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Author: 



U.S. Women'! 



Title: 



[Reports] 



Place: 



[Washington, 



Date: 



[1946] 




COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 
PRESERVATION 

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MASTER NEGATIVE « 



D265 
Uno334 



U. S. Women's bureau, 

eReports. Washington^ U. S. Dept. 
labor^ Women's bureau^ 1946a 

4 pts. in 1 T» 



of 



Contents. — Industrial homework in the 
United States. — Summary of state labor laws 
for wcxnen. — The economic responsibilities 
of women workers as shown bj a Women's 
bureau study of women war workers and their 
postwar employment plans.— Wartime shifts 
of household employees into other 

industries. 




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MAIN ENTRY: U.S. Women's Bureau 

[Reports! (4 pt$. in 1 vj 

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U. S. Department of Labor Jantiary l9w 

9. Washington 25, D. C, • 

t , ■ ■ - . • • •• ■ 

. - - ■ # - • ■ • . • 

' '. ^ " ....... •- . •■ 

.•HfBUSl'lllAli EOMETVOHK IH THE TJHITED SlASB^'' 

Homework jL-s. a^'blsck page in the industrial annals of the United States. 
Effort c to eliminate .the -evils .of this tjrpe. of lahox ^ve had a losig and. com- 
plicated history., . • . - •■ ' ■ •• 

The ^^omen's Bureau of -the United States Departaetit of ^^bpt, vftiea created 
oyer a quarter . of a centxiry ago , found hooevoric to be deeply intrenched in the 
country's maniifaetxu^iBg System, The Bureau, established $y the Congress to pro- 
mote "the .welfare of women woricers» hes consistently opposed homevrork on various 
counts, Vomen and children in the home have "been its ^rentest ^.-ictims, suffering 
detrimental effects from working unreasonably lont* hours for shockingly lev; wages 
and under injurious conditions. But the abuses hav.e not stopped there. The low 
standai'dfe fpr such labor- have undermined the status of fafctory employees. Ua- 
scrr^uldus .en)players« relying oh overworked and underpaid homeworkers, have 
operated as cutr«*hroat competitors to fair-minde^- industrialists. And beyond 
these 'evils in the realm of manufactures has "been the meittace to the public 'heaXih 
from art idles made in filthy, disease-ridden homes. 



'Thus the.l^r(5^aen'p Bureau has been one of the agencies in the van^^uard urging . 
remedial a^ejburfe and legislative control;. Much progress has been made in recent 
years, but/ there is stiU a long distance to go in this country before the evils 
of industrial h<|mework are completely eradicated. 

It is well -to define what is meant hy this type of hooework. It is net 
handicraft work - baske-ts, rugs, jewelry, pottery - made by women or men in the 
home who sell, diroct-ly to the buyer or consumer. "Industrial homev/ork"" i s the 
invasion of therhome. by the factory system and the use of the homenakpr and her 
children as producers. for profit-making* industries. Thiks system alwa;;s includes 
the activities of a manufacturer operating outside the Usual factory system. 
This type of manufacturer distributes materials to the homeworkers, receives the • 
finished articles, sells them at a profit -■ and sometimes at a vezy considerable 

profit. ; . ' .K • • ■ 

The system began to flourish in the United States some time after the middle 
of the 19th Century, when machine production of goods drew into factories more 
and more industries that were formerly carried on-in the home. Manufacturers - 
found it more profitable ;to have certain parts of the articles done by hand, in 
the homes, .'Also, fine handwor> f.-.v decoration of garments became a. homework 
industry among many immigrant v/omcr. fronn southea£tt?rri Europe. They were skilled 
in embroidering^ and lac^:-making and eager for work they could do i:i the homo, 
especially since, unable to speak the language of their adopted land, they were 
afraid to venture into factory employment, ©lus, ignorant of factory wage levels 
and competing .>rtth .eacjx oth^r ifot work; j t^ey/^licccp ted exce€>dingl^ low wages. 



! 



1 

: \ 



Soon ths tenement workshops spread in the immigrant areas in large cities. 
A homevrork employer found prof its .greater if he controlled tenement houses in U 
which he installed large nimters of homework families who paid him rent and 
turned out the goods for his contracts at his prices. The ahtuses that grew out 
of this praetloe aroused public condeanation; > 

Considerable credit "belongs to the National Cons\imers' League, founded in 
1899, for its earlj' crusade against this form of labor. At the turn of the 
century homework was especially flagrant in New York City, the great center of 
the Nation's garment trades. The total number of licensed homeworkers in the 
city in I902 was 62,000; countless others were unlicensed^ Children, hardly 
more than babies, were kept for hours pulling basting threads or sewing on 
buttons. Tor years the local health department was kept Infbmed by the Con- 
sumers' League of the dangers of virulent communicable diseases eottreyed through 
products made by persons haring such diseases* 

Ihe many New York City factories making use of homeworkers were denied the 
use of the Consumers' League label. This label, as adopted by the League, could 
be attached to goods made in factories complying with good labor standards. The 
League published a Becommended List of such manufacturers from time to time. 
The list was never long.- (The largest in any one year was of 69 firms in I3 
States.) The laoel and standards attracted great attention, and you will "be in- 
terested to hear that the Lea.a:^j.e found goods i-n Mexico City bearing its label. 
As years passed, and as the needle-trade workers became better organized tO 
. fi^t for better etandSteds and to use their own miori label, the Consumers' *€f V ^ 
League gave up it's lal>el but continued to work for Anactmenlf of satitffactd'xy law [j 

The first attempt at legal control had been made as far back as ISZk v/hen 
Few York -oassed a law to prohibit manufacture of cigars and other tobacco pro- 
ducts in tenement houses. This law was declared unconstitutional on the grounds 
that it v/oijld arbitrarily deprive the homeworker of his property and his persons 
liberty. Unfortunately this decision blocked for almost 30 years any further 
attempt in our country to prohibit homework. In this interim. State legislature 
confined their efforts to regulatory legislation, and by I90U such laws were on 
the statute books in 12 States. The early lav/s took the approach of protecting 
the puclic from disease thro^ogh use of articles produced in the crowded, dirty 
surroundings of tenement sweatshops. Later legislation considered as well the 
protection of the worker's health, requiring specific standards of sanitation 
to be jmaintained whero the work was done. 

In 1913 Hew Tork State enacted the first prohibitory law held to be 
constitutional. It forbade homework in tenement houses on food, dolls and 
dolls' clothing, and children's garments. This law has since been strengthened ^\ 
and broadened. It has served as a model for other States with like problems. 
Development of prohibitory legislation has been slow, hoi/ever, •'ontil recent year 

Ttie tfomen*s Bureau in its investigations vp to the middle of the 1930* s 
found homework was flourishing >n 3)9^. ^Adustries and in many areas, i^ie State 
laws were too few mid too ineff.qcit.i-ve,' Several of the countless- situations 
that came to the Bureau's attention' will help to illustrate the conditions under 
which homework was being carried on- just a few years prior to the enactment of 
the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act in 19^8, urtiich has proved a great stride 
forward in the control of homework .evi 



t 1 

Sit 




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i J 



- 3 - 

The Cardenas family lived on a sub-baked street in San Antoni< 

a dilapidated o ne- room woo deri ehadk. . In the front was the porch with broken 
steps^ in the tear a clofeot for a kitchen, Mrs. Cardenas and her three daughters 
did fine sowing^'^and embroidery on infants' dresses. The mother, an invalid, 
v/prkcd when she^ was able, doing the simpl-er tasks .of hemming and se^-dng on the 
narrow lace edgfeig. . The girls were seated on boxqs, all doing smocking on the 
dresses spread liver cu^idnod -back diailrs to hold ..the garments in place, tfhen 
the workeris sewld after dark they iiad to use candles. . Tkey slept on mats on the 
floor at nif^t.^ Xach wez^c probably earned alNOut lO .eentaJan hour* - 

Another type of homeworker family was that of a Polish widow, who v/ith 7 
of her 11 children did tag stringirig. The three oldest children "'•orked in the 
cotton mill by day and on the tags at night. Some of the children stopped at 
•the factory. on. ihe ir way from school to obtain the, tags, ^i^ht ;Bembcrs of the 
family .%forkir]« fOgetKer fr^^^ in the" eyeaingjfinished 5,500 ta^^ and 

for their joint*labora eaxiied 55 cents a ni^t.' The .pile ha^ %o iae returned 
before schobl tSe next morning. Fortunately for theJhealth of the family, the 
employers in thii. industry abolished their homework sgf;8tem in •19;j6-*^37« . . 

