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(KaSfl-CE-134200) 3SUTX1S PftSSEHGEH COUCH 
Final Bepoit fHartin Elarietta Corp.) 
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DRL NUMBER T-774 
LINE ITEM 8 



Final 
Report 



M1H--\7Q5U 



Onclaa 
G3/05 31346 y 



JANUARY 197^ 



SHUTTLE 

PASSENGER 

COUCH 



(Ia:'-V.^^^ 



Approved by NASA 




PREPARED FOR 

NATIONAL AERONAUTICS 

AND SPACE ADMmirW|iTION ' .j. 

JOHNSON SPACE CENTE'R-^cli>i>^ 

HnilSTON TPy/iS 

Rfiproducetf by 

NATIONAL TECHNICAL 
INFORMATION SERVICE I 

U S Dopartmeot <ff Commarcfl ' 

SpringHflld, VA. 22^51 \ 

MARTIN MARIEHA 



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A: 



MCR- 74-40 



CONTRACT NAS9-13010 
DRL NUMBER T-774 
LINE ITEM 8 

PRELIMINARY NASA APPROVAL PENDING 

FINAL REPORT 
FOR 

SHUTTLE PASSENGER COUCH 

January 1974 



Prepared by: 

A. A. Rosener M, L. Stephenson 

Approved by: 

A. A. Rosener Gordon Rysavy 7 

Program Manager, MMC NASA-JSC Technical Monitor 



MARTIN MARIETTA CORPORATION 
Denver Division 
P. 0. Box 179 
Denver, Colorado 80201 



FOREWORD 



This report was prepared by the Martin Marietta Corporation un- 
der Contract NAS9-13010, DRL T-774, Line Item 8, "Shuttle 
Passenger Couch" for the Johnson Space Center of the National 
Aeronautics and Space Administration. The effort was admini- 
stered under the technical direction of the Spacecraft Design 
Office with Mr. Gordon Rysavy acting as the technical manager. 
This report documents and summarizes the results of the entire 
contract work, including recommendations and conclusions 
based on the experience and results obtained. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

SECTION PAGE 

FOREWORD i 

I. INTRODUCTION I-I 

II. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS II- 1 

A. SUMMARY H-l 

B. RECOMMENDATIONS II-2 

1.0 Articulation Control II-2 

2.0 Seat Ad jusCraent . , II-3 

3.0 Vent and Light Housing . ll-3 

4.0 Restraint Stowage II-3 

5.0 Couch Position Indicator II-3 

6,0 Clerical Tray II-3 

7.0 Cushions II-3 

8.0 Sleep Restraint II-4 

9.0 Material Change II-4 

III. CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS III-l 

A. COUCH CONCEPTS AND SELECTION Ill- 1 

I.O Preliminary Design Concept III-l 

2.0 Basic System Concept ..... III-2 

3.0 Description of Single Fixed Hinge Couch 

Concept III-15 

4.0 Description of Sliding Hinge Concept . . III-I6 

5.0 System Selection ; III-18 

B. MATERIALS, PARTS AND PROCESSES III-19 

1.0 Metals • III-19 

2.0 Non-Metallics . 111-20 

C. PRELIMINARY MASS PROPERTIES STATEMENT .... III-20 

IV. PRELIMINARY DESIGN, FABRICATION & TEST IV- 1 

A. DESIGN OF ENGINEERING MODEL iv-1 

B. FABRICATION OF ENGINEERING MODEL IV-1 

C. COUCH ENGINEERING MODEL TEST PHASE iv-1 

1.0 Crew Compartment Interface Tests IV-6 



11 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) 

SECTION PAGE 

2.0 Centrifuge Test TV-9 

3.0 Neutral Buoyancy Tests IV-12 

V. COUCH VERIFICATION MODEL , V-I 

A. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND FABRICATION V-1 

1.0 Requirements V-1 

2.0 Subsystem Design Requirements V-4 

3.0 Passenger Couch Support Stand V-23 

B. COUCH VERIFICATION MODEL TEST PHASE V-23 

1,0 Functional Tests V-24 

2.0 Sleep Test V-26 

3.0 KC-135 Tests V-29 

4.0 KC-135 Test Summary V-30 

5.0 Recommended Modifications ........ V-38 

C. VERIFICATION MODEL MASS PROPERTIES STATEMENT . V-40 

VI. QUALITY ASSURANCE, RELIABILITY, AND SAFETY SUMl-IARY VI-I 

A. QUALITY ASSURANCE VI-1 

B. RELIABILITY VI-1 

C. SAFETY Yl-5 

VII. PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION VII-1 

A. PROGRAM PLAN, MCR 72-191 . . . ■. VII-l 

B. MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORTS, MCR 72-206 VII-I 

C. CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS REPORT, MCR 72-250. . . VII-1 

D. PERFORMANCE TEST PLAN, MCR 73-3 VII-1 

B. PERFORMANCE TEST REPORT, MCR 73-303 VII-2 

F. DESIGN REQUIREMENT DOCUMENT, MCR 73-285. . . . VII-2 

G. UTILIZATION MANUAL, MCR 73-185 VII-2 

H. CONTRACT SUMMARY REPORT, MCR 74-41 VII-2 

I. MASS PROPERTIES STATEMENT VII-2 

J. NEW TECHNOLOGY REPORT VII-2 

K. SUMMARY OF NEW TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ACTIVITIES 

REPORT ■ . . , VII^3 



111 



LIST OF FIGURES 

FIGURE 

II-l Inner Frame Articulation Control .... II-3 

III-l Fixed Hinge Concept III-16 

III-2 Sliding Hinge Concept III-18 

IV- 1 Main Frame Structure -Preliminary . , , , IV- 2 

IV-2 Pan Frame Structure-Preliminary IV-3 

IV-3 Engineering Model Sitting Position ... IV-4 

IV-4 Engineering Model Flat Bed Position IV-4 

IV-5 Engineering Model With Clerical Tray Deployed. . . IV-5 

IV-6 PCEM With 95 Percentile Male in Sitting Position . IV-7 

IV-7 PCEM With 70 Percentile Male in Sleeping Position IV-7 

IV-8 PCEM With 50 Percentile Female in Sleeping Position IV-8 

IV-9 PCEM With 50 Percentile Female in Sitting Position IV-8 

IV-10 Couch Engineering Model Mounted on Centrifuge Arm IV-IO 

IV-11 Man Model (200 lb, 95th Percentile) in SPCEM - 

Centrifuge Test IV-10 

IV-12 Test Subject Restraint in Reentry Position .... IV- 14 

IV-13 Clerical Tray Attached to Couch IV-14 

IV-14 Ingress to Couch With Clerical Tray Attached . . . IV-14 

IV-15 Ingress Carrying Food Tray IV-14 

V-1 Basic Passenger Couch Envelope V-2 

V-2 Shuttle Passenger Couch , V-3 

V-3 Passenger Couch Verification Model V-5 

V-4 Couch End Fitting Mechanism V-7 

V-5 Passenger Couch Mounting Hardware V-8 

V-6 Passenger Couch Inner Frame Assembly V-9, 

V-7 Inner Frame Articulation , V-10 

V-8 Back Section of Inner Frame. V-11 

V-9 Couch Armrest V-13 

V-10 Restraints Installation V-13 

V-11 Inner Frame Seat Section V-14 

V-12 Inner Frame Leg Section V-16 

V-13 Access to Bottom of Couch, V-17 



IV 



T, IST OF FIGURES (Cont'd) 

FIGURE PAGE 

Light and Ventilation Details , v-18 

Passenger Couch Clerical Tray Operation. ..... V-20 

Couch Privacy Curtain Installation V-22 

Shuttle Passenger Couch Sleep Restraint v-23 

Couch Mounting Stand-Vertical Position ...... V-25 

Access to Tissue Dispenser V-25 

Restrained While' Listening to Tape Player V-27 

Clerical Tray Attached to Arm R^sts, ....... V-27 

Couch Ingress by Female Subject. . V-36 

Subject Attaching Restraints V-37 

Subject Adjusting Foot Pan V-37 



V- 


-14 


V- 


■15 


V- 


-16 


V- 


-17 


V- 


■18 


V- 


■19 


V- 


■20 


V- 


•21 


V- 


■22 


V- 


■25 


V- 


•26 



LIST OF TABLES 

TABLE PAGE 

III-l Couch Linkage Concepts, III-3 

III-2 Adjustment for 5 to 95 Percentile Male. . . , . III-4 

III-3 Locking Methods for Couch Linkage and Mounting 

Points III-5 

III-4 Body Support Section Design III-6 

III-5 Arm Rests and Interfacing Linkages III-7 

III-6 Couch Stowage Provisions Concepts III-8 

III-7 Privacy Curtain Design Concepts III-9 

III-8 Clerical Tray Stowage and Mounting III-IO 

III-9 Lighting System III-U 

III-IO Stereo System Location III-I2 

111-11 Personnel Restraint Systems III-13 

III-12 Initial Couch Weight Estimate III-23 

IV-I Male Height Changes for Attitude and Time . . . IV-9 

IV-2 Couch Stress Levels IV-11 

V-1 SPCVM KC-I35 Evaluations V-31 

thru 
V-35 

V-2 Mass Properties Statement . V-41 

VI-1 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis VI-2 



VI. 



I^ INTRODUCTION 



This contract was Initiated to design, fabricate, and test a Shuttle 
Passenger Couch, couch-vehicle mounting hardware, couch mounting stand, 
and the documentation to document each phase of the contract. The 
documentation also included the rationale for the selection of the 
couch concept, test plan and results, and drawings and specifications 
for the deliverable hardware. The couch was designed to provide the 
occupant a safe support during launch and entry modes and yet provide 
a comfortable personal area designed for relaxation, sleeping, eating 
anil clerical work in zero-gravity. 

The objectives of the contract were accomplished in five major tasks 
which included (1) Concepts and Materials, (2) Design, (3) Fabrication, 
(4) Test, and (5) Documentation. These tasks were somewhat inner 
related in that an Engineering Model was fabricated and tested early 
in the program to provide the required anthropometric and access dim- 
ensions in the design of the Verification Model. Also, the documenta- 
tion task was performed as the phases were completed in accordance with 
the Program Plan, MCR72-191. 

This final report describes the work performed in each major task, to- 
gether with all findings, data, and conclusions. 



I-l 



II. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 



A. SUMMARY 

The initial step In defining the passenger couch system was to per- 
form a complete functional analysis. This analysis established the 
system requirements and the hardware required to accomplish the 
functions that the couch must support. In addition, the functional 
analysis served as the basis for the performance test plan. The 
functional requirements that the couch was designed to satisfy were: 
(I) support and restraint for the passenger in the various modes of 
operation; (2) a personal habitat for the passenger/crewman for relax- 
ation, sleeping, eating, and clerical work; (3) storage space for 
personal items and garments; (4) individual task lighting, communica- 
tions; (5) entertainment provisions; (6) accommodation for different 
size personnel; and (7) modular installation and servicing. Con- 
current with the functional analysis, an industry survey was made 
to take advantage of available ideas, mechanism systems, and latest 
material developments. The industries contacted were airlines, air- 
craft seat manufacturers, and manufacturing companies for hospital 
beds, dentist chairs, and lounge chairs. From the analyses and 
knowledge gained from the industry survey, conceptual designs were 
developed to best support the functions the couch must satisfy. 
These concepts were evaluated and one concept was selected with the 
concurrence of NASA-JSC. This concept served as the basis in the 
design of a full-scale passenger couch engineering model. The 
engineering model was fabricated and utilized to verify anthropo- 
metric dimensions, reach dimensions, ingress/egress, couch operation, 
storage space, restraint locations, and crew acceptability. This 
data was then incorporated in the design of the passenger couch 
verification model andincluded in the Performance Test Report, 
MCR 73-303. 

Upon approval of the couch design by the NASA-JSC the couch verifi- 



II-l 



cation model was fabricated from final design drawings and tested 
per the Performance Test Plan, MGR73-3. The data obtained from 
the test helped generate the Couch Design Requirements Document, 
MCR73-285 and was included In the Performance Test Report, MCR73-303. 

The deliverable hardware, which consisted of the passenger couch, 
mounting hardware, and mounting stand, was shipped to the NASA-JSC 
for acceptance and KC-135 test after completion of the one gravity 
tests. 

B. RECOMMEHDATIONS 

As a result of the test program, several areas of the couch were 
found that could be improved upon and the deletion of some of the 
requirements. These changes, as identified in the following para- 
graphs, provide operational advantages and reduce costs and weight. 

1.0 Articulation Control 

To eliminate the large amount of free-play in the inner frame arti- 
culation, it is recommended that the actuating mechanism be attached 
to the sliding points on the back section and the main frame as illus- 
trated in Figure II- 1. The inherent free-play of the P. L. Porter 
mechanical lock is approximately 0.030 of an inch which is magnified 
10 to 12 times in the present system. This is due to the geometry of 
the mechanical lock controlling the movement of a bell crank, with a 
1.25 inch radius attached to the seat section rotation point, through 
a 60 degree arc. This motion allows a linear movement of 1.25 inches 
of the mechanical lock while moving the back section sliding point 
5 inches and the leg section sliding point 8.5 inches. 



II-2 



PROPOSED 



PRESENT 




5 in. Travel--^ *- 



Pass-Thru Mechanical Lock 




1.25 in. Travel 
Bell Crank 




39 



Standard Mechanical Lock 



Figure II-l Inner Frame Articulation Control 
2.0 Seat Adjustment 

It is recoinmended that the requirement for an adjustable seat depth 
be eliminated and only the 5th percentile male dimension of 17.5 
inches be used. This would be a savings of cost and weight and is 
usable for the entire male percentile range. 



