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Dairy- Farming : 

A Manual for all who are 
engaged or about to embark 
in the production, manufacture, 
or sale of Dairy Produce. 








Estailishecl 1889. 



Published third Saturday each month, price 3d. Circiilating 
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It is scarcely too mucli to say that during the last decade 
Dairy-Farming in this country lias received an immense 
impetus, and that in the near future it is likely to attract 
still greater attention. The War has made it abundantly 
clear that something ought to be done, and done quickly, 
to increase materially our National Herd, as well as to 
diminish our consumption of imported foodstufis, by the 
better cultivation of grass and waste land and by the 
production of those rich forage crops which are so 
unaccountably neglected. None the less it is a question 
that needs to be pressed right home in the case of thoss 
who are about to embark on Dairy-Farming as a business. 
One way of doing this is . by means of a cheap and an 
informative literature in which both the principles and 
the practice are carefully discussed. The publishers 
therefore trust that by issuing the present manual, for 
which Professor James Long is responsible, they will be 
helping not merely the student to obtain a better know- 
ledge of his subject, but also the individual actually 
engaged in Dairy-Farming. 

Modern Appliances 
for Modern Methods. 



|~] Manufacturers 

• -iS^f^^ and 











Telephone: 1720. Telegrams: "PERFECT, DUBLIN.' 


Chapteb Pace 

I. — Introductory . . . . . . . , i 

II- — How TO Attain Success . . . . . . 11 

III. — Management of the Herd 31 

IV. — Housing . . .... . . . . . . 44 

V. — Dairy Cattle 52 

VI.— Feeding .. .. .. ... .. 60 

VII.— Milk 67 

VIII. — Butter and its Manufacture . . . . 82 

IX. — The Principles and Practice of Cheese- 
making . . . . . . . . . . 101 

Index 123 


J-JERE is a complete milking outfit that will enable you to be independent 
oE hired labour ; that will work steadily and consistently without skilled 
attention year in and year out; that will give you clean pure n ilk; that 
will increase your profits tremendously, and that cannot hurt the most 
expensive cow. It is delivered ready to be wheeled into the barn and 
commence milking at once. One quart oE petrol is suEEicient Eor 5 hours 
continuous running, and the cost oE upkeep is practically iiil. When 
milking is finished, it can be wheeled away and the engine used Eor other 
work, leaving your barn exactly as it is now. There is not a single 
fitting required. 


Your boy can miik 15/18 cows per hour with this outfit, even 
\{ he has ne^-er milked a cow before. Think what this would 
mean to you in the present shortage of skilled milkers ! 
Practically 2 men's wages saved and no days off for illness, 
etc., but always on time and always working full speed. 

This portable set is jicst the The Hininan Standard 

thing for a dairy of 12 to Milker for any size herd. 

iS cows Delivered complete Price per unit to milk 7 

for £,GO. to Q co-ais per hour, £15. 




Modem Dairy- Farming, 

Chapter I. 


It may surprise many readers of tliis book to learn that 
Dairy-Farming as we know it to-day is an industry 
of less than fort 7 years' growth.. At so recent a date as 
1876 it was impossible to obtain a tangible answer to 
questions relating to the production or manufacture of 
butter or cheese — if those questions involved any reference 
to scientific investigations. Butter was made by rule of 
thumb, and made very badly indeed. The best makes 
were not exempt from this practice, and therefore as a 
matter of course they were always liable to failure. It 
was well known that the work must be clean ; hence the 
advice to beginners, apart from a recognition of the 
ordinary routine, almost began and ended with cleanliness 
of the most scrupulous character. As a rule butter 
failed to keep, and we venture to say that five samples 
out of six exposed in the then numerous country markets, 
or dehvered to the grocer's shop in the nearest town, 
to be paid for in goods, were strong in flavour, of bad 
odour and equally load colour, within two or three days, 



although we are bound to except from this condemnation 
the biitter made from the scalded cream of Devonshire, 
Cornwall, and Somerset. 

The Butter Industry. 

During the Franco-German War the makers of 
Normandy, unable to sell their produce in Paris and 
elsewhere in France as heretofore, commenced to export 
it to England, and from that date the brands of France 
have held a prominent place on our markets. The 
Normans do not send us their best, as they obtain a 
much better price in Paris — a price which we have 
known to reach in normal times 2s. 8d. a pound. We 
have, indeed, during excursions in France, made the 
acquaintance of a maker who obtained this price, and 
inspected his dairy and cattle. In spite of all the work of 
the past forty years, no butter is placed upon our market 
which equals that supplied to the Paris consumer. In 
London it is practically unknown, although there are usually 
numerous exhibits by private makers at the London Dairy 
Show which are quite equal to the best made in France 
and much superior to the finest brands sent over from 
Denmark. The best English butter is made for the tables 
of those who produce it, and it is usually obtained from 
the milk of the cattle of the Channel Islands. 

With our increasing prosperity butter was found upon 
the tables of those who in earlier days were content with 
fats of a less costly character, such as dripping and lard, 
or with the fat bacon which was so largely produced by 
their own pigs. These sources of fat failed to meet 
the demand of the working classes, with the result that 
margarine — then known as butterine — was introduced 
as a preparation of the fat of the bullock ; while Denmark, 
and in later years Canada and the Australian Colonies, 
commenced to export brands of butter which were lower 
in price than our own, and which, owing to their uniform 
character, soon made their way. Thus the English butter 
of a past generation has been almost entirely replaced 
by consignments from all parts of the world, including 
Russia and Argentina, 



For a long period margarine, which was gradually 
improved, was frequently sold as butter ; but a change 
in the law — in obtaining which, by constant agitation, we 
were engaged with others who were equally interested — 
gradually destroyed a form of imposition and fraud, so 
that the imitation has made its way upon its own 
merits and now provides for an enormous population. 
The war with Germany and the consequent increase in 
the price of butter gave the margarine maker his 
opportunity, with the result that his produce replaced 
the most expensive fat on the tables of thousands of 
butter consumers who could not afiord to pay the 
enhanced prices or who regarded it as their duty to 
economise. This increased demand was followed by an 
increase in the price of margarine, which was perhaps to 
some extent justified. 

The quality and increased production per cow of 
modern nianufactm-ed butter are the result of a long and 
careful study of the subject by men in all countries. 
There was not one trained and skilled teacher of butter- 
making in this country when we first commenced our 
investigations, nor were there means whereby a teacher 
could be trained. In consequence of this great defect in 
our educational system we visited France, Switzerland, 
Denmark, and Sweden, in each of which countries it was 
evident that much had been done on both the scientific 
and practical sides of the subject. We found trained 
teachers, and these were teaching others, while we had 
not commenced to recognise that there was anything to 
learn in the work of the dairy. On returning to this 
country we were invited to address numerous meetings 
in different counties, while later on we were enabled 
to induce the British Dairy Farmers' Association, then a 
young institution, to establish the first Dairy School, 
which in a few years was removed to Reading, where it is 
still doing a great work in connection with the University 
College. When eventually grants were made to County 
Councils for technical education butter-making took a 
prominent position as a subject, and from that date it 
has been taught to tens of thousands of students, altliough 



it is to be feared without that result which appears in other 
countries than our own. 

This brings us to another question. England is a 
small country with a large population, and the demand for 
fresh milk is consequently considerable. It has always been 
contended that we cannot produce our own butter if at 
the same time we produce all the milk we require. Facts 
have proved this contention to be true, for our cattle 
have never been sufficiently numerous. Yet, when the 
whole subject is carefully investigated, it is found that 
the limitation of our cattle population is owing to the 
imperfect cultivation of our grassland, or indeed to the 
fact that there are millions of acres which are not cultivated 
at all. We have ample room for twice the number of 
cows, and there is little doubt that this fact will be 
recognised at the conclusion of the war, inasmuch as what 
we have pointed out in season and out of season for 
years has been acknowledged to be true by a committee 
appointed by the Government. British dairy-farming can 
never become a great industry, so far as it relates to 
the manufacture of butter and cheese, until all the available 
land is under thorough cultivation and stocked with 
cattle as heavily as it will bear. Already we have seen 
on the farms of progressive men milking cattle on the 
hills, as they should be wherever grass can be grown, 
just as we have seen them in Switzerland since our first 
visit there forty years ago. 

Let us now look at the extent of our butter industry 
as we can gauge it from our imports. In 1893 the value 
of imported butter was as follows — and we have placed 
beside it the value of the imports of 1913, the year before 
the war : 

Value o£ Butter Imported into the United Kingdom. 

1893. 1913. 

£12,753,593 £24,083,658 

In 1892 we estimated the value of the butter produced 
in this country at £10,729,000. Since that date our 
consumption has increased very largely, partly owing to 


our increased population and partly because iliore butter 
is consumed fer ccifita. The probability is, however, 
that our home-manufactured butter has not increased 
at all, but has declined. If we still assume that it 
reaches 10 millions in value, we arrive at an annual 
consumption valued at £34,000,000, in spite of the enormous 
consumption of margarine, for which in 1913 we paid 
£3,917,000 to foreign producers alone. 

One of the objects of this book is to point out that a 
very large proportion of the butter we consume could be 
produced in this country, and, contrary to popular belief, 
with advantage to the farming community. It is assumed 
that owing to the market value of fresh milk, for which 
the demand is always increasing, butter does not pay to 
make. Yet it is obvious to all who go to the root 
of the matter that if it will pay the farmers of France, 
Denmark, and Sweden, all of whom have surmounted 
difficulties in relation to transport and markets, it ought 
to pay us. If it is argued that the conditions in their 
case are superior to those which control us, the reply is 
that those conditions must be changed to meet the 
circumstances of the case. 

In the countries we have named the land is in the 
possession of smallholders, and in consequence of this fact 
the prosperity of the rural population is greater than 
with us. We do not desire to depreciate the importance 
of large farms in this country, but what we do emphasise 
is the fact that a very considerable piroportion of our farmers 
occupy much more land than they are able to cultivate 
to the best advantage, partly owing to want of knowledge 
and partly because they possess insufficient capital. This 
land in the hands of four times the number of men would 
not only maintain many more people but provide a much 
larger quantity of food. This fact has never been so 
fully recognised, in spite of what has been so frequently 
pointed out by ours;lves and others, as during the second 
year of the war, and by the committee appointed to advise 
on the question of our food-supply. 

Under existing conditions the supreme object of the 
dairy-farmer, as distinct from the producer of milk for 



sale fresh, stould be to make the most perfect butter and 
cheese for the supply of the constantly increasing wealthy 
members pf the community. The quantity of these goods 
available is never adequate to the demand. The consumer 
is willing to pay the best price, and in this point he never 
complains if he can get what he wants. It is, however, an 
unfortunate fact that a very large proportion of our 
butter and cheese is of second-class quality, and it is thus 
brought into competition with the imports from over the 
seas. The result is that the prices paid by the trade are 
so small that the returns of the maker are less than 
those obtained by the seller of milk and, as a natural 
consequence, he prefers to sell all he produces in its raw 
condition, abandoning the manufacturing industry. 

If dairy-farmers would make the most of their 
opportunities by producing really fine butter and rearing 
stock with the separated milk the result would be even 
better than can be commanded in normal times by the 
seller of milk. The demand for fine dairy stock is alwavs 
increasing, and the sale of heifers at their best will 
always prove remunerative. This has been frequently 
demonstrated by men who made the attempt. . In a similar 
way, fine cheese, which factories and retailers cannot 
obtain in sufficient quantities to meet the demands of 
their customers, will pay better than the summer sale 
of milk, leaving the winter yield at their disposal at a time 
when prices are highest. 

The Milk Trade. 

For some years this has been in a flourishing condition, 
and fortimeshave been made by both dealers and retailers; 
but since the establishment of dairy-farmers' organisations 
prices have risen. Farmers have determined that the low 
prices of the past shall never return, and dairymen have 
sometimes been severely tested not only to cover the 
cost of their working expenses but to obtain a sufficient 
quantity of milk to meet the demands of tlieir customers. 
The demands of the public, in addition to those of the 
local authorities, require, both at the hands of the farmer 
and the retailer, that care and cleanliness in the production 



and manipulation of milk which will ensure purity — in 
other words, freedom from dirt and those forms of germ- 
life which are dangerous to health. In this direction 
much has been done, but there is yet much to do. Milk 
is not properly cooled in warm weather ; it is seldom 
properly strained, and unless it is drawn by the milking- 
machine it is almost invariably contaminated with dust 
from the air of the cow-house or with particles of dirt 
from the coats and udders of the cows. In the examinations 
of milk made by the authorities of the West Eiding of 
Yorkshire and in Chester it was shown that a high 
percentage of the samples submitted contained particles 
of manure. As the dung of the cow is partially soluble, 
the quantities found represented much larger proportions 
of the original introduction, some of which was thus 
dissolved in the milk. It has been conclusively demon- 
strated that cotton-wool strainers are the best, but they 
are seldom employed. The result of the employment of 
imperfect strainers may be demonstrated by the following 
facts Inspecting the great dairy in Zurich, perhaps the 
best of the kind in the world, under the guidance of the 
Director, our late friend Dr. Nicholas Gerber, we were 
shown the cotton-wool pads which were fitted in the 
sample bottles of milk as they were taken daily into 
the laboratory as a test of the cleanliness of the milk of 
each farmer supplier. The filled bottles were inverted, 
with the result that the dirt in the milk was deposited on 
the pad, thus indicating its condition from this point of 
view. In almost every one of the large number of pads 
the stain was repulsive, suggesting as it did that the dirt 
consumed in a small sample bottle of milk is of a very 
tangible character, and this notwithstanding the fact that 
each sample is daily submitted to four tests for its purity, 
its healthy character, and its freedom from dirt. 

Milk is still sold which contains less than 3 per cent, 
of fat, and there are many contentions that the law should 
be changed for the protection of farmers producing it. 
We are not among those who would move a finger for 
the purpose of reducing a standard which we fought very 
hard to establish. Milk containing only 3 per cent, of 



fat is as abnormal as milk containing 5 per cent, in any 
sample but that produced by Channel Islands cattle, and 
it ought not to be sold at full market price. Chicory in 
coffee, maize starch in wheat flour, margarine in butter 
all diminish the market value of the superior article and 
are condemned accordingly, although in neither case does 
the consumer safier from a diminished quantity of 
nourishment in his food. Milk which is short of a just 
quantity of fat is not only' diminished in market value, 
but it produces less cheese, less butter, and provides the 
consumer with less food. When butter stands at Is. 6d. 
per pound, 3 per cent, milk is worth less by three-farthings 
a quart than milk containing 3| per cent, of fat, and it 
should never contain less. At a time when farmers are 
obtaining a substantial price for all their produce it is a 
duty incumbent upon them to provide a perfect article, 
rich in food, clean, and well cooled. So long as they are 
able to do this, without the least possible doubt they ought 
to do it, and by adopting this course all fear of prosecution 
and unjust punishment would vanish. 

Condensed Milk. 

In this we have a valuable addition to our food-supply. 
It has often been a cause of condemnation in the past, 
owing to the practice of some makers of removing a portion 
of the cream. Since the change in the law, however, which 
compels makers who adopt this practice to state the fact 
upon the tins, there has been little cause for complaint, 
although the practice is not entirely abandoned. The 
best course to pursue in buying this food is to choose a 
recognised brand, for we have reason to believe that the 
best makes are not only produced from rich milk 
but are unskimmed. As these brands are now more 
extensively made in this country, condensed milk forms 
an important item in our home dairy-farming, and so far 
comes within the scope of this work. 


There is yet much to be done in relation to the 
manufacture of cheese. Cheddar, Cheshire, and Stilton 



have been brought to a high state of perfection by 
the best makers. These makers form a very small 
percentage of the whole, and we may safely assert oiir 
belief that 90 per cent, of all that is manufactured is 
second-class, and thus comes into competition with the 
imports. The British cheesemaker cannot compete with 
the Australian and the Canadian manufacturer, whose 
goods are of great value to the mass of our people. His 
role is the production of the finest quality for the wealthier 
consumers, as this cannot be obtained from our Colonies. 
There is, however, another difficulty which needs removing. 
Leicester, Derby, Gloucester, and Wensleydale cheese 
is practically all of second-class quality. The art 
of making the first-named is apparently lost, for there 
has not been a solitary sample of the soft mellow Leicester 
of the old type exhibited at the Dairy Show for many 
years. Efforts have been made to revive the Wensleydale 
cheese, but without any very good results. It is still 
made on a perfunctory or empirical system, badly shaped, 
badly finished, and badly bandaged. This variety, which 
shares with Stilton the first place among the blue-veined 
cheeses of the world, ought not only to be found in all 
English towns, to most of which it is an entire stranger, 
but with Stilton it ought to become the medium of a large 
export trade to our Colonies and foreign countries. While 
we are daily consuming in Gorgonzola a much inferior 
cheese we are ignoring these varieties and, in a word, 
assisting to build up an industry in Italy which we are 
neglecting at home. 

ParminE Prodxicts Tabulated. 

According to the report in connection with the Census 
of Production Act published in 1912 the value of the dairy 
products sold by farmers in Great Britain was as follows 

Milk (whole) £24,820,000 

Milk (skimmed) 143,000 

Cream 590,000 

Butter 2,940,000 

Cheese 1,400,000 




If we accept this total as applicable to the year in 
which we are writing, and add the value of the imports 
of butter, cheese, and condensed milk, we shall obtain 
some idea of our actual consumption. It must, however, 
be pointed out that Irish produce is not included, and 
further that the quantity of milk sold for consumption 
by farmers is only 70 per cent, of the whole of that 
produced. In regard to butter, the figures do not 
include that made in factories and creameries. 

Estimate of the value of the milk, cream, butter, and 
cheese consumed in Great Britain : — 

From the produce above £20,893,000 

Add 10 per cent, of the total production 
consumed by farmers in their Iiouseholds 

and by dependents 3,-545,000 

Imports— -'Butter 24,083,000 

Cheese 7,035,000 

Condensed millc 2,185,000 

Milk and cream ' 77,'ooO 


Chapter II. 


In spite ot all that has been done in the promotion of 
dairy-farming, much has been neglected. We know 
of no progressive country in which so little has been 
accomplished as with us. The land has been almost 
entirely neglected by the Government ; no bold attempt 
has been made to improve the milking powers of our cattle, 
whether as regards the yield of milk or the quality of 
what our cows produce. There has been no increase in 
the number of cows to correspond either with the increase 
in our population or with the increase in our jier capita 
consumption. Butter-making has been allowed to fall 
out of the ranks as a national industry without any 
attempt being made to revive it, while cheese-making, 
which is still confined to a few counties in England and 
Scotland, is practically unknown in Ireland and in Wales. 

Milk is still sold with an artificial colour, and no effort 
is made to ensure its cleanly character beyond that 
practised by dairymen themselves. The result is that 
in warm weather it keeps sweet twelve or more hours less 
than milk which has been perfectly cooled or which has 
been drawn imder the most hygienic conditions. 

Conditions of Success. 

Success on the part of the milk-selling farmer depends 
upon conditions to which we propose to direct the reader's 



1. The cows must produce a larger yield. 

2. The milk should contain a minimum of 3'5 per cent, 
of fat. 

3. The milk should be drawn by a milking-machine. 

4. In summer the milk should be cooled to at least 
50° F. 

5. Forage crops should be grown on the farm to ensure 
abundance of food in dry weather, and in suitable counties 
maize silage for winter, this food being better than 

6. If roots form the succulent portion of the ration in 
winter, the yield of mangels should not fall l)elow 35 tons 
and swedes below 25 tons to the acre. 

^ The Amo Milking-Machine of the Dairy Supply Company. - 

7. The pasture grass should be manured with phosphatic 
and nitrogenous fertilisers, and in some cases with potash, 
if this is demanded and is available, in order that the yield 
of grass may be increased to such an extent that more 
cows can be kept on the same area of land and sufficient 
allowed for October and November feeding .-in the milder 
parts of the country. 

These points indioate that more and be'ster milk should 
be produced on the farm with the assistance of improved 
cattle and more abundant and better crops. 

The Yield oJ British Cows. 

Variousi estimates have been made from time to 
time as> to the average yield of British cows ; but it is 



assumed in tlie Eeport on the Census o£ Production, on 
tlieibasis of the work of 1907-8, that the average yield of 
the cows of Great Britain is 550gal., or of tlie total 
number of cows enumerated 437gal. Neither figure 
is satisfactory wlien we know that there are cows in this 
country which yield anything from 1,000 to 1,400 gallons 
in a year, and in tlie United States very much more. The 
records of the comjjetitions at the London Dairy Show, 
and those of Dr. Watney, show that it is possilole to 
largely increase the yield of milk and butter per cow. 

and still more the yield of these materials per farm. In 
the United States, published records obtained by officials 
from the Agricultural Colleges show that while some cows 
have produced 2,000gal. of milk, others have produced 
sufficient fat to yield 9001b. of butter. In this country 
Dr. Herbert Watney has obtained an average yield of 
milk from his herd of Jerseys of TOlgal, from which 
an average of 4151b. of butter was produced. The butter 
yield in this herd has reached an average of 463Jlb., and 
has exceeded 4001b. in nine out of the fourteen years of 
which we have records. Many of the cows, small as they 

The Hinman Self-contained Auto Milker. 



are, have produced l.OOOgal. of milk, or from 5001b. 
to 5401b. of butter. The best cows in the herd have made 
the following averages : — ■ 

Pounds of 

Red Maple II. gave in her first three years in 

'"''f •■ •.• •■ , 530 

hliarab gave a six years average of 542 

Lady Siphon gave a nine years' average of . . . . 446 
Guenons Lady Teasel gave a nine years' average 

of 448 

■ Guenons Lady Teasel gave a ten years' average of 497 

Sunbeam II. gave an eleven years' average of . . 430 

Red Maple gave a tvpelve years' average of . . . . 47] 

These are marvellous figures, and they point to the 
fact that, if farmers accomplished what Dr. Watney has 
accomplished, the wealth of the dairy-farming community 
miglit be increased threefold. It may be suggested that 
m this and similarly important instances of success 
wealth came to the rescue, but in our judgment the practical 
farmer occupies a far more advantageous position than 
a mere man of science or wealth. He can attend markets 
and become acquainted with other practical men, and so 
acquire cattle with which the wealthy man can never 
come into contact, and for which even then he is compelled 
to pay a great deal more money. 

This point may be illustrated from practical experience. 
On two occasions we called upon a dealer in a distant 
county famous for its Dairy Shorthorns and asked 
him to collect a number of cows of prime milking quality 
from which eight could be selected. This task he under- 
took, and on each occasion we went to his farm, examined 
the cows, saw them milked, and were afforded the 
opportunity of testing the milk. On the first occasion 
the milk produced by the cows, which were purchased, 
was employed in the manufacture of butter, with the 
result that the yield reached 5 per cent, of the milk. The 
price paid for the cows was, in round figures, a pound per 
head more than the price in the market for cattle of similar 
type. By adopting this practice a buyer can ensure 
milk of high quality, and, as far as human knowledge can 



command it, a large yield. On the other liand, neither 
qualification can Be ensured by the usual system of 

We quote an instance relating to the purchase of a 
single cow, and this a very simple one. Discussing this 
question of yield with a neighbouring landlord, who was 
to some extent a practical man, we remarked that it was 
an economical plan to pay an extra five pounds for a cow 
which was known to be a really deep milker — i.e., a cow 
yielding 800 to 1,000 gallons of milk. His reply was 
immediate. He had possessed such a cow, and had sold 
it to a neighbouring farmer. This farmer was called 
upon, and he was willing to sell — at a price. His figure 
was named; it was perfectly fair, and the purchase was 
made. Had this gentleman recorded the yield of the 
cows in his herd he would have probably asked a difierent 
figure ; but apparently knowing no more than the fact 
that the cow was an excellent ipilker he was perfectly 
satisfied, although her first record exceeded l,300gal. 

Building up a Herd. 

In order to build up a herd of deep-milking cows close 
study should be made of the system adopted by others, 
and here the work of the late Mr. George Taylor will 
provide a liberal help. Much depends on the bull. If he 
is of an old milking family the way will be easier ; but it 
is obvious that the cows should not only be heavy milkers 
of rich milk, but that they should belong to good milking 
families on both sides. 

Milk which is rich in fat should be regarded as an 
essential to success, without the least recognition for what 
others have done. A standard of 4 per cent, should be 
set, and set higher when it is reached, for the mixed milk 
of the herd. With rich milking stock the breeder possesses 
material advantages — thus : 

1. He need never apprehend the possibility of 

2. He will never find the slightest difficulty in selling 
his milk at the best price. 



3. His surplus stock will realise higher prices if it is 
shown in his catalogue what percentage of fat each cow 
has given. 

