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FM 3-61.1 

Public Affairs Tactics, 
Techniques and Procedures 


Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 



The mission of Army Public Affairs (PA) is to fulfill the Army's obligation to keep the 
American people and the Army informed, and to help establish the conditions that lead to 
confidence in America's Army and its readiness to conduct operations in peacetime, conflict 
and war. PA is a critical battlefield function in today's global information environment since 
every aspect of an Army operation is subject to instantaneous scrutiny. 

This field manual (FM) sets forth tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) for conducting 
PA operations in accordance with the doctrinal principles contained in FM 3-0 (100-5), 
Operations and FM 3-61 (46-1), Public Affairs Operations. Although this manual is primarily 
designed to be used by public affairs officers, noncommissioned officers and civilians, it 
presents TTPs that all leaders conducting operations in the information age should be familiar 

FM 3-61-1 (46-1-1) is applicable to units and individuals in both the active and reserve 
components. It serves as a foundation for integrating PA into Army doctrine, training, leader 
development, organization, materiel and soldier initiatives. In conjunction with the Army 
Training and Evaluation Program (ARTEP) and other training guidance, it should also be used 
to plan, integrate and execute individual and collective PA training in units throughout the 

The proponent for this manual is the Office of the Chief of Public Affairs. Send comments 
and recommendations on DA Form 2028 to Director, Army Public Affairs Center, ATTN: 
SAPA-PA, Fort Meade, MD 20755-5650. 

Unless this publication states otherwise, masculine nouns or pronouns do not refer exclusively 
to men. 

This document is approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 



With the extremely sophisticated communication technologies of the global information 
environment (GIE), the nature of media coverage has a significant impact on the conduct of 
war and stability and support operations at the strategic, operational and tactical levels. 
Civilian and military news media coverage influences the perceptions of soldiers, family 
members, the public and political leaders, and affects the direction, range and duration of 
operations. It has a direct relation to the confidence these key audiences have in the Army and 
its execution of operations. 

Effective PA operations are critical to successful Army operations in the information age. 
They assist the commander in monitoring and understanding public opinion, explaining the 
situational context of events and communicating the Army's perspective clearly and without 
filters. They enable the commander to interpret the perceptions of external and internal 
audiences and influence the way in which discussion of the operation is framed. 

Synchronized, well-planned and actively executed PA tactics, techniques and procedures 
significantly clear the fog of war and impact the morale and effectiveness of the force. They 
reduce distractions, misinformation, uncertainty, confusion and other factors that cause stress 
and undermine efficient operations. They enhance understanding, acceptance and support. 
Effective PA operations contribute to soldier confidence, discipline, will to win, and unit 

FM 3-61-1 (46-1-1), Public Affairs Tactics, Techniques and Procedures, builds on the 
doctrinal foundation of FM 46-1. It translates the PA fundamentals and principles into 
detailed guidance for the planning, coordination and execution of PA operations. It provides 
what is required for the information age — a sophisticated approach to conducting PA 
operations. It is the TTP that brings Army Public Affairs into the "information age." 

FM 3-61 (46-1), Public Affairs Operations, addresses fundamental PA concepts in depth, and 
provides the linkage between PA and the Army's keystone doctrine, FM 3-0 (100-5), 
Operations. It recognizes that a refocused, restructured military will conduct operations in an 
information environment in which detailed, graphic, and live coverage of events are 
transmitted around the world. It builds from the understanding that information availability 
will influence strategic decisions and the direction, range and duration of operations. 

FM 3-61 (46-1) also examines PA operations at the different levels of war and across the 
range of operations. It discusses PA operations with respect to the Principles of War and the 
Tenets of Army Operations. It analyzes the PA contributions to build and sustain combat 
power, defines the PA mission, and establishes strategic PA goals, fundamental PA principles, 
and underlying considerations for planning integrated information strategies. 

Public affairs frequently deals in intangibles — perceptions and implications — that are not 
easily quantifiable or qualifiable, but are essential to commanders. The PA objectives, 
processes and methods presented in FM 3-61-1 (46-1-1) will assist Army leaders and PA 
professionals to develop solutions to the complex PA issues they will confront. 

Field Manual 
No. 3-61.1 

FM 3-61.1 


Department of the Army 

Washington, DC, 1 October 2000 

Public Affairs Tactics, Techniques and 







PA Mission 1-1 

PA Force 1-2 

PA Units 1-3 


Responsibilities 2-2 

Communications 2-4 

Logistics and Support 2-5 

Charter 3 PLANNING 3-1 

Types of Plans 3-2 

PA Estimate of Situation 3-9 

PA Guidance 3-9 

Annex 3-10 


Media Center Responsibilities 4-2 

MOC Operations 4-4 

Media Pools 4-8 

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 

FM 3-61.1 



Responsibilities 5-3 

Information Strategy Process 5-4 

Information Program Evaluation 5-8 

Chapter 6 TRAINING 6-1 

Training Objectives 6-1 

PA training for non-PA personnel 6-4 

Staff Section and Unit Training 6-5 


Community Relations Activities 7-2 

Community Assistance 7-9 

Readiness Enhancement 7-10 


Brigade PAO 8-1 

Division 8-3 

Tactical Command Post PA Section 8-5 


10 Staff Organization 9-2 

PA Estimate and 10 Planning 9-3 

10 Campaign Cycle 9-4 













_FM 3-61-1 (46-1-1) 

AppendixM MEDIA QUERY M-l 












GLOSSARY Glossary-1 

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography-1 

INDEX Index-l 


Chapter 1 

Public Affairs Fundamentals 

Public Affairs fulfills the Army's obligation to keep the American 
people and the Army informed and helps establish the conditions that 
lead to confidence in America's Army and its readiness to conduct 
operations in peacetime, conflict and war. 

FM 3-61 (46-1), Public Affairs Operations 


1-1. The American public, internal Army audiences, allies, adversaries and 
other critical audiences have access to an ever expanding array of public and 
military media. Newspapers, magazines, radio, television and electronic 
media are independent conduits of information. They provide news, analysis, 
interpretation and commentary and serve as a forum for ideas, opinions and 
public debate. What appears in the media, both civilian and military, shapes 
perceptions, attitudes and opinions, and can have a direct impact on mission 

1-2. The vast majority of both civilian and military media representatives 
are committed to providing responsible, accurate, balanced coverage. 
Although there are exceptions, most media representatives, even when 
editorializing, are focused on achieving a credible presentation. To 
accomplish this, media representatives investigate issues, ask tough, 
challenging questions, and pursue verifiable answers. They seek information, 
interpretation and perspective. Army leaders at all levels need to educate 
media representatives and facilitate their efforts to provide an accurate, 
balanced and credible presentation of timely information. 

1-3. Army leaders do this by integrating public affairs into the planning 
process and synchronizing PA operations with other facets of the operation. 
Integrating and synchronizing public affairs issues allows commanders to 
communicate their perspective and achieve a balanced, accurate, credible 
information presentation. 

1-4. The PA mission identifies the essential contribution that PA makes to 
America's Army. The mission and the strategic goals derived from it provide 
the foundation on which public affairs operations are built. Strategies, which 
are developed from the perspective that every aspect of every operation could 
become an issue of interest in the global information environment, are the 
most successful. Developing such strategies requires that PA personnel 
access, analyze and anticipate potential issues by conducting a thorough 
mission analysis. 

1-5. The challenge for commanders, and personnel supporting them, is to 
plan and execute operations, which accomplish this mission and support 


FM 3-61.1 

these goals. To do this, PA must be integrated into the planning and 
decision-making process from receipt of the mission. 

1-6. The need to integrate and synchronize PA early derives from the fact 
that in most situations media representatives will be present in an area of 
operations before the arrival of Army forces. They will know the area of 
operations and because they are covering the story as it evolves, will have an 
understanding of, and opinion about, the situation. 

1-7. Media interest will normally be the most intense at the onset of 
operations. Media representatives will cover the deployment of Army forces, 
their arrival in the area and their initial conduct. To support the commander 
and the force in their interactions with media representatives during these 
early stages, public affairs personnel should be deployed in the first days, if 
not hours, of the operation. Dealing with a large international press corps 
constitutes the most immediate public affairs challenge facing the 
commander during contingency. 


1-8. The changing information environment in which the Army conducts war 
and stability and support operations makes it necessary for PA officers, NCOs 
and specialists to respond to increasingly complex,demanding challenges. 
They must be prepared to support the commander with a wide range of 
knowledge about and understanding of the communication process, the global 
information environment (Gl E) and its potential impact on operations. 

1-9. PA personnel must also thoroughly understand the fundamentals of 
Army operations and the strategic context within which the Army conducts 
operations. As the GIE compresses the strategic, operational and tactical 
levels of operations, PA personnel need to appreciate the linkage between 
public opinion, political decision-making and the national security strategy. 
They must understand the Army's approach to fighting, influencing events in 
operations other than war and deterring actions detrimental to national 
i nterests. 

1-10. PA leaders must, therefore, be among the most informed people in the 
command. They must be thoroughly aware of all aspects of the operation. 
They need to know what is being reported about the operation in the global 
news media and how internal and external audiences are reacting to that 

1-11. The Public Affairs Officer. The PAO's primary mission is to assess the 
PA situation, advise the commander on PA issues, assist him in making the 
best possible decisions, and translate his decision into effective PA operations. 
PAOs employ the decision-making process to plan, coordinate and supervise 
the implementation of a PA strategy that helps the commander meet his 
obligation to communicate with the American public, soldiers, home station 
communities and the Department of the Army community. PAOs analyze the 
situation, anticipate issues, assess implications, and develop comprehensive 
operations, which meet the news and information needs of internal and 
external audiences and facilitate media operations. 


Chapter 1 

1-12. The Public Affairs N on-Commissioned Officer. The strength of the 
Public Affairs functional area is its non-commissioned officer corps. PA NCOs 
are experts on the global information environment, media operations, 
information strategies, and PA training. They are integral to all facets of the 
PA planning and decision-making process and provide the essential 
functional area expertise and continuity required for successful PA 

1-13. PA NCOs work closely with the PAO, and in many situations, a PA 
NCO is the commander's senior PA advisor. Therefore, PA NCOs are fully 
prepared to assess the PA situation, develop, synchronize and coordinate a 
PA strategy, implement and monitor PA operations, and measure and 
eval uate the success of the PA effort. 

1-14. The Public Affairs Specialist. In addition to learning traditional soldier 
skills, PA specialists are trained to support the entire spectrum of PA 
operations conducted in the global information environment. They are 
trained on news media operations, news media facilitation, information 
strategies and information provision. They register media representatives, 
gather information, develop information products, support news media 
briefings, respond to news media inquiries and requests for assistance, and 
track and monitor news media activities throughout the area of operations. 
They work with news media representatives to gather accurate information 
and provide timely, balanced coverage of the operation. 

1-15. The Department of the Army Public Affairs Civilian. Civilian PA 
practitioners assigned to Tables of Distribution and Allowances (TDAs) have 
the same skills as military PA personnel. They provide critical support 
during war and non-combat operations by providing a vital link between 
deployed forces and the home station community, and in many situations, 
may be called upon to deploy with the units they support, or as individual 


1-16. Battlefield commanders have two sources for tactical PA support. The 
first is the PA section organic to a warfighting headquarters. The second is 
the PA unit, which is attached to a headquarters to augment the command's 
PA capability. 

1-17. Conducting PA planning, facilitating news media operations on the 
battlefield, providing news and information, and executing PA training and 
support operations is manpower intensive. The austerely staffed PA sections 
organic to warfighting headquarters will nearly always be overwhelmed 
trying to meet PA requirements in war and other operations. PA staff 
sections, therefore, rely on early augmentation by PA units, or individual 
augmentation if appropriate, to accomplish the battlefield PA mission. 

1-18. Organic Public Affairs Sections. Organic PA sections are found in 
warfighting headquarters at various levels including brigades, divisions and 
corps throughout the Army. Army PA personnel are also assigned to the 
organic PA sections of joint and combined headquarters. 


FM 3-61.1 

1-19. In headquarters without organic PA sections, the commander is 
responsible for PA and must plan and execute PA operations or assign 
responsibility for PA operations as a special or additional duty to an officer or 
senior NCO in the command. 

1-20. Regardless of the echelon, the PA staff section's primary responsibility 
is to assist the commander in accomplishing his mission. The staff: 

• provides PA information expertise and advice 

• conducts PA assessments 

• provides analysis of the information environment 

• conducts PA planning 

• develops information strategies and guidance 

• implements PA operations 

• measures the effectiveness of the PA effort 

• conducts PA training 

1-21. The PA staff element controls augmenting PA units. It determines 
requirements, defines priorities and assigns missions to the augmenting unit. 
In conjunction with the augmenting unit commander, the staff element task 
organizes the unit, allocating personnel and equipment to accomplish 
objectives. If the PA staff element is a Public Affairs Operations Center or a 
Task Force Headquarters, it will coordinate Armed Forces Radio and 
Television Service (AFRTS) support activities for the command. 

1-22. Public Affairs Units. PA units are fully deployable TOE 
organizations designed to augment the PA staff sections of warfighting units, 
although they can operate independently in certain limited situations. When 
a PA unit is deployed to augment a PA staff section, the personnel in the unit 
cannot be reassigned as replacements or employed as individual fillers for 
other public affairs elements. 

1-23. PA units depend upon the unit they augment for personnel 
administration, finance, legal and health services, communications, food 
service, unit maintenance, and supplemental transportation support. PA 
units operating at corps and below must have the capability to transport all of 
their TOE equipment in a single lift using authorized organic vehicles. 

1-24. There are currently four types of PA units: 

• Public Affairs Detachment (PAD) 

• Mobile Public Affairs Detachment (M PAD) 

• Public Affairs Operations Center (PAOC) 

• Broadcast Operations Detachment (BOD) 

1-25. Public Affairs Detachment (SRC 45500AA00), The smallest of the 
PA units, the Public Affairs Detachment (PAD) (Figure 1-1) is commanded by 
a captain and includes seven PA soldiers.. 


Chapter 1 

Public Affai 

rs Detachment 



















Figure 1-1. PAD 

1-26. The PAD normally augments a division, separate brigade and armored 
cavalry regiments and deploys in support of combined, unified or joint 

1-27. The PAD commander assumes responsibilities as the PAO or deputy 
PAO, and the PAD PA personnel are integrated into the supported 
command's PA section based on operational requirements. 

Historical Perspective 

The 10th Mountain Division, Fort Drum, N.Y., arrived in Somalia with hundreds of 
reporters already there, and absolutely no public affairs personnel accompanying 
them. The first public affairs support arrived at the 2nd Brigade, 10th Mountain 
Division, 10 days later and only because the JIB dispatched one of its own PADs. 

(PA After Action Report, Operation Restore Hope, 10th Mountain Division, Dec 1992) 

1-28. Because of the size of the unit, the PAD provides limited: 

• Personnel and equipment for digital imagery and audio acquisition. 

• Personnel for media escort within the supported unit's area of 

• Coordination of an information product distribution system that can 
relay news and information products to members of the supported unit, 
higher echelons and home station. 

• Planning, developing and implementing strategy to support civilian 
news media and facilitate news gathering efforts throughout the 
supported unit's area of operations 

• Personnel and equipment to coordinate, assist or conduct press 
conferences and briefings 


FM 3-61.1 

• Personnel to train, advise and assist leaders and soldiers interacting 
with or supporting civilian news media within the supported unit's 
area of operations. 
1-29. Mobile Public Affairs Detachment (SRC 45413A000). The 

workhorse of PA units, the Mobile Public Affairs Detachment (MPAD) is a 
modular, task organizable unit, which provides the full range of PA services. 
(Figure 1-2). The MPAD is commanded by a major and includes 20 soldiers. 

Mobile Public Affairs Det 

Command Cell 














JOURN(x2) SPC 46Q 


'This is one posssible configuration. Paragraph 2 members can 
be configured as one, two or teams of various strengths, based 
on miss bn. 

Figure 1-2. MPAD 

1-30. The MPAD normally augments a Corps PA section or a Public Affairs 
Operations Center (PAOC). I n support of a PAOC, it provides manpower and 
equipment to establish and operate a media center at Theater Army, 
TAACOM and Corps. 

1-31. It may also be deployed to directly support a joint service task force or 
non-DoD governmental agency conducting disaster relief, humanitarian 
assistance, counter drug, peacekeeping, or other contingency operations. 


Chapter 1 

1-32. MPADs in direct support of a gaining command PAO provide 
acquisition capability for print, audio and video. 

1-33. Additional MPADs in direct support can expand the media escort 
capability of the supported PAO, augment divisions and other elements in 
theater and provide the PAO with staff augmentation. MPADs may be 
deployed forward to establish media centers or a sub-JIB in a joint 

1-34. MPADs have the capability to: 

• Monitor and assess the perceptions of external audiences through 
access to civilian commercial news sources. 

• Conduct assessments of the information environment, to include 
development of a PA estimate of the situation, as the initial part of 
operational planning. 

• Assist the PAO in operational planning and policy and ground rules for 
media, coordination for logistical support to PA, and coordination of PA 
operations with higher and subordinate headquarters. 

• Plan and develop information products, which will be produced through 
contracted services and/or the use of organic equipment and facilities. 

• Acquire, produce and transmit information products throughout the 
theater, between the theater and home station, and between the 
theater and HQDA. 

• Create and disseminate print, photographic, audio and video products 
for external release directly to civilian media who do not have 
representatives within the theater of operations. Conduct media 
facilitation and develop information strategies. 

• Prepare commanders, staff personnel and other command members for 
interviews, press conferences, and similar media interaction. 

1-35. Public Affairs Operations Center (SRC 45423A000), The Public 
Affairs Operations Center (PAOC) consists of command, media facilitation 
and post-production sections (Figure 1-3). It is commanded by a lieutenant 
colonel and includes 32 soldiers. 

1-36. The PAOC normally augments the PA staff section at echelons above 
division to establish and operate a media center in support of civilian and 
military media representatives working in the theater. 

1-37. The PAOC commander serves as the media center commander but 
works under the control of the PAO of the supported unit or task force. 

1-38. I n joint or combined operations, a PAOC serves as the Army element of 
the joint media operations center. 

1-39. When the PAOC functions as the Army element of a joint or combined 
media center, the PAOC commander works for the joint or combined media 
center commander. 


FM 3-61.1 

1-40. For major operations in which there is a significant media interest, the 
PAOC is augmented by up to three MPADs. The MPADs are either 
integrated into the main media center operation or tasked to operate 
subordinate media centers at outlying locations. A PAOC can support up to 
100 news media representatives. When augmented by three MPADs, the 
PAOC can support up to 300 news media representatives. 

Public Affairs Operations Center 

Command Cell 
























71 L 






71 L 








Figure 1-3. PAOC 





1-41. PAOCs are modular, task organizable units having the capability to: 

• I mplement the theater or corps strategy to support civilian news media 
and facilitate news gathering efforts in theater. 

• Coordinate and provide services to registered civilian news media 
sponsored by the command. 


Chapter 1 

• Provide the personnel and equipment to coordinate and conduct media 
support within the theater of operations. 

• Provide personnel and equipment to plan and conduct daily news 
media briefings. 

• Provide personnel to train, advise and assist leaders and soldiers 
interacting with or supporting civilian news media representatives. 

1-42. Broadcast Operations Detachment (SRC 45607A00). The BOD 

consists of a command element, two broadcast teams and a maintenance 
team. (Figure 1-4). It is commanded by a major and includes 26 soldiers. 

1-43. The BOD augments a fixed or field expedient AFRTS facility under the 
control of a senior AFRTS facility commander, or it can establish and operate 
a separate radio and/or television broadcast facility to support theater level 

Broadcast Operations 


Command Cell 





















BR NCO 55G 46R 




BR JOURN (X2) 5PC 46R 














Figure 1-4. BOD 

1-44. The BODs must be authorized and equipped by AFRTS to perform this 
mission. When deployed to perform this mission, the BODs are assigned to 
thePAOC supporting the command. 

1-45. BODs have the capability to: 

• Provide on-air broadcasters recorded materials and satellite down links 
to operate a 24-hour a day radio outlet. 


FM 3-61.1 

• Provide on-air broadcasters, recorded materials and satellite down 
links to operate a television station. 

• Originate audio and video news, feature and entertainment 
programmi ng from withi n theater. 

• Provide post production services for audio and video news and feature 
material supplied in unedited format. 

• Provide limited audio and video materials to other public affairs 
operations for dissemination outside the theater. 

• Acquire audio and video electronic newsgathering coverage of 
operations in the theater for use in internal and external information 

• Perform field maintenance and repair above operator level to broadcast 
equi pment organic to the unit. 

• Provide the commander with an alternate means of communications 
when tactical communications are not adequate or not available. 

1-46. Public Affairs organizations are built around a force of soldiers who are 
selected and trained to articulate the goals and missions of the Army. 

1-47. More than 65 percent of the total public affairs force and 85 percent of 
the deployable TOE unit structure is positioned in the U.S. Army Reserve 
and Army National Guard. These reserve units and personnel must be 
seamlessly integrated with the active component and focused on supporting 
the overall Army goals and objectives. 


Chapter 2 

Public Affairs Functions and Responsibilities 


2-1. The global information environment and continually evolving 
information communication technologies make it imperative that information 
and messages be consistent at all levels. The personal comments made by a 
deployed soldier in a remote area of operations and the official statements 
released by DoD at the Pentagon must be mutually supporting. The 
information targeted to internal audiences must parallel the information 
released through the news media to the American public and other external 
audiences. The Army's need for security, and the soldier's and family 
member's right to privacy must be balanced with the Army's obligation to 
provide timely, accurate, complete information to internal and external 
audiences. The commander's information strategy must ensure that the 
information available in the public domain, regardless of the source, does not 
conflict, contradict or otherwise undermine the credibility of the command or 
the operation. 

Historical Perspective 

Civilian news coverage contributed greatly to maintaining soldier morale during Desert 
Storm. The coverage was generally positive; the American people were behind the 
operation and soldiers felt this impact. Problems arose when the coverage created 
rumors, and command information was not consistent with what the soldiers were seeing 
or hearing in the world media. Family members and non-deployed soldiers were greatly 
affected by news coverage, often creating problems for rear commanders and detracting 
from their credibility. 

(After Action Report, Desert Storm 1990, Center for Army Lessons Learned) 

2-2. Accomplishing this presents unique command and control challenges for 
commanders, PA practitioners at all levels and others involved in using 
information to help accomplish the mission in the most effective, efficient 
manner. It requires careful coordination between staff elements and 
necessitates continual liaison between levels of command from the tactical 
through the operational to the strategic. 

2-3. Further complicating PA command and control challenges are PA force 
structure realities. The small size of the PA staff sections organic to war- 
fighting headquarters necessitates augmentation, especially for operations 
with a high level of visibility. The availability of augmenting PA units, the 
majority of which are located in the reserve components, and the difficulties 
inherent in deploying PA civilians result in heavy dependence on 


FM 3-61.1 

augmentation by individuals. This leads to the creation of ad hoc, 
unequipped PA elements, which have not trained together or developed 
relationships with other staff sections or commands, and do not have 
established internal or external operating procedures. 

2-4. For PA personnel therefore, the critical challenge is to rapidly define 
command and control channels, establish lines of communication and develop 
operating procedures. The responsibility for doing this usually lies with the 
Corps PAO who normally leads the commander's PA effort. He identifies 
requirements, assesses resources and plans, organizes, directs, coordinates 
and controls the PA operation. 


2-5. Effective PA command and control establishes a public affairs 
organization based on analysis of mission, enemy, terrain, troops, time 
available and civilians (METT-TC), tailored to the situation, which reflects 
the commander's concept of the operation. It ensures that there are 
sufficient, experienced, PA personnel at each echelon to provide the 
commander and his force with the most effective and efficient support 

2-6. PA command and control begins at the DoD level. The Office of the 
Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, Public Affairs (OASD(PA)), retains 
primary responsibility for the development and consistent implementation of 
DoD information policies and determines who should serve as the initial 
source of information about operations. Although (OASD(PA)) delegates PA 
release authority to the combatant commander as soon as practical, it retains 
responsibility for approving Public Affairs Guidance (PAG), establishes public 
affairs policy, and coordinates and approves PA strategies and plans. 

2-7. The Office of the Chief of Public Affairs (OCPA) for the Army is 
responsible for Army PA resources. OCPA develops PA doctrine, designs PA 
organizations, determines training and leader development requirements, 
identifies materiel needs, and manages PA personnel to ensure that sufficient 
assets are available, qualified and ready to conduct successful PA operations 
in support of any assigned mission. 

2-8. Commanders supported by their PA staff personnel, plan PA operations 
for their assigned missions based on the situation, published in DoD 
directives, instructions, doctrine and guidance, and in coordination with 
OASD(PA). The CINCs prescribe the chain of command, organize and 
employ forces, give authoritative direction, assign tasks and designate 
objectives through component commanders, subordinate unified commanders, 
commanders of joint task forces and other subordinate commanders. The 
commander establishes responsive PA structures and ensures that they are 
provided with the personnel, facilities, equipment, transportation and 
communications assets necessary to provide adequate PA support. A failure 
to establish these structures results in a duplication of effort and a waste of 
resources. The commander is responsible for the full range of PA activities -- 
PA planning, media facilitation, information strategies and PA training and 
at sustaining base, community relations. He is also responsible for 
establishing, resourcing and guiding the operations of J oint Media Operation 


Chapter 2 

Centers and planning all AFRTS radio and television support operations in 
the area of operations. 

Historical Perspective 

The establishment of the Joint Information Center under the auspices of the DOT 
Presidential Task Force on September 1, 1992 was vital to a coordinated and successful 
Joint Public Affairs effort. The JIC was an "umbrella" organization that served as the 
clearing house for dissemination of hurricane relief information to the news media. More 
than 10 federal agencies involved in relief operations had public affairs representatives at 
the JIC. Daily meetings and consistent interaction among the agencies involved resulted 
in a coordinated federal information effort. 

(Public Affairs Lessons Learned Library, Joint Information Center, Hurricane Andrew, 1992) 

2-9. Within the Army, the Corps is usually the hub for PA operations. The 
Corps commander, supported by his PA staff element, is responsible for the 
development and coordination of PA strategies, the implementation of 
information campaigns and the execution of PA operations based on METT- 
TC, the information environment, and guidance and policy received from the 
combatant CINC. 

2-10. The Corps PAO is the principal PA advisor to the Corps commander 
and deploys with the lead element of the Corps headquarters. When fully 
deployed, the Corps PAO section operates from the Corps main command 
post, with a liaison officer/NCO located at the Corps plans cell. It also is 
responsible for establishing coordination with the PA elements of higher, 
lower and adjacent commands. 

2-11. The Corps, through the PAO, controls the employment of augmenting 
Army PA units deployed in support of the operation. UptoonePAOC and six 
MPADs are normally allocated to augment the Corps PA section, although 
the size and scope of the mission will determine the actual augmentation 
required for each operation. The Corps PAO and his staff task organize the 
personnel and organizations available and allocate the equipment, 
communications support and facilities. When augmented, the Corps PAO 
operates a media operations center and establishes satellite centers as 

2-12. Below the Corps level, the PA staff section organic to a war fighting 
headquarters is extremely austere. The mission of the PA section below 
Corps is to advise the commander by providing immediate planning expertise 
and guidance on issues with critical PA implications. The PA section deploys 
with the lead elements of the headquarters, and operates from the command's 
main CP. 

2-13. PA units deployed to augment the staff sections organic to a 
headquarters are normally placed under the control of the supported PAO, 
who assigns the augmenting PA unit missions and tasks. He will do so in 
conjunction with the augmenting PA unit commander, who will retain 
command of his unit and ensure that his unit's personnel are not employed as 


FM 3-61.1 

individual fillers. Whenever possible, augmenting PA units should be linked 
with the supported command headquarters at that command's home station 
prior to deployment to facilitate establishment of command and control 


2-14. Reliable, survivable, flexible communications are essential for effective 
PA command and control. In today's global information environment, 
information must flow to and from users, up and down the chain of command, 
and horizontally across the battlefield. Technology has compressed time and 
space and forward-deployed PA sections can be in direct communication with 
officials at DoD working PA strategies. The challenge is to ensure 
coordination and interoperability so that all elements have the 
communications capability necessary to effectively carry out their assigned 
mission, especially in today's joint, combined or interagency environment. 

2-15. Deliberate, detailed planning can prevent communications shortfalls. 
PA planners assess their information transmission and reception needs and 
requirements. They then identify the communications capabilities they need 
access to, and determine the communications support they will need from 
command signal organizations. Through close coordination with the staff 
signal section, the identified PA communications requirements are integrated 
into the overall communication architecture. 


2-16. The three central defining characteristics of the global information 
environment -- the facility of information acquisition and transmission, the 
speed of information communication and the breadth of information 
saturation -- combine to increase information availability. The American 
public, internal audiences, allies and adversaries have ready access to 
information. Information security is transitory and it is critical that 
information operations at every echelon are mutually supporting and directed 
at a clearly defined, decisive and attainable objective. 

2-17. Credibility is essential for successful information operations. If an 
information source is not perceived as believable, then the desired effect of 
that communication cannot be achieved. Regardless of the source, target or 
objective of an information effort, in the GIE, credibility is founded in truth 
and enhanced by validation, corroboration, and consistency. 

2-18. Commanders require integrated, coordinated, synchronized information 
operations. PA operations, which occur at, and impact on, the strategic, 
operational and tactical levels -- often simultaneously -- area critical element 
of these operations. News media coverage of conflicting messages and 
information communicated by different elements of the command 
compromises credibility. 

2-19. Integrating, coordinating and synchronizing every element of the 
commander's information operation -- Public Affairs, Psychological 
Operations, Civil Affairs, Combat Camera, Operations Security and others -- 
results in a synergistic information strategy. It minimizes the possibility of 
conflicting messages, which undermine credibility, jeopardize operations and 
endanger mission accomplishment. 


Chapter 2 


2-20. Logistics is critical at all levels of command for Public Affairs mission 
success, during any phase of combat or garrison operations. Commanders 
must ensure their Joint Table of Allowances (J TA), Modified Table of 
Equipment (MTOE), Table of Distribution and Allowances (TDA) or Common 
Table of Allowances (CTA) reflects appropriate equipment levels to maintain 
a PA staff and media support under field and garrison conditions. 
Maintenance also plays an important role in Public Affairs operations. A 
Public Affairs element that has all its equipment cannot function properly if 
its equipment is inoperative, broken or deadlined. Each Public Affairs 
element must develop its own internal SOP in regard to logistics. (See 
Appendix K.) 

2-21. Public Affairs staff members must be trained in the areas of supply, 
budget, property book, ordering, class A procurement, etc. Public Affairs must 
be an integral player in all mission and operational planning sessions to 
ensure logistical requirements are identified and resourced. 

2-22. Responsibilities: The Public Affairs staff has the responsibility to 
identify to its resource manager, property book manager and ordering officer 
all fiscal and logistical requirements for field operations and home station 
support. Requisitions for equipment, supplies, services and allowances will be 
ordered and processed in accordance with appropriate Army Regulations, AR 
710-2 U nit Supply U pdate and budgetary guidelines. 

2-23. Requesting supplies: Commanders must ensure that equipment and 
components authorized by J TAs, CTAs, MTOEs, or TDAs are on hand or 
requested. The organization's supply operation is responsible for identifying, 
acquiring, accounting, controlling, storing and properly disposing of materiel 
authorized to conduct the mission of the unit and maintain the soldier. The 
organization is the foundation of the supply system. Exceptions and 
procedures are outlined in AR 710-2. 

2-24. The Direct Support and General Support Activities provide class 1, 2, 3 
(packaged and bulk), 4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 supplies directly to the using units on a 
customer support basis. These supplies are routinely procured through the 
unit supply rooms. In the event a Public Affairs element is operationally 
attached outside its assigned organization, it should coordinate before 
deployment for logistical support when possible. If prior coordination is not 
possible, contact for support should be made upon arrival into the theater of 
operations through the C-4, J -4, G-4, or S-4. 

2-25. Accountability: All property acquired by the Army, regardless of source 
or whether paid for or not, must be accounted for, in accordance with 
applicable Army regulations and AR 710-2. 

• Nonexpendable property is personal property that is consumed in use 
and that retains its original identity during the period of use. It 
requires formal property book accountability throughout the life of the 
item. It will be accounted for at the using unit level using property 
book procedures. Examples are desks, computers, file cabinets, chairs. 

• Expendable items are property which is consumed in use or that loses 
its identity in use, and all items not consumed in use with a unit price 


FM 3-61.1 

of less than $100 and not otherwise classified as nonexpendable or 
durable. It requires no formal accounting after issue to the user. The 
following classes or types of property will be classified as expendable. 

■ Supplies consumed in the maintenance and upkeep of the public 
service. Examples are oil, paint, fuel and cleaning and preserving 

■ Supplies that lose their identity when used to repair or complete 
other items. Examples are assemblies, repair parts, and 

■ Office supplies and equipment (such as paper, staplers and hole 
punchers) with a unit price of less than $100. 

■ Durable property is personal property that is not consumed in use, 
does not require property book accountability, but because of its 
unique characteristics requires hand receipt control when issued to 
the user. Examples are hammers, lawnmowers, audiovisual 
production material and books. 

2-26. Conservation of resources and property accountability is ultimately a 
supervisory responsibility. Property responsibility must be assigned and 
acknowledged in writing using hand receipts and property books as outlined 
in AR 735-5, Policies and Procedures for Property Accountability and 
AR 710-2. 

2-27. Property book: Effective supply support at the using element or 
property book level requires timely and accurate processing of supply 
requests and receipts, accurate accounting records and adequate property 
control. Turn in, transfer, substitutions, hand receipt, etc., are accomplished 
in accordance with Army Regulations, AR 710-2 and logistical SOPs. 

2-28. Budget: Budgets must be programmed in advanced. Organizations plan 
their budget in the previous fiscal year They must be established and 
managed with the appropriate command resource manager/budget analyst. 
When allocating funds consideration must be given to equipment replacement 
and upgrades, recurring supply needs TDYs, maintenance, contracts, etc. 
Normal operating funds are allocated/dispersed by a public affairs element 
operational headquarters; however, during deployments for 
exercises/operations funds may be available from the tasking headquarters 
up front or on a recuperative basis. 

2-29. Maintenance: Public Affairs elements must maintain their equipment 
in a deployment ready state. Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services 
(PMCS) is an important part of the maintenance program, and is the user's 
responsibility. The Public Affairs element's operational headquarters 
provides maintenance support. For example, an embedded Public Affairs 
section assigned to the Headquarters Company of a separate brigade would 
seek maintenance support from the Headquarters Company, then the brigade 
maintenance section. The company/brigade's maintenance SOP would be 
followed for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc., echelons of maintenance. Maintenance for 
communications and data processing (computers) equipment is coordinated 
through the G6(DOIM). 

2-30. Local Purchase: Local purchases may be an option for procurement 
provided the action is in the best interest of the government in terms of 


Chapter 2 

timeliness, quality and cost. Local purchase requests must be made in 
accordance with AR 710-2. Approval for local purchase of nondevelopmental 
items starts at the first level of command authority and is accomplished in 
accordance with local policies and Army regulations. Nondevelopmental items 
is a generic term that covers materiel avail able from a variety of sources with 
little or no development effort from the Army. Sources include commercial 
items which fully meet an approved need, items being used by other U.S. 
services or agencies or items used by military or other agencies of foreign 
government. Most of these purchases are covered under the IMPAC Card 
program. Local guidance covers implementation. 

2-31. Class A Procurement/Credit Card: Class A agents and government 
credit card holders must be identified and trained prior to their ability to 
accomplish those functions. Training is routinely accomplished at the 
installation level. Purchases for other than national-stock-numbered items 
are routinely accomplished using Class A agents and ordering officers, and 
the U .S. Government Credit Card. 