Progressive employers, who h?ive voluntarily abolished the outmoded system 
of iiomework- witiout waiting for the cudgels of the law, . arc. in striking contrast 
to the unscrupulous e%loyers who try to fi&kt the ena.ctment of homowork legis- 
lation and then*try to evade it after it is-nassed. - ' 

- • • ^ •> - - «■ ....... ■ 

Experience has proved that control throu,^ regulatory 'law did not reach the 
evils of the system. Contrast the regulation of factory conditions with the 
regulation of homework conditions. Factory racorrs are open to ins--ectior. and 
not ^easily . falsified. But to enforce t^he lav/ in homewprk, inspectors have to 
visit thousands ^f individuals in unnuraerable tenements and scattered farmhouses. 
The cost of a :C^nprehensive and thorough inspection is prohibitive. Hor is it 
fruitful of dependable results because evasion is easy and a tea^iation to ^both 
workers and eopfcyers. 

■ • Even tho'jgh a few States had pioneered in passing and enforcin??: r/rohibitory 
legislation, unprincipled employers trying to dodge the law C9uld rcadaly ship 
materials into dther States where laws were less restrictive or non-existent. 
For instance, rifcords. showed that in I93S JTew Yorkren^jloyer^ were r sending homawork 
;.in$o 28 other. Sfetes, and ais. far away as Texas.'. ^ . 



It 



b§Ccime . a$)2arent to, progressive eisployers as v/ell as to State and Federal 
authorities ; tha:t^ td conquor. the homework octopus with its tentacles reaching 
out- in many dir^tions, National legislati^^ 

The National luaustrial Hrcovery Act, which was passed in I933 for the pur- 
pose of promoting fair trade procedures, and vrhich operated for tv^o years until 
it struck the snag of unconstitutionality, made some headway on the National 
level against ei|lls of homework, 'Abolition of this system was required in a 
•groat many of t^ industry codes aiiopted. ;Recaicitrant employers tried to resist 
the codes' elini^tion of homework, arguing that women with young childrai could 
never change ov3r to factory wgrk^ One woman reported that' h^r employer had said 
to her: "If anybody ccnes to you and asks what you think' about the 'dif f erchce 
between working in the factory and working at -hone, be sure to tell thor: that you 
would much rathojr work at homo, because it gives you so much more tine to take 
care of your children-.* "But the wonan in replying to him denied this, "\Vhcn I 
worked in the f^"t6i7," I was in the factory and did lajr woiic^ t .caae home at 5 
o'clock and I had my tiW f or riy home and my c^^ have when 

I was compelled $0 spend evOi^" mittut ^ -of th^' flay*, ■aftd evening as well, in 'an 
atter5»t to earn enough money to keep the -yiismk , " • 



1 i 



The death of the whole program known as the MA mdant a re'birth of homo- 
work among cut- throat employers. However, experience gained unde^r the NRA. in 
hbmework contiroX vas helpful in establishing fxirther Cotitlrols on hoaewoi^ in 
litter Tederfil Acta lAiioli affected coomeree ^between the. iepaitite Stktes. 
Ihiblic Contracts. Aet.paesod iA 1936 forbids hoaework on #!Ood8 made to fill 
goveiTiiaent contracte amo untitle to $10,000 or more. 5?he Federal 15air Laboi* 
Standards Act of I938 set wage and hour standards for all workers - whether in 
factory or home - producing goods for cpmerce between States, The Act provided 
^penalties, for violation, 

iair tended to atioQlate Toltintarar eXiioiaatioa of hta&ework prodxctlon 
among a number of ecq^^^s. . Some firms feared that Yederal authorities ml^t 
find thaia unwittingly' in violation of the law. HJhis could easily occur, since 
the enrployer had no direct control over the number of hours his employees worked 
in the hone. Nor did he have control over zhe fact that young children might 
be working - which is prohibited expressly by the Act. » 

For exBjaple, one of the largest ehildrea*« dress aanufacturers: idiCfaad 
^een eiq^loying thousands, of hoaeworkers* said, *Ve decided to discontinue home* 
WDi'k in May 19^1. Our rei^son was that we felt it was Ijqpossi^le to assure our- 
selves of complete" compliance if homeworkers were engaged it was no hardship 

at all to discontinue the use of homeworkers, and we are happier under the new 
arrangement." * ~ . • • . 

A striking illustration of a voluntary readjustment of business ccmcems 
froia a homework to a factory aystelb is found.ia ^e aanufactjnre of bed^reads. 

Back in 1933 the IfomenVs Bureau had made an investigation of ian e^ehsive «^nter- 
prise carried on by coiroercial and semiphilanthropic groii^js, utilizing the' skill 
of families living in the southern mountains of the Unitod States. Many women 
turned their hovels into workshops, making under contract such articles as 
attractive candlewick bedspreads and hooked rugs of elaborate design, or doing 
'beautiful quilting and applique work on Tslvet materials. 



The southern ijioiiintaiAeer craft swonan plied her craft in heir horad from sunup 
fo sundown whenever wori: was available. She furnished her own equipment. She 
took a material share of overhead expense off the shoulders of her employers* 
She bore the full burden of a poorly organized business, subject to every ir- 
regularity in market, treads. At the end of her year's effort, she found that 
her earnings had be«i about one-t%relfth those of her lowest paid factory' sister, 
for the general opinion of the esq^loyers seened to be that 10 to 12 oents ah 
hour was aqple paysient if or their serrices* 

However, a revolutionary adjustment Was made by the firms concerned witji.. 
bedspread production about the tine the Fair Labor Standards Act was passed. 
The hoaework system was abandoned for manufacture in factories erected in the 
mountaixious cofiBnsii^ies to .produce attrai6tiye ma<^iiie«-tDade sprecids of more or 
less eimilar designs to the handmade ones, 'fho workers recruited: from the sur- 
rounding countxy were mostly younger people,- Who were' paid a fair hourly, rate. 

Despite such voluntary action by some employers authorities adnihistering 
the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act soon discovered that the homework systen 
•which had flourished for decades was not- easily controlled. Homework persisted, 
especially in thpsf indxistries Wberarits use had been most widespread - svtpia. as 
chef^ costume jewelry, h2^iidke3^tef«, woaien'8 aiid children's clothing, buttons 
and huolcles; gloras and jBitt«t|«« sahroldeyy, and knitted outer ganoents. 



For these 7 industries, the Federal Fair Labor Stahdards Act Administrator 
issued orders. prohibiting hoaework absolutely on goods which mi^t enter channels 
of interstatfe , trade. . He permitted exceptions only for classes of workers handi- 
capped by age or physical Conditions or who are presented by care of an invalid 
from entering factory \rork. - and required these persons to have been previously 
eniployed as homeworkers in the same industry. A certificate had to be obtained 
for each homeworker from the proper official of the Federal Labor Department. 
■* ■ • ..... • • 

Kie adB^ni8.trator* s authority to make these orders was challenged by some 
iadustrialisls.'but iras i5)held by the U. S. St^reae Court. The orders pro- 
hibiting hori^work and the court decision mark a aajor advance in the control of 
homev/o.rk. The restriction of certificates to the' types of persons specified 
means. only a^'few hundred actual homeworkers remain in these 7 industries, while 
thousands of former homeworkers are better able to secure jobs in factories. 

IJospite the protests of soae employers forbidden to use homework, they 40 
make satisfactory adjustments. Those who have led the way in such adjustment 

report no insurmountable problems, even Where homework hr-d been a major source 
of production. The glove industry, largely concentrated in one area, is a 
striking exanjple of a remarkable adjustment. About a fourth of the manufacturers 
have opened cocim-jnity workshops, and established day nurseries for the care of 
young children. One small manufacturer who expected to be hurt by the prohilitor, 
order recently reported that his 10 factory workers are now producing more than 
was foi«erl>-put out by 6 factory workers and 7 full-time hoaeworkers. 