4. In an emergency the milk can be retained at the 
farm for making butter, which will be of the best type, 
assuming that it is well made, because rich milk naturally 
produces better butter than poor milk. 

5. If cheese is produced it will be richer in quality 
than cheese made from poor milk — and realise a better 

The MUking-Maclilne. 

We now arrive at the third point in our argument : 
that milking should be performed by a milking-machine. 
The time is coming when much greater demands will be 
made upon farmers to produce clean milk. It is almost 
unthinkable that milk should be sold which, however it 
looks to the eye, contains a solution of the manure of the 
cows, whether it be in infinitesimally small or in tangible 
quantities. Yet this is precisely what it does contain. 
Milkers still dip their fingers in the pail to enable them 
to draw the milk more easily with their hands. The 
atmosphere of the cow-house reeks more or less with 
dust, partially f 83 cal, and bacteria, the extent of which may 
be revealed by a ray of the sun. The coats of the cows, 
unbrushed as they are, cast particles of dirt and germ life 
into the milk pail as they are rubbed by the men in the 
act of milking. The udders are not often washed, or if 
washed the process is perfunctory, and the inilk is 
contaminated. No process of hand-milking can prevent 
this contamination, although with daily care and constant 
supervision it may be minimised. Nor does the straining 
remove the difficulty, for however j)erfectly cotton-wool 
removes tangible matter from the milk, it does not alter 
the fact that it leaves the intangible or soluble matter 

The milking-machine is the only source of perfect 
cleanliness, because, while covering the teats only, and 
therefore a very limited source of contamination, these 
are not handled, and the milk is drawn out of contact 



with the air, and does not come into contact with it again 
until it is poured out of the pail. We have seen herds 
of various sizes millved, or partially milked, and on no 
occasion has master or man had anything but praise to 
award to the machine, which they regarded as a labour- 
saving boon of great value to themselves and one in which 
they believe their cattle rejoice, so much easier and less 
abusive is its work in comparison to that of mankind. 
We are aware that there are farmers who ask for a machine 
which is no trouble at all, which will act without the 

control and assistance of man, even to the extent of 
cleaning itself when milking has ended. And it is perfectly 
true that the milking-machine has been condemned because 
it required cleaning. It was not intended for this class 
of farrri'er, nor were the cows that he milks with the hand. 

We are acquainted with one instance in which a herd 
of 100 cows is milked by three men with the assistance of 
three machines, and of another in which some forty-seven 
cows are milked by two men, who between them maintain 
the engine in perfect order,- with a dynamo which illuminates 
the cow-house— a new and splendidly constructed yet 

Domed Hygienic Milking-Pail. 




simple building — with electric light. It is needless to say 
that the combination adds to the comfort of the cows and 
the satisfaction of the men. In a third instance a farmer 
has personally constructed an appliance which enables 
him to work the machine and to milk the cows in the 
field. In this case the cows come up to him to be milked 
without being fetched, and thus add their dumb testimony 
to the valuable character of the work. 

Cooling the Milk. 

Our fourth point deals with the cooling of the milk. 
On two occasions we have had the opportunity afforded 
us of witnessing the system adopted at the home farm of 
Mr. Eobert Mond, near Sevenoaks. This gentleman has 
long conducted a scientific investigation of the question 
of tuberculosis and its possible cure by the employment 
of tuberculin, and one of his herds, consisting of cured 
cows, was milked in a separate building. Mr. Mond 
has also been engaged in demonstrating the possibility 
of milking cows without contaminating the milk with 
the germs of disease. Next to the milking-machine 
the system adopted claims our attention. Two old cow- 
houses have been remodelled within. The cows live in 
a covered yard adjoining the building, in which they are 
free. The house is kept perfectly clean, flushed before 
each milking from top to bottom with a hose, and the 
cows are then driven in and chained in their stalls. They 
are subjected to similar treatment by spraying with water, 
so that all dust is at rest. The milkers next wash the 
udders and their own hands, which are rinsed after each 
cow has been milked, after clothing themselves with a 
white overall and cap. After milking, the cows are driven 
back into the covered yard, where they remain until the 
next milking, when the same method is followed. 

Near at hand is a small refrigerating plant, which 
enables the foreman to cool and keep his milk to any 
degree he requires as long as he likes. The milk is sent 
to London, to the Children's Hospital, which we have also 
had the advantage of inspecting, and from the records 
examined both there and at the farm we ascertained 


that it remains sweet many hours longer than fresh milk 
obtained at the best dairy in.the neighbouihood. 

Milk cannot be cooled sufficiently low in sunnner 
with water which seldom falls below 60° F. For this 

HfvU's Refrigerating Machine. 

g 2 



reason artificial cooling is almost invariably necessary 
if good work is to be done, and this of necessity 
involves co-operation among farmers. In those districts 
where milk-selling farmers are sufficiently numerous 
the best plan is to combine, construct a shed near the 
station, instal a refrigerating plant, and arrange for_ the 
milk from each farm to be cooled by the men as it arrives. 
The expense divided among ten or twelve farmers would 
amount to a very small sum as compared with the 
importance of the%vork. The building could be adapted 
to the storage of the milk when prices are low, for sale 
when the market is better. This question will have to be 
faced, for under existing conditions it is impossible to sell 
a valuable article of produce because of its perishable 
character without serious loss, when by its preservation 
it can be sold at will. Wholesale dealers in milk and the 
largest retailers are compelled to adopt this method of 
preservation, without which they would be subject to 
continual losses 

Farmers who have refrained from spending their 
capital in those forms of equipment which are essential 
to success in their business are fighting against themselves. 
If we carefully examine the matter we shall find that 
similar objections were raised at the time of the introduction 
of cotton cake as a food, nitrate of soda as a manure, the 
self binder, the threshing machine, the cream separator, 
the selection, preservation, and special packing of fruit, 
and at the present moment of the milking-machine and 
the motor plough. We are acquainted with many of the 
ablest farmers in the kingdom, and have found no instance 
in wliich there has been marked success where the most 
modern improvements have not been employed. 

It may lastly be pointed out, in dealing with the 
question of cooling or refrigeration, that milk is spoiled 
by the action of millions of bacteria which have been 
produced by the increase in the number of those which 
find their way into it from the atmosphere when it is 
drawn from the udder. This increase, however, is possible 
only when the conditions are normal. Thus, by cooling 
the milk to 50° F, or heating it to a temperature which 



would make it impossible to deal with it as a commercial 
product there is a check to the growth of tliis form of 
germ life, and the milk remains sweet. With a rise in 
the temperature after cooling there is corresponding 
activity in the life of che bacteria, and an increase 

which reaches its- greatest point as it approaches 80° to 
90° F., with the result that the milk becomes sour, and 
while in this condition it is useless for selling and is unfit 
for the production of butter or cheese. 



An Abundant Pood-Siipply Necessary. 

Success on the dairy farm, if not ensured, is 
substantially promoted by the abundant provision of 
food. In this country, however, it seldom happens that 
a summer passes without sufficient very dry weather to 
check the growth of grass in the pastures, and therefore 
to diminish the yield of milk. So common is this ' 
occurrence, and sometimes so severe, that many farmers 
have learnt to regard it as inevitable, and in consequence 
they take no pains to prevent it, to their serious loss. 
There is no cause for this attitude. There are forage 
crops which can be grown with mors marked success during 
great heat than during more temperate weather, while 
to a large extent all the leguminous plants common to 
England — sainfoin, lucerne, clover, trefoil, and vetch- 
will respond when grass herbage on the pasture land is 
refusing to grow owing to want of moisture within reach 
of its much shorter roots. 

To rely solely upon grazing on permanent grass is 
to court disaster in a hot summer, unless the plants of 
which it is composed have been specially grown for the 
purpose of resisting drought or of furnishing a good bite 
or a good cut of hay. There are two plants which can be 
grown successfully for the supply of succulent food in 
hot weather which are the very foundation of the crops 
intended for milch cows in the United States, Argentina, 
and on a large portion of the Continent of Europe. We 
refer to maize and lucerne (or alfalfa), which we have 
grown for years in succession, and are fully convinced 
that between them the farmers of a large portion of this 
country can be furnished with more food for their cows 
during the months of July, August, and September 
than they have been able to produce under any other 
conditions. With the assistance of these plants, and of 
others that have been mentioned, together with liberal 
manuring, more cows can be kept, more young cattle grown, 
and more food secured for the winter. Both lucerne and 
maize are of great value when preserved in the silo on the 
American plan, providing an agreeable, succulent food which 
is much superior to roots and much cheaper to grow,. 



There is, however, another aspect of this question 
of cropping which secures an additional advantage to the 
farmer. The leguminous plants — lucerne, sainfoin, clover, 
and vetch — to which the American farmer adds a large 
variety of cow pea, are nitrogen gatherers, producing such 
large quantities of albuminoids that there is less necessity 
for the purchase of cakes and pulse rich in these 
materials. In a word, where abundance of nitrogenous 
food is grown on the farm, as it should be, the artificial 
food bill is automatically reduced. To ensure the best 
results in this direction, and therefore to minimise 
the cost of nitrogenous manures in the same way, it 
is essential to use phosphatic manures with judicious 

Boots as Milk-producing Food. 

We may now discuss the question of roots as a milk- 
producing food. The turnip is not only a poor food, 
however agreeable to the cows, but a poor cropper ; 
although we attribute the poverty of our British yield to 
the very many cases of poor farming. So long as our 
average is less than 13 tons to the acre, and in some counties 
occasionally 7 to 10 tons, so long will the crop be costly 
to grow and ill-adapted as an economical food for milk pro- 
duction. Apart, however, from the cost of cultivation and 
lifting, there is the cost of clamping, carting, cleaning, 
and pulping. By the time the food is in the manger the 
nutritious matter of the turnip (and swedes are included 
under this term) becomes one of the most costly which 
is used upon the farm. There is, nevertheless, always 
hope, inasmuch as skilled growers are able to obtain 25 to 
40 tons of swedes to the acre, with the result that they 
are not only able to feed more cattle at the farm but to 
produce milk at a smaller cost per gallon. 

Here, indeed, lies one of the chief elements of success 
in Dairy-Farming. Efforts have been made in Scotland, 
in Yorkshire, and in Kent to ascertain from the practice 
of farmers what is the actual cost of producing a gallon of 
milk ; but conclusions have been drawn from the results in 
which the factor of yield has been ignored. It is perfectly 



obvious tliat a farmer who produces 2 tons of meadow 
liay, 30 tons of turnips, and 50 tons of mangels to the acre 
is able to produce milk at a much cheaper rate than a 
farmer who obtains no more than the average yield of 
the country — e.g., 25cwt. of hay, 12| tons of turnips, and 
19 tons of mangels. From this point of view the figures 
which have been officially published, and which are 
intended to show what the cost of production has been 
on various farms, are erroneous, and therefore misleading, 
and cannot be justified. 

The results obtained in the county of Kent, for 
example, were based on the fixed price of the various 
foods grown upon the farm. Mangels, swedes, and cabbage 
are thus valued at 10s. a ton, white turnips at 8s., chat 
potatoes at 20s., meadow hay at 60s., oat, pea, and bean 
straw at 40s., and barley and wheat straw at 25s. These 
are empirical figures, and in all probabiUty do not apply 
to any two farms. The cost of a ton of food grown upon 
the farm depends not only upon the money spent in its 
production, but upon its weight. Thus, if a crop of 12 tons 
of swedes has cost £8 to grow, each ton has cost 13s. 4d. 
If, however, the crop reaches 30 tons to the acre, and has 
cost £10 to grow, each ton has cost only 6s. 8d., or precisely 
one half. 

In Kent the lowest cost of producing a gallon of milk 
in the winter (42 weeks) of 1912-13 was 4-3d., in 1913-14 
it was 4-2d., and in 1914-15 4-64d. On the other hand, 
the highest cost in each of these seasons was 7-46d., 7-08d., 
and 8-18d. Taking the average cost on the farms, the 
milk of the combined herds, which during the three 
winters produced an average per cow of 217 gallons per 
day, was 5-76d. per gallon in 1912-13, 5-4d. in 1913-14, 
and 5-72d. in 1914-15 ; and it should be observed that 
in the last two years war prices prevailed. 

Finally, we hold the opinion that on farnis where swedes 
do not produce 25 tons to the acre and mangels 35 tons 
root-feeding stands in the way of success, and had better 
give place to some other crop. The swede is apt to spoil 
the flavour of milk unless its crown is removed, while 
neither mangels, which are much better than turnips, of 



whatever variety, nor swedes are adapted to the production 
of butter. We may go farther than this and add that 
fine butter cannot be made from milk produced by their 
aid. Turnips are an item of great importance on a farm, 
a large portion of which is manured with the assistance of 
sheep, which consume them in the fold, but on a dairy 
farm they are not in their place, and we may safely conclude 
that as thousands of farmers do not grow 12 tons to the 
acre they are a source of serious loss. 

The pastures and meadows of England do not produce 
one half the grass of which they are capable, and considera- 
tions of national pride must not blind us to the fact. 
If we may judge by the hay crop we have still a great 
deal to learn. The average yield in England, 1904-13, 
on our permanent meadowland was 23-9Bcwt., in Wales 
20-29cwt., in Scotland, on a very small area, 29-63cwt., 
in Great Britain 23-73cwt., and in Ireland 45-07cwt. The 
humid climate and the soil of a large part of Ireland 
immensely assist her result ; but while there are plenty 
of farms in this country which obtain equal or still better 
results, the fact remains that the vast majority fall below 
the average, many of these growing no more than 15cwt. 
to 20cwt. per acre. 

We have travelled through numerous counties during 
the past few winters and springs, and especially remarked 
upon the brown tint of the herbage which covers 
most of the country not under the plough ; whereas on 
every well-managed farm the pastures were green. There 
are whole districts in Warwickshire, Worcestershire, 
Gloucestershire, Wilts, Hampshire, Sussex, Surrey, Herts, 
Cambridgeshire, and East Anglia, to mention a few, in which 
the grassland needs what it apparently never receives : 
large dressings of mineral manures, and that care and 
attention which alone will command a successful result. 

Good herbage is so important to the producer of milk, 
butter, or cheese that we may briefly refer to the chief 
means of effecting its improvement. First comes the fact 
that while dung is invaluable on arable land, its results 
on permanent grass are inferior to and more costly than 
those obtained with the assistance of artificial manure. 



Not only is the influence of mineral fertilisers more per- 
manent, but tkey absolutely prevent that increase in the 
growth of weeds which dung j)romotes. Phosphates 
and potash develop the clovers and trefoils, which is a 
fact of enormous importance inasmuch as these species 
collect nitrogen from the atmosphere and with it enrich 
the soil without cost to the grower. Thus, as these plants 
are consumed by stock grazing upon them they indirectly 
feed the grasses which do not possess the same faculty 
of helping themselves. In a word, the dung made from 
the clover which the cattle consume contains the nitrogen 
which they have absorbed ; the cultivation of grass-land 
is therefore trebly important. We have had the advantage 
of visiting farms in various counties in which the grass 
has not only been improved but reclaimed, and these 
facts have convinced us that in all probability 75 per cent, 
of the pastures of many English counties are practically 
uncultivated, although capable of doubling their crops. 

During various visits to Switzerland we have studied 
the practice of the small farmers in some of the Cantons 
in which heavy grass crops are grown, these sometimes 
yielding 5 tons of hay to the acre in several cuts. One 
or two hints derived from this source may therefore be 
given. The cows are stalled during the whole of the year, 
apart from the fact that one or two are daily employed in 
hauling the grass to the farm in the summer and returning 
with solid or liquid manure — the latter being almost daily 
distributed after mowing in summer. The best grassland 
is of a temporary character, the seeds including clover, 
lucerne, sainfoin, rye grass, cocksfoot, timothy, and rib 
grass. The herbage is mown for the cows as fast as it 
grows, and the manure assists in the production of the 
following cut. In this country the growth of the grasses 
could be checked in dry summers by the heat of the sun 
in spite of the manure ; but the Swiss plant the land with 
fruit — standard aj)ples, chiefly employed in the manufac- 
ture of cider, and pears — and by thus shading the grass 
prevent any possible failure. 

Again, we have found milking cows on the Alps at all 
altitudes up to 5,000ft. ; and this fact suggests that cows 



might be grazed on the Downs in this country with equal 
success. Among the farms to which we have referred 
there are some which are partially downland, and these 
have in some instances besn so much improved that the 
old value of 5s. to 10s. an acre has been increased to 30s. 
and 40s. by the system elsewhere suggested. 

More Herbage by Sowing Long-rooted Plants. 

Another suggestion may be made for the assistance of 
those who are in a position to improve their poor grass- 
land, although it is of a more drastic character. On poor, 
light land, or on hill-sides which have never produced 
good herbage within the memory of man, much has been 
done by ploughing it up, taking a turnip crop, and sowing 
a mixture of the seeds of plants possessing long roots, in 
a barley crop which is manured with artificials. The 
object is simple. The old herbage, consisting solely of 
plants with short roots, has never been able to reach the 
food in the subsoil, which is usually rich in the essential 
minerals, or to travel deep enough to find sufiicient 
water to enable it to grow. The new herbage, which 
includes wild clover, cocksfoot, tall fescue, tall oat grass, 
chicory, burnet, rib grass, and, on light soils, kidney 
vetch, consists entirely of long-rooted plants, which are 
not only able to find water below but to feed on the 
minerals awaiting the development of man. These they 
bring up to the surface soil, which is enriched by their 
roots to such an extent that when ploughed up heavy 
corn, root, and potato crops can be grown in succession to 
the improved grass crops which the new plants have 

The principle underlying this practice is one of the 
most important of all those which are applied to the 
farm. What the subsoil is the surface soil was, and if 
by its application the dairy-farmer can utilise the mineral 
matter below, and simultaneously the nitrogen of the 
atmosphere above, he may be able, and will be able in 
most cases, to ensure fertility, which costs nothing but the 
labour so long as he lives on his farm, and therefore to 
increase his crops beyond all expectation. If he prefers 



to continue to scratch the top 4in. of arable soil, to 
use manure which has lost the small value it ever 
possessed by exposure and careless management, and 
finally to neglect his grass-land altogether, as the majority 
do, he is likely to remain unsuccessful and unsatisfied- 
More Grass in Dry Summers and Early Winter. 

Apart from the practice to which we have just referred, 
pasture grass may be improved to such an extent that the 
loss owing to drought may be much diminished, while 
herbage may be provided for grazing day and night during 
the last three months of the year, except on the few 
severe days when the cows are kept in the stall. This is 
a point of importance, for the more extensively the pastures 
provide for the stock the larger the area of arable land 
which will be available for corn and other saleable crops. 
It has been remarked that plants with long roots, by 
piercing deeper into the subsoil than most of the grasses 
are able, supj)ly themselves with water even in very 
dry weather. This is peculiarly the characteristic of 
lucerne, sainfoin, kidney vetch, and chicory, but in a 
minor degree it also applies to the clovers. Obviously, too, 
the deep-feeding plants are also in a position to utilise the 
latent manures of the subsoil, to produce more herbage 
by their aid, and to store them in their roots, thus enriching 
the surface soil when these roots decay. 

When lucerne, sainfoin, vetch, and clover are growing 
and feeding in this way they are also appropriating 
the nitrogen of the air, and so further enriching 
the soil in a way which is ini|)ossible by the action 
of fertilisers, essential as these are under other 
conditions. Thus it will appear that where pasture land 
is rich in clover it will resist drought better than where 
there are practically no clovers at all. In either case 
artificial fertilisers may be used with great advantage, 
for if there are no clovers phosphates will induce them 
to grow ; whereas if there is a good plant, that plant can 
be stimulated by the suitable food they provide to extend 
their root system still deeper, and thus to obtain almost 
all they require. 



Although winter grass is not highly approved by 
owners of stock it is better than roots, and will maintain 
the herd up to Cliristmas in many counties without cake 
or meal, but with the assiistance of hay, if it is encouraged 
to grow in the manner suggested. 

Chapter III. 


When a cow calves the milk in her udder, which is 
abnormally rich in casein and minerals and poor in fat, is 
known as beestings ; the correct term, however, is colostrum. 
Fitted by nature for the benefit of the calf, this milk is 
often consumed in the farmhouse, especially when the 
calf is weaned at its birth. The milk of a newly calved 
cow is not fit for sale until she has calved four or five days, 
the latter period being frequently fixed in milk buyers' 

Aearing tlie Calves. 

Unless calves are reared upon cows which are kept 
for the purpose, in which case one average cow will rear 
five in a season, consisting of two pairs and a single, it is 
better to wean them at birth, teaching them to drink 
from the pail. In this way it is much easier to regulate 
the supply, and subsequently to mix separated milk with 
the whole milk preparatory to weaning from milk altogether, 
In the ordinary way a calf may obtain whole milk for a 
month, at the expiration of which it may be reduced to 
one half the quantity, which should be made up with the 
separated milk, until in two or three weeks the whole 
milk may be abandoned altogether in favour of an 
increased cpiantity of sweet separated milk. This plan 
will prove quite successful if the calf has been taught to 
feed upon the best and sweetest hay at the earliest possible 
day^, and subsequently upon a little linseed cake meal or 



crushed oats. As the young animal grows the hay and 
oats may form its sole food, until it is able to eat chaff 
and pulped mangels, both of which may be employed 
to increase the weight of its ration. 

Where a calf is intended to take her place in the dairy 
herd she should be fed with hberality from her birth. 
A male calf should not only be fed in this way, but having 
developed plenty of flesh should be put upon a finishing 
ration, to fit him for slaughter at as near two years old 
as possible. This finishing process is not necessary for 
heifers, but they should be kept in good condition for 
calving, the vitality of the calves and their future value 
as milkers depending so much upon it. 

It is, too, highly important that heifers should not 
be allowed to suckle their calves, nor should cows ; 
the practice is bad for the milking propensity. It is 
necessary to add that hard udders, stoppage of a teat, 
pustules, and garget seldom trouble the cow which is 
suckling. This fact should induce dairy-farmers to 
recognise that these complaints are chiefly owing to 
carelessness on the part of the milkers. 


Cows should be milked as nearly as possible every 
twelve hours. There is no advantage to be gained by 
milking three times a day. If the evening milking follows 
nine hours after the morning milking, the milk produced 
will be less and the fat percentage higher ; but the nearer 
the second milking approximates to twelve hours after 
that of the first the larger will be the evening yield and 
the more regular the fat percentage. Thus one cause 
of risk, and sometimes of prosecution, for seUing milk 
below the standard (3 per cent, fat) is found in milking 
too soon after the morning milking, with the result that 
the milk produced in the morning, while showing a 
large increase in volume over that of the evening, is 
correspondingly low in its fat percentage. 

All cows should be stripped after milking. The first 
milk drawn contains very little fat, but it increases in 
richness until the last drop, the strippings being the richest 



portion of any. As a rule the richest niilljers yield less 
milk than producers of poor milk, yet modern breeders 
have succeeded in evolving cows of the Dairy Shorthorn, 
Jersey, Guernsey, Devon, and Dutch varieties which 
yield very large quantities of abnormally rich milk. It is 
therefore possible to obtain a Dairy Shorthorn cow pro- 
ducing 6gal. a day at her best, the milk containing 4 to 
5 per cent, of fat. Cows in this country have already 
given l,400gal. in a year, while in the United States 
there are many records of l,50Dgal. to 2,000gal., and a 
yield of butter fat equivalent to from 8001b. to 9001b. of 
commercial butter. 

How to Milk. 

While we are convinced of the value of the milking- 
machine, it is important to note how a cow should be 
milked by the hand. The time will come when, owing 
almost entirely to the dirty habits of the majority of 
milkers, who practically forbid the sale of absolutely 
clean milk, hand milking will be officially abolished. 
Until that period arrives the udder of the cow should be 
washed and dried, the hands washed, and rinsed after 
every cow has been milked, when the two hands should 
grasp two of the teats. Each hand alternately loosens 
its grasp, presses the udder with the thumb and forefinger, 
quickly grasps the teats again, and passes down the milk. 
The teats should never be wet to assist this action, as 
wet milking is the most fertile cause of dirty or 
contaminated milk, while to maintain it the fingers are 
dipped into the pail, and thus become quickly plastered 
with filth. When a pail is placed under the cow it receives 
countless numbers of bacteria and particles of dirt during 
the whole time it is exjDosed ; nor can this be prevented 
without the milking-machine or milking in the open air, 
although the latter plan is but an amelioration of the 

Meolianlcal v. Hantl Milking. 