3.0 



Vent and Light Housing 



Redesign of the vent and light housing lids to be identical, be 
held open by springs and easier closing is recommended to facilitate 
manufacture of the parts, provide interchangeability, and ease of 
operation. 



4.0 



Restraint Stowage 



A recess in the inside of the shell for stowage of the restraint 
buckel would eliminate a possible annoyance item. 



II-3 



5 , Couch Position Indicator 

It is recommended that marks be placed on the inside of the shell 
to be used by the couch occupant as indicators of the couch position 
for critical positions such as the launch configuration. 

6.0 Clerical Tray 

It is recommended that the clerical tray positioning mechanism be 
redesigned to reduce weight but retaining the basic design. 

7.0 Cushions 

Since the cushions only contribute to the overall aesthetics of the 
couch and minimal additional comfort in one-gravity operations, they 
could be eliminated with a savings in cost and weight. 

8.0 Sleep Restraint 

As a result of the sleep test, it is recommended that the sleep 
restraint be larger through the shoulder area to accommodate the 
95th percentile male more comfortably. 



9.0 Material Change 

It is recommended that the aluminum housing and control handle 
material be changed to stainless steel for the couch rotational 
control. 



II-4 



III. CONCEPTS MP MATERIALS 



A. COUCH CONCEPTS AND SELECTION 

During this phase of the program various design concepts were in- 
vestigated to satisfy the passenger couch functional requirements. 
The evaluation of the various subsystem concepts worked down to 
where two basic couch design concepts looked to be feasible and 
required further investigation for final selection. These two couch 
system concepts were desinated as Fixed Hinge Couch System and Sliding 
Hinge Couch System. A descritpion of these concepts and the rationale 
for selecting the sliding hinge concept as the better system in satis- 
fying the couch requirements is provided in the following paragraphs. 
Some of the more critical requirements were: capability of staying 
within the dimensional envelope, maintaining the couch center of 
gravity below the couch longitudinal axis of rotation, provide a wide 
body support section, compact static volume, light weight, and the 
lease physiological stress during launch, re-entry, and landing modes 
of operation. 

1.0 Preliminary Design Concept 

Initial design concepts were sketched to convey the ideas presented 
during brainstorming sessions. The sketches helped to present the 
ideas by pictorial means thus reducing many communication problems. 
To further organize the initial preliminary design concepts, a 
bookkeeping scheme was required that would both document couch data 
in a quick reference form and also indicate a relative merit of one 
concept over another when compared against the basic couch require- 
ments. A concept comparison matrix chart was decided on. The concept 
sketches were placed on the top of the chart and applicable criteria 
listed at the left-hand side of the chart. The appropriate blocks 



III-l 



were filled in based on the apparent compatitility comparison 
between each design concept and selected design criteria. Results 
from this ^TOt'k effort appear in Tables II I- 1 thru 1 11-11. 

2.0 Basic System Concept 

A basic couch system concept was derived following the evaluation 
and priority listing of design concepts. In reviewing the evaluation 
comments generated during the rating session, it was apparent that 
most subsystems could be separated into three major categories. These 
categories were likened to building blocks in reference that the 
primary subsystems concepts must be selected prior to adapting the 
secondary subsystem concepts into the overall system. The last cate- 
gory was peripheral subsystem concepts that could be considered as 
system add-ons. The subsystems were separated into categories as 
follows : 

a. Primary Subsystem Concepts 

1) Main frame structure 

2) Couch linkage 

3) Seat adjustment capabilities 

4) Mounting fixture 

b. Secondary Subsystem Concepts 

1) Body support section 

2) Arm rests 

3) Locking mechanism for selected couch positions 

4) Seat occupant restraints 

c. Peripheral Subsystem Concepts 

1) Privacy curtain 

2) Ventilation 

3) Tray Provisions 

4) Lighting 

5) Communication 

6) Stowage 

7) Structure support for all items that require mounting 

III-2 



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miiom rBJm^ 



;'x/^CuT FiUME 



III- 5 
ARM RESTS AND INTERFACING LINKAGES 




BACVC PAN 



ARM 
REST 



V^ 




CRITERIA 



Movement of Armrests in Phase 
with Couch Movement 



1, Adj. to comfortably acco- 
mmodate a 5 to 95% man. 



Limited only by nom, dim, for 
elbow to shoulder height (14.2") < 




back; pan 

/-ARM 
^~y RBST 




II 



Individual Manually Operated Arm- 
rests 



2. Arm rest locking capacity. 



3, Design Load Considerations; 
Launch/Entry - 3Gs for 30 

mln* 
System Fittings - 12Gs 
Crash Load - 9Gs 



4. Armrests capability to 
provide mounting bracket 
for clerical tray & inter- 
face for food tray. 



Remarks : 



Couch locking mechanism will ef- 
fectively lock armrests & pro- 
vide solid units. 



Will take loads easily thru 
linkage to couch unit. 



Can meet interfacing requirement, 
but when tray deployed, not as 
adjustable as Concept II, 



Very comfortable, limited only 
by nom. dim, for elbow to shoul- 
der height (14.2") in full de- 
ployed position, . 




BAC4C RAM 



/- A12M REST^ 




III 



Couch Frame Rail Used as Armrests 
(Non-Mo veable) 



Not a comfortable armrest, would 
be wide and low. 



Armrests require separate locking 
devices, design would be more 
difficult & adds two locking 
devices. 



Will require more designing to 
meet G loads. 



Very adj . when tray deployed, 
Interfacing & mounting brackets 
less difficult to design. 



No locking required. 



Will meet all loads. 



Difficult to design for brackets 
or interfacing for food tray. 



III-7 



Page intentionally left blank 



koOlDO^ 



trms® 



FGL30U? 



TABLE 111-7 PRIVACY CURTAIN DESIGN CONCEPTS 




1. Couch Dimensions 

Width - 18" max from axis 

of rot. 

Length - 77*5" max In any 

direction. 



2. Operational In both the 
sitting and flat bed con- 
figuration* 




II 



K 



End Flips Up with Split Center 
Shade Type 



Will meet dimension requirements 
in both width and length. 



Will function in either position 
but not with desk deployed 
(close distance when in sitting 
position). 



Folding Sht. Metal Type on Upper 
Half to Wall from Couch 



When deployed the panels extend 
beyond 18" width from axis of 
rotation dimension. 



Operational in both configura- 
tions. 



Ill 



Side Curtains to Wall 





IV 



Large Flip Up from 



Head End 



If deployed as shown In sketch 
it will meet dimension require- 
ment. Side curtains can be de- 
ployed from wall to couch or 
visa- versa. 



Operation in both configurations. 



Will meet dlmensioti requirements, 



Close head distance when In sit- 
ting position. 



V 



One-Way Viewing Material 



Will meet dimension requirements^ 



Will operate in both configura- 
tions with close distance in 
sitting position. 



3. Light Shielding Capa- 
bility 



Very good shielding capability. 



Some light can diffuse up from 
feet and down from open head 
area. 



Same as concept II. 



light will filter In from feet 
end of couch. 



See- thru panels will shield light 
according to amount of tint used. 



4. Noise Attenuation, 
Potential 



Provides good sound barrier. 



Does not provide much of a 
sound barrier. 



Same as concept II, 



Same as concept II,. 



Provides a good sound barrier. 



5. Capability to Withstand 
Design Loads in the Re- 
tracted or Stowage Posi- 
tion: 

Launch/Entry-3Gs-30 mln. 
System Flttlnga-12Gs 
Design Load When Extend- 
ed- 



Units fold like auto top and 
latch securely in place. Will 
meet load requirement. 



Folds up Inside of couch and 

is securely stored and will meet 

load requirement. 



Will meet required loads. 



Will meet required loads, 



Will meet required loads. 



6. Located Within Easy Ac- 
cess of Couch Occupant 



Center shade very accessible, 
foot cover req, deployment while 
out of couch. 



Very accessible. 



Same as concept II, 



Accessible while in flat position 
but not In sitting, posltioft. 



Leg portion accessability poor, 
top portion folded from wall 
easily. 



7. Requires Inflight Main- 
tenance 



Req. several linkages and locks^ 
could req. maintenance if bumped 
& bent. 



Fairly sturdy but has several 
hinges £i latches. Small mainte- 
nance required, 



Reel of shade could malfunction Same as concept I. 
& req, tools for maintenance. 



Fairly simple should require 
little maintenance. 



8, Provides Privacy with 
Device Deployed 



Good privacy, but closed in 
feeling high because of small 
width dimension. 



Not total privacy, only restricts 
field of view of occupant. 



Same as Concept II. 



Same as concept III 



Affords complete privacy, one- 
way viewing may solve closed- in 
feeling. 



Remarks i 



III-9 



/ 



fOU)0«T FBJ^'^ 



^ 



TABLE III- 8 



CLERICAL TRAY STOWAGE AND MOUNTING 



1. 



CONCEPT 




Desk easily deployed 
from within couch. 



2. Desk provides handy sur- 
face for vnrltingj read- 
ing and management of 
personal articles. 



Able to ingress and 
egress couch with tray 
deployed. 



Able to be deployed 
with or without privacy 
curtain deployed. 




Tray not on Linkage, Mounts to 
Arm Rests or Frame 



If stowed on side of couch, OK. 
If stowed on back of couch, would 
require egress of couch. 



Would have to be located at pro- 
per place and angle. Should pro- 
vide restraints for items on desk. 
Could be used with couch in any 
position. 



Only if one end of tray could be 
detached and tray pivoted about 
other side. 



Could be designed such. 




TBAY 

LlMKAfiE 



TRAY 



II 



Tray Deployed by Linkage from 
Side of Couch 



Easily deployed. 



Per design. 



Could be designed to permit in- 
gress and egress. 



Would be difficult to design, 
unless privacy curtain Is at- 
tached below desk linkage attach- 
ment. 




Ill 



Tray Attached to Wall on Linkage 



Easily deployed - but requires 
that couch face the wall. 



Per design. 



Should be easily arranged, may 
require rotating couch 45 or 
90 degrees for egress/ingress. 



'SI 



STO»A«3IE 




IV 



Tray as Personal Item Storage, 
Mounts to Ajrm Rests 



If stowed on si]de of couch, OK, 
If stowed on back of couch, would 
require egress bf couch. 



Desk top hinges to expose compart- 
mented storage area, or sections 
of top hinge open. Drawer pulls 
out of edge of desk, or drawers 
hinge or pull out of each side 
of edge. 




Tray on Back of Adjacent Couch, 
on Linkage 



Only if back of other couch is 
facing the subject couch. 



Per design. 



Only if privacy curtains are 
from the couch to the wall type. 



If one end of dray can be de- 
tached, and tra|y pivoted about 
other side. '< 



Privacy curtaini could restrict 
opening of drawers. 



Should be easily arranged, may 
require rotating couch 45 or 90 
degrees for ingress/egress. 



Would not be able to deploy 
desk with privacy curtain de- 
ployed. 



Interface with food 
tray (food tray - 16 
13 X 4.5 inches). 



Tray would have to be sized, and 
have to provide hold downs for 
food tray, „„______„^__________ 



Tray would have to be sized and 
have to provide hold downs for 
food tray, 



Tray would have to be sized and 
have to provide hold downs for 
food tray. 



Tray would have to be sized and 
have to providd hold downs for 
food tray. 



Tray woiild have to be sized and 
have to provide hold downs for 
food tray. 



Stay within couch dimen- 
sions, width - 18 in- 
ches, max from axis, 
length - 77.5 inches 

max. 



Could be designed such. May be 
a problem if requirement includes 
with tray deployed. 



Could be designed such. May be 
a problem if requirement includes 
with tray deployed. 



This requirement not applicable 
to this design. 



Might be difflcjult with top or 
drawers opened. 



Not applicable. 



7. Design loads: 

Launch/ En try - 3Gs 
Crash Loads - 9Gs 
System Fittings - 12Gs 



Remarks : 



This concept considers the cleri- 
cal tray to have no provision for 
storage of personal items. 
Mounting to the frame requires 
possibly an angle adjustment on 
the tray mounting, and a bulkier 
more complex mount than If on arm 
rests. 



Possibly have top surface trans- 
parent to display stored items. 
Requires bulkier (thicker) top 

design. 



This design restricts the posi- 
tion of one couch, due to another 
passenger's desire to use his 
tray. The two adjacent passen- 
gers could not both use their 
trays simultaneously, therefore, 
could not eat simultaneously. 



III-IO 



/ 



FOLDOUT FEAMB 



TABLE I II -9 LIGHTING SYSTEM 




HGMT 




UGWT 



CRITERIA 




LIGWTS 



II 



By Shoulders on Couch Freune 



1. Light will be capable 

of being directed in both 
directions. 



2. The light will have con- 
trolled variable Inten- 
sities. 



3. Power Requirement 



4. Requires inflight main- 
tenance. 



Light direction limited expeci- 
ally if back pan is rotated up 
as in sitting position. 



Will meet this requirement. 



TBD 



On Goose Neck By Head 



Capable of any direction light- 
ing. 




III 



Diffused Lighting Various 

Mtng Positions 



Will meet this requirement. 



TBD 



Remarks : 



Should require little inflight 
maintenance. 



More susceptable to damage due 
to more linkage & accessibility. 



No direct lighting, but can be 
designed to provide sufficient 
light anywhere. 



Will meet this requirement but 
if fluorescent is used elec. are 
more complex , 



TBD 



J- 



^LDODT KRAMH 



Shouldn't require much Inflight 
maintenance. 



