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Folk. Tales 








A. C. McCLURG & CO. 





A. C. McClurg & Co. 

Published November, 1916 
Copyrighted in Great Britain 



T?ROM time to time since the American occupation 
of the Islands, Philippine folk-tales have appeared 
in scientific publications, but never, so far as the writer 
is aware, has there been an attempt to offer to the 
general public a comprehensive popular collection of 
this material. It is my earnest hope that this collec- 
tion of tales will give those who are interested oppor- 
tunity to learn something of the magic, superstitions, 
and weird customs of the Filipinos, and to feel the 
charm of their wonder-world as it is pictured by these 
dark-skinned inhabitants of our Island possessions. 

In company with my husband, who was engaged in 
ethnological work for the Field Museum of Natural 
History, it was my good fortune to spend four years 
among the wild tribes of the Philippines. During this 
time we frequently heard these stories, either related 
by the people in their homes and around the camp fires 
or chanted by the pagan priests in communion with 
the spirits. The tales are now published in this little 
volume, with the addition of a few folk-legends that 
have appeared in the Journal of American Folk-Lore 
and in scientific publications, here retold with some ad- 
ditions made by native story-tellers. 

I have endeavored to select typical tales from tribes 
widely separated and varying in culture from savagery 
to a rather high degree of development. The stories 



are therefore divided into five groups, as follows: 
Tinguian, Igorot, the Wild Tribes of Mindanao, 
Moro, and Christian. 

The first two groups, Tinguian and Igorot, are 
from natives who inhabit the rugged mountain region 
of northwestern Luzon. From time immemorial they 
have been zealous head-hunters, and the stories teem 
with references to customs and superstitions connected 
with their savage practices. By far the largest num- 
ber belong to the Tinguian group. In order to appre- 
ciate these tales to the fullest extent, we must under- 
stand the point of view of the Tinguian. To him they 
embody all the known traditions of "the first times 1 ' 
of the people who inhabited the earth before the 
present race appeared, of the ancient heroes and their 
powers and achievements. In them he finds an ex- 
planation of and reason for many of his present laws 
and customs. 

A careful study of the whole body of Tinguian 
mythology points to the conclusion that the chief char- 
acters of these tales are not celestial beings but typical, 
generalized heroes of former ages, whose deeds have 
been magnified in the telling by many generations of 
their descendants. These people of "the first times" 
practiced magic. They talked with jars, created hu- 
man beings out of betel-nuts, raised the dead, and had 
the power of changing themselves into other forms. 
This, however, does not seem strange or impossible 
to the Tinguian of today, for even now they talk with 
jars, perform certain rites to bring sickness and 
death to their foes, and are warned by omens received 



through the medium of birds, thunder and lightning, 
or the condition of the liver of a slaughtered animal. 
They still converse freely with certain spirits who dur- 
ing religious ceremonies are believed to use the bodies 
of men or women as mediums for the purpose of 
advising and instructing the people. 

Several of the characters appear in story after story. 
Sometimes they go under different names, but in the 
minds of the story-tellers their personality and rela- 
tionships are definitely established. Thus Ini-init of 
the first tale becomes Kadayadawan in the second, 
Aponitolau in the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth, and 
Ligi in the seventh. Kanag, the son of Aponitolau 
and Aponibolinayen, in the fifth tale is called Du- 

These heroes had most unusual relations with the 
heavenly bodies, all of which seem to have been re- 
garded as animate beings. In the fourth tale Aponi- 
tolau marries Gaygayoma, the star maiden who is the 
daughter of the big star and the moon. In the first 
story the same character under the name of Ini-init 
seems to be a sun-god : we are told that he is "the sun," 
and again "a round stone which rolls." Thereupon we 
might conclude that he is a true solar being; yet in the 
other tales of this collection and in many more known 
to the Tinguian he reveals no celestial qualities. Even 
in tKe first story he abandons his place in the sky and 
goes to live on earth. 

In the first eight stories we read of many customs 
of "the first times" which differ radically from those 
of the present. But a careful analysis of all the known 



lore of this people points to the belief that many of 
these accounts depict a period when similar customs 
did exist among the people, or else were practiced by 
emigrants who generations ago became amalgamated 
with the Tinguian and whose strange customs finally 
became attributed to the people of the tales. The 
stories numbered nine to sixteen are of a somewhat 
different type, and in them the Tinguian finds an ex- 
planation of many things, such as, how the people 
learned to plant, and to cure diseases, where they se- 
cured the valuable jars and beads, and why the moon 
has spots on its face. All these stories are fully be- 
lieved, the beads and jars are considered precious, and 
the places mentioned are definitely known. While the 
accounts seem to be of fairly recent origin they conflict 
neither with the fundamental ideas and traditions of 
"the first times" nor with the beliefs of today. 

Stories seventeen to twenty-three are regarded as 
fables and are told to amuse the children or to while 
away the midday hours when the people seek shaded 
spots to lounge or stop on the trail to rest. Most 
of them are known to the Christianized tribes through- 
out the Islands and show great similarity to the tales 
found in the islands to the south and, in some cases, 
in Europe. In many of them the chief incidents are 
identical with those found elsewhere, but the story- 
tellers, by introducing old customs and beliefs, have 
moulded and colored them until they reflect the com- 
mon ideas of the Tinguian. 

The third group includes stories from several wild 
tribes who dwell in the large island of Mindanao. 

[ viii ] 


Here are people who work in brass and steel, build 
good dwellings, and wear hemp clothing elaborately 
decorated with beads, shell disks, and embroidery, but 
who still practice many savage customs, including 
slavery and human sacrifice. 

The fourth division gives two tales from the Moro 
'(hardy Malayan warriors whose ancestors early be- 
came converts to the faith of Mohammed). Their 
teachers were the Arabian traders who, about 1400, 
succeeded in converting many of the Malay Islanders 
to the faith of the prophet. 

The last group contains the stories of the Christian- 
ized natives those who accepted the rule of Spain 
and with it the Catholic religion. Their tales, while 
full of local color, nevertheless show the influence of 
the European tutors. They furnish an excellent op- 
portunity to contrast the literature of the savage head- 
hunters with that of the Moro and Christian tribes 
and to observe how various recent influences have mod- 
ified the beliefs of people who not many centuries ago 
were doubtless of a uniform grade of culture. It is 
interesting, too, to note that European tales brought 
into the Islands by Mohammedan and Christian rulers 
and traders have been worked over until, at first 
glance, they now appear indigenous. 

Owing to local coloring, these tales have various 
forms. Still we find many incidents which are held 
in common by all the tribes of the Archipelago and 
even by the people of Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and 
India. Some of these similarities and parallelisms are 
indicated in the foot-notes throughout the book. 





Aponibolinayen and the Sun 6 

Aponibolinayen 17 

Gawigawen of Adasen 25 

The Story of Gaygayoma Who Lives up Above . . 37 

The Story of Dumalawi 44 

The Story of Kanag 50 

The Story of Tikgi 56 

The Story of Sayen 60 

The Sun and the Moon 65 

How the Tinguian Learned to Plant 66 

Magsawi 68 

The Tree with the Agate Beads 71 

The Striped Blanket 73 

The Alan and the Hunters 7 

The Man and the Alan 

Sogsogot 79 

The Mistaken Gifts 82 

The Boy Who Became a Stone 84 

The Turtle and the Lizard . t/. . . . . , .86 

The Man with the Cocoanuts 88 

The Carabao and the Shell 89 

The Alligator's Fruit 90 

Dogedog 91 


X The Creation 99 X 

The Flood Story IO2 ^ 




Lumawig on Earth 105 

How the First Head Was Taken 1 1 1 

The Serpent Eagle 113 

The Tattooed Men 115 

Tilin, the Rice Bird 117 



How the Moon and Stars Came to Be 124 

The Flood Story . . . 125 , 

Magbangal 127 

How Children Became Monkeys 130 

Bulanawan and Aguio 131 


Origin 133 

Lumabet 135 


The Story of the Creation *39X 

In the Beginning 141 


The Children of the Limokon 143 

The Sun and the Moon 145 


The Widow's Son 147 





Mythology of Mindanao 157 

The Story of Bantugan 163 


1 to can o 

The Monkey and the Turtle 176 

The Poor Fisherman and His Wife 179 

The Presidente Who Had Horns 181 

The Story of a Monkey 183 

The White Squash 185 


The Creation Story 187 * 

The Story of Benito 189 

The Adventures of Juan 196 

Juan Gathers Guavas 200 


The Sun and the Moon 201 

The First Monkey 202 

The Virtue of the Cocoanut 204 

Mansumandig 206 

Why Dogs Wag Their Tails 210 

The Hawk and the Hen 212 

The Spider and the Fly 214 

The Battle of the Crabs 215 

Pronunciation of Philippine Names 217 




A Tinguian gentleman Frontispiece 

Tinguian hunters 26 

Returning from the hunt 26 

Hunting with the blowgun 27 

Sugar cane press 40 

Vats for boiling sugar cane juice 40 

Grinding corn 41 

Making a harrow 41 

Elevated living rooms reached by ladders 56 

Cocoanut trees tower above the homes 56 

Section of a Tinguian village 57 

A settlement in the mountains 57 

The talking jars 68 

Playing the nose flute 68 

Tinguian potters at work 69 

Seeding and combing cotton 69 

Bamboo rafts 90 

Hauling bamboo 90 

Rice terraces in the mountains 91 

A rice field 91 

Type of Mandaya tree house 124 

Swinging bridge over Padada river 125 

A net maker 160 

Bringing water from the stream 160 

Bagobos, Davao, Mindanao 161 

A rice granary 196 

Methods of transportation 197 

A store in a Christianized village 197 





'TpHE dim light of stars filtered through the leafy 
-*- canopy above us, and the shadowy form of our 
guide once more appeared at my horse's head. It 
was only for an instant, however, and then we were 
plunged again into the inky darkness of a tropical 

We had planned to reach the distant Tinguian vil- 
lage in the late afternoon, but had failed to reckon 
with the deliberateness of native carriers. It was only 
by urging our horses that we were able to ford the 
broad Abra ere the last rays of the sun dropped be- 
hind the mountains. And then, in this land of no twi- 
lights, night had settled quickly over us. 

We had made our way up the mountain-side, 
through the thick jungle, only to find that the trail, 
long imperceptible to us, had escaped even the keen 
eyes of our guide. For several hours we wandered 
about, lost in the darkness. 

On and on we went, through narrow paths, steep in 
places, and made rough and dangerous by sharp rocks 
as well as by those long creepers of the jungle whose 
thorny fingers are ever ready to seize horse or rider. 
Occasionally we came out of the forest, only to cross 
rocky mountain streams; or perhaps it was the same 
stream that we crossed many times. Our horses, be- 
coming weary and uncertain of foot, grew more and 



more reluctant to plunge into the dark, swiftly flowing 
water. And our patience was nearly exhausted when 
we at last caught sight of dim lights in the valley be- 
low. Half an hour later we rode into Manabo. 

I shall never forget that first picture. It was a weird 
spectacle. Coming out of the darkness, we were al- 
most convinced that we had entered a new world. 
Against the blackness of the night, grass-roofed houses 
stood outlined in the dim light of a bonfire ; and squat- 
ting around that fire, unclad save for gay blankets 
wrapped about their shoulders, were brown-skinned 
men smoking long pipes, while women bedecked with 
bright beads were spinning cotton. As they worked 
in the flickering light, they stretched their distaffs at 
arm's length into the air like witches waving their 
wands ; and with that the elfland picture was complete. 

In the stillness of the night a single voice could be 
heard reciting some tale in a singsong tone, which was 
interrupted only when peals of laughter burst forth 
from the listeners, or when a scrawny dog rose to 
bark at an imaginary noise until the shouts of the men 
quieted him and he returned to his bed in the warm 
ashes. Later we learned that these were the regular 
social gatherings of the Tinguian, and every night dur- 
ing the dry season one or more of these bonfires were 
to be seen in the village. 

After we had attained to the footing of welcome 
guests in these circles, we found that a good story- 
teller was always present, and, while the men smoked, 
the women spun, and the dogs slept, he entertained us 
with tales of heroes who knew the magic of the betel- 



nut, or with stories of spirits and their power over the 
lives of men. 

The following are some of the tales heard first 
around the camp fire of the distant mountain village. 



day Aponibolinayen and her sister-in-law went 
out to gather greens. They walked to the woods 
to the place where the siksiklat grew, for the tender 
leaves of this vine are very good to eat. Suddenly 
while searching about in the underbrush, Aponiboli- 
nayen cried out with joy, for she had found the vine, 
and she started to pick the leaves. Pull as hard as 
she would, however, the leaves did not come loose, 
and all at once the vine wound itself around her body 
and began carrying her upward. 1 

Far up through the air she went until she reached 
the sky, and there the vine set her down under a tree. 
Aponibolinayen was so surprised to find herself in the 
sky that for some time she just sat and looked around, 
and then, hearing a rooster crow, she arose to see if 
she could find it. Not far from where she had sat 
was a beautiful spring surrounded by tall betel-nut 
trees whose tops were pure gold. Rare beads were 
the sands of the spring, and the place where the women 
set their jars when they came to dip water was a large 
golden plate. As Aponibolinayen stood admiring the 

incident is strikingly similar to the story in North American 
folk-lore of the maiden captured and carried upward by a vine. Sev- 
eral other points of likeness appear in the lore of Malaysia, Polynesia, 
and America. 



beauties of this spring, sHe beheld a small house near- 
by, and she was filled with fear lest the owner should 
find her there. She looked about for some means 
of escape and finally climbed to the top of a betel-nut 
tree and hid. 

Now the owner of this house was Ini-init, 1 the Sun, 
but he was never at home in the daylight, for it was 
his duty to shine in the sky and give light to all the 
world. At the close of the day when the Big Star 
took his place in the sky to shine through the night, 
Ini-init returned to his house, but early the next morn- 
ing he was always off again. 

From her place in the top of the betel-nut tree, 
Aponibolinayen saw the Sun when he came home at 
evening time, and again the next morning she saw him 
leave. When she was sure that he was out of sight 
she climbed down and entered his dwelling, for she 
was very hungry. She cooked rice, and into a pot of 
boiling water she dropped a stick which immediately 
became fish, 2 so that she had all she wished to eat. 
When she was no longer hungry, she lay down on 
the bed to sleep. 

Now late in the afternoon Ini-init returned from 
his work and went to fish in the river near his house, 
and he caught a big fish. While he sat on the bank 
cleaning his catch, he happened to look up toward his 

'See Preface, p. vii. 

''This incident is unique so far as American or European folk-lore 
is concerned, yet it is common in Tinguian tales, while similar stories 
are found among the neighboring Ilocano and Igorot tribes of the 
Philippines, as well as in Borneo, Java, and India. 



house and was startled to see that it appeared to be 
on fire. 1 He hurried home, but when he reached the 
house he saw that it was not burning at all, and he 
entered. On his bed he beheld what looked like a 
flame of fire, but upon going closer he found that it 
was a beautiful woman fast asleep. 

Ini-init stood for some time wondering what he 
should do, and then he decided to cook some food and 
invite this lovely creature to eat with him. He put 
rice over the fire to boil and cut into pieces the fish 
he had caught. The noise of this awakened Aponi- 
bolinayen, and she slipped out of the house and back 
to the top of the betel-nut tree. The Sun did not see 
her leave, and when the food was prepared he called 
her, but the bed was empty and he had to eat alone. 
That night Ini-init could not sleep well, for all the 
time he wondered who the beautiful woman could be. 
The next morning, however, he rose as usual and set 
forth to shine in the sky, for that was his work. 

That day Aponibolinayen stole again to the house 
of the Sun and cooked food, and when she returned 
to the betel-nut tree she left rice and fish ready for the 
Sun when he came home. Late in the afternoon Ini- 
init went into his home, and when he found pots of 
hot rice and fish over the fire he was greatly troubled. 
After he had eaten he walked a long time in the fresh 
air. "Perhaps it is done by the lovely woman who 

*The belief that beauty is capable of radiating great light is not 
peculiar to Tinguian tales, for it is also found in the Malay legends 
and in those of India. It is not impossible that they had a common 



looks like a flame of fire, 1 ' he said. "If she comes 
again I will try to catch her." 

The next day the Sun shone in the sky as before, and 
when the afternoon grew late he called to the Big Star 
to hurry to take his place, for he was impatient to reach 
home. As he drew near the house he saw that it again 
looked as if it was on fire. He crept quietly up the 
ladder, and when he had reached the top he sprang 
in and shut the door behind him. 

Aponibolinayen, who was cooking rice over the fire, 
was surprised and angry that she had been caught; 
but the Sun gave her betel-nut 1 which was covered 
with gold, and they chewed together and told each 
other their names. Then Aponibolinayen took up the 
rice and fish, and as they ate they talked together and 
became acquainted. 

After some time Aponibolinayen and the Sun were 
married, and every morning the Sun went to shine in 
the sky, and upon his return at night he found his sup- 
per ready for him. He began to be troubled, how- 
ever, to know where the food came from, for though 

'The betel-nut is the nut of the areca palm. It is prepared for 
chewing by being cut into quarters, each piece being wrapped in betel- 
leaf spread with lime. It produces a blood-red spittle which greatly 
discolors the teeth and lips, and it is used extensively throughout the 
Philippines. While it appears to have been in common use among 
the Tinguian at the time these stories originated, it has now been dis- 
placed by tobacco, except at ceremonies when it is prepared for chew- 
ing; it is also placed on the animals offered for sacrifice to the spirits. 
Throughout the tales great significance is given to the chewing of 
betel-nuts before names are told or introductions given, while from 
the quids and spittle it appears to have been possible to foretell events 
and establish relationships. 



he brought home a fine fish every night, Aponiboli- 
nayen always refused to cook it. 

One night he watched her prepare their meal, and 
he saw that, instead of using the nice fish he had 
brought, she only dropped a stick into the pot of boil- 
ing water. 

u Why do you try to cook a stick?" asked Ini-init in 

"So that we can have fish to eat," answered his 

"If you cook that stick for a month, it will not be 
soft," said Ini-init. "Take this fish that I caught in 
the net, for it will be good." 

But Aponibolinayen only laughed at him, and when 
they were ready to eat she took the cover off the pot 
and there was plenty of nice soft fish. The next night 
and the next, Aponibolinayen cooked the stick, and 
Ini-init became greatly troubled for he saw that though 
the stick always supplied them with fish, it never grew 

Finally he asked Aponibolinayen again why it was 
that she cooked the stick instead of the fish he brought, 
and she said: 

"Do you not know of the woman on earth who has 
magical power and can change things?" 

"Yes," answered the Sun, "and now I know that 
you have great power." 

"Well, then," said his wife, "do not ask again why 
I cook the stick." 

And they ate their supper of rice and the fish which 
the stick made. 



One night not long after this Aponibolinayen told 
her husband that she wanted to go with him the next 
day when he made light in the sky. 

u Oh, no, you cannot," said the Sun, "for it is very 
hot up there, 1 and you cannot stand the heat." 

"We will take many blankets and pillows," said the 
woman, "and when the heat becomes very great, I will 
hide under them." 

Again and again Ini-init begged her not to go, but 
as often she insisted on accompanying him, and early 
in the morning they set out, carrying with them many 
blankets and pillows. 

First, they went to the East, and as soon as they 
arrived the Sun began to shine, and Aponibolinayen 
was with him. They traveled toward the West, but 
when morning had passed into noontime and they had 
reached the middle of the sky Aponibolinayen was so 
hot that she melted and became oil. Then Ini-init put 
her into a bottle and wrapped her in the blankets and 
pillows and dropped her down to earth. 

Now one of the women of Aponibolinayen's town 
was at the spring dipping water when she heard some- 
thing fall near her. Turning to look, she beheld a 
bundle of beautiful blankets and pillows which she be- 
gan to unroll, and inside she found the most beautiful 
woman she had ever seen. Frightened at her discov- 
ery, the woman ran as fast as she could to the town, 
where she called the people together and told them 
to come at once to the spring. They all hastened to 

Compare with the story of Phaeton in Bulfinch, The Age of Fable, 
p. 50. 



the spot and there they found Aponibolinayen for 
whom they had been searching everywhere. 

"Where have you been?" asked her father; "we 
have searched all over the world and we could not 
find you." 

"I have come from Pindayan," answered Aponi- 
bolinayen. "Enemies of our people kept me there till 
I made my escape while they were asleep at night." 

All were filled with joy that the lost one had re- 
turned, and they decided that at the next moon 1 they 
would perform a ceremony for the spirits 2 and invite 
all the relatives who were mourning for Aponi- 

So they began to prepare for the ceremony, and 
while they were pounding rice, Aponibolinayen asked 
her mother to prick her little finger where it itched, 
and as she did so a beautiful baby boy popped out. 
The people were very much surprised at this, and they 
noticed that every time he was bathed the baby grew 
very fast so that, in a short time, he was able to walk. 
Then they were anxious to know who was the husband 
of Aponibolinayen, but she would not tell them, and 
they decided to invite everyone in the world to the cere- 
mony that they might not overlook him. 

*The Tinguian have no calendar, but reckon time by the recurrence 
of the moon. 

B It is the present custom of the Tinguian to make numerous cere- 
monies for the spirits. These vary in length from a few hours to 
seventeen days. During this period animals are slaughtered, small 
houses are built, mediums deliver messages from the spirits, and there 
is much feasting and dancing. 



They sent for the betel-nuts that were covered with 
gold, 1 and when they had oiled them they commanded 
them to go to all the towns and compel the people to 
come to the ceremony. 

"If anyone refuses to come, grow on his knee," 
said the people, and the betel-nuts departed to do as 
they were bidden. 

As the guests began to arrive, the people watched 
carefully for one who might be the husband of Aponi- 
bolinayen, but none appeared and they were greatly 
troubled. Finally they went to the old woman, Alo- 
kotan, who was able to talk with the spirits, and 
begged her to find what town had not been visited by 
the betel-nuts which had been sent to invite the people. 
After she had consulted the spirits the old woman said : 

"You have invited all the people except Ini-init who 
lives up above. Now you must send a betel-nut to 
summon him. It may be that he is the husband of 
Aponibolinayen, for the siksiklat vine carried her up 
when she went to gather greens." 

So a betel-nut was called and bidden to summon 

The betel-nut went up to the Sun, who was in his 
house, and said: 

"Good morning, Sun. I have come to summon you 
to a ceremony which the father and mother of Aponi- 

*When ripe, the betel-nut is covered with a golden husk, and it is 
possibly because of this that they were said to be covered with gold. 
The present-day Tinguian, in place of sending the betel-nut, sends a 
small piece of gold to any relative or friend whom he specially wishes 
to induce to attend a ceremony. 



bolinayen are making for the spirits. If you do not 
want to go, I will grow on your head." 

"Grow on my head," said the Sun. "I do not wish 
to go." 

So the betel-nut jumped upon his head and grew 
until it became so tall that the Sun was not able to 
carry it, and he was in great pain. 

"Oh, grow on my pig," begged the Sun. So the 
betel-nut jumped upon the pig's head and grew, but it 
was so heavy that the pig could not carry it and squealed 
all the time. At last the Sun saw that he would have 
to obey the summons, and he said to the betel-nut: 

"Get off my pig and I will go." 

So Ini-init came to the ceremony, and as soon as 
Aponibolinayen and the baby saw him, they were very 
happy and ran to meet him. Then the people knew 
that this was the husband of Aponibolinayen, and they 
waited eagerly for him to come up to them. As he 
drew near, however, they saw that he did not walk, 
for he was round; and then they perceived that he 
was not a man but a large stone. All her relatives 
were very angry to find that Aponibolinayen had mar- 
ried a stone; and they compelled her to take off her 
beads 2 and her good clothes, for, they said, she must 
now dress in old clothes and go again to live with the 

So Aponibolinayen put on the rags that they brought 
her and at once set out with the stone for his home. 

seems to be peculiar to Tinguian folk-lore. 
2 Except when she is in mourning a Tinguian woman's arms are 
always covered with beads placed strand above strand. 



No sooner had they arrived there, however, than he 
became a handsome man, and they were very happy. 

"In one moon," said the Sun, "we will make a cere- 
mony for the spirits, and I will pay your father and 
mother the marriage price 1 for you." 

This pleased Aponibolinayen very much, and they 
used magic so that they had many neighbors who came 
to pound rice 2 for them and to build a large spirit 
house. 3 

Then they sent oiled betel-nuts to summon their rela- 
tives to the ceremony. The father of Aponibolinayen 
did not want to go, but the betel-nut threatened to grow 
on his knee if he did not. So he commanded all the 
people in the town to wash their hair and their clothes, 
and when all was ready they set out. 

When they reached the town they were greatly sur- 
prised to find that the stone had become a man, and 
they chewed the magic betel-nuts to see who he might 
be. It was discovered that he was the son of a couple 
in Aponibolinayen's own town, and the people all re- 
joiced that this couple had found the son whom they 
had thought lost. They named him Aponitolau, and 

*The parents of a boy choose his bride when the children are very 
young. A great celebration is then held, and relatives and friends of 
both parties decide on the price to be paid for the girl. Partial pay- 
ment is made at once, and the remainder goes over until the marriage 
proper takes place, when the boy and girl are about twelve or four- 
teen years of age. In this instance Ini-init makes the customary pay- 
ment for his bride, though the marriage had already taken place. 

The friends and retainers pound rice and prepare food for all 
the guests who attend the ceremony. 

"A spirit house is one of the small houses built during a ceremony. 



his parents paid the marriage price for his wife the 
spirit house nine times full of valuable jars. 1 

After that all danced and made merry for one moon, 
and when the people departed for their homes Ini-init 
and his wife went with them to live on the earth. 

'The reference is probably to ancient Chinese jtrs. 




'T^HE most beautiful girl in all the world was 
-*- Aponibolinayen of Nalpangan. Many young 
men had come to her brother, Aponibalagen, to ask 
for her hand in marriage, but he had refused them 
all, for he awaited one who possessed great power. 
Then it happened that the fame of her beauty spread 
over all the world till it reached even to Adasen; and 
in that place there lived a man of great power named 

Now Gawigawen, who was a handsome man, had 
sought among all the pretty girls but never, until he 
heard of the great beauty of Aponibolinayen, had he 
found one whom he wished to wed. Then he deter- 
mined that she should be his wife; and he begged his 
mother to help him win her. So Dinawagen, the 
mother of Gawigawen, took her hat which looked like 
a sunbeam and set out at once for Nalpangan; and 
when she arrived there she was greeted by Ebang, the 
mother of the lovely maiden, who presently began to 
prepare food for them. 1 

a The custom, which still exists to a certain degree, was to offer food 
to a guest before any matter was discussed. In ancient times this was 
considered very necessary, as it still is among the Apayao who live 
north of the Tinguian. With them to refuse food is to refuse friend- 



She put the pot over the fire, and when the water 
boiled she broke up a stick and threw the pieces into 
the pot, and immediately they became fish. Then she 
brought basi 1 in a large jar, and Dinawagen, counting 
the notches in the rim, 2 perceived that the jar had been 
handed down through nine generations. They ate and 
drank together, and after they had finished the meal, 
Dinawagen told Aponibalagen of her son's wishes, 
and asked if he was willing that his sister should 
marry Gawigawen. Aponibalagen, who had heard of 
the power of the suitor, at once gave his consent. And 
Dinawagen departed for home, leaving a gold cup as 
an engagement present. 3 

Gawigawen was watching at the door of his house 
for his mother's return, and when she told him of her 
success, he was so happy that he asked all the people 
in the town to go with him the next day to Nalpangan 
to arrange the amount he must pay for his bride.* 

Now the people of Nalpangan wanted a great price 
for this girl who was so beautiful, and the men of the 
two towns debated for a long time before they could 
come to an agreement. Finally, however, it was 
decided that Gawigawen should fill the spirit house 
eighteen times with valuable things; and when he had 
done this, they were all satisfied and went to the yard 

*A drink made of fermented sugar-cane. 

^he old jars possessed by the Tinguian today have notches broken 
in the rim, one for each generation through whose hands it has passed. 

8 When the first negotiations are made the boy's parents offer some 
gift, nowadays usually a small bead. If this is accepted it signifies 
the willingness of the girl's parents to consider the match. 