We have not only had numerous opportunities of seeing 
cows milked by mechanical means since the machine was 




first introduced, but of witnessing tlie complete system of 
manufacture of tlie several macliiues with wMcli we are 
acquainted. The pail is completely enclosed, while above 
it is a pulsator v^hich regulates the inflation and collapse 
of the rubber cups which fit over the teats. ^ In various 
instances known to us, either owing to visits to farms 
or from letters of farmers describing their practice, large 
herds are now milked by very small numbers of persons. 
In one case three men milk and manage a herd of 100 
cows, in another three girls milk seventy-six cows, while 
in a third l,000gal. a week are drawn by one double 

The lister Milldng-Machine al work. 

and four single Lister machines. The points in favour of 
mechanical milking are : — 

Perfectly clean milk. 
Large reduction in labour. 
No bad udders. 
Eapidity of milking. 
The milk keeps longer. 

The power necessary for running the machine can be 
employed for electrically lighting the cow-house. Fresh 
cows introduced into a herd take to machine milking 
without trouble, and the men rapidly learn to manage 
both engine and machine. The work should be even, 
the parts requiring lubrication should be always well 



oiled, and the machine cleaned and left in cold water 
whei milking is completed. There is no evidence of 
cows falling off in their yield ; on the other hand, cows 
are now milking which were being milked twelve months 
ago, and have never been dried. 

Two features related to the new system of - milking 
may be mentioned, both having come under our notice. 
There is perhaps no point in relation to the housing of 
cows which reflects so much on the cleanness of milk as 
the absence of light during milking in winter. Cows are 
still milked with -.the assistance of candles and paraffin 
lamps. On one farm known to us the installation of the 
machine was accompanied by the addition of a dynamo 
and electric lamps sufficient in number to illupiinate the 
entire collection of cows, not only with the result that the 
work is all clean, but that both milkers and cows are 
provided with that form of comfort which light alone 

Strairing tlie Milk. 

When milk has been drawn, whether for sale or the 
manufacture of butter or cheese, it is essential to remove 
the dirt which it contains. At the present time it is 
passed through a hair or metal sieve or a piece of cheese 
cloth, neither of which 'retains the minor particles, which 

Prize Milk Filter. Dairy Outfit Company. 

invariably pass through it. Much the best plan is to 
strain through a layer of cotton-wool, so arranged that 
the milk does not pass over what has abeady been retained 
on the wool. Where the two systems of straining have 
been compared side by side, the milk which has passed 



ttrougt the sieve or the cloth still provides a sediment, 
whereas that passed through the cotton-wool is practically 
free. It must here be remarked that in both cases 
the soluble portion of the dirt remains, thus indicating 
that milk can be clean only when it is drawn out of contact 
with the air. 

Refrigerating or Cooling. 

This question has already been discussed in a previous 
chapter, but it is important to mention that the two 
form.s of refrigerator have equally valid claims in practice. 

The vertical cooler is so arranged that as the cold water 
passes through the inside of the tubes from the bottom 
to the top the milk passes over the outside from the top 
to the bottom, as it leaves the receiving pan into which 
it is poured. Thus the milk, already partially cooled, passes 
over the bottom tubes in which the water is at its coldest. 
Although it is properly claimed that by this process 
of cooling the thin layer of milk is submitted to aeration 
as it flows, it must not be forgotten that it takes a heavy 



toll of bacteria and particles of dust from tlie air at the 
same time. For tliis reason milk thus cooled should be 
cooled in the open air. The other form of cooler is of 
lenticular form, the milk passing over the circular reservoirs 
in a similar way, while the water passes through them, 
built as they are one upon the other. There can, however, 
be no perfect cooling without water much colder than 

Milk Churn with Model Lid and Fastener, Splash, Dust, and Rain Proof. 

that obtained on nineteen farms out of twenty. On a 
large dairy farm the milk ought to be cooled by a real 
refrigerator, and to such a degree that it can always 
be dispatched at 40° F. in hot weather. With the 
assistance of a refrigerating plant it could be retained 
when prices are low and sold when, owing to drought 



or great scarcity, prices are liigli. Milk cooled in tliis 
way will keep twelve to twenty-four hours longer than 
is possible in the ordinary practice of the farm. 

Railway MUk Churns. 

Milk is sent to London in cans, improperly called 
churns, which are tall, and much larger in diameter at 
the bottom than at the top. Both top and bottom are 
fortified with stout rims, the hd being usually fixed inside 
the top rim, and sometimes also provided with a rim. 
The rim of the churn does not prevent rain passing into 
the milk ; but this may be prevented by a lid which 
completely covers the mouth of the churn. Farmers 
largely ignore these details, and are wise to look for 
strength and economy in the vessels they buy. The 
milk churn is gauged inside, and usually holds 17gal. — 
the obsolete and illegal barn of 16gal. and sixteen 
half pints, it having been the custom to require the pro- 
ducer to give one half pint to every gallon to make up for 
the loss in retailing. This loss, of course, never occurs, for 
skilful distributors are quite able to serve their customers 
and still to return with some milk, or sell it and put the 
money into their pockets, as so many have done. 

Buying a Cow. 

No man can expect to succeed as a dairy-farmer unless 
he is able to select his own stock. Large sums may be 
lost in buying cows which have no value for milk. Age, 
infirmity, a blind teat, a diseased udder, imperfect type, 
or the propensity to milk well for a few weeks and then 
to fall off — all these faults must be guarded against. 

A good cow should be in her prime, having produced 
two to five calves. She should possess fine horns which 
are never too long, a long head with a broad muzzle, 
and dew on her nose, full eyes, a fine neck and forequarter, 
getting broader towards the hips, which should be wide 
apart, and without those bunches of beef which are common 
on the rump of so many pedigree cows of beef-making 
type. The belly should be large, the udder broad, built 
well forward, full between the thighs, and globular, but 



never pendent, provided with four medium-sized teats 
placed well apart, all of which should give milk without 
trouble. A good cow should breathe freely and without 
efiort ; she should chew the cud when at ease, her ears 
should be warm, her coat soft, and her skin mellow and 
loose on the body. A cow which is short and thick in 
build, with a short head and neck, and a rump which is 
heavily fleshed, is seldom a milker, and should be strictly 
avoided ; she should be docile, sleek, standing square on 
the legs, and looking a picture of health and contentment. 

A cow has no incisor teeth in the upper jaw, but eight 
in the lower jaw, and thirty-two teeth in all. Although 
a young cow may be recognised by her teeth, for she 
has not a full mouth until she is three and a half 
years old, it is more difficult to determine even 
approximately the age of an old cow, and then alone by 
the condition of her teeth. The central incisors appear 
in a heifer at the age of about twenty-two months, the 
second pair at two and a half years, the third pair at three 
years, and at three and a half years her outside moisors. 
Cows kept in a stall and fed on soft food may not push 
their teeth through so quickly, whereas m those which 
consume coarse foods the teeth may appear earher. 

Although it is customary to ask for a warranty with 
a horse, it is not the practice to do so with a cow, f or^ in 
any case it is worthless. The purchaser of a cow which 
is said to be in calf must satisfy himself, for no honourable 
man can give him a guarantee, unless the calf can be felt, 
as it can be about five months after service, and when felt 
it will respond by its movement. Nor can a seller justly 
warrant a cow to supply milk of either a given quality 
or quantity. No figures should be accepted in _ this 
matter, unless the yield is recorded systematically in a 
book kept for the purpose, as the result of regular weighing, 
not measuring. 

A cow which calves in the spring produces most of 
her milk in May, June, and July, usually faUing ofi as the 
summer grass dries and as the grass fails. With a 
diminution of the yield there is an increase m the fat 
percentage, and this increase may continue until tue 



animal is dried ofi, nine, ten, or eleven months after 
calving, altliougli some cows continue to milk after a year 
has expired. 

Drying the Cow. 

Under all circumstances six weeks should elapse between 
drying and calving. The cow should be maintained in 
good but not fat condition, and as far as possible she 
should earn her own living by grazing on a not too rich 
or luxuriant pasture. She needs the exercise which may 
prevent an attack of milk fever, from which so many cows 
die. ^ On the other hand, a cow which is soon due to calve, 
if tied in a stall or left in a loose box and fed liberally, 
may put on flesh and incur the not very unusual penalty. 
A fleshy cow should receive a drench of 8oz. of Epsom 
salts dissolved in two quarts of cold water two or three 
times within the last four days before calving. 

It should be remembered in relation to drying that 
when a cow falls ofi in her yield of milk and gives no more 
than two quarts it is better to dry her at once and to 
deduct the meal from her ration. So small a yield is not 
worth the cost of feeding and labour, while continuous 
milking may do harm to the calf, which now makes a 
great demand on the cow. 

Importance of Grooming. 

All cows should be groomed. The skin receives a 
healthy tone from the friction, while the coat is soon 
loaded with dirt and bacteria, which find their way into 
the milk. The maintenance of the health of a herd largely 
depends upon cleanliness, which is one of the first rules of 
life in the domestic animal as well as in man. CleanUness 
is promoted by the provision of movable tubs for the 
mixed food or mangers fixed in the floor. This gives 
more room for the cow and prevents her Ipng on manure, 
which during winter plasters the haunches and soils the 
udder and teats. 


Although it is the custom in this country to calve the 
large majority of cows in the spring, it is obvious that the 



increased value of milk in tlie winter necessitates aiitumii 
calving as well. Many farmers prefer to produce most 
of their milk in the summer, owing to the diminished cost 
of feeding on grass and to the fact that in cheese-making 
districts it is essential to obtain all they possibly can 
between April and October. It shoidd be remembered, 
however, that in most years the yield falls with the hot 
weather of July and August, unless provision is made 
by the production of forage which is not likely to fail. 
On a milk-selling farm it is quite as important to calve 
cows in September and October as in March, and this is 
especially the case where care is taken to preserve grass 
in sufficient abundance to feed them, except upon occasional 
very cold days, right up to the end of December. For 
many years past milk has been so scarce in mid-winter 
that prices have been exceptionally high, and farmers 
who do not bind themselves by contracting have done 
exceedingly well. 

The average time which elapses between service and 
calving is 284 days. Some cows calve earlier, while 
others are delayed. The calf may be felt by gently 
pressing the inside of the thumb and the forefinger on 
the right side of the abdomen, between the fifth and sixth 
month ; and from this time forward it usually responds. 
Approaching parturition is recognised chiefly by the 
expansion of the udder and the enlargement of the genital 
organ. In summer the cow about to calve may still be 
left on a pasture, but not kept with or near to the herd, 
with the result that she will usually calve without any 
help. In cold or severe weather she had better be put in 
a loose box provided with very clean straw. When calving 
commences the fore feet of the calf first make their 
appearance, and with each throe the body comes forward, 
being usually expelled without any assistance. If difficulty 
arises and it appears to be certain that assistance is 
required, a fine tough rope should be obtained, and a 
noose passed round the fore feet. A couple of men should 
then take hold of the other end and pull well, yet gently, 
when the farmer gives the word, which he will with each 
throe, this action ceasing at its expiration. It usually 



happens that with patience and great care all will go well. 
Should there be any other form of presentation than the 
fore feet a skilled vet. should be placed in charge of the 
job, which may be of a highly dangerous character to the 
cow and calf. 

All experienced stock-breeders are aware that the 
placenta or after-birth follows the calf, although its 
appearance may be delayed. Should it, however, after 
abnormal delay not be expelled, or after partial expulsion 
remain attached to the cow, no attempt should be made 
by a non-professional man to remove it by force. As 
its adherence means danger to the health of the cow, the 
first course to pursue is to syringe the passage through 
which it has passed with a mixture of 1 part of carbolic 
acid to 50 parts of water twice in each day. Although 
there are methods of removing the placenta, it is the wisest 
course to place the cow in charge of a veterinary surgeon 
at once. 

After calving the cow may be left with her calf with 
tepid water beside her to drink and a warm bran mash, 
which may be followed at a normal interval with a second 
mash mixed with boiled or steamed roots and some extra 
good hay. Under ordinary conditions she will soon be 
fit to turn out with the herd, but care must be taken in 
cold, windy, or rainy weather to prevent a chill by 
exposure, and to help her to recover her strength. If it 
is exceptionally cold she may be protected with a rug. 

A newly-born calf is soon on its legs, when it is not 
long before finding its way to the udder ; and it should be 
encouraged to drink, the first milk or colostrum being 
exceptionally good for it. We have already discussed 
the question of rearing the calf. 

It will now be convenient to refer to the subject of 
Abortion in the cow, which is usually caused by a micro- 
organism communicated by an aifected animal. The 
trouble, and it is a very serious one, is therefore contagious, 
and no care should be regarded as too great to prevent 
its introduction into a herd by a newly-purchased cow. 
A cow usually casts her calf from this cause during the 
fifth month, and if she is with the herd the chances are 



that others will be attacked by the disease. The first 
thing is to remove and isolate the cow, and to bury the 
calf and all that has fallen with it, well covering the whole 
matter with lime. The spot on which the abortion took 
place, if in the field, should be well disinfected, and the 
herd removed elsewhere. The next course is to provide 
the following solution : — 3oz. of alcohol (specific gravity 36), 
with glycerine, and 2|dr. of perchloride of mercury (a 
poison) in 20 pints of pure water, and with this to wash 
the tails and organs of every cow daily for some days, 
fortifying them at the same time with good food and 
keeping them out in the air as much as possible. If a 
cow is due to calve within four months she is not likely 
to be affected with the calf she carries. No cow which 
has aborted should be served again until the expiration 
of the nine months she ought to have gone, and then only 
if she is " clean " and in robust health. Nor should a bull 
be used which has been in contact with a cow which lias 
aborted, unless this condition is fulfilled. 

Chapter IV. 


The subject of housing and the equipment of the cow- 
stalls might easily occupy a volume, so varied are the 
materials which are employed in construction and so 
numerous the methods of arranging the stalls, the mangers, 
and the various other fixtures which are required for a 
herd of cows. In this coimtry cows are usually stalled 
in pairs with partitions between. In old buildings which 
are cramped and badly adapted to the work the cubic 
space per cow is usually much too small, the ventilation 
bad, and the drainage worse, the floors being frequently 
soaked with the accumulated manure of years. In new 
buildings, which are larger, lighter, and more perfectly 
ventilated, the stalls are ranged in rows, either tail 
to tail with a wide passage between, and the heads of 
the cows facing the walls, or head to head with a similar 
passage dividing and narrower passages behind them. 
In the former case the food is taken from the barrows 
behind the cows to the mangers and racks, while in the 
latter it is drawn down the central passage and the mangers 
filled on either side at one operation. This is much the 
better plan, saving time and labour, while it is more cleanly 
at all times. Where, however, a building is so narrow that 
three passages are impossible the tail to tail system is the 
most convenient, but it is much the less economical, whether 
as regards the time expended, the food provided, or the 
health of the cows. 



A Model Cow-house. 

A cow-house should be wide, high, well ventilated from 
above, and well lit. Apart from Ught jsassing through 
the windows, which should be open in summer for 
ventilation, it is well to provide light in the roof by 
the removal of slates and tiles and the insertion of 
glass. In winter, when the building is dark from four 
in the afternoon until eight on the following morning, 
during which hours almost the whole of the work is 
performed, artificial light is essential, and there is none 
of such value as that provided by electricity. Candles are 

Large Cowshed fitted with Young's Tubular Fittings and Paving. 

insufficient and costly, while paraffin lamps are dangerous, 
disagreeable in use, soiling the hands, occupying much time 
in preparation and cleaning, and never providing sufficient 
light. Where power is employed by a fixed engine used 
for chaffing, pulping, and grinding, or, in a more modern 
sense, for working the mechanical milker, the additional 
cost of a dynamo and electric lamps is quickly paid for in 
the greater comfort of the cows and the happiness and 
convenience of the men, for the building can be made 
almost as light as at midday. 



The floors of the passages should be well constructed 
of concrete, but the kerbs of the gutters are better made 
of black grooved fire-brick. The floors of the stalls, 
however, open up another question. The best we have 
ever seen in practice are made of beateii earth laid upon 
a chalk foundation and well levelled. If chalk is kept 
upon the premises the holes made by the hind feet of the 
cows are easily mended. If the floor runs right up to the 
front partition which separates the stall from the central 
passage so much the better ; it will give the cows more 
room and materially help in preventing them soiling 
themselves with manure, although it may be remarked 
that many practical men prefer exceptionally short stalls, 
which compel the cows to drop their dung in the gutter 
behind, this gutter being made shallow and wide with a 
longer drop from the stall than from the passage opposite. 
A long stall may be provided where there is no manger, 
and after an examination of almost every system which has 
been devised — and we have seen them in various countries — 
we arrive at the conclusion that there is no simpler, less 
costly, or more economical and handy system than that 
of providing the cows with rations in well-made wooden 
tubs which have been painted inside and out, and this is 
the practice in some parts of Yorkshire. Bach tub is 
removed after the cows are fed, conveyed to the food 
preparation floor, filled, and returned at the next meal. 
The additional space provided for the cows afJords 
them greater ease and convenience and keeps them 
cleaner. If a , manger is regarded as essential it should 
be made of semicircular fireclay, and built so that it 
can be flushed with water from i tap fixed at one end 
and carried ofi at the other. It has long been the custom 
to provide racks over the manger for the reception of hay ; 
but where the tub system is employed no racks are needed, 
for the hay can be placed upon the dry floor in moderate 
quantities at a time, and if it is of good quality it will not 
be wasted. A rack is an additional expense in construction 
and maintenance and has no economical value. 

The partitions between each pair of cows, usually 
made of wood and built short, are now frequently 



constructed of tubular iron, galvanised or painted {see 
illustration, p. 45), while a bar of the same material passes 
in front of the cows in the place of a partition between 
the stall and the central passage. This system is clean, 
simple, substantial, and much to be commended. 
The less material employed, however, in equipment 
the better. In some cases water is laid on to the 
manger — a small receptacle in the centre of each pair 

Young's Flush Concrete Separate Mangers. 

of cows being filled automatically. Although this appears 
to be ideal it is not a success in practice, the water being 
frequently tainted with food dropped into it, while the 
mechanism gets out of order. Further, it is only needed 
during the winter season. The walls of the building 
should be smooth, preferably finished in Parian cement 
artd limewashed, this washing being conducted a,t least 



twice a year, as well for the sake of purity and cleanliness 
as appearance. Tlie cow-house should be ceiled in some 
way ; buildings which are only covered with tiles or 
slates are frec[uently the abode of cobwebs and other 
accumulations, with the result that the atmosphere is 
contaminated, together with the cows, the food they 
consume, and the milk which is drawn into the pails. To 
this end room should be made for a loft overhead, in 
which hay, cake, and other foods can be stored, the ceiling 
being covered with matchboard, stained and varnished. 

The most common practice of tying up cows is with the 
use of the chain, one end of which passes round the neck, 
while the other is fastened by a ring to a vertical rod, 
upon which it slides in order to give the cow more freedom. 
Some farmers have introduced the American system of 
looping the cow to the manger. A metal loop of tubular 
iron is fixed between the travis of the manger and a narrow 
beam above. This loop opens and revolves at will as the 
cow moves her head, but it is unsightly and costly, while it 
provides no advantage which is not supplied by the chain. 
The cow should be pro^dded with a bed of wheat-straw 
or peat-moss, although sawdust and even shavings are 
sometimes employed instead. 

The rood-Store. 

Although there are many methods of communication 
between the food-store, the coohng-house, and the 
cow-house, it is essential that it should be convenient 
and time-saving. The food should be as near the cattle 
as possible, and prepared upon a clean, smooth, hard 
concrete floor. It is therefore requisite that each material 
used in its composition should be stored near at hand. 
Thus the hay may be kept overhead, being packed in 
trusses as it cornes from the rick from time to time. If a 
chaff-cutter is in the same apartment, communicating with 
the engine by a belt, the chafi can be cut in the loft and 
passed through a trap-door on to the floor below it. 
Similarly, cake can be broken on the floor itself, and roots 
pulped, these being passed by the feeder from a store 
close at hand direct into the hopper of the machine ready 



cleaned. We believe there is no more economical or con- 
venient system, as part of the feeding process, than the 
provision of a grist-mill, by means of which a farmer is 
able to provide much better food than if he buys crushed 

Young's Fodder Carrier on Overhead Rail. 

oats, maize-meal, middlings, bran, and barley-meal from 
a merchant, inasmuch as, having purchased or grown the 
corn from which it is produced, he knows precisely what 
he is using. Where brewers' grains are used as part of a 



winter ration — and it applies equally to summer — a pit 
should be provided outside tlie food-store, for the simple 
reason that where they are kept for any length of time 
o-rains decompose and emit a disagreeable odour, which 
fs somewhat' neutraUsed when they are mixed with 
other food. The pit should be covered with a roof 
to prevent the entrance of rain. The best method of 

English Travelling Food Carrier. 

conveying food to the mangers is by the assistance of a 
large galvanised food-barrow. The manure dropped by 
the cattle should be removed twice daily, and either shot 
upon a dung-heap outside — this heap also being under 
cover — or directly into a cart, and taken daily into 
the fields, for in this way nothing is lost. Where the 
manure is shot into the yard in the open it is washed 



by rain and partially destroyed, or it is allowed to ferment, 
with the result that in a few months it loses one-half of 
its weight and almost one-half of its fertilising matter. 
Although Hquid manure is of greater value per cow thau 
the soUd manure, it is almost invariably wholly or partially 
lost. If drained into a tank it ferments and parts with its 
ammonia, which is volatile, or it is diluted with rain-water 
to such an extent that it is never carried away until it is 
next to worthless. This liquid should be taken to the 
fields at least every second day if loss is to be prevented. 

The Cooling-House. 

Where milk is sold it is necessary to cool it, and each 
pail is emptied by the milker into a receiving pan above 
the refrigerator as fast as it is drawn. It should, however, 
be passed through a strainer in the process. The cooling- 
house should be constructed at a convenient spot, for if 
it is at one end of the building the milkers have to walk 
a considerable distance in doing their work. The cooUng- 
house should be free from the contamination of the cow- 
house, and should therefore not communicate directly 
with it. It should be well ventilated, floored with concrete, 
kept well limed, and provided with abundance of water. 
The nulking-pails, railway churns, and other implements 
employed in the work should be cleaned in another apart- 
ment where a copper is provided, and always put out of 
doors under a shed to dry in the open air. 

Valiie o£ Recording-Sheets. 

One of the most important features in the cattle-house 
is the series of recording-sheets, which should hang upon a 
board behind each cow, her name being at the top, together 
with her age, the date when she calved, and when she is due 
to calve again. On this sheet the weight of milk produced 
morning and night should be recorded, and each sheet 
handed to the employer by the foreman once a week. A 
glance at this sheet will easily tell in a moment whether 
anything is wrong with the cow, inasmuch as under given 
conditions she immediately drops off in her yield of^ milk. 
The recording system involves the practice of weighing 
the milk of each cow as it is drawn. 

Chapter V. 


Although well acquainted with, the cattle of the European 
Continent, we know of no variety — with one exception, 
the Norman — which can approach the best breeds of 
this country for the production of milk, butter, and cheese. 
The first of British dairy cows is undoubtedly the Dairy 
Shorthorn, which must not be confounded with the 
Pedigree Shorthorn. Among cows of this type there are 
many that produce milk at some time in their career 
which contains less than 3 per cent, of fat, this being the 
Government standard. On the other hand, public com- 
petitions have shown that there is a still larger number 
producing milk which is as rich as that of the Jersey. 
Apparently, therefore, it is comparatively easy to form a 
herd of Dairy Shorthorns quite ec[ual in this direction to 
a heid of Jerseys. The Dairy Shorthorn is found at her 
best in Cumberland and Westmorland, Lancashire, parts 
of Yorkshire, Cheshire, Buckinghamshire, and contiguous 
parts of neighbouring counties. She is a big-framed, 
gentle beast, with a mellow skin, and colour which varies 
from red or white to red-and-white and roan, or roan- 
and-white. She weighs about 13501b., is easily fattened 
for the butcher when her milking days are over, and 
produces from 600 to 1200 gallons of milk in a year — in 
some few cases slightly more. This cow is a good butter 
and cheese maker and producer of milk for sale. She is 
broad across the hips and wide between the buttocks, 
giving ample room for the udder, which is large and 



broad and provided with large teats set wide aj)art No 
cow possesses so large a milk mirror, or escntclieon, as 
the Dairy Shorthorn. 

The Devon cow is smaller than the Shorthorn, weighing 
from 11501b. to 12001b., and producing from 550 to 
1000 gallons of milk, which on the average is slightly 
superior in quality. She is a deep rich red in colour, and 
of a broader type and less meaty build than the Devon of 
the show-yard, which provides such excellent beef. The 
milking Devon common to the south of the county must 
not be confused with the North Devon or Somerset breed. 
She is responsible for a large proportion of the clotted 
cream and the rich butter made in Devonshire — butter 
which realises a much better average price than that made 
in any other part of the kingdom, if we except that of the 
Channel Islands. 