Many v/omen v;orkers also have made very satisfactory readjustnentr . A typical 
case is that^ of Mrs. Ross v/ho had for irany years worked on jewelry, novelties in 
her home. When the prohibitory order was issued she thought she would "just give 
15>." Then she decided to try factory Vorfc, After 2 years of such employment 
she reports *he would not go back to homework. Her earnings €ure better than 
ever before..- She knows that after 8 hours her work is done and she likes the 
company of h^r fellow workers. 

Moreover, through these Federal orders thor.sands of factory wage earners 
and fair-minded employers are protected against undercutting wage competition by 
unscrupulous employers wanting to rely on home sweatshop labor. 

These developments unrer the Federal legislation encourage State labor 
administrators to proceed with State prohibition of this outiooded jaethod of 
production. * ... 

(Hie question may arise, why, v/here such Federal le -islative steps have al- 
ready been tAken and further action seemingly is possible. State homevrork laws 
are necessary. According to th3 constitution of the United States, the Federal 
Government can legislate for entexprises operating across State lines but 
generally must leave to the States the right to control intra-State indastries 
or those carried oh within the borders of a State. 

There are still 26 States without any homework legislation. In such a State 
a candy factory catering only to local trade might use pecan nuts in its candy 
that were' cracked and picked in filthy homes by workers with tuberculosis or 
othrr communicable disease. Or a shop selling party decorations to customers in 

a particular city might employ hcracworVrers to complete unders for special 
occasions - re.;ardless of v.'hether the worker must put in 12 to 1^ hours a day for 
this purpose. Or an entprepreneur, who carries on a business within a co.Tjnuxiity 
aight have hand-knitted sweaters made by women in their homos,' and pay them much 



■' m:-..:"% i *B!im" ' sa(g 



less than the UO-cent mininnan required "onder the Federal law, while the sweaters 
are- sold at an exorhitantly high profit. Or a child night TCoatTact and die of 
a contagious disease froa a sweater made in a home where such illness existed, 

Jkd to the 22 States which, a© have some form of law dealinig with homework, 
these State laWs apply only to the- Jiractice a» carried on within the respective 
State "boundaries. One State, Connecticut, forhids shipment of homework material 
into the State from outside nanujfecturers and subjects materials so shipped to 
official seizure and disposal. A few States with minimum-wage laws make the 
rates apply also to homeworkers. This action does tend to reduce . the volnne of 
homework, for employers compelled to pay the factory a;»te fin<i hringing workera 
into factory a profitable ftrraseeaeat since they can "be properly fii^erviaed, 
thus reducing waste and preventing delayed ehipaentSi 

Some States attempt to apply" factory hour regulations to homeworkers, hut 
this is more difficult since workers and employers find evasion easy through 
falsified reports of honors worked. The employer wants the greatest possible 
volume of output, the homeWorker the largest possihle amount of earnings tP he 
realised on he* ohly capital «» her tise« v 

Inspection of work places is a "duty of the labor department or the health 
department of the State, depending on the typo of legislation in effect. Ihe 
law may regulate from the standpoint of violation of labor standards, or from 
the standpoint of health conditions for the worker or for the ultimate consumer 
of the articles produced, " "' .W- 

«Phe "best policies and procedures foiind in some; of the State laws are gimil 
to the- recommendations on industrial homework adopted at the i2th National Labo 
Conference held December 19^5 in !feshington. The conference was convened by 
the Secretary of Labor and attended by repreccntatives from the' labor departmen 
and organized labor of kl of the kS States, as well as by Federal officials, 
for the purpose of working toward better labor legislation of all types. 
_ . ' ■■■>"■'..'...'■ ' • 

The homework "report as tidoptcd by the delegateiB advoc?ited tiie oltiirate 
abolition of homework." The following recoianendations were made: (l) That the 
26 States w:iich now have no legislative control over homev/ork promptly enact 
laws to prohibit it; (2) that other States in which homework still abounds 
reno?.cl their laws and strengthen enforcement procedures to bring about the end 
of hoinework; (3) that the State governments work in close cooperation with' the 
federal government so that controls may be made eff ootive over articles made by 
hoMrork for commerce, wheth6r that coBinerce be within one Staters boimdlaries 
or among the States, 

State and Federal labor officials, who have had long practical experience 
in' administering homev/ork laws have arrived at general agreement on standards 
to be followed in the United States in the administration of these la%fs; *" 

To protect the public, hoaewotk should be prohibi.ted on BTich articl)?s as 
food, drink, tobacco, drugs, toys, and sanitary goods. To protect the worker 
siich attleles as explosives and fireworks should not be ha;idled in the home* 



'I 



The oraployers of homeworkers should be required t© s^^^^V&ual penait^|||||| 

i#lth a fee fixed for the year of first is^^ce and grad^jated thereafter to 
the number ef !»tteworkers eapleyed. This gives the State department r>x labor 
opportunity for an annual checkup on the employer, tends to discourage large 
numbers of homeworkers, and puts too high a price on the employment of one or 
two homeworkers to make the homework system profitable. 

Certificates for homeworkers should be granted anmaally and at no cost to 
the worker. Tl*& employe of homeworkers rtiould be one who employs persons on 
the same or siadlar operations in a factory. The homeworker should be paid at 
least the same rate as the factory worker, and the number of homeworkers should 
not esDceed the jtiumber of factory workers. 

The use of contractors or subcontractors in the distribution of homework 
adds to the problems and the abuses, and should be prevented by law. However. 
Where a contractor operates he rtftwild be reqtdred to hold an eii5)loyer«8 permit . 

The form of records to be kept by employers of homeworkers should be 
prescribed by the State commissioner of labor. Such records should incluae lists 
of workers; places of work; materials distributed and manufactured; piece rates, 
net wages; hours; and other information. Requirements should include decent 
sanitary conditions in* the home, co8?>Uance with State and Federal laws, eUd 
labeling of materials by the employer, 

• ^ StUB Ti?> - despite the very real progress that has been made through 
educational and legislative measures in reducing the amo-ont and the evils of 
this system in the United States, industrial homework still exists to fom^ ex- 
tent in every one of the States. It is most prevalent in Mew York, Pennsylvania, 
Illinois, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Hhode |aland, and California, Which are 
great centers of population. 

Industrial homework is a community affair. It crops up in one back flat, 
and unless checked, it ST^rcads throUfTh the noigliborhood like a contagious disease. 
In some cases where homework is being carried on, it is not contrary to existing 
legislation. In others it may be in violation of the law and has not come to 
the notice of enforcement authorities. It is bound eventually to be brou^t . 
to the attention of local public welfare agencies. The fijrst reaction of the 
public may be that these' people need the work even if it does bring but a few 
dollars a week. But homeworkers who do such tasks for a mere pittance are taking 
jobs away from factorj' workers who would be paid ko cents or more aji ho^jr and 
overtime pay of time and a half for ho^urs in excess of UC'. A single factors^ 
worker can easily earn in one week as much as a whole family of homeworkers. The 
18-year-old daughter as a factory employee can bring home more stoney than she, 
her mother, and her younger sisters could earn in making a sweatl^hop of their 
home. " 

Industrial homework merely adds to the misery of poverty. It does not re- 
lieve it. This fact is proved by ar* examination of the relief rolls in various 
communities. Interviewed in Chicago in I936, over 200 families out of some 800 
doing homework said that they were or had recently been receiving relief. Other 
families nay have been recipients of such help but were reluctant to admit it for 
fear homework earnings might be deducted from relief grants. Si-.ilar stories 
could be reported for Hew York City and other localities. Such relief payments 
to underpaid 'homeworkers are in reality a subsidy to inefficient employers who 
fail to pay a living wage. 



