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A PROCESS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF 
RECRUIT TRAINING IN INDONESIAN NAVY 



A. Kuntjoro 



NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 

Monterey, California 






THESIS 






A PROCESS FOR DEVELOPMENT 


OF 




RECRUIT TRAINING IN INDONESIAN NAVY 




by 






A. KUNTJORO 






June 1978 




Thesis Advisor: R. A. 


McGonigal 



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A Process for Development of Recruit Training 
in Indonesian Navy 



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19. KEY WOROS (Continue on rereree aide II naceeeary end Identity by block number) 

Recruit Training 
Adjustment of Recruits 
Military Careers 



20. ABSTRACT (Continue on raver aa tide If neceteary and Identity by block number) 

It is known that there is a relationship between the quality of military persons 
and their recruit training. This thesis examines problems of adjustment 
encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affect- 
ing adjustments such as the recruit background characteristics, the image 
of the military, the recruit training staff and environment, and the recruit- 
ing process are discussed. It is demonstrated that additional knowledge 
can be gained by ascertaining what motivates military personnel to make 



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20. (continued) 

a career of the military service. A feasible systematic process is proposed 
for the development of recruit training. 



J 



Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 

A Process for Development of 
Recruit Training in Indonesian Navy 

by 



A. KUNTJORO 

Major, Indonesian Navy 

M.S., Gajah Mada University, 1966 



Submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
requirements for the degree of 



MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MANAGEMENT 

from the 

NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL 
June 1978 



Q..L 



ABSTRACT 

It is known that there is a relationship between the quality of military- 
persons and their recruit training. This thesis examines problems of 
adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. 
Factors affecting adjustments such as the recruit background character- 
istics, the image of the military, the recruit training staff and environ- 
ment, and the recruiting process are discussed. It is demonstrated that 
additional knowledge can be gained by ascertaining what motivates military 
personnel to make a career of the military service. A feasible systematic 
process is proposed for the development of recruit training. 



I 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

I. INTRODUCTION --- - _ 9 

II. THE ORGANIZATION AND THE MISSIONS OF THE 
INDONESIAN NAVY - _•_ 14 

A. THE ORGANIZATION - _ 14 

B. THE MISSIONS AND FUNCTIONS 15 

III. MISSIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF NAVAL 

TRAINING CENTER 19 

A. MISSIONS _ 19 

B. ENVIRONMENT-- - - 20 

IV. PRE-RECRUIT TRAINING FACTORS 25 

A. TODAY'S YOUTH - 25 

B. BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF 

MILITARY RECRUITS - 27 

C. THE MILITARY'S IMAGE - - 29 

D. RECRUITING - - - -- 32 

V. THE TRANSITION FROM CIVILIAN TO MILITARY 

LIFE 36 

A. TRANSITION - 36 

B. RECRUIT REACTION 36 

C. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS 38 

VI. THE ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTION ---40 

A. STRESS AND FRUSTRATION --- - - 40 

B. PERSONAL QUALITIES - - -42 



C. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE --- -- 43 

D. DEMANDS 44 

VII. SITUATIONS THAT AFFECT STRESS - 45 

A. DEPRIVATION OF MATERIAL COMFORT 45 

B. LOSS OF PRIVACY -- 46 

C. LOSS OF EMOTIONAL SUPPORT --- -- ---46 

D. LEVELING PROCESS - - 47 

E. COMPLEXITY OF THE ORGANIZATION ---48 

F. REGIMENTATION AND DISCIPLINE 49 

G. HECTIC SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES - 50 

H. AUTHORITY- --- 51 

VIII. STAFF PERSONNEL AND THEIR EFFECT ON 

RECRUIT ADJUSTMENT - 53 

IX. A PROCESS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RECRUIT 
TRAINING 55 

A. THE RELATIONSHIP OF TRAINING AND 

RESEARCH -- 57 

B. THE BARRIERS TO TRAINING RESEARCH 59 

C. THE METHODS OF TRAINING RESEARCH 61 

1. The Survey Method 61 

2. The Experimental Method 63 

D. A SYSTEM APPROACH TO TRAINING- 66 

E. PLANNING AND DIRECTING THE TRAINING 
PROGRAM -- - - ---68 



X. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 77 

A. CONCLUSIONS - 77 

B„ RECOMMENDATIONS 79 

BIBLIOGRAPHY - - .-_ 82 

INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST 86 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

There is no doubt that this thesis would never have been started, 
let alone completed, without the encouragement and generosity of 
Professor Richard A. McGonigal, Ph. D. , my advisor. I wish to pay 
tribute to him for the debt I owe for both personal and professional 
guidance. 

I would like to thank Professor John W. Creighton, Ph. D. , my 
second reader, for his assistance and comments. 

I would like to thank CDR James T. Fleming, USN, and LCDR 
Joseph D. Monza, USN, the curricular officers of the Department of 
Administrative Sciences, for their assistance while I have studied here. 

I have greatly benefited from the facilities of the Naval Postgraduate 
School Library which has helped me in the research for preparation of 
this thesis. 

I would especially like to thank my mother, R. NGT. Sumiyati 
Kardjoeni, for her prayers and encouragement. 

Lastly, I would like to express my highest appreciation for my 
lovely wife, Aniek Troosminarti, as she has patiently taken care of 
our children, Anita, Wisnu, and Indra. I am deeply indebted to her 
for her love and for much more besides. 



I. INTRODUCTION 

No one doubts the contribution that training can make to development 
of all kinds. Training is essential, obviously so. The doubts come from 
its contribution in practice. Complaints are growing about its ineffective- 
ness and waste. The training apparatus and its costs have multiplied but 
not the benefits. Training has become like a tax levied on willing and 
unwilling alike. The contribution that training can make to development 
is needed acutely. 

Much training now proceeds as if classroom knowledge and opera- 
tional action were directly related. Lynton states the new concept of 

1 
training: 

1. Motivations and skills lead to action. Skills are acquired 
through practice. 

2. Learning is the complex function of the motivation and capacity 
of the individual participant, the norms of the training group, 
the training methods and the behavior of the trainers, and the 
general climate of the institution. The participant's motivation 
is influenced by the climate of his work organization. 



Rolf P. Lynton and Udai Pareek, Training for Development, 1967, 



p. 3-14. 



3. Improvement on the job is a complex function of individual 
learning, the norms of the working group, and the general 
climate of organization. Individual learning, unused leads of 
frustration. 

4. Training is the responsibility of three partners; the participant's 
organization, the participant, and the training institution. It 
has a preparatory (pretraining), and a subsequent (posttraining) 
phase. All are of key importance to the success of training. 

Focusing training on skill in action make the task wide and complex. 

Today, with pressure to reduce defense spending, a large percent- 
age of the defense budget is devoted to personnel cost. The greatest 
challenge facing the military services is the effective utilization of its 
most precious resource people. The effective use of manpower has been 
and continues to be as elusive as it is important. 

Cameron said, in the United States of America the military services 

2 
turn over approximately 60 percent of its total personnel every two years. 

Not only does this high turnover reduce readiness, but it is extremely 

costly in terms of recruiting and training. Billions of dollars are spent 

annually to train new men and women, and the military can ill afford the 

manpower losses caused by the failure or inability of large numbers of 



2 

J. Cameron, "Our Greatest Military Problem is Manpower. " 

Fortune, April 1971. 



10 



servicemen and women to accept and perform in their military roles. 
Because of this cost and the increasing need for well-trained personnel, 
the value of a thorough and efficient recruit training program cannot be 
overly emphasized. 

Too few members of the military services understand the changing 
values and needs of the youth of today, and their difficulty in adjustment 
from civilian to military life. Men and women, new to the military, 
must be able to satisfy their needs and accomplish their goals with a 
reasonable amount of comfort. 

In Indonesia deficiencies in the educational system tended to re- 
inforce problems associated with a youthful, unemployed, or under- 
employed population having intermediate skills not readily suited to 
the demands of the economy. Indonesia has a large semiskilled or 
potentially skilled work force, and school and university graduates 
capable of managerial, business, and professional skills. Yet in the 

early 1970s a large proportion of the working-age population was un- 

3 
employed or underemployed, and the majority were in their twenties. 

Enlisted manpower for Indonesian Armed Forces is derived entirely 
from voluntary enlistment based on selective criteria. Each of the ser- 
vices has women's units. Limited job opportunities in the civilian 
economy make enlistment attractive to many young men and women. 



3 

Nena Vreeland, et al Area Handbook for Indonesia , U.S. Govern- 
ment Printing Office Da pam 550-39, 1975, p. 420. 



11 



In 1970 officers were drawn entirely from graduates of the Armed 
Forces Academy with the exception of medical and other specialized 
personnel who were recruiting directly. 

Indonesia, an "island nation, " has many young people who must 
leave their villages and attend boarding schools at larger communities. 

These young people experience considerable dissonance as they go 

4 
from the traditional to the modern. 

All of the above appears to parallel a great deal of what has hap- 
pened to American youth in terms of social change. It thus seems ap- 
propriate to examine the U. S. training pipeline to observe what will 
be soon, if not already, happening as Indonesian youth experience the 
culture shock of military life. 

With this in mind, this thesis will examine personal adjustment to 
a military environment, specifically recruit training. It will discuss 
problems encountered by persons attempting to adjust from civilian to 
military life at the recruit training level, and the development of recruit 
training. 

Chapter II will present the organization and missions of the Indone- 
sian Navy, and the objectives of the Education and Training of the 
Indonesian Navy. Chapter III will present the missions and environment 



David A. Andelman, New York Times , June 6, 1976, p. 10 

(c. 4). 



12 



of Naval Training Centre in general, and then the factors that generally 
affect to training will be discussed in detail in further chapters. Chap- 
ter IX will discuss the process for development of recruit training and 
the possible approach for establishing a training system. Some recom- 
mendations will be suggested at the end of Chapter X. 



13 



II. THE ORGANIZATION AND THE MISSIONS 
OF THE INDONESIAN NAVY 



A. THE ORGANIZATION 

With the reorganization of the Department of Defense-Security in 
1969, the Indonesian Navy became an organic component of the Depart- 
ment of Defense-Security. This reorganization established the" Depart- 
ment of Defense-Security as the headquarters of the Indonesian Armed 
Forces consisting of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Police. 