2-32. SSSC: Self Service Supply Centers are managed at the installation or 
theater level. Users are required to have a valid SSSC account. Accounts are 
identified by DODAAC or UIC. Subaccounts are authorized I AW AR 710-2. 
Field resupply centers are often established at divisional -level logistics bases. 

2-33. The best means of ensuring supply discipline is to be proactive and not 
reactive in supply operations. Enforcing compliance with regulations requires 
constant emphasis. 


FM 3-61.1 


Chapter 3 

Public Affairs Planning 

During Operation J ust Cause, PA planning and integration were 
inadequate Commanders at all Is/els failed to involve public affairs 
officers in planning from fear of OPSEC leaks. The results were 
insufficient PA guidance provided to soldiers, family members and 
commanders; sometimes mi scommuni cation to and confusion within 
Army family elements; and misuse of PA ass&s. A matter of urgent 
concern was the failure to plan for and use Reserve Component PA ass&s 
to relieve the pressure on an already small active PA force so that it could 
better handle both internal and external communication. 

- Public Affairs After Action Report, TRADOC LLC, Phase II, Sept. 90 


3-1. Public Affairs operations assist the commander in communicating 
information and messages about his force and the operation to internal and 
external audiences. Like other operations, PA operations are conducted to bring 
about clearly specified, meaningful objectives, which support the commander's 
intent and contribute to mission success. Those objectives are defined in terms of 
the effect the PA operations are intended to have on target audiences -- the 
impact on target audience behavior that is desired -- and are measurable. 

3-2. Once PA objectives are defined, PA operations are planned and executed to 
achieve those objectives. PA operations focus on the communication process -- an 
on going, dynamic, ever-changing process. The communication process is 
composed of elements involved in receiving, collecting, analyzing and interpreting 
data, identifying and analyzing audiences and formulating and transferring 
messages. This process is used to bring about a specified objective, while 
measuring and analyzing the outcome and effectiveness of the effort. 

3-3. To support the commander's effort to communicate, PA professionals 
concentrate on five basic functions or core processes — planning, media 
facilitation, information provision, force training and community relations. 

3-4. This chapter focuses on the systematic process for Public Affairs planning 
and decision-making. It addresses the information environment and the impact 
of information at the strategic, operational and tactical levels across the range of 
operations that requires public affairs considerations be totally integrated into 
the planning and decision-making process. Doing so enables PA personnel to 
prepare for potential situations, to synchronize efforts with other agencies that 
manage information communication, and to more successfully influence the 
coverage, interpretation and understanding of events. It limits the need for 
reactive, defensive attempts to buy time or control damage. 


FM 3-61.1 

3-5. PA planning prepared in support of the CINC's theater campaign plan 
requires a series of decisions related to policy at the national level and the 
techniques at the tactical level. From policy to techniques, however, basic 
planning considerations are the same: What should the PA objective accomplish? 
With what audience? When? How? PA planning must not only be done at all 
echelons and within national policy but also within the limits of operational plans 
and capabilities. 


3-6. The amount of time available significantly influences the planning process. 
Two different methods of planning are described in the J CS-published J oint 
Operations Planning and Execution System (J OPES). 

3-7. Deliberate or Peacetime Planning is the process used when time permits 
the total participation of commanders and staffs. Development of the plan, 
coordination among supporting commanders and agencies, reviews by staffs, 
planning conferences and development of proposed public affairs guidance can 
take many months. Deliberate or Peacetime Plans are prepared in prescribed 
formats-the complete operational plan (OP LAN) or the conceptual operational 

3-8. Time-Sensitive or Crisis Action Planning (CAP) is conducted in 
response to crisis where U.S. interests are threatened and a military response is 
being considered. Crisis Action Planning is carried out in response to specific 
situations as they occur and that often develop very rapidly. 

3-9. It is within the CAP process that established, working relationships between 
the PAO and operational planning staffs are crucial to the inclusion of PA 
considerations into OPLANS and OPORDS. 

3-10. Both deliberate and crisis action planning are conducted within J OPES. 
J oint Pub 5-03.2, J OPES Volume 1 1, describes detailed administrative and format 
requirements for documenting the annexes, appendixes, etc. of operational plans, 
and conceptual plans, the products of deliberate planning. 

3-11. The purpose of J OPES is to bring both deliberate and crisis action planning 
into a single architecture to reduce the time required to complete deliberate or 
crisis action planning. This makes the refined results more readily accessible to 
planners, and makes it a more manageable plan during execution. 

3-12. The overall procedures are the same, at all echelons, for both deli berate and 
crisis action planning. 

• Receive and analyze the task to be accomplished 

• Review the situation and begin to col led necessary intelligence 

• Develop and compare alternative courses of action 

• Select the best alternative 

• Develop and get approval for its concept 

• Prepare a plan 

• Document the plan 


Chapter 3 

Operation Just Cause 

The basic problem—planning. No discussion concerning use of personnel can proceed 
without an understanding of the planning problem. Public Affairs in general was not sufficiently 
planned for by leaders or public affairs officers for Operation Just Cause. PAOs were not 
given time to plan. Only outstanding unit mission accomplishment, American public support 
and the hard work of public affairs personnel, prevented major PA failings in Panama. A 
longer duration and less popular action could have turned into a public affairs disaster. 

The SOUTHCOM, XVIII Airborne Corps, and Army Special Operations Command PAOs were 
not informed that the operation would occur until 17 December and then they were given 
instructions not to discuss it with key persons on their staff. The 82d PAO did not learn of the 
operation until 18 December, 7th ID PAO, 19 December and OCPA one hour before H hour. 

More critical however, was the absence of joint coordination. OASD-PA received a PA plan 
from SOUTHCOM public affairs in November, but the plan was never coordinated due to 
worries concerning possible security leaks. The XVIII Airborne Corps PAO indicated that he 
also knew of the operation in general terms in November but was unable to coordinate 
planning with the Director of Public Affairs SOUTHCOM. Because the plan was not staffed, 
OCPA was caught unaware. Divisional public affairs officers all indicated that they were not 
sufficiently drawn into planning. Some PAOs said they never saw a plan. It is obvious that 
sufficient public affairs planning did not occur at any level. 

There was also a ripple effect downward caused by the lack of staffing by the Joint/OASD-PA. 
In addition, senior leaders at division level and above did not draw PA officers into planning to 
maximize the limited planning time that was available. Commanders strongly complained 
about poor balance of coverage in the media, inability to send command information at the 
same pace as civilian media reporting, and lack of sufficient public affairs guidance; yet senior 
leaders are reluctant to draw PAOs into the planning process to prevent these problems from 
occurring. Army leaders must come to grips with this dilemma. 

(Public Affairs After Action Report TRADOC Lessons Learned Collection Phase II. Sept 1990) 

3-13. An OPLAN is a complete, detailed plan. It includes a description of the 
concept of operations from the commander's perspective and presents additional 
annexes provided by various staff sections which identify specific functional area 
requirements, restrictions, limitations, or considerations. The inclusion of a 
public affairs annex is essential to successful integration of PA principles and 
guidance into the OPLAN . 

3-14. A CON PLAN is an abbreviated operational plan, which requires 
considerable expansion or alteration to convert it into an OPLAN or OPORD. 
Detailed support requirements are not included. The commander determines 
what annexes wi 1 1 be i nd uded to compl ete the CON P LAN . 

3-15. A Public Affairs Estimate is an assessment of a specific mission from a 
Public Affairs perspective. It is an examination of critical Public Affairs factors, 
their influence on the planning and execution of operations, and their potential 
impact on mission success. The senior PAO at each echelon is responsible for 
consolidating information and preparing the PA Estimate. A sample PA Estimate 
is included at Appendix C. 


FM 3-61.1 

3-16. The Public Affairs Annexes to OPLANS or CONPLANs provide the details 
and instructions necessary to implement Public Affairs media facilitation, news 
and information provision, and force training operations. It is coordinated with 
all staff agencies, especially those that significantly impact the information 
environment -- Psychological Operations, Civil Affairs, Signal, and Military 
Intelligence-- to ensure that Public Affairs activities are synchronized with other 


3-17. A commander continually faces situations involving uncertainties, 
questionable or incomplete data, or several possible alternatives. As the primary 
decision maker, the commander, with the assistance of the staff, must not only 
decide what to do and how to do it, the commander must also recognize if and 
when to act. How the commander arrives at a decision is a matter of personal 
determination. However, superior decisions (those, which offer the best solution, 
decisively, at precisely the correct time,) result from the commander's thorough, 
clear, and unemotional analysis of facts and supported assumptions. This is done 
through the "deliberate planning process." 

3-18. To support the commander's decisions and command objectives, the PAO 
must develop a thorough, clear, comprehensive public affairs strategy. This 
strategy allows the PA to link public affairs considerations into planning for 
contingency, future and current operations. With the PA strategy, the PAO 
defines the public affairs perspective of the operation, and identifies how the 
Army public affairs involvement in this operation supports strategic goals. It 
provides the intent for PA operations and the Army approach to meeting the 
information needs of critical internal and external audiences. It is the framework 
for defining and developing the PA scheme of operations. 

3-19. Based on the PA strategy, PA plans are developed for integration into 
OPLANs. A PA plan is produced by the operational commander's PAO, and it 
details the media facilitation, news and information provision, and force training 
and support procedures which will be employed in support of the operation. 

3-20. The first crucial step in fulfilling the PA strategy requires the PA Plans 
officer/NCO to establish and maintain a routine, ongoing relationship with 
operational planners within the organization. The PA plan is coordinated with 
key staff agencies, integrated into the OPLAN as a PA Annex. Synchronization 
with these other activities ensures services and support required by the PAO is 
provided and multiplies the impact of the PA plan. This process is followed at 
subordinate echelons as planning guidance is communicated down the 
operational chain of command. 

3-21. There are five phases in the deliberate planning process. Items in 
parenthesis identify PA actions performed within each phase: 

• Phase I - Initiation. The task assigning directive outlines the major 
combat forces available for planning, gives general planning instructions, 
lists assumptions for planning, and specifies the product document such as 
an OPLAN, CON PLAN. (PA planners begin assessing the information 
environment, its impact on operations and the PA requirements to operate 
within a specific arena.) 


Chapter 3 

• Phase II - Concept Development. (Using the supported CINC's mission 
statement and concept of envisioned operations, the supporting PA 
planners analyze the mission, formulate tentative courses of actions and 
develop thePA Estimate for the operational scenarioand requirements.) 

• Phase III - Plan Development. Subordinate commanders use the CINC's 
concept and the al located major combat forces as the basis to deter mi ne the 
necessary support, including forces and sustaining supplies for the 
operation. (The PA planners provide the CI NC with recommendations for 
public affairs assets required, phasing of PA forces and support into the 
theater of operations, and perform a transportation analysis of their 
movement to the destination to ensure that the PA segment of the entire 
plan can feasibly be executed as envisioned. For the supported CINC's PA 
requirements, above those organic to the tasked major combat elements, 
the supporting commands [force providers] of each service, as much as 
possible, identify real-world PA assets to take part in the plan and 
sustainment to meet requirements. The supporting command identifies PA 
requirements in OPLANs, OPORDs, and taskings, through operational 
channels, to major subordinate commands.) 

• Phase IV - Plan Review. The review process is more than a single phase 
in deliberate planning. The Joint Staff performs or coordinates a final 
review of operations plans submitted by the combatant CINCs. It is a 
formal review of the entire operation plan. Approval of the plan is the 
signal to subordinate and supporting commands to develop their plans in 
support of the CI NC's concept. (PA planners do not wait until the plan is 
approved before beginning to develop their supporting plans; they have 
been involved in doing this, while coordinating with their command's 
planning staff. In the meantime the CINC has been building the overall 

• Phase V - Supporting Plans. The emphasis in the Supporting Plans Phase 
shifts to the subordinate and supporting commanders. (This is the phase 
in which PA planners begin to concentrate on how to meet tasks identified 
in the approved operation plan by preparing Public Affairs Annexes to 
supporting plans. This input outlines the actions and relationships of 
assigned and augmenting PA assets.) 


3-22. Planning fosters effective application of knowledge, logic, and judgment. 
Analysis of the information environment (IE) starts the process used to develop 
an estimate of the situation. 

3-23. The IE analysis provides the basis for the development of all PA 
operational plans and is a channel for integration of strategic, operational and 
tactical planning guidance. It is a method of identifying factors within the 
information environment that have potential implications for the planning and 
execution of Army operations. PA planners study and evaluate the dynamics of 
the area information environment to identify specific public affairs operational 


FM 3-61.1 

3-24. Analysis of the information environment focuses on research into the 
following areas, which will be put into the "Situation and Considerations" portion 
of the PA estimate: 

• Information infrastructure 

• Media presence 

• Media capabilities 

• Media content analysis 

• Public opinion assessment 

• Information needs assessment 

• I mpact assessment/courses of action (COA) 

3-25. An analysis of the I E using this approach builds a complete picture of the 
conditions facing commanders and their PA forces, providing them the tools 
necessary to anticipate trends, actions, issues, and conflicts. The PA staff officer 
or NCO conducts research and assessment for the estimate then evaluates, 
prioritizes, and suggests courses of action that public affairs can best support, 
while considering the information environment. To acquire all the information 
necessary for an accurate picture of the operational environment, the staff officer 
or NCO must work closely with intelligence, civil affairs, psychological 
operations, military police, visual information and other staff sections involved 
with information gathering. 

3-26. The PA assessment must include those aspects under the control of the 
commander, as well as those the commander cannot control. This can only be 
achieved with a thorough integration of PA planning at all stages and into all 
aspects of the planning and decision-making process. Although a variety of 
techniques may be used in the analysis of the IE, the PA assessment should 
address the fol I owi ng pri mary categori es. 

• Information Channels and Infrastructure. This element focuses on an 
assessment of the information infrastructure. It addresses the resources, 
communications facilities, organizations, and official and unofficial 
information channels available within the area of responsibility (AOR). It 
addresses the means to transmit and receive unofficial information. It 
addresses specific requirements for American Forces Radio Television 
Service (AFRTS) information services and the availability of assets to meet 
theater requirements. It identifies the availability of host nation telephone 
service for voice and data transmission, the accessibility of audio/video 
channels, the prevalence of private communications devices such as 
cellular telephones, facsimiles, computers with modems, radios and 
televisions, and the nature of the information available through these 
information channels. It addresses alternate means of voice and data 
communications, whether military or government contracted, for use in the 
absence of host nation information channels and infrastructure. Much of 
the information required for this category may be obtained through civil 
affairs or psychological operations elements assigned or attached to the 
command and U.S.I nformation Service offices supporting consulates or the 
embassy within the area of operations. 


Chapter 3 

Media Presence. This is an assessment of the media presence in the area 
of operations prior to the introduction of American forces and an 
assessment of the expected level of media presence commanders should 
anticipate once deployment begins. It includes a description of the type of 
media (print or broadcast), the visibility of the media (local, national, or 
international; American or foreign), and the focus of the news media 
present (news or entertainment) covering the operation. The assessment of 
the media presence should address the authority under which media 
representatives are operating (open or closed borders, and free press or 
controlled press) and the reporters' degree of access to the theater of 

Media Capabilities. This element is an assessment of the media's 
information collection, production, transmission and communication 
capabilities in the AOR. This element analyzes the technological 
capabilities of the media representatives present within the AOR. It 
describes their level of sophistication (if they must transport products out 
of the area of operations for transmission to parent media or do they have 
self-contained interactive satellite telecommunications access). It also 
addresses the media's level of logistics support and its potential impact on 
Army commanders who are required to provide the media free and open 
access to the AOR. It includes information about their transportation 
assets, resupply channels, and equipment maintenance requirements. 
Additionally, the media's general ability to provide their own security 
should be assessed. 

Media Content Analysis. Media content analysis is an assessment of 
news coverage, the media's agendas and an analysis and prioritization of 
the potential strategic and operational issues confronting the command. 
Media content analysis assesses what is being said, by whom, and how it is 
being presented. It is a constant process that must begin well before 
planning for a specific operation begins and continues through 
Mobilization, Deployment, Employment, Sustainment, and Re-deployment. 
Content analysis reveals the meaning, tone, and accuracy of messages, how 
the information was presented, and the cumulative affect of the 
information. A media content analysis will provide an evaluation of the 
quantity of coverage, both in and out of theater, and the nature of that 
coverage. This will assist the commander to understand the strategic 
context, the measure of success and the definition of an end-state for the 
operation as viewed from outside the command and the Army itself. It will 
also be an essential element of friendly information (EEFI), as explained in 
FM 3-13 (100-6), in determining objectives and strategies for 
communicating the Army perspective, and for working to achieve a 
balanced, fair and credible flow of information. 

The specific methods for conducting a media content analysis are explained 
in Appendix O. 

Public Opinion. A public opinion assessment surveys the national and 
international attitude about the operation and the command, leaders and 
soldiers conducting it. This assessment looks at the perceptions held by 
major audience and coalition groups, and the relative solidity or strength of 
those attitudes. It addresses the perceptions held by international 


FM 3-61.1 

audiences: those traditionally allied with the United States and those 
traditionally considered to be adversaries of the US. The public opinion 
assessment should include as a minimum, consideration of the following 

American public (general) 

Civilian political leadership 

Coalition and allied forces and their general population 

Host nation citizens 

International public 

I nternal command audience 

Home station community 

Specific special interest groups (if needed) 

■ In determining the effects of the media on public opinion, there 
are three general types of evidence which explain behavior 
response: direct indicators; indirect indicators; and post-event 
sampling. Direct indicators are evidence that provide a direct link 
between the information received by the public and the 
behavioral response. These indicators include but are not limited 
to: personal interviews and surveys to estimate awareness and 
understanding of an issue; dissident group marches, meetings, 
advertising and other activities; monitoring internal and external 
law, order and discipline activity; and chain of command after 
action reports, staff journals and duty logs. I ndirect indicators are 
evidence that identifies behavioral response generated by 
separate events or activities which appear to be the result of 
reception of media information. These indicators include: cause- 
effect estimates from information products and sources other than 
the military or civilian commercial media; interest level in news 
media products; shifts in social or economic trends; shifts in 
political support. 

■ Post-event sampling considers the qualitative and quantitative 
statistical evidence that identifies the level of and nature of 
awareness and behavioral response to information. This includes 
the results of surveys, interviews, group observation, probability 
and non-probability samples, which will identify if and how the 
public was influenced by information products or messages. 

Information Needs. This is an assessment of the information needs and 
requirements of the previously identified key publics. It analyzes and 
prioritizes key external and internal audiences and assesses their news 
and information expectations. It identifies the types of information that 
should be made available to soldiers, their family members, other home 
station community audiences, the American public, and the host nation 
local populace. It will identify other audiences, such as allied or adversary 
leaders and publics that will be interested in available "cross-border" 


Chapter 3 


3-27. The purpose of the PA Estimate is to deter mine whether the mission can be 
accomplished and to determine which COA can best be supported by public 
affairs. In preparing its estimate, the Public Affairs staff: 

• Reviews the overall mission and situation from the public affairs and 
information environment perspective. 

• Examines all public affairs factors impacting on or impacted by the mission. 

• Analyzes each COA from the public affairs perspective. 

• Compares each COA based on the public affairs functional analysis. 

• Concludes whether the mission can be supported by public affairs, and from 
the public affairs perspective, which COA can best be supported. 

3-28. The Public Affairs Estimate summarizes the information environment, 
prioritizes the major issues confronting the command and predicts anticipated 
outcomes in detail. It measures the effectiveness of previous and current 
information strategies, and based on this evaluation, identifies possible courses of 
action to support command PA objectives. The PA Estimate also contributes to 
the development of Public Affairs Guidance (PAG) for specific operations or 
missions. PAG is a primary tool that guides commanders and PA leaders in the 
application of doctrine and policy during operations. PAG provides the PA force 
at all echelons standard operating procedures. 

3-29. But to be effective, PAG must be developed with the needs of the front-line 
PA force in mind. PA planners must be able to "see" and "feel" the battlefield. 
They must have an understanding of the information environment and how it 
will change throughout the operational continuum. They must be aware that all 
the resources available at the planning headquarters may not be available or 
feasible in the theater of operations. Issues that need to be addressed include 
information release authority restrictions (national, theater or local). These 
restrictions often place the PA leader in a difficult situation -- one in which an 
overwhelming number of news media on the scene will seek answers to legitimate 
questions about unfolding events -- activities that the PA leader cannot discuss. 
The result is a loss of credibility for the Army. 

3-30. DOD policy requires that proposed PAG be provided to the Assistant to the 
Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs (OTASD-PA) by the unified, specified and 
other major commands for all operations. This requirement includes major joint 
training exercises that could attract national and international attention. 
Subordinate command PA leaders should conduct continuing PA assessments as 
a part of mission training for theater-specific contingencies in anticipation of PAG 
development requirements there. 


3-31. Upon receipt of a "warning order," the commander, through the PA staff, 
will begin development of proposed PAG. In reality this warning order may be 
preceded by a telephonic "heads up" call from a PA planner at a higher 
headquarters that allows PA planners to begin working on proposed PAG before 
the hard copy of the warning order arrives. This proposed PAG should be based 
on the warning order or other planning guidance, the proposed command 


FM 3-61.1 

operations plan (OP LAN), and the PA Estimate. Once the proposed PAG is 
developed, it is staffed through command staff. Once approved by the 
commander, it is forwarded through major command and Unified/Specified 
command PA channels to DoD. 

3-32. Commanders of Unified/Specified commands should ensure the proposed 
PAG is coordinated with appropriate elements and functional staffs within the 
theater of operations. This includes governmental and non-governmental 
organizations such as the State Department and its embassies, civil affairs, 
country assessment teams, host governments, allied force public affairs teams, 
the four U .S.mi I itary servi ces and thei r subordi nate commands. 

3-33. PA leaders at all levels, specifically major command and above, should 
work to approve PAG as quickly as possible in order to provide subordinate PA 
leaders the opportunity to develop and implement PA strategies to support their 
commands. The format for PAG is included as an appendix to this manual at 
Appendix E. 


3-34. Once the PA estimate and proposed PAG are completed, and the other staff 
officers have completed their estimates, the commander selects a course of action. 
The commander then outlines it to the staff. The commander may select one of 
the proposed COAs, a combination of two or more, or a completely new one. The 
PA staff must then be prepared to enter the plan development phase (Phase III) 
which requires development of a PA annex. A format for a PA Annex is included 
at Appendix D. 

3-35. The operation-specific approach to conducting public affairs activities is 
called a PA scheme of maneuver. This PA scheme summarizes the commander's 
PA intentions, and details the media facilitation, news and information provision, 
and force training and support procedures, which will be employed to support a 
particular operation. 

3-36. The PA scheme consists of the PA estimate of the situation, higher 
command PA guidance, and the selected course of action. It is coordinated with 
key staff agencies, integrated into the operation plan through the development of 
a PA annex, and synchronized with the other activities to be executed as part of 
the basic plan. 

3-37. The PA scheme, when included in the PA annex, should not only identify 
public affairs force requirements for the operation, but more importantly, it must 
provide the commander a visual picture of how public affairs will support the 
commander's concept of operation as outlined in the plan. 

3-38. The PA activities addressed in the PA scheme of maneuver are: 

• Media Facilitation. Media Facilitation is activities executed to support 
news media efforts to cover the operation, facilitate the timely, accurate, 
balanced provision of information which communicates the Army 
perspective, and minimizes the media disruption of operations or 
endangerment of mission accomplishment. Media facilitation is 
accomplished by the early establishment of a media center as the focal 
point for media representatives seeking to cover the operation. Normal 


Chapter 3 

media center operations include scheduling briefings, coordination for 
interviews; responding to media queries; coordinating unit visits and media 
escort requirements; and resolving media - military incidents. To prepare 
for encounters with the media, commanders must accept and understand 
the role of the news organizations and the journalists in the theater, and 
their capabilities in getting information from the battlefield or area of 
operations. Commanders must provide media access to the force, keeping 
in mind the impact their technology will have on operations security. 
Commanders must identify and provide support and resources to assist the 
media in their mission. 

Information Strategies. Activities executed to fill the news and 
information needs and expectations of internal and external audiences. 
Proliferation of personal computers, the World Wide Web, the I nternet, on- 
line services, fax machines, E-mail, cable television, direct broadcast 
satellites, copy machines, cellular and wireless communication and many 
other information technologies have created an endless stream of data and 
information that flow into a world filled with images, symbols, words, and 
sounds. Public affairs specialists acquire information using a variety of 
sources. Because of the volume of information and the vast number of 
potential distribution mediums, the PA staff uses a systematic acquisition 
strategy. They acquire information from participants, leaders, developed 
sources, the media, research and development, intelligence, culture at 
large, and subject matter experts. Print, video, audio and electronic 
information products are provided to deployed soldiers, home station 
audiences such as family members and the home station community and 
news media representatives using contracted services and organic military 
assets. They communicate the Army perspective and contribute to timely, 
balanced coverage of the operation. 

Force Training and Support. Activities executed to assist members of 
the DA community in interacting with media representatives. Force 
training and support are conducted to educate soldiers, family members 
and DA civilian employees on their rights and responsibilities with 
respect to news media representatives attempting to provide coverage of 
an operation and related issues. It focuses on helping them to respond 
when they encounter news media representatives seeking interviews, 
photo opportunities, responses, reactions, interpretations or comments 
on an operation, policies or events. The intent of force training and 
support is to assist members of the community and media 
representatives in approaching each other with mutual respect. 
Training for public affairs personnel expands on soldier and unit leader 
training. It stresses individual as well as collective tasks with an aim of 
developing units fully prepared to accomplish the range of public affairs 
missions. It integrates public affairs into the battle staff and trains PA 
planners to assess the operation environment from a public affairs 
perspective, produce a PA Estimate, develop the PA Annex and PA 






Conduct an assessment 

Define PA perspective 

Make contact with planners 


Meet information needs 

Examine all PA factors 

Review overall mission 


E stablishes P A pol icy 

Coordinate wth other staffs 

Get approval and forward 



Inclusion in GPLAN crucial 

Situation develops rapidly 

Specific situation strategy 


Choose course of action 

Examine all factors 

ReviewP A Mission 


on warning order 

Coordinate wth other staffs 

Get approval ASAP 


Figure 3-1. PA Planning 


Chapter 3 


3-39. Concurrent with formulation of the PA staff estimate, PAG development, 
and production of the PA Annex to the OPLAN, PA planners must bean integral 
part of the staff planning process, especially on the following matters. 

3-40. Force Planning. I n force planning, the PA staff works with the J 3/G3/S3 
staff. Force planning consists of PA force requirements determination, force list 
development and refinements in light of PA force availability and PA force 
shortfall identification and resolution. In force list development, the PA assets 
needed to meet the mission are identified. Force availability is considered based 
on the strength and readiness of organic PA units, their personnel and 
equipment. Identification of PA force shortfalls addresses the lack of organic or 
mission-capable PA assets and the additional requirements and augmentations 
for PA units and personnel needed to accomplish the CINC's concept of 
operations. All taskings for unit or personnel augmentation must be validated 
and requested through the J 3/G3/S3 operational channels. Tasking authority 
does not exist PA staff to PA staff or PA staff to subordinate unit. 

3-41. Support Planning. To plan for logistical support of PA units and 
personnel assigned to carry out the CINC's concept of operations, the PA staff 
coordinates with and identifies support requirements to the J 4/G4/S4. Specific 
logistical areas of concern include support in all classes of supply to the PA force, 
availability and authorized levels of support to civilian media, local purchase and 
contract support, property accountability, and vehicle transportation and 
maintenance support as tasked for through the J 3/G3/S3. 

3-42. Transportation Planning. PA forces move from their home station to a 
specified destination in the theater, either as part of their parent organization or 
a task-configured PA unit. This movement involves planning by several echelons 
of command, possibly stops at several intermediate locations en route, and a 
schedule constrained by a variety of operational requirements and priorities. Key 
staff for the PA planner to interact with include the command's transportation 
officer, movements control officer, and staff officers within the J 3/G3/S3 and 
J 4/G4/S4 that have staff supervision in this area. Key items PA planners need to 
track in this process are: 

3-43. Time-Phased Force and Deployment Data (TPFDD), TheTPFDD is 
thej OPES database portion of an operations plan. It contains time-phased force 
data, non-unit related cargo and personnel data, and movement data for the 
operation plan. The Appendix 1 to Annex A of the operation plan is the Time- 
Phased Force and Deployment List (TPFDL) which identifies types and/or actual 
units required to support the operation plan and indicates origin and port of 
debarkation or ocean area. It may also be generated as a computer listing from 
the TPFDD. PA planners must ensure that the TPFDD/TPFDL contains their 
unit line numbers (ULNs) for units, personnel, or cargo. Assets not listed on the 
TPFDD do not deploy. It is crucial to the planning process that the PA staff 
closely coordinate with the J 3/G3/S3 and J 4/G4/S4 to ensure that PA assets are 
reflected on the TPFDD or included as organic/attached assets to parent units 
with validated ULNs on theTPFDD. 

3-44. Destination (DEST) - the geographic location where the force is to be 
depl oyed/empl oyed. 


FM 3-61.1 

3-45. The distances between the port of debarkation (POD) within the theater of 
operations to the destination (DEST), to the port of support (POS), to the 
marshaling area or assembly area. Where troops land at the APOD (Aerial Port 
of Debarkation) or SPOD (Seaport of Debarkation) they may be substantial 
distances from the port where the PA element's equipment arrives in theater and 
operations begin. 

3-46. Transport of equipment must be planned for it to be available at the 
earliest possible date within the theater of operations. Thus, the PA planner 
must set a realistic, achievable required delivery date (RDD). This must be 
aligned with the CI NC's required date (CRD). Planners begin with the RDD to 
establish two interim dates, the earliest arrival date (EAD) and the latest arrival 
date (LAD). Once these dates are established, then the ready to load date (RLD) 
and the available to load date (ALD) are established at home station to meet the 
earliest departure date (EDD). 

3-47. Communications/Automation Planning. Key planners on the 
coordinating staff for communications and automation planning are the J 6/G6, 
G3/S3 and CE officer. Specific concerns include priorities for radio/telephone 
communications, satellite uplinks and downlinks, number of telephone 
links/trunks allocated to PA requirements, E-mail access, and inclusion into the 
Communications Electronics Operating Instructions (CEOI). In addition, consider 
possible development of web pages or sites, MkeBosniaLink, theTask Force Eagle 
Homepage, the Desert Voice in Kuwait or Task Force Falcon in Kosovo. 

3-48. Information Environment. When formulating PA plans and coordinating 
on the overall plan with the commander's staff, PA planners work closely with 
the staff element having supervising responsibility for each separate issue. 

• Operational Security- G3/S3 

• Psychological Operations- G3/S3 

• Civil Military Operations- G5/S3 

• Combat Camera Operations - G3/S3 

• Armed Forces Radio and Television Operations - G3 and Armed Forces 
I nformation Service 


3-49. To function as part of a deployed or deployable organization the PAO and 
PA NCO must think and state requirements in terms that the rest of the 
organization can understand. Moreover, the PAO must fit the operational PA 
requirements into the operational planning procedure of the organization about 
to deploy. Operators think in terms of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, 
troops, time available and civilian considerations or METT-TC. METT-TC is used 
to envision how the operation will occur, to identify potential risks or hazards, 
and to define troop and equipment requirements. 

3-50. Mission - alert, marshall, deploy, operate (internal information, media 
facilitation, information provision) redeploy 

3-51. Enemy - rumors, disinformation, propaganda, OPSEC 


Chapter 3 

3-52. Terrain and weather - theater of operation, theater of war, area of 
responsibility, intermediate staging base, homestation and weather condition 

3-53. Troops - embedded assets, units (PADs, MPADs, BODs, PAOCs) AFRTS, 
HTNRs, ABS, NBS,J IBs, Star and Stripes, stringers, surrogate PAOs, Adjutants, 
and Sis. All other AG services, signal, USIS, DoS and homestation forces and 

3-54. Time available- timeline, transition, reports 

3-55. Essentially, the information required for a METT-TC analysis is provided 
by the PA estimate of the situation, which contains the selected course of action 
and detailed descriptions of PA actions to be performed. These requirements are 
then translated into the command's planning language and format, resulting in 
the PA Annex to the OPLAN orOPORD. 

3-56. At theater level and above, the PA annex is normally Annex F to the 
OPLAN. At corps and below, commanders can tailor their plans to fit specific 
needs or preferences, so the PA annex may fall in another location among the 
annexes. Regardless of where it is located, the PA Annex is used to provide 
information about the conduct and execution of public affairs operations in 
support of the basic OPLAN. The PA annex outlines the situation, identifies the 
specific PA mission and explains the concept of the operation. It also provides 
detailed information and guidance PA personnel need to conduct successful PA 
operations at the operator level. A sample PA Annex format is included in this 
manual at Appendix D. 

3-57. Phase IV, Plan Review, consists of staff coordination and plan adjustment 
or correction. 

3-58. The final phase of the planning process, Phase V, Supporting Plans, follows 
the same course as the first three phases, with attention aimed at the specific 
aspects of the overall plan. These supporting plans focus on conducting specific 
operations, which must be successful in order to guarantee success of the larger 
mission. PA support to these supporting plans is as important as PA coordination 
and input to the main campaign plan. 


3-59. Integral to the operational effectiveness of PA sections are their standing 
combat operating procedures. These routine procedures ensure that all members 
of the section are working in concert toward the same PA objectives and that PA 
activities are easi ly blended i nto the actions of the command's staff. 

3-60. PA SOPs differ from PA plans and PA annexes to OP LANS in that they 
specifically detail and describe how PA is conducted within a certain command or 
unit. They are routine procedures and actions that apply to each section or unit. 

3-61. The senior PA NCO prepares the staff section or unit PA SOP. PA units 
designated to support or augment specific commands in the execution of 
contingency missions should use SOPs from these supported commands. 

3-62. SOPs should address: 

• Preparation for combat. Stockage, prepackaging, and maintenance of 
vehicles, equipment, and expendable and nonexpendable supplies. 


FM 3-61.1 

• Vehicle load plans. 

• Alert and mobilization actions, routines and procedures. 

• Composition of quartering and/or advance parties and rear echelons. 

• Organization for combat, including detailed delineation of duties for each 
individual, shift compositions, and plans for reconstitution in the event of 
combat losses. 

• Operations center and media center layouts (theater, corps and/or division 
main/rear CPs). 

• Procedures for preparing, disseminating and disposing of records, reports, 
estimates and orders. 

• Physical, document, and tactical security. 

• Communications procedures. These steps include radio/telephone 
operating procedures unique to the command, message routing and 
preparation formats, and operation of communications and data 
transmission equipment. 

• Movement and displacement. 

• Operations under NBC conditions. 

• Field Maintenance. 

• Personal hygiene, rest, and morale, welfare and recreation requirements 
and procedures during deployment. 

• Post-operations and reconstitution procedures. Maintenance, restocking 
and packaging composition of advance and rear parties; disposition of 
records, and preparation of after-action reports are included. 

• A PA SOP outline is included in this manual at Appendix K. 


3-63. During mission planning and preparation, Public Affairs planners should 
consider debriefing and other post-mission activities. These activities normally 

• Collective debriefing of the operational element on all aspects of mission 
execution, including lessons learned. 

• Collection of maps, notebooks, logbooks, plans, annexes, duty officer/NCO 
logs, serious incident reports, news releases, tapes and transcripts of news 
briefings and conferences, and all other information products pertinent to 
the mission after action report. 

• Maintenance and storage of unit and personal equipment. 

• Individual debriefing of key personnel. 

• Other reconstitution measures as required. 

