation facilities. 

A planning and management strategy will be prepared, which 
sustains specific land uses and recreational activities consistent with 
the landscape and environmental objectives. 


1 Progressive Development of the National Capital 
Open Space System - the National Capital Open 
Space System will be progressively developed to 
protect river systems, maintain visual quality, 
provide recreational opportunities, maintain 
ecological diversity and ensure the ecological 
stability of urban lands. 

2 Investigation of Pine Plantations - economic, 
plannnmg and landscape studies will be under¬ 
taken to determine the selective replacement of 
pine plantations by native species. 

3 Protection of Water Uses - water quality in lakes 
and streams will be protected to ensure their 
designated uses which may include water supply 
and recreation uses. 

4 Augmentation of Water Supply - the limits on water 
resources in the ACT require the protection of 
possible future sources of supply such as the 
Naas-Gudgenby Catchment, the restriction of 
allocation of water to the sub-region and a 
programme to reduce water consumption. 

5 Federal Highway Duplication and Upgrading - 
improvement works will be undertaken to tie in 
with associated works in New South Wales. 

6 Reconstruction of Monaro Highway - the road is 
being progressively upgraded to facilitate move¬ 
ment to and from the Snowy Mountains. 

7 Upgrading of Cotter Road - the road will be 
upgraded to improve safety and provide over¬ 
taking opportunities. 

8 West Belconnen-Unarra Road Connection - a road 
connecting Stockdill Drive with Uriarra Road will 
improve access for Belconnen residents to 
Murrumbidgee and Cotter River recreation areas. 

9 Brindabella Road-Mt. Franklin Road Upgrading, 
Mt. Franklin Road-Corin Road Connection - these 
works will complete a tourist route from Cotter to 
Tharwa via the Brindabella Road, Picadilly Circus, 
Mount Franklin and Corin Dam. 

10 Boboyan Road Upgrading - work will continue to 
upgrade and seal the road to the ACT border. 

11 Relocation of Naas Road - if the Naas-Gudgenby 
Catchment is required for water supply and the 
Tennent Reservoir is constructed, the northern 
part of Naas Road will need to be relocated higher 
up the slopes of Mount Tennent. 

i Proposed Commonwealth Works 


The NCOSS is a special category of land, and its management is 
considered to be an essential part of its evolutionary development. 
It will be subject to change over time as part of the long-term planning 
and development of the National Capital. Long-term environmental 
monitoring will also be necessary. 



0 2 4 6 8 10 km 

1 ! _I_I_I_ I 


Figure 65 Metropolitan Canberra 

Development Plan (ACT) 


210 






NSW 



211 









Forests 


2. Investigation of Pine Plantations 

Of the 1 453 km 2 of forest and pine plantations in the ACT 
1 243 km 2 are covered by indigenous forests, generally on steep lan , 
which should not be cleared. The indigenous forests are largely in the 
existing or proposed water catchment areas, or in areas proposed tor 
future conservation. 

Most of the 210 km 2 devoted to pine plantations comprise lands 
which are unsuitable for use other than recreation. They are generally 
in areas of potential erosion or which have been previously degraded 
by overgrazing. The Commission intends that the pine forests in 
Kowen should not be extended as commercial plantations, and that 
in selected areas such as the visual catchment of the Parliamentary 
Zone the pine forests should be replaced progressively with native 
species. Pine forests are regarded as a temporary use until there is 
a higher order use to replace them, especially in relation to 
Commonwealth Government needs. Economic, planning and landscape 
studies will be undertaken as required to determine the appropriate 
amount of pine plantation in the ACT in order to replace them where 
necessary in accordance with the overall landscape and recreational 
requirements of the National Capital. 

Water Resources 

3. Protection of Water Uses 

All of the ACT constitutes a catchment area for the rivers, streams 
and lakes upon which the community is dependent for a range of uses. 
Decisions on land use and land use management within the catchment 
largely determine the ability ot lakes and streams to sustain their uses 
for water supply or recreational purposes. 

Water supply constitutes the most important use of water resources 
in the ACT. In the case of the Cotter Catchment Area, the provision 
of water supply has been dependent upon the maintenance of water 
inflow' of high quality. Increasing pressure for recreational access to 
the area w'ould necessitate upgrading of the level of water treatment 
at increased cost to the community. 

Similarly, the protection of Lake Burley Griffin and its use for 
water sports is dependent on control of land use and water discharges 
in the catchment areas. A reduction of phosphorus discharges within 
the catchment is required as a matter of urgency.. 

More than half of the land in the ACT may be needed for water 
supply catchments in the long term. The Cotter and Googong systems 
will be fully utilised when the Canberra/Queanbeyan population 
reaches 450 000. 

The Naas-Gudgenby catchment of 671 km 2 has been identified as 
a future possible major source of water supply. 

Most of the grazing properties in the northern part of this catch¬ 
ment area would either be flooded or affected by the future construction 
of Tennent Reservoir. The residue of open land, immediately around 
the reservoir site, could come within the water quality control manage¬ 
ment zone. The steep lands beyond the management zone would 
require restoration of vegetation to control soil erosion and prevent 
siltation of the reservoir. 

4. Augmentation of Water Supply 

In view of the limited resource available to meet future demands, 
there is a need to: 

• preserve the option to utilise the Naas-Gudgenby Catchment Area 

as a future source of water supply 


212 


• restrict the allocation of AC1 water to the sub-region 

• instigate a programme aimed at reducing water consumption in 
the longer term. 

On the basis of current consumption and projected population 
growth, augmentation of the water supply will need to commence 
within the plan period. Augmentation will require the construction 
of either a further dam within the Cotter Catchment Area, or the 
construction of the Tennent Reservoir on the Gudgenby River. 