4 See note i, p. 15. 



where they danced and beat on the copper gongs. 1 All 
the pretty girls danced their best, and one who wore 
big jars about her neck made more noise than the others 
as she danced, and the jars sang "Kitol, kitol, kanitol; 
inka, inka, inkatol." 

But when Aponibolinayen, the bride of Gawigawen, 
came down out of the house to dance, the sunshine 
vanished, so beautiful was she; and as she moved 
about, the river came up into the town, and striped 
fish bit at her heels. 

For three months the people remained here feasting 
and dancing, and then early one morning they took 
Aponibolinayen to her new home in Adasen. The 
trail that led from one town to the other had become 
very beautiful in the meantime: the grass and trees 
glistened with bright lights, and the waters of the tiny 
streams dazzled the eyes with their brightness as 
Aponibolinayen waded across. When they reached 
the spring of Gawigawen, they found that it, too, was 
more beautiful than ever before. Each grain of sand 
had become a bead, and the place where the women 
set their jars when they came to dip water had become 
a big dish. 

Then said Aponibalagen to his people, "Go tell 

'The music for the dances is made by beating on drums and copper 
gongs. A man and a woman enter the circle, each carrying a large 
square of cloth on outstretched arms. Keeping time to the music with 
their hands and feet, they move about, coming near to each other and 
then drawing farther apart. The woman follows the movements of 
the man and finally places her cloth on his outstretched arms, thus end- 
ing the dance; another couple then takes their place. 



Gawigawen to bring an old man, for I want to make 
a spring for Aponibolinayen." 

So an old man was brought and Aponibalagen cut 
off his head and put it in the ground, and sparkling 
water bubbled up. 1 The body he made into a tree to 
shade his sister when she came to dip water, and the 
drops of blood as they touched the ground were 
changed into valuable beads. Even the path from the 
spring to the house was covered with big plates, and 
everything was made beautiful for Aponibolinayen. 

Now during all this time Aponibolinayen had kept 
her face covered so that she had never seen her hus- 
.band, for although he was a handsome man, one of 
the pretty girls who was jealous of the bride had told 
her that he had three noses, and she was afraid to 
look at him. 

After her people had all returned to their homes, 
she grew very unhappy, and when her mother-in-law 
commanded her to cook she had to feel her way 
around, for she would not uncover her face. Finally 
she became so sad that she determined to run away. 
One night when all were asleep, she used magical 
power and changed herself into oil. 2 Then she slid 

*An interesting parallel to this is found in the Dayak legend of 
Limbang, where a tree springs from the head of a dead giant; its 
flowers are beads; its leaves, cloth; and the fruit, jars. See Roth, 
The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 372. 

2 Throughout the Tinguian tales the characters are frequently de- 
scribed as changing themselves into oil, centipedes, birds, and other 
forms. This power is also found among the heroes of Dayak and 
Malay tales. See Roth, op. at., Vol. I, p. 312; Perham, Journal Straits 
Branch R., Asiatic Society, No. 16, 1886 ; Wilkinson, Malay Beliefs, pp. 
32, 59 (London, 1906). 



through the bamboo floor and made her escape with- 
out anyone seeing her. 

On and on she went until she came to the middle 
of the jungle, and then she met a wild rooster who 
asked her where she was going. 

"I am running away from my husband," replied 
Aponibolinayen, "for he has three noses and I do not 
want to live with him." 

"Oh," said the rooster, "some crazy person must 
have told you that. Do not believe it. Gawigawen 
is a handsome man, for I have often seen him when 
he comes here to snare chickens." * 

But Aponibolinayen paid no heed to the rooster, and 
she went on until she reached a big tree where perched 
a monkey, and he also asked where she was going. 

"I am running away from my husband," answered 
the girl, "for he has three noses and I do not want to 
live with him." 

"Oh, do not believe that," said the monkey. "Some- 
one who told you that must have wanted to marry 
him herself, for he is a handsome man." 

Still Aponibolinayen went on until she came to the 
ocean, and then, as she could go no farther, she sat 
down to rest. As she sat there pondering what she 
should do, a carabao 2 came along, and thinking that 

lr nie Tinguian place a tame rooster in an open spot in the forest 
and surround him with a line to which slip nooses are attached. The 
crowing of this bird attracts wild ones which come to fight him and 
are caught in the nooses. 

"The water buffalo now used as the beast of burden throughout the 



she would ride a while she climbed up on its back. 
No sooner had she done so than the animal plunged 
into the water and swam with her until they reached 
the other side of the great ocean. 

There they came to a large orange tree, and the 
carabao told her to eat some of the luscious fruit while 
he fed on the grass nearby. As soon as he had left her, 
however, he ran straight to his master, Kadayadawan, 
and told him of the beautiful girl. 

Kadayadawan was very much interested and quickly 
combed his hair and oiled it, put on his striped coat 1 
and belt, and went with the carabao to the orange tree. 
Aponibolinayen, looking down from her place in the 
tree, was surprised to see a man coming with her friend, 
the carabao, but as they drew near, she began talking 
with him, and soon they became acquainted. Before 
long, Kadayadawan had persuaded the girl to become 
his wife, and he took her to his home. From that 
time every night his house looked as if it was on fire, 
because of the beauty of his bride. 

After they had been married for some time, Kada- 
yadawan and Aponibolinayen decided to make a cere- 
mony 2 for the spirits, so they called the magic 
betel-nuts 3 and oiled them and said to them, 

"Go to all the towns and invite our relatives to come 
to the ceremony which we shall make. If they do not 

'The ordinary dress of the Tinguian man is a clout and a striped 
belt, in which he carries his tobacco and small articles. Some of them 
also possess striped cotton coats, which they wear on special occasions. 

2 See note 2, p. 12. 

"See note i, p. 13. 


want to come, then grow on their knees until they are 
willing to attend." 

So the betel-nuts started in different directions and 
one went to Aponibalagen in Nalpangan and said, 

"Kadayadawan is making a ceremony for the spirits, 
and I have come to summon you to attend." 

"We cannot go," said Aponibalagen, "for we are 
searching for my sister who is lost" 

"You must come," replied the betel-nut, "or I shall 
grow on your knee." 

"Grow on my pig," answered Aponibalagen; so the 
betel-nut went on to the pig's back and grew into a tall 
tree, and it became so heavy that the pig could not 
carry it, but squealed all the time." 

Then Aponibalagen, seeing that he must obey, said 
to the betel-nut, 

"Get off my pig, and we will go." 

The betel-nut got off the pig's back, and the people 
started for the ceremony. When they reached the 
river, Gawigawen was there waiting to cross, for the 
magic nuts had forced him to go also. Then Kada- 
yadawan, seeing them, sent more betel-nuts to the 
river, and the people were carried across by the nuts. 

As soon as they reached the town the dancing began, 
and while Gawigawen was dancing with Aponibolinayen 
he seized her and put her in his belt. 1 Kadayadawan, 
who saw this, was so angry that he threw his spear and 
killed Gawigawen. Then Aponibolinayen escaped and 

J This peculiar idea, which frequently appears in Tinguian tales, 
is also found in Javanese literature. See Bezmer, Volksdichtung aut 
Indonesien, p. 47 (Haag, 1904). 


ran into the house, and her husband brought his victim 
back to life, and asked him why he had seized the 
wife of his host. Gawigawen explained that she was 
his wife who had been lost, and the people were very 
much surprised, for they had not recognized her at first. 

Then all the people discussed what should be done 
to bring peace between the two men, and it was finally 
decided that Kadayadawan must pay both Aponibala- 
gen and Gawigawen the price that was first demanded 
for the beautiful girl. 

After this was done all were happy; and the 
guardian spirit of Kadayadawan gave them a golden 
house in which to live. 



A PONIBOLINAYEN was sick with a headache, 
^ * and she lay on a mat alone in her house. Sud- 
denly she remembered some fruit that she had heard 
of but had never seen, and she said to herself, u Oh, I 
wish I had some of the oranges of Gawigawen of 

Now Aponibolinayen did not realize that she had 
spoken aloud, but Aponitolau, her husband, lying in 
the spirit house 1 outside, heard her talking and asked 
what it was she said. Fearing to tell him the truth lest 
he should risk his life in trying to get the oranges for 
her, she said: "I wish I had some biw" (a fruit). 

Aponitolau at once got up, and, taking a sack, went 
out to find some of the fruit for his wife. When he 
returned with the sack full, she said : 

"Put it on the bamboo hanger above the fire, and 
when my head is better I will eat it." 

So Aponitolau put the fruit on the hanger and 
returned to the spirit house, but when Aponibolinayen 
tried to eat, the fruit made her sick and she threw it 

"What is the matter?" called Aponitolau as he heard 
her drop the fruit 

'See note 3, p. 15. 


"I merely dropped one," she replied, and returned 
to her mat. 

After a while Aponibolinayen again said: 

"Oh, I wish I had some of the oranges of Gawigawen 
of Adasen," and Aponitolau, who heard her from the 
spirit house, inquired: 

"What is that you say?" 

"I wish I had some fish eggs," answered his wife; 
for she did not want him to know the truth. 

Then Aponitolau took his net and went to the 
river, determined to please his wife if possible. When 
he had caught a nice fish he opened it with his knife 
and took out the eggs. Then he spat on the place 
he had cut, and it was healed and the fish swam 
away. 1 

Pleased that he was able to gratify his wife's wishes, 
he hastened home with the eggs; and while his wife 
was roasting them over the fire, he returned to the 
spirit house. She tried to eat, but the eggs did not 
taste good to her, and she threw them down under the 
house to the dogs. 

"What is the matter?" called Aponitolau. "Why 
are the dogs barking?" 

"I dropped some of the eggs," replied his wife, and 
she went back to her mat. 

By and by she again said : 

"I wish I had some of the oranges of Gawigawen 
of Adasen." 

lr The powerful deeds of these heroes often resemble the miraculoui 
achievements of biblical and ancient times. 






But when her husband asked what she wished, she 
replied : 

"I want a deer's liver to eat." 

So Aponitolau took his dogs to the mountains, where 
they hunted until they caught a deer, and when he had 
,cut out its liver he spat on the wound, and it was healed 
so that the deer ran away. 

But Aponibolinayen could not eat the liver any more 
than she could the fruit or the fish eggs; and when 
Aponitolau heard the dogs barking, he knew that she 
had thrown it away. Then he grew suspicious and, 
changing himself into a centipede, 1 hid in a crack in the 
floor. And when his wife again wished for some of 
the oranges, he overheard her. 

"Why did you not tell me the truth, Aponibolina- 
yen?" he asked. 

"Because," she replied, u no one who has gone to 
Adasen has ever come back, and I did not want you to 
risk your life." 

Nevertheless Aponitolau determined to go for the 
oranges, and he commanded his wife to bring him rice 
straw. After he had burned it he put the ashes in the 
water with which he washed his hair. 2 Then she, 
brought cocoanut oil and rubbed his hair, and fetched 
a dark clout, a fancy belt, and a head-band, and she 
baked cakes for him to take on the journey. Aponi- 

^ee note 2, p. 20. 

"The Tinguian of today do not possess soap, but in its place they 
use the ashes from rice straw, or not infrequently they soak the bark 
from a certain tree in the water in which they are to wash their hair. 



tolau cut a vine 1 which he planted by the stove, 2 and 
told his wife that if the leaves wilted she would know 
that he was dead. Then he took his spear and head-ax 3 
and started on the long journey. 

When Aponitolau arrived at the well of a giantess, 
all the betel-nut trees bowed. Then the giantess 
shouted and all the world trembled. "How strange," 
thought Aponitolau, "that all the world shakes when 
that woman shouts." But he continued on his way 
without stopping. 

As he passed the place of the old woman, Alokotan, 
she sent out her little dog and it bit his leg. 

"Do not proceed," said the old woman, "for ill luck 
awaits you. If you go on, you will never return to 
your home." 

*The lawed vine. In ancient Egypt and in India it was a common 
belief that friends or relatives could tell from the condition of a cer- 
tain tree or vine whether the absent one was well or dead: if the 
vine thrived, they knew that all was well, but if it wilted they mourned 
for him as dead. It is interesting to find the identical belief in the 
northern Philippines. 

''The Tinguian stove consists of a bed of ashes in which three stones 
are sunk, and on these the pots are placed. 

3 It appears that these people of ancient times possessed the same 
weapons as those of today. The Tinguian ordinarily wears a head-ax 
thrust into his belt, and when at work this is his hand tool. When on 
a hunt or during warfare he also carries a wooden shield and a steel- 
pointed spear from eight to ten feet in length. For attacks at a dis- 
tance he depends on the spear, but in a close encounter he uses his 
head-ax and shield, the latter being oblong in shape and having two 
prongs at one end and three at the other. The two prongs are to 
be slipped about the neck of the victim while the head-ax does its 
work, or the three prongs may be slipped about the legs in the same 



But Aponitolau paid no attention to the old 
woman, and by and by he came to the home of the 

"Where are you going ?" asked the lightning. 

"I am going to get some oranges of Gawigawen of 
Adasen," replied Aponitolau. 

"Go stand on that high rock that I may see what 
your sign is," commanded the lightning. 

So he stood on the high rock, but when the lightning 
flashed Aponitolau dodged. 

"Do not go," said the lightning, "for you have a 
bad sign, and you will never come back." 

Still Aponitolau did not heed. 

Soon he arrived at the place of Silit (loud thunder) ,* 
who also asked him : 

"Where are you going, Aponitolau?" 

"I am going to get oranges of Gawigawen of 
Adasen," he replied. 

Then the thunder commanded: 

"Stand on that high stone so that I can see if you 
have a good sign." 

He stood on the high stone, and when the thunder 
made a loud noise he jumped. Whereupon Silit also 
advised him not to go on. 

In spite of all the warnings, Aponitolau continued 
his journey, and upon coming to the ocean he used 

this and other incidents it is evident that these people talked 
with the lightning and thunder. They still have great regard for the 
omens derived from these forces; but it is now believed that thunder 
is the dog of Kadaklan, the greatest of all the spirits, and that by the 
barking of this dog, the god makes known his desires. 



magical power, so that when he stepped on his head-ax 
it sailed away, carrying him far across the sea to the 
other side. Then after a short walk he came to a 
spring where women were dipping water, and he asked 
what spring it was. 

"This is the spring of Gawigawen of Adasen," 
replied the women. "And who are you that you dare 
come here?" 

Without replying he went on toward the town, but 
he found that he could not go inside, for it was sur- 
rounded by a bank which reached almost to the sky. 

While he stood with bowed head pondering what 
he should do, the chief of the spiders came up and asked 
why he was so sorrowful. 

"I am sad," answered Aponitolau, "because I cannot 
climb up this bank." 

Then the spider went to the top and spun a thread, 1 
and upon this Aponitolau climbed up into town. 

Now Gawigawen was asleep in his spirit house, and 
when he awoke and saw Aponitolau sitting near, he 
was surprised and ran toward his house to get his 
spear and head-ax, but Aponitolau called to him, saying: 

"Good morning, Cousin Gawigawen. Do not be 
angry; I only came to buy some of your oranges for 
my wife." 

Then Gawigawen took him to the house and brought 
a whole carabao 2 for him to eat, and he said: 

1 Stories in which animals come to the assistance of human beings 
are found in many lands. One of those best known to Europeans is 
where the ants sort the grain for Cinderella. 

3 See note 2, p. 21. 



"If you cannot eat all the carabao, you cannot have 
the oranges for your wife." 

Aporritolau grew very sorrowful, for he knew that 
he could not eat all the meat, but just at that moment 
the chief of the ants and flies came to him and inquired 
what was the trouble. As soon as he was told, the 
chief called all the ants and flies and they ate the whole 
carabao. Aponitolau, greatly relieved, went then to 
Gawigawen and said: 

"I have finished eating the food which you gave 


Gawigawen was greatly surprised at this, and, lead- 
ing the way to the place where the oranges grew, 
he told Aponitolau to climb the tree and get all he 

As he was about to ascend the tree Aponitolau 
noticed that the branches were sharp knives, so he went 
as carefully as he could. Nevertheless, when he had 
secured two oranges, he stepped on one of the knives 
and was cut. He quickly fastened the fruit to his spear, 
and immediately it flew away straight to his town and 
into his house. 

Aponibolinayen was just going down the bamboo 
ladder out of the house, and hearing something drop 
on the floor she went back to look and found the 
oranges from Adasen. She eagerly ate the fruit, 
rejoicing that her husband had been able to reach the 
place where they grew. Then she thought to look at 
the vine, whose leaves were wilted, and she knew that 
her husband was dead. 

Soon after this a son was born to Aponibolinayen, 


and she called his name Kanag. He grew rapidly, 
becoming a strong lad, and he was the bravest of all 
his companions. One day while Kanag was playing 
out in the yard, he spun his top and it struck the gar- 
bage pot of an old woman, who became very angry 
and cried: , 

"If you were a brave boy, you would get your father 
whom Gawigawen killed." 

Kanag ran to the house crying, and asked his mother 
what the old woman meant, for he had never heard 
the story of his father's death. As soon as he learned 
what had happened, the boy determined to search for 
his father, and, try as she would, his mother could not 
dissuade him. 

As he was departing through the gate of the town 
with his spear and head-ax, Kanag struck his shield 
and it sounded like a thousand warriors. 

"How brave that boy is !" said the surprised people. 
"He is braver even than his father." 

When he reached the spring of the giantess, he again 
struck his shield and shouted so that the whole world 
trembled. Then the giantess said : 

"I believe that someone is going to fight, and he 
will have success." 

As soon as Kanag reached the place where the old 
woman, Alokotan, lived, she sent her dog after him, 
but with one blow of his head-ax he cut off the dog's 
head. Then Alokotan asked where he was going, and 
when he had told her, she said: 

"Your father is dead, but I believe that you will find 
him, for you have a good sign." 



He hurried on and arrived at the place where light- 
ning was r and it asked : 

"Where are you going, little boy?" 

"I am going to Adasen to get my father," answerd 

"Go stand on that high rock that I may see what 
your sign is," said the lightning. 

So he stood on the high rock, and when the bright 
flash came he did not move, and the lightning bade 
him hasten on, as he had a good sign. 

The thunder, which saw him passing, also called 
to ask where he was going, and it commanded him to 
stand on the high rock. And when the thunder made 
a loud noise Kanag did not move, and it bade him go 
on, as his sign was good. 

The women of Adasen were at the spring of Gawiga- 
wen dipping water, when suddenly they were startled 
by a great noise. They rose up, expecting to see a 
thousand warriors coming near; but though they looked 
all around they could see nothing but a young boy 
striking a shield. 

"Good morning, women who are dipping water," 
said Kanag. "Tell Gawigawen that he must prepare, 
for I am coming to fight him." 

So all the women ran up to the town and told 
Gawigawen that a strange boy was at the spring and 
he had come to fight. 

"Go and tell him," said Gawigawen, "that if it is 
true that he is brave, he will come into the town, if he 


When Kanag reached the high bank outside the 



town, he jumped like a flitting bird up the bank into 
the town and went straight to the spirit house of 
Gawigawen. He noticed that the roofs of both the 
dwelling and the spirit houses were of hair, and that 
around the town were many heads, 1 and he pondered : 

"This is why my father did not return. Gawigawen 
is a brave man, but I will kill him." 

As soon as Gawigawen saw him in the yard he said: 

"How brave you are, little boy; why did you come 

"I came to get my father," answered Kanag; "for 
you kept him when he came to get oranges for my 
mother. If you do not give him to me, I will kill you." 

Gawigawen laughed at this brave speech and said: 

"Why, one of my fingers will fight you. You shall 
never go back to your town, but you shall stay here and 
be like your father." 

"We shall see," said Kanag. "Bring your arms and 
let us fight here in the yard." 

Gawigawen was beside himself with rage at this bold 
speech, and he brought his spear and his head-ax which 
was as big as half the sky. Kanag would not throw 
first, for he wanted to prove himself brave, so Gawiga- 
wen took aim and threw his head-ax at the boy. Now 
Kanag used magical power, so that he became an ant 

J It was the ancient custom to place the heads of slain enemies at 
the gate or around the town, and this practice still prevails with some 
of the surrounding tribes. More recently it was the custom to expose 
the head at the gate of the town for three days, after which followed 
a great celebration when the skulls were broken and pieces were given 
to the guests. 



and was not hit by the weapon. Gawigawen laughed 
loudly when he looked around and could not see the 
boy, for he thought that he had been killed. Soon, 
however, Kanag reappeared, standing on the head-ax, 
and Gawigawen, more furious than ever, threw his 
spear. Again Kanag disappeared, and Gawigawen was 
filled with surprise. 

Then it was Kanag's turn and his spear went 
directly through the body of the giant. He ran 
quickly and cut off five of the heads, 1 but the sixth he 
spared until Gawigawen should have shown him his 

As they went about the town together, Kanag found 
that the skin of his father had been used for a drum- 
head. His hair decorated the house, and his head was 
at the gate of the town, while his body was put beneath 
the house. After he had gathered all the parts of the 
body together, Kanag used magical power, and his 
father came to life. 

"Who are you?" asked Aponitolau; "how long have 
I slept?" 

"I am your son," said Kanag. "You were not 
asleep but dead, and here is Gawigawen who kept you. 
Take my head-ax and cut off his remaining head." 

So Aponitolau took the head-ax, but when he struck 
Gawigawen it did not injure him. 

"What is the matter, Father?" asked Kanag; and 

*In their beliefs of today the Tinguian recognize many giants, 
some with more than one head. In a part of the ritual of one cere- 
mony we read, "A man opens the door to learn the cause of the bark- 
ing and he sees a man, fat and tall, with nine heads." 



taking the weapon he cut off the sixth head of 

Then Kanag and his father used magic so that the 
spears and head-axes flew about, killing all the people 
in the town, and the heads and valuable things went 
to their home. 

When Aponibolinayen saw all these come into her 
house, she ran to look at the vine by the stove, and it 
was green and looked like a jungle. Then she knew 
that her son was alive, and she was happy. And when 
the father and son returned, all the relatives came to 
their house for a great feast, and all were so happy 
that the whole world smiled. 




E day, while Aponitolau sat weaving a basket 
under his house, he began to feel very hungry 
and longed for something sweet to chew. Then he 
remembered that his field was still unplanted. He 
called to his wife who was in the room above, and said: 
"Come, Aponibolinayen, let us go to the field and plant 
some sugar-cane." 

So Aponibolinayen came down out of the house with 
a bamboo tube, 1 and while she went to the spring to 
fill it with water, Aponitolau made some cuttings, and 
they went together to the field, which was some distance 
from the house. 

Aponitolau loosened the earth with his long stick 2 
and set out the cuttings he had brought, while his wife 
sprinkled them with water from the bamboo tube. And 
when they had filled the field, they returned home, 
happy to think of the splendid cane they should have. 

After seven days Aponitolau went back to the field 

J A large bamboo pole, with all but the end section cut out, serves 
for a water bucket. 

2 A long bamboo pole, in one end of which a hard-wood point is 
inserted. This is thrust into the ground, and in the hole thus made 
the grain or cuttings are planted. This old method is still in use in 
some sections of the mountains, but on the lowlands a primitive plow 
is used to break the soil. 



to see if the plants had lived, and he found that the 
leaves were already long and pointed. This delighted 
him, and while he stood looking at it he grew impa- 
tient and determined to use his magical power so that 
the cane would grow very fast. In five days he again 
visited the field and found that the stalks were tall and 
ready to chew. He hurried home to tell Aponiboli- 
nayen how fast their plants had grown, and she was 
proud of her powerful husband. 

Now about this time Gaygayoma, who was the 
daughter of Bagbagak, a big star, and Sinag, the moon, 
looked down from her home in the sky, and when she 
saw the tall sugar-cane growing below, she was seized 
with a desire to chew it. She called to her father, 
Bagbagak, and said: 

u Oh, Father, please send the stars down to the earth 
to get some of the sugar-cane that I see, for I must 
have it to chew." 

So Bagbagak sent the stars down, and when they 
reached the bamboo fence that was around the field 
they sprang over it, and each broke a stalk of the cane 
and pulled some beans which Aponibolinayen had 
planted, and the stems of these beans were of gold. 
Gaygayoma was delighted with the things that the stars 
brought her. She cooked the beans with the golden 
stems and spent long hours chewing the sweet cane. 
When all that the stars brought was gone, however, she 
grew restless and called to her father, the big star: 

"Come, Father, and go with me to the place where 
the sugar-cane grows, for I want to see it now." 

Bagbagak called many stars to accompany him, and 



they all followed Gaygayoma down to the place where 
the sugar-cane grew. Some sat on the bamboo fence, 
while others went to the middle of the field, and all 
ate as much as they wished. 

The day following this, Aponitolau said to his wife : 

"Aponibolinayen, I am going to the field to see if 
the bamboo fence is strong, for the carabao will try 
to get in to eat our sugar-cane." 

So he set out, and when he reached the field and 
began looking along the fence to see if it was strong, 
he kept finding the stalks that the stars had chewed, 
and he knew that someone had been there. He went 
into the middle of the field, and there on the ground 
was a piece of gold, and he said to himself: 

"How strange this is ! I believe some beautiful girl 
must have chewed my cane. I will watch tonight, and 
maybe she will return for more." , 

As darkness came on he had no thought of returning 
home, but he made his meal of the sugar-cane, and 
then hid in the tall grass near the field to wait. By 
and by dazzling lights blinded his eyes, and when he 
could see again he was startled to find many stars fall- 
ing from the sky, and soon he heard someone breaking 
the cane. Suddenly a star so large that it looked like 
a flame of fire fell into the field, and then a beautiful 
object near the fence took off her dress which looked 
like a star, and she appeared like the half of the 

Never had Aponitolau seen such sights; and for a 
while he lay shaking with fear. 

"What shall I do?" he said to himself. "If I do 



not frighten these companions of the beautiful girl, 
they may eat me." 

With a great effort he jumped up and frightened the 
stars till they all flew up, and when the pretty girl 
came looking for her dress she found Aponitolau sit- 
ting on it. 1 "You must forgive us," she said, "for your 
sugar-cane is very sweet, and we wanted some to chew." 

"You are welcome to the sugar-cane," answered 
Aponitolau. "But now we must tell our names accord- 
ing to our custom, for it is bad for us to talk until we 
know each other's names." 

Then he gave her some betel-nut and they chewed 
together, 2 and he said: 

"Now it is our custom to tell our names." 

"Yes," said she; "but you tell first." 

"My name is Aponitolau and I am the husband of 

"I am Gaygayoma, the daughter of Bagbagak and 
Sinag up in the air," said the girl. "And now, Aponi- 
tolau, even though you have a wife, I am going to take 
you up to the sky, for I wish to marry you. If you are 
not willing to go, I shall call my companion stars to 
eat you." 

Aponitolau shook with fear, for he knew now that 
the woman was a spirit; and as he dared not refuse, 
he promised to go with her. Soon after that the stars 

*In European, Asiatic, African, and Malaysian lore we find stories 
of beings with star dresses: when they wear the dresses they are 
stars; when they take them off they are human. See Cox, An Intro- 
duction to Folklore, p. 121 (London, 1904). 

2 See note i, p. 9. 







dropped a basket that Gaygayoma had ordered them 
to make, and Aponitolau stepped in with the lovely star 
and was drawn quickly through the air up to the sky. 
They were met on their arrival by a giant star whom 
Gaygayoma introduced as her father, and he told 
Aponitolau that he had acted wisely in coming, for had 
he objected, the other stars would have eaten him. 

After Aponitolau had lived with the stars for some 
time, Gaygayoma asked him to prick between her last 
two fingers, and as he did so a beautiful baby boy 
popped out. They named him Takyayen, and he grew 
very fast and was strong. 

All this time Aponitolau had never forgotten Aponi- 
bolinayen who, he knew, was searching for him on the 
earth, but he had been afraid to mention her to the 
stars. When the boy was three months old, however, 
he ventured to tell Gaygayoma of his wish to return to 
the earth. 

At first she would not listen to him, but he pleaded so 
hard that at last she consented to let him go for one 
moon. 1 If he did not return at the end of that time, 
she said, she would send the stars to eat him. Then 
she called for the basket again, and they were lowered 
to the earth. There Aponitolau got out, but Gayga- 
yoma and the baby returned to the sky. 