In this organization the Minister of Defense- Security is also the 
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. 

The purpose of the reorganization was to integrate the Armed Forces 
in order to produce a more efficient and effective defense- security 
program. 

Further, national defense- security was arranged in a mission type 
organization with the following characteristics: 

1. one strategy 

2. one unity of command 

3. one budget policy 

In the present national defense- security systems, the Indonesian 
territory is divided into six theater commands which are joint commands. 
Each theater command controls operational components of the Army, 
Navy, and Air Force. The Commander-in-chiefs of these theater com- 
mands are responsible directly to the Minister of Defense/ Commander - 

14 



in-Chief of the Armed Forces. Thus, the Chief of Staff of the Navy has 
the mission to prepare naval elements for assignment to these theater 
commands. 

Based on this mission, the Chief of Staff of the Navy manages the 
following components: 

1. the Naval Headquarters, 

2. the Naval Forces, 

3. the Shore Establishments. 

Specifically, the organization of the Indonesian Navy is as depicted in 
figure 1. 

B. THE MISSIONS AND FUNCTIONS 

As directed by the Minister of Defense-Security/ Commander-in- 
Chief of the Armed Forces, the Indonesian Navy has the following 

. . 5 

missions: 

"As an integral part of the Armed Forces and an organic 
component of the Department of Defense -Security, to maintain 
and to prepare itself to reach the highest degree of readiness in 
order to be able to exercise a dual function: 

1. As a Naval Force in the national Defense-Security System, 
to guard the integrity of the Indonesian territory. 



See KEPUTUSAN MENTERI PERTAHANAN -KEAMANAN / 
PANGLIMA ANGKATAN BERSENJATA Nomor : KEP / 1 1 / IV / 1976, 
5 April "76. 



15 



ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE INDONESIAN NAVY 

(simplified) 



CHIEF OF STAFF 
OF THE NAVY 



SPECIAL 
ASSISTANT 
OF COS. 





VA 



ET AL 



DEPUTY 
CHIEF OF STAFF 



GENERAL ASSISTANTS OF COS. 



INT 



OPT 



PERS 



LOG 



P&B 



■//■ 



ET AL 



































FLEET 




MILITAR Y 

SEALIFT 

COMMAND 




MARINE 
CORPS 




NAVAL 

TRAINING 

COMMAND 




NAVAL 

BASES 

COMMAND 


— 1 

1 
1 


















i 




I 


Figure 1 




















16 

















2. As a Social Force, to take an active part in the successful 
national development. " 
Based on these missions, the Indonesian Navy performs the follow- 
ing functions: 

1. Organizes, educates, trains, and equips Naval Forces. 

2. Procures and maintains equipment. 

3. Prepares the budget. 

4. Develops tactics, techniques, and weapon systems. 

5. Maintains security. 

6. Prepares component forces including logistics and administra- 
tive support, for assignment to joint commands. 

7. Participates in civic action programs and contributes to the 
Armed Forces mission of civil administrations. 

As stated in the order of the Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Navy, 

the missions and objectives of the Education and Training of the Indones. 

6 
ian Navy are: 

1. To establish develop personnel in the Indonesian Navy that 

have spiritual strength as: 

a. human beings that are fully dedicated to God, 

b. human beings that are willing to support and defend 
PANCA SILA (the philosophical basis of the State). 



6 See, S. K. KASAL No. SKEP. 1552.2/IV/73 tanggal 11 April 1973 
tentang "Sistem Pendidikan dan Latihan TNI-AL. " 



17 



2. To create an environment that will be suitable for advance- 
ment of physical and mental development of the Navy- 
personnel. 

3. To establish cooperation among Navy personnel in solving 
problems, to develop a rational attitude and continuous ad- 
aptation to ecological conditions. 

4. To develop skills and specialties necessary to produce 
qualified Navy personnel. 



18 



III. MISSIONS AND ENVIRONMENT OF NAVAL TRAINING CENTRE 

A. MISSIONS 

In order to be effective, a training program must be based on the 

"needs" of the recruit to be trained. Kirkpatrick states a simple def- 

7 
inition of training needs would be: "What attitudes, knowledge, and 

skills do the recruits need in order to do their job effectively? " The 

initial exposure to military life occurs at recruit or basic training. 

Here the civilian begins the transition to military life. 

o 
Barber states, ". . . . basic training is aimed as much at instilling 

certain attitudes, responses and loyalties in the new recruit as it is at 

9 
teaching him specific skills ....". Snyder and Caylor pointed out in 

a recent study that the initial few weeks of active duty are extremely 
important, they are the soldier's first direct experience with military 
life, and they offer not only the first, but perhaps the best opportunity 
the military will have to instill the values and beliefs it considers im- 
portant for effective service. This early experience represents the 
only experience enlisted men have in common. The nature of this 



7 
Donald L. Kirkpatrick, A Practical Guide for Supervisory Train - 
ing and Development , 1971, p. 21. 

°J. A. Barber, Jr. , The Military Services and American Society , 
The Free Press, 1972. 

9 

R. Snyder and J.S. Caylor, "Recruit Reactions to Early Army 

Experience, " George Washington University, 196 9- 



19 



experience is likely to have an important bearing on the entire subsequent 
performance of the individual. 

In discussing the effects of basic military training on the attitudes of 
U. S. Air Force enlistees, Harburg said, "basic training, as the young 
man's introduction to the Air Force, provides the unique opportunity to 
turn on the young man to the possibilities of a satisfying existence in the 
organization he has chosen to join. In a time of political and military 
uncertainty, it is important we not forget the primary objective of basic 
training, to offer the young man a sense of purpose and positive direction 
into which he may channel his efforts. " 

Although basic combat training is an extraordinary experience, it 
has been an integral part of the culture. Most men of military age have 
a father or brother or uncle who has experienced basic training, and 
dramatic depictions occur with some frequency in movies and television 
along with some news documentaries. 

B. ENVIRONMENT 

The recruit or basic training environment is usually completely 
alien to anything a recruit has experienced before. All recruits enter- 
ing recruit training encounter a number of psychosocial situations that 
they are unlikely to have experienced before, although they are not 



F. D. Harburg, "The Effects of Basic Military Training on the 
Attitude of Air Force Enlistees, " Scientific Research, 1971. 



20 



entirely unique to recruit training. Most trainees, whether conscripts 
or volunteers, approach this "rite of passage" with trepidation. Ac- 
cording to Faris there are several features of basic training which 
make it extraordinary and which have persisted through the years and 
appear in much the same form from one post to another. 

First, there is, at least initially, a disparagement of civilian status, 
which takes the form of degradation and humiliation on both the group 
and individual levels. Unflattering haircuts and glaring new, ill-fitting 
uniforms reduce personal dignity. The trainee's fear of authority and 
his ignorance of what is and what is not a legitimate order make him 
look and feel silly. 

Second, basic training is characterized by extreme isolation from 
civilian society on the one hand and an almost complete lack of privacy 
from other trainees on the other. Contact with friends and relatives is 
much reduced, while at the same time it is almost impossible to be 
alone. In many basic-training barracks there are no partitions between 
the toilets. This is a feature of the experience with which many train- 
ees have difficulty. 

Third, much of the evaluation of performance in basic training is 
done at the group level rather than on the individual level. This 



11 John H. Faris, "The Impact of Basic Combat Training, " The 
Social Psychology of Military Service, Sage, 1976, p. 14-15. 



21 



collective evaluation violates the trainee's sense of justice. This sys- 
tem is the source of many of the strongest complaints, although a 
minority of trainees perceive the function of such an approach- to 
develop teamwork and solidarity. 

Fourth, basic combat training includes an emphasis on masculinity 
and aggressiveness. Expressed attitudes toward women are utilitarian 
and unromantic and tend to reinforce a sense of male superiority. The 
emphasis on masculine toughness combined with the threat of being 
labeled feminine is traumatic for insecure trainees. 

Finally, basic training is designed to place the trainee under var- 
ious forms of stress, both physical and psychological. There are other 
forms of physical stress; hunger, thirst (in field training), and sleep 
deprivation. Psychological stress has a number of sources. Fear of 
failure and the companion fear of being recycled (repeating part of 
basic training in another company) are among the most severe types 
of psychological stress, especially for marginal soldiers. Psycho- 
logical stress is also generated intentionally by arbitrary and some- 
times conflicting demands. 

The above characteristics would seem to make basic combat train- 
ing a highly negative experience, and certainly it is often perceived as 

12 
negative by the trainees. According to Bourne, the recruit training 



12 

P. G. Bourne, "Some Observations on the Psychological Pheno- 
menon Seen in Basic Training. " Journal for the Study of Interpersonal 
Processes, 1967, p. 187-196. 



22 



process is fundamentally one of acculturation in which the recruit is 
subjected to a force change of reference group, and the skills he learns 
are basically those necessary for survival and successful adaptation 
under these circumstances. Recruit training lacks any great oppor- 
tunity for excelling, and its existence is predicated on a future with 
which it has little continuity. The weeks at the training centre comprise, 

in effect, a temporal cocoon in which a phenomenal metamorphosis must 

13 
take place. Marlowe said, "basic training stands outside the normal 

flow of time and is essentially ahistorical. " 

The functions of recruit training are depicted in figure 2. 



13 

D. H. Marlowe, "The Basic Training Process, " The Symptom 

as Communication in Schizophrenia, Grune and Stratton, 195 9. 



23 



FUNCTIONS OF RECRUIT TRAINING 



Input : civilians 

1 



J • L 



Transfer new values to 
recruit. 



Select or "track" recruit 
to a particular specialty. 



Provide a cocoon for 
metamorphosis outside of 
civilian and into the real 
military environment. 



Replace individualism 
with team identification. 



r 



■^ Output: 



adapted 

military 

personnel 



Figure 2 



24 



IV. PRE-RECRUIT TRAINING FACTORS 

A. TODAY'S YOUTH 

The military services are basically youthful in age structure. 

14 

Lang, in a study of military rank structure trends, indicated that 

more than fifty percent of officer and enlisted personnel fell within the 
first three and four grades of rank representing an age range of ap- 
proximately seventeen through twenty-five years. The military's aware, 
ness of and concern for the changing values and life-styles of youth 
currently entering the military is evidenced by the recent efforts to 

modernize the Armed Forces. 