III-ll 



f FOLDOUT FEAME 
TABLE III- 10 



STEREO SYSTEM LOCATION 




-STeREo 



CRITERIA 



1. Communication Sys. shall 
consist of a stereo head- 
set and controls inclu- 
ding a four-channel selec 
tion. 



2. Headset will be stowed 
within the couch and 
will require a volume of 
approximately 8x5x4". 



Design load considera- 
tion! 
Launch/Entry Load - 3Gs, 

30 min. 
System Fittings - l2Gs 
Crash Load - 9Gs 



4. Stowage Location for Easy 
Access 



Remarks : 




Stereo Unit by Shoulders 



Sufficient volume available. 



Sufficient volume available. 



No Impact. 



Hard to reach if restraints or 
If in sitting position. 




STE-REO 



II 



Stereo by Couch Controls by 

Armrests 



Same as concept I. 



Same as concept I. 



No Impact, 



Easy access in all modes. 



± 



STEGEO 




III 



Stereo Unit on Side of Couch 



Same as concept I. 



Same as concept I. 



No Impact. 



Easy access but out of visible 
range of occupant. 




C€NTTftALne.e*i. 



\ TO COUCHES 

X 






\Ut>\\fi\^VK\^ 



IV 



Centralized System versus Indivi- 
dual Units 



Both systems can provide such 

equipment. 



Same as concept I, 



I 



L^I,T)OUT MAMS 



Central system will have greater 
Interface problems & may constrain 
mating hardware. 



Central system would be more com- 
pact, controls placed for easy 
access. 



IH-12 



FOLDOUT FRAME 



TABLE III- 11 PERSONHEL RESTRAINT SYSTEMS 



X 



i^Ol^OUT FRAME 




1. Adjustable to Comfor- 
tably Accoramodate a 5 
to 95 percentile man. 



1. Restraints shall be re- 
tractable when not In 
use. 



Restraints shall be 
unobtrusive. 



4. Design loads considera- 
tions: 
Launch/Entry - 3Gs, 30 

min. 
Sleeping - OG 
Crash Load - 9Gs 
System Fittings - 12Gs 



5. Capable of use with the 
seat in flat bed, normal 
sitting, and launch posi- 
tions . 



6. Complexity of Operation. 



Could be designed so that one 
vest adjusts to cover the range. 



Could be designed . ^tractable. 



Belt Restraints 



Could be designed to cover the 
range. 



Could be designed retractable. 



Could be designed to be unob- 
trusive. 



Per design. 



Could be used with seat in any 
position. 



Could be designed to be simple 
in operation. 



Could be designed to be unob- 
trusive. 



Per design. 



Could be designed for use with 
the seat in any position. 



Could be designed to be simple 
in operation. 




MIKlGCO 
CO\fltR WtTM 

M««-DED FOAM 



III 



Air Bag, or Molded Foam Restraint 



By regulating pressure rather 
than air volume, would fit all. 
f^iolded foam, would require dif- 
ferent pieces in order to cover 
5 to 95 percentile man. 



Would be bulky to retract. 



Would be obtrusive. 



Per design. 



Would be difficult to design for 
more than one seating position. 



Would be complex. 




WAIST ©Alt 



CATfCH 



IV 



Fixed Restraints 



Could be designed with sufficient 
adjustment to cover the range. 



Could be designed retractable or 
not rfetracted. 



Could be designed to be unob- 
trusive. 



Per design. 



Could be easily designed to ad- 
just for various seating positions, 



Probably extremely simple opera- 
tion. 



Emergency egjress capa- 
bility. 



Could be designed for quick 
egress. 



Could be designed for quick 
egress. 



Would probably be difficult to 
egress quickly. 



Gould be designed for quick 
egress. 



8. Restrain unconscious 
passenger. 



Would restrain unconscious 
pass eng er . 



Would restrain unconscious 
passenger. 



Would restrain unconscious 
passenger. 



Would not restrain unconscious 
passebger. 



Remarks : 



Provides wide surface area - no 
high pressure points. Could be 
used as a sleep restraint. 



Would adapt to using a set of 
belts for launch/ reentry, and a 
single lap belt for zero~g use. 



Reliability problems would be 
extremely cumbersome and complex 
Would be suitable only for launch/ 
reentry, not for zero-g. 



Suitable only when the crewman is 
conscious J not when unconscious or 
sleeping. Probably not good for 
launch/reentry. Would be good for 
zero-g. 



III-13 



An effort was made to combine the primary subsystem concepts into one 
or more basic system concepts. An evaluation of the four identified 
primary subsystems and each concept priority rating was conducted. 
The only concept considered feasible for the main frame structure was 
one using a box- type construction with side rails and end plates. In 
looking at the couch linkage concepts, two were considered adequate 
for further study: the manual operation with fixed hinge at the hip and 
knee joint and the three-point hinge, one fixed a two sliding. 

Combining these four primary subsystem concepts resulted in two 
separate basic system concepts. The nomenclature assigned to these 
two concepts was: Fixed Hinge Couch and Sliding Hinge Couch. 

The secondary subsystem concepts were investigated to determine design 
impact, if any, on both the fixed hinge and sliding hinge system 
concepts. 

The body support section of the couch could use either the frame 
with webbing concept or frame with a thin aluminum sheet concept. 
The honeycomb structure could be used if cushioning material were 
used on top. 

The body anthropometry differences implied that only the top rated 
arm rest concept "individual manually adjustable" be considered in 
the couch system design. This arm concept has adjustment in the 
vertical direction and folds up in the flatbed configuration. 

Evaluation of the couch occupant restraint was complex because of the 
various modes of operation. The restraint requirements have been 
separated into three mission modes: 1) launch, re-entry and landing, 
2) zero-gravity sitting operation, and 3) zero-gravity sleeping. 



IXI-14 



The launch/re-entry mode requires a high stress full body restraint. 
The aero-gravity mission mode with low stress requires only a lap 
belt for the sitting configuration and a sleeping restraint for the 
flatbed configuration. 

The double parallel shoulder harness selected for the launch/re-entry 
modes provides advantages of distributing the loads to two belts and 
prevents body torquing when side forces are applied. The lap belt 
portion of this concept contains the single attachment buckle. Due 
to the automatic gravity seeking force vector concept of the couch, 
the seat occupant is subjected to backward (eyeballs-in) accelerations, 
This results in a minimum stress on the belts. 

3.0 Description of Single Fixed Hinge Couch Concept 

Various flight modes require the couch contour to be re-positioned 
to maximize comfort and support to the crewman. The following des- 
cription is of a single fixed hinge concept designed to accomplish 
this task. Figure III-l is used in the clarification of the follow- 
ing discussion. 




■ROTATIOM 



Figure III-l Fixed Hinge Concept ■ 
III-15 



The design is comprised of four sections. These are section A (the 
back and head pan), section B (the seat pan), section C (the leg pan), 
and section D (the foot pan). Section A lies parallel to and four 
inches below the couch longitudinal axis of rotation. Section B rota- 
tes about pivot point I and can be locked in pre-selected positions. 
Sections B and C are connected at hinge point II, which has a locking 
device at this point. Pivot point III serves as the hinge for section 
D (the foot pan) and contains its own locking device. 

Section A remains flat at all times and contains a fixed angle head- 
rest to accommodate a 5 to 95 percentile man. When the angle between 
sections A and B is 120 degrees, the couch is in the launch position. 

4. Description of Sliding Hinge Concept 

The other feasible couch concept and the one selected to develop was 
the sliding hinge concept. This concept as illustrated in Figure 
III- 2 satisfies the required functions in a minimal volume. The 
couch as shown in Figure II1-2 is in the sitting position which is 
used for re-entry and atmospheric flight. The seat section rotates 
about pivot point B as the back and leg sections rotate and slide at 
points A and C. Each of these points on the inner body support 
interfaces with the main frame through bearings to allow the required 
motion to change the body support to the various configurations. 
This particular linkage concept has several advantages: (1) the 
couch can be adjusted from a fully flat position to a full sitting 
position using a minimum envelope volume; (2) the concept holds 
the center of mass in nearly the same location for various couch 
configurations; (3) allows a volume beneath the seat and leg for 
storage which is uninterrupted by linkage movement. 



iir-16 




ROTiaiOM 



Figure III-2 Sliding Hinge Concept 

The three main couch configurations are the flat bed, launch/ entry 
and normal sitting. The flat bed configuration places the body 
support sections on a parallel plane four inches below the couch 
longitudinal axis of rotation. The launch/ entry configuration 
positions the back section at a 20' angle from the couch longi- 
tudinal axis, the seat section at a 120* angle to the back section, 
and the leg section at a 120° angle to the seat section. The 
normal sitting configuration positions the seat occupant so that 
the back to seat and seat to lower leg sections are both at right 
angles with the back section at a 30° angle to the couch longi- 
tudinal axis of rotation. 

The couch is adjustable for crew membtsrsin the 5 to 95 percentile 
range. Independent seat and leg sections adjustments are available 
because a crew member of a certain percentile height may have limb 
lengths of a different percentile than his height. 



III-17 



The back section has a fixed length of 38,8 inches, the seat 
section has an adjustable length of 17.5 inches to 20.5 inches, 
and the leg section has an adjustment length of 15.8 inches to 
18.8 inches. The footrest which is part of the leg section can 
be rotated from a flat position to 90 degrees with respect to 
the leg link. A mechanical locking device is incorporated at 
pivot point B that provides a positive manual locking for the 
inner body support. 

5, System Se lection 

The Sliding Hinge Couch Concept was selected for the Couch Veri- 
fication Model design. This was done on the basis of the system 
tradeoff study. The results of the tradeoff were that the 
sliding hinge couch met all the design criteria. The most 
critical criteria affecting the rating differences were in the 
areas of volume and keeping the center-o£-gravity below 
the longitudinal axis of rotation. The Fixed Hinge Couch Concept 
violates the dimensional envelope requirement when positioned into 
the normal sitting configuration, and is also considered borderline 
in keeping the center-of- gravity below the couch longitudinal axis of 
rotation with a preliminary analysis showing a distance of approx- 
imately one inch. 

The next items considered were the secondary subsystem concepts; 
mainly the couch position locking mechanisms, body support section de- 
sign and arm rests design. The couch must have the capability of 
being locked in various pre-selected positions for launch, atmospheric 
flight, zero-g flight, re-entry, and crash modes. The locking mechan- 
ism must be of a positive mechanical type rather than a friction type. 
In the sliding hinge concept the best locking point was initially 
determined to be at the fixed pivot point. 

III-18 



B, MATERIALS J PARTS AND PROCESSES 

All materials used for components, parts and processes were investi- 
gated for compatibility with performance and environmental criteria. 
Manufacturing processes and associated materials used on off-the- 
shelf hardware were also investigated for compatibility. All materials 
used are identified by drawing or specification sheets as either 
metallic or non-metallic with material trade name, application on the 
equipment, part number, vendor, commercial designation, approximate 
weight and dimension of the material. 

1.0 Metals 

The principal considerations for metal are their mechanical properties 
and corrosion resistance properties. In addition, there are some 
metals and alloys that are unacceptable for usage in space vehicle 

systems while others are preferred. 

1.1 Unacceptable Metals 

The following metals and alloys have been termed unacceptable for 

space vehicle systems. 

Beryllium Unalloyed beryllium shall not be used within the crew 

compartment. Alloys containing less than 4 percent 

beryllium are acceptable. 
Cadmium Cadmium plated materials and alloys containing more 

than 30 percent cadmium are unacceptable. 
Brass & Zinc Zinc plated materials and alloys containing more than 

30 percent zinc are unacceptable. 
Copper Copper shall not be used in components in contact with 

an aqueous media. 

Magnesium Magnesium or any magnesium alloys are unacceptable. 

Mercury Unacceptable. 

Steel Non-corrosion resistant steels (high carbon steels) are 

unacceptable. 

III-I9 



1.2 Preferred Metals 

The preferred metals and alloys for usage on tlie couch structure, 
parts, components, and assemblies were determined from available tables 
at the time of design. The preferred aluminum alloys were used for 
the couch structure and brackets and the preferred corrosion resistant 
steels for the rotating and locking components. 

1.3 Dissimilar Metals 

The use of dissimilar metals in contact shall be avoided unless 
adequately protected aginst galvanic corrosion. Metals that differ 

in potential by more than 0,25 volts, as determined by MSC Standard 
No. 63, shall not be used in direct contact when exposed to a common 
electrolyte such as the atmosphere. 

2.0 Non-Metallics 

The principal considerations for non-metals are their mechanical 
properties and their resistance capabilities to flammability and 
off-gassing. The largest usage of non-metallics in the couch system 
is the outer shell. The material selected for the outer shell is a 
fire retardant acrylic-polyvinyl chloride alloy sheet with a trade 
name of Kydex. 

C. PRELIMINARY MASS PROPERTIES STATEMENT 

The preliminary mass properties estimate of the sliding-hinge couch 
was made to provide an- initial estimated weight for the couch, and, 
more primarily, to provide data to assist in making a structural config- 



III-20 



uration decision. Differences occur in the areas of structural mem- 
bers such as side rails, back support, seat support and leg support. 
Other items such as ventilation, lighting, stereo, and cushions were 
assumed to be essentially comnion to any configuration. Practically 
all structural material, with the exception of some pivot items, 

were assumed to be 6061 aluminum. The cushions were assumed to be 

3 
material of five lb/ft density. The vertical center-of- gravity of 

the sliding-hinge couch with passenger in a launch configuration, was 

located 4.5 in. below the axis of rotation and the longitudinal center- 

of-gravity wais located 37.2 inches from the forward end plate. The 

detail weight statement for the sliding-hinge couch is shown below 

in Table III-12. 