Aponibolinayen was filled with joy at the sight of 
her husband once more, for she had believed him 
dead, and she was very thin from not eating while he 
was away. Never did she tire of listening to his 

'See note i, p. 12. 



stories of his life among the stars, and so happy was 
she to have him again that when the time came for 
him to leave she refused to let him go. 

That night many stars came to the house. Some 
stood in the windows, while others stayed outside by 
the walls; and they were so bright that the house 
appeared to be on fire. 

Aponitolau was greatly frightened, and he cried out 
to his wife : 

"You have done wrong to keep me when I should 
have gone. I feared that the stars would eat me if I 
did not obey their command, and now they have come. 
Hide me, or they will get me." 

But before Aponibolinayen could answer, Bagbagak 
himself called out: 

"Do not hide from us, Aponitolau, for we know 
that you are in the corner of the house. Come out or 
we shall eat you." 

Trembling with fear, Aponitolau appeared, and 
when the stars asked him if he was willing to go with 
them he dared not refuse. 

Now Gaygayoma had grown very fond of Aponito- 
lau, and she had commanded the stars not to harm him 
if he was willing to return to her. So when he gave 
his consent, they put him in the basket and flew away 
with him, leaving Aponibolinayen very sad and lonely. 
After that Aponitolau made many trips to the earth, 
but at Gaygayoma's command he always returned to 
the sky to spend part of the time with her. 

One day when Takyayen was a little boy, Aponitolau 
took him down to the earth to see his half-brother, 



Kanag. The world was full of wonders to the boy 
from the sky, and he wanted to stay there always. But 
after some time while he and Kanag were playing out 
in the yard, big drops of water began to fall on them. 
Kanag ran to his mother and cried: 

"Oh, Mother, it is raining, and the sun is shining 

But Aponitolau, looking out, said, "No, they are 
the tears of Gaygayoma, for she sees her son down 
below, and she weeps for him." 

Then he took Takyayen back to his mother in the 
sky, and she was happy again. 

After that Takyayen was always glad when he was 
allowed to visit the earth, but each time when his 
mother's tears began to fall, he returned to her. When 
he was old enough, Aponitolau selected a wife for him, 
and after that Takyayen always lived on the earth, 
but Gaygayoma stayed in the sky. 




\ PONITOLAU and Aponibolinayen had a son 
** whose name was Dumalawi. 1 When the son had 
become a young man, his father one day was very 
angry with him, and tried to think of some way in which 
to destroy him. The next morning he said to 
Dumalawi : 

"Son, sharpen your knife, and we will go to the for- 
est to cut some bamboo." 

So Dumalawi sharpened his knife and went with his 
father to the place where the bamboo grew, and they 
cut many sticks and sharpened them like spears at 
the end. 

Dumalawi wondered why they made them thus, but 
when they had finished, Aponitolau said: 

u Now, Son, you throw them at me, so that we can 
see which is the braver.' 1 

u No, Father," answered Dumalawi. "You throw 
first, if you want to kill me." 

So Aponitolau threw the bamboo sticks one by one 
at his son, but he could not hit him. Then it was the 
son's turn to throw, but he said : 

"No, I cannot. You are my father, and I do not 
want to kill you." 

1 See Preface, p. vii. 



So they went home. But Dumalawi was very sor- 
rowful, for he knew now that his father wanted to 
destroy him. When his mother called him to dinner 
he could not eat. 

Although he had been unsuccessful in his first 
attempt, Aponitolau did not give up the idea of getting 
rid of his son, and the next day he said: 

"Come, Dumalawi, we will go to our little house in 
the field 1 and repair it, so that it will be a protection 
when the rainy season sets in." 

The father and son went together to the field, and 
when they reached the little house, Aponitolau, point- 
ing to a certain spot in the ground, said : 

"Dig there, and you will find a jar of basi 2 which 
I buried when I was a boy. It will be very good to 
drink now." 

Dumalawi dug up the jar and they tasted the wine, 
and it was so pleasing to them that they drank three 
cocoanut shells full, and Dumalawi became drunk. 
While his son lay asleep on the ground, Aponitolau 
decided that this was a good time to destroy him, so 
he used his magical power and there, arose a great 
storm which picked up Dumalawi in his sleep and car- 
ried him far away. And the father went home alone. 

*It is the custom to have a small bamboo house built from fifteen 
to twenty feet from the ground near the rice fields, and in this some- 
one watches every day during the growing season to see that nothing 
breaks in to destroy the grain. Often flappers are placed in different 
parts of the field and a connecting string leads from these to the little 
house, so that the watcher by pulling this string may frighten the birds 
away from the grain. 

2 See note i, p. 18. 



Now when Dumalawi awoke, he was in the middle 
of a field so wide that whichever way he looked, he 
could not see the end. There were neither trees nor 
houses in the field and no living thing except himself. 
And he felt a great loneliness. 

By and by he used his magical power, and many 
betel-nuts grew in the field, and when they bore fruit 
it was covered with gold. 

"This is good," said Dumalawi, "for I will scatter 
these betel-nuts and they shall become people, 1 who 
will be my neighbors." 

So in the middle of the night he cut the gold-covered 
betel-nuts into many small pieces which he scattered in 
all directions. And in the early morning, when he 
awoke, he heard many people talking around the house, 
and many roosters crowed. Then Dumalawi knew 
that he had companions, and upon going out he walked 
about where the people were warming themselves 2 by 
fires in their yards, and he visited them all. 

In one yard was a beautiful maiden, Dapilisan, and 
after Dumalawi had talked with her and her parents, 
he went on to the other yards, but she was ever in his 
thoughts. As soon as he had visited all the people, 
he returned to the house of Dapilisan and asked her 
parents if he might marry her. They were unwilling 
at first, for they feared that the parents of Dumalawi 
might not like it; but after he had explained that his 

*See Preface, p. vi. 

3 The nights in the mountains are cold, and it is not at all uncom- 
mon in the early morning to see groups of people with blankets 
wrapped tightly about them, squatting around small fires in the yards. 



father and mother did not want him, they gave their 
consent, and Dapilisan became his bride. 

Soon after the marriage they decided to perform a 
ceremony 1 for the spirits. So Dapilisan sent for the 
betel-nuts which were covered with gold, 2 and when 
they were brought to her, she said: 

"You betel-nuts that are covered with gold, come 
here and oil yourselves and go and invite all the people 
in the world to come to our ceremony." 

So the betel-nuts oiled themselves and went to invite 
the people in the different towns. 

Soon after this Aponibolinayen, the mother of 
Dumalawi, sat alone in her house, still mourning the 
loss of her son, when suddenly she was seized with a 
desire to chew betel-nut. 

"What ails me?" she said to herself; why do I 
want to chew? I had not intended to eat anything 
while Dumalawi was away." 

So saying, she took down her basket that hung on 
the wall, and saw in it a betel-nut covered with gold, 
and when she was about to cut it, it said: 

"Do not cut me, for I have come to invite you to 
the ceremony which Dumalawi and his wife are to 

Aponibolinayen was very happy, for she knew now 
that her son still lived, and she told all the people to 
wash their hair and prepare to go to the rite. So they 
washed their clothes and their hair and started for the 
home of Dumalawi; and Aponitolau, the father of the 

*8ee note a, p. 12. "See note i, p. 13. 



boy, followed, but he looked like a crazy man. 
When the people reached the river near the town, 
Dumalawi sent alligators to take them across, but 
when Aponitolau got on the alligator's back it dived, 
and he was thrown back upon the bank of the river. 
All the others were carried safely over, and Aponitolau, 
who was left on the bank alone, shouted as if crazy 
until Dumalawi sent another alligator to carry him 

Then Dumalawi ha I food brought 1 and Dapilisan 
passed basi in a little jar that looked like a fist, 2 and 
though each guest drank a cupful of the sweet wine the 
little jar was still a third full. After they had eaten 
and drunk, Aponibolinayen spoke, and, telling all the 
people that she was glad to have Dapilisan for a 
daughter-in-law, added : 

"Now we are going to pay the marriage price 3 
according to our custom. We shall fill the spirit house 4 
nine times with different kinds of jars." 

Then she called, "You spirits 5 who live in different 

'See note i, p. 17. 

2 Compare with the biblical story of the loaves and fishes. For 
similar incidents among the Igorot of the Philippines, in Borneo, and 
in India, see Jenks, The Bontoc Igorot, p. 202; Seidenadel, The 
Language of the Bontoc Igorot, pp. 491, 41 ff. (Chicago, 1909) ; Roth, 
The Natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo, Vol. I, p. 319; 
Tawney, Katha Sarlt Sagara, Vol. II, p. 3 (Calcutta, 1880) ; Bezemer, 
Volksdlchtung aus Indoneslen, p. 49 (Haag, 1904). 

3 See note i, p. 15. 

4 See note 3, p. 15. 

6 There appear to have been two classes of spirits, one for whom 
the people had the utmost respect and reverence, and another whom 
they looked upon as being of service to mortals. 


Photo by Philippine Bureau of Science 




springs, get the jars which Dumalawi must pay as a 
marriage price for Dapilisan." 

The spirits did as they were commanded, and when 
they brought the jars and had filled the spirit house 
nine times, Aponibolinayen said to the parents of 

"I think that now we have paid the price for your 

But Dalonagan, the mother of Dapilisan, was not 
satisfied, and said: 

u No, there is still more to pay.' 1 

"Very well," replied Aponibolinayen. "Tell us what 
it is and we will pay it." 

Then Dalonagan called a pet spider and said: 

"You big spider, go all around the town, and as 
you go spin a thread 1 on which Aponibolinayen must 
string golden beads." So the spider spun the thread 
and Aponibolinayen again called to the spirits of the 
springs, and they brought golden beads which they 
strung on the thread. Then Dalonagan hung on the 
thread, and when it did not break she declared that 
the debt was all paid. 

After this the people feasted and made merry, and 
when at last they departed for home Dumalawi refused 
to go with his parents, but remained with his wife in 
the town he had created. 

1 See note i, p. 30. 




TT7"HEN the rice 1 had grown tall and it was near 
the time for it to ripen, Aponitolau and Aponi- 
bolinayen grew fearful lest the wild pigs should break 
in and destroy all their crop, so they sent their son, 
Kanag, to the field to guard the grain. Kanag will- 
ingly went to the place, but when he found that the 
fences were all strong so that the pigs could not get 
in, and he was left with nothing to do, life in the little 
watch-house 2 grew lonely, and the boy became very 

Each day Aponitolau carried cooked rice and meat 
to his son in the field, but Kanag could not eat and 
always bade his father hang it in the watch-house until 
he should want it. Each time Aponitolau found the 
food of the day before still untouched, and he began to 
suspect that the boy was unhappy at having to guard 
the grain. But he said nothing of his fears to 

J The word used in the original is langpadan, meaning mountain rice. 
This variety requires no irrigation and is planted to some extent at 
the present day, but the great bulk of the grain now used is grown 
in wonderfully terraced fields on the mountain sides, where water 
for irrigating is brought from distant streams through a system of 
flume and bamboo tubes. The fact that only the mountain rice is men- 
tioned in the tales reflects a very ancient life before irrigated fields 
were known. 

2 See note i, p. 45. 



One day after his father had returned home, Kanag 
was so lonely that he used his magical power and 
became a little bird and flew up into the top of a tree. 
The next day when Aponitolau came to the field he 
looked everywhere for his son, and when he could not 
find him he called, and from the top of a bamboo tree 
a little bird answered him. Realizing what had hap- 
pened, the father was very sad and begged his son to 
come back and be a boy again, but Kanag only 

"I would rather be a bird 1 and carry the messages 
of the spirits to the people." 

At last the father went home alone, and he and the 
boy's mother were filled with grief that they had lost 
their son. 

Some time after this, Aponitolau prepared to go out 
to fight. He took his spear and shield and head-ax 
and started early one morning, but when he reached 
the gate of the town, Kanag flew over him, giving him 
a bad sign, so he turned back. The next morning he 
started again, and this time the little bird gave him a 
good sign, and knowing that nothing would injure him, 
he went on. 

After a long journey he reached a hostile town 
where the people said they were glad to see him, and 
added that because he was the first of his people who 
had dared to enter their town they intended to keep 
him there. 

'The labeug is the omen bird and is believed to be the direct mes- 
senger of Kadaklan, the great spirit, to the people. 



"Oh," said Aponitolau, "if you say that I cannot 
return home, call all your people together and we will 

"You are very brave," answered his enemies, "if 
you wish to fight us all." 

And when the people had gathered together they 
laughed at him and said, "Why, one of our fingers 
would fight you." 

Nevertheless, Aponitolau prepared to fight, and 
when the bravest of the enemy threw his spear and 
head-ax at him he jumped and escaped. They noticed 
that he jumped very high, so they all ran at him, 
throwing their spears and trying to kill him. 

But Aponitolau caught all their weapons, and then 
while they were unarmed he threw his own spear, and 
it flew about among them until it had killed them all. 
Then he sent his head-ax, and it cut off all the heads 
of the enemy; and he used magical power so that these 
heads went to his home in Kadalayapan. 

After that Aponitolau sat down by the gate of the 
town to rest, and the little bird, flying over his head, 
called down: 

"The sign that I gave you was good, Father, and 
you have killed all your enemies." 

"Yes," said the man, and as he started on the home- 
ward journey the little bird always flew near him. 
When he reached home, he stuck the heads around 
the town, 1 and commanded the people to go out all 
over the world and invite everyone and especially the 

*See note i, p. 34. 


pretty girls to come to a party in celebration of his 

The people came from all parts of the world, and 
while they played on the gongs and danced, Aponitolau 
called to Kanag and said: 

"Come down, my son ; do not stay always in the tops 
of the trees. Come and see the pretty girls and see 
which one you want to marry. Get the golden cup and 
give them basi to drink." 

But Kanag answered, "I would rather stay in the 
tops of the trees and give the signs when anyone goes 
to fight." 

Then the father and mother pleaded with him to 
become a boy once more, begging his forgiveness and 
promising never again to send him to guard the rice. 
But he would not listen to them, and only flew away. 

Finding that they could not win him that way, Aponi- 
tolau and Aponibolinayen called the spirit servants, and 
commanded them to follow Kanag wherever he went, 
and to find a girl whom he would want to marry. So 
the spirit servants went after him, and wherever he 
went they followed. 

By and by they stopped near a well, and there the 
spirit servants used magic so that all the pretty girls 
nearby felt very hot; and in the early morning, they 
came to the well to bathe. One among them was so 
beautiful that she looked like a flame of fire 1 among 
the betel-nut blossoms, and when the servants saw her 
washing her hair they ran to Kanag and begged him 

'See note i, p. 8. 



to come and see her. At first he would not listen to 
them, but after a while he flew into the top of a betel- 
nut tree near by, and when he caught sight of her, he 
flew into the tree above her head. 

"But," said he to the servants, "what can I do if I 
become a man now, for I have no clothes and no 

"Do not worry about that," said the spirit servants, 
"for we have everything here for you." 

So Kanag became a man and put on the clothes and 
head-band, and he went to speak to the girl. He gave 
her betel-nut, and they chewed together, and he said: 

"My name is Kanag and I am the son of Aponitolau 
and Aponibolinayen." 

Then the girl said: "My name is Dapilisan and 
I am the daughter of Bangan and Dalonagan." 

When Dapilisan went home Kanag followed her, 
and he told her parents his name and how he had 
changed into a little bird. And when he had finished 
he asked if he might marry their daughter. Bangan 
and his wife were greatly pleased that Kanag wanted 
Dapilisan for his wife, but they were afraid that his 
parents might object, so they sent a messenger to 
invite Aponitolau and Aponibolinayen to come to visit 

As soon as Kanag' s parents heard that their son had 
become a man they were very happy and started at 
once to go to him, carrying many fine presents. Before 
arrangements for the wedding could be made, it was 
necessary to decide on the price to be paid for the girl. 
A long discussion took place. Bangan and Dalonagan 



finally said that the spirit house must be filled nine 
times with different kinds of jars. 

When this was done Dalonagan raised her eyebrows, 
and half of the jars disappeared. Aponibolinayen 
used her magical power and the spirit house was filled 
again, and then Dalonagan said to her: 

"Now the web of the spider shall be put around the 
town and you must put gold beads on it. If it does 
not break, Kanag may marry Dapilisan." 

When Aponibolinayen had put the gold beads on 
the thread, Dalonagan hung on it to see if it would 
hold. As it did not break, she declared that the sign 
was good; and Kanag and Dapilisan were married. 

Then the people played on the copper gongs, danced, 
and made merry for a long time, and when they 
returned to their homes Kanag and his bride went with 
Aponitolau and Aponibolinayen. 




, tikgi, tikgi, we will come to work for you. 
Let us cut your rice." 

Ligi 1 had gone to the field to look at his growing 
rice, but when he heard this sound he looked up and 
was surprised to see some birds circling above and 
calling to him. 

"Why, you cannot cut rice," said Ligi. "You are 
birds and know only how to fly." 

But the birds insisted that they knew how to cut rice ; 
so finally he told them to come again when the grain 
was ripe, and they flew away. 

No sooner had the birds gone than Ligi was filled 
with a great desire to see them again. As he went 
home he wished over and over that his rice were ready 
to cut. As soon as Ligi left the field the tikgi birds 
began using magic so that the rice grew rapidly, 
and five days later when he returned he found the 
birds there ready to cut the ripened grain. Ligi 
showed them where to begin cutting, and then he left 

When he was out of sight, the tikgi said to the rice 
cutters : 

"Rice cutters, you cut the rice alone." And to the 

'See Preface, p. vii. 







bands which were lying nearby they said: "Bands, 
you tie into bundles the rice which the cutters 

cut 11 

And the rice cutters and the bands worked alone, 
doing as they were told. 

When Ligi went again to the field in the afternoon, 
the tikgi said: 

"Come, Ligi, and see what we have done, for we 
want to go home now." 

Ligi was amazed, for he saw five hundred bundles 
of rice cut. And he said: 

"Oh, Tikgi, take all the rice you wish in payment, 
for I am very grateful to you." 

Then the tikgi each took one head of rice, saying it 
was all they could carry, and they flew away. 

The next morning when Ligi reached the field, he 
found the birds already there and he said: 

"Now, Tikgi, cut the rice as fast as you can, for 
when it is finished I will make a ceremony for the 
spirits, and you must come." 

"Yes," replied the tikgi, "and now we shall begin 
the work, but you do not need to stay here." 

So Ligi went home and built a rice granary to hold 
his grain, and when he returned to the field the rice 
was all cut. Then the tikgi said: "We have cut all 
your rice, Ligi, so give us our pay, and when you go 
home the rice will all be in your granary." 

Ligi wondered at this, and when he reached home 
and saw that his granary was full of rice, he doubted 
if the tikgi could be real birds. 

Not long after this Ligi invited all his relatives from 



the different towns to help him make the ceremony for 
the spirits. 1 As soon as the people arrived, the tikgi 
came also; and they flew over the people's heads and 
made them drink basi until they were drunk. Then 
they said to Ligi: 

"We are going home now; it is not good for us to 
stay here, for we cannot sit among the people." 

When they started home Ligi followed them until 
they came to the bana-asi tree, and here he saw them 
take off their feathers and put them in the rice gran- 
ary. Then suddenly they became one beautiful 

"Are you not the tikgi who came to cut my rice?" 
asked Ligi. "You look to me like a beautiful 

"Yes," she replied; "I became tikgi and cut rice for 
you, for otherwise you would not have found me." 
Ligi took her back to his house where the people were 
making the ceremony, and as soon as they saw her they 
began chewing the magic betel-nuts to find who she 
might be. 

The quid 2 of Ebang and her husband and that of 
the tikgi went together, so they knew that she was their 
daughter who had disappeared from their house one 
day long ago while they were in the fields. In answer 
to their many questions, she told them that she had 

Before the bundles of ripened rice can be put into the granary a cere- 
mony is made for the spirits. The blood of a pig is mixed with cooked 
rice and put in the granary as an offering for the spirit who multiplies 
the grain, otherwise the crop would run out in a short time. 

2 See note i, p. 9. 



been in the bana-asi tree, where Kaboniyan 1 had car- 
ried her, until the day that she changed herself into 
the tikgi birds and went to the field of Ligi. 

Ligi was very fond of the beautiful girl and he 
asked her parents if he might marry her. They were 
very willing and decided on a price he should pay. 
After the wedding all the people remained at his 
house, feasting and dancing for three months. 

J The spirit who stands next in importance to Kadaklan, the great 
spirit. It was he who taught the people all good things, and finally 
he married a woman from Manabo in order to bind himself more 
closely to them. See "How the Tinguian Learned to Plant." 




T N the depths of a dark forest where people seldom 
* went, lived a wizened old Alan. 2 The skin on her 
wrinkled face was as tough as a carabao hide, and her 
long arms with fingers pointing back from the wrist 
were horrible to look at. Now this frightful creature 
had a son whose name was Sayen, and he was as hand- 
some as his mother was ugly. He was a brave man, 
also, and often went far away alone to fight. 

On these journeys Sayen sometimes met beautiful 
girls, and though he wanted to marry, he could not 
decide upon one. Hearing that one Danepan was more 
beautiful than any other, he determined to go and ask 
her to be his wife. 

Now Danepan was very shy, and when she heard 
that Sayen was coming to her house she hid behind the 
door and sent her servant, Laey, out to meet him. 
And so it happened that Sayen, not seeing Danepan, 
married Laey, thinking that she was her beautiful mis- 
tress. He took her away to a house he had built at 
the edge of the forest, for though he wished to be near 

J This story is considered by the Tinguian to be of rather recent 
origin. They believe that Sayen lived not so very long ago, yet the 
stories woven around him are very similar to the ancient ones. 

2 See "The Alan and the Hunters." 



his old home, he dared not allow his bride to set eyes 
on his ugly mother. 

For some time they lived happily together here, and 
then one day when Sayen was making a plow under 
his house, he heard Laey singing softly to their baby 
in the room above, and this is what she sang: 

"Sayen thinks I am Danepan, but Laey I am. Sayen 
thinks I am Danepan, but Laey I am." 

When Sayen heard this he knew that he had been 
deceived, and he pondered long what he should do. 

The next morning he went to the field to plow, for 
it was near the rice-planting time. Before he left the 
house he called to his wife: 

"When the sun is straight above, you and the baby 
bring food to me, for I shall be busy in the field." 

Before he began to plow, however, he cut the bam- 
boo supports of the bridge which led to the field, so 
that when Laey and the baby came with his food, they 
had no sooner stepped on the bridge than it went down 
with them and they were drowned. Sayen was again 
free. He took his spear and his shield and head-ax 
and went at once to the town of Danepan, and there 
he began killing the people on all sides. 

Terror spread through the town. No one could 
stop his terrible work of destruction until Danepan 
came down out of her house, and begged him to spare 
part of the people that she might have some from whom 
to borrow fire. 1 Her great beauty amazed him and 

*The Tinguian now use flint and steel for making a flame, but it 
is not at all uncommon for them to go to a neighbor's house to borrow 
a burning ember to start their own fire. 



he ceased killing, and asked her to prepare some betel- 
nut for him to chew, as he was very tired. She did so, 
and when he had chewed the nut he spat on the people 
he had killed and they came to life again. Then he 
married Danepan and took her to his home. 

Now it happened about this time that the people of 
Magosang were in great trouble. At the end of a suc- 
cessful hunt, while they were dividing the meat among 
themselves, the Komow, 1 a murderous spirit that looks 
like a man, would come to them and ask how many they 
had caught. If they answered, "Two," then he would 
say that he had caught two also ; and when they went 
home, they would find two people in the town dead. 
As often as they went to hunt the Komow did this, and 
many of the people of Magosang were dead and those 
living were in great fear. Finally they heard of the 
brave man, Sayen, and they begged him to help them. 
Sayen listened to all they told, and then said: 

"I will go with you to hunt, and while you are divid- 
ing the meat, I will hide behind the trees. When the 
Komow comes to ask how many deer you have, he 
will smell me, but you must say that you do not know 
where I am." 

So the people went to hunt, and when they had 
killed two deer, they singed them over a fire and began 
to divide them. Just then the Komow arrived and 

"How many have you?" 

*The neighboring Ilocano, a Christianized tribe, know the Komow 
as a fabulous bird which is invisible, yet steals people and their pos- 



"We have two," replied the people. 

"I have two also," said the Komow, "but I smell 

"We do not know where Sayen is," answered the 
people; and just then he sprang out and killed the 
Komow, and the people were greatly relieved. 

Now when Kaboniyan, 1 a great spirit, heard what 
Sayen had done, he went to him and said: 

"Sayen you are a brave man because you have killed 
the Komow. Tomorrow I will fight with you. You 
must remain on the low ground by the river, and I will 
go to the hill above." 

So the following day Sayen went to the low ground 
by the river. He had not waited long before he heard 
a great sound like a storm, and he knew that Kaboniyan 
was coming. He looked up, and there stood the great 
warrior, poising his spear which was as large as a big 

"Are you brave, Sayen?" called he in a voice like 
thunder as he threw the weapon. 

"Yes," answered Sayen, and he caught the spear. 

This surprised Kaboniyan, and he threw his head-ax 
which was as large as the roof of a house, and Sayen 
caught that also. Then Kaboniyan saw that this was 
indeed a brave man, and he went down to Sayen and 
they fought face to face until both were tired, but 
neither could overcome the other. 

When Kaboniyan saw that in Sayen he had found one 
as strong and brave even as himself, he proposed that 

'See note i, p. 59. 



they go together to fight the people of different towns. 
And they started out at once. Many people were killed 
by this strong pair, and why they themselves could 
never be captured was a great mystery. For it was 
not known that one was the spirit Kaboniyan, and the 
other the son of an Alan. 

If he was surrounded in a river, Sayen would become 
a fish 1 and hide so that people could not find him. And 
if he was entrapped in a town, he would become a 
chicken and go under the house in a chicken-coop. In 
this way he escaped many times. 

Finally one night after he had killed many in one 
town, the people decided to watch him, and they saw 
him go to roost with the chickens. The next day they 
placed a fish trap under the house near the chicken- 
coop, and that night when Sayen went under the house 
he was caught in the trap and killed. 

1 See note 2, p. 20. 



the Sun and the Moon quarreled with each 
other, and the Sun said: 

"You are only the Moon and are not much good. 
If I did not give you light, you would be no good at 

But the Moon answered: 

"You are only the Sun, and you are very hot. The 
women like me better, for when I shine at night, they 
go out doors and spin." 

These words of the Moon made the Sun so angry 
that he threw sand in her face, and you can still see 
the dark spots on the face of the Moon. 



N the very old times the Tinguian did not know how 


to plant and harvest as they now do. For food they 
had only the things that grew in the forests and fish 
from the streams. Neither did they know how to cure 
people who became ill or were injured by evil spirits, 
and many died who might otherwise have lived. 1 

Then Kadaklan, the Great Spirit who lives in the 
sky, saw that the people often were hungry and sick, 
and he sent one of his servants, Kaboniyan, to the earth 
to teach them many things. And it happened this way: 

Dayapan, a woman who lived in Caalang, had been 
sick for seven years. One day when she went to the 
spring to bathe, there entered her body a spirit who had 
rice and sugar-cane with him, and he said to her: 

"Dayapan, take these to your home and plant them 
in the ground, and after a while they will grow large 
enough to reap. Then when they are ripe, build a 
granary to put the rice in until you shall need it, and 
a sugar-press to crush the cane. And when these are 
finished, make the ceremony Sayung, and you will be 

1 This tale is of special importance to the Tinguian since it explains 
how they learned two of the most important things of their present 
life to plant and to cure the sick. It also shows how death came into 
the world. 



Dayapan was filled with wonder at these strange 
things, but she took the rice and the sugar-cane and 
went home as she was commanded. While she was 
trying to plant them in the ground the Spirit again 
entered her body and showed her just what to do. 
Since then the Tinguian have planted crops every year, 
and because they do as Kaboniyan 1 taught the woman 
they have plenty to eat. 

When Dayapan had reaped the first rice and cane, 
she began to make the ceremony Sayung, and the 
Spirit came again and directed her. And when it was 
finished and she was cured, he told her to take a dog 
and a cock and go to bathe in the river as a sign that 
the ceremony was finished. So she went to the river 
and tied the dog and the cock near the water, but 
while she was bathing the dog ate the cock. 