The Tennent Reservoir could supply water for an additional 
population of between 180 000 and 215 000. Construction work on 
the dam would need to begin during the plan period, approximately 
seven to nine years prior to its planned in-service date. The future 
Tennent Reservoir area, including a foreshore buffer zone, will be 
excluded from the Gudgenby Nature Reserve, to preserve the option 
of exploiting the Naas-Gudgenby Catchment Area for water supply 
purposes. 

National Capital Entrance Routes 

5. Federal Highway Duplication and Upgrading 

The increasing ACT population and changing lifestyles will 
necessitate further development of regional roads. The Federal 
Highway is a major approach road to the National Capital and is in 
need of upgrading. 

Improvement works will be undertaken and co-ordinated with 
associated works in New South Wales. 

6. Reconstruction of Monaro Highway 

The Monaro Highway is the main connection from Canberra to 
the southern region of New South Wales and is used extensively by 
traffic travelling to and from the Snowy Mountains. The NSW Depart¬ 
ment of Main Roads is progressively upgrading this road between 
Cooma and the ACT/NSW border. The road in the ACT is being 
similarly upgraded and construction has been completed to within 
13.3 km of the border. 

Design is currently in hand for the remaining length within the 
ACT to be constructed in three stages. 

Rural Roads 

7. Upgrading of Cotter Road 

The Commission’s emphasis in the future development of rural 
roads will be on upgrading those roads that provide access to facilities 
close to urban development to meet the trend towards increasing use 
of more local recreation areas. As part of this programme, the Cotter 
Road will be upgraded to improve safety and provide overtaking lanes 
in appropriate locations. 

8. West Belconnen - Uriarra Road Connection 

Access for Belconnen residents to the recreation areas on the 
Murrumbidgee and Cotter is presently by a circuitous route. A road 
connecting Stockdill Drive with Uriarra Road will be constructed and 
this will shorten the trip to the Uriarra and Cotter areas by between 
10 and 15 km. 

9. Brindabella Road - Mt. Franklin Road Upgrading, Mt. Franklin 
Road - Corin Road Connection 

These works will complete a recreation and tourist route from the 
Cotter to Tharwa via the Brindabella Road, Picadilly Circus, 
Mt. Franklin, and the Corin Dam. The loop road created will provide 
views of the Snowy Mountains and the floodplain of the 


Murrumbidgee. There are major environmental factors to be 
considered in the design. These include water quality in the Cotter 
Catchment, environmental impacts on the wilderness area the road 
would traverse, and regional recreation resources. The provision o 
the road will be considered in detail, as part of the studies for the 
Cotter Catchment Area Policy and Development Plan, which is 

currently in progress. 

10. Boboyan Road Upgrading 

This project is a continuation of work currently being undertaken 
to upgrade and seal the Boboyan Road to the ACT border. Earlier 
staces have involved reconstruction of the road south to the Gudgenbv 
River crossing. This work will include reconstruction of the road south 
of the crossing and will take place on the existing road alignment. 
Minor adjustments will be carried out in a tew locations to improve 
the geometry of sharp bends, consistent with the higher design speed 
and safety needs ot the upgraded road. The new scaled road will serve 
reeional needs and provide the major access into Gudgenby Nature 
Reserve. 

11. Relocation of Naas Road 

The construction of Tennent Reservoir will necessitate relocation 
of the northern part of the Naas Road higher up the slopes ot 
Mt. Tennent. This road will remain as the northern entry route into 
Gudgenby Nature Reserve. It is the direct route between the Tharwa/ 
Lanvon area and Gudgenby Nature Reserve, tor recreational and tourist 
access and, in the long term, would establish the Riverview area as an 
entry point to the Gudgenby area and provide a spectacular lakeside 
drive along the edge of Tennent Reservoir. Ultimately it is expected 
to become a major tourist route. 


214 


Metropolitan Canberra Development Flan 
(Urban Area) 

Substantial progress has been made in the development of Canberra 
as the National Capital and Seat of Government and as a city housing 
over 230 000 people, most of which has been achieved in the past two 
decades. While Canberra’s ‘boom’ conditions of the early 1960s to the 
mid 1970s may not be repeated, considerable development needs will 
arise in the next two decades from natural increase in the population, 
changes in the demographic composition, net migration arising from 
public and private sector investment and job creation. In addition, there 
will be a wide range of demand for urban goods and services arising 
from changes in the urban fabric, technological and social changes and 
demand for services arising externally, such as from tourists and the 
regional population. Future National Capital functions and buildings 
still to be established would also generate demands. 

This section of the Development Plan outlines, in broad terms, the 
key development works required during the next twenty years within 
the Canberra urban areas (Figure 66). These works are generally major 
elements of the metropolitan system, although it should be recognised 
that development of the scale envisaged over the next twenty years 
implies a large number and wide range of smaller development projects 
as well. 

For example, the major elements of development the Commission 
normally provides under current arrangements in a new settlement area 
are as follows: 

• residential land development 

• water supply 

• sewerage 

• stormwater 

• public housing 

• education facilities 

• roads and public transport 

• parks and reserves 

• municipal facilities 

• commercial land development 

• recreational and cultural facilities 

• health and welfare facilities 

• Commonwealth offices 

Public utility services for electricity supply and telephone reticulation 
are provided by ACTEA and Telecom respectively, while the private 
sector is responsible for most housing development, retail centres, office 
accommodation for private and government use, development ot 
tourist-related facilities, industrial development and some private 
education and health facilities. 

It has been assumed that private enterprise development in the 
future is likely to be similar to that undertaken in the past. Many of 
the private sector activities are directed at meeting needs arising from 
population and employment growth, or its changing composition, such 
as housing, retail centres, offices and industrial development. Non¬ 
government education, health and welfare facilities are also related to 
population increase generally, or to emerging age-specific requirements, 
such as schools and aged persons facilities. Other private sector 
developments have been based on meeting National Capital and Seat 
of Government needs, including the establishment of national 
associations. 


