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BLM LIBRARY 



88005150 



PLANT RESPONSE PARAMETERS TO RECREATIONAL 
7EHICLES IN THE CALIFORNIA DESERT CONSERVATION AREi 

(CDCA) 



m 




* 7*^773 



L3S* 



Final Report: 
"Plant Response Parameters to Recreational 
Vehicles in the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA)" 



June 30, 1978 



Earl W. Lathrop 

Loma Linda University 

Loma Linda,- California 



for 

Bureau of Land Management 
1695 Spruce Street 
Riverside, California 92507 

Contract CA-060-CT7-2824 



Bureau of Land Management 

B'dg. 50, Denver Federal rw 
°enver, CO 80225 ter 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

I. Introduction 

a. Purpose and objectives 

II. Methods 

A. Site selection 

B. Materials 

C. Aerial photograph analysis 

D. Ground analysis 

E. Statistical considerations 

III. Results 

A. General 

B . S i te 

Area 1 . Jawbone Canyon 

• Dove Springs 
Area 2. Stoddard Valley 
Area 3. Johnson Valley 
Area 4. Afton Canoyon, Kelso Dunes 
Area 5. Plaster City 
Area 6. Barstow to Vegas Motorcycle Race 
Area 7. Patton Camps, Essex, Needles 

IV. Conclusions ( Summary table and figures) 

V. Bibliography 
i/I. Appendix 

A. Plant list 

B. Photo and species field calculations 



1. Calculations 

2. Symbols 

C. Plant community classification 

D. Study site locations 

E. Aerial photograph calibrations 

F. Plates 



I . Introduction 

Purpose and objectives. 

The overall purpose of this project was to study disturbance 
spectra to arrive at a basis for predicting the effects of recreational 
use on desert ecosystems, which would help federal land managers 
intelligently decide how to allocate desert lands for various uses. 

Specific objectives were to attempt to contribute information 
which would help to answer questions o.f the following types: 

1. What kinds of recreational impacts occur. 

2. What kinds of plant responses occur. 

3. How does the intensity of recreational use relate to the 
extent of plant response. 

The objectives above were to be determined primarily from aerial 
photographic analysis with on site measurements to fill in certain places 
where photos were unavailable or to supplement the photo data. 



II. Methods 



A. Site selection 

The time period set for completion of this- study did not permit 
the execution of a carefully designed study projecting far into the 
future but instead had to rely on interpretation of recent and 
past experiments inadvertently performed. The seven study sites 
(appendix D) were selected specifically with a history of 
recreational and, in the case of area 7, World War II (WWII) use. 
These sites were selected by Dr. Hyrum B. Johnson and Tad Taylor, 
Desert Plan Staff, BLM. Contrasting areas such as motorcycle 
races, intense hill climbing areas, dunes and WWII tank training 
areas were selected to provide representative vegetative, 
geographic and use characteristics. Ground photographs were taken 
at each area depicting a spectra of disturbance sites and controls 
(appendix F) . 

B,, Materials 

Materials consisted mainly of items needed for analysis of 
aerial photographs and film, materials for ground transect and 
plot measurements, caluclators, and four wheel drive vehicles for 
reaching field sites. Most of the items will be mentioned in the 
photo and ground methods sections. Symbols and calculations used 
in aerial and ground analysis are listed in appendix B. 

C. Aerial photographic analysis. 

Study areas were located on aerial photographs for both test 
and control sites. The ideal control was a comparable photo befo 
disturbance, usually 1952-1953. These dates were too recent for 
area 7 (Patton WWII camps) however. In cases where a control 



photo was lacking, a site on the test photo that was in an 
undisturbed location with the same vegetation type and physiognomic 
character as the disturbed site was used as a control. Dates for 
the test (disturbed) photos were usually early to late 1970's. 

Uncalibrated aerial photos were calibrated by comparing exact 
ground and aerial distances between known landmarks. Transparent 
dot and plot grids were calibrated for each photo (appendix E) 
for the purpose of measuring total density and cover of perennial 
vegetation in test and control plots. The ratios for prints and 
grids were calibrated for each elevation level. 

For measurements of total density the transparent grids were 
placed over the sample sites and the number of shrubs (visible 
with the aid of 4X magnifier lenses attached to standard 
stereoviewer) counted within transect plots (K). When control 
photos were available, the grid was placed in the identical position 
on both test and control sites. Density was calculated by standard 
procedures using the photo and grid calculations previously 
determined. In most cases, density was expressed as density, 
no/. 04 ha or .12 ha, depending on the calibration ratio of the 
photo. When either the test or control photo lacked a suitable 
"stereo pair", the transparent grids were used with a regular 
stereo dissecting microscope for density counting. The extra 
magnification of this type of scope tended to off-set the loss 
of contrast so valuable in the stereoscope. The sample size for 
most of the study sites is indicated by K and N (number of shrubs 
or plants counted) in the tables of results. 

Cover was measured by use of a calibrated line transect divided 



into ten sections and superimposed onto a Bausch and Lomb Filar 
micrometer eyepiece attached to a standard stereo dissecting 
microscope with a magnification factor of .7. A moving needle 
calibrated in increments of .001 was used to measure the vegetation 
on the transect line which was placed over sample sites of both 
the control and test photos. The sum of the vegetational 
distance was divided by the length of the transect line (1000 
micrometer units) and multiplied by 100 to yield the relative 
cover on each transect line. This method of estimating cover of 
perennial vegetation on photographs has the advantage of more 
accuracy than estimating distance covered on a line with the 
standard transparent grid. The needle of the micrometer can be 
placed directly beside a shrub, the micrometer reading taken, and 
then moved to the opposite side of the shrub and read again. 

Sample site selection on the photos considered such criteria 
as homogenity of the vegetation, presence of a disturbance type 
and the ^presence of a matching undisturbed area for control 
(usually an earlier photograph taken before disturbance). Samples; 
were taken in several different disturbance categories, such as 
pit areas, hillside and level trails, raceways, tracks, etc. 
While it is impossible to detect and measure eyery shrub that is 
visible on a comparable ground site, the photo analysis tended to 
yield similar trends as the ground measurements did. Thus photo 
and ground measurements are shown together for many areas but 
always in separate tables or graphs. 



\ 



D. Ground analysis 

On site measurements were taken to supplement photo analysis 
in a few representative areas but not in all of them. In a few 
cases (Afton and Jawbone Canyons, and Stoddard Valley) ground 
measurements were taken because of the unavailability of aerial 
photographs of disturbance sites. 

Ground measurements, like the aerial photo analysis, were used 
primarily to calculate density and_ cover. Since it was possible 
to identify each species on the ground, percentage composition 
tables were also prepared. 

Most ground sites were measured for density and cover of perennial 
vegetation in various disturbance and community types and also 
in a comparable nearby undisturbed plot for a control. The 
point-quarter method was used for most areas, sampling at a 
minimum of 30 points (K) for each disturbance type or control. 
Density and covere* were calculated from field data following 
standard formulas for such calculations (Brower and Zar, 1977). 
Some areas, such as Jawbone Canyon and Dove Springs, where large 
expanses of denuded vegetation discourage use of the quarter- 
method, line transects were used. Density and cover were 
calculated by standard methods also outlined in Brower and Zar 
(1977). 