Dayapan wept bitterly at this and waited a long 
time for Kaboniyan, and when at last he came, he said: 

"If the dog had not killed the cock, no person would 
die when you make this ceremony; but this is a sign, 
and now some will die and some will get well." 

Dayapan called all the people together, and told 
them the things that the spirit had taught her; and 
they could see that she had been made well. After 
that, when people became ill they called Dayapan to 
treat them. And it was as the Spirit had said; some 
died and others were made well. 

1 Sec note i, p. 59. 




A GREAT many years ago some Tinguian left their 
-^ little village in the valley early one morning and 
made their way toward the mountains. They were off 
on a deer hunt, 1 and each carried his spear and 
head-ax, while one held in leash a string of lean dogs 
eager for the chase. 

Part way up the mountainside the dogs were freed, 
and the men separated, going different ways in search 
of game. But ere long the sharp barking of a dog 
called all in his direction, for they believed that he 
had a deer at bay. As they approached the spot, how- 
ever, the object did not look like a deer, and as they 
drew nearer they were surprised to find that it was a 
large jar. 2 

*It is a common sight in a Tinguian village early in the morning 
during the dry season to see a number of men armed with spears and 
head-axes leaving for the mountains. They usually take with them, 
to assist in the chase, a string of half-starved dogs. Often a net is 
stretched across the runway of game, and then, while some of the 
hunters conceal themselves near by, others seek to drive the game 
into the net, where it is speared to death. 

2 Ancient Chinese jars are found throughout the interior of the 
Philippines and are very closely associated with the folk-lore of the 
Tinguian. Some of the jars date back to the loth century, while many 
are from the i2th and i4th centuries, and evidently entered the 
Islands through pre-Spanish trade. They are held in great value and 
are generally used in part payment for a bride and for the settlement 
of feuds. For more details see Cole, Chinese Pottery in the Philip- 
pines, Pub. Field Museum of Nat. Hist., Vol. XII, No. i. 


(Magsawi on the left) 





Filled with curiosity they pressed on, but the jar 
evaded them. Faster and faster they ran, but the 
object, disappearing at times and then coming into 
view again, always escaped them. On and on they 
went until at last, tired out, they sat down on a wooded 
hill to rest and to refresh themselves with betel-nut 
which they took from brass boxes attached to their 

As they slowly cut the nuts and wrapped them in the 
lime and leaf ready for chewing, they talked of nothing 
but the wonderful jar and the mysterious power it 
possessed. Then just as they were about to put the 
tempting morsels into their mouths they stopped, star- 
tled by a strange soft voice which seemed to be near 
them. They turned and listened, but could see no 

"Find a pig which has no young," said the voice, 
"and take its blood, for then you will be able to catch 
the jar which your dog pursued." 

The men knew then that the mysterious jar belonged 
to a spirit, so they hastened to do as the voice com- 
manded, and when they had secured the blood the 
dog again brought the jar to bay. The hunters tried 
to seize it, but it entered a hole in the ground and 
disappeared. They followed, and found themselves in 
a dark cave 1 where it was easy to catch the jar, for 
there was no outlet save by the hole through which 
they had entered. 

J This cave is situated in the mountains midway between Patok and 
Santa Rosa. In this vicinity are numerous limestone caves, each of 
which has its traditions. 



Though that was many years ago, the jar still lives, 
and its name is Magsawi. Even now it talks; but 
some years ago a crack appeared in its side, and since 
then its language has not been understood by the 
Tinguian. 1 

Sometimes Magsawi goes on long journeys alone 
when he visits his wife, a jar in Ilocos Norte, or his 
child, a small jar in San Quintin; but he always returns 
to Domayco on the hillside near the cave. 

a Cabildo of Domayco, the envied owner of this jar, has refused 
great sums offered for its purchase, and though men from other tribes 
come bringing ten carabao at one time, they cannot tempt him to sell. 




ORE than a hundred seasons ago, a Tinguian 

went one day to the mountains to hunt. Accom- 
panied by his faithful dog, he made his way steadily 
up the mountain side, only halting where it was neces- 
sary to cut a path through the jungle. And the dog 
ran here and there searching in the thick underbrush. 

On and on he went without seeing any game, and 
then, when he was almost at the top of the highest 
peak, the dog gave a sharp yelp, and out of the brush 
leaped a fine deer. Zip ! went the man's spear, and it 
pierced the animal's side. For an instant he waited, 
but the deer did not fall. On it ran with unslackened 
speed, and a moment later it plunged into a hole in 
the ground with the man and dog in close pursuit. 

A short distance from the entrance the cave opened 
out into large, spacious rooms, and before he realized 
it the man was hopelessly lost. In the distance he 
could hear the baying of the dog, and with no other 
guide he hurried on through the darkness. 

Following the sound, he went for a long time from 
one unfamiliar room to another, stumbling in the 
darkness and striking against the stone walls, and then 
suddenly his outstretched hands grasped a small tree 
on which berries grew. 

Astonished at finding anything growing in this dark 



place, he broke off a branch, and as he did so the 
shrub began to talk in a strange language. Terrified, 
the man ran in the direction he had last heard the 
dog, and a moment later he found himself in the open 
air on the banks of the Abra River, with the dead deer 
at his feet. 

When he examined the twig which he still held in 
his hand, he saw to his great surprise that the berries 
were agate beads of great value. 1 And packing the 
deer on his back, he hastened home where he told his 
wonderful story. 

The sight of the beautiful beads convinced the peo- 
ple that he told the truth, and a number of men at once 
returned with him to secure the tree. 

Their quest, however, was unsuccessful, for ere they 
reached the spot the evil spirit had taken the tree 
away and on the walls of the cave it had made strange 
carvings which even to this day can be seen. 

iThese beautiful agate beads are still worn by the Tinguian women, 
who prize them very highly. They are rarely sold and each is worth 
more than a carabao. 



'TpHREE Tinguian once went to the mountains to 
-*- hunt deer. They took their blankets with them, 
for they expected to be gone several days, and the 
nights in the mountains are cold. 

The blankets of two of the men were of the blue- 
and-white designs such as are commonly worn by the 
Tinguian, but that of the third was covered with red 
and yellow stripes like the back of a little wild pig. 

At night the men rolled up in their blankets and 
lay down under a tree to sleep; but while the one in 
the striped blanket was still awake two spirits came 
near and saw him. 

"Oh," he heard one spirit say to the other, "here 
we have something to eat, for here is a little wild pig." 

Then the man quickly took the blanket off one of 
his sleeping companions and put his own in its place. 
Very soon the spirits came and ate the man under the 
striped blanket. 

Since that time the Tinguian never sleep under that 
kind of a blanket if they are where the spirits can get 




TWO men once went to hunt wild pig in the moun- 
tains, and after some time they speared and killed 
one, but they had no fire over which to singe it. 

One man climbed a tree to see if there was a fire 
near by, and discovering smoke at some distance, he 
started toward it. When he reached the place, he 
found that the fire was in the house of an Alan, 1 and 
he was very much afraid; but creeping up into the 
house, he found that the Alan and her baby were fast 

He stepped on tip-toe, but nevertheless the Alan 
was awakened and called out: 

"Epogow, 2 what do you want?" 

"I should like to get some fire," said the man, "for 
we have killed a wild pig." 

The Alan gave him the fire, and then taking her 
basket she went with him to the place where the pig 

After they had singed the animal, the Alan cut it 
up with her long nails and handed the liver to the 

1 The Alan are supposed to be deformed spirits who live in the 
forests. They are as large as people, but have wings and can fly. 
Their toes are at the back of their feet, and their fingers point back- 
ward from their wrists. 

2 The name by which spirits call human beings. 



man, telling him to take it to her house to feed the 

The man started, and on the way he ate the liver. 
When he reached the Alan's house he did not know 
what to do. For some time he looked around, and 
then seeing a large caldron of hot water on the fire, 
he threw the baby into it and went back. 

"Did the baby eat well?" asked the Alan. 

"Very well," said the man. 

Then she put most of the meat into her basket and 
started home. As soon as she had gone, the man told 
his companion what he had done, and they were so 
frightened that they ran to hide. 

When the Alan reached home and found the baby 
dead in the hot water, she was very angry and started 
back immediately to find the men, who, in the mean- 
time, had climbed a high tree that stood near the water. 

The Alan looked down into the water, and seeing 
the reflection of the men, she reached in her long hand 
with the fingers that pointed backward, but when she 
could not touch them, she looked up and saw them in 
the tall tree. 

"How did you get up there?" she cried angrily. 

"We climbed up feet first," called down the men. 

The Alan, determined to get them, caught hold of 
a vine and started up the tree feet first, but before she 
quite reached them, they cut the vine and she fell to 
the ground and was killed. 1 

''This treatment of the Alan is typical of that accorded to the less 
powerful of the spirits by the Tinguian today. At the ceremonies 
they often make fun of them and cheat them in the sacrifices. 



Then the men came down and went to the Alan's 
house, where they found a jar full of beads and an- 
other of gold, and these they brought with them when 
they returned home. 





TINGUIAN was once walking along a trail in 
the wood when he heard a strange sound in a 
large tree near him, and looking up he was startled to 
see that it was the home of the Alan spirits who live 
in the wood. 

He stopped and gazed for a moment at the horrible 
creatures, large as people, hanging from the limbs of 
the tree with their heads down like bats. They had 
wings to fly, and their toes were at the back of their 
feet, while their long fingers, which pointed backward, 
were fastened at the wrist. 

"Surely," thought the man, "these terrible beings 
will eat me if they can catch me. I will run away as 
fast as I can while they are asleep." He tried to run 
but he was too frightened, and after a few steps he fell 
face down on the ground. 

At this the Alan began to wail loudly, for they saw 
him fall and believed him dead. And they came down 
out of the tree with gold and beads which they laid 
on him. 

After a while the man gathered courage and, jump- 
ing up, he cried as loudly as he could, "Go away!" 

The Alan did not move, but they looked at him and 
said: "Give us the one bead nagaba [a peculiar bead 
of double effect], and you may have the rest." When 



the man refused to do this, they were angry and turned 
away, crying, "Then we are going to burn your house, 
for you are a bad man." 

Thereupon the man went home as fast as he could 
go, but very soon after that his house burned, for the 
Alan kept their word. 



day, a long time ago, some men went to the 
mountains to hunt deer and wild pig, and among 
them was one named Sogsogot. 

They all went into the thick forest to look for 
game, but after a while Sogsogot called his dog and 
withdrew to an open spot near by, where he waited 
for the deer to come out. 

While he stood there eagerly watching, a big bird 1 
swooped down, caught him in its claws, and carried 
him away. Far off over the mountains the bird soared, 
until finally it came to a big tree where it had its nest, 
and here it left the man and flew away. 

Sogsogot's first thought was to make his escape, but 
he found that the tree was so tall that he could not 
get down, and after a time he ceased his attempts to 
get away and began to look over his companions in 
the nest two young birds and three little pigs. 

By and by he became hungry, so he cut up the three 
little pigs, and after he had eaten all he wished he fed 
the two birds. When this meat was gone the mother 
bird brought more pigs and deer, and the man had all 
he could eat. Then he fed the little birds, which grew 

1 Known to the Tinguian as Banog. This bird occupies much the 
same place with the Tinguian as does the garuda in East Indian folk- 



very fast and soon were able to fly. One day when 
they were standing on the edge of the nest Sogsogot 
caught hold of the birds' legs, and they fluttered down 
and carried him safely to the ground. 

He hastened home as fast as he could go and told 
the people of his wonderful trip. They made a cere- 
mony for the spirits, and all the people rejoiced that 
the lost man had returned. 

Some time after this Sogsogot went to a hostile 
town to fight, and while he was gone his wife died. 
On the way back to his town he met the spirit of his 
wife driving a cow and two pigs, and not knowing that 
she was a spirit he asked her where she was going. 

"I am not a person any more," she answered him; 
"I am dead." And when he wanted to touch her 
hand, she gave him only her shortest finger. He begged 
to go with her so she said, u Go first to our home and 
get a white chicken; then follow the footmarks of the 
cow and pigs." 

He did as she commanded him, and after a while 
he came to a place where she was bathing in the river. 
She said to him;: 

"Now you may come with me to our spirit town. 1 I 
shall hide you in the rice-bin and shall bring food to 
you every day. But at night the people in the town 
will want to eat you, and when they come to the bin 
you must take some of the feathers of the white chicken 
and throw at them." 

a This tale gives to the Tinguian his idea of the future world. 
Sogsogot is supposed to have lived only a short time ago, and his 
experiences are well known to all the people. 



The man went with her, and when they arrived at 
the spirit town she hid him in the rice-bin. At night 
the people came to eat him, as she had said they would; 
but when he threw the chicken feathers at them they 
were frightened away. 

For two weeks Sogsogot lived in this place, but 
when the feathers were nearly gone he was afraid to 
stay any longer, for every night the spirits came to eat 
him. He begged his wife to allow him to go, and 
finally she showed him the way home, giving him rice 
to eat on his journey. 

As soon as the man arrived home and inquired for 
his wife, the people told him that she had died and 
they had buried her under the house. Then he knew 
that it was her spirit that had taken him to the strange 





HEN Siagon was about eight years old his 
parents began looking for a girl who would 
make a suitable wife. At last when they had decided 
on a beautiful maiden, who lived some distance from 
them, they sent a man to her parents to ask if they 
would like Siagon for a son-in-law. 

Now when the man arrived at the girl's house the 
people were all sitting on the floor eating periwinkle, 
and as they sucked the meat out of the shell, they 
nodded their heads. The man, looking in at the door, 
saw them nod, and he thought they were nodding at 
him. So he did not tell them his errand, but returned 
quickly to the boy's parents and told them that all 
the people at the girl's house were favorable to the 

Siagon's parents were very much pleased that their 
proposal had been so kindly received, and immediately 
prepared to go to the girl's house to arrange for the" 

Finally all was ready and they started for her 
house, carrying with them as presents for her parents 
two carabao, two horses, two cows, four iron kettles, 
sixteen jars of basi, two blankets, and two little 

The surprise of the girl's people knew no bounds 



when they saw all this coming to their house, for they 
had not even thought of Siagon marrying their 
daughter. 1 

'See note i, p. 15. Practically this same tale is told by the neigh- 
boring Ilocano, from whom it may have been borrowed; but here the 
Tinguian custom of paying a marriage price is introduced. 





NE day a little boy named Elonen sat out in the 
yard making a bird snare, and as he worked, a 
little bird called to him: "Tik-tik-lo-den" (come and 
catch me). 

"I am making a snare for you," said the boy; 
but the bird continued to call until the snare was 

Then Elonen ran and threw the snare over the bird 
and caught it, and he put it in a jar in his house while 
he went with the other boys to swim. 

While he was away, his grandmother grew hungry, 
so she ate the bird, and when Elonen returned and 
found that his bird was gone, he was so sad that he 
wished he might go away and never come back. He 
went out into the forest and walked a long distance, 
until finally he came to a big stone and said: "Stone, 
open your mouth and eat me." And the stone opened 
its mouth and swallowed the boy. 

When his grandmother missed the boy, she went out 
and looked everywhere, hoping to find him. Finally 
she passed near the stone and it cried out, "Here he is." 
Then the old woman tried to open the stone but she 
could not, so she called the horses to come and help 
her. They came and kicked it, but it would not break. 
Then she called the carabao and they hooked it, but 



they only broke their horns. She called the chickens, 
which pecked it, and the thunder, which shook it, but 
nothing could open it, and she had to go home without 
the boy. 




A TURTLE and a big lizard once went to the field 
-^*- of Gotgotapa to steal ginger. 1 When they reached 
the place the turtle said to the lizard: 

"We must be very still or the man will hear us and 

come out." 

But as soon as the lizard tasted the ginger he was 
so pleased that he said: 

"The ginger of Gotgotapa is very good." 

"Be still," said the turtle; but the lizard paid no 
attention to the warning, and called louder than ever: 

"The ginger of Gotgotapa is very good." 

Again and again he cried out, until finally the man 
heard him and came out of the house to catch the 

The turtle could not run fast, so he lay very still, 
and the man did not see him. But the lizard ran and 
the man chased him. When they were out of sight, 
the turtle went into the house and hid under a cocoanut 
shell upon which the man used to sit. 2 

The man ran after the lizard for a long distance, 

1 This type of story is also found farther to the south, where the 
cleverness of the small animal causes him to triumph over the strong. 

2 The Tinguian house contains neither tables nor chairs. The people 
usually squat on the floor, sitting on their heels; if anything is used as 
a seat it is a bit of cocoanut shell or a small block of wood. 



but he could not catch him. After a while he came back 
to the house and sat down on the shell. 

By and by, the turtle called, "Kook." The man 
jumped up and looked all around. Unable to tell where 
the noise came from, he sat down again. 

A second tinte the turtle called, and this time the 
man looked everywhere in the house except under the 
shell, but could not find the turtle. Again and again 
the turtle called, and finally the man, realizing that all 
his attempts were unsuccessful, grew so excited that 
he died. 

Then the turtle ran out of the house, and he had 
not gone far before he met the lizard again. They 
walked along together until they saw some honey in a 
tree, and the turtle said: 

"I will go first and get some of the honey." 

The lizard would not wait, but ran ahead, and when 
he seized the honey, the bees came out and stung him. 
So he ran back to the turtle for help. 

After a while they came to a bird snare, and the 
turtle said: 

"That is the silver wire that my grandfather wore 
about his neck." 

Then the lizard ran fast to get it first, but he was 
caught in the snare and was held until the man came 
and killed him. Then the wise turtle went on alone. 



NE day a man who had been to gather his cocoa- 
nuts loaded his horse heavily with the fruit. On 
the way home he met a boy whom he asked how long 
it would take to reach the house. 

"If you go slowly," said the boy, looking at the load 
on the horse, "you will arrive very soon; but if you 
go fast, it will take you all day." 

The man could not believe this strange speech, so 
he hurried his horse. But the cocoanuts fell off and he 
had to stop to pick them up. Then he hurried his 
horse all the more to make up for lost time, but the 
cocoanuts fell off again. Many times he did this, and 
it was night when he reached home. 1 

J Here we have a proverbial tale, one in which the Tinguian ex- 
presses the idea, "Haste makes waste." 




NE very hot day, when a carabao went into the 
river to bathe, he met a shell and they began 
talking together. 

"You are very slow," said the carabao to the shell. 
"Oh, no," replied the shell. "I can beat you in a 



"Then let us try and see," said the carabao. 

So they went out on the bank and started to run. 

After the carabao had gone a long distance he 
stopped and called, "Shell!" 

And another shell lying by the river answered, "Here 
I am!" 

Then the carabao, thinking that it was the same 
shell with which he was racing, ran on. 

By and by he stopped again and called, "Shell!" 

Again another shell answered, "Here I am !" 

The carabao was surprised that the shell could keep 
up with him. But he ran on and on, and every time 
he stopped to call, another shell answered him. But 
he was determined that the shell should not beat him, 
so he ran until he dropped dead. 1 

1 Another version of this tale is found in British North Borneo in 
the story of the plandok and the crab, while to European children 
it is known as the race between the turtle and the hare. 





WO women went to gather some wild fruit from 
a vine which belonged to the alligator. 

"You must be careful not to throw the rind with 
your teeth marks on it where the alligator can see it," 
said one of the women to the other as they sat eating 
the fruit. 

But the other woman paid no attention and threw 
the rind showing teeth marks into the river, where the 
alligator saw it. 

Thus he knew at once who had taken his fruit, and 
he was very angry. He went to the house of the 
woman and called to the people : 

"Bring out the woman that I may eat her, for she 
has eaten my fruit." 

"Very well," answered the people. "But sit down 
and wait a little while." 

Then they put the iron soil-turner into the fire, and 
when it was red hot, they took it to the door and said 
to the alligator: 

"Here, eat this first." 

He opened his mouth, and they pushed the red hot 
iron down his throat, and he died. 





(Showing bird flappers) 



T^\OGEDOG had always been very lazy, and now 
*"^ that his father and mother were dead and he had 
no one to care for him, he lived very poorly. He had 
little to eat. His house was old and small and so 
poor that it had not even a floor. Still he would rather 
sit all day and idle away his time than to work and 
have more things. 

One day, however, when the rainy season was near 
at hand, Dogedog began thinking how cold he would 
be when the storms came, and he felt so sorry for 
himself that he decided to make a floor in his house. 

Wrapping some rice in a banana leaf for his dinner, 
he took his long knife and went to the forest to cut 
some bamboo. He hung the bundle of rice in a tree 
until he should need it; but while he was working a 
cat came and ate it. When the hungry man came for 
his dinner, there was none left. Dogedog went back 
to his miserable little house which looked forlorn to 
him even, now that he had decided to have a floor. 

The next day he went again to the forest and hung 
his rice in the tree as he did before, but again the cat 
came and ate it. So the man had to go home without 
any dinner. 

The third day he took the rice, but this time he fixed 
a trap in the tree, and when the cat came it was caught. 



"Now I have you !" cried the man when he found the 
cat; "and I shall kill you for stealing my rice." 

"Oh, do not kill me," pleaded the cat, "and I will 
be of some use to you." 

So Dogedog decided to spare the cat's life, and he 
took it home and tied it near the door to guard the 

Some time later when he went to look at it, he was 
very much surprised to find that it had become a cock. 

"Now I can go to the cock-fight at Magsingal," 
cried the man. And he was very happy, for he had 
much rather do that than work. 

Thinking no more of getting wood for his floor, he 
started out at once for Magsingal with the cock under 
his arm. As he was crossing a river he met an alligator 
which called out to him : 

"Where are you going, Dogedog?" 

"To the cock-fight at Magsingal," replied the man 
as he fondly stroked the rooster. 

"Wait, and I will go with you," said the alligator; 
and he drew himself out of the water. 

The two walking along together soon entered a for- 
est where they met a deer and it asked: 

"Where are you going, Dogedog?" 

"To the cock-fight at Magsingal," said the man. 

"Wait and I will go with you," said the deer; and 
he also joined them. 

By and by they met a mound of earth that had been 
raised by the ants, and they would have passed without 
noticing it had it not inquired: 

"Where are you going, Dogedog?" 



"To the cock-fight at Magsingal," said the man once 
more; and the mound of earth joined them. 

The company then hurried on, and just as they were 
leaving the forest, they passed a big tree in which was 
a monkey. 

"Where are you going, Dogedog?" shrieked the 
monkey. And without waiting for an answer he 
scrambled down the tree and followed them. 

As the party walked along they talked together, and 
the alligator said to Dogedog: 

"If any man wants to dive into the water, I can stay 
under longer than he." 

Then the deer, not to be outdone, said: 

"If any man wants to run, I can run faster." 

The mound of earth, anxious to show its strength, 

"If any man wants to wrestle, I can beat him." 

And the monkey said: 

"If any man wants to climb, I can go higher." 

They reached Magsingal in good time and the peo- 
ple were ready for the fight to begin. When Dogedog 
put his rooster, which had been a cat, into the pit, it 
killed the other cock at once, for it used its claws 
like a cat. 

The people brought more roosters and wagered 
much money, but Dogedog' s cock killed all the others 
until there was not one left in Magsingal, and Dogedog 
won much money. Then they went outside the town 
and brought all the cocks they could find, but not one 
could win over that of Dogedog. 

When the cocks were all dead, the people wanted 



some other sport, so they brought a man who could 
stay under water for a long time, and Dogedog made 
him compete with the alligator. But after a while the 
man had to come up first. Then they brought a swift 
runner and he raced with the deer, but the man was 
left far behind. Next they looked around until they 
found a very large man who was willing to contend 
with the mound of earth, but after a hard struggle the 
man was thrown. 

Finally they brought a man who could climb higher 
than anyone else, but the monkey went far above him, 
and he had to give up. 

All these contests had brought much money to Doge- 
dog, and now he had to buy two horses to carry his 
sacks of silver. As soon as he reached home, he 
bought the house of a very rich man and went to live 
in it. And he was very happy, for he did not have to 
work any more. 1 

1 The story shows the influence of the Christianized natives, among 
whom cock-fighting is a very popular sport. It is found only among 
those Tinguian who come into contact with this class. 





'IpHREE or four days' journey to the south and east 
-* of the Tinguian live the Igorot; but so difficult 
are the trails over the mountains and through the 
swift rivers that there is little intercourse between the 
two tribes, consequently each believes the other a people 
to be feared. Salt, weapons, and jars are sometimes 
exchanged, but the customs and beliefs are not sim- 
ilar. Each group leads its own life and is governed 
by its own spirits. 

From a distance an Igorot village looks like a group 
of haystacks nestling among the hills ; but viewed more 
closely, it is found to consist of houses whose board 
sides are almost hidden by the overhanging grass roofs. 
The upper part of the house is used as a storehouse, 
while below, on a ground floor, the family cooks and 
eats. In one end there is a tiny boxlike bedroom where 
the father, mother, and small children sleep. After 
they are two or three years old the girls spend the 
night in a dormitory, while the boys sleep in the men's 
council house. 

These people have splendid terraced fields on the 
mountain sides where water is brought from the streams 
through troughs and ditches. Here both men and 
women are busy early and late cultivating the rice, 
sweet potatoes, and small vegetables on which they 
live. The men are head-hunters and ardent warriors, 



each village demanding a head in payment for any 
taken by a hostile village. 

Watching over the Igorot, controlling the winds and 
the rains, and providing good crops and health for the 
people, is the Great Spirit, Lumawig, who lives in the 
sky. He is believed to have created the Igorot and 
even to have lived among them on the earth. He no 
longer visits them in person, they say, but each month 
they perform a ceremony at which they pray to him to 
protect them and entreat him to favor them with 
health and good crops. 

The following tales are told by the fathers and 
mothers to the children to teach them how things came 
to be as they are. 




T N the beginning there were no people on the earth. 
* Lumawig, 1 the Great Spirit, came down from the 
sky and cut many reeds. 2 He divided these into pairs 
which he placed in different parts of the world, and 
then he said to them, "You must speak." Immedi- 
ately the reeds became people, and in each place was 
a man and a woman who could talk, but the language 
of each couple differed from that of the others. 

Then Lumawig commanded each man and woman to 
marry, which they did. By and by there were many 
children, all speaking the same language as their par- 

1 Lumawig is the greatest of all spirits and now lives in the sky, 
though for a time his home was in the Igorot village of Bontoc. He 
married a Bontoc girl, and the stones of their house are still to be 
seen in the village. It was Lumawig who created the Igorot, and 
ever since he has taken a great interest in them, teaching them how to 
overcome the forces of nature, how to plant, to reap and, in fact, 
everything that they know. Once each month a ceremony is held in 
his honor in a sacred grove, whose trees are believed to have sprung 
from the graves of his children. Here prayers are offered for health, 
good crops, and success in battle. A close resemblance exists between 
Lumawig of the Igorot and Kaboniyan of the Tinguian, the former 
being sometimes called Kambun'yan. 

2 The Bukidnon of Mindanao have the following story: During a 
great drought Mampolompon could grow nothing on his clearing 
except one bamboo, and during a high wind this was broken. From 
this bamboo came a dog and a woman, who were the ancestors of the 
Moro. See "The White Squash," note i, p. 186. 



ents. These, in turn, married and had many chil- 
dren. In this way there came to be many people on the 

Now Lumawig saw that there were several things 
which the people on the earth needed to use, so he set 
to work to supply them. He created salt, and told 
the inhabitants of one place to boil it down and sell 
it to their neighbors. But these people could not 
understand the directions of the Great Spirit, and 
the next time he visited them, they had not touched 
the salt. 

Then he took it away from them and gave it to the 
people of a place called Mayinit. 1 These did as he 
directed, and because of this he told them that they 
should always be owners of the salt, and that the other 
peoples must buy of them. 

Then Lumawig went to the people of Bontoc and 
told them to get clay and make pots. They got the 
clay, but they did not understand the moulding, and 
the jars were not well shaped. Because of their failure, 
Lumawig told them that they would always have to 

'At the north end of the village of Mayinit are a number of brackish 
hot springs, and from these the people secure the salt which has made 
the spot famous for miles around. Stones are placed in the shallow 
streams flowing from these springs, and when they have become en- 
crusted with salt (about once a month) they are washed and the water 
is evaporated by boiling. The salt, which is then a thick paste, is 
formed into cakes and baked near the fire for about half an hour, 
when it is ready for use. It is the only salt in this section, and is in 
great demand. Even hostile tribes come to a hill overlooking the town 
and call down, then deposit whatever they have for trade and with- 
draw, while the Igorot take up the salt and leave it in place of the 
trade articles. 



buy their jars, and he removed the pottery to Samoki. 1 
When he told the people there what to do, they did 
just as he said, and their jars were well shaped and 
beautiful. Then the Great Spirit saw that they were 
fit owners of the pottery, and he told them that they 
should always make many jars to sell. 