3-64. Upon completion of these activities, the operational element begins pre- 
mission sustainment training or prepares for its next mission. The planning staff 
begins review of lessons learned for integration into future plans. See Appendix 
W for information on producing PA Lessons Learned for the Center for Army 
Lessons Learned. 


Chapter 4 

Media Facilitation 

"It is likely that small pools of news media will be assigned 
directly to operational units to cover all facdts of activity. With 
few exceptions, there will be no security r&/iew of media copy or 
audiovisual products. The policy will be to maintain security at 
the source. 1 1 is important to support the efforts of the media and 
our dealings with them should not be confrontational, but 
professional and courteous." 

- GEN Binford Peay 

Commander, U.S. Central Command [1994] 

FM 3-61 (46-1), Public Affairs Operations 


4-1. I n the past 20 years the Army has undergone a fundamental shift in 
our approach to dealing with the news media. In response to the 
perceived treatment by the press during the Vietnam War, we have gone 
from adopting an exclusionary tactic for the conduct of the invasion of 
Grenada in 1983, to managing the controversial pool system for covering 
the initial stages of the Gulf War in 1991, and more recently evolving into 
an almost completely open access policy in Somalia (1993), Haiti (1994) 
and Bosnia (1995) operations. 

4-2. The results of this policy evolution are the "DoD Principles of 
Information," which form the foundation for the PA function of media 
facilitation. The basic approach that DoD and the Army take to media 
facilitation is contained in Appendix A, The DoD Principles of 
Information and Appendix B, The Guidelines for Coverage of DoD 
Combat Operations. 

4-3. Simply stated, media facilitation is providing assistance to civilian 
and military news media representatives covering an operation. The 
objective of media facilitation is to support news media efforts. This 
includes providing accurate, timely, balanced, credible coverage of the 
force and the operation, while minimizing the possibility that media 
activities will disrupt the operation. 

4-4. Media facilitation includes assisting media entry into the area of 
operations, registering media representatives, orienting them on the 
ground rules for coverage and ensuring that they understand the security 
policies and constraints under which they must agree to operate if they 
desire Army support. 


FM 3-61.1 

4-5. Media facilitation also involves arranging interviews and briefings, 
coordinating unit visits and escorts, and assisting media representatives 
with transportation, messing, billeting, communication support, safety 
and equipment. Media facilitation involves the early establishment of a 
media center as a focal point for media wishing to cover an operation, for 
Army personnel seeking assistance with media representatives in their 
area, and for resolution of problems or incidents resulting from media- 
military interaction. 

4-6. A primary strategic goal of any Public Affairs staff is to support an 
operational commander in achieving a constant flow of complete, accurate 
and timely information about the mission and U.S. forces. 

4-7. The PA staff accomplishes this goal by making information fully and 
readily available within the constraints of national security and OPSEC, 
and by facilitating inclusion of civilian and military news media 
representatives in military units whenever possible. 


4-8. PA Staff Sections. The prime focus of the PA staff is staff 
coordination. The staff will be the element tasked with executing the 
media facilitation strategy. 

4-9. The staff provides PA planning and operational guidance to the 
PAO. They ensure leaders within the command understand the 
commander's media relations policies, and serves as the command 
ombudsman in the settlement of conflicts between the media and the 

4-10. As an active participant in the command's information planning 
element, the staff coordinates with G2, G3, G5, PSYOP, U.S. Information 
Service, and other staff elements in developing the commander's 
information strategy to ensure synergy and to reduce the probability of 
conf I icting messages. 

4-11. Media Operations Centers. Currently, joint, combined and 
Army media centers fulfill the requirement for a focal point for the news 
media during military operations. I n essence, the media operations center 
(MOC) is a command post for media support efforts. It serves as both the 
primary information source, and as a logistical support and coordination 
base for commercial news organizations covering the operation. 

4-12. Media centers are organized when large numbers of news media 
representatives are anticipated to cover military activities. Media centers 
may be formed for all types of operations or for any stage within an 

4-13. When operated by unified/specified commands, these media centers 
may be called a Joint Information Bureau (\\B). At the combined 
commands, they are called an Allied Press Information Center (APIC), 
Coalition Press Information Centre or Combined Information Bureau 
(CIB). At theater level and below, they are simply referred to as Media 
Operations Centers. 

4-14. MOCs support the commander and are subordinate to the 
command's PAO. They provide the commander a professional, 
immediately available, fully trained organization designed to respond to 


_Chapter 4 

national and international civilian media interest in American military 

4-15. In addition, the media operations center provides the following 

• A single point of contact and information source for media within 
the theater 

• Briefings and enforcement of media guidelines and ground rules 

• Primary information release authority for the senior PAO 

• Coordination of news media coverage with corps, divisions, 
brigades, etc. 

• Coordination with all service branches for each service, agency or 

• Identification and communication of host-nation sensitivities to all 
personnel in theater 

• Preparation for and conducting press briefings and news 

• Registration of news media personnel 

• Media Operations Center Staffing and Organization 

4-16. Organization and personnel staffing of media operations centers 
are determined by the responsible command in coordination with the 
PAO and his staff. APIC staffs should be a proportionate representation 
of the forces, with representation from all services involved in the 
operation. This will be determined by CPA at the unified command. 
Regardless of the echelon establishing a media operations center, the 
organizational model is functionally designed and remains relatively the 

4-17. MOCs normally consist of two major elements: a Headquarters 
Group and a Media Operations Center Group. 

4-18. The headquarters is made up of the command group and support 
staff. The command group contains the commander, deputy commander 
and/or executive officer, and the sergeant major. The support staff is 
normally task organized to support tailored forward deployed MOC teams 
or sub-MOCs when the APIC operates as other than a single element. 
The support sections provide administrative support, conduct lease and 
purchase contracting, setup, operate and maintain the unit's equipment, 
and conduct the day-to-day operation of the MOC. The support sections 
are responsible for the execution of MOC communications, supply 
operations, administration support, vehicle maintenance, security and 
other support functions as required. 

4-19. The Media Operations Center consists of a Plans Section, a Media 
Support Section and an I nformation Operations Section. 

4-20. The plans section is responsible for all MOC media planning. It 
establishes MOC requirements and determines operating procedures and 
policies. It maintains channels of communication with OASD(PA) and 
the J PAO (or senior command PAO). It is responsible for recommending 
and assisting in the development and dissemination of PA Guidance. It 
monitors available major U.S., international and local television and 
radio broadcasts and print publications providing coverage of the 


FM 3-61.1 

operations, conducts news media analysis and evaluates the effectiveness 
of MOC operations. 

4-21. The Media Support Section (MSS) is the primary point of contact 
for news media representatives (NMRs) in an area of operation seeking 
information or assistance in covering the force and the operation. The 
MSS receives and registers NMRs, briefs NMRs on the media ground 
rules and security procedures or concerns, and orients them on the force, 
the operation and other pertinent issues (special safety or host nation 

4-22. The MSS orchestrates the command's news briefings and 
coordinate for subject matter experts to explain and discuss operations 
and capabilities. The MSS is also responsible for coordinating for 
appropriate, knowledgeable escorts, unit visits, and service member 
interviews. It assists the J oint Force or other senior PAO in preparing 
service members for interaction with the news media. Finally, it provides 
support to Joint Force elements and service component PA elements 
seeking assistance with NMRs. 

4-23. The Information Operations Section is responsible for monitoring 
plans and operations from within the command's operation center and 
assessing the PA implications of events occurring throughout the area. It 
ensures that the MOC has current situation information, is aware of 
issues of potential media interest, and can obtain any operational 
information necessary for the development of responses to media 
inquiries in a timely manner. 

4-24. The 10 section ensures that PA operations are synchronized with 
other combat functions and promote early coordination of PA, CA and 
PSYOP functions. 

4-25. MOC Staffing. Currently, media operations center staffing 
requires augmentation, either by PA-trained individual fillers or by Army 
PA units. As fully independent units, the Public Affairs Operations 
Center (PAOC) (SRC 45423A000) and Mobile PA Detachment (MPAD) 
(SRC 45413A000) are currently organized, trained, and prepared to fill 
this role. 

4-26. In fact, these Army PA detachments are specifically designed to 
function as an Army media operation center in theater, corps, or division- 
controlled operations. MPADs can be combined to form media sub- 
centers in forward battle areas. 

4-27. PA personnel from non-deployed commands and installation PA 
sections may be called upon to augment news media centers however, 
requests for individual augmentation should be coordinated through 
operational channels. Reserve and Guard unit personnel can be used to 
augment on a voluntary basis. 

4-28. An example of a media operations center is included at Appendix L. 


4-29. In major operations -- actions conducted by unified commands -- a 
Joint Information Bureau will usually be the first to deploy for this 
purpose. A JIB will be staffed by public affairs personnel from the 
services represented in the joint force; participating services may 


_Chapter 4 

establish their own media centers subordinate to the J IB to disseminate 
information about their particular missions. 

4-30. As the operation unfolds, the Army plans for and contributes to a 
replacement PA organization for the J IB which consists of individual PA 
personnel from each of the services and Army PA detachments. 

4-31. Media Center operations will be based on five primary 

• Accurate information is available in a timely manner and adheres 
to the DoD Principles of I nformation in Appendix A. 

• Current trends in communications technologies within the 
information environment will continue to reduce the news media's 
reliance on military support and assistance when covering 
operations and will continue to increase the availability of 
information to a worldwide audience. 

• Media representatives will be in an area of operations at the start 
of, and in most cases, before an operation begins. 

• Media interest and coverage in non combat operations may be 
higher at the outset, and barring a significant event which renews 
national or international attention or interest, will taper off over 
time. During a high-intensity conflict, media interest could remain 

• Military PA elements require access to complete information, state- 
of-the-art communication equipment, and must possess 
sophisticated coordination channels in order to pre-empt 
speculative, inaccurate or biased reporting. 

4-32. Media centers will support and be responsible to the senior 
commander of the operation on a 24-hour basis. Media centers are 
usually established by unified command CINCs to support the news 
media in an area of operation. 

4-33. During thefirst 24 hours after arrival in a new theater of operation, 
a media center can provide limited media support services. 

4-34. Within this first operational day, theMOC must: 

Establish a "hasty media center" as the initial focal point for the 
news media until additional media support forces arrive. 

Establish communication with OASD (PA), each service's PA chain 
of command, and with units operating within the theater. 

Request operational information release authority within the 

Establish command structure/lines of authority. 

Coordinate with appropriate authority for leasing and purchasing 

Begin to register news media personnel in the area 

Provide basic media support (coordination of media access to 
subordinate units and media escort as resources permit). 

Assist or conduct command news briefings and conferences. 

Coordinate Subject Matter Expert (SME) interviews. 

Be capable of assisting in the transmission of media products. 


FM 3-61.1 

4-35. Media Support -- Initially, the media operations center will need to 
provide varying degrees of support to news media personnel including 
specialized equipment (flak vest, NBC gear, helmets), transmission of 
media products, etc. 

4-36. This support may include but not be limited to: 

• Coordinate media contact with units or individuals to include SME 

• Provide a single point of contact for information on operational 

• Provide news releases, fact sheets, copies of transcripts for news 
briefings/conferences and copies of archival file products 

• When other means are not available, the media center may provide 
coordination for transportation (to and from interview sources), 
transmission of media products and food and billeting 

• Provide limited media escort within the area 

• (SOPs for MOCs should be pre-established for each theater of 
operation and used for media operations within that theater.) 


4-37. Principle to supporting the commander's information strategy is the 
inclusion of news media representatives (NMR) within Army units from 
the earliest pre-deployment stages of all operations. The personal safety 
of media representatives, as acknowledged by the media themselves, is 
not a reason for excluding them from operations. 

4-38. However, all media requesting support or access to units to cover 
Army operations must be registered. This includes freelance journalist, 
military media representatives, such as those who are assigned to Armed 
Forces Radio and Television Service, Stars & Stripes newspaper and 
other Armed Forces Information Service (AFIS) personnel who are not 
supporting units on the battlefield. 

4-39. Registration versus Accreditation. Accreditation is the 
verification and validation that a person represents a legitimate 
commercial news organization. This means that accrediting governments 
or military organizations will physically verify the affiliation of an 
applicant with a specific news organization. 

4-40. This is difficult to perform amidst an ongoing operation, especially 
when deployed far away from CON US. It is generally accepted that, 
when overseas, the decision to accredit news media is made by the host 
nation's government in coordination with the combined or unified 

4-41. When accreditation isn't required by the host nation, responsibility 
for this determination is held by the combined or unified commander. 
Accreditation is normally performed at Corps level or higher. 

4-42. Accreditation is a major problem for many commands because they 
are forced to determine the legitimacy of smaller, lessor-known news 
organizations and freelance journalists without news organization 

4-43. Unless it is absolutely required by host nations, the American 
military will attempt to avoid accreditation. 


_Chapter 4 

4-44. Registration, however, is merely an accounting tool, which provides 
PAOs the ability to know what media are represented in the theater, 
where they are located, and their movement around the theater. This 
information is helpful in planning and conducting media logistical 
support and transportation, and in preparing subordinate commands for 
media encounters. It is also helpful to commanders who might want to 
provide newsworthy events to the media. 

4-45. Registration also identifies which news media have asked for 
military assistance and access, and have agreed to the command's media 
ground rules. 

4-46. Registration Requirements. The registration process is 
conducted in five basic steps: 

• Verify the identity of the media representative (including checking 
for valid passport/visa, professional media organization 
membership card, media ID card, other military press credentials, 

• Have them sign an agreement to abide by the established media 
ground rules for the operation in exchange for granting support, 
access to units, information and other privileges. If required, 
revoke credentials for those who violate the ground rules. 
(Enforcement of this requirement is essential.) 

• Have NMR agree to and sign a liability waiver that frees the 
military of responsibility if the NMR is killed or injured as a result 
of covering the operation. (An example of a waiver of liability is at 
Annex I). 

• Give NMRs proof of registration (memorandum, press badge or 
other identification). 

• Maintain a roster of registered NMRs and monitor their 
movements duri ng the ti me they are recei vi ng mi I itary support. 

4-47. NMRs who refuse to agree to the mi I itary ground rules and who are 
not registered will receive only the support and information assistance as 
provided to the general public. 

4-48. NMRs should be informed that registration and acceptance of 
media ground rules will entitle them to better access to units and subject 
matter experts, and provision of military ground and air transportation 
when possible. 


4-49. Media ground rules will assist inprotecting the security and the 
safety of the troops involved while allowing you the greatest permissible 
freedom and access in covering the story. All interviews with news media 
representatives wi 1 1 be on the record. 

4-50. Security at the source will be the policy. (An example of media 
ground rules is in Appendix X.) 

4-51. The foil owing categories of information are releasable: 

• Arrival of major U.S. units when officially announced by a U.S. 
spokesperson. Mode of travel (sea or air) and date of departure 
from home station 


FM 3-61.1 


Approximate friendly force strength figures, after review by host 
nation government 

Approximate enemy casualty and POW figures for each action 

Non-sensitive, unclassified information regarding U.S. air, ground 
and sea operations (past and present). 

Friendly force size in an action or operation will be announced 
using general terms such as multi-battalion or naval task force 

Specific force/unit identification/designation may be released when 
it has become public knowledge and no longer warrants security 

Identification and location of military targets and objectives 
previously under attack 

Generic origin of air operations such as land or carrier based. 

Date/time/location of previous conventional military missions and 
actions as well as mission results 

Types of ordnance expended will be released in general terms 
rather than specific amounts 

Weather and climate conditions 

Allied participation by type of operation (ships, aircraft, ground 

units, etc) 

Information Not Releasable 

I nformation about future military plans, activities or operations 

Vulnerabilities or weaknesses on command, control, personnel or 
the operation 

Friendly unit and command strengths, on-hand equipment or 
supplies; the presence, activities and methods of operation of 
specifically designated units or equipment 

I nformation on friendly force security and deception measures and 
counter measures, and intelligence col lection activities 

Specific information on friendly force current operations and 
movements, deployments and dispositions 

I nformation on in-progress operations against hostile targets 

Information on nuclear, biological or chemical weapons, equipment 
or training 


4-53. J ournalists, as a group, are strongly opposed to media pools in any 
form. The media pool is seen as a restriction placed on the media 
representatives and their ability to provide coverage of the news. They 
are grudgingly tolerated, and should be only used as a last resort when 
space onboard military transportation is limited, access to an area must 
be controlled, and after all other possibilities have been explored and 
eliminated. Even under conditions of open coverage, pools may be 
appropriate for specific events. Both the Army and the news media are in 
agreement, however, that limited access is better than no access at all. 

4-54. When a pool system is required, the military PAO will identify the 
maximum size of the pool that can be supported. The news media 


_Chapter 4 

representatives on the scene will select media pool members. A roster of 
media personnel registered with the Army PAO will be used to identify 
the media representatives eligible to participate. The pool should consist 
of, but not be limited to, a minimum of one video crew (camera operator, 
sound technician and reporter), one still photographer (wire service, 
newspaper, or magazine), one radio reporter, and one newspaper or wire 
service reporter. Special consideration must be given to international 
reporters as well. While this is a fair and representative pool structure, it 
is the media themselves who must determine the make-up of the pool. 
Some news events and situations may lend themselves more to print, or 
conversely television reporting, and the media representatives may 
choose to select an unbalanced pool. 

4-55. All pool members must be willing and able to meet deadlines and 
supply information products (video, audio, still media, and text) in a 
timely manner to all media representatives who are entitled to material 
generated by the pool. The military media center will also have access to 
this information and will make it available to all other requesting news 
media organizations. 

4-56. Consistent with its capabilities, the military will supply PAOs with 
facilities to enable timely, secure, compatible transmission of pool 
material and will make these facilities available whenever possible for 
filing independent coverage. In cases when government facilities are 
unavailable, journalists will, as always, file by any other means available. 
The military will not ban communications systems operated by news 
organizations, but electromagnetic operational security in battlefield 
situations may require restrictions on the use of such systems. 

4-57. Once a media pool has been selected, the media pool will select a 
team leader. It is the responsibility of this team leader to ensure that 
members of the media pool meet their obligation to share information. 
The Army PAO will not involve himself in settling internal disputes of 
the media pool. 

4-58. Finally, the pool is an option of last resort. It should be disbanded 
as soon as free and open access to the operational area can be allowed, 
normally within the first 24 hours of an operation. 


4-59. The DoD National Media Pool was established to prevent 
recurrence of problems encountered with media coverage during 
Operation Urgent Fury in Grenada in 1983. During the first 24 hours of 
Urgent Fury, more than 600 reporters attempted to gain access to the 
operation. The large numbers overwhelmed the limited Public Affairs 
elements available to assist them. 

4-60. In 1985, the Secretary of Defense established the DoD National 
Media Pool, a civilian news element of approximately 16 media 
representatives from various national news organizations, with the 
mission of covering an operation from its initial stages until open 
coverage could be allowed. 

4-61. The pool members remain on call in Washington, D.C., and are 
available for immediate worldwide deployment. Their products are 
shared by the open news media until the pool is disbanded and access is 
granted to the entire news community. 


FM 3-61.1 

4-62. Supported commanders are responsible for providing operational 
support to the DoD National Media Pool. At a minimum, the pool 
members will requ i re: 

• Daily, comprehensive and unclassified operational news briefings. 

• Access to ongoing combat operations. The media are aware of the 
personal risks involved in covering combat operations. They will 
not be denied access to them based on risk to their personal safety. 

• Reasonable access to key personnel. All information gathered from 
these personnel is unclassified and on the record. 

• An escort -- usually a lieutenant colonel or colonel -- to coordinate 
pool support and access requirements. 

• Transportation and itinerary planning and coordination that will 
allow media to gain access to the theater of operations and to 
disperse pool members throughout the operational area. 

• In today's global information environment, when news media can 
report live from almost anywhere in the world in almost any 
environment, the technological capabilities of most news 
organizations decreases the importance of the DoD National Media 
Pool once word of an operation has spread. 

• When the DoD media pool is operational, PAOs will attempt to 
provide the same information support concerning theater 
operations to all other media in the operational area. 

• However, their primary responsibility is to the DoD Media Pool. 
After the DoD media pool is dissolved, all media in theater will be 
dealt with in an equitable manner with respect to information and 
support provided. 

• As soon as open access to the operational area can be allowed 
(normally within the first 24 hours of an operation), the DoD 
National Media should be disbanded. 


4-63. There are several reasons for holding news briefings, in addition to 
the daily operational news briefing required at the unified command 

• Credibility: The physical presence of a briefer and his willingness 
to meet the issue head on leads to a much more credible 

• Uniformity: All media get the same information at the same time. 

• Expression of concern: A briefer represents the face of the 
command, which shows more concern than an impersonal news 
release, especially in situations where there is loss of life or 
extensive damage. 

• Complexity of material: Where material istechnical or complicated, 
the news briefing makes the subject matter more easily 
understandable. The question and answer session that 
accompanies a news briefing saves time in call-backs by news 
reporters needing clarification. 

4-64. News briefings should be done daily during an operation and when 
important events dictate. They should: 


Chapter 4 

• Get out a specific message 

• Explain complex or technical matters 

• Reach a large number of media interested in the same subject 
matter area. 

4-65. PA specialists should think about media deadlines and set the time 
to help the media meet those deadlines. Be sure to invite all media 
within the area in a timely manner. 

4-66. A knowledgeable and articulate spokesperson should be chosen to 
present the material. This should be the subject matter expert (SME), 
but may be the PAO or the commander. At the very minimum, a person 
of prominence within the command should be selected. 

4-67. Other SMEs may be in attendance at the briefing to field technical 
questions. The SME interviews should be at the request of an individual 
media representative and the time should beset to facilitate the media to 
meet those deadl i nes. 

4-68. Consideration should be given to the appearance of the 

presentation, the message, space, lighting, electrical needs, suitable 

setting, chairs, tables and press packets. All handouts should be 

4-69. Appendix H provides briefing and press conference formats. 


FM 3-61.1 


Chapter 5 

Information Strategies 

The defining trend of the 1990s, from corporate boardrooms to private 
living rooms, is connecting everyone and everything to everyone and 
everything else. The American public is faced with many choices: 
interactive television, cellular phones, modems, faxes, personal digital 
assistants, an assortment of daily newspapers, online computer 
information services and other easily accessible information services -- 
if it can be connected, it seems to be in demand. The computer has 
invaded the American home. In this decade it has become routine 
that news and information can now be tailored to fit the individual 
needs of the consumer using on-line services, distributed electronically 
and received instantaneously at his or her computer. With the 
sophistication, power and miniaturization of these technologies 
improving each year, and the cost dropping at an equally rapid pace, 
the public will expect access to these devices and services and the 
information they carry. These emerging technologies have contributed 
to the refocusing of the Public Affairs mission. It has resulted in 
shifting the information provision function from an emphasis on 
producing specific products (such as post and field newspapers and 
radio/television news programs) to focusing on the processing of our 
themes and messages and their intended effects -- the function of 
information communication, rather than the form. This chapter 
explains the objectives of information strategies, identifies and 
explains the elements of information strategies, and describes the 
relative advantages and disadvantages of present day and emerging 
information communication channels available to PA organizations. 
Most importantly, it explains how best to use these information 
channels to satisfy the information needs of the various target 
audiences as we enter the information age. 


5-1. I nformation Strategies is the sum of all actions and activities, which 
contribute to informing the American public and the Army. The 
responsibility for this activity is assigned to an element within each PA 
section, which focuses entirely on accomplishing the information strategy 
mission. This section is usually called the Public Affairs Information 


FM 3-61.1 

Services Section. At all echelons, it employs numerous techniques to 
provide news and information to internal and external audiences. The 
Army provides an expedited flow of complete, accurate and timely 
information, which not only communicates the Army perspective, but also 
attempts to educate audiences and engender support for the force. 

5-2. Using a combination of contracted services, organic military assets, 
and government and commercial communications networks, Public 
Affairs organizations provide information to news media representatives, 
deployed soldiers, home station audiences and the American public. The 
Information Services Section within a Public Affairs organization 
coordinates information efforts and develops informational products (such 
as digital text, graphics, and photos, printed publications, audio/video 
news releases and graphic imagery) into consolidated campaigns 
designed specifically to present the Army's perspective. This means that 
Army Public Affairs communicates information to create an informed 
American public and Army force, assist them in gaining a clear 
understanding of the strategic, operational and tactical situation. 

5-3. To accomplish this, the Information Services Section must develop 
information objectives or goals during the planning process prior to an 
operation. These information goals are similar to the PA standards of 
service and support, which appear in Appendix 0, in that they establish a 
basis for determining successful information communication operations. 

5-4. These information objectives should include: 

• Ensuring an understanding of the role of America's Armed Forces 
in American society. 

• Ensuring an accurate perception of the particular military 
situation or mission. 

• Ensuring an understanding of individual and unit roles in mission 

• Establishing confidence in America's Army to accomplish the 
assigned mission in accordance with our national values. 

• Establishing confidence in and support for American soldiers. 

5-5. By establishing a comprehensive information strategy program, 
Public Affairs can assist in mission accomplishment by increasing 
audience understanding of the situation and establish confidence in and 
support for the force. This contributes to unit cohesion and provides 
commanders with increased range of action, free of distractions and 

5-6. This is best accomplished by three basic types of information 

• MISSION. Both external and internal publics need to know what 
the mission is, what they're being asked to do and why. They need 
to know not only the organization's mission, but also how it fits into 
the big picture-- the political/strategic-level situation, and why it is 

• ROLE. All military members and civilian employees need to have 
an understanding of their job and how it relates to mission 
accomplishment. The general public needs to have an accurate 
understanding of the military's role and its ability to accomplish 


_Chapter 5 

the mission. This understanding results in confidence in the force 
and demonstrates American unity and resolve. 

• MORALE. Military members need to have access to news and 

information about current events and the activities available to 

them while deployed. They also need to have access to information 

from civilian commercial news sources. This is important because, 

in addition to being more credible, it allows the deployed force to 

see how the operation and their participation in it are being 

portrayed for the American public. In order to better understand 

the mission, their role in it, and give it his or her full effort, they 

have to know what effect the operation is likely to have at the local, 

regional, national and international levels. The opportunity to 

involve themselves in educational and other activities is necessary 

to quality of life and morale. A well-informed service member is 

more effective. 

5-7. The general public is interested in soldiers, their lifestyle, how they 

are being treated and their ability to accomplish a given mission. 

Information about these topics provide reassurance, confirming that 

soldiers maintain professional and ethical values and are being cared for 


Historical Perspective 

During Operation Desert Shield/Storm, many commanders developed innovative 
methods of sharing Command Information products produced in theater and in the 
rear. The products greatly enhanced morale at both ends. Some commanders and 
PAOs used the products as issue management tools to dispel rumors in theater and 
at home station. The products included field newspapers, newsletters, videotapes, 
audiotapes, etc. They also let soldiers returning from the area meet with family 
support groups to answer any questions. 

(After Action Report 1991) 


5-8. Commanders at each echelon are responsible for Public Affairs 
operations and support. Public Affairs officers and noncommissioned 
officers at various levels assist commanders in the discharge of these 
responsibilities. Public Affairs staffs are responsible for accomplishing 
the Public Affairs information communication mission. This 
responsibility includes Public Affairs operations in all subordinate, 
assigned or attached commands. 

5-9. PA is only one of many information channels available to a 
commander. PA information provision cannot substitute for a 
commander's personal involvement in his "Command Information" 

5-10. All public affairs practitioners have access to all information that is 
not classified or violates Operational Security or the Essential Elements 
of Friendly Information (EEFI) for use in preparing information products. 
Commanders must ensure the EFFI is up-to-date based on current 
situations and operational guidance. Public Affairs personnel at all levels 


FM 3-61.1 

must produce and release accurate information packages based on DoD 
directives and Army policies. 

5-11. Strategic Level Commands are responsible for providing public 
affairs guidance to subordinate units. They develop central themes and 
messages and provide umbrella guidance to subordinate PA staffs. They 
must also provide subordinate commands with information useful in 
preparing information products for internal and external release. They 
are additionally responsible for marketing public affairs information 
products to subordinate commands, home stations, the Army as a whole, 
as well as the general public. Strategic level Public Affairs staffs are the 
primary coordination point for the Armed Forces Radio and Television 
Service and the geographical manager for radio and television services 
including personnel, down links, facilities and equipment. 

5-12. Operational Level Commands are responsible for 
communicating public affairs guidance to subordinate units. They 
expand on information campaign themes and messages, and provide 
additional information products to subordinate command PA staffs. 
Additionally, they provide subordinate commands with information 
useful in preparing information products for internal and external 
release. They are responsible for gathering and producing public affairs 
information products for release. I n the event the Operational Command 
is the senior command in an area or theater, it assumes the 
responsibilities of the strategic level command. 

5-13. Tactical Level Commands are responsible for gathering 
information products for release through their next higher headquarters 
to home stations, the Army as a whole, as well as the general public. 
These commands are also responsible for coordinating the dissemination 
of information and information products received from senior commands 
down to subordinate commands. In the event the tactical command is the 
senior Army command in an area or theater, it assumes the 
responsibilities of the operational -level command and will be augmented 
to accomplish these additional functions. 


5-14. The I nformation Services Section uses all available means to gather 
complete, factual, unbiased information for use in information campaign 
development. The information is developed, converted into the most 
appropriate product form based on the information needs/target audience 
assessment and information communication channel availability, and 
then transmitted to the intended audiences. This is called the 
Information Provision Process. 

5-15. Although the information strategy process follows a deliberate 
cycle, it is a continual process. Information campaigns are also conducted 
simultaneously, with personnel examining external and internal 
information needs, carrying messages from concept through execution 
and program evaluation, to accomplish specific PA objectives. The cycle 
has four phases -- acquire, process, protect and distribute. (See Figure 5- 
1.) Evaulation is a key component in the cycle. It must be conducted 
throughout the four phases. This ensures the campaigns are meeting 
their objectives, and are altered if they do not. 


_Chapter 5 








^ Deliver 

^\ Information 






Security at 



'Evaluation must be conducted throughout each phase 
Figure 5-1 

5-16. During this phase, a ISS identifies and assesses several factors: the 
situation, the environmental factors, the mission, and the target 
audiences. They determine the information needs of the various target 
audiences. They then begin to gather information based on the 
information requirements of these audiences. 

• Information Needs Assessment and Audience Analysis. 

Identification of the target audiences and target audience 
populations and densities must be developed during the planning 
stages of operations with target audience assessments. Upon 
assessment of target audiences and consideration of which type of 
information product will best serve each audience, commanders 
must ensure adequate public affairs personnel, equipment (to 
include communications), resources and funds are available and 
included in OPLANS/OPORDS to achieve mission success. An 
assessment of soldier information needs is crucial to the 
information package development and the selection of appropriate 

• Information Gathering. Information gathering is the first step 
in producing packages for release to internal and external 
audiences. Public affairs personnel gather information through 


FM 3-61.1 

operational, administrative, logistical, battle, staff, command and 
support channels. They also acquire information through the 
media, research, leaders and the culture at large. I nformation may 
be obtained via electronic and telecommunication systems in 
addition to written documents and oral communications. While 
information often comes from superior and subordinate commands, 
it may also be obtained laterally. 

• Sources of information must be valid and diverse enough to provide 
a broad overview. Public Affairs staffs must ensure the source does 
not speculate, nor speak out of his area of expertise. However, 
soldiers' experiences and personal opinions may lend credibility 
and provide a "grass-roots" view. 


5-17. During this phase, the ISS begins to develop products, prepare 
them for release and determine methods for distrubition. 

• Product Development. Development of information products is 
performed to some degree by PA personnel at all Public Affairs 
levels and is an on-going process. The term "product," as used in 
this process, means the message for intended communication, 
regardless of the format or communication channel proposed. 
Initial production development may be command directed or 
initiated by the Public Affairs staff or provided by other Army 
agencies. The command's resources and the target audience's 
requi rements wi 1 1 deter mi ne the product type. 

• Prepare products. Information packages should be prepared in 
accordance with Public Affairs Guidance, Soldiers' Manuals, Field 
Manuals, SOPs and Army Regulations. Ultimately, the Public 
Affairs staff is responsible for content. 

• Media Forms/Methods. Soldiers use a variety of technologies to 
gather information and produce information products. During the 
gathering process, PA soldiers conduct interviews, attend briefings, 
withdraw data from government and commercial computer 
databases, bulletin boards, and e-mail systems. They acquire text, 
graphics, photography and motion video from government and 
commercial Internet systems. The nature, distribution, usability 
and flexibility of public affairs systems are crucial in the processing 
of information. 

• Professional quality systems should be used whenever possible. 
For printed products, preferred systems include computers, desktop 
publishing, word processing, laser printing, etc. Reproduction may 
be Army-contracted, Army-funded or reproduced using the 
command's assets. Video and audio products intended for release 
to news media should attempt to be broadcast-industry standard. 

• Electronic newsgathering and editing systems should be used when 
available. Visual products should be generated by modern methods 
including digital imagery and computer graphics. 

• Print, Articles released to home station for military publications 
and family support group publications; for marketing to civilian 
publications; field publications, e.g. newsletters, with and without 




_Chapter 5 

• Video. Raw electronic news gathering video and printed news 
scripts for release to military and civilian outlets. 

• Audio. Radio interviews; features; internal command information 
scripts; radio news; news reports for release to military and civilian 

• Visual. Digital imagery; photographs; slides, view graphs; 
graphics for release to military and civilian print and broadcast 

• Digital. Each of the categories described above may be developed 
and distributed electronically, either through commercial 
information services directly on the Internet, or by using tactical 
Army communications systems (SINCGARS and ATCCS). Modern 
technology in use on the battlefield has made digital transmission 
the preferred method for all types of products. 

5-18. Security at the source. No information strategy is complete 
without a clear cut understanding of how to protect the information. Both 
sides can benefit from information and use information simultaneously 
against each other. Pieces of the right information can have a dramatic 
impact on the outcome of an operation. Public Affairs professionals will 
continue to protect vital information by practicing security at the source 
and following established operational security guidelines. 

5-19. In addition to protecting the raw and completed information 
products, public affairs personnel must also take the necessary steps to 
protect information networks. 

5-20. Dissemination. Public Affairs information packages should be 
released in the format most easily used by the recipient. While this is not 
always possible, a product stands less chance of being used if it is 
incompatible with the recipients' equipment. For example, a video 
product released on Hi -8 to a TV station that works exclusively with Beta 
SP has less a chance of being aired than a video story in a compatible 

5-21. Public Affairs information packages must be expedited to the users 
by the most technologically advanced reliable method. Great 
consideration must be given to the speed and reliability of the mode of 
dissemination. This must be included in target audience assessments 
and conducted during planning stages of operations. Articles and photos 
may be sent from deployed locations to home stations via computer 
systems and telephone lines. Yet based on the quality of the 
telecommunications system, it may be more reliable to use the mail or a 
courier. As technology improves PA capabilities, Public Affairs will 
incorporate those improvements into the information gathering and 
dissemination system to increase its potential to reach an ever-growing, 
information-hungry public. For example, the emergence of smaller, more 
powerful satellite link ups can provide PA elements the ability to reach 
targeted audiences sooner and from more locations. 

5-22. Internal information packages must be available to soldiers at all 
levels of command. Public Affairs must develop and coordinate a 


FM 3-61.1 

distribution scheme with the commander, the general staff, and with 
signal as the proponent for physical distribution of certain commercial 
news and information products. An efficient distribution system will also 
ensure prompt delivery of public affairs products. The public affairs staff 
must conduct periodic quality control checks and update the distribution 
scheme as necessary, based on changing population densities or 
information products. Electronic means are the preferred mode of 
distribution, however additional methods include, but are not limited to 
contract delivery, AG distribution and the military postal system. 