The Red Poll dairy cow is again of a different type from 
that of the Eed Poll which is kept for beef-production, 
both strains being bred in East Anglia, although herds are 
occasionally met with in other parts of the country. She 
is a lighter red than the Devon, and weighs slightly less, 
while her milk-yield is approximately similar. The milk 
of the Devon, however, is rather richer than that of the 
Red Poll, and there are more cows of the Eastern Counties 
breed yielding poor milk. The Red Poll is docile, well 
formed, handsome, and fairly fleshy. Her udder is not 
so large as that of the Shorthorn, nor, like the Devon, is 
it so well formed as it might be. 

The Ayrshire cow is the native Dairy breed of Scotland, 
and is chiefly bred in Ayrshire and Wigtownshire, where 
large herds are kept for the manufacture of cheese. This 
variety is hardy, but small, weighing about 1,0001b., and 
although it is said that the Ayrshire will live and thrive on 
poor pastures, it is well known that, like other varieties of 
cattle, it responds to good feeding and is capable of yielding 
a very large quantity of milk, and milk of rich quahty. 
Ayrshire breeders by the adoption of the recording system 
have considerably improved the milking character of their 
stock by rejecting poor milkers and breeding from rich 
ones. The data published in the transaction? of the 



Highland Society are most instructive and conclusive on 
this point. The Ayrshire may be red, brown, yellow, or 
black-and-white, white usually predominating, some cows 
being almost entirely white with small spots or splashes 
on the coat. The form of the horn is peculiar to this 
breed, growing to some length upwards and outwards 
and forwards. The fore part of the body of the Ayrshire 
is slender, expanding towards the hips, which are wide 
apart. The udder is wide, long, and flat, falling no lower 
than the base of the abdomen, while the teats are small, 
and for this reason women are chiefly employed as milkers 
in the dairies of Scotland. 

The Jersey is the richest milker of our native breeds, 
her milk sometimes producing 7 per cent, of fat, while no 
cow but the Guernsey produces milk or butter of such 
rich colour. ^ The Jersey is the best butter-producer in 
the world, if we regard her claims to quantity, quaUty, 
and colour. She has small horns, which are fine and 
black at the points, almost yellow at the base in choice 
specimens, and curved inwards, the tips almost meeting. 
The coat has black points, while the colour varies — from 
silver-grey, mulberry, fawn, and golden to golden-fawn. The 
yellow and oily nature of skin is shown within the ears, on 
the tail, beneath the thighs, and sometimes upon the udder. 
The form of the body is fawn-like, being extremely slender, 
the face slightly dished, and the tail lying between the 
two pin bones. The skin is soft, thin, and loose, and the 
cow, while in the picture of health, is so thin that her 
coat is apparently stretched across her body structure. 
The Jersey weighs from 9001b. to 9501b —British-bred 
cows being the largest — while the milk may contain 
from 4 to 7 per cent, of fat, its quantity reaching from 
450gal. in a poor specimen to 1200gal. in an exceptional 

The Guernsey cow is, as a rule, shghtly larger and 
somewhat coarser in build than the Jersey, but very fine 
specimens, which are rare — indeed, much rarer than in 
the case of the Jersey — are of similar form and almost 
equally fawn-like. The udder, too, is exceptionally good, 
if not quite so globular. These cows are good milkers, 


m:ob£rk dairy-fabming. 

and in the island of Guernsey produce milk and butter of 
the very finest quality. The colour of the Guernsey is 
orange or orange-and-white, the shades prevailing being 
a light rather than a dark orange. The Guernsey weighs 
nearly 10001b. ; she produces milk of rich colour, and in 
quantities varying from 500 to 1300 gallons — some 
specimens, however, have produced still greater weights 
than the maximum of these quantities and taken their places 
amongst the finest milkers known to the dairy industry. 
The Guernsey is not cultivated in this country as it 
deserves. It has long been separately classified at 
ezhibitions, but for some reason it has not taken hold of 
the public taste so much as the Jersey, although excep- 
tional specimens are perhaps more profitable animals. 
A good Guernsey stands 50in. at the hi]DS and measures in 
girth round the middle 90in., these figures being typical 
of prize animals which we have examined at public 

The Kerry is usually black, with sometimes a small 
splash of white on the body or, as is more usual, on the 
udder. Although a very small variety on its native 
mountains, where specimens are poor in the extreme, it 
improves in both size and form as well as in condition 
when transferred to English pastures. The improved 
Kerry as we know it in this country is an excellent milker, 
producing some 50 per cent, more milk than the Kerry 
from the county which gives it its name. Some idea may 
be gained of the local value of this beast when at Kenmare 
Fair, where we have seen some two or three thousand 
beasts collected, the highest price of the day, so far as could 
be ascertained, was £5. A good Kerry weighs from 
7001b. to 8001b., and stands 45in. high at the hips. Her 
length reaches 78in., while her girth is a similar figure — ■ 
these measurements being also taken from prize stock. 
The milk of the Kerry is much richer than an average 
sample sold to the consumer, containing as it does some 
3'8 per cent, of fat. The breed is therefore exceptionally 
useful to small occupiers of land or small cow-keepers, who 
prefer to supply their own families with dairy produce. 
It makes good butter and excellent cheese. The Dexter 



Kerry is a still smaller but more compact animal, its 
build resembling tbat of a diminutive Shorthorn, whereas 
the modern Kerry is very symmetrical, for in form it 
somewhat resembles the more delicate Bretonne of France. 
The Dexter is an excellent dairy cow, and, making allowance 
for its size, it also is worthy of recommendation. 

The Dutch, or British Holstein, cow, to give it the name 
which has been provided by the British Holstein Society, 
is an old-established breed in Holland, and one which 
centuries ago is believed to have influenced our early 
strains of Shorthorn. This is a cow weighing some 
13001b., and producing very large quantities of milk. 
In the most important competition known in agricultural 
history — that at St. Louis — it was a Dutch cow which 
took the first prize after a test of 120 days' duration. 
During this period the cow — Shadybrook Gerben — 
produced 81011b. of milk, or SOOgal., containing 3 per 
cent, of fat and producing by calculation 3301b. of butter, 
or a fraction more than the second-prize Jersey cow in the 
same competition. The Holstein cow is but one of several 
native breeds of Holland, all of which are black or black- 
and-white, and in many ways identical, although they are 
really maintained as separate families. The head is large, 
long, and somewhat ill-formed, the horns of medium size 
and varying in shape ; while the body in the best specimens 
is compact, level at the top, provided with well-sprung 
ribs, a large abdomen, narrow forequarters, broad hips, 
and strong buttocks, with a good milk- vein and an excep- 
tionally large udder, which well fills up the space between 
the legs. As this cow is a deep milker, although the milk 
is exceptionally poor, it is acquiring favour, and will 
probably be much improved within the next few years 
owing to the recent introduction by the Holstein Society of 
a considerable number of first-class cattle from Holland. 

Chapter VI. 


The food supplied to the cow must be sufficient to 
provide for lier maintenance, i.e., for the production of 
heat, energy, and repair, and for the manufacture of 
milk. Science and practice combined have enabled us 
to learn with some precision the approximate cjuantity 
of food to supply to a cow of given weight when she is 
giving milk and when she is dry. We learn, too, from the 
same sources what form that food should take, and in 
what proportion we should provide the jyrotein, so essential 
for the repair of the muscular system of the body and the 
production of the casein of the milk, the carboJiydrates, the 
main source of heat and energy, and the fat, which 
plays a similar role. So far no place has been assigned 
to the mineral matter in the compilation of rations, for 
the possible reason that as a heavy consumer of coarse 
vegetable matter the cow obtains from this source all 
that she requires. We may, then, justly assume that 
the dairy cow is fed with much greater care than her 
owner, and that in consequence her productive powers and 
her Kfe are prolonged. 

Selecting the Food. 

A knowledge of the requirements of the cow and of 
the composition of foods materially assists the dairy-farmer 
in making his selections on the market, as in growing his 



crops, and therefore in feeding lier cheaply. In practice 
those foods which are rich in carbohydrates — roots, straw, 
hay, and oats — are grown upon the farm, while those 
which are rich in protein and oil, the pulses and cakes 
in particular, are purchased, farmers regarding it as more 
economical to sell their own grain and pulse and to 
purchase brewers' grains with cakes and cereal oiials 
which have been imported. It would be still more 
economical to grow forage crops rich in protein — lucerne, 
clover, sainfoin, and vetches — together with maize, for 
winter consumption, either as silage or hay, and to buy 
less concentrated food, although for some occult reason 
this most sensible plan is seldom adopted. 

The ration which is prepared for a cow during winter 
for consumption as she stands in the stall is probably 
richer in nutrient matter, where the feeding is good, than 
the grass she obtains from the pastures in summer. While, 
however, grass is an ideal food, and more easily assimilated 
than dry foods, it is better adapted to the production of 
milk and for maintaining a cow in good health. 

A Well-balanced Dietary Essential. 

In order that a cow may receive food which is well 
balanced, as are good pasture grass and hay, and there- 
fore able to provide for her varied requirements, it is 
necessary to understand what is meant by the term. 
A good sample of grass contains 2-5 per cent, of digestible 
albuminoids (protein), 10 per cent, of carbohydrates, and 
•5 per cent, oil, while a good sample of hay contains 
9-2 per cent, of albuminoids, 42 1 per cent, of carbohydrates, 
and 1'5 per cent, oil, giving a ratio of albuminoids to 
carbohydrates and fat of 1 to 5-1, and in the case of the 
grass 1 to 44. Thus for every pound of digestible 
albuminoids 4-41b. of carbohydrates and fat (or oil) are 
required, the fat being estimated at 2-3 times the value of, 
the carbohydrates and added to their weight. 

We have next to consider what quantity of these 
constituents of food are necessary for a cow of given 
weight, both dry and in milk. In the various investiga- 
tions which have been made to determine this point the 


rations supplied to cows have been based upon a weight 
of 10001b. Thus the total weight of a ration as well as 
that of each of the food constituents is increased or 
diminished in accordance with the weight of the cow— 
i.e., whether she weighs more or less than 10001b. 

It will now be convenient to give a brief description 
of these constituents. 


Protein is a term applied to those constituents of food 
which contain nitrogen. In this country the constituents 
that possess nutritive value are usually described as 
albuminoids, which form the chief proteid group. 
Examples of albuminoids or digestible and nutritious 
protein are found in the gluten of cereals, the legumen 
of pulse, the casein of milk, and the albumen of egg. In 
some continental countries all the albuminoids of food are 
known as albumen, or as digestible protein, while crude 
foods such as pulse, in which they are found in abundance, 
are termed nitrogenous foods. As protein is essential in 
the production of the casein of milk as well as for the 
repair of the nitrogenous parts of the animal body, it 
must be supplied, hence the great demand for rich cakes 
and meals. The quantity needed, however, is less than 
is generally supposed, and if that quantity is given in 
excess money is wasted, while extra pressure is put upon 
the digestion of the cow. It is true that the excess may 
appear in the dung and urine ; but fertility so obtained 
is costly in the extreme. As protein contains carbon, 
it can be and is utilised in the animal system for the 
development of energy and heat and the production of fat. 
The cost of protein prohibits its economical use in the 
presence of the much cheaper carbohydrates, which dairy- 
farmers so liberally produce for themselves. 

The carbohydrates of food include those nutritive 
materials which are the most abundant of all in vegetable 
life, for they are not found in animal foods, with the 
exception of milk. The most important is starch, which is 
the chief constituent of grain and which forms the bulk 
of all forms of cereal flour. )Sugar, gum, and cellulose, 



the material of which the cells of plants are constructed, 
are also carbohydrates. Although protein, fat, and the 
minerals present in foods are all indispensable, starch 
plays the greatest part in the feeding of stock, and for 
this reason it is largely produced on the farm, protein and 
oil being much more conrmonly purchased. 

The role of fat and oil in food is not yet fully defined, 
but while they are capable of producing 2-29 times as much 
heat as starch and sugar, they are relatively more expensive 
to buy. While fat will produce fat in the animal consuming 
it, and while it probably directly assists in the production 
of the fat in milk, it has been demonstrated that milk 
can be produced equally well upon food which has been 
wholly deprived of its fat. Fat or oil is not therefore 
directly essential to milk production, yet the experienced 
farmer is well aware of the value it confers upon cattle 
consuming it, as in linseed cake. It gives mellowness _ to 
the skin and brightness to the coat, and by its laxative 
action confers upon the system a condition which not only 
contributes to but is an indication of health. 

Too little importance is bestowed upon the value of the 
mineral constituents of food. If the milk supplied to 
a calf were first deprived of the mineral matter it contains 
the young animal would not be provided with bones, which 
are chiefly constructed of phosphate of lime. 

In the last analysis the health and, finally, the life of 
the animal depend as much upon the mineral constituents 
of food as upon the larger constituents. Fortunately, 
and unlike man, who deprives so much of his food — e.g., 
the cereals by milling and vegetables by boihng— of 
so large a portion of these natui-al ixunerals, and is 
constantly suffering in consequence, the animal is fed 
upon raw foods in which lime, iron, potash, phosphorus, 
and other minerals are present, and so its health is 

The Ration Required. 

The quantity and composition of the food required by 
a healthy cow to enable her to maintain her weight and 
condition depend upon that weight, upon the milk that 



she gives, the character of the food, its cost, where it is 
bought, and to some extent on the season. In cold weather 
a larger quantity of food is required to maintain the heat 
of the body than in warm weather. When a cow is turned 
out to graze she requires more food than when she is 
resting in the stall, because her expenditure of energy is 
greater. A large cow requires more food than a small 
cow, and a cow giving 5gal. of milk demands more food 
for its production than a cow giving 3gal. Some foods, 
too, are more popular than others equally good, and 
therefore it is that a farmer acquainted with the com- 
position of foods can select them in accordance with 
their price in the market. 

The chief nitrogenous foods are peas, beans, almost 
all cakes, clover, lucerne, sainfoin, and vetches, while 
the carbonaceous foods— i.e., those rich in carbohydrates 
and relatively poor in nitrogen — are the cereals, roots, 
cabbage, hay, and straw. It is now generally assumed 
that a cow weighing 10001b. requires 1511b. of digestible 
dry matter as a purely maintenance ration. If she weighs 
more the food is increased in proportion. For each 
gallon of milk she produces she requires an extra pound of 
this digestible dry matter, wHch may be described as 
the digestible portion of the dry matter of foods wliich 
remains when the water of combination has been entirely 
driven ofi. 

Thus a cow weighing 10001b. and givmg 4gal. of 
milk should receive food which will provide her with 
19ilb. of digestible dry matter. The next point to consider 
is "how this ration should be composed. Practice has 
confirmed the results of scientific investigation in this 
matter and shown that the ration of a cow should contain 
one part of digestible albuminoids to five and a half parts 
of carbohydrates and fat, estimated as a carbohydrate by 
multiplying by 2-29. Thus a sample of hay containing 
9-2 per cent, of digestible protein, 42-8 per cent, of digestible 
carboliydrates, and 1-5 per cent, of fat possesses a ratio 
of 1 to 5-0 ; 42-8 + (1-5 x 2-29) = 46-2 ^ 9-2 = 5-0. If, 
therefore, the ration was composed entirely of hay of 
this quality it would be a little too rich in protein. But 


the error is easily rectified by the addition of a food 
rich in carbohydrates or poor in protein — cereal meal on 
the one hand or roots or straw on the other. 

Food in its Relation to Milk Quality. 

There is, however, another side to the question of 
feeding which must not be overlooked. So far we have 
discussed the question of food for the production of milk 
without regard to the character of that milk. Where it 
is employed in the manufacture of butter or cheese some 
foods must be avoided, or they will either communicate 
an undesirable flavour to or spoil the consistency of the 
produce. Brewers' grains, tm-nips, cow cabbage, mangels 
in quantities, inferior hay, linseed cake, peas, and beans 
are all undesirable foods in a butter or cream dairy, in 
which the closest attention must be paid to the feeding. 

It should be pointed out, too, that no food is stable in 
its composition — analyses are therefore always approximate, 
sometimes wide. The value of hay depends first upon 
the composition of the herbage and next upon how it 
was saved. Hay which has been badly weathered loses 
both protein and carbohydrates. One variety of mangels 
contains more sugar than another ; one variety of oats may 
contain 7 to 8 per cent, more waste than another which 
is more popular. One pasture may be rich in clovers and 
trefoils, and therefore in protein, while in a field over the 
hedge there may be no clover at all These facts have 
all to be estimated by the dairy-farmer in feeding his stock. 
Young grass is richer than old grass, and it makes much 
better hay. Grass, indeed, which has been left in 
order to obtain a larger yield of hay may be no better 
than straw owing to the shedding of its seed. Again, 
grass which has been well manured with phosphate of 
lime is richer than grass which is not manured at all ; 
and this fact, combined with the larger yield which the 
manure provides, is one of the most important of all the 
facts which will lead to the increased prosperity of the farm. 
Mangels of medium size and grown close together are richer 
in food than very large mangels, while all mangels are richer 
after long keeping than when they are Ufted and stored. 



Food is improved in value by some forms of preparation. 
Thus hay and straw chaffed and packed tightly in a barn 
have a better and more appetising flavour than the raw 
material ; vetches and all forms of green fodder are richer 
and more digestible when they have lain twelve hours in the 
sun ; hay improves in the rick ; while a mixture of foods — 
prepared roots, chaff, and meals — are warmer and more 
agreeable to the cows after heating or slight fermentation 
than when the several materials are supplied raw. On 
the other hand, all forms of dry food deteriorate if kept 
in a damp store, and especially grain, meal, and cakes. 
Brewers' grains, although pitted for winter consumption, 
not only become partially putrid, emitting a strong odour 
and acquiring a sour flavour, but they lose a large portion 
of their nutritive value. 

Cooking is not only an extravagant practice, but it 
diminishes the nutritive value of food, unless the water 
in which it is boiled is consumed. For all that, when 
food is given hot, with the water used in its prepara- 
tion, something is saved. A smaller quantity of the 
carbohydrates and fat in the ration are employed in 
maintaining the heat of the body, and when cows are 
regularly drinking very cold water this fact cannot be 

Chapter Vll. 


Milk is an opaque fluid containing the solid materials 
fat, sugar, casein, with numerous minerals, all of which 
are either dissolved or suspended in water, the quantity of 
water in an average sample reaching 87|^ per cent. 


The fat of milk, which forms 88 per cent, of a good 
sample of butter, exists in the form of globules which are 
suspended in the milk and give it its colour. When 
the fat has been removed from milk in the form of cream 
the fluid remaining is known as skimmed or separated 
milk, the term depending upon whether the cream ^ is 
removed by hand or by mechanical separation. Skim 
milk is white, and this is due to the presence of the 
casein, part of which is suspended and part dissolved. 
When both the fat and the casein have been removed 
— and this is the case in the manufacture of cheese — 
the fluid remaining is of a greenish-yellow colour, owing 
to the presence of the sugar and the minerals. This 
fluid is known as whey. Milk varies in composition, that 
represented by the figures of the table on page 68 being 
examples of the milk of a poor milker and of a rich 
milker respectively, together with an average sample as 
taken from a mixed herd of cows. 

F 3 



Composition of Milk. 

Average qntility. 

Low quality. 

High quality. 




3-45 ■) 

4-83 [ 



Mineral mat tor 

•72 ) 







The examples showing high quality and low quality 
respectively are taken from two cows which competed 
in the milking trials at the London Dairy Show in 1912. 


The quality of milk varies with the age of the cow, 
with the time which has elapsed since she calved, with the 
hour of milking, and with the breed. Thus, a mature cow 
produces richer milk than a heifer or a young cow. V/hen 
a cow has calved several months, and has therefore 
advanced in her period of lactation, she has fallen off in 
her yield, and her milk is richer in proportion ; and so as 
lactation proceeds there is a gradual increase in the fat 
percentage. Again, when cows are milked at unequal 
periods in the day the milk is poorer in the morning than 
in the evening. This is the case, for example, when the 
morning milking is at six o'clock and the evening milking 
at four o'clock. But when milking is conducted at equi- 
distant periods— t'.e., twelve hours apart — the quality is 
almost identical in each case. The -r.rst milk drawn 
from the udder, too, contains scarcely any fat, whereas the 
last is extremely rich, and may contain iO per cent. This 
accounts for the importance of stripping the cows after 
milking. Cows of the Channel Islands and Devon breeds 
produce richer milk than other breeds employed by the 
dairy-fariuer ; but in all varieties of dairy cattle there are 
both rich and poor milkers, and it is not difficult, if 
the trouble is taken, to select a herd composed entirely 
of rich milkers. Most herds, however, consist of cows 
which produce between 3 and 4 per cent, of fat. If we 
may suppose the existence of a herd of twenty-one cows 



of average type, the milk of each of which is tested when 
it is normal, and the figures placed in the form of a table in 
order of precedence — the best milker standing at the top — 
we shall usually find that the eleventh cow in the column 
will represent the average quality of the milk of the herd. 
This fact equally applies to the quantity of milk supplied 
by each cow ; and so it is that in each herd, whether it be 
large or small, the cows which stand below the middle cow 
are usually unprofitable servants, inasmuch as they not only 
yield poorer milk than the average, but often less than 
average quantity. This is one of the secrets of the 
importance of the recording system, although so far few 
farmers have cared either to try it or, having tried it, to 
abide by its natural teaching — that is, the early disposal 
of the offending unprofitable cows. Where this practice 
is rigidly followed there is not the slightest difficulty in 
gradually levelling up the character of the herd, for where 
an improvement is effected both in the quality and quantity 
of the milk produced the returns are increased accordingly. 

Food Influences. 

It is generally supposed that the food consumed by the 
cow influences the quality of her milk. It certainly does 
influence the colour, and this may be observed by the 
richer tint of butter produced when cows are feeding upon 
grass. But by no process of feeding can we increase the fat 
percentage ; that is an inherent property which can only 
be improved by breeding. If a cow is properly fed, or, 
in other words, if she is receiving all she can assimilate, 
no addition to her food can improve the quality of her 
milk. On the same principle the employment of special 
foods has sometimes been condemned, although with no just 
cause. A cow, for example, has been supplied with all 
the food she can utilise. To this food has been added a 
particular cake or meal ; but no result has been observed. 
Nor can it be, for the reason which has already been 
advanced. The following facts will afford us some idea of 
what a cow is able to perform. 

In the great American contest between Shorthorn, 
Jersey, Dutch, and Swiss cattle at St. Louis, in the conduct 



of which £40,030' was expended, partly by the American 
Government, the winning cow of the Dutch breed produced 
milk containing 3-5 per cent, of fat, and in the course of 
ninety days gave a total yield of 232 Ub. of crude fat, 
equal to 3301b. of butter. It was calculated that this cow 
secreted 136,000,000 fat globules per second, and that her 
production of milk was equal to 2flb. per hour day and 
night throughout the whole period. During the com- 
petition this cow produced 9031b. of milk solids, or at the 
rate of 7|lb. per twenty-four hours. This feat, too, was 
accompanied by a gain in weight of 541b. The produce of 
the second prize cow — a Jersey — was almost equal to that 
to which reference has been made. 

The health and condition of a cow practically governs 
her powers of production, but it may be observed that 
disposition or temperament plays an important pari:. A 
contented, placid, docile cow is invariably the best milker. 
On the other hand, where the cow is frightened by any 
occurrence, or where she stands in fear of the man who 
milks her, she is liable to fall ofi in her milk yield, and not 
to return to her condition as a milker until the trouble is 

Test for Piirlty. 

The purity of milk is usually tested in the first place 
by its specific gravity or density. As distilled water at a 
temperature of 60 degrees, the barometer standing ^ at 
30, weighs 101b. to the gallon, so milk under similar 
conditions weighs, to give the two extremes, from 
10-27lb. to 10-341b. per gallon. Employing these figures in 
another way, the specific gravity of milk is therefore placed 
at from 1-027 to 1-034. Milk of average quality, however, 
almost invariably has a specific gravity of 1-023 to 1-032. 
The variation of these figures is owing to a variation in the 
composition of the milk. Thus, where a sample is rich in 
fat, the other constituents remaining similar to those of 
average milk, the specific gravity is lighter, because fat 
is hghter than water. If, therefore, the fat is extracted 
from milk the specifio gravity is increased, because we 
have removed from it its lightest constituent. AVhere milk 


possesses a specific gravity of less than 1-029 or where 
it is more than 1-032 it may be suspected. Some persons 
combine the specific gravity test with the cream test. In 
adopting the latter method milk is poured into a narrow 
tube without regard to temperature, and the depth of 
the cream is noted by the gauge upon the glass. If 
the cream is apparently deep, forming perhaps 15 to 
2 ) per cent, of the whole, it is regarded as satisfactory. 
Milk cannot be tested in this wa)', nor is the cream 
tester reliable under any conditions. It is, however, 
approximately reliable when, instead of a tube, a burette 
is employed, this standing on a foot and reaching a 
height of lOin, and being 2in. in diameter. If any 
practitioner will test this question for himself he will 
sometimes find that a cow which is known to be a rich 
milker will produce milk which throws up a poor volume 
of cream, whereas a cow which is a poor milker produces 
a milk which throws up a large volume of cream. The 
apparent inconsistency is found in the fact that in one 
case the cream is extremely thick and in the other it 
contains a large proportion of water. The best method 
of testing milk is referred to in a later chapter. It 
is important in all cases in ascertaining the specific 
gravity or density of milk to see that the temperature 
is at 60 degrees before the lactometer, or specific gravity 
instrument, is used. The reason is that milk expands 
or contracts in accordance with the temperature, and 
therefore its density varies. 