--■•-&^^eate^"* cooperation of- 2:cvcrni!ient and' of connunity is essential* to 
abolish cSnpletely this unsound and outmoded syster.i. Bettor and laore extensive 
State and Federal, legislation as well as nore effective adninistrative and ' , ^ 
enforcement measures are needed. Organized la'bor la definitely opposed to 
industrial honework, and qany trade miba$ need to ©xerclee the gpeatest 
vigilance to keep this insidiooxs practice from springing -op in tenements or in 
out%iag rural. cooauai^td^Sv i TJs»- forward-looking ei:5>loyer8 who lend th«ir suppor 
to T:^rooting the honevork systen need to bring pressure on their conpe titers 
who have refused to.reliaqu.ish the use of hpae labor. 

Various agencies, including the Voncn's Bureau, Host constantljf carry on 
educational work against the systen as a iftiole, hecause all govemiMntal 
eaq>erieace proves that iaduatridl hooewbrk cannot bQ regulated in such a way 
as to prevent eaplo it at ion -.of. workers. The Bureati Icnows that workers in the 
hoao cannot obtain a fair return for their labor because they are unable to cope 
successfully with the combined pressures from employers and from family needs. 
Regulation of work hours is iicpossible of enforcement for similar reasons. 

All enlightened citizens realize that the substandard -wages for irtiich the 
system is notorious and on which It thrives' cannot he-tolerated in a country 
which aims to a^ieve for all its p^Xe medon fron want and opportunity for 
m full aaid lahundant life. 



(WB 1*6-126) 



. U. S. "DE^ARTT'II'T C" LABOR 
''•'omen' rs Bureau 
Wa3hin#;ton 

S UMIOR? 0^ STAIS LABOR LV^S "CZ 
Feb, 15, 19**6 



COLUMBIA unmum 

AUG 2 4 1946 

RECEIVED 



(BAsic standards, exclusive of tenrporary war tine modif ioations) 

1. - XUILY ASO) WEXLY HCDES . 

Forty- three States and the District of Columbia hrve la^'s limiting the daily 
and weekly hours of employment in one or more industries. 

Five States - Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, and Tfest Virginia - do not have 
such laws. 

Cne-^half of the States (2^) and the District cf Colunbip have set 8 hcm-s e 
day and/or Ug hours a veek or less as Uie ma.ximwi tiine a wcraan icey be 
ensployed in one or more industries, jj In 23 of the 2h States (Kansas is 
the exce-otion), manufacturinfi: establishiaents are covered by such standards. 
South Carolina 'g statute, however, covers only one branch of ma.nufacturin.-: - 
textile mills. In CoJinecticut the maxiiaraa! workvreek is hB hcirc icr several 
industries but deily ho-'.irs mey not exceed S in mc-rc^mtile eGtn"blic.'.iments 
nor 9 in manuf pct^irinr plants. The S-hS hovjrs lav in z^nsps a-oplier: t-^ 
public-housekeeping occuTjations and telephone excl^-^n^.-es; in nrmif act-Jxin^ 
esti^hlisbmenta, the aexinum is 9 hours ft da,v, i;.^ hours a week. 



Arizona 


6 






r^v ! :c-xico 


g ^ 


Ug 


California 


g 






I'evr Ycrk 


g - 


Ug 


Colorado 


g 




ks 


ITorth Qprolina 


9 - 


Ug 


Connecticut 


g 




Ivfcrth Dakota 




Ug 




Q 






Ohio 


8 - 


U5 


District of 








Cro,~on 


g - 


uu 


Columbia 


S 






Pennsylvania 


g ~ 




Illinois 








Phode Island 




Ug 


KansRG 


s 




hi 


South Cprolinr 


g - 




LouiG ifinf 






u« 


(I fen and 


women) 




IVsspchusetts 


9 




ks 


Utah 


g- 


lig 


Montena 


8 






■"irf^inia 


9 - 


Us 


Hevada 


6 






Vashinp^ton 


g 




Tfew Hampshire 


10 




Us 


^^yoiaing 


g - 


Ug 



Ten Spates h^^'e set n maxinur. 9-hcur day for wciBn and the weekly naximm in all 



one of these (Idaho) is 50 or ho^^rs. Arkf>nsps hnc. no woekl- ho-.is 
s-oecified in its statute but it hps a o-day-weck provision, which in effect 
nakes a 5U-hour msxiTnuni veek. 



Arkansas 

Idaho 

lfel;ie 

li'ichigpji 

Misscuri 



9 6 days 

9 ^ 5U 
Q - 5U 

9 - 5U 



Nebraska 
Oklahoop 

Texps 

Yer-iont 

''■isconsin 



9 - 5U 
9 - 5U 
9 - 5U 
9-50 

9-50 



1/ For States with different leg^i -^xinui-hour standards for different indas- 
tries, the law establishing the lowest laaxiniun hours was selected for this 
sur.nary, ■ ' 

2/ Teii^orarily this law (g~Uo-*^ days) is not being enforced. 



IRREGULAR PAGINATION 



^2- 

1. D^Ig ^ ^mKhY HO^mS (Cent.) 

Eight Stpt^s Gct P nc-^xi^TU'n dn:/ of 10 hoi^rs --^nd a wrk of fro-i "to 6o houirs. 

In ? of these - C-eorgif- ,^rid South GrroHnr - the Irw f»-Dmliec to one t}roo cf 
ng n-:i" a cturin^- plants onlj» cotton and wolen iiilla... 

Dslpwre 10 - 55 Hississiprpi IO-60 (Men A&d wosaeii) 

(rsor/^ia 10 - bO (Men and vonen) ye•^' Jersey 10-?U 

Fontucky 10 - 60 . ^ . South Carclinp 10-?? (Men and ^^foiaen) 

Mrryi^.nd XO - 60 •. South Tpkcta 10-5^ • 

In f>ne Sts*te - !I!ennessee - tfce npxinin Is loj hours p. dry, 57 hoiars p '^'ek, • 
This srpplies to i««»nufactturin^ and other indn«trie«« 

Ki-inc3ct.« hr.s fixed no d^il-^ linit in itc statute, harinr' onl?.^ a FU-hoi^r vcckly 
liJitaticn for inanufacturiafi; e«te"bli3hBettt«..pnd several oth r industries. 

About half the States (25) and Bit trie t of Colunbia p'rohiTjit eTTployisBnt of 
vcHien for more thnn 6 days a iwek in sonc or all industries. In 2 jf these 
Strtes - Colorndo and Utah - the lay doas not aiJply to. namxfactui'icg 
. estahlishnents^ 

Arizonr- ' ' SjPAsas Horth Dakota 

Arkansas N^asaehosetts (Hen pjad Wor£n)Ohio 

California (Hen and 'j#onen) Louisiana - Oregon 

Colorrdo Jfevada pennsylvarip (5^ days) 

Connecticut (Men and vojaenJ?Tew KfTpshire (Hen and woaen) South Carolina / 

ristrict cf Colua'bia -Tev; Jersey Utph 

Delr'-'prc 'Tc-v York (T'''en and vonen) V/ashir^rton 

Illiriois (Hen rnd wo'^en) I^ortli Garolin? Wicconsin (ren and ^ 



worsen) 



3. - MEAL PERIODS 



>'ell over half the States (^7) and the District cf CoIubMp havii p-cvided thrt 
neai ■periods ^°rvin/^ fron I/3 ho^'ir to 1 ho\vr nust "be ?l'>.oi''ed to ■«'0;itri in some 
or '^'ll industries. This tjrovision rTiplies to r.!=nuf pctiirinf;^ es tpTrlishncntG in 
all "bv.t ^- of the*;*!. Stptes ~ Colorrdo, Illinois, "^^orth Cprolinp, and 'Washington, 
States are as follows: 

Arkansas liaine C!iio 

Crlif or":.ia llrryl-^ nd Cre'^on 

Cclci'ado Krssachuse tts Pcnnsylvpnia 

District of Colunhia ye"braska (lien a nd vorioa) Hhode Island 

Del an? re 2'evpda Utah 

Illinois ]Jew Jersey (Hen and Aomen) ■Tashin,^tcn 

Indi?'!!^ (Men and vooen) Hew K^::ico West Virginia 

Zansps iJew Yori: (Men and vofflfn) Wisconsin 

Xcntuck:^ . ' Forth Cfrolinp- 

Louisiana l^brth DcKota 

3/ ^ode Island in its 19'*-? reenactnent of an earlier . la-'-r cover in.^ enployr.ent on 
certain holidaj'^ includes Sunday in the list of d^ys vhen enployrient not 
p'-^Golutely necessary is prohibited. The law, however, does not establish | 
a 6-day week. . " ' 



^. - BEST P3RI0DS 



Best periods of 10 nimztes after « work period of U eonseeative hours or during 

epcli half day arc provided for in the Invs of Colorado, Ortgon, and Utah^ 
These pre apTDlicpbie usually to retail-trade er^ployees. In California if 
nptiire of work requires continuous st-^nding, the industrial velfpre concussion 
nay require that 10-rainute rest periods be given after 2 or 2i hours of work. 

