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Like father, like son. 

Thanks to Microsoft® PCjr 
Booster with Mouse, the IBM® PCjr 
has grown up. 

It gives jr enough memory 
(256KB total RAM) to run many 
of the same programs as 
PCsr. Programs like 
Lotus™ 1-2-3" 
Microsoft Word and 

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a os 
js eg Oe 
com: — a > oe 
ae outs > + = . 

. >_"o 
Ba coal 

ea : a 
“0 bp 

dBASE II* And jr will run 

them just as fast as PCsr. 

PCjr Booster with Mouse. 
ore than compatibility. 

This external, plug-in accessory 
substantially improves the utility of 
programs like Lotus 1-2-3, VisiCalc? 
Microsoft Word and others, because 
the mouse software makes them 
easier to use. 

Ct j 
PF . 
L Fee 

Since “#” Microsoft designed 
the MS"“DOS operating system for 
the entire IBM PC family, it figures 
wed be the one to bring high per- 
formance to the PCjr. 

So if youd like to improve jr’s 
achievement, call 800-426-9400. In 
Washington State, Alaska and 
Hawaii, call 206-828-8088. And 
ask forthe MICRESSOFT 
name of yOur The High Performance Software 
nearest Microsoft dealer. 

Microsoft is a registered trademark and MS is a trademark of 
Microsoft Corporation. IBM is a registered trademark of International 
Business Machines Corporation. Lotus and 1-2-3 are trademarks of 

Lotus Development Corporation. dBASE II is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate. 

VisiCalc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. 



Basically, we agree with PFS® If you’ re looking 
for some power from your PCjr., with software that’s 
essentially simple, there are several PFS packages 
you might consider. 

But if what you really want is genuinely powerful 
software, that’s also simple to use, you’ ll do better 
with one new package from Alpha® : 

It’s called Electric Desk‘" and it’s the first truly 
integrated software for the PCr. It combines word 
processing, spreadsheet, communications and file 
management with report writing, all in a single pro- 
gram. What’s best, you can run them all at 
the same time, because it’s all on a single 

So you not only get to do more work 
with one Electric Desk than with several 
PFS’s. You also get to do things PFS simply 

can’t. Like jump instantly fromalettertoa 4, ~4 A Af 





budget to a customer list, over to a stock report and 
back, with just a couple of keystrokes. PFS makes 
you save files, change disks and spend a lot of time if 
you want to do anything like that. 

Plus Electric Desk lets you do something else 
that’s never been done before—save money. Because 
for $295.00* you get a complete IBM PCr. version of 
Electric Desk with all capabilities included. That’s far 
more computing power than PFS delivers in a hand- 
ful of packages for about $600.00* 

So before you decide on software for your PCjr., 
compare. We think you’ ll agree. When it 

= comes to serious software, it’s not how 
simple you make it. It’s how you make it 
= siinple. 
a Electric Desk. It’s the new force in soft- 

® ware simplicity. Also available for the IBM 
PC and XT for $345.00. 

For more information call 1-800-462-2016 in MA or 1-800-451-1018. 

*Based on manufacturers’ suggested retail prices. Electric Desk for the IBM PCjr. requires 128K, one floppy drive and two ROM slots. 
Electric Desk is a trademark licensed to Alpha Software Corp. , by Electric Software Inc. Alpha Software Corp. is a registered trademark. PFS is a registered trademark of Software Publishing Corp. 
IBM is a registered trademark of the International Business Machines Corp. © 1984 Alpha Software Corp., 30 B St., Burlington, MA 01803. 617-229-2924 . Telex:466168 Alpha Burl CI. 





The Independent 
Guide to the 
IBM PCjr in 
Education, Home 
& Business 

Cover Photography 
by Dennis Kitchen 
Game Board Design 
by Kim Fisher 

43 Junior's Business Plans: 

44 Tom Badgett 

The Taking of Lotus 1-2-3 Lotus jumps on the 
Junior bandwagon with cartridge and disk 
versions of its popular business program: 1-2-3, 

48 Michael Antonoff 

Pulling the Right Strings Software for 
supervisors: a program that will show you how to 
manage and motivate your office personnel. 

51 John M. Woram 

Getting Behind the Electric Desk Turn 

your office into a true seat of power with a 
cartridge-based, integrated software package that 
works with windows. 

53 Tom Badgett 

Junior’s Job in Knoxville PCjr finds gainful 
employment in the office of a computer service 
bureau in Tennessee. 



58 Corey Sandler 
IBM Launches New “Super’”’ Junior 

A rundown on IBM's upgrades for PCjr: more 
power, products, and productivity. 
6O Junior's New Keyboard 

A life-sized rendition of the PCjr’s welcomed 

62 Don Kennedy 

RAM Disk Delivers Two-Drive Power New 
sidecars and software equal more memory 
miracles for Junior. 

64 Tom Badgett 

Computer Talks Back Junior finds its voice with 
some sound products from IBM. 

66 Michael Antonoff 

Financial Bestseller Comes to Junior Analyze 
your financial future with a program that watches 
your money flow. 

68 Linda Sanders 

IBM Strengthens School Ties Discounts, 
diskettes, and developments signal IBM's 
commitment to education. 

70 Tom Christopher/Don Kennedy 

Junior Paints the Town Junior gets graphic with 
a program that turns your screen into an easel. 
72 Greg Pastrick 

The PCjr Sports Extra Two new games have 
Junior juking and jabbing just like the pros. 


41 Coming Up 

79 Revue of Reviews 
84 The Product Line 
86 Letters 



6 Editors Wire/Corey Sandler 

Climbing the Corporate Ladder IBM is 
grooming PCjr’s corporate image, and a whole new 
line of hardware and software products helps. 

11 Education/Martin Porter 

Rock'n Role Model Tom Snyder switched from 
recording artist to computer artist. Now he writes 
software for the entire family. 

21 Screen Play/Don Kennedy 

Marriage Junior Style Love's on the rocks when 
three new computer games spoil the honeymoon. 

27 Communications Networks/Eric Freedman 

The Party Line Get a grip on government with an 
electronic database that keeps a watch on 

31 Looking at Logo/Winn L. Rosch 

Logo Goes Solo Take the first train to 
“Logoville”"—home of computerless Logo. 

35 Lindsy Van Gelder 

Culture Clash When you've got an IBM computer 
and an Apple personality, you're bound to have 
mixed emotions. 

87 Reader to Reader/Paul Somerson 

Answers to readers’ queries on screen color, BASIC | 
compilers and single page printing. | 
91 Its BASIC/John M. Woram 

BASIC’s Saving Grace Some simple BASIC 
subroutines that'll save your sorted data lists. 

95 Junior Explorer/Peter Norton 

Junior’s Brain Drain What happens when you 
push PCjr’s microprocessing chip to its limit? 




Publisher John B. Babcock, Jr. 
Editor Corey Sandler 

Managing Editor Lawrence E. Frascella 
Associate Editor Don Kennedy 
Technical Editor Tom Badgett 

Staff Editors Michael Antonoff, Linda Sanders 

Chief Copy Editor Gloria Sturzenacker | 

Assistant Editor Greg Pastrick 
Editorial Assistant Peter McQuaid 
Editorial Secretary Randolph Johnson 
Contributing Editors Tom Christopher, Eric 
Freedman, Stephen Manes, Peter Norton, 
Martin Porter, Winn L. Rosch, Steve Rosenthal, 
Paul Somerson, Lindsy Van Gelder, 

John M. Woram 

Art Director James A. Kiehle 

Assistant Art Director Kimberley J. Fisher 
Art Assistant Tom Stvan 
Photography Dennis Kitchen 

Editorial Office PCjr, One Park Avenue, New 
York, NY 10016 (212) 503-5400 

Advertising Sales Manager Karen Tuckman 
District Managers (Northwest) Denis Duffy 
| (415) 594-2290; (Southwest) Michela O’Connor 
| (213) 387-2100; (Midwest) Wayne Stephens, 
(East) Christine Pines (212) 725-5844 
Account Representatives Joanna Broome, 
Brenda Garelick, Cindy Ramsey 
Assistant to the Publisher 
Rosemarie Carbone 
Advertising Coordinator Holly Cooperstein 
Advertising Office Ziff-Davis Publishing 
Company, One Park Avenue, 
New York, NY 10016 


President Larry Sporn 
V.P. Marketing J. Scott Briggs 
V.P. Circulation Carole Mandel 
V.P. General Manager Eileen G. Markowitz 
V.P. Licensing & Special Projects 
Jerry Schneider 
V.P. Creative Services Herbert Stern 
Creative Director Peter J. Blank 

Editorial Director Jonathan D. Lazarus 
Marketing Manager Ronni Sonnenberg 


President Richard P. Friese; President, Con- 
i * sumer Magazine Division Albert S. Traina; Ex- 
VLEEERES LRA RARE ecutive Vice President, Marketing & Circulation 
EEEESS . | Paul H. Chook; Senior Vice Presidents Phillip | 
T. Heffernan, Sidney Holtz, Edward D. Muhlfeld, 
Philip Sine; Vice Presidents Baird Davis, George | 
Morrissey, Rory Parisi, William L. Phillips; 
Treasurer Selwyn Taubman; Secretary Bertram 
A. Abrams 
PCjr (ISSN #0740-7807) is published monthly for $24.97 
one year, $43.97 two years, and $57.97 three years by 
Ziff-Davis Publishing Co., One Park Ave., New York, NY 
10016. Application to mail at second class postage rates 
| is pending at New York, NY and at additional mailing 

1 f 
a “ 


WY pa ™ Wwe 

offices. POSTMASTER: Address changes to PCjr, P.O. 

lease send me ty Box 2452, Boulder, CO 80327. PCjr is an independent 

_____ Copies of GATO @ iis phigh. L journal, not affiliated in any way with International 

Post, f GATO @ -- 8. , ee 595. = ee Business Machines Corporation. IBM is a registered 

—__— Fosier 0 = Fe ey AY ars : | | trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 

Tax (CO residents) : by, , ic 41% = Entire contents Copyright © 1984 Ziff-Davis Publishing 

POSTAGE: Add $1.00 per item age a Co. PERMISSIONS: Material in this publication may not 

4 Visa or M/C# a Total Psr = be reproduced in any form without permission. Direct 

yi’ ——— a si a request to Jean Lamensdorf, Manager, Reprints/Rights 

3) a 2 he te TAL) 2 : and Permissions, Ziff-Davis Publishing Co., One Park 

—. oo ut ce ale se : | | Ave., N.Y, N.Y. 10016. The following are trademarks of 

Make Checks Payable To: Spectrum HoloBy n F ee - shy = : 

i si CONN Cateichance yee 404 oe a OR CHECK AT YOUR LOCAL COMPUTER STORE) | PC Communications Corp.: PCjr, PCjr Magazine, PCjr 

Boulder CO 60302 G02) 443-0191 Bluebook. The following are trademarks of Ziff-Davis 

i mall Publishing Company: Revue of Reviews. Junior Achieve- 

ee ee ee ee es : ee ee ee ee ment, Junior Explorer, It's BASIC, The Product Line, 
Screen Play. 

Tel U (5) BV Mera —Meleluls)|—tn/e|-lekelt] elfly Ge) melcele na Melelele(-4 : 
IBM personal computer series. (Including PC Junion 4 PCjr MAGAZINE 


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‘Climbing the 

— Corporate Ladder 

hings were so much simpler before technology 

arrived in the office. 

My first job out of college was at a small daily 
newspaper where Mark Twain would have felt right at 
home. We bashed out our stories on vintage Remingtons, 
scrawling corrections between the triple-spaced lines 
with a thick Number 1 pencil and slicing apart pages 

to glue in additions. After t 

pencil and knife work, our deathless 
prose was rolled up and entrusted to 
the buzzing, hissing pneumatic-tube 
system that linked the newsroom to 
the composing room. 

The tube would jam up at least once 
a week (always right on deadline) and 
it would be the managing editor’s job 
| to work a 100-foot-long plumber’s snake 
down the pipe to dislodge the jammed 
cylinder. In case of dire emergency, we 
could always reconstruct the story from 
the carbons we made for the editor's 
desktop paper spike, which held one 
week or 12 inches of old copy, whichever 
came first. 

The typesetters downstairs in the 
composing room (typesetters were 
people, not machines) used a peculiar 
mechanical finger-pointing device to 
hold the raw copy in place. We had to 
attach the bottom of one page to the 
top of the next one, using a bottle of 
mucilage encrusted with 40 years of 
gunk, so that the typesetter could 
| pump a foot pedal and crank the copy 
through like a piano roll. The machines 
they worked were Linotypes, which 
| were huge clanking buckets of bolts 
that looked like a cross between an 
oversized sewing machine and a cast- 
iron foundry. On the left side of the 
machine was a bubbling witch’s brew 
of molten lead, tin, and antimony that 
was injected into the molds for each 
line of type as it was assembled by the 

he copy editor had done his 

Micros entered the 


through the | 

| backdoor, but 
now they've been _ 
promoted tothe _ 

boss’ desk. 

Thus far in the course of three par- 

| agraphs I've described nine defunct 

office technologies: lead pencils, paste 
pots, Linotypes, pneumatic tubes, 
manual typewriters, copy holders, 

scissors, carbon paper, and paper 
spikes. (Some of the old-timers wore 
celluloid sleeve cuffs and garters, and 
eyeshades, but these were mere fashion 
touches and not part of the office 
structure, so I've left them out of the 
count. ) 

Upstairs over the newsroom, be- 
trayed by the sagging ceiling, was an 
immense cobwebbed attic-cum-bot- 
tomless pit into which were loaded 
stacks of every available back copy of 
the newspaper, boxes of reporters’ notes 
going back 50 years, and advertising 
sales receipts on which the printed 
forms were so faded that all that re- 
mained were the faint scratchings left 
behind by a quill pen. 

When the publisher would sit down 
once a year with the advertising direc- 
tor and the managing editor to draw 
up a budget, they collectively gave ex- 
ample to Thomas Alva Edison’s defi- 
nition of genius: “One percent 
inspiration and 99 percent perspira- 
tion.” Budget making began among 
the cobwebs, in a coordinated scurry 
among the disorganized boxes of re- 
ceipts and bills. 

(Before I leave you with the image 
of me as a crusty old editor reminiscing 
about the Roaring Twenties, let me tell 
you that these are reminiscences of 
just 15 years ago. Call me a crusty 
young editor, if you will.) 

Cub Computer Well, we all know 
what's missing from this picture. The 
arrival of the computer brought with 
it such marvels as word processing 
(good-bye pencils, paste pots, and 
scissors); telecommunications (farewell 
copyboys and copygirls, pneumatic 
tubes, and plumber’s snakes); and 
“cold type” electronic typesetting (so 
long to Linotypes and melting pots). 
But until three or four years ago, 
even these wonderful advances were 


limited to the technicians of the mod- 
ern office—secretaries, legal assistants, 
researchers, and a relatively small per- 
centage of ink-stained scribblers like 
me who had been dragged from Mark 
Twain's newsroom into Buck Rogers’ 
control room. A word processor was a 
wonderful thing, everyone agreed; it 
made it easier for the secretaries to 
produce 17 corrected, personalized 
versions of the office Christmas party 
memo in five minutes. So the computer 
entered the office through the servants’ 

But it is my thesis that the micro- 
computer would never have gained en- 
trance through the front door without 
one more step on the micro-evolution- 
ary ladder—the arrival of the electronic 
spreadsheet, the one-user database 
manager, and their offspring, the in- 
tegrated business package. 

Think of it this way—until three or 
four years ago, the corporate manager 
was a well-paid thinker and paper 
shuffler. She or he didn’t produce a 
single widget, tote up a solitary account 
book, or design even one corporate logo 
in the course of a day. (“What did you 
do at work today, Daddy?” “Well, I 
signed 17 memos, initialed four buck 
slips, and met with the logo designer 
to look at her latest suggestions.”) 

But all of a sudden, corporate man- 
agers have found something to do. They 
can electronically look over the shoulder 
of the accounting department, the 
personnel officer, and the shipping 
clerks. They can take those numbers 
and “crunch” them in a spreadsheet, 
they can edit them in an “idea proces- 
sor,” and then, finally, they can “draw” 
them in the form of charts, graphs, 
and pictograms in glorious living color. 
Now no self-respecting manager is 
willing to be seen without a personal 
computer sitting on the desk, an elec- 
tronic spreadsheet busily at work. 

New programs also allow fumble- 
fingered “artists” like me to get a hand 
from the computer in drawing, de- 
signing, and printing. 

Picture now the newsroom, with the 
publisher, editor, and advertising di- 
rector hunched over their IBM PCjr, 
watching the effect that changing 
downward one little number (some still- 
downtrodden reporter's salary, no 

Now no self- 
manager is 

willing to be 

seen without a 
sitting on the 
desk, an 
busily at work. 

doubt) has on the amount of money 
available at the end of the fiscal year 
for new baseball caps for the newsboy 
and newsgirl softball team. 

It was, of course, VisiCalc that 
opened the front door for microcom- 
puters. (We reviewed that program, and 
competitor Multiplan, in PCjr Maga- 
zine’s June 1984 issue.) 

Corporate Ladder In this issue, we 
salute the IBM PCjr’s formal entrance 
to the business place, including full 
details of IBM’s memory and keyboard 
upgrades. We take a data-filled, word- 
packed, graphic look at the king of 
the hill in integrated packages, Lotus 

1-2-3 (in cartridge and disk), newly 
certified for the PCjr. Since its intro- 
duction nearly two years ago, 1-2-3 has 
held the Number One slot in the IBM | 
best-seller list as its private domain. | 
Technical Editor Tom Badgett puts the | 
program through its paces. and gives 
us a full report. 

We give a long, hard look at Electric 
Desk, a new contender to the throne 
specifically designed for the PCjr and | 
using both ROM cartridge slots for an 
instant brain transplant for your 
desktop microcomputer. We look at how 
a Knoxville computer service bureau | 
has included the PCjr in its plans as | — 
an inexpensive data-entry station. 

But we couldn't let this concentra- | — 
tion of ours on business uses of PCjr 
make us overlook other important ap- 
plications—like the office NFL football 
pool or the Monday morning post-prize- | 
fight analysis session in the board- | 
room. Assistant Editor Greg Pastrick 
reviews two impressive simulation 
games that give you a sidelines/champ's 
corner role in sports: Imagic’s Touch- 
down Football and Sierra On-Line’s 
Championship Boxing. By deadline 
time we had to ask Pastrick to air out 
his office—the odor of liniment and 
sweat socks was becoming a bit 

Associate Editor Don Kennedy, al- 
ways on the lookout for a way to extend | 
both his earning power and creativity, | 
completely submerged his usual surly 
personna when he discovered an elec- 
tronic greeting card program for the 
IBM PCjr. (You'll be able to read the 
review in an upcoming issue.) Sud- 
denly our offices began to fill up with 
anonymous Happy Face cards (we 
know they’re from you, Don). We hope 
it’s nothing serious, Don. You don't 
suppose that getting married to Linda 
Rogers, a.k.a. Ms. Pac-Man, in July 
had anything to do with it, do you?0 

If they don’t fit, they're not worth wearing. 

Software programs. 
If they don’t fit, they’re not worth using. 

That's why it’s altogether fitting that IBM 
Personal Computer Software offers you a choice. 

IBM PC Software: the value of choosing 

Size up the selection. 

You'll find many types of programs in the 
IBM software library. They'll help keep you on 
your toes in the office, at home or 
in school. 

There are, in fact, seven 
different categories of IBM pro- 
grams called “families.” A family 
of software for business, productivity, 
education, entertainment, lifestyle, 
communications or programming. 

Of course, every program in 
every family is tested and approved by 
IBM. And IBM Personal Computer 
Software is made to be compatible 
with IBM Personal Computer hardware. 


programs that fit. 

Putting your 
best foot forward. 

Although every person isn’t on equal footing 
when it comes to using personal computer 
software, there's something for almost everyone in 
the IBM software library. 

For example, you may be on a shoestring 
budget and want a big selection of programs 
with small price tags. 

You may be introducing students to 
computing and want programs that are simple to 
use and simple to learn. 

You may run a business requiring 
sophisticated inventory and payroll 
programs. Or you may run a business 
requiring a single accounting program. 

You may write interoffice memos and want a 
streamlined word processing program. Or you 
may be a novelist looking for a program with 
features worth writing home about. 

Now you can find IBM Personal Computer 
Software that fits — to help you accomplish 
specific tasks and reach individual goals. 

Stroll into a store today. 

What's the next step? 

Visit an authorized IBM Personal Computer 
dealer or IBM Product Center near you. To find 
out exactly where, call 800-447-4700. In Alaska 
or Hawaii, 800-447-0890. 

Ask your dealer to demonstrate your choice 
of programs. Then get comfortable. Sit down at 
the keyboard and try IBM software on for size. 

Personal Computer Software 

Little Tramp character licensed by Bubbles Inc., s.a. 

How Can You Avoid Getting 

Trapped Under An Ancient 





Once upon a time, Word processors 
were monstrous things. Dot com- 
mands, page orientation, and separate 
editing, formatting and printing pro- 
grams turned them into lumbering 
beasts. Only a well-educated pro- 
grammer would dare don his armor 
and tackle such a beast — not a plea- 
sant task for a modern secretary, 
executive, or writer. 

Then came WordPerfect and the 
beast was slain. 

WordPerfect was designed to work 
‘for you not against you. WordPerfect 
has no command language to compli- 
cate your writing. Pressing a single 
key is all it takes to 

bold, underline or center. 

When writing, you don’t want to 
worry about page formating, making 
room for headers or footers, or 


Buy Word 


whether you are in “edit” or “create” 
mode. Your word processor should 
do it automatically and WordPerfect 
does. WordPerfect lets you think in 
terms of ideas, not pages. It is simple 
enough that you quickly forget about 
the mechanics and your writing flows 

So if you don’t want to be caught 
under a word processing monster, try 
WordPerfect. We’re certain it will 
improve the quality of your writing. 

You'll love it — | 
not only for the features 
we've built in, but 
also for the 

left out. 

Now available in jr version. 


288 WEST CENTER STREET, OREM, UTAH 84057 (801) 224-4000 TELEX 820-618 


| Delitectetejpupi vleipoip.) Lojpaar 

ou don't expect a software designer whose spe- 
cialty is educational programming to talk the 
way Tom Snyder talks. 
You don’t expect this boyish man dressed in a Ha- 
waiian shirt—as eager to talk about his rock 'n’ roll 

career aS his software designs—to be serious about 
teaching kids how to think and reason via the 


“I describe myself as a member of the 
Crock School of Educational Software,” 
the 35-year-old former school teacher 
and Capitol Records recording artist 
comments. “I think most of it’s a total 

Tom Snyder is serious, though. He 
simply believes that everything parents 
and kids are pitched about the future 
of computer-assisted education is a 
bunch of baloney. In fact, behind every 
software award he has won, there is 
his distinctive educational philosophy 
and a clear set of priorities for a long- 
term project to change ways of learning 
and play. 

A look at the software shelves gives 
an early clue to what Snyder has up 
his short sleeves. Two of his titles were 
recently wedged in the Billboard Top 
Ten. Snooper Troops II (Spinnaker 
Software), a follow-up of Snyder's kid 
hit whodunit, and In Search of the 
Most Amazing Things are both de- 
scribed as “learning adventures.” 
Snooper Troops (1982) was the first 
educational title to make the industry's 
bestseller list and is currently being 
converted to run on the PCjr. Snyder's 
first products to grace IBM's littlest 
machine are other learning games and 
adventure tales, Agent U.S.A. and Run 

For the Money (see ‘Plotting the . 

Course” sidebar for reviews). 

Kids seem to love them; parents ob- 
viously buy them. But what do they 
teach? Not much, it would appear to 
those who are accustomed to drill and 
practice, 9-to-3, with their butts to the 


Tom Snyder isa _ 
rebel with a cause. 

He develops 

software thatsa 
key to closer 

family ties. 

seat and eyes on a blackboard. On the 
surface, all these products are nothing 
more than adventure games—very 
much like board games—that get a 
group of kids together to figure out a 
mystery or solve riddles and puzzles. 
With Snyder's software, they use their 
brains interactively with a keyboard in 
a way that the hand-to-eye coordination 
video gamers never thought possible. 

Team Spirit “What we're doing,” 
Snyder says, “is trying to figure out 
how to create small group environ- 
ments at home with new programs that 
beg more than one kid to play. I’m not 
trying to teach computer use. I’m 
trying to think about how the computer 
contributes to the process of growing 
up as well as the process of thinking 
through the issues.” Snyder's ideas 
about computer use in education have 
to do with the effects of television, the 
nature of home life and the family, and 
above all how to bring people together 
and get them started thinking for 

The attitude and design philosophy 
is as unorthodox as Snyder himself, 
who began his production company 
with a spit and a prayer and the belief 
that he knows kids and especially how 
they like to learn. 

Tom Snyder's story began before he 
even touched a computer, when he 
dumped a career in rock music 10 years 
ago. He convinced a 65-year-old Eng- 
lish teacher at a Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, private school to take off the 
remainder of the school year and let 
him teach her class. In fact, even up 
until last year—when his software 
company was doing more than half a 
million dollars of business a year, with 
a Staff of 17 designers and program- 
mers—he still taught science and mu- 
sic to schoolkids. 

“I can teach with my hands tied 
behind my back,” he says. “I guess I 
do it as a way of getting away from the 
rest of the world.” 

With his classroom as his oasis he 
bought his first computer, hoping to 
create a simulation situation with 
which the kids could interact. He was 
enthralled by the ability of computer 
interaction to create group situations 
that would draw even the quiet and 
shy students into the educational fray. 
He designed a Civil War simulation; 
the kids had to make decisions vital 


to the success of their mission. 

“IT remember the magical day,” he 
recalls. “I remember that I realized that 
the machine could do just what people 
thought it couldn't do, which is solve 
the group dynamic problems that exist 
in a group simulation.” 

He programmed the computer ac- 
cordingly. “There are some kids who 
don’t get asked a question all year,” he 
explains. “It was just rewarding to see 
the computer begging these kids to 

For the 
time being, 
belongs in 
the home, not 
the school. 

have to talk to each other.” The kids 
had to type in their names. The com- 
puter would ask them what they 
brought for lunch. The aim wasn’t so 
much to teach them a lesson as it was 
to acclimate them to the computer as 
a group leader. Most of all it concen- 
trated on getting everyone involved. 

First Course Snyder's emerging ed- 
ucational software theories material- 
ized in the Search Series (Geography, 
Energy, Geology, Community, Archeol- 
ogy), acritically acclaimed courseware 
series published by McGraw-Hill in 
1982 that adapted standard grade 
school curriculum to Snyder's simu- 
lation technique. (The series is not yet 
available for the PCjr.) The programs 
weren't exactly games, nor did they fit 
the strict drill-and-practice credo. They 
were somewhere in between—in a gray 
area that wasn’t yet defined and is still 
undergoing educational scrutiny today. 

The series was still curriculum- 
based and, at least in that sense, un- 
like Snyder's later adventure programs. 
Still, it was a beginning. He recognized 
from this work that the computer could 
create “environments and worlds for 
kids to learn in.” Since then, each of 
his products has attempted to create 
these on-screen worlds instead of 
teaching a specific lesson. “The les- 
sons,” he feels, “will come.” 


games Jor the PCjr. 

J hether or not people accept Tom Snyders Educational anes aiinkn : 2 a 

! phy, they generally agree that any new title of his deserves at least one _ 

suit in the disk drive. His two new software packages for the PCjr—Agent _ ow 
USA (Scholastic Inc.) and Run for the Money (Scarborough Systems, Inc.)— 
are examples of Snyder's knack for turning out adventure games with diss 
-_tinctive educational slants. Agent USA teaches United States geography; Run ~ ion ae 
_ for the Money studies basic business strategies and principles. Each takes its 
_ own approach to getting across its bees but each also carries its own cats 2 ae 
_ share of fun and games. a 

Fuzz Buster In Agent USA, a “FuzzBomb” has Sec sueied ne be: 

United States—and is turning innocent people into menacing “FuzzBodies.” 

The bomb was accidentally created when an eccentric professor placed a 
strange, glowing crystal from outer space into her latest invention—a new 
type of TV set. It is now traveling throughout the continental United States, 

_ spreading its FuzzBody epidemic from state to state. You areAgent USAof 
_ the Central Intelligence Bureau, and your mission (should you decide toa 

cept it) is to disarm the FuzzBomb...and save the country. © 

So begins this software yarn which is frustratingly difficult to beat. Play- ' . 
ers travel by rail from city to city, cultivating crystals to build up the cities’ 

defenses against the approaching fuzzy threat. Apparently, the same crystals — 

_ that first created the FuzzBomb also have the ability to stop it. You will ulti- 
mately need 100 crystals—the most you can carry—to destroy the FuzzBomb. 

There are ticket booths in each city to allow you to book reservations on | 

local trains. In state capitals, there are also special “InfoBooths,” which sup- a 

ply you with data on each city’s supply of crystals (or let you know if the city 
has been “fuzzed”), the FuzzBomb's present location, and the bomb’s sage 
dicted course. In certain capitals, you can also board express trains. | 
As mentioned, Agent USA also serves as a geography review of the 48 con- __ 
tiguous states and their chief cities. This is cleverly achieved by requiring the 
user to know in which direction to travel to combat the spread of the Fuzz- — 
Bodies. The user must learn the cities’ locations—and the proper spellings of 
their names (for train reservations). 3 
Sounds pretty good, huh? It is, but there are some things you should be 
aware of. The first is that this game is very difficult—if not impossible—to 
beat. Part of the problem is that the PCjr version of the game controls the 
agent’s movements using the a, s, apostrophe, and slash keys for left, right, 
up, and down, respectively. This becomes a real pain when it comes time to 
protect your crystal crop from the local residents—who try to steal your crys- 
tals as soon as you plant them. A joystick is therefore heartily recommended. 

Occupational Hazards Another big problem is that in the event you get 
“fuzzed out”—which happens when your crystal supply is depleted and you 
come into contact with a FuzzBody—you merely float around until a helpful 
citizen drops a crystal in front of you to transform you back to your normal, 
unfuzzy self. But, very often, help is hard to find and you float around in a 
fuzzy limbo for what seems like eternity; obviously, this isn’t the best way to 

hold a child's interest. There is also no easy way to exit the game. However, 

you can freeze the action for a break at any time. 

The graphics are particularly good—especially the trains (from the steam 
engine to high-speed liner variety) and the city skylines (which vary for each — 
city and for night and day). I also enjoyed the elapsed time displays for train 
rides—which also tell you when you've crossed over time zones. 

_ However, the on-screen map doesn’t identify the states and cities. A 
printed map that accompanies the software package handles this obvious : 
software chore. Nevertheless, Agent USA is still a fun way to learn U.S. geog- 
raphy—aside from Alaska and Hawaii, that is—and it — lose its appeal 

with repeated plays. Its difficulty, though, may frustrate younger players. 

It's interesting to note that this game allows for only one player at a time— _ 

a deviation from Snyder's basic tenet of group participation. Then again, se- 
cret agents are, by nature, solitary souls. 

Business School Run for the Money, on the other hand, is everything you 
could want from an educational game. It plays well (although at times it is 
slow) and teaches even better. It is ingeniously designed for two to play simul- 
taneously, using opposite sides of the keyboard to move their characters. 

The players assume the roles of stranded “Bizlings,” two galactic business- _ 

people whose spaceships have lost their protective paint shields in a “zinger” 
storm. The Bizlings were forced to land on Simian, a planet whose inhabit- 

ants resemble monkeys, and who thrive on synthetic bananas, appropriately _ 

called “synannas.” 

Each Bizling is in a hurry to get off Simian and search for more lucrative 
deals, but both of them need extra cash to buy the paint that is needed to 
repair the spaceship shields. Fortunately, the paint is available on Simian 
(sold by a similarly shrewd scientist by the name of Hiam Mighty)—but it is 
in short supply, and the Bizlings must bid for it. 

In order to raise money, both Bizlings go into the synanna business—in 
direct competition with each other. They must first buy the “rufs,” the raw 
materials for the synannas, from one of the six “rufhouses” located at the 
bottom of the screen. Rufs vary in price and quality and the Bizlings can 
sometimes purchase them at reduced rates by visiting the rufhouses and 
waiting for the price to go down. But if they stay too long, they will be “zeroed 
out” and will not be able to buy any rufs at all that round. 

Once the rufs have been collected, the Bizlings process them into synan- 
nas and try to sell them to the Simians who swing overhead. Competitive 
pricing and quality are important—the Simians may be monkeys, but they 
are sharp consumers and don’t like to be ripped off (although you can fool 
them by varying the quality of your synannas from week to week). You can 
also advertise your synannas to boost sales, but it will drain your profit 

The ultimate goal is to be the first to repaint your shield and blast off. You 
don’t necessarily have to have the entire shield repaired, but if there is not 
enough paint on it, another zinger storm can cause further damage to your 
shield and force you down again. : 

Tools of Trade Run for the Money is a first-rate introduction to the basis of 
business. It gives children an introduction to standard marketplace realities. 
Snyder was coached in this area by Arthur Lewbel, Ph.D., an economist at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who wrote in a preface note that 
the game is designed to introduce players to “practical insights into the laws 
of supply and demand, aspects of competitive markets, game theory 
concepts... bidding, pricing, collusion, investment, and such business tools 
as bar charts and spreadsheets.” 

Those two latter business tools are emphasized in scoring. “Profit Graphs” 
map out both players’ profits in bar charts at the end of each week. “The 
What If Prediction Machine,” meanwhile, enables the players to predict their 
forthcoming profits for each week by displaying the results of the previous 
week's sales and costs and thus allows them to alter the data to make eco- 
nomic forecasts. (Eat your heart out, Lotus 1-2-3.) : 

In addition to the four directional keys, a fifth key is employed by each 
player for stopping the character’s movement and making all business trans- 
actions (for example, buying and picking up rufs, bidding on paint). An espe- 
cially nice feature is that you can save a game and then pick it up later. 

There are minor problems, though. The Bizlings move too slowly (maybe 
they are older businesspeople), and there is an annoying whine emitted with 
the bar chart displays. The game is also designed for two players, but you can 
circumvent this limitation and play a solitaire version in the tutorial mode by 
choosing that menu option and hitting Esc key; you end up playing against 
the computer—an especially fierce Bizling competitor.—M.P. 

Snyder is very careful with promises 
and predictions. He emphasizes there 
is no magic checklist for selecting 
quality educational software, just as 
there’s no checklist that tells you how 
to buy a good book. Nor can it be said 
that “computer educated kids will be 
smarter, brighter, more advanced’— 
an implication the guilt marketers at 
companies like Commodore have used 
to sell millions of machines. 

“Does a complicated computer game 
teach you more about how to think 
than standing on second base and de- 
ciding how to run during a kickball 
game?” Snyder proposes. “Your brain 
is moving at top speed in both situa- 
tions. Frankly, I'm very reluctant to 
blazen those claims all over the place.” 

Safe at Home So for the time being, 
Snyder believes, computer education 
belongs in the home, not the school. 
“We're just in the messing-around 
phase of this thing. Schools shouldn't 
spend their money and end up getting 
burned on the testing procedure. 