215 



Major opportunities for private sector investment in the future will 

be in the areas of: 

• housing (new construction, alterations and additions, 
redevelopment) 

• commercial centre development (new development in existing and 
new' centres, redevelopment in existing centres) 

• tourism (accommodation, attractions, complementary facilities such 
as convention centres, etc.) 

• manufacturing (development associated with construction 
industry; high technology, information and communications- 
related industries) 

• health (facilities for health and welfare projects, such as hospitals, 
aged persons homes and nursing homes). 



1 Parliamentary Zone Development - works will be undertaken to 
meet the needs of Parliament, national institutions, tourism and 
public administration. 

2 Museum of Australia Development - development of Museum at 
Yarramundi Reach, road access from Lady Denman Drive and 
complementary works such as car parking and landscaping 

3 Development of the National Sports Centre - progressive develop¬ 
ment as a sport and recreation venue and training facility. 

4 Development of the National Botanic Gardens - further develop¬ 
ment including a Visitor Information Centre to enhance its 
landscape and visitor facilities. 

5 Inner Canberra Land Settlement and Urban Consolidation - 
development of North Lyneham. further redevelopment of 
Kingston. 

6 Central Area Employment Expansion - Employment expansion 
of between 19 450 and 24 450 of which between 17 650 and 
22 650 will be in Civic. Parkes/Barton and Russell/Campbell 
Park. 

7 Civic Centre Employment Expansion and Retail Development 
- Civic Centre employment will grow by between 9 000 and 
11 000 and its retail floorspace in the order of 15 000m 2 . 

8 Woden-Weston Creek Land Settlement - development will be 
consolidated by the development of Isaacs, Stirling and East 
O'Malley and vacant medium-density sites. 

9 Woden Town Centre Employment Expansion and Retail Develop¬ 
ment - employment will grow to between 11 000 and 13 000, and 
its retail floorspace by up to 2 500m 2 

10 Belconnen Land Settlement - development will be consolidated 
by the development of vacant residential land including McKellar, 
Florey and the Belconnen Naval Station 

11 Belconnen Town Centre Employment Expansion and Retail 
Development - employment will grow to between 8 000 and 
13 000, and retail floorspace by up to 2 500m 2 . 


12 Tuggeranong Land Settlement - the development of remainder 
of North-East Tuggeranong, the Town Centre and Lanyon. 

1 3 Ermdale Centre Retail Development - a 4 000m 2 retail centre will 
be open by the time Tuggeranong's population reaches 50 000. 

14 Tuggeranong Town Centre Development - the town centre 
development will commence within 2 years and will eventually 
have between 12 000 and 17 000 employment and between 
40 000-50 000m 2 of retail floorspace. 

15 Gungahlin Land Settlement - settlement will commence in 
1989-90 and the town will grow to an eventual population of 
84 000. 

16 Gungahlin Town Centre Development - the centre will commence 
as a 5 000m 2 group centre when the town's population is 20 000 
and will eventually have employment of 7 000-12 000 and 
47 000m 2 retail floorspace. 

17 Industrial Development - Fyshwick. Mitchell and Hume and the 
Canberra Technology Park will be developed to cater for likely 
demands over the next two decades. 

18 Development of Special Tourist Commercial Facilities - tourist 
facilities will be directed where possible to Civic and North 
Watson. 

19 Metropolitan Roads Upgrading or Development - the road net¬ 
work will be expanded to cater for expected population and 
employment growth 

20 Upgrading of Airport and Railway Facilities - these facilities will 
be upgraded to cater for growth in tourist, business and govern¬ 
ment traffic. 

21 Development of Major Electricity Network - the network will be 
expanded to cater for expected population and employment 
growth. 

22 Water Resources Infrastructure - the water, sewerage and storm¬ 
water networks will be expanded to cater for the expected 
population and employment growth. 


Proposed Commonwealth Works 
Potential Private Enterprise Works 


0 1 2 3 4 5 km 

Figure 66 Metropolitan Canberra 

Development Plan (Urban Area) 



216 









Gungahlin 


Ginhmderra 


Burley 


Oaks 

Estate 


Weston 


Queanbeyan 


Tuggerationg 


NSW 


Tharwa 


217 























The principal development works required during the next twenty 
years within the Canberra urban area are outlined below, under the 
following headings: 

• National Capital facilities 

• Inner Canberra 

• Woden-Weston Creek 

• Belconnen 

• Tuggeranong 

• Gungahlin 

• industry 

• tourism 

• transport 

• public utilities. 

National Capital Facilities 

1. Parliamentary Zone Development 

Particular emphasis will be given to the development ot the 
Parliamentary Zone over the next two decades to enhance Canberra s 
role as the National Capital. 

The future development of the Parliamentary Zone is regarded 
by the Commission as falling into two phases. First, the Commission 
has identified a number of works, including roads, bridges and land¬ 
scape elements, which should be completed, prior to the opening ot 
the New Parliament House in 1988, to develop and enhance its setting 
and to provide the appropriate access to the building trom the 
Parliamentary Zone. 

Second, in the period after 1988, other buildings and works might 
occur to meet the needs of Parliament, national institutions, tourism 
and public administration. Any further development in the 
Parliamentary Zone should be located so as to consolidate the existing 
land-use structure and the setting created by the existing national 
institutions. The National Library, High Court and National Gallery 
are significant buildings and major tourist attractions. The 
Commission’s detailed intentions regarding the future development 
of the Parliamentary Zone are contained in the Parliamentary Zone 
Development Plan. 

Because of the role of the Parliamentary Zone as a tourist venue, 
it is the Commission’s intention to upgrade tourist facilities and related 
transport systems progressively, to ameliorate the existing lack of 
legibility and the significant separation between buildings in the Zone. 