5* - FICET VOBy. 

Twenty-one States and the District of Colunbia place gone linitation on the hows 
of ennloyjient of wo-sen or persons .between W and 21 at night. 

The Ip.vs of 2 of these States - Mpryipnd and iilrv; HprtTDshire - do not Tsrchibit 
night work; they merely limit the nuiber of hours a voian npy work ^t night 
■ to g, i^re8» the daily laaxinruni in these States is 10 and lOj: hours, 
respeetively. 

The follo'"lng 15 States prohibit ni^ht work for vfonen in certain industries or 
cccup-tions. In Ohir only ticket ssXlart fM in Washington snly elsvi^tor 
operators are covered. 

California New York 

Connecticut Forth Dakota 

* Delaware ^hio 

Indiana Pennsylvanip 
Krnsas South Carolina 

Masspchusetts Washington 
^ Nebraska Wisconsin 
He^ Jersey 

In 3 additional States - Arizona, Kentucky, Hhode Island, a nisjit-work prohibition 

applies only to -oersons under 21 ■^'ears of age in messenger service, In"l 
other - ViTfTinip - pnd the District of Coluabie, siniiar lizaitations appljf 
only to girl messengers. • 

6, SSATINg 

Porty-six Stptes pnd thp District of Columbia have iseating laws - all but 1 of 
then «5»plying|i exclusively to wojnsn, Florida's law aimlies to both xaales and 
females. 

Illinois and Mississippi have nft seatin,^ laws. 

7. - OCCDPATIQj^ X,I^qTATI0:'- LA^'^S 

mm 

/Jbte; - Asterisk preceding entry Indicates that law applies enlv to nersons under 
21 years of agej^y 

AXabama ! Lalor in or about a coal mine. 

Arisoiy^t Work in er about a mine, qu8rr^% or coal breaker. 

Arkansas; Hot to be permitted to enter any nine to work therein. 





7. - f^nn*-^ -Tiri^T^ LAWS (Cont.)' 

Mav not nix rlcoholic "beirerpgec ccntrlniii^? distill^^d sr^itits on 
prenises used for the sals of ?lcoholic Averages, unless she is 
the licensee 'or wife of aa^ suchcJ-.i.P^'af'ee. 



Colorpdo : 



♦Einploynent of person under 21 on portioa elf . preni^eff used' for 
sale find service of jilcoholie beverp^s for opnaniaption on preniser. 

Bniployaent in or eibout a coal nine or coke oven except in a . 
clerical Ci^city^ . .' ' 



Connecticut ; • Znployrncnt in r.nv tavern, ujaloas employee is the wife or 

dpu#;hter of proprietor, • . - 



Dclavare : 



Florida: 



♦S.'pplojmont of person under 21 in ropn where intoxicpticg liquors 
are sold or ditpeawd, tmlaM tha estabXishaent.s^llB for aedical 
or scientific pnTDotes. 

*Zm:lcynent of -tjctsoti under 21 in pool room, "billiard room, or 
'jplace' where intor^icntin^ .liq:iors ere ngnuf pctured or 'sold". 
:^eTTptions ; Professional entertainers; drug or grocery stores 
licensed to s^Xi "beer »jA viae for consuraption on larenises; 
hotel workers if work is apart froia.place %6iere alcoholic 
^Ijevara^a are ftold, 

Hrnual lahcr in or p.hont a nine. . ■ \ 

Municipal authorities are empowered to i^ohiMJi "bv ordinance 
eotplojritnt of woaen (other thpn p licensee- or wife of licensee) 
PS disT>ensers in retpil licjoor estatlishncntc. 

SEQ)l©yaf»nt within a coal nine, ; 

*2^.T5"Lo:rTent of person under 21 in anj'- jpuhlic "oool or hilliprd rocn. 

Saplojraent V retail liqpior.. licensee for duties other thp.n ^^s 
waitress, cpshier, or usher. 

■ . . . ■ - f 

Snulc-ment ss dispenser or seller of spirit-j.ous liquors, vines or 
.uplt in BViir concert hfill or sploon vdiare such liquors -are sold. 

ISmploy^ent, other thpn office work, in connection "«*ith pny nine, 

*Sr?oloy!r!ent of person under 21 in or in cormoction with pur place 
where intoricrtins licpiors. «rc- sold» 

h!asspchusetts ; *3:r-.T)lcvment of person under 21 in, r.hout, or in connect ion/- i.th a 

sploon or hpr room where alcoboXie liquors are sold. 



Indipna ! 

gentttcky t 

I^uisianp ; 
Hpn^'land; 



Minaesot'p ; 
Kissouri; 



1 

*3!aploynent of girl uasder 21, as ofessengep fdr telegrpuh or 
nessenger commny. ... 

Snplcyinent r4 thin any nine. 



T] 



1 



IVS (Cont.) 



/ 

I 



Itontane ; 
gew Mexico ; 

Hev Jersey ! 
New York! 



Ohtd i 




Oklahoma ! 



♦Bisgployiaent of person under 21 to serve liquor^ beer, or vine? 

^Sngployaent of girl under 21 as uessenger for telegraph, telephone, 
or Eietsenger coapany. Exenption pemit xapy te grpnted during 
WPP eoergendy. 

Enploynent in the npnufr.cture of nitro and anido co25)ounds. 
lixenptions ! Office^ works hospital, or welfare rooa or building. 

Sraployment in or in connection with a nine or quarry. 

*I!apXoysient of feispXes under 2X as Qpnductors or guards on any 
type of raiXroad. 

♦Zraploynent of females under 21 as nessenger for telegrauh or 
nessenger cong>e|iy, , 

Bnployaent as liellhop, crossing watchraan, ex^^ress driver, taxi 
driver, U/ .jitmy driver, meter reader (gas or electric), xaoXder 
or seetitn hand, or in the foXX(9ving occiqE>ation8 or pXaces: 

Basignire handling. 

Bar rocn and saloons or puhlic drinking dIpcbs vrhich cater to 
laale custoiaers only and in which substitutes for intoxicating 
Xlquors are soXd. 

BXast furnaces; allies* quarries; or saeXters; (Sxcept in offices) 

Soiling alleys. 
Delivery service. 
Freight handling. 

Operating freight or haggpge elevators. 
Pool roons. 
Shoe-shining parlors. 

♦Employiaent of girls under gl in the personal delivery of nessages. 

In Act passed in I9U3, effective during the w?r emergency, Units 
the ocsupations in which wooen nay not vork durini- the energencv 
to tlie foXXawlng: 

Bar roomy and galoohs or pubXie drinking pXaees which cater to 
rnale customers only* 

Bellhop. : . • ■ 

Metal molder, 

Klnes; quarries., (Except in offices.) 
Pool rooms. 

EmplovQent underground in the oueration of a nine, or in ai^ quarry. 
Office work exempted if on tOT5 of the grounds 



a/ The t^rqihi^ition of taxicah driving was deoXared unconstitutioneX by a county 
court of Ohio in 192S. 






n 



- OCCTIPATIQML LIMIIATIQjJ I^WS (Cont.) 

or testing meters (water, gas, electric). 
i8«en^r for railroads in oalliog train ermrii. 
Crane operator. 
[Voiding and cutting. 

On railroad tracks and at trucking, 
^Maintaining fires in hand-fired Isoiler furnaces. 