“In order to be hip and do the ap- 
propriate thing, school systems with 
serious bucks have these little com- 
puter environments that are just what 
they're supposed to be. They're not too 
nerdy, they're decorated with posters. 
In the end, all they’re doing is emulat- 
ing the home. They've set up the labs 
like a kid’s room. At first you think, 
‘Nice going, but then you say ‘Wait a 
minute—why?’ Why are we sending 
our kids to school and having the 

Agent USA 

Scholastic Inc. 

P.O. Box 7502 

Jefferson City, MO 55102 

(314) 505-3342 

List price: $39.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K 
and disk drive, or equivalent 


Run for the Money 
Scarborough Systems, Inc. 

25 North Broadway 

Tarrytown, NY 10591 

(914) 332-4545 

List price: $49.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K 
and disk drive, or equivalent; DOS 



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_ schools pay a lot of money emulating 
| the home?” 

At home, as far as Snyder is con- 
cerned, the main issue is challenging 
the domination of the TV. 

“I think educational software is a 
good alternative to television. That’s 
about all I’m going to say. Because at 

_ least it’s interactive; it lets you partic- 

ipate. And you might learn something 
along the way. When a kid is through 
with Agent U.S.A., they might be more 

_ inclined to say, ‘Is it Washington the 

city or Washington the state?” That 
might not have happened had they 
spent an equal amount of time watch- 
ing ‘Gilligan's Island."” 

Since the emphasis is on producing 
educational software for the home, 
Snyder insists it must be a family 

| product—something to bring mother, 


dad, and the kids together in a cohesive 
unit the boob tube has totally de- 
stroyed. Tom Snyder wants to put it 
back together, and he sees the com- 
puter doing the work for him. 

“A lot of the anecdotal stories about 
kids spending a lot of time doing ed- 
ucational software at home on their 
father’s lap isn’t an indication of the 
quality of the software, nor the interest 
in the computer. It is actually because 
the kids want access to their fathers. 
It's one of the few ways children can 
obtain quality time with parents these 

“The educational software market 
has arrived,” Snyder concludes. “The 
opportunity to explore it has arrived 
and we're exploring it. But whoa on 
the claims, please.” 

Melody Maker Despite all his cau- 
tious talk, though, Snyder has been 
anything but cautious in product de- 
velopment. In addition to the Search 
Series, there are now 12 Tom Snyder 
software products on the market. 

Snyder's most recent product is 
Rock and Rhythm, which is now being 
adapted to the PCjr. Rock and Rhythm 
allows kids to retreat to the secluded 
environment of the recording studio 
and compose melodies on their com- 
puters. There's even a product in the 
works—due out this fall—that will ad- 
dress the issue of nuclear war in a 
decision-making and conflict-resolu- 
tion program that Snyder intends to 
produce and distribute himself. 

In all cases, the common denomi- 
nator—whether the program is rock 
‘n’ roll or avoiding a nuclear holo- 
caust—is the group situation. His 


“TI think 
software is 
a good 
alternative to 
—Tom Snyder 

Sees eeeeeeeeseseeceeeceeeteetreeseeneeaeane 

work, Snyder believes, takes advantage 
of the computer's potential. It pokes 
holes in all the theories that say the 
micro will create a generation of tech- 
nical recluses who feel more in touch 
with a keyboard than they do with kids 
their own age. 
Every afternoon at Snyder's offices 


in Cambridge, the local kids are invited 
to come and play with nearly 300 soft- 
ware games. Snyder gets into the act, 
as do all the designers, trying to see 
what turns kids on about computer 
software. It’s not a laboratory situation, 
although Snyder has lectured about 
educational software at Harvard. In- 
stead, he talks about his afternoon 
sessions as play therapy for everyone— 
including parents, who are invited to 
join in the fun. 

Actually, Snyder's formula for suc- 
cessful home educational software has 
the kid in mind almost as an after- 
thought. It is aimed at the parent. Par- 
ents, looking for the magic formula 
that will allow them to pick the perfect 
educational software, should “buy the 
pieces of software that intrigue you 
the most,” Snyder advises. “If you get 
turned on by the product, pretty soon 
you'll find the kid sitting on your 



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Junior Style 

B SNhis summer | did lots of things that were fun 
and interesting. Probably the most interesting 
thing I did this summer was to get married to 

Ms. Pac-Man. Our wedding was very interesting. So 
was the party we had afterwards. 

We were married at the Central New Jersey Chapel of 

Peace, Health and Prosperity by the Reverend Garland 
Barkley. You may have seen him on television if your 

UHF reception is very good. He's the 
one who yells a lot and hits people on 
the forehead. He hit Ms. Pac-Man and 
me on the forehead, and was about to 
hit my best man when I told him that 
Big Red would probably hit him back. 
So he just yelled at Big Red instead. 

I kissed Ms. Pac-Man after the Rev- 
erend Mister Barkley said we were 
married, and everyone had a good 
laugh when our eyeglasses clicked to- 
gether and my lens popped out and fell 
down her bodice. Then everyone else 
kissed her, and we went to Walt and 
Terris for a barbecue/wedding 

Guest List | had invited everybody 
from Game Players Anonymous to come 
to the party, and most of them showed 
up. Centipede Steve and Peg the Burger 
Queen were there, but they kind of had 
to be there since Ms. Pac-Man is their 
daughter. Matt the Merciless, Jay Bird, 
Gentle Ben, and Tom Terrific showed 
up, but we didn’t see much of them 
until the food was ready because they 
went into the bedroom and played 
computer games. 

El Scorn didn’t come, but he sent 
a Xerox of a nice wedding poem and 
scribbled a personal message at the 
bottom. Lode Runner couldn't make 
it because he was sailing in the ocean 
that week. He sent an erotic telegram, 
though, and most of the guys thought 
the stripper who delivered it rated at 
least an eight. Captain Growler tried 
to get her to stay at the party, but she 


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Wedding bells toll 

marital bliss until 
some suspicious 
software threatens 
to untie the knot. 

told him she had better things to do. 
He took it kind of hard, but the boys 
cheered him up by singing “I’m a Girl 
Watcher” a cappella. 

Captain Growler always did like that 

The food was pretty good, except 
that some of Peoria Gloria’s baked 
beans moved around in the casserole 
dish and a couple of the kids started 

yelling, “Oh, gross!” We just told them 
they were Mexican jumping beans, so 
they ate them anyway and thought it 
was real neat. 

Pool Party When the first keg was 
empty, Junior Jake celebrated by get- 
ting together four or five of the friends 
he had brought with him. I didn’t know 
any of them, but since they brought 
their own bottles, we didn’t mind 
throwing a few more burgers on the 
grill. Besides, we all had a great laugh 
when they threw Peoria Gloria into the 
pool with her clothes on. 

She didn’t laugh much, because 
they threw her in the shallow end. 
When she asked them why they did it, 
Jake's friend, Ricky Raton, just grinned 
and said, “’Cuz that’s the kind of guys 
we are.” | thought it was a pretty good 
answer, but Gloria was so mad she 
limped after them as fast as she could, 
trying to hit them with the wet package 
of hamburger buns she had been 

Big Red gave the toast, and it was 
very sentimental, as befits a man who 
has had only two children but who has 
somehow managed to be the father of 
the groom at four weddings. He talked 
about how it was too bad that my pre- 
vious two wives couldn't make it today. 
I cut him off, however, before he could 
start talking about Ms. Pac-Man’s first 

Then Ellen got up, even though no- 
body asked her to. She said that it all 
reminded her of what her grandmother 
used to say. “Once you've taken one 
piece from the pie, what difference does 
it make how many more you take?” No 
one really knew how to take that, but 
Peg the Burger Queen said enough of 
the speeches and went to make another 
Manhattan. We all thought that was a 
good idea, and left Ellen rambling on 
about this rich guy she almost married 
who owned a plane and other rich-guy 


Alone At Last The best part of the 
wedding came that night when Ms Pac- 
Man and I were finally alone in our 
room. That's when we opened up all 
our wedding presents. 
| We got mostly money from the rel- 
atives. After we subtracted the cost of 
the beer and burgers and threw in 
buying a new dress for Peoria Gloria, 
we made $12.50. And that doesn’t in- 
| clude the pleasure that money can't 
buy that we got from the stripper the 
Lode Runner sent over. 
Somebody else gave us a blender, 
and we figure we can get $5 for that 

Ta aai: 



at a garage sale. And then there were 
the gifts from the Game Players Anon- 
ymous guys. Besides the funny gag 
gifts made of plastic and rubber that 
I had to explain to Ms. Pac-Man, they 
gave us lots of neat games. 

We got an Infocom adventure game 
that Growler and Peoria Gloria and 
Junior Jake went in on together, 
claiming they had decided that $20 
was an appropriate limit for a barbecue 
wedding reception. Uncle Larry sent a 
movie trivia game he had made up in 
the office during the times everybody 
thought he was busy running his word 




me Pead leagiie te RR SRG LES RE EP 

Insert diskette for drive Bi and strike 
any key when ready 

+ + 

ggeccceees |” Ceececceee) 

000 e000 



* ++, +. *. §,.% 
[eoeeeee 000 eeeceeceeee 

HIGH 14 53605 




eeee eeeceeeese 

eceee eeeeeeeeees 

e) 1983 


processor. Ms. Pac-Man and | didn't | 
have much fun because we didn’t know | 

things like who was the stunt man 
who stood in for Dena Delight in “We're 
All Going to Dallas.” 

Matt the Merciless gave me a text- 
only game that he had programmed 
himself. He called it The Texas Chain- 
saw Massacre Game, and it was so 
full of bugs that it crashed when it 
asked for your name if you didn't enter 
MATT. However, it did have one really 
neat effect, and that was the chainsaw 
noise the PCjr made when you turned 
the corner and ran into the fat guy 
with the leather mask. 

Keepsake Big Red gave me a new 
game just out called Karkoth’s Keep, 
which sounds like something you'd yell 

if you were being strangled. Karkoths | 
Keep is pretty much like Sir-Tech’s | 

Wizardry, except it doesn't have as 
many options when it comes to choos- 
ing characters and designing them. 

Basically, you create one character | 

with various attributes of strength, 
intelligence, wisdom, and the usual 
“Dungeons and Dragons” junk that 
nobody can control in real life. Once 
the character is created you have to 

wander around a town that has weap- | 

ons stores and armor stores and bars 
where you can buy enough food to last 
five days in the dungeon. 

It’s a little like real life in that you 
start without enough money, but I 
found a real easy way to get more. The 
town has a casino, and whoever put 

Karkoth's Keep 

Indices Service 

9 Pinecrest Drive 

Taunton, MA 02780 

(617) 822-3173 

List price: $29.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with disk 
drive and 128K of memory 



Virus Rage 

Fantasy Research, Inc. 

P.O. Box 188 

2028 Casa Loma Ct. 

Grapevine, TX 76051 

(817) 488-9313 

List price: $24.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with disk 
drive and 128K of memory 




| | Aowsjr 
! ‘Computerized the 
SEES ‘Books and I Saved ‘2000 

(Your picture here) 

| was (ae ae la ae SRS psrrerers et peep tel ) i 

ous, entrepreneurial 

business person, looking for an escape from bookkeep- | | 
ing drudgery. But the computer ‘solutions’ 'dseenall | 
seemed 100-02 ea ee eeainal 
Then the local computer dealer called and said 
“Try Rags to Riches™ It was made for you? 
So I did. The price was right. So was the price 
of the PCjr computer* it ran on. The whole system 
cost $2,000 less than others I'd seen. 
And it was so easy to use! No codes or names to oe: — 3 
just pre-assigned customer and vendor keys. Five basic commands ran all: 3 
+ themiodtiles | needed ee (sdoe Sales. payabes) 
They work together, and all fiton one disk.The _ 

\ dealer said I'd save another bundle because I didn't 

two disk drives, a consultant to set it 
\ need ————<——S—$ —— —: Lp, a training course, all the above ) 

The clincher was the way it’s customized to suit — 

\ \ my business. There are even Rags to Riches Solution | 

\ Booklets” to help make the most of my investment. — 

a Rags to Riches is the only “RAM-based”’ accounting 
"\ software. It calculates instantly — no waiting. Its “Open 
\ Architecture; means the data works with hundreds of 

)\ other poe so I won't Beis. it. 

it’s business 
as usual, only better. 

I actually have extra time 

ti per on increasing profits) 
O—____________. (drum up more sales, rela 

And, of course, to tell my friends 
that success doesn’t have to be difficult 
anymore. (To be continued.) 

Chang Labs: 

The o of software solutions 

For the nearest dealer, call (800) 972-8800 
In California, (800) 831-8080 
Headquarters, 5300 Stevens Creek Boulevard, San Jose, CA 95129 

Intemational Distribution: United Kingdom: Vector House, Phone 01-943-1257 Belgium: Vector Intemational, Phone 32 (16) 202496 
Japan: Software International, Phone 03-486-7151 © 1984 Chang Labs IBM? is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. 

My neibes BCE STORY” e _ CHAPTER1 

| *Also for the IBM* PC 
and | compatibles. 


SiS aaa a se 
ed t " ! 
+ a. 4 
a> = hg a 
oi a y 


Bancing your monthly 
statements or the fate of the 
universe can be equally har- 
rowing experiences. 

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together the rules for craps didn’t know 
how to play the game. Once I showed 

| Ms. Pac-man how easy it was to take 
the casino for every bit of its money, 

she was duly impressed with my skills. 
She thought we should forget about 

| computer games and head down to At- 

lantic City, and she was pretty disap- 
pointed when I told her that the rules 
are a little bit harder there. 

Anyways, I asked her to take over 
for me for a while and when I got back, 
she had wandered into the Keep, which 
is just a bunch of lines with an ASCII 
happy face running around fighting 
monsters you never see and grabbing 
treasure you never get to look at. 

Infectious Fun In the end, we both 
thought we could find something better 
to do with our time on our honeymoon 
night than play fantasy games, so we 
took out the disk and inserted another 
one. This was Fantasy Research's Virus 
Rage. | knew right from the beginning 
that I was going to like this game. Be- 
fore you even open the plastic baggie 
it comes in, you see a picture of a cur- 
vaceous nurse posing like she’s in a 
Jordache jeans ad, except she’s wearing 
a miniskirt instead of jeans. 

“Neat!” I said, as I ripped it open. 
Ms. Pac-Man started crabbing at me 
that if 1 didn’t keep the cards together 
with the presents we'd never know 
whom to thank. I told her my friends 

| knew I'd never get around to writing 
| notes anyways, and she said that was 
| one of the things she was going to 
| change about me. I'll skip the rest of 

that discussion and just tell you what 
I thought about the game. 

Virus Rage is a quirky sort of dodge- 
and-shoot game, and, to my regret, it 
had almost nothing to do with that 
nurse on the cover. Instead, you control 
a hypodermic needle that goes around 
the game board shooting fast-moving 
little viruses (viri?) and cleaning up 
the diseased sections around the 

| healthy nuclei of cells. 

Silicon Slick’s Lowball 
Draw Poker 

Snake River Software, Inc. 
2100 Belmont Ave. 

Idaho Falls, ID 83401 

(208) 524-5464 

| List price: $34.95 
| Requires: Enhanced PCjr with disk 

drive and 128K of memory 



It may sound gross if you're not into 
biological gamefare, but it’s really kind 
of fun, and I enjoyed it a lot. Probably 
the best part of the game is that each 
level comes with a different screen, and 
the game designers really took some 
pains to make these screens attractive 
and challenging. 

There's even a cute little graphics 
display at the end of each level. If you 
succeed in getting rid of all the nasty 
little bugs, a cartoon face is formed on 

| the screen, smiling and healthy. If you 

fail, however, that same face shows up 
and slowly melts into a puddle of dis- 
eased goop, kind of the way Margaret 
Hamilton said good-bye in “The Wizard 
of Oz.” 

It’s a good little game, perfect not 
only on wedding nights but any time 

| you're in the mood for a little arcade- 

type action. But eventually Ms. Pac- 
Man and I had our fill of playing doctor 
and nurse. 

Bump and Grind “Hey, honey,” | said, 
“how about a little lowball poker?” 

“Sure,” she said, and we opened up 
our present from Centipede Steve. It's 
a disk game named Silicon Slick’ 
Lowball Draw Poker, and it’s part game 
and part tutorial. 

If you want to join the growing 
handful of people who play this vari- 
ation of poker in the legal parlors out 
west of the Rockies, it isn’t a bad little 
program to teach you the subtleties of 
when to fold, when to call, and when 
to bump. If, however, you re just looking 



Silicon Slick's Lowball Draw Poker 

for a poker game to play on the PCjr | 
that’s fun and entertaining, this game | 
will grow a little wearisome after a 

while. | 
Graphically, Silicon Slicks Lowball | 
Draw Poker leaves a lot to be desired, | 
since it’s basically just words and a 
few ASCII symbols on the screen. The 
play, however, seems like a pretty good 
simulation of poker. The problem is 
that Ms. Pac-Man and I both found the 
game simulates real poker a little too 
much in that there were long stretches 
of time when we got diddly squat and 
had to fold early and just watch our 

Virus Rage 

is a quirky 


eeeeeceeeeceeeeoeoeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeaneeeee ese | 

computer-generated opponents play out 
the hand. 

Fortunately, the game comes with | 
lots of options, including setting the | 
speed of your opponents. By the end 
we had them moving so fast that we | 
had no idea what they were doing. But 
that was all right because we were just | 
about ready to call it quits. | 

“No more software tonight,” Ms. Pac- | 
Man said, and | agreed with her. 

And that’s pretty much what I did 
this summer. 


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To find out more about this revolu- 
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rty Line 

ashington Alert Service is a lobbyist’s tool, a 

researcher's resource, a government official’s 
contact point, a campaign manager's gold 

mine, and a political junkie’s fix. 
Just a few weeks before I began accessing Washington 
Alert, I was talking with a member of my IBM users 

group, a lawyer for a Fortune 500 corporation. Apparently 

bogged down with a research problem on the job, the 

lawyer was bemoaning the absence of 
an electronic database about Congress. 
This is the answer. 

Washington Alert offers a reliable, 
up-to-the-minute database of con- 
gressional information and action. 
With it, your PCjr and modem provide 
an electronic window on Congress. And 
while it’s most useful to those in and 
around Washington—those whose 
business is government or who do 
business with government—it may also 
prove helpful to many companies, 
professionals, researchers, organiza- 
tions, and government executives who 
work far from the Potomac's shores. 

With Washington Alert, a govern- 
ment-watcher can check the status of 
legislation, track House and Senate 
debate and hearing schedules, see 
lists of the latest of Congress’ myria 
reports, find out who voted how on 
what bill, and retrieve detailed profiles 
of individual lawmakers and their dis- 
tricts. The system has search capa- 
bilities, and users can develop their 
own lists to make routine tracking 

The advent of Washington Alert in 
March 1984 exemplifies the spreading 
trend among traditional publishers to 
move toward on-line distribution of 
their wares. The service is provided by 
Congressional Quarterly Inc., a 39- 
year-old company whose publications 
are considered authoritative and bal- 
anced in an arena often marked by 
partisanship and emotion. 

Subscribers to CQ Weekly Report 



Alert Service, 
business people, 

and armchair 
politicians can 
keep a close 

eye on democracy 
in action. 

pay as much as $799 annually for a 
printed magazine which is generally 
delivered by mail on Mondays or Tues- 
days. However, subscribers to the elec- 
tronic service can read the same 
articles on line, although without pic- 
tures, the previous Friday. 

A visitor to the Capitol would be 
astounded at the immensity of 

Sopiitigitectetesrs LY) CHUOTKS/ETAC laipeae! man : 

congressional operations—100 sena- 
tors, 435 voting and some non-voting 
members of the House of Representa- 
tives, dozens of committees, a prolif- 
eration of subcommittees and 
caucuses, thousands of legislative 
proposals, and legions of staffers. 

| Congressional Action It's impos- 

sible for any person, in or out of Con- 
gress, to keep tabs on all its activities. 
The flood of paper it generates, ranging 
from the daily Congressional Record 
with its tiny type to the countless re- 
ports, speeches, bills and press re- 
leases, is mind-boggling. 

What Washington Alert offers is an 
opportunity for users to sort through 
the governmental maze electronically 
and at their own pace, to locate the 
information they need without becom- 

| ing hopelessly lost. 

It recognizes that users have a va- 
riety of needs. The concerns of a law 
firm which lobbies for three foreign 
governments, five trade groups, and 
12 banks while representing two dis- 
gruntled contractors suing the Defense 
Department are not the same as the 
concerns of the National Small Salmon 
and Bony Minnow Industry Associa- 
tion's executive director. And an am- 
bitious mayor has yet other concerns 
in her dual roles as a municipal ad- 
ministrator and as a candidate at- 
tempting to unseat an incumbent 
senator. However, all three must keep 
current with congressional proposals, 
actions, and decisions relevant to their 
individual concerns. 

That's where this service fits in. 
Through a combination of menu-dri- 
ven and command-controlled features, 
it provides a mechanism for the lob- 
byist, the industry representative, and 
the mayor to electronically retrieve the 

| information they need. 

Capitol Gains There's an eight-item 
main menu with submenus to access 


the service's major functions, starting 
| with “Schedule.” This is the source for 
current information on committee and 
floor events, such as today’s House de- 
bate on a $34.5 billion agriculture ap- 
propriations bill that finances child 
nutrition and food stamp programs. 
If you plan to attend the House Foreign 
Affairs Task Force on International 
Narcotics Control hearing on the Bul- 
garian-Turkish drug connection, this 
is an easy way to find any last-moment 
changes in its place and time. 

Through “Action,” you can read 
highlights of daily congressional ac- 
tivities, including reports filed, 
speeches given, communications from 
the White House, and presidential 
nominations submitted for Senate 
| confirmation. Wonder what your sen- 
ator did the day before? Check here to 
find out. The Action listings are cross- 
referenced to Congressional Record 
pages so a user can obtain the text of 
a speech or debate. 

With “Bill Status,” you can track 
legislation by its sponsor, committee, 
bill number, or a key phrase or word 
in its title. 

The electronic version of the CQ 
Weekly Report contains analytical ar- 
ticles sorted into 14 broad categories, 
including defense, environment, poli- 
tics/elections, and foreign policy. Each 
category has its own mini-menu (see 
Figure 1) which chronologically indexes 
articles from the previous three months’ 
issues. The title tells how long an article 
is, measured in lines on the screen. 
The “Weekly Report” on-line library 
dates back to October 1983. 

“Document” lists every congres- 


1: Deficit-Reduction: 
The Big Conference: Getting to Be Old Hat 
(HR4170; WR 06/02/84 p. 1298; 70 lines) 

: Request Totals $1.3 Billion: 
Larger Congressional Budget 
Sought by House Committee 
(HR5753; WR 06/02/84 p. 1329; 90 lines) 

: Former Rep. Roosevelt in Charge: 
Tactics of New Elderly Lobby 
Ruffle Congressional Feathers 
(WR 06/02/84 p. 1310; 425 lines) 

- GOP Ads Attack O'Neill in House Video War 
(WR 06/02/84 p. 1300; 90 lines) 

rege 1: Excerpt from the “Inside 
ane Alert’s Weekly Report Index. 

Washington Alert Service 
Congressional Quarterly Inc. 

1414 22nd St. N.W. 

Washington, DC 20037 

(202) 887-8500 

Requires: Telecommunications 
software; modem 



sional publication released during the 
past four weeks, arranged by the Sen- 
ate, House, or joint committee that is- 
sued it. It also covers public laws signed 
by the president and reports from the 
General Accounting Office, the 
Congressional Budget Office, and sim- 
ilar legislative agencies. These listings 
include the official document number 
so the subscriber can order a copy of 
the complete report from the appro- 
priate office or obtain it in a local federal 
depository library. 

Do you need to Know how a senator, 
a group of lawmakers, various Judi- 
ciary Committee members, or the en- 
tire California delegation voted on a 
bill? Summon “Vote” from the main 
menu. All recorded Senate and House 
votes are described briefly, and a party 
breakdown of the roll call is shown. 

Profiles in Courage The “Profile” 
function provides a comprehensive re- 
view of each member of Congress and 
his or her district, with detailed bio- 
graphical and political background. 
This part of the database is well written 
and the style is sometimes lively. One 
New York congressman is described as 
a “straight-laced ex-Marine who rarely 


1982 General 
Edward M. Kennedy (D) 
Raymond Shamie (R) 

1,247,084 (61%) 
784,602 (38%) 

Previous Winning Percentages: 
1964 (74%) 
*Special election 

1976 (69%) 
1962* (55%) 

Campaign Finance 
Kennedy (D) 
Shamie (R) 



finds much to smile about on the House 
floor,” a second is called “a tireless critic 
of civilian budgeteers who meddle with 
military planning,” and a third is 
characterized as “most likely to choose 
modest but tangible help for his con- 
stituents over the opportunity to ex- 
press pure outrage.” 

Profile also provides statistics on 
how the incumbents fared in each of 
their elections, and how much cam- 
paign money they reported (see Figure 
2). Here you'll find an analysis of key 
votes and how often they supported 
the position of their party and the 
president. Ratings are included from 
the AFL-CIO, the U.S. Chamber of 
Commerce, the liberal Americans for 
Democratic Action, and the conserv- 
ative Americans for Constitutional 

Unfortunately, although committee 
assignments, key votes, and special 
interest group ratings are updated as 
necessary, that’s not the case for the 
extensive biographical and political 
data, which is changed only once every 
two years. Thus one representative's 
profile mentioned a political machine 
controlled by Albany, New York, Mayor 
Erastus Corning more than a year after 
Corning’s death. 

The final main menu item, “User 
Aid,” allows you to customize lists of 
committees, lawmakers, bills, and key 
words. The lists—accessible only with 
your own account number or pass- 
word—are stored as a mini-database 
for future use in retrieving information. | 
For example, you may create a list of 
all members of the Senate Appropria- 
tions Committee and call it “Money.” 

1970 (62%) 

from PACs Expenditures 
$313,994 (12%) 
$118,901 (5%) 


Figure 2: Excerpt from a Washington Alert Service profile of U.S. Sen. Edward 
bies” category of Wash- | Kennedy of Massachusetts. Comprehensive reports on each member of 

Congress, including election statistics, are provided. 


eo ae 

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Then whenever you access Weekly Re- 
port, you can order a search of the 
| latest articles for all references to the 
names on the Money list. 

User Aid also includes two utilities. 
One allows you to send and receive 
electronic mail from Washington Alert 
Service, although not from other sub- 
scribers. The second allows you to 
change your user password. 

Following Orders Washington Alert 
relies heavily on the commands which 
are typed in at the Enter Command 
prompt. In the loose-leaf manual, the 
chapter on each feature explains its 
relevant commands, and most com- 
mands are consistent throughout the 
service. They include MENU, to display 
submenu options; BEGIN, to return 
to the main menu; and BYE, to log off 
Washington Alert. 

The common commands SCAN and 
SEARCH allow the user to choose be- 

examples and instructions, and STOP 
will put the Enter Command prompt — 
on the screen. 

The SEARCH command can be a 
time-saver where the feature is avail- 
able. In Schedule, a key word or key 
phrase search for “coal” or “Southeast 
Asia” will produce a list of all scheduled 

accessible through commands rather | 
than menus. Among them are “People,” 
which updates changes in congres- 
sional staff; “Leaving,” which cata- 
logues members of Congress who are 
leaving because of defeat or retirement, 
or to seek a different office; and “White 
House Staff,” which lists the president's 

Several features are accessible 
through commands rather than 
menus. Among them is ‘“‘White 
House Staff,’ which lists the 
president’s legislative liaisons. 


events with those in its title. Action, 
Profile, Vote, and Bill Status also allow 
searching, but Document doesn’t. With 
Weekly Report, the full text can be 

legislative liaisons. 
Washington Alert uses the General 
Electric Information Services telecom- 

tween a full reading of an item and a 
summary. HELP will provide on-line | 


An expert testifies on the pros and cons of 
the Washington Alert Service. 

searched for the key word. 
There are several smaller features 

help us assess Washington Alert Service, PCjr Magazine asked profes- 
sional librarian Frances Murray to use the system and tell us her reac- 
tion. Murray, who works at the New York State Legislative Library in Albany, 
has extensive experience with government and legal electronic databases. 
Here are some of her observations and recommendations: 

On the Washington Alert Service: “That's the kind of information that’s very 
hard to come by, especially in a small library.” 

On Profile: The biographical information is far more detailed than that avail- 
able from such other sources as Whos Who, but some of it is “a bit out of 

On Bill Status: This feature should include complete bills, not simply their 
short title. “If you don’t happen to hit on a key word that gets you into the 
short title, you're out of luck. Still, it’s better than nothing.” Also, subscribers 
now must physically obtain a copy of any bill to read it in full, a requirement 
that may be especially inconvenient and time-consuming for users outside 

On searching and the menu-command combination: The process is “not ter- 
ribly easy to learn” and is slower than experienced database searchers are 
| used to. That means a longer time on line, with higher connect costs. 

On Documents: “A key word search function would be beautiful.” 
On Schedules: Listings for hearings should include names of witnesses for 

reference and research purposes. “Often we're more interested in who's at a 
hearing than in what they said.”"—E.F. 

munications network, meaning most 
users can access the service with a 
local phone call. Logging on is simple. 
After dialing, you enter an eight-char- 
acter account number and password. 
That takes you to the main menu. 

Although a four-hour training class 
is available in Washington for new 
subscribers, the manual does a com- 
petent job of clearly explaining how to 
use Washington Alert and how to 
maximize its capabilities. In addition 
to using the on-line HELP command 
and exchanging electronic messages 
with the Washington Alert staff, sub- 
scribers can call the user assistance 
hot line weekdays between 8:30 a.m. 
and 8 p.m. Eastern time. 

Internal Revenue Admittedly, 
Washington Alert Service isn’t cheap, 
but its charges are comparable to other 
professional and technical databases. 
There is a $180 initial fee that covers | 
the user manual, admission for two 
people to a training session, and $95 
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Goes Solo 

omputerless Logo sounds like heresy. Logo is a 

language that makes personal computers into 
powerful educational engines. Armed with Logo, 
classroom computers can teach the youngest children 
concepts that have proven troublesome for most adults. 
But even without computers Logo is still a lively 
tongue. Some educators have begun to use Logo prin- 
ciples in educational exercises that do not require a 

computer. Used in that way, stripped 
from its electronic realization, Logo 
bares its philosophical roots. Peel off 
the glossy turtle graphics facade and 
you'll find an imaginative, skeptical 
philosophy of learning designed to re- 
shape traditional teaching methods. 
The fundamental principle underlying 
Logo is that learning should be a fun, 
exploratory experience rather than a 
forced and regimented, almost adver- 
sarial, engagement between instructor 
and instructee. 

Computerless Logo takes the Logo 
| philosophy off the monitor screen and 
into the real world. In so doing, com- 
puterless Logo probably comes much 
closer to the original intent of the lan- 
guage than do many of the computer 
Logo applications in use today. 

Sans Screen One Logo innovator is 
Dr. Brian Campbell. A clinical psy- 
chologist who also teaches develop- 
mental psychology and intellectual 
assessment in the Nova University 
doctoral program at Ft. Lauderdale, 
Florida, he has been using Logo both 
on screen and off the computer with 
normal and autistic young children. 
His first attempt to incorporate 
computers into teaching showed him 
that, by itself, the personal computer 
is not the universally attractive teach- 
ing machine that most educators be- 
lieve it to be. 
“Il was teaching 4-, 5-, and 6-year- 
olds in our university lab school, a 
very enriching environment—an open 




Lee | 

P| Bs 


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Ts NK 
ork 1S. 

Uncover the secrets 
of computerless 
Logo. You've 
learned the 
language, now play 
the board game. 

sort of preschool area with different 
centers for different activities, like ex- 
ploring, language, and play,” Campbell 
explains. “When | introduced the com- 
puter to that context, it proved to be 
not very exciting to the children. I would 
spend four and five hours writing pro- 

\eleyetrie) at elepesuvisir ity Rosch 

grams at home. When I would bring 
them in, the children would go ‘ho hum’ 
and wander off to play in more physical 
activities. When you have to drag the 
child over to the computer to see what 
you're doing, you're obviously doing 
something wrong.” 

That unexpected reaction to the 
computer actually tended to confirm 
the Logo philosophy. Most educational 
situations in which Logo and the com- 
puter attract almost unanimous at- 
tention from children are traditional 
settings in which the computer is the 

only form of exploratory learning | 

available to them. When other forms 
of exploration are available, the com- 
puter simulation plays second fiddle 
to the physical world. 

Campbell began to develop ways of 
separating the Logo philosophy and 
the computer and making Logo more 
concrete (see “Shell Games” sidebar). 

Logoville As an outgrowth of his ex- 
perimentation, Campbell has created 
a board game which he calls “Logoville.” 
“It’s sort of like “Chutes and Ladders,’ 
but uses turtles,” he says. 

Each child gets a round turtle-cum- 
playing piece and moves it through a 
gridwork of squares on a game board. 
Some squares are marked with differ- 
ent Logo commands, like FORWARD 
are determined by rolling a die marked 
on its various sides with the command 
FORWARD followed by different values, 
one through six. Any turtle that lands 
on CS (or CLEARSCREEN) sends all 
the playing turtles to the HOME square 
in the center of the board. In that sense, 
Campbell calls it a “big equalizer,” be- 

cause all players land at HOME re- | 
gardless of how far ahead they've 

gotten. The game simulates real Logo 

language programs all the way down | 

to special penalty squares with a bug, 
which—as you would expect—corre- 
spond to bugs in the program. Should 



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you land on one of them, you lose a 

Campbell admits the game is quite 
structured, but notes that it must be 
so for the 5- to 12-year-old age group 
it is designed for. “If a game is to be 
tailored to the developmental level of 
children, it cannot be too open-ended 
[in age range] because the young chil- 
dren wouldn't be able to grasp it. For 

More than just 
a board game, 
‘“‘Logoville”’ isa 


older kids, I’m working on another ver- 
sion that is more open-ended—the 
turtle wraps [from top of screen to bot- 
tom or side to side] and goes around 
the screen. The sequencing is more up 
to the individuals playing the game.” 

He’s also working on a floor version 
that children would play by making 
the turtle’s movements themselves. 

“Other possibilities are even more 
open-ended,” he continues. “The kids 
could even make up their own games. 
They would have commands to make 
their own games, within certain 

More than just a game, however, 
“Logoville” is a genuine educational 
tool: It teaches 12 Logo commands and 
is compatible with virtually all dialects 
of the language. 

Campbell has arranged to have the 
initial version of “Logoville” manufac- 
tured and packaged as a child’s board 
game, complete with illustrated in- 
structions, a folding game board, four 
reversible turtle playing pieces, dice, 
and a shaker cup. It’s available directly 

| from him for $12.95. 

_ Why Computerless? Freeing Logo 
from its electronic bondage and com- 



Here are a few tricks you can do with computerless 
Logo and some paper, pencils and string. 

oO. the last two years, clinical psychologist Brian Campbell has devel- 
oped a number of off-the-computer Logo activities which have proved 
quite successful in the classroom with very young children. He’s happy to 
share many of those ideas—some original to him, others gleaned from var- 
ious educational journals. Here are some of them: 

Playing Turtle—“We play Turtle Sez as a game with groups of children, 
much as you would play Simon Sez,” Campbell explains. “The only difference 
in the games is that instead of ‘Simon sez touch your nose, a command 
might be ‘Turtle sez forward 10.’ We even set out tiles on the floor to help the 
children make out the turtle steps.” 