III-21 



Table III-U Initial Couch Weight Estimate 



ITEM 


WEIGHT-LB 


Primary Couch Structure 




Side Rails 


12 


Sub frame 


8 


Skin 


40 


End Plates 


15 


Arm Rests 


6 


Head Rest 


7 


Back Rest 


16 


Seat Rest 


12 


Leg Rest 


10 


Foot Rest 


5 


Mounting Provisions 


14 


Stowage Provisions 


15 


Position Control 


10 


Restraint System 


6 


Ventilation 


4 


Lighting 


4 


Privacy Curtain 


10 


Attach, Misc. 


10 


Weight Empty 


204 



III-22 



IV. PRELIMINARY DESIGN, FABRICATION & TEST 

A. DESIGN OF ENGINEERING MODEL 

The preliminary design effort was directed at providing an engineering 
model to verify anthropometric dimensions, reach dimensions, ingress/ 
egress, couch operation, storage space, restraint locations, and crew 
acceptability. The resulting design is illustrated by Figures IV-1 
and IV-2 which are the top assembly drawings for the main structure 
and the inner body support respectively. Not shown by these drawings 
but included in the detail drawings were the two methods of adjustment 
for the inner body support. The two methods provided were a worm-and- 
gear and a cam and pin mechanism. 

B. FABRICATION OF ENGINEERING MODEL 

The passenger couch engineering model was fabricated from preliminary 
design drawings using the structural members as determined by the 
stress analysis performed earlier in the program. Since this piece 
of hardware was to undergo one gravity neutral buoyancy, and centri- 
fuge testing, the electrical components were not included. Figure 
IV-3 depicts the Engineering Model in the sitting position with 
Figure IV-4 illustrating the flatbed, sleeping position. The clerical 
tray utilized with the Engineering Model is depicted in Figure IV-5. 

C. COUCH ENGINEERING MODEL TEST PHASE 

Three different types of test were conducted using the couch engineer- 
ing model to verify and evaluate the various aspects of the couch. 
Shuttle crew compartment interface tests were conducted to establish 
the envelope dimensional requirements of the passenger couch. 
Centrifuge tests (unmanned) were employed to verify that the couch 



IV-1 



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IV- 3 




Figure IV-3 Engineer Models Sitting Position 




Figure IV-4 Engineering Model Flat Bed Position 

IV-4 







Figure IV-5 Engineering Model With Clerical Tray Deployed 



structure could withstand the launch/ re-entry loads of three g's for 30 
minutes. Neutral buoyancy tests were utilized to simulate a zero- 
gravity environment for extended periods. 

1.0 Crew Compartment Interface Tests 

These tests were conducted to establish the envelop dimensional re- 
quirements of the passenger couch. Subjects ranging from the 5th to 
95th percentile males and 50 percentile female simulated using the 
couch in the flatbed and fully seated positions and commented on the 
fit and accessibility of the various controls. These tests are illus- 
trated in Figures IV-6, thru IV-9 where both male and female test sub- 
jects were used to evaluate the couch's functional capabilities. 

The principal result of these preliminary tests was the substantiation 
of the increase in stature of subjects from standing to supine mea- 
surements. Table IV- 1 shows the changes in stature for various sub- 
jects for different times and attitudes. Thus, a 95th percentile 
subject's stature increased to the point where interference occurred 
in the passenger couch engineering model flatbed position. Since 
this increase in stature can be expected in zero-g (neutral buoyancy 
tests have substantiated this fact), the engineering model flatbed 
length of 74 inches was increased to 76.25 inches for the Verifica- 
tion Model, 

The preliminary tests also showed that the position of the body 
support adjustment mechanism on the couch side rail had to be moved 
headward to insure that 5th percentile subjects could reach it easily 
while in the flatbed position since the head rest was to be in a fixed 
position. As a result, this mechanism was designed so that the actu- 
ation levers and rotational lock on the Verification Model were 5.25 
inches closer to the head of the couch. It was also determined that 



IV-6 




Figure IV-6 PCEM With 95 Percentile Male in Sitting Position 




Figure IV-7 PCEM With 70 Percentile Male in Sleeping Position 



IV-7 




Figure IV-8 PCEM With 50 Percentile Female in Sleeping Position 




Figure IV-9 PCEM With 50 Percentile Female in Sitting Position 



IV-8 



the worm and pinon as well as the cam and detent were not satisfactory 
as locking devices for the body support adjustment. 

Table IV- 1 Male Height Changes for Attitude & Time 



Subject 

Percentile 

Height 




One-G 


Height, Inches 




1 


Morn 


Lng CAM) 




Aft 


srnoon (PM) | 


Standing 


Supine 


Delta 


S tand ing 


Supine 


Delta 


10 


65 1/2 


66 7/8 


1 3/8 


65 1/4 


66 3/4 


1 1/2 


60 


69 1/2 


70 3/4 


1 1/4 


69 


70 1/2 


1 1/2 


65 


70 5/8 


71 1/2 


7/8 


70 1/8 


71 9/16 


1 7/16 


65 


70 3/4 


71 1/2 


3/4 


70 1/4 


71 9/16 


1 5/16 


92 


73 7/16 


75 


1 9/16 


73 1/8 


75 


1 7/8 


94 


73 9/16 


74 7/16 


7/8 


73 3/16 


74 1/16 


7/8 


95 


74 


75 


1 


73 1/2 


74 5/8 


1 1/8 


95 


74 


75 


1 


73 5/8 


74 7/8 


1 1/4 



The utilization of the foot pan indicated that the adjustment for length 
should be located on the inner frame close to the leg calf position 
rather than in the foot pan itself to facilitate adjustment for all 
subjects. 



2.0 



Centrifuge Test 



Since the flight unit of the Shuttle Passenger Couch must withstand 
specific launch/re-entry loads, the couch verification model was 
designed to accept those loads and keep its occupant safe and com- 
fortable. To insure that the couch verification model would meet the 
load criteria, the engineering model (structure identical to the pro- 
posed couch verification model design) was subjected to centrifuge 
tests on Martin Marietta's Rucker Centrifuge. 



IV-9 




Figure IV-10 Couch Engineering Model Mounted on 
Centrifuge Arm 




Figure IV-11 



Man Model (200 lb, 95th Percentile) in 
SPCEM-Centrlfuge Test 



IV-10 



'The couch engineering model was mounted on the centrJ.fuge arm In the 
launch position with a 200-lb, 95th percentile man model restrained in 
the seat as shown in Figures IV-10 and IV-11. Weights were added to 
the couch frame to simulate the anticipated total weight of the verifi- 
cation model. Six strain gages (type FAB-25-12513) were attached to 
the couch frame and end plate to record the stresses experienced at 
critical points during peak loading. 

Since there was no requirement to test the couch to its failure point, 
the test was conducted only to demonstrate that the frame as designed 
could withstand a load of 3.0 g's for 30 minutes. When this test was 
successfully completed and the actual stresses proved to be close to 
those estimated by analysis, an additional test at 4.5 g's was con- 
ducted until the data recording movie camera mount malfunctioned and 
the test was terminated. Table IV-2 shows the actual stress at 
points A and B (side rail) versus the stress calculated by analysis 
for loads of 3.0 and 4.5 g's. Point A was at the center pivot point 
and Pivot B was at the head sliding point. Values of stress at the 
end plate are not included because of the complex stress distribution 
and the questionable nature of the strain gage readings. 



Table IV-2 



Couch Stress Levels 



STRESS 


LOAD LEVEL Cs's) | 


3.0 


4.5 


Analysis (Est.) - psi 
Actual (Avg) - psi 


Pt.A 


Pt.B 


Pt.A 


Pt.B 


4900 
4815 


5500 

4100 


7350 
8320 


8250 

7570 





Pt.A - Pivot Point; 



Pt.B - Sliding Point 



Inspection of all welds after completion of the tests revealed no 
visible degradation or failure; the couch assembly demonstrated 
that it could withstand loads of up to 4.5 g's for extended periods. 
In addition, the stress analysis for higher load levels was verified 



IV-11 



to the extent that the actual stresses at 3.0 and 4.5 g's were very 
close to those predicted; therefore, expected stresses at a crash- 
load of 9.0 g's should approximate the values estimated by analysis, 
which are below the limit for the structure. 

3.0 Neutral Buoyancy Tests 

Operational performance characteristics of the couch as related to 
crew tasks in zero-gravity were determined by neutral buoyancy 
testing of the couch engineering model. Male and female subjects 
were utilized to define motion requirements and access capability 
during such crew tasks as couch ingress/egress, couch adjustment, 
clerical tray utilization, deployment/ release of the restraint belts 
and the use of controls, tape player and stowage areas while restrained. 

Figures IV-12, thru IV-15 show some of the activities accomplished in 
the neutral buoyancy tests. There was no appreciable performance 
difference between male and female subjects during any of the couch 
area tasks; each subject could adequately perform the required activi- 
ties. The principal results of the neutral buoyancy testing are 
summarized as follows: 

o Subjects entered the couch by approaching from the side, 
grasping some part of the couch framework, then pivoting the body so 
that the posterior contacts the seat pan first. Simultaneously the 
legs are lowered and extended so that the feet can be placed beneath 
the toe rail on the foot pan while the subject steadies himself in 
the couch with one or both hands grasping the couch side. The belt 
restraint is then attached as required. 

o All couch belt restraints could be operated in zero-g; 
however, the lap belt in conjunction with the foot rail was all that 
was necessary to provide complete body stabilization and control. 



IV-12 



The couch itself provided adequate mobility aids. The 
subsequent couch shell should retain this capability by employing 
a curved lip around the top surface or sides. 

o Couch controls are accessible while restrained in all 
modes of operation. 

o Subjects exited the couch by releasing the restraint 
system, grasping one side of the couch frame with one hand, pivoting 
about that point away from the couch to the proper orientation, then 
pushing off with hands and/or feet as desired. 

o Access to storage areas in the couch sides while the subject 
is restrained in the couch is adequate but awkward. Limited volumes 
anticipated in the shuttle orbiter crew compartment indicated that 
storage locations should be incorporated into the couch back, with 
access available by exiting the couch and rotating it 180 about 
its longitudinal axis. 

o The clerical tray attached to the armrests was convenient 
to use and provided a stable working surface for the couch occupant. 

o Simulated activities such as sleeping, eating or writing 
were performed satisfactorily by all subjects. 

Couch ingress/ egress with the clerical tray in place was 
relatively easy although use of both hands was necessary to position 
the body properly. Ingress/egress while carrying an object in one 
hand was also tested; greater care had to be exercised by the subjects 
but. the task was not difficult. 

Neutral buoyancy tests demonstrated the concept of the overall couch 
design and pointed out areas which would impact the verification 
model design. 



IV- 13 





Figure IV-12 Test Subject Restraint 
in Reentry Position 



Figure IV-13 Clerical Tray Attached 
to Couch 





Figure IV-14 Ingress to Couch With 
Clerical Tray Attached 



Figure IV-15 Ingress Carrying 
Food Tray 



IV-14 



V. COUCH VERIFICATION MODEL 



A, DESIGN REQUIREMENTS AND FABRICATION 

The design requirements for the couch verification model are broken down 
into the system and subsystem requirements. These requirements are 
based upon the functional requirements and performance characteristics 
that the couch must possess to satisfy the requirements 

1 "0 Requirements 

1. 1 System Design Requirements 

The Shuttle passenger couch requirements are primarily established from 
the functions that the couch must satisfy while maintaining the degree 
of safety necessary for a manned mission. Another contributing factor is 
the vehicle interface requirements such as volume, ingress/egress, com- 
fort, privacy, etc. 

From the projected 1980 anthropometric dimensions of man, the minimum 
internal length of 75.5 inches and the minimum internal width of 21 
inches are required to accept the 95th percentile male when laying on his 
back. In addition a minimum of 5 inches on the length and 3 inches on 
the width must be added to provide structural integrity and vehicle inter- 
face provisions. The depth of the occupied couch envelope is determined 
by placing the center-of-gravity of the occupied couch below the couch 
longitudinal axis of rotation when the couch occupant is sitting in the 
launch position. The basic functional couch envelop is depiected in Fig. V-1, 

The gravity loads that the couch system must be designed to withstand are 
as follows: three g's for 30 minutes to satisfy launch and entry loads; 
crash load of nine g's for the couch and 12 g's for the couch mounting 
hardware. These loads shall include a 95th percentile occupant, approx- 
imately 205 pounds in addition to the couch weight. 

The basic design consists of a main framework, which allows rotational 

V-1 



positioning relative to the vehicle and serves as the attachment 
interface to the vehicle. Within the main framework an inner frame 
is used to provide support and position the occupant during the 
various modes of operation. 




Center- of -Gravity 



Figure V-1 Basic Passenger Couch Envelope 

This design is incorporated in the couch verification model which consists 
of five major assemblies plus the ancilliary subsystems for environmental 
control, stowage provisions, privacy, sleep restraint, and personal en- 
tertainment. The major assemblies are the main frame, the lower framework, 
inner frame, shell, and the vehicle mounting hardware. These assemblies 
and subsystems are identified in the exploded view of the couch in Fig. V-2, 

i.1,1 System Requirements 
1.1.2 Functional Requirements 

The functions that the couch must satisfy are to provide the occupant: 
(1) a safe support during launch, entry and landing; and (2) a personal 
habitat for the orbital mode where the astronaut can relax, sleep, eat, 
perform clerical duties, and have personal privacy with his own private 
lighting, ventilation, tape player and personal stowage area. To satisfy 
these functions the couch must: (1) contain a restraint system that can be 
used for launch, entry, and during orbital operations; (2) conserve volume 
by providing rotational 



V-2 



I 



KYDEX END COVER- 
(2 PLACES) 



VOMIIUS BAG 6z 
TRASH RECEPTACLE 



KYDEX SIDE RAIL 
(2 PLACES) 



INNER FRAl^IE ASSY. 