5-23. Products for distribution to deployed soldiers. Publications 
produced by other military agencies intended for deployed soldiers must 
be given the same distribution considerations as commercial information 
packages. For example Stars & Stripes, Soldiers Magazine, Army Trainer 
and home station post newspapers contracted for delivery to deployed 
soldiers must be given the same distribution considerations as other 
publications. However, a separate distribution scheme may be required. 


5-24. The final step in the Information Provision function is the 
evaluation of our communication efforts. Evaluating communications 
programs is research, which boils down to a series of questions: 

• Did we achieve our objectives? 

• Were our policies and programs effectively communicated? 

• Was the operation affected positively by our efforts? 

• Did the American public support our soldiers? Was unit cohesion 

• What audiences received our messages? What was the impact of 
our communication programs on these audiences? 

• Research is the foundation of the Information Program Evaluation. 
Corrections and changes in courses of action should be based on 
solid factual information. Methods for conducting Information 
Program research are discussed in greater detail in Appendix P. 



5-25. Modern technology has provided us with an advanced form of 
communications structure called non-hierarchical structure. The 
advantage of non-hierarchical communication structuring is that every 
"node" in a communications web shares information with every other 
"node". Each node on a network can identify itself and "find" others in the 
network in order to communicate specific information. Public Affairs 
elements act as information nodes, gathering, developing and sharing 
information vertically and horizontally on the battlefield. 

5-26. While this technology was originally intended for command and 
control, it is essential for other functions on the battlefield as well. Well- 
coordinated public affairs operations will leverage this capability to move 
information -- sending messages around the battlefield, to and from home 
station, and up and down the chain of command. 


_Chapter 5 

5-27. The end state of this technology effort is that both organizations 
and individual soldiers on the battlefield will possess this capability. 


5-28. Information technology provides the means to collect, process, 
display, develop and disseminate information in an unparalleled manner. 
This technology has begun to revolutionize our approach to information 

5-29. The PA specialist now has the ability to access desired information 
on a certain issue and tailor and develop this information into a message 
for dissemination -- all from a personal laptop computer. 

5-30. This "from anywhere to anywhere" capability allows the PA 
specialist at all echelons to accomplish his mission of presenting the 
Army's perspective-- framing issues and informing targeted audiences. 

5-31. There are two telecommunication systems available to Army PA 
specialists: DoD's internal secure communication network, known as the 
Defense Data Network (DDN) and the worldwide commercial information 
network -- Internet. PA specialists must be familiar with both. 


5-32. Defense link is an entry point to Internet sites operated by the 
Office of the Secretary of Defense, the armed services and related defense 
agencies. It provides a means to search and download Department of 
Defense directives, obtain transcripts of important speeches and connect 
to other sites dealing with specific military operations. 

5-33. The Department of Defense organizations are extensively 
represented on the Defense Data Network. Each of the military services 
has a centralized directory of its Internet sites. Army Link, as its name 
suggests is a catalog or hotlist of more than 280 Army home pages. The 
sites are indexed alphabetically and by subject area. 


5-34. The I nternet is a network of networks. Originally, the I nternet was 
developed by DoD with the goal of building a automation system linking 
government agencies together which would continue to function in case 
part of the network ceased to exist. From this inception, the Internet 
grew, as other agencies and activities noticed the benefit of linked 
telecommunications. The system now includes organizations from all 
segments of society: government, defense, business, education, health 
services, etc. There are more than 30,000 networks participating on the 
Internet and more than 150 million individual users. And more are 
connecting everyday. 

5-35. Army Public Affairs personnel have access to the I nternet through 
their local Directorate of Information Management (DOIM). 

5-36. On the Internet, there are six main activities: "Hypertext" 
documents with multimedia links on the World Wide Web can be viewed, 
files can be downloaded with a file transfer program or "FTP," data can 
be located, communication via e-mail, reading and posting messages to 


FM 3-61.1 

news groups and bulletin boards, and logging in to remote computers 
using Tel net. 

5-37. You can do most of the same things in the I nternet that you can do 
on any of the commercial information services, but you do them in the 
context of a much larger network that isn't centrally organized or 

5-38. World Wide Web. The World Wide Web, also known as WWW, 
W3, or simply the Web, is one of the most popular activities on the 
I nternet. The Web allows you to view documents that feature graphics, 
"hypertext" (text which contains highlighted keywords which are linked 
to other documents or information sources available on Web) and 
multimedia links. The hypertext and multimedia links are tied to other 
documents or information forms that might be on the same computer, one 
across the country, or a machine on the other side of the world. 

5-39. The WWW contains thousands of main menus, called "home pages" 
which identify the various sub-categories at each web site. Web users can 
search using key words or locations through the lists of home pages for 
specific web sites. 

5-40. Gophers. A gopher is a menu driven system that offers text only. 
Users of the web can access gopher sites and retrieve information. It is a 
predecessor of the Web. 

5-41. News groups. They are discussion groups built around a 
particular topic. Some are managed, others are not. News Groups take 
two forms: Mailing List: A list of E-mail addresses to which messages are 
sent. You can subscribe to a mailing lists typically by sending an email to 
the contact address with the following in the body of the message: the 
word subscribe, the name of the list, and your email address. Discussion 
groups: A particular section within the USENET system typically, though 
not always, dedicated to a particular subject of interest. Also known as a 
newsgroup. USENET is a collection of the thousands of bulletin boards 
residing on the Internet. Each bulletin board contains discussion groups, 
or newsgroups, dedicated to a myriad of topics. Messages are posted and 
responded to by readers either as public or private E-mails. 

5-42. E-mail. E-mail is a means of interpersonal communication that 
falls somewhere between the immediacy of a phone conversation and the 
more thoughtful but slower exchange of ideas previously done by writing 
letters and memos. The specifics of using it vary greatly according to the 
mail software being used. 

5-43. Commercial On-line Information Services. Users cannot 
directly dial up to the Internet using a modem, but must gain access 
through an internet service provider. Many offices, universities and large 
businesses provide access for their employees. For access at home, a user 
can either subscribe to one of the commercial on-line services, which 
provide I nternet access in addition to their other features or to one of the 
dedicated I nternet server companies located in most cities. 


Chapter 6 


'You must remember that whether you wear one stripe or six, one 
bar or silver eagles you automatically become an "Army 
spokesman" when you are approached by the press. Within 24 
hours the words of that Army spokesman can be flashed world 

wide, particularly if they can be construed as criticism 

Everything you say should have the ultimate aim of furthering 
that effort Your approach to the questions of the press should 
emphasize the positive aspects of your activities and avoid 
gratuitous criticism. Emphasize the feeling of achia/ement, the 
hopes for the future, instances of outstanding individual or unit 
performance and optimism in general. But don't destroy your 
personal credibility by gilding the lily. As songwriter J ohnny 
Mercer put it, 'You've got to accentuate the positive and eliminate 
the negative." 

- U.S. Continental Army Command memo to advisers in Vietnam. 

The Military and the Media, 
William M. Hammond, 1988 


6-1. The cost of learning in combat is too high. Therefore, commanders 
and staff section chiefs must conduct cost- and time-effective staff 
training during peacetime. In order to conduct effective training, every 
consideration regarding PA activities should be evaluated. 

6-2. Evaluation should include, but is not limited to, analysis, planning 
and execution of the operation. The PA staff, in conjunction with other 
members of the organization, must train in the initial planning of the 
operation. In order to train effectively, the following considerations 
should be evaluated: 

6-3. Analysis. Specified and implied tasks are identified at home station 
for deployment, mission and redeployment requirements. 

• Feasibility of all tasks are determined and assessed. 

• Consider any PA guidance issued by higher headquarters and 
determi ne sped al i zed trai ni ng requi rements. 

• Consider all phases of host nation operations and the effect on your 
operation and organization. 


FM 3-61.1 

• Determine the availability of required assets and equipment for all 
phases of the operation. 

• Consider the availability and use of internal and external assets -- 
joint, RC and combined -- to augment known shortfalls. 

• Determine any transportation requirements for your organization 
or attached personnel. 

6-4. Planning. Planning includes PA annexes, command directives, 
DOD guidance, regulations and directives stipulated by the commander's 
intent and mission requirements. 

• PA annexes should contain a brief, general description of the 
situation and intent to conduct operations. 

• Planning should also consider enemy forces and host nation 
personnel and their relationship to the operation. 

• PA planning should be considered for all attachments and 
detachments currently known or listed under the task 
organization. This includes planning for assets and requirements 
from home station to redeployment. 

• Training should be conducted emphasizing procedures for handling 
the transmission of all information. Theater-unique requirements 
may call for special training scenarios. 

• All logistical and administrative requirements need to be addressed 
in the planning and training process. 

6-5. Execution. The staff, soldiers and media understand the 
commander's intent in terms of his command position and operational 
mission. The operational area ground rules are included in the PAG and 
are widely disseminated throughout the organizations. 

• Encourage local media to accompany deployed units. 

• Adequate vehicles have been identified and assigned to transport 
PA personnel and media throughout operational areas. This 
includes vehicles, aircraft and available transportation assets for 
transporting all media personnel and products. Consideration of 
transportation should include all support activities in the forward 
area of operation. 

• Public Affairs personnel in the media center will prepare releases 
of specific events to disseminate in the area of operations. News 
media inquiries are anticipated, received, researched and answered 
as quickly as possible. 

• Local security review policies are clear and will not delay the 
transmission of information. 

• Executions of the theater policy for registration policies and local 
media pool operations have been completed. Non credential ed 
media are identified and escorted to the rear for registration. Once 
registered, media personnel will be allowed to cover stories and 
interact with organizations in the area of operations. 

6-6. The staff section must be able to: 

• Cope with the unexpected. For example, media arriving at the unit 
level without PA escort or media not registered with the joint 
media operations center. 


• Separate fact from fiction. For example, media having 
misinformation which they believe as fact and trying to confirm it. 

• Coordinate well amid confusion. For example, be able to access the 
PA staff at the MOC. 

• Think clearly while under great stress. For example, have a unit 
PA representative (UPAR) who will handle escorted/n on escorted 
media for the unit. 

• PA elements develop training plans from assessments of their 
performance proficiency on their METL. 

• Detailed training plans for Public Affairs Detachments are 
contained in ARTEP 45-500-10-MTP, for the Mobile Public Affairs 
Detachment in ARTEP 45-413-30-MTP and for the PAOC, ARTEP 

• The training plans in those documents can be readily adapted to 
train other types of PA elements, such as a division PA staff. 


6-7. All PA training must be based on the training principles in the FM 

• Train as combined arms and services team. Do not train in a 
vacuum. Train with the unit you support. 

• Train as you fight Conduct realistic training. PA leaders must 
move soldiers out of the office and into the field to conduct training, 
including joint and combined operations. Set up a media 
operations center and conduct operations for a day. 

• Use appropriate doctrine. All PA leaders should be familiar 
with FM 3-0 (100-5), Operations; FM 3-13 (100-6), Information 
Operations; and the PA manual, FM 3-61 (46-1), PA Operations. 

• Use performance-oriented training. Performing tasks under 
field conditions with appropriate evaluation enables your soldiers 
to perform better under actual conditions. 

• Train to sustain proficiency. PA units must take advantage of 
all training opportunities to sustain proficiency, participating in all 
CPXs, FTXs and deployments that their supported units are 
involved in. 

• Train to challenge. Training for PA tasks must create the kind of 
pressure PA soldiers will face in actual situations. Ensure it is 
challenging but realistic. 

• Train using multi-echelon techniques. The entire PA chain-of- 
command must participate in training for it to be realistic and 

• Train to maintain. Soldiers and leaders must keep equipment in 
a high state of readiness in support of training and for deployment. 

• Make commanders the primary trainers. The unit commander 
is the primary training manager for the unit. The commander 
assigns primary responsibility to officers for collective training and 
to NCOs for soldier training. 


FM 3-61.1 


6-8. Regardless of type, size or configuration, PA elements/units must 
train with the units they support. PA leaders must evaluate the ability of 
their units to support their real-world missions successfully and 
determi ne areas of weakness. 

6-9. PA leaders must determine what training opportunities they can 
participate in realistically and coordinate for support from higher 
headquarters. If support is not provided, then unit leaders must create 
their own unit training program that simulates the tasks they will be 
asked to do when deployed. 

6-10. For example, PADs should deploy with brigades to NTC or J RTC to 
practice their unit mission and capabilities and be evaluated accordingly. 
If the PAD is tasked with garrison duties, these duties must be retasked 
to allow the unit to train and maintain. 

6-11. PA elements and units should take advantage of the excellent 
training opportunities offered by the J RTC and NTC. Both centers 
conduct media-on-the-battlefield training for visiting maneuver units. 
Public affairs elements should accompany the maneuver brigades and 
establish field media centers to take maximum advantage of these 
resources. It is imperative that PA elements be able to function effectively 
in austere environments. They cannot perform to their maximum 
capability unless they train accordingly. The key is repeated, tough, 

Historical Perspective 

An initial PA team was sent to Somalia to set up a media operations center in 
December 1992. Mogadishu at the time was a war zone with many fronts. Initially, 
U.S. forces set up operations at the airport. Under the constant roar of C-5s, the PA 
team tried to organize a MOC. They had a very difficult time dealing with the lack of 
power and water. Eventually they were able to set up in a schoolyard. A "JIB-in-a- 
box" arrived with computer equipment, but it was all 220-volt — power in Somalia is 

For the duration of the operation, personnel at the MOC learned to live and work 
under austere conditions, where food, water, power, and communications were 
constant problems. They eventually were able to set up a briefing room with 
benches, an old couch and a bulletin board for posting media opportunities, and 
conducted media operations under austere conditions. 

(After Action Report 1992) 

6-12. Home station CPXsand FTXs are fundamental training events that 
provide PA elements relatively low-cost opportunities to practice the full 
spectrum of wartime PA tasks on a reduced scale. 

6-13. A visit by even a single reporter can be used to exercise a broad 
range of media support tasks including establishing a field media center; 
arranging interviews; preparing subject matter experts, individual 
soldiers and commanders to meet the media; preparing fact sheets; 
responding to media queries; registering media; arranging escorts and 
transportation, etc. 



6-14. Public affairs training is not limited to training for PA soldiers. PA 
elements/soldiers also have a responsibility to train non-PA soldiers and 
family members in military/media relations. Organic PA elements must 
develop training programs for their supported units. These can take the 
form of classes as well as pre-deployment briefings for units and family 

6-15. Training for commanders and subject matter experts. Unit 
commanders and individual subject matter experts must be prepared to 
be interviewed. It is a PA responsibility to ensure they are familiar with 
the ground rules and know to restrict their statements and comments to 
their area of expertise. Details on how to do this are contained in the 
Soldier's Manual task, "Prepare a Spokesman to Address the Media," 

6-16. Training for unit soldiers. Individual soldiers must be advised of 
the inevitability of media presence during military operations. Classes for 
units can be part of sergeant's time training and consist of teaching 
soldiers what they should and should not talk about when meeting the 
press. All soldiers should be encouraged to represent themselves as 
soldiers and encouraged to speak about the jobs they perform for the 

6-17. Training for family members. PA training for family members 
consists of educating them on their rights and responsibilities when 
interacting with the media. Family members often know more about 
specific operations than should be revealed to the media. They must be 
advised not to discuss information, which may be used by the enemy 
against their spouse's unit, such as details about troop movements, 
destinations, missions etc. They must also be advised that they have the 
right to refuse to talk to the media. Family member briefings should be a 
standard element of pre-deployment family support group activities. 

6-18. Basic soldier skills. Public affairs soldiers are soldiers first and 
public affairs practitioners second. It is imperative they are well trained 
in basic soldiering skills. Public affairs elements and units must make 
time to train to standards on common soldier tasks that allow them to 
effectively shoot, move, communicate and survive on the battlefield. 

6-19. Readiness. All PA elements and units must have, and exercise, 
detailed load plans. Soldiers should be aware of the importance of 
maintaining all equipment and vehicles in a state of readiness for 

6-20. PA NCOs must ensure soldiers participate in preparations for 
overseas movement (POM) so they are administratively and medically 
prepared for worldwide deployment. Soldiers should be aware of the 
importance of wills, shots, powers-of-attorney, personal data and 

6-21. Staff Section and Unit Training. A state of operational readiness 
to conduct combat or non-combat operations must be attained and 
maintained. This level of readiness is accomplished by preparing 
individuals, shifts and staff sections to perform assigned tasks and other 
duties at the desired standard of proficiency in advance of assigned 


FM 3-61.1 

6-22. Standards of performance must be set so the section can evaluate 
its performance. Examples of these standards include: 

• Understanding DOD's policy statement -- Commanders will ensure 
maximum unrestricted disclosures of unclassified information to 
news media representatives consistent with operational security, 
guidance from higher headquarters and the privacy of individuals 

• Escorted and unescorted media -- If the media has a PA escort, you 
may agree to an interview after the escort explains some basic 
ground rules. If not escorted, ask media personnel to accompany 
you to the command post, NCOIC or OIC and contact higher 
headquarters/public affairs officer. 

• Conducting an interview -- Military personnel have the right to 
deny media interviews. If a soldier elects to provide the media with 
an interview, he should only discuss those things which he has 
direct responsibility or personal knowledge, and ensure an escort 
(PA or non-PA) is present. See Appendix N for more details. 


6-23. The I nterview Process: 

• Prepare for the interview. Consider the type of questions the 
media will ask, and think what your answer will be. When 
possible, ask for PA assistance (U PAR or PA personnel). 

• Relax and be yourself. I magine that the reporter is someone you 
know and talk with him in a relaxed manner. 

• If cameras are present, ignore them and talk directly to the 
reporter. Be brief and concise. Remember, a TV news story will 
use only 10- to 15-second answers. 

• If you need time to respond, ask the reporter to restate the 
question. A simple pause before answering the question is 

• Use simple language and avoid military jargon (i.e., military 
abbreviations or acronyms). If you must use military terms, 
explain what they mean. 

• Use appropriate posture and gestures. Relax and be yourself. 

• Answer only one question at a time. If asked multiple questions, 
answer the most important one first, or answer the one you're most 
comfortable with. 

• Always try to end your comments on a positive point. This is your 
opportunity to tell your unit's story. 

6-24. Thi ngs not to do: 

• Do not allow media to videotape recognizable landmarks nearby, 
sensitive equipment, interior of tactical operations centers or other 
sensitive areas. UseOPSEC as guide on this matter. 

• Do not answer speculative questions or give opinions concerning 
real or hypothetical ("what if") situations. 

• Do not use the expression, "No comment." A more appropriate 
comment would be, "We don't comment on future operations." or 


Ill I 

I'm not qualified to respond to your question." or "That 
information is classified, so I can't discuss it." 

• Never lie to the media. 

• Consider everything you say to the media as "on the record." 
Never make "off the record" comments. 

• Don't lose your temper when media representatives ask questions 
you consider inappropriate or foolish. Such questions are usually 
rooted in ignorance rather than in malice. 

• Do not discuss operational capabilities, exact numbers or troop 
strengths, numbers/types of casualties, type of weapons systems or 
future plans. Use general terms like approximate, light, moderate 
or heavy. 

• Don't repeat a negative phrase in response to a media 
representative's negative question (e.g., Q: Since your unit is poorly 
trained, can you really deploy? A: We're well trained and ready to 

• Staff section and unit training should be integrated into 
headquarters FTXs and CPXs in order to perform adequately 
within the unit's operational staff during real -world missions. 


6-25. Training exercises will vary from major FTXs to CPXs and Tactical 
Exercises Without Troops (TEWTs). Each training opportunity provides 
the staff element realism, the opportunity to experiment and the ability 
to face situations. These challenging training exercises enable soldiers 
and units to tell the Army's success stories. 

6-26. Training exercises also enable the commander and staff to: 

• Emphasize the tactical SOP. 

• Execute plans in a dynamic, hostile environment. 

• E xerci se bol d sol uti ons. 

• E xerci se conti ngency pi ans. 

• Experience possible defeat without the penalty of combat loss. 

• Work toward goal -oriented performance standards by team 
building while providing PA support. 

• Training exercises also allow PA personnel to become operationally, 
strategically and culturally aware, and puts them in a unique 
position to interface with the news media personalities which 
shape the perceptions of our national and international audiences. 


6-27. Facilitating media in the military environment includes three 
phases -- planning, preparation and execution. 

6-28. Planning. The Media Operations Center receives requests for 
registered media to visit units in their areas of operation. The MOC will 
contact a unit and coordinate the time and location for the visit, as well 
as notifying a PA or nonPA escort for a mission. The escort will need to 
know the unit's location and whether the unit 's UPAR (if applicable) will 
travel with the group or meet them at the unit. The unit will need to 


FM 3-61.1 

know the number of media visiting, the duration of the visit and the 
status of the unit for the last 24 hours (i.e., has the unit been in contact 
with the enemy and has there been any significant actions). 

6-29. The escort will plan the route to the unit. The number of media 
going will determine the number of escorts and vehicles needed for the 

6-30. Preparation. The J I B or escort will notify the media and tell them 
the time and location of departure and estimated time of return. This 
allows the media to plan for their supplies and equipment for the trip. 
The escort should meet with the media and update them on the unit's 
status, find out if the media has any specific requests before departing, 
cover safety points and OPSEC requirements, and ensure they have 
everything they need. This will also provide the escort with a direction 
for the types of questions or issues the media may address. The 
information concerning the unit's situation will allow the escort to 
develop a list of Q&As for the commander and individuals whom the 
media will interview. 

6-31. The escort should meet with the drivers and review the route to the 
unit, cover contingency plans and determine an inspection time before 
movement. The escort should also contact the unit to reconfirm the visit 
and their location, as well as providing a list of the names and agencies of 
media visiting them. The escort should meet the media at the vehicles to 
insure they have what they need for the trip. 

6-32. Execution. The escort should leave as scheduled and travel as the 
tactical or non-tactical situation dictates. 

6-33. When arriving at the unit, the escort should have the driver park 
the vehicle as directed by the unit and have media personnel wait at the 
vehicles (if possible, with military supervision). The escort needs to 
request that the media not take photographs of the unit's position for 
operational reasons. Let the media know you are going to get the 
commander and will return as soon as possible. If the situation is hostile, 
get the media inside the perimeter and secure them away from 
equipment and the command post. 

6-34. The escort should meet with the U PAR and let him/her know who is 
in the media group. Ensure that the unit will be able to provide the 
interviews the media requested. 

6-35. The escort should brief the commander and let him know the 
ground rules, covering possible Q&As. Answer any questions or concerns 
he may have about the interview. Let him know that you will be present 
during the interview to assist him. When possible and if mission 
requirements permit, the commander should be available for the media. 
Review the unit's OPSEC requirements to ensure you understand what 
cannot be photographed. 

6-36. The escort should determine where the commander wants to meet 
the media. If the area is not appropriate for conducting interviews (may 
be based on PA experience or media request), provide an alternative 
recommendation to the commander. 

6-37. The escort should move the media to the interview point and 
introduce the commander to the group. After the interview, the escort 
should facilitate the rest of the coverage with the help of the UPAR. Do 
not allow the media to linger in the area of operations and become 


mission detractors. Wrap up the visit, return to your vehicles and depart. 
Upon returning to the J IB, the escort should be avail able to back brief the 

6-38. The requirement to maintain proficiency in the full range of public 
affairs collective and individual capabilities and skills places a high 
priority on tactical training for both AC and RC PA soldiers. Tactical 
training participation enhances knowledge of battlefield requirements, 
increases unit cohesion, and forms the basis of experience needed for 
operational planning, mobilization, deployment and mission success. 

6-39. PA will continue to face expanded missions in the joint arena. 
Quality PA training provides sufficient numbers of trained PA personnel 
to conduct joint and combined PA missions. Training must emphasize 
the joint perspective, enhance interoperability, and contribute to each 
combatant CINC's PA Mission. Exercise participation is critical to the 
training of PA personnel. 

6-40. Trainers must fully incorporate a broad array of PA activities into 
all types of exercises and war gaming. These activities can be injected 
into computerized battle simulation as the training exercise driver. They 
should also be used in BCTP command post exercises, and J RTC, CTC, 
and NTC rotations. Seminars, area assessments and TEWTs are all 
forms of training that also provide relevant, realistic training. 


FM 3-61.1 


Chapter 7 

Community Relations 

Public opinion about the Army is greatly influenced by the actions of 
each command. What the command does for its local community or 
fails to do affects the perceptions and attitudes of the American 
people, upon whom the Army depends for its support and existence. 
This applies not only to official acts but also to unofficial acts, which 
by their commission or omission affects public opinion. This principle 
also applies to individual members of the Army, their dependents and 
Army civilian employees in their personal contacts with the civilian 
community. Conducting community relations is a vital element to 
successful public affairs operations. Commanders and public affairs 
officers (PAO) must seize on key opportunities to gain and maintain 
I inks to internal and external publics. 


7-1. PA personnel act in concert with veteran's groups, civic leaders and 
local populations to increase understanding and build support for Army 
activities. Army support to and participation in public events is based on 
the fact that the Army belongs to the American people. Common 
ownership requires that Army resources be used to support events and 
activities of common interest and benefit. 

7-2. Effective community relations requires: 

• Command supervision at all levels. 

• Appreciation of public opinion and attitudes toward the Army 

• Planning definite actions and positive policies. 

• Implementing programs in a competent, professional and 
responsible manner. 

• Constant evaluation of continuing programs to measure their effect 
upon the public and the command. 

• Sharing the results of the program. 

7-3. Commanders must maintain continual liaison with persons and 
organizations in the local community to help resolve common problems 
and develop cooperation and understanding between the installation and 


FM 3-61.1 

the local community. Community relations develop an effective two-way 
channel of communication between the Army and the community. PA 
does this by capitalizing on opportunities for better relations and 
resolving potential and actual areas of conflict. 

7-4. Community relations projects or programs may be supported by use 
of exhibits, equipment and facilities. Exhibits consist of displays such as 
mission exhibits models, devices and other information and orientation 
materials at conventions, conferences, seminars demonstrations, exhibits, 
fairs or similar events. Also included are exhibits displayed on military 
i nstal I ati ons during open house programs. 


7-5. The goals of community relations is to develop an open, mutually 
satisfactory, cooperative relationship between the installation and the 
community. A successful community relations program improves the 
community's perception of the Army and its appreciation for the 
installation and the soldiers, family members and civilians who are part 
of the installation. It is based on openness and honesty. Community 
relations objectives are community assistance and social improvements 
for the community in which the military must work and live. 

Historical Perspective 

Fort Eustis, Va. started a pilot program in 1992 called Operation Self-Enhancement 
to give high-risk middle school students the opportunity to visit the post and focus on 
careers, teamwork and self-esteem. The program was so successful that it has 
become an annual event. Students receive light military training through an array of 
testable tasks and obstacles presented by members of a cadre team. This training 
helps students build their self-esteem and self-confidence and affords them the 
opportunity to interact with positive role models. This also gives the students a better 
idea of what the Army is about. 

7-6. Community Relations activities include: 

• Speakers Bureaus. Speakers are an effective means of developing 
understanding of the Army, stimulating patriotic spirit and 
informing the public about the activities of the installation, its 
units and its soldiers. Commanders should establish an installation 
speakers bureau and encourage soldiers of all ranks to participate 
in the installation program. 

• Community Liaison. Maintaining liaison through informal 
community relations councils can establish and maintain open 
communications with community officials and organizations. 
Councils can be charged with a variety of responsibilities, such as 
developing and promoting new ways for members of the command 
to actively participate in local community activities, capitalizing on 
opportunities for better relations and resolving potential and actual 
areas of conflict. Community liaison can also involve recognition of 
private citizens, local community leaders and citizen groups and 
organizations for their support of the Army by public service 
awards. Commands can further community liaison through 
membership in civic, business and professional organizations when 


the goals and objectives of those organizations are beneficial to the 
Army and their programs and projects are consistent with Army 

• Ceremonial Units. The band, color guard and other ceremonial 
units participating in public events are excellent ways to 
accomplish community relations objectives. These representatives 
of the Army serve as ambassadors to the civilian community and 
promote patriotism, interest in the Army, and awareness of the 
professionalism of our forces. 

• Exhibits. Exhibits and displays of Army equipment, historical 
materials, models, devices and other information are other 
community relations activities that can enhance understanding of 
the Army and the installation. They provide an excellent 
opportunity for interaction between our soldiers and members of 
the local community and can communicate the professionalism, 
readiness and standards of our forces. 

• Open House. Open houses may be scheduled to coincide with 
Armed Forces Day, the Army Birthday, service branch birthdays or 
anniversaries which mark the history of the installation, a unit or 
community events or in support of media day. An Open House 
gives the local community an idea of who we are and what we do. 
They also have the opportunity to visit us on the installation-- at 
our job site. 

• Physical Improvements. Community service physical 
improvements focus on ensuring that the physical infrastructure is 
as safe as possible and provides the fullest possible range of 
support to the population. These activities encompass a wide range 
of programs that do not compete with the services provided by 
contractors and businesses in the local civilian community. 

7-7. Some examples of physical improvements are: 

• Construction projects that enhance the recreational, educational, 
environmental or cultural facilities of the community, such as 
building community picnic areas and hiking and biking trails. 

• Demolition projects that enhance the safety and appearance of the 
community, such as the removal of unstable playground 

• Projects that create or enhance a safe, clean environment, such as 
the removal of debris from a community wildlife area or painting a 
community recreation center. 


7-8. Town Hall meetings provide installation commanders with an 
unfiltered means of communicating ideas to internal and external 
communities. This tool for conveying important information and ideas 
about the command cannot be underestimated in its effect and should not 
be planned haphazardly. 

7-9. Commanders, PAOs and staff directorates must work together to 
produce an effective community relations product. 

7-10. Prospective town hall meeting planners must understand, and 
properly apply, the correct type of town hall meeting. With a focus on the 


FM 3-61.1 

type of meeting and probable audience, the planner can begin the process 
of planning and conducting the event. 

7-11. As part of the plan, the planner must determine the likely audience 
for the meeting, including attendees from internal and external 
audiences. He must also evaluate possible attendance by key publics. 
The planner should develop a standing operating procedure (SOP) to 
ensure each mechanism of the process is in place for the scheduled event. 

7-12. Finally, post-event analysis is imperative to accurately assess its 

7-13. The PAO must develop systems to quickly assess the feedback data 
and activate a follow-up plan that will maintain confidence from the 
community that town hall meetings are meaningful events. 


7-14. Installation commanders can stage various types of town hall 
meetings. The commander must determine which meeting type, or 
hybrid, is appropriate for disseminating information and gaining useful 
feedback from internal and external publics. 

7-15. The following meeting program structures have inherent strengths 
and weakness; knowing the potentials for message delivery will assist the 
commander in making his decision: 

• Commander - Expert Format: This meeting (Figure 7-1), is 
characterized by the commander attending with key staff members 
facing a live audience. Typically the commander and his staff will 
give presentations and then field questions from the audience. 
Usually, attendance is open to the public. 

• The primary advantages to this format center on the open nature of 
the meeting. 

• This meeting provides the commander with an opportunity to 
provide detailed presentations with time being a minimal 
constraint. He also receives instant feedback from the types of 
questions from the audience and the passion with which questions 
are asked. 

• Meetings in this format are likely to be seen as the most easily 
accessed by the internal and external publics. 

• Among the disadvantages of the format is the ability to reach large 
audiences and control the conduct of the meeting. 

• Unless the meeting is taped for later airing on the commander's 
cable access channel, the audience is often narrowly focused. 

• Although the possibility exists that large audiences will attend, it 
is also possible small or narrowly focused audience will limit the 
general effect the commander seeks. 

• An open meeting can also become the forum for unruly or 
disgruntled audience members to incite others or attempt to draw 
the commander into an open confrontation. 

• This factor can be mitigated through the use of question time-limits 
and use of a moderator (other than the commander), but cannot be 


totally eradicated. (As with any other public event, security must 
be a consideration in the planning process). 




* Other Attendees: PAO, Youth Activities Director, School Principal, 
Theater Manager, Hospital Cdr etc.. 

Figure 7-1. Commander Expert Format 

7-16. Commander Access TV Channel Format: This meeting format 
(Figure 7-2) uses the commander's cable access channel to air the event. 
Normally, the commander, CSM and Garrison Commander (and other 
staff members as necessary) give a presentation. No live audience is in 
attendance. The commander provides a set of phone numbers, allowing 
questions to be called in. The staff operates the phone bank, accepts the 
questions, directs the questions to the appropriate staff agency, and 
delivers the answers by 3x5 card to the on-air panel. The panel members 
read the questions/answers to the viewing audience. 

7-17. This format offers advantages focused on control and distribution of 
the product. The venue and the setting are completely controlled by the 
commander and his staff. The staff screens questions and, thus, no 
surprises will occur. Indeed, if questions/answers are given to the 
commander, he may choose to either not answer or return the card for 
more information. 


FM 3-61.1 

7-18. Other advantages include an ability to re-run the meeting as often 
as desired and provide copies to local cable providers, many of which are 
i nterested i n usi ng the product for ai ri ng. 




* i * 














Figure 7-2. Commander Access TV Channel Format 

7-19. Disadvantages to this format center on a difficulty in gauging 
feedback, competing for viewing audiences on television, and providing 
personal contact with the commander. With no attending audience, 
collecting feedback data is problematic. Follow-up questionnaires, using 
statistical probability methods, provide the only means of gaining reliable 
feedback. The likelihood of viewers to "channel -surf" is high due to the 
specific nature of questions from callers. Holding the interest of viewers, 
all of whom have multiple other viewing options available, is difficult. 
Finally, by appearing on television, in uniform, with a phalanx of staff 
members, the commander risks appearing to be speaking from "the 
mount." Audiences may view the commander as speaking down to them 
and being out-of -touch to their concerns. 

7-20. Key members from the internal and external publics form a 
roundtable discussion (Figure 7-3). The topics are set by published 
agenda, with sometime left for open discussion. The meeting results are 
published for general distribution. Media are usually invited as 

7-21. Roundtable discussions with key publics offer advantages to the 
commander by providing information to the individuals who represent 
overlapping and wide constituencies. By setting an agenda, the 
commander can deliver focused messages with a high likelihood of the 
messages later reaching targeted audiences. It allows the commander 


and potentially key staff officers to deliver presentations and provide 
follow-up information to those in attendance. 

Commander's Roundtable Format 



Major ^^B^^^^^SI^^^^^^ Media Rep. 1 


Media Rep. 2 



Chamber of 



City Council Director of 

Member Community 


Figure 7-3. Roundtable Format 

7-22. The principal disadvantage is the distance between the commander 
and the publics. The publics will receive information about the meeting 
second-hand and in a potentially filtered state. Gaining feedback may 
also prove challenging (but not necessarily impossible). Other 
disadvantages may be in the limits of the audience makeup; key publics, 
which are not invited, may resent the slight. 

7-23. Commander-in-the-round format. A room is set-up that will allow 
the commander to be in the middle of all the attendees. Normally, he will 
stand and walk around in the circle formed by attendees. The meeting is 
usually open to the public. 

7-24. The primary advantage to this format is the close contact the 
commander shares with his audience. Audience members may feel that 
barriers are lowered because the commander is close in proximity and no 
staff members are buffering their access. The commander also can 
realize feedback very quickly and can gain some appreciation for the 
resonance of his ideas with the assembled audience. 

7-25. Such closeness with the audience can also be a significant 
disadvantage. Limiting surprises and controlling potentially unruly 
audiences is extremely difficult in this format. Further, because of the 
commander's reliance on his personal notes and memory, his ability to 
provide detailed information and multi-media presentations may be 

7-26. Mitigation against such limits is dependent on the site design. 
Other disadvantages include problems associated with other "open" 
formats, including a possibly non-representative makeup of the audience. 