Rather than use degrees, for turning he just specifies the simple com- 
mands LEFT and RIGHT. “When we played, sometimes the kids confused left 
and right—but we didn’t make a big thing of it,” he explains. “After all, it’s 
only a game.” 

String Art—“We start out with little pegs or nails stuck in a piece of wood, 
arranged as the vertices of grid squares. Using string to connect the pegs, 
you can put a pattern down much in the same way the turtle draws on the 
computer screen. For instance, make your squares by going four steps—four 
pegs—forward, then turning right. By making shapes in the real world 
[rather than on the monitor], the children can understand the commands 
and their results better because they can better see how they work. It’s much 
more concrete.” 

Worksheets—'‘l hesitate to call them worksheets. Rather, they're little 

_ things where children can plan the pictures that they are going to draw on 

the computer with Logo. They draw their ideas out on lined, square paper— 
like graph paper—so that they can understand their figures before they do 
draw them on the screen. I even put a little turtle on their pencils with left 
and right marked so they know where they are going.” 

The on-paper planning helps children learn to program better, Campbell 
notes. “When kids start to use Logo, they tend to work sequentially and write 
a single, long, involved procedure to handle a given problem. [Logo creator 
Seymour] Papert believes that they should break down programs into smaller 
pieces that they know how to do individually. 

“The worksheets make the modular approach easier. When the child wants 
to draw a church, he can look at his drawing and see inside at what shapes 
are needed to draw a church. He can see the shapes, squares, triangles. 
Then he can write individual procedures for each of the shapes.” 

Path Plans—‘l had the children write a Logo-like program of their own 
actions in getting from their own kitchens into their bedrooms. It’s a very 
useful project because it involves their families. The children were supposed 
to work with their parents to figure out the steps. Of course, every kid came 
in with a different plan.” 

Recursion—To teach the high-powered concept of recursion, procedures 
that call themselves and form (nearly) endless loops, Campbell arranged the 
children into a row and gave the first child a name corresponding to the 
procedure she or he was to carry out—for instance, “Pass the Ball Back.” The 
first child would then pass the ball back to the child behind, then go to the 
other end of the row. The whole row would repeat the action, and eventually 
the first child would have the ball and continue the loop. The physical activity 

_ is not only fun, it shows kids how the computer program actually works. 

“What you're doing is setting up a recursion. It’s exactly what goes on in a 
program,’ Campbell explains. 

Variables—‘To teach variables, I used a real box. | think I put a label on 
it, like ‘magic box.’ One child would put numbers into the box and another 
child would go over and draw out numbers and the kids would have to move 

that number of turtle steps.” Like the value of a variable in a computer pro- 
gram, the value in the box papi depending on what numbers are put 
into it. 

Right and Left—To teach directigne -cluhn and left—Campbell set up a 
maze of chairs. One child would be the turtle and have to navigate through 
the maze to get “home.” Another child would be the “turtle master” whose job 
it would be to call out the moves (right and left) the turtle was to make to get 
through the maze. 

Campbell also used another form of worksheet on which were drawn 
maze-like pathways with multiple destinations. At the bottom of the sheet he 
put turtle commands that would lead to one of the several destinations. To 
get to the correct destination, the child would have to carry out right and left 
commands properly. 

Sequences—To teach the concept of a sequence, Campbell took real-world 
activities and had the children try to figure out the proper sequence for carry- 
ing them out. In one case, he used cooking as the example: 

“We decided that we were going to figure out how to cook and that we 
would write down our results so that the next person would know how to do 
it. One session went sort of like this: 

““Okay kids, what do we do first?’ 

“Put it in the oven.’ 

““Wait—we don’t have anything to put into the oven.’ 

“We kept backing it up. The kids really loved it, particularly when I asked 
what would happen if we put the eggs in before we had a bowl. 

“You can do the same thing with other activities, like going to school or 
getting ready in the morning. Break it all down. You couldn't eat before you 
get out of bed. The whole sequencing process can be done much more dra- 
matically and is more fun off than computer than on.”"—W.L.R. 

The “Logoville” game board: “It’s sort of like ‘Chutes and Ladders,’ but uses turtles. Q 

bining its computerized form with 
computerless activities has important 
educational benefits. 

“As a psychologist I found that 
learning is enhanced when it is multi- 
sensory, Campbell notes. Further, off- 
the-screen Logo activities help children 
make the transition from the real world 
to Logo's electronic representation in 
turtle graphics, he believes. “Going 
from a three-dimensional world to a 
two-dimensional computer screen is a 
big step for kids to take.” 

Computerless Logo is also a neat 
way to sidestep today's biggest problem 
in using computers in education: not 
enough computers to go around. And 
the computerless Logo activities can 
be fun. According to Campbell, that 
may be the most important reason for 
turning off the video display. 

Logo and 
Logo share 
the same 


“I think that kids that age should 
have fun, because play is important 
to the imagination and thinking skills. 
When we started teaching 3- and 4- 
year-olds Logo, we found that it didn't 
work. It’s like reading. Kids can be 
taught to read very early. Some parents | 
use flash cards to try to teach their | 
kids to read at three and four months 
old. But the kids aren't developmentally 
ready. One aspect of developmental 
readiness is teaching left and right 
[an important concept which can be 
taught with turtle graphics}. When I 
tried, I found that I was better off just 
playing with very young children in- 
stead of trying to teach them left and 

The best education is given by 
teachers who understand what teach- 
ing tools to use and when. Ordinary 
Logo and computerless Logo are two 
of those tools that complement one an- 
other. They share the same underlying 

Campbell comments, “I think it was 
Aristotle who said that if you want 
children to learn something, present 
it as a game. Kids will learn it 
inadvertently.” 0 



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WT ba "e] 




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m essentially a Sixties person: your basic left-liberal, 
radical feminist, anti-corporate, Lacoste-hating old 
hippie type whose leading cultural reference point 
is Mother Jones, not Dow Jones. I have a rent-controlled 
apartment, a child in the New York City public schools, 
a minuscule savings account (with the First Women’s 
Bank, of course), an impressive collection of old political 
buttons bearing messages like “Effete Snobs for Peace,” 

a lifelong feeling of regret over being 
both right-handed and a WASP, and 
an almost completely spotless record 
(spoiled by Bella Abzug) of voting for 
losing candidates. 

And I have an IBM. Two of them, in 

I love my PC and my Junior, but they } | 

wreak havoc with my self-image. Not § ) 

that I consider IBM an especially evil 
corporation—I suppose if they were 
dumping infant formula on the Third 
World or manufacturing napalm, I 
could have resisted buying their prod- 
ucts with no trouble—but they're. .. well, 
stuffy. They're what we Sixties people 
used to call “uptight.” 

First Base | bought my first IBM, my 
trusty PC, back in February 1982. As 
a freelance writer then interested only 
in word processing, I knew zilch about 
computers, and arguments over the 
advantages of a 16-bit central process- 
ing unit over an 8-bit chip seemed as 
arcane as some medieval theological 

Still, the PC stood out from the crowd 
in all the areas I did care about—like 
the incredible clarity of the high-per- 
sistance P39 green phosphor charac- 
ters on the monochrome monitor. The 
Apple model that was available at the 
time required you to buy a special 
board just to get both capital and 
lowercase letters on your screen; the 
Radio Shack model had a grainy black- 
and-white screen with 52 letters on a 
line, instead of 80; and the Osborne, 
which was the only portable on the 


Buying a 
computer from 
Big Blue doesn’t 
mean buying into 
a Big Brother 

market, had a screen the size of a 
postcard. I knew I was probably going 
to spend more time looking at my com- 
puter than at my loved ones, and I 
wanted it to look great. 

Strange as it may sound less than 
three years later (now that the off-white, 
modular IBM look has been cloned into 
a de facto industry esthetic), the PC’s 
overall design back then was startingly 
sleek. In fact, it was downright sexy, 
sitting there on its pedestal in Com- 
puterland, adorned with a single red 

I also loved the PC’s sculpted key- 

board, with its multiple function keys 
and its long cord for putting the key- 
board on your lap and its cute little 
adjustable feet. The Zenith, which is 
the computer I probably came closest 
to buying instead, had a keyboard 
which was (like most others in those 
pre-IBM days) attached to the com- 
puter. This miracle of engineering 
forced you to hunch a set distance from 
the screen, and I figured it would render 
me maimed and half-blind after most 
word processing sessions. For that 
matter, plenty of keyboards in those 
days didn’t even have cursor keys—or 
they had disastrous design flaws, like 
a RESET key (the equivalent of our 
Ctl-Alt-Del combo) positioned right 
next to the Shift key. 

In 1982, the great keyboards were 
still on electric typewriters, not com- 
puters. And while a lot of IBM type- 
writer customers didn’t like the new 
IBM PC keyboard (which, because of 
its placement of certain keys, notably 
the Shift key, was as controversial in 
its day as Junior’s is now), I didn’t 

Inner Visions Moving beyond these 
skin-deep considerations, there was 
also a pretty nifty computer under the 
hood. As I slowly learned more about 
the intricacies of RAM and ROM and 
continued compulsively researching 
the market, I concluded that the IBM 
was unquestionably the best machine 
around for my needs. Emotionally, this 
was somewhat on a par with discov- 
ering that designer jeans are more 
comfortable than Levis or that iceberg 
is the most nutritious lettuce or that 
Richard Nixon is the best candidate 
for the job, but I bought the IBM 

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say. But the truth is that back in 1982 
there was still something a little daring 
about plunking down your hard- 
earned cash for a PC. There were lit- 
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ages available for it, and plenty of people 
were predicting that IBM wouldn't 
know how to market microcomputers 
and might trip over its big mainframe 
feet and fall on its face. (Yeah, I know. 
But listen—even the New York Yankees 
don’t win every World Series. You could 
look it up.) 

“IBM’’ is nota 
cute name. And 
even “Big 
Blue’”’ strikes 
me as a little 


By the time Junior came out, buying 
an IBM seemed about as wild and crazy 
as buying a Mercedes. I had already 
begun thinking about getting a com- 
puter for my children, who had become 
real pests about hogging time on the 

Again, it was disgustingly clear that 
IBM was the way to go. Junior runs a 
lot of the software I already had, and 
its disks are compatible with my PC 
(which means that my kids can use 
my PC and my attached printer to get 
hard copy). Unlike the Apple IIc, it had 
the sophistication to run Microsoft 
BASIC and WordStar—my kids’ most 
commonly used programs—but it also 
had graphics and sound capabilities 
to make it a great game machine. And 
while I personally found the keyboard 
about as natural-feeling as giving 
Flipper a massage, my kids didn’t mind 
it at all. (I also realized that buying a 
whole new keyboard, if need be, was 
cheaper than buying a second printer. ) 

Apple Picking But | still haven't 
solved my image problem. “Face it, 
Lindsy,” my friend Ed recently said to 
me. “You may like being an IBM owner, 
but in your heart, you're an Apple per- 
son.” This was shortly after the show- 
ing of Apple’s notorious Super Bowl 
Macintosh commercial, in which a 
fabulous female athlete bursts into a 
room full of drab, skinhead drones and 
hurls her mighty hammer into the 
giant screen from whence the drones 
cringingly take their orders, smashing 
the image of a Big Brother type. The 
woman athlete represents the Apple 
Macintosh and Big Brother (though 
Apple won’t say so) is widely assumed 


‘to represent you know who. 

I happen to like the Mac (although 
it would be pretty useless as the only 
computer in my household, since it 
can't write long articles, connect with 
a letter quality printer, or play most 
games). But the truth is that I love the 
Mac's image, and that of funky old 
garage-born Apple in general, especially 
when compared with IBM. 

For starters, there are their names. 
“Apple” is as cute and uncorporate as 
a Volkswagen beetle, and evocatively 
munchy to boot. “IBM” is not a cute 
name (can you think of three more 
boring words than “international,” 
“business,” and “machines”?), and 
even its nickname, Big Blue, has al- 
ways struck me as a little overbearing— 
a good name for the Columbia Univer- 
sity linebacker squad, maybe, or for 
Frank Sinatra's older brother. On the 
color wheel, it’s the shade most opposite 
mellow yellow. 

(Even worse is the way we IBM Per- 
sonal Computer owners call our ma- 
chines “PCs’—a usurpation of the 
generic that tends to irritate other 
lower-case-p-lower-case-c personal 
computer owners in much the same 
way that referring to United States 
residents as “Americans” tends to an- 
noy residents of other nations in this 
hemisphere. Perhaps we should call it 

Unlike IBM, which was founded by 
a man who insisted on white shirts 
and no drinks at lunch, Apple was 
created by a hacker rock fan and a guy 
who'd shaved his head and gone to 
find the meaning of life in the Hima- 
layas. We have here an extreme dis- 
parity in style: If IBM is Harvard 
Business School, Apple is Berkeley. 
Just compare a Taco Bell enchilada 
with a watercress sandwich, the Sierra 
Club with the country club, Sergeant 
Pepper with General Westmoreland, the 
Flying Burrito Brothers with Brooks 
Brothers, E-Z-Wider with Easy Writer. 

Split Image Now, obviously, I know 
that Apple paid an advertising agency 
lots of bucks to come up with that 
anti-establishment ad and that all of 
this obsession with my image is silly— 
the sort of thing, in fact, that I'd nor- 
mally laugh at a PR-conscious firm like 
IBM for. But even when I forget for a 
second that I've allied myself with the 
three-piece suiters, someone comes 
along to remind me that in the eyes of 
the world, we IBM owners are that kind 
of guy. 


For one thing, being an IBM owner 
means that I end up on some of the 
poshest mailing lists around. In recent 
weeks, I've been offered help for my 
“portfolio” (do you suppose they mean 
the one in the mattress or the one in 
the sock?), a chance to be first on my 
block to buy a combination telephone- 
modem-answering machine-dialer 
“executive work station” (if only it could 
empty the kitty litter, too!), and to at- 
tend a mind-boggling number of sym- 
posia on topics like Japanese 
management techniques, local area 
networking, and security system de- 
sign. Most of these offers arrive in my 
mailbox inexplicably addressed to the 
president of Lindsy Van Gelder, Inc. 
Being unincorporated in the IBM uni- 
verse is apparently worse than being 

Being an IBM 
owner means 
that I end up 
on some of the 
mailing lists 

caught with your RAM down. 

But my most embarrassing moments 
as an IBMer occur on the CB channel 
of CompuServe. Whenever there's a lull 
in the conversation, some fool Atari 
owner invariably throws out the tele- 
communications equivalent of “What's 
your sign?”: 


“IBM,” I casually reply. 

Usually there’s a long pause, and 
then something like “WELL!!!! LA DEE 

I've tried to explain that such re- 
marks ought to be saved for people 
with Fortunes or Corvuses, but to no 
avail. Like the Vuitton Bag, the IBM is 
the one that’s stuck with the snob label, 
whether it’s the ritziest or not. 

But I don't care. I love my IBMs. Who 
knows? Maybe I could learn to love 
iceberg lettuce, once they bring out a 
16-bit version and figure out how to 
run a WordStar disk on it. 

Portions of this column will appear 
in the collection Digital Deli, to be 

| published this fall by Workman Pub- 

lishing Co., Inc. 



~ \ 


| Saaeaa> 




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record of 
each one. 

Be Tle 

With a Tecmar board you can run powertful pro- 
grams like Lotus 1-2-3™*and WordStar“* on a 
PCjr. The RamSpooler makes printing a back- 
ground task and frees your PC for other Jobs. 
A built-in clock/calendar automatically inserts 
the date and time at power on and 1s independ- 
ently powered by an easily replaced battery. 

Every Tecmar multifunction board is run 
through a series of rigorous tests to ensure quality. 
Our incredibly low failure rate (0.4%) is un- 
paralleled. All boards are additionally backed 
by a full one-year warranty. 

Rolodex t 

Finds the name and number 
you need instantly without 
changing programs. 

Allows you to print in a variety of type 
sizes. Even large banners! 

Hardware Diagnostics 
Tests your PC'S memory and parallel 

ports to stop problems before they happen. 

- >a 
tw ‘ 

—— on a oe ee a 

- eS 3 
- POF Og. eet Ge ia ee > oe 

Personal Finance 
Balances your 
and helps 
you keep an 

should do 

Free Software “..a chest of Jewels’—PC Week 
Great hardware deserves great software. So, if 
you buy a Tecmar board we'll give you our 

Treasure Chest™ of Software at no extra “org 

programs that include business 4 

applications, a calculator,a Ua# 
security system, hardware diag- 
nostics, even games! Most of 
these can be run in background 
mode with programs like Lotus 

1-2-3 and WordStar. Using these 

of the above. 

The Treasure Chest consists of 24 ne a 



features 1s as easy as a couple of keystrokes, 
and without changing disks. No other company 
offers you such an extensive array of software 
with their multifunction boards. 
SO, ask your dealer for a demonstration 
~ of any of Tecmar’s multifunction 
boards. And check out the free 
software while you're there. Or 
call 216-349-0600 for the dealer 
nearest you. 

‘Lotus 1-2-3 is a registered trademark of the Lotus Development Corporation. 
tT Rolodex is a registered trademark of the Rolodex Corporation. TT WordStar 
is a registered trademark of the MicroPro International Corporation. 


When we asked Junior where he got his 
educational software, he said “BPTHGLL!" 

Sowe told him about Vanpak, the PC, XT, PCjr Software Center with the largest, most 
complete library of software available from one source. Juniorwas thrilled, because 
now his mom and dad and brothers and sisters could take him to a Vanpak dealer 

and get lots of educational software. All Junior really 
cared about was another ride in the car, but the rest 
of the family was excited about more educational one 
programs. Over 300 PCjr programs to choose from! Strategies ; 
Now when we ask Junior where he got his software, re 

\\ u 7416 Washington Avenue South 
he says “Vanpak!” For information on a Vanpak = cgen prairie, Minnesota 55344 

dealer in your area, call 1-800-328-7847 today. 4-800-328-7847 

A partial listing of available programs: Language Skills - $29.95: Vocabulary Development - $29.95: Solving Word Problems 2 - $29.98; Solving Word Problems 1 - $29.95; Nouns - $29.95; Verbs and 
Adverbs - $29.95: Adjectives - $29.95; Prepositions and Conjunctions - 529.95; Verb Tenses - $29.95: Word Choice - $29.95; Phrases and Clauses - $29.95; Possessive Case - $29.95; Punctuation & 
Capitalization - $29.95; Records Language Arts Series - $29.95; Pronouns - $29.95; The Author - $195.00; Personal Computer Tutor - $59.00; Letter Man - $34.95; Geography Quiz - $39.00; Typing 
Strategy -$34 95; Letter Man - $34.95; The Law - $29.95; Decision Making - $29.95; Succeeding - $29.95; Seif Concept and Your Work - $29.95; New On The Jab -$29.95; Friends and You - $29.95; The 
Age of Responsibility - $29.95; Credit - $29.95; The Job and You - $29.95; Consumer Fraud - $29.95; Tips On Buying A Used Car- $29.95; You And Insurance - $29.95; Law For Consumers -$29.98; Part- 
Time Jobs -$29.95; Map Reading - $29.95; Money - $29.95; Barand Picture Graphs -$29 .9§; Pie and Line Graphs - $29.95; Understanding Chkbks - Statements - $29.95; Real Cost - $29.95; Diagnostic 
Disk 2 (705-709) - $29.95; Diagnostic Disk 4 (700-704) - $29.95; Basic Skills - $29.95; Startrek -$24.95; Football -$29.00; Schoo! Executive - $499.00; Math Drills - $39.00; Math Wizard” - $19.95; Persona! 
Math - $29.95; Math For All Ages - $29.95; All About Interest - $29.95; Metrics And You - $29.95; Fractions Percents and Decimals -$29.95; Businessmaster; Handbook |i - $2100.00: Taxcomp”™ - 


Can We Talk? A comprehensive guide to the world 
of computerized communications. We'll look at the 
modems, communications software and videotex 
services that keep Junior connected. 

Good Rapport. with hardware add-ons from 
Rapport Corporation, Junior has all the disk- 
driving power you'll ever need. 

Computer Kids. Are children being pushed to 
compute before their time? Parents, industry 

professionals, educators, and physicians agree that | 

it is an issue worth looking at. 

Lawyers on Line. The Personal Lawyer program 
can help you draw up your own legal documents, 
proving that where there's a will... 

Greetings. A new software program lets you design | 

your own greeting cards with the PCjr—for those 
who care enough to send the very best. 

Columns. The Editor's Wire by Corey Sandler, 
Screen Play by Don Kennedy, Communications 
Networks by Eric Freedman, Opinion by Lindsy Van 
Gelder, Looking at Logo by Winn L. Rosch, 
Education by Martin Porter, It’s BASIC by John M. 
Woram, Reader to Reader by Paul Somerson, and 
Junior Explorer by Peter Norton. 


a highly sophisticated and extraordinarily friendly strategy 


Federation under attack. . .immediate reinforcements 
imperative. ..must stop Amdron invaders. ..only PCjr, PC, 
and XT crews qualify. . .best commanders needed without 
delay, or all is lost... .repeat.... URGENT. . .STARSHIP VALIANT 

StarShip Valiant, which pits IBM commanders against the 
dreaded Amdron invaders. in galactic battle is challenging, 
yet unusually easy to play. One key stroke summons 
a superb 98K “Help” system. Another gives a complete 
command list. A punch-out card, which fits over the keyboard, 
details all commands and the function key for each. 

Friendly as the StarShip Valiant game is, there’s nothing 
friendly about the battles you'll have. StarShip Valiant keeps 
track of your progress and as you get better, it gets 
better. . . faster. 

We are so sure of the integrity of StarShip Valiant, 

game, that we will pay $40.00 to each person first to 
document a StarShip Valiant software bug. 

StarShip Valiant requires 128K, one disk drive and an 
80-column display. Square off with the Amdrons now. 
Order through your local software dealer or call 
800-523-5006, Ext 501, in Pennsylvania 215-265-9390, Ext 501. 
Price $39.50 plus $2.00 Postage and Handling. 


Introducing the Jr. Partner 
That Really Performs... 

Now you can get everything you need to do business 
like the big boys in one easy-to-install, thinline, bolt-on 
option. The IMPULSE 100 Series. The Jr. partner that 
lets you expand up to 512K bytes of extra memory, plus 
add a parallel printer adapter, general purpose |/O 
Controller, and‘real time clock. Check these features: 

Plug-In Extra Memory 

The IMPULSE 100 Series add-on may be purchased 
with 64K, 128K, 256K, 512K or no extra memory. You 
upgrade your system by simply plugging-in additional 
memory IC’s. The additional memory can function like 
an extra drive, to run larger programs, and provide 
printer buffering. 

Printer Adapter 

The general purpose |/O Controller configures itself 
as a parallel printer adapter which is totally compatible 
with IBM printers and software. 

Real Time Clock 

A battery backed clock provides automatic time-of-day 
entry. The lithium battery will power the clock while the 
unit is off for up to 4 years. 

General Purpose I/O 

Using on-board software, the Printer Adapter may be 
converted into a General Purpose I/O Controller offering 
22 bits of bidirectional |/O and a 16 bit programmable 
timer complete with interrupt. This versatile feature may 
be used for controlling energy management and security 
systems, or data acquisition equipment. 


A complete self-test is performed at power-up to test 
the |1/O, Clock and Memory. 

Low Power 

CMOS Interface elements allow the fully-configured 
add-on to be operated from the PC Jr's internal power 
supply. No additional power is required. 

Exclusive Two-Year Warranty 
IMPULSE warrants all of its 100 SERIES products for 

2 years from date of purchase. Any repairs during the 
warranty period are free excluding shipping charges. 

Lifetime Repair Service Option 

IMPULSE also offers a fixed fee repair service option 

for all 100 SERIES products. After the two-year warranty 
has expired, return any failed module, prepaid, to the 
factory repair center and we'll have it back to you within 
three working days. 

Get the Jr. Partner that really performs. The IMPULSE 

6337 South Highland Drive 
Suite 114 

IMPULSE _ Salt Lake City, uT 84121 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS (801 ) 562-5008 

MasterCard and VISA accepted. Prepaid, COD. 
Utah residents add 5%4% sales tax. Add 3% 
shipping and handling. 

IBM and PC Jr are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. 

er: ru 
Gere “a : 
Haie= J 
: a F 
— Sn 



ges JUNIOR'S Business PLANS 

| lear off your cluttered desks and make 
room for a new office mate. IBM told 
Aus that it meant business when it in- 
troduced the PCjr. And now, thanks to new 
software supplies and hardware demands, 

Junior has grown into a dependable business 

partner. PCjr Magazine welcomes Junior’s 
entry into the 9-to-5 world via our special 
business section. 

We'll begin with a close look at Junior’s 
gainful employment of Lotus’ 1-2-3, which 
may well be the best-selling business program 
in America to date. The Junior cartridge 
and disk versions can do everything any 


other 1-2-3 can do and more, thanks to the 
PCjr’s expanded graphics capabilities. We'll 
also review two productivity programs that 
are just the tips of their respective ice- 
bergs: the Electric Desk, one of several new 
integrated software packages for the PCjr; 
and People Management, the first of a series 
of personal management programs from 
CBS Software. Finally, we'll take a business 
trip to Tennessee where Junior is already 
working overtime at the Knoxville Computer 

Join us as we ride the PCjr fast track to 
business success. 





Announcing the 
Junior edition of 
Lotus’ 1-2-3— 
Americas number- 
one business 
program and the king 
of spreadsheets. 

«=, "| 



By Tom Badgett 

he PCjr owners among us 
who love number crunching 
have waited expectantly for 
Lotus’ 1-2-3 spreadsheet to 
come to the Junior. The wait is over. 
Lotus has announced a special PCjr 
version of 1-2-3 that uses ROM (read 
only memory) cartridges. The car- 
tridges mean that this venerable 
spreadsheet can now run on an en- 
hanced PCjr with just 128K of memory. 
Previous memory limitations and 
problems with Junior's unique video- 
handling techniques are a thing of the 
past with the new cartridge version. 
Lotus also has made available a PCjr 
driver that will allow the disk-based 
version of 1-2-3 used on PCs to run on 
Juniors with memory expansion. 
Lotus’ 1-2-3 is a multi-function 
product that handles standard 
spreadsheet applications admirably 


and does a pretty good job with memo 
and data management, too. If you are 
a fan of 1-2-3 on the IBM PC, you'll love 
it on the PCjr. If you haven't used a 
spreadsheet before, or you're changing 
from another product, you'll find this 
electronic spreadsheet easy to learn. 

An electronic spreadsheet is just 
what the name implies, and more. It 
allows you to use your computer screen 
and keyboard to build a gridwork of 
cells defined by lettered rows and 
numbered columns. You can put vir- 
tually any information into these 
cells—numbers, text, formulas, 
names—and “work on it” with a variety 
of spreadsheet functions and 

You can use a spreadsheet for tra- 
ditional accounting, keeping lists, av- 
eraging grades, and financial planning 
(sometimes called “what if” analysis 

because planners often use spread- 
sheets to answer questions such as, 
“What if sales decrease 10 percent next 
year?”). Built-in instructions mean 

| that if you change a single entry, any 

cells elsewhere in the spreadsheet that 
rely on the same data automatically 
will be changed accordingly. This can 
save a tremendous amount of time and 
give you quicker, more complete results 
than any manual record-keeping 

But most modern spreadsheets, in- 
cluding 1-2-3, also offer some form of 
data management in addition to the 
spreadsheet function: data searches, 
sorts, and report building. Lotus’ 
1-2-3 also incorporates limited word 

Unsung Macros One of the most 
powerful, interesting, and perhaps 
most neglected features of 1-2-3 is its 
macro programming ability. The ma- 
cros—which constitute a sophisticated 
but relatively easy-to-use programming 
language built into the program—let 
you use simple one- and two-keystroke 
sequences to replace sequences that 
normally require many keystrokes. For 
example, it takes five keystrokes to save 
the current worksheet to disk. By writ- 
ing a simple macro program, you can 
do the same job by pushing Alt/S. The 
more involved the keystroke sequence, 
the more useful the keyboard macros 

If you're used to programming in 
BASIC, you'll be elated to learn that 
]-2-3's macro language has functions 
similar to IF-THEN-ELSE—commands 
that tell a program IF a certain con- 
dition is true, THEN execute specific 
instructions. If the condition is not 
true (ELSE), different instructions will 
be carried out. You can create step-by- 
step instructions telling 1-2-3 to scan 
a table of information and selectively 
choose elements from the table to in- 
clude in other cells. It uses standard 
symbols for less than, greater than, 
and equal to when working with data. 
This can be used to check for errors 
in data entered. If, for example, your 
business has a credit limit of $10,000 
per account, you can program 1-2-3 to 
print a warning if the user tries to 
enter an amount above that limit. 
However, this function is numeric only. 

You can search text fields in a 

spreadsheet with 1-2-3's built-in in- 
| structions in the Data-Table mode. 

With these functions, you could sum- 
marize a list of clients, for example, 


and construct a table that shows 
charges for each person, grouped by 
month or product. Statistical functions 
to give you further information about 
the sales data also are available. This 
type of search is typical of Accounts 
Receivable, Accounts Payable, Inventory 
and sales summaries used in many 
businesses. Overall, however, 1-2-3 still 
is pretty weak on text handling. You 
can integrate letters or memos with 
numerical information from the 

spreadsheet. You can search for names 
and other text, sort it, and design re- 
ports around it, but it is not a true 
word processor. 

Much like its macro programming, 
]-2-3’s ability to create graphs is often 
ignored. A spreadsheet provides a dy- 
namic tool for viewing trends or mak- 
ing predictions. Sometimes, however, 
the data is so involved that it is difficult 
to interpret this information quickly. 
For these times, 1-2-3’s graphics func- 

Getting Lotus’ disk version up and crunching on 
Junior is as easy as 1-2-3. 

here are several ways to get Lotus’ 1-2-3 running on your PCjr. The new 

cartridge version is the slickest choice. But if you're already a licensed 
user of the PC version, you can use it on your Junior with the simple addition 
of a PCjr software driver available free from your 1-2-3 dealer. 

We used a Rapport Drive Two add-on which gives Junior a second disk 
drive and a total of 512K RAM. With Rapport’s PC emulation mode, this is 
probably the easiest way to use the disk-based version of 1-2-3 with the PCjr. 

All you need to run the spreadsheet effectively is a memory sidecar with at 
least 64K of RAM to bring the total capacity of the Junior to 192K. This will 
allow you to run 1-2-3, but it leaves very little room for worksheet data. The 
basic 1-2-3 software requires about 128K by itself, and the PCjr reserves an- 
other 32K for video RAM. We recommend a 128K memory expansion (256K 
total RAM) as the minimum. This also is Lotus’ recommendation. If your 
spreadsheets tend to be large, even more memory may be required. 

Use the software that comes with your add-on memory to tell the PCjr that 
additional memory exists. With some memory modules, you'll also need to 
run video management routines, perhaps a clock program or a printer driver, 
depending on how your system is configured. (One way to make running 

1-2-3 easy with these memory drivers is to install instructions to run these 
programs in the Lotus AUTOEXEC.BAT file.) 

You'll also have to use Lotus’ PCjr installation kit to configure the 1-2-3 
software for the Junior. The process is simple and adequately explained in the 
small manual which accompanies the disk in the kit. The procedure is essen- 
tially the same as installing drivers for the various PC configurations; you just 
use software from the PCjr installation kit instead of the original Lotus Utili- 
ties disk. You also get a small overlay for the original keyboard with the kit to 
help you remember what each function key does when running 1-2-3. 

1-2-3 Go There are three ways to get into the Lotus spreadsheet. If you boot 
the Lotus disk directly, the LOTUS batch file will run automatically. If you've 
been using DOS (the disk operating system) with another program before 
loading the 1-2-3 disk, you'll start at the A> prompt. From there, either type 
LOTUS to run a batch file with a menu to help you enter the spreadsheet or a 
series of Lotus utilities, or type 123 to avoid the menu and go directly to the 
spreadsheet. In any of these cases, a blank spreadsheet will be displayed and 
you'll be ready to design a spreadsheet or ask for the command menu. 


tions can dramatically demonstrate the 
results of even subtle changes. By 
stepping through menus and answer- 
ing a few questions, you can tell the 
spreadsheet software to display your 
worksheet information in the form of 
a bar or line graph, a pie chart, or a 
stacked bar chart, which uses bars of 
different colors stacked on top of each 
other. These graphs may be stored on 
disk and printed on most dot matrix 

Push any key when the copyright notice is displayed and DOS will prompt 
you to insert the disk for drive B:. This is because the 1-2-3 software as- 

Learning by Layers Lotus’ 1-2-3 is 
a powerful and potentially complicated 
piece of software. But it also has many 
layers, SO you can go only as deep into 
its features as you need, learning the 
rest as you have to. You may use one- 
fourth or less of 1-2-3’s power and still 
find it a useful and worthwhile software 
product. The more involved features 
are there when you need them. 

Lotus helps by providing excellent 
menus, each with a key word for selec- 

sumes the program disk will be in drive A: and the data disk will be in drive 
B:. You have two choices at this point. A configured 1-2-3 system disk has 
about 65K of storage space remaining...enough for a reasonably-sized 
spreadsheet. If you want to store the current spreadsheet on the same disk as 
the Lotus programs, simply push any key when you are asked to insert the 
disk for drive B:. Lotus recommends against this practice, but we find it 
useful to cut down on the number of disks handled during a 1-2-3 session. 
Once your spreadsheet is finished, you can copy it off onto a separate work- 
sheet data disk and erase the original on your system disk, freeing up disk 
space for the next project. While convenient, this practice should be used 
cautiously. Unlike some other program disks, the 1-2-3 system disk is copy 
protected, so you can’t make special work disks for your own use. Normally 
you would keep a write-protect tab on this master disk so you couldn't acci- 
dentally erase Lotus programs while you're using it. To store worksheet files 
on the system disk, this write protect tab will have to come off, and you'll lose 
a certain amount of program security. If you will be working with several 
spreadsheets, if you want to merge some data, or if your spreadsheet may be 
longer than 65K, insert a separate data disk in your Junior drive when the 

prompt appears, and push any key. 

Obviously this step won't be necessary if you're using the Rapport, Legacy, 
or another second drive system. Once they're installed, DOS “knows” about 
the second drive and 1-2-3 assumes you'll use a separate data disk in drive 
B:. Notice that with a dual drive system, you must have a separate data disk 
in the B: drive when you issue a/ F S (save a file) or / F R (retrieve a file) 
command. The Lotus software automatically searches for .WKS files on the B: 
drive when these commands are given. After the list of worksheet files is dis- 
played, you may save or retrieve files on the A: drive by using the A: drive 
designator before the file name. You may also use Lotus menu commands to 
change the logged drive and directory to the A: drive before issuing any save 

or load commands. 