Measurements of vegetation in creosote bush scrub were taken 
Dec. 11, 12 and 18, 1978 at the starting area of the Barstow to 
Vegas Motorcycle Race of Nov. 30, 1974 near Yermo, California, 
for the purpose of testing edge effect of motorcycle tracks (Tables 
1 and 7, Fig 1, area 6) . , 



Edge effect was tested for by 1500 point samples at 75 randomly 
selected sites along 3 transect lines. One transect contained 
10 tracks (sparse), a second contained 38 tracks (dense), both 
through the race path. A third transect containing 45 tracks was 
through a pit area. Cover and composition were determined 
following standard formulas for point measurements (Brower & Zar, 
1977). 

E. Statistical considerations 

Limited statistical analyses were made for a few representative 
sample sites measured on aerial photographs. The quarter method 
and the line transect method of the ground measurements do not 
lend themselves to an evaluation of means from which the statistic 
summaries are based. (See statistical summaries in selected area 
tables and appendix B for symbols). Standard error of the mean 
(Sx) was determined for some bar graphs of aerial photo analysis 
but is available as yet only in the raw data on file at Loma 
Linda University. 



The formula for determination of percent change of vegetation in 
relation to disturbance intensity = test - control r control X Ij 



. Results 

Results are shown primarily in the form of tables and graphs for 
each study area with summary graphs depicted in the conclusions. In 
general, the impacts of recreational uses, primarily by recreational 
(RV) and off-road (ORV) vehicles, upon the California desert plants 
and their habitats cause negative responses by perennial plants. The 
degree of negative response varies with conditions and use intensity. 
Some positive responses were detected in annuals at area 6 where 
deep tracks in sand created an edge effect, collecting rain water and 
seeds in the swales of the tracks. Concentrated current or recent 
past vehicle use in localized areas tends to create the greatest 
negative plant response and one-time motorcycles races, with dissipated 
activity and with time allowance for plant recovery, appears to have 
the least negative response. Concentrated but distant past type use 
intensities (Patton's training camps) with long periods of time for 
recovery come somewhere in between these two negative response types 
(Fig. 18, Table 1 conclusions). 

Ground measurements tables of percent compositon data collected at 
some sites show differences in composition between control and test 
sites, indicating that recreational impacts do alter plant stability 
and diversity to some extent. Productivity also tends to be affected 
by recreational impacts as the data on cover changes between test and 
control sites indicate. Stabil ity tends to be reduced when recreational 
impacts are such that the dominance of long-lived perennials of a 
particular area is reduced or altered. 

The data from both aerial photographic analysis and ground transects 
indicate negative response by perennial vegetation to most types and 



degrees of recreational vehicle use intensities as studied in 
representative sample sites (areas 1-7) of the California Desert 
Conservation Area. See summary data tables and figures for areas 
and conclusions sections. 



Area 1 Jawbone Canyon 
Dove Springs 



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Table 2. Mean density, no./. 04 ha (N), of perennial vegetation 
before (Oct. 15, 1952) and after (May 27, 1973) use by 
recreational vehicles in Dove Springs Canyon, 38 Km 
northeast of Mohave, Kern County, California as deter- 
mined from aerial photographs. Transect sites 1-8 oc- 
cur progressively into the canyon starting at T29S, 
R37E, Sec. 20 and terminating with site 8 at T29S, 
R36E, Sec. 1. 



Density no/. 04 ha 



Srte K N 1952 1973 

1. Pit area and hillside 

trails 180 2066 11.4 

180 1699 9.43 

2. Hillside trails 180 1727 9.59 

180 852 4.73 

3. Hillside trails 180 2086 11.59 

180 1290 7.17 

4. Hillside trails 180 2907 16.15 

180 1070 . 5.94 

5. Pit area 180 1876 16.45 

180 751 4.17 

6. Pit area 180 1989 11.05 

180 937 5.21 

7. Hillside trails 180 3456 19.2 

180 1651 9.17 

8. Pit area 270 3107 11.51 

270 1744 6.46 



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Table 4. Statistical summary of comparison of mean values for density 
at control and test sites in Dove Springs Canyon. See Table 
2 and Figure 1 . 






Sites 



Values 


Test 




Control 


X 


6.53 




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Figure 2. Bar graphs of linear density index (A) and mean percent 
cover (B) of perennial vegetation at recreational use 
areas of Dove Springs, 38 Km northeast of Mohave, Kern 
County, California. (See Table 1.) 



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Table 4. Summary data of soil characteristics of 

Stoddard Valley study site, 4 km southwest 
of Barstow, San Bernardino County, California, 
T9N, R2W, Sec 26 and 27. Analysis by Al Endo. 



SUMMARY DATA 



Site 



Stoddard Valley 



3 
Physionomic 




Characteristics 




Elevation 


2700 ft.^ 


Slope/aspect 


4-5% SW 


Parent rock 


mixed alluvium 


Land-form 


Alluvial fan 


Surface conditions 


80-90% loose gravel 


Consistency 




Dry, Moist, Wet 


hard 




very friable 




non-sticky, non-plastic 


Texture 




Surface 


GrS 


Subsurface 


GrS 


Sturcture 




Surface 


Stonrg med-course, platy 


Subsurface 


massive 





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Density 


no/. 12 ha 


Site 


K 


N 


1952 


1977 


A 


89 


1139 


12.7 






85 


386 




4.5 


B 


86 


1093 


12.7 






86 


529 




6.2 


C 


90 


1154 


12.8 






90 


677 




7.5 


D 


89 


1125 


12.8 






90 


740 




8.6 


E 


90 


815 


9.0 






90 


414 




4.6 


F 


90 


730 


8.1 


• 




90 


440 




4.9 


G 


• 90 


.1154 


12.8 


• 




84 


628 




7.5 


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34 


422 


12.4 






24 


157 




6.5 



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Values 

x 

SD 

n Paired-t 

yl? rS. > 

DF 





Pit area 


1952 


1977 


11.63 


6.23 


1.92 


1.44 




10.05 




7 




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Density 
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Density 
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A 

3 
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■D 




Density 
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O 

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F 






1ST 

mMtm 1 1 



Figure 2. Mean density of perennial vegetation before ( Q November 26, 

1952) and after ( S May 28, 1977) establishment of a recreational 
pit area of Johnson Valley, T5N, R3E, SW% sec. 22, San Bernardino 
Base Line, California as determined from eight radiating transects 
placed at random compass degrees from the center of the pit 
area on aerial photographs. See Table 1. 





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Figure 1. Bar graph of density (A) and cover (B) of perennial vegetation in 
creosote bush scrub at recreational vehicle use areas of Afton 
Canyon, 61 km northeast of Barstow, San Bernardino, California. 
(See Table 1). 



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vehicles in the Kelso Dunes, T10N, R12E, sees. 3 and 9, San 
Bernardino Base Line, California as determined from aerial 
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Density no/. 12 ha 









Desert floor 


Foredune 


Transect 


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1953 1974 


1953 1974 


1 




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4.3 


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217 




2.4 


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488 


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recreational vehicles in Kelso Dunes, T10N, R12E, sees. 3 and 9, 
San Bernardino Base Line, California as determined from aerial 
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to 

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s- 


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ro 


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cc 









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3 




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r*>. 








c 


cr> 


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M 


s_ 






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+j 






t/1 


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c 






c 




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• 


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> 
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2: 

ID 

o% 










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o 


CO 


CO 




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i- 


lo 


o 




CO 


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• 






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c 
o 


vo 


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r— 


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s_ 










ex 










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cr> 



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co 



CO 



UD 



o 



CO 



C\J O 00 

CT» O <— I 

CO CO CO 



CsJ co «a- 

u-> «a- «s- 



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+J 


en 


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ti 


oo 


^ 


<u 




CO 


en 


&. 