During the war emergency dispensations may be granted by 
departaent of later for any of thMe oecxqpations. 

iBiployment in or about a sine* (Xxcept in office or clerical 
wcrk.) 

S^nth Carolina ; *Smployment of person under 21 in a retail, wholesale, or 

nanufacturing liquor business . 



Utah ; 



Yirfiin^a; 



on: 



Wisconsin: 



Sn|>lo9«ient in a mine or smelter. During the war eaergeao^ ifoihen 
may be employed at other thaa tttder^xoisid work in aj^^a aiid ln 
smelters* - * 

Employment in or around a mine or quarry. 

Sopioyneat in or about 4 mine. (Sxcept in clerical or messenger 
dut^ about the surface workijigs.) ' - 

Siiployfflent as bellhop. # 

Jlmployment in or abcut a mine or quarry. 

XB^loyment in place established court order as a disorderly 
house or oi^loyed to work for any parson cejnMLct'ed as kaepar 
of a disorderly house, * . . • 

♦Employment of girl under 21 as "bellhop in hotel. 
♦Emplcyaent of girl under 21 as caddy on golf course. 

Employment in or about -a cfbal or Iroxiatitte or«'in any other 
dangerous place. (Jbcce^t in office or^^l^frieaX work.) 

^» " WElGSI-LirTI]J& lAVS - • " 



»r 



I 



Hine States have some regulation regarding the lifting or carrying of heavy 
veielitd by women. These States are: 



California 
Massachusetts 

Michigsm 
Minnesota 



lev -T< 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Utah 




Washington 




Six Str-tes hpve enacted statutes which "orohibit diGcrininption in r^te of ppy 
becruse of sex. Two of these laws - Illinois rnd Michigan - aToply to nanu- 
facture only. 



Illinois 

Massachusetts 

MidiigRn 



Montana 
Hew York 
Washington 



Twenty-six States pnd Bistr^^ct of Columbia have minimra-wage laws on their 
statute books. These laws are broad in their coverage of industries, most 
of then being all-lncluslTe with a few listed exerrotioaa, usually domestic 

sei^vice and agriculture. Tlie Mpinc Ip.w is the only one of lirdtod sco-or-; it 



arplios to one industry only - fish packing-. 



Most 



tl'£ se laws nD-oly to 



woaen pnd minors, the exceptions being noted in the following list of States: 

Louisiana (tfoaien and girls) Ohio 



j&risona. 

Arkansas (Vomen and girls) Maine 



California 

Colorrdo 

Ccnnccticut (All persons) 

District of Colun^bia 

Illinois 

Kansas 

Kentucky 



Massachusetts 

liinneaota 

Ncvpda (Tfonen and girls) 
Few Hpn-Qshirq , 
ITew Jersey 

New York (All persons) 
Horth Dakota 



Oklahone (Voiaen) 
Oregon 

Penr^sylvpnia 

Hhode Island (All ■':;ers-vns) 
South DakotaC^^onien md 
Utrh girls) 

Washington 
Wisconsin 



11 - XHDUSTELAL HCME-WORX LAWS 



Twenty Strtes And the District of Columbip hp.ve ind^rstrir^l horae-work Ipws or 
regulptions. In all but 3 - Colorado, Oregon, and Utah - and the District 
Of Columbia the law Applies to "persons", in these k Jurisdictions the law 
an^ilies to women and ninors only. The States are: 



California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

District of Columbia 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Hpryland 



Ma s s ?! c hu s e 1 1 s 

Kichigpn 

Missouri 

New Jersey 

Hew York ^ 

Ohio 

•regon 



Pennsylvrni?* 
Hhode Islpnd 
Tennessee 
Texas 
Utah 

WcFt Virginia 
Wisconsin 



12. - agLOBCTT BEFOHE AID APTZR CHILD3IMH 

Six States hpve laws -crohibitin^ the eiroloynent of women ir-ii'sediptel?' before and 
after childbirth. These States and the t)eriod8 during whidi woiaen nav not be 
reouired to work are: 

^ weeks "before pnd h weeks after 
U weeks "before nnd ^ weeks af t.?r 

3 weeks before and 3 ^^^~€kf; after 

4 weeks after 

2 weeks before and U weeks after 
t mnths before and 6 weeks after 



Connecticut: 
J'ia 3 CP chu setts: 
Kisso'iJiri : 
Hew York: 
Teriaont: 
Vflshin^rton: 



(V/B U6-I37) 





OTE H^emC BBSPONSIBILinBB OF WOiVgM WORKERS AS SHOWK 



COLUf/.^A Ur^IVERSlTY 

AUG 241946 
3PECEIVEP 



A )1||«'S aOmU STUDY of VQMM war WCaEOOBS ahi> 



Haaii: 



(a Women 'e Bureau etudy "baeed on home Interviewe in 19^^ and the early- 
spring of with over 13,000 women workers employed in all types of industry 
(except hcTUeebold -ompioymerit) in- IC- war conftested areas, showed that J^:^ percent 
of these vcanen planned to contiime vox4Eing in peacetime. ) 

r gdiool of Business Lta^ 

fha raaaon glren hy each vcnen for continuing to voA wm - Cokonbia Uaivecatr 

Cf every IOC women - OlC 11 1947 

Qk to support th pans elves and in many cases others 
- 8 for. some special economic reason, sb to buy a hcace, 

pay off dehts, educate children . 
8 only because they liked vorking or i^P^U^^ independ- ^ 
ent ^^'^ 




O^e economic family responsibilities of the vosien vho planned to keep on 
working: 

Of every IOC women who planned to continue - 
81 lived vlth their families 
19 lived apert 

Of 4pvery lOO women who lived with their families - 

It were the sole support of the family group 

were 1 of 2 wa^-e ef-mere contributing regul:^rly 
- to household expenses 

31 were 1 of 3 or moire wage earners contributing 
r regularly ' to tiie household • expenses 

7 nedj© no regulor contribution to the household 

Of ,«very 100 women who lived with their families - 

r . -33 contributed regul^irly to the household all their 
' . .talce-home earnings 

80 contributed regularly one-helf or more but not all 
UO contributed regularly less than one-half 
7 made no i*eguler contribution toward fanUj support 

CF;E\^Y 100 WOKEL^J WHO ir/ED WITH TEEIR FAMILIES MTD PIANTfED TO OON- 
TIIIUE IK THE POST^vAJ? I/-.BCR MARKET', 93 CONTRIBUTED REOUIARLY TO F/JyJLY EX- 
FET-'SES. NEARLY TWO-TEIRLS (62 percent) OF THE TOTAL MCl^IEY TEE PAY 
ENVELOPES OF ALL THESE W0>5EfI, WHO CONTRIBUTED, WAS ALLOCATED EACH JAY DAT 
TO HOUSEHOLD EXPENSES. 

CT^EVJEY 100 WCHE» VBO LIVED APART FROM THEIR F/IUIIES, H^ACTICAIXY 
ALL WERE DWrnDmr ON THEIR OWH BESOURCES FOR SEIF aJPPCRT. 



• 1 - 



m 




TBE ECOnOMIC EESPOKSIBILITIES OF MPLOYED SINGLE WCMfil 



1 



AS SHOWN BY A WCMETrS BUREAU SltTO OF VOMEK 1»R VmwS ■ 
AM) THEER POSWAB HANS 

(The Women's Bureau study based cm home interviews in 19^1+ and the early 
spring, of 191^5 with over 13,000 wcmen enployed in all types of industry (except 
household employment) in 10 ver congeeted areas, showed that single wcanen fornied 
hh percent of the employed women during the war period and nearly niaety per- 
cent (87 percent) of these women plejmed to continue working in peacetlne.) 

The reason given "by each vqpwn for ccntlsulsg to work was - 

Of eirery lOO single women - 

96 to support themselves and in many cases ethers 
2 for some special reason, as money for education 
2 only because they liked working or liked being independent 

The economic reeponsibllities of the single wcnea who plBxmed to keep 
on working: 

Of every 100 w^nen "who plonned to continue - 
77 lived vith their families 
23 lived apert 

Of every 100 women who lived with their families - - , 

12 were the sole support of the fanlly group 
Ul were 1 of 2 wage earners contributing regularly 

to household eaqpensee 
- . . . IfO were 1 of 3 or more W3{?e earners contributing 
' regularly to household oxponses 
7 made no regular contributions to the household 

Of every 100 women who lived with their families - 

- 13 contributed regularly to th©' liOfiiaelioaaft all their 
take-hcme esucnlngs 

20 contributed regular] y one-half ^r more, but not all 
*6C contributed re/rularly less th^n one-half 
' .7 m&de .no regular contributions toward family support. 