15 

Harburg stated that, ". . . . there is an increasing awareness on 

the part of the young that there is more to life than job and salary. 
Young men of enlistment age are searching for ways to improve the 
quality of their lives. The assurance of self-value once they are on 
their jobs is becoming increasingly important to enlistees. They are 
less rank conscious than their predecessors. " 



K. Lang, "Technology and Career Management in The Military 
Establishment, " The New Military: Changing Patterns of Organization. 
Russell Sage Foundation, 1964. 

15 F. D. Harburg, "The Effects of Basic Military Training on the 
Attitude of Air Force Enlistees, " Scientific Research, 1971. 



25 



16 
Sandall made the following comments about today's youth: "With- 
out the overwhelming need to work for bed, board, and clothing, youth 
is free to question and reject, if necessary, the premises of society 
without the penalties of economic want increased educa- 
tion tends to cause a loss of respect for less well-informed elders. It 
is no longer enough to believe that experience makes one wiser since 

the young know it isn't always true. " 

17 
Janowitz pointed out that military personnel, in future genera- 
tions, would not follow orders blindly, but would demand an explanation 

1 8 
from those in command. Crawford, in discussing the attitudes of 

youth in the seventies and eighties, predicted that "there will be more 

and more serious questioning of national goals and of the obligations on 

the individual to subordinate himself to the necessary demands of an 

hierarchial system; and there will be an increasing view that society and 

its institutions should be conceived and rebuilt to fit the needs of the 

individuals. " 



V. D. Sandall, "The Generation Gap, " Management Quarterly 
September 1972. 

17 

M. Janowitz, The Professional Soldier , Glencoe, 111. : Free 

Press, I960. 

8 M. P. Crawford, "Training in the 70's and 80's, Innovations 
for Training, Human Resources Research Organization, 196 9- 



26 



19 
In an article entitled, "Youth and the U.S. Navy, " Reynolds 

pointed out that the future of the Navy -- its professionalism and 
mission -- is at stake, and that frankness, self-criticism, and search- 
ing analysis are the first steps toward shaping the future. He further 
pointed out that the Navy should make sacrifices and changes, that the 
instrument of change is youth, and that in America's youth lies the 
future of the U.S. Navy. Reynold's comments are also applicable to 
the other military services. 

B. BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF MILITARY RECRUITS 
Although many years of research have not provided an entirely 
satisfactory method for personnel selection, there do seem to be pat- 
terns of pre-service behavior or pre-service histories of recuits that 

are related to successful adjustment to military life. 

20 
A study by Plag and Goffman, demonstrated the predictive 

validity of school, community, and family life history data in relation 

to military adjustment. An individual's adjustment to his community 

at large and to his educational system in particular constitute the- most 

relevant index of his likelihood to adjust to military life. 



19 C. G. Reynolds, "Youth and the U.S. Navy, " U. S. Naval 



Institute Proceedings , July 1973. 

20 J. A. Plag and M. M. Gof 
Effectiveness Among Naval Recruits, " Military Medicine, 1966 



20 J. A. Plag and M. M. Goffman, "The Prediction of Four -Year 



27 



A stable home background, a healthy childhood, good work habits 
in school and association with other boys and girls, including participa- 
tion in sports, were assets for young civilians who put on a uniform and 

tried to adjust to military life. 

21 
According to Nelson, "It has been chiefly within the domain of 

biographical data that the Armed Forces have achieved modest success 

in predicting emotional adjustment to military service. " 

22 
Glass, made the following comments about preservice schooling, 

"Scholastic achievement is more than an index of endowed and acquired 
knowledge, for it is also a valid record of prior adjustment in a dis- 
ciplined and structured environment. Success in school requires not 
only intellectual ability for reasonable compliance to authority, some 
capacity to tolerate frustration, and sufficient maturity to relinquish 
immediate goals for later or more socially desirable objectives, all 
of which are similar to requirements for adequate adjustment in a 
military setting. " 

An individual's civilian employment/work record is also an impor- 
tant indication of his ability to adjust to military life. If a man's work 



2 1 

P. D. Nelson, "Personnel Performance Prediction, " Handbook 

of Military Institutions , Sage Production, 1971. 

A. J. Glass, "Psychiatric Prediction and Military Effectiveness, " 
U. S. Armed Forces Medical Journal, 1956. 



28 



record indicates that he moved from one job to another and/or his 
performance was poor, he is less likely to make a successful adjust- 
ment to military life. 

Recruit trainers at the U. S. Naval Training Center, Orlando, 

Florida, indicated that the recruits having adjustment difficulties and 

23 
actively seeking discharge had a history of: 

1. being school dropouts, 

2. records of menial jobs, 

3. little sticking to one job, 

4. an approach to the Navy as an experiment which one could also 
quit at will. 

Certain recruit background characteristics do seem to be predictive 
of successful adjustment to a military environment and should, therefore 
be considered in the selection process at the recruiting level. Work 
record and school completion seem to be helpful predictors. 

C. THE MILITARY'S IMAGE 

The factors which most directly affect the attitudes of today's en- 
listees and society-as-a-whole toward the military are provided by the 
home, community, school, and national attitudes. During the past 
twenty years there have been many changes in the military's image. 



23 See "Navy Times, " 10 October 1973. 



29 



In 1955, a national survey in USA revealed that adults ranked mili- 
tary officers seventh in esteem among the various professions, and that 

24 
teenagers ranked military careers fifth. 

25 
In the late 1950's, Janowitz, expressed society's opinion of the 

military when he stated, "In a society in which individualism and per- 
sonal gain are paramount virtues, it is understandable that wide sectors 
of the civilian population view the military career as a weak choice, as 
an effort to "sell out" cheaply for economic security and low pay and 
limited prestige. " 

In the late sixties and early seventies, the military's image seemed 
to have hit its all time low as illustrated by the following comments. 

General Ridgeway wrote in 1969 that he had never seen the military's 

26 
image so low or public respect for its members so lacking, and 

Stewart Alsop wrote in 1970 that "there has never been a time when a 

27 
uniform carried with it less prestige. " 

In the United States, with the end of the Vietnam conflict, the mili- 
tary's image improved considerably. According to a public opinion 
survey conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University 



2^M. Janowitz, The Professional Soldier , Glencoe, 111. : Free 
Press, I960. 

-*M. Janowitz, Sociology and the Military Establishment , Russell 
Sage, 1959. 

26 L. R. Jefferies, "Public Attitudes Toward the Military: 1941-1971, " 
Management Quarterly , December 1971. 

Loc. Cit. 

30 



Michigan in 1974, the U.S. military was the most admired institution 
in the nation. 

The low public opinion of the military, particularly in the sixties, 
was in part a result of the changing social values, motivations and 
life -styles of young America. 

Although the widespread hostility toward the military services has 
lessened since the end of the Vietnam conflict and the draft, many 
individuals and communities of America's society still question the 
"legitimacy of dedicating one's life to military service, " and the 
military profession is still considered by many to be something to be 
avoided. 

The military should be aware of the differences in the young men 
and women entering the services today, and the influence society-as-a- 

whole has on the assimilation of military roles by these young people. 

30 
Harburg, pointed out that these differences demand a different 

type of training from that which was appropriate for their predecessors. 

Since the Indonesian War of Independence which was started in 1945, 

the military's image improved considerably. This was evident by the 



28 Navy Times , 1974. 

9 J. A. Barber, The Military and American Society , New York, 
The Free Press, 1972, p. 309- 

F. D. Harburg, The Effects of Basic Military Training , Office 
of Scientific Research, Arlington, 1971. 



31 



large number of young people eager to join the military. Some condi- 
tions that made them interested in the military were; pride, wearing 
the uniform, a sense of courage, many facilities, and the perceived 
respect of the society. However, at the beginning of the seventies 
this interest decreased -- perhaps because of the increasing stability 
of the government and economics in Indonesia. 

D. RECRUITING 

The procurement of personnel is important to any organization, 
but to the military services it is even more vital because of the high 
turnover of personnel. 

Recruiting has always been, and remains, the military's primary 
source of manpower. In the age of the all volunteer force, a recruiter's 
job is indeed awesome. A recent study by the Brookings Institute 

showed that the services must sign up one-third of all available males, 

31 
age 19 - 23, if they are to maintain the current force levels. With 

the end of the draft, the recruiting organizations went into high gear; 
and recruiting was placed high on the priority lists of all the military 
services. 

Although many of the services tried to improve recruiter effective- 
ness by stressing the assignment of highly qualified personnel to 



•^A. K. Klare, Commonwealth, 18 January 1974. 



32 



recruiting jobs, the end of the draft only increased pressure on recruiters 
to produce "warm bodies, " and exacerbated the age-old problems of 
"telling it like it is" and of selecting only qualified personnel. 

Recruiters can have a negative effect on the adjustment of recruits 
to the military environment. They can select personnel that are not 
qualified for military service, and therefore have little chance of making 
a satisfactory adjustment. Not only have the services been criticized 
for lowering standards for enlistment, but some recruiters have been 

criticized and even relieved for falsifying records such as mental tests 

32 
in order to meet quotas. 

Recruit trainers have accused recruiters of deliberately enlisting 
substandard personnel, and there seems to be some support for their 
accusations. At Recruit Training Command, Orlando, Florida, there 
are cases on file in which recruits said that their recruiter helped 
them fill out qualification tests; and there is evidence of large variations 
between basic battery test scores at the recruiting station and the re- 
cruit training command. Although trainers indicate they expect and 

understand some variation, they are suspect because the variation 

33 
often is large among men who do not get good scores to begin with. 



32 

L. E. Prina, "Permissiveness, Lack of Discipline, " Seapower , 

March, 1973. 

33 Navy Times, October 1973. 



33 



Another way in which recruiters can adversely affect recruit 
adjustment is by overselling their product, or by giving totally inac- 
curate information about what to expect at recruit training. This 
stretching or bypassing the truth is illustrated by the comments of an 
Army recruiter -- "Just like car salesmen, you don't sell cars by 

talking about the defect. I couldn't sell an Oldsmobile if I told a guy 

34 
we had to recall 100, 000 last year because of a bad transmission. " 

The expectations men receive from their recruiters about recruit 

training are an important component in how well they initially adjust 

35 
to the military. A study by Broedling and Goldsamt, showed that 

four in ten recruits believed they would have adjusted more easily if 

the recruiter had been more accurate in describing recruit training. 