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3 


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CO 



CO 



Table 5. Statistical summary of mean density in four raceway sites in the 



El Cajon motorcycle race of Dec. 3, 1972. See table 3. 






Sites 



Values 


Raceway 


Control 


X 


1.38 


2.04 


SD 


.435 


1.0 


t 

a-* 

DF 


- 


1.22 
4 


P 


- 


.289 



o 


0) 


c 






_z: 


o 




I/) 


4J 


•t— 




u 




4-> 




•r- 


E 


re 




+■> 


O 


+j 




to 


J- 


•r- 




•^ 


«4- 


^» 




S. 




•^ 




0) 


-o 


XI 




+-> 


QJ 


re 




u 


r— 


X 




(0 


•^ 


O) 




s. 


a. 


s- 




re 


E 






x: 


O 


<D 




o 


o 






u 


to 


3 




•T— 


re 


O 




4-> 




o 




•^ 


0) 






o 


u 


0) 




-Q 


re 


u 






s- 


re 




-a 




i. 




c 


a 






re 


r— 


+j 






o 


c 




r— 


>> 


<u 




(O 


o 


E 




u 


i- 


a> 




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o 


CD 




W> 


+J 


re. 




>> 


o 


c 




J= 


s: 


re 




a. 


c 


s: 




"O 


o 


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0) 


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re 


re 




o 


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_j 




0) 








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LU 


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3 




«4- 


P»* 


re 




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crv 


0) 






i— • 


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3 




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■I 


CD 




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to 


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ID 








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X) 








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CO 


1 




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3 


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s. 


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3 


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3 






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c 


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3 


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3 


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a. 


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3 






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£Z 






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X 


M- 




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1 


JZ 






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0) 


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i_ 




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0) 


S. 










CO 


ro 






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CO 


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CL 


O 






r— 


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• 




O 


CM 


O 






E 


c 






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01 


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CO 




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1— * 








JE 


CD 


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c 


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2: 




co 


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3 


J= 




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ro 






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co 




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■ 


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01 


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3 


3 




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CO 




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t— 1 


co 


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c 


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CL 


n 






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n 


ro 


01 





O 


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3 


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S_ 


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t— • 


s_ 


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CO 


ro 






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c 


4-> 




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CO 






C 






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0) 


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>> 


c 


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s_ 




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2 


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10 


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+-> 


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01 




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o> 


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4-9 




4-> 


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o 


O 




r^ 


01 


O 


3 


ro 


CO 


• • 


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cu 


c 








on 


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ro 


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C 


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s. 


co 




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CO 


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3 




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CO 


c 






CO 


co 


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Fig. 1. Outline map of the El Cajon Valley Motorcycle Racecourse ( — ) 
held December 3, 1972 in the Yuha Desert, Imperial County, 
California, showing study sites 1-4. 






R.IOE R.IIE. 



Plotttr Cit 



T.I6S. 




T. |7 S. 



Figure 2. Bar graph showing mean density of perennial vegetation in 
transects taken at three recreational vehicle pit areas at 
Plaster City, California. See Table 1. 












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Figure 3. A. Bar graph showing mean density of perennial vegetation at 
racecourse site 1 (see Table 3) as determined from aerial 
photographs taken before (April 18, 1953 and Nov. 26, 1972) 
and after (Dec. 12, 1972) the El Cajon motorcycle race held 
Dec. 3, 1972 in the Yuha Desert near Plaster City, California. 
B. Comparison of mean density of perennial vegetation in 
control and racecourse sites of the El Cajon motorcycle race. 
(See table 3.) 



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Area 6 Barstow to Vegas 
Motorcycle Race 



Table 1. Summary data of point frame samples (N=1500) of vegetation 
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random sites (75) along transects (3) through the Barstow 
to Vegas Motorcycle Race of November 30, 1974. Transect 
sites through race path located at site 2, T.11N, R.4E, Sec. 10, 
and pit area at site 1,.T.10N, R.4E, Sec. 6, San Bernardino 
Base Line, San Bernardino County, California. 



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Table 5 . Statistical summary of conparison of mean values for density 
at raceway sites 3 and 4 (see Table 6 and Figure 4) of the 
Bars tow to Vegas Motorcycle Race. 



Sites 



Values 


Raceway 






Control 


I 


13.07 






26.28 


SD 


.81 






4.48 


t 




4 


.09 


• 


DF 




1 






P ^ 






.152 







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a 


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0) 


u 




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s_ 


s- 


c 


ra 


0) 


o 


CD 


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c_ 


+-> 


J* 


c 




o 


ro 


s- 


»+- 


2: 


4J 





O 






M- 




CO 


to 


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o 


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M 




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turbance intensity at raceway sites along the early race 
course of the Barstow to Vegas motorcycle race of Nov. 30, 
1974 as determined from ground (A) and aerial photo (B) 
measurements of mean density (see tables 6 and 8, Barstow 
to Vegas race). Disturbance intensity, in order of 
increased intensity (sites 1-2), is based in part on track 
frequency at the study sites. 



TOO 
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1 2 

Disturbance intensity 





1 2 

Disturbance intensity 



Figure 7: Percent change of perennial vegetation in relation to 
disturbance intensity recreational and off-road use 
sites in Dove Springs Canyon. Disturbance intensity values 
(1-3), determined from ground measurements of vegetation 
May 21, 1978, are based on partially denuded (1) to 
completely denuded (2,3) hillsides in the canyon. Percent 
change values calculated from measurements of cover. 





100 




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ro . 



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c 

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3 

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o 



Figure 11. Percent change of perennial vegetation in relation 
to time use intensity values at a raceway site of 
the El Cajon Motorcycle Race held Dec. 3, 1972 in 
the Yuha Desert near Plaster City, California 
determined from analysis of density from aerial 
photographs. Disturbance intensity value 1 represents 
change of vegetation at the site between the years 
1953 and 1972 with no race. Value 2 represents 
change during the race (between the dates of 
Nov. 26, 1972 and Dec. 12, 1972) at the same site. 



100 ■ 

80- 








60- 






40- 






+ 20- 






£? 










m 




*« 20- 




H 




40- 






60- 




- 


80- 






100- 




^^ 



1 2 

Disturbance intensity 






ro 



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o 


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3 


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c 


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en 


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< 


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O 






o> 


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3 


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c 


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to 
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80 

60 

4(T 
20- 

0- 

20 

40- 

60- 
80- 

100-- 






1 2 3 

Disturbance intensity 



Figure 14. Percent change of perennial vegetation in relation to distur- 
bance intensity at recreational and off-road vehicle use sites 
in Afton Canyon, 61 Km northeast of Barstow, California. Dis- 
turbance intensity values represent, in order v of increased use 
intensity, vegetation denution. Hillside trails consisted of 
denuded strips (1) while pit areas (2) had large expanses of.. 
nearly complete denution. Ground measurements taken May 15, 
1978. Percent change values determined from measurements of 
density (D) and cover (H). 



c 
o 



IUU' 
















80' 






60- 






40 


■ 




20 














; 4 






U-= -1 
















• i 










{ 1 






- 
















i 




20 






j V 

I 1 

- J 










40 






* ■'x 






; i 




60 






> r" 






C 1 

t 

\ 1 


V 


80 






• ! 




10Q 






' i 





Disturbance intensity 



Figure 15. Percent change of perennial vegetation in relation to distur- 
bance intensity in recreational and off-road vehicle use sites 
at Stoddard Valley as determined from ground measurements taken 
May 14 and 28, 1978. Disturbance intensity values (1-4) represent, 
in order of increasing use intensity, progressive denution of 
vegetation at study sites:' 1-hillside trails; 2-raceway; 3-pit 
area in creosote bush scrub; 4-pit area in alkali sink. Percent 
change values based on density (D j and cover (a). 