2. Museum of Australia Development 

An area of 90 ha has been set aside adjacent to Yarramundi Reach, 
for the development of the Museum of Australia. The site offers an 
extensive lakeshore frontage, a variety of vegetation, and high quality 
surroundings, which will enhance the potential of the museum to 
integrate indoor and outdoor displays in innovative ways. The 
possibility also exists of a ferry link between the Museum and other 
national institutions in the Parliamentary Zone, such as the Australian 
National Gallery and the National Library of Australia. 

Works which will be required include: 

• development of the Museum facility itself, comprising public 
display spaces, visitor services, curatorial facilities, and educational 
services 

• road access from Lady Denman Drive 

• complementary works, such as car parking and landscaping. 


218 



3. Development of the National Sports Centre 

The National Sports Centre at Bruce is being progressively 
developed by the Commission to provide both a venue for national 
and international sporting and recreation events, and facilities 
available for year-round training by sportsmen and sportswomen 
enrolled at the Australian Institute of Sport. 

The developing complex currently comprises the National Athletics 
Stadium, the National Indoor Sports Centre, an Indoor Swimming 
Centre, a tennis hall, a warm-up hall for gymnasts and outdoor tennis 
courts. It provides facilities of Olympic standard for 22 indoor sports 
and athletics and a venue for National League Soccer matches. 

A Development Plan for the National Sports Centre has been 
prepared by the Commission, which provides for further stages of 
development as the need arises. 

4. Development of the National Botanic Gardens 

The National Botanic Gardens will be further developed to enhance 
its landscape and visitor facilities. A Visitor Information Centre 
housing a theatrette, exhibition space, reference herbarium and book 
sales area will be located close to the main entrance and a Conservatory 
for tropical plants is under investigation. 

An extension of 37 ha will be fenced, and progressively developed. 
Paths and roads will be provided for public access. 

Public parking provision is to be increased and an underpass 
beneath Black Mountain Drive established to connect the two sections 
of Gardens. 

A Development Plan will be prepared to guide the future develop¬ 
ment of the expanded National Botanic Gardens. 

Inner Canberra 

5. Inner Canberra Land Settlement and Urban Consolidation 

North Lyneham is the only major area of vacant land yet to be 
developed in Inner Canberra. It will accommodate an eventual 
population of about 1 600. Settlement will commence within the next 
four years. It is envisaged that a small shop site will be released in 
the development. 

Redevelopment of the older parts of Canberra, such as Kingston, 
will continue, but it is unlikely that an increase in the number of 
dwellings through redevelopment will create corresponding increases 
in population. The Commission will continue to investigate options 
for consolidation and redevelopment. Studies will be carried out on 
an area-by-area basis with a view to introducing local area policies 
to guide redevelopment. 

Inner Canberra will remain the central focus for tourist attractions 
associated with National Capital and metropolitan functions, and for 
tourist accommodation. 

Other projects likely to accommodate local employment growth 
in the plan period include the West Deakin office area and Section 67 
Deakin diplomatic area, which will be progressively developed. 

6. Central Area Employment Expansion 

The Central Area is a particularly sensitive environment ot 
Canberra, as it embraces the Parliamentary Zone. Care has to be taken 
to ensure that traffic pressures do not overwhelm it. 

Within the plan period, employment in the Central Area is planned 
to increase from 44 850 to between 64 300 and 69 300, with substantial 


employment expansion occurring in Civic (9 000 to 11 000 ^ cre ^ se) ; 
Parkes/Barton (4 350 to 7 350 increase), and Russell/Campbell Park 

(4 300 increase). 


Expansion in Civic provides the greatest opportunities for the 
private sector in the Central Area to catei toi the ottice, retai mg, 
personal service, and recreational demands geneiated by t e area 
workforce and population. The opportunities for the private sector 
elsewhere in the Central Area will be primarily in the construction 
of office accommodation in Parkes/Barton and Russell/Campbell 

Park. 


An indication of the possible build-up ot employment in the 
Central Area is shown in Table 99. 


Table 99 Central 

Area Employment 

Expansion 






1982 

1987 

1992 

1997 

2002 

2003 

Civic Centre 

Parkes/Barton 

16 000 

10 650 

22 000-23 500 

11 000-13 000 

23 000-25 000 

12 500-15 000 

24 000-25 500 

14 000-16 000 

24 500-26 000 

14 800-17 700 

25 000-27 000 

15 000-18 000 

Russell/Campbell 

Park 

Other 

Total 

6 600 

11 600 

44 850 

7 000 

12 000 

52 000-55 500 

8 500 

12 500 

56 500-61 000 

9 600 

12 900 

60 500-64 000 

10 700 

13 300 

63 300-67 700 

10 900 

13 400 

64 300-69 300 


• Civic Centre 

Civic’s employment is expected to grow to between 25 000 and 
27 000 within the plan period, as Civic consolidates its 
metropolitan role as the major office employment centre. Beyond 
the 25 000 to 27 000 employment level, the transport costs, in terms 
of congestion, road capacity and car parking, would increase 
substantially. 

• Russell/Campbell Park 

These nodes will grow in accordance with the expansion in the 
Defence Department. 

• Parkes/Barton 

As the location for the key policy departments, Parkes/Barton 
will grow as a result of the growth in the Australian Public Service, 
and through the establishment and growth of national institutions, 
such as the New Parliament House, National Archives Head¬ 
quarters, the National Library, High Court and the National 
Gallery. 

• Acton 

Expansion in the Australian National University, CSIRO, and 
Royal Canberra Hospital employment is expected to be slow in 
the plan period. 

• Duntroon/ADFA 

Expansion of employment will occur in this area, as a result of 
the establishment of the Australian Defence Forces Academy. 