RAM On If your memory addition provides software to allocate a portion of 
the extra memory as a RAM disk, you'll find this a useful addition when run- 

ning the disk-based version of 1-2-3 on the PCjr. You can either store work- 
sheet data in the RAM disk, or put the 1-2-3 program there. It usually is safer 
to store data on the mechanical drive, but if you do that you'll have to use the 
DOS ASSIGN routine (see DOS 2.1 manual pp. 2.6-2.8) to fool 1-2-3 into 
thinking the B: (RAM drive) is really the A: drive. This is because the Lotus 
software always expects to find its program on the A: drive. 

During evaluation of the disk-based 1-2-3 on the PCjr, we discovered some 
interesting, if frustrating, facts. With the Rapport memory module, 1-2-3 
runs with either the PCjr driver or the color PC driver installed. You can run 
a PCjr version of 1-2-3 on a PC, but you won't be able to draw any graphs. You 
can run a PC version of 1-2-3 on a PCjr with enough memory, but again, the 
graphics functions won't work. The strangest thing, however, is that Lotus’ 
1-2-3—at least the version we evaluated—won’t run with Tecmar add-on 
memory boards unless you disable any RAM disk you have created or move 


PCjr’s video memory with Tecmar’s CONPCJR-P2 command.—T.B. 

tion, and words or phrases beneath 
each menu choice to explain what they 
do. If you still have trouble, push Fn- 
Fl for an excellent on-screen manual 
to help you out. If you have at least a 
vague understanding of spreadsheets 
in general, you should be able to do 
some useful work with Lotus 1-2-3 
within a very few minutes of getting 
it set up for your computer. 

Designer Screens If you remember 
that the slash bar (/) calls up a menu, 
and you have a general idea of what 
you want to do with the spreadsheet, 
you can design the worksheet right on 
the screen. Simply move the cursor 
with the arrow keys and type what you 
want. By using the function keys and 
the slash bar menu, you can work out 
many useful spreadsheet functions 

without studying the ample 1-2-3 | 
manual very much. For more compli- | 
cated operations, however, you'll have | 
to spend some time with a manual | 
and the computer to learn how to make | 

the software do exactly what you want 
it to. 

At first you'll approach problems | 

simply and get relatively simple an- 
swers. As you learn more about the 
spreadsheet approach to data manip- 
ulation, you'll want to know more about 
the power of 1-2-3. Learning about new 
software this way makes the process 
almost painless and reduces consid- 
erably the potential for frustration. Not 
all software will allow this sort of 
learning process. Lotus 1-2-3 does, and 
that’s one of its very strong points. 

There are more ways in which Lotus’ 
1-2-3 is easy to use. Cursor movement 
is predictable, and number and text 
entry is pretty much automatic be- 
cause 1-2-3 knows which information 
is numeric and which is not. Errors 
usually are easy to correct and the 
software does a good job of catching 
them for you. Instructions are easy to 
follow and 1-2-3’s functions and com- 
mands operate essentially as 

Another plus, for PCjr users, is that 
the version for Junior is the same one | 
that’s been running on the IBM PC for | 

some time; if you're using 1-2-3 on a 
PC, adding spreadsheet functions to 
your PCjr is simple, indeed. 

The Junior Edition The best way | 

to get 1-2-3 for the PCjr is the car- 
tridge version designed expressly for 
it. You don’t have to expand your 

continued on page 56 





azel, your star graphics de- 
signer, is no longer doing 
her best work. Ken, your 
most experienced engineer, 
is threatening to quit because the 
| “whiz kids” seem to be taking over the 
| department. Fran, your assistant, is 
sitting in your office very unhappy that 
she did not get your job. There's a se- 
rious morale problem at Digital Widg- 
etal, yet your boss wants that promised 
computer game for review in a month, 
and you have yet to assemble a team 
to draft the proposal. 

Welcome to People Management, a 
recently-released program from CBS 
Software for the PC and PCjr which, 
while not guaranteed to give you a set 
of corporate ulcers, may well open your 
eyes to the subtleties of manipulating 
underlings and overlords in the com- 
pany organization. 

Take Hazel’s case, for instance. The 
trouble is that her performance has 
been deteriorating. In the two years 
| she has worked for you, she has always 
been cooperative and efficient. Lately, 
though, she has not been as willing to 
take on new assignments, and when 
she does, it is weeks before you see 
| any results. You have considered mov- 
| ing Hazel to a new position which re- 
quires more responsibility, but now you 
are having second thoughts because 
of her performance. 


In your quest for 
office success, 
People Management 
can show you how to 
win friends and 
influence people. 

By Michael Antonoff 

What will you do now, Ms. or Mr. 

Worker Rants You talk to her co- 
worker about the problem, but that 
backfires when he mentions your in- 
quiry to her, and she stops talking to 
you. You send her a memo, but there 
is no reply. You send her another, de- 
manding an appointment to talk. 
When she still doesn’t respond, you 
decide to confront her about the 
memos. You say, “] am putting a letter 
in your personnel folder about this in- 
cident. You knowingly disobeyed a 

Hazel is angry. “I've a right to take 
this situation to your superior for dis- 
cussion before a letter can be put in 
my file,” she replies. 

Now, you've done it! You have to face 
your superior on this issue, and you 
have a potential labor dispute. 

Let’s pretend you never sent the 
memo in the first place, but went di- 
rectly to her office. What will you say? 

1. Give her two weeks to improve 
or face the firing squad. 

2. Tell her that her performance is 
costing the company money, and ask | 
her what the problem seems to be. 

You choose to threaten her. Notlong | 
afterward, Hazel resigns. She has 
found employment that is more chal- 
lenging. Several months later you hear 
through the grapevine that she's been 
promoted to a management position 
at the new company. You've lost a great 

Let's imagine you can turn back 
the clock and try another tact. You go 
to Hazel not to threaten but to talk 
about why she isn’t performing up to 

- the high standards she had previously 


“I am so embarrassed,” she says. 

“I can understand your feelings,” — 
you reply. 

Hazel explains that she is not feeling 
challenged by her work. She feels she 
is capable of adding some new respon- 
sibilities. She believes her lower work 
performance is probably a result of 

What will you do now? 

1. Tell her you can hardly be ex- 
pected to change her situation unless | 
she shapes up. | 


2. Change her job description to 
include some new options and 

You choose the second approach. 

Hazel is thrilled with the new chal- 
lenge. Several months later she is your 
top worker. It turned out that Hazel’s 
poor performance was a result of poor 
motivation because of a lack of chal- 
lenge. Expanding her job responsibil- 
ities and giving her new challenges 
helped restore her motivation. 

Model Employees Hazel is one type 
of employee you may have to deal with 
in the real world. For the moment, she, 
Ken and Fran are exercises in human 
relations. They are some of the char- 
acters you'll meet in People Manage- 
ment, a program that was originally 
developed by Thoughtware, Inc., a 
company specializing in computer- 
assisted management training. 

For anyone who has ever broken a 
Number Two pencil taking one of those 
marathon psychological/aptitude tests 
giving by a prospective employer to 
weed out paranoid schizophrenics and 
hardened numbskulls, People Man- 
agement represents welcome relief. The 
program is simple to use, even fun. 
Caricatures of people you choose to 
work with dot the screen. Hands come 
together and apart to reveal the next 
block of text. An on-screen phone rings 
to announce that one of your employees 
is calling with a problem for you to 
resolve. The program practices what 
it preaches in that it provides users 
with immediate positive feedback. 

“Congratulations, Mike, you've 
made a correct choice,” it flashes after 
you've chosen from a series of options 
you have in trying to retain an able 
but uncooperative employee. Ah, if life 
were but as simple as pressing the cor- 
rect key. 

Tree of Knowledge The program is 
organized using what it calls The 
Thoughtree. This is a menu that il- 
lustrates the levels and subunits you 
can access. To move down The 
Thoughtree, you type in the number 
of the unit you want to enter. An arrow 
moves down the branch and the tree 
is redrawn with the desired unit as 
the center box. Level One of the first 
disk, for example, lets you select in- 
structions, a discussion of leadership 
qualities, or an exit from program. 
Once you've gone through the in- 
structions the first time, it’s not nec- 
essary to go through them again. (They 


are the same on each of the disks.) 

If you choose the leadership box, 
the screen is redrawn to reveal three 
subunits: “What is Leadership?,” 
“Understanding Influence and Au- 
thority,” and “Using Leadership Strat- 
egies.” Some subunits consist of 
straightforward blocks of text to be 
read and learned; others offer tests in 
which you have to make choices in 
dealing with people. Your answers are 
judged and graphed against the average 
responses professional managers have 
given to similar questions. Another 
section tests how much you have 
learned by asking you to organize a 
list before a built-in timer buzzes. 

Other how-to's discussed include 
solving motivational problems, build- 
ing an effective team, and communi- 
cating with colleagues effectively. The 
information is based on common 
sense, but many of us need to be re- 
minded. People skills can be acquired 
and reinforcing them using such drills 
may indeed help make one sharper. 

A friend of mine who is a vice pres- 
ident at a large bank, for example, 
found himself instantly drawn into the 
program and matching its abstract 
characters to people with whom he 
works daily. Although he agreed that 
a lot of the same techniques can be 
presented in a book, he said the ad- 
vantage of the computer program is 
that it locks you into continuing with 
the sequence. “With a book there's more 
opportunity to postpone turning the 
page,” he said. (I found myself running 
through the entire four-disk program 
in one Sunday afternoon.) 

The bank vice president did ex- 
tremely well. When, for example, the 
program let him choose from three 
lengths of time in which to test what 
he had learned, he opted for the least 
amount of time. “Let's go for it,” he 
yelled, and succeeded in reordering a 
list and beating the clock, too. 

The program provides a printout of 
your results, and—as long as you type 

People Management 

CBS Software 

1 Fawcett Pl. 

Greenwich, CT 06836 

(203) 622-2525 

List price: $79.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K 
and disk drive, or equivalent; DOS 
2.1; Cartridge BASIC 



in the same name—it keeps track of 
the subunits that you've previously 

One drawback to the program is 
that it’s extremely slow. The loading of 
each disk seems interminable as you 
sit there and watch a tree sprout apples 
in what may as well be real time. As 
you proceed through the program, you — 
often find yourself reading the screen 
faster than the characters appear, and 
you grow impatient waiting for the 
obligatory “Space bar to continue” to 
finally show itself. 

Office Politics Do the techniques put 
forth in this $79.95 program work 
away from the computer? Vern Lautner, 
information systems and technologies 
division manager for the American 
Management Association, a nonprofit 
corporation for management education 
and training, says these kinds of pro- 
grams are useful. “There's a learning 
value to them. It’s not strictly game 
playing, although obviously there is 
some of that in it. It has value, and it 
certainly can teach general manage- 
ment concepts and principles—and 
maybe do it better than a straight 

The advantage of a computer pro- 
gram over a lecture or book, he con- 
tinues, is that it is often more 
interesting. You're interacting and not 
simply listening or reading. “You have 
to read the screen to see the instruc- 
tions, so there is reading involved. But 
by and large, you've got a chance to 
make actual decisions based on what's 
in front of you. I think that adds an 
element of viability to it that you don't 
get out of strictly reading a book,” he 

Can the program turn a dolt into a 
leader? “Some of what it takes to be a 
manager you're obviously born with. 
But I think a program like this can 
give you a deeper appreciation for what 
goes into a managerial position. 
Hopefully, you can learn from that, and 
you do become a better manager. Still, 
there's an element that you either nat- 
urally have or you don’t have.” 

A spokesperson for CBS Software 
pointed out the program is not in- 
tended for use within a company, but 
is being directed toward individuals 
who want to learn at home how to im- 
prove their managerial skills for later 
use on the job or in a volunteer orga- 
nization. CBS has identified the pro- 
gram’s likely audience as being people 

continued on page 55 



Ne Bp 

Electric Desk does 
windows—and a lot 

| more. ItS a word 
processor, a database 
manager, a 

| communications 
package, anda 
spreadsheet all in one. 

| By John M. Woram 

ow that you have your new 

Junior up and working, 

you'll want a few of those 

software accessories that 
everyone's talking about. You can run 
out and pick up a good database, a 
word processing system—don’'t forget 
a spreadsheet program—and some 
kind of communications support. Or 
you can look at Alpha Software's Elec- 
tric Desk. For less than $300, it packs 
all four of these features into an un- 
usual package that includes not only 
a disk but also a cartridge for each of 
Junior's two slots. 

One of the nice things about an | 
integrated software system such as 
Electric Desk is that the whole is more 
than equal to the sum of the parts. 
With a standalone word processor, da- 
tabase, and spreadsheet, you may find 
it a bit of a chore to move back and 
forth between them. Getting them all 
to play nicely together can be difficult. 
But with an integrated package such 
as Electric Desk, you can simply move 
one service aside while working on 
another. | 

And with windows, you can easily 
keep an eye on two services at once. 


Programmers and users are just 
beginning to discover how powerful 
the window concept can be—especially 
when used with word processing, 
spreadsheets, and databases. Briefly 
stated, a window is the portion of the 
screen in which the program is dis- 
played. Under normal circumstances, 
the window is, of course, the entire 
face of the screen. However, if this win- 
dow is compressed to occupy a smaller 
area, another window (or windows) 
may be installed in the remaining 
screen area. With each window dis- 
playing a different activity, the user 
may move from one window to another 
in order to perform different tasks more 
or less concurrently. As a further bo- 
nus, the contents of one window usu- 
ally may be moved into the program 
seen in one of the other windows. 

Windowing Is Paneless With Elec- 
tric Desk, you can easily divide the 
screen into two windows to view two 
services at once. One window occupies 
the top half of the screen, while the 
other occupies the area immediately 
below. With a few keystrokes, you can 
switch back and forth between the 
split-screen windows and a full-screen 
display of either service. While looking 
through the windows at two services, 
you can edit either one of them. 

And, in general, the menu-driven 
services themselves are easy to use. 
For example, Electric Desk’s word 
wrapping is classier than WordStar's, 
because it works both forward and 
backward. It will, as a line becomes 
filled with text, push the text to the 
next line. But also—if you delete text 
and a line empties—it will push the 
remaining text back to the previous 

To test the Insert Block of Text fea- 
ture of Electric Desk’s word processor, 
I played around with one of the dem- 
onstration files already on the disk. In 
cust a few keystrokes, I was looking at 
ne PLANTING.DOC file, which tells 
you everything you've always wanted 
to know about planting apple, pear, 
and cherry trees. But, of course, the 
sequence is all wrong: I want the par- 
agraph on cherry trees to appear be- 
tween the other two, rather than at the 
end. A few keystrokes and it’s right 
where I want it—a lot easier than with 

Of course, not everything is easier. 
For example, the procedure that must 
be followed to reset the left and right 
margins took seven steps to WordStar's 


four. And since Electric Desk auto- 
matically reformats the entire docu- 
ment, a different procedure must be 
used to reformat single paragraphs. 
By contrast, a left-margin change 
by itself is quite easy... but it leaves you 
without the usual simple way to indent 
paragraphs because of how it uses the 
Tab key. When the Tab key is pressed, 
the left margin is temporarily shifted 
to the next Tab stop position, and it 
stays there until the Enter key is 
pressed. Therefore, Tab shouldn't be 
used for the customary indent at the 

You can 
easily divide 
the screen into 
two windows. 

beginning of a normal paragraph— 
you have to use the space bar for that. 

If you want to temporarily reset the 
right margin, you must type com- 
mands with the desired margin values 
at the beginning and the end of the 
paragraph. These formatting com- 
mands have no effect on the screen 
display, and the revised margin shows 
up only when the document is printed. 

Spreadsheets to the Wind As you 
may know, a spreadsheet may be used 
to keep track of all sorts of interesting 
“what if” situations, usually involving 
money. For example, if your company’s 
expenses for the first three months are 
such-and-such, and sales are whatever, 
what will happen to the bottom line if 
more widgets are ordered? Make a 
change in one number, and the soft- 
ware spreadsheet will recalculate all 
other numbers that are related to it. 

And what if you want to incorporate 
your “what if” work into a report that 
can be sent to your superiors and 
mailed to your supporters? With Elec- 
tric Desk, there’s nothing to it. You 
can move freely between its Document 
Service (word processing) and Spread- 
sheet Service with a tap of a few keys. 
That way, when you're preparing your 
report on the effect of increased widget 
purchases on the company’s profits, 
you can type away until you need those 
figures to support your words, switch 
to the Spreadsheet Service, do your 
accounting work, save it, and then 
transfer the results back into the 

And if you want to mail that same 
document off to your company’s stock- 
holders, it would be helpful to have a 
database of their names and addresses 
available, right? Look no further than 
Electric Desk's Data Base Service. 

A database is simply a collection of 
names, addresses, phone numbers, or 
whatever other kind of data you need 
to keep on hand. Back in the Stone 
Age, a database was known as a rolo- 
dex, and was just fine for looking up 
Smith or Jones. But if you need to find 
what’s-his-name, who works for I- 
forget-but-I-know-it's-in-Chicago, you'll 
be a long time flipping cards before 
you find the record you need. 

Database Dynamics With Electric 
Desk’'s Data Base Service, you can find 
everyone whose name begins with Z, 
or who lives in California, or who is a 
stockholder, or...whatever you like. 
Electric Desk has a sample database 
file containing a list of names that in- 
cludes data fields for company, address, 
phone number, code (more on this 
later), and your notes. You can use 
this file to practice searching the rec- 
ords, making corrections, and adding 
and deleting data. If you don't like the 
format used here, you can prepare your 

Let's say you want to keep track of 
everyone in the database who is a 
stockholder; try using the “code” label 
included in the sample database. 
Choose several records, include a code 
of S for stockholder, and later you can 
search for all “code S” records. 

Now comes the fancy stuff. With a 
few keystrokes, you can print letters 
personally addressed to every stock- 
holder whose last name begins with 
W, except for those who live in Vermont. 
If that’s not quite what you had in 
mind, just define your own conditions. 
To begin, use the document service to 
write the form letter. However, instead 
of typing in an addressee’s name and 
address, prepare a header such as: 

(title). (‘name.2) (‘name.1) 


(‘city.*), (‘state) ('zip) 

Dear (title). (‘name.1), 

When you get around to actually print- 
ing the letters, Electric Desk will look 
through your database for all records 
that meet your defined search criteria. 
For those of your database records that 
satisfy this set of criteria, a suitably 
addressed letter is printed. 

continued on page 55 





Junior is put toa 

| real life test as the 

| Knoxville Computer 

| Center mates it toa 
mainframe. Does the 
PCjr make it as the 
business machine of 

By Tom Badgett 

patti tet 
reeset tH 

ometimes it’s hard to accept 
the idea that smaller can be 
better...especially when 
you've spent years working 
with IBM mainframe computers. But 
Ted Esch of Knoxville Computer Center 
(KCC) is one data processing executive 
who has big plans for IBM's little PCjr. 

Esch ramrods a shop with an IBM 

4341, megabytes of memory, and disk 
storage beyond the comprehension of 
micro users. His IBM, DEC, Datapoint, 
and NCR hardware fill several large 
rooms nestled under a suite of exec- 
utive offices in Knoxville. 

KCC is a computer service bureau, 
| amainframe for hire. For the right fee 
| you can have just about anything 

computerized and the data manipu- 
lated, organized, reported, and stored. 
Service bureaus handle traditional 
| computer chores—payroll, accounts 
| receivable and billing, inventory, gen- 
eral ledger, mailing lists, and accounts 
| payable—for companies that don’t have 
| their own computers for these tasks. 
A bureau will put your survey data 


Dave eulnno 

into the computer and help you analyze 
the results. Some service centers, like 
KCC, also offer consulting, systems 
analysis, data conversion, computer 
peripherals, and supplies. 

Sometimes service bureau cus- 
tomers have their own computers or 
dumb terminals for data entry. They 
use the bureau’s mainframe for the 
actual computer and printing job. 
Other customers pay the bureau to also 
“punch” the data (type the information 
from printed sources into the com- 
puter). This is the task for which Esch 
is testing the Junior. 

By 1984, these keypunch duties 
were keeping nearly 30 full- and part- 
time operators busy and sometimes 
the company may hire 20 more tem- 
porary workers to keep up with the 
load. Just when most service bureau 
chiefs would start thinking big again, 
Ted Esch started thinking small. 

“Traditional data entry stations are 
expensive,” Esch says, “and it's difficult 
to justify enough mainframe hardware 
to cover your busiest times.” Even so, 
it’s hard for service center operators 
to consider anything smaller and 

“It was two years after the IBM PC 
came out before we decided the micro 
was here to stay, so we were late getting 
a PC,” Esch says. “When the PCjr came 
out, we didn’t want to make the same 
mistake. So we got the first PCjr deliv- 
ered in Knoxville.” 

Cost Cutter The idea is to use the 
PCjr as a low-cost but relatively so- 
phisticated data input station. Using 
COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented 
Language) and programming tech- 
niques proven on the mainframe, pro- 
grammers can design data input 
screens for the PCjr complete with ed- 
iting, operator feedback, and integrity 
checks to assure that the data is rea- 
sonable (a salary figure, for example, 
isn't higher than the company’s high- 
est salary). 

“We had worried that even compiled 
code would run too slowly on the PCjr,” 
says senior systems analyst Steve Wil- 
son, “but the input routines we've tried 
so far actually run faster on the PCjr 
than they do on the mainframe.” 

The majority of the data Knoxville 
Computer Center operators are asked 
to enter are relatively simple, redun- 
dant information: parts numbers, 


| quantities, prices, payroll data, survey 

results, accounting figures. The cur- 
rent procedure uses standard key-to- 
disk equipment which accepts input 
from the keyboard and writes the in- 
formation to disk. That equipment can 
cost from $2,000 to $8,000 per data 
entry station and requires costly 
maintenance. While KCC doesn't in- 
tend to replace its present equipment, 
at $1,500 per station for a stand-alone 
computer, the PCjr becomes very at- 
tractive for new acquisitions. 

“We especially like the PCjr for those 
out-of-the-ordinary jobs which make 
us hire part-time input operators,” 
Esch says. “We hope to develop a PCjr- 
based system that'll let some operators 
work at home on their own schedule. 

‘“‘We hope to 
develop a PCjr- 
based system 
that’ll let some 
operators work 
at home on 
their own 


It's a simple matter to bring a disk 
into the shop for transfer to the main- 
frame, or we could use dial-up 

The PCjr’s small size makes it par- 
ticularly suitable for carrying to an 
operator's home, the cost is perhaps 
one-fifth of traditional equipment and, 
even with a single drive, disk storage 
space is ample. A top-notch data-entry 
operator can make about 20,000 key- 
strokes per hour. The norm is closer 
to 10,000 to 12,000. A PCjr data disk 
could hold up to two days’ work for a 
high-speed operator and as much as 
four days’ work for the average operator. 
About the only problem Esch sees with 
the plan is the PCjr keyboard. A key- 
board without a separate numeric key- 
pad is a problem in an industry where 
95 percent of the information typed 
into the computer is numerical. 

“We're looking at the Key Tronic 
keyboard,” Esch says, “and we've in- 
cluded the extra cost in our budget 
projections. The PCjr still looks very 
cost effective.” 

Compatibility Knoxville Computer 
Center has used a variety of mainframe 
equipment through the years, buying 
whatever seemed most cost-effective at 
the time. But Esch believes the com- 
pany has paid a high price in pro- 
grammer and operator time for the 
capital savings. A move toward an IBM 
shop standard is underway and he 
wants to keep that standard with mi- 
crocomputer acquisitions. He studied 
Apple's offerings—the Ile, IIc, and 
Macintosh—but determined they 
wouldn't work satisfactorily for the 
planned KCC application. 

“Even if it cost more, I’d rather stay 
with IBM at this point,” Esch said. 
“We want to plan for long-term com- 
patibility and support wherever 

Compared to the usual key-to-disk 
systems, even the larger IBM PC would 
be cost effective, and KCC is using 
PCs in a local area network (LAN) at- 
tached to the 4341. But the PCjr is 
even cheaper and it is small enough 
to be easily moveable. Part-time per- 
sonnel could take the machine home 
for specific jobs and return it with the 
completed data disk. Given the nature 
of KCC’s usual data entry jobs—rela- 
tively short numerical fields and short 
records—the PCjr and a home television 
set work well together. 

“In a suitcase you can send out a 
whole unit,” Wilson said. “You can't 
do that with the PC.” 

The COBOL Connection As you 
might expect, a computer service bu- 
reau that has its roots in the early 
1960's is sold on COBOL, a powerful, 
self-documenting, compiled language 
that is virtually machine-independent. 
Because COBOL was the first widely | 
accepted business computer language, 
there are a lot of applications packages 
for it. Mainframe programmers who 
cut their teeth on COBOL are slow to 
use anything else. 

So the first step toward using the 
PCjr in a business environment was 
to make sure familiar COBOL routines 
would work on the new machine. A 
series of data input programs was 
written on the IBM 4341 mainframe 
using COBOL. Once compiled, the 
machine-level instructions were. 
transmitted to an IBM PC. The PC- | 
formatted disk was then transferred 
to the PCjr, where it continues to run 

After preliminary tests with COBOL 
input programs, Esch and Wilson are 


convinced the PCjr will work well in 
their planned data entry environment. 
There's an initial toll in programming 
time. The present Entrex brand key- 
to-disk computer is designed for data 
entry, so screen design and data checks 
are easily implemented. With PCjr, 
custom COBOL code will have to be 
developed for each application. And, 
during the program compilation, the 
data storage technique has to be con- 
verted from IBM mainframe style to 
the Intel 8088 method. This involves 
the different ways binary numbers are 
stored on the two machines. The con- 
version is a function of KCC’s COBOL 

“There's nothing you can do on a 
mainframe with data checking that 
you can’t do on the PCjr, other than 
using a large master file,” Esch said. 
“The PCjr is just as good for data entry 
on a stand-alone basis as a dedicated 
data entry computer such as the 

Hand in Hand Traditionally, main- 
frame shops haven't considered mi- 
crocomputers a viable part of the data 
processing environment. That's 
changing and KCC wants to be a part 
of the new trend. Esch foresees a num- 
ber of ways his operation can become 
a part of the microcomputer commu- 
nity, and vice versa. 

“The guy who owns a microcom- 
puter is afraid of dealing with a main- 
frame,” Esch says. “The guy with a 
mainframe shop tends to look down 
on the micros. But the mainframe isn't 
going away, and the micro isn’t going 
away. We need to work together.” 

To that end, KCC has established 
other services for microcomputer 
users: mainframe backup of micro- 
computer hard disks, data conversion 
from one format to another, providing 
hard disk storage for remote micro 
users, consulting microcomputer 
owners on using the small machines 
with their mainframes and providing 
hardware/software support for these 

As the use of LANs and dial-up tele- 
phone links expands, Esch sees an 
increasing opportunity to sell such 
services. And, he believes, computers 
like the PCjr fit this niche well. 

All of the plans aren't fully opera- 
tional, but Knoxville Computer Center 
is moving rapidly toward using the IBM 
PCjr in a full business environment, a 
plan Esch believes is right for the 
times. L) 



continued from page 52 

On second thought, perhaps you'd 
rather not go to the trouble of printing 
that document. If you like, Electric 
Desk’s Communications Service will 
send it electronically. Or you can receive 
data from someone else instead. Elec- 
tric Desk will automatically dial phone 
numbers from the database or enter 
log-in scripts for signing onto sub- 
scriber services. The manual gives all 
the details on how to set up your com- 
puter communications system. 

Clean-Up Time Unfortunately for the 
beginner, the accompanying manual 
does not seem to contain a single list- 
ing that explains what's on the Electric 
Desk disk. Nor does it contain any 
clue as to which files are important. 
However, there is a clue on the disk 
itself—a file named CLEANUP.BAT 
shows up near the end of the directory 
listing. But what does it do? There's 
no mention of it in the manual’s index. 

From DOS, if you enter TYPE 
CLEANUP.BAT to have a look at it, you'll 
find it contains a list of the demo files 
that will be erased if you execute this 
program. You can also erase the HELP 
program once you've become familiar 
with the Electric Desk, as well as the 
unneeded printer files. This will give 
you a lot more room on the disk for 
your own files. Better yet, simply copy 
Electric Desk’s EDBW.EXE file onto a 
formatted disk, along with MODE.COM 
from your DOS 2.1 system disk. Using 
the new disk will allow a maximum 

clear space for your | own documents, 
spreadsheets, and databases. 

With that and a few other excep- 
tions, the manual is quite informative, 
although the index isn't. So as you 
discover important details, you might 
want to pencil in your own index en- 
tries. For example, page 2-14 of the 
manual lists a command called Disk- 
Space, but says nothing about it. Look 
up Disk-Space in the index and you'll 

"be referred back to page 2-14 and to 

page 2-35, where you'll find that the 
command tells you how much space 
you have left on your disk. 

However, for complete details on 
Disk Space Limit, see page 4-15 (this 
is not mentioned in the index). The 
important section on Template Docu- | 
ments (page 5-52) also doesn’t show 
up in the index. 

These gripes aside, Electric Desk 
is quite an impressive package. I rec- 

| ommend it highly as an excellent in- 

troduction to word processing, 
spreadsheets, databases, communi- 
cations, and window watching. 0 

Electric Desk 

Alpha Software Corp. 

30 B St. 

Burlington, MA 01803 

(617) 229-2924 

List price: $295 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K 
and disk drive, or equivalent 




continued _from page 50 
ages 18 and up who are inclined to 
take self-improvement courses. 

More Real People In case People 
Management doesn't do the trick, by 
the way, the folks at CBS Software have 
some other disks up their sleeve. Per- 
sonal Development is intended to help 
you set goals and achieve them; it also 
shows you how to bring your attitudes 
more in line with those of professional 
managers. Three other programs were 
scheduled for summer release at the 
time this was written. Career Planning 
assesses your work experience, needs, 
and expectations. Pointers on writing 

resumes and cover letters and man- 
aging interviews—from both sides of 
the desk—are included. Delegation, 
Time and Tasks claims to help you 
become a more efficient manager and 
teaches you how to set priorities. Prob- 
lem Solving Stress and Conflict parcels 
out advice on how to understand the 
roots of stress. 

CBS Software has no in-house 
software developers at this point. The 
company, a division of the broadcast 
network, packages and markets pro- 
grams to a wide audience. All the pro- 
grams mentioned here are scaled-down 
versions of ones originally written by 
Thoughtware for corporate use. 0) 

Turn jr. Into 
Your Algebra Tutor 

Pe Please send me: | 
} ~~ Copies of Algebra Plus $--__-— | 
| @ $69.95 | 

NM Residents include 
] | 
4.125% sales tax ------- | 
| Total Ee tak. 78 | 
! i 
| Make Check Payable to: | 
| Microglyph 

| P.O. Box 37110 * Albuquerque, NM 87176-7110 



LOTUS 12-3 

continued from page 47 

Junior's memory this way, and 1-2-3 
runs delightfully fast from the car- 
tridge. PCjr users who already have 
I-2-3 on a PC can get a free software 
installation kit from their local dealer 
that will make 1-2-3 function with any 
enhanced PCjr with at least 192K of 
RAM. Lotus recommends a minimum 
of 256K of RAM to run the disk version 
of 1-2-3 to allow full spreadsheet size. 
(See “The Day of the Lotus” sidebar on 
page 46.) 

All is not perfect, of course. There 
are some problems with 1-2-3 in general 
and specifically when using it with the 
PCjr. You may be frustrated by the 
PCjr's single disk drive. While you can 
run Lotus’ spreadsheet with one drive, 
you'll have to swap disks a lot, espe- 
cially if you're printing graphs or using 
other features that require a disk swap 
even on a dual drive system. The best 
way around this problem is to use a 
RAM disk, extra memory set aside by 
software to act like a floppy disk. By 
adding 512K or so of RAM, and the 
proper software, you can set up a 360K 
RAM disk drive to hold the 1-2-3 pro- 
gram, leaving Junior's mechanical 
floppy drive free for worksheet storage. 

Blind Alley The weaknesses in the 
software package itself are minor and 
may not be much of a problem for many 
users. One of the most serious short- 


The oe “byte Fanil 
Date Last 

comings is the fact that you have no 
way of knowing whether the current 
spreadsheet has been saved to disk. 
The software will allow you to load an- 
other worksheet into RAM without 
warning that the current worksheet 
has not been saved. Good operating 
practice dictates that you save work in 
progress regularly, and that you always 
save one project before starting another. 
But we all know how easy it is to make 
a simple mistake like that. I'd feel a lot 
better if it warned me that I hadn't 

1-2-3 runs 
fast from 
the cartridge. 

SSCP tees tseeaeteeeteseaesetateeteceseesetaee se 

saved the current version of my work- 
sheet before allowing me to load another 
one into RAM. 

Another problem crops up when you 
try to print information that overflows 
into adjacent cells. The standard cell 
width is nine characters. But you may 
want to head the spreadsheet with a 
title that’s much longer than that. As 
you do, that text overflows into cells | 
beyond the one in which you started. 


te jl-bec. 

a ere La 

ect. No, ‘Description 

meet. Me. weseripyies ee 

‘Wages/Sal ary-—Chi p 
‘wages/Sal arg--La tus 
‘business Income--Chip 
‘Business Incone--Lotus 

4 interest 
Lawes treats 

at. a 


Lotus’ 1-2-3 

mm) 56 Pcjr MAGAZINE 


5795, 68 

a ne Es 


On screen, it will look fine. But any- 
thing beyond nine characters will be 
lost when you print—if any portion of 
what you've written extends far enough 
right to carry over onto the next page. 
(Because the spreadsheet is so wide, 
you have to print it in sections—on 
consecutive sheets of paper—and then 
tape those pages together side by side.) 

The key to keeping the material be- 
yond nine characters from disappear- 
ing is to make sure the print range 
you specify is at least as wide as the 
title that you've typed. 

You'll sometimes see another man- 
ifestation of the overflow problem. Be- 
cause the spreadsheet’s width keeps 
you from seeing the whole thing on 
screen at one time, 1-2-3 allows you to 
view it in sections. You move the cursor 
to the right to display areas of the 
spreadsheet previously off screen. But 
if one of the cells that then moves off 
screen to the left is the cell in which a 
long, overflowing piece of information 
starts, then all the overflow will mys- 
teriously disappear from the screen. 

This is a particular problem when 
you want to draw a long horizontal line 
to separate parts of the spreadsheet. 
If you simply type dashes or equal signs 
all the way across, you won't be able 
to see the resulting lines when you 
move to the right-hand side of the 
spreadsheet to work. What you have to 
do is type a line the length of the first 
cell, press the right cursor to indicate 
you're moving to the next cell, type an- 
other cell-long line, press right cursor 
again, and so on. This is an inconven- 
ience during data entry, but you get 
the time back as you work with the 
spreadsheet and when you print. 

Sort Out Because sorting is a data 
management function and not a 
spreadsheet function, you can run into 
problems if you’re using a spreadsheet 
to keep lists of text, portions of which 
require more than one horizontal row. 
The sort assumes each spreadsheet row 
holds a new data record and arranges 
the data accordingly. If you have a row 
that’s blank in the field you're sorting 
by, the resulting sort is really crazy. 
For example, if I want one section to 
hold information about PCjr Magazine, 

it may look like this: 
PCjr Ziff-Davis Monthly 
One Park 

In the sort, the first line would appear 
with the Ps, but the second and third 
would be grouped with other rows that 

start with blank fields. This can be 
solved by starting each of the three 
lines with “PCjr,” but it would be nice 
if there were some way to tell the sort 
routine what actually constitutes a re- 
cord for sorting. 