- % chanae + 



o 

o 



CO 

o 



en 
o 



o 



ro 
o 



ro 
o 



-Cfe 

o 



o 



CD 

o 



o 
o 



r+ 

c 

or 
a> 

3 
O 



ft) 

3 



ro- 



u>- 



JS». 



tfkmm smOHm iimr iw i h imf 







k 1 "'^" - J l *"■ ' g - 4--^ , 






Figure 16. Percent change of perennial vegetation in relation to disturbance 
intensity at the Kelso sand dunes as determined from comparisons 
of aerial photographs taken before (Apr. 15, 1953) and after 
(June 9, 1974) use by recreational vehicles. ^Disturbance in- 
tensity values (1-3) represent progressive increase in use in- 
tensity from the vehicle hill runs of the fore dunes (□) to the 
pit area and trails of the desert floor (0) at three sites along 
the edge of the dunes. Percent change values determined from 
measurements of density. . . 



1001 



80. 
GO- 

40' 

20. 

+ 

en 

c 

5 20H 

' 40- 
60- 
80- 

100- 




WW 



2 3 

Disturbance intensity 



io 

c 



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in 


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~Q 


3 


C 


m 


m 


3 


fD 


s: 


3 


rt- 




rt- 


1 


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01 


Ol 


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O 


s 


O. 


cr 


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3 


fD 


Q. 




— < 


rt 


in 


3 


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rt 




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in 


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rt 






3 


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3 


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n 


3 






3* 


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3 


n 


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c 


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-5 


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in 


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< 


m 


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rt- 


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rt- 


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3 


CO 


o 


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a> 


-x 


3 


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rt- 


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3 


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c 




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3" 


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■^ 


rt 


V; 


m 


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en 


3- 






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< 


O" 


o 




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a. 


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ab 


Q. 


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—> 


-h 


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3 




fD 


c 


o 






-h 


"5 


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-5 


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-i 


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in 


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o 


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rt- 


— < 


3 


3" 


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«— ^ 




Ol 




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—j 


Ol 


rt 


Q. 


-s 


1 


ID 


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<< 


cn 


cn 


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3 




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CO 


a> 


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in 


o 




-~_-- 






•j* 


-h 


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o 


rt- 


rt- 




fD 


o> 


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<< 


r+ 


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3* 


-5 


a. 


c 


a. 


-h 


fD * 


fD 




o 


■ala 


■ji 




m 


01 


jy 


in 


UD 


"O 


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-h 


3 


rt 


C 


— i. 


3 


rt 


m 


c 


-J 


rt- 


rt- 


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O 


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-s 


3 


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01 


•a 






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• 


-s 


-s 


.—^ 


< 


3 




fD 


fD 


^j 


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r> 




a> 


1 


no 


fD 


fD 



I 



r+ 
ro 

3 
to 



- % Change + 



o 

o 



03 

o 



en 

o 



O 



ro 

o 



ro 
o 



o 



o 



CD 

o 



o 
o 



w, 



1 



ro 



U/. 



m 



to 

c+ 

c 

-S 
cr 
0) 
3 U> 

o 
ro 




-e» . 




en 




CTi 




Figure 18. Summary of mean percent change of perennial vegetation in 
relation to disturbance intensity for study areas 1-7. 
Disturbance intensity values 1-3, arranged in order of 
increasing intensity, are based on. area summary use intensity 
types (Table 1, ABC, conclusions). Disturbance intensity 
value 1 = B, 2 = C, 3 = A. 



100 
80 * 

60 * 
40 - 

20- 



en 

c 

u 




20 - 

40 - 
60 - 

80 - 
100 






1 2 3 

Disturbance intensity 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Arndt, W. 1966. The effect of traffic compaction on a number of soil properties 
J. Agricultural Engineering Res. 11:182-187. 

Berry, K.H. ed. 1973. Preliminary studies on the effects of off-road vehicles 
on the northwestern Mojave Desert. Privately published, Ridgecrest, Ca. 
p. 100. k 

Berry K. ed. 1977. Proceedings of the symposium on the physical, biological, 
and recreational impacts of off-road vehicles on the California Desert. So. 
Calif. Acad. Scis. Spec. Pub. (Unpublished) . 

Broadbent, S. 1974. Scavengenes on wheel. Sierra Club Bulletin. 



Brower, J.E. and J.H. Zar. 1977. Field and laboratory methods for general ecology. 
Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Ioqa. 194. 



Bureau of Land Management. 1970. Summary of the off -road vehicle advisory council 
report. Pamphlet by the US. Dept. of the Interior. Bureau of Land Manage- 
ment. 

Bureau of Land Management. 1970. The California Desert; a critical environmental 
challenge. US Department of the Interior. 3ureau of Land Management. 



Bureau of Land Management. 1973. Environmental analysis record for the 
interim critical management program for off-road vehicle use of the 
California desert. US Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land 
Management. 

Bureau of Land Management. 1973. Evaluations and recommendations El 
Cajon Valley motorcycle club's unauthorized race — Feb., 1973. US 
Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. 

Bureau of Land Management. 1974. Environmental assessment, Barstow-Vegas 

motorcycle race August, 1974. US Department bf the Interior, 

Bureau of Land Management. 

Bureau of Land Management. 1975. Evaluation report, 1974. Barstow-Las 
Vegas motorcycle race — March, 1975. US Department of the Interior. 
Bureau of Land Management. 

Bureau of Land Management. 1974. Final Environmental impact statement, 
proposed Barstow-Las Vegas, motorcycle race. US Department of the 
Interior. Bureau of Land Management. 

Carter, L.J. Off-Road vehicles: a compromise plan for the California 
Desert. Science 183(4123) :396-9. 

Davidson, E. , and M. Fox. 1974. Effects of off-road motorcycle activity 
on Mojave Desert vegetation and soil. Madrono 22:381-390. 



Duck, T.A. 1976. The effects of off-road vehicles on desert flora, in 
Abstracts, So. Cal . Acad. Scis., Ann Mtg., Santa Barbara, Ca., 44. 

Duck, T.A. 1977. The effects of off-road vehicles on vegetation in Dove 
Springs Canyon, in Berry, K. (ed.). Proc. of the symposium on the 
physical, biological, and recreational impacts of off-road vehicles 
on the California desert. So. Calif. Acad. Scis., Spec. Pub. (unpub.) 

Hadley, R.F. and C.T. Snyder. 1975. Environmental impacts of off-road 
vehicles in arid areas. Geol . Soc. America Abs. Prog. 7:1095. 

Harrison, R. 1976. Environmental effects of off-road vehicles. Engineering 
tech. information system. US Department of Agriculture. 4-8. 

Hicks, D., A. Sanders, and A. Coopeerrider. 1976. Impacts of Barstow-Las 
Vegas motorcycle race on wildlife habitat. Bureau of Land Management 
Unpubl . Rept. 46. 

Johnson, H.B. 1976. Vegetation and plant communities of Southern California 
Deserts-a functional view, in J. Latting (ed.). Symposium proceedings 
plant communities of Southern California. California Native Plant Society 
Spec. Pub! . no. 2 Riverside, California. 125-162. 

Johnson, S. 1974. Rv/II:The new generation of recreational vehicles. 
Sierra club bulletin. 