7. Civic Centre Employment Expansion and Retail Development 

In order for Civic to better serve the population of North and 
South Canberra, and to facilitate its metropolitan role, an expansion 
of retailing in the order of 15 OOOnr will be encouraged, through the 
release of Section 38. It is intended that the site will be released within 
the next two years. 

Also likely in the plan period is the redevelopment, or refurbish¬ 
ment, of some of the older commercial premises in Civic Centre, which 
would achieve consolidation of retail activity, promote the introduction 
of new retail layouts and encourage further modernisation of retail 
facilities within Civic. 


220 


To encourage Civic Centre to develop its metropolitan role, road 
and parking facilities will be progressively improved, in order to 
increase accessibility and enhance the physical environment by 
upgrading public spaces and landscape. A car parking structure will 
be developed in Civic in the next two to three years, to relieve existing 
parking pressures. Construction may be carried out by the 
Commission or private enterprise. Development works which will be 
carried out in Civic are described in the Civic Centre Policy Plan and 
Development Plan. 


Woden - Weston Creek 

8. Woden - Weston Creek Land Settlement 

The development of the urban area is to be consolidated by the 
servicing of residential areas in Isaacs, Stirling and East O'Malley, 
and vacant medium-density housing sites. These areas have an eventual 
population capacity of about 6 500. Isaacs will commence settlement 
in the next four years, and Stirling will commence settlement in the 
next year. 

A local shop site will be released in Isaacs by the time the 
neighbourhood is about 50 per cent settled. 

9. Woden Town Centre Employment Expansion and Retail 

Development 

Woden Town Centre employment will be planned to expand to 
between 11 000 and 13 000, through the growth of activities currently 
located at the centre and the consolidation of its role as the community 
focus for Woden-Weston Creek. 

Mixed-use retail developments will be permitted, although their 
expansion will be constrained to enable release of Section 38 City and 
the Tuggeranong Town Centre. An overall release of 2 500m : of retail 
floorspace will be permitted in Woden Town Centre in the plan period. 

A car parking structure will need to be developed in Woden Town 
Centre over the next few years to accommodate increasing demand. 
Construction may be carried out by the Commission or private 
enterprise. 

Belconnen 

10. Belconnen Land Settlement 

The development of the town will be consolidated by the develop¬ 
ment of McKellar and Florey, smaller infill subdivisions and vacant 
medium-density housing sites. The eventual population capacity of 
these housing areas is about 14 000. 

The Belconnen Naval Station is expected to be relocated within 
the next decade. The area will be used for residential purposes, 
accommodating an eventual population of about 3 600. 

Currently, land in McKellar is being released and land in Florey 
will become available within the next two years. Shop sites will become 
available when the settlement is about 50 per cent complete in each 
area. Primary schools will be developed in Florey and McKellar. 

11. Belconnen Town Centre Employment Expansion and Retail 

Development 

Employment in the Belconnen Town Centre is planned to grow 
from 8 000 to between 13 000 and 15 000, in response to the expansion 
of activities located in the centre and in its role as the community 
focus for Belconnen. An overall increase ot 2 500m ot retail 
floorspace will be permitted in Belconnen Town Centre in the plan 
period. 



Tuggeranong 

12. Tuggeranong Land Settlement 

The development of Tuggeranong will proceed to an eventual 
population of approximately 85 000-90 000. The remainder ot North- 
East Tuggeranong, the Town Centre and Lanyon will be substantially 
developed, prior to the commencement of Gungahlm. 

A lake will be developed in Tuggeranong, as a multi-use facility, 
providing recreational opportunities, landscaped areas, stormwater 
drainage and pollution control for protection of the Murrumbidgee 


River. 


At the local level, about 20 000m’ of retail floorspace will be 
released at centres in Chisholm, Calwell, Isabella Plains, Theodcne, 
Fadden and Lanvon. The timing ot the releases will be related to the 
population growth within each ot these areas. 

13. Erindale Centre Retail Development 

The Erindale Centre (4 000 nr) is planned to be open when the 
town population approaches 50 000. 

14. Tuggeranong Town Centre Development 

The development of tow n centre retailing in Tuggeranong has been 
related to the population growth in Tuggeranong and the overall 
metropolitan supply of retail floorspace. The eventual size of the retail 
component of Tuggeranong Town Centre is intended to be between 
40 000mand 50 OOOnr. Detailed planning of the Town Centre has 
commenced in order to facilitate the development ot a shopping centre 
and support retail and service trades uses. In March 1984 it was 
proposed that 24 OOOnr’ could comprise the first stage release of retail 
floorspace. The extension of Athllon, Erindale and Isabella Drives 
are being designed to support the development ot the Town Centre. 
These works will also include the dam to create Lake Tuggeranong. 

The growth of employment in the Tuggeranong Town Centre has 
been related to the employment growth within Canberra, in particular 
the growth of Public Service Act office employment. Public Service 
Act office employment is likely to grow by 20 300 during the plan 
period, of which it is intended that between 6 000 and 8 500 will be 
located in the Tuggeranong Town Centre. A 10 OOOnr building to 
accommodate 500 office workers will be commenced within two years. 
An indication of the intended employment expansion in the 
Tuggeranong Town Centre is shown in Table 100. 

Table 100 Tuggeranong Town Centre Employment Expansion 


PSA 


Tuggeranong Employment 
Population at TTC 


Total Employment 
at TTC (1) 


1982 

1987 

1992 

1997 

2002 

2003 


32 800 
57 000 

88 500 
90 000 

89 000 
89 000 


500-1 500 
3 800-5 400 
5 000-7 100 

5 900-8 400 

6 000-8 500 


1 500- 2 500 
7 600-10 800 

10 000-14 200 

11 800-16 800 
12 000-17 000 


(l) Assumes PSA office employment is 50 per cent of total employment 
at the centre. 