Cause of Souring. 

The fermentation, or souring, of milk is caused by the 
presence of bacteria, whicli are more active in warm milk 
-and in warm weather than in cool milk or in cool weather. 
Although milk has been drawn from the udder in a sterile 
condition, and so kept for a long period, it is iindoubtedly 
true that under normal conditions the milk which is drawn 
is contaminated by the bacteria which exist in the passage 
of the teat of the cow. Some milkers are instructed to 
draw the first milk upon the floor of the cow-house— an 
improper proceeding— with the object of maintaining the 


purity of the fluid, but bacteria are still found in the sample 
afterwards drawn. The bacteria common to milk cannot 
be excluded, nor is it desirable that they should be. They 
are practically essential in the manufacture of butter and 
cheese. The danger hes in the entrance of disease- 
producing, or pathogenic, bacteria into milk, hence the 
enormous importance of maintaining perfect conditions 
of cleanliness. The first thing is to provide for a healthy 
environment, and the second is to perfectly cool the milk. 
In some cases the milk contains a very small number of 
bacteria; in others the number is so prodigious that it 
becomes practically unfit for sale and rapidly ferments 
and spoils. There are no conditions so perfect as those 
provided by the milking-machine, which enables the farnier 
to draw milk from the cows entirely out of contact with 
the air in which bacteria float with myriads of particles 
of dust and dirt. Apart from this excellent contrivance, 
the best method is to milk the cows in the field, taking 
care to maintain their coats and udders in a high condition 
of cleanliness. As already shown, the milkmg-machme 
is now actually working in the fields in the summer season, 
so that a double efiort is made to maintain the purity of 
the milk. Where, however, the cow-house is small, the 
ventilation bad, the stalls unclean, and the cows never 
groomed it is practically impossible to prevent the milk 
drawn in open pails from becoming highly contaminated. 
Clean milk which has been cooled down to 40° F. will 
keep twenty-four hours longer than the average nulk 
produced upon the farm and cooled only to 60° F.— a 
figure which presents with a high degree of accuracy the 
temperature of the water which is employed in the process 
of refrigeration. 

When milk is pasteurised at 170° F. the bacteria 
it contains— and this refers to all species— are destroyed, 
but the spores remain unharmed. It has been assumed 
that when milk is boiled to 212° F. it is sterilised ; 
but this is not the case. Simply boiling has practically 
no more effect than pasteurisation, for it fails to destroy 
the spores. When milk is placed in bottles with the 
stoppers open and heated to 212° F. for half an hoiu?, 


the stopioers being fixed in their places by a gloved hand 
in the live steam, the milk will keep for a considerable 
time, but it is not sterile. If, however, this process is 
followed on three occasions, with intervals between, the 
spores will be destroyed as they develop, and then 
sterilisation is complete. Much greater care is now taken 
by farmers and dairymen in the manipulation of milk 
than was the case a few years ago, when outbreaks of 
disease were somewhat frequent, owing to the contami- 
nation of the milk by milkers and others who had been 
suffering from some contagious dis3ase or who had been 
in contact with such a sufierer. It was shown in these 
cases that a large number of persons were attacked with 
dangerous diseases owing to this practice. The importance 
of this question warrants our referring to it in these remarks, 
for under no conditions should a member of a household 
in which there is any person suffering from a contagious 
disease be allowed to milk the cows, to groom them, or to 
cleanse the vessels in which the milk is drawn or trans- 
ported. Such a person should, indeed, be kept entirely 
off the farm until the danger has passed. 

When milk, as in hot weather, is suspected, or is in 
danger of developing acidity, it should not be " preserved " 
with boracic acid, carbonate of soda, or any other drug. 
Not only is the practice in opposition to the law, but^it 
is one of danger to the pocket of the dairyman and to the 
health of the consumer. The first essential in the keeping 
character of the milk is, as already observed, milking with 
the milking-machine, or in the open air, and coohng to a 
temperature which should not be higher than 45° F. 
Where milk is employed in factories it is a common 
practice to pasteurise it, and then if it is required for 
distribution suddenly to cool it. This method will enable 
it to keep for a considerably longer time than is possible 
under any conditions short of actual sterihsation. 

Pat Globules. 

The fat of milk is present in globules which are so minute 
that in rich milk they average about -j-Jq^ of an inch m 
diameter. They can be easily recognised by the use of a 



moderately powerful microscope — one magnifying 180 
diameters. These globules are suspended in tlie milk, 
and they vary in size, those produced by cows of the 
Channel Islands being larger than those produced by cows 
of other varieties ; but while these breeds stand easily ahead 
in this matter, individual cows of any breed may produce 
globules of fat which are larger or smaller than the average 
produce of that breed. The globules in the milk first 
drawn from the cow are smaller as well as less numerous 
than those found in the last drawn milk when the udder 
is emptied. The globule consists of several fats, the 
chief being olein, a fluid, which is present in much 
larger quantity than the stearin or the palmitin, 
two solid fats, and which constitute so large a pro- 
portion, with the olein, of the vegetable oils and fats 
of animals. These are all known as insoluble fats. 
Milk fat contains soluble or volatile fats, which include 
hutyrin, ca-proin, and caprylin, although the latter are 
present in insignificant quantities. The fat which gives 
the consistence to butter is the olein . This, however, varies 
in quantity in the milk of different animals, as well as 
in accordance with the season. Thus, it is more abiuidant 
in summer than in winter, whereas the sohd fats, stearin 
and ■palmitin, are more abundant in the winter season 
than in the summer. Although oleiji is tasteless, colourless, 
and without odour, it becomes disagreeable when exposed 
to the air, owing to the absorption of oxygen, and at the 
same time it becomes yellow. The fat of milk when 
exposed to air and light and when it comes into contact 
with water gradually decomposes until it becomes rancid. 


The casein of milk, which is its only albuminous con- 
stituent, so far as is known, is therefore the only material 
which contains nitrogen. In this material there are 
small proportions of sulphur and phosphorus. Casein is 
coagulated by rennet and certain acids, among which 
lactic acid is the most prominent. It is for this reason 
that milk in the process of decomposi 1 ion and the consequent 
production of lactic acid so easily coagulates. The casein 


of milk should not find its way into butter, which it assists 
in the process of decomposition, but should be carefully 
washed out in the churn. It is, however, one of the 
two food constituents of cheese, of which it forms about 
one-third, fat being the other. 


The sugar of milk (lactose) is less sweet than the sugar 
employed in the household. It has a specific gcavity of 
1-52, and although it is not present in butter or_ cheese, 
finding its way into the whey, it exerts considerable 
influence in the manufacture of both, owing to the fact 
that in the process of decomposition it is converted into 
lactic acid, and it is lactic acid which plays so important 
a part in the production of the flavour of both these foods. 

Mineral Constituents. 

The minerals of milk are of the highest importance 
to young animals, for which they are naturally produced. 
Thus, if these materials were extracted from milk the 
young animal, like the young child, could produce no 
bones or teeth, while the blood and the muscular system 
would be deficient in one of its most important con- 
stituents. The minerals of milk are therefore vital to the 
life of the animal or child consuming it. They chiefly 
consist of phosphate of lime, iron, and potash, these materials 
being supplemented by magnesia, soda, and chlorine. 
Although the minerals of milk vary slightly in quantity, 
•7 per cent, constitutes the average of a large number of 
samples. Where milk is sold from the farm the fertility 
of the soil is to some extent removed, or, in other words, 
the soil is impoverished owing to the large quantities of 
phosphate of hme and potash which are removed by a herd. 
Thus, a cow producing 750ga]. of milk in the year provides 
about 151b. each of phosphoric acid and potash. If we 
multiply this figure by the number of head in the herd of 
cows it will be seen what a large quantity of mineral 
fertilising matter is represented, and that a considerable 
sum would be required to replace it in the form of artificial 
fertilisers. Farmers, however, are in the habit of providing 



their cows with, cake and com of various kinds, thereby 
replacing the minerals which the milk has removed. If a 
cow consumes 15001b. of cotton cake in the course of a 
year she will practically return to the soil as much mineral 
matter as her owner has removed from the farm in selling 
his milk. This matter, however, can be provided in the 
form of potash salts, or an equivalent in the form of wood 
ashes, and by using superphosphate, bone manure, or basic 
slag, so long as it contains the requisite amount of phosphate 
of lime. It is important to recognise that milk-selling 
does impoverish the land if it is not accompanied by high 
feeding or by the employment of mineral fertilisers. In 
the manufacture of butter there is no mineral matter 
removed from the milk ; it remains in the skimmed or 
separated milk, and if this is consumed upon the farm 
there is practically no loss of fertility. On the other 
hand, if cheese is made and sold there is a marked 
quantity of phosphate of lime removed. Thus it is that 
cheese-makers in counties like Cheshire are wise enough 
to employ large quantities of bone manure. 

Tainting Milk— How to Avoid. 

Milk should not be touched by the hand, nor should 
it be placed in any position or apartment which is con- 
tiguous to a bad smell, which it readily absorbs. It is for 
this reason that milk sold by general shopkeepers in the 
poorer districts of large cities is so frequently tainted — 
the shop containing perhaps candles, firewood, and many 
other articles which possess an odour of their own. Milk 
takes up the blend, and this fact, combined with its changa 
of colour when exposed to the Ught, should induce sellers 
of milk to take particular care as to the spot in which 
their milk is to be kept. For a similar reason neither 
milk nor butter should be placed in a larder or a pantry 
or in any other apartment where it is near to foods, so 
many of which emit odours ; and yet this is quite a 
common practice on many farms where there is no milk- 
room or dairy. It follows that if milk is so susceptible to 
contamination the floors of milk-rooms should be of 
impermeable concrete or stone, not laid in earth, but 



grouted in tlie floor witli cement. Brick is not exempt 
from tlie trouble whioli is so common to wood. Tire 
shelves on which milk vessels are placed should not be of 
wood, however frequently it is scrubbed, but of slate, 
concrete, or stone, the first named being the best. If 
wood is employed it should be painted, and ^ if the 
work is well done the wood will not absorb the milk spilt 
upon it. 

How to Treat. 

When milk is intended for separation it should be 
taken direct to the machine after straining. If it is to be 
us3d for setting in a shallow pan for skimming later on 
it should be poured into the vessel while still warm from 
the cow. Again, if it is intended for cheese-making it 
should be strained directly into the cheese vat or tub. A 
word with regard to the reason why milk used for 
the manufacture of butter should be set warm will bo 
useful. The quantity of butter produced depends upon 
the perfect rising of the cream. Skimming is at the best 
an imperfect system, but if the whole of the cream does 
not rise it cannot be removed. Eising, however, depends 
upon temperature. Thus^ if milk is set cold the cream 
will rise very slowly and never perfectly. If it is 
set at 90° F., or thereabouts, in a dairy which should 
be as near 60° F. as possible in spring, summer, and 
autumn, it will have to fall through 30 degrees before 
it reaches the temperature of the apartment. The 
fat of milk— i.e., the milk globules— has a lower 
specifio gravity, or weight, than the fluid in which it is 
suspended. If the milk is cold the margin between 
the density of the fat and of this fluid is narrowed until 
they become almost aUke in weight. If, on the other hand, 
tlie milk is warm and the apartment cooled so that there 
is a sudden serious change of temperature, the margin 
between the density of the two materials is widened, with 
the result that the fat globules rise more quickly as cream. 
The reason is that the fat feels the change of temperature 
much less quickly than the milk, inasmuch as it is a non- 
conductor of heat, while by comparison the milk fluid is 



a conductor of heat, and therefore feels the change of 
temperature in the dairy immediately. 


This varies considerably in both quantity and con- 
sistence. It may be almost as thin as rich milk, or it 
may be nearly solid, like the clotted cream of Devonshire 
and Cornwall. If cream is raised upon the system of cold- 
setting, which is now obsolete, it is invariably thin, and 

The Perfect Separator of the Dairy Machines Company. 

larger in volume. If it is raised at 60° P. it should 
be rich and thick, whereas if it is removed from the milk by 
tlie mechanical separator it may be made thin or thick at 
will. A rich-milking cow does not of necessity produce 
thick cream, while a poor-milking cow may, and "frequently 
does, produce thick cream. Milk is placed in a burette, 
or test-tube, in order to ascertain its richness in cream— 
a desire which is never satisfied because the system is 


inaccurate. It is quite possible for tte millv of a poor- 
millcing cow to throw up a small volume of thick cream 
and for the milk of a cow yielding rich milk to throw up 
a large volume of thin cream. The volume of cream varies 
with the cow and with the season. It should be sufficient 
to say that the obj ect of the dairy-farmer in making butter 
should be to obtain all the fat from the milk, whether he 
skims the cream from a shallow pan or removes it with 
the separator. When cream is left in contact with the 
air at a temperature of above 65° F. it rapidly changes, 
decomposes, and becomes acid and thick in consistence, 
the thickness being due to the influence of the acid upon 
the casein, which it coagulates. The specific gravity of 
cream varies between 1-000 and 1-016. It is therefore 
lighter than milk and usually heavier than water. From 
what we have said it will be understood that the quality 
of cream varies considerably. It may in fact contain 
only 25 per cent, of fat, or it may contain 60 per cent. 
Hence, in buying a sample of sweet cream the consumer 
should beware of the consistence. 

Skimmed Milk. 

This is not precisely identical with separated milk. The 
latter should be absolutely sweet, and taken immediately 
after milking. It also contains less fat than skimmed 
milk, for however perfectly the cream may have risen to 
the surface it cannot all be removed by hand. Skimmed 
milk, too, is usually more or less acid, and on that account 
less fit for human consumption. The artificial process to 
which cream is subjected after separation in order to 
produce ripeness or acidity is not equal to the natural 
ripeness which follows the rising of the cream in a shallow 
pan. In this case the cream rises in a thin layer, and is 
aU exposed to the air, and therefore becomes thoroughly 
oxidised, this fact accounting for the perfect flavour of the 
butter which is produced from it. On the other hand, 
when cream is removed by separation the milk is usually 
kept in volume, the surface of which alone comes in contact 
with the air, however much it is stirred. In spite of the 
addition of a " starter," which assists in the cultivation 



of bacteria, we liave never found the same results in the 
butter produced by this metliod as in that produced by a 
first-class system of shallow setting. Skimmed milk 
contains about 10 per cent, of solid matter, consisting 
of sugar, casein, and minerals. It is an excellent food, 
and worth more money than is usually paid for it ; but the 
milk which is the residue left in the churn after the removal 
of the butter is strongly acid, sometimes sour, while 
it contains 9 per cent, of solid matter. Contrary to 
common behef, it is in consequence inferior as a food to 
skimmed milk. 


Whey is the liquid remaining after the removal of the 
curd in the process of cheese-making. It contains almost 
the whole of the sugar of the milk and a large proportion 
of the minerals, together with some fat and traces of 
casein which the cheese-maker has failed to remove. 
Practically speaking, the only value of the whey is in the 
sugar and the minerals, for it is the custom of the cheese- 
maker to set the whey for skimming, removing such fat 
as remains when it has risen to the surface, and with this 
he makes butter. 


Adulteration is much less rampant than it used to be 
when water was unblushingly added by large numbers of 
dairymen. The punishment to which the offenders are 
now subjected by legal tribunals and the certainty with 
which adulteration can be detected have long since purified 
the vocation of the milk retailer. In the early days of 
the change in legislation sweet separated milk was added 
to new milk as an adulterant instead of water. This 
practice, too, has considerably diminished, and the necessity 
for testing milk is much less than it was. Before the 
invention of the Gerber and Babcock testing machine 
milk was examined by various methods. It was set in 
test-tubes, with no tangible result, and its specific gravity 
was obtained by the aid of the lactometer, which was only 
a partial guide, while other instruments were employed 



with but uncertain results. There are now two systems 
which call be described as accurate, or approximately 
accurate and satisfactory. One of these can be used 
upon the farm with considerable ease and at little cost — 
we refer to the centrifugal machine on the Gerber system — 
while the other is the chemical test made by the analj'st 
in his laboratory. The Gerber system is now very 
frequently employed, and can be easily learnt froni 
instructions which are supplied by the manufacturers of 
dairy implements. Small quantities of milk are measured 
and poured into test-bottles and subjected to centrifugal 
force, when, with the assistance of a solution which is added 
to the milk, the fat is driven into the neck of the bottle 
and its proportion read oft by the scale at the side. When 
milk is to be sampled in this way it should be taken from a 
churn or churns representing the milk of the whole herd, 
which has been well stirred. If, for example, a sample 
is taken from a dairyman's delivery can in the street, 
a perfect sample is impossible if it is taken from the top 
or the bottom. In spite of the shaking to which the milk 
has been subjected, some of the fat will rise to the top, 
therefore the quality at this point will be richer than that 
at the bottom, where the milk is frequently drawn from 
a tap. 

Chapter VIII. 


Butter, the most popular of all edible fats, oontaius 
approximately 87^ per cent, of the fat of milk, 12 per cent, 
of water, and small but varying quantities of sugar, 
casein, and mineral matter, chiefly salt, where salt is 
added in the process of manufacture. 


Imperfectly made butter may contain more water, and 
consequently less fat, or it may contain more casein and 
sugar, and where butter is salted for keeping the proportion 
of mineral matter is correspondingly increased. A good 
sample of butter should be a rich primrose in colour, so 
tough that when a roll is bent it will not break in halves, 
but fracture, and thus show a grain which resembles that 
of cast steel. If, however, the butter has been overworked 
in the effort to remove the superfluous water the grain 
may be partially destroyed, and with it the texture of the 
sample. Butter may contain a larger proportion of water 
than the average, but owing to the fineness of ils division 
it may not be seen so well as a sample of butter containing 
a smaller proportion of water, which is present in drops or 
droplets. Thus, when a sample of butter is cut or broken 
these droplets may be revealed, and suggest that the water 
present is excessive. The object in removing the water 
from butter during manufacture is to enable it to keep 
better and to produce a higher quality, for highly-watered 



butter means a diminution in the proportion of fat, as 
well as inferior flavour, and sometimes of colour also. If 
butter is wasted in a churn too freely water may be 
imparted to it, and in addition its colour may be reduced. 
Washing to be effective should take place only when the 
grains of butter have been brought to the right size. 


The colour of butter depends chiefly upon the breed 
of the cattle which have produced it. Thus, the milk, 
the cream, and the butter of the Jersey and the Guernsey 
are of richer colour than those of almost every other 
known variety, not excepting the Devon, which probably 
takes the third place. The colour of milk is in the fat, for 
when this is removed the skimmed milk of Channel Islands 
cattle resembles that produced by cows of other varieties. 
Colour, however, is improved or diminished by the food 
consumed, hence butter from cows fed upon grass in 
summer is superior to that produced by the same cattle 
fed in the stalls in winter upon hay, roots, and concentrated 
foods. In some instances butter produced in winter upon 
these rations is almost as pale as lard, and in consequence 
manufacturers have long since adopted the practice of 
colouring it with annatto, a harmless material, although 
it is one which gives butter a value wliich it does not 
otherwise possess, for pale or white butter is not so fine in 
flavour as butter which is naturally rich in colour. 


The flavour of butter depends partially upon the breed 
and partially upon the food. That food exerts an influence 
is demonstrated by the fact that where cows are fed upon 
turnips or swedes, especially when the crown of the 
bulb is not removed, an ill-flavour is imparted to it. 
Cow-cabbage, brewers' grains, distillers' grains, barley- 
meal, maize-meal, inferior hay, or turnips and mangels 
when given in large quantities, should be avoided as food 
for cows kept in a butter dairy. The best foods are fine 
fragrant hay, crushed oats, a very small quantity of decorti- 
cated cotton-cake, the white hearts of savoy cabbage, with 

G 2 



carrots and parsnips in small quantities, and of course 
grass. Linseed-cake, common cotton-cake, beans, peas, 
and large quantities of green leguminous forage crops 
influence the flavour and texture of butter. This is 
especially marked where cows receive a good deal of linseed- 
cake, in which case the butter is usually oilier and 
consequently of bad texture. The immediate cause of 
fine flavour in butter, assuming that no deleterious foods 
have been supplied and that the milk is absolutely clean 
and kept in an apartment in which the atmosphere is pure, 
is in the perfect oxidation of the cream. This also influences 
the aroma of butter, which many dealers accept as a guide 
to its quahty. Imported butter is frequently coloured to 
a uniform shade, and, produced as it is in factories or 
creameries, its flavour and aroma are the residt of ripening 
with the assistance of an artificial " starter." In other 
words, the cream is pasteurised by heat to from 150° to 
170° F., thus causing the destruction of the bacteria, 
and subsequently inoculated with a pure culture, which 
is the direct cause of the ripening process that follows, 
and therefore of the flavour which results. 

When butter is newly made it is comparatively insipid, 
for its flavour has not developed. If a samjDle made in 
the ring at the London Dairy Show by the competitors for 
prizes in churning is compared with the first prize sample 
in one of the butter classes, a lesson will be conveyed 
which would be impossible under any conditions of a 
different character. The prize samples which we have 
examined for very many years in succession are 
invariably firm, of beautiful texture, perfect in colour, and 
deliciously nutty in flavour ; so good are they as a rule 
that it would be impossible to obtain a sample of a similar 
quality from any merchant in London, or to excel it in 
any part of the world. This butter is immensely superior 
^ to the samples made in the show-yard, partly owing to 
the conditions of manufacture, which are most imperfect, 
and partly to its age. If, however, a fine sample of butter 
of this^ type is examined on the last evening of the show, 
when it is four days older than when it was judged, it 
will be found that on the outside the colour has changed, 



while the flavour of the same part of the sample has been 
destroyed, for the butter has absorbed the various odours 
in which it is environed. This fact teaches us that for 
the production of both colour and flavour butter should be 
kept out of sunUght as well as out of the reach of smells. 

Keeping Properties. 

These depend very largely upon the removal of the 
casein, the sugar, and all other impurities which are liable 
to set up fermentation and rancidity. Much, however, 
depends upon the temperature of the atmosphere, for 
fermentation is more rapid in warm than in cold 
weather. Impurities may be introduced into butter in 
salt, hence the importance of using salt which is of the 
purest type and which has been baked in an oven to 
perfect dryness after it has been ground as finely as possible. 
Butter should never be treated with coarse salt ; a sample 
thus salted when cut will reveal a mottled appearance, 
which is caused by the attraction and absorption of water 
by the salt. Salt should be almost as fine as flour, and it 
should be distributed with a fine dredger. It is employed 
partly to retard decomposition and partly to satisfy the 
demand of consumers, so many of whom curiously prefer 
a slight salt flavour to the delicious nuttiness of a good 
sample of butter, which is not revealed, as they suppose, 
by the salt, but partially hidden or neutralised. 

Qxiantlty Produced. 

The quantity of butter which can be produced from a 
given quantity of milk depends upon the quality of that 
milk. If it contains 4 per cent, of fat, and allowance is 
made for the loss of fat in the process of skimming or 
separating, and finally of churning, 1001b. of 4 per cent, 
milk should make about i^lh. of butter, the increase being 
due to the incorporation of water. 

Butter-making Systems Considered. 