Keefe, J,, and K. Berry. 1973. Effects of off -road vehicles on desert 
Shrubs at Dove Springs Canyon, in K. Berry, (ed.). Preliminary studies 
on the effects of off-road vehicles on the northwestern Mojave Desert. 
A collection of papers. Privately published, Ridgecrest, California, 
pp. 19-44. 

Luckenbach, R.A. 1975. What the ORVs are doing to the desert. Fremontia 
2:3-11. 

Larson, F.R. 1971. A comparison of aerial photo and ground measurements of 
Ponderosa pine stands. USDA Forest Service Research Note RM 192. 

Los Angeles Times. Dec. 17, 1974. Battle for the Great Mojave. 

Murchie, D.R. 1973. What trackless desert. Sierra Club Bulletin. 

Office of Library Services. 1973. Environmental effects of off -road 
vehciles. A review of the literature. US Department of the Interior. 
Office of Library Services, Bibliography series #29. 

ORV Monitor. 1974. ORVs and the California Desert. A Case Study. 

Press-Enterprise. 1978. Wilderness: The Coming Stuggle. 

Snyder, CT., DG. Frickel , RE. Hadley, and RF. Miller. 1976. Effects of 
off-road vehicle use on the hydrology and landscape of arid environments 
in Central and Southern California. US Geological Survey Water-Resources 
Investigations 76-99:45. 



Stebbins, R.C. 1974. Off -road vehicles and the fragile desert. Amer. 
Biol. Teacher. 36:203-208, 294-304. 

Thorne, R. F. 1976. The Vascular plant communities of California, pp. 1-31. 
_In_ J. Latting (ed.), Symposium proceedings plant communities of Southern 
California. California Native Plant Society Spec. Publ_. no. 2, Riverside, 
Calif. 

Turner, R. B., A. T. Vollmer, B. G. Maza, and P. A. Medica. 1976. Effects of 
off-road vehicles on a creosote-bush community in Southern Nevada. _IH 
Abstracts, So. Cal . Acad. Scis., Ann. Mtg., Santa Barbara, Ca., p. 45. 

Vollmer, A. T. , B. G. Maza, P. A. Medica, F. B. Turner, and S. A. Bamberg. 
1976. The impact of off-road vehicles on a desert ecosystem. Environmental 
Management. 1(2) : 115-129. 

Webb, R. H. 1977. The effects of off -road vehicles on desert soil in Dove 
Springs Canyon. Jjl Berry, K. (ed.), Proc. of the Symposium on the 
physical, biological, and recreational impacts of off-road vehicles on 
the California desert. So. Calif. Acad. Scis., Spec. Pub. (unpubl.) 

Webb, R. H., and H. G. Wilshire. 1977. A Bioliography on the Effects of 
Off -road Vehicles on the Environment. 12p. 

Wilshire, H. G. 1977. Study results of 9 sites used by off-road vehicles 
that illustrate land modifications. US Geological Survey Open-file Rept. 
77-601:19. 



Wil shire, HG., and JK. Nakata. 1976. Off-road vehicle effects on 
California's Mojave Desert. Calif. Geology. 29:123-132. 

Wil shire, HG. , and JK. Nakata. 1977. Erosion of off-road vehicle sites in 
southern California, in Berry, K. (ed.). Proc. of the symposium on the 
physical, biological, and recreational impacts of off-road vehicles on 
the California desert. So. Calif. Acad. Scis., Spec. Pub. (unpubl.) 



Related Articles 

Johnson, H. B., F. C. Vasek and T. Yo.nkers. 1975. Productivity, Diversity 
and Stability Relationships in Mojave Desert Roadside Vegetation. Departmei 
of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA. Bulletin of the 
Torrey Botanical Club. 102(3) :106-115. 

Sharp, R. P. Kelso Dunes, Mohave Desert, CA. Geo. Soc. of Amer. Bull. 
V. 77, p. 1045-1074. 19 Figs. Pis. Oct. 1966. 

Vasek, F. C. , H. B. Johnson and G. D. Brum. 1975. Effects of power 
transmission lines on vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Madrono 23(3): 
114-130. 



HERN CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES 

9QQ EXPOSITION BOULEVARD ■ LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA 9GQ07 



June 20, 1978 



Dear Professor Lathrop: 



Regret fully, we find that we shall be unable to complete 
publication of the symposium papers which you ordered some 
time ago (the proceedings of our 1976 symposium on "The 
Physical, Biological, and Social Impacts of Off -Road Vehicles 
on the California Desert"). Consequently, we are enclosing 
our refund of your payment. 

Thank you for your patience; we are truly sorry not to be 
able to fill your order. Should the papers become available 
at some later date we will let you know, in case you might 
wish to re-order at that time. 



JSH:3 



Enc: chk #3086 - S5.C0 




Sincerely, 



Joseph] Z. Haring, ^^D. 
Treasurer 





APPENDIX A 
Plant Specimen List 
Plant Response Parameters 
to RV and ORV in the CDCA 

Aizoaceae 

Mollugo cerviana (L.) Ser. 

Asteraceae 

Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus (Harv. & Gray) Gray 

Ambrosia dumosa (Gray) Payne 

Baileya pauciradiata Harv. & Gray 

Bebbia juncea (Benth) Greene 

Brickell ia incana Gray 

Dyssodia cooperi Gray 

Dyssodia toerberi (Gray) Nels. 

Encelia farinosa Gray ex Torr. 

Encelia virginensis A. Nels. 

Erigeron pumilus Nutt. ssp. concinnoides Crong. 

Eriophyllum wal lacei Gray 

Gutierrezia microcephala (DC.) Gray 

Geraea canescens T. & G. 

Haplopappus acradenius (Greene) Blake 

Haplopappus cooperi (Gray) Hall 

Hymenoclea salsola T. & G. 

Lepidospartum squamatum (Gray) Gray 






Machaeranthera tortifolia (Gray) Crong. & Keck. 
Palafoxia 1 inearis (cav.) Lag 
Pectis papposa Harv. & Gray ex Gray 
Stephanomeria pauciflora (Torr.) Nutt 

Agavaceae 

Yucca shidigera Roege ex Ortigies 
Tetradymia stegrelepis Greene ( \ 

Bignoniaceae — 

Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) Sweet Desert mallow 

Boraginaceae v 

Coldenia palmeri Gray 
Coldenia plicata (Torr.) Cov. 

Brassicaceae 

Lep/dium fremonti i Wats 

Cactaceae 

Echinocactus polycephalus Engelm & Bigel 
Opuntia basilar is Engelm & Bigel 
Opuntia echinocarpa Engelm & Bigel 
Opuntia ramossima Engelm 

Capparaceae 

Cleomella obtusifolia Torr. & Frem 

I somen's arborea Nutt. var. arborea (Cleome isomeris Greene) 



Chenopodiaceae 

Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt 

y 

A triplex hjdnenelytra (Torr.) Wats 
Atriplex ploycarpa (Torr.) Wats 
Ceratoides lanatum (Tursh) T. Howell 
Grayi/ spinosa (Hook) Mog. 

Ephedraceae 

Ephedra nevadensis Wats . 

Euphorbiaceae 

a. * 
Croton cal ifornicus Muell -Arg 

Fabaceae 

Acaccia greggii Gray 

Cassia armata Wats . 

Cercidium floridum (Benth) Wats. Benth. 

Dalea cal ifornica Wats. 

Dalea emoryi Gray 

Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. torreyana (L. Benson) M.C. Jtn 

Lamiaceae 

Salvia columbariae Benth. 
Salvia dorii (Kell.) Abrams 
Salazaria mexicana Torr. 