FM 3-61.1 

7-27. Before deciding on which format is appropriate for the information, 
the commander must have a plan for what must be achieved. 

7-28. Characteristics of an effective plan: 

7-29. Answers the "why?" questions. The planner must understand the 
purpose of the meeting to correctly advise the commander on the format 
and substance to begin coordination of the plan. As described above, the 
various formats each have strengths and weaknesses that will assist the 
planner to shape the meeting. 

7-30. Routinely Scheduled. Normally, meetings can be scheduled 
quarterly or monthly. Use the installation planning cycle to ensure 
proper coordination and notification of public meetings. 

7-31. Site Plan. Checking and securing a site for the town hall meeting is 
dependent upon the type of meeting selected. Plan for the site early in the 
process and establish the layout of the site in detail. 

7-32. Calendar Check. Before scheduling events, check local and regional 
calendars for possible conflicts. For example, scheduling a meeting on the 
same night as the local high school homecoming football game may prove 

7-33. Presentation Submission Deadline. Coordinate with appropriate 
staff agencies responsible for preparing presentations. Ensure 
presentations are properly staffed and approved. As PAO, establish a 
firm submission cut-off date. 

7-34. Focused Presentation. Inform the staff of the commander's intent 
for the meeting. If the commander wants a particular theme addressed, 
ensure staff agenci es adhere to the parameters of the i ntent. 

7-35. Media Invitation List. Invite local and regional media including 
print and electronic outlets. Develop relationships with individual 
reporters and provide background material as necessary. (Local 
newspapers, radio stations and television stations can often assist in 
pu bl i ci zi ng meeti ngs as wel I ). 

7-36. Publicity Plan. Ensure all available avenues are used to publicize 
meetings. Included in this process are the post newspaper and radio 
station (where available), normal distribution, staff meetings, E-mail 
delivery and chain of command communications. Take special care to 
invite key publics by individual invitation and phone call follow-up. 


7-37. Assessing the effectiveness of town hall meetings is essential to 
developing community-related policies and courses of action for the 
command. PAOs can use standard statistical measurements using 
survey techniques to gauge the level and intensity of views of the various 
publics. Other analyses can be derived from follow-up media content 
analysis, letters to the commander and post newspaper, and reactions at 
the meetings. None of the methods described here will render a perfect 
picture. PAOs must exercise good judgment and personal insight when 
advising the commander of analytical results. 

7-38. Response Follow-up. Investigating and responding to issues 
raised at town hall meetings are critical to public perceptions of the level 
of care the commander applies to community operations. J ust as a 


maneuver commander sees battle damage assessment (BDA) as crucial to 
determining the efficacy of fires, commanders and PAOs must determine 
the true productiveness of community relations programs. Commanders 
will often feel compelled to promise action, such as investigation or 
immediate problem resolution, during a meeting. Staff agencies are 
normally the conduit for actions (only occasionally will the commander 
personally provide the requisite service). 

7-39. PAOs should provide the staff oversight of the response mechanism. 
PAOs can devise a recurring memorandum that provides the commander 
(usually through the chief of staff), details about the status of actions. All 
staff agencies should receive updates routinely. 

7-40. Along with the response mechanism, PAOs can use command 
information and media relations channels to inform the publics of 
problem resolutions. For example, if an issue raised at a town hall 
meeting indicated that the local recreation center was routinely opening 
two hours late each day, describe the measures taken to alleviate the 
problem. The PAO can use the post newspaper or radio station to provide 
lists of problems and resolutions. 


7-41. Community relations and activities are vital to instilling and 
maintaining the confidence of internal and external publics in our great 
Army. Commanders and PAOs cannot leave the prospect of successful 
relations to chance. Too much is at stake. Careful selection of the type of 
town hall meetings to be used must betaken. The event must be planned 
with the attention to detail required for all military operations. Each 
part of the plan has unique importance and cannot be overlooked. To 
ensure the effectiveness of the operation, PAOs are compelled to build a 
clear mechanism for evaluating outcomes. Finally, the command must 
provide conspicuous follow-up responses to issues raised to complete the 
process. Town hall meetings provide an excellent opportunity for 
commanders and the various publics to interact and improve community 


7-42. Community assistance applies the skills, capabilities and resources 
of the needs and interests of the local community. Providing support for 
and participating in events and activities which are beneficial to both the 
Army and the community, builds on a long tradition of "America's Army" 
helping American communities. Identifying opportunities, which advance 
the interests of both the Army and the community, is an important 
objective for every commander. 

7-43. Community assistance projects and operations must impact 
positively on the unit or individual soldier, enhance unit or individual 
readiness and contribute toward the common good of the community. 
Army commanders must ensure that their initiatives are not competitive 
with local resources or services and do not benefit any particular interest 
group and will not result in monetary or service remuneration in any 
form for unit members or the unit as a whole. 

7-44. Increasing public awareness and understanding of the Army, 
inspiring patriotism and enhancing the Army's reputation as a good 


FM 3-61.1 

neighbor is a goal of community assistance. Community assistance 
activities can help build unit morale and esprit de corps. These activities 
also provide an excellent opportunity for soldiers to serve as role models, 
which not only enhances recruiting efforts, but also serves to motivate 
soldiers by promoting their self-esteem and furthering their sense of 
service to the nation. 


7-45. Certain community assistance activities enable a commander to 
train soldiers, enhance individual and unit readiness, maximize use of 
assets and foster a positive training environment where soldiers can 
become involved in realistic, "hands-on" training opportunities. Projects 
should be selected which exercise individual soldier skills, encourage 
teamwork, challenge leader planning and coordination skills, and result 
in measurable, positive accomplishment. Finally they should enable a 
unit to exercise use of its equipment, resulting in training opportunities 
that can generate greater operator efficiency for future missions. 

7-46. Examples are: 

• Medical Readiness Program. The Medical Readiness Program is an 
activity in which Army medical unit personnel, together with state 
medical emergency officials, plan and provide support in the form 
of diagnosis, treatment, and preventive medical, dental, and 
veterinary care to citizens in remote areas of the U.S. or its 
territories. The program is designed to enhance the unit's medical 
readiness, provide unit training opportunities and serve the public 
in locations where medical care is not otherwise available. The 
program may not compete with local private medical care that may 
be available. 

• Air Ambulance Participation. The Military Assistance to Safety 
and Traffic Program. (MAST) is a proven example of Army support 
to civil authorities. This program permits the utilization of Army 
aviation assets to conduct emergency air evacuation and recovery 

• These projects contribute to the health and welfare of the 
community, making the Army an integral partner in community 
progress and development. They can enhance the ability of the 
local community to support itself and its people, to provide the best 
possible services to the citizens and to promote a positive, healthy 
safe environment. 

• Community service activities are those which focus on improving 
the community, its infrastructure and its ability to serve the local 

7-47. Social Improvements. Community service social improvements, 
which focus on making the social environment as healthy as possible, 
provide the widest range of support to the population. They encompass 
many projects including: 

7-48. Support to youth programs, such as scouting and programs that 
provide assistance to special need audiences such as the Special 

7-49. Examples are: 


• The Civilian Youth Opportunities Program (Challenge). This is a 
youth program directed at attaining a high school diploma, 
providing job training and placement, improving personal and 
social skills and providing health and hygiene education and 
physical training. Soldiers work with civilian leaders to provide a 
comprehensive support package, ranging from choosing 
appropriate clothing to attending residential training facilities. 

• Youth Physical Fitness Clinic Program. The National Guard 
encourages fitness and combines academic and athletic 
achievement by helping schools conduct competitions in selected 
athletic events. This program also establishes a separate scholar- 
athlete category for those students with a 3.5 or higher grade point 

7-50. I nvolvement in ventures and projects that enhance the educational 
or cultural climate of the community, such as adult literacy, reading or 
community theater programs. 

7-51. Examples are: 

• Civilian Community Corps. This program provides managerial, 
organizational and technical skills for disadvantaged Americans 
seeking the skills for success. Through this program, the Army 
helps participants become productive citizens. In exchange, 
participants perform a wide range of community service activities 
that improve the foundation of American society. This program 
encourages intra-governmental cooperation on the federal level. It 
also encourages partnerships with industry, education, state, 
federal and local governments. 

• Science and Technology Academies Reinforcing Basic Aviation and 
Space Exploration Program. (STARBASE) This program is an 
innovative partnership of professional educators, military 
personnel and corporate sponsors. It promotes science, 
mathematics and technology basics for primary through secondary 
schools. Using National Guard resources to spark student interest, 
the program develops strong self-esteem, provides excellent role 
models, promotes positive attitudes and develops goal-setting 

• The guiding principle behind community relations efforts is that 
the installation and the community have a common interest in 
providing the best possible support for each other. A cooperative 
relationship exists, because soldiers stationed at the installation 
receive life support from the community while many of the civilians 
who make up the community receive life support from the 
installation. The interdependence of the military installation and 
the civilian community can involve economics, education, health 
care, basic services, quality-of life issues and many others. 

• The community relations goal of local commanders is to develop an 
open, mutually satisfactory, cooperative relationship between the 
installation and the community. These efforts improve the 
community's perception of the installation and the soldiers, family 
members and civilians who are part of the installation. 

• Participation in community relations activities is an effective 
method for projecting a positive Army image, making the best use 


FM 3-61.1 

of assets, providing alternative training opportunities and 
enhancing the relationship between the Army and the American 
public. Activities vary widely, ranging from individual soldier 
involvement to full Army participation. They are characterized by 
detailed coordination between the military command and 
community authorities. They fulfill community needs that would 
not otherwise be met, enhance soldier and unit morale, skills and 
readiness and improve the mutual support between the military 
and civilian communities. 


Chapter 8 

PA Organizations 


8-1. The Brigade PAO is the lowest level to which the Army has assigned 
organic Public Affairs Assets. 

8-2. Working as both a special staff officer and as a member of the 
Brigade's planning team, the BDE PAO acts as the spokesperson for the 
unit, advisor to the Commander, and provides Public Affairs guidance 
and planning to commanders at all levels. 

8-3. To support and conduct Public Affairs Operations within the 
Brigade, the BDE PAO has the following functions, organization and 

8-4. Specific functions of the Brigade PAO, as outlined within the core 
competencies are: 

• Public Affairs Planning 

■ Advise the commander and staff on PA implications of plans 
and actions. 

■ Write Brigade PA annex and matrices using operational tools, 
terms, graphics, and concepts 

■ Execute the plan 

■ Plan for future operations. 

■ Command and control attached Public Affairs assets within the 
brigade AO. 

■ Tactically communicate with PA units and supported combat 
units in the Brigade's Battlespace. 

• PA Training 

■ Train and supervise stringers to assist their commanders in 
conducting their internal information programs. 

■ Train soldiers, family members, DACs and everyone habitually 
associated with the unit to comfortably and successfully 
communicate with the media. 

■ UtilizeTrain theTrainer. 

■ Evaluate public affairs training programs of subordinate 

■ Train subordinate commands to facilitate the media. 


FM 3-61.1 

■ Train leaders and soldiers to protect information products and 
information systems from compromise and intrusion by 
practicing security at the source. 

• Media Facilitation 

■ Assist media to gain access to units, soldiers and commanders. 

■ Evaluate subordinate command's media facilitation plan. 

■ Assist subordinate commanders to coordinate transportation. 

■ Conduct situation briefs as needed. 

■ Monitor media operations within the Area of Operations. 
(Maintain accountability of the media to preclude fratricide. 
Accomplished through reports from escorts or through 
electronic tagging and monitoring.) 

■ Respond to and mediate potential media problems; react 
quickly to coordinate and facilitate information issues in 
Brigade's Battlespace. 

• Information Strategies 

Monitor and analyze the local Military Information 

Provide public affairs support to the G5 / S5 for the 
development and implementation of civil affairs programs. 

Support higher echelon Public Affairs requirements for 

Gather Open Source Information to help build relevant 

Assist Commanders to conduct internal and external 
information to include Hometown News Release Program. 

Monitor local news media products (Visual, print and audio) 
and analyze for PA implications. 

Monitor and Analyze the local Military Information 

Protect digital images, information products and PA and non- 
PA information systems from compromise and intrusion. 

8-5. Organizational Structure: 

• Captain , 46A. 

• Sergeant, 460 

8-6. Equipment: 

• Computer with compatible software and communications hardware 

• Access to the Tactical Internet and tactical battlefield radio 

• Access to FM, Satellite, and video and cellular communications 

• Access to Army Battle Command System, (MCS\ P or CSS\CS) 

8-7. Transportation: 


8-8. Addititional Support Requirements. PAO requires linguistic support 
from the Civil Affairs soldiers or contract civilians attached to the 













1-66 AR 




1-4 AV 








1-5 IN (L) 
















8-9. The Division PAO is the next level to which the Army has assigned 
organic Public Affairs assets. The division is largely self-sustaining and 
capable of independent operations. The division is a unit of maneuver, 
organized with varying numbers and types of combat, combat support 
(CS) and combat service support (CSS) units. 

8-10. The division may be armored, mechanized, medium, light infantry, 
airborne or air assault; each can conduct operations over a wide range of 

8-11. Working as both a special staff officer and as a member of the 
division planning team, the DIV PAO acts as the spokesperson for the 


FM 3-61.1 

division, advisor to the Commander, and provides Public Affairs guidance 
and planning. 

8-12. To support and conduct Public Affairs Operations within the 
division, the DIV PAO has the following functions, organization and 

8-13. Functions: Assumption #L: DMAI N is not in country 

• Gather, analyze and disseminate open source information, focusing 
on global media, to increase the situational awareness throuhout 
the command. 

• Gather and disseminate multimedia products throughout the 
command, and to external and home station audiences. 

• Conduct Public Affairs research and write the PA Estimate of the 

• WritethePAplanforOPORDERS, OPLANS, andTACSOPS. 

• Monitor and analyze American and foreign public sentiment of 
current operations from available media sources for PA 
implications and advice. 

• Monitor and analyze battlespace communications (visual, audio, 
FM, satellite) for PA implications. 

• Monitor news media products (Visual, print and audio) and analyze 
for PA implications. 

• Facilitate Media Operations. 

• Subfunctions: 

■ Assist media to gain access to units, soldiers and commanders. 

■ Coordinate air and ground transportation on a non-interference 

■ Conduct daily situation briefs as needed. 

■ Respond to media queries. 

■ Validate media's credibility, expertise, knowledge, purpose and 

■ Train and supervise unit-level PA representatives (Command 
Information NCOs) to assist their commanders command 
information programs. 

■ Train soldiers, family members, DACs and everyone habitually 
associated with the unit to comfortably and successfully 
communicate with the media. 

■ Survey soldiers, family members, DACs and other members of 
the internal audiences to measure effectiveness of the 
command information program. 

8-14. Assumption 4&\ DMAIN is in country 

• Advise the commander and staff on PA implications of plans and 

• Gather, analyze, and disseminate Open Source Information, 
focusing on global media to increase the commander's situational 

• Gather and disseminate multimedia products throughout the 
command, and to external and home station audiences. 


• Conduct Public Affairs research and write the PA Estimate of the 

• Write the PA plan for OPORDERS, OPLANS and TACSOPS 

• Monitor and analyze American and foreign public sentiment of 
current operations from available media sources for PA 
implications and advise 

• Monitor and analyze battlespace communications (visual, audio, 
FM, satellite) for PA implications 

• Monitor news media products (Visual, print and audio) and analyze 
for PA implications 

• Coordinate and integrate all information-related functions 
(PSYOPS, CA, VI, J oint, Combined and Interagency PA) into the 
PA plan 

• Conduct I nformation Operations 

• Act as a conduit for CI products from the field, sanctuary and 
commercial sources for input into the commander's information 
program. Provide command information to soldiers, family 
members and Department of the Army Civilians. 

• Facilitate Media Operations 

• Subfunctions: 

Coordinate air and ground transportation on a non-interference 

Assist filing stories, video and photographs on a non- 
interference, reimbursable basis 

Conduct daily situation briefs as needed 

Respond to media queries 

Validate media's credibility, expertise, knowledge, purpose and 

Conduct Primary and Secondary accreditation 

Primary-Full accreditation of non-accredited media 

Secondary-Process media previously accredited at Corps and 

Survey soldiers, DACs and other members of the internal 
audiences to measure effectiveness of the command 
information program 

8-15. Organizational Structure: 

• At a minimum an embedded PA division section has: 

■ Major 46A and two Captains 46A 

■ Master Sergeant 46Z 

■ Specialist 460 

■ Specialist, 46R 

■ PFC46Q 

8-16. Equipment: 

• Computer with compatible software and communications hardware 
and tactical fax machine. 


FM 3-61.1 

• Access to the Tactical Internet and tactical battlefield radio 
communications (SIN GARS, MSRTetc) 

• Access to FM, Satellite, video and cellular communications 

• Access to Army Battle Command System, (MCS\P) 

8-17. Transportation: 

• Light Division-HMMWV 

• Armor and Mech Division-- HMMWV and Trailer 
8-18. TAC 1AND 2 Missions and Functions 


8-19. The TAC CP, Public Affairs Section is task-organized based on 
METT-TC. It is the center of gravity for immediate internal and external 
communication, resolution of Public Affairs issues and violations of 
ground rules by media representatives. It acts as a conduit to the 
Information Operations Cell in the DMAIN adding immediacy to the 
Open Source I nformation process. 

8-20. Public Affairs personnel deploy with the lead elements during any 
contingency and remain with the TAC CP to assist the commander, 
provide internal command information to deployed soldiers and limited 
external information to home station. They conduct media facilitation to 
expedite the flow of information to the America public while freeing the 
commander and his soldiers to conduct their mission. 

8-21. The TAC CP, Public Affairs Section maintains connectivity with 
commanders and global information sources. It contributes to and 
monitors the common relevant picture, and synchronizes collection and 
dissemination efforts of soldiers far forward to internal and external 

8-22. Particularly during split-based operations, the PAO task organizes 
his section to best serve the commander, his soldiers and the American 
public's need for information. 

8-23. Assumption #1: DMAI N is not in country 

• Act as the division spokesman. 

• Advise the commander and staff on PA implications of plans and 

• Execute the plan. 

• Assist DMAIN to gather Open Source Information to build the 
common relevant picture. 

• Conduct I nformation Operations. 

• Gather and disseminate multimedia products throughout the 
command and to external and home station audiences. Act as a 
conduit for CI products from the field, sanctuary and commercial 
sources for input into the commander's information program. 

• Monitor and analyze battlespace communications (visual, audio, 
FM and satellite) for PA implications. 

• Monitor local news media products (Visual, print and audio) and 
analyze for PA implications. 


• Coordinate, integrate, and synchronize all information-related 
functions (PSYOPS, CA, VI, J oint, Combined, and Interagency PA). 

• Synchronize Public Affairs assets (internal and external) within 

• Facilitate Media Operations: 

■ Assist media to gain access to units, soldiers and commanders. 

■ Coordinate transportation on a non-interference basis. 

■ Assist filing stories, video and photographs on a non- 
interference, reimbursable basis. 

■ Conduct daily situation briefs as needed. 

■ Respond to media queries. 

■ Monitor media operations within the AO. 

■ Respond to and mediate potential media problems; react 
quickly to coordinate and facilitate information issues 
throughout the AO. 

■ Validate media's credibility, expertise, knowledge, purpose and 

■ Provide seamless connectivity for media accountability 
throughout the AO. 

■ Conduct Primary and Secondary accreditation. 

■ Primary-Full accreditation of non-accredited media. 

■ Secondary-Process media previously accredited at Corps and 

8-24. Assumption 4&\ DMAIN is in country 

• Act as the division spokesman. 

• Advise the commander and staff on PA implications of plans and 

• Execute the plan. 

• Assist DMAIN to gather Open Source Information to build the 
common relevant picture. 

• Monitor battlespace communications (visual, audio, FM and 
satellite) for PA implications. 

• Facilitate Media Operations: 

■ Assist media to gain access to units, soldiers and commanders. 

■ Conduct daily situation briefs as needed. 

■ Monitor media operations within the AO. 

■ Respond to and mediate potential media problems; react 
quickly to coordinate and facilitate information issues 
throughout the AO. 

■ Provide seamless connectivity for media accountability 
throughout the AO. 

■ Conduct Secondary accreditation. 

■ Secondary-Process media previously accredited at Corps and 


FM 3-61.1 

8-25. The division public affairs section provides public affairs support to 
the division commander and to divisional units deployed in support of 
combined or joint operations. The division PAO has operational and 
tactical control over all PA TOE organizations assigned or attached to the 
division and coordinates closely with embedded PA sections within 
brigades or divisions to carry out PA operations. 

8-26. The division PA staff, when deployed, is augmented by one PAD 
and one MPAD per three combat brigades. The division public affairs 
section, if augmented only by a Public Affairs Detachment, operates the 
division media operations center. 

8-27. Traditionally, divisions have operated as part of a corps. In corps 
operations, divisions normally comprise 9 to 12 maneuver battalions, 
organic artillery battalions and supporting CS and CSS units. Divisions 
perform a wide range of tactical missions and for limited periods are self- 
sustaining. Corps augment divisions as the mission requires. 



Chapter 9 

Information Operations 


9-1. Information Operations involve a variety of disciplines and activities 
that range from electronic warfare and physical destruction through 
cyberwar and information campaigns. Public affairs is a related activity 
of 10, and contributes to overall operational success, both real and 

9-2. Successful integrated 10 requires coordination of themes, messages 
and activities in order to leverage the massing of information effects. 
When synchronized with other military operations, 10 is a combat 

9-3. Information campaign objectives cannot be neatly divided by 
discipline, such as PA, CA and PSYOP. The responsible organization 
cannot be easily determined solely by looking at the medium, the 
message or the audience. For example, information about weapons turn- 
in policy and collection sites may be disseminated through a variety of 
means. This could include direct contact by Civil Affairs personnel with 
local populations and their leaders; PSYOP print and broadcast products; 
news releases, press conferences and other media facilitation coordinated 
by PA. 

9-4. In accordance with joint doctrine (J oint Pub 3-61, Doctrine for Public 
Affairs in J oint Operations), public affairs are an operational function 
designed to contribute to the overall success of joint operations. For 
Public Affairs, the audience may be internal or external, but the objective 
is constant: Soldiers, participants and the public must understand 
objectives, motives and the nature, scope and duration of friendly actions. 
The relevant audiences important to the commander are not limited to 
soldiers and the American public, but are also international as well as 
local to the operation. 

9-5. Synchronized information operations contribute to military 
campaigns in a variety of ways. These contributions may: 

• Gain or sustain support for the U.S. or coalition position 

• Reduce the need for combat forces 

• Influence events with non-lethal means 

• Counter propaganda and disinformatio 

• Discourage adversary offensive operations 

• Deter hostile actions 


FM 3-61.1 

• Undermine illegitimate regimes 

• Support the maintenance of coalitions 

9-6. I nformation Operations during peacekeeping operations: 

• Promote peaceful cooperation 

• Lower friendly force requirements 

• Counter propaganda and disinformation 

• Reduce friction leading to hostilities 

• Gain and maintain the initiative 

• Shape opponent plans and operations 

9-7. These goals may not be achieved solely by tactical level information 
operations, but rather, may be theater and national -level issues that are 
reinforced by tactical -level message dissemination. This requires 
horizontal and vertical integration of themes and messages to achieve a 
massing of information effects. 


9-8. Composition of the Information Operations battle staff/coordination 
council or other such element is flexible and tailored to the operation and 
desires of the commander. (See figure 9-1). Notional 10 staff structures 
are included in FM 3-13 (100-6), Information Operations. 

(^Commander •) 






f Electronic Warfare A 
I Coordination Center J 










C 2 W Staff 


Signal Officer 











STO n 



Resident asset (organic) 

Fig 9-1 Notional IO Battlestaff 

9-9. The IO cell is often headed by the G-3 or his designated 
representative, and includes representatives of a variety of organizations. 
The staff may include, but not necessarily be limited to the G2, G3, G5, 
G6, PAO, PMO, JAG, PSYOP, Electronic Warfare Officer, Political 
Advisor, Joint Military Commission representative, Fire Support 
Coordinator and Targeting Board representative. 


9-10. The successful accomplishment of a specific mission may require 
the close coordination and synchronization of the range of information 
activities as well as maneuver elements. While the 10 cell is lead by the 
G3 or his designate, 10 coordination is the responsibility of the Land 
Information Warfare Activity field support team. While providing a 
public affairs representative to the 10 Cell, PAOs must maintain a clear 
and direct link with the commander. 


9-11. The Land Information Warfare Activity, an INSCOM element, 
provides commanders with field support teams (FST) that serve as 10 
advisors in addition to effecting the synchronization and coordination of 
the range of activities that support 10. LIWA field support teams do not 
serve as functional area specialists, but rather, coordinate the activities 
of those elements. For example, the LIWA FST members may be from the 
military intelligence and PSYOP branches, but do not serve as the 
commander's intelligence analyst or PSYOP planner, or for that matter, 
Public Affairs advisor. They do, however, coordinate the actions and 
products of these and other activities in support of the 10 plan. 


9-12. PA participation in 10 involves no completely new tasks but does 
require a broadened scope of operations. PA support to 10 requires 
analysis of the Global Information Environment (GIE) and the 
operational environment, as well as synchronization of efforts with other 
organizations and agencies to ensure themes and messages are consistent 
and deconflicted. 

9-13. PA in 10 requires PA staffs to be fundamentally proactive rather 
than reactive. Often, actions may be taken and products developed to 
assist command achievement of a desired end state. This is more than 
merely reacting to events with a press release or conference 

9-14. PA actions and events that support 10 include print and electronic 
products, news releases, press conferences and media facilitation. PA 
advises the commander on how the operation is being perceived and 
portrayed and also provides guidance to unit commanders and soldiers. 
This includes regular talking points and themes for commanders and 
preparing soldiers to interact with the press. It's a means of emphasizing 
selected issues and positions-speaking with one voice. 


9-15. The starting point for PA contributions to Information Operations 
is the Public Affairs Estimate. (See Appendix C). The PA estimate 
consolidates information on the audiences, media presence, public 
opinion, personnel available and PA guidance. 

9-16. This is not a static document created at the beginning of an 
operation, but must be continually updated to reflect changes in the 
operational situation and environment. Issues to consider include: 

9-17. Audience analysis. Who are the audiences, both internal and 
external? What are their information needs? How do they get their 
information: television, radio, newspapers or word of mouth? Is the media 


FM 3-61.1 

state-run or independent? Does the audience population have telephones, 
cell phones, fax machines or Internet connections? These devices are 
frequently found even in developing countries and must be considered 
during the analysis of information channels. 

9-18. Media presence. What media representatives and organizations 
are in the area of operation? Are they radio, television or print? Are they 
state-run or independent? What is their political slant? Are they pro- or 
anti -coalition? Are they receptive to coalition information products such 
as news releases or other print or electronic products? Is the local media 
interested in live interviews with U.S. commanders and soldiers? 

9-19. Public Opinion. What are the opinions/beliefs of the local 
populations; of the international community; of the U.S. national 

9-20. Personnel available. What is the available Public Affairs force 
structure (PADs, MPADs, BODs, CPIC/J IB staff, unit organic PA staff 
and individual additions), translators, Combat Camera and 
administrative staff. 

9-21. PA guidance. What guidance has been received from higher 
levels? Official positions on theater issues are naturally not developed at 
the tactical level. What is the theater strategic/national command 
authority position? This is often coordinated and deconflicted at all levels 
via conference calls and other communication means. 


9-22. There are four stages to an 10 campaign cycle: capability 
development, assessment, planning and execution. The execution stage is 
accompanied by evaluation-- during and after the mission -- in order to 
adjust operations as needed and after the operation to gather lessons 

9-23. Capability development: 

• Identify local resources and available external support. Theme and 
message delivery can take many forms, including radio/television, 
handbills, leaflets, loudspeakers, soldiers, displays, the Internet, 
internal information products, USIA, Voice of America, print and 
electronic news releases, press conferences, direct contact with 
parties, leaders, officials and citizens. Direct contact may include 
military liaisons, Civil Affairs personnel, diplomatic contact, or any 
form of personal interaction. 

• Establish processes and procedures 

• Collect, organize and store relevant information 
9-24. Assessment 

• Perform mission analysis 

• Obtain commander's guidance 

• Define 10 goals and objectives 

• Conduct risk assessment 

• The assessment phase includes a mission analysis, clarification of 
the commander's guidance, initial identification of 10 goals and 
objectives and a risk assessment. Goals and objectives include a 


determination of the desired end state and what must be done to 
achieve it. This may mean inducing others to take or not take 
certain actions, or have the information to make certain decisions 
that will support the goals of the operation. Public Affairs is not in 
the business of shaping beliefs and attitudes of populations, but 
can provide factual information that enables people to make 
informed decisions. 

• Risk Assessment 
Consequences for command if information operation fails? 
Potential unintended effects? 
Operational success too reliant on I O? 
Can 10 campaign be used against U.S. or coalition? 
Force protection issues? 
Compromise or loss of impartiality? 

9-25. Planning 

• Develop and coordinate themes 

• Determine the best implementation means 

• Delineate tasks and responsibilities 

• I dentify feedback and measures of effectiveness channels 

• P repare i mpl ementati on order 

• During the planning phase, specific themes are developed and 
coordinated with all members of the 10 cell. Message/theme 
delivery methods are determined and specific tasks and 
responsibilities are assigned. The 10 cell may use a 
synchronization matrix to effectively manage 10 events. For 
example, this matrix will indicate specific actions, events or 
products each member organization of the 10 cell will execute or 
produce to support the plan. For example, a specific event may 
require PSYOP leaflets and broadcasts, PA press releases, news 
conferences and interviews with soldiers and Civil Affairs meetings 
with local officials and community leaders. These activities are 
coordinated on the matrix, ensuring deconfliction of resources, 
messages and products. 

• Measures of effectiveness and feedback indicators vary widely and 
should be identified in the planning process. They may include 
questions raised by the media, editorials and commentaries, 
statements by public officials, postings to internet newsgroups and 
forums, demonstrations and protests, statements during meetings, 
responses given to public opinion surveys, behaviors during specific 
events, as well as other SIGINT and HUM I NT collection and 

• The product of the planning phase is a synchronization matrix and 
execution schedule. The matrix is then coordinated with the overall 
synchronization matrix, ensuring that 10 is coordinated across the 

9-26. Execution 

• Conduct the mission. 


FM 3-61.1 

• 10 monitoring must be conducted throughout the execution of the 
event and during follow-up review, feedback and evaluation. 

• If necessary or possible, alter mission if evaluation determines it is 
not successful or unexpected responses occur. 

9-27. Evaluate 

• Assess the effectiveness of the operation 

• Determine preventive methods, document lessons learned and 
apply to next operation 


Appendix A 


The DoD Principles of Information are contained in DoD Directive 5122.5, 
Change 1. They chart the course for all DoD Public Affairs activities, and apply 
to the full continuum of day-to-day activities and operations. It is the 
commander's responsibility to ensure that all planning for military activities and 
operations efficiently and effectively achieve the goals set by these principles. 


A. Timely and accurate information will be made available so that the 
public, Congress, and the news media may assess and understand the 
facts about national security, defense strategy, and on-going joint and 
unilateral operations. 

B. Requests for information from organizations and private citizens will 
be answered in a timely manner. In carrying out this policy, the 
following principles of information apply: 

(1) Information will be made fully available, consistent with 
statutory requirements, unless its release is precluded by 
current and valid security classification. The provisions of 
the Freedom of Information Act and the Privacy Act will be 
complied with in both letter and spirit. 

(2) A freeflow of general and military information will be made 
available, without censorship or propaganda, to the men and 
women of the Armed Forces and their family members. 

(3) Information will not be classified or otherwise withheld to 
protect the government from criticism or embarrassment. 

(4) Information will be withheld only when disclosure would 
adversely affect national and operations security or threaten 
the safety or privacy of the men and women of the Armed 

(5) The Department's obligation to provide the public with 
information on its major programs and operations may 
require detailed public affairs planning and coordination 
within the Department and with other government agencies. 
The sole purpose of such activity is to expedite the flow of 
information to the public; propaganda or publicity designed to 
sway or direct public opinion will not be included in 
Department of Defense public affairs programs. 


Appendix B 



The DoD Media Guidelines, issued as Change 3 to DoD Directive 5122.5, 
provide the foil owing guidelines for coverage of DoD combat operations: 

A. Open and independent reporting will be the principal means of 
coverage of U.S. military operations. 

B. Pools are not to serve as the standard means of covering U.S. 
military operations. But pools may sometimes provide the only 
feasible means of early access to a military operation. Pools 
should be as large as possible and disbanded at the earliest 
opportunity-within 24 to 36 hours when possible. The arrival of 
early access pools will not cancel the principle of independent 
coverage for journal ists al ready i n the area. 

C. Even under conditions of open coverage, pools may be appropriate 
for specific events, such as those at extremely remote locations or 
where space is limited. 

D. Journalists in a combat zone will be credentialed by the U.S. 
military and will be required to abide by a clear set of military 
security ground rules that protect U.S. forces and their 
operations. Violation of the ground rules can result in suspension 
of credentials and expulsion from the combat zone of the 
journalists involved. News organizations will make their best 
efforts to assign experienced journalists to combat operations and 
then make them familiar with U.S. military operations. 

E. Journalists will be provided access to all major military units. 
Special operations restriction may limit access in some cases. 

F. Military public affairs officers should act as liaisons but should 
not interfere with the reporting process. 

G. Under conditions of open coverage, field commanders will permit 
journalists to ride on military vehicles and aircraft whenever 
feasible. The military will be responsible for the transportation of 

H. Consistent with its capabilities, the military will supply PAOs 
with facilities to enable timely, secure compatible transmission of 
pool material and will make these facilities available whenever 
possible for filing independent coverage. In cases when 
government facilities are unavailable, journalists will, as always, 
file by any other means available. The military will not ban 
communications systems operated by news media organizations, 
but electromagnetic operational security in battlefield situations 
may require limited restrictions on the use of such systems. 

I. These principles will apply as well to the operations of the 
standing DoD National Media Pool system. 


Appendix C 



FM 6-99(101-5) 



Place of issue 

Date, time, and time zone 

Message Ref. no. 