222 


The development of the Town Centre will provide substantial 
investment opportunities for the private sector, in terms of the 
construction and leasing of retail, office, service trades, community 
and recreational facilities. 

Gungahlin 

15. Gungahlin Land Settlement 

The development of Gungahlin will proceed to an eventual 
population of approximately 84 000. 

At the local level, approximately 25 000 m ; of retail floorspace 
will be released at group centres and local centres. 

Full Gungahlin development, without constraints on nutrient 
levels, could reduce water quality in Lake Ginninderra to a point 
detrimental to the use of the lake. It will therefore be necessary to 
ensure that means of containing nutrients are incorporated into the 
planning of Gungahlin’s infrastructure. In particular, structures will 
be developed, which will protect Lake Ginninderra against the water 
pollution caused by land servicing in Gungahlin. 

The future form and structure of Gungahlin development will be 
carefully investigated, with respect to water quality implications and 
in order to ascertain whether or not higher average densities and 
different lifestyles could be achieved. 

16. Gungahlin Town Centre Development 

It is intended that the first stage of the Town Centre, comprising 
a 5 000 m 2 group centre, will be operating by the time the town’s 
population is 20 000. The level of floorspace will increase with the 
town’s population. An indicative build-up of floorspace is contained 
in Table 101. 

Table 101 Gungahlin Town Centre Retail Development 


Gungahlin 

Gungahlin Town Cer 

Population 

Floorspace (nr) 

20 000 

5 000 

35 000 

20 000 

60 000 

40 000 

80 000 

47 000 


Employment growth at Gungahlin Town Centre will be related 
to the total growth in employment opportunities in the plan period, 
particularly the growth in Public Service Act office employment. 
Within the plan period, Gungahlin Town Centre is likely to attract 
between 3 500 and 6 000 Public Service Act office jobs. An indication 
of employment growth in the Gungahlin Town Centre is shown in 
Table 102. 

Table 102 Gungahlin Town Centre Employment Expansion 


1982 

Gungahlin 

Population 

PSA 

Employment 
at GTC 

Total Employmt 
at GTC (1) 

1987 

- 

- 

- 

1992 

10 000 

- 

- 

1997 

50 000 

1 700-2 250 

3 400- 4 500 

2002 

80 000 

3 200-5 700 

6 400-11 400 

2003 

84 000 

3 500-6 000 

7 000-12 000 


(I) Assumes PSA office employment is 50 per cent of total employment 
at the centre. 


Industry 

17. Industrial Development 

Industrial land will continue to be developed in Fyshwick, Hume 
and Mitchell. These areas have adequate capacity to cater tor likely 
demands over the next two decades, although various improvements 
will be made to the estates to increase their attractiveness. In addition, 
the Canberra Technology Park at Bruce has been identified tor 
development of high technology industry. 

Another area at West Belconnen has been identified tor longer- 
term industrial needs. There should, therefore, be no turther need 
to select new locations for industrial areas during the next twenty 
years, unless special purpose industries with specific and new needs 

arise. 

Tourism 

18. Development of Special lourist Commercial facilities 

Tourist facilities will be directed, where possible, into Civic Centre 
or the Special Tourist Commercial Area at North Watson, thereby 
consolidating the existing tourist-oriented facilities in these areas. 
Possible developments include facilities providing entertainment, 
recreation, accommodation or similar complementary scr\ ices to the 
touring or holidaying public. Designated tourist routes will be 
consolidated through the provision of appropriate facilities, amenities 
and signposting, and by siting new tourist developments in locations 
which facilitate interaction with other land uses. 

Transport 

19. Metropolitan Roads Upgrading or Development 

To accommodate the additional traffic generated by future 
population in Tuggeranong and Gungahlin, and any new development 
within the existing urban area, the metropolitan road system will need 
to be extended during the plan period by the following major elements. 

• Eastern Parkway 

The Eastern Parkway is required to service the future population 
growth in Tuggeranong. It will relieve congestion on the existing 
major arterials and provide an alternative route to the Central Area 
and other east Canberra destinations. 

The first stage of the Eastern Parkway, between Morshead Drive 
and Jerrabomberra Avenue, is programmed for construction 
within the next three years. The second stage, from Jerrabomberra 
Avenue into Tuggeranong, will be needed by the time 
Tuggeranong’s population reaches approximately 55 000-60 000. 
It will be progressively upgraded as Tuggeranong’s population 
grows to its intended eventual size, and will be subject to engineering 
and environmental studies. 

• Erindale Drive 

Erindale Drive will be upgraded to a minimum of two lanes each 
way before the second stage of the Eastern Parkway is constructed. 

• Erindale Drive - Eastern Parkway Connection 

A new arterial link from Erindale Drive to the Eastern Parkway 
will be constructed, in conjunction with the development of the 
Eastern Parkway (i.e. at about the time Tuggeranong reaches a 
population of 55 000-60 000). 

• Flemington Road 

Flemington Road will be duplicated to improve the efficiency of 
the existing North Canberra road system. 

• Monash Drive and John Dedman Parkway 

The first of two new major roads (Monash Drive and John 
Dedman Parkway) to service inter-town traffic from Gungahlin 


224 


will be needed by the time Gungahlin’s population reaches 
approximately 5 000. 

The construction of the second of these new major roads will need 
to begin by the time Gungahlin’s population reaches approximately 
50 000-55 000. 

John Dedman Parkway will be constructed on an alignment east 
of the National Sports Centre and will connect with Caswell Drive 
at Belconnen Way. An arterial connection will be made on the 
eastern side of Black Mountain to Parkes Way. 

Monash Drive will be constructed west of Mount Ainslie and 
Mount Majura and will connect with the proposed Eastern 
Parkway at Morshead Drive. 

• Eastern Parkway - Monash Drive Connection 

An arterial connection between the Eastern Parkway and Monash 
Drive will be constructed, in conjunction with Monash Drive. 