In past days butter was frequently made directly 
from milk which was churned in large barrels and frequently 
by horse power. It was customary to allow the milk to 



" lapper " — in other words, the milk was ripened until 
it was so acid tliat it coagulated when it was ready for 
churning. Milk too was then set in shallow leads, round 
shallow pans, and deep oval or circular tins. Deep setting 
resulted in the production of a large volume of thin cream, 
for the cans were immersed in very cold water. That 
process is practically dead, although it reigns in a modified 
form in Normandy and Brittany, where the best butter 
is equal to the finest in the world. During our last visit 
to these provinces the separator had still failed to take 
the place of the prevailing system. The milk is set in 
conical eartliemvare vessels about 15in. deep and Min. to 
15in. in diameter at the top. These pans are placed in 
a broad gutter through which cold water is flowing at 
the foot, around the walls of the dairy, and on the floor. 
The cream having risen to the surface, hot air is turned 
into the dairy, the milk and cream coagulate, and the 
cream is then skimmed for churning, the separated milk 
being taken in the pans just as it is to the calves, which 
are fatted upon it for the Paris market, getting no other 
food. The butter made in this way obtains a higher 
price than any made in Europe or America. We have 
seen it sold in the wholesale Paris markets at 2s. Id. per 
pound to dealers, and we are acquainted with one farmer 
who has realised 2s. 8d. The second and third qualities 
of butter thus made are purchased by the owners of large 
blending-houses for dispatch to this country. We have 
inspected some of these factories, and have been the means 
of introducing to two of them, those of Le Petit and 
Bretel, the whole conference party of the British Dairy 
Farmers' Association during its visit to France. 

No butter can be obtained which excels that produced 
either by this Norman system or by our own old system 
of shallow setting in round pans, which on the whole is 
perhaps the best known when it is properly conducted. 
The reason is this : the flavour of cream depends upon 
its perfect oxidation, but this is impossible unless the 
conditions are perfect. When the milk drawn from suitable, 
properly-fed cows is clean and pure it is brought to the 
dairy and strained into the pans at once. Its temperature 

Sutter and its MAifuFAcTURE. 


jhould then be 90° F., while that of the dairy should 
be 60° F. It will be observed that before the milk 
reaches the temperature of the dairy it must fall through 
30 degrees of heat. The result, as we have explained 
in a previous chapter, is that the rising of the cream is 
accelerated. In the process of rising the fat globules 
which form the cream, and which are spread in a thin 
layer over a large surface of milk, come into contact 
with the air, and if this is pure they are perfectly 
oxidised in consequence. Where milk is set in a deep 
vessel, or where the cream after mechanical separation 
is placed in a large volume, oxidation is impossible, 
however well the cream may be stirred. Where the dairy 
is kept at varying temperatures — cold in winter and 
too warm in summer — where the milk is retained before 
it is placed in the pans, or where the temperature of the 
dairy varies between morning and night to any marked 
extent, perfect rising of the cream is impossible, and 
therefore perfect oxidation. This, too, is impaired where 
the dairy is unclean, where articles of food or strong- 
smelling materials are placed near at hand, or odours 
reach it from the farmyard. It is the want of management 
in these directions which has given the separator its high 
position, for while it increases the yield of butter it 
diminishes the labour involved in its production. 

Milk-setting pans may be either of metal, such as tinned 
iron, earthenware, or glass, but it is obvious where these 
vessels are used and the cream is removed by hand skimming 
there must be a loss, for by no process can all the cream 
be taken of! the milk. When cream is skimmed by hand 
and the conditions are approximately exact it should be 
mellow, thick, rich in colour, and very slightly acid, so 
that it will be fit for churning in twelve to twenty-four 
hours. It is customary, however, to place it after skimming 
into a cream pan, and to add the cream of one, two, or 
even three days to this until churning day arrives. It 
is this practice which prevents fine butter being produced. 
Where cream consists of several lots of various ages its 
condition can never be perfect — in summer it may be 
over-ripe, and in winter under-ripe. 



In DevonsMre it is the custom to produce butter from 
scalded cream. The mills is placed in round pans about 
7in. in depth, and when the cream has risen perfectly 
each pan is taken to a stove constructed for the purpose, 
and the whole volume is brought to a temperature of about 
170° P., care being taken to prevent it boiHng. It is 
then returned to the dairy and allowed to stand until it has 
cooled, when it will be covered with a skin which is the 
result of the oxidation of the casein. It is then skimmed, 
and ready for conversion into butter. This form of cream 
is sweet, hke the milk from which it is removed. Formerly 
this cream was worked into butter with the hand, but the 
practice is an improper one, and it is now churned in the 
usual way. 

Pasteurising Milk. 

In dealing with milk intended for butter-making on 
a large scale, it may be pasteurised at 145° F. for half 
an hour, or at 165° to 175° F. for a very short time. 
At 170° F., for example, the milk may be passed 
through the pasteuriser as fast as it will flow. Here it is 
kept in motion, and on passing out of the machine it is 
quickly cooled down to as near 40° F. as possible. 
Milk is not sterilised in this way, for the spores of the 
bacteria remain, ready to emerge into active life immediately 
the conditions permit. Milk, like cream, heated and then 
rapidly cooled in this way is ready for skimming for 
inoculating with a pure culture of bacteria, without which 
good butter could not be made. No process of this kind 
has so far enabled the manufacturer to produce as fine 
a sample as can be made in the imvate dairy. Where 
milk is set for cream to rise upon it it should never 
be cold, nor indeed should it ever lose its heat, for it must 
not be reheated. The more heat the milk loses the less 
cream will it throw up. 


Milk is deprived of its cream by mechanical separation. 
We were the first from England to observe this process 
conducted in competition in Denmark in 1883, when the 



Laval machine acliieved sucli great distinction. When 
the milk passes into the separator, which revolves at high 
speed, tha fat, which is its lightest constituent, is thrown 
to the centre of the bowl by the centrifugal force 
exerted. The skimmed milk, on the other hand, is thrown 
to the wall or periphery. Suitable apertures being made 
in the bowl, the cream and the milk respectively are 
forced out by the continued inflow of fresh milk. 
Separation is accelerated by heat and by the employment 

The Sharpies Sepc*rator. 

of discs which, placed horizontally in the centre of the 
bowl, divide the milk into layers. In this process all dirt 
is removed from the milk, which a,dheres to the walls of 
the bowl, and is therefore easily extracted. By this means 
almost all the fat is removed from the milk, while the 
cream can be made thin or thick at will. The separated 
milk is sweet enough for immediate sale and consumption, 
which is seldom the case with skimmed milk ; and where a 
full plant is employed the milk can be pasteurised as it 
passes into or out of the machine, and immediately cooled, 



as is the case with the separated milk. Thus a completely 
economical result follows. An improvement has been 
made, too, in another point b)' the use of a Regenerative 
Heater, which employs the already heated milk which is 
ready for cooling in heating the cold milk. 


When cream has been ripened it is ready for churning. 
Churns not only vary in size, but in form and construction. 
There are fixed churns with internal beaters, and there 
are revolving chrirns, both with and without beaters. 

New Wolseley Ideal Separator with Self-balancing Bowl. 

The former type is exemplified in the Holstein churn of 
Denmark and the latter by the English end-over-end 
barrel and the ordinary barrel churn with fixed and movable 
beaters. The size of a churn influences the speed at 
which butter is brought as well as the quantity of butter 
produced. If a churn is too small in size, or is filled 
too full of cream, churning will be protracted, while the 
butter obtained will be too small in quantity. It is 
therefore much better to use a large churn for a small 
quantity of cream than a small churn for a large quantity. 
When the cream is ripe it should be passed into the churn 



through a strainer, but it should be of a temiserature varying 
from 56° to 63° E., in accordance with the season of the 
year. Thus, in hot summer it should not exceed 56° F., 
and in the depth of winter, when the temperature .is very 
low, not less than 63° F. Cream which is churned in a 
sweet condition, while producing very finely-flavoured 
butter, will yield less, while sour cream produces butter 
of a fuller flavour and a larger quantity. If cream is 
over-ripe or practically sour, rather than agreeably acid, 
it will give an ill-flavoured butter. Perfect work, 
however, is done only when the condition of the cream is 
good, when its temperature is exact, and when the churn 
itself and the apartment in which the work takes place 
are all maintained at the same degree. If cream at 
63° F. is put into a cold churn its temperature will fall, 
and the result will be loss. If it becomes essential to 
warm the cream for churning, this should be done by 
placing it in an apartment at the required temperature, 
or approximately at that temperature, for several hours 
before it is required. Hot water must not be added to 
it to raise its heat, nor is it a wise jjlan to stand a jar of 
cream in hot water unless it is immediately and continually 

When butter is bad in flavour and odour after churning, 
and when this fault is constant, there is only one course to 
pursue, unless the trouble can be traced to any particular 
cause. The dairy must be emptied, the floors, benches, 
and walls scrubbed or washed, the ceiling Umed or whitened 
afresh, and the churn, butter-worker, and all other utensils 
submitted to a process of cleansing with boiling water, 
with which neither soap nor soda should be used. Open 
windows and thorough ventilation will assist in the purifi- 
cation of the apartment. The next milk should be drawn 
from the cows in the cleanest possible manner, strained, 
and brought to the dairy, where it should be separated 
or poured into setting-pans, as already described. When 
the cream has been skimmed it should be inoculated with 
from a pint to a quart of butter-milk, which should be 
obtained from a dairy where very prime butter is made. 
It may be pointed out that the flavour of butter depends 



almost entirely upon the presence of a suitable species of 
bacteria. This exists in abundance in perfect milk or 
cream, and therefore in the butter-milk obtained after 
churning. On the other hand, the bad flavour and odour 
of milk and cream, and therefore of butter, is usually 
caused by abnormal or unfriendly bacteria. Thus, if 
there is no opportunity for these germs to enter the milk — 
and there will not be if the conditions described are 
thoroughly carried out — the inoculation with butter-milk 
obtained under the best conditions will ensure more, if not 
absolutely, perfect work. 

When cream is skimmed from day to day, and kept 
for churning, it is obvious that if some days elapse it will 
consist of a mixture of cream of various ages. This 
difficulty will not be overcome by simply stirring and 
mixing ; but where it is impossible to avoid the practice 
the cream should be added and stirred for the admixture 
of air, and not churned until twelve hours have elapsed 
after the last cream was poured into the pan. It has 
been found that where sweet cream is mixed with acid 
or ripe cream of similar quality and then churned the 
result is not so satisfactory as where the whole cream 
was similarly ripe. It is always desirable to churn cream 
immediately it is mature; but where a volume of cream 
consists of several skimmings, that which was skimmed 
first will pr ibabl^ be too old, while that which was 
skimmed last will be immature in spite of the fact that 
the various lots have been mixed. 

As cream must be brought to a given temperature for 
successful churning various expedients have been adopted 
in order to arrive at the proper degree as quickly as 
possible. Hot water must never be added to cause a rise 
of tempsrature, nor ice to cause a fall. Apart from the 
fact that both may introduce impurities, the mechanical 
condition of the cream is altered, and bad work is the 
result. The cream should be placed where it will gradually 
rise to the required temperature. There will as a rule 
be no difficulty in summer, except in very hot weather, 
when churning is best in the early morning or late in the 
evening — the coolest parts of the day. If sufficiently 



cool water is unobtainable, ice must be employed in order 
to reduce the cream to the required degree, the ice being 
placed in a tub of cold water in which the cream pan may 
be stood. In the winter, when the temperatm-e of the 
cream for churning should be from 62° to 63° F., the 
cream pan, covered with a hd or cloth, may be placed 
within reach of the heat of the kitchen fire, or in any apart- 
ment the temperature of which exceeds that which the 

Listers* End-over-end Churn. 

cream is to reach. If, however, this is impossible the 
cream pan may be stood in a tub of warm water, which 
should not be higher than 70° to 80° F., but in this case 
it should be frequently stirred. 

Before commencing to chiu-n the cream into butter 
the churn should be brought to the required temperature, 
which may be one or two degrees above or below that of 
the cream. If possible, too, the dairy should be at the 



same temperature as the cliurii. Thus, in winter, if the 
cream registers 63° F. on the thermometer, and the 
dairy stands at 50° F., with the churn at the same figure, 
the temperature of the cream will fall immediately it is 
poured into it, and churning may therefore be long and 
difficult. Again, if the churn is brought to the required 
degree, and the dairy is still cold, its temperature will 
fall before churning is completed, in spite of the fact that 
the wood of which the churn is made is a non-conductor 
of heat. Fine butter is only made when the conditions 
are perfect. When the temperatures are correct, therefore, 
the cream may be poured into the churn through a strainer, 
the lid closed, and the work commenced. 

There are many types of churn, although the principles 
upon which they are constructed are few in number. It 
was estimated some years ago that there were at least 
150 makes of churn, some of which revolve. Revolving 
churns sometimes have beaters or dashers, and sometimes 
they have neither. In other cases churns are worked by 
beaters revolving within them. A good churn should be 
made of seasoned, tough wood, such as oak ; its construction 
should be perfect ; it should work easily, for churning is 
frequently performed by girls. Further, a glass window 
should be provided so that the cream may be seen in the 
process of churning, a vent for the expulsion of air or gas, 
a tap or vent for passing out the butter-milk, and a Ud 
which can be easily and quickly closed, and through which 
it will be impossible for the cream to pass as working 
proceeds. One of the most popular churns is the end-over- 
end barrel, which has no beaters, but which has long been 
provided with a lid of a most troublesome character. 
Where it is necessary to turn several screws to open a 
churn, and to screw them down again in order to proceed 
with the work, and when at the same time a large lid 
of this type permits of the escape of cream, fault is naturally 

A mistake is often made in buying too small a churn. 
In practice it is assumed that a churn may be filled to 
two-thirds of its space, but this is not so. It should not 
be fiUed more than half full, otherwise there will at some 



time be a serious loss. It is much better to buy a cburn 
one or two sizes larger than is required, in spite of the extra 
expense which is involved, for the reason that, while it is 
most difficult to churn too much cream in a small churn, 
it is easy to churn a small quantity in a large churn. 
Therefore, as no trouble arises when a chm'n is too large 
for the cream, unless we go to extremes, it is safer and 
more economical to buy a large churn than a small one, 
which will always cause trouble if the cream to be churned 
is too large in volume. A new churn should have been 
well prepared by the maker before it is sold, otherwise 
it should be filled with very hot water and used on^ several 
occasions before cream is put into it. The one difficulty 
about ordinary barrel churns is that there is no room for 
the hands to enter, either for the removal of the butter 
or for cleaning. The most popular churn in the Scandi- 
navian countries is the Holstein, which is a tub larger in 
diameter at the bottom than at the top. A beater revolves 
within it as it stands erect by turning a handle at the side 
of the frame in which the churn is fixed. This churn will 
tip both for cleaning and emptying, and is in all respects 
an excellent implement. 

The time occupied in churning butter should not exceed 
forty minutes. Churns have been produced in which 
butter has been brought in from five to ten minutes by 
very rapid work, but we have yet to see the implement 
which produces fine butter under these conditions. Where 
the time of churning is protracted — and this is sometimes 
the case in winter, when the cream develops a disagreeable 
odour and fiavour which passes into the butter as it 
comes— attention must be given to the question or loss 
will be emphasised. We have never known this trouble 
to occur in either spring, summer, or autumn. It is not 
owing to the practice of feeding the cows with roots or 
cakes, as some people suppose, for it is found where neither 
of these foods is employed. It is probably owing to the 
presence in the milk of an organism, and therefore this 
point must be fully considered. In the first place the 
churn should never be too full. When the trouble is 
suspected a small quantity of cream should be churned 



at a time, for it usually becomes larger in volume and 
froths. The first thing to do is to adopt the plan which 
has already been described, by cleansing the dairy, taking 
care to ensure perfectly clean milk, and then inoculating 
the cream with butter-milk obtained elsewhere. Until 
this practice is carried out the milk should be set in pans, 
and when the cream has risen to the surface at the end of 
twenty-four hours scalded on a hotplate on the stove 
for the destruction of the germs within it, whatever their 
species. When cooled the cream may then be churned 
in the usual way, for, being clotted on the Devonshire 
principle, it will not need to be ripened, and may therefore 
be churned sweet. 

Towards the end of the churning process, and just 
before the cream breaks, it will be found to adhere to the 
glass window in a different form. In the earher part of 
the process the window will be clear, but when this change 
takes place it will be dotted with tiny grains of fat, and 
then in a few moments the dull thud of the cream as the 
churn revolves will be changed into a distinct splash, 
indicating that the thick cream has been replaced in part 
by thin butter-milk. When the grains of butter on the 
glass are more prominent the lid may be opened, and a 
quart or two of cold water, as the case may be, this depend- 
ing upon the quantity of cream employed, poured into the 
churn, partly with the object of reducing the temperature 
and hardening the butter-grains. When the lid is closed 
again a few revolutions may be given at a low speed, until, 
indeed, the grains of butter are larger, as shown upon 
the glass. 

When butter has fully come, and the grains are as large 
as buckwheat or small rice, and crisp as they should be, 
the churning may be stopped and the butter-milk drawn 
of? through a sieve in order to catch any butter which may 
pass out of the churn. In summer cold water may be 
again needed, for in very hot weather the grains of butter 
are apt, by their extreme softness, to unite rather than to 
separate. In this case water is cjuicldy blended with the 
butter, and is subsequently difficult to remove, while 
working may be impossible, In my case two or three 



wasliings may be given in a similar way, the churn being 
rocked instead of turned. The object of this washing 
is to remove every trace of butter-milk, the solid matter 
of which consists of sugar and casein, which materially 
assists in turning butter rancid if it remains in it. Obviously, 
the butter can only be washed when it is in the gra,in. 
If it is brought in a few large lumps washing becomes 
impossible, for water will not enter into the solid fat. The 
last washing should be with brine, prepared by adding 
salt to the water, and when the water runs from the churn 
perfectly pure — i.e., with no indication of milkiness — the 
butter may be removed with the Scotch hands on to a 
butter-worker, or preferably on to a butter-trough, if 
the time permits, for it to remain and drain there for an 
hour or two. 


There are two forms of butter-worker commonly used. 
C)ne a long rectangular table, sometimes flat, sometimes 
slightly convex, upon which a roller revolves. This roller 
is fluted or ringed, so that as it passes over the butter it 
squeezes out the water without smearing or pressing it. 
The other form of butter-worker is circular, and is made 
in very large sizes for factory work and for butter-blending. 
On the larger machines there are two rollers, beneath 
which the butter passes, these being worked by machinery. 
When the butter is placed upon the table of the butter- 
worker, which may be either concave or convex when it 
is round, it is in the grain, but gradually it becomes 
homogeneous as it is pressed and the water is removed. 
Care must be taken never to overwork it or to smear it, 
by which the grain is spoilt. When butter is salted for 
keeping — for very fine butter intended for immediate use 
should never be salted — the salt employed should be at 
the rate of ^oz. to |oz. to the pound. This salt must be 
the finest obtainable. It should be ground in a mill 
made for the purpose to almost as fine a consistency as 
flour, and then dried in the oven for the removal of its 
water. The salt should be distributed over the butter 
as it lies upon the table with a flour-dredger to ensure 



even salting. Where tlie salt used is coarse it will be 
found that upon cutting a pound of butter in halves the 
grains have attracted moisture, and that it is mottled in 
consequence, showing two colours, and therefore spoiled 
for sale. The subsequent process of making up into rolls 
or pats can only be learnt by experience. It is important 
to observe that the butter-worker must be prepared before 

A Good Type of Butler-Worker. R. A. Lister and Co., Ltd. 

it is used, otherwise the butter will adhere to it. The 
usual practice is to scald it, to scrub it with salt, and then 
to cool it with cold water. When work is proceeding, the 
water which is squeezed out of the butter must be mopped 
up with a butter-cloth from time to time, or it may be 
reintroduced into the butter. In winter difficulty may be 
experienced in working the butter if it has become hard, 



hence the importance of care in the employment of the 
cold water, which should not be at too low a temperature, 
while in summer the temperature of the atmosphere is such 
that it may sometimes be impossible to work the butter 
at all unless every feature to which we have referred has 
been observed. Although butter is sometimes coloured 
with annatto, the practice is a bad one, for the simple 
reason that it is not absolutely honest. If butter is so 
white that it needs artificial colouring to make it saleable 
it is not worth the price charged for it under these 

Churning milk. 

Although milk is now very seldom churned, the practice 
must be referred to. In earlier days milk was churned 
in very large churns with the assistance of a horse, the 
labour being too considerable for men or women. There 
is no doubt that more butter is obtained by this jwactice 
than by churning cream. On the other hand, there are 
many objections to the practice. It entails enormous 
labour ; churning must be conducted daily ; the butter-milk 
cannot be sold like separated milk is now sold, for it must 
be lappered or soured before it can be churned, and the 
sourness is very emphatic. On some occasions milk sent 
to a dairy is returned because it is sour. Under these 
conditions it may be churned whole, for it cannot be 
properly skimmed. When milk is churned it is brought 
to a temperature of 66° F., except in the heat of summer. 
We have obtained 4J per cent, of butter from milk churned 
in this way, and subsequently 5 per cent. ; but when similar 
milk was churned in its sweet condition it returned only 
3 per cent, of butter, while the work was much more 

Preserving Butter. 

In preserving butter without the employment of 
boracic acid the very best work must be carried out, for 
no butter will keep unless it is thoroughly cleaned by 
washing. As keeping butter is usually made in summer 
it should be churned at 56 to 57 degrees, drained in a 



trough at a still lower temperature after washing, and 
then hardened in a hardening-box, for which purpose 
ice is employed if this is necessary when the weather is 
unusually warm. When upon the butter-worker the 
butter should be salted with |oz. of salt to the pound. 
After working it should be rolled out like paste and placed 
in layers in the tub or pan in which it is to be kept, each 
layer being pressed at the bottom and sides of the vessel 
with the hand to keep out the air. When the layers are 
sufficiently numerous to fill the pan, it should be smoothed 
over the top with a wooden butter-knife and covered with 
a thin layer of salt, upon which a piece of butter-muslin 
should be laid, with another layer of salt on the top of it. 
If a wooden vessel is employed for keeping the butter 
it should be lined with grease-proof paper. In all cases 
it should be remembered that the more perfectly it is 
sealed — if hermetically so much the better — the longer the 
butter will keep. Low temperature, but not less than 
35° E., immensely assists in the preservation of butter. 

Chapter IX. 


The object of the cheese-maker is to obtain as much 
cheese of the finest quality as he can from the milk at 
his disposal. It was long assumed, and to some extent it 
is still assumed, that good cheese cannot be made from 
rich milk. There is no greater mistake — the better the 
milk the richer the cheese and the greater the weight 
produced. This being the case, the cheese-maker is well 
advised to make every effort to improve not only the 
quantity of milk supplied by his cows, but its quality. 
Where it is possible to make cheese from milk containing 
4 per cent, of fat the return per cow is much greater than 
when the milk contains only 3 to 3-5 per cent, of fat. 
The reason is not only because of the increase of weight of 
cheese manufactured, but because of the improvement in 
its quality, always supposing that the maker is sufficiently 
expert to do the best work. Eule of thumb has no place 
in the manufacture of cheese, for cheese-making is really an 
art, in which science also plays a considerable part. Good 
cheese cannot be made from unclean milk. 

Importance of Cleanliness. 

Cleanliness is the first condition of success ; then comes 
the practice of feeding, which exerts a marked influence 
both upon the weight and the quality of the cheese. One 
pasture may contain plants which another does not, and 


which ponvey a bad fl.avour to the cheese. It is, h'owever, 
now thoroughly understood by experts that there is no 
reason why fine cheese cannot be made in one county as 
well as in another. It was formerly supposed that Cheddar 
cheese could not be made out of Somerset, but this was 
dispelled by the farmers of Wigtownshire, in Scotland, 
and it has since been dispelled by many others. Stilton 
cheese can be made equally as well in the south or north 
of England as in Leicestershire, while the Brie and the 
Coulommiers of France have been made equally as well in 
our own dairy as in Normandy or the Department of the 

When the cheese-maker is placed in the possession of 
rich clean milk produced from sound food he has only to 
look to his appliances and himself to ensure success. The 
cheese-making plant must be complete, simple, well 
designed, and well constructed. This will be referred 
to later on. 

Varieties of Cheese. 

The principal varieties of cheese known in this country, 
and indeed the best-known makes in the world, are 
Cheddar, Cheshire, Leicester, Gloucester, Derby, and 
Lancashire, among English pressed cheese ; Stilton and 
Wcnsleydale, our two blue-veined varieties ; Caerphilly, 
a small variety popular in a part of South Wales ; and 
ordinary Curd or Cream cheese, which has neither name 
nor significance in this country. The popular cheeses 
of France are Gruyere, Eoquefort, formerly made 
of sheep's milk; Gerome, Gex, Brie, Camembert, 
Coulommiers, Pont I'Eveque, Gournay, Livarot, a 
skimnaed-milk cheese, and Port du Salut. All these French 
varieties, with the exception of Gruyere and Roquefort, 
can be made equally as well in England ; but, in spite of 
many years of teaching at our dairy schools and of incite- 
ment to produce them, dairy-farmers in this country will 
have nothing to do with the varieties made elsewhere. 
They prefer the public to buy them from the importer, 
in spite of the fact that the profits realised are larger 
than those realised by the manufacture of British cheese. 

Principles or cheese-making. 