Lennoaceae 

Phol isma arenarium Nutt. ex Hook. 

Loasaceae 

Petalonyx thurberi G. 



Malvaceae 

Eremalche rotundifol ia (Gray) Greene 

Nyctaginaceae 

Mi rab ilis froebel ii (behr.) Greene 

Papaveraceae 

Argemone corymbosa Greene. 

Plantaginaceae 

Plantago arista ta Michx. 

Poaceae 

Afifrstida fendleriana Steude 

Bouteloua barbata Lag 

Bouteloua eriopoda (Torr.) Torr. 

Erioneuron pilosum (Buck!) Nash 

Hi 1 aria jamesii (Thurb.) Benth. ex Scribn. 

Hi 1 aria rigida (Thurb.) Benth. ex Scribn. 

r 

Muhlenbergia pojzteri Scribn. 
Oryzopsis hfrmenoides (R.&.S.) Ricker 
Tridens muticus (Torr.) Nash 

Polygonaceae 

Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth 

Eriogonum heeryrmannii Dur. & Hilg. 

Eriogonum inf latum Torr. & Frem. 

Rosaceae 

Coleogyne ramosissima Torr. 
Fallugia paradaxa (D. Dom) End! 
Prunus fasciculata (Torr.) Gray 



Solanaceae 

Datura meteloides A . DC . 
Lye i urn cooperi Gray 

Zygophyllaceae 

Larrea tridentata (sesse & Ntoc ex DC.) Cov 



APPENDIX B 



1. Calculations 
d = Idi/rn 
A = d 2 
TD = u/A 
RD. = r^/in 
D i » (r\./tr\) (u/A) 
Fi = Ji/K 



Rf. = F./If 

Ci = (a.) (D.)/n. 

RC = C./SC 

IV = RD. + Rf. + RC 



t = t^^TFT 



Sa 



sx = 



-v /n 



ID. = ni/L 
ICi = li/L 
Rci = li/Zl 



APPENDIX B 
2. Symbols 

TD = total density 

Di - density of individual species 

u = unit area 

A = mean area per plant 2 

RD ■ relative density 

ni ■ is the number of individual of species 

i s species 

Zn - total no. of individuals of all species measured 

f. = frequency of species i 

ji = no. of sampling pts. at which species i was counted 

k ■ total no. pts/plots samples 

RF - rel . f req . 

Ci = coverage for species i 

ai = sum of foil age coverages 

IV = Imp. value = RD i +■ RF i + RC. 

di = point to plant distance for individual i 

3 ■ mean pt. to plant distance 
Zdi = sum of individual pt. to plant distances 

d 2 = mean pt. to plant distance square 

d = sum of d. 

t = t statistic evaluation (paired observations) 
D.F. = degrees of freedom 

x = mean 
SD = standard deviation 






APPENDIX B II 
Symbols (con't) 

sx = standard error of the mean 

li = sum of intercept lenghts for species i 

L ■ total lenght of all transect sampled 

El = sum of intercept lengths for all species 

Ic. = linear coverage index 

ID. - linear density index 

RC ■ relative cover 

RC. = relative cover for species i 

I - sum 



APPENDIX C 

Plant community classifications for the CDCA 
Thorne (1976) 

Creosote bush scrub 

Alkaline scrub (alkali sink) 

Desert dune Sandplant 

Blackbush scrub 
Johnson (1976) 

Cheesebush scrub 



APPENDIX D 
Study Areas 



Area 1 



"Uawbone Canyon: 

19 miles NNE Mojave, Kern County, California 
5 miles W Hwy. 14 
T 30S, R37E, Sees. 19,20 

T 30S, R36E, Sees. 20,21,22,23,24,27,28 k 

T 29S, R36E, Sec. 14. 

-^ttove Springs: 
24 miles NNE Mojave 
11 mi els W of Hwy. 14 
T 29S, R37E, Sees, 5,6,7,8,9,16 
T 29S, R36E, Sees. 1,2 
T 28S, R36E, Sees. 31,32,33,34,35 



Si 



Area 2 



Stoddard Valley: 

5 miles SW Barstow, San Bernardino County, California 

1-3 miles SSE of 1-15 

T 9N, R2W, Sees. 26,27,35,36 



A 



Area 3 



Johnson Valley 

14 miles E Lucerne Valley on -Hwy 247 N 



6 miles beyond Soggy Dry Lake, San Bernardino County, California 
T 5N, R3E, Sees. 28,27,21,22 



Area 4 



*^A. Afton Canyon 
38 miles NE Barstow, San Bernardino County, California 
4.5 miles ESE 1-15 
T ION, R5E, Sees. 17,18 

vB. Kelso Dunes 
12 miles SSW Kelso, San Bernardino County, California 
T ION, R12E, Sees, 3,9,10 



Area 5 



Plaster City: 
^a. Pit area no. 1 
3.5 miles E Plaster City, Imperial County, California <T 

2 miles S hwy. 80 
T 15S, RUE, Sees. 14,15 

v -^b. Pit area no. 2 

1.5 miles E Plaster City, 1 miles N Hwy. 80 ^ 

T 15S, RUE, Sees, 14,15 

\sz. Pit area No. 3 - L - 

2.5 miles W Plaster City, Continuous to the N and S sides Hwy. 80 
T 15S, R10E, Sees. 1,7,12 



d. El Cajon Motorcycle Race 
uha Desert 
Site 1 - T 15N, RUE, Sec. 18 
Site 2 - T 15S, R10E, SW h Sec. 24 
Site 3 - T 16S, RUE, Sec. 15 
Site 4 - T 1 55, RUE, Sec. 21 



Area 6 



Barstow to Vegas Race: 

Barstow, California to Las Vegas, Nevada 
~jf. Site 1 - T ION, R4E, Sec. 6 San Bernardino County, California 
"If, Site 2,3 - T UN, R4E, Sec. 10 San Bernardino County, California 

c. Site 4 - T UN, R4E, Sec. 17 San Bernardino County, California 

"3. Site 5 - T 12N, R5E, Sec. 28 San Bernardino County, California 



Area 7 



Patton WWII Camps: 

A. Approximately 8 Km NNW of Essex, San Bernardino County, California 
T 8N, RUE, Sec. 21 Fenner Quad Tank tracks 

T 8N, R16E, Sec. 11 Col ton Well Quad Roadway 
T 8N, R16E, Sec. 11 Colton Well Quad Tent area 
T 8N, R16E, Sec. 15 Colton Well Quad Control 

B. Approximately 32 Km NW of Needles, San Bernardino County, California 
T UN, R20E, Sec. 28 Bannock Quad Tank tracks 

T ION, R21E, Sec. 18 Bannock Quad Roadway 
T ION, R21E, Sec. 18 Bannock Quad Tent area 
T ION, R20E, Sec. 20 Bannock Quad Control 



1 •» 

- 



Area 1 Jawbone Canyon 
Dove Springs 



y 



PLANT RESFGuSS PARAMETERS - RV and CRY in CIXIA, Ca, 



Aerial Fhotograph Calibration Data 



|l. Jawbone Cyn 



3ais: 10-13-52 Photo size: 

. ABL6K-23-25, 101-104, 179, 180, ABL7K 37-39 



:::o,ooo 



sarent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Equivalent Measurements 



12 3 4 5 



LL1 1 .1 L 



b 

c ^ »lo cm each side 

OX S-..« HQ3* 



1.9 ca 



-2.95 cm 



Area of so d qs. 
= .o4 ha 



2o m ea side of sm 




sqs. 