References: Maps, charts, or other documents. 
Ti me zone used throughout the esti mate: 


This paragraph lists the command's restated mission from a public affairs 


The paragraph describes the strategic and operational media environment in which 
the operation is being conducted and identifies the critical factors that might impact 
on the command's mission -- the "action and reaction" within global media channels. 
It identifies the media environment across the operational continuum, describing it 
from "austere" for low media interest and capability in a limited AOR communication 
infrastructure to "dynamic" for high media interest and capability in a high-tech 
AOR infrastructure. At a minimum, this paragraph must include: 

a. Information environment. This paragraph describes the characteristics 
of the operation and the information environment in the area of 
operations. It identifies any activities or issues affecting the over-all 
mission and the command's public affairs objectives. 

b. Media presence. An assessment of the news media presence in the 
theater of operations prior to deployment and the likely presence of 
additional news media during the conduct of operations. This assessment 


FM 3-61.1 

should address the authority under which media representatives are 
operating and the degree of control that can be imposed on their efforts. 

c. Media capabilities. An assessment of the media's information collection 
and communication technology, specifically identifying their level of 
visual information acquisition and satellite communication capabilities. 
It includes an analysis of the logistics support, transportation assets, and 
host-nation communications infrastructure available to them. 

d. Media content. An assessment of the global media's presentation of 
information and their agendas, and an analysis and prioritization of the 
potential strategic and operational issues confronting the command in 
the news media. This media content analysis will provide an evaluation 
of the quantity of coverage and the nature of that coverage. 

e. Public opinion. Assessment of national and international attitude about 
the operation and command, leaders, and soldiers conducting it. This 
paragraph should include both the perceptions held by major audience 
groups and the relative solidity or strength of those attitudes. A public 
opinion analysis should include as a minimum an analysis of the 
following groups: 

■ American public 

■ Civilian political leaders 

■ Coalition and allied forces and their publics 

■ International audience 

■ I nternal command audience 

■ Home station public 

f. Information channel availability. An assessment of the information 
channels avail able for the communication of information in and out of the 
AOR. It identifies the means available to the commander for receipt, 
transmission, and dissemination of voice, data, text, graphics, and digital 
visual imaging. It describes command, coalition, and local national 
facilities and equipment available, to include an analysis of available 
telephone lines for voice and data transmission, the accessibility of audio 
and video channels, the prevalence of private communications devices 
such as soldier-owned cellular telephones, facsimile machines, 
computers, portable radios and televisions, still and video cameras, and 
the nature and flow of the information possible through these channels. 

g. I nformation needs. This is an assessment of the information needs of the 
previously identified key publics. It analyzes key internal and external 
audiences and assesses theirs news and information expectations. It 
identifies the types of information made avail able to these key audiences. 

h. Personnel situation. Describes the present dispositions of public affairs 
personnel and units that affect the PA mission, and the assets needed 
and available. State known personnel problems, if any, that may affect 
the PA situation. Consult the personnel estimate for details. (Examples 
of personnel include shortages of PA NCOs and skilled operators for 

i. Public Affairs situation. This summarizes current PA objectives and 
identifies specific courses of action for each objective. At high levels of 
command, detail information in a summary with a reference to an annex 
to the estimate. Subparagraphs will include all current (PAG) from OSD 

j. Logistical situation. State known logistic problems, if any that may 
affect the PA situation. See logistic estimate for details. (Examples of 


logistic problems include the lack of transportation and adequate 

Assumptions. Until specific planning guidance from the commander 
becomes available, you may need assumptions for initiating planning or 
preparing the estimate. Modify these assumptions as factual data or 
planning guidance becomes available. 


Analyze each course of action based on the public affairs objectives in paragraph 2i. 
Indicate problems and deficiencies. At a minimum, subparagraphs should include 
media facilitation and support, news and information provision, and force training 
and support. 

Analyze each COA from a PA point of view to determine its advantages and 
disadvantages for conducting PA. The detail in which the analysis is made is 
determined by the level of command, scope of operations, and of urgency of need. 


Compare each course of action. List advantages and disadvantages of each course of 
action under consideration. Include methods of overcoming deficiencies or 
modification required for each course of action. 


a. Indicate whether you can support the command mission (restated in 
paragraph from the public affairs viewpoint. 

b. I ndicate which COAs you can best support. 

c. List major public affairs deficiencies, which commander must consider. 
Include specific recommendations about methods of eliminating or 
reduci ng thei r effects. 

(Public Affairs Officer) 
ANNEXES: (As required) 


(NOTE: The headings listed in this assessment are for example only. Use headings 
appropriate to your command's operations.) 


PA Operations Estimate 


Appendix D 



FM 6-99(101-5) 


(Change from oral orders, if any) 

Copy of copi es 

Issuing headquarters 
Place of issue (may be in code) 
Date-time group of signature 
M essage reference no. 


References: Maps, charts, and other relevant documents 
Time zone used throughout order: 


A brief general description of the situation, information affecting public affairs 
support, which paragraph 1 of the OPORD does not cover, and intended purpose of 
this annex. 

a. Friendly forces. Outline the higher headquarters' plan (and PA annex) and 
adjacent unit PA plans. Provide information on friendly coalition forces, 
which may impact the PA mission. Note PA resources supporting the unit. 
(Who, where, when), (higher, allied and adjacent headquarters). 

b. Attachments and detachments. Identify all augmenting PA units supporting 
this command and all attached/assigned subordinate units. I nclude effective 
dates, if applicable. 

c. Enemy forces. List information not included in the OPLAN/OPORD, which 
may impact the PA mission. (Who, where, when, disinformation, rumors, 
propaganda and OPSEC). 

d. Media. Identify media in the area, (who, where, pools, US. international, 
local-host country). 

e. Assumptions. List any additional assumptions or information not included in 
the general situation, which will impact the PA mission. 


Clearly, concisely state the public affairs mission. (Internal information for deployed 
and non-deployed forces, media facilitation and staff operations). 


a. Concept of operation. Briefly summarize the public affairs operation plan. 
Include PA priorities. (Intent --access, information, welfare, morale, will to 
win) (Concept-who, where, what, why, when) (Specifics-task to a 


FM 3-61.1 

subordinate; who is to do what, where, when, covers non-PAs too, actions 
with media: credential, train, transport) 

b. Outline of PA tasks. Identify and assign supporting PA tasks to each 
element of subordinate and supporting units. Assign specific tasks to 
elements of the command charged with public affairs tasks, such as 
requirements for PA augmentation. 

c. Coordinating instructions. Give details on coordination, task organization 
and groupings. List instructions, which apply to two or more subordinate 
elements or units. Refer to supporting appendixes (PA assessment) not 
referenced elsewhere. (Public Affairs Guidance, media in country, media 
enroute with US forces, media contact report, handover checklist, and task 


a. A statement of the administrative arrangements applicable to this operation. 
If they are lengthy or are not ready for inclusion in the OPORD, these 
arrangements may be issued separately and referenced here. 

b. A statement of the logistical arrangements applicable to this operation. 
Specific coordination should be included if possible, but arrangements may be 
issued separately and referenced here, if they are too lengthy. (Class I -IX and 
water), (Services: billets, medical, laundry and mortuary), (Transport: 
ground, air, TOE, tasked rented/leased, contracted). 


List signal, visual imaging and satellite communications policies, headquarters and 
media center locations or movements, code words, code names, and liaison elements. 
(PAO location, media center, J I Bs, sub-J I Bs, phones, faxes, e-mail and web page). 


NAME (Commander's last name) 
RANK (Commander's rank) 


APPENDIXES: (List PA assessment appendix) 




Appendix E 



Public Affairs Guidance (PAG) is the operational tool that guides 

commanders and their public affairs officers in the application of doctrine 

and policy during major military operations, exercises, and contingencies. 

The information below is tended to assist local commanders in preparing 

and obtaining approved guidance. 

DoD policy requires that PPAG be provided to the Assistant Secretary of 

Defense-Public Affairs (ASD-PA) by the Unified and Specified commands 

and others, as required for all major operations. 

This requirement includes major training exercises that could attract 

national and/or international attention. PPAG may not be used without 

ASD-PA approval. 

Upon receipt of the warning order, the commander, through his PAO, 

should request PAG from high headquarters. PAG may be included in 

alert notification or operational orders (see Part Three: Operational 

Planning). Commanders of major units/commands will direct their PAOs 

to prepare PPAG to forward the proposal through MACOM and 

Unified/Specified command PA channels to ASD-PA. 

Commanders of Unified/Specified commands should ensure that the 

PPAG has been coordinated with appropriate organizations within the 

theater of operations whenever possible (e.g., embassies, country teams, 

host governments, subordinate commands). 

Upon receipt of the PPAG, the ASD-PA coordinates and staffs the PPAG 

within the DoD and Department of State. 

The ASD-PA then issues a message either approving, modifying, or 

disapproving the PPAG. PPAG is broken down into subject, references 

and then eight paragraphs (Information/explanation, Purpose and 

coordination for PPAG, PA Approach, Public Statement, Q&As, 

Contingency Statement, Miscellaneous Information, Point of Contact). 

The format for PPAG follows: 


The subject line of the PPAG should state "PROPOSED PUBLIC 
AFFAIRS GUIDANCE -followed by the exercise and/or event name(U)." 
For coordination, it is best if the subject is unclassified. 

If an exercise or event is so sensitive that the actual name cannot be 
used, an unclassified short title should be used; e.g., "PROPOSED 


Pertinent messages or other documents shall be cited in the reference 
section. If the PPAG is based on PA policy in the Significant Military 


FM 3-61.1 

Exercise Brief, then theSMEB message Date-Time-Group (DTG) shall be 


The first paragraph of the PPAG shall explain the references, the 
exercise, and any significant existing or anticipated problems associated 
with the exercise. The information in this paragraph is not for release so 
may remain classified after the PAG is approved for release. This 
paragraph may restate some PA information from the SMEB. 


The second paragraph shall explain the purpose of the message; 
identify it as being fully coordinated and theater-approved; request ASD- 
PA approval and specify the date it is required for use. If the PAG is 
transmitted to the ASD-PA before it is fully coordinated, it is the 
responsibility of the submitting command to ensure that the ASD-PA is 
promptly informed of the results of the remaining coordination. The 
submitting command should always follow-up a PPAG message with a 
phone call to ensure that the primary addressee(s) is aware that the 
message is en route. When the submitting command is a supporting 
CINC from outside the supported CINC's AOR, the supported CINC is 
responsible for theater coordination. 


The third paragraph shall discuss the public affairs approach for the 
exercise; i.e., active or passive. This may be a restatement of the PA 
policy indicated in theSMEB. 

• Active Approach 

■ For this discussion, an "active approach" involves efforts made 
to stimulate public or press interest such as distributing press 
releases and inviting the press to observe the exercise. If an 
exercise or event is to be publicly announced, this paragraph 
shall state who will make the announcement, the method of 
announcement, and preferred time, and date for the 
announcement. If unusual circumstances prevail, the rationale 
for the recommendation should also be included. Part I and II 
exercises shall normally be announced by the ASD(PA) by 
issuing a news release (blue top). Other lesser exercises or 
training deployments, if announced by the ASD(PA), normally 
shall be made by release of a memorandum for correspondents 
(MFC). The preferred release time and/or date of exercise 
announcements is 1200 Eastern Standard Time (E.S.T.) on 
either Tuesdays or Thursdays in conjunction with the normally 
scheduled DoD press briefing. If a combined announcement is 
desired with a host country, complete details of the methods, 
time, and procedure shall be included in this paragraph. The 
active approach is recommended whenever possible to ensure 
appropriate media coverage of specific commands and/or units. 

• Passive Approach 

■ A "passive approach" is where no action is taken to generate 
media and/or public interest in an issue or activity beyond 
answering specific inquiries. If a passive approach is desired, 


Appendix E 

the PPAG shall so indicate and specify that the PAG is for 
response to query (RTQ) only. It shall also specify who is 
authorized to respond; e.g., "Only OASD(PA) may RTQ," or "All 
of the following addressees may use this PAG for RTQ only." 
To de-emphasize an event, it is best to authorize release or 
RTQ at the I owest possi bl e I evel . 


The fourth paragraph shall contain a statement that explains the 
exercise and/or event. The statement shall be for public release in an 
active PA approach or for RTQ in a passive PA approach. For ease of 
coordination, each paragraph of the statement shall be identified as a 
sub-paragraph of the message; for example: The following statement is 
for initial public release: (TEXT FOLLOWS): QUOTE. 






As indicated above, the last paragraph of the statement shall identify 
points of contact where additional information may be obtained. 


The fifth paragraph shall contain a list of proposed Q&As to enable the 
user to respond to the majority of anticipated questions. They should all 
be contained in one paragraph and should be numbered sequentially; e.g., 
Ql, Al; Q2, A2; Q3, A3, etc. Q&As are for use in both active and passive 
PA approaches, but are strictly for RTQ only and shall not be given to 
media as handouts. 


The sixth paragraph of the PPAG shall contain a contingency 
statement to be used efore release of the final PAG. Usually, the 
contingency statement should be that we don't discuss exercises before 
they have been formally announced. However, this approach can be 
modified, as appropriate, depending on the circumstances of the exercise. 
If a contingency statement is not required, so state in Paragraph 6 of the 


The seventh paragraph shall contain other pertinent information to 
include the following items (when a certain sub-paragraph is not 
applicable, so state):Media Information Centers (e.g., J oint Information 
Bureaus (J IBs), Press Information Centers (PICs), exercise PA elements, 
etc.) Discuss whether centers are joint or combined; delineate who is 
responsible for the establishment; give generic description of its 


FM 3-61.1 

composition (e.g., U.S. Army desk (0-4 and E-6/E-7), U.S. Navy/Marine 
desk (USN 0-4/0-5, and USMC E-5/ E-6), etc.); establish the center's 
functions (coordination of all exercise media and/or PA activities, 
clearance of U.S. military-generated news material before release, 
production of news material for release, escort of accredited news media 
representatives); etc. 

• Command Relationships 

■ Designation of sole approving authority for all exercise-related 
news materials; procedures for the release and/or clearance of 
information (to include list of addressees for notification in 
case of accident and/or incident); request for participating 
commands and/or units to ensure that the media center is 
action and/or information addressee on all messages with 
potential PA impact (to include incident and/or accident 
reports); hometown news release requirements and/or 
instructions (passive PA approach may make hometown 
releases inappropriate); etc. 

• Media Coverage 

■ State whether media coverage is encouraged or solicited, giving 
rationale; news media transportation instructions; point of 
contact (POC) and procedures for handling such requests; 
requirements for news media representatives (valid passport, 
working media visa, local accreditation requirements, funds for 
food, lodging, return travel (if military air is not available), 
etc.); instructions regarding assistance to continental United 
States (CONUS)-based units for handling request from news 
media for accompanying travel before and following public 
announcement of the exercise; etc. 

• DoD National Media Pool 

■ Each exercise is a potential opportunity for activation and 
deployment of the DoD National Media Pool to cover exercise 
activities. As a minimum, planning should include 
arrangements for local ground and/or air transportation, 
special clothing or equipment to be provided, messing, 
billeting, protection of media equipment and gear, local escort 
requirements, and communications support for filing of pool 
products. Sponsoring commands shall indicate whether the 
exercise should be considered for a pool deployment. Identify 
the primary POC should the pool be activated. 

• Internal Media and Audiovisual Coverage 

■ Provide instructions on assistance that will be provided to this 
effort; degree of freedom of movement (to include whether 
escorts are necessary); screening of visual information (VI) 
materials upon completion of exercise; sponsoring command 
POC for handling internal information matters; etc. Also 
include guidelines for Armed Forces audiovisual teams 
documenting the exercise. 

• Media Opportunities 

■ If known well enough in advance, provide chronology of 
potential exercise events that would be of interest to media. 

• Miscellaneous PA Considerations 


.Appendix E 

■ Indicate any other proposed PA activities or considerations; if 
there are none, then so state. 


The eighth paragraph shall state the originating POC's name and 
phone number. 


Declassification instructions shall be the last part of the message and in 
accordance with subsection 4-207 of DoD 5200.1-R (reference (d)). 


Appendix F 



The purpose of a briefing and the desired response or result determines 
the briefing technique. Basically, there are four briefing types: the 
information briefing, the decision briefing, the mission briefing, and the 
staff briefing. 

The Information Briefing. The information briefing informs the 
listener and deals primarily with facts and background information. The 
Information Briefing contains an introduction to the subject and the 
scope of the subject area. It then presents the high-priority information 
requiring immediate attention and complex information involving 
complicated plans, systems, statistics, or charts. It may also explain 
controversial situations or information, which require elaboration. 
The Decision Briefing. The Decision Briefing includes many of the 
elements of the information, but goes further by seeking a decision from 
the decision-maker. At the beginning, the briefer clearly states that he is 
seeking a decision; at the end, he requests the decision. 
The Mission Briefing. The Mission Briefing gives special instructions, 
amplifies the mission, elaborates on new orders, or assigns taskings to 
subordinate elements. This briefing usually follows the five-paragraph 
operations order format. But the briefer may also choose the information 
briefing format. 

The Staff Briefing. The Staff Briefing informs the commander and staff 
of the current operational situation. Its purpose is to generate a 
coordinated or unified effort and in a tactical environment. It serves to 
keep the entire staff aware of each section's activities, thus aiding 
coordinated action. While there is no specific briefing format, 
commanders usually tailor this type of briefing to fit their information 
needs. PAOs address the major PA activities and the PA implications of 
the operational situation and other staff sections activities. 
In a commander's staff briefing, the PAO is responsible for providing a 
summary of the "global information environment (GIE)." The PAO 
should present this information at the beginning of the briefing, following 
the intelligence summary. The PAO's Gl E summary, combined with the 
G2/S2's intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB) briefing, helps to 
complete the picture of the operational situation, which the other 
elements of the command must react. 

Preparation. After conducting the initial analysis of the situation, the 
briefer gathers and organizes information, prepares visual aids, and then 
rehearses, briefing only what is essential. Before developing the briefing, 
the briefing officer or NCO must know and understand: 

• the higher headquarters mission 

• the higher commander's intent 

• the commander's personal guidance and intent 

• all aspects of the PA estimate of the situation 

• the command's objectives 


FM 3-61.1 

While much of the information required for a GIE presentation can be 
found in previously published PA Area Studies, a significant amount of 
situational information should pulled directly from the PA Estimate of 
the Situation and updated to present the latest information available. 


The PA briefing format should follow an outline similar to the PA 
Esti mate of the Situation: 

Mission - Command mission including PA objectives 

Situation and Conditions 

I nformation environment 

PA situation 

Media presence 

Media capabilities 

Media content 

Public opinion 

Information channel availability 

Information needs 

Current Operations/Actions 

F utu re Operati ons/Acti ons 


Appendix G 



Public Affairs area studies provide the PA specialist and the PA planner 
a starting point to begin their campaign planning process. These studies 
are produced either to address long-term general background information 
or to address immediate short-term needs. 


A PA study is a document that succinctly describes the most PA-pertinent 
characteristics of a country, geographical area, or region. It serves as an 
immediate reference for the planning and conduct of PA operations. 


The title page of a Media Environment Study (MES) must show the 
country, area, group, or other subject of the study. It should also show 
the classification, the copy number, the date-time group, and command 
post location. (The originating unit should keep a record of the names, 
grades, and duty assignments of the authors.) 


The executive summary should address the strategic significance of the 
area under study. (The authors should write the executive summary last, 
in a clear, brief, accurate, and coherent form.) 

NOTE: The commander reading the summary should us its information 
to decide how to employ Public Affairs in that area. 

Executive Summary 

1. H i story and I deology 

2. Government and Politics 

3. Foreign Relations and Policy 


FM 3-61.1 

4. Society and Culture 

5. Economy 

6. Military Establishment 

7. Communication Process and Effects 



A. Country Summary 

B. Government Structure 

C. Communications Facilities 

D. Glossary 



The introduction outlines the study's intent, cites the directive requiring 
the study, and explains the study's format. 

The study's intent is to provide a summary of aspects of subject country 
significant to GIE. The study should identify psychological 
vulnerabilities, characteristics, insights, and opportunities that exist in 
subject country. 

It is prepared as a basic source document for further development of 
estimates, plans, and annexes. 

Although this study can help develop contingency plans, it is not tailored 
to any particular plan. Rather, its neutral data and insights can be used 
to analyze possible political and military developments in the region. 

Insert here a paragraph referencing the authority directing the study and 
stating the research cutoff date and provisions for updating the study. 

Focus the PA study on the Gl E aspects of the many topics addressed. Do 
not view this document as a comprehensive and self-contained area 

I nstead, use it as a complement to such other standard references as the 
Department of the Army Area Handbook Series. In addition, the PA 
study should include: 

Results from standard open source products. 

Tries to be more analytical than descriptive in nature, making it subject 
to varying individual perspectives. 

Works well when PA specialists compare it with studies on other 
countries in the region or area. 

Is not a U.S. foreign policy statement or comprehensive analysis of 
subject country, except in areas with direct Gl E relevance. 

.Appendix G 

Insert here a statement of U.S. policy goals toward the country in 
question. This information comes from the proper USA Country Plan, 
Department of State Policy Memorandum, or similar document, in the 
priority order. 

Because certain gaps exist in getting PA study material (classification 
level, availability of complete and timely information, or time limits on 
research), listing these gaps here to aid future research and guide PA 
study users to further inquiries. 

Insert here issues or GlE-relevant material (such as an area map) not 
included, addressed, or completely answered elsewhere. 



I n this chapter, review the evolution of the state and its people, focusing 
on aspects having GIE and Public Affairs significance. Do not detail 
chronology of the country's development. Keep in mind, however, the 
country's history has an important relationship to the country's historical 
perspective, attitudes, and current world position. 

Because of its special importance to PA, in this chapter, cover historical 
issues thoroughly. An historical analysis of current political, economic, 
and military policies gives PA personnel a solid base for the study. 



In this chapter, summarize the country's political system. Give a 
description of its political power sources, policy making process, and the 
political complexities of the government. 

When discussing the political system, pay close attention to the role of 
individuals, special interest groups, and political parties. Include the 
population's political attitudes, values, and view of the political system. 
Also discuss the government's function in society. 



In this chapter, summarize the country's foreign relations. Describe its 
political alignment in world affairs and its relationship with the United 
States. Describe the foreign policy of the country. Also analyze and 
interpret why the country acts as it does in international affairs. 



I n this chapter, analyze the subject country's social setting. Provide the 
PA personnel with the knowledge needed to understand potential 

Cover the country's social organization and cultural and behavioral 
patterns and characteristics. Place special emphasis on the society's 
social values and the role of the family. 


FM 3-61.1 

Address culture, social organization, education, customs, ethnic 
composition, and the interrelated effects of religion, language, and 



In this chapter, present a brief description of the characteristics, 
structure, and dynamics of the national economy. Cover the subject 
country's economic strengths and weaknesses, current economic and 
labor problems, and economic potential 

Describe the country's economic base and the importance of agriculture, 
industry, and trade. This information helps determine if the present 
economic structure meets the people's needs. 

These economic considerations explain many of the sociological conditions 
that impact public opinion. Address society's perceptions of the wisdom 
of government economic policies. 

Also describe individual or group perceptions of how members of society 
stand to gain or lose from those policies. 



In most countries, the military establishment involves itself in internal 
politics as well as external defense. Even when the military 
establishment does not directly compete for political power, its actions 
influence social and political development. Analyze the following topic 

• Emergency of the modern military establishment. 

• Military roles in the political, economic, and social spheres, and the 
effects of those rules. 

• Issues creating cohesion or conflict within the armed forces. 

Conflicts within the military establishment. 

Extent, quality, and influence of foreign military aid. 



List essential information about communication patterns for the 
implementation of a PA program. Include the foil owing information: 

Manner and social means of communication (not technical data on 
communications facilities). 

Languages and language groups, nonverbal communication, and 
nonverbal symbols specific to the country's culture or cultures. 

Distinctive styles in rhetoric or visual arts, including dramatic, poetic, 
and musical forms. All these forms are significant to PA. 

Data on the society's formal and informal leadership positions where the 
incumbents are key communicators and opinion leaders. 

Analysis of the reading and listening habits of the society. 



Appendix G 

Analysis of printed formats. 

Analysis of media effectiveness. Also address freedom of the press issues, 
if any. 




Give the reader a brief overview of the subject country, its geography, and 
its people. These background data and statistics should include the 
following items: 

Country. Identify the country, tell when formed, and show previous 
control . 

Government. State briefly the type of government, method of appointing 
or electing leaders, and length of terms. List current leader or leaders 
and political power in country. 

Size, location, and geographical subdivision. List the size of the area in 
square miles or kilometers, and give the general location. Show any 
geographical subdivision, such as coasts, mountains, and flatlands. 

Population. State the number of people and the area density. Show the 
heavily populated areas. 

Languages and dialects. List the official language, languages spoken by 
the population, percentage of population speaking each language, and 
areas of the concentrations. 

Labor. Outline the total work force, the area of endeavor, and the 

Religions and sects. List the religions of the area and the percentage of 
the population that practices each. 

Education. List the types of systems and the primary emphasis of each. 

Literacy rates. Latest statistics. 

Health. List the general conditions of the populace. Describe the medical 
care system. 

J ustice. Describe the justice and court systems. 

Administration. Outline the breakdown of the governmental andjudicial 
districts, counties, or precincts. 

Transportation. List the methods of transportation available and include 
the total capabilities. This information may include the number of 
airlines, airfields, kilometers and kinds of highways, and kilometers of 
waterways and depth. 

Armed forces. List organization and strengths. 

Police. List the types and areas of responsibilities. 


FM 3-61.1 




List the formal government structure, key positions, and organizations of 
the country. Outline the chain of government control, including political 
parties, if applicable. A schematic diagram may be helpful. 

Include only branches of government and their key positions, not names. 


Give a brief overview of the subject country's media facilities. Include the 
facilities' locations and levels of technical sophistication. Cover printing, 
publishing, and the distribution of radio and television receivers, studios, 
transmitters, and relay facilities. Include news service facilities. Write 
this appendix as if the U.S. PA units will use this equipment or contract 
for its services. Since PA personnel may get operating supplies or repair 
parts from in-country sources, provide the foil owing information: 

• Make. 

• Model. 

• Type. 

• Series. 

• Name of manufacturer. 

Any other technical information on the repair or operation of this 

Prepare a glossary that lists in alphabetical order all acronyms and 
foreign words used in the study. List also all words and terms that have 
special meaning and need to be defined. 



List the source material used. Include the name of the author, the title of 
the publication, the publisher, and the date of publication. 

Dissemination is accomplished by the originating agency for the 
recipients within PA. I ndude in the distribution list the identification of 
recipient agency (by code), the number of copies furnished, and the office 
symbol of the red pi ent. 


Appendix H 



Before the Presentation 

Know your publics 

Anticipate interests, concerns and questions 

Consider the latter in preparation 

Prepare your presentation 

Develop a strong introduction 

Develop a maximum of three key messages 

Assemble your supporting data 

Prepare audiovisual aids 


Prepare for answering questions 
Anticipate what questions will arise 
Prepare answers to those questions 
Practice questioning and responding 

The Opening Statement 

A strong openi ng statement sets the tone for the press conference or news 
briefing and is crucial in attempting to establish trust and build 
credibility. The elements of a strong opening are: 


A statement of personal concern 

A statement of organizational commitment and intent 

A statement of purpose and plan for the meeting 

Key messages and supporting data 

A maxi mum of three "take-home poi nts" 

I nformation to support the key messages 


A summarizing statement 

Total time for all presenters should be 15 minutes or less. Do not have too 
many presenters. Three is usually sufficient. 



FM 3-61.1 

Remember that perceived empathy is a vital factor in establishing trust 
and building credibility and your publics assess it in the first 30 seconds. 

Examples are: 

Statement of personal concern: "As a resident of this community I'm 
interested in the safety and well-being of our families and 

Statement of organizational commitment and intent: " I'm here to share 
with you the knowledge and confidence I have in the military's ability to 
assist the citizens of our community. They have been trained in their 
occupational skill to assist with the task at hand." 

Statement of purpose and plan for the presentation: Today I would like 
to share with you the most current information regarding the (incident.) I 
will also be available to answer additional questions or to continue the 

Key messages and supporting data 

The key messages are points you want your publics to have in their 
minds after the presentation. They should: 

Address central issues. 

Be short and concise. 

Examples are: 

"We have trained personnel and emergency response plans in pi ace to aid 

in protecting the health, safety and welfare of the public. We are working 

with local and state officials to handle the incident. 

"We are actively respondi ng to the emergency...." 

To develop your key messages: 


Think freely and jot down all pieces of information you wish to 


Select key messages 

Identify the most important ideas. Repeat the process until you list is 

down to three items. 

Identify supporting data 

Other information you listed probably provides support to your key 

messages. Organize it to reflect this. 


Restate verbatim your key messages. 

Add a future action statement --- What is your organization going to do 
about this problem in the short and long term? 


Appendix I 


Whereby, I NAME passport no:_ 

am about to travel with forces, and whereas I am doing so entirely upon my 

own initiative, risk and responsibility; now, therefore, in consideration of the permission 
extended to me; I do hereby for myself, my heirs, executors and administrators, remiss, 

release and forever discharge and its member officers, agents and employees 

acting officially or otherwise, from any and all claims, demands actions or causes of 
action, on account of my death or on account of any injury to me or my property which 
may occur from any cause during my stay, travel as well as all ground, flight or sea 
operations incidents thereto. 

I also agree to withhold any classified information, which may be accidentally disclosed 
to me, and to respect embargo restrictions, which may be imposed on information which, 

if disclosed, may jeopardize operational security. During my stay with forces, I 

will not interfere with operations. I understand that failure to comply with these security 

restrictions will result in the loss of authorization to accompany and may result in 

cancellation of my press registration. 

Signature Witness 

Printed Name Nationality 

Please provide the following information for a person to be notified in an emergency 
(preferably next immediate relative): 


Appendix J 



A multitude of factors make each deployment uniquely different from other 
deployments. Each factor must be carefully examined to determine its impact on the 
mission, actions before deployment and what equipment is taken. 
(Unit Basic Load). In all other instances the chances of drawing the UBL are 
remote. Certainly if the unit is deploying for war it would draw the unit's basic load 
of ammunition Exercise or deployment duration will affect the quantity of 
expendable supplies. 

This checklist, like all others, is based on what has occurred before and what we have 
come to expect in the future. As equipment and missions change, so too must the 
checklist. Bottom line, expect the unexpected and react accordingly; use the checklist 
as a guide to help you through deployment preparation. Add to it whenever the need 

1. Each HQ element and unit should have a 45-day supply of expendables identified 
and set aside for contingency operations. This supply should be inventoried 
quarterly and stockage rotated accordingly. 

2. Maintain and update a master list of all areas and topics that can affect 
individual readiness. This includes all shots, dental status, family support plan, 
check to bank, etc. 

3. The PAO or detachment commander (or deploying team leader) should: 

a. Review and update PA estimates annexes and plans. 

b. Obtain and comply with applicable published Public Affairs Guidance. 

c. Inventory and inspect TOE equipment for accountability and 
serviceabi I ity before deployment. 

d. Figure total weight and cube of equipment before moving to assembly 

e. Check dependency clause in TOE document or OPLAN to determine who 
will be supporting and who is supporting us. Ensure responsible parties 
know the relationship. Establish liaison with units OPCON; attached or 
any new parent organization. 

f. Ensure accompanying equipment not on TOE is listed on interim 
authorization document (such as facsimile machines or cellular phones). 

g. Prepare an internal OPORD for your element detachment or team. 

h. Review the essential elements of friendly information (EEFI) contained in 
the base OPLAN/OPORD and ensure each soldier understands them. 

4. All leaders must consider the need for the foil owing: 

a. Will flak vests be required? 

b. Should each soldier take a footlocker instead of a dufflebag? 

c. Will weapons' carrying/security cases be needed/available? (Will weapons 
and protective masks be required?) 

d. Will desert or jungle uniforms be required, and if so, what fund can be 
used to pay for alterations, sewing and patches? 

e. Is there an opportunity for a service contract to be initiated at the 
deployed location? Cameras, video, computers, etc.? if not, and cameras 
go down and must be swapped out, what is the plan? 

f. Will the deployment be considered TDY? If so, who prepares orders? 
What fund cite will beused? Are rental vehicles available? (AreweTDY 
under field conditions and required to carry meal card?) 


FM 3-61.1 

g. Will a fund cite be made available after redeployment to pay for repairs? 

(Make this request soon after being tasked - don't wait until 

redeployment to find out you've got to use unit funds to repair 

h. If departing from location other than current station, what type of 

transportation to that location is to be used for personnel and equipment? 
i. Will personnel and equipment travel together at all times? (Insist that 

they do whenever possible!) 
j. Does each team have a credit card holder for authorized payments or 

k. Has an express mail system been established to ensure timely transit of 

products to home station? With what frequency? (If you arethe ARFOR 

or sub-JIB, have the division PAO's/PAD's establish a plan to get 

products to you for review, release or use). 
I. Under what conditions will the MPAD or team(s) work? Fixed site, field 

conditions, etc. Will we need to deploy our own tents for sleep and work? 
m. Is the heat a condition that will affect computers, cameras, batteries, etc? 

If so, is air conditioning available? Refrigerators for film? What about 

humidity problems? Air conditioning may help but can dehumidifiers do 

better... consider charcoal bags placed in shipping cases, 
n. From what unit(s) do we draw support... rations, billets, fuel, etc.? 
o. If one team is deployed for a lengthy duration, is there an opportunity for 

the teams to be rotated? 
p. If deploying a risograph or other commercial printing machine, what 

quantity of copies and frequency (daily, weekly) is desired? What is the 

plan for distribution of copies? What is the plan for paper replenishment? 
q. Has every effort been made to ensure deployed asset has commercial 

phones avai I abl e to assi st transmi tti ng di gi tal photographs, respondi ng to 

query, accidents and incidents, fax capability, etc. 
r. Has unit/team packing list been carefully checked to ensure the easy-to- 

forget yet must- have items are not forgotten. Glue sticks, chalk, scotch 

tape, blank overheads, etc. 


Appendix K 


Chapter 1, Alert Notification Procedures 

Annex A, Notification Procedures 
Annex B, Section Telephone Contact Roster 
Chapter 2, Individual Preparation 

Annex A, Individual Admin Checklist 

Annex B, POV Storage Plan, Procedures for Completing Post 

POV Storage Forms. 

AnnexC, Personal Property Storage Plan 
Section 1, Power of Attorney 
Section 2, State of Obligations 
Section 3, DD Form 1299, Application for 
Shipment/Storage of Personal Property. 
Section 4, DD Form 1701, Household Goods I nventory 

Annex D, Recommended Personal Readiness Equipment 

Annex E, Family Member P re-deployment Checklist 
Chapter 3, Unit Preparation 

Annex A, Unit Equipment List 
Chapter 4, Tactical Vehicle Preparation 

Annex A, Vehicle Preparation Standards 

Annex B, Vehicle Load Card 

Annex C, Vehicle I nspection Checklist 

Annex D, J oint Airlift Inspection Record 

Annex E, HMMWV Configuration and Load Plan 
Chapter 5, Rear Detachment Operations 

Annex A, Communications 

Annex B, Logistics Coordination 
Chapter 6, Public Affairs Checklists 

Annex A, P re-Deployment Checklists 

Annex B, Guide for Media Interviews 

AnnexC, METL and Tasks, Conditions, Standards 

Annex D, DoD Principles of Information 

Annex E, Policy on the News Coverage of U.S. Military in 


Annex F, PA Guidance on Terrorism Counteraction 

Annex G, PA Guidance on Counter-Drug Operations 

Annex H, Standard PA Ground Rules 

Annex I, Spokesperson Guidelines 

AnnexJ , Command Unique Media Operations Center 

Chapter 7, Field Operations 

Annex A, Tactical Uniform 

Annex B, Installation Security 

AnnexC, Tactical communication 

Annex D, Personal Hygiene 

Annex E, Morale, Welfare and Recreation 


Appendix L 


Operations of a media center will need the foil owing support: 

• Communications 

• Vehicle support (day-to-day operations and media transport 
tactical or non-tactical as needed) 

• Billeting and rations for media center personnel 

• Admin support personnel for 24-hour operations 

• Office space (hard site if possible) and power as needed 


Headquarters Group 

Media Operations Group 

Figure L-1. Media Operations Center 


Appendix M 


This format is intended as an example only and should be adapted to local needs and SOPs. 
In addition to query forms, PAOs should maintain a separate log of all inquiries. 