In this way Lumawig taught the people and brought 
to them all the things which they now have. 

*The women of Samoki are known as excellent potters, and their 
ware is used over a wide area. From a pit on a hillside to the north 
of the village they dig a reddish-brown clay, which they mix with a 
bluish mineral gathered on another hillside. When thoroughly mixed, 
this clay is placed on a board on the ground, and the potter, kneeling 
before it, begins her moulding. Great patience and skill are required 
to bring the vessel to the desired shape. When it is completed it is 
set in the sun to dry for two or three days, after which it is ready for 
the baking. The new pots are piled tier above tier on the ground and 
blanketed with grass tied into bundles. Then pine bark is burned 
beneath and around the pile for about an hour, when the ware is suf- 
ficiently fired. It is then glazed with resin and is ready to market. 





NCE upon a time, when the world was flat and 
there were no mountains, there lived two brothers, 
sons of Lumawig, the Great Spirit. The brothers were 
fond of hunting, and since no mountains had formed 
there was no good place to catch wild pig and deer, 
and the older brother said: 

"Let us cause water to flow over all the world and 
cover it, and then mountains will rise up." x 

So they caused water to flow over all the earth, and 
when it was covered they took the head-basket 2 of the 
town and set it for a trap. The brothers were very 
much pleased when they went to look at their trap, for 
they had caught not only many wild pigs and deer but 
also many people. 

Now Lumawig looked down from his place in the 
sky and saw that his sons had flooded the earth and 
that in all the world there was just one spot which was 
not covered. And he saw that all the people in the 
world had been drowned except one brother and sister 
who lived in Pokis. 

1 The mythology of nearly all peoples has a flood story. For the 
Tinguian account see note on page 103. For the Bukidnon story see 
p. 125. 

2 A bamboo basket, in which the heads of victims are kept prior to 
the head-taking celebration. 



Then Lumawig descended, and he called to the boy 
and girl, saying: 

"Oh, you are still alive." 

"Yes," answered the boy, "we are still alive, but we 
are very cold." 

So Lumawig commanded his dog and deer to get 
fire 1 for the boy and girl. The dog and the deer 
swam quickly away, but though Lumawig waited a 
long time they did not return, and all the time the boy 
and girl were growing colder. 

Finally Lumawig himself went after the dog and the 
deer, and when he reached them he said: 

"Why are you so long in bringing the fire to Pokis? 
Get ready and come quickly while I watch you, for the 
boy and girl are very cold." 

Then the dog and the deer took the fire and started 
to swim through the flood, but when they had gone 
only a little way the fire was put out. 

Lumawig commanded them to get more fire and they 
did so, but they swam only a little way again when 
that of the deer went out, and that of the dog would 
have been extinguished also had not Lumawig gone 
quickly to him and taken it. 

As soon as Lumawig reached Pokis he built a big 
fire which warmed the brother and sister; and the 

'The folk-lore of all countries has some story accounting for the 
acquisition of fire. The Tinguian tale is as follows: Once in the very 
old times Kaboniyan sent a flood which covered all the land. Then 
there was no place for the fire to stay, so it went into the bamboo, the 
stones, and iron. That is why one who knows how can still get fire 
out of bamboo and stones. 



water evaporated so that the world was as it was 
before, except that now there were mountains. The 
brother and sister married and had children, and thus 
there came to be many people on the earth. 




NE day when Lumawig, 1 the Great Spirit, looked 
down from his place in the sky he saw two sisters 
gathering beans. And he decided to go down to visit 
them. When he arrived at the place he asked them 
what they were doing. The younger, whose name was 
Fukan, answered: 

"We are gathering beans, but it takes a long time 
to get enough, for my sister wants to go bathing all 
the time." 

Then Lumawig said to the older sister: 

"Hand me a single pod of the beans." 

And when she had given it to him, he shelled it into 
the basket and immediately the basket was full. 2 The 
younger sister laughed at this, and Lumawig said to 

"Give me another pod and another basket." 

She did so, and when he had shelled the pod, that 
basket was full also. Then he said to the younger 

"Go home and get three more baskets." 

She went home, but when she asked for three more 
baskets her mother said that the beans were few and 

^ee note i, p. 99. 

2 The magical increase of food is a popular subject with the Tin- 
guian, appearing in many of their folk-tales. See note 2, p. 48. 



she could not need so many. Then Fukan told her of 
the young man who could fill a basket from one pod 
of beans, and the father, who heard her story, tfaid : 

"Go bring the young man here, for I think he must 
be a god." 

So Fukan took the three baskets back to Lumawig, 
and when he had filled them as he did the other two, 
he helped the girls carry them to the house. As they 
reached their home, he stopped outside to cool himself, 
but the father called to him and he went up into the 
house and asked for some water. The father brought 
him a cocoanut shell full, and before drinking Lumawig 
looked at it and said: 

"If I stay here with you, I shall become very 

The next morning Lumawig asked to see their chick- 
ens, and when they opened the chicken-coop out came 
a hen and many little chicks. "Are these all of your 
chickens?" asked Lumawig; and the father assured 
him that they were all. He then bade them bring rice 
meal that he might feed them, and as the chickens ate 
they all grew rapidly till they were cocks and hens. 

Next Lumawig asked how many pigs they had, and 
the father replied that they had one with some little 
ones. Then Lumawig bade them fill a pail with sweet 
potato leaves and he fed the pigs. And as they ate 
they also grew to full size. 

The father was so pleased with all these things that 
he offered his elder daughter to Lumawig for a wife. 
But the Great Spirit said he preferred to marry the 
younger; so that was arranged. Now when his brother- 



in-law learned that Lumawig desired a feast at his wed- 
ding, he was very angry and said: 

"Where would you get food for your wedding feast? 
There is no rice, nor beef, nor pork, nor chicken. " 

But Lumawig only answered, "I shall provide our 
wedding feast." 

In the morning they all set out for Lanao, for 
Lumawig did not care to stay any longer in the house 
with his brother-in-law. As soon as they arrived he 
sent out for some tree trunks, but the trees that the 
people brought in were so small that Lumawig himself 
went to the forest and cut two large pine trees which 
he hurled to Lanao. 

When the people had built a fire of the trees he 
commanded them to bring ten kettles filled with water. 
Soon the water was boiling hot and the brother-in-law 
laughed and said: 

"Where is your rice? You have the boiling water, 
but you do not seem to think of the rice." 

In answer to this Lumawig took a small basket of 
rice and passed it over five kettles and they were full. 
Then he called "Yishtjau," and some deer came run- 
ning out of the forest. These were not what he wanted, 
however, so he called again and some pigs came. He 
told the people that they were each to catch one 
and for his brother-in-law he selected the largest and 

They all set out in pursuit of the pigs and the others 
quickly caught theirs, but though the brother-in-law 
chased his until he was very tired and hot he could not 
catch it. Lumawig laughed at him and said: 



"You chase that pig until he is thin and still you 
cannot catch it, though all the others have theirs." 

Thereupon he grasped the hind legs of the pig and 
lifted it. All the people laughed and the brother-in- 
law said: 

"Of course you can catch it, because I chased it until 
it was tired." 

Lumawig then handed it to him and said, "Here, 
you carry it" But no sooner had the brother-in- 
law put it over his shoulder than it cut loose and ran 

"Why did you let it go?" asked Lumawig. "Do you 
care nothing for it, even after I caught it for you? 
Catch it again and bring it here." 

So the brother-in-law started out again, and he 
chased it up stream and down, but he could not catch it. 
Finally Lumawig reached down and picked up the pig 
and carried it to the place where the others were 

After they had all eaten and drunk and made their 
offerings to the spirits, Lumawig said: 

"Come, let us go to the mountain to consult the omen 
concerning the northern tribes." 

So they consulted the omen, but it was not favorable, 
and they were starting home when the brother-in-law 
asked Lumawig to create some water, as the people 
were hot and thirsty. 

"Why do you not create water, Lumawig?" he re- 
peated as Lumawig paid no attention to him. "You 
care nothing that the people are thirsty and in need 
of drink." 



Then they quarreled and were very angry and Luma- 
wig said to the people, u Let us sit down and rest." 

While they rested, Lumawig struck the rock with 
his spear and water came out. 1 The brother-in-law 
jumped up to get a drink first, but Lumawig held him 
back and said he must be the last to drink. So they all 
drank, and when they had finished, the brother-in-law 
stepped up, but Lumawig gave him a push which sent 
him into the rock and water came from his body. 

u You must stay there," said Lumawig, "because 
you have troubled me a great deal." And they went 
home, leaving him in the rock. 

Some time after this Lumawig decided to go back 
to the sky to live, but before he went he took care that 
his wife should have a home. He made a coffin of 
wood 2 and placed her in it with a dog at her feet and 
a cock at her head. And as he set it floating on the 
water, 3 he told it not to stop until it reached Tinglayen. 
Then, if the foot end struck first, the dog should bark; 

*Note the similarity to the story of Moses in this account of Lumawig 
striking the rock and water coming out. There is a possibility that 
this incident was added to the story after the advent of the Catholic 

2 Usually one or more new coffins can be found in an Igorot village. 
They are made from a log split in two lengthwise, each half being 
hollowed out. Since their manufacture requires some days, it is neces- 
sary to prepare them ahead of time. After the body is put in, the 
cover is tied on with rattan and the chinks sealed with mud and lime. 

3 A somewhat similar idea is found among the Kulaman of southern 
Mindanao. Here when an important man dies he is placed in a coffin, 
which resembles a small boat, the coffin being then fastened on high 
poles near the sea. See Cole, Wild Tribes of Davao District, Min- 
danao, Pub. Field Museum of Nat. Hist., Vol. XII, No. 2, 1913. 



and if the head end was the first to strike, the cock 
should crow. So it floated away, and on and on, until 
it came to Tinglayen. 

Now a widower was sharpening his ax on the bank 
of the river, and when he saw the coffin stop, he went 
to fish it out of the water. On shore he started to open 
it, but Fugan cried out, "Do not drive a wedge, for I 
am here." So the widower opened it carefully and 
took Fugan up to the town, and then as he had no wife 
of his own, he married her. 




NE day the Moon, who was a woman named 

Kabigat, sat out in the yard making a large cop- 
per pot. The copper was still soft and pliable like 
clay, and the woman squatted on the ground with the 
heavy pot against her knees while she patted and 
shaped it. 2 

Now while she was working a son of Chal-chal, the 
Sun, came by and stopped to watch her mould the 
form. Against the inside of the jar she pressed a stone, 
while on the outside with a wooden paddle dripping 
with water she pounded and slapped until she had 
worked down the bulges and formed a smooth surface. 

The boy was greatly interested in seeing the jar 
grow larger, more beautiful, and smoother with each 
stroke, and he stood still for some time. Suddenly the 
Moon looked up and saw him watching her. Instantly 
she struck him with her paddle, cutting off his head. 

Now the Sun was not near, but he knew as soon as 

is story, first recorded by Dr. A. E. Jenks, gives the origin of the 
custom of head-hunting, which plays such an important part in the 
life of the Igorot. The Igorot claim to have taken heads ever since 
Lumawig lived on earth and taught them to go to war, and they de- 
clare that it makes them brave and manly. The return of a successful 
war party is the signal for a great celebration. 

is is also the common way of making pottery. 



the Moon had cut off his son's head. And hurrying 
to the spot, he put the boy's head back on, and he was 
alive again. 

Then the Sun said to the Moon, "You cut off my 
son's head, and because you did this ever after on the 
earth people will cut off each other's heads." 




there lived two boys whose mother sent them 
every day to the forest to get wood 2 for her 
fires. Each morning, as they started out, she gave 
them some food for their trip, but it was always poor 
and there was little of it, and she would say: 

"The wood that you brought yesterday was so poor 
that I cannot give you much to eat today." 

The boys tried very hard to please her, but if they 
brought nice pine wood she scolded them, and if they 
brought large dry reeds she said: 

"These are no good for my fire, for they leave too 
much ashes in the house." 

Try as they would, they failed to satisfy her; and 
their bodies grew very thin from working hard all 
day and from want of enough to eat. 

One morning when they left for the mountains the 
mother gave them a bit of dog meat to eat, and the 
boys were very sad. When they reached the forest one 
of them said: 

1 Here we have a story, recorded by Dr. A. E. Jenks, with a twofold 
value: it is told to the children as a warning against stinginess, and 
it also explains the origin of the serpent eagle. 

2 There is no jungle in the greater part of the Igorot country, the 
mountains being covered by cogon grass with occasional pine trees. 
At a distance these have a strange appearance, for only the bushy 
tops are left, the lower branches being cut off for fuel. 



"You wait here while I climb the tree and cut off 
some branches." 

He went up the tree and soon called down, "Here 
is some wood," and the bones of his arm dropped to 
the ground. 

"Oh," cried his brother, "it is your arm I" 

"Here is some more wood," cried the other, and 
the bones of the other arm dropped to the ground. 

Then he called again, and the bones of his leg fell, 
then those of his other leg, and so on till all the bones 
of his body lay on the ground. 

"Take these home," he said, "and tell the woman 
that here is her wood; she only wanted my bones." 

The younger boy was very sad, for he was alone, 
and there was no one to go down the mountain with 
him. He gathered up the bundle of wood, wondering 
meanwhile what he should do, but just as he finished a 
serpent eagle called down from the tree tops: 

"I will go with you, Brother." 

So the boy put the bundle of wood on his shoulder, 
and as he was going down the mountain, his brother, 
who was now a serpent eagle, flew over his head. 
When he reached the house, he put down the bundle 
and said to his mother: 

"Here is your wood." 

When she looked at it she was very much frightened 
and ran out of the house. 

Then the serpent eagle circled round and round 
above her head and called: 

"Quiukok! quiukok! quiukok! I do not need your 
food any more." 



there were two young men, very good 
friends, who were unhappy because neither of 
them had been tattooed. 2 They felt that they were not 
as beautiful as their friends. 

One day they agreed to tattoo each other. One 
marked the breast and back of the other, his arms and 
legs, and even his face. And when he had finished, he 
took soot off the bottom of a cooking-pot and rubbed 
it into all the marks ; and he was tattooed beautifully. 

The one who had done the work said to the other: 

"Now, my friend, you are very beautiful, and you 
must tattoo me." 

Then the tattooed one scraped a great pile of black 
soot off the cooking-pots, and before the other knew 
what he was about, he had rubbed it all over him from 
the top of his head to the bottom of his feet; and he 

'First recorded by Dr. A. E. Jenks. 

2 Tattooing is a painful process, but Igorot men, women, and 
children willingly submit to it for the sake of beauty. The design is 
first drawn on the skin with an ink made of soot and water: then 
the skin is pricked through the pattern and the soot is rubbed into the 
wounds. Various designs appear on the face, arms, stomach, and 
other parts of the body, but the most important of all markings is that 
on the breast of an Igorot man. This designates him as the taker of 
at least one human head, and he is thus shown to be worthy of the 
respect of his tribe. 



was very black and greasy. The one who was covered 
with soot became very angry and cried: 

"Why do you treat me so when I tattooed you so 

They began to fight, but suddenly the beautifully tat- 
tooed one became a great lizard which ran away and 
hid in the tall grass, while the sooty one became a crow 
and flew away over the village. 1 

story also accounts for the origin of the crow and the lizard, 
both of which are common in the Igorot country. 




day when a mother was pounding out rice to 
cook for supper, her little girl ran up to her and 

"Oh, Mother, give me some of the raw rice to 

"No," said the mother, "it is not good for you to 
eat until it is cooked. Wait for supper." 

But the little girl persisted until the mother, out of 
patience, cried: 

"Be still. It is not good for you to talk so much !" 

When she had finished pounding the rice, the woman 
poured it into a rice winnower and tossed it many times 
into the air. As soon as the chaff was removed she 
emptied the rice into her basket and covered it with 
the winnower. Then she took the jar upon her head, 
and started for the spring to get water. 

Now the little girl was fond of going to the spring 
with her mother, for she loved to play in the cool 
water while her mother filled the jars. But this time 
she did not go, and as soon as the woman was out of 
sight, she ran to the basket of rice. She reached down 

'This story, first recorded by Dr. A. E. Jenks, while it explains the 
origin of the little rice bird, also points a moral, namely, that there is 
punishment for the disobedient child. 


to take a handful of the grain. The cover slipped so 
that she fell, and was covered up in the basket. 

When the mother returned to the house, she heard 
a bird crying, "King, king, nik ! nik ! nik !" She listened 
carefully, and as the sound seemed to come from the 
basket, she removed the cover. To her surprise, out 
hopped a little brown rice bird, and as it flew away it 
kept calling back: 

"Goodbye, Mother; goodbye, Mother. You would 
not give me any rice to eat." 



Wild Tribes of Mindanao 


ABOUT one thousand miles to the south and east 
of the Tinguian and Igorot is the Island of Min- 
danao, which is inhabited by mortals and immortals 
entirely unknown to the mountain tribes of the north. 

In the northern part of this great island are the 
Bukidnon timid, wild people who, attacked from 
time to time by the Moro on one side and the Manobo 
on the other, have drawn back into scattered homes in 
the hills. Here they live in poor dwellings raised high 
from the ground. Some even build in trees, their shel- 
tered and secret positions making them less subject to 

They are not a warlike people, and their greatest 
concern is for the good will of the numerous spirits 
who watch over their every act. At times they gather 
a little hemp or coffee from the hillside or along the 
stream bank and carry it to the coast to exchange for 
the bright cloth which they make into gay clothes. 
But they do not love work, and the most of their time 
is spent in resting or attending ceremonies made to 
gain the good will of the immortals. 

In this country the belief prevails that there are 
spirits in the stones, in the baliti trees, in the vines, the 
cliffs, and even the caves. And never does a man start 
on a journey or make a clearing on the mountain side 
until he has first besought these spirits not to be angry 



with him but to favor him with prosperity and bring 
good crops. 

The greatest of the spirits is Diwata Magbabaya, 
who is so awe-inspiring that his name is never men- 
tioned above a whisper. He lives in the sky in a 
house made of coins, and there are no windows in this 
building, for if men should look upon him they would 
melt into water. 

About the Gulf of Davao, in the southeastern part 
of this island, are a number of small tribes, each dif- 
fering somewhat from the other in customs and beliefs. 
Of these the most influential are the Bagobo who dwell 
on the lower slopes of Mt. Apo, the highest peak in 
the Philippines. They are very industrious, forging 
excellent knives, casting fine articles in brass, and 
weaving beautiful hemp cloth which they make into 
elaborate garments decorated with beads and shell 

The men are great warriors, each gaining distinction 
among his people according to the number of human 
lives he has taken. A number of them dress in dark 
red suits and peculiar headbands which they are per- 
mitted to wear only after they have taken six lives. 
Notwithstanding their bravery in battle, these people 
fear and have great respect for the numerous spirits 
who rule over their lives. 

From a great fissure in the side of Mt. Apo, clouds 
of sulphur fumes are constantly rising, and it is be- 
lieved to be in this fissure that Mandarangan and his 
wife Darago live evil beings who look after the for- 
tunes of the warriors. These spirits are feared and 



great care is taken to appease them with offerings, 
while once a year a human sacrifice is made to them. 

The following tales show something of the beliefs 
of these and the neighboring tribes in Mindanao. 



Bukidnon (Mindanao) 

E day in the times when the sky was close to the 
ground a spinster went out to pound rice. 1 Before 
she began her work, she took off the beads from around 
her neck and the comb from her hair, and hung them 
on the sky, which at that time looked like coral rock. 

Then she began working, and each time that she 
raised her pestle into the air it struck the sky. For 
some time she pounded the rice, and then she raised the 
pestle so high that it struck the sky very hard. 

Immediately the sky began to rise, 2 and it went up 
so far that she lost her ornaments. Never did they 
come down, for the comb became the moon and the 
beads are the stars that are scattered about. 

a The common way to pound rice is to place a bundle of the grain 
on the ground on a dried carabao hide and pound it with a pestle to 
loosen the heads from the straw. When they are free they are poured 
into a mortar and again pounded with the pestle until the grain is 
separated from the chaff, after which it is winnowed. 

2 According to the Klemantin myth (Borneo), the sky was raised 
when a giant named Usai accidentally struck it with his mallet while 
pounding rice. See Hose and McDougall, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, 
p. 143. 




Bukidnon (Mindanao) 

LONG time ago there was a very big crab * which 
crawled into the sea. And when he went in he 
crowded the water out so that it ran all over the earth 
and covered all the land. 

Now about one moon before this happened, a wise 
man had told the people that they must build a large 
raft. 2 They did as he commanded and cut many large 
trees, until they had enough to make three layers. 
These they bound tightly together, and when it was 
done they fastened the raft with a long rattan cord to 
a big pole in the earth. 

Soon after this the floods came. White water poured 
out of the hills, and the sea rose and covered even the 
highest mountains. The people and animals on the 
raft were safe, but all the others drowned. 

*A somewhat similar belief that a giant crab is responsible for the 
tides is widespread throughout Malaysia. The Batak of Palawan 
now believe, as also do the Mandaya of eastern Mindanao, that the 
tides are caused by a giant crab going in and out of his hole in 
the sea. 

a The similarity of this' to the biblical story of the Flood leads us 
to suppose that it has come from the neighboring Christianized or 
Mohammedanized people and has been worked by the Bukidnon into 
the mould of their own thought. However, the flood story is some- 
times found in such a guise that it cannot be accounted for by Christian 
influence. See for example, The Flood Story as told in the folk-lore 
of the Igorot tribe, on p. 102 . 



When the waters went down and the raft was again 
on the ground, it was near their old home, for the 
rattan cord had held. 

But these were the only people left on the whole 


Bukidnon (Mindanao) 

TV/TAGBANGAL was a good hunter, and he often 
-*-* went to a certain hill where he killed wild pigs 
for food. One night as it was nearing the planting 
season, he sat in his house thinking, and after a long 
time he called to his wife. She came to him, and he 

"Tomorrow I shall go to the hill and clear the land 
for our planting, but I wish you to stay here." 

"Oh, let me go with you," begged his wife, "for 
you have no other companion." 

1 This celestial myth accounts for a number of constellations which 
are of great importance to the Bukidnon. Magbangal appears in the 
sky in alirost dipper shape, the handle being formed by his one re- 
maining arm. To the west and nearly above him is a V-shaped con- 
stellation which is believed to be the jaw of one of the pigs which he 
killed. Still farther to the west appears the hill on which he hunted, 
while three groups of stars which toward dawn seem to be following 
him are said to be his hatchet, the bamboo pole in which he carried 
water, and his large pet lizard. It is the appearance and position of 
these constellations in the sky that show the Bukidnon when it is the 
time to clear land for the yearly crops and to plant the grain; and 
since this knowledge is of the utmost importance to the people, they 
feel that Magbangal does them a lasting service. The hero Lafaang 
of a Borneo myth, who is represented .by the constellation Orion, lost 
his arm while trying to cut down a tree in a manner different from 
that prescribed by his celestial wife, the constellation Pegasen. See 
Hose and McDougall, Pagan Tribes of Borneo, Vol. II, p. 141. 



"No," said Magbangal, "I wish to go alone, and 
you must stay at home." 

So finally his wife agreed, and in the morning she 
arose early to prepare food for him. When the rice 
was cooked and the fish ready she called him to come 
and eat, but he said: 

"No, I do not want to eat now, but I will return this 
afternoon and you must have it ready for me." 

Then he gathered up his ten hatchets and bolos, 1 a 
sharpening stone, and a bamboo tube for water, and 
started for the hill. Upon reaching his land he cut 
some small trees to make a bench. When it was fin- 
ished, he sat down on it and said to the bolos, "You 
bolos must sharpen yourselves on the stone." And the 
bolos went to the stone and were sharpened. Then 
to the hatchets he said, "You hatchets must be sharp- 
ened," and they also sharpened themselves. 

When all were ready, he said: "Now you bolos cut 
all the small brush under the trees, and you hatchets 
must cut the large trees." So the bolos and the hatchets 
went to work, and from his place on the bench Mag- 
bangal could see the land being cleared. 

Magbangal's wife was at work in their house weav- 
ing a skirt, but when she heard the trees continually 
falling she stopped to listen and thought to herself, 
"My husband must have found many people to help 
him clear our land. When he left here, he was alone, 
but surely he cannot cut down the trees so fast. I will 
see who is helping him." 

1 Long knives. 



She left the house and walked rapidly toward the 
field, but as she drew nearer she proceeded more slowly, 
and finally stopped behind a tree. From her hiding- 
place, she could see her husband asleep on the bench, 
and she could also see that the bolos and hatchets were 
cutting the trees with no hands to guide them. 

"Oh," said she, "Magbangal is very powerful. 
Never before have I seen bolos and hatchets working 
without hands, and he never told me of his power." 

Suddenly she saw her husband jump up, and, seizing 
a bolo, he cut off one of his own arms. He awoke and 
sat up and said: 

"Someone must be looking at me, for one of my 
arms is cut off." 

When he saw his wife he knew that she was the 
cause of his losing his arm, and as they went home 
together, he exclaimed : 

"Now I am going away. It is better for me to go 
to the sky where I can give the sign to the people when 
it is time to plant; and you must go to the water and 
become a fish." 

Soon after he went to the sky and became the con- 
stellation Magbangal; and ever since, when the people 
see these stars appear in the sky, they know that it is 
time to plant their rice. 


Bukldnon (Mindanao) 

E day a mother took her two children with her 
when she went to color cloth. Not far from her 
home was a mud hole 1 where the carabao liked to 
wallow, and to this hole she carried her cloth, some 
dye pots, and two shell spoons. 

After she had put the cloth into the mud to let it 
take up the dark color, she built a fire and put over it 
a pot containing water and the leaves used for dyeing. 
Then she sat down to wait for the water to boil, while 
the children played near by. 

By and by when she went to stir the leaves with a 
shell spoon, some of the water splashed up and burned 
her hand, so that she jumped and cried out. This 
amused the children and their laughter changed them 
into monkeys, and the spoons became their tails. 2 

The nails of the monkeys are still black, because 
while they were children they had helped their mother 
dye the cloth. 

1 Cloth is dyed in various colors by boiling it in water in which dif- 
ferent kinds of leaves or roots have been steeped. But to produce a 
bluish-black shade the fabric is partly buried in mud until the desired 
color is obtained. 

2 Monkeys are numerous throughout the Philippines, and it is doubt- 
less their human appearance and actions that have caused the differ- 
ent tribes to try to account for their origin from man. Here we have 
the most likely way that the Bukidnon can see for their coming. 




Bukldnon (Mindanao) 

ANGGONA and his wife had twin boys named 
Bulanawan and Aguio. One day, when they were 
about two years old, the mother took Bulanawan to 
the field with her when she went to pick cotton. She 
spread the fiber she had gathered the day before on 
the ground to dry near the child, and while she was 
getting more a great wind suddenly arose which wound 
the cotton around the baby and carried him away. Far 
away to a distant land the wind took Bulanawan, and 
in that place he grew up. When he was a man, he 
became a great warrior. 1 

One day while Bulanawan and his wife were walk- 
ing along the seashore, they sat down to rest on a 
large, flat rock, and Bulanawan fell asleep. Now 
Aguio, the twin brother of Bulanawan, had become a 
great warrior also, and he went on a journey to this 
distant land, not knowing that his brother was there. 
It happened that he was walking along the seashore 
in his war-dress 2 on this same day, and when he saw 

1 This is one of a series of tales dealing with mythical heroes of 
former times whose acts of prowess are still recounted by Bukidnon 

2 A heavy padded hemp coat with a kilt which is supposed to turn 
spears. Over the shoulder is worn a sash in which are a few peculiar 
stones and charms which are believed to protect its wearer. Warriors 



the woman sitting on the large, flat rock, he thought 
her very beautiful, and he determined to steal her. 