Initial Response The response from 
many people when they first hear about 
the electronic spreadsheet is, “Why?” 
You still have to type all that stuff in 
anyway. What would I do with it?” It 
usually doesn’t take very long for the 
new user to discover what everybody's 
talking about and to find many per- 
sonal uses for this new computer 
power. But first you have to spend 

Lotus 1-2-3 
allows you 
to view 
in sections. 


enough time with the spreadsheet and 
your computer to learn how to make 
it do what you need done. 

With 1-2-3 it's a relatively painless 
process, one that can actually be fun. 
You should read the introductory ma- 
terial so you understand the theory 
behind electronic spreadsheets. Make 
sure the software is configured properly 
for the PCjr. Then get the blank 
spreadsheet on the screen and work 
with it. As you do, you'll discover some 
of the “gotcha’s” discussed above, and 
more of your own. But these mostly 
are a matter of understanding how this 
particular software handles data, not 
flaws in design. Just learn to live with 
them or work around them and always, 
ALWAYS, back up your work to disk 
regularly. We think you'll find Lotus’ 
1-2-3 on the PCjr an exciting, econom- 
ical, and useful way to get down to 
business with PCjr. U 


Lotus Development Corp. 

One Broadway 

Cambridge, MA 02142 

(617) 492-7171 

List price: $495 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K 
and disk drive, or equivalent; DOS 



e ® 
™ create custom, color graphic 
screens and animation in 
minutes using only the 10 
function keys and two 
®™ store up to 1,000 screens in 
320 kb! 
® create and on-screen edit 
animation dynamically in 
® HyperGraphics® does not store 
pixels ... so it won’t become 
obsolete with higher resolution 
hardware like other static 
graphic software packages will. 

features complete menu/sub 
menu branching, sketching, cut 

& paste and a graphic & text 

editor for easy tutorial, on-line 

help or menu integration 
authoring. It sells for $395.00. 

features easy to use, Menu 
driven business & presentation 
graphics, image windowing & 
object libraries. It sells for 

Both systems interface with and 
exchange data with most popular 
software and are available for the 
IBM pe, xt, jr and compatibles, at 


Suite 1208 
100 N. Central Expy. 
Richardson, Texas 
75080 (214) 783-9900 

HyperGraphics® is a registered 
trademark of HyperGraphics® Corp. 

Watch For More Software 
Written in 




Roem ee O C.F 


Enhancements include more memory, professional 

Te: : aan = | 

| Dee 


keyboard, new software, voice box 

PCjr has grown up 
suddenly: younger, 
trimmer, faster, more 
colorful than its parents, 
| 245 with a boundless 
future before it. 
| The machine can now 

run thousands of 
programs from the IBM 

library, including many of those re- 
quiring as much as 512K and two disk 
drives. In a series of announcements 
from IBM and third-party manufac- 
turers, here's how PCjr’s abilities have 

eA new, typewriter-like keyboard 
with a professional touch and finish 
is now standard equipment (and will 
be provided free of charge to all previous 
purchasers of the PCjr); 

e IBM now offers memory add-on si- 
decars that can quadruple random ac- 
| cess memory (RAM) to 512K, opening 
up the PCjr to run thousands of ad- 
ditional pieces of software originally 
offered for use with the IBM PC; 

eA free program included with 


By Corey Sandler 

IBM’s memory board allows the user 
to create an electronic disk, simulating 
a second disk drive and allowing use 
of even more software; 

e Lotus’ 1-2-3, the best-selling in- 
tegrated spreadsheet, database, and 
graphics program, is now available for 
the PCjr in a disk version, and will 
soon be in the stores in a ROM (read- 
only memory) cartridge version (see 
“The Taking of Lotus 1-2-3” in this 
issue); and, 

e IBM has announced a strong push 
into the American educational market 
with its Writing to Read curriculum 
(see articles in this issue and in PCjr 
Magazine, September 1984), and with 
the aid of sharp pricing discounts for 
educators and institutions. 

Open-Minded “This is the best deal 
in town,” said Philip D. Estridge, 
president of IBM’s Entry Systems Di- 
vision. “When we introduced the PCjr, 
we called it a system that could be and 
would be added to. It uses something 
we call in engineering an ‘open archi- 

| tecture.’ Another way to put it is to call 

it ‘open-minded,’” Estridge said. 

In addition to the productivity en- 
hancements, IBM will let the PCjr tell 
the world about its new bells and 
whistles: Junior has been given a voice, 
and a colorful screen-painting 

You ll read about some of the details 
of IBM's new products in this special 
section of PCjr Magazine. Here, 
though, are some of the specifications: 

IBM PCjr Entry Model. 64K RAM, 
two ROM cartridge slots, built-in 
serial port, color/graphics video 
output, joystick and light pen 
adapter, four-voice sound output, 
expandable internally and externally 
to full function. Professional type- 
writer-style keyboard with cordless 
infrared link. IBM Product Center 
price: $599 

IBM PCjr Enhanced Model. 128K 
RAM, two ROM cartridge slots, one 
double-sided disk drive, expandable 
to 512K RAM, built-in serial port, 
color/graphics video output, joystick 
and light pen adapter, four-voice 
sound output. Professional type- 
writer-style keyboard with cordless 
infrared link. IBM Product Center 
price: $999 


128K Memory expansion at- 
tachment. IBM Product Center 
price: $325 

PCjr speech attachment. IBM 
Product Center price: $300 

PCjr ColorPaint software car- 
tridge. IBM Product Center price: 

Good Strokes IBM's new keyboard 
for the PCjr was literally built upon the 
body of its predecessor. The same 62 
keys are used, with ordinary molded 
keytops replacing the much-maligned 
“Chiclet” keys of the original board. 
IBM has specified a one-third reduction 
in the keystroke force from three ounces 
to two ounces (the change was made 
by modifying the rubber contact pad 
beneath the keys.) The underside of 
the rubber dome has a strip of metal 
that makes contact across an electrical 
switch on a printer circuit board. The 
whole device has roughly 40 parts, ex- 
cluding the keys themselves. Compare 
this to the IBM PC’s bulky keyboard, 
which has more than 300 parts. 

IBM's new offering retains the in- 
frared cordless link (and optional cord). 
The only known area of incompatibility 
lies with the little-used, cardboard ov- 
erlays distributed by IBM and a handful 
of third-party manufacturers. They 
seem likely to go the way of coonskin 
caps and hula hoops. 

The touch seems somewhere be- 
tween the clickety-clack of the PC key- 
board and the marshmallow-on-a- 

pillow feel of some third party boards— 
just about right, most early users de- 
cided. There's a finger-setting bump 
on both the “F” and “J” keys to help 
touch-typists find the home keys, and 
a ledge above the top row to support a 
manual or pencil. The letters of the 
alphabet and other symbols have been 
returned to their rightful places on 
top of the keys, and the board has been 
further graced by a demure, silver me- 

The machine can run 
thousands of 
programs, including 
those requiring as 
much as 512K. 

tallic label reading “IBM PCjr,” suitable 
for placement on any office desktop or 
home high-tech tabletop. 

The new keyboards, manufactured 
for IBM by Advanced Input Devices of 
Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, are similar to 
the prototype written about by Con- 
tributing Editor Winn L. Rosch in PCjr 
Magazine's May 1984 issue about 

The vast improvement brought forth 
by IBM still leaves open the market for 
“super” keyboards such as those al- 
ready available from third-party man- 

SS Ea er ae 
IBM's PCjr shows off new ColorPuint cartridge program, new keyboard,and an optical mouse. 


ufacturers such as Key Tronic, and 
announced but not yet for sale from 
other companies. These boards include 
numeric keypads, dedicated function 
keys, and other features. 

IBM's free upgrade to early pur- 
chasers of the PCjr is regarded as un- 
precedented in the consumer 
marketplace. “We felt we had a moral 
and ethical obligation,” said Estridge. 
He was asked why IBM did not swap 
the earlier keyboards for the new model. 
“We didn’t need them back,” he said. 

IBM spokesmen, by the way, are hurt 
when some people refer to the Great 
Keyboard Upgrade as a “recall.” There 
was nothing functionally wrong with 
the previous model, they say. I have to 
agree, though I was no big fan of the 
Chiclet board. To my way of thinking, 
what IBM has done is roughly akin to 
General Motors sending out the follow- 
ing telegram to purchasers of 1983 
sedans: “We gave you four bias-ply 
blackwall tires with your new car. 
They're just fine, but we've decided that 
whitewall radials are niftier. So, please 

| accept a gift of four new tires, and you 

can keep the old ones for spares.” 
The only potential difficulty for some 
PCjr owners comes for those pur- 
chasers who obtained their machines 
from sources other than IBM author- 
ized dealers. The official word, accord- 
ing to Estridge, is that such buyers 
“will learn the benefits of buying from 
an authorized dealer.” Unofficially, if 
you're in such a position, you might 
try obtaining the upgrade by visiting 
an authorized dealer or IBM Product 
Center with your sales slip in hand. 

Super Memory None of the changes 
made by IBM makes obsolete any of 
the previous models of the PCjr. Those 
models can be upgraded through use 
of external memory cards and can use 
the new keyboard. Software written for 
the original models should run iden- 
tically on the new machine. 
According to IBM, the PCjr’s inter- 
nal power supply will support one ex- 
ternal block of 128K RAM and the 
parallel printer adapter. If your needs 
go beyond that, you will have to pur- 
chase an external power supply sidecar, 
at $150. And, IBM adds, that sidecar 
will have to be the first one you attach 
to your Junior. IBM sources told us 
they would not officially support adding 
the power supply after the memory ex- 
pansion and the printer adapter (with 
an eye toward then adding three more 
cards beyond the external power sup- 


ply) because of possible problems with 

| Federal Communications Commission 
| regulations on RF (radio frequency) 

interference. Nevertheless, PCjr Mag- 
azine’s examination of the PCjr shows 
that having to add the external power 
supply first leaves at least 400 mil- 
liamps of internal power unused. And 
an IBM engineer acknowledged there 
would be power left over beyond the 
third card when the officially sanc- 
tioned configuration is used. 

The external supply solves the mys- 
tery of how IBM would get its “cluster” 



network system (see PCjr Magazine, 
“Junior’s Business Connections,” Au- 
gust 1984) to work with an enhanced 
machine and the power drain of its 
disk drive: The cluster is installed after 
the external power supply. 

Adding memory above the 128K of 

on-board RAM is not as simple a pro- 
gramming feat as it would seem. Before 
the memory could be brought above 

128K, IBM had to solve a problem of 

its own making, The design of the PCjr 
uses the machine’s RAM as storage 
space for video images, rather than 

going to the extra expense of having a 
separate video buffer. The PCjr’s video 
memory placed a default block of 16K 
of video memory in the topmost loca- 
tions of the 128K internal limit. What 
this means is that if memory were 
merely added to the PCjr above 128K, 
there would be a “hole” of at least 16K 
at the top of the first 128K, ahead of 
the added memory. 

This problem has been addressed 
in various ways by Tecmar, Microsoft, 
and other manufacturers of add-on 
memory. IBM chose to fix the “problem” 

NSD a 


by relocating the video memory down 
to the low end of memory, within the 
disk operating system (DOS). IBM will 
distribute a new memory management 
program on disk that instructs the 
machine to look elsewhere for video 

information and increases the size of 

DOS from 24K to about 52,000 bytes. 

We tried the memory management 
program and were very impressed with 
its ease of installation and use. Once 
configured, the new video arrangement 
can be added to any program disk as 
a CONFIG.SYS program to automati- 


cally be installed in memory when the 
disk is booted. 

IBM's traditional conservatism 
showed in its decision to have its 
add-on blocks go up in increments 
of 128K each, rather than 256K or 
more. An engineer told us that IBM's 
quality control had mandated extra 
space between the RAM chips because 
the automatic insertion machines 
used to assemble the boards wouldn't 
be reliable working with narrower 

Nor does the Junior use the 256K 

RAM chips that are available. The still- 
high prices, even for a purchaser (and 
manufacturer) of IBM’s size, ruled out 

use of those devices in the add-ons or | 

on the motherboard of the PCjr. 
In a minor tweak to the box itself, 
IBM sources told us the company will 

abandon the silver paint job on the | 
interior of the plastic shell and instead | 

use a plated nickel-copper surface. The 
new plating has been adopted both 
because of manufacturing considera- 

tions and to reduce RF and magnetic | 




New memory products simulate 
second drive, take Junior to 512K 

By Don Kennedy 

wners of PCjrs with 256K 

or more of memory now 

have an additional reason 

to tell IBM, “Thanks for the 
memory.” Besides making the PCjr 
more powerful and capable of running 
more programs, this newly available 
extra memory can also be used to sim- 
ulate a second disk drive. 

IBM is offering a set of easy-to-use 
programs that allow you to make full 
use of the extra memory and designate 
blocks of the random access memory 
(RAM) to create what is called a “RAM 
drive.” (IBM calls it a “memory disk.”) 
You can use this RAM drive the same 
way you would a physical disk drive— 
running programs within it, reading 
from and writing to it, and so on. 

The concept is not new; some of the 
memory expansion boards issued by 
other companies have come with pro- 
grams to create RAM drives. However, 
the IBM installation program makes 
it especially simple and easy to do this, 
and has the very nice feature of re- 
maining installed on any program disk 
that includes the disk operating system 
(DOS) tracks. For example, word pro- 

cessing, database, and spreadsheet | 

programs set up in a DOS format can 

be installed so the RAM disk will be 
created each time those programs are 

Moving Day Installation of extra 
memory and a RAM drive requires 
three steps. First, it is mecessary to 
rearrange the memory locations for any 
PCjr to use more than 128K of RAM. 

When a PCjr is configured with just 
128K of RAM, the section of memory 
for temporarily storing what’s headed 
for the video display is found in the 
“top” 16K of memory, the last section 
of RAM the computer searches when 
running through its paces. These are 
memory locations 112,000 through 

If this video buffer were to remain 
there when extra memory is added, the 
computer would stop searching when 
it reached the “hole” in its memory— 
it would not make use of any memory 
added above the first 128K. To sidestep 
this problem, the IBM program moves 
the video buffer and relocates it within 
the DOS section of memory. 

In the 128K configuration, DOS oc- 
cupies memory locations 00000 to 
24000. But it swells by about 20K when 
the PCJRMEM.COM file transfers the 

video buffer there and adds memory- 
and video-handling routines that re- 
main as resident code. Because the 
DOS section grows, the user memory 
is pushed to higher memory locations, 
filling the area that previously was re- 
served for the video buffer. 

The net result, though, is that all 
usable random access memory be- 
comes contiguous and the PCjr makes 
full use of all extra memory beyond 
128K when this program is run. 

The Phantom Once the extra 
memory is made contiguous, the 
RAMDISK.COM file enables you to cre- 
ate the RAM drive that will work as the 
phantom, but fully functional, disk 
drive. The IBM installation program 
is menu-driven. After you choose the 
option to create a RAM drive, you des- 
ignate the amount of memory you want 
the RAM drive to contain. 

Default values set the memory for 
the RAM drive at 60K, but you are free 
to create a drive with as little as 1OK 
of memory or as much as 512K, as- 
suming your system has enough 
memory to expand the RAM disk to its 
upper limit. 

The RAM drive software is then 
permanently installed on the DOS disk. 
You'll have to reboot the disk imme- 
diately after installation to alert the 
computer to the new memory config- 
uration, but every time you boot DOS 
in the future, the RAM drive will be 
automatically created. 

In addition, the installation pro- 
gram will ask if there are other pro- 
grams you wish to have the RAM drive 
installed on. If you have installed DOS, 
for example, on your word processor 
or spreadsheet, you can then install 
the RAM drive on the program disk 
and have it created automatically every 
time you boot that program. 

This is done through a CONFIG.SYS 
file that is automatically copied onto 
the disks during the installation pro- 
cess. When a system disk is booted, 
the PCjr loads DOS and, during this 
process, looks for any CONFIG.SYS files 
before it executes an AUTOEXEC. BAT 
file, which is a file listing the DOS 
commands to be performed automat- 
ically every time the disk is booted. 

These system configuration files 
instruct the PCjr to use input or output 
logic other than that which it has been 
programmed to expect. In a sense, the 
system configuration file “rebuilds” 
DOS before DOS becomes resident in 

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Inside an IBM PCjr memory sidecar. The 16 memory chips along the top of the card hold 128K of RAM. 

In this instance, the CONFIG.SYS 
file instructs the PCjr to move the video 
buffer into DOS and create a RAM 
drive. The file reads: 


The number at the end of the second 
line is the amount of memory you have 
chosen to allocate to the RAM drive. 
So if you have created a RAM drive 
with 256K, for example, that line will 
read DEVICE = RAMDISK.COM /256. 

Tandem Disks The effect of all this, 
of course, is that the PCjr will now 
function automatically as a two-disk- 
drive system every time you boot an 
installed disk. The benefits are im- 
mediately apparent if you are using 
programs that require or recommend 
two drives. 

If, for example, you have a word pro- 
cessing program and wish to avoid the 
disk swapping that can become so 
cumbersome with a one-drive system, 
you merely have to install a RAM drive 
on the program disk once, and every 
time you load that disk’s contents into 
the PCjr, you can place the program in 
the RAM drive and use the physical 
disk drive for your data disk, which 
will contain whatever files you create 
or edit during the program's operation. 


You can transfer your program to 
the C: drive automatically during the 
booting process, using an AUTOEXEC 
batch file. That way, you will have to 
make only one disk swap, putting your 
data disk into the physical drive once 
the program is loaded. 

An example of such a batch file, 
using WordStar, would be: 

copy a:ws”.* C 

The first line copies all WordStar files 
to C:, and the second runs WordStar 
in the RAM drive. 

At the point at which WordStar ap- 
pears on the screen, you would remove 
the program disk, insert the data disk, 
and never have to swap disks again. 
In addition, the data disk will not con- 
tain any WordStar command or overlay 
files, so significantly more space will 
be available on the disk for your work. 
The same is true of every other program 
that runs best on two drives, with the 
program resident in one and data being 
written onto a disk in the other. 

A program in the RAM drive oper- 
ates much faster than one located 
physically in a disk drive. To under- 
stand why, first consider how a pro- 
gram runs on a 128K, one-drive PCjr. 
The program is physically stored on a 
disk in the disk drive and. must be 


loaded into RAM before it can be run. 
But because the PCjr has no separate 
video memory, both the program and 
video information are stored in the 
same RAM. As the program is run, the 
chip that controls the display on the 
screen and the microprocessor are 
trying to read information from the 
same memory and must take turns. 
This means that the program execution 
must wait while the video controller 
chip updates the screen. 

But a program in a RAM drive 
doesn't have this problem. When the 
IBM software creates a RAM drive, it 
uses the PCjr’s original memory first, 
storing the program in the first 128K. 
When the program is loaded from there 
into user RAM to be run, it is loaded 
into the new, added memory. This 
memory doesn’t store any video infor- 
mation, so the video controller chip 
never tries to read that memory. The 
microprocessor has the memory all to 
itself, and never has to wait. As a result, 
programs run at least twice as quickly. 

Interestingly, we found that this in- 
stallation program will work on the 
128K model of the PCjr, enabling you 
to create a small RAM disk of about 
18,000 bytes. This is such a small 
amount of memory that it probably is 
of little use in most applications. U 


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New Sidecar Gives PCjr 
Human Voice, Ability to Kecord 

By Tom Badgett 

ho hasn't been excited by 

the prospect of computers 

that talk? We've had the 

technology for years, but 
we probably weren't ready to accept 
the applications. Now, IBM's latest PCjr 
add-on brings this anthropomorphic 
wish closer to reality with a one-inch- 
wide “sidecar” that gives the machine 
a voice...and an ear. 

The IBM Speech Attachment plugs 
in like the printer adapter and other 
add-ons and gives PCjr 196 well-artic- 
ulated words, phrases, and sounds 
that can be used in BASIC and other 
applications programs. The speech at- 
tachment also adds an input port for 
an inexpensive microphone. With a 
mike, you can record speech, sound, 
or music; store it in RAM (random- 
access memory) or on disk; and play 
it back under program control. 

Imagine booting DOS (the disk op- 
erating system) with a clock calendar 
board installed and hearing your ma- 
chine say, “Hello, did you enjoy the 
weekend?” Or what if you tried to print 
a report before you turned the printer 
on? “I'm sorry,” the computer might 
say, “but my printer is disconnected 
or not turned on.” 

With today’s multi-function pack- 
ages such as 1-2-3, Framework, 
Multiplan, Open Access, and more, 
many computer users can load up one 
application in the morning and use 
nothing else all day. So why shouldn't 
my computer remind me of appoint- 
ments while I'm working with the word 


With voice input/output, a modem, 
and the right software, your computer 
could answer the telephone any way 
you want, call a group of people to 
deliver a message, and record their re- 
sponse for later playback. This is al- 
ready being done with some pretty 

_ expensive hardware/software combi- 

nations, but it isn’t that complicated. 
A PCjr and IBM's voice board could do 
the job nicely. 

— Vocal Cords PCjr speech with IBM's 

card can be a background function. 
so video display and speech (or sound) 
are supported simultaneously. IBM 
hopes this will give software developers 
the creative incentive to make ample 
use of this new technology. 

The speech attachment is compat- 
ible, for example, with the Writing to 
Read program, IBM's implementation 
of educator John Henry Martin’s fas- 
cinating writing program for pre- 

| schoolers. (See “IBM Strengthens 

School Ties” in this special section and 
the September 1984 issue of PCjr 
Magazine.) Using spoken instruc- 
tions, sounds, and words coupled with 
a computer screen display, the program 
teaches youngsters to express them- 
selves in writing, even before they can 
read. Just about any education or 
training program you can imagine 
would have to be more exciting—and 
probably more effective—with voice in- 

“We've provided a powerful tool for 
applications,” says IBM programmer 
John Bennett. “Now we'd like to see 

programmers use it. They have what 
they need to build on.” 

It is obvious that IBM has some 
ideas of its own about how speech on 
the PCjr should be used; but when we 
looked at the new machine, IBM didn’t 
have anything to show us beyond Writ- 
ing to Read and said it wasn’t prom- 
ising any software of its own to support 
speech input/output on PCjr. 

A booklet, A Guide to Writing BASIC 
Speech Programs for the IBM PCjr, 
comes with the speech attachment. 
Examples show it is fairly easy to pro- 
gram relatively simple speech input/ 
output algorithms. More complex—and 
therefore more useful—applications will 
take some serious programming. 

It's interesting to note, too, that the 
voice hardware is set up so it can work 
with other external devices without 
creating problems of contention, in 
which two or more devices compete to 
use the same resource. Does that mean 
IBM has a stable of sound devices in 
the works? 

“Not that we do or that we don't,” 
we were told, “but we see contention 
on the horizon. Somebody will come 
up with an outboard device and we 
wanted to be ready.” 

(John Bennett emphasized that. 

Imagine booting DOS 
and hearing 
your machine say, 

while “we've done some work on voice 
recognition,” the present speech at- 
tachment is not a speech recognition 
device. It'll record accurately about any 
sound you give it, but the box can only 
reproduce what it hears; it can't use 
spoken input to process commands. ) 

Sound Technology Two speech 
technologies are at work in the speech 

- attachments. One, linear predictive 

coding (LPC) is based on a Texas In- 
struments (TI) 5220 chip. This is a 
memory-efficient, excellent-quality, 
solid-state speech production chip 
used in conjunction with a 32K ROM 
(27256) chip. The ROM (read-only 
memory) stores the 196 prepro- 

| grammed words, a set of diagnostic 

routines, and speech BIOS (the basic 


input/output system) to help pro- 
grammers use the new system. Think 
of LPC as a modern version of TI's 
“Speak and Spell” voice system, which 
has enthralled youngsters for years. 

The second technology—continu- 
ously variable slope delta modulation 
(CVSD)—lets users record sounds of 
their own. It takes up to 16 times as 
much memory as LPC, but the imple- 
mentation with a variety of voices and 
sounds is easier. In effect, CVSD on 
the PCjr gives you a digital tape re- 
corder with the ability to store speech 
or other sounds in RAM, save these 
recordings to disk and play them back 
at will under program control. IBM is 
using Motorola's version of CVSD, an 
eight-year-old technique that was de- 
veloped initially for long-distance voice 
transmission over telephone lines. 

Both LPC and CVSD convert analog 
(sound) information to digital (elec- 
tronic) information and back again. 
An audio filter shapes the converted 
output signal and sets the range of 
possible sounds at frequencies of about 
300 Hz to 3,000 Hz, roughly the same 
as a dial-up telephone line. 

Vocabulary While IBM designed the 
applications and the specific circuitry 
for both speech technologies on the 
PCjr, IBM's LPC is a Texas Instruments 
product. IBM chose the words to in- 
clude in the PCjr’s vocabulary and 
purchased them from TI. How do you 

decide which 196 words you'll include’? 
IBM got suggestions from educators, 
programmers, and game developers to 
derive a list of words that can be used 
to build a variety of spoken outputs. 

IBM doesn't admit to having any 
software other than Writing to Read to 
support the voice /O module directly. 
It hopes developers will add routines 
to their software to check for and use 
the speech attachment. 

The person TI chose for PCjr's stored 
voice is under a long-term contract, so 
for the foreseeable future, any additions 
to PCjr's vocabulary can come from 
the same source. 

“We didn't want programs to evolve 
that would use stored sounds with dif- 
ferent voices,” says Dick Glaeser, de- 
velopment engineering manager. “This 
way, as we add new words, they'll all 
be in the same voice.” 

Of course, designers can use any 
voice or sound to add an almost un- 
limited number of words, sentences, 
sounds, and musical notes for spe- 

cialized software applications. The only 
practical limitation is the amount of 
RAM and disk space available. To im- 
prove sound quality that’s reproduced, 
more memory is required. 

That’s because quality is a direct 
function of the speed of sampling, or 
scanning, the code that represents the 
sound. At the slowest sample rate, 
CVSD consumes about 1,800 bytes per 
second of stored sound. Better quality 
is obtained at faster sample rates, but 
the highest rate (best quality) uses 
around 4,800 bytes per second. If you 
dedicated one 128K RAM card tosound, 
you would have about 27 seconds of 
sound at highest quality, and a minute | 
and 12 seconds at the slowest sample | 
rate. A whole 360K disk could store | 
between one-and-a-half and three-and- | 
a-half minutes, depending on the |} 
quality desired. However, most appli- 
cations will involve short vocal re- 
sponses to keyboard input, or 
instructions to program users, and for 
that reason the memory limitations 
aren't that severe. 

Storage and Recording Again, no- 
tice the two methods of speech/sound 
storage and be aware of how they're 
implemented. LPC is a compacted form 
of sound storage. It takes only about 
300 bytes per second of sound for LPC, 
compared to CVSD’s minimum of 
1,800 bytes per second. The prepro- 
grammed words of the LPC board are 
accessed individually via the on-board 
speech BIOS by specifying the starting 
memory locations for each word and 
telling BIOS how many bytes to scan. 
So, to have the computer speak some- 
thing like “That is correct” from the 
preprogrammed vocabulary would re- 
quire three sets of word list parameters, 
one for each word's starting point and 

The application of CVSD works the 
same way, except that you can “record” 
whatever you want the computer to 
say, in the order you want it said. In 
the above example, then, you could re- 
cord “That is correct,” store it in RAM 
(either directly or after storing it on 
disk), then reproduce it with just one 
set of word list parameters: starting 
point and length for the sentence. 

Presumably, you could store indi- 
vidual sounds (phonemes or mor- 
phemes) and access them in the correct 
order to produce the words you want. 
You could even access a portion of a 
word to effectively expand your com- 
puterized dictionary. Store the word 

= hs : pee 
Sh ee ae ne 
are Wk ea ere eRe ea 
= cio pe 8 Behar ee 4, ee Or o 
nen OO ae OO 
Wage wo Shin TERT “ae eran ee, ad RG pe le my 

“junior,” for example, but retrieve 
“junior,” “june,” or “your,” giving three 

| words instead of one. This would take 

some pretty slick programming, but 
IBM acknowledges that it could be 

You can also use the PCjr's cassette 
input port to “loop through” sound to 
the speech attachment, permitting 
voice instructions and music to sup- 

| port educational and other software. 

You cannot, however, use the cassette 
port as another input to the “recorder” 
circuitry. Any tape-recorded sound 
merely comes into the Junior's cassette 
port and is routed out the speech at- 
tachment sound output. Even this ap- 
plication requires special instructions 
to set up the cassette port properly— 
software not currently supplied by IBM. 

Diagnosis and Prognosis The 
speech board adds some new diagnos- 
tics to PCjr. After stepping through 
the existing icons, which include a 
speaker, you'll see another speaker on 
the screen. If you select this diagnostic, 
PCjr will speak a few words to test 
LPC, then display a microphone. After 
a brief pause, the speaker will beep 
and you may record several seconds of 
sound to test CVSD’s recording 

The quality of the stored voice is 

excellent, although you are limited to | 

a male voice with minimal inflection 
and variety. We tried the voice input 
test during the new diagnostics and 
were amazed at the results. The voice 
reproduction is true, and any back- 
ground sound present when you store 

your voice goes right along with it. Even | 
music seems to reproduce reasonably 


The small BASIC programming 
manual with the speech attachment 
shows you how to access the sound 
module with some BASIC program- 

| ming examples, and that helps. But 
| what we really need is a menu-driven 

assembly language package to help 

| build phrases from the ROM vocabulary 

and store them on disk, and to step 
you through recording your own speech 
and sound and accessing it later with 
BASIC and other programs; and, per- 
haps, the addition to DOS of speech 
commands which could be accessed 
from any language or application 

The speech attachment is an intri- 
guing PCjr add-on. It has potential. 
All it needs is imaginative software 
support. UL 

Pe yt eats ie Ae Sou 
art te gt { Bees OR ee 
hha ie Re Dae 
r _ . ‘ a8 te i 
Pe lS 
. a 

oo ; ot Farsi 
5a _ 

i eae. E > ay im? . * tr. Pee, =< 2 ht og i. _. . =? a a ~ a 5 alli YS 2 A Li a 
Se eg ees ee Md 2k ae en iy CAR et > : abt oP Vv Rae: wr es io Sh fee peas > been si o ee Ae ; 
| Soa ‘+4, As = wy ES ae VE RM, nyt yet we ee iit ® : fy Be ms ‘une ee VPA “a Conar rl eee ; 
ae ey id <a Vs a = wk a sheer © Ue aA » re ww » ae (@ ing ‘a res ee he ee 
he CSix herb wee SRP perder” Pa ss vat ag te es 2 
y iy - = es S fs : " =. og ay * ent 2 ry + i “a Pie wee, 
> ¥ ‘ q 7 . : pts ee - ag 
4 \ + Vt Mem , fi ; =! a 7 i ' ; “LA ae Ny SS <3 : fe er 
io “ Pe lek * h e i ae! tos © ¥ le ; ; d = ry ; * AS 
ty 7 a . { ai | 1. = y $ 
A : i 4 be | ad ' - YF 
f i - le > ‘ ¢ x tal 
a r . 4 re | ¥ : a , 
’ alee ab) i ; ’ ira , ; ‘ ’ ee” k 1H 
4 * ¥ = = f 
“ oe \ ms L ’ 3 - 
o ae it, 7 amet j : pt é 
‘« : , ms Pe fim te nal : “ 2 ’ fu. : re x 
Te te) = i + ee = ger £@ = =e ap a 


Andrew lobias adapts popular 

program tor PCjr cartridge 

By Michael Antonoff 

version because of the use of the car- 

Andrew Tobias’ 
Managing Your Money, a 
home financial package 
available for the past year 
as a three-disk program 
for computers with at 
least 256K of random- 
access memory, has been 
reintroduced on two 
disks and a cartridge for 
PCjrs with 128K of RAM. 
Originally marketed by 
Micro Education 
Corporation of America, 
the new version is from 
IBM Software. 

The $199 disk-and- 
cartridge version is 
“functionally identical” 
to the original, according 

to Pete Polhamus, an 

advisory planner in the Lifestyle Prod- 
ucts Division of IBM Software. “Ours 
will run somewhat faster in the Junior 

tridge,” he says. The basic driver pro- 
gram, which shuffles screens and 
controls the database, has been put 
on the cartridge. On the disk are the 
application programs and user data. 

Gerald Rubin, president of MECA, 
adds that the Junior version is “slightly 
more advanced” because it incorpo- 
rates 1984 tax law changes. Rubin is 
also the systems designer and one of 
the programmers on the original 

Andrew Tobias’ Managing Your 
Money is an integrated financial- 
planning program for tracking income, 
expenses, and investments. The 
hundreds of information screens in- 
cluded on the software were written by 
Tobias, a columnist and author of The 
Only Investment You'll Ever Need and 
The Invisible Bankers. The extensive 
on-screen help, which pops up when- 
ever you hit Esc, demonstrates why 
the introduction to the program's spi- 
ral-bound manual is titled “Why This 
Manual is So Short.” The program itself 
will prompt novice users on everything 
from disk-copying procedure to iden- 
tifying the cursor. 

sented like a book, with a preface 
(“Hello, New User”), seven chapters of 
applications, and an index. Data entry 
is primarily made in the “Budget and 
Checkbook” and “Portfolio Manager” 
chapters. This data carries over into 
other areas. For instance, if you write 
a check to “Dr. Bob,” you won't have 
to tell the “Income Tax Estimator” 
chapter that you have another $50 
medical deduction or “Your Net Worth” 
that you're 50 bucks in the hole. The 
other chapters are “Reminder Pad,” for 
keeping abreast of when to sell that 
stock or open an IRA; “Insurance 
Planning,” to help you figure out how 
much coverage you need, as well as 
how many more years you can expect 
to live (no guarantees on this one); 
and “Financial Calculator,” to plan car 
loans, mortgages, and long-term re- 
turns on investments. 

A Junior with 128K should be able 
to accommodate approximately 100 
checks and budget categories, 100 
portfolio items, 200 reminders, and 
250 asset/liability categories at one 

Besides the ability to print checks— 
fairly standard for these types of pro- 
grams—Managing Your Money is 
laden with bells and whistles. Once 
you've booted DOS, a digital clock in 
the upper right corner of the screen 
will provide a continuous readout down 
to the second. Any time you want to 
do a fast multiplication or addition, 
one stroke produces pocket calculator 

Tobias’ program also comes on disk. 

functions at the bottom of the screen. 
Totals can be automatically transferred 
to the data entry screen. 

The program comes with 10 preset 
color combinations. Striking one of the 
function keys in the “Hello, New User” 
portion of the program will turn that 
text from green on blue to yellow on 
red. (I chose the latter combo to warn 
people to keep back. You may want to 
pick something more subtle.) The pro- 
gram also can play one tune, “Swanee 
River.” Rubin calls it an “effluvial sound 
effect” representing cash flow. 

Good Humor Managing Your Money 

Managing Your Money can chart a family’s expense categories. 