• William Slim Drive 

William Slim Drive from Aikman Drive to the Barton Highway, 
will be upgraded to a dual carriageway facility and realigned to 
east of Lake Ginninderra to service traffic from Gungahlin. 

• Upgrading of Existing Parkways 

The upgrading of Tuggeranong Parkway and Parkes Way to 
Coranderrk Street, will be progressively carried out as traffic 
demands warrant. The further development of Glenloch 
Interchange will be undertaken in conjunction with these works. 

• William Hovell Drive 

William Hovell Drive will be progressively upgraded as traffic 
demands warrant. 

• Caswell Drive and Bindubi Street 

Caswell Drive and Bindubi Street will be upgraded to four-lane 
arterial roads in conjunction with the upgrading of William Hovell 
Drive. 

• Morshead Drive 

The duplication of Morshead Drive will be undertaken in con¬ 
junction with the first stage of the Eastern Parkway. 

• Fairbairn Avenue 

Fairbairn Avenue will be duplicated when traffic demands warrant. 

• Athllon Drive 

The duplication of Athllon Drive and its realignment to provide 
more direct access to the Woden Tow n Centre will be constructed 
within the next ten years. 

20. Upgrading of Airport and Railway Facilities 

A need to upgrade existing airport facilities in Canberra has been 
identified. It is envisaged that the facility will remain a domestic 
airport. The possibility exists for a new terminal to be developed. It 
this occurs the existing terminal would be made available tor an 
alternative purpose, such as general aviation. 

The Australian National Railways Commission has a longstanding 
proposal for a Canberra-Yass railway and, more recently, a proposal 
for a new link to join the Melbourne-Sydney line between Yass and 
Goulburn, replacing the existing line and reducing the Canberra- 
Melbourne distance. As the population increases, pressure for 
improved rail connections and facilities also will increase. As well as 
a new track, a new station and freight handling facility may be 
required. In addition, because the railway is a major approach route 
to the National Capital, landscape improvements will be carried out 
to upgrade the scenic quality along and visible from the route. 


Public Utilities 

21. Development of Major Electricity Network 

The development of the major electricity network which will be 
required over the next two decades can be tentatively described as 
follows: 

• with the expected growth of population and land servicing in 
Tuggeranong it will be necessary to extend the 132 kV subtrans¬ 
mission network and provide a 132 kV 11 k\ substation in 
Gilmore by 1986 and at Conder by the end of the decade 

• it is necessary to link the Tuggeranong 132 k\ network back to 
the new Causeway 132 kV/11 kV substation to ensure capacity 
and security of supply to the New Parliament House 

• some penetration ot Gungahlin will be necessary. This will be 
subject to further detailed investigation. 

22. M ater Resources Infrastructure 

The provision of services to the new settlement areas, and the 
containment of impacts ot metropolitan growth on existing uses ol 
lakes and streams, will require the development and augmentation 
of hydraulic infrastructure. The follow ing items constitute the major 
elements in the programme. 

a) W ater Supply: 

• the provision of a direct link from Googong to the Tuggeranong 
bulk water supply, and the southern extension ol the bulk water 
supply system to service Lanyon 

• extension of the Belconnen bulk water supply system to north 
and west Gungahlin, and the extension ot the Googong Main 
from Campbell to east Gungahlin 

b) Sewerage: 

• construction of a trunk sewer to service Lanyon 

• extension of the Ginninderra and Sullivan’s Creek trunk sewers 
to service Gungahlin, and construction of the North Molonglo 
Valley Interceptor Sewer tunnel to service the increased load on 
Sullivan’s Creek system resulting from the development ot 
Gungahlin 

• augmentation of the capacity of the Lower Molonglo Water 
Quality Control Centre 

c) Stormwater and Water Pollution Control: 

• provision of a water pollution control pond at Point Hut, and 
provision of main drains in Conder and Banks 

• extension of Ginninderra and Sullivan’s Creek drains to service 
Gungahlin and construction of a number of water pollution 
control ponds as the means of containing pollution from urban 
runoff. 


226 


Implementation 

On the forecast rate of growth, land for development in the existing 
towns and in North-East Tuggeranong is expected to be largely 
developed by the financial year 1987-88. By this time, land will be re¬ 
quired for development in another settlement area, with the choice be¬ 
ing either Lanyon or Gungahlin. 

Under the population growth projected in the plan period and the 
Commission’s current preferred settlement sequence within Gungahlin, 
land in Gungahlin would not be available in 1987-88. 

The planning for Gungahlin has commenced; however, first land 
turn-off is unlikely to occur until 1989-90, because of the lengthy 
pipelines involved in planning and in providing major infrastructure 
elements. The planning and development pipeline for a new town is 
six-and-a-half years between initial planning and first settlement. 
Lanyon, as a result of its more advanced stage of planning (Conder, 
its first suburb, is already gazetted) can be available for settlement in 
1987-88. 


-»-»7 


NCDC Publications 
Audio-Visual Presentations 


The National Capital Development Commission, the statutory body charged 
with the planning and development of Canberra as the National Capita o 
Australia publishes for purchase a wide range of reports and technical papers 
which provide information on many ot its acti\ ities. 

In addition, to cater for a demand for visual information on Canberra in 
the form of 35 mm slides, NCDC has available an audio-visual programme 
consisting of attractive vinyl wallets containing 39 colour slides, pre-recorded 
commentary on cassette and printed information. This set is available in 
English or Japanese for $25.00 plus $2.50 postage. There is also a small kit 
of 12 slides, with printed information available tor $5.00 plus 90 cents postage. 