As he drew near he asked her to give him some of 
her husband's betel-nut to chew, and when she refused 
he went forward to fight her husband, not knowing 
they were brothers. As soon as his wife awakened 
him Bulanawan sprang up, seized her, put her in the 
cuff of his sleeve, 1 and came forth ready to fight. Aguio 
grew very angry at this, and they fought until their 
weapons were broken, and the earth trembled. 

Now the two brothers of the rivals felt the earth 
tremble although they were far away, and each feared 
that his brother was in trouble. One was in the moun- 
tains and he started at once for the sea ; the other was 
in a far land, but he set out in a boat for the scene of 
the trouble. 

They arrived at the same time at the place of battle, 
and they immediately joined in it. Then the trembling 
of the earth increased so much that Langgona, the 
father of Aguio and Bulanawan, sought out the spot 
and tried to make peace. But he only seemed to make 
matters worse, and they all began fighting him. So 
great did the disturbance become that the earth was in 
danger of falling to pieces. 

Then it was that the father of Langgona came and 
settled the trouble, and when all were at peace again 
they discovered that Aguio and Bulanawan were broth- 
ers and the grandsons of the peacemaker. 

who have taken thirty human lives are permitted to wear a peculiar 
crown-shaped headdress with upstanding points. 
*See note i, p. 23. 



Bagobo (Mindanao) 

N the beginning there lived one man and one woman, 
Toglai and Toglibon. Their first children were a 
boy and a girl. When they were old enough, the boy 
and the girl went far away across the waters seeking 
a good place to live in. Nothing more was heard of 
them until their children, the Spaniards and Americans, 
came back. After the first boy and girl left, other 
children were born to the couple, but they all remained 
at Cibolan on Mt. Apo with their parents, until Toglai 
and Toglibon died and became spirits. 

Soon after that there came a great drought which 
lasted for three years. All the waters dried up, so 
that there were no rivers, and no plants could live. 

"Surely," said the people, "Manama is punishing us 
and we must go elsewhere to find food and a place to 
dwell in." 

So they started out. Two went in the direction of 
the sunset, carrying with them stones from Cibolan 
River. After a long journey they reached a place 
where were broad fields of cogon grass and an abun- 
dance of water, and there they made their home. Their 
children still live in that place and are called Magin- 
danau, because of the stones which the couple carried 
when they left Cibolan. 

Two children of Toglai and Toglibon went to the 



south, seeking a home, and they carried with them 
women's baskets (baraan). When they found a good 
spot, they settled down. Their descendants, still 
dwelling at that place, are called Baraan or Bilaan, 
because of the women's baskets. 

So two by two the children of the first couple left 
the land of their birth. In the place where each set- 
tled a new people developed, and thus it came about 
that all the tribes in the world received their names 
from things that the people carried out of Cibolan, 
or from the places where they settled. 

All the children left Mt. Apo save two (a boy and 
a girl), whom hunger and thirst had made too weak 
to travel. One day when they were about to die the 
boy crawled out to the field to see if there was one 
living thing, and to his surprise he found a stalk of 
sugar-cane growing lustily. He eagerly cut it, and 
enough water came out to refresh him and his sister 
until the rains came. Because of this, their children 
are called Bagobo. 1 

is a good example of the way in which people at a certain 
stage try to account for their surroundings. Nearly all consider them- 
selves the original people. We find the Bagobo no exception to this. 
In this tale, which is evidently very old, they account for themselves 
and their neighbors, and then, to meet present needs, they adapt the 
story to include the white people whom they have known for not more 
than two hundred years. 



Bagobo (Mindanao) 

SOON after people were created on the earth, there 
was born a child named Lumabet, who lived to be 
a very, very old man. He could talk when he was 
but one day old, and all his life he did wonderful 
things until the people came to believe that he had 
been sent by Manama, the Great Spirit. 

When Lumabet was still a young man he had a 
fine dog, and he enjoyed nothing so much as taking 
him to the mountains to hunt. One day the dog no- 
ticed a white deer. Lumabet and his companions 
started in pursuit, but the deer was very swift and 
they could not catch it. On and on they went until 
they had gone around the world, and still the deer 
was ahead. One by one his companions dropped out 
of the chase, but Lumabet would not give up until he 
had the deer. 

All the time he had but one banana and one camote 
(sweet potato) for food, but each night he planted 
the skins of these, and in the morning he found a 
banana tree with ripe fruit and a sweet potato large 
enough to eat. So he kept on until he had been around 
the world nine times, and he was an old man and his 
hair was gray. At last he caught the deer, and then 



he called all the people to a great feast, to sec the 

While all were making merry, Lumabet told them 
to take a knife and kill his father. They were greatly 
surprised, but did as he commanded, and when the 
old man was dead, Lumabet waved his headband over 
him and he came to life again. Eight times they killed 
the old man at Lumabet's command, and the eighth 
time he was small like a little boy, for each time they 
had cut off some of his flesh. They all wondered very 
much at Lumabet's power, and they were certain that 
he was a god. 

One morning some spirits came to talk with Luma- 
bet, and after they had gone he called the people to 
come into his house. 

"We cannot all come in," said the people, "for your 
house is small and we are many." 

"There is plenty of room," said he; so all went 
in and to their surprise it did not seem crowded. 

Then he told the people that he was going on a 
long journey and that all who believed he had great 
power could go with him, while all who remained 
behind would be changed into animals and buso. 1 He 
started out, many following him, and it was as he said. 

1 These are evil spirits who have power to injure people. They are 
ugly to look at and go about eating anything, even dead persons. A 
young Bagobo described his idea of a buso as follows: "He has a long 
body, long feet and neck, curly hair, and black face, flat nose, and one 
big red or yellow eye. He has big feet and fingers, but small arms, 
and his two big teeth are long and pointed. Like a dog, he goes 
about eating anything, even dead persons." Cole, Wild Tribes of 
Davao District, Field Museum Nat. Hist, Vol. XII, No. 2, p. 107. 



For those that refused to go were immediately changed 
into animals and buso. 

He led the people far away across the ocean to a 
place where the earth and the sky meet. When they 
arrived they saw that the sky moved up and down like 
a man opening and closing his jaws. 

"Sky, you must go up," commanded Lumabet. 

But the sky would not obey. So the people could 
not go through. Finally Lumabet promised the sky 
that if he would let all the others through, he might 
have the last man who tried to pass. Agreeing to 
this, the sky opened and the people entered. But when 
near the last the sky shut down so suddenly that he 
caught not only the last man but also the long knife 
of the man before. 

On that same day, Lumabet' s son, who was hunting, 
did not know that his father had gone to the sky. 
When he was tired of the chase, he wanted to go to 
his father, so he leaned an arrow against a baliti tree 
and sat down on it. Slowly it began to go down and 
carried him to his father's place, but when he arrived 
he could find no people. He looked here and there 
and could find nothing but a gun made of gold. 1 This 
made him very sorrowful and he did not know what 
to do until some white bees which were in the house 
said to him: 

"You must not weep, for we can take you to the 
sky where your father is." 

1 This is evidently an old tale in which the story-teller introduce* 
modern ideas. 



So he did as they bade, and rode on the gun, and 
the bees flew away with him, until in three days they 
reached the sky. 

Now, although most of the men who followed Luma- 
bet were content to live in the sky, there was one who 
was very unhappy, and all the time he kept looking 
down on the land below. The spirits made fun of 
him and wanted to take out his intestines so that he 
would be like them and never die, but he was afraid 
and always begged to be allowed to go back home. 

Finally Manama told the spirits to allow him to 
go, so they made a chain of the leaves of the karan 
grass and tied it to his legs. Then they let him down 
slowly head first, and when he reached the ground he 
was no longer a man but an owl. 1 

1 Here, as is often the case, an origin story has been added to a 
tale with which it has no logical connection. 



Ella an (Mindanao) 

FN the very beginning there lived a being so large 
* that he can not be compared with any known thing. 
His name was Melu, 2 and when he sat on the clouds, 
which were his home, he occupied all the space above. 
His teeth were pure gold, and because he was very 
cleanly and continually rubbed himself with his hands, 
his skin became pure white. The dead skin which he 
rubbed 0$ his body 3 was placed on one side in a pile, 
and by and by this pile became so large that he was 
annoyed and set himself to consider what he could do 
with it. 

Finally Melu decided to make the earth; so he 
worked very hard in putting the dead skin into shape, 
and when it was finished he was so pleased with it that 
he determined to make two beings like himself, though 
smaller, to live on it. 

Taking the remnants of the material left after 

1 This story is well known among the Bilaan, who are one of the 
tribes least influenced by the Spaniards, and yet it bears so many 
incidents similar to biblical accounts that there is a strong suggestion 
of Christian influence. It is possible that these ideas came through 
the Mohammedan Moro. 

2 The most powerful of the spirits and the one to whom the people 
resort in times of danger. 

3 A similar story is found in British North Borneo. See Evans, 
Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute, 1913, p. 423. 



making the earth he fashioned two men, but just as 
they were all finished except their noses, Tau Tana 
from below the earth appeared and wanted to help 

Melu did not wish any assistance, and a great argu- 
ment ensued. Tau Tana finally won his point and 
made the noses which he placed on the people upside 
down. When all was finished, Melu and Tau Tana 
whipped the forms until they moved. Then Melu 
went to his home above the clouds, and Tau Tana 
returned to his place below the earth. 

All went well until one day a great rain came, and 
the people on the earth nearly drowned from the water 
which ran off their heads into their noses. Melu, from 
his place on the clouds, saw their danger, and he came 
quickly to earth and saved their lives by turning their 
noses the other side up. 

The people were very grateful to him, and prom- 
ised to do anything he should ask of them. Before 
he left for the sky, they told him that they were very 
unhappy living on the great earth all alone, so he told 
them to save all the hair from their heads and the dry 
skin from their bodies and the next time he came he 
would make them some companions. And in this way 
there came to be a great many people on the earth. 



Eilaan (Mindanao) 

N the beginning there were four beings, 1 and they 

lived on an island no larger than a hat. On this 
island there were no trees or grass or any other living 
thing besides these four people and one bird. 2 One 
day they sent this bird out across the waters to see 
what he could find, and when he returned he brought 
some earth, a piece of rattan, and some fruit. 

Melu, the greatest of the four, took the soil and 
shaped it and beat it with a paddle in the same manner 
in which a woman shapes pots of clay, and when he 
finished he had made the earth. Then he planted the 
seeds from the fruit, and they grew until there was 
much rattan and many trees bearing fruit. 

The four beings watched the growth for a long 
time and were well pleased with the work, but finally 
Melu said: 

"Of what use is this earth and all the rattan and 
fruit if there are no people ?" 

And the others replied, "Let us make some people 
out of wax." 

So they took some wax and worked long, fashion- 
ing it into forms, but when they brought them to the 

1 Melu, Fiuweigh, Diwata, and Saweigh. 
2 Buswit. 



fire the wax melted, and they saw that men could not 
be made in that way. 

Next they decided to try to use dirt in making people, 
and Melu and one of his companions began working 
on that. All went well till they were ready to make 
the noses. The companion, who was working on that 
part, put them on upside down. Melu told him that 
the people would drown if he left them that way, but 
he refused to change them. 

When his back was turned, however, Melu seized 
the noses, one by one, and turned them as they now 
are. But he was in such a hurry that he pressed his 
finger at the root, and it left a mark in the soft clay 
which you can still see on the faces of people. 



Mandaya (Mindanao) 

N the very early days before there were any people 
on the earth, the limokon (a kind of dove) 2 were 
very powerful and could talk like men though they 
looked like birds. One limokon laid two eggs, one at 
the mouth of the Mayo River and one farther up its 
course. After some time these eggs hatched, and the 
one at the mouth of the river became ajnan, while the 
other became a woman. 

The man lived alone on the bank of the river for a 
long time, but he was very lonely and wished many 
times for a companion. One day when he was cross- 
ing the river something was swept against his legs with 
such force that it nearly caused him to drown. On 
examining it, he found that it was a hair, and he 
determined to go up the river and find whence it 
came. He traveled up the stream, looking on both 
banks, until finally he found the woman, and he was 

J An origin story of a very different type from those of the Bukidnon 
and Bagobo. While the others show foreign influence, this appears to 
be typically primitive. 

2 The omen bird of the Mandaya. It is believed to be a messenger 
from the spirit world which, by its calls, warns the people of danger 
or promises them success. If the coo of this bird comes from the 
right side, it is a good sign, but if it is on the left, in back, or in 
front, it is a bad sign, and the Mandaya knows that he must change 
his plans. 



very happy to think that at last he could have a 

They were married and had many children, who 
are the Mandaya still living along the Mayo River. 


Mandaya (Mindanao) 

THE Sun and the Moon were married, but the Sun 
was very ugly and quarrelsome. One day he 
became angry at the Moon and started to chase her. 
She ran very fast until she was some distance ahead 
of him, when she grew tired and he almost caught 
her. Ever since he has been chasing her, at times 
almost reaching her, and again falling far behind. 

The first child of the Sun and Moon was a large 
star, and he was like a man. One time the Sun, be- 
coming angry at the star, cut him up into small pieces 
and scattered him over the whole sky just as a woman 
scatters rice, and ever since there have been many 

Another child of the Sun and Moon was a gigantic 
crab. 1 He still lives and is so powerful that every 
time he opens and closes his eyes there is a flash of 
lightning. Most of the time the crab lives in a large 
hole in the bottom of the sea, and when he is there we 
have high tide ; but when he leaves the hole, the waters 
rush in and there is low tide. His moving about also 
causes great waves on the surface of the sea. 

The crab is quarrelsome like his father; a,nd he 
sometimes becomes so angry with his mother, the 

1 Thc crab was called Tambanokano. 



Moon, that he tries to swallow her. 1 When the people 
on earth, who are fond of the Moon, see the crab 
near her, they run out of doors and shout and beat 
on gongs until he is frightened away, and thus the 
Moon is saved. 

*An eclipse of the moon. This belief in a monster swallowing the 
moon and the wild efforts to frighten it away are very widespread. 
It is found among the Batak of Palawan and in other parts of 
Malaysia as well as in the South Sea, Mongol, Chinese, Siamese, and 
Hindoo mythology. Even in Peru we find the belief that an evil spirit 
in the form of a beast was eating the moon, and that in order to scare 
it the people shouted and yelled and beat their dogs to make them 
add to the noise. See Karlson, Journal of Religious Psychology, 
November, 1914, p. 164. 

[i 4 6] 



Subanun (Mindanao) 

N a little house at the edge of a village lived a widow 
with her only son, and they were very happy to- 
gether. The son was kind to his mother, and they 
made their living by growing rice in clearings on the 
mountain side and by hunting wild pig in the forest. 

One evening when their supply of meat was low, 
the boy said: 

"Mother, I am going to hunt pig in the morning, 
and I wish you would prepare rice for me before day- 

So the widow rose early and cooked the rice, and 
at dawn the boy started out with his spear and dog. 

Some distance from the village, he entered the thick 
forest. He walked on and on, ever on the lookout 
for game, but none appeared. At last when he had 
traveled far and the sun was hot, he sat down on a 
rock to rest and took out his brass box 2 to get a piece 
of betel-nut. He prepared the nut and leaf for chew- 
ing, and as he did so he wondered why it was that he 
had been so unsuccessful that day. But even as he 
pondered he heard his dog barking sharply, and cram- 

1 First recorded by Emerson B. Christie. 

2 A brass box having three compartments, one for lime, one for the 
nut, and another for the betel-leaf, which is used in preparing the nut 
for chewing. 



ming the betel-nut into his mouth he leaped up and 
ran toward the dog. 

As he drew near he could see that the game was a 
fine large pig, all black save its four legs which were 
white. He lifted his spear and took aim, but before 
he could throw the pig started to run, and instead of 
going toward a water course it ran straight up the 
mountain. The boy went on in hot pursuit, and when 
the pig paused he again took aim, but before he could 
throw it ran on. 

Six times the pig stopped just long enough for the 
boy to take aim, and then started on before he could 
throw. The seventh time, however, it halted on the 
top of a large flat rock and the boy succeeded in 
killing it. 

He tied its legs together with a piece of rattan and 
was about to start for home with the pig on his back, 
when to his surprise a door in the large stone swung 
open and a man stepped out. 

"Why have you killed my master's pig?" asked the 

"I did not know that this pig belonged to anyone, " 
replied the widow's son. "I was hunting, as I often 
do, and when my dog found the pig I helped him to 
catch it." 

"Come in and see my master," said the man, and 
the boy followed him into the stone where he found 
himself in a large room. The ceiling and floor were 
covered with peculiar cloth that had seven wide stripes 
of red alternating with a like number of yellow stripes. 
When the master of the place appeared his trousers 


were of seven colors, 1 as were also his jacket and the 
kerchief about his head. 

The master ordered betel-nut, and when it was 
brought they chewed together. Then he called for 
wine, and it was brought in a jar so large that it had 
to be set on the ground under the house, and even 
then the top came so high above the floor that they 
brought a seat for the widow's son, ajid it raised him 
just high enough to drink from the reed in the top of 
the jar. He drank seven cups of wine, and then they 
ate rice and fish and talked together. 

The master did not blame the boy for killing the 
pig, and declared that he wished to make a brother of 
him. So they became friends, and the boy remained 
seven days in the stone. At the end of that time, he 
said that he must return to his mother who would be 
worried about him. In the early morning he left the 
strange house and started for home. 

At first he walked briskly, but as the morning wore 
on he went more slowly, and finally when the sun was 
high he sat down on a rock to rest. Suddenly looking 
up, he saw before him seven men each armed with a 
spear, a shield, and a sword. They were dressed in 
different colors, and each man had eyes the same color 
as his clothes. The leader, who was dressed all in 

1 The Subanun have adopted the Moro dress, which consists of long 
trousers and a coat. The tale shows strong Moro influence through- 
out. Seven is a mystic and magical number among the Malay. It is 
constantly used in divination and magical practices and repeatedly 
occurs in their folk-lore. Skeat explains its importance by referring 
to the seven souls which each mortal is supposed to possess. See Skeat, 
Malay Magic, p. 50. 



red with red eyes to match, spoke first, asking the boy 
where he was going. The boy replied that he was 
going home to his mother who would be looking for 
him, and added: 

"Now I ask where you are going, all armed ready 
for war." 

"We are warriors," replied the man in red. "And 
we go up and down the world killing whatever we see 
that has life. Now that we have met you, we must 
kill you also." 

The boy, startled by this strange speech, was about 
to answer when he heard a voice near him say: 
"Fight, for they will try to kill you," and upon looking 
up he saw his spear, shield, and sword which he had 
left at home. Then he knew that the command came 
from a spirit, so he took his weapons and began to 
fight. For three days and nights they contended, and 
never before had the seven seen one man so brave. 
On the fourth day the leader was wounded and fell 
dead, and then, one by one, the other six fell. 

When they were all killed, the widow's son was so 
crazed with fighting that he thought no longer of re- 
turning home, but started out to find more to slay. 

In his wanderings he came to the home of a great 
giant whose house was already full of the men he had 
conquered in battle, and he called up from outside: 

"Is the master of the house at home? If he is, let 
him come out and fight." 

This threw the giant into a rage, and seizing his 
shield and his spear, the shaft of which was the trunk 
of a tree, he sprang to the door and leaped to the 



ground, not waiting to go down the notched pole which 
served for steps. He looked around for his antago- 
nist, and seeing only the widow's son he roared: 

"Where is the man that wants to fight? That 
thing? It is only a fly!" 

The boy did not stop to answer, but rushed at the 
giant with his knife; and for three days and nights 
they struggled, till the giant fell, wounded at the 

After that the widow's son stopped only long enough 
to burn the giant's house, and then rushed on looking 
for someone else to slay. Suddenly he again heard 
the voice which had bade him fight with the seven 
men, and this time it said: "Go home now, for your 
mother is grieved at your absence." In a rage he sprang 
forward with his sword, though he could see no enemy. 
Then the spirit which had spoken to him made him 
sleep for a short time. When he awoke the rage was 

Again the spirit appeared, and it said: "The seven 
men whom you killed were sent to kill you by the 
spirit of the great stone, for he looked in your hand 
and saw that you were to marry the orphan girl whom 
he himself wished to wed. But you have conquered. 
Your enemies are dead. Go home now and prepare a 
great quantity of wine, for I shall bring your enemies 
to life again, and you will all live in peace." 

So the widow's son went home, and his mother, who 
had believed him dead, was filled with joy at his coming, 
and all the people in the town came out to welcome 
him. When he had told them his story, they hastened 



to get wine, and all day they bore jarsful to the widow's 

That night there was a great feast, and the spirit of 
the great stone, his seven warriors, the friendly spirit, 
and the giant all came. The widow's son married the 
orphan girl, while another beautiful woman became 
the wife of the spirit of the stone. 




ABOUT the year 1400 something happened which 
changed the beliefs and customs of many of the 
tribes of the southern Philippines and made of them 
a powerful and dreaded people. 

It was about this time that Arabian traders and mis- 
sionaries began to establish themselves in the Islands, 
and soon these were followed by hordes of Moham- 
medan converts from the islands to the south. Among 
the newcomers were men who became powerful rulers, 
and they, in time, brought together many of the settle- 
ments which formerly had been hostile to each other 
and united them under the faith of Islam. Those who 
accepted the new faith adopted the dress and many of 
the customs of their teachers and came to be known 
as Moro. 

With the possession of firearms, which were intro- 
duced by the newcomers, the Moro grew very daring 
and were greatly feared by the other natives. And 
soon they began to make long trips on the sea to the 
north and south, carrying on trade and making many 
surprise attacks for loot and slaves. 

At the time the Spaniards discovered the Philip- 
pines, the Moro were a terror to the other inhabitants, 
and they continued to be so until very recent years. 
They became ferocious pirates infesting the southern 
seas and preying upon the rich teade which the Span- 



iards carried on with Mexico. Stone walls and watch 
towers were built at advantageous points to guard 
against them, but bays and creeks which afforded op- 
portunities for lurking, surprise, and attack continued 
to be frequented by the treacherous warriors. 

Since American occupation the waters have been 
made practically free from their ravages, but on land 
they have continued to give trouble. The greater part 
of the Moro now live in the Sulu Archipelago and on 
the Island of Mindanao. They range in degree of 
civilization from sea "gypsies," who wander from place 
to place, living for months in their rude outrigger boats, 
to settled communities which live by fishing and farm- 
ing, and even by manufacturing some cloth, brass, and 
steel. Their villages are near the coast, along rivers, 
or about the shores of the interior lakes, the houses 
being raised high on poles near or over the water, for 
they live largely on food from the sea. 

Their folk-lore, as will be seen from the following 
tales, shows decided influence from Arabia and India, 
which has filtered in through the islands to the south. 1 

1 No tales illustrate to better advantage the persistence of old stories 
and beliefs than do these of the Moro. They are permeated with in- 
cidents very similar to those still found among the pagan tribes of the 
Archipelago, while associated with these are the spirits and demons of 
Hindu mythology. Finally we find the semi-historical events recorded 
by the Mohammedanized Malay, the ancestors of the tellers of the 




ALONG, long time ago Mindanao was covered 
with water, and the sea extended over all the 
lowlands so that nothing could be seen but mountains. 
Then there were many people living in the country, 
and all the highlands were dotted with villages and 
settlements. For many years the people prospered, 
living in peace and contentment. Suddenly there ap- 
peared in the land four horrible monsters which, in a 
short time, had devoured every human being they could 

Kurita, a terrible creature with many limbs, lived 
partly on land and partly in the sea, but its favorite 
haunt was the mountain where the rattan grew; and 
here it brought utter destruction on every living thing. 
The second monster, Tarabusaw, an ugly creature in 
the form of a man, lived on Mt. Matutun, and far 
and wide from that place he devoured the people, 
laying waste the land. The third, an enormous bird 
called Pah, 2 was so large that when on the wing it 
covered the sun and brought darkness to the earth. 
Its egg was as large as a house. Mt. Bita was its haunt, 

'First recorded by N. M. Saleeby. 

2 These great birds are doubtless derived from Indian literature in 
which the fabulous bird garuda played such an important part. 



and there the only people who escaped its voracity were 
those who hid in caves in the mountains. The fourth 
monster was a dreadful bird also, having seven heads 
and the power to see in all directions at the same time. 
Mt. Gurayn was its home and like the others it 
wrought havoc in its region. 

So great was the death and destruction caused by 
these terrible animals that at length the news spread 
even to the most distant lands, and all nations were 
grieved to hear of the sad fate of Mindanao. 

Now far across the sea in the land of the golden 
sunset was a city so great that to look at its many 
people would injure the eyes of man. When tidings 
of these great disasters reached this distant city, the 
heart of the king Indarapatra 1 was filled with com- 
passion, and he called his brother, Sulayman, 2 begging 
him to save the land of Mindanao from the monsters. 

Sulayman listened to the story, and as he heard he 
was moved with pity. 

"I will go," said he, zeal and enthusiasm adding to 
his strength, "and the land shall be avenged." 

King Indarapatra, proud of his brother's courage, 
gave him a ring and a sword as he wished him success 
and safety. Then he placed a young sapling by his 
window 3 and said to Sulayman: 

u By this tree I shall know your fate from the time 

J A common name in Malay and Sumatran tales. 

2 Probably Solomon of the Old Testament, who is a great historic 
figure among the Malay and who plays an important part in their 

'See note i, p. 28. 



you depart from here, for if you live, it will live; but 
if you die, it will die also." 

So Sulayman departed for Mindanao, and he neither 
walked nor used a boat, but he went through the air 
and landed on the mountain where the rattan grew. 
There he stood on the summit and gazed about on 
all sides. He looked on the land and the villages, 
but he could see no living thing. And he was very 
sorrowful and cried out: 

"Alas, how pitiful and dreadful is this devastation !" 

No sooner had Sulayman uttered these words than 
the whole mountain began to move, and then shook. 
Suddenly out of the ground came the horrible creature, 
Kurita. It sprang at the man and sank its claws into 
his flesh. But Sulayman, knowing at once that this 
was the scourge of the land, drew his sword and cut 
the Kurita to pieces. 

Encouraged by his first success, Sulayman went on 
to Mt. Matutun where conditions were even worse. 
As he stood on the heights viewing the great devasta- 
tion there was a noise in the forest and a movement 
in the trees. With a loud yell, forth leaped Tara- 
busaw. For a moment they looked at each other, 
neither showing any fear. Then Tarabusaw threat- 
ened to devour the man, and Sulayman declared that 
he would kill the monster. At that the animal broke 
large branches off the trees and began striking at Sulay- 
man who, in turn, fought back. For a long time the 
battle continued until at last the monster fell exhausted 
to the ground and then Sulayman killed him with his 



The next place visited by Sulayman was Mt. Bita. 
Here havoc was present everywhere, and though he 
passed by many homes, not a single soul was left. As 
he walked along, growing sadder at each moment, a 
sudden darkness which startled him fell over the land. 
As he looked toward the sky he beheld a great bird 
descending upon him. Immediately he struck at it, 
cutting off its wing with his sword, and the bird fell 
dead at his feet; but the wing fell on Sulayman, and 
he was crushed. 

Now at this very time King Indarapatra was sitting 
at his window, and looking out he saw the little tree 
wither and dry up. 

u Alas !" he cried, "my brother is dead" ; and he wept 

Then although he was very sad, he was filled with 
a desire for revenge, and putting on his sword and 
belt he started for Mindanao in search of his brother. 

He, too, traveled through the air with great speed 
until he came to the mountain where the rattan grew. 
There he looked about, awed at the great destruction, 
and when he saw the bones of Kurita he knew that 
his brother had been there and gone. He went on 
till he came to Matutun, and when he saw the bones 
of Tarabusaw he knew that this, too, was the work of 

Still searching for his brother, he arrived at Mt. 
Bita where the dead bird lay on the ground, and as 
he lifted the severed wing he beheld the bones of Sulay- 
man with his sword by his side. His grief now so 
overwhelmed Indarapatra that he wept for some time. 





Upon looking up he beheld a small jar of water by his 
side. ,This he knew had been sent from heaven, and 
he poured the water over the bones, and Sulayman 
came to life again. They greeted each other and 
talked long together. Sulayman declared that he had 
not been dead but asleep, and their hearts were full 
of joy. 