AREA = 22.42 ha 



590 n 



380 m- 



,24 en 
\ 

H444- 



5 cm 



•2 en 

A 



<r 1.65 cm-H 



48 D 



500 n 



D^ 



40 m 



330 a 



1 cm 



*• . .v it 



:n 



r: 



3 0=1 



1.27 



K 



,1 



• 1.27 ca 




<^5^ b 



PLANT RESPONSE PARAMETERS - SV and ORV in CDCA, Ca. 



Aerial Photograph Calibration Data 



^ _ 

AREA: i m o ove Springs 



Photo Date: 10-13-52 Photo size: 9 x 9" 

Photo Nos. ABI-6K 34-36, 92-94 






RATIO: 1:20,000 



it- 



Transparent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Equivalent Measurements 



123^5 



a 
b 
c 

A 



I 



L l . l II 



♦lo en each side 
oi sm» aqs. 



T 

1.9 cn 



-2.95 cm 




Area of sm ^qs. 
v = .o^f ha 
2o a ea side of sm 
sqs. 



AREA = 22. 1+2 ha 



590 a 



38cln 



• 2k cm 



T 



d.5 cm 



•2 cm 
^< 1.6$ cm-?- 1 



W-H-A- 



500 m 



ft 



*f0 a 

H-rUr- 



330 a 









1 cm 



1 cm 



1< 



3 cm 



t 



1.27 



200 a 

,>60 a 
. AREA 
• =6. / +3ha 



25^ m 



PLAKT RESPONSE PARAMETERS - RV and ORV in CDCA, Ca, 



Aerial Fhotograph Calibration Data 



Dove Springs 



ite: IO-15-52 Photo size: 

K'3. ABL-6K-l87-l89 f ABL- 29-32 



9x9 



1 2o,coo 



*sirent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Equivalent Measurements 



123^5 







1 1 


_u 




•lo en each side 




of sa« aqs« 







t 

1.9 cm 



-2.95 cm 





rea 


of 


sa i 

ha 


3 qs. 


I I 1 ' ' r 


H ' 


H 2o tn 


ea side 


of 


sm 


sqs. 










AREA = 


22, 


M2 


la ■ 





590 m 



380 bb 



• 2^ cm 



£*t 



5 cm ^ 



^ 



.2 cm 
A 



-1.65 cm-^f 



W D 



500 o 



& 






330 n 



1 cm 




1.27 



■■1.27 cm 



20p m 

,>60 o 
. AREA 
;=6.^5ha 

25<+ m 



25^ m 



PLANT RESPONSE PARAMETERS - RV and CRV in CDCA, Ca. 







Aerial Photograph Calibration Data 




AREA: | 


Dove Springs 


• 





Photo Date: 5.27-73 Photo size: 9x9 

Photo Kos. 9-44 1000 BLM CM000 -2 12- 537-539 



RATIO: 1:20,000 



Transparent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Ecuivalent Measurements 



12345 















a 


\\y\ 


b 


m 


c 




" .lo 


ca 


each 


side 


d 




of 


sn. 


ac^s • 





t 

1,9 ca 



-2.95 cm 





rea of 

= .ok 
ea side 


sa ' 
ha 
of 


sm 


111 1 Lr 


y p 

H 2o a 

sqs. 


AREA = 


22. 


42 


ha 












■ 



' 590 m 



380o 



.24 cm 



<• 



5 cm 



-^ 



.2 cm 
^ -< 1 

» *< l.o? cm -7* 



48 



40 o 



500 a 



» 



40 a 



330 a 



L 



< 



1 cm 



1 cm- 



/♦ • • k 
.3 cm! 



V If 



V. 



1.27 



200 a 



,>60 a 
. AREA 
•=6.45ha 



254 



□ 



. • PLANT RESrCuSS PARAMETERS - RV and CRV in- CDCA, Ca, 



Aerial rhoto^ranh Calibration Data 



Dve Springs 



aer- -2-19-73 Photo size: 9x9" 

••c CM000-2-12-271-275, CM000-2-11-195, 196 



120,000 


- - - 


___:._ _ _ 


-•- 










sprent Grid 


Measurements 


. :_ On Ground Equivalent 


Measurements 


-. - 



,125^ 








each 
aqs. 


side 


U.IT 


^ .lo CO 

of sm. 



1«9 cm 



-2.95 cm 



I 



EI 



__ Area of sm 3 cs. i 



- mok ha 



2o m v ea side of sm 
sqs. 

AREA = 22. kZ ha 



590 m 



380 



,2k ca 

k 

•4-H+ 

^- — 2.5 cm j- 



• 2 cm 
A 



«— l.t>5 cm-?- 1 



PH+ 



o 



500 m 



\0 m 
DH-rW- 



330 m 



1 cm 



CE 



' • .3 cm 



^ 



1.27 



1> 



•1.2V cm 



200 n 



,>60 a 
. AREA ~ 
' =6. i f5ha 

25^ n 



25^ n 



Area 2 Stoddard Valley 



PLANT RESPONSE PARAMETERS - RV and CRV in CDCA, Ca. 





Aerial Photograph Calibration Data 




Stoddard Valley 


• 





Dae: 2-27-53 

He. AXL-49K-151, 152 



Photo size: 9x9" 



120,000 



isjrent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Equivalent Measurements 



12 3^5 







1 


V TTT I 


b 

c 
i 




•lo cm each side 
of sn. aqs. 






-ir-2.95 cm -*■ 



t 

1.9 cm 



I 



, , ... Area of sn ^cs. 
rcn: = .o4 ha 
2o o ea side of 



sm 



sqs, 



AREA = 22 A2 ha 



590 m 



380 m 



*2k cm 
X 



3 cm 



• 2 cm 

* l.o;? cm-^?- 1 



W Q 

DH+A- 



500 m 



^0 o 



330 o 



1 cm 



c<1 



. . . V it 

.3 cd 






1.27 



I 



• 1.27 cm 



200 o 

■7~frr 

^>60 o 

. AREA 

25^ Q 



25^+ a 



r 



Area 3 Johnson Valley 



PLANT RESPCJJSE PARAMETERS - RV and CRV in CCCA, Ca. 



Aerial rhotocranh Calibration Data 



h 



. Johnson Valley 



I : 11-26-52 

AXL-16K-41-47 



Photo size: 9x9" 



:0,000 



:s3;-ent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Ecuivalent Measurements 



123^5 



, 







1 LI L 






• 


.lo ca each side 


Of S.m. SC3. 

1 



1.9 en 



-2.95 cm 



I 



Area of sm 5 qs. 
Ilir - = ,c4 ha 



2o in ea side of sm 
sqs. 

AREA = 22.^2 ha 



590 m 



380 a 



,2k cm 



444 



*t 



5 cm 5- 



•2 cm 



\ 1.05 cn^» 



DK 



m 



500 m 



D*4 



kQ a 



330 o 



1 cm 



■:; 



7'. . . v 

'• .J en 

• 


t 

3 


f 

s 





1.27 



.-27 en 




25<+ 



a 



25*t_ia 



Aerial rhoto^rarh Calibration Data 



-.REA: 



3. Johnson Valley 






c 



Photo Date: 5-28-77 Photo size: 9x9" 

Photo Nos. BLMCA 93-77 6-10-14 BLM CA 93-77 5-11 BLMCA 93-77-6-11-15 



JATIO: 1:34,800 



Transparent Grid Measurements 



a 
b 
c 

d 



'1 


2 


3 4 5 
















8 


JJ 


-Li 

• lo cm 


each 


side 






of sou 


aqs. 





t 

1.9 cm 



-2 # 95 ca 



( 



Cn Ground Ecuivalent .Measurements 



■ r t p y. Area of sa sas, 
= .12 ha 
34.8 a ea. side of 
sm. sqs. 