MAIN FRAME AS£Y. 



MOUNTING HARDWARE 
(2 PLACEi) 




KYDEX IX^^R PANEL 
(FOOT) 



KYDEX LOWER SHELL 



KYDEX ACCESS DOOR 
TO GARMENT BAG 



KYDEX ACCESS DOOR 
TO CLERICAL TRAY 



KYDEX ACCESS DOOR 
TO SLEEP RESTRAINT 
fi. PRIVACY CURTAIN 



Figure V -2 Shuttle Passenger Couch 



capability to gain access to stowage areas and keep the couch 
perpendicular to the gravity vector during launch and entry, to 
assure physiological safety to the occupant; (3) position the occupant 
from an erect sitting position to a prone, flatbed, position while 
in the couch; and (4) provide lighting, air ventilation, enter- 
tainment by tape player, and a privacy curtain. 

I, 1,3 Performance Characteristics 

The operation of the system must be considered for the launch, 
entry, and orbital modes and any compromise in performance shall not 
endanger the safety of the occupant. Therefore, the structural members 
are designed for the greatest loads that may be placed on the couch 
during the life of the couch system in any of the operating modes. 
The restraint system must perform in two vastly different conditions. 
One is to provide restraint during launch and entry when loads are 
one gravity and greater. The other requirement is to provide res- 
traint in a zero-gravity environment where minimal restraint is re- 
quired but ease of operation is desirable. The remaining subsystems 
are primarily personal habitability items and the main concern is 
in locating them in a manner that complements the couch system and 
are easily accessible to the couch occupant. 

To satisfy the requirements of the above paragraphs the Passen- 
ger Couch Verification Model was designed and built as illustrated in 
Figure V-3. 

2 . Subsystem Design Requirements 

2.1 Main Frame 

As shown by Figure V-2 the main frame is' the foundation of the 
entire couch system. This frame must provide the required structural 
strength to satisfy the design loads, attachment structure for the 
various subsystems, attachment for the vehicle mounting hardware, and 
provide mounting provisions for the couch shell. Because of the many 



V-4 




Physical Specifications 

Couch Dimensions (envelop) 18 x 34 x 80.5 inches 

Couch Weight Breakdown (pounds) 



Main Frame 


32.6 




Inner-Frame Body 






Support 


52.9 




Cushions 


10.2 




Shell 


39.5 




Mounting Hardware 


16.1 




Ancillary Items 


33.1 




h Total Weight 


184.4 


lb 



Ancillary Items Breakdown (pounds) 



Tape Player 


4.4 


Trash Stowage 


2.2 


Personal Stowage 


16.3 


Privacy Curtains 


4.3 


Sleep Restraint 


2.2 


Power Supply 


3.7 



Total 



33,1 lb. 



Figure V -3 Passenger Couch Verification Model 



V-5 



functions the main frame must satisfy, a channel was selected for the 
frame sides and sheet stock for the end pieces. The channel flanges 
were turned to the outside to provide a smooth interior and a shorter 
distance for the cantilevered inner frame supports. The outside 
channel also provides a space for the mechanism to adjust the inner 
frame and the routing of the rotational device operating cables. 
The main frame is fabricated by welding the preformed end pieces 
to the machined side rails. 

2.1.1 Lower Framework 

The lower framework, as identified in Figure V-2, provides 
the structure to hold the clerical tray, garment bags, and support 
for the access doors. The framework consists mainly of welded 
tubing and angles bolted to the main frame. 

2.1.2 Couch Mounting Hardware 

The couch mounting hardware must perform the functions of 
transmitting the loads of the couch and occupant to the vehicle, 
allow rotation of the couch around its longitudinal axis for 345 
degrees in either direction freely or in 15 degree increments, and 
provide access for electrical connections between the vehicle and 
the couch. To satisfy these functions, txro parts of hardware are 
required. One part is permanently attached to the vehicle and will 
mate with the part attached to the couch. The female part 
attached to the vehicle accepts the couch male part and orients the 
couch relative to the vehicle. The male part attached to the 
couch end plates consists of the rotation control mechanism and 
electrical interface with the vehicle. The rotation control 
mechanism consists basically of a gear, two sets of pawls, and two 



V-6 



operating levers wittiin a housing. The gear has 24 teeth to allow 
the 15 degree incremental adjustment and two sets of pawls are 
utilized to allow rotation in either direction with a positive lock 
and minimal backlash. The operating levers bear against the spring 
loaded pawls and extend out of the housing in a manner that allows 
a cable yoke to activate the levers simultaneously. The cable yoke 
on each end of the couch is attached to a cable that runs to a 
single control on the side of the couch within easy reach of the 
couch occupant. The mounting hardware details are shown in 
Figures V-4 and v-5. 



Electrical Plug 



Spring Loaded 
Pawls (4) — 



Control Cable 
Assembly 



Hex Keyed to Gear 




Housing 



Operating Levars (2) 



Mounting Bolts (8) 



Figure V -4 Couch End Fitting Mechanism 



V-7 



00 



% 




Couch End Plate 



Figure V- 5 Passenger Couch Mounting Hardware 



2.2 Inner Frame - Body Support 



The design of the inner frame as depicted by Figure V-6 
allows the positioning of the body In the various positions for 
the Shuttle modes of operation. To change the body from an erect 
sitting position (90 degrees) to a flatbed configuration within 
a minimum volume, the inner frame is segmented into three sections. 
These three sections are identified as the back body support section, 
seat section, and legs section. The sections are connected by hinges 
that allows the required movement to obtain the various body positions. 
The occupant's weight is trans- 
mitted to the vehicle via the 
main frame through a combination 
of a rigid rotating point on 
each side of the seat section 
and a primarily sliding point 
on each side of the back and 
leg sections. The back and 
leg section attachment points 
are defined as sliding points, 
but they do rotate approxi- 
mately 30 degrees during the 
length of the linear travel of 
the point between the flatbed 
and 90 degree configuration. 
Figure V~7 depicts the arti- 
culation of the inner frame 
and the three attach points. 
In the following paragraphs the 
details of individual sections Figure V-6 Passenger Couch Inner 
are defined. Frame Assembly 




V-9 




^■>v 



Sitting Position 



Pivot Point 



Sliding Point 




Sleeping, Flatbed Position 



iSU 



■ F--^'- 1 



Figure V-7 Inner Frame Articulation 



2.2.1 Back Se ction 

The back section of the inner frame is designed to support 
the majority of the body including the torso, arms, and head during 
the various modes of operation. The back section is constructed of 
a welded framework of one inch square aluminum tubing. Fabric is 
attached to the framework to support the occupant. A cushion of 
fire retardant polyurethane foam with a density of 4 pounds per 
cubic foot is an optional item that is placed over the fabric support 
sections. The fabric support must withstand a 100 pound evenly 
distributed load at the 9 g's level with a deflection not to exceed 
one and one-half inch. The fabric consists of two layers of PBI- 
S151 and one layer of Durette RL4770 with Fluorel backing as the 
top surface. Between the PBI-S151 and the Durette is a layer of 
onc-fouiLh Inch of fire retardant foam. The fabric is fastened to 
the iut3:idc or bottom of the tube frame with a restraining metal 



V-10 



strip and screws. This allows the fabric to go around a minimum 
of two 90 degree corners which enhance fabric retention. The 
cushions are retained by snaps to facilitate easy application and 
removal of the cushions as desired. The back section also provides 
the mounting provisions for the environmental subsystems, which are 
defined in a separate section, adjustable head rest, adjustable arm 
rests, and four-fifths of the restraint system. The rear of the 
back section is shoxm in Figure V-8. 




Cushion 
Vinyl 

f 



c 






■Cushion Fabric 



Cushion Foam 



Foam 



] 



Tl 



Burette 




^SSSSST^-Inner Frame 
— Structure 



FBl-5151 
(2 Layers) 



^SS 



Metal 
Strip 



Cross Section of Inner Frame 



Figure V-8 Back Section of Inner Frame 



V-U 



^G Vii.VoJ rest Iti attached to the back section and is infinitely 
aH," us ti.ble from being parallel to A5 degrees up from the back section 
through the use of P. L. Porter mechanical locks with a two inch 
piston travelc The control lever is centerally located at the head end 
and is operated by moving the control to the side with either hand. 
The mechanical lock mechanism provides positive locked positions through- 
out the operating range and yet is simple, has minimum volume, and 
lightweight. A two inch thick cushion comprised of fire rctardant foam, 
with a density of 2 pounds per cubic foot and a fabric and vinyl cover- 
ing covers the entire head rest area and is intended to be used at all 
times. The cushion can be removed by unsnapping for maintenance to 
either the cushion or the headrest structure. 



The arm rests upper surface is nominally located approximately 
nine inches above the seat cushion when the armrest is parallel with 
the seat section. Provisions are provided to adjust the armrests either 
up or down one inch by removing the arm rest mounting plate from the 
back section to permit access to the arm rest positioning screws. In 
the mounted position the armrests are capable of being independently 
adjusted thru a 100 degree range from flat against the back section to 
10 degrees down from a position parallel with the seat section. This 
adjustment is made by depressing the button control located on the 
inside of each armrest and physically moving the armrest to the 
desired position. The mechanism that provides the infinite locked 
positions within the stated range consists of an Internally mounted 
P. L, Porter mechpnical lock with a four inch piston travel. To 
obtain this large range of travel with a simple piston type mechanical 
lock, the pivot point of the armrest is located below and in front of 
the mechanical lock pivot point at the base of the armrest, as shown 
In Figure V-9. 



V-12 



Th© portion of the res- 
traint system that is attached 
to the back section consists of 
the two retracting inertia reels 
for the shoulders restraint and 
two retracting reels with posi- 
tive locks for the waist res- 
traint. The restraint reels 
are positioned as shown in 
Figure V-10. To prevent the 
shoulder straps from being re- 
tracted completely into the 
reel, a button stud is provided 
on the light and ventilation 
housings to hook the end piece 
onto. The left waist restraint 

has the 5-position rotary buckel permantely attached to it. The right 
strap is retained from retracting completely by a stop on the belt and 
a holder for the end piece. 




■ Control Button 
Pivot Point 



Figure V-9 Couch Armrest 




Shoulder Reels 



Waist Reels 



Figure V-10 Restraints Installation 



v.- 13 



2,2.2 Seat Section 

The seat section is comprised of two major parts which are: 
(1) one inch square aluminum tube rails that attach to the back and 
leg sections and to the seat positioning tube and (2) the portion the 
occupant sits on which can slide on the rails to accommodate the 5th 
thru 95th percentile males. Positive adjustment is accomplished 
through the use of a spring loaded tapered pin on the sliding part 
engaging in a series of holes in the frame rails. Smoothness is 
provided by the Teflon strips bonded on the. top and sides of the rail. 
The se'at section is depicted by Figure V-11. 



Slide Portion- 




Figure V-H Inner Frame Seat Section 



V-14 



202.3 Leg Section 

The leg section provides the popliteal height for the couch 

occupant, mounting structure for the foot restraint, and serves as 
the third point in the inner frame articulation. The foot pan/restraint 
satisfies the requirement of a place to restrain the lower legs and feet 
during launch, entry, and the need of a simple restraint in the zero- 
gravity environment. The distance between the seat section and the 
foot pan is infinitely adjustable to accommodate the 5th thru 95th 
percentile male. The adjustment is accomplished with P. L, Porter 
mechanical locks mounted in the outside channels and the piston end 
attached to the foot pan spring loaded mounting block. The leg section 
and operation is depicted by Figure V-12. 

2.2.4 Couch Shell 

The couch shell consists of seven parts with the major single part 
covering the complete lower part of the couch. The other 6 parts 
consist of 2 side rails, 2 end covers, and 2 panels to cover the 
lower frame from a top view. These items are Identified in Figure 
V-2. The shell Is vacuum formed from an acrylic-polyvinyl chloride 
sheet with a trade name of Kydex. The formulation used for the 
couch shell is fire retardant Kydex 100 per the Rohm and Haas Company 
Bulletin PL-674c. The Kydex 100 sheet thickness was 0.155 inches 
before the forming process began with a resulting thickness after 
forming of between 0.90 inches and 0.125 inches. The shell is 
attached to the couch structure with quarter- turn fasteners and screws. 
Two sliding and one swing- out door are provided in the bottom of the 
shell for access to the garment bag, clerical tray, privacy curtain, 
and sleep restraint, as shown in Figure V-13. 



V-15 




Leg Section Structure 



Foot Pan Adjustment Tab (2) 



Pan Lock 



Foot ?an 



Mounting Block 



Figure V-X2 Inner Frame Leg Section 





Figure V-13 Access to Bottom of Couch 



2.3 Environmental Requirements 
2.3.1 Lighting 

The light for the occupant's personal use is mounted in the 
housing that stores the headset on the upper left hand corner of 
the back section as shown in Figure V -14. The light direction is 
adjustable" within a 30 degree cone with a separate control to adjust 
the intensity to four levels. The maximum intensity of the light is 
25 foot candles with a 20 inch diameter spot at 18 inches. 