If a recruiter creates a distorted image of recruit training, the 

"culture shock" experienced by a recruit will be just that much more 

severe. According to Barnes, "Deception in the recruiting process 

does not begin with the hard-pressed neighborhood recruiter struggling 

to meet his quota. It starts at a much higher level, where policy 

decisions are made and where advertising themes are developed and 

36 
approved. 



34 P. Barnes, The Plight of the Citizen Soldier , New York, Alfred 
A. Knopf, 1972, p. 43. 

35 

L. A. Broedling and M. Goldsamt, "The Perceived Effectiveness 

of Recruit Training on Personal Adjustments to Conditions of Navy Life, " 

Naval Research and Development Laboratory , September 1971. 

36 

Loc. Cit. No. 34, p. 46. 

34 



There is some evidence that recruiting in the Armed Forces is 
improving. This may be due to the improved public opinion of the mili- 
tary and a growing unemployment rate. It may also be that the services 
are assigning more qualified personnel to recruiting jobs and monitoring 
their performance more closely; but, hopefully recruiters are finally 
realizing that their worst enemy is a dissatisfied customer. 

tJp until the present time, recruiting in Indonesia was always smooth. 
Nevertheless, the services tried to improve recruiter effectiveness. So 
the recruit training in Naval Training Command was also challenged to 
improve continuously. 



35 



V. THE TRANSITION FROM CIVILIAN TO MILITARY LIFE 

A. TRANSITION 

An individual entering the Armed Forces finds himself in a whirl- 
wind of activity specifically directed toward transforming him from a 

civilian into a recruit in the shortest possible time. According to Datel 

37 
and Lifrak, he steps from society-as-a-whole (i. e. , home, school, 

employment, peer group, and social/cultural fabric) where emphasis 
has been placed upon developing independence, autonomous decision- 
making, respect for individual differences, privilege to opposing view- 
points, committee -style deliberation, virtual worship of the single 
human being into a subsystem (i. e. , recruit training) governed by 
methods, rules and standards of conduct which require the individual 
to sacrifice his autonomy, immediately and subserviently, for the goals 
of the group. He brings to the military an established array of "taken- 
for-granteds" and "go-without- sayings, " many of which no longer work. 

B. RECRUIT REACTION 

Coming from the relative freedom of movement and choice that 
characterize civilian life, the new recruit may find his initiation into 



37 

W. E. Datel and S. T. Lifrak, "Expectations, Affect Change, 

and Military Performance in the Army Recruit, " Psychological Reports , 
1969. 



36 



the military a traumatic experience which has been referred to as 

38 
"culture shock" by Coates and Pellegrin. From the start, demands 

are made of him which he is not sure how to meet. He is involved in 

the situation 24 hours a day without relief and without any opportunity 

to modify the environment. The effect is that he is often stunned, dazed, 

and frightened. For many recruits, this is a period of anxiety which 

39 
exceeds anything they have experienced before. Datel and Lifrak, 

suggested that the stress of basic training is considerably greater than 

the stresses of living experienced by psychiatric patients. They found 

that a recruit's stress level, in fact, is actually considerably higher 

than that found in helicopter medics flying dangerous rescue missions 

40 
or in soldiers anticipating an attack from the enemy. Weybrew, 

pointed out that, ". . . . stresses seldom occur one at a time, but real 
life situations characteristically involve multiple stressors, often im- 
posed simultaneously or in some cases sequentially. " 

41 
Bourne, had the following to say about initial reactions to recruit 

training: 



3 8 

C. H. Coates and R. J. Pellegrin, "A Study of American Military 

Institutions Military Life. " Social Science Press , 1965. 

39 Loc. Cit., No. 37. 

B. A. Weybrew, "Patterns of Psychophysiological Response to 
Military Stress. " Psychological Stress-Issues in Research, Appleton- 
Century- Crofts, 1967. 

41 

P. G. Bourne, "Some Observations on the Psychological Phenom- 
enon Seen in Basic Training. " Journal for the Study of Interpersonal 
Processes , 1967. 

37 



Entering the Army is probably the most acutely shocking 
event that they (recruits) have ever experienced. It rep- 
resents the most destructive threat to their adaptive 
capacity that they have ever had to endure. 

The controls, hectic scheduling of activity, loss of emotional support, 
encountered by a recruit early in his military experience invokes in him 
a resentment of the service, anger, and an intense longing for the free- 
dom of civilian life he so recently left behind him. 

Basic training differs not only among the three military services 
but also between various basic training commands within each service. 

C. FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS 

42 
Fortunately, as pointed out by Janowitz, ' the shock technique 

which has been an essential element of the older forms of discipline 

based on domination is being or has been modified. The impact of 

technology has forced a shift in the practices of military authority. 

The residues of shock treatment persist, but military training 

has become a more gradual process of assimilation, and a process of 

fostering positive incentives and loyalties through a team concept. 

Evidence of this is seen in the new experimental approach to basic 

training called the merit-reward system. It attempts to condition the 

behavior of recruits by using carefully controlled rewards rather than 

harshly imposed punishments and physical and psychological harrassment. 



42 

M. Janowitz, Sociology and the Military Establishment, Russell 



Sage, 1959. 



38 



The goal of reducing stress in recruit training has been traditionally- 
questioned. The argument frequently proffered is that the stress of 
recruit training will help ensure effectiveness and survival in combat 
and other assignments. Although the "transfer of learning" in this 
situation is questionable, the crux of the matter seems to be the ap- 
propriate level or degree of stress that would be conducive to good 

performance and adjustment. 

43 
Crawford, in his discussion of the problem which military train- 
ing programs have in keeping pace with the times, stressed the need for 
these programs to readjust themselves to the changing levels of recruit 
education, physical development, and maturity. The military services 
are made up of men and women from society at large, and as such is 
simply a reflection of that society. As society changes, so must the 
military. 



43 

M. P. Crawford, "Training in the 70's and 80's, " Innovations 

for Training, 1969. 



39 



VI. THE ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTION 

A. STRESS AND FRUSTRATION 

The environmental adaption or adjustment as used in psychology, 
means that individuals must accommodate themselves in order to fit 
certain demands of their environment. According to Sawrey and Telford 
adjustment emphasizes socialization of the individual and development 
of coping behavior. Psychological adjustment consists of the processes 
by means of which the individual copes with the physical and social 
demands and expectations of the world. They stated that the individual 

who adequately deals with these demands and expectations is "well 

44 
adjusted. " 

Throughout the literature on adjustment, the terms stress and 

45 
frustration are mentioned time and time again. Basowitz defines 

stress as the threat to the fulfillment of basic needs: the maintenance 

of regulated functioning, and to growth and development. When demands 

are beyond a person's resources, stress is produced. According to 

46 
Sawrey, ". . . . stimulus conditions that result in frustration as a 



44 

J. M. Sawrey and C. W. Teleford, Psychology of Adjustment , 

Allyn and Bacon, 1971. 

45 

H. Basowitz and Others, Reading in the Psychology of Adjustment , 

McGraw-Hill, 1959- 

4A 

Loc. Cit. No. 44, p. 203. 



40 



response can be referred to as 'stressful'. Stress is a kind of class 
name for a variety of barriers, blockings, and thwartings. " A block- 
ing condition that is particularly relevant to adjustment to recruit train- 
ing is man's social environment. The social environment influences 
an individual's need- satisfying behavior by way of formal rules, regula- 
tions and customs and is potentially capable of preventing the immediate 

and direct satisfaction of needs. 

47 
Lazarus, stated that "the social institutions of the culture into 

which a person is born demand conformity to certain social values and 

culturally developed patterns of behavior. " Throughout life these 

various demands are expressed as expectations that others have of 

individuals. ". . . these expectations are usually enforced by the threat 

of physical punishment or of psychological penalties, they operate as 

powerful pressures on an individual to which he must accommodate if 

he is to have comfortable and effective intercourse with his social 

environment. " 

An inevitable and powerful source of need -thwarting springs up 

when the demands that require adjustive behavior are in conflict. When 

conflict occurs between two powerful yet incompatible needs, the task 

of making a satisfactory adjustment is far more difficult. Under such 

circumstances, signs of stress are likely to emerge. 



47 

R. S. Lazarus, Personality and Adjustment, Prentice -Ha 11, 



1963. 



41 



48 
Heyns, describes frustration as an "internal state of the organism, 

which can be observed when an individual is not getting what he wants; 

and as an "event or state of affairs, " which refers to a barrier itself 

and to the conditions that prevent successful response. In the latter 

sense, prison walls and the presence of guards are frustrating to the 

desire of inmates to escape confinement. Frustrations are inevitable 

and in order to resolve them, man learns or adopts different modes of 

thinking, believing and acting. 

B. PERSONAL QUALITIES 

49 

According to Korman, the type of behavior a person will engage 

in is a function of the kind of person he is in terms of his relatively 
enduring traits and the environment in which he happens to find himself. 
Effective performance and adjustment depends in part on the indiv- 
idual to adjust or the probability that he will adjust should concern 

military management prior to an individual's arrival at recruit training. 

50 
Hollingshead, pointed out that although all men in a given military 

situation are subject to the same external conditions, they do not react 

in a similar manner. He stated that the study of life -histories revealed 



4°R. W. Heyns, The Psychology of Personal Adjustment, Henry 
Holt, 1958. 

49 

A. K. Korman, Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 

Prentice-Hall, 1971. 

50 

A. B. Hollingshead, "Adjustment to Military Life, " American 

Journal of Sociology , 1946. 



42 



significant differences between the pre-military experiences of the man 

who is able to adjust to military life and the one that is not. 

51 
In discussing the emotional requirements of military life, Janowitz, 

pointed out that ". . . in general, most emotional maladjustments unless 
properly dealt with are likely to become exacerbated under the conditions 
of military life. " An individual's adjustment to military service is affec- 
ted not only by so-called "personality" variables, but also by the social 
characteristics of society and the historical circumstances under which 
the recruit enters the military service. 