After some time Sulayman returned to his distant 
home, but Indarapatra continued his journey to Mt. 
Gurayn where he killed the dreadful bird with the 
seven heads. After these monsters had all been de- 
stroyed and peace and safety had been restored to the 
land, Indarapatra began searching everywhere to see 
if some of the people might not be hidden in the earth 
still alive. 

One day during his search he caught sight of a beau- 
tiful woman at a distance. When he hastened toward 
her she disappeared through a hole in the ground where 
she was standing. Disappointed and tired, he sat 
down on a rock to rest, when, looking about, he saw 
near him a pot of uncooked rice with a big fire on the 
ground in front of it. This revived him and he pro- 
ceeded to cook the rice. As he did so, however, he 
heard someone laugh near by, and turning he beheld 
an old woman watching him. As he greeted her, she 
drew near and talked with him while he ate the rice. 

Of all the people in the land, the old woman told 
him, only a very few were still alive, and they hid in 
a cave in the ground from whence they never ventured. 
As for herself and her old husband, she went on, they 
had hidden in a hollow tree, and this they had never 



dared leave until after Sulayman killed the voracious 
bird, Pah. 

At Indarapatra's earnest request, the old woman 
led him to the cave where he found the headman with 
his family and some of his people. They all gathered 
about the stranger, asking many questions, for this was 
the first they had heard about the death of the mon- 
sters. When they found what Indarapatra had done 
for them, they were filled with gratitude, and to show 
their appreciation the headman gave his daughter to 
him in marriage, and she proved to be the beautiful 
girl whom Indarapatra had seen at the mouth of the 

Then the people all came out of their hiding-place 
and returned to their homes where they lived in peace 
and happiness. And the sea withdrew from the land 
and gave the lowlands to the people. 



T3EFORE the Spaniards occupied the island of Min- 
"*^ danao, there lived in the valley of the Rio Grande 
a very strong man, Bantugan, whose father was the 
brother of the earthquake and thunder. 1 

Now the Sultan of the Island 2 had a beautiful daugh- 
ter whom Bantugan wished to marry, but the home 
of the Sultan was far off, and whoever went to carry 
Bantugan's proposal would have a long and hazardous 
journey. All the head men consulted together regard- 
ing who should be sent, and at last it was decided that 
Bantugan's own son, Balatama, was the one to go. 
Balatama was young but he was strong and brave, and 
when the arms of his father were given him to wear 
on the long journey his heart swelled with pride. 
More than once on the way, however, his courage was 
tried, and only the thought of his brave father gave 
him strength to proceed. 

Once he came to a wooden fence which surrounded 
a stone in the form of a man, and as it was directly 
in his path he drew his fighting knife to cut down the 

a ln this case of a semi-historic being, whose father was said to be 
the brother of the earthquake and thunder, we have an interesting 
blending of mythological and historical facts. 

2 Among Malay people the sultan is the supreme ruler of a district, 
while petty rulers are known as datos. 



fence. Immediately the air became as black as night 
and stones rained down as large as houses. This 
made Balatama cry, but he protected himself with his 
father's shield and prayed, calling on the winds from 
the homeland until they came and cleared the air 

Thereupon Balatama encountered a great snake 1 in 
the road, and it inquired his errand. When told, the 
snake said: 

"You cannot go on, for I am guard of this road 
and no one can pass." 

The animal made a move to seize him, but with 
one stroke of his fighting knife the boy cut the snake 
into two pieces, one of which he threw into the sea 
and the other into the mountains. 

After many days the weary lad came to a high rock 
in the road, which glistened in the sunlight. From 
the top he could look down into the city for which he 
was bound. It was a splendid place with ten har- 
bors. Standing out from the other houses was one 
of crystal and another of pure gold. Encouraged by 
this sight he went on, but though it seemed but a short 
distance, it was some time before he at last stood at 
the gate of the town. 

It was not long after this, however, before Bala- 
tama had made known his errand to the Sultan, and 
that monarch, turning to his courtiers, said: 

"You, my friends, decide whether or not I shall 

1 Here, as in the Tinguian lore, we find heroes conversing with 
animals and commanding the forces of nature to come to their aid. 



give the hand of my daughter to Bantugan in mar- 

The courtiers slowly shook their heads and began 
to offer objections. 

Said one , "I do not see how Bantugan can marry 
the Sultan's daughter because the first gift must be a 
figure of a man or woman in pure gold." 

"Well," said the son of Bantugan, "I am here to 
learn what you want and to say whether or not it can 
be given." 

Then a second man spoke : "You must give a great 
yard with a floor of gold, which must be three feet 

"All this can be given," answered the boy. 

And the sister of the Princess said: "The gifts must 
be as many as the blades of grass in our city." 

"It shall be granted," said Balatama. 

"You must give a bridge built of stone to cross the 
great river," said one. 

And another: "A ship of stone you must give, and 
you must change into gold all the cocoamits and leaves 
in the Sultan's grove." 

"All this can be done," said Balatama. "My uncles 
will give all save the statue of gold, and that I shall 
give myself. But first I must go to my father's town 
to secure it." 

At this they were angry and declared that he had 
made sport of them and unless he produced the statue 
at once they would kill him. 

"If I give you the statue now," said he, "there will 
come dreadful storms, rain, and darkness." 


But they only laughed at him and insisted on having 
the statue, so he reached in his helmet and drew it 

Immediately the earth began to quake. A great 
storm arose, and stones as large as houses rained until 
the Sultan called to Balatama to put back the statue 
lest they all be killed. 

"You would not believe what I told you," said the 
boy; "and now I am going to let the storm continue." 

But the Sultan begged him and promised that Ban- 
tugan might marry his daughter with no other gifts 
at all save the statue of gold. Balatama put back 
the statue into his helmet, and the air became calm 
again to the great relief of the Sultan and his courtiers. 
Then Balatama prepared to return home, promising 
that Bantugan would come in three months for the 

All went well with the boy on the way home until 
he came to the fence surrounding the stone in the form 
of a man, and there he was detained and compelled 
to remain four months. 

Now about this time a Spanish general heard that 
Bantugan was preparing to marry the Sultan's daugh- 
ter, whom he determined to wed himself. A great 
expedition was prepared, and he with all his brothers 
embarked on his large warship which was followed by 
ten thousand other ships. They went to the Sultan's 
city, and their number was so great that they filled 
the harbor, frightening the people greatly. 

Then the General's brother disembarked and came 
to the house of the Sultan. He demanded the Princess 



for the General, saying that if the request were re- 
fused, the fleet would destroy the city and all its people. 
The Sultan and his courtiers were so frightened that 
they decided to give his daughter to the General, the 
next full moon being the date set for the wedding. 

In the meantime Bantugan had been preparing every- 
thing for the marriage which he expected to take place 
at the appointed time. But as the days went by and 
Balatama did not return, they became alarmed, fearing 
he was dead. After three months had passed, Ban- 
tugan prepared a great expedition to go in search of 
his son, and the great warship was decorated with flags 
of gold. 

As they came in sight of the Sultan's city, they saw 
the Spanish fleet in the harbor, and one of his brothers 
advised Bantugan not to enter until the Spaniards left. 
They then brought their ship to anchor. But all were 
disappointed that they could not go farther, and one 
said, "Why do we not go on? Even if the blades of 
grass turn into Spaniards we need not fear." Another 
said: "Why do we fear? Even if the cannon-balls 
come like rain, we can always fight." Finally some 
wanted to return to their homes and Bantugan said: 
"No, let us seek my son. Even though we must enter 
the harbor where the Spaniards are, let us continue 
our search." So at his command the anchors were 
lifted, and they sailed into the harbor where the Span- 
ish fleet lay. 

Now at this very time the Spanish general and his 
brother were with the Sultan, intending to call upon 
the Princess. As the brother talked with one of the 



sisters of the Princess they moved toward the window, 
and looking down they saw Bantugan's ships entering 
the harbor. They could not tell whose flags the ships 
bore. Neither could the Sultan when he was called. 
Then he sent his brother to bring his father who was 
a very old man, to see if he could tell. The father 
was kept in a little dark room by himself that he might 
not get hurt, and the Sultan said to his brother: 

"If he is so bent with age that he cannot see, talk, 
or walk, tickle him in the ribs and that will make him 
young again; and, my Brother, carry him here yourself 
lest one of the slaves should let him fall and he should 
hurt himself." 

So the old man was brought, and when he looked 
out upon the ships he saw that the flags were those of 
the father of Bantugan who had been a great friend 
of his in his youth. And he told them that he and 
Bantugan's father years ago had made a contract that 
their children and children's children should inter- 
marry, and now since the Sultan had promised his 
daughter to two people, he foresaw that great trouble 
would come to the land. Then the Sultan said to the 

"Here are two claimants to my daughter's hand. 
Go aboard your ships and you and Bantugan make 
war on each other, and the victor shall have my 

So the Spaniards opened fire upon Bantugan, and 
for three days the earth was so covered with smoke 
from the battle that neither could see his enemy. Then 
the Spanish general said: 



"I cannot see Bantugan or the fleet anywhere, so 
let us go and claim the Princess." 

But the Sultan said : "We must wait until the smoke 
rises to make sure that Bantugan is gone." 

When the smoke rose, the ships of Bantugan were 
apparently unharmed and the Sultan said: 

"Bantugan has surely won, for his fleet is uninjured 
while yours is badly damaged. You have lost." 

"No," said the General, "we will fight it out on 
dry land." 

So they both landed their troops and their cannon, 
and a great fight took place, and soon the ground was 
covered with dead bodies. And the Sultan com- 
manded them to stop, as the women and children in 
the city were being killed by the cannon-balls, but the 
General said: 

"If you give your daughter to Bantugan we shall 
fight forever or until we die." 

Then the Sultan sent for Bantugan and said: 

"We must deceive the Spaniard in order to get him 
to go away. Let us tell him that neither of you will 
marry my daughter, and then after he has gone, we 
shall have the wedding." 

Bantugan agreed to this, and word was sent to the 
Spaniards that the fighting must cease since many 
women and children were being killed. So it was 
agreed between the Spaniard and Bantugan that neither 
of them should marry the Princess. Then they both 
sailed away to their homes. 

Bantugan soon returned, however, and married the 
Princess, and on the way back to his home they found 


his son and took him with them. For about a week 
the Spanish general sailed toward his home and then 
he, too, turned about to go back, planning to take the 
Princess by force. When he found that she had al- 
ready been carried away by Bantugan, his wrath knew 
no bounds. ' He destroyed the Sultan, his city, and 
all its people. And then he sailed away to prepare a 
great expedition with which he should utterly destroy 
Bantugan and his country as well. 

One morning Bantugan looked out and saw at the 
mouth of the Rio Grande the enormous fleet of the 
Spaniards whose numbers were so great that in no 
direction could the horizon be seen. His heart sank 
within him, for he knew that he and his country were 

Though he could not hope to win in a fight against 
such great numbers, he called his headmen together 
and said: 

"My Brothers, the Christian dogs have come to de- 
stroy the land. We cannot successfully oppose them, 
but in the defense of the fatherland we can die." 

So the great warship was again prepared, and all 
the soldiers of Islam embarked, and then with Ban- 
tugan standing at the bow they sailed forth to meet 
their fate. 

The fighting was fast and furious, but soon the great 
warship of Bantugan filled with water until at last it 
sank, drawing with it hundreds of the Spanish ships. 
And then a strange thing happened. At the very spot 
where Bantugan's warship sank, there arose from the 
sea a great island which you can see today not far 



from the mouth of the Rio Grande. It is covered 
with bongo palms, and deep within its mountains live 
Bantugan and his warriors. A Moro sailboat passing 
this island is always scanned by Bantugan's watchers, 
and if it contains women such as he admires, they are 
snatched from their seats and carried deep into the 
heart of the mountain. For this reason Moro women 
fear even to sail near the island of Bongos. 

When the wife of Bantugan saw that her husband 
was no more and that his warship had been destroyed, 
she gathered together the remaining warriors and set 
forth herself to avenge him. In a few hours her ship 
was also sunk, and in the place where it sank there 
arose the mountain of Timaco. 

On this thickly wooded island are found white 
monkeys, the servants of the Princess, who still lives 
in the center of the mountain. On a quiet day high up 
on the mountain side one can hear the chanting and 
singing of the waiting-girls of the wife of Bantugan. 


Christianized Tribes 


TTTHEN the Spaniards discovered the Philippines 
in the sixteenth century, they found the tribes 
along the coasts of the different islands already some- 
what influenced by trade with China, Siam, and the 
islands to the south. 

Under Spanish rule the coast inhabitants, with the 
exception of the Moro, soon became converts to Chris- 
tianity and adopted the dress of their conquerors, 
though they retained their several dialects and many 
of their former customs. Then, no longer being at 
war with one another, they made great advances in 
civilization, while the hill tribes have remained iso- 
lated, retaining their old customs and beliefs. 

The tales of the Christianized tribes include a great 
mixture of old ideas and foreign influences obtained 
through contact with the outside world. 




A MONKEY, looking very sad and dejected, was 
* * walking along the bank of the river one day when 
he met a turtle. 

"How are you?" asked the turtle, noticing that he 
looked sad. 

The monkey replied, "Oh, my friend, I am very 
hungry. The squash of Mr. Farmer were all taken 
by the other monkeys, and now I am about to die 
from want of food." 

"Do not be discouraged," said the turtle; "take a 
bolo and follow me and we will steal some banana 

So they walked along together until they found some 
nice plants which they dug up, and then they looked 
for a place to set them. Finally the monkey climbed 
a tree and planted his in it, but as the turtle could not 
climb he dug a hole in the ground and set his there. 

When their work was finished they went away, plan- 
ning what they should do with their crop. The 
monkey said: 

"When my tree bears fruit, I shall sell it and have 
a great deal of money." 

And the turtle said: "When my tree bears fruit, I 
shall sell it and buy three varas of cloth to wear in 
place of this cracked shell." 



A few weeks later they went back to the place to see 
their plants and found that that of the monkey was 
dead, for its roots had had no soil in the tree, but that 
of the turtle was tall and bearing fruit. 

"I will climb to the top so that we can get the fruit," 
said the monkey. And he sprang up the tree, leaving 
the poor turtle on the ground alone. 

"Please give me some to eat," called the turtle, but 
the monkey threw him only a green one and ate all the 
ripe ones himself. 

When he had eaten all the good bananas, the monkey 
stretched his arms around the tree and went to sleep. 
[The turtle, seeing this, was very angry and considered 
how he might punish the thief. Having decided on 
a scheme, he gathered some sharp bamboo which he 
stuck all around under the tree, and then he exclaimed : 

"Crocodile is coming! Crocodile is coming !" 

The monkey was so startled at the cry that he fell 
upon the sharp bamboo and was killed. 

Then the turtle cut the dead monkey into pieces, put 
salt on it, and dried it in the sun. The next day, he 
went to the mountains and sold his meat to other 
monkeys who gladly gave him squash in return. As 
he was leaving them he called back: 

"Lazy fellows, you are now eating your own body; 
you are now eating your own body." 

Then the monkeys ran and caught him and carried 
him to their own home. 

"Let us take a hatchet," said one old monkey, "and 
cut him into very small pieces." 

But the turtle laughed and said: "That is just what 



I like. I have been struck with a hatchet many times. 
Do you not see the black scars on my shell?" 

Then one of the other monkeys said: "Let us throw 
him into the water." 

At this the turtle cried and begged them to spare 
his life, but they paid no heed to his pleadings and 
threw him into the water. He sank to the bottom, 
but very soon came up with a lobster. The monkeys 
were greatly surprised at this and begged him to tell 
them how to catch lobsters. 

"I tied one end of a string around my waist," said 
the turtle. "To the other end of the string I tied a 
stone so that I would sink." 

The monkeys immediately tied strings around them- 
selves as the turtle said, and when all was ready they 
plunged into the water never to come up again. 

And to this day monkeys do not like to eat meat, 
because they remember the ancient story. 1 

1 This tale told by the Ilocano is well known among both the 
Christianized and the wild tribes of the Philippines, and also in 
Borneo and Java. However, the Ilocano is the only version, so far as 
known, which has the explanatory element: the reason is given here 
why monkeys do not eat meat. The turtle is accredited with extraor- 
dinary sagacity and cunning. It is another example of the type of 
tale showing the victory of the weak and cunning over the strong but 
stupid. Bee "The Turtle and the Lizard," p. 86. 




IV/f ANY, many years ago a poor fisherman and his 
*** wife lived with their three sons in a village by 
the sea. One day the old man set his snare in the 
water not far from his house, and at night when he 
went to look at it, he found that he had caught a great 
white fish. This startled the old man very much, for 
he had never seen a fish like this before, and it occurred 
to him that it was the priest of the town. 

He ran to his wife as fast as he could and cried: 

"My wife, I have caught the priest." 

"What?" said the old woman, terrified at the sight 
of her frightened husband. 

"I have caught the priest," said the old man again. 

They hurried together to the river where the snare 
was set, and when the old woman saw the fish, she 

"Oh, it is not the priest but the governor." 

"No, it is the priest," insisted the old man, and they 
went home trembling with fear. 

That night neither of them was able to sleep for 
thought of the terrible thing that had happened and 
wondering what they should do. Now the next day 
was a great holiday in the town. At four o'clock in 
the morning cannons were fired and bells rang loudly. 
The old man and woman, hearing all the noise and 


not knowing the reason for it, thought that their crime 
had been discovered, and the people were searching 
for them to punish them, so they set out as fast as 
they could to hide in the woods. On and on they went, 
stopping only to rest so as to enable them to resume 
their flight. 

The next morning they reached the woods near Pilar, 
where there also was a great holiday, and the sexton 
was ringing the bells to call the people to mass. As 
soon as the old man and woman heard the bells they 
thought the people there had been notified of their 
escape, and that they, too, were trying to catch them. 
So they turned and started home again. 

As they reached their house, the three sons came 
home with their one horse and tied it to the trunk of 
the caramay tree. Presently the bells began to ring 
again, for it was twelve o'clock at noon. Not think- 
ing what time of day it was, the old man and woman 
ran out of doors in terror, and seeing the horse jumped 
on its back with the intention of riding to the next town 
before anyone could catch them. When they had 
mounted they began to whip the horse. In their haste, 
they had forgotten to untie the rope which was around 
the trunk of the caramay tree. As the horse pulled at 
the rope fruit fell from the tree upon the old man and 
woman. Believing they were shot, they were so fright- 
ened that they died. 1 

1 A11 the events here given represent present-day occurrences, and 
the story appears to have been invented purely to amuse. 



Hoc an o 

there was a presidente 1 who was very un- 
just to his people, and one day he became so 
angry that he wished he had horns so that he might 
frighten them. No sooner had he made this rash wish, 
than horns began to grow on his head. 

He sent for a barber who came to his house to cut 
his hair, and as he worked the presidente asked: 

"What do you see on my head?" 

"I see nothing," answered the barber; for although 
he could see the horns plainly, he was afraid to say so. 

Soon, however, the presidente put up his hands and 
felt the horns, and then when he inquired again the 
barber told him that he had two horns. 

"If you tell anyone what you have seen, you shall 
be hanged," said the presidente as the barber started 
away, and he was greatly frightened. 

When he reached home, the barber did not intend 
to tell anyone, for he was afraid; but as he thought of 
his secret more and more, the desire to tell someone 
became so strong that he knew he could not keep it. 
Finally he went to the field and dug a hole under some 
bamboo, and when the hole was large enough he 
crawled in and whispered that the presidente had 

headman of the town. 



horns. He then climbed out, filled up the hole, and 
went home. 

By and by some people came along the road on their 
way to market, and as they passed the bamboo they 
stopped in amazement, for surely a voice came from 
the trees, and it said that the presidente had horns. 
These people hastened to market and told what they 
had heard, and the people there went to the bamboo to 
listen to the strange voice. They informed others, 
and soon the news had spread all over the town. The 
councilmen were told, and they, too, went to the bam- 
boo. When they had heard the voice, they ran to 
the house of the presidente. But his wife said that 
he was ill and they could not see him. 

By this time the horns had grown until they were one 
foot in length, and the presidente was so ashamed that 
he bade his wife tell the people that he could not talk. 
She told this to the councilmen when they came on the 
following day, but they replied that they must see him, 
for they had heard that he had horns, and if this were 
true he had no right to govern the people. 

She refused to let them in, so they broke down the 
door. They saw the horns on the head of the presi- 
dente and killed him. For, they said, he was no better 
than an animal. 1 

1 Here we have an excellent illustration of how a story brought in 
by the Spaniards has been worked over into Philippine setting. This 
is doubtless the classical story of Midas, but since the ass is practically 
unknown in the Philippines, horns (probably carabao horns) have 
been substituted for the ass's ears, which grew on Midas' head. Like- 
wise the bamboo, which grows in abundance, takes the place of the 
reeds in the original tale. 




day when a monkey was climbing a tree in 
the forest in which he lived, he ran a thorn injo 
his tail. Try as he would, he could not get it out, so 
he went to a barber in the town and said: 

"Friend Barber, I have a thorn in the end of my 
tail. Pull it out, and I will pay you well." 

The barber tried to pull out the thorn with his razor, 
but in doing so he cut off the end of the tail. The 
monkey was very angry and cried: 

"Barber, Barber, give me back my tail, or give me 
your razor!" 

The barber could not put back the end of the 
monkey's tail, so he gave him his razor. 

On the way home the monkey met an old woman 
who was cutting wood for fuel, and he said to her: 

"Grandmother, Grandmother, that is very hard. 
Use this razor and then it will cut easily." 

The old woman was very pleased with the offer and 
began to cut with the razor, but before she had used 
it long it broke. Then the monkey cried: 

"Grandmother, Grandmother, you have broken my 
razor! You must get a new one for me or else give 
me all the firewood." 

The old woman could not get a new razor so she 
gave him the firewood. 


The monkey took the wood and was going back to 
town to sell it, when he saw a woman sitting beside 
the road making cakes. 

"Grandmother, Grandmother," said he, "your wood 
is most gone ; take this of mine and bake more cakes." 

The woman took the wood and thanked him for his 
kindness, but when the last stick was burned, the 
monkey cried out: 

"Grandmother, Grandmother, you have burned up 
all my wood ! Now you must give me all your cakes 
to pay for it." 

The old woman could not cut more dry wood at 
once, so she gave him all the cakes. 

The monkey took the cakes and started for the town, 
but on the way he met a dog which bit him so that he 
died. And the dog ate all the cakes. 



TN a queer little bamboo house in front of a big 
* garden lived a man and his wife all alone. They 
had always been kind and good to everyone, but still 
they were not happy, because the child for which they 
longed had never come to them. Each day for many 
years they had prayed for a son or a daughter, but 
their prayers had been unanswered. Now that they 
were growing old they believed that they must always 
live alone. 

In the garden near their house this couple grew fine 
white squash, and as the vines bore the year around, 
they had never been in need of food. One day, how- 
ever, they discovered that no new squash had formed 
to take the place of those they had picked, and for 
the first time in many seasons they had no vegetables. 

Each day they examined the vines, and though the 
big, yellow flowers continued to bloom and fade, no 
squash grew on the stems. Finally, one morning after 
a long wait, the woman cried out with delight, for she 
had discovered a little green squash. After examin- 
ing it, they decided to let it ripen that they might have 
the seeds to plant. They eagerly watched it grow, and 
it became a beautiful white vegetable, but by the time 
it was large enough for food they were so hungry that 
they decided to eat it. 


They brought a large knife and picked it, but 
scarcely had they started to open it when a voice cried 
out from within, "Please be careful that you do not 
hurt me." 

The man and woman stopped their work, for they 
thought that a spirit must have spoken to them. But 
when the voice again called and begged them to open 
the squash, they carefully opened it, and there inside 
was a nice baby boy. 1 He could already stand alone 
and could talk. And the man and his wife were over- 

Presently the woman went to the spring for a jar of 
water, and when she had brought it she spread a mat 
on the floor and began to bathe the baby. As the 
drops of water fell off his body, they were immedi- 
ately changed to gold, so that when the bath was fin- 
ished gold pieces covered the mat. The couple had 
been so delighted to have the baby that it had seemed 
as if there was nothing more to wish for, but now that 
the gold had come to them also they were happier than 

The next morning the woman gave the baby another 
bath, and again the water turned to gold. They now 
had enough money to build a large house. The third 
morning she brought water for his bath again, but he 
grew very sad and flew away. At the same time all 
the gold disappeared also, and the man and his wife 
were left poor and alone. 

1 A common fancy in Malay legends is the supernatural origin of a 
child in some vegetable, usually a bamboo. See note a, p. 99. 







HEN the world first began there was no land, 
but only the sea and the sky, and between them 
was a kite. 1 One day the bird which had nowhere to 
light grew tired of flying about, so she stirred up the 
sea until it threw its waters against the sky. The sky, 
in order to restrain the sea, showered upon it many 
islands until it could no longer rise, but ran back and 
forth. Then the sky ordered the kite to light on one 
of the islands to build her nest, and to leave the sea 
and the sky in peace. 

Now at this time the land breeze and the sea breeze 
were married, and they had a child which was a 
bamboo. One day when this bamboo was floating 
about on the water, it struck the feet of the kite which 
was on the beach. The bird, angry that anything 
should strike it, pecked at the bamboo, and out of one 
section came a man and from the other a woman. 

Then the earthquake called on all the birds and fish 
to see what should be done with these two, and it was 
decided that they should marry. Many children were 
born to the couple, and from them came all the differ- 
ent races of people. 

After a while the parents grew very tired of having 

1 A bird something like a hawk. 



so many idle and useless children around, and they 
wished to be rid of them, but they knew of no place to 
send them to. Time went on and the children became 
so numerous that the parents enjoyed no peace. One 
day, in desperation, the father seized a stick and began 
beating them on all sides. 

This so frightened the children that they fled in dif- 
ferent directions, seeking hidden rooms in the house 
some concealed themselves in the walls, some ran 
outside, while others hid in the fireplace, and several 
fled to the sea. 

Now it happened that those who went into the 
hidden rooms of the house later became the chiefs of 
the Islands; and those who concealed themselves in 
the walls became slaves. Those who ran outside were 
free men; and those who hid in the fireplace became 
negroes; while those who fled to the sea were gone 
many years, and when their children came back they 
were the white people. 1 

*See note i, p. 134. 




T3ENITO was an only son who lived with his father 
*** and mother in a little village. They were very 
poor, and as the boy grew older and saw how hard 
his parents struggled for their scanty living he often 
dreamed of a time when he might be a help to them. 

One evening when they sat eating their frugal meal 
of rice the father told about a young king who lived 
in a beautiful palace some distance from their village, 
and the boy became very much interested. That night 
when the house was dark and quiet and Benito lay on 
his mat trying to sleep, thoughts of the young king 
repeatedly came to his mind, and he wished he were a 
king that he and his parents might spend the rest of 
their lives in a beautiful palace. 

The next morning he awoke with a new idea. He 
would go to the king and ask for work, that he might 
in that way be able to help his father and mother. 
He was a long time in persuading his parents to allow 
him to go, however, for it was a long journey, and 
they feared that the king might not be gracious. But 
at last they gave their consent, and the boy started 
out The journey proved tiresome. After he reached 
the palace, he was not at first permitted to see the 
king. But the boy being very earnest at last secured 
a place as a servant. 


It was a new and strange world to Benito who had 
known only the life of a little village. The work was 
hard, but he was happy in thinking that now he could 
help his father and mother. One day the king sent 
for him and said: 

"I want you to bring to me a beautiful princess who 
lives in a land across the sea. Go at once, and if you 
fail you shall be punished severely." 

The boy's heart sank within him, for he did not 
know what to do. But he answered as bravely as pos- 
sible, "I will, my lord," and left the king's chamber. 
He at once set about preparing things for a long jour- 
ney, for he was determined to try at least to fulfil the 

When all was ready Benito started. He had not 
gone far before he came to a thick forest, where he 
saw a large bird bound tightly with strings. 

"Oh, my friend," pleaded the bird, "please free me 
from these bonds, and I will help you whenever you 
call on me." 

Benito quickly released the bird, and it flew away 
calling back to him that its name was Sparrow- 

Benito continued his journey till he came to the sea. 
Unable to find a way of crossing, he stopped and gazed 
sadly out over the waters, thinking of the king's threat 
if he failed. Suddenly he saw swimming toward him 
the King of the Fishes who asked: 

"Why are you so sad?" 