CF EVERY 100 SINGLE WOMEN WHO LIVED WITH THSER yA MUJES AKD PLAUITO TO 
. - ■ ' COKTH^-UE THE POS^V;^ LABGR-HAaTO", 93 ,CQimaBDTiE3)U?J3C^^ FAKI^ 
- EXPEHSBS. HBABiy ORS-BAi;F (lv6pfercent) OF.-^ 

VELCPE& OP AIL THESB WCMHf , WHO CCOTRIBOTED, WAS AIIjOCAIED E^CH.PAY IKY TO 
HOUSIHCLD EXPHfS^. _ ' /. 

OF EVTEY 100 SINGLE WCI/IEI WHO LIVED APAP.T FBOM TEEIB FAMILY, PRACTICALLY 
ALL W2RE DEPSEJTEKT OR THEIR CW. KSSOUBCES FOR SEU^ aJPPCRT.'. • 



- 2 - 




S. JXfPf^BTtWT OF LABOR 
WaehlBg^ 

THE ECONOMIC RESPONSIBILITIES OF MPLOYED MARRIED WOMETT l/ 
AS SpOWS; BY A WOMEN'S BURFAU STUDY OF WCMEN WAB WCBIOHiS MD 



(The Vcoe^'s Bureau atudy based on home Interviews In 19M^-8nd 1:lie earlj 
spring of IS^^^Hh over 13,000 vonen employed In all tgrpea of industry (except 
household eopl^^sfBeat) In 10 war coogeatad areas, irinwed tbat aarrled wcmen 
foiined kk percent of the enrployed women during the war period and over cne-half 
(^7 percent) o| thes^ vcmm planned to ..contiane Korklng in peacetime. ) 

The reasOTi given by each woman for continuing to work was - 

Of every 100 married wcmen - 

^7 to support themeelvee and in many caeee others 
i 21 for acme special efbononlc reaecm, ae to buy a heme, 
p«y off debts, educate children 
22 only beogupe they like working or like being Independent 

The economic family responsibilities of the married wcmen who planned to 
keeping on working. - 

Of frezy 100 wom^ who planned to continue - 
91 lived with their i'aalliee 
9 lived apart 

« 

Of ^very ICO who lived with their families - 

^ 12 were the sole support of the family group 

58 were 1 of 2 wage earners contributing regularly to 
houeehold expensee 
^• 21 were 1 of 3 or more wage earners contributing 

regularly to houe^old expenses 
I : 9 only made no regular contrlbHtlon the houeehold 

Of every 100 women who lived with their families - 

^ .56 contributed regularly to the household all their 
take-home eaniings 
^ - ' ^. .17 contributed regularly pne-half or more, but not 'all 
^ ' 3B ^Qontrlbuted regularly less than one-half 
4 9 mode no regular contributions toward family mi^pport. 

OF EV^Y 100 I4ARRIED WOMETT WHO LI\rED V/ITH TEEIR FAMILIES AND PLAMOT 
TO CCNTIljUE IN THE POSTWAR UBOR MARKET, 91 CONTRIBUTSD REaTJ-i^LY TO FPJ^ILY 
EXPMSE^ SEVEJTY-NINE PBRCaiT OF THE TOTAL MONEY IN THE PAY E^JVELCPES CF 
AIL THE^ MARRIED WOMEN, WHO CONTRIBUTED, WAS ALLOCATED EACH PAY DAY TO 



BOUl 



:. OF JSTERY 100 MARRIED WOMEN WHO ir.rED APART FROM THEIR FAJ^IILIES IRAC- 

.TICAXLY ,ALL WERE DEPENT'ENT ON THEIR OWN RESO URCES FOR SELF SLIPPCRT. 
1/ Women who J»rere separated from their huebr.nds whether because the hu£b.'^:nd was ij 

services <^ for other reasons were counted ae married. Widowed and divorced 

wcanen arejnot included in this group, ■ - 

- 3 - 



February 19^ 



\ ■ : ^^^^ y 

AS. SHOWN- BY A WQMgK'S BUEE^U STIXDY OF W(MT..WAE- WOBKERS /JID THEIR 

(the'VoDien's Bureau 8tuia^ l)tt««d od hdi(B'' to 19^ and the esrly 

spring of inth ovear 13,000 women eroloyed .In all types of industry (except 
houebhcld .snq?loyiiient) In 10 Ver tjongested areas, shoved that the vidowed rnd 
divorced women formed 12 percent of the vomeii emplpyed during wartime and 9^ per- 
cent of these women planned to cbntinuie Vorlcing in peacetime.) 

. • ♦ ■■■■ • . ■ 

liie jreason, given hy each wdaittl ftxr continuing to vork waa - 

-Of eiragr ;|QQ„' widowed i =aitx^ - 
' ' ' 98 to BUKport themeelvee and in nonv cases others 

^..K 7 llfor Bcme special economic res eons,,, as. to pay 
■■ ■ ' " ' off aehte, educate children 

1 only because she lilsed worjcing, liked being independent 

'She eccauailc f andl^f »i5>CBM.tllliiil«j at taw»_widowed or dlvofced wuaen 
planned to keep on woxidbi^' 

Of evexy:i,1.00 women who plp.nned to ccntinue - 

..^ ■fO lived with their ffsmill-ee. ~ _ 

- . ■ :. :r^:39 lived apr.rt' ' . l,/\.r ' ' \ 

. - .Of every -IGC wciam ^6 llTed 'wi-a^^ 

, , 35 ward tfe'e sdie €upp6]^^ the family group 

/ wre -I '^Mr 2 w-ge eer^^rs contributing r<^:ularly to 

-■- "'*•■ ' ' household e^fpensee . . . ' ^ 

. r .- '23. were 1 of 3 or more wage earners contributing. 

J....; .. •■ .regularly to hoiisehcld expenses 

' ■ ■ ' 3 made no regular contributions to the houeehold 

■ ■■ •• ■ ' ■ ■'■ . -^i^"-" - 

- Of every iOO who llv^d 'Vith thislr familioe - 

>5:^oiitrllmted i-i^gularly to the hoiuiehold all their 

"' take-home earnings 

-, 21 contributed regularly one -h? If or more, but not all 
.* •. . 31 contributed regularly lees than- one-half 

' S ^-^e no re^lar contributiona towe.rd family support. 

OF BTBRY 100 WnioWEI) OR DIVCRCED. WOMBT: WBD tlVED WTES TEEIR F/iKILXES AJ?D 
FLfeiniKD TO COHnKUE IN THE POSIVAR LABOR .MARKET, 97 CCNTBIBUTM) PEGUL^ELY TO 
FAMILY EXPHISES. • SEVIRTY-CKE P5SCENT OF THE TOTAL MONEY B? TES PAY ?2>^.^CPSS 
■ OF ALL THESE VTiliOWED'OR Dr/ORGj© .WCKSi, WHO COmBWm, r^AS AliOCATED EhCH 
PAY DAY T-C- BDUSEaOLD .EXPMSSS. " ; 

OF EV^BY IOC TOOWED, I,IVCHCED'W(»OT W. UVED APART FROM TEETR FAMHTBS 
H^CTTC/LLY ALL WERE DEFEEDBIT OR THEIR- QWI lOegOUROBS FOR SELF aJJ!?GRT. 
2j Vdaeo' ifho were soparat^ their huehsnde whether "becauee the huebend w-e in 
• services or for other reasons were counted as married. Widowed and divorced 
wcBien were not included in this group. 




rS. S. DEfARTMSHT LABOR 
iteshington, D. C. 