The ability of an individual to adjust in every situation depends on 
his intelligence, moral character, tolerance for ambiguity, and high 
self esteem. In military life, where each person has to work together 
as a team, tolerance for ambiguity, high self esteem, and moral charac- 
ter were more important than intelligence. 

C. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE 

Performance and adjustment are also affected by the structure and 
actions of the organization in which the individual serves. Whether an 
organization takes the necessary action to facilitate an individual's adjust- 
ment is important. Recruits require time to adjust from civilian to 
military life. They have much to learn and very little time in which to 
learn it. Whether an individual eventually performs effectively quite 



51 Loc. Cit. No. 42. 



43 



often depends on whether he receives the extra time or special support 
needed, especially during recruit training. 

D. DEMANDS 

The demands of recruit training tend to be so excessive that a 
recruit cannot comply with all of them to the letter. With respect to 
these demands, most recruits are already sufficiently competent in 
interpersonal situations to learn rather quickly how to meet the train- 
ing demands with a reasonable degree of efficiency and a minimum of 
anxiety. They can react to the situation of too much to do in too little 
time by increasing effort, cooperative effort and division of labor, or 
by cutting corners and taking risks by letting some things "slide" while 
concentrating on others. Of course, there are a small number of 
recruits who cannot meet these demands. The recruit who interprets 
every command literally is likely to be completely overwhelmed by 
anxiety at his inability to achieve the extreme standards of perform- 
ance he thus sets for himself. Such compulsive behavior is usually 
doomed to failure, and the recruit that exhibits this type of behavior 
is unlikely to complete the training program. Instead, he is a likely 
prospect for emotional disturbance or running away in an attempt to 
remove himself from the tightly controlled situation in which he has 
not learned to operate with any self-confidence. 



44 



VII. SITUATIONS THAT AFFECT STRESS 

There are many situations that affect stress in the military recruit 
training environment. Some of these are deprivation of material com- 
forts, loss of privacy, loss of emotional support, complexity of the 
organization, etc. To understand these stresses may be a first step 
in controlling or eliminating the environmental situations producing the 
stress. 

A. DEPRIVATION OF MATERIAL COMFORT 

Many recruits are deprived of material comforts which they had 
previously taken for granted. Their quarters or barracks can be des- 
cribed as austere. Each man is assigned a bunk which is plain, un- 
adorned and sometimes uncomfortable. On more than one occasion, a 
new recruit's bunk has reeked of a former occupant who happened to 
suffer from enuresis, or contained body lice. Each man must live out 
of a locker in which must be stored all of his authorized possessions. 
Bathing and toilet facilities are more often than not communal and 
distant. His clothing and spaces must be kept clean without the aid of 
modern conveniences. There are many other comforts that are con- 
spicuously absent from the training environment. 



45 



B. LOSS OF PRIVACY 

At the most personal level, recruits face a loss of privacy. A 
recruit can easily complete his training without having once been alone. 
All activities, take place in large or small groups or at least in the 
presence of others. A recruit's body is totally and completely exposed 
to those about him, and quite often produces in him a feeling of em- 
barrassment and inadequacy. This situation is quite alien to his pre- 

military environment, and as a result, he suffers high levels of tension 

52 

in his attempt to adjust. A study done by Broedling and Goldsamt, 

showed that recruits encountered the most adjustment difficulty in get- 
ting used to less privacy. They pointed out that over half of the recruits 
in their study had adjustment problems in this area, and suggested that 
perhaps this was symptomatic of the "environmental shock. " 

C. LOSS OF EMOTIONAL SUPPORT 

Another situation in the recruit training environment is the loss of 

53 
emotional supports formerly provided by a recruit's family. Heyns, 

pointed out that most individuals are dependent on others for satisfaction 

of needs and for emotional support, and they show signs of anxiety when 

separation occurs. 



52 Loc. Cit. No. 35. 

53 

R. W. Heyns, The Psychology of Personal Adjustment , New 

York, Henry Holt, 1 958*1 



46 



In discussing the tensions of military life, Janowitz stated that, 
". . . the general tensions of adult life plus the specific tensions of 

military service must be coped by the individual without the support or 

54 
gratification of family life traditional to civil society. " 

In discussing World War II soldiers who were excessively depend- 
ent on their families, Ginzberg pointed out that, "as long as they had 

special support, they could cope successfully with the strains and 

55 
stresses of the outside world. " He further pointed out that when a 

man joins the military, his separation from family involves not only 

the loss of direct personal relations with loved ones, but also the 

transfer from an environment that he knows intimately to one that is 

more or less completely alien. 

D. LEVELING PROCESS 

Some recruits, particularly those at the extremes of the ability 
and environmental spectrums, suffer tension as a result of common 
training program being given to recruits with a wide variety of capacities 
and backgrounds. Janowitz referred to this when he said, "the very 

notion of basic training implies that there is a set of skills which all 

56 
members of the institution can and must know . . . ". A review of 



54 Loc. Cit. No. 17. 

E. Ginzberg, "The Ineffective Soldier, " Breakdown and Recovery , 
New York: Columbia University Press, 1959. 

56 

M. Janowitz, "Basic Education and Youth Socialization in the 

Armed Forces, " Handbook of Military Institutions . Sage Publications, 1971 

47 



57 
the training problems by Dunlap, stressed the neglect of individual 

differences, he pointed out that basic training could be made more ef- 
ficient by grouping recruits by ability level, thus individualizing training 
to some extent. The cost of this approach, however, might be the de- 
motivating effect upon less able recruits. 

E. COMPLEXITY OF THE ORGANIZATION 

Adjustment to any organization is difficult for many people. Several 
reasons for this difficulty is pointed out by Kahn, "Within an organization 
members behave in ways in which they would not behave outside it. They 
use titles that would not be used outside. They wear uniforms or cos- 
tumes .... Above all, their behavior in organization shows a selec- 
tivity, a restrictiveness, and a persistence that is not to be observed 

58 
in the same persons when outside of the organization. " 

In a civilian organization, unlike a military organization, members 
that encounter difficulty with adjustment or find the situation unsatis- 
factory can make their objections known, secure a change within the 
organization, or more importantly they can leave or escape. But in a 
military organization, these options are usually not possible and as 
Heyns has pointed out, "anxiety is most likely to occur when efforts 



57Dunlap and Associates, Inc. , The Navy's Training Problems , 
Darien, 1964. 

C Q 

R. L. Kahn and Others, Organization Stress: Studies in Role 
Conflict and Ambiguity, New York, John Wiley, 1964. 



48 



59 
to escape the danger are ineffective or impossible. " 

Most recruits have never experienced an organization of the complex- 
ity of a military service. There is a multitude of different rules, dif- 
ferent kinds of people, and different ways of action. According to 
Hollingshead, not only must a recruit learn that the scheduling and 
allocation of time is dictated by the organization, but he must also learn 
that the organization even defines how the task allotted to a given time 
is to be accomplished. Recruits are frequently at a loss as to how to 
behave. An individual's behavior and adjustment is affected by the struc- 
ture and the actions of the organization in which he serves. 

F. REGIMENTATION AND DISCIPLINE 

A certain amount of regimentation is common to all military or- 
ganizations, but during basic training, a recruit must adjust to a 
relatively high degree of regimentation and discipline. According to 
Janowitz, "The military establishment is a social organization which 
involves continual exercise of management and command in order to 

achieve a planned coordination of immense scope and detail 

As opposed to civilian life where large areas of human behavior are 



^°R. W. Heyns, The Psychology of Personal Adjustment, New 
York; Henry Holt, 1958. 

A. B. Hollingshead, 'Adjustment to Military Life, " American 
Journal of Sociology , 1946. 



49 






self-directed or where coordination takes place on an automatic or 
traditional basis, military life gives the individual the impression of 
extremely close supervision of his behavior. " He further stated that 
the military had often been characterized as being "authoritarian, 
stratified, and traditional. " 

G. HECTIC SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES 

It is commonplace in a military basic training command for train- 
ees to be faced with more than they can accomplish and stiff sanctions 

for failure. There are various ways of handling this type of situation 

62 
which have been mentioned earlier. A study by Snyder, showed that 

lack of sleep and lack of time for personal affairs were highly salient 
problems for most trainees. These problems were attributed to poor 
coordination and misdirected effort at the company level, but they can 
also be attributed to the hectic training schedule. In a recruit training 
program, there are many skills to be learned, much information and 
knowledge to be digested, not to mention the many hours that must be 
devoted to in and outprocessing activities such as uniform issue, medi- 
cal and dental examinations, issuance of identification cards, name 



Z 1 

M. Janowitz, Sociology and the Military Establishment , New 
York; Russell Sage, 1959. 

62 Loc. Cit. No. 9. 



50 



tags, travel arrangements, etc. All these activities must be done in a 
relatively short period of time, and could never be completed in a 
leisurely manner. 

H. AUTHORITY 

Many recruits that experience a high degree of anxiety and have 
severe adjustment problems in the recruit training environment do not 
seem to be able to handle authority relationships. They seem to resent 
authority, and this resentment can often be traced to parent-child 
relationships. Obviously, a question that comes to mind is why these 
recruits chose to join the military service. The answer seems to be 
that in their attempt to escape an unhappy or uncomfortable situation 
at home or work about which they had little insight, they hastily made 
a decision to join an organization, the nature of which they did not 
consider or at least did not understand. 

Campbell and McCormack, indicated that for the majority of 
recruits, the military environment is more rigidly hierarchial and 

authoritarian than the homes, school, and jobs from which they were 

64 
drawn. Heyns, pointed out that many adjustment problems that in- 
volve relationships to authority begin in early parent-child relationships 



63 

D. T. Campbell, and T. H. McCormack, "Military Experience 

and Attitudes Toward Authority, " American Journal of Sociology , 1957. 
64 Loc. Cit. No. 48. 



51 



and persist into adult life, and that in reacting to authority, these 
individuals are usually submissive and compliant. Even those recruits 
in the former category feel guilty about their submissiveness. 

The degree of stress caused by demands of authority figures often 
depends on the attitude toward the person making the demand, the num- 
ber and frequency of the demands, the capacity of the individual to com- 
ply with the demands, and the results of the compliance or non-com- 
pliance. 