V-17 




Figure V -14 Light and Ventilation Details 
2.3.2 Ventilation 

The ventilation for the couch to prevent CO buildup when 

the privacy curtains are deployed is supplied by a vaneaxial fan mounted 
to the underside of the back section xjith ducting to an adjustable out- 
let. The adjustable outlet and switch are mounted in a housing on the 
upper right hand side of the back section that also contains the tissues 
dispenser as depicted in Figure V-14. When the back section is in the 
flat bed configuration, fresh cabin air is taken in from the rear of 
the couch through a grille and ducting to the fan. In the sitting 
position, the cabin air is taken in directly through the bottom of the 
fan housing. The flow rate of the fan is adjustable from to 20 
cubic feet per minute at a velocity of up to 50 feet per minute. The 
adjustable outlet can be directed within a 30 degree cone. 



V-18 



2.4 Stowage Provisions 
2.4^1 Garment Locker 

Within the basic couch envelope, a storage volume of 1.5 
cubic feet for garments, (clean and soiled) and shoes is provided, 
The garment locker is partioned such that the clean and soiled clothes 
and shoes are separated by a vapor barrier. Access to this stowage 
locker is from the rear of the couch through a sliding door in the 
couch shell. The locker is retained in the lower frame work of the 
couch with wing-nut fasteners. 

2.4.2 Clerical Tray 

The clerical tray serves as a surface for writing, holding 
papers, food tray holder, and as a storage locker for personal gear, 
The volume provided for the personal gear is approximately 0,8 cubic 
feet. The design shall afford easy utilization of the tray while 
seated in the couch and the arm rests in the deployed position. The 
tray is infinitely adjustable when attached to the arm rests from a 
position parallel to the couch seat, with the couch in the seating 
configuration, through a 90 degree arc to a position parallel with 
the couch back section. Figure V- 15 depicts the mechanism used to 
obtain the required clerical tray movement and rigidity. 

2.4.3 Trash Receptacle 

Within the basic couch envelope, and within easy reach of the 
couch occupant, storage provisions of approxinv^tcly 0.1 cubic feet 
is provided to receive asfjortrsd tra^h items. The design of the 
reooptaclB rotaln?; the Iras!) in oAJ oporational environments and is 
convenient to dispose of and/ or remove all trash either in flight 
or during ground maintenance. 



V-19 



< 

I 

N3 

O 








Figure V-15 Passenger Couch Clerical Tray Operat 



ion 



2.4.4 Vomltus Bag Receptacle 

A vDinitus bag receptacle is provided within the trash 
receptacle and within easy reach of the couch occupant. The volume of 
the receptacle is suIficienL Lo store a minimum of six vomitus bags. 
xhe package size of the vomitus bag is 6 inches by 7 inches by 0.2 
inches thick but being flexible it can be folded into different con- 
figurations . 

2.4.5 Tissue Dispenser 

The tissue dispenser is located within easy reach of the couch 
occupant and contained within the ventilation housing. The envelop of 
the dispenser accepts a tissue box with dimensions of 4.25 x 4.50 x 
5.50 inches. 

2.5 Ancillary Components 

2.5.1 Tape Player 

The tape player is contained within the couch basic envelope, 
and located within easy reach and view of the couch occupant when in 
the seated position. The envelope of the tape player is 2.75 x 6 x 6.5 
inches and weighs 4.4 pounds. The unit operates from a 12 volt DC 
source and is protected by a 3 amp fuse. The unit accepts and plays 
a standard 8 track stereo cartridge with a 4-channel tape. The tape 
player controls consist of volume, balance, tone control and channel 
selection and indication. An ear phone jack receptacle is on the face 
of the unit allowing private listening with a headset which is stowed 
in the light housing, 

2.5.2 Privacy Curtain 

A privacy curtain is provided and attached to the couch without 



V-21 



the aid of tools. The curtain is designed to form an enclosure in 
front of the couch and also be capable of forming a privacy screen 
on each side of the couch as illustrated in Figure V- 15. The curtain 
is of a fire retardant cloth material with the supports of metal. Tlie 
curtain Is capable of being stored in the lower couch shell through 
the center door. 





OTEN 



CLOSED 



Figure V-16 Couch Privacy Curtain Installation 



2.5,3 Sleep Restrain t 

A sleep restraint is provided to accoimriDdate the 5th to 95th 
percentile male. The sleep restraint is made of a fire retardant 
cloth and designed to be firmly attached to the couch cushions or 
the couch inner frame. The restraint incorporates a single zipper 
opening that is operable from either inside or outside. The restraint 
also employs a minimum of three two-inch elastic bands sewn into the 



V-22 



material. The elastic bands are located across the upper torso area, 
the waist area, and thigh area. The sleep restraint is depicted by 
Figure V-17. 




Figure V-17 Shuttle Passenger Couch Sleep Restraint 



3.0 



Passenger Couch Support Stand 



The remaining piece of deliverable hardware is the couch support stand. 
The support stand is used to hold the couch in both the horizontal and 
vertical mounting positions to simulate the vehicle interface. The 
support stand was utilized in all test phases to hold the couch to 
simulate the actual Shuttle vehicle. In Figure V-18 the support stand 
is shown holding the basic couch framework in the vertical position, 

B. COUCH VERIFICATION MODEL TEST PHASE 

The most comprehensive series of tests of the couch assembly were 
those conducted in an ambient, one-g environment. All aspects of 
the couch system were evaluated by several subjects ranging in size 
from the 5th to 95th percentile. Electrical power was supplied to the 
couch so that the light, fan and stereo unit could be utilized. 



V-23 



Del-', obtained from f;he one-g tests was of a qualitative nature; crew/ 
couch interfaces and performance characteristics were evaluated in the 
following areas: ingress/egress capability, comfort and convenience of 
system design, couch adjustability, accessibility to controls and 
stowage items, suitability of restraints, clerical tray, lighting, fan 
and stereo, mounting hardware provisions, and eight-hour sleep test 
acceptability. 

1.0 Functional Tests 

Subjective evaluations of the couch showed that controls were 
accessible and fairly easy to operate. Either end could be used to adjust 
the headrest or armrests, to operate the light or fan, or to reach the 
storage compartments in the head area as shown in Figure V-19. The 
five-belt restraint system operated very smoothly; the single- turn 
release mechanism and the retractable belts were convenient. 
Adjustment of the body support position, seat pan or foot pan was 
easily completed while restrained with the lap belt. When a new 
subject attempted to adjust the couch from the full seated to the 
flatbed position, the initial attempt was sometimes awkward until the 
subject learned where to apply pressure with his body to achieve the 
desired support position. After one or two attempts, however, adjust- 
ments were easily and quickly accomplished. Several subjects found it 
convenient to grasp the sides of the couch shell top surface, and 
used this means to stabilize the body and apply pressure. 

The electrical system of the verification model (fan, light, tape player 
and 12-VDC power supply) operated perfectly and the controls were 
accessible in any body support position. Figure V-20 depiects the test 
subject fully restrained and listening to the tape player through ear- 
phones. The noise level of the fan was very low and was indistinguishable 
from normal background noises. The stereo unit was simple to operate and 
readily accessible. 

V-24 




Figure V-18 Couch Mounting Stand-Vertical Position 



''W 




Figure V-19 Access to Tissue Dispenser 

V-25 



The armrests provided a very stable platform for attachment of the 
clerical tray, which was easy to adjust to the desired angle and did 
not interfere with the subject's knees as illustrated in Figure V-21. 

The Interface between the couch and its mounting stand was trouble free 
and the couch could be removed from the stand by two men (one each end) . 



2.0 Sleep Test 

In order to evaluate the overall comfort of the verification model over 
extended periods and the sleep restraint during actual use, an eight- 
hour sleep test was conducted. A summary of that test follows: 

Test Configuration ; The couch was set in the flatbed position with 
all cushions in place. The sleep restraint was placed on the cushions 
and loosely secured to the couch framework by means of bungee cords 
(two each side) . 

Test Period ; The subject was in place in the restraint from approximately 
11:30 PM until 7:00 AM the next morning. Almost seven hours of this time 
were actually utilized for sleep. 

Subject Comments : In general, the couch provided a very comfortable 
sleep station and was comparable in many respects to a standard bed. 
The sleep restraint was acceptable in, all details except for tightness 
around the shoulders (subject approximately 95th percentile in height) 
which was noticeable in all body positions. Couch length and width 
were sufficient to accommodate the subject in all positions (on each 
side, stomach and back). At no time during the test period did the 
subject strike his head on the end plate, headrest control or headrest 
storage areas; the knees never struck the couch side frame or any other 



V-26 




Figure V-20 Restrained While Listening to Tape Player 




Figure V-21 Clerical Tray Attached to Arm Rests 

V-27 



pv:atuberances In a supine position the subject was aware that his 
feet occasionally touched the couch end plate but the effect was very 
negligible. No pressure points on the body were evident at any time. 
Although the subject was aware of the proximity of the storage spaces 
on each side of the headrest, they did not interfere with comfort. 

Initially the sleep restraint was fully zipped up and the subject's 
arms were placed through the arm slits. Within a few minutes a heat 
buildup was noticeable around the feet and the restraint was partially 
unzipped; the heat quickly dissipated and did not build up again 
later during the night when the zipper was readjusted upward. 

Although it was possible to turn and assume any position within the 
restraint, the tightness around the shoulders was sufficient In most 
positions that the subject elected to slip the restraint off the 
shoulders for the majority of the test period. The transverse elastic 
straps within the restraint provided an agreeable amount of tension 
in most positions and added to the feeling of security. The bungee 
cords held the restraint in position on the body support sections and 
there was little Inclination for the subject to become entangled in the 
restraint even while changing positions. Near the end of the sleep 
period the subject utilized the outer blanket for greater warmth while 
leaving the upper body free of the restraint itself. 

At the start of the test period the subject listened to the stereo 

unit for approximatrely ten minutes and was able to operate the necessary 

controls very easily while totally enclosed within the restraint. The 

time required to fall asleep initially was approximately fifteen (15) 

minutes. The subject awakened on three occasions during the night, 

probably due to extraneous noises within the test area, but was able 

to fall asleep again very quickly. The test was terminated when renewed 



V-28 



activity in the test area made continued sleep Impossible even though 
the subject was still very comfortable and would have preferred a 
longer sleep period. 

In summary, the subject was satisfied with the couch and restraint 
arrangement, and felt he received a restful sleep period in all respects. 

3.0 KC-135 Tests 

The couch Verification Model was utilized for zero--g testing aboard 
the KC-135 aircraft to compare its operational capabilities in that 
environment to its performance in neutral buoyancy and one-g environments. 
In addition, a check on the structural integrity of the SPCVM was 
achieved and the ability of the couch to properly seek the gravity vector 
during aircraft pullout (couch rotational lock disengaged) was evaluated. 
The SPCVM was installed in the athwartship position on the KC-135 and 
was tested through a total of 258 parabolas; approximately 55 parabolas 
were utilized for active testing with male and female subjects. During 
the remaining parabolas the couch was left in place on board the air- 
craft and experienced the +2.5 g's associated with the parabolic flight 
path. 

Data acquisition included an eight-minute 16mm movie, still photographs 
and an extensive debriefing of the test subjects subsequent to the 
flights. Table V-1 presents a summary of the tests and the evaluation 
of the tests and test subjects comments (male and female) on each of 
the couch systems. 

The couch was tested both with and without the cushions in place and 
subjects found both configurations to be very comfortable. Since the 
cushions are several inches thick, the position of the body with 
respect to the couch shell is slightly lower when the cushions are not 



V-29 



used. Some subjects felt elbow pressure but did not identify this 
as a major problem. Without the cushions in place, the subject could 
not feel any pressure point on his back, due to the couch structure 
during the 2.5 "G" pullout. 

4.0 KC-135 Test Summary 

In summary, the couch successfully completed the KC-135 zero-g flights 
even though several areas proved to be troublesome. The couch did 
demonstrate that the overall design and mounting technique were 
feasible designs for a Shuttle Orbiter passenger couch which must perform 
under varied conditions. The athwardship mounting and rotational 
capability proved that the couch would seek the proper gravity vector 
to prevent physiological damage to the couch occupant. The problem 
areas were partly due to test subjects being unfamiliar with the 
couch system, failure to comply with test procedures, the malfunction 
of some controls, and the lack of a qualified test conductor during 
the test. The areas that are recommended to be reworked and/or re- 
designed to overcome the deficiencies and problems experienced during 
the test are outlined in paragraph 5.0. 



V-30 



-p 



o 



\ 



Table V-l 



SPCVM KC-135 Evaluations 



Area Tested 



Me r i t s 



Deficiencies 



Remarks 



Ingress/Egress 



Formed lip along each 
side provided a good 
hand hold to position 
the body relative to 
the couch. Regard- 
less of the couch con- 
figuration there were 
adequate hand holds 
such as couch sides, 
vent and light hous- 
ings, arm rest, foot 
restraint, etc. 



formed lip required the 
user to grasp the side 
with the palms up or 
down, depending on the 
users position relative 
to the couch. Thus at 
times the user could not 
grasp the side lip in a 
manner that would per- 
mit a torquing action. 



Comments from the test 
subjects suggested hand 
rails along the entire 
length of the couch side 
so they could be grasped 
in any manner desired by 
the user. Reference 
Figures V-22 thru V-24. 



Restraint System 
General 



Five belt system pro- 
vided adequate re- 
straint for all opera- 
tions. The single re- 
lease of all belts op- 
erated very smoothly. 



Crotch belt seemed un- 
necessary since all 
loading was through the 
rear of the couch. 



All restraints were loca- 
ted to provide adequate 
restraint. Reference 

Figure V-25. 