Holland makes two popular varieties of cheese, the round 
Dutch, or Edam, and the flat Gou.da. Italy makes two 
varieties, the blue-veined Gorgonzola, which is sold so 
largely in this country, where Stilton should take its place 
as a native variety, and the Parmesan, which is a partially 
skimmed-milk cheese. The one variety common to 
Switzerland is the Gruycre, which is identical with that 
made in France. There are practically no other important 
cheeses made in any other part of the world, for the 
Scandinavian countries, like Russia and Germany, adhere 
chiefly to butter. It is a curious fact that there is no 
national cheese made in either Ireland, Scotland, or WalcL, 
although at one time a type of cheese known as the Dunlop 
was made north of the Tweed. 

Milk to Use. 

Cheese may be made of whole or new milk, or partly 
of new milk and partly of skimmed milk, but the richer 
the milk the more profitable the cheese — hence the 
employment of skimmed milk is never advisable. 

Cheese in the Making. 

In making cheese milk is coagulated with rennet, 
assisted by heat and acid, the last being developed with 
the assistance of heat, which incites the decomposition 
of the sugar. In making pressed cheese the milk is set 
near the temperature at which it comes into the dairy 
from the cows, but in actual practice the temperature at 
which the rennet is added varies from 65 degrees in making 
some varieties of soft cheese which are long in coagulating 
to 92 degrees in making certain hard or pressed cheeses. 
The time of coagulation may vary from sixty hours in the 
first case to a few minutes. Where a firm or tough curd 
is required the temperature is comparatively high, and the 
quantity of rennet larger than where the curd to be brought 
must be tender and less elastic. Cheese is pressed either 
heavily or lightly, or it is not pressed at all, as in the 
case of Stilton, Gorgonzola, and the soft cheeses of France. 
For making soft cheese, however, the curd may be either 
brisk, lively, or elastic, or it may be extremely tender. 



The finer curd is cut after it lias coagulated the quicker 
and more perfect the drainage, for there is a larger area 
exposed from which the whey may exude. Thus, in 
making Stilton the curd is removed from the vat in which 
it was formed in large sUces into a draining-cloth, while 
in making Cheddar or Cheshire cheese it is cut into small 
cubes about the size of dice, and these, heated in the whey, 
quickly part with the fluid within them, and shrink. If 
some of the cubes are too large when the smaller ones have 
parted with all the whey that it is desirable to remove 
they will contain some fluid, which if not expelled later 
will pass into the cheese and cause the production of gas, 
and consequent damage. Soft curd will not bear much 
manipulation, but the firm curd, such as is cut as suggested, 
bears much manipulation, frequent and lengthy stirring 
following the cutting process. When the curd is too 
tender in making firm cheese, it can be improved later 
by a rise in the temperature of the whey. Too high a 
temperature, however, like too much rennet, makes the 
curd too firm, so that when it is cut it parts with the 
whey too rapidly, and the cheese becomes dry in 
consequence, and of much less value in the market. For 
this reason too much whey must not be expelled. These 
facts suggest the high importance of exactness in main- 
taining the temperature adopted and the quantity of 
rennet used, as well as in the time of cutting. 

In practice in British dairies acid is developed in the 
evening's^ milk with the assistance of temperature, so that 
f7hen it is mixed with the morning's milk twelve hours 
afterwards its maturity contributes to the success of the 
future cheese. The larger the quantity of milk used in 
bulk the less the loss of heat, and therefore the greater the 
exactness. The higher the temperature employed in 
setting the smaller the quantity of rennet required. As 
there is a loss of heat involved in the setting of small 
quantities of milk it is usual to increase the quantity of 
rennet used. 

A standard rennet is that of which one volume 
coagulates 10,000 volumes of milk in forty minutes, when 
the milk stands at 95° F. As 1000 cubic centimetres of milk 



are equal to one litre, it follows that one cubic centimetre 
of rennet should coagulate this milk in four minutes at 
the same temperature, for the quantity of rennet used 
is in an inverse ratio to the time occupied in coagulation. 
Rennet is the active principle of the mucous membrane 
lining the fourth stomach of the milk-fed calf. There is 
ao other material known in practice or science which 
exerts the same influence on milk. It possesses no flavour, 
although it contributes so materially to the manufacture 
and flavour of cheese. Cheese-makers have been accus- 
tomed in the past to prepare their own rennet, but the 
practice is uncertain and unsatisfactory, resulting in 
unequal quahty, and consequently in unequal work. 
Rennet can be obtained in liquid, tablet, and powdered 
form, and a brand once adopted and found satisfactory 
should never be changed. Rennet should be kept in a 
cool, dark place that its strength may remain constant, 
for loss of strength means probable spoliation of cheese. 
The influence of rennet is exerted only at given temperature. 
Thus, while it is most active at from 100° to 108° F., 
there is no normal coagulation below 50° F., and very 
Kttle below 66° F. On the other hand, above 108° F. 
its influence diminishes, until at 150° F. it has ceased 
altogether. The activity of rennet is considerable between 
85° and 95° F., which almost represent the extremes 
of temperature adopted in pressed-cheese making. Rennet 
should be mixed with at least four volumes of cold water 
before adding to milk, inasmuch as it is more easily mixed 
or spread through the volume of milk, but it should be 
measured with extreme care, either in a graduated tube or 
a measuring-glass. In making soft cheese so little rennet 
is used that it may be necessary to count it in drops. As 
milk varies in quality between richness and poverty the 
rennet must be varied too, each cheese-maker learning 
precisely what quantity of rennet is required to obtain 
coagulation in a given time. 

The time occupied in the coagulation of milk varies 
with the season, and therefore with the temperature of the 
air. If it were possible to control the temperature of the 
dairy this might not be the case. Again, where milk cools 



before renneting, and it becomes necessary to reheat it, 
more rennet may be required, but the result is never so 
satisfactory. When the curd is perfect it is cut in order 
to assist in the drainage of tlie whey. If it is cut too soon, 
the curd being too tender, fat leaves the curd and passes 
into the whey, and it is not recovered in the process of 
cheese-making. The condition of cm-d for cutting may 
be tested with a glass thermometer, which, dipped into 
it diagonally and the bulb elevated through the cui-d, 
will fracture it. If the fracture is clean it is fit. If, on 
the other hand, it is so soft that there is no clean cut made 
by the instrument, it must be left until it is ready. Where 
curd when tested in this way is so firm that the fracture 
at once fills up with whey it is over -ripe, and the curd 
should be cut larger in consequence. In practice curd is 
now cut with a pair of knives with numerous blades, 
which in one case are vertical and in the other horizontal. 
Thus where a dairy is equipped, as it should be, with 
a jacketed rectangular vat standing upon wheels, the 
vertical-bladed knife, drawn very gently and very patiently 
from one end to the other through the curd, leaves strips 
of curd throughout which are square at the top, the knife 
having been drawn across the first cut. In other, words, 
it is drawn first from end to end of the vat and then from 
side to side. The knife with the horizontal blades is now 
introduced, so that each strip or column of curds is cut 
into cubes. 

In making pressed cheese acid is developed first in the 
evening's milk, which, poured into the vat as it comes from 
the cows, gradually falls to from 68° to 72° F. by the 
morning ; by subsequent heating in the vat ; by stirring ; 
and later by the piling of the curd, as we shall see. More 
acid is required in handling rich milk than poor milk. 
The role of acid is to give mellowness, flavour, and texture 
to the cheese. In the manufacture of Stilton the slices 
of curd remain for some time in the whey which drains 
from them. In making soft cheese the curd is removed 
direct from the vat in which it has coagulated into metal 
moulds or cylinders, from which the whey gradually 
leaves it by gravitation, sufficient remaining to set up 



fermentation, which assists in the production of flavour 
and quality. Some makers of pressed cheese add sour 
whey to the milk before coagulation commences, this 
inoculating the milk with bacteria of a desirable character 
when it is the b)^-product of good cheese made the day 
before. On the other hand, the addition of whey from 
imperfect milk may introduce noxious bacteria, and so 
destroy the cheese. 

It may be useful to point out at this stage how in 
soft-cheese making raw curd is converted into the delicious 
food which is provided by such varieties as Camembert 
and Brie. When the curd in the cylinder has sufficiently 
parted with its whey to leave a firm residue the cylinder 
is removed, and the young cheese is placed upon a straw 
mat and occasionally turned. When sufficiently dry it is 
salted on its coat, and then in a day or two it is gradually 
covered with a white velvety fungus or mould, which is 

followed by a similar covering of blue mould, the same 
species as that which grows upon stale bread. This fungus 
is provided with mycelium, which we may perhaps 
not inappropriately compare to the roots of a flowering 
plant. As the cheese is at this stage acid, and in this 
condition imperfect, its characteristic is changed by the 
action of the fungus, the mycelium of which, gradually 
piercing the flesh of the cheese, neutralises the acid, and by 
partially liberating the nitrogen of the casein of the curd 
produces ammonia, and consequently an alkaline reaction 
follows. Thus it is essential that the curd should neither 
be too soft nor too dry. To this end it must have been 
set at the right temperature. If the dairy is too warm 
the whey will leave the curd in the cylinders too 
rapidly, and the cheese will be too dry, so dry that the 
fungus will not grow normally upon it. If, on the other 
hand, the dairy is too cool the whey will not leave the curd 



rapidly euough ; it will be impossible to handle it, and it 
will never make a cheese. The perfect drainage of whey 
from curd therefore depends upon temperature. ^ 
■ In making pressed cheese sour whey assists in the 
development of acid. Where sour whey is not employed 
in the process of manufacture acidity is more fully 
developed in the evening's milk. If this comes from the 
cows at 90° F., and is passed into the cheese vat through 
a strainer, the dairy being warm enough, it will have 
retained sufficient heat by the morning — i.e., 68° to 72° F. — 
to have developed sufficient acid for the perfect continuance 
of the process. This development is essentially important 
in cold weather, when the milk set in a cold dairy would 
fall within two or three degrees of the temperature of the 
dairy, while if it fell below 65° F. the process would 
have to be modified. Many expert makers test the milk 
in order to ascertain its percentage of acid, not only at 
this point or when the rennet is added, but when the 
wliey is drained from the cheese vat. 

The ripening of cheese may be described as the first 
stage in the process of putrefaction, which is the result 
of the action of the bacteria in milk. If these organisms 
were destroyed, as they can be by heat, cheese as we 
know it could not be made. Moulds or fungi also exert 
an influence upon the character of milk used for cheese- 
making, as we have seen in reference to the manufacture 
of soft cheese. The spores or seeds of these tiny plants 
are distributed in the air, and, faUing into the milk, change 
it either for evil or for good. Their growth depends 
not only upon the air itself, but upon temperature and 
humidity. The growth of the blue mould in the veins 
of a Stilton, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, or Wensleydale 
cheese is facilitated by the process of manufacture. Thus 
they are unable to grow in the Cheddar or Cheshire, as 
in all pressed cheeses, because of the exclusion of air and 
moisture by the press. In the vein cheese, however, there 
is no pressure exerted; the curd, being put together in 
cylinders in a comparatively loose condition, leaves 
interstices which retain air, and thus enable the fungus to 
grow, as it will at a low temperature. 



The weight of cheese depends chiefly upon two factors, 
the fat and the casein. It has been shown by repeated 
and extensive experiments that the casein in large volumes 
of average milk represents two-thirds of the fat of that 
milk, while, as lactation increases the proportion of both, 
the casein increases in larger proportion than the fat. 
Rich milk makes more cheese than poor milk, because 
of the extra fat and casein which it contains ; but it is a 
curious fact that this weight is also influenced by the 
increase in the water which is incorporated with the cheese. 
Thus for every pound of fat present in milk there is a 
corresponding increase of -Bib. of casein and lib. of water. 
Another point of importance is that in making cheese from 
rich milk there is a smaller loss of solids which pass into 
the whey than when poor milk is used. 

Cheddar Cheese. 

The most important type of cheese made in this country 
is known as Cheddar, which practically represents the 
system of cheese manufacture in Canada and in our 
AustraUan Colonies. Cheddar is perhaps the most typical 
and popular cheese made in the world, but a fine sample 
is comparatively rare, and we have never seen one imported. 
The nutty flavour of this cheese is curiously characteristic of 
the very finest Gruyere and Gouda. In making Cheddar 
cheese the evening's milk is strained into the cheese vat 
as it comes from the cows, and is left there until the following 
morning. Care is taken to prevent the rising of the cream, 
but as some cream does rise this is skimmed in the morning, 
added to a portion of the milk, in which it is stirred and 
returned to the vat. The new milk of the morning is then 
added, and heat being raised, the warm jacket increases 
the temperature of the mixture to the required degree, 
which we may assume to be 85° F., perhaps the most 
commonly adopted in practice. 

As we have seen, the evening's milk should be ripe in 
the morning — that is, it should contain acid. If it is not 
ripe enough the maker has the option of adding sourwliey, 
or increasing the temperature for renneting, of scalding 
once or even twice later on, or of prolonged stirring to 



give time for its development. When the required 
temperature has been reached, and is constant, the rennet 
is^ measured, mixed with water, distributed over and 
stirred into the milk. It is important that the quantity 
of milk should be gauged, measured, and recorded, together 
with the subsequent weight of the cheese and all details 
connected with its manufacture. Where the rectangular 
jacketed vat is used there will be no difficulty about 
heating or scalding, but as round tubs are still employed 
by many manufacturers it will be necessary to describe 
how the required temperature should be reached. The 
quantity of milk being ascertained, a portion is removed 
into a small vat and heated to such a temperature that 
when it is poured back into the tub the mixture will be 
the exact temperature required. The rule of procedure 
may be succinctly described in the following way : Tlie 
number of gallons of milk in the tub are multiplied by 
the number of degrees through which they have to be 
raised or reduced, the figures obtained being divided 
by the number of gallons of milk in the small vat or warmer. 
The result of this calculation will give the number of degrees 
above or below the temperature to which tlie milk in the 
small vessel must be brought. 

Supposing, for example, we have 45gal. in the cheese 
tub and^ 15gal. in the warmer at a temperature of 80° F., 
and it is necessary to heat the whole volume to 85° F., 
we have to raise the smaller volume of milk through 
300 degrees of heat, i.e., 45 plus 15 multipUed by 5. If 
we divide the figure 300 by 15 we get 20 degrees as a 
result, and this added to the temperature 80 degrees 
brings us to 100° F., which represents the temperature 
to which the 15gal. must be brought. This temperature, 
however, would be too high, and it is for this reason that 
we have adopted it, for it is not desirable to heat the milk 
much above 90° F., and therefore we have to make 
a fresh calculation, when we find that in order to bring the 
whole volume to 85° F. one half the milk must be 
heated to 90° F. >'■ In all these proceedings it is important 
to prevent heat being lost. Thus, when a small volume of 
milk is to be used for cheese-making it should be put into 


a wooden tub, which is a non-conductor, and even then 
it should be covered with a blanket to prevent the escape 
of heat. 

If sour whey is to be employed, as it sometimes is 
with the object of assisting in the formation of acid, it 
must be raised to the temperature of the milk in the vat, 
and in medium quantity. This whey should be the 
by-product of a previous making, and one which can be 
thoroughly rehed upon. Although the exact quality of 
the cheese cannot be tested until it is ripe, a skilled maker 
is practically able to determine as the result of his day's 
work whether he has succeeded or not in making a first- 
class article. If the whey is obtained from an inferior 
day's work it may communicate its inferiority to the 
cheese which it assists in producing, and so from day to 
day, as the whey is carried forward for mixing with the 
next day's milk, that inferiority may be perpetuated. 

Curd Knife. 

Sour whey should never be added to milk which is extra 
acid in consequence of high temperature. If sour whey 
is not to be used in cheese-making, it is essential that the 
evening's milk should be ripe in the morning before it is 
added to the morning's milk, and that ripeness is only 
obtained by an increase in the temperature at which the 
milk has been kept. It should, in a word, be kept 
sufficiently warm to assure a temperature of from 62° to 
68° F., and on no occasion less than 62° F. 

A rise in the temperature is followed by an increase 
in the number of bacteria, and with this increased number 
there is increased decomposition of the sugar and a conse- 
quent production of lactic acid. If sour whey is used in 
the process of manufacture a temperature of 63° to 64° F. 
will be sufficient for the evening's milk when morning 
arrives. The production of acid is not only caused by 



the temperature at which the evening's milk is liept through 
the night and by the addition of sour whey, but also by 
the fact that the curd and whey are scalded, and sometimes 
scalded twice, in the subsequent process. 

The curd forms and is fit to cut in forty to fifty minutes 
after the rennet has been added to the milk. In making 
Cheddar it is cut in cubes, as we have already described 
in the previous chapter, but care must be taken neither 
to drag it with the knives as they are drawn from one end 
to the other nor to bruise it, and so to cause a loss of fat 
in the whey. After cutting and resting the curd gradually 
falls, leaving the clear greenish whey above it. It may 
then be covered for a quarter of an hour, during which 
time whey will still further be expelled from the cubes, 
which have now shrivelled into small shapeless lumps. 

Curd Knife. 

This expulsion depends as much upon the acidity produced 
as upon the heat which has caused it. If too much whey 
is expelled in the process the work is quicker, but the cheese 
may sufiev in consequence. It is essential that some whey 
should be left in the curd, inasmuch as it contains the 
sugar of the milk, and this is the material which, decom- 
posing with the assistance of bacteria, produces the acid 
which plays so great a part in the subsequent character 
and flavour of the cheese. 

When the urd has fallen to the bottom of the vat 
stirring and breaking commences, this being performed 
with a special implement. This process still further 
assists in the expulsion of the whey and in the reduction 
of the size of the pieces of curd. It must be gently done, 
and from time to time the workman should examine the 
curd in order to see whether the pieces vary in size and 



whether they are progressing towards the perfect form 
which they should take before the process is complete. 
Stirring and breaking should now be continued until the 
highest temperature which is produced by the hot jacket 
of the vat has been reached. Some makers stir longer 
before heating commences, others stir while heating 
progresses, and others again after the curd has reached 
its highest point, in order that when touching the sides 
of the vat, which are the hottest, it may not be damaged. 
When stirring is complete the vat is covered with its lid, 
when the curd settles at the bottom. 

In ^ the process of scalding, which further develops 
the acid and improves the condition of the curd, the whole 
volume of curd and whey is heated to 87° F. up to 
94° P., varying with the season and the practice of the 
maker. Some manufacturers scald a second time, the 
second scald being at a higher temperature than the 
first. In some cases the scald is restricted to a degree 
between 94° and 98° P., while in others it may reach 
104° P. at the outside. The first process of scalding, 
like the second scald, depends upon the temperature at 
which the milk was kept through the night, upon the 
temperature of renneting, and the employment or non- 
employment of sour whey. Just as stirring must be continued 
after the first scald, so it must be followed after the second 
scald. This process completed, the curd falls to the bottom of 
the vat, and when the whey has been drained off, as it must 
be, it mats or coalesces, forming practically one solid 
block. It is important at this stage to ascertain the 
condition of the curd, whether or not it is sufficiently 
mature. Some makers test it by its smell and its taste, 
others employ the hot iron, ascertaining how long an elastic 
string can be drawn when a piece of curd is attached to the 
iron and gently pulled. These, Uke many other points 
in the process of making cheese, are better learnt in practice. 
One week over the cheese vat with an experienced maker 
on a farm or in a dairy school will do more than volumes 
written upon the -subject. 

^ Assunaing that the curd is now fit for further treatment, 
it is cut into blocks of about 6in. square and piled upon 



the rack at the bottom of the vat. The object is to develop 
acid, and this will follow the aeration of the curd while 
maintaining its warmth, which is not difficult, considering 
that the vat is still warm and that the curd after cutting is 
covered with one or more cloths to prevent the escape of 

Pond's Curd-Mill. 

heat. In a short time the cloths are removed, and the 
curd which has adhered is again cut into blocks and turned 
and placed in a new position that the inside pieces may 
become aerated as well as those which were outside. 
During this entire portion of the process the one object' 



is to obtain fine, mellow, silky curd before it is ground, 
salted, and placed within the press. When cutting and 
aeration have been sufficiently protracted the blocks are 
broken up with the hand, placed in cloths, tied up, and 
pressed upon the rack, the weight of the pressure depending 
upon the weight of the curd. It is important at this stage 
that the curd should have maintained a temperature of 
90° F. After pressing the curd will have once more 
become a solid mass, when it is cut and turned again, and 
left sufficiently long to ripen for grinding. 

The curd-mill should be a simple, well-constructed 
implement, designed to prevent squeezing or crushing 

Cheese-Mould. W, Pond and Son. 

the pieces, and so causing a loss of fat in the whey. It 
sometimes happens that a further development of acid 
may be necessary after grinding, but this is seldom the 
case if the work has been well performed throughout. We 
cannot, however, omit to impress upon the reader the 
importance of acid in the curd, as all depends upon its 
presence in sufficient quantity to produce a mellow cheese. 
The ground curd is now salted at the rate of 2|lb. of finely 
ground and dried salt per 1121b. of curd. When an early 
ripening form of cheese is made, as it is in Cheshire, 21b. 
is sufficient, for it must be remembered that to some extent 

I 2 



salt prevents decomposition, witliout wHch there can be 
no perfect cheese. All salt should be dried, ground as 
finely as possible, and dried again until its weight is fairly 
constant. There is considerable, dif!erence in the influence 
of salt as between that prepared in this way and the raw 
material as it is purchased. There should therefore be 


no variation in the practice by using dried fine salt upon 
one day and coarse moist salt upon another. After 
grinding and salting, which must be carefully perfornied, 
the curd is ready for the round mould or vat which gives 
the cheese its shape and enables it to be pressed. The vat 



is therefore lined with a cheese-cloth so arranged that it 
will cause no wrinkles or creases upon the crust of the 
cheese. The temperature of the curd should now be 
70° F. If it is higher there is a danger of fat being 
pressed out of it in the whey when it is in the cheese-press. 

In our early days the presses employed by cheese- 
makers were of a very primitive character. Now, 
however, the press is an implement which enables the 
maker to do perfect work with very little trouble. When 
the cheese is placed in the press, pressure should be 
put upon it until the whey commences to run, and then it 
must be increased gradually for an hour or two and left 
until the following morning. It is then removed from 
the press, taken out of the mould, enveloped in a clean 
cloth, turned, and pressed again. This practice is con- 

Moulds for Cream Cheese. Dairy Supply Company. 

tinned for three days, at the end -of which the cheese is 
perfectly firm, when it is covered with incipient crust. 
It is then placed upon a stage or cheese-table and 
covered with a bandage which is marked or labelled 
with the date and weight. The whole of this portion of 
the process should bo learnt in the dairy itself ; it cannot 
be adequately described. 

Cheddar cheese is not coloured artificially, as is the 
case with Cheshire and sometimes with Gloucester and 
Leicester, as well as with some Colonial cheese. No cheese 
is naturally yellow, the colour being conveyed solely 
by the annatto, to which reference has already been made. 
The newly bandaged cheese is removed to the ripening 
room, and placed either upon the floor or upon a wooden 
shelf, where it is examined and turned daily, and where 
it gradually acquires its crust or coat. The cheese-room 



above all things stould be dry, and maintained at a 
temperature which varies from 60° to 68° F. Where 
many cheeses are made the cheese-room is artificially 
heated with hot-water pipes, stoves and fires being partial 
in their power and leaving the room with an uneven 
temperature. The cheese-room must be well ventilated. 
If shelves are employed the cheeses should be changed 
from shelf to shelf day by day, those upon the top shelf 
being placed below and finally at the bottom, and vice versa. 

The texture of a cheese, and consequently its solubility, 
depends largely upon the percentage of the fat of the milk 
from which it was made. The casein of milk is an 
insoluble substance, but in the process of ripening in a 
cheese it becomes perfectly soluble, its solubility being 

Mould for Curd Chees;. Dairy Supply Company. 

helped by the fat with which it is combined, and the 
greater the quantity of fat the more rapid and perfect the 
solubility. High-priced cheese is always mellow, soluble 
on the tongue, mild in flavour, and essentially nutty. 
One pound of Cheddar cheese is, on the average of the 
season, made from 101b. of milk, but where rich milk is 
employed lib. may be made from 81b. of milk, or, on the 
other hand, where the milk is poor in quality it may take 
more than lUb. to make lib. of cheese. It is a striking 
and yet curious fact that while large cheeses are made 
from comparatively small quantities of milk, the solid 
matter in that cheese represents only half the solids which 
the milk contains. Thus the average weight of solid 
matter in the whey which has been drained from the 



clieese-vat is equal to the solid matter in the cheese which, 
as curd, was removed from it. In the cheese the solid 
matter consists almost entirely of casein and fat, while 
in whey it consists almost entirely of sugar and mineral 
matter. It is true that very small quantities of casein 
and fat find their way into the whey, while still smaller 
portions of minerals find their way into the cheese. 