"I wish to cross the sea to find the beautiful Prin- 
cess," answered the boy. 




"Well, get on my back," said the Fish, "and I will 
carry you across." 

So Benito stepped on his back and was carried to 
the other shore. 

Soon he met a strange woman who inquired what 
it was he sought, and when he had told her she said: 

"The Princess is kept in a castle guarded by giants. 
Take this magic sword, for it will kill instantly what- 
ever it touches." And she handed him the weapon. 

Benito was more than grateful for her kindness and 
went on full of hope. As he approached the castle 
he could see that it was surrounded by many giants, 
and as soon as they saw him they ran out to seize him, 
but they went unarmed for they saw that he was a 
mere boy. As they approached he touched those in 
front with his sword, and one by one they fell dead. 
Then the others ran away in a panic, and left the castle 
unguarded. Benito entered, and when he had told the 
Princess of his errand, she was only too glad to escape 
from her captivity and she set out at once with him 
for the palace of the king. 

At the seashore the King of the Fishes was waiting 
for them, and they had no difficulty in crossing the 
sea and then in journeying through the thick forest to 
the palace, where they were received with great re- 
joicing. After a time the King asked the Princess to 
become his wife, and she replied: 

"I will, O King, if you will get the ring I lost in 
the sea as I was crossing it." 

The King immediately thought of Benito, and send- 
ing for him he commanded him to find the ring which 


had been lost on the journey from the land of the 

It seemed a hopeless task to the boy, but, anxious to 
obey his master, he started out. At the seaside he 
stopped and gazed over the waters until, to his great 
delight, he saw his friend, the King of the Fishes, 
swimming toward him. When he had been told of 
the boy's troubles, the great fish said: "I will see if I 
can help you," and he summoned all his subjects to 
him. When they came he found that one was missing, 
and he sent the others in search of it. They found it 
under a stone so full that it could not swim, and the 
larger ones took it by the tail and dragged it to the 

"Why did you not come when you were called?" 
inquired the King Fish. 

"I have eaten so much that I cannot swim," replied 
the poor fish. 

Then the King Fish, suspecting the truth, ordered it 
cut open, and inside they found the lost ring. Benito 
was overjoyed at this, and expressing his great thanks, 
hastened with the precious ring to his master. 

The King, greatly pleased, carried the ring to the 
Princess and said : 

"Now that I have your ring will you become my 

"I will be your wife," replied the Princess, "if you 
will find my earring that I lost in the forest as I was 
journeying with Benito." 

Again the King sent for Benito, and this time he 
commanded him to find the earring. The boy was 



very weary from his long journeys, but with no com- 
plaint he started out once more. Along the road 
through the thick forest he searched carefully, but with 
no reward. At last, tired and discouraged, he sat down 
under a tree to rest. 

Suddenly there appeared before him a mouse of 
great size, and he was surprised to find that it was the 
King of Mice. 

"Why are you so sad?" asked the King Mouse. 

"Because," answered the boy, "I cannot find an ear- 
ring which the Princess lost as we were going through 
the forest together." 

"I will help you," said the Mouse, and he summoned 
all his subjects. 

When they assembled it was found that one little 
mouse was missing, and the King sent the others to 
look for him. In a small hole among the bamboo trees 
they found him, and he begged to be left alone, for, 
he said, he was so full that he could not walk. Never- 
theless they pulled him along to their master, who, 
upon finding that there was something hard inside the 
mouse, ordered him cut open; and inside they found 
the missing earring. 

Benito at once forgot his weariness, and after ex- 
pressing his great thanks to the King Mouse he hast- 
ened to the palace with the prize. The King eagerly 
seized the earring and presented it to the Princess, 
again asking her to be his wife. 

"Oh, my King," replied the Princess, "I have one 
more request to make. Only grant it and I will be 
your wife forever." 



The King, believing that now with the aid of Benito 
he could grant anything, inquired what it was she 
wished, and she replied: 

"Get me some water from heaven and some from 
the lower world, and I shall ask nothing more." 

Once more the King called Benito and sent him on 
the hardest errand of all. 

The boy went out not knowing which way to turn, 
and while he was in a deep study his weary feet led 
him to the forest. Suddenly he thought of the bird 
who had promised to help him, and he called, "Spar- 
rowhawk!" There was a rustle of wings, and the bird 
swooped down. He told it of his troubles and it 

"I will get the water for you." 

Then Benito made two light cups of bamboo which 
he fastened to the bird's legs, and it flew away. All 
day the boy waited in the forest, and just as night was 
coming on the bird returned with both cups full. The 
one on his right foot, he told Benito, was from heaven, 
and that on his left was from the lower world. The 
boy unfastened the cups, and then, as he was thanking 
the bird, he noticed that the journey had been too much 
for it and that it was dying. Filled with sorrow for 
his winged friend, he waited and carefully buried it, 
and then he hastened to the palace with the precious 

When the Princess saw that her wish had been ful- 
filled she asked the King to cut her in two and pour 
over her the water from heaven. The King was not 
able to do this, so she cut herself, and then as he poured 



the water over her he beheld her grow into the most 
beautiful woman he had ever seen. 

Eager to become handsome himself, the King then 
begged her to pour over him the water from the other 
cup. He cut himself, and she did as he requested, but 
immediately there arose a creature most ugly and hor- 
rible to look upon, which soon vanished out of sight. 
Then the Princess called Benito and told him that be- 
cause he had been so faithful to his master and so kind 
to her, she chose him for her husband. 

They were married amid great festivities and became 
king and queen of that broad and fertile land. During 
all the great rejoicing, however, Benito never forgot 
his parents. One of the finest portions of his kingdom 
he gave to them, and from that time they all lived in 
great happiness. 1 

ir This is undoubtedly a workcd-over story, probably brought in from 
Europe. Kings, queens, palaces, etc., were, of course, unknown to 
the people before the advent of the Spaniards. 





UAN was always getting into trouble. He was a 
lazy boy, and more than that, he did not have good 
sense. When he tried to do things, he made such 
dreadful mistakes that he might better not have tried. 

His family grew very impatient with him, scolding 
and beating him whenever he did anything wrong. One 
day his mother, who was almost discouraged with him, 
gave him a bolo 1 and sent him to the forest, for she 
thought he could at least cut firewood. Juan walked 
leisurely along, contemplating some means of escape. 
At last he came to a tree that seemed easy to cut, 
and then he drew his long knife and prepared to 

Now it happened that this was a magic tree and it 
said to Juan : 

"If you do not cut me I will give you a goat that 
shakes silver from its whiskers." 

This pleased Juan wonderfully, both because he was 
curious to see the goat, and because he would not have 
to chop the wood. He agreed at once to spare the 
tree, whereupon the bark separated and a goat stepped 
out. Juan commanded it to shake its whiskers, and 
when the money began to drop he was so delighted that 

long knife. 






he took the animal and started home to show his 
treasure to his mother. 

On the way he met a friend who was more cunning 
than Juan, and when he heard of the boy's rich goat 
he decided to rob him. Knowing Juan's fondness for 
tuba, 1 he persuaded him to drink, and while he was 
drunk, the friend substituted another goat for the magic 
one. As soon as he was sober again, Juan hastened 
home with the goat and told his people of the wonder- 
ful tree, but when he commanded the animal to shake 
its whiskers, no money fell out. The family, believing 
it to be another of Juan's tricks, beat and scolded the 
poor boy. 

He went back to the tree and threatened to cut it 
down for lying to him, but the tree said: 

"No, do not cut me down and I will give you a net 
which you may cast on dry ground, or even in the tree 
tops, and it will return full of fish." 

So Juan spared the tree and started home with his 
precious net, but on the way he met the same friend 
who again persuaded him to drink tuba. While he was 
drunk, the friend replaced the magic net with a common 
one, so that when Juan reached home and tried to show 
his power, he was again the subject of ridicule. 

Once more Juan went to his tree, this time deter- 
mined to cut it down. But the offer of a magic pot, 
always full of rice and spoons which provided what- 
ever he wished to eat with his rice, dissuaded him, and 
he started home happier than ever. Before reaching 

J The fermented juice of the cocoanut. 



home, however, he met with the same fate as before, 
and his folks, who were becoming tired of his pranks, 
beat him harder than ever. 

Thoroughly angered, Juan sought the tree a fourth 
time and was on the point of cutting it down when once 
more it arrested his attention. After some discussion, 
he consented to accept a stick to which he had only to 
say, "Boombye, Boomba," and it would beat and kill 
anything he wished. 

When he met his friend on this trip, he was asked 
what he had and he replied : 

"Oh, it is only a stick, but if I say 'Boombye, 
Boomba' it will beat you to death." 

At the sound of the magic words the stick leaped 
from his hands and began beating his friend until he 

"Oh, stop it and I will give back everything that I 
stole from you." Juan ordered the stick to stop, and 
then he compelled the man to lead the goat and to 
carry the net and the jar and spoons to his home. 

There Juan commanded the goat, and it shook its 
whiskers until his mother and brothers had all the silver 
they could carry. Then they ate from the magic jar 
and spoons until they were filled. And this time Juan 
was not scolded. After they had finished Juan said: 

"You have beaten me and scolded me all my life, 
and now you are glad to accept my good things. I am 
going to show you something else: 'Boombye, 
BoombaV Immediately the stick leaped out and beat 
them all until they begged for mercy and promised that 
Juan should ever after be head of the house. 


From that time Juan was rich and powerful, but he 
never went anywhere without his stick. One night, 
when some thieves came to his house, he would have 
been robbed and killed had it not been for the magic 
words "Boombye, Boomba," which caused the death 
of all the robbers. 

Some time after this he married a beautiful princess, 
and because of the kindness of the magic tree they 
always lived happily. 1 

1 This tale bears a striking resemblance to Grimm's "The Table, the 
Ass, and the Stick," Fairy Tales. 





NE day Juan's father sent him to get some ripe 
guavas, for a number of the neighbors had come 
in and he wanted to give them something to eat. 

Juan went to the guava fimftiOG and ate all the fruit 
he could hold, and then he decided to play a joke on 
his father's guests instead of giving them a feast of 
guavas. A wasp's nest hung near by. With some 
difficulty he succeeded in taking it down and putting it 
into a tight basket that he had brought for the fruit. 
He hastened home and gave the basket to his father, 
and then as he left the room where the guests were 
seated he closed the door and fastened it. 

As soon as Juan's father opened the basket the wasps 
flew over the room; and when the people found the 
door locked they fought to get out of the windows. 
After a while Juan opened the door, and when he saw 
the swollen faces of the people, he cried. 

"What fine, rich guavas you must have had ! They 
have made you all so fat!" 




F is ay an 

NCE upon a time the Sun and the Moon were 
married, and they had many children who were 
the stars. The Sun was very fond of his children, but 
whenever he tried to embrace any of them, he was so 
hot that he burned them up. This made the Moon 
so angry that finally she forbade him to touch them 
again, and he was greatly grieved. 

One day the Moon went down to the spring to do 
some washing, and when she left she told the Sun that 
he must not touch any of their children in her absence. 
When she returned, however, she found that he had 
disobeyed her, and several of the children had perished. 

She was very angry, and picked up a banana tree to 
strike him, whereupon he threw sand in her face, and 
to this day you can see the dark marks on the face of 
the Moon. 

Then the Sun started to chase her, and they have 
been going ever since. Sometimes he gets so near that 
he almost catches her, but she escapes, and by and by 
she is far ahead again. 2 

1 These Visayan tales reflect old beliefs covered with a veneer of 
European ideas. The Visayan still holds to many of the old super- 
stitions, not because he has reasoned them out for himself, but because 
his ancestors believed them and transmitted them to him in such stories 
as these. 

2 A very old explanatory tale. In a slightly varying form it is found 
in other parts of the Islands. 




F is ay an 

ANY years ago at the foot of a forest-covered hill 
was a small town, and just above the town on 
the hillside was a little house in which lived an old 
woman and her grandson. 

The old woman, who was very industrious, earned 
their living by removing the seeds from cotton, and 
she always had near at hand a basket in which were 
cotton and a long stick that she used for a spindle. 
The boy was lazy and would not do anything to help 
his grandmother, but every day went down to the town 
and gambled. 

One day, when he had been losing money, the boy 
went home and was cross because his supper was not 

"I am hurrying to get the seeds out of this cotton," 
said the grandmother, "and as soon as I sell it. I will 
buy us some food." 

At this the boy fell into a rage, and he picked up 
some cocoanut shells and threw them at his grand- 
mother. Then she became angry and began to whip 
him with her spindle, when suddenly he was changed 
into an ugly animal, and the cotton became hair which 
covered his body, while the stick itself became his tail. 

As soon as the boy found that he had become an 
ugly creature he ran down into the town and began 



whipping his companions, the gamblers, with his tail, 
and immediately they were turned into animals like 

Then the people would no longer have them in the 
town, but drove them out. They went to the forest 
where they lived in the trees, and ever since they have 
been known as monkeys. 1 

1 Here we have an old type of tale explaining where monkeys came 
from. See note 2, p. 130. 





NE day a man took his blow-gun 1 and his dog and 
went to the forest to hunt. As he was making his 
way through the thick woods he chanced upon a young 
cocoanut tree growing in the ground. 

It was the first tree of this kind that he had ever 
seen, and it seemed so peculiar to him that he stopped 
to look at it. 

When he had gone some distance farther, his atten- 
tion was attracted by a noisy bird in a tree, and he shot 
it with his blow-gun. By and by he took aim at a large 
monkey, which mocked him from another treetop, and 
that, too, fell dead at his feet. 

Then he heard his dog barking furiously in the dis- 
tant bushes, and hastening to it he found it biting a 
wild pig. After a hard struggle he killed the pig, and 
then, feeling satisfied with his success, he took the three 
animals on his back and returned to the little plant. 

"I have decided to take you home with me, little 
plant," he said, "for I like you and you may be of some 
use to me." 

He dug up the plant very carefully and started 

1 The blow-gun is a Malayan weapon, which is used extensively in 
the Philippines. Among certain wild tribes poisoned darts are blown 
through it, but among the Christianized tribes a clay pellet is used. 



home, but he had not gone far when he noticed that 
the leaves had begun to wilt, and he did not know what 
to do, since he had no water. Finally, in despair, he 
cut the throat of the bird and sprinkled the blood on 
the cocoanut. No sooner had he done this than the 
plant began to revive, and he continued his journey. 

Before he had gone far, however, the leaves again 
began to wilt, and this time he revived it with the blood 
of the monkey. Then he hastened on, but a third time 
the leaves wilted, and he was compelled to stop and 
revive it with the blood of the pig. This was his last 
animal, so he made all the haste possible to reach home 
before his plant died. The cocoanut began to wilt 
again before he reached his house, but when he planted 
it in the ground, it quickly revived, and grew into a 
tall tree. 

This hunter was the first man to take the liquor 
called tuba 1 from the cocoanut tree, and he and his 
friends began to drink it. After they had become very 
fond of it, the hunter said to his friends : 

"The cocoanut tree is like the three animals whose 
blood gave it life when it would have died. The man 
who drinks three or four cups of tuba becomes like the 
noisy bird that I shot with my blow-gun. One who 
drinks more than three or four cups becomes like the 
big monkey that acts silly; and one who becomes drunk 
is like the pig that sleeps even in a mud-hole." 

*See note i, p. 197. 



Pis ay an 

day a man said to his wife: "My wife, we are 
getting very poor and I must go into business to 
earn some money." 

"That is a good idea," replied his wife. "How 
much capital have you?" 

"I have twenty-five centavos," 1 answered the man; 
"and I am going to buy rice and carry it to the mines, 
for I have heard that it brings a good price there." 

So he took his twenty-five centavos and bought a 
half-cavan of rice which he carried on his shoulder to 
the mine. Arriving there he told the people that he 
had rice for sale, and they asked eagerly how much 
he wanted for it. 

"Why, have you forgotten the regular price of rice?" 
asked the man. "It is twenty-five centavos." 

They at once bought the rice, and the man was very 
glad because he would not have to carry it any longer. 
He put the money in his belt and asked if they would 
like to buy any more. 

"Yes," said they, "we will buy as many cavans as 
you will bring." 

When the man reached home his wife asked if he 
had been successful. 

Spanish coin worth half a cent. 



"Oh, my wife," he answered, "it is a very good busi- 
ness. I could not take the rice off my shoulder before 
the people came to buy it." 

"Well, that is good," said the wife ; "we shall become 
very rich." 

The next morning the man bought a half-cavan 
of rice the same as before and carried it to the mine 
and when they asked how much it would be, he 

"It is the same as before twenty-five centavos." 
He received the money and went home. 

"How is the business today?" asked his wife. 

"Oh, it is the same as before," he said. "I could 
not take the rice off my shoulder before they came 
for it." 

And so he went on with his business for a year, each 
day buying a half-cavan of rice and selling it for the 
price he had paid for it. Then one day his wife said 
that they would balance accounts, and she spread a mat 
on the floor and sat down on one side of it, telling her 
husband to sit on the opposite side. When she asked 
him for the money he had made during the year, he 

"What money?" 

"Why, give me the money you have received," 
answered his wife; "and then we can see how much 
you have made." 

"Oh, here it is," said the man, and he took the 
twenty-five centavos out of his belt and handed it to 

"Is that all you have received this year?" cried his 



wife angrily. "Haven't you said that rice brought a 
good price at the mines?" 

"That is all," he replied. 

"How much did you pay for the rice?" 

"Twenty-five centavos." 

"How much did you receive for it?" 

"Twenty-five centavos." 

"Oh, my husband," cried his wife, "how can you 
make any gain if you sell it for just what you paid 
fork," ' 

The man leaned his head against the wall and 
thought. Ever since then he has been called "Mansu- 
mandig," a man who leans back and thinks. 

Then the wife said, "Give me the twenty-five cen- 
tavos, and I will try to make some money." So he 
handed it to her, and she said, "Now you go to the field 
where the people are gathering hemp and buy twenty- 
five centavos worth for me, and I will weave it into 

When Mansumandig returned with the hemp she 
spread it in the sun, and as soon as it was dry she tied 
it into a long thread and put it on the loom to weave. 
Night and day she worked on her cloth, and when it 
was finished she had eight varas. This she sold for 
twelve and a half centavos a vara, and with this money 
she bought more hemp. She continued weaving and 
selling her cloth, and her work was so good that people 
were glad to buy from her. 

At the end of a year she again spread the mat on 
the floor and took her place on one side of it, while her 
husband sat on the opposite side. Then she poured 



the money out of the blanket in which she kept it upon 
the mat. She held aside her capital, which was twenty- 
five centavos, and when she counted the remainder she 
found that she had three hundred pesos. Mansuman- 
dig was greatly ashamed when he remembered that he 
had not made a cent, and he leaned his head against 
the wall and thought. After a while the woman pitied 
him, so she gave him the money and told him to buy 

He was able to buy ten carabao and with these he 
plowed his fields. By raising good crops they were 
able to live comfortably all the rest of their lives. 




A RICH man in a certain town once owned a dog 
**' and a cat, both of which were very useful to him. 
The dog had served his master for many years and 
had become so old that he had lost his teeth and was 
unable to fight any more, but he was a good guide and 
companion to the cat who was strong and cunning. 

The master had a daughter who was attending 
school at a convent some distance from home, and very 
often he sent the dog and the cat with presents to 
the girl. 

One day he called the faithful animals and bade 
them carry a magic ring to his daughter. 

"You are strong and brave, " he said to the cat. 
"You may carry the ring, but you must be careful not 
to drop it." 

And to the dog he said: "You must accompany the 
cat to guide her and keep her from harm." 

They promised to do their best, and started out. All 
went well until they came to a river. As there was 
neither bridge nor boat, there was no way to cross but 
to swim. 

"Let me take the magic ring," said the dog as they 
were about to plunge into the water. 

"Oh, no," replied the cat, "the master gave it to me 
to carry." 



"But you cannot swim well," argued the dog. "I 
am strong and can take good care of it." 

But the cat refused to give up the ring until finally 
the dog threatened to kill her, and then she reluctantly 
gave it to him. 

The river was wide and the water so swift that they 
grew very tired, and just before they reached the op- 
posite bank the dog dropped the ring. They searched 
carefully, but could not find it anywhere, and after a 
while they turned back to tell their master of the sad 
loss. Just before reaching the house, however, the dog 
was so overcome with fear that he turned and ran 
away and never was seen again. 

The cat went on alone, and when the master saw 
her coming he called out to know why she had returned 
so soon and what had become of her companion. The 
poor cat was frightened, but as well as she could she 
explained how the ring had been lost and how the dog 
had run away. 

On hearing her story the master was very angry, 
and commanded that all his people should search for 
the dog, and that it should be punished by having its tail 
cut off. 

He also ordered that all the dogs in the world should 
join in the search, and ever since when one dog meets 
another he says: "Are you the old dog that lost the 
magic ring? If so, your tail must be cut off." Then 
immediately each shows his teeth and wags his tail to 
prove that he is not the guilty one. 

Since then, too, cats have been afraid of water and 
will not swim across a river if they can avoid it. 



Vis ay an 

A HAWK flying about in the sky one day decided 
** that he would like to marry a hen whom he often 
saw on earth. He flew down and searched until he 
found her, and then asked her to become his wife. She 
at once gave her consent on the condition that he would 
wait until she could grow wings like his, so that she 
might also fly high. The hawk agreed to this and flew 
away, after giving her a ring as an engagement present 
and telling her to take good care of it. 

The hen was very proud of the ring and placed it 
around her neck. The next day, however, she met 
the cock who looked at her in astonishment and said: 

"Where did you get that ring? Do you not know 
that you promised to be my wife ? You must not wear 
the ring of anyone else. Throw it away." 

And the hen threw away the beautiful ring. 

Not long after this the hawk came down bringing 
beautiful feathers to dress the hen. When she saw 
him coming she was frightened and ran to hide behind 
the door, but the hawk called to her to come and see 
the beautiful dress he had brought her. 

The hen came out, and the hawk at once saw that 
the ring was gone. 

"Where is the ring I gave you?" he asked. "Why 
do you not wear it?" 



The hen was frightened and ashamed to tell the 
truth so she answered: 

"Oh, sir, yesterday when I was walking in the 
garden, I met a large snake and he frightened me so 
that I ran as fast as I could to the house. Then I 
missed the ring and I searched everywhere but could 
not find it." 

The hawk looked sharply at the hen, and he knew 
that she was deceiving him. Then he said to her: 

"I did not believe that you could behave so badly. 
When you have found the ring I will come down again 
and make you my wife. But as a punishment for break- 
ing your promise, you must always scratch the ground 
to look for the ring. And every chicken of yours that 
I find, I shall snatch away." 

Then he flew away, and ever since all the hens 
throughout the world have been scratching to find the 
hawk's ring. 


F is ay an 

ATR. SPIDER wanted to marry Miss Fly. Many 
** times he told her of his love and begged her to 
become his wife, but she always refused for she did 
not like him. 

One day when she saw Mr. Spider coming again 
Miss Fly closed all the doors and windows of her house 
and made ready a pot of boiling water. Then she 
waited, and when Mr. Spider called, begging her to 
allow him to enter, she answered by throwing boiling 
water at him. This made Mr. Spider very angry and 
he cried: 

"I will never forgive you for this, but I and my de- 
scendants will always despise you. We will never give 
you any peace." 

Mr. Spider kept his word, and even today one can 
see the hatred of the spider for the fly. 




NE day the land crabs had a meeting and one of 
them said: 

"What shall we do with the waves? They sing so 
loudly all the time that we cannot possibly sleep." 

"Well," answered one of the oldest of the crabs, 
"I think we should make war on them." 

The others agreed to this, and it was decided that 
the next day all the male crabs should get ready to 
fight the waves. They started for the sea, as agreed, 
when they met a shrimp. 

"Where are you going, my friends?" asked the 

"We are going to fight the waves," answered the 
crabs, "for they make so much noise at night that we 
cannot sleep." 

"I do not think you will succeed," said the shrimp, 
"for the waves are very strong and your legs are 
so weak that even your bodies bend almost to the 
ground when you walk." Wherewith he laughed 

This made the crabs very angry, and they pinched 
the shrimp until he promised to help them win the 

Then they all went to the shore. But the crabs 
noticed that the eyes of the shrimp were set unlike their 


own, so they thought his must be wrong and they 
laughed at him and said: 

"Friend shrimp, your face is turned the wrong way. 
What weapon have you to fight with the waves?" 

"My weapon is a spear on my head," replied the 
shrimp, and just then he saw a big wave coming and 
ran away. The crabs did not see it, however, for they 
were all looking toward the shore, and they were cov- 
ered with water and drowned. 

By and by the wives of the crabs became worried 
because their husbands did not return, and they went 
down to the shore to see if they could help in the battle. 
No sooner had they reached the water, however, than 
the waves rushed over them and killed them. 

Some time after this thousands of little crabs ap- 
peared near the shore, and the shrimp often visited 
them and told them of the sad fate of their parents. 
Even today these little crabs can be seen on the shore, 
continually running back and forth. They seem to rush 
down to fight the waves, and then, as their courage 
fails, they run back to the land where their forefathers 
lived. They neither live on dry land, as their ancestors 
did, nor in the sea where the other crabs are, but on 
the beach where the waves wash over them at high tide 
and try to dash them to pieces. 


The vowel sounds in the following pronunciations 
are those used in Webster's dictionary. 

Adasen, a-da'sen 

Aguio, a'ge-o 

Alan, a'lan 

Alokotan, a-16-ko-tan' 

Aponibalagen, apo-ne-ba-la-gen' 


Aponitolau, apo-ne-to'lou 
Bagbagak, bag-ba-gak' 
Bagobo, ba-go'bo 
Balatama, ba-la-ta'ma 
Bangan, ban'gan 
Bantugan, ban-too'gan 
Benito, be-ne'to 
Bilaan, be-la'an 
Bita, be'ta 
Bontoc, bon'tok 
Bukidnon, boo-kid'non 
Bulanawan, boo-la-na'wan 
Caalang, ka-a'lang 
Cabildo, ka-bil'do 
Cibolan, ci-bo'lan 
Dalonagan, da-16-na'gan 
Danepan, da-ne-pan' 
Dapilisan, da-pe-le'san 
Dayapan, di-a-pan 
Dinawagen, de-na-wa'gen 
Dodedog, dog-e-dog 
Domayco, do-rai'ko 
Dumalavui, doo-ma-la-we' 
Epogow, e-po-gou' 

Gawigawen, ga-we-ga'wen 
Gaygayoma, gi-gi-6'ma 
Gotgotapa, got-go-ta'pa 
Igorot, ig-6-rot' 
Ilocano, il-6-ka'no 
Ilocos Norte, il-o'kos no'rte 
Indarapatra, in-da-ra-pa'tra 
Ini-init, e-ni-e'nit 
Kabigat, ka-be-gat' 
Kaboniyan, ka-bo-ne-yan' 
Kadaklan, ka-dak-lan' 
Kadalayapan, ka-da-la-ya'pan 
Kadayadawan, ka-da-ya-da'wan 
Kanag, ka'nag 
Komo<w, ko'mou 
Kurita, ku-re'ta 
Langgona, lang-go'na 
Ligi, le'ge 
Limokon, le-mo'kon 
Lumabet, loo-ma'bet 
Lumawig, loo-ma'wig 
Magbangal, mag-bang'al 
Magindanau, ma-gm-da'nou 
Magosang, ma-go'sang 
Magsawi, mag-sa-we' 
Magsingal, mag'sin-gal 
Manama, man-a'ma 
Mandaya, man-di'ya 
Mansumandig, man-su-man-dig 
Mayinit, mi-i'nit 
Mayo, mi'yo 



Mindanao, min-da-nou' Sulayman, soo-li'man 

Nalpangan, nal-pan-gan' Tagalog, ta-ga'log 

Pilar, pe'lar' Tarabusaiu, ta-ra-boo'sou 

Samoki, sa-mo'ki Tikgi, tik'ge 

Sayen, sa-yen' Timaco, ti-ma'ko 

Siagon, se-a'gon Tinguian, ting-gi-an' 

Silit, se'let Toglai, tog-la'e 

Sinag, se'nag Toglibon, tog-le'bon 

Sogsogot, sog-so-got' Visayan, vi-si'yan 
Subanun, soo-ba'nun 


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