According to Janowitz, ". . . in any organization, civilian or mili- 
tary, authority systems operate on a day-to-day basis or fail to operate 
because of the status that is, the prestige and the respect the officers 
have, and the effectiveness of the military authority is deeply con- 
ditioned by the status and prestige which civilian society accords the 

65 
military profession. " 



M. Janowitz, Sociology and the Military Establishment, New 
York, Russell Sage, 1959. 



52 



VIII. STAFF PERSONNEL AND THEIR EFFECT ON RECRUIT 
ADJUSTMENT AND PERFORMANCE 



Staff personnel play an important role in a recruit's adjustment to 
the military environment, particularly the company commander. He 
spends more time with recruits than any other staff member and he 
spends a considerable amount of his time counseling recruits with 
training and personal problems. If he has a bad attitude, then his 
negative feelings may be transferred to the recruit. And, if he does 
not have some knowledge and understanding of human behavior, he may 
exacerbate a recruit's problems. 

To be a successful and effective company commander, a person 
must want the job; and he must be carefully selected and trained. 
Harburg stated that "the attempt should be made to screen applicants 
for training instructor positions; a man who has demonstrated the 

ability to earn the respect of his subordinates and his superiors should 

66 
be the primary target of a selection process. " The importance of a 

company commander being expected to "lead" not "push" recruits 

through this important period of military service. Harburg also said, 

"If the selection process of training instructors is a good one, the 

67 
training program will be directly benefitted. " 



F. D. Harburg, The Effects of Basic Military Training, 
Scientific Research, 1971. 

67 

Loc. Cit. 



53 



Trainers should receive as much education as possible in leader- 
ship and the behavior aspects of individual and group work. Harburg 
stressed the importance of educating the training staff in "what it is 

/ Q 

that is different about the new generation and why they are so different. " 

Leaders must be strong and responsive to the changing needs and 
life styles of men and women who must follow them. This is particularly 
true at the recruit training level, deficiencies in leadership at this level 
result in negative recruit attitudes, poor morale, reduced motivation, 
and poor performance and adjustment in general. A company under 
the leadership of an ineffective company commander, often exhibits 

low morale, poor discipline and performance. A survey of recruits 

69 
during basic training by Snyder, showed that one of the three general 

types of factors which detracted from the effectiveness of training and 

thereby lowered morale was ineffective leadership. 

Although the selection, training and performance of the commanders 

differs among the various military services, it is felt that the Indonesian 

Navy and its recruit training commands are negligent in this area even 

though they verbalize their recognition of the importance of selecting 

and assigning only experienced, well-qualified personnel to recruit 

training command positions. 



68 T 

Loc. Cit. 

69 

R. Snyder, Some Problems of Basic Training Effectiveness , 

Human Research Unit, 1954. 



54 



IX. A PROCESS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RECRUIT TRAINING 

Parallel to economic and social development of the last few years 
in Indonesia, the government has given special priority to the strength- 
ening of defense capabilities in order to maintain the national independ- 
ence and integrity because it is believed that only in an atmosphere of 
national security that we can implement the development of economic 
and social programs. This is the government's policy with respect to 
the nation's defense capabilities, and its unique role in the preservation 
of the country's independence. 

Based on this policy, the Indonesian Armed Forces have been 
developing their quality, and as a part of the Armed Forces, the 
Indonesian Navy has an equal development. This development will 
continue in the future. It is obvious that while the weapon systems 
change, and the organization to handle them changes, men also change. 
If the environment changes, the people will have to change too. 

Officers and enlisted with new ideas, new attitudes will be required 
to perform in the development of the Indonesian Navy today. To get 
people to do this job effectively requires training and motivation. 

To design a process for development of recruit training the first 
question will be, "What should be the Policies and Objectives of the 
recruit training program? " Policies and objectives lend guidance and 



55 



direction to training practices, that will insure the highest- skilled 
military personnel. 

Second, "What should be the content of the recruit training pro- 
gram? " Content refers to the knowledge, skill, and attitudes that 
must be imparted to an individual in order to change behavior in the 
direction of systematically predetermined ends. The content of a 
training program should be determined by a careful, systematic anal- 
ysis of the jobs for which the recruit must be trained. Basically, this 
can be accomplished only by carrying out some preliminary research, 
which means that logical, reflective, and systematic thinking must be 
applied to a study of the nature and breakdown of each job. If the con- 
tent is faulty, so will be the training results. 

Third, "What methods should be used in order to insure the success 
of the recruit training program? " In general, method refers to the 
means that will be utilized to impart the essential content to the 
learner in a training program and to facilitate his motivation to adapt 
to Navy life. The success of training depends upon finding the best 
method for transferring the content to the trainee and modifying his 
attitudes. Methods must be analyzed by conducting careful experi- 
mentation and evaluation, for in this manner comparisons of different 
methods can be made and decisions arrived at which justify the use of 
a method on the basis of verified facts and data. 

Fourth, "Who is to do the training? " Along with sound content 
and efficient methods it is necessary to have trainers that are properly 

56 



selected and adequately trained. Problems that require research 
with regard to trainers include such areas as the personality of the 
trainers and the knowledge and the attitude they possess. There is 
one way to arrive at a determination of who will be the better trainer, 
and that is through a carefully conducted research program. 

Fifth, "How is recruit training to be evaluated? " Perhaps the 
most important area for research (and in many cases the most neg- 
lected) is in determining how effective a recruit training program 
really is. Is the training actually producing the changes in the behavior 
of the trainees in the predetermined and desired direction? If so -- 
for how long? 

The foregoing does not reflect in any way the complete variety of 
areas in which research is necessary in training. The questions posed 
serve only to point out some of the more important questions that must 
be answered and at the same time they emphasize the inseparable and 
integrated nature of training and research. 

A. THE RELATIONSHIP OF TRAINING AND RESEARCH 

DePhillips pointed out that "to believe that training and research 

70 
can be separate functions is a fallacy. " In a sense it is impossible 

to conduct training without using the tools of research. 



70 

Frank A. DePhillips, Ph. D, and Others, "Research and Training, " 

Management of Training Program, Richard D. Irwin Inc. , I960. 



57 



Training conducted without research is like an automobile without 
a driver. To drive the automobile effectively, the driver must be 
equipped with the essential knowledge, be adept at the proper skills 
required, be inculcated with the necessary attitude, and be experienced. 
But knowing how to drive the car is not enough, since it is equally im- 
portant to understand where one wishes to direct the automobile. 

Research is integral to the successful operation of a recruit train- 
ing program. Training research is concerned with the facts, data, and 
principles that are necessary to carry out training programs. Accord- 
ingly, it should be self-evident that the first step in instituting a train- 
ing program is to assess the Navy's skill needs, to assess the recruit's 
present skill levels and then to investigate the most efficient method of 
improving any skill deficits and to what minimum criterion. One then 
should also inventory the available training assets, on the job training, 
self instruction packages, etc. Thus research is a valuable tool to use 
in discovering the sources of failure, and at the same time it is helpful 
in determining whether an investment in training is required. Research 
is the built-in weather vane that is necessary to determine the direction, 
the needs, and the results of recruit training. In another sense re- 
search comes before, during, and after recruit training is conducted, 
and then it repeats itself over and over again. As a consequence, 
research is inseparable from training and is continuing in nature. 
The measurement of results is one of the most effective controls that 



management has. Research is the best way to measure recruit train- 
ing results. 

The most general purpose of research in training programs is 
obviously the improvement of the efficiency of the training. The prob- 
lem is to investigate critically every facet of the training mechanism 
in order to determine whether the objectives of the program are 
attained. 

It must be understood that the objective of any recruit training 
program is to change human behavior in a predetermined direction 
aimed at the improvement of the efficiency of the Navy. Since the 
research conducted is an inseparable part of training, it therefore 
follows that the main purpose of a recruit training program must also 
be directed toward the improvement of human efficiency. Consequently, 
the main target upon which research is focused is the trainee whose 
behavior is to be altered. 

B. THE BARRIERS TO TRAINING RESEARCH 

The obstacles that interfere with the conduct of research in a 
training program are numerous. They run from financial limitations 
to personality traits that are unfavorable to research programs. 

From a financial standpoint, many people view research as a 
waste of money, especially where expenditures for investigations are 
related to human values. In a sense DePhillips said that "managers 



59 



spend millions of dollars each year on research that is concerned with 

technological advances but, in contrast, spend pennies with regard to 

71 
human behavior research. " The narrow viewpoint of efficiency is 

all too often reflected in the objectives of many training programs, 
for most research that is conducted is concerned mainly with im- 
mediate changes in skill and knowledge that will be reflected in im- 
mediate increases in ability. The emphasis in such training is usually 
placed on effecting changes in human behavior without regard for the 
feelings, attitudes, and opinions of trainees. Skill and knowledge 
cannot be separated from human values and attitudes. Research in 
training, regardless of whether it is recruit training, job training, 
or developmental, must be aware of the human equation and must 
seek ways to instruct and develop men in order to make them more 
satisfied and better adjusted to their environment. 

Training research requires the cooperation and coordination of 
many levels of the management. DePhillips stated that to offset the 

obstacles that confront training research it is necessary to achieve 

72 
the following: 

1. Change the attitudes of management toward research. 

2. Give research in training the high status it requires. 



71 Loc. Cit. No. 70, p. 376. 
72 Loc. Cit. No. 70, p. 377. 



60 



3. Provide the financial backing it deserves. 

4. Generate the cooperation and coordination of all levels of 
the management team. 

5. Educate for an appreciation of the importance of research. 

6. Train the training directors in the tools and methods of 
research. 



C. THE METHODS OF TRAINING RESEARCH 

Research has been characterized as a critical investigation into 
areas of doubt and uncertainty, applying logical, systematic, and or- 
ganized thinking, in order to find facts and principles that will solve 
difficulties. However, to achieve this end, the research technician 
must be equipped and expert in the knowledge and skill to do his job 
effectively. First we will discuss the survey method of research and 
then an exposition of the experimental method. 

1. The Survey Method 

Survey research is the scientific method of collecting and exam- 
ining pertinent data, as objectively as possible, concerning a specific 
problem, in a systematic manner and then to analyze and interpret 
such data in order to improve existing conditions. This requires that 
the researcher must record data as they truly exist, devoid of bias and 

inaccuracies. Every method of data collection, including the survey, 

73 
is only an approximation to knowledge. According to Warwick, the 



73 

Donald P. Warwick, and Charles A. Lininger, The Sample Survey : 

Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1975. 