AREA =67.8 ha 



lo26.6 m 



66l.< 



.24 cm 



V£- 



2.3 cc 



■T 



» 



• 2 ca 
A 



•1.53 cm-t' 



83.5 m. 



69.6 a 



1 ca 




1.27 



4; 1.2? ca 



3^8 m 



' AR£A= 

• IS. 64 
« r.a 

431. ^ B 



431.8 a 



Area 4 Afton Canyon 
Kelsa Dunes 



i 



I'u^u.isia.jn vax^ui. ^^i.w:i u>^<<a 



'6* a ( 



Qi 4. Afton Cyn. 



ato Date: 11-18-52 _ Photo size: 

jto Nos. AXL-10K-26-28, 176-178, AXL-ll-K-105, 106, AXL-9K-111-113 



?I0: 1:20,000 




12 3^5 











f\ 


L i: cc 


f 


b 


>*> 


c 




N *lo cm each side 


1.9 cm 


d 




of sm. aqs* 


Jr 



-2.95 cm 



I 



Area of sa 3 qs, 
' = «o*f ha 

2o m ea side of sra 
sqs v . 



AREA = 22A2 ha 



590 m 



3& 



.2^ cm 

hum 



w+ 



d»3 cm 



■*■ 



(X 



.2 cm 
* i 

-^ Lop cm-f 1 




1 cm 



TT 



1 cm 



I 



J , . . V 

'• .3 cm 



. . * V * 



1.27 



,1 



-1.27 cm 



200^ a 



,>60 a 
. AHSA 

;=6.^5ha 

25^+ a 



25<+ a 



PLANT RESFCtJSS PARAMETERS - RV and CRV in CDCA, Ca. 



Aerial Photograph Calibration Data 



so Dunes ___ 



l's: ? 2-8-76 Photo size: 9x9 

r. U-2 photo UAG 1045, 153.22-1278, 2877, 2876 



I- .20, OOO 



:arent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Eauivaient Measurements. 



123^5 



a IM I II 

b I 

•lo cm each side 
of sm. aqs« 



1,9 cm 



<r-2..$5 cm 



Area of sm sqs. 
= 1.4 ha 
120 mvea. side of sm 
sqs. = 

AREA = 807.12 ha 




35^0 m 



2280 a 






.24 cm 
X 

44 



t 



5 cm ^ 



>W-W 



•2 cm 
A 



4 1.05 cm-^H 



288 m 

+4h 



3000 m 



240 m 

&+&W^ — \ 



1 cm 



vr: 



. . . \ 

3 cm 



t 



1.2? 



I 



•1.2? cm 



1200 m 



^>3o0 m 

•AREA = 
;232.2ha 

1524 m 



1524 m 



Aerial Fhotograph Calibration Data 



fl: 4. Kelso Dunes 



hotc Date: 4-14-53 Photo size: 9x9" 

hoto Nos. 1046 CS3720 GS- V P 1-60, 61, 1010 CS 3720 GSYP 1-1,2 



ATT.0: l;47,2CO 



Transparent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Equivalent Measurements 



123^5 


Th 




a 


■'™r. 


JLL 


c r 
d 1 

i 

i 

L 


■ 


•lo cm each side 
of sm. aqs. 



1.9 cm 



-2,95 cm 



.2 cm 



D iVi ' i \\ > — T2 [ 

^«£ — ■ — l.o5 cm-? 1 



1 cm 



1/ ... v 

i =4 : - 3 cr - 



t 



1.27 



y 



' K 1.27 ;.-.". 





)f sm 
ha 
. side 


sqs. 

of 


I"T I II r Area c 


R 47.2 a ea. 

sm* sqs. 



8# 



1392.4 a 



^ 



•AREA= 
'35-9 ha 



599.4 



5$9.4 




PLANT RESFCI.'SE PARAMETERS - RV and ORV in CDC A, Ca« 



Aerial Fhotograph Calibration Data 



X'. Kelso Dunes 



as: Oct. 9, 1954 Photo size: 18 x 18" 

o. VVFS-M60 AMS 145-4593-4597 



:^3, 2 co 



rsprent Grid Measurements 



• 



123^5 



urn 



.lo cm each side 
of sm. aqs. 



f 

1.9 cm 



-2.95 cm 



On, Ground Ecuivalent Measurements 



f 



_ Area of sm sqs. 
±L ^ v = .18 ha 
W5.2. m ea. side of 
sm. sqs. 



AREA = lQJf.6 ha 



127^ B 



820.8 D 



iZk cm 



5 en 



• 2 cm 
A 



«-^— -I.65 era-?- 






«■ 



103. 6 o 
4+i 



lOcO ra 



$6 A m 

»fo 712>a B 1 



1 cm 



n tt-n 

> . . . v 
/• .3 cm 

J 



^ 



1.27 



I 



4^ 1.2/ Cfl] 



^ 32m 



~7 \ 

rf >129»omr 
wVR£A= 
; 30 ha 



5^8.6 m 



5^8.6 



m 



Aerial Fhotocranh Calibration Data 



lIZA; ih Kelso Ounes 



hoto Date: 6-9-74 Photo _size: 9 x 9 " 

fysTtf is T os. BLM-C-M000 12-58-60 



w 



fflXQ: 1:20, COO 



Transparent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Equivalent Measurements 



123^5 



a. 

b 
c 

d 





CO 


each 


side 


UJ 1,1 L 
R .10 


of : 


sm. 


aqs. 




— , 









t 

1.9 cm 



-2.S5 ca 



I 



-t-t^te Area of _ sra 5 qs. 



= .0^ ha 
2o m ea side of sin 
sqs* 



AREA = 22.^2 ha 



3& 



590 m 



• 2.k cm 



<■ 



5 cm 



• 2 cm 

ta miu 7Z 1 

* * < 1.05 cm-?- 1 



48 m 



500 m 



ifO m 



330 a 



1 cm 




1.27 



1.27 cm 



200 m 

J>oO 3 
. AP.2A 
• =6.45ha 



^r 



23k m 



3 






Area 5 Plaster City 



'Librcirv 

'oral Center 

Aerial Photograph Calibration Eata 
- AIEA: 7B Patton 






Photo Date: 6-9-74 Photo size: 9x9 

Photo Nos. BIM-C-M000 17-9, 10, 11 18-7, 8 16-11, 12, 13, 14 



3A2IQ: 1:20, 000 



Tz-ars parent Grid Measurements 



On Ground Equivalent Measurements 



123^5 







a 
b 
c 


r~rr" 


LI 

•lo cm each side 
of sn. aqs* 



1*9 cm 



-2.95 cm 



6 



1 



M [r Area of sm s qs. 



= .ok ha 
2o m ea side of sm 
sqs. 



AREA = 22. k2 ha 



590 m 



DU+w 



.2k cm 



• £.5 cm 



•2 cm 

> * *k 1.05 cm^- 1 




1 cm 




1.27 



(^ 1.27 c;m 




25^ m 



25^ a 






N 

V. 

o 



"D 



O 



M 



t/1 a 



§ 





i 










<U T3 










r- 


-t-» - 










09 


rt f 










— 












J3 

S 

M 










C 










OS 


o 












■H 












CO 










U 


•H 










r. 


> 










— 


•H 












Q