COLUMBIA UNtVERSITY 

LIBRARIES 

AUG 2 4 1946 

RECEIVED 



March 19^6 



WARTIME SHIFTS OF HOUSEHOLD iMPLOYEES INTO OTHER lOT^TRIES 



During our 3 I/3 years of total var, the demand for additional workers 
not only brovght housewives from their hcanas and girls from the ^^i^^J^:^- 
a rapidly expanding labor mar^cet but caused millions of women employed before 
Pearl Harbor to '^hift from their traditional wcanen's Jobs into the plants 
making war and consumer goods. Xn this last group were many household em- 
ployees. By March 19Uh, some 1^00,000 of • the country's 2 million ^ousehold • 
employees had been involved in this tremendous shifting of occi^tions that 
cha^ttffi*^ th» «rjtl» wontn'f. wftrtlinrt la,har £aM . 

In 19^U and the Spring of 19h5 , repre tentative a of the Women's Bureau 
interviewed nearly 13,000 women who were employed in all occupations except 
household employment, in nine war industry areas. The study, though not 
including wcinen emoloyed as household workers during the war period, did in 
elude wcoen who liW: been employed in domestic work before the war and who had 
shifted to other work. Over one -half of the women Interviewed had been employed 
before Pearl Harbor, and of these women nearly ten percent were domestic em- 
ployees before the war. 

About 60 percent of the women who had shifted from dcoestic-aertlce wdr* 
to other occupations durir^ the war were Tfegroee. Over a half were married, 
ow two-thirds fell in the 20-to UO age range, a fourth in the l^C years -or- 
over categorj^ and only k percent were under 20 jears of age. Ahout hall ol 
these women became factory o-^eratives and maintenance and clerical workers in 
manufacturirv? nlants and large government installations. Over one-fourth ^ 
entered the service industries- -the laundries, hotels, and restaurants-- taKWg 
■^obs left vacant by the exodus of regular women employees into varjjBnuracturing 
plants where the wges were higher and working coriditione better than in thair 
old ,tobs . 

A^'^he time "^f" the 'survey, over 90 percent of the former domestic em- 
ployee's were plannirH to continue working after the war. Over three-fourths 
of these desired to follow in peacetime the type of work they had done during 
the war rather than return to private domestic employment. The proportion who 
wished to continue in the industry in which they were ployed during the war 
was coneldfTObly higher aiii6i« the waten wdrkWg in manufacturing and war in- 
dustry establlslments than among the women working in hotels, laundries, res- 
taurants, etc. . 

■ Undoubtedly, the high earnir^s -fforec. ^7 manufacturing plants were a 
deciding factor in the desire of women to lollow manufacturing work in peace- 
time. During the war, average weekly take-home earnings for former ^aceatic 
employees working as operatives in manufacturing were $36 as compared to $23 
for women worklr« In laundries and $19 for those working in hotels. Before the 
war, domestic employees were the lowest paid of all women workers in the Lnite 
States. The median year's wages in 1939 for over a million domestic emplo^ 
who worked 12 months was $316; ahout a third of the women earned lesathe 
$200: two-thirds less than $U00; and four-fifths under $bOO, accordJaT^ 
Bureau of . the Census report. 





I 



W««en's Bui^ati In 1^^S»b5S^+%.o°^"?*'^^ cooperation vlth the 

40-9atlc employees and 60 ^ercfnt .^^J'^, * J*"""* °^ 

ll«d out ,«« on duty^ hoL or ^ ^"^^ *^ *8~ "'^ 

have b^e^'shorteLrslncs'j^i^^^r''' ^^J'T^ °f household eioployees 
improven^nt In this d'recti™ '^"^ some 

the full-time domestl^^mpio^e I^in^.r^l "^^l^ 
JKxra (eTOry evenlnc anfl ft^T q ^ exceeds the wartlae factoiy week of W 

I""" in -St .J^X?^^ .1 ^ T'^''^ S"' ^^"<=^ ^"1 ^ the war the 
nanuracturlng plants have been shortened to 1*0 or W*. *™ 

perlod^Xaln3°m:S'w*th^^/'«'"'**!r *° ^^^^uard In this postwar 

var. While^inlm^'eal^ l^sTeC^: ^^fr^?r^"'= ''^'^'^ ^"''^^ 
CUclahoma, Oregon Ut,h WaHhi^^t ,,; <Callfomla, Colorado, Kansas, 

aonestlc onployeea is in effect ^I T . ^ ^ Wnlmim vage rate for 

♦4.50 with iealB and ro^ for ^ S v, ^" ^^32, of $6 with 1 

a^e ana room, for a 50-hour week is now entirely inadequate 

over, this lo:« week ma^t exte^*S ?f LSe or^x^l::^" ""^'^^^ 
eowred. " interstate con™^.rce; hence dwnestlo employees iei^ 

They n^x"r.d:rfrr^nif ~ ^iStJ^ °^ losisl.tion. 

Social Security Act. Tr! onl' o^^St'te^'?"/'^?^! Provisions of the 
UnB.plo,ne„t Compensation and here on^v'i? + J '-.'^ ""''"^ 
voriters In hie house for irl-t tn ^ ^ e-^loys four or nore 

California and OhlT Is the« i^L^,"/ calendar year. Tn two States only, 

Worianen-s C-peS^tlo^f ta^wf^"?? tL'"'^? '""^^"'^ employees ty 
persons. in unio only If the employer en5>loys three or more 



' (.1 



- 

While the ''''oinen's Eiireau etudy in war Industry areas indlcatod that 
the great ma.iority of domestic employees who deserted that field during the 
war to enter manufacturing plants did not plan to return to their old line 
Industry, there were soma yomen who prefer hoiisehold employment. Some of . 
the CoDBBents of these women wtro as follovs: 

"Find iny jo"b as inspector in an Armory very tiring and 

exantir^, no time to smo^'Co a cigarette and relax, have to keep 
busy up to the last mimtd. Lllce housework and ezpect to go baclc.'* 

"Sjjnply tired out from worK as coaler in shipyard, will 
welcome chaise of Jo"b8 after the war, possi"bly domestic service 
again." 





'Vork as drill -press operator too hard, light .ioh hut very 
fast, have to turn <^ut II4-OO pieces a day. Tt is a man's work-- 
80 hard, usually work only 5 inotoad of 6 days a week. Housemaid 
is my usual occupation and prefer it." 

"Tlsreadlx^ rivets for aircraft parte la too bard as have to 
^ stand 8 hours a day. Will go "back to aaid vork." 

"Plan to return to former home in New Orleans. Realiaa there 
will "be no industrial .lohs for colored people, so will resuTae 
former Xiork of cleaning and cooking." 

"At present make cArtons and do packing at spic© and coffee 
company. Plan to return to Texae. Peel that 'private • work will 
he only kind availahle." 

"Pre far my .1ob as machine operator in a can company. Am 
beginnir^ to accept fact Negro women will he forced to return to 
doDiestlc work. Anyway I always save more when I work and sleep in. 






\ 1 



Of the domestic employees who entered the hotels, laundries, reetaurants, 
and similar service industries durii^ the emeiTgency hut who planned to return 
to housohold work at the war's end, sons of the reasox^s for doii^ so were: 

"At prenent, om naricer In a laundry. Prefer to return to 
domestic sei-vice. Anythirvg hut laundry \7ork." 

"An unifom pres^r in a laundry. Vant to he u^aid in private 
home. Don't have to work €ui hard as in the laundry." 

"Am .^ani tress in an office building. Prefer to he a private - 
home cook. It's my Job." 

"Prepare vegetables in a restaurant. "V'ant maid work. Can't 
stand on. cement floors. My feet are killir^ me." 

"Am maid in a department store. Prefer domestic cleaning in 
private homes. Can arrange own hours when I work privately and can 
run my own hcane better." 



i 




r 




COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



This book Is due on the date indicated below, or at the 
expiraUon of a definite weioA after tba date of 1 
provided hy the libraiy 
the Librarian in charge. 



3CT 1 9 1945 



». 



C20 l7A7'j MlOO 



>3 



o«ra 







^^^^ ^ ' --^"^"-r-iByfr i > ii#-'M^iiri i n i iiii 




0 „ JUjc^ ^.oc^...^^- 



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