The publications listed can be purchased at NCDC’s ot tices, 
220 Northbourne Avenue, Canberra or by forwarding your order with a cheque 
or financial authorisation to cover cost and postage to: 

Publications Sales’ 

National Capital Development C ommission 
GPO Box 373 

CANBERRA 2601 ACT Australia 

The repons document major planning issues in the Commission’s operations. 
They are intended to keep the public aware of the broad planning base from 
which NCDC works as well as providing professionals with documents which 
can be identified as current planning statements for the ACT. 

The Technical Paper Series provides general information on Commission 
operations as well as setting out in some detail information on certain projects 
in which NCDC has acquired technical or operational expertise. Technical 
papers are prepared with a view to encouraging informed professional and 
general public comment. 

Technical Papers 

No. 1 The Role of the Social Planning Group within the NCDC October 
1974. 

No. 2 Molonglo Arterial Canberra January 1975. 

No. 3 Operational Review in the NCDC Revised edition November 1976. 
No. 4 Housing requirements of the Aged: Social & Psychological Aspects 
February 1975. 

No. 5 National Sports Centre Bruce—out of print 

No. 6 Submission by the NCDC to the Royal Commission on Australian 
Government Administration February 1975. 

No. 7 Canberra: Demographic & Social Background. Revised edition May 
1977. 

No. 8 An introduction to Corporate Planning—out of print 
No. 9 Project Management June 1975. 

No. 10 Resident Satisfaction and Design Effectiveness of Two-Storey Flats. 
July 1975. 

No. 11 Planning Brief for Lanyon Territorial Unit August 1975. 

No. 12 Population and Labour Force Projections for Canberra and 
Queanbeyan 1976-1986. Revised edition December 1976. 

No. 13 Social and Psychological Needs Related to Residential Density and 
Housing Form April 1976. 

No. 14 The Use of Environmental Impact Statements in Environmental 
Planning April 1976. 

No. 15 District Plan for Florey Neighbourhood, Belconnen October 1976 —out 
of print. 

No. 16 Monitoring Survey of Medium Density Housing in Canberra and 
Queanbeyan December 1976. 

No. 17 District Plan for Isaacs, Woden-Weston Creek January 1977. 

No. 18 Government and Community Involvement in Planning and Develop¬ 
ment of Canberra April 1977. 

Part 1 Submission to the Parliamentary Joint Committee on the ACT 
Part 11 Background Paper: NCDC Powers & Procedures. 

Part 111 Background Paper: Public Participation in Planning. 

No. 19 Structure Plan for West Murrumbidgee, Tuggeranong May 1977. 


228 


No.20 Guidelines for Subdivision July 1977. 

No.21 Urban Open Space Guidelines. Revised edition January 1981. 

No.22 Low Energy House Design for Temperate Climates August 1977. 
No.23 An Open Space System for Canberra: A Policy Review' October 1977. 
No.24 Tuggeranong: The Views of Some Early Residents November 1977. 
No.25 Traffic Noise and its Effect on Site Selection and Design of Dwellings 
April 1978. 

No.26 Canberra Schools in the 1980s May 1978. 

No.27 NCDC Corporate Planning July 1978. 

No.28 Causeway Redevelopment: A Case Study in Public Participation May 
1980. 

No.29 Monitoring Stormwater Flow and Water Quality in Paired Rural and 
Urban Catchments in the ACT August 1980. 

No.30 Waters of the Canberra Region April 1981. 

No.31 Retailing in Canberra May 1981. 

No.32 Monitoring River Recreation Demand in the ACT June 1981. 

No.33 Murrumbidgee River Ecological Study July 1981. 

No.34 Utilisation and Protection of the Murrumbidgee River System in the 
ACT July 1981. 

No.35 Narrabundah Regeneration March 1983. 

No.36 A Play Area for Kambah District Park. September 1983. 

No.37 Cycleways, September 1983. 

No.38 Canberra’s Population Projection 1983-1993 November 1983. 

No.39 Selection of a Site for The Museum of Australia. March 1984. 

No.40 Canberra’s Economic Climate Assessment, Development Prospects 
1984-1988. April 1984. 

No.41 Guide-Sign Manual. April 1984. 

No.42 The Ecological Resources of the ACT. May 1984. 

Reports 

Tomorrow’s Canberra May 1970. 

A Land Use Plan for ACT March 1975. 

Glenloch Interchange and Associated Roads 

Environmental Impact Statement: Supplementary Report November 1977. 
Yarralumla Policy Plan Report on Environmental Issues February 1979. 
Yarralumla Policy Plan Supplementary Report on Environmental Issues March 
1980. 

22nd Annual Report October 1979. 

23rd Annual Report September 1980. 

24th Annual Report October 1981. 

25th Annual Report October 1982. 

26th Annual Report December 1983. 

Works of Art in Canberra December 1980. 

Guidelines on Engineering and Environmental Practices—Hydraulics June 1981. 
Civic Centre: Policy Plan Development Plan for Discussion February 1982. 
Parliamentary Zone Draft Development Plan June 1982. 

Basic Specifications: Roads, Hydraulics Services and Landscape Edition No. 
2 October 1982. 

Erindale Centre Development Plan November 1982. 

Erindale District Centre, Policy Plan Development Plan July 1983. 
Murrumbidgee River Corridor Policy Plan Development Plan. Draft for 
Discussion October 1983. 

Civic Centre Canberra Policy Plan Development Plan February 1984. 

Audio-Visual Presentations 

Programme A VS 1-7/82; Canberra, Australia’s National Capital—39 slides and 
cassette. 

Programme AVS2 - 12/83: Canberra, The Garden City—39 slides and cassette. 
Programme SK1-5/84: 12-slide presentation and script on Canberra. 

Guidelines on Engineering and Environmental Practices 

The following guideline documents are available for loan from the NCDC 
Library, or may be purchased from the Commission’s Publications Office. 

Hydraulics—June 1981. 

Public Lighting—July 1983. 









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