Miscellaneous 3.22 

Groceries, Toiletries 7.34 “es: 

IRA‘Keogh Contribs. 4.1% 



“ee “o> “e “+ 

1? .17 

eS eee 


po-** Evenings Out 2.87 
Utilities 3.82 

“y a ®? 

Clothing 3. 

aT et 


is awash in humorous text. The index, 
a glossary of financial terms and func- 
tion key sequences to get you to a par- 
ticular screen, includes a listing for 
“Fake Disks for Cocktail Parties.” The 
entry states: “If you want to show your 
friends how the program works without 
letting them see how rich you really 
are... or aren't... just make up a new 
set of disks and fill it with harmless 
understatements or exaggerations. 
When guests come, you can pretend 
you left the machine on by mistake.” 

Curiously, this idea of “But what 
will other people think?” was the rea- 
son that hours earlier, I had pondered 
over whether to save or erase my income 
tax file on the copy of Managing Your 
Money we were using at PCjr Maga- 
zine. No one needs to see how much... 
or how little... I make, I had told myself, 
and pressed the quit-without-saving 

The “Income Tax Estimator” chap- 
ter, by the way, has a built-in tax table 
to compute your tax and bracket. (1 
defy your wristwatch calculator to pull 
that one off.) And even if you’ve typed 
in S for “Single” (the program is smart 
enough to fill in the “ingle”), you can 
play around with a J for “Joint” return. 

Speculation “The program is good 
for ‘what-ifs,’” explains Polhamus. “It 
does not print out in a form accepted 
by the IRS, but it’s great for tax plan- | 
ning. It also does cash forecasting. You | 
can look at what you've got in the bank 
and your expenses and see where you're 
going to be over the next 12 months. I 
just made a modification. In April I 
said, I’m going to buy a Datsun. Now 
we've gone into the red because we 
spent too much money that month. We 
can graph that. It will print out on a 
graphics printer.” 

The “Portfolio Manager” allows you 
to add up the value of your stocks. You 
can convert this function to tracking 
anything of value you collect or, as the 
index suggests, use it for keeping track 
of your frequent flier miles. Use airline 
abbreviations for stocks and assign a 
value—say 1.5 cents per mile—to see 
which promotion-minded carrier owes 
you the most. 

This program has an inherent sell- 
ing point: it’s tax-deductible. Tobias 
suggests that you hire your son “the 
high-school math wiz,” or daughter 
“the MBA student,” to run the program. 
That way you'll be able to transfer some 
income out of your higher-tax bracket 
into their pockets. L 



Educators get PCjr discounts, 
Writing to Kead package, new software 

BM recently announced that it 
has completed testing of the Writ- 
ing to Read program, the inno- 
| vative educational curriculum 
| that teaches children to write even be- 
fore they can read. It is now available 
to schools across the country. 

The Writing to Read package, com- 
bined with the PCjr price discounts to 
educators and five new educational 
programs for Junior, is expected to help 
secure the PCjr’s place in the 

In the Writing to Read program, 
children first learn 42 basic English 
phonemes. They then learn how to put 
the phonemes together to form all the 
| words they can say—about 2,000 words 
| for the average kindergartner. From 
there they learn to write phrases, sen- 
| tences, and stories. 

The program was developed by John 
Henry Martin, a retired school prin- 
cipal, about eight years ago. It first 
used typewriters to free children from 
the manual labor of writing each letter, 
then incorporated the IBM PC for 
graphics and interaction. 

Martin believes the PCjr’s newly an- 
nounced speech attachment, along 
with its lower price and 16-color ca- 
pability, make the Junior an excellent 
computer for Writing to Read. 

“I suppose if I were a concert pi- 
anist, you could ask me why I prefer 
to play on a Steinway,” he said. “You 
could go out and buy a toy piano that 
plays two chords and that’s fine if you 
want to play ‘Chopsticks.’ A lot of soft- 
ware is ‘Chopsticks,’ but we like to 
think that Writing to Read is a so- 
phisticated composition, and,” he 


By Linda Sanders 



Writing to Read combines word drills with bright graphics. 

added, “we want a concert piano.” 

Uses Voice The program uses the 
Junior's new voice to instruct the chil- 
dren as they learn phonemes. For in- 
stance, the voice might tell the child 
to type “cat.” If the child types cat cor- 
rectly, the program continues. If not, 
it repeats the instruction. 

The children are not taught the 
conventional spellings of the words they 
use until after they have learned to 
express themselves in writing. Martin 
says the inconsistencies of grammar 
rules confuse and inhibit children who 
are just starting to read and write, but 
can be picked up easily once the chil- 
dren begin to read and write for them- 
selves. What’s more, Martin says, 
restricting children to the 200 or so 
words used in most first-grade primers 
after they've already learned 10 times 
that number is “like asking them to 
go back to Pablum.” 

Before producing the Writing to 

Read package, IBM hired the Educa- 
tional Testing Service in Princeton, 
New Jersey, to complete a two-year 
study of it. Researchers tested more 
than 10,000 kindergarten and first- 
grade students around the country. 

The study showed that by the end 
of the program, 72 percent of the stu- 
dents had progressed beyond writing 
words to writing phrases and sen- 
tences. The researchers also found that 
Writing to Read students compared fa- 
vorably to other students on both read- 
ing and spelling tests. 

IBM staged a demonstration of 
Writing to Read for reporters at the 
announcement. Kindergartners 
clamped on the headsets to listen to 
the instructions, then sat repeating 
the words they heard and typing them 
on the computer keyboard. For the most 
part, they seemed oblivious to the 
camera lights and to the gapes of on- 
lookers observing their proficient 



° PS tay 

su & oe | 
i & é } 
st yo | 
fia , . 
et @ 
, « © # : " 

a. * Py | 

. . Pr. 
= ™ Fi . F “A, 
et el Sia h Pi 
« @ @ ae 2 

John Henry Martin watches children use his Writing to Read program. 

One youngster from North Carolina 

“lam staying at the Plasa Hotell. At 
the hotell there are a lot of elevaters. 
We have room serves sometimes for 
brackfast. Sometimes we eat in the 

A complete Writing to Read package 
for the PCjr includes a PCjr with the 
speech attachment and PCjr Color 
Display, Writing to Read software, work 
journals, teachers’ manuals, audio 
cassette tapes, and two non-computer 
word games. To complete the Writing 
to Read center, educators might also 
need children’s books, typewriters, 
cassette players, and headphones. IBM 



estimates that a center set up to ac- 
commodate 120 students a day would 
cost a school system $15,816—or $35 
per student over a five-year period. 

Student Discount IBM has cut the 
cost of the PCjr for other educational 
purposes. An enhanced PCjr with 

128K, DOS 2.1, Cartridge BASIC, a 

television connector cable, and a key- 
board cord will cost school systems 
$700 each for up to 14 units and $675 
each for 15 or more. The same set-up 
with the IBM PCjr Color Display will 
cost $950 each for up to 14 units and 
$900 each for 15 or more—a savings 
of about $600 from the normal list 


price. The special school prices are 
available to teachers and other full-time 
faculty members, even if they buy a 
Junior for their personal use. Educa- | 
tors can call a new toll-free number— 
(800) IBM-2468—to order the dis- | 
counted Junior and to ask questions 
about the discount. 

Five new educational programs for 
the Junior also are part of IBM’s latest 
move in the educational market. 

IBM Private Tutor 2.0 helps teachers 
design lessons and reviews to be pre- 
sented on the computer. It allows them 
to use a video disk player to provide 
audio-visual material to support the 
lesson. A record-keeping system tracks 
students’ progress. Teachers also can 
purchase prepared lessons to be pre- 
sented with the Private Tutor, which 
has a list price of $50. 

Teacher's Quiz Designer helps 
teachers make up quizzes and tests 
for students to take either on the com- 
puter or on printouts. It lets teachers 
prepare a database of multiple-choice 
and true/false questions, then choose 
the questions that are appropriate for 
a particular test. If the test is taken 
on the Junior, the program can auto- 
matically grade the test. Grades also 
can be entered by the teacher. The pro- 
gram will keep track of class averages. 
It costs $70. 

IBM expects these two programs to 
increase teacher acceptance of com- 
puters. A spokeswoman says the quiz 
designer program provides an imme- 
diate application for the classroom 

BASIC Primer 2.0 teaches intro- 
ductory BASIC programming, includ- 
ing how to use the PCjr’s multi-voice 
sound. It lets the user stop the program 
and go into BASIC to practice the com- 
mands, then return to the lesson. It is 
listed at S60. 

Rocky's Boots teaches computer 
logic and electronic circuitry. Players 
put together various wires and switches 
to build simulated machines to per- 
form certain functions. It costs $50. 

The IBM Personal Computer Earth 
Science Series is a set of four programs | 
that teaches about the hydrologic cycle, 
ground water, surface water, and | 
moisture in the atmosphere. It uses 
color diagrams and simple animation, 
as well as multiple-choice and true/ 
false questions. An IBM spokeswoman 
indicates the series will be expanded 
to include other aspects of earth sci- 
ence. The four programs are $49 
each. U 




IBM's ColorPaint program takes full advantage 
of Junior's graphic abilities 

By Tom Christopher and Don Kennedy 

BM's cartridge program Color- 
Paint is, if you'll excuse a pun, 
the most graphic example yet of 
the powers of the PCjr. 

Since its announcement, the Junior 
has been touted as the computer with 
the most advanced graphics capabili- 
ties of any in the IBM family of personal 
computers. With ColorPaint, the full 
extent of those capabilities is made 
accessible to PCjr owners. The program 
is fast and easy, without sacrificing 
the precise, complex, and numerous 
features necessary to produce stun- 
ning visual presentations on the 

ColorPaint, created for IBM by Ma- 
rek and Rafal Krepec, is operated using 
a mouse to move a pointer to a number 
of pictorial symbols that represent 
various functions of the program. By 
pointing at one of six words across the 
top of the screen, the user can also 
bring up a menu and choose an option 
by merely pointing the arrow at a word. 

In computer jargon, we would say 
ColorPaint is icon-driven with pull- 
down menus. In plain English, it 
means the program is extremely simple 
to learn and use. And in either vocab- 
ulary, it is impressive and, yes, fun. 

Artistic License ColorPaint offers the 
computer artist many options for cre- 
ating a graphic display of impressive 
precision without loss of variety. There 
is a freehand mode in which lines are 
drawn simply by moving the mouse in 
the direction desired. There are five 
different “point” shapes to choose from 
to allow for a number of textures in 
the drawing. 

Straight lines, squares, rectangles, 



A first attempt at “ColorPainting” by Managing Editor (and doodler) Larry Frascella. 

circles, and ellipses can be drawn ex- 
actly and in any size by using the icons 
designating them. A simple erase 
function also permits these shapes to 
be altered when arcs, semi-circles, 
right angles, and the like are needed. 

For fuller effects, you can switch to 
a paint mode that offers 15 “brush” 
widths, or to an airbrush effect. There 
is also a “fill” mode that allows areas 
completely contained by border lines 
to be filled with a color or pattern. 

It is easy to mark a part of your 
drawing and copy or move it to another 
section of the picture. For the fine 
touches that give a picture its shading 
and clarity, there is a zoom feature that 
allows the user to draw or edit the 


picture pixel by pixel. 

That’s how you draw on the screen, 
but the real “wow” of ColorPaint is its 
use of the PCjr’s 16-color graphics 

In the modes for freehand, lines, 
and geometric shapes, your lines can 
be any of the 16 colors available on the 
PCjr. In airbrush, fill, and paint, there 
are a total of 32 colors, shades, and 
patterns available. If the patterns aren't 
exactly what you're seeking, the pro- 
gram lets you create your own with an 
easy-to-do “edit pattern” function. 

Composition Manipulating the ele- 
ments of your picture is also wonder- 
fully simple with this program. Going 


to the pull-down menus at the top of | 
the screen, you can choose to flip the | 
picture or a designated section of it | 
either vertically or horizontally. 

When moving or copying sections 
of the picture, you designate the area 
you're working with by marking it with 
a rectangle. If part of that rectangular 
area includes the white background, 
you can choose not to move that, thus 
allowing neat overlays without the 
bother of erasing or touching up. You 
can even merge your current picture 
with one created earlier. 

The geometric shapes can be drawn 
so that they are automatically filled in 
with a color you have chosen, or they 
can be “hollow”. And, for those times 

when it is necessary to have every ele- 
ment in a picture lined up perfectly 
(mostly for drawing charts arid 
graphs), an invisible grid can be turned 
on, allowing the cursor-arrow to draw 
only on points within the grid. This is 
equivalent to drawing on a sheet of 
graph paper. 

A text mode can be used to type 
words, letters, or numbers onto the 
screen. These can be in one of three 
sizes, using one of four type faces. 
Printed text can be underlined or done 
in boldface or italics. 

Anything created on the screen can 
be printed using the IBM Compact, 
Graphics, or Color printer. Other 
printers will work, but they may require 
special installation when the program 
is started. 

ColorPaint requires a mouse, and 
it will work automatically with either 
the Mouse Systems or MicroSoft 
mouse. Any other brand may require 
special installation procedures. For our 
review of the program, we used the 
Mouse Systems mouse and found it 
extremely steady and easy to control. 

ColorPaint is a cartridge program, 
but you'll need a disk to save any pic- 
tures created using the program. Each 
picture you save takes up a little more 
than 28,000 bytes on the disk, so you'll 
be limited to 11 pictures on a double- 
sided disk. ColorPaint is available at 
IBM product centers and authorized 
dealers. It lists for S99. 

But, if a picture is worth a thousand 
words, let us show you some pictures 
of ColorPaint at work. Contributing 
Editor Tom Christopher, PCjr Maga- 
zine’s graphics consultant and a New 
York computer artist, put the program 
through its paces. The screen shots, 
at right, show you his progression from 
blank screen to finished work. 

Using the functions listed on the upper-left side of the picture (above), artist Tom Christopher 
gives his image its early shape. 

ib Opaque 

mee «6 ill Shape Rink 
Ext MOG Hol low\share be mm 

air brus 

The pull-down menu (above) is used to call for the “fill shape” function, and an edited pattern 
is used to color the foreground. Details of the drawing were flopped or partially erased, using 
ColorPaint, to create a realistic look. The finished product (below) uses “paint” to draw the title | 
and the “text” mode to give the artist his credit. | 

| = : 


halfacks & reavywelghts: 


Whether the action is at ringside or 
the 50-yard line, two new sports games 

give Junior a competitive edge. 

hat’s America’s national 
pastime? Why, it’s sports, 
of course. No doubt about 
it, be they participants 
or spectators, when Americans have 
some time on their hands, they start 
looking for some action. Americans go 
out of their way to make time for their 
pursuit of fast-paced entertainment. 
However, when you have a PCjr and 
two games like Imagic’s Touchdown 
Football and Sierra On-Line’s Cham- 
pionship Boxing, you don't have to go 
very far out of your way to find it—the 
fun is at your fingertips. 

From the moment you first load 
Touchdown Football into Junior's disk 
drive and are greeted with the an- 
nouncer'’s voice saying, “Imagic pre- 
sents: Touchdown!” you can feel in your 
bones that you're in for some true-to- 
life gridiron action. 

Now wait a minute. Did he say an- 
nouncer’s voice? You've got it, an an- 
nouncer’s voice. Imagine the magic of 
a human voice coming at you from 
your PCjr, and you have just one of the 
highlights of this action game. Imagic 
game designer Mark Klein pro- 
grammed 24 phrases into Touchdown 
Football in his own and in a woman's 


By Greg Pastrick 

| voice. It’s a touch that makes all the 
| difference between a good program and 

a fantastic one. But enough of this 
stuff, let’s get to the game. 

One for the Gipper With 12 seconds 
left on the 30-second clock, you hit the 
joystick’s red button to snap the ball. 
A quick juke left and you haul back on 
your stick, sending your quarterback 
running along the line of scrimmage 
to the right. A 90-degree tug on the 
stick sends your runner straight up 
the field. Suddenly you imagine yourself 
the quarterback; you get a burst of 
speed as you hit the line, and the de- 
fenders scramble after you as you head 
for the sideline at the bottom of your 
screen. You get the first down plus four 
more yards and stop the clock with 
your run out of bounds. Moans of tor- 
ment fill the air as the players run back 
to their respective huddles. 

You hold down the black button on 
the joystick to view the patterns for 

| your next play selections, moving the 

stick through the nine available play 
positions. Holding the stick in position, 


you tap the joystick’s red button to 
program the movement of the left and 
right receivers and the offensive line. 

You think you're on a roll, so you 
call a series of quick downs of passes 
to the left and right, only to have the 
plays snuffed by the blitzing defense. 
It’s fourth down and six yards to go at 
the 26 with only 58 seconds left on the 
game clock. You pull back on the stick 
and hit the red button for the kick 
play. You push the stick to the Field 
Goal-Right position, hit the red button 
again, and instruct your receivers and 
line to block straight. Both offense and 
defense automatically go into their kick 
formations. A tap of the red button 
sets the kicker in motion. You decide 
not to hit the joystick’s black button 
to abort the kick and have the place 
holder run the ball in, so the kick is 
up. The ball sails through the uprights, 
its shadow marking a trail across the 
field, and the announcer confirms what 
you already know, saying, “Kick good.” 
You witness the agony of defeat as your 
mighty opponent writhes with regret 
in the seat next to to yours, lamenting, 
“Why didn’t I rush him?” 

You might think such player his- 
trionics are an exaggeration, but not 


so. Touchdown Football is one of those 
rare computer games that elicit com- 
petitive feelings from those who play 
it. It's also bound to bemuse anyone 
who happens to see adults hooting and 
hollering at a video screen like it’s 
“Monday Night Football.” Even if you’re 
not fanatical about football, you can’t 
help but delight in the sounds, action 
and graphics of this game. It’s clear 
that the Imagic game engineers took 
great care to include real football ele- 
ments such as cheerleaders, officials, 
whistles, crowd movement, music, and 
stadium cheers. 

Poetry in Motion All the small but 
essential extras take nothing away from 
the basic play of Touchdown Football. 
The animation of the players is as good 
as, if not better than, any animated 
games we've seen for the PCjr. The fluid 
movement and definition of the game’s 
on-screen players contribute greatly to 
the game's playability. Generally, the 
teams move in unison in prepro- 
grammed patterns selected by the user. 
However, the quarterback and receivers 
(on offense) and linebacker (on defense) 
are directly controlled with the joystick. 
In addition, the kick receivers and lead 
tackles, on offense and defense, are 
also controlled with the joystick on 
kick-offs and punts. 

Other movement is randomly con- 
trolled by the programming. Two of 
the best features are the way the players 
skid across the Astroturf following 
tackles, and the way a loose ball, on 
punts, bobbles about the field. The 
ground shadows of the players and the 
ball are top-notch graphic extras, and 
the end-zone victory dance performed 
by the player who scores a touchdown 
makes the victory seem just a bit 

Despite these heaps of praise, 
Touchdown Football is not without its 
problems. One of the most noticeable 
trouble spots is the obvious lack of 
depth perspective. We found this to be 
particularly bothersome when passing 
to the top of the screen. It’s just plain 
difficult to judge where the ball is going 
to land. We experienced the same 
problem when trying to pick up punts. 
Patrick Ransil, Imagic’s director of en- 
gineering, says the problem with per- 
spective lessens with repeated use and 
practice moving the ball receiver with 
the joystick. 

Play Book We also found that when 
playing against the computer, it was 


too easy to defend against the com- 
puter’s pass offense. In all the time we 
played against the computer, it never 
once scored a touchdown. The only 
points it amassed were for field goals 
and runbacks following interceptions. 

For the most part, the action of the 
on-screen players emulates that of real 
players. The defense holds and ties up 
receivers just like the pros; however, 
the only penalties you'll ever get are 
five-yard ones for going offsides and for 
delay of game. 

Touchdown Football is most fun 
when you are playing against another 
player. And it is here that the game 

city that never sleeps: New York, New 
York. This exclusive PCjr sports pre- 
sentation is brought to you by Sierra 
On-Line’s Championship Boxing. Let's 
go to ringside and our announcer, J. 
“Clutch” Wray. 

“Hello folks, this is J. ‘Clutch’ Wray 
bringing you this title bout between 
Thomas ‘Hit Man’ Hearns and Roberto 
‘No Mas’ Duran. These fighters are just 
two of the more than 50 fighters in 
Championship Boxing’ stable of box- 
ing greats. And Roberto Duran, the 
man with the fists of stone, has every- 
thing riding on this fight. He has a 
tough opponent to face in Thomas 

play most accurately simulates real 
football. Real football games are won 
by taking advantage of the other team’s 
errors; it’s the turnovers, broken plays, 
and the ability to psych out your op- 
ponent that make all the difference. 
The rule we followed was: Play the 
computer to learn the 18 offensive and 
defensive patterns, and to study the 
movement of the ball and players. Play 
your friends to put the game through 
its paces and have some fun. 

There’s one aspect of Touchdown 
Football that shouldn't be overlooked. 
You have the opportunity to play both 
the strategist and the soldier in the 
trench who carries out the master plan. 
It’s not too often that you get to play 
both roles, the brains and the muscle, 
when you're dealing with computer 
games. Touchdown Football has all 
the elements for fast and furious foot- 
ball action; all you need to supply are 
the grunts. 

That quality is one this game shares 
with Sierra's Championship Boxing. 
So if slugging it out on the Astroturf 
isn't enough computer game excite- 
ment for you, how about taking it to 
the ring?... Your tickets, please, Step 
down the aisle to ringside, and follow 
the usher to your seat. 

Golden Gloves Ladies amd Gentie- 
men! Welcome to the PCjr Magazine 
Boxing Trials at Ziff Colosseum in the 

————---—___—— ——— -—<- ~ -—2 oe _— 

The fluid 
movement of the players 
contributes greatly to 

the game's playability. 

Hearns, a man with a crushing right- 
hand punch. Let’s break for a com- 
mercial message.” 

Sierra On-Line, makers of some of 
the best games for the IBM PCjr, has 
come up with another knockout. 
Championship Boxing, Sierra's new 
champ, is a comprehensive animated 
boxing program designed for people 
who want to learn something about 
the sport, its history, and its tech- 
niques. The game package comes 
complete with four manuals, titled 
“Program Guide,” “Boxing Clinic,” 
“How to Play,” and “History of Boxing.” 

The program has three play modes 
(Simulation, Strategy, and Arcade), two 
scoring options (Round and Ten Point 
Must), two round selections (one min- 
ute and three minutes), and the option 
of using the program's own stable of 
boxers or creating your own fighter of 
the future. Let’s go back to ringside. 

“These two boxers are professionals. 
Now that they're pitted against each 
other in Championship Boxing’s 
Strategy Mode, there's one thing Dur- 
anll have to remember, When you're 
a boxer in a championship bout, you 
don't take chances—you can’t take 
chances. One mistake and the right 
can do you in. 

“Duran has a brutal overhand right 
of his own. But in previous Strategy 
Mode match-ups, he's been unable to 
get to Hearns with that right. And 

~ OCTOBER 1984 

you've got to get inside a taller man’s 

“So there you have it, Hearns 
against Duran. A look at Champion- 
ship Boxing’ on-screen tale of the tape 
shows that Hearns is the younger, 
lighter, and taller boxer with a longer 
reach. However, Duran has the 

“First round action, and Duran is 
favored by the program to win. Hearns 
is the dark figure, Duran is the light. 
The fighters touch gloves and Hearns 
throws a good right! 

“Duran moves in, bobbing and 
ducking, playing to Hearns’ weak left. 
Good combination from Hearns. He 
tags Duran with a stinging right up- 
percut. Ten seconds to the end of 
Round One, in what's shaping up to 
be another tough bout for these two 
professionals. We'll be back with the 
judges’ first-round scoring.” 

The Promoters About a year ago two 
brothers in Olympia, Washington— 
Dave and Barry Murry—started work 
on a boxing program that would be 
both educational and fun. Dave, the 
programmer, and Barry, the artist/ 
writer, chose great fighters to be writ- 
ten into the program as they were at 
their prime, following either a cham- 
pionship or a notable bout. 

The Murrys set up the main menu 
graphically along a street scene. To be- 
gin, you enter the Gym to choose from 
the list of champs or to make your own 
fighter. Next, you enter the Fight arena 
to watch, manage, or box. Then you 
go to the Options shop to select the 
scoring system, length of rounds, du- 
ration of the fight (1 to 15 rounds), 
and playing mode. The instructions in 
the “How to Play” manual are easy to 
follow and the graphics and animation 
are enticing. They make you want to 
get straight to the ring, so let’s get 
back to the match. 

“Here's how the judges scored Round 
One: 2 to 1 for Hearns. And the boxers’ 
status? Both are breathing heavily, but 
neither is hurt. 

“And there's the bell for Round Two. 
The fighters meet at center ring. Duran 
leads with a left, following with the 
effective right to Hearns’ head. He's 
scoring very effectively. Another good 
right and Hearns felt it. The animated 
graphics actually have his knees wob- 
bling and he’s falling back. You can 
see the heads of spectators popping 
up over the edge of the ring. There's a 
press photographer trying to capture 


Ali Blasts 

By Steve Barenfeld 

PCjr Magazine asked New York 
Post sports writer Steve Barenfeld to 
cover the “Dream Match” of his 
choice with Sierra On-Line’s 
Championship Boxing, 

He chose a 15-round heavyweight 
bout between two legendary greats: 
Joe Louis and Muhammad Ali. 

This classic brawl was fought 
in the game’ss strategy, mode. Here's 
how Barenfeld saw it: 

It was vintage Muhammad Ali. Dance... jab... work the body... wait for an 
opening... and then, go for the kill. 

The victim this time was the vaunted Brown Bomber, Joe Louis, a 4-3 favor- 
ite who took a 55-1 record with 46 knockouts into his heavyweight clash with 
Ali and came out battered and beaten. 

Ali broke the aggressive Louis’ spirit with an early display of dancing and 
counterpunching; the Louisville Slugger broke Louis’ rib in the fifth round and 
broke into a victory dance around the ring after knocking Louis out 2:40 into 
the seventh round. 

It was supposed to be the toughest fight of Ali’s life, but aside from a slight 
cut on the bridge of his nose, he had no trouble fending off the charging Louis 
and raising his mark to 40-0 with 26 knockouts. 

Ali—with a 10-pound weight advantage, a six-inch reach advantage, and a 
six-year age advantage over the 34-year-old, 200-pound Louis—was content to 
let his opponent do the attacking early while he “shuffled” and probed for an 
opportunity to land a killer punch. The strategy worked. 

The patient-as-Job Ali counterpunched Louis to death in the first round, 
landing lefts and rights that snapped back the Brown Bomber’s head and hurt- 
ing him with vicious shots to the ribs. Somehow, the judges scored the round 
for Louis, probably because he was the one moving forward. 

But by the third round, Louis was on the defense. Sensing his foe was in 
trouble, Ali landed a straight left that staggered Louis, who managed to last 
through the round. In a valiant but vain effort to recover, Louis fought bril- 
liantly against an attacking Ali in the fourth, cutting Muhammad's nose and 
winning the round. 

That, however, was to be Louis’ last surge. With the Brown Bomber obviously 
in pain around the right rib, Ali picked up his body assault. And when Louis 
tried to protect the broken rib, Ali hit Louis in the face with a series of hard 

The sixth round saw more of the same, and after Louis opened the seventh 
with two lefts and two rights to Ali’s head, Ali beat up on Louis, who crumpled 
to the canvas after a left to the body and a devastating right cross. 

Louis was counted out, proving once again that Muhammad Ali is, indeed, 
“The Greatest.” 0 



A Filing & Reporting Program 
For IBM-PC™ 
and Compatible Computers 

Listen to what PC Magazine wrote: 

“Many programs costing two 

to three times as much cannot 
do most of what PC-FILE ’N 
REPORT can... you should be 
well rewarded” 

“PC-FILE ’N REPORT: A diamond 
in the rough” 


The data entry procedure is 
generally smooth... PC-FILE 
"N REPORT encourages high 
speed data entry...” 


One of the most powerful features 
of PC-FILE ’N REPORT is it’s 
ability to perform table lookups... 
This table lookup feature is 
extremely sophisticated...” 

PC Magazine 
July 24, 1984 

Price: $1 95.00 



Mail To: 
JASPIR International Inc. 
24 Salrit Avenue 
Waldwick, N.J. 07463 
(201) 445-8535 

Copyright 1983 The Computery, Inc. 
PC-FILE 'N REPORT is a Trademark of 

The Computery, Inc. 

IBM-PC is a Trademark of |BM Corporation. 


the moment. It’s a mandatory eight 
count for Hearns. Those were punish- 
ing punches from a bull of a man. 

“Hearns comes back to the center 
ring and there's the end of Round Two 
action, and a better round for Duran. 
We'll be back for the third and final 
round in a moment.” 

The brothers Murry—who call 
themselves Evryware—built some of the 
program's best features into the Arcade 
mode. In this mode, you have the option 
of controlling one or both the boxers 
from the keyboard. On the PCjr key- 
board, letter keys are assigned move- 
ments such as step forward, jab, 
uppercut, and duck. It’s also possible 
to redefine the keys to your liking. And 
you have the option of adjusting the 
fighting style and speed of your boxer’s 
reflexes. We found that, like real boxing, 
the fighters telegraph their punches. 
For example, when a boxer is getting 
ready to throw a head punch, he'll fre- 
quently drop his arm. 

In the Strategy mode, you have lim- 
ited use of the action keys. Aside from 
the general instructions you can pro- 
gram for the fighters before and be- 
tween rounds, you can ‘“‘shout”’ 
instructions from the corner after mid- 
round by using one of two number 
keys, telling the fighter either to protect 
himself or go for the knockout. 

Final Round “Here's how the judges 
scored Round Two: It’s Duran, 2 to 1. 
And the fighters’ status? Duran’s 
breathing heavily, but is not hurt. 
Hearns is noticeably tired, but not hurt. 
“All right, Round Three. When 
you're down like Hearns, you come back 
fighting—working those big hands. 
“Both fighters have received their 
programmed instructions. Hearns was 
told to go for the knockout, but he’s 
tired and I wonder if he can do it. Duran 
was simply told to wait for his opening, 
“Duran is wasting no time. He's 
throwing a lot of leather out there, 
scoring and scoring again. Fatigue is 
beginning to show on Hearns. He's 
trying to use those lefts, get in close, 
but Duran is answering him back. Oh, 
a pulverizing punch from Duran. A 
right to the head. With 10 seconds to 


go, Hearns is trying to rescue the round 
with a flurry at the end, but it won't 
be enough. We'll be back with the 

judges’ final scoring.” 

The animation of Championship 
Boxing is superb. Each figure uses 
about 24K to manipulate its indepen- 
dently moving body parts. In the pro- 
gramming, the figure is split into 
several sections: Each arm moves sep- 
arately, as do the head and legs. You 
can't really dance around the ring, but 
that doesn’t detract from the simple 
enjoyment of the range of motion the 

| program has. 

“We're back live from the PCjr Mag- 
azine box-offs. Here’s how the judges 
called it: 2 to 1 Hearns, 2 to 1 Duran, 
and 2 to 1 Duran. So, by a 5-to-4 de- 
cision, Duran takes the title.” 

There's no doubt about it. Cham- 
pionship Boxing accomplishes its 
purpose. We did learn something about 
boxing, its history, and boxing tech- 
niques. As long as a game does what 
it says it will, how can you go wrong 

| buying it? But computer games are 

rarely like real life. Duran won the 
computer bout, but lost the real-life 
fight last June. Hearns took him out 

| with a smashing right to the body that 

KO’d Duran in the second round. 
Goodnight Roberto, good-bye title. Let’s 
go back to J. “Clutch” Wray for the 
sign-off. Take it away, Wray. 

“This has been a sports presenta- 
tion of PCjr Magazine, recognized 
around the world as the leader in games 
software presentation for the IBM 

Championship Boxing 
Sierra On-Line 

Sierra On-Line Building 

Coarsegold, CA 93614 

(209) 683)-6858 

List price: $34.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K 
and disk drive, or equivalent 


Touchdown Football 


981 University Ave. 

Los Gatos, CA 95030 

(408) 399-2200 

List price: $34.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K 
and disk drive, or equivalent; audio 
device desirable, but optional. 



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SOCIALSTUDIES =—«-_- R50 . rons | 
| Edited By David H. Ahi tere et Sou , boot 4g ideas 3 
q Edited by David H. | 


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Use these three books for state-of-the-art learning material! 


Edited by David H. Ahl 

Are you involved with one of the physi- 
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Fields covered include Social Stud- 
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812” x 11”, softcover. 
$14.95 ($2.00) #9X 


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Here are 90 intriguing math and science 
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The Student Edition includes only the 
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Scores of ready-to-use, classroom- 
tested ideas in dozens of areas such as 
solving differential equations. ..trig- 
onometric functions and Tchebychev simula- 
tions and problem-solving in probabil- 
ity... binary counting...regression 
analysis. Practice programs, art and 
graphing problems, program listings 
and sample runs are included, plus over 
250 problems, puzzles and program- 
ming ideas. 