Shoulder Belts 



Inertia reels allowed 
the necessary movement 
to perform the couch 
functions. 



It was difficult to use 
the belt storage pins 
with the couch back 
cushion in place. 



It was determined the in- 
ertia reels locking acti- 
vating force should be 
reduced from the 1.5 to 
3 g's to ,75 to 1.5 g's. 



Table V-1 (Cont'd) 
Area Tested 



Merits 



Deficiencies 



Remarks 



Lap Belt 



Retractable belt met 
the requirement for a 
convenient storable 
belt system. 



No Place to store either 
the buckle or hook end. 
Lack of a stop on the 
belt to prevent complete 
retraction below the 
seat. 



Some test subjects v-jouIc 
have preferred a manuslly 
adjustable belt to allovj 
different tensions in 
^ero gravity. 



Crotch Belt 






Couch Adjustments 
Body Support 
Position 



Easily accessible and 
operated very 
smoothly. 



With both hands occu- 
pied holding the re- 
lease tabs open, there 
is no chance to pinch 
the hands in the 
structural members. 
The body could be po- 
sitioned from a supine 
to an erect sitting 
position. 



When attached it hinders 
the couch occupant from 
changing positions on 
the inner body support. 



The release tabs were 
small and with both hands 
in a fixed position the 
occupant had to use 
"body english" to change 
positions. The initial 
design allowed too much 
free play and eventual 
failure of the system. 



An inertia locking reel 
in the . 75 to 1.5 g's 
range should be inves- 
tigated as a replace- 
ment. 



To fully incorporate the 
modification of the addi- 
tion of attaching the 
"pass thru" P.L. Porter 
mechanical locks to the 
back section, the con- 
trol of these locks re- 
quire some redesign. 
This eliminates almost 
all free play in the 
system. Some subjects 
felt some type of me- 
chanical assist would 



Table V-L (Cont'd) 
Area Tested 



Merits 



Def icienc ies 



Remarks 



Body Support 
Position (Cont'd) 



be useful to change body 
positions and a one 
handed operation would 
be preferred. 



Seat Adjustment 



Not tested, 



One-g tests determined 
this feature is not re- 
quired. 



Foot Pan 



< 



The adjustment range 
was adequate for all 
personnel and the op- 
eration was very 
smooth. Redundancy 
was built-in with a 
lock on each side. 
Spring return worked 
very well. 



The control tabs were 
small and required both 
hands to operate. Occu- 
pant had to bend over to 
reach the control tabs. 
Foot restraint would not 
accept flight boots. Re- 
ference Figure V-26. 



Since the flight boots 
would not fit under the 
foot restraint, this 
item was not used to 
assist in entry. When 
it was used while sit- 
ting it forced the 
calf of the occupant's 
leg into the structural 
member of the leg sec- 
tion, causing a pres- 
sure point. Some sub- 
jects recommended that 
this adjustment be a 
one-handed operation. 



Table V-1 (Cont'd) 
Area Tested 



Merits 



Def iclenc ies 



Remarks 



Arm Rests 



Operated very smoothly 
and provided some 
security to the couch 
occupant. 



The inherent free play 
made the couch test sub- 
jects feel as though the 
arm rests were not strong 
enough. 



The arm rests operated 
satisfactorily for what 
they were Intended. 



Head Rest 



< 
1 



operated smoothly and 
provided adequate sup- 
port for the head. 



With seat and back cush- 
ions in place the head 
could come in contact 
with the control handle 
during the 2.5 "G" pull- 
out. 



The almost full-up 
position was used by 
most test subjects. 
It was suggested that 
the head set elevation 
be by means other than 
a hinge in order to 
get support for the 
full head. 



Accessibility 



The couch occupant 
could reach all posi- 
tioning controls, 
tape player, headset 
stowage, tissue dis- 
penser, and trash re- 
ceptacle while in any 
position in the couch. 



Access to the stowage 
compartments are only 
accessible from the rear 
of the couch. The lids 
on the light/vent hous- 
ings required too much 
effort to close. The con- 
trols along the top of 
the couch shell sides 
could be tilted toward 
the occupant to facili- 



During the flights the 
rear sliding compart- 
ment doors popped 
loose several times, 
the design did retain 
the doors in a loose 
condition. It would 
take major modifica- 
tion to improve visi- 
bility of controls. 



Table V-1 (Cont'd) 
Area Tested 



Merits 



Def 



icienc les 



Remarks 



Accesaibllity 
(Cont'd) 



tate visual acquisition 
and improve access. 
Attachment of the shoul- 
der belts on the storage 
pins was difficult with 
the cushions in place. 






Rotational 
Capabilities 



With the rotational 
lock released, the 
couch moved very 
easily about its lon- 
gitudinal axis and 
sought the gravity 
vector as the aircraft 
completed its parabo- 
lic flight path. 



The release control 
would flex and therefore 
would not completely re- 
lease the locking pawls 
every time. The lock 
actuating cable would 
tend to hang up. The 
pawl actuating levers 
should be spring loaded. 
There was no dampening 
of the movement. 



The bracketry support- 
ing the rotational con- 
trol lever requires some 
structural strengthening 
to provide a solid base. 
The control lever mater- 
ial should be changed 
from aluminum to steel. 
Rework of the locking 
pawl actuating system 
is required to provide 
a smooth operation. 




Figure V-22 - V-24 Couch Ingress by Female Subject 

V-36 



u 





Figure V-25 Subject Attaching Restraints 







Figure V-26 Subject Adjusting Foot Pan 



V-37 



5.0 Recommended Modifications 

5.1 Rework of Existing Desian 

In order to put the couch in 3. pretest condition including improve- 
ments in areas that do not affect the design, the following rework 
is recommended: 

a. The body support actuating mechanism and control require 
re'^ork to incorporate two "pass through" P.L. Porter mechanical locks 
attached to the back section. The controls to operate these locks 
should be made larger and a more positive actuation method for release 
and lock should be used. 

b. The lids on the vent and light housing should incorporate a 
better, locking device and spring to hold the lid in the open position. 

c. Eliminate the interference between the leg section of the body- 
support and the Kydex foot inner panel by replacing the lower structural 
cross member which was added during the one-g test to prevent twisting 
of the leg section side members, with a more compact member. 

d. Structurally strengthen and reduce free play in the arm rests 
to provide a more rigid arm rest. 



V-38 



c. Structurally strcnKtlKMi and change matorial in tlic- concli 

rotational control lcvt::r to eliminate continual ad jus tiiicn t ol' tlic 
release raccl>anisiii. 'L'lic control supportinj;; bracketry also nt'ods to 
be strengthened to provide a solid attacli point. 

f. Rework conch rotational mechanism to provide a more positive 
release and lock. lliis must involve, the pawls, actuating levers, 
gear, and housing. 'tliis is in addition to pinning the pawls to retain 
the relative position between the near and pawls. 'Hie actuating 
cables also require; some rerouting and supi)ort changes to provide a 
smoother operating mechanism. 

g. Replace shoulder belt restraints to incorporate the lower 
.75 to 1.5' g's locking actuating force inertia reels to more closely 
meet the requirements of the Shuttle Orbiter. Modify to permit 
easier retraction and stowage on the retaining pins. 

h. Provide a storage space in the Kydex inner panel for the 
lap belt buckle and a storage stud on the other side for the other 
end in conjunction with a positive stop on the belt to prevent the 
belt from retracting completely into the reel below the seat. 

i. Trim Kydex shell as required to eliminate all sharp edges 
and provide a pleasing appearance. 

5 . 2 Modifications and Rework 

Test subjects comments indicated that the following work would be 
desirable to improve the couch system. Those changes should be 
investigated in addition to the improvements stated in subparagraph 
5.1: 



V-39 



^> • Kc(:U\si.);n tlio hody .suppDrC control actuating' mrclian i.iiJit nnd 
conLrols to i>rovidc .sj.nglc hand actuation and jirovidu lar^;(.'r 
control knobs. 

b. On tlic IcH soction of the body .support invcsti-HaCe the foot 
pan adjustment control iranie two lianded operation to be replaced wttli 
one hand o]>eration. 

c. Redesign the belt restraint system to an inertia reel crotch 
belt and manual adjustable lap belt that can be stored within the 
couch sliell. 

d. incorporate a dampen Inj^ d(.;vice in the coucli rotational mechan- 
ism to prevent over-reactions in tlie couch movement due to momentum 
or direct forccK imposed on the conch. 

c. Incorporate a mechanical assist on the body siipport section 
to help ciiangc body positions in a s:ero-gravity environment. 

C, VERIFICATION MODEL MASS PROPERTIES STATEMENT 

The final mass properties was performed for the shuttle passenger 
couch using the design fabrication of the couch verification model. 
Throughout the program the mass properties was updated on a monthly 
lias is as more of the calculated and actual weights became kno^m. ilie 
weights were presented as eith(;r estimated, calculated, or actual 
with a computer readout sujumarizcd into percentages for the monthly 
reports. Estimated is defined as the weight determined from schematics; 
calculated as the weight calculations from engineering drawings; and 
actual is defined as the physical measurement. As indicated by Tabic 
V-2, the final weight increased for manufactured items but decreased 
significantly for purchased items from the initial weight estimation. 



V-40 



Table V-2 Mass Properties Statement 



SHUTTLE PASSENGER COUCH ASSEMBLY INSTALLATION PRONE POSITION 



DESCRIPTION 



DWG NO. WEIGHT (POUNDS) 

INITIAL FINAL 



CENTER OF GRAVITY 
X Y Z 



RADIUS OF GYRATION 
KX KY KZ 













(IN) 






(IN) 




Adapter, Latch 


110-019 


1.5 


2.313 


1.3 


0. 


0. 


2.8 


2,1 


2.1 


End Fitting 


110-009 


4.5 


5.738 


1.3 


0, 


0. 


2.8 


2.1 


2.1 


Adapter, Latch 


110-019 


1.5 


2.313 


79.7 


0, 


0. 


2.8 


2.1 


2.1 


End Fitting 


110-009 


4.5 


5,738 


79,7 


0. 


0, 


2.8 


2.1 


2.1 


Couch Mounting 


100 


12.0 


16.102 


40.5 


0. 


0. 


2.8 


39.3 


39.3 


Body Supt Frame 


220-009 


72.0 


63,103 


35.8 


-.0 


2.6 


8.7 


23.2 


24.9 


Lock, Seat Position 


211 


10.0 


2.579 


45.5 


0. 


4.7 


10.7 


9,3 


14.1 


Main Supt Frame 


230-009 


35.0 


30.052 


38.0 


0. 


5.9 


10.6 


24.5 


26.3 


Couch Shell 


260 


40.0 


39,500 


40.4 


0, 


8,0 


10.7 


23.4 


25.2 


< Couch Struc 4-Shell 

1 


200 


157.0 


135.234 


37.6 


-.0 


4.7 


10,0 


23,6 


25.2 


4^- 

^ Lockers + Trays 


340 


12.0 


16.310 


40,0 


0. 


10.3 


5.7 


19.2 


19.2 


GFP, Vomitus, Trash 


330 


1.5 


2.000 


38.3 


-4.3 


5.5 


13,4 


1.3 


13.5 


Stereo Unit 


320 


7,5 


4.405 


39.5 


14.0 


5.5 


3.0 


2.0 


3.0 


Controls 


310 


1.0 


.500 


44.5 


13.6 


4.5. 


1.0 


1.0 


1.0 


Couch Stowage Items 


300 


21,0 


23,215 


39.8 


3.8 


8.8 


9.2 


15.4 


17,2 


Privacy Curtain 


410 


7.0 


4.208 


39.5 


-14.0 


8.0 


1,0 


5.0 


5.0 


Sleep Restraint 


440 


1,5 


1.982 


20.0 


0. 


12.5 


4.7 


6.6 


7o7 


Power Supply 


530- 


5.5 


3.678 


8.0 


0. 


5.0 


2.0 


2.0 


2.0 


Couch Subsystems 


400 


14.0 


9,868 


27.1 


-11.3 


5.2 


6.9 


14.7 


15.8 


Total Couch 




204.0 


184.419 


37.6 


3.8 


5.5 


10.0 


24.6 


26.3 


Passenger 




212.300 


212.300 


32,7 


0. 


.8 


4.8 


17.5 


18.0 


Personal Gear 




15.000 


15.000 


62.1 


-0. 


-0. 


0. 


0. 


0. 


Pass. + Pers, Gear 




227.300 


227.300 


34.7 


0. 


,7 


4.6 


18.4 


18.8 




Reference Axes 



VT^ QU ALITY ASSURANCE. RELIABILITY, AND SAPETY SUMMARY 

A. QUALITY ASSURANCE 

During the performance of Chis prograuij quality requirements were 
assured by the participation of the Quality Assurance Department of 
MMC. Their function was to sign-off all purchase requisitions for 
parts and materials, inspect and sign-off all incoming parts and 
materials, review test procedures and inspect test set-up, and the 
inspection and sign-off of the items immediately prior to shipment, 

B. RELIABILITY 

The reliability requirements of the program were satisfied by the 
identification of failures during the testing phase and the perf or- . 
mances of an FMEA of the components in the couch. The FMEA is pre- 
sented as Table VI- 1. There were no structural failures of the 
main frame and support. On the inner frame the leg section required 
an additional brace across the lower end to support the high torque 
loads that could be imposed from standing on the foot pan. During 
final assembly the pillow blocks which support the center shaft at 
the body support pivot point allowed the shaft to rotate excessively, 
thus damaging one of the P.L. Porter locks. This was corrected by plac- 
ing set screws in the pillow blocks to hold the shaft. Other problems/ 
failures which occurred during end item testing, and the corrective 
actions, are sumniarized in section V.B. of this report. The design of 
the couch Verification Model precludes the use of limited life com- 
ponents which would degrade either in operation within the duration 
of anticipated use or in storage. 