61 



survey is highly valuable for studying some problems such as public 
opinion, and almost worthless for others. Decisions about research 
methods involve many considerations, including costs, time, the 
researcher's own experience and qualifications, and the availability 
of trained staff and facilities. Nevertheless, in coming to such a 

decision Warwick stated that it would be helpful to consider the follow- 

74 
ing six criteria: 

1. Appropriateness to the objectives of the research. 

2. Accuracy of measurement. 

3. Generalizability of the results. 

4. Explanatory power. 

5. Administrative convenience. 

6. Avoidance of ethical and political problems. 

It is obvious therefore, that the reason for any survey is to 
determine a norm that acts as a guide to action. Consequently, a 
carefully conducted survey could provide the beginner with a definite 
training program that could be modeled and suited to the specific 
requirements of any given situation. 

One of the techniques for conducting a survey is to carry out a 
systematic investigation of the jobs presently being performed in the 
institution. In management terminology this procedure is called a 
"job analysis. " It is actually a survey of current jobs, with the 



74 Loc. Cit. p. 6-9. 



62 



objective of classifying, naming, and describing the jobs in question. 
Thus a job analysis will aid in establishing job classifications and job 
descriptions. 

To carry out a survey of any kind, including a job analysis, the 
researcher has a choice of several tools that can be used to collect and 
gather the facts and information needed. The tools that are most fre- 
quently used are; observation, interviews, questionnaires, attitude and 
opinion scales. 

The purpose of a job analysis survey is to study the nature of 
a job as well as the human requirements that are essential to perform- 
ing the task. 

Of noteworthy importance is the fact that the results of survey 
research is the development of a plan of action. But it must be em- 
phasized that such action is not the cure-all for problems; rather, it is 
merely the start of a program which must then be followed up with fur- 
ther research to determine its effectiveness s. 
2. The Experimental Method 

Experimental research is that type of controlled research in 
which the variables affecting human behavior are isolated, and in which 
one variable at a time is permitted to affect an individual or a group of 
individuals. Variables are those factors or conditions that may cause 
individuals to behave in certain ways. For example, someone may ask 
why it is that some people learn to do a job faster and more accurately 



63 



than do other people. Perhaps one has more intelligence, is more 
mechanically inclined, has better motivation, can see better, has more 
experience, is less affected by noise, and many other reasons may be 
added. Therefore, if one wanted to ascertain in a more definitive 
manner what specific variables accounted for the differences, it would 
be necessary first to isolate all the variables that could affect the people, 
then it would be necessary to take one variable at a time and subject 
each to controlled conditions, where only the one factor being tested 
could affect the learner. If all the variables were then treated in the 
same manner, it would be possible to determine which one of all the 
factors was responsible for the differences. 

Experimental research aims to answer two basic questions: 

1. Does the training program change the behavior of the 
trainees in the predetermined direction that has been 
desired? 

2. What laws can be formulated that can be applied to all 
training conditions? 

With regard to the problem of changing human behavior, it can 
be generally stated that the purpose of all training is to attempt to equip 
the trainee with new knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will be carried 
over to the actual working situation. Psychologically, this is known as 
"law of transfer of training, " which simply means the transference of 
knowledge, skills, and attitudes from one situation to another. A 



64 



necessary prerequisite to the problem of answering the question of 
whether or not human behavior is changed is that one related to the 
determination of criteria. It is impossible to measure anything ac- 
curately unless some definite yardsticks, standards, or criteria are 
first established. Where training criteria are narrowed to the material 
aspects of job performance, the total requirements of job success are 
ignored. Consequently, the purpose of experimental research should 
be viewed as twofold: first, it should seek to determine the total mean- 
ing of successful job performance, and, second, it should then be used 
to evaluate whether or not the training program is meeting the require- 
ments of the determined concepts of job performance. In essence 
experimental research, therefore, first seeks to establish criteria 
and then tries to ascertain whether the changes in human behavior that 
have occurred in the training program are, in fact, transferred to the 
requirements of successful job performance. 

The second basic question that experimental research seeks to 
answer is concerned with the formulation of laws and principles related 
to training. Experimental research is basically a process of mental 
activity that stresses a controlled search for facts and evidence that 
will accurately explain the cause-and-effect relationships of a phenomenon. 
For example, the law of transfer of training was formulated after much 
research in the field of the psychology of learning had been conducted. 
Thus the law today is used as a guide for all training programs. Laws 



65 



or principles of learning are important to training staffs because they 
help to direct and guide actions along proved lines. 

In summary, it may be pointed out that experimental research 
aids in the following ways: 

1. It serves as a tool to evaluate the effectiveness of training. 

2. It helps to determine criteria that are essential to evaluat- 
ion and measurement of training. 

3. It helps to discover laws and principles that may facilitate 

the training and learning process for future requirements. 

i 
D. A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO TRAINING 

Man is constantly in touch with systems. The electric light is the 
output of a system. The inputs in some remote power-generating station 
were coal, water power, or atomic energy. The process was that of 
power generation and transmission. The output was light. These three 
ingredients comprise most of the systems that deal with: inputs, pro- 
cess, and outputs. There is much to be said for adopting a systems 
approach to the job of the training staff. The system concept is pri- 
marily a way of thinking about the job of managing. It provides a 
framework for the solution to perplexing problems: what to train for, 
where to begin the process of training, what should the process accom- 
plish, how to evaluate results. Such a system has many advantages. 
For one thing it starts at the beginning, moves to the middle, and 



66 



proceeds to the end and then evaluates how well it did. If a system is 
to be workable it should operate as part of a larger system, should per- 
mit subsystems, and perhaps equally important, should make use of 
the experience and knowledge already being used. System provides an 
integrated plan for the whole that goes from one place to another in 
regular fashion and by which progress and achievement can be measured. 

The most common form of system in use in advanced training depart- 

75 
ments is the cybernetic system of training. It presumes that the needs 

will be identified in the organization, that the training processes will 

meet the needs, and that evaluation will measure the effect. This is a 

plan for restoring organization performance to ideal levels through 

changing behavior that requires modifying. Pictured schematically, it 

looks something like figure 3. 

CYBERNETIC SYSTEM OF TRAINING 



Training Need 



Training Effort 



Feedback 



Evaluation 



Figure 3 



75 

George S. Odiorne, Training by Objectives , The Macmillan Co. , 

1970, p. 73-112. 



67 



The trainer must determine needs by defining what organization 
needs for improved behavior are and array his courses and other educa- 
tional efforts in such a way that the training program's results will sup- 
port the organization that produces the need and that the behavior taught 
in the training course will be maintained back on the job. 

Current training literature reveals that more and more attention is 

being paid to "systems. " In almost every instance they are cybernetic 

76 
systems. Perhaps the most persuasive reason for adhering to a cy- 

bernetic system of organizing and managing training is the very popularity 
of the cybernetic concept. It is a communication theory that treats or- 
ganisms and organizations as being very much alike both can display 
behavior. Because the subjects of the training department's efforts are 
organisms (trainees), it seems to be sensible to treat the training pro- 
cess as a feedback or cybernetic process that is occurring to an 
organism. This paves the way to expanding the logic to presume that 
the training department itself is a cybernetic system. 

E. PLANNING AND DIRECTING THE TRAINING PROGRAM 

Basic to any systematic training plan is the determination of a pre- 
cise set of skill requirements. Once these are established we may go 

77 
on to: 



76 

Loc. Cit. No. 75, p. 80. 

77 

Homer C. Rose, The Development and Supervision of Training 

Programs, American Technical Society, 1964. 



68 



1. Assess the abilities possessed by trainees. 

2. Determine the objectives for the desired performance in the 
job occupation. 

3. From the information obtained in the two previous steps, 
determine training requirements for individuals and groups. 

4. Assess available training resources (instructors, training 
materials, training aids and equipment). 

5. Plan detailed training programs to develop the required skills 
(approach course of study, lesson plans, and tests). 

6. Direct, control, and evaluate the process of training (class- 
room, training fields, on-the-job). 

7. Evaluate the results of training through measurement of 
post-training job performance. 

The process is as depicted in figure 4. 

STEP I. Assess the skills possessed by individual trainees . 

Usually in recruit training, the basic knowledge and skills 
that recruits possess have been determined as a stipulation before 
joining the Navy. Once the type and level of performance required by 
the occupation has been analyzed and validated, we can proceed to the 
next step. 

STEP II. Determining the requirements of the job . 

Determining the need for training is to identify the performance 
requirements of the job. We must start with a detailed and valid assess- 
ment or inventory of the skills and knowledges required for proficiency. 
This inventory is called job description. This is the basic and most 
systematic method of identifying the specific skills and knowledges re- 
quired for individual trainees and of groups of trainees in an occupation. 



69 



THE MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING PROGRAMS 



STEP I 
Assess Personnel 
Resources 



U 

« 

Q 
W 
W 



STEP II 

Establish Skill 
Requirements 



STEP m 
Determine the Training 
Requirement Objectives 



STEP IV 
Assess Training Resources 


y 


1 


STEP V 
Plan Program 


1 


f 



o 

< 

eq 

Q 
W 
W 



STEP VI 
Direct, Control and Evaluate 
the Process of Training 



V. 



STEP VII 
Evaluate Product 



>^ 



Figure 4 



70 



STEP III. Determine qualitative and quantitative requirements 
for Training Objectives . 

This step is to determine types, levels, and amount of training 
required to develop abilities (knowledge, skill, attitude) required for 
performance on the job. The difference, between the requirements of 
the job and the qualifications of available personnel is the training require, 
ment. This should be identical to the training objectives. 

STEP IV. Assess available training resources. 

In this step we assess the available and obtainable training re- 
sources including: facilities and equipments, instructors and super- 
visors, training materials such as texts, training aids, tests, instruc- 
tion sheets, programmed materials. 

The selection of the best available personnel for specific 
instructional assignments is essential for success. Determining how 
many instructors are needed to accomplish a training objective is dif- 
ficult, there are many variables in the problem and evaluation of staffing 
ratios or the quality of instruction is complicated. It is possible, how- 
ever, to use a standard approach in obtaining facts related to the problem. 