842" x 11”, softcover, illustrated. 
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Capsule Reviews from the 



Hands-On BASIC for the IBM PCjr by Ar- 
thur Luehrmann and Herbert Peckham, 
published by IBM. This book introduces 
neophytes to the basics of BASIC program- 
ming. It’s easy to understand, chock full of 
exercises, and cheerfully illustrated for 
young teens through adult programmers. 
(August 1984) 



Across the U.S.A. by Stone & Associates. 
This one is strictly for teaching the names, 
capitals and abbreviations of all 50 states. 
It scores, however, on the basis of typing 
accuracy rather than geography knowledge. 
(September 1984) 

Adventures in Math from IBM. Math in- 
struction plus adventure game scenarios 
add up to a colorful program that gives a 
complete review of basic math skills for ages 
6 to 14. But the reviewer says it's not lively 
enough for repeated use. (September 1984) 

Definition Mania by Facileware. A simple, 
multiple-choice game for building vocabu- 
lary. The words are challenging, and the 
game is aimed at high school students and 
older players. (September 1984) 

| Delta Drawing by Spinnaker Software Cor- 
poration. This highly entertaining graphics 
program turns the Junior's screen into a 
doodle pad, with drawing, editing, and dis- 
play capabilities from simple line drawings 
to kaleidoscopes. (September 1984) 

Early Games for Young Children by 
Springboard Software. Nine games for 3- 
to 6-year-olds, including drawing, spelling, 


and counting. The picture menu makes this 
software outstandingly simple to use. (Sep- 
tember 1984) 

Facemaker by Spinnaker Software Corpo- 
ration. This drawing program reinforces 
computer basics by teaching children to 
make cartoons. It's more of a plaything than 
an educational tool. (May 1984) 

Fraction Fever by Spinnaker Software Cor- 
poration. This fast-paced game purports to 
teach fraction theory to children, but our 
reviewer found that the theory wasn’t nec- 
essarily sound. (May 1984) 

The Game Show from Advanced Ideas, Inc. 
Modeled on “Password,” this guessing game 
offers 24 subjects to choose from. You can 
also create your own. (September 1984) 

The HBJ Computer for the SAT by Harcourt 
Brace Jovanovich. This preparation for the 
SAT features personalized study plans and 
an internal time clock. (February 1984) 

In the Chips from Creative Software. You're 
the Silicon Valley entrepreneur who's start- 
ing a software production business. The 
reviewer found the strategy of establishing 
the business too bare-bones to get adults 
involved, and.the screens too visually dull 
to attract youngsters’ interest. (September 

Juggles’ Butterfly by The Learning Cor- 
poration for IBM. This richly colored game 
teaches preschoolers about the concepts of 
above, below, left and right. It will probably 
be too easy for children who can read, and 
those who can’t won't be able to follow the 
directions. (February 1984) 

Math Blaster! by Davidson & Associates. 
An innovative, colorful, arcade-style game 
that the reviewer says truly shines. It offers 
three types of standard math drills on basic 
math functions. (September 1984) 

M-ss-ng L-nks by Sunburst Software. Fill- 
ing in the blanks of passages from nine 

| children’s stories is the object here. There 

are no clues or graphics. The intent is to 
strengthen word structure, spelling and 
grammar, but it’s unclear what age group 
could benefit. (September 1984) 

My Letters, Numbers and Words from 
Nighthawk Computing. Great graphics 
highlight this program that seeks to teach 
young children (ages 1 to 5) about letters, 
numbers and words. The reviewer thinks 
the program is sound, but only for children 
who haven't already learned these concepts 
from television. (July 1984) 

Pipes from Creative Software. A leisurely 
game for one player, who maneuvers Arlo 
the Plumber as he connects all the houses 
in town to the main water pipe. The goal 
is to use as little pipe and money as possible. 
No age range is given, but the reviewer says 
it could be for ages 6 and up. (September 

Speed Reader II by Davidson & Associates. 
For high schoolers on up, speed reading is 
taught through flashing letter and word 
groupings at speeds that make the eye au- 
tomatically recognize them collectively. 
(September 1984) 

Spellicopter from Designware, Inc. You're 
the pilot of an on-screen helicopter. Your 
mission: to fly around picking up scrambled 
letters so they form words, which you then 
drop onto the landing strip to form a com- 
plete sentence. The reviewer liked the com- 
bination of arcade competition and 
classroom curriculum. For ages 6 and up. 
(September 1984) 

Success With Math by CBS Software. 
There's no action, sound or graphics—just 
one edition on addition and subtraction for 
grades one to four, and another edition 
teaching multiplication-and division for 
grades two to eight. The reviewer says both 
are as boring as conventional math texts. 
(September 1984) 

Thoroughbred Educational Software by 


Thoroughbred Software. These well-de- 
signed programs covering science, math and 
history are informative, matter-of-fact and 
offer ‘a state-of-the-art combination of 
learning and fun.” (July 1984) 

Type Attack from Sirius Software. This 
game/tutor hybrid relies too heavily on the 
game aspect at the expense of real typing 
instruction. (June 1984) 

Typing Instructor from Individual Software, 
Inc. This program builds accuracy and 
speed for beginners and experienced typists. 
It has instructions and drills, bright 
graphics, and even a word chase game. 
(September 1984) 


Multiplan from Microsoft. An easy-to-learn 
spreadsheet with a logical command struc- 
ture and excellent supporting documenta- 
tion. The winner in our battle of the 
spreadsheets. (June 1984) 

VisiCalc from VisiCorp. This venerable 
electronic spreadsheet is easy to use, but 
the manual is unclear—quite a hindrance. 
(June 1984) 


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Adventure in Serenia by Sierra On-Line for 
IBM. A fantasy adventure game in which 
the splashy graphics do not compensate for 
the flawed text. (March 1984) 

Crossfire by Sierra On-Line. (Disk version 
from Sierra On-Line, cartridge from IBM.) 
A tense game that “brings out the mean 
side of people who play it too long.” Zapping 
alien bugs is fun and incredibly challenging, 
but requires complete concentration. (July 

Demon's Forge from Boone Corporation. 
You're wandering in a magic dungeon trying 
to escape, and although some of the solu- 
tions to the problems encountered are not 
logical, the reviewer enjoyed this fast-moving 
adventure game's detailed, well-drawn, and 
richly colored graphics. (August 1984) 

ELIZA by Artificial Intelligence Research 
Group. Posing as a Freudian analyst, ELIZA 
converses via the monitor without having 
to show much intelligence of its own. Al- 
though ELIZA’S talent as an analyst is 
somewhat limited, the reviewer calls the 
program a stunning example of how natural 
computer-human interaction can be. (Sep- 
tember 1984) 

Gato by Spectrum HoloByte, Inc. This sim- 

ulation of a World War II attack submarine 
was rated substandard by our reviewer. The 


boredom of life in a sub is too accurately 
portrayed, but once you get to battle stations, 
the game becomes complex and a good test 
of command judgment and skill. (August 

Jury Trial from Navic Software. Legal eagles 
will be frustrated by the incompleteness of 
this courtroom simulation. A cantankerous 
sheriff, along with witness interrogations 
that are limited to questions composed by 
the computer instead of the players, sharply 
reduce the chance for a fair trial. (August 

King’s Quest by Sierra On-Line. A unique 
and entertaining mix of interactive adven- 
ture and arcade-style games that the reviewer 
feels makes the best use yet of the PCjr’s 
graphics. The animation is so refined it 
creates a sense of three-dimensional space. 
(September 1984) 

Sorcerer by Infocom. Veterans of this com- 
pany’s other adventure games will recognize 
the interesting prose and humor. This text- 
only game takes you through a world of 
sorcery and magic. (August 1984) 

Space Decathlon from Fantasy Research. 
A collection of 10 games that allows up to 
five players to compete against each other; 
at the end, a galactic champion decathlete 
is proclaimed. The games aren't stunning 
in and of themselves, but as a package 
they're fun. (July 1984) 

Star Fleet I: The War Begins by Cygnus 
Software. “Star Trekkies” will find a familiar 
setting in this spaceship simulation game 
that sets the player in pursuit of enemy 
ships. There's little action, and the screen 
is mostly filled with control panels, radar 
detectors, maps, and status reports. (Sep- 
tember 1984) 

Tiao Ch’i by Micro Classics. Chinese 
checkers, but oh, what beautiful Chinese 
checkers! Deep, rich colors and delightful 
markers make this challenging game of 
strategy an enjoyable experience. (June 

Ulysses from Sierra On-Line. As a Greek 
hero, you sail the high seas with money- 
hungry sailors to find treasure. Our reviewer 
wasn't impressed with the graphics in this 
version of a game that’s been available for 
a while on other computers. (August 1984) 

Wizardry from Sir-Tech Software. Players 
assume the roles of characters roaming 
mythic and bizarre worlds in search of 
treasure and rewards for heroism in a com- 
puterized sort of “Dungeons and Dragons.” 
You create you own cast of characters and 
give them attributes that affect the game's 
action. (September 1984) 


Legacy II from Legacy Technologies, Ltd. 

This expansion module adds a second disk 
drive to the PCjr, as well as room for more 
memory and other accessories. Legacy II 
comes with its own disk drive controller 
card to replace the IBM card, and a DOS 
modification program so the computer 
knows there are two drives in place. (August 

PC Booster with Mouse from Microsoft 
Corp. This external snap-on board adds up 
to 128K additional memory, a hardware clock 
with battery power and a mouse port to the 
PCjr. It comes with three software demon- 
stration programs. (September 1984) 


Checkbase from International Microcom- 
puter Software, Inc. This elementary home 
budget program will do a good job of helping 
you balance your checkbook, but not much 
else. It will only print checks; it won't give 
you a budget printout. (May 1984) 

Compu-Chef by DeAmicis Software Devel- 
opment. This compilation offers mouth- 
watering recipes and cooking information 
for preparing meals for all occasions. You 
can also add your own recipes, and get por- 
tion control and analysis information on 
any recipe. (September 1984) 

Dollars and Sense by Monogram. This is 
an excellent home budget program that fea- 
tures speedy data entry and a comprehen- 
sive range of graphs and reports. It almost 
makes budgeting enjoyable. (May 1984) 

Home Budget jr from IBM. This stripped- 
down home budget program helps you de- 
velop and track a home budget, but it doesn’t 
allow you to keep track of separate check- 
book accounts; it’s merely an electronic 
ledger that keeps track of what you spend 
and what you earn. (May 1984) 

Personal Payables from Sundex Software 
Corporation. This unadorned program helps 
you balance your checkbook and includes 
a feature which reminds you to pay your 
bills and then writes the checks. All you 
need to do is add a stamp. (May 1984) 

Taxcut by Best Programs. This excellent 
program uses questions and answers to 
teach users about taxes, and calculates and 
prints tax returns. (March 1984) 

The Tax Optimizer by Dynacomp, Inc. The 
program suggests which IRS forms to com- 
plete to reduce taxes. It saves neither your 
time nor your effort. (March 1984) 

Tax Preparer by Howard Software Services. 
This program is a workhorse, but not a 
wonder. The manual is weak, but the pro- 
gram is solid. (March 1984) 

TaxSimple by AJV Computerized Data 

Management. This program has sophisti- 
cated features such as status lines and split- 


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each entry separately to PC's 
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Boulder, Colorado 80322. Entries 
must be: received no later than Janu- 
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become the property of PC Maga- 
zine, which reserves the right to 
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screen scratch pads, but the language is 
garbled on the screen and in the manual. 
(March 1984) 

The Tax Templates by Omega Microware, 
Inc. These VisiCalc data files attempt to 
organize and calculate tax returns, but they 
actually do little more than a pocket cal- 
culator could. (March 1984) 


T-Maker III from the T-Maker Company. 
This integrated word processor, electronic 
spreadsheet, and data management package 
promises to write your letters, keep your 
books, and file your records. It’s a powerful 
program, and you'll find that it keeps its 
promises. (July 1984) 


Dr. Logo from Digital Research. This is 
Digital Research's 192K Logo slimmed down 
to 128K and converted to PC-DOS. It has 
the usual file-handling capabilities. (July 

LadyBug by David N. Smith. This BASIC 
program doesn’t give you math or list pro- 
cessing, but it does give you beautiful Logo- 
like graphics. (July 1984) 

Logo by IBM. IBM Logo offers more precise 
mathematical calculations than BASIC, as 
well as powerful packaging abilities and an 
excellent reference manual. (July 1984) 

PC Logo 2.0 from Harvard Associates. This 
version of the language requires only 64K, 
yet it’s a full dialect. It's very easy to use 
with an editor that allows search and re- 
place. But it calculates to only six decimal 
places. (July 1984) 


IBM Personal Computer Cluster Program 
from IBM. A network for up to 64 IBM mini- 
computers, of which 63 can be Juniors, 
this software-hardware combination allows 
file and message transfers within the system 
and gives the PCjrs access to hard disks on 
PCs or PC XTs. (August 1984) 



Dow Jones Reporter from IBM. This sup- 


plement to the Dow Jones News/Retrieval 
service is designed to maintain lists of 
stocks and other securities, and automat- 
ically update your portfolio to the most cur- 
rent market values. (September 1984) 


Treating Erection Problems by PSYCOMP. 
This self-help program is no better or worse 
than the countless books and articles on 
the same subject. It doesn’t take advantage 
of the computer's graphics or quick re- 
sponses. (March 1984) 



Bank Street Writer by Broderbund Software. 
A flexible and speedy word processing pro- 
gram that encourages writing and revision. 
(April 1984) 

EasyWriter 1.15 from IBM. Offers a lot of 
features and is very easy to learn. However, 
the program makes it difficult to revise your 
work. Our reviewer says it will prove too 
great an obstacle to experienced users and 
will “eventually send them off to seek a dif- 
ferent word processor.” (April 1984) 


Enjoy Golf? Wish You Could Spend More 
Time On Your Game? Want To Sharpen 
Your Mental Skills? 

Now you can improve your game on the world 





golf course with your computer, either at the office 
or at home. Tee off like the pros on the most 
realistic computer golf game available that never 
plays the same twice. Each hole on the course is 
shown in full color and drawn exactly to scale 
with sand traps, water hazards, trees, bushes, 
roughs, and out-of-bounds areas. 

Pin placements and the surface slope of each 
green varies each time from game to game and 
you decide whether to play from the regular tees 
or the challenging championship tees. 

Don’t let another day go by before you try this 


For IBM PC, PC-XT, and PCjr. 
personal computer systems with 128K 

color graphics adaptor. 

Hay the 

exciting and new exact simulation golf game! 
Grab your clubs and let’s head for the course! 


Available at your nearest computer retail store or 

Charlotte Plaza, Suite 1300 
Charlotte, N.C. 28244 



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GOLP’S BEST is a trademark of | Step Software, Inc. 

and C.O.D. orders. 





Copy to have a set format & re- 
main the same for all 3 months. 
Logo is available at extra cost 

of S80. per issue (S240. extra 
charge). Closing date 20th of 

3rd month preceding cover date. 

Listings are grouped by category 

and consist of a bold lead line (25 
characters maximum), 7 lines of 
ad copy (45 characters/line), + 4 
lines of name, address, phone #. 
Listings are sold on a 3 issue ba- 
sis at 5175./issue (S525. total). 



Top quality dustcovers for your PCjr. 
Leather-like material, lines w/soft inner 
liner. Hand sewn. NON-static. Satisfaction 


Keyboard $ 9.95 
System unit $12.95 
Monitor $12.95 

Systems Unit & monitor (1 pce.) $16.95 
Keyboard system unit & monitor 
(3 pcs.) $24.95 
Add $2.00 postage and handling. 
550 N 68th Street 
Wauwatosa, WI 53213 
(414) 257-3562 


eset CPSP BOBO CEE 8888828 
Why try to fit your Database needs into 
rigid software? Will design custom pro- 
grams, abundant consultation/mainte- 
nance. IBM/PCJR. For personal/ 
professional/very small businesses. Cor- 
respondence/inventory/accounting. SF Bay 
area. Call to discuss your needs. 
1 Grand View Avenue 
San Francisco, CA 94114 
(415) 647-7689 



Add a second disk drive to your PCjr with 
the Creative Firmware Drive li Adapter. This 
adapter plugs into your disk controller 
board and drives any standard half or full 
height disk drive. Four solder connections 
are required. Price is $99. Dealer inquiry 
invited. More information? Write to: 

P.O. Box 850064 

Richardson, Texas 75085 



The Auto-Ledger is a simple, efficient small 
business general ledger. Powerful, it han- 
dies 400 accounts, 2,000 transactions per 
month and 7 departments. Use your own 
account numbers, and format up to 20 
custom reports! Audit past transactions 
selected by date range, account number 
or description string (nice!). Manual in- 
cludes tutorial, $250.00. 


P.Q. Box 19453 

Seattle, WA 98109 

(206) 282-2100 

Send copy and remittance to 
PCjr BLUEBOOK, 12th Flr, 1 
Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. 
Call (212) 503-4506 for addi- 
tional information or assistance 
or Lois Price at 503-5115. 



SHOEBOX—appointment and reminder 
management software with expense ac- 
count reporting. Schedules to year 1999, 
handles recurring items, provides ad- 
vance notice, can search for common block 
of time among many users, supports color, 
lists activities, prints reports in different 
formats and sends messages between 
users. Single user version SHOEBOX |- 
$125. Multi-user SHOEBOX II-$295. 

25 Waterside Plaza 

New York, NY 10010 

(212) 684-7788 



easy to use, affordabie. All the power you'll 
ever need in a DBMS. Enhances word pro- 
SPELLBINDER, etc. Features: write-a-let- 
ter, file merge, mail, numerical computa- 
tion, wild card retrieve, 3 column sort & 
data reorganization. Only $159. 


10 Bridge Street 

Lowell, MA 01852 

(617) 458-4070 





sional routines to total control of keyboard 
input, screen and monitor, data sorting, 
files, 1/0, sound (on/off toggle!), disk copy 
protection, peeks, pokes and MUCH more. 
Fully Annotated and compiler compatible. 
Only $29.95. Prompt shipment. VISA, 
MASTER, check or COD. 


Altamonte Springs 

Florida 32701-0337 

(305) 786-1433 


—R—Reference line numbers & variables 

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change prog; 

—|—lIInclude basic subroutine source 

—D—Duplicate variables in 2 modules 

ALL FOR $4995. 


1551 Plainfield Road 

Joliet, IL 60435 

—815) 725-0346 





Help for your high school algebra student. 
ALGEBRA PLUS covers basic concepts of 
intro. algebra on ONE double-sided disk. 
Stresses practical uses of algebra. Has 
animated graphics, random-select prob- 
lems, 160 item glossary. Documentation 
included. Reg. PC or PCjr., 64K, DOS, 
Basica, Graphics. Available on SS disks. 
$69.95. To order or for information: 

PO Box 37110 

Albuquerque, NM 87176 

(505) 881-3117 




An extensive series of studies proving how 
mankind is being deceived by following 
man’s doctrines & not God's. Other sub- 
jects: Coming of Christ: Where are the 
Dead? Pre-existence of Christ, & many 
more. These are guaranteed to open your 
eyes! They show you how to study & un- 
derstand the Bibie. $34.95 Write or Call. 

P.O. Box 254 

Nescopeck, PA 18635 

(717) 759-3894 

Personalized package using info about your 
child in games, puzzles, demos, and drill 
exercise on + — + Written by Ph.D. math 
prof. for his own kids, JENI-MATH stores 
past performance and picks problems to 
maximize learning. Easy to use graphics 
package. $40. For more information and 
order form send to: 


P.O. Box 2848 

Denton, TX 76201 

(817) 383-1248 

TYPIST—Teach, Test 

Modern typing tutor for PCjr, PC and XT— 
the TYPIST teaches rapid, accurate typing 
by the touch method. Computer analysis 
shows overall and individual key perform- 
ance. Beginner, intermediate, advanced. 
Individual or classroom use. User pre- 
pared drills. Many options. $40 plus $3 


P.O. Box 726, Dept. J2 

Centerville, Utah 84014 

(801) 292-7424 


Put all of your financial affairs together in 
one easy-to-use package with 20 ac- 
counts & 80 expense/income categories; 
quick, simple xact entry; full budgeting; full 
customizable tax projection/calculation; 
built-in calculator; on-screen help; many 
screen/printer reports; plus much, much 
more. Track names, phone #'s, addresses 
& special occasions. 30-day-money-back 
guarantee. $55-VISA/MC; 1 DSDD, 80 col, 


Route 5, Box 221A; Sante Fe, N. Mexico 

(803) 684-3125 (a am-6 pm; Mon-Fri) 
(505) 455-2681 (after hours). 


Solve your checking & budgeting prob- 
lems for good! MICRO LEDGER can assist 
you in creating & maintaining a budget 
while organizing your banking records. A 
life saver at tax time. Easy to use. Req. 30 
minutes to learn & is MONEY BACK 
GUARANTEED. Req. 128K, 1 DSDD $29.95 
+ $3.50 S/H Visa/MC accepted. 

2311 West 5700 South 

Roy, Utah 84067 

(801) 773-8080 



Used video game cartridges for ATARI 
2600, ATAR! 5200 & COLECO VISION. Send 
for our free price list containing more than 
400 different cartridges. 


Dept PCJ 63-56 108th Street 

Forest Hills, NY 11375 

(212) 897-6100 


The ultimate in space combat simula- 
tions. Features color animation of battles, 
Music, promotions, tracks your progress 
through ranks. Capture ships, lay mines, 
jaunch probes, rescue bases, repair dam- 
age, eliminate intruders, more! 104 pg. 
manual. Reviewed BYTE 7/84, PCjr 9/84. 
Reg. 128K, 1 drive, BASIC, 80 cols, $49.95 
+ $2 s/h. 


P.O. Box 57825 

Webster, TX 77598 

(713) 486-4163 



Full featured Personal DATEBOOK, CAL- 
ENDAR & ADDRESS LIST organizes your 
hectic family or business schedule. Dis- 
plays & prints monthly calendar with daily 
events and appointments. Maintains, 
searches and displays your address list 
too! Fast and easy to use. Only $29.95. 
Prompt shipment. VISA, MASTER, check 
or COD. 


Altamonte Springs 

Florida 32701-0337 

(305) 788-1433 

Create exciting & colorful animation for 
Store displays, cartoons, educational 
shows & demos using ARTPAK. Make a 
bird fly! or a man jump! Inc. a complete 
drawing board. Probably the easiest to use 
graphics program available. Many speciai 
effects. You can even add music! 128K C.G. 
crd. $99. Ask about color printing. 
PALSoftware Corporation 

P.O. Box 39961 

Los Angeles, CA 90039 

(213) 259-9659 


Unique program records entire coin col- 
lection and produces various reports that 
serve for personal investment informa- 
tion. Built-in market value file provides 
latest prices for 1600 U.S. coins. Requires 
one drive and any printer. COINS software 
& manual $95. VISA/MC OK. Quarterly 
COINS value updates $25. 

6914 Berquist Ave., Dept. JR 

Canoga Park, CA 91307 

(818) 348-3662 


@eeeseeeeceaeaeaen ee eae eneeene 
Junior version of much acclaimed PONY 
EXPRESS program. Label or single line 
format. Super fast alphabetical sort. Phone 
list option. Correction & deletion routines 
for updating. Auto repeat for ease or rec- 
ord entry. Can print your own return ad- 
dress labels with multiple label option. 
Upward compatible with standard & XL 
versions of PONY EXPRESS. $89.00 
975 Forest Ave. 
Lakewood, NJ 08701 
(201) 364-3005 


SECS eeGeeeoeseeeeeeeeue 

The BONNIE BLUE professional word pro- 
cessing system is now ready for jr. This is 
a complete optimized version. All the fea- 
tures of original BONNIE BLUE are here (no 
one needs a toy word processor). Send for 
our fact-filled brochure and find out why 
BONNIE BLUE is the only reasonably priced 
system able to fill your needs. 


PO Box 536 

Liverpool, NY 13088 

(315) 652-1304 


Features: wordwrap, search/replace, jus- 
tify, block move/copy/delete, headers/ 
footers, etc. Help screen, quick ref card, 
100 page manual. Split screen, edit two 
files at once. Disk with software and man- 
ual $10; registration with support, source, 
and commissions $75. Shareware: can 
copy and share with others. Visa/MC. 

218 First North #224E 

Seattle, WA 98109 

(206) 282-0452 


QWERTY jr is the serious word processor 
made specifically for your IBM PCjr. 
QWERTYjr is uncomplicated, but powerfu! 
enough for serious home and office work. 
QWERTY jr is a part of the OWERTY™ fam- 
ily of word processors known for their ease 
of learning and use, $99. MasterCard or 
VISA accepted. 

P.0. Box 150 
Danbury, NH 03230 
(617) 259-0059. 


Consult PCJr BLUEBOOK every month for 
easy reference to services/hardware/soft- 
ware. You can be part of PCJr BLUEBOOK 
for 3 months for only $330. You get 7 lines 
of copy PLUS a boldface heading PLUS 4 
lines for your name, address and phone 
number. Logo art $50. per issue additional. 

1 Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016 

Lois Price: (212) 503-5115 


American Educational Computer, Inc. has introduced seven new titles in its Matchmaker 
educational series: U.S. Government, World History, Biology, French, and Science I, II and 
I[[. All use standard quiz formats such as multiple choice, matching, and true/false questions 

to test elementary and junior high school students. 

List price: $39.95 each 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K and disk drive, or equivalent 
American Educational Computer, Inc. 

2450 Embarcadero Way 

Palo Alto, CA 94303 

(415) 494-2021 


Bate, i 

pew Sawa 

* Soak Ar « ‘ # 

te eo . 


i ie ls 
a rr 

Micro Ledger 

This checkbook program provides detailed 
reports of transactions, assists in the creation 
and maintenance of a budget, and balances 
and reconciles the ledger to the bank state- 
ment. The program has full editing 

List price: 529.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K and 
disk drive, or equivalent 


2311 West 5700 South 

Roy, UT 84067 

(801) 773-8080 


bal « 
MegaWriter jr and 
MegaSpell jr 
MegaWriter jr, a word processor from Mega- 
haus Corporation, offers mail merging, full 
editing features, a disk organizer, and pro- 
grammable function keys. MegaSpell jr, a 
spelling checker, uses only five commands 
and has a 50,000-word dictionary. 
List price: S80 each; $125 for both 
Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K and 
disk drive, or equivalent 
Megahaus Corporation 
5703 Oberlin Dr. 
San Diego, CA 92121 
(619) 450-1230 



Medical Remote HUSH 80O Portable Silent Printer 
Entry, Dental MITT TTITILITITTTI LTTE TITLE TT TT iri reli irreererrerrrrirrrrrrrrrerrrrer reer 

| Ergo Systems Inc. has introduced two models of printers that feature 80-column, bidirectional 
Remote Entry, | 

printing at 80 characters per second and graphics at 4,800 dots per square inch. The 

Me di Cc al | printers weigh only 28 ounces. The HUSH 80P is a Centronics-type parallel interface version, 
: P bo and the HUSH 80S provides a serial RS232 interface. Both come with printer interface and 
Tran scriptionist > cable, a 100-foot roll of thermal paper, and a nine-volt, AC wall transformer with power cable. 
Each is optionally available with rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery pack. 
and Dental List price: $159.95 
* * 
Transcriptionist ee one, ine. 
1360 Willow Rd. 

These programs ease the maintenance of Menlo Park, CA 94025 

records for doctors and dentists working in (415) 322-ERGO 

rural areas or part time out of several offices. CIRCLE 416 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
The Remote Entry programs handle billing, 
while the Transcriptionist versions are for 
keeping information relating to patients’ 
health. After being entered on a PCjr at home 
or in one office, the information can be in- 
tegrated into records at the main office— 
either on disk or by modem. These programs 
are designed as companions to the compa- 
ny’s Medical Office Management and Den- 
tal Office Management packages for the IBM 

The Intro Series 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K and Comprehensive Software's set of six instructional programs is primarily for novice computer 
disk drive, or equivalent; Remote Entry users. Subjects include operating systems, databases, communications, accounting, and 
programs must be used with the electronic spreadsheets. 

corresponding Office Management List price: $59.95 each 

programs. Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K and disk drive, or equivalent; DOS 2. 1 

CMA Micro Computer Comprehensive Software 

55722 Santa Fe Trail 2810 Artesia Blvd. 

Yucca Valley, CA 92284 Redondo Beach, CA 90278 

(619) 365-9718 (213) 214-1461 


Glare/Guard Coindata and 

Sab obesdsGe ceeoeKeocdé coed ve cenecheevesesereatebheseecocovcsecencooeseoeeteneneNe Stampdata 

Optical Coating Laboratory's anti-glare glass panels can reduce screen glare up to 94 percent. 
Image-to-background contrast on screen is enhanced and high resolution maintained. The 
panels fit most video display terminals. 
List price: S99 

Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc. 

2789 Northpoint Parkway 

Santa Rosa, CA 95401-7397 

(707) 545-6440 


These two programs from Dynacomp, Inc. 
store and retrieve stamp and coin collection 
information. Coindata includes currency 
category, denomination, state or subcate- 
gory, mint mark location, year, and mint. 
Stampdata includes country, category, year, 
perforation, and watermark. Up to 800 rec- 
ords can be stored on double-sided disks, 
and the programs have print and category- 
search capabilities. 

List price: $69.95 for both; $39.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K and 
disk drive, or equivalent 

Dynacomp, Inc. 

1427 Monroe Ave. 

Rochester, NY 14618 

(716) 442-8960 or 442-8731 



Users can build and update mailing lists 
with NameManager from Oracle, Inc. Files 
can be retrieved by name or sequential 
number, alphabetically or selectively. 

List price: $49.95 

Requires: Enhanced PCjr with 128K and 
disk drive, or equivalent 
Oracle, Inc. 

Box 550 

Chelsea, MI 48118 

(313) 572-9379 or 475-3600 



Submarine Attack 

I'm afraid I must take issue with 
the product review done by Greg Pas- 
trick in your August 1984 magazine 
on our submarine simulation game, 
Gato [“DOS Boat: Sub Standard Per- 
formance”]. Since this was Mr. Pas- 
trick’s first product review, I will try to 
be constructive in my criticism. 

First, Mr. Patrick refers to an ex- 
tended period of dead time while 
“cruising at ‘all ahead ¥3' to ... the far 
edge of the on-screen patrol area.” This 
is like driving from New York to Los 
Angeles in first gear. Does he realize 
that ’s means a fraction of full speed? 
I would be bored, too. 

Secondly, there are three different 
ways of saving your position within 
the game while you set it aside to do 
other things: 1) Damage Report, 2) 
Captain’s Log, and 3) Escape Key. 

Third, your comment regarding 
racism simply because we use actual 
Japanese ship names and tonnages 
in portraying an historical event is ab- 
surd. The Japanese did fight the Allied 
forces in WWII. If this had been set in 
| the North Atlantic against German U- 
boats, I doubt this comment would 
have been made. Your sensitivity to 
discrimination is noted, but out of 

Fourth, higher difficulty levels are 
by definition more difficult. Above Level 
Six your mission assignments are only 
transmitted through audio Morse code 
so that there is added complexity, his- 
torical value, and educational value. I 
regret that you do not know Morse code, 
but the players out there who have 
taken the time to learn it find it an 
intriguing feature. 

Finally, all of the above comments 
could have been made to you personally 
if you had taken the time to let us 
know you were performing a review on 
our product. Again, this was your first 
review so lam trying to be constructive. 
Please use an inquiring mind, and 
maybe even the telephone, when next 
entrusted with the power of the press. 

Jeff Sauter 
Spectrum HoloByte, Inc. 

Our reviewer responds that the player 




is forced to travel at /3 speed because 

faster travel uses up all of the sub- 
marine’s fuel. He also says he called 
your office twice to request review 
copies of the game.—Ed. 

Phrase Phaze 

After I “swilled my planter with 
bumbo" (whatever that means) for the 
fourth time in your August1984 issue, 
I began to wonder what an editor does 
for a living. 

An obscure term, used four times 

| by three different writers, tells me that 
- you all sat around a table and agreed 

to use this phrase in spite of the fact 
that it adds nothing to what any of 
them (and you) wrote. 

C'mon, you are supposed to be pros. 
The least you can do is think up your 
own space-filling phrase and please 
don’t use them more than once in any 

Paul J. Goldak 
St. Louis, MO 

Paul, we did it ‘cuz that’s the kind of | 

guys we are. Sorry if it bothers you, 
but we figured if a phrase was good 
enough for George Washington, it’s 
good enough for us. By the way, 
“swilling the planters with bumbo” 
was a colonial practice of buying 
votes by giving plantation owners 
rum, known then as bumbo.—Ed. 

Horse Sense 

Just wanted to let you know how 
delighted we were with the article on 
Thoroughbred Educational Software 
(“Leader of the Pack, “July 1984]. We 
did not expect such a complete and 
thorough review. It was obvious the 
reviewer took pains to really look at 
the software and review it carefully. 

We will be releasing five additional 
products this fall: one in language arts, 
on in physics, one in geometry, and 
two in art. 

Donna M. Zaller 
Executive Vice President 
Thoroughbred Educational Software 

Captains Outrageous 
I have just read the article “All the 

Way to 640K” by Winn L. Rosch in 

June's issue of PCjr Magazine and | 

must say Tecmar Inc. got good reviews. 
But I would like to see a more active 
role by the writer in giving the reader 
step-by-step instructions in how the 
software works. 

Here are some problems I encoun- 
tered. | purchased the jrCaptain, 
hooked it up, and used the Memo File. 
When I tried to print the entire text, 
only the information on the screen | 
printed. The help menu area prints 

Secondly, I tried the CAL program, 
which should print a large calendar. It 
scrolls beautifully on the screen, but 
only the last four days of the month 

After several tries, and further 
reading, I made one last try with Memo 
File to transfer to Form File according 
to the PCjr Technical Reference book, 
page 46. If you type Form followed by 
the names of a data file and a text file, 
a letter will print on your screen.... 

I typed in FORM MEMO and noth- 
ing happened. 

I sincerely hope you could help me 
on this problem. 

Robert Vanterpool 
Bronx, NY 

At the time the review of the Tecmar 

| jrCaptain hardware was written, we 

felt its accompanying Treasure Chest 
software was promising—but not 
functional enough for a full review. 
After the release version of the soft- 
ware was sent to us, we, too, had 
problems getting all but the basic 
added memory configuring program 
to work. Three weeks of headaches 
and consulting with Tecmars engt- 
neers led to the conclusion that the 
programs do work, but the manuals 
that accompany them contain so 
many errors that only a clairvoyant 
might understand how to use the 
software. Tecmar officials promised 
a new manual—and promised us 
that they'd send you one, too.—Ed. 

If we've done something to infuriate 
or delight you, or if you simply have 
something to add, write to: Letters 
Editor, PCjr Magazine, One Park Av- 
enue, New York, NY 10016. 


ERNE IE rae g IO 4 of 4 Ms a oe Ce di 
ce ‘ jee Sta he : 

Se ak ae ce a a 
Pam eke: sh es, ars ee 

ha) ENS Eh a G00 wee | aed OT aad é 
eS te eee ae ee Sent Te ae eae ee 

| {Renvil Sopnerson 

For some reason, scores of IBM-baiting 
journalists who don’t know much 
about computers assail the PCjr. What 
do they prefer? Apples and Commo- 
dores. Good grief. 

While it’s true there is a mountain 
of software built around the ancient 
chip that powers both the Apple II 
family and the Commodore 64, your 
Junior is light years ahead. Those older 
machines’ BASIC languages are a joke 
compared to IBM's BASIC. Unless you 
spend extra for BASIC extension, for 
instance, you can’t do much of any- 
thing on the Commodore without hav- 
ing to remember hundreds of POKE 
addresses and values. And the PCjr 
can run rings around the Apple. Some 
of the PCjr’s commands can even put 
the PC and the PC XT to shame (PAL- 
good examples), and the PC's tinny 
sound isn’t good for too much more 
than beeping at you, unless you know 
some programming tricks. 

The design of the PCjr is very in- 
telligent. It’s small, and contains just 
about everything you'd need (color, 
modem, graphics, disk, lots of ports 
for things like joysticks) in a slick little 
cabinet. The power supply is conve- 
niently external. And the ability to run 
software on cartridges means lickety- 
split program operation. Anyway, the 
biggest flaw in the PCjr is not the orig- 
inal keyboard, or even the single drive. 
It's the lack of a DMA (direct memory 
access) controller to let the computer 
handle different jobs at what seems 
like the same time. When the present 
PCjr's disk spins, everything else is 
put on hold. 

In the last few columns, we've 
shown some of the niftier things the 
PCjr can do that leave less sophisti- 
cated machines in its dust, and we've 


Time out for 

questions on 

and Junior as 
an expansion 


just scratched the surface. This month 
we'll answer some of the more inter- 
esting questions readers have sent us. 
Your questions are very good; keep 
them coming in! 

Q e Can you tell me the resolution 
of the composite and RGB outputs of 
the PCjr? I'd like to know the number 
of horizontal dots and vertical lines 
the Junior is capable of generating. 
Also, does the Junior turn off the color 
to the display in the 80-column mode? 

Ernie Johnston 
Lilburn, GA 

A. The resolution of the PCjr is 
the same as that of the PC, with two 
exceptions. The PC and PCjr share 
what IBM calls “medium-resolution” 
and “high-resolution” graphics. Me- 
dium resolution means 320 dots (called 
“pixels” or “pels’"—short for “picture 
elements”) from left to right, and 200 
dots from top to bottom. High reso- 
lution means 640 dots across, and the 

same 200 up and down. The PCjr also — 

offers as standard a “low-resolution” 
mode that yields 160 dots across the 

screen and 200 dots up and down. 