VI-1 



iOUDOUT FRAME 



TABLE VI- 1 



FAILURE MODKS AND HFFKCTS ANALYSIS 



iTOLDOUT FRAME 



/ 
















s 


IDENT, 










1 




' 


NO. 


ITOM 


FUNCTION 


FAILUBJi MODE AND CAUSE 


FAILURE EFFECT ON SYSTflM 


CREW/ PASSENGER ACTION REQUIRED 


CRITICALITY 




1 


Ventilation Fan 


Circulates Air Thru Dlffuser for 
CO2 Control and Thermal Comfort 


Fails to Start (Fails Off 


) Bleed Air From Cabin Atmosphere Cannot 
Circulate. COt Buildup in Immediate 
Vicinity 


Privacy Curtain "hould Not Be Used. 


III 




2 


Fan Switch 


Activates Ventilation Fan 


Fails to Shut Off Fan 
(For Failure to Start 
Fan, See Ident. No. 1) 


Continuous Fan Operation, . Power Drain on 
Vehicle Systems 


To Deactivate Blower, Disconnect 
Power Supply to Couch at Electrical 
Connector, disconnect Blower Switch 
from 115 VAC Source, Reconnect 
ElectrlGal Power Supply to Couch. 


III 




3 


Dlffuser 


Directs Air Over Passenger in 
Couch 


a) Fails Closed or Direc- 
tion Capability Lost 

b) Fails Full Open 


Same as Ident. No. 1 

Continuous Full Flow Over Passenger When 
Fan is On. 


Same as Ident, No. 1 


III 

III 




4 


Ventilation Ducting 
(Fan to Dlffuser) 


Carries Airflow For CO2 Control 
and Thermal Comfort. 


Clogs 


Same as Ident. No. 1 


Same as Ident. No. 1 


III 




5 


Light Assy 


Provides Illumination for Tasks 
in Couch 


Fails Off 


Illumination for Various Tasks Must Come 
From Vehicle General Lighting System. 


Perform Procedures to Isolate 

Failure 


III 




6 


Light Switch 


Activates Light Assy 


a) Fails to Turn Light On 


Same as Ident. No. 5 


Perform Procedures to Isolate 
Failure 


III 










b) Fails to Turn Light 


Continuous Light Operation, Power Drain 


To Deactivate Light, Disconnect 


III 










Off 


On Vehicle Systems 


tCouch Power Supply, Disconnect Wire 
at Terminal (1) of Rheostat, Re- 
connect Power Supply to Couch. 

f 












c) Rheostat Fails 


Illumination Range Limited 


None Necessary 


III 




7 


Head Rest Position 


Adjust Headrest Position in Couch 


a) Locks Fail to Release- 


Head Rest Position Cannot be Changed From 


To Readjust Head Rest, Exit Couch 


III 






Locks 




Lever Failed or Cable 
to Lock Broken 


Couch; Manual Adjustment Still Possible 


and, if cable is broken. Manually 
Release Locks, If Lock Itself has 
Failed, Follow Maintenance Proce- 
dure Applicable, 












b) Lock on Either Side 


Operational Lock can Maintain Head Rest 


None Necessary; if Desired Follow 


III 










of Head Rest Fails 


Position, Withstand Anticipated Loads, 
and Allow Adjustment 


Applicable Maintenance Procedures 
for Porter Lock. 






8 


Aon Rest Locks 


Adjust Arm Rests Individually and 


a) Lock Fails to Actuate 


Arafe^Restfa) Cannot be Locked in Position, 


None Necessary; if Desired Follow 


III 








Lock in Position. 


(one or Both Arm Rest^ 


Hi?S6' Remain Flat in Stored Position. 


Maintenance Procedure for Porter 
Locks. 












b) Lock Cannot be Releas-. 


Arm Rest Position Cannot be Changed 


■None Necessary; If Desired Follow 


III 










ed - Lever Failed 




Maintenance Procedure for Porter 
Locks . 






9 


Seat Pan Locks 


Lock Seat Pan in Position After 
Adjustment for Passenger Size and 
Comfort. 


a) Lock Fails to Actuate 
(One Side) - Tapered 
Pin Broken 


Operational Lock can be Utilized to Fix 
Seat Pan Position. 


None Necessary 


III 










b) Lock Cannot be 


Seat Pan Cannot be Adjusted; if Failure 


iTo Release Seat Pan, Exit Couch, 


III 










Released - Spring 


Occurs in Other Than Forward Position, 


Remove Seat Pan Cushion and Follow 












Failure 


Seat Pan Must be Manually Adjusted to 
Achieve Flat Bed Position 


Applicable Maintenance Procedure. 





VI-2 



POLDOUT FBAMIB 



TABLE VI- 1 



FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (Cont) 



'■^^oi^Dora mAME 



a 



IDENT 
NO. 



ITEM 



FUNCTION 



FAILURE MODE AND CAUSE 



FAILURE EFFECT ON SYSTEM 



CREW/PASSENGER ACTION REQUIRED 



CRITICALITY 



10 



Foot Pan Locks 



11 
12 



Foot Pan Braces 



Body Support Locks 



13 



Couch Rotational Lock 



14 

15 
16 



Restraint Harness Locli 



Belt Inertia Reel or 
Self Adjusting Reel 

12-Volt Power Supply 



Lock Foot Pan in Position after 
Adjustment for Passenger Size and 
Comfort. 



Lock Foot Pan in Sitting Position 
(90° to Seat Pan) 

Adjust Positions of Body Pans from 
Flat Bed (180O) to Fully Seated 
(90°) 



Fixes Couch Position with Respect 
to its Longitudinal Axis 



Provides Central Locking Mechanism 
for Shoulder, Lap and Crotch Belts 



Retract belts for Storage 

Converts 115 VAC to 12-Volt DC for 
Use by Light Assy and Stereo 



a) Lock falls to Actuate 
(One Side) 

b) Lock Cannot be Releasee] 
-Lever Failed 



c) Spring Failure 
Failure of Brace (One Sid^ 

a) Lock Fails to Actuate 
(One Side) 

b) Lock Cannot be Re- 
leas ed-Lever Failed 
or Material Degradation 

c) Cable between activa- 
tion lever and pass- 
through lock breaks 
or detaches (either 
side) 

d) Pass -through lock 
fadils to actuate 
(either side) 

e) Pass -through lock 
cannot be released 

-(either side) 

a) Locks Fails to Actuate 
-Spring Failure 

b) Lock Cannot be Released 
-Lever, Cable or Pawl 
Failure 

a) Fails Open 

b) Falls Closed 



Fails gtored or Fails Oper 
(Any One Reel) 

Fails to Provide Output 



Operational Lock can be Utilized to Fix 

Foot Pan Position 

Foot ran Cannot be Adjusted; if Failure 

Occurs in other than fully Extended Posit' 

tion, Foot Pan must be Manually Adjusted 

to Achieve Flat Bed Position. 

Foot Pan Must be Adjusted Manually 

Operational Brace can Lock and Support Foot 



N^ne Necessary 

llow Applicable Maintenance 
Ptocedures 



Spne Necessary 
Kone Necessary 



Pan in 90 Position. 

Operational Lock can Adjust Body Pans and 
Withstand Loads Applied 
Body Support Position Cannot be Changed 
From Couch, Manual Adjustment Necessary 
to Achieve Proper Position for Re-entry/ 
Landing, 

Foot Fan Cannot be Adjusted; if Failure 
Occurs in other than fully Extended Posi- 
tion, Foot Pan must be Manually Adjusted 
to Achieve Flat Bed Position. 

Some free-play may develop in the inner 
frame articulation; remaining locks can 
control adjustment and withstand all loads, 
Foot Pan Cannot be Adjusted; if Failure 
Occurs in other than fully Extended Posi- 
tion, Foot Prn must be Manually Adjusted 
to Achieve Flat Bed Position. 

Couch Free to Rotate About Longitudinal 
Axis, Ingress/Egress Must be Accomplished 
with Greater Care 

Couch Fixed in Given Position,- Zero-G 
Access May be Limited, Lock Must be 
Manually Released Prior to Re -en try /Landing 



SOne Necessary 

Perform Maintenance Procedure for 
Body Support Locks 



Perform applicable maintenance 
J rocedure 



III 
III 

III 
III 

III 
III 



None necessary 



ferform applicable maintenance 
trocedure. 



Harness Inoperative 

Passenger Restrainted, Emergency Egress 
Hampered, but Passenger can Still Dis- 
engage Body From Harness 

Belt Becomes Unusable, Other Belts can 
Still be Utilized for Restraint 

Light Assy and Stereo Inoperative 



None Necessary 



Perform Maintenance Procedure for 
Couch Rotational Lock. 



Replace Harness Lock 

Perform Maintenance Procedure for 

Couch Rotational Lock 

Replace Reel 

If Blower is Operative, Failure is 
in Circuit Breaker, Connector, Plug 
or Vehicle Power Supply. Perform 
Fault Isolation Procedures. 



Ill 



III 



HI 
III 



III 
III 



VI-3 



^r^^DOim" FRAME 






TABLE VI- 1 



FAILURE MODES AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS (Cotit) 



IDENT, 
















NO, 


ITEM 


FUNCTION 


FAILURE MODE AND CAUSE 


FAILURE EFFECT ON SYSTEM 


CREW/ PASSENGER ACTION REQUIRED 


CRITICALITY 


17 


Circuit Breaker 


Provides Circuit Protection 


a) 


Fails Closed 


No Circuit Protection for Stereo, Blower, 
Light or 12 VDC Power Supply 


E&rform Fault Isolation Procedures 
Replace Circuit Breaker 


III 








b) 


Fails Open 


Stereo, Blower, Light & 12 VDC Power 
Supply Inoperative 


i^rform Fault Isolation Procedures 
Replace Circuit Breaker 


III 


18 


Stereo and Headset 


Provides Entertainment for 


a) 


Fails Ofif, or Headset 


Entertainment Unavailable 


None Necessary 


III 






Passenger 


b) 


Failure 
Fails On 


Continuous Operation, Power Drain on 
Vehicle Systems 


Isolate Stereo from Power Supply to 
Prevent Power Drain 

None Necessary 
Isjone Necessary 


III 


19 


Sleep Restraint 


Restrains Passenger During Sleeping 


a) 


Zipper Fails Shut 


Ingres s /Egress More Difficult 


III 
III 








b) 


Zipper Falls Open 


Restraint Only Par tia My- Effective, Harness 












Belts can be Used to Supplement Sleep 
















Restraint 






20 


Clerical Tray Rotation 
Lock 


Allows Tray to be Rotated to any 
Desired Angle, then Locked in 


a) 


Fails Locked 


Clerical Tray Angle Cannot be Changed, May 
Limit Some Activities 


None Possible 


III 


- 




Position 


b) 


Fails Unlocked 


Tray Free to Rotate, Cannot be Utilized 


None Possible 


III 



VI-4 



C. SAFETY 

The safety requirements o£ the program were assured by the performance 
of a stress analysis of the basic structure and the selection of 
materials to meet the stress and environmental requirements. Other 
safety precautions observed were the review and sign-off by the MMC 
Safety Department of all test plans and the personal observance of 
all tests conducted. 



VI-5 



VII . PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION 



The documentation for the program consisted of this final report in 
addition to the following reports: 

A. PROGRAM PLAN, MCR 72-191 

This document outlined Martin Marietta Corporation's approach, 
milestones, anticipated results, and workload allocation to provide 
a Shuttle passenger couch verification model and the associated 
documentation of the functions required to achieve the contract 
objectives. 

B. MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORTS, MCR 72-206 

These reports were submitted monthly and describe all effort expended 
during each month of contract performance. 

C. CONCEPTS AND MATERIALS REPORT, MCR 72-250 

This report defined the various couch concepts and materials considered 
and the rationale for the selected concepts and materials. 

D. PERFORMANCE TEST PLAN, MCR 73-3 

This test plan fully defined the functional and performance tests that 
were performed on the couch system including the test objectives, 
rationale, setup, implementation and control techniques, with the data 
recording required. 



VII-1 



E. PERFOSMANCE TEST REPORT, MCR 73-303 

This report described the individual tests ' including objectives, 
procedures, results, and pertinent events and/or observations as 
defined in the Performance Test Plan, 

F. DESIGN REQUIREMENT DOCUMENT, MCR 73-285 

This document defines the basic design criteria and requirements for 
the Shuttle passenger couch verification model. The data contained 
in the document were obtained from the design, fabrication, and testing 
of the couch verification and engineering models. 

G. UTILIZATION MANUAL, MCR 73-285 

This manual forms a part of the Design Requirement Document and 
defines the operating instructions for the Couch Verification Model- 

H, CONTRACT SUMMARY REPORT, MCR 74-41 

The contract summary report suraoniarizes the results of the contract in 
a brief, precise manner. 

I. MASS PROPERTIES STATEMENT 

This statement has been included in the monthly progress reports and 
in this final report to provide the weight, center of gravity, and 
moments of inertia for the equipment and the complete couch system. 

J. NEW TECHNOLOGY REPORT 

This report is to disclose the technical details of new technology to 



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government; agencies. 

K. SUMMARY OF NEW TECHNOLOGY REVIEW ACTIVITIES REPORT 

This report is to reflect the contractor's activities regarding com- 
pliance with the reporting requirements of the New Technology Clause. 



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