While the description of the process of the manufacture 
of Cheddar cheese is closely followed wherever that cheese 
is produced, it is an indication of the processes which 
are similarly followed in the manufacture of every other 
type of hard or pressed cheese, whether we refer to the 
Gruyere of France and Switzerland, the Parmesan of 
Italy, or the Dutch cheeses of Holland. If we were to 

describe the complete process of manufacture of either of 
these varieties, or of our own Cheshire, Derby, or Leicester, 
we should find that all were identical in one respect, 
inasmuch as the principles involved are precisely the same 
in each case. It is in the variation of the process not in 
the principles that we find the cause of difference of 
texture, of flavour, of form, and of size. Like Gruyere 
and the finest Gouda, Cheddar cheese stands higher than 
other varieties because of its flavour, a flavour which 
attaches to the two varieties just named, but which is 
not found in any other British cheese. The flavour of the 
filbert nut is almost unknown to any type of cheese 
but those to which we have referred. There is practically 
no flavour but a " cheesy " one present in any British 
cheese apart from the Cheddar variety, and it is for this 

Straw Mat. Dairy SiippV Company. 



.reason that tkey do not possess tlie character of the prime 
cheeses of the world. We may compare them to imported 
butter, which is as unUke a fine nutty brand of British- 
made private dairy butter of the first rank as it can possibly 
.be. The public at large are unacquainted with this 
flavour, whether it be in butter or in cheese, and therefore 
they do not miss it ; but it is precisely this flavour which, 
when combined with texture, ensures the highest price in 
the market, and if cheese manufacturers would insist on 
obtaining it they would realise much more for their produet, 
as much indeed as the few who always ensure it. If we 
inspect the cheese at the London Dairy Show we find 
numbers of samples of the very best type, but much 
•larger numbers which possess no such flavour, and seldom 
such texture. It is not so much a recognition of an 
empirical method of manufacture as in the principles 
involved, and it is therefore by a study of the influence 
of acid, of the exact proportion of acid present in the 
curd in the different stages of manufacture, and how to 
produce acid and to control it that the maker is helped 
to make the perfect cheese. 

Veined CJieese. 

Although space prevents our describing the method 
of producing Stilton, Wensleydale, or Gorgonzola cheese, 
it is important that a few words should be said about these 
blue or veined varieties, which owe their description to 
the presence of the fungus or mould which grows within 
them. A veined cheese is not a pressed cheese. In making 
Stilton the whey is removed from it by drainage or 
gravitation, and partially by evaporation as it is ripening. 
The curd is removed from the tub into cloths placed within 
a sink or draining-table ; the whey immediately commences 
to run, and in due course the corners of the cloth are 
tied together, giving sUght pressure to the curd, and thus 
assisting it to part with its whey. When the curd has 
become sufficiently solid and acid as it lies in the whey, 
which some makers keep in the sink for some time, it is 
removed into coolers or trays to aerate, to dry, and to. 
mature. Supposing this curd to have been produced 



from milk of tte morning, the milk of the evening being 
treated in the same way, there will be two lots of curd 
upon the following morning, one nearly twelve hours older 
than the other. Their difference in age will have caused 
a difierence in their texture and condition, and when, after 
the proper stage is reached, they are broken up by hand 
in a tinned-iron mould, they are mixed together intimately, 
the mould being filled and left for further manipulation, 
until finally, after repeated tmms, the metal mould is 
removed and the cheese is enveloped in a bandage which 
helps it to sitnd alone. The bandage is changed every day, 
the cheese manipulated to maintain its form and character, 
when it is gradually covered with a crust until it looks 
like a Stilton. 

Camembsrt Mould. Dairy Supply Company. 

It may now be observed that, owing to the difference 
in the condition of the two curds which were mixed together 
in the metal mould, they have failed to coalesce or unite 
into one solid mass as if they had been pressed, with the 
result that there are interstices in which the air remains, 
and which permit of the growth of the fungus from 
the spores which found their way into the curd 
from the air. As the cheese ripens these spores mature 
and the young plants commence to develop. There 
is, however, no possibility of their normal growth unless 
the conditions which are essential are maintained. These 
conditions involve sufficient moisture and warmth. Thus, 
if the temperature is too low they remain dormant. 
On the other hand, if the temperature is too high the 
cheese becomes so dry that they fail to grow from want 
of moisture. In the process of manufacture, too, all 


depends upon the quantity of rennet used and the 
temperature at which the work was performed, or whether, 
owing to the excess of either, the curd becomes too dry 
and it cannot mature, for the reasons already given. 

In practice there are always failures, but while the 
skilled manufacturer makes few faulty cheeses, the 
unskilled makes many ; and so it is that Stilton cheese is 
frequently sold to dealers at 6d. a pound in normal times, 
whereas the skilled maker is able to obtain from Is. to 
Is. 3d. It should be observed that Stilton cheese is not 
made from cream or cream and milk, but from new milk 
alone, and that its creamy consistency is due to the milk, 
although its texture is improved where rich milk is used. 

The manufacture of Gorgonzola is neither so perfect 
nor so clean nor made from such sound milk as Stilton, 

and knowing as we do, having visited Italy to gather 
information, how faulty and objectionable that process is, 
we are the more amazed that English people should exhibit 
so great a preference for a material which no one who 
knows anything about its production could possibly 
recommend, particularly in face of a much superior home- 
made article. 

Soft Cheese. 

Soft-cheese making is well known in the dairy schools 
of this country, and to some extent to those who have 
passed through them. The process of manufacturing 
matured or ripened soft cheese was introduced into 
this country by ourselves over thirty years ago, but 

Coulommlers Mould. Dairy Supply Company. 



partly owing to the preference shown for established 
institutions, partly to the absence of markets which exist 
in France for the sale of these types of cheese, and partly 
to the difference in the type of farm occupied by French 
makers, soft-cheese making, in spite of its superior profits, 
is not acceptable to the English dairy-farmer. There is, 
however, no reason why it should not be exploited, and 
once one or two men build up a solid business with a 
variety like the Camembert, the Brie, or the Coulommiers 
there will be many followers. The producer of a Cheddar 
weighing 1001b. is able to sell it to a dealer without the 
slightest trouble, but there is practically no available 

deed Mould for Making Lightly-pressed Soft Cheesca 
Dairy SuppV Company. 

dealer in soft cheese on the market, except the two or 
three individuals who import it from France, and who are 
not likely to be gainers by transferring their custom from 
experienced manufacturers to those who are to some 
extent inexperienced. 

In making a soft cheese the average maker employs a 
small quantity of milk, and in order to retain its temperature 
after renneting it is placed in a wooden tub which can be 
covered with a lid, and if necessary, as in colder weather, 
with a blanket to prevent loss of heat. The curd mus-t be 
sufficiently brisk or elastic to be removed in thin slices, 
and placed in tinned-iron moulds, which are usually 
round or cylindrical, sometimes perforated and sometimeu 



not. A cheese like the Cameinbert or Coulommiers is 
made from the milk of the morning and the milk of the 
evening. ^ Thus the cylinder is filled with fresh curd in 
the morning, and this having parted with most of its whey 
by the evening and sunk halfway down to the table, is 
filled again with the evening's curd, and on the following 
morning turned upon it's mat, a fresh one being supplied 
at each turning, until it has become solid and will stand 
without its mould or cylinder enveloping it. The newly- 
made cheese is subsequently removed and placed upon 
straw or rush-mats on a shelf, where it is daily turned 
upon a clean mat, subsequently salted one side at a time, 
and then removed to the first curing-room. Here it is 
daily turned until it is covered with a white velvety mould 
or fungus, which in course of time is in its turn covered 
with a blue fungas ; and then it is taken to a second 
curing-room for the completion of the process. It may 
be pointed out here that when the white mould has grown 
the cheese is at its best for eating, for it is then mellow 
and rich on the palate. 

The process of ripening or maturing commences from 
the outside, the half-ripe cheese being creamy and soluble 
near its coat, but still firm and insoluble in its interior. 
The perfect growth of the mould, exactness in temperature, 
and perfect ventilation are all essential to successful 
ripening. The cheese must not be too dry nor too moist. 
In the latter case it commences to run, and spoils, while 
in the former, whether owing to too high a temperature 
in the first process or to the use of too much rennet, 
the whey drains too freely, the mould fails to grow, and 
in consequence the cheese remains insoluble. It is 
not until, with the assistance of the mould, the casein; 
which is a nitrogenous substance, has decomposed and 
assisted in the formation of ammonia ^hat the acid cheese 
becomes neutral and subsequently alkaline, and that in 
consequence the bacteria within it become active and 
transform the neutral curd into one which is highly 
flavoured and mellow. 

There are no more perfect cheeses in the dairy world 
than the Brie, the Camembert, and the Coulommiers. 



Tliey provide a much greater weight for a given sum of 
money than a pressed cheese. They are not only a delicious 
luxury, but highly nutritious, and adapted, whether in 
their green or ripe state, to the digestion of the most 
susceptible. Many persons who cannot consume pressed 
cheese, like Cheddar or Cheshire, Stilton or Gruyere, 
can eat a mild Brie or Coulommiers, and at each meal. 
Thus, too, a given weight of milk produces a greater 
weight of cheese of this type than of any type of hard 
cheese. If those who feel no interest, or only a half- 
hearted interest, in this industry were to visit the markets 
of Lisieux, Bayeux, or Caen, in Normandy, "or the great 
cheese market at the Paris Halles, and realise how 
enormous is the number of cheeses produced for the public, 
they could scarcely fail to lament the fact that there is no 
corresponding industry of the kind in this country on 
even a small scale. 

Soft-cheese making in France is essentially a small- 
holders' industry, although there are many large makers, 
one with whom we are acquainted having usually 10,000 
Camembert in his dairy at one time. The work, too, is 
chiefly performed by women, and especially by old women, 
whose thought and care are so essential, and who are much 
more reliable than women who are younger. Among 
other varieties of cheese made in France three or four 
may be mentioned : Pont I'Eveque, which obtains its 
name from a small village near Havre well known 
to ourselves ; Gournay ; Bondon, a tiny loaf cheese made 
by peasant farmers ; Neufchatel, which is a ripened and 
sometimes blue-veined Bondon ; and, lastly, the Gervais 
or Pommel, made by manufacturers of these names at 
Gournay, to both of whom we have paid a visit. The 
last two varieties, which are composed of a mixture of 
cream and milk, are enveloped in jackets made of blotting- 
paper, and closely resemble a cream cheese, although 
they cost about half the money. These are as well made 
in this country as in France. In most instances the cheeses 
to which reference has been made are manufactured in 
our best dairy schools, so that the process can be learnt at 
a comparatively small cost. 



Abortion, 42 

Age of cows, determining, 39 
Albuminoids in food, 63 
Alfalfa, value of, 22 
Amo milking-machine, 12 
Australian cheese, 109 
Ayrshire breed, 54, 55 


Babcock milk-tester, 80 

Bedding, 48 

Beestings, 31 

Bondon cheese, 125 

Breeds of cattle, 52 See Cows 

Bretonne breed, 59 

Brewers' grains, 49 

Brie cheese, 102, 107, 123 

British cows, yield of, 12 

Holsteiu, 59 
Brittany bubter, 85 
Buildings, 44 
Burette, 71, 78 
Butter, 82 

analysis of, 82 

Argentine, 2 

best English, 2 

Brittany, 86 

churning, 90 

colour of, 83 

constituents of, 82 

consumption of, 4, 9, 10 

Danish, 2 

defective, 91, 95 

Butter, Devonshire, 88 

does it pay to make ? 5 

flavour of, 83 

■foods, effect of, on, 83 

French, 2 

grains of, 96 

imported, 84 

imports, value of, 4 

keeping qualities of, 86 

newly-made, 84 

Normandy, 2, 86 

old metihods of making, 85 

preserving, 99 

.products, value of, 9 

quantity produced from given 
amount of milk, 85 

Russian, 2 

salting, 85, 97, 100 

systems of making, 85 

temperatures, 87-100 

washing, 96, 97 

water in, 82 

worlters, 97, 98 

yields, 12, 13 
Butterine, 2 
Buying cows, 38 


Caerphilly cheese, 102 
Cake foods, 76 
Calves, rearing, 31 
Calving, 40 

malpresentation in, 42 

period between service and, 41 

season for, 40 



Camembert cheese, 102, 107, 123 

mould, 121 
Canadian cheese, 109 
Carbohj'drates in food, 60, 62 
Casein, 74, 118 
Cattle, breeds of, 52 
Cheddar cheese, 109 
Cheese, 101. See also Curd and 
specific names. 

acid, role of, 106 

Australian, 109 

blue mould in, 108 

Canadian, 109 

Cheddar, 109 

cleanliness in making, import- 
ance of, 101 
colouring, 117 
consumption, 9, 10 
cream, 102 
Dutch, 103 
English, 102 
French, 102 
fungi in, 108, 120, 121 
Italian, 103 
kinds of, 102 

locality, importance of, over- 
estimated, 102 
making, 103 
mat for, 119 
milk to use for, 103 
mould in, 108, 120, 121 
moulds for, 115, 117, 118, 121- 

object of the maker of, 101 
pressed, making, 103 
presses, 116, 117 
pressing, 103 
products, value of, 9 
quantity produced from given 

amount of milk, 118 
renneting, 103-125 
ripening of, 108 
ripening so-ft, 124 
room, 118 
saiting, 115 

sscond-class, large proportion 

of, 9 
sheep's milk, 102 
soft, 122 

soft, moulds for, 123 

Cheese, Swiss, 103 

temperatures for, 103, 110, 113 

texture of, 118 

varieties of, 102 

vat, 106 

veined, 120 

weight of, 109 

weights of, per milk used, 118 
whey, addition of sour, to, 
108, 111 

Cheshire dieese, 102, 104, 108, 

115, 117 
Churning cream, 90 

milk, 99 

protracted, 95 

temperature for, 92 

time occupied in, 95 

when to stop, 95, 96 
Churns, butter-making. 90 

for transit of milk, 37, 38 

Lister's end-over-end, 93 

sizes of, 94 

types of, 94 
Cleanliness, importance of, 33, 101 
Colostrum, 31 
Condensed milk, 8 

milk, consumption of, 10 
Consumption of dairy products, 

British, 10 
Cooking of cattle food extrava- 
gant and useless, 65 
Cooling-house, 51 
Cooling milk, 18, 36, 51 
Cost of foods, 25 

of producing milk, 24 
Coulommiers cheese, 102, 123 

mould, 122 
Cow-house, bedding in, 48 

flooring of, 46 

foodstoi-e, 48 

hay-racks in, 45 

light in, 45 

manger, 46 

manure, removal of, 50 
model, 45 
partitions, 46 
walls, 47 
water-supjjly, 47 
with Young's tubular fittings 
and paving, 45 



Cows, abortion in, 42 
age of, determining, 39 
Ayrshire, 54, 55 
breeds of, 52 
Bretonne, 59 
British Holstein, 59 
buying, 38 
calving, 40 
Dairy Shorthorn, 52 
Devon, 54 
drying, 40 
Dutch, 59 
Guernsey, 56 
Holstein, 59 
housing, 44 
Jersey, 55, 57 
Kerry, 58 
Normandy, 52, 86 
points of good, 38 
purchasing, 38 
records of, 51 
Red Poll, 53, 54 
Shorthorn, Dairy, 52 
stalls for, 44 
teeth of, 39 
tying up, 48 
varieties of, 52 
yield of British, 12 
Cream, 78 
cheeses, 102 
churning, 90 
clotted, 78 
consumption of, 10 
mixing, 92 

products, value of, 9 

rising of, 77 

skimming, 92 

specific gravity of, 79 

testing, 71 

variation in, 78 
Crops for milk production, 22 
Curd. See also Cheese. 

breaker, 107 

cheeses, 102 

coagulating, 103 

cutting, 104, 106, 112 

knives, 111, 112 

mill, 114, 115 

salting, 115 

scalding, 113 

Curd, stirring and breaking, 112 
testing, 103 


Dairy Shorthorn, 52 
Danish butter, 2 
Derby cheese, 102 
Devon breed, 54 
Devonshire butter, 88 

cream, 78 
Drench when drying cow, 40 
Drying the cow, 40 
Dunlop c.leese, 103 
Dutch cheese, 103, 119 


Edam cheese, 103 
English cheeses, 102 
Escutcheon, 54 
Evening milking, 32, 68 

F. - 

Fat in cajttle food, 60, 63 

of milk, 7, 33, 67, 73 
Feeding, 60. See also Foods. 

albuminoids, 63 

calves, 31 

carbohydrates, 60, 62 
cows. 12, 22 
fat, 60, 63 

grass, analyses of, 61 
mineral matter, 50, 63 
nitrogenous, 63, 64 
protein, 60, 62 
ration required, 63 
well-balanced dietary essential, 

Fermentation of milk, 71 

Fertilisers, 27 

Filter, milk, 35 

Flooring of cow-houses, 46 

Fodder-carrier, Young's, 49 

Foods, 60. See also Feeding. 

analyses of, 54, 55 

cake, 76 



Foods, carriers for, 49, 50 
composition of, 60, 62, 63, 
cooking of, extravagant and 

useless, 55 
cost of, 25 

effects of, on batter, 83 
for calves, 31 
for cows,. 12, 22 
liay, analysis of," 64 
influences of, on milk, 69. 
preparation of, 66 : . 
relation of, to milk quality,. 65. 
selection of, 60 
store for, 48 

supply of, abundant, an 
essential to success, 22 
French butter, 2 

cheeses, 102 
Fungi, 108, 120, 121 


Gerber, Dr. Nicholas, and im-; 
pure milk, 7 

tester, 80 
Gerome cheese, 102 
Gervais cheese, 125 
Gestation, period of, 41 
Gex cheese, 102 
Gloucester cheese, 102, 117 
Gorgonzola cheese. 9. 103, 108, 

120, 122 
Gouda cheese, 102, 103. 119 
Gournay cheese, 102. 125 
Government neglect. 11 
Grains, brewers'. 49 
Grass, analyses of, 61 

impro\'ing, 28 

more, in dry summers and 

early winter, 29 ■ 
yield of, 26 . ' 
Grazing not to be relied on 

solelv, 22 
Grist-mifl, 49 

Grooming, importance of, 40 
Gruyere cheese, 102. 103, 119 
Guernsey breed, 56 


Hay, analysis of, 54 •■ . 
racks for, 46 

i Herbage, improving. 28 

yield of, 26 
Herd. See Cows 

building up, 15 

management of, 31 • . . 

Hinman Auto-milker, 13 
Holstein, British, 59 
Housing, 44 


Italian cheeses, 103 

J. ■ 
•Jersey breed, 55, 57 
yields, 13, 14 ' - 


Kerry cow, 58 
Lactose, 75 

Lancashire cheese, 102 
" Lappering " of milk, 86 
Leicester cheese, 9, 102, 117 
Light in cowsheds, 45 
Livarot cheese, 102 
Long-rooted plants, improving 

herbage by sowing, 28 
Lucerne, value of, 22 


Maize, value of, as fodder, 22 . 
Management of the herd, 31 
Mangels, 25 
Mangers, 46 

Young's flush concrete, 47 
Manure, removing from cow- 
shed, 50 
Manuring pastures, 26. 27 
Margarine, 2, 3 
Meadows, improving. 28 

yield of , 26 
Milk, 67 ; . 

adulteration of, 80 

analysis of, 68 

casein of, 74, 118 

churning, 99 




Milk churns, railway, 37, 38 

composition of, 67 

condensed, 8, 10 

consumption of, 9, 10 

coiita,mination of, 7, 15 

cooling, 18, 36, 51 

cost of producing, 24 

crops for producing, 22 

demand for, 4 

fat of, 7, 33, 67, 73 

fat percentage greater in last- 
drawn, 32 

fermentation of, 71 

filter for, 35 

food influences on, 69 

foods for producing, 22 

for cheese-making, 103, 110, 

impurities in, 6 
lactose of, 75 
lappering of, 86 
mineral constituents of, 75 
mirror, 54 
pasteurising, 88 
preservatives illegal, 73 
prices, 6 

l^roduction, value of, 9 
purity of, testing, 70 
quality of, 68 

quality of, food in relation to, 

railway transit of, 38 
records, 13, 51 
refrigeration of, 18, 36 
refrigerator, Dairy Outfit 

Co.'s, 36 
renneting, 103 
roots for producing, 24 
separated, 67 
separating, 88 
setting-pans for, 87 
skimmed, 79 
souring of, 71 
specific gravity of, 70 
sterilising, 72 
straining, 35 
sugar of, 75 

tainted, how to avoid, 76 
testing purity of, 80 
trade, the, 6 

Milk, treatment of, for various 
purposes, 77 

yields, 12, 33, 52, 59 
Milking, 32 

cleanliness in, 7, 15 

hand v. machine, 15, 33 

method of, 33 

stripping, importance of, 32 
time, 32 

" wet," contamination caused 
by, 33 
Milking-machine, 16 
advantages of, 16, 72 
Amo, 12 

Hinman Auto, 13 
Lister, 34 

points in favour of, 34 
Milking-pail, domed hygienic, 17 
Mineral matters in food, 60, 63 
Mond's (Mr. Robert) method of 

milking, 18 
Morning milking, 32, 68 
Mould in cheese, 108, 120, 121 


Neufchatel cheese, 125 
Nitrogenous foods, 63, 64 
Normandy breed, 52, 85 
butter, 2, 86 


Pail, domed hygienic, 17 
Parmesan cheese, 103, 119 
Partitions in cow-house, 45 
Parturition, 40 
Pasteurising milk, 88 
Pastures, improving, 28 

yield of, 26 
Points of a good cow, 38 
Pommel cheese, 125 
Pont I'Eveque cheese, 102, 125 
Port du Salut cheese, 102 
Preservatives in milk illegal, 73 
Preserving butter, 99 
Productions, value of, 9 
Protein in food, 60, 62 
Purchasing cows, 38 


Eations, 60. See Feeding and 

Reading school, 3 

Rearing calves, 31 

Recording system, 51 

Red Poll breed, 53, 54 

Refrigerating, 19, 36 

Rennet, home-made, unsatis- 
factory, 105 
standard, 104 

Renneting, 103-125 

Roots as milk-producing foods, 

Roquefort cheese, 102, 108 

St. Louis milking contest, 70 
Salting butter, 85, 97, 100 
School, first dairy, 3 
Separated milk, 67 
Separating milk, 88 
Separator, Laval, 89 

Perfect, 78 

Sharpies, 89 

Wolseley Ideal, 90 
Service and calving, time 

between, 41 
Setting-pans for milk, 87 
Sheep's-milk cheese, 102 
Shorthorn, Dairy, 52 

yields, 14 
Silo, 22 

Jewson and Sons' model, 23 
Skimmed milk, 79 
Skimming cream, 92 
Smallholders, prosperity of. 5 
Souring of milk, 71 
Stalls, 44 

Sterilising milk, 72 

Stilton, 102, 103, 106 

108, 120 
Straining milk, 35 
Stripping, importance of. 32, 68 
Success, conditions of, 11 


j Sugar of milk, 75 

I Swedes, 24 

j Swiss cheese, 103 

grass crops, heavy, 27 


Taylor, Mr. George, on building 

up a herd, 15 
Teats, 38 
Teeth of cows, 39 
Temperatures for butter- 
making, 87-100 
for clieese-making, 103, 110, 

Testing cream, 71 

milk, 80 
Time for milking, 32 
Turnips, 24 
Tying up cows, 48 


Udder, 38 


Varieties of butter. 85 
of cattle, 52 
of cheese, 102 


Walls of cow-house, 47 
Water-supply in cow-house, 47 
Watney's (Dr. Herbert) Jersey 

I yields, 13, 14 

I Wensleydale cheese, 9, 102, 108, 

" Wet " milking, contamination 

caused by, 33 
Whey, 80 
sour, use of, in cheese-making, 

108, 111 


Yield of grass, 26 

Yields, milk, 12, 33, 52-59 


The Book of the Pig. 

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The Sniall-Holder's Handbook. 

A concise but complete and clear work on the management of Farm and 
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post 8vo, in waterproof material, price 3/6, by post 3/11. 

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The recognised standard book on the subject, by H. S. Holmes Peglee, Hon 
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bream's buildings, E.C, 


Dairy DuTFii C? I. 
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The mew " Tubular " has no 
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Yoa turn the handle 
faster and get the job 
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at any speed yielding Oream of 
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Greater capacity, 
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Euns easily and silently. 





Absolutely Necessary 
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R. A. LISTER & CO., LTD., 

DURSLEY, GLOS. Established 1867. 

Manufacturers ot" 








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