Query Number: 





QUESTION (use reporter's precise wording):_ 


RESPONSE (if written releaseis made, attach a copy):_ 



RELEASE METHOD: In Person Phone 


News Release 


Appendix N 



1. Considerations 

a. When human safety or other serious concerns are involved, deal with those 
considerations first. 

b. Communicate only information that is approved for external distribution. 
Always tell the truth. 

c. Know to whom you are speaking. Get the person's name and telephone 
number, if necessary. 

d. Do not be intimidated. You may tell a reporter that you need to clarify an 
important matter before you can answer questions. 

e. Talk from the public's viewpoint. Avoid jargon. Speak within the audience's 
frame or reference. 

f. If the questions do not lie within the framework of approved statements or 
within your area of expertise, find the appropriate technical advisor or 

g. State the most important fact at the beginning. Place your own headline on 
the answer. 

h. Attack problems in your answers, not people. 

i. Do not repeat offensive or negative language. Do not let other people put 
words in your mouth. 

j. Direct questions deserve equally direct and forthright answers. 

k. Do not exaggerate the facts. Listen to how your answer "sounds" when 

I. Ignore cameras and microphones. Talk to the reporter. 

m. During videotaped interviews, it is all right to stop your statement and start 

n. Do not say "no comment." Explain why you do not have an immediate 

o. Keep your composure, even if a news reporter gets snappy. 

p. Be prepared to provide sufficient evidence for statements you make. 

q. Be especially alert about photos. You have little control over photos taken off 
military reservation property, but you have every right to control photos 
taken on the military reservation. 

r. Be aware of your surroundings and follow local OPSEC rules when 
determining interview location 

2. What will be asked? 

a. What happened and where? When did this occur 


FM 3-61.1 

b. Are there injuries or deaths as a result? How many and to whom? 

c. What actions is the unit taking to control the situation? 

d. Have chemicals or other hazardous substances been released into the 
environment? What kinds? How much? 

e. What types of hazards are presented to people off-site? 

f. Have off-site emergency response personnel been notified? Which ones? 

g. Are unit operations shut down? 

h. Has the site or facility been evacuated? 

i. How many people are employed at this site? 

j. What do you do at this site? 

k. How old is the facility? Does it meet current regulations? 

I. Why did this situation occur? (DO NOT SPECULATE.) 

m. Are there safety rules covering the situation? Were they violated? 

n. Has a Site Emergency Response Plan been activated? What does that 

o. Tell me about your organization? 

p. Will this situation have national ramifications, or will its effect likely be 
limited to a single site or region? 

q. How much money is this going to cost the taxpayers? 

r. Is there insurance coverage for the I oss or damage? How much? 

s. Are commanders handling the situation locally or is a higher headquarters 
taking control? 

t. Has this occurred anywhere within the unit before? Why weren't you ready? 

u. What do your soldiers think about this situation? 

v. For accidents and incidents, don't speculate causes. Use "ongoing" 
investigation statements. 


Appendix O 



Since the early part of the 20th century, when there was almost no 
interest in the size of audiences or in types of people that comprised 
various audiences, business leaders and their organizational 
communicators have increasingly come to rely on research for nearly 
every major decision they make. This expanded demand for information 
has created a particular demand for media communication research 
capabilities, specifically -- the development of a scientific basis for media 
analysis and media effects. 

The importance of mass communications research and media analysis is 
partly due to the realization that gut feelings or reactions are not entirely 
reliable or credible bases for decisions. Although common sense is often 
accurate, Army commanders and other decision-makers need additional, 
more objective information to evaluate problems, especially when lives 
are at stake. Thus, the past 50 years have witnessed continuing 
evolution of media analysis, combining research and intuition to create a 
higher probability of success. 

This evolution has resulted in a "scientific" approach to media research 
known as media content analysis. 


Scientific Research is defined as a "Systematic, controlled, empirical, 
and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the 
presumed relationships among observed phenomena." This 
definition contains the basic terms that are necessary in defining the 
method of scientific research and describes a procedure that has been 
accepted for centuries. I n the 16th century, for example, scientist Tycho 
Brahe conducted years of systematic and controlled observation to prove 
wrong many of Aristotle's theories of the universe. By gaining an 
understanding of the phenomena, he challenged the accepted beliefs and 
knowledge of the time with his own hypotheses. Thus, scientific research 
was begun. 

Whether we realize it or not, we all conduct research as a matter of 
course in our day-to-day life whenever we speculate about the possibility 
of something -- we start with an idea or concept and test it. 

All research begins with a basic question or proposition about a specific 
phenomenon -- for example, Why do Americans usually support the 
soldiers within the Army when they may not support the operation the 
soldiers are involved in? What factors determine why Americans will 
support the political justification for military involvement? What types of 
messages are most effective in garnering support for American forces? 


FM 3-61.1 

The answers to these questions can be forecast to some degree with well- 
designed research studies. There are some difficulties, however. The 
Army media analyst faces the problems of determining which data 
collection methods can most accurately provide answers to the questions 
at issue, and in gaining adequate access to information prior to and 
during military operations. In the pages that follow, we will describe the 
methods and procedures PA professionals may use in overcoming these 


There are several research approaches or "methods of knowing" which 
have been used to conduct studies: intuition, authority, and science. 

I n the intuition approach, one assumes that something is true because it 
is "self-evident" or "stands to reason." An example of this type of thinking 
would be if some Public Affairs leaders resist efforts to perform area 
studies because they believe they already "know" their AO. 

The authority method seeks to promote a belief in something because a 
trusted or credible source says it is true. Here, the emphasis is on the 
source, not the methods the source may have used to gather his 

The scientific method approaches learning as a series of small steps, 
with each step identifying more specific information and leading to a 
more clearly identifiable conclusion. 

For example, one study or source provides only an indication of what may 
or may not be true; the "truth" is found only through a series of objective 

This means that the scientific method is self-correcting in that changes in 
thought or theory must be continually reviewed, that issues and 
situations require constant monitoring. 

The scientific method has become a valuable tool to produce accurate and 
useful data in mass media research. This annex focuses solely on the 
scientific approach and forms the fundamental basis for media content 
analysis in Army Public Affairs. 


The goal of Public Affairs media research is to provide the methodology to 
support situational assessment, planning and decision-making that is 
fast, inexpensive, reliable and valid. The application of scientific 
methodologies to media research by Public Affairs personnel 
accompl ishes this goal . 

Five basic characteristics, or tenets, distinguish the scientific method 
from the other methods of research. A research approach that does not 
follow these tenets cannot be considered a scientific approach: 

• Scientific research is objective. Science tries to rule out 
eccentricities of judgment by researchers. When a study is 
undertaken, explicit rules and procedures are constructed and the 
researcher is bound by them, letting the chips fall where they may. 
Objectivity also requires that scientific research deal with facts 
rather than interpretations of facts. 

.Appendix O 

• Science is empirical. Researchers are concerned with a world 
that is knowable and potentially measurable. (Empiricism derives 
from the Greek word for "experience.") Analysts must be able to 
perceive, understand, and classify what they study and reject 
nonsensical explanations of events. For example, a newspaper 
editor's claim that declining readership rates are "God's will" 
would be rejected by scientific researchers because such statements 
cannot be perceived, classified or measured. Experience shows that 
there are usually easily identifiable reasons for declining 

• Scientific research is systematic and cumulative. No single 
research study stands alone, nor does it rise or fall by itself. Astute 
research analysts always use previous studies as building blocks 
for their own work. One of the first steps taken in conducting 
research is the review of all available literatureon the topic so that 
the current study will draw on the heritage of past research. 

• Scientist attempt to find order and consistency in their 
findings. In its basic form, scientific research begins with a single, 
carefully observed event and progresses ultimately to the 
formulation of theories and laws. A theory is a set of related 
propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by 
specifying relationships among concepts. Researchers develop 
theories by searching for patterns of uniformity to explain and 
describe the information collected. 

• Scientific research is predictive. Science is concerned with 
relating the present to the future. In fact, scientific researchers 
strive to develop theories because they are useful in predicting 
behavior. The importance of theories lies in their ability to predict 
an outcome or an event successfully. If a theory generates 
predictions that are supported by data, and the results are always 
the same, the theory can be used to make predictions in other 
similar situations. 


Evaluation of a problem must follow a standard sequence of steps to 
increase the chances of producing relevant data. Analysts who do not 
follow a prescribed set of steps increase the amount of error possible in 
the study. 

These steps are: 

• Select a topic (issue, situation, perception, or belief). 

• Review existing research and other available information on the 

• Develop hypotheses and research questions. 

• Determine an appropriate methodology, format or design. 

• Collect relevant data. 

• Analyze and interpret the results. 

• Present the results in appropriate form (Information Paper, PA 
Study or PA Estimate) 

• Validate and replicate the study when necessary. 


FM 3-61.1 

The use of the scientific method of research is intended to provide an 
objective, unbiased evaluation of data pertaining to an issue or event. To 
investigate hypotheses systematically, media analysts must follow these 
steps. However, merely following the eight steps does guarantee that the 
research is good, valid, reliable or useful. 

A countless number of intervening variables (influences) can destroy even 
the most well-planned research effort. Unanticipated events occurring 
during the research period may impact the results and they must be 
accounted for during the process. However, PA analysts must remain 
focused on the purpose of the research effort and not lose sight of the 
original objectives. 


Selecting a research topic is usually not a concern for Public Affairs 
analysts -- planning guidance, current situations, and most importantly, 
the operational issues confronting our commands, will guide the 
application of media content analysis. In most instances, the Public 
Affairs analyst will receive planning guidance well in advance of an 
operation, which will help determine the issues to be addressed. 

Once the basic subject has been chosen, the next step is to ensure that it 
is relevant to the operation or situation at hand. This can be 
accomplished by answering six basic questions. 

• What is the goal of this research effort? 

• Is the subject too broad? 

• Can the subject really be studied? 

• Is the subject significant? 

• Can the results of the research be generalized, communicated and 

• Does the issue lend itself to analysis? 

Underlying all eight steps of the Media Analysis process is the necessity 
for validity. In other words, are all eight steps (from topic selection to 
data analysis to presentation and interpretation) the correct ones to 
follow in trying to answer these questions? 

The answers to these questions will help focus the research you must do, 
make information gathering easier, and ensure the results are valid. 


Media analysts should always begin studies by consulting all literature, 
research, and other information available on the topic. The review 
provides information about what work has been done, how it was done, 
and what the results were as they apply to a given subject. It not only 
allows analysts to learn from (and eventually add to) previous media 
research, but also saves time, effort and money. 

The review also helps to identify the facts pertaining to the situation 
being studied. 

Completed media content analysis also provides a starting point for PA 
leaders who will follow in your position after you move on. 


.Appendix O 


After the general research are has been identified and the existing 
information reviewed, the analysts must state the problem or issue as a 
workable hypothesis or research question. 

(Example: "The American public is losing confidence in the Army's 
ability to protect its soldiers, resulting from the media's portrayal of 
Army leaders as negligent and soldiers as lacking competence in avoiding 

A hypothesis is a formal statement regarding the relationship between 
variables and is tested directly. In the example cited above, those 
variables are the news media, the messages they send, and the perception 
and understanding of those messages by the American public. With a 
hypothesis, the predicted relationship between the variables is either 
true or false. I dentifying the degree of "trueness" or "falseness" and their 
implications is essential to the development of information campaign 

On the other hand, a research question is a formally stated question 
intended to provide indications about something, and is not limited to the 
relationships between variables. Research questions are generally used 
in situations where an analyst is unsure about the nature of the problem 
under investigation. The intent is merely to gather preliminary 
information. Research questions are generally used to identify the focus 
and scope of a research project. 


Given the variety of situations facing Public Affairs personnel, different 
approaches to media research are required. Some issues lend themselves 
more toward survey methodology via telephone, E-mail, or standard mail; 
others are best attacked through in-person interviews. Still other 
problems necessitate a controlled evaluation situation designed to 
eliminate extraneous variables by targeting analysis to specific media 
types. (An example of this approach would be a study of how a newspaper 
covered a specific story over a six-month period.) 

The approach selected by the analyst depends on the goals and purpose of 
each particular study. Regardless of whether the problems or issue being 
addressed is a local one, affecting only a fraction of a community 
audience, or a national issue affecting us all, all research requires a 
design of some type. All procedures, including all variables, samples, and 
measurement instruments, must be pre-designed with hypothesis and 
research questions in mind. 

There are four characteristics of research design that should be noted if a 
research study is to produce reliable and valid results: 

• Accurate setting. For a study to have external validity, the study 
must be conducted as an historical account of the situation during 
the time frame studied. The analyst must have a clear 
understanding of the events unfolding around him and attempt to 
document as much related information as possible. 

• Clear cause-and-effect relationships. The analyst must make 
every attempt to identify spurious dependent relationships and 


FM 3-61.1 

weed them out. The results of a study can be interpreted with 
confidence if and only if all confounding effects are identified. 






Appendix P 



How our audiences perceive the Army is critical to the success of all 
operations we are involved in. Internally, the Army's people require 
certain information to function effectively. The more they know and 
understand, the better they perform. Information about the operation, 
the unit's particular mission, how the commander feels about the 
situation, and a host of other subjects are of interest to both soldiers and 
civilians. Externally, the general public has specific needs for 
information about what their Army is doing and how they are doing it. 
This appendix explains methods for measuring success in the conduct of 
PA information programs. 

Command information is communication between the commanders and 
those commanded. Command Information is different from the Public 
Affairs function of Information Provision in that it is the commander's 
responsibility to inform his people. Commanders must communicate 
their intentions and the troops, community, indeed the general public, 
must know his concerns and intentions. It is especially important to note 
that PA Information Provision techniques and procedures are just one 
channel that the commander may use in communicating to his audiences. 

A poorly recognized fact is that the communication links between the 
commander and his audiences occur on various levels and assorted 
channels. This type of communication no longer fits the "top-down" 
communications model of the cold war Army. The explosion of today's 
digital technology has provided individual soldiers, civilians, family 
members, and the general public the ability to bypass rigid, controlled, 
vertical communication systems in favor of the common user, 
multidirectional, reciprocal, simultaneous, real-time transactive 
communications systems. Americans have the power to bypass the 
gatekeepers and ignore canned, shoddily produced, dated industrial age 
information products, in favor of accessing on-line information services or 
the Internet directly. Information is passed in all directions, continually. 
These audiences will have access to many more sources of information, 
which makes evaluating the effects of Army PA Information Programs all 
the more difficult. 

This explosion of information technology has also highlighted how critical 
it is for PA elements to stay up to date on communications technologies, 
information services, and socio-economic trends of these forces at work. 

Despite the rapid change in the information environment, the general 
steps for evaluating information program effects has remained the same: 

• Determine the command's mission and the commander's method 
for accomplishing that mission. 

• Identify all the various audiences interested in information related 
to the command, its members, and the mission. 


FM 3-61.1 

Identify a public opinion baseline -- the template against which 
new public opinion information will be compared. 

Gather identify all the messages communicated and identify which 
audiences' received such information. 

Gather information on the information program impacts. This is 
done reviewing unit newspapers, letters to editors, responses to 
information programs fact sheets, formations, surveys, and 
interviews. Check related bulletin boards on all on-line 
information services. Check related Newsgroups on world-wide- 
web nodes, which commonly carry related information. Monitor 
discussion groups on on-line services. 

Attend commander's calls, staff meetings, formations, briefings, 
and other gatherings where audience reaction, troop morale and 
I ike information will be discussed. 

Evaluate the knowledge of the targeted organizations. This is 
accomplished through in-person question/answer surveys and 
interviews, E-mail surveys, and electronic town hall meetings, etc. 

Coordinate with other staff elements addressing similar 
information issues (SJ A, Chaplain, PMO, IG, etc.). 

Produce a summary of information gathered in an impact 


Appendix Q 



1. This checklist identifies the primary tasks associated with the 
functions of Public Affairs, and establishes standards for successful 
accomplishment of those tasks. Standards of service equate to minimum 
exceptions of an operational commander and will be used to judge unit 
readiness, leader effectiveness, and individual soldier performance. 

2. The following definitions apply to this checklist: 

Austere: No existing PA units, assets or Army signal information 
infrastructure available in area of operations upon deployment. 
Commercial communications infrastructure is not available. PA 
elements must perform all missions and provide all PA support using 
organic personnel and equipment. 

Existing: PA units, assets and Army signal information 
infrastructure in place before deployment. Commercial 
communications infrastructure is available. Deploying PA element 
assumes duties of or augments organic PA elements. Existing 
personnel and equipment augmented by additional PA elements to 
accomplish PA mission and provide PA support. 




1. Perform Global Information 
Environment analysis 

2. Develop PA Estimate (COAs) 

3. Develop PA Strategy (plan) 

4. Develop PA Guidance 

5. Coordinate PA Annex 
Media Facilitation 

1. I D media support requirements 

2. Register news media 

3. Coordinate media support 

4. Provide media orientation 

5. Coordinate news media interviews 

6. Plan/coordinate news briefings 

7. Establish Media OPS Center 

8. Operate MOC 




























FM 3-61.1 

9. Provide media assistance/escort 
Information strategy 

1. I dentify target audiences 

2. Identify information needs 

3. Devel op i nfo themes/C M D messages 

4. Gather info/develop products 

5. Disseminate information to 
deployed forces 

6. Disseminate information to 
families/home station audiences 

7. Disseminate information to 
national/local news media 

8. Disseminate information to 
general public 

Public Affairs Training 

1. I dentify trai ni ng needs 

2. Develop unit PA Training plan 

3. Develop Family Spt Training Plan 

4. Develop Senior LDR Training Plan 

5. Conduct unit PA training 

6. Conduct Family SPT Training 

7. Conduct Senior LDR Training 

8. Prepare SMEs for Media interviews 

9. Evaluate training efforts 






































Appendix R 



This checklist addresses personal information about soldiers and any 
living persons that can or cannot be released under the provisions of the 
privacy act. 


• AGE (date of birth) =releasable. This information is public record. 

• HOME OF RECORD/PRESENT ADDRESS =ln most cases, home 
of record can be released if no street address is given. There is no 
general rule for disclosure of this information. Widely different 
circumstances surround each incident, and judgment is made on a 
case-by-case basis. In most cases, the person's present 
geographical location may be provided (city, state), but not the 
street address. In each case, the desires of the actual person or 
next of kin should be considered. 

information is public record, including names, ages and sex of 


• EDUCATION/SCHOOLING/SPECIALTY =releasable. Major area 
of study, school, year of graduation, degree and specialty designator 
is releasable. 

• RACE =1 n most cases, NOT releasable. However, where the fact of 
an individual's race is relevant in providing essential facts to the 
Press, it may be released (such as in a racially oriented protest or 


• ADMINISTRATIVE = NOT releasable, unless the individual 
provides his written consent. 

• PUNITIVE = releasable. This includes discharges resulting from 
courts martial. 

• DUTY STATUS =releasable. 


• Results of promotion boards and augmentation boards are 

• Results of administrative discharge boards and aviator flight 
boards are NOT releasable. 

DEFENSE = releasable, unless they warrant an invasion of 
anyone's personal privacy. 


Appendix S 


In view of the continuing media interest in the subject of terrorism, the 
public affairs guidance contained in this message is provided to assist 
PAOs in responding to media queries and in developing local contingency 


a. U.S. POLICY. All terrorist acts are criminal. The U.S. Government 
will make no concessions to terrorists. Ransom will not be paid and 
nations fostering terror ism will be identified and isolated. 

b. RESPONSIBILITY. Department of State is the lead agency for 
response to international terrorist incidents that involve U.S. military 
personnel and facilities outside the U.S. The administrator of the 
Federal Aviation Administration is responsible for terrorist incidents that 
affect the safety of DoD personnel or property aboard an aircraft in flight. 
When terrorist incidents occur at military installations within CON US or 
its possessions (Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, and 
trust territories), the FBI will be the lead agency. If the FBI declines to 
exercise its authority, military authorities may take appropriate action 
withi n the I i mits of thei r responsi bi I i ty to resolve the i nci dent. 

c. NOTIFICATION. All terrorist incidents should be reported 
immediately through channels, to OASD/PA. No public release of 
information regarding a terrorist incident should be made without 
OASD/PA approval except for cases involving public safety. 


Combating terrorism can be divided into two major areas: counter- 
terrorism (offensive measures) and anti -terrorism (defense measures). 

• Counter-terrorism. The following statement may be used in 
response to queries regarding counter-terrorist forces: 

• "The U.S. Government has trained forces and equipment from all 
four services to cope with terrorist incidents. We have also said 
that command and control elements for these forces exist and have 
been exercised. These elements report to the J oint Chiefs of Staff, 
as do other command and control elements for military operations. 
We do not comment on any details concerning the circumstances 
under which these forces may be deployed, their identity, or 

• Requests for interviews or filming of counter-terrorism training 
will not, repeat will not, be approved. 

• Requests for photos of counter -terrorist forces personnel or their 
training will not be approved. 

• Because of the clear association/confusion surrounding the 
relationship between special operations counter-terrorism forces, 


FM 3-61.1 

all requests for interviewing or filming special operations forces 
and or training will be approved by OASD/PA. 

• Questions beyond the scope of the above guidance should be 
referred to OASD/PA.. 

• Anti -terrorism. The following guidance is applicable to media 
request for information pertaining to anti-terrorism. 

• DoD officials, senior leaders, commands and knowledgeable 
individuals may discuss the subject of anti -terrorism as it pertains 
to those areas/installations for which they are responsible.(Anti- 
terrorism measures and procedures should be discussed in a 
general manner without going into a checklist of specific details.) 

• Media requests to film anti -terrorist training will be approved on 
by OASD/PA. 

• Photos of anti -terrorist training should be forwarded through 
channels for approval. 


In response to queries regarding a possible or real terrorist threat at a 
particular base/installation/activity the PAO may acknowledge, if 
appropriate, that increased security measures have been/will be taken 
without going into specific details of all the measures taken. PAOs may, 
when appropriate, acknowledge the obvious. 

For example, increased security measures such as increased guards at 
the gate or additional patrols, if they are obvious to the public may, in 
some cases, be acknowledged. PAOs should, however, exercise care and 
prudent judgment in any discussion of these or other security measures, 
which have been/will be implemented. 


Appendix T 


This section focuses on the radio and television services provided by 
Armed Forces Radio and Television Service at the unified command level 
and the coordination necessary by Army component commanders to 
ensure operational area support. It identifies and explains the AFRTS 
mission and its capabilities. It also discusses planning considerations 
and theater broadcast information requirements. 


The scope of the ABS mission of providing AFRTS radio and television 
news, information and entertainment programming to DoD personnel 
stationed overseas greatly expands during wartime to include support of 
global contingency requirements. As new contingency plans are 
developed based on emerging joint and Army doctrine, ABS must 
consider how the additional broadcasting personnel and equipment 
resources needed to support a rapid deployment broadcasting mission can 
be obtained while simultaneously meeting increased requirements in 
existing unified command theaters. The immediate response necessary to 
meet contingency requires the development of AFRTS appendices to 
Unified Command Operations Plans (OPLAN). 

Army Broadcasting Service (ABS) is the Unified Command AFRTS 
Planner (U CAP) for the U.S. Southern Command and the U.S. European 
Command. ABS also has Geographic Area Planner (GAP) responsibilities 
for U.S. Forces Korea (USFK). ABS and AFRTS networks within these 
unified commands are responsible for updating and maintaining 
appendix content under provisions of the American Forces Information 
Service (AFIS) Concept Plan for Peacetime and Wartime Operations for 
the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS CON PLAN 98-1) 
and DoD Directive 5120.20-R 

Contingency and/or Wartime Plans define the Mobilization/Contingency 
mission. Force structure to support these plans may be packaged as 
blocks, deployable units or detachments for ease of planning. 

According to CON PLAN 98-1 and DoD Directive 5120.20-R, Unified 
Commanders and Subordinate Commanders, with the advice of ABS, 
determine the type of AFRTS Flexible Response Option (FRO) necessary. 
Unified and Subordinate Command support is required for the current 
levels of support contract and for any mission changes which affect 
AFRTS service in theCINC'sarea of operation. 

AFRTS Mission 

Provide live news, information and entertainment programming, free of 
censorship, to all DoD elements in pi ace or deployed worldwide. 

Provide U.S. military theater commanders with sufficient electronic 
media resources to effectively communicate DoD, Army, theater and AO 
command information. 


FM 3-61.1 

Concept of Operations 

Existing facilities and services will be the first AFRTS assets used to 
respond to AF RTS taski ngs. 

Upon implementation of a Contingency Plan or OP LAN, AFRTS assets in 
the AO come under the direct operational control of the Unified Com- 
mand for the period of the operation. When the operation is terminated, 
normal command relationships will be resumed. 

The AFRTS Commander reports directly to the Unified Commander 
responsible for the theater of operations. 

The AFRTS Commander retains direct command authority over AFRTS 
personnel and equipment. 

The AFRTS Commander is responsible for all AFRTS matters concerning 
the operation, accomplishing direct coordination for the Unified Com- 
mand with AFIS/AFRTS for all AFRTS issues requiring AFIS/AFRTS 
action, and managing all AFRTS assets involved in the operation in 
accordance with the AFRTS CON PLAN 98-1. 

The AFRTS Commander will be a designated member of all public affairs 
meeti ngs as a member of the staff. 

The AFRTS Commander is authorized direct coordination with other 
members of the unified command's staff to work specific AFRTS support 

All requests for command internal information or emergency an- 
nouncements from AO organizations or personnel will be forwarded to the 
director of public affairs for approval. 

All public information released by public affairs officials will be available 
for AFRTS use. 

AFRTS radio and television electronic news gathering (ENG) will be 
dedicated for the AFRTS "on-air" mission and in direct support of the 
Unified Commander's internal information program. 

AFRTS will provide full, factual and timely internal information and 
news to military audiences in the AO, consistent with national and opera- 
tional security, and host country sensitivities. 

AFRTS will follow Operations security (OPSEC) and communications 
security (COM SEC) rules. 


AFIS is responsible for all AFRTS satellite programming services and 
overall policy and guidance for their use. 

The AFRTS Broadcast Center (AFRTS-BC) is responsible for providing 
non-local and non-theater radio and television programming material to 
AFRTS facilities in the AO, except as outlined in Flexible Response 
Options (FROs). 

The Television-Audio Support Activity (T-ASA) in Sacramento, 
California, is responsible for providing technical and logistical support to 

The AFRTS facility in the AO will provide service based upon initial 
Flexible Response Options (FROs) and continue operations until directed 


.Appendix T 

to modify its services by AFRTS, the Unified Command or as the mission 
requirement dictates. 

AFRTS will provide AO-wide announcements as required on both radio 
and television in order to facilitate unified command needs. 

At unmanned repeaters and cable distribution systems, local officials 
may have AFRTS personnel make local announcements, if possible, in 
coordination with the AFRTS commander or on-site command 
representative, if approved by the director of public affairs for the 


The AFRTS network commander or designated representative will be co- 
located with the unified command director of public affairs. 

The AFRTS network commander or designated representative will have a 
command function with direct operational command authority over all re- 
sources assigned to support the AFRTS mission in theAO. 

The AFRTS commander or designated representative will ensure a logis- 
tics and engineering function responsible for providing advice and assis- 
tance to maintenance personnel assigned to AFRTS outlets, and 
maintaining unmanned equipment. This function will assist the AFRTS 
chief engineer in developing new equipment support requirements as 
changes occur in theAO. 

The AFRTS network commander or designated representative will ensure 
internal information ENG coverage of unified command activities of in- 
terest to the members assigned in the AO. In joint service situations, 
Army AFRTS representatives may also be responsible for the production 
and duplication of radio and television internal information products for 
use at AFRTS outlets and television programming for DoD, or satellite 
cabled sites in theAO. 


The unified command provides logistic support for AFRTS. This includes 
vehicles, POL, and supply requirements in the AO as noted in the 
OPLAN. Also included is vehicle maintenance and POL for all AFRTS 
contingency vehicles. If additional forces are deployed to support AFRTS, 
the unified command assigns additional vehicles to support the expanded 
maintenance and production requirements. 

I f security and/or i ntel I igence forces determi ne that AF RTS faci I ities have 
been identified as a potential target by hostile forces, the unified 
command will notify the AFRTS facility and provide security to targeted 

If contract communications support is terminated during the imple- 
mentation of the OPLAN, the unified command provides communications 
support for AFRTS use in theAO. 

This includes existing long-wire or microwave systems for distributing 
the AFRTS signal and support for telephones, facsimile transmission and 
computer equipment for AFRTS. 


FM 3-61.1 

If support cannot be obtained from existing assets, the unified command 
should be prepared to augment the AFRTS mission as outlined in the 

The unified command provides personnel, administrative, vehicle and 
other logistic support for all AFRTS personnel assigned in the AO and 
those deployed to supplement that force. This includes unit line numbers 
and entry clearances required for all deployed personnel supporting the 
AFRTS mission. 

The unified command obtains country clearance for construction of any 
temporary transmitter towers required due to expanded AFRTS service, 
which may occur as the operation unfolds. 

The unified command provides electrical backup power for AFRTS facili- 
ties if contract services are terminated during the implementation of the 

The unified command is responsible for obtaining necessary broadcast 
frequencies in consultation with the host-nation government to meet 
AFRTS broadcast requirements. 

Flexible Response Options 

Although each operation will differ, the following are general concepts of 
AFRTS Flexible Response Options (FROs) available for peacetime 
engagements, wartime operations and stability and support operations in 
an area where little or no AFRTS service exists or where crisis situations 
require a modification to existing AFRTS services. The unified command 
AFRTS planner (UCAP) is responsible for developing specific equipment, 
support and manning requirements to implement the AFRTS FROs that 
best support the specific operation. 

The Unified Commander for the area of operations must request AFRTS 
radio and/or television services or for a change in present level of service 
before deployment. The Unified Commander requests AFRTS assistance 
through the unified command AFRTS planner responsible for the area of 
operations. The request will then be forwarded to ABS and AF IS for final 

FRO One: Direct to Ship (DTS) Service Support System. DTS is an U.S. 
Navy peacetime capability that provides news, sports, information and 
entertainment to audiences on ships at sea. A wartime adaptation of the 
service can provide immediate access to three radio and two television 
channels for land-based audiences including geographically separated 
units down to the lowest level. A deployable AFRTS kit containing an 
individual receiver decoder (I RD) provides service. This service provides a 
single-source 24-hour capability of receiving all services, but only one 
channel can be accessed at a time and no local or theater command 
information would be avail able. 

FRO Two: Satellite Direct Radio and Television (SDRTV). SDRTV is an 
unmanned AFRTS satellite service that can be provided to virtually any 
land based audience on the globe with up to 10 stereo radio channels and 
six television news, sports, information and entertainment channels. In 
the European theater it will include a regionally generated signal. 
Service is provided at a single location using a deployable AFRTS kit 
containing a simultaneous receiver decoder (SRD) that provides a 
capability of receiving all services and accessing up to six radio and 
television programming sources at a time. As a public affairs option, 


.Appendix T 

SDRTV provides an internal information data stream that can be 
accessed with the addition of a computer, printer and proprietary 
software to the SDRTV equipment package for use by public affairs 
activities in providing support to deployed populations. Unified command 
public affairs offices and the UCAP should consider coordinating the use 
of the additional capability whenever a manned public affairs activity is 

FRO Three: Manned Radio Systems. Signal Distribution Systems. These 
deployable systems include audio and video transmission and cable 
systems that provide a capability to distribute, DTS, SDRTV or manned 
radio service to an expanded autonomous geographic area such as a base 
camp or Air Force base in an AO. 

FRO Four: Manned Radio Systems. These deployable systems provide a 
capability for local, live internal information and radio news. Various 
types and sizes of local radio systems exist that can be used to establish a 
range of services from simple local break away "radio-in-a-box" to a full 
service facility with local production capability. Some of these systems 
will include radio transmitter that can provide limited signal distribution 
without deployment of FRO Three. This system can provide a limited 
single-source radio service to outlying populations that are not served by 
FRO One or Two, are not available or would not be appropriate 
programming sources. 

FRO Five: MOOTW Management, Local TV and Network Live Radio. 
These deployable personnel and systems support the development of an 
AFRTS management function to oversee dispersed AFRTS operations 
and will add local television and network-wide live radio capability using 
organic distribution systems. The capability will establish a network to 
support operations in an AO comprising a large peacetime engagement of 
medium to long duration encompassing a large geographic area where the 
operations commander requires near real-time internal information 
capability. The system provides network administrative, computer, 
maintenance, engineering and operations support functions. These 
functions provide the unified command director of public affairs with 
AFRTS management expertise not normally available on the public 
affairs staff. The television service system is designed to produce AO 
information that can also be fed to the AFRTS Broadcast Center for 
rebroadcast to DTS/STRTV audiences worldwide. 

FRO Six: Theater Satellite Radio and Television Operations (TSRTO). 
In a major regional conflict where large force deployments are planned 
the AFRTS Broadcast Center will dedicate one channel of radio and one 
television channel for use by the UCAP to broadcast directly to the 
theater of operations. Programming will include time shifting "prime 
time" so that each 12-hour shift receives prime time programming in the 
first four and-one-half hours of off time. In conjunction with FRO One or 
Two, this will provide a virtual network capability to the AO commander 
and the PAO. It will appear to the audience as if the broadcast was 
occurring in the AO when in fact it is originating from the Broadcast 
Center. Initial spots can be unsophisticated radio readers and character- 
generated (CG) messages on television. If there is a manned radio facility 
providing theater and operation-specific internal information in place, 
they will forward copies of all AO specific spots via computer to the 
Broadcast Center for use initially as television CG messages within the 


FM 3-61.1 

dedicated TV channel. As with all internal information, they will be 
developed in coordination with the PAO in theAO. If there is insufficient 
AFRTS manning in place which would be the case if there were numerous 
geographically-separated operating locations, the internal information 
will be supplied, via computer, by theAO public affairs office. Base and 
component command PAOs will be advised of the scheduling of theater 
programming and encouraged to provide service-unique spots for use in 
theater. Service will continue until a significant drawdown occurs, the 
operation stabilizes to the point where local TV spots are not needed and 
the presumption of pre-conflict programming will serve the majority of 
the deployed population or an AO based network begins serving the 


Appendix U 



I. The area 

1 1. Manpower 

A. Geographical description 

1. Of areas surveyed-size of cities, counties. 

2. Of surrounding area, if pertinent. 

3. Climate, topography, annual and seasonal 
temperatures, rainfall, etc. (one sentence 
will suffice for each.) 

4. Are the industries dispersed or 
centralized? Attach a map of the Area 
indicating the location of the principal 
plants. The map should show the names 
and numbers of principal streets and 
highways furnishing access to these 

B. Population 

1. Of city 

2. Of area. 

3. Of labor market area, if different from 

4. Breakdown by sexes, color, native or 
foreign born, educational level, percentage 
of homeowners, etc. 

C. Industrial data 

1. Types of industries and number of each, 
labor force of each, key products of the 
area, and additional data as considered 

2. Does one type of industry dominate the 
area? If so, give pertinent information 
regardi ng the i ndustry. 

Labor market rating 

1. Is department of labor market 
classification, a,b,c, or d? 

2. Include supporting statistical data. 


1. Totals and percentages of skilled, 
semiskilled, and unskilled. 

2. What types of skills are most commonly 

C. Source of labor supply 


FM 3-61.1 

1 1 1. Industrial facilities 

IV. Housing 

1. Compared to the World War II years, 
what are the reserves of women, 
handicapped, older-age groups, part-time 
workers, and school graduates? 

2. Has there been much intermigration to 
total population? 

D. Occupational classification of area workers. What are the 
most common occupations of the area? The less common? 

E. Skills in shortage category. List, with numbers of each, if 
available. Make a comparison of this list with the 
national shortage list. 

F. Area wage schedules 

1. List the wage schedules of major 
occupations and industries. 

2. How do they compare with national 

3. How do they compare with neighboring 
areas? With competing areas? 

G. Requirement of defense industry in area 

1. Is manpower available for present 
production schedules? Current planned 

2. What skills are lacking for production 
schedules, both present and future? 

3. Do employers ordinarily use training 
programs? If so, give some Examples. 

H . Other perti nent i nfor mati on 

1. Include current work stoppages, if any; 
record of work stoppages During last 10 

2. Are workers highly organized? Principal 

A. Facilities suited or adaptablefor defense production. 

B. List facilities with current and World War II products. 

C. Give current and capacity employment. 

D. Give types of machinery. 

E . What defense contracts are held or sought? 