A properly prepared and administered budget can help to shar- 
pen decisions on staff, equipment, and facilities when training programs 
are planned. The budget can be a useful contribution to the effectiveness 
of the organization and its elements such as the use and conservation of 
resources. 



71 



Materials of this type may include the occupational analysis on 
which the instructional content is based on other materials such as texts, 
instruction sheets, programmed materials, training aids, and tests. 
The quality proper use of such materials is at the core of successful 
programs. 

STEP V. Plan of instruction 

A plan of instruction includes decisions regarding objectives, 
the general approach, the use of resources, and the specific techniques 
to be used in each phase of instruction. Develop a "blue print" of ap- 
proach, curriculum, course of study, lesson plans, and training mate- 
rials for training available personnel to the point of required proficiency, 
based on a planned sequence of objectives and supporting training 
activities. 

STEP VI. Direct, control and evaluate the process of 
training 

Directing is the process of carrying out the plan. It includes 
the day-to-day evaluation of the process of training and the corrective 
actions necessary to reach the objectives. Evaluating a training pro- 
gram is an essential part of the directing function. Program evaluation 
will provide useful information for guiding and improving training. The 
essentials of evaluation are trainee motivation, guidance, standards, 
and evidence of creative effort. 

The motivation of trainees is a most essential element in 
learning, evidence of high motivation is a measure of the quality of 
the training program. 

72 



The application of principles to specific problems under the 
guidance of the instructor is essential in providing the trainee with a 
knowledge of results as compared with known standards. Trial and 
error methods by trainees without such guidance are often frustrating 
and result in ineffective use of time. 

Standards for trainee achievement should be high, yet within 
reach. If instruction results in satisfaction with relatively low achieve- 
ment as compared with ability, we have reason to raise the standards 
and try for improvement. 

Evidence of continued effort to evaluate and use new media, to 
work toward better cooperation and team work with other instructors 
and staff, to support and give credit for outstanding performance when- 
ever it is found, all indicate instructional effectiveness. The really 
competent instructor is never satisfied -- he is always attempting to 
improve his course and his approach. The need for instructor training 
in the Indonesian Navy was not always understood and in some cases 
was not adequately supported by the various commands. Then too, 
many of the instructor training officers lacked sufficient background in 
practical training methods and not all were successful. 

STEP VII. Evaluation of the training program 

We evaluate training programs to find out if we are reaching 
the objectives, or how well the results are filling the training needs. 
Evaluation records also provide the best possible evidence on which to 



73 



make needed changes. We cannot escape the requirement for evaluation, 
because we must make decisions regarding changes involving both con- 
tent and method. Evaluation can make in all part of the instructional 
process. Evaluation should be designed into the total training program. 

It should start at the time the program is being planned. Rose pointed - 

78 
out, that training evaluation has three phases: 

1. Evaluation of the plan of instruction such as instructor 
qualifications, objectives, course of study and lesson 
plans, instructional materials, training aids, examinations. 

2. Evaluation of the process of instruction and perhaps the 
administration of the program. 

3. Evaluation of the performance of graduates on the job. 
Different procedures are required for each phase of training 

evaluation. Evaluation has value throughout the training program. 

A schedule is a type of plan. Goals and objectives define the 
what of planning, and schedules describe the when. Smooth operation of 
training and development activity demands careful scheduling. 

For simple projects, a straight-forward listing of critical 
steps and their completion dates will suffice as a schedule. For more 
complex projects, Gantt charts, block diagrams, or flow charts may 
be needed, and for very involved projects, network schedules may be 
required. 



78 Loc. Cit. No. 77, p. 228. 



74 



For the Navy, we must ensure that the personnel do a better 
job in their assignments. We based the objective of training upon the 
basis of these tasks. The content of the courses were based upon these 
objectives. 

As a practical example of what kind of investment of time, 
staff and budget we are suggesting let us look at one possible approach 
for establishing a training system. The reader will note that some 
milestones of this time-line overlap. However, to abbreviate any step 
too much is to court disaster for the entire system. A director of train- 
ing might consider the following: 

ONE POSSIBLE APPROACH 



YEARS 



1979 



1980 



1981 



1982 1983 



1984 



I. ASSESSMENT OF 
PERSONNEL 

II. ESTABLISH SKILL 
REQUIREMENTS 

III. DETERMINE TRAIN-i 
ING REQ. OBJECT. 

IV. ASSESS TRAINING 
RESOURCES 

V. DESIGN TRAINING 
PROGRAM 

VI. IMPLEMENT k EVA! 
PROCESS OF TRAIN 

VII. EVALUATE 
PRODUCT 



xxxxxx 



xxxxx 



xxxxxx 



xxxx 



XXX 
I 



XXX 



1 1 
1 1 

XXX 

1 1 


1 
1 

1 


1 1 
1 t 

xxxx 

t 1 


r i 


1 


t 1 


i i 
xxxxx 
1 1 


r 

1 


t t 

xxxx 

1 t 


1 1 1 
, xxxxxx t 


1 1 


1 1 
1 1 


1 

xxxxxxx 

1 


1 1 
1 1 



xxxx 



xxxxx 



75 



The reader will note that when the organization reaches step VII that 
there is an immediate need to recycle to step I. However, the second 
iteration should not be as lengthy (providing that most of the training 
staff is still on board) inasmuch as much of the original work remains 
relevant. For example, an inventory of training resources will only 
need minor updating, etc. 



76 



X. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

A. CONCLUSIONS 

Recruit training development is much more than a systematic set 
of plans, programs, and procedures. To design a very effective for- 
mal training does not guarantee the best desired performance of new 
military personnel toward the Navy's job. There is no simple solution 
to the problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering 
the military services. 

Although there has been considerable research done in the areas of 
recruit training and the changing values, motivations and life -styles of 
today's youth, recruit training environments remain relatively un- 
changed, and trainers continue to operate with little understanding of 
the difficulty of adjustment encountered by recruits entering the military. 
Most trainers have no knowledge of the above mentioned research, and 
receive no formal education in individual/ group behavior and the psy- 
chology of adjustment. 

Obviously, there is a need for recruit training command staff per- 
sonnel to be made more aware of the changing values and needs of the 
youth of today, the difficulty of their adjustment from civilian to mili- 
tary life, and of the research done in this area, and for training com- 
mands themselves, to be continually examined and evaluated in the 



77 



areas of recruit requirements and service requirements after training, 
with a view toward making the organization more realistic and humanistic. 

It seems that the effectiveness of training depends on programs 
which can be carefully developed and followed up on the job. But it is 
not always so, because this is only an opportunity that will be provided 
by the organizations for their members. 

In the management of training we undoubtedly operate by one system 
or another. In being systematic we can be conscious of what we are 
doing and what the effects of different kinds of training effort might be. 
The cybernetic system has numerous advantages and points up what 
experienced trainers have realized for a long time. 

Research involves the application of logical and reflective thinking 
to the solution of problems. In the training area such problems include 
the following; the need for training, the policies and objectives, the 
content, the methods, the trainers, and the evaluation of training. To 
solve these problems the training leader should be capable of understand- 
ing the nature and the meaning of research and the mechanics of its 
applications. In this connection one should be alert to the fact that logical 
thinking proceeds from a felt need to the definition of the problem, to the 
formulation of hypotheses and the collection of supporting evidence, then 
to experimentation, and finally to the application of the findings to future 
uses. It has been pointed out that certain barriers exist which interfere 
with training efficiency, and these include the attitudes of top management 



78 



and the failure of those responsible for training to attain the skills 
required to conduct research. 

Particular learning events and activities must occur in the learning 
environment in order for instruction to be effective and efficient. There 
are some general guidelines that are appropriate for most learning ob- 
jectives; inform the learner of the objectives, provide for active practice, 
provide guidance for the learner, and provide feedback to the learner. 

B. RECOMMENDATIONS 

To develop training program particularly recruit training in 
Indonesian Navy, there are some feasible suggestions: 

1. Training methods should be examined in light of the changing 
values, needs, motivations, and levels of education and maturity of 
today's youth. 

2. There should be a concerted effort among recruit trainers to 
lessen the "culture shock" during the first twenty-four hours or so of 
recruit training. 

3. Only the qualified personnel should be selected for company 
commander positions. They should be experienced, mature, emotion- 
ally stable, people-oriented, and possess a positive attitude toward 
their duty and the service. 

4. Training staffs should undergo a thorough training program 
that should include not only the duties and responsibilities of a trainer, 



79 



but also leadership and individual/ group behavior. They should also 
be made aware of the research that has been done or is being done in 
the area of military recruit training. 

5. Recruiters should investigate a potential recruit background 
more thoroughly. 

6. Training requirements; evaluate the validity of task analysis 
methods used to determine training requirements. Develop and apply 
procedures for deriving training objectives from job and task data. 

7. Training systems; determine the appropriate content for the 
selected training systems. Determine the appropriate training equipment 
to achieve the maximum amount of transfer of training. 

8. Training materials; make studies and analyses to select train- 
ing materials. Evaluate simulators for training in specific skills. 

9. Methods of implementing training; compare the effectiveness 

of self-instructional packages and conventional instructional approaches. 
Evaluate the effect of different sequences of course content on training 
outcomes. Develop standard procedures for expressing cost and effec- 
tiveness of different instructional strategies. 

10. Training management and organization; evaluate the training 
organization structure and distribution of functions. Apply management 
sciences to achieve a more effective, efficient, and economical training 
operation. Evaluate and eliminate unnecessary overlap and duplication 
of training efforts. 



80 



11. A time-line showing milestones of the entire system should be 
kept updated and used as a training management guide. 

12. Feedback between Naval Training Command and Bureau of 
Naval Personnel should be improved and expedited. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



1. Albano, C. , Training and Development Journal, 1970. 

2. Albers, H. H. , Principles of Management; A Modern Approach , 
1971. 

3. Andelman, D. A., New York Times , June 6, 1976. 

4. Barber, J. A. , The Military and American Society , New York: 
The Free Press, 1972. 

5. Barnes, P., The Plight of The Citizen Soldier , New York: Alfred 
A. Knopf, 1972. 

6. Basowitz, H. , Reading in The Psychology of Adjustment , New 
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82 



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83 



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84 



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85 



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