Obviously, the more dots on the 
screen, the crisper the image. With few 
dots, diagonals are jagged. (For this 
reason, the little step-like shapes that 
show up in curves and diagonal lines 
on your monitor are called “jaggies.”) 
With enough dots, images can be as 
sharp and clear as photographs. 
“Tron’-quality screens, named after the | 
revolutionary, state-of-the-art effects in | 
the eponymous movie, have 4,000 dots | 
across and up and down. But real, 
high-octane computers are needed to 
generate such screens. The best com- 
puter in the world, the Cray, may take 
an hour or more just to compute and 
draw a single frame this dense for 

What you gain in resolution on the 
PCjr, you lose in the availability of color. 
While the 640-by-200, high-resolution | 
screen is far sharper than the 160-by- 
200 screen, the high-resolution screen | 
allows a maximum of four simulta- 
neous colors, while the coarser screen 
lets you have all 16 colors on screen at 
once. This is because it takes more 
memory space to store information on | 
which of the 16 colors to use for a 
single pixel than it does to store in- 
formation on which of four colors to 
use. And it obviously takes more mem- 
ory to keep tabs on 640 times 200 (or 
128,000) pixels than on 160 times 200 
(or 32,000). You have to decide whether 
it's more important for your image to | 
have a crisp picture or a very highly 
colored one. (Incidentally, the PC can 
also use the low-resolution screen, but 
only through undocumented pro- 
gramming legerdemain. With the PCjr, 
it's a snap.) 

Frankly, the 16-color, medium-res- 
olution mode is the best of both worlds. | 

You don’t really gain all that much by 



PC: Tech Journal not only sells 
itself at a nice profit, it helps sell 
the hardware and software in 
your store too. Because it goes 
home with customers and con- 
tinues to influence buying deci- 
sions long after you’re closed for 
the day. Let’s talk now. 
(212) 725-7679 
Or write: 
2D Ziff-Davis Publishing 
.—i One Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016 

Minimum order, 10 copies.|We pay all shipping costs. 


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Just let us know and we'll mail 
you a FREE Creative Comput- 
ing Catalog—16 pages filled 
with books, buyer's guides, 
magazines, and more! 

To get your FREE catalog, 
write to: Creative Computing 
Catalog, Dept.NA9X, 39 East 
Hanover Ave., Morris Plains, 
NJ 07950. 

Reader to Reader 

going from 320 pixels across to 640. 
And 16 graphics colors at once can 
produce a whole slew of magical effects. 
The 16-color, 320-by-200 mode and the 
four-color, 640-by-200 mode are both 
far better than anything available from 
IBM for the PC or XT. And even better, 
the PCjr’s powerful PALETTE com- 
mands let you define which four of the 
available 16 colors you can use on your 
640-by-200 screen—and you can in- 
stantly change the four you choose from 
screen to screen for some downright 
astonishing effects. 

The real question, however, is what 
your monitor can handle. A crisp RGB 
(red/green/blue) monitor such as the 
top-of-the-line models from IBM, NEC, 
Amdek, Taxan, Sony, Princeton 
Graphics, Quadram, and others will 
give you the best possible results. Spe- 
cial composite monitors are quite a bit 
less sharp, but work fairly well. Home 
televisions come in third. 

RGB monitors are designed to ac- 
cept three distinct signals from the 
computer, one each for red, green, and 
blue, and are usually built to more ex- 
acting standards than composite 
monitors. Composite monitors and 
home televisions receive one combined 
signal rather than three separate ones, 
and some information on what colors 
go where gets lost in the shuffle. Com- 
posite monitors are sharper than home 
televisions because it takes two extra 
steps to run a television—the computer 
output must be converted to an RF 
(radio frequency) signal the TV can 
handle, and then converted back to 
the image the computer sent. These 
extra processing steps further degrade 
the quality. 

However, while RGB monitors are 
clearly the sharpest image producers, 
they are considerably more expensive 
than the alternatives. 

One last note—the new IBM PCjr 
monitor does in fact produce sharp 
images, but with a major drawback. 
Image crispness is a function of the 
“dot pitch” of the television tube. The 
smaller the pitch, the closer the dots 
are to each other, the smaller the dots 
are on the screen, and the clearer and 
more precise the image is. IBM's top- 
of-the-line RGB is a work of art (al- 
though others, such as NEC's, are 
sharper). IBM’s PCjr RGB monitor 
produces vivid colors, but through a 
coarse mask that makes it look at times 
as if you're staring at your graphics 
through a screen door. 

While the PCjr can run circles 


around the PC and the PC XT graph- 
ically, these more expensive computers 
do have one additional mode the Junior 
lacks, but it’s nothing you'll miss. The 
PC and PC XT produce monochrome 
characters of breathtaking clarity and 
precision. This is partially the result 
of forming the characters out of 9-by- 
14-dot boxes (grids of dots that form 
patterns, letters and numbers) rather 
than the PCjr’s 8-by-8 box (which per- 
mits room for letters that are really 6- 
by-7), and partly because the IBM 
monochrome monitor projects its im- 
age onto what is called a “high-per- 
sistence” phosphor to blur the dots 
slightly into what seem to be connected 
lines rather than strings of pixels. 

The answer to whether the Junior 
turns off color in the 80-column mode 
depends on what kind of monitor you're 
using. In some cases, the BASIC 
SCREEN statement tells your graphics 
circuitry whether to send color infor- 
mation to your monitor. If you're using 
an RGB monitor, the signals are always 
sent in color. If you have a composite 
monitor, you have to tell your PCjr 
whether you want color, or black and 
shades of gray. 

The PC and PC XT are configured 
so that the default—the usual setting— 
is for the color to be on. The PCjr, how- 
ever, is configured so that for composite 
monitors the color signal default is off. 
Don't ask me why. The way to turn it 
on in text mode is to use a “1” rather 
than a “O” for the “burst” argument— 
the one you enter in the SCREEN com- 
mand right after the number for the 
mode you want. And—are you ready 
for this?—it works backwards in 
graphics mode: Here a “1” disables color 
and a “O” enables color. And some 
modes (2, 3, 5, and 6) disregard the 
burst value entirely, since in these 
modes color is always on. Actually, 
varying shades of gray can produce 
some very interesting effects, but color 
is generally more effective. However, if 
you wanted to simulate a newspaper 
page, or an old photograph, gray 
screens can be fun to play with. If 
you're confused, I don’t blame you. 
Read the SCREEN section in the BASIC 
manual and experiment by issuing 
SCREEN ,1 and SCREEN ,0 

Q e I use IBM’s HomeWord word 
processor, but cannot find any option 
Jor printing a particular page without 
printing the entire document. How can 
I print just a part of my document, 


one page out of five, for instance? 
Chakrpad Taveteekul 
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 

A. HomeWord is a very limited 
word processing program that cannot 
perform many of the functions many 
far more powerful and flexible word 
processors now on the market for the 
PCjr can perform. However, from read- 
ing the HomeWord manual, it appears 
that you can copy text from one doc- 
ument to another (see the section on 
pages 64 and 65 under the heading 
“Putting Back Text.”) It looks as if you 
have to move the text you want to print 
into a buffer (“temporary storage area”), 
and then copy this text to a new file 
| (called “Pagel” or whatever you want 
to name it). Then print just the new 

Q, I recently bought the IBM 
BASIC Compiler by Microsoft_for use 
with my PCjr. The majority of my pro- 
grams use 32K to 64K of video RAM 
{random-access memory], and the 
CLEAR statement in the compiler does 
not allow changing RAM size. It also 
does not allow use of the PALETTE 
statement. Are there simple assembly 
language commands that I can insert 
in my program in place of the 
CLEAR,,,65536 and PALETTE 

Chris B. Isenberg 
Norristown, PA 

A. Acompiler translates an entire 
program, in one gulp, into a “low-level” 
language your computer can under- 
stand and run relatively quickly. Com- 
piled BASIC runs several times faster 
than normal “interpretive” BASIC, 
which translates into the low-level 
“machine” language one line at a time. 

Until Microsoft releases an updated 
version of its compiler, we're all out of 
luck. The BASIC compiler is an abso- 
lute whiz at speeding up simple BASIC 
programs, but it runs unpredictably 
in such areas as POKEs and cursor 
controls, and just about all the new 
graphics implementations in BASIC 
2.0 and 2.1. You can't do any PAINT 
tiling, LINE styling, PALETTEs, exotic 
CLEARs, etc. It’s a safe bet that Mi- 
crosoft will have a revised version of 
the compiler out shortly; users have 
been clamoring for one, since the first 
was not exactly bug-free, and it's been 
a while since the existing version hit 
the market. But Microsoft may be 
waiting for the next implementation of 


DOS (rumored to be DOS 3.0). Or per- 
haps it’s just low on the company’s 
agenda. However, a revised version is 
sorely needed. Write and holler to Mi- 
crosoft and maybe the company will 
change its priorities; Microsoft is a 
good company. As to assembler 
patches, sure, anything can be done. 
But not easily. 

Q e | suspect that most PCjr own- 
ers would like to have two disk drives 
and at least 256K of RAM. But pe- 
ripherals to accomplish this would 
cost about as much as an enhanced 
PCjr, and their reliability has not yet 
been established. Several months 
ago, I bought my enhanced PCjr for 
$995. Later I saw an ad featuring the 
same machine for less. It seems rea- 
sonable that the price may come down 
in the future. So why not use two 
enhanced PCjrs together, maybe 
stacked on top of each other, to double 
all the important features? 

Jim Clark 
Mobile, AL 

A. Interesting idea, but it won't 
work. This is sort of like saying put 
another engine in the trunk and your 
car will go twice as fast. Try this with 
PCjrs and you'll end up with dueling 
8088 chips. Only one can be the boss, 
and they'd just get in each other's way, 
if you could miraculously somehow 
wire the two systems together. 

Don't disparage third-party hard- 
ware. Companies like Tecmar have 
been in the micro business as long as 
IBM, and have tens of thousands of 
satisfied customers. It’s far better to 
slap on something expressly built to 
expand your PCjr than to plunge in 
with a soldering iron and end up with 
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names and addresses, sort the names alphabet- 

ically, and display the list in sorted form. Of course, 

we'll want to save this list, so that we don’t have to 

keep reentering the names and addresses over and over 
again each time we use the program. 

To do so, we must add to the yoeem we wrote last 

month (which is listed in Figure 1 on 
page 92) a few lines that will write each 
name and address to a separate text 
file. This file is not a BASIC program 
file. By itself, a text file won't do a thing. 
For example, you can’t run one in order 
to look at its contents. A text file must 
be supported by a BASIC program that 
writes data to the file, and another to 
read the data back again. 

Reading and writing text files can 
get to be quite involved. There are all 
sorts of new statements to learn, but 
it's well worth the effort; practically 
everyone can find a use for this sort of 
thing. For the moment, let’s keep things 
simple, and write a small subroutine 
that will let us write our names and 
addresses to a sequential file. We'll call 
it UNSORTED.TXT because later on 
we'll write another file to store the 
names after they've been sorted. (Guess 
what that one will be called. ) 

The following subroutine will write 
the UNSORTED.TXT file for us: 

170 GOSUB 700’ /to write unsorted file 
710 FORN = 1T0X 

720 WRITE #1, NS(N); S$(N) 

730 NEXT N 

740 CLOSE #1 


This subroutine writes a very sim- 

ple, bare-bones sequential file. (Se- 
| quential and random-access files will 
be discussed in greater detail at an- 
other time.) Line 700 gets things 
started by opening a new file named 
UNSORTED.TXT and preparing it to 


tie do oS eared 

address book 
becomes a thin 

of the past when 
ou add a text file 
to your BASIC _ 


receive output (that is, data) from the 
computer. Since the PCjr can work on 
several files at once, the #1 designation 
at the end of Line 700 is used to des- 
ignate that UNSORTED.TXT should 
be considered as file #1. Therefore, Line 

It’s BASIC/John M. enews 

aving Grace 

ast month we began building a BASIC program 
that will eventually let us enter a collection of 

720 writes the first name, NS(N), and 
address, SS(N), into file #1, and the 
FOR/NEXT loop continues until all en- 
tries have been made. Then Line 740 
closes file #1, and Line 750 concludes 
the subroutine. 

With these lines added, run the 
program and enter two names and ad- 
dresses (city and two-letter state code 
only). When prompted for the third en- 
try, just press the Enter key. The names 
you've just typed in will be listed, and 
BASIC’s Ok prompt and flashing cursor 
will be seen, indicating the program 
is over. 

Now, type FILES and you should 
see a new UNSORTED.TXT file listed 
among the other files on your disk. 

Text File Example If you try typing 
RUN “UNSORTED.TXT” (don’t try this 
without saving the program or you will 
lose the lines just added), you'll discover 
a new error message: 
Direct statement in file 

In other words, the BASIC inter- 
preter went looking for a line number 
and instead found what it thinks is a 
direct-mode statement (actually, it's the 
first name that you wrote to the file, 
but the dumb interpreter doesn’t know 

We need another subroutine to read 
the file, such as: 
180 GOSUB 800’ /to read unsorted file 
830 INPUT #1, A$, BS 
840 PRINT A$; TAB(20) BS 
850 GOTO 810 

Here, Line 800 opens the file again, 
only this time data is to be read into 
(that is, INPUT to) the computer from 
the already-written text file. As before, 
UNSORTED. TXT is designated as file 
#1. (If you run the program now, two 
sets of names will be printed on the 
screen. The first consists of the names 
you've just typed in; it’s there as a con- 
firmation of what you've typed, and 


we'll be eliminating it at a future time. 
The second set consists of all the names 
that have been stored in the UN- 
SORTED.TXT file. For now, the two 
sets should be identical.) 

We know that for the moment the 
file contains only two names and ad- 
dresses, and should be closed after 
these are read. However, we will soon 
enough have a file with many entries 
in it, and we may lose track of just 
how many there are. Therefore, Line 
810 keeps an eye out for the EOF (end- 
of-file), and when this is encountered, 
the file is closed and the subroutine 
returns to the main program. 

Source Switch Note the variation on 
the INPUT statement seen in Line 830. 
Usually, the INPUT statement expects 
to hear from the keyboard; but with 
the statement written as seen here, 
the interpreter goes to file #1 (that is, 
to UNSORTED.TXT) and reads the next 
two available data items, which we have 
arbitrarily labelled AS and BS. It would 
surely make sense to call them NS and 
SS for the sake of consistency, but we 
haven't done so, in order to draw at- 
tention to the fact that the INPUT #1 
statement simply grabs two data items 


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from the file, and calls them anything 
you like. This also helps prove that the 
interpreter is really reading the disk 
file, and not peeking at the NS and SS 
variables that are still stored in 

By the way, if we had written Line 
830 as INPUT #1, AS, GS, ZS instead, 
and modified Line 840 accordingly, 

| we'd have wound up with the first three 

items from the file (that is, Name 1, 

_ Address 1, and Name 2). If you have 
_ entered just two names, you also will 

receive the error message INPUT PAST 
END IN 830. This means that during 
the second loop the program is looking 
for the next three items to print, but 
has found only one (Address 2.) 

In Line 840, AS and BS are dis- 
played on screen, and Line 850 sends 
us back to check again for the end-of- 

file. If there are still more items to be 

read, Line 830 reads the next two and 
the process continues until the end of 
the file is at last reached. 

Each time A$ and BS are defined 
as the next two data items read from 
the file, the previous values are lost in 
memory (although they remain safely 
stored on disk in the UNSORTED.TXT 
file). Since we will eventually want to 




TNS Ge Se 


140 GOSUB 400 
150 GOSUB 500 
| 160 GOSUB 600 
| 299 END 
400 CLS 
420 DIM N§$(100), S$(100) 
500 X =X +1 
510 LINE INPUT “Last name, First name:",N${X) 
520 IF N$(X) = ““ THEN X = X — 1:RETURN 
530 LINE INPUT “ City and State:",S$(X) 
540 GOTO 500 
600 FORN = 1T0X 
| 610 PRINT N; N&(N): 
620 LOCATE , 30: PRINT S$(N) 
| 630 NEXT N 

Figure 1. This program from the 
September issue is the starting point for 
this month's column. See Figure 2 on 

page 94 for the expanded program. 

read the whole file into memory so that 
it can be sorted, let’s take care of this 
before continuing, by making the fol- 
lowing changes to the last subroutine: 
820 X =X + 1 

830 INPUT #1, A$(X)}, BS(X) 

840 PRINT A§$(X); TAB(20) BS(X) 


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The X subscripts create arrays for 
the A string and B string. The first 
name-and-address pair typed in will 
become AS(1) and BS(1). The second 
will become A$(2) and BS(2), and won't 
wipe out the data entered for AS(1) and 

If you have already entered a few 
names and addresses, type RUN 180 
to read the UNSORTED. TXT file. After 
doing so, type RUN only and you will 
be prompted to make another entry. 
Make one or two more entries and then 
press ENTER only in response to the 
prompt for another name. As before, 
the entries will be written to disk, and 
then read back again. 

Did you lose something? Your most 
recent entries should be seen on 
screen, but the earlier ones are now 
among the missing. What happened? 

Well, it turns out that every time a 
sequential file is opened for output (as 
in Line 700), the previous file with the 
same name is erased. Oh well, you can't 
have everything. 

Appendix Well, maybe you can. Just 
change Line 700 to read as follows: 

Now, when new data is entered, it will 

be appended to the existing UN- 
SORTED.TXT file, rather than wiping 
it out. 

As the program is written so far, 
each time you run it, the UN- 
SORTED.TXT file will be opened so 
that you can append more data to it. 

Each time 
you run the 
program, the 
data file will 
be opened 
so that you 
can add 
more data 
to it. 

Of course, you can immediately close 
the file by just pressing the Enter key 
in response to the first prompt for a 
new name. The existing file is then 
reopened, read back into memory, and 
displayed on screen. 

Tity Bitty 

Needless to say, there’s a more ele- 
gant way of handling things. Let’s add 
a few lines so that when the program 
is run, the user is asked whether he 
or she wants to enter data or just read 
the existing file. Make the following 

145 ON S GOTO 150, 180 

430 PRINT ‘‘Please indicate your choice:” 

440 PRINT “1. Write new data to the file.” 

450 PRINT “2. Read the file.” 

460 INPUT S 

Lines 430 to 460 prompt the user to 
enter a 1 or a 2 to indicate which option 
is preferred. Then, in Line 490, the 
subroutine returns to the main pro- 
gram, as before. However, now the next 
line encountered is the new Line 145, 
which may need a little explaining. Note 
that the GOTO statement is followed 
by two line numbers (150 and 180). 
Simply stated, ifS = 1, the program 
will go to Line 150 and if S = 2, it will 
go to Line 180. 

So, if you enter a 2 in response to 
Line 460, the program skips all the 
data entry subroutines and branches 
to Line 180, which calls the subroutine 
that reads the file. On the other hand, 
if you enter a 1, then Line 150 calls the 
subroutine for entering more names 

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and addresses. Neat, huh? 

The INPUTS(n) Function If you 
want to get fancy, try the following var- 
iation on the INPUT statement used in 
Line 460. Since this is an input func- 
tion (not a statement), it must be writ- 
ten in the form seen here: 

460 K$ = INPUT$(1) 

(Note that the INPUTS(n) function ap- 
pears on the right-hand side of the 
equal sign.) 

When program execution gets to 
this point, it will pause until the user 
types the number of characters spec- 
ified by the number within parenthe- 
ses—in this case, a single character. 
As soon as any key is pressed, execu- 
tion will immediately continue and it 
is not necessary to press the Enter key. 

Since the INPUTS(n) function sup- 
presses the flashing cursor, the screen 
appears to have gone dead. This makes 
it all the more important to precede 
the line with suitable instructions to 
the user, such as those given in Lines 
430 to 450. 

It’s also necessary now to define S, 
since the new Line 460 has wiped out 
the INPUT S statement referred to in 
Line 145. So, add: 

480 S = VALIK$) 

Since the INPUTS(n) function treats 
any keyboard input as a string, Line 
480 is used to convert that string 
character (“1” or “2”) into the appro- 
priate numeric value (1 or 2). Of course, 
this is a bit more involved than a simple 
numeric input statement, but it does 
spare the user the minor bother of 
having to press the Enter key. 

There is another problem that could 
confuse the user even more. As the 
program is now written, if the user 
presses something other than 1 or 2, 

Line 145 is, in effect, ignored. This | 

creates the same result as when the 
user presses 1: Program execution 
simply passes to the next line (Line 
150). This is just fine if the user really 
meant to press the 1 key. But if the 
user meant to press the 2 key, then 
getting the opposite choice would prove 
confusing. So you have a choice: Expect 
the user to make no typing errors, or 
throw in a few extra lines to provide 
some help. 

Piece of the Rock To complete that 
insurance process, the INPUTS(n) 
function may be used to reject inap- 
propriate keyboard entries. For exam- 
ple, let's say that the entry must be 
either the number 1 or the number 2. 


_ Just add the following line: 

470 IF K$ <> "1" AND K$ <> “2" THEN BEEP: 
GOTO 460’ (<> = “unequal to”) 

When program execution reaches Line 

470, if any key except 1 or 2 has been 

pressed, Junior will “beep” and go back 

to Line 460 to wait for another input. 

Note that pressing the Enter key 

You have a 
choice: Expect 
the user to 

make no typing 

errors, or throw 
in a few extra 
lines to provide 
some help. 


does not help break out of this loop 
through Line 460. As far as the IN- 
PUTS(n) function is concerned, Enter 
is just another one of the keys on the 
board. Try running the program with 
the following line added: 

465 PRINT ASC(K$); 

and then press éach of these keys— 
Backspace, Tab, Enter, Esc, and the 
space bar. After you've pressed these 
five keys, the screen will show: 

89 13 27 32 

140 GOSUB 400’ 
145 ON S GOTO 150, 180’ 
150 GOSUB 500’ 
160 GOSUB 600’ 

/to set array size, etc. 
‘to enter, or read 

/to enter data 

/to display data 

170 GOSUB 700’ /to write file 
180 GOSUB 800’ ‘to read file 
299 END 
400 CLS 


420 DIM N§(100), $$(100) 

430 PRINT “Please indicate your choice:”’ 

440 PRINT ‘1. Write new data to the file.” 

450 PRINT “2. Read the file.” 

460 K$ = INPUTS${1)’ (should be a “1” or a “2") 

470 IF K$ <> “1 AND K$ <> “2” THEN BEEP: 
GOTO 460’ (<> = “unequal to’) 

480 S = VALIK$) 
500 X =X + 1 

| 510 LINE INPUT “Last name, First name:’’.N$(X) 
| 520 IF N$(X) = ““ THEN X = X — 1: RETURN 

As you may have guessed, the numbers 
are the ASCII codes for the five keys 

_ you just pressed. In other words, the 

INPUTS(n) function is simply letting 

| you know what key was pressed, with- 

out taking the customary action. 
This facility is often used to allow 
a single keystroke to perform a special 
instruction. To give a quick example, 
just insert the following line and run | 
the program again: 
467 IF ASC(K$) = 27 THEN CLS:LIST 
The program will continue to display 
the ASCII value of each key that is 
pressed. However, if you press the Esc 
key (whose ASCII code is 27), the screen 
will clear, and the program will be 
listed. Not very practical, but it does 

_ show how the INPUTS(n) function can 
_ be applied. Once this point is clear, 
delete Lines 465 and 467. 

Figure 2 contains the complete list- 
ing of the program thus far, with a few 
additional remarks thrown in. To make 
it a bit easier to follow along, each sub- 
routine is separated from the next one 
by a blank line. Needless to say, these 
blanks won't appear when you list the 
program. If you'd like to keep them 
intact, just add a few lines similar to 
Lines 599 and 699 seen here. These 
don't do a thing except separate the 
subroutines and make the program a 
bit more readable. 

We'll be adding more to the program 
over the next few months. 0 

530 LINE INPUT “ City and State: S$(X) 
540 GOTO 500 

599 : 

600 FORN = 110X 

610 PRINT N; N&(N); 

620 LOCATE , 30: PRINT SS(N} 

630 NEXT N 


699 : 

710 FORN = 1T0X 

720 WRITE #1, NS(N); SS(N) 

730 NEXT N 

740 CLOSE #1 



820X =X + 1 

830 INPUT #1, A${X), BS{X) 

840 PRINT A$(X); TAB(20) BS{x) 

850 GOTO 810 

Figure 2. Building on Figure 1, this program can now store data in a text file and list 

the data on screen. 


- Junior iDecleupap moter Norton 


rain Drain 

f you've been wondering why your Junior beeps at 

you when you try to use the keyboard while the disk 
drive is working, we're going to tell you why. The 
whole story is quite fascinating. 

One of the delights of the Junior is that it costs a lot 
less than the original PC. In order to make the Junior 
}so much more affordable, IBM had to find a way to keep 

down the cost of making it, so it could pass the savings 

| on to us. Otherwise, the Junior would 
just be a smaller and prettier, but not 
a cheaper, PC. 

Cutting the cost of making a com- 
puter is a complex matter, but there 
was one very simple thing that IBM 
could do, and did do, when it designed 
the PCjr that dramatically reduced the 
cost: It replaced expensive hardware 
circuitry with hard-working software. 

Inside each personal computer is a 
microprocessor that is the “brain” of 
the computer. In the PCjr, and the PC 
as well, the microprocessor brain is 
the Intel 8088 chip. The microproces- 
sor, though, isn’t the only intelligent 
part of the computer; there are other 
chips that are part of the overall com- 
puter design that are also complex, 
sophisticated, programmable, and 
therefore “intelligent.” 

Some of these smart chips perform 
unique tasks. One example of that is 
the timer chip, known by the number 
8253; this timer chip helps provide 
the computer's “heartbeat,” which 
regulates the timing of various func- 
tions. It performs lots of other work as 
well, such as generating the sounds 
that we hear on the computer's internal 

While some of the computer's smart 
chips, such as the timer chip, are irre- 
placeable because they do unique 
things, other chips and other parts of 
the computer's circuitry aren't that way 
at all. Instead, these parts of the com- 
puter are simply designed to relieve 
the microprocessor of some miscella- 


tae | 

/] a _f 
INC cg un or v= 9 == 
Lo ) 44 SS = 
A = 
<< A= 

Junior's V 
demands on its 
chip cause 

the keyboard 

to beep when 

you feed it. 

neous work, so that it can get on with 
its main task of running our programs. 

The original IBM Personal Com- 
puter was designed for performance, 
and IBM was willing to spend some 
extra money to get good performance 
from it. So the PC has a number of 
chips and other circuit elements that 
take care of work that has nothing to 
do with the main task of running pro- 
grams, such as looking after the disk 

Price Chopper. When the PCjr was 
being designed, the goals were differ- 
ent. IBM's engineers wanted the Junior 
to perform well, but they also wanted 
to keep the cost down, and so they 
were willing to sacrifice performance 
somewhat for a cost saving. What this 
means is that some of those smart 
chips were not included; our Junior's 
8088 microprocessor, working with an 
expanded ROM BIOS (the read-only 
memory Basic Input/Output System, 
which contains fundamental machine 
language programs), has taken on 
some tasks that are done with hard- 
ware in the PC. 

The main task in which this hap- 
pens is in the use of the disk drive. 
The disk drive is under the direct su- 
pervision of a specialized chip that was 
designed with only one task in mind: 
controlling a floppy disk. (This chip 
travels under many names. Sometimes 
it’s called by its function, the Floppy 
Disk Controller, or FDC for short. Other 
times it’s simply called the NEC con- 
troller, after the Japanese company— 
Nippon Electric Co.—that created it. 
And finally, like almost everything in- 
side our computer, it has a chip model 
number, »PD765.) 

This Floppy Disk Controller directly 
supervises the disk drive, turning the 
motor on and off and finding the right 
data at the right locations on the sur- 
face of a disk. Programs and the 8088 
microprocessor have only to send sim- 
ple short commands to the FDC. It 
does all the rest. 

Different Strokes So far, in what 
we've described, the PCjr is no different 
from the higher-priced PC or XT 
models. Once the drive is set in motion, 
though, a difference appears in the way 
the PCjr and the PC work. 

When we're using the disk drive, 
we're transferring data between mem- 
ory and disk. We're either reading from 
the disk or writing to it. Either way, 


there's a data transfer going on. In 
order to transfer data, we have to have 
access to the computer's memory. But 
the memory is usually quite busy 
working with the microprocessor, 
running our programs. Somehow, the 
memory has to be made available for 
disk work. There are two main ways 
to accomplish this, a cheap one and 
an expensive one, so that’s where the 
PCjr and the PC diverge. 

In the PC and XT, there is a special 
kind of circuitry known as a DMA chip. 
DMA stands for Direct Memory Access, 
and that’s what it gives the disk when 
data is being transferred. With DMA, 
data that’s being read from the disk 
goes to the DMA chip and straight 
into memory, bypassing the micropro- 

does the work 
of looking after 
the bits 

memory and 

cessor. That lets the 8088 get on with 
its own work. Without the DMA chip, 
something needs to recognize, inspect, 
and supervise the passage of data bits 
from disk to memory, or from memory 
to disk—and that task falls to the mi- 
croprocessor. So, in the PCjr the mi- 
croprocessor has to do the work of 
looking after the bits being transferred 
between memory and disk. 

Waiting Game In most cases, what- 
ever is going on inside the computer 
can be interrupted and put aside, 
temporarily, while something more 
important gets taken care of. In fact, 
this ability to put things on hold while 
something else is done is a key element 
in the successful operation of any 
computer. Not everything can be put 
on hold, though. Some operations are 

“time-critical,” which means that they | 

can’t wait; and disk data transfers are 
just such an operation. 
The reason is fairly simple to see. 


When the disk is spinning, you can’t 
put it on hold—it keeps on spinning. 
The signals that correspond to bits 
come firing in at the rate of about 
200,000 a second; they can’t wait. 
Since the job of handling the disk data, 
coming into or passing out of memory, 
falls to the Junior's 8088 brain, the 
microprocessor has to be fully available 
to work with those bits. 

All this means that when the disk 
drive is going in the Junior, almost 
everything else has to wait. This has 
two practical results. One is that the 
keyboard is inactive while the disk is 
working. The other is that the PCjr 
gets much less work done when it is 
writing data. 

Why just when it’s writing? Why 
not when it's reading as well? Suppose 
we're running a program on a PC or 
on a PCjr, and the program needs to 
read some data off the disk. In the PCjr, 
the microprocessor is tied up while 
the data is coming in from the disk; 
in the PC, with its DMA, the micro- 
processor isn't tied up while the disk 
is being read. But normally when a 
program asks for data to be read, it 
can't do anything until the data ap- 
pears. This means that even though 
a PC could, in theory, be doing some- 
thing else while the data is coming in, 
in practice there isn’t anything to do. 
So, while reading data, the PCjr has 
no basic disadvantage over the more 
expensive PC. 

But when we're writing data, it’s 
another matter. When programs tell 
the computer to write some data to the 
disk, they are then immediately ready 
to go on to other work. So, in a PC 
model, the programs can actually con- 
tinue with useful work while the DMA 
chip and the disk drive are transferring 
data out to the disk. In the PCjr, the 
microprocessor is busy helping out 
with that data transfer, so nothing else 
gets done, even though the programs 
are ready to continue. 

The net result is that the Junior 
performs much worse, relative to a PC, 
when writing data than when reading 

What we've talked about so far is 
all important stuff concerning how the 
disk drive in the Junior works, and it 
has a lot to do with why we can’t use 
the keyboard while the disk drive is 
working. But it’s not the whole story— 
because the special magic of the Jun- 
ior’s infrared keyboard plays a part, 
too. We'll see how in the next install- 
ment of the “Junior Explorer.”0 


Index to Advertisers 
No. Advertiser Page 
104 Alpha Software 1 
103 Baltic Bay Digital 
Products 92 
Business Computers of 
Peterborough 16 
169 Chang Labs 23 
145 Chemical Bank 29 

143 Steve Davis Publishing 89 
101 Eagle Computer 

Consulting 41 
241 Financier 17 
105 Friendly Software 5 
122 Hypergraphics 57 
120 IBM 8-9 
108 Impulse Computer 

Products 42 
202 Jr. Connection 77 
107 Jaspir International 76 
109 Kapstrom 26 

114 Key Tronic 18-19 
125 Legacy Technologies 34 

138 Magnetics Inc. 93 
106 Meca Cov 3 
102 Microglyph 56 
146 Microsoft Corp. Cov 2 
135 Mosin 93 
119 Norton Utilities 36 
130 One Step Software 81 
202 PC Connection 1 
158 Puyallup Valley Software, 

Inc. 92 
109 SMC Software 

Systems 14-15 
117 Satellite Software Intl. 10 
152 Software Strategies 40 
147 Spectrum HoloByte 4 
139 Star Micronics 20 
179 Swedge LID. 37 
181 Tecmar 38-39 
188 Tecmar Cov 4 
166 The Users’ Group 90 


about the 
products and 
services advertised 
in this issue of 


See other side for 

Witness: A Computer % 
Murder Mystery 


Learning more about a product 
that's advertised or mentioned in an 
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ple as 1-2-3. And absolutely free. 

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Please indicate which if any of the follow- 
ing microcomputers you currently own 

| and/or plan to buy in the next 12 months. 

Other (specify | 

For what, if any, business application(s) 
do you use the microcomputer you cur- 
rently owne 

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Please indicate which if any of the follow- 
ing microcomputers you currently own 
and/or plan to buy in the next 12 months. 

| Own | Plan to Buy _ 
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Other (specify) 

For what, if any, business application(s) 
do you use the microcomputer you cur- 


rently own? 

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Please indicate which if any of the follow- 
ing microcomputers you currently own 
and/or plan to buy in the next 12 months. 

3270PC Dd 

XT/370 my 

Other (specify) 

For what, if any, business application(s) 
do you use the microcomputer you cur- 
rently own? 

Void after December 31, 1984 
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NAME eee PHONE # (___} 

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(Zip code must be included to insure delivery.) 

4[_] Please send me 1 year (12 issues) of PCjr. for $14.97 and bill me. 
(Full 1 year subscription price $24.97.) PCJR10846 

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87d Se ae Ea Ee pe nd 

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4[_| Please send me 1 year (12 issues) of PCjr. for $14.97 and bill me. 
(Full 1 year subscription price $24.97.) PCJR10845 

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an a a Ne a as ee | 
gL a ne eee 2 ee en oe PE eee ves } | |} 

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5 | | eee ee ZIP 
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4 (_] Please send me 1 year (12 issues) of PCjr. for $14.97 and bill me. 
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| | | | = ba: ~ NOPOSTAGE 





PO. Box 13893 
Philadelphia, PA 1910] 





PO. Box 13893 
Philadelphia, PA 19101 

| ree 
| | | | NO POSTAGE 





RO. Box 18893 prER a ier TT a 

Philadelphia, PA 19101 TART RO EW Bee 

= ihit..- - —<_- i ———)—- > 

is, Simply the finest 
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We're glad you're here, PCjr. 

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