F. Vacant factory space. Describe space and indicate 
production potential. 

A. Housing regulations. 

1. Is it a critical defense housing area under 
public law 96? P. L. 139? 

2. Local rent control? 

B. Housing units available. 

1. Number for sale, including 1, 2, and 3 
bedrooms. Price ranges. Are the prices 

2. Number for rent, including above 
information. Apartments available. 
Number, size, price ranges. Are the rents 


.Appendix U 

3. Sleeping rooms available. Number, price 
ranges. Are the prices reasonable? 

4. Building permits issued (in past 12 

5. Number for houses-1, 2, 3, or more 

6. N umber for apartments. 

7. If houses, number for rent and 
contemplated rental prices. 

8. Housing units contemplated . 

9. Number and sizes. How many bedrooms? 

10. Number of these for rent. 

11. Estimated rental rates. 

C. Builders 

1. Adequate number of experienced builders? 

2. Do they have trained skeleton force? 

3. Can other necessary housing construction 
workers be secured? 

4. Is land available? Under option? 

5. Can materials be obtained? 

6. What bottlenecks? 
D. Building capital. 

1. Is capital for the building of housing and 
rental units readily available? If so, on 
long- or short-term loans? 

2. What are the sources of this capital? 

3. Does the community object to construction 
of more housing units now? 

V.Adequacy of housing 

For present work force? For expanded production? (quote a figure or 
percentage, such As peak load in world war ii or 50 percent above present.) 
This figure should be adequate to cover planned defense expansion known to 
you at ti me of Survey. 

VI .Other community facilities and services 

Discuss each of the following items as to adequacy for the present work force 
and for an expanded work force; give specific facts for each, as pertinent (yes 
and no answers are not adequate.) 

A. Water 

B. Electric power 

C. Gas 

D. Sewerage 

*Note: for items 1 through 4 above, describe sources of 
supply, capacity, reserve storage, current use, 
reserves on hand, plans for expansion-whether on 
hand or projected. 

E . Transportation: types and numbers 

F. Highway and road systems: are the roads serving the 
area adequate and in good? What is the present traffic 
load and the peak capacity of these roads? Describe any 
unsatisfactory factors. What action is contemplated or 
considered necessary to assure free traffic movement 
within the area? (survey requests will furnish, whenever 
possible, specified information on any industrial and 


FM 3-61.1 

defense manpower requirement changes under 
consideration for the area.) Contact with local, state, and 
federal highway authorities should be made, if necessary, 
to explore ful ly this phase of the survey. 

1. Schools: number of each type of school, 
crowding, shifts, new construction, etc. 

2. Hospitals: number, number of beds, 
population per bed. 

3. Doctors: number, population per doctor 
and per dentist. 

4. Fire protection: size, ratios, and ratings. 

5. Police protection: size, ratios, and ratings. 

6. Shopping centers and shopping hours. 

7. Recreational facilities: number of each 

8. Churches: all denominations. 

9. Sanitation service (garbage collection). 

10. Laundries, dry-cleaning businesses, 
barber shops, beauty shops, etc. 

11. Banking facilities (include arrangements 
for shift workers). 

12. Hotels: number and number of rooms, 
scale of rates, etc. 

13. Restaurants and other eating places. 

14. Newspapers: number (morning, evening). 

15. Municipal government (form, etc.). 

16. Tax rate: local, county, state. 

17. Cost of living index: get whatever 
information is available Compare local 
figures to national index. 

*Note: include reference material, maps, booklets, etc., If possible. 


Appendix V 


Audience surveys systematically gather information about the 
effectiveness of CI programs and products as they relate to a particular 
group of people. The commander and the PAO to make decisions about 
management and direction of an internal information program or product 
use the results. 


The PAO will conduct a readership survey at least every two years (every 
three years for the Reserve Components). Coordination with the DOIM 
for possi bl e computer and analysis support is recommended. Additionally, 
AR 600-46 can provide information on conducting surveys. The survey 
will provide data on distribution effectiveness, reader awareness and 
acceptance, readership and perceived usefulness of standing features and 
topics covered, and opinions of the value and effectiveness of the 
publication. Repeated surveys will provide trend data. 

The survey may include any or all of the 20 questions listed in the 
Readership Survey (RCS: SAOSA-223) (app H) in AR 360-81. However, 
surveys not using these tested questions must be pretested to ensure 
validity before being used in a survey. Survey respondents will be 
selected using probability-sampling techniques. 

Informal surveys, such as those included in a newspaper or conducted 
randomly/haphazardly with a few people, are not substitutes for 
readership surveys. This does not preclude an editor from periodically 
publishing a coupon or set of questions to solicit informal feedback that is 
not statistically protectable. 

Before administering the survey, the survey managers must coordinate 
with the agency that will provide response analysis to be sure 
questionnaires; answer sheets, data entry program, or any other 
materials are appropriate and usable. Survey conduct may be included in 
the command's CE publication contract and may also be contracted by the 
command for Army Funded newspapers, providing funds are available. 

When civilian employees are surveyed, PAOs should also coordinate with 
the civilian personnel officer for local union notification requirements. 
Completed questionnaires may be analyzed by the local Director of 
I nformation Management (DOI M) to provide percentages of responses to 
survey questions. Where computer support is available (from the local 
DOIM or DRM), responses will be analyzed using a program such as the 
Statistical Program for the Social Sciences package. Questionnaires must 
be constructed using the parameters of available software. 

A written discussion of findings and conclusions drawn from the survey 
will be forwarded within 60 days after the survey is completed through 


FM 3-61.1 

the local commander, appropriate major command, to HQDA (SAPA-CI- 
PMN), Room 2E625, The Pentagon, WASH DC 20310-1510. 

As a minimum, the report will contain the survey statistics, an analysis 
of the data, identification of strengths and problem areas (e.g., 
distribution, more sports, etc.), recommended improvements and changes 
to editorial policy, and an indication that the commander has reviewed 
the results. 

Surveys may be conducted any time. However, no newspaper's survey 
report on file at HQDA should be older than 3 years (4 years for the 
Reserve Components). This allows for the time to conduct a survey. 

A copy of the most recent survey will also be submitted with the annual 
CI Program Assessment Report (DA Form 510-R), unless the survey was 
previously submitted to the MACOM and OCPA-HQDA. 

The PAO will conduct electronic media surveys at least every two years 
(every three years for the Reserve Components). 


Among the more common methods of conducting surveys are the mail 
survey, face-to-face interview, and telephone interview. The mail survey 
is the preferred method for purposes of this requirement, although other 
methods, managed properly, may be used. 

Survey respondents will be selected in a totally random manner (e.g., 
simple random, stratified, or systematic, using probability sampling 
procedures). Survey managers will select samples, which achieve at least 
a minimum of a +1- 5 percent reliability (error margin) at the 95 percent 
confidence level. 

Sample sizes shown for the various reliability levels (e.g., 4/- 5 percent 
error margin) are the number of usable responses received, not the 
number of questionnaires to be sent out. For a population of 5,000, 357 
usable responses will accurately reflect, to within 4/- 5 percent, what the 
entire 5,000 member audience would have said, had it completed the 

Experience with mail audience surveys shows that they realize an 
approximate 30 to 35 percent response rate. Therefore, send out at least 
three times as many questionnaires as are needed for analysis. 
Remember that incentives encourage responses. 

Maybe the local MWR office or similar staff agency could provide bumper 
stickers, discount coupons, or other incentive for completed responses. 


Focus groups. One of the most effective ways to learn how CI products are 
being received is to conduct focus group interviews. Focus group 
interviews are structured group discussions in which representative 
members of the audience are brought together to discuss one or more CI 
products or issues. These interviews or sessions can examine the 
effectiveness of products or programs, gain suggestions for improving 
existing products or programs, and determine the need for new products 
or programs. 

The key to effective focus group interviews is proper planning. Focus 
group organizers must determine who will participate, and what are the 


.Appendix V 

specific objectives of the session (e.g., what topics or issues will be 
discussed, what specific questions will be asked, what is to be done with 
the results, etc.). The method of selecting participants should be 
determined and the location for the meeting secured. While there is no 
optimal size for focus groups, generally groups of six to 10 individuals are 
manageable. Group makeup (officer/NCO/en listed, men/women, 
military/civilian, active/reserve, retired/family member) depends on the 
objectives of the session. Generally, homogeneous groups are preferable. 
Often it will be necessary to hold more than one focus group session to 
obtain information needed to evaluate a particular CI program or 

The moderator or group leader should be someone skilled in interview 
techniques and knowledge about the product or program being evaluated. 
It is often best not to have a high-ranking individual as the moderator 
with a group of junior enlisted or young family members, as free flow of 
information and opinions may be inhibited. The group leader must 
facilitate the discussion, not serve as an interrogator. 

Focus group sessions should be informal. Participants should be 
encouraged to speak whenever they wish; the moderator should focus the 
discussion on the topics without being overbearing. If participants agree, 
it will be useful to videotape their comments for use in evaluating the 

It is important that all group members understand that their honest 
opinions are being sought, and that the session is intended as a positive 
method of improving CI within the organization. No punitive actions 
should occur as a result of these sessions. 


Appendix W 

PA Lessons Learned 

"What this century s history teaches us is that the Army's real 
strength is its ability to change and adapt to the period's 
requirements. Our ability to change was the key to victory in two 
world wars and a cold war, and it will be the foundation for our 
future success." 

--General Dennis J. Reimer 


Explosive developments in information age technology have made the 
prospect of sharing lessons and ideas across a wide audience a reality 
today. With ready and easy access to E-mail and the Internet, soldiers 
can distribute documents, graphics, and photographs with lightning 

This appendix is based on an article published in the Center for Army 
Lessons Learned (CALL) News from the Front! 

This section provides public affairs officers (PAOs) with a tool for 
capturing observations and an outlet for rapid analysis and 
dissemination of tactics, techniques and procedures (TTPs) to the force. 
The initial focus is on defining and narrowing the scope of TTPs. It is 
important for officers and soldiers in the field to clearly understand the 
process before proceeding to methodologies of collection. The next section 
provides a structure for developing a narrative product for publication by 
CALL. Such a product will provide a coherent article of information, 
which can be quickly used by the force. The final section describes the 
observation-gathering process. Understanding the process for collecting 
data will prove invaluable to the operational planner and for producing 
effective training tools for the future. 


Focusing the collection effort is central to capturing meaningful 
observations. Although CALL regularly sends combined arms assessment 
teams (CAATs) to major exercises and actual operations to gather 
observations, units from the field, including any public affairs section or 
detachment, can provide great insight by planning for the collection of 
information. In fact, only the Army as a whole can make CALL a 
continuing conduit of information for use by soldiers. 

By using the structure and tools described below, units can provide useful 
TTP by establishing a collection effort as part of the originating operation 
order (OPORD), with almost no interference with normal operations. 
Indeed, the tools will enhance planning for future (and remedial) training 
by incorporating the capturing of TTP into the plan. 

TTP are often limited to the specific operation or exercise. The function 
and use of TTPs are analogous to legal precedents. In law, if given 


FM 3-61.1 

circumstances of a case are generally similar to a prior case, it is assumed 
that a judgmental decision for the present case should be the same. 
However, circumstances in law often have aspects that are unique and 
must be considered before rendering a new decision. When applying TTP, 
study prior situations in context and use the lessons prudently. 


PAOs at all levels can build upon the after-action review (AAR) process in 
the plan by producing a publishable document. In almost all exercises, 
units learn and consequently implement improvement measures. By 
employing the structure below, units can effectively share information 
throughout the force -- not only from Combat Training Center (CTC) 
rotations but also from home-station training and exercises away from 
the training centers. 

Do not view the structure below as a rigid construct. Rather, it should 
serve as a point of departure for unit writers. Although quantitative 
material is useful for commanders and researchers, make this document 
narrative in format. Use graphics to support the narrative, if possible. 
Bring together data into a cohesive product that other units can readily 
use without resorting to sifting through large amounts of charts, lists, 
and disjointed bullets. 

• Type of unit. Describe the type of unit the PAO supported 
(mechanized infantry division, separate brigade). 

• Context of event. Summarize the general setting for the exercise or 
operation. (See Exercises and Actual Operations below. More 
operational context information is provided in this section.) 

• Commander's comments. If possible, the commander can provide a 
brief (one or more paragraphs) commentary on public affairs 
operations. Work closely with the unit's executive officer or chief of 
staff for such input. 

• Interaction with PSYOP, Civil Affairs, Signal. As information 
operations continues to grow and doctrine is further developed, 
interaction between various agencies will also continue to expand. 
While ensuring coordination with PSYOP and civil affairs 
operations, PAOs will continue to recognize the separation in 
functions of the organizations required by law. Discuss the 
coordination measures used. 

• Media Relations. 

• Summary of events. Provide a summary of events. Were press 
conferences and interviews scheduled and executed? What was the 
pace of daily operations? What was the routine daily schedule? 

• Command messages. In developing this section, answer the 
following questions in detail: What were the command messages? 
More importantly, did the command messages come through to 
print or broadcast? Were any command messages distorted or 
misinterpreted? How can clarity be improved for the next 

• Summary of higher headquarters' public affairs guidance (PAG). 
Write a one or two paragraph summary of the initial and follow-up 
PAG received from higher headquarters. (Provide a complete copy 
as an appendix.) Provide answers to the following questions 


Appendix W 

following the summary: How did PAG influence operations? Was 
the PAG clear and meaningful? Were excerpts used to create lower 
level command messages? 

• Media contacts. Describe the types and numbers of media contacts. 
Did the unit encounter numerous print-journalist requests? 
Electronic requests? Were there patterns in the requests? What 
could a future media preparation package contain to answer some 
questions in advance? How did the PAO prioritize media access? 
Were major outlets afforded more opportunities? 

• Summary of Media Releases. Summarize media releases in one or 
two paragraphs. What were the major themes? What media 
received the releases? Were releases used in stories? Were there 
any comments from members of the media about the releases? 

• Media Content Analysis. During and following an event, gather 
press clippings and, if possible, record electronic media stories 
about the event. What was the nature of the coverage? What was 
the tenor of editorial comments? Did command messages get 
exposure? Was the content of articles generally accurate? What 
coul d PAOs do i n the future to i mprove the accuracy of content? 

• Command Information Products. The command information 
program in the field is fundamental in the minds of American 


"When the (Civil) war entered Pennsylvania, the Philadelphia Inquirer often sold 
up to 25,000 copies of a single issue to the men in the field. During a lull in the 
Battle of Cedar Creek in October 1864, observers later remarked that the first 
thing the men did along the line was to sit down, boil coffee, and pull out their 

soldiers. And, this phenomenon is nothing new to this culture. 

• Because of this intense internal interest in events surrounding the 
operation and events back home, it is imperative that PAOs 
adequately address methods and practices used to inform the 
soldiers. Answer the following questions in the narrative: Did 
soldiers in the field receive consistent and timely information about 
operations and world events? What was the distribution method? 
How was it evaluated for effectiveness? Were reproduction 
resources avail able and used adequately? 

• Changes Incorporated in the Tactical Standing Operating 
Procedures (SOPs). F rom the TTPs gathered, what changes will the 
unit make to the SOP? Briefly describe why the unit is making the 
change and what mechanisms to put in place to test the 
effectiveness of the change. 


Operational information is important for the reader to understand the 
context in which the PAO operated. Provide the foil owing information for 


FM 3-61.1 

the CALL document to contribute to the reader's full understanding of 

• Mission - Summarize the unit's mission. (The focus here is not on 
the PAO's mission, but on the mission of combat headquarters.) 

• Commander's Intent -This information is available on theOPORD. 
By incorporating this information, the reader will have an 
appreciation of the context in which the PAO operated. Emphasize 
the components of the i ntent: 

■ Purpose 

■ Method 

■ Endstate 

• New Equipment Used - Was new equipment available and used in 
the operation? Describe the equipment. Was it useful? What were 
the additional training requirements for using the equipment? 

• New Techniques Used - Did the PAO incorporate techniques which 
are not described in doctrinal manuals? Describe the techniques 

• Structure - What was the structure of the PAO unit or shop? What 
manning -- required versus on-hand? (Note: Do not provide 
information that is classified under provisions of unit strength 
reporting (USR) regulations. Seek to provide a document that is 
free of classified material.) 

• Operational Developments - How did the headquarters change its 
plan during the operation? How did the change(s) affect PAO 
operations? The descriptions here will bridge the gap between the 
original plan and its actual implementation. 

• TTPs applied during the mission and for future operations - In 
bullet narrative, describe TTPs gathered in the operation. The 
bullets must contain sufficient detail for the reader to understand 
the situation and application possibilities for future operations. 
Support the bullets by providing individual observations (seeTTP- 
Gathering Process below) as a combined appendix. The narrative in 
the base document must stand alone, with the appendix of 
individual observations providing additional detail. 


Units can contact CALL when developing plans for collecting TTP. CALL 
analysts can provide observer guidance, assist in delineating 
responsibilities of observers, identify documents or reference for use in 
developing a collection plan, and describe col lection methodology. 

• Observations. Individual observations assist in providing the basis 
for the narrative document described above. Use the form below to 
capture observations and develop a database for use in narrative 
development. Provide a copy of each observation to CALL as an 
appendix to the narrative. (Note: Any document published by 
CALL will not list units nor individuals by name. Refer to units by 
level ("the division" instead of "the 101st Airborne Division") and 
personnel by position ("a brigade chaplain" instead of "Chaplain 
J ones"). The purpose of CALL publications is to share ideas - not to 
point fingers. 


_Appendix W 

• Observation Forms. The observation form ( Appendix A ) can be used 
for individual observations. A Microsoft Word version is available. 
Contact CALL via E-mail at or DSN 
552-9571 (commercial 913-684-571) to receive a copy of the 
document. The document contains key components which aid the 
researcher in preparing analyses: 

• Observer Name - The observer's name is used administratively 
only. No observer's name will appear in a CALL product. 

• Administrative Information - Like the observer's name, unit 
information is used administratively only. Unit names do not 
appear in CALL products. 

• Observation Indicators- Check all the appropriate blocks. 

• Interoperability Indicators- Check all the appropriate blocks. 

• Environmental Indicators- Check the appropriate block. 

• File Name - Employ a system that differentiates each observation. 
One method is for observers to use name initials combined with 
sequence number and date (J ohn Smith's first observation of May 
5th would read, jsmay0105). Other systems are acceptable if 
plainly explained. 

• Observation Title- Give the observation a brief, distinct title. 

• Observation - 1 n one sentence, summarize the observation. 

• Discussion - Provide as much detail as necessary to provide a clear 
picture to the analyst or future reader. The length of the discussion 
will vary. 

• Lesson Learned - 1 n the context of your observation, provide a TTP. 

• DTLOMS I mplications - Describe how the observation impacts one 
or more areas in DTLOMS: 

■ Doctrine 

■ Training 

■ Leadership Development 

■ Organization 

■ Materiel 

■ Soldier Support 

Include other media support, such as photos, sketches, or slide 
presentations in support of the narrative text. 

Provide the narrative text, appendices and other material to CALL at the 
following locations:, or Department of the 
Army, Center for Army Lessons Learned, 10 Meade Avenue, Fort 
Leavenworth, Kansas 66027-1350. 

In addition to maintaining and expanding a database of information, 
CALL publishes News From the Front!, and a host of other publications 
for easy use by the force. Importantly, much of what is available has 
originated from the field -- from soldiers just like you. News From the 
Front! is published six times per year and provides a forum for a wide 
variety of topics of interest to the field. Other publications, including 
newsletters, CTC Bulletins, special editions, Handbooks, and more, focus 
on specific topics. Much of the published holdings of CALL can be found 
on the CALL website,, post libraries, or by contacting 


FM 3-61.1 

CALL at the E-mail address listed above. Various search engines are 
available on the website to assist researchers. 


Sharing information is possible with rapid and potentially colossal 
results. Leaders and soldiers who understand theTTP-gathering process 
can build plans for the future into every OPORD. By incorporating a plan 
to collect data and produce a clean narrative product for use by the force, 
soldiers throughout the Army gain maximum benefit from existing and 
future advancements in information technology. PAOs can focus on 
critical elements for successful media relations operations and command 
information programs in the field. Planners can easily adapt collection 
plans to exercises or actual operations-- anywhere in the world. 

Learning is crucial for continued success on the battlefield. PAO planners 
must inculcate a practice of gaining a full understanding of the process 
and incorporating it into future exercises and actual operations. 


Appendix X 



The following information should not be reported because its publication 
or broadcast could jeopardize operations and endanger lives: 

(1) For U.S. or coalition units, specific numerical information on troop 
strength, aircraft, weapons systems, on-hand equipment or supplies 
(e.g. artillery, tanks, radars, missiles, trucks, water), including 
amounts of ammunition or fuel moved by support units or on hand in 
combat units. Unit size may be described in general terms such as 
"company-size, multi-battalion, multi-division, naval task force and 
carrier battle group." Number and amount of equipment and supplies 
may be described in general terms such as "large, small, or many." 

(2) Any information that reveals details of future plans, operations or 
strikes, including postponed or cancelled operations. 

(3) Information, photography and imagery that would reveal the 
specific location of military forces or show the level of security at 
military installations or encampments. Locations may be described as 
follows: all Navy embark stories can identify the ship upon which 
embarked as a dateline and will state that this report is coming "from 
the Persian Gulf, Red Sea or North Arabian Sea." Stories written in 
Saudi Arabia may be datelined "Eastern Saudi Arabia, near the 
Kuwaiti border, " etc. For specific countries outside Saudi Arabia, 
stories will state that the report is coming from the Persian Gulf 
region unless that country has acknowledged its participation. 

(4) Rules of engagement details. 

(5) Information on intelligence collection activities, including targets, 
methods and results. 

(6) During an operation, specific information on friendly force troop 
movements, tactical deployments and dispositions that would 
jeopardize operational security and lives. This would include unit 
designations, names or operations and size of friendly forces involved 
until released by CENTCOM. 

(7) Identification of mission aircraft points of origin, other than as 
land or carrier based. 

(8) Information on the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of enemy 
camouflage, cover, deception, targeting, direct and indirect fire, 
intelligence col lection or security measures. 

(9) Specific identifying information on missing or downed aircraft or 
ships while search and rescue operations are planned or underway. 

(10) Special operations forces methods, unique equipment or tactics. 

(11) Specific operating methods and tactics, (e.g. air ops angles of 
attack or speeds, naval tactics and evasive maneuvers). General 
terms such as "low" or "fast" may be used. 


FM 3-61.1 

(12) Information on operational or support vulnerabilities that could 
be used against U .S. forces, such as details of major battle damage or 
major personnel losses of specific U.S. or coalition units, until that 
information no longer provides tactical advantage to the enemy and 
is, therefore, released by CENTCOM . 

* Damage and casualties may be described as "light," "moderate," or "heavy." 



AFRTS— Armed Forces Radio and Television Services 

BOD— Broadcast Operations Detachment 

C2 protect— command and control-protect— see command and control warfare 

C2W— command and control warfare 

command and control warfare— The integrated use of operations security 
(OPSEC), military deception, psychological operations (PSYOP), electronic warfare 
(EW), and physical destruction, mutually supported by intelligence, to deny 
information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary command and control 
capabilities, while protecting friendly command and control capabilities against such 
actions. Command and control warfare applies across the operational continuum and 
all levels of conflict. Also called C2W. C2W is both offensive and defensive: 

C2-protection— To maintain effective command and control of own forces by turning 
to friendly advantage or negating adversary efforts to deny information to, influence, 
degrade, or destroy the friendly C2 system. 

civil affairs— the activities of a commander that establish, maintain, influence, or 
exploit relations between military forces and civil authorities, both governmental and 
nongovernmental, and the civilian populace in a friendly, neutral, or hostile area of 
operations in order to facilitate military operations and consolidate operational 
objectives. Civil affairs activities (1) embrace the relationship between military forces 
and civil authorities and population in areas where military forces are present; and 
(2) involve application of civil affairs functional specialty skills, in areas normally the 
responsibility of civilian government, which enhance conduct of civil-military 
operations. These activities may occur prior to, during, or subsequent to other 
military actions. They may also occur, if directed, in the absence of other military 

combined operation— an operation conducted by forces of two or more allied 
nations acting together for the accomplishment of a single mission. 

command information— see internal information 

community relations— establishing and maintaining effective relationships 
between military and civilian communities through planning and active 

participation in events and processes which provide benefits to both communities. 


FM 3-61.1 

community relations program— that command function which evaluates public 
attitudes, identifies the mission of a military organization with the public interest, 
and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. 
Community relations programs are conducted at all levels of command, both in the 
United States and overseas, by military organizations having a community relations 
area of responsibility. Community relations programs include, but are not limited to, 
such activities as liaison and cooperation with associations and organizations and 
their local affiliates at all levels; armed forces participation in international, 
national, regional, state, and local public events; installation open houses and tours; 
embarkation in naval ships; orientation tours for distinguished civilians; people-to- 
people and humanitarian acts; cooperation with government officials and community 
leaders; and encouragement of armed forces personnel and their dependents to 
participate in activities of local schools, churches, fraternal, social, and civic 
organizations, sports, and recreation programs, and other aspects of community life 
to the extent feasible and appropriate, regardless of where they are located. 

GIE— global information environment 

global information environment— all individuals, organizations, or systems, most 
of which are outside the control of the military or National Command Authorities, 
that collect, process, and disseminate information to national and international 

ground rules— conditions established by a military command to govern the conduct 
of news gathering and the release and/or use of specified information during an 
operation or during a specific period of time. 

information age— the future time period when social, cultural, and economic 
patterns will reflect the decentralized, nonhierarchical flow of information. 

information architecture— Description and specifications of information systems 
to include identification of communicators, information transmitted, equipment 
specifications and network designs. Includes operational, system and technical 

information operations— continuous military operations within the military 
information environment that enable, enhance, and protect the friendly force's 
ability to collect, process, and act on information to achieve an advantage across the 
full range of military operations; information operations include interacting with the 
global information environment and exploiting or denying an adversary's information 
and decision capabilities. 

information strategy— a synchronized plan for using all available and appropriate 
methods of communication to achieve specific goals of informing target audiences. 

internal information— communication by a military organization with service 
members, civilian employees and family members of the organization that creates an 
awareness of the organization's goals, informs them of significant developments 
affecting them and the organization, increases their effectiveness as ambassadors of 
the organization, and satisfies their desi re to be kept informed about what is going on 
in the organization and operation (also known as command information). 



J IB— joint information bureau 

joint information bureau— facilities established by the joint force commander to 
serve as the focal point for the interface between the military and the media during 
the conduct of joint operations. When operated in support of multinational 
operations, a joint information bureau is called a Combined Information Bureau or 
an Allied Press Information Center. 

joint force— a general term applied to a force composed of significant elements, 
assigned or attached, of two or more Military Departments, operating under a single 
joi nt force commander. 

joint operations— a general term to describe military actions conducted by joint 
forces, or by Service forces in relationships (e.g., support, coordinating authority), 
which, of themselves, do not create joint forces. 

J OPES — J oint Operations Planning and Execution System 

joint task force— a joint force that is constituted and so designated by the Secretary 
of Defense, a combatant commander, a subunified commander, or an existing joint 
task force commander. Also called J TF. 

media facilitation— the range of activities such as providing access and interviews 
that assist news media representatives covering military operations. 

media operations center— facility that serves as the focal point for the interface 
between the military and the media covering an event or operation. 

media pool— a limited number of news media who represent a larger number of 
news media organizations for news gathering and sharing of material during a 
specified activity. Pooling is typically used when news media support resources 
cannot accommodate a large number of journalists. The DoD National Media Pool is 
available for coverage of the earliest stages of a contingency. Additionally, the 
combatant commanders may also find it necessary to form limited local pools to 
report on specific missions. 

METT-TC— mission, enemy, terrain, troops, time available and civilians 

Ml E— military information environment 

military information environment— the environment contained within the global 
information environment, consisting of the information systems and organizations- 
friendly and adversary, military and nonmilitary— that support, enable, or 
significantly influence a specific military operation. 

MPAD--M obi I e Public Affairs Detachment 


FM 3-61.1 

multinational operations— a collective term to describe military actions conducted 
by forces of two or more nations, typically organized within the structure of a 
coalition or alliance. 

news media representative— an individual employed by a civilian radio or 
television station, newspaper, newsmagazine, periodical, or news agency to gather 
information and report on a newsworthy event. 

NGO— nongovernmental organization 

nongovernmental organizations— transnational organizations of private citizens 
that maintain a consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the 
United Nations. Nongovernmental organizations may be professional associations, 
foundations, multinational businesses, or simply groups with a common interest in 
humanitarian assistance activities (development and relief). "Nongovernmental 
organizations" is a term normally used by non-United States organizations. Also 
called NGO. See also private voluntary organizations. 

PAD— Public Affairs Detachment. The small est of the PA units. 

PAG— public affairs guidance 

PAOC— Public Affairs Operations Center. 

private voluntary organizations— private, nonprofit humanitarian assistance 
organizations involved in development and relief activities. Private voluntary 
organizations are normally United States-based. "Private voluntary organization" is 
often used synonymously with the term "nongovernmental organization." Also called 
PVO. See also nongovernmental organizations. 

psychological operations— operations to convey selected information and 
indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective 
reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of foreign governments, organizations, 
groups, and individuals. The purpose of psychological operations is to induce or 
reinforce foreign attitudes and behavior favorable to the originator's objectives. Also 
called PSYOP. 

PSYOP— psychological operations 

public affairs assessment— an analysis of the news media and public 
environments to evaluate the degree of understanding about strategic and operations 
objectives and military activities and to identify levels of public support. Includes 
judgments about the public affairs impact of pending decisions and recommendations 
about the structure of public affairs support for the assigned mission. 

public affairs estimate— as assessment of a specific mission from a public affairs 

public affairs guidance— normally, a package of information to support the public 
discussion of defense issues and operations. Such guidance can range from a 
telephonic response to a specific question to a more comprehensive package. I ncluded 



could be an approved public affairs policy, news statements, answers to anticipated 
media questions, and community relations guidance. Public affairs guidance also 
addresses the method(s), timing, location and other details governing the release of 
information to the public. 

public information— A general term describing processes used to provide 
information to external audiences through public media. 

sustaining base — the home station or permanent location of active duty units and 
Reserve Component units (e.g., location of armory or reserve center) that provides 
personnel, logistic and other support required to maintain and prolong operations or 



Joint Pub 3-13. Joint Doctrine for Information Operations. 9 October 1998. 

Joint Pub 3-61. Doctrine for Public Affairs in Joint Operations. 

Joint Pub 1-02. DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. 24 March 1994. 

DOD Directive 5122.5 Public Affairs Program. 12 February 1993. 

DOD Directive 5120.20-R. Management and Operation of Armed Forces Radio and 
Television Service. 9 November 1998. 

FM 3-61 (46-1). Public Affairs Operations. 10 March 1997. 

FM 3-100.71 (71-100). Division Operations. 28 August 1996. 

FM 3-07.29 (90-29). Noncombatant Evacuation Operations. 17 October 1994. 

FM 3-0 (100-5). Operations. 14 June 1993. 

FM 3-13 (100-6). Information Operations. 27 August 1996. 

FM 3-100.1 (100-15). Corps Operations. 29 October 1996. 

FM 3-07.7 (100-19). Domestic Support Operations. 1 July 1993. 

FM 3-07.6 (100-23). Peace Operations. 30 December 1994. 

TRADOC PAM 525-5. Force XXI Operations. 1 August 1994. 

AR 200-1. Environmental Protection and Enhancement. 23 April 1990. 

AR 360-5. Public Information. 31 May 1989. 

AR 360-61. Community Relations. 15 January 1987. 

AR 360-81. Command Information Program. 20 October 1989. 

Public Affairs Guidance on National Guard Bureau Environmental Programs, National 
Guard Bureau Office of Public Affairs, 1994. 

Commander's Guide to Environmental Management, U.S. Army Environmental Center, 


FM 3-61.1 



annex, 3-11,3-12, D-1, D-2 

acquisition, 5-6 

area study, G-1 

Armed Forces Radio and 
Television Service, T-1 

Army Broadcasting Service, T-1 

audience survey, V-1 


briefings, 4-12, H-1, H-2 

brigade public affairs, 8-1 , 8-2, 8-3 

Broadcast Operations, T-1 

Broadcast Operations Detachment, 
1-9, 1-10 

Chief of Public Affairs, 2-2 

Civil Affairs, 9-1 

civilians, Army, 1-3 

commanders and public affairs, 
1-1, 1-2, 1-3,2-1,2-3,5-3 

community assistance, 7-10 

community readiness 
enhancement, 7-11 

community relations, 7-1 

community social improvements, 

community surveys, U-1 

Corps PA Section, 2-3 

crisis planning, 3-2 

Defense Data Network, 5-10 

deliberate planning, 3-2, 3-4, 3-5 

Division PA Section, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 

DOD Media Pool, 4-10, 4-11 

DOD Media Guidelines, B-1, B-2 

DOD Principles of information, 4-1 , 

electronic newsgathering, 


estimate, public affairs, 3-6, 
C-1,C-2, C-3 

Freedom of Information Act, 
R-1, R-2 

global information environment, 

ground rules, media, 4-8 

guidance, PA, 3-10, E-1, E-2, 


information infrastructure, 5-9 

information needs, 5-5 

Information Operations, 2-4, 
2-5, 9-1 

IO Battlestaff, 9-2 

IO campaign cycle, 9-4, 9-5 

Information Program 
Evaluation, P-1, P-2 

Information Strategies, 5-1 

Information Strategy Process, 
5-4, 5-5, 5-6, 5-7, 5-8 

internal audience, 5-1 

internet, 5-10 

interviews, 6-7, 6-8, 6-9, N-1, 

Joint Information Bureau, 4-2 

Land Information Warfare 
Activity, 9-3 

logistical support, 2-5 


media faciliation, 4-1 , 6-1 0, 

media analysis, 0-1 

media operations center, 4-2, 
4-6, L-1 

media pools, 4-10, 4-1 1 

media support, 4-6 

METT-T, 3-15 

Mobile PA Detachment Also 
MPAD, 1-6, 1-7 

operational level public affairs, 

operational security, 5-7 

organic PA sections , 1-4 

planning, 3-1 

pre-deployment checklist, J-1 , 
J-2, J-3 

Principles of Information, 4-1 , 

Principles of PA Standards and 
Service, Q-1,Q-2 

Privacy Act, R-1, R-2 

Psychological Operations 
(PSYOPS), 9-1 

Public Affairs Detachment, 1-4, 

Public affairs elements, 1-3 

Public Affairs Operations 
Center (PAOC), 1-7, 1-8, 

public affairs civilian, 1-3 

public affairs NCO, 1-3 

public affairs officer, 1-2 

public affairs specialist, 1-3 


FM 3-61.1 

registration of media, 4-7 
releasable information, 4-9 


strategic level public affairs, 5-4 
SOP, 3-16, 3-17, K-1, K-2 
speakers' bureau, 7-2 

tactical level public affairs, 5-4 
tactical command post PA 
section, 8-8 

telecommunication systems, 5-9 
Town Hall Meetings, 7-4, 7-5 
Training, 6-1 
non-PA personnel, 6-6; unit 
soldiers, 6-6; family members, 
6-6; commanders, SMEs, 6-6; 
exercises, 6-9, 6-10 
terrorism guidance, S-1, S-2 


Waiver of Liability, 1-1 


FM 3-61.1 
1 OCTOBER 2000 

By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 

General, United States Army 
Official: Chief of Staff 


Administrative Assistant to the 
Secretary of the Army 


Active Army, Army National Guard, and U. S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in 
accordance with the initial distribution number 115834, requirements for FM 3-61.1. 

PIN: 078040-000